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xy/iaAtfi ^i^ftiO'actai; l/ie <yiu/i-Coie ^eae/ei. 

Hindu Superiority: 






Member op the Royal Asiatic Society op Great Britain and 

Ireland; Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society op 

London; and Member op the Statistical Association 

op Boston, United States, America. 


All Rights Reserved. 



This book has grown out of a pamphlet written years 
ago and put aside at the time. The object of the book is, 
liy presenting a bird's eye view of the achievements of 
the ancient Hindus, to invite the attention of thou"-htful 
people to the leading features of the civilization which 
enabled the inhabitants of this country to contribute so 
much to the material and moral^wcU- being of mankind. 
And if this attempt succeeds in any way in stimulating 
interest in the study of the leading institutions of 
Hinduism and a proper appreciation of their merits I 
shall be amply repaid for my labour. 

I must take this opportunity of expressing my 
gratitude to ^Ir. J. Inglis, Superintendent, Scottish 
Mission Industries, Ajmer, for his valuable assistance in 
seeing the book through the Press. 


Ajmer : 
November lOOG. 


Tllustratioxs ... ... ... ... ... xxiii. 

IXTRODDCTION '... ... ... ... ... X\V-.\.\\ii, 


The leading principle of Indian Constitution. — Turning point of 
Indian history. — Hindu decay beginning with the Kaliyug ... 1 

I.— ANTI(,)r[TY. 

Wonderful antiquity of the Hindu civilization. — Opinions of Count 
Bjornstjerna, Dr. Stiles, Hallied, Pliny and Aljul l''azal. — The 
Hindu King Dionysius reigned 7,000 B.C., or 1,000 years 
before the oldest king on Mauetho's tables, — Dynasties, not 
individuals, as units of calculation. — Rock temples as proofs of 
antiquity. — The Bactrian document Dubistitn. — Hindu civilization 
before 6,000 B.C. — Tlie Sunkalp — Brahma Din an I Jiatri. — 
Age of the earth according to the Hindus 


Tests of good government. — Populousness of ancient India. — Views 
of Greek writers. — Hindus as numerous as all tlie olhcr natituis 
put together. — India renowned for wealth. — No thieves in ancient 
India. — P"'orm of Government immaterial. — Spirit dependent on 
the ethical character of a people, — Mistaken identification of 
democratic institutions with freedom. — Mr. Herbert Spencer's 
views. — Over-Government. —Republican institutions in ancient 
India. — Law, a test of good government. — Origin of the Greek, 
Roman and English laws. — Laws of ]\Ianu. — Hindu code will 
bear comparison with the systems of jurisprudence in nations most 
highly civilized. — Fallacies in Mill's reasoning. — His prejudice. — 
His History of India most mischievous according to .Max MuUcr. — 
Sir Thomas Strartge on Hindu Law of Evidence. — Sir W. Jones on 
Calluca's Conin;t'ntary on Maiiu ... ... ... 13 



Hindu social organization based on scientific principles — Varna- 
shrama. — Different from the caste system. — Brahmans and 
Sudras not by birth but by actions and character. — Mahabharata 
on the Varnashra7na. — ^legasthencs and Col. Tod on the system. — 
Sir H. Cotton and Mr. Sidney Low on the present Caste system 27 


Love of truth — Arrian, Strabo, Hioventhsang and other Chinese 

writers ; Marco Polo, Idrisi, Sbamsuddin and other Mohamednn 

writers ; Sir J. Malcolm, Col. Sleeman, Professor Max Muller 

on the truthfulness of the Hindus. — Absence of slavery. — Hindu 

valour. — The most tolerant nation. — Character of Yudhishthra. — 

Views of Neibulir, Monier Williams, Elphinstone, Mercer, 

Sydenham, Abbe Dubois, and Sir T. Munro. — No race more to be 

trusted than the Hindus. — If civilization to be an article of 

trade between England and India, England will gain by the 

import cargo. — Commercial honour stands higher in India 

than in any other country. — Views of Warren Hastings, Heber 

and Wilson. — Hindu children more intelligent than European. — 

Hindu cleanliness. — Diet of the Hindus. — Physical agility. — The 

Hindu as the wisest of nations. — Hindu origin of the game of 

Chess. — Wisdom of Solomon inferior to that of the Hindus. — 

Chivalrous conduct of Humayun. — A Mohamedan saves the 

Piahtore dynasty from extinction 


Innate chivalry of Hindu character. — Chivalry of Sadoo. — Raja 
of Duttea. — The Rahhi. — Rawal Chachick of Jaisalmer. — 
Chivalry of Pana Raj Singh. — Ill-judged humanity of the 
Hindus. — Its unfortunate political results. — Cases of Shahabud- 
dui Ghori and Aurangzeb ... ... ... 54 



Love of Counh-y. — Rana Pratap and Thaknr Diirg-a Das. — Tliiir 
exploits. — Their patriotism. — Pratap and Ilamilcar. — Durga Das 
the Amolac. — Auraiigzob's dread of Durga Das. — Gar-ka- 
Bundi. — The heir of I\Iehtri. — Patriotism of Raj Siiigii of 
Jaisalmer. — Soortan Singh of Sirolii. — His hortMc conduct at 
Delhi. — Col. Tod on Rai|iut chivalry and ]ior(jisni ... ... (j.j 


The Hindus were the bravest nation the Greeks ever came in 
contact with, — Their character shines brightest in adversity. — 
They know not what it is to flee from the battle-field. — Kesrian 
K'isumctl. — Rao Soojii of Bundi. — The mother of the Rao. — 
Mukandas faces a tiger ; the tiger retires. — Mohabat Khan's 
exploit. — Rajput charges at Tonga and Patun. — Soningdoo 
breaks the iron bow at Delhi. — Homer's heroes compared to 
Kurus. — Lakh Talvar Rahtoran. — Recourse to poison by Moghal 
kings. — Deaths of Jaswant Singh, Prithi Singh and .Tai Singh. 
Til e cause of Akbar's death. — The murder of Ajit Singh of 
Jodhpur. — Singularity of Rajput character. — Its tenacity and 
strength. — Hercules was a Hindu. — Views of Prof. Hceren, 
Diodorus, Megasthenes, Col. Tod and Pococke. — Proofs of the 
identity of Balrani and Hercules ... ... ... 70 


Position of women a test of civilization. — Chivalrous treatment 
of women by the Hindus. — Views of j\Ianu and other sages. — 
Jai Singh and his queen, Hariji. — Status of wife. — Her e(|ii;d 
rights with her husband according to the Sastras. — Woman, 
ardhangini , or half of man. — Comparison in this respect of the 
Hindu and the European women. — Ideals of Hindti women. — 
Maitreye, Gargya, Savitri, Damyanti, Avvayar and Kokayi. — 
Purdah system unknown in ancient India. — Th^' rights of 
women to property, — Peculiar poRitiju of IJiudu women. — 



Influence of Hindu women on societj. — Female loj'-alty. — 

Dtnvalde and her sons, Ala and Udila. — Taiabai of Bednore. — 
Eaui Dutgavati, another Boadccea. — The lieroism of Korumdevi 
and Javrahir Bai. — The matchless valour of the mother of Fattah 
of Kailwa during Akbav"8 siege of Chitor. — Sanjogta. — Bernier's 
testimony to the courage of Rajput women. — Retreat of Jaswant 
Singh ol' Jodhpur aftei- his defeat at Fatehabad. — The Rani 
refuses to see him and simts tlie gate of the castle ... ... 92 


The conquest of the world liy the Hindu Emperor, Sudas, — Opinions 
of Air. Townsend and General Sir Ian Hamilton. — The conquests 
of Pui'urawa and of King Sagara. — Persia, Afghanistan and 
Turkistan parts of the Indian Empire. — Greek embassies to 
India. — Alegasthenes, Deimachus and Basilis. — Antiochus the 
Great becomes an ally of Sobhag Sen. — Scleucus gives his 
daughter in marriage to Ciiandergupta — The Persian king, 
Ivausherwan, gives his daughter to the Maharana of Chitor. — 
Indian embassies to Greece. — 'rhe Assyrian Queen, Semiramis, 
invades India. — Her defeat. — Gaj Sing, the founder of Ghazni, 
defeats Shah Secunder Roomi and Shah Mamraiis ... 120 


Alexander's invasion of India. — Hindu disunion, the cause of 
Alexander's victory. — The brilliancy of the court of Vicrama- 
ditya. — The treacherous conduct of Alexander. — Prithvi Raj of 
x\jnier. — His victories over Shahabud-din Ghori. — Disunion be- 
tween Prithvi Raj and Jai Chand. — The kings of Kanauj and 
Annhalwara Patun and Hamir join t]\e enemy. — Prithvi Raj 
kills Shahabud-din witii the lielp of Chund, — Baber's invasion. — 
Hindus under Rana Sanga. — Treachery in his camp. — Ray seen, 
the Tuar leader, goes over to Baber. — India not conquered by a 
foreign inva lor bnt ])iHrayed by her own sons. ... ... 127 

COM'F.N'TS. ix. 



Desh-iietion nnJ fmiu-|-ntinn the cliirf foutures of (ho )i(?ri(>(l ulicu 
the M:ili:il)iiainta. took i>hu;e. — Whole races ami trilies enii.i^rati'd 
from India. — India's loss was the world's gain. — Emigration a 
necessary feature of a thickly-populated country. — Scarcity of 
historical records. — Destruction of Hindu lihraries. — Dr. Dow, 
Profs. Wilson, Heeren and Col. Tod on Hindu works on history. — 
The date of tiie Mahabharata.- Views of the Hindu astronomers. — 
Traditions. — The Hindu theory of emigration. — Tiie Central 
Asian theory of emigration. — Hindu civilization originated and 
developed in India. — It spread to Ethiojiia, Egypt. PhaMiicia, 
Persia. Greece, Rome, to the abode of the Hyperboreans, to Siam, 
China and Japan. — Col. Olcott, Sir W". Jones and ]\Ir. Pococke...l35 


Egypt colonized by Hindus about 8,000 years ago. — Views of 
Brugsch Bey, Profe.ssor Heeren and Mr.Pococke. — Tlie testimony 
of Philostratus, Eusebius and Julius Africanus, Cuvior and 
Col. Tod to the Hindu colonization of Ethiopia ... ... 149 


The ancient Persians were colonists from India. — Prof. !Max 
MuUer's opinion, — Zind derived from the Sanskrit. — Prof. 
Heeren and Sir W. Jones and Prof. Haug-Manu on the origin 
of the Persians, — Testimony of Vendidad ... 156 


The Chaldeans and the Assyrians were originally Hindus. — Views 
of Mr. Pococke and Piof, Maurice ... ... ... IGl 



; Pagk. 

The Hindu origin of the nneient Greeks. — Greek society 

essentially Hindu. — Origin of the names Greek, Pelnsgi and 
Macedonians. — Hellados.— TheHellas. — Achilles sprung from a 
Kaj[)ut stock ... ... ... ... 162 

v.- ROME. 

The Romans were the doscendsmts of colonists from India. — R(une 
derived from Rama. — The Etruscans were settlers from India... 167 


Turkistan peopled by the Hindus. — Turanians were Hindus. — 
Ottorocnra? of the Greek writers were Ootooru Cooru, or 
Northern Coorus, sous of ( A)oru. — -Kliata iiduibited by Hindus, — 
Bajrapur in Siberia founded by Hindus. — Succession of the sons of 
Sri Krishna to the throne. — Chaghtaes were Yadus. — Origin of 
the Afghans. — Seestan. — Origin of the name Asia. — Samoyedes 
and Tchoudes of Siberia and Finland were the Yadus of India.., 168 


German Mensch same as Sanskrit 3/rt?! ».*/;. — Morning ablutions. — 
Origin of the name Germans. — The Hungarians. — Sculpture of 
Saxon cathedrals ... ... ... .., 171 


Scandinavians descended from the warrior class of the Hindus. — 
Asigard or fortress of the Asi. — Colonized about 500 B.C. — The 
Scandinavian Edda derived from the Vedas. — Days of the 
week. — Origin of the Scandinavian mvths ... ... 173 



Tlieir lliinln Origin. — Euiigrant.s from Kliyberpur. — Passaroii ... 175 


The Uniids were Buddhistic Brahuians. — Alcxaiulcr and Xapi^r 
conquer the de-;cenda,ii(s of tiieir foret'atliei-s.— I Nm i\ at ion ui 
"Hurrah." — The Stonehenge. — The I:^h■ of Saints cir '.M<ina". — 
The Celtic Druids ... ... ... ... 17G 


Transgangetic Peninsula a iiart of India. — Influence of China over 
it. — The name Barmah. — Caudioja or Cambodia — The Chinese 
assert their Hindu oi-igin — They were emigrants from northern 
and north-western India. — Culture and religion of China. — 
Hindu colonization of the isles of the Indian archi|irlago — 
Java. — Views of Col. Tod, Mr. Elphinstone, Sir Stamford Raffles, 
and Mi\ Sewell. — Testimony of Chinese pilgrims. — .lava peopled 
entirely by the Hindus. — Borneo, Celebes, Sumatra and Australia 170 


High civilization of the ancient Americans. — Hindu remains still 
found there. — Testimony of Mr. Pococke, Mr. Hardy, Mr. Square 
and Dr. Zurfu. — Hindu mythology the parent of the American 
mythology. — Proofs of the Hindu colonization of America. — 
Worship of Ramachandra and Sita.-A rjuna's conquest of America 
and marriage with the daughter of the King. — Routes to America If^C 

The question of Hindus visiting foreign lands. — The Vcdas enjoin 
it — Testimony of Sastras. — Manu and the Mahabharata -Travels 
of Vyasji and Sukhdeoji. — The expeditions of the Pandavas. — 
Emperor Sagarji. — The god of the sea. — Marriages of Hindu 
kings with foreign princesses. — Hindus in Turkistaii, Persia and 


Riissia,— Ori'^hi (if ihc dilToroiit iiation.s of Asia and Europe. — 

Tostluiony of the Puranas ami tlie MahaMiariitu,— Tlie seven 

Dwipas. — The delnye. — Mou. Delbos uii Hindu civilization ... I'Jl 


Literature a test of the greatness of a nation. — W. C. Tavlor on 
Sanskrit Hterature. — Bjornstjerna, Brown, General C'unniiiyiiani, 
Prof. Heer.Mi, Sir W. Jones. Max Mnller and Ward.— The 
Hindu liad the widest range of mind of which man is capable ... 201 

Sanskuit Language. 

Sanskrit language of woiidci-ful structure. — Compared with Gre(>k, 
Latin and Helu'ew. — More perfect and refined tlian any.— Profs. 
Wilsi^n, Max MuUer and Sclilegel. — Modern ])hil(jlogy dates 
fronj the study of Sanskrit. — Alpliabets of Western Asia 
derivedjroin llie Dconagri. — Sanskrit is tlie basis of all Indo- 
European Uinguage.s. — Greeic and Zind derived from the Sans- 
krit. — Connection of Sanskrit with the ancient lamjfuages of 
Europe. — High antiquity of the Sanskrit literature ... 204 

Art of Writing. 

Alphabetical writing known in India from tlie earliest times. — Its 
use extended to every purpose of common life. — Views of Bjornst- 
jerna, Goldstucker, Roth and Shyamji Krishnavarma. — Sans- 
krit was the spoken vernacular of the ancient Hindus ... 213 


Max Muller on Vedic Literature. — The Vedas the greatest work 
in all literature. — Views of A^oltaire, Guigault and Delbos regard- 
ing the Vedas.— Vedas the most precious gift for which the West 

COXTENTS. xiii. 


is iiulebtod to tlio East. — The study of VcJic Tjitci-aiurc iinlis- 
])ensable to all. — The Vodas tlie oldest books in the world. — 
Vcdas the fountaiu of knowledge. — Vedio teaching regarding 
the composition of air. — Bidlnnanas not a part of the Vedas. — 
Sutras. — Piatisakhyas. — " Study of Language " by the Greeks 
and the Hindus.— Plato, Aristotle, Zenodotus and others eoniiiarcd 
with the ancient Hindus in this respect. — Consonantal division 
of th(! Sanskrit language unique in tin' history of literal nri'. — 
Inferiority of nioilern Europeans in this respect. — In philology 
the Hindus excel the Ancients and tlie Moderns, — Graniniatiral 
science of the Hindus, — Grammar of Paiiini stands su[»i-enie 
amongst the grammars of the world. — ( )ne of the most splendid 
achievements of human invention and industry. — Hindu acliii've- 
ments still uiisiir|iassed. — " No other country can produci' any 
grammatical system at all comparable to Paiuiu " ... ... 210 


Treasures of poetiy in India are inexhaustible. — The llinilns 
were a poetical people ... ... ... ... 'I'oQ 


Ixamayaiia and Mahabharata compared to Iliad and Odvssev. — 
Ramayana the noblest of epics and far superior to the work 
of Nonnus.-One of the most beautiful comjiositions that have a})- 
peaicd at any period or in any country. — llama and Sit a jier- 
fect characters. — Mahabharata is the grandest of the epics. — 
Views of Mary Scott, Jeremiah Curtin, St. Hilaire Bartholemy, 
Sir Edwin Arnold, Mr. T. M. (,'oan and A. Darth. — Indian epics 
compared with the Greek e[iics, — Hindu and Greek mythologies 
compared. Iliad and Odyssey are founded on the l(aniayana 
and the Mahabharata ... ... ... ... 201 




Causes of the excellence of Hindu drama. — Hindu theatre will fill 
as many volumes as that of anj' nation of modern Europe. — 
Hindu comedy no way inferior to the ancient Greek, — Superi- 
ority of Hindu drama over the Greek explained and illustrated. — 
The higher purpose of the dramatic art never lost sight of in 
Hindu dramatic literature. — " Xowhere is love expressed with 
greater force or pathos than in tlie poetry of India." — Kalidas 
"one of the greatest dramatists the world ever produced." — 
" He has done honour to all civili/.ed mankind." — Sakuntala an 
astonishing Hterary performance. — Views of Schlegel, Humholdt 
and Goethe. — Langunge nowhere else so beautifully musical or so 
magnificently grand as that of the Hindu drama. — Vicrama and 
Urvasi. — Explanations of thft scientific myth. — Uttra Ram 
Charitra. — May be compared advantageously willi like composi- 
tions of Enrope. — MadhavaMalati. — MudraRaksliasa. — Mriclih- 
kati compared with the Merchant of Venice and the Two Noble 
Kinsmen. — Prabodh Chandrodya. — There is nothing like it in the 
literature of other countries ... ... ... 247 


Gita Govind. — Views of Schlegel and SirW. Jones. — Tls luxuriant 
imagery and voluptuous softness. — Ritu Sangrah. — Impossible of 
translation. — Megh Duta "will bear advantageous comparison with 
best specimens of uniform verse in the poetry of any language, 
living or dead " ... ... ... ... 258 


Hindu achievements in this branch of literature establish their 
intellectual superiority. — Constitutes practical ethics. — Its use and 
cultivation peculiar to the Hindus. — Panclitantra is the source of 
the whole fabulous literature of the world. — " Hindus are the 
instructors ef the rest of mankind in the composition of tales 



liy the tallies of Cixssini :\inl Meyer. — Aniniitl variations id' th.' 

moon. — Proofs of tlio great antiquity of lliiuiu astrononiv. — 
More atlvaneed than the Greek or thi' Arah astrononiv. — Views 
of Sir W. Hunter, Mr. El[)liinstone, Profs. Weher ami Vv'ilMin. 
Originality of the Hindus. — Xitl-.-Ji)iti-(t!< ov moon stations and 
the Cliinese *S>/e/j. — The Arabs were the disciples of tlie Hindus. — 
The nine Siddhantas. — The date of the Surya Siddhanta. — Age of 
Parasar Muni. — Aryahhatta Baraniiliira and Bhashkeraeharja. — 
Roundness of the earth. — The annual and diurnal motions of 
the earth. — The stars are stationary. — The Polar days and 
nights. — Circumference of the earth. — AVhat keeps the earth in 
its place. — The moon is a dark body. — The atmosphere. — 
Eclipses. — Tides. — .Tai Singh II. — Methods of the Hindus. — 
A ])eculiar theory of planetaiy motions. — To find the longitude 
01 a place ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• oojj 


Hindu traditions all warlike. — Naval power of the Hindus. — Hindu 
science of war. — Divisions of the army. — Array of forces or 
Vyiihas. — Use of elephants. — Soldierly qualities of the modern 
Indians. — Their chivalrous conduct. — Tiieir bravery. — Archery of 
the Hindus. — Indian swordmen. — Classification of wen]ion>. — 
Hindu weapons now extinct. — Firearms of the Hindus and their 
extensive employment. — Guns and cannons in media?val Jndia. — 
Vajra. — Gunpowder. — Greek writers on the firearms of the Hin- 
dus. — King Hal and the clay elephaiit. — Views of Carey, Marsh- 
man and Scholiast. — Firearms used by King Sagara. — The 
Brahmastra. — Ramayana mentions firearms. — The Shatagni 
and Agniaster. — Views of Halhed and Mr. H. H. Elliot. — 
Rockets a Hindu invention. — Other machines and contrivances 
to throw pi-ojectiles now extinct. — The Greek fire. — The 
Ashtar Vidya of the Hindus 



v.— MUSIC. 

The Hindus are a musical race. — Hindu ujusic formed on lietter 
principles than P]uropean music. — Hindu system of uuisic tlie 
oldest in the world. — Sub-division of tones and number of sonal 
modifications too intricate to be appreciated by Europeans. — 
Europeans cannot imitate Hindu nmsic. — Hindu airs cannot bo 
set to music. — Cultivated on scientific principles. — European igno- 
rance of Hindu music. — The Ragas and Itagnees. — The six princi- 
pal Ragas. — Hindu notation introduced intu Eurojiean nnisic 
in the eleventh century. — Derivation of Greek music from 
India. — Tansen and Naik Gojial ... ... ... .366 


Engineering. — Mechanics, — Microscopes. — Telescopes. — Fire-en- 
gines. — Botany. — Magnets. — Doctrine of Vacuum in Nature. — 
Yiman Yidya. — A comjilete science. — 8ar]ia Yidya. — Electricity 
and ^lagnetism. — Philosnphy of slec'ii. — Aureole I'dund the heads 
of Hindu gods ... ... ... ... 375 



Hindu architecture, wonderful and beautiful. — Views of Mahmad 
Ghaznavi. — Unequalled in elegance. — Cave temples. — Skill shown 
surpasses description. — Ornamenting grottoes. — The Saracen 
arch of Hindu Origin. — " Remains of the Hindu architectural 
art might still furnish architects of Europe with new ideas of 
beauty and sublimity." — English decorative art indebted to 
the Hindus. — Restoration of taste in England due to Hindus. — 
Alt exhausted itself in India ... ... ... 389 



Unrivalled delicacy of sense of the Hindus. — Indian cotton finest 
in tlie world. — fii fineness of texture the Indian cotton t-loth is 
yet unapproached. — The products of the Indian loom yet unrivalled 
in beauty. — Europeans must not attempt to teach art to India — o9 


Art of dyeing. — Hindu colours the most brilliant in the world. — Hin- 
dus discovered the art of extracting colours from plants. — Ivory 
works. — Casting ii"on. — Hindu steel. — Damascus steel of Hindu 
origin, — The wronglit-iron pillar near Kutab at Delhi. — The 
gun at Xnrwar and the girders at Puri prove the marvellons 
skill of the Hindus. — Export of iron from India. — System of 
rotation of crops, derived from India. — Use of glass in windows 
in ancient India. — Perfection of art in India ... ... 400 



Hindus the masters of the sea-borne trade of the world. — India 
was "once the seat of commerce". — Hindus were a commercial 
people. — Trade with Phoenicia. — The navy of Tarshish. — 
Peacocks. — The name of Hindu origin. — Trade with Syria. — 
Greeks first became acquainted with sugar in India. — Trade 
with Egypt.— Myos Hormos. — Trade with Greece and Rome. — 
Indian silk in Rome. — Pliny complains of the drain of gold 
from Rome to India. — Trade with Arabia and Africa. — Eastern 
Trade. — Ceylon. — Its commercial importance. — Ports of Ceylon. — 
Emporium of trade. — Ceylon a part of India. — Commercial 
ports of India. — Land trade with China. — Desert of Gobi. — 
Trade with Palmyra. — Trade routes for the land trade with 
Europe. — Internal trade of India. — Trade roads. — M/lc-'^foncs 

xxil. CONTENTS. 

and inns for travellers. — Indian fairs at Hardwar, Allahabad 

and other places ... ... ••• ••• 405 


India was the richest country in the world. — Views of Prof. 
Hoeren and Dr. Wise. — Spoils of Somnath, Mathura and 
Kananj. — Gold first found in India. — An Indian port the only 
pearl market in the world. — The most famous stones and pearls 
all of Indian origin. — The Pitt and the Kohi-noor ... ... 427 


Pieligion a test of civilization. — What is the Hindu religion? — 
Knowledge of God. — The Shraddhas. — Hindu religion the only 
scientific religion in the world. — " Christianity has nothing to offer 
to those who are dissatisfied with Hinduism." — Buddhism is only 
reformed Hinduism. — Majority of mankind still follow religions 
that emanated from India. — Origin of the Greek Church. — Origin 
of Christianity. — Buddhism and Hinduism. — Propagation of jiJud- 
dhism. — Buddhism in Arabia and in Egypt, — The Hermes 
Scriptures. — Hindu origin of the religion of the Chaldeans, the 
Babylonians and the inhabitants of Colchis. — The Samaritans 
were Buddhists. — Buddhism in Britain. — The religion of the 
Scandinavians. — Edda derived from the Veda. — Scandinavian 
Mythology. — Egyptian and Greek religions derived from India. — 
The Mosaic cosmogony. — Greek mythology derived from Hindu 
mythology. — Christian mythology. — The Hindu is the parent of 
the literature and theology of the world ... ... 481 


1. Thakur Dl'rgatias. tlio nulitoi-c leader ... 


... f.p fare ihe Title 

L*. ^ Puatap 


:5. JMauaiiaja rniTiivi Raj, the la-<t Iliiidn Emiiernr of Pdlii ... liO 


-^v- jjOjj* 


IN the liistory of the world India occupies the foremost 
place. From the dawn of history to the present day 
India has been connected in one way or another witli 
almost every event of world importance. By endowing 
India with the best and the choicest of o-ifts it had in 
store, Nature herself ordained that this maonificent 
country, with a climate varied and salubrious, a soil 
the most fertile in the world, animal and plant life 
the most abundant, useful and diversified to be found 
anywhere on the face of the earth, should play the 
leading part in the history of mankind. 

Mr. Murray says : " It (India) has always Appear- 
ed to the imagination of the Western AVorld adorned 
with whatever is most splendid and gorgeous ; glittering, 
as it were, with gold and gems, and redolent of fra- 
grant and delicious odours. Though there be in these 
magnificent conceptions something romantic and illu- 
BOTj, still India forms unquestionably one of the most 
remarkable regions that exist on the surface of the glolie. 
The varied grandeur of its scenery and the rich 
productions of its soil are scarcely ecjualled in any other 

'Murray'^ Tlistcry nf Imlia. \k 1. 


"India is an epitome of the whole world,"' and 
possesses all the leading features of other lands — the 
most bewitching scenery, the most fertile soil, the most 
dense forests, the highest mountains, some of the big- 
gest rivers and intensely cold seasons, may be found 
along Avith arid, treeless deserts, sandy waterless plains, 
and the hottest days. To a student of humanity or of 
Nature, India even now is most picturesque, and is the 
most interesting country in the world. Count Bjornst- 
jerna says : " But everj'thing is peculiar, grand, and 
romantic in India — from the steelclad knight of Rajas- 
than to the devoted Brahman in the temples of Benares ; 
from the fierce Mahratta on his fleet and active steed to 
the Nabob moving gently on his elephant ; from the 
Amazon who chases the tiger in the jungle to the 
Bayadere w4io offers in volupte to her gods. Nature, 
too, in this glorious country is chequered with variety 
and clad in glowing colours : see the luxuriance of her 
tropical vegetation and the hurricane of her monsoon ; 
see the majesty of her snow-covered Himalayas and the 
dryness of her deserts ; see the immense plains of Hin- 
dustan and the scenery of her lofty mountains ; but, 
above all, see the immense age of her liistory and the 
poetry of her recollections."^ 

Professor Max MuUer says : " If I were to look 
over the whole world to find out the country most richly 

1 Chambers's Encyclopa?dia, p. 337. 

^Theogony of the Hindus, p. 126. "The scenery of the Himalayas," 
says Elphinstone. " is a sight ■which the soberest traveller has never de- 
scribed wiiliuiit kindling into enthusiasm, and which, if once seen, leaves 
an impression that can never be equalled or effaced." — History of 
India, p. 181. 


eiicloweil with all the weiilth, power, ami l)onnty tliat 
nature can bestow — in some ])arts a very paradise on 
earth — I should ])oint to India. If I were asked 
under what sky the human mind has most fully deve- 
loped some of its choicest gifts, has most deeply ponder- 
ed on the greatest problems o£ life, and has found solu- 
tions of some of them which well deserve the attention 
even of those who have studied Plato and Kant, I 
should point to India. And if I were to ask myself 
from what literature we here in Europe — we who have 
been nurtured almost exclusively on the thoughts of the 
Greeks and the Romans, and of one Semitic race tiie 
Jewish — may draw that corrective which is most wanted 
in order to make our inner life more perfect, more com- 
prehensive, more universal, in fact more truly inunan, 
a life, not for this life only, but a transfigured and eter- 
nal life, again I should point to India." He adds: 
" Whatever sphere of the human mind you may select for 
your special study, whether it be language, or religion, 
or mytholog}', or philosophy, wdiether it be laws or 
customs, primitive art or primitive science, everywhere 
you have to go to India, whether you like it or not, 
because some of the most valuable and most instructive 
materials in the history of man are treasured up in 
India and in India only."i 

Professor Hceren says : " India is the source from 
which not only the rest of Asia but the whole Western 
World derived their knowledsje and their relinion."- 
A writer in the Calcutta Review for December hSGI, 

^Max MuUer's India: Wliat can it teach us ? [>. !."». 
2 Historical Researches, Vol. II, p. :15, 


said : '" Thoufrli now deomded and abased, vet we 
cannot doubt that there was a time when the Hindu race 
was splendid in arts and arms, happy in government, 
wise in leofislation and eminent in knowledgje."^ 

" The ancient state o£ India," says Mr. Thornton, 
" must have been one of extraordinary magnificence."^ 

Colonel Tod asks : " Where can we look for sages 
like those whose systems of philosophy were the proto- 
types of those of Greece : to whose works Plato, Thales, 
and Pythagoras were disciples ? where shall we find 
astronomers whose knowledge of the planetary system 
yet excites wonder in Europe, as well as the architects 
and sculptors whose works claim our admiration, and 
the musicians ' who could make the mind oscillate from 
joj' to sorrow, from tears to smiles, with the change of 
modes and varied intonation ?'"^ 

1 The same Review says : "That the Hindus were in former times 
a commercial [)eople we have every reason to believe — the labours of 
the Indian loom liave been universally celebrated, silk has been fabri- 
cated inimemorisdiy by the Hindus. We are also told by the Grecian 
writers tliat the Indians were the wisest of nations, and in metaphysical 
wisdom they wore certainly eminent : in astronomy and mathematics 
they were equally well versed ; this is the race who Dionysius records — • 
' First assayed the deep, 

' And wafted meroiiandize to coasts unknown, 
'Those who digested first the starry ehoir, 
' Their motions marked, and called them by their names.'" 
" Hindustan has from the earliest ages been celebrated as one of 
the most liighly-favoured couiitries on the globe, and as abounding in 
the choicest productions both of Nature and Art." — Encydopcedia 
Brilannica, p. 44(1, 

^Chapters of Jlie British History of India, 
•"Tod's Rai.'Kthan, jip. 0O8, BOO. 


A writer in the Ed/)tbim/h Rerieiv for October 
1872, says : " The Hindu is the most ancient nation 
o£ which we have valuable remains, and has been 
surpassed by none in refinement and civilization ; 
though the utmost pitch of refinement to which it ever 
arrived preceded, in time, the dawn of civilization in 
any other nation of which we have even the name in 
history. The further our literary inquiries are extended 
here, the more vast and stupendous is the scene which 
opens to us." 

An attempt has been made in the following pages, 
with the help of the laudable labours of philanthropists 
like Sir VV. Jones, Prof. H. ]]. Wilson, Mr. Colebrooke, 
Colonel Tod, Mr. Pococke and other European scholars 
and officers to whom the country owes a great debt 
of gratitude, to get a glimpse of that civilization which, 
according to the writer quoted above, has not yet been 
surpassed. And what is the result ? AVhat do we learn 
about the ancient Hindus ? We learn that they were 
the greatest nation that has yet flourished on this earth. 

''In the world there is nothing great but man, 
In man there is nothing great but mind," 

was the favourite aphorism of the philosopher, Sir 
William Hamilton.^ And Mrs. Mannint^ savs : "The 
Hindus had the widest range of mind of which man is 

We find that the ancient Hindus, in every feature 
of national life, were in the first rank. Take whatever 
department of human activity you like, you find the 
ancient Hindus eminent in it, and as occupying a 

See Jevon's Logic, p. 'J. 

Ancient and Medi.-tval India, A''ol. IF, p. 148. 


foremost place. This is more than wliat can be said 
of any other nation. You may find a nation great, 
in arms or commerce ;.you may find a people eminent 
in philosophy, in poetry, in science or in arts ; you may 
find a race politically but not equally so morally 
and intellectually. But you do not find a race which 
was or is pre-eminem in so many departments of human 
activity as the ancient Hindus. 

The ancient Hindus were "a poetical people," they 
were essentially "a musical race," and they were ''a 
commercial people." They were "a nation of philoso- 
phers ;" "in science the}' were as acute and diligent as 
ever." " Art seems to have exhausted itselt" in India." 
" Tlie Hinlu is the parent ot" the literature and the 
theoloo^y of the world." His lan"'ua2:e is the best and 
the most beautiful in the world. The national character 
of the ancient Hindus as regards trutlifulness, chivalry 
and honour was unrivalled ; their colonies filled the 
world, their kings ''are still worshipped as the gods of 
the sea," "their civilization still pervades in every 
corner oE the civilized world and is around and about us 
every dav of our lives." 

It may be urged that in the picture of Hindu civi- 
lization painted in the book, only roseate hues have been 
used, that while lights are pur|)Osely made prominent the 
shadows are conspicuous b}' their absence, and that most 
has been made of the best points of Hinduism, Such 
critics will do well to remember that the mountains are 
measured by their highest peaks and not by the low 
heights to which thej' here and there sink ; that the first 
rank amon<>- the mountains is assis^ned to the Himalayas 

INTHU D UCTl ON. X X \ i . 

by Mounts Everest, Dhjivalgiri and Kanchnnjangn, and 
not by the lower heiii^hls of Mussoorie and Daricelino- and 
that the patches of level ground here and there found 
enclosed within this 2:iirn.ntic ranire are iustly iunored. 

It may also be remarked here that the object of this 
book being to enable men to appreciate the excellencies 
of Hindu civilization — by giving them an idea of the 
character and achievements of the ancient Hindus, who 
were the creatures of that civilization, which has admit- 
tedly seen its best days — any discussion of modern India 
for its own sake is without the scope of this book. 
Wherever, therefore, any fact relating to the society, 
religion, literature or character of the Hindus of the 
present day, or their capacities and capabilities is men- 
tioned it has reference only to the elucidation of some 
feature of that civilization as illustrated in the life, work 
or character of the people of ancient India. ^ 

It is the inherent truth of Hinduism, the vitality 
and greatness of the Hindu civilization that have en- 

1 It is no part ol: tlie plan of this book to run down any creed or 
nationality. Consequently, whenever any other religion or race is men- 
tioned, it is only for the elucidation of some point of Hinduism, or to 
show the comparative excellence of some feature of Hindu civilization. 
Thus, whenever the oppressive nature of the rule of some of the Moiia- 
medan Emperors is mentioned, or the havoc caused by some of the 
invaders from the North- Western frontier of India is described, it is not 
to emphasize that fact itself, but to illustrate, explain, or elucidate some 
feature of the character of the Hindus or their literature and society. 
It miiy also be remarked that the evils of the rule of the Afghans, 
Turks, and others were due not to the religion tiiey professed but to 
their ignorance and backwardness in civilization. The Arabs, though 
professing the same religion as the Afghans and the Moghals, kept the 
lamp of knowledge and science lit in Europe and "Western Asia 
during the middle ages. The work of Al-Beruni, Abdul Fazal, Fai/.i 
and others in India pulls to pieces the theory that whatever evils there 
were in Mohamedan rule were due to the religion of the rulers. 


abled the Hindus yet to preserve their existence as such, 
despite all the political cataclysms, social u])heavals, and 
racial eruptions the world has seen since the ]\Iahabha- 
rata. These calamities overwhelmed the ancient Egyp- 
tians and the Phoenicians and destroyed the empires 
of ancient Greece, Persia and Rome. 

Compared to the sun o£ Hindu civilization giving 
a constant and steady stream of beneficent light, which 
penetrates the farthest nooks and corners of the world, 
carrying comfort and contentment to mankind, these 
civilizations were like brilliant meteors that appear in the 
skies lighting the while, with their shortlived lustre, 
the heavens above and the earth below. 

Tlieu — let me dive into the depths of time, 
And bring from ont the ages that have rolled, 

A few small fragments of those wrecks sublime, 
Which human eye may never more behold ; 

And lot the guerdon of my labour be, 

My b' loved country ! one kind wish for thee. 


Clime of the unfor<?otten bravo ! 
AVhere land froui plain to mountain cave 
Was freedom's home or glory's grave ; 
Shrine of the mighty ! Can it be 
That this is all remains of thee ? 

— Byron^ : Giaour, 

No one acqanlnted witli the history of the ancient 
Indians can reasonably deny the great merits of tlieir 
ancient Constitution, which combined happiness -with 
activity, tranquility Tvith progress — "one lesson which 
in every wind is blown" — and conservation with advance- 
ment. Their astonishing subjective capacities and their 
extraordinary powers of observation and generalization 
led them irresistibly to trace l^ature in all her multi- 
farious solemn workings. They followed her in every 
thing they did, and hence the halo of realit}^ and con- 
servation which surrounds their work. It is this reality 
and conservation, the happy results of following Nature — 
" which is wisdom without reflection and above it " — 
that have imparted that polish to Hindu Laws and Insti- 
tutions which makes them at once durable and brilliant. 
There was, anciently, an adjustment of forces which 
enabled each institution to describe its peculiar orbit 
and work in its own sphere, without interfering with the 


others; but now, altis ! owing to the long-continued nnd 
unabated pressure of hostile circumstances, tliat adjust- 
ment is beinsj broken, and the forces are beino- let loose 
SO as to brini>- the different institutions together. Their 
foundations, however, are still intact, owing to their 
exceeding firmness. 

The turning point in the history of Ancient India was 
the Mahabharata, the Great War between the Pandavas 
and thelCauravas. This momentous event decided the future 
of Ancient India, as it closed the long chapter of Hindu 
growth and Hindu greatness. The sun of India's glory 
was at its meridian about the end of Dwapar, and, follow- 
ing the. universal law of Xatnre, Avith the beninnino- of 
the Kaliyuga, it turned its course towards the horizon, 
where it set on the ulains of Thaneshwar amidst the 
romantic splendour of Saiijugta's love and Pithora's 
cliivalrv. As the ]\Iahabharata marked the zenith of 
Hindu greatness, Shahabud-din's victory at Thaneshwar 
marked the sinking of the great luminary below the 
horizon. The nadir was reached several centuries later, 
when the armies luider Bajai liao .were routed on the 
same sacred, fateful plains bv the Durrani host. The 
o-reat war which, as will be seen hereafter, influenced so 
powerfully the destiny of nations was, in realitv, the 
beixiunino- of the end of Hindu "Teatness, and it was 
at this period that the political and social Constitu- 
tion of India began to 3:ield to. those innovations which, 
by their very contrast to the fundamental principles of 
that Constitution, are so prominent now. 



Tiiiic In tlic mot ol' all rrcatvJ ln/iiit^'s, 

.\iitl muTcate ; ot' pleasure juid of jiaiii. 

'riiiu' dutli ci-i'atc cxistoiicc. Time destroys, 

TiniL- shatters all, and all again renews. 

Time Nvatchcs while all sleep. Uuvaiiijuished Time ! 

— Maiiai;hai;ata : Adijxiira, 

The antiquity of the Hindu civilization is wonderful, 
its vitality miraculous. The fabulous age of the Greeks, 
the times of the Egyptian Soufi, and the " stone age " 
of the modern European thinkers are but as yesterday 
in the history of the Hindu civilization. The age of 
this earth is not to be counted by a few thousand years, 
but by millions and trillions. And Hindu civilization is 
the earliest civilization in this world, l^ations have 
risen and fallen, empires founded and destroyed, races 
have appeared and disappeared, but the Hindu civilization 
that saw their rise and fall, tlieir foundation and des- 
truction, their appearance and disappearance, still remains. 

After fully discussing the claims of the ancient 
nations of the world to high anti(piity. Count Bjornstjerna 
says: — '' No nation on earth can vie with the Hindus 
in respect of the antiquity of their civilization and the 
antiquity of their religion."^ 

Dr. Stiles, President of Yale College in America, 

' formed such an enthusiastic expectation from the 

amazing antiquity of ^the Hindu writings that he actually 

iTheogony of the>, p. ')'i. 


wrote to Sir W. Jones to request him to search among 
the Hindus Tor the Adamic books. ^ 

Mr, Halbcd exclaims with sacred reverence, after 
treating of the four yugs of the Hindus: '"To such 
antiquity the Mosaic creation is but as yesterday; and to 
such ages the Hfe of Methuselah is no more than a span." 
In concluding his remarks on the antiquity of 
Hindu astronomy, Count Bjornstjerna says: "But if it 
be true that the Hindus more than 3,000 years before 
Christ, according to Bailly's calculation, had attained 
so high a degree of astronomical and geometrical learning, 
how many centuries earlier must the commencement of 
their culture have baeu, since the human mind advances 
only step by step in the path of scicuce ! ""-^ And yet, 
astronomy is not the science that is cultivated very early 
in the national literature of any country. 

Pliny states that from the days of Bacchus to 
Alexander of Macedon, 15-1 kings reigned over India, 
whose reigns extended over G,451 j-ears. How many 
rei<>;ned before Bacchus historv is silent. 

Abul-Fazal, in his translation of the Raj Tarangini^ 
quotes the names of the kings who appear in these an- 
nals, and whose successive reiii'ns are said to have 
occupied 4,109 years 11 months and 9 days. Prof. 
Heeren says: "From Dionysius (an Indian king) to 
Sandracottus (Chandragupta) the space of 6,042 years 
is said to have elapsed. Megasthenes says 6,042 years 
passed between Spatembas and Sandracottus.^ 

1 Ward's Mythology, Vol. I., p. \U. 

STkeogony of the Hindus, p. 37. 

3 Historical Researches, Vol. II, p. 218, 


Professor Max Duiiker i says "that Spatcrnha.-,"" 
which is perhaps another name of Dioiiyisius,'' beiiaii his 
reign ill 6717 years B.C." "The era of Yutldhishtliira 
indeed," he again asserts, "is said to hav(' preceded 
that of Vicramaditya by the space of 3,044 years, and 
to have commenced about o,10U years B.C." - 

Count Bjornstjerna says : " Megasthenes, the euNoy 
of xllexander to Kandragupso (Chandragupta), king of 
the Gangarides, discovered chronological tables at Poly- 
bhottra, the residence of this king, which contain a series 
of no less than loo kings, with all their names from 
Dionysius to Kandragupso, and specifying the duration 
of the reigns of every one of those kings, together 
amounting to 6,451 years, which would place the reign 
of Dionysius ne^irly 7,000 years B.C., and consequently 
1,000 years before the oldest kin": found on the Eirvpti- 
an tables of Manefho (vie, the head of the Tmi/e 
Thebaine dynasty), wiio reigned 5,867 years B.C., and 
2,000 years before Souji, the founder of the Gizeh 

Accordinn: to Sir AV. Jones, "* ei2;lity-one kinirs 
reimied in Man:adha. "The first 20 reiirns are unaccom- 
panied with any chronological determination, but the 
ensuing are divided by hiin into five separate dj-nasties, 
of which the first commenced with King Pradista about 
2,100 A.C., and terminated with King Nanda, about 1,500 
A.C., embracing a period of 16 reigns; the second 

1 History of Aiitiquit}'. \u\. IV., p. 74. 
2Historj of Antiquity, Vol. IV., p. 210, 
•"^Theogoiiy of the Hindus, p. 45. 
4 Sir W, Jones' Works, Vol. I, p. 304. 


only comprises 10, and ends with tl>e 3ear l,3Go A.C.; 
the third (h'nastv. that of Snnu'a, contains also the same 
number of kings, and terminates 1,253 B.C.; the fourth, 
that of Canna,only consisted of four king's, and lasted 
till the year 908 A.C. ; the fifth, that of Andrah, forms a 
series of 2] kini>s, and continued down to the year 456 be- 
fore the Christian era and 400 before that of Vicrama." 

Now, according to the Puranas, the race of the 
Brahadrathas had ruled over ]\Iagadha before Pradyotas, 
(who reigned 2,100 A.C, according to Sir W. Jones), 
from Somapi to Ripunja^'a^ for a thousand 3'ears. And 
before the first Brahadratlias, Sahadeo, Jarasandh and 
Erih:>drath are said to have reiiirned over Magadha."^' 

The fact that dynasties and not individuals were 
units of calculation, is in itself a proof of the great anti- 
quity of the ancient Plindu Empire. 

Count Bjornstjerna, after discussing the anti(|uity 
of Hindu astronomy says : " Besides the proofs adduced 
of the great antiquity of the civilization of the Hindus, 
there are others perhaps still stronger, namely, their 
gigantic temples hewn out of lofty rocks, with the most 
incredible labour, at Elephanta, at EUora and several 
other places wdiich, with regard to the vastness of the 
undertaking, may be compared with the pyramids, and 
in an architectural respect even surpass them.' "" 

Professor Heeren"^ says : "We do not perhaps assume 
too much when w^e venture to place the origin of 
Avodhya from 1,500 to 2,000 B.C." 

iMax Diuiker's History of Antiquity, Vol. IV., p. 7(). 
-Max Dunker's History of Antiquity, Vol. lY., p, 77. 
STheogonyof the Hindus, p. 38. 
^Historical Researches, Vol. II., p. 227. 

AXTKlllTV. 7 

C;ij)t:iin Trover snys : •' I cannot rofiise credence to 
this fact, namely, that n'reat States, hiulily aiKiinecd in 
civilization, (jxisted at least three thonsand yc:n's ht'Tore 
onr era. It is beyond that limit that I look for Uamii, 
the hero of the llamayana."'^ 

Accorchni:; to the ^lahabharata, Avodhva pr(-»?pprcd 
for 1,500 rears, after which one of its kin^s, of the dvnastv 
of Santas, founded Kanauj. The foundation of the 
city-of Delhi (Indraprastha^) is as old as the fabulous 
ao-e (Pober, Vol. I, ]). 2(53), at which time it was already 
celebrated for its splendour (Vol. I. p. GUG). 

Eenell- states that Kanauj was founded more than 
a thousand ye.'irs before Christ. l>ut apart fr(jm these 
haphazard shots of European writers — who, as Professor 
AVilson savs: "in order to avoid beino- thouo-|it credulous 
run into the opposite vice of incredulity,'' and wouhl 
never concede anvthinii' for which there is not a 
demonstrable proof, especially as the history of ancient 
India is a history of ages so remote as to hopelesslv put 
out of ioint their early-conceived and limited notions of 
chronolo<zy and antiquity — there is an important piece 
of evidence in favour of the great antiquit}' of Indian 
civilization. Says Count Bjornstjerna : "The Pactrian 
document, called Dabistan'' (found in Kashmir and 
brought 1o Europe by SirAV. Jones), gives an entire 
register of kings, namely, of the Mah.abadernes, whose 
first link rei^rned in Bactria 5,600 vears before Alexander's 
expedition to India, and consequently several hundred 
years before the time given by the Alexandrine text 
for the appearance of the first man upon tJie earthy 

1 Asiatic Journal, 1^511. 
- Mcinuirs, p. ."> t, (2n(l (nlitimi). 
3Tllt'()goiiy of till' lliiuliis. |>. 104. 


That these Bactrian kings were Hindus is now uni- 
versally admittedj Dabistan thus proves that India 
enjoN-ed splendid civilization 6,000 B.C., or nearly 8,000 
years before the Victorian age. 

This alone is sufficient to prove that the ancient 
Indians were incontestably the earliest civilized nation 
on earth. Another conclusive proof of their unrivalled 
antiquity will be found in the fact that all the great na- 
tions of the old world derived their civilization from 
India, that India planted colonies in all parts of the 
world, and that these colonies afterwards became known 
as Egypt, Greece, Persia, China, America, etc.; and that 
Scandinavia, Germany, and ancient Britain derived their 
civilization and their religion from the Hindus. In 
short, as will be seen hereafter, it was India which 
supplied the rest of the world with learning, civilization 
and religion. 

The most ancient coinao;e in the world is that of 
the Hindus (Aryas), and the modern discoveries of the 
coins of ancient India are conclusive proofs of the vast 
antiquity of Hindu civilization.^ 

But in Indi^ evervthinu' is astounding to the Euro- 
pean. iSTotwithstanding the destructive ravages of bar- 
barous fanaticism, enough material remains from which we 
can hifer, upon scientific data, the age of the present earth. 

Swami Dayananda Saraswati has treated the subject 
elaborately in his " Introduction to the Vedas," and 

»See Mill's History of India, Vol II., pp. 237-238. 

2The coiuace of the Hindus, ^^■hatever mav be its value and 
character, is certauily of a very remote antiquity — ElpMnstone's 
Indl'j, p. 176. 


also discussed it with tlie Keverend Mr, Scott of Bureilly 
at Cliandapur (vide Arya Darpaa for March 1880, 
p. 67-G8.) 

The Sanhalp^ which every educated Hindu in India 
knows well, and which is recited at c^'cry ceremony, 
even at a dip in the sacred Ganges, is the key to unfold 
the whole mystery that enshrouds the view of the time 
at which the earth assumed its present form. 

^t^3T cTcH^ ^ ^^Cft f^??t^ Vi^Txi ^^^^%3R«^ Jf^S^Tf^*- 

To understand what follows, it must be remembered 
that this world is alternately created from and dissolved 
into its material cause (^Km) — the parmdnu or atoms — 
after a fixed period. The world exists in one form for 
a fixed period, and then, for that verj^ period, it exists 
only in its material cause. The former is called " Brahma 
Din," and the latter "Brahma Ratri." 

As the Atharva Veda says, the Brahma Din is equal 
to 4,320,000,000 years. 

This Brahma Din is made up of 1,000 Chaturyugis 
(4 yugs) or Dibyayugs, as they are also called. ]Manu 
(Adhyaya I) says : — 

A Chaturyugi or Dibyayug means a period of four 
yugs, Satyug, Treta, Dwapar and Kaliyug, and consists 


o£ 12,000 Dibva years— Satyug consisting of 4,800, 
Trete, of 3,600, Dwapar of 2,400, and Kaliyng of 
1,200 Dibya years. Manu (Chapter 1, SI. 71) says : — 

^TTTiT^^ II ^^ II And again, 

=^c^pJt^: ^^^ifcr g^icitg i\ciV?i?T i c{^■^ cTi^x^crt^H^T 

Now, a Dibva year is equal to oGO ordinary years. 
Thus Satyug =4,800X360=1,728,000 years. 
Treta =3,600x360 = 1,296,000 ,, 
. Dwapur = 2,400 X 360 = 864,000 
Kaliynir = 1 ,200 X 360 = 432,000 



A Chaturyu«i = 4,320,000 years. 

Thus, the Brahma Din = 4,320,000,000 years. Thi.s 
is the period for which the world will remain hi its 
j^resent form. 

Again, the Brahma Din is divided into 14 Man- 
wan tras and a IManwantra into 71 Chaturyugis. j\Ianu 
says : — • 

cT^fjT=rt=5J% 11 TT^o W« °i 1^° ■©£. II 

The Surya Siddhanta also says : — 


According to the Sanlalp quoted ;d)ove, six Man- 
wantras^ have passed, the seventh is passinji", and the 
remaining seven have still to come Each Chatnryngi 
= 4,320,000, as shown before, and 4,320,000x71 = 
306,720,000 = one Alanwantra. Kow, six ]\Ian\vantras = 
1,840,320,000 have pnssed, and this present Kali3iig 
is the Kaliyugof the 2<Sth Chaturviiuri. 01" this Chatnr- 
yugi, 5,006 years o£ the Kaliyug (the present Sanibat 
being- 1963 A^icrama) have passed, ;ind 432,000 — 5^006 = 
426,994 years of the Kaliyng have yet to pass. Thus, 
of the sevenjth .Manwantra, 116,640,000 ( 27 Chatnr- 
yugis 4,320,000 x 27) + 3,893,006 (the period of the 28th 
Chaturyugi alresldy passed, 4,320,000-426,994) total 
120,533,006 years have passed. The period yet to pass 
before the day of Final Dissolntion comes is 214,704,000 
(rcniainhig 7 Manwantras) + 186, 186,99 l(of die present 
(sixth) Manwantra.) =2,333,226,994 years. 

The Europeans, "accustomed as they are," to use 
the words of Professor Sir ^I. AVillianis, " to a limited 
horizon", will find this vast anti(|uity bewildering, 
liillions surely are incredible, if not incomprehensible 
to pious ears accustomed to a scale, the highest note of 
Avhich rises no higher than 6,000 years, lint matters 
are improving, and even these pious souls will in time 
break the shell and come out into a world in which cen- 
turies will be replaced by milleiniiums. 

Air. 15aldwin says: "Doubtless the nntiipiitv of the 
human race is much greater than is usually assumed by 

^Tlie six Miuiwantras already passed arc 8\va\aniltliav, Swarocliis, 
Autami, Taiiifis, Ilaivat, Chakshus, VaivaSTvat. The seven ^lanwantras 
to couie are named Sa-ivaniit. Daks'iasawaniili. Dralinia, Sawarnili, 
Dharra Sawaniih, Rudra[iUclio, Roclij-aslieha and Cliotakali. 


those whose views o£ the past are still regulated by mediae- 
val systems of chronology. Archaeology and linguistic 
science, not to speak here of Geology, make it certain 
that the period between the beginning of the human 
race and the birth of Christ would be more accurately 
stated if the centuries counted in the longest estimate 
of the rabbinical chronologies should be changed to mil- 
lenniums. And they present also another fact, namely, 
that the antiquity of civilization is very great, and suggest 
that in remote ages it may have existed, with important 
developments, in regions of the earth now described as 
barbarous * * ' The representation of some speculators 
that the condition of the human race since its first 
appearance on earth has been a condition of universal and 
hopeless savagery down to a comparatively modern date, 
is an assumption merely, an unwarranted assumption 
used in support of an unproved and unprovable theory 
of man's origin." ^ 

iLWiklwiu's Ancient America, p. 181, 



For I'oiius of GovormiKMit let fools contest; 
Whate'cr is best mimiuister'd, is 

—Pope, E. M. 

The saying o£ the greatest English exponent of 
Pohtical Philosophy, Ediiumd Burke, that no country 
in which population flourishes can be under a Ijad 
Government, introduces ns to the subject of the political 
constitution of Ancient India. Burke lays down two 
important standards to test the good or bad govern- 
ment of a nation : (i) Popnlation, jmd (ii) AVcalth. 

All the Ancient Greek writers and travellers arc 
agreed that the Ancient Aryas were the largest nation 
on the earth. 

Appollodorus ^ states that " there were between 
the Hydaspes and Hypanis (Hypasis) 1,500 cities, none 
of which was less than Cos." 

Megasthenes says that "there are 120 nations in 
India." Arrian admits that the Indians were the most 
numerous people- and that it was impossible to know 
and ennmerate the cities in Aryavarta. Strabo says 
that Eukratides was the master of 1,000 cities bet- 
ween Hydaspes and Hyphasis. Professor Max Dunker" 
says "the Indians were the largest of the nations." 

] Elphiustonc's India, p. 241. See Strabo, Lib. XV. 
^See his Chapter ou India, C. VII. See also his History of Nations, 
G, 22,23. 

^History of Antiquity, Vol. V., p. 18. 


Ctesius states that "they (Hindus) were as numerous as 
all the other nations put tot/ether.^^^ 

But the most important j^roof of the over-abnnd;nit 
population o£ Ancient India is to be found in the suc- 
cessive waves of emigration from India to the different 
parts of the worhl, founding colonies and planting 
settlements in what are now called the Old and the 
^''ew AVorlds. 

As re^rards wealth, India has always been famous 
for its immense riches. "Golden India" is a hack- 
I'^eyed phrase.- Both in population and in wealtli, 
India, at one time was not only j^re-cminent but was 
■without a rival. 

What higher authorit}', what more positive proof 
of the good government of Ancient India is required 
than the fact that "Ancient India knew no thieves,"'" 
nor knew why to shut the doors of its houses even at 
the time when, according to Dr. Johnson, " the capital of 
the most civilized nation of modern times is the true 

' Prepare for deatli. if here at i\ight you roam, 
And sign your will before you sleep from honie.' 

The form of Government depends upon the 
character of a people, the conditions of life obtaining 
among them, and the principles of their social system. 

iStrabo states that " Polibhothra was eight miles long and 
had a rampart Avhich had 570 towers and 64 gates." As late even as 
the IGtli century, Kanauj was reported to have contained no less 
than 30,000 shops of betelsellers and " .sixty thousand sets of musicians." 
See Historical Reseai-ches, Vol. II., p. 220. 

-For further information on this subject, see "Wealth." 

^'Sec Strabo, Lib. XV. p. iSS (1587 edition). 

GOvi:i;nmi:nt. 1 . j 

Witli clianiros in respect of these mnttcr.-;, the form <>[ 
Government also nndero-oes a change. Ih-oadly sj)e!ik- 
ing, the best form of Government is that Avhich enaljles 
onlv men of hiiih character, noble minds, wide svm- 
pathies, men of sterling qualities and talents to rise to 
the top, and prevents men of shallow minds, mean 
capacities, narrow sympathies, and nnscrnpnlons cliarac- 
ters from coming into power, it being always understood 
that the proper functions of Government arc onlv (i) 
national defence, and (it) protection of one individual 
or of one class from another. 

The form of Government may vary, but the spirit 
depends on the ethical side of a people's character. It 
is well said — 

Political rights, liowevor liroadly fiainod, 
Will not ehn'ate a people iiuliviilually depravod. 

If high moral principles guide the people in their 
dailv conduct as a nation, the Government of that 
nation is frea from those pu-ty strifes, that incessant 
"warfare raged by one individual against another and I)v 
one class against another for power or for protection, 
which is a leading feature of all Euro})ean and Ameriean 
Governments of the present day. It is this law that 
discovers to us the eternal princi[)le, that sj)iritual eleva- 
tion not only helps material ])rosperity but is essential to 
the ]ia]>piness of a people, and that it is an index to the 
realization of the aim and object of jdl government. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer says: "There has grown up 
quite naturally, and indeed almost inevitabl}' among 
civilized peoples, an identification of freedom wiih 
the political appliance-? established to maintain free- 
dom. The two are confused together in thought ; 
or, to express the fact more correctly, they have 


not yet been separated in thon^^ht. In most coun- 
tries during' ])ast times, and in many countries at 
the present time, experience has associated in men's 
minds the unchecked power o£ a ruler with extreme 
coercion of the ruled. Contrariwise, in countries where 
the people have acquired some power, the restraints on 
the liberties of individuals have been relaxed ; and 
with advance towards government by the majority, 
there has, on the average, been a progressing abolition 
of laws and removal of burdens which unduly interfered 
with suc]i liberties. Hence, by contrast, popularly- 
governed nations have come to lie regarded as free 
nations ; and possession of political power by all is 
supposed to be the same thing as freedom. But the 
assumed identity of the two is a delusion — delusion, 
which, like many other delusions, results from confound- 
ing Dieans with ends. Freedom in its absolute form 
is the absence of all external checks to whatever actions 
the will prom])ts ; and freedom in its socially-restricted 
form is the absence of anv other external checks than 
those arising from the presence of other men wdio have 
like claims to do what their Avills prompt. The mutual 
checks hence resulting are the only checks which free- 
dom, in the true sense of the w^ord, permits. The 
sphere within which each may act without trespassing 
on the like spheres of others, cannot be intruded upon 
by any agency, private or public, wdthout an equivalent 
loss of freedom ; and it matters not whether the pubhc 
agency is autocratic or democratic : the intrusion is 
essentially the same."i 

1 Herbert Spencer's Autobiography, Vol I., p. 139, 


It is (liio to fi thorough recog-nition of this trutli 
that the Iiidiun sages laid so mucli stress on the necessity 
of formation of Hindu cliaracter on ethical and altruistic 
I^rinciples, to secure political as well as social prosijerity. 
The higher the ethical development of character, the 
greater the freedom enjo3'ed by a people. It is in this 
sense true that the best-governed people is the least- 
governed peoj)le. Over-government is an evil, a positive 
evil, and a very frequent evil. Over-government defeats 
its own ends. The real object of government is frustrat- 
ed : its proper functions are neglected. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer says : "Among mechanicians 
it is a recognized truth that the multiplication of levers, 
wheels, cranks &c., in an apparatus, involves loss of 
power, and increases the chances of going wrong. Is 
it not so with Government machinery, as compared 
witli the simpler machinerj' men frame in its absence ? 
Moreover, men's desires when left to achieve their 
own satisfaction, follow the order of decreasinir inten- 
sity and importance : the essential ones being satisfied 
first. But when, instead of airo-re2;ates of desires 
spontaneously working for their ends we get the judg- 
ments of Governments, there is no guarantee that the 
order of relative importance will be followed, and there 
is abundant proof that it is not followed. Adaptation 
to one function pre-supposes more or less unfitness 
for other functions ; and pre-occupation with many 
functions is unfavourable to the complete discharge of 
anyone. Beyond the function of national defence, the 
essential function to be discharged by a Government 
is that of seeinu: that the citizens in seeking satisfaction 


for tbcir own desires, individually or in gTOups, shull 
not injure one another ; and its failure to ])erform thi>ri 
function is great in proportion as its other functions 
are nameroos. The daily scandals of oin- judicial system, 
which often brings ruin instead of restitution, and 
frightens away multitudes who need protection, result 
in large measure from the pre-occupation of statesmen 
and politicians with non-essential things, Avhile the all- 
essential thing passes almost unheeded."^ 

In ancient India, owing to the high ethical and spiri- 
tual development of the people, they were not over- 
governed. They enjoyed the greatest individual freedom 
compatible with national cohesion and national security. 
It is owing to this want o£ ethical and altruistic develop- 
ment of character of the Westerners that freedom, 
in its true sense, is not yet enjoyed in Europe and 

Mr, Herbert Spencer says: "Onlv alono: witli tlie 
gradual moulding of inen to tlie social state has it be- 
come possible, without social disruption for those ideas 
and feelings which cause resistance to unlimited autho- 
rity, to assert themselves and to restrict the authority. 
At pi-esent the need for the authority, and for the 
sentiment which causes submission to it, continues to 
be great. While the most advanced nations vie with 

one another it is manifest that their members are far 
too aggressive to permit much weakening of restrainino- 
atrencies by which order is maintained araon<'- them. 
The unlimited right of the majority to rule is probablv 

^ Autobiogiapliy, Vol, 1, p, 4L'2. 


as advanced a conception of freedom as can safely ])e 
entertained at present, if, indeed, even that can safely 
be entertained.' 

After the ^lahabharata, the Hindu statesmen tried 
to preserve a^ nnich of the old Constitution as tliey 
conld, ^Yhile providing for the assimilation of new 
elements consequent on the sliohtlv-chanixed conditions 
of life, Burke truly snys that tlie true stxatesman is he 
who preserves what is acquired and leaves room for 
future improvement. Thus, though the comparative 
neglect of the ethical and spiritual culture of the Hindus 
after the beginning of the Kaliy uga affected their indi\idual 
freedom, yet the ground \vork of the Constitution being 
sound, it was able to adapt itself to changing circum- 
stances, and, as the necessities of the situation plainly 
demanded, more heed Avas paid to the conservative 
principles than the progressive ones. But the spirit 
of the Constitution was never affected till its practical 
dissolution with the advent of the foreigners in India. 

" Arrain - mentions with admiration that ever}' 
Indian is free." Lieutenant-Colonel Mark Wilks,' while 
discussing the political system in its provincial work- 
in"', says :" Each Hindu township is, and indeed al- 
ways was, a particular counnunity or petty republic 
by itself." "" The whole of India, " he says again, 
" is nothing more than one vast congeries of such 

1 Autobiography, Vol T, p. 441. 

2 See Indica, Cli. X. See also Diodoras, lib. II, p. 214 (edition 1G04). 

See also Elphiiisfcone's India, p. 239. 

SHistorical Sketches of the South oi India, Vul. J, p. 119. 


These facts clo not seem to support the theory that 
representative government does not suit the genius 
of the Hindus. Even Mr. James Mill is forced to admit 
that " in examining the spirit of these ancient Constitu- 
tions and laws, we discover evident traces of a germ of 

As regards the executive system, Professor ^lax 
Dunker says : " The king placed officers over every 
village (called pati), and again over ten or twenty 
villages (gramh), so that these places with their acreage 
formed together a district. Five or ten such districts 
formed a canton which contained a hundred communities, 
and over this, in turn, the king placed a higher 
maoistrate : ten of these cantons form a reo;ion which 
thus comprised a thousand villages, and this was adminis- 
tered by a Governor. The overseers of districts were 
to have soldiers at their disposal to maintain order 
(Polics.) This is of itself evidence of an advanced stage 
of administration."^ 

The Police of India was excellent. Megasthenes 
says, that in the camp of Sandrocottus, which he esti- 
mates to have contained 400,000 men, the sums stolen 
dailv did not amount to more than Rs. 30.^ 

As regards the strength of the representative institu- 
tions, Sir Charles Metcalfe* says : " The village com- 

iThat the people took active interest in polities is exhibited by 
their instigating Samhas to fly from Alexander and Musicanus to 
break the peace made with Alexander. 

2History of Antiquity, Vol. IV, p. 215. 

oElphinstone's India, p. 2il. There was no organized Police 
Service in England before the reign of Queen Victoria, 

4 Report of the S-elect Committee of the House of Commonss 
1832, Vol. Ill, Appendices, p. 3o, 


muiiities are little re])ublics having nearly cvcrythin<>- 
they can want within themselves and almost independent 
o£ any foreign nation. They seem to last where 
nothing else lasts. D3'nasty after dynasty tumhles down, 
revolution succeeds revolution, and Pathan, ]\Ioghul, 
Mahratta, Sikh, English are all masters intnrn, l)ut the 
village communities remain the same. This union nf 
village communities, each one forming a separate little 
State in itself, is in a hio'h deo:ree conducive to their 
(Hindu) happiness, and to the enjoyment of a great 
portion of freedom and inde])endence." 

The benevolent nature of the Hindu civilization is 
proved by the fact that the Hindu Colonies and depen- 
dencies enjoyed the same Constitution as the mother 
country. Sir Stamford RatHes^ says about Bali, an 
island east of Java: " Here, together with the Brahminioal 
religion is still preserved the ancient form of Hindu 
municipal polity." 

Hindu works on diplomacy, polity and government 
(though few are now extant) show the high development 
that political thought reached in those days. Some of 
them have been translated into Persian and thence into 
European languages. Abu Sabhhad had the Eajnitl 
translated into Persian in 1150 A.D. Buzarchameher, 
the renowned minister of Nausherwan the Just, received 
his poUtical education and training in India. 

1 Description of Java, Vol. II, Appendix, p. 2:37. 

After quoting some passages from Manu, Colonel Briggs says: 
" These extracts afford us sufficient proof of a well-organised system 
of local superiutondcnee and aduiiniiitration." — Brigg's Land Tax of 
India, p. 2i. 


Law is a test of o'ood ii:overiiment. The ixreat 
Hindu work on law is a marvel of simplicity and 
wisdom. Without beino- complex, it satisfied all the 
diverse wants of the people. Its provisions did not 
chano;e everv week, and vet thev suited the varied 
circumstances of Hindu societ}^ Sir W. Jones^ says : — 
" The laws of Manu very probably were considerably 
older than those of Solon or even of Lycurgns, although 
the Dromulo-ation of them, before thev were reduced to 
w^ritino- miohthave been coeval with the first monarchies 
established in Egypt and India." 

The Enii'lish derived their laws from the Romans, 
who, in their turn, derived them from Greece. Durini'' the 

7 7 O 

Decemvirate, Greece seems to have been indebted to India 
for its laws. Sir W. Jones says : - " Although perhaps 
Manu was never in Crete,-' yet, some of his institutions 
may ^vell have been adopted in that island, whence 
Lycurgns a century or two after may have imported 
them into Sparta." 

The Bible in India says that the IManu Smriti was 
the foundation upon which the Egyptian, the Persian, 
the Grecian and the Roman Codes of law were built, and 
that the influence of Manu was still every day felt in 

Professor Wilson* says, the Hindu had " a code of 
Laws adapted to a great variety of relations which coul d 
not have existed except in an advanced condition of social 


1 Houghton's Institutes of Hindu Law, Preface, p. x, 
2 Preface to Houghton's Institutes of Hindu Law, p. xii. 
^The oneness of Minas and ]\Ianu is highly probable. 
^Mill's India, Vol. II, p, 2^2. 


Colemani s:ivs:"TIie style of it (^Innii^ has a 
certain austere majesty that souiuls like the Iniiiiiia^e 
ol: legislation and extorts a respectL'ul awe. The senti- 
ments of inde])en(lence on all beings but God, aud the 
harsh administrations even to kiujj's are trul\" noble, and 
the many panegyrics on the Gayatri prove the author 
to have adored that divine and incomparably-greater 
liii'ht which illiuuines all, delio'hts all, from which all 
proceed, to which all must return, and which can alone 
irradiate our intellect." 

Dr. Robertson says: '" With respect to the number 
and variety of points the Hiudu code considers it will 
bear a comparison Y\'ith the celebrated Digest of Justi- 
nian, or with the systems of jurisprudence in nations most 
highly civilized. The articles of which the Hindu code is 
composed are arranged in natural and luminous order. 
They are numerous and comprehensive, and investigated 
with that minute attention and discernment which are 
natural to a people distinguished for acuteness and subtlety 
of understanding, rvdio have been long accustomed to the 
accuracy of judicird proceedings, and acquainted witli 
all the rehnements of legal practice. The decisions con- 
cerning every point are founded upon the great and 
immutable principles of justice which the human mind 
acknowledges and respects in every age and in all parts of 
the earth. Whoever examines the whole work cannot 
entertain a doubt of its containing the jurisprudence 
of an enlightened and commercial people. Whoever 
looks into any particular title will be surprised with a 
minuteness of detail and nicety of distinction which, in 

iColeuiau's Mythology of the Ilindii^s, p. 8, 


many instances, seem to go beyond the attention of 
European legislation; and it is remarkable that some o£ 
the regulations wL-ich indicate the greatest degree o£ 
refinement were established in periods of the most 
remote antiquity."^ 

Mr, Mill says that "the division and arrano'ement of 
Hindu law is rude and shows the barbarism of the 
nation"; upon which Professor Wilson, with his usual 
candour, remarks : " By this test, tl'ie attempt to 
classify would place the Hindus hiijiher in civilization 
than the Knglish."^ 

Mr. Mill's revievr of Hindu religion and laws is a ])iece 
of stupendous perversii}^ ignorance and stn])idity. Pro- 
fessor Wilson speaks of it in the following terms : — 
" The whole of this review of the religion as well as 
of the laws of the Hindus is full of serious defects 
arising from inveterate prejudices and imperfect know- 
ledge."'^ Of Mill's Historv of British India, Prof. Max 
MuUer says : — "The book which I consider most mis- 
chievous, nay, which I hold responsible tor some of the 
greatest misfortunes that have happened in India, is Mills' 
History of India, even with the antidote against its poison 
which is supplied by Professor Wilson's notes. "-^ Professor 
Max Muller deplores that " the candidates for the 
Civil Service of India are recommended to read it and are 
examined in it. "'' What wonder, then, that there is often 

misunderstandin2: between the rulers and the ruled in 
India ! 

^ Disquisition conceniing India, Appendix, p. 217 

-'Mills' India, Vol. I], pp. 2iM-25. 

^Mills' India, Vol. II, p. 4o6 (Xote). 

"^Inella : what can it teach us, p. 42. 

5Max MuUer's India: What can it teach us? p. 42, 


While discussing Mill's views, Professor Wilson 
again says: "According to tiiis theory (Mill's theory con- 
tained in his explaiijition of the causes of comphix 
procedure in the English courts of law) the corruption 
of the juilgo is the best security for justice. It would 
be dangerous to reduce this to practice."^ 

1 Mill's India, Vol. II, p. 512. — Mill say.s tliat ])ocanse the Hindus 
lend money on pledges, thercFore they are barbaron.s. On this, Pro- 
fessor "Wilsmi savs : — " Lendintr on ])ledires can scarcely he roirarded as 
pro>)f of a snite of barliarism, or the nuiltilude of ]'!i\vn-bi(ikers in 
Lond(Mi would witness our being very low in the scale of civilization." 
J\Iill declares the Mohammedan Code to be superior to the Hindu Code. 
" In civil branch," replies Wilson, "the laws of Contract and Inheritance, 
it is not so exact or complete as the latter (Hindus'1. Its (jMohnmc- 
dan) spirit of barbarous retaliation is unknown to the Hindu Code." 
Mill tlunks that perjui-y is a virtue according to the Hindu Code. But 
Wilson clearly proves that this is a creation of Mill's diseased imagination. 

It is further objected that the uncertainties of the Hindu law are 
very great. Prof. Wilson (Essays, A"ol. Ill, page 5tl)) remarks: " If 
the unci'rtainties of the I'^iiglish law are less perplexing than those of 
the Hindu law, we doubt if its delays are not something more intermin- 
able. A long time elapses before a cause comes for decision and abun- 
dant oppoitunity is therrfore afforded for the tral'lic of underhand 
negotiations, intrigues and corru[iti(m. It is needless to cite mstances 
to prove the conseqaence or to make any individual application : public 
events have reinlcred tho fact notorious. It can scarcely be otherwise. ' 
Bathe returns to the charge and says :-" They say that Pandits don't 
agree in the discharge of Hindu law. But see in the case of Vira- 
plrmah PiUay versus Karain I'illay. the opinion of the two English judges. 
The Chief Justice of Bengal declares that a decision pronounced and 
argued with grc-at pains by the Chief Justice at Madras, will mislead 
those bv ^^hom it may be followed, and that the doctrine which it incul- 
cates is contrary to law." Professor Wilson again says :-The Chi-'f 
Justice of Hengal says that " he would connive at immoral acts :f he 
bought they led to useful results." 


An eminent anthoritv, the late Chief .Tn.stice of 
Madras, Sir Thomas Stranire, says of tlie Hindu Law of 
Evidence : " It will be read by every English lawyer with 
a mixture of admiration and delio'ht, as it mav be studied 
bv him to advantao'e." 

A writer in the Asiatic Journal (p. 14) saA'.s : " All 
the requisite shades of care and diligence, the corres- 
ponding shades o£ negligence and default are carefully 
observed in the Hindu law of bailment, and neither in 
the jurisprudence nor in the legal treatises of the most 
civilised States o£ Europe are they to be found more 
logically expressed or more accurate!}' defined. In the 
spirit of Pyrrhus' observation on the Roman legionfi^, one 
cannot refrain from exclaimino- " I see nothing' barbarous 
in the jurisprudence of the Hindus." 

Of the Commentary of Calluca on ]\Ianu, Sir 
AV. Jones says : "It is the shortest yet the most luminous; 
the least ostentatious yet the most learned ; the deepest 
yet the most agreeable commentary ever composed on ciny 
author ancient or modern., European or Asiatic.''''^ 

1 Preface to Houghton's Institutes of Hindu Law, p. 18. 



Hail, i^ocial life ! into thy pleasing bonnds 
A^ujuin I come to piiv the conmiou stock 
]My siiare ut' service, uiid, in glad return 
To taste thy comforts, thy protected joys. 

— Thomson' : Agamemnon. 

The Hindus perfected society. The social organization 
of the people was based on scientific ])rinciples, and 
was well calculated to ensure progress without party 
strife. There was no accumulation of wealth in one 
portion of the communit^y, leaving the other portion 
in destitute poverty ; no social forces stimulating the 
increase of the wealth of the one and the poverty of 
the other, as is the tendency of the modern ci\ilization. 
The keynote of the system, however, was national 
service. It afforded to every memljcr of the social 
bod)-, opportunities and means to develop fully his 
powers and capacities, and to use them for the advance- 
ment of the common weal. Everyone was to serve the 
nation in the s])herc in which he was best fitted to 
act, which, being congenial to his individual genius, was 
conducive to the highest development of his faculties 
and powers. 

There was thus a wise and statesmanlike classifica- 
tion which procured a general distribution of wealth, 
expelled misery and want from tlie land, promoted 
mental and moral progress, ensured national efficiency, 
and, above all, made tranquillity compatible witli ad- 
vancement ; in one word, dropped manna all round 


and made life doubly sweet by securing external peace 
with national efficiency and social happiness — a condi- 
tion of affairs nowliere else so fully realized. 

This classification — this principle of social organiza- 
tion — was the Varndshrama. Mankind were divided 
into two classes, (1) the Aryas and (2) the Dasyus, or 
the civilized and the savage. The Aryas were sub- 
divided into : — 

1. Brahmanas, who devoted themselves to learning 

and acquiring wisdom and following the 
liberal arts and sciences. 

2. Kshatriyas, who devoted themselves to the theory 

and practice of war, and to whom the 

executive Government of the people was 

3. Yaishyas, who devoted themselves to trade and 

the professions. 

4. Sudras (men of low capacities), who served and 

helped the other three classes. 
This classification is a necessary one in all civi- 
lized countries iu some form or other. It was the glory 
of ancient Aryavarta that this classification existed 
there in its perfect form and was based on scientific 
principles — on the principle of heredity (which has not 
yet been fully appreciated by European thinkers), the 
conservation of energy, economy of labour, facility 
of development, and specialization of faculties. Literary 
men, soldiers, doctors, lawyers, clergymen, traders, and 
servants are to be found in England, France, America, 
and in every other civilized country of modern times, 
as they were in Ancient India. The only difference 


is that in one case the division was perfect and tho 
■working of its marvellous mechanism regular, Avhilc 
in the other the classification is imperfect and its working 
irregular and haphazard. 

The Varndshrama was not the same as the caste 
system of the present dav — a travesty of its ancient 
original. Xo one was a Brahman by blood nor a Siidra 
by birth, but everyone was such as his merits fitted him 
to be. " The peo})le,^' says Col. Olcott, " were not, as 
no\v, irrevocably walled in by castes, but they were free 
to rise to the hiiihest social diij-nities or sink to the lowest 
positions, according to the inherent qualities they might 

The son of a Brahman sometimes became a Ksha- 
triya, sometimes a Yaishya, and sometimes a Sudra. 
At the same time, a Sudra as certainly became a l>rali- 
man or a Kshatriya. Shanler Dig Vijya says : — 

%? ^^^^[ ^%f^^: ^%[ STllTfcT ^T^?n: || 
" By birth all are Sudra, by actions men become 
Dicija (twice-born). By reading the Vedas one becomes 
Vipra and becomes Brahman by gaining a knowledge 
of God." 

A passage in the Vanparva of the ]Mahabharata 
runs thus: "He in whom the qualities of truth, muni- 
ficence, forgiveness, gentleness, abstinence from cruel 
deeds, contemplation, benevolence are observed, is called 
a Brahman in the Smriti. A man is not a Sudra Ijy 
being a Sudra nor a Brahman bv being a Brahman." 
The Mahabharata (Santiparva) says : — 


" There are no distinctions of caste. Thus, a world 
which, as created by Brahma, was at first entirely Brah- 
manic has become divided into classes, in consequence 
ot: men's actions. 

In his paper on " Sanskrit as a Liviiio- LauLi'- 
uao"e in India," read before the International Coni^-ress 
of Orientahsts at Berlin, on the 14th September 
1881, Mr. Shyamji Krishnavarina said : — " We read 
in the Aitareya lU-fdimana (,ii. 3. ID), for example, 
that Kavasha Ailusha, who was a Sudra and son of a 
low^ woman, was greatly respected for his literary 
attainments, and admitted into the class of Ivisbis. 
Perhaps the most remarkable feature of his life is that 
he, Sndra as he was, distinguished himself as the Rishi 
of some of the hymns of the Rig-Veda (Rig., X. 30-34). 
It is distinctly stated in the Chandogyopanishad that 
Jabala, who is otherwise called Satya-Kama, had no 
gotra, or family name whatever (Chan-Upa, IV. 4) ; 
all that we know about his parentage is that he Avas the 
son of a woman named Jabala, and that he is called after 
his mother. Though born of unknown parents, Jilbala 
is said to have been the founder of a school of the Yajur- 
Yeda. Even in the Apastamba-Sutra (ii. 5-10) and the 
Manusmriti (x. 65), we find that a Sudra can become a 
Brahman and a Bnlhman can become a Sudra, accord- 
ing to their good or bad deeds, Piinini mentions the 
name of a celebrated grammarian called Cakravarmana in 
the sixth chapter of his Ashtadhyayi (p. vi. 1. 130); now 
Cakravarmana was a Kshatriya by birth, since he has 
the prescribed Kshatriya termination at the end of his 
name, which is a patronymic of Cakravarmana," 


Who were ^ isvamitri and ^'allniki but S'.ulras. 
Even so late as tlic time ot" the Greek invasion of India, the 
caste system had not become ])eti'ified into its present 
state. The (Ire ^ks descril)e four castes. ^[agesthenes 
says that a Hindu of any cast(^ may becon)e a Sopliist 
(Brahman.) Arrian couiits seven classes: Sopliists, 
Ro-ricalturists, herdsmen, handicrafts and artizens, war- 
riors, in?;pectors and councillors. (See Strabo, Lib 

Colonel Tod sa3-s : " In the early ages of these Solar 
and Lunar dynasties, the priestly office was not here- 
ditary in families ; it was a profession, and tb.e g-enealoii'ies 
exhibit frequent instances of branches of these races 
terminatin<x their martial career in the commencement 
of a reliirious sect or "potra" and of their decendants 
reassuming their warlike occupations."^ 

There was no hereditary caste. The people 
enjoved the advantages of hereditary ger.ius without the 
serious drawl)acks of ;i rigid system of caste based on 

'' The one great object which the promoters of the 
hereditary system seem to liave had in view was to 
secure to each class a high degree of efficiency in its own 
sphere." " Hereditary genius " is now a subject of 
serious enrpiiry amongst the enlightened men of Europe 
and America, and the evolution theory as api)lied to 
sociology, Avhen fully worked out, will fully show the 

1 Mauusmrifi, II, l.'^H s^iya:— " As lilMTality tu a fool is IVuiUoss, 
so is a Brahman useless if lie ivad not the Holy Texts ; or again, he 
is no better than an eh'pliant made nf wood or an antelope made oi' 


merits of the system. In fact the India o£ tlic time of 
^1:11111 will :i])i)u;ir to hwvc roiiclicd a stau'e cf civilizntic^n 
of which the brilliant "modern Enro])ean civilization" 
oidv liives ns liTnnpse.s. 

Even the system in its present form has not been 
an ninnitigated evil. It has been the great conserv^ative 
]ri-in('iple of the constitution of Hindu society, though 
oriirinallv it was a conserv^ative ,as w^ell as a proirressive 
one. It is this principle of the Hindu social constitution 
which enabled the nation to sustain, without being 
sliat:)ered to })leccs, the tremendous shocks given bv the 
numerous political convulsions and religious upheavals 
thiit have occurred during the last thousand yenrs. " Tin; 
svstem of caste," savs Sir Henrv Coctc^n, " far from bein^- 
the source of all troubles Avhicli c^an be traced in Hindu 
society, has rendered most important service in the past, 
and still continues to sustain order and solidarity." 

As regards its importance from a European point 
of view, Mr. Sidney Low in his recent book, A Vision of 
India, savs : — '* Tiiere is no <loubt that it is the main 
cause of the fun lauKMital stability and c;)utcntin(Mit bv 
Avhich Imlian society has been braced for cjnturie.s 
against the shocks of p;)litjcs and the cataclysms of 
Nature. It provides every man ^vi(h his |>]ic(', Jiis 
career, his occupation, his circle of friends. Ft makes 
him, fit the outset, a member of a corporate bodv: it 
])rotects iiim through life from the canker of social 
jealousy and unfullilled aspirations; it ensures liim 
Cf)mpanionship ;nrl a sense of community with others 
in like ('as(! with liiiii-rlf. The caste organi/ai ion is to 
the, Hindu his club, his trade-union, his beneiit society, 
liis philanthi-ojiic society. There are no "work-houses 


in Tndi;!, ami none nro as yet nccilod. Tlic ()i)liLr;iti()n 
to providi! tor kinsfollc imd friends in distress is uni- 
versidiy acknowledged; nor can it be questioned tliat tliis 
is due to the recognition oL' the strcn;;th of taniily tics 
and of the bonds created l»y associations and connnon 
pursuits which is fostered l»y the caste principle. An 
India without caste, as tilings stand at preseiit, it is not 
quite easy to ima<iine." 



To tlio.^o who know IIhm' ]iot. no wonls can j>aint. 
And those wlio know thee, know all words an- faint. 

• — Han. Mork: Svn^ihiUfif. 

TiiR liapin' results of govern men t (Igjx^ihI chiefly upon, 
tlie cliaractci' oF the p3 )ple. And whit nation, ancient 
or modern, can show such high cliaractcr as tliat 
of tlie ancient Hindus? Their generosity, simplicity, 
lionesty, trutht'uluess, courage, refinement and gentleness 
are proverbial. In fact, the elements so mixed in tlicin 
tiiat nature might stand up and say to all the world, 
"These were men." 

The first and hio-hest virtue in man is truthfulness. 
As Chaucer savs : — 

Trutli is the hi^Hicst tiling' tliat man may keep. 

From the earliest times, the Hindus have always lieen 
praised bv men of all countries and creeds for their 

Strabo says: "They are so honest as neither to 
require lo(;ks to their doors ni)r writings to bind llieir 

Ari-ian (in (lie second century), the pupil of 
]'>picterus, says th;it '"no Indian was ever known to 
tt'll an im!i-ulh."- This, making a due allowance for 
exaggeration, is no mean praise. 

Hiovcn li)s:ujg, the inost famous of the Chinese 
trav(!ilers, says: "The Indians are distinguished by 

'Slial.o. Lib. XV. p. IHS (cd. loS?). 

-Ill li>-:», ('.tp. xu, (1. Sec also Mcd'riiidle In ' Indian .Vntipiaiy,' 
187(;. p '.•!'. 

I llAKACTKn. 35 

the stniiulitforwanliu'ss mid lioiu.'sly of lljcir cliarnrier. 
\\ iili regard to riclirs, (lu'V lU'Vi-r t:ikc anytliiiit^ 
unjustly ; with rcuard to justici-, tlu-y uv.\\n- rv.-n 
excessive conoessioiis .... stniii^ditforwarducs^ 
tliu Icadiuii' feature of tin-ir administration."' 

Kiiann'-thai, the ( 'hines(! anil>as.sidor to Siani, .-.t\.^ 
that Sii-We, a relative of Fauehen, kinir of Siani, 
Nvho eanie to India ahuul I'.'ll .\.I).. on his return 
reported to tiie kin^* that '*tlie Indians are .straii^hl- 
i'orward and honest. "- 

"In the fourth eentnrv, Friar Jordanus tell> us 
that the pcMjple ot India ure true in speech* and eminent 
in justice.'"-' 

Fei-tu, the anil)assador of the Cliinc», Janperor 
Yangti to India in (](!.") A.D., amonu" other thinLfs 
])oints out as jjcculiar to the Hindus tiiat '* they believe 
in .solemn oaths. "'^ 

Idrisi, in his Gcoi>;ra])hy (written in the llili 
centur\), savs : *' Tiie Indians arc naturallv inclineii 
to justice, and never depart from it in their actions. 
Their irood faith, honesty and lidelitv to their cnira«rc- 
ments are well known, and tin y \\V(- >o f:nnous for these 
qualities that people iiock to their country from every 
side. • 

111 tlie thirteenth century, Siiams-ud-din Ahu 
Abdullah (piotes the Ibllowin;;- judgment of Uedi-ezr 
Zeman : — 

'Vol. IT. p. .S:{. 

•■'Max Mullt-r's Iii<lia: Wliat can it tonrli ns? j.. 55, 

nUiViio l'..l.., cl. H. Yy^l: V.l II. \: :5:»t. 

•Max Mullor's Iiiilia: wliat .-an it tf.uU u.>.: ji. L'75. 

^Klliul':? lIi*tuiT of Iniiia, Vol. I, l>. 6^, 




*' The Indians are innumerable, like grains of sand, 
free fron-i deceit and violence. They fear neither death 
nor life."^ 

■ .Marco Polo (thirteenth century) says : '' You must 
know tiiat these Brahmins are the best merchants f 
in the world and the most truthful, for they would 
not tell a lie for anythinii' on earth." '^ 

Kamal-ud-din Ibd-errazak Samarkand! (1 1:10-1482), 
who went as ambassador of the Khakau to the prince 
of Calicut and to the king of A^idyanagar (1440-1 11 o), 
bears testimony to "the perfect security which mer- 
chants enjoy in that country."^ 

Abul Fazal says: "The Hindus are admirers of 
truth and of unbounded fidelity in all their dealings."-* 

Sir John Malcolm says : "Their truth it; as re- 
markable as their courai^e.""^ 

Colonel Sleeman, who had better and more nunicr- 
ous opportunities of knowing the Hindu character than 
most Europeans, assures us " tha-t falsehood or lying 
between members of the same villaGfe is almost un- 
known." He adds, "I have had before me hundreds 
of cases in wliich a man's property, liberty and life has 
depended upon his telling a lie and he has refused to tell 
it." "Could many an English Judge," asks Professor 
Max MuUcr, "sjiy the ?ame?"*' 

W'hiit is the pivot on which the whole story of 
liama}ana, the book which even now exercises the greatest 

' India : What can i( tparli us? j». 275. 

•-'.Marcu l'..lo, (Mi. H. Ynlo, Vol. 11, p. 850. 

^Noticpfi (It's Alaimsnils toTii. xiv, ji. 4o0. 

4T.«rs Hajastlian, Vol 1, y. (My. 

•''Mill's Hiiicn- <.|' lu.lia. V.-I 1, p. 52.".. 

•^Ma.v MiiUcr'.s Jiulia : What can it toach u,>? p. 50, 

CFIAUAl'TKi!. 31 

iiilliioiico in the foriiiatioii III' Hindu ( liar;iclcr thr^uiiiidut 
India, tnrns ? — Td n-main true, tliowulj lite may <l«'j»art, 
and all that is near and dear in this world may j)eri>h. 
What is the lesson tani^ht hv the life of tlic irreati'st 
character nnfolded to view hv the .Mahai)harata, lihceshma 
Pitamah ? — To remain true and sti'dfast, come what mav. 

Professor Max MnlKr says r"Il was love of truth 
that strnek all the people who came in contact with 
India, as the prominent feature in the national character 
of its inhahitants. No one ever accused them of false- 
hood. There must surely be some _<j;ronnd for this, lor 
it is not a ren)ark that is frequently maile l)y travollers 
in foreii;-n countries, even in our time, that their inhahi- 
tants invarial)Iy speak the trutli, Ucad the accounts of 
En^hsli travellers in France, and you will lind very 
little said about French honesty and veracity, while 
French accounts of England are seldom without a lling 
atPerfide Alhion!"' 

P.ut it is not for truthfulness alone that the Hindus 
have been famous. Their generosity, tolerance, frank- 
ness, intelligence, courtesy, loyalty, gentleness, sobriety, 
love of knowledge, industry, valour and a strong feeling 
of honour are even now remarkal)le. )( 

"Me^asthenes-^ observed with admiration the absence 
of slavery =* in Ii:<lia, the chastity of the women, and the 
courage of the me n. In valour they excelled all other 

n\nx M'lll.r's India: AVliat cnn it toacli us? 1'. r»7. 

2Hniito)'s Oa/.rtt.M-r, "Imlia,"' p. 2M. ♦•,,.«,. .• 

3IlovF 1). Maurice say.s "tl.o Su.lras an- not in m.) s- 1. 

slaves, ami never can l.ave l.een such : the Greeks --re snrpr.M to UuA 

all cla;<os in Lulia free citi/.ens;'-7A. . /^r;-- oj A. ^ -' ' P;,f,J; 

Mr Elnhinstone sav.^ : Mt is remarkable in the Hindu drama. 

thereiVnot a trace of servility in the behnviour of other ch»raotcr> to 

the khv^r—IIistonj of Indio. \k I'lo, 

38 HINDI' srr];i;i(>i;iTV. 

Atiiiitic't^, sober and iiidiistrious, good ritrincrs and skill ul 
artizans, they scarcely ever had recourse to a law suit, 
an<l lived peaceably under their native chiefs," 

That acute observer, the historian Abul Fazal, says : 
" The Hindus are relif^ious, affable, courteous to strangers, 
cheerful, enamoured of knowledge, lovers of justice, able 
in business, grateful, admirers of truth, and of unbound- 
ed fidelity in all their dealings." 1/ Colonel Dixon dilates 
n])on "their fidelity, truthfulness, honesty, their deter- 
mined valour, their simple loyally, and an extreme and 
almost touching devotion when put upon their honour."- X 

*' The Indians," says K^eibuhr, "are really the most 
tolerant nation in the v> orld." He also says that " they are 
gentle, virtuous, laborious, and that, perhaps of all men, 
they are the ones who seek to injure their feilow-bcings 
the least." 

The high character, the noble self-sacrifice, the un- 
b(^unded love of a Hindu for those who are near and 
dear to him are well illustrated by the refusal of Yudhis- 
thira to accept salvation, while his wife and brothers 
Avere outside Heaven. The Mahabharata says : — 

'• Lo, suddenly, with a sound that ran through 
heaven and earth, Indra came riding on his chariot and 
cried to the king, ' Ascend.' Then indeed did Yudhis- 
thira Icjok back to his fallen brothers and >poke thus 
unto Indra with a sorrowful heart : ' Let my brothers, 
who yonder lie fallen, go with me. Xot even into thy 
heaven, Indra, would I enter, if they are not to be 

' TudV Jtajastlum, Vol. ], p. CJ:;. 
^'Coluiicl Dixoii was Couijuisi^iuiiur of Ajnii.'r-.Mci\Tara about IbDU A.D. 

fllAKAi 'IKK. H9 

thoiT ; nnd yon fairla i' 1 dn'iLC'itcr of a k\ws. I)iMMp:i<li, 
tlu' :ill-(K'<,:r\iiin-, let li(»r too tMitoi' with u^I." 

Sir ^loiiicr William-^ says:' " Xativcn iicvor 
Avilliiii;]y destroy lift;. They cannot etiter into an 
Enii'lishmnn's desire for vcnitinir his hii^h spirits on u 
line dav hv killin!^' i^Mim* of s:jine Iciii 1 — ' hvi' a'ld let, 
live' is rlieir ruK; oCconchict towards tlie inferior ereation." 

"The viliaii;ers," says Mr. Elpliinstone,- "are in- 
offensive, aniiabk? people, aifirrionate to tlieir family, 
kind to their neighbours and towards all Ijut (.iovcrnnient, 
h.oncst and sincere." 

In 1S1;» A.IX, when evidence was given before tlie 
I'ririsli Parliament, •'• Mr. fiercer said : *' Thev (Ilindns) 
are mild in their disposirion, ])')lished in their general 
manners: in their domestic relations, kind and all'ection- 


Captain Svdeidiam said : " The general cjiaraeter 
of the Hindus is submissive, docile, so!)er, Jn<'ITensive, 
capable of great attachment and loyally, (piick in apj>re- 
hension, inrelligent, active ; generally honest and j)erform- 
ino- the <luties of eharitv, i)enevolence and filial alFt-ction 
with as much sincerity and regularity as any nation 
Avith which I am ac(juainte I. ' 

Abbe Dubois says : '• The Hindus are not in want of 
improvement in the disclrarge of social duties amongst 
themselves. They understand this point a^ w.-ll n< 
and ]ierh((pfi better than Kurnpean.'^.^' 

Sir John :\lalc()lm said: ''From the moment }uu 
enter Behar, the Hindu iidial»itants are a r ace of men , 

1 Mtulcni India and tho Indians, p. B:!. 
2FdpliiMsl(.n<*s Hi«;t()ry <'f India, p. 1'.»n. 
:* Mill's lli-.liMv of India, V'>1. I., p. •^'-■'- 


geiicrjilly spcakii\a', not mnro distiiin-uislied l)y their lofty 
stature and robust frame, than they are for some of the 
finest (juahtie.s of tlie uiind — tliey are brave, generous, 
humane, and their truth is ns renia.dval)le as their 
courage." At a subsequent examination, lie said, with 
respect to the feeling of honour : " I have known in- 
numerable instance of its b.iing carried to a pitch that 
•would be considered in England more fit for the ])ageof a 
romance than a history. AVith regard to their fidelity, 
I think, as far as my knowdedge extends, there is, 
generally speaking, 7io race of men more to be trusted.'''' 

Sir Thomas Munro when asked if he thought the 
civilization of the Hindus -would be promoted by trade 
Avith England being thrown open, replied : " I do not 
exactlv understand what is meant ])y the 'civilization' 
of the Hindus. In the knowledge of the theorv and 
practice of good government, and in an education which, 
by banishing prejudice and superstition, opeus tlie mind 
to receive instruction of evcrv kind, thcvare inferior to 
Europeans. But if a good system of agriculture, unri- 
valled manufacturing skill, a capacity to produce wliat- 
ever can contribute to either luxury or convenience, 
schools^ established in every villaufe for teachinir 
reading, writing and arithmetic, the general ])rac- 
tice of hospitality and charity ainongst eacli other 

' "In Bengal there existed 80,000 native sciicols, though doubtless 
i""»r the must jiart of a poor (luality. According to a Government Report 
r.f ]8;>5 there was a village school for every 400 persons." — Misuonwij 
IntrlUfjeHcer, ]X, p. 18:J-r.):^. 

.Sir Tliouias Munro estimated liie diililifii cduciited al ]mMic scliouls 
in lli(! Madras Presifh'ncj as less than cuii.' in liircc" — KljiJdnstonc's 
Ilinlory itf I ndiii p. 205. 

(•i:ai:.\( ri:i{. 41 

and. al)0\o all, a tro.itmciit <•!' tlif fi-imiK; sex, full o\' 
coiitidciicc, respect aii'l d.'licacv, an; aiiiniijx t!u: si'Mis 
uhicli •leiKtte a civilized jjooplc, then (he Hiiidiis are not 
inferior to the nations of Knrope, and //' ririUzation is t>> 
her-wic an artirle of trade hciircen the tiro C(nuitrie.<^ I 
am rnu'inccd that this country [F.inihni'l) irllJ .r'nn Ay 
the import <vm/o.'' 

Professor Max MuIKt' savs : — " I)urin«x the last 
twenty years, however, I have had some excellent opj)or- 
tunities of watchinii; p. nunii)cr of native scholars under 
circumstances where it is not difficult to detect a man's 
true character, I mean in literary work, and, inore parti- 
cularly, in literary controversy. I have watched them 
carrvinuf on such controversies both amon<jf themselves 
and with certain European scholars, and I feel hound to 
say that, frith hardly one exception they hare displayed 
a far greater re'^pect for truths and a far more manly and 
yenerous spirit than ice are accistomel to even in f'Juropti 
and America. They have shown strcni'th, hut no rude- 
ness; nay, T know that nothin;^ has surprised them a.s 
much as the coarse invective to which certain Sanskrit 
scholars have condescended, rudeness of speech hein?, 
accordinir to their view of human nature, a sjifo s:«rn not 
onlvof badhrccdin'j^hutof want of knowlc lL:;e. When thev 
were wron;i' they have readily admittcl their mistake; 
when they were ri^ht they have never sneered at their 
European adversaries. There has been, with few excep- 
tions, no quibblini!;, no special pleadinif, no untruthful- 
ness on their part, and certainly none of that l(»w cun- 
ning of the scholar who writes down and publishes what 

'imlia : Wlnf oaii it t'H'It n- ' \< C". 

42 nixDr sttrt^iotmty. 

he knows pcrfectl}' well to he false, and snaps his 
fingers at those who still value truth and self-respect more 
highly than victorj- or applause at any price. Here, too, 
we might possibly (jain by the import cargo. 

" Let me add that I have Ix^en repeatedly told by 
Eniilish merchants that commercial honour stands higher 
in India than in any othar country, and that a dis- 
honoured bill is hardly known there." / 

f The first Governor- General of India, AVarren Hast- 
ings, said: "The Hindus are gentle, benevolent, more 
.susceptil)le of gratitude for kindness shown to them, than 
})rompted to vengeance for wrongs iniiicted,and as exem])t 
from the worst propensities of human passion as any 
people upon the face of the earth. The}" arc faithful, 
affectionate,*' etc. (Minutes of evidence before the Com- 
mittee of both Houses of Parliament, March and 
April ISir,). < 

liishop Heber said : "To .say that the Hindus are 
deficient in any essential feature of a civilized people is 
an assertion which I can scarcel}^ suppose to be made by 
any M'ho have lived with them.''i Again, "they are 
decidedly by nature a mild, ])leasing, intelligent race, 
sul)er and parsimonious, and, where an object is held out 
to them, most indn-trious and ])erscvering-. . . Thev 
are men of high and gallant courage, courteous, int(rlli- 
gent,ajid most eager for kiiowle<lge and impr(n-cment,Avith 
a remarkable aptitude for the abstract sciences, gcometr}', 
astronomy, etc., and for iniitativc arts, painting and scnlp- 
ture ; dutiful Towai-ds their ])arents, affectionate to children, 
^ more casilv alfectcd by kindness and attention to their 
wants an<l feelings than almost any men I Iiave met Avich."'' 
'.lonriial, II, p. y»2. -Ibid, p. 32'J. •''ibid, \u o(iih 


Auain, " I have Fomn] in Iii'Iia a race of •rciitK* and 
tciHjx'rati' liahits, v/itli a natural talent and acutcnc.>>s 
bevoi\d the ordinarv level of mankind." y 

Of the lahourersand workmen in the C'lileiittn mint in 
/^ India, Professor Wilson says: "There was consider ''>''• 
skill and ready doeility. So Hir From t here heini^ any >■ ■ > i- 
lity there was extreme fran kness, and I sh ou ld i^xv^ that 
wiierc^ tiiere is confide nce wi thout fcar^frankncss is one of 
the most universal features in the Indiiin character. In 
men of learning I found similar merits of industry, intelli- 
£!;ence, cheerfulness, frankness. A very connnon character- 
istic of Hindus especially was simplicity, truly childisji, 
and a^otal unacipiaintance. with l)u>iness and maiint-rs of 
life ; where this feature was lost' it was chietlv hv those 
■who had been lonii" familiar with Europeans. . . Tlu're ciui 
be no doubt that the native; mind outstrij»s in early years, 
the intellect of the Europeans and. ircjnerally spe.nkinir, 
boys are much more rpiick in aj)prehension and earnest 
in application than those of our own schools. Men of 
])roperty and respectability afl'orded me many oj)por- 
tunities of witnessing jiolished manners, clearness and 
com])rchensiveness of understiindinir, liberality of feelinir, 
and independence of principle that would have stamped 
them (jentlemen in any country in the world."- < 

Hin(bi chihh'cn are more <{uick and intelligent than 
European. "The capacity of lads of 1 1^ and l.'i arc 
often surprising." 

'•'ITio longer wo possess a province, the uiorc eoniiiion and Rravc I 
does perjury become." — Sir (>. Canipbell, quoted hy S. Joliiihon, Orica- j 

tal Religions, India, p. 2H.S. 

-Mill's liistory of India, Vol. I, pp. b6\)-'o2. 


tSir Thomas I\Innro, Mercer and others, quoted above, 
says Professor AVilsoii, were " men, equally eminent 
in wisdom as in station, remarkable for the extent of 
their opportunities of observation and the ability and 
dilii:;ence with which they used them, distinguished for 
possessing, by their knowledge of the language and the 
literat'ire of the country, and by their habits of intimacy 
with the natives, the best, the only means of judging of 
the native character, and unequalled for the soundness 
of their judgment and comprehensiveness of their views," ^ 
Professor Monier Williams'-^ says: "I have found no 
peo})le in Europe more religious, none more patiently 
I^ersevering in connnon duties." 

Mr. Elphinstone says:'' "If we compare them 
(Hindus) with our own (English people), the absence 
of drunkenness and of immodesty in their other vices, 
will leave the superiority in purity of manners on the 
side least flattering to our self-esteem." He adds, " No 
set of people among the Hindus are so depraved as the 
dregs of our own great towns.""^ 

1 Mill's History of India, Vol I, p. 523. 

-M<Mlern India and the Indians, pp. 88 and 128. 

^History of India, p. 202. 

•^Elphinstone's History of India, pp. 375-81. The pcrcontacrc of 
criminals in India is lower tlian in England. " Ty a series of reports 
laid before the Ilonse of Connnons in 1832 (Minntes of Evidence 'So. i, 
ysi'^i^lOo) it appears that in an average of four years the nmubcr of cai>i(al 
sentence's carried into elTcct annually in England and Wales is as 1 fur 
203.281 souls, and in the jtrovinces under the Bengal Presidency 1 for 
1,<I()1,1H2 ; traiisi.(»rtati(>n for life, in England 1 for 07,173 and in 
l'..'h'_':d, 1 for 402,010. The annual )»uml»er of sentences to death in 
KM-l.ind was 1,232, in V.cngal 51). The popnlalion of England is 
13,000,000; the population of Hmgal, llO.OOO.dOU. 

"Tlio clcanliiioss cF the Iliiwhis," he s;ivs a^^n'iu 
''is piovitrhinl,' T)i( \ ... :i cKanly peojilo, jiiul m:iv 
be coinpnivd witli d«'ciilo<l ii<]v:intnLCt' witli tlic iiutioiisof 
the south oF Europe, l)oth :is yei^^anls th(;ir h:\l)itations ar.d 
their persons. Thi're are ni.iiiy of their praftitxvs which 
might he intnxhiced even int(» the North with henefit." 

^Ir. Klj»hiiistone .siy.> :— "The natives arc (jfleii 

accused of wanting- in irnititude. Hut it does not appear 

that those wlio make tlie cliaru'e liave dune much to 

inspire sueii a .sentiment : wiieu juasters are nallv kind 

and considerate tliey find as warm a rL-unn from Indian 

servants as any in the world ; and there are few who 

liave tri(!d them in .--ickncss or in <litfieultic.s and danirers 

Avlio do not l)ear witness to their svmpathv and attjich- 

ment. Their devotion to their own chief is provcr!>ial 

and can arise from no other than pjratitiide, uidcss 

Avhere caste sn])pHes the i)lacc of clannish feelinufs. x The 

fidelity of our sepoys to tiieir foreiun masters has hwn 

shown in in.stances which it woidd be dilUcidt fo nuitch 

even amonij the national troops in am/ other conntrt/."^ 

lie again says : "It is conunon to see persons who liave 

been patronised by men in power not only continuing 

their attachment to them when in disgrace, but even to 

V The Hiiulii convict is a lu-ttcr man tlian tlic I']iir<'|M'aii. Tin* gr«^t 
T)anviii was struck wiili the Hindu convicts at Port Louis and he 
wondered that they were such noble-leokini; fij»ures. lie snys : " Tht'se 
men arc generally quiet and wdl-conducted : from their outward conduct, 
their cleanliness, and faithful observance of their .strange reliijious rites it 
is impossible to look at them with the .same eyes as on our wrptelie<l con- 
victs in New South Wales." — ^1 NiituialiisCe Voyage Hound the World, 
p. 181. 

'Eliihinstones lJi>t(iry ol India, y -'-'- 

46 nixDr .smcuioiUTv. 

their families whvu they have li'l't tliem in a helpless 

To tlie diet- and the so1)riety of living is due the 
greater liealthiness of the Hindus. There are o insanes 
in every 1U,OUO persons in parts of India ])eopled by 

• lllClltioiU'd of iili / 

o was (li^iiiisscd and 

l"'A iK'ii'crtly authentic instance niiglit be mentioned 
En,a;lisii gentleman in a liiijli station in BeiiL^iil wli 
afterwards reduced to great temporary dillieulties in his own country: a 
native of rank, to wliom lie had been kind, supplied him, when in those 
cireumstanoes. with u|)war(ls of Rs. 100,000, of wliieh he would not 
accept rej)ayment and for which Ik; could exjiect no ])ossilile return. 
This generous friend was a IMnhralta Brahman, a race of all otliers who 
have least sympathy with otlier castes, and who are most hardened and 
corrujtted hy power." — Elphinslon('s Ilistari/ of Jmltd, p. 201. 

-^Ir. .). II. Bourdillon, in his report on the Census of f881. 
observes tluit the superior healthiness of middle-age among tlie Hindus 
is more strikingly shown, for out of each KM) living persons the number 
of tliosc aged 40 years and over i.v among the — 

Hindus 21-07 

Christians... ... ... ... 14;^>I 

!Muhammadans ... ... ... HI- 81 

Ahorginals ... ... ... IT)- HO 

As regaids the diet of the Hindus, ]\Ir. Buckle tells us : 
" In Imlia the great heat of the climate brings into play thai law 
(of nature) already pointed out, by virtue of which the ordinary 
food is of an oxygenous rather than of a carbonaceous character. This, 
according to another law, obliges the jici-'ple to derive their usual diet 
not from the animal liut fnnn the vegetaide world of which starch is 
the important constituent. At the same time, iln' higii temper- 
ature, incapacitating men for arduous labour, makes necessary a food of 
whicii the returns will be abundant, and which will contain much nutri- 
ijient in a compaiatively small space. Here, tiien, we liave s(Unc charac- 
teristics wliicli, if tiie preceding views are correct, ought to be found in 
the ordinary food of the Indian nations. So they all are. From the 
earliest period the general ftiod in India has been rice, whicli is the 
Hiokt nutritive of all ccrcalia, which contains uu enuriuous proportion 

riiAi;A('ri:i:. 47 

tlic Hiiidiis. as rompMnMl to .")() iiisaiio in cxi r\ 10,000 
in Mli^laiid aiul Wales.' 

Mr. Wanl says : — 

'• In their tOi'ins of aildross and l)clijivi<Mir in com- 
pany the Hindus iniist hi! runkid aiuoiij^^st tlur politest 

Sj)eakinu" of the inl):d)itants of the (IanLr«'tif Iliii- 
(histaii, Mr. l']l|)hinstorK3 savs : " It is there \\v are 
likely to ii'ain a clear coneojuion of their hiirh spirit an<I 
o-caerous scll'-devotmn so sinuidarlv eoinhined \vitii ;,'eM- 
tlencss of nnnners and softness of heart tou;etiier with 
an aluDst infantine simplicity." 

y Even h.oiuist writers, who ji ive had no opporluni- 
tie.«5 of studvinu" the Hindu eliaraeter, .sometimes hastily 
ironvTalize from strav instances of nntrutlifuiiMss and 
dishonesty they happen to come in life, in 
respect of such, Professor .Max .Muller says: "\V«' may, to 
follow an Indian ])roverl), juduc <>f a wiiole tield of rice l»y 
tasiinii' oui' or tw > grains only, hut if we .ij»ply this rule 
to human l)ein<:;s we are sure to fall into the same mis- 
take as the P^n.i;lish chaplain who liad once on i)oard 
an English vessel christened a I'rench child, and who 

of starrli. iiiul wliicli \ idds to tin' labonrrT an avi'rairo n-tiirii of at l«'A''t 

sixty ti)l<l.'"— ///•-^"•.»/ ';/ Ciriliziiliini lu Euffhtwl, Vohnm 1, pup (14. 

N<'il'iilir savs: " !*< rliapH tlic Iiuliau lawifivrrs tliMii^lit it na>* 

Un- til.- sak.' <-f hcallli al.s..liit<-!y luvi'ssary to pmliil-it l!M•ontill^' of inrat, 

bocausc tlic inultitud.' mon- easily tli.> prrjudic of n-liijion than 

tlio a.lvirc of a physician . It is also vory likdy that th.- law of th.- Ori.-ntal 

insists so stroni^ly on tlic pnrifi.ation of th.- for hyi^ionir ron.<.ons." 

» See the compaiativ.' tabular statonicnt <m img«' '201 «'f ihe 

report on ihr Censtis of lU'ii,L,'al, Vul. I (IHsl). 


rcinainod iully convinced for the rest of his life tlmt all 
French liabies liad \ery long noses." X 

The })h3'sical structure of the Hindu isjstill as ad- 
mirable as that of any other people on the globe. 

]\Ir. Ornie says : " There is not a handsomer race in 
the universe than the l>anians of Gujrat."^ We read 
in Chamber's Encyclopa'dia that "the body of the 
Hindu is admirably proportioned."- 

A strong opponent of the Hindus admires their 
})hysical agility. Mv. ^lill says : " The body of the Hindu 
is agile to an extraordinary degree. Not onl}" in those 
surprising contortions and feats which constitute the art 
of the tumV)lcr do thev excel almost all the nations in 
the world, but even in running and marching they equal, 
if not surpass, people of the most robust constitutions."-' 

The Hindus were renowned for wisdom in ancient 

" Wisdom, ray father, is tlio noblest gift 
The gods bestow on man, and better far 
Tlian all his treasures," 

Soi'iioci-KS : Aniijjonr. 

" We are told by Grecian writers that the Indians 
were the wisest of nations." * 

]\lr. Coleman' says: " The sages and ])oets of India 
have inculcated moral precepts and disj)layed poetic 
beauties which no country in the world of either ancient 
or modern diite need be ashamed to acknowledii'e." 

'On the clYoininai-y of llie Inhabitants of Hindustan, pp. 4t;i-t!;j. 

^Chamber's Encyclopa'dia, [). 539. 

•^MiU's India, Vol. I, p. 478. 

■'.Si'c Introduction. 

■'•Mytii'-lx'^'y of the llimliis. p. 7. 

rilAUA(TKI{. 49 

Tlic didactic poctrv ol' the lliiidii> funiislK'.'* sullicioiit 
proof of their tnmsccMidciit wisdom. Mr. lilj.liiiistoiK!' 
siivs that 'Mlic r^rcoks had a «i;n'at iiiijircssioii of their 
(Iliiuhis) wisdom." 

^Ii'. I')iirnoii{" says that the '' rtifhaiis an- a iiatinn ridi 
in spiritual i;il"ts, and eudowt'cl with prcidiar sa«;acit v and 

It is the wisdom of llic Iliiuhis that inventecl tho 
best and the greatest oF indoor ;:;anK's, tlie i^amo of Chess, 
wiiich is now universally acknowledi^^ed to be of Hindu 
origin, the Sanskrit chaturaih/a bccoinin<^^ shatnraiigd in 

Sir \V. dones says:'- "The Hindus are said to have 
l)oastod ol" three inventions, all of whieh indrcrl arc? 
admiral)le ; the method of instructini:; hv apolo^nies; the 
decimal scale and the ^ame of Chess, on which they have 
some curious treatises." 

Profe:»sor Heeren' says: "Chess-board is mentione<l 
in Ramavana, where an account of A^odllia is Lriven." 

Chess is thus proved to have been in u>e in India lourr 
before !Moses and Hermes made their apj)earance in the 
-world. Mr. J. Mill, however, with his characteristic prc- 
judico ai^ainst the Hindus, observes that "there ii^ no 
evidence that Hindus invented the ;rame, except their own 
pretentions." On this, Professor Wilson says : "This is not 
true; we have not the evidence of their j>retentions. T!ic 
evidence is that of Mohamcdan writers ; the kin*^ of 

'History of Tinlia, [>. L*4?. 

''As quoted liy Mill in liis Tliston- of British India, Vol. H, p. 43. 

^Historical Rcsearclieis, Vol. II. p. 101. 


India is saiil, bv FirJausi in the Shalniaina — ami the story 
is therefore of the tenth century at latest — to hare sent a 
(^/u'ds-boanl and a teacher to Naiisherawan. Sir W . Jones 
refers to Firdausi as his authority, and this reference nnL^iit 
have shown by whom the story was told. Various ?tIohani- 
edau writers are quoted by Hyde, in his Historia 
Shahiludii, who all concur in attributing the invention to 
the Indians^-" 

'•The wisdom of Solomon" is proverl)ial, l)Ut 
the story most frequently (juoted to show his wisdom, 
itself stamps that wisdom as inferior to that of the 
Hindus. Says Professor Max MuUer : " Xow you 
remember the judgment of Solomon, which has always 
been admired as a iiroof of <»Teat leu^al Avisdom amonir 
the Jews ! I must confess that, not havino- a leii'al mind, 

1 never could suppress a certain shudder when reading 
tlic decision of Solomon: 'Divide the livinu: cliild in 
two, and irive half to the one, and half to the other.' "- 

" Let me now tell you the same story as it is told by 
the Buddhists, whose sacred Canon is full of such 
legends and parables. In the Kanjur, which is the; 
Tilietan translation of the Duddhist Tripitakn, we read 
of two women who claimed each to be the mother of the 
.same child. The King, after listening to their quarrels 
for a long time, gave it uj) as liopt'lcss to settle who was 
the real mother. Upon this, Visakha stepped forwai-d 
and sfii<i: 'What is the use of examining and cross- 
examining these women. Let them take tlu' l)o\- and settle 
it among themselves.' Tliereu]>on, both women fill dii the 

'Mill's Iiilia, Vnl. II.. ji. 1 1, foutnoti\ 2]vings iij_ 25. 

< HAKAC TF.U. 51 

cliilcl, iin<] wlini ilu- W'j^hi Ix'iinio vioUnl, (lie diiUl \va« 
hurt and hrgaii to cry. Tlicn (Hic u\' ilifiu let liiiu *^iiy 
because she could not hear to luar flic child crv. That 
settled the (lucstion. Tin; KiiiiJ iiiiw. the child to tlx" tnif 
mother, and ha<l the other heaten with a rod. 

" This seems to m<', if not the mon; prinniive, yci the 
more natural form <»! the storv, showini'" a deciMT know- 
ledi:;e ol" hnma!i nature and more wisdom then even the 
wisdom ol" Solomon."' 

Mr. J'ilphinstone s[)eaks of the Hindu character in 
mislortune in ^lowiuL!; terms. *■* When late," he says, 
'' is inevitaole, the h^wcst llinihi encounters it with a 
coohiess that would excite admiration in Europe,"* 

X The national character ol" a people necessarily sull'crs 
from unsympathetic domination of a less civilized j»eople. 
Successful falsehoQMl, says IJentham, is the best defence of 
a shive ; and it is no wonder that tin- c]iaract<-r of the 
Hindus deteriorated under the Moslctn ride. The wc.n- 
der is their character is still so hiuh. l^rofessor Max Mul- 
ler says : — " I can onl v say that after reading: the accounts 
of the terrors ami horrors of Mohame<lan rule, my 
wonder is that so much of native virtue and truthful- 
ness should have survived."-' He also sjiys : 

"When you read of the atrocities committed by 

'Imlia : What i-aii it toadi us ? p. 11. 

-'Kliiliiiist<iiii''s Ilisloiv of Iii.lia,'.-s r.lS-r.»;(. Ol tlio great 
graiKlfadiiT of the prosciit Maliaiaja of .lodliimr, Colonel To«l aavs* : 
"Thcbio-'rapliv of ManSincli woiildafford n r»'iiiark»|.li'|.ictun> of limiiaii 
pationce, fortitudo and con-tau-y never snrpa<-d In ni.v aL'.- or 
country." — liajni'thiiv. Vol. 11. p. 711. 

^Max Mull. r*> TndiH : What can it teach us ? i'. 72. 


the ^loliainedan conquerors oE India after that time 
(1000 A.D.) to the time when England stepped in and, 
"whatever maj" be said by her envious critics, made, at all 
events, the broad principles of our common humanity 
respected once more in India, the wonder, to my mind, 
is how any nation could have survived such an Inferno^ 
without beins: turned into devils themselves."^ 

'Max Mailer's India : What can it teaeli us ? p. 54. 
It must not be supposed fioui tlie condemnatory language used in 
more than oae place in this book with regard to the treatment of the 
Hindus and their literature by some of the Mussalman invaders and 
rulers of India, tliat the history of those reigns is one continuous re- 
cord of cruelty and oppression, unredeemed by any hnuianitarian consi- 
derations or sympathetic treatment. As Sir Arther Helps observes, no 
dark cloud is without its silver lining. There are instances on record 
which show a chivalrous and generous regard displayed by some of the 
Mohamedan Kings for the Hindus. It is related that when, during 
the reign of Rana Bikramajit, son of Rana Sanga of Chitor, who was 
at the time in Haravati, Mewar was invaded by Bahadur, King of 
Gujrat, and Chitor was invested by the combined armies of Gujrat and 
Malwa, Maharani Karnavati, the mother of the infant son of Rana 
Sanga, who was in the fortress, appealed for help to Hnmayun, whom she 
had adopted as her liakhiband hhai (bracelet-bound brother). Ilumayun, 
like a true cavalier that he was, accepted the obligation laid on him by 
the laws of chivalry and honour, to come to her aid, and abandoning 
his conquests in Bengal, hastened to answer the call of her adoptive 
sisttr, the dowager Maharani of Chitor. " He anijily fuHilled the 
pledge, expelled ihe foe from Chitc-r, took ^landoo by assault and, as 
some revenge for her king's aiding the King of Gujrat, he sent for the 
Rana Bikram.ljit, whom, following tliclr own notions of investiture, he 
girt with a sword in the captured citadel of his foe." 

Nor should it be forgotten that it was a Mussalman who preserved 
the Kingdom of Marwar at the most critical jieriod of its history. Not 
satisfied with tiic blood of Jaswant and of his eldest .son, Pirthi Sindi, 
the unrelenting tyrant (Aurangzcb) carrying his vengeance towards the 


When, liowcvor, ccMturics of forcii^ii ( Moiilml ) i 
(lomiiiMtioM liMVt'k'ft tlu' in'oplc as virtuous, trutlifnl aii<l 
reliiUMl ;is any Ircc {k'<)j)1c to Ix' foimd anvwlicrc in tlur 
Avorld, what. I'urthcr evidence is ncccssarN' U) jir<»v(' the 
high national character of the ancient IIin<his, \vhoM! livrs 
M'cre regulated hy et'liical princijilcs of the highest order! 

Milliaraja of Marwar ovoii beyond tlic gravo, ci>iiiiiiaii<K'(l that his infant 
son, Ajit, shonld be surrendond to h\< custody. •• Anrani; o(T<^re<l to «li- 
vido Maron (^lanvar) amongst hor noblfs if th«'y would -^urrrndiT their 
j)iince, but they replied 'our eonntry is willi our sinews, anil these ean 
delend botli it and our lord.' Willi eyes red with rage they 'n-ft tin- Am-f- 
/.7^(^^•. TlitMr abode was surroundi'd by tin- host of th<! Shah." A frarful 
battle ensued. The first care of the Raiputs was to save tin- infant j»rinc«\ 
and to avoid suspicion, the heir i>f Marwar, concealed in a ba^k^•t of KW«>et- 
nieats, was entrusted to a Moslem, who rigorously ex«i'ufe<l his trust and 
conveyed him to the appointed spot, where he was joine«l by the gallant 

Durga Das and his Uaj[>tits, who had cut their way through all oi»posi- 




Lt't laurels, droncliM in pure Parnassian dews, 
Regard the memory, dear to every muse, 
WIio witii a courage of unshaken root, 
In iiouour's field advanciniif his firm foot, 
Plants it upon the line tlint justice draws, 
And will prevail or ]'erish in ilic cause. 

— Cou'pcr. 

The innate cliivalry of Hindu character is well- 
known to those who have studied their history, or 
lived with them and studied their manners and cus- 
toms. Their treatment of the female sex, their un- 
willingness to injure or take away life unnecessarily, 
their magnanimous treatment of their fallen foes, their 
unwillingness to take advantage of their own superiority 
to their adversaries, prove the chivalrous character of the 
Hindu race. The undaunted heroism and the unequalled 
valour of the ancient Hindus, their magnificent self-confi- 
dence, their righteousness of conduct, and, above all, the 
sublime tcachinG;s of their Shastras, containino- the loftiest 
spiritual ideals j-et conceived by humanity, made them 
the most chivalrous and humane ])eople on tiie face of 
the earth. So much is the warrior caste of the Hindus 
even now identified with cliivalry that liajputi and 
Chivalry have become convertible terms.' Kajputana is 
eminently the land of chivalry, and the Rajputs, the 
descendents of the ancient Kshatriyas, have preserved 
some of the latter's virtues, prominent among whicii is 
chivalry, liaina, Arjuiui, Kama, Krishna, Uhima, Rali, 

Jrtec Tod's Kajasthan, Vol. II, p. 001. 

cmNAi.iiV. 55 

B:il(lo()(II('r(Milr>)S:\^'MrM,:iii<li>tlicrs wore i<l(':il cliiirartrrs: 
but cominn" down to inodcrn tiiius we liml tliiit Kaii:! ' 
Pratiij) of Mt.'War, niir^u Das of Marwar and I'rillivi |{aj 
of Ajiiu'i* were characters for wliosc ('(pials in cliivalry 
find patriotiMii wo may search in vain the annals of 
other natii)ns, lOnrop^'an oi- Asiatic. 

Tin; annals of no nation record instances to out- 
shine the romantic chivalry displayed i»y Sadoo, heir of 
the lord of Pu.nal, till lati-ly a lief of .laisalmcr, or tln^ 
chivalrous conduct of his l»ri<le, Kurraindcvi, daULditer 
of the. Mohil chief Manik Uao, who "was at on.-, i 
virii'in, a \\'ife ami a \sido\v.''' 

(Jolonel Tod sa^'s : " Xor is there anythini; liner in 
the annals of the chivalry of the West than the diLjnitied 
and the heroic conduct of the Ivaja of Duttea," who met 
with a glorious death in defence of the laws of .-anctuary 
and honour, when on the (leath of Madhaji Scindliia, tiie 
females of his (Scindhia's) family, in apprehension of 
Ills successor, Daulat Uao, sought refui^e and protectiiiii 
with the liaja.- 

The author of the Annals and Anti<|uities of Uajas- 
than pays the hiujhcst tribute to the vajoiu' atid chivalry 
of the Raj[Mits when he says: " Cu-ur de lion (Kinir of 
Knu;laiid) wouhl not liave remained ho loni; in the dun- 
geons of Austria had his subjects bci;n liajputs." ' 

Professor II. II. WiUonsays: ** Tin.* Hindu laws of 
war are very chivalrous and humane, an<i prohibit the 
slaviiiu' of the unarmed, of women, of the old and of the 

1S(V Tod's Haja-tlian. V-.l. il, p. {\-2',\ 
-'Tod's Riiia>lli:.u. Vol. I. y. 117. 
STod's Hiij.isthaii. Vul. I. 1>. 101, 



The inii:itc chivalry of the Hindu clinractcr has 
f;"ivon risu to a ]n'cnh:ir custom observed aitioiio- all 
classes of people, irrospcetive of caste, nationality oi- aue. 
Tt is the RdkJii (Uakshabandan), by which Hindu 
ladies command loval, disinterested, aiid whole-souled 
service of men, whom tlic}' deign to adopt as their 
brothers, though in most instances they never behold 
Ihem. " There is a delicacy in this custom," says Colonel 
Tod, ''with which the i)ond unitino- the cavaliers of 
Europe to the service of the fair in the days of chivalry 
Avill not com])arc."^ 

The following incident will show the character 
of the Ivajputs and the nature of their warfare. 
During the reign of Kan:i Rai .Mai of Chitor, his 
younger brother, Suraj Mai, whom the proplietess of 
Charuni Devi at Xahra Mugra had promised a crown, 
made several attempts to gain one. With the help of 
Muzaffar, the Sultan of ]\Ialwa, he took Sadri and 
Baturo and attempted even Chitor. Rai ^lal met the 
attack on the River Gumbeeree. The second son of the 
Rana, Pirthi Raj, " the Rolando of his age," as Colonel 
Tod calls him, selected his uncle, Suraj Mai, whom he 
soon covered with wounds, ^[any had fallen on b(>rh 
sides but neither i)arty would 3-ield : when worn out they 
retired from the held, bivouacked in sight of each other. 

1 Tod's Riijasthiiu, Vol. I, p. 581. " It is one (jf the few (customs) 
when an intprcoursc of jcf.illantrv "i the most dclicato nature is eslalilish- 
ed hetweiMi the fair sex and the eavalii'rs of Ilajasthan. . . . The liai|iut 
dame bestows wi I h \\\>- Kakhi (bracelet) the title of adojiled lirothcr; 
and while its acceptance secures to hi-r all the iiroteclion of a 'cavalif-re 
Kervenle', scandal itself never sug'^osts any other tie to his dt'vution." — 

y. ;;ii'. 

( IlIVAMJV. ;)7 

Colonel Tod coiitimics : — "Mr will .show tlic iiiHinuTrt 
and fecliiiii-s so peculiar to iIh- liajjxxjf, to (IcscHIm' 
tiU' nu'i'tiiiL; Itctwceu the rival uncle and nephew — 
uni(|U(! in the details of slrifi; pcrhajis since tho 
origin of inui.' Ft is taken from a maiuiscript «)r 
the rlhala Chief who succeeded Suraj Mai in Sa«lri. 
Pirthi Uaj visited his uncle, whom he found in a small 
tent reclinini;- on a pallet, haviiii,' just liad 'the harln-r' 
(//<?(?) to sew up his wonn<ls, lie rose; and met his 
nei)hew with the customary respect, as if nothini,^ 
unusual had occurred : l»ut the (^xertion caused some of 
the wounds i(j open afresh, when the followiiiLT dialoi^ne 
ensued : — 

'• PiiiTiii PiA.r. — * Well, uncle, how arc your 
wounds ? ' 

" Suraj ^Ial. — ' Quite healed, my child, since I 
have the ])lt^isure of seeinix von.' 

"Pii:tiii Ka.i. — ' Put, uncle (kaka), I have not yet 
seen the Dewanji.^ I first ran to see you, and I am very 
hungr}- ; have you anythini:: t<j eat ?' 

"Dinner was soon served, and the extnionlinary pair 
sat down, and 'ate off the same platter ;' nor did 
Pirthi liaj hesitate to cat the 'y;///i ' presente<l on his 
takini^ leave. 

"Piiiriir liA.r. — * Vou and I will end <»ur hattle in 
the morniiiL;', uncle.' 

"SuKA.i Mai.. — ' \'ery well, chiM : cotne early ! ' 

"Thev met, and the rebels were defeated and lied to 
Sadri. Pirthi Paj, however, gave them no rest, pursuing 

'Tod's Raja.>thaii, V.^l. I, p. 2*JG-'J7. ^Tho lUiia is callcl Diwanji. 


them from place to plnce. In tlie wilds oC Baturro 
they forineil a stockaded retreat of the dho tree, which 
abounds hi the forest ; and Siijali and his companion, 
Sarungdco, were communing on their desperate ])lip:ht 
Avhen their cogitations were checked by the rush and 
neigh of horses. Scarcely had the pretender exclaimed, 
'this must I)e my nephew!' when Pirthi Raj dashed 
his steed throuo-h the barricade and, reachinu' his uncle, 
<lealt him a 1)I()W which would have levelled him but 
for the support of Sarungdeo, who upbraided him, 
addinir, ' a buffet now was more than a score of w^ounds 
in former davs : ' to which Surai }.[al added, 'onlv 
when dealt by my nephew's hand.' Suraj Mai 
demanded a parley ; and calling on the jirince to stop 
the combat, he continued : ' Tf I am killed, it matters 
noi — my children are Rajputs, they will run the country 
to find support ; but if you '.wo slain what W'ill become 
of Chitor ? My fa('e will be blackened and my name 
everlastingly reprobated,' 

"The swonl was sheathed, and as the uncle and 
nephew embraced, the lattt^r asked the former, ' wliat 
Avere you about uncle, when d came ? 'Oidv talking 
nonsense, child, after dinner.' M)Ut with me over yoin* 
head, uncle, as a foe, how could you be so negligent?' 
' What could I do ? You had left m.e no resource, and 
1 nui.vL iiave some place to rest my h('a<L'' 

An episode from the annals (jf Jaisalmer will 
illustrate the chivalrous nature of the Rajput and his 
desire to die lighting, as becomes a Rajput. 

'Tod's IJajasthau, Vol. I. ].. J'JS. 

Ciii\ Ai.i:r. 


After a luiiii course; of victorious warfan', iu which 
he sulHhK'(( various tract.s of couutrv, even to the hi-art 
ol" the I'lnijal), (H.soasc s(M7am| oh ll.iwn] Chachick. In 
tliis stale he (h'teriuiiied to die as lie hail lived, with 
aruis in his hand; hut iiavini^ no foe near with whom 
to (:!>|H! he sent an eujliassy to the Lanira |>riuee of 
Multaii. lo hei^ as a last favour the jood-ii'in, or "icift of 
battle," that his soul uii^ht escape hv tlu; steel of his 
loeujaii, and not fall a sacrilice to slow disease. TIjo 
prince, suspectiuLr treachery, hesitated ; hut the niiatli 
luessuuger pled^■ed his wctrd that his master only wishctl 
an honoiu-ahle death, and that he woidd hrini^oiily five 
hundred nien to the conihat. The challi'Ui^e Im-Iui^ 
accepted, the liawul called his clansmen arouiul him, and 
on recoiuitinu^ w hat he had done, seven hundreil select 
li a )[)()•. )t>:, wdio had shared in all his victories, volunteer- 
ed to take the last liehl and make {snnLdlj)) oblation of 
their lives witii their leader.' 

Ou reachini:; l)ht>(»niApur, he heard that tin; prince 
of Multan was within twocoss. His soul was rejoiced, 
lie perloruuMl his ablutions, ■\V()r>hi|)j)ed the l'ixIs, 
bestowed charity, and withdrew his thoui^hts from the 

world. -^^^^-^ 

The battle lasted two lujurs, and the Vadii prince 
fell with all his kith and kin, after performing prodi«]jios 
of valour. Two thousand Kb.ans'- fell beneath their 
swords and the Hhatti irained the abode of Indra. 

»Tod's Kaja^lhaii, Vol. II, pp. L'.'»S-'». 

-TIr'SC woiv Ilimltis [Solaiiki Kaji-uls] as wa-s tjuir jirimo. Th** 
IJawal Cliacliiok lia<l nianicd 8<'tialil<-vi. tlio L:iaii.!-<lau,irlit.T "tf Hvl.nt 
Kliati. the Cliii'f I'f tlic Seta tril'f. or the S\val..i>. 6'.c IWs lUiju-Mhaii, 

Vol, ibi..2ya. 


Tlie chivalry oE the Chief oE ISimnj (a fief of 
Marwar in Uajputana), in the reign o£ Raja Maun Sinuli, 
excites tlie admiration of Colonel Tod, to Avhicli he 
skives expression in tlie following memorable words: 
" The brave Chief of Ximaj has sold his life but dearlv. 
In vain do we look in tlie annals of Europe for such 
devotion and generous despair as marked his end and 
that of his brave clan.''^^ 

Of Rana Raj Singh, the great opponent of 
AuranQ-zeb, Colonel Tod savs : — " As a skilful o-eneral 
and gallant soldier, in the defence of his conntrj, 
he is above all praise. As a chivalrous Rajput, 
his braving all consequences when called upon to save 
the honour of a noble female of his race, he is without 
parallel."^ " Tlie son of Rana Pertap, Umra, the foe of 
Jehangir," says Colonel Tod, "was a character of whom 
the proudest nation might be vain."'' 

Even of the Indians of the present day, 
^Ir. Elphinstone says:* "They often display bravery 
unsurpassed by the most warlike nations, and will 
always throw aw^ay their lives for an}' consideration of 
religion or honour." 

^To'd's Rajastlian, Vol. I, p. 107, Morci-iiarv liaiuls, 1o the 
iiiiijihcr of 8,000, witli i^an^, attacked Surtau Siin,'li in liis liaveli 
[dwelling] at Jodhpur, imdor the orders of Raja Maun Siii,!i:li. "With 180' 
of his clan he defended himsc^lf ayainst great guns and small arms 
as long as the house was tcnahle, and then sallied forth, sword in luind, 
and with his brother and 80 of his kin fi'll iinlily in the midst of his 

-Ann.ils and Anticpiities of Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 389. 

•"» Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. I. p. 1:53. 

■^Elphinitonc's Iliotory of India, p. I'J'J. 

CIllNAI.UV. Ill 

The cliivalroii^ clmractcr nf tlu' Ilimln li:»> liainli- 
t';i|){)i'(l him in liis liulit. :i'j;;iiii>t liis uiiscriipiiloiis tors. 
To the advaiita^t; derived hy the opjioiients of lh«' 
TliiKlus IVoiii the latter's imitud jealousies and (hsunion 
was added also thatt)f their (lliiiilii) iiii\viirmi:iiess to do 
.'inythiii!^ a*^ainst the dictates oi" huiuanitv or the demands 
ot" ehivah'v. I nliki; other nations thev do not iu-lieve in 
the maxim, "every thinu^ is fair in love and war," "To 
spare a j)rostrate foe," says Colonel Tod, '* is the en^ed of 
the Hindu cavalier, and he curried all such maxim> 
excess. ' 

If the chivalrous nature of tlu; latter-ilay llind.i 
had oidy been tempered with ])oliti-al discretion, India 
Avould not have suffered tlu; misrule that characterized 
some of the subseipient rei^iis. Sultan Shah-l)u«I-din 
Ohori, when captured 1>\- Pirrhi IJaj on the field of 
Tilaori, wa-^ lil)eratetl a)id allowed to return to Ids 
country, only to come biick with a fresh armv, and with the 
assistance of the traitors of Kanauj and Patun and of the 
Ilaoli Uao Hamir, to overturn the Hindu throne of Delhi. 
Again, when Mahmud, thetihil/.i Kinu of Malwa, was de- 
feated antl taken prisoner by the Maharana of Chitor, not 
only was he set at liberty without ransom, but was 
loaded with gifts and sent l)ack to ^[alwa. 

AVheii (bu'ing the invasion of Mewar by the Imj)erial 
forces of the Emperor Aurangzeb — when all the resources 
of the mighty Moghal Empire were placed at the dispos:il 
of the Mussalman generals, and the Emperor himself re- 
paired to the scene of action to direct the oju'rations in 
person — the heir-a])parent of Delhi and iiis army, cut off 
from all assistance, were at the absolute mercy of the lieir 
of Mewar, the niagnaniinous Rajputs, in pursuance .f 

^ Tod's Rajastbau, Vol. I, i'. l'><7. 


mistaken notions of chivalry and humanity not only 
spared the wliole army, but gave them guides to conduct 
them by the detile of Dihvara, and escorted them to Chitor. 
Nav, we le.u-n from the historian Orme, that Auran-'zeb 
liimself owed his life to the clemency of the Raji)uts. 
Jle savs: — "The division wl:ich moved witli Aiu'angzeb 
himself was unexpectedly stopped by insuperable de- 
fences and precipices in front ; while the Rajputs in one 
night closed the streights in his rear, by felling the over- 
hanfimr trees : and from their stations above prevented 
all endeavours of the troops, either within or without, 
from removing the obstacle. Udeperri, the favourite and 
Circassian wife of Auranjizeb, accompanied him in this 
arduous war, and with her retinue and escort was enclosed 
in another part of the mountains; her conductors, dread- 
ing to expose her person to danger or public view, sur- 
rendered. She was carried to the Rana, wdio received 
her with homage and every attention. Meanwhile, the 
Emperor himself might have perished by famine, of 
which the Rana let him see the risk, l)y a confinement 
of two days, when he ordered his Rujputsto withdraw 
from tlieir stations, and suffer the way to be cleared. As 
soon as Auranj^zeb was out of danaer tlu; Rana sent 
hack his wife, accompanied by a chosen escort, who only 
re(piested in return that he would refrain from destroy- 
ini; the sacretl animals of their religion which might still 
])e left in the jdains; but Aurangzeb, who believed in no 
virtue imt self -interest, imputed the generosity and for- 
l)earanee of the Rana to the fear of future venge:;nee, and 
continued the war. Soon after, he was again weU-nigh 

('IIIVALKV. (13 

encloscfl in tho nioiintnins. This second cxjK'ricnrc' of 
diHicultics Ix'vond liis jiltc and constitution, and tin? 
arrival of iiis sons, A/.im and AkKar, drtcrmincd liini 
not to I'xposc liiniscir anv lonL*"*'!' in tlu* li»Id, Imt to 
leave its ()|H!ralions to their condnct, snjierintcnded l»y 
his own iiistnictions from Ajnicr, to whicii city l»e 
retired with ihi.' Iionseholds df his fainiiv, tho oflicers of 
his court, and his hody^uar'l of rour thonsjind nK-n, 
dividini;' the army between his two sons, wiio each 
had hrouu'ht a coiisiderahle nnmher of troops from their 
respective (rovernments. "• 

Well mav Colonel Tod exclaim : " Ihit for re|»'ated 
instances ol" an illjud^HMl humanity, the throne of tiie 
]\louhals miL;ht have he'en com|"letely over!:ui-iie<l.'"- 

Twice owiuLi" to ])olitieal in<liscreti<>n on the part of 
the lianas of Mewar, in the reiirns of AIJ>ar ai-.d 
flehanu'ir, did the Hindus lose; their chance of supremaey. 
Were it not l"«>r the ill-fated interview iM-tween Hana 
Prat^ip and Maun Sinufh of daipnr nn the I'daisaLrar 
lake, on the hitter's return home fn>m the con«pn*ht of 
Sholapur, Akhar woiiM never have succeeded in consoli- 
datinu" his ])OWer and founding; the Moi^dial Empire ' 
in India, which, after a hrilliant career of two centuries. 
was Hnallv shattered to pieces hy the Mahratta-. 

'IVxls Uajastliaii, Vol. I., p. tW.',, 
2T.:d's Ilajastlian, Vol. I., p. :)7'.\. 

••" To liiiii Akliar was iiuldtti'il for lialf l»i> triiiin|>lis. frrnn tl»<« 
Know-clad Caucasus to (In* .shores of the 'f^oldcn Cln'n»<>iHx>.* Ij4>( llii> 
t«vt' cinliracc those cxtrt-iin's oi liis o)in|iu'sls. Kahulniid the Pnroiritmisaii 
of Ah'xaiuh'r, and Arracaii (now w<ll-kiiowu) on tlic Indian Oi-^-an: thf 
fornior rpunit'-d, the latter »ulijni;ated, to the einiiin* hy u Unjput |triiuT 
nn<l a ftajjtut army." p. :\:\n. •• rrinoe Selini (aft«'r\vnrd-> d.-hanyir') 
h'd the war against Hana Pratap guided hy the eonneils of Uajn Maun 
and llie distint;uislifd apostate son of Sagnrji, Mohahnt Klum " — 
Vol. 1. p:;/,7. 


A^'nin. wlion (lurini!* Jebano-ir's reii>:n, Mewar con- 
reived the idea ot" ])uttiiii;- u]) Prince Kburrani against 
the Emperor Jeliangir, and, in the Civil ^^'a^, to wrest 
the supremacy for the Hindus, JMicem's indiscreet taunt 
to Kaja Gaj Singh of ]\Iar\var at tlie critical moment 
alienated the Rahtores, and tlie de.'^ign was Frustrated. 

tyiCii /li 

etlana ■:!/'irt/^i 




PAnaoTiSM. G5 

vr.— i\vTi;ioTisM. 

nicatlics there the mail, with soul Hodead, 
Wlxi ncvfr til himself Imlh saii!, 
This is my own, my native Ian. I ! 

— Scott : J.'iy of IL- Last Afmnlrf!. 

Love of one's own counti-y i-^ inlxnn in all <-ivili/,o»l 
men. M<'iir(i llJuhni — Motherland — was the (-(.nstjint 
relVain ol" the Hindus' son^r. The intcnsitv of the fc*-!- 
ini;- may be i;ani;ed ho\\\ the faet that when din-inLT his 
fall, |);)htieal foresioht Itcciine a wainiiLj snhstanee in tin'. 
mental liori/on of the Hindu, he ruled that no one should 
j»-o out of the saci-ed limit-- of this holvland, that life 
here and death here alone !*hall he the neeessirv con- 
ditions of ^i^^ainin^^ Heaven hereafter. It is of course 
universally known that the creed of the Kajpnt or the 
warrior easte of India even now is, that dy inL!^ sword in 
hand in the cause of the country is the surest and the nearest 
way to Indra's abode. Colonel Tod says: "The name of 
'country' carried with it a macrical pow«'r in the mind of 
the Itaj[)ut. The name of his wife or his mistress must 
never be mentioned at all, nor that f)f his coimtrv but 
with respect, or his sword is instimly imsheathe<l.''' 

Patriotism ! In vain you ransack the annals of 
Greece and Iiomc, of Modern or ^Icdia-val I!uro|)e to 
find such noble patriots as liana Prataj> and Thakur 
])uru:a Das. Patriotism, chivalry and honour found their 
ideal embodiment in these two henx's. Prata[) fou;j:ht 
sinLrledianded, with a handfid of his Uaiputs, airainst th<; 

ITod's Kninsthan, Volume II. p. ii'.». 


iniglity liosts of Akhar, "the aTontcst monarcli that ever sat 
on an Asiatic throne," aided by the arms and counsels of 
his own countrymen, the Kiitchwahas, Rahtores, Haras, 
Dcoras of Abu and others, -whose kingdoms lay round 
Mewar. He fought for a qu;u-ter of a century and died, 
leaving a name, unrivalled in the history of patriotism 
and chivalry. Colonel Tod says : " Pratap succeeded to 
the title and renown of an ancient house, but without 
a capital, without resources, his kindred and clans dis- 
spirited by reverses; yet possessed by the noble spirit 
of his race, he meditated the rcco-\4ery of Chitor, the vin- 
dication of the honour of his house and the restoration 
of its power. Tlie wily Moghal (Akbar) arrayed 
against Pratap, his kin(h'ed in faith as well as blood. 
The princes of Marwar, Amber, Bikaner and even Boondi, 
late his firm ally, took part with Akbar and upheld des- 
potism. Nay, even his own brother, Sagarji, deserted 
hiui. But the magnitude of the peril confirmed the for- 
titude of Pratap, who vowed in the words of the bard, ' to 
make his mother's milk resplendent ; ' and he am])]y 
redeemed his pledge. Single-handed for a quarter of a 
century did In* withstand the combine<l eiforts of the 
em[)ire, at one time carrying destruction into the plains, 
at another flying from rock to rock, feeding his family 
from tlie fruits of his native liil'.s, and rearing the 
jiursling hero, Ann-a, amidst savage beasts and scarce 
less savage men, a fit heir to his prowess and revenge. 
Tlic bare idea that 'the son of linppa liawal sliould 
l)ow the iiead to mortal man' was insiij)portal)l(', and 
he s])Mrned every overture, which li:id submission ior its 
bisis, (jr tiie degradation cf uniting his lainily by marriage 
with the Tartar, tliougli lord of countless nndtitudes." 


Coloml Tod :ul(ls': *' It i.> \V(trtliy tlic utU'»jli<tti of 
those who iiillucncu the <lrstiiiii's of States in ni'.n- 
favoured cHmes to estimate llw. intensity of fcidin^ 
wliich could aim the jtrince to oi)|)ose the n'sourecs of u 
small j»rincij»alit y airainst the then most powerfid ('m|tiri: 
in the world, whose armifs wei"e more numerous an<l far 
more eificient than any (!ver led l>v the l*ersians a«rain>t 
the liherties of (Jreece. Had .Mewar j)ossess<'(l h< r 
Thucydidcs or her ZenoplnM', neither (he war of the 
Pelejionnesus, nor the Itetreat of the Fen Tlmusand 
would have yielded more diversified incidents for tl>« 
historic muse than the deeds of this hrilliant rei_i;n amid 
the many vicissitudes of Mewar. Indaunted heroism, 
iutlcxil/ic fortitude, that which ' keeps honour hrii^ht,' 
perseverance with /^V/t///// .such as no mithni can ln>ast 
were the materials opposed to a soaring" ambition, c<»m- 
mandinir ttdents, unlimited means and t!ie fervour nf 
religious zeal ; all, however, insufficient to contend with 
one unconrpierahlc mind. There is no: a j^rr^*; in the al- 
pine Aravallithat is not sanctified by some deed of Pratap — 
some brilliant victory or often more glorious defe;it. Uul- 
di'jhat /.<? the - Thcnnopijhv of Meuai., the field of Dcucir 
her Marathony 

" The last moments of Prataj)," says Colonel Tod, 
"were an approjiriate commentary on his life, wliich he 
tern^inated, like the Carthaginian, swearing his successor 
to eternal confiict airainst the foes of his country's inde- 
pendence, liut the liajput prince liad not the same 

»Tod's Raja-tlian, V"l. T. i>. mO. 

^" What says the Tlicruio|.yl.x- of Iii.lia, Cory^rauni ? Fivr luuviml 
firelocks against 20 thousaiul m.n ! Do tlic aimals of Nnpolcon record 
a more brilliant exploit."— /^yj^'^/'i'", Vol. I. i'. bU. 


joyful assurance tliat inspired the Numidian Hamilcar ^ 
for his end was clouded with the presentiment that his 
son, Aiara, would ab.mdon his fame for ini^lorious repose. 
A powerful sympathy is excited by the picture wliich 
is drawn of this final scene. The dying hero is repre- 
sente I in a lowly dwelling ; his chiefs, the faithful com- 
panions of many a glorious day, awaiting round his 
pallet the dissolution of their prince, when a groan of 
mental anguish made Saloombra inquire ' what afHicted 
liis soul that it would not depart in peace ? ' He 
railed : ' it lingered,' he said, ' for some consolatory 
pledge that his country should not be abandoned to 
the Toorks ;' and with the death pang upon him, he 
related an incident which had guided his estimate of his 
son's disposition, and now tortured him with the redec- 
tion, that for personal ease he would forego the remem- 
brance of his oica and his country s icrow/s. 

"On the banks of the Peshola., Pratapand his chiefs 
h:id constructed a few huts (the site of the future palace of 
Udaipur) to protect them during the inclemency of the 
r.uns in the day of their distress. Prince Amra, for- 
getting the lowliness of the dwelling, a projecting bam- 
boo of the roof caught the folds of his turban and 
dragged it off as he retired. A hasty emotion, which 
disclosed a varied feeling, was observed with pain by 
Pratup, wiio thence adopted tiie opinion that his son Avould 
never witiist;ind the hardships necessary to be endured 
in sui-hacause: 'These sheds' said the <lying prince, 
' will Lfivc wav to sumptuous dwelling's, thus ircneratinir 
the love of ease, and luxury Avith its concomitiuits will 
ensue, to wliieh the independence of Mewar, Avliich we 
have bled to maintain, will be saerilied ; and you, my 

chiefs, will f(»Ilo\v tho piTiiicioiis oxamplt'.' Tlu-v jilctlirod 
themselves, uikI l);'c;tiir! LTuamiitees for the jtriiicc, * hy 
the throii;; of r>.u)|):i K:i\v;i!,' tliat ili'v woiiM not [n'rinit 
iniiiisioiis lo he raisL'l till Mrwar had recovereil her 
iuile|)L;ii(leiice. The s:)il of l'rata]» was siitislied, and 
Avith joy he expired."' 

As regards Durna Das and (he U ahtores, the iiolije 
historian of l{.aj|)utaiia says : " I.ct us ttikc a rctntsjiee- 
tive olanee of tiie traiisaetioiis of the Itaiiton-s from 
the year 17.")7, th;' p.-riod of K ij i daswiint's death at 
Cal)ul, to the restoration of Ajit. presentiiiL^ a conti- 
nuous conflict of 80 years' duration. In vain miiilit 
AVe search the annals of an\- other nation for >neh 
inflexible devotion as marked the Kaiitore character 
throui^h this ])eriod of strife, during;" which, to use 
their own phrase, ' hardly a Chieftain «lied on hin 
])allet.' L(.'t those who deem the Hindu warrior V(.id 
of i)atriotism read the rude chronicle of this thirty 
years' war; let them compare it with that of ar.y other 
C(juntrv, and do justice to the mai^nanimons Rajpoot. 
This narrative, the simj»licity of which is the hest 
voucher for its aulhenticity, presents an uninterruptecl 
record of patri<jtism and disinterested loyalty. It was 
a p;'riod when the sacrifice^ of tliese principl<;s was 
rewarded bv the tyrant kiitu^ with the hij^hest honours of 
the State; norare we without instances of tlic temptation 
being too strong to be withstood: but they are rare, 
and serve only to exhibit in more pleasing colours tlic 
virtues of the tribe which spurned the attempts at sc<luc- 
tion. What a splendid example is the heroic Durga Das 

1 Tud's Kaju.lhaii, Vul. I, {^[k oi^, VJ. 

70 HINDU KUI'EinoiaTY. 

of all that constitutes the glory of the Rajput ! valour, 
loyalt\', integrity, combined with prudence in all the 
ditHeulties which surrounded him, are qualities which 
entitle him to the admiration which his memory conti- 
nues to enjoy. The temptations held out to him were 
almost irresistible : not merely the gold, Avhich he and 
thousands ot" his brethren would alike have spurned, but 
the splendid offer of power in the proffered 'munsub of 
five thousand,' which would at once have lifted him from 
his vassal condition to an equality with the princes and 
chief nobles of the land. Durga had, indeed, but to 
name his reward ; but, as the bard justly says, he was 
^ A molac^ hey ond iiW price, 'Unoko' unique. Not even 
revenge, so dear to the Rajput, turned him aside from 
the dictates of true honour. The foul assassination of 
his brother, the brave Soning, effected through his 
enemies, made no alteration in his humanity whenever the 
chance of war placed his foe in his power; and in this 
his policy seconded his virtue. His chivalrous conduct 
in the extrication of prince Akbar from inevitable de- 
struction had he fallen into his father's hands, was only 
surpassed by his generous and delicate behaviour towards 
the prince's fmnily which was left in his care, forming 
a markeil contrast to that of the enemies of his faith on 
similar occasions. The virtue of the grand- daughter of 
Aurangzelj, in the sanctuar}' of Droonara, was in far 
better keeping than in the trebly- walled harem of Agra. 
Of his energetic mind and the control he exerted over 
those of his confiding brethren what a proof is given, in 
his preserving the secret of the abode of his jH'ince 
throughout the first six years of his infancy ! But, to 

lV\TI!Tf>-l ISM, 

coiK'liule our cMiloc^y ill tin.' wonls of tlicir hunl : he hn« 
rcMpod tlio iimnortality dfstiiUMl li.r trood deeds ; iiin 
momory is chcrislicd, his acLioiis arc tlic llifinc ol' con- 
stant ])niis(', and his |mtiirc on Ills wliitc, old, yet 
in vigour, is rainiliar anionirst tiic colleclions f»f the 
})<)rtraits of Uajpiitana."' 

" In the liistory of mankind, " adds Colonel Tod, 
" tlioro is nothin<T to he found prt'sontini,^ a more brilliant 
picture of fidelity than that all'ordcd hy the Kahtorc 
clans in tlicir devotion to their prince from liis l)irth until 
he worked out hi-s own and Iiis coinitry's deliverance. "- 

Colonel Tod says : ""Many anecdotes are extuit record- 
ing the dread, Aurangzeh ha<l of this leader of the Uahton'.s, 
one of which is aunisinLf. The tyrant had commande*! 
pictures to be drawn of two of the most mortal f«K*.s 
to his repose, Sevaji and Duri;a : Sevaji was drawn 
seated on a couch ; Duri^a in his ordinary position, on 
horseback, toastini^ O/iturties or barley-aikes with the 
])oint of his lance, on a fire of maize-stalks. Auranir/.eh 
at the first 2,-lance, exclaimed, ' I may entrap that fellow 
(meaning Sevaji), but ihis dog is born to be my bsme."^ 

Patriotism, honour of his race, anxiety to maintain 
the ""ood name of his country arc inherent traits in the 
character of a true Hindu. A simi)le incident of no 
great political importance shows the living faith of the 
Rajput in his country and his race, for whose honour 
he is prepared at all times and in all circumstances to lay 
down his life unhesitatingly. 

1 Tod's Kajrxsthan, Vd II, pp. 81, 82. 
-'Tod's Rajasthan, V..1. 11. p. '.M. 
3Toa"s Uajastlian, Vol. II, p. «G. 


Ilumiliatod l)v a iiiiiht attack on his forces by a 
liandfiil of men under Hamoo, tlie Chief of lUindi, 
M'hen hi?s army was ])nt to flii;ht, in the course of a 
compaign against llaraoti, the Maharana of Chitor 
re-formed his troops under the walls of his celebrated 
fortress, and swore that he would not eat until he was 
master of linndi. 

The rash vow went round ; but Bundi was sixty 
miles distant, and defended l>y brave hearts. His chiefs 
expostulated with the Rana on ihe absolute impossi- 
bility of redeeming his vow ; but the words of kings are 
sacred : Boondi nuist fall ere the King of the Gehlotes 
could (line. In this exigeuijc a childish expedient Avas 
proposed to release him from hunger and his oath ; 
'to erect a mock Boondi, and take it by storm.' Tn- 
stantlv the mimic tOAvn arose under the walls of Chitor ; 
and, that the deception might be complete, the local 
nomenclature was attended to, and each quarter had its 
appropriate appellation. A band of Haras of the Pathar 
were in the service of Chitor, whose leader, Koombo 
]);iirsi, Avas returning with his kin from hunting the 
deer, Avhen their attention Avas attracted by this strange 
bustle. The story AA'as soon told, that IJoondi must fall 
ore the liana could dine. Koombo assembled his bri'tlinn 
of the Pathar, dcclnring that even the mock Poondi 
must 1)C defended. All iVlt the in<lignity to the clan, 
:nid each bosom burning Avith indignation, they ])reparc<l 
to ])rotecfc the nnul Avails of the psemlo lioondi from in- 
sult. It AA-as reported to thePanath:it i'oondi waslinished. 
He advanced to the storm ; but what washis surprise whe^i, 
instead of the blank cartridge he heard a volley of balls whiz 
amouiist them 1 A messenger AVas despatched and was 


TATl!I<»TT'<\r. 73 

received by I'airsi at tlio fj^atc, who oxplaiiiod the cause 
of the unexpected salutation, desirinL'" hini to tell the 
Kana tliat ' not even the mock caj)itai <»r a llara should 
be dishonoured.' Sj)rcadini:; a shc^ct at the little gato- 
way, Bairsi and the Kaawtnit-^ invited the assault, and at 
the tliresliold of i Ti'(r-ca-JU>t>iuU (^{.\\v. I'oondi of clay) they 
gave u}) tiieir lives for the honour of tiic race."' 

Wlicre can vmi find a more in^nirinir and cinioblini' 
example of a ))atriotic Hindu doint; his duty than that 
of the eldest son of the Mehlri Chief durinif the Civil 
AVar between r>akht Sini;li and Ham Siniili in Marwar? 
Colonel Tod says : " There is nothini:; more chivalrous 
in the days of Edward and Cressy than the death of the 
heir of Mehtri, who, w ith his father and brothers scaled 
his fealty with his blood on this fatal iield. He hacHoD* 
engaoed the hand of a daughter of a chief of the Xinn^kas, 
and was occupied with the marriage rites when tidings 
reached him of the approach of the rebels to Mairta, T^^e 
knot had just been tied, their hands had been joined — 
but he was a Mairtea — he unlocked his hand from that 
of the fair Xirooki, to court the Apsara in the fiehl of 
battle. In the bridal vestments, with the nuptial coronet 
(Mor) encircling his forehea<l, he took his station with 
his cian in the second day's figlit, and ' obtiiined a briilc 
in Inura's abode.' The bards of ^laroo dwell with 
delight on the romantic glory of the youthful heir of 
Mehtri, as they repeat in their Doric verse, 

' Kan a niooti l)ull)ulla 
Otilla soiii n iiialla 
Asi Cos Unrro lio ay a 
Kiinwar .Mflitri walla.' 

The paraphernalia here enumerated are very foreign to the 

I'luJ'.s liajaslliaii, Vul II. \>\>. I";:!. <".4. 


cavalier of tliu West : 'AYitli pearls shining in his ears, 
and a golden chaplet round his neck, a space of eighty 
coss came the heir of Mehtri.' 

" Tiie virgin bride followed her lord from Jaipur, but 
instead of being met with the tabor and lute, and other 
siijfns of festivitv, wail and lamentation awaited her within 
the lands of Mehtri, where tidings came of the calamity 
which at once depri\-ed this branch of the Mairteas of all 
its supporters. Her part was soon taken ; she com- 
manded the pyre to be erected ; and \vith the turban 
andtoorah, which adorned her lord on this fatal day, she 
followed his shade to the mansions of the sun."^ 

Owing to certain reasons, Rni Singh, the heir-appa- 
rent of Jaisalmer. during the reiirn of ]\[ul Rai (who 
became king in A.D. 1762), was persuaded to put the 
minister to death. This was effected by the prince's own 
hand, in his father's presence ; and as the Mehta, in falling, 
clung to Mul Raj for protection, it was proposed to ttdvC off 
^,lul Raj at the same time. The prDposition, however, was 
rejected with horror by the ]irincc, whose vengeance was 
satisfied. The Rawal wms allowed to escape to tlie female 
apartments ; but the chieftains, well knowing they could 
not expect pardon from the Rawal, insisted on investing 
Rai Singh, and if he refused, on placing his brother on 
the (J ndi. The '.-hi' of liai Singh w:is proclaimed; but 
no entreaty or threat would indiu-e him to listen to the 
proposal of occupying the throne ; in lieu of which he 
used a })all(;t (khatj. Three months and five dnys had 
passed since the de[)osal anti bondage of Mul Kaj, when 
a fcmiilc resolved to emancipate him ; this fcmah; was 
the wife of th • c'lief consj)irator, :nid conHdentiiil a(l\ iscr 

IToi's Itajasthaii, Vol. I, iip. 74^,00. 

rATKlOTlS.M. 7;, 

oftlic i-oiroiit iM-iiKv. This „nl,I<. .Imiuo, a KaliKm- li.ij- 
|K)()tl)i, of the M:lll('(ll:icl:i?i, was the wife of Auop Sillj^h 
<>i 'niijmiali, iIk; pieMiiicr iiohlo of riaisaltncr, am! who, 
-svcaritMl with tlie tyramiy <.f tlic iiiiiiistfi- and tlic wcak- 
iiL'ss (»f his jiriiiLV, liad proposiul tlic (Icalh of the one and 
the d('i)o.sal of tlic other. Wt- aiv liot accjiiaintrd 
with any reason, save tliat of sinnChmna^ iw 'fealty,' 
"whieli })ronij)ted the Uahtorni to rescue her prinee even 
at the risk of \\vv husband's life ; hut her a|>j>pal to her 
son, Zourawar, to perform his duty, is preserved, and wr 
i^ive it vcrhafim : 'Should your father oppose you, 
saerifiee hiui to your duty, and I will mount the pyre with 
his corp>;e.' The son yielded ohedienee to the injunction 
of his uiairnanimous parent, who had sutticient influenee 
to pi^ain over Arjoon, the brother of her husband, as well 
as ]\[egh Sinir, Chief of iJamo. The three ehieftains 
force<! an entrance into the prison where their prince was 
confined, who refused to l)e released from his manacles, 
until he was told that the Mahechi had promoted 
the })lot for his liberty. The sound of the «:;ran 1 lutkarra^ 
prochuniiuu: Mul Raj's re- possession oi the <j<idi^ awoke 
his son from sleep ; and on the herald depositinj:!; at the 
side of his pallet the sable siropava^ and all the insi«!nia of 
exile — the black steed and black vestments — the prince, 
obeyini^ the command nf the emancipated Ilawal, clad 
liimself therein, and, accompanied by his party, bade adieu 
to Jaisalmer, and took the road to Kottoroh. When he 
arrived at this town, on the southern frontier of the State, 
the chiefs proposed to '' run the country'' ; but he replied 
that the country was his mother and evert/ Rajpoot his foe 
loho injured it. * 

•Tod'^ Kaja'^tli.ii), Vol. II, pp. 2G4. .j. 


" This Rajputni," adds Colonel Tod, " with an ele- 
vation of mind equal to whatever is recorded of Greek 
find Roman heroines, devoted herself and a husband whom 
she loved, to the one predominant sentiment of the Raj- 
put — swadharma (duty). 

The reply of the Deorah prince of Sirohi when in- 
structed to perform that profound obeisance from which 
none were exempt at Delhi, where he had been carried 
by Mokundas, one of Jaswant Singh's generals after 
having been secretl/ captured whilst asleep in his palace, 
and his subsequent conduct, shows the high spirit and the 
independence of character of a true Rajput and his in- 
tense love for his country. He said that "his life was 
in the king's hands, his honour in his own ; ho had never 
bowed the head to mortal man, and never would," As 
Jaswant had pledged himself for his honourable treat- 
ment, the officers of the ceremonies endeavoured by stra- 
taG:em to obtain a constrained obeisance, and instead of 
introducing him as usual, they showed him a wicket, 
knee high, and very low overhead, by which to enter, 
but putting his feet foremost, his head was the last part 
to appear. This stubborn ingenuity, his noble bearing, 
and his long- protracted resistance, added to Jaswant's 
pledge, won the king's favour ; and lie not only proffer- 
ed him pardon, but whatever lands he might desire. 
"Though the king did not name the return, Soortan was 
well aware of the terms, but he boldly and quickly replied, 
' what can your Majesty bestow c(|ual to Achilgurh ? 
let me return to it is all I ask.' The kina; had the mao-na- 
nimity to comply with his request; Soortan was allowed 
to retire to the castle of Abu, nor did he or any of 
the Deoras ever rank themselves amongst the vassals of 

I'ATUInTlSM. , , 

tlie empire ; but they have eoiitinueil to tlie ])rcsent hour 
a life of ahiiost savaij^e in<U'j)cii(leuce."' 

Colonel Tod savs : "These men of the si>il^ as tiu-y 
cmjihatically dcsiirnate themselves, cliii*^ to it and their 
aneient and wcll-deliiicd |>rivile<res, with an unconjjucr- 
able pertinacity; in their endeavours to j)reserve them^ 
whole generations have been swept away, yet has tiieir 
strength increased in the very ratio of oppressioFi. Where 
are now the oj)pressors ? the dynasties of (ihazni, of (ihor, 
the (ihiljis, the Lodis, the Pathans, the Timo<jrs, and 
tlie demoralising Mahratta ? The native Uajpoot hiw 
flourished amidst these revolutions, and survive<l tluir 
fall ; and but for tin- vices of their internal sway, chietly 
contracted from such association, woidd have ri<«'n to 
power upon the ruin of tluir tyrants."- 

How fur will this high character of the Kajputs Ik? 
influenced bv the uvw condition of things remains to \m 
seen. Colonel Tod says : "When so many nations arc call- ^ 
ed u])on, in a period of great calamity and danger, to make 
over to a foreigner, their opposite in everything, their 
superior in most, the control of their forces in time of 
war, the adjudication of their disput(?s in time of ]>eace, 
and a share in the fruits of their renovating pros^xTity. 
what must be the residt, when each Ilajixxit may hang 
up his lanoe in the hall, convert his sword to a plough- 
share, and make a basket of his buckler ? What but the 
prostration of every virtue ? To Idc great, to l)e inde- 
pendent, its martial sj)irit must be cherished : happy if 
within the bounds of moderation." " It is to be hojx?d 

•Tod's Raja-sthan, Vol. II, pp. 56,07. 
aTod's Kajasthan. Vol. II, p. IfiO. 
STo^l's Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 127. 


that education, travel and coiitacc with enlightened 
Europeans Avill succeed in counteracting the baneful in- 
rtuences dreaded l)v the gallant Colonel. 

" The llajput, with all his turbulence, possesses 
in an eniinont degree both loyalty and patriotism."^ 

^y\\[\t can be a more eloquent testimony to the pat- 
riotic fervour and the heroic valour of the Rajputs, than 
the following extract from the Annals and Antiquities 
of Rajasthan by Colonel Tod : — 

" There is not a petty State in Rajputana that has 
not had its own Thermopylae and scarcely a city that has 
not produced its Leonidas. But the mantle of ages has 
shrouded from view what the magic pen of the liistorian 
miirht have consecrated to endless admiration : Sonniath 
might have rivalled Dclphos ; the spoils of Hind might 
have vied with the w'calth of the Lybian King; and, 
compared with the army of the Pandavas, 'the army of 
Zerxes would have dwindled into insignificance."^ 

'Tod's Itajasthau, Vul. L p. lOi. ^Tod's Uujastbaii, lutrojuction, p. 10. 

VAL( )(.]{. 7«j 

VII.— \ ALoi K. 

No thiiuLrlit of lliiflit. 
Xoii(> of rotrnit. iiu milnToniiiiK dn-d 
Tlint ari,'ii('(l fcnr ; cncli on liiiiiM-lf ri-lif<l. 
As (ink in liis ann the iiioiipiit lav 
iM victory. 

— Mii.ton: I'lmulif f.Dst. 

Tin-: Hindus won; declared hy the Greeks to i>e the 
bravi'st nation tlicy ever came in contact with.' It u:i.s 
the Hindu King of Mauadha tliat struck terror in tlie 
ever-victorious armies of Alexander the (ireat. 

Abul Faznl, the mini.-ter of Akliar, after afhiiirin"" 
their otlicr noble virtues, speaks of the valour of the 
Hindus in these terms: "Their character shines i)rightest 
in adversity. Their sc^ldiers (Hajputs) know not what 
it is to fiee from the field of battle, but when the surcesn 
of the combat becomes doubtful, thev dismount from 
their horses and throw away their lives in payment of 
the debt of valour." 

" The traveller, Bernier, says that " the IJajputs em- 
brace each other when on the battK'-fie!d as if resolved 
to die." The Spnrtans, as is v.ell known, dre>sed their 
hair on such occasions. It is well known that wjjen 
a IJajput becomes desperate, he puts on garments of 
saffron colour, which act, in technical lanixuaire, is called 
kesrian kasumal kdnui (donning saffron robes). 

After describing how, when l)ara disappeared from 
the field of Dholpur where the Imperial forces had made a 

^Kl|i|iiii>ton'*> lli-tniy of Iii'lia. v. 111?. 


last stand asfainst the combined armies o£ Auran^zeb 
and Mnrad in their advance to Agra,1i,nd the Imperial 
forces took to flii>-ht, the Bundi chief, like Porus ot old, 
continued fighting heroically till he was killed, saying 
"accursed be he who flies ! Here, true to my salt, my 
feet are rooted to this field, nor will I quit it alive but 
with victory," and how Bharat Singh, his youngest son 
maintained the contest nobly. Colonel Tod says: "Thus 
in the two battles cf Ujjain and Dholpur, no less than 
12 princes of the blood, toirether with the heads of every 
Hara ckm, maintained their fealty even to death. Where 
are we to look for such examples ?".^ 

During a visit of the Boondi chief, Kao Sooju, to 
Chitor, Rana Ratna, at the instigation of an intriguing 
Poorbia, determined to slay the Rao in an hunt when the 
respective chiefs were attended only by a couple of ser- 
vants. Finding a convenient opportunity, the Rana said 
to his companion, " now is the moment to slay the boar, 
and instantly an arrow from the bow of the Poorbia 
was sped at the Rao. " With an eagle's eye he saw it 
coming, and turned it off with his bow." This might 
have been chance, but another from the foster-l^rother 
of the Rana convinced him there was ireachery. Scarcely 
had he warded off the second, when the Rana darted at 
him on horseback, and cut him down with his Lhanda. 
The Rao fell, but recovering, took his shawl and lightly 
boimd up the wound, and as his foe was making oft', he 
called aloud, "escape you may, but you have sunk Mewar." 
The Poorbia, who followed his prince, when he saw the 

iTod's Rajasthan, Vol. II, p. 481. "The annals of no nation ou 
cartli can fnrnirih such an (.'Xanii'lc as an entire family, six royal brothers, 
stretched on the field and all but one in death" — \'ol. II, p. 1',). 

\Ai.(»ri:. 81 

Kaohiud ii|) his wound, saiil, '' tlio wr»rk is hut li.ilf dono;'* 
jiiidlikc :i cowfinl. Kiitii:i once more charLr'''! tin' wnimtlnl 
Kao. As Ills Mi'iii was raised to jiiii<li tlifdciMl of sliamc, 
like a woiindi'd tipT tlic Ilara mad*- a dviiii; i-IVurt, 
caught ihv. assassin hy the roix*, and draiTiT^'d liiiu fr<»m 
his stocMl. Toi^c'LhcM' t!ioy <-ami' to ihc <;rouiid, llic Kaiia 
underneath. The Rao knelt u|)<)n his hcnst, whiU", with A'-cU' 
preternatural strenu;th, with one iiand lie ijrasped his 
victim by the throat, with the otlii-r lie searchetl for hin 
dai^ger. Wliat a nioniMit for rcv^eni^e I He pluiii^t'd 
the weapon into his assassin's lieart, and saw him expire 
at his feet. The Kao was satisfied ; there was no more 
Hfe left him than suiliced for reveni^e, and lie droppi-d a 
corpse upon the dead body of iiis foeinan. 

The tidings tlew to lioondi, to the mother of the 
Rao tliat her son was slain in tlie Alharn. ''Slain I" 
exclaimed this noble datne, "but did he fall alone? 
Never could a son who has drunk at this breast d(?j)art 
unaccompanied;' and as she s)K>ke, "maternal feeling 
caused the milk to issue from the fount with such force 
that it rent the slab on which it fell.''' 

Colonel Tod thus relates an ineident he witnesscil in 
Haravati : — "There was one specimen of tU'Volion (to the 
prince of Kotah) which we dare not pass over, companibje 
with whatever is recorded of the fabled traits of heroism of 
Greece or Rome. The Regent's (Zalim Singh- of Kotah) 

1 Tod's Rajastlmn, Vol. II , pp. 468, fiO. 

^Col. Tod savs : " Zalim Siiii^li was a «'<)nsiiinniafo jMiliiirjan, 
\vlio can scarcely find a paralN-l in tliw vari«il patj«'s of'hij.j^in. Il-' 
was \.\w primHui utohlh' of (In- n'Lcinii Iii- inlialiitcd, a ^pliip' far too ron- 
fiiu'.d for Iiis i^cuins, wlijcli n'ijuiri-(l a wiilt-r li'I'I l".>i it- ,|!-,i.I.i\ mul 
might have cuutrullod the destinies of uutions. 


battalions were advancing in columns along the precipi- 
tous bank of a rivulet, when their attention was arrested 
bv several shots fired from an isolated hillock risinir out 
of the plain across the stream. Without an}^ order, but 
as by a simultaneous impulse, the whole line halted to 
gaze at two audacious individuals, who appeared deter- 
mined to make their mound a fortress. A minute or 
two passed in mute surprise, Avhen the word was given 
to move on ; but scarcely was it uttered ere several 
wounded from the head of the column were passing to 
the rear, and shots began to be exchanged very briskly, 
at least twenty in return for one. But the long match- 
locks of the two heroes told every time in our lengthen- 
ed line, while the}^ seemed to have 'a charmed life,' 
and the shot fell like hail around them innocuous, one 
continuing!: to load behind the mound, while the other 
fired with deadly aim. At length two t\yelve pounders 
were unlimbered ; and as the shot whistled round their 
ears, both rose on the very pinnacle of the mound, and 
made a profound salaam for this compliment to their 
valour ; which done, they continued to load and fire, 
whilst entire platoons blazed upon them. Altliough 
m jre men had suffere 1, an irresistible impulse was felt to 
save these iz'-dlant men ; orders were given to cease fir- 
ing, and tlie force was directed to move on, unless any 
two individuals chose to attack them manfully hand-to- 
hand. Tlie words were scarcely uttered when two young 

'• VVIit'ii an Eni^lish division in their pursuit of the I'iiulari loader, 
Kariiij Kiiau, insulted his town of Baran, ho hurst forth: ' If twenty 
years could i>; taken from hi-! life, Delhi and Deccau should be one." — 
Tod's liiij't)ft/i'iit, Vol. 11, 1-1-. 517, 18. 

vAf.orn. H.i 

RoIuHms drew (JK'ir swords, s|)nin2; t\o\\n t\w i):ink, aii<i 
soon cleared tiic s|)acn hctwccMi tlicin and tlic ffMMiK'ii. 
All was (k'(M) anxictv as tiKV inounfctl (o tljc assaidl ; 
but wlu-rlier tlicir i)liy>i<al Iimiiic was less vijroron 
their eiuML^ies were exhausted hy woumls or hy lli«w 
peculiar situation, these brave dcieiiders fell on tin- nioinit. 
whence they disputed (he ujarch of tfn battalions of 
infantry and twenty pieces of cannon."' 

]\Iukandas was the head of the Kuiipanwat nahtorort 
of Marwar. He incurre<l the displeasure of the EmjK»ror 
Aurant^zeb, by a reply which was disres])eclful. 
The tvrant condemned him to enter a tiLTer's d<n. 
and contend for his life unarnie<l. Without a si";, 
fear liv,' entered the arena where the savage lx»aist was 
pacing, and thus contemptuously accosted him : "Oh 
ti<^er of the Mian, face the tiger of Jaswant ;" exhibit- 
ing to the king (.)f the forest a pair of eyes, which ani^cr 
and opium had rendered little less inflamed than his own. 
The animal, startled by so unaccustomed a salutation, 
for a moment looked at his visitor, put down his head, 
turned round and stalked from him. " You see," ex- 
claimed the Rnhtore, ''that he dare not face me, and it 
is contrary to the creed of n true Itajpoot to attack an 
enemy who dares not confront him." Kvcn the tyrant, 
who beheld th(3 scene was siu'prised into admiration, 
presented him with gifts, and asked if he had any child- 
ren to inherit his j)rowcss. His reply, 'how ran wr _ ., 
children when you keep us from our wives In'vond the 
Attock ?' fully shows that the Kahtore and fear were 
strangers to each other. From this singular encounter 
lie bore the name of Xaharkhan, ''the tiger lord "^ 

>T..,rs UaiaMlianrV..!. TI. pp. '^:9. HO. 
^Tud's Rajasthau, Vol. II. pp. 55, 56. 


"It was witli the Sesodia Rajputs and the Shekha- 
wnts that Mohahat Khan performed the most daring 
exploit in ]\Ioghal history, making Jehangir prisoner in 
his own camp in the zenith o£ his power." This 
Mohabat Khan was an apostate son of Sagarji, lialf- 
brother of Kana Pratap. " He was beyond doubt," 
says Tod, " the most daring Chief in Jehangir's reign." "^ 
"The celebrated heroic chari>:es of the Rahtore horse 
at the battles of Tonsfa and Patun in 1791 A.D., against 
the disciplined armies of the French General DeBoigne, 
carrying everything before them, show the unequalled 
dash and clan of the Rahtore cavalry when inspired by 

There is no end to the recountino: of the brave 
deeds performed by the Rajputs. Name a few heroes like, 
Pratap, Durga Das, Jaswant, Hamir, Raj Singh, Maun, 
Prithi Raj, Sivaji, and a volume is said. The rest 

' Were long to tell ; liuw many battk-s fonglit, 
How many kings dostroyed and kingdoms won.' 

But as the Rajputs were men of valour, so were 
thev men of herculean build and streno'th. It was a 
Bhatti Rajput — Soningdeo, a man of gigantic strength — 
who not only Ijcnt but broke the iron bow sent by the 
king of Jvhorasan to the Emperor of Delhi to string, when 
no one in Delhi c(nild do so.^ 

"Homer's heroes," says Col, Tod, " were pigmies 
to th(; Ktinis, whose Ijracelet we may doubt if Ajax 
couM have lifted."^ 

> Tod's Rajastlian, Vol T, p. 355. 
■-'Tod's Kajasthan, Vol. II. j.. 254. 
^Tod's Kajasthan, Vol, 11, y. Si. 

v\{. So 

Colonel T()<1 s;iys: " Li»r us take the H;ij|»iit 
character fn)iii llic roval historiaiis tlieinsclvcs, from 
AkUir, Juliauuir, AuraiiL;zcl). The most l)rilliaiit coii- 
questa of moiiarclis were \)\ tlicir Rajjiut allies; 
thouuli the little reij^anl ihe latter ha<l for opitiion 
alienated the sympathies of a race, who, wh«-n rJLrhtly 
nianaiied, encountered at command the Afghan amidst 
the snows of Caucasus, or ma<le the furthest Chersonese 
tributary to ihc empire. Assam, where the Uriti.^h arms 
■were recently eni:ai;ed, ami for the issue of which such 
anxiety was manifested in the metropolis of l)ritain,was 
ct^inijuered 1)\- a Itajj»ut [)rince, whose descendant i> now 
an ally of the British G(n-ernment."' 

" The Moiiiials were indebted for half their con- 
quests to the La/ih Tubrar Iv>ht(ir(in " (hundn-d thous'uid 
swords of the liahtores). " l>ut the lm|K'rial |)rinres 
knew not how to a}>preciate t)r to manaire such men 
who, when united under one who coulil control them, 
"Were i r resistible. "- 

Ileliirious biirotrv and Imiu'rial vanity eventually 
disfrusted the IJajputs, who were the bulwark of the 
]\I()<diul throne, with the result that the emijire came to 
an end sooner than was expected. " The spirit of devo- 
tion in this brave race, by whose aid the Mo<,'hal iH)wer 
Avas made and maintained, was irretrievably alienated,"' 
when Delhi was invaded by Nadir Shah. Kven in the 
times of the. ijjreatMoghal Emperor, Aurangzib, tin- Hindu 
princes of rtaji)utana though disunited and jealous of 

1 Tod's Rajastlmn, Vol. 1. y. 195. 
•''Tod's Kajast.l.aii. V..1. II. y. :>07. 
^Tod's Waja^thaii, Vul. \. y. 117. 


each other, were some of them iiidividiiiillj too stron*; 
to be openly defied by the Emperor. Jaswant Siiig'h ot" 
Jodhpur was poisoned at Kabul, ^ and his heir, Prithi 
Singh, at Delhi, which freed the heart of Ain-ani;' from a 
terrible nii^'htmare. It Avas only after these murders 
that the tyrant thought of imposing the hated Jazia. The 
great Jai Singh of Jaipur was also poisoned at his in- 
stigation by the Raja's son, Ivirat Singh. Having recourse 
to poison, when unable to openly meet a strong opponent, 
was a favourite practice of the Moghal Emperors of India. 
Even the much-belauded Ak])ar, ' the arch-enemy of the 
Hindus,' was not above it. Colonel Tod savs : " A desire 
to be rid of the great Raja Maun of Amber, to whom he 
was so much indebted, made the emperor to act the part 
of the assassin. He prepared a majum,, or confection, a 
part of which contained poison ; but, caught in his own 
snare, he presented the innoxious portion to the Rajput 
and ate that dragged with death himself."- The cause 
appears to have been a design on the part of Raja ]\Iaun 
to alter the succession, and that Khusro, his nephew, 
should succeed instead of Selim. 

The murder of Maharaja A jit Singh of Mar war by 
his own sou, l^,akht Singh, at the instigation of the Say- 
yads — the kingmakers of India — was another instance of 
the policy of " covert guile," which became a stronger 
weapon than the sword in the hands of some of the 
^lohamedan rulers of India, who seem to liave accepted 
the reconnnendation l)estowed on this policy by Belial 
in the assembly of the Fallen Angels. 

1 Tod's lujiv-sthiiii, Vui. I, ).. ;■;::), aihi Vol. ii, i^. D2. 

2Tod'.s RujustliHii, Vol. 1, in.. ;j;jl, 52, 

vAi.oiK. h: 

Th;^ inlionMit stroni^tli of the liajjiiit cli:iru«'t«T, liitt 
power of cloi^ncii I'lisistciice, his iiiviiicihlti attaclimuiit to 
his country, aii«l, al)ove all, the spiritual nature of tin* 
itlt'als that nurture liis soul, are fully recoLrniscd hy the 
historian of K;i jputana, when he says : ** What nation on 
earth would have maintained the M-nihlaneeof civilization, 
the spirit or the customs of their forefatliors, durinj: so 
many centuries of overwhelmini^ depre.-^si on, imt one 
of sucli singular character as the KajjMit ? Thouj^h 
ardent and reckless he can, when reijuired, sul)side into 
forbearance and apparent apathy, and reserve iiimself for 
the op|)ortunity of revenu'e. Uajasthan exhi!/jts the sole 
example in the histiiry of mankind, of a people with- 
standini; every outraiic l)arl>aritv caii inllict, or human 
nature sustain, from a foe whose religion commands anni- 
hilation, and bent to the earth, yet rising buoyant from 
the pressure, and making calamity a whetstone to cour- 
age. How did rh(! liritons atonce sink under the Uornans, 
and in vain strive to save their groves, their druids, or 
the altars of lial from destruction ! To the Saxons they 
alike succumbed ; they, again, to the Danes ; and thi** 
lieteroaeneous l)reed to the Normans. Kmpire "was lost 
and gained by a single battle, and the laws and religion 
of the conipiered merged in those of the con<|uerors. ^ 
Contrast with these the llajpnts: not an iota of 
tlicir religion or pustoms have they lost, though many 
a foot of land. Some of their States have been expung- 
ed from the map of dominion : and, as a ])unishment 
of national inh.lclity, the pri<lc of the llahtore, and the 
glory of the Chalook, the over-grown Kanauj and gor- 
geou> Anhulwarra, are forgotten name> I Mcwar alone, 


the sacred bulwurk of rcli^'ion, never compromi.sed lier 
honour for her safety, jind still survives her ancient 
limits ; and since the brave Samnrsi gave up his life, the 
blood of lier princes has flowed in copious streams for 
tlu' maintenance of this honour, religion and mdepen- 

As the ancient Huidus were the bra.vest nation in the 
world, so difl they give to the world its greatest hero. Her- 
cules has been universally acknowledged to be the greatest 
warrior, the bravest and the most powerful man the world 
has ever produced. And Hei-cules was, in reality, a Hindu 
and not a Greek. Hercules was but Balram. This may 
sound paradoxical to those who have not studied compara- 
tive mytholog}', but to those who have done so there is 
nothinu; stranii:e in this statement. The word Ilcrcnlcs is 
derived from the Sanskirt word Heri-cul-es ('^'^Tfi^i^). 
Balram emii^rated to Greece after the ]\Iahabharata, and 
in consequence of the display of his wonderful feats of 
strength and valour there, the people of Greece began lo 
worship him as a god. 

Professor Heeren says : " We can hardly doubt that 
Bacchus and Hercules were both of them Hindu deities, 
since they are not only represented as objects of general 
worshi}), but the ])articular countries and places are also 
specified where both the one and the other had temples 
erected to their services (see Arrian, ]). 171, and Strabo, 
Vol, loth p. 4S!)). 

Diodorus says that Hercules was born amongst the 
Indians. " The combats to which Diodorns alludes are 

ilVl's llaju^tlian, Vul. I, p. 20'J. 

VAT.oi i:. .S9 

those ill the lo|[r<'n<1arv liaiuits of tin' HtTriilas dnrln.r 
tliL'ir twelve \(';irs f\il<' IV'-ii' »!'.• -.■■' -T i| 

Colonel '10(1 Ni^s : " ImmIi Krislina ami l;ai»U:«) 
(Pialrnm) or A|»oII() ami Hercules are rs (l(»r<ls) of th«' 
race (ciil) oC lleri (Heri-nil-cs), of which the (inn-ks 
minht have made the comMomjcl Hercules. Mji:lit not a 
colony after the Great W'-.iv have iniirrated \\'est\vanl ? 
The periled of ihe return of Hera<'li«lM', the desceiidantH 
of Atreus (Atri the proirenitor of the Ili-rieula (vrT^'?i) 
Avould answer : It was ulrout half a century after tiie 
Great War." 

After (h'scrihinc: the population of Hehar, Mr. 
Poeocke says: "Here then tlie historian is ])rt»Sfnt4'd 
Avitha primitive ])opulation in Hellas, not onlv from the 
Himalayas, hut from Pelasa, Mnirhada, <>r liahar, with 
correspond iuLT clans to enter Greece, and the cherished 
memory of their Chiefs, as the foun<lation of one of the 
jxodships of Ilellas, Thouirh Inildeva, the elder l>r<»thcr 
of Krishna, who was supj)osed to have perished in cross- 
ing the Himalaya mountains, succeeded ultimately in 
reaching Greece, where his renown heeame great, Krishna 
was doomed to ])erish in a lajid far distant from that 
country." - 

Colonel Tod cannot resist the inference that the 
Herculasof India and the Heracli(he of (ireece werec?)n- 
nected. Arrian notices the similarity of the Hindu and 
Theban Hercules, and cites as his authority the amhassii- 
dorof Seleucus, Mega'^^thenes. wlio siv- : •• H^ u-ed the 

^Tocl's Tiajasthan, Vol. I, y. ;;it. .\riuu a .-.If'iy ul Liiicul«.N J> \\w 
sanif as that given in llic ruraiias. 
'Iiulia in Greece, p. L'l^'.K 


siimc hal>it with the Theban, and is practically worshipp- 
ed by the Sureseni, who have two j^reat cities belonging 
to them, namely, Mathura and Clisoboros." 

The points of resemblance between the Hindu and 
the Tlieban Hercules are most striking, and irresistibly 
lead one to the conclusion that here at least similarity 
is sj'nonymous with identity, 

( 1 ) The Heraclidai claimed their origin from Atreus, 
the Hericulas from Atri. 

('2) Euristhenes w"as the first s^reat kinof of the Hera- 
clidie ; Yudhistira has sufficient affinity in his name to the 
first Spartiui king not to startle the etymologist — the (/ 
and r being always permutable in Sanskrit. 

(3) The Greeks or lonians are descended fi-om Yavan 
or Javan, the seventh from Japhet. The Hericulesare also 
Yavans claiming from Javan of Yavona, the thirteenth 
in decent from Yayat, the third son of the primeval 

(4) The ancient Heraclida? of the Greeks asserted 

that they were as old as the sun, older than the moon. 

May not this boast conceal the fact that the Hericulida^ (or 

Sur\'avansa) of Greece had settled there anterior to the 

colony of the Indu (Lunar) race of Hericulas ? Col. Tod 

says: "Amid^^t the snows of Caucasus, Hindu legends 

abandon the Hericulas under their leaders, Yudhistira and 

Baldeo : vet, if Alexander established his altars in Pan- 

rhalica amonijst the sons of Pooru and the Hericulas, 

what ])liysical im})ossil/ilitv exists that a colony of them 

nnder Yudhistira and lialdeo, eight centuries anterior, 

should have penetrated to Greece ? Comparatively far 

advanrcd in science and arms, the con(pifcsl would have 

bejii easy." 

VAIOI-R. 91 

(.'>) When Alexander a(tnrko<l tlio *' free cijic.*" «>f 
P:nKli:jlika,tlR' Poonis and the Ilfric-ulas wliooppnsfd iiim 
evinccil tlio recollcctiouf^ of tlicir ancestor, in (•:irr\ in"- tJic 
ligure of Hercules as tlicir standard.' 

Coinparixin proves a common ori;;iri to Hin<lu iini 
Greek nivtliolo«rv ; and IMato savs " the (jJrwks «lerived 
theirs from KL'-y|)t and the East. May not this colony 
of tlie lI(M'aclida' wlio penctrateil int(. I'elopontie.suH 
(accordinL,^ to Vohiey) l()7Sye;ir.s before Christ, l)C Hufli- 
ciently near our calculated |)eri(»d of tiie <Jreut War?"* 

" Mow refreshinL(," Coloncd Tod eonclu-. the 

mind yet to discover amidst tln^ ruins of tlje Yannma, 
Hercules (IJaldeo) retaijiin^ his cluh an<l lion's hiile." 

'"Tho innrtial Rajjuits hvo not Ktrangors to nrnu>riai bfiiriii 
so indiscriiuiuatoly usfd ill Kiircfc Tlio banner of Mfwjir i-\iii- 
bits a goldon sun nn a crimson fit-Id, those of tbo chiefs l)«'«r a <ln>:>f«'r. 
Amber displays the I'unchrangn, or five-colon rixi fla;;;. The linn r:>'ii- 
pant on an argent field, is extinet with tli«» State of Chan«I«'ri. In h'l- 
rope, these enstonis were not intrfxluoed till the pcri'Ki of th«' (V- ~ ' -. 
and were cojiied fmiH the Saracens, while the usr of them nni ...^ :.. 
Rajput tribes can lit' tracinl t.i n i.friud anf- ri<r t<« fhr war <">f Trr-y."— 
'' Iwliii in Greerc'' p. 1)2. 

-Tod's Kajasthan, Vol.1, p ">1. 



Oh fairest of creation ! last and best 
Of all God's works I Creature in whom execU'd 
Whatever can to sight or thonglit be formed 
Holy, divine, good, amiable, or sweet. 

— Milton : Paradise Lost. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer, the great a|X)stle of individaal 
freedom, says that the position of women supplies a 
good test of the civilization of a }>eopIe. 

Colonel Tod also says: "It is universall}' admitted 
that there is no better criterion of the refinement of a 
nation than the condition of the fair sex therein."^ 

The high position Hindu women have always 
occupied in India would, if this is true, argue a very 
advanced state of civilization in that country. Even 
of the modern Hindu society, Colonel Tod says : 
" If devotion to the fair sex be admitted as a crite- 
rion of civilization, the Rajput must rank very high. 
His susceptibility is extreme, and fires at the slightest 
offence to female delicacy, which he never forgives. A 
satirical impromtu, offending against female delicacv, 
dissolved the coalition of the Rahtores and Cutchwahas, 
and laid eacli prostrate before the Mahrattas, whoin 
wlien united they liad cruslied ; and a jest, apparently 
triviid, com])romised the right of promogcniture to the 
throne of Cliitor, and proved more disastrous in its conse- 
quences than the arms citlier oi" Mughuls or ]\[alirattas,"' 

1 Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. G09. 
2Tod's Kaja.ithan, Vol. 1. \u 27G. 

tin; position of womkn-. I):; 

Professor II. 11. Wilson says : "And it nmv U- ron- 
fidontlv asserted that in no nation of anti«|uitv wvm 
■\vonien lield in so nnicli esteem as anjon«^st the Ilindns,"' 

In Ancient Iiuha, howevi r, th«'V not onlv posHeswd 
equiditv of opportnnities witlyincn, hut enjoyed certain 
ri}i;hts and privilei^es not chiinicd hv the male sex. 1 he 
chivalrous treatment of women hy Ilindiin Ik well 
known to all who know anythiiiLfof Hindu siH'iety. 

''Strike not even with a hlossom a wife ;ruilty of a 
liunch'cd faults," says a Hindu saj^e, *' a sentiment wi 
tlelieate," savs Colonel T<xl *' that Kiii;nald-de-Horn, the 
prince of troubadours, never uttered any more refined. "'•* 

^lanu (C'hai)ter \. I'M)) savs: •" The mouth of a 
woman is consUmtlv pure." and he ranks it with the 
running" waters and the sunbeam."* He idso hjivk 
(Chapter II. 1^3), " wliere the females are honoured, 
there the deities are pleased ; but where di^honoureo, 
there all religious rites become useless." 

The Hindus seem to have laid special stres8on honour- 
in<4 the wife and trcatin^^ her with tvcr-incrensinij ddicaiy. 
The nearest api)roach to these ideas are the views of .Mr. 
Herbert Spencer, who in a letter dated the l<Sth March 
184"), to his friend Lott, says : " And on this ground 
I conceive that instead of tliere being, as is commonly 
the case, a greater familiarity and carelessness with 
regard to appearances Ixjtween husband and wife, 

1 Mill's History of Iiulin, Vol. II, p. ol. 

••iloa's Rajastliaii. V..1. 1. \>. i".!!. 

3TIiP women air recouinu'iulca "to proscno a rlifH?rfnI t«»nip.r " »n.l 
.t.> ivmain always >>.lUlrcsscJ. " H the uitV \k not olr^nntly •Itiml 
she will not exhilarate her hiKbaiul. .V wife gaily BdorueU. the whole 
house is ciiibellislK'd." 

94 HINDU surtuioRiTY. 

there ought to be a greater delicacy than between any 
other parties."^ 

A rather forcible illustration of this view is the 
reply of tlie Hariji, cpieen of the famous Kaja Jai Singh 
of Jaipur. One day when the Eaja was alone with the 
queen, he began playfully, to contrast the sweeping /i/y^e 
of Kotah with the more scanty robe of the belles of his 
capital ; and taking up a pair of scissors, said he would 
reduce it to an equality with the latter. Offended at his 
levitv, she seized his sword, and assuming a threatening 
attitude, said, " that in the house to which she had the 
honour to belong, they were not habituated to jests of 
this nature ; that mutual respect was the guardian not 
only of ha])piness but of virtue ;" and she assured hin.i 
that if he ever again so insulted her, he would find that 
the daughter of Kotah could use a sword more effectively 
than the prince of Amber the scissors. - 

^lanu commands that " whoever accosts a woman 
shall do so by the title of sister, and that way must be 
made for her even as for the aged, for a priest, a prince, 
or a bridegroom ;" and, in the law of hospitality, he 
ordains that pregnant women, brides, and damsels shall 
have food before all the other guests." (Education, art. 

The legal status of a wife in ancient India and her 
equal treatment with her husband is thus defined by 
^lanu, the great lawgiver of the Hindus : — 

1. If a wife dies, her husband may marry another 
wife. (Manu, Chapter V, verse 1G8). 

nieibcrt Spencer's Autuhiogmphy, Vul. I. p. 208. 
-Trid's Hajastliaii, A''ol. I. p. Oi'G. 

THK rr^sirioN ok \\imfn. i)5 

If ii liusl>jm<l «lii's, a wiff may inarrv anotli. r 

liushaii.l (Maim, .luutcd hy Maillmva ant) \. 

Hatha Dikshita ; Parasara ; Xara«la : ^'a^navalkvn, 
quoted bv Krishnacharya Smrili ; A<:iii I'luana : Smriti, 
(juoted by Clietti Koiu-ri Acliarya and -lananlHim 

"2. It a wife Imjcoidcs fallt-n by drunkmucHH or im- 
moralitv, Ikt liusliand mav niairv another (Manu, 
C'haptcr IX, verse 80 ; Yagnavalkva, piL'e 416, veruc 

It a husband l)econic> fallen, a wife ii,., ^ re-inarrv 
another husband (Mann, (|uoled by Madiiava and 
several other authorities above mentioned). 

3. If a wife be barren, her Inisband jnay marrv 
another wife (Manu, ('ha})ter IX, verse Si). 

If a husband be imjjotent >he n)av marrv another 
husband (Mann, and several other authorities (juotcd 
above) . 

4. In })articular cireumstanees, a wife may ccflsc 
to cohabit with her husband (Manu, Chapter IX, 
verse 79). 

■). If a husband deserts his wife, she may marry 
another. (Manu, Chapter IX, verse 7li, and tjeveral 

(i. If a wife treats her husl)and with aversion, he 
may cease to cohabit with her. (Manu, Chapter I\. 
verse 77). 

7. A husband must be revered (Manu, Chapter 
V, verse 154). 

A wife nuist be honoured by the husband (Manu, 
Chapter III, verse 55). 


S, A fTOod wife irradiates the house and i.s a i>od- 
des< of wealth (Manu, Chapter IX, verse 2(5). 

A trood husband makes his wife entitled to honour 
(Manu, Chapter X\, verse 28). 

The hiiih ethical teaching's of the Hindu Shastras 
prepared the men to assign to women a peculiarly j^ri- 
vileged position, keeping them safe from the rough and 
degrading work that now often falls to their lot in the 
AVest, in consequence of the severe struggle for existence 
raging there. While providing the freest possible scope 
for the exercise of their peculiar gifts, which cnal)led 
thooi to achieve in the superlative degree, the high and 
noble work which it is the privilege of women to perform 
for the well-being and advancement of a people, the ancient 
Hindu constitution not only accorded to them the position 
which the mothers, the sisters, the wives, and the daughters 
of the highest and the lowest in the nation are justly 
entitled to, but which enabled their true feminine 
nature and character to receive full development, so as to 
fulfil their high destiny of giving to the world a race of 
men yet unequalled in intellect, character and energy. 

In Europe, as well as in India, the woman is stvled 
" the half of the man " — in Europe, as "the better half," 
in India, siinpl)^ as Ardhaju/iiii (lit. half-self). In Eu- 
rope, however, it is a meaningless phrase, rather point- 
ing to the desirability of assigning woman a position 
Avhich is hers bv nature than siunifvinii: the ijosition 
actually occupied l)y her — showing the desirable l)ut vet- 
unattained ideality rather than, as amongst the Hindus, 
an actual reality. No doubt there are women in J^uro])e, 
wlio as wives, are treated by their husbands with the 
same res])ect .uid genorons consideration as Iliiifhi 
ladies command in all trulv Hindu laniilics. True, in 

THK I'o.sniu.N OF ui.\rF.v. 07 

every iiradc of Murojx'Mii soci«»tv womkmi arc to l><» met 
Avitli, whose |)ositioii, dnmcstic :is well as sofial, is not 
oiiK pcrlrclU- lia]t[)\- aii<l sat i>ract(»r\', l)Ut, (o all oiit\var«l 
a|)|>('araiu'e, looks jiiuh<r than tliaf on j«)V('.l liv llicir Iliii<lii 
^sisl(•^s : True also, that I'airoj>c:iii women ctijov in 
some respects, and in eertaiti directions, privilei^os neither 
enjoyed hy any Asiatic women nor desireil hy them. 
They onj(\v a freedotn of action in certain matt<'rs whii h 
is not onl}' one of the distinniiishini^ featnres of the I'ai- 
ropean civilization, l)ut emj)hasi/es the neiration of all 
tliat is meant hy art/Iian;ini or the half. In Mnrope, 
woman has a distinct individuality of her own, which 
flom'ishes independently of man, though hy his side an<l 
coimected with him. l><^th men and women there lead 
separate, distinct, indej»endent lives, alheit Nature and 
necessity compcd them to live together. Not so in 
India. Woman has no distinctive, in<le|K'n<lent indivi- 
duality in Hindu social pf)lity. Frum her hirth to her 
death she is a part of man, and cannot he separated from 
him. With niarriai^e, she merires her individuality into 
her husbjuid's, and both ton;ether form a >inLde entity in 
society. The one without the other is only a part and 
not a whole. 

It must not, however, he stijiposed that the woman 
loses herself in the man, and is therefore inferior to liim. 
The man, too, after his union with woman is, like her, 
only a part of the social entity. All important n-liirious, 
social, and domestic concerns of life recognise the entity 
only when it is complete, /.^., formed of a man and a 

In Euro})C, the power ami position enjoyedhy woman 
are not recognised bv the authority which sanctions all 


social law, and on Avliich tlie entire fabric of society is 
ultimately based. ^\'hat position and privilege she 
eniovs she evidently cannot claim as of riuht — a riiilit 
inherent in and inseparable from womanhood. In some 
of the most important concerns of life she is utterly 
ii^nored. Xot so amcMigst the Hindus. In India she is 
in possession of her rights, which no power on earth 
can take away from her. The Hindu woman is not in- 
debted, like her European sister, for her position to a 
man's love or affectionate reg-ard or to the exigencies of 
social life. It is her birthright, inalienable, and recog- 
nised by all ; it lives with her and dies with her. Man 
is as much subject to it as the woman is to a man's. 
Take, for instance, the most important concern of life, the 
warria'je. In Euro])e, the father gives away the 
daughter ; in his absence, the bri^ther, or the uncle or some 
near male relation, as the case may be. He by himself 
performs this sacred and most important function in life. 
Where comes in the heMer lialf oi the father, the brother, 
the' uncle or the other relation ? She has no place in 
the rite, no hn-as standi^ no indispensable, inalienable 
position in the function. She is not a necessary pnrty. 
She may be hapjiy in the event and join the festivities, 
l)Ut she is an utter outsider so far as the rite itself — the 
right of giving awa\ — is concerned. Ihit what do we 
find in India? Amongst the Hindus, in order that the 
ceremony of giving away (called I\;Miyadan) may be com- 
])lete, the (U'dhaiii/ 111, or (he wife of the father, the brother, 
tiu- uneh; or the (jtlier male relative nuist take j);U'r in it. 
The "giving awav' i> not complete lill the husband and 
the wife b'^th <lo it. Xay, there is scmething more to 
mark the unalterabh; position of the wife as the 

Tin: I'lisirinN or womkx. '"'" 

"otlierh:ilf "of'tlicliushiiinl. If, owiiiLrtoaiiy.'ansc — ilcatli, 
illnoss or iinavoidiiMc aliscm-c — tlii' bottor half of the; 
lather, l)rothir (»r tiic other relative cannot be prt'sent at 
tile Sacra inoMt, a piece of cloth or somethint; else is j>lace<l 
by his side as a substitute for her, to show that he, 
by hiinseir, is «)nly an iiiconi|)lete imliviibial, and 
cannot perform the most iniportant functions of life 
unless and until joined by his wife. An<l it is not 
so with niarriai^e only. From the marriaj^i? down to 
a dip in the sacred (TaiiLTcs ; the worship of the sacred 
Ixir tree (tlie Ficus Indica) in the /w/r 7V;y// ceremony :' 
the woi'shi]) of the household ^oils, and other simple, 
ordinary duties, ordained by reliirion or sanctioned bv 
social usau;(;, no ceremony is comi)lete uidess tlu' wife joins 
the husband in its perfoi-mance. ^^'Ilat a difference hert* 
between the respective positions of the Kuro|>ean and 
the Hinchi woman I Ifou inferior is the j)osition of a 
European W(jman to that of her Hindu sister I W ith 
all the love and devotion she receives and the fr(e<iom of 
action she enjoys, she in I'.uropc is even now as far 
away from the j)osition of the other half of a man as she 
was two thousand years a«^o. l>ut society in Kurop • ■ 
still in its making;. Important and far-reachini^ chanu;e.-> 
will yet have to be made before it arrives at a stage of 
evolution, when it will come into line with its sister ori^a- 
nizatiou, the Hindu society, as it is found in the Ssistras. \y 
In the West, women's sj)here is yet limited ; N 
women's position yet precarious, owinir to the selHsli 
and hypocritical conduct of man, the pro«luct of a 
material civilization divorced from spiritual ideals. 

' When the wifo keops a fast for three days. 


Their principal interest in pu))lic nfFuirs, however, is 
directed to secure for themselves riglits which they 
regard as essential to assure their position in the cold, 
pitiless struggle for existence, which respects neither 
age nor sex. In ancient India people never thought 
oF usurping from women their rights and privileges. 
They were safe from the turmoil of life ; they were 
secure against the attacks which all have to meet who 
are governed by the complicated machinery of a civiliza- 
tion based on the worship of Mammon, with its horizon 
bounded by the desires, aspirations and capabilities of 
the physical man. 

Sri Madhavacharya says that Draupadi's part in 
the administration of the empire was to instruct the 
subjects as to the duties and riglits of women, super- 
intend the management of the Palace and its treasuries, 
to assist in the manaij:ement of the finances of the 
empire, and to supervise the religious institutions of the 

The character and ideals of Hindu women may be 
inferred from the conduct of Maitreye, wife of Yagya- 
valka, who declined to accept the estate offered to her 
by her husband, on his entering the thiid Ashram 
( Vanaprasta. ) She told him that she also would like 
to havi' that which he was going in search of, and that, 
if I lie estate had been worth havinij:, he would not 
have given it away. 

Avvayar, I)am3anti and Savitri were women 
whose lives would have purilied the national life of any 
people. The learning of Gargya, the intellect and 
character <)f I'ara, \\\c (idclitv of Anasuva and the 
devotion and love of Sita would do honour to any nation. 

Tin; i'o.shiun ..k wkmkx. U>1 

The cdurauc mikI Nalniir <li>jtlav('<l l)V KtkaNi in ilic 
hattle-ru'ltl 1)\ the .side of Dasratlia are iu» !«•» rt-inark- 
ai)le than tlic heroism displavtMl hv SatvaMuuiia, of 
v.huiii .Madhavacharya .-^ays that, when she saw hi-r 
hii.sbanil liri'd and liis eiieinv exulting in .stri:n;^lh, hh« 
foni^ht with hint and d('|)riv('(| him <»f his arms. Thesi? 
facts show tliat in ancient times llje women of India 
were not unused to warfare, and that they aeeompanied 
tlieir husl)ands evervwliere. I'liey did not lead sechided 
lives; thi-v were not kept in the zenana. The pardah 
system, wliieh marks the a<lvent into In<lia of foreiiiuers 
of a much lower civilization, was unknown in aiieiiiit 


It has sometimes hccii urnctl l>v men nnac(|uainted 

with the social life of the Hindus that the fact that 
dauu;hters do not share in tiie paternal pro|M'rtv in tlie 
same way as tlie sons, and tliat the widow doo not share 
eipially witli lier sons the property left hy tlie husl»and, 
arnie a l(»w state of civilization amon«;st tliein. In 
the first place, the law of inheritjuice in this resjH'ct 
is no proof of tlu' iii.i;h or the low retinement of a people ; 
or the Aral)s would be held to be more rt-fined than thtr 
Hindus. In the second place, it is not a fact that womim 
do not iidierit or are incompitent to hold proj>erty. 

Professor Wilson says : " Tlu;ir riirht to property is 
fully recognised and fully secured/" He also says: " In 
the absence of direct male heirs, widows succeed to a 
life interest in real, and absolute interest in personal |»ro- 
perty. Next, dauL^hters inherit absolutely. Where there 
are sons, mothers and daui^hters are entitled to .'♦hares, 
and wives hold peculiar j)roj)erty from a variety of 
'Mill'a Uistory vl ludia, p. 416. foutnute. 


sourcos, besides those specified by the text, over wliich 
a husband has no power duriiii^ their lives, and which 
descends to their own heirs, Avith a preference in some 
cases to females. It is far from correct, therefore, to 
say that wc^iiien amonii'st the fiiiuUis are excluded from 
the rights of property." 

Commenting' on Mr. rJames Mill's opinion tliat ac- 
cording to ^lanu (Chapter IV, 4o) women among the; 
Hindus are excluded from sharing in the paternal pro- 
perty, Professor Wilson snys : " Thc^ reference is incor- 
rect, so is the law ; as the passage in the first volume 
adverted to mii^dit have shown had the writer remem- 
bered it. For, after stating in the text, in the same un- 
fjualitied manner, that daughters are altogether debarred 
from a share, it is mentioned in a note that those 
M'ho are unmarried are to receive portions out of 
tlu'ir brothers' allotments. It is mere (piibbling, there- 
foi'e, to say they have no shares. But the more important 
question, as affecting the position of Avomen in society, 
is not merely the shares of daughters, although this is 
artfully put forward as if it was decisive of the rights 
of the wiiole sex, but what rights women have in regard 
to property ; and as we have already shown, the laws do 
not very materially differ in this respect from those 
which are oKserved in the civilized countries of modern 

Forei<j:ners iml)ibe unfavourable notions regarding 
the position of Hindu women from their ignorance of 
the working of Hindu society and of the principles 
on whicli it is based. T\w. Hindu law of inheritance in 
this respect is somewhat different from that obtaining in 
Europe, l)ut in no way bcliind the latter in safeguarding 
the posiiicm of women. 

1 Mill's History of India, Vol. I, p. 401, 

Tiir, rosiTioN or womiv. ]i)'\ 

Whon inoH in :ill ixnulcs <)f sociotv ro('ofnif»<' tlic 
rights and privik-i^cs of women, and the social sv-'^N-ni of 
the nation is so fraincil a>. to provide means in inlonc 
those rii^hts, the aid of leu:islation hecomes nnnccewHiiry. 
Those who arc acf)uaintod with the workinufof the soeial 
system of the Hindus know that the ri^dits of women are 
recoi'nised in a far njore sni)stantial manner than hv 'dv- 
inijf them a eertain ])ortion of tlie iidieritence in linal 
settlement of all their elaims on the family. 

Kespect for feminine natnre, considerations of 
honour and chivalry towanls the sex, and the in^rrained 
feelina; of reirard and esteem for womanhood, nri:ed the 
Hindus to take measures to safei^nard the position of 
woman aii^ainst all possible but avoidable contingencies. 
A woman aecordinu-lv has claims on her father and 
brothers and sons for a suitable maintenance under all 
circumstances. A father may leave nothinir to his sons, 
yet they are bound to suitably maintain their motlier ho 
lonij as she ia alive. 

Sisters claim maintenance, their marria«je «^xpenses, 
and ])resGnts on all ceremonial occasions, no matter wiu*- 
ther their brothers have inherited any paternal esUite or 
not. And, not dauirhters and sister.^ alone enjoy such 
riiihts in Hincbi society. Their children, t(^), have ccrtniii 
"well-defined claims, and Hindu society mesuis to 
see that those elaims are satisfied. Tiie ciTcnumial insti- 
tutions of the Hindus controlled by the caste origan i /at ion, 
reco«^nise and fulfil these obliijations. Those who arc 
ac([uainted with the inner workini,^ of Hindu society 
know that the sisters and the dauL,diters not only enjoy 
certain rights in connection with every festival ami every 
event of importance in their father's an<.l brothers' faini- 



lies — nt ^ctmc of Avliich functions tlioy play the lending 
])!irt. hut that even after their niai-riaaes their coiuieetion 
■with the families in whicli they were born is one of a 
jierennial flow towards them of presents and i^ifts, to 
whieh they are entitled by social law, irrespective of the 
relations existinii" between them bcini>' cordial or strained. 

Thus, while their rights are secured a^-ainst contin- 
frencies, women altog-ether get from their fathers and 
brothers far more than is generally received by them 
anywhere else in Europe or Asia. Moreover, the joint 
Hindu family system is highly conducive to the preserva- 
tion of their inHriCncc — in some respects predominent — in 
the families in which tiiej^ were born. 

Even at the present day, though the women are not 
so prominent, their influence is supreme. They talk 
slander and tell mischievous falsehoods who say that the 
Hindu women are prisoners in the zenana, that their 
condition is a pitiable one, that they claim the pliilan- 
tlu'opic efforts of men and women to alleviate their hard 
lot, and that they deserve all the sympathy that suffering 
humanity may receive. Colonel Tod says : " The super- 
ficial observer, who applies his own standard to the cus- 
toms of all nations, laments, with an afliected philan- 
thropy, the degraded condition of the Hindu female, in 
which sentiment he would find her little disposed to 
join. He })articularly laments her want of liberty and 
calls her seclusion, imprisoimient. From the knowledge 
1 possess of the freedom, the respect, the hapj)iness 
which liajput women enjoy, I am by no means inclined 
to (h'plore their state as one of captivity." And, who 
does not know tiiat amongst no ])eople in India is pardah 
observed more strictly than by the Kajputs? 

TIIK InSITlON <»I WoMrv. 10.^ 

Ev(M'v SiiMskrit s(li(»l:ir knows in what rosfv»ct nw\ 
vonoi'iition Indies liko (JarirvM, I )r:iu|»:i«li, Sakuiitala, 
Mandod.-iri, :iii<l Kiikiiiani' wci-c held. \\'li<» can listen, 
■witlioiit admiral ion and >lroni^ rniotion, t<» llii; cvlc;l»ratrd 
I'orcst spccicli ol' Dranpadi, after tlie Nanishrncnt of tlie 

'• llindn female devotion ' is a liaeknevtid jdirnw. 
Colonel Tod says : "Nor will the annals of any nation 
atl'ord more numerous or more suMiine inst:nices of 
female devotion than those of the Rajputs."- Even in 
media'val ai^es, India produced ^vonu•n that wouhl mak(» 
the darkest page of history resplendent. *' Tiie annal> of 
no nation on earth," says Colonel Tod, '' reccjrd a more 
eiuioblinii; ov more nia;i'nanim()us instance "i" !'. to ''•• 
loyalty than exem])lilied by Dewalde, nioii;. i oi luc 
Binafur brothers."' 

As the inciilent allude<l to al)ove thnnvs a tlood of 
liiiht on the high character of the Ka jput women, and 
fully illustrates thecouunanding inlluenee tlicy exercise 
in society, a short account of tliis inspiring cj)is<Mle that 
occurred Avhen Hindu indej»endencc was alnjut to be 
overthrown, may well be inserted. 

While the last Hindu empenjr of India, the chival- 
rous Prithviraj, was returning to Delhi from Sanieta, 
some of the wounded, wIk* covered his retreat, wen! 
assailed and put tc dc:ith by I'armal, the Chundail prince 
of Mahoba. In order to avenge this insult, the emperor 

'Within the last 100 years, the name «»f Maharani Ahalrabai 

Ilnlkiir was prominently before the world. She i-. kuown from the 
Himalayas to Cape Coniorin, and her memory is n .(n illv M..rvl,;, : ,..? 
in some places. 

^Tod's Rajablhau, Vul. J, i'. GIU. ^lud's Kajastbau, Vul. I, p. 01 1. 


invaded the territory of the Cliundail, ^vhose troops were 
cut to pieces at Sirswah. The Chniidail l)y the advice o£ 
his queen, Mahnidevi, demanded a truce of his adver- 
sary, on the plea of the absence of his cliieftains, Ala and 
Udila. The envoy found the Chohan ready to cross the 
Pahouj. The chivalrous Prithviraj, unused to rofusin^^ 
such requests, f^ranted the truce. 

The two brothers, Ala and TTdila, the Sardars of 
Mohaba, had been made to abandon their home because 
Ala had refused to part with one of his mares which 
Parmal desired to possess. They went away to Kanauj, 
where they were received with open arms by Jai Chand. . 

The bard, Yagnuk, now repaired to Ivanauj to beg 
the two heroes on behalf of Parmal to return to Ma- 
hoba, as their fatherland demanded their services. He 
said, " the Chohan is encamped on the j)lains of Maho- 
ba, Nursinf]^ and BirsinG;' have fallen, SirsAvah is 
i»-iven to the flames, and the Kingdom of Parmal laid 
waste by the Chohan. For one month a truce has been 
obtained, while to you I am sent for aid in his griefs. 
Listen, Oh sons of Pinafur, sad have been the days of 
]\Ialundevi since you left ]\Iahoba ! Oft she looks to- 
wards Kanauj ; and, while she recalls you to mind, 
tears f^ush from her eyes and she exclaims, 'the fame of 
the Chundail is dopartinir, but when gone, Oh, sons of 
Jasraj, great will be your self-accusing sorrow ! yet, think 
f.f Mahoba.' " '^ 

" Destruction to ^Mahoba ? Annihilation to the 
Chundail, who, without fault, expelled us our home ; in 
whose service fell onr father, l)v whom his kina:dom was 
extended. Send the slanderous Purihara — let him lead 
your armies against the heroes of Delhi. Our heads 

TIIK l'i»Mlli»N m. \V(.Mi:\. I(i7 

were tlio ])ill:n's of M:ili<>lta ; l)y us \v<rc tlic (icimikIh 
I'XjX'lIcil.and tlu'ir strou^lioMx. 1 )c(.m;,i-|i aurj (;|i:iinll»:iri, 
uiltird to liis s\va\. W'c iiiaiiilaiiu'(| (In- licl.l a•^•lillst tin- 
rlailoou, sacked 1 1 iudow n. niid plaiilcd liis standard nu 
the plains of Iviillair. It wa-- I (cnntiimed Ala) wiio 
stopped the s\v»)i-.l (.1' the conipierin^- ( 'ntehwaha. 'I'he 
Amirs of th(! Sidtaii lied hefori' ii>. At <I\a we wen* 
vietorioiis, and added Kewah to his kini,'<loni. 'Antcrvi-d' 
I u;ave to tiie llanies and U'velled to the "ground the towns 
ol Mewat. From ten jirinecs did .lasraj i)rinix sj>oil to 
Mahoba. This liave we done; and tlii' reward is exile 
from oui' home ! Scxcn times lia\e I recei\i:d W(imld■^ 
ill his ser\ ice, and since my I'atlier's <leatli ;it>iiied f«irt\' 
l)attles ; and iVmii seven has Udila ronveved tiie rec<ir<l 
(>r \ ictory to Piirmal. Thrice my death sei'ined im-vit- 
ahle. The lionoiir ot" his house 1 liavi' nplield — vet 
exile is mv reward." 

The hard replies: — '• The father of I'armal left him 
Avlieu a child to the care of Jasraj. ^'<>nr faiiier was in 
lieu of his own ; the son should not ahandon him when 
inisforimie makes him call <»n you. Tlie llajput who 
ahaiKlons his sovereign in ili^ will he j)lunged into 
liell. Then ]»lace on your lietid the loyalty of your 
father. Can you desire to remain at Kanaui while he 
is in trouble who expended thousands in rejoiein«is for 
your hirtli ? Malundevi (the «pieen), who loves you a.s 
her own, presses your return. She bids me demand of 
Dewalde, fullilmont of the oft-repeated vow that your 
life and Mahoba, when endangered, were inseivirable. 
The breakers of vows, despised on earth, will Iw 
plunged into hell, there to remain while sun and moon 


108 HINDU sunnuoKiTV. 

Dewalde lieard the message of the queen. "Let us 
ily to ]\I:ihoba," she exclaimed. Ala was silent, while 
Udila said aloud, " May evil spirits seize upon Mahoba. 
Can you forget the day when, in distress, he drove us 
forth ? Return to Mahoba — let it stand or fall, it is the 
same to me ; Kanauj is henceforth my home.'' 

" AVould that the gods had made me barren," said 
Dewalde, " that I had never borne sons who thus aban- 
don the paths of tlie Rajput, and refuse to succour 
their prince in danger." Her heart bursting with grief, 
and her eves raised to heaven, she continued : " Was 
it for this, universal lord, thou mad'st me feel a 
mother's pangs for these destroyers of Binafur's fame ? 
Un worth V offspring ! the heart of the true Rajput 
dances with joy at the mere name of strife — but ye, de- 
generate, cannot be the sons of Jasraj — some carl must 
have stolen to my eml)race, and from such ye must 
be sprung." This was irresistible. The young Chiefs 
arose, their faces withered in sadness. " When we pe- 
rish in defence of ^lahoba, and, covered with wounds, 
l)erform deeds that will leave a deathless name, when 
our heads roll in the fields, when we embrace the valiant 
in fight, and, treading in the foot-steps of the brave, make 
resplendent the blood of both lines, even in the presence 
of the heroes of the Chohan, then will our mother re- 

The chieftains took leave of the King of Kanauj 
and returned to Mahoba. On their return a grand 
Council assembled at a final deliberation, at which the 
ninther of the Jiinafurs and the ([ueen ^ilalundevi were 
present. Tiie latter thus opens the debate : " Oh, mother 
oi Ala, liuw may we succeed against the lord of tlie 

Tin: vosirioN ok \vi>\i\:s. Idl) 

world ? If (IcftTitcd, lost is Mahol):! ; if wo |>jiv trilnitr, 
we are loacUnl with sliMine." DrwiiMc n'C(»inmrii(lK 
hearinu; scridfim tln' oj)init)n.s of tlu- ciiicfUniiH, wIumi 
Ala thus .s|)eaks : "Listen, ( )h mnfhcr, to your son ! 
he alone is of pure linea^-e, who, jilacin^^ loyalty on hin 
head, abandons all thoughts of self, and lays down his 
life for his j)rince ; my thoii,i,d»ts an; only for Parnjal. If 
she' lives, she will show herself a woman or cmnnatiini 
of Parvati. The warriors of Sanihhiir shall Ih' cut in 
pieees. I will so illustrate tht* blood of my fathers tiiat 
my fame shall last for ever. My son, Kendal, Oh prince! 
I bequeath to yon, and the fame of Di'walde is in your 
keej)ing.'' Tiu' ([nccn thus replies: '' The warriors of 
the Chohan are (ieree as tlu-y are numcnjus ; pay tri- 
bute, and saveMahoba." The; soul of Udila was inllamcil, 
and turnin!4" to the rpieon s;ii(l " Why thoui^ht you not 
thus when you slew the defenceless ? but then I was 
unheard. Whence now your wisdom ? thrice I beseech- 
ed you to })ardon. Nevertheless ^lahoba is safe while 
life remains in me, and in yoiu* cause, Oh I'armal ! we 
shall espouse celestial brides." 

"Well have you spoken, my son," said Dewalde, 
"notiiinii' now remains but t<j make thv parent's milk 
resplendent by thy dee<ls. The calls of the j>e;is;int 
driven from his home meets the ear, and while wc <leli- 
berate, our villages are given to the llames." JJut Parmal 
replied : " Saturn rules the day, to-morrow we shall meet 
the foe," With indignation, Ala turned to the king: 
" He who can louk tamcbj on ichile the smoke ascends jrum 
his ruined toicns^ his fields laid waste, can be no Jiajput: 
he who succumbs to fear when his countnj is invaded. 

^ lliiidus do uot cull tbcir wives now-a-day l>y thi-ir uaiuo$>. 


his body will he plunu'ed into the hell o£ hells, his soul 
a waiulerei- in the world of spirits for sixty thousand 
years ; hut the warrior who perforins his duty will Ix' 
received into the mansion of the sun, and his deeds will 
last f(H' ever." 

The heroes embraced their Avivcs for the last time, 
and with the dawn, performed their pious rites. Then 
Ala, calling his son Eendel and TJdila, hit^ brother, he 
once more poured forth his vows to the universal mother, 
" that he would illustrate the name of Jasraj, and evince 
the pure blood derived from Dewalde, whenever he met 
the foe." "Nobly, have you resolved," said Udila, " and 
shall not my kirhan^ also dazzle the eyes of Sambhur's 
lord ? Shall he not retire from before me ? " " Fare- 
well, my children," said Dewalde, "be true to your salt, 
and should you lose your heads for your prince, doubt 
not you will obtain the celestial crown." Having ceased, 
the wives of both exclaimed, " wdiat virtuous wife sur- 
vives her lord ? For, thus says Goriji, "the won)an who 
survives her husband wdio falls in the field of l)attle will 
never obtain bliss, but wander a discontented ghost in 
the region of unhallowed spirits." 

The fidelity of a nurse is well exemplified by the 
conduct of Pumia, the dhai of Udai Singh, son of 
Sanga, who was a Kheechee I\aj])utani, when lhuil)ir, 
after killing the Uana, Bikramjit, entered the Uaola- to 
kill the luir-apparent, Udai Singh, also. Aware that one 
murder was the precursor of another, the faithful nurse 
put her charge into a fruit basket, and covering it with 
leaves, she delivered it to the bari^ enjoining him to es- 
cape wiih it from the fort. Scarcely had she time to 

^ A sciuiitar. "Queen's quarters in the [lalace, 

TIIF rn<ITlf>\ nl \vn\\r\\ 1 1 1 

suhstitutc lior oavii iiifaiil in tlio room «.r tlio princo, wlirn, ciitLriiiL!", t'ii(|uir('(l for liiiii, Ilcr li|).s n-fiiT*! 
tluir oliicf, >\iv jM>iiiti'il to the crjKllr, and l)rli<l.l tli<- 
niuiik'rons steul l)nri('«l in the luan of in-r IhiIk,'. ' 

Tlic ('Xj)lnits of tile lurnic 'V:\rn \W\ i)( l'u*(lii«'j<- ;iii.l 
t.boso of h(M- i;;>li:inr Iiiish iicl, I'ritlivira j. tlic hrotlicr of 
the cclt'l)ratc(l Raiia Saii^a, who ojiposcd IVihiT at Itiaiia, 
would li^ivo a. ck'ar idea of the dominatiiiix intliieiirc 
which tlie Uaj|»ut fair exercise not only in tin- formation 
of lia ji)nr character l)nt on Ka jputcondnct throULfkiont life 

Colonel Tod savs: '' Tara Hai was the dau'diter of 
liao Snrtan, the chieftain of iiednore. He was of the 
Solunki trihc, the lineal de><ccndanc of the famed lialhara 
kings of Anhuhvara. Thence cx|>elled l)y the urni.H 
of Alia in the thirteenth century, they miijrato<l to 
Central India, an<l olitained possession of Tonk-Thoda 
and its lands on the IVinas, which from remote timoH 
had been occnpie«l (perliaps fo\mded) hy tlic Taks, and 
hence hore the name of Taksilla-nagar, faiuiliarly Takit- 
].ur and Thoda. Surtan had been deprived of Thoda 
by Lilla the Afghan, an<l nov»' occuj>ied I>ethK)rc at the 
loot of the Aravalli, witjiin the IkmukIs of Mewar. 
Stimnlate(l by tlie reverses of her family, and l»y the 
incentives of its ancient glory, Tara l>ai, scorning tlio 
liabiliments and occujiations of her sex, learned to gsiide 
the war-horse, and to throw with unerring aim the arrow 
from his back, even while at sp<>ed. Armed with the 
bow and (piiver, and moimted on a liery Kathyawar, 
she joined the cavalcade in their unsuccessful atte'npts 
to wrest Thoda from the Afghan. dai:nnl, tiie tliird 
son of Kana Rai Mul, in ])erson nia<le projxisds for her 

1 Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 315. 

112 HINDU surEuioiUTV. 

liaiul. 'licdocni Thodn,' said the star of Bednorc, 'and 
my liand is thine.' He assented to the terms ; but 
cvincinij; a rnde determination to be possessed of the 
prize ere he had earned it, he was slain by the indignant 
father. Pirthiraj, the brother of the deceased, was 
then an exile in ]\Iar\var ; he had just signalized his 
valour and ensured his fother's forgiveness, by the 
redemption of Godwar, and the catastrophe at Bednore 
determined him to accept the gage thrown down to 
J:umul. Fame and the bard had carried the renown of 
Pirthiraj far beyond the bounds of Me war ; the name 
alone was attractive to the fair, and when thereto he 
^vho bore it added all the chivalrous ardour of his pro- 
totype, the Chohan, Tara IJai, with the sanction of her 
father, consented to be his, on the simple asseveration 
that 'he would restore to them Thoda or he was no true 
Kajput.' The anniversary of the martyrdom of the 
sons of Alii was the season chosen for the exploit. 
Pirthiraj formed a -select band of five hundred cavaliers 
and accompanied by his bride, the fair Tara, Avho insisted 
on partaking of his glory and his danger, he reached TlKxla 
at the moment the tazzia or bier containing the martyr- 
brothers, was placed in the centre of the chouk or 

* sfpiare.' Tlie prince, Tara Bai and the faithful 

* Senger Chief, the inseparable companion of Pirthiraj, 
left their cavalcade and joined the procession as it jiassed 
inider the balcony of the palace, in which the Afghan 
■was putting on his dress ])reparatory to descending. Just 
as lie had asked who were the strange horsemen that 
had joined the, throng, the lance of Pirthiraj and an 
arrow from the bow of his Amazonian bride stretched 
him on the tluor. Before the crowd recovered from the 

Tiir r«..siri,,x ..f wo\fEv. ii;j 

\\ m:i"u 

panic, the thr.'c had n'aclicd the ^^nUi of the l-.un. 
thi'ir exit was ()l)striK'tefl hy an ••Icphant. Tarn 
\vith her scimitar divided hi- trunk, and tlie animal tlv- 
i"n» l-^i^' joined tlicir cavalcade, which was close at 

'' The Afiihans were encountered, and oidd not stand 
the attick. Tiiosc who <]id not llv were cut to pitx^es ; 
an<l the «rallant Prithiraj inducted th«' father of hi;, 
bride into his inheritance. A brother of the Af-dians, 
in his attein])t to recov(T it, lost his life. The Xawab, 
Mulloo Khan, then holdini;- Ajmer, determined to oi)jm)3c 
the Sesodia prince in person, wIk^, resolved upon beini:^ 
the assailant, advanced to Ajmer, encountered lii> foe 
in the camp at day-l)rcak, and after irreat slauijhter 
entered Gurh lieetli, the citadel, with the fui^itives. 
'P>v these acts' savs the Chronicle, 'his fame increase«l in 
Kajwarra : one thousand Ilajj)nts, animated by the same 
love of i^lory and devotion, withered round the tuUarras 
of Prithiraj. Their swords shone in the heavens, and 
were dreaded on the CiU'th ; but thev aided the defence- 

The stron*^ affection of a Hindu wife for her hus- 
band is typified in the con«luct of Chandandas's wife, so 
beautifully described in the political dranui of Mmlra 

The Rajput mother claims full share in the irlory 
of her son, who imbibes at the maternal fount his first 
rudiments of chivalry ; the importance of this parental 
instruction cannot be better illustrated than in the ever- 
recurring simile, "make thy mother's njilk resplendent," 
the full force of which we have in the powerful thoui^h 

'Tovl's Kaj:.sth:\u, Vol. I, pp. 673, 74. '-'See Infra, "Uindn DraTi a," 


ovcrstrniiK'd exprossion o£ the Bmidi Queen's joy on the 
announcement of the heroic death of her son. 

Nor lias tlie Rajput mother failed to defend her 
sf-in's ri<;hts M'ith exx3niplary valour, and to teach her son 
how life should be sacrificed at the altar of the country 
and in defence of the country's independence. Look at 
the animated picture given by Ferishta of Durgavati, (.^ucen 
of Gurrah, defendiniy the ri2;hts of her infant son airainst 
Akbar's ambition. " Like another Boadecea, she headed 
her army and fought a desperate battle with Asafkhan, 
in which she was defeated and wounded. Scornhi<2: fiiiiht 
or to survirx the loss of independence, she, like the an- 
tique Roman in such a predicament, slew herself on the 
field of battle." 1 

Durgavati was only following in the footsteps of 
the earlier queens, the exploits of some of whom are 
well known in Ka jputana. For instance, after the death 
of Rana Samarsi, on the field of Thaneshwar, his heir, 
Kurna, being a minor, Kurna's mother, Koruni Devi, a 
])rincess of Patun, headed her Rajputs and gave battle in 
])erson to Kutbuddin Aibak, near Amber, when the \'ice- 
roy (Kutbuddin) was defeated and wounded. "- 

" In the second Saka of Chitor, when l)ah;idur. Sul- 
tan of (iiijrat, invaded that far-famed fortress, the (jucen- 
uiother, Jawahir l^ii, in order to set an example of 
courageous devotion to their country, ai)peared clad in 
armour and headed a sallv, in which she was slain.""' 

\)\\v'\\\\f the famous assault on Chitor by Akbar, 
when the command of the fortress fell on Fattah, who 

1 Toil's Rajastliiiii. V..1. T. ).. CI 2. 
^'Toil's Hajastliaii. \m|. |. p. -IW.), 
•■^Tud's IJiijustliaii. Vol. I, [,. ;jn. 

Tin; i'()sni(.\ m. \v<»mi:n. 1 1 ' 

was (>nly sixhxMi years ot aero at tin- doath of th.- 
riiandawat Icadrr, his motlirr (li's|)l:iv<'«l lH'rni>rii uii 
])arall('l('(l in history, ('(.loud T..<l says:— " Whni ih.* 
Salooinra fell at ilu' natc of fhr Sun, th<' romjnan.l 
(IcvoIvrJ oil I'litta (Tafta) of Kaihva. I|. 
()h1\- sixteen: his fathci- had fallen in tlir la>l ,>hink, 
and Iiis mother had sursivcd hut to rear this the 
sole heir of their house. Like the Spartan inotlirr 
of old, she eonunan(K'<l him to put on the 'sitVruii 
rol)e' and to die for Chitor: hut sin-passin^r the (irrcian 
dame, she illustrat(!d her precept l)V cxamph'; and h'st 
any soft, 'compunetious visitini^s ' for one dranr than 
herself miirlit dim the lustre of Kaihva, >li<' armed tin* 
}out:i; bride with a lanee, with her tlescendcd the rock, 
and the defenders of Chitor saw her fall, liirlitinLT '>y tiie 
side of her Amazonian Tuothcr. \\ hen their wive- and 
dauuhters performed such deeds, the Rajputs l)ocame 
reckless of life.'" 

"Xi>r ill) I ili'fjii liiiii worthy who prefer-^ 
.V t'rii'iitl, how drar so cviT to his country." 

— Soi'HOCi.Krt: Antiijint' . 

An inci<lent taken fr^m the annals of Mewar will 
illustrate the stren!i:th, the courai;can<l the f^eneral charac- 
ter of Kajput women. Irsi, the elder l)rother of the Uanu 
Ajeysi, "being out on a hunting excursion in the forest 
of Ondwa, with some young chiefs of the court, in 
pursuit of the boar entered a fiehl of maize, when a femaK* 
olfcred to dri\e out the game Pulling one of the >talks 
of maize, which grows to the height of ten or twelve feet, 
she pointed it, and mounting the platform nimle to watch 
the corn, impaled the hog, dragged him l>efore the hunter-. 

'Tud's Uaja?thau. Vol. I. p. .Jl'G. 


and departed. Thou<;h accustomed to feats of strength^ 
and heroism from the nervous arms of their country- 
women, the act surprised them. They descended to the 
stream at hand and prepared the repast, as is usual, 
on the spot. The feast was held, and comments were 
passing on the fair arm which had transfixed the boar, 
when a ball of clay from a sling fractured a limb of the 
prince's steed. Looking in the direction whence it came, 
they observed the same damsel, from her elevated stand, 
preserving her fields from a.'rial depredators ; but seeing 
the mischief she had occasioned she descended to express 
regret, and then returned to her pursuit. As they were 
proceeding homewards after the sports of the day, they 
again encountered the damsel with a vessel of milk on 
her head, and leading in either hand a young buffalo. It 
was proposed, in frolic, to overturn her milk, and one of 
the companions of the prince dashed rudely by her ; but 
Avithout bein<>: disconcerted, she entangled one of her 
charjj^es with the horse's limbs, and brou2:ht the rider to 
the ground. On inquiry the prince discovered that she 
was the daughter of a poor Rajput of the Chundano tribe. 
He returned the next day to the same quarter and sent 
for her father, wlio came and took his seat with perfect 
independence close to the prince, to the merriment of his 
C()m]ianions, which was checked by Ursi, askin*!; hi:s 
daughter to wife. They were yet more surprised by the 
demand being refused. The Rajput, on going home, told 
the more prudent mother, who scolded him heartily, made 
him recall the refusal and seek the ])rincc. They were 
married, and Ilamir was the son of the Chundano Raj- 

nVxl's Rajastliiin, Vol. T, pj). 207, 08. It was fliis Kaiia Hainir 
who attackod, flctoatcfl and made prisoner ilie Kliilji Uiiiu;, Malimud, 
tlie successor of Alhdiiiddiii Kliilji. Tlic kin-j: si'lTcrt'd a coiiliiu'inciit 
of llirco nii.iitlis in (,"liiti>r. "Nor was lie lilicralcd till lie had surrendered 
A jnii T. Haiithaiiilihor. XaLTaiir and Soe Sopur. hesides paying' lit'ty 
lukh.b (.rf ruiiL'cs and one hundred elephauls, See Vol. I, p. 272. 

Tin; Position of nvomkn. n; 

"Tlio roui.iMtic history of tlu- CIioIimh Kni|MT..r 
of Delhi ahoiiiids in skrtclu's of friiialc chanictrr ; :in«l in 
the story of l>is carry iiiii^ otV Saiijoirta, tlu' priii 
Kaiiaiij, \vc ha\('ii faithful picriirc of the scx. Wi.- 
her, from the imoimcmL when, rcjccLiiijr the iwwMiiltl* .1 
])rin(('s, !?lu' threw the 'L^irlami of iiiarriajro' rouml thr 
neck of her lh'r<», (lie Ciioliaii, aliamion herself to ail the 
intliieiices of passion, mix in a mmhat of fivt? <lav«' 
contimiance against her father's arrav, witness his over- 
throw and the carnau'e of hoth armies, an<l snhM'cjnentlv, 
by her seductive charms, lullini^ her lover into a neglect 
of every princelv duty. ^ er when the f(H's of his «(lory 
and power iii\;idc I iidia, we si-e the enehantrc'ss at on<*<* 
st<U't from her trance of plcasurr, :ind e\chan;^in;r the 
softer for the sterner j)assions, in accents not less 
strong because minified with dei'p affection, she conjures 
hini, while armiuLT him for tiie battle, to die for hib fume, 
declarini: that she will join him in tiie 'mansions of 
the sun.' " 

What Hindu can read without emotion the reply of 
the brave and beautifid Sanjoi^rta, then in the hey<ley of 
her honeymoon ? On Prithvi's relatiiiLT to her the dream, 
he saw the ])revious ni,i(ht, she sjud : "Victory and 
fame to my lord ! Oh Sun of the Chohans, in irlory 
or in ])lensure, who has tasted so dc^cply ns you ? Toilic 
is the destiny not only of man but of the j(<k1s, all 
desire to throw olf the old garment ; but to die w<'ll is 
to live for ever. Think not of self, but of inunortality ; 
let your sword divide your foe, and I will Ix' your 
ardh(ui;f(i (the other half) hereafter.'' 

The army having assembled and all being prepare<l 
to march against the Islamite, the fair ^anjogtu armed 


hor lord for the encounter. " In vain she sous^ht the rini»:s 
of his corslet ; her ej'es were fixed on the face of the 
Chohan, as those of the famished wretch who finds a piece 
of fjold. Tlic sound of the drum reached the ear of the 
Chohan ; it was as a death-kuell on that of Sannouta: and 
as he left her to head Delhi's heroes, she vowed that 
henceforth water only should sustain her, I shall see 
him ao:ain in the rei2;ion of Surva, but never more in 

A more recent instance of the high spirit, undaunted 
courage and a high sense of duty and honour displayed 
by a queen of Marwar, has been recorded by a Frenchman 
of note. In the Civil AVar for empire amongst the sons of 
Shah Jahan, when Aurangzeb opened his career by the 
deposal of his father and the murder of his brothers, the 
Iiajputs, faithful to the Emperor determined to oppose 
him. Under the intrepid Rahtore, Jaswant Singh, thirty 
thousand Rajputs chiefly of that clan, advanced to 
the Narbada, and with a magnanimity amounting to 
imprudence, they permitted the junction of Munid 
with Aurangzeb. 

Next morning the action commenced, which conti- 
nued throughout the day. The Rajputs behaved Avith 
their usual braver}', but were surrounded on all sides, 
and by sunset left ten thousand dead on the field. The 
]\Iaharaja retreated to his own country, but his wile, a 
daughter of the Rana of rdai])ur, " disdained (says 
Ferishta) to receive her lord, and shut the gates of the 

The French tniveller, Bernier, wlio was ])resent in 
India at the time, says: "I cannot forbear to relate the 

Tiir I'osi ri'iv > <] wiiMi \. 1 111 

fierco rocoptinn wliidi die (laiiirhrcr of the K'aim pivo 
to hor IuisIkiikI, Jnswimr Sini^'li, uf'tcr his drfcat uimI 
Hii;lit. When she hcunl he \v;is iiiLTh. ;ii,,| had ..indcr- 
stood what ha<l passed in th<; hattlo — that he had 
I'ouniit with all possihlc coiiraLr*' ; that lie had hut four 
or five himdr('(l men left ; and at last, no lon'n-r 
ahle to resist the enemy, had heen foreed to retre;»t ; 
instead nf sendint; some one to condole him in his mis- 
iortunes, she commanded in a <h*Y mood to hhnt the 
g^ates of tlie castle, and not to let this infamous man enter ; 
tiiat he was not her hushand ; tliat the son-in-law 
of the _i;reat Kana could not have so mean a soul ; that 
he wastcj remember, that heinii: Lrrafted i'>to so iIlustriou?> 
a house, he was to imitate its virtue ; in a word, he wa« 
to vanquish, or to die. A moment after, she was of anotlier 
humour. She connnands a pile of wood to be laid, that 
she mi,i;ht burn herself ; that tliey abused her ; that her 
husband must needs be dea<l ; that it could not l)e other- 
wise. And a littl(! while after she was seen to chanm* 
countenance, to fall into a passion, and break into a 
thousand re})roaches against him. In short, she retnained 
thus trans))orte(l ei^dit or nine days, without Ikmui: able 
to resolve to see hi-r husband, till at last her motlnT 
comin<^, brouj^ht her in time to herself, comixised by 
assurin£r her that as soon as the Kaia had but refrcshetl 
himself, he would raise another nrmy to fight Auranir/.eb, 
and repair his honour. \W which story one may see 
a pattern of the courage of the women in that country."' 


^ Tod's l{aja-<tlian, Vul. 1, i>. ii'2'2. 

li'O HINDU .surKiaoRiTr 


"In tlio tlioatro of the world 

The people are actors all. 

One (lotli the sovereign nionarcli play ; 

And liini the rest obey." 

— Caldkron. 

When such brillianr imtionfil character combines with 
such hap])y social organization of the people as to excite 
the admiration of all who study it, one can easily 
conceive what noble achievements of peace and war 
the ancient Hindus must have accom])lished. It is true, 
"peace hath her victories no less renowned than war " ; 
still a peculiar halo of glory attaches to military achieve- 
ments. The achievements of the Hindus in philosophy, 
poetry, sciences and arts prove their peaceful victories. 
JUit their military achievements were equally great, as 
will appear from their mastery of the science of war. 

Their civilizing missions Covered the globe, and 
Hindu civilization still flows like an under-current in the 
countless social institutions of the world. 

In the Aiteriya Brahman, Emperor Sudas is stated 
to have completely conquered the whole world, with its 
different countries. 

That the Hindus were quite capable of accom- 
plishing this feat, is clear from the remarkal)le article 
tiiat appeared in the Contemporari/ Review from the pei 
of Mr. Townsend. He says : "If the Prussian conscrip- 
ti(jn were a])plied in India, we should, without counting 
reserv^es or land'wehr or any force not summoned 

iSee IIang'.< A. B., Vol. II, p. 5-M. 


in time of peace, have two-aml-a-liaH" inillinn*; of soMicrn 
actually in barracks, with S(I(),(|(mi recruits fdiniui; up 
every year — a force with whi'jji nut (tuly Asia hut tin; 
AvorM iniiiht he sulnhicih"' 

(Jeueral Sir l:iii IlaTr.ilton, in his Scrap h<M»k on 
the first part of the II u>so-, Japanese A\ :ir, Miys : " Whv 
there is material in the North of India an«l in Nepaul 
sufficient and fit, mider irood hiuh'rsliip, f<> shak«' the 
artificial society of lOurope to its foinulatioTis." 

The territorial streni^th (»f India in ancient an<l 
ever, in mcdia-val times, was i^reater thau it has ever 
been durinu; the last thousand years. Purm-awa is 
said to have possessed 1.1 islaiuls of the ocean. Sec Ma- 
hahharata Adi})nrva, 8141^, ''''Trisdasa Sdmuiira Yd /iuijui 
A^snan I'liniraird/i, etc." 

That the Hindus were a ^p'at naval power in an- 
cient times iB clear from the fact that one of tlnr ancestor?* 
of TJnma was *' Sahara,. em])hatically calle<l the S«i-kin«j, 
Avhose sixty thousand sons were so many mariner-."' 

Plinv, indeed, strifes that "some consider t Ik- four 
Satrapies of (iedeosia, Arachosia, Aria and I*aro|>ami>us 
to helonu^ to India.'' " Tlii- wctuld include," says Mr. 111- 
phinst<5ne, "about two thirds of Persia,""* 

Strabo mentions a lar-e part of Persia to liave Ihvm 
abandone<l to the Hindus by the .Macedonians.' 

Colonel Tod savs: "The aiuials of th<' Yadus of 
Jaisalmer state that Ioul:" anterior to Vicrama, they held 
dominion from Gha/ni to Samarkand, that they establish- 
ed themselves in those rei^ions after the Ma! '' - *•. 

'C<intcMiiporni V Kcvicw for.liiiip IHHS. "Will Kii^'IhihI n-tain iu<li.i. " 
'■iJtMVs R.iiastliaii. Vol. 1. \>. fiOL'. 
:»IIistory of Iiuiia. |) 2lV2. 
•*Si'c Strabo. Lib. XV, ji. 471. 


and were n i:iin impelled on the rise of Islamif^m -within 
the Indus.' He adds : ** A Tnultiplicity of scattered 
facts and g^of^.'uphical distinctions fully warrants our 
assent to the j^i v-ral truth of these records, which prove 
that the Yndu i '.e had dominion in Central Asia."^ He 
a^so says : " One- '^liing is now proved that princes of 
tiie Hindu faith ri-'ed over all these reo-ions in tlie first 
ages of Islamism, u id made frequent attempts for cen- 
turies after to reconquer them. Of these, Haber gives us a 
niosi: striking instance in his description of Gazni, or, as 
he writes, Ghazni, when he relates how when the Rai of 
Hind besieged Subakhtagin in Ghazni, Subakhtagin 
ordered flesh of kine to be thrown into the fountain, 
which made the Hindus retire."^ The celebrated Balabhi 
was reduced by the «ame stratagem. 

" Bappa, the ancestor of the Banas of i^Iewar, aban- 
<loned Central India after establishing his line in Chitor, 
and retired to Khorasan. All this proves that Hinduism j 

prevailed in those distant regions, and that the intercourse 
was unrestricted between Central Asia and India. "-^ 

" The Bhatti Chronicle calls the Langas* in one page \ \ 
Pathan and in another Raj])ut, which are perfectly recon- 
cileable, and by no means indicative that the Pathan or 
Afghan of that early period or even in the time of Rai 
Sehra Avas Mohamedan. The title of Rai is a sufficient 
proof that they were even then Hindus," Colonel Tod 
adds: " Klmn is by no means indicative of the Moham- 
edan faith.'"'' 

'T<mI"s Knjastliuii, Vol. 1 1, p. 2;:(» 
^Toil's h'aJMstlK.ii. V..1. 11, p. ■22-2. 
•'T.d's Kajastliaii, \'<.l. II, p. i>;il. 
■''Ilicy were Solaiiki Hnipnts. 
•''Tod's Kaja.stliau, \'i>l. IL p. '2i>S. 

FOKEioK i{i;r,ATi \'2?, 

KmiiuMit riroolv writers — cwe-witncssCHof tijo h|>U'ii- 
(lour ol" India — hear testimony to th<* jtroKpority of th.-* 
country, which, even in h^r decline, was siitticieiitly ;rreut 
to dazzle their iniaj^ination. The Indian Court wa» the 
liaj)|)y seat to which Greek })<)liticians repaired an un 
sadors, and they all speak of it in j^lowini; terniH. 

Mr. Weber says : "Thus Mej^asthenes was nciit hy 
SeleucustoChander^upta,' I)eiinachusa«;ain by Anti(M-hu« 
autl Dionysius," and must pr<>l)al>ly ]>asilis hy Ptolemy II 
to AnH'it;if!;hat{i, son of Ghandcrgiipta." 

Antiochus the Great concluded an alliance ' with 
Sobhatrsen about 210 B.C., but was (rventuallv dcfcJitcd 
and slain bv him. Colonel Tod siys : '' The obsciire 
leirends of the encounters of the Yadus with the aHic«l 
Syrian and Bactrian kiuLTs wouhl have seemed altogether 
illusory did not evidence exist that AnticK-hus tho Gnnit 
was slain in these very re<'ions by the Hindu kiiii,' 

The Greek kini^, SeUucus, even i^ave ChamlcrLMinfa 
his dauirhter to wife." Professor Weber siv> : *' In 
the retinue of this Greek princess there of course 
ciime to Patlij)Utra, Greek damsels as her waitinL'- 
maids, and these must have found j»articular favour in 
the eyes of the Imlians, especially of their princes. 

For not only are mentioned as articles 

of traffic for India, but in Indian inscriptions also, 
we find Yavan girls specified as tribute : while in 

MVtlier's Indian Lit<'raturo, ]>. 2.'»1, fixjtiiut*'. 
-Max DunkiM-'s History of AiiN<niity, V<>1. IV. p. I.'».'. 
nVilsoir.s Vishnu I'nrana. Vol. II. p. l.'jl. 
^Tod's Rajasthan. Vol. II, p. 'I'M. 

^La.sson, I. A. K. ii, 208 : T. Wliocler's History of India (HTI). 
p. 177. 


Indiiin literature, and especially in Kalidasa, avc are 
iiiForiiied that Indian princes were waited upon by 
Yavanis (Greek damsels); Lassen, I. A. K. ii, 551,957, 
and my Preface to Malavika, p. XL VII. ''^ 

The Persian Emperor, Naiisherawan the Just, gave 
his daughter in marriage to the then Maharana of Chitor. 

Even the Ramayana says that in Ayodhia, ambas- 
sadors from different countries resided.- According to 
Justin, the monarch of Ujjain (Malwa) held a corres- 
])ondence with Augustus.'^ Augustus received at Samos 
an embassy from India. The ambassadors brought 
elephants, pearls and precious stones. There was a 
second embassy from India sent to Emperor Claudius, 
of which Pliny gives an account. He received from 
theamljassadors, who were four in number, the informa- 
tion about Ceylon which he has embodied m his Natural 
History. Two other embassies from Hindu princes to 
liome were sent before the third centur}' A.C., one to 
Trajan (107 A.C) and another to Antonius Pius. 
These relations continued as late as the time of Justinian 
(530 A.C.) 

Strabo^ mentions an ambassador from King Pandion 
to Augustus, who met him in Syria. It appears from 
I'eriplus and Ptoleni}' that Pandion was the hereditary 
title of the descendants of Pandya, who founded the 
kingdom in the fifth century 15. C." A brahmin followed 
this ambassador to Athens, where he burnt himself 

Wcliur's Indian liitcradire, ))]>. 2">1, ^)'2, foot note. 
-.Mrs. Mannin.Lc's Aiiticnt ami Mcdia-val India, Vul. II, ]i. 27. 
•■'Sep Tod\ Hajastlian, Vol. II, p. 313. 
'I-ih. XV, p. OC.'J. 
*Klpijin.>>tonc's Hi-story of India, ]). 218. 


"Til OHO of Asoka's iMS('rij>ti()iis, live (irccjk princes 
:ij>]>e:tr. — (1) Antioi'luis of Syria, (l') Ptolemy, Phila- 
(K'lplioii of Kuyj)t, (3) Anti^jfoiios (lonatosof Macudon, 
(1) MaL!;as of Ivorciic, (")) Alcixaiidcr II of I']j»iriis." 
"Great intercourse," says a writer, "formerly subsisted 
between the Hindus and llic n;»tions of the SVest."' 

Thus, when excn in tho>e <lays, Indi:i was so i^ri^at 
as to exuet the homai;*' of all who saw her, though lier 
«;;rand political and social institutions had lost their 
})ristine })urity and vigour, and those mighty forces 
Vvhich worked for her welfare and greatness were dis- 
appearing, when even in her fall she was the idol of 
foreign nations, how mighty must she have been when 
she was at the height of her power, at the zenith of her 
i>lorv! Her constitution still stands like some tall 
ancient oak in a forest shorn of foliaL^', but still defvinu: 
the discordant elements that raire round it, still lookintr 
down, with a majesty and dignity all its own, upon the 
new-sprung, prosperous young trees growing round it in 
happy ignorance of the storms and gusts in store. 

It is curious to learn that even in her decline, India 
was sufficiently strong to defy the great concpierors of 
the old world. It was threatened by the ])rosperou8 
empire of Assyria, then at: the meridian of her ]K)wer 
under the celebrated queen Semirami*;. She used the 
entire resources of the empire in preparations to invade 
India, and collected a considerable army. "After three 
years spcn-t in these extraordinary preparations, she sent 
forward her armies, which some writers describe as 
amountinsf to several millions of combatants, but tlie 
narrative of Ctesias estimates them at three hundred 

iSce Asiatic Researches, Vol. HI, pp. L"J7-L'y». 


tliousiind foot, five liundrcd tiioasaiid horse, Avbilc two 
tliousaiid boats and agreat immber ot" mock elephants were 
conveyed on the backs of camels." ]>ut what was the 
result? "The army was utterly routed and Semiramis 
brought back scarcely a third of h(3r host ; some authors 
even maintain that she herself perished in the expe- 
dition."^ ' 

Horrid suggi'stiou I tliinkcst thou llicn the gods 
Take oarc of niPii who caiiio to hnrii thoh" altars, 
Prol'anc their rilt's, and traiii[ile on their hxws ? 
Will they nward the bad ? It cannot be. 

— Sophocles : Antigone. 

In later times, the Yadu king, Gaj Singh, who 
founded Gajni (Ghazni), single-handed "defeated the 
combined armies of Shah Secunder Roomi and Shah 

^Murray's History of Imlia, y. ;i(l. 
-Tod'ri Kajasthan, Vol. II, p. L':.'!'. 

CAisK OF India's iall. 1l'7 


" Tin* rnco of mortal mnn is fnr too wcnk 
To ijrow not dizzy on nmvontcd licii^lits. 

— (JoKTiiK: I]t)ii(jrniii. 

AhKXAXDKi! the rjront could not have won liis one vic- 
tory over tli<j Hindus li:id it not Ijcun for tin- <lisiinioii 
existing nnionu; tlicni. Tlic Goriimn iiistorian, 
Max Dunkcr, savs : — " What esscntiallv tended to wxwVo. 
the attack easier was the discord anioni; tlie St:ites and 
tribes of the l;ni<l of Indus,"' 

Sir William Hunter savs that "the Hinilu kin•^ 
Mophis of Taxila, joineil Alexander with ."),()UU men 
against Porus."" 

Professor ]\Iax Danker says : "The Kshndraks and 
thv^ Malavas foro-ettinu' their aneiiMit hostilit\- now eom- 
hined ai^ainst a common foe (Alexander), but the Kslnid- 
raks turned false and retire<l. The ^Lilavas continued 
their r(!sist{ince, and at last succeeded in lodoino-an arrow 
into the heart of Alexander and his commander, Abre;>s." ' 
The Professor then relates how Mophis, the kino- of 
Takshasila, who was one of the most powerfid kini,^< in 
the Punjab, joined Alexander, and n)any other j)etty 
kini^s foUowino^ his examjtlc, brought about the defeat of 

Porus. It should not be fori^otten that when Alexander 
attacked Porus "his arinv was twice as stronij (in 
numbers) and had been yet further increased by o,00U 
Indian from Mophis and some smaller States."^ 

'Mux J)imkiT'.s History of Ami(piity, Vol. IV. p. ;{!tl. 
-Iluutcr's luiin'riiil (Jazottoor. " Itulia." p. 2C.2. .See also Cun- 
ningham's Ancient Gcogrnpliy of India. 

^History of Antiij[nity, \'ol.. I\'. y. 404. 
41Ji.story of Antifiuity. Vol. IV. y. '.\\Yj. 


Were it not for tliis unfortunate di^^nnion of tlic 
Hindus thcnipelves, the Great Alexander^ would ])rol):il)ly 
have shared the fate of the Assyrian Seniiraniis. 

Like the melodious song of a dying swan, India 
again shone forth for a moment in all its glory under 
A'icramaditva. But this was the last faint glimmering 
of the consumed fire covered with ashes, the last symptoms 
of vitality that break upon a dying man. " There is 
good reason to believe," says Sir W. Jones, in his 
Preface to Sakuntala, " that the court at Avanti was 
equal in brilliancy in the reign of Vikramaditya to that 
of any monarch in any age or country." 

The emperors lihoj and Akbar alone of the later 
rulers of India made attemj)ts to give some brilliancy to 

1 Aloxaiider's troacliorotis :iiiil cruel, conduct duiiui;' lliis cxpcdi- 
tinii can only be justified on the ju'inciple tliat "all is fair in 
love and war." The lliiidn laws of war do not sanction an attack i>n an 
unprepared foe, it being against their cliivalrous instincts to do so. 
Alexander, however, took tlie Aswakas at unawares and deCealcd ihcni. 
Then again he tried iiy stratagem to defeat Cleophis (the niotlicr oF the 
deceased Hindu king, who had assumed the conduct of affairs. (See 
Curt 8, ](l : dustin 12. 7.) On the death of the Hindu ('<immander, 
the Indian auxiliaries surrendered ami encaniiie(l <in a hill in front of 
the Macedonian camp, peace having been proclaimed in the town. T.nt 
tlif >urrendered Indians were killed thr next day, on the ju-elence that 
they meditated treachery, and tin' town of the .Masaka taken by assault. 
"Whatever may liave liecn the case with the sh/i/xiskI inlenlion of the 
Indian mercenaries," asks Max Hunker, "and the iuielli^'ruee which 
Alexander is said to have received of this inli'iitiou — flu' city had fulhlled 
tlie condition imposrd upon it and had given up the mercenaries, — why 
then W!i< it attacked in this unexpected and uinneritcd manner against 
llir terms of the capitulation .' "" — J/i.ston/ aj Aiitiijiiifij^ \\\ IV, p. yjl. 

.y'tfY/,./ ."^r,,. /A, ^„../ y^.nr/,. o\n/,rici r/ ^J. //.,'. 

CArSK OF I\T>Ta's 1"AM.. 12!) 

tlK'ir courts li\ followini:; the example of tho fri'^at, \'i,.. 
rMnia' in Mclorn'mt:; tlicni willi llie famous " Nau liatna." 

India j)ossesse'(l a most ('a]>al)le and licmic leader 
when it was first threatened with a permanent comjuest 
b\- the ^loslcms. The world has iieror sc'n a more 
cliivalvous leader of men tlian the mighty I^ritlivi Kaj 
of Ajmer. He defe;\ted the Sultan of (ior more than 
once. Colonel Tod says:, "Even the Moslem writers 
acknowledge that Shahabuddin was often i^nioniinously 
defeated before he finally succeeded in making a con- 
quest of Northern India. "^ The Ai/een AUmri says: 
'• In thi; reign of Kaja Pithowra, Sultan ^loo/eddin Sam 
made several incursions from Ghazni into lliuflustan but 
never irained anv victorv. . . . It is said that the R:ija 
liained from the Sultan se\en i)itched battles."'^ 

Were it not for the fatal disunion between Prithvi 
luaj nnd Jai Chand, and the traitorous conduct of the 
latter and of the king of Anhuhvarra Parun an<l the 
Haoli Rao Hamir, India might never have fallen under 
the domination of the invaders from Afghanistan and 

The Sicayamvar of Sanjogta, daughter of the King 
of Kanauj, is an event of world-wide importuice — of 
nuich greater importance to the world than the rape of 

ISonio European critics, in the fulness of their wisdom, deny that 
Vicraniivlitvft ever existed. Tnis irresistibly reminds one of .Vrohbisliop 
"NVhately's famous paniplilot, " Historic doubts relative t<> ^'a|>oleoll 

-'Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. II. ]'. JTc*. 

^Ayeen Akbari, by Gladwin, p. 'JT. The popular leuvnds of RaJ- 
putana say that. w!ien SliahalMiddin was captured (see loit'fl Kaja>-ilian, 
Vol. I, p. 257 1 Prithvi Raj ordered him to In.- taken round tlic city in 
a woman's garb, and tlien sot him free, 


Helen by Paris. Tlie lovely Sanjogta, in defiance of her 
father's vain-glorious wishes, and, in contempt of the 
pretentions of the assembled nobility of Northern India, 
determined to give her hand only to the " flower of the 
far-famed Rajput chivalry," Prithvi Raj of Ajmer, 
threw the varmala (marriage garland) round the golden 
effigy of that hero, placed by Jai Chand at the portals of 
the palace, unconsciously as an emblem of the protective 
might of " the Pride of Rajasthan," and as a tribute to 
his glory as the defender of his race against foreign 
aggression. The chivalrous Chohan appeared at the 
riirht moment, at the imminent risk of losing his life, as 
well as of defeating the object of the daring enterprise, 
to answer the call of a noble female of a royal house, 
and to carry away, from amidst the united heroism of 
Hindustan, the prize which had attracted all the impor- 
tant ])rinces of India to Kanauj — thus fully vindicating 
his character as the most intrepid and heroic of the 
Hindu princes. This magnificent feat cost Prithvi 
Raj his throne and the- Hindu nation their indepen- 
dence. The Tricala Chund truly said that " he pre- 
served his prize : he gained immortal renown, but he 
lost the sinews of Dehli." In the desperate running 
fight of five days, Prithvi Kaj Inst his Inindred samrants 
(heroes) tlu; leaders of liis :inii\ , the mainstay of liis 
throne. Himself unal)le to overcome Prithvi Raj, and 
burninir Avitii revenfi^e for i)is humiliation, Jai Chund now 
bo'i-an to intriirue with the enemy of the Hindus the 
Sultan of (flK)r. 

"Tiie brave. Irservc the fair." The bi-ave Chohan 
not onlv secured the I'nir of Kaiiaiij, but di>co\ered at 
Na<'ore a trea>urc amouuiiug to be\eu niilliuns in gold. 

CAUSE OK India's fall. l.'il 

This nl:iniK'(l liis enemies still more. Colonel Tod says: 
'' Tlic prinees of KaiKiuj :iii<l Patuii, dreadint; the iiilhi- 
enee of sueh sinews of war, invited Shalialmddin to aid 
their design of huniiliatini; the Cljohan.'" Al)ul Fazal 
says : "Shahabuddin formed an alliance with Unja Jai 
Chund, and havinjjj raised a lariie army, came to attack 
the dominions of Pithowra. The liaja (Prithvi U:ij), 
vain with the rememhrance of his former victories, col- 
lected together only a small number " troops, and with 
these he marched out to attack the .-^ultan. Ihit the 
heroes of Hindustan had all j)eiished in the manner 
above described : besides, Jai Chund, who had been his 
ally, was now in leauuc with his enemv." 

Hamir also joined the traitors. Colonel Tod says : 
" There were no less than four distinguished leaders of 
this name (Hamir) amonc^ the vassals of the last liajput 
Emperor of Dehli, and one of them who turned traitor 
to his sovereign and joined k^hahl)uddin was actually a 
Scvthian and of the Ghikar race. The Haoli Kao, 
Hamir, was lord of Kanirra and the Ghiknrs of I'amer."" 

The result of the encounter is well known. The 
treacherous plan of operations devised by Jai Chund and 
adopted by the Sultan against Prithvi Piaj, resulted in 
the overthrow of the Hindu supremacy in India. Prith- 
vi Raj fell into the hands of the enemy ajid was fiken 
to Ghazni. P)Ut there he succeeded, with the assistance 
of the ever-faithful Chund, in administering dciith to 
the conqueror of his country. The following couplet 
of Chuud confirms the poj)ular tradition on the subject — 

'Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. '200. -Tod's Kaja-vtlian, Vol. I, p. obU. 

132 HiXBU srrKRiORiTr. 

xVbiil Fazal, in bis Ayeen Albari, also says : " The 
fiiithful Cluuid followed his pritce to Ghaziii and con- 
trived to gairi the favour of the Sultan. Having ob- 
tained an interview with the Rajah, and administered 
comfort to his mind, he told him that he would take an 
0])portunity of praising his skill with the bow, Avhich 
would raise the Sultan's curiosity to see him perform his 
feats, when he might make a proper use of his arrow. 
In consequence of Chund's representation, the Sultan 
wished to see the Raja exercise his bow, when he seized 
the opportunity and shot the king dead upon the spot."^ 

The same fate met tJie next creat leader of the 
Hindus when Baber invaded India. Had not the Tuar 
traitor who led the van of Sanga's army gone over to 
Baber, Rana San2;a- would have settled for ever the 
question of Hindu supremacy in India. Says Colonel 
Tod : " With all Baber 's cpialities as a soldier, supported 
by the hardy clans of the 'cloud mountains ' of Karatagin, 
the chances were many that he and the}' terminated their 
career on the 'yellow rivulet, of Biana. Neither skill 
nor bravery saved him (Baber) from this fate, which be 
appears to have expected .... To ancient jealousies 
he was indebted for not losinsc his life instead of o-ainino; 
a crown, and for being extricated from a condition so 
desperate that even the frenzy of religion, which made 
death martyrdom in this holy war, scarcely availed to 
expel the despair which so infected his followers that 

1 See also Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 194. 

2" Saii^a organized liis forces, A\ith which he always kept the field 
and ere called to contend with the descendants of Tinioor, lie liad 
gained eighteen pitched l)attles against the kings of Delhi and Malwa.— 
TuiVti Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. yuO. 

CAUSK OF India's iam.. \:,Z 

in tlio l)itterncss of heart lie says, 'not a siniili! person 
who uttered a manly wonl, nor an iiiiUvi(hial wlio deliv- 
ered a eoura.i2;eous opinion." Colonel Tod deserii)es tin; 
sad pliiihtoniaher and the negotiations pendin^^ Uahcr's 
blockade at Kanua, and pves the name of the traitor, 
"who sold the cause ol" his eountrv." 

'* oil, for a tonguo to cniirM' tin- slave 
WliuM- iii-ason Mko a dcailiy Mii^lit 
Comes over the counsels of tlie brave 
And blasts them in tlitir liour of niiglit." 

^loouE : Fiif Worshippn-t. 

After descrihinii' the hattle, Tod says : " While the 
battle M-as still doubtful, the Tuar traitor who lc<l the 
^an (herole) went over to Baber, and Sanga was obliiivd 
to retreat from the field, which in the onset promised a 
glorious victory."^ 

India has fallen a victim to her own internal dis- 
sensions and disunion. She has been betrayed by her 
own sons and not conquered by the foreign invader. 
Porus, Pirthvi Uaj and Sanga were defeated by their 
own countrymen, not by their enemies. Thus ended 
the work of ruin that had bcL^un with the Mahabharata ! 

n'hc traitor was " the chief of Hayscen, by namo Sillaide, of the 
Tnar tribe." " Treason/' say^ Tod, effected the salvation of Baber " — 
Rujftfth'jii, Vol. I, p. 300, 


All plaros, tlint tlir eye of lionvon visits 
Alt' to a wise innii ports aiid liajipy Iiavi-iis ; 
Tcarli thy necessity to icnsnn thus; 
ThiTc is no viitiK' like inrt-ssity. 

— SllAKEHPEAf.K : liirhitnl II. 

TriE tuniinii: point in tlic liistorv of Iiulia, ii:iv. in 
tlio history of tlie world, was the Mahabliurata — tli<' 
death-stroke to Indian prosperity and ulory. I'cforc tliis 
catastrophe, Hindu civilization Avas in full vifrour. It 
declined gradually after the Mahahhara'a till it wasj'ttack- 
ed first by the Arab senii-barbarisin, and then bv tlu; Kiiro- 
pean civilization. Simplicity with refinement, hone.-ty 
with happiness, and glory with power and peace, were the 
splendid results of the Hindu civilization : complexity 
with outward polisji, selfishness and cunninLr with pr<v 
gress and prosperity, success ^itii immoderate vanity, 
Avealth with miserv are the offsprinjis of the latter. The 
■\iah:iV)harata was a war not only between man aiul man, 
but between the two aspects of the heart, the two phases j 
of the mind. 

There are two remarkable features of that period, 
differing in nature but coinciding in their < ff(»ct on India. 
Tliesf were destrurfion and cni/t/ran'on. The irood and 
the great men of India cither emigratt-d or were killed: 
the elL'ect upon India was liie same — inimical to her 

loG iTTx^r STTEinoniTV. 

])rospcrltv. AVhole tribe:s were Ivillinl : whole races emi- 
fjirated. It is true that, in addition to many civilizing 
expeditions, there had been tribal emigrations before 
that momentous period. But these later emigrations 
sucked out the life-blood of India. These emiirrations, 
as also the settlements and colonies of ancient Greece, 
differed in an important respect from the modern 
settlements of the Europeans. The Grecian settlements 
attracted the best men of Greece ; and the Indian 
emigrations helped powerfuU)^ to set in motion those 
disintegrating forces that have undermined onr national 
superiority, destroyed our independence and ruined our 
societ}' and religion. 

But there is no evil that is an unmixed evil : to 
ever}' cloud there is a silver lining. In the present case, 
India's loss was the world's irain. Thouuh India's 
♦xreatness beQ:an to decline, the entire Western world 
from Persia to Britain received in the colonists the seeds 
of their future sfrcatness. The ^lahabharata was thus 
fraught with world-Avide consequences. 

Says Mr. Pococke : " But, perhaps, in no similar 
instance have events occurred fraught with consequences 
of such magnitude, as those flowing from the great re- 
ligious war which, for a long series of years, raged 
throu;r]iout the lem^th and breadth of India. That 
contest ended by the expulsion of vast bodies of men, 
many of them skilled in the arts of early civilization, 
and still greater numbers warriors by ])rofession. 
Driven bevond the Himalavan mountains in tlie north, 
and to Ceylon, their last stronghold in the south, 
swept across the valley of the Indus on the west, this 
persecuted ]ieo}»le carried with tiiem the germs of the 

HINDU CoI.DNI/A'riON". l:'.7 

Eiiropoan arts and sriencTs. Tlic miuhfy liiiinan t'ulc that 
passed the harrier of the I'liiij:!'), rolhid onward towards 
its dcstiiR'il (lianni'l in KiU'ojx' and in Asia, to Iniiil its 
beneficent office in the moral fertilization of tlie world "' 
It is, of course, triK^ that oinii^ration from India 
had been ^oini]^ on from time immemorial. Xotwith- 
•standinii; the marvellous fertility of the soil and the 
wonderful industries that llourislv'il in the countrv, 
Iiulia had to plant colonics to provide for Ikt super- 
abundant population. Professor Heercn says: — "How 
could such a thickly-peoplc'l, and in some ])arts over- 
peopled country as India have disposed of her super- 
abundant population except by })lanting colonies ; even 
though intestine broils (witness the expulsion of the 
Buddhists) had not obliged her t(» have recourse to such 
an expedient ?"- 

The earliest emigration appears to date sometiire 
after Maim. One of the oldest colonies founded by the 
Hindus was in Egypt; America, with some other coun- 
tries, "was also colonised before the last great ^ligration. 
The principal migration t(j Greece took place soon 
after the Great War. The word kapi'^ for ape appears 
in the heirogly[)hic writings of Greece of the 17th 
century B.C., which shows that the colonization ol 
Greece must be dated long anterior to the era of Closes. 

It would perhaps be interesting to know the exact 
time when the Mahabharata took ])lace. 

In fleterminini!" dates our elforts are cloLTged at 
every step by the dearth of historical records, liut it 
is not ill historical literature alone that we have to 

1 linliii ill Greece, p. 2(5. -Historical Rosearclu's, Vol. II, ji. ;;iO. 
3 Weber's IikUuii Literature, p. i}. 


mourn tliis loss. Every 1)raiicl) of literature, every 
science and art has suffered from the rava";es of iu'norant 
fanaticism. Some have disappeared completely; others 
h.ive come down to us in a more or less mutilated form. 
The present scarcity of historical works, however, sliould 
not be rei^arded as a proof of the absence of the Art of 
History any more than tlie present poverty of the coun- 
try be accepted as a proof of its indigence in ancient times. 
For one thinn, the enmity of Aurang/eb towards 
all historical writings is well known. J»nt it is the Arab, 
Afghan and Tartar semi-barbarism that is responsible 
for the destruction of literature, wliethia* in Egypt or in 
India, in Persia or in Greece. The destruction of the 
Alexandrian Liln'ary Avas one af those notorious foats 
by which the progress of humanity was put back by a 
thousand years. But the loss to humanity by the -whole- 
sale destruction of the libraries of India is beyond cal- 
culation. That eminent anti(j[uarian and explorer, Rai 
liahadur Sarat Chander Dass, says : " In the lofty nine- 
storied temple at Buddha Gaya, which was formerly called 
the Mahagandhola (Gandhalaya), the images of the past 
Buddhas were enshrined. The nine-storied temple called 
Katandadhi of Dharamganja (universitv) of Xalanda was 
the repository of the sacred books of the ^lahayana and 
Ilinayana Buddhist Schools. The temple of Odantapuri 
V'/hara, wiiich is said to have l)een loftier than either of 
the two (liiiddha Gaya and Xalanda) contained a vast 
collection <'[" lUiddhist and BraJiminical works, which, 
after the maimer of the lireat Alexandrian Library, was 
burnt under the orders c»f Moliamed P>en Sam, general 
of Jiakhtyar Khilji, in liM2. A.D.'" 

• Tlic Iliii-Jiistaii lt(»vit.'\v l'i;r Marrli, ILHiC |). 187 (L'niversilit'S 
ill AiK-iviit India). 


Sultini Alla-U(l-<liii Kliilji Itunit tlic fMinous li))r:irv 
;if Atiliiilwani Patau. Tlio TariLli Flro: S/irilil Pays that 
Firoz Shah TiiL;"lilak l)un»t a larur lil)rarv of Sanskrit 
books at Kohaiia. Saye(l (Jhulani Hiisciii, in his \\v\\- 
kiiown hook, Sair MutdkJireni (NOL I, i>. ) 10), compiled 
ill the reiun of Auran^zch, who called himself Secunder 
S<hu\ savs : " Sultiin Sikandcr (Auraiigzcb) was the most 
bii^'oted of the Sultans, and burnt the books of the 
Hindus whenever and wherever he <^ot them/' 

Instances of such savagery could be multi)>lied easil v. 
These are all manifestations of that mental aberration to 
which humanity is evidently subject at intervals, the 
disease beini]: the same, the occasion mav be the outraiies 
conniiitred by the ^toths an<l \ aii<lals of earlier times or 
the Arabs and the Tartars of the latter dav. 

Mr. Dow, in the Preface to his History of Hindustan 
observes : '* We must not, with Ferishta, consider the 
Hindus as destitute of genuine domestic amials, or that 
those voluminous records thev i)ossess are mere legends 
framed i)y lirahmans." Mr Wilson, with his usual 
fairness, remarks that " it is incorrect to say that the 
Hindus never com})iled history. The literature of the 
south abounds with local histories of Hindu authors. 
^Ir. Stirling found various chronicles in ()i'issa, and 
Colonel Tod has met with eiiually abundant material in 

Professor Hcer(Mi savs : " Wilson's translation of 
Jinj Tarani/ini\ a history of Kashmir, has clearly demons- 
trated that regular historical composition was anartnot un- 
known in Hindustan, and affords satisfactory grounds for 

'Mill's India, Volucut' 11, paije 67, footnote. 


concUidiiigthat these productions wore once less rare, nnd 
that further exertions mav briiiiz: more reiics to li"-ht."^ 

Professor Wilson's assertion that " ""enealofries- and 
chronicles are found in varous parts of India recorded 
Avitli some perseverance," will be supported by all who 
know Hindu society. 

The critics who resolutely deny the existence of the 
art in Ancient India on the plea that none of the pro- 
ductions of the art are to be found, will do well to con- 
sider the fact that even the A'edas would have been lost 
had the Mohamedan rule continued a centurv or so Ioniser 
without giving birth to a Dayanand. When such has 
been the lot of their most adored possession, what better 
handling could the poor Art of History- have aspired to 
obtain ? 

The illustrious Colonel Tod says : " If we con- 
sider the political changes and convulsions which have 
happened in Hindustan since Mahmud's invasion, and 
the intolerant bici'otrv of mauA' of his successors, we shall 
be able to account for the paucity of its national works on 
history, without being driven to the improbable conclu- 
sion, that the Hindus were ignorant of an art which was 
cultivated in other countries from almost the earliest 
ages. Is it to be imagined that a nation so highly 

^ Heereu's Historical Researches, Vul. II, p. J43. 

2 The genealogies are still kept and arc to be found in almost every 
part ol Ilindustan proper. lu Raji)iUaiia, where they arc regularly 
kept, you may 8ekct any man of tlie Vaishya Varna, and, after a little 
search, you can generally find out the names and abodes of every 
uiember of his ancestral family for about twenty generations back. 
There is a clau named "Jagas" who have made this their hereditary 

HINDI' (•.>!, oNIZATION. 1 1 I 

civilizod ns the Iliiidiis, a]1lon_l,^«t wliom tlie exact sciiMU'cs 
fl(^iirislu'(l in pcrrection, l)y wlioiii the tiiu; arts, arclii- 
tectiiiv, sciil[)tuiv, poetry and music wcTCMiot only culii- 
vati!<], l)iit tiUiL;ht Ji!i(l dofiiicd hy tiio nicfst and most ela- 
borate rules, Wire totally uiia('(|uainted uitli the simjile 
art of reeordinir the events ni' their hi>torv, the charactcr.s 
ol" lluir I'rinces, and the acts ol' their reii^ns ?"' 

He then asks, whence <lid Ahid I'a/.id ohtain the 
materials of his ancient History of luilia, if there were 
no historical records at the time of lia j Taraui^ini ? This, 
he declares, sut!iei(MUly proves the existence cf the art. 
Then, ai;ain, he says that in CluuKrs heroic history of 
Prithvi liaj, we find notices which authorise the infer- 
ence that works siinilar to his own were then extant." 

It must not he supposed that the authors of these 
"works were iuiiorant l)ards. We find that riiinid's his- 
tory contiiins chapters on laws for govern in l; empires ; 
lessons on diplomac}', home and foreign. See also the 
admirable remarks of the French C)rientalist, ^lonsieur 
Al)el liemsat, in his McUuhfes A8iati)jue.s. 

J)Ut to return to the point. Swami Dayanaiid 
Saraswati, in his Bhuinika, says that '),0U7 years have 
passed since the be^dnning of the Kaliyug eia. The 
Siddhnnta Stroniam\ one of the most popular of the 
Hindu works on Astronomy, says that the Kaliyug era, 

' Ii)troduction to 'IVtd's Kiijasthan. 

-In Rajinjtaim, many liistorical works are to bo found, such as, 
(1) Vijya Vilas, (2) Surya Prakash. (3) Klioat, (t) .lairat Vilas. (:►) 
Haj Piaka>li, (G) .lai Vilas, (7) Klioman Kasa. (S) Maun Charilra. 
The last two arc comitarativoly of rocent date. Sop Rasaniala or Hin- 
du Aniuils o\ the Provinco of, bj the Iloncurabic A.V.Furbos; 
Gujarati Edition, 1890, (Buuibay). 


at the time of the cstablishnient ot" the Salivahaii orn, 
was;>. It savs: — ^TcTt: ^^JT^t ^JTTf% ^rf??rT50?q^3TT¥fsf 

The Salivahaii era at present (190G A.D.) is 182S : 
so that the Kalij'uga era should now be ol7'J+1828 
= 5007. 

The author of the book, Ji/o/iri'/tlha Bharan — a 
liistory of the reiii;u of Vicramadit3-a, composed in the 
Sambat era 24 ( Vicrama era)— says that that year 
corresponded with tlie year 3068 of the Kaliyng 
era. Tiiis also makes the Kaliyug era now 3068 — • 
24+1063 = 5007. 

The Vraha Sanghita of Vrahamilir (contemporary 
of \ icramaditya) says that the constellation Snptarishi 
Avas in Maghn Nakhshatra in the reign of Yudhishtira, 
and that the date of his reign may be obtained by add- 
ing 2526 to the Salivahan era. According to this, 
Yudhishtira reigned 2526 + 1828 = 435-1 years ago. 

^ETRR- iTWTS ^5T^: ^rafcT ^^^ ^f^f^t STlTcf^ I 

Kalhan Bhatta, in his famous v;ork, Baj Taringini^ 
savs that Yudhishtira was born when 653 years of the 
Kaliyuga era had passed. 

^W¥ ^g ^riV ^^fy^¥ (<"i^) ^ 'Hc\^ I 

Tliis, too, shows that 4351 + ()53 = 5007 years have 
passed since the commencement of the Kaliyug era. 

iiiNDr coroNizATioN. 1 1.*; 

The ristrnnomors, I*:!nis;ir mihI Arvn lilmtta n-spof't- 
iv('l\" lioM that tlir Mahal)liar:ita took placci (JiJlJ ;,',, vcars 
aiiil ()(»-"^ years alter tlie comiiiem-enieiit of the Kahvn;^.' 

I'radhuaruhnunii. on the eontrarv, Imlds that: the 
sapi'tris/ii wcw in the Miii;/itt XnLlishatra jit thi; juiicti<jn 
ol' the Dwaparand the Ivahvii^. He says: — 

Aceoriliiii;- to him, therefort', Viulhislit ira ili »iiri^he<l 
at the beLfinniiiu^ ol" the KahviiLl. 

An inseription in a Jain temple on a hill near Vahola, 
Kahida^i,^gi district, Deccan, says that tlic temj)h', huilt l>y 
King- Pulkeshi II, of the Chalukya family, was erccte I 
o7i^') years after the Mahahharata, and wlien ').')() vears 
of tlie SaLa era had passed, thus proving that the (jrcat 
War rook place 373'; — o")(!= :-)171> years before the Saka 
era; in other words, 31 7'.> + iSi^S (Saka era) =oUU7 
years ago. The inscription runs as follow.- : — 

^=^T9i;^ ^'^t ^T% ^Z-g lf"^ginTQ =g KVl'i) I 

Followinii' evidentlv the view held by I>radhgari;h 
Muni, tlie author of the Ai/ecii-i-A/i(jar/\ says that \'iera- 
niaditya ascended the throne in the 3,044th year of the 
Yudhishtira era. This also makes the Yiidhi.shtira era 
begin 3044 + 11)03. (N'icrama era) = 5007 years ago. 

Thus, the authorities are all agreed that the Kali- 
yuga commenced 5,007 years ago: opinion, however, is 

^" Iiidiaii Eia<." p. ^. 

-Tlif Imliaii Auti-inarv, V.l. VIII. [>. I'l-'. 


divided as to "u-hcn the Great AVar took place. Tradition 
seems tt) say tiiat the Mahabharata took jdIucc at the 
coniiuenceineiit ot" the Kali^uu', while the astronomers 
think that it look place about the middle o£ the 7th cen- 
tury of the Kaliyuga era. Whichever view is correct — 
the former or the latter — we know, on a comparison of 
these times with the dates of Scriptural histor}-, that the 
Kaliyug era commenced before the birth of Noah, and 
that the Great War took place either before his time or 
soon after it. 

The mio'rations from India, as stated before, took 
place Eastwards as well as ^Yestwards and Northwards. 
The Eastern migrations were to the Transgangetic penin- 
sula, to China, to the islands of the Indian Archipelago, 
and to America. The Northern and the North-western 
to Turkistan, Siberia, Scandinavia, Germany and lU'itain, 
as well as to Persia, Greece, Rome and Etruria. The 
"Western, to the eastern parts of Africa and thence to 
Egypt, ^^^e find that Egypt, Persia, Assyria, and 
Greece all derived their learning juid civilization from 
India and that the Egyptian, the Assyrian, the Grecian, 
the German, the Scandinavian and the Druidic Mytho- 
logies Avere all derived from the Hindu Mythology. 

Sir Walter Raleigh strongly supports the Hindu 
hypothesis regarding the locality of the nursery for 
rearing mankin<l, and that India was the iirst peopled' 


The Central Asian theory of emiration is unable to 
meet the difficulty proscMited by the fact that "the 

1 History of tlie World, p. !Mt. H« would at oiicc have found the 
orijjin of Ararat iiad lie known dial llio llimlus call tlicir country, 
' Arvavarta." 


inXDl* rcn-dM/ATlON". 1 1.', 

Astronomy of the Iliiulns aii'l oi'tlu! (Jliincso a])|)Oiir to 
1)0 the remains ratlier than the elements of a Seienee." 
Tlie advocates of tlie theory are obhi^ed to assume tliat 
ill ancient times a nation existe<l more advanced tlian 
cither, the remains of wliose achievements in Science still 
survive in tlie literature of the Hindus and the Chinese. 

"That the Flindns, the Persians, the Kirvptians and 
the Chinese, from the earliest periods of their history 
divided the time alike, namely, the ye:ir into li' months 
and o().'i} days, and tlu^ day into 1^1 hoin-s : that thev 
livided the Zodaic alike into ll' sii^ns ; that ih.-y divided 
the week alike into seven davs, "whicli heini: an arhitrarv 
division, could not be the result of accident, but proves 
that they ol)tained it from the common source of an an- 
cient people who already possessed a hiijh degree of 
civilization," But what nation floin-ished anterior to the 
Hindus, the Chinese and the i'crsians, no out; has vet theo- 
rised ; much less has it been proved that that primitive 
nation attained to a hiiih degree of civilization. On the 
concrary, all comi)etent authorities are unanimous in 
holding that ''Hinduism (Hindu Literature, Science and 
Arts) developed itself on the shores of the Ganges and 
the Jumna," and that "the Hin<lu civilization originated 
and attained to its highest pitch only in Intlia." 

Tliere is thus an abruj)t break in the Central Asian 
theory of emigration. Tim theory sketched out in the 
following ])ages alone can satisfactorily exj)lain all such 
difficulties. Count P>jornstjerna' says : " It is ihcF-e ( Arya- 
wartii) we must seek not only for the cra<lle of the I'rah- 
min reli<!:ion, but for the cra<lle of the ingh civilization 

' Theojjoay of the Hindu?*, p. ICH. 


of the Hindu?, wliicli gradually extended itself in the West 
to Ethiopia, to Egypt, to Pha'nicia ; in the East, ro Siani, 
to China, and to Japan ; in the South, to Ceylon, to Java 
and to Sumatra ; in »he North, to Persia to Cakheaand to 
Colchis, whence it come t«> Greece and to Rome, and at 
length to the remote abode of the Hyperboreans." 

Colonel Olcott savs : '* The modern school of com- 
/^ ])arative Philology traces the migration of Aryan civili- 
zation into Europe by a study of modern lanu'uai'es in 
comparison with the Sanskrit. And we have an equally, 
if not a still more striking means of showing the out- 
flow of Aryan thought towards the West in the philoso- 
phies and religions of Babylonia, Egj'pt, Greece, Rome 
and Northern Europe. One has only to put side by side 
the teachings of Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, 
HonuT, Zeno, Hesiod, Cicero, Scoevola, Varro and Vir- 
gil with those of Veda-Vyasa, Kapila, Gautama, Patan- 
jali, Kanada, Jaimini, Narada, Panini, Marichi, and 
many others we might mention, to be astonished at their 
identity of conceptions — an identity that upon any other 
theory than that of a derivation of the younger philoso- 
phical schools of the West from the older ones of the 
East would be simply miraculous. The human mind is 
certaiidy capable of evolving like ideas in different ages, 
just as humanity ])ro<luces for itself iii each generation 
the teachers, rulers, warriors and artisans it needs. F)Ut 
that the views of the Aryan sages should be so identical 
with those of the later Greek anil Ron)an pliilusophers 
as to seem as if the latter were to the former like the re- 
jection of an (object in a mirror to the object itself, 
Avithout an actual. ])liysical transmission of teachers or 
books ir<.iiii the Ea.'^L Lu the West, is something op^w^sed 


to coiimioii sense. And this i\*siu\\ corrolKM'atcs onrron- 
victicns tlmt (lie did I!i,^\ ])tians wwr cniiurants from 
India ; nearly all tlie famous ancient ])liil<»so]ili( rs Jni>/ 
heen to E;iy]if fo Ifarn her icisdom^ from the flewish 
Moses to tlie Greek Plato.'" 

Sir \\ illlam Jones savs : " Of tlie rnrsory observa- 
tions on the Hindus, wliieh it would re(|uire volumes to 
expand and illustrate, this is the result, that they had 
an immeUK^rial athnilv with the ol<l I'ersians, Ktliiopians 
and Ktiyptians, the PhdMiiciaus, Greeks, and Tusf;;in<, 
the Scythians, or Goths, and Celts, the Chinese, Japanese, 
and Peruvians.''-' 

The author of " India in Greece" savs : " Al though 
the province of Pelasa or Ikdiarsent fortl; a hody of emi- 
grants so ]^o^verfnl as to ^ive a ecneial nr.nie to the 
great Oriental movement which helped to people the 
niaiidand ;uid islands of Greece, vet. the numbers from 
this province alone give no adequate idea of the popula- 
tion that exchanged the sunny land of India for the 
more tem])crate latitudes of Persia, Asia Elinor, and 
Hellas. The mountains of Ghoorka ; Delhi, (hide, Agn», 
Lahore, ^[ultan, Kashmir, the Indus, and the pro- 
vinces of Uajputana, i<cnt forth iheir (ulititunuil tJumsuiuls 
to feed the Jlviiui tide tint jhnrcd toiiuirds tJic hinds of 
Enrojie (UiiJ of Asin. \\"\\\\ thesi; wiirlike pilgrims on 
their journev to the far \\'e>t— l)ands as enterprising as 
the race of Anglo-Saxons, the descendants, in fact, of 
some of those very Sa as of Northern India — like them, 
too, filling the solitudes, or facing the perils of the West, 
there marched a force of native warriors, sufficiently 

1 Si'o the TliPt.>t)i.liist f.M Manh 1««1, \k Vii. 
-Asiutiv U»'soaivlitt>, V>>1 1. y i2G. 


powerful to take possession of the richest o£ the soil 
that liiy before them. 

" Though unsuccessful in the (j!;\'en.t stru_£r.iilc that 
terminated in the expulsion of themselves andtlieir reli- 
gious teachers, their practised hardihood left them 
nothing to fear from the desultory attacks of any tribes 
who miijht be bold enough to obstruct their march."* 

He a^ijain savs : " The actual extent of the Pelas<nc 
race (which in fact became a synonym for the general 
population of India, when transplanted to Europe and 
Asia), far exceeded the idea of Neibuhr. So vast were 
their settlements, and so firmly-rooted were the very 
names of kingdoms, the nomenclature of tribes, that I 
do not scruple to assert that the successive maps of Spain, 
Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, Persia, and India, may be read 
like the chart of an emigrant."^ 

Uudiiv in Greece, i<[<. L'y and 30. -India in Greece, p. 32. 

HINDU rOLoNIZATinx. 1 I!) 


In flio affornnoii tlx'V onnn' iiiitn a land. 
In wliicli h >otMiiod always aftrrnooii. 

Ecvi'T was oriuinally a colony of tlie Hiii<l;is. It 
appears that altoiit seven or ci^lit thousand years aiTo ;i 
boiiy ol" colonists from Intlia settleil in l\i;y[)L, wlieie 
they est'al)lished one of the niiiifhticst empires of the 
old ■world. Colonel Oleottsavs: '' We have a riiiht t(» more 
than sus[)ect that India, cii;ht tlionsand years ago, sent 
a colony of cmi'^rants who carried their arts ami hi,i:h 
civilization into what is now known to us as Kix\ pt. 
This is what IJrugseh Bev, tiie most modern as well as the 
most trusted E<iyptologer and antifpiarian, says on the 
ori<:;in of the old Eiryptians. UeLTardinii^ these as a hranch 
of the Caucasian family having a close afHnity with the 
Indo-Germanic races, he insists that tlicv ' nii^ifrated from 
India long before historic memory, and crossed that 
bridge of nations, the Isthmus of Suez, to find a new 
fatherland on the banks of the Xile.' The Kirv|)tians 
came, according to their own records, from a mysterious 
land (now shown to lie on the shore of the Indian ocean), 
the sacred Punt; the original home of tlieir gods who 
followed thence after their people who had abandoned 
them to the vallev of tlie Xile, led by Anion, Hor 
and Hathor. This region was tlic Egyptian 'Land 
of the Gods,' Pa-Nuter, in old Egyptian, or 
Holylandj and now proved beyond any doubt to ha\e 

l.'iO iiiNDr srrKiaoiiiTv. 

been quite a (lifTcrent place from the Ilolylaud of Sinai. 
]>y tlie pictorial hieroglj-pbic inscription fouiul (ami 
interpreted) on the walls of the temple of the Queen 
Haslitop at Der-el-bahri. we see that this Punt can be no 
other than India. For many ages the Egyptians traded 
■with tlieir old homes, and the reference here made by 
them to the names of the Princes of Punt and its fMuna 
and flora, especially the nomenclature of various precious 
woods to be found but in India, leave us scarcely room 
for the smallest douljt that the (jld civilization of Egvpt 
is the direct outcome of that of the older India." 

Mr. Pococke says : " At the mouths of the Indus 
dwell a seafaring people, active, ingenious, and enter- 
prising as when, ages subsequent to this great move- 
ment, they themselves, with the warlike denizens of the 
Punjab, were driven from their native land to seek 
the far distant climes of Greev'e. The commercial people 
dwellini'- alon<>- the coast that stretches from the mouth 
of the Indus to the Coree, are embarking on that emi- 
irration whose raao.Miii'icent results to civilization, and 
whose m^antic monuments of art, fill the mind with 
mingled emotions of admiration and awe. These people 
coast ah^ng the shores of Mekran, traverse the month 
of the Persian Gulf, and again adhering to the sea-board 
of Oman, Hadramant, and Yeman (the Eastern Arabia), 
thev sail up the Red Sea ; and again ascending the 
mighty stream that fertilises a land of won<lers, found 
the kingdoms of Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia. These 
are ihe same stock that, centuries subsequently to this/' 
colonization, spread the blessings of civilization over 
ll;'llu> and licr islands."- 
Jbee the Tbeosopliist for Murch Ibtfl, I'.l;:^. -laUin in Uieoc*?, p. 42. 

IlINDr roi.nMZAlInN. 1 .', I 

Mr. Pocockc thus smiiiniiriscs liis rcscar ln's : 
** I would now hricllv rccMpitiil itc the IradinLr rviilciiccH 
of tlio colonization nl" Africa fro!ti Xorth-wcstcrii India 
and Lh(3 Himalaya proNinccs. /V/>7, fi-om tin- pi-ovinciss 
oi- rivi*i'> (ha'iviii;;- tlu-ir naiia-s from tlic irr(,'at rivers of 
India ; Kecowlbj^ from llic towns and |)rovincL'.s of India 
or its northern frontiers ; fJtiniii/, from the Kulinir 
Chiefs styled liamas (Kameses), v.V:c. ; foitrt/i/i/, simila- 
rity in the objects of sepnltnre ; fi//Iih/, arehitectnral 
skill and its urand and gigantic character: and si.vthhj, 
the [»ower of translating words, im:iuined to be Egyptian, 
throui!:h the medinm of a in(jdified Sanskrit."' 

Mr. Pococke then ])roceeds to subjoin "the opinions 
of men of sound judgment in comiection with the In- 
tlian colonization of Kgyjit.' 

The name " Nile ' was given to tiie great river of 
Egypt by the Indian settlers there. "Eoral)ont 10 miles 
below the Attock," says a critic, ''the Indus has a dean, 
deep and rapid current, but for above a hundred miles 
farther down to Kalabagh it becomes an enormous 
torrent. The water here dark lead cr)lour, and hence 
the name Xilab or Blue river given as well to the Indus 
as to a town on its banks, about 1:^ miles below AttfK-k.'' 
As Aboasin (a classical name for the Indus) gave its 
name to Abusinia (Abys.sinia) in Africa, so here " we now 
observe the Nilab (the blue water) bestowing an aj^pn- 
lation on the farfamed "Nile" of Egypt. This is one of 
those facts which prove the colonization of Egypt to 
have taken place from the coast of Scinde." 

lliiJia ill (.tret"*'", p. -<>I , 

15:? HINDU surEuioiUTV. 

Apnrt from liistorical evidence there are ethnologi- 
cal grounds to support the fact that the ancient Egyptians 
■were originally an Indian people. Professor Heeren is 
astonislied at tlie "])liysical similarity in colour and in 
the conformation of the heiid" of the ancient Egyptians 
and the Hindus. As regards the latter point, he adds : 
" As to the form of the head, I have now before me the 
skulls of a mummy and a native of Bengal from the 
collections of M. Blum en bach ; and it is impossible to 
conceive anything more striking than the resemblance 
between the two, both as respects the general form and 
the structure of the lirm portions. Indeed the learned 
possessor himself considers them to be the most alike of 
any in his numerous collections."^ 

After showing the still more striking similarity 
between the maimers and customs, in fact, between the 
whole, social, religious and political institutions of the 
two peoples. Professor Heeren says : " It is perfectly 
agreeable to Himiu manners that colonies from India, /.<?., 
Banian families should have passed over into Africa, and 
carried with them their industry, and perhaps also their 
religious worship."- He adds : " It is hardl}' possible to 
maintain the opposite side of the ipiestion, f/j , that the 
Hindus were derived from the Egyptians, for it has been 
already ascertained that the country bordering on the 
Ganges was the cradle of Hindu civilization. Now, the 
Egyptians could not have established themselves in that 
neighbourhood, their probable settlement would rather 
have taken place on the Coast of Malabar." 

iHoeren's Asiatic Nations, A'ul. II, p. 'M)i\. 
^ILiTin's lli.storieal Kc.H'urclics \v\. II, [i. oO'J. 

iiiNnr coLONizATrox. I.'.J 

Tlic learned professor ooiicludcs : " W'liMtfvor woi'dit 
may be nttaeheil /-> [ii'lliin Inulition (tnd f/ir, r.r/)ress 
tcsthnomi of Ensehiu^ eontiriniii^' tlie report of inii^rutloiis 
from tlie hanks of the Inihis into Eirypt, then; is certain- 
ly nothini;- improlnihle in the event itself, as a (h^sire of 
jjain would have formed a sntlieicnt indn<'eni(!nt." 
Decisive evidence of the fact, however, may he foinid in 
Philostratus and Xonnus. For furtiicr infornmfion on 
the subject, viilc Religion. 

After tracinix the descent of Piiilippos oi" Maccdon 
and his son, Alexander, from lihili-Pcs or lihil-Prince 
and llamnion in Af^'haiiistan, Mr. Pococke continues : 
*' And these same Bhils, i.e.^ the Uhil Uralnnans planted 
this same Oracle of Hammon in the deserts of Africa, 
■nhither I have already shown that they had sailed ; 
"where tlicv founded Philai, i.e.. Dhailai, the citv of the 
Bhili, in lat. 24== North, 7^^ East.i 

Mr, Pococke, who mude the sul)ject his lifo-lonij 
study, says : "The early civilization, then, the early arts, 
the indubitably early literature of India are erpially the 
civilization, the arts and literature of Ku;ypt and <>f 
Greece — for ideographical evidences, conjoined to hii^- 
torical fact and relii^ious practices, now prove beyond all 
dispute that the two Intter countries are the colonies 
of the former."^ 

Ethiopia,' ns is universally admitted now, avas 
colonised by the Hindus. Sir W. doncs says : '* I']thiopi» 

'India in Greece, p. fi'). ^Jmii^ Jn Grooco, j>. 71. 

3"TIio ancient geographers called by the name of Eihiopia all l^iat 
part of Africa which now constitutes Xiihia, Ahvssinia, Sauaor, Darfur, 
and ©ongola," — Thcogonij ftf the Hindut, p. 14, 


and ITiiidiistan were possessed or colonised by the same 
extraonlinarv race." ' 

Philostratus introduces the Brahman larchus l)v stat- 
in"; to his auditor tliat the Etliioninns were orio'inallv an 
Indian race compelled to leave India for the impurity 
contracted by slaying a certain monarch to whom they 
owed ailej^iance."- 

Eusebius states that the Ethiopians emigrating from 
the River Indus settled in the vicinity of Egypt/ 

In Philostratus, an Egyptian is made to remark tliat 
he had heard from liis father tiiat the Indians were the 
wisest of men, and that the Ethiopians, a colony of the 
Indians, preserved ihe wisdom and usage of their fore- 
fathers and acknowledged their ancient origin. We find 
the same assertion made at a later period, in the third 
century, by Julius' Africanus, from whom it has Ixren 
preserved by Eusebius and Syncellus.* 

Cuvier, quoting Syncelhis, even assigns the reign o£ 
Amenophis as the epoch of the colonization of Ethioj>ia 
from India.'' 

The ancient Abyssinians (Abusinians), as alrendy 
remarked, Avere oriainallv miirrators to Africa from the 
banks of Abuisin, a classical name for the Indus.^ 

As will appear from the accounts of the commercial 
position of India in the ancient world, commerce on an 
extensive seale existed between ancient India iuid Abys- 
sinia, and we find Hindus in large numbers settled in the 

'Asiatic Roscaifhes. Vdl. J, j). 12(1, 

^V. A. Til, C. S.'' '• India ill Grewo," p. 200. 

•*L<Mi7i), Barkers' t-ilition ; " Meroe." 

4S.'o " Fixlia in Groecc," p. 205. •'■]'. Is ..f ?)is " DLscours/' ire. 

f'llvfrc'irs Historical Hoscaivlios, Vol. 11. y. :'10. 


latter country, " whence also," says Colonel Tod, " the 
Hindu names of towns at the estuaries of the Gambia and 
Senegal rivers, the Taml)a Cundi and another Cundas." 
He continues : "A wiitrr in the Asiatic Journal (^'ul. 
IVj p. ol^.j) irives a curious list of tlu* niunes cf places 
in the intcTior uf Africa, mentioned in Park's Second 
Journey, which are shown to be all Sanskrit, and 
most of them actually current in India at the present 

'See Tod's Rajasthau, Vol. II, p. SOi), footnote. 



Not vainly did llio early rcrsiiui make 
His altar the liigli iilaccs, and the peak 

Of earth — o'ergazing uionnlains, and tims take 
A fit and unr^alled temple, there to seek 

The spirit, in Avlinse honour shrines are weak, 
Upreared of huuiau hands. 

— EvnoN : Childe Harold. 

Mr, Pococke saj^s : " I have glanced at the Indian 
settlements in Egypt, which will again be noticed, and 
I Avill now resume my observations from the lofty fron- 
tier, which is the true boundary of the European and 
Indian races. The Parasoos, the people of Parasoo Ram, 
those warriors of the Axe, have penetrated into and 
given a name to Persia ; they are the people of Bharata ; 
and to the principal stream that pours its waters into the 
Persian Gulf they have given the name of Eu-Bharat-es 
(Euphrat-es), the Bharat Chief."i 

Professor ^lax MuUer's testimony is decisive on the 
point. Discussing the word ' Arya,' he says : *' But it 
was more faithfully preserved by the Zoronstrians, who 
migrated from India to the North-west and whose reli- 
gion has been preserved to us in the Zind Avesta, 
though in fragments only."- He again says : " The 
Zorustrians were a colony from Xorthern India." ^ 

Professor Heeren says : "In point of f:ict the Zind 
is derived from the Sanskrit, and a passage in Manu 

'India in Greece, p. 45. Sgcicnee of Language, p. 242. 
•* Science of Language, p. 2do. 

HINDI" eor.ON'IZATlON. 1 .">7 

(('lin])t('r X, sloki's -i;;- I.')) iiiiikcs tlic l'('r>inii> to \\■.\\^^ 
ilesfciuled troin tlu.' Iliinliisnf the second ur Warriur 

The old name oF tlie comitrx, /?•///, was irivcn I»v iIk; S^*^»^. 
first settlers there, who were Airaii, tiw; dcHeeiidantn P^' 
of Aira, tiic son of Puniravas the son ol" iliidha of tlie 
T.iinir race. (Airan is plural of AiraK- These sett ler.s 
had hee'ii expelh^d from India after lonij wars, sj)oken 
ol' hy ancient clironicles of IV'rsia as Avars between Iran 
and Turan, Tnran bcini^ a corrupt form of Suran, Surd 
the Sun. the sun tribe-i. The trii)e of " Cossu'i" seen 
near the banks of the Tii^ris, are the people of Kasi, the 
classical name of Henare.^. 

Sir W. Jones says : '' 1 was not a little surprised 
to find that out of ten wonls in Dii Perron's Zind Dic- 
tionary, six or seven were pure Sanskrit."*^ 

Mr. Haug, in an interesting:! essay on the oriLjin of 

Zoroastrian religion, compares it with IJrahminism, and 

points out the originally-close connection between the 

Brahminical and the Zoroastrian relitrions, customs and 

observances. After comj)aring the Jiames of divine 

beings, names and legends of heroes, sacrificial 

rites, religious observances, domestic rites, and cosmo- 

graphicalopinions that occur both in the Vedic and Avesta 

writings, he says : " In the ^ edas as well as in the older 

'Historical Il(.'SLar..hes, Vol. II. p. 220. 

- India in Greece, p. Itjl. 

^rtir W, JoucV works, Vul, I, pp. ^2 an J «J, 


portions of the Zind-Ave^^ta (see the Catlias), tlici'e 
are sufficient traces to be discovered that the Zoroastrian 
religion arose out of a vital struggle against a form 
which the Brahminical religion had assumed at a 
certain early period,"^ After contrasting the names 
of the Hindu Gods and the Zoroastrian deities, Professor 
Hang savs : "These facts throw some light npon the 
au'e in which that o;reat reliirious struo'o-le took place, 
the consequence of which was the entire separation of 
the Ancient Iranians from the Brahmans and the 
foundation of the Zoroastrian religion. It must have 
occurred at the time when Indra was the chief god 
of the Brahmans. "^ 

It is not an easy matter to ascertain the exact period 
at which the Hindu colonization of Persia took place. It 
is certain, however, that it took place long before the 
i\lahal)harata. Colonel Tod says : " Ujaraeda, by his wife, 
Nila, hud five sons, who spread their branches on Ijoth 
sides of the Indus. Regarding three the Puranas are 
silent, which implies their migration to distant regions. 
Is it possible they might be the origin of the Medes ? 
These Medes are descendants of Yayat, third son of the 
patriarchy Menu : and Madai, founder of the Medes, was 
of Japhet's line. Aja Meiie, the patronymic of the 
branch of Bnjaswa, is from Aja 'a goat.' The Assyrian 
Mede in Scripture is typified by the goat."' 

'Hang's Essays on the Parsees, p. 287. 

-Hang's Essays ou the Parsees, p. 288, 

Of great importance for showing tlie originally-close relationsliip 
between tiie Brahminical and Parsi religions, is the fact that several of 
the Indian gods are actually mentioned by name in the Zind Avesta, some 
as demons, otiiers as angels. — Hmiff's Essays, p. 272. 

^Tod's Kajasthan, Vol. I, p, 11. 

iiTxnr roLoxT'/ATiox. '[',<) 

Apart from tho pussai^o in ^Iniiu,' doscriblng the 
origin ol' lIk' luicicnt Persians, there is another argument 
to support it. Zoroaster, tlie Pro])]iet of the Ancient 
Persians, was born after the emigrants from India hud 
settled in Persia, long enough to haxc become a se[>arate 
nation. Yyasu held a grand religious discussion with 
Zoroaster at Balkh in Turkistan, and was therefore his 
contemporar}'. Zanthus of Lydia (B.C. 470), the earli- 
est Greek writer, who mentions Zoroaster, says that he 
lived about six hnndred years before the Trojan War 
(which took place about 1800 B.C.). Aristotle and 
Kndoxus place his era as munh as six thousand years 
before Plato, others five thousand years l)efore the 
Trojan War (see Pliny : Historia Naturalis, XXX, l-o), 
Berosos^ the Bab3donian historian makes him a king of 
the Babylonians and the founder of a dynasty whicli 
reigned over Babylon between B.C. 2200 and llC. 
2000. It is, however, clear that the Hindu coloniza- 
tion of Persia took place anterior to the Great War. 

In the first chapter (Fargard) of the part Avliich bears 
the name Vendidad of their sacred book (which is also 
their most ancient book), Hurmuzd or God tells Zapetman 
(Zoroaster): "I have given to man an excellent and 
fertile country. Nobody is able to give such a one. 
This land lies to the east (of Persia), where the stars 
rise every evening." " When Jamshed (the leader of 
the emi(i-rating nation), came from the h/)jhland in the 
ea-<t to the plain, there were neither domestic animals 
nor wild, nor men." "The country alluded to above 
from which the Persians are said to have come can be 

i^Mannsmrili is aduiittedly mwch older than the Mahabhaiata. 


110 other than the North-west part o£ ancient TncHa — 
Afa'hanistan and Kashmir — beini:!; to the east of Persia, 
as well as highland compared to the Persian plains."^ 

Mr. Pococke says : "The ancient map of Persia, 
Colchis, and Armenia is absolutely full of the irost 
distinct and startling evidences of Indiau colonization, 
and, what is more astonishing, practically evinces, in the 
most powerful manner, the truth of several main points 
in the two great Indian poems, the Ramayana and the 
Mahabharata. The whole map is positively nothing less 
than a journal or emigration on the most gigantic 

ITlioogony o[ tlio Tl nidus. -Iiidlft in Oron'o, p, 47. 



The Cok'hian virgin, wlioso bold iuuid 
URdauntod grasps the \Tarliko spear. 

— >.EsciivLus : Prometheus. 

The Chaldeans wern ori"inallv mii2:rators from India. 
Chaldea is a corruption of cid (family or tribe) and 
deva (a god or brahman.) The country, colonized by 
the tribe of Devas or Brahmans, was called Chaldea, 
whence the word Chaldeans. Couiit ]^)jornstjerna says : 
"The Chaldeans, the Babylonians and the inhaljitants of 
Colchis derived their civilization from India." ^ 

Mr. Pococke says: " The tribe 'Abanti' who fought 
most valiantly in the Trojan War were no other than 
the Rajputs of ' Avanti' in Malwa."- 

The Assyrians, too, were of Hindu origin. Their 
first king was Bali, Boal or Bel. This Boal or Bali was 
a ffreat kin^ of India in ancient times. He ruled from 
Cambodia to Greece. Professor Maurice says : " Bali 
. . . was the puissant sovereign of a mighty empire 
extendinii' over the vast continent of India." 

Mr. Pococke sa}'s: "Thus, then, at length, are dis- 
tinctly seen — firslli/, the identical localities in the Indian 
and Tartarian provinces whence Palestine was colonized; 
secondly^ the identity of idolatry is proved between 
India, the old country, and Palestine the new ; fhinUi/, 
the identity of the Raj[)ut of India and of Palestine ; 
fourthly, the positive notification of the distinct tribe 
Avhich the Israelites encountered and overthrew."-^ 

iTheogouy of the Hindus, p. IH-S. - India in Grcc'<;e, p. So. 
^ludia in Greoco, p. 221). 



TliP nioniitain lodks on ]\Iavathoii — 

And Marathon looks on tlic sea; 

And nmsing there an hour alone, 

I dream'd that Greece ruiyht still he free. 

— Byrox : Don Jnun. ' 

The Hindu emic'rations to Greece have already been 
mentioned. The subject, is of such fascinating interest 
that eminent scholars and archaeologists have devoted 
their time and learninor to unravel the mysterv connected 
with the origin of the race, whose splendid achievements 
in peace and war yet stand unrivalled in Europe. Colonel 
Tod and Colonel Wilford laid the foundations of a 
system of encpiiry in this branch of historical research, 
on which Mr, Pococke has raised the marvellous structure 
of '* India in Greece," which stands firm and solid, defyino; 
the violence and fnry of the windv criticism of ignorant 
critics and the hail and sleet of certain writers on Indian 
Archteology, blinded by inveterate prejudices. Mr.Pococke 
quotes chapter and verse in proof of his assertions, and 
proves beyond all shadow of doubt the Hindu origin 
of the ancient Greeks. 

After describing^ the Grecian society duriui!; the 
Homeric times, Mr. Pococke says : "The whole of this 
state of society, civil and militarv, must strike everyone 
as beini!" eminently Asiatic, nnich of" it si)ecificallv Indian. 
Such it undoubtedly is. And I shall demonstrate that 
these evidences were but the attendant tokens of an Indian 
colonization with its corresponding religion and language. 
I shall exhil/it dynasties disappearing from Western In- 
dia to a})pear again in Greece : clans, whose martial fame 


is still recorded in the faithful chronicles of North-west- 
(M-ii India, as the gallant bands who fought upon the 
plains of Troy."' 

" i>ut, if the evidences of Saxon colonization in this 
island (Great Britain) — I speak independently of Anglo- 
Saxon history — are strong both from languageand political 
institutions, the evidences are still more decisive in the 
parallel case of an Indian colonization of Greece — not 
only her language, but her philosophy, her religicjn, 
her rivers, her mountains and her tribes ; her subtle 
turn of intellect, her political institutes, and above all the 
mysteries of that noble land, irresistibly prove her co- 
lonization from India."^ " The primitive history of 
Greece," adds the author, "is the primitive history of 

There are critics who concede the derivation of 
Greek from the Sanskrit, but stop short of the necessary 
inference that the people who spoke the former language 
were the descendants of those who spoke the latter. Of 
such, Mr. Pococke asks : ''Is it not astonishinij that 
reason should so halt half-way in its deduction as to all(3w 
the derivation of the Greek from an Indian lan^uaire, and 
yet deny the personality of those who spoke it ,• or, in 
other words, deny the settlement of an Indian race in 

The word Greek itself signifies the Indian origin 
of the ancient Greeks. The royal city of the Magedh- 
anians or Kings of Magadha was called " Raja Griha." 
" The people or clans of Griha were, according to the 
regular patronymic form of their language, st}'led 

I India in Greece, p. 12. ^ India in Greece, p. 10. 
i^ India in Greece, p. lio. 


Graihka, whence the or<linary derivative Graihakos 
(Graikos) Gra?cus or Greek," ^ This shows that the 
Greeks were miuTators from Mag^hada : which fact is still 
further strengthened when we consider that their prede- 
cessors in their adopted country were also inhabitants 
of Maghada. These people were Pelasgi. They were 
so-called because they emigrated from Pelasa, the ancient 
name for the province of Behar, in Aryawarta. Pelasoo 
is a derivative form of Pelasa, whence the Greek Pelasgo. 
The theory is fiu'ther strennthened when we find that 
Asius, one of the early poets of Greece, makes King 
Pilasgus spring from " Gaia." This " Gaia " is no other 
than the " Gaya," the capital city of Pelaska or Behar. 

^Euba^a was colonized by " Eu-babooyas," the 
Bahoojas or warriors par excellence. The Makedonians 
(Macedon = Magada) were the inhabitants of Maghada, 
the same province. The people of Behar or JMaghada^ 
it appears migrated in several tribal groups to Greece; and 
their migrations are marked by the different names they 
gave to the part or parts of their adopted country. Says 
Mr. Pococke : " The Bud'has have brought v,'ith them 
into Thessaly the far-famed mythological but equally 
historical name of ' Cilas,' the fabulous residence of 
Cuvera, the (Hindu) god of wealth, and the favourite 
haunt of Siva, placed by the Hindus among the Hima- 
layan mountains, and applied to one of the loftiest 
peaks lying on the north of the Manasa lake. "- 

1 India in Greece, p. 295. 

~ India in Greece, p. 99. The Hindu name for Heaven was carried 
by the migrators with them to Greece and tlience adopted by the Ro- 
mans, Kailas became Kailon for the Greeks and Cochim for the 


Many otlier tribes ol' tlio Khshntriyas migrated to 
Greece and the isles of the Archipelago. The l^teotiaiis 
were the " Baihootian," llajput dwellers on the hanks of 
Behoot (Jehluni) : the Cossopaei were the Kashmiriaiis 
so-called from Casayapa, the founder ol" Kashmir. 'I'lu; 
Hellopes were the Chiefs of the Hela trilx; and their 
country " Hellados, Hella-desa." The names, ]\Iount 
Korkedus ( Ivertetcha rangx; in Afghanistan), Locman 
(Lughman of Afghanistan), and Mount Titarus (the 
Tatara P;iss of Afghanistan), Mount Othrys (Sanskrit 
name of Himalaya), Matan Astae (Matan-Vasti " the 
dAvelling place of the Matans,a tribe of Kashmir), Kestrine 
(Khashirii/a, warrior caste, and ina, chief), all point to 
the fact that many of the migrators were originally 
inhabitants of the iSTorth-western parts of India. 

Speaking; of the Hindus having reared a Mytholo- 
2;ical superstructure on physical facts in making ]\Iount 
Ivilas, the abode of the gods, Mr. Pococke says : " Thus 
it was with the native of Indus and of the rockv 
heights of Hela, when he became a settler in the 
Hellas ; and thus it was with his polished descendant 
in Athens, who though called a Greek was yet as 
thoroughly Sindian in his tastes, religion, and literature 
as any of his forefathers." • 

" The land of Hellas, a name so dear to civilization 
and the arts," says Pococke, " was so-called from the 
raao^nificent ranjxe of heights situated in liilochistan, 

styled the ' Hela' mountains The chiefs of this 

country were called Helaines or the chiefs of the Hella. 
The formation of the term Helenes in Sanskrit would 

ijiulia in Greece, p. 6'J. 
*Iiulia in Greece, pp. 48-50. 


be identical with the Greek. Hel-eii (tlie Sun-king) is 
.said to have left his kingdom to Aiolas, his eldest son, 
uhile he sent for Dorus and Zuthus to make conquests 
in foreign lands. Haya is the title of a renowned tribe 
of Rajput warriors. They were called Asii or Aswa, 
and their chiefs, ' Aswa-pas,' and to use the words of 
Conon, as quoted by Bishop Thirlwall, " the patrimony 
of Aiolus (the Hai3'ulas) is described as bounded by the 
river Asopus (Aswa-pas) and the Enipeus." Such, then, 
was the Asopus, the settlement of the Haya tribes, the 
Aswa chiefs, the sun worshippers, the children of the 
Sun-king or Helen, whose land was called in Greek Hella- 
dos, in Sanskrit, Hela-des {llela, Hela; des, land). Of 
Achilles, sprung from a splendid Rajput stock, I shall 
briefly speak when developing the parent geography of 

1 Jiulia in Gieoce, i>[>. iS-50. 

jii.Njji coi-itNizArmx. Ui7 

\.— ROME. 

"OliTili.T! Fatlior : 
To whom tlir Koiiiims lu-iy. 
A Roman's lite, a limiian's aims, 
Take lliiiu ill cliaiyt- lliis day I 

— Macaui.av : Ilorotius. 

]\Ir. Pococke savs : " The i'Teat heroes of India are tlie 
oods of Greece. Thev are in fact — as thev have been 
often rationally attirmed, and as plaursibly but not as 
rationally denied — deified chiefs and heroes ; and this 
same process of deification, both among Greeks and 
Romans — the descendants of colonists from India, con- 
tinued, specially amongst the latter people down to and 
throughout the most historical periods."^ 

The Romans were the descendants of the Trojans, 
the inhabitants of that part of Asia Elinor in Avhich 
Hindu settlements had long been estaljlished. Niebuhr 
says : " Home is not a Latin name." Mr. Pococke says 

it is " Rama." The Sanskrit lono- "a" is rei)laced bv 

i^ 1 

" o " or " w " of the Greeks, as Poseidon and Poseidan.- 
Their neighbours, the Etruscans, had a system 
of religion in many respects similar to that of the 
Hindus. It is remarkable that their religion was as 
perfect in ceremonial details as tlie religion of the 
Hindus, or of the Egyptians (which was a direct 
outcome of Hinduism.) But the early Etruscans, too, 
were a body of colonists from India who penetrated into 
Italy some time before or about the Hindu colonization 
of Greece. Of the Asiatic tribe called " Asor," 
Count Bjornstjerna says : '* It seems to be the same 
tribe which came by sea to Etruria."^ 

1 India in Grewe, p. \\2. -India in Greece, \\ IGG, 
•^Theogony of the Ilind'-.s \>. 1U5. 



"At length tlien to the ^vide earth's extreme bounds, 
To Scythia are we come, those pathless wilds 
Where human footstep never marked the ground." 

■ — jEschylus : Prometheus. 

The Turanians extending' over the whole of TiU'kistan 
and Central Asia were originally an Indian people. 
Colonel Tod says : " x\bdul Gazi makes Tamak, the son 
of Tare, the Turishka of the Puranas. His descendants 
gave their name to Tocharistan or Turkistan."^ Pro- 
fessor ]\Iax Muller says : " Turvas and his descendants 
who represent Turanians" are described in the later epic 
poems of India as cursed and deprived of their inherit- 
ance," and hence their miirration. 

Colonel Tod says : " The Jaisahner annals assert 
tliat the Yadu and the Balica branches of the Indu race 
ruled Korassan after the Great War, the Indo-Scythic 
races of Grecian authors." Besides the Iklicas and the 
numerous branches of the Indo-Medes, many of the sons 
of Cooru dispersed over these regions : amongst whom 
we may place Ootooru Cooru (Northern Coorus) of the 
Puranas, the Ottorocm\T; of the Greek authors. ])Oth 
the Indu and the Surya races were eternally sending 
their superfluous population to those distant regions."'' 

A ]\tohamedan historian^ says that the conntry of 
Khatha was first inhabited by a body of emigrants from 

1 Tod's Rajasthan, Vol, T. p. U)3. -'Science of Language, p. 212. 
STod's Kajastluin, Vol, 1, p. 16. -illistury of China, Vol. IJ, p. 10, 

niNDU COLONIZATinx. ](';0 

A band of Hindu settlers left India for Sil)eria, 
where they founded a kingdom, with Bajra[)ur as its 
capital. It is related that on tlie death of the kin<f of 
that country in a battle, Pardainun, Gad and Sambhn, 
three sons of Sri Krishna Chandra, with a lar^-e number 
of Brahnians and Ivshatriyas, went there, and the eldest 
brother succeeded to the throne of the deceased Raja. 
On the death of Sri Krishna Chandra they paid a con- 
dolence visit to Dvvarka.^ 

Colonel Tod savs : " The annals of the Yadus of 
Jaisalmer state that long anterior co ^'ikrama, they held 
dominion from Ghazni to Samarkand ; that they estab- 
lished themseh'es in those regions after the Mahabharata 
or the Great War, and were again impelled on the rise of 
Islamism within the Indus."- He further says : " Tiie 
Yadus of Jaisalmer ruled Zabulistan and founded 
Ghazni."'^ They claim Chaghtaes as of their own Indu 
stock, " a claim which,'' says Colonel Tod, " I now 
deem worthy of credit." 

The Afghans are the descendants of the Aph(jana^ 
the serpent tribe of the Apivansa of ancient India. " Ac- 
cording to Abu Haukal, the city of Herat is also called 
Heri. This adjoins Maru or Murve.""* The country 
called Scestan, which the Middle Eastern (Question may 
yet bring more prominently before the public, Avas a 
settlement of the Hindus. Colonel Tod says : " Seestan 
(the region of cold, see-sthaii) and both sides of tiie 

■'TTari Vanslui, Vishnu I'iirva, Adhyaya 97. 

ildd's Hajastluui, p. b2\). 

^Tod's Rajasthati, Vol. f, p. C,]. "Tlic sons of Krishna ovcntnally 
loft Indus behind and passed into Zabulistan, and peopled these 
countries, even to Saniarkand."'--p. H,'>. 

*Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. II, p. 231. 


valley were occnpiecl in the earliest periods by another 
branch of the Yadus."^ Colonel Tod again sa^'s : " To 
the Indn race of Aswa (the descendants o£ Deomida and 
Ba.jaswa), spread over the countries on both sides of the 
Indns, do we owe the distinctive appellation of Asia."- 
That the Bactrians were an Indian peo]:)le has already 
been shown. And that the Indian mig:rations extended 


to Siberia and the northern-most part of Asia is evident 
from the fact that the descendants of the Aryan raio-rators 
are still ftamd there. "The Samovedes and Tchondes of 
Siberia and Finland are really Samayadus and Joudes of 
India. The Ian2;ua2:es of the two former races are 
said to have a stronsj affinity and are classed as Hindu- 
Germanic by Klaproth,the author of 'Asia Polyglotta.' "s 
Mr. Remusat traces these tribes to Central Asia, where 
the Yadus long held sway. Sama, Syam is a title of 
Krishna. Thev were Sama Yadus. 

1 Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. 1 1, p. 230. 

2Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. T, ik G3. " Europn derived from Sarupa, 
'of the beautiful face,' the iiiiiiul syllable .-■?( and en having- the same 
signification in both languages, viz., good. Rupa is countenance."'— 1>. 515. 

3Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. T, p. 529." The race of Joude is described 
by Baber as occupying the mountainous range, the very spot mentioned 
in ll..' annals of the Yadnn as iheir ])liice of lialt on quitting India 
twelve centuries before Christ, and thence called Yadu-ki-dang, or bill 
of Yadu. 



The [iross's uvagii- Irttors. 
That blessing ye brought forth, 
Behold I it lies in fetters 
Oil the soil that gave it I'irlh. 

— CAMrBELL: Ode to the Germans. 

That the Ancient Germans were nii<Trators from India 
is proveil by the following passage from Muir : " It 
has been remarked by various authors (as Jvuhn 
and Zeitschrift, IV . 9-11!:) that in analogy with 
Manu or Manus as the father of mankind or of the 
Aryas, German mythology recognises Planus as the 
ancestor of Teutons," The English 'man' and the 
German ' mann ' appear also to be akin to the word * manu,' 
and the German 'mensch' presents a close resemblance to 
'manush' of Sanskrit."^ 

The first habit of the Germans, says Tacitus, on 
risinir was abliition, which Colonel Tod thinks must 
have been of Eastern orio;in and not of the cold climate 
of Germany,- as also " the loose flowing robe, the long 
and braided hair tied in a knot at the top of the head 
so emblematic of the Brahmins." 

The Germans are the Brahmans or Sharmas of 
India. Sharma became Jarma and Jarma became Jerman. 
For in Sanskrit sh and^' and a are convertible into one 
another, as Arya, Arjya and Arshya (see l\Iax ]\Iuller's 
liig Veda.) Csoma-De-Coras in the Preface to his 

J MiinniiiL,''s Ancient and Mediioval India. Vol. I, p. 118. 
^Tod's Rajasthan, Vol, 1, pp. 63 and yu. 


Tibetan Dictionary, says : "The Hungarians will find a 
fund of information from the study of Sanskrit respect- 
ing their origin, manners, customs and language." 

The Saxons are no other than the sons of the Sacas, 
who lived on the North-western frontier of Arvawarta, 
wdience they migrated to Germany. The name Saxon 
is a compound of " Saca " (Sakas) and " sanu '* (descen- 
dants). They were so-called because they were descen- 
dants of the Sakas. Their nanie for Heaven is the same 
as that of the Indians. A critic says : "It is from the 
Himalaya Mountains of the Sacas that the ' Sac-soons ' 
those sons of the Sacas (Saxons or Sacsons, for the words 
are at once Sanskrit, Saxon and English) derived their 
Himmel or Heaven." 

Colonel Tod sa3's : "I have often been struck with 
a characteristic analogy in the sculptures of the most 
ancient Saxon cathedrals in England, and on the con- 
tinent to Kanaya and the Gopis. Both may be intended 
to represent divine harmony. J)id the Asi and Jits of 
Scandinavia^ the ancestors of the Saxons, bring them 
from Asia?"^ 

Tod's Rajasthan, Volume I, (People's Edition), p. 570, 



Tlic S'.vodi>li sage aduiircs in yoiulcr bowons, 
liis winged insects and his ru.'-y lluwors. 

— C.\:\iT'r,Ki.i. : Plmsurcs of Ilojir. 

The Scandinavians are the descendants of the Hindu 
Kshatrijas. The term Scandinavian and tlie Hin(Ui 
" Kshatriya" or the Warrior caste are identical, "the 
former beinir a Sanskrit eiinivalent for tlie latter:" 
"Scanda Nabhi" (Scanda Navi) sio-nifies Scanda Chiefs 
(Warrior Chiefs). 

Colonel Tod says: "The Aswas were chiefly of 
the Indu race, yet a branch of the Suryas also bore this 
desio'nation." In the Edda we are informed that the 
Getes or Jits who entered Scandinavia were termed Asi, 
and their first settlement was Asigard {Asi (jarlt^ for- 
tress of t^ie Asi)." 

Pinkerton says : "Odin came into Scandinavia in the 
time of Darius Hystaspes, oOU years before Christ, and 
that his successor was Gotama. This is the period of 
the last Boodha, or Mahavira, whose era is 477 before 
Vicrama, or 533 before Christ. Gotama was the successor 
of Mahavira."^ 

"In the martial mythology and warlike poetry of the 
Scandinavians a wide field exists for assimilation." - 

" We can scarcely question," says Count Bjornst- 
jerna, "the derivation of the Edda (the religious books 
of ancient Scandinavia) from the Vedas."^ 

1 Tod's Rajiistlnin, Yul. I, p, U4. -Tod's llujasrlian, Vol. I, p. 0«. 
^Iboogoiiy of the liiudus, p. lOb. 


The principle on which the seven days oEthe Aveek 
nre named in India is the same on which it has been 
done in Scandinavia : — 

(1) Sundai; is called by the Hindus Aditwaram, 
after xiddit, the sun, after which also the Scandinavians 
call the day Sondag. 

(2) Monday \i cdWaA by the Hindus Somaicaram^ 
from Soma, the moon. Among the Scandinavians it is 
called Mondari. 

(3) Tuesday is called Manyaliraram in India after 
the Hindu hero, Maugla. It bears the name Tisdag 
amongst the Scandinavians, after their hero, This. 

(4) Wednesday is termed Botidhawayrwi by the 
Hindus, after Boudha ; by the Scandinavians, it is deno- 
minated after Oden (\yodan, Bodham, Budha), Onsdag. 

(5) Thursday is called Brahaspatiicaram by the 
Hindus, after Brahspati, or Brahma, their principal god; 
it bears the name Thorsdag amongst the Scandinavians, 
after their principal god, Thor. 

(6) Friday is called by the Hindus Siicravaram^ 
after Sucra, the ooddess of beaut}^ ; it is named by the 
Scandinavians after Freja, the goddess of beaut}', 

(7) Saturday is called Saniicaram by the Hindus 
after Sanischar, the god who cleanses spiritually ; it is 
named Lordag by the Scandinavians from loger, bathing. 

" AVe have here," says Count Bjornstjerna, himself 
a Scandinavian gentleman, "another proof that the 
I\Iyths of the Scandinavians are derived from those of 
the Hindus,"^ 

'Xlicogouy of tht; iiiudu-, p. 1G9. 



"Iliiil. Mountain n\ ih-Vv^Ui ] 
Palooo of i^lorv, I'lcsscd \iy (;l<>i_v":- Kini,' I 
AVilli iirosperiiit;' shade embower uie, wliile 1 sing 
Thy wonderf^. yet tinreaoh'd by mortal Hight ! 
Sky-})ierehig tuoiintain ! in thy bowers of love 
Ni> tears are seen, save wliere stalks 
AVeep tlrops balsamic o'er the silvered walks." 

— Hyjix to Im>ra : Sir IT. Jones' iranshtti 


The lij'pcrborefins (who formerly occupied the Xorth- 
ern-most parts of Europe and Asia) were the Khyber, 
purians, or the inhabitants of Khyberpur and its district. 
Another Khvber settlement will be seen in Thessaly 
on the Eastern branch of Phd-nix river. Its name 
is tolcrablv well-preserved !is Khyphara and Khyphera.^ 

j\[r. Pococke says: " AYliile the sacred tribe of 
Dodo, or the Dadan, fixed their oracle towards the north- 
erly line of the Hellopes, in Thessaly, the immediate 
neighbours of the Hyperboreans took up their abode to- 
wards the south of the holy mountain of To-]\Iaros, or 
Soo-Meroo. These were the Pashwaran, or the emigrants 
from Peshawar, who appear in the Greek guise of Pas- 
saroii. We now readily see the connection between the 
settlements of the Dodan (Dodonian Oracle), Passaron 
(Peshawar people), and the offerings of the Hyperboreans, 
or the men of Khyber])ur, who retained this appella- 
tion wherever they stibsequently settled."^ 

1 India in Greece, [>. 120. -India in Greece, p. 127. 



" Whether this portion of tlie world were rent 
By the rude Oceau, from the Continent, 
Or thus created : it was sure designed 
To be the sacred refuge of mankind." 

"Waller : To thf Proifctor. 

The Druids in ancient Britain were Buddhistic Brah- 
mans ; they adopted the metempsychosis, the pre- 
existence of the soul, and its return to the reahns oi 
universal space. They had a divine triad, consisting of 
a Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer, as with the 
Buddhists. The Druids constituted a Sacredotal Order 
which reserved to itself aione the interpretation of tlie 
m3"steries of religion. 

" The ban of the Druids was equally terrible with 
that of the Brahmans ; even the king a^^ainst whom it 
was fulminated ' fell,' to use the expression of the 
Druids, 'like grass before the scythe.' "^ 

]Mr. Pococke says: 'Tt was the Macedonian hero who 
invaded and vjinquished the land of his forefathers 
im wittingly. It was a Napier who, leading on the small 
but mighty army of Britain, drove into headlong flight 
the hosts of those warlike clans from u'hose pareiit stock 
hhnselt and not a few of his troops icere the direct de- 
scend antsy '^ 

Mr. Pococke also says: "The Scotch clans, their 
orioinal localities and their chiefs in Afghanistan and 
Scotland, are subjects of the deepest interest. How 
little did the Scotch officers who perished in the Afghan 

iTheogony of tlie Hindus, p. 104. -India in Greece, p. 86. 


campaign tliiiik that thv.y -were opposed l)}- the same 
tribes from whom tJici/ tlunn^dces sprann ! A work on 
this subject is in progress."^ 

]\Ir. Pococke says : " It is in no spirit o£ etymologi- 
cal triflino' that I assure the reader, that the far-famed 
' hurrah' of his native country (England) is the war- 
cry of his forefather, the Rajput of Britain, for he was 
long the denizen of this island.- Ilis shout was ' haro! 
haro I' (hurrah! hurrah !) Hark to the spirit-stirring 
strains of Wordsworth, so descriptive of this Oriental 
w^arrior. It is the Druid v.ho speaks : — 

Then seize the spear, and mount the scytlicd irheel. 

Lash the j)rniul sU'od, and whirl the flaming stci'l. 

Sweep through the thickest host and scorn to lly, 

Arise ! arise ! for this it is to die. 

Tims, neath his ranked care tlii' I)niid sire 

Lit the rnpt sotd, and fed the martial fire." 

"The settlement of the people of the Draus in this 
island, the northern part of which was essentially that 
of the Hi-BUon-])Es (E-budii-des,) or the land of the 
Hiya IJad'has at once accounts satisfactorily for the 
amazing mechanical skill displayed in the structure of 
Stone Henge, and harmonises with the industrious and 
enterprising character of the Budhists throughout the 
old world ; for these are the same people who drained 
the valley of Cashmir, and in all probability the 
plains of Thessaly." 

The history of the Druids is thus explained : "The 
Druids were Drui-des. They were in fact the same 
as the Druopes. venerated sages, chiefs of the 
tribes of the Draus, were of the Imlii Vansa or lunar 
race. Henue the Symbol of the crescent "worn by 

1 India in Ureeoe, p. 77. ^ludia in Greece, p. 114, 

178 nixDu surERioiUTT. 

these Druids. Their last refuge in Britain from tlie op- 
pression cf the llomans was 'the Isle of Saints' or 'Mona' 
(more properly ' Mooni,' Sanskrit for a holy sage). 
The Druids were the bards of the aocicnt Rajputs." 

Hark! 'twas tlie voice of hai.'t)s that pouri'd along 

The hollow vale the floating tide of song; 

I see the gliltering train, in long array, 

Gleam through the shades, and snowy splendours play: 

I see them now with measured steps and slow, 

'Mid arching groves the white-rohed s;iges go. 

The oaken wreath with braided fillet drest — 

The crescent beaming on the holy breast — 

The silver hair which waves above the lyre, 

And shrouds the strings, proclaim the Druid's quire. 

They halt and all is hushed. 

That the Hindus lived in Britain in ancient times 
is clear from the f.ict that a chief of the twiceborn was 
once brought from Saka-dvvipa (Britain) to India by 
Vishnu's eao-le.^ 

For further information re2;ardino' the Hindu colo- 
nization of Great Britain see Godfrey Higgins' " Celtic 
Druids", wherein it has been proved that tlie Druids were 
the priests of the Hindu colonists who emigrated from 
India and settled in Britain. 

iColebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, Vol. II, p. 179, Ti-anslation 
of Jatiniala. The learned Pictet says : "I here terminate ihis parallel 
of the Celtic idioms with the Sa)isl<rit. I do not believe that after this 
marked series of analogies, a series which end)races the entir(> (U'ganiza- 
tioii of thi'ir tongues, that their radical alllnity can be conleshHl. 

"The Celtic race establisiied in Europe from tin' most ancient times 
must have been the first to arrive there. The decisive analogies which 
thi!Se languages still present to the Sanskrit carry us back (o the most 
ani,'ient i)eriod to which we (;an attain by Comparative Philology, . . " 
LeUre a M. Uundioldt. Jonrntd Asiatiipie (ISoG). p. 155. 



r>nt, (^li I vhat jjcncil of a living star 

Could paiul (luit gorgeous car, 

In whirli as in an ark supremely bright, 

Tiie horil m1' boundless light 

Ascending calm o'er the Empyreuni sails. 

And with ten thousand beams his beauty veils. 

— Hymn to Surya : 'Translated bij S. IT. Jones. 

The eastward wave of Hindu emii2:ratioii covered 
the whole of Eastern Asia, comprising the Transgan- 
getic Peninsula, China, Japan, the isles of the Indian 
Archipelago, Australia, and broke upon the sliores of 

The manners and institutions of the inliabitants of 
the Transffiino;etic Peninsula bear so strono; an affinity 
to those of the Hindus that one cannot resist the idea 
of their havin"; been a Hindu race at some distant 
])eriod. The fundamental principles which underlie 
their polit3^ manners, morality and religion are the same 
as those of the Hindus. In fact, it ma}- be taken for 
"granted that the Transrranjxetic Peninsula was bat a part 
and parcel of India so far as society, religion and polity 
were concerned. There was no fj^eneral chancre in India 
but was also wrought there. The propagation of Bud- 
dhism was not confined to India ; the people of the 
Transgangetic Peninsula took their share in it. 

Till recently the Peninsula was swayed wholly by 
Indian thought, but by and by a second power was felt 
to assert itself. Cirina accepted the religion of the Great 
Buddha. Thenceforward ic became a ri^■al power with 


In<li:i ill the eyes of the inhabitants of the Peninsula. 
The Aryas soon reverted to their ancient faith, or rather 
to a modified form of the ancient faith, but on the people 
of the Peninsula the grasp of the reformed faith was too 
firm to be so easily shaken off, and hence the silver card 
of friendship that tied the two together Avas snapped. 
The inhabitants of the Transgangetic Peninsula thence- 
forward began to look up to the Celestials rather 
than to the Hindus for enlightenment and instruction. 
But as their political and social institutions had a Hindu 
cast, a total overthrow of Hinduism in consequence of 
this cleavage was impossible. Their civilization there- 
fore retained its Hindu basis. 

It is a well-known fact that the Pardah system was 
unknown in ancient India and that it came in the train 
of the Mohamedan invaders. The present position of 
the Burmese women in the social and domestic life of 
Burmah, supports the theory that the Celestial iutluence 
over the countries between the Brahmaputra and the 
Pacific was too strong and deep to allow the people 
there to follow the Hindus in their revolutionarv social 
changes that were unha{)pily forced upon them by the 
wave of a less civilized but a more determined foreian 

" The Burmans, we are told by Symes, call their 
Code generally, Dharmasath or Sastra ; it is one among 
the many commentaries on j\Ianu. Mr. Syme speaks in 
glowing terms of the Code."^ 

Mr. Wilson says : " The civilization of the Burmese 
and the Tibetans is derived from India." 

^Sce Syme's Embass-y tu Ava, [). 320. 

nixnr roLONTZA'iinx, 1,S1 

The nniiie Ijiirmali itself is oi" E^iiidu derivation and 
proves the Hindu oriuin o(: tlie Iinrmnns. 'I'he name 
Camboja is fre(|iientl3' mentioned in Sanskrit works, and 
who that has read accounts of it will deny its identity 
with Cambodia ?' In l-SSi a Hindu temple was exca- 
vated in that country by a Frenchman,- whose writings 
prove that in ancient times, if not a part of the Indian 
empire, it wfis most closel}^ connected with it. 

China, too, was a colony of tlie ancient Hindus. 
Accordinir to the Hindu theory of emiirration, China 
was first inhabited by the Kshatriyas from India. Colonel 
Tod says: "The genealogists of China and Tartary de- 
clare themselves to be the descendants (jf " Awar," son 
of the Hindu King, " Pururawa."-^ 

" Sir \V. Jones says the Chinese assert their Hindu 
ormin. * 

AccordiufT to the traditions noted in the Schidiiiq. 
the ancestors of the Chinese conducted by Fohi came to 
the plains of China 2900 years before Christ, from the 
hiiih mountainland which lies to the west of that 
country. This sIk^ws that the settlers into China were 
oriii'inally inhabitants of Kashmir, Ladakh, Little rhibet, 
and Punjab, wliich were parts of ancient India.'' 

^Couipaiu Oambistlioli of Arrian, Cauiba-Srliala (.Sllialii = j)laeL' or 
district). The word denotes the dwellers in the Kaud)a tir Kanihis 
couiitrj'. So Kamboja may be explained as those born in Kaniba or 
Kauibos. — Wil'^ona Vishnu Purana. Vol. II, p. 1S2. 

2Tlie Indian Mirror of the 2nd September 1882. 

^Annals of Rajasthaii, Vol, I, p. 35. 

"^ Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, j). o7 . 

^It may be reiterated that in the days of the Mahaliharata and for 

lon'4" after, Ari^Uauishiii wa> a part of Aryawarta. Tlie liaja of Kandaiiar 

was a Hindu, and his daughter Khandiiari or Gandiiari was the mother 

of iJuryodhau. Even at the time of Alexandet- the Great it was a part 

of India. 

182 mxDU SLTEiaoiuTv. 

The religion and culture of China are undoubtedly 
o£ Hindu origin. Count Bjornstjerna says : ''What may 
be said with certainty is that the religion of; Cliina came 
from India." 

That ancient India had constmt intercourse with 
China no one can deny. China^ and Chinese products 
are constantly mentioned in the sacred as w^ell as the 
profane literature of the time. Chinese authors, too, 
according to Elphinstone, note Indian ambassadors 
to the court of China. Professor Heeren says that " the 
name China is of Hindu origin and came to us fi'om 
India." See also Vincent, ^'ol. II, pp. 574, 75." The 
word S/'nhn occurs in the Bible, Isaiah xlix. 12. 

The wave of Indian migration before breaking on 
the shores of America submerged the islands of the 
Indian Archipelago. Colonel Tod sa3^s : " The isles of 
the Archipelago were colonized by the Suryas (Surya- 
Vansa, Kshtri^yas) whose mythological and heroic his- 
tory is sculptured in their edifices and maintained in 
their writing's."'' 

]\lr. Elphinstone says: "The histories of Java give 
a distinct account of a numerous body of Hindus from 
Kalinoa who landed on their island, civihzed the inhabi- 

iRauiayana Bientions Chinese silks and other raanitfactures. 

2M. de Guigues says that Magadha was known to the Chinese by the 
name 2Io-L-iato, and its capital was recognised by hoih its Hindu names, 
Kusuinpurii, For which the Chinese wrote Kia-so-mo-pon-lo and Patal/putra, 
out of which they made Fatoli-tse by translating y;<<</-a, which means sou 
in Sanskrit, into their own corresponding word, /.^r. — Journal of the Itoi/al 
Asiatic Society, Vol.V. [Such translation of names has thrown a veil of 
obscurity over many a name of Hindu origin- Hindu geography has 
thus suffered a great loss] . 

3 Tod's Rajasthau, Vol. IL p, 218, footnote. 


tants and c.stal)lishcd an era still subsi>tiii^i:", the first year 
of which fell in the seventy-fifth year before Christ,"^ 

"The colonization of the eastern coast of Jiiva" 
by lirahnuins is "a fact %Yell established by Sir Stain- 
ford Kaffles."^ 

. Later immigrants from India were evidently I^ndd- 
liists. Mr. Sewell says: "^S^itivc tradition in e[ava 
relates that about the bef»unning oi the seventh century 
((JOo A. D, accordin'.; to Fergusson) a prince of Giijrat 
arrived in the island with 5,000 followers and settled at 
!Matar:un. A little later 2,000 more inunigrants arrived 
to support him. He and his followers were Buddhists, 
and from his time IJnddhism was firmly established 
as the religion of Java."- 

"The Chinese pilgrims who visited the island in the 
fourth century found it entirely peopled by the Hindus. "■< 
Kespecting the inhabitants of Java, Mr. ikickle says: 
"Of all the xlsiatic islanders this race is the most 
attractive to the imagination. They still adhere to the 
Hindu faith and worship.""* 

Dr. Cust says : " In the third group we come once 
more on traces of the great Aryan civilization of India ; 
for many centuries ago some adventurous Brahmans from 
the Telegu coast (or from Cambodia) conveyed to Java 
their religion, their sacred books and their civilization, 
and Java became the seat of a great and powerful Hindu 
dynasty.'* As regards Borneo, the largest island of the 

^Elphiustone's Hit^tory of India, p. 1G8. 

2Heereii's Historical Researches, Vul. II, p. 303, footnote. 

3 Antiquarian Notes in Java, .Journal, R. A. S., p. 402 (11)06). 

4See R. A. S. Journal, Vol. IX, pp. 136, 38 on the History of Java. 

•"'Beauties, Sublimities and Harmonies of J^ature, Vol. I. 

''Lino'uistie and Orlt'utal Essays. 

1^ » 


Archipelago, another traveller ^ observes that "in the 
very inmost recesses of the mountains as well as over 
the face of the country, the remains of temples and 
pagodas are to be seen similar to those found on the 
continent of India bearing all the traits of Hindu my- 
thology ; and that in the country of AVahoo, at least 400 
miles from the coast, there are several of very superior 
workmanship with all the emblematic figures so com- 
mon in Hindu places of worship," 

Sir Stamford Raffles Avhile describing): the small 
island of Bali, situated towards the east of Java savs : 
" Here, together with the Brahminical religion, is still 
preserved the ancient form of Hindu municipal polity."- 

The 13ugis of the island of Celebes trace back their 
history to the Savira Greding, whom they represent to 
have proceeded in immediate descent from their 
heavenl}" mediator Baitara Garu (which is distinctly 
a Hindu name), and to have been the first chief of any 
celebrity in Celebes- 

As regards Sumatra, M. Coleman says : "Mr. Ander- 
son in his account of his mission to the coast of that island 
(Sumatra) has, however, stated that he discovered at 
Jambi the remains of an ancient Hindu temple of con- 
siderable dimensions, and near the spot various mutilated 
figures, which would appear to clearly indicate the former 
existence of the worship of the Vedantio philosophy."-' 

Australia was probably deserted soon after its 
settlement. But that the wave of Hindu civilization and 

^Sie Daltou's account of the Diuks of Boriiei' in llic Journal of 
the Asiatic Society, Vol, VII. p. lOo. 
2Doscriptioii of .lava, Vol, IT, p. 2?.f;. 
•''ColevuiinV Ilimlu ^lythology, p. 3G1. 


emii2:ration did at one time Ijreak on tlu', sliorcs of 
Australia is evident from the fact that many extraordi- 
nary thing's are found there. Amono' other thintrs, the 
native races have c'ot a kind of arrow, which clearlv be- 
tra^-s its Hindu origin. This arrow called homerang 
by the natives, is exactly the same as that used by 
Arjuna and Karan in the Mahabharata. Its great merit 
is that it returns to the archer if it misses the aim.' 

i'ur furtlicr infuriiiatiou on the puiut sec '' MiliUirj- Science." 



Ameiica ! hulf brotlicr of the world ! 
With something good and bad of evoiy land ; 
Greater than thee have lost their seat, 
Greater scarce none can stand, 

— Bailey : Festus, 

The fact that a highly-civilized race inhabited America 
long before the modern civilization of Em-ope made its 
appearance there, is quite clear from the striking remains 
of ancient and high refinement existing in the country. 
Extensive remains of cities which must have been once in 
a most flourishing condition, of strong and well-built fort- 
resses, as well as the ruins of very ancient and magnificent 
buildings, tanks, roads and canals that meet the eye over 
a very wide area of the southern continent of America, 
irresistibly force us to the conclusion that the country 
must have been inhabited at one time by a very highly- 
civilized nation. But whence did this hi2,h civilization 

snrmo- 9 


The researches of European antiquarians trace it to 
India. Mr. Coleman says : " Baron Humboldt, the great 
German traveller and scientist, describes the existence 
of Hindu remains still found in America."' 

Speaking of the social usages of the inhabitants of 
Peru, Mr. Pococke says : " The Peruvians and their an- 
cestors, the Indians, are in this point of view at once seen 
to be the same people."-' The architecture of ancient 
America resembles the Hindu style of architecture. 

Uliudu >r.vtlinh>'j:y- ]>. ooO. "India in Greece, p. 17-1. 


Mr. llard}^ says: "The aiiriciit edifices of Chicheii in 
Central America bear a striking resemblance to the topes oE 
India.'" Mr. Sqnire also says : " The Buddhist temples 
of Sonthern Imlia, and of the islands of the Indian 
Archipelago, as described to us by the learned members 
of the Asiatic Society and the numerous Avriters on the 
religion and antiquities of the Hindus, correspand with 
great exactness in all their essential a,nd in many of their 
minor features with those of Central America,"- Dr. 
Zerfii remarks: "We find the remarkable temples, for- 
tresses, viaducts, acqueducts of the Aryan group." "' 

A still more significant fact proves the Hindu 
origin of the civilization of ancient America. The 
mythology of ancient America furnishes suificient grounds 
for the inference that it was a child of Hindu mythology. 
The following facts will elucidate the matter : — 

(1) Americans worshipped Mother Earth as a 
mvtholoa'ical deitv, as the Hindus still do — dharti mata 
and pri/hvi mata are well-known and familiar phrases 
in Hindustan. 

(2) Footprints of heroes and deities on rocks and 
hills were worshipped by the Americans as devoutly 
as they J^i'e done in India even at the present day. 
Mexicans are said to have worshiped the footprints of 
Quetzal Coatle, as tlu^ Indians worship the footprints of 
Buddha in Ceylon, and (^f Krishna in Gokal near Muttra.-* 

J Eastern Monachism. 
^Serpent Symbol. 

3 A Slannal of Historical Development of Art. 
*The Marwarees of Ajiiier vrorslii]) tlic footprints of Ajaipal, llie 
founder of Ajnier, on a rock near the city. 


(3) The Solar and Lunar eclipses were looked upon 
in ancient America in the same light as in modern 
India. The Hindus beat drums and make noises by 
beating tin pots and other things. The Americans, too, 
raise a friirhtf al howl and sound musical instruments. 
The Carecles (Americans) think that the demon Alaleoyo, 
the hate7^ of lifjht^ stcallows the moon and the sn,n in the 
same loay as the Hindus think that the demons Rahu and 
Keti'i devour the sun and the moon. 

(4) The priests were represented in America with 
serpents round their heads, as Siva^ Kali and others are 
represented by the Hindus. 

(5) The Mexicans worshipped the figure made o£ 
the trunk of a man with the head o£ an elephant. The 
Hindus, as is too well-known, still worship this deity 
under the name of Gane'^h. Baron Hum])oldt thus 
remarks on the Mexican deity : '' It presents some 
remarkable and apparently not accidental resemblance 
with the Hindu Ganesh.'''' 

({)) The legend of the Deluge,^ os believed in by 
the Hindus, was also prevalent in America. 

(7) The Americans believed that the sun stood 
still at the word of one of their saints. In India, it is 
said that the cries of Arjuna at the death of Krishna 
caused the sun to stand still. 

(8) The tortoise myth is common to India and 
America. Mr. Tylor says : " The striking analogy 
between the tortoise myth of North America and India 
is by no means a matter of new observation ; it Avas in- 

iBralima caused tlic delu.i^e when only one pions man named 
Satyavrata. and \n< I'lnnily uud iome animals were saved. — Asiatic 
liesearches, Vol, I. 


decti noticed bj^ Fiitlier Lafitan nearly a century 
and a half aii^o. Three "-reat features of tlic Asiatic 
stories are found among the North American Indians in 
their fullest and clearest development. The earth is 
supported on the back of a hut>e floatinij; tortoise, the 
tortoise sinks nnder and causes a deluge, and the tortoise 
is conceived as being itself the earth floating upon the 
face of tile deep."^ 

(!)) The serpent-worship was common to both v 
countries. In India, even to the present day, the ser- 
pent is the emblem of wisdom, power, duration, life, 
eternity and a symbolic representation of the sun. The 
fact that serpent- worship is common to the Hindu, the 
Egyptian, the Syrian, the Grecian, the Chinese, the 
Scandinavian and the American mythologies has been 
held to be another proof of the Hindu mythology being 
the parent of these systems of mythology. Their philo- 
sophy was also derived from India. Their belief in the 
doctrine of the transmigration of souls stamp their philo- 
sophy also as being of Hindu origin. 

Apart from mythoh^gy, the manners, customs and 
habits of the ancient Americans bore a very close resemb- 
lance to those of the Hindus. Their dress, costume, and 
sandals prove them to be of Indian origin. The dress 
of American women was the same as the national dress 
of Hindu women. 

All that can be safely asserted as to the date of the 
Hindu colonization of Atnerica is, that it took place after 
the time of Sri Ram Chandra. That America was 
frequently visited by the Hindus till long after the 

^ Early History of Mankind. 


Mahabharata Is amply proved by historical records as 
well as the fictitious literature of the Hindus. 

Sri Ram Chandra and Sita are still \yorshipped in 
America, and, remarkably enouo'h, under their original 
names. In America, an annual fair takes place, which 
closely corresponds with the Dashera (Ram Chandrajee- 
ka-Mela) of the Hindus. ^ Sir W. Jones says : " Rama 
is represented as a descendant from the sun, as the 
husband of Sita, and the son of a prhicess named 
Causel3'a. It is very remarkable that Peruvians, whose 
Inces boasted of: the same descent, st3ded their 
greatest festival Raraa-Sitva ; whence we may suppose 
that South America was peopled by the same race who 
imported into the farthest parts of Asia the rites and 
the fabulous history of Rama.- 

Mythology, architecture, philosophy, traditions, man- 
ners, and legends of ancient America all argue the Hindu 
origin of the Americans. This is supported b}' what we 
find in the Puranas, the Mahabharata and other historical 
writings. It is expressly stated in the Mahabharata that 
Arjuna conquered Patal Desa, and married Alopi, daughter 
of the king of that country, named Kuroo, and that the 
fruit of this union was Arawan,'^ who afterwards distin- 
o'uished himself as a sfreat warrior. 

A word regarding;' the route to America used bv the 
Hindus. They seem generally to have taken the sea 
route from Ceylon or from some place in the Bay of 
Bengal to Java, l>ali, or Ijornco and thence to America — 
to Mexico, Central America or Peru. But more 

^ For full iiiirticulars see The Tlieosopliist for lybG. 
^Asiatic Kcsearches, Yul. T, p. 42G. 
^Mahabharata, Lheeshm Parva, Adhyaya 91, 


ndventurous spirits n))pe:ir soiiictiiiu's to have clioscn tlie 
land passage to America throiiLiii China, Moiigoira, Silu;- 
ria, Liehring Straits (which, as geology has proved, Avas 
not in e>:isteiice until recent times), and Xorth America. 

It has been urged that tlie Hindus, heing {jrohihit- 
ed from crossino; the sea or even the river Attock, could 
not have o-one to foreiii^n climes in considerable numbers, 
either as traders or as settlers. Such criticism, however, 
only betrays ignorance oE Hindu literature and Hindu 
liistor}^ Colonel Tod says : " It is ridiculous with all 
the knowledge now in our possession, to su])pose that 
the Hindus ahvavs confined themselves Avitiiin their 
gigantic barriers, the limits of modern India." ^ 

The most ancient as well as the most authoritative 
work in Indian literature, the Veda, enjoins mankind to 
2:0 to foreii^n countries in steamers and balloons. The 
Ytjur A'eda (Adhyaya 6, Mantra 21), says : — 

" Oh men, wdio are fit to do administrative work 
righteously, go to the seas in big, fast-going steamers, 
and to the hiiih heavens in balloons built on scientific 
principles." Also. — 

■»55^ ^T?: ^IcfTcT II ^^o ^o ^^ I TT° ^8 II 

1 Tod's rvaia>tban, Vol, II, p. 218. 


Man II says : — 

^^ =gfC^ faim^ Tjf^r^t ^1 ^TT^Tt II 

" Let mankind from the different countries of the 
world acquire knowledge from learned men born in this 
country (India)." 

AVith regard to the adjudication of disputes regard- 
ing the amount of fares, Manu says : — 

" The final decision as to what is the suitable fare 
w^ill rest with traders, who are fully acquainted with 
sea-routes as well as land-routes. 

Manu ao;ain savs : — 

There are numerous instances on record of political 
and religious leaders of India having gone to Europe 
and America on political and religious missions, 
Mahrishi Yyasa with Sukhdeoji went to America and 
lived there for some time. Sukhdeoji eventually 
returned to India via Europe (Heero Desa), Persia and 
Turkistan. The journey took him three years and is 
succinctly described in tlie Mahabharata, Santi Parva, 
(Sookh utpatti, Adh. 32 G). 

Just before the Great War, the Pandavas started 
on a conquering expedition to foreign countries. The 
journey was twice undertaken. On the first occasion 
they went to Burmah, Siam, China, Tibet, Mongolia, 


Tartary, Persia ami returned to India i/'a Ilirat, Kiiluil, 
Kandahar and Baluchistan. At Kandahar ((iandhar) 
they were the guests of the father-in-law of Dhritara- 
shtra. The second ^lission was towards tlie West. 
Starting;' from Ceylon (Sangal-dwipa) they went to 
Arabia, thence to Egypt, to Zanzibar and other parts of 
Africa. See Mahal)harata, SabhaParva, Adhyayas, 26-28. 

The Great Arjana, in the course of a voyage visited 
the following islands : (1) Agastha Tinitlia, (2) Pooluni 
Tirath, (3) Subhadra Tirath, (4) Karandliam Tiratli, 
(5) Bharadwaja Tirath. See Mahabharata, Adi Parva. 

The Emperor Sagarji's extensive foreign conquests 
are also well known. His conquest of the islands of the 
Indian Archipelago is mentioned in the ancient traditions 
of those islands, where he is still worshipped as the " God 
of the Sea." See also Ramayana, Balkanda, V. 2. 

The succession of the sons of Sri Krishna to the 
throne of Bajrapura* in Southern Siberia (to tl)e north 
of the Altai ^lountains) has already been mentioned. 

It is also well-known that the emperors and kings 
of India often married foreign princesses. In addition 
to Dhritrashtra's marriage with the daughter of the 
kino- of Afirhanistan, and Arinna's with that of tlie 
American King Kuru, we find that Unardliaji, grand- 
son of Sri Krishna, married the princess Ookha, daugliter 
of Ban, King of Shoont, which belonged to Egypt.- 
Maharaja Chandragupta married the daugliter of Seleucus, 
King of Babylon; and the then ]\Iaharana of Udaipur' 
(Rajputana) married the daughter of Xausherwan tlie 
Just, King of Persia. 

iSee Hiiri Vansa Parana, Vishnu Parva, Adliyaya, 97. 
-'See Hari Vausa, Vishnu Parva, Adh. 11G-Ii^7. 


The obnoxious probi1)ition to cross the Attoclv is 
of recent origin. The Hindu possession o£ the Afghan 
and Persian territories was a relic of their ancient 
conquest. So late even as the first few centuries of the 
Christian era, the Hindus lived in thousands in Turkis- 
tan, Persia and Russia. For an account of the Hindu 
commercial colony at Astrakhan, see the account given 
by Professor Pallas, ]\Ir. Elphinstone says : " Even at 
the present day, individuals of a Hindu tribe from 
Shikarpur settle as merchants and bankers in the towns 
of Persia, Turkistan and Russia."^ The same may 
be said of a large number of the natives of Jaisalmcr. 
A few passages from ancient Sanskrit works of his- 
torical importance may be quoted to show that the 
original founders and forefathers of many of the different 
nations of the world before they migrated to their 
respective countries, were inhabitants oE India, As 
quoted above, Mann (Chapter X, page 43) says: — 

?I^ W fff^TT^tqif^lTT: ^f^¥ mciW- I 
^■Ef^cq- iTcnwt% m^JHi^ii^^ "^ II 

" The following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually 
sunk into the state of Vrishalas (outcastes) from the 
extinction of sacred rites, and from having no commu- 
nication with the Brahmans, viz., Paundrakas, Oclras, 
Dravidas, Kamhojos, Yavanas, Sakas, Paradas, Palilavas, 
Chinas, Kiratas, Daradas and Khasas," etc. 

lElphinstone's Hietory of ludia, p. 135, 


Sir \y. 'Jones, in his treatise on the Chinese^ nii- 
(lei-!st:nKls "by Chinas, tlie Chinese, who, as the Brahmins 
report, are descended from the Hindus." The other 
names, which are apparently those of otlier nations, 
may be thus explained : The Sacas were the aticient 
Saca3. The Pahlavs were ^ledes speaking Pahlavi or 
the ancient Persian. The Cambojas were the inhabitants 
of Kamboja or Cambodia ;- the Yavans, as is well known, 
were the Greeks. The Dravids may be the Druids of Great 
Britain. The Kirats were the inhabitants of Baluchis- 
tan, Daradas of Dardasthan in the Chinese territory. The 
Khascs'^ were probably some people of Eastern Europe. 

The Mahabharata (Anusasana Parra, Verses 2103 
and 2104) while giving us a further view of the origin 
of the various nations of the world, says : — 

5tftf^^iTT wPr^^^ren: ^f^^ ^\^^'' II =^<^«8 II 

iSif W. Jones' Works, Vol. I, p. 99. 

2 That Kamhojas meant the inhabitants of Cambodia is supported 
liy two verses from the Mahabharata, where they are said to be living 
towards the north-east : — 

" The son of Indra conquered the Daradas with the Kambojas 
and the Dasyus who dwelt in the northeast region." — Mahabharata, 
Book IT, 10:U,32. 

^This people is mentiouod in the Ramayaua also. 


These tribes of Kshatriyas, vlz.^ Sakas, Yavanas, 
Kambojas, Dravidas, Kalinclas, Pulindas,!. Usinaras, 
Kolisarpas, and Mahishakas, have become outcastes 
(and exiled) from seeing no Brahmans. 

This is repeated in Verses 2158, 59, where the 
followino; additional tribes are named : Mekalas, Latas, 

O 7 3 

Ivoiivasiras, Samdikas, Dorvas, Cham*as, Savaras, Bar- 
baras, Kh^atas." 

f^^TcTT ^^iTT^^^ cTT^T: Wf^^ ^TcT^: I 

Tlie Kambojas, Sakas, Sabaras, Kiratas, and Var- 
varas are again mentioned in the Mahabharata, Drona 
Parva, Verse 4747 : — 

gi:^5;Ti!it fssriciHr ^^x\m cr^q "% ii 

iThe Andhras, Puudras, Sabaras, Puliudas, Mutibas, are also 
mentioned in tlie Aitreya Brahniana. 

^Vishnu Parana names over two hundred different peoples known 
to the Hindus, including Chinas, Pahlvas, Yavanas, Barbaras, Bahlikas, 
(people of Balkh) and Hujis. — Sec Wilson's Vishnu Furana, Vul. II, 
p. Iu6. 


" Sameya (kstroying the host, converted the beauti- 
ful earth into a mass ol: mud with the tlesh and bh)od 
of tliousands of Kambojas, Sakas, Sabaras, Kiratas and 
Yarvaras. The <>ruund was covered with the shorn 
and hairless bat lon2:-bearded heads i of the Dasvus, and 
their helmets as if with birds bereft of their plumes." 

As many as 16 different foreign tribes are said in 
Santi Parva (Section 65, line 2429ff.) to have descended 
from the Hindus, King Mandhatri asks Indra : — 


'^W\'' "Sf^^T X^ZV' SRTS^t^i^^g ^^^W: I 


W^=^^ ^^cTT^ f g;^T: :^^T^ v^-^-%-\'- 1 1 
w^ H?Tl^ft^r^ ^'^'^ fsi^^rmf^ir: I 

flf^"?^ Wii m\'^\ '^i t ^^TT^'^fe: II 


^WT*iT?:cr ^if^ql" ^i^i^ < a 1 1 
" The Yavanas, Kiratas, Gandharas, Chinas, Sava- 
ras, Yar\'aras, Sakas, Tushoras, Kantas, Pahlavs, Andh- 
ras, Madras, Paundras, Pulindas, Romathas, Kambojas 
men spring from Brahmans and from Kshatriycif^^ per- 
sons of the Vaisya and Sudra castes. How shall all these 
people of different countries practice duty, and wdiat 
rules shall kings like me prescribe for those who are 
living as Dasyus ? Instruct me on these points, for thou 
art the friend of our Kshatriya race." 

Manu's account of the origin of the Y^avanas, Sa- 
kas, etc., is supported by the Yishnu Purana. When 

1 Coaipare the hairless but loiig-bearded heads uf the Arabs, 


Saii'ara learnt from his mother all that had befallen his 
father, Bahu, being vexed at the loss of his paternal 
kingdom, he vo^ved to exterminate the Haihayas and 
other enemies who had conquered it. 

" Accordingl}^ he destro3^ed near! 3^ all the Haihayas. 
AVhen the Sakas, Yavanas, Kamb(ijas, Paradas and Pah- 
lavas were about to undergo a similar fate, they had re- 
course to Yashishtha, the king's family priest, who inter- 
posed on their behalf in these words addressed to Sagara, 
representing them as virtually dead : ' You have done 
enough, my son, in the way of parsning these men, who 
are as 2;ood as dead. In order that vour vow mio-ht be 
fulfilled, I have compelled them to abandon the duties of 
their caste, and all association with the twiceborn.' Aaree- 
ing to his spiritual guide's proposal, Sagara compelled 
these tribes to alter their costume. He made the Yavanas 
sli a ve their _h ead s , the Sakas shave half their heads, the 
Paradas wear long hair, and the Pahlavas beards. These 
and other Kshatriyas he deprived of the study of the 
Yedas and the A^ishatkara. In consequence of their 
abandonment of their proper duties and of their deser- 
tion by the Brahmans, they became Mlechhas." 

The Harivansa Purana also says: — ^^Sakali Yavana 
Kambojah Paradah Pahlavas tatha \ Kolisarpah Sama- 
hishah Darvas cliotah Sa-Keralah I Sarve te Kshatriyas 
tata tesham dharmo niralritah I Vasistha-vachanad 
rajan Sagarena ]\[ahatmana. \ The Sakas, Yavanas, 
Kambojas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Kolisarpas, Mahishas, 
Darvas, Cholas and Keralas had been all Kshatriyas, 
but deprived of their social and religious position by the 
great Sugara (Hindu king) in accordance with the advice 


of Yaslilsht-lin, S(iiiin otlior tribes are nl.'^o mentioned 
in the next verse to have received similar treatment.' 

Priyavrata, Swayambhva's son, divided the earth 
into seven dwipas : — 

(1) Jambn D\vi[)a (Asia). 

(2; Plaksha ,, (South America). 

(3) Pushkara ,, (N'orth America). 

(4) Kraunch „ (Africa). 

(5) S'aka ,, (Europe). 

(6) S'ahiiali ,, (Antarcta, Austraha). 
(7j Kusa „ (Oceania). 

Col. Wilford, however, thus interprets them, which 
is obviously wrong : — 

Plaksha includes Lesser Asia and America. 

Kusa answers to the countries between the Persian 

Gulf, the Caspian Sea, and the Western 

boundary of India. 
Krannchu includes Grermany, 
Shaka means the British isles. 
Pushkara is Ireland. 

Shalmali are countries by the Adriatic and Baltic, 
Jambu Dwlpa is India. 

iMr, Colebrooke (Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, V"ul. I, 
p. 453) quotes an ancient Hindu writer, who states that the Barbaric 
tongues are called the Parasica, the Yavana, the Ronjaka and tlie Bar- 
bara : "the first three oi" which," says he, "would be tlie Persian, tlie 
Greek and the Latin. But wliich is the fourth and how Latin became 
known in India, it is difficult to say." And yet it is a well-authenticated 
fact that in the time of Vicramaditya there \>a^ constant intercourse 
between India and Rome, 


Owing to the destruction of the greater part o£ 
Sanskrit literature, it is impossible now to interpret 
correctly these geographical facts, not only because 
these are only the fragmentary remains of the Science of 
Geography inextricably mixed up with Puranic 
raytholoj}^ and theology, but to a great extent because 
many of these ancient dwipas and countries have been 
so materially altered in consequence of the Cataclysm 
called the Deluge, as to have become impossible of 
identification now. The father of the modern o-eolouical 
science, Cnvier, expresses the following opinion regard- 
ing this Deluge in his Descours Sur la^ Revolutions 
de la Surface, da (rlohe^ p. 283 (5th Edition) : — 
" I consider with Messrs. Deluc and Dolomieu that 
if there is anything established in geology, it is the fact 
that the surface of the earth has been the subject of a 
ijreat and sudden revolution, the date of which cannot U'o 
much further back than five or six thousand years ; that 
this revolution has sunk (^enforce) or caused to disappear 
{fait-d'isparadre) some of those lands which were for- 
merly inhabited by men, together with those species of 
animals which are now the most common." 

AYe thus find that the HincUi civilization overran 
the entire universe, and that its landmarks are still to 
be seen all over the globe. Nay, it still lives and 
breathes around us. Says Monsieur Delbos : " The 
influence of that civilization worked out thousands 
of years a(jo in India is around and about us every 
day of our lives. It pervades every corner of the 
civilized world. Go to America and you find there, as in 
Europe, the influence of that civilization which came 
originally from the banks of the Ganges." 


Wns it not wisdom's sovereign power 
Tliat beamed her brightest, purest llarae, 
T'illniiie her sages' soul the thought to frame, 
And clothe with words his lieaven-taught lore ? 

— ^seiiYLUs : Promethean Chained. 

There is no surer test of the real o-reatness of a nation 
than its literature. Literatare embodies not only the in- 
tellect of a nation bat also its spirit. It is a record of 
the learning, the wisdom, the refinement, the achieve- 
ments, the civilization of a nation — a record of all that 
a nation thinks, says and does. Literature thus holds a 
mirror to the state of a nation, and serves as an index to 
mark its position in the scale of civilization and greatness. 
Mr. W. C. Taylor thus speaks of Sanskrit litera- 
ture : " It was an astounding discovery that Hindustan 
possessed, in spite of the changes of realms and chances 
of time, a language of unrivalled richness and variety ; 
a language, the parent of all those dialects that Europe 
has fondly called classical — the source alike of Greek 
flexibility and Roman strength. A philosophy, com- 
pared with which, in point of age, the lessons of P^tha- 
goras are but of yesterday, and in point of daring spe- 
culation Plato's boldest efforts were tame and common- 
place. A poetr}' more purely intellectual than any of 
those of which we had before an}" conception ; and sys- 
tems of science whose antiquity bafHed all power of 
astronomical calculation. This literature, with all its 
colossal proj>ortions, which can scarcely be described 


without tlie semblance of bombast and exao:g'eratiou 
claimed of course a place for itself — it stood alone, and 
it was al)le to -stand alone. 

" To acquire the mastery of this language is almost 
the labour of a life ; its literature seems exhaustless. 
The utmost stretch of imagination can scared}^ compre- 
hend its boundless mythology. Its philosophy has 
touched upon every metaphysical difficulty ; its legis- 
lation is as varied as the castes for which it was 

Count Bjornstjerna says : " The literature of India 
makes us acquainted with a great nation of past ages, 
which grasped every branch of knowledge, and which 
will always occupy a distinguished place in the history 
of the civilization of mankind. "- 

" The Hindu," says Mr. W. D. Brown, " is the 
parent of the literature and the theology of the world. "^ 
Professor Max Midler says : " Although there is hardly 
any department of learning which has not received new 
light and naw life from the ancient literature of India, 
yet nowhere is the light that comes to us from India so 
important, novel, and so rich as in the study of religion 
and mythology."* 

General Cunningham savs : " Mathematical science 
was so perfect and astronomical observations so complete 
that the paths of the sun and the moon were accurately 
measured. The philosophy of the learned few was per- 
ha])s for the first time, firmly allied with the theology of 

iJourual (if the lioyal Asiniic Society, Vol. li (Idllt). W.C. 
Taylor's paper on Sanskrit Literature, 
-Tlioogony of tin; Jliiuins, p. Sb. 

^'J'he D,iili/ Trihniw (Salt Lake City) for lu'lunary 20. 1884. 
4Max Miilkn's India : What can it teaqli us .' p. 110- 


the believing many, and Rralmiiinism laid down as arti- 
cles of faith the unity of God, the creatioQ of the world, 
the immortality of the sonl, and the responsibility of 
man. The remcjte dwellers upon the Ganges distinctly 
made known that future life about which Moses is silent 
or obscure, and that unity and Omnipotence of the 
Creator which were unknown to the polytheism of the 
Greek and Koman multitude, and to the dualism of 
Mithraic legislators, while Vyasa perhaps surpassed Plato 
in keeping the people tremblingly alive to the punishment 
which awaited evil deeds." ^ 

Professor Heeren .says : " The literature of the 
Sanskrit language incontestably belongs to a highly-cul- 
tivated people, whom we may with great reason consider 
to ha\e been the most informed of all the East. It is, at 
the same time, a scientific and a poetic literature."- He 
also says : " Hindu literature is one of the richest in 
prose and poetry." 

Sir W.Jones says that "human life would not 
be sufficient to make oneself acquainted with any 
consulerahle part of Hindu literature." 

Professor ^lax Muller says : *'The number of Sans- 
krit works of which M:<s. are still in existence amounts 
to ten thousand. This is more, I believe, than the whole 
classical literature of Greece and Italy put together."^ 

The Indian Sanskritist, Pandit Shyamji Ivrishna- 
varma, in his paper on the use of writing in Ancient India, 
speaks of Sanskrit literature as a literature more ex- 

1 Cuuuin.<;ham's History of the Sikhs. 

^Heeren's Historicnl Rpse:u-ches, Vol. II, p, 201. 

•'Asiatic Researches, Vol. I, ji. oOl. 

'^Max MuUer's India : What can it teach us ? p. 81, 


tensive than the ancient literatures of Greece and Rome 

Rev. Mr. AVard says : " No reasonable person will 
deny to the Hindus of former times the praise of very 
extensive learning. The variety of subjects upon which 
they wrote prove that almost every science was cultivated 
among them. The manner also in which they treated 
these subjects j)roves that the Hindu learned men 
yielded the palm of learning to scarcely any other of 
the ancients. The more their philosophical works and 
lawbooks are studied, the more will the enquirer be 
convinced of the depth of Avisdom possessed by the 
authors."^ Mrs. Manning says : "The Hindu had the 
widest range of mind of which man is capable."^ 

The high intellectual and emotional powers of the 
ancient Hindus were in any case destined to produce a 
literature, remarkable for its sublimity and extent; but 
when these great gifts had the most perfect, melodious, 
and the richest language in the world to work with, the 
result could not but be a literature not only the most 
fertile and fascinating; in the world but wonderful in 
range and astonishing in depth. 

Sanskrit Language. 

Sir AV. Jones, the most intellectual of the European 
critics of Sanskrit literature, pronounced the Sanskrit 
lano-uao"e to be " of a Avonderful structure, more perfect 

1 "Ward's Antiqnity of Hinduism, Vol. IV, conclusion. 
^Ancient and Mt'diiCTul India, Vol. 11, p. ItS. 


tlinii the Greek, more copious than tlie Latin, and more 
exquisitely refined than either."' 

Professor Bopp" also says that " Sanskrit is more 
perfect and copious than the Greek and the Latin and 
more exquisite and eloquent than either," 

Professor ]\Iax Muller calls Sanskrit the " lanr>uan;e 
of languao'cs ", and remarks that " it has been truly said 
that Sanskrit is to the Science of language what Mathe- 
matics is to Astronomy."'^ 

Professor Wilson says : " The Hindus had a copious 
and a cultivated language." "The Sanskrit," says Pro- 
fessor Heeren, " we can safely assert to be one of the 
richest and most refined of any. It has, moreover, 
reached a hi^'h dei>'ree of cultivation, and the richness 
of its philosophy is no way inferior to its poetic beauties, 
as it presents us with an abundance of technical terms to 
express the most abstract ideas."* 

The distin£>'uished German critic, Schleojel, savs : 
"Justly it is called Sanskrit, i.e.^ perfect, finished. In 
its structure and grammar, it closely resembles the Greek, 
but is infinitely more regular and therefore more simple, 
thouoh not less rich. It combines the artistic fuhiess 

1 Asiatic Researches, Vol. I, p. 422. "Sanskrit has the most 
prodigious conipoiinds, some of them extending to 152 syllables" — Adatic 
Researches, Vol. I, p. o()0. 

-Edinboroiigh Review, Vol. XXXIII, p. 43, 

•^Science of Language, p. 203. 

^Historical Researches, Vol. II, pp. 109, 110. 
As an example of Mr. .lames Mill's perverted taste and invete- 
rate prejudice against everything Hindu, the following may be cited: 
Le I'ere Paolino says that ".Sanskrit is more copious than Latin. It 
has several words to express the samething. The sun has more than 
30 names, the moon more than 20 : a house has 20, a stone G or 7, a 
leaf .5, an ape 10, and a crow 9." Mr. James Mill, thereupon says 
that " the highest nifrit of I.ingnage would consist in having one name 
for everytiiing wliicli required a nanh- and no more than one'' On this 
Prof. Wilson exclaims : " What would become of poetry, of eloquence, of 
literature, of iutelloct. if language was thus shorn of all that gives it beauty, 
variety, grace and vigour." — Mill'n India, Vol. II, p. 91, 

206 HINDU surEuiokiTr. 

indicative of Greek development, the b^e^'^ty and nice 
accuracy of; Latin ; whilst havintj;- a near affinity to the 
Persinn and German roots, it is distinguished by expres- 
sion as enthusiastic and forcible as theirs."^ He again 
says : " The Sanskrit combines these various qualities, 
possessed separately by (Dther tongues : Grecian copious- 
ness, deep-toned Roman force, the divine afflatus charac- 
terising the Hebrew tongue."^ He slso says : "Judged 
by an organic standard of the princip;d elements of lang- 
uaiie, the Sanskrit excels in o-rammatical structure, and 
is, indeed, the most pet'ectly-developed of all idioms, not 
excepting Greek and Latin. "^ 

The importance of this "language of languages" 
is clearly recoLi'nised when we consider, with Sir W. W. 
Hunter, the fact that "the modern philology dates from 
the study of Sanskrit by the Europeans."'* 

Sir W. Jones' assertion that " Deonaii'ri is the 
original source whence the 'alphabets of Western Asia 
were derived,"'' not only proves the great antiquity of the 
Sanskrit literature but points out the channel through 
which Sanskrit philosophy and learning flowed towards 
the West, and, working in the new and fresh materials 
• available there, produced Homer, Hesiod, Pythagoras, 
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Zeno, Cicero, Scarvola, Varoo, 
Virgil and others to divide the laurels of literary 

'Scliolegel's Histoiy of Literature, p. 117. 

^'Ibid, p. 105. 

^Ibid, p. 100. 

'^Imperial Gazetteer, ''Tmlia,'" p. 204. The foundation of the 
scicMice of comparative philolo^'v was laid hy the publication of Bopp's 
Comparative Grammar in 1818 A.D. 

•5 Asiatic Researches, Vol. I, p. 423. Professor Heoien (Hist. 
Researches, Vol. II, pp. 20l and 202) says that Sanskrit literature is 
not only very rich but also extremely ancient. 


repntntion witli ^'yns^, Knpila, Oautnmn, Pataiijali, l\a- 
iiada, -laiiiniiii, Xarada, Paiiiiii, Mariclii and N'aliniki. 
The study of coinpirative ])liilol()ii'v, in so far as it lias 
advanced, tends to show that Sanskrit is the mother of all 
Indo-Eiiropcan languages. From the Sanskrit were 
derived the original roots and those essentially necessary 
words which form the basis of all tlu'sc; lani!;na<j'es. In 
other words, the part that is common to all or most of 
the languages of this group is su[)plied to each language 
by the Sanskrit. 

Mr. Pococke savs : " The Greek lanfjuiioe is a deri- 
vation from the Sanskrit."^ The learned Dr. Pritchard 
savs : "The affinity between the Greek laniiuaiie, and 
the old Parsi and Sanskrit is certain and essential. The 
use of cognate idioms proves the nations who used them 
to have descended from one stock. That the reliu'ion of 
the Greeks emanated from an Eastern source no one will 
deny. We must therefore suppose the religion as well 
as the lanii'uaire of Greece to h;ive been derived in u'reat 
part immediately from the East."^ Sir W. Jones says : 
" I was not a little surprised to find that out of ten 
words in Du Perron's Zind Dictionary six or seven were 
pure Sanskrit."-' 

Professor Heeren says : " In point of fact, the Zind 
is derived from the vSnnskrit."* 

As the Deonagri is the source from which the alpha- 
bets of AVestern Asia are derived, so are the Sanskrit 
names of the fiixures 1 to lU the source from which most 


lano[ua<2;es have derived their names of the said fiii'ures. 

1 India in Greece, p. l-S, 

^Dr. Pritcliard'.s Pliysical History of ^lau, Vol. I, p. 502. 

^Sir W. Jones' Works, Val. I, pp. 82, 8:3. 

*Heereu's Historical licsearches. Vol. li, p. 220. 





















^ • p^ ^ 

O 2 ci CS 

3 01 tc •; cc r: ^■■ 

,x K W 'A W ^ S CiH 


o o Jf 


" !£ S 
o o cs 

s « 

B 2 03 a) 

& > 2 B s 

W O .X S S 

. c 

Cfl U> X 
O (U O CJ 

cS ? 3 O 

>.>H-^;>i;>^ SMa:^x 

=S - =* .=*. 

etj O 2 ;j '^— ' s 

^ ^ "S _2 "O 5 r- 

C :_ -^ «;■ ,-1 W X ! 







•C^ t 






n=: d 

• " 


2 •- 


|1 ' 

-■ % 




-^ K 









, ri-i 




* * " 

• ^ 






: : : 








i« X 




W iq 

K Hia 





<.<":> i 

S == ts •;= 
"2 "? J-' = ^ •'ti 'i: -c 3 


« <^ 

S Si 

> > 



3 e: s 

fL, C; D a; <; <»i X S rJ? S > 

I— t I 

u h ~ 

00 u ^ ^'" L 

— -^ !rz -*^ X ^ '^ 






— . -t-s 

c >> cS 















Greek (Doric). 





Trot a 





i 'outora, 







Til rid vo. 

































Dokata . 













1 )va. 




1 )an. 















SI 1 ash 























To these luiinenils we subjoin a brief conspectus of the 

Analogy of Verbs. 




















Dad-Ill as 







Da-t is 







General View of the Persons of the Verb. 

First Person. 








... Sto. 




... ])... 


... Ahmi ... 





... riioi-o 

... Fero. 



... Ekho ... 

... Veho 

Second Person. 


.. Ahi ... 

... Essi 

... Es. 



... Histes ... 

... Stas. 


.. Dadhahi 

Didos ... 

... Das, 


... Bai-alii 


... Fers. 








... Des. 

B hares 



... Fera 

Second Person Plural. 

Tisht'hat'ha .. 



... Statis, 



.. Plierete 

... Fertis 

Tisht'het'ha .. 



... Stetis. 




... Detis. 


. Baraeta 


... Fei-ati 

lliird Person. 



... Esti ... 

... Est. 




... Stat. 



... Didote ... 

... Dat. 



... Phere(t)i 

... F<Tt. 


Baroit ... 


... Ferat 


. Daidliyat 


... Det. 

TIdrd I^erson Plural. 

Santi ... 

Hento ... 

... (S) enti 




... Jlistanti 



... Dadenti 

... Didoiiti 

... haul. 










Viiiw OF ■•DiDoMi"' IN tiil: Future Tense. 




• • • 










• • • 



• • • 



Da-syanias ..„ 

• • • 

Do-so men. 




• .. 


Supines and Infinitives. 



St'Iia-tuui, to stand ... 

• • • 

S latum. 

Da-tam, to j^ive 

• • • 


Jiia-tvim, to know 



Patiiui, to drink 

• • • 


E-tum, to go 

« a ■ 


Stra-tnm, to strew ... 

• • • 


Auk-tuui, to anoint ... 

• • • 


Svani-tnin, to sound ... 

• • • 


Sarji-tuni, to go 

• • • 


Vauii-tuni, to vomit ... 

■ • • 


Pesh-tuui, to bruise ... 

• • • 


Jani-tum, to beget ... 

• • • 


The scale of calculation is common to all nations, 
and owes its origin to the Hindus. Dr. Indlantyne is 
inclined to support the theory that Sanskrit is the 
mother of all Aryan (Indo-European) languages. 

J\Ir. Ijopp^ says that at one time Sanskrit was the 
one language spoken all over the world. 

1 Edinborough Review, Vol. XXXIIl, p. io. 


Mons. Dubois^ says that Sanskrit is the original 
source of all the Em^opean languai^es of the present day. 

Miss Carpenter- says that though the original home 
of Sanskrit is Aryawarta, yet it has now been prov^ed to 
have been the language of most of the countries of 
modern Europe in ancient times. 

A German critic says that " Sanskrit is the mother 
of Greek, Latin and German lanouages, and that it has 
no other relation to them : this is the reason wiiy 
Max Muller calls it the ancient language of the Aryas." 

The great antiquity of Indian civilization is un- 
questionably beyond comparison ; and the antiquarians 
are unanimous as to the incomparable antiquity of the 
Sanskrit literature also. The oldest writings of the 
oldest nations except the Hindus are, according to some 
Orientalists, the records of various developments of 
Buddhism which took its rise in India after the decline 
of the V^edic religion. Count Bjornstjerna' says: "The 
so-called Hermes Scriptures (the names of all the sacred 
writings of the Egyptians) contain metaphysical treatises 
in theform of dialogue between Hermes (Spiritual wisdom) 
and Todh, Bodh, Buddh (earthly wisdom), which 
throuo-hout exhibit the doctrines of Buddhism." Again, 
"the early Egyptian writing which in the translation is 
called Pimanders Hermes Trisjiiefjistus^ and forms 
a dialogue between Pimander (the highest intelligence) 
and Thodt, (Bodh, Buddha) which developes the 
metaphysics of the Buddhists touching the trinity." 

1 Bible ill India. 

^Jiiunial of the Indian Association. 

STheugony of the Hindus, p. 100. 

litki;ati:i;k. 2lo 

]\Ir. Weber savs : " Aii<l wliilc tlio clainisof (-Jic -written 
records o(' Indian literatnre to a hii^li anti(|nity arc; thus 
indisputably proved by external geographical testimony, 
the internal evidence in the same direction, which miy 
be gathered from their contents, is no less conclusive."' 

AkT of WlUTING. 

This introduces ns to the important literary ques- 
tion as remu'ds the art of writino; in Ancient India. 
Apart from Mr. Weber's acceptance of " the claims of 
the written records of Indian literature to a high anti- 
quity," Professor Wilson says: "The Hindus have been 
in possession of that (writing) as long as of a literature."^ 

Professor Heeren says: "Everything concurs to 
establish the fact that alphabetical writing was known in 
India from the earliest times, and that its use was not 
confined to inscriptions but extended also to every pur- 
pose of common life."' Count lijornstjerna says that the 
Hindus possessed " written books of religion" before 
2800*B.C., or 800 years before Abraham.^ Professors 
Goldstucker, Bohtlingk, Whitney and Roth hold that the 
authors of the Prdtlsakhyas must have had written texts 
before them.^ 

^Weber's Indian Literature, p. 5. 
2Mill's India, Vol. II, p. 40, footnote, 
SHereen's Historical Researches, Vol. II, }). 202. 
Theogony of the Hindus, p. 2G. 
5 Weber's Indian Literature, p. 22, footnote. 


Consideriiiir the backwardness o£ other nations in 
the invention of the art oE writing, and finding it im- 
jjossible to give the second place to the nation to whom 
they owe all their learning and wisdom, the advocates o£ 
the theory of: "Greek Culture" hesitate to assign high 
antiquity to the Hindu art of writing. 

Professor Max Muller, for one allows no written 
work before 350 B.C. This strange and absurd sup- 
position is wholly inexplicable. Apart from the internal 
and direct evidence, one fact alone is sufficient to 
refute the supposition. When geometry and astronomy 
flourished so highly and extensively in India more than 
3,000 years before Christ, according to the calculation of 
the celebrated astronomer, Bailly, is it at all conceivable 
that writimr should have been unknown before 350 B.C.? 
Professor Max Dunkersays that according to Max MuUer's 
theory the Brahmanas must have been retained in me- 
mory till 350 B.C., but " it seems to me," he says, 
" quite impossible, considering their form." He adds : 
" If the Brahmanas which cite the Vedas accurately in 
their present arrangement, and speak not only of sylla- 
bles but of letters arose between 800 and 600 B.C., it 
appears to me an inevitable conclusion that the Vedas 
must have been existed in writing about 800 B.C." 

Mr. Shyamji Krishnavarma, Orienti\l Lecturer of 
Balliol College, Oxford, in the paper he read before the 
International Congress of Orientalists at Leyden in 1883, 
which he attended as the delegate of the Government of 
India, has dealt with the subject in a masterly way, and 
shown that the art of writing has been in use in India 

1 For furcher partlculartj see his History of Antiquity, Vol. IV, 
pp. 100,157. 

LlTr:RATUlJE. 21; 


since the Vcdic (imos. Ho snvs : " I feci no hos^itntion 
in saying that there are words and phrases occurrini:; in the 
Sanhitas of the Vedas,^ in the Braliinanas and in tlie Sutra 
■works, ^vhi(•ll leave no doubt as to the use of the written 
characters in ancient India. It may be confidently as- 
serted that the systematic treatises in prose which 
abounded at and long before the time of Panini could 
never have been composed without the help of wi-iting. 
We know for certain that with the exception of the 
hymns of the Rig Veda, most of the Vaidik works are 
in prose, and it is difficult to understand how they could 
possibly have been composed without having recourse to 
some artificial means." 

Katyayana says : — ^^q^c^fl-q^t %<i-^: ^f ^if^f*?: 
"When the writer and the witnesses are dead." 
Yagyavalka mentions written documents ; and Njirada 
and others also bear testimony to their existence. Even 

1 To the objection that tho word Sniti, as a synonym of Veda, 
conveyed the idea of what was learnt and taught by hearing, tlius prov- 
ing the absence of written books, he neatly replies that the word Smrtti, 
derived from " Sinri,'^ to remember (as Sruti comes from Sru to hear), 
wonld eqnally convey the same idea and prove the same thing, though 
it is admitted by all that the art of writing was known to the authors 
of the Smritis. After quoting a part of a hymn in the 10th Mandala 
of the Rig Veda,- " some one seeing the speech does not see it, wliile 
another hearing does not hear it," and showing that one could not sec 
the speech unless it assumed some tangible shape like that of a book or 
manuscript; also, that one could not possibly count a million without an 
acquaintance witli writing, not to speak of having technical names 
for a million, a hundred million, nay, for a hundred thrnisand million, 
as we find them given in the seventh Chapter of the white Yajur 
Veda — for we find that in Greece before writing became known, tho 
highest number of what could be technically expressed was only 


Max Miillcr himself is compelled to admit that " writing 
Avas known to the authors of the Sutras." 

The supposition that writing was unknown in 
India before ooO B.C. is only one of the many instances 
calculnted to show the strange waywardness of human 
intellect. If anyone of lesser authority than Max MuUer 
had advanced such a supposition he might .have ''been 
pronounced a maniac. It was left to' the 4^rned 
professor to conceive the possibilit}^ of a language of 
the structure of Sanskrit beiniz: cultivated to the extent 
of producing compositions like the Yedas, the 
Brahamanasand the Upnishads,and of a people achieving 
wonderful progress in mathematics and astronomy without 
being able to write A, B, C, or one, two and three! ! !' 

10,0UO and in Rome only a thonsand- — he goes on to show that tlio 
■nords " Kanda and Patahi" which occur in Vedio literature prove the 
existence of written books in ancient times. After pointing out that 
tlie Adhikarn, or heading rule, in Panini's grammar was denoted by 
Svarita, which proved conclusively that he employed writing and that 
the sixth chapter of Ashtadhyayi says that people in Panini's time used 
to mark the figures eight and five on tlie ears of their cattle, 
he concludes: "The fact that Panini makes allusion to coins, for 
instance f^fE^ '^"^ *^^5 ^ith which latter perhaps the word '"rupee" 
is connected, and that he actually mentions the two word^ fWtfcf and 
f^lf^, hoth meaning writing, affords palpable proof of his acquaintance 
with the art of writing, without which, as I have said, he could never 
have produced his great grammar." 

1 Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 523. The Greeks prais(? the beauty 
of the writing of the Indians. See Strabo, Lib, XV, p. 493. 

Megasthenes says that "the Hindus used letters for inscriptions on 
mile-stones, indicating the resting places and distances." Curtius also 
says that " the Indians wrote on soft rind of trees." Nearchus men- 
tions that " the Indians wrote letters on cotton that had been well beaten 
together." Fattier Paufino says that "cotton paper was used in India 
before tjie Christian era. — II/>-tor/cal Ik'searches, Vol. II, [). 1U7. 


TIiG cxtraordinnry vocal powers oC tlic Hindus, 
combined with their wonderi'nl inventive genius, ])ro- 
dnced a lan_<>"nage which, when fully developed, v;as 
connnensurate with their niarvcllons intellectual faculties, 
and which contributed materially in the creation of a 
literature unparalleled for richness, sublimity and range. 
The peculiar beanties inherent in the offspring of such 
high intellectual powers were greatly enhanced by its 
scientific up-bringing and by constant and assiduous 
exercise it has developed into what is now such a model 
of perfection as to well-deserve the name of deo-banl, or 
"the language of the gods." The very e.jvccllence of the 
languno'e and the scientific character of its structure 
have led some good people to doubt if this polished and 
learned language could ever have been the vernacular of 
any people. Fully realizing the significance of the fact 
that, with all their boast of the highest civilization 
and culture, they possess a language highly defective and 
irregular v>dien compared to the Sanskrit, these critics 
find it difficult to believe that the Hindus ever spoke 
that perfect language. 

j\Ir, Shyamji Krishnavarma, in the learned paper on 
the subject he read before the International Congress of 
Orientalists at Berlin, on 14th September 1881 , demolishes 
all the arguments advanced against the Sanskrit 
language having ever been a spoken vernacular of India, 
and proves that not only was " Sanskrit, as we find settled 
in the Ashtadhyayi of Panini, the spoken vernacular at 
the time when that grammarian flourished," but that 
" it is at present extensively used as a medium of 
conversation and correspondence among learned men 
in all parts of India, from Kashmir to Cape Comorin." 


Professor Max Muller sa_ys: "Yet such is the mar- 
vellous continuity between the past and the present 
in India, that in spite of repeated social convulsions, 
religious reforms and foreigu invasions, Sanskrit may 
be said to be still the only language that is spoken over 
the whole extent of that vast country." He adds: 
"Even at the present moment, after a century of 
English rule and Enc-lish teachinsj, I believe that 
Sanskrit is more widely understood in India than 
Latin was in Europe at the time of Dante." ^ 

Who after this can say that Sanskrit was or is a 
dead language ? 

India : 'What can it teach us ? pp. 78, 7U, 



Veil after veil will lift — but there must be 
Veil upon veil bcliiiid. 

— BuddhcCs Sermon.'^ 

Professor Max Mullersays: "The Vedic literature'* 
opens to us a chapter in wliat has been cj'.Ued tlie edu- 
cation of the human race, to ^hich we can find no 
parallel anywhere else."^ 

The ^'edic literature consists of (1) The Yedas, 
(2) The Brahmanas, (3) The Sutras. 

The Yedas are four in numljer and are called the 
Rig Vedti, the Yajur Yeda, the Atharva A'cda, and the 
Sama A'eda. The Rig A^eda and the Yajur Yeda are the 
most important of the Yedas, as they respectively deal 
with the knowledge of things physical, mental and 
spiritual and the application of that knowledge. 

The Yedas are universally admitted to be not only 
by far the most important work in the Sanskrit language 
but the greatest work in all literature. 

It is nothing short of a miracle that while impor- 
tant works in almost all departments of human learning 
that were cultivated in ancient India have perished, the 
most important of them all, the Yedas, the fountain-head 
of allj knowledge and the parent of all literature and 
science, have come down to us secure and intact. ^V'hile 
most of the important Sanskrit works from Manu Smriti, 
the most ancient code of law in the world, to the 

1 Light uf Asia, y. I'l. 2 India : What can it icach us ? p. 89. 


RaraayanaandtheMahabharata have been tampered with, 
the Vedas, by the very inimitable grandeur of their 
language, and the unequalled sublimity of their 
contents have defied all attempts at interpolation. 

As, however, the studv of the Vedas has Ions: been 
neglected, and a thorough knowledge of the' Sutras and 
A'edangas by which alone the Vedic mantras may be 
interpreted is ,,^'^ery rare, the Vedas are rarely well 
understood even by the learned amongst the Hindus. 

When the Yajur A eda was presented to A'oltaire, he 
expressed his belief that it was the most precious gift for 
which the West had been ever indebted to the East.^ 

Guiiiault savs : " The Hio: Veda is the most sub- 
lime conception of the great highways of humanit3\" 

Mons.i Leon Delbos speaks enthusiastically of the 
grandeur and sublimity of the Vedas. " There is no 
monument of Greece or Rome," he asserts, " more pre- 
cious than the Rig Veda."^ 

Professor Max I\Iuller says : " In the history of the 
world, the Veda fills a gap which no literary work in 
any other language could fill."^ He also saj's: " I main- 
tain that to everybody who cares for himself, for his 
ancestors, for his histor}', for his intellectual develop- 
ment, a study of Vedic literature is indispensable.""* The 
Hindus hold the Vedas to be the Revelation, and its 
study accordingly is indispensable po every man. 

1 Wilson's Essays, yol. Ill, p. r,04. 

^Mons. Leon Delbos' paper on the Vodas read before the Interna- 
tional Literary Association at Paris, on 14th July 1884, the venerable 
Victor Hugo being in the chair. 

3 Wilson's Essays, Vol. Ill, p. 339. 

^Max MuUer's India : What can it teach us ? p. 121. 


The \'c(1as nrc admittedly the oldest books in the 

world. " Thea^eot" this venerable hymnal (Iti<2: \ eda),"' 

says !Sir AV. A\'. Hunter, " is unknown." '" They (the^ 

A'edas) are the oldest of books in the library of man- 

kind," says Professor Max Aluller. " Thev are without 

doubt," says Professor Heeren, " the oldest works 

composed in the Sanskrit."' "Even the most ancient 

Sanskrit wriiini'-s allow the Vedas as already existing."- 

No country except India and no language except the 

Sanskrit can boast of a possession so ancient or venerable. 

Xo nation except the Hindus can pretend to stand 

before the world with such a sacred heirloom in its 

possession, unapproachable in grandeur and infinitely 

abov'e all in glory. The Yedas stand alone in their 

solitary splendour, serving as a beacon of divine light 

for the onward march of humanity. 

The Hindus hold that the Vedas contain the irerms 
of all knowledge, and that their teachings are in complete 
consonance with the doctrines of true science.^ The 

1 Historical Uoseaiclics. Vol. II, p. 1-10. 

-Heereu's llistnm-al Researches, Vol. II, ]). 127. 

^See P. Guru Datta's- Yedic Texts, No. 2, printeel at tlie Virja- 
nand Press, Lahore, Those who read their own hisiorioal theories in 
tlie Vedas will do well to consider the words of Professor Barth. After 
pointing out some of the metaphysical theories contained in the Vedas 
he proceeds: " These alone are sufficient to prove, if necessary, how pro- 
foundly sacredotal this poetry is, and they ought to have suggested 
reflections to thuse who have (iffccted to see in it only the work of 
primitive shepherds celebrating the praises of their gods as they lead 
their flocks to the i)asture." — Barth's Religions of India, p. :1P. 

Professor Thielve of Leyden, too, expresses the same opinion, only 
more strongly in Tlicologixche Tijdochrift lov i\\\y 1880. As Professor 
Max Mnller admits, the Europeans " are still on the mere surface 
of Vedic literature," and must not reject it as useless if they do not 
find in it corroboration of their preconceived theories of anthropology 
and sociology. See India : What can it teach us? p. llo. 


late lamented P. Guru Datta of Lahore attempted to 
interpret a few mantras of the Rig Veda on the strength 
of Swami Dayanand Saras wati's commentary on the 
Vedas. The result was astonishing. Interpreting the 
7 til mantra of the second sukta of Rig Veda, — 

f*T^ ^ ^cf ^^ ^^?!l ^ frgiKHiT 1 f^4 ^cT]=qt ^T^^T II 

p. Guru Datta says : " This mantra describes the 
{(Ihiyam) process, or steps whereby the well-know^n of 
liquids, water, can be formed by the combination of tiro 
other substances {ijrltachim sadhcnita). The word 
sndhanfa is in the dual number indicating that it is 
two elementary bodies which combine to form water. 
What those two elementary substances according to 
this mantra are, is not a matter of least importance to 
determine. The words used to indicate those two 
substances are m.itra and rarana. 

" The first literal meanino- of mitra^ is measurer. The 
name is given to a substance that stands, as it were, as a 
measurf'r or as a standard substance. It is the measurer 
of density, or of value, otherwise known as quantiva- 
lence. The other meaninc; of mitra is 'associate.' Now 
in this mantra, mitra is described as an associate of 
varima.'^ It will be shown how varuna indicates 

1 The viord mitra is foi-med by adding the nnadi suffix; kra to the 
root mi, according to the sutni ^ffff^fff^lf^*^'. WV II ^101° 8 I ^^8 II 
The meaning is ffliftcfti^T'i^ =R^fclfvJ^: I or one tliat measures or 
stands as a standard of rcl'crciRM'. 

-Varuna is fonucd hy ailding unadi suffix unan to root rri to 
accept ^^^tPc^^*^*?^ II 1,^ 1 1 Hence it means that which is accept- 
able to all or seeks all. 

THE VKDir i>*i3 

oxvnjen H'as.' Now it is well-known tluit hvdroucn is 
not only the lightest element known, nor is it only 
monovalent, but that it has a strong afiinity for oxygen ; 
hence it is that it is described as an associate of varuna. 
Many other analogies in the properties of mitra and 
hi/dro(/en go on to suggest that what is in Vedic terms 
styled as mitra is in fact identical with hydrogen. 
Mitra for instance, occurs as synonymous with itdaiia 
in many parts of the Vedas, and udaiia is well 
characterized by its lightness or b}* its power to lift up. 

"Thesecond element with which we are concerned is 
vartma. Varuna is the substance that is acceptable to 
all. It is the element that everv living being needs to 
live. Its well-known property is rishadah, i.e., it eats 
aw^ay or rusts all the base metals, it burns all the bones, 
etc., and physiologically purifies the blood by oxidizing 
it, and thereby keeping the frame alive. It is by these 
properties that varuna is in general distinguished ; but 
it is especially characterized here as rishadah. No one 
can fail to perceive that the substance thus distinctly 
characterized is oxvgen gas. 

" Another word used in the mantra is puta dakshavi. 
Piita is pure, free from impurities. Dalsha means energy. 
Pitta daksham is a substance pure possessed of kinetic 
energy. Who that is acquainted with the kinetic theory 
of gases cannot see in jmta daksha the properties of a 
gas highly heated ? 

" The meaning of the mantra taken as a whole is this. 
Let one who is desirous to form water by the combina- 

1 Again, we have in ISIigliantn. the Veclio Dictionary, Chapter V, 
Section 4, ffl^ ^fcT l(^«imS?f2rT5R || Hence mitra means that 
\vhich approaches or seeks association with others. 


tion of two substances, take pure hydroo-en gas highly 
heated and oxygen gas possessed of the properties 
rishadah, and let him combine them to form Avater." 

The Brahnianas^ too^ are sometimes held by the 
ignorant to be part of the Yedas : but as Professor 
Weber says, " strictly speaking, only the Sanghitas are 
A'edas." The Brahmanas are either commentaries on 
the Yedas or philosophical disquisitions based on them. 

Of the period when these Brahmanas were compos- 
ed, Professor Weber says : " AVe have here a copy of 
the period when Brahmans with lively emulation carry 
on their enquiries into the highest questions the human 
mind can propound ; women Avith enthusiastic ardour 
plunge into mysteries of speculation, impressing and 
astonishing men by the depth and loftiness of their 
opinion, and who solve the questions proposed to them 
on sacred subjects."^ 

The Brahmanas, composed by some of the wisest sages 
of the ancient world, though not enjoying the authority 
of the Vedas are of the highest value to the student of 
the Yedic literature. 

The Sutras are divided into — 

(1) Sikhsha (phonetic directory). 

(2) Chhandas (metre). 

(3) Yyakarana (grammar). 

(4) Xirukta (explanation of words). 

(5) Jyotish (astronomy). 

(6) Kalpa (ceremonial). 

This division will show that the study of language 
was cultivated by the Hindus from the earliest times on 
scientific principles. 

1 Weber's Indian Literature, p, 22. 


Speaking of the Pi';itisakhya (a sub-division of 
Siklisha) of the white Ynjush, Professor H. H. Wilson 
says : " Such laborious minutiie and elaborate subtleties 
reflating to the enunciation of human speech are not to 
be met with in the literature of any other nation."' 

Professor Wilson again says: "It is well known how 
long it took before the Greeks arrived at a complete 
nomenclature for the parts of speech. Plato only knew 
of noun and verb as the two component parts of speech, 
and, for ])hilosophical purposes, Aristotle, too, did not go 
beyond that number. It is only in discussing the rules 
of rhetoric that he is led to the admission of two more 
parts of speech — conjunctions and articles. The pronoun 
does not come in before Zenodotus, and the preposition 
occurs first in Aristarchos. In the Pratis;ikhya, on the 
contrary, we meet at once with the following exhaustive 
classification of the parts of speech."' 

Mr. Alexander Thomson, the late talented and 
able Principal of the Agra College, and one of the best 
philologists in India, used to say that the consonantal 
division of the alphabet of the Sanskrit language was 
a more wonderful feat of human genius than any the 
world has yet seen. Even now the Europeans are far 
behind the Hindus in this respect. Professor ]\Iac- 
donell says: "We Euro2>eans, 2,500 years later, 
and in a scientific age, still employ an alphabet 
which is not only inadequate to represent all the 
sounds of our language, but even preserves the 
random order in which vowels and consonants arc 

^Wilson's Essays on Sanskrit Literature, Vol. Ill, p. ol7, 
-Wilson's Essays ou Sanskrit Literature, Vul. Ill; \<. 321, (;3rd 


jinnhlecl up as they Avere in the Greek adaptation of the 
primitive Semitic arrangement of 3,000 years ago."' 

Rev. ]\[r. Ward says: "In philology the Hindus 
liave, perhaps, excelled both the ancients (Greeks and 
Romans) and the moderns."^ 

Professor ^lax Muller says: "The idea of reducing a 
whole lanouno-e to a small number of roots, which in 
Europe was not attempted before the sixteenth century 
by Henry Estienne, was perfectly familiar to the Brah- 
mans at hast 500 years before Christ."^ 

" The science of language, indeed,'.' says Sir A^ . A\ . 
Hunter, "had been reduced in India to fundamental 
principles at a time when the grammarians of the West 
still treated it as accidental resemblances.""* 

Another branch of the science of language, the 
JXrammatical treatment of it, was cultivated to a degree 
which not only defies comparison, but is unique in the 
annals of literature. The most eminent Indian gram- 
marian, Panini Muni, sits on the hallowed throne of un- 
rivalled literary reputation, having achieved the most 
perfect work of its kind of which the hiunan mind is cap- 
able. Professor Weber speaks in rapturous terms of Pani- 
ni'sVichievement. He says : "We pass at once into the 
magnificent edifice which bears the name of Panini as its 
architect, and which justly conunands the wonder and 
admiration of everyone who enters, and which, by- the 
very fact of its sufficing for all the phenomena which 
language presents, bespeaks at once the marvellous 

J History of lliiulu Clicmistiy, Vol. 1, p. 25. 
^Mythology of the Hiinlns. 

•"^iMax Muller's Lectures on the Science of Language, p. .SO. For 
IL Estienne, see Sir Jolin Stoildart, Glossology. 
■iJnii.irial (Jazeltei-r, " India. " p. 2U. 

■I'liK N'KDic LrrKKA'rruic. 227 

iii<;'nniiity of its inventor and liis prolound penetniLion ol" 
tlie entire niateriul of tiie language.'" 

Sir W. Hunter says: "The grammar of Pauiiii 
stands su])reme among the grammars of the world, alike 
for its precision of statement and for its thorough ana- 
lysis of the roots of the language and of the formative 
principles of words. V>y applying an algebraical termi- 
nology, it attains a sharp succinctness nnrivalled in 
brevity, but at times enigmatical. It arranires in loijicad 
harmony the whole phenomena Avhieh the Sanskrit lang- 
nage presents, and stands forth as one of the most splen- 
did (ichlevements of human invention and industry. So 
elaborate is the structure that doubts have arisen whether 
its iniiumeraljle rules of formation and i)honetic 'change, 
its polysyllabic derivatives, its ten conjugations with its 
multiform aoriscs and long array of tenses could ever 
have been the spoken language of a people."- 

Planning says: ''The celebrated Panini berpieathed 
to posterity one of the oldest and most renowned books 
ever written m any lani>-ua<>'e."'' " The scientific com- 
pleteness of Sanskrit grannnar appeared to Sir \\\ Jones 
so unaccountfibls tliat he wrote about it with amazement 
and admiration."^ 

lAVeber's Indian Literature, p. 210. "Those niles (of «i;raniniar) 
are formed with tlie utinost conciseness, the consequence of very iiii^-enious 
methods." — Colehrooke on Sanskrit and Prakrit hinguages, Afiiutic 
Jietsearches, Vol. VII. 

-Imperial Gazetteer of India, Art, "India," p. 211:. 

■^Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. I, p. oSl. 
Ancient and ]\Iedia'val India, A'ol. I, p. ;;7I). " The .grammatical 
works 1(1' th" Hindus are so reiiiarkalili' tliat in their own department 
they are said to exceed in nicrii nearly all, if not all, ^ramuialical pro- 
ductions of other nations. "-p. O^o. 

228 ^I^'DU surEuioKiTY. 

In Europe, generally speaking grammatical science 
does not yet treat of those high principles which nnderlie 
the life and growth of knguage. It is not fair to Panini 
to compare with his Vya/carcma, the grammars of modern 
Europe, wdiere the grammatical science has not yet 
grasped those princij)les of the formation and develop- 
ment of a language, which it is the unique honour of 
Sanskrit grammars to classify and explain. 

Mrs. Manning says : " Sanskrit grammar is evi- 
dently far superior to the kind of grammar which for 
the most part has contented grammarians in Europe." ^ 

"Vyakarana," says the same authoress, "was not 
merely grammar in the lower acceptation of being an 
explanation of declension, conjugation and other 
prammatical forms, but was from its commencement a 
scientific grammar or grammatical science in the highest 
sense which can be attributed to this term."^ 

j\Ir. Elphinstone says : " His works (Panini's) and 
those of his successors have established a system of 
grammar, tlie most complete that ever was employed in 
arranging elements of human speech."^ 

Professor Max Muller says : " Their ( Hindus) 
achievements in grammatical analysis are still unsur- 
passed in the grammatical literature of any nation." 

" Panini, Katyayana, and Patau jali, are the cano- 
nical triad of grammarians of India," and, to quote 
Mrs. Manning once more, "such (grammatical) works 
are originated as are unrivalled in the literary history of 
other nations."* 

'Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. I, p. o81. 

2See Goldstiicker's Panini. p. I'JC). VYakar;ina = nndoing or analysis. 

^^Elphinstone's History of India, p. 14G. 

* Ancient and Medianal History of India. Vol. I, p. 381. "Hindu 
crrammarians liavp boon pn^jja^-od in the solution of interesting prol)lems 
from times immemorial.'' — p. oSl. 


^[|-. A\':ir(l ^avs : " Their _uT:unin;n's arc very nu- 
merous, and reflect the hiiihest credit on the in!j,\'nnil\' 
o£ their aiUhors."^ 

Profeissor Sir ^lonicr AVilliams remarks : " Th(! 
grammar o£ Paniiii is one oF tlie most remarkahh; 
literary works that the world has ever seen, and no 
other countnj can produce any grammatical .'^j/stem at 
all comparable to it, either for orii/inal'iti/ of plan or 
analytical suhtlety.^^ The Pi-ofessor again says : 
"His Sastras are a perfect miracle oi" condensation." 

A commentary on Panini's grammar was writtini l)y 
Katvavana, author of Varttikas. He was criticised hy 
Patanjali, who wrote the Mahahliasliya, Avhich is, accord- 
ing to Professor Sir Monier AVilliams, " one of the most 
Avonderful grammatical works that the genius of any 
country has ever produced."^ 

The following grammarians are said to have pre- 
ceded Panini : — Apisali, Kas3-pa, GariiTa, Galava, Sak- 
ravarmana, lUiaradwaja, Sakatyana, Sakalja, Senaka, and 

As regards lexicons, the Reverend Mr. Ward says : 
" Their dictionaries also do the hiidiest credit to tlie 
Hindu learned men, and prove how highly the Sanskrit 
was cultivated in former periods." 

MVavLi's ^Mythology of tho Hindus. -Iiuliun AVisdoiii. ]». 172. 

•MMoniiT Williaui.s' Indian Wisdom, pp. I7(j and 177. rataiijali is 
said to have liecn born al (ionarda in llio east of Fiidia and livi-d for 
some lime in Kaslimir. His mother's name (aecording to some) was 
Ganika. Panini wns, liowover, a native of Slatiiia, to tlie noitli- 
west of Attock .111 the Tiidns. Hi< mother. Dnkshi. was descended from 
Haksliii. Professor Goklsliieker thinks he has groiiudb to decide that 
Panini Hved before Buddha. 



]MessinQ,'s 1)0 with thoni aiul ctfriiiil iiraiso, 
Tin' |i(K'(s who oil L'lirtli have iiiailc us lieirs 
Ot" Truth and pure delight by heavenly lays. 

— Wordsworth. 

Count Bjornstjerna says: "Poetry rales over till in India; 
it has lent its forms, its coloring, and its charms even to 
the most abstract sciences, yea, even to religion."^ 

Professor Max Danker says : " The treasares of poetry 
in India are inexhaastible."- Among sach a " poetical 
people" as the Hindas — as Professor Heeren'' aptly terms 
them — poetry tloarished in wonderfal laxariance, and its 
varioas branches were caltivated with marvellous success. 
Professor Heeren says : " The varioas branches of poetry, 
such as the narrative and the dramatic, the Ivric as well as 
the didactic taid the apologue, have all flourished in Sans- 
krit literature, and produced the most excellent results.""* 
Mr. Elphinstone says : " All who have read the 
heroic poems in the original are enthasiastic in their 
praise, and their beauties have been most felt by those 
whose own productions entitle their judgment to most 
respect. Nor is this admiration confined to critics who 
have peculiarly devoted themselves to Oriental literattu-e. 
Milmtm and Schlegel vie w^ith Wilson and Jones in their 
applause ; and from one or other of these writers w^e learn 
the simplicity and originality of the composition; the sub- 
limity, grace and pathos of particular passages; the natural 
dignity of actors ; the holy parity of manners, and the 
inexhaustible fertility of imagination in the authors."'' 

"^Tiicogonv of tlio Hindus, v. 80. -History of .\ntiquity, Vol. IV, ]i, 27. 
^Ui^t. liJsearehes, Vol. 11,' p. ISO. "^llist. ];,■., ar.'hes, Vol. 11, p. 117, 
■''J'llpliiii.-loiie"s lli:>tury of India, p. 155. 

KIMC I'ol/l'iiV. 2:U 


A 11(1 liiTc llic sinL;('r i'nr liis iii'l, 

Xui all ill vain iii;i_v plcail, 
Tlic soul;' thai iHM'Vcs a iiali"ii"s Iirai'l, 

Is in itsoll' a deed. 

— Tennyson. 

PnoFEssou TTkei;kn s^,3^s : "The litcmturc of tlic Iliiidus 
is rich in ('[)Lc pootry."' The U:iinay:in;i and the Maha- 
hharata, however, are the ])rinci])al epics, tlie e[)ics par 
e.xcellence o£ India. Professor Monier W'ilHanis tluis 
sneaks of them : " Altiioui''h the Hindns, hke th(; 
Greeks, have only two great epic poems, namely, the 
llama vana and the Mahabharata, jQt to compare these 
Avith the Iliad or the Odyssey is to compare the Indus and 
the Gixn<j-es risini!; in the snows of the world's most 
colossal ranges, swollen Ijy numerous tril)utaries s])read- 
ing into vast shallows or bi'ancliing into deep divergent 
cliannels, with the streams of Attica or the mountainous 
torrents of Thessally. There is, in fact, an immensity 
of bulk about, as about every other department 
of Sanskrit literature, which to a European, accustomed 
to a more limited horizon, is absolutely bewildering."- 
Of these remarkable poems, the Ramayana is the 
older, while the Mahabharata is the larger of the two. 
Apart from their high poetical merits, in which they 
defy rivalry and discard comparison, their enormous 
bulk is a standing puzzle to the European critics. 

^ Historical Roscarclies, Vol. II, p. 147. -Indian Epic Poetry, p. 1. 


A comparison with the other great epics of the old 
"World will give an idea of their enormous size. 
:\l:ihal)harata has 2,20,000 lines. 

Kamayana has 48,000 ,, 

Homer's Iliad has 15,693 „ 

Alrgil's ^luiead has 9,868 ,, 

The Iliad and Odyssey together contain 30,000 lines. 
Schlegel calls Ramayana "the noblest of epics." 

" Ramayana," says Professor Monier Williams, "is 
niidonbtedly one of the greatest treasures in Sanskrit 
literature." Sir W. Jones says : " The Ramayana is an 
epic poem on the story of Rama, which, in unity of action, 
magnificence of imagery and elegance of style far sur- 
passes the learned and elaborate work of Xonnus."^ 

After giving the argument of the Ramayana, Prof. 
Heeren, with his usual moderation, says : " Sucli, in few 
words, is the chief subject of Ramayana, while the de- 
volopment and method of handling this simple argument 
is so remarkably rich and copious as to suffer little from 
a comparison in this respect with the most admired pro- 
ductions of the epic muse."- 

Professor Sir M. Monier Williams says : " There 
is not in the whole range of the Sanskrit literature a 
more charming poem than the Ramayana. The classical 
purity, clearness and simplicity of its st3de, the exquisite 

1 Asiatic Roscarchos, p. 255. A writer in the Westminister Jteriew 
for April 18G8 oiTers MaliaMiarata such a remote antiquity as to leave 
behind not only Mann but even the writings of Asvalyana, etc. Count 
Jijornstjerna dates it at 2000 B.C. Dr. Mittra points out that "tlie 
Mahabharata, in tlie course of ils thousands of verses, nowliere alludes 
to Ijuddhism ;uid Buddha, and must therefore, and ou other grounds 
not wortli naming here, date from before the birth ol' Sal<ya." — 7Vu' J i(</u 
Anjuvx, Vol. r, p. 38. 

-Ileereu's Uistorical Researches. Vol. II, p. 140. 

EPIC roETlvV. 2?)?) 

touches of true poetic (eermg with which it uIjouikIs, its 
gr;ij)hic (lescrii>ti<)iis of heroic incidents, nature's li'i'aiK I - 
est scenes, the deep acquaintance it dis})lays wilIi (he. 
conflictino' workings and most refined emotions ol' tlic 
human heai't, all entitle it to rank among the most beauli- 
ful compositions that have appeared at any period or in 
any country. It is like a spacious and delightful garden, 
here and there allowed to run wild, but teeming witli 
fruits and flowers, watered by perennial streams, and 
even its most tangled lungle intersected with delii>htful 
pathways. The character of llama is nobly portrayed. 
It is only too consistently unselfish to be lium;ui. 
We must in tact bear in mind that he is half a god, yet 
though occasionally dazzled by flashes from his su[)erior 
nature, we are not often blinded or bewildered by it. 
At least in the earlier portion of the poem he is not 
generally represented as more than a heroic, noble- 
minded, pious, virtuous man, whose bravery, unselfisii 
generosity, filial obedience, tender attachment to his wife, 
love for his brothers and freedom from all resentful feel- 
ings, we can appreciate and admire. When he falls a 
victim to the spite of his father's second wife, he 
cherishes no sense of wrong. When his father decides 
on banishing him, not a nuuMuur escapes his lips. In 
noble language he expresses his resolution to sacrifice 
himself rather than allow his parent to break his pledged 
Avord. As to Sita, she is a paragon of domestic virtues. "- 

^ '• When iiU'Utiticil with tlio ili'ity, lie scciiis liiiii.<('ll' uiK'nUM-inns ol' 
his tine rliai:i(ii'r. [t is even pussililc tiiat the [nissnuvs whicli iiuikc 
hiui ill! iii';iniati<iii of Vishnu iii.iy bt- Idler iuU'r^iulatiun.s." 

-ludiaii Epic I'uc'try, p. 1-'. 


Sita is the noblest ideal of a woman. Her nol3le 
and calm devotion to her lord, her unbounded love, her 
exalted conception of the eternal, nay, divine relation 
of a wife to her husband are ideals unparalleled for lofti- 
ness and sublimity in any language or literature. AVhat 
can be more noble than her address to Rama when she 
pleads for permission to accompany him into banishment ? 

A wife must shai'e her husband's fate. My duty is to follow thee 
Where'er thou goest. Apart from thee, I would not dwell in heaven itself 
Deserted by her lord, a wife is like a miserable corpse. 
Close as thy shadow would I cleave to thee in this life and hereafter. 
Thou art my king, my guide, my only refuge, my divinity. 
It is my fixed resolve to follow thee. If thou must wander forth. 
Through tliorny trackless forests, I will go before thee treading down 
The prickly brambles to make smooth thy path. Walking before thee 
Shall feel no weariness : the forest-thorns will seem like silken robes ; 
The bed of leaves a couch of down. To me the shelter of thy presence 
Is better far than stately palaces and paradise itself. 
Protected by thy arm, gods, demons, men shall have no power to harm me. 
With thee I'll live contentedly on roots and fruits. Sweet or not sweet, 
If given by thy hand, they will to me be like the food of life. 
Roaming with thee in -desert wastes, a thousand years will be a day ; 
Dwelling with thee, e'en hell itself should be to me a heaven of bliss, 

"Juliet," says Prof. Dowden, "is but a passionate 
girl before this perfect woman," meaning, Brutus' 
Portia, but what becomes of Portia herself before this 
heavenly woman, this ethereal being, this celestial Sita ? 

As for Rama, his character simply stands un- 
rivalled in all literature, ancient or modern, Asiatic or 

Principal Griffith says: "Well may the Ramayana 
challenge the literattn*e of every age and country to 
protluce a poem that can boast of such perfect characters 
as a Rama and a Sita." He adds : " Nowhere else are 


poetry and morality so churmingl}" united, each clevatinii; 
the other as in this really holy poem." 

Miss Mary Scott says : " The Ramayana is full of 
])oetr3% and Sita one of the sweetest types of woman- 
hood that I have ever read."^ 

As for the Mahabharata, Professor Hereen says : " It 
Avill scarcely be possible to deny the Mahabharata to be 
one of the richest compositions in Epic poetry that was 
ever produced."^ 

Dr. F. A. Hassler of America thus waxes eloquent 
in praise of the Mahabharata: "In all my experience 
in life, I have not found a work that has interested me 
as nuich as that no))le production of the wise, and T do 
not hesitate to say, inspired men of ancient India. in 
fact I have studied it more than any other work for a 
long time past, and have made at least 1,000 notes which 
I have arranged in alphabetical order for the purpose of 
study. The Mahabharata has opened to me, as it were, a 
new world, and I have been surprised beyond measure at 
the wisdom, truth, knowledue, and love of the riii'ht 
which I have found displayed in its pages. Not only so, 
but I have found many of the truths which my own 
heart has taught me in regard to the Supreme Being 
and His creations set forth in beautiful, clear language.'* 

The Hamilton, Daily Spectator (May 31st, 188S) 
thus speaks of the Mahabharata : " This poem is really 
a series of religious, moral, metaphysical, philosophic and 
political disquisitions strung upon a thread of narrative. 
This not only gives to the modern world a living picture 

1 Letter to F. C. Koy, dated London, the 8tli December 1883. 

"Historical Researclies, Vol. II, p. IG-L 

^LettertoP. C. Roy,dated21st July, 1888. See Roy's Malmbliarata, 


of Imliau life, morals, manners, politics, religion and 
philosophy as they existed more than 2,000 years ago, 
but they transmit to us son:ie of the most sublime poetry 
and some of the deepest and noblest thoughts that have 
ever been given to the world." 

Krishna, the greatest politician of the world, says : — 

" The wise grieve not for the departed, nor for those who yet survive. 
Ne'er was the time when I was not, nor thon, nor yonder Chiefs, and ne'er 
Shall be the time when all of us shall be not ; as the unbodied soul 
In this corporeal frame moves swiftly on through boyhood, youth & age, 
So will it pass through other forms hereafter — be not grieved thereat. 
The man whom pain and pleasure, heat and cold affect not, he is fit 
For immortality : that which is not cannot be — and that which is 
Can never cease to be. Know this : — the being that spread this universe 
Is indestructible : who can destroy tlie Indestructible ? 
These bodies that enclose the everlasting soul, inscrutable. 
Immortal, have an end — but he who thinks the soul can be destroyed, 
And he who deems it a destroyer, are alike mistaken : it 
Kills not, and is not killed ; it is not born, nor doth it ever die ; 
It has no past nor future — unproduced, unchanging, infinite : he 
Who knows it fixed, unborn, imjierisliable, indissoluble. 
How can that man destroy another, or extinguish aught below ? 
As men abandon old and threadbare clothes to put on oihers new. 
So casts the embodied soul its worn out frame to enter other forms. 
!No dart can pierce it ; flame oannot consume it, water wet it not, 
Nor scorching breezes dry it : indestructible, incapalile 
Of heat or moisture or aridity — eternal, all-pervading, 
Stedfast, immovable ; perpetual, yet imperceptible. 
Incomprehensible, unfading, deathless. uiiiu:aginable." 

Miss Mary Scott says : "The characters are splen- 
didly portrayed. It is a thoroughly martial poem, and 
one can enter into the battles between the Pandus and 
Klu'US." Professor Sylvian Levi of Paris says : "The 
Mahabharata is not onlv the laro-est, but also the ""rand- 
est of all epics, as it contains throughout a Hvelv teach- 
ing of morals under a glorious garment of poetry .'.'i 

'Letter to P. C. Roy, dated the 17th jMarch 1888, 

EPIC rOKTRY. 2l\7 

The Amci'ican ethnologist, JcrcmiiJ.h Curtiii, writ- 
ing to liabu P. C. Koy, the enterj)risiiig pp.Mislier of an 
English translation ol' the ^lahabharata, says : '• 1 h:i\(! 
ju-^t finished reading cartifally from hcgliming to end, 
24 nnnihers of vonr translation of tin; Mahabharata, and 
can honestly say that i li;i\e nerer ohiaiiied more plea- 
,vtrc friwireadlnii any book in wy life.^ The Mahal )harata 
M'ill open the eyes of the world to the true character and 
intellectual rank of the Aryans of India. You are cer- 
tainly doing a great work, not only for Hindustan, Init 
for the Arvan race in other countries. The Alahabharata 
is a real mine of w^ealth not entirely known, I suppose, 
at present to any man outside your countiy, but W'hich 
Avill be known in time and valued in all civilized lands 
for the reason that it contains information of the 
highest import to all men who seek to know in 
singleness of heart, the history of our race upon the 
earth, and the relations of man with the Infinite Power 
above us, around us and in us." 

Saint Hilaire Bartholemy thus speaks of the ]\Iaha- 
bharatain the Journal Des Savantes o^ September 188G: 
" When a century ago (1785) Mr. AVilkins publish- 
ed in Calcutta an extract from the grand poem ( Maha- 
bharata), and made it known through the episode of the 
Bhao-vadjnta, the world was dazzled Avith its mao-nifi- 
cence. Vyasa, the reputed author of the Mahabharata, 
appeared greater than even Homer, and it required a 
very little indeed to induce people to place India above 

Greece It has not the less been admitted 

that this prodigious Hindu epic is one of the grandest 
monuments of its kind of human intelligence and genius." 

1^500 lioy's Truiifilatiou of Muluibliarata, part XXX. 


The IVatertofrn post (Tuesda^y, June 22, 1886), 
calls Mahiibharata, " one o£ the most wonderful poems 
of which we have any record," and says: " The poem is 
the Mahabharata, the oldest, the most voluminous, and, 
according to AVheeler, the historian of India, the most 
valuable epic in any language. It consists of some 
2,20,000 lines, is fourteen times longer than the Iliad." 

Sir Edwin Arnold, in his " Indian Idylls," claims 
for parts of it " an origin anterior to writing, anterior 
to Puranic theology, anterior to Homer, perhaps to 
Moses.'' He fin-ther says : " What truer conception of 
a wife than this, written more than three thousand years 
ao-o : " She is a true wife who is skilful in household 
affairs : she is a true wife whose heart is devoted to her 
lord ; she is a true wife who knoweth none but her lord. 
The wife is man's half : the wife is the first of friends : 
the wife is the root of salvation. They that have wives 
have the means of beino: cheerful : thev that have wives 
can achieve good fortune. Sweet-speeched wives are as 
friends on occasions of joy : they are as mothers in 
hours of sickness and woe. A wife, therefore, is one's 
most valuable possession. No man even in anger 
should ever do anvthino; that is disao'reeable to his wife, 
seeing that happiness, joy and virtue, everything de- 
pended on the wife," and concludes by saying: "we 
may well accept this great poem as one o£ the [)riceless 
possessions of the East." 

]\lr. Titus Munson Coan, in the New York Times 
(4th March, 1888), says: "The Hindu epics have a 
nearer siirnificance for us than anvthino- in the Norse 
mythology. The Mahabharata, one of the longest of 
these poemsj has wider romantic element in it than 

Eric roETiiv. 2o9 

King Frithiof's Scuja ; its action is cast upon a grander 
scale, and its lierocs belittle all others in mythology. 
The Hindu poems, early though they are, contain otliical 
and human elements that are unknown to the Norseman. 
It is in this that their endurinu", their "Towini'' interest 
remains for the mind of Europe and of America," 

The Hamilton Daily Spectator of olst May, 1888, 
after speaking of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata as 
*' immortal works," says that the great epic of India, 
" ■\lahabharata, is the longest and iu some respects, the 
greatest of all epic poems." 

Mon. A. Barth says : " Some portions of the Maha- 
bharata may well compare with the purest and most 
beautiful productions of human genius.' The Ramayana 
is three times as large as Homer's Iliad, and the Maha- 
bharata four times as large as the Ramayana. Homer's 
Iliad and Odyssey have thirty thousand lines, the Maha- 
bharata has two hundred and twenty thousand lines, and, 
in addition, a supplement of sixteen thousand three hun- 
dred and seventy-four couplets. But it is not in size 
alone that the sacred epics of Valniiki and A'yasa excel. 
They enchant by the wonderous story they tell of ancient 
Aryan life, faith and valour. There is also a lively teach- 
ino- of morals under a glorious garment of poetry." 
"Matchless vivacity, unsurpassably tender and touching 
episodes, and a perfect store house of national anticpnties, 
literature and ethics. "- 

^ Revue De L'Jli<to/rc Dcs Reli;/inn.-i. Farh 188i», p. 38. 

2The Montreal JleraUl, (Thursday, Nov. 12tli, 1801). Trubnor's 
American, European and Oriental Literary Record, new Series, Vol. 
VII, No. 3, speaks of the Mahabharata as "the wonderful ejiie," and 
regrets "how little has up to the present been done to unravel tiie 
mysteries it contain-^, or even to smooth a path leading to its golden 
treasures ! " 


Speaking o£ a certain part ot the Mahabliarata, a c^i^ic 
savs : "We know o£ no episode, even in Homeric poem.s, 
which can snrpass its grandeur or raise a more solemn 
diro'e over the desolation o£ the fallen heart o£ men." ' 

The characters ol the five Pandavas, of Krishna, 
Darvodhana, Drona, Bhishma and Karana, are drawn with 
a true poetic feeling "and with nuich artistic delicacy of 
touch." Yndhishtra, Arjuna, Bhima, are portraits worthy 
of the highest poets, and can only be drawn by men of 
extraordinary imagination, and I)y soaring intellects as 

Perfection is a merit known only to the Hindus. 
" A European poet would have brought the storj^ to an 
end" after the termination of the war in favour of the 
Pandavas, but "the Sanskrit poet has a far deeper in- 
siiiht into man's nature '' and would not end there, to 
the dissatisfaction of the reader, but would wind u]^ the 
story and end with the translation of the Pandavas to 

"The Ramayana and the Mahabliarata," says Wil- 
son, "abound with poetical beauties of the first order, 
and particularly in delineations of picturesque maimers 
and situations, and in the expression of natural and 
amiable feeling." - 

"There are many graphical passages," says Professor 
M. Williams, "in the R.amaj^ana and ^lahabharata, which 

I The Westminister Review for October 1842. "Many of its (]\lali;x- 
bliarata's) episodes of themselves would make perfect poems of the lirst 
grade, and wouM stand comparison witli any European poems. Tliere 
is a toucliing episode, fidl of true poetic feeling, in Adiparva (ildt, 
called Bakahadlia, as there are a thousand others." — Monicr \Viiruuii>' 
Ej>ic Poetiji iij' I itilia. 

-Mill's India. Vol, II, p. 52, footnote. 


for honuty oC do^criptioii, onmiot bo snrpn!?r>c(l by nny- 
thiiii!; in Homer, . . . th;it the diction of Ijulian epios 
is more polished, re_i»'nl:ir :ind cultiviited, and the lan^'u- 
no^e ixUoi^'cther in a more advanced stage of devolopment 
than that of Homer." Then, as to the description of 
scenery,^ in wliich Hindu poets are certainly more f^ra- 
phic and picturesque than either Greek or Latin ... he 
adds : "Yet there are not wantinii* indications in the In- 
dian epics of a higher degree of cultivation than that 
represented in the Homeric poems. The battlefields of 
the Rama3'ana and the Mahabharata are not made bar- 
barous by wanton cruelties, and the description of 
Ayodhya and Lanka imply far greater luxury and 
refinement than those of Sparta and Troy." Ramayana 
and Mahabharata rise above the Homeric poems also in 
the fact "that a deep religious meaning appears to un- 
derlie all the narrative, and that the wildest allegory may- 
be intended to conceal a sublime moral, symbolizing the 
conflict between good and evil, teaching the hopelessness 
of victory in so terrible a contest with purity of soul, 
self-abnegation and th(i subjugation of the passions.""^ 

Mr. Herbert Spencer, the greatest of the modern Euro- 
pean thinkers, condemns the Hiad among other things 
for the reason " that the subject matter appeals continually 
to brutal passions and the instincts of the savage."^ 

Sir Monier Williams says : — " And in exhibiting 
pictures of domestic life and manners, the Sanskrit 

^"lu Homer, the de^^c^iption of scenery and natural objects are too 
short and general to be really picturesque. Twining says that the (Treek 
poets did not look upon Nature with a painter's eye." — Monier Williams' 
InUan Epic Poetry. 

2 Indian Epic Poetry, p. 4, 

3 Herbert Spencer's Autobiography, Vol. I, p- 2G2. 


epics are even more valuable than the Greek and 

Roman. In the delineation o£ women, the Hindu poet 

throws aside all exaggerated colouring, and draws from 

Nature. Kaikeyi, Mandodari, Kausalj^a, and even Man- 

thra, are all drawn to the very life. Sita, Draupadi, 

and Damayanti engage our affections far more than 

Helen or even than Penelope. Indeed, Hindu wives ^ 

are generally perfect patterns of conjugal fidelity : nor 

can it be doubted that in these delightful portraits of the 

p\atlvrata^ or devoted wife, we have true representations 

of the purity and simplicity of Hindu domestic manners 

in early times." 

" jSTothing," says the author further on," can be more 
beautiful and touching than the picture of domestic 
and social happiness in the Ramayana and the Malia- 
bharata. It is indeed in depicting scenes of domestic 
affection, and expressing those universal feelings and 
emotions ^\hich belong to human nature in all time and 
in all places, that Sanskrit epic poetrj' is unrivalletL'''''^ 

In addicion to these two most celebrated epics, there 
are a large number of 'smaller epics which would Aveli 
stand comparison with similar poems of any country. 

1 Count Bjornstjeina &ays : "Among other remarkable particulars 
in this poeui is the ]iure light in which it sets the nohle character and higii- 
minded devotion ul' the women oi India" — Tltfoijuini of the Hind H!<, p. 82. 

^Indian E[iic Poetry, pp. 57, 58. " Contrast with the respectful 
tone of Hindu children towarils their parents the harsh manner in which 
Telemachus geneially speaks to liis niuther. Filial respect and affection 
is ([uite as noteworthy a feature in tlic Hiiulu character now as in an- 
cient times. 1 have heeu assured by Indian officers that it is cuniUKin 
for unmarried soldiers to stiui themselves almost tostravation pdint that 
they may send money to tiieir aged parents In this, tlic Hindus might 
tjach us (I^nghslimcn) a lesson." — ;S//- Monirr W^UUiuuh. 

V.VIC I'oKTin', 213 

]\Ir. Colchroukc speaks of Ii(i(/huraiisa in the lii^licst 
terms, and says, " Sisiipnfhadh is another celebrated 
epic poeni."i '''' Klrat Arjunya is remarkable," accord- 
ini;' to Colel)rooke "for the variety of measnres and 
the alliteration," while Maha Kavyas a))pears to the 
European reader very remarkable for verbal int^'eiuiity." 
^^Bhalil/iari/a, by Uhartari Hari, is a poem of considerable 
reputation."'' '^K/i.mar Sambhaca is charming and 
fanciful," and, adds Mr. Griffith, "the author nuist have 
tried all the fertility of resource, the artistic skill, and 
the exquisite ear of the author of Lala Rookh.''''^ 

Naloda>/a, which is attributed to Kalidasa, "is 
remarkable for showing the extraordinary powers of the 
Sanskrit language, and it is impossible not to wonder at 
the ingenuity of the workman."' 

The Haiihava Pandava Vijaj/a, b}^ Kaviraja, " is 
rather a curiosity than a poem." Mr. Colebrooke s[)eaks 
of it as an instance of a complete poem, every canto of 
which exhibits variet}' of metre. "This," says Mrs. 
Manning also, " is an extraordinary poem." 

Of Nala Damayanti, Professor Hereen says : " Re 
markable as this episode appears for inventive merit it is 
not at all inferior in })oint of style, and some passages 
would do credit even to Homer himsel/y^ 

The imagination of the ancient Hindus Avas un- 
rivalled in fertility and range ; in fact, like the whole 

1 Ancient iiud jMcilia'Viil Iiulia, Vol II, i», lo4, 
- ^Manning's Ancient and Medianal India, Vul. IT, p. 135. 
•Hiiid, [). 137. •' VtMi)al ingenuity is its most reinarkable (|iiality.'' 
Colebrooke regards "Kirat Arjunya, Kumar SamMiava, lia^lm N'aiisa, 
"Nalodaya, Megliduta, with another, as G excellent compositions in 
Sanskrit." — MiacelUincous Essir//s, p. 81. 

•iprerare to Griffith's translation o[ the "IVirlli of the War tJoil." 
^Old Indian Poetry. ,jHeereu's. Uist. Researches, Vol, II, p. 1G7. 


face of nature, like those stupendous mountains, majes- 
tic rivers, and boundless expanse o£ the country around 
them, the ancient Hindu standards o£ strength and 
splendour are bewildering to some critics, who are 
"accustomed to a more limited horizon." Their (Hindu) 
creations are. therefore, not oidy unrivalled but un- 
approachable in beauty, richness and grandeur. 

To the European everything is grand, sublime and 
magnificent in India, whether you look at the outward 
expression of nature, or at the physical and mental 
resources of the country. Look at the creation of God 
or the creation of man, you are absolutely struck with 
amazement and awe ! The snowy peaks of her sublime 
Himavat seem to raise their heads hio-her than the 
hifdiest heaven, while before their Indra and Brahma 
the European Apollo and Jupiter sink into insignificance. 
"If we compare," says Professor Heeren, "the mytho- 
logy of the Hindus with that of the Greeks, it will have 
nothingto apprehend on the score of intrinsic copiousness. 
In point of aesthetic value, it is sometimes superior, at 
others, inferior to the Greek : while in luxuriance and 
splendour it has the decided advantage. Olympus, with 
all its family of gods and goddesses, must yield in 
])ompan(l majesty to the palaces of Vishnu and Indra." i 
"The Hindu mythology," he says, "like the sublime 
compositions of Milton and Klopstock, extends its poetic 
flight far into the regions of unlimited space." He adds : 
"The Hindu Epos has a greater resemblance to the 
religious poetry of the Germans and the English tlian 
Greeks, with this difference, that the poet of India has a 

"1 TluWfu'ri llisl>»iiral RrM'aivhes. Vol. 11, p. 1*85. 

Eric roKTKY. 245 

•svidcr rnnQ-e afTorded to liis iinai>;liiatiou than tlic latter." 
Some critics hold that the Ramayana is the ori<;'inal 
o£ the Iliad,' the latter is only an adaptation of the 
former to the local circumstances of Greece, that Homer's 
description of the Trojan war is merely a mytholo<Tical 
account of the invasion of Lnnka by Ram Chandra. 
The main plot, of course, is the same. Troy stands for 
Lanka (Tabrobane), Sparta for Ajodliia, Menelaus for 
Rama, Paris for Ravana, Hector for Indrajit and Vibhi- 
shan ; Helen for Sita, Agamemnon for Sugriva, Patroclus 
for Lakshmana, Nestor for Jamvant. Achilles is a 
mixture of Arjuna, Bhima and Lakshmana. 

Indeed, it is very improbable, if not impossible, that 
the Greeks should produce all at once poems wliich stand 
amongst the greatest feats of humm genius, and occupy a 
place in literature inferior only to the Lidian epics (in 
some respects). Anterior to Horasr, Greek literature has 
no existence, even no name, and it is difficult to believe 
that, without any previous cultivation whatever, some of 
the hii^hest and the noblest work in the whole rani^e of 
literature should come into existence. The English 
literature did not begin with Milton, or the Roman with 
Virgil ; nor does the Sanskrit with Yalmiki or Vyasa, as 
the Greek does with Homer. 

Apart from external circumstances, the subject-matter 
lends support to the theory in a remarkable manner. 
The plot, the characters and the incidents reseml)le those 
of the Hindu epic poetry so strongly that it is difficult 
to explain this phenomenon, except by assuming that the 
one has drawn extensively, if not wholly, from the other. 

i"Evcu tlic actiuu ol" the Hindu Epic is iiiacud iii an a^v far 
anterioi" to liistuiical computation." — llcercn's Historical licnearchcs. 



And if we consider the external circumstances, the state 
of civihzation of the two nations, their hterature, wealth 
and constitution, the learning' and character of their 
creators, little doubt remains as to who were the real 
creators and who the adapters. ]\I. Hippolyte Faache, 
in the Preface to his French translation of the Ramayana, 
says that " Ramayana was composed before the Homeric 
poems, and that Homer took his ideas from it." 

Apart from the fact that the main story has been ado])t- 
ed, and that the underlying' plot of tlie one (Ramayana) 
and the principal characters (jf the other ( Mahabharata) 
have been taken and fused together into a national epic 
by the Greeks, it is clear that episodes and separate in- 
cidents from the Indian eoics have been taken and versi- 
fied in the Greek tonf>;ue. Colonel AVilford asserts that 
" the subject of the Dionysus of Xonnus was bor- 
rowed from the Mahabharata."' About Ravana's inva- 
sion of the kingdom of Indra, Count Bjornstjerna sa3's : 
" This myth is probably the foundation of the ancient 
Greek tradition of the attempt of the Titans to storm 

Professor Max Dunker says : " AVhen Dion Chry- 
sostora remarks that the Homeric poems are sun'>- by 
the Indians in their own lan<2;uat'e — the sorrows of 
Priam, the lamentations of Hecuba and Andromache, the 
bravery of Achilles and Hector — Lassen is undoubtedly 
right HI referring this statement to the Mahabharata and 
putting Dhritrashtra in the place of Priam, Gandhari 
and Draupadi in the places of Andromache and Hecuba, 
Arjuna and Kama in the places of Achilles and Hector.";^ 

1 Asiatic licsearclics, Vol. IX, p. "J;:5. - TliO()<,'oiiy ut Uio Hiiidus, p. til. 
^History of Antiquity, Vol. IV, p. «.t. 

DRAMA. ^^' 


To \v;ikc tlic sDiil liy Iciulcr strnK'i^s of art, 
To raise tlu' LC<'iiins ainl to nicinl ilir lirart, 
To make iiiaiikiipl in conscious virtue lioM, 
Live o'er each scene, and he what they heholJ. 

— Pope : Pro. to Addison's Cofo. 

The drrimatic writings of the Hindus are equally 
remarkable. External nature, as might be expected in 
a country which is " the epitome of the world,"' is the 
special forte of the Hindu poets, and, in no country, 
aucient or modern, has j^ature (in contradistinction to 
man) been treated so poetically or so extensively intro- 
duced in poetry. But, though outward nature must 
attract, by its magnificence and its beauties, the attention 
of a people gifted with such marvellous powers of obser- 
vation and sense for beauty, yet, the Hindus being 
a people given more than any other nation to analyzing 
thoughts and feelings and investigating mental pheno- 
mena, have made explorations in the realms of mind 
that exact the homage of mankind and defy emulation. 
To this reason, therefore, is due that the internal nature 
of man, the human mind with all its thouo-hts, feelin<'s 
volitions, all its desires and affections, its tendencies and 
susceptibilities, its virtues and failings and their develop- 
ments are all drawn with a pencil at once poetic and na- 
tural. Creation in perfect harmony with nature is a 
feature of the Hindu drama. The characters are all 
creations, perfect in themselves and in their fidelity to 
nature. Extravagance, contradiction and unsuitability 

1 Murray's ilistury of Imlia, p. 1, 

248 iiixnu surERiOKiTY. 

ill the development — either of the plot or the characters — 
is never permitted. The dramas hold the mirror to 
jSTatnre and, in this respect, the Shakespearean dramas 
alone can be compared to them : while, as regards the 
language, Sanskrit must o£ course always stand alone 
in beauty and sublimity. 

With regard to the extent to which the dramatic 
literature has been cultivated in India, Sir W. Jones 
says that the Hindu theatre would Jill as many volumes 
as that of any nation of modern Europe. 

The Mohamedan conquest of India resulted in the 
effectual repression of Hindu dramatic Avri tings. Instead 
of receiving further development, the Hindu drama 
rapidly declined, and a considerable part of this fascinat- 
ing literature was for ever lost. 

Professor Wilson says : "It may also be observed 
that the dramatic pieces which have come down to us 
are those of the highest order, defended by their intrinsic 
parity from the corrosion of time." Rupaka is the Hindu 
term for " Play," and " Dasa Ru.paka,^^ or description of 
the ten kinds of theatrical compositions, is one of the 
best treatises on dramatic literature and shows tlie 
extent to which dramatic literature was cultivated by 
the Hindus. 

A writer says : " We might also conveniently 
transfer to them (Hindu dramas) the definitions of 
the European stage, and class them under the head of 
Tragedy, Comedy, Opera, ]3allet, P)urletta, IMelodrama 
and Farce." Professor Heeren says : "There are speci- 
mens of Hindu comedy still extant no way inferior to 
the ancient Greek."' 

Ulii^lorioal lU'soiirclK'.s, Vol. II, p. lUl. 

DRAMA. 249 

Hindu drama, however, is in many respects 
superior to the Greek drama. 

(1) Among the Hindus there are nine rasa or 
effects to be produced on the spectator. They are love, 
mirth, tenderness, fury, heroism, terror, disgust, won<ler 
and tranquilUty. " The serious part of this Hst is much 
more comprehensive than the Greek tragic rasa of terror 
and pity." 

(2) " The love of the Hindus is less sensual than 
that of the Greek and Latin comedy." — Wilson. 

(3) Valour, whenever displayed in the Hindu 
drama, is calm, collected and dispassionate. The calm 
intrei)idity of the hero of Vlr Charltra presents a very 
favourable contrast to the fury of Tidides or the 
arrof>;ance of a Rinaldo. The Hindu taste is much finer. 

(4) Females were represented in general by females. 
" Boy Cleopetra" was unknown to the Hindu stage. 

(5) The precise division of the Hindu pla3"S into 
acts is a feature unknown to the Greeks. The division 
into acts proves higher development.^ 

(6) There was, moreover, no want of instruction 
for stage business, and we have the "asides" and "aparts" 
as regularly indicated as in the modern theatre in 
Europe. '-^ 

i"In respect of dress and decorations, the resources of the Hindu 
theatre are sufficiently ample." — Heeren's Historical Researches, Vf)l. II, 

2 On Mill's instituting a comparison between the Chinese and the 
Hindu drama, Professor Wilson says : "The action of the Chinese plays 
is unskilfully conducted, and they are wanting in the high poetic tone 
which distinguish those of the Hindus: at the same time they are ingenious 
and often interesting. They represent manners and feelings with truth. 
They are the works of a civilized people." — MilVs India, Vol. II, p. (iO 



FolloAving nature more closely, the Hindu drama 
usuallj' blended "seriousness and sorrow with levity and 
laughter." In this respect, the Hindu drama may be 
classed with much of the Spanish and English drama to 
which, as Schlegel observes, " the terms tragedy and 
comedy are wholly inapplicable, in the sense in which 
they are employed by the ancients." 

The higher purpose of the dramatic art was neyer 
lost sight of by the Hindus. This is a distinguishing- 
feature of the Hindu drama. Professor Wilson says : 
*' We may, however, obserye to the honour of the Hindu 
drama, that Parakhja^ or she who is the wife of another 
person, is never to be made the object of a dramatic 
intrigue : a prohibition that would haye sadly cooled 
the imagination and curbed the wit of Dryden and 

Sir W. Jones says : "The dramatic species of enter- 
tainment must have been carried to great perfection 
when Vicramaditya, who reigned in the first century be- 
fore Christ, gave encouragement to poets, philologers, 
and mathematicians." " But what a course of prelimi- 
nary mental improvement," says Professor Heeren, 
" must the nation have gone through ere they could 
possess a writer like Kalidasa ! ere they could understand 
and appreciate his genius!" 

Greater masters of drama, however, lived and 
died in India before Kalidasa ; Dandi was one of them. 
Unhappily, however, to the eternal misfortune and regret 
of the civilized world, his works have met the same 
fate as productions of the highest class in many other 
departments of Hindu literature and science have done. 

1)1{AMA. 2.51 

Love or srui(/(h\ the (iinotioii wliieli .'iftcr liiiiiLicr 
is the most powerful emotion in the world, is a leading 
principle in tlie dramatic literature of the world, and 
Mrs. Manning says: "Nowhere is love expressed with 
greater force and pathos than in the poetry of India." ^ 

The best known dramatists of the Hindus are Kali- 
dasa and Bhavbhuti. Kalidasa, "one of the greatest 
dramatists the world has ever produced," flourished in 
the reign of Yicramaditya in the first century E.G.,'*^ 
while Bhavbhuti lived many centuries later. 

The masterpiece of Kalidasa is the play of Sakuntala. 
The plot of this "astonishing literary performance," 
as a great German critic calls it, is taken from the 
Maliabharata. Professor Heeren speaks in rapturous 
terms of this "far-famed drama, "'^ Avhichis incomparable 
for its beauty, charm, tenderness and fidelity to nature, 
and which, in fact, stands at the head of the dramatic 
literature of the world. He says : " And we must, in 
truth, allow Kalidasa to be one of those poets who have 

1 Ancient and Madia}val India, Vol. II, p. 148. 

2 Some critics attVct to 'think that the author f)f Saknntala was 
a contemnorary of Raja Dhoja and not Vicraniaditya, because a poet 
named Kalidasa is also found to have flourished in the court of Bhoja. 
Professor Wilson says: " There having been two Kalidasas in India, 
and the existence of a Kalidasa at the court (if Bhoja, is no argument 
a-'ainst Aniar's being conteniiiorary with another bard of the same name, 
(U- tlu'ir both having flourished long anterior to the reign of the prince." 
rrofess.)r Wilson then proceeds to explain the cause of such wild 
criticism, >\hich he says is twofold: (l)The disputants runinto the opposite 
vice of incredulity in order to avnid being thMughl credulous. (2) " Their 
opiK.siii.m to the many claims of Hinduism is not founded so much in 
greater leaniing or superior tal.-nts as in strong prejudices in favur of 
their own country and higii conceit of their own abilities." See Mill's 
History of India, Vol. I, !>. 174- 

^Mannings Ancient and ^lediaival India, Vol. II. p. 171. 


done honour not merely to their nation but to all 
civilized mankind."^ 

Augustus Schlegel, the foremost German Sanskritist, 
says of Sahinfala, that it presents " through its Oriental 
brilliancy of colouring, so striking a resemblance to our 
(English) romantic drama that it might be suspected that 
the love of Shakespeare has influenced the translator, were 
it not that other Orientalists bore testimony to his 
fidelity. "- 

Alexander Von Humboldt also notes the masterly 
mode in which Kalidasa describes "the influence of nature 
upon the minds of lovers, his tenderness in the expression 
of feelings, and above all the richness of his creative 
.^fancy"3 "Her (Sakuntala's) and sorrow," saj's Dr. 
Sir W. Hunter, "have furnished a theme for the great 
European poet of our age." Goethe sings : — 

Wouldst thou the young yejirs blossom and the fruit of its decline. 

xVud all by which the soul is charmed, enraptured, feasted, fed. 
Wouldst thou the Earth and Heaven itself in one sole name combine, 

I name thee, Sakuntala I and all at once is said. 

As regards the diction of the Hindu drama, Profes- 
sor Wilson says : " It is impossble to conceive language 
so beautifully musical or so magnificently grand as that 
of the verses of Bhavbhuti and Kalidasa.""^ No dramatic 

1 Historical Researches, Vol. II, p. 19t. 

^Monier Williams' Sakuntala, Preface. 
Schlegel (History of Literature, p. 115) says : "What we chiefly admire 
in their poetry is that tender fondness of solitude and the animated 
vegetable kingdom that so attract us hi the drama of Sakuntala, the 
traits of female grace and fidelity and the exquisite loveliness of childhood, 
of such prominent interest in the older epics of India. We are also 
struck with the touching pathos accom[)anyiiig deep moral feeling." 

■' Ancient and Mediteval India, A'ol. II, p. 142. 

^Wilson's Theatre of the Hindus, Vol. I, p. 63. As an instance 
of the great diversity of composition, I may mention the fact that the 
first 35 stanzas of Sakuntala exhibit eleven kinds of metre. 

DHAMA. 253 

literature dating earlier than the first century before 
Christ is extant to enable one to judge o£ its ({uality. 
The earliest specimen avaihible shows the language itself 
and the study of versification to have reached the liighest 
point of refinement, for the era of Mcramaditya, says 
Professor Heeren, " gave birth to the greatest master- 
pieces in the art." 

Another celebrated play of Kalidasa is Vicrama and 
Urvasl. Comparing this play with Sakuntala, Professor 
AYilson says: " There is the same vivacity of description 
and tenderness of feeling in both, the like delicate beauty in 
the thoughts and extreme elegance in the style. It may 
be difficult to decide to which the palm belongs, but the 
story of the present play is perhaps more skilfully woven 
and the incidents arise out of each other more naturallv 
than in Sakuntala, wdiile, on the other hand, there is 
perhaps no one personage in it so interesting as the 
heroine of that drama." He adds : "The chief charm of 
this piece, however, is its poetry. The story, the situa- 
tion and the characters are all highly imaginative, and 
nothing, if partiality for his work does not mislead the 
translator, can surpass the beauty and justice of many 
of the thouo;hts." 

The story is founded on a legend from the Satpath 
Brahmana. Vicrama (a king) loves Urvasi (a nymph 
of Heaven), and his love is not rejected ; but he is warn- 
ed that if he is ever seen by her naked or unveiled, she 
shall be banished. This is a myth, and the high dra- 
matic treatment of this scientific myth does the highest 
credit to the wisdom, observation and learning of Kali- 
dasa. Explanations of this myth are given by Max 
Muller in his "Comparative Mythology," as well as by 

254 HINDU surEitioRiTY. 

Dr. Kuhn, wherein he aUudes also to the ideas of 
AVeber. Max Muller makes Urvasi = da.v,'n. Another 
explanation is that Pururavas (or Yicrama) personifies 
the sun, whilst Urvasi is the morning mist (see Cham- 
ber's Encyclopa?rlia, S. V. Pururavas). Urvasi is an apsara, 
and we find in Goldstiicker's dictionary that the apsaras 
" are personifications of the vapours which are attached 
by the sun and formed into mists or clouds." Apsaras is 
derived from ap = water, and saras = who moves. ^ Profes- 
sor Goldstiicker holds, therefore, that the legend represents 
the absorption by the sun of the vapour floating in 
the air. When Pururavas becomes distinctly visible, 
Z/r^ja^z vanishes, because when the sun shines forth ihe 
mist is absorbed. Urvasi afterwards becomes a swan in 
the Satpafli, but Kalidasa changes the nymph into a 
climbing plant. " In Greece, Daphne becomes a laurel, 
because the country abounds in laurels, which are mani- 
fest so soon as the sun has absorbed the mist." 

Bhavbhuti's popularity perhaps rivalled that of 
Kalidasa. Professor Wilson bears testimony to the 
extraordinary beauty and power of his language, and 
attributes his peculiar talent for describing nature in her 
magnificence to his early familiarity with the eternal 
mountains and forests of Gondwana. His best-known 
plays are the Uiira Bam Charifra and Madhava Malati. 
As regards the former, Professor Wilson says : " It has 
more pretentions to genuine pathos than perhaps any 
other specimen of Hindu theatre. The mutual sorrows 
of Rama and JSita in their state of separation are 
pleasingly and tenderly expressed, and the meeting of 

iSec Wilson's Theatre uf the Hindus, Yul. I, p. 11)3. 

DRAMA. 255 

the father niul sons may be compared arlvanfaj/eoiisli/ 

Avitli similar scenes with wliich the fictions oi' ]'.uro]i(', 

both poetical and dramatic, abonnd. Besides tlie 

felicitous expression of softer feelings, this play lias 

some curious pictures of the beau ideal o^ heroic bearinj^ 

and of the duties of a warrior and a prince. .4 h/)/h(;r 

elevation can. scarcel// be selected for either. The true 

spirit of chivalry pervades the encounter of the two 

young princes. Some brilliant thoughts occur, the justice 

and beauty of which are not surpassed in any literature."^ 

As regards Jfadhava Malafi, Prof : ^^'ilson says : 

" It offers nothing to offend the most fastidious delicacy, 

and may be compared in this respect advantageously 

with many of the dramas of modern Europe, which 

treat of the passion that constitutes its subject. The 

manner in which love is here depicted is worthy of 

observation, as correcting a mistaken notion of the 

influence which the passion exercises over the minds of 

the natives of at least one portion of Asia. However 

intense the feeling — and it is represented as sufficiently 

powerful to endanger existence — it partakes in no respect 

of the impetuosity which it has pleased the writers 

of the West to attribute to the people of the East. 

The barbarous nations whose inhuman love 
Is wild desire, fierce as the sun they feel. 

The heroine of this drama is loved as a woman. 
She is no goddess in the estimation of her iover. The 
passion of Malati is equally intense with that of Juliet. 
The fervour of attachment which unites the different 

1 Wilson's Theatre of the Hindus, Vol. I, \>[>. 38-3, 84. 


personaf^es of the drama so indissolubly in life and death 

is creditable to the i Hindu national character. Unless 

instances of such disinterested union had existed, the 

author could scarcely have conceived, much less pictured, 


Altoo:ether, Madkava Malati is one of the most 

charming, powerful and refined representations of the 
emotion o£ love to be found in the literature of any nation. 
The political life and manners of the Hindus are 
well depicted by Yisakhadatta in |his celebrated play, 
Mudrd Rakhshasa. It has the stir and action of city life, 
the endless ingenuity of political and court intrigue, and 
the ''staunch fidelity which appears as the uniform 
characteristic of servants, emissaries and friends, a 
singular feature in the Hindu character," which, Pro- 
fessor Wilson remarks, " it has not wholly lost." Professor 
Wilson adds: "It is a political or historical drama, and 
unfolds the political policy of Chanakya, the Machiavel 
of India in a most ingenious manner. The plot of the 
drama singularly conforms to one of the unities, and 
the occurrences are all subservient to one action — the 
conciliation of Rakhshasa. This is never lost sight of from 
first to last without being made unduly prominent. 
It may be difficult in the ivhole range of dramatic litera- 
ture to find a more successful illustration of the rule^^ 

The Mrichchhkati, or the Toy Cart, by Maharaja Sud- 
raka, possesses considerable dramatic merit. The interest 
is rarely suspended, and in every case the apparent inter- 
ruption is with great ingenuity made subservient to the 
common design. The connection of the two plots is much 
better maintained than in the play we usually refer to as 

1 Wilson's Tlu'atre of the Hindus, Vol. 11, p. 20i. "TUe author 

is the Massinger of the Uiudus," — Wilson. 

DKAMA. 2.57 

a liivi^py specimen of such ;i comhinntion, "Tlie Sp:inisli 
Fri'.ir." The deposition of Puliilva is interwoven w ith the 
main story so intimately, that it could not be detached 
from it without injury, and yet it never becomes so 
prominent as to divert attention from that to which it is 
only an appendage."^ 

The hero of the pliiy, however, is Samsthanaka, 
the llaja's brother-in-law. "A character so utterly con- 
temptible has perhaps been scarcely ever delineated. 
It would be very interesting to compare this drama for its 
merit of unity with The Merchant of Venice or The Two 
Noble Kinsmen^ two of the best English dramas, in 
both of which ihe underplot is so loosely connected ivith 
the mainploty 

One more play- and I have done. The celebrated 
drama, Prabodha Chandrodayahy Krishna Misra, is much 
admired by Professor Lassen,'- who calls it peculiarly 
Indian, and ^''unlike anything in the literature of other 
countries. The allegorical personifications are not only 
Avell sustained but are wonderful, and the whole plot 
constructed with so much ability as to excite the 
admiration of all readers." 

"Much of that of the Hindus," says Professor Wil- 
son, "may compete successfully with the great number of 
dramatic productions of modern Europe, and offers no affi- 
nity to the monstrous and crude abortions which preceded 
the introduction of the legitimate drnma in the West." 

TsVilson's Theatre of the Hindus, Vol. 1, ]i. LSI. 

-There are many other dramas of considerable merit and hi,i,'h 
repute. Mahnhir Charitra by Bhav Ijhnti. lidtiKtraU by Sri IJarish 
Deo, Maharaja of Kashmir, and Veni Snmhnra are amoui^ those 
uliich can be advniita^vously compared with simihir <lramas in the 
literature of other nations. 

ilndUchc AUertliumkundc, Vol. Ill, \\ 700. 



And fill this song of Jai Deva with thcc, 

And make it wise to teach, strong to redeem 

And sweet to Hving souls. Thou, mystery 

Thou, Light of Life ! Thou, Dawn beyond the dream ! 

— Hymn to Vii^hnu. 

The Lyric poetry of the Hindus is the finest of its kind 
in the world, for the reason that the language in which 
it is written is the most melodious and musical on earth. 
As Professor Wilson remarks, the poetry of the Hindus 
can never be properly appreciated by those who are 
ignorant of Sanskrit. To judge of the merits of Hindu 
poetry from translations is to judge it at its worst. More- 
over, owing to the peculiarities of life and character 
of the Hindus, Europeans can hardly be expected to fully 
appreciate and enjoy their poetry ; as they can neither 
fully understand their character, nor fully enter into their 
feelings and s^^mpathise with them. To the Hindus, 
liharata's conduct in followino; Rauia into the iunole 
and entreating him to return to Ayodhia is as natural as 
anything in the world, while to Mr. Talboys Wheeler, 
the historian of India, it appears, " contrary to human 
nature." As Mr. Wheeler re2:ards the venerable Dasratlia 
as shamming when he gives vent to sorrow after 
having sentenced Rama to exile to keep a vow, what 
should he have thought of the Hindu ladies of the pre- 
sent day had he known that they would die or suffer any- 
thing rather than open their lips even to those who are 
dearer to them than life itself, when they think modesty 


forbids their doing so, even when Ufe itself is in danger ? 
Hindu ideas of duty, obedience and modesty are much 
more complex than those of other nations. Still, when 
Hindu Lyric poetry has been properly judged, the 
praise has been liberal, and approbation emphatically 

Gita Govind is the finest extant specimen of Hin- 
du lyric poetr}^, and it is difficult to find in any language 
lyrics that can vie with it in melody and grace. Mr. Griffith 
says : " The exquisite melody of the verse can only be 
appreciated by those who can enjoy the original."^ 

Schlegel says : " Tender delicacy of feeling and 
elegaic love cast a halo over Indian poetry," and " the 
whole is recast in the mould of harmonious softness, and 
is redolent of elegaic sweetness."^ 

Gita Govind has been analysed by Lassen in his Latin 
translation, beautifully translated in German by Ruckert, 
and has been dwelt upon with admiration by Sir W. Jones 
in his essay on the Mystical Poetry of the Hindus. 

Professor Heeren sa3^s : "The Hindu lyric surpassed 
that of the Greeks in admitting both the rhyme and 
blank verse."^ He further says: "How much of the 
beauty of a lyric must inevitably be lost in a prose trans- 
lation it would be superfluous to remark ; and yet it is 
impossible to read the Gita Govind without being 

charmed It is impossible, however, not to notice 

the extreme richness of the poet's fanc}', the strength 
and vivacity of his sentiment particularly observable in 

^Ancient and Median-rtl India, Vol. IT, p. 269. 
^Sohlegel's History of Literature, p. 117. 
sUicstorical Researches, Vol. II, p. 187. 


his delicate taste for the beauties in general, and which 

not even the ardour of passion was able to extinguish."^ 
" Giia Govind exhibits," says Mr. Elphinstone, 

*' in perfection the luxuriant iinngerj^ and the voluptuous 

softness of the Hindu school."^ 

Another Hindu lyric is the Ritu SangraJi, something 

like "Thompson's Seasons" in the English language. 

Mrs. Manning says about it : " Ritu Sangrah, a lyric 

poem by Kalidasa, is much admired not only by the 
natives of India, but by almost all students of Sanskrit 

Mr. Griffith, in his translation of "Ritu Sangrah," 

saj^s : " Sir W. Jones speaks in rapturous terms of the 
beautiful and natural sketches with which it abounds," 
and, after expressing his own admiration, adds, "it is 
much to be regretted that it is impossible to translate 
the whole."* 

Lyric poetry was extensively cultivated in India. 
Sir W. Hunter says : " The Mediaeval Brahmans dis- 
played a marvellous activity in theological as well as 
lyric poetry." 

Special charm must attach to the lyric poetry of 
the Hindus, for, as Mrs. Manning remarks, "Kowhere 
is love expressed with greater force or pathos than in 
the poetry of the Hindus."'' 

1 Ancient and Mediaeval India, pp. I^^l), 11)0. .I.aideva, its author was 
born, as li(j himself says, at Kondnli, situated eitlicr in Calinga (n- in 

^History of India, p. 15(1. 

^Historical Researches, Vol. II. Professor Von Bohlon translated 
it into German and Latin in 1840 A,D. 

'^Manning's Ancient and Modianal India, Vol, II, p. 205. 

■'J Manning's Ancient and ^ledia'val India, Vol. 11, p. 148, 


]\le(jh Piifa is nn excellent oxnmple of purely 
de^^eriptive poetry. Mrs. MnnninjTf says : " It is the most 
important of its kind, and is a favourite Avitli the 
Europeans too,"i Professor H. H. Wilson says: ''The 
lano-uaii'e (of IMeu'li Duta") althouo'h remarkable for the 
richness of its compounds, is not disfigured by their 
extravagance, and the order of the sentences is in 
general the natural one. The metre combines melody 
and dignity in a very extraordinary manner, and 
Avill bear an advcnitaffeous comparison with the best 
specimens of uniform verse in the poetry of any 
language, living or dead."" 

1 Manning's Ancient and Modianal India, Vol. II, p. 257. 
^Wilson's Essays, Vol. II, p, 312. 



Thy power the breast from every error frees 
And weeds out all its viees by degrees. 

— GiFFORD : Juvenal. 

The Hindu achievements in this branch of literature 
estabhsh once for all their intellectual superiority. It is 
this part of their literature that has made its way to ihe 
remotest corners of Europe and America. Its sway over 
the mind of the civilized world is almost despotic and 

Professor Wilson says : " Fable constitutes with 
them (Hindus) practical ethics — the science of Niti or 
Polity — the system of rules necessary for the good 
government of society in all matters not of a religious 
nature — the reciprocal duties of the members of an 
oro-anized body either in their private or public relations. 
Hence it is specially intended for the education of princes, 
and proposes to instruct them in those obligations which 
are common to them and their subjects, and those which 
are appropriate to their princely office ; not only in 
regard to those over whom they rule, but in respect to 
other princes, under the contingencies of peace and war. v 
Each fable is designed to illustrate and exemplify some 
reflection on Avorldly vicissitudes or some precept for 
human conduct; and the illustration is as frequently 
drawn from the intercourse of human beinos as from 
any imaginary adventure of animid existence, and this 


mixture is in some dep^ree a peculiarit}^ o£ the Hindu 
plan o£ fabling or storytelling."^ 

It is now admitted by the learned everywhere that the 
fabulous literature of the world, which is such an im])or- 
taut, and, in some respects, so necessary a p:irt of the 
education of 3-oung men all over the world, apart from it 
being one of the most amusing, interesting andinstructive 
diversions from labour and severe study, owes its origin 
solely to the intelligence and wisdom of the ancient Hindus. 

Panchiantra is far and awa}^ the best masterpiece 
in the whole fabulous literature of the world ; nay, it is 
the source from which the entire literature of fables, 
Asiatic or Eui-opean, has directly or indirectly emanated. 
Mr. Elphinstone says : " In the composition of tales and 
fables they (Hindus) appear to have been the instructors 
of the rest of mankind.' The most ancient known fables 
(those of Bidpai) have been found almost unchanged 
in their Sanskrit dress ; and to them almost all the 
fabulous relations of other countries have been clearly 
traced by Mr. Colebrooke, the Baron -de- sacy and Professor 

Dr. Sir W. W. Hunter says : " The fables of 
animals, familiar to the Western world from the time of 
uEsop downwards, had their original home in India. 
The relation between the fox and the lion in the Greek 
versions has no reality in nature, but it was based upon 

^Wilson's Essays on Sanskrit Literature Vol. II, p. 80. 
^History of India, pp. 15G, 157. For a guide to further in([niry 
as to the Hindu origin of European fables, see Transactions of the 
E. A. S., Vol. I, p. 156. " The complicated system of storytelling, 
tale within talc like the Arabian Nights, seems also to liavc been of 
their invention, as ar(? the subjects of many well-known tales and roman- 
ces. Oriental and European." — Elphimtone's Ilidory of India, p. 157. 


the actual relation between the lion and bis follower, 
the jackal, in the Sanskrit stories. Pan.chtantra was 
translated into the ancient Persian in the sixth century 
A.D., and from that rendering all the subsequent versions 
in Asia Minor and Europe have been derived. The 
most ancient animal fables of India are at the present 
day the nursery stories of EnyJand and America. The 
graceful Hindu invagination delighted also in fairy tales, 
and the Sanskrit compositions of this class are the 
original source of many of the fairy stories of Persia, 
Arabia and Christendom."^ 

Professor Max Muller says : " The King of Persia, 
Khusro Nausherawan (531-579 A. D.) sent his physician, 
Barzoi, to India in order to translate the fables of the 
Panchtantra from Sanskrit into Pahlavi."^ llitopdesa 
(hita=good and iipdesa=iid\ice) as Mrs. Manning says, 
is the form in which the old Sanskrit fables became 
introduced into the literature of nearly every known 

Fabel maintains the Indian origin of the fables 
common to India and Greece, which proves the antiquity 
of the Hindu fables.^ 

Professor Weber says : " Allied to the fables are 
the fairy tales and romances, in which the luxuriant 

^Imperial Gazetteer, " India," p. 238. 

-India: Wliat can it teach us? p. 93. "The Panchtantrn was 
translated iiito Persian in the sixtli century by order of ^N'aushcrawan 
and thence into Arabic and Turkish and Lastly into French." — 
liceren's Hlstoricdl Researches, Vol. II, p. 200. 

•^Weber's Indian Literature, p. 211. "The fable reported by Arrian 
of Ilei'culcs having scarchi'd the whole Indian ocean and found (he pearl 
with wlucli he used to adorn his dauii-hler, is of Hindu oriuin," — 
Ileeren's Jliitoi-ical Researches, Vol. II, p. 271 


fancy of the Hindus has, in the most wonderful degree, 
put forth all its peculiar grace and cliarni."^ 

Professor Wilson says : " The Fables of the Hindus 
are a sort of machinery to which there is no parallel in 
the fabling literature of Greece and Rome."- He also 
says that the Hindu literature contained collections 
of domestic narrative to an extent siirpasshyj those of 
any other people. 

Mrs. Manning thus remarks on the Panchtantra: 
" Each fable will be found to illustrate and exemplify 
some reflection on worldly vicissitude or some precept for 
human conduct ; and instead of being aggregated pro- 
miscuously or without method, the stories are all strung 
together upon a connected thread and arranged in a 
framework of continuous narrative, out of which they 
successively spring."^ 

A careful study of the subject will show that even 
the books which appear to have a distinctive Persian 
character and are generally regarded to be of Persian 
origin are in reality Hindu to the core. Count Bjornst- 
jerna remarks: "The thousand and one Nights, so 
universally known in Europe, is a Hindu original 
translated into Persian and thence into other lano-uages. 
In Sanskrit the name is Vn'hat katha.^^* Professor 
Lassen of Paris asserts that "the Arabian JSights 
Entertainments are of Hindu origin."' 

Despite the authority of so many learned Orientalists 
in favour of the Hindu origin of this liternture, and tlie 

'Weber's Indian Literaturo, p. '2 I'd. 

-'Wilson's Essays, Vol. II, p. 85. 

^Anciont and Mediaeval India, Vol. 11, p. 274. 

"i'riieogouy of the Hindus, p. 85. 

5S?e his Ind. Alt. IV, \k 002, 


express historical evidence as to the transmission of the 
Hindu fables to Arabia and Persia, there is overwhelminir 
internal evidence in the fables themselves to support the 
assertion that the Hindus have been the teachers of the 
rest of mankind in this important branch of literature. 
Take, for instance, the case of a particular fable. In the 
Panchtantra there is a story of a female bird who wished 
to make her nest further inland, because on the day of 
full moon the sea would be sweeping over the place where 
she then was. But the male bird objects, believing that he 
was as strong as the sea and that it could not encroach 
upon his nest. (Benfey, Yol. It, pp. 87-89). Now this 
story is, as Professor AVilson remarks, one of the decisive 
proofs of the Indian origin of the fables. The name of 
the bird in Arabic is Tita/ci, a word which cannot be 
resolved to any satisfactory Arabic root. It is " only a 
transcript of the Sanskrit T/'ff/bha, Bengali T/'f/'b and 
Hindu Tltihrl. 

Wilson remarks that in the translation of Panchtan- 
tra, Kalalawa Damna, the name of the ox in Sanskrit 
was Sail] i wall' a ^ whence the Arabic Shan:ebeh, and those 
of the jackals, Karataka and Damnaka, whence the Arabic 
Kalala und Damnay The tale of Ahmad and Pari Banu 
betrays palpably its Indian origin. Pari Bhanu is decid- 
edly a Hindu name. The eldest of the three princes, Prince 
Husein, in search of some extraordinarv raritv which may 
entitle him to the hand of the Princess Nuran Nihar, re- 
pairs to the Indian city, Bisnagar (decidedly an Indian 
name) a metropolis of extraordinary wealth and population. 
Mr. Deslongchamps says : "The book of Sindebad 
is of Indian origin, and adds that the under-mentioned three 
stories were in a special degree derived from the original. 


(I) The Ar.ibic story of a King, liis Son, liis 
favourites and seven \'aziers. (2) The Hebrew romance 
ol: the Parables o£ Sendebar, and (o) the Greek romance 
of Synti})as. From the Hebrew romance above de- 
scribed, Deslongchamps derives, "the history of the 
seven sages of Rome," Ifistoria septem sapiciitan Romw^ 
a very populnr work in Europe for three centuries. 

Professor Wilson says : " In a manuscript of tlie 
Parable of Sendebar, which existed in the IJritish 
Museum, it is repeatedly asserted in anonymous Latin 
notes that the work was translated out of the Indijin 
lano:ua£»'e into Persian and Arabic, and from one of them 
into Hebrew. Sendebar is also described as a chief of the 
Indian Brahmans, and Beibar, the King, as a King of 
India." — Ellis' Metrical Romances^ Yo\. III. 

A decisive proof of Sindebad being an Indian is the 
direct evidence on the subject, of the eminent Arabic 
writer, ]\[asndi. In his "Golden Meadows" (Mirajul- 
Zeheb), in a chapter on the ancient kings of India, he 
speaks of an Indian philosopher named Sindebad, who 
Avas contemporary with Kurush, and was the author of the 
work entitled, " The Story of Seven Vaziers, the tutor, 
the yoimg man and the wife of the king." "This is the 
work," he adds, " which is called the book of Sendebad." 

By his interesting analysis of the Syntipas and the 
Parables of Sendebad^^ Professor Wilson clearly shows 
that the stories are one and all of Hindu origin.- He also 
shows that the " Seven Sages of Rome " is also of Hindu 
origin. liesides these fables and stories, says Professor 
Wilson, " various narratives of Indian origin forcc(i 
their way individually and unconnectedly to Europe."'^ 

nVilsou's Sanskrit Essays, Vol. IT, pp. 00, 100. -'Ibid, p, 101. 
^Wilson's Sanskrit Essays, Vol. II, p. 101. 


Sir John Malcolm says: "Those who rank the 
highest among Eastern nations for genius have employed 
their talents in works of fiction, and have added to the 
moral lessons they desired to convey so much of grace 
and ornament that their volumes have found currency 
in every nation of the world."' 

It is thus clear that the Hindus have produced a 
branch of literature the kind of which, in any consider- 
able degree, has never been produced by any other nation 
in the world, Asiatic or European, ancient or modern. 
This wonderful phenomenon is thus explained by Pro- 
fessor Heeren. " The poetry of no other nation exhibits 
in such a striking manner the didactic character as that 
of the Hindus ; for, no other people were so thoroughly 
imbued with the persuasion that to give and receive in- 
struction was the sole and ultimate object of life."=^ 

llle fixes the Crusades as the tiaie of the emigration to Europe 
of some of the well-known works of this kind, such as : — (1) The 
Katha Saritasagar, (2) The Veti'il Panclivinsati, (3) The Singha- 
sana Dwatrinsati, and (4) The Sukasaptati. The first of these works was 
composed for the amusement and instruction of Sii Harish of Kashmir, 
by the order of his grandmotlior, Suryavati, who became sati in 1093 
A.D. But that the stories of which it is made up were of great anti- 
quity is proved from the fact of one of them occurring in Odyssey. In 
tlie fifth book of Katha Saritasagar there is a story of a man who be- 
ing shipwrecked is caught in a whirlpool, and esca[M's liy jumping up and 
cliuibiii'.' the branch of a fig tree, apparently thp, inSiiyair' ('i'Vrws Indiva) 
celebrated for its pendulous roots. Professor Wilson here refers to 
■•0'^'^<j\^ ■^^'^^ ''!'■ 101-104, where Ulysses escapes from a whirlpool by 
jiim^rtig^ up and clinging to the branches of a fig tree — probably the 
Indian fio,' tree or bunvan, the -nendulous branches of which wonld be 
more within reach than those of the Sicilian fig; and Homer, he thinks, 
may have borrowed the incident from some old Eastern fiction. 
'Historical Researches, Vol. II, p. 197. 



" We are the voices of the wauderincr \\\m\ 
Which moan for rest and rest can never linJ, 
Lo ! As the wind is, so is mortal life, 
A moan, a sigh, a sob, a storm, a strife." 

— Dei-els' Song to Pn'nee Siddharatlict. 

The Puranas are looked upon as semi-relif^ions books. 
As a matter of fact they are, as it were, the store- 
houses, the vast treasuries of universal information, like 
the English "Encyclopaedia P>ritannica" with a unity of 
purpose and a theological bent. They contain disserta- 
tions and discussions on Theology, Mytholog}', History, 
War, Polity, Philosophy, Sciences, Arts and other things. 
In course of time, with the decline and fall of the Hindu 
nation, when the ideals of the nation were lowe?-ed, when 
plain living and high thinking ceased to be the national 
characteristics of the race, when the pure and sublime 
teachings of the Vedas and the Upanishads began to be 
neglected, interpolations inculcating the worship of dif- 
ferent gods and goddesses, celebrating the praises of holy 
places of India were made in these books from time to 
time, and they began to be looked upon with greater and 
greater reverence, with the result eventually that the most 
spiritual and scientific religion in the world was replaced 
by a mixture of Theology, Mythology and Sociology. 

When the Hindus became too weak to defend them- 
selves from the attacks of the invaders from the North- 
west, in order to preserve their literature from destruc- 
tion they assigned it to the care of a class of men whom 

270 niNDU suPEKioniTr. 

they invested with special sanctity, and accorded them a 
privileged position in society. In time the exchisive 
spirit of these men urged them to look upon learning as 
their peculiar prerogative, and induced them, with the 
object of preserving the sacerdotal character of their 
class, to gradually put a bar to other classes acquiring a 
knowledge of the Hindu Shastras. 

A glance at the contents of tlie Puranas, how^ever, 
w^ould reveal their real character ; and the commonsense 
of the Hindus can be relied on to assio-n these books 
their true place in the literature of the nation. 

The W'orld is moving fast, and forces over which 
the nation, which long revelled in isolation and exclu- 
siveness to its serious detriment and undoing, has no 
control are now working so as to demand the utmost 
circumspection on the part of its leaders and thinkers in 
husbanding its resources, and preventing its energies from 
beincj; frittered away in followins; false ideals. If the 
fate of the ancient Egyptians, the Persians, the l^aby- 
lonians and the Greeks is to be avoided, it behoves all 
well-wishers of the nation not only to hold the mirror 
to its Avretched condition for the edification of the 
masses, but by making proper use of the useful and 
valuable lessons contained in parts even of this 
heterogenous — half sacerdojt-al, half profane — literature, 
direct its course tow^ards the realization of aims truly and 
clearly laid down in the sublime and pure teaching of 
the Vedas and the Upanishads. 

Professor Heeren^ says that the Puranas are not the 
work of a A^almiki or Yyasa, but, like the poems of 
Tzetzes and other iirammarians, the fruit of extraordi- 

1 Historical Kcsearclios, Vul, II, p. 177, 


nary (lilif2;cncc combined with extensive reacliiij^. He is, 
nevertheless, far from considering- tliem akogether as an 
invention of modern times, that is, of the ^Middle Ages. 

The literal meanini*: of the word Purana is " old " 
and the Puranas profess to teach what is old. " They 
are," says Mrs. Manning, " written in verse with a view 
to public recitation at festivals, as vehicles for conveying 
such instruction as the people might be presumed to 
retpiire. Philosophically, they blend Sankhya philosophy 
with Vedanta, and practically they were a code of ritual 
as well as a summary of law."* 

The Puranas have been compiled at different periods 
and by different men. They seem to have adopted dif- 
ferent innovations made into them by Shankaracharya, 
Ramanuja, Madhavacharya, and Vallabhacharya. " The 
invariable form of the Puranas is that of a dialogue, in 
which some person relates its contents in reply to the 
inquiries of another." The immediate narrator is ccfm- 
moidy, though not constantly, Lomaharshana or Soma- 
harshana, the disciple of Vyasa, vv^ho is supposed to com- 
municate what was imparted to him by his prece})tor. 

The Puranas are divided into three classes : — 

1. Sattvika, or " Pure," including Vishnu, Narada, 
Bha<''wat, Garuda, Padma and A'araha Puranas. 

2. Tamasa, or " Puranas of Darkness," including 
Matsya, Karma, Linga, Shiva, Skanda and Agni Puranas. 

8. Rajasa or " Passionate," including l^rahmanda, 
A^aivarta, Markandya, Bhavishya, Yamana and Brahma 

The first six Puranas are Vaishnava, the next six are 

1 Ancient and MedicTval India, Vol. I, p. 2i4. 


Shaiva, and the last six advocate the Gossain and Val- 
labhachari religions. 

There are eii^hteen Puranas, and it is said that 
there are 18 Up-Paranas. " The eighteen Puranas are said 
to have 4,00,000 slokas or 16,00,000 lines. They are 
fabled to be but an abridoment : the whole amountincr 
to a crore or 10 millions of stanzas, even a 1,000 millions." 
And Professor Wilson adds : " If all the fragmentary 
portions claiming in various parts of India to belong to 
the Puranas were admitted, their extent would much 
exceed the lesser, though it would not reach the larger 

To give an idea of their contents, a brief survey of 
two of the most important Puranas is subjoined. 
Shri Bhar/wat Parana, " that in which ample 
details of duty are described and which opens with the 
Gayairl : that in which the death of the Asura Vrita is 
told, and in which the mortals and the immortals of the 
Saraswata Kal])a, with the events of that period are 
related is called the Bhagwat Purana, and consists of 
eighteen thousand verses." It is perhaps the most 
important of all the Puranas. Its philosojjhy is Yedantic, 
and it opens with a cosmogony mixed with mysticism and 
allegory ; then follow an account of the creation and 
of the Yarha Avatara, creation of Prajapatees, Swayam 
Bhava, and then Kapila Avatara, the author of Sankhya 
Philosophy ; an account of the Manwantras, different 
legends of Dhruva, Yena, Pritha and an account of the 
universe follow. Other legends follow, including that 
of Prahlada, of the churning of the ocean, and the fish 

iTIieni is a little confusion in tlie names of the 18 Puranas 
according to the different Puranas tliemselvcs. 

THE ruiiANAS. 273 

Avatars and others, and then a history of two Hhidu 
dynasties. The tenth book which gives tlie liistory o£ 
Krishna, is the most popular part of the Parana. The 
eleventh book describes the destruction of the Yadavas 
and the death of Krishna, and his teachino; Yoffii to Ud- 
dhava. The twelfth book contains the lives of the kiniis 
of Kaliyug, and gives an account of the deterioration of 
all thinofs and their final dissolution. As this Purana was 
recited by Sukhdeva to Parikshit, who was awniting the 
snake-bite, the king was actually bitten by the serpent 
and expired. It terminates with an account of Yyasa's 
arrangement of the Vedas and the Puranas, and with 
praises of its own sanctity. 

Agnl Purana. " That Purana which describes the 
events of the Isana Kalpa and w^as related by Agni to 
Vashishta is the Agni Purana. It consists of 16,000 slokas. 
It commences with an account of the Avataras of Rama 
and Krishna, and devotes some chapters to "mystical forms 
of Shiva w^orship." A description of the earth, genealo- 
gies, etc., follow. Then comes a system of medicine, and 
the work winds up with treatises on rhetoric, prosody, 
grammar, archery and military tactics, etc. It also contains 
several systems of iiifi (polity). 

The 18 Up-Puranas are enumerated as follows : — 

1. Sanakumara. 7. Xarsingh. 13. Durvasa. 

2. Xaradiya. 8. Parasar. 14. Maheshwara. 

3. Shiva. 9. Kapila. 15. Manawa. 

4. Varuna. 10. Samba. 16. Nandi. 

5. Ansanasa, 11. Kalika. 17. Saura. 

6. Aditya. 12. Bhagwat. 18. Vashishtha. 
The foregoing brief survey of the contents of two of 


the Piiranas is quite inadequate to enable the reader to 
form an idea o£ their importance, as lighthouses to a 
great Past. The Agni Purana, for instance, contains 
particulars of the military organization of the Hindus, 
which in consequence of the loss of the Dhanur Veda are 
of especial importance. The Deva Purana mentions the 
hralimasfra, which proves the use of fire-arms by the Hin- 
dus in those days. The Padma Purana contains a treatise 
on the geography of India in particulnr and the Universe 
ill general, which is of very great importfvnce. Matsya 
Purana explains the source from which the Jewish, the 
Christian and the Mohamedan story of the Deluge and 
their cosmogony are derived. Garuda Purana contains a 
treatise on precious stones, astrology and palmistry ; a 
system of medicine is contained in the Agni Purana, while 
theories of creation are to be found in almost all of them. 
Some Puranas throw important light on the industries 
and arts of ancient India, and may, if properly understood 
and followed, yet help the Indians to improve their position 
in the industrial world. It must, however, be admitted that 
sometimes, with a grain of useful information, there Avill 
be found a lot of useless chaff. On the whole, the 
Puranas have as much claim to be regarded as the religious 
books of the Hindus as the Encyclopaedia Britannica has 
to be accepted as the religious books of Englishmen. 
As to the antiquity of their contents there is no doubt. 
Professor H. H. Wilson says : "And the testimony that 
establishes their existence three centuries before 
Christianity, carries it back to a much more remote 
antiquity — to an antiquity that is probably not surpassed 
by any of the prevailing fictitious institutions or beliefs 
of the ancient world." 


How charming is divine philosophy, 

Not harsli and crabbed, as dull fools suppose 

]}ut musical as Apollo's flute, 

And a perpetual feast of nectar'd sweets 

Where no crude surfeit reigns. 

— ]\IiLTON : Comus. 

Philosophy is the rea.1 ruler of the arlobe : it lays down 
principles which guide the world. Philosophy shows how 
a transcendent genius exacts homage consciously or 
unconsciously from lower intellects. It is phi]oso])hy that 
blows the trumpet blast, and it is philosophy that blunts 
the edge of the sword. Philosophy reigns supreme, 
undisputed and absolute. It conquers the conqueror and 
subdues the subduer. 

If it is true that a great nation alone can produce 
great philosophers or com.plete systems of philosophy, 
the ancient Indians ma}^, without hesitation, be pronounced 
to have been the greatest nation, ancient or modern. 
"Philosophers," says Professor Max Muller, "arise after 
the security of a State has been established, after wealth 
has been acquired and accumulated in certain families, 
after schools and universities have been founded and taste 
created for those literary pursuits which even in the most 
advanced state of civilization must necessarily be confined 
to but a small portion of an ever- toiling community."^ 

To what high pinnacle of civilization, then, must the 
ancient Indians have reached, for, says Professor Max 
^Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 5G4, G5. 


Muller further on that " the Hindas were a nation o£ 

The philosophy of the Hindas is another proof of 
their superiority in civilization and intellect to the 
moderns as well as the ancients. Manning says : " The 
Hindus had the widest range of mind of which man 
is capable."" 

Schlegel speaks of the noble, clear and severely grand 
accents of Indian thought and says ; " Even the loftiest 
philosophy of the Europeans, the idealism of reason, as 
is set forth by Greek philosophers, appears in comparison 
Avith the abundant light and vigour of Oriental idealism 
like a feeble promethean spark in the full flood of heavenly 
glory of the noonday sun — faltering and feeble and ever 
ready to be extinguished."^ 

Professor Weber, speaking of Hindu philosophy, 
says : " It is in this field and that of grammar that the 
Indian mind attained the highest pitch of its marvellous 
fertility."* " The Hindus," says Max Muller, " were a 
people remarkably gifted for philosophical abstraction."' 
Schlegel says : " India is preeminently distinguished for 
the many traits of original grandeur of thought and of 
the wonderful remains of immediate knowledo'e."*^ 

Like all other things in India, the Hindu philosophy, 
too, is on a gigantic scale. Every shade of opinion, every 
mode of thought, every school of philosophy has found its 
expression in the philosophical writings of the Hindus and 
received its full development. Sir W. Hunter says : " The 

1 Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. vJl. -Ancient and Mediaeval 
India, Vol.1, p.l 14. ■'History of Literature, -i Weber's Indian Literature, 
p. 27. '^Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 5GC. •^History of Literature, 
P. l-'G. 

niiLosDriiY. 277 

problems of tlion£;iit and being of mind and mnttcr 
and sonl apart from both, of tlie origin of evil, of 
the sommian homim of life, of necessity and freewill, 
and of the relations of the creator to the creatnre, and the 
intellectual problems, such as the compatibility of evil 
with the goodness of God and the unecpial distribution 
of happiness and misery in this life, are endlessly discussed. 
Brahmin Pliilo.'iupliy c.vhaastcd the iwssibh solutions of 
these d/'jjiculties and of most of the other great problems 
which have since perplexed Greeks, Romans, Media-val 
schoolmen and modern men of science." 

Speaking of the comprehensiveness of Hindu 
philosophy, Dr. Alexander Duff is reported to have said, 
in a speech delivered in Scotland, that "Hindu philosophy 
was so comprehensive that counterparts of all systems 
of European philosophy were to be found in it." 

Professor Goldstiicker- finds in the Upanishads "the 
germs of all the philosophies. Count Bjornstjerna says : 
"In a metaphysical point of view we find among the 
Hindus all the fundamental ideas of those vast systems 
which, regarded merely as the offspring of phantasy, 
nevertheless inspire admiration on account of the bold- 
ness of flight and of the faculty of human mind to ele- 
vate itself to such remote ethereal regions. We find 
among them all the principles of Pantheism, Spinozism 
and Hegelianism, of God as being one with the universe ; 
of the eternal spirit descended on earth in the whole 
spiritual life of mankind ; of the return of the emanative 
sparks after death to their divine origin ; of the nnin- 
terrupted alternation between life and death, which is 

1 Indian Gazetteer, i)p. 213, 214. 

^Ancient and Media^al India, Vol, I, p. 149, 


nothing else but a transition between different modes of 
existence. All this we find again among the philosophers 
of the Hindus exhibited as clearly as by our modern 
philosophers more than three thousand years since." ^ 

Even with the limited knowledge of Hindu philo- 
sophy and science that could be obtained at the time, 
Sir William Jones could say : "I can venture to affirm 
■without meaning to pluck a leaf from the nev^er- 
fadino; laurels of our immortal Newton, that the whole 
of his theology, and part of his philosophy, may be 
found in the Vedas, and even in the works of the Sufis. 
The most subtle spirit which he suspected to pervade 
natural bodies, and lying concealed in them, to cause 
attraction and repulsion, the emission, reflection and 
refraction of light, electricity, califaction, sensation and 
muscular motion, is described by the Hindus as a fifth 
element, endued with those very powers." 

Mrs. Besant says : " Indian psychology is far more 
perfect a science than European psychology."^ 

1 Theogouy of the Hindus, pp. 20, 30. As an instance of Mr. 
James Mill's stupiditj', if stupidity is compatible Avitli learning, one uiay 
cite his opinion that the Hindus were extremely barbarous, for they 
cultivated metaphysics so largely. Prof. Wilson takes exception to it, and 
says : " With regard to the -writer's theory that the cultivation of 
metaphysics is a proof rather of barbarism than of civilization, it may be 
asked, if Locke, Descartes, Leibnitz, Kant, Schelling were barbarous." — 
Mill's Ilixtorij of India, Vol. I, p. 74, footnote. Mr. James Mill is a 
conspicuous instance of a man whose mind becomes completely warped 
by prejudice. Mill's mind could conceive most absurd impossibilities. 
"Mr. Mill," says Wilson, "seems inclined to think that it was not 
impossible that the Pyramids had dropped from tjie clouds or sprung 
out of the soil." How this perverted intellect could educate one of the 
greatest English thinkers is a problem of some psj'chological interest. 
-Lecture on National Universities in Lidia (Calcutta), .January, 1 90G. 

riiiLosoriiY. 279 

♦ As Professor Max Miillcr has observed, " tlie Iliiuliis 
talk philosophy in the streets," and to this reason is 
due the thoroughly practical character of their ))hilosophy. 
" In this respect," says Bjornstjerna, "the Hindus Avere 
far in advance of the philosophers of Greece iind Rome, 
who considered tlie immortality of the soul as problema- 
tical."^ " Socrates and Plato with all their loni^in^s could 
only feel assured that the soul had more of immortality 
than aught else."- In India, however, the doctrine has 
not been accepted in theory only, it moulds the conduct 
of the "whole nation. This is true of philosophy. And 
it is due to its practical character that Hindu philosophy 
has extended its sway over so wide an area of the globe. 
Hindu philosophy even now holds undisputed sway over 
the minds of nearly half the inhabitants of the world, 
whilst its partial influence is no doubt universal. 

In ancient times people came to India from distant 
lands to acquire learning and gain wisdom, and Hindu 
philosophy thus worked silently for centuries. That the 
Egyptians derived their religion, mythology and philo- 
sophy from the Hindus has been clearly established by 
Count Bjornstjerna ; and that the Greek philosophy, too, 
was indebted almost w^holly to the Hindu philosophy 
for its cardinal doctrines has also been shown by eminent 
Orientalists. The resemblance between the Hindu and 
the Greek philosophy is too close to be accidental. 
The Hindus, being far more advanced, must be the 
teachers, and the Greeks, the disciples. Mr. Colebrooke, 
the eminent antiquarian, decides in favour of Hindu 
originality and says : " The Hindus were, in this respect, 
the teachers and not the learners."^ 

iTlieogony of the Hindus, p. 27. 
■^PJimlo, Taylor's translation. IV, p. 324. 
•"Transactions of the R.A.S., Vol. I, p. 579. 


A Frencbnian observes that "the traces oE Hindu 
philosophy which appear at each step in the doctrines 
professed by the illustrious men of Greece abundantly 
prove that it was from the East came their science, and that 
many of them no doubt drank deeply at the principal 
fountain." The f^^reat Greek philosopher, Pythagoras, 
came to India to learn philosophy, and here imbibed the 
doctrine of the transmigration of soul propounded by the 
Hindu sages. Dr. Enfield says: "We find that it (India) 
was visited for the purpose of accpiiring knowledge by 
P3^thagoras, Anaxarchus, Pyrrho, and others who after- 
wards became eminent philosophers in Greece."' 

Discussing the question as to what constitutes human 
nature according to the Hindus, the Swedish Count says : 
" Pythagoras and Plato hold the same doctrine, that of 
Pythagoras being probably derived from India, whither 
he travelled to complete his philosophical studies."" ]\Ir. 
Pococke says: "Certain it is that Pythagoras visited 
India, which I trust I shall make self-evident."" 

Schlegel says : "The doctrine of the transmigration 
of souls was indigenous to India and was brought 
into Greece by Pythagoras." 

Mr. Princep says : " The fact, however, that he 
(Pythagoras) derived his doctrines from an Indian 
source is very generally admitted, C nder the name of 
Mythraic, the faith of Buddha had also a wide exten- 

1 History of Pliilosophy, by Dr. Enfield, Vol. I, p. G5. "Some 
of the doctrines of the Greeks concerning nature are said to have been 
derived from (he Indians." — p. 70. 

-Theogony of the Hindus, p. 77. 

''Pocoeke's India in (Jreeee, p. 353. 

'^ History of Literature, p. 109. 

I'liiLosonrY. 281 

tion."^ Sir M. ]\Ioiiier Williams says that Pythagoras 
and Plato both believed in this doctrine, and that they 
were indebted for it to Hindu writers.^ 

Pyrrhon, according to Alexander Polyhister, went 
with Alexander the Great to India, and hence the scep- 
ticism of Pyrrhon is connected with the Buddhist phi- 
losophy of India. ^ Even Ward says : " The author is 
persuaded he (the reader) will not consider the conjec- 
ture improbable that Pythagoras and others did really 
visit India and that Gautama and Pythagoras were con- 

Professor H. H. Wilson says : " We know that 
there was an active communication between India and 
the Red Sea in the early ages of the Christian era, and that 
doctrines as well as articles of merchandise were brouo-ht 
to Alexandria from the former. Epipharius and Eu- 
sebius accuse Scythianus of having imported from India 
in the second century, books on magic and heretical 
notions leading to Manicha^ism ; and it was at the same 
period that Ammonius Saccas instituted the sect of the 
New Platonists at Alexandria. The basis of the heresy 
was that true philosophy derived its origin from the 
Eastern nations."' 

1 India in Greece, p. 3G1. Pythagoras, according to Mr. Pococke, 
was a Buddhist Missionary, He was 

Sanskrit^ Bud'ha-Guriis, | 

Greek, Putha-Goras, v Bud'has Spiritual Teacher. 
English, Pytha-Goras, J 
^Indian "Wisdom, p. 68. 
"^Max Muller's Science of Langiiago, p. 80. 

■^Ward's Mythology of tiie Hindus, p. xxiii (Entroduction). 
" According to Greek tradition, Thales, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Demo- 
.critus and others undertook journeys to Oriental countries in order to 
study philosophy." — Huston/ of Hindu Chemictn/, Vol. I, p. 2. 
•'Wilson's Vishnu Purana, Preface, p. xiv. 


Mr. Davies says : " Scythianus was a contemporary 
of the Apostles, and was engaged as a merchant in the 
Indian trade. In the course o£ his traffic he often visit- 
ed India and made himself acquainted with Hindu phi- 
losophy. According to Epiphanius and Cyril, he wrote 
a book in four parts, which they affirm to be the source 
from which the Manich^an doctrines were derived."^ 

It is thus clear that the Hindu philosophy is the 
fountain head of the Greek philosophy with regard to 
some of its cardinal points. True philosophy in fact 
originated with the Hindus. Man first distinguished the 
Eternal from the perishable, and next he perceived within 
himself the germ of the Eternal. " This discovery," 
says Professor Max Muller, " was an epoch in the history 
of the human mind, and the name of the discoverer has 
not been forgotten. It was Sandilya who declared that 
the self within the heart was Brahma."^ 

Excludins: the extensive atheistic and ao;nostic 
systems of philosophy propounded by Charvakj^a and 
others, and those by the Jain and Buddhistic philoso- 
phers, the principal Hindu schools of philosophy are 
known as the Darsanas. But much of the philosophical 
literature of the Hindus is lost. Professor Goldstiicker, 
too, thinks that "probably besides the Upanishads, there 
were philosophical works which were more original than 
those now preserved, and which served as the common 
source of the works which have come down to us as the 
six Darsanasy 

The Darsanas are : Nyaya and Yeisheshika ; 
Sankhya and Yoga ; and Purva and Uttara Mimansas. 

1 Davies' Bhagvvat Gita, p. lOB. 
-Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 1*0. 

iMiiLosoriiY. :283 



The Nyaya S3'stem was founded by Gautama, who 
says that the way to salvation is the true knoAvled^e of! 
^^T^, substance or being, which he classifies as under : — 














Pray 0] ana. 


Haitwabliasya (paralle- 





Siddhant (principle). 




Avayav (portion,) 




Taraic logic). 


NigTalistan (wlion onf^ 



is pusliod toan utteily 
nntonablo position.) 

The author then discusses (1) the nature of the 
argument and the proof, and their different kinds (^^T 
^T mTTJn), (2) the nature of the soul as apart from 
senses, body and the mind. The relation of the soul 
with the body is through the medium of the mind or 
man. The soul and the body cannot affect each other 
directly but only through the medium of the mind. He 
then proceeds to prove the transmigration of souls, the om- 
nipresence and omniscience of God, and declares that 
He is separate from the souls who are countless in num- 
ber. The author believes the Yedas to be the Revelation, 
and advises all mankind to follow their teachin2;s. The 
material cause of the universe, he declares, is Pramanu 

"^Bad = a discussion with a sincere desire to get at the truth. 
2jalp = a discussion to refute the opponent. 

'■^Bitanda = when one obstinately clings to his own doctrine and 
does not listen to the other side- 


(atoms). The Pramanu are eternal. The author then 
proceeds to refute Atheism, and ends by giving reasons 
for a belief in God, An English critic says : " The 
great prominence given to the method by means of which 
truth mio-ht be ascertained has sometimes misled Euro- 
pean writers into the belief that it is merely a system 
of logic. Far from being restricted to mere logic, the 
Nyaya was intended to be a complete system of philo- 
sophical investigation, and dealt with some questions — 
such as the nature of the intellect, articulated sound, 
genus, variety, and individuality — in a manner so masterly 
as well to deserve the notice of European philosophers." i 
Mrs. Manning, after giving a brief outline of the Naiya- 
yic syllogistic pi-oof, says: "Even the bare outline here 
given shows Gautama's mental powers and practical 
mode of dealing with the deepest questions which affect 
the human mind."" 

European logic employs phraseology founded upon 
classification, while the Nyaya system makes use of 
terms upon which a classification would be founded. 
The one infers that "kings are mortal because they 
belong to the class of mortal beings." The other arrives 
at the same conclusion, because mortality is inherent 
in humanity, and humanity is inherent in kings. The 
proposition given above would, as we have seen, be stated 
by a European logician as, "All men are mortal ;" by a 
Hindu as, " Where there is humanity there is mortality." 

1 Chamber's Encyclopaedia, "Nyaya." 

^Ancient and Medi;cval India, Vol. I, p. 173. Mrs. Manning says: 
"His clearness of aim and his distinct perception of right means towards 
its attainment continue to be the invaluable guide of successive 

rniLosoriiY. 285 

The reasoning is the same, but the Hindu method appears 
to be simpler/ 

The German critic, Sclileiii;el, says: "Tlie Nyaya 
doctrine attributed to Gautama, from all that we can learn, 
was an idealism constructed with a purity and lo^^ical 
consistency of which there are few other instances and to 
which the Greeks never attained."^ 

As regards the logical system of the Hindus, Max 

Dunker says: " The logical researches of the Hindus are 

scarcely behind the similar works of modern times. "^ 

Mr. Elphinstone says: "An infinity of volumes have 

■[i^ .^ . J^een produced by the Brahmins on the subject (Logic).""* 


The Veisheshik is said to have been written not to 
oppose but to complete the Nyaya system : with slight 
modifications it is only a fuller development of the 
Nyaya. In Sanskrit, these two schools of philosophy are 
comprised under one head, " Manan IShastra." Kanada, 

^The European is assisted by the abstract idea of Class; the Hindu 
makes use of what in Sanskrit is termed Vyapti. " It is difficuU," 
remarks Dr. Roer, " to find an adequate word in Engh'sh for this term." 
For further information see Translation of Bhasliapariohheda, pp. 31 
and 32, note. 

sSchlcgel's History of Literature, p. 126. 

^History of Antiquity, p. 310. 

^Elphinstone's India, p. 122. Mrs. Manning says: " To the abih'ty 
of the author may be attributed the yet continued popularity of the work 


the founder of Veisheshik, reduces the contents of the 
universe under six categories only. They are: — 

1. Drabya (substance). 

2. Gnna (quality), 

?>. Karma (action or motion). 

4. Suiuanya (generality or class). 

5. Vishesha (atomic individuality or difference). 
G. Samvaya (intimate relation). 

7. Abhav (non-existence) was added afterwards. 

Kanada's work is divided into ten books, of which 
the first book, after reducing the sixteen xt^t^ of the 
Nyaya to six only, as given above, discusses the nature 
of Ahhar or non-existence. The second book discusses 
the nature of Drahya. In the third are discussed Atma 
and Antahkaran and their relation to each other. The 
Atma and AntaliJcaran correspond with the Jeeva and 
Man (^t) of the Nj-aya. The fourth book discusses the 
nature of the human body and the external nature as 
affecting it, while the Vedic dharma is upheld in the sixth 
book. The seventh book discusses Guna and ISambaya^ 
their natures, kinds and effects. The eighth book shows 
the way to what the Hindus call Gyana, or true knowledge 
of the mysteries of existence, non-existence and other 
metaphysical topics. The intellect and the Vishesha are 
discussed in the ninth book. The tenth book contains a 
detailed discussion on Atma and its gimas, etc. 

The points of difference between the Nyaya and the 
Veisheshik are onl}^ two. (1) The Nyaya distributes the 
contents of the universe into sixteen categories, while the 
Veisheshik does so into seven only. (2) The Nyaya accepts 
four kinds of Pramana or arguments. The Veisheshik 
accepts only two — Pratyakhsha and Anuman — and rejects 
the remaining two, Jpman and Shabda. 


111 the iiiterestiiiii' introduction which Dr. liDcr 
appeiuls to the translation of Bhashapai'ichheda he 
compares Kanada's doctrine of atoms to that of Democri- 
tus, the Greek philosopher, and pronounces the former to 
be vastly superior. 

" A'^eisheshik," says Mrs. Mannin<j^,' "leans towards 
physical science rather than metaphysical." The theory 
of sound ])ropounded by the Hindus seems to be in accor- 
dance with the latest European advancement in science. 
After distinguishing between the articulate and the inarti- 
culate sounds, Vishvanath, the author of Bhashaparichhe- 
da, says: " Some say its (sound) production takes place 
like a succession of waves ; according to others, like 
the bud of Kadamba plant" (verses 165, 166). The 
Tarak Scuiifrali, another work of this school, says: "It 
is ether in which there resides the quality of sound. It 
is one, all-pervading and eternal."^ 

The author of the History of Hindu Chemistry 
says : " His theory of the propagation of sound cannot 
fail to excite our wonder and admiration even at this 
distant date. No less remarkable is his statement that 
light and heat are only different forms of the same 
essential substance. But Kanada is anticipated in many 

material points by Kapila, the reputed originator of the 
Sankhya philosophy."-' 

According to the Yeisheshik, as also according to 
Nyaya, there are five members of the syllogism instead 
of three as in the English syllogism. 

They are — (1) Proposition, (2) Reason, (o) Example, 
(4) Application, (5) Conclusion. 

^ Ancieut and Mediieval India, Vol. I, p. 181. 
2 Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. I, p, 189. 
•^History uf Hindu Cheujibtry, Vol, I, p. 1, 


For iustauce, — (1) The mountain is fiery. 

(2) Because it smokes. 

(3) Whatever smokes is fiery, as a culinary hearth. 

(4) This does smoke. 

(5) Therefore it is fiery as aforesaid. 

A charge of deficiency, "inacctiracy of definition," 
has been brought against the five-menibered syllogism. 
Dr. Ballantyne thus meets the accusation : "The five- 
membered expression, so far as the arrangement of its 
parts is concerned, is a summary of the NaiyayiFs views 
in resfard to rhetoric, 'an offshoot from logic' 
(see Whateley's Rhetoric, p. 6.), and one to which, 
after 'the ascertainment of the truth by investigation, 
belongs the establishment of it to the satisfaction of 
another."' To this Mrs. Manning adds the following : 
" In fact, Gautama appears to have expressed bare logic 
in two-membered argument, and to have added two other 
members when he sought to convince rhetorically. After 
the declaration and the reason, he inserts an ' example ' 
confirmatory and also suggestive, and an ' application,' 
that is, he shows in the fourth member of his syllogism 
that his example possesses the required character ; and 
then he Avinds up with the conclusion or Q. E. D,, 
which is common to all syllogisms." 

Evidently the difference betweeen the Hindu and the 
Greek syllogism (for the Europeans have no syllogism 
of their own)'-^ is due to the difference of aim of the 

* BaHantyne on the Nyaya system. — Tlie Fandit, Vol, I, p. 8'J. 
-" There are only two nations in the whole history of the world who have 
conceived independently, and without any suggestion from others, the 
two sciences of Logic and Grammar, the Hindus and the Greeks." — 
Max Muller's Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 158. Considering that 
the Greek philosophers derived tlieir philosophy from India, there may 
be a doubt regarding the Greek originality. 

T'niLosorirv. 289 

reiisoninp^ of the two nations. The Greek wanted to prove 
his contention, but the Hindu, beinn- more practical and 
thorough, wanted to convince his adversary. 


This remarkable system of philosophy was founded 
by Kapila, and is the oldest in the world. It teaches that 
there are twenty-four elements, and that the twenty- 
fifth, if it can be so-called, is the Furusha or Atma 
(soul). The primary cause of the world is Prakriti, one 
of the twenty-four. Of itself, Prakriti is non-active, 
is, in fact, neither produced nor productive, but it be- 
comes active by coming in contact with the Purusha. 

The author holds that there are innumerable souls 
in the world, which fact constitutes one of its chief dif- 
ferences from the Vedanta. Sankhya says nothing of 
God, and on this account, some regard it as a system of 
scientific atheism : but that the system is theistic is 
proved by the fact that such a decided theist as Patanjali 
vindicates its character, and indeed supplements it by his 
own system, Yoga. Sankhya differs from Nyaya chiefly 
on the following two points : ( I ) According to Nyaya, 
Purusha is the agent, and he again is the legitimate party 
to enjoy the result of action (Karma) : Sankhya, on the 
other hand, teaches that in its own nature Purusha has 
neither happiness nor misery. It has nothing to do with 
Karma and its results, but by coming into contact with 
PraJcritl it takes upon itself the good or the bad results 
of Karma. This is our ignorance. Knowledge would make 


US shun good or bad results. We will then be happy. 
The second point is this : Sankhya teaches that there 
cannot be anything which has not existed before. AVe 
cannot make a body round unless roundness already 
exists in it. It may not be seen, but still there it is. 
Nyaj^a holds the opposite theory. 

" Sankhya doctrine," says Mrs. Manning, "is a very 
great effort at enravelling the deep mysteries of our 
existence. On the one side it exhibits the worthless- 
ness of the perishable universe, including man with all 
liis powers and qualities. On the other side it places 
the imperishable soul. The perishable portion of this 
division is fully and firmly dealt with, and has excited 
the admiration and interest of such men as AVilson, 
Ballantyne and others. But concerning the soul or the 
imperishable portion of his subject, one feels that the 
author is reserved, or that he has more thoughts than he 
chooses to express."^ 

The word Sankhya (sajn = together and -l-hi/a = 
reasoning) indicates that the system is based on syn- 
thetic reasoning. 

Sir W. Hunter says : " The various theories of 
creation, arrangement and development were each elabo- 
rated, and the views of the modern physiologists at the 
present day are a return with new light to the evolution 
theory of Kapiloj whose Sankhya system is the oldest of 
the Darsanas."- 

lManiii?ig's Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. I, p. 153. 
^Indiiiu Uazettoer, "India," p. '214. 




Without :i knowledge ot: Yixja^^ one cannot reach 
the real dei)ths o£ human nature, and can never fatlioni 
the hidden mysteries and the realities of the heart, and 
know the nature o£ the soul and of God. True metaphysics 
is impossible without Yoija^ and so is mental philosophy. 
Patanjali divides his work into four chapters. The first 
chapter, after discussing the nature of the soul and of 
Yo^/a, enumerates eight means or stages in the process by 
which Yoga can be accomplished. They are as under : — 


y Universal 

Yoga. ■( 



I . 


Yama (forbearance). 

(1) Not doing injury to living beings. 

(2) Veracity, 
(;:>) Avoidance of theft. 

(4) Chastity. 

(5) Non-acceptance of gifts. 
Niyama (Religious observance). 

(1) External and internal purity. 

(2) Cheerfulness or contentment, 

(3) Austerity. 

(4) Chanting Vedic hymns. 

(">) Devoted reliance on the Lord. 
Asana (Postures). 

There are lUO different postures of the body. 
Pranayama (Regulation of the breath). 

(1) Inhalation. 

(2) Exhalation. 

(8) Suspension f Kliiimbhalri). 
Pratyahara (Restraint of tlie senses^. 
r>harna (Steadying of the mind), 
Dhyana (Contemplation). 
Samadhi (Transportation of mind or uncon?cionsncss^. 

sivino; the above-mentioned sub-divisions 

^ " Al-L>aruni translated Sankliya and Yoga into Arabic in the reign 
of Khalifa Al-Mammum." — Max Mullcr's /Scitncc af LaiujiuKje, ]), 105. 


the author describes the nature of Samadhi and its two 
divisions. The second chapter describes in details the ways 
and means to perform Samadhi. The third chapter 
describes the powers developed in a Yogi, when he has 
reached the last stage of Yoga. Samadhi on different 
objects imparts different powers to the Yogi. Samadhi 
on the Moon gives one particular power, on the Jupiter 
another, and soon. The fourth chapter treats of Mokhsha. 
Patanjali declares that when a man becomes an adept at 
Samadhi, he gains a knowledge of the past and the future, 
a knowledo-e of the sounds of animals, of the thouo-hts of 
others, of the time of his own death, etc. 

It would be difficult to conceive all this but 
for the unimpeachable testimony of European scholars 
and officers. In an instance recorded by Pro. Wilson^ 
a Brahmin appeared to sit in the air wholly unsupported 
and to remain so sittins; on one occasion for twelve minu- 
tes and on another for forty minutes. 

Colonel Olcott records an account of a yoc/i described 
to him by Dr. Kajendralal Mittra : " It is not known 
when this yogi went into Samadhi, but his body was found 
about 45 years ago quite lifeless. All manner of tortures 
were used to bring him back to consciousness, but all to 
no purpose. He was then touched by the hand of a 
female and he instantly came back to his senses. "- 

Dr. McGregor says in his History of the Sikhs: 
" A novel scene occurred at one of these garden houses 

^Essays on the Religion of the Hindus, Vol. I, p. 209. See the 

description of the ijogis given by Ouisicritus, a follower of xilexander. 

Also the account of Calanus. 

•■iCoI. Olcott'ij k'ctuio on " Theosophy, the scientific basis of reli- 
gion," p. 18. 


in 1837. A faleer who arrived at Lahore engaged to 
bury himself for any length of time shut up in a box, 
without either food or drink ! Runjeet disbelieved his 
assertions, and determined to put them to proof ; for 
this purpose the man v;as shut up in a wooden box, 
which was placed in a small apartment below the level 
of the "round. There was a foldini^ door to the box 
which was secured by a lock and key. Surrounding this 
apartment there was the garden house, the door of 
which was likewise locked : and outside of this a 
high wall having the door built up with bricks and 
mud. Outside the whole there was placed a line of 
sentries, so that no one could approach the build- 
ing. The strictest watch was kept for the space of 
forty days and forty nights, at the expiration of whicli 
period the Maharaja, attended by his grandson and . _^ 
several of his Sirdars, as well as General Ventum, Cap- 
tain Wade, and myself, proceeded to disinter the 
fakeer." After describing the condition of the fakeer 
after disinterment, in a few words, the author says : 
" When the fakeer was able to converse, the completion 
of the feat was announced by the discharge of guns and 
other demonstrations of joy ; while a rich chain of gold 
was placed round his neck by Runjeet himself. 
■ "Another gentleman of unimpeachable veracity de- 
scribes the wonderful feat of a Lama who became his 
guest in September 1887 at Darjeeling. After describing 
his postures, etc., the eye-witness proceeds : 'Suddenly 
he, still retaining his sitting posture, rose perpendicularly 
into air to the height of, I should say, two cubits (one 
yard), and then floated without a tremor or motion of a 
single muscle, like a cork in still water.' The above are 


two out of numberless similar cases. In India not only 
these things but feats of a far more extraordinary nature 
are so common that they fail to evoke surprise at all."i 

Fryer was quite astonished to see yogis "svho fixed 
their eyes towards the sun without losing their sight. 

The Yoga philosophy is peculiar to the Hindus, and 
no trace of it is found in any other nation, ancient or 
modern. It was the fruit of the hio;hest intellectual and 
spiritual development. The existence of this system is 
another proof of the intellectual superiority of the an- 
cient Hindus over all other peoples. 


Mimansa is the collective name of two of the six 
divisions of Hindu Philosophy. They are the Purva 
and the Uttara Mimansa. The terms Litara and Purva, 
meaning latter and former, do not apply to the relative 
ages of the Mimansas but to the sacred books which are 
indicated by them. Purva Mimansa treats of the Hindu 
ritual and Karmaka?id an promulo-ated in the Bralimanas. 
whilst the Uttara Mimansa treats of the nature of God 
and of the soul as taught in the Upanishads. And the 
two Mimansas are so-called because the Upanishads were 
composed later than the Bralimanas. 

The Purva Mimansa gives in full detail the Karma 
we have to perform. The Yagyas, Aynihotras, gifts, etc. 
are all treated elaborately and minutely. The author, 
the venerable Jaimini, after discussing the nature of the 
dharma and adharma, says that dharma consists in 

^See also "The Court and Camp of Raiijit Singh." 

riiiLOsoi'iiY. 20.5 

followinn; the teachinu's of the Vedas. Dharma is 
essentially necessary to gain liappiness. 

The Uttara Mimansa is the work of the celebrated 
Vyasa, and is one of the most important of the six 
Darsanas. The school of philosophy of which the Uttara 
.Mimansa is the best exposition is called Ycdanta. The 
word A^'edanta means "the end or the nltimateaimof the 
A^edas," and the Vedanta system discusses the nature of 
the Brahma and the soul. The Uttara Mimansa is one of 
the grandest feats of the grand Hindu genius. The 
Brahmsutra of Vyasa begins with a refutation of 
atheism and a vindication of theism. It then lays down 
that the only way to salvation or mtdtl is atmcu/yana, 
or a true knowled2:e of the soul. 

Professor Max Muller says: " Much that was most 
dear, that had seemed for a time their very self, had to 
be surrendered before they could find the self of selves, 
the old man, the looker-on, a subject independent of all 
personality, and existence independent of all life. When 
that point had been reached then the highest knowledge 
began to draw, the self within (the Pratyagatman) was 
drawn towards the highest self (the Paramatman), it 
found its true self in the highest self, and the oneness 
of the subjective with the objective self was recognised 
as underlying all reality, as the dim dream of religion — 
as the pure light of philosophy." 

" This fundamental idea is worked out with systematic 
completeness in the Vedanta philosophy, and no one 
who can appreciate the lessons contained in Berkeley's 
Philosophy will read the Upanishads and the Brahma 
Sutras without feeling a richer and a wiser man."' 
^ India : What can it teach us ? p. 203. 

296 HINDU surEiaop.iTY. 

There is difference of opinion as regards the Vedantic 
A'iew of the nature of the soul and of God. Ramanuja 
Swami held that the relation between God and soul was 
that of a master and servant — that they were separate enti- 
ties, and that there were innumerable souls. The great 
Shankeracharya believed that the Yedanta taught that 
there was only one Brahma and all else Avas mdya 
or illusion. 

Swami Dayanand Saraswati, however, has again 
reverted to the view originally held of Yedanta, and said 
that the Brahma Sutras or the real Yedanta Sutra never 
taught the unity of God and soul. Popular belief, how- 
ever, is swayed by the views of Shanker Swami, and the 
system is held to be an all-absorbing Pantheism. An}^- 
way, it is the most sublime system of philosophy ever 
propounded by man. 

Of Sankara's commentary upon the Yedanta, Sir W. 
Jones says that "it is not possible to speak with too much 
applause of so excellent a work ; and I am confident in 
asserting that, until an accurate translation of it shall ap- 
pear in some European language, the general history of 
philosophy must remain incomplete. 

Sir W. Jones says of Yediinta : " The fundamental 
tenet of the Yedantic school consisted not in denying the 
existence of matter, that is, of solidity, impenetrability, 
and extended figure (to deny which would be lunacy), 
but in correcting the popular notion of it, and in con- 
tending that it has no essence independent of mental 
perception, that existence and perceptibility are con- 
vertible terms, that external appearances and sensations 
are illusorv and would vanish into nothing if the divine 

TiiiLosoi'iiv. 297 

eiiei'i^y, which iiloiie sustains them, were siiSipended but 
for 11 moment : an opinion which Epicharmus and Plato 
seem to have adopted, and whi(.'h has been maintained 
in the present century with great elegance, but with 
little applause, partly because it has been misunderstood, 
and partly because it has been misapplied by the false 
reasoning of some popular writers, who are said to have 
disbelieved in the moral attributes of God, whose omni- 
presence, wisdom and goodness are the basis of the 
Indian philosophy." He adds : " The system is built on 
the purest devotion." ^ Sir James Mackintosh, an 
English philosopher, " calls the theory (propounded by 
Vedruita) refined, abstruse, ingenious and beautiful." 

The Mimansa method of Purva Palsha (reason 
contra), Lttara Pcdsha (reason pro), and Siddhnnf (con- 
clusion) of the Shastras excite Professor Max MuUer's 
admiration, who says : " It is indeed one of the most 
curious kind>^ of literary composition that the liiiman 
mind ever conceived. It is wonderful that the Indians 

iSir W. .lones' Works, Vol. T, p. 165. "Wo might be iiblc," says 
Count Bjonistjoina, " to resign ourselves witli iiaticiit subuiissior, iodic 
comfortless doctrine of Pantheism, if it only concerned (jurselves, hut 
together with the hope of our own continued existence, to lose at the 
same time that of seeing again those whom we have most loved upon 
earth, to break them for ever is a reflection tliat bruises the heart. 
What I shall we first be bereaved of these beloved ones, retain nothing 
of them but memory's faint shadow, and tlien when we are called to 
follow them, shall even this shadow tiy away from us ? No : such can 
never be the intention of the all-linmitifiij Creator : He lia^ imt dejiosit- 
ed in our hearts the tender feelings of love and of fiieiid>liip in order 
at life's goal to rend asunder for ever tiie band thai lia- been tied by 
lliemi Tliey are of a spiritual nature, they follow the •spirit l)eyond the 
I'oundary of life, where we sliall find again IIiom' wli<nii we have loved." — 
Thcogvii>j of the Hindus, p, 7'J. What a misundoisliinding of ranthekm I 


slioiild have invented and mastered this difficult form so as 
to have made it tlie vehicle of ex.pression for every kind 
of learning." • 

The six Darsanas are rarely read and understood by 
Europeans, owing partly to the extreme difficulty of the 
language and a peculiar and difficult philosophic technicpie 
difficult to acquire, and partly to the want on their part 
of that mental equipment which is the result of the highest 
intellectual training and great spiritual development. 

As is well known, the Upanishads are the fountain 
head of all Hindu philosophy. They are said to be 52 
in number. The Upanishads are disquisitions on philo- 
s(3phical subjects, and breathe an air of sublimity and 
spirituality which is nowhere else to be found. The 
profound philosophy they teach, the deep wisdom they 
contain, the infallible truths they establish, and the true 
})rinciples they set forth are the standing marvels of 
Indian intellect and moniunents of human genius. 

In his Philosophy of the Upanishads, recently 
translated by Rev. A. S. Geden, M.A., Prof, Deussen 
claims for its fundamental thouo^ht "an inestimable 
value for the whole race of mankind." It is in "mar- 
vellous agreement with the philosophy founded by 
Kant, and adopted and perfected by his great successor, 
JSchopenhauer," differing from it, where it does differ, 
only to excel. For, whereas the philosophy of Scho- 
penhauer only " represents Christianity in its present 
form," we must have recourse to the Upanishads "if we 

'"In this metli(Hl," .says Prof !Max .Muller, " the coiiciiteiiatioti of 
jirof and cons is often so coiniilirated and the reason on h(jtli sides de- 
fended liy the same author with such seriousness that we sometimes 
rf'iiiain douliiiul In which >idc the author leans, till we arrive at the end 
of the whole chaptei." 

PniLOSOT'TfY. 209 

arc willing to put tlie finishing touch to tlic Cliristiaii 
consciousness, and to make it on all sides consistent and 
complete." " Professor Deussen, it is true, iskind enough 
to Christianity to bracket the New Testament and the 
Upanishads as "the two noblest pro(Uicts of the religious 
consciousness of mankind," but leaves his readers in no 
doubt as to which he considers the nobler of the two." 

The great German philosopher, Schopenhauer, says : 
*'0h! how thoroughly is the mind here washed clean 
of all early engrafted Jewish superstitions and of all 
philosophy that cringes before those superstitions. lu 
the whole world there is no study, except that of the 
originals, so beneficial and so elevating as tliat of the 
Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will be 
the solace of my death.'''' 

Mr. Elphinstone, in comparing the ancient Greeks 
with the ancient Hindus, says : " Their (Hindus) 
general learning was more considerable ; and in the 
knowledge of the being and nature of God, they were 
already in possession of a light which was but faintly 
perceived even by the loftiest intellects in the best days 
of Athens." 1 


Bhaffwat Gita has for centuries moulded the thoua'hts 
and the conduct of a large section of the Hindu nation. 
BhagwatGita is essentially a work on the Vedanta philo- 
sophy, and appears to have been composed to correct a 
misconception of that noble system. Owing to a mis- 
understanding of the teachings of this sublime philoso- 

Elpliin^tone's History of Iiuliii, i>. 49, 


ph}', men beo:an to neglect their duties and responsibi- 
lities, since there was only one Brahma and all else was 
illusion. This alarmed all good and thoughtful men, and 
as an antidote this excellent book, BhcKjwat Gita^ was 
written. It is skilfully introduced as an episode in the 
Mahabharata, but it is clearly out of place there. The 
battle-field is hardly the fittest place to hold protracted 
discussions on such sublime metaphysical questions as 
the book contains. Whatever may be the raison d'etre of 
the book, it has not only fascinated the minds of Hindus 
but has charmed Euroneans, who speak in rapturous 
terms of this celebrated poem. 

Mrs. Manning says : "Bhagwat Gita is one of the 
most remarkable compositions in the Sanskrit language." 

Professor Heeren says : " The poem certainly 
abounds in sublime passages, which remind one of the 
Orphic hymn to Jupiter quoted by Stoboeus."^ 

Mr. Elphinstone^ says : "Bhagwat Gita deserves 
high praise for the skill with which it is adapted to the 
general Epic, and the tenderness and elegance of the 
narative by means of which it is introduced." 

J Historical Resoarchos, Vol. 11, [i. l'J8. 
'History of lucliii, p. 155. 



A wise physician, skill'd our wounds to hoal, 
Is more than armies to the pubHc weal. 

— Pope. 

The science of moflicine, like all other sciences, was 
carried to a very high degree of perfection by the 
ancient Hindas. Their great powers of observation, 
generalization and analysis, combined with patient labour 
in a country of boundless resources, whose fertility for 
herbs and plants is most remarkable, placed them in an 
exceptionally favourable position to prosecute their study 
of this great science. Owing, however, to the destruc- 
tion of a great part of Sanskrit literature, it is impossible 
to form an accurate estimate of the high proficiency 
attained by the Hindus in this important science. 
Unlike philosophy and grammar, on which subjects 
ancient works still extant furnish sufficient material to 
enable one to form a correct judgment of their pre- 
eminence in those branches of learning, medicine is a 
practical science which has long been neglected owing to 
a variety of causes. 

Lord Ampthill recently (February 1905) said at 
Madras : — " Xow we are beginning to find out that the 
Hindu Shastras also contain a Sanitary Code no less 
correct in principal, and that the great law-giver, Manu, 
was one of the greatest sanitary reformers the world 
has ever seen." 


Professor Wilson says: "The Ancient Hindus at- 
tained as thorough a proficiency in medicine and sur- 
gery as any people whose acquisitions are recorded. 
This might be expected, because their patient attention 
and natural shrewdness would render them excellent 
observers, whilst the extent and fertility of their native 
country would furnish them with many valuable drugs 
and medicaments. Their diagnosis is said, in conse- 
quence, to define and distinguish symptoms with great 
accuracy, and their Materia Medica is most voluminous."^ 

Sir AVilliam Hunter has the following on the scope 
of Indian medicine : — "Indian medicine dealt with the 
whole area of the science. It described the structure of 
the body, its organs, ligaments, muscles, vessels and 
tissues. The Materia Medica of the Hindus embraces a 
vast collection of drugs belonging to the mineral, vege- 
table and animal kingdoms, many of which have now been 
adopted by European jjhysicians. Their pharmacy con- 
tained ingenious processes of preparation, with elaborate 
r directions for the administration and classification of 
medicines. Much attention was devoted to hygiene, 
regimen of the body, and diet."^ 

Mr. Weber says : " The number of medical works 
and authors is extraordinarily large."" 

The Ayur Veda is the oldest system of medicine, 
and is said to have been revealed by the great Hindu 

1 Wilson's Works, Vol. Ill, p. 269. , "Materia Medica," says 
Weher, "generally appears to have been handled ^rith groat predilec- 
tion." — -Indian Literature, p. 270. 


^Imperial Indian Gazetteer, "India," p. 22(». 
^Weber's Indian Literature, p. 2fi'J. 


physician, Dhanwantari,^ to his pupil Siisruta. C'haraka 
states that " orif^inally the contents of liis own works 
were communicated by Atreya ]\Iuni to Agnivesa, and. 
by him to Charaka, who condensed where it was too 
prolix and expanded where it was too brief." 
and Charaka are now the two most important and 
well-known Avorks on Hindu medicine. 

The chief distinction of the modern European 
science of medicine is surgery. But even in surgery, 
as will be clear from the following (piotations, the 
ancient Hindus attained a proficiency yet unsurpassed by 
the advanced medical science of the present day. 

Mr. Weber says : " In surgery, too, the Indians 
seem to have attained a special proficiency, and in this 
department, European surgeons might, perhaps, even at 
the present day still learn something from them, as indeed 
they have already borrowed from them the operation of 

"Their surger}^," says Elphinstone, "is as remark- 
able as their medicine."-^ Mrs. Manning says: "The 
surgical instruments of the Hindus were sufficiently 
sharp, indeed, as to be capable of dividing a hair 

Dr. Sir W. W. Hunter says: "The surgery of 
the ancient Indian physicians was bold and skilful. 

1 The name of this great man, Dhanwantari, has become a bye- word 
for an " adept." His name i.s always pronounced before taking medicine 
in Rajputana, in consequence of the popular belief that his prescriptions 
are infallible. 

^Weber's Indian Literature, p. 270. 

3 History of India, p. 145. 

^Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. II, p. 346. 


They conducted amputations, arresting the bleeding by 
pressure, a cup-shaped bandage and boiHng oil ; practis- 
ed lithotomy ; performed operations in the abdomen 
and uterus ; cured hernia, fistula, piles ; set broken 
bones and dislocations ; and were dexterous in the ex- 
traction of foreign substances from the body. A special 
branch of surgery was devoted to rhinoplasty, or opera- 
tion for improving deformed ears and noses and formuKj 
new ones, a useful operation which European sun/eons 
have now borrowed. The ancient Indian surgeons also 
mention a cure for neuralgia, analogous to the modern 
cutting of the fifth nerve above the eyebrow. They 
devoted great care to the making of surgical instruments, 
and to the training of students by means of operations 
performed on wax spread on a board or on the tissues 
and cells of the vegetable kingdom, and upon dead 
animals. They were expert in midwifery, not shrinking 
from the most critical operations, and in the diseases of 
women and children. Their practice of physic embraced 
the classifications, causes, symptoms and treatment of 
diseases, diagnosis and prognosis. Considerable advances 
were also made in veterinary science, and monographs 
exist on the diseases of horses, elephants, etc." 

The author o£ the History of Hindu Chemistry 
says: "According to Susruta, the dissection of dead 
bodies is a sine qua mm to the student of surgery, and 
this high authority lays" particular stress on knowledge 
gained from experiment and observation."" 

A word with regard to the Veterinary Science. 
Mr. H. M. Elliot says : "There is in the Royal library 

Uiidiaii GazettetT, •'India," p. 220. Sec also Wcboi's Indian 
Liloratnre, \>. 270. 

-ilislury i)i iiindu Cbcmistiy, Vol. 1, p. iOD. 



lit Liikhiiow n ^vul•k on the veturinnry art, wliicli Avas 
triiiisliited h-om the Sunskril l)y order ot Ghayas-ud-diu 
;Mohiuned Shah Khilji. 

This rare book, called Knrmf-ul-mnJL, was trans- 
lated as early as A.H. 783 = 1381 A.D., from an original, 
styled Salotar, which is the name of an Indian who is 
said to have been a Brahman, and the tutor of Susruta. 
The Preface says that the translation was made '^ from 
the bar])arous Hindi into the refined Persian, in order 
that there may be no more need of a reference to 
infidels." The book is divided hito eleven chapters and 
thirty Sections. 

Ciuiptoi- I. Oil the breeds and names of liorses ... 4 secLions. 

II. On their odour, on riding, and breeding 4 „ 
111. On stable uianageuient, and <'u wasps 

building nests in a stable ... ... 2 ,, 

^^ IV. On colour and its varieties ... ... 2 ,, 

V. On tlioir blemishes.., ... ... "i ,, 

., Vr. On their limbs ... ... .. 2 ., 

,, VII. On sickness and its leuiedies... ... 4 ,, 

„ VIII, 0:i bleeding ... ... ... 4 ,, 

IX. On food a!id did ... ... ... 2 

,, X. Oil feeding lor the purpose of fattening... 2 „ 

,, XI. On ascertaining the age by the (eclli ... 1 ,, 

The j)recise age of this work is doubtftd, because, 
although it is plainly stated to ha\'e been translated in 
A.H. 7So, yet tlie reigning prince is called Stdtan 
Ghaias-ud-din Mohamed Shah, son of Mahmud Shah, 
and there is no king so named whose reign corresponds 
with that date. 1£ Sultan Ghaias-ud-din Toghlak be 
meant, it should date sixty years earlier, and if the king 
of Malvva, avIio bore that name, be meant, it should ])e 
dated one hundred years later ; either way, it ver}- much 
precedes the reign of Akber. ' 

l"It is curious, that witliout any allusion to this work, another on 
the veteriuary art, styled Salotari, aud said to comprise in the Sanskrit 


The translator makes no mention in it o£ the work 
on the same subject, which had been previously trans- 
lated from the Sanskrit into Arabic at Baghdad, under 
the name of Kitab-ul-Baitarat. ^ 

Professor Weber says : "In the Vedic period, animal 
anatomy was evidently thoroughly understood, as each 
part had its own distinctive name." He also says: 
" The chapter of Amarkosha on the human body and 
its tliseases certainly presupposes an advanced cultiva- 
tion of medical science. ""^ 

Professor Wilson says : *' There is a very large 
body of medical literature in Sanskrit, and some of the 
principal works are named by Arabic writers as having 
been known and translated at Baghdad in the ninth cen- 
tury. These works comprise all the branches of medical 
science, sur^erv included, and contain numerous instances 
of accurate observation and judicious treatment." 

The Hindus have, through this branch of knowledge, 
as through many others, been the benefactors of huma- 
nity; for, Hindu medicine is the foundation upon which 
the building of the European medical science has been 
constructed. His Excellency Lord Ampthill, the late 
Governor of Madras, while declaring open the Madras 

original 16,000 slokas, was translated in the reign of Shalijahan, "wlien 
there were many learned men who knew Sanskrit," by Sayyid Abdullah 
Khan Bahadur Firoz .luug, who had found it among some other Sans- 
krit books, which during his expedition against Mewar, in the reign of 
Jehangir, had been plundered from Amar Singh, Rana of Chitor. It 
is divided into twelve chapters, and is more than double the size of the 

1 Elliot's Historians of India, Part I. pp. 263, 64. 

2 Weber's Indian Literature, p. 267. 


Kino; Institute of Preventive Medicine, said : "The people 
of India should be gratefnl to him (Col. King) for having 
pointed out to them that they can lay claim to have been 
acquainted with the main principles of curative and 
preventive medicine at a time when Europe was still 
immersed in ignorant savagery. I am not sure whether 
it is L'enerally known that the science of medicine ori- 
ginated in India, but this is the case, and the science was 
first exported from India to Arabia and thence to Europe. 
Down to the close of the seventeenth century, European 
physicians learnt the science from the works of Arabic 
doctors ; while the Arabic doctors many centuries before 
had obtained their knowledge from the works of great 
Indian physicians such as Dhanwantri, Charaka and 
Susruta. It is a strange circumstance in the world's 
progress that the centre of enlightenment and knowledge 
should have travelled from East to West, leaving but little 
permanent trace of its former existence in the East." 

Sir W. Hunter says: "The Hindu medicine is an 
independent development. Arab medicine was founded on 
the translations from the Sanskrit' treatises made by 
command of the Khahf of Baghdad (950-960 A.D.). 
European medicine down to the 17th century was based 
upon the Arabic, and the name of the Indian physician, 
Charaka, rei:>eatedly occurs in Latin translations of 
Avicenna (Abu Sina), Rhazes (Abu Rasi), and Serapion 
(Abu Sirabi). 

Mrs. Manning says : " The medical works of India 
had already attained worldwide celebrity when the 

1 Csoma de Koros was the first to announce that the Thihetan 
Tanjur contains among others translations o£ the Charaka, the Susruta, 
and the Yagabhata. 


Khfilif of Baghdad collected the greatest M'orkp and 
summoned the most learned scientific men of their 
era to give brilliancy to Baghdad as a seat of learning. 
She adds : " It is impossible to exhibit India's ancient 
science to Euro[)eans unacquainted with Sanskrit or not 
having access to the native medical libraries, in which 
we understand many medical works are strictly withheld 
from Europeans.*'^ 

In support of the fact that Hindu medical works 
were largely translated by the Arabs, and that these 
translations formed the nucleus of their science, and that 
after being translated into European languages they 
formed the backbone of the European science of medicine, 
the followmg facts may be cited : — 

Barzouhyeh, a contemporary of the celebrated 
Sassanian king, Noshirevan (A.D. 531-572), visited 
India to acquire proficiency in the Indian sciences.'-' 

According to Professor Sachau, the learned trans- 
lator of Alberuni, " some of the books that had been 
translated imder the first Abbaside Caliphs were extant 
in the library of Alberuni, when he wrote his ' India,' 

the Brahma Siddhanta or Sind-hiud, the Charaka 

in the edition of Ali Ibn Zain and the Panchatantra, or 
Kalila Darana."'^ 

Almansur or Almanzar, who removed his seat from 
Damascus to Baghdad between 758 and 774 A.D., caused 
translations to be made from the Sanskrit of medical 
scientific works, among which we find particularised 

\ Ancient and Modianal India, Vol. I, pp. 353, 54, 
2History of Hindu Chemistry, Introdiiolion, p. 76, 
•"^Alberaui's India by Professor Sacliau, 

MKDICINE. :')(ll> 

a tract upon poisons hy Shank (meaning Charaka) and a 
treatise on medicine by Shashriid' ( meanin_i>- Susruta). 

^Irs. Mannini'- savs: ''Later Greeks at Bniiiidad are 
found to have been accpiainted with the medical works 
of the Hindus, and to liavc availed themselves of their 
medicaments."- AVe learn with interest that Serapion, one 
of the earliest of the Arab writers, mentions the Indian 
Charaka, praising him as an authority in medicine, and 
referring to the myrabalans as forming part of Charaka's 

Rhazes was a greater ])hysician than Serapion. He 
lived at Baghdad with Al Mansur. He wrote twelve 
books on chemistry. On two occasions, Rhazes refers to 
the "Indian Charaka" as an authority for statements on 
plants or drugs. ^ 

Another celebrated medical man is Avicinna (Abu 
Ali Sina), called Sheikh Rais, or the prince of pliy- 
sicians, who succeded Rhazes. He Avas the most famous 
physician of his time. He translated the works of 
Aristotle, and died in 1036 A.D. In treating of leeches, 
Avicinna begins by a reference to what "the Indians 
say," and then gives nearly the very words of Susruta, 

1 Colebrooke's Algebra of the Hiiulus, Vol, II, p. 512. That 
Charaka should be changed by Arabic writers into Sarak, Susruta into 
Susrud, Nidana into Badan, Astanga into Asankar, and so forth, 
need not at all surprise us. Such transformations can well be explained 
on phonetic principles. Moreover, one must remember that the Indian 
works translated into Arabic were sometimes derived from pre-existing 
Phclvi versions, and in the migrations through successive languages the 
names often got frightfully disfigured. 

^Ancient and Median-al India, Vol.1, p. 359. 

■^Royle's Ancient Hindu iledicine, p. 3G. 

4See Uoyle, p. 38. 


describing the six poisonous leeches, amongst which are 
"those called krishna or black, the hairy leech, that 
which is variegated like a rainbow, etc/" 

Emperor Firoz Shah, after capturing Nagarkot, 
had the -Sanskrit medical Avprks translated into Arabic 
by Ayazuddin Khalid.^ 

In the reign of Harnn-ul-Rashed, the Hindu me- 
dicine was not only valued by the Arabs, but Hindu 
physicians were actually invite<l to Bagdad, who went 
and reside<i in his court. For this information we are 
indebted to Ahu Osa/'ba, whose biographies are quoted 
by Prof. Deitz in his AnalecAa Medica^^ Wustenfeld, 
Rev. W. Cureton,^ Flii Miiller. 

Ahu Osaiba states that Mania wa^ a Hindu, emin- 
ent in the art of medicine and learned in Sanskrit litera- 
ture. He made a journey from India to Iraq, cured 
the Khalif Harun-ul-Hasheed of an illness, and translated 
a work on poison b}' Charaka from Sanskrit into Per- 
sian. Another Hindu doctor named Saleh has also been 
eulogised by Ahu Osaiba. He was, it is said, one of 
the most learned amongst the Hindus, and greatly skilled 
in curino; diseases according; to the Indian mode. He lived 
in Iraq during Harun's reign. He travelled to Egypt 
and Palestine, and was buried when he died in Egypt. 

Gabriel -Baciishna,^. Syrian, became one of the trans- 
lators of works on medicine from Sanskrit into Arabic. '' 

' Koyle's Ancient Hindu Medicine, p. 88. 

2Max Mullor's Science of Language, p. 167. 

3Leipsic Edition of 1833, p. 124. 

^Journal of the R. A. Society, VI, pp. 10r)-ll.''v 

■'■'See Deitz's Analecta Medica. Dr. Furnell, Dy. Surgeon-General 
and Sanitary Commissioner, Madras, in his lecture delivered on the 
1st jN.pril 1882, most vigorously supported the claims of Hindu medi- 
cine as one of the most ancient and the most advanced sciences ever 


Professor Sanchau says : '* What India has contri- 
buted reached Baghdad by two different roads. Part has 
come directly in translations from the Sanskrit, part has 
travelled through Iran, having originally been translat- 
ed from Sanskrit (Pali? Prakrit?) into Persian, and 
farther from Persian into Arabic. In this way, <?. 7,, 
the fables of KdUla and Dinina have been comnuuiicated 
to the Arabs, and a book on medicine, probably the 
famous Charaka. — i>f luhrisf^ p, 303. 

"In this connnunication between India and Bagdad 
Ave must not only distinguish between two different roads, 
but also between two different periods. 

" As Sindh was under the actual rule of the Khalif 

Mansur (A. D. 753-774), there came embassies from 

that part of India to Baghdad, and among them scholars, 

who brought along with them two books, the Jirahma- 

sidhanta of Brahmagupta (Sindhind), and his Khan- 

dakhadyaka (Arkand). With the help of these pandits, 

Alfazari, perhaps also Yakub Ibn Tarik, translated them. 

Both works have been largely used, and have exercised 

a great influence. It was on this occassion that the 

Arabs jimt became acquainted with a scientific system 

of astronomy. They learned from Brahmagupta earlier 

than from Ptolemy. 

cultivated in the world. Speaking of the importance of drinking un- 
polluted water, he said that -'as the ancient Hindus were superior to 
all others in other respects, so also were they superior to the others in 
recognising the importance and value of water, as well as in insisting 
upon preserving the water from filth of any kind whatever." He 
added that in his address to the Convocation in ]879 he had said 
that the Hindu physicians were unrivalled in all branches of medicine 
at the time when the Britons were savages and used to go about quite 
naked. He then described the instructions contained m the Hindu 
medical works with regard to the use of water, which he said were most 


" Another influx of Hindu learning took place 
under Harun, A.D. 786-808. The ministerial family 
Barmak, then at the zenith of their power, had come 
with the ruling- dynasty from Balkh, where an ancestor 
of theirs had been an ofhcial in the Buddhistic temple, 
Naubehar, i.e., uavai-iliara, the new temple(or monastery). 
The name Barmak is said to be of Indian descent, mean- 
ing />arama/;a, i.e., the superior (abbot of the vihara?). 
Of course the Barmak famil)^ had been converted, but 
their contemporaries never thought much of their pro- 
fession of Islam, nor regarded it as srenuine. Induced 
probably by family traditions, they sent scholars to India, 
there to study medicine and pharmacology. Besides, 
thev enoaii'ed Hindu scholars to come to Baghdad, made 
them the cliief physicians of their hospitals and ordered 
them to translate from Sanskrit into Arabic, books on 
medicine, pharmacology, toxicology, philosophy, astro- 
logy and other subjects. Still in later centuries, Muslim 
scholars sometimes travelled for the same purposes as 
the emissaries of the Barmak, e.g., Almuwaft'ak, not long 
before Alberuni's time,"^ 

Mrs. Manning says: "Greek physicians have done 
much to preserve and diffuse the medical science of 
India. AVe find, for instance, that the Greek physician 
Actuarius celebrates the Hindu medicine called triphala. 
He mentions the peculiar products of India, of which 
it is composed, by their Sanskrit name Myrohalans."-^ 
iEtius, who was a native of Amida in Mesopotamia, 
and studied at Alexandria in the fifth centurv, not 

1 Sachau's Translation of Alberuni's India. 
^Ancient and Mediteval India, Vol, I., p. uDl, 


I'lll. ^f.^'w.^' ^» ^'^^^ 


only speaks of tliu Mi/robalans^ ])ut mentions them as 
the proj)ei' cui'e for the disease called elephantiasis." 
Among the ancient Hindu physicians of note may 
be mentioned (I) Atreya, Agnivesa, Charaka, Dhan- 
wantri, Sashrutn, IJharadv^aja, Kapishthala, Bhela, 
Latukarna, Panisara, Harita, Kashraparu, Asaval- 
yana, Badarayann, Katyayana, Baijv^api, Krisa, Sam- 
krityayana, Babhravya Krishnatreya, Auddalaki, Sveta- 
keta, Panchala, Gonardiya, Gonikaputra, Sabandhu^ 
t?amkara, Kankayana. V^/r^-^-^^, /^^^U^\j., 3^^ih<x)yu., 

The EiKilishman (a Calcutta daily), in a leader 
in 1880, said : "No one can read the rules contained 
in great Sanskrit medical works Avithout coming to 
the conclusion that, in point of knowledge, the 
ancient Hindus were in this respect very far in 
advance not only of the Greeks and Romans, but of 
Mediaeval Europe." 

Nearchas relates that the Greek physicians did not 
know how to cure snakebite. But the Hindu physicians 
cured it, and notified their abilitv to cui*e all who were 
alHicted with it, if they came to the court of 
Alexander the Great/ 

As regards their knowledge of the Science of Chem- 
istry, Mr. Elphinstone says : " Their (Indian) chemical 
skill is a fact more striking and more unexpected." 

It is to be regretted that of the several works on 
chemistry^ quoted by Madhava, Rasarnava alone seems 
to have survived to our dav. 

'See Wise's History uf Mediciiu', )i. Ij. 

-A famous representative of this art (alchemy j was Niigarjuna. 
a native of Daihak, near Sounialh. He excelled in it, and (•oiuitused 
a hook which contains the substance of the whole literature on this 
subject;- and is very rare." — 11/^tor// of Hindu t'hcmid'ij, Vol, I, p. 54. 



The author of the History of Hindu Chemistry 
says : " While Rasaratnakarna and Basarnava are Tant- 
ras pure and simple in which alchemy is incidentally 
dwelt upon, Rasaratana-samuchchaya (a modern work 
based on old Hindi medical works), is a systematic and 
comprehensive treatise on materia medica, pharmacy and 
medicine. Its methodical and scientific arrangement 
of the subject-matter would do credit to any modern 
work, and altogether it should be pronounced a produc- 
tion unique of its kind in Sanskrit literature."^ 

Dr. Ray says : " We have only to refer our readers to 
tlie chapter on the preparation of caustic alkali, in the 
Susruta, with the direction that the strong lye is to be ' pre- 
served in an iron vessel,' as a proof of the high degree of 
perfection in scientific pharmacy achieved by the Hindus 
at an early age. It is absolutely free from any 
trace of (piackery or charlatanism, and is a decided 
improvement upon the process prescribed by a Greek 
Avriter of the eleventh century, as unearthed by M. Berthelot. 
As regards dispensaries and hospitals, everyone knows 
that Buddhistic India was studded with them."^ 

In the European histories of chemistry, the credit 
of being the first to press chemical knowledge into the 
service of medicine and introduce the use of the internal 
administration of mercurial preparations, is given to 

"Nagarjnna Bodliisatva was well practised in the art of compounding 
niedicines ; by taking a preparation (pill or cake), he nourished the 
years of life for many hundreds of years, so that neither the mind nor 
appearance decayed. Satvaha-Kaja had partaken of this mysterious 
medicine." — Beal's Buddhist Records of the Western World, Vol. II, 
p. -Jl-J. 

1 Hi^tory of Hindu Chemistry, Vol. I, p. L. 

211i5.iury of Hindu Chemistry. Vol. J, Introduction, p, viti. 

MEDICINK. .''•15 

Paracelsus (1493-lo-il). But, says the author of the PTis- 
torv of Hiudu Cheniistrv, " we have, iudecd, reason to 
suspect that Paracelsus got his ideas from the East."' 

Dr. Ray says : " From the evidences we have adduced 
all along there can now be scarcely any question as regards 
the priority of the Hindus in making mercurial remedies 
a speciality ; and they are entitled to claim originalit}- in 
respect of the internal administration of metals generally, 
seeing that the Charaka and the Susruta, not to speak 
of the later Tantras, are eloquent over their virtues." "^ 

In Europe, however, the medicinal virtues of 
mercury do not appear to have been at all ascertained 
even in the days of Pliny the elder ; that writer 
termed quicksilver the bcme and poison of all things, and 
what would with more propriety be called death->^i\\'er.-^ 

Mr. Elphinstone says : " They knew how to pre- 
pare sulphuric acid, nitric acid and muratic acid ; the 
oxide of copper, iron, lead (of which the}^ had both tlie 
red oxide and litharge), tin and zinc ; the sulphurct of 
iron, copper, mercury, antimony, and arsenic ; the sul- 
phate of copper, zink and iron ; and carbonates of lead 
and iron. Their modes of preparing these substances 
"were sometimes peculiar."^ 

" Their use of these medicines seems to have been 
very bold. They were the first nation who employed 
minerals internally, and they not only gave mercury in 

^ History of Hindu Chemistry, Vol. I, p. 60. 
-History of Hindu Chemistry, Vol. I, Introduction, p. (Ixii,) 
=^Natural History, h'b. 33. 

*For further information, see Dr. Royle(p. 44 and on), who parti- 
cularly refers to the processes for leaking calomel and corrosive sublimat«. 


that manner but arsenic and arsenious acicl, which were 
remedies in intermittents. They have long used cinnabar 
for fumigations, by which they produced a speedy and 
safe sahvation. They have long practiced inoculation. 

*' They cut for the stone, couched for the cataract 
and extracted the foetus from the womb, and in their 
early works enumerate not less than 127 sorts of 
surgical instruments." ^ 

In the course of a lecture to the natives of Bengal 
on national universities in India, delivered at Calcutta, 
in January 1906, Mrs. Besant said: "In physics and 
chemistry you have advanced far more. In medicine vou 
are still more advanced. In the West it is by no means 
a science but largely guess work. Indian medicine both 
of the Hindus and the Mohamedans is superior to the 
medicine of the West^ 

In order to o-ive an idea of the advanced state of 
the Hindu science of medicine and hygiene, as well as 
of what we may 3'et expect from the continued researches 
of the learned in ancient Indian literature in the way of 
valuable additions to the modern European medical science, 
I cannot do better than quote the words of His Excellency 
Lord Ampthill, Governor of Madras, at the opening of 
the King Institute of Preventive ^[edicine, in February 
1905: "The Mohamedan conquests brought back to 
India much of the mediad knowledge which had been 
lost for centuries, and we have proofs that the Mughal 
rulers were great sanitary reformers in the magnificent 

lElphiiistone's History of India, p. 145. The author also says: 
" Their acquaintance with medicines seems to have been very exten- 
sive. We are not surprised at their knowledge of simples, in which 
tl)ey gave early lessons to Europe andmore recently taught us the benefit 
of swolung dhatura in asthma and the use of cowitcU against vcormss" 

MEDIClNi:. ol7 

waterworks which still exist and perform their func- 
tions at various places in the north of India. Now, 
the British rulers of India have been bringing back yet 
more of the knowledge which emanated from this rountrj/ 
centuries ago ; and when we undertake municipal water 
supply schemes, with filter beds and h^-drauiic pressure, 
when we build hospitals and establish medical schools, 
when we promulgate regulations to check the spread of 
plague, or when we impose on local bodies the duty of 
Avatching over the health of the people, we are not in- 
troducing any modern innovations or European fads, 
but merely doing that which was done centuries ago, 
and again centuries before that, but which has long 
since been forgotten by all except the historian and the 
archaeologist. The study of these questions brings 
out the truth of the old saying that there is nothing new 
in the world. Now, this saying is even true as regards 
preventive medicine, which we are all apt to regard as 
one of the most recent discoveries of modern science. 
Colonel King gives clear proof that the ancient caste in- 
junctions of the Hindus were based on a belief in the 
existence of transmissible agents of disease, and that both 
Hindus and Mohamedans used inoculation by small-pox 
virus as a protection against small-{X)x ; and certain it is 
that long before Jenner's orreat discoverv, or to be more 
correct, re-discovery of vaccination, this art of inoculation 
was used for a while in Europe, where it had been 
imported from Constantinople ; and knowledge of 
medicine which flourished in the Near East at the 
commencement of the Christian era emanated^ as I hare 
already shown you, from Indian 


His Excellency then added : " It is also very 
probable, so Colonel King assures me, that the ancient 
Hindus used animal vaccination secured by transmission 
of the small-pox virus through the cow, and he bases 
this interesting theory on a cj[UOtation from a writing 
by Dhanvantri, the greatest of the ancient Hindu 
physicians, which is so striking and so appropriate to the 
present occasion that I must take the liberty of reading 
it to you. It is as follows : ' Take the fluid of the pock on 
the udder of the cow or on the arm between the shoulder 
and elbow of a human subject on the point of a lancet, 
and lance with it the arms between the shoulders and 
elbows until the blood appears : then mixing the fluid 
with the blood the fever of the small-pox will be produced.' 
This is vaccination j^ure and simple. It would seem 
from it that Jenner^s great discovery was actually 
forestalled by the ancient Hindoos.''^ 

His Excellency further said : '• I cannot refrain from 
mentioning yet another of Colonel King's interesting 
discoveries, which is that the modern plague policy of 
evacuation and disinfection is not a wit different from 
that enjoined in ancient Hindu Shastras." 



Ill Miithematies lie was greater 
Thau Tyclio Brahe, or Erra Pater. 

— BuTLEU : IluiUbras. 

In mentsil abstraction and concentration of thous^ht 
the Hindus are proverbially happy. Apart from direct 
testimony on the point, the literature of the Hindus 
furnishes unmistakable evidence to prove that the 
ancient Hindas possessed astonishing powers of memory 
and concentration of thou2:ht. Hence all such sciences 
and branches of study as demand concentration of 
thought and a highly-developed power of abstraction of 
the mind were highly cultivated by the Hindus. The 
science of mathematics, the most abstract of all sciences, 
must have had an irresistible fascination for the minds of 
the Hindus. Xor are there proofs wanting to support 
this statement. The most extensive cultivation which 
astronomy received at the hands of the Hindus is in itself 
a proof of their high proficiency in mathematics. The high 
antiquity of Hindu astronomy is an argument in support 
of a still greater antiquity of their mathematics. That 
the Hindus were selected by natiu'e to excel all other 
nations in mathematics, is proved by her revealing to 
them the foundation of all mathematics. It has been 
admitted by all competent authorities that the Hindus 
were the inventors of the numerals. The great German 
critic, Schlegel, says that the Hindus invented " the 
decimal cyphers, the honour of which, next to letters the 
most important of human discoveries, has, with the com- 


iiiou consent ot' historical authorities, been ascribed to 
die Hindus."! 

Prof. Macdonell says : " In science, too, the debt 
of Europe to India has been considerable. There is, in 
the first place, the great fact that the Indians invented 
the numerical figures used all over the world. The 
influence which the decimal system of reckoning depen- 
dent on those figures has had not only on mathematics 
but on the progress of civilization in general, can 
hardly be over-estimated. During the eighth and ninth 
centuries the Indians became the teachers in arith- 
metic and aloebra of the Arabs, and through them of the 
nations of the West. Thus, though we call the latter 
science by an Arabic name, it is a gift we ow^e to India."' 

Sir M. Monier Williams savs : " From them (Hindus) 
the Arabs received not only their first conceptions of 
algebraic analysis, but also those numerical symbols 
and decimal notations now current everywhere in Europe, 
and which have rendered untold service to the progress 
of arithmetical science."^ ^ Says Manning : " To what- 
ever cyclopa3dia, journal or essay we refer, we uniform- 
ly find our numerals traced to India and the Arabs 
recognised as the medium through which they were 
introduced into Europe."'^\ Sir AV. W. Hunter also 
says : " To them (the Hindus) we owe the invention 
of the numerical symbols on the decimal scale, The 
Indian figures 1 to 9 being abbreviated forms of initial 
letters of he numerals themselves, and the zero, or 0, 

1 Schlegel's History of Literature, p, 123, 
-History Sanskrit Literature, p. 424. 
^Indian Wisdom, p. J-'l. 
■*Aiicieut and Meiiioval Lidia, Vol. 1, p. o76. 

:\rATIIEMATlCS. ."21 

representing the first letter of the Sanskrit word for 
empty {sunj/rt). Tlie Arabs borrowed them from the 
Hhidiis, and transmitted them toEuro})e."' 

Professor Weber says : " It is to them (the Hindns) 
also that we owe the ini>;enions invention of the numerical 
symbols, which in like manner passed from them to the 
Arabs, and from these again to European scholars. By 
these latter, who were the disciples of the Arabs, frequent 
allusion is made to the Indians and uniformly in terms 
of high esteem ; and one Sanskrit word even {uchcha) 
has passed into the Latin translations of Arabian 

Professor AYilson says : " Even Delambre concedes 
their claim to the invention of numerical cyphers." 


Mrs. Manning says : " Compared with other ancient 
nations, the Hindns were peculiarly strong in all the 
branches of arithmetic."' Professor Weber, after declar- 
ing that the Arabs were disciples of the Hindus, says : 
" The same thing (i.e.. tlie Arabs borrowed from the 
Hindus) rook place also in regard to algebra and 
arithmetic in ]3articular, in both of which it appears the 
Hindus attained, quite independently, to a high degree 
of proficiency." Sir W. W. Hunter also says that the 
Hindus attained a very high proficiency in arithmetic 
and algebra independently of any foreign influence."* 

llinpeiial Gazetteor, p. 219. "India." 
^Weber's Indian Lileratniv. p. 25(5. 
■^Ancient and Media'val India, Vol. T, p ,374, 
^Imperial Gazetteer, " India,'" p. 21 y. 


The English mathematician, Prof. Wallace, says : 
" The LiJavati treats of arithmetic, and contains 
not only the common rules of that science, but the 
application of these to various questions of interest, barter, 
mixtures, combinations, permutations, sums of pro- 
gression, indeterminate problems, and mensuration of 
surfaces and solids. The rules are found to be exact and 
nearly as simple as in the jjresent state of analytical 
investigation. The numerical results are readily deduced, 
and if they be compared with the earliest specimens of 
Greek calculation, the advantages of the decimal notation 
are placed in a striking light." ^ It may, however, be 
mentioned that Lilavati^ of which Professor Wallace 
speaks, is a comparatively modern manual of arithmetic ; 
and to judge of the merits of Hindu arithmetic 
from this book is to judge of the merits of English 
arithmetic from Chambers' manual of arithmetic. 

It may be added that the enormous extent to which 
numerical calculation goes in India, and the possession 
by the Hindus of by far the largest table of calculation, 
are in themselves proofs of the superior cultivation of 
the science of arithmetic by the Hindus. 


The ancient Hindus have always been celebrated 
for the remarkable j)rogress they made in geometry. 
Professor Wallace says : " However ancient a book may 

1 Eaiiibui-yh Kcvicw, Vol. 20, j). 147. 


be in which a system of trigonometry occurs, we mny he 
assured it was not written in the infancy of the science. 
Geometry must have been known in India loncj before the 
writing of the Surya Siddhanta,"^ which is supposed by 
the Europeans to have been written before 2,000 B.C.- 

Profesor Wallace says : " Surya Siddhanta contains 
a rational system of trigonometry, which differs entirely 
from that first known in Greece or Arabia. In fact it 
is founded on a geometrical theorem, which was not 
known to the geometricians of Europe before the time 
of Yieta, about two hundred years ago. And it employs 
the sines of arcs, a thing unknown to the Greeks, who 
used the chords of double arcs. The invention of sines 
has been attributed to the Arabs, but it is possible that 
they may have received this improvement in trigonome- 
try as well as the numerical characters from India." ^ 

Mr. Elphinstone says : " In the Surya Siddhanta is 
contained a system of trigonometry which not only 
goes far beyond anything known to the Greeks, but in- 
volves theorems which were not discovered in Europe 
till two centuries ago."^ 

Professor Wallace says : " In expressing the radius 
of a circle in parts of the circumference, the Hindus are 
quite singular. Ptolemy and the Greek mathematicians in 
their division of the radius preserved no reference to the 
circumference. The use of sines, as it was unknown to 
the Greeks, forms a difference between theirs and the 
Indian trigonometry. Their rule for the computation 

1 Mill's India, Vol.11, p. 150. 
2See Mill's India, Vol. II, p. 3, footnote. 
^Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, "Geometry," p. 191, 
'* History of India' p. 129. 


of the lines is a considerable refinement in science first 
practiced by the mathematician, F)riggs."^ 

Count Bjornstjerna says : " We find in Ayeen AUmri, 
a journal of the Emperor x\kbar, that the Hindus of 
former times assumed the diameter of a circle to be to 
its periphery as 1,250 to o,927, ^The ratio of 1,250 to 
3,927 is a very close approximation to the quadrature 
of a circle, and differs very little from that oiven bv 
Metius of 113 to 355. In order to obtain the result 
thus found by the Brahmans, even in the most elemen- 
tary and simplest way, it is necessary to inscribe in a 
circle a polygon of 768 sides, an operation, which can- 
not be performed arithmeticall}^ without the knowledge 
of some peculiar properties of this curved line, and at 
least an extraction of the square root of the ninth power, 
each to ten ])laces of decimals. The Greeks and Arabs 
have not given anything so approximate."^ 

It is thus clearly seen that the Greeks and the 
Arabs apart, even the Europeans have but very recently 
advanced far enough to come into line with the Hindus 
in their knowledge of this branch of mathematics. 

Professor Wallace says : " The researches of the 
learned have brought to light astronomical tables in 
India which must have been constructed by the 
principles of geometry, but the period at which they 
have been framed has by no means been completely 
ascertained. Some are of opinion that they have 
been framed from observation made at a very remote 
period, not less than 3,000 years before the Christian era 
(this has been conclusively proved by Mons. Bailly); 

iMilPs India, Veil. 11, i>. 1 .")(). 
'•*Th''(igf)iiy (if till' lliiidus. p. ;j7. 


and if this opinion l)e"\vell foiincled, tlie science of ijeoine- 
try must hjive been cultivated in India to a considerable 
extent lonii^ before the ])eriod assigned to its origin in the 
West ; so that many elementary propositions may have been 
brought from India to (irF.ece."' He adds : " In geometry 
there is much deserving of attention. We Imve here the 
celebrated proposition that the square on the hypotenuse 
of a right-angled triangle is equal to the squares on the 
sides containing the right angle and other j>ropositions, 
Avhicli form part of tlie system of modern geometry. There 
is one remarkable proposition, name!}-, that which dis- 
covers the area of a triangle when its three sides are 
known. This does not seem to have been known to the 
ancient Greek geometers.'''' 

The Sulva Sutras, however, date from about the 
eighth century B.C., and Dr. Thibaut has shown that 
the geometrical theorem of the 47th proposition, Book I, 
which tradition ascribes to Pythagoras, was solved by 
the Hindus at least two centuries earlier,- thus con- 
firming the conclusion of V. Schroeder tii;tt the Greek 
philosopher owed his inspirktion to India. •' 

Mr. Elphinstone says : " Their geometrical skill 
is shown among other forms by their demonstrations 
of various properties of triangles, especially one which 
expresses the area in the terms of the three sides, and was 
unknown in Europe till published by Clavius, and by 
their knowledge of the proportions of the radius to the 
circumference of a circle, which tiiey express in a mode 
peculiar to themselves, by applying one measure and 

1 Edinburgh Eiic}clopa?dia, "Geometry," p. 191. 
^Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1875, p. 227. 
^See History of Hindu Chemistry, Vol. I, p. xxiv, Intro. 


one unit to the radius and circumference. This proportion, 
which is confirmed by the most approved labours of Euro- 
peans, was not known out of India until modern times." ^ 


The Hindus have been especially successful in the 
cultivation of algebra. Professor Wallace says : " In 
algebra the Hindus understood well the arithmetic of 
surd roots, and the general resolution of equations of 
the second degree, which it is not clear that Diaphantus 
knew, that they attained a general solution of 
indeterminate problems of the first degree, which it is 
certain Diaphantus had not attained, and a method of 
deriving a multitude of answers to problems of the 
second degree, when one solution was discovered by 
trial, which is as near an approach to a general solution 
as was made un^il the time of La Grange." Professor 
AVallace concludes by adopting the opinion of Playfair 
on this subject, " that before an author could think of 
embodying a treatise on algebra in the heart of a system 
of astronomy, and turning the researches of the one 
science to the purposes of the other, both must have been 
in such a state of advancement as the lapse of several ages 
and many repeated efforts of inventors were required to 
produce." "This," says Professor Wilson, "is unanswer- 
able evidence in favour of the antiquity, originality, and 
advance of the Hindu mathematical science."^ 

lElphiiistone's History of India, p. liiO. 
-'Mill's India, Vol. II, p. lol, Wilson's note, 


Mr. Colebi'ooke says: "They (the Hindus) uiulcr- 
stood well tlu^ arithmetic of surd roots ; they were 
aware of the infinite quotient resultinij; from the division 
of finite ([uantities by cipher ; they knew the general 
resolution of equations of the second degree, and had 
touched upon those of higher denomination, resolving 
them in the sinq^lest cases, and in those in which the 
solution happens to be practicable by the method which 
serves for quadratics ; they had attained a general 
solution of indeterminate problems of the first degree ; 
they had arrived at a method for deriving a multitude 
of solutions of answers to problems of the second degree 
from a single answer found tentatively."^ "And this," 
says Colebrooke i!i conclasion " was as near an ap])roach 
to a general solution of such problems as was made 
until the davs of La Granij'e."' 

" Equally decided is the evidence," says Manning, 
" that this excellence in algebraic analysis was attained 
in India independent of foreign aid." 

Mr. Colebrooke says : " No doubt is entertained of 
the source from which it was received immediately by 
modern Europeans. The Arabs were mediately or im- 
mediately our instructors in this study." 

Mrs. Manning says: "The Arabs were not in general 
inventors hid recipients. Subsequent observation has 
confirmed this view ; for not only did algebra in an 
advanced state exist in India prior to the earliest 
disclosure of it by the Arabians to modern Europe, but 

^Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, Vol. II, p. 419. 

2Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, Vol. II, pp. 416-418. For 
the points in which Hindu algebra is more advanced than the Greek, 
see Colebrooke, p. IG. 


the names by which the numerals have become known 
to ns are of Sanskrit origin."^ 

Professor Monier Wilhams saj's : " To the Hindus 
is due the inverdion of ahjebra and geometry and their 
application to (istronomyy- 

Comparing the Hindus and the Greeks, as regards 
their knowledge of algebra, Mr. Elphinstone says : 
"There is no question of the superiority of the Hindus 
over their rivals in the perfection to which they brought 
the science. Not only is Aryabhatta superior to Dia- 
phantus (as is shown by his knowlege of the resolution 
of equations involving several unknown quantities, and in 
a general method of resolving all indeterminate problems 
of at least the first degree) bat he and his successors 
press hard upon the discoveries of algebraists who lived 
almost in our own time."'^ " It is with a feeling of 
respectful admiration that Mr. Colebrooke alludes to 
ancient Sanskrit treatises on algebra, arithmetic and 

In the Edinburgh Review (Vol. XXI, p. 372) is a 
striking history of a probleui (to find ,i', so that ax- + b 
shall be a square number.) The first step towards a 
solution is made by Diaphantus, it was extended by 
Fermat, and sent as a detiance to the English algebraists 
in the seventeenth century, but was only carried to its 
full extent by the celebrated mathematician Euler, 

1 Ancient and Media?val India, Vol. II, p, ;575. '-Mr. Colebrooke 
lias fnlly shown that algebra had attained the highest perfection it ever 
reached in India before it was ever known to the Arabians. Whatever the 
Arabs possessed in conmion with the Hindus, there are good grounds to 
believe that they derived from the Hindus." — Elphinstone's India, p. 133. 

-Indian Wisdom, p. 185. •^Elphinstone's India, p. 131. 

'^MuuuingN Ancient and Medi;\jval India. Vol. I, p. 374 


who arrives exactly at the pouit before attained by 
Rhashkaracharya." ^ 

Another occurs in the same Review ( VoUniie XXIX, 
p. 153), where it is stated, from Mr. Colcbrookc that a 
})articiilar solution given by Bhashkeracharya is exactly 
the same as that hit on by Lord l^rounker in 1G57 ; and 
that the general solution of the same problem was unsuc- 
cessfully attempted by Euler and only accom})lished by 
De la Grange in 1767 A.D. ; although it had been as com- 
pletely given by Brahmayapfa. 

" But," says Mr. Elphinstone, " the superiority of 
the Hindus over the Greek algebraists is scarcely so 
conspicuous in their discoveries as in the excellence of 
their method, which is altogether dissimilar to that of 
Diaphantus (Strachey's Bija Ganita quoted in the 
"Edinburgh Review," Vol. XXI, pp. 374, 375), and. 
in the perfection of their algorithm (Colebrooke's Hindu 
Algebra quoted in the E. R. Vol. XXIX, p. 162). 

One of their most favourite processes (that called 
cattaca) w^as not known in Europe till published by 
Bachet de Mezeriac, about the year 1624, and is virtually 
the same as that explained by Euler (Edinburgh Review, 
Vol. XXIX, p. 151). Their application of algebra to 
astronomical investio:ations and o-eometrical demonstra- 
tions is also an invention of their own ; and their manner 
of conducting it is even now entitled to admiration - 

lElphiustone's l)idia, p. 131. Bliashkaracliaiya wrote the cele- 
brated book "Siddhaiita Siromaui," containing treatises on algebra ami 
Arithmetic. His division of a circle is remarkable for its niiiuite 
analysis, which is as follows :— ^ n)^Ze%^oY^^o 

60 Vikala (Seconds) = A Tvala (Minutes"). ^, ,^r .^,l 

bO Kala ... = A Bhaga (Degree). - -"* -^ /' 

30 BhAga ... = A Rasi (Sign). 

12 Rasi ... = iV Bhagana (Revolution). 


(Colebrooke, quoted by Professor Wallace; and Edinburgh 
Review, Vol. XXIX, p. 158). 

.Speaking of the Hindu treatises on algebra, arith- 
metic, and mensuration, Mr. Colebrooke says : " It is 
not hoped that in the actual advanced condition of 
the analytical art they will add to its resources and 
throw new light on the mathematical science in any 
other respect than as concerns its history, but had an 
earlier version of these treatises been completed, had 
they been translated and given to the public when the 
notice of mathematicians Avas first drawn to the attain- 
ments of the Hindus in astronomy and in sciences 
connected with it, some additions would have been then 
made to the means and resources of algebra, for the 
general solution of problems, by methods which have 
been re-invented or have been perfected in the last age."^ 

It is thus evident from what Mr. Colebrooke shows 
that the Hindu literature even in its degenerate state, 
and when so few works are extant, contains mathematical 
■works that show an advance in the science in no way 
behind the latest European achievements. 

As an instance of the remarkable and extensive 
practice and cultivation of mathematics in India, may 
be cited the case of a problem from Lallta Vistar. Mons. 
Wa^pcke,' indeed, is of opinion that, the account in the 

• Colebrooke's MiscoUaueoas Essays. Vol. II, p. 410. 

It may, however, be said that in some quarters the genuineness of 
the independent sohition of the problems mentioned above, and i\w 
discoverv of methods siniihir totiiose of tlie Hindus by modern Europeans 
liave been doubted, and such doabts may well be excused, considerint>' 
the extensive intercourse that has existed between India and Knropo 
i'or a Ion,!? tinie past. 

-■iMem Siirla prnjHKjtdian des cJn'fres Ind/ens, Paris, 18(!.5, pp. 7r»-91, 


Lal'ila Vistara of the problem solved by Biuldha on tlie 
occasion of his marriage examination, relative to the 
number of atoms in the length of a Yojana, is the basis 
of the " Arenariiis "of the celebrated scientist Archimedes. 
The credit of the discovery of the principle of dili'er- 
ential calculus is generally claimed by the Europeans. 
But it is remarkable that a similar method existed in 
India asfes ajro. Bhashkeracharva, one of the 
world's greatest mathematicians, has referred to it. 
Following, however, in the footsteps of his Hindu 
})redecessors he does not expound the method fully, but 
only gives an outline of it. 

Mr. Spottiswoode says : " It must be admitted 
that the penetration shown by Bhashkeracharya in his 
analysis is in the highest degree remarkable that the 
formula which he establishes, and his method, bear 
more than a mere resemblance — they bear a strong 
analogy — to the corresponding process in modern 
mathematical astronomy ; and that the majority of 
scientific persons will learn with surprise the existence 
of such a method in the writings of so distant a 
period and so remote a region."^ 

Mr. Lethbridge says : " Bhashkeracharya is said to 
have discovered a mathematical process very nearlj'- 
resembling the differential calculus of modern European 



'J. R. A. S., Vol. XV'll. -Scbuol liistory v[ ludia, A)>iiL'iidix A, p. ii. 



'* Ye multiplying masses of increased 

And still increasing lights : what are ye ? what 

Is this blue ■wilderness of interminable 

Air where ye roll along, as I have seen 

The leaves along the limpid stream of Eden ? 

Is your course measured for ye ? or do ye 

Sweep on in your unbounded revelry 

Tlirough an aerial universe of endless 

Expansion, at which my soul aches to think, 

Intoxicated with eternity." 

Byron : Cain. 

A European critic says : " For a man, the most sublime 
study is that of astronomy." And, indeed, what can 
be more sublime than the study of Nature in its broadest 
aspects, of the movements and the functions of those 
wonderful and splendid bodies with which the boundless 
expanse of the wide, wide space is thickly studded, where 
fancy is puzzled and imagination itself staggered ? 

" Heaven 
Is as the book of God befoie thee set 
Wherein to read His wondrous words." 

Milton : Paradise Lost, 

The science of astronomy flourishes only amongst a 
civilized people. Hence, considerable advancement in it 
is itself a proof of the high civilization of a nation. Hindu 
astronomy, or what remains of it, has received the homage 
of European scholars. Dr. Sir William Hunter says : 
*' The Astronomy of the Hindus has formed the subject 
of excessive admiration. " " Proofs of very extraordinary 


proficiency," says Mr. Elphinstonc, " in their nstronomi- 
cal writings iire found.' 

The Hindu astronomy not only establishes the higli 
proficiency of our ancestors in tliis department of know- 
ledge and exact admiration and applause : it does some- 
thing more. It proves the great antiquity of the Sanskrit 
literature and the hi<j;h literary culture of the Hindus. 
*' Mons. Bailly, the celebrated author of the History of 
Astronomy, inferred from certain astronomical tables of 
the Hindus, not only advanced progress of the science but 
a date so ancient as to be entirely inconsistent with the 
chronology of the Hebrew Scriptures. His argument was 
laboured with the utmost diligence, and was received with 
unbounded applause. All concurred at the time with the 
wonderful learning, wonderful civilization and wonderful 
institutions of the Hindus."- It must not, however, be 
forgotten, as this celebrated astronomer (Mons. Bailly) 
holds, that Hindu astronomy is "the remains rather than 
the elements of a science."^ 

Mr. Weber says : " Astronomy was practised in 
India as early as 2780 B.C."* But some of the greatest 
modern astronomers have decided in favour of a much 
greater antiquity. Cassini, Bailly, Gentil and Playfair 
maintain " that there are Hindu observations extant 
which must have been made more than three thousand 

1 History of India, p. 129. 2Mill's History of India, Vol. II, pp. 07,98. 

"^See Bailly 's Histoire de V Astronomie Ancienne (^Plutot les debria 
qii€ les elemens d'une Science). 

** Weber's Indian Literature, p. 30. " Biot regards tlie 2357 B.C. 
as the earliest point when the course of the njoon was first watched 
for astronomical use." — Dunker's History ofAntiquiti/, p. 2^4. 

•1 o 


years before Christ, and which evince even then a very 
hiyh det/ree of astronomical science."^ 

Count Bjornstjerna proves conclusively that Hindu 
astronomy was very far advanced even at the beginning 
of the Kaliyug, or the iron age of the Hindus (about 
5,000 years ago). He says : " According to the astro- 
nomical calculations of the Hindus, the present period of 
the world, Kaliyug, commenced 3,102 years before the 
birth of Christ, on the 20th of February, at 2 hours 27 
minutes and 30 seconds, the time being thus calculated to 
minutes and seconds. They say that a conjunction of 
the planets then took place, and their tables show this 
conjunction. Bailly states that Jupiter and Mercury 
were then in the same degree of the ecliptic, Mars at a 
distance of only eight, and Saturn of seven degrees ; 
whence it follows, that at the point of time given by the 
Brahmins as the commencement of Kaliyug, the four 
planets above-mentioned must have been successively 
concealed by the rays of the sun (first Saturn, then Mars, 
afterwards Jupiter and lastl}' Mercury). They thus 
showed themselves in conjunction ; and although Venus 
could not then be seen, it was natural to say, that 
a conjunction of the jjlanets then took place. The 
calculation of the Brahmins is so exactly confirmed by 
our own astronomical tables, that notliino; but an actual 
observation could have given so correspondent a result." 
The learned Count continues: "He (Bailly) further 
informs us that Laubere, Avho was sent by Louis XIV as 
ambassador to the King of Siam, brought home, in the 
year 1687, astronomical tables of solar eclipses, and that 
other similar tables were sent to Europe by Patouillet 

' Tlioogoiiy of the llindus, p. 32. 

ASTRONO:\rY. ^?)i') 

(a missionary in the Carnatic), and by Gontil, Avliidi latter 
were obtained from the Brahmins in Tirvalore, and that 
they all perfecfli/ agree in their calculations aJtIioft(/h 
received from (/ifcrent person.'^, at cdferenf times, an<l 
from places in India remote from each other. On these 
tables, Bailly makes the following observation. The 
motion calciilated by the Brahmins during the long 
space of 4,383 years (the period elapsed between these 
calculations and Baillj^'s), varies not a single minute from 
the tables of Cassini and Meyer ; and as the tables 
brought to Europe by Laubere in 1687, under Louis 
XIV, are older than those of Cassini and Meyer, the 
accordance between them must be the result of 
and exact astronomical observations." Then again, 
*' Indian tables give the same annual variation of the m.oon 
as that discovered by Tycho Brahe, a variation unknown 
to the school of Alexandria, and also to the Arabs, who 
followed the calculations of this school." 

"These facts," says the erudite Count, "sufficiently 
show the great antitjuity and distinguished station of 
astronomical science among the Hindus of past ages." 
The Count then asks "if it be true that the Hindus more 
than 3,000 B.C., according to Bailly's calculation, had 
attained so high a degree of astronomical and geometrical 
learning, how many centuries earlier must the com- 
mencement of their culture have been, since the human 
mind advances only step by step on the path of science!"' 

There are, however, many other arguments to estab- 
lish a far higher antiquity of the Hindu astronomy 
than what is assigned by Bentley. The equation of the 
sun's centre, according to the Indian tables, is 2° lOJ'; 
^ Theogony of tlie Hindns. p. 37. 


whereas the same quantity according to the modern 
observations is only 1° oo^' . It is one consequence of 
the mutual disturbances of planets that the eccentricity 
of the solar orbit on which the equation just mentioned 
depends, was greater in former ages than it is at the 
present time. From the quantity which the Hindus 
assign to this astronomical element, ^I. Bailly has 
drawn an argument in favour of the antiquity of the 
Indian tables, which it must be confessed is of great 
weight when the difference of the Indian and European 
determinations is considered as arising from the 
gradual alteration of the planetary orbits. 

2. The quantities which the Indian tables assign to 
other astronomical elements, vu., the mean motions of 
Jupiter and Saturn, have been found to agree almost 
exactly not with what is observed at the present time, 
but with what the theory of gravity shows would have 
been observed at the beginning of the Kaliyug. Laplace 
discovered it after the publication of the Astronomie 
[ndien and inserted it in the Journal des Savans. 

3. M. Bailly has shown that the place of the 
aphelion of Jupiter's orbit, determined by the Indian 
tfibles for the beginning of the Kaliyug agrees with the 
modern tables of Lalande when corrected by the 
theoretical equations of La Grange. The same thing is 
true of the quantity which the Hindus assign to the 
equation of Saturn's centre. 

4. Another argument to vindicate the great anti- 
quity of Hindu astronomy is derived from the obliquity 
of the ecleptic which the Indians state at 24°. Both 
observation and theory concur in showing that tlie 


obliquity of the ecliptic has been diminishing slowly for 
many ages preceding the present. 

5. The length of the Hindu tropical year as de- 
duced from the Hindu tables is 365 days, 5 hours, 50 
minutes, 35 seconds, while La Callie's observ^ation gives 
365-5-48-49. This makes the year at the time of the 
Hindu observation longer than at present by 1'46". It 
is, however, an established fact that the year has been 
decreasing in duration from time immemorial and shall 
continue to decrease. In about 49 centuries the time 
of the year decreases about 40J". This, then, is an 
immistakahle proof of the very Jdgh antiqvitij of Indian 
ostronom.}/. The observation by the Hindus must have 
been made in the Dwapar (more than 5,000 years ago). 

It should now be quite clear that in India astronomy 
was cultivated and wonderful progress in the science 
made at a period when the rest of the world, including the 
whole of Europe, w^as completely enveloped in ignorance. 

Sir W. Hunter says : " In some points the Brahmans 
made advances beyond Greek astronomy. Their fame 
spread throughout the West, and found entrance into the 
Chronicon Paschale (commenced about 330 A.D. and 
revised under Heraclius 610-641).^ 

Mr. Elphinstone says: "In addition to the points al- 
ready mentioned in which the Hindus have gone beyond 
the other nations, Mr. Colebrooke mentions two in astro- 
nomy. One is in their notions regarding the processions 
of the Equinoxes, in which they w^ere more correct than 
Ptolemy, and as much so as the Arabs, who did not attain 
to that degree of improvement till a later period ; the other 

1 Indian Gazetteer, Vol. IV, p. 218. 


relates to the diurnal revolution of the earth on its axis 
which the Brahmans discussed in the fifth century B.G."^ 
Sir W. Hunter savs : " The Sanskrit term for the 
apex of a planet's orbit seems to have passed into the 
Latin translations of the Arabic astronomers. The Sans- 
krit ifccha became the anx (gen. ait 1/ is) of the later trans- 
lators." (Reinaud, p. 325 and AVeber, p. 257). 

Professor Weber says : " The fame of Hindu astrono- 
mers spread to the West, and the Andubarius (or probably, 
Ardubarius), whom the Chronicon Paschale places in 
primeval times as the earliest Indian stronomer, is doubt- 
less none other than Aryabhatta, the rival of Pulisa, and 
who is likewise extolled by the Arabs under the name 
of Arjabahar."- 

Professor Wilson says : "The science of astronomy 
at present exhibits many proofs of accurate observation 
and deduction, highly creditable to the science of the 
Hindu astronomers. The division of the ecleptic into 
lunar mansions, the solar zodiac, the mean motions of 
the planets, the procession of the equinox, the earth's 
self-support in space, the diurnal revolution of the earth 
on its axis, the revolution of the moon on her axis, her 
distance from the earth, the dimensions of the orbits of 
the planet, the calculations of eclipses are parts of a 
svstem which could not have been found amongst an 
unenlightened people,"'^ 

But the originality of the Hindus is not less 

striking than their proficiency. It is remarkable that 

the Hindu methods are all original and peculiar. 

Professor Wilson says: "'The originality of Hindu 

I History of India, p. i32, iootnote. "AVchor's Indian Literature, jj. 255. 
^Mill's History of India, Vol. II,].). 100. 

A?;TKONnMr. 839 

nstronomv is i\{ once cstablislicd, I)Ut it is also proved 
by intrinsic evidence, and althougli there are some re- 
markable coincidences between the Hindu and other 
systems, their methods arc their own."' Mr. Elphin- 
stone says : " In the more advanced stai>*es, where they 
are more likely to have borrowed, notonlv is their mode 
of proceedings peculiar to themselves but it is often 
founded on principles, with which no other ancient 
people were acquainted, and showed a knowledge of 
discoveries not made even in Europe till within the 
course of the last two centuries, "- 

In the sixth volume of the Journal of the Ameri- 
can Oriental Society', Professor Whitney published an 
English translation of Suri/a Siddhdnt by the Kev. E. 
Burgess, with an elaborate commentary by himself. This 
paper excited comments froniM. Biot, the late venerable 
astronomer of Paris, and from Professor Weber of Berlin. 
Biot believed that the Hindus derived their system of 
Nakahntrnn^ or moon stations, from the Chinese, but Pro- 
fessor Whitne}' contributed two other papers to the said 
Journal, in which he clearly shows that the Hindu 
Nalisliatra does not mean the same thing as the Chinese 
sleu. Sien means a single star, whereas Nalshaira 
expresses a (jroup of stars ^ or rather a certain portion of 
the starry heavens. Again, Professor AVeber shows that 
the Chinese slea is not traceable further than two or 
three centuries before Christ, while NaksJuitras are 
amongst the heavenly objects mentioned in the Vedic 
hymns. "'^ The great antiquity of the science, however, 
is the best proof of its originality. 

1 Mill's History of India, Vol. If, p. 107. 
-Elphinstoue's History of India, p. 132. 

3W. I). Whitney, "Views of Weber and Biut re.-pcct ing U.e 
"Relations of the Hindu and Chinese Asterisks, p. 25. 


The Arabs were the disciples of the Hindus in this 
branch of knowledge also. Professor Weber says that 
Hindu astronomers are extolled by the Arabs. He adds : 
" For, during the eighth and nineth centuries the Arabs 
were, in astronomy, the disciples of Hindus, from whom 
they borrowed the lunar mansions in their new order, 
and whose Siddhdnts they frequently worked up and 
translated in part under the supervision of Indian astro- 
nomers themselves, whom the Khalifs of Baghdad, etc., 
invited to their courts."^ 

Dr. Robertson says : " It is highly probable that the 
knowledge of the twelve signs of zodiacs was derived 
from India."^ 

Sir \Y. W. Hunter says: "The Arabs became their 
(Hindus) disciples in the eighth century, and translated 
Sanskrit treatises, Siddhdnts, under the nsune Smdhends.''^ ■^ 
Professor Wilson says : " Indian astronomers were greatly 
encouraged- by the early Khalifs, particularly Harun-ul- 
Rashid, and Aimamun ; they were invited to Baghdad, 
and their works were translated into Arabic. The 
Hindus were, fully as much as the Greeks, the teachers 
of the Arabians."* 

There are nine Siddhantas :' (1) Hrahma Siddhanta, 
(2) Surya Siddhanta, (8) Soma Siddhanta, (4) Vrihaspati 
Siddhanta, (5) Gargya Siddhfmta, (6) Nfirada Siddhanta, 
(7) Parasin- Siddhanta, (8) Pulastya Siddhanta, and (9) 
A^ashishta Siddhanta. Of these, the work best known to 

^Weber's Indian Literature, p. 255. 2 Disquisition concerning 
India, p, 280. 

■Undiau Gazetteer, "India," p. 218. -^Mill's History of India, Vol. 
II, p. 107. 

■"The Panch Siddhantas, or the five principal astronomical works 
in general use are : (1) The Paulisa Siddhanta, (2) The Romaka Sid- 
dhanta, (^S) The Vashishta Siddhanta, (4) The Saura Siddhanta, 
Brahma Siddhanta, (5) The Failawaha Siddhaula. 


Europeans is the Sitri/a Si/kiJurnfa which is the oldest 
o£ the extant SiddhantasJ There is internal evidence to 
show that Surya Siddhdnta is a very old book. The 
author in two slokas (Madhyan Addhaya, slokas 22, 23) 
gives the date when the book was written. He says: 

"Six Manwantras have passed since the beginnin2^ 
of this kalp (present world) : and of the seventh i\Ian- 
wantra, 27 Chaturyugis have passed. The Satyug of 
the 28th Chaturyugi has also passed. From this the 
time of the compilation of this book may be inferred." 
This makes the book nearly 2,165,000 years old. 

Mr. Davis calculates that the celebrated Hindu as- 
tronomer, Parasar, judging from the observations made 
by him, must have lived 1391 years before Christ, ^ 
and consequent!}", says Bjornstjerna, *' had read in the 
divine book of the heavenlv firmament long before the 
Chaldees, the Arabs and the Greeks."^ 

Mr. Houghton says : " From a text of Parasar it 
appears that the equinox had gone back from the tenth 
deoree of Bharv'i to the first of Aswini. or 23 deurees and 
20 minutes between the days of that Indian philosopher 
and the year of our Lord 499, when it coincided with 
the orio-in of the Hindu ecliptic, so that Parasar probably 
flourished near the close of the twelfth century before 

1 Indian Wisdom, pp. 184, 185- 

2 Asiatic Researches, Vol. II, p. 288. 
siheogony of the Hindus, pp. 33) 34. 


After Parasar Miuii came Aryabhatta, Avho was a 
great astrologer too. The date of his birth is not 
known, though it is certain that he was born lono- anterior 
to Vicramaditya. He Avas the man who, according to the 
Europeans, first brought to light "diurnal revolution of 
the earth on its axis, and to have known the true theorv 
of the causes of the lunar and solar eclipses, and notice 
the motion of solstitial and equinoctial points."^ 

His principal works are: (1) Aryabatika, (2) Dasa 
Gitika, (3) Aryashta Sata. 

The best known astronomer who flourished after 
Aryabhatta's time is Varahmihira, who became pre-emi- 
nent in astrology. Mrs. Manning says : " Varahmihira 
may be cited as a celebrated astronomer to whom astro- 
lo2'v was irresistibly attractive :" and as^ain, "He is called 
an astronomer, but it is for astrology that we find him 
most celebrated. He attained excellence in each branch of 
the Sanhita, and before w^riting his celebrated treatise 
called the Brihat- Sanhita he composed a work on pure 
astronomy."- Virahmihir lived in the first century before 
Christ, and was one of the nine gems at the court of 
Yikramaditya. The nine gems, or 7iaii ratan, were : — 

%cn^ vf|w^ iirrn; ^Tf^^i^i: ii 

Varahmihir's chief works are : (1) Vrihaj Jataka, 
(2) Brihat Sanhita, (3) A Summary of the Original 
Pancli Siddhantas. Mrs. Manning says : " Richness of 
detail constitutes the chief attraction of the book (Brihat 

iSee Chamber's Encyclopaedia. 

'-Ancient and Mediccval India, Vol. I, pp., 308,309. 


Sanhita), a merit which was appreciated by tlie Arab 
astrologer, Albiriini (^'^r^^^), as it will be by ourselves ; 
for altliough professedly astrological, its value for 
geography, architecture, sculpture, etc., is uneqmdled 
by any Sanskrit work as yet published. "i 

The last Hindu astronomer of eminence, however, 
was Bhashkeracharya, who is said by Europeans to have 
flourished so late as the twelfth century. He ex- 
pounded the law of gravity with peculiar felicity, while 
his mathematical works place him in the forefront of 
the world's great mathematicians. 

The roundness of the earth and its diurnal rotation, 
however, w^ere known to the Hindus from the earliest 
times. Says a Rishi in the Aiteriya Brahmana : " Bv 
this great inauguration similar to Indra's, Tura, son of 
Kavasha, consecrated Janamjaya, and thereby did he 
subdue the earth completely round.''''' In Aryabhat- 
tiyam we read : 

" The earth, situated in the middle of the heavens 
and composed of five elements, is spherical in its shape." 
Bhashkaracharya, in Goladhaya^ says : 

" A hundredth part of the circumference of a circle 
appears to be a straight line. Our earth is a big sphere, 

^ Ancient and Mcdiasval India, Vol. I, p. 370. See also Dr. Kern's 
Bib. Ind., Introduction, p. 27. 

^Haug'sj Aiteriya Brahmana, Vol, II, p. 242, 


and the portion visible to man being exceedingly small, 
the earth appears to be flat." 

Dr. H. Kern, in his paper on " Some fragments of 
Aryabhatta," translates a passage as follows : " The 
terrestrial globe, a compound of earth, fire, water, air, en- 
tirely round, and compassed by a girdle, i.e., equator, 
stands in the air," etc., etc. 

As regards the annual motion of the earth, the 
Rig Veda says : 

■STT Jl^l^^fsf ^sffci fspEficf ^'^\ ^f TIT ^crsf^K^TTrf: I 
^T g^^TJDT ^^m^ ^igw %^»^1" ^TSlsf^^lT f^^^ II 
The diurnal motion is thus described in the Yajur Veda : 
WT^ 31^5 ^r^^fifll^^ff'^TcT^* XT?;: I f^c{^ =^ 5f^'(^: II 
The Aiteriya Brahmana explains that the sun neither 
sets nor rises, that when the earth, owing to the rotation on 
its axis is lighted up, it is called day," and so on.^ 

^^ ^\^ irTer^%<flfcT Tijg% ^t^^^ cr^^frfflc^ ^'gTcflTsf' 
f^ipr^% SEj'^T^T^'^TTcf ^^^ ^Tf^iT 5^^TcT I ^ t" ■5:¥ sf '^^T=^T 

fij^'^^^fcT I if =r f ^^T=^*r f5TT^"t^fcr ii 
As regards the stars being stationery, Aryabhatta^ says : 
HXT^s^C- f^^t^T^^^T^WIJTfcTf^Tf^^^ I 
^?^?n^?T^^ ^'iTT^^^ 371"*t^'^TJni II 
" The starry vault is fixed. It is the earth which, moving 
round its axis, again and again causes the rising and set- 
ting of planets and stars." He starts the question. " Why 
do the stars seems to move ? " and himself replies : "As 
a person in a vessel, while moving forwards, sees an im- 
movable object moving backwards, in the same manner 
do the stars, however immovable, seem to move daily."^ 

iHaug'f? Aiteriya Brahamana, Vol. II, p. 242. 
iJColebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, Vol. II, p. 392, 
3 Journal of ihe K.A.«., Vol. XX, p. 372. 

ASTK(JNoMV. '345 

The Polar davs and ni<:;lits o£ six months arc ulso 
described by him. 

It has been remarked : 

'' When it is sunrise at Lanka (the E(juator) it is mid- 
day at Java, sunset in America, and midnight at Rome." 
As reo'ards the size of the earth, it is said : 

^ig^^^T^^g^: ffT^^^tW%^Tf^^T: II 
" The circumference of the earth is 4,967 yojanas, 
and its diameter is 1,581— yojanas." A yojana is equal 
to live English miles, the circumference of the earth 
would therefore be 24,835 miles and its diameter 
7,905-5/24 miles. 

The Yajur A^eda sa3's that the earth is kept in space 
owing to the superior attraction of the sun. 

The theory of gravity is thus described in the 
Sldhdnta Shlromani centuries before Newton was born. 

^^ JJ^^^lf^fW ^^TFTt^T 1 1 

^% ^^^TcT ^tfcrf^^ ^%: 1 1 
" The earth, owing to its force of gravity, draws all 
things towards itself, and so they seem to fall towards 
'the earth." etc. etc. 


That the moon and the stars are dark bodies is thus 
described : — 

" The earth, the planets and the comets all receive 
their liirht from the sun : that half towards the sun 
being always bright, the colour varying with the pecu- 
liarity of the substance of each." 

The Atharva Yeda says : " f^f^ ^I'hI" ^fyf^rr: | " 
" The moon is dependent on the sun for its light." 

As regards the atmosphere it is stated : 

"The atmosphere surrounds the earth, and its height 
is 12 yojanas (60 English miles), and the clouds, light- 
ning etc. are phenomena connected with it." 

Mr. Colebrooke says : " Aryabhatta affirmed the 
diurnal revolution of the earth on its axis. He posses- 
sed the true theor}^ of the causes of solar and lunar eclipses 
and disregarded the imnginar}^ dark planets of m^'tholog- 
ists and astrologers, affirming the moon and primary 
j)]anets (and even the stars) to be essentially dark and 
only illuminated by the sun."^ 

As regards the solar and lunar eclipses, it is stated : 

^K^^^fff^^f^H ^iftqm: II 

" When the earth in its rotation comes between 
the sun and the moon, and the shadow of the earth falls 
on the moon, tlie phenomenon is called lunar eclipse, 
and when the moon comes between the sun and the 
earth the sun seems as if it was being cut off — this is 
solar eclipse." 

1 Culcbrooke's Essays, .\[)pendix Gr, p. i67. 

ARTnONOMY. ?)47 

The fuUowliio- Ls taken from Varai nil lir's observations 
on the moon. " One half of the moon, wliosc orbit lies 
between the sun and the earth, is always bright by the 
sun's rays ; the other half is dark by its own shadows, 
like the two sides of a pot standhig in the sunshine."^ 

About eclipses, he says : " The true explanation of 
the phenomenon is this : in an eclipse of the moon, he 
enters into the earth's shadow ; in a solar eclipse, the 
same thing- happens to the sun. Hence the commence- 
ment of a lunar eclipse does not take place from the icest 
side, nor that of the solar eclipse from the easty- 

Kali Dasa says in his Ear/hif Vansa: 

Jai Deva sings in the Gita Govind : " His heart was 
agitated by her sight, as the waves of the deep are 
att'ected by the lunar orb."^ 

India has from time immemorial been the land of 
philosophers, poets, astronomers and mathematicians, 
and every now and then it produces a great genius. 
Less than two centuries ago, Rajputana produced an 
astronomer, no doubt the greatest of his time. This 
astronomer was no other than the famous Jai Singh of 
Jaipur. Sir William Hunter says: "Raja Jai Singh II 
constructed a set of observatories at his capital, Jaipur, 
Muttra, Banares, Delhi and U jjain, and was able to correct the 
astronomical tables of De La Hire ])ublished in 1702 A.D. 
The Raja left as a monument of his skill, a list of stars 
collated by himself, known as the Zij Mohammed Shahi, 
or Tables of Mohammed Shah. His observatory at Benares 
survives to this day." 

iBrihat Sanghita, Chapter V, v. 8. ^Brihat Sanghita, Chapter V, v. 8. 
^Tod's Rujasthan, Vol. I, p. 543. 


The celebrated European astronomer, Mr. Playfair, 
says : " The Brahmin obtains his result wiih wonderful 
certainty and expedition in astronomy,"^ This speaks 
volumes in favour of the original, advanced and scientific 
methods of the Hindus and their marvellous cultivation 
of the science. Professor Sir ]\[. Williams says : "It is 
their science of astronomy by which they (Hindus) heap 
billions upon millions, trillions upon billions of years and 
reckoning up ages upon ages, teons upon a^ons with even 
more audacity than modern geologists and astronomers. 
It short, an astronomical Hindu ventures on arithmetical 
conceptions quite beyond the mental dimensions of any- 
one who feels himself incompetent to attempt a task of 
measuring infinity." A strange confession of inferiority ! 
Well may Mrs. Manning exclaim : " The Hindus had 
the widest range of mind of which man is capable."^ 

In astronomy, as in other sciences, what scanty 
records remain not only show the astonishing proficiency 
of the Hindus in the science, but contain theories not yet 
understood by others, bir M. Mon. Williams says : 
" A very strange theory of the planetary motion is 
expounded at the commencement of the Si/ri/a Siddhanta, 
Chapter II," which is unknown outside India.^ 

^ Playfiiir on the astronomy ol the Hindus. Transactions of the 
li. A. S. of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. II, pp. I:J8, 139. 

-.Vucient and Mediaeval India, Vol. I, \k U^^- 

sMonier Williams' Indian Wisdom, p. 189. Mr. C. B. Clarke, 
F. G. S., says in liis Geographical Header: — "Till of late years we 
did not know with extreme exactness the longitndes of distant places." 
The ancient Hindu method of finding the longitude by first finding out. 
tlie DesJutntra Gatltika^ witli the aid of observations made at the time of 
the lunar eclipse, is not only scientific but iufalliblo» 



]\[y voice is still fui- war, 

Gods ! oan a Roman senato hjng debate 

"Which of tlie two to choose, slavery or death ? 

Ai)J)isoN : Cato. 

Captain Troyer says : *' All the traditions of the 
Hindus are hlled -with wars, in which religion certainly- 
had its share. I have shown this sufficiently already, 
without being- obliged to go back so far as the contests 
between the Suras and the A suras." ^ 

War as an art as well as a science was equally well 
understood in ancient India. The nation which overran 
nearly the whole of the habitable globe and produced 
Hercules, Arjuna, Sagarji, Bali could scarcely be con- 
sidered inferior to any other people in their proficiency 
in military science. 

Being skilful sailors from time immemorial, the 
Hindus were adepts at naval warfare. Colonel Tod says: 
"The Hindus of remote ages possessed great naval 



Being: the greatest commercial nation in the ancient 


world, and enjoying sea trade with nearly every part of 
the world (see "Commerce"), they were compelled to 
look to their navy to guard their trade and to make it 
suffi.ciently strong to ensure their position as the " mis- 
tress of the sea." Their position in the ancient world" 
being similar to that of England in the modern world 

1 Troyer on the Ramayana in the Asiatic Journal for October 1844, p. 514. 
2 Tod's RajasthaiK Vol. II, p, 218, 


SO far as maritime affairs are concerned, their navy, too, 
was equally eminent and powerful. Manu mentions 
navigation to have existed among the Hindus from time 
immemorial. Strabo mentions a naval department in 
addition to the others in the Indian army. 

Dhanur Veda, the standard work on Hindu military 
science being lost, the dissertations on the science found 
in the Mahabharata, the Agni Purana, and other works 
are the only sources of information on the subject left to 
us. Dr. Sir AV. Hunter says : " There was no want of a 
theory of regular movements and arrangements for the 
march, array, encampments, and supply of troops. They 
are all repeatedly described in the Mahabharata."^ 

Mr. Ward says : " The Hindu did not permit 
even the military art to remain unexamined. It is very 
certain that the Hindu kings led their own armies to 
the combat, and that the}'' were prepared for this impor- 
tant employment by a military education ; nor is it less 
certain that many of these monarchs were distinguished 
for the hisrhest valour and militarv skill."" 

The ancient Hindu tactics of war were as original 
as valuable. It is said that the Hindus divided their army 
in the following manner : (1) Uras or centre (breast), 
(2) Kakshas or the flanks, (3) Pakshas or wings, (4) 
Fraligraha or the reserves, (5) Koti or vanguards, (6) 
Madhya or centre behind the breast, (7) Prishtha or 
back — a third line between the madhya and the reserve.^ 

Array of forces in action is generally termed vyuha. 

^Indian Gazetteer, "India," p. 223. 
'-^Seethe Theosophist for March 1881, p. 12i. 
3The sage Brihaspati was a great teacher of military scieuce, but 
unfortunately none of his works is now extant. 


Some viiiilias are named from their object. Thus : 

(1) McK/hi/abhedi = one wliich breaks the centre, (2) Antar 
blisdi = that which penetrates between its division. More 
commonly, however, they are named from their resem- 
blance to various objects. For instance (1) Makararyi/ha, 
or the army drawn up like the ■\Iakara, a mire monster. 

(2) Syenavyiiha, or the army in the form of a hawk or 
eagle with wings spread out. (o) Sakalavytiha^ or the 
army in the shape of a waggon. (4) Aradha chandra^ or 
half moon. (5) Sarvatobhadra, or hollow square. (G) 
Gomutrika^ or echelon. (1) Danda or staff, (2) Bhoja 
or column, (3) Mandala or hollow circle, (4) Asanhafa 
or detached arrangements of the different parts of the 
forces, the elephants, cavalry, infantry severally by 
themselves. Each of these vyuhas has subdivisions ; there 
are seventeen varieties of the Danda, five of the Bhoga 
and several of both the Mandala and Asanhafa.^ 

In the Mahabharata (Vol. VL, pp. 699-729), Yudhi- 
shtera suggests to Arjuna the adoption of the form of 
Siichimukha, or the needle point array (similar to the 
phalanx of the Macedonians), while Arjuna recommends 
the rajra or thunderbolt array for the same reason. 
Duryodhana, in consequence, suggests Abhedya, or the 

In their land army, the Hindus had, besides the 
infantry and the cavalry, elephants and chariots also. 
The elephants, " the living battering rams," as Macaulay 

' See Agiii Parana. "The most important part of Hiiuiu battles 
is now a cannonade. I)i tin's iheji (jreutbj excel, and have occasioned heavy- 
losses to us in all our battles with them. Their mode is to charge the front 
and the flanks at once, and the manner in which they perform this manoeuvre 
has sometimes called forth the admiration of European antagonists," — 
Elphiustonc's Ili^torij of India, p. 82. 


calls them, were a source of great strength when properly 
managed and skilfully supported by other arms. Of the 
elephants given by Chaudragupta to Seleucus, Professor 
Max Dunker says : " These animals a few years later 
decided the day of Ipsus in Phrygia against Antogonus, 
a victory which secured to Seleucus the territory of 
Syria, Asia Minor, etc." According to Ctesias, Cyrus 
was defeated and killed by the enemy, only because of 
the strong support the latter received from the Indian 
elephants. 1 

As regards the soldierly qualities of the Indians 
even of the present day. Sir Charles Xapier, one of the 
highest authorities on the subject, says : " Better soldiers 
or braver men I never saw, superior in sobriety, equal 
in courage, and only inferior in muscular strength to our 
countrymen. This appears to me, as far as I can judge, 
the true character of the Indian army in the three Presi- 
dencies, and I have had men of each under my command. "2 

The chivalrous conduct of the Indian sepoys on the 
occasion of the defence of Arcot by Olive, and when, to- 
wards the close of the Avar with Tippu in 1782, the 

i''The proficiency of the Indians in this art (management of ele- 
phants) early attracted tlie attention of Alexander's successors ; and 
natives of India were so long exclusively employed in this service, that 
the term Indian was applied to every elephant-driver, to whatever 
country he might belong." — Wilson's Theatre oftJie Ilindns^ Vol. T, p. 15. 

•' In war, the King of India was preceded by 10,000 elephants and 
3,000 of (lie strongest and the bravest followed iiim.'' — Max Dunker's 
llistury of Antiiiuitij . 

" Sixty years after the death of the Enlightened, the Indians 
assisted the Persian King, the successor of Darius in the invasion of 
Greece, when they trod th(; soil of Hellas and wintered in Thessaly. 
They defeated the Greeks aiul saw the temple of Alliens in flames, — ■ 
]\lax iJunker's Iliston/ of Aiif/(fiiili/, Vol. IV, p. ;>iSl, 

'■^The Ijidian Review (Calcutta) for November, lyyi), p. 181. 

MlLITAIiV sriENCE. 3o3 

whole of the force under (Jeneral Mathews were made 
prisoners is well known. The sepoys mao*nnniinously 
and spontaneously coritri\ ed with great personal risk to 
send every pie of their petty savings to their imprisoned 
officers, saying : " We can live upon anything, but you 
require mutton and beef." The conduct of the Indian 
sepoys shown on such occasions sheds lustre on the 
whole profession. General Wolsley, in a pnper on 
" courage," contributed to a journal, highly eulogised the 
bravery of the Indian sepo^-s. "During the siege of 
Lucknow," he said, *' tiie sepovs performed wonderful 
feats of valour." 

Mr. Elphinstone says : "TheHindns display bra- 
very not surpassed by the most warlike nations, and \n ill 
throw away their lives for nny considerations of religion 
or honour. Hindu sepoys, in our pay have in two in- 
stances advanced after troops of the king's service have 
been beaten off ; and on one of these occasions they 
Avere opposed to French soldiers. The sequel of this 
history will show instances of whole bodies of troops 
rushino" forward to certain death." ^ 

Clive, Lawrence, Smith, Coote, Haliburton nnd many 
others speak of the sepoys in the highest terms. 

Xow as regards the weapons used by the Hindus. 
Professor Wilson is assured that the Hindus cultivated 
archery most assiduously, and were masters in the use of 
the bow on horseback. Their skill in archery was wonder- 
ful. " Part of the archery practice of the Hindus consisted 
in shooting a number of arrows at once, from four to nine 
at one time." Arjuna's feats in archery at the tourna- 

li<lphiu.stone's History of India, ^i. lUb. 


ment before Drauj^adi's marriage, and again on the death- 
bed of Bhishma, must excite universal admiration. 

The archery of the Hindus had something myste- 
rious about it. The arrows returned to -the archer, if 
they missed their aim. This was considered absurd until 
the discovery of .the "bomerang" in the hands of the 

AVarlike weapons and splendid daggers were pre- 
sented at the International Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862, 
and a critic s}>eaking of them, says : " Beautiful as the 
jewelled arms of India are, it is still for the intrinsic 
merit of their steel that they are most highl}' prized. "^ 

That the ancient Hindus were celebrated for their 
sword-fight is evident from the Persian phrase, " to 
give an Indian answer,'^ meaning " a cut with an Indian 
sword." The Indian swordsmen were celebrated all 
over the world. In an Arabic poem of great celebrity, 
known as Sahart. MoalcKja, there occurs the passage : " The 
oppression of near relations is more severe than the 
wound caused by a Hindu swordsman."^ 

Ctesias mentions that the Indian swords were the 
best in the world."* 

The following fivefold classification of Hindu wea- 
pons is exhaustive : (Ij Missiles thrown with an instru- 
ment or engine called yantramukta ; (2) Those hurled by 
h.?aidi (yc hastamakia 'y (3) Weapons which may or may 

' Besides bows, other missiles as the discus, short iron clubs, and 
javelins, swords, masos, battle axes, spears, shields, helmets, armour and 
coats of mail, etc. are also mentioned. See Wilson's Essays, Vol. 11, 
pp. 191, 92. 

^Manning's Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. II, p. 365. 

3 The Tafsif Azizi?,».j?, :Ji^^^llaiol <sJoI aJJo- /e^ ^ii^ . -. J.iib jLo 

■*Max Dunker's History of Antiquity, Vol. IV, p. 43G. 


not be thrown, or m//^/a;jiM/(;/«, as javelins, tridents etc.; (4) 
Wliich are not thrown, as swords, maces, etc. ; (5) Natural 
weapons, jis fi«ts, etc. Bhin(hpala, Tomara, Naracha, 
Prasa, Rishti, Pattisa, Kripana, Kshepani, Pasa, etc., 
are some of the arms o£ the ancient Hindus now extinct. 
The cliief distinction of the modern military 
science is the extensive employment of /ire-arms, their 
invention being attributed to the Europeans, and it being 
supposed that firo-arms were unknown in ancient India. 
Nothinii', however, is farther from the truth. Though the 
Hindu masterpieces on the science of war are all lost, 
yet there is sufficient material available in the great epics 
and the Puranas to prove that fire-arms were not only 
known and used on all occasions by the Hindus, but that 
this branch of their armoury had received extraordinary 
development. In mediaeval India, of course, guns and 
cannons were commonly used. In the twelfth century 
Ave find pieces of ordnance being taken to battle-fields in 
the armies of Prithviraj In the 25th stanza of Frithvi- 
raja Rasa it is said that "The calivers and cannons made 
a loud report when they were fired off, and the noise which 
issued from the ball was heard at a distance of ten cos. 

f5T ^T5T irm ifr^T VT^f^ II 

An Indian historian, Raja Kundan Lall, who lived in 
the court of the king of Oudh, says that there was a big 
gun named Uchhma in the possession of His Majesty the 


Kill"' (o£ OlkIIi) which had been orighially in the 
artillery of: ]\Ialiaraja Prithviraj of Ajmer. The author 
speaks of a regular science of war, of the postal depart- 
ment, and of public or Roman roads. See Muntakhab 
Tafsee-ul-Akhbar, pp. 1^19, 50. 

" Maffei says that the Indians far excelled the 
Portu2;uese in their skill in the use of fire-arms." ^ 

Another author quoted by Bohlen speaks of a 
certain Indian king being in the habit of placing several 
pieces of brass ordnance in front of his army. 2 

" Faria-e Souza speaks of a Guzerat vessel in A.D. 
1500 firing several guns at the Portuguese,' and of 
the Indians at Calicut using fire vessels in 1502, and of 
the Zamorin's fleet carrying in the next year 380 

But let us turn to ancient India. Professor Wilson 
says: "Amongst ordinary weapons one is named r«/Va, 
the thunderbolt, and the specification seems to denote the 
employment of some explosive projectile, which could not 
have been in use except b}^ the agency of something 
like gunpower in its properties."'' 

As regards "gunpowder," the learned Professor 
says : " The Hindus, as we find from their medical 

iHist. ludica. p. 25. 2 Das Alte Indien, Vol IT, p. 63. 

3 Asia Portnguesa, Toiu I, Part I, Chapter 5. -^Ibid, Chapter 7. 

5 Wilson's Essays, Vol. II, p. ."02. The Indians are from time 
immemorial remarkable for their skill in fireworks. The display of fire- 
works has been from olden days a feature of the Dasehra festival. Mr, 
Elphinstone says : " In the Dasohra ceremony the combat ends in the 
destnictiou of Lanka amidst a blaze of fireworks which would excite ad- 
miration in any part of the world. And the procession of the native 
prince on this occasion presents one of the most animating and gorgeous 
spectacles ever seen," — Illpliinstone's Ili.itortf of India, p, 17B, 


writings, were perfectly well !ic(iu:iiiite(l with the 
constituents of <,''unpowrler — sulphur, charcoal, saltpetre 
— and had them idl at liand in ureal abundance. 
It is very unlikely that they should not have 
discovered their inHaniniability, either singly or in 
combination. To this inference a priori may be 
added that drawn from positive proofs, that the use 
of fire as a weapon of combat was a familiar idea, as it 
is constantly described in the heroic poems."' 

The testimony of ancient Greek writers, who, being 
themselves ignorant of fire-arms used by Indians, give 
peculiar descriptions of the mode of Hindu warfare is 
significant. " Themistius mentions the Brahman fijjhtiiig 
at a distance with li(/Jitmng and thunder.''''''^ 

Alexander, in a letter to Aristotle, mentions " the 
terrific flashes of flame which he beheld showered on his 
army in India." See also Dante's Inferno, XIV, 31-7. 

Speaking of the Hindus who opposed Alexander 
the Great, Mr. Elphinstone says : " Their arms, with the 
exception of fire-arms, were the same as at present. '•• 

Philostratus thus speaks of Alexander's invasion of 
the Punjab : " Had Alexander passed the Hyphasis he 
never could have made himself master of the fortified 
habitations of these sages. Should an enemy make war 
upon them, they drive him off by means of tempests 
and thunders as if sent down from Heaven. The 
Egyptian Hercules' and Bacchus made a joint attack on 
them, and by means of various military engines attempt- 

1 Essays, Vol II, p. 303. 

2 0rat, XX VII, p. 337. See Ap, Duten's Origin of the dis- 
coveries attributed to the Moderns, p. 196. 

"■^Elphinstone's History of India, p, 241. 


ed to take the place. The sages remained luiconcenied 
sp-^ctators until the assault was made, when it was 
repulsed by fier}- whirlwinds and thmiders which, being 
hmded from above, dealt destruction on the invaders."^ 

Commenting on the stratagem adopted by King 
Hal in the battle ao-ainst the kin^^ of Kashmir, in makinnf 
a clay elephant which exploded, Mr. Elliot says : " Here 
we have not only the simple act of explosion but some- 
thing very much like a fuze, to enable the explosion to 
occur at a particular period."^ 

Viswamitra, when giving different kinds of wea- 
pons to -Rama, speaks (in the Ramayana) of one as 
agneyn.^ another as shikhara. 

" Carey and Marshman render shikhara as a com- 
bustible weapon."^ 

In the Mahabharata we read of "a flving ball 
emitting the sound of a thundercloud which Scholiast is 
express in referring to artillery."* 

The Harivanaa thus speaks of the fiery weapon : 
3Tm?TRW ^^B^T =^ VTT"T^TcHiTfr fl\ | 

"King Sagafa having received /ire-arms from Bhar- 
gava conquered the world, after slaying the Taljanghas 

iPhilostrati Vit : Apollon, Lib II. C. 33. 

^Elliot's Historians of India, Vol. I, p. 365. 

^ Various kinds of weapons are mentioned, some of which are 
extraordinary. As it is not known how they were made, what they 
were like, and how they were used, people think they are only poetic 
phantasies, Mr. Elliot says : *' Some of these weapons mentioned above 
were imaginary, as for instance, the vayava or airy." But who would 
not have called the gramaphone, the cinametograph and the wireless 
telegraphy imaginary oidy 50 years ago ? 

•JBohlon, Das Alte Indien, II, 66, 

MILITAUY science:. ooi) 

and the HiiiliMvas," M, Langlois snys that "these 
fire-arms appear to have belonged to the Bhargavas, the 
family of Bhrigii."' Again, 

srm^ iTfNT| T^TTf^ %^^?.^i ii 
ecT^T^ ^^^T^r q^^=^ fttrf?^^: i 

" Aurva having performed the usual ceremonies on 
the birth of the great-minded (prince), and having 
tauirht him the A'edas, instructed him in the use of 
arms; the great -armed (Aurva) presented him the 
fiery weapon, which even the immortals could not stand." 

Brahmastra is repeatedly mentioned in Sanskrit 
works. Professor Wilson, in his Sanskrit Dictionary, 
calls J3rahmastra " a fabulous weapon, originally from 
Brahma." For its use see Sri Bhaa^wat describinii; the 
fight between the son of Drona and Arjuna with the 
Brdhmnsfra. The Rev. K. ^I. Bannerjea in his work, 
*' The Encyclopiedia Bengalensis," says that the Brali- 
mastra was probably a piece of musketry not unlike the 
modern matchlocks."" Madame Blavatsky, in her Fsis 
Unveiled^ also shows that "fire-arms were used by the 
Hindus in ancient times."'^ 

In the description of Ayodhia is mentioned the fact 
of yaniras^ being mounted on the walls of the fort, which 
shows that cannons or machines of some kind or other 
were used in those days to fortify and protect citadels. 

The Ramavana, while describinof the fortifications, 

iHaiivansa, p. 68. ^iEncyclo. Bengal, Vol. Ill, p. 21. 

3Isis Unveiled, Chap. XIV. 

'^Y&.ntra means "that thing with which something is thrown.' 


says : " As a woman is richly decorated with ornaments, 
so are the towers with big destructive machines."' 
This shoW'S that cannons or big instruments of war 
like cannons, which discharged destructive missiles at a 
great distance, were in use at that time. 

In descriptions o£ fortresses and battles, Shataghni.s 
are often mentioned. ShntaqJini literally means " that 
which kills hundreds at once." In Sanskrit dictionaries, 
i^hataghni is defined as a machine which shoots out 
pieces of iron and other things to kill numbers of men. 
Its othsr name is Brischi Kali, ^^^in'rft" 

Shatagnis and similar other machines are mentioned 
in the following slokas of the Ramayana : 












13, 16 

and 17 



si oka. 




Kamavana says that the Shatonhni was made of iron. In 
the Sunder Kdnd it is compared in size with big broken 
trees or their huge oftshoots, and in appearance said to 
" resemble trunks of trees." " They were not only 
mounted on forts but were carried to the battle-fields, 
and they made a noise like thunder." What else could 
they, therefore, be but cannons ? 

P)esides the Ramayana, the Puranas make frequent 
mention of Shataghni being placed on forts and used in 
times of emergency.. See Matasya Purana (wc^^TJff), 

iRamanaya, Sunder Kund, Third Chapter, 18th verse. 
5^ See Raja Sir Radh Kant Dev's Shubdkalpadrama. 


" Art of Government." The name used in tliis Parana is 
Sahastrdt/hati (sjcT and ^'^W mean hundreds and thou- 
sands or innumerable)' ii;uns and cannons are mentioned 
as existing in Lanka, under Havana. They were called 
Nhulat Yantras. 

Commenting on the passage in the Code of Gentoo 
(Hindu) Laws that "the magistrate shall not make war 
with any deceitful machine or with poisoned weapons, or 
with cannons and guns, or any kind of fire-arms," Halhed 
says : " The reader will probably from hence renew the 
suspicion which has long been deemed absurd, that 
Alexander the Great did absolutely meet with some 
weapons of that kind in India, as a passage in Quintus 
Curtius seems to ascertain. Gunpowder has been known 
in China, as well as Hindustan, far beyond all periods 
of investio-ation. The word fire-arms is literally the 
Sanskrit Agniaster, a weapon of fire ; they describe the 
first species of it to have oeen a kind of dart or arrow 
tipt with fire, and discharged upon the enemy from a 
bamboo. Among several extraordinary properties of 
this weapon, one was, that after it had taken its flight, 
it divided into several separate streams of flame, each of 
which took effect, and- which, when once kindled, could 
not be extinguished : but this kind of Agniaster is now 
lost."- He adds : "A cannon is called ' Shataghiee^ or the 
weapon that kills one hundred men at once,' and, that the 

1 Shataghni differed widely from Matrala in tljat the Matvala were 
rolled down from mountains, while Shataghni was an instninieiit from 
which stones and iron ])alls were discharged, Jamera was another 
machine tliat did fatal injury to the enemy by means of stones. See 
accounts of battles with Mohamed Kasim. 

^Halhed's Code of Gentoo Laws, Introduction, p.. ')2 See also 
Amar Kosha and Sabda Kalpaddrum, Vol. I, p. IG. 


Puraiiii Sliasters ascribe the invention of these destructive 
engines to A'iswacarma, the Vulcan of the Hindus." 

Mr. H. H. Elhot, Foreign Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India (1845), after discussing the question of 
the use of fire-arms in ancient India, says : " On the 
■whole, then, v^e may conclude that fire-arms of some 
kind were used in early stages of Indian history, that the 
missiles were explosive, and that the time and mode of 
ignition was dependent on pleasure ; that projectiles 
were used which were made to adhere to "'ates and 
buildinsfs, and machines settino- fire to them from a 
considerable distance ; that it is probable that saltpetre, 
the principal ingredient of gunpowder, and the cause 
of its detonation, entered into the composition, because 
the earth of Gangetic India is richly impregnated with 
it in a natural state of preparation, and it may be 
extracted from it by lixiviation and crystallization without 
the aid of fire ; and that sulphur may have been mixed 
with it, as it is abundant in the north-west of India."* 

" Rockets," says Professor Wilson, " appear to be 
of Indian invention, and had Ion"' been used in native 
armies when Europeans came first in contact with them." 

Col. Tod says : " Jud Bhan (the name of a grand- 
son of Bajra, the grandson of Krishna), 'the rocket of 
the Yadus,' woukl imply a knowledge of gun-powder 
at a very remote period."^ 

Rockets were unknown in Euro]>e till recently. 
" We are informed by the best authorities that rockets 
were first used in Avarfare at the siege of Copenhagen in 
1807."^ . Mr. Elliot says : " It is strange that they 

1 Riblio.L^raphical Index to tlic Historians of M. India, Vol. I, p. 973. 

2 Tod's Uajasthan, Vol. II, [>. 220. 3 Teuny Encydoi-ardiu, V. "Kocket." 


(rockets) slioiikl now be roo-arded in Europe as the 
most recent invention of artillery."' 

There were in ancient India machines which, besides 
throwing balls of iron and other solid missiles, also threw 
jieculiar kinds of destructive li(|uids at great distances. 
The ingredients of these liquids are unknown ; their 
effects, however, are astonishing. 

Ctesias,- Elian" and Philostratus* all speak of an 
oil manufactured by Hindus and used by them in war- 
fare in destroying the walls and battlements of towns 
that no "battering rams or other polioretic machines can 
resist it," and that " it is inextinguishable and insatiable, 
burning both arms and fighting men." 

Lassen savs : " That the Hindus had somethino^ 
like ' Greek fire' is also rendered probable by Ctesias, 
who describes their emplo3'ing a particular kind of in- 
flammable oil for the purpose of setting hostile toAvns 
and forts on fire."^ 

Eusebe Salverte, in his Occult Sciences, says : " The 
fire which burns and crackles on the bosom of the 
waves denotes that the (Ireek fire was anciently known 
in Hindustan under the name of harrawa.''''^ 

But what establishes the superiority of the ancient 
Hindus over the modern Europeans in the noble game 
of war is the Ashtur Vidya of the former. *'The Ash- 
tur Vidya, the most important and scientific part (of 

'Bibliographical Index to the Historians of Mohaniedau India, 
Vol. I, p. 357. 

•-Ctesie, Indica E.rcnpta, XXVII (ed. Baor), p. 35G. 

^ l)e Natura Animal, Lib. V., cap, 3. 

•* Philostrati Vita ApoUonu, Lib. Ill, cap. 1, 

^■i Lassen's Ind. Alt, II. p. 641. 

fiRnglish Translation, Vol. II. p. 223. 


the art of war) is not known to the soldiers o£ our age. 
It consisted in annihilating the hostile army by envoi v- 
ing and suffocating it in different layers and masses of 
atmospheric air, charged and impregnated with different 
substances. The army would find itself plunged in a 
fiery, electric and watery element, in total thick darkness, 
or surrounded by a poisonous, smoky, pestilential at- 
mosphere, full sometimes of savage and terror^striking 
animal forms (snakes and tigers, etc.) and frightful noises. 
Thus they used to destroy their enemies.^ The party 
thus assailed counteracted those effects by arts and means 
known to them, and in their turn assaulted the enemy by 
means of some other secrets of the Ashtur Vidya. Col. 
Olcott also says: *' Ashtur Vidya, a science of which 
our modern professors have not even an inkling, enabled 
its proficient to completely destroy an invading army, 
by enveloping it in an atmostphere of poisonous 
gases, filled with awe-striking shadowy shapes and with 
awful sounds." This fact is proved by innumerable 
instances in which it was practiced. Ramayana mentions 
it. Jalindhar had recourse to it when he was attacked 
by his father, Mahadeva (Shiva), as related in the Kartik 

Another remarkable and astonishing feature of the 
Hindu science of war which would prove that the ancient 
Hindus cultivated every science to perfection, was that 
the Hindus could fight battles in the air. It is said that 
the ancient Hindus "could navigate the air, and not 
only navigate it but fight battles in it, like so many 
war-eagles combating for the dominion of the clouds. 
To be so perfect in aeronautics, they must have known 

i Theuisop/iist, March 1881. p. i'Jl. 


all the arts and sciences relating to the science, inchiding 
the strata and currents of the atmospliere, the relative 
temperature, humidity and density and the specific gra- 
vity o£ the various gases." ^ 

Viman Vldya was a science which has now com- 
pletely disappeared. A few years a^o, facts concerning 
this science found in ancient records were rejected as 
absurd and impossible of belief. But wireless telegraphy 
and the recent developments in balooning have prepared 
the Europeans to entertain the idea of the possibility of 
human knowledge advancing so far as to make it prac- 
ticable for men to navigate the air as they navigate the 
sea. And a day will come as assuredly as that the day 
will follow the night, when not only will the ancient 
Hindu greatness in this science be recognised, but the 
results achieved by them will again be achieved by men 
to mark their rise to the level of the ancient Hindus. 

1 Colonel Olcotfs lecture at Allahabad in 1881. See the Theoso- 
phist for March 1881. 


v.— MUSIC. 

Music exalts each joy, allays each grief. 
Expels diseases, softens every pain. 
Subdues the rage of poison and the plague. 
And hence the wise of ancient days adored 
One power of physic, melody and song. 

Armstrong : A. P. H. 
Music is the natural expression of a man's feelings. It 
comes naturally to man, woman and child in all condi- 
tions, at all times and in all countries. " The very fact 
of musical utterance," says Sir Hubert Parry, "implies a 
genuine expansion of the nature of the human being, 
and is in a varying degree a trustworthy revelation of 
the particular likings, tastes and sensibilities of the being 
that gives vent to it." 

"yC. The Chinese emphasise its importance by calling it 
*^ the science of sciences." 

" An eminently poetical people," as the ancient Hindus 
were, could not but have been eminently musical also. 
Anne C. Wilson, in what is perhaps the latest attempt on 
the part of a European to understand Hindu music, says : 
*' The people of India are essentially a musical race 

To such an extent is music an accompaniment of 

existence in India, that every hour of the day and season 
of the year has its own melody."^ 

Mr. Coleman says : " Of the Hindu system of music 
the excellent writer whom I have before mentioned 
(Sir W. Jones), has expressed his belief that it has been 
formed on better principles than our own."^ 

1 A Sliort Account of the Hindu System of Music, by Anne C. Wilson 
(1904), p. 5. '^Coleman's Hindu Mythology, Preface, p. ix. 

MUSIC. 367 

Colonel Tod says : "An account oE the state of 
musical science amongst the Hindus of early ages and a 
comparison between it and that of Europe is yet a 
desideratum in Oriental literature. From what we already 
know of the science, it appears to have attained a theoretical 
precision yet unknown to Europe, and that at a period 
when even Greece was little removed from barbarism." 
The antiquity of this most delightful art is the same as 
the antiquity of the Sanskrit literature itself. Anne C. 
AVilson says : " It must, therefore, be a secret source 
of pride to them to know that their system of music, as 
a written science, is the oldest in the world. Its principal 

features were given long ago in A'edic writings 

Its principles were accepted by the Mohamedan portion 
of the population in the days of their pre-eminence, and 
are still in use in their original construction at the 
present day."' 

Music has been a great favourite"^ with the Hindus 
from the earliest times. Even the Vedas {e.g., Sam Yeda) 
treat of this divine art. The enormous extent* to 
which the Hindus have cultivated this science is proved 
by their attainments in it. But, unhappily, the master- 
piece on this " Science and Art combined," the Gandharva 
Veda, is lost, and references to it in Sanskrit works alone 
remain to point to the high principles on which the 
Hindu science of music was based. 

' A Short Account of the Hindu System of Music by xV. C, Wilson, p.9. 

2 Shakespeare says : "The man that hath no music in himself 

Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds 
Is fit for treason, stratagems and spoils ; 
Let no such man be trusted." 

•'"'The Hindu system of nnisic is minutely explained in a great 
number of Sanskrit books." — Sir W, Juues. 


Even at the present day the Tiotis and Rdc/uis oF 
the Hindus are innumerable, and the majority of them 
differ so minutely from each other that even the "culti- 
vated ear of the musical Europeans" cannot fully 
understand and follow them. 

Sir W. W. Hunter says: " Xot content with the 
tones and semitones, the Indian musicians employed a 
more minute subdivison, together with a number of sonal 
modifications which the Western ear neither recognises 
nor enjoys. Thus, they divide the octave into 22 subtones 
instead of 12 semitones of the European scale. The Indian 
musician declines altogether to be judged by thefew simple 
Hindu airs which the English ear can appreciate."^ 

Anne C. Wilson says : " Every village player 
knows about time, and marks it by beating time on the 
ground, while the audience clap their hands along with 
him. He has the most subtle ear for time, and a more 
delicate perception of shades of difference than the 
Generality of English people can acquire, an acuteness of 
musical hearing which also makes it possible for him to 
recognise and reproduce quarter and half tones, when 
singing or playing"' 

< Kor are Europeans able to imitate Hindu music. 
Mr. Arthur Whitten says : "But I have yet to observe 
that while our system of notation admits of no sound of 
less than half a tone, the Hindus have quarter tones, thus 
rendering it most difficult of imitation by Europeans. The 
execution of their music, I hold to be impossible to all except 
those who commence its practice from a very early age."^ 

1 imperial Gazetteer, " India," p. 224. 

2 Anne C Wilson's Hindu System of Music. 
^The Music of the Ancients, p. 22, 

MUSIC. 369 

He also observes : " Few of the ancient Hindu airs 
are known to Europeans, and it has been found impossible 
to set them to music according to the modern S3^stem 
of notation, as we have neither staves nor musical charac- 
ters whereby the sounds may be accurately expressed."^ 

Professor Wilson says : " That music was cultivated 
on scientific principles is evident from the accounts given 
by Sir \V. Jones and Mr. Colebrooke, from which it 
appears that the Hindus had a knowledge of the garnet, 
of the mode of notation, of measurement, of time, and of 
a division of the notes of a more minute description 
than has been found convenient in Europe."^ " We 
understand," says Mrs. Manning, " that the Hindu 
musicians have not only the Chromatic but also the 
Enharmonic genus. """^ 

The Oriental Quarterly Review says : " We may add 
that the only native singers and players whom Euro- 
peans are in the way of hearing in most parts of India, 
are reported by their scientific brethren in much the same 
light as a ballad singer at the corner of the street by the 
jjrime soprans of the Italian opera. "+ 

Sir W. W. Hun ter says : " And the contempt with 
which the Europeans in India regard it merely proves 
their ignorance of the system on which Hindu music is 
built up."'^ Professor Wilson says : " Europeans in 

*The Music of the Ancients, p. 21. 

^Mill's India, Vol. II, p. 41. 

■* Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. IT, p. \h?). 

^Quarterly Review for December 1825, p. 11)7. 

^Imperial Gazetteer, "India," p. 224. ilrs. Anne C. Wilson 
says: " Not many Europeans, I fancy, would boast of being even 
superficially acquainted with the Dhrupada style of song, the popular 
Tappas,thc Thiimri soags of the N.-W. P., the Kharkhae or war-songs 


general know nothing of Indian music. They hear only 
the accompaniments to public processions, in which noise 
is the chief object to be attained, or the singing of the 
Mohamedans, ichich is Persian not Indian.'"^ 

There are six male rags, and associated with them 
are thirty-six female ragnees, which partake of the pecu- 
liar measure or quality of their males but in a softer 
and more feminine degree. From each of these 36 
ra(piees have been born three ragnees reproducing 
the special peculiarity of their original, and these 
have in their turn produced offsprings without 
number, each bearing a distinct individuality to the pri- 
mary raga, or, to use the poetic Hindu expression, "they 
are as numerous and alike as the waves of the sea." 
That the Hindus cultivated music on scientific principles 
is proved by the fact that, as Mr, Whitten says, these 
ragas were designed to move some passion or affection 
of the mind, and to each was assigned some particular sea- 
son of the year, time of the day and night or special locality 
or district, and for a performer to sing a raga out of its 

of the Rajputs, the Huttari chants, the nurseiy rhymes, the wedding 
and cremation songs of Gujrat, the Veniams, Pallam. lurtans of 
Madras .... Who amongst us know the lyric poetry of Vidyapati, of 
Chaiididas, Jaideva or the well-known family of Ram Bhagan Dutt, 
Bouietimes called the "nest of singing birds?" — p. 41. 

1 Mill's India, Vol. II, p. 41. Professor Wilson adds: "The 
practice of art among them (Hindus) has declined in consequence 
probably of its suppression by the Mohamedans." Sir W. W. Hunter 
says : " Hindu music after a period of excessive elaboration sank under 
Mussalmans." — Imperial Gazetteer, p. 223. "However, it still preserves) 
in a living state, some of the earlier forms, which puzde the student of 
Greek umsic, side by side with the most complicated development."— 
Sir "\V. W. Hunter, p. 224. 

MUSIC. 371 

appropriate season or district would raake him, in the 
eyes of all Hindus, an ignorant pretender and unworthy 
the character of a musician.'^ 

The six principal ragaa are the following : — 

(1) liindaul. It is played to produce on the 
mind of the bearers all the sweetness and freshness of 
spring ; sweet as the honey of the bee and fragrant as 
the perfume of a thousand blossoms. 

(2) Sri liaga. The quality of this rag is to 
affect the mind with the calmness and silence of declin- 
ing day, to tinge the thoughts with a roseate hue, as 
clouds are gilded by the setting sun before the approach 
of darkness and night. 

()^) Meg MalJar. This is descriptive of the effects 
of an approaching thunder-storm and rain, having the 
power of influencing clouds in time-s of drought. 

(4) Deepuck. This rag is extinct. No one could 
sing it and live ; it has consequently fallen into disuse. 
Its effect is to light the lamps and to cause the body of 
the singer to produce flames by which he dies. 

(5) Bhairava. The eft'ect of this rag is to in- 
spire the mind with a feeling of approaching dawn, the 
caroling of birds, the sweetne&s of the perfume and air, 
the sparkling freshness of dew-dropping morn. 

(6) Malkos. The effects of this rag are to produce 
on the mind a feeling of gentle stimulation. 

There is much that is common to both the Hindu 
and European systems. Mr. Arthur Whitten says : 
" Their (Hindus) scale undoubtedly resembles our 
diatonic mode, and consists of seven sounds, which are 
extended to three octaves, that being the compass of the 


human voice. Their voices and music, like ours, are divid- 
ed into three distinct classes. The bass, called odarah^ 
or lowest notes ; the tenor, called madm-rah, or middle 
notes ; the soprano, called the tarrah^ or upper notes. 
The similarity of the formation of the ancient Hindu 
scale to our modern system is noteworthy. We name 
the sounds of our scales : Doh, Ray, Me, Fah, Sol, La, Te. 
That common in India is :Sa, Ray, Ga, Ma, Pa, DhaNe.^ 
The reason of this similarity is evident. Sir W. 
W. Hunter says: "A regular system of notation was 
worked out before the age of Panini, and seven notes 
were designated by their initial letters. This notation 
passed from the Brahmans through the Persians to 
Arabia, and was thence introduced into European music 
by Guido d' Arezzo at the beo-innincr of the eleventh 
century." ' 

Professor Weber says : " According to Yon Bohlen 
and Benfey, this notation passed from the Hindus to 
the Persians,^ and from these again to the Arabs, and 
was introduced into European music by Guido d' 
Arezzo at the beginning of the eleventh century."* 

But the principles of Hindu music were imported 
into Europe mucli earlier than this. 

A The Music of the Ancients, pp. 2J, 22. 

^ludiau Gazetteer, p. 223. See Benfey's Indien Ersch, p. 299, 
and Gruber's Encyclopasdia, Vol. XVIIl. " Some suppose that our 
modern word gamut comes from the Indian gaina = a musical scale. 
Prakrit is gama, while its Sanskrit is grama. 

^ Hindu musicians used to go to foreign countries to grace the 
courts of foreign kings. King Behram of Persia had many Hindu 
musicians in his court. 

^Weber's Indian Literature- p. 272. 

MUSIC. o73 

Strabo says : " Some of the Greeks attribute to that 
country (India) the invention o£ nearly all the science 
o£ music. We perceive them sometimes describing the 
cittiara of the Asiatics and sometimes applying to flutes 
the ephitliet Phrygian. The names of certain instru- 
ments, such as nabla and others, likewise are taken 
from barbarous tongues." Colonel Tod says: "This 
nabla of Strabo is possible the tahla, the small tabor 
of India. If Strabo took his orthography from the Persian 
or Arabic, a single point would constitute the difference 
between the N (nila) and the T (te')-"^ ^^ ^^'^^^ ' " ^^^ 
have every reason to believe — from the very elaborate 
character of their written music, which is painful and 
discordant to the ear, and from its minuteness of 
subdivision that they had also the Chromatic scale, said 
to have been invented by Timotheus in the time of 
Alexander, who miirht have carried it from the banks of 
the Indus."2 

Colonel Tod also says: "In the mystic dance, the 
Rds-Mandala, yet imitated on the festival sacred to the 
sun-god, Hari, he is represented with a radiant crown in 
a dancing attitude, playing on the flute to the nymphs 
encirclino- him, each holding a musical instrument . . . . 
These nymphs are also called the nava-ragni, from rdga, 
a mode of song over which each presides, and nava-rasa, or 
nine passions excited by the powers of harmony. May we 
not in this trace the origin of Apollo and the sacred Nine? " 

Bharata, Iswara, Parana and Karada were among 
the o-reat Hindu musicians of ancient India. "^ In more 



iTod's Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 569 (P. Edition). 

sTod's Rajasthan, Vol. T, p. 570. -nVcber's Indian Literature, p. 272. 


recent times, however, Naik Gopal and T^nsen have 
been the most celebrated ones. About Naik Gopal, Mr. 
Whitten says : " Of the magical effect produced by the 
singing of Gopal Naik and of the romantic termination 
to the career of this sage, it is said that he was command- 
ed by Akbar to sing the raga deepuck, and he, obliged 
to obey, repaired to the river Jumna, in which he plung- 
ed up to his neck. As he warbled the wild and magical 
notes, flames burst from his body and consumed him to 
ashes." ^ He adds : " It is recorded of Tansen that 
he was also commanded by the Emperor Akbar to sing 
the sri., or night raga, at midday, and the power of thr3 
music was such that it instantly became night, and the 
darkness extended in a circle round the palace as far as 
his voice could be heard." India, it seems, produced 
Orpheuses even so late as the 17th century A. D. 

IMusic of the Ancients, p. 21. Dr. Tennet says: "If we are to 
judge merely from the number of instruments and the frequency with 
which they apply them, the Hindus might be regardsd as considerable 
proficients in music." 

The instrument singa, or horn, is said to have been played by 
Mahadeo, who alone possessed the knowledge and power to make it 
speak. Singular stories are related of the wonders performed by this 

The Beena is the principal stringed instrument of music amongst 
the Hindus at the present day. 

•' Although not ocean born, the tuneful Beena 
Is most assuredly a gem of Heaven — 
Like a dear friend it cheers the lonely heart 
And lends new lustre to the social meeting ; 
It lulls the pains that absent lovers feel. 
And adds fresh impulse to the glow of paasiou." 



What cannot Art and Industry perform. 
When Science plans the progress of their toil 7 

Bbattie : Minstrel. 

That in addition to the astronomical, the mathematical, 
the medical and the military sciences, many other equally- 
important sciences flourished in ancient India is evident 
from the remains of some of the most important achieve- 
ments of the Hindus. Mr. Elphinstone says : " In science 
we find the Hindus as acute and diligent as ever."' 

Medical science in a flourishing condition presup- 
poses the existence in an advanced state of s^-eral other 
sciences, such as Botany, Chemistry, Electricity, etc. The 
Ashtar Vidi/a{see Military Science) presupposes the exis- 
tence of the sciences of chemistry, dynamics, meteoro- 
logy, geology, physics, and other cognate sciences in a 
much more advanced state than what we find them in at 
the present day ; while the Viman Vidya presupposes an 
intimate acquaintance with an equally great number of 
such sciences. The huge buildings of ancient India and 
" those gigantic temples hewn out of lofty rocks with 
the most incredible labour at Elephanta, Elora and at 
many other places," which have not only excited admira- 
tion but have been a standing puzzle to some people, could 
not have come into existence if the ancient Hindus had 
not been masters of the science of engineering. The engi- 
neering skill of the ancients was truly marvellous. With 
all its advanced civilization, modern Europe has yet to 

^ Elphin&touc's llifctory uf India, p. 13o. 


produce engineers able to build the Pyramids, or to turn 
huge rocks into temples. Mons, de Lesseps was no doubt 
an admirable representative of triumphant engineering 
skill, and was an honour to France, but he only followed 
in the footsteps of his predecessors, who were equally 
great, and who, too, had at one time connected the Red 
Sea with the Mediterranean. Mr. Swayne says : " A 
French engineer repeats the feat of the old native kings 
and the Greek Ptolemies in marrying by a canal the Red 
Sea to the Mediterranean, an achievement which will 
make the name of Lesseps immortal, if the canal can only 
be kept clear of sand,"^ The sands still maintain a 
threatening aspect. 

As regards the Pyramids, the early fathers of the 
Church (Christian teachers before 500 A. D.), believed 
them to have fallen from Heaven, while others in Europe 
believed them to have sprung out of earth or to have been 
built by Satan and his devils. 

The Mahabharata shows that the ancient Hindus 
had achieved wonderful advancement in mechanics. 
In the description of the Mayasabha (Exhibition), 
which was presented by Mayasar to the Pandavas, 
mention is made of microscopes, telescopes, 
clocks, etc. 

An American critic says : " Such, indeed, was the 
mechanism of the Mayasabha, which accommodated 
thousands of men, that it required only ten men to turn 
and take it in whatever direction they liked." There 
was, he also says, " the steam or the fire-engine 
called the agni rath^ 

1 Swajne's Herodotus (Ancient Classics), p. 41, 

O'l'iiF.i; sc'iF.NcivS. 877 

That there were powerful telescopes hi ancient India 

is, doubtless, quite true. One is mentioned in the 

Mahabharata. It was given bv Vyasa jeo to Sanjai at 

Indraprasta, in order to witness the battle i^oint^ on 

at KurukshetraJ 

As reijards the science o[ botany, Professor AYilson 

says : " They (the Hindus) were very careful observers 
both of the internal and external properties of plants, 
and furnish copious lists of the vegetable world, with 
sensible notices of tlieir uses, and names significant of 
their peculiarities,"- If the AkJibar- id- Sadeeq'^ is to be 
trusted, a Sanskrit dictionary of botany in three volumes 
was discovered in Kashmir in 1887. 

In the play Malati and Madhava^^ it is stated that 
the damsel drew Madhava's heart "like a rod of the iron- 
stone gem," which clearly shows that the Hindus were 
acquainted with artificial magnets as well as with tlie 
properties of the loadstone. Professor Wilson, too, sup- 
ports this view. He further says : " The Hindus early 
adopted the doctrine that there is no vacuum in nature, 
but observino; that air was excluded under various circum- 
stances from space, they devised, in order to account for 
the separation of particles, a subtle element, or ether, by 
w^hich all interstices, the most minute and inaccessible, 
were pervaded, a notion which modern Fhilosopln/ 
intimates some tendency to adopt, as regards the planetary 
movements, and it was to this subtle element that they 
ascribed the property of conveying sound : in which they 

iSee Mahabharata, Bhceshma Parva, Chapter IT, shjka 10. 
-Mill's History of India, Vol. II, p. 97, footnote. 
3Akhbar-ul-Sadeeq, dated 25th November 1887, p. 7. 
*Sce also Manning's Ancient and Media'val Indiii, Vol. II, p. 200, 


were so far right tliat in vacuo there can be no sound. Air 
again is said to be possessed of the faculty of touch, that it 
is the medium through which the contact of bodies is effected 
— ether keeps them apart — air impels them together. 
Fire, or rather light, has the property of figure — Mr. Cole- 
brooke renders it of colour. In either case the theory is 
true ; for neither colour nor form is discernible except 
through the medium of light. Water has the property 
of taste, an affirmation perfectly true ; for nothing is 
sensible to the palate until it is dissolved by the natural 
fluids,"' This shows that the Hindus were in no way 
behind the scientists of the nineteenth century. 

The influence of the moon in causing tides seems to 
have been known to the Hindus from the earliest times. 
Ra</Inivansa (V. 61) says : 

=^'^ l^%^mfT^■^^^J^J ii 
That the Hindus were excellent observers and became great 
Naturalists becomes clear from Professor ^Vilson's note on 
a verse of the drama of Mrichchhakati. Charudatta says : 

" The elephants' broad front, when thick congealed 
The dried-up dew, they visit me no more." 

Wilson says : " At certain periods a thick dew 
exhales from the elephant's temples. This peculiarity, 
thouo;h known to Strabo, seems to have escaped 
Naturalists till lately, when it was noticed by Cuvier.*^ 

Facts regarding diamonds, pearls, sapphires, etc.,- 
are mentioned with care, which show that the ancient 

' Mill's India, Vol. II, pp. 05, 96. 

-Tiie Theatre of the Hindus, Vol. I, p. 22, footnote. 


Hindus vvei'o thoroutihlv woll-vurseil in tlie sciences and 
the arts relating to lisherv and to mining, and tiie ])r()- 
cesses of separating and extracting \arious suljstances 
from the eartli. 

That the ancient Hindus were masters of tlic 
sciences of chemistry, mechanics, meteorology is pr<.>ved 
by . one of the most wonderful of liuman achievements. 
This was the Viman Vkli/a. The baloons of the Western 
world give us an idea of what vlmans may have been like. 
Fifty years ago a viman was considered an impossibility. 
But ha})pily those days of Western scepticism are over, 
and a vlman^ for its practical advantages, is looked upon 
as an ideal of scientific achievement. A European critic 
says : " Viman Vidya. was a complete science amongst 
the ancient Hindus. They were its masters and used it 
for all practical purposes." 

This indicates their master}^ of all tlie arts and 
sciences on which the Viman Vidya is based, including 
.a knowledge of the different strata and the currents of 
the atmospheric air, the temperature and density of 
each, and various other minor particulars. Viman Vidya 
is thus clearly mentioned in the Vedas. The Yajur- 
Yeda (Vr, 21) says: 

^^^1f^ ^T'f T ^'TlfCWi;=^ ^T^^T \^^, ^f^cTK^^ ^Tf III 

Mann also says : 

This science is said by some to have been a ])art 
of the more comprehensive science called " the A ayu 
Yidhya" mentioned in the Sat pat Brahmana, X I and X I V. 

Prof. Weber says: ^^ Sarpa Vidya (serpent science) 
is mentioned in the Satpat Brahamana XI 11, as a separate 
-science and T/.^A Vidya (science of i}oisons) in die 


Asviilayiina Sutra." ^ " Sivedasa, in his Commentary 
ot* Chakrapani, quotes Patanjali as an authority on 
Lohasastra^ or 'the Science of Iron'."- 

The Greeks derived their knowledge of electricity 
from India. Thales, one of the Greek sages, learned 
during his tour in India that when amber was rubbed with 
silk it acquired the property of attracting light bodies. 

Not only were the sciences of electricity and 
magnetism extensively cultivated by the ancient Hindus, 
but they received their highest development in ancient 
India. The Yedantist says that lightning comes from 
rain. This can be easily demonstrated by the well-known 
experiments of Touilet and others : all these prove that 
Hindu sages perfectly understood all the electrical mag- 
netic phenomena. The most significant proof of the 
high development of these sciences is to be found in 
the fact that thev were made to contribute so much to 
theevery-day comfort and convenience^ of the whole com- 

^ Weber's Indian Literature, p. 2G5. 

2History of Hindu Chemistrj-, Vol. I, p. 55. 

''As an instance of such practical adaptations of their scientific 
discoveries, the following may be useful : Visitors to Simla are familiar 
with the sight of young native children placed in a position in which 
they are exposed to the constant trickling of a stream of water. This 
custom is generally considered a cruel one, although it has not been 
shown that it promotes a high rate of mortality. The object is to put 
the young ones to sleep, and the means are probably not more injurious 
than many of the patent foods and medicines which arc the civilized 
substitutes. At the same time it is startling to find that Sir Joseph 
Fayrer, President of the Medical Society, is trying to introduce the hill 
custom in England. He says that the flowing of water on the vertex 
of the cranium never fails to induce sleep and that parents who are 
tormented with fretful children have only to pop them under an impro- 
vised water-spout. 


munity, and that their teachings were embodied in the 
daily practices of the ancient Hindus, wliicli does the 
highest credit to their practical wisdom and their scientific 

Sleep is necessary not only to enjoy sound health 
but to keep the body and soul together. The question 
now is in what way to sleep to derive the greatest benefit 
from this necessary operation of nature. Its solution bv 
the ancient Hindus not only proves them to have been 
masters of the sciences of magnetism and electricity, but 
shows the spirit of Hinduism, which cannot be commend- 
ed too highly for its readiness at all times and in all 
directions to adopt and assimilate the teachings of 
science. Every Hindu is instructed hy his or her 
mother and grandmother to lie down to sleep with the 
head either eastward or southward. 

Babu Sita Xath Roy cites slokas from the Shastras, 
which enjoin this practice. The Anhika Tuttiva, a part 
of our Smiriti Shastras, says : "1. The most renowned 
Garga rishi says that man should lie down with his 
head placed eastward in his own house, but if he long for 
longevity he should lie down with his head placed 
southward. In foreign places he may lie down with 
his head placed even westward, but never and nowhere 
should he lie down with his head placed northward." 

"2. Markandaya, one of the much revered Hindu 
sages says that man becomes learned by lying down with 
his head placed eastward, acquires strength and longevity 
by lying down with his head placed southward, and 
brings upon himself disease and death by lying down 
with his head placed northward." 


The learned writer found another sloka in the 
Vishnu Purana, which says : "Oh king ! It is beneficial to 
lie down with the head placed eastward or southward. 
The man Avho always lies down with his head placed in 
contrary directions becomes diseased." 

After stating certain facts regarding magnetism and 
electricity necessary to enable a man (unacquainted with 
the elements of these sciences) to understand his expla- 
nation, Babu Sitanat.h Roy says : " According to what 
has been just now said, it is not very difficult to 
conceive that the body of the earth on which we 
live is being always magnetised by a current of thermal 
electricity produced by the sun. The earth being 
a round body, when its eastern part is heated by 
the sun its western part remains cold. In consequence 
a current of thermal electricity generated by the sun 
travels over the surface of the earth from east to west. 
By this current of thermal electricity the earth becomes 
magnetised, and its geographical north pole being on 
the right-hand side of the direction of the current, is made 
the magnetic north pole, and its geographical south pole 
being on the left-hand side of the same current, is made 
the magnetic south pole. That the earth is a great 
magnet requires no proof more evident than that by the 
attractive and repulsive powers of its poles, the compass 
needle, in whatever position it is placed, is invariably 
turned so as to point out the north and the south by its 
two ends or poles. In the equatorial region of the earth 
the compass needle stands horizontally, on account of the 
equality of attraction exerted on its poles by those of 
the earth ; bat in the polar region the needle stands 
obliquely, that is, one end is dcprcissedtuid the other 

OTHER sciExrrs. 8S8 

end is elevated on account o£ tlie inequality of attraction 
exerted on its poles by those of the earth. Such a 
position of the needle in polar regions is technically 
termed the dip of the needle. 

"It has been found by experiments that the human 
body is a magnetisable object, though far inferior to iron 
or steel. That it is a magnetisable object is a fact that 
cannot be denied, for in addition to other causes there 
is a large percentage of iron in tlie blood circulating 
throughout all the parts of the body. 

"NoAY, as our feet are for the most part of the day 
kept in close contact with the surface of that huge 
magnet — the earth — the whole human body, therefore 
becomes magnetised. Further, as our feet are magnetis- 
ed by contact with the northern hemisphere of the earth, 
where exist all the properties of north polarity, south 
polarity is induced in our feet, and north polarity, as a 
necessary consquence, is induced in our head. In infancy 
the palms of our hands are used in walking as much as 
our feet, and even later on the palms generally tend more 
towards the earth than towards the sky. Consequently 
south polarity is induced in them as it is in our feet. 
The above arrangement of poles in the human body is 
natural to it, and therefore conducive to our health and 
happiness. The body enjoys perfect health if the 
magnetic polarity natural to it be preserved unaltered, 
and it becomes subject to disease if that polarity be in 
the least degree altered or its intensity diminished. 

" Although the earth is the chief source whence the 
magnetism of the human body is derived, yet it is no 
less due to the action of oxygen. Oxygen gas being 
naturally a good magnetic substance, and being largely 


distributed within and without the human body, helps 
the earth a f]^ood deal in mao-netisins: it. 

"Though every human body is placed under the 
same conditions with reo^ard to its mao^etisation, yet the 
intensity and permanance of the magnetic polarity of 
one are not always equal to those of another. Those 
two properties of the human body are generally in direct 
ratio to the compactness of its structure and the amount 
of iron particles entering into its composition. 

" Now it is very easy to conceive that if you lie down 
with your head placed southward and feet northward, 
the south pole of the earth and your head, — which is the 
north pole of your body, and the north pole of the earth 
and your feet, which are the two branches of the south 
pole of your body, — being in juxta-position, will attract 
each other, and thus the polarity of the body natural to it 
will be preserved ; while for the same reason, if you lie 
with your head placed north w-ard and feet southward, 
the similar poles of your body and the earth being in 
juxta-position will repel each other, and thereby the 
natural polarity of your body will be destroyed or its 
intensity diminished. In the former position the 
polarity youp body acquires during the day by standing, 
w^alking and sitting on the ground, is preserved intact 
at night during sleep ; but in the latter position, the 
polarity which your body acquires during the day by 
standing, walking and sitting on the ground is altered 
at night during sleep. 

" Now, as it has been found by experiment that the 
preservation of natural magnetic polarity is the cause of 
health, and any alteration of that polarity is the cause of 
disease, no one will perhaps deny the validity of the slokas 


which instruct us to lie clown with our heads })lacecl south- 
ward, and never and nowhere to lie down with our heads 
placed northward. 

?^ow, whv in those two slokas the eastern direction is 
preferred to the western for placing the head in lying 
down, is explained thus : " It has been established by 
experiments in all works on medical electricity that it" a 
current of electricity pass from one part of the body to 
another, it subdues all inflammations in that part of the 
body, where it enters into and produces some inflammation 
in the part of the body whence it goes out. This is the sum 
and substance of the two great principles of Anelectro- 
toNus and Cafchctrotoiufs, as they are technically called 
by the authors of medical electricities. 

"Now, in lying down with the head placed eastward, 
the current of thermal electricity Avhich is constantly 
passing over the surface of the earth from east to west, 
passes through our body also from the head to the feet, 
and therefore subdues all inflammation present in the 
head, where it makes its entrance. Again, in lying down 
with the head placed westward, the same current of elec- 
tricity passes through our body from the feet to the head, 
and therefore produces some kind of inflammation in the 
head, whence it goes out. Now, because a clear and 
healthy head can easily acquire knowledge, and an 
inflamed, or, in other w'ords, congested head is always 
the laboratory of vague and distressing thoughts, the 
venerable sage Markandaya was justifled in saying that 
man becomes learned by lying down with his head placed 
eastward, and is troubled with distressing thoughts by 
lying down with his head placed westward."' 
'Arya Magazine for Ueocmbci- 1883, p. -li. 


There are other time-honoured practice^;, which are 
founded upon a knowledge of the principles cf electri- 
city and magnetism. For instance, we find that (1) Iron 
or copper rods are inserted at the tops of all temples ; 

(2) Mindulies (metallic cells) made of either gold, silver 
or iron, are worn on the diseased parts of the body ; 

(3) Seats made of either silk, wool, kusa grass or hairy 
skins of the deer and tiger are used at the time of saying- 
prayers. Those who are acquainted with the principles 
of electricity will be able to account for these practices. 
They know that the function of the rod or the frisida 
{trifurcated iron rod) placed at the top of the Hindu 
temples is analogous to a lightning conductor. The min- 
dulies perform the same functions as electrical belts and 
other appliances prescribed in the electrical treatment 
of diseases. The golden temple of Vishweshwar at 
Benares is really a thunderproof shelter. Professor Max 
Muller recommends the use of a copper envelope to a 
gunpower magazine to exclude the possibility of being 
struck by lightning. The woollen and the skin asans 
(seats) protect our lives during a thunderstorm from 
the action of a return shock, and keeps our body insulated 
from the earth. 

There is another practice among the Hindus which 
is explained by an Austrian scientist. In representa- 
tion, "around the head of each of the Hindu gods 
is the aureole." But why they should be so repre- 
sented was a mystery until liow. Baron Von Reich- 
enbach, an Austrian chemist of eminence, thus explains 
it. He says: "The human system, in common with 
every animate and inanimate natural object, and with 
the whole starry heavens, is pervaded with a subtle 


r\ura, or, if 3-011 please, imj)onfIerable fluid, which re- 
sembles magnetisim and electricity in certain respects, 
and vet is analo<^ous with neither. This aura, while 
radiatino- in a faint mist from all parts of our bodies, 
is peculiarly bright about the head, and hence the 
aureole. "In fact," saj's Col. Olcott, "we see that 
Keichenbach was anticipated by the Aryans (Hindus) 
in the knowledge of the Odic auray And yet "we 
might never have understood what the nimbus about 
Krishna meant, but for this Vienna chemist, so perfect 
is tlie sway of ignorance over this once glorious people."' 
Another practice of the Hindus which is ridiculed by 
non-Hindus, and the importance of which is only dimly 
perceived by some of the Euroj>ean scientists, is that 
"when they sit down to eat, every man is isolated from 
his neiirhbours at the feast : he sits in the centre of a 
square traced upon the floor, grandsire, father and 
son, brother and uncle, avoiding touching each other 
quite as scrupulously as though they were of different 
castes. If I should handle a Brahmin's brass platter, his 
lotah or other vessel for food and drink,, neither he nor 
any of his caste v^ould touch it, much less eat or drink 
from it until it had been passed through fire : if the 
utensil were of clay it must be broken. Why all these ? 
That no affront is meant by avoidance of contact is shown 
in the careful isolation of members of the same family 
from each other. The explanation, I submit, is 
that every Brahmin was supposed to be an individual 
evolution of psychic force, apart from all consideration 
of family relationship: if one touched the other at his 

^Col. Oloott's lecture ddivered at the Town Hull, Calcutta, ou 
5th April, 1882. 


particular time when the vital force was actively centred 
upon the process oE digestion, the psychic force was 
liable to be drawn off, as a leaden jar charged with 
electricity is discharged by touching it with your hand. 
The Brahmin of old was an initiate, and his evolved 
psychic power was emplo3'ed in the atfuihotra and other 
ceremonies. The case of the touching of the eating or 
drinkino- vessel. Or the mat or clothino- of a Brahmin 
by one of another caste of inferior psychic development, 
or the stepping of such a person upon the ground 
within a certain prescribed distance from the sacrificial 
spot, bear upon this question. In this same plate of 
Baron Reichenbach's, the figure F represents the aura 
streaming from the points of the human hand. Every 
human being has such an aura, and the aura is peculiar 
to himself or herself as to quality and volume. Now, 
the aura of a Brahmin of the ancient times was purified 
and intensified by a peculiar course of religious training — 
let us say psychic training — and if it should be mixed 
with the aura of a less pure, less spiritualized person, 
its strength would of necessity be lessened, its quality 
adulterated. Reichenbach tells us that the odic emana- 
tion is conductible b}' metals, slower than electricity, 
but more rapidl}^ than heat, and that potter}^ and other 
clay vessels absorb and retain it for a great while. Heat 
he found to enormously increase quantitatively the flow 
of odyle through a metal conductor. The Brahmin, 
then, in submitting his odylicaly-tainted metallic vessel 
to the tire, is but experimentally carrying out the theory 
of Von Reichenbach. 




T askrd of Time for wlioin (hose trmplcs rose 

Tliiit prostrate bv his hands in silence Ho; 

His hps disdained the mystery to disclose, 

And borne on swil'li-r wiir^s he hurried by 

The broken cohimns wliose ? I asked of Fame 

(His kindlincj l^Tnth giws life to works sublime) ; 

With downcast looks of mingled grief and shame 

She heaved the nncertain sigh and followcl Tim-'. 

Wrapt in amazement ov(M' the snionldi'ring pile 

I saw oblivion pass witli giant strides, 

And while his visage wore Pride's scornful smile, 

Haply these vast domes that even in ruin shine 

" / reck not whose" he said, '' they now are miney 

— livRON. 

TnEKE is another immi?«takeablc proof of the wonrlerful 
civilization of the ancient Hindus — it is their nrchitec- 
tiH'e The mngnificent Hindu temples, the splendid 
palaces, the formidable forts and the wonderful caves are 
truly monuments of human genius and marvels of humnn 
industry and skill. They have excited the admiration of 
all European critics, and hav^e elicited expression;? of won- 
der and amazement from them. Mrs. Manning says: 
"The ancient architecture of India is so amazing that 
the first European observers could not find terms 
sufficientlyintensetoexpresstheirwonder and admiration, 
and althouo:h the vividness of such emotions subsides 
on more intimate acquaintance, the most sober critics 
still allow that it is both wonderful and beautiful."' 

l>AiKMent and Medianal India, Vol. T. p. 301. 


Strength and durability, beauty and majesty are 
the characteristics of the Hindu style of architecture. 
Mahmud Ghaznavi writing to the Khalif from Mathura 
said that the buildings of India were surely not less 
strong than the Mohamedan faith. Such expressions of 
wonder from one of the greatest fanatics that ever lived 
is significant evidence of the highest development of the 
art of architecture in India. 

Mr. Thornton savs : "The ancient Indian erected 
buildings the solidity of which has not been overcome 
by the revolution of thousands of years." ^ 

After speaking of Hindu sculpture, Professor 
Weber continues : "A far higher degree of development 
was attained by architecture, of which some most ad- 
mirable monuments still remain."^ While describing the 
structure of a building, Mr. Elphinstone says : ''The 
posts and lintels of the doors, the panels and other spaces 
are enclosed and almost covered by deep borders of mould- 
ings and a profusion of arabesques of plants, flowers, 
fruits, men, animals and imaginary beings ; in short, of 
every embellishment that the most fertile fancy could 
devise. These arabesques, the running patterns of plants 
and creepers in particular, are often of an elegance scarcely 
equalled in any other part of the icorld.'''''^ 

Mr. Fergusson describes a remarkable temple at 
Rameshwaram, of which the outer court measures the 
leno^th of the river face of Parliament House at West- 
minster by twice their depth. 

1 Thornton's Chapters from thfi British History of India. 

iJWeber's Indian Literature, p. 21i. 

SElphinstone's History of India, p. 160. Tlie author also says : 
" Perhaps the greatest of all the Hindu works are the tanks. The 
Hindu wells are also very remarkable." 


Of the pagoda at Kainesliwarain, Lord Valeiitia says: 
"The whole building presents a niagniticent appearance, 
which we might in vain seek adequate language to 

After giving a description of the pagoda at Chalam- 
bron, 27 miles soutii of Pondicherry, Professor Heeren 
says : " On the other side of the large tank is the most 
wonderful structure of all. This is a sanctuary or chapel 
iti the middle of an enormous hall, 360 ft. long x 260 ft. 
in breadth, and supported by upwards of one thousand 
pillars each thirty feet high and disposed in regular 
order."=^ Dr. Robertson thus speaks of the Hindu 
architectural elegance : " Some of the ornamental parts 
are finished with an elegance entitled to the admiration 
of the most ingenious artists.""^ 

The cave temples are not only peculiar to this coun- 
try but show the highest artistic genius of the people. 
Professor Heeren* thus speaks of the Elora temples: 
" All that is great, splendid and ornamental in architec- 
ture above ground is here seen, also beneath the earth — 
staircases, bridges, chapels columns and porticos, obelisks, 
colossal statues and reliefs sculptured on almost all the 

1 Travels. Vol. I, pp. 810, 341. A description of the temple of 
Muhdkiil at Ujjain and of the fnmons teraple of Gobind Deoji at Brinda- 
ban will give one an idea of the luagnificence of Hindu temples. 

=^Heeren's Historical Researclies. Vol. II, pp. 95. 

3 Dr. Robertson's Works, Vol, XII, "Disquisition Concerning 
India." p. 16. 

4 See Historical Researches, Vol. II, pp. 60-70. "Magnitude," says 
Professor Wilson, " is not the only element of beauty in the cavern 
temples. The columns are carved with great elegance and fitness of 
design. Notice is taken of the numerous remains of temples in various 
party's of India in which extreme architectural beauty is to be found. 
^MilVs History of India, Vol. II, p. 15. 


walls, representing Hindu deities." An English critic says : 
" All this wonderful structure, the variety, richness and 
skill displayed in the ornaments sur23ass all description."^ 
Professor Heeren again says : " It is not without an 
involuntary shudder that we pass the threshold of these 
spacious grottoes, and compare the weight of these 
ponderous roofs with the apparant slenderness and 
inadequacy of its support, an admirable and ingenious 
effect which must have required no ordinary share of 
abiUties in the architect to calculate and determine !"" The 
learned Professor cone hides: '• Such are the seven Pasfodas 
or ancient monuments so-called, at Mavalipuram on the 
Corom:inde] coast, of wliich extraordinary buildings 
it will be hardly too much to assert that they will occupy 
a most distinguished place in the scale of human skill 
and ingenuity"^ 

Baron Dalberg was greatly struck with the architec- 
ture of Dwarka, which he calls " the wonderful city," 
and says : " The natives of that country (India) have 
carried the art of constructino; and ornamentinjj ex- 
cavated grottoes to a much higher degree of perfection 
than any other people."^ 

Comparing the Hindu with the Greek and the 
Egyptian architecture, Professor Heeren says : " In 
the richness of decoration bestowed on their pilasters, 
and, amono' other thino-s, in the execution of statues 
revsembling caryatides they (the Hindus) far surpass 
borh those nations (the Greeks and Egyptians)." 

Mrs. Manning says : " The caves are remarkable 
also for the use of stucco and paint, not merely on the 

^Asiatic Ht-searches, Vol. Ill, p. 405. 

2 Historical Researches, Vol. II, p. 74. Sakya Padamrita is tli, 
name of the sculptor of the Grottoes of Ellora. 

^Heereu's History of Researches, Vol. II, p. 78. 
* Geographical Ephcineridcs, Vol. XXXII, p. 12, 


Avnlls l)iit oil llu' roof tind |>ill;irs. And the frets ;iii<l 
.scrolls arc of such beauty and eleirauce as to rival those 
at Pouipeii and the Haths of TitusJ — The Kailas and 
tlie other excavations of Western India excite our awe 
and wonder."-' She adds : •' India is most famous 
for ])illared architecture."' The pillared colonnades 
or choultries coiuiected with the Soulheru temples 
are the luost extraordinary buildings."" Buddhism 
gave a great stimulus to the development of archi- 
tecture ill ancient India : and with the spread of 
lUiddhism in foreigu countries, the l^uddhistic style of 
architecture was lari»elv borrowed bv foreign nations. 
Professor Weber hits the point when he says : " It is, 
indeed, not improbable diat onr Western steeples owe 
their origin to the imitation of the Buddhistic topes. "+ 
Col. Tod says : " The Saracen arch' is of Hindu 

^Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol, I, p. 404. See also Feru;us- 
son's History of ARliitoctiirc, AHl. 11, p]). 4!)l)-oUl. Tlie Karli cave is 
till' most pcrtVct spcciiiM'ii nftln' cave tt'ni])l('S. 

-Ancient and ModiaMul India, Vol. H. [i. 420. 

s Ancient and Modianal India, Vol. I, p. 418. 

-^^ Indian Literature, p. 1'74. 

•'Tod's Rajastlian, Vol. I. \i. 7Sl. Colonel Tod, speakini;" of the 
Adh((/-(liii-l(i-Jlioii})ra at Ajnier, says: "I may fnrtlier, with this 
temple and screen before ns, speculate on the possibility of its IiaviuLj 
furnished some hints to the architects of Europe. It is well-kiiown iliaL 
the Saracenic ar(;h has crept into many of those structures called (jiotliic 
erected in the 12th and DJlh centuries, when a more Horid stvle succeed- 
ed to the severity of the Saxon or Roman : but I believe it has been 
doubted whence the Saracens obtained their modi-l : certainly it was 
neither from Egypt nor from Persia." He then goes on to surmise 
that the influence of the early Caliphs of Baghdad (who were as en- 
lightened as powerful), on European society was great, and that the 
victories of the Caliph's lieutenants ])roduce no tritling results to the 
arts, that '• this very spot, Ajmer was visited iiy the first hostile force 
which Islam sent across the Indus,"' and that the arches of the ''temule'' 
at Ajmer may thus l)e the models of the arches that Merc subsequently 
introduced amoiig>l the Saracens. 

394 HINDU SUl'EhlOKlTV. 

origin," and \^et some would deny the existence of arches 
in the architectural style of ancient India. ^ 

Sir William Hunter says : " Although Mohamedans 
brought their new forms of architecture, nevertheless 
Hindu art powerfully asserted itself in the Imperial 
works of the Mughals, and has left behind memorials 
which extort the admiration and astonishment of our ao-e. 
The palace architecture of Gwalior, the mosques and 
the mausoleums, of Agra and Delhi, with several of the 
older temples of Southern India, stand unrivalled for 
grace of outline and elaborate wealth of ornament." 

Mr. Coleman says : " The remains of their archi- 
tectural art might furnish the architects of Europe with 
new ideas of beauty and sublimit}^"^ 

" English decorative art," to quote Sir W. W. 
Hunter once more, " in our day has borrowed largely 
from Indian forms and patterns. The exquisite scrolls 
of the rock temples at Karli and Ajanta, the delicate 
marble tracery and flat- wood carving of Western India, 
the harmonious blending of forms and colours in 
the fabrics of Kashmir, have contributed to the restoration 
of tade ill England, ''"'" 

Mr. Coleman says : "The ancient Hindu sculpture 
can boast of an almost unrivalled richness and beautiful 
minuteness of floral ornaments which claim and excite 
our warmest admiration.""* 

1 " The tiiiest example of the triuuiphal arches is at Barnagar, north 
uf Guzerat, which is the richest specimen of Hindu art," — Elphinstone's 
History of India, p. 163. 2 Hindu Mythology, Preface, p. ix. 

:^Impprial Indian Gazetteer, Art "India," p. 225. "Indian art 
work, when faithful to native designs, has obtained the highest honours 
at the various International Exhibitions of Europe." Such is Indian art 
even in these degenerate days ! 

-t Hindu Mythology., Preface, p. vii. 


" The grand temple at Barolli (J^ajputana)," says 
the Englisli translator of Heoren's Historical Researches, 
"contains unrivalled specimens ot" sculpture, some parts 
of which, especially tlie heads, in the language of an eye 
"witness, would be no disgrace to Canora himself." 

Colonel Tod, after carefully examining and ex])lor- 
mg the temple, exclaims : " To describe its stupendous 
and diversified architecture is impossible ; it is the oflice 
of the pen alone, but the labour would be endless. 
Art seems to have exhausteti itselt\ and we sire perhaps 
now for the first time fully impressed with the beauty of 
Hindu sculpture. Thecolunnis, the ceilings, the external 
roofing where each stone presents a miniature temple, one 
risinsc over another until the crown, bv the urn-like la/as. 
distract oar attention. The carving on the capital of 
each column would require pages of ex])lanation, and 
the whole, inspite of its high antiquity, is in wonderful 

" The doorway, which is destroyed, must have been 
curious, and the remains that choke up the interior are 
highly interesting. One of these specimens was entire 
and unrivalled in taste and beautv.'"' 

iTod's Rajasthan, Vol. II, p. 701. Col. Tod says: "In short, 
it would require the labour of several artists for six months to do any- 
thing like justice to the wonders of BuroUi-" 



Tlie Tvhnle world without art mid dross 
Would 1)(' but ono grrat wilderness. 


Indians, even of the present day, are remarkable for 
their cleh'cacy of sense, especially their nicety of touch. 
Not onl}' is their observation very accurate and minute, 
which has given a peculiar charm to tlieir poetry and 
their line arts, but tlieir delicate and tactile sensibility, 
Avitli their general delicacy of sense, has enabled them to 
achieve a peculiar excellence in many of the industrial 
arts and manufactures. .Mr. James Mill says : " The 
delicate frame of the Hindu is accompanied with an 
acuteness of external sense, particularly of touch, which 
is altogether unrivalled, and the flexibility of his fingers 
is equally remarkable." ' 

Mr. Orme says: "The hand of the Indian cook- 
wench shall be more delicate than that of an 
European beauty. The skin and features of a porter shall 
be softer than those of a professed petit maitres. The 
women wind off the raw silk from the pod of the worm. 
A single pod of the raw silk is divided into 20 different 
degrees of fineness, and so ex(juisite is the feeling of 
these women that whilst the thread is runninsc throucrh 
their fingers so swiftly that their eye can be of no assist- 
ance, they will break it off exactly as the assortments 
change at once from the first to the twentieth, from 
the nineteenth to the second.'"- 

' Mill's Iiidin, Vol. II, }.. 17. 

-reopic and (nn-i'iuuuMii of Hindustan. j>|i. jOO and 413. 


It :i]iporirs that natiiro herself lias bestowed tlie 
ii'ift of excellence in arts mid mnnni'iictures on the 
}>:ttient, skilful Hindu. The other nations appear to be 
constitutionalh' unfit to rival the Hindus in the finer 
operations of the loom, as well as in other arts that 
depend upon the delicacy of sense. 

Nature gave India another advantage Mr. ^lill 
says : " His (Hindu) climate and soil conspired to furnish 
him with the most exquisite material for his art the finest 
cotton which the earth producesy^ 

Mr. Elphistone, speaking of Indian cotton cloth, says, 
"the beauty and delicacy of which was so long admired, 
and which, in fineness of texture, has never yet been ap- 
proached in any country."^ ^Ir. Murray says : " Its 
fabrics, the most beautiful that human art has anywhere 
produced, were sought by merchants at the expense of 
the s^reatest toils and dangers.""* 

Mr. Thornton says that the Indian muslins are 
" fabrics of unrivalled delicacy and beauty "* 

' Mill's History of India, Vol. 11, p. 17. This shows that India 
Is capable of producing and in ancient times did produce tiie finest 
cotton used in weaving. In those days India had not to look to Egypt 
and America for cotton of a superior quality to enal^lc her to manufac- 
ture finer muslins to clothe her sons and daughters. It would be in- 
teresting to many to learn that cotton is thought to have "reached Europe 
in the time of tlie Crusade, through the medium of the Arabs, the Arab 
word kuta becoming our cotton." — Mrs. Manning's Ancient and 
Median-al India, Vol. II, p. 350. 

-Elphinstone's. History of India, pp. 16.3, 101. 

•J Murray's History of India, p. 27. 

** Thornton's Chapters of the British History of India, Buddha 
forbids the use of fine muslin by religious women, because he once saw 
Gang-Dgah-mo (a woman having upon lier a very fine linen which was 
sent to Gsal-rgzal by the king of Kalighana) naked while she was wearing 
a full muslin dress. Togiveanidea of the value of such fine muslins. 
Dr. Watts says that inl77(i A.D., the finest muslin reached the price 
of £50 per piece (Taxtile Manufactures. p.70). 


Mr. Both in his work, " Cotton Manufactures of 
Dacca," says that Aurangzeb once reproved his daughter 
for showing her skin through her clothes. The daughter 
justified herself by asserting that she had on seven suits, 
or jamas. ^ After comparing the finest fabrics of India 
and of England, Dr. Watson decides in favour of the 
Indian fabrics. He finds the yarn finer than any yet 
produced in Europe^ while the twisting given to it by 
the Hindu hands makes it more durable than any 
machine-made fabric. 

" Shawls made in Kashmere," sRys Mrs. Manning, 
are still unrivalled.''- Even James Mill says: "Of the 
exquisite degree of perfection to which the Hindus 
have carried the productions of the loom it would be 
idle to offer any description ; as there are few objects 
with which the inhabitants of Europe are better acquaint- 
ed, whatever may have been the attainment in this art 
of other nations of antiquity, (the Egyptians, for example, 
whose fine linen was so eminently prized), the manufacture 
of no modern nation can, in delicacy and fineness vie 
with the textures of Hindustan,"^ 

*Mr. Elphinstoue says: "Gold and silver hi'ocades were also 
favourites, and were, perhaps, original manufactures in India." See 
Colebrooke, Asiatic Researches, Vol. V, p, 61. Rudra Yamla 
7'antrn, in an enumeration of Hindu castes, mentions Pundraeas or 
Pattasutracaras, or feeders of silkworms and silk twisters : this autho- 
rity, therefore, in conjunction with the frequent allusion to silk in most 
ancient Sanskrit books, may be considered as decisive of the question, 
provided the antiquity of the Tantra be allowed, of which Mr. Colebrooke 
seems to have no doubt. Silk is, moreover, mentioned throughout the 
Archipelago by its Sanskrit name, Sutrn, which proves its Indian origin. 

2" The presentation of Kashmir shawls to Sita supplies an additional 
proof in favour of the high antiquity of these celebrated fabrics." 

mWVs History of India, Vol. II, p. 16. 


T\Irs. Manning sa3's: "Some centuries before our era 
they produced muslins o£ that exquisite texture Avhicli 
even our nineteenth century machinery cannot surpass."* 
The Encyclopaedia Britannica says that the excjuisitely- 
fine fabrics of cotton have attained to such perfection 
that the modern art of Europe, Avith all the aid of its 
M'onderful machinery, has never yet rivalled in beauty 
the product of the Indian loom."- 

A critic says : " Carpets are made at Masulipatam 
with unrivalled Hindu taste," to which Mrs. Manning 
adds: "Carpets have also been made in later days in 
Government prisons, under British superintendence ; the 
result proves that ice must not attempt to teach art to 
India.'' ^ 

Dr. Forbes Watson, in his work on the Textile 
Manufactures of India ffives an interestino; account of a 
series of experiments made on both the European 
and the Indian muslins, to determine their claims to 
superiority. The result was altogether in favour of the 
Indian fabrics. He concludes : " However viewed, 
therefore, our manufacturers have something still to do. 
With all our machinery and Avondrous a})pliances 
we have hitherto been unable to produce a fabric which, 
for fineness or utility, can equal the woven air of 
Dacca, the product of arrangements, which appear rude 
and primitive, but ^vhich in reality are admirably 
adapted for the purpose." 

1 Ancient and MediaMal India, Vol. I, p. 359. 

2 Encyclopaedia Britannica, p. 440. (Weaving). 

•^ Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. II, p. 363, Professor Heeren 
says : " The variety of cotton fabrics mentioned even by the 
author of Periplns as articles of commerce is so great that we can 
hardly suppose the number to have increased afterwards.'' 


Art is loii" and time is tleetini?. 


Professor Weber says : " The skill of the Indians 
in the production o£ delicate woven fabrics, in the mixing 
of colours, the working of metals and precious stones, 
the preparation of essences and in all manner of technical 
arts, has from early times enjoyed a world-wide celebrit}^" ^ 

Professor Wilson says : "They had acquired remark- 
able proficiency in many of the ornamental and useful 
arts of life,"' 

As regards dyeing, Mr. Elphinstone" says : " The 
brilliancy and permanence of many of the dyes, have not 
yet been equalled in Europe." He adds : " The brilliancy 
of their dyes is remarked on as well as their skill in 
manufactures and imitations of foreign objects. ""^ 

Dr. Tennet and even Mr. James Mill admit that 
the Indian colours are the most brilliant on earth. The 
Hindus were the earliest nation who discovered the art 
of extracting colours from plants. The names by which 
several plants are known in foreign countries bear 
testimon)^ to this fact. Indigo is so called after India. 
Pliny used to write iiuUco.^ 

^ Weber's Indijvii Literature, p. 275. 

iJMill's History of India, Vol. II, p. 233. 

3 History ot" India, p.] 64. 

4 History of India, p. 243. See Strabo, lib. xv, p. 493. 

■'^He says : " Cast tbe right indico upon the live coals, it yieldcth 
a flaiiif- of most excellent purple." — Manning's Ancient and Mediieval 
India, Vol, FI, p. 350. 


Bancroft gives inucli praise t(» the "natives <»r 
India for having so man}' tiiuusand years ago discovored 
means by which the colourable matter of the plant- 
might be extracted, exygenated and precipitated from 
all other matters combined with it." Even Mill is 
constrained to say : " AiiK)ng the arts of the Hindus, that 
of printing and dyeing their cloths has been celebi-ated • 
and the beauty and l)rilliancy, as well as dui-abilitv of 
the colours they produce, are worthy of particular 
praise. ' 

]\Ir. Elphinstone says : '• The taste for juiinitc 
ornaments fitted them to excel in goldsmith's work."- 

Professor Heeren says : " The art of working in 
ivory must have attained a high degree of perfection." 

What is most remarkable, however, is the sim])licitv 
of their processes and the exceedingly small number of 
the instruments with Avhich they work. Stavorinus 
writes : " Their artificers work with so little apparatus 
and so few instruments, that an European would be 
astonished at their neatness and expedition."'' 

As regards painting, ^Ir. ]\Iill says : " The Hindus 

copy with great exactness, even from nature 

They draw portraits both of individuals and of groups 
Avith a minnte likeness." 

1 Mill's India, Vol. 11, p. 21. "In somo of tlie more delicate 
raanufactiiros, however," says Mill, "particularly iuAveaving, spinning, and 
dyeing, tlie Hindus rival all nations as in the fabrication of trinkets t<io." 
Professor Heeren says: "The dress of the Hindus seemed extra- 
ordinarily white to the Greeks." — Historical Researchcf!, Vol. J I, p. -21 2. 

2 1']lphinstone's History of India p. 104. "The Hindus cut the 
precious stones, polish them ir> a high degree of brilliancy and set them 
neatly in gold and silver."" — Mill's Iliatory of India, Vol, II, p. :jO. 

SStavorinus' Voyage, p. 412. Foster was astonislu^d to see 
their instruments and their simple processes. — Asiatic Researches, 
Vol. II, p. 272. 

402 iiiNDr sr?ERiOT7iTy. 

As regnrt^s iron mnmifactaros, Professor Wilson 
says : " Casting iron is an art that is practised in this 
manufacturing country (England) only within a few 
Tears, The Hindus have the art of smelting iron, of 
welding it, and of making steel, and have had these arts 
from times immemorial." 

Dr. Ra}^ sa3^s : " Coming to comparatively later 

times, we find that the Indians were noted for their skill 

in the tempering of steel. The blades of Damascus were 

held in hio'h esteem, but it was from India that the 

Persians, and, through them, the Arabs learnt the 

secret of the operation. The wrought-iron pillar close 

to the Kutub, near Delhi, which weighs ten tons and is 

some 1,500 years old, the huge iron girders at Puri, 
the ornamental gates of Somnath, and the 24-feet 

wrought-iron gun at Nurvar, are monuments of a 
bye-gone art, and bear silent but eloquent testimon}' 
to the marvellous metallurgical skill attained by the Hin- 
dus." Regarding the Kutub pillar, Fergusson says : 
" It has not, however, been yet correctly ascertained what 
its age really is. There is an inscription upon it, but 
without a date. From the form of its alphabet, Prinsep 
ascribed it to the third or fourth century." Mr. Fergus- 
son continues : " Taking A.D. 400 as a mean date — 
and it certainly is not far from the truth — it opens 
our eye to an unsuspected state of affairs, to find the 
Hindus at that age capable of forging a bar of iron 
larger than any that have been forged even in Europe 
up to a very late date, and not frequently even now. 
As we find them, however, a few centuries afterwards 
using bars as long as this lat in roofing the porch of the 

~ 'Mill's Ilisfr.rv oflmlin, Vol. II. p. 47. 

oTrir.n atits. 403 

temple at Kuiiaruc, avo imi^t now bolicvc that tliey wcirc 
iiiLich more familiar witii the use of this metal than they 
afterwards becam(^ It is almost equally startling' to 
find that after an exposure to wind and rain for fourteen 
centiu'ies it is unrusted, and the ca[»ital and inseriji- 
tiun are as elear and as sharp now as when jjul up 
fourteen eenturies ago. There is no njistake about the 
pillar beiugof pure iron. General Ciumingham had a bit 
of it analysed in India by Dr. Murray, and another portion 
was analysed in the School of Mines here bv l)r. Percv. 
Both found it pure malleable iron without any alloy."' 

Mrs. ]\[anning says : " The superior quality of Hindu 
steel has long been known, and it is worthy of record 
that the celebrated Damascus blades, have been traced 
to the workshops of AVestern India." She adds : "Steel 
manufactured in Cutch enjovs at the present day a repu- 
tatiori not inferior to that of the steel made at Glasgow 
and Sheffield."- Mrs. Mannino; also says : "It seems 
probable that ancient India possessed iron more than 
suffcient for her wants, and that the Ph(i;nicians 
fetched iron with other merchandise from India."' 

Dr. Royle is of opinion that the system of rotation 
of crops has been derived from India. The Hindu far- 
mer understands extremely well how to maintain the 
productive power of his land. ' 

Professor Wilson says : "The use of glass for win- 
dows is a proof of civilization that neither tiieek nor 
Roman relinement presents."' 

niistory of Iiulijiii and Easlorii Airhitt'Otiiro, |t. 508: od. IHItH. 
-Ancient and 3Iodia?vul Iiulia, ^'^lI. II. p. o(i."». 
^Ancipntaiid Mediiv.val India, Vtil. II, \<. ^,)^'>^. See ''Coninierco." 
"♦Dr. Roxburgh t'uily approves of the Hindu M>toui of jiSjMieulture. 
Sir T. Munro calls it " a good svstoni." 
•:>MillV India, Vol. II. p. 10. 


Dr. Forbes Watson says : " The study o£ Indian 
art might in numberless ways improve the character 
of the everyday articles around us (Englishmen)." 

Chamber's Encyclopaedia says : "In manufacture, 
the Hindoos attained to a marvellous j)erfection at 
a very early period, and the Courts of Imperial Rome 
glittered with gold and silver brocades of Delhi. The 
muslins of Dacca were famous aires asfo throusfhout the 
civilized world. In the International Exhibition of 1852, 
splendid specimens of gorgeous manufactures and the 
patient industry of the Hindoos w^ere displayed. Tex- 
tile fabrics of inimitable fineness, tapestry glittering with 
gems, rich embroideries and brocades, carpets wonder- 
ful for the exquisite harmony of colour, enamel of 
the most brilliant hue, inlaid wares that require high 
magnifying power to reveal their minuteness, furniture 
most elaborately carved, swords of curious forms and 
excellent temper are amongst the ol)jecCs that prove the 
jjerfectlon of art in India."" 

^ During his Viceroylty, Lord Dufi'erin once said : " The West has 
still much to learn from the East in mntters of dress." Of the much- 
despised dhoti, Mrs. Manning says : " Any dress more perfectly conveni- 
ent to walk, to sit, to lie in, it would be impossible to invent." — 
Ancient and Medioival India, Vol. 11, p 358. 

^Chanibcr's Encyclopa-dia, p. bi'd. 



But cliief I>y iiiiinbers of iiKlustrioiis hands 

A nation's wealth is counted ; numbers raise 

Warm emulation ; where that virtue dwells, 

There will be traffic's seat ; there will she build 

Her rich emporium. 

— DvEii : Flt'cce. 

Though the Indians have practically no hand now in the 
commerce oE the world, yet there was a time when they 
were the masters of the seaborne trade of Europe, Asia 
and Africa. They built ships, navigated the sea, and 
held in their hands all the threads of international com- 
merce, whether carried on overland or by sea. 

As their innnense wealth was in part the result of 
their extensive trade with other countries, so were the 
matchless fertility (jf the Indian soil and the numberless 
products of Hindu arts and industries the cause of the 
enormous development of the commerce of ancient India. 
As Cowper says : 

" And if a bouiidle.s.s |ilenty bo the robe, 
Trade is a golden girdle of the globe." 

India, which, according to the writer in Chamber's 
Encyclopaedia, "has been celebrated during many 
ages for its valuable natural productions, its beautiful 
manufactures and costly merchandise,"^ was, says the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, "once the seat of commerce."^ 

1 Chamber's Encyclopcfdia, Vol. V, p. 536. 
-Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. XI, p. 446. 



Mrs. Maiming says : " The indirect evidence afford- 
ed by tlie presence of Indian products in other countries 
coincides with the direct testimony of Sanskrit litera- 
ture to establish the fact that the ancient Hindus were 
a comraei'cial people."^ Slie concludes : " Enough has 
now been said to show that the Hindus have ever been 
a commercial people."^ 

Professor Heeren says : "The Hindus in their most 
ancient works of poetry are represented as a commercial 

In Sanskrit books we constantly read of merchants, 
traders, and men engrossed in commercial pursuits. 
Manu Smriti, one of the oldest books in the world, lays 
down laws to govern all commercial disputes having 
reference to seaborne traffic as well as the inland and 
overland commerce. Traders and merchants are fre- 
quently introduced in the Hindu drama. In Sakuntcdd 
we learn of the importance attached to commerce, where 
it is stated " that a merchant named Dhanvriddhi, Avho 
had extensive commerce had been lost at sea and had 
left a fortune of many millions." In Nala and Dam- 
yanti^ too, we meet with similar incidents. Sir AV. Jones 
is of opinion that the Hindus " must have been navigators 
in the age of Manu, because bottomry is mentioned in 
it."* In the Ramayana^ the practice of bottomry is 
distinctly noticed^' Mr. Elphinstone says : " The Hindus 

1 Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. II, p. 353. 

2 Ancient and ^Media^val India, Vol. II, p. 354. 
oHeeren's Historical Researches, Vol. II, p. 266. 

^Asiatic Researches, Vol. II, p. 284. Manu speaks of " mer- 
chants who traffic beyond the sea and bring presents to the king." — India 
in Greece. 

<^See Ramavana, III, 237, 

roM.MKKC'E. -lor 

navigated the ocean as early as the age o£ Manu's code, 
because we read in it of men well uc(|uainted Avitli sea 

According to Professor ^liix Dunker, sirn)-l)uilding 
was known in ancient India about 2000 ]>.('. It is 
thus clear that the Hindus navigated the ocean from tlie 
earliest times, and that they carried on trade on 
an extensive scale with all tlic importnnt nations of 
the Old World. 

With Phoenicia the Indians enjoyed trade from the 
earliest times. In the tenth century B.C., Solomon of 
Israel and Hiram of Tyre sent ships'- to India, whence 
they carried away ivorj', sandalwood, apes, peacocks, 
gold, silver, precious stones, etc., which they purchased 
frofn the tribe of Ophir.^ Now Ptolemy says there was 
a country called Abhiria at the mouth of the River Indus. 
This shows that some people called Abhir must have 
been livino; there in those da vs. We find a tribe called 
" Abhir " still living in Kathyawar, wliich must, therefore, 
be the Ophir tribe mentioned above. Professor Lassen 
thinks " Ophir '' was a seaport on the south-west coast of 
India. Mrs. ]\!annino; savs it was situated on the 
western coast of India. 

As, however, the authors of Smith's Dictionary 
of the Bible think that Ophir was situated somewhere in 
Africa, let us go a little more closely into the question 
of this tribe. Let us first see if the articles imported 

^ Elphinstone's History of India, p. IGfi. " The word used in the 
original for sea is not applicable to inland waters." 

-Called the "Navy of Tarshish." See also the Book of Chronicles. 

3Max Dnnkei's History of Antiquity, Vol. IV, and Manning's 
Ancient and Modia-val India. Vol. II, p. 349. 


by the Xavy of Tarshish were procura])le in India, and 
if they were, whether they were procurable in Africa or 
^ny other country also. 

Among the things sent by the Hindus to Solomon and 

Hiram were peacocks. Now, these birds were nowhere 

to be found in those days except India, where they 

have existed from the earliest times. " We frequently 

meet in old Sanskrit poetry with sentences like these : 

'Peacocks unfolding in glittering glory all their green 

and gold;' 'peacocks dancing in wild glee at the approach 

of rain ;' ' peacocks around palaces glittering on the garden 

walls.' Ancient sculpture, too, shows the same delight in 

peacocks, as may be seen, for instance, in graceful bas-reliefs 

on the gates of Sanchi or in the panels of an ancient palace 

in Central India, figured in Tod's Rajasthan (p. 405)." 

At the same time it is quite certain that the peacock 
was not generally known in Greece, Rome, or Egvpt 
before the time of Alexander of Macedon, whose 
followers were astonished to see such a beautiful bird in 
India. It was after Alexander's time that peacocks came 
to be imported direct from India or through Persia into 
Greece. It was the Romans, however, who most delight- 
ed in the bird, admired it, and spent immense sums of 
money on it. It was the height of luxury for the high 
Roman dames and the old Roman epicures to have 
tongues of peacocks served to them at their tables. 

There is, however, conclusive evidence to prove 
that Solomon and Hiram got their peacocks from India. 
This evidence is the name which the bird received in 
the Holy Land. "The word for peacock in Hebrew is 
universally admitted to be foreign ; and Gesenius, Sir 
Emerson Tennent, and Professor Max Muller appear to 


agree with Profetsor Lassen in holding that this word 
as written in Kings and Chronicles is derived from the 
Sanskrit lano;uaixe."' 

Now, with regard to ivory. It was largely used in 
India, Assyria, Egypt, Greece and Rome. Ele})hants 
are indigenous in India and Africa, and the ivory 
trade must be either of Indian origin or African. But 
the elephants were scarcely known to the ancient 
Egyptians, 2 and Professor Lassen decides that elephants 
were neither used nor tamed in Ancient Egypt. ^ 

In ancient India, however, as is well known, they 
were largely used and tamed. No description of a 
king's procession or of a battle is to be met with but 
elephants are mentioned in it. No chieftain was with- 
out his elephants. The elephant is an emblem of 
royalty and a sign of rank and power. The god Indra, 
too, has his " Airawat." Then, the Sanskrit name for a 
domestic elephant is ibha, and in the bazars of India ihha 
was the name by which the elephant's tusks were sold. 
In ancient Egypt, ivory was known by the name ehu. 
Professor Lassen thinks "that the Sanskrit name ihha 
miirht easilv have reached Eo^vpt throucjh Tyre, and 
become the Egyptian eba. It is thus very probable 
that India first made Egy})t acquainted with ivory. 
Mrs. Manning says : "It is Vjelieved that by this name, 
or by words derived from it, ivory must have been intro- 
duced into Egypt and Greece. Although by what process 
ibha was changed into the Greek elepkas, is not satis- 
factorily explained." 

Though ivory was known in Greece before the 
time of Homer, who speaks of it as largely used, but tiie 

'Ancient ami Mcdiivval India, Vol. N. ).. .■).">1 . 
''^An('ient and MMiipval [ndia. N'ul. II. p. ;;.',1, 
SAUcrlliiiMikuM.le, \'.)1. I, [.. iWii. 


elephant itself was unknown to the Greeks until the day 
of Arabella, where thej^ saw Darius aided by war- 
elephants with their drivers from India. It was here 
that the Greeks for the first time saw these animals 
armed with tusks, which were familiar to them in trade. 
They gave the name of elephas to the animal itself, 
whose tusks were known to them by that name. By 
this name also, Aristotle made the animal famous in 
Europe. We thus see that from India were first 
imported ivory and peacocks into Egypt, Greece, 
Palestine and Persia, and that the "ophir" is no other 
than the ah/'r tribe of India. 

It would be interestinof to many to learn that "it was in 
India that the Greeks first became acquainted with sugar," ^ 
Sugfar bears a name derived from the Sanskrit. With 
the article the name travelled into Arabia and Persia, and 
thence became established in the languages of Euroj)e.2 

Mr. Maunder savs : " In the reiii'n of Seleucidai. too, 
there was an active trade between India and Syria."* 
Indian iron* and coloured cloths and rich apparels'* were 
imported into Babylon and Tyre in ships from India. 
There were also commercial routes to Phoenicia, through 
Persia, which will be mentioned later on. We have already 
seen that India exported her merchandise to Egypt. 
Mr. Elphinstone says : " The extent of the Indian trade 
under the first Ptolemi'es is a w'ell-known fact in history." 

'Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. II, p. 30 «. 
2 Sec Li»ssen, p. 318. 
■'> Maunders Treasnrv of Tlistorv. p. 77i). 

•*Plia*nicians fetctied iron with otli^r niorchandise from India," — ■ 
Anc/'rnt <ivrj l^hdiivral India. \'ol. II, p, .304. 

•'■'St',' Hopren''* Hi-^toricnl Eosonrdio?, Vol. II. p. 27'2. 
^■'Klpliin.-toiie's Hi>t.orv of [i.dia, "\"ol. L p. 141. 


In the Book of Genesis^ vre road that Joseph was sold 
by his brethren to tlie "Isliniaclites come from Gilead, 
with their camels bearing spicery, balm and myrrh going 
to carry it down to Egypt." Here, Dr. Vincent observes, 
we find "a caravan of camels leaded with the spices of 
India and balm and myrrh of Hadramaut." Some suppose 
that myrrh used to be imported into Egypt by the A.byssi- 
nians, in whose country it largely grows. But the most 
conclusive proof of its importation from India is the name 
which it took in Egypt. Dr. Royle"- observes that 
myrrh is called bal by the Egyptians, while its Sanskrit 
name is bola, bearing a resemblance v/hich leaves no 
doubt as to its Indian manufacture. Silk, pearls, diamonds, 
calicoes, and other commodities of India were also 
imported into Alexandria in Egypt, which remained 
for ages the chief emporium of the Eastern commerce. 

This trade was carried on from Myos Hormos, the 
chief port on the Red Sea, where the Indian fleets 
arrived. It is said that the articles were carried from 
here to Coptos, and thence to Alexandria on the Nile.'^ In 
the middle ages also trade on an extensive scale was 
carried on between India and Egypt, whence frankin- 
cense, an article of perfumery, is said to have been mi- 
ported from Egypt into India.* Periplus clearly says 
that there was much direct intercourse between ancient 
India and Egypt. ^ Mr. Davies says: '• But apart from 
this occasional intercourse, a constant trade was carried on 

1 Gonesi.^:, Chapter xxvii, p. 25. 

■-Royle's Ancient Hindu Medicine, '-Myrrh/' p. 1J9. 

•^Encyolopfedia Britannica, Vol. XI, p. 409. 

4 Ibid, p. 440. 

^jjce Heereu's Historical Researches, Vol. II, p, 300. 


between Alexandria and Western India. There was also 
an overland route through Palmyra."' 

There was also an active trade between India and 
Greece. The mention of ivory by Homer and of 
several other Indian articles assign the trade a very 
ancient date. In addition to ivory, India also supplied 
indigo (as mentioned in Periplus) to Greece. The writer 
in Chamber's Encyclopaedia (Vol. Y, p. 557) says 
that indigo was imported into Greece and Rome from 
India, whence also the inhabitants of the former countries 
derived their knowledge of its use. In India it is called 
nil^ whence is derived the anil of the Portuguese and the 
neel of the Arabs. Homer knew f'ni by its Sanskrit name. 
Professor Max Dunker says that the Greeks used to wear 
silken garments which were imported from India, and 
which were called " Sindones," or "Tyrian robes." 

Rome appears to be the westernmost city in Europe 
with which ancient India had anv considerable trade. 
The chief articles exported from India, in addition to 
those already mentioned, are, according to Periplus,^ 
cotton cloth, muslin, chintz of various kinds, cinnamon 
and other spicery ; diamonds, pearls, onyx stone, eme- 
ralds, and manv other inferior stones. Ctesias^ adds 
steel, drugs, aromatics, calicoes* and lac. ' Spicery appears 
to have been exported from India from the earliest 
times. Professor Heerensays: "India is the mother- 
countrv of spices, and from the most ancient times 
she supplied the whole Western world with that' 

1 Davie's BhaQ:wat Gita, p. 195. 

ijPonplus, p. 28. 

■ilndica, Cliapter iv. 

■*EiicyolopJPcUa BritaTiiiica, Vol. XT, p. 459. 

^Ctcsius. ludu'i, Cliai'for.'xxi, 

COMMKllCL. 113 

article. 1 Peppor was very largely exported from India in 
the time of Theophrastos,- who disting-uishes several 
varieties of it. With pepper, its name also migrated 
through Persia to the West." M rs. Manning says : " Xard 
or spikenard, cassia, calamus, and what appears to be the 
bdellium of Scripture may be traced to India, where scents 
were early valued and carefully preparefl."^ 

Of the products of the loom, silk was more largcl}^ 
imported from India into ancient Rome than either in 
I^gypt or in Greece. ''It so allured the Uoman ladies,"' 
says a writer, "that it sold for its weight in gold."^ It 
is evident that "there was a very large consumption of 
Indian manufactures in Rome. This is confirmed by the 
elder Plinj^, who complained that vast sums of money 
were annually absorbed by commerce with India.'"' 
The annual drainage of gold from Rome and its provin- 
ces to India was estimated by him at 500 steria, equal 
to about 8^ 4,000,000.' " We are assured on un- 
disputed authority that the Romans remitted annually 
to India a sum equivalent to £4,000,000 to pay for 
their investments, and that in the reign of Ptolemies 
125 sails of Indian shipping were at one time lying in 
the ports whence Egypt, Syria, and Rome itself were 
supplied with the products of Indian's 

'Heeren's Historical Researches, Vol. II, p. 274. 

54 Theophrastos: Historical Plant. IX. 22. 

y Sanskrit /^/y>/vrt//, whence the \j?d\x\ piper and pipper- 

*Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. II., p. Soil, 

5Encyclopa?dia Britannica, Vol. XI., p. 4.')!). 

« Pliny : Historical Nation, XII., p. 18. 

'Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. XI. p. 4<;0. 

^Life in Western India (Gathrie), from Tod's Western India, p. 221 , 

414 niNDl^ SUrKRIOKITY. 

Arabia, being the nearest of the countries situated in 
the west of India, was the first to which the Indian 
comraercial enterprises by sea were directed. The long- 
continued trade with Arabia dates from a remote anti- 
quity. iVgarthachides,' who lived upwards of 300 years 
before the time of Periplus, noticed the active commer- 
cial intercourse kept up between Yemen and Pattala — a 
seaport in western India, which Mr. Pottinger indentifies 
with the modern Hyderabad in Sindh. Pattala in Sans- 
krit means a "commercial town," "which circumstance, 
if it is true," says Professor Heeren, " would prove the 
extreme antiquity of the navigation carried on by 
the Indus."- Professor Max Dunker says : " Trade 
existed betAveen the Indians and Sabii3ns on the coast of 
south Arabia before the tenth century B.C.""' — the time 
when, according to the Europeans, Manu lived. In 
the days of Alexander, when the Macedonian general, 
Nearchus, was entering the Persian Gulf, Muscat was 
pointed out to him as the principal mart for Indian 
products which were transmitted thence to Assyria. 

That this trade was chiefly in the hands of the Indians 
up to the beginning of the last century is proved by what 
Mr. Cloupet, a not very ancient writer, says: "The com- 
merce of Arabia Felix," he says "is entirely in the hands 
of the banian^i of fiujrat, who from father to son have 
cstablisned rhemselves in the country, and are protected 
by the Government in consideration of a certain import 
levied upon their estimated propertv."^ 

' (.ieogr. Mill. I. ]<. (Wi. 
2 Historical Resparclies, Vol. II, p. 209. 
•^Dnnker's Histnrv of Antiquity, Vol. IV, p, l^fi. 
*Froin tlie accounts of Mr. Cloupet in Allgeni. Geogr. Epheui, for 
Novttuibcr J 810, p. 22b. 

COMMIiUCE. 41.5 

Egypt was not the only j>Mrt of Africa witli wliicli 
the Hindus traded in olden days. The eastern coast of 
Africa called Zanzibar and the provinces situated on the 
Red Sea carried on an extensive trade with ancient 
India. Myos Hornios, as has been stated before, was 
the chief emporium of Indian commerce on the iJed 
Sea. Of the trade with Zanzibar, Periplus gives us 
pretty full information. After enumerating the com- 
mercial stations on the coast as far as the promontory 
of Rhapta, now called Delgado, which was the most 
southerly point of his geographical knowledge, and 
after describing" their mercantile relations witlr E<xvi)t, 
he continues: "Moreover, indigenous products such aa 
corn, rice, butter, oil of seasamum, coarse and fine cotton 
goods, and cane-honey (sugar) are regularly exported 
from the interior of Ariaka (Conkan), and from Barygaza 
(Baroucha) to the opposite coast." ^ 

This trade is also noticed bv Arrian, who adds that 
" this navigation was reiiularlv manaofed." Professor 
Heeren thinks that the trade with the gold countries 
of Africa will serve to explain the great abundance of 
this metal in India. 

The African trade, too, was in the hands of the 
Hindus. Periplus2 calls our attention to the fact that 
the banians, of India as well as merchants of Greece and 
Arabia, established themselves at Socotra,'^ near the Gulf 
of Aden, beside the Cape of Guardafui. Professor 
Heeren* says it is a well-known fact that the banians or 

1 Periplus. p. 8. -Periplns, p. 17. 

•''It wa? forrnorlj' called the island of Dioscoridi. 

•* Historical Researches, Vol. II. 


Hindu merchants were in the habit of traversing the 
ocean and settling in foreign countries. The fact that 
thousands of Hindus from Gujarat and its neighbouring 
provinces are even now found settled in the eastern 
districts of Africa, proves that in ancient times Indians 
in large numbers had settled in Africa for purposes of 

The Eastern countries with which ancient India 
traded were chiefly China, Transgangetic Peninsula and 
Australia. Professor Heeren says that " the second 
direction which the trade of India took was towards the 
East, that is, to the Ultra- Gangetic Peninsula, comprising 
Ava^ Mallaca,^ etc., etc. The traffic with these countries 
would, of course, be carried on by sea onl}^, though the 
transmission of goods across the Bay of Bengal could 
not be attended with much difficulty."^ 

This commerce was actively carried on in the days of 
Periplus, as it actually mentions a place situated on the* 
Coromandel coast, from which the passage was usually 
made to Chrysa, which appellation, according to Ptolemy,* 
denoted Malacca, but according to the author of Periplus, 
the whole of the Transgangetic Peninsula.'^ 

Professor Heeren says : " The Hindus themselves 
were in the habit of constructing the vessels in which 
they navigated the coast of Coromandel, and also made 
voyages to the Ganges and the peninsula beyond it. 
These vessels bore different names according to their 

'lis Sanskrit iiiirne is Anga^ which is noticed in the Ramayana. 
2 Col. Wilford interprets the Sanskrit Yumala by Mallaca. See 
Asiatic Researches, Vol, VIII, p. o02. 

•■3 Historical Researches, Vol, TI., p. 29G. 
4 See Mannert, Vol. V, p. 242, 
•^Periplus p. 34. 

riiNJ\lKK( E. -WT 

size.' Kotliincif, inrleed, could furnish better proof that 
this commerce did not originate from ;in intercourse 
with the Greeks, but was the sole product of ancient 
native industry-, a fact which receives additional confir- 
mation from the existence of comrnercial towns and 
ports on the Coromtindel coast from time immemorial. 
Masulipatam, witli its cloth manufactures, as well as 
the mercantile towns situated on the mouth of the 
Ganges, have already been noticed as existing in the 
time of Peri plus ; and if we allow these places to have 
been even then very ancient, of whicli there is scarcely 
any doubt, have Ave not equal reason for believing their 
commerce and navigation to be so also ?"^ 


A few words regarding the commercial importance 
of Ceylon will not be out of place. According to Cosmos, 
Ceylon was at one time the centre of Hindu commerce, 
for which purpose, indeed, its natural situation and 
commodious havens afforded singular opportunities."* 

Cevlon has been known by a variety of names in 
the East as well as in Europe. It was called Taprobane, 
a name first used by " Onesicritus"* and ingeniously 
derived from Tap, an Island, and Rahan or Ravan, an 
ancient king conquered by Maharaja Ram Chandra.* 
Ptolemy remarks that it was formerly called Pahe^/niu/i'/i 

'Some were called Sangara, dtliers Colaudiaplionta, uiul .so on. 
J^Historical Rosearches, Vol. II, p. 290. 

3 Professor Heereri says : " Commercial history of India in mainly 
dependent on that of Ceylon." — Historical Researches, Vol U, p. 440. 
'^Historical Researches. Vol. II, p. 417. 
•"'Asiatic Researches, Vol. V, p. 39. 


(which Pliny confirms), but that in his own time it was 
called Salice, and the natives Saloe (whence Selan and 
Ceylon). It was called ^Scuihal Dvipa by the Hindus. 

In Ptolemy's accounts of Ceylon we find its coasts 
well furnished with commercial ports. ^ Talacori, Modutti, 
Amurogramum, Moagramum (Mahagram, a great city) 
are among the principal commercial cities described by 
him. Professor Heeren says : "It (Ceylon) was noted 
for commercial navii^ation before 500 B.C."" 

From Arriau we know that the northern part of 
Ceylon was in a very highly-civilized state, and that it was 
a seat of extensive commerce with the countries from the 
farthest China in the East to Italv in the West."^ 

Pliny says : " Taprobane was for a long time 
considered to be a second world and went by the appel- 
lation of Antichthones," which proves its reputation as 
a seat of commerce and civ^ilization. 

Some idea of the extent of the ancient commerce 
of Ceylon can be gathered from the accounts which Cos- 
mos gives of it, though at a comparatively later date. 
After describing the situation of the island and the name 
by which the Hindus called it, he says : " From all 
India, Persia, Ethiopia, between which countries it is 
situated in the middle, an infinite number of vessels 
arrive at, as v,'ell as go from, Ceylon. From the interior 
of the continent, as for instance from China and other 
commercial countries, it receives silk, aloes, cloves, and 
other productions, which it exports to Malabar, Avhere 
the pepper grows, and to Calliene (near Bomba}^), whence 

^ Ptolemy, Chapter XII. 

^Historioal Researches, Vol. II, p. 437. 

'Historical Researches, Vol. 11, p, -J^):^. 


is brought steel and cloth, for this latter is also a great 
conimerciiil port. It likewise makes consignments to 
Sindli on the borders of India, whence com(! musk 'and 
castoreum ; and also to Persia, Yemen, and Adule. From 
all these countries it receives articles of produce, which 
again it transmits into the interior, together with its own 
productions. Selandiv (Sinhal is consequently 
a great emporium, and being situated in the middlf of 
the Indian Ocean, it receives merchandise from, as well as 
sends it to', all parts of the world."' 

Professor Heeren adds : " From Pliny, who quotes 
the testimony of ancient historians, namely, those of 
Alexander's age, who first discovered 1'nprobane to be 
an island, we learn that Ceylon enjoyed this commercial 
reputation in the time of the Ptolemies, and even in 
that of Alexander. If we extend this period but 
a century and a iialf furtlier back, which no one surely 
will consider unreasonable, we come at once to the 
interesting hinturlcal fact that during a space of a 
thousand years, that is from 500 B.C. to 500 A. I),, 
the island of Ceylon, so conveniently situated for such 
a purpose, continued to be the great emporium of the 
Hindu-carrviniJ: trade, from Adule on the cost of Africa, 
Yemen and Malabar and the Ultra Gangetic Peninsula, 
even to China." He also says : "Ceylon was the com- 
mon mart of Australian commerce."^ 

That a considerable portion of ancient India is 

closely connected with that of Ceylon is clear, not only 

from the remains of Hindu civilization still every uh»'ro 

visible in the island, but also from the ex])ress testimony 

1 Historical Researches, Vol. ]|, p. 298. 
2Historical Researches, Vol. II. p. 12G. 


of the writers on the subject. The island o£ Ceylon has 
been celebrated in the historical and fabulous writings 
of India as being very prosperous and wealthy. " Golden 
Lanka " is a trite phrase in India. The island was 
politically, sociall}-, in religion, and, till very recently, 
even physically — after iiam Chandra's celebrated stone 
brido'e — a part of India. It was inhabited by Hindus, 
who, so far as nationality, language, religion and civili- 
zation are concerned, belonged to the same stock as their 
brethren of India. It enjoyed, therefore, an equally- 
considerable refinement and civilization. When the British 
first went to Ceylon, " they beheld with astonishment 
tlie stupendous remains of ancient civilization, not mere- 
ly temples and other edifices, but what is still more extra- 
ordinarv, tanks of such amazins^ extent as to deserve 
the name of lakes." Her ancient prosperity, her material 
streno'th, her moral and social achievements have all been 
testified to by many EuropcRU writers. Arrian, Cosmos,^ 
and a host of other o-i-eat writers, travellers and aimalists 
of the first centuries of the Christian era unanimously 
declare that Ceylon occupied the foremost position 
in the commercial transactions of the ancient world. 

It has alreadv been remarked that the Alexandrian 
historians were the first to discover that Ceylon was an 
island. Professor Heeren says : "It is, however, quite 
evident from the testimony of Arrian that much of what 
is advanced respecting the trade of Ceylon may, with equal 
justice, be applied to the opposite coast of Malabar." 

The sea-coast of India was naturally well furnished 

with harbours and havens to cope with commerce on 

I A inerclmiit wlio travelled about 500 A.D. in the reign of Em- 
peror Justinian TI as far as Adule, at that time a oelol)ratcd port bej 
ljiii,'in^' to thi; King of Axuino. in E(liii>]iia, npar Arkoeko. 

a gigantic scale. Professor Heereri says : "Commercial 
towns and ports existed on the Coromandcl coast from 
time immemorial. The coast of Coromandel, and 
specially the sonthern part, is represented by Ptolemy 
to iiave been thickly-studded with a series of commercial 

Extensive commerce bespeaks advanced civihza- 
tion. ^Ir. Elphinstone says : " The numerous commer- 
cial cities and ports for foreign trade which are men- 
tioned in Periplus, attest the progress of the Indians in 
a department which, more than any other, shows an 
advanced condition of the nation."- 

Land Trade. 

The land trade of India extended to China, Turkis- 
tan, Persia, Babylon, and sometimes also to Egypt, 
Greece and Rome. Mr. Vincent savs : " The country 
in the north with which India traded was China. "'^ 
The author of Periplus, after describing the geographi- 
cal position of China, says : " Silk was imported from 
that country, but the persons engaged in this trade were 

1 Historical Researches, Vol.11, p. 297. The chief ports men- 
tioned in Periplus, p. 30, are: (1) Barygaza (Bliaroucli) ; (2) Miziris 
(Mangalore) ; (3) Nelkvnda (Neliceram) ; (4) Patala (Hyderabad in 
Sindh) ; (5) Calliene, (Gallian. situated over against Bombay) ; and 
the islands of Elephanta and Salsette. In addition to these Cosmos 
names Sindus (Sindh); Orrbota (Surat) ; Calliene; Sibor ; Parti; 
Mangaruth ; Salopatana ; Nelopatana ; Pudapatana. 

'^ History of India, p. 241. 

•"^Vincent, Vol. II, pp. 574, 575. The author says " the name 
Ghiua is of Hindu origin and comes to us from India." 


the Indians themselves." It may, ho\A'ever, be added, in 
the words of an English critic :' "It is not improbable 
that silli was also indio:enous in India even at a remote 

epoch. "^ 

As resfards the trade with central and northern Asia, 
we are told that '' the Indians make expeditions for 
commercial pnrposes into the golden desert Ideste^ 
desert o£ Gobi, in armed companies of a thousand or two 
thousand men. But, according to report, they do not 
return home for three or four years." The Talhtl 
Sulemcui^ or the stone tower mentioned by Ptolemy and 
Ctesias, was the starting point for Hindu merchants who 
v/ent to China. 

Professor Heeren says : " By means of this build- 
ing it is easy to determine the piu-ticular route as well 
as the length of time employed by the Hindu merchants 
in their journev to China. If we assume Cabal, or rather 
Bactria, as their place of departure, the expedition would 
take a north-easterly direction as far as the forty-first 
degree of north latitude. It would then have ro 
ascend the mountains, and so arrive at the stone tower 
through the defile of Hoshan, or Owsh. From thence 
the route led by Cashgar, beyond the mountains, to the 
borders of the i::reat desert of Cobi, which it traversed 
probably through Khoten and Aksu (the Casia and 
Auxazia of Ptolemy). From these ancient towns the 
road lay through Koshotei to Se-chow, on the frontiers of 
China, and thence to Pekin, a place of great antiquity, 
if we are to understand it as the metropolis of Serica, 

^Asiatic Rosearohes, Vol. II, p. 286. See also Sclilegel, Berlin, 
Calender, p. '.), (Edition 1829). ^Sca also " Art of Weaving," 

rOMMKJJCE. ■l'2'A 

which, indeed, the accounts of Ptolemy would hni-dly 
leave any room to doubt. The whole distance amounts 
to upwards of two thousand five hundred miles." ^ 

As regards Western Asia, Professor Heeren snys 
that " the Palmyrians, in addition to their commerce by 
land, exercised also a sea-trade with India."" 

" After the decline of Rome,'' says the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, " Bassora became the chief commercial mart, 
and to Ormus merchandise from India was brouoht."'^ 

India traded with Europe by sea as well as by 
land. The writer quoted above says : " The produce of 
India was also brought to Europe by other routes, 
namely (1) by the way of Palmyra, then a flourishing 
city, and thence to Rome and other Western cities, 
through the ports of Syria ; (2) across the Himalaya 
mountains to the Oxus, thence to the Caspian Sea, and 
finally to its ultimate markets of Europe.""* 

Foreign trade of a nation presupposes development 
of its internal trade. Specially is this true of a large 
country like India, with its varied products, vast popu- 
lation and hi"'h civilization. Professor Lassen of Paris 
considers it remarkable that the Hindus themselves dis- 
covered the rich, luxurious character of India's products; 
many of them are produced in other countries, but re- 
mained unnoticed until sought for by foreigners, where- 
as the most ancient Hindus had a keen enjoyment in 
articles of taste and luxury. Rajas and other ricli people 
delighted in sagacious elephants, swift horses, splendid 

^Historical rlesearchos, Vol. 11, p. 290. 
-Historical Ilcsoarches, Vol. IT. ji. 409 ( Ap[)Piul!X IX). 
•^Encyclopaedia BritaTinica, Vol. XI, p. 4Go. 
*Eiicyclo{)aHlia Britannica. Vol. XI, p. 4.J9. 


peacocks, frolden decorations, exquisite perfumes, 
pungent peppers, ivory, pearls, gems, etc., and conse- 
quently caravans were in continued requisition to carry 
down these and innumerable other matters between the 
north and the south, and the west and the east of their 
vast and varied country. These caravans, it is conjec- 
tured, were met at border stations and about ports by 
western caravans or ships bound to or from Tyre and 
Egypt, or to or from the Persian Gulf and Red Sea."^ 

Professor Heeren remarks : " The internal trade 
of India could not have been inconsiderable, as it was in 
a certain deoree prescribed bv nature herself."" Roval 
roads were constructed all over the country from east to 
west and from north to south, in addition to the num- 
berless rivers, along the banks of which considerable 
commerce was carried on. 

Strabo, Plutarch, and Apollodoras agree in their 
statements that India had considerable trade roads in 
all directions, with mile stones, and was provided with 
inns for travellers. (See Strabo, Chap. XV, pp. 474 
and 487). And these 'Toads," says Heeren, "were 
planted with trees and flowers. "^^ 

Active internal commerce was carried on in north- 
ern India alon"' the course of the Gano:es. Here was 
the royal highway extending from Taxila on the 
Indus through Lahore to Palibhotra (in Behar), and 
which was 10.000 stadia in length.'* 

Kamayana, too, mentions another road leading from 
Ayodhya (Oudh) b}- Hastinapur on the Jamna, through 
Lahore, to the city of Giniheraja, in the Punjab. 

Periplus, too, after saying that "the Ganges and 
its tributary streams were the grand commercial routes 

1 See Ancient and Medispval India, Vol. II, p. 848. 
•^Historinal Researche.s, Vol. II, p. 2fi7. 
•"^Historical Researches. Vol. II, p. 279. 

■iStraho, p. 1010. Pliny also speaks of it in his Xatnral History 
Vol. VI, p. 21. 

of iiortluMMi Iiiditi," adds tlint tlie " rivers of tlie 
Southern Peninsula :d.s<» wen; ii:niii:ite<]/'' 

Accordino- u> Arrinn, the conimoreiid interronrso 
between the enstcni and western roitsts was earried on 
in coLintrv-hnilt ships. 

Periphis iignin suys tliat " in Daeldmnah.'ides {Ihil- 
shina Pafhd of Snuskrit. or the Deccan) there are two 
very distinguished and eelehrated marts, nninod Taiiara. 
and Pluthama,- whence merchandise was brougiit down 
to Barygaza (Barauncli). 

0/ene ' (Ujjainj was one of tlic cliief marts for 
internal traffic, and supplied the neighboiu-ing country 
with all kinds of merchandise. It also became th(» em- 
porium of foreign commerce. It transported Indian 
products to P)arygaza, and was a celebrated depot of the 
produce of more distant and northern countries. 

Fairs were an important \'ehicle of trade, and were 
introduced in every part of the country. A large con- 
course of people assemble at these fairs in different 
seasons for the purpose of exchanging merchandise as 
well as discussing religious and national tonics. Even 
now lakhs of people assemble at Hardwar, ]>enares, 
Allahabad, on the banks of Xerbudda and other places.* 

' Teriplus, j). i'y\) . ~~ 

-For the indent iHc.-if inn of these two pl.'iee<;, see Klphinsionc's 
"India," p. 223, footnote. "Tau:ara roinained for 2,000 years the great 
emporinin of the Mediterranean oonimeree." — Heeren. 
sHistorical Researches, Vol. If, p. 2H0. 
''The ahnost innnnierable crowds tliat yearly flock to Benares, 
.Tagan Nath and elsewhere, amounting to many hundred thousands of 
souls, would obviously give rise to a species of comnvivc." — II/.'<tonc,/l 
Researches, Vol. II, p. 279. [For an account of fairs at Hardwar, 
see Hardwicke's accounts of it in the Asiatic Researches, Vol. ]], 
p. 312 ; wliere he says that two-and-a-half lakhs of souls as.semble every 
year, while on the occasion of Kuml>/> the iinmhcr i< mnny time laro-f.i-. T 

426 nixDU surERiouiTY. 

Re^'ardinof tliese Hindu fairs, Mr. Elphinstone says : 
"Indian fairs have strong resemblance to those of England. 
But no assemblage in England can give a notion of the 
lively effect produced by the prodigious concourse of 
people in white dresses and bright -coloured scarfs and 
turbans, so unlike the black head-dresses and dusky habits 
of the North." ^ 

Mrs. Manning says thas the Hindus traded even in 
the Yedic period, "and the activity in trade thus early 
noted has continued to be the characteristic of the 

The Enc3'clopa3dia Britannica says : " It (India) 
exported its most valuable produce, its diamonds, its 
aromatics, its silks, and its costly manufactures. The 
coinitry, which abounded in those expensive luxuries, 
was naturally reputed to be the seat of immense riches, 
and every romantic tale of its felicity and glory# was 
readily believed. In the Middle Ages, an extensive 
commerce w^ith India w^as still maintained throush the 
ports of Egypt and the Red Sea ; and its precious 
produce, imported into Europe by the merchants of 
Venice, confirmed the po]>ular opinion of its high re- 
finement and its vast wealth."^ 

i Elphinstone's History of India, p. 179. He also remarks that 
"many such places are also amongst the celebrated marts for the 
transfer of merchandise." 

-Ancient and Mediaeval India, Vol. II. p. 347. 

^^Encyclopa-dia Britannica, Vol. XI, p. 446. Foreign commerce 
on such a gigantic scale as described above was one of the principal 
causes of the immense ri(?hes of ancient India, 



Ruli in tlif gciM^ oi liidiM'> ^aiuly /.imk;. 

Cammucli, : rica^iircs nf Hnp'-, 

If history proves anything', it proves that in ancient 
times, India was the richest country in the world. The 
tact that she has always been the cynosure o£ all 
eyes, Asiatic or European, that people of less favoured 
climes have alwavs cast lonsfins^ looks on her fflitterintr 
treasures, and that the ambition of all conquerors has 
been to possess India, prove that she has been reputed to 
be the richest country in the world. 

Her sunny climate, unrivalled fertility, matchless 
mineral resources and world-wide-exports in ancient times 
helped to accumulate in her bosom the wealth which 
made her the happy hunting gi'ound of adventurers 
and conquerors. Professor Heeren says : " India has 
been celebrated even in the earliest times for its 
riches."^ Dr. Wise says that the wealth, splendour and 
prosperity of India had made a strong impression on 
the mind of Alexander the Great, and that when he 
left Persia for India, he told his army that they were 
starting for that " Golden India " where there was end- 
less wealth, and that what they had seen in Persia 
was as nothing compared to the riches of India. 
Chamber's Encyclopa'dia says : " India has been cele- 
brated during many ages for its Avealth,"-' The 
Avriter of the article "Hindustiin" in the Encyclopaedia 

^Hi'oi-cu's llistorioal Rcsoaivhes, Vol. II, p. 268. 
2Cliambi,'r'^ Eticyoloptcdia, W'l. Vi Ail. "Iii-.liii," p. jclG. 

428 HINDU .surEKKjiUTY. 

Britaimica remarks that India " was naturally reputed to 
be the seat of immense riches."^ Milton voiced the 
popular belief when he sang of the wealth of India : 

'• High on a throne of royal stiitc whicli far 
OtUshone the weahh of Orniuz and of Ind, 
Or where tlie gorgeous East willi richest hand 
Showers on her kings barbaric;, pearl and gold." 

An idea of the immense wealth of India could be 
irathered from the fact that Avhen Sultan Mahmiid Ghaz- 
navi destroyed the far-famed temple of Somnath he found 
such immense riches and astonishing diamonds cooped 
up in the single " Idol of Siva " that it was found quite 
impossible to calculate the value of .that booty." After 
a stay at Mathura for 26 days, in which he collected 
large idols of gold and silver in thousands, many set in 
with priceless jewels, Mahmud went to Kanauj, which so 
astonished the tyrant and his followers, though long 
familiar with wealthy cities like Mathura, that they 
declared that Kanauj was only rivalle»l in splendour and 
magnificence by the high heavens. 

Gold, the emblem of wealth, was iirst found in India. 
India was the home of diamonds and other precious stones 
in ancient times. Perinlus savs that " the Greeks used 
to purchase pieces of gold from the Indians." Nelkynda 
or Nelicerara, a port near Calicut on the Malabar Coast, 
is said to have been the only market for pearls in the 
world in ancient times. 

Chamber's Kncyclopa'dia snys that the minerals 
of India are rich and varied. Diamonds, emeralds, 
plumbago, beryle, topazes, are among its products. Gold 

' EuoyclopBcdia Britannica, Vol. XI, {). i46- 
'See Lethbridgc'o " Ili^turj- of India." 

WKALTir. 121) 

has been found in Indiu irom time imnieniorial. The 
Deccau and the ^lalabar Coast are believed to be the 
gold-bearing districts/ and at Dharwar, quartz reefs of 
the richest description have been found. 

India has been famous for pearls, topazes, saphires, 
rubies, emeralds, lazuli, corals and other jewels. The 
most famous pearls and stones are all of Indian 
origin. The pearl presented by Julius C;esar to 
Servilia, the mother of Brutus, as well as the famous 
pearl ear-ring of Cleo|)atra, were obtained from India. 
The most famous diamonds in the world are natives of 
India. Though the Pitt (or the Regent as it is now called) 
weighs lo6f carats and is larger in size, yet the Koh-i-noor^ 
Aveiffhinij^ only lOG^ carats,- hallowed bv aj^es of roman- 
tic history, is the most famous diamond in the world. 
Both were taken from India to England. The Pitt, how- 
ever, after being reduced in cutting from 410 to I3G^ 
carats was sold in 1717 to the Regent of France, the Duke 
of Orleans. It may still be seen at the Louvre, Paris. It 
is valued at £480,000, the Koh-i-noor at onlv £140,000. 
But the mythological and historical value of the Koh-i-noor 
is untold. 

It was the wealth of India that impelled the rude 
Arabs to invade this country, and led the half-ci\ilized 
Tartars to overrun it. It was the wealth of India that 
attracted Nadir Shah to India, from whence he returned 
laden with immense booty, and caused the Abdali chief 
to renew his attacks on it. 

1 Periplus (p. B6) speaks of c^old mines situated in the lower Gangc- 
tic Plain. Pliny speaks of gold and silver mines in the mountains 
of Capitalia, which arc represented by him as the highest of the Ghat 
Range. — Heeren's Historical Researches, Vol. II. 

-When the Koh-i-noor first reached England it weighed 186^ carats. 


May be, us Sophocles sings ^ that, 

"Gold is tlie worst of ills 

That ever plaj^ued mankind : this wastes our cities, 

Drives forth their natives to a foreign soil, 

Taints the pure heart, and turns the virtuous mind 

To basest deeds." 

Yet gold has its virtues. It was gold which not only 
enabled England to save herselE and Europe in the last 
century but decided the fate of Napolean Bonaparte.- 

1 Antigone, Act 1. 
^ The representatives of the Allied Powers, assembled at Vienna, 
declared him an outlaw after his return from Elba, but declined to 
oppose liim for want of funds. On this, England granted them large 
subsidies. Thus began the war that ended in the crowning mercy of 


True Rpligion 
Is always mild, propitious and humble, 
Plays not the tyrant, plants no i'aitli in blood, 
Nor bears destruction on hor chariot wheels, 
But stops to polish, succour and redress, 
And builds her grandeur on the public good. 

J. Miller. 

Rkligiok, the balm for afflicted minds, is, as Bacon ob- 
serves, "the chief bond of human society." It is the 
most powerful factor in the regulation of human affairs. 
As a man's company gives us a key to the general 
})rinciples which guide his conduct, so does a nation's 
religion give us a clue to those general principles 
and natural forces which are at work in it for good or 
for evil, and which will lead it either towards civili- 
zation and enlightenment or towards degeneration and 
darkness. As the habitual actions and trifling acts of 
a man are clearly stamped with the characteristics of 
his personality, so is the religion of a nation an index 
to mark its position in the scale of civilization. 

Religion, then, is one of the tests of civilization. 
And true religion, which is only another name for Gyana 
or true knowledge, is a necessary result of pre-eminence 
in morals, philosophy, literature, science and general 

The present religion of the masses in India should 
not be liternllv taken to be the relijrion of their nnees- 


tors, and the nature of their religion should not be 
judged from the religious system of the modern Hindus. 
The once highly-spiritual religion of the Hindus has, so 
far as the masses are concerned, now become thoroughly 
materialised to mark their degradation, and things earthly 
are now installed in the place wdiich was once occupied 
by the eternal principle of all things. 

The Yedic religion is the knowledge, the recognition 
of the eternal principles of being, of God, of spirit and 
matter, and their relation to one another as revealed to 
them in the Vedas. 

Unbounded sympathy with humanity and infinite 
love for all God's creatures, which are the results of 
the noblest influences of true religion, found their 
supreme expression in India. No nobler sacrifice can be 
imao:ined than that involved in the resolution of the 
Indian who said : " Nev^er will I seek nor receive private 
individual salvation — never enter into final peace alone ; 
but for ever and everywhere will I live and strive for 
the universal redemption of every creature throughout 
the world. Until all are delivered, never will I leave the 
world of sin, sorrow, and struggle, but will remain where 

The Hindu religion is the knowledge and the com- 
prehension of those eternal principles which govern na- 
ture and man, those immutable laws which in one sphere 
are called " science," in another " true philosophy." 
It concerns itself not with things true under certain con- 
ditions or at certain times : its precepts are ever true, 
true in the past, true in the present, true in the future. 

' Buddhist Catena. 

UKLlLilOX. 433 

True knowledge being one, it takes, without any distinc- 
tion, into its fold, Indians, Arabs, Europeans, Americans, 
Africans and Chinese. Its principles circumscribe the 
globe and govern all humanity. 

The Hindu religion is not, like other religions, 
a confession of weakness, an humble admission of the 
helplessness of humanity, and an absolute reliance on 
an external power for the salvation of mankind. 
The Hindu relisrion is a confident assertion of 
supreme manhood — an assertion full of dignity and 

Schlegel says : " It cannot be denied that the early 
Indians possessed a knowledge of the true God. All 
their writings are replete with sentiments and expres- 
sions, noble, clear, severely grand, as deeply conceived 
as in any human language in which men have spoken 
of their God. "^ 

The Rev. J. Bryce admits that " there is every 
reason to believe that there existed a period in the Hindu 
history when the Brahma was the sole object of reli- 
gious adoration. "=^ Rev. Mr. AVard says : "It is true, 
indeed, that the Hindus believe in the unity of God. 
' One Brahma without a second,' is a phrase verv com- 
monly used by them when conversing on subjects which 
relate to the nature of God. They believe al^o that God 
is Almighty, All-wise, Omnipotent, Ominiscient." 

Mr. Charles Coleman says : '* The Almighty, Infi- 
nite, Eternal, Incomprehensible, Self-existent Being ; He 
who sees everything though never seen ; He who is not 

^Wisdom of the Ancient Indians. 
^Sketch of the State of British India. 


to be compassed by description, and who is beyond the 
limits of human conception is Brahma, the one unknown 
true Being, the Creator, the Preserver and Destroyer of 
the universe. Under such and innumerable other defi- 
nitions is the Deity acknowledged in the Vedas, or the 
sacred writino-s of the Hindus."' 

Col. Kennedy says : " Every Hindu who is in the 
least acquainted with the principles of his religion must 
in reality acknowledge and worship God in unity." 

Count Bjornstjerna, after giving a quotation from 
the Vedas, says : " These truly sublime ideas cannot 
fail to convince us that the Vedas recognise only one 
God, who is Almighty, Infinite, Eternal, Self-existent, 
the Light and the Lord of the Universe."^ 

Maurice is assured " that the Brahmin is seeking 
after one Divine unseen object, nay, that his aim in his 
Avliole life and discipline is to purify himself from out- 
Avard, sensible things, that he may approach nearer to 
this one source of Illumination."' Mr. Colebrooke says 
that ** the ancient Hindu religion, as founded on the 
Hindu Scriptures, recognised but one God."* 

" It is very doubtful," says Prof Monier AVilliams, 
" whether idolatry existed in the time of Manu's 
compilation of the Smriti."''' 

Of the much-abused institution of Shraddhas, Prof. 
Max Muller says : " The worship of the ancestors and 
the offerins^ of Shraddhas have maintained much of their 

1 Mythology of the Hindus. =^Thcogony of the Hindus, |.. 53, 
3 Religions of the World, p. 44. 

4 Asiatic Researclies, Vol. VIII, p. ,385, See also PatersonV 
Origin of Hindu religion in the Asiatic Researches. 
^Indian Wisdom, p. 226. 


old sacrod character. They have sometimes beeu com- 
pared to the communion in the Christian Church, and it 
is cerrainly true that many natives speak of their funeral 
and ancestral ceremonies with a hushed voice and with 
real reverence. They alone eeem still to impart to their 
life on earth a deeper significance and a higher prospect. 
I could go even a step further and express my belief 
that the absence of such services for the dead and of 
ancestral commemorations is a real loss in our own reli- 
gion. Almost every religion recognises them as tokens 
of a loving memory offered to a father, to a mother, or 
even to a child, and tliough in many countries thev mav 
have proved a source of superstition, there runs through 
them all a deep well of living human faith that ought 
never to be allowed to perish.'" 

The distinguishing feature of Hinduism, however, 
is, that it is a thoroughly scientitic religion. Religion and 
science went hand-in-hand in ancient India. The reli- 
gious tenets of other nations have been proved, and are 
admitted bv men of culture and thouo-ht to be in conflict 
with the teachings of modern science. In India, how- 
ever, theology is founded upon philosophy and science. 
The Vedic religion is, therefore, thoroughly scientific. 
Major Cunningham says: "In the East, however, philo- 
sophy has always been more closely allied to theology 
than in civilized Greece or modern Europe. "2 

An eminent Frenchman says that the Hindu 
Revelation is "of all Revelations the only one whose ideas 
are in complete harmony with modern science." 

1 India: What can it teach ns? p. 242. 
^Cunningliam".s History of tho Sikhs, p. 2.3. 


That gifted lady, Mrs. Begaiit, said at Calcutta: 
" India is the mother of religion. In her are combined 
science and religion in perfect harmony and that is the 
Hhidu religion, and it is India that shall be again the 
spiritual mother of the world." ^ 

The Yedas do not certainly teach such unscientific 
absurdities as that out of nothintr came somethinE^, or 
that the sun was created after the creation of the earth 

1 Mrs. Besant's lecture at the Grand Tlieatre, Calcutta on Joth 
JaT'.uary ItlOG. In the course of the lectuie, Mrs. Besant said : "In 
the nineteenth century one of the postulates of science was that life, thought 
and consciousness were all results of certain molecular arrangements of 
matter. Brain, the speaker added, secreted thought as the liver sec- 
reted bile. The whole materialistic science tended to show that life was 
the result of an arrangement of matter. "Where tiie mechanical arrange- 
ment of matter failed, there thought failed. Intelligence and conscious- 
ness were simply the results of matter. That was the idea repeated in 
Tyndal's famous treatise — 'we must see in matter a permanent poteticy 
of every form of life.' But Hinduism proclaimed exactly the opposite. 
It taught that life was primary and matter secondary. Matter was 
simply a tool, instrument, vehicle. This was clearly explained in the 
ITpanishads, in the problem of cdmo. It was shown how the unem- 
bodied atma was in the body. The body was the dwelling-house of the 
embodied atwa. It is written that the atma desired to see and the eye 
was there. The atma desired to hear and the ear was there. Tho atma. 
desired to think and the mind was there. Con.sciousness was primary, 
atma was primary, while the senses, organs, the body were secondary. 
This was the Hindu teaching. The later discoveries of science also 
taught that consciousness is the creator and the matter is the form." 
The speaker then stated, by way of illustration, that " man had legs, as 
was plain to her audience, and they were able to walk ; and such was 
the case with other senses. But niodern science taught exactly the 
opposite. It declared that ci-eatares with legs desired to walk and legs 
were gradually formed by slow degrees after repeated efforts. The 
desire was an aspect of consciousness and not an arrangement of matter. 
The creatures wanted to move, so the organs of locomotion were gra- 
dually and duly bailt. The function of sight did not come from the 
vja : il \\u> ih« result of perception in coiisciousness." 


Miss F. P. Cobbo very justly observes: " For nges back, 
and markedly since the days of Spinoza, facts iiave-been 
known to learne<i men utterly at variance with the re- 
ceived doctrines of the infallibility of Scripture, or even 
of its hit^torical accuracy.'"' 

Mr. Froude says : "The truth of the Gospel his- 
tory is now more widely doubted in Europe than at any 
time since the conversion of Constantine."- 

l)ishop Colenso says : " I a^^sert without fear of con- 
tradiction that vhere are multitudes now of tiie more 
intelligent clergy who do not believe in the reality of tiie 
Noachian deluge as de:«cribed in the Book of Genesis"'' 

^Ir. J. A. Laugland says : " The philosophy 
and the religion of to-day (Christianity) are opposed. 
The teachings of our divines and the teachings of our 
thinkers are antao-onistic."* 

The Vedic dharma, however, never feared scientific 
advancement, nor was it ever guilty of the terrors of 
the Inqinsition. It never shed the blood of a Galilio 
a Copernicus or a Bruno.^ 

1 Broken Lights. 

2 Short Studies on Great Subjects, Vol. J, ]>. 278. 

^Pentateuch and Book uf .loshiia. Part II, Preface. 

■* Religious Sc^'pticisni and Infidelity. 

T)'- Although steadfast in his faith, the Hindu is not fanatical; he 
never seeks to make proselytes. If the Creator of the world, he says, 
had given the preference to a certain religion, this alone would have 
prevailed upon the earth ; but as there are many religions, this proves 

the approbation of them by the Most High They (the Hindus) 

regard God as present in the mosques, with those who kneel before the 
cross, and in the temple whore Brahma is worshipped. And is not this 
faith more in accordance with the true doctrine of Christ than that 
which lighted the Anto rln fp for the infallibility of the Popes, for the 
divinity of Mary, and for the miracles of the samtsr'—Theogonyofthe 
Hindus, pp. 67, 08. 


The Co^intess 06 Jersey says in the Nmcfeenth 
Cenf'inj : " But to the higher caste Hindu (provided 
he knew anything about Hinduism) Christianity offers 
no solution to his doubts and to his fears. The doctrines 
of the Upanishads (the philosophical speculations of the 
Yedas) satisfy the utmost longings of the mind. The 
acute logic of the ancient Rishis has raised a bulwork 
of arguments to support the huge fabric of Hindu 
thought. The doctrine of Karma offers the simplest 
and most reasonable answer to the obvious inequalities 
and striking contrasts in this visible world, of happiness 
and suffering. The ferment and unrest of the soul in 
the search of knowledge is soothed and laid at rest when 
the object of contemplation is reduced to a figure-head 
and finally a point in space. This contemplation of 
point in space results in a self-absorbing delight which 
knows no end, and which places the soul high above all 
carnal wants and aspirations. This is the goal of Hindu 
philosophy. Christianity has nothing to offer to those 
who are r/issatisfied with Hinduism."^ 

1 Times of India (Weekly editimi) for 25th May 186d. Cliaplaiii 
Delia Valle; author of " A Voyage to Ea^t India," thus concludes 
the chapter " On the ^Moralities of the Hindu:" "0! what a sad 
thing it is for Christians to come short of Indians even in moralities, 
come short of those, who themselves believe to come short of heaven I " 
The chai)lain thus closes his interestinjj: work on the subject of conver- 
sion, whidi is as remote from accomplishment at this day as it was at 
that distant period : " Well known it is that the Jesuits there, who, 
like the Pharisees ' that would compass sea and land to make one 
proselyte' (Matt. 23-25), have sent into Christendom many large re- 
ports of their great conversions of infidels in East India. But all 
these boastings are but reports ; the truth is, that they have there spilt 
the precious water of baptism upon some few faces, working upon the 
necessity of some poor men, who for want of means, which they give 
them, are contented to wear crucifixes, but for want of knowledge ia 
the doctrine of Christianitv are only in name Christians." — A Voyage 
to East Indict, pp. 402, i*17, 418 and 480. 

KKLKilON. 4:)[t 

No religion in tlie world claims to he. in coni];ler.e 
harmony with the spirit of modern science cxciiit the 
Vedic religion. Buddhism, being only a iiiodified form 
of Hinduism, does not differ materially from the Vedic 
religion in its scientific aspects. 

It has been shov^•n that almost every part of the 
world was, at some remote period, conquered and colo- 
nised by the ancient Hindus. Siir)ilarly, it will be 
found that the different nations of the ancient world 
derived their reliuion from ancient Aryavarta. 

Even at the present moment more than Imlf of the 
human race are the express followers of the religions 
that emanated from India. If the population of the 
world be taken in round nund)ers at 1,000,000,000 we 
shall find from authentic lecords, that oo,000. 000 men 
profess Hinduism and Buddhism (the religions that 
originated in India), while only 470,000,000 men follow 
religions which are of non- Indian origin. Rev. Mr. 
Ward says : "Their (Hindus) ])hilo.sO[)hy and religion 
still prevail over the greater portion of the globe, and 
that it is Hinduism which regulates the forms of wor- 
ship and modes of thinking and feeling and acting 
throughout Japan, China, Tartary, Hindustan, the 

Burman Empire, Siam, Ceylon, etc." 

It is equally clear that the religions that did not 
originate in India have been strongly influenced by 
Hindu religious thought. Bjornstjerna says : " Bud- 
dhism has al?o extended its doctrines among most of 
the other religious systems." The Mosaic cosmogony, 
still believed in by the Jews and others, is derived from 
the Hindu system of cosmogony. 

^Mythology of the Uiuclus:, Pi"*tace, p. iviii. 


The origin oE the Greek Church of Christianity is 
thus explained by Mr. Princep : " The Buddhists of the 
West, accepting Christianity on its first announcement, at 
once introduced the rites and observances which for cen- 
turies had already existed in India. From that country 
Christianity derived its monarchical institutions, its forms 
of ritual and church service, its councils or conv^ocations 
to settle schisms on points of faith, its worship of relics 
and working of miracles through them, and much of the 
discipline and of the dress of the clergy, even to the 
shaven heads of the monks and friars."^ 

Some of the most important of the Christian ethical 
teachings may be found word for word in the writings 
of the Hindu philosophers, who flourished centuries before 
the birth of the Saviour. The corner-stone of Christian 
ethics, "Do unto others as thou wouldst thev should do 
unto thee," is nothing more than the teaching of Yagy- 
valka, who says : " It is not our hermitage, still less the 
colour of our skin that produces virtue, virtue must be 
practiced. Therefore, let no one do to others what he 
would not have done to himself."^ 

Mons. Delbos says that " the religious aspirations 
of that (Hindu) civilization are found grandly expressed 
in the Rig Veda. That civilization pervades in every 
corner of the civilized world, and is around and about us 
every day of our lives."^ 

It is an observation of Hume that one i^eneration 
does not go off the stage at once and another succeed, as 

1 Piincep's Moiigdlia :iiul Taitary. 

2See Max Muller's India: AVhat can it teach n? ? p. 74. 
■''Mons. Delbos' pajier on the Yedas read before the International 
Literary Association at Paris on 14tli Jnly 18<iJ4. 

i^KLiniON. 441 

is the case Avilli silkworms and l)iittL'rnies. There is a 
varying margin, says Mr. Payne, into whirh the men of 
one age and those of the succe(Mlinf»: are ])lende(h 

In tlie same way, one religion never completely dies 
out to be succeeded by another altogether new and in- 
dependently developed. As a rule, new religions are 
evolved out of the old ones, and the old ones are in a 
way the parents of the new religions. Christianity is 
evolved out of the Mosaic Scripture, which again is derived 
from the religion of the ancient Egyptians, which was 
derived from India. Mohamed{>nism, some writers hold, 
is a mixture of the Mosaic Scriptures, Christianity and the 
Parsee religion (which was derived from Hinduism), 
strongly tinged with the native spirit and singieminded- 
ness of the Arabs and the democratic principles of their 
social system. 

Buddhism, as is well known, was only a revolt 
against Brahmanical tyranny, and was founded by Sakya 
Siuirh or Sakva Muni,' the son of Sudhodhana, kins; of 
Kapilavastu, situated to the north of Behar. According 
to Buddhistic writers, however, he was the third Buddha, 
not the first, there being twenty-two Buddhas in all. 
There have been several Buddhas" wdio ditt'er among 
themselves as they differ from the Hindus. But they 
all agree in the following points : — (1) They ac- 
knowledii-e the Vedic dharma as the foundation of their 
own. (2) They admit, in conjuction with this doctrine, a 
divine triad^ which combines the principle of the Trinity 

^Buddha, as a child, was also called Siddhartlia. 
^Theogony of the Hindus, p. 89. 


"with of the unit}', although frequent!}' under other 
names than those of tlie Trimurtee of the Brahnians. 
(3) In acknowledging the doctrine of the transmigration 
of the soul. (4) Regarding the soul as an emanation of 
the Divine Being, which, after having accomplished its 
transmiu'ration, returns to its hio'h orio;in.^ Buddhism 
differs from popular Hinduism in the following parti- 
culars : — (1) It does not acknowledge the Yedas as a 
revelation from God, but only regards them as a highly- 
deserving human composition, containing great but not 
revealed truths. (2) It does not recognise the division 
of castes, as Hinduism does. (3) It considers the inferior 
gods and demi-gods of the Brahmin religion merely as 
holy men sent by the Almighty for the benefit of the 
human race. "These Buddhas, therefore, were, like Luther 
Calvin and Huss, reformers of religion." (4) Their idea 
of God is different from the Hmdu idea. 

Sir E. Arnold says : " Buddhism has in it the eter- 
nity of a universal hope, the immortality of a boundless 
love, an indestructible element of faith in final good and 
the proudest assertion ever made of human freedom."^ 

As regards the propagation of Buddhist doctrines, 
it is probable that at one time they spread over the whole 
world. In Burma, Siam, in most of the islands of the 
Indian Archipelago and Ceylon, in Thibet, Mongolia, 
Japan, Xepal, Bhutan and the Lesser Thibet it is still 
the prevailing religion; but that at one time it spread to 

IThis shows the origin of Buddhism to have taken place after the 
^Mahabhavnta. when the Yedanta came to be received as an Advaita 
system. Its rejection of the caste system a\^o points to the same period, 
as it was after the Maliabharata that the system began to be abused. 

■^Liijht of Asia, Preface, p. xiii. 

Turki.'^tan, Persia, E^ypt, uiitl Koine, and cwn to S<'iUi(li- 
luiviii and the British LsLinds, is most probable' 

Count 15jornstjerna says : " It is cuIIcmI Goddmas 
(Gautama's) doctrine in Assam, Pegu, Ava and Ceylon ; 
Samaria's doctrine in 8iam ; Amidha Buddha^ s in Japan, 
/''/'.s'or Frt///Vs-in Chinaand Cochin-Cliina, Salya S/'ni/Ji's 
in Eastern Bengal and Ne|)al, Dhenna Raj/'s in Bootan ; 
uidi Buddha''s in Great Thibet ; Mahamiinis in Lesser 
Thibet, and Sak'ui Muni's inMongoliaand Mants-Chouri."'' 

"The Buddhist Monks, Bharana and Matanga, who 
first carried Buddhism lo China, durinu; the reiiJfn of the 
Han Emperor Mingti in A.D. Go were natives of Gan- 
dhara (Punjab), of which the capital was Taksliila. "Some 
authors conjecture the Gceti of the Chinese to be the 
same as the Greek Scythi, who were no other than 
the parent stock of the Hindu Sakya race."'^ 

^ " That the true seat of Buddhism," says Bjornstjeiua, " in ancient 
times was Hindustan is attested by the temples of EUoia, Eh'phanfa 
and Ajunta, uf which the greater part were dedicated to Tniddha, and 
also by the most authentic Hindu records. In a convcrsatinn with 
Bogle (the British envoy at Thibet) the Dalai Lama stated that Bralima, 
Yishnu and Siva were worshipped by the inhabitants of Thibet, but the 
lesser gods of India were not otherwise regarded by them than as holv 
men (Buddhism): that the people of Thibet, from 700 to 800 years 
back possessed many temples in India, but that the Brahmins had 
destroyed them, and that India was the real native seat of their gods 
and doctrines; he therefore begged the English envoy to obtain permis- 
sion from the Governor- General that they might again erect temples on 
the shores of the Ganges." — Thcogonij of the Hindus, p. 98. 

2Theogony of the Hindus, i». 80, A. H. Bitchourin, a l{ii»i;in 
translator of Chinese religious books, says tiiat Buddhism universally 
prevails in the highland of Cential .Vsia. 

^See Sarat Chaiuler Das. "Univer-ities in India," in the Hindustan 
Review lur Murcli I'JUtJ, 


"The foot-prints of Buddha were worshipped by his 
followers and were called Phrabat. They were engraved 
on rocks and hills, where people flocked from all parts of 
the country to worship them. They have now been found 
to be existing in most countries. These foot-prints are 
regarded by the Buddhists in the same light as the rain- 
bow in the religions founded on the Mosaic records, 
namely, as an assurance that the delage shall not return. 
Six such Phrabats are found in the East, one of 
them singularly enough in Mecca, whither the 
Buddhists made pilgrimages long before the rise 
of Islamism."^ This proves the prevalence of 
Buddhism in Arabia in ancient times. 

Bjornstjerna continues : " But Buddhism has 
also penetrated to the banks of the ISTile, of which we 
have many proofs. The so-called Hermes Scriptures 
(the name of the sacred writings of the Egyptians) con- 
tain a metaphysical treatise in the form of a dialogue 
between Hermes and Thodh, Bodh, Buddh, which 
throughout exhibits the doctrines of Buddhism; they 
speak of the pre-existence of the soul, of its transmigra- 
tions upon earth (Metempsychosis), of its emanation 
from the Divine Being, and of \t^ final return to its high 
original.'""' There is another early Egyptian writing, 
Pimander's Hermes Trismegistus, in a dialogue form, 

1 Tlioogony of the Hindus, pp. 92, 03. After discoursing on Socrates, 
Epicun^s, Zoroaster and Confucius, Schlegel says: " But they were not 
so generally revered as benefactors of their country : whilst for numeri- 
cal influence Gautama Buddha swayed the destinies of more millions of 
human beings than the four togetlier." — Hiatory of Literature, p, 124. 

^Tlieogony of the Hindus, p. 100, 

iJKLIGloX. 4 1 .') 

bet\Yeen Pimnnder and Thodh, ^vllR•ll develops tlie doctrine ot" TriniLy. 

Count Bjornstjerna {ignin says: " The Cljaldcans, 
the Babylonians and the inhabitants of Colchis derived 
their religion nnd culture from India. "^ " a s\-.s- 
tern of Hinduism," says Colonel Tod, " pervaded tlie* 
Avhole Babylonian and Assyrian empires, Scripture fur- 
nishes abundant proofs in the medium of the various 
types of the Snno-od, Bal Nath, whose pillar adorned 
every mount and every grove." - 

" The Samaritans in Aram were Buddhists, as 
also the Essenes in Palestine, at least as to their 
private doctrine, for outwardly they followed the ^Mosaic 
law." The Gnostics were divided into two classes: (1) 
The Egyptians and (2) The Asiatics; and "the adherents 
of the latter," says the Swedish Count, " were in fact 
Buddhists who in a great measure adopted the external 
forms of Christianity, because they regarded Jesus as a 
Buddha who had appeared on earth in accordance Avith 
their own tenets." '"^ 

Count Bjornstjerna continues : " Even the Druids 
in ancient Britain were Buddhists ; they adopted the 
metempsychosis, the pre-existence of the soul and its 
return to the realms of universal space. They had a 
divine Triad consisting of a creator, preserver and des- 
troyer as with the Buddhists (and Hindus). The Druids 
constituted a sacerdotal order which reserved to itself 
alone the interpretation of the mysteries of religion." 

The Druids propagated their doctrines in Gaul during 
the time of Caesar, whence they penetrated in the West 

iThcogony of the Hiiulns, p. 38. ^Tod's Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 605, 
•^Theogony of the Hindu?, p. 101. *Thcogony of tlio iliudus, p. lOi. 

446 HINDU surEKiouiTY. 

to the Celtic tribes in Spoin, and in the East to Germany 
and the Cimbrian peninsula. 

The spread o£ Buddhism to the above-mentioned 
parts of the world was for the most part anterior to 
Christianity ; simultaneously with the establishment of 
this creed, Buddhism penetrated so far as the Altai 
mountains in Asia and the Scandinavian peninsula in 
Europe. Into the last-named peninsula it was introduced 
by Sigye-Frldalfson^ surnamed Odin (in the ancient 
Scandinavian dialect Whodin; in is the article which 
added to Whod, Bhodd, Baddh, makes Whodin — Odin), 
chief of an Asiatic tribe called Asar."^ 

Buddhism being only a particular form cf Hindu- 
ism, not only is Hinduism the groundwork of Buddhism, 
but the mythology and the traditions of both are neces- 
sarilv one and the same. Hence, wherever Buddhism 
has spread throui^h the exertions of the Indians or wherever 
the Buddhist Hindus migrated, there is found between 
the religion, mythology, and scientific and philosophical 
writings of India and of those countries, an affinity too 
close to be only accidental. In the case of Scandinavia, 
however, the resemblance is so close that without assum- 
ing^ the mio-ration of the Hindus into the country, it 
cannot otherwise be explained satisfactorily. All the 
Indo-Sythian invaders of India, says Colonel Tod, held 
the religion of Buddha, and hence the conformity of 
manners and mythology between the Scandinavians or 
German tribes and the Rajputs. 

^Theogony of the Hindus, p, 105. The author says: "It seems 
to be the same tribe which came by sea to Etruria. 
'Tod'fc Rajasthiin, Vol. I, \k Gj. 

KKLIcloX. -117 

(1) After giving a few (jiiestions witli tlicir answers 
from the Eddu of the Scaiidiiiaviaus and a f(;\v similar 
ones from the Vedas, the Swedish Count, ]^)jornstjerna, 
concludes : " All these questions are so exceedingly 
similar to those which the angels make to iJrahma and 
the answers similar to those of Brahma in the Vedas, that 
loe can scarcely qyestio?i the derivation of the Edda from 

the Veda:'' 

(2) " A common symbol of the Creator among the 

Hindus (from whom it past into Egypt) was the scaral)- 
aeus or beetle. In Scandinavia, likewise, this insignificant 
insect was secred, and bore the name of the god Thor." 

(3) " The resemblance between the serpent of 
Midyard, in the Edda and the serpent of Vishnu in tlie 
Veda is also worthy of remark, both being described as 
having encircled the world." 

(4) "But what is most deserving of observation 
is the accordance between the gates of WaJhall and the 
Indian ages of the world, or yugs. According to the 
Edda, Walhall has 540 gates ; if this number be multiplied 
by 800, the number of Einheriers who can march- out ab- 
reast from each gate, the product will be 432,000, which 
forms the very elementary number for the so-frequently- 
named ages of the world or ynris, adopted both in the 
doctrine of Brahma and Buddha, of which the one now 
in course wall extend to 432,000 years, the three pre- 

^Thc'ogony of the Hindus, pp. 107,108. 

2" Five hiandred and forty doors, I believe lo be in Wallitvll. 
Eight hundred Einheriers can go out abreast when they are to fight 
against the Ulfven (the wolf V Here is meant the fatal encounter with 
Fenris Ulfven at the end of the world, when Odin, at the head of 
4i 2,000 armed Einheriers takes the field against them. — (Sec the Edda), 


ceding ones corresponding to this number multiplied 
by 2, 3, and 4." 

Between the nomenclatures of the Scandinavian and 
Hindu rnvthoWies there is a remarkable resemblance. 
Love is in Swedish, Mrlek: Bengali, Karlekeya; while 
Swero-a is the Swedish name of Sweden and is situated 
near the North Pole. Skand, the God of war, reigns 
there (Scandinavia), and seven steps (zones) lead 
thither, of which the most northern is named 77mle, the 
ancient name of Sweden."^ 

It appears that the Hindu settlers migrated to 
Scandinavia before the Mahabharata, taking their philo- 
sophy and religion with them, but were soon absorbed 
by the natives owing to their inferiority in numbers. 

Count Bjornstjerna says : " We have seen how Bud- 
dhism has spread first over the two peninsulas of India 
and afterwards proceeded to Ethiopia, Egypt, China, 
Corea, Thibet : it penetrated to Chnldea, Phoenicia, 
Palestine, Colchis, Greece, Rome, Gaul, and Britain."" It 
is thus clear that Buddhism, or rather Reformed Hinduism, 
at one time spread over almost every country of the 
ancient w^orld. We haye already seen (see Colonization) 
that Egypt and Greece were colonized by the Hindus in 
ancient times : those settlers must have taken with them 
their religion from ancient India. Direct and conclusive 
proofs, however, are available to prove that the religion of 
the ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks was derived 
from India. On comparing, the religious systems of the 
Egyptians and theHindus we are struck by their resem- 
blance to each other. "Both proceed from monotheistic 

iTheogony of the Hindus, p. 109. -Tlieogony of the Hindus, p, 101. 

T^ .Mil 

pruicii)les and degenerate into a polyLhei.stic heathenism 
though rather of a symbolic than of a positive rliaracttr. 
The principle of Trinity Avitli tliatofthe I'nitv, the pre- 
existence of the soul, its transmigration, the dixisionof 
castes into priests, warriors, traders and agriculturists are 
the cardinal points of both systems. Even the symbols are 
the same on the shores of the (ranges and the Nile. Thus 
■\ve find the Liuijam of the Siva temples of India in the 
J*h(illusoi the Amnion temples of Egypt — a symbol also 
met with on the head dress of the Egyptian gods. A\'e find 
the lotus jJoivera^s the symbol of the sun both in India and 
in Egypt, and we find symbols of the immortality of the 
soul in both countries. The power of rendering l)arren 
■women fruitful, ascribed to the temples of Siva in India, 
■was also ascrii)ed to the temples oiAmmoii in Egypt ; a 
belief retained to our days, for the Bedouin women may 
still be seen wandering around the temple of Ammnn^ 
for the purpose of obtaining this blessing."^ 

Several names of Hindu mythology are recognised 
in Egypt : " Thus, Amnion^ the supreme god of the 
Egyptians corresponds to Aum of the Hindus; and the 
Erahminical Siva is found in the temple to which 
Alexander the Great made his pilgrimage from Egypt, 
and which 3'et bears this name." These resemblances 
between the two systems of religion prove that the 
one is derived from the other. The following arguments 
advanced by Count Bjornstjerna prove conclusively that 
the Hindu religion is the source of the Egyptian religion. 

(1) "It is testified to by Herodotus, Plato, Solon, 
Pythagoras and Philostratus that the religion of Egypt 

proceeded from India^ 

^Tlit'ogony of the Uiiulus, jip, iU, 41. 

450 inxDU surERioRiTY. 

(2) "It is testifiGfl by Niobiibr, Yalentia, Champol- 
lian, and Waddington, tbat tbe temples of Upper Egypt 
are of greater antiquity than those of Lower Egypt ; 
that the temples in Meroe are more ancient than those 
of Elephantine and Tliebes ; these more ancient than 
the temples of Tentyra and Abydos ; and these again 
more ancient than those of Memphis, Heliopolis and 
Sais ; that consquently the religion of Egypt, accord - 
ino" to the testimony of those monnments, proceeded 
from the South, which cannot be from any other land 
than from Ethiopia and Meroe, to wdiich conntry it 
came from India, as testified by the above-named Greek 

(3) " The chronicles found in the temples of Ab3Tlos 
and Sais, and which have been transmitted to us by 
Josephus, Julius Africanus and Eusebius aU testify that 
the religious system of the Egyptians proceeded from India. 

(4) " We have Hindu clironologies (besides those 
of Puranas concerning the Yugs, which are nothing but 
astronomical allegories) which go still further back in 
time than the tables of the Egyptian kings, according 
to Manetho. 

(5) "There is a tradition among the Abyssinians 
which they say they have possessed from time imme- 
morial, and which is still efjually received among the 
Jews and the Christians of that country, that the first 
inhabitants (they say Cush, grandson of Noah, wdth his 
family) came over the chain of mountains, which 
separates the highlands of Abyssinia from the Red Sea 
and the Straits of Babel Mandeb from a remote Southern 
country. The tradition further says that they built 

the citv (>[ A,i'uni ciirlv in ihe diivs oC Al)r:iliaiu. and 
that from thence they spread themselves, followinf^ tlic 
Kiver Nile downwards until they became (as dcjsephus 
Kays) the Meroetes ; namely, the inhabitants of tliat part 
of Aiibia, which bcinii; situated between the Nile and 
its confiux the Atbara. forms what is commonlv called 
the island of Meroe, from which they spread farther down 
the river to Egypt." Count l)jornstjerna thus concludes : 
" It appears from the above-mentioned grounds that 
the Hindus have a greater claim to the primogeniture 
of religion, and consequently to the primogeniture of 
civilization than the people of Ancient Egypt,"' 

That the religion of ancient Greece was partly de- 
rived from Egypt and partly from India, as shown by 
^Ir. Pococke, is sutHciently well known. Indeed, the 
cosmoii'onv of the whole world has been derived from 
India. That the Greeks derived theirs from the Hin- 
dus may be seen in the accounts Avhicli Damascius has 
(I'lven of the doctrine of (JrjtlicAia. It is as follows: "In 
the besfininu' was Kronos, who out of chaos created (/'(her 
(day) and erehos (night) ; therein he laid an egg 
(Hindu) from which came Phanea^ furnished with three 
heads (the l^)rahmin Trimurti). P//rt?2e5 created the man 
and the woman from whom the human race is derived. 
The cosmogony of the Egyptians also adopts the Hindu 
euii" which, divided into two. formed heaven and earth 
(^cide Diodorus and Plutarch )."- 

The Mosaic system of cosmogony was derived from 
India. Count Hjornstjerna savs : " If we relleet iipnii 
all these testimonies res))ecting Moses, and consider the 

^Theogoiiy of tin' Hiiiduis, pp. 43-10. 
^Tlicugouy ol" Uic llindus. I'p. I;)",*, l;'.l. 



place (Heliopolis) where he studied, and if we also re- 
collect that the religion of the Egyptians was derived from 
India, we thus find a clue from whence Moses must partly 
ha\e obtained his cosmogony^ and also his religious 
system, which, like the Vedas, was constructed upon 
monotheistic principles." ^ 

The present cosmogony prevalent in the Christian 
and Mohamedan countries is also of Indian orio-in. The 
Buddhistic cosmogony is as follows : " In the beginning 
the earth was uninhabited, at which time the inhabitants 
of Heaven or of Bhurana (angels) used to visit the earth. 
These glorious beings consisting of men and women, 
through the purity of their spirit, had never yet cherish- 
ed any sensual desires, when Adi Buddha (the supreme 
God) infused into them the desire to taste the fruit of a 
tree resembling the almond, which excited the sensual 
appetite in them, and they afterwards disdained to return 
to Bhurana, and thus became the parents of the human 
rnce."- That this is the source from which the Bible and 
the Quran derived their common system of cosmogony 
there can scarcely be any doubt. It is thus perfectly 
clear that every system of cosmogony, whether ancient 
or modern, owes its origin to the Hindus. 

The mythology of the Greeks, the Egyptians and the 
Assyrians is wholly founded on the Hindu mythology. 
Professor Max ]\luller says : " The poetry of Homer is 
founded on the mythology of the Vedas," ' and without 
the Veda, he says a little further, " the science of my- 
thology would have remained a mere guesswork and 

1 Thcogony of the Hindus, p. 144. 2Xheogony of the Hindus, p. 131. 
•'Chip^^ from a German Workshop, Vol. Ill, p. 79. 


HKLU.loN. 4.')3 

without a safe basis." i The i^ods and godesses of Greece 
are but copies of lliinhi originals. 
Jupiter ... stuiiJs for liidra. 




Diirga or Parvat 


1 • • 




. . . 




• • . 




• • • 




and Uranus 



































and Pollux) 


Aswini Kumars. 


• • . 




• • • 




* • • 



The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are the sources 
of the Homeric poems, and the mythology of the Greeks 
is, to a great extent, only an adaptation of the Hindu 
mythology to local life and traditions of Greece. 

The Christian mythology, too, is derived from that 
of the Hindus. Both ^Ir. Maurice"- and Sir W. Jones* 
believe Kama to be Raamah of Scripture, son of Cusli 
(Genesis, Chapter x. verse 7.) It is thus clear to a 

I'jhips from a German Workshop, Vol. Ill, p. i)6. 

2 Maurice's History, Vol. Ill, p. 104. 

•^Sir W. Jones, iu the Asiatic Researches, VuK II, p. 40. 


student of comparative mj'thology that the Hindu 
deities are the objects of worship in some form or other 
throuirhout the world. 

Mr. W. D. Brown says : " By careful examination 
the unprejudiced mind cannot but admit that Plindu is 
the parent of the literature and theology of the 
world. The researches and investigations made in Sans- 
krit language, which was once spoken in that country, 
by scholars like Max Muller, Jaccolliot, Sir AVilliam 
Jones and others, have found in the ancient records of 
India the strongest proofs that thence were drawn many 
or nearly all the favourite dogmas which latter theologians 
have adopted, and the strongest proofs show to the 
thoughtful student that the ancient Hindus were neither 
the practisers of idolatry nor the unlearned, uncivilized, 
barbaric race they have usually been thought, but a 
people enjoying a measure of inspiration that might be 
envied by more pretentious nations. And I have 
not the least doubt that these translations of ancient 
Hindu literature will confound the so-called modern 
civilizations, that they will look upon India as 
a century flower once more coming into full bloom 
wafting forth its delicious fragi-ance, and will be"" for 
a slip from its branches."' 

1 'I'lie Dailji Tribune, Salt Lake City, United States, America, 
►Suuda)' Morning, 2Uth February iy^4. '