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The cults of the Greek sta tes ^ 



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THE CULTS 



OF 



THE GREEK STATES 



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HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 



LONDON, EDINBURGH, AND NEW YORK 



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THE CULTS 



OF 



THE GREEK STATES 



BY 



LEWIS RICHARD FARNELL, M.A. 

FELLOW AND TUTOR OF EXETER COLLEGE, OXFORD 



IN THREE VOLUMES 
VOL. II 



IVITH ILLUSTRATIONS 



O;rfoifb 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1896 



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FHOM THt LiBKAfcYOF 

HtRBfHT WtIR SAIYTH 

APRIL IS, 1941 



O;cfot^ 



PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BY HORACB HART, PRIKTEK TO TUB UNIVHKSI TY 



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CONTENTS OF VOL. II 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PAGE 

Artemis 425-486 

Most of her worship aboriginal » but many alien elements engrafted upon 
it, 425-427 ; contrast between the Artemis of Homer and the Artemis of 
cult, who belongs to a comparatively savage stage of society, 427 ; Arte- 
mis associated with water, trees, and woodland-life, At/xvola, *AX<^ci<wia, 
'KitayxofUvriy meaning of the 'hanging' divinity, Kopuaris, KtSpcaris. 
Artemis- Eurynome in Arcadia, 427-430; Artemis a sea-goddess in later 
period, 430, 431 ; Artemis associated with wild animals and with wild 
vegetation, Artemis 'AypoHpa, 431-434 ; totemistic ideas in the worship 
of Artemis, Arcadian myth of Callisto compared with the cult of Brauron, 
434-439 ; human sacrifice in the worship of Artemis, often assumed on 
doubtful evidence, 439; examination of the Iphigenia-myth and the 
Tauric cult, the sacrifice of the * theanthropic * animal, 440-442 ; the 
virginal character of the goddess not recognized in the earliest period, no 
public cult of Artemis as virgin, her interest in childbirth, her ritual 
-sometimes lascivious, yet the dogma of her virginity accepted before the 
Homeric period, possible explanation of the contradiction, cult of Ilap- 
64vos prevalent in Caria and elsewhere, TlapOhos meaning the 'un- 
married * goddess, the doctrine of the virginity of Artemis due to a change 
in the sense of UapeivoSf 442-449 ; Artemis occasionally though rarely 
associated with tame animals and agriculture, the goat -goddess, Elpimra, 
TavpowdKoSf the Tauric Artemis in Lemnos, Attica, the Crimea, 449-455 ; 
*Op0ia and 'OpOwaia, 453, nc(£ b; Artemis TptieKapia, Artemis with 
Demeter and Despoina, 455, 456 ; summary view of the earliest character 
of Artemis, not a lunar goddess till the fifth century B.C., Artemis 
:Zf\aff<p6poi and *oja<p6pos no connexion with the moon, 456-460; 
titles of Artemis referring to social and political life, 461-468; none 
designate her clearly as the goddess of marriage, £v/vXcta, *H'y€fi6yrj, 
n€i$df, 461-463; Ucu^rp6<f>oSj KopvOakla, Ilarp^ UafjupvXaia, 463, 464; 
her connexion with Apollo not original, probably arising at Delos, 
influence of ApoUine worship on that of Artemis, Artemis AcX^ti'/a, IlvOlrj, 
O^Xm, Aw/, 464-467; Artemis as the city-goddess, BovXaia, *Ayopaiaj 
more frequently worshipped under this character in Asia Minor than in 
Greece, Artemis of Perge, 467-470 ; titles referring to Artemis as goddess 
of war, 470, 471 ; scarcely any recognition of her as goddess of the arts, 



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vl CONTENTS. 

PACK 

471, 47a ; non-Hellenic inflnences and cnlts, Artemis associated with 
Cybele, M&, Bendis, Britomartis-Dictynna, 473-479 ; Artemis of Ephesns, 
480-483 ; AtvKo^v^yrjy KoXorjvfj, 48a, 483 ; Artemis sometimes combined 
with pnxely Oriental divinities, Anaitis, Astarte, 484-487. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Artemis — ^Upis — Nemesis . . . . .. . 487-498 

•Cult and meaning of Artemis-Upis, 487-488 ; Nemesis no mere personifi- 
cation, bnt a real colt-personage of Rbamnns, the name originally an 
epithet of Artemis- Aphrodite, 488-493 ; the two Nemeseis of Smyrna, 
493, 494.; the meaning of Ni/iccrif as an epithet of the Rhanwnsian god- 
dess, 494-496 ; representations of Nemesis in art, 496-498. 

CHAPTER XV. 

Adrasteia . 499, 500 

Originally a local title of Cybele, detached and misinterpreted, 499, 500. 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Hekate 501-519 

No satisfactory explanation of the name, Hekate not mentioned in 
Homeric poetry, no fixed genealogy and scarcely any mythology 
attached to her, probably an un-Hellenic divinity derived from Thrace, 
500-503; examination of the earliest records, theHesiodic fragment. Sec, 
503, 504 ; Hekate and Artemis Pheraea, Hekate in Aegina, Samothrace, 
and Asia Minor, JBJphesos, Caria, 504-506 ; akin to the Phrygian earth- 
goddess, the dog an alien animal in Greek worship, 507, .508 ; adoption 
of the colt by Athens, 508, 509 ; reasons of her association with Artemis, 
509, 510 ; Hekate associated with the moon, bnt also with vegetation and 
the lower world, even with the sea, .510-5^3 ; more conspicnoos as an 
infernal power than as a lunar, 513, 514; rites of purification, 515; 
reciprocal influence of the cults of Artemis and Hekate, UpoBvpcdOf 
*Ayy€kos, Hekate associated with childbirth and the Genetyllides, 515- 
519. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Monuments of the Cult of Artemis . . . 520-536 

Aniconic period, Artemis dedicated by Nikandra, 530, 531 ; the * Persian ' 
Artemis, ? a primitive Greek type, 531, 533 ; Artemis the fish-goddess on 
early Boeotian vase, 533, 533 ; representations of the tree-goddess, of the 
w6ma OrjpSar, of the huntress-goddess, Artemis Ao^a, 533-536 ; Bran- 
Ionian type, 537 ; Artemis Tavpow6kot, 539 ; Artemis-Selene only dis- 
tinguished by the crescent, a late S3rmbol, 531 ; Evvpa^la, liptiOf 531 ; 
monuments associating her with Apollo, 531-533 ; Artemis rarely repre- 
sented as city-goddess, or as goddess of war, 534, 535 ; Artemis Soteira, 
*^t^ 535-63^. 



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CONTENTS. vii 

CHAPTER XVIII, 

PACK 

Ideal Types op Artemis 637-648 

Works of late archaic period, 537, 538 ; Pheidian period, Artemis on 
Parthenon frieze, Lansdowne Artemis, statue m Villa Albani, Argive 
relief, 538-540; fourth-century monuments^ Praxiteles probably the 
creator of the ideal, statuette in Vienna, statue from Gabii in the Louvre, 
540-543 J Artemis on coins of Syracuse, 543, 544; Artemis Colonna, 
Artemis of Versailles, oa Pergamene frieze, Dresden Artemis, statue by 
Damophon, 544-548. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Hekatet Representations in Art 649"657 

Single form of Hekate, 549-551 ; work of Alcamenes, significance of the 
triple form, 551-554; symbols and attributes, 554-556 ; Hekate on the 
Pergamene frieze, 557. 

References for Chapters XIII-XIX . ► . 558-607 

CHAPTER XX. 

Eilbithyia 608-614 

Originally a form of Hera, identified sometimes with her, sometimes with 
Artemis, 608, 609 ; Eileithjria in Delos, with Sosipolis in Elis, 610-613 ; 
artistic representations, 613-614. 

References for Chapter XX . . . . ► 615-617 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Aphrodite- worship 618-669 

Aphrodite not an aboriginal Greek goddess, 618 ; reasons for this view, 
Aphrodite nowhere regarded as autochthonous in Greece, her fictitious 
adoption by Dione, 618--631 ; her association with Hephaestus Ares Hebe 
the Charites Eros no proof of her Hellenic origin, 631-636 ; characteristics 
and names of the Semitic goddess of Anterior Asia, 636-639 ; Aphrodite 
Ourania, meaning of the term and preyalence of the cult, 639-631 ; 
associated with Aegeus and Theseus at Athens, 631 ; Cretan Aphrodite- 
worship connected with the names Pasiphae, Europa, and with the Attic 
cult of Aphrodite 'Ev<r/KZ7/a, 631-633 ; graye of Ariadne in Cyprus and 
Argos, confusion of sexes in the ritual, youths feigning trayail, 634, 
635 ; Ourania at Thebes and Corinth (the hetaerae or (c/x^dovAoi an 
Oriental feature in the latter worship), at A^ra and Olympia, 635, 636 ; 
various titles and forms of the Oriental goddess in Greece, *A<ppia, Acv- 
Ko$4a (1), her maritime character derived from the East, 636-638; 
Aphrodite- Aeneias, source of the Aeneas myth, the wanderings of Aeneas 
signify the diffusion of a cult, Aphrodite 'E^inros, 638-642 ; Aphrodite 
a goddess of vegetation in Oriental cult and in Greece, ^AippoUrtj ''AvBtta, 
643, 643 ; worship of Cybele, Attis and Adonis v^etation-deities, Adonis 



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viii CONTENTS. 



the swine-god, Robertson Smith's and Frazer's theories discussed, 644- 
647 ; Adonis-worship at Athens, 648, 649 ; Aphrodite originally an earth- 
goddess, connected also with the lower world, the mourning Aphrodite, 
the dead goddess in the legend of Pygmalion, titles of the chthonian 
Aphrodite— na/KuwirroviTo, Topyity 649-653; armed Aphrodite of the 
East at Cythera and Sparta, Aphrodite ^Tpartia, Vucrj<f>6pos, 653-655 ; 
Aphrodite the cherisher of children, the goddess of marriage and the 
clan, "ApfM, VvfMpia, 'Awarovprj, 655-657 ; Aphrodite UAvSrjfios, political 
title, erroneous views concerning it, the term misused by Plato, the 
worship serious and austere, vrjipdXta Upd in the worship of Ourania which 
is the only recorded Aphrodite-cult with impure rilual, 657-664 ; Aphro- 
dite as goddess of beauty and love, UtM^ Upa^ts^ *Em(TTpo<f>laf 'Airoarpo- 
0io, *AySpo<t>6vos, ? Xojadv^pa, 'EXc^/^w, Mop<pd), ViSvpoi, 664-667 ; impure 
titles probably later, 667, 668 ; summary of the account given, the mean- 
ing of Ourania deepened in Greek poetry, 668, 669. 

CHAPTER XXIL 

Monuments op Aphrodite 670-708 

Aniconic forms, Oriental types of the naked and clothed goddess of 
fertility, influence on early and possibly on later Greek art, 670-674; 
Oriental symbols adopted by Greek art, 674-677; representations of 
Ourania, coins of Eryx and Ouranopolis, statue in Madrid, 677-679 ; statue 
by Canachus for Sicyon, relief in Villa Albani, Aphrodite with Eros and 
griffin on Acginetan relief, 679 681 ; Pheidian statue of Ourania at Elis, 
681-683 ; characteristics of Ourania, Venus of Pompeii, 683, 684 ; Aphro- 
dite 'Evirpayiay work of Scopas, 684-686; phrodite on the ram, on the 
horse, 686, 687 ; representations of the maritime goddess, the Cnidian 
Aphrodite a cult-statue, 687-690 ; silver medallion in the Louvre, Aphro- 
dite with Poseidon and aegis on vase, 690, 691 ; Aphrodite "AvBtia^ the 
'Venus Genetrix* of the Louvre, 691-693; representations of Adonis, 
Aphrodite in the tree, the mourning goddess of Libanon, Aphrodite 
Persephone, Aphrodite Gorgo, Melainis, 693-699 ; the armed Aphrodite 
with Ares, 700-703; representations, Aphrodite the city-goddess, KovfK>- 
rp6<pos, *AiraToi5p»;, 704, 705 ; Aphrodite with Apollo, with Peitho, with 
Eros on relief from South Italy, Aphrodite ^Eraipa, 705-708. 

CHAPTER XXIIL 

Ideal Types of Aphrodite 709-730 

Pre-Pheidian period, bronze in the Louvre, 709; works of Pheidias, 
709, 710; Aphrodite head in Holkham Hall, 710, 711 ; the Cnidian 
statue by Praxiteles, 711-717 ; head in Brocklesby Hall, head in posses- 
sion of Lord Ronald Gower, 718, 719; the Capitoline Venus, the 
Aphrodite of Syracuse, of Smyrna, the Castellani head, 7x9-722 ; Aphro- 
dite of Melos, 722-730. 

References for Chapters XXI-XXIII . . . 731-7^1 



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LIST OF PLATES IN VOL. II 



PLATE XXVIII. Artemis-statue dedicated by Nikandra. 

XXIX. (a) Artemis on early Boeotian vase. 

{6) Artemis on bronze relief from Olympia. 

XXX. (a) Artemis- statnette from Lamaka» Vienna. 
{d) Artemis on vase, riding on a roe. 

XXXI. (a) Artemis standing on ball, statnette British Mnseum. 
(6) Artemis and Apollo on relief^ Villa Albani. 

XXXn. (a) Artemis Soteira, statnette British Museum. 
{6) Artemis from Pompeii, statue in Naples. 

XXXIII. Artemis from Gabii 

XXXIV. Artemis-Statue in Lansdowne House. 

XXXV. (a) Artemis on relief from Argos. 
{d) Artemis-statue in Dresden. 

XXXVI. Artemis Colonna, Berlin. 

XXXVII A. Artemis on Pergamene frieze. 
XXXVII B. Artemis-head by Damophon. 

XXXVin. (a) Seated terracotta figure of Hekate, Athens. 
{If) Hekate on vase in Berlin. 

XXXIX. {a) Hekate on relief of Thasos. 
{6) Fragment of Hekateion. 
{c) Hekateion from Aegina. 
{a) Hekate of Bruckenthal Collection. 

XL. Hekate on Pergamene frieze. 

XLL (tf) Statuette of Aphrodite in Louvre. 

(d) Statuette of Aphrodite in Louvre. 

(c) Torso of Aphrodite, Marseilles. 

(<0 Aphrodite on relief of Villa Albani. 

XLIL (a) Aphrodite, terracotta relief from Aegina. 

{d) Aphrodite, terracotta statuette from Cyprus, British 
Museum. 

XLIII. (a) Statuette of Aphrodite from Pompeii. 

id) Vase-representation of Aphrodite riding on goat. 



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X LIST OF PLATES. 

PLATE XLIV. {a) Aphrodite a^d Eros, silver medallion in Louvre. 
(Jb) Aphrodite and Poseidon on vase. 

XLV. Bronze statuette of Aphrodite, Biblioth^que Nationale, Paris. 

XLVI. Venus Genetrix, Louvre. 

XLVII. Limestone statuette of Aphrodite in Louvre. 

XLVIII. Relief of Hermes, Aphrodite, and Eros from Calabria. 

XLIX. (a) Bust of Aphrodite. 

{b) Aphrodite with Goigoneium. 

L. {a) Aphrodite and Ares on vase in British Museum. 
(Ji) Aphrodite and Ares on relief in Venice. 

LI. {a) Aphrodite, limestone head from Cyprus. 
{b) Aphrodite with Eros, terracotta in Louvre. 

LIL Head of Aphrodite in Holkham HalL 

LIU. Head of Aphrodite in Louvre. 

LIV. Cnidian Aphrodite, statue in Munich. 

LV. Head of Aphrodite in Brocklesby Hall. 

LVI. Head of Aphrodite, in possession of Lord Ronald Cower. 

LVII. Head of Aphrodite in Smyrna. 

LVIII. Statue of Aphrodite in Syracuse. 

LIX. Bronze figure of Eileithyia in British Museum. 

Coin-Plate A. 

Coin-Plate B. 



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THE CULTS OF THE GREEK 
STATES 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ARTEMIS. 

The female divinities of the Greek religion have so much 
of common character as to suggest the belief that they 
are all different forms under different names of the same 
divine personage. Such a theory can only be criticized a 
posteriorly after a minute examination of the various cults and 
the various ideas attaching to those cults. And it is at any 
rate convenient to study side by side such cognate forms as 
Artemis, Hekate, Demeter, Persephone, and Aphrodite. Of 
these the most prominent among the scattered tribes and 
communities of the Greek world was Artemis. Perhaps no 
other figure in the Greek Pantheon is so difficult to under- 
stand and explain, not because the conceptions that grew up 
in her worship are mystic and profound, but because they are, 
or at first sight appear, confusing and contradictory. 

Most of her cult is genuinely Hellenic, although in some 
places we can discover Oriental influences and ideas. We 
can trace it back to a prehistoric period, and it is found in all 
the chief places of prehistoric Greek settlement ; in Thessaly, 
Euboea, Boeotia, Phocis, Locris, Aetolia, Sicyon, Achaea, 
Elis, Argolis, and, in its most primitive form, in Attica 
Laconia and Arcadia. Partly from its wide prevalence, and 
partly from certain most primitive features that it possessed, 
we must hold that this cult was either an aboriginal heritage 
^ VOL. lu B 



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426 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

of the Greek nation, or that it was borrowed by all the tribes 
at some very remote time, and as no trace or remembrance of 
its foreign origin has been preserved in the earliest traditions 
that were rife in the chief centres of the worship, the latter 
supposition appears idle and gratuitous. Again, the various 
streams of Greek colonization in the Mediterranean diffused 
the worship of Artemis, and we find it more widely spread 
than that of any other Hellenic goddess ; it was implanted 
at an early time in Lemnos, in the Tauric Chersonese, and 
along the coasts of Asia Minor ; it was established in the 
Greek colonies of Sicily, especially at Syracuse ; from AetoHa 
it passed up the Hadriatic, and the Phocian emigrants brought 
it to Massilia. Perhaps it was from this city that it spread to 
Spain, where we find undoubted traces of it*. 

Proofs of its early existence in Africa are not easy to dis- 
cover ; for the records of the cult at Cyrene and Alexandria are 
comparatively late. It is probable that it was overshadowed 
at Cyrene by the more prominent state-worship of the nymph 
of that name, the subduer of lions, beloved by Apollo, a deity 
of vegetation who, as Studniczka has ably shown, was a 
primitive Aeolic form of Artemis ^ 

In many of these places, where the new settlers came into 
contact with an earlier population, we cannot strictly say that 
they introduced the worship as a new cult, but we have 
reasons for supposing that they found an indigenous goddess 
who bore a certain resemblance to their Artemis and with whom 
they therefore identified her. And it is just because she was 
so easily confused with foreign and Oriental goddesses, that 
the difficulty is so great of defining her original significance for 
the Greeks. The name Artemis or Artamis gives us no clue, 
for the philological attempts to explain it have led to nothing. 

We must have recourse to the various records of her worship 
in those parts of Greece where Oriental influences were least 
likely to have penetrated in early days, and where the myths 
and cult have a character that we have the right to call most 
primitive. On comparing these with the later and more 

• Vide Geographical Register, p. 603. chischt Gottin, Leipzig, 1890, and the 
*» Studniczka, Kyreru^ eine altgrie- article ' Cyrene ' in Roscher's Z^jrir(?ii. 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS, 427 

advanced, we may not succeed in finding any single con- 
ception that can explain the manifold character of Artemis, 
but we may be able to group together many cult-names and 
beliefs according as they refer to the same part of the original 
nature of the goddess, and we can trace a very interesting 
succession of ideas that throw light on the earlier stages of 
development in Greek society. 

The poems of Homer represent Artemis not at all as a lunar 
goddess or a divinity of any special department of the natural 
world, but as the chaste huntress, most beautiful among her 
nymphs, the sister of Apollo^ the goddess who sends a gentle 
death to women. But his portrait of Artemis gives us not the 
first but the last point in the development of her character ; 
and the conception of her in later Greek literature is not more 
advanced or more spiritual than his. 

A different aspect of her is presented in the Arcadian and 
Athenian rites and legends, which provide us with testimony 
much earlier than Homer*s ; and from these and other frag- 
ments of evidence it appears probable that the aboriginal 
Artemis was not a goddess of chastity, nor a goddess of the 
moon, nor the twin-sister of Apollo, but an independent 
divinity connected with the waters and with wild vegeta- 
tion and beasts ; reflecting in her character the life of her 
worshippers who were still in the savage stage, supporting 
themselves by hunting and fishing rather than by agriculture, 
possessing primitive marriage customs and giving a peculiar 
status to women, and whose religion was full of ideas relating to 
totemism and to the sacred character of the clan-animal. And 
even in the later and civilized period her personality retains 
more traces of savagery than that of any other Greek divinity. 

The most primitive traits in her cult, those at least that 
correspond to the most primitive life of man, are expressed 
by such cult-titles as refer to the water, the trees, and wood- 
land life. In Arcadia, Laconia, and Sicyon, she was wor- 
shipped as Atftj/any and Ai/utvafa ^' ^, * the lady of the lake ' ; 
near the lake of Stymphalus as Srvfw^aXfa ^, the goddess who 
bred the deadly birds which Heracles slew ; and 'EXcia, the 
goddess of the marsh, appears to have been one of her cult- 

B % 



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428 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

names in Arcadia and Messene*. She was associated fre- 
quently with rivers, as in Elis, where she received the names 
'A\<t>€Lala and ' AX<^e((i»2;(a^, and where she was wor^ipped under 
these titles at an altar by the side of the Cladeus and at the 
mouth of the Alpheus ; with these names is connected the 
ancient legend of the love of Alpheus for Artemis, a legend 
transplanted from Elis to Syracuse, where the name Ortygia 
proves the old association of the locality with the goddess •. 
The antiquity of this worship of Artemis 'AA^eiauz and of the 
combined cult of the goddess and the river-god is indicated by 
the curious legend given in Pausanias^, how, to secure herself 
from the pursuit of Alpheus, Artemis celebrated with her 
nymphs a festival in the night by Letrinoe, where Alpheus 
joins the sea, and how she daubed the faces of her attendants 
with clay to prevent him recognizing them. As clay-daubing 
is a common practice in savage rites of initiation and purifica- 
tion, we may believe this to be an aetiolog^cal myth invented 
to explain some primitive ceremony performed by the wor- 
shippers of Artemis on the banks of the river. 

The goddess of still and running water is also naturally 
a goddess of trees and fish. The strange worship of Artemis 
* ATrayxofxivfi, the 'hanging Artemis,* at Kaphyae in Arcadia* 
must have originally been consecrated to the goddess of vege- 
tation. Pausanias tells us a curious story concerning it which 
conceals the meaning of the ritual : once upon a time certain 
children in play attached a noose to the neck of her idol and 
said that they were hanging Artemis ; whereupon the men of 
Kaphyae stoned them, but the angry divinity smote their 
wives with a disease, and the oracle bade them atone for 
the innocents* death ; the Kaphyans obeyed its injunction, and 
instituted the cult of the * hanging Artemis.' The custom of 
hanging the mask or image of the divinity of vegetation on a 
tree to secure fertility, of which other instances will be noted ^ 
sufficiently explains these and similar stories ; and we may 

* Vide p. 43 a. The connexion and by the statement of Pindar's scholiast 

between Syracuse and Delos, between that a temple of Artemis 'AA^^ stood 

Alpheus, Arethusa, and Artemis, is in Ortygia ^ ^6.22,5. 

illustrated by the passage in Pindar*, « Aphrodite-chapter, p. 634. 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS, 429 

illustrate the ritual of Kaphyae by a relief found at Thyrea 
showing the image of Artemis hanging on a garlanded tree*. 

The tree-goddess was worshipped in Arcadia with epithets 
such as Kapvans ^ and K€ft/)€aris •, the goddess of the nut-tree 
and the cedar, and we may suppose the title Aa(l>vaCa ^ the 
goddess of the laurel, which was attached to her in Laconia, 
to be derived from her original character and not to have been 
borrowed from her later association with Apollo. In the 
Laconian legend and cult of Boiae she appears to have been 
identified with the myrtle ^* •; and these records attest that 
in Lacedaemon tree-worship was especially prominent in the 
religion of Artemis. 

It is noteworthy that there are no cultivated trees associated 
with the goddess^; and we may compare with the facts just 
mentioned the story that her idol at Sparta was found in 
a willow-brake, and was bound round with withies*'; hence 
came the title "ApTtfiis A iryobiaixa ^^. The close relation between 
her and the nymphs of the wood may have arisen from their 
common connexion with trees. Thus at Teuthea in Achaea 
she was worshipped under the general name of Nc/nidfo or 
N€fiv5fa ^, the goddess of the woodland pasture ^. As with the 
trees of the wood, so, at least in one instance, she is associated 
with the wild flowers ; for it was probably not merely as a sister 
of Apollo, but by the right of her own nature ,that she was called 
*TaKiv$oTp6<f>oSy *the nurturer of the hyacinth,* at Cnidus *^. 

Though none of her titles expressly designate her as a fish- 
goddess, yet the strange form of Eurynome in the Arcadian 
worship ^^ seems to indicate that this conception was not alien 
to the earliest character of Artemis in this country. We learn 
from Pausanias that at Phigaleia a mysterious goddess was 
worshipped at the junction of two streams, in a temple which 
was opened once a year only and which was surrounded with 
a grove of cypresses : the image in the temple was chained 

* Ann. deir Inst. 1829, Tav. c. custom of wrapping the idol round 

^ We find the fircone a badge of with branches. 

Artemis on a coin of Perge, according <* We may compare with this title her 

to Mionnet, Suppl. 5. 439. association with the nymphs of the 

« The epithet ♦eMffXTris " given her river Amnisus in Crete ; Callim. Dian, 

at Syracuse probably alludes to the 15 ; ApolL Rhod. 3. 877. Cf. ". 



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430 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

to its place, and had the upper parts of a woman and the 
lower of a fish : to the popular mind, he tells us, this was 
another form of Artemis ; but the learned knew that the 
goddess of the temple and the image was Eurynome, the 
daughter of Oceanus, the sea-goddess mentioned by Hesiod 
and Homer. In Roscher's Lexicon the latter view is accepted 
as correct ; but Preller and Welcker, without much discussion, 
take what appears to have been the view of the people*. 
Much may be urged in favour of the popular belief. In the 
first place, why should a scarcely known sea-goddess receive 
so strange a worship in a place so far inland as Phigaleia, 
where the inhabitants were landsmen of a very primitive kind ? 
And why should her temple be planted round with cypresses, 
which as wild trees might belong naturally to Artemis**? 

Again, the title Eipwrf/xij seems to be one of the descriptive 
and general appellatives, like KoAXkttcS and Aia-iroiva, used to 
denote one of the goddesses pre-eminent in the land. Now in 
Arcadia this must either have been Artemis, or Demeter, or 
Persephone ; but the fish-form would be appropriate to neither 
of the two latter, but only to Artemis At/Lw/any. And even if we 
took the other view, we should have to say on the evidence of 
Pausanias that the popular imagination associated Artemis so 
closely with the waters and the life of the waters that it could 
see their native Artemis in a statue of a goddess of the sea ®. 

It is doubtful whether we are to consider such titles as 
Ntjo/tctooj^*, 'EKj3ar?7/)ia", ExnropCa^^, which designate the goddess 
who brings the mariner to the haven where he would be, to 
have come to her through a natural extension of the notion 
and functions of the water-goddess, or whether she gained 
them from her relations with Apollo, or from her association 
with the Oriental goddess of Phoenicia, Asia Minor, and 

• Roscher^s Lcxicotiy s. v. Eurynome ; « It might be believed that Eurynome 

Preller-Robert, Griukische Myth, i. p. was one of the titles that Artemis bor- 

318 ; Welcker, Griech. GotterU i. p. 651. rowed from the Oriental Aphrodite, as 

The affinity of the Phigaleian goddess we hear of Eurynome the wife of Adonis 

with Artemis Limnatis is assumed bylm- in Servius {Eclog, 10. 18). But Arcadia 

merwahr, ICulte und Mythen Arkadiens, lies remote from Oriental influences and 

p. 155. was scarcely touched by the legend of 

^ Vide 65tticher, BaumcuUuSi p. 493. Aphrodite. 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 431 

Cyprus, whose maritime character was recognized. At 
Troezen the temple of Poseidon was shared by Artemis 
Aeginaea, and at Eleusis we hear of the common temple 
of Artemis Propylaea and Poseidon the Father; his statue 
stood in the temple of Artemis Iphigenia at Hermione^®. 
But whether they belong to the Greek Artemis proper or 
not, these sea-titles are certainly of more recent date than the 
very early period with which we are still concerned. 

The worship of Artemis at Munychia, in its primitive form 
at least, seems to have had no reference to the sea. And it is 
unnecessary to regard the Artemis at Aulis as a maritime 
goddess merely because she sent contrary winds ; for, as has 
been often remarked, any deity or any departed hero might 
do this : and the l^end of the anger of Artemis against the 
Atridae is connected with an incident of the chase. 

In certain cases these titles may have come to her by a 
natural process of development ; for as the tribes of shepherds 
and hunters who worshipped her became seafarers, the god- 
dess herself might be supposed to take to the sea. 

Still more light is thrown on the early character of Artemis 
by considering what animals were habitually regarded as 
sacred to her : it is rare and exceptional to find her related 
by way of sacrifice, legend, or cult-name with the animals 
of the higher agricultural community, with the ox or the 
horse or the domestic pig ; and in certain localities the calf 
and the sheep were tabooed in her ritual *^ She is rather 
the patroness of the wild beasts of the field, the animals of the 
chase, with which — as will be soon mentioned — her life is con- 
nected by the mysterious tie which in very early religions 
binds the deity to the animal world. . The hare, the wolf, the 
hind, the wild boar, and the bear are consecrated to her by 
sacrifice or legend ; and we may take the description of the 
yearly offerings to Artemis Aa<l>pCa at Patrae ^^ as best illus- 
trating her nature as a goddess of the wild life of the woods. 
The priestess, a maiden regarded probably as the human 
counterpart of the goddess, was drawn in a chariot by stags ; 
and Pausanias speaks of the g^eat holocaust of stags and 
fawns, wolves and bears, and birds which were all thrown or 



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432 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

driven into the flames of a gfreat fire ; we gather also that 
tame animals and cultivated fruit were ofTered, as was natural 
in the later period. It may have been the costliness of this sacri- 
fice that gave her the name BaOivkowo^ recorded by Suidas ^^ •. 
The title Aa4>pla, signifying possibly * the devourer,' is proper 
to the Calydonian goddess, and it was from Calydon that the 
worship of Artemis Aa(l>p(a probably spread to Phocis, Doris, 
and Cephallenia, and certainly to Patrae and Messene ^•. 

In the legend of the colonization of Boiae, the hare appears 
to be the embodiment or representative of Artemis ; for the 
oracle had said that the goddess would show the settlers where 
they should dwell, and a hare suddenly appeared and, having 
guided them to the spot, disappeared into a myrtle-tree •. 

The close connexion between Artemis and the wild boar is 
illustrated by the story of Meleager,as sketched by the Iliad: 
it was Artemis herself, for a reason that will concern us later, 
who sent the boar ; and the strife that ensues between the 
Kouretes and the Aetolians over the possession of his head 
and skin is an indication of the divine character of the beast 
Much later and historical illustration may be offered of this 
association of the boar with Artemis : a fragment of Diodorus 
Siculus ^ contains the story that Phintias, the tyrant of Acragas, 
dreamed that while hunting the wild boar he was attacked and 
slain by the wild sow ; and he appears to have appealed to 
the protection of Artemis ScSreipa by striking coins with the 
head of the goddess under this designation on the obverse, 
and a wild boar s head on the other side ®. The title Kairpo- 
4>(iyos *®, by which the goddess was known in Samos, refers 
probably to the sacrificial offering of the wild boar, at which 
she was supposed to partake of his flesh or blood. 

That the Hon and the wolf were sacred to Artemis is proved 
by the Syracusan custom, referred to by Theocritus, of leading 
a lioness in certain festal processions instituted in her honour *^, 
and by the cult-epithet AvKeCa which attached to her at 
Troezen^; and it is unreasonable to say that such a title 
came to her merely from her later connexion with Apollo, 
the wolf-god, as it belongs even more naturally to her than 
• Pans. 3. 33, 12. *> 32. 5, « Head, IfisL Num, p. 108. 



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xiii.] ARTEMIS. 433 

to him*. But the wild animals with which she was most 
frequently associated in cult and in legend^ were the boar 
and the stag or fawn ; in the records of literature and in the 
monuments of art, the latter appears as her most familiar 
companion, and two at least of her cult-names were derived 
from it : we hear of Artemis *EXa<^ta * in Elis, and 'EXa^^^jSo'Aoy 
in Pamphylia***, and we could infer that the latter was one of 
her common sacred titles, both from the frequency of its use 
in the older and later poetry and from the name of the Attic 
month 'ElAa<^T;/3oAtcdv, which, like most of the other months, 
derived its name from a sacred title of a divinity ; sacrifice 
being offered in this month, according to the author of the 
Eiymologicunt Magnum^ to Artemis 'EAa</)Ty^Ao5. A month 
of the same name occurred in the calendar of lasos and 
Apollonia^*** in Chalcidice ; and we hear of the festival of the 
*EXa<^7;j3oX4a, celebrated with great pomp down to the time of 
Plutarch, at Hyampolis, to commemorate a Phocian victory 
over the Thessalians ^* °. 

Finally, in this connexion it may be mentioned that the 
quail, the bird of spring, that migrated in the early months of 
the year from Africa to Greece, was in some way consecrated 
to Artemis. Ortygia, near Syracuse, near Delos, near Ephesus, 
and in Aetolia**, probably means the place of the quail- 
goddess, and from an expression in a line of Aristophanes' 
Birds^ in which Leto is called * the mother of the quail °,* we 
gather that Artemis was herself at some time vaguely con- 
ceived of as a quail, though the bird is not found as her emblem 
in any of the artistic representations. We have little direct 
evidence that Ortygia was a common sacred title, but we 
gather from Sophocles that she was thus styled in Euboean 
worship ^^. And we may believe that this association between 
the goddess and the bird was derived from some primitive 
cult-idea, for we note that in other parts of the Mediterranean 

* Artemis is seen on coins of Troezen horas, captured by Heracles, was per- 

of the imperial period holding the head haps an ancient form of Artemis herself^ 

of a wolf. Her title Av«oari( was and, according to Pindar, was sacred to 

derived from the Arcadian Avivoa, the Artemis Orthosia ^. 

* wolf-city *».' « Av. 870. 

^ The mysterious stag with golden 

VOL. II. C 



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434 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

and in another religion the quail appears to have been a sacred 
and mystic bird ; for instance, there was an annual sacrifice 
of the quail at Tyre in commemoration of the resurrection of 
Heracles*. 

All these special relations and affinities are comprised under 
the title of Artemis *Ayporipa^^, which Homer gives her, and 
under which she was worshipped in Athens, Laconia, Megara, 
Olympia, Achaea, Megalopolis, and elsewhere ^^ »-\ The 
sacrifice at Agrae in Attica was of special importance ; five 
hundred she-goats were offered annually by the polemarch to 
Artemis 'Ayporipa as a thanksgiving for the victory of Mara- 
thon, and it was one of the special duties of the ephebi to 
assist in the ritual ^® ^. Spartan religion prescribed the sacrifice 
of a she-goat to Agrotera before the king began the campaign 
or the battle 2«^ 

As regards the relations between the goddess of the wild 
and the animal world, it is important to observe that while 
Greek poetry and art more usually describe her as the huntress 
and destroyer, the older religion was more familiar with the 
conception of her as the protector and patroness of wild 
animals, and especially of those that were with young ^ 
According to Xenophon, the true sportsman would spare 
the very young hare for the sake of Artemis ^^^. * Very 
kindly is the fair goddess to the tender whelps of ravening 
lions, and to the sucking young of all the beasts of the field ' ; 
* she loathes the banquet of the eagles ' who * devoured the 
pregnant hare/ These striking words of Aeschylus S which 
might seem to anticipate the modern sentiment of kindness to 
animals, really express the view of very primitive religion, in 
which that sentiment was in some cases a sacred belief and 
possessed far greater force than it possesses now. 

In fact these features of the earliest worship of Artemis 
suggest a cult which, though it had already advanced beyond 
totemism, yet retained traces of totemistic ideas. We may 
thus explain the legend and ritual in which the animal is in 

* Athenae. p. 392. Vide Robertson ber as the destroyer are *E\a^^^Aos and 
Smith's Eeligion of the Semites, p. 449. probably Katppka^ and Uo^ypa in La- 
•> The only cult-titles that designated conia^'. « Ag, 138. 135. 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 435 

some way identified with the deity or with the worshipper, 
and on rare and solemn occasions is eaten in the sacrificial 
meal in which the deity and his people are drawn more 
closely together. Now the early myths and cults of Artemis 
furnish evidence of this stage of religious thought. The 
above-mentioned epithet of Leto 'Oprvyojuwfrpa would suggest 
that there was once a belief that the quail was another form 
of Artemis ; a legend is given by ApoUodorus that she ran 
between the Aloades in the form of a hind, and on a coin 
which Muller quotes, and which he ascribes to Delos, the 
goddess appears to have been represented with stag's horns *. 
And we have the story mentioned by Pausanias^ that she 
guided the new settlers to the site of Boiae, a town of Laconia, 
in the form of a hare. 

But it is the legends of Arcadia and Attica that best reveal 
the strange bond that once existed between Artemis and the 
animal world. In the old Arcadian myth of Areas and Callisto 
we have a confused story, which has been well interpreted 
by Muller **, and which contains vague allusions to a very 
ancient cult-form that deserve notice. The evidence that he 
puts together makes it certain that in this story Callisto, the 
beloved of Zeus, the mother of Areas and of the Arcadian race, 
the nymph who was the comrade of Artemis, wearing the 
same dress and sharing her pursuits, and who was changed into 
a she-bear, is none other than Artemis herself^: he notices 
that KaXA^oTTi is a frequent poetical title of Artemis, and was 
used at Athens as a term of cult'"^, and that on the very hill 
where the nymph Callisto was supposed to be buried a temple 
was raised to Artemis KoXAro-Try ^. 

From this myth alone, then, we might conclude that the bear 
was regarded sometimes as the very goddess ; and this becomes 
clearer still by comparing the Arcadian legend with the worship 
of Artemis Bpavpa>vCa at Brauron, Athens, and Munychia ^' ^\ 

• Dorians^ p. 379, note i, quoted ^ Other evidence for this view is given 
from the collection of Payne Knight ; by the fact that her other names appear 
I have been unable to trace this com to have been M€7i<rr^ and B€fu<rr^, 
further. evidently titles of a divinity, and that 

^ 3. 32,9. she was called the daughter of Lycaon, 

• Proleg. pp. 73-76. a title probably of the Arcadian Zeus*. 

C % 



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436 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

of which the significance from this point of view has been well 
shown by Mr. Lang ». It is important to put together the 
passages from which we obtain our knowledge of this ritual ^, 
which presents a very interesting problem, but one that is often 
evaded in the study of Greek religion ^. We learn from Aris- 
tophanes that it was the custom for young maidens, clothed 
in a saffron robe, to dance in the Brauronian ceremonies of 
Artemis, and that in this dance they, as well as the priestess, 
v/ere called * bears ' ; the saffron robe was possibly worn in 
order to imitate the tawny skin of the bear**, and probably in 
the earliest times of the rite an actual bear-skin was worn by 
the dancers. The dance was called ipKreCa, and the maidens 
who took part in it were between five and ten years of age. 
Various explanations are given of this strange ritual by the 
scholiast on the passage in the Lysisirate^ by Suidas, and by 
the writer in Bekker's Anecdota : the bear was once a tame 
bear who lived amongst them : or a wild bear appeared in 
the Peiraeeus and did much damage ; some one slew it and 
a pestilence followed, whereupon Apollo ordered the people 
to sacrifice a maiden to the *bear Artemis ^' but a goat was 
offered instead by a man who called it his daughter. The 
scholiast merely says that Artemis was angry, and ordered 
every maiden by way of propitiation to dance the bear-dance 
before marriage and to pass round the temple wearing the 
saffron robe. The festival of the Brauronia acquired con- 
siderable public importance, and was organized every five 
years by the Upo7roio(. 

• Myth^ Ritual, and Religion, 2. pp. for granted by Welclcer. But the ex- 

213-215. planation is certainly doubtful; for 

^ In Roscher's Lexicon there is no though the difference between saffron 
critical reference to these Brauronian and tawny is not great, the usual bear- 
ceremonies that is of any value ; they skin is brown. The saffron robe might 
are collected without much criticism have come to be worn merely as a sacred 
by Welcker, i. pp. 571-574. and adornment, and to admit this would not 
by Preller-Robert, Griech. Mythol. i. invalidate the argument in the text, 
pp. 312-315. Schomann, 6V7>r^i>r^ * The phraseology in Bekk.^/f^r</. r. 
AlUrtk. a. p. 458, merely repeats an p* 444} is quite correct — n/ioy r^r 
impossible theory of Lobeck*s {Aglaoph, "Afn-t/uy Mai $vccu tcSpijy r$ "Apicr^ — but 
p. 74) concerning the meaning of d/Mcroi. is misunderstood and regarded with 

« This seems to be implied by the suspicion by Welcker, Griech, Gotterl. 

scholiast on the passage, and is taken i. p. 574, n. 16. 



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xiii.] ARTEMIS, 437 

Two things are clear from these accounts : {a) that the 
dance was a kind of initiation by which the young girls before 
arriving at puberty were consecrated to the goddess • ; {b) that 
the goddess and her worshippers and the bear were considered 
as of one nature, and called by the same name**. All this accords 
exactly with the many illustrations offered by totemistic re- 
ligions of the belief that the tribe draw nearer to their deity by 
assuming the form or skin of the beast which they consider to 
be mysteriously related to themselves, and to be an embodi- 
ment of their god or goddess. It would be consonant with 
this belief if we found that at Brauron the bear was offered in 
a sacrificial meal to the goddess on solemn occasions : but the 
authorities make it clear that a- goat or hind was usually 
the animal of sacrifice. Weight, however, must be given to the 
observation made by the scholiast on the passage in the Lysis- 
traie^ that a bear and not a hind was sacrificed in place of 
Iphigenia, and that the offering took place at Brauron °. It is 
probable that we have here a real local tradition, and the 
Brauronian sacrifice would be thus completely in accordance 
with ancient totemistic ideas: the maidens dressed up as 
bears assist at the sacrifice to the bear-goddess of an animal 
considered as akin to her and to themselves, and thus, if the 
sacrificial meal followed upon the act of oblation, they would 
be recruiting their physical life and reviving the communion 
between themselves and their divinity. At the same time 
the feeling of kinship with the bear would easily lead to the 
belief at a later time that the goddess was angry because her 
animal was killed. The substitution of the goat for the bear 
was a violation of the logic of the ceremony, and due probably 
to the great difficulty of procuring the larger animal in the 
later periods of the Attic sacrifice ; perhaps also to the chance 
that may have put the ritual into the hands of a goat-tribe, 

• Vide Robertson Smith, Religion of goddess may be illustrated by the dance 

ike Semites, pp. 304, 309, for other of the Caryatides, the maidens who im- 

instances of sacrifices upon initiation, personated "Aprtfus KcLpvdris, 

showing the same principle as the Brau- ^ The authority for the statement 

ronian bear-dance. was probably Phanodemns in his 

*» This view that the Spirroi who Aiihis, 
danced were considered to represent the 



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438 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

for we have the legend that the female goat was treated as 
a kinswoman. 

As illustrating this ceremonial sacrifice of a bear, which 
I have assumed to have been part of the original Brauronian 
ritual, we have the Arcadian myth of Callisto, which we may- 
believe to be based on certain ancient cult-practices. That 
legend clearly attests the divinity of the bear •, and yet the 
animal comes to be regarded as hostile to Artemis, and in 
certain versions of the story is finally slain. But in one most 
important account the animal is not slain in the ordinary 
secular manner, but is sacrificially offered, or comes near to 
being so offered, to a divinity, namely, to Zeus AvKcibs, into 
whose holy precincts she had accidentally strayed ^ Although 
the bear has no real connexion with Zeus Lyceius, yet we 
seem to light again upon the traces of the same strange fact, 
concealed in doubtful myth, which we note in the cult of 
Brauron ; namely, the offering up of a holy animal, to a 
divinity the same in kind, by a tribe of worshippers who 
were united to both by blood-relationship. 

The main part of the mysterious Arcadian story may be 
explained, if we suppose that the cult of Artemis KoXXto-Tci, 
the bear-goddess, had died out, and nothing remained but the 
memory that the bear, a holy and peculiar animal, had been 
offered up to a divinity : the nearest analogies would be 
supplied by the existing ceremonies of the worship of Zeus 
AvK€tos, and this alien trait might have come into the story 
to explain the fact of the sacrificial offering ; then it would 
become difficult to understand why, if the animal had been 
once beloved by Artemis, it should have been put to death at 
all in her name. The bear, therefore, was supposed to have 
incurred the enmity of the goddess, and, to explain the reason, 
reference was made to the probably later notion of the 
goddess's chastity®. 

• We have also a possible allusion to *» Hygin. Poet. Astron, 2. i. 

an Arcadian bear-dance, performed in ^ Many instances might be given 

the worship of Demeter or Artemis at of this change in the point of view, 

Lycosura, in the human figure with the whereby the animal that was once 

bear's head wrought on Daroophon's the favourite and the kinsman of the 

peplos of Demeter. divinity, and therefore on rare occasions 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 439 

With this stage of ritual the tradition of human sacrifice 
IS closely connected; and it has been often supposed that 
even in historical times this rite, or a modification of it, 
survived in the worship of Artemis. But there is no clear and 
special evidence that this was ever the case. In the Thargelia 
at Athens two human Kaddpfxara, being probably criminals, 
were sacrificed in a sort of religious execution ; but though 
Artemis, from her later connexion with Apollo^*, came to 
obtain a place in that festival worship, yet it does not appear 
that the Kaddpfmra were devoted to her. Again, the flagella- 
tion of the Spartan ephebi before the altar of Artemis 'OpWa*^*^, 
which has been almost always regarded as a modification of 
an earlier religious act of human oblation •, is much more 
naturally explained by Prof. Robertson Smith as a ceremony 
of initiation, in which the youth is admitted into the full 
status of tribesman, and in which the altar or the sacred idol 
must be touched with his blood in order that the physical 
bond between him and his divinity may be strengthened \ 
At the same time this strange rite, which seems to have been 
still in vogue in the time of Philostratus, was intended also, 
no doubt, as a test of the youth's endurance; it is called 
a iixiXXay a contest of fortitude, by Plutarch^**', and such cruel 
tests have been frequently imposed by savage tribes before 
the tribesman was admitted to the privileges of manhood. If 
it had been merely a fiction put in place of the primitive fact 
of a human sacrifice, it is not likely that the logic of the 
ceremony would have demanded the fictitious immolation of 
all the ephebi en masse. 

But though we may not find much clear survival of actual 
or fictitious human sacrifice in the Artemis-worship of the 
historical periods, yet it might be thought that the tradi- 
tions clearly imply its practice in the prehistoric age, and we 
are often obliged to regard tradition as actual evidence of 

laciificed, becomes regarded as hostile ^ Vide Relighn of the Semites^ 

to that divinity. The same change pp. 303, 304; it was in accordance 

happened in the relations of Bacchus with the same notion that boys' hair 

and the goat. was shorn and offered to Artemis at the 

* For instance by the Laconians them- Ionic festival of the Apatnria^^ 
selves, according to Pausanias ^^. 



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440 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

a prehistoric fact. But here it is quite possible that tradition, 
in one important case at least, has been misinterpreted. 
The crucial case is the legend of the sacrifice of Iphigenia 
at Aulis. With this is connected the Brauronian cult and 
the worship of the Tauric Artemis ^^» ^» ^^ ^ ; for Euripides, 
in bringing Iphigenia and the image to the shores of Brauron, 
is certainly following some local legend, and he is very ex- 
plicit in his account of the local ritual * ; also the scholiast 
on the passage in the Lysistraie says, * Some declare that 
the events connected with Iphigenia took place in Brauron 
and not in Aulis ^.' 

Moreover, the l^end of the Tauric goddess speaks much 
about human sacrifice ^' *2, and we may believe that this 
rite was actually practised in the locality that was the original 
seat of the cult, whether Attica, Lemnos, or the Tauric 
Chersonese. Euripides makes Athena herself institute the 
ritual of the Tauric-Brauronian Artemis at Halae, and she 
ordains by way of ransom to the goddess for Orestes* life, 
that in the yearly sacrifice there the sword should be held to 
a man's throat and some blood should be drawn, 'for the 
sake of righteousness and that the goddess might have 
honour.' That warriors before a campaign require a sacrifice 
of peculiar efficacy to bring them into the closest communion 
with the divinity is quite in accord with primitive religious 
thought ; and if a human victim were demanded, a kinsman 
or kinswoman would be required rather than an alien. 
Agamemnon, therefore, may have sacrificed his own daughter 
before setting out from the same motive that prompted 
Jephthah to offer his own on his return. But the only 
historical instance, if we could trust the record in Clemens ^ 

• We should certainly gather from probably erroneously, though Euripides' 

the passage at the close of the Iphigenia words are not quite conclusive ; vide 

in Tauris that there were not two Wilamowitz, Hemus, i8. 254. 
separatecults — one of Artemis Bpavpovvta ** Hiller, in Hermes^ 21. p. 127, ques- 

at Brauron and one of Tauropolos at tions the authenticity of the citation. 

Halae — butonly one, namely of Artemis The citation from Wv^oKkr^s wtpi dfw- 

Bpavpojvia worshipped at Halae near yoias may be fictitious, but the explicit 

Brauron under the name Tauropolos. statement about the Phodan sacrifice 

But Strabo mentions two temples, the is not likely to have been wholly 

one at Brauron the otlier at Halae, imaginary. 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 441 

of human sacrifice to Artemis, would be the sacrifice in her 
worship at Phocaea, where the human victim is said to have 
been burnt alive ^. As r^ards what we can gather from tradi- 
tion, the cult-l^ends of Brauron and Aulis may be explained 
otherwise. The central idea in them is that an animal-sacrifice 
was a substitution for an earlier human victim ; but this 
theory of substitution could have been suggested by the mere 
form of the ritual itself, if the sacred animal was offered 
sacramentally as being akin to the tribe and the tribal 
divinity ; for instance, if it was partially dressed up in human 
clothing, like the bull-calf of Dionysos in Tenedos, or if it was 
called by a human name. Now we have the right to infer 
that this was actually the case at one time in the Brauronian 
ceremonies, as the legend says expressly that the man who 
offered the goat * called it his daughter *^.' A mass of evidence 
has been collected and interpreted by Prof. Robertson Smith 
on this primitive form of sacrifice, the sacramental offering 
of the * theanthropic ' animal. This ritual which seems very 
strange to us, but was quite natural from the totemistic point 
of view, was certain to be misunderstood in the later period ; 
the mysterious sacrificial animal, which was treated as if it 
were man, was supposed to be treated thus, because it was 
a mere make-belief for the human offering which the goddess 
originally demanded. But this may be really a HaTcpov Tspor^pov : 
the human sacrifice — where it actually was in vogue — may 
have been an outgrowth from the earlier offering of the quasi- 
human animal. And if human life was at any time offered 
up in the Brauronian rite, it would be probably truer to say, 
so to speak, that Iphigenia was a substitute for the doe than 
that the doe was a substitute for Iphigenia *. In either case 
there was a close affinity between the victim and the goddess ; 
for we have abundant proofs that Iphigenia, like Callisto, 
is an appellative or a local cult-name of Artemis ^ 

Among these legends of human sacrifice that admit of 

' The theory by which I have tried gard to other primitive sacrifices; vide 

to explain the Brauronian cult is merely especially Religion of the Semites, pp. 

that which has been very skilfully set 345, 346. 

forth by Prof. Robertson Smith in re- ^ Vide Miiller, Dorians^ p. 383. 



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442 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

the explanation suggested above may be placed the record 
in Porphyry concerning the sacrifice at Laodicea* ; he tells us 
that originally a maiden had there been sacrificed annually 
to Athena^ but that in his day a hind was substituted. As 
this animal is sacred to Artemis and has little or nothing to 
do with Athena, and as the Laodiceans claimed to possess the 
original image of the Brauronian Artemis-cult, and we find an 
armed figure of this goddess standing between two stags on 
the coins of the city ^ it is almost certain that Porphyry has 
given the wrong name to this armed divinity, who was really 
Artemis. And we may suppose that this sacrifice of the 
hind at Laodicea, belonging really to the Brauronian goddess, 
was accompanied by ritual that suggested an actual human 
offering, and hence the story may easily have arisen that 
the more cruel custom had once prevailed. Where the view 
prevailed that the animal took the place of the human life, 
we can believe that in times of great peril the latter might 
actually be offered as the more real and acceptable sacrifice, 
and this might grow to be even the customary rite*'. 

Before passing on to the more advanced ideas in the 
worship of Artemis, we might consider the question whether 
in this earliest period we already find the maidenly character 
of the goddess recognized. It might be thought that this, which 
is her sole quality of great importance for a higher and more 
spiritual religion, must necessarily have been a virtue with 
which the imagination of a more advanced age endowed her. 
But though in one sense this is true, yet it is probable that 
the germ of the idea was to be found in the primitive period. 
In the first place, the Arcadian myth of Areas and Callisto 
appears inconsistent in its earliest form with the character of 
the chaste goddess. A closely parallel myth is that which 
deals with the birth of Telephos, who is sprung from Auge 
the priestess, not indeed of Artemis, but of Athena Alea : it 
may be only an accident of local worship that brings the 

• Athena**. cult At Tegea, at the festival of Apollo 
^ Head, Hisi. Num, p. 660. and Artemis, the priestess pursued one 

• Vide pp. 453, 455 for farther evi- of the worshippers with the pretended 
dence of hninan sacrifice in the Artemis- intention of slaying him ^, 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 443 

latter goddess into the story, for the traces of Artemis are 
clearly in the background. We find that Telephos was born 
on Mount Parthenion, and we hear of a TrjA.^<^ov kfrria in the 
neighbourhood of Artemisium near Oenoe ; he was suckled 
by the hind, the familiar animal of the goddess •. It seems, 
then, most probable that the name Auge is an equivalent for 
Artemis; and this belief receives further support from the 
statement of Pausanias that the mother of Telephos was 
worshipped at Tegea under the title of kvyr\h yovaaiv \ and 
was identified with Eileithyia, a goddess who was frequently 
regarded as another form of Artemis. It may also be more 
than a mere coincidence that both Telephos and Areas come 
near in the legend to slaying their own mother. The same 
view of the primitive character of Artemis is presented by 
another myth, the story of Atalanta and Meilanion, or Hip- 
pomenes®. It becomes quite clear that Atalanta is Artemis 
under another name, when we examine certain particulars 
of the legend of her life*. She was fabled to have been 
exposed as a new-born child by a spring on Mount Par- 
thenion, and to have been nursed by a bear ; she becomes 
the mighty and swift-footed huntress who refuses marriage, 
which had been forbidden her by an oracle ; but she unites 
herself with Meilanion, and Parthenopaios is their son, the 
* child born out of wedlock* : the head, and skin of the boar 
were offered to her by Meleager, and, like Artemis, she pos- 
sessed a certain association with springs, as on the east coast 
of Laconia a fountain was pointed out to Pausanias which had 
been called forth by Atalanta®. In these myths, then, we 
see obscure traces of a primitive goddess who is only maidenly 
in the sense that she rejects marriage. Now when we look at 
the manifold worships of Artemis in historic Greece, and con- 
sider how the cult-names interpret them to us, we are struck 
with an apparent contradiction : whereas in the earliest poetry 
and in many of the early myths the most prominent quality 

• Pans. 8. 54, 5 ; Apollod. i. 8, 6. 321, &c.; Pans. 3. la, 9 ; Hyg. Fab, 270 
*> Pans. 8. 48, 7. (* Parthenopains Meleagri et Atalantes 
c Vide Roscher, s, v, Atalanta. filius ') ; Ov. Mefam, 10. 560, &c 

* Vide Callimachus, ffymn to Diana^ • Paus. 3. 24, i. 



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444 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

in the goddess is her chastity, this is never presented to us in 
cult ; there is no public worship of Artemis the chaste. The 
term UapBdvos, where it is applied to Artemis, does not appear 
to have been a cult-epithet, and the worship of Artemis Kopia in 
Arcadia ^•, about which Callimachus informs us, seems wrongly 
understood by Welcker* as devoted to Artemis the virgin: 
for K6fyq does not mean virgin, and Kopla might merely mean 
the goddess who assists girls ; and the legend that explains 
the title refers to the madness of the Proetides, who lead a 
wild life and reject marriage, until they are tamed at last by 
Artemis *HfX€pa<rta'^®. It appears, in fact, from those of her 
sacred titles that allude to the relation of the sexes, that she 
was especially concerned with the loss of virginity and with 
child-bearing; for she was worshipped and invoked as 
XvorlCiovos *^ Xoxtla *®, aooabCva ^ ; maidens of marriageable age 
did certain honours to Artemis as Kavri<l>6poiy and women in 
travail called upon Artemis for aid^'. And she not only 
assisted but even encouraged child-birth; for, as Euripides 
naYvely says, * Artemis Aoxia would not speak to childless 
women ^' In some communities she was identified with 
Eilcithyia *', and the title of Artemis Xiriovia or Xirdprj **, 
by which she was worshipped in Miletus and Syracuse, was 
explained as derived from the offerings of women's robes 
made to her after child-birth, or, as Euripides implies ^, made 
in behalf of those who had died in child-birth ; certain epigrams 
in the Anthology refer to these dedications**. And what is 
still more important is that, while such titles and the allusions 
to these functions are numerous, we can find scarcely any that 
recognize her as a goddess of marriage, though we must raise 
the question in regard to epithets such as ''Apre/uns Ilcidw, 
*Hy€/x<{vT;, and EI/KAeia. On the other hand, as will be noticed, 
she takes a special interest in the rearing of children, and 
certain ceremonies connected with their nurture are conse- 
crated to her. 

• Grieck, Gotterlekrey a. p. 393. Artemis to forgive them ioft being no 

* The passage* quoted by the scbo- longer virgins; but Artemis Soyia 
liast on Theocritus from Menander im- would require no such apology, 
plies that women in travail called upon 



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xiH.] ARTEMIS. 445 

But there is another feature occasionally discernible in her 
worship which seems still more alien to the character of the 
Greek Artemis, namely, orgiastic and lascivious dances and 
the use of phallic emblems in the ritual At Elis we hear of 
the temple of Artemis Kop5aica, the worship being accompanied 
with the dance that Pausanias considers to be native to the 
region of Sipylos and to have been brought into the Elean 
cult by the followers of Pelops *• ; and at Derrha on Taygetus, 
where Artemis was worshipped, we hear of a dance of the 
same character, called fiaXXapCbt^ **, performed in her honour 5 
while Hesychius mentions the Aofx^ai*** that were used in 
one of her cults, and which he describes as having a phallic 
significance *. 

It may be said, and by way of apolog^y it was said by the 
worshippers of Elis and Laconia, that this ritual which had an 
orgiastic taint upon it was a foreign, an Oriental, innovation ; 
for the Eleans attributed the worship of Artemis l^ophaKa to 
Pelops, and the procession that closed the festival of Artemis 
^OpOla was called AvbC^v wofxmj**. This may be true in the 
main, as much may have been borrowed across the sea for 
the Greek worship from the closely related goddess of Asia 
Minor. But these facts of ritual would in any case illustrate 
the point upon which stress is being laid, that the earliest 
worship of Artemis in Greece admitted ideas that were alien 
to the purity of the later conception. Now if we suppose 
this higher idea to have been prominent in the primitive 
period to which myth and cult bring us back, in the first 
place how could the virgin Artemis have been so frequently 
identified with the various forms of the Asiatic goddess, 
whose worship in many details showed an impure character ? 
Again, how was it that the virgin-goddess had so much to do 
with the processes of maternity? The cult of the primitive 
divinity usually reflects the present or past life of the wor- 
shipper, and human acts and states are attributed to the deity 
according^ to his or her special character and range of functions. 

• It has been suggested that the interpretation seems very far-fetched, 
ancient title of Artemis *Op$ia in Laconia and Uie term may be otherwise explained 
contained a similar allusion ; yet this (vide p. 453, note b)« 



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446 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

The idol of AiSyrj ^i; yovaaLv worshipped at Tegea no doubt 
represented the goddess of child-birth, who was closely 
akin to the Arcadian Artemis, as herself in the pangs of 
travail. 

We have then abundant evidence, both from cult and myth, 
that the primitive Greek did not necessarily conceive of 
Artemis as a virgin-goddess, and that the cults of historical 
times scarcely, if ever, take notice of this side of her char- 
acter •. In fact, on general grounds, it would be hard to show 
why a goddess of a primitive hunting and pastoral tribe, 
a divinity of the fertilizing waters, who fostered the wild 
growths of the earth and the sucklings of the beasts of the 
field, should have been naturally regarded by them as a 
virgin ; though a goddess whose character was derived from 
that period might easily fail to become a divinity of settled 
married life. 

But, on the other hand, the belief in her virginal nature 
must have become a dogma at a comparatively early time. 
It is prominent in Homer, and it explains why the early 
myths of the Arcadians were careful to detach such figures 
as Callisto and Auge and Atalanta from Artemis herself, and 
to make them, rather than the goddess who had come to 
be regarded as virginal, the ancestresses of certain Arcadian 
stocks. Moreover, in certain myths that are probably 
pre-Homeric, the chastity of Artemis is plainly considered 
essential ; there is the well-known Actaeon story, and the 
special form of it preserved by Stesichorus^ that Actaeon's 
love for Semele was thwarted by Artemis, a peculiar version 

• There were certain rules of monastic was the case in most centres of the 

severity and chastity imposed upon the Greek worship is doubtful. The priestess 

priest and priestess of Artemis *T/ivia of Artemis Tfiyia was necessarily a 

worshipped at the Arcadian Orcho- virgin, until the Arcadians found it 

menos^^; and this was undoubtedly advisable to alter this rule and select 

a very ancient cult. But we cannot a married woman : S/jitXlas dybp&v dvo- 

always argue fromiMhe character of the xp^'^^^ ix^^*^^' ^^ ^^^ ^^ Artemis 

priesthood to that of the divinity ; for Bpavpcavla being served by married 

we find the necessity of chastity in the priestesses. According to Artemidorus 

priest of one of the worships of Heracles, an iraipa would not enter the temple of 

The priestess of Artemis TfuxXapia in Artemis*. 

Achaea at Patrae *, as of * Ay pori pa at *» Pans. 9. 3| 3. 
Aegira ^\ was a maiden ; whether this 



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XIII.] 



ARTEMIS. 



447 



which has been pressed to an unnatural interpretation by 
Klaus \ 

And that this is pre-eminently her character in the earliest 
literature must be due to some conception deeply rooted in 
the popular worship. How then is this strange contradiction 
to be explained? The usual solution of it, that Artemis 
became virginal through her close connexion with the ApoUine 
worship, seems idle ; for the ApoUine worship, though we may 
find certain high and spiritual conceptions in it, contained no 
essential idea of sexual purity : the sister of Apollo need not 
by any means have been a chaste goddess ^ And it is much 
more unreasonable to say that she became pure when she 
became recognized as the moon ; for, in the first place, her 
lunar character, though very prominent in modem accounts of 
her, has no clear recognition in the more ancient and genuine 
legend and cult ; and, secondly, there is neither reason nor 
analogy for the supposition that in early mythology and 
worship the moon was necessarily a virgin. 

A different explanation may be hazarded. In the period 
of the most primitive religion of Artemis the goddess was 
considered and addressed as UapOivoSy and this title would 
explain many geographical names in Greece, in the islands, 
and on the coasts of the Mediterranean^; and it seems 



• De Dianae antiquissima Naturd, 
Wratislaviae, 1881, p. 26 : Actaeon is 
considered by him to be another form 
of Zens ; Artemis is his wife and jealous 
of Semele. 

^ We may add also that if the nymph 
Cyrene is rightly interpreted as an older 
form of Artemis, the relations between 
Apollo and Artemis were not always 
regarded as chaste and fraternal ; vide 
Roscher's Lexicon^ s. v. Kurene, 

* The ancient name of Samos was 
Parthenia, the island of the goddess 
Parthenos, given it* according to Strabo, 
by the Carians *• : we have Mount Par- 
tbenion in Arcadia ; the city Parthenion 
in Euboea ; a river Parthenius in Paph- 
lagonia associated by legend with Ar- 
temis, Steph. Byz. s. v. UapBbnw and 



nap$4vi05. The goddess in the Tauric 
Chersonese bore the name of Uapdivoi, 
and the inscription from the Chersonese 
published in the J^evtu cUs Etudes 
Grccqtus contains the formula of the 
oath taken by the magistrates (circ. 
150 B.C.) in her name; a goddess Hop- 
Bkvo% was worshipped at Neapolis in 
Thrace ". The same idea of a goddess 
who was at once TlafiBivos and Mrfrrjp 
exbted in Phrygian religion ; vide 'Ram- 
say ^ J/il/eni^ /oumalf 10.229. From 
the story told by Diodorus Siculus 
(5. 62), which is very full of aetiological 
ikncy, we gather that there was a wor- 
ship on the Carian Chersonese of a 
goddess nafi$4vos, with surnames such 
asMoKvaZla, Totdf, *Efu$4a^^\ and not 
originally r^arded as virginal. Swine 



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448 



GREEK RELIGION. 



[CHAP. 



probable that the term was widely prevalent in Asia Minor, 
especially in Caria, designating a goddess who was closely 
akin to Artemis and the Oriental Aphrodite*^. But the 
oldest sense of Parthenos was not ' virginal * but * unmarried/ 
as we might gather from the Carian legend alone; and in 
this sense her Oriental equivalent, a goddess of impure 
character and worship, was also YiapOivo^ •. In fact, Artemis 
WapOivos may have been originally the goddess of a people 
who had not yet the advanced Hellenic institutions of settled 
marriage, who may have reckoned their descent through the 
female, and among whom women were proportionately 
powerful. Then when society developed the later family 
system the goddess remained celibate though not opposed to 
child-birth ; and we may thus understand why she was always 
pre-eminently the goddess of women, and why maidens before 
marriage should offer their girdles and perform other probably 
piacular rites to Artemis ^ Finally, as it was always neces- 
sary to consider the goddess unmarried, and at the same time 
her worship became more spiritual, the title UapOivos may 



are tabooed in her worship as in the 
cult of Aphrodite and Adonis ; the story 
of her leap into the sea is the same as 
that told of Dictynna and Derketo the 
Syrian fish-goddess (Diod. Sic. a. 4). 
She is connected with Apollo and the 
art of healing, and she aids women in 
travail. We have here a Carian-Cretan 
religion of an Artemis- Aphrodite ; vide 
Aphrodite, pp. 637, 646. 
• Vide Aphrodite-chapter, pp. 629, 

657. 

^ There are two important Greek 
myths in which the leading motive is 
the rebellion of women against the 
married state, and both of them seem 
to have some relation to the worship of 
Artemis : (a) the myih of the daughters 
of Proetns, who, according to one ver- 
sion, treat the temple of Hera, the god- 
dess of marriage, with contempt (Phere- 
cydes ap. Schol. Od. 15. 225 ; Acusilans 
ap. Apollod. 2. 2, 2), were punished by 



Aphrodite and roamed in madness about 
the country, and whose example induced 
the other Argive women to desert their 
husbands and to slay their children; 
the Proetides are pursued by Melampus 
and a band of young men who are 
taught to dance a religions kind of 
dance as a curative for the women ; 
they are finally healed in the temple of 
Artemis 'Hfupaaia, and the temple of 
Artemis Kopla is consecrated in their 
memory^. Perhaps the pursuit of the 
young men was a ceremony connected 
with primitive marriage-customs and 
parallel to the race of armed youths in 
the wooing of Atalanta. {d) The myth 
of the Lenmian women who despise 
Aphrodite and slay their husbands. 
The whole island was sacred to the 
Tauric Artemis, and the legend in- 
directly connects this sla3ring with the 
spread of the Lemnian worship to the 
Tauric Chersonese ; cf. Hygin. Fad. 15. 



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xiii.l ARTEMIS. 449 

thus have acquired the higher sense, and expressed the stain- 
less and chaste goddess, such as she came to be recognized, not 
expressly in cult, but in the imagination of the Greek world. It 
would on this theory have been the progress from the non- 
moral idea of the unmarried goddess to the moral conception 
of the virgin Artemis, a progress carried out by the change in 
the meaning of UapOivos^ that was of the greatest import for the 
Greek religious sense. For it was the personality of Artemis 
rather than of Athena that consecrated that idea of the beauty 
of purity, the ideal of the life unsullied by passion, which re- 
ceived here and there a rare expression in Greek literature and 
more frequently inspired the forms of art The drama of the 
Hippolytos is unique in Greek, and perhaps in any literature ; 
for here the law of chastity is a spiritual law, presented with no 
ascetic or unnatural sanction, but united with a genial delight in 
pure forms of life and action. And the poet conceives that 
such life is approved by Artemis. But in this play, as elsewhere, 
he shows himself above the religious thought of his age ; for 
neither in the popular religion, nor in the general literature, is 
there any view clearly expressed that purity in the abstract 
was consecrated by any divine sanction, although unchastity 
under certain special conditions, and sometimes the breach 
of the marriage vow, were regarded as incurring divine 
reprobation *. 

In tracing the development of the worship of Artemis from 
the savage to the more settled and civilized period, we may 
first notice that she comes to have some connexion with 
agriculture and the breeding of the domestic animals. The 
goat was the animal most commonly used in her sacrifices *^, 
and it is possible that she acquired some of her cult-titles 
from it**; the local legend of the city Aly^ipa in Achaea 

* Vide Hera-cbapter, p. 197. Cf. the mis, sometimes supposed to designate the 
story in Pausanias 8. 47, 4, that the goat-goddess — was connected in the local 
tyrant of Orchomenos, having purposed legend of Laconia with the Cretan god- 
to violate a maiden who destroyed her- dess Britomartis, and was more probably 
self to preserve her chastity, was slain derived from the island Aegina, where 
by a Tegean whom Artenus stirred np the Cretan cnlt had settled. Kyatetam, 
in a dream. KvaieaXrfoia, Evayia, are appellatives*^ 

^ AJTiyo/a^*— a donbtfnl title of Arte- that have been supposed to refer to the 
VOL. II. D 



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450 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

connected the name with the goats to whose horns the natives 
on one occasion attached torches and thus scared away the 
invading army of the Sicyonians » ; a temple was then founded 
near Aegira to Artemis 'Ayporipa^^y on the spot where the 
fairest she-goat, the leader of the flock, rested on the ground, 
the influence of the goddess being supposed to be working in 
her favourite animal. 

In Sparta, as has been mentioned above, the custom pre- 
vailed of the king sacrificing a goat to Artemis in front of the 
army before charging the enemy, and we hear frequently of 
the great annual sacrifice in Attica of five hundred she-goats as 
a thank-offering to the goddess for the victory of Marathon. 

Once, at least, we may believe that Artemis, like Athena, 
was associated, if only accidentally, with the breeding of 
horses ^ In Arcadia, in the territory of the Pheneatae, was 
the worship and temple of Artemis Evpl-mra^^, and near it was 
a bronze statue of Poseidon Hippios of mythical dedication ; 
the local legend explained the statue and the temple by 
saying that Odysseus* horses had strayed, and the hero found 
them here. In this instance the local legend has probably 
interpreted a cult-name correctly ; for (vpl-mra could not mean 
* the inventor of the use of horses,' but simply * the finder of 
them * ; and it was natural for those who followed them and 
found them when they strayed into the wilds to give thanks 
to the goddess of the wilds, who led the owners to their lost 
property. It is possible that this cult at Pheneos was intro- 
duced by a Lapith-Thessalian immigration, and may have 
been derived from that of Artemis Pheraea in Thessaly, who, 
like her sister Hekate, was for some reason connected with 
horses \ In any case the association of the Greek Artemis 
with horses is slight enough, and it is hard to say why Pindar 
once or twice speaks of her as * the driver of the steed.' 

goat Artemis, but the interpretation • Pans, 7. 26, 2-3. 

of them is doubtful, and Pausanias* ^ Vide Fraser, The Golden Bought 

statements about the local cults are vol. i, p. 6, for the myth of Hippo- 

not helpfuL The only reason for this lytus and the significance of the horse 

explanation is that /n^/r^s means pale in the Artemis- cult. 

yellow, and iaf6Miav is a tenn applied to • Vide Immerwahr, Kulte undMythen 

the goat by Theocritus. ArkadUns^ p. 40. 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 451 

It IS not improbable that the epithet ^H/utepao-ia^®, which 
attached to Artemis and was explained by the legend of the 
taming of the Proetides, referred originally to the domestica- 
tion of animals. We may conclude that the breeding of cattle 
was in some places consecrated to Artemis ; for the natural 
meaning of the epithet Tavpo-noXos is the * bull-tender/ and thus 
it becomes equivalent to the name TLoXv^ola *^ which Hesy- 
chius found in some of his authorities as a title of Artemis. 
The worship of Artemis Havpo-noXos is proved to have existed 
in Attica, in the island Ikaria near Samos, at Phocaea, Perga- 
mon, Smyrna, Magnesia on the Maeander, and Amphipolis, in 
Paros and Andros *^ The name of the city Tavpo-nokis in 
Caria is probably of the same origin. We have a right to 
interpret this cult-name of the goddess, which was rather 
widely diffused among the Ionic communities, by simply refer- 
ring it to her more advanced pastoral and agricultural func- 
tions, although it has been supposed to have a lunar reference. 
For, though the later tendency of Greek religious exegesis 
was to give to names and persons of divinities a celestial 
meaning where this was possible*, we find no expression of 
the lunar character of Tauropolos in ancient cult and in the 
older literature and art. In the passage in the Ajax of 
Sophocles, the chorus surmise that the madness of Ajax may 
have been sent him from Artemis Tauropolos, because it 
turned him against the cattle*®!. The coins of Amphipolis, 
where this worship had been implanted from Athens, and 
where the goddess was honoured by a Xajut7ra8Tj<^opta, display 
her wearing the polos on her head and riding on a bull with 
a torch in each hand ; and this emblem, as will be noticed 
below, need have no reference to the moon, although it might 
seem natural to interpret the horns that are seen rising from 

* For instance, vide the scholiast, ad goddess (and this is by no means certain. 

Soph. Aj, 172 'Tavpov6\os ii auri) tt; vide p. 479), it would not follow that 

'XtXfirg karl imt kirox*irai raipots^ ^v ravpowSXos must be the same ; the bull 

ital ravpcinrbv 6vofia(ovai ; Porph. df Lun. appears in the worship or representa- 

ch.18; Suf^tr, de Dion, Brauron.^, 10, tions of many divinities that have no 

and Preller, i. p. 252 ; vide Suidas, s. v. lunar character at all, such as Themis, 

Tat;/)oir(5Aoy. If the bull-riding Europa Dionysos, Demeter, Hestia, Tvxv> 

were certainly a type of the moon- Apollo« Poseidon. 

D Z 



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452 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

her shoulders on another coin of this city which bears the 
inscription Tavpo-noKos as the crescent of the moon ». The 
cult of Munychia, which was connected with Artemis Tauro- 
polos and the Brauronian worship^*, spread to Pygela on the 
Ionian coast ^*^ from Ephesus or Miletus, and on one of the 
coins of Pygela^ we have the head of Artemis Munychia on 
the obverse, on the reverse the figure of a bull charging. 

In connexion with the cult which has just been examined, 
we must notice the obscure and almost legendary account of 
the Tauric Artemis, and the chief localities of this worship, 
Lemnos, Attica, and the Crimea *^. The Brauronian worship 
is associated, as has been shown, with the legend of Artemis 
Tavpiiciy, of Orestes and Iphigenia, with the bear-dance, 
and with a ritual that seems to point to a primitive practice 
of human sacrifice. We have also the legend that the 
Tyrrhenian Pelasgi bore away the Brauronian image and the 
sacred maidens to Lemnos *^ and we hear of the ii^yiXii S^os 
in this island to whom maidens were sacrificed*^**, and who 
was called Chryse, the sister of Iphigenia according to the 
later genealogists ; we have reason to think that the apKT^Ca or 
bear- dance was practised in Lemnos as in Attica ; and, finally, 
Lemnos, as well as Brauron, is connected with the Tauric 
Chersonese by the tradition that its king Thoas migrated 
thence to the Crimea**. The question as to the original home 
of this worship has been much debated, and cannot be decided 
on the evidence; and it is needless here to discuss MuUer's 
plausible theory* that it originated in Lemnos as a Minyan 
worship, and spread thence to Byzantium and the Black Sea ; 
we may also hold that it was aboriginal in Attica, and that 
the earliest Greek adventurers in the Black Sea found in the 
Crimea a goddess whose name and whose rites reminded 
them of the Tauric. It cannot, at least, have come from the 
Black Sea originally, for the cults of Brauron and Lemnos 
point to a very early period, and the Crimea was opened to 
Greek colonization at a comparatively late time. All that 

• But vide Artemis - Monuments, * Orchomenos, pp. 304-306 ; Dorians, 
p. 539. I. 384 ; he conjectures that Tavpnef/ was 

^ Head, J/ist. Num. p. 508. the original name of Lemnos. 

• Hygin. /uid. 15. 



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Xlll.] 



ARTEMIS. 



453 



we can gather about this Artemis Tavpd or Tavpt/c^ is that 
this cult was associated with a vague legend of bloodshed % 
with the name of Iphigenia, and with a certain type of 
primitive idol to which the title ^OpOla was given. Where 
this type prevailed in the Artemis-cults of various parts of 
Greece, the l^end that it was, brought by Orestes and 
Iphigenia was likely to spring up ; and we cannot find any 
other ground for the connexion between Artemis *Op$Ca or 
'Op^ftxria, in Laconia and other places, and the Tauric Artemis, 
than the similarity of the traditional shape of their images 
and the survival of certain cruel rites ^. The question of 
interest is whether Artemis Tavpiic^ and Artemis TavpoiroXos, 
who were connected in the legends of Brauron and Aricia *^ \ 



• It is only in regard to the Cherso- 
nese that we can speak positively of 
human sacrifice in historical times, 
which seems to have continued till a 
late period, the second century A. D., if 
we can trust the words of Scynmns 
Chius" 

* We find the worship of Artemis 
*Op$ia or *Op0Qtcia in Athens, Megara, 
Sparta, on Mount Lycone in the Argo- 
lid, in Arcadia, Elis, and Epidauros, 
and at Byzantium''. We hear most 
of the Laconian cult ^^, and we gather 
that in spite of its more humane fea- 
tures, the musical contests and the 
procession of the maidens bearing the 
sacred robe, a singularly wild and bar- 
baric character attached to the worship 
and the idol. The men who first found 
the idol in a withy-bed went mad, and 
the earliest worshippers came to blows 
and slew each other on the altar, and 
the idea alwa3rs prevailed that this 
goddess craved human blood. For 
this reason Pausanias considers that the 
Spartan image had the best right of any 
to be considered the actnal idol brought 
from the savage Tanri by Orestes and 
Iphigenia, although Attica^ Cappadocia, 
and Lydia claimed this honour. We 
can understand why so many places in 
the Mediterranean should have made 



this claim for their sacred image" if 
we interpret the title *Ofi$ia as desig- 
nating nothing more than a primitive 
type of the erect wooden idol ; and this 
is the most natural explanation: the 
phallic sense which Schreiber (Roscher's 
Lexicon, ss. 586, 587) imputes to the 
word is quite impossible ; and the moral 
sense of * upright ' is most unlikely when 
we consider the primitive age to which 
the worship belonged ; although in later 
times the term may have advanced to 
a higher meaning, as in Epidauros, 
where, according to a late inscription*-'", 
it denoted the healing-goddess who 
makes the sick man arise and walk. 
Schreiber's objection that most primi- 
tive idols were of the erect type, and 
therefore the name *Op$ta would not 
have been used to designate a particular 
one, is no real objection ; the worshipper 
of one locality may name his image 
without regard to those elsewhere ; just 
as all goddesses were beautiful, but one 
was specially called * the beautiful ' in 
a local cult. Then if, as seems likely, 
the Laconian idol called *OpOUi was the 
most famous, its title and its legend 
of Orestes would come to be attached 
elsewhere to other idols of Artemis of 
the same type and perhaps of the same 
savage character. 



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454 GREEK RELIGION. [chaf* 

are really cognate. They are pronounced to have been 
originally quite distinct by Preller, Welcker, and Schreiber, 
for reasons that seem insufficient to prove distinctness of cult. 
Schreiber relies on the argument that the Samian ritual of 
Artemis Tauropolos was genuinely Greek and harmless, 
being innocently maintained with cakes and honey, while the 
Tauric was a bloodthirsty goddess, whose ritual demanded 
human victims, and whose character was vicious and orgiastic. 
But a different ritual might be consecrated in different places 
to a divinity whose worship nevertheless expressed the same 
idea ; and we do not know that the difference was so great as 
he asserts ; for, on the one hand, that innocent Samian sacrifice 
described by Herodotus ^* was offered to Artemis, but not, so 
far as we know, to Artemis Tauropolos, whose cult was found 
in Icaria but not in Samos •, and, on the other hand, we hear, 
though on doubtful authority, that human sacrifices were 
offered to Artemis Tauropolos at Phocaea ^ 

The Attic- Lemnian worship of Artemis TavpiK^ may have 
sprung up quite independently of the Tauropolos cult, but 
it seems reasonable to suppose that it contained the same 
reference to the agricultural functions of the goddess. For 
if Tavpci is not a name of Artemis that has been derived from 
the Black Sea, a theory impossible to accept, what else could 
it mean in its application to her but the * bull-goddess * ? The 
Greeks of the fifth century certainly understood it as such ; 
for Euripides speaks of the worship imported by Orestes and 
Iphigenia to the coast of Attica, not far from Brauron, as that 
of TavpoirrfAos, and from the natural connexion of the two 
terms Nikander invented the story that it was a bull, and not 
a hind, that was sacrificed as substitute for Iphigenia ®^. We do 
not hear, indeed, that the bull was an animal ever consecrated 
by sacrifice to the Tauric goddess in Attica or Lemnos, yet 
the term Tavpo<^c£yos®^, the bull-devourer, applied by Nikander 
to Artemis of Aulis, is not likely to have been invented by 
him, and it is analogous to the title Ka-npo^iyos noted above®; 

• Schreiber (Roscher's Z^jrw:<7»,p.568) from Strabo (j. v. 'Iavpow6\iov), 
makes the same mistake as Stephanus ^ Vide pp. 439, 440. 
of Byzantium, who quotes carelessly ^ P- 43i* 



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xni.] ARTEMIS. 455 

and a singular story is preserved by Aristotle ^^^ that a golden 
bull stood on the altar of Artemis Orthosia, who, at Sparta at 
least, was identified with the Tauric goddess. Whether the 
ritual of Artemis Munychia, who was closely associated 
with the Brauronian goddess, contained an allusion to the 
agricultural Tauropolos is uncertain ; we only hear of sacred 
ifi(f>i<l>oivT€s used in the Munychian sacrifice, which appear to 
have been cheese-cakes stamped with torches^*. 

We have also an allusion to Artemis as a goddess of agri- 
culture in the l^ends at Patrae about Artemis TpiKkapla ; 
when her temple was polluted by the unchastity of Comaetho, 
the goddess refused to give the fruits of the soil: human 
victims were led to the river for sacrifice, * crowned with 
wheat-stalks.' We have here probably a ritual designed to 
produce crops*, and this is afterwards connected with the 
worship of Dionysos Aesymnetes, who came in from the 
North and caused the cruel practice to cease ^^ The chief 
goddess of Hyampolis in Phocis was Artemis, and part of the 
flocks were consecrated to her, and the fattest of the beasts 
were those that she reared ** ®. 

The deity of agriculture and vegetation confronts us again 
and still more clearly in the Arcadian worship of Artemis, 
where she enters into very close association with Demeter and 
Despoina^^. At Akakesion, before the temple of Despoina 
was a shrine of Artemis Hegemone, and on one side of the 
throne on which sat the two mysterious goddesses, Demeter 
and Despoina, the statue of Artemis was placed, clad in a 
fawn's skin, with the quiver on her shoulders, and in her hands 
a torch and two serpents. The details of the worship and of the 
artistic representation which are given by Pausanias, the asso- 
ciation recognized here between these goddesses and Cybele, 
the mythic connexion of Despoina with the water-god, are 
facts enough to prove that we have here a primitive cult of the 
earth-goddesses, regarded as deities of vegetation ; and that 
Despoina, whose real name Pausanias was shy to pronounce, 

* For instances of the human victim 249, 389-393 ; Mamxhardt's Baumkul- 
used for agricaUnral purposes, vide tusy pp. 363, 364. 
Fraser's Golden Bmgh, voL i, p. 242- 



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456 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

was originally Persephone, akin to the great Arcadian goddess 
Artemis. Elsewhere in Arcadia we find Artemis associated 
with Demeter and her daughter ^^ and she enjoyed an altar 
in common with the Despoinae in the Altis of Olympia**^ 
The serpents which she bore in her hand are the emblem of the 
earth-goddess, and give to Artemis something of the character 
of Hekate in this Akakesian cult ; at Lycosura, on the other 
hand, the familiar animal of Artemis, the fawn, was con- 
secrated to Despoina***. It was probably this Arcadian 1 
worship that led Aeschylus to call Artemis ' the daughter of u 
Demeter ^ ' ; and it is this same more advanced aspect of her 
as a goddess of cultivated fruits that is illustrated by her later 
participation in the Attic Apolline feast of Thargelia *S and 
perhaps by the legend that she was born in the spring-month 
of Thargelion''^*. 

From the facts that have been examined hitherto that 
relate for the most part to primitive conceptions and cults, 
it seems reasonable to conclude that Artemis in the earliest 
Greek religion was an earth-goddess, associated essentially 
and chiefly with the wild life and growth of the field, and 
with human birth. It was natural enough that the goddess 
of vegetative nature and fructifying water should become 
also a goddess of herds and cattle and agriculture*. But 
this advance was not carried far in the religious conception of 
Artemis, and it rarely appears in literature. The goat that 
feeds in wild places, rather than the cattle that graze in the 
field, was her pastoral animal ; in the worship of Tauropolos 
it seems that the bull or the cow was rarely sacrificed to her, 
and Cicero *' tells us that it was expressly forbidden to offer 
the calf to Artemis ^ The interesting myth given us in the 
Iliad, that when the father of Meleager in Calydon was 
offering ^aXt/o-ia, or the first-fruits of the harvest, to the gods, 
he neglected Artemis and thus incurred her wrath, may 

• We may suppose the same de- Phods ***, where Artemis was especially 

velopment in the fmictions and character worshipped, cattle in general seem to 

of the local Semitic Baalim ; vide have been put under protection. Sacri- 

Robertson Smith, /^e/, of the Sem. p. loo. fice was made to Artemis Ao^pia at Pa- 

*» We may doubt whether this rule traeof2c/Mra£ffOKTa**,which appear from 

held everywhere; at Hyampolis in the context to be domesticated animals. 



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^iii.] ARTEMIS. 457 

illustrate the fact that she was only received among the agri- 
cultural divinities with difficulty and at a comparatively late 
time. Callimachus tells us that the man on whom Artemis 
looks with * smiling face and kindly heart' is blessed with 
increase of crops and herds"®; but 'the peaceful sway over 
man's harvesting' was mainly appropriated by Demeter, 
Persephone, and Dionysos : while Artemis, in regard to her 
physical functions and character, was never completely civilized. 
The view that has here been taken about the original 
character of this divinity is opposed to the older and tra- 
ditional theory which has been maintained by Welcker and 
Preller, namely, that she was originally a lunar goddess. To 
maintain this is to go beyond the evidence and to confuse 
the latest with the earliest period of the cult. It is obvious 
that Homer does not know her as a goddess of the moon ; 
neither was she known as such in the earliest centres of her 
worship. And some of her cult-titles, which have been sup- 
posed to have reference to the moon, have been misinterpreted 
or are of doubtful interpretation. For instance, the epithet 
Movi/uxta has been supposed by Welcker to stand for Mowo- 
wyjia, * she who walks alone at night ' ; but, though later writers 
have countenanced ft, this is entirely pre-scientific etymology*, 
and the word seems to have merely designated the harbour 
near the Peiraeeus from which the goddess was named, 
and is possibly derivable from a Phoenician term signifying 
* the haven of rest.' Another title has been regarded as con- 
taining a clear reference to the moon, namely AWoTrta^^, by 
which she was known on the Euripus, and perhaps at Amphi- 
polis : the word certainly means the * burning-faced one*; but 
it is hazardous to refer all words that denote fire or brightness 
to the celestial bodies offhand, and to conclude that AlOoma 
must mean the * bright-faced ' goddess of the moon. We can- 
not trace the origin of the name, which may have arisen from 
some peculiarity of an Artemis-idol ^ or in other conceivable 

• Even if the etymology were better, ^ Cf. Dionysos Mopvxos and K^xrp^s, 

it wonld take much to persuade us that names which probably arose from cer- 

the early Greek would apply such a tain features of the local idol, 
phrase to the moon. 



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458 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

ways ; and if we could interpret it with certainty, even then it 
would throw little light on the primitive period of worship, as 
we do not know when it came to be applied to the goddess. It 
seems to have been used by Anacreon as an epithet of Semele, 
who was certainly no moon-goddess, and may have alluded to 
the story of her fiery death. 

There are other epithets which attach to Artemis, and 
which have some reference to fire. She was worshipped as 
4>o)<r<^opos in Messenia, Munychia, and Byzantium ^® ; as 
ScAafTta in Laconia®^; as 2cAa<r<^<{/)os^® in Attica. On Mount 
Krathis, on the borders of Arcadia and Achaea, there was 
a temple of Artemis rivpcorta *^, from which the Argives 
fetched fire for the Lernaean festival. But none of these 
worships reveal an aboriginal lunar goddess ; for in the first 
place we have no proof that they are very early, and in the 
earliest literature in which Artemis is pourtrayed neither 
torch nor fire is spoken of as her attribute ; the passage in 
Sophocles which speaks of the * gleaming torches of Artemis, 
wherewith she speeds over the Lycian mountain ®V and 
which is the first, so far as I am aware, that refers to the 
fire-bearing goddess *, certainly does not show that the poet 
regarded her as a lunar power ^. As r^ards the represen- 
tations in art, the torch does not appear in the hands of 
Artemis before the fifth century ® ; the first certain instance 
would be the torch-bearing figure on the Parthenon frieze, if 
the view now prevalent that this is Artemis be correct ; and 
from the fourth century onward this is a common form. 

In the next place, the cults of SeXao-i^opos and 4><i)o-^pos are 

* Neither in the lines descriptive of itcX Upbr imt dyoKfta. 

Artemis in the Homeric hymn to Aphro- ^ Welcker sees Artemis in the new- 

dite ^^, nor in the smaUer hymns to bom child who holds two torches and 

Artemis and Selene, nor in Hesiod's stands on the knees of Zens beneath the 

Theogony has she any association with inscription Atd; ^m on a black-figured 

the moon or fire: vide Theog, 371; vase published by Minervini ; J^<7M. /if//. 

Horn. Hymn to Helios^ 6. 31 ; Hymn to 1852, Taf. i ; but he has mistaken a 

Herm, 1. 100. male for a female child: the babe isun- 

^ We may suppose that the poet doubtedly Dionysos, and Aids ^w, * the 

alludes to the fact mentioned in Max. light of God,' is a firee interpretation of 

Tyr. Dissert, 8 Avxiois 6 ''OXvfAvos nvp his name. 
{«8c8or , , ,KaL i<nw aJbrois rh irvp rwro 



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xin.] ARTEMIS. 459 

not known to have associated Artemis with the moon-goddess ; 
in the former she was combined with Apollo Atoj/woSoros, 
and the legend that explained the Attic cult of 4>a)cr<^o/w)9 at 
Munychia told how Thrasybulus, when marching from Phyle, 
was guided by a pillar of fire, and an altar was afterwards 
raised to fi ^ma-flydpos^. Again, when the torch had come to 
be used in the ritual or to appear in the representations of 
Artemis, it is very doubtful whether it was primarily intended 
to designate the moon-goddess. For it belongs quite as 
naturally to the huntress who roams the woods by night or 
to the divinity of the earth, and it is still more frequently an 
attribute of Demeter and Persephone and of the company of 
Dionysos** ; and Dr. Schreiber ® seems right in comparing 
a religious idol of the torch-bearing Artemis preserved on an 
altar of the Museo Chiaramonti with a type of Demeter on 
Attic votive-reliefs. The character that Artemis bears in the 
worship of Despoina has been already examined, and it is clear 
that the torch which she carries in the group of Damophon is 
a badge of the chthonian divinity. The ceremonious or magical 
use of fire in the ritual of divinities who have power over 
vegetative nature is well known ; the torch borne over the land 
is supposed to evoke by sympathy the fructifying warmth of 
the earth *. This would be the meaning of the practice which 
appears to have been observed in the cult of Artemis 'Ayporipa 
at Aegira, of binding lighted torches to the horns of goats ®, 
which receives striking illustration from the ceremony per- 
formed in the spring outside the temple of the great Syrian 
goddess at Hierapolis, the sacrifice called the irvpi^ or \afnri9, 
in which trees laden with animals were set on fire'. The 

* There is another context where ritual of Artemis Triclaria and Dio- 
<pof<r4t6pos is applied to Artemis with a nysos Aesjrmnetes in Achaea ^. She 
particular meaning— an epigram in the appears to have shared a temple with 
Anthology in which Artemis is praised him and Asclepios at Corone in Mes- 
as the goddess who gives children to senia^**. 
the childless and sight to the blind, ^ Roscher s Lexicorty p. 595. 
and is therefore called * the bringer of «* Vide Mannhardt, Wa!d- und Feld- 
light".' Kulii, I. pp. 521-525- 

^ Of Artemis* association with Dio- • The legend explained the custom as 

nysos in cult we have no explicit proof a ruse de guerre ; vide p. 450. 

except the account in Pausanias of the ' Luc. de Dea Syr, 49. 



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46o GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

temple and statue of Artemis ITpocrry<pa, the goddess *who 
faces the rising sun/ on the promontory of Artemision in 
Euboea*^, need not be supposed to have been consecrated 
to the moon-divinity, although Hesychius gives Ai;^i}\tos as 
an epithet of Selene; for it was natural and common for 
statues to face in this direction, and the divinities to whom 
r the herald in the Agamemnon goes to offer prayer are called 
the balfxov€S dirnjXioi. 

Again, we cannot conclude that the Greek Artemis was 
from an early period recognized as lunar merely because she 
was associated with Hekate in the poems of Hesiod and in 
the Homeric hymn to Demeter; for there is no proof that 
Hekate herself, when she was first adopted into the Greek 
religion, was regarded clearly or solely as a lunar goddess. 
Nor, lastly, is Artemis to be called the moon-goddess because 
she was from of old a goddess of child-birth : for the functions 
of Aoxcta belong quite as naturally to the earth-goddess as 
to the moon, although Plutarch chose to interpret Artemis 
Eileithyia as identical with Selene ^*. 

The first evidence that we have of this lunar character of 

: Artemis is the fragment of Aeschylus' Xantriae^ containing 

the strange words, * whom neither the ray of the sun beholds 

nor the starry eye of Leto's daughter,' if we suppose, as is 

natural, that * Leto's daughter * is Artemis \ This miscon- 

^'^ v> ception about the goddess, which the learned Alexandrine 

\ \V'' poets avoid, is rife in later Roman literature and later art 

which sets the crescent on her forehead **. 

How it is to be explained is a question upon which it is not 
necessary to dwell here. It seems to have arisen first from 
her close connexion with Hekate, and, secondly, from the 

* It is trae that Euripides calls He- conquered at Salamis and the goddess 

kate also the daughter of Leto, but an shone with full moon.' Mommsen 

Attic audience would certainly interpret {ffeort, p. 404, note) points out the 

Ai/Tfia K6pri as Artemis ; vide Hekate *. absurdity of this statement ; Plutarch is 

^ It appears that Plutarch ** sup- quite wrong in his chronology of the 

poses that the Greeks at the time of battle,and the 1 6th of Munychion, which 

the battle of Salamis already worshipped had probably always been consecrated 

Artemis as a lunar deity, for he states that to Artemis, was not necessarily a full- 

they consecrated the i6th of Munychion moon day. 
to her, the day ' on which the Greeks 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 461 

greater clearness with which the fifth century had come to 
recognize Hekate as a goddess of the moon. We may also 
suppose that Artemis acquired this character partly from her 
association with Apollo ; for though she already appears as 
his sister in Homer, and there is no trace in his poems of Xht 
lunar Artemis, yet the belief that Apollo was identical with 
Helios comes into prominence about the same time as the 
conception of the moon-goddess Artemis » 

It may be from her affinity to Hekate and the deities of 
the under-world, or from the early belief that it was Artemis 
who sent untimely or mysterious death, that we find her form 
appearing occasionally on grave-monuments ; a relief^ of 
a late period has been found in Thrace showing the figures 
of two dead children apotheosized as Apollo and Artemis. 
The stories of Hekaerge in Delos and Aspalis in Phthia, 
which will be afterwards examined, of Eucleia and Iphinoe 
mentioned below, seem to reveal the goddess as a deity of 
death and the lower world, who herself dies°. But her 
chthonian functions were not at all prominent in belief or 
worship. 

Turning now from the physical side of her character, we 
find that her cult has some few relations with social and 
political life. As regards the institution of the family, we 
have seen that she has more to do with child-birth than with 
marriage. None of her cult-titles have any clear reference to 
a goddess of wedlock. We hear of the worship of Eucleia at 
Thebes, * the goddess of fair report,' to whom a preliminary 
sacrifice was offered by bride and bridegroom^®*: 'the 
people,' says Plutarch, * call and consider Eucleia Artemis ; 
others consider her to be a maiden who died unmarried, the 
daughter of Heracles and Myrto V No doubt ' the people ' 

» For the recognition of Apollo as vegetation is naturally supposed to die 

the sun-godj;^ which is at least very and be buried at certain seasons ; we find 

obscure in the older literature, cf. the this trait in the legend of the Cretan 

fragment of Timotheus, Bergk, Fr. 13, 2^eii8, of Dion3rsos and Adonis, of the 

and Plutarch, de defec, Orac, p. 433 D Oriental Aphrodite and her Cretan and 

and 434 E Cjrpriote counterparts. 

*» Gazette Arch^ol. 1878, PI. a, and «* We may compare with this the 

Eeu, Arch. 1870, p. 248. ritual and story at Megara, where 

« In primitive cult the deity of maidens before their marriage offered 



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462 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

were right, but the sacrifice may have been propitiatory of the 
unmarried goddess, and we cannot say with certainty that 
this title designated her as the divinity who brought about 
and protected the 'honourable estate of matrimony'; for 
elsewhere, as will be noticed below, it is attached to her 
with reference to the glory of war. 

The other titles which, as Dr. Schreiber supposes*, may 
have referred to wedlock are more than doubtful; namely, 
*Hy€fiow;, *the leader'; YliiOd^ 'the persuasive'; Evirpof^a, 'the 
giver of good fortune.' We hear of the shrine of Artemis 
*the leader' at Akakesion, in Arcadia ®''*, before the great 
temple of Despoina; and of her bronze statue that held 
torches. But it is impossible to be sure that this title there 
designated her as a goddess * who led the bridal procession/ 
although in Sparta Artemis Hegemone and Apollo Kameios 
shared the temple of Eileithyia^''*^. In Callimachus the 
epithet is applied to her as the divinity who led Neleus to 
the site of Miletus, which he founded^** ; a temple mentioned 
by Pausanias at Tegea was said to have been consecrated to 
this cult by the man who at the bidding of Artemis slew the 
tyrant of Orchomenos and escaped to Tegea ®^^ ; and we have 
a very similar story about Artemis Hegemone, who freed 
the Ambraciots from the tyranny of Phalaecus, narrated by 
Antoninus Liberalis®''^ We might believe that in these 
cults the goddess was regarded simply as * she who shows the 
way V as in the story of Artemis Phosphorus and Thrasy- 
bulus, and the title 'Hyefjtow; may have arisen from the wide- 
spread artistic type of the running goddess with the torches 
in her hand®. 

An Artemis n€i^cS*® is known to us only through Pau- 
sanias, who mentions her temple in or near the iyopi at 

libations and locks of their hair to a goddess who leads men's lives : Tt/xv is 

maiden named l^ii^, a mythical per- called MctXix^i^v, 'Ei^odTrtv, . . /Aprtfup 

sonagewho had died mimarried. There ijy€/i6injyi Orpk. Hymn, 72. 3. 

can be no doubt bat that Iphinoe is « The H^emone who occurs in the 

a forgotten colt-name of Artemis^**. oath taken by the ephebi at Athens is 

• Roscher's Lexicon^ p. 574, probably Aphrodite Pandemos*^' ; vide 

^ In Orphic literature Artemis *H7«- Aphrodite, p. 66a. 
I»6vfi becomes one with Ti/xij — as the 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 463 

Argos, and connects it with the legend of Hypermnestra and 
the trial in which she defended herself against her father*. 
The title, then, has probably a juridical sense, and we may 
compare it with 'Ayopaia mentioned below. As regards 
Einrpa^Ca^^, a term which is found applied to Artemis on 
a relief from Tyndaris in Sicily, it is probable that it alludes 
to the goddess who gives women safety and success in child- 
birth ; it need not primarily denote the marriage divinity ^ 

Still, though in ordinary cult there is no direct evidence of 
the worship of Artemis as a recognized goddess of marriage, 
and we have seen reason for supposing that the primitive con- 
ception of Artemis was opposed to this, it would be quite 
natural that the goddess of child-birth and the goddess who 
had special charge of the lives of women should come to be 
associated with the rites of wedlock ; and we may find occa- 
sional testimony to this conception of her in literature and 
art*'. But that this conception was rare we can conclude 
from the hymn of Callimachus, who nowhere mentions it. 

Her relations to the family-life are expressed by the titles 
nai,^0Tp6<t>09 ''°, the rearer of children, and KopvOaXla '^ ; the 
former was attached to her in the cult at Corone in Messenia, 
where she shared her temple with Dionysos and Asclepios ; 
and the temple of Artemis KopvOaXla stood by a stream 
outside Sparta, where the nurses brought boy-children and 
consecrated them to her, and the feast of TtOrivlbia was 
celebrated with dance and masquerade and a sacrifice of 
sucking-pigs and loaves. It was Artemis to whom boys 
offered the locks of their hair on the Kovpewris, one of the 
days of the Attic 'AiraTovpia, and who aided the growth of 
girls and the athletic exercises of youth ''^' '*. The cherishing 
of children may have become assigned to her either as a 

• It may be that the temple ofPeitho, ^ Vide Artemis-Monummts, p. 531. 

standing in the market-place at Sicyon, * Prayer was occasionally made to 

and connected with the myth that her for a happy marriage *. Platarch's 

Apollo and Artemis had departed from statement that those who are marrying 

the land and were persuaded to return, need the favour of Artemis above all 

may have had some association with an may allude to the propitiatory rites 

Artemis U^M, a goddess of the iuyopa ; which she claimed and to her function 

Paus. a. 7; 7-8. as the goddess of child-birth **. 



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464 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

primitive goddess of the earth and water, or as the sister of 
Apollo KovpoTp6<l>os ; and either view could be illustrated by 
a line in Hesiod, who says of the water-goddesses — 

With the higher social organization based on relationship 
Artemis had little to do, and was very rarely recognized as 
the ancestral divinity of the community. We hear, indeed, of 
Artemis rTarpyo, * the ancestress,' at Sicyon '^^, and of Ilarptwris 
at Pleiae in Laconia, and a late inscription seems to attest the 
existence of the same cult at Amyclae'''^. The Sicyon cult 
must have been ancient, as the image of Artemis was aniconic; 
but we know nothing about its institution, and we cannot 
explain the origin of this strange title of hers, which does not 
accord with her character in the popular belief, unless we sup- 
pose it came to her from her association with Apollo Patrons, 
whose cult she seems to have shared at Athens ''^ Only at 
Epidaurus does she appear to have been associated in public 
cult with the tribal organization ; a single inscription of the 
early Roman period from that place preserves the interesting 
and unique title Artemis fla/Lw^vXafa ''®, which stands near in 
meaning to that of Aphrodite Pandemos. 

In considering the relations of Artemis to the higher life of 
the individual and the state, we may suppose that she came 
into some of them through her relationship with Apollo, and 
that Qthers she acquired by a natural development of her 
character. But it is difficult to estimate exactly how much 
has been derived from the Apolline worship ; for the associa- 
tion of the two divinities, though not aboriginal, is certainly 
old, and came to be recognized, after the Homeric period, far 
and wide throughout the Greek world ^ We find it in Homer, 
and we may conclude that his poems reflect the religious ideas 

* TAeo^. 347. It has been suggested applied to Artemis, it is better in these 

by Robert {flriech, MythoL Robert- cases to interpret it as an epithet of Gaea. 
Pieller, p. 780, 2) that 1) KovpoTp6<pos, ^ The references showing a joint 

mentioned in the prayer of the women worship of Apollo and Artemis given 

in the Thesmophoriazusa^^ and in an in- by Miiller, Dorians^ a. p. 368, are not 

scription concerning the ephebi sacrifice, all relevant ; and few of them prove that 

is Artemis ^' ; bnt as no instance has yet it belonged to an early period. For 

been found in which this title has been a more complete list vide ^^ 



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xni.] ARTEMIS. 465 

of the AeoHc shore of Asia Minor : and we might assign to the 
Homeric age the joint worship at Sicyon '^^ ■, Megara ^® ', and 
Delos'^**. But the figure of Apollo plays no part in the 
earliest cults and cult-legends of Artemis ; for instance, the 
primitive Arcadian, the Calydonian, those of Tauropolos and 
Orthia : nor, on the other hand, does Artemis appear in the 
earliest legends of the temple and oracle of Delphi. In what 
way the later association came about has never been satis- 
factorily explafned ; we cannot simply enumerate the points 
of affinity between the two divinities and give these as the 
reason, since many of them are probably merely the result of 
that association. And the union may have arisen with as 
much likelihood from some local connexion of the two cults 
and from the fusion of local myths as from some original 
logical connexion of ideas. 

The place where the two deities were first closely asso- 
ciated, and whence the belief in their twinship spread, was 
probably Delos'®*. For the legends that connected their 
birth with Delos or the neighbouring island of Rheneia are 
ancient, and the antiquity of the Artemis-cult in these 
waters seems partly attested by the very ancient cult-name 
Ortygia, which appears twice in the Odyssey to be attached 
to Delos, and to Rheneia in the Homeric hymn to Apollo ». 
Again, the hyperborean offerings at Delos were mythically 
connected, not only with Apollo, but with Artemis and the 
names of Oupis or Opis and Hekaerge and Arge ^ These 
titles are applied to the maidens who brought the offerings ^ 
from the North, and dying in Delos were buried in or behind 
the temple of Artemis and received honours at their tomb, 
the Delian maidens consecrating to them their locks before 
marriage ■'^ •. Now Hekaerge and Opis are known to be 
names of the goddess®, and the ritual at their tomb has no 

• Od, 5. 123 ; 15. 40a ; Horn, Hymn chase '•■. 

to ApoU, 16. ^ 'Ewifrpj is a term applied to 

*» Herodotus gives the names "Apyti Artemis in an ancient hymn, quoted 

(? the swift-footed one) and Opis, but by Clemens and ascribed to Bran- 

Hekaerge has as good authority; in chos^** ; her connexion with the name 

Claudian Hekaerge and Opis are de- ''CXwtt will be mentioned below, 
scribed as Scythian divinities of the 

VOL. II. E 



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466 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

meaning except as performed to Artemis herself*; and divine 
epithets such as these, and such as Callisto and Iphigenia, 
which have become detached from the divinity and have 
changed their designation, must, for this very reason, be 
considered ancient. 

Therefore as one of these terms, 'Exacpyiy, certainly asso- 
ciates the goddess with Apollo, we have a proof of the 
antiquity of this association at Delos. And we know of the 
early fame and splendour of the Pan-Ionic festival held in 
that island, where hymns were sung to the twin divinities. 
It seems reasonable, then, to believe that it was from that 
locality and that worship that the idea of the close relation 
between Artemis and Apollo was diffused. 

The two cult-names which she undoubtedly borrowed from 
this connexion are A€k<f>ivCa'^^ ^ and UvOlri'^^K As regards 
the first, by which she was known in Attica and Thessaly, 
there are other titles mentioned already that show her as 
a goddess of harbours and maritime life, and this title of her 
brother's could the more easily be attached to her. But the 
second, which was in vogue at Miletus, and which refers to 
Delphi and oracular powers, finds very little illustration in 
actual cult and belief. The doubtful designation of Artemis 
as ^IfivWa'^^^ may be compared with the vague stories about 
the Sibyl recorded by Pausanias, who mentions a Delian hymn 
in which she called herself Artemis ^ the wife, the sister, and 
daughter of Apollo : * these things she invented as one mad and 
inspired.' We hear also of an oracle of Apollo and Artemis at 

• With the ceremonies at Delos in who dies and is bom again (the tyrant's 

honour of the maidens we may compare name is Tartarus). We need not see in 

the rites practised in honour of Aspalis, the Phthian the influence of the Thes- 

who, according to the legend given by salian worship of Artemis Hekate ; for 

Antoninus Liberalis'', slew herself to the main point of the legend of Phthia 

preserve her chastity from the tyrant of is the virginity of the goddest, and this 

Phthia ; her body disappeared, but her is the special mark of the Greek Artemis 

statue was miraculously found near the rather than Hekate. The name 'Eica- 

statue of Artemis, and she became wor- 4pyij occurs also in the worship of 

shipped under the title of 'A/xctX^n; CtesuUa at Ceos, who, like Ariadne, was 

'Etcaipyrj. It is clear that *A<riraX/( is supposed to have died in travail, and 

a forgotten name of the Artemis of who was a disguised form of Artemis 

Phthia; there is a hint in the story of Aphrodite; vide Aphrodite^', 

the chthonian character of the goddess, ^ Pans. lo. la, !• 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 467 

Aclrastea''^\and an Artemis-oracle in Cilicia^^" ; but it is doubt- 
ful if these are genuine Hellenic cult-names. And where she 
was united in worship with Apollo Pythius, as at Anaphe, 
Pheneos, and perhaps Sparta '* '» «» **, we do not hear that she 
shared his prophetic power. At Delphi the oracle remained 
exclusively ApoUine ; and we have few traces of a cult of 
Artemis, beyond an inscription ''^ ® from which it appears that 
the emancipation of slaves was sometimes performed in her 
name as well as the god's •. Her occasional association with 
her brother in vase-representations that refer to the con- 
sultation of the Delphic oracle is an artistic motive, and is 
no proof of actual cult. 

Whether the name of Artemis OJA'a''®'^, to whom, according 
to Pherecydes, Theseus sacrificed before his journey against 
the Minotaur, is derived from Apollo OvAtos, with whom she 
was associated at Lindos ^^^, or whether it comes to be attached 
to the goddess independently, is a doubtful question. The 
titles belong to both as divinities of health : and Artemis, the 
goddess of waters, who produced the hot spaing, might 
naturally be invested with these powers, as the epithets 
ivoLKoo^ and Htikoo^ expressed that she listened to the prayers 
of the sick ^ Generally speaking, it may be said that any 
prominent divinity of a community, whatever was his or her 
original nature, might be regarded and invoked as the giver 
of health and life, just as we have seen Athena worshipped as 
Hygiaea at Athens, It was probably as the sister of Apollo 
that Artemis became a goddess of purification, as Arctinos 
in the Aithiopis mentions that Achilles was purified from 
the blood of Thersites by ceremonies performed in Lesbos to 
Apollo and Artemis, whose title \vr\ or Svaio?^^ perhaps ex- 
presses this idea. 

The comparatively few cult-titles of Artemis that refer to 
civic or civilized life cannot be clearly deduced from any more 

* It is possible that the Lydan colt inscription of the fourth century B.C. on 

of Artemis 'E\cvtf^/«^« drew its name the rim of a bronze yessel from Achaea ; 

from the protection and asylmn which ''ApT€fusBipfjda andEddiroos''*^ in an in* 

her temple afforded to the slave and scription of the third century B.C., found 

the criminal. in some baths at Mitylene, dedicating 

^ "ApTi/us Aovircct7<» ^*p occurs in an an aqueduct to her. 

£ 2 



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468 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

primitive idea nor from association with other deities. She 
had little to do with property, or the acquisition or allotment 
of land ; although she was worshipped as TpiKkapCa at Patrae^, 
and this name may have arisen from some tripartite division of 
the land, which was given a religious sanctity, or, as M tiller 
supposes* from the chance that this temple at Patrae was 
the central shrine of three old village communities. 

The worship of Artemis had an important political bearing 
in Euboea, where she was the presiding deity of the Euboean 
league, and we find that the temple of Artemis 'Afi'jpvo-ia ^ 
was the place of a Pan-Ionic meeting. The cult existed in 
Attica also, being especially prevalent in the deme of Ath- 
monum, and the festival at Athens rivalled the Euboean in 
splendour. 

Her relation to the life of the city is expressed chiefly by the 
titles BovKala^^ and BavX?;<^po$ **, by which she was addressed 
at Athens and Miletus ; though, as far as we know, these are 
late, nor was she so essentially a deity of the )8ovArJ as Zeus 
and Athena. It may be that this designation of her at 
Athens arose from some statue that stood before the council- 
chamber ; for in the Attic inscriptions, mostly of the first 
century B.C., we find her in constant conjunction with Apollo 
npooranypios *^ *; Oncc at least she was recognized as 
a divinity of the market-place, namely, at Olympia**, and 
with this cult of Artemis 'AyopaCa we may, perhaps, associate 
the Argive worship of Artemis Ilci^ci **. 

Such political titles of Artemis are rare and of slight pre- 
valence. Even at Athens, in spite of her title Bovkala, we can 
gather from the non-occurrence of her name in the formulae 
of the state-oaths and the oath of the jurors that her religion 
reflected but little of the civic life and government ^ The 

* Dorians, a. p. 374* du 8. federacy of Athens, the deities invoked 

*» The witness in the law-courts of in the treaty of alliance between Corcyra 

Plato's ideal state might swear by Zeus, and Athens are Zeus, Demeter» Apollo 

Apollo, and Themis ; the Athenian jury- {Bu/l de Corr. JltlL 1889, p. 357). 

roan swore by Tjcoil, Poseidon, and De- The name of Artemis occurs in the 

meter; ZaTe/f,p.936 s; Dem. K. Ti/io«/)., formula of the oath of alliance in two 

p. 747. In an inscription belonging Cretan inscriptions, and the treaty be^ 

to the time of the second maritime con- tween Smyrna and Magnesia is ratified 



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xm.] ARTEMIS, 469 

practice at Pellenc in Achaea, where the oath was taken in 
matters of the greatest concern to Artemb Soteira, appears 
to have been exceptional^*^'. 

We may note also, that though there are very many localities 
that gave a title to or borrowed one from Artemis ""^*^, 
scarcely any of these, where the worship was purely Greek* 
were actual cities, except the small community of Selasia'® 
in Laconia, the city Lycoas in Arcadia, * the wolf city,' which 
was a ruin in the time of Pausanias, and Aptera in Crete ®^ 
The rest are country districts, islands, rivers, or heights. It is 
true that Zeus promises to give her, in the hymn of Callima- 
chus, 'thirty cities which shall cherish no other deity, but 
only thee, and shall be called of Artemis*; but either these 
irrokUOpa are not Greek cities proper or are unknown to us* 
The epithet TroXiiyoxoy, which Apollonius Rhodius * attaches to 
her, is not known to have belonged to actual cult. We hear 
in Strabo and Pausanias of Artemis Aetolis ^, the goddess 
of Aetolia, the least civilized of the Greek communities, and 
the chief divinity of Calydon was Artemis Aa^pfo, the wild 
goddess* It is, in fact, not the Hellenic, but chiefly the 
half-foreign goddess of Asia Minor, who was worshipped as 
the patron deity of the city. 

The district and city of Perge "^^^^ in Lycia, was sacred to 
Artemis Uepyaia^ and her image in Cicero's time was em- 
bellished with gold ; a yearly navriyvpis was held there in her 
honour, and mendicant priests appear to have been attached 
to her as they were to Cybele. Astyrene, Mindos of Hali- 
camassus, Sardis, Tauropolis in Caria, and pre-eminently 
Ephesus, were associated with her name; and the various 

in the name of Artemis Tauropolos*''. the Greek cities were necessarily promi- 

For the mock-treaty in Ihe Lysistratet nent divinities of the »^Xif ; the chief 

1363, Artemis is invoked by the Spartan deity of the cotmtry, whatever his or 

woman, bnt it is the wild Artemis, * the her character was, wonld generally be 

slayer of beasts'; in the Gortynian mentioned, and certain nature-powers 

inscription we 6nd that Artemis was like Helios. 

invoked in the formula of the oath by • Artemis ♦#/Kifo of Pherae is pro- 

which a woman could clear herself before lAbly not the Greek Artemis pure and 

a court of law»*. On the other hand, simple, but Artemis combined with the 

we cannot always conclude that all the later goddess Hekate. 

deities mentioned in the piiblic oath of ^ Argon, i. 312. 



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470 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

cities called HierapoHs in Asia Minor usually derived their 
name from the worship of the Oriental goddess •. We find 
Artemis as a city-goddess under the name of 'Airrfas®^ in an 
inscription from lasos of Caria, a city which worshipped her as 
its TrpoKaOrjyefxdv, or foundress. Possibly the title UporjyiTi^, by 
which she was united in the Lycian worship with Apollo 
UporjyiTriSy may have been attached to her as the leader of 
the migrations of peoples^^. But even in Asia Minor she was 
very rarely identified, as in various places Isis and Hera were, 
with the Tvxn of the city. Perhaps the only instance is the 
city of Gerasa "^ in the Syrian Decapolis, which inscribed the 
title of Artemis Tyche upon its coins of the second century 
A. D. The naive words that Callimachus puts into the mouth of 
the girl Artemis ^, who prays for the possession of mountains 
rather than cities — the latter she will only visit when women 
in travail invoke her aid — are quite in accord with the character 
of the goddess in the public religion of Greece proper. 

She is slightly more prominent as a goddess of battle, or as 
a divinity who aided the fight. In many cases this function 
may have been attributed to her from the fact that the battle 
occurred in a locality, often wild ground, where Artemis was 
supposed to be powerful ^. Thus the Greeks brought thank- 
offerings to her in commemoration of the battle of Artemision, 
and the epigram of Simonides refers to these^^*; the annual 
sacrifice of goats, offered by the Athenians for the victory of 
Marathon, was due to the goddess of the mountain or the 
marsh, who might be naturally supposed to have aided 
them^®'. The Spartan sacrifice before joining battle has 
been mentioned^**; and, according to Pollux, the Athenian 
polemarch made a joint offering to her and the war-god ** ^. 
She was also recognized as a deity who inspired the leader 
with wise counsel, as *AptaTo;3ot;A?y, to whom Themistocles 
erected a temple on Melita after the battle of Salamis^*". 

• E. g. Hien4>olis, another name for • We might explain in the same way 

Bambyce, derived from the worship of the sacrifice to the nymphs of Cithae- 

the Syrian goddess Atargatis ; Strabo, ron — ^fufmt ^paylruri — before the 

748. battle of Plataea ; Plat. Arts/. 11. 

»» Callim. J/ymn to Art, U. 18-22. 



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xiii.] ARTEMIS. 471 

The association of Artemis with war was sometimes expressed 
by the title EvKXcta* — for instance the monument of the 
Hon that stood without the temple of Artemis EvKAeta at 
Thebes was supposed to commemorate a legendary victory 
of Heracles *® ** — also by a special application of the epithet 
2<5r€tpa, which she shared with many other divinities, and 
which in Megara^^' was explained by reference to the 
destruction of a band of Persians ; in Megalopolis it probably 
conveyed an allusion to the victories of Epaminondas ^^ ^ 
No doubt the title often had a wider application, referring 
perhaps to safety in child-birth. 

It is possible that Aa<f>pia was an epithet of Artemis that 
referred as much to war as to the chase ; and the common 
type of the running goddess may represent the huntress or 
the warlike deity ^*^. Although in mythological scenes 
Artemis appears not infrequently engaged in combat, for 
instance against Tityos and the giants, yet this aspect of her 
is very rarely presented in the temple iyakfxara. But a statue 
of Artemis existed in Messenia bearing shield and spear, and 
there is reason for supposing the images of the Brauronian 
and the Tauric Artemis represented her as armed ^. 

It is rare to find the worship of Artemis associated with 
any of the arts of life, and none of them are attributed to 
her discovery or teaching. But Homer and the author of 
the Homeric hymn to Aphrodite knew of her as a goddess 
who delights in the dance and song and the lyre^^^ No 
doubt we must here reckon with the influence of the Delian 
festival and her connexion with Apollo; but in Arcadia, 
where this connexion was least recognized*^, the musical 
character of Artemis was acknowledged in an independent 
cult The worship of Artemis 'Tjutvfa"*, common to the 
Orchomenians and Mantineans, was among the most im- 
portant in Arcadia, and though Pausanias tells us nothing 

• The cult of Eucleia at Athens ap- whom she was coapled in Attic cult****, 

pears to hare commemorated the battle *» Vide Ariftnis-Mmumenis, p. 537. 

of Marathon ; but it is doubtful whether « We only hare two records of a 

this 6gure was Artemis, or a mere per- joint worship of Apollo and Artemis 

sonificatioQ like l£&voia and E6vo/ua, with in Arcadia, ^*> and ^*^. 



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472 ^ GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

about the significance of the name, it must surely refer to the 
hymns sung at her yearly festival, and it recalls the impdiiHa^ 
the maidens' songs sung at Sparta in honour of the maiden- 
goddess. We may also explain the worship of Artemis 
XeXvny in Sparta*^ as paid to the goddess who loved the 
music of the tortoise-shell lyre ; and it was in Sparta also 
where she was worshipped with a special dance performed by 
the maidens of Caryae. We gather, too, from a passage in 
the Phoenissae that on Pamassos a maidens' chorus danced in 
honour of the hJdivojo^ Sti, who from the context appears to 
be Artemis. The goddess worshipped on the Carian Cher- 
sonese, who may be called Artemis Aphrodite, was known as 
MoXvablaSy * the songful one ^^.' In fact, the dance and song 
were indispensable in Greek religious service, and no cult 
remained so backward as not to reflect some light from Hellenic 
civilization. Even the bear-goddess of Brauron was supposed 
to delight in the recitations of the Homeric poems in her 
festival ». 

Such is the main account of the Greek worship of Artemis ; 
and it appears from it that, while in the imagination of the 
poet and aitist the character of the goddess possessed a high 
spiritual value, the cults have comparatively little connexion 
with the moral and intellectual or even the higher material life 
of the nation and individual. The conceptions of purification 
from sin, of legal trial and satisfaction for homicide, of the 
sanctity of the suppliant and the stranger, which fostered the 
growth of early Greek law and religion, and which we find in 
the worships of Zeus and Athena, play little or no part in 
this. Greek religious philosophy, in its attempt to idealize the 
leading personages of the religion, to make each the embodi- 
ment of an intellectual or spiritual abstraction, scarcely touches 
Artemis; nor had she a very prominent place in the later 
mystic and Orphic literature ^ except under the form of Hekate. 

» Vide ^\ This reciuiion is often Pax 874. who is followed by Suidas, 

associated with the supposed festival of and it is probable that he invented it 

Dionysos at Branron; but there is no himself out of a misunderstanding of 

proof that there was any £estival of Aristophanes, who is really referring to 

. Dionysos called Bpavp^ia : the only the festival of Artemis, 
authority for it is the scholiast 00 Arist. *» Or/Au Hymn to Artemis^ 1. 36 



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nil.] ARTEMIS. 473 

The Greek calt of this latter goddess must be separately 
described with some detail. It remains to notice here what we 
can find of non- Hellenic or Oriental influence in the worship of 
Artemis, and to trace its fusion with foreign but cognate cults. 
And, first, we note a combination in which she is identified 
or associated with a divinity whose worship may have spread 
through Phrygia and Thrace to North Greece, and pro- 
bably through Caria to Crete, and of whom Cybele, Bendis, 
Semele, Dictynna, Britomartis, and possibly Ariadne and 
Europa, are the various local names; secondly, a tendency 
to attach the name of Artemis to Semitic goddesses, such as 
Astarte, Derceto, Atargatis. It is with the first of these 
combinations that we are here most concerned ; for it is not 
only prior, but it reaches further throughout the various areas 
of Greek religion. The view implied by Strabo^^ that 
Cybele, the goddess of Asia Minor, was identical or closely 
connected with the Thracian Bendis, Kotys, or Hekate, seems 
to be warranted by the facts that we can gather of North 
Greek and Phrygian worship ; and that this goddess was, in 
regard to her main character at least, an earth-goddess or 
a divinity of vegetation seems proved by the nature of the 
myths and rites of Cybele, her close association with Dionysos, 
and by the newly discovered interpretation of the name 
Semele*, which is closely cognate to a Phrygian word for 
earth. The details of this Cybele-worship must be given 
in a later chapter. It is enough here to show its points of 
connexion with that of Artemis, and the common idea from 
which that connexion arose. 

The direct and clear recognition in the earlier literature of 
Artemis and Cybele as kindred divinities appears but rarely**: 
a striking instance of it is a fragment of Diogenes 6 rpayt^os, 
quoted by Athenaeus : * I hear that the Bacchic maidens of 

ik$\ 9*^ oirrupa «pi\fj fi^ffTjfiTiP Svaai : * Vide article by Kretschmer, ^us 

but it is not the Artemis of the old der Anomiay p. 17. 
Greek religion that the hymn celebrates, ^ We find Artemis Munychia wor- 

but the goddess confused with Hekate shipped near Cyzicns in association 

and Eileithyia ; cf. Orpk. Argom, 1. 905, with the 'mother-goddess,* who in this 

for the mystic ritet of initiation con* locality most have been Cybele ^®<^. 
nected with Artemis Hekate. 



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474 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

Lydia, dwelling by the river Halys, honour Artemis the 
goddess of Tmolus in a laurel-shaded grove ^^^/ The god- 
dess of Tmolus worshipped by maenads is certainly Cybele, 
but is here given the name of the Greek goddess, and the 
laurel-grove, sacred properly to the latter, is associated with 
the goddess of Asia Minor. 

Another form of Cybele was the armed Cappadocian M^, 
the mother-goddess, who came, perhaps in the later period, 
to be identified with the Tauric Artemis ^^^ owing probably to 
the influence diffused through the Euxine of the Dindymene 
and Pessinuntian rites, as these would naturally attract the 
legend of the Tauric cult *. 

The Thracian Bendis^^* was probably in origin and 
character the same as the great mother of Phrygia, and 
was worshipped, according to Strabo, with the same orgiastic 
rites ; her cult spread through Thessaly to Athens probably 
about the time when that of Cybele had acquired public 
prevalence there. We hear also of Bendis as the 'great 
goddess of Lemnos ' to whom human victims were offered, 
and she may well have been recognized there as cognate to the 
Tauric Artemis '^^^ And though of close affinity to Cybele 
and Hekate, she was received into Greek religion chiefly as 
a Thracian form of Artemis. Herodotus speaks of the 
'queen Artemis ^8' to whom the Thracians and Paeonians 
sacrificed, the 'queen* being probably one of her native 
titles ^ The reasons for this association of the Greek 
maidenly goddess with the Bendis- Hekate-Brimo, the 
patroness of savage magic and terrifying superstition, may 
have been some external resemblance of attributes, but also, 
probably, some consanguinity of character. Like Artemis 
TavpoirrfAos, the Thracian divinity was supposed to ride on 
bulls ; like Artemis, she was a mighty huntress, though her 
weapon was not the bow, but the spear in each hand ^^•. 
We find the feast of Bendis formally established at Athens 

* The legend of Orestes and the certainly un-Hellenic ^*. 

Tauric Artemis penetrated as fer south ^ As the qneen-goddess, the Thra- 

as Cilicia into the worship of Artemis dan divinity appears to have been once 

ntpaala at Castabala, whose ritual, so at least identified with Hera ; Polyaen. 

far as Strabo describes it, appears to be Stra/, 7. 22. 



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xiii.] ARTEMIS. 475 

by the time of Plato*, and the worship must have been known 
to the Athenians at an earlier date through the Qparrai, the 
comedy of Cratinus. The well-known scene in the opening of 
the Republic speaks of the torch-races on horseback held in 
her honour at the Peiraeeus, the vantage-ground in Attica of 
foreign cults. And this ceremony may perhaps explain why 
Bendis was identified with Artemis; for the two Greek 
goddesses, in whose rites and legends from the fifth century 
onwards the torch is a specially prominent symbol, are 
Demeter and Artemis; but the wild Thracian huntress was 
more naturally associated with the latter than with the 
divinity of settled agricultural life, although Bendis also, 
like the Greek Artemis, had some connexion with agricul- 
ture, as cereal offerings were brought to her and the bull 
appears to have been one of her sacred animals. It was 
in Thessaly, and especially at Pherae, that this association 
with Artemis took place. The cult and legends of Pherae, 
where Admetus was probably a name for the god of the lower 
world who, like Dionysos, yoked wild beasts to his chariot, 
and where Hekate or Bendis was regarded as his daughter, 
have a certain chthonian character ; and this was found in the 
worship of Artemis <l>€pafa, which was the chief Thessalian 
worship of the goddess, and which spread to Acarnania, 
Sicyon, and Argos ^^^ ^^. The legend of Medea, the devotee 
of Hekate and the Tauric goddess, and the part she played 
in Thessaly seem to indicate that from an early time in 
this land the cult of Artemis was infected with sorcery and 
superstitious rites. As the worshippers of Bendis in the 
Peiraeeus rode with torches on horseback, so the goddess of 
Pherae was herself figured on coins mounted on a horse and 
with a torch in her hand ; Millingen has published a relief 
from Crannon** with a torch-bearing Artemis standing by her 
horse and hound ; and we gather from Lycophron that * the 
goddess of Strymon,' whom he identifies with Brimo and 
Pheraea, was honoured with torches. We may see also an 

* An Attic inscription, circ. 429 B. c, dealing with the temple-moneys associates 
Bendis with Adrasteia in the state-cult ^^. 
*» Uned. Mm, 2. 16. 



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476 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

allusion to Bendis and Artemis on the coin of the Thracian 
Aenos, which displays a goat bending over a torch set in 
a socket as for a lampadephoria *. 

Finally, we can trace in Crete the close affinity between 
Artemis and the goddess of a Cretan pre-Hellenic people 
who in blood or religion were probably akin to the wor- 
shippers of Cybeie in Asia Minor. The Cretan goddess was 
Britomartis "^, known especially in the western part of the 
island, and generally in the Hellenic world, as Dictynna, 
and associated with the Thracian goddess ^^' ^^^ ^, but more 
closely still with Artemis. * The Cretans worship Diana most 
religiously, naming her by the national name of Brito- 
martis,' says Solinus ^^^*; and Pausanias supposes that she was 
originally a nymph who rejoiced in hunting and the chase, 
and was especially dear to Artemis. The worship spread to 
Delos, to Aegina, where her cult-title was 'A^aia, and where 
she may have been identified with Hekate, who was pro- 
minent in the local cult^ and to Sparta, where her temple 
stood nearest to the wall ^ Euripides, iui the Hippolytus, 
appears to attest a worship, of Dictynna near Troezen ; we 
have evidence of its existence in Phocis, Astypalaea, and 
Cepballenia, and of a feast of Artemis Britomartis in Delos, 
and an inscription of the Roman period proves that the public 
worship of the ^a Aixrva spread as far north.as Massilia. The 
name BptrJjuia/)n9 is explained by ancient lexicographers as 
meaning * sweet maid,* and AUrvvva was of course connected 
with the Greek word for a net. As philology has not yet 
settled to what group of langus^es these words belong, we 
might think they were titles attached to Artemis by the 
early Hellenic settlers in Crete. But the statement of Strabo 
is against this, who says that the Dictynnaeon, or temple of 

• Head, Htst. Num. p. 214, Fig. 157. but Wide, In Lakmischt Kulie, p. 109, 

^ Steph. Byz. gires *A^#aia as a cult* shows good reason for donbting his 

name of Hekate in a confused note ; testimony on this point Stephanos of 

probably 'A^aia should be read. Byzantium and Hesychins do not appear 

® If we accepted Pausanias' statement, to have known the Cretan origin of 

we should have to believe that the Cre- Artemis Issoria, and as her temple stood 

tan goddess was also worshipped on the on the height, it is not probable that 

south coast of Laconia under the titles she would be identified with Artemis 

of Artemii 'liraa-p.'a and Ai/iyo/a ^'•1 ; of the marsh. 



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xiii.] ARTEMIS, 477 

Dictynna, was in the territory of the Cydonians, an aboriginal 
Cretan population; and though, according to Herodotus, it 
was built by the Samians in the time of Polycrates, yet we 
cannot suppose that they introduced the worship, for the 
l^end is entirely Cretan. Originally independent, she be- 
came regarded in the fifth century as a personality scarcely 
distinct from Artemis: like her, she was worshipped as 
a mighty huntress with her hounds, as KoXv&v^pos, the divinity 
of the beasts of the wild ; and Aa<f>pCa, the prevalent title of 
Artemis in Aetolia, is mentioned as an epithet of Britomartis 
Dictynna in Cephallenian cult. In Crete itself, where her 
worship was of national importance, she does not seem to 
have been actually identified in the cult of the autonomous 
cities with her sister-goddess of the Hellenic religion, for 
in the treaty of alliance between the men of Latos and 
Olus inscribed about 200 B. C, and in the oath that bound 
the citizens of Cnossus to those of Dreros, the two divinities 
are mentioned separately ^^^•; but on the Cretan coins of 
the imperial period Dictynna appears altogether in the guise 
of Artemis. It concerns us to examine the grounds of this 
association. It would have doubtless come about, if the 
Greeks had only known Dictynna as a divine huntress, 
and had heard the Cretan myth that she had plunged into 
the water to preserve her chastity from the pursuit of Minos. 
But, besides this, there is reason to think that her significance 
for the old Cretan worship was essentially the same as that 
of Artemis for the Arcadian. The legend concerning her 
rescue in the fishers' nets might perhaps have arisen from the 
popular derivation^ of the name AUrvvva; yet even if Pausanias 
was wrong in supposing that the title AtfjivaCa was given her 
in Spartan cult, it is still probable that she, like Artemis, 
had some real connexion with the waters. This would arise 
naturally from the seafaring character of her worshippers, 
and the statement in Plutarch is of importance, that she was 
constantly associated in cult with Apollo Delphinios ^^^ ^ in 
whose legend the Cretan mariner plays a part. And there is 
evidence that, like Artemis, Aphrodite, and Cybele, she was 
a divinity connected with the earth and its vegetative powers. 



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478 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

In her ritual the wild trees appear to have been consecrated 
to her as to Artemis. The story of the leap into the sea 
was told not only of Dictynna, but of Aphrodite herself, the 
fish-goddess Derketo, and the Carian maiden Rhoio, another 
form of Artemis Aphrodite, and may have arisen from 
some ritual practised in the worship of the divinity of 
vegetation •. Her name AUrvvva, as the writer in Roscher's 
Lexicon (p. 8aa) remarks, may have been derived from some 
locality in the west of Crete, and at any rate is probably 
connected with the name of Mount Dicte in the east, where, 
according to one legend, Zeus was born, and whence he took 
his title ^iKToXos ^ And we might suppose that the relation 
between the Zeus of Crete and Dictynna was different from 
that which appears in the genealogical account of the 
goddess's origin, and that originally she was scarcely distinct 
from Amalthea, or the sacred goat-mother who nourished 
Zeus ; in the Cretan legend of the god, the goat and the bee 
are his sacred animals, the one being usually consecrated to 
the Hellenic Artemis, the other to the Ephesian. Possibly 
the Cydonian legend, of which we have some numismatic 
evidence**, concerning the nurture of Zeus by a d<^, may be 
derived from some association of the infant-god with Dictynna, 
with whom this animal was associated. It is at least certain 
that this character of Dictynna as KovpoTp6<f>os and as the 
nurse of Zeus was recognized in the later period, for on coins 
of the early imperial epoch we see Dictynna * seated on a 
rock holding a javelin and the infant Zeus on her arm, and 
guarded on either side by the Curetes^.' 

The conception which we can trace in Thracian-Phrygian 
worship, and which penetrated into Hellas, of an earth- 
goddess and a god of vegetation who is sometimes her son 
or fosterling, sometimes her lover, who suffers and is bom 
again, can be detected also in the religion of Crete, having 
reached the island from Asia Minor, perhaps through Caria* 

• Vide chapter on Aphrodite, p. 638 ; (p. 479) are not very weighty, 

on Artemis, p. 447 note «. « Vide Ephcm. Archaeol, 1893, p. 7; 

*» This view was held by Callimachns, Zeus-chapter, p. 109. 

Hymn, Diatu 199. Strabo*8 objections ^ Head, Hist, Aum. p. 384. 



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xni.] ARTEMIS. 479 

The solar element in that religion appears to me to have been 
much exaggerated'. The Cretan story and cult of Zeus, 
who is born and dies, whose foster-mother was the goat or 
Amalthea or Rhea, and whose body-guard were the Curetes, 
and whose religion there and there only was mystic and 
orgiastic, must be attached, as has been already remarked, by 
a close link to the cycle of the myths and cults of Dionysos, 
Altis, Sabazios, and Cybelc^. In Ariadne the Greeks recog- 
nized occasionally an Aphrodite, but more generally a female 
counterpart of Dionysos ; Europa riding on the sacred bull 
may be regarded as a personage of the Dionysiac circle, the 
Cretan equivalent of Artemis Tauropolos, and her name was 
probably that by which the Greeks designated the Cretan 
earth-goddess**, just as in Boeotia they spoke of Demeter 
Ev/ocSm; ; and as the Cretan god dies, so his spouse, the earth- 
goddess, dies, for we hear of the funeral rites of Europa in the 
Corinthian festival of ^EAAcSna ^. Into this Cretan circle, then, 
of divinities of vegetation, Dictynna Britomartis must be 
placed ; and thus she could be rightly associated with Cybele 
on the one hand, and Artemis on the other : with the latter 
all the more naturally because she was a huntress connected 
in some way with the water and the wilds, and, unlike the 
Thracian- Phrygian g^dess, necessarily a virgin®. 

It was through these half-foreign influences that the worship 
of Artemis in Aegina, Crete, and Thessaly became tinged 
with the ideas proper to a primitive and orgiastic nature- 

• The Labyrinth and Minotaur and name Aim; occurred in the region of 

Enropa riding on the bull have no clear Mount Ida in the Troad. 

solar reference; the name of Pasiphae * Enropa seated on the tree on Cretan 

and her legendary connexion with coins may be a representation express- 

Aeetes, and thus with Helios, is the ing her half-forgotten association with 

one atom of fact in this solar theory the earth. It is of course true that the 

about the Cretan religion. Cretan myth points to Phoenician in- 

^ The very name of the Cretan fluences, and according to Lucian, tU 
Nymphs, the Mi/r^pc;, recalls that of Z>dtf .y^ria, 73, the coin-stamp ofSidon 
the McToXi; M^njp of Phrygia. They was Europa seated on the bull : this 
are especially mentioned by Diodorus would show that in later times she was 
Siculus (bk. 4, chs. 79, 80) as the Cretan identified with Astarte ; vide Aphrodite- 
nurses of ZcQSf and worshipped with chapter, pp. 632, 633. 
great reverence at Agrigentum down to ** Vide Athena-references, *• ^ 
late tiroes. We may note also that the * For Preller {firUch. Myth* i, 



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48a GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

worship, of which the main ar^t was Thrace, Phrygia, Lydia, 
and some of the Eastern islands. The unmixed Hellenic 
worship had not been wholly innocent in certain localities ; 
but in ordinary Greek cult Artemis had not been hitherto 
recognized as the Bacchic and Corybantic personage whom 
Timotheus celebrated in his verse, calling her * the raving 
frenzied Thyiad,' an emotional and questionable divinity, 
against whom the saner Cinesias publicly protested ». 

The worship of Artemis at Ephesus is a conspicuous 
instance of the fusion of Eastern and Western religious ideas ; 
and of all these hybrid cults this is the most important for 
the student of Greek religion, since, according to Pausanias, it 
was known in every Greek city, and it spread to the western* 
most parts of the Mediterranean. The Masrflians inherited 
it from the original Phocian settlers, and were zealous propa- 
gandists, as they succeeded in planting it in all their colonies 
and even in Rome itself ^^. Besides Ephesus, the cities of 
Pergamon, Smyrna, Sardis, Adramytteum, Prusa, Cyzicus, and 
Astyra in Antandros stamped their coins with the figure of 
the Ephesian goddess ^ At Ephesus, in the Artemision, the 
goddess was worshipped as irpt^oOpovla, supreme in divine 
power and place; and although she came to acquire 
a Hellenic genealogy and some of the honours of the Hellenic 
goddess*^, the ancients themselves rightly regarded her as 
in origin a non- Hellenic divinity. According to the view 
expressed in Pausanias, she was the aboriginal deity of 
a population consisting of Leleges and Lydians ; and Tacitus 
records the priestly tradition concerning the association of the 

p. 35a') Dictynna personifies the moon; » * May your daughter turn out just 
Rapp, in Roscher^s Lexicon, r^ards such a character ' was the exclamation 
her as a cloud-maiden (s. v, Britomartis). of Cinesias ; Plut. de audiend. poet. c. 4. 
To say that any concrete figure of pri- ^ Brit. Mus. Cat., coins of Astyra ; 
mitive religion is a personification of Zeitsch.fiir Numism, 1880, Taf. i, 14. 
anything is always a very doubtful " Ortygia was localized near Ephesus, 
expression ; my statement is not that and the Ephesians plead for their god- 
either Artemis or Dictynna was a per- dess before Tiberius as though she were . 
Bonification of the earth, but that the sister of Apollo and daughter of 
Artemis certainly, and Dictynna pro- Leto. We hear of musical contests in 
bably, possessed much of the character honour of the Ephesian as of the Delian 
of a deity of vegetation. goddess ***. 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 481 

cult with the Lydian Heracles. Accepting this theory of its 
origin, we should expect to find marks of close kinship with 
* the Great Mother ' of Phrygia and Lydia, the area of whose 
worship has been traced above. And in fact we detect in the 
Ephesian Artemis few or none of the characteristics of a lunar 
divinity, but all those of a goddess of generation and vegeta- 
tion, possessing the powers of the life-giving earth. The best 
evidence of this is the traditional form of the Ephesian idol •, 
the great antiquity of which is proved by its semi-aniconic 
style : the many breasts are the uncouth symbol of fertility, 
the lions the rams, and the bulls wrought in relief upon her 
shoulders and legs denote the goddess who fosters the life of 
the wilds and the fields ; the bee which is wrought just above 
her feet, a frequent symbol on the coins of Ephesus^ and 
possibly of some religious significance in the worship ^^^, 
figures also in the cognate Cretan worship of Zeus with which 
Rhea Cybele is associated. 

Her affinity to Cybele is still more marked by the turret- 
crown that she wears on her head, which is the badge of 
the city-goddess, and by the orgiastic rites practised by the 
eunuch-priests, whose name Meyd/Svfoi seems to point to the 
influence of the Persian worship of Artemis®. We hear of 
hierodulae serving in the precincts of the Artemision as in 
the worship of Mylitta and Ishtar, but we are not told that 
temple-prostitution was a religious rite at Ephesus. In fact 
the Ephesian religion, in spite of its orgiastic elements, appears 
to have been in some respects of an austere character ; rigid 
rules of chastity and purity were imposed on the Essenes ^^*, 
a priestly society that was attached to the temple; and 
if the statement of Artemidorus is correct, no woman was 
allowed under pain of death to enter the temple, and the 
functions of the priestesses of various grades must have 
been confined to its precincts. We cannot estimate exactly 
how far the original worship was modified or purified by 

* Vide coins of Ephesas, Brit, Mus, outlines of arms given, the rest aniconic. 

Cfl/./<w»itf,No8. 71, 7a, 73, 76; alabaster »• Vide A. B. Cook, Hell, Joum. 

statnette in Naples, Roscher, Lexicon^ 1895, p. la. 

p. 5 88. C p. an archaic terracotta in Dres- « The strong Persian inflnence in Ephe- 

den, with many breasts, head, sleeves, stis is attested by Plntarch, Lysander, 3. 

VOL. II. F 



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482 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

Hellenic influences; but in any case it does not seem to 
have been borrowed mainly from the Semitic people, but 
rather to express the religious ideas of the ancient races 
in Asia Minor who were nearer to the Hellenic stock, the 
Phrygians, Lydians, Carians. The legends of the Amazons 
and of their close relation with the Artemis of Ephesus appear 
to point to the north of Asia Minor as the original home of 
this cult. According to Hyginus* the temple itself was 
built by one of the Amazons, and Callimachus records the 
story that the ancient idol was set up by the Amazons in the 
trunk of a tree, and there is frequent reference in Greek myth 
to the protection which the defeated female warriors sought 
and found in the Artemision. Both in cult and in legend she 
was recognized as the divinity of the suppliant, and, according 
to the author of the Etymologicttm Magnum, sheep were never 
sacrificed to her because of the sanctity of the woollen fillet 
which the suppliant bore. The fact may be accepted without 
the explanation. In purely Hellenic worship Artemis is not 
conspicuously the deity of supplication ; and, on the other 
hand, the conception of the huntress-goddess so prominent in 
Greece does not appear in the Ephesian religion. We may 
conclude that the early Greek settlers of the country of 
Ephesus, as those of Crete, found established there the worship 
of an indigenous goddess, to whom they applied the name and 
some of the titles of the Greek Artemis; and that the character 
of the Ephesian and Cretan goddess was identical or of close 
affinity with that of Cybele. With the Ephesian we may 
probably associate the Artemis of Perge, a city-goddess 
whose cult, briefly mentioned above, appears in one important 
respect, namely in the institution of mendicant priests, to have 
been influenced by the Phrygian religion. 

Next perhaps to these in prominence was the cult of 
Artemis A€VKo<f>f3vrivrf at Magnesia on the Maeander^^*, which 
again brings Crete into connexion with Phrygia. The 
ancient city with its temples had been destroyed by the Cim- 
merians, but had been afterwards restored by the Ephesians, 
who rebuilt the temple with such architectural skill and on 

» Fad, 237. 



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xiii.] ARTEMIS. 483 

such a scale that it became famous in the ancient world. 
The local worship of the Phrygian Cybele, which existed 
there till some time after the residence of Themistocles, 
appears to have died out, absorbed perhaps by the cult of 
Artemis Leucophryene, who was probably akin to her. We 
hear little of the details of the Magnesian cult ; but as the 
Ephesians were its second founders, and as the type of 
Artemis Leucophryene on later coins of the city resembles 
that of the Ephesian goddess *, the conception of the divinity 
came probably to be very similar in both worships. It is 
true that we hear of no un-Hellenic features in the worship of 
the goddess of Magnesia, who, like the Greek Artemis, appears 
to have been associated with the lake and the hot spring. 
But it is probable that she was originally a Cretan goddess, 
and that the cult belonged to the Carian-Cretan group ; for 
the Cretans claimed to have had a share in the colonization 
of Magnesia, and the worship is proved by inscriptions 
to have existed in Crete. An image of the goddess was 
carved for Amyclae by Bathycles of Magnesia, and the sons of 
Themistocles are said to have set up her statue in Athens. 

To this class we may also assign the worship of Artemis 
KoXoTjri) ^*^', that was in great repute by the lake Coloe in the 
neighbourhood of Sardis. Strabo tells us a strange story 
about the miraculous dance of the sacred KciAa^ot, the baskets 
that contained the cereal offerings consecrated to her, and 
Pausanias speaks of certain lascivious dances that were 
brought from Sipylos to Elis by the followers of Pelops and 
performed in honour of "Apreixis KJp^af. The calathos-dance 
was probably nothing more mysterious than the dance of the 
maidens representing Artemis with the basket on their heads, 
as we find similar figures dancing round the column of Hekate. 
The Artemis of Sipylos and Coloe was probably a Hellenized 
form of the great mother-goddess of Phrygia and Lydia. 

Lastly, there is archaeological ^ evidence of a goddess of 
similar character worshipped at Lampsacus on the Hellespont. 
A silver patera has been found on that site containing a curious 

• Vide Head, //is/. Num, p. 502 ; Brit, Mm, Cai, lonia^ p. 163. 

* GautU Archioh X877, p, 119. 

F % 



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484 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

representation of a female divinity with stag's horns on her 
forehead, who holds a bow in her left hand and makes 
a gesture with her right that signifies fertility ; on each side 
of the throne on which she sits are dogs, and below negresses 
leading lions — a strange medley of attributes that allude to 
Artemis, Hekate, and Cybele. 

We have finally to notice the purely Oriental divinities 
with whom Artemis became identified or associated. The 
grounds of this association may often be uncertain, and the 
interpretation often shifted : the Cappadocian goddess MS, 
for instance, was regarded as Selene, Athena, or Enyo ; the 
Syrian goddess of Hierapolis, whom the pseudo-Lucian usually 
calls Hera, had also something of the character of Athena, 
Aphrodite, Selene, Rhea, Artemis, Nemesis, and the Fates », 
We may believe that wherever the Greeks found in the East 
a prominent goddess who was regarded as a huntress and 
controller of wild beasts, or as a goddess of vegetation, or as 
an unmarried divinity, they would be inclined to name her 
Artemis ; and in some cases the name might be given because 
of certain details in the ritual ^ What at first sight is surpris- 
ing is that it is attached to divinities of the East whose rites 
were notoriously impure. 

The old Persian goddess Anaitis, a divinity of the water and 
vegetation and originally distinct, as Meyer® maintains, from 
the similar female deity of so many Semitic cults, came in 
a later period into close contact with the Babylonian Nana ; and 
this may have happened before the cult of the Persian goddess 
was established by Artaxerxes II in Babylon, Susa, Ecbatana, 
Damascus, and Sardes. And in Armenia the same impure 
rites were practised in the temple of Anaitis as Herodotus 
records of the Babylonian worship. Strabo vouches for the 
same practice at Zela in Pontus, where the Persian goddess 
became powerful. It was for this reason, perhaps that 
Herodotus and Berosus were led to identify her with 

• De Dea Syr, p. 32 ; Plat. Sull. ch. 9. in the worship of the Greek Artemis ; 

^ For instance, the practice of dedicat- de Dea Syr. p. 60; C.I.G, AtU 3, 

ing the hair of boys and maidens to the no. 131. 
Syrian goddess at Bambyce occurs also ^ Roscher's L$xicont p. 330. 



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XIII.] ARTEMIS. 485 

Aphrodite. But usually she was regarded as the counterpart 
of Artemis in the Greek theocrasy, and the worship of the 
Persian Artemis ^^ was specially in vogue in the cities of Lydia, 
particularly at Hierocaesarea, where her temple claimed 
a peculiar sanctity. We have also archaeological proof of the 
long-continued prevalence throughout the Roman empire of 
the worship of the Hellenized goddess of Persia ; for instance, 
several votive reliefs have been found in Holland, and are 
now in the Museum of Leyden, bearing Greek inscriptions 
to Artemis Anaeitis and often associating her with the 
Phrygian moon-god Men. She is usually represented with 
peplos, chiton, and pointed shoes, and holding up her right 
hand. In Lydia her image appears to have borne the typical 
form of the Tauric goddess ^^ <*. How far the character of the 
Persian and the Hellenic divinity really coincided is difficult 
to determine precisely ; that both were divinities of vegetation 
powerful over the animal world, and that the torch was used in 
the ritual of both, may have been suflficient reasons for their rap- 
prochement. And their association may have also led to the 
occasional identification of Artemis with the Babylonian Nana. 
For the Semitic goddess the most common name was 
Astarte, or some form of this, and in the theocrasy of the 
Hellenistic period Artemis sometimes appears as her Greek 
equivalent, though much less frequently than Aphrodite. 
A very curious legendary indication of the early existence 
of an Artemis- Astarte Worship in Greece proper is offered by 
the story in Pausanias about the temple of Artemis ' PurrpaTiia^^^ 
at Pyrrhichos in Laconia. The natives appear to have be- 
lieved that it was founded to commemorate the incursion of the 
Amazons and their * ceasing from the campaign' at this place: 
near it was the temple of Apollo 'A/xaCoi/ios, and the images 
in both temples were dedicated by the Amazons. We have 
here the usual popular explanation of a perverted and mis- 
understood title. 'AorpaTcfa is a comparatively late word of the 
Athenian law-courts, denoting the offence of evading military 
service, and is quite meaningless when applied to the goddess. 
The cult is evidently from Asia Minor, and I would suggest that 
Artemis 'Aorparcta is a corruption for 'AaTiprrj. Her connexion 



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486 GREEK RELIGION. 

with Astarte probably arose from the same grounds as 
her association with the Persian goddess ; and it cannot be 
taken as evidence of the early lunar character of Artemis. 
For as E. Meyer maintains % this Babylonian-Semitic goddess 
is originally not a divinity of the moon, this planet being 
regarded as male both by the Babylonians and Semites ; and 
although the Babylonian deity sometimes appears represented 
with the crescent moon upon her forehead, this is probably 
due to her late association with Isis, and to the misunder- 
standing of the symbol of the sun which Isis bore on her 
forehead. Even in the late account given by the pseudo- 
Lucian of the worship of the great goddess of the Syrian 
Hierapolis, properly Atargatis, but associated by the narrator 
with Aphrodite, Rhea, Artemis, and other Greek goddesses, 
it is specially said that there were no statues here to the 
sun or the moon. It is true that in the later period of 
Greek religious thought Artemis was regarded as a lunar 
divinity, and in the latest Graeco-Asiatic religious system she 
came to be closely associated with the Phrygian moon-god 
Men^ But this lunar character of the Greek and Semitic 
goddess was certainly not recognized in the seventh century 
B.C. ; and before this period the Oriental goddess had probably 
been adopted as Artemis in more than one Hellenic locality. 
To those who regard Artemis simply as the pure virgin of 
Greek religion, innocent of all orgiastic extravagance, it may 
seem strange that her maidenly character could not save her 
from this later association with the Oriental goddess of genera- 
tion, with a Semitic divinity whose worship was solemnized 
by temple-harlots. But it has been shown that that ideal 
aspect of Artemis was the fair outgrowth of the popular imagi- 
nation in literature, l^end, and art, and was not her aspect 
in the primitive rite and conservative cult of Greece. The wor- 
ships of Arcadia and Brauron contained many ideas not alien 
to those expressed in the rites and symbols of the earth-goddess 
of Phrygia and Lydia and the Semitic divinity of Hierapolis. 

* Roscher's Lexicon^ s, v. Astarte and closely assimilated to Helios and Men ; 

Atargatis. vide inscription published by Ramsay, 

^ "'. Similarly, in Phrygian cult Hellenic Journal, lo. 217. 
Apollo Lairbenos was identified with or 



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CHAPTER XIV. 

ARTEMIS— UPIS — NEMESIS ^35-137. 

The idea of the righteous control of human life, which did 
not conspicuously appear in the cults that have just been 
examined, essentially belonged to the worship of Nemesis. 
This figure lost much of its personal force in proportion as it 
developed in moral significance. In the beginning the name 
denoted more than a mere moral abstraction ; for there is 
reason to suppose that both Nemesis and Upis were connected 
titles or surnames of Artemis or Artemis Aphrodite. In 
regard to the latter, of which the Doric form is 'llTriy, the 
Ionic OvTTi?, there is no doubt ; its usual explicit reference is 
to Artemis *, who was worshipped by this title in Lacedaemon 
and probably Troezen. We have, indeed, only the testimony 
of late and learned writers such as Callimachus and the 
lexicographers ; but this was drawn either from earlier 
literature or from knowledge of actual legend and cult. 
And we have indirect evidence that is even more trust- 
worthy: we hear in Athenaeus of the oinrtyyoi, the sacred 
formulae or hymns by which Artemis was addressed at 
Troezen, the name implying the invocation and the worship 
of Artemis Upis ; and mention has already been made of the 
Delian maiden Upis who with Arge first brought the Hyper- 
borean offerings to the island, and arrived there in company 
with the divinities themselves, as Herodotus emphatically 
says. The sacred rites performed to her, the ceremonious 

* Bergk*8 proposed emendation of the (Poet. Zyr, Grace, 3. p. 499) has no 

line in the epigram attributed to Simo- probability, and we know nothing of 

nidcs- (ubri, o«» 'k^rvi) ^ Athena Upia. 

Tlarpiia mMvvw Upifr vdXiy *Ciirias *A$ffyds 



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488 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

offering made to her of the maidens' hair wound about a 
spindle, make it certain that Upis was an ancient and half- 
forgotten name of Artemis. It was resuscitated by later 
poetry and attached vaguely to the Ephesian Artemis, to the 
Rhamnusian goddess, and, in a doubtful fragment quoted by 
Hesychius, to Artemis Hekate •. 

It is important to find the right interpretation of this 
title. It is impossible perhaps to decide about its original 
meaning and to say whether this was moral or physical ; 
but it is clear that the Greeks themselves interpreted it as 
the * watcher/ connecting it probably with i-nlC^aOai, But 
of what was the goddess regarded as the * watcher ' ? Of 
women in travail, according to the authority from whom 
the explanation in the Etymologicum Magnum is drawn ; 
and this limitation of the reference of the word, though 
probably groundless, is of some interest as showing that it did 
not at once seem to accord with the traditional and accepted 
character of Artemis that she should be addressed as the 
* watcher' or overseer of right and wrong, of human life and 
conduct in general. Yet the title OSttw must have come to 
acquire this broader sense in the later period, for it occurs as 
a synonym of Nemesis, the Rhamnusian goddess, who * gazes 
at the deeds of men ^^^' This application of the title, as we 
know the moral connotation of Nemesis, not only serves to 
decide what was the received significance of OSttis, but also 
illustrates the connexion surviving in a late period of Nemesis 
and Artemis. 

It is the origin and the ground of this latter association that 
we have now to consider. 

The goddess N^fAco-is may be studied from two different 
points of view : as a mere personification of the moral idea of 
retribution, or on the other hand as a concrete figure of ancient 
Attic religion, identical with a primitive goddess of Rhamnus, 
to whom this exceptional title was attached, and who was pro- 
bably a form of Artemis Aphrodite. In the first character she 

* We may Uius explain the epithet been attached to Hekate ; and we may 
'nvftn^/>ot, which, according to Hesy- compare the epithet 'Omrotr in the 
chins (j. V. 'Ci9»Tfjp€), appears to have worship of Artemis at Zacynthus *•*. 



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XIV.] ARTEMIS— UPIS— NEMESIS. 489 

will be noticed in a later chapter ; it is the other aspect of her 
that concerns us here*. And we have to consider, first, what 
evidence there is of the existence of this concrete goddess in 
Attic or Greek religion of an early period ; secondly, whether and 
on what ground the surname N^/ut€(rts was ever applied to Artemis 
or Aphrodite. In Homer, Nemesis is not a personal figfure ; in 
Hesiod she is, but probably only as a mere personification, 
such as AW<49^ But in the fragment of the Cypria^^'^ her 
figure has life and vivid personality. She flies over land and 
sea, like Dictynna of Crete, to escape her lover, and assumes 
different shapes of animals ; Zeus overtakes her in Rhamnus 
and in the form of a swan becomes the father of Helen. The 
locality and this latter transformation is not indeed mentioned 
in the lines of the Cypria ; but we have fair reason for supposing, 
as the account given by Cratinus agrees in most details 
with the story of the Cypria^ that it agreed also in the close of 
the legend, which has not been preserved in the epic fragment. 
This, then, is the myth which Dr. Furtwangler supposes "^ to 
have been afterwards In its main features transferred to Leda 
by Euripides, while Herr Posnanzky^ maintains that the legend 
which makes Leda the mother of Helen is the oldest, and 
that the author of the Cypria for a moral epic purpose chose 
to make her the daughter of a personified abstraction, the 
daughter of Retribution. The question whether the myth that 
makes Leda or that which makes Nemesis the parent is the 
older, is not of importance here. But it is certainly an error 
to say that the Nemesis in the Cypria or in the comedy of 
Cratinus is as abstract a notion, or is as weakly personified, as 

^ The most modem litenttire on the have originally been, became identified 

subject gives either an incomplete or an with a goddess of Attica, 

unsatisfactory account : NdfiUsie et la ^ She is clearly so in the Works and 

jalousie des Dieux, by Toumier, deals Days, 739, 754, and she is very pro- 

chiefly with the personification and the bably so in the passage of the Theogony 

abstract idea ; Nemesis und Adrasteia^ in which she is made the daughter of 

by Hermann Posnanzky (Breslau, 1890), Night ^^ ; for Hesiod is fond of giving 

Is more useful for the archaeology and this sort of cosmic origin to the abstrac- 

the account of Adrasteia than for its tions which he wishes to make divinities, 

statements and conclusions about Neme- " Collection Sabouroff^ note comple- 

sis. He nowhere raises the question mentaire k la planche 71*. 

why it was that a mere personification, ' Op. dt. 
which he seems to consider Nemesis to 



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490 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

the Nemesis in Hesiod. For the sake of moral allegory a 
poet might call Helen the daughter of Retribution, just as 
Aeschylus called her * bride of battle '; but he would scarcely 
be likely to depict at great length the coyness of Retribution, 
and to draw her through a series of transformation-scenes which 
have the stamp of vivid primitive fancy upon them. It might 
seem quite natural to a primitive Greek that his goddess should 
assume the form of a goose, but he could hardly conceive of 
an abstract moral idea in this form. The whole story which 
Cratinus and the author of the Cypria give and the mention of 
the locality of Rhamnus would be altogether ridiculous, unless 
the poets had known of a real goddess worshipped at that spot 
in Attica, one of whose names was Nemesis, and who was 
supposed capable of bona-fide maternity*. We can conclude 
also from the form of the legend that, like Artemis and 
Dictynna, this divinity was naturally regarded as chaste. 

This, then, is one proof drawn from ancient authority of 
the existence of a real and concrete goddess known by this 
moral title. Of no personified moral abstraction in the Greek 
language is so personal a story told, and none of them had any 
deep roots in local worship. 

A second proof might be derived from the funeral cere- 
mony or feast of the N^fxia-ia at Athens ^^'^. It might be sup- 
posed that as the omission of any of the necessary funereal 
rites might draw retribution or nemesis upon the kinsmen, the 
name of this ritual might have simply arisen from this feeling ; 
yet it would be much more naturally given to a celebration 
which was consecrated to a goddess who, like Aphrodite, was 
a goddess of birth and death, and who was considered to have 
power in the underworld. Perhaps from this character of the 
Rhamnusian goddess arose the idea of the Ncjuco'ij of the 
dead, and the association of Nemesis with the 0€ol iraXajxratdi 
and x^^^i'io* in the Locrian Timaeus*^; though here the force of 
the personified moral idea is felt also, as these are the powers 
that are said to note and punish wrong-doing. 

^ Otto KeUer, Thiere des Klassisch^n divinity, akin to Aphrodite Astarte. 
Alterthums (p. 288), also regards the ^ Pp. 104 E, 105. 

Nemesis of Rhamnus as a concrete 



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XIV.] ARTEMIS ^UPIS— NEMESIS. 491 

Further evidence of the reality of the cult is gained from 
the account of the famous statue at Rhamnus ^^^ •, which was 
assigned by some to Pheidias, by others, more correctly, to 
Agoracritus *. From the description of Pausanias we do not 
gather that there was any trait of the figure itself which had 
an allegorical meaning ; and whether the moral idea of 
Nemesis was expressed in the face we cannot say, for the 
fragment preserved in the British Museum of the right 
upper part of the visage is too small to bear witness to 
anything more than the excellence and Pheidian character of 
the work. It is clear that the sculptor, though he may have 
remembered Marathon and the * nemesis ' that overtook the 
Persians there, and may have wrought the victories upon her 
crown with allusion to that, yet thought of her, not as Hesiod 
thought of alhds and hUr]^ but as an actual territorial divinity 
akin to Aphrodite and Artemis; and therefore he set the 
spray of the apple-tree, the symbol of the former, in her hand, 
and the stag, the sacred animal of the latter, as an ornament 
on her crown. The cup in her hand may denote the goddess 
who dispenses blessing or who receives libation ; the mysterious 
Aethiopians wrought on the cup have not yet been explained**; 
the representation of the n^resses below the throne of the 
statue of Lampsacus mentioned above is not a parallel, 
for there we may suppose a reference to Isis and Africa, 
which is inconceivable in the Rhamnusian work. It is un- 
necessary to suppose that the main work was inspired by 
the Cypria story; if it had been we should have expected 
in the decoration of the crown and the base some allusion to 
the egg and the swan. Even the scene on the base of the 
statue can be at most a mere allusion to the legend of 
Helen's birth given in the Cypria \ according to the words 

* There is some force in tl&e argument an allusion to the celestial character of 
of Posnanzky, p. 95, that if the statue the goddess; but this significance no- 
were by Agoracritus, the Rhamnusians where else belongs to them in Greek 
would be tempted to attribute it to literature and art. Perhaps the Homeric 
Pheidias ; while the reverse would notion of the *■ blameless ' people was in 
scarcely be natural. the mind of the sculptor of the just 

^ Fiirtwangler (op. dt.) regards the goddess. 
Aethiopians as the emblems of light, 



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492 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

of Pausanias, which need awake no suspicion, the scene 
represented Leda leading back Helen to Nemesis, and no 
doubt implies the tradition which the epic poet had followed, 
that Nemesis, not Leda, was her mother. The statue was 
probably inspired by the local belief of Rhamnus, where, as 
may have often happened when an epithet of a divinity had 
for a long period been detached and had long passed current 
as the proper name, the worshippers were no longer certain 
about the precise character and original name of the divinity. 
If Nemesis of Rhamnus — as is perhaps the most likely view — 
were originally an ancient Artemis akin to the Brauronian, it 
was not at all unnatural that she should be partly confused 
with Aphrodite • : we have seen how in the earliest cults the 
functions of Artemis overlap those of the other goddess who 
is generally regarded as her opposite ; and we have reason to 
think that the Rhamnusian deity was a goddess of birth and 
a goddess of death, being the mother of Helen Aphrodite, and 
the divinity to whom the Nc/x^o-ta were consecrated. Hence 
she would have sympathies both with Aphrodite and Artemis ; 
and hence may have arisen the myth of her birth from the 
ocean **. And this double character can be illustrated by the 
work of Agoracritus. 

But on the whole this Rhamnusian goddess was more 
often regarded as the double of Artemis than of Aphrodite. 
'ApiaroPovKriy an epithet of the former, is connected by Arte- 
midorus^^^* with N^jutecris*^ ; we have seen how Artemis 
Upis becomes localized in the later literature at Rhamnus; 
and it will be noticed later how Adrasteia became r^arded 

* At Patrae there was a temple of means the personificatioii of retribution ; 

Nemesis near to Aphrodite's *" »», and a but the difficulty vanishes if we regard 

statement in Photius connects Nemesis 'Sffitais as an appellative given for 

with Aphrodite and the marriage-ritual ; some special reason to the primitive 

and in a later Attic inscription Neme- goddess of Rhamnus who possessed the 

sis enjoys the Aphrodite-appellative character described in the text. 

Ourania*^*. « He seems to be referring to the 

** Posnanzky*s statement (p. 12)/ doch Hours or the Nymphs who are men- 

wird sichschwerlicheinetiefereausdem tioned in the immediate context; but 

Wesen beider Gottheiten (Aphrodite und *Apnrro0ov\tf is only known as an epithet 

Nemesis) geschopfte Deutung finden/ of Artemis, 
has only some point if by Nemesis he 



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XIV.] ARTEMIS— UPIS— NEMESIS. 493 

as one both with Nemesis and Artemis. How strong was 
this syncrasy of the two divinities is shown by Solinus, who 
speaks in an incorrect fashion of Rhamnus as the place where 
stood the * Pheidian statue of Diana ' ; and one of the special 
characteristics of Artemis, namely, her maidenhood, becomes 
assigned to Nemesis also *^ ^. 

Like the Rhamnusian divinity, the Nemesis of Smyrna 
must be regarded as an actual and personal goddess, not as 
a mere- personification, though in this case, as in the other, the 
latter view predominates in the later period. What is peculiar 
to the Smymiote cult is that there were two divinities of this 
name,and that they were r^arded as the daughters of Night "''^ 
It was they who appeared to Alexander in a dream as he was 
sleeping under a plane-tree before their temple, and advised 
him to remove the city to its later site *. Above their heads, 
or above their throne, in the temple of the new city were 
placed statues of the Charites, archaic works of the sculptor 
Boupalos. As the Charites were their attendants, and as the 
plane-tree appears to have been consecrated to them, we 
may conjecture of them, as of the ancient Rhamnusian god- 
dess, that they were divinities of nature connected with the 
vegetative world. Whatever view was taken of the Nemesis 
of Rhamnus came to be taken of the Smyrniote figures also, 
but there is no special mention of their association with 
Artemis ; they seem closer akin to Aphrodite, being like 
her divinities of the state and attended by the Charites, 
and the pig appears to have been a sacred animal in their 
worship as occasionally it was in hers. As earth-goddesses 
they may also have had some connexion in cult with Dionysos. 
On late coins of Smyrna they are represented wearing the 
mural crown and drawn by griffins ^ the animals of Oriental 
cult that became associated at times with Aphrodite and 
Artemis, and frequently in the later period with Nemesis. 

The question arises, why at Smyrna only there were two 
Nemeseis and not one. Posnanzky ^ may be right in objecting 
to Gerhard's explanation, who regards the one as expressing 

• Pans. 7. 5, 2. * Head, JJisL Num. p. 510, 

« Op. cit. pp. 61, 63. 



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494 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

the good side of the goddess, the other the evil; but he 
himself has no solution to offer, and is content with Welcker's 
suggestion • that Nemesis became double at Smyrna because 
* Damonen ' tend to become multiplied. 

Perhaps a more natural reason for the duality was the 
change of the city's site, as Pausanias' words imply that the 
Smyrniotes made two Ncmeseis because they had removed 
from their ancient abode. We may suppose that the older 
Smyrna had its 'Sifxia-i^y the goddess who was the luck of the 
city, and that she was retained and a new one created for the 
new settlement. 

It is perhaps through her early relations with Nemesis that 
Artemis came to have some affinity with the Moirae ; this is 
true at least of Artemis 'OpOloy who in a Greek inscription of 
the Roman period is mentioned as receiving worship side by 
side with Moira the Lacheseis and Asclepios *^ ® : but it may 
only have been the stress of some casual occurrence that 
brought her into this company of divinities. For on the 
whole the association with Nemesis, who, as will be shown in 
a later chapter, becomes more and more a mere personifica- 
tion, has scarcely affected the character of Artemis. 

A question remains which is of special interest, and which 
has scarcely been noticed by those who have dealt with this 
subject : on what grounds and with what meaning was the 
appellative which has been discussed attached to the Rhamnu- 
sian goddess? The question is beset with the difficulties 
which often embarrass the student of ancient religions. No 
doubt many of the divine epithets which were in vogue in 
local cults may be derived from some fundamental concep- 
tion of the divinity; and others were applied as the worshippers 
advanced in their modes of life and thought, and regarded 
their deity as their guide and helper. But others may have 
been gathered and absorbed by the local god or goddess from 
some alien worship that could not hold its own ; there might 
be no logical reason but mere contiguity, or some accidental 
special circumstance that gave rise to a peculiar myth and 
hence to a peculiar epithet. The difficulty of offering a probable 

• Gotterlehre, 3. p. 54, 



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XIV.] ARTEMIS— UPIS— NEMESIS. 495 

explanation becomes of course all the greater when we are 
not sure of the meaning of the name ; and we are not quite 
sure of the meaning borne by the term Ne/ut^o-ty when it was 
first applied to the Rhamnusian goddess. 

If we knew that it was not applied to her before the 
Homeric period, then we should say that she was regarded 
by the men of Rhamnus as the goddess who feels righteous 
indignation at evil acts and evil words, and hence, by a natural 
transition, as the goddess who punishes men for these *. 

It would then remain to ask, why did the Rhamnusian 
divinity, whom we have seen reason for supposing to have been 
an ancient Artemis-Aphrodite, come to acquire this high 
moral function? It may have come about owing to the 
impression produced by some historical event of which we 
know nothing. We cannot, at all events, say that it was 
derived from the recognized character of Artemis or Aphro- 
dite as the punisher of evil-doers. For such a character 
was not specially acknowledged as theirs in general Greek 
religion; in the mythic account of Artemis her punishments 
appear often capricious or non-moral, and are very limited in 
their visitation. It may be that we here have an instance of 
a moral idea that gained strong hold over a particular society, 
and craved religious expression, and so became attached 
mechanically, as it were, to the chief divinity of that com- 
munity. Though we may not explain it, we may find 
a parallel to this development of an Artemis-Aphrodite, 
a divinity akin to the earth-goddess, into a moral and retribu- 
tive power, the guardian of right ; for we find that Ge herself 
developed into a Ge Themis^ and thence into Themis alone **. 

• This is on the whole the Homeric dxovfiimjv iKOtiv heti tear^ rdy Acviwx- 

meaniDg, and it is this meaning that \iwos tcarauckwrfiSy. Here is an alln- 

Hesiod personifies ; vide the passages don to a B4fus ravpov6\oi, a type which 

collected in Posnanzky, pp. 1-4. recalls the "Afirtfus ravpoir6\os. An 

^ This suggested equation, between Attic inscription proves the association 

Ge = Ge Themis « Themis and Arte- of Themis with Nemesis at Rhamnus ; 

mis « Artemis Nemesis >■ Nemesis, is and this is proved also by the statue 

curiously illustrated by a legend pre- dedicated to Themis found in Rhanmus 

served in Suidas, s,v. fiovx^ra' v6\ii and now in Athens; Eph. Arch, 1891, 

kvrX T^j *UwtlpoVf Ijy <^i *i\6xopos Uiy. I, pp. 54-63. 
if¥Oftdc$at M t6 ti)v B4fuy M fiobt 



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496 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

But it is quite possible that the goddess of Rhamnus 
was called Nemesis before the time of Homer ; for, as has 
been maintained already, the peculiar form of the story 
in the Cypria about the birth of Helen implies a pre- 
existing belief in a real goddess Nemesis, who probably 
became real and concrete through the word being attached 
as an epithet to the Rhamnusian divinity. We are thus 
carried back to an indefinitely remote period in order to 
allow time for the name that was thus attached to have 
become detached, and to have acquired vogue beyond its 
own locality as the actual name of a goddess. And per- 
haps in this early period the word Wju^o-is, if, as is generally 
agreed, it is to be derived from the root meaning * distribution,' 
was not limited to the evil sense, but denoted distribution of 
any lot, the lot of life to which each is born. 

It may have originally designated the Rhamnusian Artemis- 
Aphrodite naturally and properly as a goddess of birth ; as 
time went on and if(fi€<ns had its meaning changed and nar- 
rowed in the ordinary language, the cult-title too would 
get this new moral significance, and Artemis or Aphrodite 
Nemesis would come to mean the goddess who distributes 
evil for evil done. At last, when the proper name was 
dropped and the appellative took its place, doubt might 
arise whether this really designated either the one or the 
other of these two divinities, whose ordinary worship and 
legend did not well accord with the idea conveyed by the 
epithet. 

As regards the representations of Nemesis, by far the 
greater number deal only with Nemesis the personification. 
The monuments of actual cult are few and doubtful. Of the 
Rhamnusian statue nothing has survived save the beautiful 
fragment in the Elgin room of the British Museum, and the 
base, with some part of the relief-work, now in the Central 
Museum of Athens. It has been supposed by Dr. Furt- 
wangler* and M. Six** that a copy of the statue of Agora- 
critus survives in the representation on a Cypriote coin 

• Op. cit. 

* Numism, Chron, 1882, p. 89, PI. 5. 



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XIV.] ARTEMIS— UPIS— NEMESIS. 497 

of the fifth century B.C.*; a tall and stately female figure, 
resembling in her drapery the type of the Athena Parthenos 
of Pheidias, holding in her right hand a phiale over a thy- 
materion, and a branch in her left. The theory is attractive 
but by no means convincing ; there is no trace of the crown, 
and the phiale and bough appear so frequently in repre- 
sentations of a religious act that they are not by themselves 
sufficient to prove that this figure is a direct copy of the 
Rhamnusian. Dr. Furtwangler tries to clinch the argument 
by pointing to the brooch which secures her chiton on her 
right shoulder, and in which he, like M. Six, recognizes the 
shape of a griffin. Their interpretation of this detail appear^ 
to be correct. But the griffin-shape really proves nothing, 
for we do not hear that this animal was associated at all with 
the Nemesis of Rhamnus, and we cannot argue that it was 
simply on the evidence of monuments of the later period. 
As an Oriental symbol the griffin could designate Aphrodite, 
and it is found also with Artemis because of her connexion 
with Apollo ^ The goddess on the Aeginetan relief, drawn in 
a car by griffins and accompanied by Eros, must surely be no 
other than Aphrodite, as Dr. Furtwangler, who first named 
her Artemis Nemesis, has since recognized in his article on 
Eros in Roscher's Lexicon *'. The griffin probably came into 
vogue in the representations of Nemesis through the cult of 
Smyrna, and it was perhaps associated with the Smymiote 
divinity through her close relationship with Aphrodite. 

We may conclude from the evidence of the coins of Smyrna 
that the mere abstract idea of right and retribution entered 
far more into the representation of the Nemeseis of Smyrna 
than into that of the Rhamnusian deity. They appear not 
so much as divinities of real flesh and blood, but as forms of 
moral allegory, bearing in their hands the staff and bridle, 
the symbols of order and control^. But we cannot say that 
these coin-representations express the ideas of the genuine 
ancient cult. 

• Gardner, Types of Greek Coins, 10. * Vide Arlemis-Monuments^ p. 533. 

27, with description, p. 170; Head, « P. 135a. 

Hist, Num. p. 625, who names the ^ Head, Hist, Num, p. 510. 
figure Aphrodite. 

VOL. II. G 



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498 GREEK RELIGION. 

In the large series of monuments of the legend and cult of 
Nemesis examined by Dr. Furtwangler in the article already 
quoted, few could be supposed to have any direct connexion 
with local worship, and of these few none are with certainty 
to be interpreted as representations of Nemesis. The ques- 
tion might be raised about the terracotta in the Museum of 
Syracuse published by Kekul^*, showing an enthroned goddess 
who wears a turret-shaped crown, a diploidion, and large 
himation, a fold of which she raises above her head as a veil 
with her right hand, while her left hand rests on a swan that 
sits on the left arm of the throne. The solemnity of the 
representation suggests a monument of cult ; but, as far as we 
know, Rhamnus and Smyrna were the only sites of the actual 
cult of Nemesis, and their cult-monuments do not seem to 
have employed the swan as a symbol of the divinity. The 
bird is still more appropriate to Aphrodite, and it is her name 
that this enthroned figure suggests, with its rich flowing hair, 
matronly form, and earnest expression. 

• Terracotten von Sicilien, 2. 3. 



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CHAPTER XV. 

ADRASTEIA. 

AdrasTEIA, understood in the later period as the goddess 
of inevitable fate, came to* be a sort of twin-sister of Nemesis, 
and so was occasionally connected with Artemis ^^ ^ 

At Andros and Cos there was a joint worship of Adrasteia 
and Nemesis ^*^% and we find the two connected by Anti- 
machus, the learned epic poet of the latter part of the fifth 
century, quoted by Strabo ; in the drama of the fifth century, 
in the younger Attic comedy, in passages of the Anthology 
and of Lucian, the functions of the one goddess cannot easily 
be distinguished from those of the other * ; and in the later 
literature the identity is completely established. We need 
not look further than this for an explanation of the statement 
in Harpocration that Demetrius of Scepsis identified Adrasteia 
with Artemis, and for the presence of the statue of the 
former in the temple of Artemis Leto and Apollo at Cirrha, 
the divinities who brought down the due 'nemesis' on the 
Cirrhaeans. 

But the origin of 'ASpdoreia, which can be clearly traced, 
is independent of Nemesis. There is no doubt that it was 
a cult-name and probably a local title of Cybele detached 
at an early period ^^® *. It was near Priapus, Cyzicus, and in 
the Troad, localities where Cybele was especially worshipped, 
that the cult of Adrasteia was established ; in a fragment of 
the Phoronis she is scarcely distinguished from Cybele, being 

* This is not the view of Posnanzky, quotes do not seem to bear out this dis- 

op. cit. pp. 75-77, who thinks that *A2^- Unction. The question will be further 

OTcia is appealed to in order to avert discussed in a later chapter on per- 

the evil consequences of speech, Nemesis sonification of abstract ideas, 
to punish *^i9^s ; but the passages he 



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500 GREEK RELIGION, 

described as the mountain-goddess whose attendants were the 
Idaean Dactyli. Later on, men came to know her not so much 
as the great mother herself, but as a mountain-nymph, and 
in Crete as the nymph who nursed Zeus; while in Orphic 
literature her close relation with Cybele was recognized. As 
early as the Peloponnesian war the worship of Adrasteia 
had become established on the Acropolis of Athens, probably 
in some association with Cybele and Bendis, who had gained 
public recognition in Athens in the fifth century ^^® ^. 

How then did Cybele acquire this character of a stern 
goddess of inevitable fate and justice ? There is certainly but 
little essential connexion of nature between the Phrygian 
goddess of wild orgies and impure rites and the lofty and 
austere impersonation of righteous judgement, such as was the 
'\hpa<n€ia of Plato and the Stoics. The explanation is 
probably due merely to a misunderstanding of the name. 

Cybele 'khpi(mi.a meant the goddess of the city or locality 
in Phrygia that took its name from the Phrygian hero 
Adrastus *. Then when the title was detached, it came to be 
interpreted as *the goddess from whom one cannot run away'; 
and this meaning may have been assisted by the confusion 
between the Phrygian Adrastus and the Argive hero, whose 
legend was a picture of inevitable fate. When afterwards 
this new sense of 'Adpanrcia came into vogue, she naturally 
became connected with Nemesis, and so accidentally with 
Artemis. But the general character of the latter goddess 
in Greece was, as we have seen, scarcely touched by this 
association with these powers of retribution and righteous 
judgement. It is more important to consider her relations 
with Hekate, in order to understand the part played by 
Artemis in later Greek religion. 

• This on the whole is the view taken by Posnanzky, pp. 83, 84. 



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CHAPTER XVI. 



HEKATE. 



A GREAT obscurity hangs about the name, the origin, and 
the character of this goddess. The name at least seems to be 
Greek, and to be an epithet that may signify the * far-off one/ 
or the * far-darting one/ if we consider it as a shortened form 
of licoTTjj3oAo9 ; but no explanation that has been offered is 
very certain or significant •. 

As to her origin, she is usually accepted as a Hellenic 
divinity, and the question has scarcely been discussed by 
modern writers. If this view is correct \ she was one whose 
worship must have been obscured in the earliest period among 
the leading Greek tribes, and have revived later. For there 
is no mention of her in the Iliad and Odyssey, nor in any 
fragment of the * Homeric ' epic ; although, had the epic poets 
of the eighth or seventh century known of her as she was 
known to the later Greek, she would probably have been 
noticed in such a passage, for instance, as Odysseus' descent to 
Hades. Again, neither early nor late did any real mythology 



• The derivation from Uarfjfidkos, an 
epithet of the archer-god Apollo, is not 
satisfactor}' — for Hekate was never 
imagined to carry bow or spear ; there 
is only one statue of a very late period 
showing a quiver on her shoulders. 
Another theory is that, as ticaros was an 
adjective sometimes attached to Apollo, 
so hcdnj might have been the feminine 
form of it and applied to Artemis, and 
subsequently, becoming personal, might 
have been detached from her and re- 
garded as the name of a separate goddess ; 



but U&rri is never found applied to 
Artemis as a common adjective. 

*» This is the view tacitly taken by 
Steuding in Roscher's Lexicon {s, v. 
Hekate), by Petersen in his articles in 
the Archcieologisch-epigrO'pfi^^^ Mit- 
theilungtn aus IVun, 4 and 5, by 
Schoemann in his Opuscuia Academua 
-de Hekale Ilisiodea, a. pp. 215-249, 
and by Koppen, DU dreigestaltete Ht- 
kcUe, Preller and Welcker appear to 
believe in the foreign origin of the 
cult. 



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502 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

grow up about her: we find nothing but a few stories of 
little value or credit, invented sometimes to explain some of 
her obscure titles, such as "AyyeXos ; and only once does she 
play some part in a dramatic myth, namely, in the Giganto- 
machy as described by Apollodorus, as the legends of the 
later period bring all the deities into the action and Hekate 
is named among them, though she is not found in the early 
accounts of the battle. In fact, the importance and reality 
that she came to have in Greek religion may for the most 
part have come to her through her association with Demeter 
and Artemis. 

Not only has she little legend^ but there is no fixed and 
accepted genealogy for her : she was regarded by Hesiod and 
others as the daughter of the Titan Perses and Asterie ^, by 
Musaeus as the daughter of Asterie and Zeus^, by Bacchylides 
as sprung from Night^ by Euripides as the daughter of Leto^; 
and in a Thessalian legend she was said to be the daughter of 
Admetus and a Pheraean woman .; also she was believed to be 
close of kin to Aeetes and Circe of Colchis. In the Hesiodic 
fragment she is emphatically called fiowoyci^y, having neither 
brother nor sister • ; and no clan or tribe claimed descent from 
her. Neither her temple nor her images were associated with 
a prehistoric period or legend, and the magic practices per- 
formed in the name of Hekate, and the sorcery that made her 
a form of terror, seem to us more savage or mediaeval than 
Hellenic. There was, indeed, a certain part of true Greek 
ritual that was tainted with magic, but no such atmosphere 
of evil and debased superstition gathered around any figure 
of the Hellenic religion as around Hekate. 

These various facts suggest that this personage was not 
Greek at all, but borrowed from a neighbouring people ; and 
it may be that her cult invaded Greece, starting from the 
same land and following the same track as that of Dionysos. 

* Mot;yo7cin7$,mthetwoplace8whereit mean Uiough no one knows who was her 

occurs in that passage, would make better father. Thissense of the word is found in 

sense if understood as sprang from one the later Orphic Hteratnre, being applied 

parent only — iiowcrftir^i kie fAtjrp^s Maa to Athene, as sprang from Zens alone, in 

{TAm^. 4^B); Zeus honours her especi- Hymn 33. i ; but in early Greek the 

ally, though /iovi'07ci^s, which might word could hardly bear this meaning. 



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XVI.] HEKATE. 503 

At first sight such a theory may seem to be contradicted 
by the evidence that we have of the very wide prevalence of 
the worship of Hekate throughout the Greek world ; we find 
it in the central northern and southern islands of the Aegean, 
on the coast and in the interior of Asia Minor, in Italy and 
Sicily ; but this of course proves nothing, as the same is true 
of the late worships of Mithras and Isis, which, like the 
worship of Hekate, spread far beyond the limits of the ancient 
classical world*. What is more important is that she was 
less frequently found in the more secluded parts of Greece, 
scarcely, for instance, at all in Arcadia, where we have only 
a doubtful allusion to her worship in a passage quoted by 
Porphyry from Theopompus ^* *^, and that she had nothing to 
do with the primitive cults of those divinities with whom she 
afterwards became associated. Thus she does not appear in 
the Arcadian worship of Despoina^ and Demeter Erinys ; nor 
had she place in Eleusinian legend, nor in the ancient 
Brauronian cult of Artemis. 

The earliest literary record, and the Thessalian and 
Aeginetan worships, give some support to the theory sug- 
gested above, that we must trace back this goddess to some 
land beyond the boundaries of Greece, lying probably to the 
north ®. The earliest references to her in literature are — (a) The 
quotation in Pausanias from the KariXoyos yvpoiK^v attributed 
to Hesiod, showing that the poet connected Hekate with 
Artemis and Iphigenia*: we may regard this as an early 
Boeotian version which tries to adapt a Greek myth to a new 
cult, and to discover the new goddess, who came from the 
North and who, perhaps through Medea, had some connexions 
with the Euxine, in the local Artemis Iphigenia of Aulis and 
Tauris. (6) The well-known passage in Hesiod's Theogony^ 
which can scarcely be the composition of the author of the 
KariAoyoy yvj/aiicwj/, and is probably an earlier account, the 
earliest in Greek literature, of Hekate^; for it connects 

* Vide Geographical Register of baseless. 

Hekate-Calts, p. 606. « This view has been already taken 

^ The supposition of Koppen {Die by Voss in his Mythologische BrUfe^ 3. 

dreigestaltete Hekate, Vienna, 1823, p. 6) 190, 194, a i a. 
that Despoina was Hekate is perfectly 



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504 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

her with no figure of Greek religion at all, except Zeus ; she 
has no ties at present with Artemis or any other divinity. 
These lines may be r^arded as an interpolation in the 
poem, which makes no other mention of Hekate, and which 
devotes to no other divinity such an emphatic record of 
function and rank. But they are a valuable frj^ment of 
Boeotian poetry • : the lines show something of the zeal of 
the propagandist who wishes to obtain recognition for a new 
cult, and are of the first importance as evidence of the original 
character that Hekate possessed. The poet regards her as 
Titan-born and belonging to the older world, which may be 
a way of saying that she had no recognized place at that time 
in the Hellenic Pantheon : Zeus maintains her in her rights 
and gives her a share in Olympus and the 'earth and the 
unvintaged sea ' ; she gives men aid in war, and sits by kings 
in their judgement-seat ; she brings honour to the horse- 
men and to the athlete in the contest ; she gives the hunter 
or the fisher his prey, and works with Hermes to increase the 
herds of bullocks, goats, and sheep in the stall : lastly, she is 
KovpoTp6(t>os, the foster-mother of children. 

Many of these ideas reappear in later cults, but the poet 
claims more than the Greek communities that received the 
worship of Hekate were ever willing to accord to her, and he 
probably omits certain darker traits of her original character, 
such as her association with the lower world, with magic, 
and with the cross-ways. We may notice that he nowhere 
hints at any connexion between her and the moon. 

The poem then seems to suggest that the cult was a new 
importation into Boeotia; and we should then naturally think 
of it as coming from the North. Of this there is certain other 
evidence. It has been noticed above ^ that there is a close con- 
nexion between the Thessalian Artemis Pheraea and Hekate, 
and the most striking illustration of this is the Thessalian 

* The Boeotian style is seen in the its tone is not unlike that of the later 

use of the picturesque epithet for the Orphic hymn, and its main idea, namely 

personal noun. Schoemann, in his trea- that Hekate is of omnipresent power, is 

tise de Hekate Hesiodea^ may be right in that which is tediously applied to all 

rejecting the theory that the fragment the divinities of later Orphism. 
has an Oiphic or mystic origin, although ^ P. 474. 



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XVI.] HEKATE. 505 

story that Hekate was the daughter of Pheraea, and as 
a newly-born infant was thrown out into the cross-roads, but 
rescued and brought up by shepherds*. The Artemis of 
lolchos, with whom the legend couples the name of Medea, is 
a goddess of magical incantations and of the arts of poisoning. 
In the narrative of Diodorus Siculus *, Medea tells Pelias that 
her tutelary goddess has come to him from Colchis ' riding 
upon serpents'; and she names her Artemis, though this 
mode of travelling is suitable only for Hekate^ of whom 
Medea is the priestess and perhaps the * double ' **. And the 
evil reputation for witchcraft which attached to the whole 
land of Thessaly can be best explained by supposing that the 
worship of Hekate, bringing its original taint with it, struck 
deep roots upon this soil, it is true that the superstitious 
terrors that were connected with the name of this divinity 
and with the practices of her votaries seem to have been felt 
more in the later ages ; but supposing they were not there in 
the beginning, we cannot easily explain how they grew up ; 
for they could not have naturally come from the association 
of this worship with that of Artemis or Persephone. 

A locality which was particularly noted for the honour paid 
to Hekate was Aegina '^ : her mysteries were in vogue in that 
island at least as early as the fifth century, and are often 
mentioned by later writers, the institution of them being 
attributed to the Thracian Orpheus. This name, and the 
prehistoric connexion between the heroic family of the 
land, the Aeacidae, and Phthia, seem to suggest once more 
that the worship travelled down from the North. Again, we 
find it in the islands of the Thracian Sea, and in Samothrace 
amalgamated with the mystic rites of the Cabiri^. And 
if Thrace had been its original home we should expect 
it to have crossed the Hellespont as naturally as it travelled 
southwards into Greece ; and in fact we find it in the Troad, 
in Paphlagonia, Galatia, Lydia, Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia. Or 
we may of course say that it passed over to the east side of 

» 4. 51. for a strategic purpose, was keeping up 

*» The Thessalian Up*ui t^i 'EroS^as, the tradition of Medea ; Polyaen. Sirat, 
irho poisoned the flesh of a mad bull 8. 4a. 



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5o6 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

the Aegean directly from Greece, at some time when the 
affinity between Artemis and Hekate had become so recog- 
nized that any centre of the cult of Artemis was likely to 
attract the worship of the kindred goddess. We may thus 
explain its existence at Ephesus*, to account for which 
a curious story was invented telling how Artemis was in- 
hospitably received there by the wife of Ephesus, and how 
by way of punishment the goddess changed her into a dog, 
but repenting at last restored her to her human form : the 
woman then went and hanged herself for shame, but was 
raised to life again and appeared in the costume of Artemis 
and received the name of Hekate. We see why the dog 
comes into the story, and we should understand the matter of 
the hanging if Hekate were worshipped under the title of 
iirayxoixiirri, as Artemis was. All that we know is that there 
was a statue, possibly more than one, of Hekate behind or 
near the temple of the great Ephesian goddess. 

In certain parts of Caria the worship appears to have struck 
deep root. The original name of the city of Idrias was 
Hekatesia, and the worship of Hekate Aayivlns was main- 
tained there. The name was popularly derived from the hare 
that fled to the site of the town, but in reality referred to the 
neighbouring dty of Lagina, the chief centre, at least in late 
times, of Hekate- worship in Asia Minor. The cult of this latter 
city • associated the goddess so intimately with the Carian Zeus 
Panamerios, that we may suppose that she there took the 
place of the great goddess of Asia Minor and was probably 
regarded as his spouse. We hear of the annual festival *of 
the key,* the KX€ib6s itofXTni, alluding to the mysteries of the 
lower world; the divinities were partly served by eunuchs, 
and choirs of boys were trained under the supervision of the 
state to sing a traditional hymn of praise. The part played 
by the eunuch in the ritual reminds us of the Cybele cult, 
and some ancient mythographers appear to have associated 
the Corybantes with the service of Hekate ^^j^*, and we have 
seen that the orgiastic mysteries of Samothrace were devoted 
to her as well as to the Cabiri '', 

• Vide Geographical Raster, s, v. Lagina, p. 607. 



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XVI.] HEKATE. 507 

There seems, then, some ground for the belief expressed 
in Strabo* that Hekate belongs to that circle of Phrygian- 
Thracian cults of which the chief figure is an earth- goddess, 
and the orgiastic ritual a marked characteristic. And we 
find that Hekate comes to be related to Cybele, and 
plainly identified with the Cretan Britomartis, whose name 
itself was explained in reference to an ancient prophecy 
concerning the birth of Hekate ^ : in Aeg^na itself the worship 
and mysteries of Hekate may not have been altogether 
distinct from that of the Cretan goddess who came to the 
island at an early period. 

The theory that Thrace was her native country becomes 
the stronger as we find the undoubtedly Thracian goddess 
Bendis with many points of likeness to Hekate. The epithet 
A(Aoy)(09 that belonged to the former is explained by Hesychius 
as describing the goddess who, like Hekate, had power in more 
than one sphere of nature ; and the torch seems to have been 
the special symbol of both. The Thracian goddess — what- 
ever was her real name — whom the Greeks called Artemis 
Basileia or pova-paTos^ was connected with herds and the 
fruits of the soil, and Hekate also was concerned with these, 
as we find in the Hesiodic description and in later Greek 
legend and ritual. A strong reason for believing that 
Hekate was an intruder in the Hellenic world is that the 
hound was her familiar and sacrificial animal, and that this 
sacred character belonged to him scarcely anywhere else in 
genuinely Greek religion or ritual^. For Artemis he was 

* P. 473. religion, and himself also came from the 

* Artemis *" *. morth of Greece, and possibly from 
« lb. •* », *•. Thrace. By becoming the son of 
<* Plutarch tells xts that generally in Apollo he is adopted into Greek re- 
Greek religion the hound was regarded ligion. The goddess of child-birth to 
as unclean, and yet that he was used in whom, according to Socrates, the Ar- 
rites of purification in Boeotia ; he is gives offered a dog. itd t^v fiaffr^Tjr 
probably referring to the rites of Hekate, rijs Xox^ias, was called ElXidvtiay but 
as Boeotia was an ancient home of her may be regarded as 'EKd-nj ElKtlBvia ^\ 
worship ''. A sacred character attached The Spartan ephebi sacrificed a youn^ 
to this animal also in the worship of hound to the war-god ; whether this 
Asclepios at Epidauros ; but Asclepios was a foreign element in the cult of 
does not belong to the ancient Greek Ares or not may be doubted. 



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5o8 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

a purely secular beast, useful for the hunt ; she never assumes 
his shape and he is never offered to her. But we have evidence 
that he was r^^larly sacrificed to Hekate '*, and the goddess 
herself is dearly supposed to take his form in that Ephesian 
legend mentioned above ; and in the ghostly stories such as 
those that amused Lucian, he probably often figiu-ed as her 
'manifestation' or her 'sending/ The dog was also the 
animal used for purification in the rites of Hekate ^^ It is 
true that we have no direct proof of the sacred character 
of the dog in the religion of Thrace ; but in certain l^ends 
the metamorphosed Hecuba, 'the dog with fiery eyes,' was 
supposed to join the following of Hekate and to roam howling 
through the Thracian forests* ; and the statue of Hekate 
Lampadephorus at Byzantium was supposed to commemorate 
the good service of the dogs who aroused the citizens when 
Philip of Macedon attacked them by night **. 

Accepting this theory of the origin of the cult, we should 
say that Hekate was the Greek term corresponding to some 
Thracian title of this goddess, and that it obtained vogue first 
in Thessaly, Boeotia, and Aegina at a much earlier period than 
that at which the name of Bendis was received in Greece. 
From A^ina or Boeotia it may have passed to Athens, per- 
haps not earlier than the middle of the sixth century ^®. She 
appears in the Homeric hymn to Demeter which is often 
attributed to the age of the Peisistratidae ^^ *. According to 
one account, which however is questionable, it was to Hekate 
that the Athenians offered sacrifice after Marathon at Agrae ""^ 
and it may be that her worship, like that of Pan, was for the 
first time publicly instituted in Attica after this great event, 
although we have proof of its earlier private recognition in 
a terracotta of the sixth century B.C.^ A fifth-century 
inscription from Eleusis possibly contains a trace of the name 
of Hekate in conjunction with Hermes and the Graces, with 
whom she was associated on the Acropolis of Athens, at least 

* Cf. Artemis *^®. who was the goddess worshipped at 

^ Geograph. Reg. s. v. Byzantiam. Agrae and to whom the Athenians 

« Artemis ^K The name of Hekate vowed sacrifice before Marathon. 

has been substituted by the pseudo- «* Hckate-Monununts, p. 549. 

Plutarch for that of Artemis 'Ayporipa, 



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XVI.] HEKATE, 509 

in the later period **. The statue by Alcamenes that stood 
by the temple of Nike Apteros at the top of the Propylaea 
was called Hekate 'Etriirvpyi^fo, or Artemis Hekate, or 
Artemis 'EirfTrvpytft^a, and a later Attic inscription com- 
bines her with Hermes, and another mentions her torch- 
bearer in company with the priest of the Graces ^**» ^^ We 
know also that some time before the Peloponnesian war her 
images were common in Athens, placed before the doors as 
charms to avert evil ^^ *^, and she had become especially 
a woman's goddess and identified with Artemis ^^ 

We have now to explain why it was that she was identified 
with this particular Greek goddess, or at least more closely 
related to her than to any other. The usual reason given is 
very simple: namely, that both were merely different names 
for the moon-goddess. But this view — which is not often 
challenged — rests on a misconception of the original nature 
of Artemis, and a very questionable interpretation of the 
original character of Hekate. For the two goddesses had been 
connected as early as Hesiod, as the passage quoted by 
Pausanias from the Karikoyo^ yvvaiK&v proves * ; but at this 
period, as has been shown, we can find no lunar element in the 
character of Artemis ; on the contrary, there are reasons for 
thinking that this view of her came later into vogue through 
her association with Hekate, and therefore should not be 
regarded as the ground of that association. On the other 
hand, the belief that Hekate herself was pre-eminently and 
origfinally a moon-goddess approves itself only to those who do 
not pay suflScient attention to the Hesiodic fragment, and who 
apply the logical deductive method of Roscher to primitive 
forms of religion •. The theory for which reasons have been 
given above, that Hekate is one of many forms of a Thracian- 
Phrygian clivinity, brings with it the belief that she would 
derive most of her functions from the earth rather than the 
moon. Her torches and her interest in child-birth are thus 
quite as well explained, and her care for the crops and the 
herds, the hunter and the fisher, much better. The hound may 

• Vide Steuding on Hekate in Ros- view as Preller, Wclcker, and Petersen 
cherts Lexicon, who takes the same {Arch, Epi^. Mitt. 4). 



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^^7 



510 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

have become her famih'ar, not because it was regarded as the 
animal * who bays the moon/ but because it was the natural 
follower of the goddess who haunts the wilds, and because 
in many legends the dog has an * uncanny' and infernal 
character. We may thus best understand her affinity with 
Artemis, which was recognized in an early period; for the 
latter goddess drew most of her nature from the earth and 
from the life of the wilds, and most of the description in the 
Hesiodic passage would apply to Artemis as well. And apart 
from any deep essential affinity, her torches and her hounds 
and her wild nature would be enough to persuade the Greeks 
that Hekate was a sort of * double ' of the Hellenic goddess. 

Nevertheless it is also true that from the fifth century 
onwards we have clear proof that the imagination of poets 
and artists, and perhaps also the view of those who offered 
sacrifice to Hekate, did connect her in some way with the 
moon ^3 ; and in this there ^ is something of genuine and 
popular belief that cannot be ignored, and which is of more 
value than the philosophic theory that begins as early as 
the sixth century to resolve deities into elements — Hera, for 
instance, into the air. 

In the Homeric hymn to Demeter, Hekate is said to have 
been hiding in a cave when she witnessed the rape of 
Proserpine, and to have come to meet the bereaved mother 
with torches in her hands. Possibly the poet is thinking of 
her as a moon-goddess, but it is an illusion to suppose that 
only a moon-goddess could hide in a cave and could witness 
things: the infernal divinities might also be thought to be 
witnesses and to lurk underground. It is in the Attic drama 
that she first emerges plainly in her lunar character, and at 
the same time is so closely combined with Artemis that she is 
called the daughter of Leto. Euripides addresses her as 
* Hekate, child of Leto ^ *; and when Aeschylus, in the frag- 
ment already quoted, speaks of the fun^pto-nbv omia AriTi^as 
Kof/riSy which the context shows to be the moon, he is perhaps 
thinking of Artemis Hekate, to whom he refers by name in 
the Supplices^K The sun and the moon are clearly com- 
bined as Helios and Hekate in the fragment of Sophocles' 



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XVI.] HEKATE. 511 

'P4Coro|uio4^^»;and this view must have become popular, for 
sometimes the vase-painting of the fourth century plainly 
characterized Hekate as the moon-goddess*. There were 
also certain ritual-practices consecrated to Hekate when 
the moon was new or full ; the * suppers of Hekate ' were 
offered by rich people, and little round cakes set with candles 
were placed in the cross-roads, and sacred both to her and to 
Artemis ^* ^ ; but we cannot take this as certain evidence, nor 
conclude at once that a divinity was recognized as lunar 
because the phases of the moon marked the time when 
oblation was to be made; just as we must not offhand 
regard a deity to whom prayers or sacrifice were addressed at 
sunrise as a personification of the dawn. * The banquets of 
Hekate' seem to have been offerings made, not to the lunar 
goddess, but rather to the mistress of spirits, in order to avert 
evil phantoms from the house. None of the household would 
touch the food ^^ **» ^ It was offered on the thirtieth day, which 
was sacred to the dead. 

However, we find a genuine lunar element in Hekate recog- 
nized in popular belief and in the later public monuments : 
and some of the later scholiasts and expounders of mythology, 
who were in no better position to judge than we are, seem to 
have r^^ded this element as the essential and original one 
in her nature. It very probably was original, in the sense that 
she had it before she became a Greek divinity ; for it is diffi- 
cult to see, on the theory of her foreign origin, how she could 
have acquired this character in Greece, where the moon- 
goddess received such slight recognition. But we need not 
say that it ever constituted the whole of her nature, unless we 
are bound to follow the method prevalent in the German inter- 
pretation of myths and to trace the manifold character and 
functions of a divinity deductively back to a single concept or 
idea. On the other theory, which might be called the theory 
of local ' contagion ' or assimilation^ an earth-goddess could 
* catch/ inherit, or usurp certain qualities or features of a 
moon-goddess, or vice versa. And the Hesiodic fragment 

* The qaesdon as to the meaniDg of the triple-shaped Hekate of Alcamenes 
will be discussed later. 



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512 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

and other evidence allow us to believe that Hekate came 
down into Greece as an earth-goddess with the usual interest 
that such a divinity always had in vegetation and nutrition, in 
wild and human life, but possessing also a certain attraction 
for the moon, and trailing with her a very pernicious cloud of 
superstition and sorcery. That her lunar aspect became 
afterwards so prominent may be owing to the religious 
economy of the Greeks, who had earth-goddesses in plenty, 
and whose Selene, a retiring and faded divinity, may have 
seemed to want new support. 

But the Greeks themselves were much perplexed about her, 
and knew that she was other than Selene and Artemis; in 
fact, the complexity of the Hesiodic portrait corresponds in 
some measure to the later belief and cult. She became 
associated, for instance, almost as closely with Demeter and 
Persephone as with Artemis, and this by right of her original 
character as a divinity who had power on the surface of the 
earth and underground ^*. The Hekate of Sophocles' * root- 
gatherers ' seems to have drawn her attributes and nature 
from the moon, the earth, and the lower world ; for the moon- 
light was her spear, and her brows were bound with oak-leaves 
and serpents. Euripides, who spoke of her as the daughter of 
Leto, called her also the dvoUa dvydrrjp Aiy/mryrpoy, the queen of 
the phantom-world ; and on black-figured vases she appears in 
company with Persephone, Demeter, and Hermes. It accords 
with the wider character of her presented in the Hesiodic 
poem, that, like Demeter and Ge, she was Kovporpoc^os '^ \ and 
an ancient inscription from Selinus possibly contains the 
prayer made to her by a mother for her child. The Gauls 
found her in Galatia, and learned to pray to her for themselves 
and their crops* In a late Greek inscription from Cilicia she 
is regarded as one with Artemis EiirXota, Selene, and Gaia *^ 
and in a late oracle quoted by Eusebius^* Hekate, who 
demands a statue, declares that her shape is that of Demeter, 
*the fair goddess of fruits.' We find her also allied with 
the lesser powers that had some connexion with the earth, 

* Vide Geographical Register, s, v, Galatia. 



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XVI.] HEKATE. 513 

vegetation and the life of the woods; we find her with Pan* 
and the Corybantes and Cybele, deities who, like Hekate, 
inspired madness ^* ; with Priapus at Tralles " ; in Athens 
with Hermes and the Charites, who must have been regarded 
in this association as divinities of increase and growth. Also 
the maritime character of the goddess claimed for her in the 
Theogony was not altogether forgotten ^^ ; and as we have 
such early testimony for it, we may regard it as original, and 
not derived from Artemis EvirXoia, nor arising necessarily 
from any view about the earth or the moon, but possibly only 
from the seafaring habits of her worshippers ^ Her ghostly 
character also, which becomes very prominent in later times, 
but was probably always recognized, must have kept her 
chthonian nature clearly before men's minds ; for sorcery and 
magic belong more naturally to the lower world, at least from 
the Greek point of view, than to the Moon, who seems to have 
been considered a fairly harmless divinity in Greece, being 
occasionally a passive victim of sorcery when a Thessalian 
witch laid her foaming and sick on the grass, but not being 
herself a great sorceress. And so the mocking Lucian, when 
Mithrobarzanes is preparing to go down into hell, makes him 
dig a pit and invoke the powers from below, the Furies and 
the Poenae, ' nightly Hekate and praiseworthy Persephone ^! 
And the magician in his Philopseudes brings up Hekate from 
below in the form of a woman, half a furlong high, snake- 
footed and with* snakes in her hair and on her shoulders, with 
a torch in her left hand and a sword in her right; while Selene 
comes down from the sky in the shapes of a woman, an 
ox, and a dog ; we may suppose the latter form to have been 
assumed out of compliment to the other goddess. 

In fact Hekate appealed to the later imagination more as an 
infernal power than as a lunar ; she borrows her whip and 
cord from the Furies, and her serpents made her an image of 
fear like the Gorgon. But though such a character was likely 

* Hekate is classed with Pan amongthe and, according to a legend preserved by 
0c<N {iri7€io< by Aitemidonis; Oneirocr. the scholiast on ApoU. Rhod. 4. 826, 
a. 34. she was the mother of Scylla. 

^ The mallet was sacred to Hekate; ^ Nckyomant, 9. 

VOL. II. H 



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5H 



GREEK RELIGION. 



[CHAP. 



to be impressive in the ages of decay and debased religion, it 
probably influenced secret practice more than the public cult *, 
and it never, as Welcker wrongly supposes ^ altogether 
obscured the early Hesiodic conception of a Hekate powerful 
on earth and sea and beneficent to men in certain parts of life. 

Many details of this conception have been already shown to 
have survived to a late period ; and Plutarch, Porphyry, and 
the later Orphic literature express the same thought in formal 
or philosophic terms : she had for them something of the 
same cosmic power, though her importance is evidently slight, 
as she had for the early Boeotian poet ^. 

But the high moral functions that the latter claims for her 
were never given her in Greek religion : she never ' sat in the 
judgement-seat of kings,* and her mysteries are not known to 
have had any moral or spiritual significance at all. Her 
association with Zeus Meilichios at Athens, of which we have 
some slight evidence % does not prove that any of the moral 
ideas which were infused into that worship attached them- 
selves to her; the casual conjunction of the two divinities 
arose merely from the chthonian character of both. In the 
inscription that dedicates the late Capitoline statue she is 
called Mci<rowor?;/)os ^, and this, which is the one moral epithet 



» There are only two titles by which 
Hekate was probably known in public 
cnlt as a goddess of mjrstery and fear" — 
dtpparros at Tarentum (Hesych. s,v,)t 
an epithet of the 'unspeakable one/ and 
dvTola, of which the meaning is disputed. 
The passage hi Hesychius (j. v. di'To/a), 
which is made clear by Lobeck*s emenda- 
tion of iaifi6yta for Zainova {Aglaoph, 
p. lai), interprets the word as * hostile/ 
being applied to Hekate as sending 
visions of ill, and so the author of the 
Etymologicum Magnum explains the 
word 6»Tio% asalTios0\i0rjs; but Hesy- 
chius states that Aeschylus in the Semele 
used the word as /W<rior, and this agrees 
with the interpretation given by the 
scholiast on the Iliads aa. 113, and with 
its nse in ApoU. Rhod. i. 1141, and in 
the Orphic Hymn^ 40. I, where it is an 



epithet of Demeter. But the former inter- 
pretation is more probably correct, the 
word k(6amjs having the opposite sense, 
' free of evil ' ; Plat. Phfudr, %^ E. The 
epithet IIANAINA attached to a goddess 
on fourth-century coins of Terina and 
Hipponium has been r^^arded as a title 
of Hekate and interpreted as DoySc^, 
the * all-terrible* {Rev. Arch. 1848, 
p. 159; cf. Millingen, ConsicUrcUions 
sur la NumisnuUique de rancienne 
ItaHe^ Florence, 1841, p. 7a) : but the 
inscription is perfectly legible and cer- 
tain, and cannot be a miswriting for 
nai'dfd^; nor does the figure hold 
a whip or any other attribute of Hekate. 
Probably the name is not Greek and 
denotes a local nymph. 

»» Griech, GbtterL i. 567. 

« VidcZeus»»\ 



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XVI.] HEKATE, 515 

ever attached to her in cult, does not come to very much : 
it may allude to her whip and her cord, or it may designate 
the goddess who controls evil spirits. Her chthonian asso- 
ciations may have suggested some vague belief in her as 
a goddess who punished certain kinds of guilt, and in the 
Antigone Creon's sin against the body of Polyneikes is sup- 
posed to have incurred the wrath of Pluto and the ^c^ IvoUa ; 
but we cannot further illustrate this belief, except with the 
slight instance of a late inscription from Phrygia, in which the 
disturber of a grave is threatened with the wrath of Hekate ^®. 

The household purifications, called 3£v^i;/iia^, performed 
in the name of Hekate do not seem to have had any reference 
at all to moral stain or evil*. The house was swept and 
smoked, and the pollutions were carried away in a potsherd, 
apparently to the cross-roads, and then thrown away while 
the bearer's back was turned. If these were connected with 
the sacrifice of a dog at the cross-roads, of which we hear, 
we may regard the dog as a KaOapfia, and the purifications 
as having some reference to child-birth in the house. Also, 
they may have been supposed to purge the household of 
ghosts, who were taken thus to the cross-roads, and com- 
mitted to the keeping of the infernal goddess ^. 

As there is very little morality that we can discover in her 
religion, so the occasions on which appeal might be made to 
her appear to have been few : it was good to invoke her in 
haunted places, because she could send up forms of terror 
or benign apparitions ° ; it was important to have her image 
at the cross-ways, probably because they were considered 
likely places for ghosts, and before the threshold of the 

* The Ikiffi9ai/ia» of Theophrastos is possible that these were orig;inaUy 

purifies his house as an iTayatyij r^s placed there because of the ill omen 

'EifiTiys". that attached to the cross-ways in the 

^ In Plato's State {Laws 873 b) the popular belief of Greece and other 

body of the murderer must be thrown nations. 

out afterexecution,unburied,atthe cross- « In the Helena of Euripides (569) 

roads. Why these places were of such Helen exclaims when she sees Menelaos, 

evil character is hard to say; their cEr ^<r^/>"E«dn7, W/iirc ^^/mr* «6/a«v9, 

gloomy associations were no doubt en- to which Menelaos replies, oit yvKrl<pay» 

hanced by the images of Hekate, the rev wpdroXoi^ *Eifo9Uis /i* ip^s. 
way-goddess that stood there; but it 

H Z 



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5i6 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

house, lest ghosts might enter. But in spite of the Boeotian 
poet's assurances, the warrior in battle and the athlete and 
horseman in the race do not appear to have often invoked 
the aid of Hekate*. 

It is a question how far her association with Artemis 
affected the traditional character of either of the two 
goddesses. In certain detaib we may suppose there was 
mutual borrowing. The torch in the hands of Artemis is 
supposed by Petersen to have come from Hekate or Hekate 
Eileithyia**; his argument rests on the fact that Artemis is 
not designated or represented as llvp<i>6pos^ or the torch-bearer, 
till a comparatively late period, the latter part of the fifth 
century, by which time her connexion with Hekate had been 
generally recognized; and the torch had been no doubt an 
aboriginal property of the latter goddess. 

A certain type of Artemis, the representation of her 
speeding along with two torches in her hands, is almost 
certainly borrowed, as we find in North Greece a similar type 
of Hekate in swift motion with her torches raised and her 
wild hounds at her side ®. 

Again, the connexion of Hekate with the cross-ways was 
no doubt primitive, although it does not appear in the frag- 
ment of the Theogony, and probably both at the cross-ways 
and before the house her image was intended to scare away 
evil spirits ; it seems likely, then, that it was only as a double 
of Hekate that Artemis was regarded as a irpoOvpaCa or 
ivobia ^ But Artemis was in her own right, like Apollo ' AyuiciJy, 
a leader of the path ; and there is no reason for supposing 
that she borrowed from the other goddess such titles as 
^HycftoV?; ®. And on the other hand Hekate, being often repre- 
sented hurrying along with torches, may have been considered 

• There were games in her honour at sense : if it refers to the cross-ways it 
Stratonicea; Bull, dt Corr, Hell. l88i, most have come from Hekate; but it is 
336. not known to have been a title of the 

*» Arch, Epigr, Mitt. 4. p. 14a. latter goddess : it is attached also to 

Vide Hekate-Monumenls, p. 551. Hermes, not apparently as a deity of 

<• Hekate '*^•. the cross-ways, but as the divinity 

* ^TfHxfxUa is an epithet applied to whose image stood within the house 
Artemis (Hekate *" "), and is of doubtful and ' turned back ' the evil-doer. 



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XVI.] HEKATE. 517 

as a leader of the ways in the Lycian worship of Hekate 
UpoKadrjyiTis ^^ ^ independently of Artemis. 

The place before the gate of the temple, or city, or house 
was consecrated to Hekate*; and it is only by confusion 
that the ^EKdreiov standing before the door was called an 
Artemision ^ ^ ; for Artemis in herself had no natural associa- 
tion with such places. It was perhaps only a loc aj_ ac cident ' 
that gave the latter goddess the name of Upodvpala at Eleusis* 
where she was worshipped before the great temple of the 
mysteries, as for a similar reason Athene was called Upovala 
at Thebes and Delphi ". 

The titles which she may be supposed to have borrowed 
from Hekate are^'AyyeXos^', KcXicafa^^«, and perhaps EvplTnra^. 
As regards the title "AyyeXos we have the curious story nar- 
rated by Sophron and mentioned in the chapter on Hera*: 
the maiden ''AyycXos, to escape her mother s wrath, takes refuge 
in places that were polluted by child-birth or the presence 
of a corpse ; she was purified by the Cabiri by the lake of 
Acheron, and was afterwards given a position in the lower 
world. This quaint legend receives some light from the 
gloss in Hesychius, from whom we learn that ''AyyeXos was 
a title of Artemis in Syracuse ; and we gather from Theocritus 
that she and Hekate were sometimes identified there ^ Thus 
the story may illustrate the character of the latter as 
a divinity of the lower world, and her connexion with child- 
birth ; while the purification of ''AyycXoj by the Cabiri may 
allude to the Samothracian mysteries, in which, as we have 
seen, Hekate has a part. 

But why she should be called * the messenger ' is doubtful : 
an imaginative Greek might have regarded the moon as ■ 
a messenger, but there is nothing in the very eccentric 

* It may be that Antigone, in her the gates of hell, 
appeal to Hekate, when she sees *all *» Artemis". ^\A. 

the plain glittering with brazen arms,* « In Aesch. Si^/l. 449 vpoararrifHas f 

is thinking of the goddess who guards *kpr4/uSos titvolatffi : the title has no 

the gate (Eur. Phoen. no); her titles local sense. 
KAfiJoCxoj, ♦wXcuriJ, Ilp^iroXis*^***', refer <* P. 449. 

to the keeper of the gates; in the • P. 184; SchoL Theocr. a. la. 
Aeneid she is mentioned as standing by ' ld,%. la, 33. 



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5i8 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

behaviour of Angelos which suggests the moon at all, and 
others prefer to explain the title as denoting the goddess 
who reported to Demeter the fate of her daughter. This 
is probable enough, as the Demeter-legend was so rife in 
Sicily ; perhaps also the application of the title was assisted 
by the common representation of the goddess speeding 
with a torch in each hand. If this Syracusan legend has 
been properly interpreted, we have evidence of a peculiar 
local genealogy invented for Hekate; for she is made the 
daughter of Zeus and Hera, a parentage which may perhaps 
have been suggested by her association with Eileithyia. 

The inexplicable epithet KeXKa£a, which was attached to 
Artemis in Attica, may have come to her from Hekate ; for 
Petersen calls attention to a late statue dedicated by an 
inscription to Artemis K^XKala, and showing her triple- 
formed *. 

On the whole, then, the proved influence of Hekate on the 
traditional public cult of Artemis does not appear very impor- 
tant ; but it was an innovation which caused the figure of the 
Greek goddess to lose its clearness of outline and her character 
to become confused and bizarre. And being now more closely 
associated with the moon and with unhellenic superstitions, 
she became more exposed to the contagion of Oriental cult. 

As regards the other question, how much Hekate may have 
borrowed of the character and functions of Artemis, little can 
be said. Though the later Orphic literature scarcely distin- 
guishes between the two divinities in regard to their titles and 
powers, the literature, cults, and monuments of the classical 
period fail to show that Hekate usurped any considerable part 
of the functions or legends or even appeared at all in the guise 
of Artemis. She does not seem to have taken to hunting or the 
bow ^ and she holds aloof from Apollo ; nor was her virginity 
insisted upon, nor was she received, as Artemis was, by the 
Eleusinian divinities. It is possible that the title Scorc^p?;, 
which she enjoyed in Phrygia^^^, and that of KoAXfo-Tiy^**, 
which appears to have been attached to her at Athens, were 

• Arch. Epigr. Miith. 5. p. a a ; 4.Taf.5 the quiver (in Rome, Matz-Dohn, Antikt 
^ There is one statne of Hekate with Bildwtrhe^ p. 617). 



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XVI.] HEKATE, 519 

derived from the worship of her sister-goddess. And it is not 
impossible that she became interested in child-birth through 
her association with Artemis or Eileithyia, with whom at 
Argos she probably had some relations ^^ ^ ; for such interest 
is not attributed to her in the passage in the Theogony^ and 
is only slightly and occasionally manifested. The first mention 
of it occurs in the Supplices of Aeschylus ^^ ^, in a line which 
speaks of her as one with Artemis. Yet reasons migW be 
brought in favour of the belief that Hekate was regarded 
from the beginning as a divinity of child-birth, either in 
her own original right as an earth-goddess, or because her 
torches suggested the torches of Eileithyia and were taken 
as a sign that she had the same office, or because her 
hound was really regarded by the Greeks as a symbol 
of easy delivery. For the Genetyllides, the divine mid- 
wives, who, like most alien divinities, won favour with Attic 
women, and over whose worship Aristophanes and Lucian 
made merry, were sometimes identified* with Hekate ^^ '^ : 
but if it were thought necessary to attach them to some 
higher power in the same profession, one would have expected 
that they would have been attached to Artemis, unless 
Hekate were recognized as of the same character and there- 
fore a fitter * proxenos ' for these questionable goddesses, 
being herself of foreign extraction. Again, in the Troades 
of Euripides, Cassandra in her fine frenzy invokes the aid of 
Hekate for her approaching marriage ^^ ^ ; and it is hard to see 
why she should here have appealed to this divinity, unless as 
a recognized goddess of marriage. And the divine powers 
of marriage might easily be considered also powers of birth ^. 
But neither as a goddess of marriage or birth or agriculture 
was Hekate of any real national importance in Greece ; her 
worship was without morality, and displayed energy only in 
sorcery and imposture. It was one of the evil things that 
grew up into prominence with the decline of Hellenism. 

* They are also confused with Aphro- before coming to the meeting the wife 

dite; vide Aphrodite "•«. of Thcogencs has to consult her 4««£- 

^ Like Artemis, Hekate is especially rcior ^. 
a women's goddess ; in the Lysistraie 



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CHAPTER XVII. 

MONUMENTS OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS. 

As we can trace very primitive elements in the worship 
of Artemis, so in her earliest monuments we find the very 
ancient type of the religious emblem, the rude stock or the 
shaped stone without any human semblance. The Artemis 
of Icaria was represented by a piece of unhewn wood accord- 
ing to Amobius^^ and Pausanias describes the emblem 
of the Artemis Patroa of Sicyon as a pillar of stone *. A cone- 
shaped stone, decorated below with metal bands and sur- 
mounted with a human head, was the form under which she 
was worshipped in her temple at Perge, which is represented 
with the idol inside on coins of the city^ and we see an 
Artemis-idol of similar shape on a Neapolitan vase ^ The 
temple-statue of the Ephesian goddess of many breasts also 
preserves in the treatment of the lower limbs much of the 
aniconic form ; and it is not unlikely that the statue of Artemis 
Movoyian^vrj, which the l^end ascribed to Daedalus ^^ \ was 
of the same type, showing the transition from the pillar to the 
human likeness. It is an interesting fact that the most 
primitive representation of the human form which has come 
down to us from the b^innings of Greek sculpture, and which 
illustrates that transition, is an image of Artemis found in 
Delos, and now in Athens, and dedicated according to the 
inscription by Nicandra of Naxos ' to the far-darting one, the 
lover of the bow ' (PI. XXVIII). She wears a long chiton, from 
beneath which 4he toes and sandals just appear ; the arms 
are held down and pressed against the sides with scarcely an 

• Zeus »»•^ >» Gerhard, ^kad. Abhandl. Taf. 59. 2, 3. 

« Arch, ZeiL 1853, Taf. 55. 



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: ^ ;; U : i c' it- u. ip 'fii 
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~ a s A il S \i;r'. !\' <: ^ 



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Plate XXVIII 



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MONUMENTS OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS. 521 

interval ; and the body has more of the columnar than the 
human shape, only the breasts and hips being faintly indicated. 
The face, which is much disfigured, seems worked out in very 
low relief. The hands are clenched, but there is a slight 
opening through them which suggests that she was holding 
some emblem, possibly an arrow or bow. It is clear that so 
immobile and indefinite a form as this could express but little 
of the character with which the cults invested her ; the idea 
of the huntress-goddess, for instance, could scarcely be clearly 
given until the sculptor could show more movement in the 
limbs. 

The earliest monuments of the period when art had 
gained power of expression speak clearly of her close associa- 
tion with wild places and with the beasts of the wild ; for 
one of the types that came very early into vogue in Greece 
and the islands was that of the winged Artemis, who holds 
in each hand a lion, having seized it by the hind paw head 
downwards. Pausanias saw her thus represented on that 
very primitive monument of Greek metal-work, the chest 
of Cypselus^^^ and we see the same form on a bronze- 
relief from Olympia * and on a * Melian ' amphora in 
Berlin ^ The conception of Artemis as the itorvia 6r\pQv is 
Greek, but it is likely that this Xypt of the winged goddess 
came from the East, probably from the cult of Anaitis. 
Some writers indeed regard it as genuinely Hellenic in its 
origin, and handed down from the Mycenaean period*'; we 
find a female form somewhat similar, only without wings, 
holding water-birds by the neck or a goat by the horns, on 
gems of the * island ' style found in the tomb of Vaphio \ but 
it is open to question whether this type was created entirely 
apart from Oriental influences. At any rate the later form 
of this cult-figure, with its wings and with the heraldic arrange- 

» PI. XXIX. b. Curt ins, Ausgra- alt-grUchischt Gottin, p. 153 : in his 

bungen zu Olynifda, Xhh\\A. ^^TsX, 2^ I, article in Roscher, p. 1753, he has 

^ Roscher, p. 1751 ; Arch, Zeit, 1854, somewhat modified this opinion. 

Taf. 61. ** Eph, Arch. 1889, DiV. 10, nos. 5, 

« Curtius, Sit%ungsbcr, der BerL 13, 33, 34; cf. Milchofer, Anfange, 

Akad, 1887, p. 1 1 73; Milchdfer, An- p. 86. 
fingej p. 86 ; Studniczka, Kyrene eine 



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522 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

ment of the lions, seems to point clearly to the East. There 
is a marked Oriental style in the representation on the Berlin 
amphora ; and a wingless goddess holding lions in this hieratic 
fashion occurs on an ivory relief in the British Museum from 
the palace in Nimrud *. And the Oriental origin of the type 
has been recently strongly maintained by MM. Radet and 
Ouvrd, on the ground of a recent discovery at Dorylaeum in 
Phrygia, a stone relief showing the winged goddess holding 
a small lion by the front paws and wearing a Persian tiara on 
her head ^ Perhaps derived from this early type, and at all 
events inspired by the same idea, are those representations 
of Artemis, of which the recently discovered terracottas in 
Corfu are examples ^ which show her holding the stag and 
the lion, and with the hare leaping from her shoulder into her 
hand. They may be as late as the fifth century, but preserve 
the archaic form and the hieratic style. 

As the primitive cults often recognized in her a goddess 
of the lake and the stream, we might look for some allusion to 
this aspect of her in the earliest monuments. But it is difficult 
to find. We are told only of the mysterious image of the 
divinity, half-woman half-fish, that Pausanias saw at Phigaleia, 
and which was popularly regarded as a form of Artemis *. 
But there is no surviving trace of this uncouth representation ; 
and perhaps the only monument that has come down to us 
from a very early period which recognizes Artemis as a fish- 
goddess is the strange vase wrought with figures in relief, 
recently found in Boeotia (PL XXIX a). It belongs to the vases 
of the geometrical style, and it exhibits a type of Artemis 
closely akin to the * Persian ' ; the goddess, a stiff hieratic 
form, stands with her arms extended over two lions, two 
water-birds are symmetrically placed on each side of her 
head, and the head and shoulders of a bull are drawn under 
her right arm ®. The vase-painter has thus given very manifold 

• Published by Roscher, p. 1753. on the Acropolis; Arch, Ameig. 1893, 
»» Buil, di Corr, Hell. 1894, PI. 4. p. 146, Fig. 24. 

p. 139. ^ P. 428. 

• lb. 1891, pp. 1-117. An archaic • Eph. Arch. 1893, n<V. 10. i,j). aia. 
terracotta of similar type has been found 



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Plate XXIX 
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xvir.] MONUMENTS OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS. 523 

expression to the idea of the 'divine ' mistress of animals/ and 
has added also a clear allusion to the * lady of the lake' ; for on 
the lower field of her close-fitting robe he has drawn a large 
fish. As regards the later periods, it is only in very few monu- 
ments that this association of her with the waters is hinted at *. 
The aspect of Artemis that is far the most prevalent in 
the eariiest and latest periods of Greek art is that of Artemis 
'AypoT€pa, the goddess who fostered the life of the wood 
and the wild. We have traces among the monuments of 
an early cult-type of Artemis "Ev^ev^pos, the divinity of the 
tree, who was worshipped once at least under the actual form 
of the myrtle-tree. On a coin of Myra we see the primitive 
figure of Artemis- Aphrodite appearing in the midst of a cleft 
trunk (Coin PI. B 29) from which two serpents are starting, 
the symbols of the earth-goddess ; and on a coin of Perge she 
appears to be holding a fir-apple ^ the wild trees being those 
which are specially associated with her. On a fragment 
of a beautiful Attic vase of the transitional period, found on 
the Acropolis, she is holding a flower before her face ®. Her 
character as a divinity of vegetation is sometimes shown by 
the symbol of the calathus which she wears on her head, and 
she commonly appears in the monumeftts of all periods as the 
goddess to whom the animal and the tree of the wood are 
equally sacred. Thus on a coin of Flaviopolis of the time of 
Marcus Aurelius we see a very primitive form of the goddess, 
derived probably from some semi-iconic cult-statue, with the 
calathus on her head and with two stags symmetrically 
arranged by two pine-trees at each side of her ^; and we may 
compare the form of Artemis on a vase published by Gerhard, 
where she stands in a rigid and hieratic pose, with her fore- 
arms held out parallel from her body, and a torch in each 
hand ; above her is a wild fig-tree, from which a sort of game- 

* On a coin of Pherae we see the find a head of Artemis, but with no 

Pheraean Artemis riding on a horse past pecnliar emblem (Coin PI. B 38). 

a lion-headed fountain from which water ^ Mionnet, Su/p/, 5. p. 439. 

flows (Mailer- Wieseler, Denim, d. Alt « Mitt, d, dattsch, Inst, Ath. 5. Taf. 

Kunst, 2, no. 173) ; on a fourth-century 10. 

coin of Stymphalus, where she was wor* ^ Coin PI. B 31. 
shipped as the goddess of the lake, we 



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524 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

bag containing a hare is hung as a votive-offering ». A small 
marble representation of Artemis was found at Lamaka in 
Cyprus, and is now in the Museum of Vienna, which shows 
Artemis leaning on her own ancient idol that wears the 
calathus as the emblem of fruitfulness ; a coin of the city 
of Eucarpia in Phrygia^ reproduces the type exactly, and 
proves that the larger figure was holding a bow in her left 
hand over the idol, and was raising her right hand to her 
quiver behind, while at her right stands a stag looking up to 
her face (PI. XXX. a). 

To this series of monuments belongs the Artemis-statue 
from Gabii now in Munich (PL XXXIII), probably a temple- 
statue or copy of one as Wieseler® supposes. The exact 
interpretation of its meaning is not easy. The goddess is 
moving rapidly forward bearing a shut quiver on her back, and 
something in her left hand, a torch more probably than a bow, 
and holding in her right hand the paws of a roe that has just 
sprung up caressingly towards her. On her head is a crown 
and a veil; her gaze is fixed upon the distance, and her 
expression is earnest but indifferent. Her long girded 
diploidion is flapping about her in the wind, yet something 
of the solemnity and precision proper to the temple-statue is 
retained in some part of the drapery as well as in the treat- 
ment of the hair. It cannot be a momentary action that is 
here represented ; she is not striking down her prey or protect- 
ing her favourite animal from any immediate peril. If we 
explain the whole work, as Wieseler would, as showing 
Artemis returning homeward through the woods at night by 
the light of her torch, while the roe runs to her and leaps up 
to be caressed, we might still regard the representation as 
typical, and believe that the intention of the sculptor was not 
so much to render a motive of merely passing interest, as to 
express the manifold character of the earth-goddess, the 
huntress, and the protectress of animals. 

This last function of hers is most commonly expressed by 

• Antike Bildwerke, Taf. 43; Botti- « Miiller- Wieseler, Denhm, d. AU, 
cher, Baumcultus, Fig. 26. Kunst^ 2. 168. 

^ Arch. Zeit. 1880, Taf. 17. 



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Plate XXXIII 



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XVII.] MONUMENTS OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS, 525 

the symbol of the stag standing peacefully by her side, and 
sometimes gazing up at her face ; as on the coins of Perge 
(Coin PI. B 33) and Abdera*, on those of the Syrian Laodicea 
(Coin PI. B 32) that present us with a strange representation 
of Artemis bearing the calathus and armed with the shield, 
with two stags by her side; and on coins of Athens^ that 
contain the figure of the goddess wearing the calathus and 
holding the bow in her left hand and the patera in her right, 
with the stag looking up. We have also an archaic repre- 
sentation of Artemis on a gem in St. Petersburg **, standing 
by a laurel-tree and holding an arrow in her left, while her 
right hand rests upon an altar and a fawn gazes up at her ; 
and we may regard this as a traditional motive, derived from 
temple-sculpture. 

The intimate association through ritual and sacrifice between 
Artemis and the stag or fawn has been noticed already : it is 
illustrated by such representations as the vase-painting that 
depicts her riding on a roe (PI. XXX. b), and indirectly by the 
statue in Arcadia carved by Damophon with a fawn's skin over 
her shoulders. 

The representations that show her merely as the huntress, 
and that can be directly or indirectly connected with public 
cult, are not very frequent. The statue in her shrine at 
Epidauros was of this type, but we only know it through 
Pausanias' record ^^ ^ The cult-type of the huntress-goddess, 
carved for her shrine at Pellene *• , is perhaps preserved on 
coins of that city^ ; and the same form appears inside a temple 
on the coins of Corinth •. The image of Artemis Laphria^^*, 
which was carved by the Naupactian Menaechmus and Soidas 
in the earlier part of the fifth century, presented her in the act 
of hunting ; and we find the figure of the huntress-goddess on 
many coins that allude undoubtedly to the worship of Artemis 
Laphria, whose title and cult in Calydon and Patrae had 
special reference to the chase and the life of the wild-wood. 
On a coin of Patrae struck under Lucius Verus ', we see the 

• Gardner, Types^ PI. 3. 31. * A'um. Comm, Paus. S. la, p. 92. 

* Num, Comm, Paus, BB. 5 and 6. • Jb, D. 68. 

« Compte-Rendu^ i873,PL 3. no. 9. ' Brii, Mus, Cat, Pelop, PI. 6. i. 



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526 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

figure of Artemis facing, with her right hand on her hip 
holding her bow and arrow, and standing by an altar with her 
hound near her ; and a similar type appears on two coins of 
Nero and Domitian, with the title of Artemis Laphria * ; but 
we have a different type on an Aetolian gold coin that has on 
its obverse the figure of Aetolia seated on shields, and Artemis 
standing before her with her left 1^ advanced and with a bow 
in her left hand and a torch in her right ^ 

It is open to question whether either of these types repro- 
duces the temple-statue of gold and ivory carved by the 
Naupactian sculptors. Both show slight traces of an archaism 
that may naturally have attached to the work of Soidas and 
Menaechmus ; Professor Gardner makes out a strong case for 
the claim of the former to reproduce the temple-image, as it 
is of frequent occurrence, but, on the other hand, it is natural 
to believe that the Artemis standing by the figure of Aetolia 
should bear something of the semblance of the great national 
image of Calydon. Doubt is all the more legitimate because 
neither of them exactly conforms to Pausanias' description of 
that statue (t6 \iiv (rxTJfia Srjp^ilfov(ri iari). 

Many cities took the type of Artemis the huntress as their 
coin-device ; she appears on a coin of Syracuse, wearing the 
short diploidion and buskins, discharging an arrow, with her 
hound running at her side (Coin PI. B 37}, and on a coin 
of the Tauric Chersonese, kneeling on a stag and transfixing 
it with a spear®. Such representations, in which she appears 
merely as the destroyer of beasts, while never very common 
in religious monuments, had more vogue than any in the later 
secular art; they are by no means adequate to the earlier 
ideas in her worship. 

Much has been said of the very interesting primitive 
thought surviving in the Brauronian ritual of Attica and the 
Callisto myth of Arcadia. But the monuments give no illus- 
tration at all of this ; a votive-offering of a bear carved in 
marble, found on the Acropolis, is the only object of art 

• Num. Comm, Pans, Q. 9 ; see Kunsty a. 165. 
Gardner, ib. p. 77. « Brii, Mus, Cat, Thrace, Tauric 

»> MuUer-Wieseler, Denkm, d, Alt, Chers. no. 7. 



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XVII.] MONUMENTS OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS, 527 

that alludes to the bear-goddess and the bear-dance of the 
maidens. But as r^ards the type of the Brauronian goddess 
we have some slight numismatic evidence ; for Pausanias 
tells us that the ancient image was carried off by the 
Persians from Brauron to Susa^^»^^, and was afterwards 
given by Seleucus to the men of the Syrian Laodicea. 
Now Prof. Robert* has shown weighty reasons for dis- 
believing this statement, and suggests that the story was 
invented in the time of Seleucus by the Laodiceans, who 
may have been jealous of the pretensions of the Brauronian 
image ; still the story would scarcely have arisen unless the 
idols of Brauron and Laodicea were of similar type. And 
this latter city's coins — as has been mentioned above — show 
us a strange figure of Artemis bearing an uplifted shield and 
battle-axe (Coin PL B 3a). It is more probable, as Prof. 
Gardner argues^ on the strength of Pausanias' statement, 
that this is approximately the type of the ancient Brauron- 
image than that Beuld is right in supposing that we have that 
image reproduced on the archaic coin of Athens mentioned 
above, that shows the goddess with the patera and bow. The 
Attic image would scarcely have held the axe ; but it may 
well have been armed, as we have instances elsewhere in 
Greece of an armed Artemis; and if we suppose that the 
Brauronian divinity stood armed in her temple on the Attic 
shore, we may suggest another reason besides those which 
I have mentioned in a former chapter <* for the association 
of Brauron with Orestes and the Tauric Chersonese : namely, 
if the early Greek settlers spread the story of the maiden- 
goddess of the Crimea, whose image was armed like the 
Palladion ^, we can better understand why the armed Artemis 
^Parthenos of Brauron should have been identified with her; 
especially if, as we have reason to suppose, her cult-name 

» Archiuologische Mdrchen, p. 144. ^ Num, Comtn, Paus, pp. 57 and 139. 
He points oat that the closing words of ' Pp. 451, 453. 
Euripides* Iphigenia in Tauris are ^ The idol in the arms of Iphigenia 
utterly inconsistent with Pausanias* had at times the exact form of the Pal- 
statement ; the ancient idol which Pan- ladion ; vide Gerhard, Arch. Zeit 1849, 
sanias mentions as still existing at Bran- PL 7. p. 70. 
ron was the aboriginal one. 



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528 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

at Brauron was Tauropolos, and the name of the Chersonese 
resembled this in sound. 

Of the original significance of the Arcadian Callisto-myth 
we have no monumental illustration whatever, and the only 
public recognition that it received from any Arcadian state, 
so far as the monuments show, was the coin-device of Orcho- 
menos ; on fourth-century coins of that state we find on the 
obverse Artemis kneeling and drawing her bow, and on the 
reverse CalHsto pierced and falling with the young Areas 
behind her*. 

It has been shown that in the Arcadian and other worships 
there were ideas alien to the virginal character of Artemis. 
But Greek art gives no expression to these : there is no artistic 
type of Artemis Aox^a and the other kindred titles ^ no 
representation at all of the orgiastic and lascivious dances 
practised at times in her worship ; for the * calathiscus,' the 
dance of the women with baskets on their heads, which 
appears on one of the terracottas of Corfu and perhaps on 
one marble relief®, was not of this character. 

The domesticated animals, and those of the agricultural 
community which appear to have been rarely associated with 
the goddess in cult, are also rarely connected with her in 
art. The sacrificial importance of the goat in her worship 
can scarcely be illustrated by any surviving monuments of the 
state- religion; for we cannot regard as such the silver medallion 
from Herculaneum presenting the head and shoulders of 
Artemis and two goats bounding above her shoulders^. 
A late coin of the Arcadian Kaphya®, where Artemis 
KraKoXTjp-ia*', a title believed to refer to the goat-goddess, 
was worshipped, shows the figure of the goddess merely 
bearing two torches, and does not support that interpretation. 

• Brit. Mus. Cat. Peioponmse, 35. pretation appears to me most improb- 
15. able. 

* The Artemis figure on one of the « Denkm. d. Alt. Kunst^ a. 188. 
very early Boeotian vases recently dis- ^ Vide Roscher, p. 566 : the goat on 
covered {Eph. Arch. 189a, Ilty. 8, 9) the coin of Aenos bending over a torch 
has been interpreted by Wolters (i^.) refers probably to Artemis ; vide supra, 
as if the goddess was represented in p. 475. 

the pangs of travail ; but the inter- • Head, Hist. Num. p. 374, 



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Plate XXXI 



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XVII.] MONUMENTS OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS. 529 

Of Artemis Tauropolos, the * bull-goddess/ we have a few 
certain representations, chiefly on coins. The most important 
of these are the coins of Amphipolis (Coin PI. B 34), which 
have already been briefly mentioned*; on one of these the 
figure of Tauropolos has the calathus on her head, the torch 
and spear in her hand, and the solemn hieratic pose of the 
temple-idol. The horns behind her shoulders are usually 
supposed to refer to the moon, and certainly much the same 
symbol appears in representations of Selene; if this is its 
meaning here, we must suppose that the Attic worship of 
Tauropolos, when transplanted to Amphipolis, acquired a 
certain lunar character from the neighbouring worship of 
Hekate: but the horns may equally well be regarded as 
a symbol of Tauropolos in the literal sense of the word. 
Again, we find the bull-riding goddess, holding an inflated 
veil, on a coin of Hadrianopolis^ struck in the reign of 
Caracalla ; and on the coins of Eretria, Phigela, and Phocaea 
the bull on the obverse is probably a symbol of this worship 
in those cities **. 

A relief from Androa is mentioned by Stuart ^ with 
a representation of Artemis and a bull standing by her ; and 
a figure in the British Museum, clad in chiton and mantle, 
with a buirs head carved at her feet ®, must be a fragment of 
a statue of Artemis Tauropolos, standing on the bull and 
carrying a torch (PI. XXXI. a). We may give this name 
also to the Artemis on a relief published in the Annali 
delV Institute^ y representing her by the side of Dionysos in 
a chariot drawn by bulls. She seems also to have had this 
character in Ephesian worship, for we find bulls* heads 
carved in relief on the lower part of the Ephesian idol, 
and we can thus explain the curious statement in Plutarch 
that the horns of an ox were hung in the temple of Diana 
on the Aventine^; for Strabo tells us that that temple 

* Pp. 451-3. • It was found at Woodchester, and 

* Brit, Mm. Cat, Thrace^ 6j»c., p. 118. shows fairly good style of the Roman 
« Head, Hist, Num. pp. 306, 307 ; period. 

Mionnet, Suppl. PL 7a. 4. ' 1881, Tav. E. 

* Antiquities of Athens ^ toI. 4. ch. 6, « Quaest. Roman. 4. 
PI. 5. 

VOL. II. I 



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530 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

borrowed the type of its goddess from the Ephesian idol 
at Marseilles'^®. 

The divinities whose functions refer to the vegetative and 
animal life of the earth often become regarded also as powers 
of the lower world, and it has been noticed that Artemis 
acquired this character indirectly in the Arcadian worship 
of Despoina, into which she was brought. The statue by 
Damophon of the goddess holding two serpents, which he 
carved for this cult, has been mentioned already ^^•; we find 
serpents starting from the cleft tree in which the image of 
Artemis appears on the coin of Myra described above*. 
The serpent is proper to the earth-goddess and the divinities 
of the lower world, and probably this is its meam'ng in these 
representations ; while in a later period it becomes the badge 
of Artemis Hekate ^ 

It has been shown that the literature and cult very rarely 
indeed associated Artemis with the cultivation of the land and 
with the harvest: she was the earth-goddess of the wilds 
rather than of the tilth. The only representation, so far as 
I am aware, that gives her something of the character of 
Demeter is on a late Roman carneole, where she is figured in 
a chariot drawn by stags, and turning round and giving 
ears of corn to a peasant °. Wieseler explains this as an 
allusion to the lunar aspect of the goddess^ and to the 
fertilizing effects of the nightly dew, noticing that Selene 
is called ^cpiKap-nos, 'the corn-giver,* in an Orphic hymn^. 
As the work is of so late a period, this is possible. It 
is also possible that it expresses simply the agricultural 
character that may have belonged to her worship in 
certain localities, and which certainly attached to her cult 
in Calydoa. 

• P. 533. Apollo, for this would more naturally 

^ Panofka rightly regarded the cult- be interpreted as Iris ; Annali delP Inst, 

title of Artemis "kfi^Xos as denoting 1833, pp. 173, 174, Taf. d'Agg. B. 

a goddess of the lower world (vide and C. 

supra, p. 517); bot he ought not ^ Denkvi, d, Alt, Kunst^ 2, 1*11 h, 

to have given this name to the ^ Orph, Hymn, 9. 5 ; cf. CatnlluSy 

winged goddess on a vase who holds EUg. 34. 17. 

a icrjpvKtiw and gives a libation to 



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XVII.] MONUMENTS OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS. 531 

Enough has perhaps been said already to show how com- 
paratively late and scanty is the evidence for the lunar 
theory about Artemis, and how the art of the early and of 
the greatest period does not recognize her as a goddess of 
the moon. The only certain symbol of Artemis Selene is the 
crescent, and this only comes into use in the later epoch. 
It designates the moon-goddess on a coin of the Roman 
period on which Artemis of the Ephesians is represented, 
and where stars are seen in the field • ; and it would be 
safe to say that all the monuments of Graeco-Roman art 
which place the crescent on the forehead of Artemis express 
the Roman idea of the identity of the two divinities, but it 
is doubtful if any of these are derived from any cult. 

In regard to her relations with the life of the family, the 
institutions of marriage and the clan, the monuments tell us 
very little indeed. We have no sure representation of Ar- 
temis KovpoTp6<pos, the cherisher of children ; and if she appears 
in vase-scenes in the bridal procession **, it is not necessarily 
as a goddess of wedlock who encouraged conjugal fidelity, 
but as she to whom propitiatory sacrifices must be made 
before marriage, or as the goddess who aided child-birth. 
This is probably her character in the interesting votive- 
relief from Tyndaris, dedicated to Artemis EinpaiCa^^, which 
has been mentioned in a former chapter, and which has been 
well interpreted by Brunn**; the goddess is clad in a short 
chiton which leaves her right breast bare, and she stands 
holding a sacrificial basket over an altar, and in her right 
hand a lowered torch with which to kindle the altar-flame; as 
Brunn remarks, the 'priestess Artemis' of Arcadia^ might 
have been thus represented. The worshippers that approach 
her appear to be father, mother, and daughter, and the 
parents may be praying for their daughter's fruitfulness in 
marriage. 

Among the monuments that illustrate the more advanced 

* Denkm. d, Alt, Kunsty 2. 163 b, in matronly fashion in mantle and coif; 

with inscription "Aprtfut 'E^ffUof, cf. id. i. 42. 

^ For instance on a vase published ^ P. 463. 

id. 2. 183, where Artemis appears at ^ For Artemis 'Up^ta at Oresthasion 

the head of the bridal prooesiion arrayed ride Geographical Register, Arcadia. 

I 2 



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532 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

and spiritual character of Artemis, those are perhaps the most 
important that associate her with Apollo. But as their 
association in cult was not original or primitive, and her 
state- worship was on the whole independent of the Apolline, 
so none of these monuments go back to a very early period. 
Of the groups of the two divinities in Greece mentioned by 
Pausanias ''^•, only two need be supposed to belong to the 
archaic period, the groups at Olympia''*^ and at Pyrrhichos 
in South Laconia ^^ ", and not all of them belong to temple- 
worship. 

The only coins on which Apollo and Artemis are found 
together, so far as I have been able to discover, are those of 
Megara, Rhegium, Leontini, Alexandria, Germe in Mysia, 
Byzantium, Calchedon, Trajanopolis ; in this last-mentioned 
city we may certainly suppose a close community of cult, for 
the twin deities are clasping hands over an altar on which the 
sacrificial fire is burning (Coin PI. B 39). A bronze coin of 
M^ara of the period of Septimius Severus gives us a free 
reproduction, we may believe, of the group of Leto and her 
children that Praxiteles carved for the temple of Apollo in 
that city; Artemis is clad in a long chiton and is raising 
her hand to her quiver, and holds, according to Prof. 
Gardner s interpretation •, a plectrum in her left hand. We 
have also a fairly large number of representations on vases 
and rdiefs in which the brother and sister appear side by 
side, either alone or in large groups. Most of these are 
inspired merely by the poetic imagination of the artists, who 
invented pleasing and characteristic motives to express the 
idea of the union and love of brother and sister, or who dealt 
with the many myths that associated them in some action or 
event, such as the slaughter of the Niobids, of Tityos, or of 
Python. Among the most beautiful representations of Ar- 
temis are those of which instances will be given below, in 
which she is pouring a libation to her brother. In fact, 
wherever Apollo appears, an artist would be likely to put 
Airtemis by his side ; and only a very few of these representa- 
tions have any cult-significance. But a relief in the Villa 

• Num. Comm. Pans. i. p. 6, PL A. 10. 



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XVII.] MONUMENTS OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS, 533 

Albani may be mentioned that no doubt alludes to their 
common worship at Delphi. It was first published by 
Welcker, and represents Artemis holding a torch and wearing 
a bow and quiver on her back, Leto standing behind her, on 
the right Nike pouring a libation to Apollo Citharoedus, and 
the Delphic temple in the background. The style is hieratic 
and affectedly archaistic (PI. XXXI. b). 

We have scarcely any direct monumental reference to their 
common cult at Delos and the Hyperborean offerings; a 
* pinax ' in the Louvre on which Artemis is seen riding on 
a swan contains probably an allusion to this, for in the usual 
legend this was the bird that conveyed Apollo back from the 
northern regions in spring. The occasional association of 
Artemis with the griffin probably arose in the same way ; as 
this fabulous animal of Oriental cult had been transplanted in 
Greek legend to the northern shores of the Black Sea, and 
figures as the convoy of Apollo in the representations of his 
return. And Artemis herself was sometimes depicted riding 
on the griffin, as in the painting mentioned by Strabo in her 
temple on the Alpheus *. 

We have no representations that refer clearly and definitely 
to any oracular powers exercised by Artemis through associa- 
tion with her brother ; it is only possible that the coin of 
Perge already mentioned (Coin PI. B 33), on which she 
appears in a short chiton, holding a sceptre in her left hand and 
a laurel crown » in her right, with the fawn gazing up into her 
face, may refer to an oracle in that city; but the laurel need 
not refer to Apolline functions, but perhaps alludes to the 
city games or to the woodland character of the goddess, to 
whom all wild trees were sacred. 

As Artemis OvAta, or the goddess of health, she is asso- 
ciated with Apollo at least once, namely, on a coin of Germe 
in Mysia, on which she appears standing by him and 
Asclepios ; but this is of a very late period and illustrates 
merely an isolated local cult. 

* It does not seem quite dear from wears the laurel crown herself on the 
the coin that the crown is lanrel ; bat it obverse of the same coin ; Head, Hist, 
is all the more probable because she A^um, p. 584, Fig. 321. 



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534 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

Neither in the h'terature nor the art does Artemis appear 
prominently as the city-goddess. Her figure is indeed the 
usual or occasional coin-device of a very large number of 
cities, yet only in a very few instances can she be supposed to 
personify the city- community or its fortune. She wears the 
turret-crown as the city-goddess on coins of the Tauric 
Chersonese • after the period of Alexander, and on a late coin 
of Amphipolis we see the figure that personifies the state 
seated and holding in her hand a small statue of Artemis 
Tauropolos ^ It is usual to find the turret-crown on the head 
of the Ephesian goddess. We have also on Milesian coins of 
the Roman period a temple-type of Artemis, whose worship 
was here combined with Apollo's, wearing the modius and veil 
and holding in her hands the patera and bow, with her stag 
standing by her feet ; the style points to a work of fifth-cen- 
tury sculptured But we cannot quote monuments of the 
autonomous period of unmixed Hellenic worship that recog- 
nize her clearly as the patron goddess of the state, as Hera 
was recognized at Argos and Samos, and Athena at Athens. 
Where we find her head on coins, we may assume with some 
probability that she was worshipped in those cities, but we 
cannot conclude that she was in any special sense the city- 
goddess \ 

The worship of Artemis BovXafa was, as has been shown, 

■ Brit, Mus. Cat, Thrace, p. a. Orthagoria, Thessalonica, Dium. 

^ lb, Macedon, p. 60. In Thessaly and Central Greece : 

^ Head, Hist, Num. p. 505. Apollonia, Demetrias, Phoenike, Pherae, 

^ The following is a geographical list Epirus (coins of Pyrrhos), Nicopolis, 

ofcoin-representationsof Artemis, so far Zacynthns, Tanagra, Athens, Megara, 

as I have been able to collect them : — Corinth. 

In Sicily and Magna Graecia : Paes- Peloponnese : Methana, Caphyae, Or- 

tum, Tbnrii, Bmttii, Rhegiam, Leon- chomenos, Phigaleia, Alea, Phenens, 

tini, Larinnm, Capna, Neapolis, Agri- Stymphalus, Aegira, Patrae, Pellene, 

gentumi Amestratus, Centoripae, ? laeta, Heraea, Aegium. 

Mamertini, Morgantia. The islands : Icaria. 

In North Greece, Thrace, and Mace- Asia Minor : Parinm, Pitane, Cyzicus, 

don: Abdera, Adrianopolis, Perinthus, Miletopolis, ApoUonia, Germe, Perga- 

Tauric Chersonese, Mardanopolis, mum, Adramytteom, Perge, Amisus, 

Tomi, Anchialos, Denltnm, Pantalia, Sinope, Phanagoria, Pnisa, Creteia, 

Serdica, Trajanopolis, Coela, Lysi- Flaviopolis, Zeleia, Colophon, Mag- 

machia, Olbia, Byzantinm, Thasos, nesia, Phocaea, Oenoe, Miletus, Ephe- 

Bizya, Amphipolis, Bottiaei, Chalcidice, sns, Phigela. 



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XVII.] MONUMENTS OF THE CULT OF ARTEMIS. 535 

important in Athens, but of this or of Artemis Agoraia we 
have no characteristic representation. An attempt has been 
made by Wieseler to discover the goddess of the moral law, 
Artemis Upis, on a gem* that presents her standing by a 
pillar with her feet crossed, holding a branch in her hand, 
with a roe standing by her ; the attitude expresses meditation, 
but it is very hazardous to say that it is specially appropriate 
to any particular cult. 

The armed Artemis was as rare a type in the temples of 
Greece as the armed Aphrodite. It is possible, as has been 
already suggested, that the Tauropolos of Attica was armed, 
and Pausanias speaks of a bronze statue of Artemis bearing 
arms in Messene^^, whose shield fell from her arm as 
a sign of the disastrous end of the Messenian war of inde- 
pendence ^ But this is not the usual representation of 
Artemis Sooretpa, the saviour in war. On the coins of Pagae 
and Megara (Coin PL B 35) that reproduce the type of 
Strongylion's statue carved for the latter city ^**, we see the 
figure of the goddess in short chiton and buskins, hurrying 
along with a torch in each hand ; the altar and the temple 
that appear on some of the coins of this type make it clear 
that the figure is derived from the temple-statue of Soteira, 
as Prof. Gardner has pointed out ®. The torch alludes to the 
story of the night when Artemis bewildered the retreating 
Persians, and it is probably to some such type as this that the 
line in the Anthology refers — ' Artemis hot with speed is the 
herald of the coming war \' 

A statuette in the British Museum of fourth-century style, 
dedicated to Artemis Soteira (PL XXXIL a), shows a very 
similar figure of the goddess clad in short chiton and fawn- 
skin, striding quickly forward. We have also the Syracusan 
coins® from 345 to 317 B.C., that commemorate the restoration 

• MuUer- Wieseler, Denkm, d, Alt, « Num, Comm, Pans. pp. 4, 8. 

Kunsty 2. 172 a. <* 9. 534 : '^AprtfUf Ihpitovaa wpo- 

^ She has the lance in her hand in 6,yy«\6s ian KvSoifioQ. 

a few vase-paintings; Lenormant, ^/. * Brit, Mus, Cat, Sicily ^ p. 183, 

Ceramogr, i. PI. 97, 100, 103 ; Denkm, no. 252 (Fig.) ; Denkm. d. Alt. Kunst, 

d, Alt, Kunst, I. 2, 1 1 ; on a relief from 2. 163. 
Asopus, Arch, Zeit, 1882, Tat 6. i. 



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536 GREEK RELIGION. 

of the democracy and Timoleon's successes, and bear the head 
of Artemis Soteira with the strung bow behind her or with 
the shut quiver, and with the lyre or cithar that alludes to 
the festal celebration of the triumph (Coin Pi. B 36). We 
may lastly notice here a coin of Demetrias in Thessaly, of 
the second century B. C, which contains the figure of Artemis 
seated on a galley, probably alluding to her help in naval 
warfare •. 

The monuments that in any way associate Artemis with 
the arts are very rare indeed, and the few vases on which she 
is found listening to the music of Apollo Citharoedus or 
herself playing the lyre have no proved connexion with 
any worship. Her statue in Praxiteles' group at Megara, if it 
held the plectrum in the hand, as the Artemis on the coin 
that reproduces this group appears to do, would appropriately 
express the title of Artemis "Tfxvia, but could have had no 
direct reference to the Arcadian cult. Nor is there any 
Arcadian coin that clearly expresses the idea of this worship ; 
for the head of Artemis of semi-archaic style wearing her 
hair in a net, which we see on a coin of Arcadia ^ and which 
Imhoof-Blumer would interpret as the head of Artemis 
*T/uu;/o, has nothing characteristic about it at all. 

These, on the whole, are the chief monuments which can be 
associated directly or "indirectly with the cult of Artemis, 
though theories might be advanced about the cult-significance 
of many others ; and we see how far more meagre is this 
source of our information about the ritual and ideas of her 
worship than the literary evidence is : we can scarcely doubt 
that much of the thought that was embodied in her religion 
had ceased to have much meaning by the time that art 
was developed enough to tell its own story. 

• Bri/. Mus, Cat. Thessaly, p. 34. ^ Denkm. Alt. Kunst, 2. 156 c. 



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CHAPTER XVIII. 



IDEAL TYPES OF ARTEMIS. 



The Hellenic ideal of the virgin-huntress, the goddess 
kindly to boys and maidens and to the living things of the 
wood, as it was perfected in the religious hymn and the Euri- 
. pidean drama, was not fully embodied in Greek art until the 
age of Praxiteles and the great painters of Alexander's period. 
Yet the developed archaic art had done something for the 
expression of the Artemis-type, and had given it movement 
and life. The fragment of an Attic vase quoted above • shows 
a very striking representation of the divinity which we may 
date about 470 B.C. She is clad in Ionic chiton and mantle 
with a panther's skin over her shoulders, holding in her left 
hand the bow and raising in her right hand a flower towards 
her lips. The golden-coloured drapery and the white flesh 
suggest a cult-image of chryselephantine technique, and the 
figure may be a copy of the older image in the Brauronian 
temple on the Acropolis. 

Of considerable importance also for character and style is the 
Pompeian statuette in the Museum of Naples (PI. XXXII. b), 
representing Artemis striding forward, clad in a chiton with 
sleeves and a finely textured mantle, with a quiver at her back ; 
the fingers are restored, but the one hand must have been 
holding a bow or torch, the other holding up the skirt of her 
dress ; a diadem adorned with rosettes crowns her head, of 
which the hair has been given a golden tinge. The maidenly 
character is clearly expressed in the bright face and the 
dimpled chin. The later copyist shows his hand in the soft 

• Vide p. 533; Hirschfeld, Arck, Zeit 1873, p. 109. 



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538 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

treatment of the flesh and the rendering of the eyelids, but on 
the whole the spirit and style of genuine archaism survive in 
the work*. 

The period of transitional art has left us one interesting 
representation of Artemis, the Actaeon-metope from the 
younger temple of Selinus, on which she stands hounding on 
the dogs against Actaeon. She wears a chiton with sleeves 
and with the upper part falling over so as to conceal the 
girdling ; above her forehead is a diadem, and the hair is 
severely drawn away from the face and secured in a long plait 
behind. The features are broad and strong, of the maidenly 
type, and with the expression of sombre earnestness common 
on the faces of this period. 

When we look for the form of Artemis in the great periods 
of Greek art, we find that no statue of her is ascribed to Phei- 
dias or to any of his school, nor has any original survived that 
we can attribute directly to him or his pupils. We may 
believe that Artemis would be represented on the Parthenon 
frieze in the assembly of divinities, but we cannot discover her 
figure with any certainty there ^ Nor can we quote with any 
conviction a head which has been regarded as that of Artemis, 
and once as an actual fragment of the Parthenon gable-sculp- 
ture, and shows certainly the Pheidian style ®. We hear of 
an Artemis wrought for the group in the pediment of the 
Delphic temple by Praxias the Athenian, a pupil of Calamis ; 
but we know nothing of him or his work. 

* Vide a long article by Graef in Uie Uiere is reason for Uiinking that at the 

Mitt. d. deutsch. Inst. {Rom. Abth,), 3. time of Pheidias the torch was by no 

p. 280, who compares a bronze in Berlin means the common and accepted symbol 

from Thresprotis, and who considers of Artemis, as it was of Demeter and 

that the Pompeian statuette may repre- Persephone ; and if he intended this 

sent something of the style and form of figure for Artemis, we may donbt if the 

the Artemis Laphria carved for Pagae Athenian public would discover his in- 

by Soidas and Menaechmus. tention ; still less would they be likely 

^ It is almost hopeless to expect that to recognize her, as Dr. Furtwangler 

certainty will ever be attained as regards does {Meisterwerke, p. 431, Engl, ed.), 

the names of all the divinities on the in the goddess whose drapery is slipping 

frieze. As regards probabilities, it is very from her shoulder and who is seated 

difficult to believe with Flasch and many next to Aphrodite, 
recent writers that the torch-bearing ^ Mon. deW Inst, 11. Tav. 16; 

figure of the matronly form is Artemis; Gazettt Archiol. 1875, PI. i. 



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Plate XXXIV 



' fi^ po^ 539 r^ T 

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. • I" .; \a\ . ^ 1-- ■- :: ' • 

t !• '-.■*' ' :,\l i."t :. ':■: ..I ' ' 'r ^ 

. t - .1 -t +I-:-^ n^ - I ..• - J. .^ 
^' ir il v::ir i i:. * . •"> •- i-,.^ . ' 

'■r ..:- - J '.lit tljL-^ is n t r* \' a il' •. 

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■• , ' K' i-o ,s 



rs ol t^i-' .1 



r 



a ;w*. "ji t>* i\x t.Ms Let-) ci^ ' '^ ? .'io. t, '/ 
A ■,.:-\(.l -t \'^: th ' tc: ^ '-• '/ ' '- •'■•■is ( ':^: 

,'i :.l 1 .liin ; .1 bf*'.v in '.^*r ;< :: b-w/l i 
iit-r r' ;'i't, wit'- * -I r.-JvCi .il her lax. 

* \' ,-, \T. >--..'■ , .; ' ; . I// '; , 

' U' .'11 i's .-./••- ' ' ; / '' '■ .. 



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xviii.] IDEAL TYPES OF ARTEMIS. 539 

The statue in Lansdowne House (PL XXXIV) shows us 
a conception of the goddess that may have been prevalent 
in the Periclean age, though it is merely a Roman copy: 
the drapery, a Doric double chiton, displays something of the 
earlier Pheidian style in its arrangement of the folds, but 
the face, though it preserves to some extent the breadth of the 
fifth -century heads, shows for the most part the forms of 
the first decade of the fourth century. The expression is 
thoughtful, but not without brightness » 

The Artemis of the Phigalean frieze, which is a work of 
provincial sculpture executed probably from Attic drawings, 
and on which she appears as her brother's charioteer, is a figure 
full of life and elasticity ; she has bare arms and wears a single 
chiton that flaps about her limbs and is secured by a double 
cross-band that passes over her shoulders and round her 
breasts. But this is nierely a dramatic figure in a mytho- 
logical scene. 

The solemnity of the religious sculpture of the fifth century 
is better preserved in the statue in the Villa Albani of Artemis 
holding a young calf: she is clad in a single Ionic chiton girt 
round the waist, that leaves her arms and neck bare and falls 
to the feet in austere columnar folds ; the pose of the lower 
limbs reminds us of the Pheidian Parthenos ^ 

Turning to the monuments of Peloponnesian art we find 
a group of Artemis Leto and Apollo, attributed to Polyclitus, 
who carved it for the temple of Artemis Orthia on the summit 
of Mount Lycone ; but it is doubtful whether the elder or 
younger sculptor of this name was the author of the work, 
and we can say nothing of its character. 

The most striking Peloponnesian representation of the 
goddess is on a very beautiful Argive relief dedicated by 
Polystrata (PL XXXV. a). She stands in profile towards the 
right, holding a bow in her left hand and a half-sunk torch in 
her right, with her quiver at her back ; she wears nothing but 

* Vide Michaelis, Ancient MarbUs, terracotta in Berlin, Artemis holding 

Lansdowne House, no. 67. torch and cup in double Doric chiton of 

*» Gerhard's Aniike Bildwerke, Taf. later fifth-century style ; Archaeol, Anz. 

I a ; Roscher's Lexicon^ p. 56a. Cf. the 189a, p. 103. 



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540 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

a Doric chiton that falls to her feet in severe folds, the 
girdling being concealed under the diploidion; the hair is 
pressed over the head in vertical plaits and gathered up in 
a knot behind ; the face wears a bright smile, and the features 
are most pure and maidenly, and the style of the whole work 
is strong and noble. We may ascribe the monument to the 
end of the fifth century. With this we may compare the type 
of Artemis on some red-figured vases of the perfected style ; 
for instance, on two vases, one in the Cabinet des M^dailles of 
the Louvre, the other in Carlsruhe, on both of which Apollo 
is represented receiving a libation from Artemis : the drawing 
of the figures on both is very beautiful, and the expression of 
the faces is solemn and profound. 

The fourth century is of more importance for this chapter of 
Greek religious art, and nearly all its most famous sculptors 
dealt with this theme. We have record of the Artemis Soteira 
of Strongylion, whose figure we see on the coias of Megara 
moving swiftly along in Amazonian attire* with a torch in 
each hand (Coin PL B 35), of the Artemis Soteira carved by 
Cephissodotus for Megalopolis ^2^^, and of the Ajtemis EvicXeta 
that Scopas wrought for Thebes. As an instance of the type 
prevalent in the earlier half of the fourth century, we may 
note the head of Artemis on the coins of Stymphalus (Coin 
PL B 38) ; the countenance has something of the breadth and 
fullness of the older style of religious sculpture, the cheek is 
broad and the chin large ; the delicate fineness of the maidenly 
type presented on the S)^Tacusan coins mentioned below is not 
yet attained. 

The statues of Artemis by Praxiteles were of even greater 

A The Amazonian attire of the god- with an upper fold falling over, and this 

dess, in short chiton and buskins, goes austerer style is preserved in some of 

back to the middle of the fifth century : the later monuments. From the fourth 

we find her thus on the rude Laconian century onwards, the light drapery of 

relief which is earlier than 450 B.C. the huntress, the short chiton with the 

(^Arch. Ztit, i88a, PI. 6), and dn coins mantle rolled round the breast, becomes 

of Patrae that probably reproduce the her usual costume. Cf. Claud, de Rapt, 

type of the statue carved by Menaech- Proserp. a. 33 : — 

mus and Soidas of Naupactus. But 'CrispaturgeminovestisGortyniadnctu 

before the fourth century she usually Poplite fusa tenus.* 
wears the long Ionic or Doric chiton 



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'. :h this vvc UK's ^.v^nipir'- tht t;"i * 
■ rc- ' \ a sC', of t h e [><. i ''ect ■ < ■ -*t / ' . : 
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Ca-':s'-'i!"'% on hf.:h of whi. h /\['<- .j 
. a ir,M^'..!i frc-n ArUrn'^: tlic dr.v 'VZ 
. :s \T:-y I -' ' i*'!'ah and ti:e l";;.!;'--" p 
md !>)' '" ■;; 1. 
:\iry \s o'" r ..t.: iT'i:>f rUtifX^ ♦ ii t!d/> c' .yt^ ' 
ar^ a:id * '-arl} /' ^. > most fanioui^ s, u p* 
th^ ; o. \\ t. h..\\ T ■ -rd '.f tic Ai'i( I'K-sS'*: i 
, \\ h ' '; -u ■' v't ' ('11 tlu: c«'''ti^ .)f M* a 
■ Ai '1 in Atim. '-n atli'/c'' with a tor 
••II VI i* ^:^-, I »•{ • ' \rt<'Il)is .^o*;!ia raP . 1 \ 

• ' ■ t *nr 1 cs. .'\s ah iiT^ointe of t .;-;• 

of ti^e fourth -cr.ilKry. rr.n 

1 Ihr Coins ot ^t\in.j]'i ■ •' 'i 

ha- soiiiflhihi;;; oi 'kl i in . d 

.'t r; i: '/ u T f^cvi J 'tai ^ t '^i' ' '^ 

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1, 



!^ hy I'raxii'd *s were » f f\ .n ; '^'i a*' 

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- K* ' » '.1 •"■■-.'' 'riH..''^, the l]^" 1 1 ' 
•• ,- t'. ' . 'i I .'^-i, t'.c "iitr* . * \* '. ■ 

'o- <:, ■ . • . . '. /'-,',/. a. ;... - 



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Plate XXXV 



To face page 540 

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XVIII.] 



IDEAL TYPES OF ARTEMIS, 



541 



importance, we may believe, than those just mentioned. 
The charm of the maiden goddess and of the woodland 
secluded life that she impersonated would seem to have had 
special fascination for him ; she must have appeared among 
the twelve divinities that he carved for the temple of 
Artemis Soteira in Megara *, and that city possessed another 
group by his hand of Leto Apollo and his sister''^'. We 
hear of a group of the same divinities wrought by him for 
Mantinea '^^'^^ of his statue of Artemis Brauronia on the Acro- 
polis of Athens ^ and of the temple-image of the goddess at 
Anticyra by him, or more probably by his sons ^. We have 
only the badly preserved coins of Anticyra and Megara ^ that 
may show us something of the motive and costume of the 
Praxitelean statues in those cities, but of their style and 
expression we know nothing. Yet we may believe that it was 
this sculptor, more than any other, who defined the ideal 



• Pans. I. 40, 3. 

»» Prof. KekoW {Ath, Mitt, 5. 256) 
and Profl Robert (^Archaeol, Mdrchen, 
p. 157) belieye that the Brauronian 
image was the work of the elder Praxi- 
teles; yet the inscriptions which Mi- 
chaelia has published {Parthenon, p. 
307; ct CLA, 2, 744-758) appear 
to support Studniczka's view {Ver- 
mutungen zur GrUchischen Kunstge- 
schichte, 18) that the Praxitelean statue, 
which was evidently placed by the side 
of an older one, was erected in 346-345 
B.C. The inscriptions, with their con- 
fusing descripUons of two different 
statues, do not seem to me to bear 
out Prof. Robertas conclusions, namely 
that the Praxitelean statue was of wood 
and a standing figure, and that the older 
image, dedicated perhaps soon after the 
shrine was built in the time of the 
Peisistratidae, was of stone and repre- 
sented the seated goddess. A seated 
Artemis in the archaic period, as a cult- 
figure, isy so far as I am aware, an 
unknown type ; it was very rare in any 
period. It is more likely that Praxi- 
teles made the innovation than that the 



archaic sculptor should have changed 
the traditional form. We know from 
the inscriptions that one statue in the 
shrine was standing and the other seated ; 
it seems to me more probable that rh 
&yaXiJM rd iffTriK6s is the same as rd 

« The text in Pausanias xo. 37, i 
(reading (fiyoy ruv Upa^irikovs instead 
of ipywy Tuy IlpcL^iriXovSy which can 
scarcely be grammatically translated) 
ought more naturally to mean a 'work of 
the sons of Praxiteles ' ; for there is no 
evidence that Pausanias could use such 
a phrase for ' a Praxitelean work.' The 
other instance often quoted to support 
this meaning is not really parallel : ipyow 
rwv M^peavos $ias fiAkicrra Si^iov (9. 30, 
i) ; for there the genitive depends on 
the comparative phrase that follows. 
A coin of Anticyra presents us with an 
Artemis that corresponds closely with 
the description in Pausanias, but we 
cannot judge of the style of the original 
by its help and we cannot say how far 
it reproduces the pose. 

* Num, Comm, Pans, A. 10, Y. 17. 



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542 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

of Artemis for the Greek imagination. For Petronius, in 
praising a woman's beauty, speaks of her small lips as such 
as those * which Praxiteles believed Diana to have.' It is a 
slight phrase, but it proves that it was the Praxitelean Artemis 
that would first occur to an appreciative writer when speaking 
of the goddess ; and it suggests that the form of the mouth 
was that which gave character to the whole countenance. 
Now the Hermes of Olympia, the Cnidian Aphrodite of 
Munich, and the relief of the Muses at Athens show how 
much of the peculiar spiritual quality that belongs to the Praxi- 
telean countenance was derived from his treatment of the 
mouth, to which he gave that strange half-smile and expression 
of dreamy self-consciousness. But we cannot suppose that he 
would lend such expression to the face of Artemis, to whom it 
would be quite inappropriate. An epigram of Diotimus speaks 
of her proud and spirited look », and we find this not infre- 
quently on works that belong to fourth-century art or are 
descended from it. But this is not the Praxitelean expression 
that hitherto we have known; and we are left without 
sufficient criteria for identifying among existing monuments 
those that may have been derived from his originals ; for the 
figure on the coin of Anticyra, even if we allow that it is 
a superficial reproduction of a Praxitelean work, is of little 
use to us, for it does not agree with the figure on the coins of 
Megara in pose or drapery or treatment of the hair. 

One or two representations of Artemis may be here men- 
tioned that show much of the spirit and feeling of Praxitelean 
sculpture. The marble statuette in the Vienna Museum 
(PI. XXX. a), of which the motive has already been described, 
is probably a work of the younger Attic school, and claims 
a high place among the monuments of the goddess for the 
beautiful rendering of the flesh and for the expression of 
character in the face. Her drapery, which preserves traces of 
colour, is a high-girt Doric diplois open at the right side, and 
a mantle which is brought in a thick narrow fold across her 
body and falls over her left arm. The face is high, the 
features maidenly and noble. The hair is carefully drawn 

• Anth, Pal, a. p. 674, no. 158. 



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XVIII.] IDEAL TYPES OF ARTEMIS. 543 

away from the forehead and temples, the tyts are long and 
rather narrow, the line of the eyebrows is straight and pure ; 
the wall of the nose near the eyes is very large, as it is in the 
Hermes' head ; the upper lip is slightly curved and the lower 
lip is very full ; the chin is large and the cheeks are broad. 
The tyts are full of thought, with a distant inscrutable look 
in them, and the proud reserved expression accords with the 
self-centred life of the goddess. This is a figure of the 
temple-worship, but it is also the Artemis of the popular 
poetic imagination. 

To this period belongs a marble life-size figure in the 
Louvre* of a maiden securing the ends of her mantle over her 
right shoulder in a clasp. It was found at Gabii, and may be 
regarded with some probability as a representation of the 
girl-Artemis ; for though the genre action would be suitable 
enough to a nymph or an Attic maiden arranging her dress, 
we have one undoubted figure of the young goddess with 
her hair arranged in the same fashion as we see in this^ 
The face, although the deadness of the surface shows 
the hand of the Roman copyist, preserves something of 
Praxitelean form and expression ; and the romantic or genre 
treatment of a divine theme is in accordance with the 
practice of Praxiteles. If this is Artemis, it is the girl- 
goddess in solitude, absorbed in her own woodland life, and 
naively indifferent to worship. 

The coins of Syracuse which have already been mentioned, 
and of which a specimen is given on Coin PI. B 36, struck 
not much later than the middle of the fourth century, 
present an interesting and characteristic type of the Artemis- 
head. The forms of the countenance resemble those of 
Apollo in contemporary art, but the expression is colder and 
more reserved. The arrangement of the hair is simple and 
displays the height of the forehead ; the features are broad 
and strong and of a noble type. We may believe that this 
resemblance to Apollo noted here became part of the received 
ideal of Artemis from now onwards ; for we find it as the chief 

» Denkm. d, Alt. Kunst, a. 180. 

* Kekul6, Griech. Thonfigur. aus Tanagra, Taf. 17. 



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Plate XXXVI 



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544 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

feature in Claudian's description of her, which is perhaps 
inspired by some representation of Alexandrine art: * there was 
much of her brother in her face, and you might deem her cheeks 
the cheeks of Phoebus, her eyes his eyes V This family like- 
ness appears strongly impressed upon the countenances of the 
twin divinities on the cameo published by Prof. Overbeck, 
a work of the Alexandrine period^; it is recognizable in the 
Artemis of Versailles and the Apollo Belvidere. 

It may be that some work of the younger Attic school is the 
source whence the Artemis Colonna in Berlin (PI. XXXVI) 
has been derived *'. The statue is a Graeco-Roman copy of 
average merit, but without much vitality. The pose and 
action are somewhat difficult to explain. She is hurrying 
forward, with both arms partly stretched out ; the right hand 
certainly held nothing, but the left was grasping something 
that must have been either a torch or a bow. The expression 
is one of proud indifference, and the eyes are fixed upon some 
distant object; we might suppose that she has just dis- 
charged an arrow and is gazing upon the distant quarry, and 
that the action of the archer still lingers, so to speak, in the 
hands, the right still holding out the bow and the left just 
drawn back after releasing the string. Her drapery is a long 
Doric diplois without girdle. The features are pure and 
maidenly, the forehead rather high, the lips thin and half open. 

We cannot say with certainty that the development and 
perfecting of the ideal of Artemis was the achievement of 
sculpture alone; for Pliny places among the masterpieces 
of Apelles *^ a picture of Artemis in the midst of a group of 

• • At Triviae lenis species, et multus ^ Overbeck, Kunst-Mythologie, Gem- 
in ore mentafel no. 7. 

Frater erat, Phoebiqoe genas et la- ^ Wieseler (DenJkm. d, Alt. Kumt, 

mina Phoebi 2. 167) after a long discussion refers it 

Esse putes, solusqne dabat discri- to the younger Attic school ; Frie- 

mina sexus. derichs to a Praxitelean original {JPraxi- 

Brachia nuda nitent, levibns proie- teles und die Niobe-Gruppe). The 

cerat auris quaint arrangement of the hair, which 

Indociles errare comas, arcuque re- is twisted round the quiver and supports 

misso it. is probably an affectation of the later 

Olia nervus agit, pendent post terga cop3rist. 

sagitt&e:— De J^apt. Proserp, 2, 2'j. * Pliny, N. H. 35. 96: *Peritiorcs 



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Plate XXXVIIa 



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xvin.] IDEAL TYPES OF ARTEMIS. 545 

maidens sacrificing; and the names of other painters also 
are recorded, Nicomachus\ Timotheus^ Timarete^ who 
worked on this theme. 

From the Hellenistic period two monuments may be 
selected as t3^ical of the later style. The Artemis of Ver- 
sailles has sometimes been wrongly regarded as intended to 
be grouped with Apollo Belvidere : the style of the features 
shows much resemblance, but the countenance of Artemis 
expresses no anger or excitement, but only earnestness ; she 
is equipped as the huntress, in short chiton with the mantle 
wrapped round her body, but she is conceived by the sculptor 
not as the capturer of the hind whose horns she is holding, 
but as its protector against some beast of prey, towards which 
she hurries while she draws the arrow from the quiver ; the 
idea of the slim and strong maiden-divinity is well expressed 
in the limbs and the details of the head*. The Artemis 
of the Pergamene frieze (PI. XXXVII. a) is a figure which 
shows some external affinity to the Versailles figure: here 
also she appears in the character of the huntress, wearing 
a short woollen chiton which leaves the shoulders bare, and 
which is bound round her waist by a scarf that is drawn across 
the breast ; the features are fresh and delicate, and do not 
wholly conform to the usual Pergamene type, for the face has 
not the fullness nor the protuberance of the forehead in the 
middle above the eyes, that we usually find in the other 
faces on the frieze; the lines about the mouth remind us 
slightly of the style of Praxiteles ; the hair is drawn back 
so as fully to reveal the face, and is bound up in a high 
knot behind. For vigour of movement and warm treatment 
of the surface, this frieze-figure surpasses any other repre- 

artis praefenint omnibus eins operibnt ^ Id. 36. 5a. 
. . . Dianam saciificantiTim choro yir- « Id, 55. 147. 
ginam mixtam, qnibos vicisse Homeri ^ There is a close parallel between 

versus yidetur id ipsum describentis* (cf. the Versailles figure and the representa- 

Od. 6. loa ; Horn. Hymn to Artemis, tion on a gem published from Millia 

1. 16 : •HTfrroi xapitrra wf pJ xf^ *<^- ^ MuUer-Wieieler's DenkmdUr (no. 

Moy lxov<r<> l^6pxowia xopovs). The text 157 a), only that here the figure of 

of Pliny is doubtful, but its difficulties Artemis has still more of the Amazonian 

cannot be here discussed. character, the right breast being ex- 

• Pliny, N.ff, 35. 108. posed. 

VOL. II. K 



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546 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

sentation of the goddess that has come down to us from the 
Hellenistic age. 

In the later period many of the earlier types may have often 
been successfully reproduced. A striking example is the 
statue in Dresden (PL XXXV. b) of the Graeco-Roman age, 
but derived perhaps from some original of the earlier Attic 
period •, representing the goddess in long Doric double chiton 
that falls in austere folds down to the feet ; there is no g^irdle 
visible, but the quiver-band presses the light raiment over 
the breast. The arms and hands are antique, with the excep- 
tion of the finger-tips, and it is clear that she was holding the 
bow in a peaceful way against her left side, and her right 
hand was raised to the quiver. But as the whole pose of 
upper and lower limbs is most tranquil, we must believe that 
this hand is lifted not to draw an arrow but to close the 
quiver, and this motive would agree with the mild gentleness 
that appears in the face. In drapery and pose it shows 
something of the solemnity of temple-sculpture, and it ex- 
presses the ancient idea of the goddess who was friendly 
to the beasts of the field and to the children of men. 

The survey of the chief monuments that express the ideal 
of Artemis may close with a notice of the singular work of the 
Messenian sculptor Damiphon. We have record of three 
statues of the goddess carved by his hand, an Artemis Laphria 
at Messene*^^ an Artemis Phosphorus in the same city, 
probably belonging to a group of which Tyche, Epaminondas, 
and the City of Thebes were the other figures*®, and an 
Artemis in the temple of Despoina at Lycosura, standing near 
the two divinities of the temple, Demeter and Despoina, bear- 
ing a doe-skin on her shoulders, a quiver on her back, in one 
hand a torch, and two serpents in the other***. Until recently 
all writers were agreed in reckoning Damophon among the 
sculptors of the middle of the fourth century; and in the 
absence of direct evidence this would be the natural view. 
We might suppose with Brunn that he was an artist who 
maintained the tradition of the religious sculpture of the fifth 
century ; and as his chief works were in Messenia and Arcadia, 

• Dr. Fnrtwangler, in Meistertverkey p. 324, maintains its Praxitelean origin. 



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Plate XXXVII* 



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XVIII.] IDEAL TYPES OF ARTEMIS. 547 

and as the group for which he carved the Artemis Phosphorus 
commemorated the glory of Thebes and Epaminondas, it might 
be concluded positively that he flourished about the time of 
the building of Megalopolis and the restoration of Messene. 
But in 1889 the shrine at Lycosura was discovered, together 
with much of the sculpture by Damophon, and one is now 
compelled to assign him to a later date. For Dr. Dorpfeld •, 
whose authority on architectural questions is very weighty, 
maintains that the excavated temple shows the bad work- 
manship of the later period, and that the temple was built and 
the sculpture carved of the same material and at the same 
time. He determines that the building cannot be earlier than 
the second, and may be as late as the first century B. C. 

If the temple is to be assigned to the second century, it is 
quite possible to reconcile the style of the sculpture with the 
acceptance of that date. The heads of Demeter, Artemis, and 
Anytos display neither the forms nor the purity of fourth- 
century sculpture. But, on the other hand, few who have 
seen and carefully studied the originals could believe with 
Prof. Overbeck* that they are as late as Hadrian's period. 
For no work of this later age of Graeco-Roman art displays 
such warm treatment of the surface, such soft modulation of 
the flesh, or such exuberant life as these fragments of Damo- 
phon's works. The monuments which they vividly recall are 
those of the second Pergamene period ; the sculpture of the 
altar-frieze displays the same warmth and the same exuber- 
ance in handling and working out the forms. And the type 
of Damophon's heads agrees in many essentials with the 
Pergamene type^ The height of the skull is greater than 
the depth ; there is little or no marking of the bone-structure, 
but the chief emphasis is on the flesh ; the breadth between 
the eyes and the depth of the eye-sockets is very great. 
These are Pergamene traits ; but what chiefly reminds us of 
the Pergamene style in the heads of Demeter and Artemis is 

• A then. MittheU. 1890 and 1893. the originals. 

*► Gesch, d. Griech, Plast. (4th ed.), • Vide my analysis of the Perga- 

Tol. 3. p. 488: his account of the heads mene head in Hellenic Journal, 1890, 
seems to imply that he has not seen p. 183. 

K 2 



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548 GREEK RELIGION. 

the treatment of the mouth and the full lips, which as it were 
pout forward, and the strange convex shape of Dcmeter's 
eyeball ; this last detail of form the Pergamene school 
inherited from Scopas. We may also note the close affinity 
between the head of Anytos and some of the giants' heads 
on the Pergamene frieze; his beard, for example, shows 
a singular resemblance to that of the giant confronting 
Hekate. 

We may take, then, this head of Artemis (PI. XXXVII b) 
as one of the last among the monuments of the goddess 
belonging to the Greek period. The religious severity and 
purity of the older style are gone ; but the freshness and 
warmth of life still remains. In spite of its colossal size, it 
impresses us rather as the face of a healthy girl, joyous and 
eager, than as the face of a goddess. 



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Plate XXXVIII 



face page 549 

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CHAPTER XIX. 

HEKATE: REPRESENTATIONS IN ART. 

The evidence of the monuments as to the character and 
significance of Hekate is almost as full as that of the literature. 
But it is only in the later period that they come to express 
her manifold and mystic nature. Before the fifth century 
there is little doubt that she was usually represented as of 
single form like any other divinity, and it was thus that the 
Boeotian poet imagined her, as nothing in his verses contains 
any allusion to a triple-formed goddess. The earliest known 
monument is a small terracotta found in Athens, with a dedi- 
cation to Hekate (PL XXXVIII. a), in writing of the style of 
the sixth century. The goddess is seated on a throne with 
a chaplet bound round her head ; she is altogether without 
attributes and character, and the only value of this work, 
which is evidently of quite a general type and gets a special 
reference and name merely from the inscription », is that it 
proves the single shape to be her earlier form, and her recog- 
nition at Athens to be earlier than the Persian invasion. 

With this single exception, the black-figured and earlier 
red-figured vases are the only monuments that show us the 
figure of Hekate in the archaic and transitional periods^; 
and on these, as well as on the vases of the later time, her 
form is single, and her usual attribute is the double torch. 
Also, so far as we can define the significance that she has 

* As Frankel (Arch. Zeif, iSSa. beHekate,a8Welckersnppotes»w^iiiia/f, 

p. 365) points oat, it is not distinguish- a, p. 70. No Greek could have put 

able in form from the seated Athena that interpretation upon the figure, 

found in Athens. which has no attribute of Hekate, nor 

^ The goddess on the Aeginetan has Hekate any right to be associated 

relief in the chariot with Eros cannot with Eros. 



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550 GREEK REUGION. [chap. 

in these early representations, we must say that there is no 
reference to her lunar character, but dear reference to her as 
a goddess of the lower world, or of the earth. 

Thus on a black-figured vase of Berlin • we see Hekate with 
torches, standing over against Cora, and between them the 
chthonian Hermes riding on a goat*; and with the same 
form and attributes she is present on a Nolan vase in 
a representation of the setting forth of Triptolemos with the 
gifts of com®. The other persons present are Demeter, 
Proserpine, probably Artemis, and Hades, so that Hekate 
is here associated with the Eleusinian divinities of vegetation 
and the lower world. 

But on the evidence of this and one or two other similar 
vase-paintings we have no right, in the absence of any literary 
evidence, to assume with Steuding* that the goddess was 
ever received into the mystic cult at Eleusis : it is a common 
thing for the vase-painters to amplify their groups with 
cognate or appropriate figures without any express sanction 
of cult or l^end. 

Other vase-representations in which Hekate appears clearly 
designated as a divinity of the lower world are very rare, and 
the interpretation which discovers her in these is often very 
doubtful. Thus in the various paintings of the carrying off of 
Proserpine, a figure that has often been called Hekate * may 
be a torch-bearing Demeten The only certain instance that 

• PL XXXVIII. b {Arch. Zeit, 1868, Hekate, it may as weU be Artemis. 
Taf. 9). * Roscher, Lexicon, p. 1893. 

^ We fmd Hekate again with Hermes « Overbeck, Kunst-Mythologie, a. 

and in company with Demeter on a vase pp. 601-608. On a vase (published 

of the fifth century, published in Ger- Afon, delV Inst, a. Tav. 49) that repre- 

hard, AuserUs. Vasenb, i. 317. sents Heracles capturing Cerberus, 

« Man, deir Inst, i. Tav. 4. But there is a figure which is sometimes 

we cannot always give the name of called Hekate thrusting a torch into his 

Hekate to the goddess with two torches face ; but it may be a Fury. And the 

in vase-representations of this myth : statement that Hekate was regarded as 

the name might suit this figure on the the &yy*\oi or the Iris of Hell rests on 

Louvre vase (Overbeck, Kunst-MythoL the interpretation of a figure holding 

Atlas ^ 15. 30), but on the vase of the a torch and standing by Hades on 

Due de Luynes (t^. no. 13) a similar a vase published in the BtdlUino Nap, 

figure must be called Persephone or vol. 3. Tav. 3 : this again is very pro- 

Demeter ; in all other cases, except bably a Fuiy. 
where an inscription gives the name of 



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XIX.] HEKATE: REPRESENTATIONS IN ART. 551 

may be quoted is a representation of this scene on a vase of 
the fourth century, of South Italian style, in the British 
Museum. We see a goddess with a circle of rays round her 
head and torches in her hand preceding the chariot that bears 
Hades and Proserpine. It is impossible that this figure 
should be Selene or Demeter or a Fury, or any other than 
Hekate, who here appears as a lunar and also as a nether 
divinity, possibly also a divinity of marriage, as in the 
Troades of Euripides. 

This is almost all that we can gather about Hekate from the 
vase-paintings of any period ; there is nothing distinctive in 
her form or drapery, and even the two torches are no sure 
clue to recognize her by. We have accounts of the form of 
Hekate in painting which give us certain details that the 
vases fail to supply: according to the extract quoted by 
Eusebius from Porphyry ^^», she was represented with a white 
robe and golden sandals on one of her shapes, and bronze 
sandals on another ; but probably this is a type belonging to 
a late period of art 

Among the works of sculpture of the fifth century, the 
chief representation of Hekate was Myron's; unfortunately 
all that we are told of this statue is that it showed the 
goddess in single form, and that it was wrought for the 
Aeginetan worship. If Myron in this work indulged his 
ruling passion for dramatic movement, then we might illus- 
trate his Hekate by the relief which Dr. Conze discovered in 
Thasos (PI. XXXIX. a) and published, on which the goddess 
is seen sweeping along in long chiton holding two torches, 
with her wild hounds leaping at her side ». 

From Alcamenes onwards the triple form of Hekate is more 
common than the single, although this latter never entirely 
dies out. Pausanias in a well-known passage attributes to 
Alcamenes himself the invention of this new type; but 
all that we have the right to conclude from his words is that 
he was the first sculptor of eminence who carved a triple 
statue of the goddess. It is probable that the triple form 
had been seen in monuments before Alcamenes' work was 

* Conze, KHse aufden Instln d, tkrakischen Meeres, TaC 10. 4. 



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552 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

produced. But the question what this triplicity meant must be 
first discussed. Some of the kte writers on mythology, such 
as Cornutus and Cleomedes " '» \ and some of the modern, 
such as Preller and the writer in Roscher's Lexicon and 
Petersen, explain the three figures as symbols of the three 
phases of the moon. But very little can be said in favour of 
this, and very much against it. In the first place, the statue 
of Alcamenes represented Hekate 'ETrtTrvpyidfa, whom the 
Athenian of that period regarded as the warder of the gate 
of his Acropolis ^®, and as associated in this particular spot 
with the Charites ^*, deities of the life that blossoms and yields 
fruit. Neither in this place nor before the door of the citizen's 
house did she appear as a lunar goddess. 

We may also ask, Why should a divinity who was sometimes 
regarded as the moon, but had many other and even more 
important connexions, be given three forms to mark the three 
phases of the moon, and why should Greek sculpture have 
been in this solitary instance guilty of a frigid astronomical 
symbolism, while Selene, who was obviously the moon and 
nothing else, was never treated in this way ? With as much 
taste and propriety Helios might have been given twelve 
heads. 

If this had been actually the intention of Alcamenes, it is 
difficult to know how he could make the Athenian public 
discover it in his figure ; and we too often forget to ask how 
the ordinary Greek would naturally regard a monument. It 
is fairly certain that unless Alcamenes put a crescent over the 
forehead of each of his figures they would not be all clearly 
recognized as ' moon-phases ' : he may have done this, or any- 
thing else, as we know nothing at all of the details of his 
work ; but, as it is only the latest monuments that show the 
crescent at all, and these only over one of the heads, it is not 
probable that Alcamenes placed this badge over each. In the 
relief found in Aegina (PI. XXXIX. c) we see that the one 
figure holds the torches, the second a pitcher, and the third 
a cup ; and Petersen supposes that all these things alluded to 
the moon, who sheds the gracious dew on the herbs * The 

• Arch, Epigr, MitthiiL am Oisterreich, 4. p. 167. 



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'f . .1 d \v(. t.>n I'ftt'p : ■:;,; 'I t'- a ', ^i' .V 

• .1 I 't:ui..:l) rc:;airl a rio. I'liaeU. It. 

-•3 An,ani:'iics v-.X a crt hCent ovf- \Vc. 

' ::rLolhey \.o-i,l n.->t bo all c!.-a:!/ 

- s': h'* iiiay Iiavc <U>:w- thin i-'* a'ly- 

.■ n ^thln^r at all ui tr-; dctai s o\ i''^ 

\' the jat '-I Ti..>ni 1 H'it> tb.at show li ^ 

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d Pc •-;'■ tu sup;-'.-.v-. that ad the: e things alhided to 

\\' o '! -d.' the ;^'uriur.s dew en the herbs*, 'i b.c 



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Plate XXXIX 



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Digitized by VjVJElV^iflr p€igt 55a 



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XIX.] HEKATE: REPRESENTATIONS IN ART. 553 

torch would occasionally, though not always, suggest to a Greek 
that the person bearing it was Selene. But what evidence 
have we that the pitcher and the cup allude to dew, and that 
these are the ordinary symbols of the moon-goddess.^ For 
the figure that bore these could only be certainly recognized 
as Selene if Selene were/^?r excellence a cup-bearer ; but she 
is not. Therefore if Alcamenes' figures merely carried torch, 
cup, and pitcher, his great idea that the triple shape should 
symbolize the three phases of the dewy moon would have 
been scarcely revealed to the public. 

In fact, among the many late monuments that represent the 
triple Hekate, there is none of which two of the figures do 
not carry some attribute or property that cannot designate 
Selene •. We can apply the name with certainty, then, to one 
only of such figures ^ 

A second explanation which rests also on ancient authority 
is that the triple shape has reference to the Hesiodic idea of 
a goddess whose divinity is of many elements ; that the He- 
kateion is in fact a trinity of Selene, Persephone, and Artemis, 
or represents the K6pf\ ^oxr^Jpo; in shapes and with attributes 
that are drawn from the moon, the lower world, and the earth. 
Such an explanation may be supported by the analogy of 
such figures as the double-headed Zeus, Zeus Tpio^^aXfio;, and 
perhaps the two-headed Boreas on the vase representing the 
pursuit of Oreithyia *^. 

* In the description given by the conret of the waxing and waning moon 

scholiast on Theocritus 2. 12, some of respectively. Perhaps it is only an 

the attributes have evidently no refer- accident that the writer has got the 

ence to the moon, for instance the cala- curves of the waxing and waning moon 

thus ; cf. "K wrong, or has put right for left ; the 

^ The most curious argument in favour flaw in the argument is that the arrange- 

of the equation of the triple Hekate to ment is not peculiar, as three figures 

the three periods of the moon is ad- cannot be placed back to back in any 

vanced by Steuding in his article in other way. Also it is asking a great 

Roscher, p. 1890. Alcamenes, he main- deal to ask us to believe that the Greek, 

tains, must have been thinking of the when gazing at his statues, was in the 

three phases of the moon because he habit of comparing the human profiles 

has grouped his three figures in so with curves of astral bodies, 

peculiar a manner that wherever you ** One of his laces is dark, the other 

stand you see a middle one en fac$ light ; it may be that he is thus charac- 

which equals the full moon, and left and terized as a divinity of the upper and 

right profiles which correspond to the lower world. 



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554 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

The objection to this view is rather that it is insufficient 
than incorrect. Artemis, Demeter, Hermes, Aphrodite have 
each many natures and different spheres in which they act : 
but the idea of representing any one of these as a multiplicity 
or trinity of figures never occurred to any Greek artist 
And though Hekate may have been ordinarily recognized 
as a goddess of three worlds, having associations with Selene, 
Artemis, and Persephone, a triple shape would scarcely have 
been given her for this reason only, had not her figure for 
practical purposes already been made triple at the cross-roads. 
It is true that we have no certain proof that this had happened 
before the time of Alcamenes, but it is the only reasonable 
motive for the shape of his statue at the entrance to the 
Acropolis. All that we need suppose is that the ^EKireia at 
the cross-roads or before the houses had already been given 
three heads*. This would suggest to Alcamenes to enlarge 
upon this type that had been invented for practical con- 
venience only, and to group together three figures around 
a column or back to back, as well as to invest each figure 
with attributes that alluded to the complex nature of the 
divinity, so that the triplicity was no longer merely a con- 
venience but an expression of essential character. 

After Alcamenes there was no great sculptor to whom 
a triple Hekate is attributed ^. Among the many representa* 
tions that have come down to us, then, we might expect 
to find some traces of the influence of his work. It is quite 
gratuitous to r^^rd such works as the Hekate of the Capito- 

• We know there were *E«dr€io before uncertain), cannot with certainty be re- 

the doors in the time of the Pelopon- garded as forming a group of three with 

nesian war ; and both here and at the the temple-statne of Scopas, so as to 

cross-roads there was a motive for express the triple idea. We do not 

tripling the heads at least, namely that know when they were wrought or 

the countenance might guard egress and whether they stood in the same temple 

approach from either direction, or make as the image by Scopas; for Pausanias* 

the path of the traveller lucky which- words, rd diraKrivpv. may refer to 

ever way he took. But the monuments statues on the other side of the road, 

fail to prove this, all the three-headed and do not seem naturally to apply 

Hermae of Hekate being late. to a group, especially as they were 

^ The two statues of Hekate at Argos, of bronze while Scopas* work was of 

wrought by Naukydes and Polycleitus"^ marble, 
(whether the older or the younger is 



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XIX.] HEKATE: REPRESENTATIONS IN ART. 555 

line • or the Leyden Museum ^ as copies ; there is nothing in 
the style of these that has any far-off association with the age 
of Alcamenes. But the claim of the relief found in Aegina, 
and now in Konigswart in Bohemia (PI. XXXIX. c), to 
represent something of the spirit of the original work is 
certainly greater®. The work appears to be of the fourth 
century B. C, and to possess considerable artistic merit ; so 
far as can be judged from the publications of it, the faces 
have a dignity and breadth that recall the older style, the 
hair is drawn away from the cheek, and the expression is 
austere and solemn. But the archaism in the treatment of the 
drapery is not what would be expected from a pupil of Phei- 
dias, unless it were retained as a tradition of hieratic sculpture ; 
and Petersen may be right in regarding a lately found frag- 
ment of a Hekateion, which he has published in the Romische 
Mittheilungen des deutschen Institutes \ as standing nearer 
to the work of Alcamenes (PI. XXXIX. b). Unfortunately 
nothing is preserved but the three torsos, set back to back ; 
from the position of the arms we can conjecture that the 
hands held such attributes as pitcher, cup, or torch. What is 
most important in the fragment is the treatment of the dra- 
pery, which shows the folds and the arrangement common in 
works of the Pheidian school, the girdle hidden, and the 
upper fold of the chiton drawn down so as to form a rich 
border across the waist. 

Among the later monuments representing the triple Hekate 
we find illustration of nearly all the religious ideas that have 
been already examined. 

Her connexion with the Charites at Athens explains those 
works on which, under the Hermae of the triple goddess, 
three maidens are represented dancing hand in hand around 
the shaft**: the maidens bear the calathus — the emblem of 
fruitfulness— on their heads, and themselves have something 
of the form of Hekate. 

• Published in Roscher, p. 1905. Alcamenes, dyaX/Mra rpia wpo<r(x^M**'o, 

• jlfxA. Zeit. I. Taf. 8. dAX^Xois, are not altogether clear. 

• The gronping of the Bgures cannot * 4* p. 73* 

make for or against the theoiy, for Pan- • Gerhard, Akad. Abkandl. Taf. 32. 4, 
sanias' words describing the woric of 



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556 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

The same idea, her association with the fruitfulness of the 
earth, is expressed by the symbol of the apple which one or 
more figures of the triple group is often holding in her hand, 
as on the monument from Catajo in Vienna*; and by the 
fruits that are sometimes carved on the shaft of the Hekate 
column. Between the shoulders of the figures on the monu- 
ment just mentioned we see a small statue of Pan ; and some 
association of her with the Phrygian worship may explain the 
Phrygian cap which one of her figfures wears in the bronze of 
the Capitoline^ and anotlier bronze of the British Museum. 

The character of Hekate KXciSovxos **, the guardian of the 
gate, is shown by the key which appears in the hands of many 
of her figures ; and possibly this alludes not only to the gate 
of the house and the city, but to the gate of hell, which she 
might be supposed to keep : as the key is known to have been 
also the badge of Hades ®. 

The later coins and gems and works of sculpture afford 
ample illustration of her infernal and terrifying aspect ; her 
hair is sometimes wreathed with serpents, like the Grorgon's ; 
or the snake appears in her hand, a symbol of the same sig- 
nificance as the whip and cord which she borrows from the 
Furies ; the sword or the dagger which she often holds refers 
to the goddess of retribution. 

A monument full of archaeological illustration of the bizarre 
ideas in this worship is the marble Hekateion of the Brucken- 
thal collection at Hermanstadt (PI. XXXIX. d). The body of 
the front form is divided by parallel lines into different fields ^. 
On her shoulders are carved in low relief two figures, the one 
being Tyche holding a horn, the other perhaps Nemesis ; on 
her breast is a rising sun : on the second field women with 
children, and Hermes with caduceus^ and two animals — 
probably hounds : on the third the scene may probably be 
interpreted as the initiation of a child ; there is the triple 
image of Hekate on the left, and on the right a woman is 

• Gerhard, Akad, AbkandL Taf. 33. a key at Olympia (Pans. 5. ao). 

I, a. ^ Vide more detailed aocoant in 

^ Roscher, p. 1906. Yi%ri\»aatJxd\tn9XV%AfyihsandMonu* 

* There was a statne of Pioaton with ments of Ancient Athens^ p. 381. 



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Plate XL 



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XIX.] HEKATE: REPRESENTATIONS IN ART 557 

holding a knife over an animal that seems to be a small 
dog*. 

In the latest gems we sometimes find her lunar character 
very clearly shown, as on a gem published by Miiller^ on 
which the moon is seen looking out of a cloud above Hekate. 

This representation shows a different treatment of the triple 
form : we see three heads and shoulders and six hands, but 
the lower part of her body is single, and closely resembles 
that of the Ephesian Artemis. We have probably here a real 
reminiscence of this cognate cult, and as we find bulls' heads 
wrought on the idol of Ephesus, so here on the gem we see 
bulls at the feet of Hekate. 

This type of the single body with the three heads and 

shoulders may have descended from the earlier Hermae of 

the street and the cross-ways, and it existed by the side of the 

full triple form in late times, though it was probably far less 

commonly used for temple-monuments. But where Hekate 

was represented in dramatic action, the former type was 

more likely to be used, as it could be shown in much more 

natural movement than the trinity of three complete figures. 

The most memorable instance of the single body with the 

six arms and three heads is found on the Pergamene frieze 

(PI. XL.), where she is armed with spelkr, sword, shield and 

torch, and is engaged in conflict with a serpent-footed giant. 

It is interesting to see that the form of the goddess in this 

last monument of genuinely Greek sculpture is free from the 

terrifying traits and the turgid symbolism with which later 

literature and art had invested her. The deity of the nether 

world is marked by the protruding forehead, the forward fall 

of the hair, the earnest and fixed expression, and the solemnity 

given by the shadows into which the profiles are cast ; and 

here, as in the earlier vase-paintings and in the Aeginetan 

relief, the forms and the drapery are such as are proper to 

the maidenly goddess. 

• An initiatioo to Hekate might be is the inscription MVJTA; but the 

allnded to in a vase-painting pablished interpretation given of it there seems to 

in the Annali deP InstUuto, 1865, Tav. me very donbtfnl. 
d'Agg. F (p. 95), representing two * Denkm, d. alt, Kunst, 2. 888. 

youths seated before a table, above which 



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558 GREEK RELIGION. 



REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 

Artemis of the water. 

* Artemis Ai/M^artr at Limnae on the borders of Messenia and Laconia : 

PaUS. 4. 4, 2 ttaruf tv\ roit ^potr 1^9 yitvofiviat Uphw 'kpriiubov KaXovfUvrjt 
Ai/Ai/aridor, iitrtixov dc avrov /i6»oi LmpU»p oi re Mf cnrijHot icnt ol Aeuc€^tii6¥UH, 
Strabo, 362 t6 V iv Aifxvais TTJs*ApT(fulios Upop , , , iv fuSopiois itrri Tfjs re 
AaKavucfjs Kol rijs Mtaarfpias thfov Kottnjp avptrtXovw nopf/yvpip Koi 6v<ria» 
afjuf>6Ttpoi . . . aw6 di rov Atfivmp rovrav koi t6 cv r§ 2irdpTjj AifiMuby ctpi^roi 

TTjs *ApT€fiUh£ itp6¥. Tac. Ann. 4. 43 Auditae de hinc Lacedaemoni- 
orum et Messeniorum legationes de iure templi Dianae Limnatidis 
quod suis a maioribus suaque in terra dicatum Lacedaemonii firmabant 
annalium memoria vatumque carminibus. Cf. inscription published 
Arch. Zeit 1876, p. 130; Roehl, Ins, Graec, AnL 50 archaic dedica- 
tion Ac/irarcf on a brazen cymbal. Cf. ib, 61. 73. Vide also Arch. 
ZeiL 1876, Tat v. 

* Artemis Atfmtla at Sicyon : Pans. 2. 7, 6 ^ii{owruf eV rffwayopop i<m 
waht *Apr€fxi&is fV dc(i$ Aifipolat, AifUfOTis in EpidauTUs: Paus. 3* 23, 10 
jcori rrfp 6d6p ti^p ^k Bowp cr *Emdavpop ayovaav ^AfyrtfiUiot Up6p tanp tp rj 
'£irtdav/HW AifiPOTidus, At Patrae : Paus. 7. 20, 7-8 r^i W ayopat 

aPTiKpvs KOT avrrp^ rrjp dU^obop T€fi€p6s itrriP *Aiyrtfudos Koi Mt^ff Aifipdri^of, 
€X0PT»p di ijbri Atuctdaifiopa Koi "Apyos Ampi€<av v<f)€\i(r$ai llp€vy€vrfp rfjs 
Aipvan^ t6 Syakpa tuxrk S^ip ovtiparot Xryovo-iK eV Sfrapri;^ . • . r6 df 
ayakpja rh tK r^c AoKtbaipopos top pip SXXop XP^"^^ <)(Ov<riy cV Mccro^ . • • 
tntidap df rj Aippttrt^i t^p toprrip aya>cn, rtjs $€ov rej t&p olKtr&p cV M«<r6a£ 
tlpXrrai rh (6apop KopiC^p t6 ap\aiop (S t6 T€ptpos t6 €p rg ttAci. Near 
Tegea : Paus. 8. 53, 1 1 Up^p *ApTtpidos hriKkiiaiP Aippdndos xal Syakpd 
tfrrip t^€Pov ft/XoV rponos di Ttjt ipyamat 6 Alyipoios Ka\ovp€Po^ wri 
'E\\ffP»p, £ur. Hipp, 228 dtairoip* 6Xias "Aprtpt Xifxpos Koi yvppaaiap 
T»i' ImroKp^Ttap, 

' Artemis Srvfc^iyXm at Stymphelus in Arcadia: Paus. 8. 22, 7 eV 

2TVfi<l>rjK^ de icai Up6p 'Apr«pib6s ioruf dpxaiop 2Tvp<f>ffkias* ro df oyakfAa 
(6€Uf6p €tm ri iroXX^ inixpvtrop. trphs bi roO paov ry dp^fJHj^ irtnoiripipai 
KOI at ^Tvp<l>ff\ib€s «i<r\p Sppt6tt. 

* Artemis 'AX^cima at Letrini in Elis : Paus. 6. 22, 8 cV e/iot) dc oUfipard 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-^XIX. 559 

Tff cXf«rrcro okiya mi *AX<fHUkiav *Aprc/udof ^yak/ia cV paf . . . l</. § lO ol d^ 
*HXcioc . . • rck irapa tr^lauf *ApTtfuii is TifOfP Tff *EXaff>uu^ ictt$tirnfK6ra €s 
Atrpivovg T€ furriyayinr km rg *ApT€fAidi Mfiiaop rj XX^fia^i ^P9*'> '^^ ^^ 
T7^ 'AX^cioioy $€6p *FXaKl>ialaw ta^ XP^^^^ t^Uriatp 6pnnaa0rjp€u, Paus. 5* 
14, 6, at Olympia, 'AX^if xai 'Aprtfudi $vov<ruf in\ Ms fitafwv, Cf. 
Schol. Pind. Oi, $• 8. Strabo, 343 wp^t di rg ^icficXj (tow 'aX<^iov) tA 
rrjs *A'k<f>(M)vias *Aprc/udo( j) *AX^f lovcn;; ^iroff fori . . . ravrg di rg ^y Koi iv 
OkvftnUf Kor €Tof aviT€\tirai iravrfyvpiSy KoBaittp xai rg EXaxfiiq, icat t§ Aa^v/f 
. . . <V dc r^ T$r 'AX^ficdwaf Up^ ypatf>at KXfov^ovr re kcu 'Ap^yoyror, dvtp&p 
Kopiv6UiP, rov ficy Tpoias Sk»<rts km 'ABrjvas yo¥aiy roO d* "Aprtfus dtrnfl^pO' 
fumj tin, ypvn6sy <F^fi6hpa fvMKifUH. Pind. Nem, I. 1—6 "AftnviVfia atfii^ 
'AX^oO fcXf cyoy Sv/Nutoo-crair 6akos *Oprvyia^ d4pPMP 'Aprtptiiof^ AdXov Kcurcy- 
jn^ra. In Ortygia : Schol. Pind. Py/h, 2. 12 oBtp 'AX^ciooar ^Aprtfudos 

tKti <f}aa\v tlvai Up6v . . . tdpvrai -yop ayaXfia *Apr^fiUiof €n\ rg 'AptBnwrg, 
Pind. /^/ii. 2. 12 'Oprvytai' . . . norofiiag tdos *Aprf/udor. Diod. Sic. 5. 
3 r^y d* "ApTtfuv rrjw cv rat; 2v/xucov<ratr prjaov Xa/3f iv Trop^ r^v ^f «»y rrfP an* 
tKtimjg . • . *Oprvylav 6ifOfuur6uamf. Athen. p. 346 b olda d< koI r^v cV rj 
ILo-oridi ypaffff^p ipMcttiurrfv cV r^ r^r AX^fMMrar *Aprtfudos Up^, 

* Artemis 'EXcta : Strabo, 350 *EXor y ol pkv irtp\ t^v 'aX^c^v x^P^ 
rivd <f}a<ruf » , » ol ii ircpl r^ 'AXvpioi' fXo£, o^ 1^ Tfjt 'EXcuk *Apripttoi Uphv 
rris \mh rois 'ApKociP* tKtivoi yhp Zax*^ ^^ Upwrwnfv, Cf. Hesych. S, V 
"Aprtfus fV Mfcrai^iT;. 

* Artemis 'Anayxoptrri : Paus. 8. 23, 6, near Kaphyae, KoFdwX/a x^P^^^i 
Koi ApTifudot oXo-fK* icai ¥069 taruf ivraxBa KokovpAmis KoydvXcoridof rh 
apxaiop* /AtrovofuiaBfjvM di iir airi<f rrfp Bt6v fJHuri romvrg, iroidta vtpl ro 
Upop irai(opra • . • hrrtvx* Kakipii<fy trfowna dc t6 fcoX^iov rod dyakpLorof 
irtpt rov rpaxi^ov ^ircXrycv i>s dirayx**iTo ^"Aprtpus , . . Ka^vft^ di , , , r^v 
t¥ reus KovivkiMs Btdv . . • KoKoxxriv *AvayxopLfvriv c( §k€ipov, Cf. Clem. 
Protrept, 32 P "Aprtfuw dt *ApKdd€i *Airayxop4vrj¥ Kokovpivriv frpocrptnoyrM^ 
&s <f>rfai KaXX/fui^o£ cV Alrioif, 

^ Artemis Kopvortf at Karyae in Laconia: Paus. 3. 10, 7 t6 yhp 

X»plop *Aprc/udor km 'Svp4>^v ttrrlw al Kapvai^ ital uyaKpui tarrjKtP ^Apripihot 
iv {maiBptf Kapvdridor* x^P^^^ ^^ irravBa al AuKtdaipovioiP napOtPoi Kara Iror 
Urrao'i, Kal <V(X»p*or avrais KaBttrrqKtv 6pxrivis, Luc. fTfpX opx* lO AofCfdoi- 
p6¥UH . . . trapii Hokv^kvKovf koi Kdaropos Kapvari(«ut paBdvrtt — 6pxil<T«»9 bk 
KM rovro f?^ cV Kopvat; r^r Aaira>riK^r d<da(rfc<$fici^i'. PoIIux, 4. 104 fjv 
hi nva Koi AoKavuca opxripara . . . Kapvarifks iw\ 'Aprcfudc. Photius, S, V* 

Kapvdrtia' ioprff 'Aprc/icdof. Cf. Serv. EcL 8. 29 templum Caryatidae 
Dianae a Lacedaemonibus consecratum. 

* Artemis Kttptms at Orchomenos in Arcadia : Paus. 8. 13, 2 irp6£ 



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56o GREEK REUGION. 

hi rg nSku (6av6p itmw *ApTifuhog' Vipvrtu hi iw Kthp^ fuydXff^ Koi r^y Mp 
ipofAaCovaw dwh rrjs Kthpov Kthptanv. 

* Artemis Aa^rata at Hypsoi on the Laconian mountains : Pans. 3. 
24, 8 l€p6v *AaKKfiiriov Koi ^Afyrt/uhot iirlKkfjiruf ^/a^nfaias* At Olympia, 
vide *. 

^^ Artemis AvyodcVfui at Sparta : Paus. 3. 16, 11 Kdkov<n hi ovK^opBUw 
fiovoVf aKka Koi AvyMafAOP r^v avr^v, Sri cV BafUHj^ \vyo»p tvp4Brj^ TrcpteiXj^^f icra 
hi ^ Xvyos €wolfj<r€ rb vyakfrn 6pB6p, 

" Artemis ^aictkvnt at Syracuse : Prob, Verg. Eel, p. 3 (ed. Keil) 
Orestes . . . iuxta Syracusas somnio admonitus simulacrum Deae quod 
secum de Tauricd advexerat, templo posito consecravit, quam appel- 
lavit Facelitim, sive quod fasce l^norum tectum de Taurica simulacnun 
extulisset. 

"» At Boiae in Laconia : Fans. 3. 22, 12 tA hMpop tin Miprjp 
atfiovai TTiv fivpauniP kcu "AftrtfitP 6poyACov<Ti 2»T€ipap, 

" Artemis Ncfudm (?) at Teuthea in Achaea : Strabo, 342 onov t6 Trjs 

'Stfivhias *ApT«fuhof Up6p, 

" Artemis 'YaKip6oTp6<f>0£ at Cnidus : Collitz. DiaUcL Inscri/len. No. 
3502 *ApTdfiiTi *YaKtp6oTp6(l>f Koi 'ETrufMPU, is koi avras icpcvs {map\ti htk 
fiiov, 

'* Artemis Evpwrffuy near Phigaleia : Paus. 8. 4 1, 4 ?<m rrj^ EvpvM^t 
TO Up6vy 3yi6p re cV irakaiov koI viro rpa\\m}iros rov xitapUiv hvtnrpdo'ohop' mpl 
aM teal Kyndpuraoi ir«l>vKa<ri iroXXa/ rt koi dXX^Xatr (rvvf ;(ri^* r^i' flip Evpvp6ftrjp 
6 fiip T&p ^lyaXcW hrjfAos inWKfia'tp f&oi ntmarrtvKfP 'Aprtfuhot. ocroi hi 
avT&p iraptikfi<f>atnp vnoianniara apxcua Ovyaripa 'Qtctapov <f>aa'\p tjptu r^v 
Evpvp6fuiP , . , fffupif hi Tjj ovtJ Kara Irof tKturrop t6 Up^ apoiypvowri rris 
Evpvp6paris' t6p hi SKkop XP^^ ^^ irifntTiP opoiypvpai KaB€<mjK€P, Trjpuctnra 
hi Koi $v<ria£ hrjftoalif, re Koi Ihi&Ttu Bvovaof • . . r«y ^lyoXcttv hi ^Kov<ra m 
Xpvtrai rt rh (6a^op avphtovaip ilXvcreir Ka\ c^cwv yxfPoiiAi rck &XP*' ^^^ ykovrStP^ 
rh mr6 rovrov h€ iarw IxBvs. Cf. Athenae. p. 325 c *Hyfi<raphpos d* 6 
AeX^off Tpiykffp vapa<p€p€(r$ai {<f>fia'i) €p rots dprtfuaioit, 

" ? Artemis Niyoo-o-rfoff : Ap. Rhod. i. 569 tomti hi <f)opfjuC»p tv^iioH 
fuXntp aoihff Olaypoio irais prfoa'a'6op ttnrartptuip "Aptnfup, J) K€ipas trnxmlat 
Skoi dp,<f>itn€aKrp 'FvofxtPtj xai yaiop 'IciXirtda. 

" Artemis Evnopia : Hesych. s. v.^Aprtpis cV 'P^. 

^* Artemis *EKParfipia : Hesych. S. v. ^EKfiarffpias' "ApTtyni €P 2t^i^« 

" Artemis Aiytpala at Sparta : Paus. 3. 14, 2 Bt&p hi Upii Uocr€th&p6t 
daruf *lirwoKovpiov Koi *ApTifi4hos Alywaias, Cf. PaUS. I. 38, 6 *EXnHrufhtg 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-^XIX. 561 

• . . tori . . . npoirvXaiW 'Kpri^ihos leal Hwrti^&vot varp^s, Cf. Artemis 
EupiWa *• and **. At Calauria worship of Artemis (?) connected with 
Poseidon: Rang. Ant, Hell. 821 b. 

Titles of the goddess of the wilds. 

^' Artemis Aa<l>pia^ at Patrae : Paus. 7. 18, 8 Uarprvo-i dc cV &p? r$ 
ndK€i Aa^mr IcpJy coriy 'Apr/iudos* (€pik6p nip rn Bt^ rh 6voita, tmrviMPOP de 



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562 GREEK RELIGION. 

p. 263, inscription of early Roman period from Attalia, published 
by Ramsay, Up4a dm /3tov . . . Btat 'Aprtfudos '£Xa^i7/3<SXoi;. 

^ The month 'EXa^i7j3oXt«ir in Attica and lasos: C. /. Gr. 2675 b, 
2677 b : in Apollonia in the Chalcidic peninsula, Athenae. p. 334 E. 

c 'EXaxfni06kia at Athens and Phocis : Athenae. p. 646 E *E\axl>os' 
irKaKovs 6 rois i\a4>rfpo\iois dpan\a(r(r6fupot dcA oroir^r xol fAiXiros icai 
GifirafMOV : ^/. Mag. S. v. 'EXa^iyiSoXiwi^' ^f 'A^wit«i»* mrh ruv tka^mv 
a>v6fiaaTai at rf fU7vl iBvovro t§ €\a<f>r}P6Ki^ 'Aprc^dc. At Hyampolis in 
Phocis : Plut. de mul, virL 244 E ioprn\v U natrSiV fuyurnivra 'EXa^i73Aia 
ficXpi pvp T§ 'A/>rcfiidi r^y fonyr tMimfs iv 'Ya/iirtSXidi TcXowrtF (in honour of 
a victory over the Thessalians). 

^ Strabo, 215, among the Heneti, dvo Skvr) rh ficVKpar 'Apyc lar t6 
d* 'Aprcfiidof A2ro»X/dor. irpoa'fiv6€vovoi If, o>ff ctj«$(, r^ iv rois akatai tovtois 
fiiitpovtrBai rh Brjpla Koi XvKots Iktkfxnfs avvaytXaCf^rBai, 

® Near Colophon, a small island sacred to Artemis: Strabo, 643 

th t tiavrjxofi€vas riis iXdtfiov^ riicTtiv, 

^ Artemis ^Oprvyla (? cult-title) : Soph. Trach. 212 : 

/9oarc r^i' 6fi6(nropop 

"ApTffiuf ^Ofyrvylop, Ach^<^3<SXov, ofK^lnvpop, 

ytirovai dc NvfU^c, 
Tac. Ann. 3.61 primi omnium Ephesii adiere memorantes . . . esse apud 
se . . . lucum Ortygium, ubi Latonam partu gravidam . . . edidisse ea 
numina; deorumque monitu sacratum nemus. Cf. Strabo, 639. 
Schol. Ap. Rhod. I. 419 #a»($dcxor iv Tots ^Xcoicoir itrr6pifiK(v leoi NtVovdpof 
iv y Aira>Xtic»ir , . , iic ttjs iv AirtaXi^ *Ofyrvyias kXi^^mu Trjv Arfkov 'Ofyrvyiav. 
Athenae. p. 392 D ^av6hfifios iv htvriptf ^ArBidog <l>riauf . . . ArjKov t^v 
vrjaov TTfv wri tS>v dpxaifav KaXovfUwjv *OpTvyiav. Cf. *. 

*• Artemis 'Ayporipa: Hom. 77. 21. 470 irdnoa Bfjpmv "ApTtfus 
ayporiprj. 

* At Aegira : Paus. 7. 26, 3 ^ntpffo-ms ^ rj rt tnJXct t6 Hvofm t6 vvv 
p€riB€VTO anh rw alyatv, icai KaB6Ti avr&v ^ itaXX/on; koi ffyovfiivri t»v SXXnv 
aKKactVy ^Aprifntot *AypoT§pas inoiriaavro Up6v . • . ^ApripMs rf vaos kcu 
ayoKpa rc^n^r r^r €0' rutSiv' Uparai dc irapBivos, tar hif is &pap a4>liafTai 
ydpov, 

^ In Lacedaemon : Xen. Hell. 4. 2, 20 a<l>ayia<rafAtvoi ol AaiubaifUvtoi 

TJ *AypoT*p^ &<rirtp yo/u^crat, Ttjv xipmpoPy rjyovvro im row ivatrriovs, 

^ At Megara: Paus. I. 41, 3 *AX«ed^ow r^i^ Uikonos . . . Uphv 9roi7<rai 
ravroy * Ay paripov "Aprtfiuf Ktu *Air AX«>yo * Ay p€umf hfovofidaavra. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII^XIX. 563 

d At Megalopolis: PaUS. 8. 32, 4 'Aypor^pas va6f 'Aprcfudop dvoBriiM 
AptarodrjfjLov, 

^ At Olympia : PaUS. 5* 1 5* ^ irpvraptiov di wpo lup r&p Ovp&v Pafids 
iortP *Afyr€fiJios 'Ayporcpor. 

f At Agrae in Attica: Paus. i. 19, 6 diafiaai dc t6p EiKiaahp x^P^^^ 
Aypai KoKoviuvcv Koi paos dyportpas coriv 'A/ir/fudor. ivravOa "AprtyMf wp&rop 
$rjp«v<rai Xcyovo-iy f\6ov(rap «k Arjkov. Bekker's Arucdofa, p. 326. 28 koi 
'Aprtfudos Koii * Ay paiaf avT66i ri Up6v, Schol. AllSt £g, 657 rj *Aypo- 
Ttpq* tJ *ApT€fuif Idlf^t yap ol 'A^vacoi a€fiov<rt luu rip&ai rrpf *AypoT(pap 
"Ap/Ttpof, Ael. Var» Hist, 2. 25 ncpo-oi hi ^rrriBrjaap TJ 4/^P? TQvrif (rj 
€KTjj rot) BapytjkiSiPoty Koi *A6fjpaioi dc t;^ *AypoT€pq, dnoBvovai rhs x^f^^P^s rht 
rpuiKoa-iaff Kara rfip tvxh^ '^^^ McXrcadov bp&PTti tovto, Cf. Xen. Anad, 3. 
2, 1 2. Plut de malign. Herod. 862 A t^i* trp^y "Ay pas irofinrjp^ fjp nip^ovaiv 
crc pvp r§ *£icar27 x'V^^^P*^ ^V^ pimfs ioprdCoprtf, PoUux, 8. 9 1 6 dc 
iroK€fjLapxo£ Bv€i pAp *ApT(fiibi *AypoT€pq, Ka\ r^ *£yvaXi^. C /. A. 2. 467 
arttdfj ol t<f>ri^oi . . . indpnttvcop re rj *AprnpiXk rj *AypoT€p^ tp onXois : 
beginning of first century b. c. 

e At Artamition in Euboea: Mi//, d. deu/. Ins/. A/h. 1883, p. 202 
Ilvppixd affK\t^ or «v] UapB4pop ^Ayporipap : mutilated inscription ? third 
century b. c. 

^ In Pontos: C.I. Gr. 2 117, inscription found near Phanagoria, 

fourth century B. C, Z^POKKtibr^t n^ior mBfjK* t6p pa6p ^Apriptdi * Ay port pa 
apxoPTOs UaiptO'dhovs tov AiVKtupos Bo<Tir6pov. 

* Artemis Uodaypa in Laconia: Clem. Alex. Pro/rep/. 32 P ?<rTi dc 

Kxxi Uoddypas akXris *ApT«fudos cV t§ AaKo^PUcg Up6v, &£ (f>fi<n Iwrifiios. 

^ Xenoph. Vm. 5. 147^ /xcy oZp Xiov Ptoypii {t&p Xoyioay) ol ^tXoicvin/- 
ycrai a^cairc r§ ^c^ ('Aprcfudi). 

J Worshipped as huntress at Epidaurus : Paus. 2. 29, i paoi ip rfj 
nokti Ka\ Aiopva-ov Ka\ *ApT€fub6s i<mv oXXor* ctmicrcuff iip BjjptvoiKrjj r^y 
"AprtpiP, 

^ At Pellene : Paus. 7. 27,4 nXtjalop bi tov *An6kkoipos pa6s im-uf 'Aprc- 
fu^s' ro^vownis dc ^ Bt^s irap4x*Tai axjipxL 

" Artemis KaXX/on; in the Academia near Athens: Paus. i. 29, 2 
Mmovtn dc <V avr^y vfpipoK6s iarip 'Aprtpibos Koi (6apa *ApUm)s ml KaX- 
X/oTi;^' floff fifi' cyo> doictt jcac ^fioXoycc ra Zntj ra Soirf^ovr, r^r 'ApiT€pxh6t tla-ip 

€wiic\rf<rtif alrai. Near Tricoloni in Arcadia: Paus. 8. 35, 8 Ta<l>6£ ton 
KoXXftrrovs, x^f^ Vi^ v^X($tr, . . . cttI de aicp^ r^ x^M<^^ ^'P^'^ c<rrcy 
*A(yrtpiZos inUkifaip KoXX/on^r' doMiv d/ fUM ical Ilip<f>«»£ fuMp ri irapit 
*ApK6b»p wpwro£ "ApTtiup fV roiff Hwtauf &p&fia<r€ KoXXtWijr. Artemis 

L 2 



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564 GREEK RELIGION. 

KoXXtVn; in Syria: C, I. Gr. 4445, sepulchral dedication, 'Aprcfttdi 
KaX(X)i<n77 . . . x<>'P'* 

*' Cf. Artemis *Qpaia, inscription found in the Peiraecus, *Upw 
*ApT€iudi 'Qpaiai: Eph, Arch, 1884, p. 69. 

^ Artemis KoXXiartt: Apollod. 3. 8, 2 E^/u^Xor dc kbI nvcff ctc/mm XryovcTi 
AvicaoM lea^ Bvyartpa KoXXurro) ycvco-^oi* oirn; ovyBripos *ApTffuios od<ra rrfP 
aMfP iKtlvjd <rroXi)y ^powra, Istros apud Steph. Byz. J'.Z^. *ApKabia: 
lorpor dc <fH7<rt ^i 6c/iiOTOt)ff koi Ai^r 6 *ApKat rycvrro, ^ dc rrfP rfjt ftr/rp^ 
awo$r}pUi<rw (JipKr^ yhp v0* *Hpaff ovr^v 6fioia(r^vai) rovn;? rv;(Ciy r^ff 

wpotniyopiaf. Hygin. As/ron, 2. i Ariethus autem Tegeates historiarum 
scriptor non Callisto sed Megisto dicit appellatam. 

•• Artemis Mwwxia: »in the Peiraeeus: Paus. 1, i, 4 6 fih im 
Movwx^i \ififfp Koi Movwx^af pa6s *AfiT«fudof» Plut. De glor, Atheniens. 
P* 349 ^* ^^ tKTTfP cVl dcJca Tov Movpvxi&i^os *ApT«fubi Ka$i€pwraPj iv § toU 
"EXKijo-i ir%p\ 2akafupa yuc&cri f ircXa/Li^rcv ^ Oc^ff vavo'iXrfpos. Cf. Pollux, 6. 
75 op.<l>ul>S>vT€s, As tl<l>€pop €tff Movia;^^ *ApT4fudof, ^dai fffifitpos vtpimf 
(opTts. 

^ At Pygela near Ephesus : Strabo, 639 Up6p exop ^Aprtfu^t Mou- 
pvxiof. 

® In Cyzicus : C 7. Gr. 3657 npoupaiUptip *ApT€fu^os MovpvxlfK* 

d In Placia near Cyzicus: Mt'//. d. d. Insi. Aih. 1882, 155 UpopJpffp 

Mrfrp6f ItKaKuanjs . . . leat 'Aprc/udor Movyv;|^uis: ? first Century B.C. 

'^ Artemis Bpavp<»pia: Paus. I. 33, I Mapa$<ivos dc antx**- ^ y^^ 
Bpavp^p tpBa *l<f>iyip€ULP . . . «k Tavptdv i^tvyovtrav r6 ayoKpa dyofuptfp t6 
*ApT«fubos awofirjpai Xtyovai^ KaraXtirovaap di t6 SyaXfia tovtji nai it 'AB^vqs 
Kol vuTtpov h "Apyos atftiKeaBcu' ^6aP0P fih d^ koi oMOi iorlp 'Aprtfu^s 
apx<oiiov. Id. I. 23, 7, On the Acropolis, *ApT(fudos Up6p i<m Bpavptopias, 
ITpo^crAovf fup Ttxyrj t6 ^yaXfta, t^ 6€^ dc cWiy ttn6 Bpavp&pos d^fiov to 
Zpoixo. Id. 3. 16, 8 TO yap ix Bpavp&pos (^fyoX/ia) €KOfu<rBrf re €s ^ovaa, 
Kol virrtpop ScXcv/cov ^vtos Ivpoi Aooducftr c^* JipiSip Ifxovtn. Strabo, 
399 Bpavpi^p Snov t6 ttjs Bpavptdvlas *ApT€fu!ios Up&v, *AXat * Apaxfitivihti, 
Swov t6 Tfjs TavpoiroKov. Diphilos '"EXtpritftopovPTts i Athenae. p. 223 A 
& Top^ firofTTtvovaa koI Kocnipivti Bpavp&pos Upov $€o<f>iK€araTOP tottop 
Ai/rot/ff At6s T€ To^apvt TLapOtP^, C, I. Gr. 150 a, b. 

Ritual of the Brauronian worship. 

* Arist. Lysisir, 645 t^T ifx'^vaa rhtp KpoKttT^p Spicrof ^ Bpavpwfloif, 
Schol. f3. "ApKUfP luiiovfupai t6 pvoTtiptop i^fKovp, al apKT€v6fi€Pai de TJ 
$t^ KpoKwrhip ^{jupttppvrro Koi avprriXovp rijp Bvaiop rg Bpavpmpu^ *ApT€fAdU 
mi TJ tdovpvx^^ fViXryo^Mii vapOfPOi, oCrt wptafitirrtpat tiita irmp oOt 



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■566 GREEK RELIGION. 

oZ Koi TtBd'^ti KorBavovaa, Koi nfnXav 
(fyakfid o-oi $Tiaov<raf cvjrriyovs v<f>a£, 
hi hv yvrauccff ip T6K0ii ^xoppaytis 
Xtliraa iv oucoif. 
Cf. Callim. Dian. 173. 

*' ? Artemis Bpavpww Aldonia at Amphipolis: An/A. Pal. 7. 705 : 

Xotira TOi AWojrirjf Bpavpt^Ptbos T^vta vrjov 

fllfUf€l 

"Aprtius Bpavpayia at Laodicea ad mare, '* : cf. Athena ' * : C. /. Gr. 
4470, 4471 4 Kvpia''ApTtfus (Roman period). 

** "ApTtfus *l<l>iy€vtia in Hennione : Pans. 2. 35, i ^Aprifubos imKKri<rtp 
'l^iyrycui£ iariv Up6v Kal lIo(rttdmf x^^^^^s ^^^^ ertpop voda ^xc^p cVt i«\<j>ipo9. 
Hesych. S, V, "I^iycwm* ^ "Aprtfut. 

'' Human sacrifices to Artemis, vide *• : Clem. Alex. ProirepL P. 

36 Tavpoi rh tOpos, oi irtp\ TTfp Tavpudjp ^'pfx^injcroir JcaroucoOvrcf, ot^s h» 
r&p ^viop trap* avrois cXoxrt . . . avruca [laXa t§ TavpiK^ KaraBvovtrw *Apr€fudt. 
lb, (citation of doubtful authenticity, vide Hiller in Hermes 21. p. 127) 

ILvBoiOsris €P Tplra^ tr€p\ 6popoiag (^oMcafir) rg TovpoiroX^ 'Aprcfudi avOpoowop 
SkoKoiUf Icrropft. Cf. Scymnus Chius, Pert'eg. 861 {ol Tavpoi) IKaaKOfUPoi 
rii Otia rots daiprjfAaatP, Paus. *J. 1 9, 1—6 'Iqup&p toU *Ap6riP KofApBtiop Koi 
MtadriP oucovaip ^» cV koip^ T€fifPOf koi pct6s 'Apr/ftido^ TpucXaplas en'iKkrjo'iP, 
KOI iopTTip ol "loipes avrj Kai iroppvxi^o ^op apa nav tros' Upc^avprjp dc ci^^c 
r^r 6fov Trop^cVor, cV o cnrooTcXXco-Axi wapa (ipdpa ?fifXXc . . . ffktyxtP ^ HxfOia 
MeXavimrop Kal KopaiBcn' jcoi (Kfipovs r§ avrovs pavrtvyM df^iKtro dvaai t§ 
*Apr(fudc, Koi dpii nap eros irapBwop itai iratda, o\ r^ ftSor cfcv leoXXtoroi r^ 
6t^ dvtiP' TavTTjs p€P 6fi Tfjs Ovo-las ipfxa 6 vorafibs 6 irphs r^ Up^ rrji 
TpiKkapias dfUiXixos «K\ri6rj . . . navaaaOm W ovra XeyoPTcu Bvoprts tJ 'Apri- 

pihi dvBp^ovs : the sacrifice connected with the worship of Dionysos 
AlavfjLpfiTTis, Tatian, Ad Graec, Schwartz, p. 30. i Aandpiop ^la , . . toU 

dir6 T&p dvdpoKTao'icap cupaai Ttpndptpop* "ApTifUP df ov pwcpap dc ttjs 
M(yahj9 ttcJXccos tS)p avrmp irpd(€»p iirapuprjfjjprip t6 e^9. At Tegea : Paus. 
8. 53 » I *" ^^^ *AyvUms tJ coprj . . . ^ ttjs *Aprcfudoff ic/9Cia ^irnKti ripd. 

Tides referring to the goddess of women and childbirth. 

•• Artemis llap^cW at Paros: Roehl, Inscr. Graec. Ant. 40 1;. 
poetical title. Artem. Oneirocr. 4. 4 haipa t^ofyp d% rh r^r 'Aprc/udor 
Up^p €la«\rfXv6€pai, KarcXvo-f n^v rraiptiap' oh^ yap cir r6 up^v nportpop 
cto-cX^oi &, cZ p7 icaroXvo-cif r^i^ eraiptlap. Cf. Paus. 3. 1 8, 4 *ApT€fudos 
Tails KpTjaip Upbp . . . napBiPOP Trjp UptvofUptiP. Vide ^•, *• », ", *•*, "' *. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII^XIX. 567 

^ A goddess UapBivot in the Tauric Chersonese: Herod. 4. 103 
Bvovai fup (Tavpoi) rj TLtipBtvt^ rovs tc vavriyovt kqX tovs h» \dfi»<rip 'EXXi^vwv 
iiFomixBirrai . . . r^y dc dalftopa ravrrjp rj Bvavai Xcyovcrty odrol Tavpoi 
*I<l>iy€Vfiap, Cf. Strabo, 308 &cpa fitydXrf fupof oZan r^ff 0X17^ ;^fppoyi9<rov . • . 
cv ^ TO r^( JlapOmv Up6p, tcdiimf6s Ttvo9, ^s tnmtnfuos koi 7 Sxpa ^ Trp6 t^£ 
noktag iartv . . • Kakovfi€Pri HapOtviOP Zxpv ptc^p rtjs ^Ifiopos km (6avop, In- 
scription from the Tauric Chersonese, containing the formula of the oath 
taken by magistrates : Revu^ des /iudes Grecques^ 189 1, p. 388 o^vwa Aia 
Tap "Kkwp napOtPOP Btovt 'oXvfiiriovs Koi *o\vfinias, Cf. Dittenberg. SyiL 
252. Uapdtpos at Neapolis in Thrace: Sch5ne, Griechische Reliefs^ 
No. 48. In Caria: Diod. Sic. 5. 62 rt^p /up opofjutCofUprip UapBipop cV Bi;- 
fiatrrS rijs Xtppopffo-ov Tifjias tfx*iP kolI rtfjitpog, Cf. Athenae. p. 655 B Kkvrot 
dc 6 McX^crtoff, 'AptoTorcXovr dc fioBriTTiSj ip r^ vpw^ ntp\ MtXriaivp ypaxf>ti . . . 
TTcpi dc rh lfp6p TTJt HapBipov fV Acp^ tMp ol KdkoviJi€Poi UpptOts ptXioypid^s : 

the goddess of Leros identified with Artemis, Aelian, Iltsf, An. 4. 42. 

Strabo, 637 (Sdfio^) tKakdro UtipBtpia oIkovptop KapStt; 

^ Artemis Kopia at Lousoi in Arcadia : Callim. t'n Dian. 234 i$ /mV ro4 
ILpoir6i y€ dvco iKoBtiaaro ptfow' ^'AXXoy ftip Kopirfs, ore ol <rvpt\€(ao KoCpas 
OCp€a ir\a(op€pas *A(rjpia, t6p d* M Aowrois 'HfUpfj ovptKa Bvpihp an tiypiop 
fiXro fraidwp, Polyb. 4. 1 8, ID wporjyop (ol A^roXot) i>s inl Aovamp' ical 
irapaytp6p€Poi irpos t6 rrjs 'A/>r€/udoff Icpoir, t Kiirai pip ptra^v KKdropot Ka\ 
KvpaiBrjgj aavXop H P(p6purrai irapb. roig *FXkriaiPf dvtrdvopro 6iaprrd<r€ip rck 
Bp€ppara t^c B^ov, Hesych. S, V, atcpovx^i . . . "Axpoi, 6pof r^s 'Apyetor, 
tfj}* od *ApT€ptbog ltp6p idpva-aTO MtXapirovf, xadapas riif npoiridas, Paus. 8. 
18, 8 rag dc BvyoTtpas tov Upolrov Karrjyayfp 6 MiXdpnovs cr row Aovaoifs 
Koi fjKeaaTo ttjs paptas €p 'Aprc/udo^ ^'Pf ' '^^ <^* ^kc^v n;v "Apnpip TavrtfP 
'Hptpaaiap Kokovauf ol KXtirdpioi. 

'* SchoL Theocr. 2. 66 tUtBoai yap rj *Aprcfudi Kcanf(f>opovp al piKkovtrai 
yapiiaBtUf eirl d<f>o(nwr€i ttjs ncipBtPiaSf uki prj ptptrniBwruf vn ovr^f . . . xal 
iraph M€pdpdp<f al KutaKovaai /iriieaXelo^c rfip" AprtpWy d(iov<rBai avyypapjfig, 
Sn di€KopfiBriT€. 

*^ Artemis Aox«ui, Aoxta, Afx» : Plut Quaesi, Symp, p. 659 A oBw 
otpai xal TfiP "ApTtpgp \ox*tap koi EiXtiBvtaPj ovk oZawf Mpap tj rrip ScX^vi^y 
o»popd<TBai, Eur. Supp. 958 o0y "Aprtfus Aoxla fFpofrffiBiy^air hp rhg 
dT€KPov9. Aoxtia in Phthiotis: C. I. Gr. 1768 'Apr€fu^ Aox«/^, private 
dedication. In Pergamon : C. /. Gr. 3562, public inscription from 
Gambreium in Pergamene territory, dpoypd^ai rdpdt t6k yo^toy €i^ dvo 
arrikas irol opaBtlptu rffp pip , , , TfjP W np6 tov i«cb rrjg *ApT€fjudof Ttjg Xoxias, 

** a Artemis ElKtlBvta, vide «*, at Chaeronea: C.I. Gr. 1596 ^Aprdpi^i 
EXK^iBviq, (fourth century b.c.). 



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568 GREEK RELIGION. 

*» At Lebadea : C. I. Gr, 1598 *ApT€iuatw wpatus x^apuniipuKf (Roman 
period). 

c In Thisbe: Bull, de Carr. Hell. 1884, p. 402 naaucpira Amwvpop 
'AfiTofulk ElkMtBtijf lapiof cificy (act of enfranchisement in the name of 
Artemis). 

d Orchomenos: Mill. d. d. Insl. Alh. 1882, p. 357 'A/mi/udi UXtievin 
(dedication third century b.c.). 

Thespiae: tb. 1880, p. 129 n^v Bvyar€pa ^CKlinnfif^hpTiiulk 'SXkfiBvU^ 
(? second century b.c). 

^ Tanagra: *A^y. 4. 294, No. 6 *ABapiiuc«ta ^Ifum 'Aprdfuh ElkftBvi^, 
(? pre-Roman period). 

8 ? In Euboea : Artemis Bokwria = Elktlfivta: Procop. Bell, Golk. 4. 22, 
inscription at Geraestum, Tvpnxos croici *Aprc/ud« BoXoo-c^* ovr» yAp t^k 

EiXiiBvun^ ip rols &im xp^voit iie^Xovp, 

** Artemis ^tmdiva at Chaeronea: C. /. Gr. 1595 *Asr(SXX«i*o£ 
Kaifivai^piui ^Aprdfudos 2owdiyas. 

*• Artemis Aiwrifw*©* : Hesych. ^.z^. hriBtrw \\pr4fudos. Schol. Ap. 
Rhod. I. 288 Av(nC&¥ov *Af»rf/Aidoff Irp^i^ <v 'aA^mup. 

^ Artemis Xir«>yi; : & at Miletus : Callim. in Dion. 235 9r<(ma irovXv- 
fitXaBpt froXvirroXc, x^P^ XiTa>n;, MiX^^ tnibtiftt* (TC yc^p ironjcroro Ni|Xcw 
'HytfUtnfp, (h-t vrjwrlp mnjytro KtKponlrjB^p, 

b At Sjrracuse : Steph. Byz. s.v. Xvr^pti' mm 1} ^'Aprtfus Xfytrai, m 

Xinona, m Uapixttmp 6 BvCoptios kcu 'Enixaptios tp 2^iyyt '* icai t6 tos Xirvpias 

avkfjadrti rU fUH fukosJ' Cf. Athenae. 629 £ nap^ dc 2vpaKo<riois Ka\ x*^^*" 

pias *ApT4fubos Spxfia-is ris iarip Vkot tsiai aSXtfaig. Cf. Anlh. Pal, 6. 20I : 

ZdfdoXa mil idrprip ntpucakX^Of t6p re pvpdirpovp 

p6irTpvxoP &paioiP oiXop air6 wkoisdfAWP, 
Koi (jotpfip mil Xcnroy vnip^vpa roOro x^^^^^^i 

Koi rh wtpl arippois aykah paoTddm^ 
* Sfifiporop mIMipos 4w«\ <l>vy€ pifivos SyKOP 
* th^paPT^ ptf^ $^»tp vw* *Aprff/udof. 
Cf. ib. 271-273. 

*• Pollux, 3. 38 Tovrj; yhp (tJ "^p^ roU wportXetoit wpovrcXour ritt 
K6pas jcal 'Aprc/udi mu MoZ/muv. ml r^r mffu/r dc r<fre dtnipxopro raif Suut al 
ic6pai, Plut Quaesl. Rom. p. 264 B ircmre drto-^oi ^cwv roi^; yofAoOirraf 
oSoirrai, Ai^ rfXctov Koi ^^H/xu r«Xc«<u Kal *A<l>pMTrjf mil Iff iA>vf cirl iracri d^ 
*ApT«fu^os, Etnrpa^ at Tyndaris: C /. Gr. 5613 b UpAros km 
Mipiwmi 'A/wf/iA Evirpaf i^ (? second century B.C.). Cf. Annali del Insl. 
1849, Tav. H, p. 264. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII^XIX. 569 

^ Artemis Kop^a in Ells in the Pisatid territory: Pans. 6. 22, i 
tnftiM €fTTW Upov K6pdaKos iwuckfjauf 'Aprc/udor, 8n ol rov IlcXoiror dicokovSot 
rii imvUta rfyayop vaph rj Bt^ ravTjj koi oapxh^ftarro «irtx&piOP rdis srepi t6u 
SiirvXov K6pdaKa SpXTftruf. Hesych. S, V, KiiKafiU' r^ ntpianav ra t(rx^ 
icaXafiowT$ai' eV t^ r^r i^cpeortdor lep^ *ApT€fudo9 q^bSptPoi vpvot Q restituen- 
dum : Kakaffibft' h r^ ic.r.X. • . . q.b6p€voi vfivoi' KoKa^wrBiu, ro irtpunraaf 
TO, 'i(rxif^)» Cf. Photius, p. 126. 14 KaXXa^td«r* to dia/SoiVcty aaxftP^vas ical 
dUXictiv Ta ttrxM rdit x^P^'^^' PaUS. 3. 20, 7 cv rf Tavyrr^ . • . i^cpccov, €vBa 
*ApTtfudo£ SyaXfia iv xmaiOp^ Atp^aribot, Cf. Steph. Byz. S.V, ^€pa, 
Hesych. S,V, Aj&pfiaC al t§ 'Aprc/udi Bva-i&v SpxovaM dn6 rijs Korh rrfp 
natdiiuf o'Kfv^* ol yhp fftdktfrti ovtv xaXot/yrcu. Avd«^y fro/iir^ in the worship 
of Artemis ^OpBia in Sparta: Plut. Artsi. 17 r^r n*p\ t6v ^topitv cV 

InapTji 'n\ffyiLt t&p f 0^j3a>y icai ttjp fitrii ravra Avdo>v irofun^v owri\fia-9ai, 

*^ Artemis the goat-goddess: vide Alyivaia '•; *Ayportpa ^\ ^; 
Bpavp»pia ". C. I. A, I, ^: archaic inscription found at Eleusis 
'Aprffudi alya. In Phthiotis : Antonin. Liber. 13. 65. Kvayia in Sparta: 
Pans. 3. 18, 4-5 Til df C9 rrfv Kvayitw "Kprtyiiv ioriv ovroo Xeyo/icva. 
Kvoucfariff near Tegea: PaUS. 8. 53, 11 'Aprtpibos Kpcuctdndos cWi paov 
TO iptinta, KvoKoXriaia at Kaphyae : Pans. 8. 23, 3 Ka<PvdTais di Uph 
$(wv lIoa€iS&v6t f OTi Ka\ tniKKrjo'ip KMi/caXi^o-ca; ^Aprifuios' tori dc avrois koi 
apos KyojcoXor, €v6a iirvrtiov T(\€rrip Syovai rj 'Aprc/udc. 

" Artemis Evplmra at Pheneos in Arcadia: Pans. 8. 14, 5 ttiro\€<rBai 
yhp mvovi r^ 'Odv<r<rei, Km avrhp yijp rrfp 'EWdda tcarii Cv^^"^ iiriovra tS>p 
tinrtfv lipvaaaBai pip Upov ipravBa ^Apripudos Kpl Evptmrap 6popd<rai t^v Btop, 
tfpBa r^( ^€PtaTiKrJ£ x^P^^ ^^P^ ^as iTnrovr, upoBtlvai koi tov Uoand&pos t6 
ayakpa tov 'limiov, Cf. Pind. OL 3. 26 Aarovs iinro(r6a Bvyanip. 
Frag, 59 t* tdkXiop dpxopMPOurw J) Karanenjoptpourtp tj PalBv(i»v6p Tf Aaro) 
ffai Boa» cjrn-cDy cXorfipay iiclo-ac ; 

Artemis, goddess of cattle. 

** TloKvpoia: Hesych. s,V. B§6t rts, vir ipimp pip^Aprtpi^y vir6 dc AXo»r, 
K6ptf, 

~ TavpwAoff : » in Attica **. 

^ In Icaria near Samos: Strabo, 639 tan ^ km 'Aprc/udor Upop 

KokavpfPOP Tavponokiop, Clem. Alex. Protr, p. 40 P cV *lKapa> T^F 
*ApT€fudof t6 &yakpa (vXop ^p ovk tipyacrptpop \ cf. Arnob. adv, gent, 
6. II. 

c In Icaria in the Persian gulf: Dionys. Perieg, 610 ^^i TawpoircSXoio 
^oio j3a>/Liol M^o^iTcs ddcvfcra Ktarp^ f^'**'^^ 



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570 GREEK RELIGION, 

«* At Mylasa : C. /. Gr. 2699 [6 ^lua €Tlfiriat]v . . . Up€a Tavpowokov. 

• At Phocaea : vide supra •*. 

^ Pergamon: Frankel, Insckr, von Pergamon, No. 13, 1. 24 '0/iw» 
Am r^i» . . . *A6fjvap ^Aptiav xai rrfp Tavpon6\op, 

« Smyrna and Magnesia : Artemis Tavp(m6\os, invoked in the oath 
of alliance: C, I. Gr. 3137. 

^ Amphipolis: Diod. Sic. 18. 4 (after the death of Alexander) tow 

d< . . • yaoi/s cdci Karao'KtviuTBrjwai . , , i» 'AfU^tiroXci dc rrjs TavpoirdXov. 

Livy, 44. c. 44 Amphipolim cum iam fama pugnae pervenisset, con- 
cursusque matronanmi in templum Dianae, quam Tauropolon vocant, 
ad opem exposcendam fieret. 

* At Andros: vide Artemis Monuments^ P- S^?- 
^ TavpojTokif: Steph. Byz. S.V, n^t Kapiat, 

* Soph. Aj\ 172 : 

^ pd at Tavpon6ka AiAr "hprtpis . . . 

&ppaai wavdapovs inl jSoOr dytkaias ; 
Schol. t'd. ravponiSkos ff avrij rj ItXrjvu €<rri mu ffro;(firai ravpois ^v kqi 
Tavpamhv 6»opd(ov<n, 

"^ Tavp<m6\ial Hesych. S,V. A tls iopTrjv ayovaiv *ApT(pidt. 

n Hesych. s. v. EvXaxui* "Aprtfjus ? from Laconian cwXdici;, a plough- 
share. 

*^ Artemis Tavpo<l}dyQs, '^ : cf. Cic. De Invent, 2. 95 apud quosdam 
lex erat : ne quis Dianae vitulum immolaret. 

" Artemis Tav/K«, Tavpan}, connected with the legend of Orestes: 
Hesych. S, v. Tavp^' jJ ^v Tavpotf^Aprtpi^ : cf. •*, '^, "•. 

• In Attica, ". 

*> In Lemnos: Plut. de Mui, Vtrt, (247 A) TvppriP»p t&p Afjppop icai 
"ipfipop Karaax^rrtaPy Apiraadprmp dc Bpavp»p66tp rat *ABrpfai»p yvpaucat . • . 
(247 £) t6 (6apop rrjs *Aprcfudof t varp^op ^p airrois €U Ajjppop €k Bpavp&pot 
KopurOip ix ti Aij/iyov iropraxpv avpur«piay6ptPop, HarpoCf. S. V, apttrtvaai' 
Sti df ai dpKTtv6ft€Pai wtipdtpoi Spicroi koXovptoi Evpttridfis 'Y^mvXjj 'Apurro^ 
ipapris Afjppiais icdL AvaurrpaTfj, Steph. Byz. S, V, Afjppos • . . mrb rtjf 
fityakris Xryopipris Btov fjp Afjfip6p <fM<n* ravqg di km vapBipfWi BvtaBatl 
from Hekataeus. 

« In Cappadoda, '". 

^ Artemis 'OpBla and 'OpB<o<ria : Lampridius Heliogab. c. 7 Orestem 
quidem ferunt non unum simulacrum Dianae nee uno in loco posuisse, 
sed multa in multis. Cf. Plut de Mul Virt, p. 247 D-F. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 571 

» At Megara: C. /. Gr, 1064, inscription on basis of statue of 
priestess, dCofutnj Kovpriv AfjTtotda tlox*aipap '^Afrrtfuy ^OpSoalriPf 7rdX«tt£ ircpl 
Ttix<ta nawra, 

^ At Byzantiam : Herod. 4. 87 rgci fjtiv wvv (rrl{Kri(n ravrfiai BvCoPTioi 
. . . ixp^)vovTo irpos tAv i3o>/x6y i^y *0p6w<rii]S *Apr€fudos. 

c At Sparta: Pans. 3. 16, 7-1 1 t6 x^p^^ ^i enouofiaC^iitvov Ai/Avoiov 
'OpOtas Up6v itrruf *ApT€fudos, t6 ^avop iKtipo tlvcu, Xeyovaiv 6 vot( 'OpcVnyy 
KOI *l<l)iy€ytui €K TTJs Tavpuajs fVieXcirrov(riy . . . ^afUfUvriK€p tn icai vvv rqki' 
KovTO ovofM Tj TovpiK^ B(^ WOT* diKfiurPrjTovai /acv ol KamradoKin ol rov 
EO^eivov olieovifTfS t6 Syakfjui tlvcu, wapa a^iatv, dfA^ia-prjrovo'i koi Avd»y o(( 
cWiv *ApTtfidhf Up^ ^AvaiTidos . . . fxaprvpia dc fioi Kal rob* r^v cV AaKtdaifAOPi 
*Op6iav rh €K t&v fiap^dptaif civai (oavoV rovro fxip yhp ^AarpofioKos Kai 
AXoTTficor . . , TO ayoKfia tvp6vrts alrUa nap€^p6vri<rav' tovto dc ol Aifivarcu 
2frapTurr&y Kai Kvpoaovpds Koi tK M€(r6a9 tc #eal Hirainjs Bvovrts tJ *Aprtfudi 
«£ biaxftopdv, air6 df avnjs xai <V <l>6yovs npofixBtitraif, airoSapovrav dt cVl r^ 
/Soi/i^ noW&y v6vot €<f>B€ip€ rovs Xomovs* koI o^io-iv in\ tovtij^ yiverai \6yiov 
aifuiTi dvOpim^if rhv fidny^p alfiaaaetv' Ovofiivov dc Ivtuhx 6 ickrjpos littkdi^av€, 
AvKovpyot fJUTfffaXtp «s ras M rdis c^^/Soiff fuurrtyas, fftir/fwrXorai ^ ovrctg 
dv6poDn<av aifxari 6 fi<iip6^, 17 dc icp«m t6 (Savov tx^vo^d. a^itrw €(f>tarriK€, 
Plut. T^s. 31 T91/ K6pr)v €v Up^ 'Apr/fM^y 'OpBUs x^P^^^*^* Philostrat. 
ApolL ViL 6. 20 t6 twv fiaariyov tBoi rj ^Aprtfiibi rfj airb 2icv3&p bparai, 
Xprja-fiSiP, ffx^aiVy €$rjyovfiep(ap tovto, Plut. Inst Locon, 239 D KokCvrai t€ 
Tf dfjuXka iiofjuurriywns* yiptToi di koJS ZKotrrop €tos. Sext. Empir. Pyrrh. 
Hypot, 208 Aoxttivf d< €n\ tov ^fwv Trjg *0p6<»aias 'ApTtpiliot fAoariCovroi, 
C. I, Gr, 1 41 6 ^fioKkfibos , , , pftKoaat to noidiKOP KeXrjri, ^ApriynTi ^Opdtiq. 
Id, 1 444 "ApTtfUs *Op6(io' *A(ricKvfjri6t Moipo Aa^'crf iff (rvyKoBt^pvptPOi avrfi, 
Cauer, Delect? 34 ^iki\Top , . . 'ApTtfun finptreo dpiariM (cf. Hesych. 
fiapOlo* 'Op6(a), Id, 37 ol N€Ucri<l>6pov ptiKowntp , . . /uwiw rat \6ap *ApT€fuh 

Pwp$€o dviBfjKop (cf. Hesych. fUM' &b^ trotd). Alcm. Frag. 23 dplp *0p6i<f 

(fiopos <f>tpoi€rMs, Cf. *\ 

d In the Argolid on Mount Lycone : Paus. 2. 24, 5 i^KMpxfTOi W cirl 

Kopv<f)^ rov dpovff 'Apriptdos *0p6ios Updp, ko\ dyakfiOTO *Air<SXXa>voff koi 
Affrovs Ko\ *ApT«fudos irtnoirjTOi Xcvicot) \l6ov, noXvKKtlrov ^ fftovip ttpoi 
«pya, 

« Artemis *0p6io in Arcadia : Hesych. s. v, 'OpBUc "Aprtfus- ovT»t 
ttpifToi dn6 Tov €P *ApKodi^ x^P^^^t ^^^ Up6p *ApT€fubo£ tipVToi, Schol. 
Pind. 01, 3. 54 'OpBuio-ia ^ "ApTtpis nopa t6 ^OpBwrtop ovtp fWiv Upos 
*ApKadios . . . wtpl r$£ *ApT€fudos *Airokk6ii»pos y/xi^t. 'Op^o-ui d«, ^i 
6p6ot (h a-wnjpiav, Ij 6p6oi to^j ytpptiptpovs, kqX ip ^ABfjPOU tbpvroi, t6 Up6p 
d€ toTtp €P Kfpa/iciie^. tm nop *HX«tocr *Op$wrla£ *ApT€/uio£ Up6p, &s <l>Tjat 
Aidvpos, Cf. '•. 



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572 GREEK RELIGION. 

^ At Epidaunis: Eph, Arch. 1885, p. 195 ^Kpriiuhi *0p3i^ Atmwrtos 
KOT imp (? connected with Asclepios "opBua as divinity of health : vide 
Cawadias, tb.). 

V In Elis : supra ^ Cf. Pans. 5. 16, 6 d^^to^ *op^m in Elis. 

^ In Athens : supra •. 

* At Aricia: Solin. Poly hist 2. 11 (Momms. p. 37) Aricia . . . hoc 
in loco Orestes oracolo monitus simulacrum Scythicae Dianae quod de 
Taurica extulerat priusquam Argos peteret consecravit. Cf. Strabo, 239 

TTii d* *Apucivff£ TO Up^v ijov *ApT€fudos) 'keyowTiv af^hpviUL Ti r^r lavpfmoKov, 
k Arist. Mirah, Ausc, p. 847 B cV 'Aprtfu^ 'OpBuaias fit^ tavpw 

^ Offerings to Artemis as goddess of agriculture and flocks. 

* Hom. //. 9. 533 : 

luu yap roUn Kaxhp ;(piW^poPOff ^Aprtfus ^pat 
Xo^trafuvriy o ol oUrt Bakwrui yovvf dktnjt 

OlVCVff p€^, 

^ At Samos in the worship of Artemis : Herod. 3. 48 Urrawrfs tovs 
XopovSf r/MMTck (nj<rdpov t€ Koi fuXiros enoiiiaawTO p6fjLOP <l>€p€€r3<u, 

<5 At Hyampolis in Phods : PaUS. 10. 35, 7 (Tifiovrai. ht pakurra rrfv 
ApTtpufy Ktu yo^f *ApT€pMs €artw avrois . , , dig yap Koi ov irXcov iitaarav 
iviavTov r6 Up6p woiyvvvai wopi(ov<rt». 6ir6<ra ^ hif t&p fioaiaipaTw 'uph 
ivovopaawnv thai rj 'Aprcfudi, okcv v6aov ravra km fFi6r€pa t&p Skkwf 
*iCTp€<l>€aB{u Xcyovo-i. Cf. '*. 

^ At Scillus in Elis, temple of Ephesian Artemis, dedicated by 
Xenophon, Afkz6, 5. 3, 13, with inscription, Itpot 6 x^s ^^ *ApT€ptdot' 
r6p txovra nai Kopnovptvaw ripf pip dticarrip KaraBv^uf ixdarov crovf : vide ^^, 
sub fin. Cf.'«. 

-® Csllim. m Dt'an, 35 o6( dc ic€P cv/icid^r rr kcu tXaos avyatnniai Ktipoit 
tZ fihi ifbvpa <ftip€i ardxyPy td dc ytP€$Xri T«Tpaw6d»p, 

^ Eur. 'lj>h, Taur. 20 : 

S,Ti yap ipunnbg reicoi 
JcaXXicrroy riH^ta ^mmt^/t^ Bwrtw Bt^ (^Ayap^pimp), 

S Herod. 4. 33 ras Bpriudat Ktu rhs HoiopUias yvpaucas, intop Bvwn rg 
*Apr€/udi TJ Bao-(Xi;i{7, ovk aP€v wp&p «eaXa/ii;s Bvavvas ra Ipd. 

" Artemis connected with Persephone, Demeter, Dionysos. 

^ At Lycosura in Arcadia: Paus. 8. 37, i aird dc ^Akok^o^uw r€<nrapas 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 573 

arahiovt 6n€x«i t6 Up^ rrjt Aecrfroiyi;^ irp&ra flip d^ avT63i *Hy€ii6rrjs poot 
iiTTW *Afyr«fudo9, Koi x^'^^^'^ ayakfjta txov It^das' irod&y If tlyai fiaKurra aM 
flKd(ofitp' ivrtvdtv dt fV t6p Upop tF^pifioKop Trji Atairoiprjs i<rr\p t(rodo9 , . . 
§ 4 Tov 6p6pov (<V f KoSfdopTOi i^cWoAMi icol ff AifftrfTTip) dc iKordp^Otp "Aprtfus 
/Up tr€iph rffp ^fujrpa ivrriMP dfin€xofUprf bippa ikaxf^ov Kai iifi t&p &p<ap 
<l>dp«Tp(ip Ifxovaa tp d« ralr X'P^' ^ f^ Xofuroda l^^i, rj dc dpoKOprag dvo. 
iro^ dc r^v '^ApTtfUP leordicf trai icvo»v, olltu OfjpeiMip «ta\p cirtr^dctot. 

^ At Zoitia in Arcadia : Paus. 8. 35, 7 ^rifujrpof paht km ^Apfripibot, At 
Megalopolis : Paus. 8. 31, i, before the temple of Demeter and Kore, 
inttpyaafupoi ciri rvnap trp6 rfjs Mbov rjj pkp "Aprtpis tJ dc 'A<ricXi;iri($( iari 
fcat 'YyUia, 

c At Olympia in the Altis: Paus. 5. 15, 4 ^ApripiSot *Ayopalas fi€»ii6s, 
• . . TTtTroirjTU df Koi AcoirocWr. Cf. ^ ^. 

d At Lycosura : Paus. 8. 10, 10 ff Uph t^^ KokovpJpris Atairoivfjf 

Z\a<f>os* 

® Herod. 2. 156 A2(r;(vXoff 6 El<t>opl»pos . . • povpos dfj voirjT€«iP rSiP 
itpoytytptipuipwf* rnolriat yiip^AprtpiP «iwu Bvyttrtpa Afipjjrpos, Cf. Hekate, 

4 14 15 

I > • 

^ ? With Dionysos at Alagonia in West Laconia : Paus. 3. 26, 1 1 Bw 
dc alrdBt S(m Atopwrov Koi 'AprtpiiSs itntp Upa. Cf. ", '*, Artemis Manu- 
menfs, p. 527. 

•• EL Mag. p. 443. 18 QapyijkuL' ioprff ^AOffpjiai . . . 6apy^Xca dc tlai 
wdvT€t ol dn6 v^ff Kctpnot* Sytrai dt /ii/yl Qapytjki&Pty *ApT€pidos kcu 
*A7rAXttM>r. 

*^ Artemis AWtmia : Steph. Byz. j. v. AWdnior x^P*^^ Avhlai . . . 
fj irXtjaiop tov "Evpitrov, d(f>* od ^ Aprtpif AlBoiria . . . ol df rfjp aviijp rg 
2t\fpfu vapa t6 aWfiP, »s KaKklpaxos, ol di ori ^ avrtj €<m tq 'Eicarjy ijrif dt\ 
dddas KOTfxfi m ^EparoaBtPfjs, ? At Amphipolis, ". Cf. Anacreon, Fr. 
I36> Hesych. Ai6um*u valda (Bergk, corr. AWtmifii naiha) 'AMnrpcW. 
^XXoi t6p olpopf SKXoi rrfp "ApTtpuv, ^'-\^ v 

" Artemis ^ma(l)6pos & in Messene at the city on Ithome : Pans. 4. 
31, 10 Tvxf Tt Ka\''ApT€fus ^ttNU^pof. r^ pip di) Xt^v Aapi(l>S>PTos, 

^ In Munychia: Clem. Alex. S/rom. p. 418 P t^ Opaavfiovki^ 

PVKTWp . . . irvp inparo wpo/rjycvptpop Surtp ovrovr dirraitrrvs vptmip^p Korh. n)y 
VLovPvxiop €$fXw€P, Ma ytw 6 rrji ^wnfidpw Popds fort. Cf. C /. A. 2. 
432 T&P $v<n&p &y tOvop npo t»p iiacKriaUtP , . , icai rj *Aprcfudi rj 

« At Byzantium : Dionys. Byz. AnapL Fr. 27 templum Dianae Luci- 



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574 GREEK RELIGION. 

ferae et Veneris Pladdae =*Aprf;iiff ^»<nf)6pof and 'A^^/n; ToKrivaia, 

Cf. Hesych. Miles. Comtani. l6 'Afyriiudos {Tifuvos) irp6£ t6 rfjs Qpqxrit 
&pos. 

d ?At Segesta: Cic. Verr. 4. 33 Fuit apud Segestanos ex aere 
simulacrum Dianae, quum summa atque antiquissima praeditum 
religione, turn singulari opere artificioque perfectum. ... 34 Colebatur 
a civibus. . . . £rat admodum amplum et excelsum signum cum stola : 
verum tamen inerat in ilia magnitudine aetas atque habitus virginalis ; 
sagittae pendebant ab humero ; sinistra manu retinebat arcum ; dextra 
ardentem facem praeferebat. 

« At Anticyra?: Paus. 10. 37, i Up6v . . . *ApT€tu6os' tfyyov tS>p 
npa^ircXovff, djida €xov<ra rfj df (t^ Koi vwtp t&p &fi»p <f>ap€Tpair irapa dc aMjp 
Kvav tp dpioTfp^. 

" Artemis 2tXa(r4>6po9 at Phlya: Paus. i. 31, 4 'AwAXawr Aiopwro- 
d($rov Koi *ApTifudos ScXaot^pov fituftoL In Pholegandros : J^ev. Arch. 
1 865) I. 126 Ido^ rf d^Mf aT€^v£(rai Mci^iepan;v . . . rcrpaxif dp^uparfV' 
aapTa t§ ScXacr^dp^ ^Aprifubi. 

^ Artemis ? 2t\aaia : Hesych. S. v. r^tros r^r AaKMPuajf, S3tp c^e^ff 
KkrjBvjpai rfjp '^AprtfUP, 

•* Artemis Uvprnpla on Mount KpaBis near Pheneos : Paus. 8. 15, 5 cV 

dc rg KpaBibi Tf 6p€i Uvpoipiat Up6p c'oriy * Kprriiiibos' Koi rh tfri apxai&rtpa 
naph r^r Btcv ravrrit aniyoPTo *Apy€ioi nvp is rh Acpyaut. 

^ Schol. TheOCr. 2. 12 ('EicaTi;) Koi pvp "Aprcfus KaKtirat kcA ^XoktI koI 
Aadovxoff Koi ^»<r<f}6po£ Koi XBopla. Soph. O. J^. 2o6 : 

rds Tt nvp<l>6povs 
'A/ir/fudoff atykas avp aSp 
AvKi Bpta dt^trati. 
AnihcL Pal. 9. 46 : 

Uripos Sutaity fj (f>€yyo£ IMp^ ^ iratda rmoBai 

€v(afUprj, doitjg tffJLftOp€P €VTVXiflt* 



"ApTifus (tpff}OT«pounp \mriK6os, if re Xox^i^ 
fiouty Koi dpy€pp»p ifm<r<f>6pos ^ crcXdooy. 

•* Artemis Upwnif^ on the promontory Artemision in North Euboea: 
Plut Thtmist. 8 ^Ex** hk pahp ov fuyop *ApT(fudos inUkri^np UptHnpjpai : id. 
inscription on a stele there in honour of the naval victory, o^/umi ravr' 
fStaap irapBip^ ^Aprtpihi. Mitt. d. d. Ath. Ifist. 1 883, p. 1 9 ol^c iwrfyyti" 
Xavro Kcii tlaffpryKap €h r^y €irap6p6wnp rod Upov lijs *ApT€/Jubof rrjs 
ILpoaritfas. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 575 

•* Acsch. Frag, 169: 

^ff odr* ir€fi<f)i( 'HXiov irpocrdc/MCcrai 
oIjt dfrrtpwnov Hfifw, Aiyn^s Kdprjs, 
Plut. Quaes/, Conviv, p. 658 F of/ioi icai rrjp'^ApTtiwf Aox^iw Koi ElMOviav, 
ovK oZtrav iripav ^ 2cX^vi;v, «t>pofui<TOai, 

? Artemis as death-goddess. 
" Horn.//. 21.483: 

riTfi fff Xeoyra yvi^ai^ 
Z€V( ^K€v, Koi cSoMcc jcarajcrd/iei' ^v jc* iOtKjufrBa, 
Od, 15. 409: 

aXX' 5t€ yrfpacKticri frAiv Kara ^vX* avBp^taPy 
iXBoiv afyyvp6To(o9 *Air<JXXa>K *Apr«ftidi fvi' 
ois dyavoto'i piktaatP hroix^iuvos Kar€vt<f>v€v, 

Strabo, 635 kcX ra Xoifuica d< ird^ ical rovf avro/Mxrovs ^aydrovf rovrocf 

dvdirrov(ri Toty Btoii f^KirShXavi Ka\ *Kprr*iuhi), In Phthiotis : Anton. Liber. 

13, Artemis =: 'A<nraXiff dfictX^n; iKatfryij: (6awov naph t6 rrjs *Afyr€fudof 
€<rTriK6g . . . ^ Koff I^Kaarov cror al irapOtpoi x^t*'^^ eiOopov €Kprjfiv«iv, 
Sri Koi Ti 'Aanakh vapSivoi cda-a iaviifv ainjyx'&vtcrev, Cf. the legend of 
Ctesulla *Y.Ka€pYri in Anton. Liber, i, and the story of the Carian 

? Artemis as marriage-goddess. 

•• An/h. Pal, 6. 2'j6''ApT€pi, a-fj d* ISttjti yapos ff ipa Ka\ yivot cwy t^ 
AvKoprj^uj^ watSi (Pikampaydkij, Cf. *'. 

£jTicXcta& at Plataea: Plut. Arts/. 20 *AydfUVoi dc avrbp ol nXorftcii 
tfOa^top iv rf [f/>^ r^^ EvfcXctaff *ApT«pibo£ . . . r^v d' EvicXfiay o2 ficv iroXXoi 
leal Kakovai koI vo/ii^ovo-iv^Aprcfur, mot dc ^(riv 'HpoieXcovr fici' Bvyaripa teat 
MvpTovf y€P€<rBai . . . rcXcvr^aacrav dc irap64vop Jfx*^^ napd r< Boia»roi( «rai 
AoKpoU Tipds, B^tp^g yhp ai/rj koi ayakpa Kara iratrap ayopav Ihpvrai^ kcX 
wpoBvovfTiP all T€ yapovptvtu koi ol yapovvTfs, 

^ At Thebes : PauS. 9. 17, I itXjjo'ioi' dc ^Aprtpiiot va6s ianv EifKkeias, 
TOtfirjpai dc €vt6s tov Upov BvyaT€pas *APTiirolvov XiymnriP, *Avd/>dieXccdv re kcu 
*AXie/da . • • TOV miov dc • . . Xc«»y eWlv tffinpoaOtP. 

o At Paros : Le £as, Iks 2062 dedication 2r/)an;y[/d]t *A<l>poiiTif Ait 

*A<f)podiiTl«j^ *^PMS *A/7rc/Lttdt EvfcXct/;. 

d E^icXcM at Athens, ? Artemis : Paus. i. 14, 5 pa^t EvKXeiar dpdOrtpa 
Koi Tovra dn6 t&p M^^v, ot rrjs X^P^^ 'MapaB&Pi taxop. C, I, Gr, 
258 T^P iavTtjs Mpa 'UpoKKrjp ItpartvauPTa EvicXetf jcot EvpoltjL av^BfiKtp^ 
? fourth century, b. c. Cf. C. I. A. 3. 277 Upins EvfcXcuir ml Evyo/ua^, 
on seat in Attic theatre, late period. 



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576 GREEK RELIGION. 

^ Artemis 'Hyt/iili^ » at Akakesion in Arcadia, vide ••». 

^ At Tegea : Paus. 8. 47, 6 h hi rfip''Apr€fUP ri^ 'Hyvfufinp T^ avTfiP 
TOid^ Xiyowriw, *Opxoit€in»v rinf <V ^KpiooAi^ rvpopplda tax^ *Apurrofjai\idat 
. . . <tkoP€V<ras bi €Kimw {pip6mos) nai h Teyfuy i^vyiMf hroUiatP Up6» rj 

*ApT€ful^ 

^ At Sparta: Paus. 3. 14, 6 r^ dc Elkftevuu ccn-ly (Up^) 'AvoXX^i^ 

Tt Kappfiov Koi *Apr(fudoff 'Hyt fioptjt, 

d At Asea : Roehl, Inscr. Gra^c. Ant, 93 'Ayi^/iot on base of statue 
dedicated ?to Artemis Hegemone. 

« In Ambracia : Anton. Liber. 4 Twt Vk ^Aftfiptuuarat €K^vy6vrai r^r 
dovXeuiy "Afyrtfutf 'Hy«fu$Mp tkdatuFBai ical ironfaa/AtPow ayportprig tucaafta 
wapaoTfia'aadat xoXiccov avTf $rjpa. Cf. Polyaen. 8. 52. 

' ?At Athens: Pollux, 8. 106, oath of the Ephebi, i<rrop€s Btol, 
"Aypavkot, *EiaKiXtor/Api7(, Zcvr, OoXXw, Av(«, *HyffuSi^. PaUS. 9. 35, I 
Tifi&ot yap €K nakaiov km *A$rf¥aioi Xdptras Av^a km 'HytpiSprip, 

« At Miletus, **»: cf. Plut. de Mul. Vtrt. p. 253 F ofl^r ofe &^« 
'Aprffiidi Koi Bvalat wapk MiXi^toir, fpf Hfjkiitba wpotrayoptvownM, 

h Hesych. S. v. 'HycfuSwy ''Aprt/jLts koI 'A^podmy. 

i *ApnfUTos 'Ayffiovof, inscription (? second century, b.c.) from Aetolia, 
/ourn. Hell Stud. 13. p. 353. 

•• Artemis Dfi^db at Argos: Paus. 2. 21, i rpanftUrw tvBvs iw\ n^i* 
ayopiuf . , . t6 dc r^f *ApT€fulhs Up^ crkXijoiv Ilci^ovr, 'YntpfUffiirrpa koX 
TovTO MfiBriKt, pucriaaa'a rj ducQ r^y waripa. 

Artemis the protectress of children. 

^ Diod. Sic. 5. 73 ^Aprtpiv i^atrof tvptuf r^v r»y piprl»p irotdMoy B«pan€taif 
Koi Tpoffws Ttvat dppoCovaaf rj ^utrci tw fiptifAp, a^' j}^ alrias Koi Kovporp&tfiov 
oMfp 6popa(«<r3M, Cf. Hom. Od, 20. *Jl pSjKos d* jirop' *ApT€fus ^i^« 

^ Artemis llaidorp<$<^ at Corone in Messenia: Paus. 4. 34, 6 
Btwf d< iarw ivravBa *ApT€pM£ tc Kakovpevris Umdorpd^ov ical Aunwov icoi 
'AtricXiT^rioi) va6s. 

"^ Artemis ^ikoptlpaf at £lis: Paus. 6. 23, 6 Up^ ttjs *ikoptipaK6s 

ioTtv *ApT*pibot. TQ pA¥ tfi $€^ yryoMv 17 twiKkrfais Srt rov yv/uwurtov ytiropt, 

Cf. Paus. 2. 10, 7, Statue of Artemis, r^ «f l$vp p&^w ttpyaaptmi, in the 
gymnasium at Sicyon. 

^ Artemis KopvBakia at Sparta: Athen. p. 139 A-B KopiCovu'i yi^ al 
TirBai T^ Spp€va wmdia Kork r^ KMp^ rovrw «lg ayp6p km np6s ri^p KopvOakiop 
KokovfiMPrfP "Apr^ptPy ^9 t6 UpiiP vapk lifP KokovfUPtjp Tiwraop i<m . • . Bvcviri 
ii Kal Tovt yaXoBtpfWS 6p$ayopUrKovs Koi wapartBiomp 9p rj Boipg rous irpirag 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 577 

SpTWt • . . ravra fup 6 UokifM^v, Cf. Hesjch. S,V. Kop/vBaKXiarptair ai 
XOp€vowrai rfj KopvBaKKi^ 6f^ s. V, Kvptrroi' ol ix.oms rh. (vXufa vp6irtma^ 
KOTO. *IriiXuiyy Koi iopraCoitns rj Kopv^aXXifr, ytkoioaral, Plut. Quaes/. 
Conviv. p. 657 £ rov 'AirAXcovor dvo riBfjiifag^ lifP *AXrfi€U»p km r^y 
KopvBaKtuw, 

^ ? KovpoTp6<l}os : Arist Thesmoph. 295 <^x'<^ ^^^ Bwiio^piow^ rj 
AfjfXTfTpi Ktu TJ Kopu Koi T^ ItkovT^ Koi Tfj KoXXryffVf (f jcal T§ KovpoTp6(l>if KtU 
r^ '£/)fi9 xal Tois Xdpuruf, €• /• ^. 3. 48 1 tBvfraof {pi tffnfioi) rj rt *A^i^ 
rj IloXiddi fcal rg Kovpor/xS<^. 

^^ Hesjch. J.V. Kovp€d0rif' fAijpbs tov Uvavty^i&pos fnupa^ cr ]/ rck( mr^ 
r^r /cc^oX^ff Tw waUi»p airoKtlpaprts rpixas ^Apriijuik Ovoiwri, Cf. Et Mag, 
p. 533. 4 a lopn) /oTiy rirl rpctp ^fjJpas rtkoviurri • • • r^ df rp/177 rov( 
Kovpovs tUrayovaiy tis rfjp ioprrip, ical avpiirr&a'i rots <nryy€P((ri xal ypttpi/uas, 
icdl €yypd<l>€va'ip tU rfiP iroXircuiv. 

^ Artemis ? 'rtron€>ABpa : HesyclL s.v, inlBmp *ApT€iudos, mg 6 
Mipdios (?). 

"^ Artemis Uarp^ at Sicyon: vide Zeus, *"^ Cf. C. /. A. 3. 176 
*AiroXX4iyi warp^ Koi 'Apr//udi. 

'" Artemis Utnpi&Tts at Pleiae : C, /. Gr. 1444 Uptiav . . . ^AprtpJiog 
UmpMnihot ip IlXciW. ? At Amyclae : Eph. Arch. 1892, p. 23 late 
inscription foimd there mentioning Uptht *ApT«fu^o£ {naTpiu)TiZos, 

^* Artemis Uoftifnfkala at Epidaurus: Eph. Arch. 1883, p. 28 
*ApT4fU^ nafi^Xa/as 'EvKparrfg 'EvKpoMos nvpo<t>oprfaxis» 

Common cult of Artemis and Apollo. 

'»» In Delos: Journal 0/ Hell, S/udtes, 1890, p. 260; C. I Gr. 
2280, 2282, &c. Bull, de Corr. Hell. 1882, 48-49 dedications to 
Artemis l^\ia in the temple of Apollo: cf. 1878, p. 339. Bull, de 
Corr. Hell. 1891, p. 291, Delian inscription found in a small island 
near Amorgus, h Bwrlap ry 'AirAXtm Koi rg 'ApT«/ulk, third century, b.c. 
Herod. 4. 34 r^tn dc vapBofoun roArjitn rfjirtp i( 'Yfnppop€»p rcXcvr^ocuri 
h A^y, KMiporrai ical al itApai Koi ol waVks ol AjjXtW* al ficv irp^ yafMV 
irX($Kaftoy oirorvft^MU mil Vfpi SrpaKTOP f IXitfocrm, M r& cr^fia rtBtun {t6 dc 
cr^fui coTi fo-tt ^ff r& *A^f/u(ru>y ccuWi . . • ) ol dc iriud€f rStv ArfkmP, frtpi 
xX<$i7V nW^ 9lKi(aPT€g r^y rpix^t vporiBuKTi Koi 0^01 M. rh aijpa • . . ravrof 
/i(v o^y 1^ EaXci^ih^ awoffitpawras amX rov wkvtSkov t6p tra^QPro (l>6pop 
dmiciaBai'' rffp dc "Apyf/p re icai lifp ^Qwuf Sita avroiai rouri &€oia'i anuct<r6ai 
Xcyovo'i Kol (T^i ri/i^9 JlXXcw dcdd<r^ai wphg offiiwt tsiai yhp aytiptuf affu r^ 
yvpducas, iKOPoitadawras rh o/Mpara ip rf vpptf' iraph dc (r<^«>v poMprat 
pifffiJarag r§ leal ^'liiMif vfwccir ^Ihru' r« Kai''Apyijp* itdi rj»r p^ipiiuf KarayiCofjJpmP 

VOL. II. M 



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578 CREEK REUGION. 

luAvBai iwtfiaXXofUpii^. if dc Afny ainimm am Ano^ rov 'Aprtiunav. 
Arnob. ^^. C^. 6. 6 Nod in Dianae defaibro, quod in Apolfinis 
constitutom est DelH, Hjperocbe Laocfikcqne (hunatioius habuisse 
perbibentaroffida)? Pans. i. 43, 4,atMega^^r4;o»qfMI•I#«»^Afr•AX«aAw 
$vyarp6r awo^tiw df ovnir ^cvir en wapSimm, MtfMi i J f gf dc iw nV^Kff 
XO^ vptW T& T^ff 'I^on&fff lU'ii^ wpoa^ifmif wfA ymftaw kol awapxHr^ rmr 
TfHx*^, KoBh «>i rd '^^P7B Ktu^Onii al Ovyariptf wore aw^cttptmn td ^tikim^. 
Id. 5. 7, 8 cvct df fdQV IkXaMMTOf KvyuuiDf cr ^Osv cu *Ettf/yyi|r ^ctcf, 
»f CK rMT 'YwwpPopfmm . . . a/^Utmro it A^Xor. ^/L J[/<(^. p. 64I. 55 O^tr 
iwiBmm *ApT€fudog, 1j wapa t6 owiCta&tu rat rujova a s ovnyp . • . $ dia r^ 
vw€pfiop€a9 *6pa$, OZriw, 'Emtpyif^, Ao^. Plato, *A{tox. p- 37 1 <^ x'^^^^ 
dcXrMT, ^ c£ *r9€pfiop€mf iK6fuaa9 *QwU rt m ^Emtpyti. Oand. d^ CofiS. 
Siihch. 3. 253 Itmgnnt se geminae metoenda feris Hekaerge, et soror, 
optatum numen venantibnSy Opis, progenies Scjthiae. Clem. Alex. 
Strom, p. 674 V 6 ii€w yap (Bpayxot 6 paims) iwtppauMm t6 wkSj&ot dd^vi^ 
kk6doi£ wpOKOTrfpxtTo rov vp»€v 6dc wmsr fUkwtn i wmlks impyow ml 
inupyiaf. Atbenag. Z^. pro Christ. 14. p. 61 (Dechair) got 6 A^Xkw 
Koi 7 "Aprtpit T€KTaiov col 'AyycXiWrof rix^ Anonjm. Vii. Plot. p. 6 
Cobet i^ TJ C ^^ OapyffXutwof pjjv^, cr j iopripf mreXovcny o{ A^Xioi rov 
*Aw6Kk€nnty iw dirj g* rov avrov p^p^y . , . €P § ytP€$Xuud^ iopr^w 'Apripidos 

^ At Athens, common cult of Apollo Upwrraniptos and Artemis 
BovXcda, •*. Cf. '•, »•. Artemis A«X^Jui at Athens: PoUux, 8. 119 r^ 
iwi ^X^uflf (fiuuunriptow) UipvBri ptp vw6 rov Alyimt Xrymu dc 'Aw6XKtnn 
A«\<l>ad^ Koi 'A/yr/fud« ^X^«Mg. Cf. '". Demosth. «. 'ApurroKp. 74. 
p. 644 ducatrrripunr, t varr»w dywrara rovrmtf l^ci mt ^/nicwdcoTora, ^ rc( 
6poKoy§ ph KTuiKUy m6pms di ^j MpoKfpai' rovro ^ core t6 M. AtXiftun^, 
C. I. A. 3. 77, calendar of sacrifices (Roman period) Uva^i&vos 
'Ajr<SXXa>n lud 'Apripidi C vAwopop, 

^ Artemis AcX^^a in Thessaly: Eph, Arch. 1884, p. 221 'Apr</udc 
A«\<piviq^ AhxvXif . . • Xaropfvaaifaa (? second century B. c). 

^ Artemis 2€Xatnp6pos with Apollo at Phlya in Attica, **. 

• Artemis with Apollo at Delphi : CoUitz, Dialect. InscAr. No. 1810 
diridoTo MvaaiXaos . . . r^ *AirSkkuvi rif UvOia koi *ApT€piTi a&pa yvwuxctbr. 
Cf. C.I. Gr. 1688, inscription b.c. 379 containing Amphictyonic oath, 
*0/ivv«» Kara rov ^AurUKK^wos rov HvBiov nai ras Aarovs ical ras *ApTdpiT09, 
Cf. joint worship at Cyrrha, '••. 

' Artemis ZMrcipa with Apollo nv^w at Anaphe : C. I. Gr. 2481. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII^XIX. 579 

8 Near Pheneos: Paus. 8. 15, 5 'AirAXcoW fWi llv^iov vo&i . . . 
€vrav$a Irt koi vOv *Air($XXo»Ft ^tvtarcu xal 'Aprc/udt ^vovaiv, 

^ PaUS« 3. II, 9 Sirapriaraif dc rirl r^r dyopas Ilu^acttff r/ cotiv 
'AiTf^ttvoff Koi *ApT(fuidos Koi AjjTovs dyoXftora. 

i Artemis nv^ii; at Miletus : C. /. Gr. 2866 'Apr/fiidi Uv^a^; «eal Avro- 

Kparopi KoiVapi 2(ffturT^^ Id, 2885 *Ybpo(f)6pos *ApTtfudos UvBiris MaKia 
•Pow^civa. Cf. '^^ 

k Clem. Alex. -S/rewi. I. p. 384 P Xiytrai {rfjp 2tpv\kcaf) . . • *pvytaw 
Tff oltTov MKkrity6ai "AfrrtfUP Koi ravrrjv irapay^POfUtnjv th AcX^ovr hrtm 

1 Strabo, 588 ^ fity odv ir6kis ('Adpdorcia) fttra^ Hpidvov Koi Uapiov 
«XCVfra xmoK€ifit¥0¥ wtdiop Sfjtawnop hf f xoi luarr^iop ^v 'A9r($XX«voff 'Ajcfqiov 
KcX *ApT€fudos, 

™ Strabo, 6^6 «p d« rj KtktKi^ eorl jcai r^ r^s lapmjdovias *Aprc/udoff koI 
ftavrtlop^ Tovs dc xPl^f^^^ Mtoi irpo6t(mi{ov<ri, 

» Artemis OvX/o: Macr. &2/f^fi. i, 17, 21 Pherecydes refertThesea 
cum in Cretam ad Minotaurum duceretur vovisse pro salute atque 
reditu suo *An6Kkiovi olU^ xai 'Aprc/ud» OvX/?. ? At Lindos : Artemis with 
Apollo oHkios ^^. 

o Artemis Awy : Diomed. BL 3. p. 484 ed. Putsch. Morbo Sicilia 
laborabat. Variis et assiduis ceremoniis Dianam placantes, finem 
malis invenerunt, eandem Lyen cognominaverunt. Cf. Artemis 'EXcv^pa 
in Lycia: Artemid. Oneirocr. 2. 35 ^ Xryofumj napii Avkioiv 'EXcv^'pa 
"ApTtfuf. Arctinus, Aethiopis Diintzer, Ep, Poes. p. 16 (Photius) 
*A;(iXX€VS tU Afo-^v irXci Koi Bvaas *A»roXX«Fi jcoi *ApT(fuU Koi Aiyrol 
Ka3aiperai roO <j>6pov (Qtparirov) vtf *Odv(r(rrttf. 

P Artemis Aowrupris: Collitz, Dial Inschr. 1601 lap^ wtOtiKu rat. 
*ApTifiibt Aovo-iari. ? Achaean inscription of fourth century b.c. 

<i Artemis e^pfday €vdKoos, tn^Koo^i C /. Gr, 2172, inscription from 
baths in Mitylene, riof Kpain^ap xai t6 vdpay^ywp dir^ Kiyxptop 'Aprcfiidi 
Btpfil^ €vaK6^. On basis found at Mitylene MryctXi; "Aprc/ur Qtpfiia 
Bull, de Corr. Hell, 1880, 430, No. 14. Arislid. i. p. 503, Dind. t^v 
BtpiJtaUaf''ApTtfitP, j) rag mjyas riis Btppiis ?x^i. Cf. Paus. 5. 1 5, 7 Trraproi 
dc P»fi6t *Apr€fjudos etrutXfjauf Kokkomcos' kcu 'AwdkkttPos vtfinros Otpplov . . . 
opff oTov df "ApTffUP ^nopopdCovaip Komcttieay, ovx old re ^p fnoi dtda^^^va'. 
EtKucoof in Crete : C. /. Gr, 2566 *Apxopuca Zavk» . . . dvaC&aa *ApTfiubi 
€vaK6^ tv^fupa vircp iavras cv^ov. *£in}j(oof at Rome: C. /. Gr. 594' 
6($ rfn7JC($Y 'Aprc/udi AvXidt 2a>r(cp^ Avp. ^EXirivriia;. At EpidaurUS : Eph. 
Arch. 1883, 3 'Aprcfudi 'EicaTj; cmyKi^), inscription of Roman period. 
Samothrace inscription of late Roman period *ApT«/udi 'Eiri^Kt^ Alhen. 
Miitheil 1893, p. 377. 

M 2 



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53o GREEK REUGIOS. 

s* At ^legani : Pans. i. 44, s 'AjtAA^w m^ . . . n^iriTyi— . . • 

'As^oXX^fT dtf €w iAt^ murm Btat ^im Kai^Aprt^ts gm \^m gm SkXm myrnkfrnrm 
€01%^ llpa^trtXmff w ou ftr a rrot X>rrm cm m nudff. CC Altemis 'Ayyior^ with 
Apollo *Ayffai09, •*« 

• At Skyon : Paos. 2. f i, i "Envw Ac n *Apr^A « 'AsAXm t« 
s-Xiftfior tf/i^ y iym Xeyomn, Cf. 2. 7, 8. 

« In the Argdid, «^: C. 7. Gr. 1173 *^^pJ^ *hM&Xmmi 
2ramXior tf/NnroXif^ar. 

■ At Pfrrfakfads in South T^conia : Pans. 3. 25, 3 tf^r dc er r^ >§ 
v^'urw Upd iartw ^AprtftMt n ewitcXjiav ^AarparUmg^ an rift is to wpoom 
aTptmwf iwrauBa iwav^arro *hpa(iSms^ m, 'AvAXmt *Afaa(6mosr {000 /icr 
il$/^fpa i»aB€umt, dc Xeyavvw alrh rkt a*6 0€pfuidotrot yvmauam. Cf. *'^. 

▼ At Ol/mpia in tbe temple of Hera: Pans. 5. 17, 3 K^ dc mak 

Aintifnip Ktu *AwQiXmf nak ^Aprtfus, al i»h oXX^Xtfir ma\9 marucpv mAjyicMiy 
'Aw6XXmtf df ipowriof iart!fa]i rj ^Aprtfulk arrycsr. 

V At Mantinea : Pans. 8. 9, i "Ecn ii MonovMri m^ ^Xow . . . tw 
poov df rj ithf Hyakfia f onr ' AoxXjfViov r^x^ 'AXmyimv^ ni dc mptm Aiyrovr 
/vnr Irpdr ml Wir woihmir Upa^ik^ hi rii. ayokfiaru ttpyaaar^, 

* At Tanagia: Pans. 9. 22, I ivTanyp^ . . . irpirot tmt kwp*AWX- 
Xm p o t, Sfutv di tAr^^ApTf/ils re ml A]jr«. 

y AtAbaeinPhods: PailS. 10. 35, 3 wiyaTiriPOorTir/iryaFcaTiFcJXAoff 
pa6f . . . fiaatktvt ti *Alipuaf^ iwoufat r^ 'AvdXX^vt' n& de ayuX/cara d|p;(ai<(- 
r«pa «al o^dr /otif 'A/3au»r imBtjfia x"'^^^*^ ^ tifyaarai col 6fioms iarip 
6fM, ^AMMuttf ml A];r« rv ml "AprtfUf, 

' At Eretria: Rang. ^n/. ffell/k. 1242 ^ d^jfu^r ^EptrpUmm ^rimmwow 
HpiT^ htKa . . . *Afnifitdi 'AwSKXttwi Ajfrw (fourth centurj b. c). 

M At Mylasa: C. /. Gr. 2694 lepra *AvAXi»yor ml 'Afni/uios. 

W> At Araxa in Lyda : Bennd. ^^f» tn Lykim^ vol. i, p. 77, Inscr. 
53 b dpatfnfovaris Ttjt Btar6Kov yfjt Xoukovs itopii^s . • • ^A/n-c/uv re ml 
'hviXkmpa, 

^ Artemis Upmryiru with Apollo in Lycia : Bennd. Reisen tn Lykien^ 
Inscr. 45 Ttfi' irpoiiyrr&if 'Aprcfudof ml 'AnSKkmvos, 

^ Artemis KXapia and Apollo KXdpios on late coins of Colophon : 
Head, His/. Num. p. 494. Bn/. Mus. Cat, lonia^ p. 42. 

^ Artemis Kamcturtf with Apollo Kovxaircvf in Chios: Rev, Arch, 
l877f P* '07 ^ Upfifrtiaw *A3F6Kkidvos Kavicturiat^ icai *ApT€/udos KavKOr 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII^XIX. 581 

ff Artemb Epbesia with ApoUo, *"• (not in public cult); at 
Massilia, ^^\ 

« With ApoUo MaXcanv in Cynuria: C /. Gr. 11 73 'A^/fu9of 
'Asr(<SXX»vof) SrorciXio^ . • . Upcmokiivas (Roman period). 

hk With Apollo 'Aywifvff at Tegea,". 

ii In Cyrene : Athenae. p. 549 £, F, quoting Ptolemaeus Euerg. 

(Mflll. Frag, Hist, 3. 187, 6) ^ApTtfiiria fttyiimi topri^ cf Kvprpnf^ cV j 6 
Uptvf fov *Av6kX»vog (JptmHTtos f^ fWc) dciimjct rovr irp^ ovrov IfprmrofUvovs, 
Cf. Inscr. Smith- Porcher, DiscaverUs at Cyrene^ PI. 80, 8, p. 112. 

Artemis as city-goddess. 

* Artemis *AfMapvw6ia or *AiMapwria^ at Eretria : Livy, 35. 38 sacrum 
anniversarium eo forte tempore Eretriae Amarynthidis Dianae erat, 
quod non popularium modo sed Carystiorum etiam coetu celebratur. 
Strabo, 448 t^p dc bv9Qfu» t^p *Ep€TpU»p Ijp ^frxop noT€ fjLafnvfHt ^ orifKfi, 
fjp opiBtaup irorc cV rf Up^ t^ *Afiapvp&lag *ApT€fudos, Cf. Rang. An/, 
HelUn, 689 rrpf ptp piap (c^e<{Ml) ar^croi cv rf Irpf r^s ^Aprtpidot r^r 
^Afjtapvaias , . . dpayop€V€a'$<u dc r^r rifi^ *ApT€fuaimp r^ ^ywn r^r nvppixtjs. 

Cf. ". 

^ In Attica: Pans. I. 31, 4-5 'A6fiop€i£ dc rifMMTiy ^Apapwriav "ApTtpw 
• . . ioprrjp di Koi *A$rfixuoi lijs 'Apapvaiat Syovot ov^y rt Evfiot^p ^^oyc- 
frrtpop. Cm /. ^. I. 526 ^^ *Apr€iudo9 tv/icdovc ^Apapwrias (archaic 
period). Cf. i3. 4. 521 h. 

*' Artemis BovXo^ *at Athens: C, L Gr, 112, 113 r£y ^vo-Mtfi^ &y 
Ti^y rh irp6 t&p iKicktja'mp «>c r« *Av((XXfi*M rf wpoirranipi^ kcX rj ^AprtpiHk 
tS hovXaiq, Cf. C, I, A. 2. 390, 392, 408, 417, 431, 433, containing 
the same formula. Cf. Aesck &p/. 449 wpoaranfplas "ApriptJbot 

tvpoiaun. 

^ At Miletus : BuH. de Corr, Hell, 1877, p. 287 'Apr^pi^ rrip vbpo<l>6pop 
Tijg UvBlfis *ApT€piios Koi Uptujuf di^ jSiov T^£ BovXo/iv *Apnptdof (inscription 
of Roman period). 

" Artemis B<n>kfi<l)6po£ at Miletus: Dittenb. Syllog, 391. Rev, Arch, 
1874^, p. 104 r^ 6(f it€;(ap«r/icM»ff cjfft Mil rf ^MV* wpxft9p6pTidi mii i^Cf 
icai cff r6y lirccrc (j/r) XP^^^ awrtkown rag dytpans 'Aprcfudc BovXi^^p^ 
Siciptdi KoBiri Itdpi^ i^riyovpMPOi elfrfJHpova'i, 

•* Artemis 'Ayopaio, "c. 

The name of Artemis in the formulae of public oaths : C, I. Gr, 
2664» alliance between Latus and Olus in Crete. Cf. •^b, *«f In the 
Gortynian inscription the woman takes the oath in the name of 
Artemis on a question of property, vide Hell, J<mrn, 1892, p. 65. 



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582 GREEK RELIGION. 

At Dreros in Crete, Artemis associated with Leto and Apollo in the 
public oath, Cauer, Delect? 121. 

Titles taken from cities and localities. 

•* Callim. tn Dian, 33 : 

Tph ^Ka Toi nroKUBpa, r^ fJj Bthv SKKov acfciy 
cttrcroft oKXh fUmjp tri^ Ktu *ApT€fudog KokuaOai. 

Id. 188 : 

injo-ttF ftiv AoXcx<7y irokUiP d/ rot rtlfadc Uipyr), 
nfiyrrov d* 6p€^Vy XifjLtvts yt fity Evpinoto, 

•* Air<ii>X^ in Naupactus : Pans. 10. 38, 12 Han fup M BaKdiraji vah^ 
UotrtihSivos • . • fOTt bf leoi Up^v 'Aprc/udos jcal SyaKiJM Xcvxov \tBov' cx^pui 
b€ oKovTiCovinis irapcxcrai, Koi oriKkija-uf tX\fj<f>€v AlraiKi, among the Heneti. 

" Artemis ^Axpla : Hesych. s. v, tori W ital 4 'H/w koL "Aprtfu? kqI 
'A^podi'n; npo<Tayop€VOfi€vrj (v ^Apyfi, Korh to o/aoiov eir* &^ IdpvfAtvai, Cf. 
Artemis Kopv<l>aia on Mount Coryphon near Epidaurus, Paus. 2. 28. 2. 

•* Artemis 'AX<^taca, *. 

** Artemis ^Afiapuvdia : Steph. Byz. J. 27. 'ApapvpSos' j^o-or EvjSoiar, dircJ 
riw)ff /cvMTyoO *ApT€pidog *Apapvv3ov, Cf. '^^ 

•* Artemis 'ATn-cpa in Crete: Cauer, Delect? 128, treaty of alliance 
between Aptera and Teos, dvaypa^ptp di xal dpts t6 re wp&rfpop h^pa 
KOi rap avaP€<oirw «s ro i€p6v t6 ras ^ApT€pi^s ras *Ajn'€pas, 

" Artemis ^Aarias at lasos in Caria: C /. Grr, 2683 *ApT€tudi *A<md^ 
KOLi AvTOKpdropi Kaio'api M. Alpri\l<^ KoD/xc^d^ *Apr<opi»^ Sf/Saor^. <rrt<f>(unj' 
<l>6pO£ TTJs vpoKaBrfy€p6poe Trjg irdX(«»r ^p^v *Apr€pidos *A<mddos, inscription 
of first century a.d.(?), Rev. des Etudes Grecqms^ 1893, p. 157. 
Polyb. 16. 12 va^h Tois 'lcura€v<ri, r6 rrjs *E<rnadot (leg. *A<mddos). 

•* Artemis ^Aarvprjpfi : Strabo, 606, in Antandros, "Aarvpa, Kwp:ij km 

aktrot TTJt *AaTvpTjprjs ^Apr^pidos Syufp. Cf. 6 1 3. 

•^ Artemis Avkidtla at Tanagra: Bull, de Corr. Hell. 1879, 385, 
No. 32, inscription at Tanagra, ^ jSouX^ mX 6 ht\pjog *0\v7nrixnv . . . 
Upartvaaaop ^Aprtpidi Av\ib€i{<f), ? second century B.C. Cf. I.G.A. 170. 

•* Artemis Bo/Kin/mJ in Thyatira: C. I. Gr. 3477 'Aprcfudi Bopcinpg 

ical TJ7 VQTpidi rXvKmp . . . dpiBtiK€. Cf. 3507* 

•• Artemis ^rjkla in Delos, '"». 

^ Afjkids in Halicarnassus : Newton, Halic. 2. 698, No. 6 a ^ hr\pxi% 
TiStpif KXovdi^ Kaia-apt ScjSaor^ Ttppapuc^ • . • *ApT€pidt Ai/Xiddt. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 583 

•^ Artemis AffMonr, *•. C£ C. L Gr. 4300 A. 

** Artemis 'EXcvo-iyia : Hesych. s.v.ioaih SiitcXcf niutrm "Apfrtfiis, Cf. 

•• Artemis 'E^^taio, *». 

*<^» Kowicao-iV, '•« 

»•" ?K€ico/a in Rhodes: £ull. de Corr. Hell 1885, 100 rhp Uprj 

*ApTdfUTOS KtKolas Aaftdrpiow^ RosS, Iftscr, Inid, 3. 272 Sfvqpxot • • • 
UpaT€v<ras *AnSKk»vos nv6a€»s ml 'Aw6X\m90£ 'OXtov 'Aprcfiidor ra« cV Kfieoif 
^oiv. Ross, ^rr^. Aufsdize^ 2. 594 'A/motoXc^x^'s . . . UpaT€V(Tas*h0aiKua9 
Atvdias Koi Ai6s UoXitms Ka\ *AfyrafUTOs ras iv Kcitotf Btdis^ ? third CeDtUry B. C. 

^^ Artemis KoXoip^ near Sardis: Strabo, 626 cV dc omdiW rfrropa- 
fcorra ^ir^ t^ irAffitr liomy ^ rvyaid lup vrr6 rov ntui^rov Xeyofitpij (X/fun;), 
KoXdi; d* voTcpov fiMTOPOfMO^tureiy ttrav r6 Uphw uj^ Kokoffpijs *Aprcfudos ficya- 
X17V ayuTT€lap ^xoi^. ^ocrl d* hravBa xopfv^uf rovs KoXaBov? Kara rat ioprds^ 

"* Artemis KoMktans, •. 

*•* Artemis Kiv^vds : Strabo, 658, on the Carian coast, vXriaiop ^ eWl 
T»v BapyvXiW rd r^r *ApT€iudot Upinf rh r^f Kiydvados . • • i^v dc iror* jcal 
Xd*p/oy Kiydvi;. Cf. Polyb. 16. 12. Cf. Classical Review^ 1^94) P* 317 
foy df rtv irapa rovra itoc^ot; atnrtiirti *Apr€fudi Kufdvadt, sepulchral 
inscription with fine, ? found near Kindya. 

»•• Artemis EXapia at Colophon. Cf. ^dd. 

»••» K/)i7ir(a: Diod. Sic. 5. 77. Cf. '"». 

'^ Artemis Avicoons, **. 

'*•* Artemis Moyoyanyw} : Steph. Byz. S, V, Mowfyura' (v((Xif KapW SBw) 
"AfJTtfus Movcyunivfi, ifipvfia AmddXov . . • yiWa 7a/) rj Kap&p 4^<opS 
\iBos ipijoiptvtrai, 

^ Artemis Mvv^ia on coins of Myndus in Caria, Roman period : 

Head, Ht'sl. Num. p. 529. 

c Artemis Mwria near Sparta : Paus. 3. 20, 9 Uwrlas Up6p *ApT€fudos, 
'*• Artemis oiwortr in Argolis : Paus. 2. 25, 3 0lp6tj x«p*o»' ^^n"*" 

*Afynfiuriop, xal ltp6p 'Aprc/udoff M KopvifiS tov ^povp. Steph. Byz. S, V, 

OZny ircJXMr^'Apyovff' • . . Ohwarit "AprtfUfy ij ip OIp^o Ttjf ^Apytlas IdpvfUptj 

xm6 n/xHTov. Cf. Eur. Here. Fun 375 : 

TOP Tf XP^^^^'^^P^*'^^ 

dopKa . . • . 
KTtlvaSf Bripo<t>6pop Btiuf 
OlptMTtP dydXXci. 



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584 GREEK RELIGION. 

*^* Artemis olvala in Attic deme oWiy; C. L A. i. 534 oMfiai 

'Apr[c^dft ?]. lb, 3. 336 'Apriftidof Oivmar. 

^*®» Artemis *OXv/iir(a from the mountain north of Eretria : Eph, 
Arch. 1892, p. 141 XptHraXXU 2rffu<3v 'Apre/u^ 'OXvfiirif. Cf. t'd, p. 1 26, 
fourth-centuiy inscription from Eretria, apaypdyftai. h frnikQ XiBum rrpf 
wpo^iatf Koi errjaai cV t$ rrjs *ApT€fud<n Ifpf . 

"* Artemis Utpyaia at Perge in PamphyHa, ^^ : Strabo, 667 llcpyi; 
mSXiff fcol iikriviw eirl fUT€&pov rofrov rd r^s Htpyaias *ApT€fudot ltp6», iv ^ 
itopfiyvfHt KOT that awnXtirai, Cic. tn Verr, 2. i, 54 Pergae fanum 
antiquissimum et sanctissimum Dianae • • . ex ipsa Diana, quod 
habebat auri, detractum. Phot. S. v. ij Utfyyaia "Afntfu^' rdatrrrai irrl 
T&p ayvpT&p Koi irXoMTrfliy* vap6fro9 itai ti Ms ip ahrj. At HalicamasSUS : 
C /. Gr. 2656 cdb(c r$ jSovX^ Km rf ^luf . • • irpuMfUmj Tfjp Uptjnlap Ttjs 
*AfiTfynjboi r^s TUpymas mtpi^ai Upncm iiarifp i( dffv&p ofM/ffHrrtprnp M Tp€is 
ytv€ii£ ytytPffiUvtiw #cai irp6s iraTp6s koL irp6s fJajrpds' ^ dc wpiaiumi . • . $v<r(i 
ra Itpk rh ttnionkia mi rh lfitafruo&. , . , iw ^ hk ftajA ff $v<ria <nnn-t\€iTm 
^ di/ftoreX^ff 6ytip€Tto np6 i^^orov riie ^fiipag Tfms, h^ ohdop fuj voptvofUvf}^ 
6 dc aytpiibt coTtf Ttjs Itptlas. At Lindos: Rev. Arch. 1867*, P< ^5* 
No. 67 ^AfndfUTi Utpyalai. 

^^' Artemis Upuntimi ?at PriapUS : Plut. Lucutt. 13 Xrycroi ykp 'AprM- 

Up^p Koi r6 ^pop apcunfdacun. 
^^' Artemis ^ap^uuni at Sardis : C. I. Gr. 3459 *AiroXXdbMOf dpxupm 

. . . rifp Upiaw rfjs ^apduanjs 'Aprc/udo$ dinjictp tov <f>6pov ^Afitfpag (? third 
century b.c). 

^^* Artemis lapttpia on the coast near Troezen: Paus. 2. 32, 10 
orptTtrhp di hfopopadown rovrov, ore • • . dptrpantf 'hnroKurov t6 ippOj roimv 
dc ov iroX^ rrit 2aptoiplas *Apr€fudos t^arritct rh Up6p . . . 2apoyta y6p dij Kara 
tros rg 'Aprcfudi ioprfip Syowri. Eur. Z^ji!^/, 1 126 : 
& y^dpioBot froXii^idoff oicraff 

hpVpAs T liptlOt, S6l KVP&P 

6mm6d»p fUra ^pat Zpaiptp 

^iKTVPpap dfi^ atppop. 
*'* Artemis ItXiurMi?, •*. 
'^* Artemis Sffiodiriff near Megalopolis : Paus. 8. 35, 5 ^KwUkt KaKov* 

p€Pop x»piop Kai *Apr€ptbo£ Sxiad/ndor ipearid iarw Upov, 

"^ Artemis ^paia: Callim. tn Dian. 259 n<(rwa yiawmx'in XiftcuxMrKoirc, 
X^^^i ^poJai. At Sicyon: Paus. 2. 10, 7 *tpaias Up6p ^Apn/udot. 

KOfua&fjvai d( t6 (Sopop \tyovinp iK ^p&p. At ArgOS : iV/, 2. 23, 5 1^ d^ 
*ApT€fudos TTJs ^paiat, aifiawn yhp Ka\ *Apytloi ^paiap "ApnpMf Korh ravr^ 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 585 

*ABrfpaioi£ mi Suev^Moir, t6 cfyaXfta «eai 0^01 KJMa-uf tK ^tp&w rdv ^ Ofo-craXt^ 
xofuo^voi. At Athens : Hesych. s. v, ^tpaUt *ABfivfi<n (fMin) M^' ol dc 
T^ 'Eiohi;!' : /(5. 'Adpt^rov icrfpiy 'E^on;, riWr ftf rifw Bcvdii^ : vide *•*. In 
Acarnania : C /. Gr. 1837 *ApT€fudi ^tpaUf. (Roman period). 

"• Artemis Tvx»? on Imperial coins of Gerasa in the Sjrrian 
Dekapolis : Head, Hisi. Num, p. 665 "Aprt/us Tvxri Ttpaa&p, 

Artemis as goddess of war. 

"• Vide ^\^: Epigram of Simonides, Bergk, 135 : 
IlaPTodair&w a»dpi»p ycvfar Aaias dnb x^P^ 
naih^s *A$rfvamp ry^ iror* Ar ircXoyci 

arifiora ravr* oPtBtw vapBtptf 'ApT€fudi, 

^ Artemis 'Apurro/SovXiy : Plut de Herod. Malign. 869 roO et/uaro* 
icXfovr /SovXcv/iorof y b fiavktwmt r§ 'EXXoAa P(n;fta;(7<rctt fr/>6 r^s 2aXa^m>«, 
tdpwraro va^w *Apurroffov\rit *Aprcfudoff cV MtXlrif, rov fiapfidpov KorawoKtfirf^ 
OivTOi, Cf. Plut TTiemtsL 2 a Sirctro ^ KoLrov B€fuaroKk€ovt tMvioP h rf 
wa/f rrfs ^ hpiaroSavkvfi Iri mi^ intas, ?At Rhodes: Porph. d!f Ahstin, 
2. 54 ipoTtunff dc r^ff ioprfjt npoayaydvnt rhw Mpttmop Z(» irvXAr arrucpvg 
Tov *ApumPovktis l3ovff, o&ov iroria-aprts l^aifwrrop, 

'** In Messenia : Pans. 4. 13, 1 ri i^f 'AprtfMtdos Syakiia^ hv x<>X«covv 
leoi tdnh Ktii rh ^Xa irop^ r^p danida. 

^** Anih, Pal, 9. 534 "Afn/us Idptniwra vpo6yy€\6t cWi Kudoi/ioO. 

^ Artemis s«rffipa * at Megara : Pans. i. 40, 2 dpxoUp iaruf Up6p, . . . 
ml Syakftd t€ Ktinu xoXjcovt *A^c/udo« iniKkvi<rt» 2«drtipa£» At Pagae in 
Megara: idl I. 44, 4 eV dc rmf nayaif ^ar vircXctirffro S(u>p ^Aprtfudog 
^wnlpag tnlKXtfatP ;(aXicot)y Syakfia^ fuy€$€t nf frop^ MryopctMriy Itrop jboI 
ox^ o^y dta<t>6p»t ^xw, C. /. (rr. 1052 b, 1063 ii /SovX^ mil 6 ^itos 
^avirrupaw 9avar€ipov Uptuxp *Apr€fudo£ Stfrcijpar. 

^ At Megalopolis: Paus. 8. 30, 10 KoBtCoiUp^ dc ny Att ^v ^/h^i^ 
inipccrr^ffiMn r;^ pip i) McydXi; irdXir, ip dpump^ df *ApT€pdio9 Imrtipof Sydkpa, 
mum fMv Xii^ rov Utprtktia'Ujv ' AA/muoc Ki;^ur<(dorD( ica4 Ztpofftw tlpydawtro, 

^ At Phigaleia : Paus. 8. 39, 5 l^ari dc l^rtlpas tv Icp^v ^mn)^ 'Aprt- 
fudos mi ^fyoXfui ^/i^i^ XiBov' Ik tovtov dc rov Upov km riis nopnds o^kti 
mpwttP Koriartf, 

^ At Troezen: Paus. 2. 31, I ^i^ rg dyopq^ TpoiCrfpUp pa6v koI dyaXpara 
^ApTsptddg €<m Stfrfipar. ei;a€a dc Acycro IdpvaatrOai Koi dpopdaat S^rcipoi^, 
^yoMi *AaTtpmpa t6p Mipm KoraywpurdpMPOt dptarpt^fp tK r^s Kpffnif, Cf. 
j5«//. <il? C^r. ZTi?//. 1893, p. 93, inscription from Troezen, fourth 
century B.C., ^Apx^arparos • . • ^Aprdpin Imr^ip^, 



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586 GREEK RELIGION. 

• At Boiae, "». 

^ At Pellene: Paus. 7. 27, 3 (mtp dc r^ yaoy r^ *AA}var cWiv oXoo^ 
wtpt^ofhftgffihoif rctxci Z«*rf<pas iwUhfauf *Aprw§udogy Koi ofuwwnp iwt 
fityurroit aMpr Z<roi6s re irXi|v toU Upwa-tP^ SKk^ yr Mtn. (Vrrtv Mpi^mmv. 
Up€ig df Swdptt rmv iwtx^P^" ^^rl nirck M^ yowf /coXumi aipovfuevoi. 
Plot. ^riZ/. 32 a^2 d^ II<XXi;vffiff Xeyovcrt t& /Sprraf r^r ^ov r^ fth Skkom 
dvoKtladat XP^''^ a^frovorrop, irop di KunjBip tm6 Ttjg Itptlas hcifKpitfrai^ lafioKk 
vpovPkeiFtuf ipowriov . • • ov yhp ap6pmmi£ fiAfOw opofxa ^puerdr €unt Km 
Xakfn6¥y aKkk Koi dMpa wouim affntpa luu Kopwovs itmpffkio'K.tw, 

« In Thisbe: Bull, de Corr, Hell. 1884, 401, 402 Qwmas . . . 
'ApTofudi 2mT€ipff (fourth centurj b.c). 

^ At Anaphe, '"^ 

i At Athens : JEph. Arch. 1893, p. 59 'Aprcfudi Stfrccpg Map«r di«^Kc : 
cf. inscription of first century b.c.(?). lb. pp. 52-54, inscription 
mentioning ^ 2iavtipa and o2 iwnipuumu. Cf. t^. 1883, p. 205, No. 5 
2^tipa inscribed on a terracotta representing Artemis holding a hare 
and resting her hand on the head of a fawn. 

^ At Anaphe : Collitz, Dialeci'imchriften, 3433 ^ M^wv h *Apa<l>amp 

. . . *AwoK\mvi Ilv^i^ *ApT*fu^ ^vrtipai. Cf. 3449-345 !• 

1 ^;iM. Pa/. 6. 267 *wr(l>6pof, £ 2o»T€ip*, cirl IlaXXcSdoff tora^ft icX^p«»y, 
"ApTtfu, Kal xop^ ^^ ^^i' oydpl didov. 

"* Artemis •Vfiy^a in Arcadia : Paus. 8. 5, 11 Uurtr ^Apript^s Upltp 
*Yp»ia£ 4nlKKri<ni^ tovto €P 6pois iitv cWiv *Opxop€pi«oWf irp6e ^ rfj Mavruwcj* 
atfiovai Kal cjc iraXmorarov ital ol vavrts 'Apfcodcr 'Ypptap "hprtpiv. ikdpPaP€ 
di T^p Up€oavprjp rrjs 6€0v r<$rf tri K6prj vapBwos . . . pertfflkrfiri dc c( €Ktlpov 
Ka\ 6 p6fws, dvri yhp napBivov lii^6aai rg *ApT€pi^i l€p€uaf yvpcuKa^ Spikias 
cofbpSvp mroxpdiPTvg Ixovo-oy. Id. 8. 1 3, I ^i' vtrrl^ rov Spovs Up6p tan rtfs 
*Yp»ias * Apriptjfioi* pertari dc aimv Koi Mcofnvfva-i * * * jcal Upeuof xai Mpa 
Up€a' TovTou o^ p6pop ra is rag pi^tis ahXh itol *i rh SkXa 6yuTTtv€iP 
KaB€arfiK€ t6p xP^pop tov piov irai^a, koi oiJrc Xovrpa o(h'€ dicuTa Xocir^ Kara 
rh. airrii aipifn Ka$h. Koi roU wdKKois tarip, ovdc €s olkusp vaplaauf dvbp6s 
l^&Tov. TOULvra olha h-tpa ipiamhp km ov vp6<r» 'E^caioiv etnTrjMopras 
Toi/f T§ 'Aprcfudi lariaropas rj 'E^ccr^ yipopepovs' Kakovpepovf d< vir6 rwv 
ndkiT&p ^Eaaijpas' r^ df 'ApTiptbi rg 'Ypvig. Koi ioprrjp ayovauf (irernop. 

'*' Artemis XcXOnff at Sparta : Clem. Alex. 33 P XeXvriAa dc "Aprtiup 
inapTtarat o-f/Sovo-t. Homeric hymn to Aphrodite, 18 : 

Kol yhp rS ("ApTCfitdi) ^dc t<J^, «al oCptai Grfpag ipalptiP^ 
<f>6ppiyyts T€ x^P^^ '"* litairpvo'ioL r ^XoXvyoi, 
^<rca re o-M^cyra diKolmp re irrdXir dpipmp. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIIl-XIX. 587 
Cf. Eur. Phoen. 234. C£ the Carian worship of MoXirodoi; 'H/m^o : 

Diod. Sic 5. 62-63 MoXirodioy dc (the sister oiUapBhoi) 'UfuOtap AvoiuiaBai 
Kcu TtfuurOai vapa vokti rois cv Xcppoi^o^. ip dc rair Bwriait ahrris • . . rhs 
fUv oiToMs lUkiKparif notowriy r^v dc 6i^fi€Vov fj if)ay6vTa . v6s oh p6fUfiop 
npoa€\6€i» vphi rh T€fitPos . • • ras dvaroKovviu t&p yvpoiKap rrjv tp raU 
<odi<ri rakaiiroipias kcu KUfdvptop oiraXXarrciy rrjp Btip, 

Artemis associated with Cybele, Bendis, Britomartis, Dictynna. 

'•• Strabo, 470 Tovroty ^ (the rites of Rhea-Cybele) loocc jc<U ra vapa 
ToU Opq^ ra Tc Korvrria km rii Bcydtdeta, irap* o& leal r^ 'Op^uc^ r^v 

**^ Athenae. 14. p. 636 Aioytviyr 6 rpayuc^s . . . eV tJ 2€/a«X»; : 
xXvfl* de Avdc^ BoKxias t( irap$€Povs 
worap^ irapoUcvf ^AXvi Tfimkiap 6€^ 
da4>p6<rKu>p KOT Ska-os "Kpr^iup aifitw, 

^^^ Steph. Byz. S.V, Mdaravpa' n6Kis Av^ias anr6 Mas . . • fVoXctro de 
Koi 4 'Pea Ma icai ravpos avrj i&utro iraph Avdoir. Strabo, 535 "^^ Hi^/iova kqI 
r^ rfjs *Epvov£ Uphp ^p (Ktivoi Ma opopaCovtri • . • r^ ti Itpii ravra dcxcci 
*Of)€<mjff ficra r^ff odcX^?^ *l<l>iy€P€ias KOfilo'ai dtvpo diro r^f Tavpoc^ff Sicv^iar, 
TO T7£ Tavpon6Kov*ApT€fuios. Cf. Paus, 3. 1 6, 8; Dio. Cass. 36. 13 
(Dind.) ra de di) KSpapa rrjf t€ pvp Kamra^Kias iarl ica\ (d<kfi t6 rt ttjs 
*kpr€iuboi r6 Tavpuchp fiperas xaX t6 ytpos t6 * Kyaptp»6v€UiP dtvpo del ^x^*''- 
Artemis Utpaa-ia at Castabala in Cilicia identified with the Tauric 
goddess : Strabo, 537 cV tcHs Kafrrafidkoit tcrrX t6 Ttjs Ufpaalas 'Aprt- 
fudos Up&Pf Snov <f)aari ras Uptias roir irocrl di* dpSpcuaas /Sadi^ciy atraBfU' 
KaPTavBa d^ ripts rrfp avr^v BpyXwauf Urropiop TfjP ntp\ rov 'Opttrrov xal tjjs 
TavpoirAov. Inscription from Byzantium Mi/rpl Bt&p Ma, Mordtmann 
und Dethier, Epigraphik von Byzantium^ Taf. 6. 8. 

Artemis-Bendis. 

^'^ Hesych. Bt^dir 4 ''Aprcfuf, epaKiarL Palaeph. <i5? Incred. 32 
KoXovo-t r^v "Aprtfup Qp^ts Bcvdccav Kp^fc ^c Aiktvppop, AaxtdaifAOPioi dc 
O^w. Plat i?^/. 327 A KoH^riP x^« <ff Il€4paia . . . irpoa'(v^fi€p6s t€ rg 
6€^ (Bci'didi) . . . 328 A ovd* (OTC ^i Xofifrav ?OTa( frp^ iantpap d(f>* imrt^p 
rj d<f . At Salamis : Foucart, Assoa'ah'ons Religteuses^ 209. Hesych. 

S. V, Bovafiarov' r^y "Aprtpnv Qp^Ktg, Id, S. V, ^iKoyxof' lijP B€pi>1» ovrto 
Kparlpos cV Op^rrats ckoXco-cv, ifroi ori 6vo ri/i^r ficXijpwraro ovpopiop re 
Kai xOoptOM . . . J) ^i dvo X<(yxo^ <^P«*> Jcwo/yfTuc^ oCira . • . r^i' -yckp ScX^in;!' 
Bcvdtv jcal "ApTtpup pofuCov<n. Id, S. V, McydXi; ^of • 'Apurro^Miyi;; |!^ r^r 
Brvdiy. ep^ia 7^ ^ ^cJf. Cf. Photius, Z^AT. McydXiyy ^€(5v * Apurrotftmnii 
ip AfifUflms' t<r«£ njv Bcj^tv. Strabo, 466 &<rT€ ml rA IcpA rpdrov rcri 



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588 GREEK RELIGION. 

KoufowoUUrBai ravrd t€ (the Corybandc rites of Crete) ml rAm Ja^piiutw 
Kiura €P AfffiP^, 

"• Artemis ^pata and Bendis"*: Lycoph, Cass. 1174-1180: 
& fdJTWp, & ^wrfofnpy oM <rhv xkiot 
Swvarop tfarat^ TUptrimt dc wapBhfos 
B/HfM» Tplfiop<fHK $ff<nTai <r* imtmffia 
KXaYyatat rapp^cwnm iptfvxpis fiporous^ 
Siroi /ulkwinft ^rpv/JkStfOS laipvMas 

At Alexandria rh BtvMttow mentioned by Synesius, Epis/. 4 ad init. 

Artemis Dictynna-Britomartis. 

^** Diod. Sic. 5. 7^ BpirSfuipTUf ttjp frpo{rayop€vofupfpr AucrvyMV pvSoko' 
yowri ya4<r6ai iiiv fV Kaufoi jrjt KpfjTtis itc Ai^ Ma\ Kdpfiqs rrjs "EvfiovXou tov 
y€wvrfi€imi9 iit. A^fuirpof. ravrrpf tvprruf ytpopipriv dimmp tig Kvptfyiop irpov' 
ayoptvBfjpfu Aucrvivay. icai ras fi€v diorptfiiis woi^axurBai furh r^r ^Kpfripihog^ 
d^' jjr aLrias iplovt doffcly r^y aMfv umu AiKrvptHUf re Kak'Aprttuif. Arist. 
Ran. 1359: 

ipa df AUnnnfa jrcuf , 
'Apn/us Kokdy 
r^ff kvpUtkos cxoimt' Atfrm. 
^ In Crete : Strabo, 479 r^ fUpm Kvi^n^at Spot corl Tlrvpos, €P f 
Up6w iffTw ov Aueratonf, dXXa AucnnnnUm. Heiod. 3. 59 ra ^ to a^ 
KvdiN^ fdWa pvp o^iW (o2 Sc^uoc) tun ol iroa}<raiTcr, ml rdr t^ Aucrvpfft 

wifSp (in the time of Polycrates), At Phalasama in the west of Crete : 
Dicaearch. 118 : 

i^aal ^ €P ViprfiTf voktw 
c&ot ^cXiirappa Kfifumpf irp^ rfktoif 
dvvovra, Kkturrbp XifA^p* ^xovircm icox Uphp 
Aprf/udoff iynnp, icakitiaBat r^y Bthp ALktvpop. 
At Olus: Pans. 9. 40, 3 htpa (6apa {AaMkw) ip Kpfnv, Bptr6' 
paprts hf •oXovwi. Cf. C, I. Or. 2554 (alliance between Latus and 
Olus) "OpKOg AarltN^ *0/fvv« riuf 'EirrUtP itoi t6p Zijpa t6p KpiiroytPia • • . 
Koi rkp *£Xfv<rivnF Koi top BptT6ftaprip, Cauer, Delect. Inscr. Graec} 
121 (oath between Cnossus and Dreros) ^Opvh^ top 'EarUtp koI t^ 

A^Ki . • . r^ *Anf\kt»pa rhp Iloiriop «al t6p Aorovy Koi rkp "AprtptP . . • 
fcol T^ BpiT6papnp. Solinus, II. 8 Cretes Dianam religiosissime 
venerantur, Britomartem gentiliter nominantes, quod seimone nostro 
sonat virginem dukem. Hesych. Bpir6fUipTis' ip HipffTfj ^ "Aprtpis. Id. s. v. 
BpiTv' ykvKif Kp^€f. Callim. tn Dian. 200 (at the feast of Britomartis in 
Crete) r^ d^ tni^og Upaxi wthnf ^ nirvs fj <r;(<vof* pvproio di X'H^^ aBucroi. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 589 

^ In Aegina: PaUS. 2. 30, 3 iv Alyiwg di frp6s r^ Bpos rod ntaftXkfp^ov Ai6s 
lowriw ^aruf 'A<f)aiag Upow, €s fjv xol Jlipdapos fa/m Alywifnus iwoUiO'tm ^aai 
^i ol KprJT€g, TovTtHs yap ian rh. h avn^r hnx»puiy • • • AiAr dc leal Kapfirjs 
Tfjf EvjSovXov Bpa^papruf ytvfvSaC ;(aipccy dc aMpf dp6fu>is t€ koi Brjpatgf icai 
'Aprtfudi ftakiora (f>tkipf tlm' MtMi ^ ipaaBhrra ^cvyovcra ^ppv^^p lavn^ is 
diiava ii^ifKMi iw* IxOCmir B^p^ Tovnpr pJw Mf €Ko(tf(r€p''ApTtius, irifiawn 
dc ov JLprfTtt lUmm SKkh «al AJIymfraif 'kryorrn ^^aiptaBai afJHinp iv r% n^^ 
np BpiT6ftapTiw, iwUhfvis dc o2 frapa t€ Alyunfrais €<rr\if ^A<f)aia ical AUnnnfa 
h Kprirjj. Steph. Byz. S. V. *A<fi6aia , . • col'A^^aai i^'Eiedn;- ? 'A^a^. Cf. 
Callim. in Dian. 189. 

® At Sparta : Paus. 3. 12,8 cn-i d^ r^ iripari *A(j>erat^t, cyyvrora ^Jfdiy roO 
rcixow, AucTVPyrfg iartp Up6p, Kai /ScuriXfioi ra^i rAv KeXovpivmv 'EbpwtdwrMv, 

^ On the south coast of Laconia: Paus. 3. 14, 2 oroycXAn/aiy 
^vuTtt irp^ff r^y ^^^XV ^<rr\if *Apr€fu^s *lfnr&pas Up6y €fropofjLd(owri bi avnjp 
Kai AippolaPf oZiTOP ovK^ApTspw, 'BptT6ftapTUf di rffv KpijT&y, Hesjch. S, V, 
*l<r<r»pia' ^ "Aprtfut, Koi ioprtf Koi r^os cV Indprij, Steph. Byz. S. V, 'l<r- 
mptow ipot rrjt AaKmrniajs^ d^' o^ 1} "Aprtpis ^laa^^pia. Cf. Plut. AgfS, 32. 

« In Delos : Bull, de Carr. HelU 1882, p. 23, inscription concerning 
the treasure in Apollo's temple mentions nm x^^t 'AprtpMriois 

"BpiTafiapriois, 

^ ? Near Troezen : Eur. ffipp. 145 : 

ov^ dpKfA riuf vokuBfipov 
AiicrwpaM aftwkaidais 
iwUpos aBvTWf n^XtmMf rpv^ci 
(Schol. id. TUHt W rijp QVT^ f JwM (t^ AUrvwof) rg 'Ek^th). Cf. "*. 

« ? In Cephallenia : Ani. Lid. Trans, 40 ftr«ra ti eV row "Apyovt tU 
Kc^aXXi|yior dy^ {^pir6papTis) Ka\ ovn^r Ap6fMatrap 61 Kf^aXX^f Aa^pto* 

J* In Massilia: C, /. Gr. 6764 ^# Aotrw? ^/ws Miur(r[iXM»rMr]. 

* Connected with Apollo Delphinios: Plut. dt Soli. Anim. p. 984 B 
*ApT«pid6g yt AufTvwrjs AtX^iviov re 'AirdXXtti'Off Itph Koi ^poi nap^ iroXXo«£ 
'EXX^mbf ftaip. 

^ ? Connected with Hekate in Crete : EuMag. 214. 26, j. r. BpwtJ- 

papTts, Ncay^f cV t^ vpwr^ frtpi TfXrr&i' 0iy<Fi xptntrphp Au doBipKU 5ri ^< 
T^ff fiiTTpoff T^r "Ewinyff y€tnnf<r6ptPOf /iframjac* i^r fiaaiktias avrip, ytp- 
WfiB^iOJis di T?^ 'EicaTiyf, rAf avpnapowras K6pas tJ XcxoI (iyo/So^oi, Bpirop, 
TOVTtaruf 6yaB6v, 

1 Artemis Aaciwi«/a near Ambrosus in Phocis : Paus. 10. 36, 5 Aufrw 

poias iwUKjitnP UpAp itmp 'Aprcfudor. ratrrfpf cl ^ApppoHriis iycvm pakiirra ip 
Tips* r^ ^ iydkpan ipywria ri c'oriy Aiyimda Koi fUXopog rov \iBov irfiro6|nii. 



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590 CREEK RELIGION. 

■ ?At Astypakea: Vizmg. Aniiq, HeUen. rasa. Na 1199 Ti^i^cXcia 

lumptptm ^uerm^ (? fomtfa centorj B.C.). 

■ Strabo, 472 Aucny TOTDf €V T§ Zdffsf mi ^^ o^ Kpt^l- 

** The Persian Artemis-Aphrodite, vide Aphrodite " ^: ? on the 

chest of CjpsehlS, Pans. 5. 1 9, 5 *ApT€ius dc m oda ^' ory X^ wnpvyas 

X«p<ir X/orra. Diod. Sic. $. 77 n^Mrm dc am wapk rmc Il^pvact if Mc 
avrti dco^ptfrrwr coi |cv9ngyiia voioMnir ol papfiapot n& wy/ mpois imrrcXouywMi 
^Xy^ r«ir ivr j^p&m a m 'Aprf/udt, JltpaS^ Strabo, 53' Ararra |mf o&r rs 
rt«r Hipamm Up^ k/u Mifdoi col *AppMmm r^rtpipBOgn^ rk dc rijr 'Ajvmdo^ 
iw^p6wn^t 'ApfiMwtM . . . Au Bvyartpas oi hn/^awiorarm. rov S^ovr on^youcn 
wapBhimt, dU p6fios Hrri KarawofmnfOtiams voXor jfimmp wiyWk Ty Af^ fftrra 
mvra didociAK vp6f yaium. PhlL Luculh 24 fi6ts Uptu wipanm lUpaias 
*ApnpjAoty 1j9 pakurra BtSim ol W€pa9 Evfftparofu fiappapoi rtpmaf xP^" ^^ ^ 
reus Pawn vp6t Bvaiaw p^mm^ ShXmt hi irXojbynu nrh. np X^ipor o^crot, 
Xapayitara ^paoatu rifs B€cv XapaMa. Poljrb. 3 1. II Kara rip Sv/xiay 
'AwrSoxpt 6 paaikm povk6pt90s wwoplffa-ai xp*7i«iriM^, wpoiBero arparmiw ewi 
rh rift 'Aprc/udor Irpir eir i^r ^tXvpaHa. Clem. Alex. ProirepL p. 57 P 
(from Berosus) 'ApTa(€p(ov rev Aap€iov rov ''QxP^ . . . ^ wpmros rtft 
*Ai^pMnis TamSbos to SytXpa op a irryy tt g c» B<i/3vXfH« nu ^ovaou m *E«0a- 
ToroM Ufpatus nu Bocrpoct ml ^aptumf nu lapd€(n9 vir«3ei^ a4fituf. Pint. 
Artax. 27 r^ 'Apripiiot rtft iv ^Exfiarapoif, ^ *Apdtnpf niXourv, Upmv 
atffdtt(€P tdmpf iwi0t &y9ifir dioyg rhw hnkoufov pu». At Zela : Strabo, 512. 

At Hierocaesarea and Hjpaepa in Lydia: Tac. Amt. 3. 62 Altius 
Hierocaesarienses exposuere Persicam apud se Dianam delubrmn rege 
Cyro dicatum. Cf. ■•«. Pans. 5. 27, 5 : 1^ 7. 6, 6 rov dc ^Aipeumv 
tohStov X"^*^^ €hc6pa omBtiraif oi Avdoi wp6 Upov lUpoti^ ^Apripthot. At 
Philadelphia: BuU. de Corr. HeU. 1884, p. 376 Mi^rpi *AMicmdi. C£ 
C. /. Gr. 3422 Upia T^f 'hpT€p»»o9. At Koloe: Bidl. de Corr. HeU. 
1880, 128 *ApT€pidi 'Arocm jcni M1714 Ti^^iov. Cf. Mowr. Koi Bi/3X. Sfulpr. 
1875, p. 47 Syakpa 'Aprtptdot . . . koI Mtpr^s ayakpa. Artemis Nova 

in the Peiraeens : C.LA.'^. 131 "A^ios km KXci^ 'A^c/udt N<f^ cvfi^icvoi 
apiBrittaf (? third century b.c). Philo, Bybl /V<^. 2. 20 (MQller, /r^f. 
J/w/. Graec. vol. 3, p. 568) Kp((i^ iymrro Ari 'AarapTTit Ovyartpis 
iwrh. TiTaplUtt ^ 'A/yre/udrr. At Attaleia in Lydia: Movo-. koI Bi^X. 2pvp». 
1 885-1 886, p. 51 'Aprtpibi Utpauca Koi Tf d^p^ TkvKiop, &C. Cf. C. I. Gr. 
3424 rii ptyaXa 2€^arh 'Ayacircca. 

^ Artemis of Epbesus^: Pans. 7. 2, 4 sroXX^ vp^afivrtpa fi narh, 
"Imvas rh is rtpf "Aprtptv rrfv *Eif>€aiap c&oi . . . AcX<7Cf dc rov ¥iapucov poipa xai 
AMop r6 woKv ol V€p6p€Voi ri^r X^par ^irav. ^kovp dc Koi wtpi r& Up6p SKXoi re 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII^XIX. 591 

UtQiat €P€Ka jcui yvvcuKtg rov *Aiia(6pta¥ yivovi. Id, 4.31,8 *E(l>€alap dc "Aprtfiuf 
irdXccr re vofu(,owTUf al iraaai kcI Bvbpts Ihiq. Bt&p fiaktara Syovauf iv ti/a^. ra 
tk aina tpol lioKiTp ^ar\p *Kita(i&vmv rh xXcor, at ^/i^/y r^ SyakyM l^ova-iy 
HbfiwrairSai^ ttdi art Ik iraXaiorarov r^ Uphv rovro iiroiriBij, rpia bt SKKa cirl 
rovroiff frvvtriXtatP €s d6(aWf fiiy(B6s rt rov vaov rii vapk vutnv opBpmroi? 
Korao'KevdaiiaTa vir€prfpK<STOf, kcu *E<lit<ri»v rfjs ir6Kft»g ^ oiqjLfff Koi h avT§ t6 
tvi<PaP€s TTJs $€0v. Callim. in Dtan, 237 Sol koI *Afta(o¥id€£ , , , h icort 
irappakif} '£^€cra> ^pkras IhpwravTo f^rjy^ vn €vtrp€fiP^, Tac. Ann. 3. 6 1 
Primi omnium Ephesii adiere, memorantes non, ut vulgus crederet, 
Dianam atque Apollinem Delo genitos: esse apud se Cenchrium 
amnem, lucum Ortygiam, ubi Latonam partu gravidam et oleae, quae 
turn etiam maneat, adnisam, edidisse ea numina . . . Mox Liberum 
patrem, bello victorem supplicibus Amazonum, quae aram insederant, 
ignovisse. Auctam hinc concessu Herculis, cum Lydia poteretur, 
caerimoniam templo. Strabo, 639 cfra 'kifirjp Udvopfios ladKovfuvos tx»p 
hfyop TTJs 'E^iTMif 'Afrrtfudos' tiff fi vSkis, iv ^ r^ avrg irapeikiq. , . , itrrl 
Koi 4 'OpTvyuLj duarptiTfs Skaot, Thuc. 3* 104 ^p d€ irorc ml r^ ndkat 
fuyakri avpodos it rffp Arjkop r«ir *1Apc9P , . . $vp re yap yvpai(i koL nata\p 
iO^Mpovp, &<nrtp pvp h 'E^(ria ^^Ittvcc. PaUS. lO. 38, 6 cy dc 'Aprc/adof r^f 
*E<lxvias . . . vwip rov fiafiov r^s nptaroBpopias Kakaviuprjs *ApT€iiidos, Dion. 
Halic. Ant Ram, 4. i^^lctp^s fup, ip *E^<rf , r^ rrjs 'Aprt/udor (Jt€p6p jcorc- 
(rJCfftWay) . . . Ma a'vpt6pTts . • . ay&pas circrcXovi' Unrumvs «eal yvftPucovs, leal 
rStpvtpi pLovirut^ oKowrpart^p, C. I, Gr. 2954, a fragment of an Ephesian 
decree, Hayraxov avfiaBtu avrrjs Uph . . . avrri rt tUipwrBat ical /Swftow 
avcuceio^ d«ik rar vn ovr^r y^ipopipas ^papytU ivu^HMPtiat • . . di^ ded($x^& 
^09 rhp prjpa t6p *ApT(futnMPa tlpot [Up6p Trdcav rjas ^pipaSf Sytadai dc /ir* 
avrais ras ioprhs kcu, ripf t&p 'Aprtp^urUiP wcofrfy^vpip. EL Mag, 383, 30 
'EaariP' 6 jSaaiXcw Kara ^EffHtriovt' dsr^ ti€Ta<l>opas rov p§\itra-&p /SocriXctt;, 
ts fipriTai iir<rrpfi vide ^ Strabo, 64 1 Upias ^ €VPovxcv9 fiX'^P otfs 
cVaXovv MtyafivCovs , , , Ka\ ^yop ip rip^ fitydkif avPKpaaOai dc tovtois ^XPV^ 
napBtPovs , , , ^fcrvXoy dc fuptt t6 Upitp Kai pvp Ka\vp6T€pop, Cf. Xen. Anab, 
5. 3, 6 Mcyc43vf(^ ry r^s *ApT€pibos P€<oK6p^, Plut. An, sen, sit ger, resp, 
P« 796 ^ Tw cV *£^'<r^ iTfpl Tipt" ApfT^pvp^ 6poi»s fKaarrjp McXXupt^v roirpwroy 
flra 'Icpi/y, rA dc rpirop UapUprip KaKoiwnv : priestess of Artemis, Heliod. 

Aeth, I. 12. El Mag. p. 402. 20 lK€via yap^ B«6s {ff *E<l)€aia''ApT€pis) 
OTC^oMMff d€ iiit BdXXiap riis lK€<rias noiova-ip* oBtP ovdc irp6fiara avrj Bvovtn 
tth. rh Tovg Uerag paXXovg irpoa'(f>€p€iP, C. /. Gr, 2955 cirl wpVTaP€»s Tl^• 
EXavdlov TiTiayoVy , . . dpxup€»gf Upartvovrog ^oaaiapov , , , pavfiarovpmp 
Xnpidripov, ... CI, Gr, 6797 • 

*Iip^pi p6iTtdPy fftaftTiyfipArtf *A9rdXXa»M 
Spoaaap *E<f>€<rov Kprialap <l>aia<l>6pap 
tyxjip t^BrjK€P EvTvxTis (? third century b.c.). 



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593 GREEK RELIGION. 

Artem. Oneirocr. 4. 4 yvy^ tbofyp tU rh» vfow rtft *ApTtfudos rijs 'EffHtrlas 
€la'tkij\v$hai' ovk cV fiOKphv oirc^ayr ^oMiror yiip 7 C'Ifda rj tUnkBovfrjf cVci 
yvpouiL lb, 3. 35 roiff d^ r6v a'9iuf6iT€pw twtufjpiituifots puw ^ KorMorrnkfUwii 
Tf frx^/iori (^ApT€fus) dfttbwiff tiXop ^ 'Effi^ala kcI ^ Utpyaui teal 9 Xtyofumi 
nap^ AvjcuMff 'EXcv^pa. Hesycb. J. Z^. *SXoiMr£a* ^Afyrtfttr wapii *E<f>€<nois. 

^ At Massilia: Strabo, 179 cV dc t;^ ^d^ r^ 'EU^Vcof S(/>vrat «eai ri 
rot) A€\(f>mov 'AfroKkioPos Up6v . . . anaipovai yhp rviit ^cucaievo'Uf tK r^f 
oticdag X<$ycoy ^jcirco'cir <f)a(rw fjy^yL6vt xpiii<TaiarBai rov irXov irapa r^r 'E^cruw 
*ApT«fu^s Xafiovo't . • . Ir dc re nur oiro/jcoiff nttXcci vcofraxoO rifuiv /i^ rolp 
vp&Tois ravTfjp r^v ^^ xal rov (ocofov t^¥ biaB^auf jijp avrijp kbu raXXa 
p6fufui <l>v\dTTti¥ ra avrii &W€p iv rj lUfrpowSkii yd^fuorm. Another temple 
at the mouth of the Rhone, id, 184. 

^ In Rome : Strabo, 180 mu ^ xai r6 $6<m>p rijs 'Aprtfudot Tfjt ip 
T^ ^AfifpTip^ o2 'Ptifuuoi n)y aMjp dia^aiv tfx^ ^ waph roiv Matrtnki&Ttut 
oPtBta-op, Cf. 1 59i m Spain, rpla nokixvui WaainXMBT&p faruf ab iroXv ihttaBtv 
rov woTOftov' TWT»p V f<rri yprnpifAonurop t6 'HfupooKontlop f;^«r2 rj Sxpq. 
rrj£ *E^<riai 'Aprf/iidor Up6p ai^pa rifUtfAtPop. At Emporiae : id, 160. 

<* In the territory of Scillus in Elis : Xen. An, 5. 3, 7 Scyo^y d« 

Xii3flM' x^^piop iipurai rg 6t^ . . . 6 dc pa6s mg fwcp6g fuydk^ r^ €P *E^<r^ 

€[Ka(mu, Koi t6 (6apop louccv i»t mnraplmpop XP^^^ ^* ^ ^ 'E^o-^ : vide 

"d. Cf. Pans. 6. 6, 6. 

• At Alea in Arcadia : Pans. 5. 23, i {ltp6p) 'AprtpMt i<rrur *E4>tauu, 

^ At Megalopolis: Pans. 8. 30, 6 'E^aias aydk/M *ApT€fjufkis, 

8 At Corinth: Pans. a. 2, 5 tltrrtp 0^1^ M r^r oyopo^ . . ."AprtpU re 
inUkifotp *E<f>€vUi. 

^ Smyrna: C, I. Gr. 3155 oSk IdpCawfro t6 riptpot 'hpripJu *£^€<F(f 
(early Roman period) 

< Aphrodisias: C, L Gr, 2823 aXkIop AafiQCkap, ^Aatas apxUp^iop^ /col 
KO<rpriT€ipap T1J9 'E^aias *ApTipthot Kol apx^p^uxp rijs \ap.vpoTanj9 'A^po- 

k At Panticapaeum : C, I. Gr, 2104b (6 dctra) innp rijs Bvyarp^ 'Iruyy 
*ApT€p^i *Eil>€a€ig (fourth centuiy b. c.)* 

1 At Chios: C. I, Gr. 2228, private dedication. 

^^^ Artemis AtvKo<f>puripfi at Magnesia on the Maeander : Xen. ffell. 
3. 2, ig rh p€P arpartvpara JtjnjkBt • . . r^ d' 'EXkrfPuebp €ls A€VKo<f>pvp, Ma 
Ijp *ApT€pMs re Up6p p£Ka Syiop, icai Xlpjnf wXtop tj trradiau {m6^appot dipaos 

ftvripov Koi Btppov vdaror. Tac. Ann. 3. 62 Proximi Magnetes 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 593 

L. Scipionis et L. Sullae constitutis nitebantur ut Dianae Leuco- 
phrynae perfugium inviolabile foret. Strabo, 647 ivravBa If ^y Koi t6 
Tfjg AtvdvfiffWfv Up6p luprphs ^«y Updaaadai d* airrov lifv QtfuaroKktovf 
yvvaiKa, pvv d* ovk c<rr4 t6 Up6v M t6 rrfv v6\tp tls SXXop iur^Ki<r6ai rowoV iv 
ht Tj VV9 mSXffi rh r^s A€VKo<l>fwrivfjf ltp6v tariv ^Aprtfudos, h n^ fiev yutyiBti 
rot) vaov xol r^ v\f\6(i r&v dvaBrmaro^v Xtintrai rov cv 'Ef^co-^, t^ dc €vpvBfua 
Koi Tjj Ttxyg • . . iroXu duK^pci. Ktu nf fxtyt^i {mtpaipti navras rovs iv *Aai^ 
irXfjv ^viivf rov cy 'Ei^c^ xal rov cV Aidvfioir. Koi t6 iraKmbp dc awe fit) rots 
Moyi^o-tv V7r& TpfjpS>p &phnv avaipt&rpfai^ Kiiip€piKov tBvovSy » , » rolik i^js rovs 
*E0eo-towy Koracrxccv r6y T«5trov. Bull, de Corr. HeU, 1 89 1, p. 539, 

inscription of (?) first century b.c. found on the site, y\ PovK^ koI 6 ^rjfios 
Ka\ ^ ytpovtria irifuia'ap "Stp^ptov KXovioy Mai^i)ov vihv . . • eitrtp&s fup 
dio/cffc/icvov irp^g rtip" KpfttpMf Tfjp \€VKoft>pwivi\v, 

^ In Crete : C, I. Gr. 2561 b, 1. 25 mtohtixBhnti ovp irai avroi Kpvrai 
vapaxpripa ava^vrtt /iri t6v ^pov rfjt 'Aprc/iidor rrjg A(VKO<l>pvrpnjs . • . 

&p6aap€v Koff Up&v : ? towards the end of second century b.c. 
Cf. Strabo, 636 Mayvrj(ria ff vp6s Mtadpdptj^ Maypffrap cnroiKia r&v cV 
OcTToXc^ KM YLprfT&p, 

o At Amyclae: Paus. 3. 18, 9 BaSvKkiovs ^ MayprjTog tg top 6p6pop 
ivoiriat dvoBfipaTa rir i^tpyao'pMP^ T<f 6p6vtf Xapirtg ical Syiikpa dc Afvjco- 
<l>pvfjpfjs eOTiv *ApT€fubog, 

^ At Athens: Paus. I. 26, 4 x^i^'^ovv *ApT€fudog SyaKpa Jfimjicfp cirt- 
Kkfjctv A€VKo(l>pvriprjg, dp€d€a'ap dc oi irai^€g ol QtpKTToicktovg, 

Artemis-Upis. 

*•• In Lacedaemon, vide "•. At Troezen: Schol. Apollon, i. 97a 
Hpniyyog (? oCviyyog) vapk Tpoi(^ioig {vfivog) tU "Apertpuf, Athenae. p. 619 
offiriyyot hi (^Q at tWAperepiv, In Ephesus, Upis-Artemis : Macr. 
Sat, 5. 22, 5, quoting from Alexander Aetolus, raxcW^Oirw pkffTtipatf 
itiffrSiP, Callim. in Dian, 204 ^Qnck &pa<ra tv&iri ifnitG^pt, Et, Mag, 
p. 641. 55 Oviri$' intBtTOP *Apr€pihog fj vapa rh oni^tirBai rhg rufrovaag 
avTTiPy ff naph t^p Spv^axrop airrfjp Odviv, Hesych. s, V, *Oirt apcurxra vapa 
npoBvpoig, Cic. de Nat, Dear, 3. 58 Tertiae (Dianae) pater Upis traditur, 
Glauce mater; eam saepe Graeci Upim patemo nomine appellant. 
C, I, Gr, 6280 H T im tpya fipor&p Spd^g 'Papwovciag O^t. 

*" Artemis *Oniraig in Zacynthos : C. I. Gr. 1934 ^Apxuc^ . . . jcai 
*AXiahafm rbv avrmp Ovyartpa $iOKok^<r€urap *Aprc/urt ^OvitoOU, 
? Artemis-Nemesis. 
^' Hesiod. Tkeog, 223 : 

ruerc dc Koi 'SifuatP v^pa Bprirouri fiporoiin 

pi,i aXoi). 
VOL, II. N 



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594 GREEK RELIGION. 

Cypria, Frag, 5 Diintzer : 

Tovff d« t^ira rpurarfi^ *^vnfif ^P^ Stwfta fiponntrij 

rffy iwr€ KoiKkUoftot Nc/icott ^iX<{t^i luyuaa 

Z17M O^Sof fiatrikfji reirc Kpanfnjt vn mwaymft 

if>€vyt yap ovd* t&tXtw fux^fffuvtu h <lHk6rffTi 

woTfk Alt KptmmwC • • . 

Korii yfjp df Koi arpvytroif /icXoy vd^p 

^vyc, Z€V£ ^ ^d/oi«eff. • . . 

SX\im fup Kork KVfta iroXv^XourjSoco Bakdtrtnf^ 

ixBvi (tdoiiiinj* • . . yiyvrro If aU\ 

6fipP ta ifntipos alpii rpci^i, ^/xi <l>vyoi pw, 
EratOSth. Caiast, 25 Kvinw . . . Xrymu i^ tAi^ Am 6fUN«>^Mu Ty i»y Tovry 
Nf ficVcoDS ipaa^pai . . . 6fioi»6€pra r§ 6pP€«f K tnun v Ti wai Wr *PafiyoiWa r^ 'Arrur^ 
ica«f I r^y fitfuatp <t>Otiptur r^y dc rcffclr tt^ ^( 0$ ^irKoXo^^MU iral ytwicBai 
Tfjp 'EXfyiyy, £ff ^i;o-4 K/Niruvr 6 woufnit, Cf. Meineke, /V^ig'. C^w. Gr(uc. 
2. p. 82. Clemens Rom. Hamil, 5. 13 (Dressel, p. 143. 12) Nc^ci 
tJ Occnrtot; tJ icat AiJ^ yofti<r^€UFj7 icvieyof j) ^^y y€p6fUPos ^EXtPfjp €T€KPwraro, 
Bekk. Anecd. p. 282. 32 fitfita-ta vaptfyvpli ris M, rois PtKpoU ayo/upfh 
cvcl ff Ncftfo-iff ciri T&p afro$ap6pT€dP TtTOKTtu, Demosth. irp6t Sirovd. 
p. 1 03 1 tl(rtP€yKovinfs t^s Cfi^r yvvaiKht tls rh ptfieatui r^ trarpi /mtp 
dpyvpiov, Cf. Soph. El. 792 *A«foi;#, NcfifO'i rov Bap6pTos dprias. Cf. Tim, 

Locr. De An. Mund. c. 1 2 ad fin., Mullach, Frag. Phil. Graec. 2. p. 46. 
* Nemesis at Rhamnus : Paus, i. 33, 2 ^fi W ttak rois anofiatnp h 

MapaBapa t»p fiap^ptop ajrayr^coi fifivtfia €K tow $tov ravnjs (Nc/ifVfwff) 
, . , \i0op Udpiop ms tn i^fipyaafUpoif ?yov (g r^amdov voitpriP. Tovtop 
^ttdlag t6p XlSop flpydaaro, Syakfia p^p ctMii 'S€fu<n»s, rj K€<f>ak§ d^ hrtari 
rrjs Btov ar€<f>aPog (\ckf>ovt ^X^^ '^^ N/ici^s dyaKpara oi pryaka* rah dc X^/^**^ 
tlx^i TJ p€P Kkddop fu^Xcar, T§ dc^ dc <l>tdXfjp. AWUmts di ini t^ ^^9 
wiiroirjprtu • . . Nc/iicVci dc cZvat vmpa *QK€ap6p {(JKuri) . . . irrtpa dc f^®'' 
O0rff TOVTO t6 ayoKpa Nc/ico-ccdff o^rc SKko vrKoltfrat rmp apx<dfio¥ . . . imr^ 
paBpt^ , • . ^cftdtof vfnolrfKt pip *'EXhniP vir^ A^r ayoptPfiP naph rijp Nc/ic<riy. 
2^nob. 5. 82 'Pafufovaia Nc/icatr* <V *Pa/iyoOyrt 'StfUatmt tdpvrai SydKpa 
d€KdinfXV ^X^X^op tpyop ^tbiov, (Ixa dc cV r^ X^^P^ fuy^^s icXadoy* c( o^ 
^i/CAV *ApTiyopos 6 Kapwmog mvx^ ti piKp6p i^prrrjaBai rrjp ciriypa^v ^X^'^ 
^Ayap6KpiTot ndpios iiroojvtp. Phot S. V. 'PapwotHria Ncf^cis* mrnf np&rop 
afpidpvTO ip *A<^podiTrig ax^funT did leal leXiSdor cfx* prfktas. Plin. 36. 1 7 
Certavere autem inter se ambo discipuli (Alcamenes et Agoracritos) 
Venere facienda vicitque Alcamenes non opere sed dvitatis suffragiis 
contra peregrinum suo faventis. Quare Agoracritus ea lege signum 
suum vendidisse traditur ne Athenis esset et appellasse Nemesin : id 
positmn est Rhamnmite pago Atticae. Solinus, Collect, rer, Menwrab. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 595 

7. 26 Ramne quoque in qua . . . Phidiacae signum Dianae. C. I. A, 
3. 289 UfAm Ovpmnas Nc/udrc^r, late period : dedications to Themis and 
Nemesis C /. A, 2. 1570 and 1571. Artemid. Onetr. a. 37 "Aptoro^ouXij 
Koi "Evpofjua rh avrh tq Nc/iccct mffialvcMri, 

^ At Patrae : Pans. 7. 20, 9 rov Btarpw hk ov ir6pp» fitfi4<rt»s pa6£ 
Ka\ htpos tfartv *A<f>po6lTrfs, 

^ At Smyrna : Pans. 7. 5, 3 ovr« /icr^to-avro c^Xovrm {ol l/tvpiHuoi) 
Koi dvo Nc/icaciff vofdCcwrtp dprl fitas, Koi i^ip'^pa (turaU (f>aa\p cimu Nvkto. 
Id. 9. 35) 6 Ifivpuaioig , , , €PT^ Upf rmp Nff/iC(rf«>y virip t&v aydkfwrup 
Xpivaov Xdpirtg dp6K€urrai, rixyri BcnmdKw, C /. Gr. 3161, inscription 
from Smyrna, ? third century b. c, aya^ rvxo ''« Nf/uV^w MtXirmy 
avtBffKt 6€^ Bprjirfi Aioyucr^. Id, 6280 A : late inscription mentioning 
swine-sacrifice to the Nemeseis. 

d N€/i€<r« with UtiB^ at Mylasa: Bull, de Corr. Hell 1881, p. 39. 

'" Adrasteia * connected with Cybele : Strabo, 588 (in the neigh- 
bourhood of Priapus on the Hellespont) itfdkMo ^ ^ x^P" <»^ 'AlJpa- 
<rrfia ical *Aipaar€ias vthiop . • . ififi&i dc KoXXiir^on;; vwh 'A^pdirrov 
fiaaiK€c»s, ts np&ros Nfficiarcoiff i€p6y Uipvaaro, icaktUrBai *A^pdartuxp, Aesch. 
NM. Frag. 155 Bcpocvn-a x^po" ^*^ *A^pa<rTtlag tdos. Schol. Ap. 
Rhod. I. 1129 (fragment of the Phoronis) twOa y6rfT€t 'Idoibi ^pCyts 
av^pti 6p€tTT€poi €hci, tvaiov KiXfut Aa/ivoficvn/c rf fUyat koI vtrtpfiiog "Axfiwp 
Evirdkofwi 6€pdnopT€g 6p€ifjg 'Adpi/orctijr. Cf. Charax in MtUl. Frag. 
Hist. GraiC. 3, p. 637, fir. 2 t<m dc Koi Tpwi^s 'Adpaorcia rcJiroc air6 
*Adpairrfias Bvyarp^t MtXiatrov rov "idfjg. Steph. Byz. S. V. ^Abpaartia* 
Aioyhnjg otJTttff cV irpwrn n€p\ KvCueov fffrfohf 6nr6 *AdpatrT€iag Kdek^cBtu fuas t&p 
6pt<rrtM<»p pvfti(f>&p. Cf. Strabo, 575 (near Cyzicus) t6 dpriKtifitpop Spot 6 
Kokovauf 'A^paOTtlas. Id. 588 iprtsuBa pip oSp (near Priapus) ovd€P Up6p 
^AdpaoTtlaf dffixwrai, ovdc d^ Nff/ico-ffoiff, ircpl dc Kv^ucoy ?<my 'Aipaardas 
Up6p. Callim. in lav. 47 Zcv o-e dc ILvpfiopr^p mpai vpoaanix^fturro 
Autrauu ptkiai, crc d^ Koipurtp ^Adpffortia \Up^ tpi XP^^^V' ^^* PrOcL 
TheoL Plat. 4. 16, p. 206 icap *Op0«c jcal <f>povp€iP Xcycrm (*Adf>aoTcta) 
r^v SKop btipiovpy6p Koi x!^'^^^ p^nrpa \afiovva koi rvpwapop atyriK€f. Plut 
Quaest. Cortviv. 657 E oi iraXauA rov pip Ai6s ^vo troicly rtBripat r^v *Iti;i' 
ffoi ri^y 'AdpaoTccov. 

^ With Artemis : Harpocr. s. v. 'Adpdtrrttap* ol pip r^ tMip \4yown 
if NfftcVci . • . Aj/jpffrpios ii 6 Sx^^tor "Aprtpiv ifr/itruf tlpcu rfjp *Abpaimuuf 
imh *Aipd<rT(nfTUf6t Idpvpanjp. CIA. I. 2IO *Adp[a<nrcia£] xol Bcj^vdidoff] 
iyKVKk[iov] KapKov eV [t»i'] Up&p. At Cyrrha: PaUS. 10. 37,8 nap€xtr(u di 
Kol cV Biop *AnSK\apos Ka\ Aptipihot Koi Af/rovg pq6p t€ koL ayakpara firyc^t 
/AcyoXa Kol ipyaclas ^ArTuajt, if d« *Adpdar9ui IdpvTM pip h rf ovrf (r^iac 

N a 



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596 GREEK RELIGION. 

c 'A/J/K^cTTcia-Ncfico-w joint worship in Andres : MHL d, d. Ath. InsL 
1876, p. 243 ff€fx€a-is KOi 'AdpaoTcia : ? second century b.c. In Cos: 
Bull, de Corr, Hell, 1881, 223 Upat 'AdpaorctW kcu NcfAco-io^: ? first 

century B. C. Strabo, 5^^ *APTiixaxos ^ ovr» <f>ri<rii^ tan dc Tis NcfAco-if 
fieyaXtf BwoSj fj rd^ ndyra irp6s fioKap&v tfXaxtt^' fi^fi^v dc ol ftcaro vpctrog 
"A^prforoi^ woraftoio vapa p6ov Aio^oto Ma Trrip.riTai rt Koi *Aj^pffaTfia 
xciXciroi. Aesch, Prom, g^6 ol vpoaici'vovvTts r^v*Adpaar(tava'o(l>oL EuT. 
Rhes, 342 'AHpaartia fuy d Atds frais tXpyoi aropartdv <f>36vov : td, 468 ovp 
d* *A^pa(rT€i^ Xeym, Menander, Koch, Frag, Com, Attic, 3, p. 93 ^Ahpa- 
artia mi Bth aKvBpomt NcfAC(ri <nrfywv>aK€Tt, Nonn. Dionys, 48. 45 1 Ilap- 
QvfOi ^Adprjartui lurifit tvayapoy ACpTjv ypihrag dfuXXtiJiipag inro(tv(aaa xf^^^^* 
Anth, Pal, 9. 405 ^Abpriarud cc bla iral Ixvairj at ifnikdaaoi UapBivos ij 
voKKovt ^waapAvri f^€fi€<ris, 

HEKATE. 

* Hes. T^g. 409 : 

*Aartpifi» €va>wiiov rjp irorc Ilcpcn/f 
riyayrr €g fieya d»fta ^tXi;v Kc«cX$(r^at ^Oixii'. 
ij i* inroKua'afUni ^EKanjp rcJcf, rijir ircpi vavrtnv 
Z€vs KpovUirjg Tififjat, n6p€v dc o2 <ryXaa dS>paf 
fjunpap ttxfw yaujg rt Ka\ drpvytroio BaXMaaijs, 
17 d€ Koi d<rr(p6€¥Tog an ovpavov €fipop€ rip^g . . . 
t} d* c^cXct fwyaXttff napayivtTM ffb* ovlvtiaip* 
tv T oyop^ Xoourt fitroKpam, 6v k idikgaiv, 
oX ^ 6in6r h vdKtpov <f)dia-rivopa Bapfiaaii^vTcu 
aycp€(, Ma 6€it TrapaycVerai, ols k iBikffTif 
ViKt)v 7rpo(l>pov€^s dncuTM ical kv^os 6p€^' 
tv rt tiKjj /Sao'iXcva'i nap* aldoioia-i KaBiCti' 
taBXfj d' aiff, SnoT a.v^p€g uy^vi d€0Ktv<aauf , . , 
Kal rots 01 yXavK^v bvanipx^tKov ipyd(iovraty 
tijXovrai t* 'Eju^ Koi ipucrvn^ 'Ewoaiyat^, 
pffididdg B' aypffp Kubtnj 6t6g ^naat noKkr/y • . . 
^<r^^ d* eV araBpouri avp *Epfig Xijid* dc^civ . . . 
our«> rot Koi povpoytyijs cic pofrpog iovtra 
ndai ficr' a^avaroto't TtripTjrai ytpatatn, 
O/JKt dc fiiy Kpovi^rjg Kovporp6<l>ov, . . ^ 1 1 ^ 

* Schol. Ap. Rhod. 3. 467 <V IJc row 'Op(f>iKois Arjp.7irpog ycyeaXoyriroi* 
icai nJrc dij *£«ean;v Af;«« T€«f«i' tvnariptuuf , . . Movcalor d« *AoT€plas icol 
Aior. ^tptKvdiis t^ *Apurraiov rov Ualatng' *Andk\&viog dc Htpaioig, 

' Bacchyl. fr. 40 Bergk 'Eicara bqjlh(l>6p€ Nvkt^s fitXapoK^knov Bvyartp, 
Eur. Phoen, 108 no? Aarovr 'Eicora. 

* Paus. I. 43, I otJtia dc *H<riodoy iroi^o-avra cV icaraX<fy^ yvvaocttv 
'I^yevccoy ovic dnoOatftti^, y>^M27 ^^ 'Aprifiidog^EKaTijv c&oi. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 597 
Hekate of Pherae. 

* Schol. Lycophr. 1 1 80 ^palav* 'Eicon/, ix ^tpalaty rijs Al^ov $vyaTp6s, 
KOK Tov Ai^ff €Tfx^t '^^^ ^^ Tpi6lioit ippt(ft6rj . . . ^tpaiap dc «>£ cy raU ^ipait 

rifuofUtnfy. Cf. Artemis "^ ; Schol. Theocr. 2. 36. 

• Polyaen. S/ra/. 8. 42 Up€ia rfjs *Epodiag in Thessaly. 

^ In Aegina : Paus. 2. 30, 2 Bt&p Hi Alyufffrai Tift&<nv 'EKdrrjy fuXiara 
Koi rcXrr^y SyovatP dv^ im jrof 'EKarrfs, 'Opf^a ot^uri rov 6p^a leamirr^- 
aoffBcu lijy rcXcr^p Xryoyrcr. roO ntptfiSkov dc cW^ muS^ ^OTi* (6apop dc 
Ipyoy MvpoBVor, 6fioi»t tv np6<r«»Tr6v re ical r^ Xoiir^y cttfui. Cf. Liban, vircp 
*Apurr. p. 426 R ^iXo£ 'Ejmtit; ical no<rffcd«v4 ytXcmit /acV ^ff Atyump vwip riv 
iKfimis opymv, Cf. Lucian, Novig. 15. Schol. Arist. i'o.r 2*j6 iv Softo- 
Bpcuctj fftrav rfXcroi river As ^H6kovp rtXttirOat np6s aK€(uf)6pfJMKd riva luvHw^v 
iv dff i-g 2apo$pdKu rii t&p KopvOavrvp ffp pvar^pta ical r^ Ttjg 'EKorrfs Koi 
HtaPdrjTOp ?v t6 Zripipdop SvTpnp tpBa rfjp 'Ekottiv 6pytdCnp Arycro icol rcXer^r 
f/yop aini rtp^g ical kvpos tf$vop. Koi 6 rffP *AXc((Sydpay imroufKois fUfunfrai 
*' ZfipurBop SpTpop ical icvyoor^Mtyovf Bias Xinitp €pvfip6p Kria-fia Kvp/Sdvrttv 2dop,^* 

« At Delos : Btili. de Corr. Hell. 1882, p. 48 (list of treasures in the 
temple of Apollo) ^EXXo frorlfpiop . . . fViypo^v Ifxop, eV ^x"^^'^^^^^^ 
TifjLOKpanig *AyTiy6pQv 'Aprt/udi *Effdr€<, Cf. li5. 1 882, p. 344 ^A6rfpay6pas 
*Ai$fiPay6pov 'A^voibr *Af>rcfiidi *E«c<^t, 

' AtlEphesus: Eustath. Horn. Od. p. 17 14. 41 KoXXifuixoff oui^ cV 

inroiunjftairi r^ "AprtfUP iwtifP«^pai ^i/o-cy 'E^Vy v2f Kavorpov, e«c/3aXXo- 
/Mvi/ir de vir6 r^ff ytmiiic<$f , r& fui^ irpwop furafiaKiiP ovti^p th KVPOy tir a^is 
{ktriaaaop dMOKBtratrrr^inu tU MpwiroP' mil qMip fi€P alo'xyp6€iaap M r^ 
QvikfitfifiK&Ti dnay(atr3eUf rffp dc $t6p ntptBtUrcat avrj t6p oUuop Koafiop 
'EKarvfP ipopAtrat, Strabo, 64 1 ^/iZy dc i^iiantTo mu t&p Qpdaupds ripa, aZn€p 
Koi t6 'EitaTri<ri6p cori. Plin. iV. Z^. 36. 32 Menestrati Ephesi Hekate in 
templo Dianae post aedem. 

*• At Athens : Arist. Z^S. 63 ^ yow O^oytpovs ms J#Cp' lovaa BovKOTtiop 
ifprro. Cf. 700. C. I, A, 1. 208 "Aprtfus 'Eicanf (fifth century b.c.). 
Paus. 2. 30, 2 *AXKafUpris dc, ffu>l doicetr, vp&ros aydXfuxra 'Eircin}; rpca 
tnoiqat npoa'€x6iAtpa dXX^Xoir, ^p 'A^ipoibi KoXovcriy 'Eircirvpycduur* 9<miit€ 
dc irapa r^s 'Awrtpov Non/r r^y ra<(v. 

" Strabo, 472 ol dc *Eican;r vpofrSkovt pofti(ov(n roi^ Kovp^as roxis 
avTow roU Kopv^trip Bptos, 

Animals associated with Hekate. 

'* Porph. de Abst, 3. 17 4 ^^ 'Emin; T<wpot tamp \itupa dtcovoMra fiSKKop 
(nracovci. li, 4.16 Tfjp d* 'Eicari/ir ttnrop^ rovpoy, XcaiMiy xvya {irpo<niy6p€vawf). 
Plut. Quaes/, Rom. 52. p. 277 ^Sovfp o&^ ol *EXXi;yf£ tJ 'Eirar2;, mil t^ 



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598 GREEK RELIGION. 

rtP€i'qj (Mapg) Kvm *P«f«ii<M Bvowrip vwip rmv oUaytpmr *Apy€iaw di 
Ztntpdnjff ifnfol rj Elkiopfiq Kvpa $v€t» ^ r^v patrrwnpf rrj^ Xoxtiaf, lb, 68 

tfpuH o^fHtyif irp6£ rovs KoBapftovf Km rj *EKarff trKvkaicta . . • it^pown koI 
vfpifiaTTOwn tncvXuKUHs rovf Syiwrftov dcoficvovf, wtpuncvXaKurfi^p t6 roiovror 
ytm roO KaBapitav ncaXotWcr. QiJb, 1 1 1 ov fi^ o^ KaOaptvtuf ^^omo fravrmnurtp 
ol fraXocoi ro Cf<^ 'OXvftfr£i»y /icy y^ oM€p\ Mitf naBUpmrai^ X&opt^ dc dccmiov 
*EKai77 iftfar6fKyos h Tpt6dcvt • . . rr d^ Aoircda^oM r^ ^OMicwnSr^ ^«ir 
*EyuaAi^j o-icvXaiecK htriyanjiwrC Boumis di ^fioaiq. KoBapfiof iari, kvp6£ 

dixoToiufdtwTos rdy fup&p bu^tXdtip. Cf. Artemis ^: Artemis ^pa^ 
assodated with the dog-shaped Hecuba. Paos. 3. 14, 9 kvp6s dc 
aKiikaKas ov^ipas SXXovt oZSa 'EXkqpmp POfuCoprat $vhp Sri fiff Kokatfrnpuvf 
Bvovtn yap Koi KoXo^moc pAkawaw rj 'Eyod*^ <rxvXaiai. 

Hekate a lunar goddess. 

^•* Horn. Hymn to Demeter, 1. 52 ^^i^crrf ol 'Eirdriy irrXar ^ x*^^*^^ 
txov<ra. Soph. 'Pc^ordpn, fr. 49O ^HXi« dcoirora ml irvp Up6p rijs dpodtav 
'Efforr^ff ?yx^ ^ ^* OvXvftirov VMXoMra ^p€« Km yifg poLowr Upits rpMovt 
amfHnmirapMPfi fyvt Koi nX€Krmg i^fi&p <nFtipmot dpmc6pT»p, 

^ SchoL Arist. Piuf, 594 Korii dc povfujplap ol irKowTMi tfirtpirop dcinvoF 
ifnripas &<nr€p Bvirlop tJ '£101177 ip rats rpt/6^9, Plut. Quaes/. Convtv. 
708 F iiart v&dxf*^ foht d€inwi(<irTas, H frturx'O^'ff^ ^ T9 *'B>Karii ml rtiis 
anvrponaiois tKfJHpoprts rk dccirva, pji yojop/ipovs airroits /ufii roiff oUou 
Athenae. p. 645 A *Afi^i^«r ffkoKsnts *Aprefudi apaKtlp«pos, l^ci dc cV 
icvkX^ Ka6p€Pa d^dco* ^iX^fM»i^ ^ HreoxS 4 'PMq . . . funipoptv€i d* avrov Km 
Ai^iXos cv *Ek6tjj . . . ^tX<$xopo( • . . ^<ri cV rh rrjs *ApT€fuihf Upii 4^p€<r$m, 
€Tt di Koi ffs rht rpiodow, ^ircl €P iKtiPji rg rnupq. iniKordkapfidprrm 7 acX^ 
€fri ratt hvapais {m6 r$r rot) rjkiov dporoXrjs koi 6 ovpap^g ip/ifn^i ytptrm. 

c At Methydrion in Arcadia : Porph. de Absiin. a. 16 (quoting from 
Theopompos) Kara pxfpa tKoarov reus ptopjjpiais <rrt<l>apovpra koI iJMidpvpopra 
r6v 'Epiujp xal rijp 'EKarfjp. 

d Athenae. 325 A Koi raU rpuucdtri dc avrj rh, dtlvpa i^pavai. 
Harpocr. S, v. rpuucdg* rois rt rcXcvnj/coo'tv 4Py«T0 ^ TpiOKoar^ 4f^po . . . koI 
cAcycro rpuucds. 

® Suidas, S. v. 'EKoni. ol pip rrfp "Aprtpip, ol d« r^ ScX^nji'. 

^ Schol. £ur. .^/!f(/. 396 Stop § rpi&p ffptp&p ScX^vi; ipopd^erm, ^op di 
cf, "Aprtpis, Stop ii dcniirciTfy 'Eicdny. Schol. Arist. Piuf, 69 1 i^ir *E«can;v 
ip reus rpi6doit rripStp dt^ rh rrpf mniip SeX^n^v irol 'Aprcfuda ral 'Eioinjy 
jcaXcra-^at. Plut. de Defect. Orac. p. 416 £ r^v vMpnpt , . . x^opxas 6pov 
Ka\ oifpaplas Kkijpop *EKdrrjs vpoa'tltrop. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII-XIX. 599 

8 Porphyr. ap Euseb. Praep, Evomg, 3. 11, 32 'Eicon; ^ o^X^vi; vakw 
• • . di^ Tpifiop<l)os ^ dvtnfut, Tfjs fi€P povfuptias tf>€povaa rrfp Xtvxtifiopa koI 
Xfivtroa-dpiaKop Koi rits \afiwabas iffifUvas* 6 dc KoKaBot hp eVl Toig fUT€»poit 
ifKpti r^ff r«v Kopm&p icartpyaaias cts oporpi^i narh. rfjp roO iftt^rbs irapav" 
^auf'' rjf d* aZ napatXfpfov ^ x''^'^^^"^^^ ovftiSoXov. 

^ Serv. Virg. ^^. 4. 511 Tergeminamque Hekatm quidam Hekaten 
dictam esse tradimt quod eadem et Diana sit et Proserpina . . . Tria 
virginis ora Dianae . . . Lunae Dianae Proserpinae : et cum super 
terras -est creditur esse Luna;^um in terris, Diana; cum sub terris, 
Proserpina. Quibusdam ideo triplicem placet, quia Luna tres figuras 
habet. 

^ Cleomedes, Mcr«i»p. 2. 5, 11 1 o2 ficy qIv iraXaiol rpta cimu ircpi 1179 

avwop rffp "Afrrtfup woittp Udos iarip, 

^ Cf. Schol. Theocr. a. la. Comutus, p. 208, Osann. ohx Mpa o$<ra 
avni$ {^ApTifudos) 17 'Emtn; rpifiop<l>os tla^KTM deck r& rpia <r;(^/iara ycMictfrara 
oirorfXffiv r^v (rcX^rijir. 

1 Plut. ircpi TOW irpoo'Jnr, Trjs irfX, p. 944 C ffoBfj TOvra rrjs (rcXi^ri;; eort 
Koi KotX^/Aora* KoXovcrt d* avrAv t6 pcy fityttrrop 'Eieon/s p^X^i ^^^ '^^ drmir 
didfWtir ol ^x^ '"'^ Xappapouot, 

™ ? Lunar goddess in Caria, Stratonicea: C /. Gr. 2720 Icp/n toC 
nap{apfipiov At^f) ical 'Exdn^s r^r d^dcx^pov. Vide %US *. 

Hekate connected with Demeter, Persephone, and the lower world. 

** Cf. Eur. Ion 1048 Elpodla Bvyartp ^aparpog. Mullach, Frog. Phil 
Graec. I, Orphic. L kcX rort hii 'Ejconyv Ai;<b T€if€> fvfrorcpciay. Serv. Virg. 
Am, 4. 51 1 nonnuUi eandem Lucinam Dianam Hekaten appellant ideo, 
quia uni deae tres assignant potestates nascendi valendi moriendi, et 
quidem nascendi Lucinam deam esse dicunt valendi Dianam moriendi 
Hekaten. Schol. Theocr. 2.121^ A^pi^rpi fuxjMs 6 Zw tckkm 'Eirdn/i^ 
duixf)fpov<raP taxyi jcoI ptytB^i^ tpf im6 yr/p mpxl>6rfpai (fMotP inrb roO narp^ 
np6s TLfptTt^6»tit apa(ffTriaw, Clem. Alex. Proir, 13 P priPiS . . . TTJi 
Ai^ovf , f £ di^ X^P^^ Bpifu^ irpoaxryoptvSijptu Xtyertu, Euseb. Proep, Evong, 
5. 13 $001^ d* &p iv airrf pop<ff^ poi YrcXcrcu AripffTtpof dyXaoKapnov, Etfuuri 
iraXXcvjcocr ircpi vo<ra\ dt XP''*"*'''*^*^ *Afi^i d« T04 fwi^y doXixoi Btiovat 
^poKOPTts (oracle quoted from Porphyry ircpi rfjf cV Xoyu»p ^ocro^.). 

** C /. ^. 3. 268 IrpcW Xapirmp mi *ApTfptlios ^EmirvpyJUag vvp<l)6pov. 
Id. I. 5 CEicdr)27(?) *£|pp$ €Paywpif Xdpunp alya. Id, 2. 2o8 'Eppov koL 
'ApT€puios *EKanj£, ' ' 



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6oo GREEK RELIGION. 

" Eur. Hipp. 142: 

ov yhp tifdtos, & Kovpa, 
cir tK nay6( tiff 'EtcArag 
^ (TtfJLif&p Kopvparrmp 
<poiTa£ j) fiorpfig 6p«ias (cf. "). 

*^ Inscription from Tralles : Bull, de Carr, HelL 1880, p. 337 npcdircop 
ital 'Eicarcou avXi} (second or third century a. d.). 

" Thera : C /. Gr. 465 b Euraro i^yy *EK((n;ir iroXvttvi/fiov *Apr€fud<0poff 

mv €Ttv^ Bddpa rofi* (? third century b. c). Cf. Artemis ••. 

^' 'Exan/s pfjcot I Suidas, S. V, np6 rijs A^Xov iccmit re vrjav^pwp t vn 
cV(«y ^afdni ncoXcrroi* ncoXcur^ dc ovr«»f (fniohf aMjp dih r6 rot^ ^tofAiTois 
TifULtrBcu TTiP Bt6v* ylrdftiTov it iari ^ftaurr&p riy tdta, Cf. Athenac. 645 B, 
quoting Semos, mentioning Iris as the divinity on the island. 

^ Diod. Sic. I. 96 tlptu dc \iyova-t nkrjaiop rwf roiroip rovrn^p itai CKoriag 
'EKarris Up^p Ka\ vvKas KtMCvrov. C. I. Gr, 3857 K &ff ^ wpotroiati x**P^ 
lijp fiapv<l)Bopop 'Exdn^f fitkaiprjs irc/MircVocro bainoo'tP : inscription on a tomb, 
late period, Phrygia. Cf. Soph. An/. 1199. 

" Athenae. 325 B *Airo\k6^pos d« cr toTf irtpl ^cw rg 'Ekoit; ^lyo-l 
6v€fr$at rpiykqp di^ r^v rov 6p6paTO£ oliccM^ra* rpi/iop^r ydp ^ ^fdr* 
MfXoy^toff d* /y r^ ^'P^ ^^'^ ^"^ 'EXcvcriyi fAvarrjpUiP ita\ rpiyXffP koi pauflba^ en 
Koi 3ak6TTws ff 'Ek6t% . • • ^ABrfPtjin dc Koi tAjtos rir Tpiyka icoXf Iroc, /cai 
avr((^4 c'arbr opaOtipa rj 'EKaqj rpiyKapBipif, di6 Koi KapucKtidfis ip 'AXv<rci 
^i/ci '' dccnroiv* 'E»ira rptMn Tplf»op<l>€ rptnp6(yc»frt rplykaig KtfktvpJpa*' Cf. 
late inscription from Cilicia: Hell, Journ. 1890, p. 252 clrc ScXi^muV) 
c7t "ApTtfUP, ciTff (Tff, iaipop Uvp(fi6poPy h Tpt6d^ Tijp <rfP6p§vff 'Eican/ir. 

^ Hekate 'Apraia: Hesych. s,V, (Sim^* tpowrlay Uf<ru>f, tnjfuupti dc 
icai iaipopa (leg. doffu^via), «eai r^v 'Eiconjy dc dtnxuop XtyctvaiP car6 rov 
hrmiptrtuf avrau Id. s. V, &<f>paTros* 9 'Eiean/, ira/}^ TapaPTiPois, SchoL 
Arist. Ran. 295 "Epwovan . . . ^orrairfui itupoptAdts vfro 'EKon^p 
inurtpiir6ptP0P koL <f)auf6iupop rots bwnvxfnxn . . . doKti d^ mi rats fumjp^iais 
(fMPTdCtadtUy Stop toU Koroixofitpoig cWyi^tttri. tfpioi di t^p oMip rj 'Eiearg^ 
ttff *ApitrToft>€ani£ ip roig TaytiPttrraig ''x^vta ff 'Efcan; (nrtlpas li<l>€tp 
ikiXiCofUPri." ttra ciri^pct " ri Koktis t^v 'Eftirovcray ; " Suidas, s. V. 
'Eicanf h i^6apa<rw iicrAnoif <f)aufOfjJpffp rois Korap^p^poig, rh, dc ^d<rftara 
aifT^s dpaicoPTOK€<f>aXoi Mpwnoi kcu vntpiuyiBtit. Theophr. Char act. 16 
n9p\ tturiiaip. Ktii trvKph dc rfjp oIkIop xaBapai dcci^, 'Ejcch^r <pdaK(op 
€iray«oyfiP ytyoptptu. Dio Chrys. 4. p. 1 68 R &g tl&Batfw Inoc rwf vtp\ 
rhs rtkrrai Koi rh Koffapaia pajptp 'Eican;^ tXcuricdfitPoi Tt Koi i^oPTtf if>d<rKOPT€t 
iroi^cTfiy, tfntira otpai if)d(rpaTa noKXii np6 t&p KoBapp&p cft/yov/icvoc mtik 



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f 



REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XIII^XIX. 6oi 

iwidtuepvpT€Sf & iJHuruf €vtirtfiW€Uf x'^^^'^f^^ ''^^ B*6v. Harpocr. s. V, 
6(v6viua A/dv/iOf . . . /r rf vnofunffjMn cV t6p Korii Ai/fiadov rit tp rait rpM^ocr 
^<rty 'EKoralay Snov rh KaBapata lf<f>€p6p riycf H 6(v6viua KoKtirai, EOnokig 
ArifUHS '* hy xp^v ^ ^* ^f rpn&liois k&p toU 6(v$vfilots vpoarponcuov r^t 
irAfttff KOMirBai rrrpiy&rtu* Suidas, S, V, o^vBviua* rh. icaBapfiarar ravra yhp 
atro<f>€pfaBai tig rhs Tpt6^vs, Stop riig oUiag KoBaipwrtP, Cf. Zeus ^^\ 
'EKOTfj iuuT<m6vripoi C. L Gr, 595©. 

Common or cognate titles of Artemis and Hekate. 

"* Schol. Theocr. a. 12 rg ^yurfrpi fUxOtU 6 Ztvs rcio^i 'EKon/v . . . 
Koi pvp "Afyrtfus feaXciTOi Koi ^Xaxij nol Afdot/^or icdi ^w<n(>6pog nai Xdopia. 

^ Hekate Up&mikaia : Hesych. S. v. vpomfka (leg. irpoTrvXata). Cf. 
Arist. Vesp, 804 &av€p 'EKarm^p iropraxov vph r&p Bvp&p, Aesch. Frag, I ? ^ ^t r ? ' '•^ 
386 ^<nr<HP* 'Etcdrrf /Sao-tXf/ov trp6dpofjios fitXdBpap, C /. Gr. 2796, inscrip- 
tion third century B.C., 'Exdrri vp^trokts, at Aphrodisias in Caria. 
Hesych. s. V, ^Xaba*^ ^ 'Eicon; (? ^vKaxd or ^vXaico, Lob. Aglaoph. p. 545). 
Diphilus, Frag. 42, Meineke KM^akhs txoprtt rptU iMrmp 'AprtpUriop, 
"Aprtfus wpoBvpala in Eleusis, Artemis '•. Cf. inscription of late period 
from Epidaunis: FpA, Arch, 1884, p. 27 'Aprdpirog npoBvpalas, 
C, /. Gr, 2661 "ApniuM MXpf r^ naph vptmvki^ (from Halicamassus). 

^ Artemis irpo^lxua, ? ' the goddess who stands by the hinge of the 
door/ at Erythrae : Athenae. 259 B i^y ioprri Koi muniyvpig dyofwyi; ^Aprtpibi 
Yroffna (leg. Irpoffnila), Schol. Find. 01. ^.g^ noXcfuov yap <^fi<n , , . nap 
*EpvBpalois di t6 idos rrjg ^Apripjij^t MttrBoi, Cf. CTpo<f>aiog HermeS. 

^ Hekate UpoicaBfjyrngi Benndorf, Reisen in Lykten^ 68. No. 43 
T^r vpoKodfiyrrtdos Btov 'EKdrrjs (Roman period). Cf.''«5. 

« Artemis 'Eyodta : Hesych. s, v, 'EptMa* 1} "Aprtfus, In Thessaly : 
Bull, de Corr, Hell, 1883, p. 60. No. 14, inscription from Pherae 
(private dedication to ^Ev<Zia): in Euboea ib, 1891, p. 412, private 
dedication, ? third century b. c. Artemis <l>wr<l>6po£ tpodia : Robert- 
Preller, Griech, Mythol. p. 870. Sext Emp. irpor ^acow A, § 185 
<?yc ft^ ^ "ApTtfug Bt6t (trruf koi ^ hfodia f%t &y ttrf B€6g' in trrfs yap fVf (177 
Koi, avrri ^66(ainm cW Btd, Hekate ^iwdta, "* (Soph. Frag. 490). 
Steph. Byz. S. v. rpiodos' ovn; (^ 'Eirdri}) fcoi ivodia iifkififi IStn ip rj 6df 
4vp€Bfi vno ^IpdxQV, 

^ Artemis "AyytXog : Hesych. S. V, "AyytXop* Ivpaxowrun T^y "Aprtfuv 
XcyoviFi ^ Hekate "AyytXos, 

« Artemis KcXicoia = Hekate: Arr. Anad. 7. 19 dntptx^ptu ^iaut h 
^ABrpfos Kal Tijs *ApTtiudos rrjg KtXicaias r6 tdog. C, I. Gr, 1 947 *ApT(fudi 
KfXjco/f (private dedication) : inscription of late period, probably found 
at Athens. 



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6o2 GREEK RELIGION. 

1» Hekate 'ionttpti in Phrygia: C, I, Or. 3827 Q "Aya^.7 rvxs 2«*Tf«p^ 

KorwfKivav (Roman period). Cf. 'Eicorj wwfiniff on late gem. C, L Gr. 
7321 b and vide Artemis ^'^i. 

^ Hekate KaXXfanf in Athens : Hesych. s. v. KoXX^m;* . . . lou 7 cV 
T^ KtpafitiKf ttpv/uvfi 'Exon;, fj9 Imoc *Af>rrfUv Xryovot. Cf. Artcmis ''y 

^ Aesch. Supp, 6*16 "ApTtfWf ^ *E«((Sray yvpoutCav \6xovi €<t>optv€i9, 
Roehl, Inscrip. Graec. Aniiq. 517 [«ri T««r]f ? r^'Emir^ (from SeUnus). 
Hekate EvicoXiwy: Callim. Frag. 82 D (Schneider). EL Mag, p. 392. 27 
EvjcoXim; 17 'Eicon; Xcycroi n-opck KoXXifuixf lear' wni^atr%»^ y\ fu) o^a ct^icoXor. 
Eur. TV^w^/. 323 : 

dcdov d*, £ *E«rdra, ^or, 
wapOawv nrl Xcrrpoir, ^ M{/ios ?)((t. 
Herodas, 7* ^6 '^ y^ fhuHrrj tow Tovpcwyoff ^ 'Emin; yo/Aoi' froi€4 t?^ 
*ApTaKipnjg, Hesych. S. v. y€pmfXKlg' yvvtuKtia B€6£ ntiroujfitvov rod 6w6itaro£ 
waph riis y€94atis, iouana tq 'EKorff it6 cm Tovrfj kvpos irpoiriBtaop' eVrl dc 
(cuitic^ rj Bt^s Koi ioprff t&p yuMUJc^y. Cf. Aphrodite ""* «. ? Connected 
with Eileithyia at Argos : Pans. 2. 22, 7 rov dc Upov rijt ttktiBvias vipoM 
iiTTtp 'EKdnjt va6g^ 2K6na dc t6 Hyakpa tpyow* rovro fuv XiSoVj rii dc airavrucpv 
XP^a* *E«cdn7( looc ravra dyoXfuira, t6 pw TLokvKktiros r!roii\vt^ rh dc adcX^r 
lloXv«eXc/rov NovicvSi/s Md^ttyor. ? KovpoTp6<l}og at Samos : Plut. Vifa Horn. 
30 tyxptpirrrrai yvpoi^l Kov/>orp<(^ Bvovaais iv rg Tpi6^<f, At Athens : 
Schol. Arist. Vesp, 800 *E«caraioVy Uphv 'Eicanjf, a>£ rc»y *A^i/voc»v Yrayra;(ov 
idpvoptpciv avrfip, «>£ t[<f>opow vJirr»v kou, Yjn)poTp6^v. 

** Or;^^ Argon, 979-983 : 

rpiaaoKapfpfot ld€af 6\o6y rtpas oM daueT6p 
Taprap6irats 'EiaaTf' \cuov dc o2 tftravr in a»pov 
timos x*'^'*^ '^'"'^ df^cck d* fry dBprja-at 
XvaiT&nig aKvkdKcupa' pxaii d* l^>ig aypi6pop^g 
X*po\>f d* dp(f>OT€p<us I^CF ^pa Kiainf€VTa, 
Orph, Hymn^ Hekate, I. : 

YXvMipf 'Eicdrfiy kXff(oi TptoSlrip ipa»vr)Vf 
ovpajfuiv x^^^")^ ^^ *^^ (ivakinv «epoffOir<irXoy, 
Tvppiduiv^ ^X^ff P€ifM»v pjtra /3aie;(€vov<rav 

• • . aycthXopiwrpf fKaiifiouTWf 

ravpanSkov, ncarrhs Koa-fAov icktidovxop StMia<rav, 
^tp6vrjp rvfjKtnjp KovpoTp6<pop ovpf<rupoiTUf, 
Cf. oracle quoted by Porphyry : Euseb. Praep, Evang, 4. 23. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL REGISTER OF ARTEMIS CULTS. 603 



GEOGRAPHICAL REGISTER OF THE 
CULTS OF ARTEMIS. 

Abydos: Polyb. i6. 31, 2. 
Achaea, ", ^'p : 

Patrae, *, "»; Aegira, *•»; Pellene, ^^, ^^; Teuthea, *'. 
Adrasteia on the Propontis, ^1. 
Aegina, "*^. 
Aetolia, ^K 
Alexandria, "^ 
Ambracia, *'«. 
Amphipolis, ", ^K 
Anaphe, ^»f "»k 
Antandros, •". 
Anticyra, •*«. 

ApoUonia in Chalcidice, **\ 
Arcadia, », *^ ^ ««. 

Kaphyae, *, *^ ; Orchomenos, •, **^ ; Lycoa, *■; Alea, '••; Megalo- 

poHs, *«d » Mb, iM i»b w. Mantinea, ^w, ***, Paus. 8. 12, 5. 

Pheneus, *•, ", ^»; St}Tnphelus, ' ; Tegea, *, ", <', «^b; Orestha- 

sion, Paus. 8. 44, 2 ^hprtfudot 'Updas Up6y; Lousoi,"; Zoitia,"^; 

Lycosura, "*, "d; Phigalea, ", ^•'c; Asea, ^^; Teuthis, Paus. 

8. 28, 6 *A<l>podSrrig re Icp^y ical *Aprc/iid<k c(rrc. 
Ai^oHs and Argos, »», "J, ••, '•t, w iw i". 
Alicia, *•*. 
Armenia, *". 
Astypalaea, "*»: ?tbe month ^Afmifurtos, Bull, de Corr. Hell 1884, 

p. 26. Cf. "*«n. 
Attica. 

Athens, >*V, ^ ", ", ", »e, M, «7f 79b «• m^ mi^ 1st (Artemis-Ben- 

dis), '•* (Dictynna), "* ; Agrae, *^; Athmonia, "^b . Brauron, *•; 

Eleusis, ", *' ; Halae, " ; Melite, ^'^ ; Munychia, »', •"^ Myrrhinus, 

Artemis KoXotycV: Paus. i. 31, 4-5. C. /. A, 3. 216 AcWoira 



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6o4 GREEK RELIGION. 

"Aprtfu KoXatPi (late period) : id. 275 Uptms *ApT€fiUk>s KoXamdoi (on 
a seat in the theatre) : cf. 360. Cf. frag. 4, Metagenes, Mein. 
Frag. Com. 2. p. 752. Oinoe, "*; Peiraeeus, »®, "*; Phlya, **. 
Boeotia. 

Aulis : Paus. 9. 19, 6 Na^ *Aprc/uddr cWtr iwTovBa Koi dytSXfuira Xi^ov 

XcvKoG, T^ /i<j^ df^f ^poy T^ df ?o4«c£ ro(€vovaji. Chaeronea, *'•, ** ; 

Lebadea, **b ; Orchomenus, *'d ; Plataea, *» ; Tanagra, **f ''^ •* ; 

Thebes, "^ Therapne : Solin. Polyhist. 7. 8 Therapne unde 

primum cultus Dianae. Thespiae, *'«; Thisbe, **c, '"«. 
Byzantium, "^ "c- Hesych. Miles. (MOller, Frag. Hist Graec. 4, 

P» I52» § 33) ^^^ ^* ''1? ♦ptfow Xfyofifp^ \ifi€Pt TTJs 'Afyrtfubos oIkop 

mKoivurty (Tc/i^ux ), in the fourth century b. c. 
Calauria, '•. 
Calydon, "b m*, 

Calymna, the month 'AprofUTtos: Bull de Corr. Hell. 1884, p. 35. 
Cappadocia, ^'•. 
Capua: Athenae. 489 A cv Kinrvi; ttoXci r^ Ko/iiray/aff dvaK€ifie¥op t§ 

*ApT€fudi noTTfpgov. 

Carta, »»». 

Aphrodisias, ^^ ; Cnidus, ^' ; lasos, "b, •' ; Kindye, ** ; Magnesia, "*; 

Myndus, '^b; Mylasa,*®*, •^^d, ^'a*; Halicamassus and Miletus, 

vide infra. Near Calynda : Strabo, 650 *kprtfd<TW9 &cpa Koi Up6v, 
Carthaea: Anton. Liberal, i. 
Cephallenia, "c, '"«. 
Chios, '»e«. 
Cilicia, '•"», *". 
Colophon, '»dd, 2«e. 

Corcyra, the month 'Afwc/imw : C /. Gr. 184S. 
Corinth, '*': Paus. 2. 2, 3 r^y dc cr Kcy^^pfW I6vrwf cf 'I(r^fu>t; po^r *Afn€fulio£ 

Koi $6avo» dpxaiop. C. I. Gr. 1104, inscription of Roman period, 

mentioning temple of Artemis. 

PrMA M S7 79n 90 ISlft 1S4 
V^l^iC, > f ^> J > • 

Gortys, ** ; Dreros, " ; Latus and Olus, •*. 
Cynuria, '•a. 
Cyrene, '»«. 
Cyrrha, "«. 
Cyzicus, ^^y d. 

Delos,^^»%"»'e; Hekate,*. 
Delphi, '»e 
Doris, "d 
Dyrrhachium: App. Bell. Civ. 2. 60 Irp^y *Apr€^dof. 



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6o6 GREEK RELIGION. 

Pisidia, Termessus: C. /. Or. 4362 17 /9ovX^ koi 6 ^itoi . . . MunjfftSpw 
Bias *ApT€fudos (late period). 

Priapus, "'. 

Rhodes, ", ^^ '«»; Lindos, '•», "'. 

Rome, ^a, '". 

Samos, «<>, «"b 

Samothrace, '•<!. 

Sicily, '»o, 98^ 
Acrae : C /. Gr. 6430, inscription mentioning tA *Apr€/i/r«ov. Syra- 
cuse, *, '», **^; Tyndaris, "; Segesta, *•<>. 

Sicyon, *, ", '\ '•, ^'i, »". 

Siphnus, ". 

Smyrna, *«», "«, '»'. 

Spain, *»^. 

Sparta, ^^ »«, ^ *^ "c, eic^ w^ 7»h, 125, mc. 

Syria, ", *'*; Laodicea ad Mare, ^. 

Tauric Chersonese, ••, ", **. 

Tauromenium, the month *ApTtfAla'ios : C /. Gr. 5640. 

Tenos, the month 'Aprtfutriw: C. /. Gr. 2338. 

Thera, the month ^AprffUtnos : C. I. Gr. 2465 f. 

Thessaly, ^o; Pherae, "', *~; Hekate, "e. 

Thrace, •*». >»•; Neapolis, ^. 

Troezen, «, "*, »«»<J, "«, "''. 

Zacynthos, '*•. 

CULTS OF HEKATE. 

Aegina, ^ ; cf. Artemis ^". 

Aphrodisias, ^\ 

Arcadia, ^^. 

Argos, '*. 

Athens, *^ ^«, ", ", ", "^ «, * : Hesych. J. z;. ZcV ij 'Eican;, irap 'A^wi/oif. 

Byzantium : Hesych. Miles. (MttUer, Frag. Hist. Graec.4.p. 149) 'Exanft 

T€fi€vos Korh r6v tov hmohpoiilov t6vov : td. p* 15^ \afiiradfi<l>^pov 'E^anTt 

dvturnifravTfs ayakfia. Cf. Codinus, De Origin. Constant, p. 9. 
Caria, ", sub fin. : vide Lagina, Stratonicea. 
Cos,?«»k. 

Crete, ? Artemis "*k 
Cyrene: Arch. Epigr. Mittheil. aus Oesterreich, 4, p. 154 (Petersen): 

Hekateion found in the temple of Aphrodite. 
Delos, •. Cf. Athenae. 645 B 'EKanit p^tros (near Delos) : Harpo- 

crat. s. V. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL REGISTER OF ARTEMIS CULTS. 607 



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CHAPTER XX. 

ETLEITHYIA. 

The figure of Eileithyia, whose worship was ancient and 
widely prevalent, illustrates the strong tendency in the Greek 
polytheism towards the multiplicity of personages ; for while 
Hera and Artemis were pre-eminently goddesses of child- 
birth, the goddess Eileithyia was developed to take special 
charge of this department, and to play a direct physical part 
in assisting the processes of birth. She was developed in all 
probability out of Hera herself, and is identified most fre- 
quently with her, though sometimes also with Artemis. The 
name — whatever its exact original sense may have been — has 
an adjectival form, and was primarily, we may believe, an 
epithet of Hera, and then detached from her and treated 
as the name of a separate divinity*. We hear of the worship 
of Hera Eileithyia in Attica, and there is some reason for 
believing that it existed in Argos also ; a passage in Hesychius 
seems to explain ElkelOvui as the Argive Hera ^, and Suidas 
mentions a strange statue of Hera at Argos which represented 
her with a pair of shears in her hand ^, an emblem which can 
scarcely belong to her as an agricultural goddess, and which 
can only be interpreted as alluding to the cutting of the 
umbilical cord^ 

It is true also that the assimilation of the goddess of birth 

• We have the same process in the «» Welcker, .f^ifu Schriflen, 3. 199. 

case of Adrasteia and Peitho, titles that Vide AfvA, Epigr, MiUheil, aus OesUr^ 

were detached from Cybele and Aphro- reich^ 7. (1883), s. 153-167, Taf. 3. 
dite. 



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EILEITHYIA. 609 

to Artemis seems to have been no less frequent. Plutarch 
speaks of the worship of Artemis Eileithyia, and inscriptions 
prove that it existed at Chaeronea and elsewhere in Boeotia, 
and on an inscription from Lebadea we find a woman return- 
ing thanks to * the gentle Eileithyiae/ whom she calls 'Apr^- 
fit^fs^. We may conjecture, too, that in Attica also the 
two divinities were occasionally worshipped as one ; for an 
inscription found in the theatre of Dionysos at Athens speaks 
of the Arrhephoroi of the goddess ElkeiOvLa iv ''kypais^i but 
this is a locality of which Pausanias mentions one worship 
only, that of Artemis 'Aypor^po, whose statue carried a bow •. 
Women in travail invoked Artemis Aoxe^ and very many 
of the titles of Artemis express the functions of Eileithyia ; 
the two goddesses were not infrequently worshipped in the 
same temple, and in some representations their symbols and 
their features are not distinct. Even at Argos, where the 
goddess of child-birth was more closely associated with 
Hera, she bears on Argive coins the quiver of Artemis 
(Coin PI. B51). 

There might, then, seem more reason for deriving Eilei- 
thyia from Artemis rather than from Hera ; but the most 
ancient tradition makes for the view expressed above. For 
we find both in Homer and Hesiod that Eileithyia is regarded 
as the daughter of Hera, and is sent or kept back at Hera's 
command ^ ; and the legend in Crete gave her the same 
genealogy. Being developed, then, from the conception of 
Hera as a goddess of marriage who had power over the lives 
of women, and being associated with Artemis, she cannot be 
explained away as a lunar goddess ; for it has been shown 
that neither Hera nor Artemis had originally any proved 
connexion with the moon. And though a very late writer 
misnames Eileithyia Selene*, and some Greek writers 
believed that the moon affected the processes and condi- 
tions necessary to child-birth ^ there is no proof that any 
genuine Greek cult gave her that name or adopted that 
physical theory. 

• Cf. the quiver-bearing Eileithyiae on coins of Argos (Coin PL B 51.) 
^ Vide Artemis *•. 
VOL. II. O 



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6io GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

As Hera-worship prevailed throughout the whole of Greece, 
we should expect to find the cult of her daughter Eileithyia 
prevalent also, and we hear of it in Athens, Boeotia, Arcadia, 
Argos, Sparta, Messene, Elis, and Achaea, in the Greek islands 
Crete and Delos, and in Italy ^~^. It is impossible to fix 
upon any single locality as the cradle of the cult, and the 
reasons seem insufficient for accepting Miiller's theory that it 
spread from Crete to Delos, and thence to Attica*. There 
certainly appears to have been a vague Attic tradition pointing 
to the great antiquity of the worship of the goddess in Delos, 
and to its connexion with the Attic, while two of her primitive 
xoana in Athens are connected with Crete ^ And the influ- 
ence of the Attic-Delian cult may have propagated the worship 
in certain places. The temple of Eileithyia in Argolis was 
connected with the return of Helen from Attica and with the 
probably Attic myth that Helen was the mother of Iphigenia 
by Theseus **. 

In the Delian worship*, so far as the hymn of Olen 
expressed it, she was more than a divinity of childbirth : the 
poet invoked her as a primaeval goddess, older than Cronos, 
a dispenser of destiny, and the mother of Eros. Whether 
these ideas were inspired, as Welcker supposes, by the in- 
fluence of the Samothracian belief that Eros was the son of 
earth, and by a certain affinity between Eileithyia and the 
earth-goddess ®, or whether Eileithyia had for Olen and the 
Delian belief something of the character of Aphrodite-Moira, 
it is clear that the goddess who brings life into the world was, 
in Delos at least, a divinity of ancient cult, and allied to the 
highest of the Olympians. This more august conception of 
her is presented also in the stately lines of Pindar's ode *. 

We can thus understand the special sanctity that in certain 
places attached to her shrine ; as at Hermione, where none 
but the priestess might approach her statue ^^ and at Sparta, 
where she was worshipped in company with Apollo Kapv^ios 
and Artemis 'Hye/mcfi;?/*, and at Bura in Achaea, where her 

* Miiller, Dorians , i. p. 31a. althongh on p. 128 of vol. 3 he regards 
^ Pans. 2. 22, 6. her as a lunar goddess. 

• Welcker, Griech, Gotterl, i. p. 359, ^ Artemis "«. 



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xx.] EILEITHYIA. 6ii 

shrine was next to those of Demeter, Aphrodite, and 
Dionysos*®. In Crete and probably elsewhere she acquired 
a political significance as a city-goddess, in whose temple 
state decrees and inscribed treaties might be treasured^; 
and we may find the same idea in the Elean worship on 
the hill of Cronos at Olympia, of which Pausanias gives 
us a very curious account ^^ Under the name of EiAci^ta 
'OAv/i-jTwi she was invoked in hymns and attended by a yearly 
priestess ; and she shared her temple with a mysterious divinity 
called Sosipolis, * the saviour of the city,' who was imagined 
to take the form of a serpent or a little child* and to 
whom the greatest reverence was paid. For of the double 
temple that part which contained the altar of Eileithyia 
was accessible to the crowd ; but none might enter the inner 
part, the shrine of Sosipolis, except the priestess, and she 
only with veiled head ; in the outer shrine the maidens 
and married women waited and sang the hymn ; in matters 
of the greatest import oaths were taken in the name of 
Sosipolis. The mystery and sanctity of this worship and 
its connexion with Eileithyia were explained by the local 
legend, which recounted how, just before a great battle 
between the men of Elis and Arcadia, an Elean woman 
arrived bringing a new-bom babe in her arms, saying that 
she had been bidden in a dream to take it to her countrymen's 
aid. The trustful Elean generals thereupon placed the infant 
in the forefront of the battle ; when the Arcadians charged, 
the babe turned into a serpent before their eyes, and in their 
dismay they were routed with great slaughter by the men of 
Elis, who, after the battle, raised the temple on the spot 
where the serpent disappeared. The story explains, and was 
perhaps invented to explain, the meaning of the name Soxrf- 
7oXi9, and the form of his manifestation. 

The question who this infant-god really was concerns our 

* I would suggest that the female E2Xc/^ia 'OXv/ima : and that the snake 

head, inscribed 'OXvfciria, on fourth- seen on some of the Elean coins set 

centnry coins of Elis is not that of an over against the eagle is the animal form 

ordinary nymph as Dr. Head supposes of Sosipolis. 
{Hist, NufiK p. 356), but represents 

o a 



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6ia GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

view about the character of Eileithyia in this worship. 
Some light is thrown on Sosipolis from another passage in 
Pausanias* description of Elis, where he mentions a temple of 
TiJx^, in or near which was a small shrine of * the saviour of the 
city ' ; the deity of the shrine was represented under the form 
in which he appeared to some one in a dream, as a young boy 
clad in a star-bespangled cloak and holding in his hand the 
horn of plenty. The Sosipolis of Elis is probably the Zeus- 
Dionysos of Crete in the form of infant or boy », and Eileithyia 
was regarded as his foster-mother and as the Tvx^ of the 
state ^ We may note that at Elis the altar of Pan and 
Aphrodite ^ was shared by Tyche, whom Pindar calls 4>€/)c- 

This development of the character of Eileithyia may have 
been very ancient, and yet need not have been deduced from 
the primary idea of a Hera Eileithyia ; it may be due merely 
to the conception of the birth-goddess who through her func- 
tion had relation with Aphrodite and the deities of growth 
and vegetation on the one hand, and with the Fates on the 
other, and who therefore would aid the growth of the state 
and personify its fate. 

As regards the representation of Eileithyia in monuments, 
Pausanias supplies us with some evidence. We find that the 
torch was her frequent emblem and was sometimes held in 
such a way as to distinguish her statues from those of 
Artemis: thus her image in the temple at Aegium repre- 
sented her with one hand stretched out straight before her, 
and holding up a torch with the other ^^. This enables us, as 
Professor Gardner has pointed outd, to interpret as ElX^lOvia 
the figure or two figures on coins of Argos holding in each 
hand a torch, one raised, one lowered (Coin PL B 51); and 
we find on coins of Bura a similar figure with one hand 
raised and a torch in the other hand ®. 

• Vide Zeas-chapter, p. 38. certified representation of a child 'ATo^df 

** Gerhard's view {Ueber Agatho- iaifieay, 
daemon und Bona Dea) that Sosipolis *^ Pans. 5. 15, 4. 

is an 'hrptBbi iaifioay is open to the <* Aum, Com, Paus, p. 39. 

objection pointed out by O. Kem {Aih, • lb, S. i. 
MitthtiU 1 891, p. 34) that we have no 



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XX.] EILEITHYIA. 613 

Besides the torch there is no traditional attribute by which 
we can recognize the goddess. The treatment of the drapery, 
for instance, is not at all uniform in the various representa- 
tions • ; although on many of the vases we see her clad in 
a single sleeveless chiton, and Pausanias describes the statue 
at Aegium as covered from the head to the feet with 
a lightly woven garment, which might seem to be a natural 
characteristic of the goddess of child-birth. But on some of 
the coins she has the chiton and himation ; and we can draw 
no conclusion from the account of the various statues in 
Pausanias ; for though he says that only at Athens were the 
^oava of Eileithyia enveloped in drapery from head to foot, 
he contradicts this by his account of the figure at Aegium. 

As the goddess was an austere divinity, the daughter of 
Hera, and associated with Artemis and the Moirae and the 
fortune of the state, her form was always draped, and a 
nude Eileithyia is an inconceivable representation ; although 
it has been supposed that her statue, the work of the Athenian 
Euclides, in her temple at Bura ^° was undraped. As I have 
elsewhere suggested ^ this incongruity only arises from 
a misunderstanding of Pausanias' phrase : if the last sentence 
quoted in the note must mean 'and Demeter is clad,' the 
statement can have no point unless it implies that the other 
figures were naked, and we should have the absurdity of 
a nude Eileithyia, the goddess of Bura, who appears on the 
coins of the city in full attire. But we avoid the difficulty if 
we interpret the words to mean * Demeter has a sacred robe,' 
perhaps a woven peplos, such as was often laid on the images 
of goddesses. 

That which is most significant of Eileithyia is the gesture 
of the hands, one of which in many representations of coins 
and vases is upraised with the palm opened outwards, 

• Vide Muller-Wieseler, Denbm, d, Demeter is draped'; for in another 

alt, JCunst, 2. 339, 238,393, 739; Ban- passage, 3. 30, i, Pausanias does use 

meister, p. 318. this clnmsy expression for the descrip* 

*> Vide note in the Classical Review^ tion of a draped statue ; but this 

1888, p. 334. I was wrong in saying does not concern the rest of my argu- 

that the phrase loaX rp Afifajrpl iariw ment. 
hO^ could not possibly mean 'and 



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6i4 



GREEK RELIGION. 



a gesture which belonged to a sort of natural magic or 
mesmerism, and was supposed to assist child-birth*. The 
lifting of the torch, which in itself was the emblem of light 
and life, had probably the same intention. 

As regards the expression and treatment of the face, little 
can be said ; for no great plastic representation of Eileithyia 
has come down to us ^, while the faces of the vase-figures lack 
meaning and character, and the coin-types are mostly late 
and bad. If the head on the Elean coins, inscribed 'OAvfiirio, 
is as I have suggested the head of Eileithyia, we can only 
say that the Eleans in the fifth century represented her with 
the forms of Artemis or the nymphs ; we should have expected 
to find a certain solemnity and matronly character, as in heads 
of Hera ; an archaic bronze of the British Museum (PL LIX) 
gives her something of the form and character of Aphrodite. 

The only famous name among those of the artists to 
whom statues of Eileithyia are attributed is Damophon's, 
who carved an acrolithic statue of her for her temple at 
Aegium^^; we are told that her form was covered with 
a finely woven garment, and that she held one hand straight 
out and a torch in the other; but as regards its general 
character and expression we have no grounds for conjecture. 



* Vide coins of Bara, Num. Comm. 
Paus. S. I, and compare Eileithyia 
standing with upraised hand behind 
Zeus at the birth of Athena; Gerhard, 
AuserUs. Vasenb. vol. i. Taf. 3, 4. The 
reverse gesture, which retarded birth, 
was the ' digiti inter se pectine iuncti ' 
(Ovid, Met, 9. 399). 

*> Of the very archaic period there are 
certain kneeling and naked female figures 
which are of the same type as the A&yn 
h f^aaiv " : but we can scarcely call 
these MXtiBviOA. They are more pro- 
bably Genetyllides, inferior So^fioi^csthat 
watched over child-birth. Kekul^ dis- 
covers an Eiku9via in a relief found at 



Athens and now in private possession, 
described and represented in Annali del 
Inst 1864, Taf. d'Agg. 8. p. 108. We 
see a tall female figure, clad in a high- 
girt chiton and himation, holding in one 
hand what seems to be a torch, and in 
the other something which Kekul^ 
interprets as swaddling-clothes; she is 
resting this hand on the head of a male 
person whose diadem and drapery show 
to be Asclepios, and he argues that 
there is no other divinity to whom 
Asclepios could be thus subordinated 
but Eileithyia. The style appears to 
be of the fourth century B. c. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER XX. 615 



References for Chapter XX. 

* Eileithyia connected with Hera : * in Attica, vide Hera, ** c. 
^ In Argos, vide Hera,**. 

In Crete : Paus. I. 18, 5 Kp^rcr d« x^P°^ "^^ Kjwa-iat cV *Afi9ia^ 
y€V€a6ai vofii(otMruf EiKtiBvuuf Koi irmda ^Hpar ctroi. Hom. Od. 1 9. 188 cV 
*AftM(r^, 63i Tf <nr€09 ElKtiBvirit, Strabo, 476 MtW dc <l>a<nv ^n-ftvc/^ xp{i<Tair6aiL 
-nf *Afun(n^f Sircv t6 rrjs 1^€i$viag Up6p, Hom. 77. I !• 270 : 

lioyo<TT6Koi EiKtiBvuUy 

Hes. 7X^(?^. 922 ff y CHpa) *H/3ijir Kol "Aptia Ka\ ElktiBvuuf ?tiict€. Cf.* 
(Pindar, Nem. 7. i). 

■ Connected with Artemis: Artemis, **: Diod. Sic. 5. 72 AiAr €/cyo- 
vovf <l>aa\ (ol Kp^r) ytPttrBu . • . EAct^tay icaft n^r raxmii avP€py6p 
"Aprtfiuf. At Chaeronea, Orchomenos, Thisbe, Thespiae, Tanagra, vide 
Artemis, **. Cf. Nonn. Dionys. 38. 150 EtKtlBvia ScX^w;. At Agrae 
in Attica: C /. -4. 3. 319 €p<rri<l>6poi ff eXKiBv'uk tw^Aypait. Bekker's 
Atucd, p. 326. 30 KXftd$/xo£ cV npw^ 'Ar^idor* ra ficr oZw Sam rh rov 'tkurov 
irp6s ayopav EtkfiBvia' rif d< ^x^ ndkai S^ofia rovr^ hg vvv "Aypa Kokftraiy 
'£Xac<ov. At Sparta, vide Artemis, ^ «. 

Localities of her cult. 

* Crete, * «. In Einatos : Steph. Byz. s, v, Euaror. U6Kis K^n^r, w 
Ztvi»p ^Pfjci . . • ri¥€£ dc ^por Ka\ iroTaft6g, cV f rifiaaBai r^r E^ft/9viay 
Elmriiyy. At LatUS : C. /. (rT. 3058 (public decree) ayypd^m di ica\ t6 

d^/ia tls t6 Up6p rat 'EXtvBvas. Macedonian period. 

* Delos : Herod. 4. 35 rfjw "Apyrp^ t§ koL lijv ^Qirw . . . 6wiK€crBM ^t 
ArjXop tfri np^tpop 'YmpSx^s rt Ka\ Aaoducrjt, ravrat fUw pvp tJ ^tXtiBvijf 
iiro<ft€pov<ras dwri rov »Kvr6KOV rAr trafarro <ti6pop dirucMai, PaUS. I. 1 8, 
5 jcai Bvovai rt HlkttBviqi ^jjkuH fcol viipop fdovatp 'OXrjpog, /(/. 8. 2 1, 3 Avjrto; 
dc *0X^» • • • Ai/X/oiff vfufovs ml cfXXov^ noujiras Koi is ElktiOvuxtf, tHkipSp re 



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6i6 GREEK RELIGION. 

aMfP aMUcaXct, brjkov m rj UtirpoifjJpjj r^y avrrfv^ Ka\ Kp6pov vptafivripap 
<l)Tfa\v ttvoi. Id. 9* 27, 2 o^os 6 'OX^r cV ElKtiBvlas vfu^ firiT€pa "Epoaros r^ 
ElKfiOvidp (fnjaw thai. Cf. Pind. Nem, 7. i : 

'EXci^ia ndp€^p€ Moipav pa$v<l>p6imPf 

wtu fiMyakoaBtveot, &coviroPj *Hpas, ytptrtipa rciei'tfv, aP€v <r€$€P 

ov <f>dos, ov fUkatvav ^paK€PTfs €v<pp6pap 

Tfop odfXi^ay iKaxopLtP ay\a6yviop "l^fiav, 

* Athens, **, *: Paus. I. 18, 4 rov dc Upov rov lapainbos ov w6pp» 
XiApiop eoTiv . . . itkriaiop dt t^KoddfirfVO pahs lElXtidvLas . . . fidvoir dc 'ABrfPtdotf 
TTJs ElKfiBvias JCdrdXvnrat ra ^6<xpa cr &cpovs roifs nodas, ra flip ^rj dvo €ipai 
KprfTiKo. Kcu ^Idpas dpaOfjfiaTa tfXtyop ai yvyauccr, rh dc dp)^ai6TaT0P *Epva'ixBopa 
tK ArpKov KOfiiacu, C, I, A, 3. 836 a IId»X[Xa] . . . vhp fidaaop . . . EtXci^t^ 
dp€0qK(P, Cf. 925, 926. 

Boeotia. 

• Orchomenos, Artemis, *^ 

' Chaeronea, Artemis, *'. 

* Tanagra, Artemis, **. 

• Thespiae, Artemis, *\ 

" Thisbe, Artemis, ". 

** ArgOS, *^: Paus. 2. 22, 6 KKrjaiop di t&p 'Avoicrooy EiXij^iaff corir 
up6u dvdBrjpa 'EXwrjf, ort cri'i' UtipiBt^ Qrjaws dir€\B6pT0S fs QftrnpiOTovs 
*A(f>i^pd re vir6 AioaKovp<ap caXa> jcal ^ycro €r AoKtbaifjiOPa 'EXcvi;. /(f. 2. 1 8, 3 

(by the gate) t6 Up6p i<mv EtKaBvias, ? ElXioveta = Eileithyia : vide 
Hekate, \ 

^^ Hermione : Paus. 2. 35, 11 vp6t dc 177 irvXo . . . 'EXK€iBvlas iarvp 
iprhi rov rtixovs Updp, ^fXXwf fUp drf koto, ^fitpav iKaumiP kcu 6vaiai% kol 
Ovfudfiaai fityd\w£ Tfjp 6thp IkddKOvrai^ kbu. dpa6i)paTa ^idorai irXcIora TJ 
ElXfiBvi^' rd dc SyaKpa ovdtpl nXfiP €l fi^ apa rais Uptlais coriy idcty. 

" Tegea : Paus. 8. 48, 7 t^p dc ElkfiOviap ol Tcycorai, xm yhp ravTffS 
^xovvvp €P T§ ayopq. va6p kcu ayakfMa^ inopofidCovatP Affyijv (p yopaat, Xcyovrct 
&S f^aimkuf napadolrf r^y Bvyaripa ^AXcor fprtikofitpos ivapdyopva ahtJip «s 
BdXaaircaf KarcaroprSia'cu' t^p de, ins ifym, n€a(i» €s rd ydpara Koi ovTt» rtKtiP 
t6p iraida tp0a riji ElK^iBvlas cWi t6 l€p6p. 

" Cleitor : Paus. 8. 21, 3 Kktiropiois lit Updrd iin<f>av€uraTa . . . rp'iTop 
hi coTiy E2Xci^(a£. 

" Megalopolis: Paus. 8. 32, 4, herme-formed image of Eileithyia. 

" Sparta, ': Paus. 3. 17, i ov n6pp€a dc t^c *0p3ias cWiy ElktiBvias 
Updw olKohofxrjo'cu de (fnnrty avrh kcH ElkfiBwaif voiuaai Mp ytpofiipov atf>i<rip 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER XX. 617 

<V ^cX0«0v fiavTtvfxaTos, Ross, Arch. Aufsdtze^ 2. 667 Ma^ov/daf avi^Kt 



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CHAPTER XXI. 

APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 

The worship of Aphrodite was perhaps as widely diffused 
around the Mediterranean lands as that of any other Hellenic 
divinity. We find it in North Greece, and in especial honour 
at Thebes ; in the country of Attica, in the dty, and the coast; 
in Megara, Corinth, and the Corinthian colonies ; in Sicyon, 
Hermione, Epidauros, and Argos ; in Laconia there was 
a special and important form of the worship ; there are com- 
paratively slight traces 6f it in Arcadia, but abundant testi- 
mony of its prevalence in Elis and on the coast of Achaea. 
The most famous centres of the cult were the Greek islands, 
Cyprus, Cythera, and Crete. It spread with Greek coloniza- 
tion over the shores of the Black Sea, to Phanagoria for 
example ; and it was one of the chief public worships in most 
of the Greek cities of the coast of Asia Minor, notably at 
Cnidos; while from the Troad issued the worship of Aphrodite, 
that was associated with the name of her favourite hero 
Aeneas, and was borne to the mainland of Greece, to Sicily, 
and Italy. Finally we have proofs of the worship of the 
goddess at Naucratis and Saguntum ^"^^ 

But in spite of its wide prevalence in the Hellenic world, 
there is no valid evidence that the cult of Aphrodite belonged 
to the aboriginal religion of the Hellenic nation. The com- 
parison of the texts and the monuments leads to the conclusion 
that she was originally an Oriental divinity, and that after her 
adoption into Greece she retained in many local worships 
many traits of her Oriental character. 

But this view has not been always accepted ; some writers » 

* E.g. Preller, Griuh, Mythol, i. pp. 404, 405; on the other hand, 
271*; Roscher, Aphrodite— Z/jcir««, Welcker {Gruchische GoU&rlehre, i. 



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APHRODITE'WORSHIP. 619 

on Greek religion holding the opinion that, though for the 
most part the goddess appears as an Oriental or Graeco- 
Oriental personage, yet there was a primitive Hellenic divinity 
who became merged in this. This opinion is sometimes put 
forth without any statement of evidence, and it is a necessary 
question what the evidence is that might be stated in its 
favour. Now the criteria for judging that any given worship 
was aboriginal Hellenic are such as these : the evidence of 
the name, where the interpretation of the name shows clearly 
its Greek origin or its origin among the larger race to whom 
the Hellenic family belonged ; the existence of the worship, 
and the traditional antiquity attaching to it, among those 
tribes whose seats were especially remote from foreign influ- 
ence ; its association with certain ritual and ideas of a primi- 
tive Hellenic cast ; or, lastly, the prevalence of ancient 
tradition connecting by lineal descent certain Hellenic stocks 
with the divinity in question. 

We have such proofs as these of the aboriginal character of 
the leading worships that have been examined hitherto ; but 
these tests applied to the origin of the Aphrodite-cult lead to 
a different result. 

The name tells us nothing • ; so far as philology has hitherto 
attempted to explain it, it may be Aryan or Semitic To 
explain the name Kvitpis as a Greek form of the Sabine 
goddess Kupra ^ is altogether unnatural, for the Sabine god- 
dess so far as we know her bears no relation to Aphrodite, 
and KtJirpts is undoubtedly a Greek local title of the goddess 

pp. 608 and 666) maintains the wholly Bedingnngen wie Athene und Artemis 

Oriental character of the goddess, and in alien Landschaften als Gottin/ p. 17, 

finds no place for a goddess of love is demonstrably untrue. For the sus* 

in the older Hellenic system ; and this ceptibility of early Hellas to Oriental 

view is tacitly accepted in the last influences vide Otto Gruppe, Die grie- 

edition of Preller: Preller-Robert, i. thischm CulU^Y^,\ffi, \t;i, 

p. 345. The only recent attempt to dis- * An ingenious attempt has been 

prove the Oriental origin of the cult, and made to explain the name as a Greek 

to claim it entirely for the primitive mispronunciation of Ashtoret by F. 

Greek religion, has been made by Enman Hommel in Fleckeisen's Neue Jahr- 

{Af4m, de VAcad, d, St, Pitersbourg, biicher fiir PkilologU, i88a,p. 176; but 

34. 1886), who ignores much of the philological analogies are wanting, 

evidence ; one of his chief premises, ^ Vide Enman, ^p, cit, 
* Aphrodite eischeint unter den gleichen 



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620 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

of Cyprus, whom no one could maintain to be Hellenic in her 
origin. 

When we examine the centres of this worship in Greece, 
we find nowhere attaching to it such autochthonous sanctity 
as for instance attached to Demeter at Eleusis, to Athena 
on the Acropolis of Athens and at Alalcomenae, or to 
Artemis in Arcadia. In the last-named region, of all Hellas 
the land of most primitive cult, the only two temples of 
Aphrodite that might according to the record have been 
ancient, were that on Mount Cotilum, above Bassae, and that 
of the Paphian Aphrodite at Tegea 2^, ^ ; the worship of 
Aphrodite Erycine at Psophis was evidently a late importa- 
tion *^. In Attica and at Athens the older cults of Aphrodite 
betray their direct or indirect connexion with the East in 
the names, or traditions, or practices associated with them. 
Such religious titles as Ovpavla, 'EmrpayCa^ iv KrJTrois are to be 
referred to the Oriental goddess ; in the Attic deme Athmon, 
the rites of Aphrodite Ourania were said to be introduced 
by King Porphyrion, who may be regarded as the personifi- 
cation of Phoenician commerce^*, and at Phalerum and 
Athens the goddess was connected with the immigrant The- 
seus ^*^ and her Cretan double Ariadne, and her ritual at 
Athens illustrated the curious Oriental idea of the confusion 
of the sexes ^^\ In fact, whenever an Aphrodite-cult in any 
Greek state claimed to be of remote antiquity, its foreign 
origin usually stood confessed. 

In no Hellenic community was Aphrodite regarded as the 
divine ancestress, with one salient exception, which itself 
strongly supports the view here maintained. At Thebes she 
was closely related to Cadmus ^, the mythic founder of the 
city ; and it is probable that the name Harmonia was a title 
of the goddess herself, as we hear of an Aphrodite "Ap/ma at 
Delphi ''. Therefore the chorus of women in the Septem 
contra Thebas appeal to Cypris for aid as ' the first mother of 
the race, for from thy blood we are sprung ^^•j' although we 
do not hear that she was designated even at Thebes as irarpcj/a. 
But Cadmus and Aphrodite were not autochthonous person- 
ages of the Theban soil ; the stranger hero coming from the 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 621 

East brings with him the worship of the Eastern divinity, and 
among the ancient anathemata of Harmonia at Thebes was 
a statue of Aphrodite Ourania, a title that points always to 
the East. In Semitic cities, as will be noted, she was promi- 
nently a city-goddess ; that to some extent she was this at 
Thebes, bears witness not to any primitive idea of Hellenic 
religion, but to the surviving influence of Oriental tradition. 

Again, her connexion with other genuinely Greek worships 
was neither so ancient nor so close as to incline us to believe 
that the cult of Aphrodite belonged from the beginning to the 
Greek circle, or grew up spontaneously within it. Because in 
the Iliad Aphrodite is styled the daughter of Zeus and 
Dione ®S and Dione is a name that belongs to the oldest 
native religion, we have no right to conclude that we are here 
on the track of a primitive Greek goddess of love, who faded 
at the coming of her more powerful sister from the East. 
The daughter of Dione was never distinguished from the 
foam-bom goddess of Cyprus, except by later mytho- 
graphers ^^ nor have we any evidence that her relationship 
with Dione was acknowledged in a single Greek cult * ; so far 
as we know it was a poetical fiction, or a popular belief that 
may have arisen at Dodona, and the cause of the fiction or 
the belief was the desire to admit the Oriental divinity into 
the Hellenic pantheon by a sort of legal adoption, as we find 
the later and partly alien deities, Bacchus and Asclepios, were 
admitted. As Zeus was given her for a father, it is not easy 
to explain why Dione rather than Hera was selected as her 
adoptive mother; for we hear of no prominent Dodonean 
cult of Aphrodite. It may have been due to the epic arrange- 

* We have no certain trace of any known, but rather with Athena Polias 

public worship of Aphrodite at Dodona, {Mitiheilungen d. deutsch, Inst, 1889, p. 

the chief seat of Dione's cult ; Carapanos $50) ; the monuments that show Aphro- 

believes that one of the chapels dis- dite and Dione together are extremely 

covered near the temenos of the great rare and have no discoverable reference 

temple was Aphrodite's (Dodone, p. to cult; the relief in the Museum of 

156), but the single inscription which he Vienne found in that locality, repre- 

found ** is not sufficient evidence. Dione senting Aphrodite and Dione seated 

was worshipped on the Acropolis of together under an oak, is of a late 

Athens, but not in any connexion with period {Ga%. Arch. 1879, PI. la). 
any worship of Aphrodite, as far as is 



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622 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

ment of the tale of Troy, with its marked antagonism between 
Aphrodite and Hera. Or it may be supposed that the foreign 
origin of Aphrodite was too obvious for the early genealogist 
to affiliate her to any of the leading Olympian goddesses ; 
and that therefore she was made the daughter of the faded 
divinity Dione, whose worship was of scant fame and vogue 
in Greece. The Homeric genealogy is not mentioned in 
Hesiod, who speaks only of her birth from the sea, and in 
Homer generally the Oriental character of the goddess is 
less clearly presented than it was in contemporary worship, 
for in his poems she appears merely under the aspect 
of the effeminate goddess of love. In Eastern and also in 
Greek religion she was always more than this, and Homer 
was probably aware of her more manifold aspect; but it suited 
his epic purpose thus to represent the goddess of Asia Minor, 
the friend of the heroes of the Troad and the enemy of the 
Greeks ; and after all he clearly recognizes in the daughter of 
Dione the divinity of Cyprus. Putting together the accounts 
of Homer and Hesiod, we can conclude that some time before 
the Homeric period the goddess had become partly Hellen- 
ized, but that the foreign elements in the local cults and 
legends were marked and strongly felt, and that in Homer's 
time she had no very clearly defined relations with any of the 
Greek divinities. It has often been observed that the song of 
Demodocus in the Odyssey, in which she appears as the faith- 
less wife of Hephaestos, is inconsistent with the other Homeric 
passages that mention Charis as his wife ; and Lucian makes 
merry over the bigamy of the fire-god *^ The Homeric 
hymns to Hephaestos and Aphrodite nowhere make mention 
of these divinities together ; and the later poetical tradition 
may have been inspired by the lay of Demodocus ; or the 
singer in the Odyssey, as well as the later poets such as 
Apollonius Rhodius, may have been following the religious 
tradition of Lemnos, the special home of Hephaestos, where 
possibly the worship of Aphrodite also was indigenous*. 

* There has not as yet been found the goddess of the island, is only another 
any direct evidence of an Aphrodite- name for the great goddess of Asia 
cult in Lemnos ; but probably Chiyise, Minor. At Athens, where the cult of 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 623 

But no other local cult in Greece associated the two divinities; 
we cannot therefore say that their casual association in litera- 
ture at all supports the theory that she was a goddess of the 
primitive Hellenic religion. 

Nor is this theory confirmed by her relations in myth and 
religion with Ares, even if the latter were known to be 
genuinely Hellenic in his origin'. The poetical legends in 
Homer and Hesiod no doubt point to some real connexion 
in the local worships of Ares and Aphrodite; we hear of 
a temple of Ares at Athens near the Council-hall, that con- 
tained two images of Aphrodite, and of a temple dedicated to 
Ares and Aphrodite on the road from Argos to Mantinea ; at 
Latus in Crete the two were invoked together in the formula 
of a treaty of alliance, and Pindar styles him the * husband of 
Aphrodite, the lord of the brazen chariot ®*.' 

But the occasional combination of two cults, of which one 
may be native to the soil, is never any reason at all for 
denying the fore^n origin of the other ; in fact it was generally 
through such combination that a foreign worship took root 
in the new land, according to some affinity of ritual or divine 
character, or for some local reason. The reason in this case is 
not hard to suggest, if we suppose that the connexion between 
the two divinities sprang up at Thebes. For Ares was the 
prevailing god of the city and land, and with the coming of 
Cadmus and Harmonia came the worship of the Oriental 
goddess, and the older and the imported cult may have been 
reconciled by the fiction of a marriage, of which Harmonia 
was afterwards regarded as the offspring. This alliance would 
have been all the more natural, if the Aphrodite of Thebes 
appeared in the form of the armed goddess, a very common 
type of the Oriental divinity. 

The belief that there must have been a primitive Greek 
Aphrodite has been often maintained on the ground of 
the frequent rapprochement of her cult to that of Hebe and the 
Charites, and from her occasional connexion with the Horae. 

Hephaestos was probablj very ancient, * Vide Tiimpel, Ares und Aphrodite, 

he had a temple in common with Fleckeisen'sy2|iir^. SuppL 641. 
Athena; Aug. dt Civ. DH^ bk. iS.ch. ii. 



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624 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

Certainly these goddesses are often and naturally mentioned 
together^*. In the Iliad it is the Charites who wove her 
ambrosial robe ; and Demodocus sang of the Charites who 
washed her and anointed her with oil when she retired to 
Cyprus. We hear in the Homeric hymn to Apollo of Har- 
monia, Hebe, and Aphrodite dancing hand in hand. In the 
Hesiodic description of the creation of Pandora, the isorvia 
riet^cS, * the lady of persuasion/ who with the Charites adorns 
the dangerous maiden, is probably none other than Aphrodite, 
who is mentioned also at the beginning of the Theogony^ 
together with Themis, Hebe, and Dione, among the divinities 
of whom Hesiod is going to sing. And the poet of the Cypria 
speaks of the Nymphs and the Graces with golden Aphrodite 
singing their fair songs about the slopes of Mount Ida. The 
natural affinity of these goddesses was recognized in more 
than one public cult ^^. 

We have also epigraphical evidence that the worship of 
Aphrodite Colias on the Attic promontory opposite Aegina was 
connected with a temple of Hebe in that vicinity. At Sparta 
there was a statue of Aphrodite 'Afi)3oXoy»;pa, * the putter-off of 
old age,' standing apparently near to the statues of sleep and 
death, and Plutarch quotes the line from one of the choral 
hymns, * Set old age far from us, O fair Aphrodite ** «.' The 
relationship of the Charites with the goddess appeared in 
certain statues of them which Pausanias saw in their temple at 
Elis, wearing some of the emblems of Aphrodite, the rose and 
the myrtle, for he says * of all divinities they are most akin to 
this goddess,' and the statue of Eros stood by their side on the 
same base. In the Homeric hymn to Venus, the Hours are 
said to adorn the goddess with the same golden necklaces as 
they deck themselves with, and their figures also on later 
monuments bear close resemblance to Aphrodite's ^' '*^^*. 

But these facts are explained if we suppose that the g^eat 
goddess of anterior Asia came at an early date to the shores 
of Greece with the character of a divinity of vegetation, who 
had power over the various forms of life and birth in the 
world, and who was therefore akin to the Charites of ancient 
worship at Orchomenos and Athens ; and that she came also 



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XXI.] APHRODITE^WORSHIP. 625 

with the aspect and functions of a divinity of love, beauty, and 
youth, and was thus brought near to the Greek Hebe. 

It has been suggested by Kekuli* that the last-named 
goddess who was worshipped at Phlius and Sicyon, under the 
name of Dia, was originally the Hellenic Aphrodite herself, 
daughter of Zeus and Hera. But the mere coincidence 
between the names of Dia and Dione, who was made the 
mother of Aphrodite, is a very slight argument : his suggestion 
would have more weight if Hebe, Dione, and Aphrodite were 
closely associated in ancient myth and widely prevalent cult. 
But this is by no means the case; in the myths and the 
monuments of art Hebe approaches nearer to Hera than to 
Aphrodite ; their combination in the Attic worship is an 
isolated instance, and not known to be very ancient, and 
Hebe has no prominent function as a goddess of love and 
marriage. 

Nor can we say that the association of Aphrodite and the 
Charites belongs to a primitive period ; in the most ancient 
and solemn worship of these latter goddesses at the Boeotian 
Orchomenos, Aphrodite cannot be found to have had any 
place ^ ; and their cult on the Acropolis of Athens seems to 
have been equally independent of her, nor did she borrow 
their names or titles. 

Nor, lastly, can any proof of the antiquity of her religion 
in Hellas be derived from her relations with Eros: for as 
the child and companion of Aphrodite, he figures only in the 
later literature and occasional later cult ^^. The only ancient 
centres of Eros-worship were Thespiae and Parion, where he 

* Kekn]^, Hehe (1867). fountain and that locality were sacred 

^ Miiller, on the contrary, m his to Venus ; it may be that Virgil knew 

Orchomen^t p. 173, supposes a close ofthefovntainasoneof the chief haunts 

local connexion between Aphrodite and of the Graces, with whom in later litera- 

the goddesses of Orchomenos ; but the ture Aphrodite is so closely connected, 

sole evidence is Servins* interpretation The writer (Dr. Roscher) of the article 

ofthe epithet Acidalia applied to A phro- on Aphrodite in Koscher*s Lexicon 

dite in Virg. ^nv. I 720. He refers this merely follows Miiller. The view ex- 

to the fountain near Orchomenos where pressed in the Bulletin de Correspond- 

the Graces were wont to bathe: it is ante HellMque^ 1889, p. 471, about 

merely an unfortunate literary epithet of < Aphrodite, la deesse de qui reinvent 

Virgirs, and it does not prove that that les Charit^,* is quite untenable. 

VOL II. P 



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626 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

was regarded probably not merely as the personification of 
human love, but as a physical and elemental force, a divinity 
of fertility. With these cults Aphrodite has nothing to do. 
This itself is a strong negative argument against the aboriginal 
antiquity of her worship in Hellas; for had it been part of the 
common religious inheritance of the people, one would suppose 
that it would have been attracted into the circle of the most 
ancient cult of Eros, whose character and functions were so 
like her own. 

It does not appear then that the belief in the primitive 
Hellenic origin of Aphrodite is borne out by her relations 
with other recognizably Hellenic divinities. 

The belief sometimes seems to rest on the difficulty of 
imagining that the ancient Greeks could have dispensed with 
a goddess of love ; but this difficulty would be only serious 
if it were proved that every other old Aryan race had been 
blessed with such a divinity ^ But this is by no means 
certain, and the danger of a priori reasoning from one religion 
to another is now sufficiently recognized. 

We can now deal with the question under what form and 
with what characteristics the goddess of the East was known 
and worshipped by the earliest Greeks. If her original 
personality were made clear and precise, we could then 
estimate how far this was transformed in the later Hellenic 
imagination. But to give a precise picture of the Oriental 
goddess is difficult, because, as her names were many, her 
aspect and functions may have varied even more than we 
know in the various centres of the Semitic worship. The 
names Ishtar, Attar Athare, Atargatis-Derceto, Astarte de- 
signate the same goddess in the Assyrian, Aramaic, Canaanite, 
Phoenician tongues. The female Baal, known as Belit and 

* It is probable that a divinity of law. Therefore it woald be nnreasonable 

hnman love in the abstract is a creation to suppose that before the airival of 

alien to the spirit of any very ancient Aphrodite there was a mysterious 

religion ; the early Aryan and Semitic vacnnm in Greek religion which the 

races had divinities enough and to spare people would feeL She may have 

of v^etation and fertility, and any arrived not necessarily because she was 

of these could supervise human love wanted, but because she was brought 
and birth as part of a wider physical 



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628 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

passion, and her rites at Babylon, Byblos, and Bambyce were 
notorious for the temple prostitution practised there ••®. 
A different illustration of the prominence of the sexual idea 
was the practice of voluntary mutilation of which we hear at 
Bambyce, and which found its way into the rites of Cybele. 
To the same darker side of this worship belonged that strange 
idea of the confusion of sex, the blending of the male and 
female natures in one divine person. The usual illustration 
of this mysterious Oriental fancy i^ the description found in 
Macrobius of the statue of the Venus Barbata of Cyprus : 
* there is in Cyprus a statue of her bearded, but with female 
dress, with the sceptre and the signs of the male nature, and 
they think that the same goddess is both male and female. 
Aristophanes calls her Aphroditos.' This statement which 
explains the * duplex Amathusia ' in Catullus' ode, is repeated 
by Servius, and is supported by the similar statement of 
Joannes Lydus that the * Pamphylians once paid worship to 
a bearded Aphrodite"^®.' As no such statue has yet with 
certainty been found in Cyprus, it has been doubted whether 
we can fairly attribute this idea to the Semitic religion at all. 
But there is much that is proved by literary evidence that 
cannot be attested by archaeological, and the lack of illustra- 
tion from the monuments ought not to invalidate such 
a precise assertion as that of Macrobius about a fact which he 
could scarcely have invented, and which explains better than 
anything else the origin of the Greek Hermaphrodite '. In 
fact the Semitic idea of the androgynous divinity is not 
attested merely by Macrobius : on a Ninevite inscription pre- 
served in the British Museum there appears to be an allusion 
to this double character of Ishtar, just as a later Phoenician 
inscription speaks of a *King Astarte^' The same idea 
appears in the l^ends of Semiramis, the warlike goddess- 
queen who wears male attire and repudiates marriage ^. This 

• It seems more reasonable to derive the double Herme of male and female 

this abnormal type from certain religions divinity on a late Chaldean (?) relief; 

ideas than from the observation of cer- Lajard, Culte de Vinus en Orient^ 

tain abnormal phenomena in natore. PI. i. i. 

^ Vide letter from Mansell to Lenor- ^ Diod. Sicul. a. chs. 6 and 14. 
mant, Gazette ArchioL 1879, p. 63 ; cf. 



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XXI.] APHRODITEWORSHIP. 629 

strange conception may have had its origin in a theological 
dogma : that the divinity being perfect must possess all the 
powers — passive and active — of creation; but the forms in 
which the idea was expressed were likely to be tainted with 
sensuality. 

A no less remarkable belief was that which, according to 
some authorities, prevailed in certain communities devoted to 
the Semitic goddess : namely, that though a mother, she was 
also a virgin ^^® ^ At least, we hear of the * virgo caelestis ' at 
Carthage*, the virgin-AUat in Arabia ^ the virgin-mother 
ta Petra ; and the same contradiction has been found in the 
cult and legends of Phrygia and Caria ®. Whether this is a deve- 
lopment and a purification of an older and grosser conception 
of Ishtar, regarded in the Babylonian legend as a mother- 
goddess but unmarried, or choosing her temporary partners 
at will, does not concern us here ; the same perplexing double 
character of the divinity has been noticed in the Artemis- 
worship, and it has been supposed to have left traces even 
in the Hellenic Aphrodite. 

Such in very brief outline are the main recognized traits of 
the Oriental goddess ; and it remains to trace her forms and 
further development in Greece. We may distinguish between 
those Aphrodite-cults which preserved in name or rite clear 
traces of their Oriental origin, and those which had become 
fully Hellenized, and we shall find even in the latter very few 
ideas that may not have been developed from the original 
character of the Semitic divinity. 

The clearest sign of the Eastern goddess in the Greek 
community is the title Ov/nirfflL This was the literal transla- 
tion for the Semitic title * Mdleket Aschamaim/ * the queen 
of the heavens,' which Ezekiel applies to her. Semitic 
scholars have not been able to give a very precise significance 
to this phrase, and the Greek term that translates it is also 

* Aug. de Civ, Dei^ 2. 4. "who gave biith to Dusares; it is possible 

^ Vide Epiphanius, Panarium, 51 that in these beliefe Uap9h<n or K6fnf 

(vol. 2, p. 483 Dind.), who speaks of only meant the ' unmarried ' goddess, 

the K^/>7 or Uapehos at Alexandria, and that thej do not contain any idea 

who brought forth Alinf, and the of a miraculous conception, 

'maiden* divinity among the Arabs, ©Vide chapter on Artemis, pp. 446, 447. 



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630 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

rather vague. We should be probably wrong in assigning to 
it any distinct solar or lunar or astral meaning ; it is probably 
sufficient to interpret it as the name of the goddess whose 
seat was in heaven, and whose power reached through the 
world '. And the Greek epithet may have been as vague as 
the title 'OAv/Aw(a, which was applied to her at Sparta^'. 
The moral or spiritual intention of the term Ovpavla is cer- 
tainly late, being probably derived from the Platonic 
philosophy and perhaps never recogfnized in actual cult. Its 
chief importance for us, in tracing the origin of the Aphrodite 
cult, is that the title alludes as a rule to the Eastern worship ; 
the direct and indirect evidence of this is too strong to be ques- 
tioned ^. Pausanias tells us that the Assyrians were the first 
who instituted the worship of Ourania, which was afterwards 
held in honour by the Cyprians, Paphians, and the Phoe- 
nicians of Ascalon ; the goddess of Hierapolis in Syria is 
regarded as Ourania by Lucian, or the writer whose treatise 
on the Syrian divinity bears his name. The statement in 
Pausanias seems mainly derived from Herodotus, who regards 
the temple at Ascalon as the oldest sanctuary of Ourania, to 
which the temple in Cyprus was affiliated according to Cypriote 
belief. The historian adds that the Persians acquired this 
worship at a later period from the Assyrians and Arabians. 

The Carthaginian goddess was also known by this name ; 
and its non-Hellenic connotation is further attested by the 
freedom with which the Greeks applied it to the foreign 
divinities of other nations than the Semitic. Thus the armed 
goddess of Libya, sometimes identified with Athena, was 
styled Ourania, and so also was the goddess Artimpasa of 
the Scythians ^ ' ; we may suppose that the reason of this 
lay in the likeness these divinities bore to the Asiatic goddess 
rather than in the purity of the worship. 

From the prevalent application, then, of this title to the 

*■ In Greek cult it certainly never con- the title *A(rr€pia is not foond in cult, 

veyed any allusion to the moon or stars and her association in the cult of Achaea 

in Greek religion, which did not recog- with 2^us Amarios in no way suggests 

nize any lunar or astral nature in that she was there a divinity of the 

Aphrodite ; this is only assumed in the lights of heaven '^. 
later physical or theological literature ; 



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XXI.] APHRODITE'WORSHIP. 631 

foreign divinity, we might fairly conclude that it had the 
same denotation in the temple-worship of the Greek com- 
munities, at least in the earliest periods. And we have more 
or less direct evidence of this ; for we find the title and the 
worship especially in those places of which the tradition, the 
ritual, or the commercial relations suggest a connexion with 
the East It was instituted in Cythera^^ according to 
Herodotus and Pausanias, by the Phoenicians, and the dif- 
fusion of the cult is here connected in all probability with the 
purple-trade. We learn further from Pausanias that the 
temple in Cythera preserved the name of Ourania down to 
his own day, that of all the temples of Aphrodite in Greece it 
was regarded as the most sacred and ancient, and that the 
goddess was here represented as armed. It may be for this 
reason that Homer calls the island * divine ' •*. 

The worship of Aphrodite Ourania was found in the city 
of Athens and in the Attic deme of the Athmoneis, where 
it was associated with the legendary Porphyrion, * the purple- 
king.' In the city the temple stood in the Ceramicus, near 
the temple of Hephaestus, and outside the ancient burgh ; 
we hear also of a herme-statue of Aphrodite Ourania in the 
district called RTJ-Trot, and can conclude that the worship of 
Aphrodite ^j; Kiywots was closely connected with the former ^^ *. 
Now with nearly the whole of this religion at Athens the 
names of Aegeus and Theseus were interwoven, and the 
foreign character of these heroes and their significance as 
the propagators in Athens and Attica of new cults has been 
established in a paper by M. de Tascher '. He deals more 
particularly with the importation of the worships of Poseidon 
and Apollo ; but the Athenian or Attic cults of Aphrodite are 
still more closely associated with the early Ionic settlement, 
with the names of Ariadne, Theseus, and A^eus, and with 
a stream of myth that circles round Attica, Delos, Naxos, 
Crete, Cyprus, Troezen, and Argos, which it will here be 
convenient to trace ^^*. 

Ariadne or 'Apiiyvri of Crete, who was known there also by 

* Les cnltes ioniens en Attique, /^gvue des Etudes grecques, 1891, Janvier- 
Avril, p. I. 



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632 GREEK REUGION. [chap. 

the sacred epithet 'A/)ftT|Xos, was a name that itself must have 
been an epithet of the Hellenized goddess of the East. It is 
true that we have no explicit record of the identification of 
Ariadne and Aphrodite in Crete itself. But we have proof 
of a cult of Aphrodite Antheia at Cnossus *^ «, the place of 
the Labyrinth and the Minotaur ; in the territory of tiie Latii 
was an ancient Aphrodision, and its general prevalence in the 
land is attested by the claim asserted by the Cretans for their 
island to be regarded as the original home of the Aphrodite- 
worship*^, though this name was here scarcely so much in vogue 
as those which we may regard as her sacred epithets, Pasiphae 
and Ariadne. In fact, there is evidence that in Crete there 
was a mingling of a Semitic and a Phrygo-Carian current of 
worship and myth, that the Semitic goddess whose sacred 
animal was the goat, and whose lover was the bull or the 
bull-headed god, was here brought into the company of 
a Zeus-Dionysos, Europa, and Cybele, while a virgin goddess, 
Britomartis or Dictynna, of probably Carian origin, whose 
myth and worship were rife in the island, was perhaps herself 
near of kin to the unmarried goddess of the East*. The 
worship of Pasiphae was found in Laconia, where — as will be 
shown — we have clear proof of the early admission of the 
Oriental Aphrodite ; the name Pasiphae itself was a wide- 
spread local title of the goddess, if we may trust Joannes 
Lydus ; and Pasiphaessa appears as a synonym of Aphrodite 
in a verse quoted by Aristotle ^^^ The bull that is so con- 
spicuous a figure in the Cretan religious myth may have 
belonged originally to the Eteocretan earth- goddess Europa ^ 
and the animal is as closely associated with Hellenic ritual 
and religion, with the worships of Demeter and Artemis for 
instance, as with Oriental cult. But taking into account the 
connexion between Europa and Cadmus, and the statements 
that the representation of Europa on the bull was one of the 
types of Sidonian coinage, and that Astarte herself was sup- 
posed to assume the bull's head as a symbol of supreme 
power®, and comparing these facts with such legends as those 

• Vide chapter on Artemis, pp. 475- * Vide p. 47 S. 
478. o Lucian, de Dea Syr, 4 Td wiyncita 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 633 

concerning Pasiphae and the Minotaur, we have grounds for 
concluding that Europa herself came at least to acquire 
a close affinity with the chief personage and sacred legends 
of the Eastern worship. And the story repeated by a scholiast 
that Ariadne was the mother of a certain Tauropolis^^ 
comes probably from some association between Ariadne and 
a bull-riding goddess, who may have been a Cretan equivalent 
of Artemis Tauropolos. 

We find also a worship of Aphrodite 'EinTpayCa on the Attic 
coast ^*, connected by the legend with Theseus and his voyage 
to Crete: the Delphic oracle had advised him to make 
Aphrodite his guide and to invite her to be his fellow- 
voyager: he was therefore sacrificing to her a she-goat on 
the shore, which was suddenly transformed into a male, so 
that the goddess was henceforth known as Aphrodite who 
rides on the goat The story does not fully explain the 
name, and is useful merely as indicating the association of 
Theseus with Aphrodite and of the goddess with the male 
animal*; and it is to the Oriental Aphrodite that the 
monuments which represent ^ETrirpayla seem to point. Her 
close connexion with Crete, which the Attic l^end makes 
clear, may help to explain the prominence of the goat in the 
sacred Cretan legend concerning the rearing of the child 
Zeus : that is, we should understand the meaning of the goat 
as the foster-mother, if we recognize in the Cretan Aphrodite 
a divinity closely akin to Cybele, and in the Cretan Zeus 
a Zeus-Dionysos. Reasons have been already given for 
the latter view, and for the former some will be mentioned 
later on^. 

As we follow the voyage of Theseus back to Athens '®* it 
becomes clear that his beloved whom he leads away and 

rf SiS^ioi xp^orrcu lify E(fp4/vffy l^fo- riding on their sacrificial animals, not 

/Uvfpf jfx<< '''V f^PV '''V ^<- ^^- Philo infrequent both in Hellenic and Oriental 

Bybl. 2. 34 (Fra^. Hist, Grace, 3. religious monuments, was probably in 

p. 569) *H lik *kar6,prfi MOtficf ij liUf its origin a sacramental symbol from 

irc^aXp fiaffiXilas vapAffrjftw Mf<f>aXi^ which much misunderstanding and much 

ra^pov , , , Ti^ Sk 'Affrdprrp^ *oi»uc€s ri^p myth arose (vide Robertson Smith, 

'A^poUrtpf ttrai Kiyovotr, RiUgion eftke Semites, p. 457). 

• The representation of divinities * Vide also p. 478. 



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634 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

deserts is Aphrodite herself or her Cretan representative • ; 
the divinity of Ariadne and her real personality are betrayed 
in the Cypriote worship and l^end. According to one story 
of that island, when deserted by her lover, she hanged herself 
on a tree ^ ; or wearied with travail and sickness she was put 
ashore in Cyprus and died there, and was buried near Ama- 
thus in a grove which was called after the name of Ariadne 
Aphrodite. Sacred rites were instituted there in her honour 
by Theseus when he returned to the island, and the most 
curious was the practice of one of the youths ' lying-in ' on 
one of the festival Azys and imitating the cries of women in 
travail. At first sight it would seem that we have here 
a sort of consecration of the 'couvade': but it is less 
hazardous if we merely r^ard this rite as an illustration of 
that idea found in the worship of the Eastern goddess of the 
unnatural confusion of the sexes. And we find it twice again 
in the track of Theseus and Ariadne. At the Oschophoria at 
Athens, an ancient harvest festival with which the names of 
Theseus and Ariadne and the l^end of his Cretan journey 
became entangled, we hear of chosen boys being dressed up 
as girls and taught to imitate the gait and voice and bearing 
of maidens *'. 

At Argos also the grave of Ariadne was shown ^^*, and as 
the worship of Aphrodite Ourania found its way to these 
shores ^^ we may refer to it the mysterious feast called 

• Movers {Die Phoniziert vol. i. of the mother; the story is connected 

p. 641) holds the opinion that Ariadne with the local feast called kitbvaia^ 

is a Cretan form of Aphrodite Astarte. and certain preliminary marriage rites 

*• These * hanging* stories about di- were performed by the statue of Leu- 

vinities come from the custom of hanging cippus. The latter may possibly be 

up their images or masks on a tree ; a title of the male Aphrodite, and the 

e.g. the story of Helen and the Rhodian feast may have been very similar to the 

women arose from the sacred title of Argive *T0pi<mKd and have belonged 

Helene AcrdpTrt;, * the goddess whose in reality to an Aphrodite-cult, though 

image hung from the tree * ; cf. Artemis Nicander connected it with Leto Phjrtia. 

*Awayxof^yrj, The story in Herodotus of the Scythian 

" Antoninus Liberalis (c 17) quotes 'AjfdpAywoi**' who worshipped Aphro- 

from Nicander a Cretan legend about dite may be indirectly connected with 

a certain Leucippus of Phaestum, who theandrogynous character of the Oriental 

had been bom a girl but was trans- goddess, 
formed into a man through the prayers 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 635 

*T)3/)40Tiic<i^^^', at which women wore the men's dress and 
men the women's ; the quasi-historical event which Plutarch 
records by way of explanation is clearly a fiction invented to 
explain a misunderstood rite. The real significance of it is 
suggested by the statement of Philochorus, that in Cyprus 
the two sexes exchanged dresses in the worship of Aphroditos 
or the Venus Barbata ^^^ 

These facts are sufficient to prove the Oriental origin of 
the Attic worship of Ourania, and point to the track along 
which it arrived at the Attic shores. One of its chief points 
of connexion was Delos, where we come upon traces of the 
Theseus- Ariadne legend and of the Aphrod ite- worship '^ 
It penetrated at an early date to Thebes, where Harmonia, 
probably another form of Aphrodite herself, dedicated three 
statues of Aphrodite Ourania, Pandemos, and Apostrophia ®. 
Whether the two latter titles express characteristics that 
belong to the Oriental conception of the divinity is a question 
that will arise later. It is enough to notice here the asso- 
ciation of the goddess of Thebes with Cadmus and the East ; 
and her Oriental origin may explain why she was here the 
goddess of the city and the wife of Ares, as at Sidon and 
elsewhere in Asia Minor she bore the character of a political 
and warlike divinity. We have proof that the goddess at 
Corinth had the same title and was of the same origin ^•^ ^®«. 
Euripides celebrates Acrocorinthus as the * holy hill,' * the city 
of Aphrodite ' ^•', and Alciphron gives us the legend that she 
came up from Cythera, perhaps the earliest home in Greece 
of this foreign worship, to greet Acrocorinthus. The early 
commerce with Asia Minor will explain the many Oriental 
traits that are noticeable in the Corinthian worship ; the most 
striking and un-Hellenic was the practice of religious prosti- 
tution, to which we have an unambiguous allusion in that 
strange fragment of Pindar *^», in which he employs his best 
style to glorify the * hospitable young women, the ministrants 
of Persuasion in rich Corinth, whose thoughts ofttimes flit 
towards Ourania Aphrodite,' in whose temple they burned 
frankincense. They are expressly termed by Strabo Icpo- 
hovkoi and ' hetaerae ' dedicated to the goddess, and these are 



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636 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

the same characters that figure in the impure worships of 
Cyprus, Byblos, Babylon, and Armenia ; the immorality that 
Herodotus imputes to the Lydians had probably a religious 
intention^ and we hear of the Upohovkoi, yvpalK€9 in the 
Phoenician worship on Mount Eryx*'; but such practices 
were certainly excluded from the ordinary Greek worships 
of Aphrodite, whose ritual seems to have been as austere as 
any other. The only other Hellenic community besides 
Corinth wherein we hear of unchastity in the temple-cult of 
Aphrodite is the city of the Locri Epizephyrii^**, who, 
according to the story, to gain the goddess's aid in a war, 
vowed to consecrate their daughters to this service. 

The title of Ourania was also attached to her worship at 
Aegira®^ in a temple to which access was only allowed to 
women ; at Olympia ^ where a Pheidian masterpiece repre- 
sented her with her foot upon a tortoise, an Oriental symbol, 
and at Megalopolis *^. At Panticapaeum *•, the Milesian 
colony on the Tauric Chersonese, the worship of the goddess 
would be likely to have some Oriental character, and the 
name Ourania is applied to her in two inscriptions of the 
third and second century B. C. found in this place. And we 
have the evidence of another inscription of the same cult at 
Smyrna ••^ In r^ard to the later period to which, for 
instance, the Roman sepulchral relief at Verona belongs, 
dedicated to the high-priestess of Aphrodite Ourania *^ •, we 
may doubt whether the epithet possessed any Oriental con- 
notation or only a vague moral or ritualistic sense. 

Even where she is not expressly styled Ourania, we can 
recognize the Eastern divinity in Greece by many signs. The 
foam-born goddess is derived from the Semitic religion, and 
perhaps from the maritime commerce of the East ; and the 
goddess of Cyprus and Cythera is called *A^/K)y€w}9 by 
Hesiod ^^\ But except in the cult-titles 'A^/»fa and 'Ap<^€fa 3, 
which were probably in vogue at Larissa and in the Thracian 
Chersonese, there is but little reflection of this story of the 
birth in Greek public worship. Yet her connexion with the 
sea and her interest in navigation are attested by a long 
array of titles. Harbours and rocky promontories were 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 6yi 



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633 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

sea for various reasons, and who seem to have been different 
forms of an Artemis Aphrodite'. 

Lastly, it is possible that the maritime goddess of the 
East appeared in the form of Aphrodite Aeneias, the story 
of the wanderings of Aeneas being the legendary record of 
the diffusion of this cult***'. To understand the origin 
of Aeneas and the myth concerning him, we must keep 
in view the peculiar and sacred character of Aeneas in 
Homer, and we must consider the meaning of the title 
Alv€ias as applied to the goddess ^ The Aeneas of Homer 
is unlike any of the other heroes, Greek or Trojan; he 
appears as a mysterious religious figure to whom the future 
rule of the land was reserved by Providence ; his character 
and the prophecy about him are only to be explained if the 
poet was aware of a family of Aeneadae having power in 
the land, who themselves or whose mythic ancestor were con- 
nected with a certain cult. And this view is supported by 
the statement of Strabo ®, made probably on the authority of 
Demetrius of Scepsis, that for many generations there survived 
in this city the descendants of Aeneas who were still called 
kings, and who enjoyed certain honours, the kingship probably 
possessing here as elsewhere a priestly quality. We gather 
also that Arctinus, the author of the 'IXfov Wpcris, was aware 
of the legendary settlement of the Aeneadae on Mount Ida. 

• Vide p. 645 and pp. 477, 478. vegetation for the purpose of recovering 

Aphrodite herself, according to a doubt- the lost vigour of the land ; vide Fraser, 

ful version of Ihe Adonis-myth (Ptolem. Golden Bought vol. i, pp. 258-261. 

Hephaest. Nov. Hist, Bk. 3. p. 198, Probably the many m3rth8 of women 

Westermann) flung herselfinto the sea in being put to sea in a chest are derived 

sorrow for his death ; human victims to from the same ritual ; some divinity is 

Apollo were thrown from the Leucadian disguised under the woman's form and 

rock and fh)m a promontory in C3rprus name in such stories. Auge is a forgotten 

CStrabo, pp. 452 and 683); Firmicus name of either Athena or Artemis; 

Matemus yde Errore Pro/an, Relig, p. Rhoio is the Carian Aphrodite-Artemis 

85) records the myth that Dionysins, (Diod. Sic 5. 62) ; Danae is probably 

the god of vegetation, was thrown into the title of the Argive Hera, 

the sea by Lycurgus; these myths are *> J. A. Hild. La Ugende d' £nJe avant 

probably derived from a very widely VirgiUf Paris, 1883; Klausen, Aeneas 

spread harvest-ritual, of which an es- und die Penaten. 

sential feature was the throwing into the ® Pp. 6o7i 608. 
water the effigy of the decaying deity of 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 639 

And from his evidence and Homer's we can conclude that 
the story of the wanderings of Aeneas was of later growth, 
and that the Troad was the centre from which the name 
of this hero and this worship spread over various parts of 
the Mediterranean. But what meaning can we find for the 
title AJi/€t(t9, which belonged to Aphrodite in her cults at 
Actium, in Leucas, and in Sicily ? From its form it might be 
a patronymic, but it could not mean the * mother of Aeneas,' 
nor can we suppose it to mean the 'daughter of Aeneas,' though 
this would be consistent with the form of the word ». The 
divinity may have sometimes taken the name of the mortal, 
when the clan desired to identify their mythic ancestor or 
chieftain with the divinity, and so we may account for the 
title of Zeus-Agamemnon. A man however might be identified 
with a god but scarcely with a goddess. 

It is much more likely that this title of Aphrodite is of 
independent origin, indigenous in the Troad and not to be 
derived from the later and unimportant city of Aeneia on the 
Thermaic gulf; that the goddess lent her title to her particular 
clan of worshippers, and that to explain their name and their 
position in the country the priestly hero Aeneias was imagined. 
If he arose in this manner, as the mythic priest of the goddess 
taking her title in a masculine form, we could understand the 
mysterious character that attaches to him in the Iliad. We 
can easily gather instances from Greek myth and religion 
of heroes and heroines who are merely the shadows or 
emanations of divinities, as Auge, Iphigenia and Atalanta 
of Artemis, Trophonius of Zeus-Hades. What would be 
exceptional in the present case, if this theory were fully 
proved, would be that the hero embodied the title not 
of the male but the female divinity. But this would be 
especially likely to occur where the goddess was served by 
priests ; and while in the native Greek cults it is usual to find 
the female ministrant in the ritual of the female divinity ^ it 

• This has been pointed out by Pro- the contrary ; as for instance at Pellene 
fessor Nettleship in the fonrth edition Artemis "Ziatupa was served by priests 
of Conington's Virgil^ ^.xWi. (Artemis**") and Athena Kpa»aia at 

* Examples however are recorded of Elatea was served by boy-priests ; Paus. 



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640 



GREEK RELIGION. 



[chap. 



is not unusual to find the priest attached to the service of the 
Oriental goddess. 

Thus even in late times we hear of the Cinyradae, the 
priestly family attached to her cult in Cyprus ; the king 
of Paphos down to the time of Alexander is ' priest of Queen 
Aphrodite'/ and according to the legend in the Theogony it 
was the fair Phaethon whom Aphrodite carried off and * made 
a secret minister in her holy temples ^*^V 

The name and hero Aeneas then may have arisen directly 
from that title of the goddess ; or indirectly from it, if he were 
the imaginary ancestor of the Aeneadae the priests of 
'Aippoblrri Alv^ii^. What is the true explanation of the title 
itself, we shall probably never know : it may be as Womer 
ingeniously suggests, a derivative from Alvri\ the name of 
the goddess of Ecbatana whose temple is described by 
Polybius, and who was probably closely akin to Anaitis ; 
or it may denote 'Aphrodite the consenting,' coming from 
the Greek root. The later story of the wanderings of 
Aeneas is the story of the diffusion of a cult ® : and in most 
places where we find the name of Aeneas we find it in con- 
nexion with the worship of Aphrodite*^®; at Aeneia, in Cythera, 
at Actium,on the coast north of Buthrotum,on the south-east 
coast of Italy, and notably in Sicily. His landing at Delos and 

ference for the male animal in her 
sacrifices*^ "*; both facts may be 
explained by her androgynous character, 
vide Robertson Smith, Religion of the 
Semites, p. 453. From some of her 
temples women were ezdaded, for in- 
stance from the temple on the Olympos 
promontory in Cyprus**; and accord- 
ing to Artemidoms it was death for 
a woman to enter the temple of Artemis 
at Ephesos, the Ephesian Artemis being 
a semi-Hellenic form of the goddess of 
Asia Minor (Artemis***). 

^ Koscher, Lexicon, p. 173; Polyb. 
la 27. 

« This is also Womer s view and on 
the whole Klansen^s, Aeneas und die 
Penaten, pp. 316, 317. 



10. 34, 4; at Calauria, a young girl 
officiated in the temple of Poseidon 
until she was of marriageable age; ib, 
3. 33, 3. These are certainly excep- 
tional facts ; but where the worship of a 
god and goddess was combined, a male 
ministrant was naturally appointed. 
The chief functionary in the cult of 
the Ephesian Artemis was a priest, and 
this again may be due to Oriental in- 
fluence. 

• Timocharis Echetimos and Timal- 
ros, kings of Paphos, are all Upfji r^y 
MiOOfiii vide Six, Rev%u Numisnia- 
tiquty 1883, pp. 350, 351, and Revue 
des ktudes grecques, 1892, pp. 55, 56. 
As the male- ministrant was sometimes 
preferred in her worship, so she seems 
to have exhibited at times a pre- 



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XXI.] APHRODITEWORSHIP. 641 

Crete, recorded by Dionysios of Halicamassus » and Vh^I, 
may arise from some I^endary association with that Cretan 
and Delian worship of Aphrodite which has been described. 
And in Argos, where Pausanias saw a statue of Aeneas, we 
have noticed traces of the Oriental worship of the goddess. 

In Sicily the cult becomes naturally blended with that of 
the Carthaginian goddess of Eryx, and hence probably arose 
the legend, which is hardly earlier than the third century, 
of the relations between Aeneas and Dido^ 

In her own land, the Troad, Aphrodite Aeneias was in all 
probability another form of the earth-goddess Cybele,and hence 
we may understand the stories that were told of the burial of 
Aeneas among the Berecyntes ** % the votaries of Cybele, 
and that connected him and his Penates with Samothrace ^. 
But as the divinity of a clan that wandered far over the 
Mediterranean she would naturally become r^arded as 
a goddess of the sea in this as in many other of her cults. We 
have a proof of this on a coin of Leucas of the second 
century B.C., that shows us a figure of Aphrodite, derived 
probably from a public statue, with an 'aplustre' among her 
emblems, and a ship's prow upon the reverse (Coin PI. B 45). 
This has been rightly connected by Curtius* with the statue 
in the temple of Aphrodite Aeneias which Dionysius mentions 
as standing on the small island between the canal and the 
city of Leucas. And her maritime character may possibly 
be illustrated by the title tifniriros, which we may believe she 
bore in some well-known centre of her worship, although we 
have only a mysterious allusion made to it by the scholiast of 
the Iliad, who tells us the simple story that when Aeneas had 
sailed to the west he mounted a horse and commemorated the 

• Dionysios regards the city called about the origin of the Eryx-cnh ; but 

Aeneia on the Theitnaic gulf as a founda- it may reasonably be supposed to hare 

tion of Aeneas ; and we find a represen- been derived from Carthage, for we find 

tation of Aeneas carrying Ancbises on its in it the Oriental feature of the hp^^w- 

coinfofthesizthcenturyB.C.;Head,^ij/. \oi ymwtcts^, 

Num, p. 189 ; Roscher, Lexicon^ p. 167. * The connexion between Aeneas and 

^ For the view of Dido as the Sa/fuvy theCaUriprobablyexplainsthepicture of 

KapxiT^i^'of) another form of Astarte, Parrhasius. 'Aeneas Castorqueac Pollux 

vide Movers, DU PhomsUr, vol. i. pp. in eadem tabula.' Plin. N, H, 35. 10, 71. 

609-611. We have no direct evidence * Merwus, la 243. 

VOL. II. 



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642 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

event by dedicating a statue to his mother that represented 
her on horseback ** «. 

The title and the story are so peculiar that no scholiast 
could have gratuitously invented it. The term t(l>nriros must 
have been known to have been somewhere connected with the 
worship of Aphrodite Aeneias, although there is no other hint 
at all of her connexion with horses, except that Hesychius 
identifies Hippodameia with Aphrodite. Now the symbolic 
sense of the horse in Greek religion was manifold : we find it 
in the worships of Apollo and Helios, the chthonian divinities 
and the wind-gods, and especially of Poseidon ' who delights 
in the neighing of steeds and in the war-ships of dark-blue 
prow '.' We might believe, therefore, that the horse comes 
into the legend and cult of Aphrodite as a symbol of the sea- 
goddess. But another explanation may be offered, when 
we consider another and more important aspect of this 
divinity ^. 

The goddess of the waters also had charge of the flowers 
and growths of the earth, and the Oriental goddess was 
known as ''AvS^ia *the flower-goddess* in Crete, and worshipped 
with offerings of fruits and herbs ** ®. 

The name of the locality ^UpoKriitCa ^^^ ^, near Paphos, must 
be derived from a sacred title of Aphrodite. And her func- 
tions as a divinity of vegetation are alluded to by the similar 
name of her temple in Athens, the temple * in the gardens,' 
near which stood the statue of Aphrodite Ourania^^'. 
According to Hesychius, trees were cut down and set up in 
dedication to Aphrodite by the portal of the house, a custom 
perhaps confined to Cyprus, and probably connected with the 
worship of Adonis ^^"^ '. 

We may believe that the association of Aphrodite with the 
Hours, found in a worship at Olympia ^^"^ *, and appearing 
occasionally in surviving monuments, alluded to the processes 
of birth and growth which all these divinities protected. The 
pomegranate was sacred to Aphrodite in Cyprus, and on 
coins of the Roman period of Magnesia on the Maeander we 

• Arist EquU. 551. Cf. Artemid. Oneirocr, i. 56, 
^ Vide infh^ p. 650. 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 643 

find the figure of the goddess with this fruit in her hand 
and with the inscription *A<f>poblTri Mi/Xcfa ». Therefore when 
Empedocles and Sophocles describe her as * the giver of life,* 
* the goddess of abundant fruits/ they may have been deriving 
these epithets from actual cult ^^'^ \ 

It is probable that the aspect of the Oriental Aphrodite as 
the earth-goddess is primitive. The Ishtar-myth is certainly 
explained most naturally in this way, and the great festal 
sacrifice offered to the goddess of HierapoHs, called the festival 
of 'the torch*,* at which large trees were erected in the court 
of her temple, and various sacrificial animals were suspended 
from them and all burnt together ^^"^ •, belongs to that wide- 
spread ritual of fire, which was intended to evoke the necessary 
warmth and heat for the crops. Its efficacy lay partly in the 
supposed power of sympathetic magic ^, partly in the pleasant 
oblations to the tree-spirit or earth-spirit ; such festivals have 
taken place in Europe usually on May-day or on Midsummer- 
day : at HierapoHs it fell on some day in early spring, and in 
many of its details it resembles the sacrifice offered to Artemis 
at Patrae, which has been described in a former chapter, and 
of which the essential parts were the erecting green trees 
round the altar, the kindling a great fire, and the driving into 
it droves of wild and tame animals. The divinities to whom 
these rituals were consecrated must have been closely akin in 
some parts of their nature <*. 

Another worship with which the Oriental goddess, at least 
at a later stage, was nearly connected was that of Cybele, the 
great earth-goddess of Phrygia, who herself may be only 

* Head, ffist. Num, p. 50a. cult of Artemis, the two ideas of 
^ Vide chapter on Artemis, pp. 430, a goddess of v^etation and a goddess 
458. Forparallelpracticesandtheirsigni- of fresh water are blended. This was 
ficance among other nations, vide Frazer, probably also the case in the original 
The Golden Bought vol. a. pp. 246- cult of Aphrodite in the East; but in 
285 ; Mannhardt, Bautnkultus, ch. 6. Greek religion it does not appear to 
pp. 508-512; the kindling of trees, the have been so; she is prominently 
passing of cattle through or into the a goddess of v^etation, but the stream, 
flames, the semblance of human sacrifice, the fountain, and the lake, were not con- 
occurred in most of these, and at Hiera- secrated to her. We hear only of the 
polis : vide Ludan, dt Dea Syr, ch. 58. Aphrodite kv Kak&fUHS or <k tKu at 
« It has been shown that in the Greek Samos*'. 

Q2 



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644 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

another form of Ishtar Astarte. The Galli, who wiere promi- 
nent in the Phrygian rites, seem to have played their part 
also in the temple-worship at Hierapolis ; and it would appear 
from certain details in Lucian's account of it, that their practice 
of self-mutilation was partly for the purpose of securing 
fertility either for the family or the fields. The Phrygian 
goddess who rides on the lion has her counterpart in the 
Babylonian- Assyrian religion ; the armed Cappadocian Ma — 
the mother-goddess, a divinity of like nature with Cybele, is 
a type that recalls the armed Astarte of Ascalon ; the bull and 
the ram were sacred to Cybele as they were to Aphrodite ; 
and as the Eastern goddess showed a predilection for the 
priest and Aphrodite is worshipped by her Aeneas, so Cybele 
was served by Hermes Cadmilos; as the Semitic goddess was 
the tutelary genius of cities, so Cybele came to wear the 
turreted crown. Lastly, the lamentations for Thammuz, who 
appeared to the Greeks with the form and name of Adonis, 
are found in the Phrygian worship as the mourning for Attis. 
The character of the Eastern goddess as a divinity of v^eta- 
tion emerges into the clearest light when we examine the 
traits of Attis and Adonis, different local names for the same 
personage in her religion ^*^*. These have been gathered 
together and clearly set forth by Mr. Frazer in The Golden 
Bough*' ; and his conclusion that Adonis is a form of the spirit 
of vegetation, the tree or corn-spirit, seems sufficiently certain. 
He is born from the myrtle-tree, which like the rose is his 
emblem *®®» Autumn-fruits are offered to him, and small 
beds of flowers that grow up and wither rapidly, called * the 
gardens of Adonis * ^^^ **» ®. In Lucian's account of the worship 
of the Dea Syria, and in the famous idyl of Theocritus, 
describing the ritual at Alexandria, we have the record of the 
young god, who dies and lives again ; at the latter city an 
essential part of the ritual that refers to his death and 
resurrection is his immersion in the sea **, with which we may 

• VoL I, pp. 278-285. the worship of Aphrodite at Eryz, who 
^ The same idea of a divinity of crosses the sea to Libya and returns 
vegetation who passes away over the (Aelian, de Nat. Am'm, 4. 3) ; pro- 
sea and returns was expre^ed in the bably also in the artistic type of Aphro- 
feasts of dvaydrfia and mrayi^a in dite riding on a swan over the waves. 



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XXI.] APHRODITEWORSHIP. 645 

compare many instances collected by Mr, Frazer of the 
primitive rural practice of throwing the dead and decayed 
god into the water'. We are told by Firmicus Matemus 
that in the Phrygian rites of the mother of the gods a pine- 
tree was cut down each year, and in the midst of it was bound 
the image of a youth ^^ ^ : this must have been the image of 
Attis, and from Lucian's account of a similar rite at Byblos 
we may conclude that the pine-tree and the image were burnt 
at the end of the ceremony. The mourning for the dead or 
departing god was interpreted by Eusebius ^*** <* as alluding to 
the fall of the year, the withering of flowers and herbs, and in 
this he is followed by most modem writers. But Professor 
Robertson Smith ** expresses the view that * the mourning for 
Adonis was not originally a lament over decaying nature, but 
simply the official mourning over the slaughter of the thean- 
thropic victim in whose death the god died.' And he believes 
that those who mourned for him had originally pierced him, 
but that this part of the rite had been dropped when the 
mourners could no longer understand why they should slay 
their own god, and when they came to believe that his passing 
away was due to the same natural law by which the life of 
the fields and woods passed away. The earliest form of the 
sacrifice would be the offering of a holy swine to Adcmis the 
swine-god, in fact the offering of the god to himself, * a most 
ancient form of sacramental and piacular mystery in which 
the worshippers attest their kinship with the animal god, and 
offer in sacrifice an animal of the same kind, which, except on 
these mystical occasions, it would be impious to bring to the 
altar «.* We have the same mysterious idea in the Brauronian 
worship of Artemis examined above, in the sacrifice of the 
bull-calf to Dionysos at Tenedos, and in the sheep-offering to 
Aphrodite in Cyprus, if we accept a convincing and brilliant 
emendation made by Professor Robertson Smith in the text 
of Joannes Lydus \ His view that just as Dionysos was the 

• The Golden Bough, vol. i, pp. a6o, p. 80, Bonn, ed.) : in Cyprus wpSfiarov 
361. itcaiiqf i(netinurfi4ro¥ awi^vop rg *Afpo^ 

^ ReligumoftheSemiUs,^.l<^2yn,i. Wrp : he points out that the phrase 

* Ib.y p. 46a KoM^ k<rK€waap4pov is quite meaniog^ 
** P. 451 (Jo« Ly<l«s» ^ Mensibus, 4. less, and proposes knctvae/UrM : the 



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646 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

bull-god, so Adonis was origfinally the swine, and that * in this, 
as in many other cases, the sacred victim has been changed 
by false interpretation into the enemy of the god,' lacks direct 
evidence, but the indirect evidence which has been collected 
by Mr. Frazer is very weighty; and to this may be added the 
explanation of Adonis' death given in a later version of the 
myth, namely that the swine who slew Adonis was really 
the embodiment of the jealous Ares ; for in this version the 
consciousness of the divine character of the animal seems to be 
preserved. This story is one of the many that arise from 
a misunderstanding of sacrificial ritual ; we have a much more 
absurd myth, arising from the same origin, given us by 
Diodorus Siculus to explain why swine were sacred or tabooed 
in the Carian worship of Hemithea, a Carian goddess who 
may be called Artemis- Aphrodite, and why no wine was used 
in her worship; two maidens, Molpadias and Parthenos 
(whose names are certainly titles of Aphrodite-Artemis her- 
self), were watching their father s wine-pots, when they fell 
asleep and swine entered and broke the pots ; as he was a man 
of violent temper, and the loss of the wine was all the more 
serious as this inestimable boon to mankind had only recently 
been invented, the maidens flung themselves into the sea, 
and received divine honours'. Wherever the swine were 
sacred in Aphrodite's worship, we may safely infer that they 
had some reference to Adonis. Ordinarily in the Greek com- 
munities the swine was not offered to this goddess "*^ as we 
learn from Aristophanes, and though the Greeks were ignorant 
of the real reason, we may believe this to have been the 
peculiar sanctity that belonged to this animal in the Oriental 
cult, as we hear from Lucian that at Hierapolis the pig was 
too sacred to be either sacrificed or eaten. But it is probable 
that the especially sacred beast would be oflfered on rare 
occasions by way of solemn expiation ^ ; and we hear of such 
sacrifices at Castniae in Pamphyl ia *•, at Metropolis in Thessaly *, 

sacrificeis will then have been arrayed • Vide Artemis-cult***, Diod. Sic 5. 

in the skin of the sacred animal, testify- 63. 

ing their kinship to it and to their ^ Vide Frazer, The Golden Bough , 

divinity. vol. i. p. 5a. 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 647 

and of the offering of wild swine in Cyprus ^^*<*, where, as 
Antiphanes says in a line of his Corinthia^ 'Aphrodite took 
particular pleasure in pigs,' and where we have more than one 
proof of the presence of Adonis. The *T<mfp4a, or feast of 
pigs at Argos, had reference probably to the cult of Adonis 
and Aphrodite, and we have other traces of the Eastern 
goddess in that city, such as the Hermaphroditic feast of 
*T/3ptoT4K(£ "* % and also clear record of the worship of Adonis 
there ^*^**. Now whether we regard Adonis as the swine- 
god and accept Professor Robertson Smithes interpretation of 
the sacrifice of the divine animal that embodied him and 
of the lamentations for the god's death, or whether we say 
that the mourning was only for the passing away of the glory 
of the year, we may in either case regard Adonis as the spirit 
of vegetation. For we have independent evidence that he was 
intimately connected with the growth of the fields and the 
woods ; and if we had indubitable proof that he was ever 
regarded as incarnate in the swine, this incarnation would 
reveal the same character of the god, for among many com- 
munities of Northern Europe the boar or the sow is r^farded 
as the embodiment of the corn-spirit. 

Therefore, when the cult and ritual of Adonis came to the 
shores of Greece, it must have helped to express more clearly 
the character of Aphrodite as a divinity of vegetation. But 
the Adonis-cult was a comparatively late importation into the 
Greek Peninsula. No doubt it had at a much earlier time 
been diffused from its Syrian and Phoenician centres through- 
out the Greek cities of the Asia Minor coast and to the 
Eastern islands ; but two centuries may have passed, since 
Sappho sang the dirge of Adonis in Lesbos ^®® **, before the 
Greek mainland received this strange orgiastic worship. The 
earliest allusion to its introduction at Athens is in the frag- 
ment of the BouKoXoi of Cratinus, composed probably before 
the Peloponnesian war. The poet is satirizing some archon 
who refused a chorus to Sophocles, but granted one to some 
poetaster who was not fit *to train a chorus even for the 
Adonis-festival'; when this was written, the Adonia were 
probably recent and of small prestige ^^ ^ 



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648 CREEK REUGION. [chap. 

It may be tbat the introducdofi of die Phiygian worship of 
Cybele, idiich made its way to Athens and Thd>es at a not 
much earlier period % either brought with it the ritual of 
Adonis or prepared the minds of the Greeks to tolerate it. 
The dose affinity between the two worships has been noticed ; 
and Aristophanes, in the Lysistraie^ when he inveighs agsunst 
the 'luxury of the women,' and declares that the cries c^ 
lamentation for Adonis disturb the debates in the Exdesia, 
speaks in the same context of the Phrygian drums and the 
Phrygian Sabazius***. And at a later period Aphrodite is 
addressed as C)rbele, and the figures of Attis, Adonis, and 
Dionysos are scarcely distinguishable, as we gather from 
Plutarch's account of the two Atteis, from the lines of an 
oracle given to the Rhodians, and from a late Orphic 
hynm^***. But the Greeks who adopted and transformed 
Dionysos and Aphrodite never completely Hellenized Adonk: 
the more masculine tempers were averse to the effeminate 
Eastern god\ with his train of emasculate priests and 
a lascivious ritual that the more austere state-re%ion of 
Greece probably failed to purify ; the saner minds bred in 
a religious atmosphere, that was on the whole genial and 
temperate, revolted from the din of cymbab and drums, the 
meaningless ecstas ie s of sorrow and joy that marked the new 
religion «. Yet it woo its way, thanks partly to the plague 
and the Peloponnesian war that lowered the ethos and the 
intelligence of Greece. We have sufficient proofs of its 
prevalence at Athens : at the time of the departure of the 
host for Sicily, the Adonia were being celebrated, the figures 
of Adonis were laid out on biers before the doors, and the 
wonien were performii^ the pageant of a funeral, smiting 
their breasts and singing dirges for the dead god ; the omen 

* Vide Gerhard's GesammelU Akade- « The old^tthioned Greek view is ez- 
mischt AbhandlungeHy no. 1 5 : Obcr das pressed by Ladan, who reprobates * the 
Metrooo nod die Gotterui utter. The Phrygian demon, the lasciTioos 01^ 
importation into Attica of the Syrian over the sbepheid; the secret rites of 
worship of Aphrodite from Citinm was initiation, the disrqmtable mysteries 
stUl laUr (vide "«). from which men are excluded . . . mere 

* In a line of the Orpbic hymn**** corruption of the mind'*"«. 
Adonis is addressed as male and female. 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 649 

was afterwards understood and long remembered ^^^ **. We 
have mention of the Adonis-gardens in Plato and Theo- 
phrastus, and an inscription belonging to the end of the fourth 
century B.C. speaks of a vote of thanks passed by the com- 
pany of Aphrodite's worshippers in honour of a certain 
Stephanos who conducted the procession of the Adonia 
according to the traditional rites '*^«; the * tradition' is 
Eastern, and we may regard Adonis as a Hellenistic rather 
than a Hellenic divinity. For the celebrity and nature of his 
worship at Alexandria, the great centre of the Hellenistic world, 
we have the evidence of the Theocritean idyl ; although the 
song of Aphrodite's love is human in its tone and very 
winning, yet there are no moral or spiritual ideas in the 
worship at all, no conception of a resurrection that might 
stir human hopes : in this, as in Bion's verses, Adonis per- 
sonifies merely the life of tdie fields and gardens that passes 
away and blooms again. All that Hellenism could do for 
this Eastern god was to invest him with the grace of its 
idyllic poetry. 

It seems probable from the evidence that has been given 
that this function of Aphrodite, the protection of the life and 
growth of the earth, belongs to the earliest conception that 
the Eastern peoples formed of her. And this would explain 
and imply her close connexion with the fertilizing waters ; as 
we have the analogy in the Semitic religion of the Baalim, 
the gods both of the land and the waters iJiat nourish it '. But 
her maritime character is probably of later and accidental 
growth, coming to her naturally as her cult was spread by 
a maritime people from East to West. Nothing is so con- 
servative of primitive ideas as the sacrifice ; and, though we 
hear of her sacred fish in the lake near her temple at 
Hierapolis, none of the animals sacrificed to her in the Greeks 
and as far as we know in the Semitic, cults, allude at all to 
the goddess of the sea ^**. Among birds, the partridge and the 
goose were offered to her, the sparrow, if not sacrificed, was 
sacred, the dove was too sacred even to be sacrificed in the 

* Robertson Saiitii, J^eligicm cftJke Sem$/es, p. 99. 



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650 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

East, but in Greece was certainly offered, as we <:an conclude 
from those monuments which represent the worshipper stand- 
ing before the goddess and holding a dove ; but these animals 
belong to the goddess of spring or the goddess of fertility. 
The other animals, of whose sacred character in this worship 
we have direct or indirect evidence — ^the swine, ram, goat, bull, 
kid, lamb — are the natural animals for sacrifice or consecration 
in an agricultural community. And the horse itself, if this 
animal also on somewhat scanty evidence may be supposed 
to have been sacred to Aphrodite, may have alluded to the 
fruits of the earth at least as naturally as to the waves 
of the sea. For we have the record of the horse-headed 
Demeter of Phigaleia, and we see from the evidence collected 
by Mr. Frazer, that the horse is one of the most common 
embodiments of the corn-spirit. 

We may be sure, then, that the Eastern divinity which 
spread over the Mediterranean through Cyprus to Greece, 
came rather as a goddess of the earth, akin to Demeter 
Proserpine and Dionysos, than as a goddess of the sea, 
though she always retained her interest in the seafarer. 

Both in Greece and the East the connexion between the 
powers of life and nature and the powers of the lower world 
and death was natural and close and needed to be expressed 
in worship. 

As Ishtar mourns for the beautiful youth Dumuzi or 
Tammuz, so among the tribes of the Lebanon we hear of 
the type of the mourning Aphrodite who sat with head 
veiled and bowed and the tears streaming down her 
cheeks*^. This sorrow Macrobius explains— and in a cer- 
tain sense he may be right — as the image of the winter. 
But the myth of the East and the later poetry of Greece 
interpreted it as her sorrow for the dead Adonis, and 
Bion calls to her, *No longer slumber on purple draperies, 
but rise, sad one, thou of the mourning robe, and smite thy 
breasts.' And according to another legend, the goddess flings 
herself down the Leucadian rock in grief for her beloved. 
This myth may be a meaningless fancy ; but it corresponds, 
as has been partly shown, with certain facts of ritual and with 



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XXI.] APHRODITEWORSHIP. 651 

another better known l^end. The grave of Ariadne- Aphro- 
dite was actually shown in Cyprus '^^^ ^ as the grave of Zeus 
in Crete and of Dionysos in Delphi. From the record of the 
ceremonies performed in the worship of Adonis we gather that 
the dead body of the god was laid out on the bier ^^ ** ; we 
are nowhere told that the dead goddess was placed by his 
side ; but we may well believe that this was the case when we 
examine the myth of Pygmalion as told by Ovid, and 
interpret it in reference to the love of Adonis and Aphrodite ; 
Pygmalion loves the dead image which he decks in fine 
raiment, and which at last gains the breath of life. But, 
according to ApoUodorus, Pygmalion is related to Adonis, 
and Hesychius gives us the name ITvyftauwj/ as a Cypriote 
synonym for Adonis"*®; and Clemens Alexandrinus gives us 
the interesting information that the image which Pygmalion 
carved and loved, and brought to life by the power of his 
prayer, was that of Aphrodite herself"*^. Through these 
obscure hints of l^end a certain fact seems to be partially 
revealed ; that in Cyprus in some religious ceremony, some 
scenic representation of the Adonia perhaps^ the image of the 
dead goddess » was exposed, and then after due performance 
of certain rites she was supposed to be restored to life. We 
have the parallel belief in the Assyrian religion about the 
descent of Ishtar into hell, and her rescue by the messenger 
of the gods, who sprinkles her with the waters of life and 
recovers her^ ; and the l^ends of the deaths of Semiramis 
and Dido, if we interpret these as names of the Assyrian and 
Phoenician divinity, embody the same conception of the 
divinity that must die. This dual character of the Eastern 
goddess is summarily expressed in the lines of the pseudo- 
Plautus, who appeals to * divine Astarte, the strength, the 
life, the salvation of men and gods,' and again ^ the power of 
destruction, death and decay **® *.' 

* There is possibly an allnsion to such power or as an ' eidolon * of Aphrodite ; 

a form in that mysterious passage ^'® > in ' eidolon ' in this context must either 

Hesychius(s.v. 'E^fkvs) , which hasnever mean * phautom ' or image, 
been successfully interpreted, in which ^ Vide Dt la Saussaye Religionsge- 

the Erinnys is explained as an infernal schUhie^ vol. i, pp. 338, 339 



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652 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

Finding then in Greece the frequent worship of Aphrodite 
as a divinity of death ^^^ and the lower world, we can regard 
this aspect of her as derived from the original tradition. We 
hear of the worship at Delphi of * Aphrodite on the tomb,' 
by whose image the spirits of the dead received libations ; 
at Argos, the same cult is attested by the strange title 
Tvfjfioipjixosy denoting the goddess of graves ; at Thespiae, 
Corinth, and Mantinea by the name of McAoAj/ty, the * dark ' 
goddess*; and the same allusion was probably conveyed by the 
epithets Mvxe/a, mentioned and probably wrongly interpreted 
by Suidas, Eifi^viqs attached to Aphrodite by Hesychius, and 
EvpGvka a title that appears to belong to her on an inscription 
found at Paphos ; both these two latter terms being known 
appellatives of the lower gods. The story pven in Plutarch 
about the funeral ceremonies held in honour of Aphrodite in 
A^na and conmiemorating the heroes of the island who fell 
at Troy, shows us the same character of the goddess \ From 
an inscription quoted by the author of a work ascribed to 
Aristotle, we gather that there was a dose cult-relation 
between Aphrodite and Persephone at Thebes ^^ K 

Other indirect but interesting evidence of a similar worship 
can be extracted from the legends given by Ovid, Plutarch, 
and Antoninus Liberalis ^^® «, of the hard-hearted maiden in 
Cyprus, whom Plutarch calls by the impossible name of 
* Parakuptousa,' and whom divine retribution turned to stone 
because she looked unfeelingly on the coipse of her lover. But 
Ovid and Plutarch were both aware that the goddess herself 
was called by the same name in Cyprus, and the poet tells us 
that there was a statue in Cyprus representing the frozen 
petrified form. And when Plutarch goes on to say that a 
similar story was told in Crete about a maiden named Gorgo, 
who came to a like end, we have an easy clue to these 
romantic l^ends about callous young women with remark- 
able names ; we detect a worship in both islands of 
an Aphrodite Gorgo, a goddess conceived as dead and 
represented in frozen slumber ; and we have monumental 

• The Aphrodite MxKmpts of Thespiae with the moon : vide next ch., p. 699. 
seems also to have had some connezioa ^ Qt$aest, Craec, 44. 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-IVORSHIP. 653 

evidence iot this*. Moreover, this worship must in some 
way have been combined or confused with another in which 
Aphrodite was known by the very different name of WapaKiv' 
Tova-a, * the goddess who looks out of the corners of her eyes,' 
an epithet alluding to the sidelong glances of the lover. As 
usual, the epithets become detached and the stories about the 
maidens arise from them. 

It may have been from this original belief in her as a power of 
the shadowy world, the home of destiny and retribution, that an 
association in cult arose between Aphrodite and the Fates and 
Furies, who according to Epimenides' genealogy were her 
sisters; and> again, between Aphrodite and Nemesis, the 
Rhamnusian goddess, who, as I have tried to show, was no 
mere personification, but a real divinity akin to Aphrodite, if 
not another form of her, and possessing a marked character as 
a goddess of doom or punishment ^^^■'^. It is probable also 
that the cult-relations of Aphrodite with Hermes, of which 
we have record at Argos, Megalopolis, Cnidos, and Lesbos, 
arose from the chthonian aspect of the two divinities ^^® "*. 

So far it is the physical or elemental nature of Aphrodite 
that has been traced in the cults of the various Greek com- 
munities ; and it does not appear that the Greeks have added 
anything new to the tradition which they received. 

But we have seen that the Eastern goddess was not merely 
a * nature-divinity,' but a divinity of the state and the city^^**, 
and at Ascalon a goddess of war. We may believe that the 
cult of the armed Aphrodite belongs to the first period of her 
worship in Greece ^^*. In Cyprus, if we may look to that as 
her first Hellenic settlement, we hear of Aphrodite ''Eyxetoy, 
and probably the epithet denotes * the goddess of the spear.* 
But in Cythera we have still clearer proof given us by Hero- 
dotus of the very ancient worship of the Eastern goddess as 
a warlike divinity. We may believe it to have existed in 
Corinth, the ancient home of Aphrodite Ourania ^•, and we 
may suppose that it came at an early time to Thebes, and 
brought about the dose association between her and Ares at 
that city. But nowhere was it of such repute as among the 
* Vide inlra, p. 699. 



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654 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

Spartans, who doubtless derived it from C)^era •, and who gave 
to the new goddess the martial epithets of Areia and 'Apioma ^. 
We have a string of epigrams in the Anthology referring to this 
Spartan worship, and playing in various ways on the idea that 
the stem Lycurgean constitution would only admit Aphrodite if 
she put off her effeminacy and learned the use of weapons. This, 
of course, is a misunderstanding : it was the Phoenician, not the 
Lycurgean, state-religion that gave her the spear or the bow,and 
for this reason she was once at least mis-named Athena, at the 
Syrian Laodicea ^®* \ and for this among other reasons was more 
frequently identified with Artemis. I have already suggested 
that the cult of Artemis 'Aorparefa on the Laconian coast pre- 
serves in a meaningless title the Phoenician name Astarte ^ 

In the later Greek literature, the references to the shield and 
the spear in the hands of the goddess of love are generally 
mere playful allusions to her love for Ares. But down to the 
last period of Greek history she preserved her inherited 
character as a goddess of war in some of the Greek states. 
The most famous of these worships was that of Aphrodite 
Stratonikis at Smyrna *'', whose temple claimed rights of 
sanctuary; we gather from Tacitus that this title was of 
ancient origin in that city, and could not have been attached 
to her, as has sometimes been supposed, out of mere compli- 
ment to Queen Stratonike. At Mylasa, Aphrodite was the 
goddess * who goes with the army ' (ST^aTcia) " ; at Amorgus, 
the locality in which she was worshipped appears to have 
been called 'Acnrfy, * the place of a shield "'^ whence she took 
her title of *A<l>poblTri Oipavla fj iv dcnrffii. At Mantinea, the 
temple of Aphrodite Sv/Lt/iax^ commemorated the aid given 
by the Mantineans to Rome and Augustus at the battle of 
Actium ^ ; and in the oath of alliance between the Arcadian 
Orchomenos and the Achaean league we find the name of 
Aphrodite H At Argos, where the Oriental cult had struck 
deep roots, the worship of Aphrodite Nticiy^opos must have 
been inspired by the Eastern idea of the warlike goddess, 
though the people explained it in another way^*. 

* An inscription recently discovered attests the cult of Aphrodite OOfuyla near 
Amyclae**^ *> p. 485. 



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XXI.] APHRODITEWORSHIP. 655 

When Sulla, after his victory at Chaeronea, inscribed his 
trophy with the names of Ares, Aphrodite, and Nike, it is pro- 
bable that the association of the two former divinities on such 
a monument was a recognition of the warlike character which 
may have belonged to the goddess in certain parts of Boeotia. 

But her civic and political functions came to her chiefly 
through her interest in the family and in births and marriages "^• 
She was revered as * the cherisher of children ' at Cyprus and 
elsewhere "® *, and before marriage a kid was sacrificed to her ; 
while at Paphos, where she was worshipped as a civic divinity 
by the side of Zeus Polieus and Hera ®^, we find that as late 
as the second century A. D. children were consecrated to her 
charge ^^® \ a custom derived perhaps from the East, as we 
are informed by Lucian that the young men and girls at 
Hierapolis were in the habit of offering locks of their hair to 
the goddess of the city • ; and in a late Greek inscription we 
find Astarte invoked in the same prayer with Eros, Harpo- 
crates, and Apollo as the protectress of the family **. 

The charge of the actual processes of birth was assigned in 
the Greek states usually to Artemis or Eileithyia ; but it is 
possible that Aphrodite herself was invoked under the name 
Genetyllis ^^* 8, if the view expressed by the scholiast on 
Aristophanes is correct. But though we have the Venus 
Genetrix in Rome, we have no Aphrodite TeviTapa in Greece, 
and no clear proof of an Aphrodite T€V€tv\\U. The 
Genetyllides are contemptuously mentioned by Aristophanes 
and Lucian as powers of doubtful origin and doubtful 
character, who maintained themselves on the luxury and 
superstition of married women, and whom the husband 
regarded with suspicion and dislike. In her worship on the 
Attic coast, under the title of KwXtdy, she may have been 
r<^arded as a goddess of child-birth ^* •» ^^^^ ; for though the 
epithet, which has been identified by E. Curtius® with the 
Samothracian epithet KoAwty ' the goddess in the grotto,' gives 
us no clue, yet the Koliades are mentioned by the side of 
the Genetyllides in Lucian's tirade against these expensive 

• De Dta Syria, p. 58. *> Athenaion, 4. p. 458. 

« Cotting, Gei. Ant, i860, p. 418. 



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656 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

divinities of midwifbry. In the cult of Aphrodite^ Ctesylla 
in Ceos"^^ and the l^end explaining it, we may see an 
allusion to the goddess of child-birth, especially as she was 
evidently related closely in this worship to Artemis Hekaerge* 
At Oropus ^® she shared an altar with Athena the Healer and 
the daughters of Asclepios*, and perhaps we have here an 
expression of the same idea that gave her the name of 
KovpoTp6(l>os ^^* K 

Her connexion with marriage is much closer : in fact she 
appropriates the functions, and at Sparta even the name of 
Hera^*. We hear of an Aphrodite of the bridal-chamber 
(0aX({fift)if) "* ^ ; of an Aphrodite "'Apfiaat Delphi ^ the goddess 
who joins together in matrimony^ a title which gives us 
perhaps the clue to the real meaning of the name Harmom'a, 
the daughter of Aphrodite, who was originally the goddess 
herself at Thebes ; we find an Aphrodite Nv/uu^io, the goddess 
of the bridal "* ^ on the road between Troezen and Hermione. 
And among the ideas concerning the character and worship of 
Aphrodite, to which the later Greek writers give expression, 
those which are associated with wedlock have most moral 
interest. Artemidorus in his Ofmrocriticon maintains that 
Ourania Aphrodite, using the term in its transformed Hellenic 
sense, had especial virtue in r^[ard to marriage"**; and 
Stobaeus exclaims *What could love, what could Hera or 
Aphrodite preside over more legitimately than over the lawful 
intercourse of man and woman ?^^*V Plutarch comments 
eloquently on the worship at Delphi, saying ' The honour and 
charm, and mutual love and trust, that grow up daily (in 
a happy marriage) prove the wisdom of the Delphians in 
calling Aphrodite the goddess who joins together/ These 
passages are the more interesting, because in Greek literature 
panegyrics on marriage are few ; the romantic aspect of love 
was more commonly associated with the divine power of Eros ; 
and the later worships of Aphrodite that refer not to marriage 
but to free love are sometimes marked, as we shall see, by 
cult-epithets that are neither spiritual nor pure. 

And what is of greatest importance is that this refined cult 

* Cf. the Rhodian worship of Apollo, Asclepios, and Aphrodite**. 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP, 657 

of the goddess, as the patroness of married life, is probably 
a native development within the Greek religion. The record 
seems to show that the Eastern religion failed to present her at 
all, or at least prominently, as the goddess who sanctioned and 
encouraged lawful union. It is true^she was at times regarded 
as the wife of Baal, and was styled 'Virgin' at Carthage, a title 
which provokes the indignant sarcasm of an early Christian 
writer. But so far as we can gather from certain Oriental 
institutions and legends, she seems to have been r^arded as 
against the purer relations of man and woman. In Hierapolis, 
Armenia, and probably Lydia, she was supposed to demand 
the sacrifice of virginity before marriage ; and in the l^ends 
of Ishtar and Semiramis the goddess herself was represented 
as wanton and murderous. Some part of this evil character 
has been transplanted into Greek legend, but very little into 
Greek worship, and the few traces of it that we can find belong 
probably to the later period. 

The life of the family was closely associated in the Greek 
communities with the system of the clan ; and Aphrodite in 
some of the Ionic settlements was connected with this also ; 
inscriptions of the second and third, and possibly of the fifth 
century, B. C, prove the existence of the worship of Aphrodite 
'Avarovpos or ^ATrarovpri in Phanagoria and Panticapaeum ^» ^^. 
Strabo gives us a Phanagorian legend, explaining the name by 
some myth, possibly genuine, of the * deceit * of Aphrodite who 
lured the giants to her cave where they were destroyed by 
Heracles; and at Troezen* the same title, which was there 
attached to Athena, was explained by a legend arising from 
the same false derivation of the word from ATrdrrj or deceit. 
The word is of course derived from the Ionic festival of the 
'ATTarovpta and from the system of the phratriae, into which the 
new-bom child of the citizen's family was admitted^ and which 
at Athens, and apparently at Troezen, were sanctioned by the 
worship of Zeus Phratrios and Athena Apaturia. This asso- 
ciation with the clan, even more obviously than her connexion 
with marriage, came to Aphrodite after her settlement in 
Greece and not from the Eastern tradition. 

• Paus. 2. 33, I. 
VOL. II. R 



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658 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

The highest political idea which attached to the worship 
of Aphrodite was expressed by the cult-title ndi^JijiLtoy, about 
which, from the time of Plato downwards, there has been 
a strange misunderstanding, but which now, owing to recent 
discoveries, can no longer be considered of doubtful meaning^*^ 
We find the cult of Aphrodite Pandemos at Erythrae*^* 
mentioned in an inscription dealing with the sale of priest- 
hoods ; another inscription proves its existence at Cos^"**; we 
have Pausanias' testimony of its establishment at Megalo- 
polis 2"^, and at Thebes ® where the legend referred its institu- 
tion to Harmonia •. But its chief importance was at Athens, 
and it is only from Attic inscriptions and Attic records that 
we can gain a clue to its meaning. Pausanias, after describing 
the monuments on the south side of the Acropolis, the temple 
of Asclepios, the temple of Themis, and the tomb of Hippo- 
lytus, states abruptly that Theseus, when he drew the citizens 
together into one city, instituted the worship of Aphrodite 
Pandemos and Peitho ; and he adds that their ancient statues 
no longer existed in his time. The context makes it clear that 
some way beyond the tomb of Hippolytus was the temple 
of Aphrodite, to whom Pausanias found the title of Pandemos 
given. It is also probable that she was connected in the Attic 
legend with Theseus, as ApoUodorus in his treatise * concern- 
ing the gods' takes the same view as Pausanias about the 
origin of the cult : and also in some way with the worship and 
myth of Hippolytus ; for we have epigraphic evidence of the 
existence of a temple of Aphrodite ^^' 'l7nroXiJr<p, *near 
Hippolytus,' that is, * near the tomb of Hippolytus.' And 
this shrine must be the same as that which Euripides in the 
Hippolytus, the scholiast on that passage and the scholiast 
on the Odyssey y all designate by the name ^^' 'iTnroXvrip or 
* Hippolyteion ^^ ^.* Now the Hippolyteion must either be 
another name for the temple of Aphrodite Pandemos, or Pau- 
sanias must have omitted to mention the former in his account. 
But if we take the view that there were two buildings, the one 
called the Hippolyteion, the other the temple of Aphrodite 

* At Olympia there is no proof, as has been wrongly supposed, of its recog- 
nition by the state. Vide infira, pp. 681-684. 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 659 

Pandemos •, there is little doubt but that they were in dose 
vicinity to each other on the south and south-west slope of 
the Acropolis, for two inscriptions have been found on the 
south-west slope of the Acropolis relating to the worship 
of Pandemos ; and this position of the temple is not irrecon- 
cileable with Apollodorus* statement in the above treatise, 
that it stood in the * ancient agora,' if we suppose the ancient 
agora to have lain between the Pnyx and the Areopagus, so 
that it might be said to include in its circuit a temple that 
stood on the slope of the Burg-Hill *. Whatever its exact 
locality was, it was associated in the local legend with Theseus 
and Phaedra, that is to say, with that circle of cult which 
included Crete, Troezen, and Athens. 

The question now arises as to the meaning of the word 
Pandemos; we have seen that ApoUodorus gives it the 
political meaning which is certainly the true one"''*. But 
Nicander of Colophon, quoted by Athenaeus ^^^ *, finds for it 
a very (different significance, stating that Solon, to whom 
writers of the New Comedy ascribe the organization of 
prostitution at Athens, collected money from this class of 
women and raised a temple to Aphrodite Pandemos as the 

* Miss Harrison maiDtaios that there the entrance to the Acropolis. Lolling, 

were two separate shrines of Pandemos in the AcXt/ov •Apx«"o^o7"f^»'> 1888, 

and l<ft *IinroXvrf>, on the gronnd that p. 187, identifies the two, and places the 

both titles occur in official inscriptions, latter near to the approach to the Aero- 

and we have no instance of the same polis on the west (so also in his article in 

temple being called by two official V9nnkl\\i\Uj*s Ilandbuch des Classischen 

names [Myth, Mon. Anc, Ath. p. 334). AUerthums^ vol. 3, p. 330) ; but in the 

This is a reasonable but not quite AcXWoi' of 1891, p. 127, he seems to 

certain argument ; for the inscription conclude, on the strength of an inscrip- 

mentioning *A<f>podi'nj 1^* l«voX<rrf> ^ ^ tion on an altar found not far from the 

refers not to any temple but to a statue, temple of ' Theseus * in the Ceramicos 

and we have evidence that in these quarter, that the ' ancient agora ' to 

financial inscriptions the same statue which ApoUodorus refers was in the 

was sometimes called by different de- Ceramicus, and the temple of Aphrodite 

scripUve names, as in the case of the Pandemos was that which Pausanias 

Artemis Brauronia on the Acropolis. wrongly calls a temple of Ourania, and 

^ This is Foucart's view in Bu/l, de stood near the temple of ' Theseus * ; 

Corr. Hill. 1889, pp. 157-161 ; he sup- but the existence of an altar does not 

poses the Hippolyteion to have stood quite prove the existence of a temple on 

on the same terrace as the Asclepieion, that very site, and this contradiction in 

and the temple to Aphrodite Pandemos Pausanias is too much to suppose, 
somewhat further westward nearer to 

R % 



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66o GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

goddess of common and venal love. And this is the sense in 
which Plato in the Symposium misunderstood or deliberately- 
misused the word •. He there distinguishes between Ourania 
Aphrodite, the elder goddess, the eternal one without father 
or mother who personifies the intellectual love of the soul ^*, 
and Aphrodite Pandemos, who is the younger, the daughter 
of Zeus and Dione, who personifies the sensual love of the 
body. This idea is borrowed by Xenophon or whoever is 
the author of the Symposium attributed to him, and we find the 
same distinction there between Ourania and Pandemos, though 
he hints at the possibility of the two terms expressing different 
sides of the same goddess : but he also attests an important 
distinction in ritual, saying that he is well aware that Ourania 
and Pandemos were worshipped at different altars and in 
different shrines, and with difference of ritual ^ Ourania 
with the purer, Pandemos with the less pure form *^ ■. This 
interpretation of the two terms was certainly accepted 
in the later Greek periods. At Thebes the very archaic 
images of Aphrodite, supposed to have been dedicated by 
Harmonia, were called Ourania Pandemos and Apostrophia, 
and Pausanias interpreted the two former titles as Plato had 
done*. At Olympia Pausanias found the Pheidian statue 
of Aphrodite called Ovftavla, another in an adjacent enclosure, 
called Pandemos *^ ', carved by Scopas and representing her 
riding on a goat. But it is evident from the phraseology of the 
text that these distinctions between the two statues were not 
attested by any inscription. We have in the Anthology an 
epigram, describing a statue of Aphrodite, beginning ' Cypris 
is not here the goddess of vulgar love (Pandemos) ; do 
reverence and call her the heavenly one ®* *.' 

Modern writers ^ have accepted too readily this philosophic 

* It has been suggested that Plato a. i, 35. 
vilified Pandemos through his dislike ^ Even Prof. Robert in his new 

of the democratic connotation of the edition of Preller*s Mytkohgie. Miss 

name. Harrison, in the Mythology and Monu" 

^ f<fSiovpy6T€pai is contrasted in the fmn/s of Ancient Athens^ p. 332, re- 
sentence with 6yi^6r«pai, and is also jects the lower meaning of Udv^fios, 
explained by the use of fit^iiovpyia for but does not discuss the question what 
sensual indulgence in the Memorabilia, positive significance it might have. 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 66i 

and popular misinterpretation of the terms. There is 
certainly sufficient evidence that the people understood 
Pandemos, from the fourth century onwards, in the lower 
sense ; but there is no evidence that the state-religion of Greece 
ever recognized this meaning of the title. The people who 
forgot the meaning of the obvious epithet ^Airarovpia might 
easily suppose that Pandemos could designate the ' common ' 
and unclean goddess; and Plato, the arch-juggler in the 
interpretation of words, is perhaps answerable in part for 
the degradation of this one. The title OtfpavCa had, in the old 
religion of Greece and the East, no such high significance ; 
the Cypriote Aphrodite was Ourania and by no means austere ; 
the Corinthian Aphrodite was Ourania and, here only in 
Greece proper, was served by young women of loose reputa- 
tion, whom Pindar grandiloquently calls Hhe daughters of 
Persuasion, who lift up their hearts to Ourania Aphrodite' *•« ; 
and it is a curious comment on Plato's interpretation of the 
term that the only impure element which we can find in the 
Greek state-religion of Aphrodite, before the fourth century, 
we find in this worship of the 'heavenly' goddess at 
Corinth, 

The hetaera in Lucian appears to have been better acquainted 
than Plato with the significance of Greek religious terms, 
when she offered sacrifice to Pandemos and Ourania impar- 
tially*^". In fact the title OipavCa had in the genuine state- 
religion no more definite moral sense than 'OXv/Airfa,but denoted 
originally the Eastern Aphrodite for good or for evil, and 
perhaps afterwards came to mean nothing more than the 
* goddess of the ancient worship.' The monuments of her 
that have survived, or have been recorded, present us with no 
attributes or symbols that have any moral meaning at all ; 
nor on the other hand, in the monuments that with any 
certainty refer to the cult of Pandemos, is there any hint of 
the sensual significance supposed to belong to the title. 
There are weighty reasons for saying that this supposition 
is entirely errroneous. In the first place, the lower meaning 
of Pandemos is always correlate with the higher meaning 
of Ourania. But this latter is not known to be older than 



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662 GREEK REUGJON. [chap. 

Plato, and there is no dear evidence that it ever had this 
meaning in any state-cult; for supposing that the statues 
mentioned at Olympia and Thebes were originally desig^ted 
by these titles, yet Pausanias cannot be said to be giving us 
more than the popular and late interpretation of the names. 
Secondly, the word vavhr\iAos has always, in other applications, 
a serious and often a religious sense, being attached to Zeus 
in Attic and other worships as the guardian of the political 
community *. Therefore, as applied to Aphrodite, it ought 
to mean the goddess * worshipped by the whole people,' hence 
the goddess of the political community, and if there were 
a festival called vaMuua it would mean the same for the 
worship of this goddess as the Panathenaia and Pandia meant 
for the worship of Athens and 2^us. In the feast of 
Aphrodite Pandemos,that comes as an episode into Menander*s 
play. The Flatterer^ the religious-minded cook prays solemnly 
to all the Olympians for safety and health and all bless- 
ings: the phrases are borrowed from the public formula of 
prayer '*^. 

This political significance and the serious nature of the cult 
are attested by the inscriptions found on the Acropolis. On 
the relief dedicated by Arctinos and Menecratia, in the fourth 
century B.C., the inscription begins with an address to 
Aphrodite as * the great and holy goddess.' The priestess 
who was given the continual charge of the sacrifice was a state- 
official, and from time to time the iorvroftoi were directed to 
cleanse the temple and to superintend the public procession 
held in her honour^*' *. And the more recent discovery of the 
altar, dedicated at the end of the third century to Aphrodite 
*Hy€ii.6vg Tov ^fiov "^ *, * the leader of the people,' and to the 
Graces, would be by itself almost conclusive evidence of 
the political significance of the cult and title of Aphrodite on 
the Acropolis, and, as Lolling maintains ^ we may now believe 
that the Hegemone mentioned, together with the Graces,among 
the divinities by whom the Attic Ephebi swore to defend the 
country and obey the laws ^ was this Aphrodite Hegemone 

• Zeus"*; cf. the phrases wayiij/itl ^ Atkrioy 'Apxaiok. 1891, p. 127. 

$VHV and war^/uot U>fHf, « Artemis ^ '. 



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XXL] APHRODITEWORSHIP. 663 

70V briiJLov or Aphrodite Uivbrifio^. We can then understand 
why this political worship was connected with the name of 
Theseus, the mythic founder of the Ionic settlement and the 
higher state-organization; and why it was instituted at Thebes, 
where Aphrodite was regarded as the ancestress of the race, 
and why it was chosen for establishment at Megalopolis as 
one of the cults suitable for binding together the new con- 
federacy of Arcadia. As the Aphrodite-worship of Theseus 
is connected, as we have seen, by so many links with Crete 
and the East, the Aphrodite Pandemos may be a Greek 
development of the goddess who already at Ascalon had 
taken under her patronage the city-life. 

It remains to notice the apparently authoritative statement 
in Xenophon's Symposium, that vouches for the laxer char- 
acter of this worship. But we cannot vouch for the author 
of * Xenophon s ' Symposium. What we know is that until the 
declining period of Greek history, the cult of Aphrodite, so far 
as it appears in written or monumental record, was as pure and 
austere as that of Zeus and Athena, purer than that of Artemis, 
in nearly all the Greek communities, rules of chastity being 
sometimes imposed upon her priestess " ; that the only impure 
practices in this worship, of which we have any hint before 
the fourth century, were connected with the name of Aphrodite 
Ourania at Corinth, and that even in the later period, when 
the influence of the * hetaerae ' in the Greek cities had at last 
corrupted certain parts of the public religion, and impure 
titles seem to have become attached to the goddess with the 
sanction of the state, the cult of Pandemos is associated with 
none of these. 

In fact, it implies an ignorance of the earlier spirit of Greek 
worship, and a confusion of a religion which was mainly pure 
with a mythology that was often the reverse, to suppose that 
a pre-Solonian cult could have given a religious sanction 
to practices which endangered family life. The Corinthian 
worship being demonstrably Oriental is the exception which 
proves the rule. 

And the mistake made by the author of * Xenophon s * Sym-^ 
posium may be partly explained. His phrase 'tfvo-ioi p<^biovf>' 



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664 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

ycT€ff<u ' is, in any cage, obscure, and it is not easy to explain 
what a pure or impure * sacrifice ' would be. Possibly be may 
have been aware that at Athens fj^^oAia Upa, that is libations 
of n'ater and honey without wine, were offered to Aphrodite 
Ourania^^, and he may have supposed that such libations 
were ceremoniously purer and implied a purer idea, such, 
for instance, as was in the mind of Oedipus when he boasts 
that he comes to the Eumenides of Colonus as 'a man 
innocent of strong drink to goddesses who love not wine.' 
But it is certain that the use of wine, or water and honey in 
libations, did not originally rest on any moral distinction 
betii'een one worship and another*, although Theophrastus 
and others may have believed that the ny^dAia Upi were the 
more innocent and ancient rituaL Again, the writer may have 
had in his mind the immorality associated with the worship of 
the Eastern goddess in certain communities, and arbitrarily 
attached this to the cult of Pandemos in its vulgar sense ; even 
then ^t€vpy6T€pai BvaUu is still an inappropriate fdirase. 

In public worship the distinction did indeed exist in the 
later times between the goddess of honourable marriage and 
the goddess of free love, but it is not expressed by the titles 
just examined. 

In the minds of the people, and in most of Greek mytho- 
logy, no doubt Aphrodite was little more than the power 
that personified beauty and human love ; and this idea, which 
receives such glowing expression in the poetry^ is expressed 
also by a sufficient number of cult-titles, which are neither 
moral nor immoral, but refer merely to the power of love in 
life. The most interesting of these is Peitho, by which title 
Aphrodite was worshipped at Pharsalus* and in Lesbos ^^** 
as the goddess of Persuasion. It has been already suggested 

* Vide chapter on Zens-ritiial, pp. ^ The words with which the short 

88, 89. Vfj^AXM were offered to Zeos D a g mc ul of an Homeric hymn to 

Ttmpyot, Poseidon, the wind-gods ; at Aphrodite begin, give as almost the foil 

Athens to Mnemosyne, the Mnses, Eos, picture of the Homeric goddess, ' I will 

Helios, Selene, the Nymphs, and Aphro- sing of Cytherea of Cypms, who gires 

diteO^^aWia, toSosipoliSythedty-genins sweet gifts to men, and who wears 

of Elis (Pans. 6. 30, 2) ; sometimes a smile ever upon her lovely face and 

even to Dion3rsos. No one explanation brings the flower of loveliness.' 
itiits all these 



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XXI.] APHRODITE'WORSHIP. 665 

that at the creation of Pandora in the Hesiodic account 
Peitho takes the place of Aphrodite herself, and it is probable 
that she whom Sappho styled the * daughter and the golden- 
gleaming handmaiden ' of Aphrodite, had no original inde- 
pendent existence as a divinity, but grew up from a title of 
the latter goddess which became detached and personified. 

The statues of Peitho and Paregoros, a synonymous per- 
sonification, stood in the temple of Aphrodite ITpof is at Megara'* ; 
the temple-statue was of ivory and earlier than the Praxitelean 
period. As Ilpa^is might mean 'result' or 'success,' and 
Peitho and Paregoros are terms that help to explain it, we 
can interpret the temple-worship as that of the goddess who 
gives success in love. A similar term is Maxai/iTty, by which 
she was worshipped at Megalopolis as the goddess who con- 
trives ways and means for lovers ^ ^. 

The goddess who turns men*s hearts to love was also 
worshipped by the name 'EmaT/)o4>ia^^ as at Thebes the 
goddess *who turns hearts away*' was recognized under 
the reverse name of Aphrodite 'Airo(npo<t>la^. 

The contrast between the healing and destructive force of 
love in human lives may be that which is expressed by the 
two interesting titles ivbpo<l>6vos and aaxrivbpcu We are told 
by Plutarch and Athenaeus, who quotes from Polemon, that 
Aphrodite was called ivbpo<l>6vo9 or ivoirCa, the * slayer of men ' 
or the * unholy ' one, at Pharsalus^'^ and this is explained by 
the story that the famous courtesan Lais was murdered in the 
temple of Aphrodite by the Thessalian women who feared 
the effects of her beauty on the men of the country *. There 
may be some truth in the story, but the title is not likely to 
have arisen from this incident. If the word * Sosandra,* the 
saviour of men, which denoted a famous statue, evidently of 
some divinity, ascribed by Ludan to Calamis, were proved to 

* A writer in the Gazette Arch^ohgi- and does not correspond with the part 

que of 1880 interprets Awoarpotpia as usually played by Aphrodite in Greek 

the goddess who frees men from eril mythology; for instance, in the myth 

passions ; this special sense of the word of the daughters of Cinyras, Aphrodite 

rests merely on the popular sense given 'Emffrpo^ and 'Awocrpo^ are equi- 

to the word at Thebes in Pausanias' valent to Erot and Anteros. 
time: it is probably quite groundless 



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666 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

be really an epithet of Aphrodite as has beea c^ten sup- 
posed*, then this would be an exact counterpart to the 
Thessalian term, and we should have in these two the dual 
conception that appears in Plautus* description of Astarte. To 
this class belongs the epithets yiavhpayopin^^^^, designating 
the goddess who soothes or lulls to sleep, or gives the love- 
charm, and 'EAe^fUtfi/^, the name of the compassionate goddess 
of Cyprus. But Hesychius, who is our sole authority for these, 
does not say whether they are poetical or cult-terms. There 
is the same doubt about the title 'Automata,' by which, 
according to Servius **, the Ephesians designated Aphrodite 
as the source of spontaneous love. 

The worships in which she appears as a goddess of beauty 
merely are very rare. A probable instance is the Spartan cult 
of Aphrodite Mop<^«^^^», as it is difficult to interjM-et this word 
except as the 'shapely' one, the goddess of beautiful form^ 
and the veil which she wore on her head may mark the 
goddess of the bridaL The only other name of the same 
kind attached to Aphrodite is Boiwns^^', the goddess *of 
small ears,' by which, according to Hesychius, she was known 
at Syracuse, but whether in public cult or merely popular 
language he does not say. 

In Greek mythology, the goddess is not only the power 
that sends love, but is also herself the lover; and it is 

• Michaells, Arch, ZHt, 1864, p. 190. aU in literatnre before Ovid. Cnrtius 

It leems, however, more probable that in {Amrve Memorie deW Institut, pp. 374, 

Ludan's treatise (Elir^i^fy, c 6) it really 375) ingeniously explains the chains 

designates Hera; for in the next dia- round the feet, which Pausanias men- 

logne {nt^ tw (U6vcav, he writes as if tions, as nothing more than the common 

he had been making special reference to Phoenician ornament of the feet to whidi 

Hera in the EitcSt^ts ; but if she is not Isaiah refers, and he interprets Mofxpit 

Sosandra, she is scarcely mentioned at as alluding not to the beauty of her 

all. body but to her decorations ; but in any 

^ Gorres, in his SttidUn sur griech- case the epithet would designate the 

ischen Mythologies 2, p. 60, explains goddess whose chief concern was 

Mopfpw as a term of the Aphrodite of personal beauty. The common expla- 

the lower world who sends up dreams nation given of the chains is that they 

(jiop<pai)f but Aphrodite was never be- were pot round the statue, in accord- 

lieved to do this, and MofHf^vs whom he ance with the naive belief of very 

quotes as a parallel figure does not primitive times, to prevent it running 

belong to Greek religion nor appear at away. 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. eS^ 

probable that the Eastern stories of the goddess whose love 
was often dangerous to its objects appears in the legends of 
Hippodameia^^®*" and Phaedra, both of which names there is 
reason for attaching to Aphrodite. But in Greek religion 
this aspect of her is presented only by the titles ^lOvpos and 
UapoKiirrovaa^^^^^^y the one referring to the whispering voice, 
the other to the side-long glance. 

Although we have no proof of immorality being at any 
time a common characteristic of the worship of Aphrodite in 
the Greek states, but, in fact, strong evidence to the contrary, 
yet we have signs of a degeneracy that belongs probably to 
the later period. As the influence of the hetaerae spread in 
the social life, and the national pride sank, we hear of altars 
and temples dedicated under the name of Aphrodite to the 
mistresses and wives of the Epigoni and their favourites ^^^ 
The worship of Aphrodite Belestiche at Alexandria excited 
the indignation of Plutarch, and the blasphemous profligacy 
of Harpalus was the theme of a letter written by Theopompos 
to Alexander, in which he denounces Alexander's minister, 
who, 'despising the divine vengeance,* dared to erect altars 
and a shrine at Athens to Aphrodite UvOiovUri^^^^ 

To the same later period • may probably be ascribed those 
few worships in which the goddess was designated by some 
impure name, or by one that referred to the life of the 
courtesan ^^®. Some of them that Clemens and Hesychius 
record may have been merely popular epithets, and may have 
had no place at all in cult. But there is good evidence 
for the worship of Aphrodite USpvri at Abydos*^, and for that 
of Aphrodite 'Eralpa ^^ » at Athens and Ephesos, which some 
ancient apologists try to explain away as referring to the 
bonds of friendship between comrades, but must certainly 
designate the goddess of the courtesan-world. 

* It is not for nothing,* exclaims the comic poet Philetaerus, 
* that everywhere there are temples of Aphrodite the mistress, 
but nowhere shrines of Aphrodite the married goddess.* The 
first statement is an exaggeration, the second an untruth ; 

* The cult of Aphrodite Mtywins ^ ancient, and was probably derived fiom 
at Gythiom appears to have been more the Oriental worship of Cythera. 



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663 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

and it was probably his own age that was responsible for the 
base worship which he satirizes. 

We have, indeed, no direct evidence for fixing the date of 
the institution of these cults ; the writers who record them 
bdong to the Alexandrine period, and there is no epigra- 
phical testimony of their public importance. The only place 
where the hetaerae played any part in the ritual of the state 
was G>rinth, where ' irfienever the state prayed to Aphrodite 
on matters of great import, it took as large a number as 
possible of the hetaerae to aid in the prayer,' and individuals 
in private prayer often vowed to consecrate a certain number 
of these women to the divinity*^*. We hear of them as 
early as the Persian wars, when th^ put up public petition 
to Aphrodite for the cause of Hellas. But the recognition of 
such ' Hierodulae * in the state-religion of Corinth is unique in 
Greece, and may be ascribed directly to the influence of 
Phoenicia and the East. As regards the other cults of the 
class just examined, we have no reason for supposing that 
even in them there was anything impure in the ritual. 

A review of the religion of Aphrodite presents us, then, 
with a goddess who has less to do than most of the other 
Greek divinities with the arts of civilization* or the con- 
ceptions of advanced morality and law; we find her prominent 
in the public worship as controlling the life of the earth and 
the waters of the sea, and as ruling in the shadowy land of the 
dead; revered also as the goddess of physical beauty and 
love, though to this aspect of her Greek poetry paid more 
r^ard than Greek worship ; finally, we find her cult pure on 
the whole and austere, and satisfying certain moral and 
political aims by its connexion with marriage and the com- 
munity of the people. 

* An inscription of the Imperial the Homeric hymns pnys to the goddess 

period "• has been found in the theatre to inspire him and gire him victory, and 

at Athens containing the title 'A^^ the name of the legendary Cypriote 

Utti *Ey<v)f^os, which most refer to the king, ' Cinyras,' is derived from the 

dramatic performances. In C3rpnis there Phoenician word for a harp. Bat this 

were musical contests in honour of proves nothing as r^ards the general 

Aphrodite ; the singer whose short character of the Hellenic goddess, 
prelnde to Aphrodite is preserved among 



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XXI.] APHRODITE-WORSHIP. 669 

We can also observe that, for the greater part of this 
worship and for most of the ideas expressed in it, Greece 
has been indebted to the East. But though the religion of 
Greece was conservative of the tradition that it had received, 
merely purifying the cult from a few touches of Oriental gross- 
ness, Greek philosophy and poetry showed its constructive 
power in spiritualizing and transforming certain inherited 
ideas. The meaning of Ourania is changed and deepened, 
and the name personifies the power of love that is higher 
than sense, that inspires wisdom and the purest spirit of life. 
In that passage of Euripides ^^* ^ where the physical and 
spiritual powers of Aphrodite are strikingly combined, the 
goddess who *from the streams of the Cephissos breathes 
over the Attic land the tempered breath of fragrant breezes,' 
is also she who sends * the loves that are seated by the throne 
of wisdom, fellow-workers of all virtue.' By a natural 
development of ideas, the Oriental * Queen of the Heavens ' 
has led us up through Greek philosophy and poetry to the 
modern conception of * platonic affection.* 

Lastly the idea, that undoubtedly grew up on Eastern soil, 
of a goddess who personified the cosmic power of love in the 
world of animal and vegetative life, was transplanted to Greece, 
and received the deepest and most spiritual expression in the 
national poetry, and even acquired a certain philosophic sig- 
nificance as a pantheistic doctrine ®®". The noble fragment of 
the Danaides of Aeschylus ^^* » shows us the Aphrodite Ourania 
of the East conceived by the Greek imagination as the power 
that causes the love that is in heaven and earth, the love that 
works in the rain, and brings forth cattle and herbs for the use 
of man. The same idea with more mysticism and less poetry 
appears in the later Orphic literature ^^ ''» *^. 



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CHAPTER XXII. 

MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 

It has been shown that in the cult of Aphrodite, Greek 
religion was mainly conservative of Oriental ideas ; the ritual, 
the attributes, and most of the characteristics of the goddess 
are derived from the East. 

On the other hand, the comparison of the monuments of the 
two nations proves, perhaps more than any other archaeo- 
logical study, the freedom and the originality of the Hellene. 
*La d^esse de la f^condit^ sera devenue pour les contem- 
porains de Scopas et de Praxitele la d^esse de la beaut^ ».' 
It was the signal achievement of Greek art to have replaced 
the Oriental type, of which the forms were often gross and at 
best had little more than a merely hieratic meaning, with 
a type that became of significance for religion through its 
depth of spiritual expression, and of the highest importance 
for the history of art through its embodiment of the perfected 
forms of corporeal beauty. 

The debt of Greece in this worship to the art of the EUist, 
was only superficial ; yet the monuments of the Oriental cult 
are of very great importance in their bearing on the religious 
question discussed in the preceding chapter; for they 
strengthen the conclusion derived from other evidence that 
Aphrodite wais of Semitic birth. 

It is probable that in many localities of the Semitic 
worship, the earliest representations of Astarte were aniconic, 
for we find the conical stone as her symbol on the coins of 
Mallos, and its reference is often made clearer by the con- 
comitant type of the swan ^ As regards her representation at 

• Perrot et Chipiez, Histoire de t Art Antique, vol. 3, pp. 6a6, 627. 
^ Head, Hist. Num. p. 606. 



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MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 671 

Paphos, we are told by Tacitus •^ that her temple-image was 
not of human form, but simply a conical stone shaped like 
a Greek meta or goal-post. And on a coin of this city we 
see this emblem enclosed within temple-walls and pillars 
that show non-Hellenic forms of architecture », and we find it 
also on a slab from the temple of Tanit in Carthage ^ It is 
possible to trace the influence of this very primitive symbol of 
Astarte, in such representations as the statue of Aphrodite 
Urania in the * gardens' at Athens ^^ », which was only partly 
iconic, and in certain terracotta * alabastra * from Rhodes, of 
which the upper portion consists of the head and shoulders of 
the goddess, and the lower preserves the ordinary form of the 
vase. But neither of these crude types, nor that of the little 
wooden idols occasionally found in Cyprus *^, some of which 
are in Berlin and one at Dresden— thin pieces of wood with 
heady breast, and arms indicated— seem to have had any 
vogue in Greece proper. 

Looking at the Eastern monuments that present the 
goddess in complete human form, we notice two main 
types, the representation of the naked divinity, whose 
forms and pose express simply the idea of fecundity, and 
that of the fully-draped figure. The first is of very little 
importance for the earlier or later monuments of Greek 
religion^; originating at Babylon, and there representing the 
goddess Nana, it became prevalent in Cyprus, where it was 
afterwards slightly modified by Greek style, and it penetrated 
into the Mycenean kingdom at an early date*. But it was 
scarcely ever the theme of genuine Greek art in the archaic 
period ; and whether it has anything to do with the devdop- 

* Head, Hist, Num. p. 628. of the naked goddess, with her hands 

^ Gauite ArMologique, 1880, PI. 3; pressed on her breast, 

on a Carthaginian metal-band belong- * The Cypriote figure published in 

ing to the worship of Tanit we find Roscher, p. 407, may be compared with 

a cone with ontstretched arms attached ; the Babylonian idol of Nana or Astarte 

id, 1879, PI. ai. {id, p. 647) and the Mycenaean repre* 

« Roscher, p. 407, 1. 68. sentation on a gold plate of the goddess 

^ A typical instance is the terracotta with the dove on her head and with 

idol in the Lonvre published by Heuzey both hands pressing her breast (Schlie- 

{Les Antiques figurines de terre cuite mann, Mycenae, Figs. a67 and a68). 
dans U Mus4e du Louvre, PL a, no. 4), 



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672 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

ment of the type of the und raped Aphrodite of the later age 
is an open que^ion. The idea of representing the goddess of 
beauty and love as naked may have occurred quite naturally 
and spontaneously to the Greek artists of the fourth cen- 
tury, or the Eastern art may have suggested and excused 
this unusual freedom. The theory that would trace back 
the type of the Cnidian Aphrodite, the perfected ideal of the 
Greek goddess, to the rude Semitic form of Astarte with her 
hands across her body, has been rejected by MM. Perrot and 
Chipiez', who maintain that there is no Phoenician or any 
Semitic monument earlier than the Cnidian that resembles it 
at all, and those that resemble it are of later date and are 
merely copies of it in the style of Phoenician art. But this 
is not entirely true; the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford 
possesses a small bronze figure of the late Mycenaean age, 
found in a cave on the mountain in Crete, which the Lyttians 
called Mount Dicta, representing the Oriental goddess with 
her arms held across her body as the Medicean Venus holds 
hers^ It is true there are many missing links between this 
rude type and the Cnidian Aphrodite. But it is quite con- 
ceivable that Praxiteles may have been influenced by an 
ancient and vaguely remembered form of hieratic art. The 
Babylonian idols of Nana in the Louvre betray rather 
the influence of the later Greek style of the Alexandrine age 
upon the representations of Semitic divinities. One of the 
most striking of these has been published in the Gazette 
Archiologique^ an alabaster idol of Nana*', undraped but laden 
with ornaments, wearirg an Oriental head-dress surmounted 
with a crescent, and showing nothing of Hellenic character 
except in the naturalistic rendering of the flesh. It is probably 
intended to represent the Babylonian goddess in the semi- 
Hellenic form of Artemis Nanaea. 

More important in the archaic Greek art, and in those centres 
where Oriental influence was strongest, was the type of the 
draped female form, with one hand pressed against her breast 

• Histoire de FArt, 3. pp. 557- Mr. Arthur Evans, kindly called my 
559. attention to this work. 

^ The Keeper of the Ashmolean, • 1876, PI. 4. 



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Plate XLI 



To fact pag, 673 ^^^^^ ^^ GoOglc 



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Plate XLII 



To face page 673 

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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 673 

and often holding a dove, the other drawing her robe tightly 
across her lower limbs and holding it a little away from her 
side. We have proofs that this representation existed at 
Ephesus, at Dali and elsewhere in Cyprus, at Rhodes and 
Caminis* ; a slight modification of it is shown us in a terra- 
cotta figure from Corinth, of which both hands are held 
against the breast, with a dove in the right hand, an apple 
in the left (PI. XLI b). And in Etruscan art, we find a similar 
figure serving as a support to a candelabra, the left hand 
holding the skirt, the right uplifted^ and the feet resting on 
a tortoise ^ 

Now these representations are not the genuine products of 
the archaic art of Hellas, although the pose of the hand on the 
drapery reminds us often of the archaic figures found on 
the Acropolis of Athens. For we notice on many of them 
an Oriental style of head-dress, especially on the figures from 
Cyprus^, and we can discover what is probably the germ 
of this type in a sacred figure of early Babylonian art, fully 
draped, wearing a high coif or tiara, with the hands pressed on 
the breast^. It has been often regarded as doubtful whether 
these figures represent a divinity, or priestesses who by these 
offerings dedicated themselves to the temple they served ; the 
latter interpretation may sometimes be true, but it is quite 
certain that they often are actual idols of the goddess, and it 
is probable that this was their primary meaning, for in the 
figures of Semitic, as of Greek art, the divine type was 
probably fashioned earlier than the human. And many of 
these statuettes betray their divine character by many infal- 
lible signs ; some of those for instance from Dali, now in the 
British Museum, that bear the dove as an emblem, wear also 
the diadem on their heads ; nor can we suppose that any other 

* In Marseilles marble torso, PI. goddess wears a calathus and veil, but 

XLI c ; terracotta from Rhodes, PI. both hands are oatstietched. Coin PL 

XLI a ; from Ephesus, marble statuette a. 49. 

in British Museum ; from Dali, ride ^ A bronze in Berlin, Gerhard, Cisam- 

limestone figures in the British Museum. melU Abhandlungen, Taf. 29. 3. 

On coins of Aphrodisias an ancient cult- ''Vide Cypriote figure in Lajard, 

form of an Aphrodite idol is preserved Culte di Vhms en OrUnt^ PI. ao. 1 . 

of a somewhat different type ; the ^ Roscher, p. 647, Fig. a. 

VOL. II. S 



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674 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

divinity was originally meant than the Eastern goddess, as the 
dove and the apple are her fitting emblems ; and the tortoise, 
which we see under the feet of the Etruscan figure, and which 
Pheidias carved under the feet of his Aphrodite Urania at 
Elis — probably without much significance, but simply as 
a traditional emblem — belongs to Astarte Aphrodite alone '. 
An Attic tetradrachm of the fourth century (?) shows a female 
figure, wrapped in a long garment, carrying a bird and 
wearing a modius on her head, which Beul^ ^ interprets as 
Aphrodite and refers to the semi-Oriental Cnidian worship 
introduced into Attica by Conon ®. 

We need not suppose that the type of the draped Eastern 
goddess was absolutely uniform ^ ; it is enough if the wide 
prevalence of this special type, which has been briefly ex- 
amined, shows that the monuments of the Eastern cult were 
before the eyes and the imagination of the Greek artist when 
he carved the earliest idols of his Aphrodite. It was possibly 
he who first gave more life and delicacy to the rigid and rude 
Oriental idol by the motive of the hand that draws the 
drapery across and slightly away from the body, a motive 
which in the later Hellenic period becomes expressive of 
feminine grace in general, and of Aphrodite's in particular. 

Apart from the artistic types, the symbols that appear on 
the monuments, such as the sacred animals and the inanimate 
objects consecrated to her, give still stronger support to the 
theory that this worship travelled to Greece from Semitic 
lands. The dove, for instance, her most common emblem, 
denoting probably the goddess of spring, appears in the repre- 
sentation of her temple at Paphos above the side-pillars on 

• The animal probably alludes to the « Professor Gardner believes this 

water-goddess; but it must have been personage to be Isis; Num, Com, Fdus, 

a rare symbol. It has been found p. 138. 

carved on a limestone slab consecrated ^ The terracotta figures of the goddess 

to Aphrodite in the neighbourhood of Cyprus show much variety, and Pot- 

of Paphos ; vide Journal of HeUenu tier, who has examined them in the Bull. 

Studies^ 1888, p. 253. The tortoise on de Corr. HelL 1879, P- 92» considers 

the coins of Aegina may refer to the that we have not yet discovered the 

local worship of the maritime Aphro- canonical type of the Aphrodite Astarte 

dite ; Gardner, Num. Com, Pans. p. 45. of this island. Perhaps there never was 

^ MonnoUs tPAihhus, p. 227. one. 



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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 675 

the roof* ; a miniature Aphrodite temple, probably an import 
from Cyprus, has been found at Mycenae ** ; also a figure of 
the naked type, already mentioned, who is generally and with 
great probability interpreted as Astarte, and who is pressing 
the dove against her breast ^ the holy bird in the ritual of 
Hierapolis and in the sacred legend of Semiramis ^. 

In the legend told by Hyginus, the ^g that fell from 
heaven was hatched by the dove, and from this Aphrodite 
and apparently the divinities of Syria were bom •. The egg 
became an emblem of the Semitic goddess ',*but never was in 
Greece a recognized symbol of Aphrodite ; but this Oriental 
fable about the birth of the goddess from the egg plays its 
part, not only in the wide-spread myth of Helen's birth from 
Nemesis or Leda, but also in the Laconian worship, as 
Pausanias speaks of the sacred egg in the temple of Hilaeira 
and Phoebe, at Sparta ^ ; and Helen is probably one of the 
many * doubles' of Aphrodite ^ The iynx, the wrynecked 
bird, that was used as a love-charm, and appears in many 
vase-representations where Aphrodite is found, appears also 
on some Assyrian reliefs that Lajard has published*. And 
most of the animals known to have been consecrated to the 
goddess in Hellenic ritual were sacred symbols in the Oriental 
art that was dedicated to this worship. The goat is seen on 
certain Chaldean cylinders by the side of the Semitic gpddess ^; 
the sacred character of the ram in the Eastern ritual explains 
probably the strange design on the Cypriote coins of Marium 
or Amathus of a naked goddess clinging to the fleece of 
a running ram, who is almost certainly Aphrodite ^ The 

• Head, Hist Num, p. 628. » Paus. 3. 16, i. 

*> Schliemann, Mycenae^ p. 423. "» She was worshipped, for instance, 

^ Id. pp. 367, 268. in Rhodes as a deitj of vegetation like 

' For the significance of the dove in Aphrodite, and appears like the latter 

the Oriental and Greek religion, vide in the l^end of Theseus; in certain 

Perrot and Chipiez, Histoirt de PArt, localities Helen may also have been 

vol. 3, p. 200, n. 2. worshipped as a divinity of the sea, 

• Hyg./ii^. i97;cf.Amob.^^.t7^»/. vavrtKois a^n^ptos as Enripides calls 
I. 36 * Ovomm progenies Dii Syrii.* her, Orestes ^ 1637. 

' Vide the ornamentation on the » Cuite de V^nus, Planche 17. 
silver band fonnd near Batna ; Gazette ^ lb. PL 4. i a. 
Archiol 1880, p. 33. > Head, HUt, Num. p. 623. 

S % 



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676 GREEK RELIGION. [chap, 

fashion of representing divinities riding on their sacrificial 
animals has been already mentioned *, as explaining the form 
of Artemis Tauropolos and the Cretan myth of Europa on 
the bull. The bull-riding goddess was probably a genuinely 
Hellenic type ; but it was found also in Oriental art, as it was 
used as a device on the coins of Sidon that must have referred, 
not to the Cretan myth, but to the Oriental cult. Hence 
also we can explain the design on a coin of Citium struck 
about 400 B. c, of a goddess riding on a running bull, whom 
it is more reasonable to name Astarte Aphrodite than Europa \ 
The ritualistic importance of the bull in the Astarte-worship 
was probably the cause which led to that strange representa- 
tion of the goddess of which Philo Byblius speaks® : * Astarte 
placed upon her head the badge of roj^lty, the head of the 
bull'; and on a Cilician coin of the later Imperial period 
we see the bull-headed Astarte holding a rudder, the sign of 
her maritime power ^. 

It is probable that the horse also was a symbol of the 
Eastern goddess*; for the horse's head was a coin-device 
of Carthage, and belongs to the legend of the foundation of 
the city by Dido. Hence may have been derived the cult and 
title of Aphrodite ''E<^4iriro9, mentioned in the preceding chapter, 
as 'Eirirpoyta was derived from the sacred character of the goat 
in her ritual. 

As regards the monuments of the special Greek cults, we 
need not believe that there was always a cult-image and type 
appropriate to the special aspect of Aphrodite, and to the 
special appellative by which she was known and worshipped 
in this or that locality ; and it is often impossible to decide 
what the distinctive character of the image was. For literary 
evidence fails us in many cases, and among the many monu- 
ments that have come down to us there are comparatively few 
to which we can give with certainty the fitting name, and which 
we can attach to a particular cult. And though the statues 

* P. 450. whether this is a syncretism of Astarte 

^ Head, p. 62a. and the cow-headed Isis. 

« Vide p. 632. • Vide Robertson Smith, Religion of 

«> Lajaid, PI. 3. i. One might doubt the SemiieSf p. 458. 



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Jcxii.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 6^^ 

and other representations of Aphrodite are most numerous, yet 
most of them have in all probability no religious reference at 
all, being designed not for any temple or worship, but for 
decorative purposes and private luxury. It is nevertheless 
true that most of the ideas in the Aphrodite-worship that are 
preserved in the literature can be illustrated by the symbols 
and forms of art 

The first question will be whether we have any monuments 
that present us with the Ourania Aphrodite of Greek religion ; 
for this was probably her earliest title among the Hellenic 
communities. In so far as the term merely denoted the 
goddess of the East> whose power was omnipresent in the 
world, most of the ancient representations were those of 
Ourania ; for most of them in symbol or in type attested her 
Oriental origin. But those which ancient writers expressly 
designate by this name have not survived even in copies, so 
far at least as we can pronounce with certainty. The ancient 
Ourania of Corinth, for instance^ can scarcely be the armed 
goddess on the coins of that dty^ mentioned below, but 
might be represented by the other coin-device of the goddess 
holding out the apple in her right hand and grasping the edge 
of her garment in the left^ We hear of her worship at 
Megalopolis and of that of Pandemos also ; on a coin of this 
city we see the naked Aphrodite with her hands held across 
her body as the Medicean holds hers, and a dolphin at her 
left side : the latter emblem speaks rather of the maritime 
goddess of the East, but the nudity and the attitude express 
the ideas that came to be attached to the term Pandemos «. 

The worship at Eryx had, as has been noted, many links 
of connexion with the Semitic religion ; and the temple-statue 
would represent Aphrodite Ourania ; possibly the coin of 
Eryx struck towards the end of the fifth century, and showing 
the seated goddess holding the dove with Eros standing before 
her, presents the form with which this worship invested her 
(Coin PL B 40). We have also an undoubted monument of 
Ourania in the device on the coins of Ouranopolis (Coin 

• Niim, Com, Faus, p. 16. * Id. FF. 7 : cf. D. 7a 

« Id. VI. V. 8. 



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678 GREEK RELIGION, [chaf. 

PI. B 41), the city founded by the brother of Cassander on 
the peninsula of Acte and named after the ancient title of the 
goddess ; the British Museum Catalogue*' gives this description 
of the type, ' Aphrodite Urania clad in long chiton and peplos 
fastened on right shoulder seated, facing, on globe : on her 
head a spike surmounted by a star : she holds in right hand 
long sceptre ending above in circle (of the universe ?), from 
which hang two fillets; in field left a pyramidical object 
surmounted by a star.' On the reverse is a sun with rays. 
We have here then an undoubted representation of the goddess, 
and symbols that prove the term Ourania to have been 
interpreted at that time and in that city — not indeed in the 
spiritual Platonic sense — but as a mystical term denoting 
the cosmic power that ruled the sun, stars, and earth. But 
the monument scarcely illustrates any genuine and early 
idea of Greek religion ; it is interesting chiefly as showing 
the habit of the Alexandrine age, caught from the contact 
with the East, of giving to native and foreign divinities 
a solar and astral character. On a few Assyrian monuments 
the star is seen and was perhaps occasionally a symbol of the 
Semitic goddess, and the rays around the head of an Etruscan 
bronze statuette of Aphrodite express the same idea\ But 
Etruscan art sometimes misinterpreted divinities as powers 
of light ; and we have seen that in the Hellenic worship 
neither solar, lunar, nor astral character belonged to the 
goddess, nor can any such aspect of her be clearly recognized 
in the genuine Semitic worship. 

The only other monument which external evidence helps us 
to name is a statue in Madrid ^ representing the goddess with 
veil and diadem-shaped modius, with both hands on her 
breast, and inscribed OvpavCav BovkSKos. Even if the inscrip- 
tion is of doubtful authenticity, the title probably names 
her rightly, for as regards the pose the statue recalls the 
ancient Semitic type, and the head-dress marks the imperial 
divinity. 

* Macedon, p. 155. « Hubner, DU antiken Bildwerke^ 

^ Gerhard, Akademiscke Abhand- p. 55a. 
lungen, Tail 31. 5. 



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xxii.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 679 

It appears, then, that if we leave out of sight the later 
representations that have nothing to do with public worship, 
the external evidence of inscriptions or literary record by 
which we can recognize the Ourania of Greek religion is very 
slight indeed. 

Even the statement in Pausanias about the Pheidian statue 
called Ourania in the temple at Elis is of no more value than 
the statement which accompanies it, that Scopas* statue which 
stood in the enclosure outside represented Pandemos; we 
cannot gather from this that these images were so designated 
at the time of their dedication, as it is clear from Pausanias 
own words that there was no epigraphical proof. 

We have to look then to internal evidence, and especially 
to the symbols. From the review that has been taken of 
the character of the Eastern goddess and of those attributes 
of her which impressed the early Greeks, we might say that, 
when the representations express something more than the 
goddess of merely human love and desire, when the symbols 
allude to her general physical power in the world, or when 
she appears as the armed divinity that guards the city or 
wearing a mural crown, we have the Greek conception of 
the ancient high-placed goddess of the East to whom human 
love was no more than the power which works in the birth 
and increase of animals and plants. And we must look to 
the whole representation, not to one special detail ; for many 
of the symbols, derived as most of them were from the East, 
had become purely conventional, and might be attached to 
Aphrodite in any character; and no single one of them, 
except perhaps the tortoise, is a clear token of Ourania. 

We may give this name to the seated figure, the most 
striking representation of her in the archaic period, which 
Canachus carved of gold and ivory for that temple in Sicyon 
which only the priestess and her attendant maiden were 
allowed to enter ^®. The ritual in one detail at least points to 
the East ; the pig was a sacred animal in the Sicyonic cult, too 
sacred to be offered"*® ; and we are reminded of the Semitic 
goddess by the symbols which Canachus attached to his temple- 
image. The * polos' on her head was the badge of the * queen of 



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68o GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

the heavens ' ; the apple in her hand referred to the processes 
of life, the power of fertility in the world of plants and animals 
that was her prerogative • ; the poppy in her other hand may 
have been a symbol of ^A<f>pobiTri MfwbpayoplTis^ the goddess 
who lulls the senses and gives sweet sleep^ and may be 
supposed to convey also an allusion to the lower world, in 
which as we have seen both the Eastern and Hellenic goddess 
had her part \ 

It would seem natural that the ancient goddess of earth 
and heaven, Ourania or * Olympia,' should be represented on 
her throne, and the enthroned goddess was certainly a pre- 
valent form on Semitic monuments. She may be represented 
on the relief of late archaic style in the Villa Albani on which 
we see a seated female figure in solemn pose and drapery, 
with a hare carved beneath her throne ; the hands and head- 
dress are restored^ but the hare makes it probable that this is 
Aphrodite®; and thb reference to her power in the animal 
world, together with the solemnity of the whole representation, 
gives us some right to style this figure also Aphrodite Ourania 
(PL XLId). 

With still more right may we apply the term to a most 
interesting representation of the goddess on a terracotta relief 
from Aegina, in private possession at Naples, on which she 
appears drawn in a chariot by griffins, bearing a young roe 
in her hands, or rather wearing it as an embroidered badge 
on her drapery, and with Eros by her side as charioteer 

• Bernoulli's perplexity in finding the tions one or two mere genre-represen- 

right name for the statue of Canachus tations). With the Albani relief we 

{^Aphrodite! p. 6i) arises from the error may compare the type on coins of 

which runs all through his book in his Nagidos in Cilicia of the latter part 

interpretation of the terms Ourania and of the fourth century, Head, p. 609, 

Pandemos. * Aphrodite seated holding patera, 

^ We find poppy-stalks in the hand crowned by flying Eros.* She is half- 

of Demeter in some of her representa- draped, but probably Ourania ; the 

tions ; possibly they may have been animal faintly drawn under the throne 

merely a symbol of fertility owing to is, perhaps, a hare or a rabbit ; on <»e 

the number of the seeds. of these cdns of Nagidos the goddess 

^ The only other divinities with whom wears the calathos and a flower, and 

the hare was occasionally connected fruit that lodes like the pomegranate is 

were Dionysos and Pan (vide Stephani, one of the symbols. 
Compte-Renduj 1862, p. 62, who men- 



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xxn.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 68i 

(Pi. XLII a). The work is of all the more value as it 
belongs to the earlier part of the fifth century when the 
original significance of the goddess was more clearly felt. 
Once more she appears as the power that rules the animal 
world, and what is of special interest here is that the griffin 
and the roe are animals that are characteristic of the Oriental 
goddess*. Perhaps Eros himself in this scene is more than 
the personification of human love, and has the character of 
a physical or elemental power which belonged to him in the 
worship at Thespiae. 

The most important temple-image to which antiquity 
attached the name Ourania was the statue of gold and ivory 
carved by Pheidias, probably in his later period, for the 
shrine of Aphrodite in Olympia. We have no monumental 
illustration of it at all; and Pausanias' account is very 
meagre. We gather that the goddess was draped and 
standing with one foot on a tortoise. We may conclude at 
once that, though there is no trustworthy external evidence 
for the title, the Eleans were right in giving the name 
'Ourania' to the statue. The tortoise was an Oriental 
symbol of the goddess, alluding perhaps to the firmanlent 
or the waters: it certainly could not have referred, as 
Plutarch supposes, to the housekeeping life of the married 
woman. The Parthenon sculptures, among which we have 
probably more than one representation of Aphrodite, teach 
us much concerning the forms and expression with which 
the Pheidian school conceived and represented the goddess. 
We may be sure that the temple-image at Elis displayed 
the grandeur of style, the dignity and solemn grace, the 
spiritual quality that belonged to the religious monuments 
of Pheidias' hand. It is even not unlikely that its ideal 
character and its celebrity assisted the acceptance in the 
following generation of the false interpretation put by Plato 

* There are two terracotta representa- a polos adorned with antheminm and 

tions in the British Museum, brought holding a £awn ; the other a representa- 

from Cyprus, showing the goddess with tioo of the seated divinity, holding a 

the fawn, one in the style of the later patera in her right hand and a £eiwn in 

part of the fifth century (PI. XLII b), her left, probably a work of the fourth 

an erect figure of the goddess wearing century. 



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683 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

on the terms Ourania and Fandemos; since the Pheidian 
work, an austere impersonation of a great elemental power, 
would contrast strikingly with the later emotional and some- 
times sensuous representations of a goddess of human love 
and passion. But it is wholly wrong to suppose that Pheidias 
wished to give any expression to the distinction between 
spiritual and physical love ; which is found in Plato and the 
epigrammatists, but not in any genuine Greek cult. The 
religion of the Greek states showed itself conscious enough of 
the nobler and baser, the broader and narrower, conception 
of the love-goddess ; but never gave any recognition to the 
idea of a love that was beyond sense and transcended the 
physical world. Nor again ought we to say that the Pheidian 
masterpiece intentionally rendered the higher and purer aspect 
of the divinity, so as to contrast with lower and more impure 
types of her. For, so far as we know, these latter were not 
dealt with by the Pheidian or any contemporary school, nor, 
as we have seen, is it certain that any cult-title of impure 
significance came into vogue as early as the fifth century. 
We may even say that if there had been an Aphrodite 
Pandemos, to whose worship that lower sense attached which 
was never attached to it by the state, and if Pheidias had 
been commissioned to carve her image, the face at least would 
have displayed the same earnestness and * decor ' as without 
doubt were present in the Olympian statue. For these were 
a necessary part of the Pheidian expression of divinity: to 
carve upon the features the look of troubled passion and 
sense-desire was the gift of later art. We may believe then 
that his chryselephantine statue in the temple of Olympia 
was a real representation of Ourania, partly because through 
a certain symbol it was connected with the East ; and for the 
more important reason that it probably embodied the idea 
which was drawn from the East, but had been given a pro- 
founder meaning in the poetry of Aeschylus, of the goddess 
of a physical creative power that worked in heaven and earth 
and the life of man. And thus this image might be said to 
contrast with the Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles, not as 
being purer or more spiritual, but simply as belonging to 



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xxiu] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 683 

a worship of broader significance. The Cnidian statue might 
also be technically called Ourania, because of its allusion to 
the maritime origin of the goddess. But in regard to its 
forms and expression the term would be out of place; for 
the Praxitelean work was not the impersonation of the 
elemental power of Eastern worship, but of the Hellenic ideal 
of human love and human beauty. 

In its application to later monuments, we cannot be sure 
that the title Ourania retained its early and historical sense ; 
it seems that when a Greek of the Alexandrine and later 
period saw a statue of the draped goddess with an austere 
expression he might give it this name, and with still less 
historical correctness might call a statue of the opposite 
character Pandemos. But we do not know that the state- 
cults or their monuments were affected by this unhistorical 
use of the terms- Looking at the well-attested public repre- 
sentations we may say that the Ourania of Greek religious 
worship was portrayed as a draped goddess sometimes seated 
on a throne and sometimes standing ; and her ancient and 
wider character was expressed by means of symbols, such as 
animals and flowers that seemed to be most full of her pro- 
creative force. It is not easy to say that there is any special 
arrangement of drapery that is characteristic; we might 
conclude from Lucian's remark •• • that the girdle was usually 
shown ; but the monuments do not confirm this : some have 
supposed that the mantle arranged crescent-wise round her 
head, or raised up in her hand, and drawn over her shoulder, 
is significant of Ourania; but the former is natural to the 
goddess when riding, the latter is only an instinctive move- 
ment of modesty, and a common motive in art*. The 
Herme-form may have also been peculiar to her type ; and 
when we find an Aphrodite of younger form leaning on 
a herme of the goddess, we may regard the latter as an 
image of Ourania \ The Venus of Pompeii in the museum 

* Aristaen. 1. 15 ttjs Afjartx^rqs Sucpois Thes^kie,Num. Comm, Paus, PI. X. 19. 

ZoKT^Xoii i<pawTo/iivii rStv Kpoaawr. Benndorf tind Schone, Monumints of 

** Sec Gerhard, De Ventre Proser- LcUeran, PI. 13. a. 
pinCf PI. 7-1 a, and compare a coin of 



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€84 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

of Naples (PI. XLIII a) is leaning on a statuette of archaic 
form of a goddess in a sea-green chiton and saffron mantle, 
who is wearing a modius on her head and holding a flower 
to her breast, and whom we may call Ourania •. 

The Eastern goddess, whose power was pre-eminent in the 
animal world, was sometimes represented by the Greek 
artist riding upon her favourite animals, the goat, the ram, 
and the swan. Of these the last type had nothing, as far as 
we know, to do with public cult ^ ; the most important from 
this point of view was that of Aphrodite 'Eirir/joyfo, the 
* rider on the goat,* a type that has been much misinter- 
preted both in ancient and modem times. The most famous 
instance of it was the bronze statue carved by Scopas and 
set up in the precincts of the temple at £lis which con- 
tained the Ourania of Pheidias. As r^ards the forms and 
expression we are told nothing, but from certain surviving 
monuments and from Pliny's statement that another statue 
by Scopas was the earliest representation of the naked 
Aphrodite, we can conclude with certainty that the 'Eirirpayfa 
was draped ^ The Eleans in the time of Pausanias, and 
perhaps earlier, called it Pandemos, giving no doubt to this 
title its lower and fictitious sense : for the false interpretation 
had become prevalent after the fourth century, and the goat 
was considered an immoral animal. But it is probable that 
in the time of Scopas the term Pandemos still retained its 
political and proper meaning, and, as the goddess was draped, 
and as the ancient accounts of Scopas* work and the monu- 

* The triple henne with the 'Medi- literary evidence of a rdigiomconnexioa 

cean * figure of Aphrodite below, pub- between the bird and the goddess ; vide 

lished by Gerhard, Akad. Abhandl, 31. Eph, Arch, 1893, Ub^. 15, mirror from 

5, is of doubtful significance. Eretria with a yery beautiful representa- 

^ Vide Kalkmann, Aphrodite auf dem tion of Aphrodite riding on a swan, and 

Schwan, Jahrbuch des detttschin Instu holding a patera before its beak. 
tutSt I, p. 231. The swan may have ^ There are two Elean coins which 

appeared in actual cult-monuments of present to us in £unt outlines the statue 

Aphrodite as a subordinate s3anbol of Scopas (Coin PI. B 4a). On both we 

represented at her side, as in the monu- see the fully draped goddess, with a large 

ment mentioned in the chapter on veil waving about her head, seated 00 

Nemesis (p. 498) ; but Kalkmann seems the back of a goat that is galloping to 

right in maintaining that we have no the right 



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Plate XLIII 
a 



To fau page 684 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 685 

ments that survive of his hand and style make it impossible 
to imagine that there was any sensual expression in her face, 
the traditional theory about this work and its traditional 
name are probably wrong. It is more likely that its original 
and proper name was 'Eirirpayfa, an ancient cult-title of the 
Aphrodite-worship, and that it had no reference to the 
immoralities of city-life. The original meaning of 'Emrpayia 
and the symbolism supposed to attach to this type have 
been much debated; one writer regarding the goat as the 
symbol of vice ■, another as the sign of the starry heavens. 
But facts of ritual are usually of more value than theories 
about symbolism. The goat was a sacred animal in the 
Semitic worship of the goddess, being carved on her monu- 
ments and offered in sacrifice ^ and may even have been some- . 
times regarded as the goddess herself, her close association 
with the goat being one of the many signs of her power over 
the animal world. Aphrodite riding on the goat is therefore 
merely a hieratic or ritualistic motive, and the monuments 
help to show, what was partly proved by the legends about 
the cult of 'Eirtrpay^a on the Attic coast, that this is a special 
representation of Ourania Aphrodite. Also, none of the 
representations contain any allusion at all to the goddess of 
sensual desire, but some of them express clearly enough the 
traits of the celestial Eastern divinity. One of the earliest 
representations that may be quoted is an archaic Cypriote 
work published by Lajard®: but the most interesting is 
perhaps that which he published in the Archaeologische 
Zeitung of 1854^; on an oinochoe of fine style we see the 
goddess riding on the goat, clad in a star-embroidered peplos, 
and playing on the lyre (PI. XLIII b). The stars may be 

* E.g. the author of a strange article chins, and the Cretan story of the goat 

in Xhejahrbuih des deutschen InsHhUs^ that noorished Zeus : and there may be 

1889, P* ^^! ^^<> gi^^ to Aphrodite an obscure aUnsion to the identity of 

'Evir^oTla the entirely improved signifi- the goddess and her animal in the story 

cance of ' eine Gottin der nnfrnchtbaren of Theseus' sacrifice on the shores of 

Liebe.* Attica "»>. 

*» The sacred character of the animal « Lajard, Culte de VMus, PI. ai, I. 
in her ritual might explain the mys- ' PI. 71, with account given of it in 

terions a2£ oiipavia, mentioned by Hesy- 1855, p. 263. 



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686 GREEK RELIGION. [chap, 

a merely conventional ornament, and the lyre may indicate 
Aphrodite MoXiradfos* if from the legend of the Carian 
maidens we can conclude that she was somewhere known 
by this title. Lajard indeed would read a deep cosmic 
meaning in the attribute of the lyre and the device of the 
stars ; but whether he is right or not, the austere solemnity 
of the whole representation excludes the idea of any sensual 
allusion in 'Emrpayia. Another representation of the same 
type on a terracotta medallion published by Grerhard pro- 
duces the same impression ; the goddess is here fully draped 
and has rather a sombre appearance, which suggests to 
Gerhard the theory that the Aphrodite on the goat is partly 
a divinity of death and the lower world ; we might thus explain 
the presence of Hermes in a similar representation on a vase 
in Berlin ^ where Aphrodite appears riding on the goat, her 
upper body undraped but a mantle drawn over her head, in 
company with Hermes and Eros ; but this is not sufficient 
evidence to show that Aphrodite ^Eirvrpayla had in herself any 
real chthonian character. 

The Oriental colour of the Aphrodite worship in Lace- 
daemon has been noticed, and at least one monument of the 
type under discussion comes from Laconian territory : namely, 
a marble relief showing Aphrodite on the goat, clad in a high- 
girdled under-garment and an upper garment that passes 
over her shoulders and legs, and holding a large veil 
crescent-wise about her head, with two small Loves arrang- 
ing the ends of the veil ®. 

A similar representation, having probably the same origin 
in ritual, is that of Aphrodite borne by the ram. An unique 
instance is the Cypriote coin-device noticed above ^ the 
goddess clinging to the fleece. In the other instances that 
have been collected, the goddess sits in the usual position on 
the back of the animal. A late, but interesting, illustration 

• Vide Artemis ***, and p. 646. Kertsch, representing Aphrodite riding 

^ Fart wjingler, Beschreibung der Va- on the goat with Eros and dove accom- 

sensammlung im Aniiquarium, 26^$. panyingher; ComptC'Rendu^ 1859, PI. 

« Mitt, d, deutschen Inst, a. p. 420. 4, i. 

Cf. the small terracotta of rather coarse * P. 675. 

style fomid in the neighbourhood of 



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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE, 687 

of this •, with a sufficiently dear allusion to Aphrodite Ourania, 
is given us on a bronze patera of perhaps the second century 
A. D., showing us the goddess half-clad in a peplos that leaves 
the upper part of her body bare, riding on a ram, and holding 
a mirror in her hand, and accompanied by her dove ; behind 
her are seven stars, doubtless the Pleiades. 

We have seen reason to suppose, on the evidence of a scholiast 
and a late Byzantine writer, that a type existed of Aphrodite 
''E<^t7r7ros, the goddess on horseback, which would be similar in 
idea to the last two that have been examined. But the 
interpretation of the monuments that have been quoted in 
illustration of this is very doubtful. A curious bronze * exists 
in Paris, found in * the grave of Achilles ' in the Troad, repre- 
senting a goddess in a chiton of unusual shape and a peplos, 
holding the edge of her drapery in her left hand, and resting 
her right arm against her breast ; she wears a strange Egyptian 
head-dress flanked by two sphinxes and topped by a lion ; 
and she stands on a small pedestal which rests on the back of 
two horses, each bearing a rider also. The chief interest of 
this enigmatical monument is its combination of a type 
of Aphrodite with some of the symbols of Cybele ; also that 
it comes from a locality that gave birth to the cult of 
Aphrodite Aeneas, with which the type of *'E<^i7nros was closely 
associated. 

Much evidence has been given of the maritime character 
of Aphrodite, which, though perhaps not originally belonging 
to her, she brought with her from the East. The monumental 
evidence of this is even clearer than the literary ; but the 
representations of the goddess under this respect that can be 
closely associated with any public cult are not very many. 
We find her figure or her head on the coins of some of the 
cities where she was worshipped as a sea-goddess, Aegfium ®, 
Naucratis ^, and Cnidus for example ; and we may connect 

• Jahrbuch dts deuischen Instituts, her feet ; Gardner, Num. Comm, Potts, 

1890 (Anzeigcr), pp. 27-29. R. 23. 
^ Arch. Ziit. 1862, Ta£ 166. 4. * Naucratis : coin of Ptolemy Soter : 

« Aegiam : coin-device of Aphrodite Head, Hist. Num. 718, head of Aphro- 

arranging her tresses with dolphin at dite with ear-rings and necklace. 



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688 GREEK RELIGION, [chap, 

these with the public worship and with the cult-image in her 
temples in these places. Two of them bear express allusion to 
the sea, a ship's prow appearing on the Cnidian coin (Coin 
PI. B 44) behind the head of the goddess, and the coin of 
Aegium presenting a device that must be associated with 
a type of Aphrodite ^Avaivofiimi or 'A^poy«i^s, and of which 
there was some celebrated representation in sculpture* 
The lines of Ovid, 

'Cmn fieret Upis asper, mine nobile signum, 
Nnda Venus madidas exprimit imbre comas V 

refer to a marble statue of which the main motive survives on 
the last-mentioned coin, on one of Methana\ and on a Bithynian 
coin ®. How far this is related to the famous Anadyomenc 
of Apelles need not be discussed here ; for the exact motive 
of that work is doubtful, and there is no proof that it was 
painted for any state-worship **. 

An interesting type of the maritime Aphrodite is preserved 
on the Leucadian coin mentioned above* (Coin PL B 45), if 
Curtius* interpretation is correct ; and on the whole the name 
of Aphrodite Aeneas seems to suit the figure better than that 
of Artemis, which is given it in the British Museum Catalogue \ 
for the fawn at her side, the common symbol of Artemis, may 
also belong to Aphrodite, to whom the aplustre held in the 
hand, and the bird, which looks like a dove on the top of the 
column behind, are more appropriate ^ On some specimens 
a very much larger bird, a swan or a goose, appears behind 
her, and both are symbols of Aphrodite rather than Artemis. 

Among the larger plastic monuments of some religious 
importance, that represent her as goddess of the sea, the 
group in the western gable of the Parthenon, preserved only in 

• Ars Amat. 3. aaj. The type pcne- Cos ; the colt-relations between Aphro- 

trated to Carthage, for it is found on dite and Asdepios were very slight 

a Carthaginian metal-band; Gai, Arch, • P. 641. 

1879, PI. 31. 'On another coin of Lencas we have 

■> Head, ffist, Num, p. 370 ; c£ an undoubted head of Aphrodite with 

Mionnet, SuJ>p, 5. p. 327, no. 134a. ttephane and long hair, large full 

« Catalogui cf Grak Coins, Pontus, features and a half smile ; Cat, Gruk 

p. 194. Coins, 38. 5. 

' It was kept in the Asdepieion at 



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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 689 

Carrey's drawing, is of great interest. If Carrey's eyes did 
not deceive him, and if the naked figure seated on the lap of 
the elder goddess was really female, then she could have been 
none other than Aphrodite supported by her mother Thalassa; 
and this group was probably copied for the relief-work that 
adorned the base of Poseidon's chariot in his temple at Corinth •. 
It has been supposed that this remarkable representation was 
suggested by some Attic cult such as that of Aphrodite Colias, 
but the motive of the supported and supporting figures would 
not be appropriate for the central statue of a temple. 

The pre-eminent monument of the maritime goddess was 
the Cnidian statue by Praxiteles, which is known to us 
through Cnidian coinage and some surviving statues that 
are copies of it, and also through a very full literary record. 
A detailed account of it will be given below; it is only 
mentioned here because it was probably designed for the 
temple-worship of Aphrodite EwXota. It is true that certain 
archaeologists maintain that it was wrought simply as a work 
of art and not for public worship ** ; but there appears to be 
more reason for Welcker s '^ view that Praxiteles' work b the 
third and last in that series of statues which were dedicated in 
the Cnidian temples of Aphrodite mentioned by Pausanias " : 
* the Cnidians pay particular reverence to Aphrodite, and 
possess certain temples of the goddess; the oldest is the 
temple of Aphrodite Doritis (the giver of good things), the 
second the temple of the goddess " on the height " ( Acraea) ; 
but the youngest is that of the goddess whom most people 
call the Cnidian, but the men of Cnidus themselves call 
Euploea, the goddess of fair weather.' Now it seems 
probable that the masterpiece of Praxiteles was actually the 
temple-statue of this last shrine; because 'most people ' called 
it * the Cnidian ' par excellence^ and the great work was known 
throughout the whole ancient world as * the Cnidian' goddess; 
because also the smile upon its face and the allusion to 
the water and to the bath conveyed by the vase at its 

* Pans. a. I, 7 l«c/p7o<rrai ^^Kaaaa der griechischen Plasiik, 2, p. 170, 
dofixovca *ikxppoKTrpf irtuicu n. 54 ; and Friederichs, PrcuciUies, 

^ Overbeck, for instance, G*schickte * Griechiscke GotterUhre, a. 705. 
VOL. II. T 



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690 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

side (Coin PL B 50) would well express the divinity of the calm 
summer sea ; and, lastly, because we hear that it stood on a 
high and conspicuous place in a chapel open at both ends*, 
whence it could be seen from afar on the sea. There is no 
reason why this chapel should not have been the same as the 
* latest temple ' mentioned by Pausanias, built specially to pro- 
tect and at the same time reveal the temple-image. It may 
be that it is this Praxitelean statue of EinrXoia that the epigram 
of Anyta alludes to : ' This spot is sacred to Cypris ; for 
she ever loves to behold from the land the glittering main, 
that she may give to the mariners a voyage such as they 
desire ; and all the surrounding sea trembles when it sees 
the radiant image \' And the same function and power is 
attributed by Lucian to the Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles *. 
But as the image was more than all monuments in the world 
the embodiment of love and loveliness, it is likely that if the 
name Efntkoia continued long to be attached to it, the title 
came to comprise the notion of faring well in love as well as 
prosperous voyaging on the sea. For we find thLs double 
meaning in it on a gem that has the word inscribed upon it 
and shows us Eros riding on a dolphin^; and an epigram in 
the Anthology, written as if it were the inscription on one of 
her statues, makes her say, 'Do reverence to Cypris; for I will 
breathe on thee with a favourable breeze in love or on the 
bright-visaged sea*.' 

Of the smaller monuments showing the same aspect of 
Aphrodite, two may here be mentioned for the importance 
of the religious idea they express, although they are not to be 
connected immediately with any public cult. One is the 
very beautiful silver medallion in the Louvre (PI. XLI V. a) that 
cannot be later than the end of the fifth century B.C., show- 
ing Aphrodite of slim maidenly form rising from the waves 

* ' Aedicula quae toU aperitnr,' Pliny, the sea-bom Aphrodite as the 'w6$wt 

36. 31 ; yca>f dfupl$vp<n, Lucian, Erotes, f^fp dtXXow6ioj¥ in the Anthology, lo. 

13 ; 'KtpiiTiciwr^ M x^PVf ^f^h. Plan, ai. 

4. 160. • AnthoL 9, p. 143 : 

*> Anih. Pal, 9. 144. 'IX^iccv ti)v Kvt/kv* <7«^ H cot ^ 

« EroteSy 2. kv iporri 

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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 691 

and lifting up her mantle, and Eros, a youth with large 
wings, who stands behind her and assists her to ascend*. No 
other monument could so well embody the title of 'A<^poycwj5 
or *'A<^pto9, the foam-bom goddess, or the lines of Hesiod, who 
tells us that Eros was by her side at the moment of her birth 
and when she came into the company of the gods ®'^. The 
unique character of the composition, the fineness and nobility 
of the forms, compel us to believe that this is a direct copy of 
the same scene carved in relief on the base of the throne of the 
Zeus Olympios of Pheidias^ 

The other representation is that of a black-figured vase 
published by Lenormant and De Witte, on which Aphrodite, 
-wearing the a^s, is driving in a chariot with Poseidon. 
The inscriptions leave us in no doubt about the personages, 
and the aegis is clearly given (PI. XLIV. b). There is 
much that is very remarkable in this. Nowhere else does 
the goddess wear the emblem of Athena, which cannot be 
interpreted here as an ordinary goat's fell, appropriate to 
Aphrodite 'EirtTpayfa, but is a badge of war marking the 
Eastern war-goddess; and nowhere else is the warlike 
Aphrodite represented at the same time as a maritime 
power, as she certainly is here through her companionship 
with Poseidon. We know that the goddess at Corinth, as 
often in the East, was worshipped under her warlike aspect ; 
and we might conclude that in this character she was also 
closely related by cult with Poseidon, the chief divinity of 
the land ; but even this hypothesis would not fully explain the 
enigma of this vase-representation. 

Generally, as a divinity of vegetation, of fruits and flowers, 
Aphrodite was, as we have seen, the frequent theme of early 
art ; and the statue of Canachus was a great monumental 
illustration of this aspect of her. But it is not certain whether 
any surviving work can be regarded as the cult-image of 
* Antheia,' or as the copy of one. This title would be appro- 
priate enough to such an image of her as the bronze in the 

* Cf. the relief published ia Rom. by the Hours. 
Mitth. d. deut. Inst. 1893, on which *> Paus. 5. 11, 3 "^pwt *<rrJr l« «oX<l<r- 

Aphrodite is seen rising and received <nii*K^fHMrrpf iviwcw intc^x^l'^^* 

T % 



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692 GREEK REUGION. [chap. 

Biblioth^que Nationale in Paris, representing her as holding 
the hem of her robe in the left hand and an apple in the right, 
and wearing a flower-wrought crown (PL XLV). The flower 
by itself is so common a symbol that it cannot be regarded as 
alluding to any special cult of the goddess. But perhaps the 
well-known statue called the Venus Genetrix in the Louvre 
(PI. XLVI) reproduces some religious image of the divinity 
of vegetation, as we may believe that the hand with the apple 
is a correct restoration •. The name ' Genetrix * refers to the 
mythical descent of the Julian house from Venus, and has, as 
we have seen, no exact equivalent among the Greek cult- 
titles ; and the type presented by the Louvre statue was cer- 
tainly used for the Roman goddess, for we find it on a Roman 
coin with the title inscribed ** ; and it was possibly adopted by 
Arcesilaus, who carved the statue for the temple of Venus 
Genetrix that was dedicated by Julius Caesar B.C. 46*^ ; but 
this is uncertain, as other and different types appear on Roman 
coins. In any case, the Louvre statue goes back to a much 
older original, of which the Greek title is lost to us. The 
half-concealed pensive smile on the lips and the sidewards 
inclination of the head recall the expression characteristic of 
Praxitelean works ; and the treatment of the features and hair 
displays a pure and almost severe grace. But the broad 
cheek and large chin, the large forms of the body and the 
noble breadth between the shoulders, show the style of a 
period still earlier than that of Praxiteles. And Professor 
Furtwangler* inclines to believe that Alcamenes, the pupil of 
Pheidias, was the author of the original work, as M. Reinach 
had already suggested. The chief difficulty in the way of 
assigning to it so early a date as the close of the fifth or the 
beginning of the fourth century is the treatment of the drapery, 
which falls over the limbs like transparent gauze, the surfaces 
being traced over with very faint lines. The delicate compli- 

• The terracotta replicas of the stattie, Frohner, Sculptun du Louvre^ p. 167. 

as well as the figure on the Roman coins, « PHny, N^ H. 35. T55. 

prove this; vide Frdhner, Terres-cuites * AusfUhrliches Lexicon^ p. 413; so 

de FAsie Mineurt^ PL ai. i ; Bull, di also in the Meistirwerki ; cf. Reinach 

Or. HelL 6. PL 18. in Gateitt Archiologiqtu^ 1887, p. 255. 

^ Coin of Sabina reproduced in 



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Plate XLVI 



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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 693 

cation of these cross- folds may have been added by the later 
copyist, to suit the later taste for mere effect; but the 
exceeding transparency must have been a quality of the 
original, and this is generally regarded as a mark of later 
fourth-century work. But it is beginning to appear in the 
Victories of the balustrade of the temple of Nike Apteros 
at Athens, and this voluptuous treatment of the drapery, 
which Polygnotus introduced into painting, may have come 
into sculpture earlier than is supposed*, and expressly for 
the representations of Aphrodite at a period when the austerity 
of the fully draped figure was relaxed and the sculptor did 
not yet venture to represent her unclad. And in one respect 
the drapery of the Genetrix of the Louvre may incline us, in 
spite of these doubts, to place it early in the fourth century ; 
for the stately columnar disposition of the folds at her left side 
reminds us of the 'chiton iro^ij/nyj' of the earlier Pheidian 
monuments. And this arrangement was especially retained 
for representations of divinities and statues connected with 
temple- worship ^ The * Venus Genetrix' then may be 
believed to preserve the type and forms of some temple- 
monument of the beginning of the fourth century, and ex- 
presses the same idea of the goddess as that which probably 
appeared in the famous Aphrodite iv Ki/jTrois of Alcamenes. 

Her character as a divinity of vegetation was further 
attested by her associations with the Horae, with Cybele 
and Dionysos ; but the monuments that illustrate this are 
very rare, and cannot be connected with any known cult*^. 

* The instaDces which M. Keinach ^ The relief published in Stackelberg*s 

adduces to prove that this style is Grader der HelUnen, Tat 29, is the 

earlier than is generally supposed are only certain instance I can find of 

not quite sufficient Aphrodite with the Hours : her affinity 

^ Compare the drapery of the sacred with Cybele might be iUustrated by the 

maidens on the Parthenon frieze with bronze from the Troad described above, 

that of the Caryatids of the Erechtheum, also possibly by the coin published in 

and the divinity standing amidst the Gerhard's Akademische Abhandlungitn^ 

figures on the 'Alcestis' column from Taf. 43. 18, on which are seen two 

Ephesus. Traces of this columnar dis- goddesses, seated at each side of a 

position of the folds appear also on the temple-door above which is a dove, 

terracotta figure published by Frohner each with the calathus on her head, the 

mentioned above (p. 693, note a). one mounted on two lions, the other on 



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694 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

It is more clearly attested by her association with Adonis ; 
but the surviving monuments that show her in his company 
refer usually to the story of her love and his death, and have 
a purely artistic and mythological significance*. The most 
beautiful of these appears to be an Attic aryballos from 
Kertsch, with figures in relief, recently brought to St. Peters- 
burg and not yet published ; the scene clearly alludes to the 
Cypriote l^end, for the group of Aphrodite, Peitho, Adonis, 
and Eros are combined with the Salaminian hero Teucer, 
Tecmessa, and Eurysaces. Professor Furtwangler, who is the 
first who has written an account of it ^, states that the inscrip- 
tions on it and the style assign it to the same date as the 
Parthenon frieze. The vase then has a singular interest as 
being the first monumental illustration of the introduction of 
the Adonis-cult into Attica, and also as attesting the influence 
of the Ajax of Sophocles. 

We cannot quote any representations of Adonis that 
throw light on the ritual connected with him. The 
beautiful bronze found at Paphos, now in the Biblioth^ue 
Nationale of Paris, is proved to be an Adonis <*, partly by the 
resemblance between the almost feminine head and the head 
of Adonis on the coins of Euagoras *, king of Cyprus, and 
partly by the remains of a garland of roses wrought in silver 
upon his hair ; in one hand he holds what is probably a grain 
of incense to be placed in the censer which he carries in his 
left. The work is of the early Alexandrine period, and 
embodies the idyllic sentiment that the poetry of that age 
attached to Adonis. 

On the other hand, we have one or two representations of 
Aphrodite, inspired by the myth and ritual of Adonis, that are 
of value as illustrations of cult The story, mentioned before, 
of the birth of Adonis from the split trunk of the tree into 
which Myrrha had been transformed, arises probably from the 

two bulls. On the relief in Mus. romantic Alexandrine sentiment 
Chiaram. (Tav. 36) Aphrodite appears *» Meisterwerke, p. 275 (Engl ed.), 

with Eros in company with Maenads. note 10. 

• The group of Aphrodite, Eros, and « Gautte ArchioL 1876, PI. 16. 

Adonis described in an epigram of the <* Trisor de Numt'sm. des rots Grecs, 

Anthology, 11. 174, is full of the PL 3a, no. a. 



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Plate XLVII 



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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 695 

practice, which was very common in the worship of divinities 
of vegetation, of hanging his idol from a tree or placing it in 
the hollow trunk. Now on a Lycian coin struck under 
Gordian (Coin Pi. B 29) we see the curious type of an idol 
placed in a hollow tree, from which two serpents are issuing 
and scaring away two woodcutters who had come to fell it. 
There is a possible allusion to the Adonis myth, but the idol 
is a cult image, not of the god but of a veiled goddess wearing 
the calathus, the symbol of fertility, upon her head, who must 
be Artemis- Aphrodite and who is here clearly conceived as 
a divinity of vegetation*. The type has much in common 
with the very archaic type of the draped divinity examined 
above. 

There is another typical representation of Aphrodite that can 
with more certainty be referred to this subject (PI. XLVII). 
A small statuette of limestone in the Louvre presents the 
figure of a woman seated on the ground, her right hand and arm 
supporting her, and her left lifted to her face and almost buried 
in the veil which covers the head. The expression of the 
face is pensive, and well accords with the pose. In itself the 
figure would not be recognized as Aphrodite's ; but it exactly 
tallies with the type of the Aphrodite of Libanos described 
by Macrobius ^^ *. And reliefs of the Roman period have 
been found in the same locality, on which the goddess appears 
in this pose and with this expression. The statuette probably 
preserves a cult-type, and in cult the mourning Aphrodite 
would be naturally associated with her dead lover ^ 

The monuments that represent Aphrodite as a divinity of 
the lower world are independent — so far as we can see — of 
her association with Adonis. The interpretation of many of 
these is very difficult. None of those published by Gerhard in 
the Archdologische Zeitung^ have any certain reference to 
a ' Venus Proserpina ' ; his supposition that by leaning on 

* Vide p. 523. dite by her entourage and the high 

^ A very similar representation of stephane with anthemion that she wears, 

a mourning female figure is found on Heydemann interprets this as the moum- 

a vase in Naples (Heydemann, Be- ing Aphrodite, without deciding whether 

schreibnng no. 2900, £litt Oram, 4. there is reference to the Adonis-myth. 

PI. 87), which is proved to be Aphro- • 1861, PI. 146, 147. 



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696 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

a pillar and standing with their l^s crossed they proclaim 
their connexion with the lower world is eccentric enough, and 
arises from the fallacy of attaching a deep symbolism to 
details of pose that often arise from merely artistic motives. 
There is more to be said about another series of figures that 
are quoted and examined in his treatise on Venus Proserpina, 
and are put together and briefly described by Bernoulli » : the 
qualities common to this type are {a) the severe hieratic form 
of idol, {b) the calathus on the head, {c) the left hand holding 
the edge of the garment and the right pressed against the 
breast with or without an attribute, {d) dimensions under life- 
size, so that the idol can serve as a support to a leaning fig^e. 
No doubt we have here the forms of an image intended for 
worship. But what are the signs of Proserpine and what of 
Venus, and what evidence is there that the type expresses the 
joint divinity of the two ? There is no proof that the hand on 
the breast alludes in these figures to death and the lower 
world ; it was, as we have seen, a common motive in a very 
early Aphrodite type derived from the East, in which so far as 
it had any meaning at all it alluded to fertility ; and later it 
became probably only a conventional motive borrowed from 
archaic works for hieratic sculpture of archaistic style. The 
calathus, again, is the emblem of fruitfulness ^, not directly of 
the lower world. But when any of these figures bears the 
fruit or the flower of the pom^ranate, we have good reason 
for believing that this is a symbol of the chthonian divinity *'. 

•Bernoulli, AphrodiU, pp. 64-66. Persephone ate of the frait of the pome- 
Most of them are published in Ger- granate and belonged therefore to the 
hard^s plates to his Akademische Ab- lower world: it is never regarded as 
handlungen, 28-32. a token of marriage and fertility, except 

^ See Euseb. Praep, Ev. 3. 1 1 KciXo- in a doubtful passage of Antiphanes in 

6w Ix®''^* ''^^^ 1"^^ '^^ iyOieay, <rifjifio» Athenaeus, 3. 84 : therefore, he con- 

Kov Tov iapos, r6v SI tSw ffraxvvy rod eludes, the monuments where the pome> 

Bipcvi, granate is held in the hand, such as the 

» Vide pp. a 1 6, 217. Botticher, in the Polycleitean statue of Hera, the Athena 

Archiiologische Zeitung, 1856, p. 170, Nike In the temple on the Acropolis, 

collects many legends proving that the are to be interpreted in reference to 

pomegranatewas the symbol of strife and strife and death. But had the same 

death in Greek myth : a |x>megranate tree attribute always the same meaning? 

sprang from the blood of Zagreus, from We find the pomegranate-fruit and 

the graves of Eteocles and Polyneices ; flowers in the hands of one of the 



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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 697 

Thus we may give the name Persephone to the statuette * of the 
goddess holding the pomegranate flower, on whom Dionysos 
leans, she being more usually associated with him than 
Aphrodite ; and it is scarcely believable that a Greek or 
Latin would have been helped to recognize in this idol 
Aphrodite Persephone by the fact that the figure happens 
to hold her drapery in the same way as Aphrodite often holds 
it. He would only be likely to recognize such a double 
divinity when the image combined attributes and tokens of 
both personages ; and these cases are very few. The goddess 
who holds a dove in her left hand and a pomegranate flower 
in her right, and wears a long veil that falls from over a 
stephane down her shoulders, may be called the chthonian 
Aphrodite**; and the Aphrodite on the votive terracotta 
tablet from South Italy, who holds out the pomegranate 
flower and stands opposite to Hermes, is probably a divinity 
of the same character (PI. XLVIII). For Hermes himself was 
a power of the nether world. And the solemn and balanced 
pose of these figures, as well as of Eros who stands on her 
outstretched arm, allows us to believe that these are cult-types 
of actual worship. 

Where Eros is seen, the goddess whom he accompanies 
would be naturally regarded as Aphrodite, unless the repre- 
sentation obviously referred to some well-known myth about 
some other divinity. Therefore such scenes as that on the 
fine cylix published by Lenormant and De Witte ^, showing 
Eros receiving a goddess who is rising from the earth, must be 

Hours on the cup of Sosias (Mtiller- but that it does not always and of 

Wieseler, I. 45, 210a), and we should necessity bear this sense: its blood-red 

naturally interpret it here as a symbol colour could symbolize strife and death, 

of fertility ; the flower also in the hands its seeds life. The maiden called 'P<m^, 

of the running Eros on an archaic Etras- who received divine honours in Caria, 

can mirror (Gerhard^s Etrusk. SpUg. i . was probably another form of the 

120, and Roscher, Lexicon^ p. 1350): Asiatic goddess : the legend tells of 

and here it would more naturally be her death and divine honours (Diod. 

a symbol of marriage than the lower Sic. 5. 62) ; vide supra, pp. 446, 447. 
world. Eros indeed is occasionally • Gerhard, Akad, AhhandL Taf. 32. 5. 

associated with death ; but the Hours *> Id. Ta£ 30. 4. 

very rarely. We may say then that " ^lite Oram, 4. 34 ; cfl Mon, delV 

the pomegranate is a symbol of the Inst, 4. 39, and Frohner, Musses de 

lower world in the hands of Proserpine ; France, PL 21. 



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698 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

the representations of the return of Aphrodite Kore ; and the 
connexion, brought about probably through Orphic literature, 
between Eros and the divinities of the lower world may have 
helped to familiarize the popular imagination with the idea of 
a chthonian Aphrodite, one of whose types is probably shown 
us in the figure of the goddess who stands in hieratic pose 
near to Eros on a terracotta relief found in Italy*, crowned 
with the calathus and holding a poppy-stalk in one hand and 
a lowered torch in the other. 

The bust or -Trporo/uny puUished in the Gazette Arckdolo- 
gique ^ may also be accepted as a representation of the same 
goddess (PL XLIX. a) ; the shape of such monuments suggests 
that they were intended to be hung up in graves, as were the 
images of Astarte in Phoenician tombs. The mitra on her 
head and the veil falling down over her shoulders would be 
appropriate to a divinity of the lower world, and as the upper 
parts of her figure are naked we may believe that the sculptor 
intended Aphrodite rather than Persephone. And the Cypriote 
idol of archaic type, with the pomegfranate flower held in one 
hand against its breast, may be brought into this small group 
of monuments on account of its provenance and this attri- 
bute ®. Whether we can include in this series the small idol 
in the Ildefonso group at Madrid ^ as Gerhard and Bernoulli 
propose, is very doubtful. If we could with certainty interpret 
the two main figures as Antinous and the genius who quenches 
the torch, and knew that this interesting group was a monu- 
ment of the youth's voluntary death, then the goddess whose 
image stands near the genius would naturally be of the lower 
world, and the motive of the hand that holds her drapery, 
combined with the attribute of the apple in her hand and the 
calathus upon her head, testifies to Aphrodite. But as excessive 
restoration has made the meaning of the whole very uncer- 
tain, we are not justified in finding more in the idol-figure 
than the ordinary idea of Aphrodite as a goddess of fertility*. 

» Gerhard, Akad, Abhandl. Taf. 56. a. Gerhard, Taf. 33. i ; Friederich's Antike 

^ 1879, PI. 30. Bildwerkt, 1665. 

« Gerhard, Taf. 47 a. • The argument of Bernoulli that this 

' Vide Bernoulli, Aphrod. p. 66 ; most be the chthonian Aphrodite, 



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. ■ : r . I '; : ■ , 

.:"»!. )■ . • \\. ' ' .^ ' 

.^ •/ -^;^^' 'n • .^ ii •■ ! . 

'i i:^ -he ^ ;: ■■ '.. 
It" * p: '/ n oi i' ■ 1 ' 
' -^'m'; ni'i." ;i "• : ' - '. 
• •" uj. in l::i;.-. '.- ^^ :• ' . 
'i t* :-Vjs. I ii-' I '•-. -<:i i . • 
' --:• .er y-v-.l, .. ;v .■ ' • :-. 
'T \.('! i'/. /!:■ i .1-. 1 . - : 

■ I » hcliv'^ < L...t !'', - ; _ : 
"..;, T .':o. ,\'^ : *]'' ■ > - . •- 
^ * :. ' / .V . !:nU tl \ r b*. .^i m •■' : 
' .; ' • '»i >;i':hl ipto •]\^- s:na i .,j . . 
".* (»'' I ^ f f\K cnarAC a ",u t!::s 1 ■- 

• : ' !-i '^:(^^ ; s Gt-rh.ir.i :in'i i'^'ro'W 
) .v.i. L \vc Lojid V. i' it cerfa":-.;. in*.- '';•. : 

V 'li.a tais i!iU'i\'stinir j//. -up was a r'^'nl'- 

. .' ^ ::on"iis won id Pt*'a:a!'y f><- •>!' t^v- !« v\« r 

- ■(.. ir.«»Li\o of tiic lianJ tliat ii"'<!s ii. r d).i;.:i\, 

b. th<^ aUribiite c-f tlic nuMle in h( r h.-n-: aii'l '-lo 

R^. »■ -I'-a \w\\ n-.ule ti»e nif ctfiit,;^r rn'" the v hoK'; Vv-ty uii^^. r- 
t'v.-n, \\c arc n'>t justitkd in tunliiT^ niorc \n \\\'z idul- T'/*!- 
than the oru.'^an- i 1- a «>!* i^ \ Va-od;..c as a ^oddir .-s (^^ tVrt '*''•_» 

■ (jL'TKrTf!. .-/v, i/. ///>// jr.//, Trif. =■'. '. t'(.::>.\rfi, XA s^. 1* X tif<!criL-h s . '/' '^\' 

« ('.r!ia"i, l>f 47a. " Thf >rj.u.,':wit -jt Ik n oni 'i t""-,. -1.:^ 

** VkIc B.i:"-rUi. Afh}.\i: p. 60; i.mst 'c tnc c^ruK-'ih.a A^ ai,*- it- 



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Plate XLIXa 
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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 699 

These monuments convey the notion by means of external 
symbols only. Of far more interest is another work that 
gives a very different and deeper expression to the same 
idea : a female head published in the Archdologische Zeitung^^ 
having a striking look of pity and sorrow on the face, and 
wearing as a kind of head-dress the face of the Gorgon with 
closed eyes (PL XLIX. b). The head is probably a work of the 
Alexandrine period, this peculiar expression of pathos being 
such as we find on many monuments of this period. But at 
first sight the work is an enigma ; it cannot represent a mortal, 
as no woman could wear such a head-dress. Nor is there any 
known representation of Athena at all like this, to whom this 
profound sentiment of pity and sorrow is not appropriate, and 
who never wears the Gorgoneum as a covering for the head. 
The writer who published it is no doubt right in connecting it 
with the legends of Gorgo in Crete and * Parakuptousa ' in 
Cyprus ^ But it cannot represent the hard-hearted maiden 
herself ; for even if a daring sculptor were to give her the frozen 
Gorgon's head as a coif, he would scarcely spoil the story by 
giving her that look of compassion. In fact the head does not 
refer directly to the story, but to that from which the story was 
by misinterpretation derived, to the cvdt of Aphrodite Gorgo, 
the mourning goddess of the lower world ; hence comes the 
sorrow in the face and the symbol of death on the head. 

The cult of Aphrodite MeXati^ts at Thespiae has been inter- 
preted in the former chapter as referring to the goddess of the 
under-world ; but on a Thespian coin of the fourth century 
in the British Museum we see a very striking Aphrodite-head 
and two crescent moons in the field (Coin PI. B 48). If this is 
the goddess MeAatr^?, we should suppose that her cult came to 
be associated with a moon-goddess such as Hekate, though it is 
very unlikely that the epithet originally referred to the moon. 

because the same type is used for one world, nor of necessity has the calathus, 

of the figures of the triple Hekate, is but these may be the badges of Hekate 

of little force ; for the shape of the or Aphrodite as the givers of increase 

triple Hekate is borrowed partly from on the earth. 

* the fair-fruited ' Demeter, and not every * 1857, Taf. i. 

one of her three figures is chthonian; ^ Vide p. 652. 
the apple has no reference to the lower 



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700 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

It has been suggested that from this aspect of Aphrodite as 
a goddess of death arose her association with Nemesis and the 
Fates "^ •. Possibly we have an illustration of this in the bronze, 
60 centimetres high, found in perfect preservation in Ostia in 
the temple of Cybele, representing a naked goddess seated 
with legs crossed, holding a small object on which to wind 
thread ; Visconti proposes to call her Aphrodite KKmOi \ 

The monuments that may be quoted as illustrating the 
worship of Aphrodite as a city-goddess fall generally into two 
groups, the one consisting of those that show her armed as 
a divinity of war, the other of those that represent her with 
the turreted crown, the badge of the state, both types being 
ultimately derived from the East. 

In considering the first group we must distinguish between 
those representations of the armed Aphrodite that are mere 
caprices of the sculptor's fancy, mere sentimental expressions 
of her love for Ares, and those on the other hand which are 
derived from an ancient conception, and seriously express the 
character of the Eastern goddess of war. Unfortunately the 
monuments of this latter species are scarcely known to us 
except through literary record ; nearly all those that have 
survived have no direct connexion with state-worship. We 
hear of the statue of the armed goddess of Cythera, and in 
many epigrams and other literature of the armed Aphro- 
dite of Sparta and the Aphrodite 'A/»cfa, whose statue, 
according to Pausanias, was * most archaic ^* *'.' But we find 
this type on no coin or monument of Cythera, and not with 
certainty on any of Lacedaemon. The question however 
may be raised about the meaning of the figure represented 
on a Spartan coin of the third century B. C. (Coin PI. B 43), 
a divinity who is enveloped from the breast downward in 
a stiff circular garment that gives to more than half the 
body the form of an aniconic idol, and who wears a helmet 
and holds a lance in the right hand, a bow in the left : the 
right side of the statue is adorned with a cock standing on 
an aplustre ; at the left side stands a goat ^ The type corre- 

* Mon, dilt JnsL 9. 8 ; Anna/i, 1869, ^ The replica published by Head, 
p. 308. Ifist. Num, p. 564, Fig. 340, does not 



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XXII.] 



MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 



701 



spends very closely with that of Apollo of Amyclac as described 
by Pausanias », and the figure is given this interpretation by 
those who have published the coin ; but they fail to explain 
satisfactorily the symbob of the aplustre and the goat. The 
former might no doubt have been added as an allusion to 
some naval triumph ; but the latter animal can scarcely be 
shown to belong to the ApoUine worship ^ Prof. Furtwangler ^, 
therefore, prefers to interpret this figure as the armed 
Aphrodite of Laconia and Cythera, as we know that the bow 
and spear were her weapons in the East, and as the goat and 
aplustre are specially appropriate to her. But we have no- 
where any minute description of this warlike Aphrodite, and 
the figure on the coin undoubtedly corresponds very strikingly 
with the description of the Amyclaean Apollo. 

As regards the statue on the Acrocorinthus which Pau- 
sanias saw^**, it probably did not belong to the older and 
genuinely religious type, but was of such form as we see on 
some of the coins of Corinth (Coin PL B 46), that show us the 
goddess in her temple, naked to the waist and gazing at her 
reflection in the shield which she holds, as the Capuan statue 
shows her. The type of the statue and of the coin-figure is 
a Graeco-Roman or Alexandrine invention, a jeu d esprit 
referring to her sentiment for Ares *. But it possibly replaced 

showing roach of the type of ' Venus 
Genetiix,' representing the goddess 
wearing the sword-belt of Ares and 
carrying in her left hand not the apple 
bat probably a spear, has been found at 
Epidauros (Ephem. Arch. 1886, Uiw. 
13) and mentioned by Reinach in the 
GautU des beaux ArU^ 1888, p. 75 : 
probably a copy made in the first 
century B.C. of an earlier work of a 
good period. It is difficult to indude 
among the representations of the armed 
Aphrodite the strange relief found at 
Beirut and published in the Mitt, d. 
d. At A, Inst. 1885, PL i, showing a 
goddess whose drapery and pose are on 
the whole those of ihe Athena Parthenot 
of Pheidiaa, but who wears the quiver^ 
belt of Artemis and by whose side is 



show the cock on the aplustre; but 
vide Gardner, Num, Ccmm, Paus. N. 
16. 

•3. 19, 3. Vide Head, op. dt; 
Gardner, op. cit. p. 59 ; Bompois, Por- 
traits attribuis h CUomhu. 

^ The naked figure on the fourth- 
century coin of Tylissos of Crete (Head, 
Hist, Num. p. 406) holding a bow and 
the head of a Cretan goat may be, but 
is not certainly, an Apollo. 

• Roscher, p. 408. 

* Vide Gardner, Num. Comm. Patts. 
p. 27 ; Bernoulli, p. 161. Compare as 
a salient instance of the same idea the 
group in the LouTre of Aphrodite and 
Eros trying the arms of Ares; Frohner, 
ScMlpture du Louvrtt no. 153 ; Clarac, 
Mus^e^ PI. 343, n. 1399. A sUtue 



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702 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

on the Acrocorinthus an older image of the armed goddess of 
Oriental origin. 

Among the representations of Ares and Aphrodite it is 
necessary to mention here those only that refer to the actual 
cult-relation that, as has been shown, existed in many places 
between them *•. The oldest surviving monument that illus- 
trates this association is the Fran9ois vase •, where he appears 
with Aphrodite in the procession of the gods ; next come two 
vases of the late archaic style, signed by Oltos and Euxitheos^ 
and a cylix painted by Sosias*', on all of which Ares and 
Aphrodite are seated together in solemn union in the com- 
pany of the gods. To the finest period of style belongs 
the representation on the cylix of the British Museum of 
Ares and Aphrodite amidst other wedded divinities ; she 
stands erect, wearing a snood and long Ionic chiton, holding 
a cup in her right hand and raising the left to her chin, as she 
gazes down on Ares with a profound expression in her face. 
He is reclining on a couch, wearing a himation round his 
lower limbs and holding a sceptre (PL L. a). 

The relief in Venice^ of early fourth-century style is some- 
times quoted among the religious representations of the union 
of the two divinities (PI. L. b). On the right stands a bearded 
warrior in helmet and chiton, with a shield resting at his feet, 
holding out a cup to receive wine from a female figure arrayed 
in long chiton and peplos, a fold of which she draws over her 
head in one hand, while pouring from an oinochoe with the 
other. Behind her stands a smaller male figure, clad in 
a himation, in an attitude of adoration. Her pose and solemn 
expression are in keeping with the style of religious art. 
The features show many traits of the Pheidian style, but the 
surfaces of the cheeks are not so broad as on the Parthenon 
frieze. Now, but for the smaller figure, we should interpret 
this relief merely as a representation of the leave-taking 
between the wife and the husband who is departing for battle. 

Eros. The writer of the article considers very incongnious. 

her to be Aphrodite, of a form that » Mon. delP Inst, 4. 54. 

shows a reaction against Hellenistic lax- ^ lb, 10. 33, 24. 

ness; but any interpretation of the relief « Gerhard, Akad, Abhandl, PI. 15. 

must be doubtful, as the details are ^ Roscher^s Lexicon^ p. 406. 



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702 

on ' 
Or 



.. :- a'l 



-' ■ K 



■K* 



rtj'M.^ n'.**i"ii> "f A '^ rr \ -^|''. > **'^ 
-'i V it, i^ h. - o -^ -1 Sw r.' a I \.s' •■ . '•'' r .'\ , 



I- '- It -r.'^cr. tcViioM c fi : 



< .>f ti 



HL 



.-t.ii.fl t:v' * \\«ui'i' , 'I ^h '1 iitvi 1 ^ !■; io'i'. ^ 1 I' - ■: > . '. 
.' v" .; •:: '^ r r] -w I'.ind n * ra.^ i^:^ t\.. i-. * to w. " t '' 
v. t. fs t; \'. n <'Ti Ausv\ii' a pn-lvHi .'1 v.\ i >> n v: :u r ... 
: M" is r<_c-'i';i i<^ ni a -lu ii, wc li^^'' a I-.m; i:\ n r^'"i : 
1 v.: !iii.!»:, and \\- >\- ) : a .-.. vi«l-«. 1 1 i. L.:i). 

'i ■ 'fd'ct in Wa'i' ^ <■;" '- i'*iy for.rt'.i-o-,!-:.-; ; .-ij\' '- ^ ^'^ 

) Ki'.-d •' ( ri. I., b) <')n iho »•* /. t <:antl i a nc .r ; 
' ' • ,i'Ul chiton, \\':li a '.I'el i n s'^-m-- i* .r . '"^ 

.0 '■<'c^i\ 'v ^'. -'ne t*r'-.::» a tciniile :":;/'.' .-.: ';*•'. 

iH'vK\» a lulci ot" wui'^h sliv i^-'-'w^ «^\-''f ! 

.. \!.i!i. ]^-' ii'i^:; iT'-ni ai oi.u^ '1 jo uit'i \: - 

i\ r viands a si.i.'lu'r n' :1c '..'.re, ■ 1 i-l .-n 

..1 . 'tiU' i<: of luoriii n. Hor j --r .. -1 ^--I-'in:, 

jc '": 1 <^)ntLy W'lIi the '^^-^-'c .m i' '* ;^■^l^s art 

1 ^^r f' ''\^ sli' .' Ku.iiv t'"ai*s of ih-j 1 ix^i'hc'u -*;a'- '■ :■ * 'c 

s.i:*'t of til ' < iit-eks i'lc not so ^^^v)'.d a' '^-a l!;«^ s'-. . .r-Mi 

iVlt:/- . Now, h- :t tor lHc ^n\d!.M- Tk^ to '^\' ^1 r-.T i inif;:!'-- * 

th's rc^-.r • /"^-ly as a ri !)'":. ^(-'Ha'.U'''' o* t'uC Ici r-.:"- ■ - 

bciA'-rn t!.. vvTo :v\d V c hh-La'ul \.ho is .'■ p.:!*^in:, : >■: Lai..^. 

li I I' A 'v.H^itf, of a K^^n that ' /. .T /;"/?/ /. \ 51. 

si' ^ • ^ - .tair:'"-" .^j;Mri-t Ilolleiv;" i< \:\\- ^ ,■'-. ;c 2\ 24. 

' ^ i; "lA- jnt :;^T '.V-ioii ol ihe ii'h* f * ;.''i'":<i, i ..\{. A' hr\ '\' f': .5 

;>-■ •] ti i,l, as liu. '1 fil.s are '' is <c y 5 1 e.^. c.i, »■ 40^'. 



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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 703 

But, looking at the whole group, we must say that the scene 
has a religious meaning. Can the two main figures be the 
defunct parents regarded as powers of the lower world? 
But no other grave reliefs which express this idea with clear- 
ness have any resemblance at all to this; the surviving 
children are only represented of smaller size .than the heroic 
dead, when these latter appear enthroned, as on the Spartan 
reliefs, or lying on the couch at the family meal, and when the 
children are bringing their offerings. But here the two larger 
figures are taking no notice of the worshipper, and the one is 
offering libation to the other. Therefore it seems impossible 
to explain them except as divinities; and if divinities they 
are Ares and Aphrodite, to whom the worshipper is praying, 
possibly for his own safety on some campaign. But it is 
necessary to say that this interpretation wants more support 
from other monuments than it is easy to find. 

Many of the other representations in which the two divinities 
are brought together are *archaistic,* but probably derived from 
archaic works that had a serious reference to cult*. 

The only myth of battle in which Aphrodite played a part 
was the Gigantomachy, and here only in the later repre- 
sentations and descriptions ; and it is doubtful whether these 
are to be taken too seriously, and whether we can say that 
the ancient idea of the armed goddess at all accounts for her 
presence in these scenes. On a vase in the Louvre we see 
her driving with Ares in his chariot against the giants, but 
the figure of the infant Eros poised above the horses and 
drawing a tiny bow robs the representation of all serious 
significance, and shows it to be a mere sport of Alexandrine 
fancy. She takes a serious part in the action on the Per- 
gamene frieze ; and a small bronze found not long ago in 
Athens of Aphrodite Gigantomachos seems also to represent 
her in real and earnest conflict, but these representations of 
her in the battle of the gods may be due merely to the later 
enlargement of the myth which came to comprise all the 
Olympians in the struggle, 

• Vide Bemonlli, Aphrodite, p. 144; d. a. Kunst, i. 44; pntcal in the Capi- 
the Boighese altar, Miiller, DenkmdUr toline Museum, ib, a. 197. 



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704 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

Among the monuments of the war-goddess we may include 
a bronze coin from Smyrna, representing Aphrodite, who 
gave victory in battle, Nixry^^pos or Srparoi/iKt;, appearing in 
the form of a cult-statue, clad in a long chiton and wearing 
the calathus, and supporting Nike on her left arm, which rests 
on a column ». . It may well be that we have here a repro- 
duction of the actual temple-statue *'' ^ 

The monuments of the city-goddess with the turret-crown 
are less doubtful, though not very numerous. The best 
illustration of this type comes from Cyprus, whither the 
Phoenician conception of the city-divinity Astarte, who wears 
a turreted crown on the coins of Ascalon, was most likely to 
travel ; so that if we find such a goddess in Greek form in 
Cyprus it is more reasonable to give her the name of Aphro- 
dite than any other. There can be no doubt that it is her 
head that appears turreted and adorned with earrings on the 
coins of Salamis of the latter part of the fourth century (Coin 
PI. B 47); and two limestone heads found in Cyprus, published 
by Jahn in the Archdologische Zeitung^^ can be proved by the 
analogies of the coins with which he compares them to be 
representations of Aphrodite the city-goddess. The lai^er 
one (PI. LI a), about 18 inches in length, belongs to the 
best period®; the goddess wears the turret-crown, and her 
expression is solemn and appropriate to the city-divinity: the 
smaller one is of later style, and there is a soft smile on 
the features, the type being the same as that of the head 
on the coin of Nicocles^ of Paphos. 

Aphrodite Kovporprf^j and Aphrodite Hera, the goddess 
who nurtured children and who encouraged marriage, is not 
clearly presented to us on any monument. There are many 
^€al KovpoTp6<l>oi — the title more especially belongs to Demeter 
and Gaia— and among the many representations of divinities 
holding children none bear any attribute or symbol that 
reveals Aphrodite*. Nor can we find any clear expression 

• Catcdogtu of Greek Coins, Ionia, * lb. Tal 188 (a) ; cf. coin 2 c. 

p. 239. • Vide Bernoulli, Aphrodite, pp. lai- 

^ Arch. Zeii, 1864, Taf. 188. 123: a -fragment of an Acropolis vaae 

« lb, Tal 1 88(1); c£ coin i b. shows Af^rodtte with two litUe boyf 



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t- . '. ,1 .*' !: f . ■ I i> " ' •' ■-' t- -; 
.. . V . 1 i .'-■ ^ ' N .<■ ^•- '.. , i' '* .' .. 
:i t •■ ^^n * It 'I .. V i ■• S ' t : ■' '. .■■ '. ' 

; ' :v. '.. : ,, :,tv ..* t\c ■ *> " ' - -» •" t" • v - , 
'^ K'^^ ■= ■■' ^' ' w* ' h I I V - •. n .' ! 

':•':..»;• n (jT tl."-: t\- "' :f'"t *"; f : i »;•:.. ^ ' 
.' ' >» I 1 . 1 1 v" ' ^ ' ; *" ! ■ IP - . r : 1 ' V " * V -' , 1 V : ' ■ : ^ t." • ;-. . v 
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t^.-' ' ' ^ > *!■ »: it .' ■ * I i SuLi. I '"^ M^ >s : 1 ' 't' ' \ 1 
< '" < ": i T' -rr 1 ., •: ' it' t<' u '. . t uv ' •(:".-.* '* ' 
(1 • ' iM .i: \ .*!.vt. ': .."•(. c .! '• i.t) '!'• '■ 'i .: : 
;.. •-: tl -* 1 " ..'s t . — 1« <i ai..; :. " .•-.. 1 ,% i 1 

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t:v- -: .•>- v\ '. : thr u •'•' LI ■ .. . 

\ c b >^ tl .^ - .:i*( : s t';. : ■>• *'."' 
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L f !\ .^*r . t,, •. ^ -a ;.: \ 'IT. -n-r'i -'t, i i. ..-i 

^Ktit K< 1 :' ** tii''-' : -'C f ^ --i : . v ■• . » • '^ t-, ; ' 

a.ni * I " ;i ul !■■ ■'' ;' t ' .' I." ■ .■ r« . •,'.:..'-' <•''-' ' 
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xkx ■ A:/-*:* 'i ',' *" \ ;: v' n \\\ r .■ ! .• i .' r ■:, r **. >, 









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Plate LI 
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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 705 

except in literature of her functions in regard to marriage. The 
apple held in the hand of the archaic and later statues may have 
had some indirect allusion to wedlock, but in itself it was merely 
a symbol of fertility and increase ; the lifting of the veil or 
the folds of the peplos upward over the head was a gesture 
of modesty not peculiar to the bride. Neither have we any 
sure monumental representation of the goddess of the clan or 
the civic community, unless we accept as genuine the relief 
and the inscription found in Sarmatia described already *''. 

We should then have to say that the sculptor knew no other 
way of designating her as the clan-goddess, except by adding 
the figure of Ares for the idea of marriage and of Eros for 
the idea of love ; and without the inscription no one would 
recognize in her the goddess ^AiraTovprj. It is equally difficult 
to say beforehand what expression Greek religious art would 
be likely to give to Aphrodite Pandemos, the guardian of the 
state-community ; the monuments that are certainly not those 
of Pandemos in the political and original sense have already 
been partly discussed. One might think that there would be 
no better way of revealing the goddess under this aspect to 
her worshippers than such a representation of her as appears 
in the group on the Parthenon frieze : where, partly through 
what remains, partly through Carrey's drawing, Aphrodite 
is presented with Eros before her, and with the goddess 
who is probably Peitho at her back, in majestic posture on 
her throne, witnessing the great religious and political festival 
of the whole people. And we have record that the worship 
of Peitho was associated in the legend of Theseus with that of 
Pandemos ^^°. 

It has appeared from the examination of the literature 
that there is scarcely any record of Aphrodite as a patroness 
of the arts of civilization, or as a divinity who inspired oracles 
or who was associated with Apollo '. And in the monuments 

on her arms (or rather on her elbows), * There are only two inscriptions 

both of black colour. Miss Plarrison from Delos and Erythrae that prove 
may be right in naming this fignre a slight connexion between her and 
Aphrodite Kovporpoipos, HelL Joum, Apollo. Vide ^ ^ •. 
vol. 10, Transactions, p. xxxviL 

VOL. II. U 



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7o6 CREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

we find only very scant recognition of these aspects of her. It 
is true that Gerhard discovers an Aphrodite with Apoliine 
attributes in a statue of the Louvre belonging to the Greek 
period which has been restored as Euterpe*; but he was 
biassed about Aphrodite, and his interpretation is entirely 
fanciful \ 

The only monument of importance where she is found 
with Apollo is in the vase-painting in Vienna, published by 
Benndorf, and rightly interpreted as the consultation of 
Apollo by Aphrodite and the other goddesses concerning 
the fate of Troy « ; but this alludes to the cyclic version of 
the myth, not to any cult Another representation of Aphro- 
dite, expressing probably the same idea, but inspired only 
by myth, is a bronze relief from Paramythia in Epirus, of 
very fine style, showing her with Anchises, and in such an 
attitude as suggests that she is prophesying his future to 
him*. 

At Salamis the goddess was probably invoked as the 
patroness of song and the lyric contest ; and a few terra- 
cottas found in Cyprus, now in the British Museum, show 
us a female figure, often of Oriental countenance, playing 
on the lyre ; some of them wear the modius, and one a sort 
of turban bound round with a fillet of wool, and it is probable 
that they show us a type of the Cypriote Aphrodite*. 

In the later periods the Hellenic goddess became little more 
than the divinity of love and desire, and a few cult-titles, 
probably of late origin, desig^nated her thus; in the later 
monuments this aspect of her predominates, but scarcely any 
of these that represent her merely as the goddess of sense- 
beauty can be connected with any cult. But some of those 
that associate her with Peitho and Eros may be considered as 
possibly derived from the actual state-religion. 

The group of the two goddesses on the Parthenon frieze 

• Frohner, Sculpture du Louvre ^ Wicscler, a, PI. ay, 293: cf. Kriederich's 
No. 379. Bemsteine, 196 1, who ascribes it to the 

*» Arch. Zeit, 1861, Taf. 147. a. Jater period. 

• Vorlege Blatter, E, Taf. 11. • Ohnefalsch Richter, Ancient places 
«* In BigQor Park, Sussex; Miiller- of worship in Cyprus, 12.5. 



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XXII.] MONUMENTS OF APHRODITE. 707 

mentioned above, though in no sense cult-figures, may have 
reminded the Athenian of the worship of Aphrodite and 
Peitho near the Acropolis. Another relief found in Athens, 
and now in the Central Museum *, probably represents these 
two divinities ; we see two female figures in close union, the 
one with her upper body undraped and with large forms that 
speak of the earlier style, the other clad in semi-transparent 
drapery. The composition is full of repose and refined 
expression, and the relief may belong to the earlier part of 
the fourth century. A more famous and more certain repre- 
sentation of Aphrodite and Peitho is the beautiful fourth- 
century relief in Naples, on which Aphrodite is seen seated 
by Helen and persuading her to give herself to Paris, who 
stands in converse with Eros ^ By the goddess is a pillar, on 
the top of which sits Peitho — the inscription proves the name — 
clad in ample drapery, and wearing the calathus on her head, 
her form being perhaps derived from some cult-type. The 
personification had possibly at Athens a political allusion ; 
but nearly always in monuments and in literature Peitho is 
a goddess of love, the power of love's persuasion, and there- 
fore she appears with Aphrodite and wears the calathus, and 
the earlier and later poets speak of her as if she were herself 
the Love-goddess. 

The very numerous groups of Aphrodite and Eros are 
almost all 'secular'; for he figures in nearly all of them 
merely as the personification of human love, and as such he 
had scarcely any recognition in public worship "• Mention 
has been made of the monuments from South Italy that show 
him associated with an Aphrodite-Kora ; and it is probable 
that these correspond to a prevailing religious conception. 
The figure of Eros on the goddess's extended arm on the 

• Milchhdfer, Die Museen Athens^ figure docs not appear very early in art, 

p. 1 8, and in his oldest worship — at Thespiae 

^ Baumeister, DenkmdUr, p. 638, —his idol was not of human form at 

Fig. 708. all, merely an ^n^ ^'^w (see"**). 

« In Hesiod the cosmogonic and Perhaps one of the earliest examples of 

physical character of Eros is combined Aphrodite associated with Eros is a 

with the personal and hmnan which in representation on a mirror-handle in the 

the later lyric poetry prevails. His British Museum. 

U 2 



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7o8 GREEK RELIGION. 

votive relief from South Italy (PI. XLVIII) has the severe 
pose of a temple statue, the liand being outstretched to receive 
offerings or to give blessing; the lyre may allude to the 
musical contests in his honour on Helicon. In a terracotta 
group from Cyrene, now in the Louvre, we may see in the tall 
figure of Eros, who leans on Aphrodite and wears the calathus 
on his head, an independent god of ancient cult (PI. LI b). 
But in these instances he is probably more than the personal 
form of the abstract idea of human love ; he is the god of 
Thespiae, a god of birth and increase and probably of death, 
and very close akin to Hermes. 

From the close of the fourth century onwards many repre- 
sentations of Aphrodite have survived that are purely * genre/ 
some of them frivolous and some sensual, though none actually 
gross. They are not of direct importance for the history of 
public cults, with which none of them can have any proved 
connexion*. They illustrate indeed a decadence in art 
parallel to a certain decadence that has been noticed in the 
religion ; and those who dislike the expression and motive of 
the Medicean Venus may call her Aphrodite 'Eraf/>a ; but there 
is no evidence whatever that a statue of this type was conse- 
crated to the worship of that goddess where such worship 
existed. These representations of the later period have of 
course great value for the history of art ; for the student of 
Greek religion they have merely an indirect value as illus- 
trating changes in private sentiment about the gods, important 
enough, though not necessarily expressing themselves in the 
public forms and ritual. In the later art, Aphrodite more 
rarely appears as a goddess than as a woman who gives and 
requires love and does her best to excite it. But in general 
worship, even down to the end of paganism, she was always 
more than this. 

• The statue sometimes called Aphro- erected to Aphrodite KoAAiirvTOj at 

dite KdKKiwvyoi in the Mnsenm at S}Tacuse an image expressing the title 

Naples is probably a representation of was also consecrated to the worship ; 

an ordinary iralpa : it is not necessary vide Jakrhuch des deut, Inst, 1887, 

to suppose that if a chapel or allar was p. 125 (Heydemann). 



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CHAPTER XXIII. 

IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 

We cannot quote from the period before Pheidias any 
great monument that presented the inner character of the 
goddess by means of spiritual expression in the face or whole 
form. It would be tempting to take as a masterpiece of the 
religious sculpture of this period the Sosandra of Calamis, 
the greatest master before Pheidias in this field of work, 
and to call it Aphrodite. But reasons have been adduced 
against this interpretation ». A beautiful bronze, of the pre- 
Pheidian style, has been recently acquired by M. Caraponos 
and published in the Btdletin de Correspondance HelUniqtie^ 
under the name of Aphrodite. A female figure of tall slim 
maidenly form stands holding a dove in her left hand and in 
her right hand some object that has disappeared but was 
probably a flower ; the face is very earnest, and free from all 
sentiment, so far as one can judge from the photograph. The 
nobility and purity of the work, its naive unconscious grace, 
would give it an important place and an original value among 
Aphrodite-monuments, if the name were sure. A religious 
dedication of some kind it is undoubtedly, and the drapery 
with the folds of the chiton iroSijpT;^ and its arrangement of 
the upper mantle strikingly recalls the Vesta Giustiniani ; 
the symbols also are appropriate to Aphrodite. But no 
certain representation of this period shows us an Aphrodite 
of these virginal forms, these half-developed features *=, and 
this girlish simplicity in the arrangement of the hair. It may 
be therefore that the bronze is a representation of a girl- 
priestess of Aphrodite, and dedicated to the goddess. 

* See p. 666. ® 1 am following the account given 

*> 1891. Taf. 9 and 10, discussed, by M. Lechat, ib, p. 467, not having 
p. 461 ; height 27^ cent. seen the originoL 



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7IO GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

We can discover more about the type of Aphrodite in the 
next period, the zenith of Greek religious sculpture, when 
Pheidias was working for Greece. His chryselephantine 
statue of the goddess at Elis has left no trace of itself in any 
copy or later work as far as we know '. But the Aphrodite 
on the Parthenon frieze reveals the style and spirit with 
which the Pheidian school handled this theme. The striking 
characteristics, which the mutilated original and Carrey's 
drawing present to us, are the dignity of the pose, the majesty 
of the ample forms, and the austere disposition of the draj>ery, 
the Ionic chiton leaving bare only the lower part of the arms^ 
while the veil denotes the goddess of marriage. The face has 
disappeared. But a fragment in the Louvre may preserve for 
us an Aphrodite's head in the style of Pheidias (PI. LIIIj. 
It has been described by Frohner** as *superbe sculpture 
grecque de I'^cole de Phidias.' And Overbeck supj>oses 
that it may have belonged to one of the figures on the 
Parthenon pediments. This conjecture is certainly far more 
reasonable than Stark's comparison of it with one of the 
Niobids : for it has no resemblance with any figure in the 
Niobe group, while no work that is not actually known to 
have come from the Parthenon recalls so vividly the style and 
forms of the Parthenon sculpture. It has, in fact, all the 
prominent forms of the Pheidian type of head : the great 
breadth of cheek and depth of skull, the full chin, the simple 
grandeur of the line of eyebrows, and the large circles of 
the eye-sockets, the striking breadth of the forehead and 
of the space between the tyts^ the simplicity in the rendering of 
the hair. The lips are full, the upper high-arched. The 
^yts are gazing upward, and the whole countenance is full of 
thought and power without severity. For warmth of spiritual 
expression^ perhaps, no head of ancient sculpture surpasses this. 

* The type of the Aphrodite Ouia- period, and the arrangemeDt of the 
dU carved by Pheidias for Athens hair is not in accordance with the osoal 



Prof. Fortwilngler would discover in a Pheidian manner ; but the figure 

statuette at Berlin, published in Meister- in its main features to belong to this 

vfirke, p. 71, Fig. 24 : the drapery does school. 

not appear to be treated as we should ^ Frohner, SaUpturt du Latmn^ 

expect in a temple-statue of this 163. 



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XXIII.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 711 

It is the head of a goddess, and the bright look on the face 
and the faint smile speak of Aphrodite. 

There is, perhaps, only one head in Europe that shows us 
how the countenance of the goddess was treated by the sculp- 
ture of the fourth century in the period before Praxiteles ; 
namely the head in Holkham Hall in Norfolk*, a good 
Graeco-Roman copy of a great original (PL LI I). The skull 
is strikingly deep, but the surface of the cheek is not so broad 
as in the earlier type, while the sidewards inclination of the 
head, which becomes from this time onward a common 
characteristic of the goddess, is more marked. Yet it is free 
from excessive or voluptuous sentiment, and the expression is 
spiritual and noble. The hair is drawn away from the high 
broad forehead in rippling lines, but a small crescent-shaped 
tress falls on the cheek as is more usual in heads of the later 
period. The eyesockets are rather large, the eyes somewhat 
long, and the upper eyelid is slightly drawn down. The nose 
and chin are large, and the lips slightly parted. In the forms 
and expression the idea of love is purely and impressively 
given, but still with some reserve and without too much self- 
consciousness. The original was probably of the same period 
as the very beautiful Kertsch vase in the Hermitage of 
St. Petersburgh, on which is drawn the judgement of Paris 
and the three goddesses ^ ; and the work of the sculptor has 
many affinities with that of the vase-painter, who has given 
his Aphrodite the same large and noble features and the 
languid droop of the head. 

The masterpiece of Praxiteles, the marble statue of the 
goddess of Cnidus, is the most important monument of 
the worship of Aphrodite. It is necessary first to examine 
the statements made concerning it by ancient writers. The 
records suffice to prove that this statue enjoyed a more 
widely spread reputation than any of the other works of 
Praxiteles, and there are passages in literature which describe 
not only the outward motive but also the intrinsic character 
of the work. The words in Lucian's treatise *» tell us some- 

* Michaelis, Ancient Marbles, p. 314. 
^ Reinach, Antiquit^s du Bosphore Cimmiritn, PL 79. « Andres, 15. 



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712 GREEK RELIGION, [chap. 

thing of the pose, and then go on to define certain formal 
excellencies in the work which helped to convey the highest 
impression of external beauty and charm. This, in Lucian s 
tyes and the eyes of the whole ancient world, was the perfect 
ideal of the undraped Aphrodite, and the nudity itself was 
part of the novelty of the representation. Usually, except 
where an Oriental type survived, she was represented with 
drapery in the older and more austere Hellenic art. She 
must, indeed, have been represented unclad, or nearly so, in 
the scene of her birth from the waters carved on the footstool 
of the Olympian Zeus, and we see in Carrey's drawing a figure 
that seems to be the naked goddess on the western gable of 
the Parthenon. But it was a much greater departure from 
religious convention to erect such a statue of a divinity in 
a temple for worship ; and the conservative Greeks of Cos, 
with more regard for religion than for art, rejected this 
wonder of the world. Was Praxiteles' the first who made 
this change ? It is not at all certain, for Pliny • speaks of 
a famous Aphrodite statue by Scopas, naked and * Praxiteliam 
illam antecedens,' a phrase which may mean 'surpassing in 
merit,' or ' preceding in time,' the famous Praxitelean work. 
It is true that in the context the words would seem to refer to 
artistic merit rather than to time ; but, in any case, we may 
believe a priori that any statue by Scopas was earlier than 
one which Praxiteles could only have carved when he was in 
the zenith of his power and at the height of his reputation. 

At all events it was in the Praxitelean period that this 
innovation was made^ And we need not accuse Praxiteles of 
venturing in his handling of the religious subject to go beyond 
what the spirit of the age conceded. To embody the perfect 
ideal of the goddess for his generation, it had become necessary 
to show her unclothed ; and, if there had been no other reason, 
the formal excellencies of Praxiteles* art, his consummate 
power of giving life to the surface of the marble, would have 
prompted him to this. 

^ N. H, 36. 26. Achaea, and mentioned by Pansanias 

^ It has been assumed that a statue (7. 25, 9) and Diogenes Laertins (3. 43), 

of Aphrodite, carved by Eucleides before was undraped ; but vide supra, p. 613. 

346 B.C. for the temple of Bura in 



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xxiii.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 713 

Still less need we accuse him, as Brunn in his Kunsiler- 
geschichie has done, from the evidence of certain epigrams and 
other references in literature •, of infusing into his work any 
predominant sensual quality. The anecdotes on which he lays 
overmuch stress prove nothing but that the statue was nude 
and surpassed all others in the Greek world in formal beauty. 
Praxiteles is not necessarily answerable for the sensual effect 
produced by his work upon certain minds. Brunn's examina- 
tion of the epigrams aims at proving that they express a 
certain contrast between the loftier spiritual beauty of the 
Pheidian Athena (the Lemnian statue or the Parthenos) and 
the lower sensually fascinating beauty of the Cnidian : but it is 
difficult to see this clearly in the verses. One epigrammatist 
tells us that when you stand before the Cnidian you greet her 
as the queen of gods and men, and Pallas and Hera themselves 
would admit that the judgement of Paris was true : * wrong- 
fully do we blame the Phrygian shepherd ' ; but when you 
stand before the Athena you call Paris a boor for withholding 
the palm from her. There is nothing here said about any 
difference of impression that the two statues produce upon the 
mind or senses ; we only gather that each in turn, when men 
gazed upon it, overpowered the judgement. We must not 
read between the lines ; we know that there was a marked 
difference between the spiritual character of a Pheidian work 
and one of the younger Attic school ; but the epigrams are 
silent about this. We have then the anecdotes of Athenaeus 
and Clemens Alexandrinus, who aver that the courtesan 
Phryne was his model. Literary gossip about artists is rarely 
of value ; but if these stories were true, they prove nothing 
concerning the impression and idea of the Cnidian statue ; for 
though we know something about Phryne's life, we know 
nothing of her face and expression. Athenagoras ^ speaks of 
the Aphrodite Hetaira, the 'courtesan- goddess in Cnidus*; 
but if the epithet refers to the worship of Aphrodite Hetaira 
that we hear of at Samos and elsewhere, the reference is 
entirely unhistorical ; if it is merely vituperative, in such a 

• Overbeck, Stkriftquellen, 763, 1237-1240. 

* L^.pro Christ. 14, 



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714 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

context it has small value. Both Clemens and Athenagoras 
are writing with intention. On the other hand these facts 
must be weighed. The statue was chosen as a monument of 
the state-religion of Cnidus, and reasons have been shown for 
believing that its official state-title was EwAoia; and the 
goddess of the sea was another form of the ancient Ourania, 
who was much more than a goddess of human love. And 
there is a passage in Lucian • where the statue is regarded as 
the very counterpart of Ourania herself; a statement which is 
interpreted by Brunn as if it only pointed the contrast between 
the actual Aphrodite in the heavens and her image on earth, 
but which is more naturally understood as signifying that the 
image represented Ourania, according to the meaning of the 
term current in Lucian's day, as the celestial divinity of 
pure love. 

No doubt Praxiteles may not have intended this. But 
how could Lucian, the most subtle art-critic in antiquity, 
have called her Ourania if that which was prominent in her 
form and face was the idea of sensual passion ? Of course 
nothing would so clearly reveal the inner intention of the 
work as the expression of the face ; and Lucian alone tells us 
something of this. He enumerates its characteristics in terms 
which refer mainly to spiritual expression and partly to 
certain physical forms. No uncertainty attaches to the sense 
of the words rh ff^aihpbv koX Kexapiaiiivov ^ denoting the radiant 
charm of the face. When he speaks of the quality of to vypov 
in the countenance, he refers to the dreamy or languishing 
expression of yearning imparted by the slight drawing-up of 
the lower eyelid, which we see in many heads of Aphrodite, 
and of Alexander the Great also. If we insist that it must 
have added a sensual trait, how could it have appeared in the 
face of the ideal maiden Panthea®, whose countenance and whole 
form were full of the very modesty of Sosandra herself? But 
the meaning of virepi^^aroi' /xcidtc^o-a and (rcoijpJri yikoan ^ is not 
quite clear at a glance. It would hardly be in accordance 
either with the Greek construction or with the rhythm of 
the sentence to take iif^p-fiffxwov with K6Xki,(nov as meaning 

• De Imag, 23. ^ Imag. 6, « /ft. <* Amores, 13, 



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xxiii.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 715 

* beautiful beyond measure'; we must take it with /xcidiMo-a. 
If this should denote a disdainful and haughty smile, how could 
such a trait have been united with the radiant charm of the 
visage ? Both <rc(nyprfn and ihr€pi}^ayoj; are words that would 
imply as a rule nothing attractive ; yet it is clear from the 
context that they are here used in their rarer sense, the one to 
express the smile on the parted lips, the other in the sense of 
'lofty' or * sublime.' Both these usages are justified ; and the 
countenance of the Hermes of Praxiteles, with its indefinable 
expression, may give us reason to suppose that the sentiment 
of his Aphrodite's face was equally baffling for ordinary words 
to explain, and that Lucian is therefore obliged to resort to 
far-fetched phrases. 

The written evidence then does not warrant us in imputing 
a sensual character to this, the greatest of Praxiteles* 
works; the record tells us rather that this statue was in 
spiritual expression worthy of ranking with the Aphrodite of 
Alcamenes, with the Zeus and Athena of Pheidias, and the 
Hera of Polyclitus ; that what Pheidias had done for the type 
of Athena Praxiteles did for that of Aphrodite •, both having 
created the perfect image that men might worship as the 
ideal form of these divinities. 

We must also take account of the evidence afforded us by 
certain monuments ; in the first place by coins of Commodus 
and Caracalla, which of themselves contribute little or nothing 
to our knowledge of the intrinsic qualities of the work, as they 
possess no merit of style, but which help us to settle certain 
questions of motive and to discover other reproductions of the 
original. When we compare the figyre on these coins with 
Lucian*s account we can have no doubt that the coin-cutter 
has given us a mechanical but more or less accurate copy of the 
Cnidian statue ; and they help us to fill up the gaps in his 
description (Coin PI. B 50). The whole weight of the body 
was thrown on the right 1^, and the left knee was slightly 
inclined inwards. The head appears on the coins altogether 
in profile, but this is probably a departure from the original 
made by the unskilled copyist, who may have tried unsuccess- 

* Ludan, Imag, 23 ; Philottratns, Vit. AfolL Tyan. 6. 19. 



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7i6 GREEK RELIGION. [chap, 

fully to represent thus the sideward and downward turn of the 
head, whereby the modesty of the Cnidian statue may have 
been partly expressed or the character of Aphrodite EvirXota, 
surveying the sea beneath her, may have been conveyed. 

But what is the meaning of the water-vase and the raiment 
which she holds above it ? These would have been in place 
by the side of the statue, both as a necessary external support 
and as alluding to the goddess of the water ; and it is incon- 
ceivable that the coin-cutter should himself have invented and 
added this detail, as there was no external necessity for it in 
the coin-representation. The positive evidence of the coins 
then counts more than the silence of Lucian, and we may 
suppose that the vase and the robe were part of the original 
idea, but that they were not placed so near the figure as to 
hide the left side ; for Pliny says that the execution was 
equally admirable from whatever side the statue was viewed, 
implying that it was visible from every point of view*. If 
this motive, then, of the right hand holding the drapery which 
touches the vase is authentic, a certain part of the meaning of 
the whole work depends on the way in which we interpret it. 
Is the goddess laying it aside or is she raising it to clothe 
herself with it ? That is to say, is she undraping herself to step 
down into the sea, or is she Aphrodite ^Avabvofiivrj, the goddess 
just risen from the waves and not yet draped ? The shame- 
faced gesture of the hand, the timidity expressed in her pose, 
would be equally appropriate on either interpretation; but 
the pose of the body which is displayed by the coin-figures, 
and by the Munich statue that will be mentioned directly, 
makes for the latter explanation. For her body inclines 
away from the vase, and this is natural if she is raising the 
drapery off it and drawing it towards her ; whereas we usually 
incline towards the object upon which we place something. 
And again, the goddess rising from the sea was a common 
theme of Greek art and myth, and only slight allusions were 
needed to suggest it to the ordinary Greek's imagination ; but 
neither art nor myth had much to say about the goddess 
stepping from the shore to bathe. 

^ JV.lf. 36. ao. 



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xxiii.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 717 

Among the numerous statues of Aphrodite that survive 
there are only two that, on the evidence of the coins, may be 
pronounced to stand in very close relation to the Praxitelean 
original — the statue in the Glyptothek of Munich, and one in 
the Vatican. The details of the composition are almost the 
same in both, with the exception that the drapery is held 
rather differently in the Vatican statue, in which the idea of 
Aphrodite ^ Avahvoixivr) is by no means so clearly expressed *, 
and that its glance is more downward and sidelong. In both 
the pose of the limbs and the balance of the body is the same 
as on the coins. The hair of both is treated with the same 
simplicity and purity, being drawn away from the face and 
passing in light rippling waves into a knob at the back. Of 
the Munich statue much has been restored (PL LIV), namely, 
most of the upper part of the head, the nose, and the centre 
of the lips, half of the right fore-arm, the left arm from the 
bracelet downwards, the fingers of the left hand, the feet, and 
some parts of the vase and drapery. Nothing of the Vatican 
figure is new, except the left arm, and the right from the 
elbow downwards. Neither the one nor the other displays in 
the rendering of the surface of the body any striking excel- 
lence of style, and though the Vatican statue may be nearer 
to the original as regards the position of the vase, we cannot 
prove that in other respects it is a more faithful copy. The 
high value of both works lies in the rendering of the 
countenance, which more completely and more profoundly 
than any other monuments displays the ideal character of 
Aphrodite. 

Both faces are free from all sensual expression, all coquetry 
and affectation, and both have a certain stamp of divinity. 
The yearning pensive sentiment is expressed in each, the eyes 
of the Vatican figure being fixed on the ground, those of 
the other gazing dreamily into the distance and slightly 
uplifted. The forms and expression display the x^P*^> ^^^ 

• Ovcrbeck, in the Geschichie der and of the coin-figures proves that she 

Griechischen PUisiiky and Michaelis, in is laying her robe aside ; but they do 

the Archdologische Zntung^ 1876, de- not take into sufficient account the in- 

clare that the pose of the Vatican figure clination of the figure. 



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7i8 GREEK RELIGION. [chap, 

spiritual grace of Praxitelean sculpture, but the countenance 
of the Munich statue alone shows the faint smile which was 
the masterly trait of the origfinal, giving to the visage of the 
Cnidian goddess its radiant charm. The goddess and the 
woman are blended in these works as they were in the later 
worship. 

The influence of the Praxitelean type on the whole pre- 
dominates in the later monuments. Yet the religious 
sculpture after Praxiteles preserved in some of its repre- 
sentations of Aphrodite a certain tradition from the period 
before him. The most important work that illustrates this 
survival is the Melian statue, which will be described later: 
it is also illustrated by two Aphrodite heads in England, 
one belonging to the collection at Brocklesby Hall in Lin- 
colnshire, the other in the possession of Lord Ronald Gower 
in London. The first is probably a good Graeco- Roman copy 
of a late fourth-century work (PI. LV), for the hard lines 
of the throat and the shallow dry treatment of the parts about 
the eye betray the later hand ; and yet many of the forms are 
those of the early fourth-century type — the very broad cheek, 
the great breadth between the eyes, the rather austere 
arrangement of the hair. In the whole head there is a large 
vitality combined with a very serious expression, and in fact 
we could not be sure that this is the face of Aphrodite, if 
it were not for the pose of the head, the half-opened lips, 
and the holes for ear-rings in her ears. The forehead, which 
was once surmounted by a stephane, is extraordinarily high, 
and its height and triangular form remind us of the head of 
the Demeter of Cnidus. 

The head belonging to Lord Ronald Gower (PI. LVI) is 
an original Greek work, and unique among the Aphrodite 
heads in England ; it is of lifesize and of Parian marble, which 
has suffered much from corrosion, but not at all from the hand 
of the restorer, except that the eye-sockets, which were 
originally hollowed out for the insertion of eyeballs of metal, 
have now been filled up with plaster, and this has given a dull 
and lifeless look to this part of the face. Otherwise the face 
and forepart of the head is in perfect preservation, and the 



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xxiii.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 719 

warmth and the purity of the Greek work is felt in the treat- 
ment of the lips and the parts about the mouth. The hair 
shows the same graceful simplicity of arrangement as the 
Cnidian head, being carefully drawn away from the forehead 
and cheeks, and worked in fine rippling lines and gathered 
in a knot on the neck. The forehead is high, the cheeks of 
little depth, and the contour of the face suggests a period 
in the fourth century a little later than the Praxitelean. But 
the broad-ridged nose and the large chin are forms that recall 
an earlier type, and the characteristic expression is not so 
developed as in the Praxitelean masterpiece. The eyes were 
not so narrow, the face is less full of yearning sentiment; 
a faint trace of this is visible in the half-opened lips, and 
though many of the usual traits that reveal the goddess, such 
as the sidewards inclination of the head, are wanting, yet we 
need not doubt but that this is Aphrodite, with a countenance 
more austere and reserved than Praxiteles gave to his Cnidian 
work. The impression on the features is rather one of deep 
thought than of sentiment. 

A certain degeneracy in religious sculpture that we can 
trace from the b^inning of the third century downwards 
can be well illustrated by some of the statues of Aphrodite 
that we have inherited from the Alexandrine period. Long 
before any falling off in formal skill, we note the loss of 
seriousness, the decay of imagination. Nearly all of the 
crowd of Aphrodite statues in our museums are Graeco- 
Roman, but three at least may be mentioned that belong .to 
the Greek period, though of later origin than those already 
described. The Capitoline Venus is almost the best-preserved 
statue of antiquity, having been immured in a cell during the 
Middle Ages. There is far more reason for regarding it as 
a Greek original of the third century B.C. than as a Graeco- 
Roman work ; for none of these show in the surface such finish, 
warmth, and modulation. The glistening lustre of the surface, 
the liquid transition from part to part in the handling of the 
organism, are chief qualities of early Alexandrine sculpture •. 

* Cf. ^ Eutychides fecit Eorotan in qao artem ipso amne liquidiorem plurimi 
dizere,* Pliny, 34. 78. 



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720 GREEK RELIGION. [^hap. 

The softness of each detail in the Capitoline statue is as 
remarkable as the rhythm of the whole, the fascinating 
undulation of the lines. Its formal merits, in fact, are far 
higher than those of the two copies of the Cnidian statue, 
but in spirit and idea it falls far below them. All is calculated 
for external and transitory effect ; the emphasis is on the flesh 
and surface, and there is no marking of the permanent struc- 
ture of the organism nor of the forms of the skull which are 
clearly shown in the heads of the Cnidian type. Neither in 
the face nor in the whole form is there any deep sentiment 
expressed, any inward life revealed. The statue is, indeed, 
free from the vicious self-consciousness of the later Medicean 
Venus of Florence, but neither in the pose of the limbs nor in 
the countenance does the alhds^ the diffident modesty of the 
Cnidian, appear. The pose is without naiveUy and the action 
of the hands is full of reflection. There is nothing sensual in 
the face, but when we compare it with the Praxitelean, we feel 
the loss of imagination, of ideal character, here ; it is not so 
much that the expression is degraded, but it has become 
narrower and shallower : what is expressed in the mouth and 
large circles of the eyes is nothing more than a serious dignity. 
In certain details, also, we note the lack of purity and reserve; 
the hair in the crobylus is arranged for the most effective 
display, and some of the luxuriant locks have escaped and 
lie on the cheek, and this lavish treatment of the hair and this 
crobylus rising above the forehead become characteristic of 
the later Aphrodite type. The face and body show more 
fullness and maturity of form. The Praxitelean ideal has been, 
changed by the sentiment of the Alexandrine period, when 
the images of the divinities became part of the pageantry of 
the court. It is not the goddess, but the queen, that is 
presented to us with studied and brilliant elegance in the 
Capitoline statue. 

A work of the same type, and probably of the same period 
as this, is the Aphrodite of Syracuse (PI. LVIII). The head 
is missing, but it was evidently turned towards her right, as in 
the other statues of this type. The pose of the Cnidiafl 
original has been altered for this as for the Capitoline figure* 



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720 G^ 

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, •- ^ .• :.'■ r" ' s <> ii i''\; 'r •: • X' "^ a ^ V ''^'' ^ 

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< '..vc the :\ .il' \.l : ..o I t* J- .: n - . • 

- i.r: '^ui'iu'ty o: f( i':n. I1>c I'-';' vile" Tin k'-.^ i' \.. ■ 
t...' 't.l I'V t: c ^cntu^lLMl of ihc \''j ..*k1 ir. ;• iiw : 
ttu [i:...' -s ''1 tl ' t''\"'i Jc s b. cin::c \>.v\ - -f l.,c i-jj;,. -^ ■ 
llh c'l:. Jt is li'-i t\c j:.HMe'^, bit t^o /.-a.:. •' • 
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i^ n.; -^'; . *'uii !. v.as ^-v . Iv'.' \ t '? iv-,] r )■,,,: I'.s Iv/i : ' ' !, • 
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XXIII.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 721 

The weight is thrown on the left leg, and both hands are used 
to screen her body, but in the Syracusan figure the left hand 
raises a portion of the drapery for this purpose*, the rest of 
which is most artificially arranged as a sort of framework or 
shell for lower limbs. The modesty which was an inward 
quality of the Cnidian work becomes over expressed, or 
expressed by merely mechanical signs in the later sculpture, 
and is paraded in the Syracusan statue so as to lose all spiritual 
impressiveness. All that we are struck with in this, as in the 
statue of the Capitoline, is the workmanship of the very warm 
and soft surface, and the articulation of the torso. 

A fragment of great interest, as illustrating the sentiment 
of the later period, is the Aphrodite head at Smyrna, that 
may be attributed to the early part of the third century. In 
certain details, but not in expression, it resembles the Cas- 
tellani head in the British Museum — for instance, in the two 
crescent-shaped locks in the middle of the forehead. The 
hair is arranged in the later luxuriant style with a touch of 
Alexandrine fashion ; it is not drawn away from the cheeks, 
but is allowed to cover most of the ears ; above the forehead 
appears the rather low crobylos. The head shows the later 
proportions, being a high oval with more height than breadth. 
Neither in the expression, which is one of refined voluptuous- 
ness, nor in the relaxed features, is there any nobility or divine 
character. The mouth and chin are comparatively small, and 
the cheek has little breadth ; the eyelids are large, as is usual 
in heads of Greek workmanship, but the eyeballs narrow and 
long, so as to give the languishing look of Aphrodite. 

On the other hand, a few monuments have been preserved 
which prove that in some works of Alexandrine art the power 
of the older religious sculpture still survived. The Castellani 
bronze head in the British Museum must have belonged to 
a statue of Aphrodite ; for the sideward turn of the head, 
the brightness of the face and its expression of yearning, are 

* I have suggested in a paper in the breasts and on her left upper arm are 
Hellenic Journal, 189T, p. 58, that the due to the external supports that were 
right hand was drawing a strip of her riveted here to keep the right forearm 
drapery across her breasts : but this is in its position, 
impossible; the marics between her 

VOL. 11. X 



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722 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

characteristic of her, although the eyes appear to have had 
nothing of the usual narrowness. And some of the forms of 
the older types of sculpture survive, for instance, the great 
breadth between the eyebrowa Yet the head is entirely of 
Alexandrine type ; a large full oval, with considerable breadth 
of centre, and rather narrow width of cheeks ; and a sure mark 
of the Alexandrine period is the prettiness of the two crescent- 
shaped locks on the forehead. 

But no monument can show so strikingly how, in spite 
of decay, the older ideal style could survive in the repre- 
sentations of this divinity as the Melian statue in the Louvre*. 

This statue was found in the island of Melos in the year 
I Sao, and fragments of other statues of the Herme form were 
discovered at the same time ; also part of an upper left arm, 
a hand holding an object which is probably an apple, and 
a fragment of a basis with a large socket in the area of it, and 
on the face an inscription with the name of an artist of the 
Carian Antioch on the Maeander ^ Now we have no accurate 
information as to the exact spot or position in which these 
fragments were found, and therefore their provenance does 
not oblige us to connect any of them with the statue itself. 
The most important of all the external evidence as to the 
date and motive of the work would be afforded by the block 
with the inscription, if we could prove that this was part of 
the statue's basis. For then we should know, looking at the 
square socket in this plinth, that some object such as a trophy, 
Herme, or pillar, stood at her left side and might have served 
as a support for her left arm, or might account for the pose 
and action of it ; and, again, we should know that no other 
figure except possibly a Herme could be grouped with her 
on her left ; and, lastly, that the work must at least be later 
than the foundation of the city on the Maeander (circ. a8o- 
270 B.C.). 

» For recent literature concerning this d, grueh. Plasiik, 4th cd., vol. a, pp. 

work, vide Ravaisson, V^us de Milo 383-398. 

{^Afimoire de t Academic des inscriptions *» . . . ANAP02 . . . ENIAOT 

ei belles Uttres, T. 34. i, 116 pages); . . . lOXETS AHO MAIANAPOT 

Furtwangler, Meisterwerke^ pp. 367- EnOIHIEN. 

401 (Engl. Ed.) ; Overbeck, Geschichie 



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• • • . . ^ ■ .V ^o sv "' * jl\ I.' 'vv. •:' 

•.•..■*'■'• iTi 'I. " t ■'-. rhv «.. . 
' 1' , ' ! ; :l.:^ : .!.ai.; » ' V. l.^s in ti v ^ 

. 1 ./' . t. \s.. v'l 's i * ' :/ a:i .ip:'*c 

: • • \^ :.:» a i .'-■;(• s -■'.■ i :.i tl-o r'^<... ♦" .- 

•/ ' -1 'o 'l\ t':(. uA^nc ct" an ari'st •• 

• * . \ y' ^l c ..Ti'lcr ''. >.\. • . . liav 11.' ic . 
»t.. » ' ' t. r^';i r M^-'it o^- p^.^'ticn IP >\t::.:l'. t* 

.;' '1 • .1 \ ;' Tfj, .111 MuTX ''■!(' tK .r J *\'.\".vZ'/t .' •■ 

• ' • ' * t i"it'ot cT.y of tti. i\ wt'i ti'C ^ixith'^ ' 

'' ,.-.:":t 01 a'l the cxLeu.-il cvi icnoe .i* i- 

..t' t.:;' u rl: \v«'uLt f (. .;!*^ 'luce by ihi. t- 
•' ■ If we c' 'T'l pr ' (> li-at tl^.is \\'V:> p.- : 
'' ' ') i^ r Ji *^' 'fi ut slum' i k: .)W. luokin^^ :.t 

* ^ •' IS pl':it:'., tf.;^^ >< i.n' •'>' ; U -uch .15.* tr.» ■ 
. , . VI > -1 at- licr !' ft "-llv: ..-'.I niii^'i*^ tuiv-. -,. 
I •• ' .r licr le'r a' ni, or r: ';^lit p' i^t\ iit f )i t::c ^ 

v: . wl it ; .ii'fl, .'<y;i'.n, wc '^'I'-i/'l kn<>n' that r: • . * 

r\ .."■(. ( ^' ' , t p''-'!^ly tL iKiri.o -x"^ . cl L^ -;i-)-^;'-l .,.•:;. 
'^ . hrr l..'\ ; .«'iH. Lis:;- , that th.o \M..ik PM-^t at !ct.-t hr* . 
thin I ■' J irv'-.t" a «.*' l!.(. r'Av ^»^ xV. Al -i-a". i-r ( '.u: : 

•^ ' T •- ' ■.. V': I'Un:^' . ">."'•. \. '^ts ./ .^-M - ' /A. '/'% 4tl. - . -. ' 

'• .. \: - S. \ . -.>'^ , \' .us '. ^1l^> ^.'i' ;,(^^. 

:.. .. vr /r / , ;// ;.:'' -r /" ;/ :\''s ^ . . . \v*i'>»S . . iS'IAt'"i' 

r-/ . .t . '// ^, I ;.J. I. II ' J . ; : ... K'Xi.I \V^^ Ma:an.^.\ 



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XXIII.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 723 

The style of the writing belongs to the middle or first half 
of the second century B. C, if we can trust the copyist of the 
inscription. But the fragment cannot be immediately brought 
into evidence, for it has mysteriously disappeared. It is 
a gratuitous insult to suggest, as has been suggested, 
that the authorities of the Louvre deliberately destroyed it 
because it proved that their great acquisition did not belong 
to the best period of Greek sculpture. We must be content 
to depend on the records of those witnesses who saw it, and 
on the drawing made of it by the artist Debay. 

Dr. Furtwangler has subjected the whole question to a very 
searching analysis in his Meisterwerke, and has come to the 
conclusion, from evidence that cannot easily be controverted, 
that the plinth with the inscription certainly belonged to the 
original work ; and this view is gaining general acceptance. 
This, then, is the important point from which all theories as 
to the restoration of the statue should start. 

Before discussing these, it is well to examine what remains 
of the statue. We see a female figure larger than the natural 
size naked to the waist, with her lower limbs enveloped in 
a peplos, which is very carefully arranged around the loins, 
and which is saved from falling by the disposition of the end 
of the garment over the left thigh, also by the drawmg-up of 
the drapery under one of the folds on the right, where possibly 
the right hand was supporting it, and lastly by the inward 
inclination of the left knee : a studied but perfectly possible 
arrangement The whole weight of the body is thrown upon 
the right leg, and inclines greatly to this side, so that the 
right shoulder is sunk below the level of the other. But her 
head is turned somewhat to her left and bent forward, and the 
direction of her right side is the same. The left upper arm 
appears to have been held almost straight out from the shoulder 
and slightly forward, and the elbow not to have been sharply 
bent, as we may judge from the fragment of a left arm which 
was discovered near the spot, and which, as some of the edges 
exactly correspond, certainly belonged to the statue. The 
right arm was held obliquely across the body. There are two 
possible explanations of such a pose : it may be energetic and 

X a 



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724 CREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

dramatic, that is, she may be raising some heavy object, 
a shield for instance, or she may be partly resisting, partly 
yielding, to some force which bears upon her from her left : 
or it may be inactive, that is, she may be leaning with one or 
both of her hands grasping some support which frees her left 
side of any effort and allows her to recline as it were upon her 
right limbs. But there are no signs in the face of any energ^ic 
action ; the expression which has been very variously inter- 
preted is certainly full of repose. 

So far there appears no sure reason for giving to the figure 
any particular name. But the forms of the face and torso, 
considered together with the arrangement of the drapery, naay 
help to solve the question. It is in the body where the chief 
excellence and charm of the work is found. The large 
manner of the great style is still preserved in the organism 
which is treated so as to reveal much of the main fabric, the 
surface showing the shadow of the bone-structure beneath. 
But there is also consummate * Veritas ' in the surface itself, in 
the rendering of the folds of the skin ; the marble is lustrous 
and * liquid,' and the breath and life are seen in the body as 
they are never seen in a Graeco-Roman work. The shallow 
modulations of the left side show the warmest workmanship. 
Certain irregularities may be discerned which prove that the 
sculptor worked from the living model. But the whole is 
a striking combination of natural truth with high ideal concep- 
tion. The arrangement of the drapery may betray a certain 
study of effect, and does not obey the severe necessity which 
adjusts the drapery of the Parthenon figfures. But none the 
less the style here also is laige and dignified. The pre- 
dominant quality of the whole is * decor,' the union of beauty 
with dignity, which is the ideal that the Greek st>'le of the 
best age chose for the feminine type ; and this quality accords 
with the expression of the face. Some writers have persuaded 
themselves that certain sensuous traits are marked upon it, 
especially by the treatment of the mouth and eyes. The 
eyeball is somewhat rounded in the centre, as we find in 
the heads of Scopas and, at a far later date than these, in the 
Pergamene heads ; and the corners of the eye are rather 



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ti ' y i/t .V . , i ^t-ri !". a '■' ..'''3-K ^r- -n -.v^'k Y>\c i>!.i. 
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K ''i r. n ;.. ' l.\.. ir '.•>. J^L*! ik: ^\ • . 

"".. ',1.1 it o' tiC <h.i]» :} *i. .\* .j*_l' »» , t I '..' 

t'iv, '.ix {.♦ l-i'.^ I'l'lh: hTi :*_!.' il' S. 1^ ■: I; :.. 

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XXIII.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE, 725 

narrow, but the lower eyelids are not drawn up sufficiently to 
give to the eyes that expression of yearning that the Greeks 
called vYpirrjs. As regards the whole expression many various 
and contradictory accounts have been given. Veit Valentin sees 
in the face a look of alarmed wonder and high scornful 
disdain*; it suits his theory of restoration to discover such 
an expression, but his account is almost as untrue as that 
of those who find amorous desire in it. Even the forms of 
the head, though in some respects they betray the style of the 
later period, retain much of the nobility of an older type. 
We note the broad sweep of the eyebrow, the breadth of 
the upper part of the face, the purity in the arrangement 
of the hair, which is drawn severely away from the cheeks, 
and features that are not small nor over-delicate. Viewed from 
near or from far, the countenance appears free from human 
weakness or passion, and is stamped with an earnestness lofty 
and self-contained, almost cold. There is a distant interest in 
the eyes, which are fixed on no near object. 

From all this we can conclude that the work is genuinely 
Greek, and that it is a goddess who is thus represented. But 
what goddess? The pose and expression would not be 
unsuitable either to Athena or to Hera, but neither of these 
two divinities could be represented with undraped body : nor 
would this strongly modulated face be appropriate to them. 
The imperious face and posture might suggest a Nike adorn- 
ing a trophy, or a Muse playing on the lyre ; but there is no 
instance of a half-draped Nike or Muse except in the Graeco- 
Roman period. The drapery and the face confirm the belief 
that this is Aphrodite represented in forms not wholly alien 
to the Pheidian representation of her. 

This conclusion may enable us to choose between various 
theories of restoration. Many of these can be dismissed 
without much consideration. We cannot, for instance, 
seriously consider whether this is the voluptuous goddess 

» In his two treatises die hoht Frau purely impossible explanation (he sup- 

von MUo and Neues iiber die Venus poses she is struggling to resist Ares 

von Milo, in which he gives a subtle who grasps her right wrist), 
analysis of the pose, but suggests a 



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726 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

of pleasure tempting Heracles. And the distant and forward 
gaze of her eyes is in itself sufficient to show that she cannot 
be looking at her reflection in a mirror held in cither of her 
hands, nor can be pouring oil from a flask in her left hand 
into her right ; and it is difficult to reconcile the calm 
reposeful face with the supposition that Ares is present, and 
that she is repelling his advances, even if Greek sculpture 
of this period could represent divinities in such a situation. 
Again, the Florentine group of Ares and Aphrodite laying 
her hands on his shoulders shows the goddess in a pose 
essentially different from the Melian ; in whose face there 
is no expression that could at all suggest a love-scene. 
This is admitted by some, who still maintain that Ares is 
present not as the lover but as the divine husband, and 
that the group represents the imion of the austere divinities 
of Thebes. But, if we believed this, we should not be a step 
nearer towards explaining the peculiar pose of her arms, and 
all theories are useless that fail to give some reasonable 
account of this. No doubt the presence of a second person 
would relieve the monotony of line on the left side of the 
goddess, but her distant and strangely self-contained expres- 
sion make us rather believe that if anything was placed 
by her left side it was some inanimate object. Finally, the 
strongest objection to the theory that a second person was 
present is the evidence of the inscribed plinth ; for if this, 
with its rectangular socket in the middle, really belonged to the 
original work, as there is every reason to suppose, then nothing 
could have been placed at Aphrodite's left side except a pillar 
or a herme. May we then suppose, with Dr. Furtwangler, that 
she was holding out an apple in her left hand and leaning with 
her left arm on a column ? There is some external evidence 
that might seem to support this supposition ; for the fragment 
of a hand holding an apple was found somewhere near the 
statue. But it is of far too rough and coarse execution for us 
easily to believe that it is part of the Melian figure. And 
there are internal reasons against this theory: if she is holding 
out the apple, she is holding it in a very remarkable manner. 
Not unobtrusively, as in many older and later monuments, as 



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XXIII.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 727 

a permanent and silent symbol of the goddess of fruitfulness 
and marriage, but parading it in her left hand raised nearly 
to the level of her head ; held thus, it could only be a sign 
triumphantly displayed of her victory over her rivals. But 
the face is perfectly free from excitement or hint of display. 
Dr. Furtwangler, indeed, would restore the left arm quite 
differently, on the supposition that the elbow was bent and 
the fore-arm was resting on the pillar in such a way that 
the hand with the apple lay over the edge pointing to the 
ground. But his restoration is by no means convincing, 
and his theory depends on the assumption that the hand 
with the apple must be part of the work. In spite of his 
arguments, which do not rest on direct evidence, it is still 
reasonable to doubt whether such a hand could have belonged 
to such a statue*. 

As the left foot appears to be considerably higher than the 
right, and might be only touching the ground with the ball of 
the sole, it has been supposed that the balance of the whole 
figure would be very frail and uneasy unless both hands were 
occupied in grasping some support, and that this might well 
be a spear held free of her body on her left side ; hence we 
might account for the complicated pose of the various parts of 
the body. The spear, indeed, might be an attribute of the 
goddess, alluding to her romantic relations with Ares, or to 
her ancient Eastern character. But as the left arm was held 
almost straight out, the spear grasped by both hands must 
have produced a very ludicrous effect ^ Nor can we imagine 
how the spear could be placed in relation to the pillar or 
herme. And that both hands should be used to support her 
balance is not necessary, when we consider that the plinth 
with the inscription was higher than the rest of the basis, and 
that thus the left foot, though higher than the other, could 
still be resting firmly on this raised part. 

• Vide Ovcrbeck, op. cU. p. 388. that the left elbow was very slightly 

^ Keil {Du Venus von Afilo, Han- bent ; and apart from this the figure of 

over, 1883), who restores the figure on the goddess in his sketch suggests an 

this theory, takes no notice of the firag- athlete with a leaping-pole, about to 

ment found of the left arm, which shows take a leap. 



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728 GREEK RELIGION. [chap. 

Among the probable explanations of the mysterious figure 
— and perhaps probability is all that we can hope to attain— 
are two that commend themselves. The socket in the plinth 
would agree with the theory that by her left side stood 
a herme-representation of the goddess herself in the form of 
an archaic image, and that she is resting her left arm on the 
head of her own idol. Many analogies might be quoted for 
this combination of a younger type of a divmity with an 
older : the statuette of Artemis from Lamaka is a conspi- 
cuous instance. Or she may be holding a shield erect with 
the left hand, while its lower rim rests on the pillar. The 
right hand would then be steadying the lower part of it, on 
simply employed in keeping her drapery in its place. The 
motive of other cognate works does not, of course, give us 
a conclusive proof as to the motive of the Melian statue; 
but if this theory were correct, we should understand why 
other . representations of Aphrodite with the shield show in 
general treatment a strong resemblance to this work. Thus 
the figure of the Venus of Capua in the Museum of Naples, 
the goddess who is probably using the shield of Ares as 
a mirror, and whose foot is on his helm, though it differs from 
the Melian in many important details of the pose, is a work 
derived from the same original. We find a similar figure 
with almost the same arrangement of drapery on the coins of 
the Roman colony of Corinth (Coin PI. B 46). A terra- 
cotta figure at Carlsruhe of some beauty of style, possibly 
a Nike writing on a shield, is of the same type as the MeliaJi. 
It is evident that some representation to which all these might 
be closely akin was known in the Alexandrine period ; for the 
device of the goddess, whose drapery has slipped from her 
shoulder, and who is gazing at her reflection in the shield of 
Ares, is mentioned by Apollonius Rhodius^^^ amidst the 
figures wrought on the shield of Jason ». 

» It must be also borne in mind that her body inclining slightly to her left : 

the 'Melian' rootiye appears in other she is draped like the Melian statne, 

representations than those of the shield- and has the same large and noble 

holdmg goddess : e. g. in a terracotta structure of torso, but tilie face and cx- 

stetuette in Vienna of Aphrodite with pression recall the Praxitdean style 
her left leg resting on a dolphin, and 



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xxiii.] IDEAL TYPES OF APHRODITE. 729 

The goddess with the shield for her mirror is a jei4 desfrit 
of Alexandrine imagination, suggested perhaps by her older 
serious cult-relations with Ares. But the Melian statue must 
have a more serious significance: for if she is holding the 
shield on a support she is neither looking into it nor writing 
on it. What she is doing or what she is looking at we shall 
perhaps never discover. In the meantime we may believe 
that in the statue we have a great monument of Aphrodite 
worship, free from the triviality of much contemporary art 

The question as to its date is, of course, mainly decided by 
the inscription, but it may also be judged on purely internal 
evidence. Some critics of the last generation confidently 
attributed the work to Scopas or Alcamenes, merely because 
of its high ethical qualities and the large treatment of the 
forms and drapery. But this theory has never been supported 
by any real criticism. That the Melian goddess is more 
austere in respect of drapery, form, and expression than the 
Cnidian is no proof at all that this statue is earlier than the 
Praxitelean. The older type with its appropriate qualities 
was often preserved in a certain locality for certain reasons ; 
and a post- Praxitelean sculptor whose theme was Aphrodite 
was not bound to adhere to the type of Praxiteles, and he 
might attach himself to the severer style of the older Attic 
school. It may have been Praxiteles who brought into 
fashion the type of the undraped goddess, and before his 
epoch we may believe that the form of the fully-draped 
Aphrodite had become less austere, and representations of the 
half-draped figure, such as the Melian statue and the Venus 
of Aries, a Graeco-Roman copy of a possibly pre-Praxitelean 
original, may have come into vc^^ue. But of course it is 
absurd to argue that therefore any statue of a half-clothed 
Aphrodite must be older than the Cnidian. In judging the 
date of any ancient monument the marks of the later style 
are more valuable as chronological evidence than those of an 
older style that may be found in it. The latter may be 
a survival, the former can scarcely be an anticipation. Thus 
in the treatment of the structure of the torso, we find in the 
Aphrodite of Melos much of the older ideal manner ; but at 



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730 GREEK RELIGION, 

the same time we note the liquid and lustrous suriace, and 
the high effect of * Veritas ' or * surface-truth ' that Praxiteles 
was the first to achieve in a conspicuous degree. Again, the 
throat is longer than is usual in the earlier type, and the small 
head bears a proportion to the body that was not adopted 
before the time of Lysippus. It is the head that proves 
most conclusively that we must assign to the Melian statue 
a relatively late date in the history of Greek sculpture ; for 
we find on it the workmanship of the later Alexandrine hand. 
There is no marking of the bone-structure ; the cheeks lack 
breadth and fall away suddenly towards the centre, where the 
surface is deeply modulated, and strong shadows fall about 
the mouth and nose and in the deep eye-sockets. The 
Tegean heads of Scopas show a surface of face quite as 
varied in modulation, but the lines are firm and plastic. But 
here the deeply-shadowed face gives us the impression of 
forms unfixed and relaxed. And this is the contrast that 
this head presents to the head from Tralles now in Vienna, 
which in its pose and slope of its shoulders displays a marked 
likeness to this, but shows a severer scheme, more plastic 
firmness. In fact, the Melian head may attest the influence 
which was strong in the Alexandrine period of painting upon 
sculpture. It is probably a work of the second century B.C, 
somewhat earlier than the monuments of the second Per- 
gamene style, with which it has very little affinity ; the femafe 
head from Pergamon (circ. 170-160 B.c), with which it has 
been rather arbitrarily compared, shows a far greater departure 
from the plastic style, a far more mobile and picturesque 
handling of the features ; and the Pergamene artists in their 
religious sculpture fall below the sculptor of the Aphrodite of 
Melos in spirit and imagination. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXUXXIIL 731 



References for Chapters XXI-XXIII. 

Local worships of Aphrodite. 
In North Greece. 

* Byzantium : Hesjch. Miles. Constantinop. 16 dvuripa d^ mKp6¥ 
TOW Hoati^tfos ¥aov Koi r6 Tfjs 'Ac^podtVi^r wpoa'ayofHytrtu rtfitvos, 

* Pharsalus: Aphrodite BtM: Roehl, Ins, Graec, Anti 327 
Ta(<t>p)otiTfii TO nti$o{i) (inscription of fifth century b. c). 

* Larissa : "h^tpiot : Ussing, Imcrtp, Graec. 8. 8 b (inscription of 
Roman period) Uiivhs 'A^piov. Cf. the name ^A/m^/i; for Aphrodite in 
oracle found at Callipolis in Chersonnese, Kaibel, Hermes^ 19, p. 261. 

* Athenae. 589 B, Lais was slain in Thessaly by Thessalian 
women in the temple of Aphrodite, raXt (vXipau x'^^^'^^ rvnrofunip 

cV 'A^podin/ff Up^' ^^6 Ka\ r^ r€fAtPot ickriSrjpai awotrias 'A^podtn/ff (from 

Polemon). 

* At Metroj)olis in Histiaea: Strabo, 438 *A<f>podiTfi ^ tprj MijTpon^tt: 
worshipped with swine-offerings there. 

•* Epirus: C/. Or. 1823 (inscription of second century a.d.). At 
Dodona : Carapanos Dodone, PI. XXVI, i 'fi^XtW *A<I>pMt^ dptBriKt, 

^ In Aetolia, at Phistion: Collitz Dialect- Inschr, 1428* mihoni 
AvKos . . . 'A^pod/rf 2vpl^ ^larvi^ a&fia avdpijov . . . cV iXtvBtpi^. 

^ Delphi : Plut. A ma/. 23 (p. 769) ^ . . . dpaPkaardpowra Kaff ^tpap 
rip^ Koi xopiff 1^0^ ayanriins dXX^Xa>v koi niartt oCrt AcX<^»ov£ cXry;(«i Xfipovrras 
ori lijv 'A<l>podmjp''Apfta Kokovau^, 

* Thespiae : Paus. 9. 27, 5 tfari dc «eai MptiBi *A<f>po^iTris MtXaiPidas 

Upip, 

* Thebes : Paus. 9. 16, 3 *A<t>poiiTfis BrjPalou $60^6 ivriv oiIfr« d^ apxata 
&vr* Koi ipaBiiiwra* Appjomas tJpoi f^aw . . . Kokown dc Ovptanaof, r^v dc avr&p 
UMrffiop, KOI 'AinHrrpofJMiP rfj¥ rpirriP, Cf. *'*. 

*• Oropus: Paus. I. 34, 3 *^/MMriOi£ ¥a6tiaruf*A^f^tap^w . . . frap€xgTai 
ii 6 fi»/i6s fUpvj . . • rmpTfi ti dart rov 3»fiov fUMpo 'A^podin/s koI IIaKucc(as 
cri dc *la<rovs koI 'Yyifia^ mil *A$fi¥as TUu^puis, 



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733 GREEK RELIGION. 

In Attica. 

" Athens: •Paus. i. 14, 7 irXiy<rio» (near the temple of Hephaestus 
beyond the Ceramicus) Upow i<mp 'A^pod/n;^ olpawias . . . "A^ipBiwf U 
KaT€arri<raro Alyfvs , , , r6 di ff^* ^f^mw tn Sydkfia kiOov TLapUm Koi tpyof 

^ 'Ai^podin; ^ JOTiroiff : Paus. I. 1 9, 2 lijp 'A^podinyv fj tov poov (cv Kxp^t) 
irXijo-uw ^onjicf. Tavrrjs yhp (fx^fui /icv Ttrpdympop Korii raMi mi rois 'Epfuus^r^ 
dc rrriypafifui arifiedpti t^v Ohpavlcof *Aif>pMTtiP rcoy KoKovfiJw^p MoqAv cim 

irp€<rPvTarq¥. C /. i4. 273 f. 1. 12, publication of temple accounts circ 

42 a B.C., {^A<f)po^ir)fif h Krprois. PauS. I. 1 9. 2 Syakfui 'A^podtnyf T^f e» 
Kffnois tfpyo¥ ^orly 'AXieci/Mvovf neat ri>¥ *A$fi¥jjaiv er ^Xiyotr ^cof o^v. 

c Aphrodite Iliivdiy/iioff : Paus. I. 22, 3 'Atppo^irrjp rijv ndpiriiiow, flrci 
Tt *ABfj»alovs Oij<rtvf h fiiav fjyayt anh t&p ^fimp w^kttr, avrfpf a'€ffea6at 
Koi nci^ mirc(m7(r«. The worship attributed to Solon by Nikander: 
vide '". 

^ Temple of 'AtftpodlTrj A^' •imroXvry : Schol. Eur. fft^fi. 25 rirl werpn 
TUf6s ip T^ *AttikS d<l>* fjs ^ cbro^Xcirro^ai rffp Tpoi(fjpa, *A<ppodini9 pair 
UipvawrBoi n^y 4kudpap ^o-tV iKdktat bi 'A<^podrrf;v #^* 'linroXvr^ ^ ai 
'Imrokvriop jcaXoOa-i. Hom. Odyss, II. 320, Schol. ^aidpa Upw*A<Ppofi«nfi 
tp ^ABrfPcus idpCaaro rb ia)y 'imroXvrtov Ktikovfitpop, C, I, A, I. 212! 

I I b ^ h *A<f>pM'n}s Art 

"'OUYTO ■" 'linroXvT^- 
one of the inscriptions found on the Acropolis of Athens, referring to 
the accounts of temples. Eurip. Htfp. 30 : 

nerpop vcLp avrfjp IldKkd^s iccn^iop 
yrjs Ttjabt pa6p Kvwpibos lyKaBiaarOy 
ipwT fpoor' Mrffxop' 'linroXvr^ ^ «r4 
t6 XotTT^ir a>p6fia(tp U^pvaBai Btdp, 

® Aphrodite ^Epoyatvios, on inscription of Imperial period found in 
theatre at Athens, C. L A, 3. 189. 

' Athenae. 57' C t^^ nap* ^ABrjpalois icoXov/io^c 'ETolpas 'Ac^po^'nyf . . . 
iraipav hi *A(f>podiniP ttip tovs eraipovs koi rhs rraipas avpoyova-op. Hesych. 
S. V, haipaf Up6p rrjs *A<f>podiTTis *A6riPfi<n, 

K Aphrodite ^lOvpos at Athens, vide '" K 

" Attic Demes : ^Paus. i. 14, 7 trj/ios ht iarw*ABfip<dois*ABiummv ^ 
ILopffntpinpa tin np&rtpop *AicTaiov ^aaCktvircana rr^t Ovpopiat ^<rl tA wafii 
<r<f>iO'iP Uphp idpv<raaBai» 

^ At Alopecae : C. I. Gr. 395, inscription second century a.d. 

c Temple of Aphrodite on the way between Athens and Eleusis: 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI^XXIIL 733 

Paus. I. 37, 7. At Plotheia, sacrifice to Aphrodite: C. L A, 2*, 
570. 

^ At Cephale : Isaeus, 2. 31 dKthoi 6yu6<ravm fnxip np6s T<f fit^fi^ r^ 
TTJt *A<t>pMTtjs Kc^oXgo-i. Cf. A then, MiitheiL 1893, p. 209 5po£ rtfi^povt 
*A<f>podirTfs Kt<t>a\rj$€¥ (cifC. 40O B. c). 

^' Peiraeeus : * Paus. 1.1,3 ^P^^ ^ ^ Bakdaajt K6pti>¥ <^Ko!i6fui(rt¥*A<f)f)0' 

dirrjs Up6Pf rpiriptit AaKtdatfjMPitnv Kartpyaaafitpos irtpii KpHop, Schol. Arist. 
JPax 144 KaWiKpanis (fnjalp ij MtpticKtjs hf r^ irtpi *A$rjp&p ypdtJHiP ovro», ''fx'* 
di 6 Hupauvs \ifi€pas rptls , , , tU flip 6 Kap&dpov Xift^p . . . f fra *A<^podcVtov." 

^ Aphrodite ElhXota^ vide Rhang. Anh'g. HelUn, No. 1069 ^Aprpio^ 
*Apyctov Tpucopwrioi (rTpaTfjyfi<ras im rhp Iltipaw *A<l>po^Tjff Einrkoi^ ^XS 
ayaBi ap€$fiK€P. Inscription of latter part of fourth century b. c. 

c Oriental worship of Aphrodite in the Peiraeeus: C /. -^. 2. 168, 
inscription b. c. 333-332, recording the leave given by the state to the 
men of Citium to found a temple to the goddess there. /</. 2. 627, 
inscription found in the Peiraeeus, • . . wtpl &v oirayyAXci ^ i(c)p€ui 
rfjs ^vpias (Btov) . . . irtpi t&p Ov{au»p &r tfOvtp) rj rt *A(f>po^iT€i rtl Svpci^ 
k,tX. (circ. 100 B. c). Id, 3. 136 MriTpl Bcttv cvayri^ larpipg *A4>poiiT]j 

dvtOriMP (Roman-Imperial period). 

On the Attic coast. 

"* On the promontory of Colias: Paus. i. i, 5 K«AiaA>j W ^irrtp 
tPTavBa *A<f)pMTfis SyaKfta koi TtprrvXKi^s 6popM(6fitpai Btai, Strabo, 398 
t6 r^f Ki»Xtddo£ 'Ac^podcn/r UpSp^ €ls hp r6tmp tKKVfiOpBfjpai rh rcXcvrata rh 
CK Ttjf iTfpi SoXo/iiya PovfAOxias rrjs Utpauajs povayia ifMirtP. Various explana- 
tions given of the name KoXius by the Scholiast on Arist. Nud. 52. 
Cf. Harpocr. and Suid. s. v, K<aKias : her name occurs on an inscrip- 
tion on a seat found in the Erechtheum, C, /. A. 3. 339. Cf. Aphrodite 
KaXidf worshipped on Hymettus, Photius, p. 185, 21. 

^ Probably near Phalerum, Aphrodite imrpayU : Plut. Thes. 18 X/ycrm 

aln^ (Oijo-f 1) rhp p«p cV AcX<^oi£ ovcXf ly B€6p *A<f>po^TriP KaBriy€fi6pa iroulcBtu 
Koi irapaicakup frvpffinopop, Bvopti d^ irpof BakdaoTj r^v alya Brjktuuf oZaoP 
avToparas rpayop y^PtcBai' ^16 Koi KoXfur^at rfjp Btop 'Eirirpayiap, CI, A. 

3' 335 *^<t>po^rfii *EniTpayias, inscription of Imperial period on seat 
found in the Erechtheum. 

** In Megara : •Paus. i. 43, 6 furh di roC ^opwrov r6 Up6p taruf 
*A<f>podiTri$ pa6t, SyaK/jM dc eXc^oj^rcx ^Afftpodinjt frcirotiy/icrov, Upa(is €micKrj<rur 
tovt6 ccrny ipxat^rarop fV r^ mi^. nct^«i dc icai Mpa B€6f^ ^ Uapffyopop 
6pofid{ovauf, Ifpya Ilpa^Ttkovt, 

^ Paus. I. 40, 6, near the Acropolis of Megara, mnoufrai 'A^ppodlrris 

*EMiaTpo<l>ias itpw. 



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734 GREEK RELIGION. 

*• Corinth : •Euripides, Frag. (Strabo, 379) fJKt^ vtplKkvarw npokanm 
* AKf}OK6piv$op, Uphiw Zx'^ov^ 9rAiv ' Affipoiirrjs : ib. 17 Kopfuffiii vtuiu» tx^ 
*A(l)pobvnjs, PaUS. 2. 5, I mXBowrty cr t6p *AKpoK6pt9fBop, poos iaru 
'Ai^podin^f * aydkfutra dc avrri re ionktafUptf Koi 'HXiOf juu ^Ep»s iex"^ ro|or. 
Alciphron, 3. 60 <^acrt r^p 'A<l>podiTrjp Ac KvBrfpap opaaxovaop Ttpf 'AKpotc6ptP' 
Bop aandaatrSai' tl fi^ &pa rots fup yvpoiois *A(f>podiTrj irc^uwxpf* • • • Plut 
de Malig, Herod. 39 cV t^ pqi^ r^ff 'A^po^riyc, &» Idpvo-atr&at yi^^tap 
\4yov<n (at Corinth). 

^ Paus. 2. 2, 4, in a cypress-grove before the city, BcXXcpo^Amw t< 

coTi riiupoi Koi *A(f>po^iTfis poits McXoiyidor^ ical Td<fH>s Aatdog. 

^ Paus. 2. 2, 3 (V dc KryxP^ais 'A^podtn^r tc cWi Kioff jcal SycikfMaXiBoy. 
" Corinthian colonies : *Corcyra: C /. (rr. 1872 and 1873. 

^ Syracuse : Hesych. S. v. Baicori^* *A(l>po^lTij wapa ^vpaKoatots. 

" Sicyon : Paus. 2. 10, 4 •A^poStTi;^ «€p<{i^ cVtaot /uy diy cV ovrA yv»4 Tf 
ycttfCfSpor, ^ fiTjK€Ti Btfiis nap S»bpa (fxnTrjacu, Koi wapBtPOS Up»axnnpf iwcFttw 
tfxovaa' \ovrpo<f>6pop t^p irapBipop SpofiaCova-i' rots dc oXXocr Kara ravn Km 
6pap air6 rrjs f <rodou r^v Bt6p icai avT6B€P vpo<rtvxf<TBat* t6 pip bri Syakpa kob- 
ffptpop Kavaxos 2iKvoiPio£ inolffatp . . . ntiroltfTai €K re xpv<roi; ical Iki^anrw^ 
ifiipovaa in\ r§ Kt<f>ak^ vSkoPy r&p x^^P^^ ^^ ^X'* ^ f^^ pffKMPa rj d€ inf^ 
prjkop, 

" Hermione : *PauS. 2. 34, 11 'A<^/x)dinjf pa6s iarip hrucKifotP Uomof 
Koi Atptpias fijs avTjjs. 

^ Paus. 2. 34, II Kai pcAs €Tfp6s ioTtP *A<l>poiiTfis' avnj ical SXXas ?x** 
Tvaph 'EppMPttiP Tipds, Kal rait irapB^POis Koi tjp yvpfi x>7pf vov<ra vp6s Mpa /i*XX^ 
(fxHT^Pf STrda-cus vpo yapov Bvtip KaBiimiMP mavBcu Cf. C, I. Gr. 1233* 

*• Epidauros : Paus. 2. 29, 1 *A<l>po^iTT}s Uphp veiroUirai, 

^ At Troezen: *Paus. 2. 32, 3, worship of Aphrodite KonMncorto, 

connected with HippolytOS : tb, § I Ud<rni napBepos n\6Kapop dwoKtiptral 
ol ('bnroXvr^) np6 ydpov, Ktipaptprj bi d»€Bf)K€P cV rhp pq^p f^powrcu Cf. 
Lucian, De Dea Syr. 60. 

^ 'A<f>pMTfi iv B^craaiff : inscription at Troezen third century b. c 
CoUitz, Dialect' Inschr if ten^ 3364, 1. 14. 

*' Argos: Paus. 2. 19, 6, * prehistoric ^va *A<f^pM'n\£ ital*Epf«w... 
tir(ppyTi<rrpa KpiBtura (for sparing her husband) tp toJc *Apyuois avot^fvy^ 
Ka\ *A<f>pobirriP in\ r^bt dp€BijK€ Niin7<^por. 

^ Paus. 2. 23, 8 nXtfaiop rov tuopvirov Koi 'Ac^podiny; pads iarip Qvpamas* 
Hesych. S. v. 'Axpia , . . 'A^podin; npoaayoptvoptprj €p *Apyfi» Cf. '** *• 

« Aphrodite TvpS<»pvxo9 : Clem. Alex. Protrept. 33 P. «• ^* 'Apytiavsn 
'A<l>pofilTfjp Tvpfi»pCxop BprfCKtvowri. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI-XXIIL 735 

^ Tegea : Paus. 8. 53, 7, near the temple of Demeter and Core, 
{yahi) 'Ac^podtn/p KakovfjJvrfs Ha^ias' Ibpvcraro aMfv Aaodiio] ytyoinfia fiiv , . . 
m6 *Ayawffvopos . . . olKovaa dc ^v Ilai^^. 

** Manlinea : Paus. 8. 6, 5, by a fountain about a mile from the 
city, *A<l)poblTTjs lep6¥ McX<uvtdo9. Id, 8. 9, 6, near the theatre in the city, 
raov Tt *Aif>podiTfis tirucKfjO'iP 2vfAfiaxiof ip€lnta Koi Syakfia iXttvtro , , , t6 d^ 
Upov KaTtaK€vdamn-o rovro ol MopTiyus \m6p3n)pa it rovs (firtiva lijs Spov 
'Peipaioi£ cV *Aiert4]» vavpaxlau 

** Sparta: Paus. 3. 15, lO-II ^mbs dpxalos mi *A<t>po^iTrjf ^6avo¥ 
omKi<rp€infs. 

^ Paus. 3. 15, II pa&v dc, Lv oVia, p6p<j^ rovriji km V7rtp^¥ oXXo cV^icodo- 
fifjTfu Mop(f)ovs Up6v, €niKkTi<ns piv bff rrjs *A<l>podiTrjs iaTiw ^ Mop<l>o>f KaBfjroi 
di KoKvnrpdw rt c;(OV(ra Koi n-cdar ntpl to7s no<ri, Plut. Instit, Lacon, 239 A 
*A<fipo^iTfiP atpovfTi r^y cvottXiov koi iravTat dc tovs Btovs Brjkut ical Spptvas 

\&YXas txovrat iroiovtrrai. Inscription from Sparta of Imj)erial period, 
mentioning ^ Uptta t&p Motp&v Aa;(f <r€o»v icai *A<l>podiTfjs ^poirXtou, C /. Gr. 
1444. Cf. inscription of Imperial period found near Amyclae, Efh. 
Arch, 1893, p. 23: mentioning the l€/)«vf 'Ac^podcm^f Ovpmnas. Lactantius, 
Div. InsiiL 1. 20, the Lacedaemonian women armed themselves against 
the Messenians, propter huius facti memoriam aedem Veneri armatae 
simulacrumque posuerunt. Anthol. 9. 320 ctire itnK EvpJm-af irorl tAjt 
Kvirptp' fj \afit Ttvxil, 9 '(iBi rac Indpreis' d ir6Kis Snkopoptt, Cf. Anth. 
Palud. 173 aldop€tnj d* Sipa Ota-pb. ptptnr^ktpoto AvKovpyov (^iXrpa ^pci 
2ndpTu rtvxKTUf dy^fpaxois, 

® Paus. 3. 1 7> 6 ^T**'"^ ^« '*5* XoXkioocov pads ivrw *Aif>podiTfi9 'ApCMW* 
TO dc ^dewa dpxaiay ttntp Ti oKko cV *^£XXi;<ri. 

d Aphrodite 'Apunfria: Roehl, Inscr, Gr. Ant, 79. 

^ Paus. 3. 13, 9 (dopov dpxaiap Kakovo't.p *A(f>podiTrfs'''Hpas' M, dc Bvyarpi 
yapovptpQ p€PopUaai rds pfirtpas tq $t^ Bvtip, 

^ Id. 3. 12, II npbs dc rg 2«iadc otKMpaipd 4<m n«pi<t>€ptSf cV di alm^ Ai6r 
icat *A<f)podiTrfs dydkpara ttriickria'tp *0\vparwp» roCro ^'EwiptwlfhiP KOfnurKtvdaM 
Xcyovo-t. 

8 A/. 3. 18, I T&p^€ AvftpidpTCiP Tov Havcapiov nkrfaiop corly *Ap/3oXoy^/xiff 
*A<f)podiTtjs Hyakpa, Cf. Plut. Quaesi, Conviv. p. 654 C Aryoi^rff cV TOi£ 
r£v ^»y vppoif dpdfiakt Spi» r6 yfjpag, & xaX^ *A<l>pMrrf, 

** Paus. 3. 18, 8 IloXvcXf tro£ dc *Aif>podiTrjp naph *AfivicXat^ icaKovpivrpf, 
Cf. inscription found at Amyclae mentioned above. 

'^ Megalopolis: *PauS. 8. 3a, a ip^iitia luu r^r 'A^podin/f i(v r6 Ic/M^y, 



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736 GREEK RELIGION. 

likffw ttrop wp6mi6s re cXciirrro rri jcal aydk/jutra dpi$fi6p ^pith flrucX^otr ic 

^ PaUS. d* 3 1 ) 3 ^oTt d< ivrhi rov irtptfiSKov rS>p fuydKciP BtSm «u *A<^podcnff 
(C/N$v . . . oydX/ioro ^y rf ki^ Aa/io^oy €iroirfa€V^ 'Epfi^v ^Xov Ktu *A(^podffijf 
(<^voi'* icai rovn^f X'W^ '^^''^ Xt^ ira« np6at»tr6p re acoi oicpM stidcr* ri^ ftc 
iwiic\fj<ri¥ TJ $€^ Maxaianp opO&nrra tB^wro^ t/ioi doKttp' 'A(l>podlnfs yap cveca 
Ktu €fyy»¥ rSi¥ ravnis irXturrai iih iwirtx^tia-tis, voproia dc Mpmrois 
av€vptfp4Pa cV \6yov9 f ortV. 

** Phigaleia: Paus. 8. 41, 10, on Mount Cotilum above the temple 

of Apollo of Bassae, *A(f>podirri iarhf h Ka»riX^* Ktu avrj voor re {v ovc 
^X^" ^^ ^p<xt>o^ <cal Syttkfta eVnrod/ro. 

*• Psophb : Pans. 8. 24, 6 "^axfHdUut ip rj trdXe* roOro ficr 'A^poJciTJ 
Iep6v *EpvKiPfj9 ioTiv iirlKkrfauf, ^s iptiitia e<^' i^fu^v ikdnrro avrou fi4pa, 

Achaea. 

*• Patrae : * Paus. 7. 21, 10 eV ndrptut ov nokv mrmrtpm rov UtMrtMptt 
Upd €(rri» * k<f>pohiTrii* r^ de rrtpop rmp ayaikfiaTWf ytwf vp&rtpow $ kot ipt 
ilXieif Sp^pts oPtiXicvtrap ev doerv^* j^trri de icol dyoX^iora rov Xi^icror eyyvrsm 
. . • leai 'A^podinyr ^£ «m irp^r r^ Xt/ueM cWl re^eiMOff' Xt^ /i^ wp6trmmop 
Ktu Sucptu x^H^^ '^"^ YToder, {vXou dc rii Xonra tlpyatrrtu, 

^ Pans. 7. 21, II : in a grove near the shore another temple of 
Aphrodite. 

>* Aegium : Paus. 7. 24, 2 npos BtikAtnrii *Atf>pobiTrfs Up^ eV Alytf mi 
fitr aM Jlotritd&pos, 

" Aegira : Paus. 7* 26, 7 ^^ ^^ Ovptmtxp trtfiowri fupra pakurra^ (trtX- 
Stip de ts r6 itp^ ovK ttrruf dpBpwtois, 

>- a Bura : Paus. 7* 25, 9 pa6s hnavSa Afffjojrpos' 6 de *Atf>ptJUTrff Atopwrcv 
T( f OTi, Koi oXXof EtXet^taff Xi^ rov nrvrrXi}<rtov rh aydkpara, *ABiivaitnt ^ 
tpya Eu#cXctdoV koi rg Arip.rp'pl eWw €trBi)s, 

^ Dittenberger, Syll. Inscr. Graec. 178, inscription from the 
Arcadian Orchomenos containing the oath of alliance between the 
Orchomenians and the Achaean league, opvwa Ala 'Apapwp^ *AAmv 
*ApapitxPj *A^(/)od)i(n» Koi rov)% 6{wvt wawrtw), 

** Elis: »PaUS. 6. 20, 6 nXtfaiop rrjs tlkttBviag tpdnuL *A<l)pt)dinjs 
Ovptuflas Upov XtitrtTtu, Bvtjvat de kcu avro^i cirl rcay /3«>fM»v. 

^ Paus. 6. 25, 2, at Olympia near the Agora a pttdt and rcfievoc of 

Aphrodite, r^p pip ip r^ pq^ KdiXovatv Ovptxpuuf, cX<<^ayrof de e'ort Ka\ xpvtrou^ 
T€XPfJ ♦etdiov, r^ de cre/)^ irodl eirl ;(cX<£>vi7f ^</9i;ice' r^j dc vtpuxtrat pip t6 
TtptPOii Bpiyx^^ KprjnU 6e e'yrdf rov rtptPtws ntnolrjrcu icol eirl t;5 jcpi^idt 
SytiXpa 'Ai^podtn^f ;(aX«:oDv eiri rpayti^ KaOfjrtu X°^*^' SioJira rovro ^fyyor, 
*A<f>ptihirriP dc Uaif^pop 6popd(av<n, 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI-^XXIIL 737 
c Near the Leonidaeum in the Altis : Pans. 6- 15, 3 *A<l>podiTfis 

^ Paus. 6. 26, 5 6*«v dc Upa h KvXX^it; * KaKkrfirtov^ rh di *A<l>po^irrjs 
tori' TOW "Epiwv dc t6 Hyakfia, tv ol ravrji wfpura&f aifiovatv^ op66p iarw 
ax^lop €9ri roO paBpov. 

^ NaupactOS: Paus. 10. 38, 12 'A^podiny txti I^p tP awrfXaii^ ri/iat* 
tCxoPToi df icoi oXXttv tvfKa, koI al yvPtuKts futkurra al )^pai yapjop alroikn 
irapk T^f 6€ov, At Oiantheia : ib, 'At^podinis rt Up6p, 

*• Ambracia: C, L Gr. 1798, 1799. 

^ Epirus: C /. Gr, 1823, Imperial period. 

"* Corcyra: C. /. Gr. 1872, 1873. 

Asia Minor, and coasts of the Black Sea. 

^ Phanagoria : Strabo, 495 «awiy((p«{a . . . irdXi^ o^ioXoyof ... col t^ 
'Airdrovpov rh Tr\i 'A^po^iTrft Up6p : the name explained by a legend that 
Aphrodite rSip ytyayr«>r ^xwrrop htxofUpti Koff Ifpa rf 'HpaieXet irapodidotiy 
doXo4^v«iy cf oYran^f . Cf. inscription from Phanagoria 303 b. c, C. /. Gr. 
2120. 

•• Panticapeum: C. /. Gr. 2108 G, 2109, inscriptions of third 
and second centuries b.c., ^c$ 'A<l>po(fiiTfj) {Ovjpopt^ 'Airarov^. 

**^ In a city of Sarmatia an inscription ©E . . . APATOPO 
(circ. 500 B. c.) on a relief representing Aphrodite with Eros and Ares ; 
its style is quite out of keeping with the date of the inscription^ C /. Gr, 
2133- 

** Scythian goddess 'Apripuraaa identified with 'A^pod/ny Olpapia 
Herod. 4. 59. 

** Amastris in Paphlagonia: C. /. Gr, 4150 C. Cf. Catalogue of 
Greek Coins, * Pontus,' p: 84 (Brit. Mus.) Aphrodite on throne with 
calathos, veil, chiton, and peplos, sceptre in left hand, on right Nike 
holding out wreath : PL XIX*. 

^ Chalcedon : Hesych. s. v. iXtlipiop. *A<l>podiTrf iXnuutr cV Kwrpf 

Koi \<»kKrfiopi^, 

" At Abydos : Athenae. 572 E U6ppijs b€ *A<l>podlTrjs Up6p can iraph 

'Afiv^poUf &s (f)ff(ri Ila/i^iXoff. 

^ Troas: • C. L Gr. 6165 Ari rrjs «V Tpyodi *A<l>pobirTjs. Cf. Plut. 
LuculL 1 2 mU dc Tp^da KoraxBtit ifrKrfPwrt flip ip r^ Up^ rrj^ 'A^podtn/r. 

^ Near Gargara an Aphrodision on a promontory called nvppd: 
Strabo, 606. 

Diffusion of the cult of Aphrodite Aeneas from the Troad. Dion. 
Halic. I. 49, Aeneas and his followers, np&rop fuptU Bp^p o^imSficvoi 

VOL. II. Y 



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738 GREEK RELIGION. 

Korh rijp x'ppc^iviycroy, fj xoXctroi IlaXX^in;, iipiuawm . . • luuHmrtt de • . . 
Vff^y *A<f>podlTrjs tdpwraPTo , . , xal vSktp iJptuxw ZxTunM. Id. X. 50 ^ffccrvi 
cZf KvSfipa , . . Up6p *A<l)poiiTrjg l^pvovrai. Id, in ZacynthoS, 0vavai9 

*A<l>po^iTfj wp6s T^ KaraaK€V€ur6€vn Up^ Bvniop I (many signs of this worship 
surviving in the island) hlvuov Koi 'A^podtnjf 6 dp6fMos, kcu $6apa rovrwv 
timjKtp dfi(f)ortpmp , , . th Acvicada Karayoprai . . . npf ravrg wakuf Upow 
'A^podlrtjt IdpvoPTai, . . . jcoXcmu de *Aif>podiTffS Atyciodor. 72. in Actiam, 
*A<l>po^iTfis Alptid^s Up6¥ . . . ^v de *Afi/3paici^ Icpor r^r avr$ff ^«ov km 7/Mf<oy 
AiMMw. 7J. on the coast north of Buthrotum, Up^ «u mfT66t t^t 'A/^po^ 
diTTit Ihpvaaptpoi. Zf. I. 51, Xi/ii^v *A<f>podiTrjs on the south-east coast of 
luly where Aeneas landed. Temple at Eryx : Diod. Sic. 4. 83 a/pfuv 
6 A<f>poiiTrfs TrXcttv tls 'IroXuiy jcol irpoaopfwrMs rj mi<rii^ woKkois atfoBfipaax 
rh Up6v, &s iiv l^s firjrpiis vndpxoPf ^K6afuja§, Dion. Halic I. 53 r^Kft^pta 
TrJ£ th liKt'kovs Alpiiov rt nai Tp^p o^ifcwf iroXXa ficr ical SXkoy w^puJKo^ 
OTora bi T^s AlptiaSos *Aif>po^Trjs 6 fi€»fi6s cVl rj K€tfH»Xj tov *E\vfJU3v Idpv/Armos^ 

Kol Up6p Alptlov Ifyvfupop tv AlyioTff, Paus. 3. 22, II, Aphrodisias in 
South Laconia regarded as founded by Aeneas; td. 8. 12, 9, Mount 
*Ayxi(Tia in Arcadia near Orchomenos where Anchises was buried, wp6s 
dc TOV *Ayxi<rov rf Td<l>^ iptlvui itrrip 'A^podin;^ Upov. Statue of AcncaS at 
ArgOS, ///. 2. 21, I. Schol. 77. 2. 820 irkdrrowrip aimjp {^A<f>podinfp) mi 
€if>ijmop, oTi 6 Ahftlas 6 vi6s aMjs nXfvaas fifXP^ ''^^ dvo-ctff firr^ tovto anr^ 
ivifftf Ka\ T^j» fiijTtpa Mpjjat toiovt^ aydkfiari. Cf. '^™, lit'odf 20. 293— 
300. Cf. Acesilaus (Schol. U, 20. 308-309), MOller, Frag. Hist. 
Graec. i, p. 103, No. 26. Festus, p. 269 (MtiUer) ait quidem Aga- 
thocles complures esse auctores qui dicant Aenean sepultum in urbe 
Berecynthia. Schol. Am. 2. 717 Atticus (Penates) dicit ex Samothracia 
in Italiam devectos. 

*• At Pergamum : Polyb. 17. 2 rh i^t 'A^podinyy XtpHiP . . . «al to 
liiKrj<p6ptop, A KaT€<l>6€ip€ (^tXiimos). C. I. Gr. 3542 tmjKd^ ^ *A(l>pMrjf 
(first century b. c. ?). 

*^ » At Smyrna : 'Ac^podtTiy olpapia, late Roman sepulchral relief from 
Smyrna at Verona, dedicated to the dpxup€ia 'A^podin;^ Ovp<mag. 
C. I. Gr. 3157. 

^ Aphrodite ^rparovucU : C. /. Gr. 3137, treaty between Smyrna and 
Magnesia ad Sipylum (third century b. c), 1. 83 apa$€Twra» ^pvppouM, 
pip (rfip SpdXoyiap) h r^ r^y *A<l>pM'njs rtjs iTparopuclbos Up^. Cf. Tac 
^ mi. 3. 63 Smymaeos oraculum Apollinis, cuius imperio Stratoniddi 
Veneri templum dicaverint, referre. 

*• EpheSOS: * Athenae. 573 A Evdkiais cV rois *E^maicois koI cr 
'£^(r^ <l>fialp Uph IdpvaOai iraipq. ^A^pMrg. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXl^XXIIL 739 

^ Serv. Virg. Am, i. 720 Apud Ephesios Venerem Automatam 
dixerunt vel Epidaetiam. 

*• At Erythrae : * Aphrodite llavdi;fioff, in inscription concerning the 
sale of priesthoods (circ. 270 B.C.): Dittenberger, Sylloge, 370, 1. 57. 
^ 'Afftpodirri Ilv$6xp't(rro$ ib, 1. 75* 
c 'A<l>podiTTf i f¥ 'Efifi^Tf (a district of Erythrae), L 40. 
Caria. 
^ Miletus : Posidippos, Anfh, PaL i2» 131 : 

d Kvirpop, ^ Tf KvBrjpa «al 6. MiktjTov ciroi;^is 
jcol T^ KaK6p ^vpirjt hnroKp^rov daircdoy«. 
Cf. Theocr. 28. 4 : 

w6kw is Nc/Xcop aykaap 

Snq Kvirpcdof Jpop KaXdft«» x^«/>oy vir' oiraXtt). 

** At Mylasa : C, I. Gr. 2693 f 'AKJtpodlTfjs "Srpartias UptvSf inscrip- 
tion from second century b. c. 

** At Oecus: Theocr. 7. ii6 OiKcwra (oMs edos atin Ai»jw. 

" At Aphrodisias : rights of asylum given to the temple of Aphrodite 
there in a letter from Antony (37 b.c), C /. Gr. 2737. Cf. 2782, &c., 
an Mrf<f>6po% of the goddess of Aphrodisias mentioned in 2822. Cf. 
Tac. Ann. 3. 62 Aphrodisiensium civitas Veneris . . . religionem 
tuebantur. 

^ At Cnidos: Pans. I. I, 3 Kyifdioc rift&aip 'A^po^lrtiP ftdKiaray koi 
<r<t>iinv tarw Uph r^r 6«ov, t6 fuv yap dpxaiSrarw Amptridos \ fitrh W t6 
'Ajcpoior^, ptt^roTOP dc fjp Kvcdtoy ol voXKot, KpiduH d^ alrol icoXovo'iy EihrXoiap^. 
Inscription dedicated to Aphrodite and Hermes found in Cnidus, 
Newton, HalicamassuSy n. 3 1 : vide series of Aphrodite heads on 
Cnidian coins, Choix de medailUs grecques du cabinet de M, Imhoof- 
Blunter, 4. 127-135. 

" At Halicarnassus : Bull, de Corr. Hell. 1880, p. 400. 

Pamphylia. 

^ At Aspendos on Mount Castnium : hence Aphrodite Kcurryia in 
Lycophron, 403. Strabo, 437-438 KoXXiftaxor n^ o^ <f>ijat¥ ip toU 
Mpfioit riit 'Ai^pod/rar (ff 6t^ yhp ob fita) rijv Kaarvujraf vfrcp|3aXXca^at 
irdtras T<f ^povctv, m lUmri irapatixtroi n^v rmp {f&p Bwriaw. 

Cilicia. 

^ At Aegae: C /. Gr. 4443, dedication to *Aif>pMni EArXoia 
together with Poseidon 'Ao^dXcior (first century b. c). 

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740 GREEK RELIGION. 

The islands. 

" Rhodes : worshipped with Apollo and Asclepios there, JBuII, de 
Corr. HelL 1880, p. 139. 

''* At Cos: vide inscription m Revue des jktudes Grecques^ 1891, 
p. 361 : and Paton and Hicks, Inscriptions ofCos^ No. 387. OX, mime 
of Herondas, i. 26, 62, Aphrodite called i} ^of. Head of Aphrodite 
on tetradrachm of Cos, Musie Hunter^ p. 142. i. Cf. '"J*, "*f. 

^ Crete : the Cretans claimed this island to be the original home 
of the Aphrodite worship : Diod. Sic. 5. 77 d(^ de njy ivul>aw€iaw kmu npr 
^1 vrXciov intdfifilap aMjt roi^s ryx^^piovf i^btJ&CurBai ri^y Mp^ jcaXofrroff 
'A^podin/r *EpvKliHUf icai Kv^pciav col Ila<t>i<w, ?n d^ Kal Zvpiap. 

» Ancient *A(f>pobi<nov in the territory of the Latii, C. /. Gr. 2554 : 
Aphrodite mentioned in the federal oath sworn by the men of 
Hierapytnia, C /. Gr. 2555. 

*> In Lyctos and Dreros: Cauer, Delect} 117. 

<5 At Cnossus under the title ^Aj^oi, Hesych. s, v, 

^ Delos : Callimach. Del. 307 Ip^ SyaXfta Kvtrptdos apxpbit aptfiKOcm^ 
rjp irorc Giyo-rvr ciottro <rvv wcudta-aiPf 6t€ ILpiiffniBtp dporXti. Paus. 9. 40, 3 
^tjklois 'A^pod^nyr iariv ov fuya (6apop . . . Kortiai dc tun\ wofAip et rrrpa- 
ympop O'xjifiti* wdBofuu rovro *hpMvti\p Xafitw vapa AatddKov. Plut. 
TlieseuSf 2 1 r^ ^«f Bvirat luik ^poBmU rh 'A^podcVtoy, h waph r^ 'ApMidi>i|r 
Ao/Scy. Bull, de Corr. HelL 1882, 23, L 189, inventory of temple- 
property (circ. 180 B.C.), *A<f>podtaiiop ry x^P^ Xafwrodcf. Id. L I31 
'AfrAX«»vi *A<f>podiTjj. Worshipped with Isis there in later times : vide 

inscription in 'ABfjpaioPj 4, p. 458, No. 7 "latit Icartipai *AaTapr€i 'A^po- 
dtnyi Kol ^£f>«>ri 'Ap<f}oKpaT€i *Air6XXapi *Apdp6paxos ^apopaxov (inrip lavrov) 
«al yvpaut6s ical riiof^v xop*<'T^f>(OK 

* At Aegina : Quaes/. Graec. 44, Plut Paus. 2. 29, 6 irXi7<ruN» de 
roO \ifUpo$ cV y fuiXiOTa 6pidCoPTai pa6s iarip * A<f>podiTTft. 

Cyprus. 

«* Paphos : Hom. Od. 8. 362 : 

^ d* ^/Mi Ktnrpov UttPt ^iXo/ififcd^f 'Ac^pod/ri; 
^f nd<^, li^a re ol r^ptvot fiapSs re ^^i£. 
Paus. 8. 5, 2 na^ov re *Aycnn}p«>p y€yop€p oUtarfis koi r^ff *A<^poimjs 
itoreo'jcei/do'aro eV IlaXaiira^^ r^ iep<Sy' rca>( de 17 ^e^ irap^ Kvwpimp rtpits 
cixev eV FoXyotff icaXovfiey^ X^P^* Strabo, 683 IlaXo/ira^ofy o(roir cV 
de«ea oradiOif vir^p r$£ AiXom/c ihpvpipfi, v^oppjop Ifx^vaa irol 2ep^ dpxfuo^ 
rfjv na^tof 'A^/Hj^'njc, Tac. ^wi. 3. 62 Exin Cyprii tribus delubris, 
quorum vetustissimum Paphiae Veneri auctor Aerias, post filius 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI^XXIIL 741 

eius Amathus Veneri Amathusiae . • . posuissent. Id. Hist. 2. 3 
fama recentior tradit a Cinyra sacratum templum, deamque ipsam 
conceptam man hue adpulsam. Sed scientlam artemque haruspicum 
accitam, et Cilicem Tamiram intulisse . . . mox . . . tantum Cinyrades 
sacerdos consulitur. Hostiae ut quisque vovit sed mares deliguntur : 
certissima fides haedorum fibris. Sanguinem arae obfundere vetitum : 
precibus et igne puro altaria adolentur . . . simulacrum deae non effigie 
humana, continuus orbis latiore initio tenuem in ambitum metae 
modo exsurgens; et ratio in obscuro. ib. Conditorem templi regem 
Aerian vetus memoria, quidam ipsius deae nomen id perhibent (? 'A^^po- 
dinj *Ap#*a). Cf. Max. Tyr. 8. 8. For connexion of Aphrodite worship 
with the Cinyradae in Cyprus, vide Philologus 24. 226. Cf. Serv.^^. 
I. 720 Apud Cyprios Venus in modum umbilici vel ut quidam volunt 
metae colitur. Inscriptions found on site of Paphos, e.g. C /. Gr. 
*A<l>podiTjf na<f>iqi ^ irSkis lla^tW (in the time of Ptolemy Euergetes II). 
C. /. Gr. 2640 'A<l>poilTTjt Koi Ai^ff Udkuws Koi^Hpas (third century b.c). 

•• roXyoc, Polder name of the site of the Paphian temple (vide 
Neubauer, Comm, Mommsen, 673, etc.). Cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Tdkyoi- 
ir(^is Ktnrpov . . . Xryrroi icai TSKyiow ov6er4p«»s* aif> o^ Tokyia 17 'A^podin;. 
Theocr. 15* 100 Acoirocv, A Toky6if Tf mil 'idaXiov t^iXdiraff Alir€tpdp r 
"EpvKa, XP^^ naio'^ia ^AiPpodira, Schol. td. Tokyds' froXif Kvirpov, 
mvopatrptvrj djr6 Tokyov tiv6s 'Ab^vtdos ical 'A^podin/r. Catull. 64. 96 
Quaeque regis Golgos, quaeque Idalium frondosum. 

^ Citium : vide supra "<5. C, /. A. 2. 168 ; C. I. Gr, 2641. 

** Amathus: Paus. 9. 41, 2 ^cn-i dc ^ApaOovt iv Kvnp^ fl-dXiff* *Ad«m^r 
cV avrfi Koi *A<f>poil'nis Up6v 4<rrw apxcuop : vide supra *^ (Tac. Ann, 3. 62). 
Catull. 36. 14 Colls quaeque Amathunta quaeque Golgos. Hesych. 

5,V. Kapnaxris' $vaia*A<f>poBiTris h 'ApaOovm (icdpTToxrcff^bumt-offering : 

vide Stengel, tn Hermes, 1892, p. 161); grave of Ariadne there, Plut. 

T^S. 20 KoKiw df t6 ak<roi *AfuiBcv<riovs er ^ r^ Ta<f>ov itinrvovaiv 'Aptdb- 
yfls*A<t>po^iTrjf, Cf. "«>k 

•" The promontory Olympus on the north-east of Cyprus : Strabo, 
682 txovaa 'A^podtn/f ^Axpaia^ vahv abvrop yvptu^i kcu d6paro¥. lb, &Kpa 
Urjddkio¥, Iff imipMixai 'k6<f>og . . . I(p6s *A<t>podtTfis, Id, 683 *Ap<ru4ri dfiOiW 
frp6tropfiO¥ txovaa Ka\ Up6v xol oKaos, In 682 he mentions the locality 
*A<f>poKtniO¥ Koff h <rrwfi ff i^aor. 

•• Hesych. ^'Eyx^off (?) 'Ac^poi/nj KwrfMoi. Cf. **. 

^ Aphrodite napammrovaa in Cyprus, "*». 

" Cythera : Paus. 3. 23, I rh Up6¥ t^ Ovpapiat dyMnvroy Koi Upciv 
6wdaa *Aif>pMTfjs nap* "'EXXi^ffiv iaiw apxaa/Araroir aMj bi^ ^ $€6t (6avov 
imktffiUvw. Ct n. 15. 432 Kv^ourt £a^cburi. Cf. ^\ 



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743 GREEK RELIGION. 

•• In Crana€ oflf Gythium: Paus. 3. 22, i Irprfr €<m9 ^AippMnisfwrs 
rjirtip^ Mtytti^mdor, Ka\ 6 Tonos o^ror Shras KoK^irM Mtyc»v(ov. Tovro fth ^ 
t6 Up6p iroirjaM XeyovtrtP *AX€(apbpop, 

■'^ Amorgus: C, /. Gr, 2264 Ovpavlq, rg cV dcnr/dc (inscription drc. 
100 A.D.). Cf. Plut. C/eom, 17 and 21, district outside Argos called 9 
danis, 

^ Anaphe : C /. Gr. 2477. 

^ Ceos: Inscr, Graec, Antiq, (Roehl) 397 acoicvdt/f ^Apurmixttrnt 
"Mf^po^irn am0tjK€P &p^, 'Aifypo^rij Kr^irvXXa Anton. Liber. Tramf. I oJ 
dc $vovaiv SixP^ wvp *lov\irjfrai. fup (a family in Ceos) *A<f>podtiTf, RnJovAXflr 
6pofid{i0PT€i, o2 d« ^Xoi KTrf(rv\kaw 'Eiuupyrfp, 

* Gyaros: vide ^^^. 

'» PLemnos: Schol. Ap. Rhod. i. 614, the legend of the Lemnian 
women despising Aphrodite. 

* Lesbos : inscription to Aphrodite-Peitho, and Hermes, published 
by Keil, Philologus Supplem, 2. 5J9 t k€ BiXp BUiw M r^ ^^^ *A<fiftodiTas 
rat ntt$ci>s Koi r^ 'EpfHi* 

^^ Paros : Inscr, Graec, Antiq. (Roehl) 405 'Atf^potirri^. 

^* SamoS : Athenae. 572 F "AK^^ii 6 2dfuos h dtvrtpa *Qpw lofuaxif 
r^y cV ^dfjup *A^podtn;v, fjp ol fi€v ip KctkditMs KoKovatP^ ol dc ip cXct, amai 
(<^i}(riy) iraipai IbpwravTo al avpaKokovdri<raaai IlcpucXci, &re itroKtopKa r^ 
2dpop. 'A(f>pobiTrf Kovporp6<f)es at SamoS, *'**. 

■'^ Samothrace. Inscription (? of fourth century b.c.) in Come 
Reise auf den Inseln des Thrakischen Meers, p. 69, Taf. 16. 10 'A^po- 
KiTTi RaXtddi. 

Sicily. 

^ Syracuse. ^Batvriff : Hesych. S.V. 'A^pod/n; wapk ^vpamoaiots. 

^ ? KaXXiirvyoff : Athenae. 554 C, E. 

"^ Acrae : C. L Gr. 5424 irpoirrarfwajTCf *H/>9 KOI *A<I>pMt^. 3. 5425- 

^ Panormus : C. I. Gr. 5553 fSXtaydpat "A<l>pMrg op^Bjukm rpdartC^*^' 
Sappho (Strabo, 40) if at Kvwpos fj lld<l>og fj Udyoppov, 

^ Messana: C. I. Gr. 5615, dedication to Aphrodite by temple- 
officials. 

*' Catana: C. I. Gr. 5652 Uparevownjs Btas 'At^podirar. 
^ Segesta : C. I. Gr. 5543 Upartvovircaf 'A^pod/r^ Ovpopi^. 

"' Eryx : Paus. 8. 24, 6 lort yiip itai «p rg SuccXtigi Tfjt ^Epudwiis Upi» ^ 
T§ x»pf^ To''Epvimg dyUn-oTOP €« vakaurdrov ical ovk dwMop irXovry tov 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI^XXIIL 743 

Upov Tov fV nd^. Diod. Sic. 4. 83 : the temple founded and 
enriched by £ryx, r^r f( aX^vm dpx^v Xa/36y ovd^irorc dtcXiirc TtfA^fUPOp : 
its prestige was great among the Sicanians and Carthaginians, rh d« 
TtXtvralop 'P»fuuoi ira<nit SiKfXiar Kparriamntt imtp^fidKovTo ndyras tovs vph 
oifT&v rait tls ravTrjv rtfuus , , , ol fiiv yhp Karairr&vrts tU rrfv vrjaotf {marot 
Koi iTTparrfyoi . . . cirftdav tU T6p''EpvKa irapai3aX«»<ri, fxtyakonptiriai Ovviaig 
Kal TifAoiv Koa-fjLoviri r6 rtfjitvos, icai r^ aKvBpwnhv r$( €^ova'ia£ iiro$€fji€Poi 
fAtra^Wovauf th nai^9 kcu yvwaiK&p 6/uXtar furh froXX^r 2X(ip<$ripx>f, fi6w«ig 
ovro» POfu(ovTts KtxapiO'fUvfiv rff $€<f noiri<rttv r^v iavr&v impovalap, Aelian. 
iV^/. Jits/. 10. 50 avh nap thos Koi tnUptip wdirap Bvwvt rj B^^ Kai ol cVi- 
X^pua xal ol ^voi . . . ciur dc ical viroXi/fitrfi leal tKtlpos (<{ fi«ip6t:) ovk opBpa" 
KtdPf ol airod6Pf ov^ ^fUKav<rr«»p rpCffiTi d^d»p viro(f>(dpfi, dp6aov dc dydirXciDf 
cffTcv Koi 7t6as pfapas^ ijirtp oZp avaxfivrrat Saai pvicns* rd yt fiffp Itpiia iKitartft 
dye\rj9 aMpara ^orr^, xol ry jSoo/A^ vaptarriKtP, Cf. "*^. Polyb. I. 55 
rovTov i^EpvKot) iir avrrj^ pip rtjs Kopv<l>rjs oCoTjg anntdov, Ktlrai ri rrji 'A^po- 
dirtjg r^ff ^BpvKunjs UpdPy in€p 6po\oyovp€P<of hrKftavia-Tta'dp itrri rf rt irXovr^ 
Kal T^ Xoivj irpotrraaiq. t&p Kara r^ SuccXcair /f/Nov. Strabo, 27a oLcri- 
nu Kat 6 "Epv^ Xcx^r {njnjKot, Upop ^x^^ * hif^pohirris Tifwptpop dto^pdirax 
2fpodouXa>ir ^vMuicttir irX^/Mf t6 miktudp^ at dptBtaop kot* <v;(t}y oi re cjc r^r 
SiicfXiar ffal ?.f<»^ froXXoi. For Aphrodite worship in Sicily, vide also 
Aphrodite-Aeneas, **°. 

" Argyros : Ampelii Liber, Memor, 8. 16 Argyro est fanum Veneris 
super mare : ibi est lucerna super candelabrum posita hicens ad mare 
sub divo. 

" For Aphrodite-worship in Italy and along the Adriatic, vide 
Catullus, 36. 11: 

Nunc o caeruleo creata ponto 

Quae sanctum Idalium Uriosque apertos, 
Quaeque Ancona Cnidumque harundinosam 
Colis quaeque Amathunta, quaeque Golgos, 
Quaeque Durrachium Adriae tabemam. 

(See Robinson Ellis's note on 'Urios,* Commentary on Catullus^ 
p. 98.) 
•• At Naples: C. /. Gr. 5796. Cf. Add. 3, p. 1255. 

^ At Rome, worship of Aphrodite of Eryx before the Colline gate : 
Strabo, 272. Cf. Serv. Virg. Aen. i. 720 Est et Erycina (Venus) 
quam Aeneas secum advezit. 

•• In Spain, at Saguntum : Polyb. 3. 97, 6 tA t^p 'A^poa^nyr Up&p, 

"• At Cyrene : vide Plautus, Rudens (Act i, sc. i, 1. 6), for the 
worship and temple of Venus Cyrenensis. 



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744 GREEK REUGION. 

•• Naucratis: Athenae. 675F-676A (quoting from the book of 
Polycharmus of Naucratis, vtp\ *A<l>podiTtjs) Korh di njr rpiniv wp6s nlU 
cucocTiv okvfintdta *Hp6orpaTos woKiriis fifia-tpos . . . wpatnrx^ «rar€ km "On^ 
r^ff Yivwpov ayaX/iarioi' * Kif^pMnii <nn6afitaiop apxHatf t§ Tex^ ^PtftrofMW 
jti <l>€p»¥ tls Trfp SavKpoTUf* jcoi . • . eiTf i x^H^^v al<f>vidiOP €ir4w€a€ . . . are 
<t>vyoif SnoPTtg €n\ t6 ttjs 'A<t>podiT7j9 oyc^fM, a»{€t¥ avrow axrngw MfiOfou i 
dc 6t69, wpooifHKrfs yap roU Navfepar/rcuff ^v^ al<f>ndioif ^M'o£if<r€ warm to. wapa' 
K€lptva avT§ p.vpplvtjs x^*'/'^^ irX^pi; oipajs re ^dlaTTjs in-X^peMrt r^ ptww . . . 
Kol 6 *Hp6(rTparos i^ppinrtMs Tjjt pti^s prrh rov aydk/ioros ^X*^^ "^ "^^ eA^- 
dioy otfT^ avax^avtlaat x^»pat fivppipat MBtjKtP hf r^ ^^ 'A^podmyr 2^, 
Bv<ra$ T9 Tj 0€f Koi aiHiB€U rj *A<f>podiTjj rSyaXpta, 

*^ At Tentjra : Strabo, 815 (o2 TtrrvpiTai) r^mvw 'A<l>pM'npr owurBa 
dc rov M«> rtjs 'A^podcriyr ''Urtdos ZartM Up&¥, 

•*» Zephyrium, near Alexandria: Strabo, 800 axpa waunop cxowa 
*Ap<nv6ris *A^pod^(. Cf. Athenae. 318 D. 

^ Aphrodite ZripvpBia in Thrace (? Hekate) : E/. Mag. p. 4"-30 

ZripvvBia' 'A^podin; «V Op^jj. ZripvpOow yiip Srrpop h Op^Kff . • . Awtd^fKW. 

Hellenic Aphrodite ? 

•" Daughter of Dione and Zeus: Horn. //. 5. 312 Ai6s Buydrr)p *Ki^ 
po^rtj. Cf. Id, 370 ; Eur. ^el, 1098 K6pfi Awwyc Kvit/m. Dione identiGed 
with Aphrodite in Theocr. 7. 1 16 : vide •*. Cf. Serv. Virg. Aen. 3. 466. 

•» Connected with Hebe : C. I, Gr, 2138 Otkp K»Xuida «V 'A/Saibr 
AroiVa "'AXri/ior (circ. 500 B.C.). Cf. C, L Gr, 214, worship of Hebe 
near that of Aphrodite iLtaKw on Attic promontory opposite Acgina. 
At Sparta, vide "«. Hesiod, Theog, 16, 17 : 

Koi Otfuv (ddoiffp, ikiKO^i<l)apA¥ r ^A^ipoUrffp^ 
"HptfP T€ x/>v<'^><n'«^MiM>i^ mkfpf r* AiJunpr, 
•* With the Charites and Horae : Paus. 6. 24, 7, statues of the 
Charites at Elis, with some emblems of Aphrodite, Xaptras di "k^pofUxfi 
{plKtiai) pakurra cZwu $t»y. Aristoph. Pax, 456 'Eppj, Xdpunp, ^Qpaura, 

"a<I>pMtjj, no% Cf. Homer, IL 18. 382 : 

Xdpis \iirapoKprfi€p»os 

with Odyss. 8. 270. 
//. 6- 338 : 

apfipocriov diii ttcttXov, op ol XdpiT€g Kopop tdrrai, 
Odyss. 8. 362 : 

^ d* &pa Kvnpov uca»c <piKopp€tdijs *A<fipMrfi . . . 

€v6a dt puf XdpiT€f \owrap km xp'wom iXaif, 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI^XXIIL 745 
Horn. Hymn ApolL 1. 194 

'ApfMOtflrj ff *H^i; rt Ai^ Bvyan\p r *A<l>podiT7j 

Horn. ^»i« ^ Aphrodite J 6. 1 1 : 

Spfioun XP^^*^^"' €K6a'iJL«0¥, oltrt ntp avrai 

*Qpai KoafitiaBijv xp^'<''oiinvKt9. 
Hesiod, Op, "j^: 

dfi<l>\ dc ol \afnrh rt $€a\ Koi n^ryia IIf*^a> 
Spfiavt xp*^^'^^^ t$€<ra¥ xp^ (tbe creation of Pandora). 
Athenae. 682 F (quoting from the Cypria), ^M avp dftilMrSKouri <^cXofi- 
fMtdfft 'A^podin; ir\€(afjL€vri aTt<f>6vov£ €v^€as ^wB^a yalris . . . /Iv M^aXoiO-iy 
lf$€VTo $ta\ \iirapoKpffi€fivoiy "SvfiXpai Koi XapiTf£ 6fui dc XP^^^ *A<f>podiTrf Kokhw 
dti^veai Kor Spot vokwUiaKov "idrfs, 

•• Aphrodite with Hephaestos: Odyss. 8. 266-369. Cf. Ap. 
Rhod. 3. 36. Lucian, Dear. DiaL 15 nS>s ol (fiKorvntl ^ ^AffipodiiTj r^v 
X6pip fj ff Xdpi9 ravTtiv ; 

•• Aphrodite with Ares: II. 5. 311-364; 21. 416. Pindar, PyM. 
4. 87 XaKKdpfMOTOs w6<rw * A<l>podirfit, Hes. Theog, 933 : 

avriip "Aprfi 
piPCT6p^ KvBtp€ta ^6fio¥ Koi Atipo^ hrucr€ . . . 
'Apftowirpf 9^ ^¥ Kad^ff virtpBviiOf Bit Skoitip, 
Temple of Ares at Athens: Paus. i. 8, 4 near the /SovXevr^pioir 
tMa aYaXfiara ivo . . . *A<l>podiTff9 Mirot. Joint temple of Ares and 
Aphrodite on the road from Argos to Mantinea: Paus. 2. 25, i 
Korii fi€¥ iff rovTo *A<f>pMTrft Ktirai ^6avoPi itp^i dc ^\iov diKr/i^r "Apt^s, 
? Ares worshipped with Aphrodite in Crete, the two deities being 
mentioned side by side in the public oaths taken by the men of Latus 
and Hierapytna. C. I. Gr. 2554 and 2555. 
^ Hesiod, T/ieog. 201 : 

T§ d* "Epos i^papnurt ical "iptpoi tairrro Kokhi 
ytwofUpfj rh npSrra 6t&p t is <l>v\op lovirjf, Cf. "*'^. 
•• Cic. de Dear. NaL 3. 23 Venus prima Coelo et Die nata cuius 
Eli delubrum vidimus, altera spuma procreata, ex qua et Mercurio 
Cupidinem secundum natum accepimus, tertia love nata et Dione, 
quae nupsit Volcano. Sed ex ea et Marte natus Anteros dicitur, 
quarta Syria Cyproque concepta, quae Astarte vocatur, quam Adonidi 
nupsisse proditum est. Amp. Lib, Mem, 9 Veneres quattuor ; prima 
Coeli et Diei filia, secunda quae ex spuma nata esse dicitiu- Aetheris et 
Ocean! filia, tertia quae Volcano nupsit quae cum Marte se miscuit : unde 
Cupido natus esse dicitur, quarta Cypri et Syriae filia quam Adon habuit 



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746 GREEK RELIGION, 

Oriental Aphrodite. 

••* Aphrodite Ovpavial PaUS. I. 14, 7 w/>«toi^ dvSpAnwP 'Ao-ffvptoif 
KaT€imi aififtrOai lijw Ovpavlav, fttrh di *Airavpi€vs KvirpUow 1l€tif>iois km 
^ot^Uiow roU *Acr«c({X»w tfxova-i. Luc de Dta Syr, 33, description of 

the goddess of Hierapolis, «X" ^ ^« *^^ 'Adfivaajs icai *A<f>podi'nff Koi SfXif- 
MUf;r Koi 'Pfiyy Kai 'Aprcfudor jcal NcftcVtor ical Moip€c»p' X^H^ ^ ^ '**'' ^'^ 
(Tx^irrpoir f;(«i, rj Mpjj dc SrpaKrov Koi im rj rt^oXj arrmir tc ipoptti on 
nvpyov Koi Ktarov^ rf /tovvrjv r^r Ovpaplrpf Koa'fi€OV(n. 

^ At Cythera, ": Pans. 3. 23, i. Herod, i. 105 t^ Swpojj w 
*A<rxdXttV( w6Kt , . ^ r^f ovpayirjf *A<f>podiTrjs t6 ip<JK. con di rouro t6 lp» 
. . . vamtiv apxaiiraroy ipSip 6<ra ravrrjt ttjs $tov, kou yhp t6 €v Kvwp» Ipov 
Mtvrw ryfWTo, o>f avroi Xcyovo-t Kvirpcot* jcal tA fV Kv^po«rt ^ounK€% €iat9 
ol Idpvo'afjLtpoi €K rmmfs rrjg 2vpifjs i6vT*i, Id, 1 . 1 3 1 €irifM€fUiSqKaat H w 
TLfpfTfU Kai tJ Ovpopijf 6v€iP, irapd re 'AuorvpioiP ficMrrti jcal *Apafii»P' Koke- 
owrt d^ 'AaovpuH rffv *A<l>poiiTrfP Mvktrra, Cf. Artemis, '**. 

<5 Religious prostitution in the worship of Mylitta at Babylon : Herod. 
I. 199 sud fin, eWx9 ^ fol t5* Kvrrpov ivri vap€nfki\<s lo^ rovry po^. 
The same rites in the worship of the goddess at Byblos : Lucian 
de Dea Syr, 6. In Lydia and Locris : Athenae. 516 A oh p^pop M 
Avdtti' yvpnUts o<^croi odtrat toU iprvxovfrtp, ahXa fcal AoKp&w rw *E«'if<^f- 
pi«»Pf tht dc Twi* vtpl Kvnpop (quoting from Clearchus vtp\ plwp). Justin. 
21. 3 speaks of this practice among the Locrians, and (18. 5) in 
Cyprus. At Eryx *' : in Armenia in the worship of Anaitis, Strabo, 53a 
t6. Tfjs 'Ai^aindor {Upoij bia<l>€p6pT»g ^Apptpun rcrifi^muri . . . kcu Bvyanpas <m 
firi^MOTorot TOW tBpovi apupova-t napBipovs, ah p6pos itrri KnrawopptvBtiffou 
iroXvp xp^t'op nap6, rj $t^ furii ravra didoo^oi np6s yapop, ovk cara^iovpros 17 
ToiavTif avpouc€ip ovd€p6s. 

d Pans. 3. 8, 4 ol *Apdfiioi Ai6pwrop^6p povpop Kol riiP Ovpapirip ^yewroi 
c2mu. 

« Herodian, Ad Exc, Dtv, Marc, 5. 6 rrj^ Ovpapias t6 Syakpa ptn- 
wip'^ftaro, a€p6»T»p avT6 V7r€p<f>v&s Kapxi)^pi»P r< koI t&p Korh rfjiP Ai^vip' 
opOpim^p . . . Alfiv€s p€P oip avTfjp Ovpaptap Kakovai, ^ocyuccff dc *AfnpoapX'F 
6popa(ovatf atXfiprfP tlp<u BtXopm, 

^ Herod. 4. 59 (the Scythians) tkafrKoprai , . . *A9roXX«»Mi re mloV^ 
*A<l>podmjp . . . Ovpavirf dc *A<f>pobin\f * Aprlpvafra, Cf. 4. 67 ol *Epap€(S (^ 
Scythian tribe) ol dpbp6yvPoi t^p *A<^podin;v a(f>i Xcyov(rt paPTiK^jp bovpat, 

8 In Corinth: Strabo, 378 t6 rfjs 'A<l>podlnii£ Up^p owr« vk(wnof 
vnrjp^ ixTTt irXciovf fj x^^^ UpodovKovs tMKnjfro haipag, ht dprrlOtffOP rj 
B€f Spdp€s Ka\ yvptuKfs, Pind. Frag, 87 : 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI-XXIIL 747 

IloXv^cyai ptcufifkif dfA<f>ivo\oi Il€iBovf iv otfivfiq. KopipB^, 

acre ra£ x^^P^ Xt/3avov (oM. daxpva BvfuBr^f 

voXKoKi iwrip ipiarnv Ovpaj4ap wTOfitpai p6rjfia norrhw *A(f>pMraif 

avv d* awayxf iroy koKSp, 

Athenae. 573 C p6fufi6p iarip dpxaiw hf KopM^ • . . Stop ^ vSKit 
cffx'T'^ ^*P^ firyaXaoy rj *k<f>pMrji^ (rufiirapakafifiap€a'6cu irpbs t^p UtTfiap Tii9 
iralpaf »« irXciarar mil ravrai vpotrtvxtodai rg Bt^ Ka\ vartpop hit rtiis ItpoU 
n-apccMU . . . jcal ol Iduorai dc Kartvxoprai rj 6(^y TtktaBipTwt irrpl hp hp 
noi&prai rrpf ^ttjiriPf atrd$€tp avrj ratfriit halpat, 

^ At Thebes, •. 

* At Athens, "*. 

k In the Peiraeeus, "d. 

1 At Argos, «. 

"» At Megalopolis, " 

» At Aegira, **. 

o At Panticapaeum, *•, C /. ffr. 2108 G, 2109. 

P At Smyrna, *^». C. L Gr. 3157. 

Q Polemon, /rag'. 42 (Schol. Oed, Col. 100) 'a^twuoc . . . yi/^ca 
fici' Irp^ Bvcvmp . . . 'A^pod/r]; Ovpapiq, 

' At Olympia: Paus. 6. 25, I r^y fiei^ h rf raf miXot)<riy Ovpomdv cXc- 
ffxirros d« fWc luu xpv<n>u, rc;(Vi7 ^fid^, rf dc ^<p^ irodl rirl ;(fX^yi;r 
fitfiffKt. Cf. *. 

* Xenophon, Sytnp. 8. 9 iKorip^ ('A^podiT];) X^P'^ ^poi rt iral root 
ncal Bvalaif rj pip Uapbripif p^diovpy6Tfp(Uy rj di OlpapUf. ayp^rtpm, 

* Plato, Sympos, 180 D 1^ . . . vp^afivripa Koi iprfTcup Ovpopov Bvydrfjpf 
fjp d^ Koi OvpQPiOP aropopdCop€ir ^ M if^mripa At^s Koi ^wpriSf fjp drf Uoifdripop 
KoKovptP, 

^ Lucian, Dialog, Meretr. 7. i ^<rai pip rJ Uatf^fip^ Xtvicffp pj^Koba^ rfj 
Ovpamtf di T§ h Kfprots dapdktp, 

▼ Artemid. Oneirocr. 2. 37 ('A^po^'riy Olptana) pakiara JkyaBfj itc/m 
ydpovs Koi KoumPias Kai irp6g riawp yopfiK 
w Orph'c Hymn, 55. 5 : 

mil KpttTfds rpiaa-^p poip&p, y^pp^t d« rii iravra, 

Swtra r ip oUptoMf iari Ktii eV yalji woKvKapir^ 

ip n6pTov re j9v^. 
« Epigram, An/h. Pal, i. 297 cfr SyaXpa vfjt Ovpapias *A^p<AVi;ff- 

^ Kvwpit ov wapdripoff lK6aKMo r^v B^^p thitw 

Ovpopiop, 
y Appuleius, Afe/. 11. 2 Cadestis Venus quae primis rerum 



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748 GREEK RELIGION. 

exordiis sexuum diversitatem generato amore sociasti et aetema sobole 
genere humano propagato nunc circumfluo Paphiae sacrario coleris : 
the moon is addressed in his prayer as Regina Caeli, Caelestis Venus. 

« StobaeUS, Pfysica^ k^. B. n€p\ 'A^pod/ri^ Ovptanas Koik "Eptirvf ^rov. 

'•• Aphrodite *0\vfmla at Sparta, ••^ 

'•* Aphrodite 'A^poycj^p, poetical title, cf. C. L Gr, 5956 : Hesiod, 
The(^, 191: 

rf ^ t¥i Kovpri 
i$p€<li6rj* vpwTW dc KvBf)pouTi (ia64oun¥ 
lirXiyT , tvBtw tln^ira ir^pippvrop occro Kvrpor : 
of. \ Anacreon, 54 : 

XapofnJ9 St 4k Oakagnrtff 
Mpwrap^tnjp KvSrfpqw 
cXcS^cvf v6wT0t d<l>pf, 

'•* *A<rr*pia: Cram. AfUcd, Pans, I. 3^19 *A<Ppodirrpf Sp nv €iwff r^ 
Tov ndims alaOrjrov <f>vauf tovtcoti rifw irpwroyevij vhfp, ^» Kal 'Aorvpcar m 
Ovpavlop KoXct ra \6yia. Aphrodite with Zeus *Afidpios and Athena 
'Aftapia on an inscription of the Achaean league, Rev, Arclu 1876, 
p. 102. Cf. the legend in Hesiod, ITieog, 988 about Phaethon, son of 
Kephalos, and Eos whom Aphrodite carried off koi fuv (aO^ois w nfws 

vrioir6Xo» pvxioy Troc^o'aro dalpopa dtoy. Strabo, 73^ Uipa-at . • . rtfxAox 
Kol *HXtoy, tv KoXowri Mi6priv Kot a-fXrftnjv koi 'At^podtn/v. 

^^ Ua(n<l>dti, goddess worshipped at Thalamae in Laconia: x°^^ 
toTTjKtv dydXpara fV vwaWp^ tov iepov (*Ipovr) rrjf t€ Uaattftaqs kqX *HAiov ni 
€T€pov . . . 2€\rfvrit dc cirucXi;<rtff,. ical ov SoXafioraif arix^^piot dalfiMP iarw 9 
JJaatcfKui. Cf. Cic. de Div, i. 43. Arist. Mirab, 133, referring to the 
cows of Geryon, ro^ d* iidfuunrt ir^$^ llaa'Ul>d«r(Ta 6td, ]Icur«^a]| con- 
nected with Apollo and Daphne by Plutarch, Agis, 9. Jo. Lyd. 
de 3 fens, 4. p. 89 (17 *A<l>podiTfj) KoXcrroi dc voWaxov km Jlainff^wj. 

"* Aphrodite-Ariadne at Amathus in Cyprus •* : Plut. 7^s, 20 o& 
fuV yiip dvay^aaBai ffmfrw oMjw dwok(Uf>6turap \m6 rov Otfo-ewf, lb, at the 
sacrifice to Ariadne, KaTakXtv6p€p6p ripa t»v vtaviaiutiw ^fiBtyytaSai kbu, 
nouuf Surtp ^iyovfrai yvvautitt. Grave of Ariadne in Naxos : two 
different sacrifices there, tb, Tjj piw yap tfioiUmvs mu iraiCovra^ iopraC€t9, 
riis bi ravTji ipo^fjJvat Ovcias tlvai ntvBti rau koi orvypikffTi fiefuyfupos, 
Naxos, sacred to Dionysos and Aphrodite Ariadne : Orphic Hymn 

io Aphrodite^ 559 L 22 ij vvfKJxus ripirg Kvavt>ni€rw ep ;(^ovt Aiq, At 

the feast of w<rxo(f>6pia at Athens : Plut. Thes, 22 imi^vtlw iw raU 
mropdais, *EXeX<0, *loif *Ioi;, rovs vrapditrat' &w to piip tntip^oumi oMi^ivur jccu 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXUXXIIL 749 

irtUMvlCoin'€g €i»$atriy r6 di ^icirX^^«»r icai rapajfif cWi. Boys dressed up 
as girls : id, ^»yi)y jcai a-^fta xai /Saduriy its twi ^uiXiora wapBwois (SfJUHOV" 
fi€i*oi) . . . i^poviri (rovff 6<rxcfvs) Atorva^ icai ^kpuAwji x^^&f^^^^^ ^ *^ 
fi,vSoy Pj fMKKoy ori avyKOfuCofjJyrig innpas imanjKBop, At ArgOS in the 
temple of DionysOS Kprf<riot : Paus. a. 23, 8 *AfHddinfp diroOapovtrop tfBaylrop 
iitravBa . . . likfiviop dc rov Auivwrov leai 'A<l>podiTris va6s i<mM Oi/pcanas, 
Hesych. s,v. ^Apibrfkaw rijw ^Aptddinpf Kprj/rts. Ariadne, mother of 
Tauropolis, Schol. ap. Rhod. 3. 997. 

Armed Aphrodite. 

'~^» At Corinth with Helios, ". 

^ Aphrodite ivfiftaxia at Mantinea, **. 

c Aphrodite 'QnXuriuvri *Ap(ia, *Aptorria at Sparta, *•. 

d At Mylasa : *A<l>podiTri Irpartia^ ". 

« "Eyxttos *A<l>pMTri in Cypros, •*. 

' In Cythera : ^iH>y inrkurfUpoPy •. 

K At Amorgus: Aphrodite olpapla ^ ip <2<nrcdi, ^. 

^ Vide epigrams, Anih, Plan, 1 71-177. 

i Plut. Stdla^ 19, the names of Ares, Nike, and Aphrodite inscribed 
on Sulla's trophy after Chaeronca, lit ovx ^t^rop rvrvx*? KoropBwras ^ 
d€ivATTjTt KM dvpdfui r6p irSKffwp. Cf. Plutarch, Parall, 37, statue of 
Aphrodite fitKrf<p6pof sent to Rome by Fabius Fabricianus. 

^ Ap. Rhod I. 742 : 

4(tuit d* {fuiajiTo fiaBvwKdKOfios Kv&iptia 
"Aptot 6xfM(<nMra Bohp aaitof (k hi ol wftov 
inJXy^ ^^ fTKothp ivpoxfj ic<xc>^<K^o x'^*^' 
ptpBtp vir€K fiaifHO' rh d* &ptiop arptKis avrm 
XakKtifj h^iKTikcip €P daitidi ^otvcr IditrOai* 

1 Porph. Je AbsL 2. 56 iOvtro ksX ip Aaodaef^ 1^ mir^ Svptov tq 'A$tipf 
Kcnr* hot vapBipos^ pvp dc cXo^f . 

™ Aphrodite irparopiKU at Smyrna, *'. 

^ Aphrodite ^rpaniyis at Paros : Le Bas, Iles^ 2062, dedication 

'^ Maritime Aphrodite ^ at Byzantium, \ 
^ In Attica, "». Aphrodite K«»Xw, "*. At Aegina, ••». 
« At Hermione : Aphrodite Uoprla mti Ai/mWo, "*. 
d At Patrae, ••» 



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750 GREEK RELIGION. 

« Aegium, **. 

' On south-east coast of Italy : At/i^r *A<l>poilrrff, *'®. 

« Aphrodite *AKpaia on the promontory of Olympos in Cyprus^ *. 

^ Aphrodite EftrXow at Aegae in Cilicia with Poseidon 'Aot^ftor,". 
At Cnidos, ** : C.L Gr. 4443, 7309. Aphrodite EftrXoio worshipped 
at Mylasa, inscription published in Mover, km BtfiktoB. z^iKvpmts^ 1875, 
p. 50. At Naucratis, •*. 

* Aphrodite Korao-xoir/a at Troezen, ". 

k Plut p. 983 F (De SollerU Anm.) *A<l>podlrnP 6fJUMV Kara eaXamra^ 

J Plut. Crassusy 17, the goddess at Hierapolis in Syria, ^v ol /uv 
'A<l>podiTtjp, ol dc *Hpair, ol W rijp apx^is Koi mnpiiora watriv €$ vypAp wapm- 
axowrap olWoy. Ampel. Ltd. Mem, a. 32 Bello gigantum Venus per- 
turbata in piscem se transfiguravit Lucian, de Dea Syr. §§ 45, 46, 
lake with sacred fish near the ten^le of the goddess, icotA fMotw awrfr 

"> AtvKo$4a : ? a marine Aphrodite, akin to Dictynna and Derketo. 
n ""Ei^ifnror? referring to the sea: Schol. //. 2. 820 nXamvai bi 

TOVTO ifnr^ intfifj xai rrj» fjifjr€pa ^rifirjct toiovt^ cryoX/iorc 
o Bion, Id. g, i : 

"Afup* Kvirpoy€P€ui^ Ai6f T€K.oi ffii &aKda-<ni£. 
^ Anih, PaL 10, 21 Kwrpi yaKf\vahi\ (? referring to the sea-goddess). 
lb, 9. 143 *lXo<nc€v T^ YLimpuT rya* dc <ro» J) cV l/Mort aCpios ^ X'V^f 
wptwrofAm ip ircXoyft. Lucret 1.6: 

Te, dea, te fiigiunt venti te nubila caeli 
adventumque tuum. 
« Aphrodite ^avapxU associated with Poseidon S«»(rcW«»( on inscription 
found at Kertsch (of Roman period), Rev. Arch. 1881, p. 238. 

» *Hyc/iow; : Hesych. S. v. "Ap/r^ius «u *A<l>podi'ni' Koi pavt rti ovrm 
icaXitrm: butcf. "^l 

• Himer. Or. I. ao r^r *Ai^po^lrriP cjc luaw Tw vcX<iyov( ancMroy rn 
r^y d<l>p6v fitrit rrjp Bakaacrcaf i^ iKp»p vXoKOfjMP crdCovaxBP. 

Aphrodite, goddess of vegetation. 

*<^» "AvStia at Cnossus, ••. 

*> *A<t>po6lTrj (p KaKdfiOK at Samos, ^". 

o Sacrifice of herbs to Aphrodite at Eryx, ". 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI^XXIIL 751 

^ Aphrodite ^UpoiajnU in Paphos: Baudissin, Studien zur SemiL 
Relig, 2. 210. Strabo, 683, in Cyprus near Paphos, ^k^v avh OaKafr- 

orj£ Koi fj 'Ifpoicrpricu Cf. *'^. 

« At Hierapolis : Ludan, de Dea Syr. 49 (copi^ir) ol fiip nvpffw ol Jc 
\afindda xoX/ovo'i* Ovairip dc €v airrg roi^i^ iroUovtn* fUpdpta fAtyakaf 
iKK6y\^VT€S iv T§ avik§ ifrrcuTC furii di aytvtoirnt atyas tc Koi Sias koi 3Xka 
Krrivfa (^ (k r»y drvdpcttv anmprtcwn . - . r^ dc avTuca napra Koiovrtu, 

* *Aoia : Hesych. itvdpa tamrdfuva Koi avariBiyutva rj *A<l>podiTjj . . . irp6s 

K Pomegranate sacred to Aphrodite in Cyprus: Athenae. 84 C, 
quoting from Antlphanes,. njr yap *A(f>pobiTriv «V Kvwp^ dtvdpop <f>vT(vaai 
Toi/T<J <f>airtp tw p6pop, 

^ Plutarch, 756 £ Ctlitipw avrrfp *^irfdo«X$f fCKopKotf ii So^oieX^r 
ififjLtX^t irdmf kcX irptir6vT«ig &v6pxifra», 

* Her worship connected with that of the Horae at Olympia, Pans. 
5. 15. 3- Cf. •*. 

Aphrodite and Adonis as divinities of vegetation and death. 

'***» Cf. Ovid. Meiam. 10. 512 (Adonis bom from the myrtle-tree). 
Apollod. 3. 14, 3-4 'Hir/odoff avrhiw (^Abtovip) ^oiviKot Ka\ 'Ak<f>€(n^ia£ 
Xcycc Hapvaati dc </))7o-t Otiavros /3a0'iXco»r *A<ravpi«»Pf ts tl<rx* ^vyaripa 
2pvppap* aun; Korii fifjptp 'A<^podir9ff, ov yi^) aMip rrip^f Vx^* ^"^^ inrrpbs 
tptara . . . $(o\ di KtrroucrtipawT^s aMiP fit iMpop fArnf\\a(ap, t Kakowri 
vpvpvap . . . rov dwdpov ^aytprot y€pptf3rjpiu t6p \ry6fA€POP "Ab^vw, 

^ Gardens of Adonis : Plato, Phaedr, 276 B v^r^pa (nnvbj hp $€pov£ 
tls *Ad^pido9 icfprovt dp&p x^^-P^*" ^^p^ koKovs <V ^fupanrip oicra> yiypoijiipovu 
Theophr. HtsL Plant. 6. 7, 3 cr oarpoKOis &aw€p o2 *Ada»wdor laproi 
(nrcipcroi row Btpovs. Hesych. S. V, *AWndos K^jiroi : ttf toU *Ad«no4F 
cidcdXa i(ayov<n Ka\ icffirovt iv 6arpdK«iP, Ka\ ntanobair^v 6n»pa3f, olop cV fAopa- 
6p<ap Koi BpthoKmp vapa<TKMva(,owriv ain^ rovt KfiKOvs* K.a\ yhp ip BpidaKiPoif 
ovr^v KaTOKkufBrjpM {m6 *A<^p6biTrit iftaaip (? the Kvfrpioi Bvatai mentioned 
by Plato, p. 738 C, to be referred to the Adonis Aphrodite worship 
at Athens). 

^ PaUS. 6. 24, 7 fi^P fMF Koi fivpaiwfiv 'A<l>podiTffs re Upa *Iku kcu ohctu» 
Tf fV*Ad»iw X<5yy. Theocr. Id, 15. 112 : 

TTckp /Up dniipa Kciroi, ^a dpv6t Sicpa <f>€popTi^ 
map ff 6wakoi jrairoi, vtffntkayiiipoi iw rdkapia-KOit 
apyvp€Ois, 

^ Plut. Alctd. 18 'AditniMr tis riis rm^pas ixMlwas (at the time of the 
departure of the Sicilian expedition in the summer) naBuK&PT^p iroX- 



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752 GREEK RELIGION. 

\axpv ptKpois^iCKOiuCofi€Pois ifioia vpofkturro mir yvMuj^iecil ratfAs tfufiovwro 
rSfuvai Koi BprjpwtS^p. Hesych. x.Z'. KoBtdpa' Bvala 'Ad&piios, Sapph. /Ir, 6 2 

itaTnnm<r$€ K&paa. icol KarfptlKta'Bt x*'^^*'*"- 
« Arist Pax, 419: 

irdiras t€ r6s Skkat rvXrrir riis r&tf Btia^ 
fivarripi 'Epfij^ AifrAci*, *A^puu 
Lysisir. 387 : 

2p* ^(cXofl^ TttV yVMIilCttir X^ TpVififf 

X«» TvpvQwuTi»ht x^ irvK9ol So/SafiOi . • • 
ttktytw d^ <S ^4 &p<un pip Aiip6<rrpaTos 
wkthf tU liKtXiaPy ^ yvPTi d* ipxov/utmj, 
alai "Ait^mp, <f>rj<rip, 6 dc Arjp6<rrpaTos 
IXcyty STrXirat Karakeytuf ZoKVpBiw' 
ri d* {montinaKvT , tf yvvij *v\ rov rryow, 

^ Cratinus BwiccJXoi, fr. a : 

r^ KXfOfuixov d\ &ir OVK lb ^(iovp eyw 
</ioi dftddo-icftir ovff tp tls 'AdcAMO. 

8 Dittenb. Syllog, Inscr, Graec, 427 fdof* toip ^(r«Taiff (r^r 'Ai^pO' 
iinis) intibri ^TtifKOfot . . . r^i^ iropnifp t&p 'Advputp Shrfpy^t kot^ rk varpia, 
B.C. 302-1, found in the Pciraeeus. 

^ Athenae. 456 A-B Ukdr^p cV r^ *Ad«i«dt XP^trp^ Mrjptu \4ymp Kunip^ 
vnip rov *Ad<&Mdoff rov vlov . . . Xeyci dc *A<l>pMTriP Koi Ai6pvitoP' dp<f>6T€ptH 
yap ifpoip Tov *AdoiPtdo£. Cf. the Oracle given to the Rhodians, Socrates, 
Hi's/, EccL iii. 23 : 

^Arriy WaaKftrBoi $€6p ptyap 6yp6p "Adctptp 
(HpioPf 6\Pi6dc»pop, evvkSxapop Aiopvaop, 
Plut. Seriorius, 1 dvetv "Arrt^p ytPopApWP ipgjmp&py rov pip Svpov, 
rov dc 'Apjcadofy iKortpo^ {m6 (rv6s on-^Xcro. Or^h. Hymn^ 56, Adonis 
addressed with epithets of Bacchus, Ev/3ovXcv . . . Kovpri naX Kopt . . . 
diiccpa»r. Firm. Mat ed. Halm, p. 120 in sacris Phrygiis quae 
matris deum dicunt, per annos singulos arbor pinea caeditur et in 
media arbore simulacnmi iuvenis subligatur. 

* ArgOS : Paus. 2. 20, 6 oUripa Ma t6p "A^PtP al yvpoUiS *Apy(imp 

ihvpOPTOl, 

^ Samos : Athenae. 45 1 B Ai^iXor eV Bfivti rpus irorc K&pai lapias (fffiahf 
*Ai»pioiat ypi<l>(vtip vapa it6T0P, 

1 At Alexandria in Caria: Steph. Byz. s.v. vp6s ry Aarp^ rijt 
Kaplas tp S *AdttMov ^p txop Upa^iTtXovs 'A^podcnp. 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI-XXIIL 753 

»" Cyprus : ? at Golgoi, •*. 

n At Amathus, •*. 

o By bios: Lucian, de Dea Syr. 6 riSov d< koL tv Bvffk^ fUya Iphv 

*A<l>podiTrjt fivffklijiy tp r^ Koi ra Sfryia ts ^Adttvti^ e7r(r«Xc'ov(rti', <8ai;i' dc Koi 
ra Spyia' \(yov<ri yap bff &» r6 tpyov rh cV "h^vip vir6 tov irv6t €v tJ 
X^Pfl ^ ^4^^*i^d ycy«a^ KOI fivfifirjp TOV naOtot rxmrovrcii rt (kootov tT€ot 
Kai Opijviovtn icai r^ 6pyia fVircXcovo'iv . . . iirtay di dnoTtnlr»vrai t€ koi 
dnoKXavo'c^vTai irp&ra fuv lenrayi^ovo'i rf 'Adcavcdi ^ica»f €6vrt vticviy fAtrii dc 
TJ iripji ^p€pJ3 C^uf T€ fAiw fivBokcyiovfTi jcal cV rhv fjfpa wfimovai koi rhf 
Kf^oX^f (vpiowrai oic»p Alyxnmoi ano0ap6vTos "Aniot, Cf. Strabo, 755 
17 . . . B^iSXof . . . Upa coTi TOV ^Ad»pi^v, Luc. (?/. ci/. 8, the river called 
Adonis in the territory of Byblos, Ud(TTov trtoi alpdaatToi . . . na\ 

arjpalvtt tois Bvffkiotv to ntvBta' fAvBtovTai oTt Tavrijai r^aiv fffjJpija'iv 6 
'Adttvir dpu T^p Aifiavov TiTpuHTKtTai ral t6 alfxa cV t6 vt»p fpxdptvop 
dWd<r<r(i top noraphp Kcd r^ po^ ri^v iimpvpiffp dtdoi. 

P Antioch: Ammian. Marcell. 22. 9, 15 evcnerat autem isdem 
diebus annuo cursu completo Adonea ritu veteri celebrari, amato 
Veneris, ut fabulae fingunt, apri dente ferali deleto, quod in adulto 
flore sectarum est indicium frugum . . . ululabiles undique planctus 
et lugubres sonus audiebantur. 

^ Sestos : Musaeus rd naff *H/h», 42 : 

A^ yap Kwptbiff irayd^/iior ^Btp inprrfy 

r^p dvd lifiTTOP Syovaip *Ada>Mdi Kai Kv$tpeijj, 

1.47: 

ovdf yvpff rc( tpifipfp ip\ YrroXieorac Kv6^pc»p, 
' Alexandria in Egypt: Theocr. /t/. 1 5 : departure of Adonis,!. 150: 
rvp paw Ktnrpis cxoura r6v avrds x^^P*'''^ dvhpa, 
d&Btp d* 6p€S PIP Sifia ip6<r^ aOpdai tf(» 
ola-tvfus irorl Kvpar eW atdvi mvorra. 

11. 143-144: 

(Xa^i pvp <^iX' "Aiwpi, Ka\ «V P*car tlBvprifrais^ 
Koi yvv ^vBtSy ^Ada>yc, koI o«c«c* dfpitcjj, <^iXov ^^if. 

■ Apollod. ^/<^/. 3. 14, 5 {"Adaptp) 'A<^podiTi;p di^ KoXXof frc injircoi^, 
Kpv<f>a BiiiPf tU \dpP€Uta KpCyfraaay Iltpa€<f>6vif iraplaraTo, ixtiinj d< «( 
46€d;raro ovk dntbibov, icpiatm di M Aior y(pop€Pr}Sy tls poipas ^fjptBrj 6 
iptavrdt' KOI piap pip vap tavT^ pipttp t6p "A^vpip piaw di wapd lJ9pir«f>6pjj 
irap€Ta(€f Tqp W htpap vap *A(f)poilTrfP, 

^ Schol. Theocr. 5. 9 a t^ dp^pwniP tiUap^pds <l>riin9 €K rov *A^Ptdos 
€uparoi <l>VTJpau 

VOL. II. Z 



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754 GREEK RELIGION, 

"^* Aphrodite mourning for Adonis: Macrob. SaL c. 21, 5 
simulacrum huius deae in monte libano fingitur capite olmvipto^ 
specie tristi faciem manu iaeva intra amictum sustinens: kcrimae 
visione conspicientium manare creduntur (he explains this as tbe 
image of winter) . . . sed cum sol emersit ab inferioribus pftrttbos 
terrae . . . tunc est Venus laeta. 
^ Bion, Id. I. 4: 

fujKrn irop<fn/p€ois iw\ ^a|pr<rt, Kvir/K, mi^vdc, 

^p€o, dttkaioy cvoMt^oToXc, xai nkaToyiHrop 

trraBta, 

1. 32 • 

&pta vapra Xfyoyri koI al dpm, td row "KbcnnM^ 

Kou mrofiol xXaiovrt rh wMta ras 'At^podirar. 

^ Eus. Praep. Evang, i. 28 (speaking of the Phoenicians) KkeatBim 

Km IXfof taaX oUxov fSkaarr\^uaTi "fyi ani^wri KoBiepovp. 

Chthonian Aphrodite. 

"®* Plant MerccUor^ scaena supposita, Act 4 sub fin, : 

Diva Astarte, hominum deorumque vis vita salus, 
rursus eadem quae est pemicies mors interitus. 

^ Hesych. S, v. Evfity^s* *A<f>podiTrf. 

c *Ail>pobiTif Ua<l>uf Ev/SovX?, inscription of the later Ptolemaic period : 
HelLJourn. 1888, p. 223. 

d Plut. QuaesL Rom, 269 B ital yap h AcX^ir 'A^po^inyf 'Eircrvyi- 
fiiat ayakiinTi6v fori, nphi h rove Jcaroi;^o/4€rovr ^l rai x^^ dwoKiikovt^rat, 
He compares Venus Libitina of Rome. 

« Clem. Alex. ProtrepL 33 P. 'ApytUwg, ot *A<I>pMtji¥ rvfMfi^pvxop 
Opri<rKtV€vin, 

^ Aphrodite McXaiWp, at Corinth, Thespiae and Mantinea ", •, •*. 
? Mvxfia : Suidas, s,v, Mvxairarov ; cf. inscr. found in Gyaros, 'A^podcn^ 
(m)ux*?: J^uii. de Corr. Hell, 1877, p. 357. 

« Aphrodite napa^virroi/aa = Aphrodite Topya: Plut Amai, 766 D 
ri yap hf Xcyot ns El^vpOerop koi Acvxo/iavrtda lijp cV Kvvp^ UapaicvirTmHrap 
(Vt pvp vpoaayoptvopAvfiv \ uKKk Tfjp Topyovt ura»p n-oci^ir ov«e diafit6aT€ rift 
KpTftraris vapawKriina rj Tlap€Uc\mrov<Tji noBowrqs' irkrjp eiceipri flip aircXi^o*^ 
napaKvyffaaa r6p ipatrriiP Ibtlp ixKOfuCopfPOP. Ovid, Metom, 1 4. 759 • 
dominae sub imagine signum 
servat adhuc Salamis: Veneris quoque nomine templum 
Prospicientis habet 
Anton. Liber. 39, gives the love-story without any reference to the cult 
from which it arose. 



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REFERENCES FQR CHAPTERS XXUXXIIL 755 

^ Aphrodite AaBplrj: Meineke, Zhl, Eptgr. p. 115. 

^ Hesych. S, v. 'Epipvvs* da/fti9» ttgr^x^^^^ 9 'A^/ntdtn/f c2d»Xoy. 

^ Clemens Rom. HotniL 5. 93 (rd^^ nr h^Uwra^ 'A^podin/^ <V 

1 Inscription quoted by the author of Arist. Mirah. AusculL 145, 
perhaps from the Ismenion of Thebea : 

Tripvoktvs oycXi^y fft *'Epv6Hinf Sytanf 
Til's df dd}xaira'9 v66^ Jlain^mirwa Bta, 

™ Plutarch, Coniug. Praecep, 138 D •! voXomS rp *A<f>pMTji row 
'EpiAtjw avyKaBibpvaw. Cf. **, ", **, '' *. 

"^ ^ Apollod. 3. 14. 4 Kappas • . . y^fuir H904(»rj¥ k^v UvyfiakU»vos 
Kvirpittr /3aa-iX(a>ff . . . iytpprjirtw . . . ^Adtti^iK* 

^ Clem. Alex. ProtrepL p. 51 P. ^ Kv«pi«f ^ nvy/AoXiW ciwiyoff 

ikalxurripov rfpdaBrf aydXiioros — tA Sydkiia 'A^po^'r^r |v Kol yvfur^ ijr — . . . 
^iKoart<f>c»os iaropu^ 

o nvypaUtf Hesych. S. V, 6 "A^atwis napk Kvnpiots. 

^" ^ Aphrodite connected with the Moirae and the Erinyes : Schol. 
Soph. 0,0, 45 *Emfit¥ibri£ K/xSyov ^i;<rl r^ EvfuU^t ^k tov KokkiKOftos 
ycpcro XP^^ *A<^pod/ri;, Moipac r iS^owiroi Koi 'Epiwvts oloXddw/XM. 

^ Connected with Nemesis at Rhamnus: Pliny, JV. H. 36, 17. 
Cf. inscription on a seat in the Attic theatre : C. /. A. 3. 289 *Up€vs 
Ovpaylas NffwVcwr" also at Sparta, **. 

Male Aphrodite. 

>»a Macrob. So/. 3. 8 Signum etiam eius est Cypri barbatum 
corpore sed veste muliebri, cum sceptro et natura virili et putant 
eandem marem ac feminam esse. Aristophanes earn *kf^p6^T09 
appellat . . • Philochorus quoque in Atthide eandem affirmat esse 
Lunam, et ei sacrificium faciunt viri cum veste muliebri, mulieres 
cum virili, cum eadem et mas aestimatur et femina. 

^ Serv. Virg. Am, a. 63a Est etiam in Cypro simulacrum barbatae 
Veneris, corpore et veste muliebri, cum sceptro et natura virili, quod 
*A<l>p6diT0¥ vocant, cui viri in veste muliebri, mulieres in virili veste 
sacrificant. Cf. Firm. Mat De error e prof . relig, p. 80, ed. Halm. 

c Cf. Catull. 68. 51 duplex Amathusia. 

^ Hesych. S.V, *A<f>p6diT0$' 6 lU ra wtpH 'AfMoBwpra yrfpoi^^ naidvt- 
crov (? leg. Uaiwf &s) Mpa iQ^parivBai cV Kvirpf Xeyt i. 

Z 2 



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756 GREEK RELIGION. 

• Jo. Lyd. De Mens, 4, p. 89 na/i^vXoi «il nvy»va €X<w<rar ^riftMfaam 

f Plut. De MuL VirL 4, p. 245 F (at Argos) ^xP^ vvp to 'rPpumma 
Tf\oviri yvpcuKas fiiv dv^ptioig xy^ioai Koi xkafiwruf, Swdpas de W€vXms 
yvuaiK&v Koi icoXvnr/xuff dft^ici^vTcr. 

« Cf. Schol. //. 2. 820, the women at Rome, €v$afUvat rj 'A^podcry 
dvctrpix^^^t^^ Ti/i5<rai rt aMiP aydkfiari KT€va ^€povfraw kcu ycVfior tx^vaiv, 
diort mil Spp*va koi Bfjkta €\ti ^pyavtu 

t Cram. Anecd, Paris, i. 320 »f «il avTi7 i} ^A^pMni rtgm t« tot 
&ftp€voe Koi roO ^Xcor txovaa <f>va'iw. 

^ Theophrast Char, n€p\ diiatdaipoplaf' km fictkBiUf «*cr« <rrr^<tvi.£r 
rovr *Eppa(f>podiTOvs 6Xi;y r^v fipipaw. 

Animals sacrificed to Aphrodite. 

"** Swine offered at Castniae in Pamphylia,": at Metropolis in 
Thessaly, •. 

t> Jo. Lyd. De Mens, 4, 45. Bonn. Ed. p. 80 fTipBro ^ 'A<l>podirrf ron 
avToU oh Ka\ rj "Hpa* cV dc tJ Kvnp^ irp6^To» kM» €<rK(na<r/i€vmf (? leg". 
icTKtiraa'fAttKH) av¥t0vop rj *A(f>podlTff' 6 df rpAnoi r^p Upartiai cV rg YLvnp^ 
&nh r$( KopipSov naprjXBt irorc. c;ra dJ ita) <rvar aypiovs tOvow avT§ dta np 
karh *Adȴtdin ciri^ovX^y. 

« Athenae. 96 A, quoting from Antiphanes' KopivBia' «V tJ Kvvip^ ^ 

ovftt (fxXrjiii TaU vaLv (*A<^podin;) . . . ort d^ ZvT»t ^A^pMrn Zs Bvrrai 
fiapTvptZ KtiKXifiaxos fj Zi^rodorov fV laropiKoit vnofivripao'i ypaff>9» Uk 
^* *Apytioi 'A<l>poiiTjj Zp Ovovtrif icai ^ ioprri leaXctroi varrfpia." 

^ Arist. Acharn, 794 aXX* ovxl x<^P^' Td<f>po^lTff Bverai, At Hierapolis 
Bvova-i dc /3<$af Upa^vds re jcal Brjktag Koi alyat Koi otas' avas dc povpos 
cVaycW POfu(oPTfS oUrt Bvovaip o(jt€ airtoprai . . . 6ppi6<ap rv avrcocot 
ntpiOT€pil XP^f^ IpoTOTop^ xoi ovd< yjfavtw avritop ducauvat Luc. Z^^ Z^ 
•S^r. 54- 

® Pans. 2. 10. 4 Ttfi' Up€ioi>p rovs prjpoifs Ovovat n\^p v&p to Aphrodite 
at Sicyon. 

' AeL De Nat, Anim, 10. 50 ^l yovp iBikoig Bv<rm Siv^ Idov aoi 
T^ /3«>/i^ nap4<rTTjKtp oit , , , elrf oTya flTc €ptxf>op (referring to the worship 
at Eryx). At Cos, goats offered to Aphrodite: Paton and Hicks, 
Inscriptions of Cos , no. 369 ; an tpit^og BiXttaj id, no. 401. 

8 Aphrodite 'Emrpayia, in Attica, '*b; at Elis,"; cf. ••«. Tac 
Hist, 2. 3 (in Cyprus) hostiae ut quisque vovit, sed mares deliguntur ; 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI ^ XX I II 757 

certissima fides haedorum fibris. Plaut Poenul. sex agnos immolavi 
Veneri. 

^ Jo. Lyd. De Mens, 4, 44. p. 79 ttpovpywv dc alrj jfipos mi w^pducas, 
iri al flip Tois vdaat xalpcwn {vikayUi di ff *A^/wd^). 

< Empedocles ap. Porph. de Abstinmi* 2. 21 : 
aKkii ILvvpis fianrtktta . . . 
r^v oi y ^nr9^€<nruf ayakfjuieuf fXaaKoirro 
ypmrrois re (foun fivponri r§ daidaXc<$(r^oftf 
Cfivptnis r wep6Tov Bwrlait \tfidifov re ^v«dov( 
^\)6&» re ovqiMls lUkivr&v ^wtovpt€s h oddas. 
(For emendations in the text vide Bemays, Theophrasius Schrift Uhtr 
Frifmmigketi^ p. 178.) 

^ Theocr, 27. 63 pcfw w6fnaf "Epcan luu avrf Povp *A^f>odiT^ Cf. 
'A<I>pMtij Tavpojr6Kos SchoL Dionys. Perieg, 609. 

1 'Icpf toy r^ *A(l>pMTjf i^durroy oTo^ yc^ irov rd ircpi rov Xaym Xty6figpow, 
i»s iroXv Ttjs *A^podin79 fAirtaruf avrf, 

"• * Z^c^w. -^»w» /(> Aphrod. 1-6 ; Aesch. Dancddts (Athenae. 600 A): 

ifla fiip 6yp6t c^popbt TpAatu x^^> 

tlp^if dc yaUof Xafifidptt ydftov rt^cty, 

Bfifipos ^ tar tMrnnot ovpopov «f(r«>r 

tkvat yaSny* i} d^ r^crfroi fiparoU 

fiffXtvp re fiocKhs Ktd filop Arfiu/Tpuip^ 

dtpdpwris &pa ^ €K PcrlCoPTOf yayumi 

T€\ti6s f oTi* T&p d* iym vapainos. 
Imitated by Euripides, Frag. 890; Athenae. 599 F, 
^ Soph. /Vd^. 678 (Stobaeus, 63. 6) : 

£ waifks If rot Kvff/Mf od KvirfMf ^uSvoy, 

aXX' /otI iroXXtti^ 6pofiar»p tnitpvitot, 

taruf fup ^AidijSy iim d* SupOirot /3tof, 

tmip dc Xv<r<ra ftaufdfj 9<m ^ Ifupos 

ixpaPTos, tar otfAmyftids' iv Ktuftf t6 wop 

amvMop i^avx^^ ^^ ^^ Syop, 
c Eur. Iltpp. 447 : 

ffHHT^ d* OP* alBip^ licrri ^ h Bakaviri^ 

ffXvdtfVi Kvirpcfi irclyra d* ^jc ravri|ff ?^v. 

d Eur. Med. 835 : 

Ki/^urov poop 
rap KvwpiP Kk]j(ovaiP aifnwiraiupap 
Xiipas KarannKwrai pMrpias MpMp 

Z3 



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758 GREEK RELIGION. 

XBtiraKTip €lwiiri podcttv wX6kop dy^cMi^ 

iratfToias aptras avpfpyovs. 
Aphrodite as a city-goddess. 

*'• • Jo. Lyd. De Mens, 4, p. 91 ol ^ocWcr 'Aardpnip np a<f>&p woktovxotf. 
^ Aesch. Sep/, 140: 

Kvirpis &Tt ytpovt ftpopAx^p 

Skivaov* a€6€y yhp c( alparos 

y€y6vap«p, 

^ At Paphos •*, in Achaea " : Aphrodite ivfipaxia at Mantinea, **. 

'"* Aphrodite Udvdfjpos: Xen. Symf, 8. 9,**«. 

^ Plat. 5yw/. i8oD,"t. 

« Paus. 6. 25. I,***". 

d An/hoi. I. 297, •*» 

« At Thebes, •. 

' At Megalopolis, *'. 

« AtErythrae,''«. 

^^ At Cos : Paton and Hicks, Inscriptions of Cos, no. 401 *A<f>podirs 

Uapdapef fyi(f>op BriXtiop, 

^ At Athens: Athenae. 569 D fiUopdpos 6 KoXo^<imo( hrroptl (» 

TpLrtf Ko\o<l>npuiK&p (fiavK^v avrhp (2<(X«0va) Koi lUafi^pov *A^podcn7r Upop 
npSrrop IhpwraaOai Acj} ^p fipyvpiaapro al npocraa-tu rSaw ouofpdvtp, 
Harpocr. S, V, Havbqpjos *A<^podcn7* *hnoKK6h»pos €P r^ rrtpl BtStv wdp^/i6p 
<f>fia'ip 'ABffvrjai ickrjBrjpai rrjp dcfiibpvBdaap trcpt rfjp apxalap ayopap diii t6 
€PTav6a itdvra rhp brjpop avpay€a6at r^ iroXai^v <V rais (KKktfo-iai?^ As cicaXow 
dyopds. Bull, de Corr, Hell, 1889, p. 161, inscription found on the 
south-west side of the Acropolis fourth century b.c, t^i^ <rot, £ 

ftcyiiXii acfii^ TLd»hr\pt ^K^potlni^ . . . Mcyciepdrcia Ac^ucporovr 'ixapiw 
Bvydrrip Upfta rtjs *A<l>poiiTtjs rrjs Uav^fipov, Id. p. 1 63, inscription 284 
B. C, . . . ofras &y ol darvpdpoi . . . imptktiap itowptoi tov Upov r^ 
\\<f>podiTrjs TTjs iLapdffpov Kara rh wdrpta, found on the same spot as the 
above (published also in Del/, Arch. 1888, p. 188). Cf. Del/. Arch. 
1891, p. 127, inscription of latter part of third century b.c., ^ /SouX^ 

ff €w\ Aiopvaiov apxopTos OPtOqKtp 'A^podtrci ^€fi6yu tov drfpov xac Xdpuru 
Athenae. 659 D Mtpopdpos cV KSkeuu . . . pdytipop jp rj T^s Uapdtipop 
*A<l>pobi'njs iopT§ notti ravrl Xryorra 

BtoU okvp^iriois €^;(«fic^a 

dXvpfriauri vaai vdacus 

diSdpat ctarrfpiap 

vyitiav dyaOh vroXX^ . . . 



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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI-XXUL 759 

"•• Connected with the clan and with marriage: *A^/)oi/n7 'Aira- 
rait^^ •• and ••. 

*> Children consecrated to Aphrodite at Paphos : C, L Gr. 2637 
(second century a. d.). 

« Aphrodite "Hpa at Sparta, •* «. 

d Artemidor. OneirocriL •• ^. 

• Aphrodite *Ap/ia at Delphi, '. 

' Aphrodite Nvfi^/a: Pans. 2. 32, 7, on the road between Troezen and 

Hermione, *A<f>poiirrjs Up6v Nv/a^uk frot^crovrof Orfa-ftos, livixa t^x^ yvpoUa 

« Aphrodite rcrcrvXA/r: Arist. Nu5. 52 Schol. rcifrvAXlff i} rrjt 
ycvcVcttff t<l>opos *A<t>pMTfi, Lysistr. 2 SchoL Fcycn/XXir ywauctla Mt 
ntpl rijp *A{f>podirrjw, Lucian, PseudoL 1 1 ccirc yap /mm irp6s Utof^funf koL 
rcytrvXXcdoov leal Kv/S^iS^r. Erotes^ 42 troff ^c^r intrpi^v rovt ytyaiuiKAras, 
lav (vUiP ol KOKohaipjovti Mp€t Mi avrii taaai ni 6v6fiaTa^ Ko^Xiadar, 
(2 rv^cM, ecu rdfCTuXX/daf J) r^i' ^pvyttuf baipopa Koi rbw hvaipwra jcw/ioy (wi 
rf noiiUvC rfXcral dc (Mpprp-oi icai x^P^^ apdptiv vfronra fiwrnjpui ml — r£ 
yap del ircpiirXcicciy ; duupBoph ^)fis, Alciphron, 3. II iroO yc^ /ycl> kot 
ayp6v IdpvcTM KttXiadav ) rcycrvXXiddff j otd* dicovirof aXXa rtWb tmp6vio9 
6vdiJuiTa, tivdiiiT6 n\fj$os an»\ur0€ pov rrjs ppfjpfjs rii irXccoMi (cf. Hekate, ** ^). 

^ Aphrodite eoXofMoy : Hesjch. S, v. Svairira, 'A<f>podmi, 

i KovpoTp6<poi : Athenae. 441 F (from Plato) np&Ta pip €po\ yhp 
fiavpoTp6^ wpo$v€Ttu vXoKovt Mpxts* Anih, Pal, 6. 318 Kvirpidt 
%cvpoTp6^ hApdkiv pf(aPT€S tfcfirfioi x^^H^^^^ vvpff>at <«c BaiXaptip Syoptp. 

In Samos at the feast of 'ATroroypia Homer iroptv6p€Pos yvFoi^ Kovpcfrp6(l>^ 
Bvovamt ip t§ rptS^, Cf. Athenae. 592^, who identifies Kov/>or/xS^ 
with Aphrodite. 

^ StobaeUS, 67. 20 nov pip yhp "Ept^t wapayipoir hp huvuortpop ) iv\ 
p6ptpLOP dpdp6t Ka\ yvpiwcbs 6/uXiay; irov d^ ^p^l ^ov dc *A<f>pobvni\ cf. 
Diod. Sic. 5. 73. 

Aphrodite as goddess of beauty and love. 

'••» Mop^Ni at Sparta,**^: Hesych. j.if. Mo/>^* yA^tpMrti. 

^ 'Awoarpotpia : in Thebes, *• Cf. 'Enurrpotpia in Megara,^^. 

o *Apdpo<ti6pos or dpwrta in Thessaly,^: Plut 768 AKn pvp t6 Up6p 
' A(f>podlTfi£ MpoK^pcv Kokowruf, 

d Aphrodite UttBc^ in Pharsalus*: cf. inscription from Lesbos, ^^. 
Hesiod, Works and Days, 1. 73 — description of Pandora's creation, •*. 
lUpacBia : ti 'Aiftpodirf) Hesych. S, V. ? leg. ncuri^ca. 



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76o GREEK RELIGION, 

• Mai^poyopmc: Hesych. j.t^.^'A^po^^. Maxoiwr at Megalopolis, "\ 
' Htymnrit in Cranae south of Laconla, •. 

9 npa$t£ Aphrodite at Megara, '^ 
^ napcuannovaa at Cyprus, *'•«. 

1 "irlBvpos : Harpocr. J. r. ^t^pwrnj^. 'E^i^ htfioro 'Ai&^tn nu inSopH 

Baimris at Sjrracuse, " *. 

k Fragmeni of Homeric hymn to Aphrodite, lo (Baiimeister) : 
Ktrnpoya^ KvBfptiav dtlaoiiaiy if rt fiporoun 
fAiikixa i&pa dldwruf, €<f> lfA€pT^ dc vpoawr^ 
aUi fictdioffi Koi t<P* liupTov iJHp^t ipBos. 

Xaip€, B^h 

hhs d* liKpitinrajf doid^p. 

Cf. fragment 6. 19. "Ep^t as the personification of human love: 
Plato, Sympos, 1 19 C fkiiiMP nai BwrtJm ovdcv yiwmu wtfH airrw, Eur. 
-^'>/. 539. 

* ApoUod. 3. 14, legend of the daughters of Cinjras, aXXorplois 
Mpaat avif(vpa{6/ji€vai dth p^piv 'A^/x>d^n7(. 

"» 'imrMfMui : ^ BpitTfjts koI 'A^podin; Hesych. s, V. 

n Firm. Mat. De err ore prof an. relig, p. 78 ed. Halm (Phryges 
qui Pessinunta incolunt) . . . mulieris divitis ac reginae suae amorem 
quae fastus amati adulescentis tyrannice voluit ulcisci, ciun hictibus 
annuis consecrarunt 

o Firm. Mat. p. 80 Assyrii et pars Afrorum aerem nomine lunonis 
vel Veneris virginis — si tamen Veneri placuit aliquando virginitas— 
consecrarunt. 

"• Aphrodite ^ralpa: * Athenae. 571 C t§« vaph, toU *ABrfmlois 
Kctkovfumjs iratpas rrjs 'Atppo^iTijs, W€p\ ^s ^i^crlv 6 *A^Mubs- *An6kk6dmpog cr 
rots ir9p\ 0€»p ovT»s *^ halpap ii r^v *A<^pobvnjp rrfp rovt haipovt KtH ras 
iralpas (rvpayovaop'*' toOto If iari if>tKas, Photius S. V. 'Eraipag 'A<f>podini^ 
Uphp *A6rivfi<nP carh tow avpdytuf iraipovs Koi halpas. At £phesus, **. 

*» Aphrodite nrfpwy at Abydos, **. 

c Cf. Clem. Alex. Frotrept. p. 33 P. ov^l "a^/kA'tj; mpt^atriti /uV 
'Apycioi, iraip^ dc *ABrivaioi Koi icaXXcirvy^ Ovovatp ^vpOKowrtot ; ^p HUopdpos 
6 troifiiiis KaXXiy\ovT6p irov ic/icXi/ffCv. Vide HeS)'ch. S. V, Ilfpifian and 
TpvpaXiTis, epithets of Aphrodite. 

d Aphrodite KaXX/irvyof : Athenae. 554 C-E IbpCaoPTo 'A^^podlrifs Up^ . 
Kak€ira<rai KoXXiirvyop Trjp 6t6py m laroptt Ka\ *Apx€^oo£ €p rois Idpfiois, 



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' ■ • -A: *.:..;;•■ at :J-.,ur,.,'^ 
h 1. '.r.* at >\ .;u;^f. ' '•. 

X--S ''-^ 

h-'\ f" U'l • >^-r'.ai- .4. 

C r. ! .'.'11 t .it 6. Ht. 't . i^^ >i*i li'"^ ](''>' /k.'k: tl ' i*:- 

^ Fu:n M :. .Z^' ./ -.^r. /^. ,/;;.;. r •^. p. 7S . 1. ]| ': 
^,ii(* fi-ai'^ .r^'iti ..(iuic ^::nli^ tyai'n'n' ^vV'.t ..:^v' > .i* 

• Sc A<.;ii- f-: ; -' ^ \' -• "itn .i-iv^ . »• 

■> - ^i :.,!.; u Vl' ' 1 i ^ -vit il,\ • ' 

- ., u : ** .\:].'-r\j . -,71 C r>'v rra I r ;, ;"■>..• 

*...,* , ..;.'•''-, »', K' • 'V '/ T 'fj' '; '"',■'■ '* *^ t\\'.>.j,M, . . 

r jK' j(;j' i^ -'"V ^'i ran' *' "" '' . .' * ry. ' , t .' 'i 7 'i r . , • . , . \ ^ .. ■ 
ri 1/ <:v* 'r;';'.*}(,L(rur' ' v. to «i' tJTi yA.ii 1 4 T,. *■. *'. '. r , , -v .\ ;jj . * 

'Ijt T ^aaXiT.f. ''['.:i:t.'i^' wi AI'IiI-k!.'- 

'^ Aj '■>*■ ^'!:!o Ka"'V-vf,. ",o>- : Atiu ^'aC*. ;',.'',4 t.'-E t',u -a'r • A^.m"\'-ij»- ..^. 



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Coin Plate B 









— 


as 


3a 










39 


46 


a6 






^ 




33 


40 


47 

1 


37 


34 






a8 


35 






30 


36 








37 




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REFERENCES FOR CHAPTERS XXI-XXHL 761 

• Aphrodite tiVKuwa : Orphic Hymn, 54. 11, ? meaning of title. 

' Dedications by hetaerae in Pharos in the Adriatic : C. /. Gr, 
1837 D, E. Philetairos in the KvwyyiV (Athenae. 572 D) : 

o^;^ cr^f iraipat Upov ion warraxov 

Aphrodite identified with women. 

*" * Aphrodite *Ap<ru>6fi near Alexandria, •' •. 

^ Aphrodite BtXcaWx*? : Plut. 753 E i; d^ BtXtarlxny irp^s AuSr, ov fiap- 
fiapop c^ pyopas yvMuor ; j(r lepa icai i«ov( *AX€(apdptis f;(ovo-it'y rtnypd^oatroi 
di lpa>ra rov pavtXttis, 'A^podin;^ BcXcorixi?^* 

^ Aphrodite Aa/i/a : Athenae. 253 B Brffi<uoi jcoXcuecvorrcff r^y AtiprfTpiow, 
&s ^(Ti noXcfiaDv, . . . ItpCa-avTo va6v *Ktf)pMrJii Aaptas. Cf. *A<l>potiTff 
A/ami li/. 253 A. 

d Aphrodite nv^von; at Athens : Athenae. 595 A-C Otowopwos tV rg 
np6s 'AX«£aydpoir iwurrcXa rriv 'ApiraXov dui/3aXX«v aicoXaa^ ^7<rtV • . . i)r 
irayrcs- §btattp iXlytis danamit icocy^ roir fiovXofUiHus ycvo/MVi^y, ravnjr 
fT^Xptictv 6 <l>CXos thai <rov <f)daK«iP Uphv Koi rtptvo^ IdpvaxurBai, jcal 
npoaayop€v<rai rov vahv kq\ rov ^mpop Uv3iopiiaj£ *A^podiri;f, &pa Tfjs r§ naph 
6t»p ripmpLas KoracPpop&p, 

Aphrodite in Orphic literature. 

*** Bymn 54, lines 1-8 : 

Ovpopiijf froXvv/iyc, (fuXopfut^fit 'A^podiny, 
jTorro/ffv^fy ytP€Ttipa $*d, ifuXonappvxff ^ffunf, 
pVKTfpui, CiVKT€ipa, doXoirX6K!(f fV^fp ^ivayiais, 
yibra yhp ^k <r*$€p iari, vrc^cv^ dc T€ K6<rpoPf 
Koi xporcciff rpurc&p poip&p, ytpp^s dc r^ iroira, 
ocrcra r* ^v ovptiPtf ion ntu tp yain noXviedpir^ 
ip w6ptov re pv6^' atpplj Bwcxotn n6p€dp€, 
Tfpnopipti BoiXijiat, yapoarSXt, pfjrtp ip^mp, 
11. 22y 23 : 

9 pvp/cjxug Tfpvjf Kvopcnrurip ip x^^ ^*9> 
Bvios hr alyioXoU ^ppmdtatp SXpan kov^. 

Frag. 28. 4 : 

ir<SXfffu>ff pip "Aptft, flpffpti d* dor 'A^pod/n^. 

END OF VOL. U. 



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