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AND BEQUEATHED TO 
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Cornell Universiiy uprary 
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The postage stamps of the United States, 



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olin Overs 




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The original of this book is in 
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The postage Stamps 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 



JOHN N. LUFF 



New York: 
THE SCOTT STAMP & COIN CO., Ltd. 

1902. 

3 



Copyright, 1897. 
By The Scott Stamp & Coin Co., Ltd. 



Contents, 



Page 

Introductory, ... 3 

Historical Notes, ... .5 

The Postmasters' Stamps, . 9 

Alexandria, Va., 12 

Annapolis, Md„ • '3 

Baltimore, Md., 15 

Boscawen, N. H., 20 

Brattleboro, Vt., 21 

Lockport, N. Y., . • 26 

Millbury, Mass., 27 

New Haven, Conn., 29 

New York, N. Y., . 32 

Philadelphia, Pa., 38 

Pittsfield, Mass., . 39 

Providence, R. \., . 40 

St. Louis, Mo., 45 

Washington, D. C, 52 

Worcester, Mass., 54 

Madison, Fla., . . -55 

Government Issues, 57 

Issue of 1847, 59 

Issue of 1851-55, . . .65 

Issue of 1857-60, -75 

Issues of 1861-66, 81 

Issue of i86r, . . 81 

" " 1863, 90 

" " 1866, . . 91 

Issue of 1867, -97 

Issue of 1869, • • . • '°^ 

Issue of 1870, . . 119 

Issues of 1873-75, . . 130 

Issue of 1879, ■ • '44 

Issues of 1881-88, . . 147 

Issue of 1881-82, ... 147 

" " April loth, 1882, ..... 149 

" " October ist, 1883, 151 

" " June 15th, 1887, ..... 153 



CONTENTS. 



Issues of 1887-88, 

Issue of 1890, 

Issue of 1893, .... 

Issue of 1894-95, 

Issue of 1898 (Trans-Mississippi Series), 

Issue of 1898, 

Issue of 1901 (Pan-American Series), 

Carriers' Stamps, 

The Baltimore Carriers' Stamps, . 

The Boston Carriers' Stamps, 

The Charleston Carriers' Stamps, 

The Louisvile Carriers' Stamps, 

The New York Carriers' Stamps, 

The Philadelphia Carriers' Stamps, 

Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Pony Express Stamps, 

The Franklin Carriers' Stamp, 

The Eagle Carriers' Stamp, 

Special Delivery Stamps, 

Official Stamps (Issue of 1873), 

Official Stamps (Issue of 1879), 

Newspaper and Periodical Stamps (Issue of 

" (Issue of 
" (Issue of 
" (Issue of 
" (Issue of 

Postage Due Stamps, 
-Issue of 1879, 
Issues of 1894-95, 
Provisional Issues, 

Reprints, Re-Issues and Special Printings, 
Issue of 1847, 

" " 1857, 
" " 1861, 
" " 1869, 
" " 1870, 
" " 1882, 
" " 1883, 
Carriers' Stamps, 
Official Stamps, 

Newspaper and Periodical Stamps, 
Postage Due Stamps, 
Official Seals, 

Appendix, .... 

Addenda, .... 

Errata, ..... 
Index, .... 



1865), 
'87s), 
1879), 
1894), 
189s), 



Page. 

ISS 
160 
170 
179 
191 
196 
200 
202 
207 
211 

222 

225 

238 

24* 
248 
250 
256 
274 
289 
294 
303 
318 
320 

329 
329 
336 
341 

343 
346 
348 
349 
35° 
351 
354 
354 
355 
356 
359 
364 
365 

375 
401 

403 
405 



Introductory, 



The first of the series of articles which constitute this •■.vorl<, and which 
it is now ray pleasure topresent in a more permanent form, appeared in the 
American Journal of Philately for June, 1897. 

Philatelists had, for some time, felt the need of a new history of the 
postage stamps of the United States, as the only work on this subject, which 
was then extant, had been written many years before and, in spite of its 
numerous excellent features, had become obsolete. The discoveries of 
recent years had increased the interest in the stamps of this country, enlarged 
the field of collecting and given us new literary material which it was desirable 
to gather into some permanent form. 

I had frequently been urged to undertake this task but had hesitated 
on account of its magnitude, fully realizing the amount of research and labor 
involved in properly placing such a work before the public. However, I, at 
last, decided to undertake the work and have carried it out to. the best of my 
ability. I must leave it to my readers to decide what measure of success has 
attended my efforts. 

The difficulties attending the study of the stamps of the United States 
are great, especially in the case of the early issues. Of the postmasters' and 
carriers' stamps there are practically no records,- either public cr private. 
The men who issued or handled the stamps have most of them passed away. 
Those who remain can recall but little and human memory is proverbially 
fallible. To find the best and most reliable data we must turn to the earlier 
philatelic publications and from these sources I have drawn freely. 

Even in the case of the government issues we can obtain but little 
information. Until 1894 the si amps were not printed by the government 
but by contractors. The official records seldom hhow more than the quantities 
of stamps received and distributed. Even these records are usually inacces- 
sible, except in the shape of the annual reports of the Postmaster- General, 
which are, as a rule, merely perfunctory lists of the number of stamps of each 
value dibtribuled in each year and supply very h'ttle that we wish to know 
of design paper, colors and the numerous details which are of interest to 
philatelists. 

In preparing this work I have spared neither time nor, pains and, thanks 
to the liberality of my publishers, expenditure for material and investigation 
has not been stinted. The various chapters have now been carefully corrected 



4 INTRODUCTORY. 

and amplified. I have tried to include every interesting detail and every 
item which might be of value. I fear I have sometimes given extracts and 
statistics that make dull reading, but it has seemed necessary to include them 
for the sake of completeness. 

Of regular issues by the government, the adhesive stamps only will be 
considered. The envelope stamps occupy a field by themselves and there are 
already extant several very, complete and elaborate works devoted to them. 
But, among the provisional issues by postmasters and the carriers' stamps, 
envelopes will be described. They are few in number and their inclusion is 
desirable for the sake of historical completeness. 

It is fitting that I should express here my obligation to many others, 
both collectors and dealers, for their valued assistance. They have placed at 
my disposal their collections and stocks and have aided me in other ways. 
It was originally my intention to make individual mention of those who 
assisted me, I now find that I have a long list of such friends, yet I fear that 
I may have failed to note some names Rather than risk a seeming, though 
unintentional neglect, I deem it best to say that I am indebted to many of 
those best known in philately in this country and in Europe, and to many 
others whose names are not so familiar but whose good will was the equal 
of any. To all I offer my sincere thanks. 



Historical Notes, 



The first efforts towards establishing a postal system in what is now the 
United States were made by the colonies of Massachussetts and Pennsylvania; 
by the former in 1676 and by the latter in 1683. The head offices were Early postal 
located in Boston and Philadelphia. These systems were designed for the ArrangcmeHts. 
convenience of the colonies establishing them, rather than for the benefit of 
the North American colonies in general. 

The mother country seems to have given no favorable attention to the 
needs of the colonies in the direction of postal communication until 1692 and 
the project remained unfruitful fur nearly twenty years after that date. In 
the annual report of the Postmaster- General, dated November 29th, 1831, 
we read : 

" As early as 1677, upon the petition of several merchants of Boston (Massachnssetts), 
Mr. John Hayward, scrivener, was appointed by the court, 'to take in and convey letters 
according to their direction.' 

This was probably the first post office and mail service authorized in America. Local 
and imperfect arrangements for the conveyance of mails were afterwards made, at different 
periods, in several of the colonies, until 1710, when the British Parliament passed an act 
authorizing the British Postmaster-Genera! ' to keep one chief letter office in New York, and 
other chief letter offices in each of her Majesty's provinces or colonies in America.' Deputy 
Postmasters-General for North America were subsequently and fio.n time to time appointed 
by the Postmaster-General in England, and Doctor Benjamin Franklin was so appointed in 
1755. He was removed in 1774. 

On the 26th of July, 1775, the Continents Congress determined 'th.it a Postmaster- 
General be appointed for the United Colonies,' and to allow him ' a salary of one thousand 
dollars per annum for himself and three hundred and forty dollars per annum for a secretary 
and comptroller.' On proceeding to the election of Postmaster General, ' Benjamin Franklin, 
Esq., was unanimously chosen.' 

The Articles of Confederation of 1 77S gave to the United States in Congress assembled 
' the sole and exclusive right and power of establishing and regulating post offices, from one 
State to another throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers 
passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of an ofTice.' The little 
progress made during the period of the Confederation shows that this power was too limited 
to be useful, and when the increase of the mail service before the adoption of the constitution 
of the United States is compared with its subsequent extension one cannot fail to perceive 
that the prosperity, efficiency, and value of this department are chiefly to be ascribed to the 
national government founded under the constitution of the Union. 

The first Congress assembled under our present constitution passed ' An act for the 
temporary establishment of a post office ' approved September 22, 1789. This act directed 
the appointment of a Postmaster General, and was to continue in force until the end of the 
next session of Congress. Under this provision Samuel Osgood, of Massachussetts, was 
appointed by President Washington, Postmaster-General of the United States, and this was 
the first appointment to that office. * * * 

The earliest reliable statistics of the General Post Office are those for the year 1790, 
when the number of post offices was seventy-five ; the extent of the post routes 1,875 miles; 
and the revenues of the department $37.W5-" 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 



To those who are interested in the early history and gradual develope- 
ment of our postal system, I recommend the perusal of an article by Mr. 
James Rees in the Avicrican Journal of Philately for April, 1876. 

The rates of postage were at first excessively high. In 1816 they were 
considerably reduced. From that date until the Act of March 3rd, 1845, 
Hates of I'ostasc which established uniform postage throughout the United States, the rate for 
a single letter- varied from 6 cents to 25 cents, according to distance, the latter 
sum carrying a letter only 400 miles. Double and triple letters were charged 
in proportion A single letter was not one of a certain weight, but a single 
sheet of paper, folded and addressed on the back. Two sheets of paper or a 
sheet and a cover constituted a'double letter. 

The Act of March 3rd, 1845, established rates of postage as follows: 

" For every single letter in manuscript or paper of any kind by or upon which infor- 
mation shall be asked for or communicated in writing or by marks or signs, cofcveyed in the 
mail, for any distance under three hundred miles, five cents ; and for anv distance over three 
hundred miles, ten cents ; and for a double letter there shall be charged double^ these rates ; 
and for a treble letter, treble these rates ; and for a quadruple letter, qu.idruple these rates ; 
and every letter or parcel not exceeding half an ounce in weiaht shall be deemed a single 
letter, and every additional weight of half an ounce, or .additional weight of less than half 
an ounce, shall be charged with an additional single postage And all drop letters or letters 
placed in any post-office, not for transmission through the mail, but for delivery only, shall 
lie charged with postage at the rate of two cents each." 

Circulars were charged two cents eai;h. Newspapers were charged 
according to size. A sheet under certain diinensions was charged one cent 
for a distance less than one hundred miles and one and one half cents for a 
greater distance. For a sheet larger than the regulation size the rate was 
two cents. Pamphlets and magazines were charged two and one half cents 
each. 

Any one who studies the early issues of this country, the issues of post- 
masters, carriers and the local posts, or any of the records of the time, soon 
notices that in its early days the post office department was never a leader 
I'ost Offlco not a ^^t always a follower. It allowed others to make all experiments, reforms 
Leader. and improvements, and then copied or took up their work. It was only when 

local posts had demonstrated that lower rates were profitable or had drawn 
to themselves the patronage of the public, through rapid or more frequent 
service, that the government granted similar improvements. 

A very interesting account of the early postal laws and of the private 
posts is given by Mr. James Leslie, U. S. Consul at Nice, in the Stamp 
Collectors Magazine, lo\ Nov. i, 1863. In view of the fact that Mr Leslie 
Karl) I'ostai Laws was evidently thoroughly conversant with his subject and that' he wrote at 
anil Priviite Pouts. ^|^g ^^.,g ^j-jg^j jj-ig various chang s in the postal laws had finally brought the 
government service into effecti\e working form and enabled it to supersede 
the private posts, I think a liberal ([uotation from his article may be of 
interest : 

" The proper expl.-malion of the ninny local postage stainps issued in the United States 
is only to be found in a thorough review of the postal laws pa.ssed by the United States' 
Congress and in a careful study of the various changes wrought by these successive legisla- 
tive acts in the mode of distribution ol letters and in the r.ites of postage. ■» * * 

The agitation in fav/or of and fmal adoption in England of the penny-postage system, 
excited a correspcidinj; interest and movement in the United Slates in favor of a reduction 
of what were felt to be, in comparison with British rates, extortionate postal charges. As 
happens with all poliiical reforms, it took time to develope public sentiment and to draw the 



HISTORICAL NOTES. 7 

attention of Congress to this important subject. The government rates for carrying letters 
were deemed so onerous that, in the fall of 1844,* private parties undertook to transport 
letters on their own account between points where they felt sure that money could be earned 
at lower rates. And, although such attcmps to defraud the post-office revenues were in 
direct contravention of existing laws, popular sentiment, impressed with the idea of getting a 
better service at a lower price, winked at the law's infractions ; and, although the violations 
of the law were carried on with comparatively little secrecy, the perpetrators were never 
reached or, at any rate, were never punished. * * * 

The successful efforts of these private carriers soon commenced to tell upon the postal 
revenues, and, as the natural consequence, the post-office department was compelled to 
propose the remedy'so clamorously called for by public opinion. By the Act of Mjrch 3, 
1845, Congress at one sweep abolished the previous dear rates, as well as the annoying scale 
of varying distances ; and, whilst substituting the weight-standard, reduced at the same time 
the rate for a single letter to 5 cents for any distance under three thousand miles, and 10 
cents for all distances over three thousand miles. By the provisions of the same act, drop- 
letters (by which was meant letters for delivery in the same town where posted, as distinguished 
from letters intended for transportation to other towns) were made chargeable with a tax of 
2 cents, prepayment being opLioiial. 

It must be borne in mind that, in addition to all the rates just mentioned, the post- 
office carriers were entitled to charge upon all letter's, without exception, delivered at one's 
r'esidence, a fee of 2 cents for delivery. This last item of revenue formed the entire com- 
pensation of ihe carriers, who, deeming themselves underpaid, were unwilling to make more 
than two deliveries a day — one in the morning, and another in the afternoon. It will be- 
seen that, under this arrangement, the entire tax levied upon a drop-letter, carrred a lew 
squares' distance, and delivered at one's r-eiidence, was 4 cents, or only 1 cent les>than the 
sum chai'ged for transporting a similar letter nearly thi-ee thousand miles ! 

It is to this impor'tant fact, and to the waul of frequent deliveries in large cities and 
towns, that we may legitrniately tr'ace the creation of the numerous private post companies. 
In all the chief towns, these companies established a system of letter-boxes, fr-om which 
letters were collected and deliver'ed five or six times a day, and at one-half or even one- 
fourth the rates charged by the Government. The usual price was 1 cent or 2 cents. At 
fri'st in the principal cities, wjien there was no competition, the price was two cents. Later, 
as rivalry started up in the private postal service, some of the companies lowered the price 
to one cent. In some of the smaller cities, wher'e the distances travelled over by the carriers 
were compai'atively shor't, the price was never higher than one cent. Hence almost every 
city had its one, or, as in Philadelphia or New York, its half-dozen local posts ; and hence 
why, upon the stamps employed by these companies, the usual designations of value will be 
found to be one and two cents. * * * 

It was not in fact, till 1847, ^^^^ the American Congress decided upon the introduc- 
tion of postage stamps. The eleventh section of the Act of March j, r847, provides as 
follows : 

' Section XI. That to facilitate the transportation of letters in the mail the Post- 
master-General be authorized to prepare postage stamps which, when attached to any letter 
or packet, shall be evidence of the payment of the postage chargeable on such letter." 

An important innovation upon the system of postal regulations was introduced into 
the Act, passed IWarch 3, 1851. Whilst still leaving the prepayment of letters optional, this 
new-law reduced the rate for letters under three thousand miles to 3 cents, if prepaid; whilst, 
if not prepaid, the old r-ate of 5 cents was collected. * * * 

The contirrued success of the private posts at this period caused the insertion of a 
provision in this same Act of r85i, authoiizing the Postmaster-General to establish 'post 
routes within the cities or towns'; to reduce the total charge, inclusive of delivery-fee, upon 
dr'op-letters to two cents ; and to provide for collecting and conveying to the chief office of 
the general post letter's intended for transportation to other cities, —the latter duty having 
been previously monopolized by ihe private carriers. This explains a great many of the 
local stamps hearing such inscriptions as the following : 'To the Mail, one ccnt^ ; Post- 
Office Despatch'; Government City Despatch'; and also, the one issued by the Post-office 
Depar'tmenf, viz , the blue oval stamp, with vignette of an eagle raising, and the inscription, 
' U. S. P. O- Despatch, prepaid one cent ' 

But, notwrthstanding the provisions of ihe Act of 1851 referred to, the post office 
officials were slow to exercise the autiiority granted. Though the price on drop-letters was 
reduced to only 2 cents, still the rapid and frequerrt deliveries, whidi the public had become 
accustomed to from the private companies, wer'e not yet supplied by the Post-office Depart- 
ment ; the gover-nmcnt post office carriers refusing to make more than the traditional two 
djiiy deliveries, unless they were assur'ed a remunerative salary, which should not be depen- 
dent upon the number of letters, more or less, which they delivered. * * * 

By the Act of June 15, i860, a still further r'eduction was made in the fee for the 



*NnTH. — Mr. Leslie's date may be set back nearly three years, since we now know that Greig's City 
Despatch Post was established in the city of New York on Jan. 1st, 181 -. It is claimed that Hale's post 
was in operation at a still earlier date, but did not use stamps. 



8 HISTORICAL NOTES. 

delivery of letters ; the rate collected by the carriers on all letters, whether received from 
abroad or mailed in the city itself, being one cent. A special appropriation of money was 
also made, to make up the loss to the carriers consequent upon this reduction, by substituting 
a fixed salary for these officials. And yet nothing was said in the Act as to the compulsory 
prepayment of this delivery-fee of i cent. In reality that question remained an open one 
until the present year. By the Act of March 3, 1863, the question was definitely settled. It 
provides for frequent deliveries (which can now be easily carried out, .since the carriers have 
regular fixed salaries) ; it compels prepayment on all drop-letters, upon which the rate is 
made two cents (a step backwards, it may be remarked, en passant); and abolishes all 
delivery tax upon letters coming from other towns. The law took effect on the 1st of July, 
and this accounts for the introduction of the new 2 cents adhesive label, and the 2 cents 
envelope, both with the effigy of President Jackson. 

The question of the right of private carriers to transport letters within the municipal 
limits of the cities was settled authoritatively in 1861, by the United States Court for the 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania, in a suit brought by the government against Messrs. 
Kochersperger & Co., successors to D. O. Blood & Co., of Philadelphia. The Court decided 
that, by the language of the Post-Office Act of March 3, 1851 (already previously quoted), 
the ' streets' of cities and towns were made 'post-routes', and that the Government alone 
had power to transport letters over them. This decision, happily commended to popular 
approval by the tardy awakening of the post-office officials to increased energy and enter- 
prise, was the death blow to the local companies Though the Government did not com- 
mence suit against all the parties, the decision in the one case had served as a sufficient 
warning ; and, at the present time, private-posts and local stamps in the United States may 
be considered amongst the things ot the past." 



The Postmasters' Stamps. 



This most interesting group of stamps, representing the earliest official 
attempts to meet the requirements of the public and lead the way for proper 
governmental supply and control of postage stamps, presents many difficulties 
to the philatelic student and writer. 

Previous to the introduction of adhesive stamps, letters were marked 
" PAID " or " DUE," either with pen and ink or hand stamps of various designs. 
Sometimes the words sufficed but usually the amount of the postage and the Dse of ;iiarks. 
date were added. The three may be found separately applied and also com- 
bined in one hand-stamp. The varieties of type are numerous. 

As has been previously remarked, the introduction of adhesive postage 
stamps in Europe was followed by a demand for similar conveniences in this 
country. But the Government was slow to accede to popular wishes and did 
not yield until the example had been set by the local posts and by issues of 
a semi-private nature on the part of certain postmasters. 

The first adhesive stamp used in this country was issued by the City 
Despatch Post, otherwise known as Greig's Post, established in NewYork City, 
January ist, 1842. This proved such an annoyance to the Government that First Local stnmp. 
it was suppressed and in its place the United States City Despatch Post was First farriers' 
established. Perhaps it would be more correct to say that this post was Stamp, 

bought out, since its proprietor, Alex. M. Greig, was given the position of 
letter carrier. 

It is said that the Act of March 3rd, 1845, as originally prepared, con- 
tained provisions for the prepayment of postage and the use of adhesive 
stamps on letters to foreign countries. But neither provision was contained 
in the Act, as passed. 

Between the passage of the Act of March 3d, 1845, establishing the 
uniform rates of 5 and 10 cents, and that of the Act of March 3rd, 1847, by 
which the Postmaster General was at last authorized to issue postage stamps, 
the postmasters in several cities had postage stamps prepared and sold them 
to the public. It is probable that this action was prompted by a desire to ac- 
commodate their customers and to increase the receipts of their offices, by 
offering facilities in competition with those of the private posts. They usually 
sold their stamps at a slight advance over the face value, in order to re-imburse 
themselves for the expense of manufacture. It is possible that the limited 
use of several of these stamps may be, to some extent, due to this premium. 



lO THE PnSTMASTERS STAMPS. 

With one exception— that of a few of the stamps of the New York 
Postmaster, which were sent experimentally to other cities— these stamps had 
no currency outside of the city in which they were issued. They were 
recognized by the postmaster who issued them, as marks of postage prepaid, 
when placed on letters mailed at his office ; but no other postmaster would 
Stamps aiuiiobir accept them as such, if placed on letters deposited in his office. The stamps, 
oiiice. *° another office than that of issue, merely took the place of the word ''paid," 

in fact that word was usually impressed on the letters or used as a cancella- 
tion for the adhesive stamps. The stamps would carry letters from the office 
of issue to any other office but they would not carry a reply, since each post- 
master would only recognize the label or mark for which postage had been 
paid to him. 

It is interesting to note, on many of the postmaster's stamps, a 
survival of the early custom of vouching for the prepayment of postage by 
metns of the postmaster's signature. The New York Postmaster or his 
Signatures oil deputies placed their initials on the stamps of that city. Mr. Mitchell of 
stamps. New Haven wrote his name on each stamp. The Postmaster of Alexandria 

numbered his stamps. The stamps of Brattleboro bear a facsimile of the Post- 
master's initials, and on those from Baltimore the signature is reproduced in full. 
While, previous to March, 1847, there was no law authorizing the Post- 
master General to issue stamps or to sanction their issue by others, there 
does not seem to have been any law forbidding such issue. If the stamps of 
the various postmasters were brought to the attention of the Postmaster 
General he appears to have paid no heed to them, probably regarding them as 
private contracts between the postmasters and their customers and in no way 
detrimental to the interest of the Government, since the accounts were made 
up from the letters handled and the postage paid on them and not from the 
sales of the stamps. 

It is noteworthy that these stamps usually bear the words " Post 
Office " and the name of the city in which they were issued. Only those in 
authority would have dared to place these words upon the stamps. Their 
face values, five and ten cents, were the established government rates for 
service under and over 3,000 miles and were too high for local letters. They 
were clearly intended for more extended use than the local service of the 
cities in which they were issued The workmanship of many of them is 
superior to that of the stamps of the local posts, indicating that their pro- 
jectors felt warranted in incurring considerable expense in their production. 
These unofficial issues have at least the implied sanction of the 
authorities, since nothing was done, before March, 1847, to stop their use. 
Not only was their passage through the mails observed and allowed but wide 
publicity was given to them through the press. This unspoken consent, 
added to the fact that they were issued by those holding authority from the 
Govenment, gives them a seini-offiiial character. Their position in philately 
is extremely interesting if not unique. 
A r(i»t,iiiiiHtor'N ^^ ""'-' '"^t^'nce the stamps of a postmaster received official recognition, 

stmiip uHiciuiiy In the J/r/ni/'i>//7<!/i f/i/'/u/c/is/ (or Minch, 1S94, Mr. F. W. Hunter says of 
recognized. ^-^^ stamps issued by Robert H. Morris, the Postmaster of New York : 



THE POSTMASTERS STAMPS. II 

" During the year 1846, Mr. Morris sold the scblacl< New York to the postmasters of 
Boston, Washington, Albany and Philadelphia. My informant is not positive of the stamps 
being used in Philadelphia, but at all events the stamps were sold to the postmaster for use 
in that city. Cave Johnson, the Postmaster-General of the United States under President 
James K. Polk, authorized and directed the sale of the stamps to the Postmasters of the above 
mentioned cities. The stamps were only to be sold for letters directed to New York City.- 
When affixed to letters they were to be treated as unpaid by their respective postmasters and 
forwarded to New York and when there the letters were considered as " Paid " by the 
postal authorities in that city. This was done for a short time, solely as an experiment to 
test the practicability of use of postage stamps throughout the United States." 

The first of the postmasters to issue stamps was Robert H. Morris, 
Postmaster of New York. A number of other offices quickly followed his 
example. It seems best to consider these stamps in the alphabetical order 
of the ofifices issuing them. 



Alexandria, Va. 



Date of Issue. 



Historical. 



Design and Paper. 






This stamp was issued about 1846, the earliest known cancellation be- 
ing Sept. gth, 1846. 

Daniel Bryan was Postmaster at Alexandria from 1845 to 1847. 
Tiffany's History of the Postage Stamps of the United States gives the name 
"Brien " but I am informed by Mr. W. F. Lambert, of Alexandria, that the 
correct spelling is " Bryan." 

The first known copy of this stamp was found by the late John K. 
Tiffany in his family correspondence. It was described in Le Timbre Paste 
for March, 1873. The stamp is on the original cover, to which it is attached 
by a wafer. The letter is dated July loth, 1847. This stamp still remains 
in Mr. Tiffany's collection. 

A second copy is described in the Philatelic Monthly for August, 1879 
The description agrees with that of the copy previously known. The letter 
bears the date of Sept. 9th, 1 846. This specimen is now the property of a 
Philadelphia collector. 

Within a few years a third copy has been found and has passed into 
the collection of Mr. Thos. J. Shryock. 

These three are all that are known up to this date. The first and 
third are cut round. I have been unable to learn what is the shape of the 
second one. 

The first two copies bear the regular dated cancellation of Alexandria, 
the word " Paid " and a large figure "5 " in a rectangle, all hand-stamped in 
red. The third copy is not on the cover; 

The stamps are type-set and are impressed by hand on thin, colored, 
wove paper. In addition Mr. Shryock's copy bears " No. 45 " written in 
black ink in the space between "5" and "post office." Probably each 
copy was similarly numbered. Diameter, 27mm. 

ADHESIVE STAMP. 

Buff Wove Paper. 
Imperforate. 
1846. 5 cents black 



Annapolis. Md. 




PAID 



This envelope was issued by Martin F. Revell, Postmaster at An- 
napolis from 1844 to 1849. The exact date of issue is not known but it is 
probably 1846. 

The device is suggestive of a seal and is i8)^mm, in diameter. The 
" 5 '' and " PAID " apparently constitute part of the stamp. It is printed in 
dull carmine-red in the upper right corner of a white envelope which measures 
120x71mm. 

The design is very deeply impressed, so much so that portions of it 
show distinctly on the back flaps This would probably not have been the 
case had the envelope contained a letter and been hand-stamped after being 
deposited in the post office. The cancellation mark, on the contrary, does 
not show on the back. These points are of some value, as tending to con- 
firm the genuine provisional nature of the envelope. From the character of 
the work and the deep impression I believe the device and "5 " "paid" to 
have been printed on a press, rather than hand-stamped, and all at one im- 
pression 

The only known copy of the Annapolis envelope is in the collection of 
Mr. W. A. Castle, to whose courtesy I owe the privilege of first describing it. 

The following documents supply the history of the stamp, so far as it 

is now known : 

New York, Sept 3, 1895. 

To WHOM IT MAY CONCERN : 

Sometime in January, 1895, during our Mr. G. A. Burger's stay in the 
city of Pliiladelphia, lie received permission to look througli tlie old correspon- 
dence of the firm of Carstairs. 

Among other rare envelopes and stamps he found a small white envelope 
stamped " Post-Office, Annapolis, Md." with Eagle in center and " 5 " " Paid," 
on the upper right hand of the envelope in red, and the regular Annapolis post 
mark on the left side of the envelope in blue. 

From information which we received in Annapolis from Jas. Revell, son 
of the Postmaster there from 1844-49, we are convinced that this is a post- 
master's provisional stamped envelope, like the New Haven. 

We guarantee it to be a genuine original stamped envelope. 

BUROER & Co. 



Date of Issue. 



Desigu. 



Documents. 



14 



ANNAPOLIS, MD. 



Circuit Court for Anne Arundel County, 



Refereiire List. 



Hand-stamps. 



A tjuestiouable 
AdIieslTe. 



Annapolis, Md., April 25. 1895. 



A pen and ink sketch 

of the 

Annapolis envelope 



An envelope with the above address and stamp has been presented to rne 
for identification. 1 have quite a distinct recollection of the stamp ' ' Annapolis, 
Md., 20 Mar." as having been used by my father (now dec'd) in the Annapolis 
P. O., of which he was Postmaster some time prior to 1849. The stamp with 
eagle center has also a very familiar appearance and carries me back many 
years, when 1 was quite a lad, going to college (St. John's, Annapolis), often 
assisting my father, Martin F. Revell, in the office. 1 am decidedly of the 
opinion and such is my strong impression that these stamped envelopes, with 
eagle center in stamp and marked "paid", were sold by my father for the con- 
venience of the public. 

Jas. Revell, 

Associate Judge of 5th Judicial Court of Maryland. 

ENVELOPE. 

White Wove Paper. 
Size: larxyimm. 
1846? 5 cents carmine-red 

Since the foregoing was written, in June, 1897, I have not been able 
to obtain any further information about this envelope or confirmation of the 
claim that it is a postmaster's provisional. Collectors, as a whole, appear to 
be skeptical and unwilling to accept it. 

Mr. B. V. Jenkins has shown me a folded letter-sheet (not an envelope) 
which has this seal stamped, in dark blue ink, in the upper left corner of the 
address side. In the upper right corner is stamped a figure " 2 ", in the same 
ink. There is no cancellation mark or date of use. The paper is a pale 
gray-blue. Mr. Crawford Capen has shown me a similar letter sheet which 
is dated March 24th, 1848. I am told that there are others in existence and 
that all bear evidence that the seal was applied after mailing, thus making it 
merely a postmark. 

I have also been shown what pretends to be an Annapolis adhesive 
stamp. This is stamped in dark blue on bluish paper, exactly like the letter 
sheet just described. It is affixed to a cover which bears the word "paid" 
and a postmark dated "May 21 ", but neither touches the would-be stamp. 
There is nothing to grove that this bit of paper was used as a stamp, nor, on 
the other hand, is there any positive evidence to the contrary. Yet I cannot 
overcome the conviction that it is a fraud, and I must confess that, at this 
writing, I look with great doubt upon all the so-called Annapolis provisionals. 



Baltimore, Md. 



5 Cents. 



These stamps were issued by James Madison Buchanan, who was post- 
master at Baltimore from 1 845 to 1 849. The earliest cancellation which I 
have seen is March 18th, 1846 and the latest March 27th, 1847, but I am told 
the stamps were in use as late as 1849. It is said that there is a record in the 
Baltimore post office which describes these stamps and states that they were 
on bluish paper, and were first used early in 1846. This might be thought to 
indicate the priority of issue of the stamps on bluish paper, but the dates of 
letters bearing the stamps show that both colors of paper were in use con- 
currently. 

The attention of collectors was first called to the Baltimore stamps by 
the following communication, published in The Philatelist for February, 1875: 

" To the Editor of The Philatelist, 

Dear Sir : — I have the honor to give you the following description of a stamp recently 
discovered in this city, among the old papers in a vault of one of the oldest banking houses 
in the city. It was on a letter from New Orleans in 1845 or 1846. The envelope was un- 
fortunately destroyed. The stamp is narrow oblong; inscribed James M. Buchanan above; 
5 CENTS, below. A penstroke is drawn through the name. It is impressed on thin laid white 
paper, and attached to the envelope by two wafers. The cancellation is blue. 

At the same time and place were found six St. Louis, four of the 5c and two of the 
IOC. Also sixty ' New York Post Office,' and about a hundred 5 and 10c United States 1847. 

Yours respectfully, 
Washington, U. S. A." T. C. Bourne. 

Two things attract our attention in this letter; first, the writer's mis- 
take in attributing the stamp to New Orleans; and second, the statement that 
it was on white laid paper. We do not know, to day, any copy of this stamp 
on laid paper. 

The stamps were printed from an engraved plate, probably of copper. 
The surface of the plate was divided by thin vertical and horizontal lines into 
rectangles, about 53 to 54mm. long by 16 to 17mm. high. The design is very 
simple, being merely a facsimile of the postmaster's signature, with the value 
below it. The signature is from 47 to soXmm. in length, the "5 Cents" 
from 20 to 22^mm. and the " 10 Cents " from 24 to 25mm. 

It has been surmised that both values were engraved on one plate but 
this appears scarcely probable. The number of stamps on the plate or plates 



Sate of Issue. 



Historical. 



Design. 



i6 



BALTIMORE, MD. 



Tarieties and 
ArranKement. 



Kefererence List. 



Cancellfltfons. 



Connterfelt. 



is not known. As in the case of all hand-engraved plates, each stamp differs 
from the others. I have found eleven varieties of the 5 cents and three of the 
10 cents. These are shown in the accompanying photogravure (Plate A). 
The differences consist in the lengths of the signature and value, their relative 
positions, and the shape and shading of the numerals and periods. On 
referring to the photogravure it will be seen that the first stamp in the left 
hand vertical row is undoubtedly from the upper left corner of the sheet. 
The margin of the second stamp in that row shows it to belong on that side 
of the §heet. For the same reason it is evident that the first and second 
stamps in the right hand vertical row came from that side of the sheet, while 
the margins of the third stamp locate it in the lower right corner. Since this 
illustration was made I have seen a copy of the third stamp in the first row 
which has a broad margin at the right. In the middle row the two stamps 
cancelled by crossed diagonal lines form an unsevered pair. It will also be 
observed that the first of the ten cent stamps has a margin at the left. This 
is as far as I have been able to attain toward the restoration of the arrange- 
ment of the stamps on the plates. 

It is reasonable to assume that plates like these, on which each stamp 
was separately engraved, would be of limited size. The relatively large 
number of copies with margins confirms this theory. I anticipate that the 
plate of the five cents contained about fifteen to twenty-five stamps, and that 
of the ten cents a still smaller number. 

I have recently been told that an old gentleman, living in Baltimore, 
has a photograph of an original sheet of the Buchanan stamps. Others say 
it is a photograph of a sketch or tracing of such a sheet. My efforts to 
obtain more definite information about this have, so far, proved unfruitful. 

ADHESIVE STAMPS. 

Wove Paper. 

Imperforate. 

1 846. 5 cents black on white, 1 1 varieties 

5 cents black on bluish, 1 1 varieties 
10 cents black on white, 3 varieties 
I o cents black on bluish, 3 varieties 

The covers bearing the Baltimore stamps have usually the regular 
dated cancellation mark of the city, the word "paid " and a large figure "5 
or " lo" in an oval. An illustration of the latter marks will be found at the 
head of the paragraphs describing the envelopes. They are usually hand- 
stamped in blue and frequently one or more of them touches the stamp. The 
stamps have often an additional cancellation of pen strokes. 

A year or two ago several of the philatelic papers announced the 
discovery of a 5 cent Baltimore stamp on violet paper. Examination showed 
this to be merely a poor imitation, copied from an illustration in a stamp 
catalogue, and only about one half the size of the genuine stamp. It ought 
not to have deceived the most casual observer and is only mentioned here 
because of the somewhat extended notice given to it by the philatelic press. 



BALTIMORE, MU. 



17 




This illustration represents an adhesive frank which Postmaster Bu- 
chanan is said to have sold at five cents each and recognized, when affixed resign, 
to letters, as indicating postage prepaid. The frank consists of his autograph, 
written in black ink, on a small rectangle of white paper. The signature is 
114mm. long and the paper measures i25X26mra. 

I have seen only one copy. It was affixed to a letter sheet (apparently 
before the sheet was folded), so that it passed diagonally across the lower left 
corner of the address side and folded over upon the back flaps. The cover 
was cancelled "Baltimore, May 17," and had the " paid " and "5" in an 
oval which were in regular use at that office. All these marks were in blue. 
The cover bore also the date " 1846," written in pencil. This, I was told, 
was the date of the letter which was formerly within the cover. 

This specimen has a well authenticated history. In 1846 the crew of 
a shipwrecked French vessel was brought into Baltimore. At that date there 
was no French consul in that city but the functions of the consul at Phila- Historical, 
delphia extended to Baltimore. The consul. Monsieur d'Hauterive, was in- 
formed that these sailors were destitute and wished to be sent home. He 
despatched an agent to Baltimore to make proper investigations, take testi- 
mony and report to him. This agent used the copy of the frank which I 
have described. 

ADHESIVE STAMP. Reference List. 

White Wove Paper 
Imperforate. 
May 17th, 1846. (5 cents) black 

While the date of use is later than that known on some copies of the 
Baltimore stamps which are described at the beginning of this chapter, I am 
inclined to think that it was issued earlier than those stamps and was the 
successor of the stamped envelopes. 




Concerning this stamp we have but scant information. It is believed 
to have been issued by the Baltimore postmaster about 1848. 

The only known copy is on the original cover, addressed to Mr. Samuel 
Lynch, Jeweller, Hillsboro, N. C. It was found by Mr. F. W. Hunter in 



i8 



BALTIMORE, MD. 



examining the correspondence of the addressee, and now adorns a celebrated 
collection in Paris. The envelope bears the regular cancellation mark of the 
Historical. city of Baltimore. The date is somewhat indistinct but appears to be April 
12. The year, as usual, is not given on the cover. It is, however, supplied 
by the letter and is 1848. There are also the cancellation " paid " and figure 
"10" in an oval, hand-stamped in blue, as previously described for this city. 
None of these, however, touch the stamp, which is cancelled by two pen 
strokes. The word " paid " is also written on the envelope. The stamp 
measures 23x25mm. The use of the postmaster's stamps after the appearance 
of the Government issue of 1847 is not unknown ; both the Baltimore and 
the St. Louis stamps have been reported as used after that date. 

Keference List. ADHESIVE STAMP. 

Yellowish White Wove Paper. 

Imperforate. 

April 12th, 1848. 10 (cents) black 

The reader will kindly remember that this stamp is chronicled "for 
what it is worth," and without guarantee or even an expression of personal 
opinion. There is always the possibility that it is merely an ornamental 
label which some one has affixed to the cover through a whim or to deceive. 

PAID 




Dexlgii. 



Date or Use. 



The postmaster of Baltimore also issued stamped envelopes. They 
are simple affairs, being ordinary envelopes of the period, bearing the written 
signature of the postmaster, or a hand-stamped fac-simile of it, in the upper 
right corner ; below this are the word " paid " and large numeral in an oval, 
which latter marks were in regular use in the post office to indicate prepay- 
ment of postage. The impressions are in blue for the 5 cents and red for the 
10 cents. The hand stamped signatures are usually in black though some- 
times in blue. They appear to have been made with ordinary writing ink. 
One copy is known on which the word '' paid " is placed above the signature. 

The single envelopes each bear one accountant's check mark, while 
those with the double impression of the " 5 " ha\e two checks. 

I have seen only one copy of the envelope with written signature. It 
is dated Sept. 22, 1845. The signature is in black ink. 

Of the envelopes with hand-stamped signature the only date of use 
which I have been able to secure is Nov. 24. The year is not given but is, 
presumably, 1845. 

All the Baltimore envelopes are of a high degree of rarity and I believe 
only one specimen of each variety of the ten cents red has been discovered. 



BALTIMORE, MD. 



19 



From the dates of use it would appear that the envelopes were issued 
in advance of the adhesive stamps. 



ENVELOPES. 



Reference List. 



1845. 



5 (cents) blue on manila, signature written 



5 (cents) blue on white 
5 (cents) blue on buff 
5 (cents) blue on salmon 
5x5 (cents) blue on white 
5x5 (cents) blue on buff 
10 (cents) red on white 
10 (cents) red on buff 



hand-stamped 



Design. 



HiRtorical. 



Reference List. 



BOSCAWEN, N, H, 
PAID 

CENTS 

This stamp is believed to have been issued in 1846 by the Postmaster of 
Boscawen, N. H. The postmaster from 1845 to 1851 was Worcester Webster, 
a relative of the celebrated Daniel Webster. 

The stamp is of the most primitive nature. It appears to have been 
produced from a few carelessly set type and is hand-stamped in dull blue ink 
on thin, yellowish white, hand-made paper, in quality like coarse tissue paper. 
The word "paid" measures 13x3mm., "cents " is i7j^x3mm., and the 
numeral is 6}4mm. high and 6mm. wide. The only copy known is in the 
collection of Mr. H. E. Beats. It is on a small white envelope, addressed 
to Concord, N. H. The stamp is uncancelled. In the upper left corner is 
written — presumably by the postmaster, as was the custom of the period — 
" Boscawen, N. H., Dec. 13," in two lines. 

The following letter accompanies this cover: 

Plainfield, N. J , Feb. 28, 1894. 
Mr. H. E. Deats, 

Dear Sir : — Permit me to enclose for your inspection a few philatelic gems. * * * 
The old and very curious envelope 1 have owned for the past 29 years and came into 
possession of it at the general post-office in Washington, D. C. through Mr. Wm. M. Ireland, 
who was then chief cieik and the Third Asst. P. M General. As you will see, the mailing 
office, Boscawen, was written on the corner, as was the custom of P. M 's in those days, 
when no cancellation stamp was used. It performed its duty as a postal envelope and 1 
do not doubt but it is as genuine as any of the provisional issues of the period before stamps 
were issued. * * * Yours truly, 

H. H. LowRiE, A. P. A. 

Inquiries made in Boscawen have failed to supply any "further informa- 
tion. 

ADHESIVE STAMP. 

Yellowish White Wove Paper. 
Imperforate. 
18 — . 5 cents dull blue 

It will perh;ips not be amiss to remind ourselves at this point that, at 
the period which we are considering, the salaries of the postmasters depended 
on the cash receipts of their offices. They were, therefore, anxious to have 
as many letters as possible sent prepaid. This may explain, the issue of 
stamps in comparatively small towns, as well as the quite expensive designs 
provided by some of the postmasters. 



Brattleboro, Vt, 




This stamp was issued by Frederick N. Palmer, who was postmaster 
at Brattleboro from July, 1845, to November, 1848. The issue was probably 
made in the summer of 1846. In the collection of Mr. C. F. Bishop there is 
a copy of the stamp on the original cover. The enclosed letter is dated 
August 27th, 1846, and the writer says : "I pay this just to show you the 
stamp. It is against my principles, you know." From this we may infer 
that the stamp was a novelty and probably had very recently appeared. 

From the character of the engraving and impression we conclude that 
the material of the plate was copper. The stamps measure 21x14mm. Each 
was separately engraved and, consequently, differs slightly from the others. 
Spaces about imm. wide divided the stamps from each other and, likewise, 
the rows. Through the middle of these spaces were drawn thin lines of 
color. There were not, however, any such lines on the outer sides of the 
stamps. It has long been understood that the plate contained ten stamps, 
arranged in two horizontal rows of five, with the imprint " Eng''. by Tho°. 
Chubbuck, Bratt".." below the middle stamp of the bottom row. This arrange- 
ment will be discussed in a later paragraph. The autographic initials in the 
center of each stamp are, of course, those of the postmaster. The stamps 
were printed in black on thick buff wove paper. 

The history of the Brattleboro stamp is entertainingly set forth in the 

philatelic magazines. In ihe American Journal of Philately, AaXtd ]a.n-aa.ry 

20th, 1 869, appeared an article by Dr. J. A. Petrie, in which was included 

the following letter : 

Newton Corner, Mass., Dec. loth, 1868. 

Dear Sir : — You are mistaken in saying that the stamps about which you inquire 
have never been described. 

I received about two years ago a little paper printed in Vermont (I now forget by 
whom and in what exact locality), devoted to the subject of postage stamps. 

It mentioned the private stamp issued by me as P. M. at Brattleboro. 

This paper was sent me in a letter by a person who was very desirous to obtain the 
original plate from which they were printed. 

I was appointed sometime during the first year of Mr. Polk's administntion ; Hon. 
Cave Johnson, P. M. General. 

Mr. Polk was elected in 1845.* 



Date of Issne. 



Engrarlng and 
Arrangement. 



Hi»ttorical. 



Letter of Post- 
master Palmer. 



♦The writer means inaugurated. 



BRATTLEBORO, VT. 



Cancellations. 



Interriew with 
DIr. ChDbbuck. 



The stamps were issued, I think, during my first year as P. M., and I suppose them 
to be the very first P. O. stamps issued in this country. 

It was a strictly private thing, neither ordered or repudiated by the P. O. Department, 
and in my account with the Department made no difference. 

My object in issuing it was to accommodate the people and save myself labor in 
making and collecting quarterly bills, almost everything at that time being either charged or 
forwarded without prepayment. 

I was disappointed in the effect, having still to charge the stamps and collect my bills. 

I retained the office during the balance of Mr. Polk's term, and used the stamps more 
or less during my connection with the office. 

The canceling with red ink was uniform, though much a matter of choice. 

As to the number issued, 1 should say only five or six hundred as an experiment. 

They were engraved by Mr. Thomas Chubbuck, then of Brattleboro, now of Spring- 
field, Mass., who wrote me about a year since inquiring about the original plate. 

The plate was laid aside and 1 have never been able to find it, though it may yet 

come to light. j u- i i 

I have none of the stamps by me, have not seen one for a great while, and think 1 
could scarcely describe it correctly. 

Yours, &c., 

To J. A. Petrie, M. D., F- N. Palmer, M. D. 

Elizabeth, N. J. 

This article also gives a description of the stamps and says they were 
printed from a steel plate and that " they are, so far as I have been able to 
find, cancelled with a stroke of red ink drawn in part across them." The 
" cancelling with red ink,'' mentioned by Mr. Palmer, was probably the familiar 
cancellation " paid " which, as far as is known, was stamped in red on all 
postally used copies. The obliteration by a peii mark of red writing ink was 
quite another affair, as will shortly be made evident. 

In the Stamp Collector's Magazine for November, 1870, we find an 
interesting article by Mr. L. H. Bragg. He begins by quoting a note which 
appeared in No. 3 of the Stamp Collector's Record, published at Albany, N. Y., 
February 15th, 1865. This was, doubtless, the paper to which Mr. Palmer 
intended to refer, and the description of the stamps given by it was probably 
the first to appear in print, at least in a philatelic publication. The writer 
summarizes all references to the stamp, which had appeared to that date, and 
gives a brief digest of the articles. None of this is sufficiently new or in- 
teresting to repeat. He continues : 

So much for the public history of the stamp to the present date. Now for the results 
of my own investigations. On the 2nd of last September, 1 called upon Mr. Thomas Chub- 
buck, at his office in Springfield, stated to him the gist of the facts 1 have here detailed at 
length, and learned the full particulars of his own connection with the matter. He went to 
Boston in 1845, and remained there until June 13, 1848, and being something of a musical 
amateur, he formed the acquaintance of postmaster Palmer, who was then a music teacher ; 
hence it came about that lie was one day persuaded to engrave "the Brattleboro stamp." 
The chief object of the postmaster in issuing the stamp, as Mr Chubbuck recollects it, was 
to turn an honest penny, in this wise : By Act of March 3, 1845, uniform rates of 5 cents 
and 10 cents, for letter postage under and over 3,000 miles, respectively, were established, 
but prepayment was left at the option of the senders. Now, as his own official salary was 
proportionate to the cash receipts of his office, it was for each postmaster's interest to have 
as many as possible of the letters deposited at his office pii'paid ; and Mr. Palmer's idea was 
that the novelty of these stamps would induce many to prepay their letters with them who 
otherwise would not attend to that then rather uncommon duty. Especially as he sold his 
stamps on credit to those with whom he had private or official business accounts, did he 
expect that this would be likely to be the case. 

As the correspondent of the Jouriml shows, the use of the stamp did not (as the Record 
claimed) abrogate the necessity of branding " Paid 5 cents" upon each letter prepaid with it, 
the same as upon each one prepaid with coin; and it was to this old-established " paid " 
mark, and not to the presence of the stamp itself, that the outside postmasters gave attention 
when taking account of letters received from Brattleboro Regarding the length of time that 
the stamps were in use, Mr. Chubbuck was quite confident that Dr. Palmer was in error in 



BRATTLEBORO, VT. 



23 



stating that he "employed them occasionally up to the end of his official term " (March 3, 
1849), 35 he (Mr. C.) distinctly recollects that the postmaster burned all the unsold stamps in 
his possession immediately on the appearance of the 5 and 10 cent " U. S. post-office" 
stamps issued under authority of the Act of March 3, 1847. Thus on the one hand is shown 
the error of the Record in supposing the stamp to have been prepared and used as a temporary 
substitute for the current " Franklin 5," when the supply of the latter chanced to be ex- 
hausted ; and on the other, the error of Dr. Petrie, in supposing it to have been used con- 
tinuously until March, 1849. The latter writer, too, probably mal<es an erroneous inference 
in placing 1845 as the date of issue. Mr. Chubbuck had no memoranda by which he could 
recall the exact date of delivering the stamps to the postmaster, as his cash account showed 
that he collected the bill for his services (" seven and a half dollars, for engraving the plate ; 
one dollar and a half, for printing 500 stamps ; total, nine dollars") at the time of his leaving 
town, June, 1848. He is inclined to believe, however, that as he did not go to Brattleboro 
until May 30, 1845, and did not form the acquaintance of Dr. Palmer, until sometime after- 
wards, he could not have engraved the stamps before the opening of 1846. Another indi- 
cation in this direction is the fact, that as Dr. Palmer was not appointed until " sometime 
during the year" which began March 4, 1845— perhaps not till toward the end of the calendar 
year,— he would not be likely to think of doing so novel a thing as to issue a postage stamp 
until he had become well settled in office. I think, then, that it is reasonable to conclude 
that the life of the Brattleboro stamp was of less than twelve months' duration, divided pretty 
equally between the years 1846 and 1847. 

Dr. Palmer states that but few^ were used, as would naturally be the case in so modest 
a village, in so short an interval ; and Mr. Chubbuck adds, that the balance in stock of the 
original 500 impressions were burned in 1847. Hence, as the most persistent searching has Unsold stamps 
failed to bring to light the original plate, it is no wonder that the very existence of the stamp bnrned In 1847. 
has been called in question ; and it is undoubted that the few impressions in existence are, 
and always will be, among the very rarest of authentic postal labels. The editor's hint may 
be counted for certain — that there will never be "an invasion of Brattleboros," — for the 
"large portion of the issue hidden in some surprisingly out-of-the-way nook," for some 
"enterprising dealer to discover," does not exist. 

A small portion of the issue, however, does exist, and that portion is now in my own 
possession. The copperplate prepared by Mr Chubbuck contained eight stamps each in- 
tended to be identical with the other, but showing under the microscope minute differences 
in the lines and shadings. Besides the regular border of each stamp, a fine line was drawn 
on the plate on each side of the stamps where they met, in order to separate each one, much 
as the marks of perforation separate the stamps of a sheet now. Hence, by paying careful 
attention to these lines on a single detached stamp, one could decide the exact part of the 
plate of which it was the impression. The eight stamps of the plate were engraved quite 
closely together, and the outer margins, though not broad, were so much broader than the 
inner one as to be at once noticeable. Upon this narrow outer margin, at the bottom of the 
stamp next the left corner one, on the lower row, was the imprint, in minute characters, 
ENGt>- BY THOS. CHUBBUCK, BRATjo- The general appearance of each stamp was described with 
tolerable correctness in the notice quoted from the Record, and the cut which heads this 
article renders further notice of it unnecessary. It may be remarked, however, that the 
paper of the stamp .was rather a deep shade of buff than an actual brown. 

Now, on the day when the engraver delivered these 500 stamps, together with the 
eight-faced plate, to the postmaster, he bethought himself that he should like to preserve a 
specimen copy of his work, and so, with the postmaster's consent, he laid aside a sheet of Significance of the 
eight, and afterwards stuck the same, with red wafers, into his general scrap book. Before red pen marks. 
removing the stamps from the office, however, though his friend protested against the formal 
security against fraud, he took the latter's pen and obliterated thefn, by drawing a red-ink 
stroke through the left upper corner of each stamp on the sheet. Seven of these stamps, on 
the afternoon of my visit to Mr. Chubbuck, were found lying loosely among his other scraps 
and specimens, and were quickly transferred to me. The fate of the eighth is uncertain, the 
engraver having the impression that he had laid it away by itself as a specimen. 

The rank held by the stamp is fortunately not a matter of doubt. It is of exactly the 
same nature as the better-known provisional "post-office" issues of New York, Providence 
and St. Louis Like them, it was issued on the postmaster's private responsibility, to assist 
in the public, official duties of his office ; and, like them, it was superseded by the 5 cent 
and 10 cent " U. S. post-office" issues of 1847. Dr. Palmer's supposition, that his was the 
first post-office stamp issued in America, is, very possibly, a mistaken one. as Mr. Chubbuck 
well remembered the " big head " stamp of New York, and was under the impression that 
the idea of issuing the Brattleboro stamp was derived from the success of this. 

In conclusion, it is worth noticing that the inscription "post-office" instead of 
" POSTAGE," on the first regular issue of government stamps, was probably derived from that 
upon the provisional issues, — the idea being that the stamps of the " U. S.", or general 
" post-office," would serve alike for the "New York," " Providence," "St. Louis," "Brat- 
tleboro," and all other "post-offices" within the national domain. 



24 



BRATTLEBORO, VT. 



Here we have an explanation of the red pen marks. It may be well 
to remark, at this point, that in the illustration of a restored plate which 
accompanies this book, numbers 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and the single copy below the 
plate were all cancelled by a pen-stroke in red ink and, doubtless, came from 
the sheet kept by Mr. Chubbuck. Traces of these marks may be seen on some 
of the varieties, on others it was not retained in the photograph. 

In the American Journal of Philately for November 20th, 1870, is 
published a letter from Dr. J. A. Petrie in which he refers to the foregoing 
Corrections. article. After indulging in some little journalistic amenities he says, referring 
to Mr. Bragg: " He states that there were only 500 of the Brattleboro stamps 
printed when the fact is 500 impressions of the plate were worked off, making 
4,000 stamps. Mr. Chubbuck moved from Boston, his former home, to Brat- 
tleboro, and not as L. H. B. has it, from Brattleboro to Boston." 

Following this, there appeared in the same journal, under the date of 
January 20th, 187 1, an article by Mr. J. W. Scott. At the head of this article 
is a group of ten rectangles, intended to show the arrangement of the stamps 
on the plate. The second space is occupied by a wood cut which is a very 
tolerable reproduction of the variety of the stamp which filled that position on 
the plate. The writer says: 

" In the January number of Volume II of this paper, we gave the full history or all 
that was then known concerning the Brattleboro' stamp, but since then an American writer- 
in the Stamp Collector's Magazine has thrown new light on the subject, which has opened 
the way for further discoveries, concerning this interesting stamp. The article in question 
is also valuable for pointing out some errors in Dr. Palmer's statement, which the writer 
erroneously attributes to Dr. Petrie, but unfortunately nearly all his own statements are 
incorrect. 

Upon seeing the paper on the Brattleboro' stamp, in the Stamp Collector's Magazine, 
in which the writer stated he had a sheet of seven varieties, our publishers being determined 
to secure the sheet at any cost, immediately wrote the possessor, offering to pay more than 
any one else, whatever the price might be, but that gentleman having already given another 
party the refusal of them, at what he considered a high figure, they were compelled to pur- 
chase of the new owner, at four times the price the discoverer realized ; directly upon seeing 
the sheet we were struck with the curious appearance of the engraver's imprint, which in- 
stead of being at either end or in the middle, was under the second from the end ; upon 
examining the back we clearly saw traces of the wafers mentioned in L. H. B's letter, — of 
these there were one at each corner of the left hand and one above the stamp that the imprint 
was under ; if the sheet had been stuck down in this way, the two right hand ones would 
have been loose and liable to turn up, which to say the least was a strange manner of fixing 
them in a book. These circumstances were sufificient evidence to us that the sheet had 
originally consisted of ten varieties, but we certainly should not have stated it here unless we 
could prove it beyond doubt. The Brattleboro' in our own collection, which was obtained 
from one formed in New Brunswick, and was cancelled by a red pen-mark, was at once con- 
Kccoustrnction suited, and was found to be different to any on the sheet, and to have a wide margin on the 
of (he sheet. left end which corresponded to the margin on three sides of the sheet Letters despatched to 
two collectors, who were known to have Brattleboro' cancelled by red, in a few days brought 
the desired stamps and also the owners. The stamps were placed together and found to fit 
exactly, each one being different. Photographs of the complete sheet were then taken (which 
by the way will be presented to any one who gets up a club of ten subscribers to the Journal, 
and to no one else under any consideration), and the .stamps distributed to their respective 
owners, in all probability never to be replaced." 

As nearly as can be determined from this article, the block of seven 
stamps there described contained numbers 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the plate 
and numbers i, 2 and 6 were added to complete it. 

After reading this article I made search among collectors for a copy of 
the photograph mentioned and succeeded in obtaining one. Unfortunately, 
it was so badly faded as to be useless for reproduction. After the inevitable 



BRATTLEBORO, VT. 



25 



losses in that process, there would remain nothing legible. However, the 
lettering and stronger lines were still sufficiently distinct to enable me, on com- 
paring a stamp with the photograph, to readily determine its original position. 
If the reader will refer to the illustration (Plate B), he will at once perceive 
that an excellent guide is offered by the shape and position of the dash under- 
neath the initials of the postmaster. I decided to restore the plate by means 
of fresh photographs of the several varieties, taken from stamps kindly loaned 
me by friends. In this, I succeeded all too well, since I have obtained photo- 
graphs of eleven varieties, all undoubtedly genuine, when the plate is supposed 
to have contained only ten. I had just secured the ten varieties shown in the 
old photograph, when Mr. Francis C. Foster kindly sent me a specimen from 
his collection, the celebrated copy on which he squandered the large sum of 
sixty cents. Behold ! it was an eleventh variety. There appears to be no 
question of its absolute genuineness. The character of the engraving, im- 
pression and paper preclude any possibility of doubt on this point. In addition 
it bears Mr. Chubbuck's red pen-mark. The ink of this mark is, by-the-bye, 
of a peculiar dull rose or magenta shade, not easily mistaken when once seen. 
Having this eleventh type, the question naturally arises, where does it 
belong? Mr. Scott distinctly says that the stamps from which his original 
photograph was made fitted together, that one had a broad margin at the left 
and that the engraver's imprint was under the middle stamp of the lower row. 
I have seen stamp number 5 in the plate with a broad margin at the right. 
It, therefore, seems probable that these two rows were complete as shown in 
the illustration. Were there then other rows on the plate ?. If so, they must 
have been placed in another group or pane, since certain of the stamps in the 
group of ten have margins at top or bottom wider than the space between the 
two rows, thus proving there were no stamps immediately adjacent to them. 
The eleventh variety also has a wide margin at the bottom. Assuming that 
there were other rows of the stamps, I have sought to find further varieties that 
differed from what we may call the original ten. But, though I have seen 
duplicates of many of the ten, I have been unable to advance beyond this 
puzzling eleventh variety. It has been suggested that a single stamp was first 
engraved as a sample. This, proving satisfactory, was used as a guide for 
the group of ten, which was subsequently engraved on the same plate. The 
impressions for the postmaster were probably taken from the ten only, but 
a few sheets, such as that saved by Mr. Chubbuck, may have shown the 
eleventh stamp. I regret that- 1 must leave the subject in this unsettled 
condition. 

ADHESIVE STAMP. 



Aug. (?) 1846. 



Thick Buff Wove Paper. 
Imperforate. 
5 cents'black. 11 varieties 



Discoverf uf an 
eleTenth Tariety. 



Reference List. 



LOCKPORT, N, Y. 




Historical. 



Design. 



Beferenco List. 



This stamp is practically without a history. There are no records or 
traditions of its issue. The only copy known to exist was found in Lockport 
among the correspondence of an old firm. It was purchased by the Scott 
Stamp and Co., Ltd., from the finder, a gentleman well and favorably known 
to them. They have every reason to believe in the bona-fides of the finder 
and the authenticity of the stamp. It was affixed to a double sheet of letter- 
paper. The sheet having been folded, it was addressed on the first or outer 
side to Robert Monell, Esq., Geneva, N. Y. On the second page was the 
letter, dated March i8, 1846, and signed by Holmes & Moss. The reply was 
written on the third page. The sheet was then refolded and addressed to 
Messrs. Holmes & Moss, Lockport, N. Y. On this side it bears the postmark 
" Geneva, N. Y., Mch. 24." Thus the stamp returned to its place of origin. 
As a rule, we do not expect to find the postmasters stamps in the cities in 
which they were issued but in other cities, to which they have franked letters. 
This copy now adorns a celebrated European collection. Hezekiah W. 
Scovell was postmaster at Lockport in 1846. 

The double-lined oval with the name of the place measures 32x23mm. 
and is hand-stamped in dull red on a small piece of coarse wove paper, buff 
in color and 34x25mm. in dimensions. By a second operation the word 
■'paid", 16x4mm., is stamped in the upper ]iart of the inner oval, in ink of 
the same shade. Below this is the numeral "5 ", in manuscript, in black ink. 
The stamp is cancelled by crossed penstrokes of black. The postmark and 
word "paid" are impressed on the ca\er in red. The latter mark is identical 
with the same word on the stamps and might he supposed to be a cancellation 
in both instances but, as one agrees in shade with the postmark and the other 
with the stamp, it is probable that the latter constitutes part of the stamp. 

ADHESIVE STAMP. 



1846. 



Buff Wove Paper. 
Imperforate. 
5 cents red and black 



MiLLBURY, Mass, 




Colonel Asa H. Waters was postmaster at Millbury, from January i8th, 
1836, to November loth, 1848. During that period the stamp illustrated above 
was issued. The earliest cancellation known is July i8th, 1846. The stamps 
were made from a roughly cut wood block and printed one at a time on a 
hand-press. They are 22mm. in diameter. The portrait was apparently in- 
tended to represent Washington. It has been claimed that there are two 
varieties of this stamp, but I have failed to discover more than one, though I 
have examined either the original or a photograph of every known copy 
but one. 

The usual cancellation of the Millbury stamp is the word " paid " in 
red. The letters bear in addition a large figure " 5 " in a circle and the dated 
cancellation of the city. It is interesting to note that in the cancellation the 
name is spelled " Milbury." 

Col. Waters was, at the time of his postmastership, largely interested in 
manufactures and left the work of the post-office in the hands of his deputies. 
To one of them, Henry Waterman, we owe the stamp. 

Seeing the stamps of the New York Post Office he perceived their utility 
and, in order that his own town might enjoy a similar convenience, had the 
block cut in Boston and a supply of stamps printed from it. 

The first copy of this stamp was discovered in a bound volume of letters 
in the library of the American Antiquarian Society at Worcester, Mass. For 
a long time only three copies were known, but in recent years several more 
have been found, including a perfect unused copy with full gum, which is now 
in the collection of M. La Renotiere (Ferrary). 

The following letter, which I reproduce by permission of Mr. H. E. 

Deats, may interest philatelists: 

Millbury, Jan. 24, 1885. 
Mr. Paine 

Dear Sir ;— On referring to my commission as P. M. at Millbury, I find it dated Jan. 
18th, 1836, and signed by Amos Kendall, P. M. General. 



Date of Issue. 
Design. 



Historical. 



28 MILLBURY, MASS. 

It has this endorsement : " Resigned to Henry Waterman, Nov. lo, 1848, A. H. W.' 

In all the years 1 held the office I never had much to do with the details but relied 
mostly on my deputies. Waterman was the last and best and I got him appointed in my 
place. He was a jeweller by trade, quite ingenious, and I have an impression he did get up 
some kind of P. IVl. stamp, but too slight to state positively. He came from Providence, R. I., 
whither he returned many years ago and I believe is living there still. If so, he could 
probably give you more satisfactory information than I can. 

Turning to my file of letters — some of which date back sixty odd years — I find postage 
marked from by( to 25 cents according to distance, up to 1845. I find on the letters a " 5 " 
in a circle and I find several in years following stamped in the same way " 5 " or " 10." The 
first affixed stamp 1 have found is on a letter dated " Grafton, IWarch 21, 1849." Being P. iM. 
most of my letters came " free." 

1 wish to enquire why this eager pursuit of a 5 cent IVlillbury P. O. stamp of 1845 — 
for which several advertisements have appeared in papers What's up? 

Very respectfully yours, 

Asa H. Waters. 

Nothmg is now known of the block from which the stamps were printed 
and we may assume that it has been destroyed. 

Reference List. ADHESIVE STAMP. 

Gray-blue Wove Paper. 
Imperforate. 
1846. 5 cents black 



New Haven, Ct, 






^' 



II 



\i 



^ 



These envelopes were issued by E. A. Mitchell, who was postmaster 
at New Haven from 1844 to 1852. 

Nearly all the envelopes were supplied by the customers. Most of 
them were white, though other colors are known. They were hand-stamped 
in red or blue and signed in ink of a contrasting color, either blue, red or 
black. The design is 31mm. high and 26mm. wide. 

In the American Journal of Philately for May 20th, 1871, there ap- 
peared an interesting account of these envelopes and the following letter from 

Mr. Mitchell: 

New Haven, Ct., May 15, 1871. 
J. A. Petrie, M D., 

Ur. Sir : — 

Yours of the 6th and 15th are at hand. Being extensively engaged in business, I 
have but little spare time to devote to the postage stamp matter. IVly object in getting up 
this stamp was simply to accommodate the public, as I charged no profit. The postage 
was uniform, 5c for all distances, and weight, I think, half ounce ; same as at present, but 
prepaid. 

As no letters could be paid after business hours or Sundays, these were convenient for 
that purpose as well as others. 

Many brought their own envelopes, and I only charged 5c, for the postage. 

The business of the office was so limited, that, to prevent objection by the P. O. 
Department, or forgery, I signed each one. 

The stamp (or die) is a small hand-stamp, and was made by F. P. Gorham, then the 
principal engraver of New Haven, but now deceased. I considered the whole matter at the 
time, of so little importance, that many minor facts in the case are entirely gone from my 
mind. 1 think all were printed on white envelopes, and stamped in red ink and signed in 
blue ink Red ink (vermilion) was used as the office ink in stamping the letters, and think 
that must have been the color. 

It is possible that buff envelopes were used for a few, but probably not. 

I have no way of knowing how many were printed, or when commenced and ended, 
as all my papers and accounts of current business of the office are destroyed. The amount 
sold were few.and probably not over 2,000 all together. They being done by hand and with 
no motive of profit, they were not generally offered for sale. I was appointed Post-Master 
Sept. 12th, 1844, and was succeeded by John B. Robertson in 1852. 

1 cannot state the cost of the plate. 

The plate or stamp is a single short hand-stamp. The stamp is of brass. There was 
only one denomination that being 5c. The impression was always on envelopes. 1 had 



Colors. 



Historical. 



3° 



NEW HAVEN, CT. 



The first copy 
found. 



Other copieH. 



UeprintH. 



not thought of the stamp since leaving the Post office until I received a letter from Mr. 
Brown-, and after hunting up the stamp, I printed a few myself and sent him, writing on 
them, "canceled " Thinking possibly there might be some objection by the P. O. Depart- 
ment to my striking off impressions, I enclosed a copy to the P. M. Gen'l, giving a short 
history of it, and asking if there would be any objection to my furnishing some to friends 
and stamp collectors. Unlike his predecessors, C. A. Wicklifife. Cave Johnson and Mr. 
Collamer, under whom I served, who always required any respectful letter to be answered, 
he has not given me any reply ; this is my reason for writing cancelled on those sent Mr. 
Brown. 

So far 1 have not had over 20 impressions issued. If I had any on hand when I left 
the office they were destroyed, as stamps came in use the latter part of my term. 1 have had 
three applications for the die, and am offered as high as $100 for it. Parties also want a 
stereotype plate made, and others want 1.000 of the impressions 

As the original purpose was not to make money, so 1 shall positively refuse to sell any 
impressions, or sell the stamp. 

. As the stamp seems to possess a centenial kind of value quite unanticipated by me, 1 
have decided to place it in possession of the New Haven Colonial Historical Society. 

1 shall in a few days have a pad ready so that 1 can print a few perfect impressions, 
when 1 will send you a few more 

1 have not as yet heard of any of the old envelopes coming to light. As all originals 
had my own signature, of course I cannot furnish lots to dealers, even if I wished. 

I am yours, 

E. A. Mitchell. 

The New Haven envelope was first described by Mr. Wm. Brown in 
the Curiosity Cabinet for May, 1871. Mr. Brown had found a copy, cut 
square, in a collection which he purchased and which afterwards proved to 
have been stolen from a prominent lawyer of New Haven. The rightful 
owner presented Mr. Brown with the stamp In describing these envelopes 
and their history he wrote: " Some of the post-offices refused to recognize 
them and reported the facts to the Department. As, however, the stamps 
could only be used at the New Haven office and were sent as prepaid matter, 
properly entered on the New Haven post bill, there could be no loss to 
the Government, and the Department, taking a liberal view of the subject, 
authorized their continuance." I very much doubt that these envelopes were 
ever " authorized " and would suggest that " allowed " would probably be the 
more correct word. 

A second copy of the envelope was found in 1886 by Mr. R. C. Fagan, 
of Middletown, Conn. This was entire but the stamp was badly faded. It 
passed into the hands of Mr. C. H. Mekeel who, by the advice of a friend, 
treated it with sulphate of iron, which effectually obliterated all of.it but the 
signature. A third copy was purchased by Mr. E. B. Sterling in June, 1892, 
at a sale of autographs. For this copy Mr. Sterling paid the very moderate 
sum of ten cents. These are all the copies of which we have any published 
accounts. But several other copies are known to exist in collections. 

The reprints were made on several occasions The first lot, about 
twenty impressions, was made in 187 1 for Mr. W. P. Brown. They were in 
dull blue, on thick hard white paper, with the signature and word " copy " 
written in lilac-rose ink One specimen is known without the word "copy." 
Shortly after the first re])rinting a second lot was struck off for Dr. J. A. 
Petrie. There were about thirty in this lot. The impressions were in carmine- 
red, slightly paler than the originals. Most of them were signed in dark blue 
ink, but a few copies are known with the signature in black. The paper is 
the same as that of the first reprints. At a later period a third and larger lot 
were printed for Mr. N. F. Seebeck. These are in dull red on soft yellowish 



NEW HAVEN, CT. 



31 



white paper. None of these last reprints were signed but copies are known 
with a forged signature. The reprints were not made on envelopes but only 
on pieces of paper. They may be distinguished from the originals by the 
colors and by slight diffei-ences in the signature. ' 

Accepting Mr. Mitchell's expressed intention, collectors have for many 
years believed the original die to be in the possession of the New Haven 
Colonial Historical Society. But Mr. H. E. Beats has proven this to be 
incorrect and has definitely located the die. From correspondence, kindly 
placed at my disposal by Mr. Beats, I reproduce the following letter: 

April 13, 1897. 
H. E. Deats, Esq^, 

Flemington, N. J. 

Dear Sir : — Referring further to the matter of the " New Haven Stamp" I find that 
the original die, together with some signed reprints, are in the possession of Mr. Edward 
Mitchell, the only grandson of the Mr. Mitchell, formerly postmaster here. 

The die and reprints were handed down to the present Mr. Mitchell on the death of 
his father, the only son of Postmaster Mitchell, and are regarded by the family as sort of an 
heirloom which money would not tempt them to part with. 

Mr. Peats, a friend of mine, who for many years prior to the death of Postmaster 
Mitchell was his confidential man. having the care of his most important matters, tells me 
that for a long time he himself had the care of this die, and did at the time the reprints were 
printed and signed in 1872, and that he knows that the die in Mr. Mitchell's possession now 
is the original. Respectfully yours, 

J. English. 

It is to be hoped, should this die ever pass from the possession of Mr. 
Mitchell's family, it will be into the care of some Society which will guard it 
from any further use for reprinting. 



1845- 



1871. 



Present locatiou 
of the die. 



ENVELOPES. 

5 (cents) deep carmine on white, signature in violet-red 
5 (cents) deep carmine on white, signature in dull blue 
5 (cents) deep carmine on pale blue, signature in black 
5 (cents) gray-blue on orange-buff, signature in black 
5 (cents) blue-black on buff, signature in blue 

REPRINTS. 

5 (cents) dull blue on white, signature in lilac-rose 

S (cents) dull blue on white, signature and " copy " in 

lilac-rose 
5 (cents) carmine-red on brownish-buff, signature in dark 

blue 
5 (cents) carmine-red on white, signature in dark blue 
5 (cents) carmine-red on white^ signature in black 
5 (cents) carmine-red on white, without signature 
5 (cents) red on white, without signature 
5 (cents) red on yellowish-white, without signature 



Reference List. 



New York, N, Y, 




These stamps were issued during the postmastership of Robert H. 
Morris, which extended from May 21st, 1845 until 1849. They rightly stand 
at the head of the provisional issues by postmasters. 

The stamps were printed from a steel plate made by Rawdon, \\'right 
& Hatch. It has been stated that this plate contained one hundred im- 
Size of the plate, pressions, arranged in ten rows of ten. I cannot find any foundation for this 
claim, beyond a tradition that some one remembers having seen a quantity 
of the stamps in strips of ten. We know from sheets of postmasters stamps, 
carriers, locals, etc., that the custom of the period was to make much smaller 
plates. 

The following copies of accounts have been obtained from the records 
of the manufacturers: 

Postmaster R. H. Morris. 
1845. 

July 12. Engraving steel plate of Post Office stamps, $40.00 

" Printing 1 ,000 impressions, 10.00 

" 167 sheets paper and gumming do. @ 3c, 5.01 















$5501 


Del 


vered July 

Aug. 
• ' Sept. 
" Oct. 


12. 
'4. 
'5. 
'6, 

28, 

■7. 
3. 


1845, 

Total, 




30 
20 
120 
270 
200 
200 
126 


mpressions. 




966 


mpressions. 








Postmaster R. H, 


Morris. 






Printing 2,590 sheets Post Office stamps from N 

1845, to Jan. 7 1847, 
43 1 sheets paper and gumming @ 3c, 


ov. 2 


$25 90 
12.93 



$38.83 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 33 

Nov. 25, 1845, 400 impressions. 

500 " 

500 " 
50 
.87 
150 

100 " 

100 " 

400 " 

lOJ 

Jan. 7, 1847, ,00 



Total, 2,590 impressions. 

July 12 to Oct. 3, 1845, 966 

Grand total, 3,556 impressions. 

These records are apparently transferred from other books and the 
dates between November 25th, 1845 and January 7th, 1847, are missing. 
There are no further charges against Postmaster Morris. 

The usual charge, at that date, was one hundred dollars for a plate 
containing one hundred stamps. The rate for smaller plates was higher in 
proportion, to cover the cost of the design and die. It would seem a reason- 
able assumption that the charge of forty dollars would represent the price of 
a plate containing twenty-five stamps. 

Since Messrs. Rawdon, Wright & Hatch used 598 sheets for 3,556 im- 
pressions, it becomes evident that each sheet was cut into six pieces. The 
small difference of 5 J^ sheets may, doubtless, be attributed to spoiled im- 
pressions. I am informed by Mr. H. G. Mandel, an expert of the first rank 
upon all subjects of stamp manufacture, that, at the period we are considering, 
a large sheet of paper measured 28x22 inches. Such a sheet would cut into 
six pieces gjixii inches. And such a piece would take an impression from 
a plate of twenty-five stamps, five rows of five stamps each, and leave a good 
margin all around. It is also possible that the sheets of paper were smaller 
than 28x22 inches. 

Finally, 3,556 impressions from a plate containing twenty-five stamps 
would give a total of 88,900 stamps. In view of the limited correspondence 
of the day and the very general practice of sending letters marked " paid," 
this quantity of stamps would appear to be ample for the length of time they 
were in use. 

There are a number of minor varieties, caused by touching up the 
plate and by defective transfers. The most prominent variety is that known 
as the "double line at bottom," the engraver having drawn an extra frame Minor Tarietie 
line on that side. It is said that this variety occurs three times on the sheet. 
In the collection of Mr. G. E. Jones there is a vertical pair with wide margins 
at the left and bottom, showing it to be from the lower left corner of the sheet. 
The upper stamp of the pair has the extra line. We can thus determine the 
position of one copy of this variety. Another prominent variety is caused by 
a misplaced transfer and shows the outlines of "five cents" repeated across 
the face of the letters. An interesting account of the minor varieties will be 
found in an article by Mr. F. W. Hunter, published in the Metropolitan 
Philatelist for March, 1894. Mr. H. E. Deats has endeavored to reconstruct 
the original sheet by means of pairs showing the different varieties but, so far, 
he has not succeecjed, 



34 NEW YORK, N. Y. 

The stamps are found on a variety of papers. The commonest is a 
thin wove, of a pale bluish or grayish tint. The stamps on white paper are 
Paper. much less frequently met with and those on deep gray-blue paper are decidedly 

scarce. In addition to the several shades of wove paper, copies are known 
on ribbed and pelure paper and also a few which show portions of a water- 
mark of large Roman capitals. This is, doubtless, a papermaker's watermark. 
I have seen part of the letter "j," the top of an " e '' or "f" and upright 
strokes which might belong to a variety of letters. 





^ y^^ 



III 



The stamps are usually endorsed with the initials of the postmaster or 
one of his assistants. It is said that at first the stamps were sold unsigned. I 

Initials on tiie have seen such copies, on white and bluish papers, cancelled July rSth and 
stamps. 2\^\., 1845. It will be observed that these dates are close to that on which the 

stamps were issued. Fearing that they might be counterfeited, it was decided 
to authenticate the stamps by the endorsement of the postmaster. Mr. Morris 
undertook to do this but soon found that it required too much of his time a-nd 
delegated the work to his assistants. It is believed that he signed only two 
sheets, on two succeeding days. On one sheet the initials " r. h. m." (r) read 
from top to bottom of the stamp in a slightly diagonal line. On the other 
sheet the direction of the endorsement is reversed and reads from bottom to 
top. The majority of the stamps are signed "a. c. m." (ii, hi, iv) horizontally 
across the face. These are the initials of Alonzo Castle Monson, brother-in- 
law of Robert H. Morris. A similar endorsement (v) was made by Marciana 
Monson, brother of A. C. Monson. It is possible that W. C. R. Engrist, Mr. 
Morris' private secretary, and other clerks may have endorsed some of the 
stamps. The endorsements were always in red ink. 

The stamps were cancelled in various ways: with pen strokes in blue 
or red ink, the word " paid,'' the circular date marks of the office, a circle 
crossed by parallel lines, and the letters "u. s.'' in an octagon. All the hand- 
stamped cancellations were in red. 

It is not known what became of the original plate. The records of 
Rawdon, Wright & Hatch and their successors, the American Bank Note Co., 

iHc and I'lates. are silent on this point. The original die is understood to be in the custody 
of the latter company. About 1862 a new plate was made from this die for 
George A. Hussey, of Hussey's Post. He was an obliging gentleman who 
supplied large quantities of locals and other stamps to the trade. When 
originals were not obtainable he made good the deficiency with reprints, or, 
rather than disappoint his customers, had new plates and stones made, that 
he might furnish the stamps required. These productions have been called 
by harsh names in later years, but perhaps the critics failed to appreciate the 
gentleman's intentions.] 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 



35 



Sheets from the new plate have nine stamps, arranged- in three rows 
of three. Each differs very slightly from the others, the most prominent 
variety being the middle stamp in the lower row, which has the white stock Boprlnti. 

shaded by crossed diagonal lines. From this plate reprints were struck in 
black on deep blue and white papers. Owing to irregular contraction of the 
paper after printing the reprints differ in size from each other and also from 
the originals. The originals measure 2oJ^x28mm. The reprints on blue 
paper measure 2o}4x2S}4mm. and those on white paper 2ox28j4mm. The 
stamps on the original plate are i^mm. apart, while those on the reprint 
plate are separated by 2)^ mm. Other impressions were struck in blue, green, 
red and brown on white paper. As there were no originals in these colors 
these impressions are, at best, only proofs. 

From the copy book of Mr. R. H. Morris — kindly loaned me by Mr. 
Monson Morris — I quote the following interesting letter: 

Post Office, New York, July 12, 1845. 
My Dear Sir : — 1 have adopted a stamp which I sell at 5 cents each. The accom- 
panying is one. I prefer losing the cost of making them to having it insinuated that I am Letter of Post- 
speculating out of the public. Your office of course will not officially notice my stamp, but master Morris 
will be governed only by the post office stamp of prepayment. Should there by any accident to other Post- 
be deposited in your office a letter directed to the City of New York with one of my stamps masters, 
upon it, you will mark the letter unpaid the same as though no stamp was upon it, though 
when it reaches my office I shall deliver it as a paid lettei;. In this manner the accounts of 
the offices will be.kept as now, there can be no confusion, and as each office is the judge of 
Its own stamps there will be no danger from counterfeits. 

* RoBT. H. Morris, P. M. 

To P. M. Boston, Philadelphia, Albany, Washington. 

This shows plainly the expectations and intentions of the New York 
postmaster. I am told that, in the files of the Post Office Department at 
Washington, there are letters from postmasters, asking if the New York stamp 
was a postage stamp and that the reply to these inquiries was in the affirma- 
tive. But on referring to a quotation on page 11, it will be seen that some- 
time in the next year the New York stamps were sent, by order of the Post- 
master-General, to the above cities, to be used as a test of the practicability 
of postage stamps. I have seen copies on the original covers, mailed in 
Boston on February ist and April nth, 1846. 

ADHESIVE STAMPS. Reference List. 

Imperforate. 
Wove Paper. 
July i2th, 1845. S cents black on bluish 

5 cents black on gray-blue 

5 cents black on white 

5 cents black on yellowish white 

Varieties : 
5 cents black on bluish. Without signature 

5 cents black on gray-blue. " " 

5 cents black on white " " 

5 cents black on yellowish white " " 

Watermarked Paper. 
5 cents black on bluish 



36 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Envelopes. 



Historical. 



Letter of Post- 
master MorrlH 
to the Post- 
iiiaiNter General. 



1862 (?) 



Ribbed Paper. 
5 cents black on bluish 

Pelure Paper. 
5 cents black on bluish 

Variety : 
5 cents black on bluish. Without signature 
Reprints. 

Wove Paper. 
5 cents black on deep blue 
5 cents black on white 



Mr. Morris also issued envelopes but their design is uncertain, since 
no copy is known to have been preserved. The only description we have of 
them is given in the J\/'ew York Express. On July 7th, 1845, i^^ Washington 
correspondent, writing under date of the 2nd, says: 

"It was suggested in New York to Mr. Morris, your postmaster, tliat he might 
accommodate the public very much by selling stamped envelopes, as the law does not 
authorize the sale of stamps on the English plan. When he was here he laid the subject 
before the Postmaster-General, who has to-day decided that the postmaster can do this. The 
envelopes are to be marked with the amount of postage thereon, say 5 or 10 or more cents, 
as the case may be, and the initials of the postmaster are to be superadded, and then the 
envelopes can be sold. The object is to facilitate the payment of prepaid letters. Post- 
masters can intercharge envelopes whenever they can agree to d» so among themselves." 

In the same journal for July 8th, 1845, we find the following editorial: 

Free Stamped Envelopes. — When the bill for cheap postage was before Congress, it 
contained a clause authorizing the sale of stamps on the plan of the English system. The 
provision was. however, stricken out, leaving the public only the old method of prepaying 
letters during the business hours of the post office. A suggestion was made to our new 
postmaster. Mr. Morris, that the public convenience would be very much promoted if he 
would sell envelopes which would pass free through his office. By this measure letters could 
be sent at any hour of the night to the post-office, and the postage paid, where the writer 
desired it, by enclosing it in a free envelope. The postmaster proposed to sell stamps at five 
cents each, but this not having been sanctioned by Congress, we should think would not be 
the best way ; and as the public convenience demands something of the kind, we are glad to 
learn that he has prepared envelopes of the kind referred to, some of *hich we have seen. 
They are marked five cents and under these words is the name r h. morris. For letters 
over one ounce they will be marked according to the post-office rates, in the same way. 
These envelopes will be sold by the postmaster at six and a quarter cents each, or sixteen for 
a dollar of the common kind and the common size. This will be as cheap or cheaper than 
they can be bought in small quantities at the stationers. A thin envelope will contain two 
letters and be subject only to a single postage. Envelopes of various sizes will also be fur- 
nished, and of fine quality when desired by the purchaser. The pl.in, we hear, has also been 
adopted by the postmaster at Washington, D. C, and has met the approval of the Postmaster- 
General. We think it is one not only of convenience to the public, but that it will .add to 
the revenue of the department very considerably. 

Again I quote from Mr. Morris' copy book: 

Post Office, New York, July 30, 1845. 

My Dear Sir : — Yours of the 28th, marked 'private," was duly received. 

I at first contemplated issuing envelopes with my n.ame on them and selling them at 
the usual cost of the envelope and the postage upon it. and indeed, at the earnest solicitation 
of one or two friends, I prepared some, of which I sold in all about two dollars worth. I 
afterwards, upon mature reflection, determined I would not continue to do so, for the reason, 
among others, that I was unwilling to expose myself to the imputation that, while ostensibly 
I was selling them for the accommodation of the public, I was in reality doing it for the 
pecuniary profit of the difleience between what envelopes could be purchased for by the 
quantity and what I should sell them for at retail. I therefore adopted instead of the en- 
velope a stamp, one o( which is on the envelope herewith. These stamps 1 dispose of at 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 



37 



their face. I make nothing by them except such as may be lost or destroyed, but, on the 
contrary, have to pay for the plate and the impressions. 

I have adopted this plan first for the accommodation of the public and second to 
enable me practically to judge of the benefits of it, that you might make a representation to 
the next Congress, and procure, if desirable, a law authorizing government stamps and, 1 
hope, a system of prepayment of letters 1 intended to have made this explanation to you 
before this. I have, however, been so occupied that I have neglected to do so and your 
letter reminded me of my duty. 

Very sincerely and respectfully yours, 
Hon. Cave Johnson, , Robt H. Morris, P. M. 

P. M Genl., Washington. 

In view of the foregoing statements it cannot be doubted that en- 
velopes were issued by the postmaster at New York. The quantity was very 
limited, not exceeding forty. They were marked " five cents " and possibly Design and colors. 
" TEN CENTS " and " R. H. Morris." Beyond this we have no information. 
The American Journal of Philately for January i888, lists them as "5 cents 
black." I have been unable to find any authority for calling the color black 
and should, on the contrary, expect them to be stamped in red, as that was 
the color in use in the New York post-ofhce at that date for cancellations 
and other hand-stamps. The signature of the postmaster may have been in 
red or black ink, as both colors were in use in the office. The former was 
the color used in signing the stamps. The Express speaks of the envelopes 
as of "the common kind and the common size," from which we may infer 
that they were the ordinary buff envelopes of the period. 



ENVELOPES. 



Reference List. 



July 7th, 1845. 



5 cents- 



Philadelphia, Pa, 



The claim that stamps were issued by George F. Lehman, postmaster 
at Philadelphia from 1845 to 1849, is based on nothing more substantial than 
tradition. No copy of anything which might have served as a postmaster's 
stamp, or which was in use at the date of the provisional issues by the post- 
masters of other cities, is known to-day. The carriers stamps are, of course, 
excepted from these remarks. 

The claim that something in the nature of stamps was used in Phila- 
delphia was first made in the American Journal of Philately for November 
20th, 1871. In an article by "Cosmopolitan," on page 125, we find the 
following : 

" Another discovery, no less important than the last, has been made lately, viz.: a 
provisional stamp for the City of Philadelphia. For particulars of the emanation of this 
stamp, 1 am indebted to a gentleman occupying a prominent position in the General Post 
Historical. Office, who was engaged in the Philadelphia Post Office at the time the stamp was first 

issued. The e)(act date of its issue cannot be definitely ascertained, but it was during the 
administration of Dr. Geo. F. Lehman, postmaster of Philadelphia, between 1845 and 1849. 
It can hardly be called a stamp proper, as Dr Lehman had simply an arrangement by which 
parties, who might be compelled to mail letters after the close of the office, could have the 
necessary stamps placed on them by the clerks and charged to their accounts or collected by 
the carriers. In most cases this was a band in which the letters were enclosed and endorsed 
by the parties. But in other cases there were small slips printed and pasted on one corner 
of the letters. There were several varieties of them used, but, unfortunately, the most care- 
ful search has revealed no specimens as yet. There is no possible doubt but that they were 
actually used and in numbers, as my informant recollects them from 184s until 1849 ^"^^ 
even afterwards." 

So far as 1 am aware, subsequent research has not added to our 
knowledge of or revealed the existence of a Philadelphia postmaster's stamp. 



PiTTSFiELD, Mass. 



Again we have no positive proof in the shape of existing stamps, though 
the postmaster is credited with having issued them. 

Tiffany's History of the Postage Stamps of the United States says on 
this subject: 

" A short notice published in one of the Springfield, Mass., papers, in the summer of 
1874, asserts that in overhauling the vaults of the Berkshire Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany of Pittsfield, a number of stamps were found that were issued by the Pittsfield post- Historical. 
master, in 1846-47. Phineas Allen was postmaster of Pittsfield at the time. No further 
information concerning these stamps has rewarded inquiry." 

At my request Mr. W. C. Stone has very kindly searched the files of 
the various Springfield papers for the summer of 1874, but has failed to find 
the article referred to by Mr. Tiffany. It would appear either that there was a 
mistake in the date given or that the article was in some Pittsfield or Berkshire 
County paper. Mr. Stone, however, found mention of the Insurance Co. 
having moved into new quarters in July 1874, and it is probable that the 
stamps were found at the time of this removal. 

Mr. Stone also sends me the following extract from the American 

Philatelic Magazine for March 1888: 

The Stamps of the Pittsfield Postmaster. 

The first notice that 1 had of the above stamps was in reading Mr. Tiffany's history 
and of course became very interested in them. My search through the back files of local 
news in the Springfield (Mass ) Republican rewarded me with the following : 

"While overhauling the vaults of the Berkshire Mutual Fire Insurance Company, a 
number of stamps were found which were issued by the postmaster, Mr. Phineas Allen, in 
1846." 

The stamps spoken of excited no little curiosity, for the weekly papers of the time 
(1874), reviewed them and the stamps passed through several hands and are still in town. 1 
asked an old resident and a newspaper man regarding them and he said he thought the 
design was that of a post rider. He has promised me more news later and 1 hope to be able 
to present an illustration in an early number. 

W. F. JiLLSON. 

Unfortunately no further numbers of the magazine were ever issued 
and a few years ago Mr. Jillson was drowned, thus depriving us of the benefit 
of any additional information he may have acquired. 

Further efforts to secure information about the Pittsfield stamps liave 
been unrewarded. 



Providence, R, I, 





EngraTiig and 
Printing. 



Paper. 



Welcome B. Sayles was appointed postmaster at Providence by Presi- 
dent James K. Polk in 1844. He was reappointed by President Franklin 
Pierce and served ten or twelve years in all. In various philatelic articles 
the postmaster's name has been erroneously given as Welcome P. Sayles and 
H. B. Sayles. 

In 1846, Postmaster Sayles issued postage stamps of five and ten cents 
face value. They were engraved on copper by George W. Babcock and 
printed by Henry A. Hidden & Co. The engraving of the plate has hitherto 
been credited to Henry A. Hidden, though the statement has occasionally 
been questioned. Mr. J. Frank Read of Providence talked with Mr. Babcock 
some years ago about the Providence stamps and learned the facts, as here 
given. From about 1835 to 1865 Mr. Babcock did most of the fine plate 
work and engraving in Providence. Neither Henry A. Hidden nor his 
brother James did engraving of this quality,, but they had the largest printing 
establishment in the city, and printed the majority of the bills for the state 
banks and copper and steel plate work for corporations, manufacturers, etc. 

The stamps are printed on hard, yellowish-white, hand-made paper. 
The paper is usually quite thin, but Mr. H. E. Beats has a sheet on decidedly 
thick paper, though of the same quality and making as the ordinary sheets. 
Variation in thickness was not at all unusual in the hand-made papers of fifty 
years ago, the stipulation usually being for a certain weight to the ream, any 
excess or shortage being corrected by the use of sheets purposely made very 
thin or very thick. 

As will be seen from the illustration (Plate B), the plate contained 
twelve stamps, arranged in four rows of three stamps each. The stamp in the 
upper right corner had a face value of ten cents, all the others being of five 
cents, As the stamps were engraved directly on the plate, each differs from 
the others in minor details. From rulings on the plate it is evident that the 
original intention was to make it larger, but this was abandoned and only the 
twelve stamps were engraved. 



PROVIDENCE, R. 



41 



For many years the plate was believed to be in the custody of the State 
Treasury or of the Rhode Island Historical Society and statements to this 
effect were repeatedly made in philatelic publications. The incorrectness of 
these statements was shown in September, 1893, by the sale of the plate to the 
Bogert & Durbin Co. by Lycurgus Sayles of Providence. With the plate 
were sold 32 complete sheets, and 61 single copies of the five cent and 18 of 
the ten cent stamps. The price paid has been stated at $2,500 to $3,000. 

Lycurgus Sayles was a nephew of the former postmaster, Welcome B. 
Sayles. After the latter retired from the postmastership he practiced law. 
One day in 1854 he was having a sort of house cleaning in his office, examin- 
ing and destroying many packages of old letters and papers. One package 
he handed to his nephew with the remark: " Here, you had better take this. 
It is some of my old postmaster's stamps, and the plate they were made from." 
Mr. Sayles placed the package in a pigeon hole in the top of an old-fashioned 
desk he was then using, and there it remained until, in 1893, he was shown 
one of the stamps by a Providence collector, and learned that they were of 
value and the plate much desired. Whereupon he searched for and found 
the plate and, as has been stated, subsequently sold it. 

The original printing of the Providence stamps appears to have been 
quite extensive, as, at various times,- large numbers of the sheet have been 
held by stamp dealers. But the gradual destruction which is always going on 
among philatelic treasures, has had its effect and to-day the number of sheets 
is comparatively limited. Most of the unused stamps may be traced to one 
source of supply. They came from John Plagen, one of the three letter 
carriers of the city under Postmaster Sayles. 

On this subject Mr. E. B Hanes writes me: "About 1850 the Provi- 
dence post office was removed from Westminster Street to Market Square. At 
that time it required only a very few carriers to serve the city. One of them, 
named John Hagen, whom I afterwards well knew, told me that Mr. Sayles, 
the postmaster, had a very large quantity of the stamps printed, as he had no 
doubt of their general use. There were, at the time of the removal, several 
square packages of full sheets, which the postmaster told Hagan he could 
have. So Hagan carried them home as playthings for his children. I knew 
these young Hagans and was their play-fellow and, before the days of stamp 
collecting, these bundles of Providence stamps were used as foot balls and 
other implements of play." 

Mrs. Hagan afterwards used the majority of these sheets to paper a 
small room in the attic of their house. Such sheets as remained were gradu- 
ally dispersed and, when a demand arose for more, many were removed from 
the attic walls and sold. 

The sheets were orginally gummed with a very thin gum which was 
almost white and quite smooth. It did not extend to the edges of the sheets 
nor discolor the paper. Mr. Beats' sheet on thick paper has this gum. The 
sheets without gum which are occasionally seen may probably be assigned to 
those removed from the walls of the Hagan attic. It is said that Fred Hagan, 
son of John Hagan, brought a quantity of these sheets to New York about 
1890 and had them regummed. This gum is yellowish, crackly and full of 



DiscOTery of tlie 
Plate. 



Historical 



42 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



spots of thicker gum. It usually does not extend to the edges of the sheet 
and, as a rule, turns the paper quite yellowish. 

Used copies of the five cent stamp are quite rare and, so far as I am 
aware, the ten cents is not known in this condition. It has even been asserted 
Cauceiied copiesi. that the Providence stamps were never in use. But cancelled copies on the 
original covers are not unknown and it must be remembered that of the loose 
stamps, which had remained in the postmaster's hands and were sold with 
the plate, there were 6i five cents and i8 ten cents, which would indicate 
that a number of sheets had been cut up, the majority of the five cent stamps 
sold, and the ten cents left on hand. All the used copies which I have seen 
were cancelled by a " v " shaped mark, made with a pen and black ink. The 
covers also bear the dated postmark of the city, the word "paid" and a 
figure "5." All these are hand-stamped in red. The only dates of use of 
which I have a memorandum are August 25th and November 14th, 1846. 

After the purchase of the plate it was carefully cleaned, and the cor- 
rosion removed by Livermore & Knight, of Providence, and proofs on thick 
card board struck from it, in blue, red, green, brown and black. 

As soon as it was known that the plate of the Providence stamps had 
passed into the hands of dealers the possibility of reprinting became a subject 
Kepriuts, of discussion. In spite of the fact that the owners claimed that no re- 

impressions had been made, beyond the proofs just mentioned, there were 
persistent, though unconfirmed, rumors of reprints. Probably many of the 
assertions were founded on the report that, about the time the plate was sold, 
diligent search was made, in and near Providence, for old hand-made paper, 
such as was used for state bank bills and similar securities. This paper was 
identical with that on which, the Providence stamps were printed. Small 
quantities of it were known to be held by individuals and old firms and sales 
of it were said to have been made. 

It was not until 1898 that the existence of the reprints was finally 
admitted. We now know that there were two reprintings. The first was 
probably made soon after the purchase of the plate and is on the old paper 
just referred to. There are three varieties of this paper. The first is thick 
hard and white. The second is also thick and hard but it is of a yellowish 
tone and coarser quality. The third is thin and soft and has rose colored 
fibres in its substance. A second and much larger lot of reprints was made in 
1898. Before this reprinting took place the face of the plate was electro- 
plated with steel. These last reprints were made on a thin hard white wove 
paper, apparently hand-made, of close grain and decidedly modern character. 
A single sheet was printed in green. .\11 the reprints are without gum. The 
impression is ne\er as strong as that of the originals and the ink has a grayish 
tint. On the reverse of each sheet is printed in large fancy capitals 



1! 





(; 


E 


R 


T 


D 


U 


R 


B 


I 


N 



These letters are in a gold-bronze ink which is said to be indelible and 
they are so arranged that one letter falls on the back of each stamp. It is 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



43 



much to be regretted that there was not placed on the face of each stamp on 
the plate some small dot or mark by which the true character of the reprints 
would always be readily apparent. It is yet more regrettable that they were 
ever made at all. 

ADHESIVE STAMPS. 

Imperforate. 

Yellowish White Wove Paper, 

1846. 5 cents black, gray-black. 11 varieties 

10 cents black, gray-black 

REPRINTS. 

Thick Hard White Paper. 

1893. 5 cents gray-black. 11 varieties 

10 cents gray-black 

Thick Hard Yellowish White Paper. 

5 cents gray-black. 11 varieties 
10 cents gray-black 

Thin Soft White Paper with Colored Fibres. 

5 cents gray-black. 11 varieties 
10 cents gray-black 

Thin Hard White Paper. 

1898. 5 cents gray-black. 11 varieties 

10 cents gray-black 
S cents green. 1 1 varieties 
10 cents green 

There are a number of counterfeits of these stamps. Many of them 
come to us from Europe but the most dangerous were made in this country. 
Concerning these counterfeits Mr. C. W. Bowen, to whom I am indebted for 
much valuable information about the Providence stamps, writes me: " About 
forty years ago (the exact date cannot be given) Mr. C. A. Pabodie of this 
city was asked by some one — he cannot now remember who — to make an 
engraving similar to that from which two stamps, which the applicant gave 
him, were printed. This he did. The party took the plate and the only 
record remaining in the hands of Mr. P. is a proof which was made before 
the plate was delivered." 

Mr. Pabodie was a member of the firm of Pabodie & Thompson. The 
proof shows that the counterfeit die — for such it was, rather than a plate — 
was made in imitation of the first and second stamps in the right hand 
vertical row of the original plate. This die was undoubtedly made for George 
A. Hussey, who had at least two lithographic stones made by transfers from 
it. One stone bore one hundred reproductions of the five cents, arranged in 
ten rows of ten. The other bore ninety reproductions, in ten rows of nine. 
The transfers on the second stone were equally divided between the five and 



Keferenfie Lint. 



CouiiterfeitB. 



44 PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

ten cents, but they were arranged without any regularity and one of ten cents 
was placed tSte beche. Some of these counterfeits were printed on a thin 
yellowish white paper, quite like that of the originals. There were also im- 
pressions on a variety of colored and fancy papers. These and much other 
trash were printed for Hussey by Thomas Wood, 2j4 Murray Street, New 
York. 

The counterfeits are not such as need deceive any one at all careful or 
who compares them with a reproduction of an original sheet. The originals 
measure 28x20mm., the counterfeits are usually a trifle larger or smaller, 
according to the paper on which they are printed. 



St, Louis, Mo, 









PO ST OFFICE. 

TYPE I, 




{POST OFFIC E I 

TYPE II. 



The St. Louis stamps were issued in November, 1845 ^Y John M. 

Wimer, who received his appointment as postmaster in that year. His name 

has been given by various writers as Hymer and Wymer, but Wimer is correct. 

The exact date of issue of the stamps is not known but it was probably about 

November ist, as the Afissouri Republican of the sth published the following 

notice: 

Letter Stamps.— Mr. Wimer, the postmaster, has prepared a set of letter stamps, or 
rather marks, to be put upon letters, indicating that the postage has been paid. In this he 
has copied after the plan adopted by the postmaster of New York and other cities. These 
stamps are engraved to represent the Missouri Coat of Arms, and are five and ten cents. 
They are so prepared that they may be stuck upon a letter like a wafer and will prove a great 
convenience to merchants and all those having many letters to send post paid, as it saves 
all trouble of paying at the post-ofifice. They will be sold as they are sold in the East, viz : 
sixteen five-cent stamps and eight ten-cent stamps for a dollar. We would recommend 
merchants and others to give them a trial. 



Date of ISNue. 



46 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Gnj^raTing and 
Arrangement. 



Yarieties. 



On November 13th, 1845, the same paper published a second notice, as 
follows: 

Post-Office Stamps. —Mr. Wimer, the postmaster, requests us to say that he will 
furnish nine ten-cent stamps and eighteen five cent stamps for one dollar, the difference 
being required to pay for the printing of the stamps. 

In the collection of Mr H. E. Beats is a copy of the ten cent stamp, 
cancelled Nov. 20th, 1845. This is the earliest cancellation known on any 
of these stamps. 

The stamps were engraved on copper by J. M. Kershaw, at that date 
the leading engraver in St. Louis and proprietor of the Western Card and 
Seal Engraving Establishment. The designs, adapted from the arms of the 
State of Missouri, were engraved on a small thin copper plate, such as was 
used for visiting cards. The designs were arranged in two vertical rows, three 
five cents in the left row and three ten cents in the right. They vary slightly 
in size, measuring 17^ to 18^x22 to 22j^mm. Being separately engraved, 
each differs in minor details from the others. The varieties of the five cents 
may be readily distinguished by the ornaments in the upper corners or the 
position of the bears relative to the vertical frame lines. In type I, the 
haunches of both bears touch the frame lines. In type II, the bear at the 
right touches the frame but that at the left is about ^mm. from it. And in 
type III, neither bear touches the frame. The most readily noted marks on 
the ten certs are the curved dashes below the words " post office." On 
type I there are three dashes below the words, on type II three pairs of dashes 
and on type III similar pairs of dashes with rows of dots between them. The 
first arrangement of the types is usually called plate I, though more properly 
it is the first state of the plate, as only one plate was ever used. 

It may be well to remark here that until 1895 the correct arrangement 
of the types on the plate was not known. With the limited material at com- 
mand previous to that date, philatelists had attempted to restore the arrange- 
ment and, under the circumstances, had succeeded very well, since only 
types I and III of the five cents were transposed. In nearly all the articles 
on the St. Louis stamps, written previous to 1895, the types of the five cents 
which we now call I, II and III were called C. B. and A. The types of the 
ten cents were correctly arranged. 

The majority of the St. Louis stamps appear to have been used by two 
large firms of that city or by people connected with them. These firms were 
Crow & McCreery, wholesale dry goods merchants, and William Nisbet & Co., 
bankers. When these stamps were in use the great trade and mail route 
between the cities of the eastern coast and New Orleans was via the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers. Louisville, Ky., was an important point on this route and 
was connected with St. Louis by a line of fast steamers. 

The two firms above mentioned were in the habit of sending to their 
correspondents in Louis\ ille bulky letters, containing drafts, other letters to 
be forwarded, etc. On these heavy letters the postage was, of course, large. 
In the celebrated find of St. Louis stamps, which was made in Louis- 
ville in the summer of 1895, were many covers bearing stamps representing 
postage from twenty-five to fifty cents. We may infer that the desirability 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



47 



of stamps of higher face value than ten cents was early apparent. The sim- 
plest and least expensive way of providing such stamps was by altering the 
existing plate. Accordingly two of the five cent stamps, types I and II, 
were changed to twenty cents. The stamps furnish evidence that this was 
accomplished in the customary way, /. e., by placing the plate face down- 
ward on a hard surface and hammering on the reverse of the parts to be 
altered until the face was driven flush at those points. The new numerals 
were then engraved and any damage to the surrounding parts repaired. 
Evidence of damage in this driving up of the surface is seen in the broken 
frame lines above the numerals on the twenty cent stamps and in the missing 
paw of the right-hand bear on type II of that value. The latter stamp also 
shows a good example of retouching in the dashes under " Saint " and 
" Louis.'' Being altered from types I and II of the five cents, the character- 
istic marks of those types will serve to distinguish the twenty cent stamps. 
This altered or second state of the plate is usually referred to as plate II. 

Apparently it was soon found that the demand for the twenty cent 
stamps was not as great as had been anticipated, while, on the other hand, 
the number of five cent stamps supplied by printings from the altered plate 
was disproportionate and insufficient, in view of the number required for 
ordinary letters. So the plate was again changed, the numerals on the twenty 
cent stamps being erased and fives engraved in their place. These new 
numerals differ somewhat from those which originally occupied the position. 
In type I re-engraved the " 5 " is fully twice as far from the top frame line as 
in the original state. It is correspondingly nearer the garter surrounding the 
arms. In the first state several fine shading lines pass between the lower part 
of the " 5 " and the garter but in the re-engraved stamp the heavy shading of 
the numeral almost touches the garter. In the re-engraved stamp the four 
dashes under " Saint " and " Louis " have disappeared, except about one-half 
of the upper dash under each word. In type II re-engraved the ornament 
in the flag of the " 5 " is a diamond instead of a triangle, the diamond in the 
bow is much longer than in the first state, and the ball of the numeral, 
originally blank, now contains a large dot. At the right of the shading of 
the " 5 " is a short curved line, which is evidently a remnant of the " o " of 
" 20 ". The paw of the bear on the right, which was obliterated in making 
the first alteration, has now been restored. It is heavily outlined but only 
lightly shaded. 

There are many other points of difference between the re-engraved 
types and the originals but those I have indicated are the most prominent 
and wilPsufifice to distinguish them. 

At the time of the second alteration of the plate type III of the five 
cents was slightly retouched. Evidence of this retouching is most easily 
found in the ball of the "5 ", which now contains a large dot in place of the 
almost imperceptible one in the early state of the type. 

The third and last state of the plate is commonly called plate III. 

The first printing consisted of 500 impressions on greenish-gray wove 
paper. This printing was, of course, from the plate in its original state. The 
second printing took place early in 1846. Stamps from this printing are 



Alterations of the 
Stamps. 



Ketoucli of fire 
cents. 



Printing anil 
Paper. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



Remainders and 
Plate. 



Reference List. 



HiBtorlcal. 



known cancelled in March of that year. Again 500 impressions were printed, 
this time from the plate in the second state and on paper of two colors, 
greenish-gray and lilac-gray. Probably only a small quantity of paper of the 
first color was used, as only two copies of the twenty cent stamps are known 
on that paper. The third printing, made from the plate in the third state, is 
believed to have taken place in January, 1847. The earliest cancellation 
known on stamps of this printing is Feb. 5th, 1847. For this printing an 
almost pelure paper, very hard and transparent, was used. The color is a 
cold gray. The extreme scarcity of stamps on this paper would indicate that 
but few of them were used, though it is believed that, as on previous occasions, 
500 sheets were printed. 

What became of the remainder of the last printing, of the probable 
remainder of twenty cent stamps from the previous printing, and of the plate, 
are unsettled questions. They may have been destroyed when the Govern- 
ment issue of 1847 appeared or when the post-office building was demolished. 
The household effects of Mr. Wimer were lost by the sinking of a steamboat 
on the Mississippi river, during the war, and may have included the plate and 
remainders. Lastly, they may have been among his private papers, which 
were siezed by the Government, in 1865, at the time of his arrest as a suspected 
Confederate. Whatever their fate, there seems to be little doubt that they no 
longer exist. 

ADHESIVE STAMPS. 

Imperforate. 
Greenish Wove Paper. 

Nov., 1845. 5 (cents) black, 3 varieties 

10 (cents) black, 3 " 
1846. 20 (cents) black, 2 " 

Lilac-Gray Wove Paper. 

1846. 5 (cents) black, 1 variety 
10 (cents) black, 3 varieties 
20 (cents) black, 2 " 

Gray Pelure Paper. 

1847. 5 (cents) black, 3 varieties 
10 (cents) black, 3 " 

Probably no stamps have provoked more discussion and articles in the 
philatelic magazines than those of St. Louis. For many years philatelists 
were of divided opinion regarding the twenty cent stamps — the majority hold- 
ing that they were frauds — and their genuineness was not established to the 
satisfaction of all until the Louisville find. 

The first mention of a St. Louis stamp is found in the Stamp Collectors 
Magazine for November, 1863. In "Addenda to Mount Brown's Catalogue 
of Postage Stamps," under the head of " United States of America ' and the 
subhead " Labels of Private Offices," we find this brief record : 

"Saint Louis Post-Office (device supported by bears), black, imp., 
rect., IOC." 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



49 



This description, together with an equally brief description of the New 
York and Providence stamps, is repeated in the number for the following 
month, in an article on "United States Local Postage Stamps." 

The author of the article expresses the opinion that the stamps of the 
three cities are not private locals but issues by the Government postmasters 
in anticipation of the regular issues of the Post Office Department. He calls 
attention to their bearing the names of the cities and the words " Post Office " 
(which private individuals would scarcely dare usurp), to their values, which 
were too high for local letters but correct for the Government rates under and 
over 3,000 miles, and to their superiority in workmanship to the local stamps. 

The stamp referred to in these two articles was the 10c, type II. 

The five cents was first known to collectors in Europe in June, 1864, 
as may be seen by referring to the Stamp Collectors' Magazine for 1870, page 
29. This was type III. This value was first mentioned in print in 1865, in 
Kline's Manual. 

A second variety of the ten cents (type I), was discovered by Mr. L. 
W. Durbin and reported in the American Journal of Philately for April, 1869. 
In September of the same year Mr. E. L. Pemberton described type II of the 
five cents in The Philatelist. 

In an article in the American Journal of Philately for January, 1870, 
Mr. J. W. Scott described, for the first time, type I of the five cents, type III 
of the ten cents and the two types of the twenty cents, noting the fact that 
they were altered from types of the five cents. 

During this time the leading philatelists of the day had been carrying on 
in the magazines an animated discussion on the question of the genuineness 
of the stamps. The announcement of the twenty cent value gave new vigor 
to the contest. 

In the Stamp Collectors' Magazine for January, 1871, Mr. E. L. Pem- 
berton described an investigation he had made of the St. Louis stamps. He 
began his study with a very unfavorable opinion of the twenty cents and of Bemarkabie study 
certain of the papers. But — having gotten together thirteen five cents, twelve '•5' E- ^- P"'"- 
ten cents and the three copies of the twenty cents then known — he, after care- 
ful study, announced his unqualified belief in their genuineness. In view of 
the comparatively limited number of specimens at his command, the accuracy 
of Mr. Pemberton 's conclusions is remarkable. He placed the shades of the 
paper in their correct order of issue, described accurately the three states of 
the plate, the retouching of type III of the five cents, the re-engraving of type 
II of that value and expressed his belief in the existence of a similar re- 
engraving of type I, though he had not found a copy of the stamp. In fact, 
fully twenty-four years before we were ready to accept the information, he 
told us nearly all of the technical details which we know to-day. We have 
only been able to add the description of type I re-engraved and to correct the 
positions of types I and II, which he had transposed, a mistake most pardon- 
able when we remember that at that time only one pair of these stamps was 
known and he had not the advantage of seeing it. 

In spite of the ability of this article and the high repute of its 
author, the leading philatelists declined to accept the twenty cent stamps 



5° 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



The great llud at 
LoolsTille. 



Approximate uuiii- 
ber In exlsteDce. 



CouiiterfeitR. 



as genuine and paid no a:ttention to the retouched and re-engraved fives. 

In the fall of 1894, Mr. John K. Tiffany made an exhaustive study of 
the St. Louis stamps and published his conclusions in the Philatelic Journal 
of America for December of that year. He, like Mr. Pemberton, began in 
doubt and ended in belief. In this article the re-engraving of type I of the 
five cents is described for the first time. 

But the great find of St. Louis stamps, made in the summer of 1895, 
was more convincing than any theories or arguments and served to put at 
rest any lingering doubts as to their genuineness. In this find were included 
a strip of two twenties and a five cents, strips of three of both the five and 
ten cents, horizontal pairs of five and ten, twenty and ten, etc., etc.; thus 
locating positively the varieties in the several states of the plate. 

Previous to 1869 very few copies of the St. Louis stamps were known, 
probably not more than twenty. In that year Mr. J. W. Scott purchased a 
lot consisting of about 50 five cents, 100 ten cents and 3 twenty cents. A 
few years later about 20 five and ten cents (including a pair of the former 
value) came from the banking house of Messrs. Riggs at Washington. About 
1889 Mr. G. B. Caiman purchased from the firm of J. & J. Stuart & Co., of 
New York some 25 specimens of the five and ten cents, most of which were 
on the pelure paper. A few odd copies had also been discovered in various 
places including a fourth copy of the twenty cents. Last of all came the 
Louisville find consisting of 75 five cents, 46 ten cents and 16 twenty cents. 
This enumeration enables us to approximate the number of St. Louis stamps 
in existence. 

I have seen two counterfeits of the five cent St. Louis stamps which 
might readily deceive anyone who did not take the trouble to compare them 
with copies known to be genuine or with photographs. Both are in imitation 
of type III and printed on a paper which reproduces fairly well the greenish- 
gray of that used for the originals. 

The more dangerous of the counterfeits may be distingushed by the 
following points : There are three dots instead of four above the diamond 
in the bow of the numeral "5." The curved line following the outline of 
the numeral does not extend far enough to the left at the bottom. The let- 
tering on the garter and the scroll below the bear is too well done, note 
especially the "e" of "we". The first curved line below the lettered 
scroll terminates on the right between the "i " and "c " of "office." On 
the originals this line stops o\er the " 1." Also on the originals there is 
a mark, caused by a slip of the engravers tool, at the left of the upper curve 
of the " s " of " POST " and a similar mark crossing the inner frame line 
above and to the left of the "s" of "saint." There are no such marks 
on the counterfeit. 

In March 1868 the Stamp Collectors' Moi^aziiie published illustrations 
of the five cents (type III) and ten cents (type II). The second of the two 
counterfeits is made either from a careful reproduction of the illustration 
in that magazine or from the cut itself. The following marks will serve to 
distinguish this counterfeit: There is a heavy shading at the right of the 
numeral *' 5." The four dashes below " saint " and " I ouis " are much too 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 51 

long, especially the lower three, which are little more than dots in the originals. 
Immediately above " louis " in the originals is a long curved line, which is 
missing in the counterfeit. On the latter also the first curved line below the 
scroll on which the bears stand is much too long, beginning between the "o" 
and "s" of "post" and ending between the "i" and " c " of "office," while 
on the originals it begins between the "s" and "t" and ends over the " i." 

I anticipate that the companion illustration in the Stamp Collectors 
Magazine, has been used to produce counterfeits of the ten cents but I have 
not seen them. 

The pretended two-cent St. Louis stamp, which we occasionally find 
in old collections, is of quite a different design from that of the regular values Two-cent stamp. 
and is entirely fraudulent. 



Washington, D. C. 




Bate of Issue. 



Historical. 



Col. Charles K. Gardiner, postmaster at Washington from March 31st, 
1845 to June 30th, 1849, issued stamped envelopes of five and ten cents face 
value, but unfortunately, no copies have been pieserved. 

The New York Express for July 8th, 1845, in an article on the en- 
velopes issued by the New York Postmaster, says: "The plan, we hear, has also 
been adopted by the Postmaster at Washington, D. C, and has met the 
approval of the Postmaster-General." 

Mr. C. F. Rothfuchs found in the daily papers of Washington, pub- 
lished on the 23rd and 25th of July, 1845, 'he following: 

Interesting to Citizen and Sojourners in Washington — Upon inquiry at the city 
post ofifice, we learn that Col. 'Gardiner has had franked (or rather prepaid) envelopes pre- 
pared, which do away with the necessity of personal application at the delivery window 
when one wishes to pay postage on sending off a letter. They are for sale at the post office 
at the following rates; which bai'ely pay the cost, after deducting the sum chargeable on 
each for postage, viz : 



18 envelopes to enclose letters charged at 5 cents for 

9 

1 

9 " " " " 10 cents 

4 " " " " 10 " 

I " -5 " 



$1.00 
.50 

1.00 
.50 



This plan, it will be recollected, has been adopted in the northern cities, to the great 
advantage of the public, and its introduction here will save our fellow citizens many a long 
and hitherto indispensable trudge, in this metropolis of magnificent distances. 

In reply to a request for further information Mr. Rothfuchs writes me: 
"On the Washington, D. C, Postmaster's stamp I have spent con- 
siderable time without success, not even locating one. I have interviewed 
many of the old residents but could not find any one who remembered it. I 
finally discovered the man who carried the mail between Washington and 
Alexandria, Va., during the time the stamp was in use. He said that he 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



53 



remembered it ; that it was an envelope with printing at one corner. And he 

made a draft like this " (see cut at head of this chapter) " which he said was DMigu. 

the design. He did not remember if Col. Gardiner's signature was on it or 

not. So far none have been located to my knowledge and the design above 

is the only information I have received." 

From the shape of the design it would appear a reasonable inference 
that the name of the city and the value were placed between the curved lines 
and the signature of the postmaster in the center. 

ENVELOPES. Reference Ll»t. 



July, 1845. 



5 cents ■ 
TO cents 



on 
on 



Worcester, Mass, 



Again we are confronted by the fact that stamps were prepared and 
sold by the postmaster of a city but that none, so far as we know, are now in 
existence. 

Maturin L. Fisher, was postmaster at Worcester from 1839 to 1849. 

Our information concerning the stamps is largely supplied by the 
Historical. following paragraph in the National Aegis, published in Worcester, September 
2nd, 1846 : 

Post Office Stamps. — The postmaster has issued postage stamps of the denomination 
of five and ten cents. They are very convenient, and will save the trouble of making 
change at the post office, and will enable people to send prepaid letters at times when the 
office is closed. To cover the expense of engraving and printing, these stamps are sold at 
five percent, advance upon the regular rates of postage. 

Postmaster Fisher and the clerks connected with the post office at that 
period, as well as most of the older inhabitants, are now dead. Though 
friends have, at my request, made personal efforts and enlisted the public 
press, they have been unable to obtain any further information. 



Befereiiee List. 



ADHESIVE STAMPS. 



1846. 



5 cents 
10 cents 



Madison, Fla, 





Wl 


§3^ 
m Cents 


i 


S fcTaMTffi'df*'^ 


^ 



The so-called Madison stamp has been catalogued as a provisional 
issue of the Confederate States. If it were a stamp at all, it would belong 
among the United States postmaster's stamps, since it was issued by a post- 
master holding office under the government of the United States and not 
under the Confederacy. While I do not regard it as being anything more than 
a label, I deem it appropriate to refer briefly to it here. 

The stamp (for convenience we will call it by that name) was first 
mentioned in the American Journal of Philately for March 1872. It is 
there illustrated, from the copy in the Philbrick collection, and described as Historical. 
type set, printed in gold bronze on blue wove foolscap paper, and having the 
value spelled '' cnets " instead of "cents." The article embodies the fol- 
lowing letter from the former postmaster of Madison : 

"Sir: — Your letter of May 20th has been received. I regret not having any stamp 
used by me while postmaster at Madison during the existence of the Confederacy. 1 can, 
however, give you, I think, a pretty correct idea of their appearance, as represented in the 
following figure, which is about the size and shape. Having a printing press at command, 
stamped the foregoing figure, and before the ink became dry, sprinkle'd yellow bronze on it, 
which gave the stars and border the appearance of gold. Ordinary foolscap paper was used. 
All the fractional currency in circulation disappeared about that time, and it was difficult to 
make change ; indeed almost impossible to conduct the post office, having no United States 
postage stamps, as my supply was exhausted soon after the assemblage of the Confederate 
Congress at Montgomery, Ala., and under whose authority 1 was instructed to conduct the 
offices, under the rules of the United States government, and pay over all moneys due to 
that Government, until I would be commissioned postmaster under the Confederate States, 
if 1 saw proper to accept it, which would happen soon ; and believing my allegiance due to 
the Confederacy, I was loth to apply for stamps to the United States, and determined to 
mail letters paid in money only. Therefore the stamps were issued by me for the purpose 
of making change, and sold in quantities to suit the business part of the community, so that 
any letter found in the letter-box with my stamp on it had evidence of having been paid 
for, and was accordingly stamped ' Paid in Money,' in accordance with the laws regulating 
the United States post offices, and charged in the way-bills as paid in money forwarded to 
the distributing offices, and every cent due to the United States was paid in money on ac- 
count of the mails by me. The stamps were never credited beyond the reach of the post- 
offices at Madison, and was never intended but for the convenience of the immediate com- 
munity No postmaster was silly enough to mail a letter because it had my stamp upon it. 
1, however, sometimes neglected to pull off the stamp before mailing them, and some of 
them went through without being removed, although they had plainly stamped on them 
' Paid,' and so charged against me in the way-bills ; still considerable excitement was 



56 MADISON, FLA. 

caused in the northern cities by their accidental appearance, although no word nor figure 
was upon the stamp, and after the words ' Paid in Money.' had no more meaning than if I 
had drawn the figure of a Jackass on one corner of the letter. Still the keen perceptions 
of James Gordon Bennett of the New York Herald found an immense and ingenious fraud 
practiced upon the Government by the postmaster at Madison, and called hastily for justice 
to be visited upon the moral deformity of the offending postmaster at Madison ; his ex- 
quisite sense of purity could not conceive how a sense of duty on the part of the officers of 
the distributing office could allow the offence of the postmaster at Madison to go unnoticed. 
He devoted nearly a column of the Herald to the subject, and I found myself suddenly 
famous through the Herald's cleverness in discovering villany. Shortly after the Herald's 
attention, an agent of the Government was sent especially to investigate the fraud ; but he 
was a sensible gentleman, and was immediately convinced that no wrong was intended, 
and so reported to his Government. 

" 1 had, moreover, many applications from persons in New York, Boston and Phila- 
delphia to p'urchase stamps; one was collecting the various stamps of the world, and was 
exceedingly desirous of adding my postal stamp to the list; others felt much curiosity in 
seeing the postal stamp of which so much had been said; would 1 not sell a few ? 

" You may imagine how much 1 was astonished at the sudden interest in my stamps, 
when 1 never dreamed of their being known beyond the immediate neighborhood of my 
post office. These last, though, were never gratified, and they had to be content with the 
Herald's discoveries, I was continued, without further complaint, until commissioned by 
the Confederate States, when 1 made the proper returns and paid up all dues in money. If 
the foregoing is of service to you, I shall be pleased. 

Very respectfully, &c., 

"S. J. Perry.- 
"Mr. J. W. Scott." 

The article from the Herald is also reprinted, in conjunction with Mr. 
Perry's letter, and is a very mild affair to have so aroused his wrath. That 
article gave a sketch and description of the stamp and said it was " printed in 
gold on a white ground." The only point of interest to philatelists is the 
statement that the envelope which the writer had before him had been marked 
" Due 3 " by the New York Post Office, showing that the stamp was not 
recognized by the postal authorities of that city. 

I think Mr. Perry's letter fully establishes the status of this label. It 
was not issued as a stamp and no effort was ever made to have it do duty as 
status of the such. It is on a par with the cards issued by Postmaster Riddell of New 
Label. Orleans, inscribed with various values and " Receivable in payment of postage, 

and redeemable at the New Orleans Post Office." In this connection we 
must not forget the numerous "tokens" marked "Good for one cent" etc., 
issued by business houses, at the time of the cival war, to supply the want of 
fractional currency. 



Government Issues. 



The development of the Post Oflfice Department has been retarded by 
many causes, more especially in the early and middle parts of our compara- 
tively brief national life. Among the causes may be mentioned : -Excessive 
rates of postage, the competition of express and local delivery companies, 
abuse of the franking privilege, the fact that prepayment of postage was not 
compulsory, and the lack of adhesive stamps. 

As was shown on page 6, the Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 
1845, greatly reduced the rates of postage and made them uniform throughout 
the country. Since that time, there have twice been advances in the rates, uates of postaiti!. 
once for letters to be transported for distances greater than 3,000 miles, and 
once for drop letters ; but, on the whole, there has been a steady and con- 
sistent decrease in the postal charges. It should be remembered that the 
extremely low rates granted to newspapers, magazines and similar publications 
have, particularly in recent years, vastly increased both labor and expenditure 
in the Post Office Department. It is probable that this, more than any other 
cause, is responsible for this branch of the Government not being self- 
supporting. But these forms of literature have always been regarded as such 
great and valuable educators, that their encouragement has been held superior 
to any considerations of economy. 

The competition of private carriers was for many years the occasion 
of great loss to the postal revenue. This competition decreased with the 
introduction of lower rates of postage and, in 1861, its entire discontinuance 
was enforced through the courts. 

The franking privilege, which has at times been granted recklessly and 
used to an excessive degree, is now much restricted, though it still imposes a 
great burden on the postal service. 

The lack of a law compelling the prepayment of postage caused heavy 
losses to the department. A paragraph in the report of the Postmaster- 
General, dated December 2nd, 1848, gives us some useful information on this 
subject as follows : 

" Whether the suggestions lor the modification of the Act of 1845 be adopted or not, 
all matter sent in the mails should be prepaid. This might indenmify the department for 
the great loss sustained for the transmission of letters not taken from the office. Nearly two 
millions of dead letters are annually returned to the department, upon which it not only 
loses the postage, but pays two cents each for advertising ; and this is in addition to the 
expense incurred in opening and returning those of value to the writers, and destroying those 
of no value. Newspapers, periodicals, pamphlets, and essays of various kinds, probably not 



PriT»te competi- 
tion. 



Franltiuj^. 



Prepayment of 
postage. 



58 GOVERNMENT ISSUES. 

less in number than the dead letters, are sent to the offices and never called for, or if called 
for refused, and remain as dead matter in them. From a careful examination it has been 
ascertained that 52,000 annually are received and remain as dead matter in the office at New 
York ; at Boston and Baltimore about 10,000 annually ; and at Philadelphia about 2,600." 

A step in the right direction was made in the Act of Congress, approved 
March 3rd, 1851, by which the ordinary rate of postage was made three cents 
if prepaid and five cents if not prepaid, but it was not until 1855 that pre- 
payment was made compulsory. 

One of the great hindrances to the advancement of the postal service 
was the want of adhesive stamps. It was well-known that postage stamps 
Status of Postinas- had been successfully introduced by the postmasters of New York and other 
ters' stamps. cities. These stamps were appreciated by the public, but, at the same time, 
they were not regarded with the confidence which would have been evoked 
by a Government issue. They represented only an implied contract between 
the postmaster who issued them, and the public. There was a possibility of 
great abuse in such a condition of affairs. There was nothing to prevent 
every postmaster in the country making and selling his own stamps. Not 
only might the stamps be used as a source of individual revenue on the part 
of a postmaster but, in case of his death, default, or the succession of another 
to the office, they would probably be repudiated and a heavy loss be sustained 
by the holders. The necessity for governmental control of postage stamps 
was as evident as was the imperative demand of the public for their issue. 



Issue of. 1847. 



Although it would seem that the need of improvements in the postal 
service, especially the introduction of postage stamps, must have long been 
apparent to the most casual observer, it was not until 1847 that Congress took 
action to provide.them. 

The first issue of postage stamps by the Government was authorized 
by the Act, approved March 3rd, 1847, which provided as follows : 

And be it further enacted, that to facilitate the transportation of letters by mail, the 
Postmaster-General be authorized to prepare postage stamps, which, when attached to any 
letter or packet, shall be evidence of prepayment of the postage chargeable on such letter, 
which said stamps the Postmaster-General may deliver to any deputy postmaster who may 
apply for the same, the deputy postmaster paying or becoming accountable for the amount 
of the stamps so received by him, and if any of said stamps shall not be used, but be return- 
ed to the General Post Office, the amount so returned shall be credited to such deputy post- 
master. ' And such deputy postmaster may sell or dispose of any stamps so received by him 
to any person who may wish to use the same, but it shall not be lawful for any deputy post- 
master to prepare, use, or dispose of any postage stamps not authorized by and received from 
the Postmaster-General. And any person who shall falsely and fraudulently make, alter or 
forge any postage stamp with intent to defraud the Post Office Department, shall be deemed 
guilty of felony and, on conviction, shall be subject to the same punishment as provided in 
the 2ist Section of the Act approved March 3rd, 1S25, etc. 

This Act was to take effect July ist, 1847, from which date the use of 
the postmasters' stamps or any which were not authorized by the Postmaster- 
General became illegal. It will be observed that the Act made no provision 
for the compulsory prepayment of postage. 

As provided by law, a contract was made by the Postmaster-General 
with Messrs. Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson of New York, for engraving 
and printing the stamps for a period of four years. 

In order that certain varieties, which will be described in the succeed- 
ing issues, may be better understood, it seems desirable to give here a brief 
description of the manufacture of plates for stamps. 

The first step is making the die. This is usually engraved on a piece 
of soft steel a little larger than the design. As a rule, only one design is 
engraved on such a block. But there are exceptions. The dies for the so- 
called government counterfeits of the 1847 issue are placed side by side on 
the same block. The die being engraved, it is hardened by heating it in a 
bath of cyanide of potassium and then dipping it in cold oil. 

The next step is making the transfer roll. Its name indicates its pur- 
pose, to transfer the design from the die to the plate. This roll is of soft 
steel, in shapejike a small grindstone. A stamp roll is usually about four 



First stamps 
authorized. 



Contractors. 

Manufacture of 
stamp plates. 



Die. 



Transfer roll. 



6o 



ISSUE OF 1847. 



Doable transfers 
or shifts. 



Designs. 



inches in diameter, with an edge broad enough to receive the design. The 
roll is placed in the carrier of a transfer press and forced against the die — 
which rests on the bed of the press — with a pressure of many tons, produced 
by compound leverage. With this tremendojis pressure resting on it, the bed, 
carrying with it the die, is moved back and forth under the roll until the soft 
steel of the latter is forced into every line of the die, even the faintest scratch 
made by a diamond point. The lines of the die are, of course, reversed on 
the roll and those which were sunken in the former are in relief in the latter. 
A number of transfers are often made on the same roll and occasionally 
transfers of several different stamps. The roll is hardened in the same manner 
as the die. 

The plate, duly ruled into spaces for the stamps, then takes the place 
of the die on the press and, by the same methods used to produce the roll, 
the latter is forced into the plate, reproducing in the minutest details the 
design on the die. This is repeated as many times as there are to be stamps 
on the plate. Guide lines, scratches, etc., are burnished out, the plate is 
hardened and is then ready for the printer. 

In making the plate it sometimes happens that the transfer roll is set 
down upon it, slightly out of the intended position. The pressure on the 
roll forces into the soft plate those lines which are most in relief. When the 
incorrect position of the roll is noticed it is moved to the proper place, and 
the impression is then " rocked " into the plate. As a result of thus twice 
placing the design, some of the lines are duplicated. These are called double 
transfers, shifted transfers and shifts. I shall not attempt to list all the 
varieties which are known, but shall mention a few of the more prominent. 

The stamps of this issue were engraved on steel by Rawdon, Wright, 
Hatch & Edson. This firm occupied the top floor of the building at the 
corner of William and Wall streets. New York, now the United States Custom 
House. The portraits were originally prepared for use on bank bills, stock 
certificates and other securities and were afterwards adopted for the stamps. 
The designs are thus officially described : 

Five cents. Portrait of Franklin, after painting by John B. Long- 
acre, three-quarters face, looking to the left, on an oval disk with dark ground, 
white neckerchief and fur collar to coat, the whole surrounded with a faintly 
engraved wreath of leaves, on which, in the two upper corners, are the letters 
" u " and " s ", and in each of the two lower corners a large figure " 5 ". In 
a curved line around the upper portion of the medallion are the words " post 
OFFICE ", and around the lower part the words " five cents ". A border of 
fine straight lines goes around the entire stamp. Color, light brown. 

Ten cents. Portrait of Washington, from Stuart's painting, three- 
quarters face, looking to the right, on an oval disk with dark ground, white 
neckerchief and black coat, faint wreath of leaves around all, on which, in 
the upper corners, are the letters " u ■ and " s ", and in each of the lower 
corners a large Roman numeral " x ". In a curved line around the' upper 
and lower parts of the medallion, as in the case of the 5 cent stamp, are the 
words " POST OFFICE " and " ten cents ". Color, black, A border of fine 
utraight lines goes aroqnd the whole stamp. 



ISSUE OF 1847. 



61 



The stamps measure i8J^X23^mm. 

There were one hundred stamps on each plate, arranged in ten rows 
of ten. Only one plate was made for each value and both were, so far as can piatei. 

be learned, without imprint or plate number. 

The paper varies much in color, the usual range is from gray to dull 
blue, but it is sometimes quite white. The genuineness of the white paper 
has been denied by some writers, but copies of the stamps exist with full Paper, 

original gum and on paper which dbes not show the faintest trace of blue 
color, but is a distinctly yellowish white. The paper also varies in quality 
from thick and opaque to thin and transparent. Both values are known with 
a species of watermark, a band of short parallel lines, giving the appearance 
of closely laid paper. These lines are produced in the course of manufacturing 
the paper. They are caused by the stitches which join the ends of the cloth 
band on which the paper pulp is led from the vat. Copies also exist on laid 
paper. They are of a high degree of rarity and have only been seen in 
unused condition. 

The gum is yellow or yellow white, usually thin and inclined to 
crackle. This gum was applied by hand by two apprentices of the con- 
tractors, an apprentice engraver and an apprentice printer. Besides their Bum. 
regular duties these men were employed as watchmen. Three nights in each 
week they gummed the sheets of stamps (being paid for work overtime), and 
hung them up about the room to dry. 

The following shades and varieties have been seen : 



Imperforate. 



Reference List. 



Aug. sth, T847. 



Grayish Blue Wove Paper. 

5 cents pale brown, brown, dark brown, black-brown, 
purple-brown, olive-brown, red-brown, orange- 
brown, red-orange 
10 cents full black, gray-black, greenish black 

Yellowish White Wove Paper. 

5 cents dark brown 
10 cents full black 

Grayish Pelure Paper. 

5 cents dark brown 
10 cents full black 

Lilac-gray Laid Paper. 

5 cents deep orange-brown 
10 cents gray-black 

Varieties : 



5 cents brown. Horizontal half and another copy, used 
as 7}^ cents 



62 



ISSUE OF 1847. 



Sethods of distribut- 
ing stamps to Post- 
masters. 



First stamps 
sold. 



10 cents black. Vertical half used as 5 cents. Cancelled: 
"Bradford, Me., Sept. 19, 1849", "New Haven, 
Conn., June 13, 1851 ", etc. 

10 cents black. Diagonal half used as 5 cents. Can- 
celled: "Augusta, Ga., Aug. 18, 1847", "Boston, 
Mass., Sept. 28, 1847", "New Haven, Conn., 
June 14, 1 85 1 ", etc. 

10 cents black. Double transfer, particularly noticeable 
in the double outlines of "post office" and the 
letters " u " and " s " in the upper corners. 

The finished sheets were forwarded to the Post Office Department at 
Washington, as was the custom until February, 1855. From February i8th, 
1855, until May i8th, of that year, the experiment was tried of having the 
stamps sent by the contractors direct to the deputy postmasters who applied 
for them. The first Stamp Agent was Jessey Johnson. He was appointed 
May i8th, 1855. The office of the Stamp Agent was located with the con- 
tractors, at that date Toppan, Carpenter, Casilear & Co., in the Jayne Build- 
ing, Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. Until 1869, the stamps were delivered to 
the Stamp Agent at the place of manufacture and by him forwarded to 
Washington for distribution. After February ist, 1869, they were forwarded 
by the Stamp Agent, through the registry division of the New York Post 
Office, to the various postmasters on their orders, duly approved by the Post 
Office Department at Washington. Now that the stamps are manufactured 
by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing the routine is the same but the 
distributing point is, of course, Washington. 

The Act approved March 3rd, 1847, was to take effect on July ist of 
that year and it was expected that the stamps would be ready for use on that 
date. But owing to various delays on the part of contractors none of the 
stamps were available for sale until August sth, 1847. In connection with 
this date we find an interesting anecdote in Tiffany's History of the Postage 
Stamps of the United States, reprinted from the Hartfvrd Times of August 
Sth, 1885: 

" Thirty-eight years ago to-day the first postage stamps were used in the United 
States. » * * On the 25th of March, 1840, John M. Niles of Hartford, became Post- 
master-General and signalized his administration by many reforms. * * » |t was 
necessary to cap all by a genuine innovation, and he performed this by suggesting the 
postage stamp. The suggestion was received with ridicule, and Mr. Niles soon after retired. 
* * * When Cave Johnson assumed the post office, on the 5th of March, 1845, he found 
it an Herculean task to re-instate the reform measures of Mr Niles. * * * Among the 
measures of Mr. Niles that he adopted was the postage stamp idea. * * » The matter 
took form as a bill. * * » Approved March 3rd, 1847. The date of the issue was 
appointed as July ist, but there was a delay in the contractors' work and the time ran over 
a month. 

On the 5th of August, soon after the opening of the Postmaster-General's office for 
the day, an old gentleman called to see Mr. Johnson on business. The gentleman was the 
Hon. Henry Shaw, a New Yorker, * * * and the father of the well-known Henry 
Shaw, Jr. (Josh Billings). * * » Mr. Johnson came into his office accompanied by the 
printer of the new stamps, a few minutes after Mr. Shaw had arrived, on that August 
morning. Sheets of the stamps were laid before the Postmaster-General, who, after receipt- 
ing for them, handed them to his visitor to inspect. Mr. Shaw returned them after a hasty 
glance, and then drawing out his wallet, he counted out fifteen cents, with which he pur- 
chased two of the stamps — the first two ever issued. The five cent stamp he kept as a 
curiosity, and the ten cent stamp he presented to Governor Briggs, as an appropriate gift." 



ISSUE OF 1847. 



63 



The following orders for stamps were sent to and executed by the 
contractors : 









5 Cents. 


10 Cents. 


June 


3. 


1847. 


600,000 


200,000 


Mch. 


IS, 


1848. 


800,000 


250,000 


Mch. 


20, 


1849. 


1,000,000 


300,000 


Feb. 


S> 


1850. 


1,000,000 


300,000 


Dec. 


9, 


1850. 
Total, 


1,000,000 






4,400,000 


1,050,000 



Of these quantities 3,712,000 five cent and 891,000 ten cent stamps 
were distributed to postmasters for sale. A small portion were returned to 
the Department after the appearance of the next issue. 

It appears to have been the intention of the Government to prohibit 
any use of the stamps of the 1847 issue after July ist, 1851, the date fixed for 
the issue of that year. In June, 1851, instructions were issued to deputy stamps declared in- 
postmasters that the five and ten cent stamps then current must not be ™"<' '<"■ postage, 
recognized as prepaying Igtters after the 30th of that month. The public 
were requested to return any of the stamps which they held and exchange 
them for the new issue. I have, however, seen a copy of the five cents used 
as late as January 4th, 1858. * 

The report of the Postmaster-General, dated November isth, 1851 (for 
the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1851), says : "Directions for the destruc- 
tion of the dies and plates employed in the manufacture of the postage Destruction of dies 
stamps formerly used, have been given, and for counting and burning such plates and re- 
of the stamps as have pot been issued to postmasters or have been returned." 

It has been said that the first contract for the manufacture of stamps 
did not provide, as was done in all subsequent contracts, that the dies and 
plates should be the property of the Government. Consequently they were 
claimed by the contractors. This may explain the anxiety of the Post Office 
Department to secure the return and destruction of the remainders of the 
1847 issue and the forbidding of their future use. That this anxiety was 
groundless is proved by the following affidavit : 

New York, Dec. 12, 1851. 
Have this day destroyed dies of 5 and 10 cent stamps, also the plates of same. 
I 5c stamp plate, 100 on, 1847 issue. 
1 IOC " " 100 " " " 

Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Edson. 
Witness : 

Wm. Brady, P. M., N. Y. 
John Moor. 
G. W. Johnson. 

The care taken to destroy the remainders of the 1847 issue doubtless 
accounts for the scarcity of the stamps in unused condition. 

The report of the Postmaster-General, dated December 4th, 1852, says : 
"Stamps in the hands of postmasters, June 30th, 1851, being such as re- stamps unsold, 
mained of the old issue, and which were charged to them on that day 
$8,849.61." 



64 ISSUE OF 1847. 

In the same report under the head of " Expenditures " we find : 
" For postage stamps redeemed, . $3,809.35." 

" For postage stamps of old issue returned 

to the Department, . . 8,229.20." 

Mr. Tiffany, in his History of the Postage Stamps of the United States, 
adds these two amounts together and claims a total of $12,038.55 of the 1847 
issue were returned by the deputy postmasters. This is manifestly incorrect, 
both from the wording of the report, and because more stamps could not be 
returned than were outstanding. The stamps redeemed were probably of the 
1851 issue. 

In the report dated December ist, 1853, are also given as items of 
expenditure : 

" Stamps returned, old issue, . . $68.05." 

" Stamps on hand, overcharged, old issue, 85.90." 

Presumably the stamps represented by the last item should be deducted 
from the number reported as delivered to postmasters. 

It will be seen from these figures that only a comparatively small 
number of stamps of the 1847 issue were not returned to the Department by 
the deputy postmasters. Many of these were probably used because of 
failure to receive promptly the stamps of the new issue, and some may have 
been used in succeeding years. 

The Act of March 3rd, 1 85 r , established postal rates of ten and twenty 
cents to foreign countries, but no ten cent stamps were issued until May, 
1855. In spite of instructions to the contrary, we may assume that, during 
this period, the stamps of the 1 847 issue were, when obtainable, used to pay 
the foreign rates. 



Issue of 1851-55, 



The report of the Postmaster-General, dated November 29th, 185?, 
says : 

"A contract has been made for the supply of the postage stamps authorized by the act 
of March last. These stamps are believed to be of superior quality, and are furnished at a 
less price than was formerly paid. Some of those furnished soon after the execution of the 
contract were found to be deficient in adhesive "qualities, but it is believed that there will be 
no ground for future complaint. * * * 

The streets, avenues, roads and public highways of the cities of New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia, and New Orleans have been established as post routes under the loth section 
of the postage act of March 3, 18151, and letter carriers appointed for the service thereon. 
If it is the intention of Congress to transfer the whole despatch business of the cities to the 
letter carriers of the department, further legislation for that purpose is desirable " 

The Act referred to in the aforegoing was approved March 3rd, 1851. 

It is entitled " An Act to reduce and modify the Rates of Postage in the 

United States " and provides as follows : 

"Be it enacted, etc., that from and after the 30th day of June, 1851, in lieu of the 
rates of postage now established by law, there shall be charged the following rates, viz : 
For every single letter in manuscript, or paper of any kind, upon which information shall be 
asked for or communicated, in writing, or by marks or signs, conveyed in the mail for any 
distance, between places in the United States, not exceeding 5,000 miles, when the postage 
upon said letter shall have been prepaid, three cents, and five cents when the postage there- 
on shall not have been prepaid, and for any distance exceeding 3,000 miles, double these 
rates ; for every such single letter or paper when conveyed wholly or in part by sea, and to 
or from a foreign country, for any distance over 2,500 miles, twenty cents, and foi any 
distance under 2,500 miles, ten cents, excepting however, all cases where such postages have 
been or shall be adjusted at different rates by postal treaty or convention already concluded 
or hereafter to be made ; and for a double letter there shall be charged double the rates above 
specified ; and for a treble letter, treble these rates ; and for a quadruple letter, quadruple 
these rates ; and every letter or parcel not exceeding half an ounce in weight, shall be 
deemed a single letter, and every additional weight of half an ounce, or every additional 
weight of less than half an ounce, shall be charged with an additional single postage. And 
all drop letters or letters placed in any post office, not for transmission, but for delivery only, 
shall be charged with postage at the rate of one cent each, and all letters which shall here- 
after be advertised as remaining over or uncalled for in any post office shall be charged with 
one cent In addition to the regular postage, to be accounted for as other postages now are." 

The rates for circulars, handbills, pamphlets, engravings and news- 
papers (excepting those coming from the publishers, on which postage was 
not to be paid by stamps), were " one cent for each ounce or fraction thereof, 
for distances under 500 iniles, and an additional rate for each additional 1,000 
miles or fraction thereof." 

The Act further specifies that the Postmaster-General shall provide 
'■ suitable postage stamps of the denomination of three cents, and such other 
denominations as he may think expedient to facilitate prepayment of postages 
provided for in this Act." 



streets of cities 
made post routes. 



Act reducing rates 
of {lostage. 



Special rate for 
prepaid letters. 



66 



ISSUE OF 1851-55. 



Stamps annoanced. 



Date of Issue. 



Carriers' stamps. 



itates increased. 



An official circular, dated June loth, 1851, announced and described 
the one, three and twelve cent stamps. 

The stamps were issued July ist, 1851. 

In September of that year the carriers' stamp with the head of Franklin 
was issued. It was replaced in the following November by the Eagle carriers' 
stamp. These stamps will be referred to more fully in a chapter devoted to 
the carriers' stamps. 

An Act, approved August 30th, 1852, provided as follows : 

" From and after September 30th, 1852, postage on all printed matter passing by 
Itednctioii of rates r"^''i instead of the rates now charged, shall be as follows : Each newspaper, periodical, 
for printed matter, unsealed circular, or other article of printed matter, not exceeding three ounces in weight, 

to any part of 'the United States, one cent ; and for every additional ounce or fraction 

thereof one cent additional." 

By the Act approved March 30th, 1855, the Act of March 3rd, 185 1, 
was amended as follows : 

Be it enacted, etc. That in lieu of the rates of postage now established by law, there 
shall be charged the following rates to wit : For every single letter in manuscript, or paper 
of any kind in which information shall be asked or communicated in writing, or by marks or 
signs, conveyed in the mail, for any distance between places in the United States not exceed- 
ing 3,000 miles, three cents ; and for any distance exceeding 3,000 miles, ten cents. And 
for a double letter, there shall be charged double the rates above specified ; and for a treble 
letter, treble these rates ; and for a quadruple letter, quadruple these rates ; and every' letter 
or paper not exceeding half an ounce in weight shall be deemed a single letter ; and every 
additional weight of half an ounce or every additional weight of less than half an ounce, 
shall be charged with an additional single postage ; and upon all letters passing through or 
■in the mail of the United States, except such as are to or from a foreign country, the postage 
as above specified, shall be prepaid, except upon letters and papers addressed to officers of 
the Government on official business, which shall be so marked on the envelope. And from 
and after the first day of January, 1856, the Postmaster-General may require postmasters to 
place postage stamps upon all prepaid letters, upon which such stamps may not have been 
placed by the writers. » * * 

And be it further enacted : That for the greater security of valuable letters, posted 
for transmission in the mails of the United States, the Postmaster-General be, and hereby is 
authorized to establish a uniform plan for the registration of such letters on application of 
parties posting the same, and to require the prepayment of the postage, as well as a registra- 
tion fee of five cents, on every such letter or packet, to be accounted for by postmasters 
receiving the same, in such manner as the Postmaster-General may direct ; Provided, how- 
ever, that such registration shall not be compulsory, and shall not render the Post Office 
Department or its revenues liable for the loss of such letter or package, or the contents 
thereof. 

By this Act compulsory prepayment of postage on letters and a system 
of registration were for the first time provided. 

An Act, approved January 2nd, 1857, extended the compulsory pre- 
payment of postage to all transient printed matter, the postage to be "prepaid 
by stamps or otherwise, as the Postmaster-treneral may direct." 

The official description of the designs and colors is as follows : 

One ckn I. Profile bust of Franklin, looking to the right, on an oval 
disk with dark ground, the words " u. s. pont.-\c;e " in outline capitals on a 
curved panel above, and the words "one ckxt ' in sinnilar letters on a 
curved panel below. On the corners, and parti)' surrounding the two panels, 
are convolute scroll-work ornaments, nearly meeting in points on the sides. 
Color, indigo blue. 

Thref, cents. Profile bust of Washington, after Houdon, facing to 
the left, on an oval disk with very dark ground and a white line border. 
Around this oval is a beautifully tessellated frame, terminating in each of 



Prepnyiiient 
required. 



lle^i station. 



Designs and colors. 



ISSUE or 1851-57. 67 

the four corners with a fine lathe-work rosette. At the top of the stamp is a 
straight panel, with a piece at each end cut off, bearing the words " u. s. 
POSTAGE ■' in white capitals ; at the bottom of the stamp, in a similar panel 
and with similar letters, are inscribed the words "three cents." A fine line 
encloses the stamp, forming a rectangle. Color, brick-red. 

Five cents. Portrait of Jefferson, after a painting by Stuart, three- 
quarters face, looking to the right, on an oval disk with dark ground and a 
distinct white border, on the upper and lower portions of which are four 
irregular, shaded segmental spaces. Around the whole is a four-sided oblong 
frame, with rounded corners terminating in slight incissions, the whole filled 
in with two rows of geometric lathe-work, and bearing in a waved line at the 
top the words " u. s. postage " in white capitals, and at the bottom the words 
"five cents", similarly displayed. Color, brown. 

Ten cents. Portrait of Washington, after the painting by Stuart, 
three-quarters face, looking to the left, on an oval disk with very dark ground, 
and a border which is white below and slightly shaded above. Around the ' 
upper portion of the medallion, on a dark ground, are thirteen white stars, 
above which again in a white panel are the words, in small solid capitals, 
" u. s. POSTAGE," connecting two circular spaces on the corners, each con- 
taining the Roman numeral "X." Below the medallion, in a waved panel, are 
the words " ten cents " in large white capitals. The whole is surrounded 
with shaded scroll-work of a highly ornate character. Color, dark green. 

Twelve cents. Portrait of Washington, after the painting by Stuart, 
three-quarters face, looking to the left, on an oval disk with dark ground and 
a fine shaded line border. Above the medallion and conforming to its curve, 
on a light background, are the words " u. s. postage " in white shaded 
capitals, and below the medallion, similarly inscribed and displayed, are the 
words " twelve cents ". Around the whole, and enclosed in a fine double- 
lined rectangle, is a beautifully tessellated frame, separated at each of the four 
corners by a lathe-work rosette. Color, black." 

The stamps of this issue vary slightly in size. The dimensions are : 
1 cent, 20x26mm.; 3 cents, 20x25mm.; 5 cents, 1 9^^x25 ^mm.; 10 cents, sizes. 

i9X24^mm.; 12 cents, 20x25mm. 

There are several types of the one and ten cent stamps. The three 
and five cents have each only one type in this issue, but in the perforated Tjpes. 

issue of 1857 they present other varieties. It seems best to describe the 
various types under the issue in which they make their initial appearance. 





One cent. Type I. This is the full and complete form of the stamp 
as it appears on the die. In this form there is a curved line outside and 



68 ISSUE OF 1851-57. 

Types of the'one parallel to the labels containing the words "u. s. postage" and "one cent." 
cent stamp. Between the upper label and the curved outer line is a row of minute colored 
dots. These are not found between the lower label and the outer line. 
Below the lower label and line is a scroll, turned to the right and left, having 
the ends carried under and rolled up until they form little balls. In the 
center the scroll is only a line, forming, with the outer line, a double curve. 
There are graceful arabesques at each corner, spreading along the sides and, 
to a less degree, along the top and bottom. The distinguishing marks of 
this variety, the rolled up ends of the scroll, may be seen to better advantage 
on the reprints and proofs than on the stamps themselves. 

Type II. Is much the same as type I but the balls forming the ends 
of the scrolls and frequently the extreme tips of the arabesques have been 
cut away. 

Type III. This is the so-called "broken circle." In this the center 
of the curved lines is missing and the scrolls and corner ornaments are less 
perfect. This variety may occur at the top or bottom of the stamp or in 
both places. 

Type IV. This is type III with the broken lines recut. This variety 
also may be found at either the top or bottom of the stamp or both. It 
closely resembles type II yet may easily be distinguished from it. The 
curved lines outside the labels are deeper and harder than the other lines of 
the stamp. The recutting often begins and ends abruptly, not joining smoothly 
the original line. The central part of the row of minute dots between the 
upper label and the curved line has disappeared. The recutting is usually 
confined to the outer lines but it can occasionally be seen in other parts of the 
stamp, especially the top of the upper label. 

Of these four varieties only two are properly called types. The other 
two are really sub-varieties, but their frequent occurrence, especially in the 
perforated issue of these stamps, seems to demand for them recognition as 
types. Types I and II come from two different transfer rolls (Nos. 46 and 
47), though both are from the same original die. On the second roll the 
ball-like ornaments were cut away. Type III is caused by not " rocking " 
the transfer roll sufficiently far. Proof of this is found in a stamp which 
combines types I and II, showing the broken circle at the top and full 
ornaments at the bottom. Type l\ is an attempt to remedy the defects of 
type III. The last two are, therefore, plate \arieties and sub-varieties of 
type II. In the 1857 issue, however, the third variety must be accepted as a 
type, as there is abundant evidence to show that, in that issue, it is not due to 
defective workmanship but is made from a transfer roll from which the 
ornaments and lines have been completely cut away. 

In the 1 85 1 issue type IV is the commonest variety, type II is nearly 

as frequently met, type III is quite scarce and type I decidedly so, especially 

in unused condition. In the 1857 issue type III is the common variety, 

while types II, IV and I are much scarcer, in the relative order here given. 

Thrke cents. Type I. There is a thin, straight line of color on each 

Types of the three °^ ''^*^ ^°"'' ^^^*^^ °^ '^^ Stamp. In preparing the earlier plates of this value 

cent stamp. the Surface of each plate was laid off in little upright rectangles. These were 



ISSUE OF 1851-57. 69 

not formed by continuous horizontal and vertical lines ruled across the plate 
but each stamp was provided with its rectangular frame, separated by a space 
of y^ to i^mm. from the adjacent frames. Into each of these rectangles the 
design was transferred. There were similar frame lines on the die and it will 
be readily understood that they would frequently fail to fall exactly on the 
lines ruled on the plate, thus causing some portion of them to appear double. 
Very exhaustive lists of these varieties have been published, but, when we 
remember that there were twenty-eight plates of this value, each containing 
two hundred stamps, the hopelessness of finding or correctly placing all the 
varieties is at once apparent, to say nothing of the lack of interest or value in 
such a restoration. 

Five cents. Type I. On examining the stamps we observe that, sur- 
rounding the central medallion, there is an irregularly shaped mat of colorless 
lathe-work. The outer line of this lathe-work is formed of a series of loops. Types of the Ave 
Outside these loops are two thin lines of color, separated by a thin colorless *=*"* stamp, 
line, all following the outline of the lathe-work and forming slight projections 
in the middle of each of the four sides. This is the form of the original die 
and of the stamps on the first plate for this value. The complete projections 
on the four sides are the distinguishing feature of type I. 

Ten cents. There is a line of color above and following the outlines 
of the label inscribed " u. s. postage" and a similar line below the label Types of the ten 
with the words " ten cents ". The upper line is curved, like the label, and cent stamp. 
is usually very faint. The lower one is wavy and follows the double curve 
of the label. 

Type I. Both the lines are complete. 

Type II. One or both of the lines are broken in the center. As in 
the case of the one cent stamp, this is due to insufficient rocking of the 
transfer roll. 

Type III. One or both of the lines have been recut. 

Type IV. The outer lines are as in type I, but the arabesque ornaments 
at the sides have been slightly cut away. 

Type V. The same as type II, with the side ornaments cut away. 

Type VI. The same as type III, with the side ornaments cut away. 

Type II is the variety commonly found. Types I and III are much 
scarcer. Types IV, V and VI are also quite scarce in the imperforate issue. 
The plates from which the stamps of the last three types were printed were 
doubtless prepared with a view to facilitating perforation but some sheets 
were issued imperforate. 

The paper used for this issue was of fine quality, hard and crisp. At 
first it was quite thick and opaque but, previous to the appearance of the 
perforated stamps, it became thinner and slightly transparent. It is often p^per. 

stained yellow or brownish by the gum. The one and three cent stamps have 
been seen on paper watermarked with a band of lines, as described in the 
1847 issue. The three cent stamp has also been chronicled on ruled writing 
paper, but careful examination proved that the ruled lines were merely an 
offset from the paper to which the stamp had been affixed. 



70 



ISSUE OF 1851-57. 



July I St, 1 85 1. 



The gum was thick and smooth, varying from almost white to a dark 
brownish yellow. 

Eeference List. Hard White Wove Paper. 

Imperforate. 

I cent (type I) pale blue, blue, dark blue 

I cent (type II) pale blue, blue, dark blue, pale dull blue, 

dark dull blue, slate-blue, sky blue, black-blue 
I cent (type III) pale blue, blue, dark blue, bright blue, 

dark dull blue 
I cent (type IV) pale blue, blue, dark blue, pale dull 
blue, dark dull blue, sky blue, greenish-blue, bright 
blue, gray-blue, black-blue, very dark ultramarine 
3 cents (type I) red, pale orange-red, dark orange-red, 
brown-red, pale rose-red, rose-red, dark rose-red, 
lilac-rose, lake, rosy lake, Indian red 
5 cents (type I) brown, red-brown, dark red-brown, car- 
mine brown 
10 cents (type I) yellow-green, dark green 
10 cents (type II) yellow-green, dark green, blue-green 
10 cents (type III) yellow-green, dark green, blue-green 
lo cents (type IV) yellow-green 
10 cents (type V) yellow-green, dark green 
12 cents gray-black, black, deep smudgy black 

Varieties : 

I cent blue. Numerous double transfers, the most not- 
able of which shows the outlines of " one cent " 
repeated across the face of the letters 
3 cents rose. Double transfers, the most distinct being 
that which shows a horizontal line through the 
words " THREE cents " 
3 cents. Diagonal half used as i cent. Cancelled : 
"San Francisco, Cal.,.May 30, 1853", and "May 
31st, 1853 ". Used on circulars 
12 cents black. Diagonal half used as 6 cents. Cancelled: 

"San Francisco, Cal., Sept. 9, ", " Sonora, 

Cal., Feb. 13, 1852 ", etc. 
12 cents black. One and diagonal half of another copy 
used as 18 cents. Cancelled: "Sacramento, Cal., 

Apl., 5. " 

12 cents black. Impression on the back 

It is interesting to note that the majority of thd bisected stamps of this 

issue are on letters from California, indicating a shortage of the lower values 

Bisected stmiips. i" 'hat, at that date, remote section of the country. Many of the covers 

bearing these split stamps are hand-stamped " Via Nicaragua. Ahead of the 

mails ". At that time the mails between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts were 



July ist, 1851. 

January 5th, 1856. 
May 4th, 1855. 

July ist, 1851. 



ISSUE OF 1851-57. 71 

carried by a steamship company via the isthmus of Panama. A rival com- 
pany, operating by the Nicaragua route, sought the contract for transporting 
the mails, basing their claim, in part, upon their quicker service. The hand- 
stamp was applied in furtherance of this claim. 

Halves of the ten cent stamp, supposed to have done duty as five 
cents, have long been known and accepted by collectors. At the time this 
work appeared in serial form such a divided stamp was listed among the Bisected ten cent 
varieties of this issue. After an extremely careful examination of that par- stamp, 

ticular copy and a number of others, I have reached the conclusion that all 
the bisected ten cent stamps of the 1851-55 issue which I have seen are 
fraudulent. Reference to the postal laws of the period shows that the only 
purpose of a five cent stamp was to pay the registration fee. It is, of course, 
not impossible that a letter might have been mailed with that fee prepaid and 
the regular postage unpaid, but it is, highly improbable. From and after 
January ist, 1856, all postage was required to be prepaid in stamps. I have 
never seen a bisected ten cent stamp that was not cancelled later than that 
date. Until very strong evidence in its favor is forthcoming, I shall doubt 
the genuineness of any split ten cent stamp of this issue. 

The most dangerous examples of this would-be variety were made in 
San Francisco, a number of years ago, by a man who had, in some way, secured 
a discarded cancelling stamp of the post office of that city. I have seen a 
number of the counterfeit provisionals made by him. All were on pieces of 
buff laid paper, apparently portions of government envelopes of the 1864 
issue, the higher values of which were extensively used by the express com- 
panies of the Pacific coast, and all were cancelled "Dec. 22, 1858". 

The design for a stamp of the value of twenty-four cents was approved 
on April 24th, 1856. Following this approval the plate was made and the 
stamps printed and gummed. We can, however, find no record that they imperforate twenty- 
were issued until June, 1 860, when they appeared perforated. But imper- *'"'" """* stamp, 
forate specimens in pairs and blocks are well-known and the existence of 
nearly an entire sheet in this condition is reported on excellent authority. I 
have seen two imperforate copies used on the original envelopes. 

The imperforate thirty and ninety cent stamps of this series have been 
much discussed. One thing, at least, cannot be denied, that is that they 
exist genuinely imperforate, not trimmed, since they are in pairs and strips, imperforate thirty 
They are on the same paper as the perforated copies and have the same gum. "ml ninety cent 
A well-known philatelist makes this statement : " I, myself, bought a thirty * '"'' ' 

cent orange, imperforate, at the New York post office in i860. And I dis- 
tinctly remember having used one on a letter containing some photographs." 
The most important evidence in favor of this stamp is furnished by a 
copy which was purchased by Messrs. Morgenthau & Co. in the summer of 
1899. This copy is on a letter sent from New York to Lyons, France. The 
cancellation covers a large portion of the stamp and is dated October 2nd, 
i860. The stamp has fine margins on three sides and shows a portion of the 
adjoining stamp at the left. It is printed in the peculiar brown-orange shade 
in which the imperforate copies are always found. It establishes, beyond 
doubt, the use of the thirty cent stamp in imperforate condition. 



72 



ISSUE OF 1851-57. 



Plates. 



Imprints. 



Plate numbers. 



There was a cancelled copy of the imperforate ninety cents in the 
Hunter collection. Beyond question or contradiction, these three values, 
twenty-four, thirty and ninety cents, exist imperforate. It is, however, my 
opinion, that they do not constitute a part of the 1851-55 series but are 
varieties of the 1857-60 series which have escaped perforating. I shall place 
them under that heading. 

The plates for the 1851-55 issues each consisted of two panes of one 
hundred stamps, arranged in ten rows of ten. The panes were placed side 
by side and separated by a single vertical line. This line marked the place 
at which the printed sheets were to be cut apart, to make the smaller sheets 
sold in the post offices. This practice is still continued, the panes being cut 
apart instead of perforated. This accounts for the imperforate edges found 
on one or two sides of each sheet of stamps. 

The imprint of the engravers appears at the middle of each side of the 
plate, the tops of the letters being toward the stamps. On the earlier plates 
of the one, three and twelve cents the inscription reads : " Toppan, Carpenter, 
Casilear & Co., bank note engravers, Phil., New York, Boston & Cin- 
cinnati.'' Below " Note " and " Engravers " the plate number appears thus : 
" No. I P." On a few plates the " P " is omitted. 

In 185s the name " Casilear " was dropped from the imprint. The 
exact date cannot be given, but the name appears in order No. 95 of the Post 
Office Department and is missing from No. 96, which is dated July 6th, 1855. 

The later plates of the one, three and twelve cents and all plates of the 
five and ten cents, with the possible exception of plate i of the latter value, 
have the imprint " Toppan, Carpenter & Co.," etc., etc., in the same style and 
arrangement as on the earlier plates. 

From lack of records and the fact that the same plates were used for 
both the imperforate and the perforated stamps only an incomplete list of the 
plate numbers can be given. Those given in the following list are known to 
exist imperforate. Beyond doubt there were other plates of the one cent 
stamps in this condition and possibly also of the three, ten and twelve cent 
values. The various types of the one and ten cent stamps appear to have 
been used or produced on the various plates quite at the fancy of the work- 
man and without any system. It is, therefore, impossible to assign to them 
any special plate numbers. 

ic blue No. I. 

3c red (type I) No. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

5c brown (type I) No. i. 

IOC green No. i. 

I2C black No. i. 

The plates of the one cent stamps of this and the succeeding issue 
were numbered consecutively from i to 12 and probably at least half of them 
were used for the imperforate stamps. No. 8 is the lowest number known 
perforated. Likewise the plates of the three cent stamps were numbered 
from I to 28 and number 10 is the lowest perforated number so far found. 
A plate of the twelve cents, which I suspect to be No. 2, exists both imper- 
forate and perforated. 



ISSUE OF 1851-57. 73 

The name " Casilear " appears on the plates of the two issues, as 
follows : 

I cent, on No. i, not on No. 9 to 12. 

• 3 " " " h 2, 3, 4, " " " 10 to 28. 

5 " " " " >,2. 

10 " " " " 2, 3. 

12 " " " ,, " " " 3. 

24 " " " ■' 7. 

30 " " " " I. 

90 " " " " ,. 

li has not been possible to obtain lists of the stamps supplied by 
Toppan, Carpenter, Casilear & Co., and Toppan, Carpenter & Co. in each 
fiscal year for which they held the contract, and the reports of the quantities 
delivered by the Post Office Department to the deputy postmasters are quite 
incomplete. The records of the contractors were destroyed on March 4th, 
1872, at the burning of the Jayne building in Philadelphia. Such information 
as is obtainable is here presented. 

The first stamps of this issue were delivered by the contractors on 
June 21st, 1851, and consisted of 100,000 one cent, 300,000 three cents, and 
100,000 twelve cents. 

Through the valued assistance of an influential friend the following 
report has been obtained from the Post Office Department : 

"Stamps received from Toppan, Carpenter, Casilear & Co., June 21, 

1851 to July 6, 185s : 

Fiscal year ending 12 cent. 10 cent. 3 cent. 1 cent. Value. 

June 30, 1851 200,000 1,710,000 400,000 $ 79,300.00 

June 30, 1852 480,000 49,410,000 6,860,000 1,608,500.00 

June 30, 1853 51210,000 4,450,000 1,580,800.00 

June 30, 1854 60,000 47,820,000 8,450,000 1,526,300.00 

June 30, 1855 20,220,000 3,900,000 645,600.00 

July 6, 1855 120,800 747,000 15,001,800 2,767,700 566,927.00 

Total, 868,800 747,000 185,371,800 26,827,700 $6,007,427.00 

Ten cent stamps appear to have been issued to postmasters on May 
4th, 1855, though no invoice is noted from Toppan, Carpenter, Casilear & Co., 
to include them, until July 6th, 1855. They should doubtless be considered 
as having been received prior to June 30th, the end of the fiscal year." 

The report of the Postmaster General, dated December ist, 1853, sup- 
plies the following : 

" Number of stamps issued to postmasters for sale in the fiscal years 
ending June 30th, 1852 and June 30th, 1853 : 

1 cent. 3 cent. 12 cent. Amount. 

1852 5,489,242 48,410,035 237,042 $1,535,638-51 

1853 4,736.3" 51,461,040 '46,655 1,608,792.91 

Total, 10,225,553 99,871,075 383.697 $3.'44,43i-42 



First delivery. 



Stati^ticR of 
manufactnre. 



DeliTerics to 
postin Asters. 



74 ISSUE OF 1851-57. 

Stamps sold by postmasters, year ending June 30th, 1852, . $1,316,563.59 
" " " " " June 30th, 1853, 1,629,262.12 

Leaving in hands of postmasters, . . 198,605.71" 

From 1853 to 1859 the reports of the Postmaster General do not 
unfortunately, supply statistics of the quantities of stamps delivered to post- 
masters or of those sold to the public. 

The different values of this issue were intended, primarily, for the 
payment of certain specific rates, though any value might be used in making 
Purpose of the up a rate. The one cent stamps were to pay the postage on newspapers and 
TBrioiiK values, drop-letters. The three cent stamp represented the rate on ordinary letters 
and two of them made up the rate for distances over 3,000 miles. "The five 
cent stamps were for the registration fee and two of them were frequently 
used to pay the rate over 3,000 miles, after it was changed in March, 1855. 
Ten cents was the rate to California and other points distant more than 3,000 
miles. The twelve cent stamps were for quadruple the ordinary rate. The 
twenty-four cent stamp represented the single rate on letters to Great Britain. 
Thirty cents was the corresponding rate to Germany. The ninety cent stamp 
was apparently intended merely to facilitate the payment of large amounts of 
postage. 



Issue of 1857-60, 



Letter concerning 

perforating and 

ne^ plates. 



The stamps of this issue differ from those of the 1851-55 issue only in 
that they are perforated. This change, being merely a detail of manufacture, 
was effected without legislation. There are, therefore, no official documents 
to reproduce. But the following bit of inside history may be somewhat 
interesting. It is extracted from a letter addressed to the Commissioner of 
Internal Revenue on the subject of plates for revenue stamps : 

" Having been requested by Messrs. Butler & Carpenter to state such facts as might 
be witliin my l<nowledge in reference to a fair price to be charged for engraving stamp 
plates, I beg leave to say that, as the business partner of my firm (Toppan, Carpenter & Co.,) 
I negotiated all the contracts in reference to Postage Stamps which were made with the 
Government from 1851 to 1861 (10 years) and, therefore, 1 have personal knowledge of what 
I shall state. 

In 1857 the Postmaster General determined to introduce the perforation of Postage 
Stamps. In order to do this it became necessary for us to make 3 new plates of i cent, 
6 plates of 3c, 1 plate of 5c, i plate of loc, ' plate of 12c and i plate of 24c, in all, 15 plates, 
besides a large outlay to procure the necessary machinery for perforating the stamps, and, in 
view of the fact that our first contract with the Government would expire in about 4 months 
from that time and might not be renewed, we felt it to be necessary to protect ourselves 
against loss by asking that, in case the contract for furnishing Postage Stamps should not be 
renewed with us at the end of our term, that in that case the Government should indemnify 
us from loss by paying us $500 for the engraving of each of the 13 plates, or $6,soo for the 
whole of the plates, and a further sum of $3,oco for the perforating machine with the 
necessary machinery. This was promptly agreed to by the Postmaster General and a 
contract to that effect was made and executed on the 6 Feb. 1857. The plates and perforat- 
ing machinery were, of course, to become the property of the Government, in the contingency 
of our losing the contract and the Government paying for the plates and machinery. 

I have given the above facts not only from my own recollection of them but from 
the contract with the P. O. Department, which is before me." 

(Signed) S. H. Carpemter, 

Philadelphia, April 2nd, 1863. of the late firm of Toppan, Carpenter & Co. 

The first stamps were perforated and delivered to the Government on yh-st deiiTery. 
February 24th, 1857. 

The designs are the same as in the 1851-55 issue with the addition of 
three new values which are thus officially described : 

"Twenty-four cents. Portrait of Washington, after the painting by 
Stuart, three-quarters face, looking to the right, on an oyal disk with very 
dark ground, surrounded by a solid curved border, bearing above the words Designs and colors. 
" u. s. POSTAGE " and below the words '' twenty four cents " in white 
capitals, the two inscriptions being separated on each side by a small triple 
rectangle. Around the whole of this is a mass of badly mixed lathe-work, 
forming a frame of irregular oblong form, with rounded corners and curved 
incisions, all enclosed by a fine outer line. Color, very dark lilac. 



76 ISSUE OF 1857-60. 

Thirty cents. Profile bust of Franklin, looking to the left, on an 
oval disk with a very dark ground, and with a slightly shaded border. In an 
irregular panel at the top are the words " u. s. postage ", in two lines of 
white capitals ; at the bottom in a panel, are the Arabic numerals "30"; on 
the two sides are the words "ihirty" and "cents" respectively, in white 
capitals ; at each of the four corners is a shield, placed obliquely, with fine 
radiations, and connected with ornate shaded scrolls. The two sides and the 
top of the stamp are enclosed by a fine double line, ending in six spear points. 
Color, orange. 

Ninety cents. Portrait of Washington, in generals' uniform, after 
the painting by Trumbull, three-quarters face, on a very dark oblong ground 
with arched top. In a solid panel, conforming to the curve of this arch, are 
the words " u. s. postage " in white capitals, while at the bottom of the 
portrait, in a straight panel, with rounded ends, are the words "ninety 
CENTS " Connecting these two panels, and forming an oblong frame for the 
portrait, are scroll-work ornaments, resting on a sort of pedestal. Color, 
deep indigo blue." 
g,^^g The sizes of these stamps were: Twenty-four cents, i9j^x25mm. ; 

thirty cents, 20x25mm.; ninety cents, igx24}^mm. 

The types are the same as in the preceding issue, with the addition 
of a few caused by alterations to admit of perforating. These additional 
varieties are : 

Three cents. Type II. The horizontal frame lines at top and 
Types of the three bottom have been removed from both the transfer roll and the plate. On 
cent Btaiiip. many specimens the side lines appear to be closer to the body of the design 
than on the imperforate stamps. 

Type I is known as the variety " with outer lines " and type II as the 
variety "without outer lines." This, of course, refers only to the lines at 
the top and bottom of the stamps. 

Five cents. Type II. The outer line of color on the projecting 
Types of the Are ornaments at top and bottom has been cut away. This is usually spoken of 

cent stamp. u ^ , , ,, 

as ornaments partly removed. 

Type III. The cutting has been carried still further and both the 
outer and inner lines and part of the colorless loops have been cut away. 
This variety is called "ornaments entirely removed." 

These types are from two different transfer rolls, though both occur 
on the same plate. They are arranged in horizontal rows, the first, third, 
sixth and tenth rows being of type II and the balance of the plate of type III. 

Ten cents. Type VI of this stamp has not been noted in the per- 
Types of the ton foratcd State, though it may exist. Types IV and V are those commonly 
cent stamp. f^^^^^ ^j^jj^ types I, II and III are much scarcer. 

The paper used for this issue was thin, hard and brittle, much of it 
semi-transparent, white but usually tinted by the gum and often colored on 
Paper. the Surface from poorly wiped plates. I have recently seen copies of the 

three cents (type II), on paper which showed faint laid lines. This appears 
to be much the same paper as was used for some values of the i86i-66 
issue, 



The gum 
to almost brown 



Feb. , 1857. 



Feb. 24th, 1857. 



Feb. , 1857. 



Feb. , 1857. 



Feb. 



-, 1857. 



June isth, i860. 

Aug. 12th, i860. 
Aug. 13th, i860. 



ISSUE OF 1857-60. 77 

was thin and smooth and varied in color from yellow-white 

White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 15, i5}4- 

I cent (type I) pale blue, blue, dark blue, bright blue, 

dull blue 
1 cent (type II) pale blue, blue, dark blue, dull blue, 

bright blue 
1 cent (type III) pale blue, blue, dark blue, dull blue, 

gray-blue, dark ultramarine 
I cent (type IV) blue, dark blue, gray-blue 
3 cents (type I) pale rose-red, rose-red, rosy-lake, lake, 

dull red, Indian red 
3 cents (type II) pale rose-red, rose-red, rosy lake, lake, 

orange-red, red, brown-red 
S cents (type I) brick red, rose-brown, pale red-brown, 
red-brown, dark red-brown, carmine-brown, brown, 
gray-brown 
5 cents (type II) brown, dark brown, gray-brown, orange- 
brown 
5 cents (type III) brown, dark brown, gray-brown, bistre- 
brown, orange-brown 
10 cents (type I) dark green 

10 cents (type II) yellow-green, dark green, bright blue- 
green, blue-green, gray-green 
10 cents (type III) yellow-green, dark green 
10 cents (type IV) yellow-green, dark green, blue-green, 

dark blue-green, gray-green 
10 cents (type V) yellow-green, dark yellow-green, dark 

green, bright blue-green, blue-green, gray-green 
12 cents gray-black, greenish black, full black, deep 

smudgy black 
24 cents bright lilac, lilac, gray-lilac, gray, slate, blackish 

violet, dull reddish lilac 
30 cents yellow-orange, orange, red-orange 
90 cents indigo, dark indigo 

Varieties : 

1 cent blue, dark blue. Double transfers. The most 
pronounced shows the shadings of "one cent" 
repeated like links below the panel 

3 cents (type I) rose-red. Double transfers, notably that 
with the horizontal line through " three cents " 

3 cents (type I) rose. Vertical pair, imperforate hori- 
zontally 

3 cents (type I) rose. Horizontal pair, imperforate ver- 
tically 



Seftrence List. 



78 



ISSUE OF 1857-60. 



Imperforate and 

part-perforate 

stamps. 



Shades and change- 
lings. 



The black thirty 
cent stamp. 



I'lates and im- 
prints. 



24 cents gray-lilac. Imperforate 

30 cents brown-orange. Imperforate 
90 cents indigo. Imperforate 

White Laid Paper. 

Perforated 15, 15)^. 

3 cents (type II) dull rose-red 

It may be well to say here that no imperforate or part-perforate varieties 
of stamps which are normally perforate, will be listed in this work, except 
such as are known in pairs or blocks. Owing to defects in manufacture, 
stamps are frequently found which have such widely spaced perforations as 
to allow trimming by those who enjoy producing such fraudulent novelties. 
For this reason it seems best to refuse recognition to all varieties except such 
as are entirely beyond suspicion. 

The three cents of this and the preceding issue is frequently found in 
shades of brown and almost black. The thirty cents is also known in brown. 
These shades are merely the result of chemical changes, natural or artificial. 
The same discolorations occur in similar shades in other issues. They are 
largely due to what is commonly called "oxidization." " Sulphuretting " 
would more correctly express the change. Stamps printed in mineral inks 
are particularly subject to such darkening of their colors, especially those in 
red and orange shades. 

The greenish shades of the twenty-four cents in this and the succeeding 
issue are due to the action of acids or strong sunlight. I am not certain that 
the twenty-four cents in dull reddish-lilac was ever issued as a stamp. I 
have seen copies, both imperforate and perforated, in old collections of proofs 
arid essays and I am inclined to think it belongs in that category rather than 
among stamps. I have, however, no positive evidence to confirm this belief. 

In addition to the above stamps and varieties the thirty cents is known 
printed in black. It is imperforate and on the regular paper. This has 
usually been regarded as a proof. But Mr. Francis C. Foster states that, at 
the time he obtained his copy, he was told that it was a stamp and had been 
in use, and that shortly afterwards he made inquiry at the Washington post 
office and was informed that it was actually on sale at that ofiice for a few 
days but, because the cancellation did not show up well, the color was 
changed. However, it must be remembered that the twenty-four cents also 
exists in black, identical with this thirty cents in shade and paper. And 
copies of the five, twenty-four and ninety cents are known in various colors, 
imperforate and printed on the regular paper. It has never been claimed 
that these latter varieties are anything but proofs in trial colors. 

Many of the plates of the 1851-55 issue were also emplo) ed for printing 
the stamps of the 1857-60 issue. The new plates are of the same dimensions as 
those of the, preceding issue and have the imprint in the same position. The 
imprint is, with a few exceptions, of the second variety. The known excep- 
tions are plates of the one, twelve, thirty and ninety cents, on which the 
imprint is "toppan, carpenter & co., Philadelphia", in small white-faced 
capitals, on a tablet of solid color with square ends. There is a thin colored 



ISSUE OF 1857-60. 



79 



ic blue 




3c red 


(type I) 


3 c red 


(type II) 



5c brown (type I) 



Sc 


it 


(type II) 


Sc 


ti 


(type III) 


IOC 


green 




I2C 


black 




24c 


lilac 




30c orange 




90c 


indigo 





line parallel to the top and sides of the tablet but none at the bottom. Below 
this there is, on the one cent "No. 12. P.", on the three cents the numeral 
" 3 " only, and on the thirty and ninety cents " No. i P." 

The following plate numbers are known to have been used for the 
perforated stamps : 

No. 8, 9, 10, II, 12. 

No. 

No. 10, II, 12, 13, 14, IS, 16, 
17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 
24, 25, 26, 27, 28. 

No. I. 

No. 2. 

No. 2. 

No. 2, 3. 

No. 3. 

No. I. 

No. I. 

No. I. 

On comparing this list with that of the plates of the 1851 issue it will 
be seen that plates 7, 8 and 9 of the three cents and plate 2- of the twelve 
cents are not listed. They exist, but it has been impossible to secure infor- 
mation which would correctly locate them. Neither has it been possible to 
learn which plates of the three cents of type I were used for the perforated 
issue. It is probable that the name " Casilear " did not appear on any plates 
used for the perforated stamps, with the possible exception of the three cents 
of type I. 

The statistics of this issue are, unfortunately, very incomplete. The 
following extracts, taken from the annual reports of the Postmaster General, 
are all that can be supplied at present : 

"Number of postage stamps issued to postmasters during the fiscal years ending as 
follows : 

Year ending June 30th, 1859 : 
I cent. 3 cent. 5 cent. 10 cent. 

44,432,300 142,087,800 486,560 3,765,560 

Whole number 192,201,920. Value $5,279,405.00. 

Year ending June 30th, i860 : 
I cent. 3 cent. 5 cent. 10 cent. 12 cent. 

50,723,400 159,463,600 579.360 3,898,450 1,653,500 

Whole number 216,370,660. Value $5,920,939.00." 

" Larger denominations of postage stamps have been adopted and introduced, 
especially for the purpose of affording requisite facilities to prepay the postage on letters to 
foreign countries, and of removing all excuses heretofore existing of paying such postages in 
money. The new denominations are twenty-four cents, thirty cents and ninety cents. The 
two latter have been introduced since July 1st last, and the sales up to November 1st have 
been as follows : 

Thirty .cent stamps, . 140,860 ; amounting to $42,358.00 
Ninety cent stamps, . 15,840; " " 14,256.00 

Previously to July 1st there were issued of the 

Twenty-four cent stamps, . 52,350; amounting to $12,564,00 
From July 1st to Nov. 1st, . 287,975; " " 69,11400 



12 cent. 
.,429,700 



24 cent- 
52.350 



Plate nnmbers. 



Delireries to 
postmasters. 



Total issues of new denominations, 497,025 ; amounting to $138, 192.00 



8o ISSUE OF 1857-60. 

Year ending June 30th, 1861 : 

Quarter ending 1 cent. 

Sept. 30, i860 12,756,100 

Dec. 31, i860 14,778,085 

March 31, 1861 14,174,768 

June 30, 1861 12,184,839 







53,893,762 






12 cent. 


Sept. 30, 
Dec. 31, 
March 31, 
June 30, 


i860 
i860 
1861 
1861 


384,800 
243,825 
232,400 
192,875 





3 cent. 


5 cent. 


10 cent. 


36,512,700 


146,920 


922,150 


39 


,171,800 


178,640 


1,154,910 


4' 


,922,956 


223,000 


852,900 


33 


,615,600 


128,640 

677,200 


995.730 


15' 


,223,056 


3,925,690 




24 cent. 


30 cent. 


90 cent. 




1 70,000 


103,860 


11,960 




201,150 


105,960 


6,200 




'47.325 


65,040 


4,110 




132,125 


65,140 


2,010 



1,053,900 650,600 340,000 24,280 

Whole number 211,788,518. Value $5,908,522.60." 

There are no available statistics covering the number of stamps issued 
between June 30th, 1861 and the appearance of the new issue in August of 
that year. In view of the impending change and the reasons which prompted 
it, we may assume that the quantity was restricted as far as possible. 



Issues of 1861-66. 



Issue of i86i. 



The breaking out of the civil war, in April, 1861, and the natural desire 
of the government that its stamps should not be used to the profit of the 
seceding states were the causes of the issue of 1861. 

An article in the Chicago Times-Herald in September 1 8g6, says : 

At the post office department I was told that in May, 1861, Postmaster General 
Montgomery Blair issued an order requiring all postmasters to return to the department all 
postage stamps and stamped envelopes in their possession, but 1 was unable to see the order, 
as no copy is preserved in the files of the department, and Its precise language is unknown. 

I sought further information in the files of the National Intelligencer, preserved in the 
library of Congress, which was the organ of the department in 1861. I found in the issue of 
June 13th, 1861, the following " extract from the department files," introduced by appropriate 
editorial comment, published for the information of the public : 

" There are now no postmasters of the United States, in the seceded States, authorized 
to sell stamps or collect postage, since the 1st of June, for this government. Postmasters, 
therefore, must treat all matter since the 1st of June coming from the seceded States, and 
mailed within these States, as unpaid matter to be held for postage. All such matter is 
ordered to be sent to the dead letter office at Washington to be disposed of according 
to law." 

In the issue of the following day, June 14, 1861, the following appeared 

as an editorial paragraph : 

" In consequence of the retention and improper use of postage stamps by delinquent 
postmasters in some of the seceded States, the Postmaster General has ordered a new stamped 
envelope, which will be ready for use in a few days, and that by the 1st of August there 
will be a new stamp with devices altogether different from the present." 

In August, 1861, the following circular letter was sent to postmasters 
throughout the country : 

Post Office Department. 



Postmaster. 



FINANCE OFFICE. 



.1861. 



Sir : You will receive herewith a supply of postage stamps which you will observe 
are of a new style, differing both in design and color from those hitherto used, and having 
the letters U. S. in the lower corners of each stamp, and its respective denomination indicated 
by figures as well as letters. You will immediately give public notice through the news- 
papers and otherwise, that you are prepared to exchange stamps of the new style for an 
equivalent amount of the old issue, during a period of six days from the date of the notice, 
and that the latter will not thereafter be received in payment of postage on letters sent from 
your office. 

You will satisfy yourself by personal inspection that stamps offered in exchange have 
not been used through the mails or otherwise ; and if in any case you have good grounds 
for suspecting that stamps, presented to you for exchange, were sent from any of the disloyal 
states, you will not receive them without due investigation. 

Immediately after the expiration of the above period of six days, you will return to 
the Third Assistant Postmaster General all stamps of the old style in your possession, includ- 
ing such as you may obtain by exchange, placing them in a secure package, which must be 



Historical. 



iuiiouacemeDt of 
tlie 1S61 issne. 



Kedemption of 
stamps of tlie 
1S57-60 issue. 



82 



ISSUE OF i86r. 



Authority to declare 
stamps invalid. 



carefully registered in the manner prescribed by Chapter 39, of the Regulations of this 
Department. 

Be careful also to write legibly the name of your office as well as that of your county 
and state. A strict compliance with the foregoing instructions is absolutely necessary, that 
you may not fail to obtain credit for the amouut of stamps returned. 

Instead of sending stamps to the Department you can, if convenient, exchange them 
for new ones at some city post office, where large supplies are to be found. It being 
impossible to supply all offices with new stamps at once, you will deliver letters received from 
Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, Maryland and Pennsylvania, prepayed by stamps 
of the old issue, until September loth, those from other loyal stales east of the Rocky 
Mountains until the first of October, and those from the states of California and Oregon and . 
from the Territories of New Mexico, Utah and Washington, until the first of November, 1861. 

Your Obedient Servant, 

A. N. Zevely, 
Third Assistant Postmaster General. 

In a subsequent order the dates specified in the last paragraph of the 
Extension of time foregoing circular were extended to November ist, i86r, December ist, 1861, 
for redemption, g^jjjj January ist, 1862 for the respective sections. 

The question of the authority of the Postmaster General to declare the 
stamps of the 1857 issue obsolete and invalid for postal purposes has been 
much discussed. The action met with public approval at the time and was, 
presumably, within his province. The acts of Congress did not restrict him 
to the employment of any particular designs for stamps or require their con- 
tinuance in use after adoption, thus, constructively, leaving all such details to 
his discretion. The dicta of the head of a department, on matters placed 
within his control, have the authority of law, unless they are in conflct with a 
provision of the Constitution or of the statutes of the United States. 

It is curious that the order of the Postmaster General seems to have 

applied only to the adhesive stamps and not to the stamped envelopes then 

current. No mention of envelopes is made in the official circular quoted 

above. A correspondent of the Stamp Collectors Magazine says, in the number 

for August, 1867 : 

"We do not think that the i860 envelopes were outlawed, though they of course 
soon gave place to the new issue of 1861, but upon this point we are not certain. We know 
that the one cent envelope and wrapper were never thus treated, however, but when the 
lowest rate of postage (newspapers and drop letters) was raised from ic to 2c in 1863, the 
stock on hand was sold to applicants for two cent wrappeis or envelopes, the value being 
completed by the addition of a ic adhesive to each ic wrapper or envelope. When the stock 
of the old series was thus got rid of, thgnew ic value was supplied. No more of the ic 
envelopes were printed, but they have alwtys been, and to-d;iy are, recognized at their face 
value whenever offered." 

The report of the Postmaster General, dated December 2nd, i86r, 
gives additional information concerning the changes in the postage stamps : 

The contract for the manufacture of postage stamps having expired on the loth of 
June, 1861, a new one was entered into with the National Bank Note Company of New York, 
upon terms very advantageous to the Department, from which there will result an annual 
sav'ng of more than thirty per cent, in the cost of the stamps. 

In order to prevent the fraudulent use of the large quantity of stamps remaining 
unaccounted for, in the hands of postnuTsters in the disloyal states, it was deemed advisable 
to change the design and the color of those manufactured under the new contract, and also 
to modify the design of the stamp upon the stamped envelope, and to substitute as soon as 
possible the new for the old issues. It was the design of the Department that the distribution 
of the new stamps and envelopes should commence on the fust of August, but, from un- 
avoidable del.ays, that of the latter did not take place until the 1 5th of that month. 

The number of postage stamps of the new style issued up to the 9th of November was 
77,ii7,S20 and the number of new stamped envelopes, 8,0')Q,65O. All post offices in the 
loyal states with the exception of certain offices in Kentucky and Missouri, have been 
supplied therewith Those of the old issue have been exchanged and superseded. The old 
stamps on hand, and such as were received by exchange, at the larger offices, have been to 



EnTelopes not de- 
clared invalid. 



Report of Postmaster 
General. 



ISSUE OF 1861. 83 

a great extent counted and destroyed, and those of the smaller offices returned to the Depart- 
ment. It is proper to state that, in anticipation of the substitution of the new stamps and 
envelopes for the old issue, but limited supplies of the latter were sent to postmasters during 
June and July, so that the amount thereof remaining in their hands was comparatively small. 
The additional expense incurred by the change is very inconsiderable, in view of the 
greatly dimished cost of the new stamps as compared with that of the old, while the 
prevention thereby of the use of stamps unaccounted for in the hands of disloyal postmasters 
saves the Department from severe loss. Although the enumeration and destruction of the 
old stamps and envelopes is not yet completed, there is ample evidence that few received in 
exchange were sent from disloyal States. 

In this connection an extract from a proclamation of John H. Reagan, 

ex-Postmaster General of the Confederate States, dated May 13th, 1861, is 

also of interest : 

" All postmasters are hereby required to render to the Post-office Department at 
Washington, D. C, their final accounts and their vouchers for postal receipts and expendi- Confederate 

tures, up to the 31st day of this month, taking care to forward with said accounts all postage Postmaster General 

stamps and stamped envelopes remaining on hand, belonging to the Post Office Department orders TJ. S. stamps 
of the United States, in order that they may receive the proper credits therefore, in the retnmed. 

adjustment of their accounts." 

It would be interesting to know the result of this order. It is doubtful 
if, in the disturbed state of the country, it was obeyed to any extent. How- 
ever, at a period long subsequent to 1861, there were in the Post Office Remainders. 
Department a large quantity of the stamps of the 1857-60 issue. It is under- 
stood that the majority of these had been found in Southern post offices, 
after the war, and returned to Washington. We know that one prominent 
dealer acquired 2,000 complete sets by indirect purchase. Another well- 
known dealer was presented with 1,800 sets, in return for his assistance in 
arranging the government collection of stamps. All these sets were in full 
sheets. There is no available record of the number of stamps returned to the 
Department by postmasters or of those destroyed. 

By act of Congress, approved March 3rd, i86i, the Act of March 3rd, 
1851, was amended to require the rate of ten cents, prepaid, on all letters from increase in rate to 
points east of the Rocky Mountains to any state or territory on the Pacific *''* P*"*"*! Coast. 
Coast and vice versa. Postage on all drop letters was required to be pre-paid 
by means of stamps. 

The same portraits and busts were used on the stamps of the 1861 
issue as on the corresponding values of the 1857 issue. They were, howeveri 
newly engraved and the surrounding devices were of entirely new designs. 

The official description of the designs is as follows : 

" One cent. Profile head of Franklin, looking to the right, in an ellipse 
as large as could be placed upon the stamp, viz., i by ^ inch. The entire 
ground within the enclosure is formed of lathe-work. The outer three- Designs, 

sixteenths of an inch of this space is more open. The upper corner spaces 
contain the Arabic figure ' i ', and the lower the white capital letters ' u ' 
and 's' in the left and right, respectively — all four corners having ornate 
surroundings. The words ' v. s. postage ' are placed above and ' one 
CENT ' below the bust, following the curvature of the elliptic lathe-work upon 
which they rest. The portrait is probably intended as a copy from Rubricht. 

Three cents. . A profile of Washington, looking to the left, rests upon 
an oblong tablet of lathe-work, which is scarcely separated from the rest of 
the stamp by a border of lighter work of the same character, The entire 



84 ISSUE OF 1 86 1. 

ground of the stamp, except touches at and near the outer corners, is of 
this machine design. The large Arabic figure ' 3 ' appears in the upper 
corners, and between them, in two lines, are 'u. s.' and 'postage', the latter 
word taking the curve of the head close below. At the bottom, also in two 
lines of white capitals, are the words ' three ' and ' cents ', the ends of the 
lines tending upward. In the lower corners are the Gothic capitals ' u ' and 
' s ', of the same size as the figures ; all four are white, except slight tracery 
near the middle of each. 

Five cents. A portrait of Jefferson rests upon a cross-hatched 
elliptical tablet 17-32 by 43-64 of an inch. This is surrounded by a border 
of lathe-work, principally in a triple line design, reaching the limits of the 
stamp and giving the general outline of a parallelogram, though the comers 
are rounded, and midway of each side it swells outward. A large white 
Arabic figure ' S ' is placed in each of the upper corners, and resting on each 
end of the line ' u. s. postage ', which rises in the middle to surmount the 
upper curve of the tablet. Similar white capitals form the words ' five 
cents', below the tablet, and the Gothic capitals 'u' and ' s ', slightly 
distorted, are placed in the lower corners. 

Ten cents. The head of Washington is upon a hatched ground whose 
cross lines are almost imperceptible, and is enclosed by four small white stars 
on each side, with the words ' u. s. postage ' above and ' ten cents ' 
below. There are five more stars at the top of the stamp. The number 
'10', in Arabic figures, is placed in each upper corner, in an appropriate 
inclosure of ornamental design, and the white capitals ' u ' and ' s ' are seen 
in the left and right lower corners, respectively. 

Twelve cents. The face of Washington is placed upon a cross- 
hatched elliptical ground ]4hy Vs, inch, which is surrounded to the edge of 
the stamp by a very fine geometrical design, with a serrated outer white line, 
edged with a black hair line and the trace of an ornament in the middle of 
each side, with a larger one at each corner, outside the lines mentioned. The 
number ' 12 ' in Arabic figures, inclined as in the 2 cent stamp, is placed in 
each upper corner, with ' u. s. postage ' between, bordering the medallion 
line. Below, in the corners, are the white capitals ' u.' and ' s.' with the 
words 'twelve cents' just below the medallion line and rising at each end 
above the ' u.' and ' s.' The portrait is the same as that on the 10 cent stamp. 

Twenty-four cents. The portrait is the smallest in the series, and 
inclosed by very fine lathe-work ^ of an inch wide, the general outline of 
which is irregularly hexagonal. On each outer side, above the middle line, 
are four small five-pointed stars, enlarged in size from the lowest one up. At 
the top are three more stars, the smallest one in the middle. To the right 
and left of these, in the corners, and within an elliptical space, are the white 
faced and shaded Arabic numerals ' 24 ' inclined slightly to the left and 
right. In each lower corner is a large five-pointed star, completing the 
thirteen ; upon the left of these is the letter ' u ', and upon the right ' s ', 
tending inward at the top. Curled-leaf ornaments above and at the side of 
these stars complete the principal features of the stamp. The portrait ground 
is cross lined vertically and horizontally, 



ISSUE OF 1 86 1. 85 

Thirty cents. The portrait is inclosed in a circle 21-32 of an inch 
in diameter. The background of this space is obliquely cross lined at right 
angles. The inscriptions ' u. s. postage ' above and ' thirty cents ' below 
the circle, followed it closely ; the number ' 30 ' leans outward in the upper 
corners, and the white capital letters ' u ' and ' s ' in the lower left and right 
hand corners, respectively, incline inward. Around the sides are scroll-work 
ornamentations. 

Ninety cents. The portrait stands upon a background similar to 
that of the 5, 12 and 15 cent stamps. The border, about 3-32 of an inch 
wide, is crossed with rays. The outer line of this border rises at the top to a 
Gothic apex. The denomination numerals ' 90 ' appear at each side of the 
tablet, on its border, one-fourth of an inch from its highest point. Across 
the top of the stamp, upon an independent pennant tablet, whose ends fall 
about the border, are the words ' u. s. postage ', in white shaded capitals. 
The words ' ninety ' and ' cents ' are upon the left and right lower quarters 
of the border, which rests upon branches of oak and laurel tied with a small 
ribbon. The extreme lower corners are filled with the letters ' u ' and ' s ' 
in the left and right, respectively." 

The dimensions of the stamps are: One cent, I9}^x25mm.; three 
cents, 20x25mm.; five cents, 20^x25 ^mm.; ten cents, 2o^x24j^mm. ; sizes, 

twelve cents, I9j4x24^mm.; twenty-four cents, I9^x24mm.; thirty cents, 
20X24j^mm.; ninety cents, I9j^x24^mm. 

The issue of 1861 may be divided into two sections. They are, how- 
ever, so intimately related and, with two exceptions, vary so slightly in design 
that it is difficult to consider them separately. The first section, usually premierei grarurei. 
referred to as the premiires gravures, was issued in the early part of August, 
1 86 1. The 14th of that month is usually given as the date of issue, though I 
have not found the authority for the statement. It may, possibly, have been 
deduced from a paragraph in the report of the Postmaster General just quoted, 
which says : " It was the design of the Department that the distribution of 
the new stamps and envelopes should commence on the first of August, but, 
from unavoidable delays, that of the latter did not take place until the 15th 
of that month." The most which can be asserted, on this authority, is that 
the stamps were issued previous to the isth of the month but not on the 1st, 
as originally intended. The three and twelve cents of this series present a 
decidedly unfinished look, especially at the corners. Philatelists have long 
been familiar with these two values but, used specimens not being known, 
they were regarded as essays. The other values differ so slightly from the 
ordinary types that they escaped notice for thirty-five years. The discovery 
of the earlier variety of the ten cents lead to the study of the whole series and 
the eventual discovery of the complete set of the first types. 

The first designs did not give full satisfaction and improvements were 
ordered. These were quite extensive on the three and twelve cents but very 
slight on most of the other values. So far as known no changes, beyond Alterations, 
those of color, were made in the twenty-four and thirty cents. Altering the 
designs and making new plates involved a considerable delay. Meantime the 
need of new stamps was urgent. To meet this demand, it was found necessary 



86 



ISSUE OF 1861. 



Date of iBsne of 
second series. 



Types of the first 
aud second series. 



to issue the stamps of the first types. The scarcity of these varieties proves 
that this issue was restricted as much as possible. The first stamp to be 
issued in the altered design was, naturally, the three cents, that being the 
ordinary rate of postage and, consequently, the value most in demand. A 
copy of this stamp is known cancelled August 18th, 1861, four days after the 
date of issue assigned to the stamps of the first types. Several other values 
are known cancelled in that month. So far, used copies of the one, thirty 
and ninety cents have not been reported. When it was first discovered that 
this issue was composed of two series, it was believed that the stamps of the 
second types were not ready for use until September, 1861, and the two series 
were designated as the August and September issues, respectively. But from 
the information supplied by the cancellations we perceive that these titles are 
incorrect and must be abandoned. 

The differences between the first and second types may be described 
as follows : 





One cent. From the numerals in the upper corners arabesque orna- 
ments extend downward and also across the top, resting upon the curved 
frame-line of the stamp. The extreme tip of the upper left-hand ornament 
is directly above the " p " of " postage ". In the first type this tip rests upon 
the curved line but does not extend below it. In the second type there is a 
strong dash under the tip and below the line. Other, though lighter, dashes 
appear further down the curve, above the " s " and opposite the " v " of " u. s." 
There are also shading lines under the upper ornament on the right. None 
of these marks appear in the first type. The vertical shadings in the corner 
spaces which enclose the numerals and the letters " u " and " s '' are increased 
in the second type. 





Three cents. The first type of this stamp is probably better known 
to collectors than any other value in the set. Outside the irregular rectangle 
of lathe-work there are only some trifling ornaments and the stamp looks bare 
and unfinished. In the second type this has been remedied by the use of 
more elaborate ornaments, especially at the corners, which have been built 
out so that the outline of the design is now approximately rectangular. 





ISSUE OF 1861. 87 

Five cents. The two types of this stamp differ but little. The 
delicate, leaf-like ornaments at the corners lack, in the first type, the leaflet 
(if we may so term it), which projects farthest. 





Ten cents. In the upper part of the stamps are five white stars on a 
background of ruled lines. The background is separated from the label con- 
taining " u. s. POSTAGE ", by a curved white line. In the second type a heavy 
line of color has been cut along the lower ends of the background lines, 
above and following the curve of the white line. An outer line has also been 
added to all the ornaments above the stars. 





Twelve cents. The first type of this stamp differs so materially from 
the second, that, at first glance, one scarcely recognizes it as a prototype. 
There is nothing outside the mat of lathe-work except a thin wavy line follow- 
ing the outline. In appearance it is even more unfinished than the three 
cents of the first type. To make the second type, small ovals and arabesques 
were added at each corner and little scrolls at the sides. These additions, as 
in the case of the three cents, make the outline of the stamp about rectangular. 

No variations have been found in the twenty-four and thirty cent 
stamps. As there was but one plate for each value, it is not probable that 
any changes were made in the designs. The colors of the first printing differ 
very decidedly from those of the ordinary stamps. A few slight retouches 
may be found on some of the twenty-four cent stamps, but they probably 
indicate a late touching up of the plate, rather than alterations in the die. 





Ninety cents. Above the ribbon with " u. s. postage " the lines of 
the frame meet in an obtuse angle, made by parallel lines of color, separated 
by a white space about one-half millimetre wide. To form the second type 
a strong point of color was added at the apex of the lower lines of the angle 
and a series of little dashes drawn through the center of the white space, 
making a broken line of color, between and parallel to the other lines. On 
many of the stamps this broken line is too faint to be seen, but the colored 
point usually stands out clearly. The leaf beside the " u " in the lower left 



88 



ISSUE OF 1861. 



grararea. 



Reference List. 



corner has been recut and now has vertical instead of horizontal lines of 
shading. If, instead of these trifling marks, something more elaborate had 
been added to fill out the very bare upper part of the stamp, the improvement 
in its appearance would have been greater. 

Beyond doubt the eye is best pleased by stamps whose outlines fill out 
a rectangle. The designers of our earlier stamps either failed to appreciate 
this idea or to carry it out. Thus we find in many of the stamps of the older 
issues an unsatisfactory bareness and lack of completeness, notably at the 
corners. On the other hand, many of our later issues appear painfully plain 
and lacking in variety when compared with the graceful designs and elaborate 
ornamentation of the earlier issues. 

The paper of the premiires gravures is very thin, hard and extremely 

brittle. The stamps are easily cracked, unless handled very carefully. The 

Characteristics of paper is also quite transparent and much of the designs may be seen from 

the premieres the backs of the Stamps. The gum is very dark brown, sometimes staining 

the paper. The colors are very dark and rich and the ink heavily applied, 

occasionally giving a blurred appearance, though, as a rule, the impressions 

are very fine and clear. 

First Types. 

Very Thin Yellowish-white Wove Paper. 
Perforated 12. 
Aug. 14th, 1 86 1. I cent indigo 

3 cents brownish lake, lake 
5 cents orange-brown 
10 cents dark yellow-green, dark green 
12 cents gray-black 
24 cents violet, deep violet 
30 cents red-orange 
go cents slate-blue 

Varieties : 
3 cents brownish lake. Imperforate 
90 cents slate blue. Imperforate 

The three cents has been seen printed in pink, scarlet and carmine- 
lake, but it is not probable that it was ever issued in these colors. 

It is probable that most of the stamps of the second types made their 
appearance early in September, 186 r. The dates given in the following list 
are those of the earliest cancellations which I have been able to discover. 
The alterations in the types were accompanied by pronounced changes in the 
colors of the stamps. 

The paper is still thin but tougher than in the preceding group. The 
gum is very dark brown as before. 

Second Types. 
Thin White Wove Paper. 
Perforated 12. 
I cent deep dull blue 
3 cents pink, bright rose 



Color varieties. 



Reference List. 



June 4th, 1862. 
Aug. 1 8th, 1861. 



ISSUE OF I 86 1. 



89 



Aug. 30th, 1 861. 

Sept. 20th, 1861. 

Oct. 8th, 1 86 1 
Sept. 1 6th, 1 86 1. 



S cents pale buff, deep buff, brownish yellow, deep brown- 
ish yellow, mustard, olive-yellow 
10 cents dark green 
12 cents full black 
24 cents slate 
30 cents pale orange 
90 cents marine blue 



Variety : 

3 cents bright rose. Imperforate 

In the course of time many other changes in the colors took place, 
some of them at a comparatively early period. A few dates of early can- 
cellations are given. The paper varies from thin to quite thick and the gum 
from brown to yellowish white. 

White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 

I cent pale dull blue, dull blue, gray-blue, slate-blue, pale 
blue, blue, bright blue, Prussian blue, chalky blue, 
ultramarine, deep ultramarine 
3 cents pale rose, rose (Feb. 28th, 1862), rose-red, deep 
rose-red, brownish rose, pale brown-red, brown- 
red, dull red, carmine-lake, orange-red, scarlet 
5 cents red-brown (June 23rd, 1862), dark red-brown, 
brick red, orange-brown, yellow brown, brown 
(April 10th, 1863), bistre-brown, gray-brown, dark 
brown, black-brown (July 18th, 1863) 

10 cents pale yellow-green, yellow-green (Sept. 4th, 1863), 
dark yellow-green, blue-green (Dec. 21st, 1863) 

12 cents gray black, gray 

24 cents violet, black-violet, brown-violet, lilac, gray-lilac 
(Aug. nth, 1863), gray, red-lilac, deep red-lilac 

30 cents orange, deep orange 

90 cents pale blue, blue, dark blue, bright blue, indigo 



Varieties . 



Imperforate 

Imperforate 

Imperforate 

Impression on the reverse 

Imperforate 



3 cents carmine-lake. 
3 cents scarlet. 
3 cents rose. 
30 cents orange 

The Stamp Collectors Magazine for April, 1867, says the color of the 
5 cents was changed from yellowish to brown in March, 1862. 

I have seen two copies of the 90 cents in a pale ultramarine shade. I 
am inclined to think that they are changelings. 

Many philatelists have claimed that the three cents scarlet is only a 
finished proof. But the fact remains that it was on sale in at least one post 



Color Tarieties. 



>iiiety cents 
ultramariue. 



90 



ISSUE OF I 86 1. — ISSUE OF 1 863. 



office. Mr. J. W. Scott kindly supplies the following information concerning 
this stamp. The first copy which he saw was on a letter coming from New 
Three cents scarlet. Orleans. As the shade was unusual he desired some of the stamps for his 
stock. Finding they were not on sale at the New York Post Office, he sent 
a dollar to the Postmaster at New Orleans and received its equivalent in 
stamps of the desired shade. These he sold to his customers at about twenty- 
five cents each. Subsequently he sent three dollars to New Orleans and 
received in return an entire sheet of one hundred of the stamps. On sending 
the third time his order was filled with the three cents rose. This would 
certainly appear to be conclusive evidence of the issue of this stamp in the 
regular way. 

Issue of 1863. 



Design. 



Reference List. 



The Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 1863, abolished carriers' 
fees and established a prepaid rate of two cents for drop letters. This made 
necessary the issue of a stamp of corresponding value, which took place on 
July ist of that year. 

The official description of this stamp is as follows : 

" Two CENTS. A full face of Andrew Jackson fills the entire tablet, 
which is as wide as the stamp, three-fourths of an inch, and only one-sixteenth 
less in its long diameter than the stamp, fifteen-sixteenths of an inch, space 
being left at the top for the words ' u. s. postage ' above the elliptical 
ground, which is cros-hatched. The word ' two ' and the distorted capital 
' u ' in black fill the left lower corner, the word ' cents ' and a distorted 
capital ' s ' the right. An Arabic ' 2 ' in white is placed in each upper 
corner, inclined outward towards the left and right, respectively, and resting 
upon small black disks. Appropriate scroll decorations complete the upper 
part. The face of Jackson on this stamp is probably after the portrait by 
Dodge." 

The stamp measures 20^x24j^mm. The paper varies from thin to 
quite thick and the gum from brownish to almost white. 

White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 

July 1st, 1863. 2 cents gray-black, greenish black, full black 

Varieties : 

2 cents gray-black. Imperforate vertically 

2 cents gray-black. Horizontal half, used as one cent 

2 cents gray-black. Diagonal half and another copv, 

used as three cents 
2 cents gray-black. Vertical half and another copy, used 

as three cents 

Most of the bisected stamps bear the cancellations of small towns in 
New York and Connecticut with dates from June to October, 1866. I have 
also heard of a copy cancelled in Butler, Pa., in July, 1864. 



ISSUE OF 1863. — ISSUE OF 1866. 



91 



At some date between April, 1862, and August, 1867, several values of 
the 1861-63 series were issued on thin laid paper, similar to that used for the 
document revenues. The stamps are found on paper with the vergures close 
together and wide apart and also placed both vertically and horizontally. 

White Laid Paper. 

Perforated 12. 



stamps on laid 
paper. 



Reference List. 



stamps. 



1 cent deep blue 

2 cents gray-black 
April 12th, 1862. 3 cents dull rose, rose 

5 cents brown 

The two and three cent stamps of this series are occasionally found on 
brown paper and are known to collectors as the "Francis patent" stamps. A 
lengthy account of this patent and the stamps made under it was given in the "Francis patent' 
Metropolitan Philatelist for December, 1897. The patent was granted to Dr. 
S. W. Francis, of New York city, and its principal features were soaking the 
paper in an alkaline fluid, which turned it brown, and cancellation by means 
of a small sponge, saturated with some acid and attached to the thumb. A 
touch of this sponge, when handling the letters, would obliterate the stamp. 
On all cancelled copies which I have seen the color of the paper has been 
turned to a deep blue. 

By order of the Third Assistant Postmaster General the National Bank 
Note Co. prepared 10,000 of these stamps. As the Post Office Department 
wished a report from a postmaster upon the practicability of the invention, 
some of the stamps were sent to Newport, R. 1., for experiment. Under date 
of March 30th, 1865, the postmaster at Newport wrote to Dr. Francis : 

" I have this day personally tested your method of cancelling postage stamps. After 
thorough and systematic experiments, 1 feel it due you to certify hereby to the valuableness 
of your invention. I shall communicate- with the Hon. Third Assistant Postmaster General 
of my experiments." 

This letter is not at all conclusive as to the actual sale to the public or 
the use of the stamps. Yet it would appear that ^a thorough test of the merits 
of the invention could not otherwise have been attained. A mere demon- 
stration of the efficacy of the cancellation could have been made by any 
one and at any time. I am inclined to believe that the stamps were used for 
a short time and to a limited extent. 



Brown Wove Paper. 
Perforated 12. 

2 cents deep black 

3 cents dull brown-red 

Issue of 1866. 



Reference List. 



The Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 1863, also conferred on 
the Postmaster General the power to fix the registration fee at such rate as 
he should deem best, provided it did not, in any case, exceed twenty cents. 



Reg:lstration, 



92 



ISSUES or 1861-66. 



In 1866 the rate was fixed at fifteen cents, which made necessary the 
issue of a stamp of like value. It is officially described as follows : 

" Fifteen cents. The portrait of Lincoln appears upon a cross- 
hatched elliptical ground 9-16 by % of an inch. On each side of this are 
Design. fasces, and above are the words ' u. s. postage ' in white capitals upon a 

tablet curled at each end, and encircling the number ' 15 '; in Arabic figures, 
in each upper corner ; the figures lean outward to the right and left and back- 
ward. At the bottom, the words 'fifteen cents' in similar letters to those 
above and on a like ground, except that the latter terminates abruptly at the 
ends when reaching the fasces. The letters 'u. s.' in the lower corners 
are in bold-faced white capitals, the letters leaning to correspond with the 
numerals in the upper corners." 

The stamp measures I9^x24^mm. 

The paper is moderately thick and the gum ranges in color from 

brownish to white. 
Reference liist. White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 

April 15th, 1866. 15 cents full black, gray-black 



Plates and 
imprints. 



Plate numbers. 



The Stamps of the issues of 1861-66 were engraved and printed by the 
National Bank Note Co., New York. The plates each contained two hundred 
stamps, arranged in two panes — ten rows of ten stamps each — placed side by 
side and usually separated by a vertical line, which served as a guide when 
the sheets were cut apart. Most of the plates bore the imprint of the engravers 
at the center of the top, outside edge (before severing) and bottom of each 
pane. So far as known \ht premieres gravures had the imprint at the bottom 
only, which was also the case with a few of the later plates. The imprints at 
the top and sides were "national bank note co., new vork " in small 
white capitals, on a small colored panel with rounded ends, surrounded by 
two thin colored lines. The imprint at the bottom was " national bank 
note company " in very small white capitals, framed in a rectangle of pearls, 
on a panel of solid color. At the left of the panel were the words "engraved 
BY THE " and at the right "city of new-york.", all in large colored capitals. 

Below the panel were " No. Plate " in outline letters, with the plate number 

between the words. The number was separately engraved and appears in at 
least two styles of type. 

The numbers of the plates were as follows : 

Issue of- 1861. — First Types. 



I cent 


No. 


I. 


3 cents 


No. 


2. 


5 cents 


No. 


3- 


10 cents 


No. 


4- 


12 cents 


No. 


S- 


24 cents 


No. 


6. 


30 cents 


No. 


7- 


90 cents 


No. 


8. 



ISSUES OF r86i-66. 93 

Issue of 1861. — Second Types. 

1 cent No. 9, 10, 22, 25, 27. 

3 cents No. 11, 12, 13, 14, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24,32,33, 

34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 
49, 52, 54, 55- 
5 cents No. 17. 

10 cents No. 15, 26. 

12 cents No. 16. 

24 cents No. 6. 

30 cents No. 7. 

90 cents No. 18. 

Issues of 1863 and 1866. 

2 cents No. 28, 29, 30, 3r, 50, 51, 53. 
15 cents No. 41. 

The numbers 38, 39 and 40, which are missing from the sequence, are 
those of the stamps for newspapers and periodicals, issued in 1865. Numbers 
56, 57, 58, 59 and 60, quoted in previous lists of plate numbers, belong to 
new plates made for the re-issue of 1875 ^^^ ^^^ to the original series. The 
three cents pink was printed from plate 12, the three cents scarlet from plate 
19, the three cents carmine-lake from plate 34, the imperforate stamps of the 
last shade from plate 52, and the imperforate three cents rose from plate 11. 
On January 23rd, 1867, one hundred sets of the ten denominations of 
this issue were surcharged " Specimen " in " Old English " type. On February 
28th, 1867, the same surcharge was applied to twenty thousand more sets. 
This was done by order of the Third Assistant Postmaster General. A few 
copies have been seen with the final letter of the surcharge inverted. 

The records of the Stamp Agent show that the following quantities of 
stamps were printed and delivered by the contractors. It will be noted that 
the earliest date is August i6th, 1861, which is later than the accepted date 
of issue. It is scarcely probable that any such amount of stamps were printed 
on the date given, but rather that they were the product of several previous 
days, placed on record on that date : 

186 1 I cent. 2 cents, 3 cents. 5 cents 10 cents. 

Aug. 16 7,623,000 3,281,000 32,600 87,800 

" 17 620,500 1,726,000 18,100. 50,800 

" 20 368,000 945,000 16,400 50,200 

" 22 14,000 81,000 1,500 12,800 

" 24 572,000 1,451,500 18,540 339,600 

" 28 705,003 1,430,000 6,900 39,900 

" 29 497,000 928,000 28,100 26,200 

" 31 320,400 540,000 4,8co 15,500 

Sept. I to Nov. 29- 12,577,900 40,752,500 196,340 1,136,590 

Nov. 29 to Dec. 31 3,838,500 12,596,000 92,500 24r,ioo 

1862 47,548,800 182,559,8201,858,220 4,347,040 

1863 36,930,400 28,15 r, 500 243,977,700 992,400 3,226,250 

1864 1,453,570 50.5 '4,900 314,942,400 963,840 3,672,500 



" Specimen " 
stamps. 



Statistics of 
manufacture. 



g. ISSUES OF 1861-66. 

I cent. 2 cents. 3 cents. 5 cents. 10 cents. 

1865 4,5'!S,700 50,098,500 304,914,550 1,204,820 4,025,200 

1866 7,843,800 51,146,500 288,912,0001134,260 4,135,660 

1867 10,330,000 58,046,700 294,818,700 949,760 4,478,890 
Jan. to Mch. 1868 3,774,400 18,607,900 78,802,700 262,300 r, 573,810 

Apl. tojune " 222,920 

July to Sept. " 168,820 

Total, 133,542,970 256,566,000 1,772,658,870 8,173,120 27,459,840 

jgg[ 12 cents. 15 cents. 24 cents. 30 cents. 90 cents 

Aug. 16 39,750 28,250 18,260 3,500 

" 17 25,200 17,100 10,950 550 



20 



32,700 12,550 8,700 



" 22 1,300 1,200 500 

" 24 51,700 65,500 5,430 50 

" 28 12,400 .... ... 81,000 35,000 100 

" 29 900 12,050 '5,050 

" 3 1 8,900 9,6'oo 4,600 700 

Sept. I to Nov. 29 295,525 219,925 7 ',240 4, '40 

Nov. 29 to Dec. 31 57,300 74,050 31,280 5S,6oo 

1862 773,800 817,250 338,950 14,830 

1863 723,570 1,090,925 320,800 29,970 

1864 1,094,325 1,706,825 513,360 41,840 

1865 960,27s 1,843,340 522,830 64,860 

1866 938,850 578,460 1,969,875 579,580 69,320 

1867 1,193,775 1,256,900 1,898,850 534,460 72,670 
Jan. to Mch. 1868 955,800 303,94° 110,425 73,620 8,280 

Apl. tojune " 43,425 83,910 7,630 

July to Sept. " 54,850 55,890 10,880 

Total, 7,166,070 2,139,300 10,056,990 3,224,410 384,920 

Beyond doubt a part of the stamps printed in the year 1867 were 
embossed with grills, since stamps so treated were issued in August of that 
year. The records for the two succeeding years carefully specify the respec- 
tive quantities of stamps of each value which were and were not embossed. 
But the records for 1867 are silent on this subject. The statistics just quoted 
are, therefore, misleading, inasmuch as they would lead us to infer that all 
stamps printed in 1867 were without embossing, while we have knowledge to 
the contrary. 

The annual reports of the Postmaster General give the following 
quantities of stamps as having been issued to deputy postmasters from July 
ist, 1861, to June 30th, 1867. It must be remembered that a few stamps of 
the 1857 series may have been issued in July and the early part of August, 
1 86 1, and that stamps without embossing were issued later than June 30th, 
1867. The figures of these reports are, therefore, only approximate and not 
exact : 



ISSUES OF 1861-66. 95 



Sta 


imps issued d 


uring the nsca 


il year ending 


June 30th, 18 


;62: 


Deliveries to 
postmasters. 






Quarter Ending: 










Sept. 30, 1861. 


Dec. 31, 1861. 


Mch. 31, 1862. 


June 30, 1862. 


Total. 




I cent 


14,092,800 


16,416,400 


15.346,850 


14,165,800 


*6o,02I,250 




3 cents 


32,570,400 


51,122,100 


51,203,650 


48,844,100 


183,740,250 




S cents 


312,780 


288,840 


242,040 


185,640 


1,029,300 




10 cents 


1,143,140 


1,477,690 


792,090 


645.530 


4,058,450 




12 cents 


374,925 


352.825 


181,875 


137.125 


1,046,750 




24 cents 


3 '4,325 


293.97s 


193.250 


182,575 


984,125 




30 cents 


>55.'6o 


102,520 


68,100 


70,160 


396,040 




90 cents 


13,810 


9.740 


2.370 


5.020 


30,940 





Whole number of stamps 251,307,105. Value $7,078,188.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1863 : 
Quarter Ending: 



( 


5ept. 30, 1862. 


Dec, 31, 1862. 


Mch. 3T, 1863. 


June 30, 1863. 


Total. 


I cent 


■ 9,810,000 


13.563,700 


18,986,300 


16,494,000 


68,854,000 


3 cents 


79,213,100 


54,502,900 


63,910,000 


61,367,400 


258,993,400 


5 cents 


1,255,120 


417,460 


283,860 


262,580 


2,219,020 


10 cents 


2.543.670 


1,157,840 


1,072,600 


932,040 


5.676,150 


12 cents 


436,200 


200,475 


197,050 


160,950 


994,67s 


24 cents 


424,375 


210,300 


242,550 


267,125 


1.144.350 


30 cents 


214,500 


54,290 


75,040 


90,220 


434,050 


90 cents 


6,560 


3.250 


I ',370 


3,560 


24.740 


Whole number of stamps 338, 


,340,385. Value $9,683,394. 


00. 


Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1864 : 






Quarter Ending: 








Sept. 30, 1863. 


Dec. 31, 1863. 


Mch. 31, 1864. 


June 30, 1864. 


Total. 


I cent 


959.930 


490.700 


289,100 


356,600 


2,096,300 


2 cents 


16,562,600 


11,588,900 


13,469,700 


12,153,900 


53,775.100 


3 cents 


56,767,600 


62,333,200 


74,481,000 


78,056,100 


271,637,900 


5 cents 


266,660 


179,300 


263,440 


195,600 


905,000 


10 cents 


589,580 


662,030 


897,160 


770,460 


2,9'9.23o 


12 Cents 


170.325 


T95.250 


314,200 


196,750 


876.525 


24 cents 


257,025 


324,225 


413,150 


4'9,S25 


1.413,925 


30 cents 


69,570 


85,970 


133,860 


106,500 


395.900 


90 cents 


6,400 


8,640 


10,800 


8,890 


34,730 



Whole number of stamps 334,054,610. Value $10,177,327.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1865 : 
Quarter Ending: 

Sept. 30, 1864. Dec. 31, 1864. Mch. 31, 1865. June 30, 1865. Total. 

1 cent 345,300 462,700 175,200 ,,137,600 2,120,800 

2 cents 11,930,500 12,960,300 14,477,250 12,381,200 *49,749,25o 

3 cents 83,151,200 79,388,600 85,933,850 78,039,300 326,512,950 
S cents 303,120 247,180 275,340 381,440 *i, 207,180 



^6 ISSUES OF T 861-66. 

Sept. 30, 1864. Dec. 31, 1864. Mch. 31, 1865. June 30, 1865. Total. 

10 cents 1,049,040 955,34° 1,100,640 1,061,440 4,166,460 

12 cents 307,425 275,450 32',9°o 3 '0,85° 1,216,625 

24 cents 454,575 4i9,o7S 480,300 454,4oo 1,808,350 

30 cents 140,540 131,960 14', 650 156,940 571,090 

90 cents 22,800 9,570 19,490 14,890' 66,750 
Whole number of stamps 387,419,455. Value $12,099,787.50. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1866: 

Quarter Ending: 





Sept. 30, 1865. 


Dec 


.31, 1865. 


Mch. 31, 1866. 


June 30, 1866. 


Total. 


1 cent 


1,944,000 


1 


,268,900 


2,264,300 


1,973,4°° 


7,450,600 


2 cents 


11,648,600 


11 


,291,000 


13,831,600 


10,783,400 


47,554,600 


3 cents 


69,479,90° 


71 


,461,300 


73,911,100 


68,910,000 


283,762,300 


5 cents 


263,600 




284,440 


400,240 


256,200 


1,204,480 


10 cents 


902,000 




962,120 


1,280,750 


911,070 


4,055,940 


12 cents 


'96,525 




230,000 


365,000 


202,47s 


994,000 


15 cents 










1 66,000 


166,000 


24 cents 


442,575 




466,17s 


490,800 


5'2,275 


1,911,825 


30 cents 


103,720 




120,520 


167,990 


123,090 


5'S,32o 


90 cents 


15,880 




14,460 


15,210 


8,290 


53,840 



Whole number of stamps 347,668,905. Value $10,810,355.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1867 : 
Quarter Ending: 

Sept. 30, 1866. Dec. 31, 1866. Mch. 31, 1867. June 30, 1867. Total. 

1 cent 1,792,600 1,813,500 2,919,300 2,445,100 8,970,500 

2 cents 13,101,500 13,430,000 15,807,800 >S, 333,100 57,672,400 

3 cents 72,915,600 73,375,3°° 74,°88,20o 74,642,800 295,021,900 
5 cents 240,620 237,200 288,940 198,360 965,120 

10 cents 950,610 993,240 1,202,670 986,560 4,133,080 

12 cents 197,125 '75,*5o 302,700 273,125 948,200 

15 cents 213,240 199,220 318,380 318,260 1,049,100 

24 cents 540,3°° 426,500 550,250 505,675 2,022,725 

30 cents 152,51° 135,990 161,120 135.450 585,070 

90 cents 26,210 19,610 26,270 14,420 86,510 
Whole number of stamps 371,454,605. Value $11,565,357.00. 

At the places marked * there are evidently accountant's or typo- 
graphical errors in the amounts given for some of the quarters, since, in each 
case, the sum of the several quarters does not agree with the total given in 
the report, yet the latter is apparently correct, as it is essential to the grand 
total and value of the stamps issued, as stated in the report. 



Issue of 1867, 



the cleaning of 
stamps. 



A matter of anxiety to every government is the possible counterfeiting 
or misuse of its securities. In the case of postage stamps there does not seem 
to be so much fear of counterfeiting as that cancellations may be removed Precautious agaiust 
and the stamps used again. For many years after stamps came into use in 
this country it was customary, in many of the smaller offices, to cancel them 
with pen and ink. It is said that, by aid of chemicals, cancellations of this 
sort are not difficult to remove and it is possible that this was occasionally 
done, though it is to be doubted that it was practiced to any extent. Yet 
much study appears to have been devoted to preventatives of such a possi- 
bility. Collectors of proofs and essays know how numerous were the efforts 
in this direction. In the American Journal of Philately for 1889 (pages 239 
and 485) is given a list of thirty-three patents, designed to prevent the clean- 
ing and re-use of stamps. With one or two exceptions, these patents do not 
appear to have been considered of sufficient merit or practicability to be 
brought into use. Strange to say, the only one which received an extended 
trial, the grill, is omitted from the list. 

The report of the Postmaster General, dated November 26, 1867, says : 

" Experiments are in progress with a postage stamp printed on embossed paper, wtiich 
seems to afford good security against fraud. The fibres of the paper being broken, cancelling 
mari<s almost necessarily penetrate, so that they cannot easily be removed without destroying 
the stamp. ' The adhesive properties are also promoted and other advantages secured which 
commend the invention to favorable notice." 

This device is covered by patent No. 70,147, granted to Charles F. 
Steel, Brooklyn, N. Y., October 22nd, 1867. 

The recorded description is as follows : 

Patent Postage Stamp. 
No. 70,147. 

Charles F. Steel, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

October 22d, 1867. 

The paper is gummed, embossed so as to impair its texture in parts, smoothed, and 
printed on portions of its face. In cancelling, the paper in its broken portions absorbs the 
ink, rendering the latter irremovable and preventing the fraudulent second use of the stamp. 

Claim — First, A postage stamp having the paper partly broken, opened, and weakened, 
the use and for the purposes herein set forth. 

Second, In the above, applying the gum or equivalent adhesive material before such 
treatment of the paper, as and for the purposes herein specified. 

Third, In combination with above steps, the flattening of the whole or a portion of 
the surface of the paper prior to the printing operation, as and for the purposes herein 
explained. 

Fourth, Leaving a space which is embossed and partially broken, as indicated, and not 
flattened, substantially as and for the purpose herein specified. 



Patent for 
grilliug stamps. 



98 



ISSUE OF 18G7. 



From thf language of the patent we may infer that at the time the 
application was filed it was intended that the embossing should precede the 
printing of the stamps. It is evident that experience soon showed this order 
of manufacture to be impracticable and the following routine was adopted. 
The sheets were printed, gummed, pressed, embossed, perforated and lastly 
pressed under hydraulic pressure of about five hundred tons. This pressure 
was so great as to reduce the embossed portion nearly to the level of the rest 
of the stamp but the important part, the breaks in the paper, remained. 

In this connection the following letter is of some interest : 

New York, Aug. 11, 1868. 
Sir : — 
Transfer of At the instance of the National Bank Note Co. of this city, I beg to advise you that I 

patentee's rights, have granted to that company the sole and exclusive right to manafacture embossed postage 
stamps under my patent for embossed stamps. 

I have the honor to be 

Very respectfully yours, 
Hon. Alex. W. Randall, Chas. F. Steel. 

Postmaster General, 

Washington, D. C. 

The fact that the Government required its postage stamps to be em- 
bossed and that the National Bank Note Co. held the exclusive rights to the 
patent covering this process, had much to do in securing for that company 
the contract of October 3rd, t868, for the manufacture of postage stamps for 
the four succeeding years. 

The grill is produced by a roller and not, as is generally supposed, by 
a plate. To make this roller, a cylinder of soft steel is placed in a turning 
lathe and a knurl pressed firmly against it. A knurl, it may be explained, is 
a small steel wheel which is fitted in a clamp and has its rim covered with 
small pyramidal bosses. As the cylinder slowly revolves in the lathe the 
bosses of the knurl are forced into it and produce on its surface similar 
protruberences and depressions. When finished the entire surface of the 
roller is covered with tiny pyramids which form a continuous spiral around it. 
If, while in this shape, it is applied to stamps the variety known as " grilled 
all over " will result. If, however, it is desired to produce the small rectan- 
gular grills it is only necessary to plane off a sufficient number of rows of 
points, in vertical and horizontal bands. 

When in use, the roller rests above a bed of sheet lead into which its 
points press corresponding depressions. When a sheet of stamps is laid upon 
this bed and passed beneath the roller the paper is forced into the depressions 
and embossing is produced. 

The intention of the grill was to break the fibre of the paper, so that 
the cancelling ink would penetrate it instead of merely spreading over the 
Effect of the grill, surface. This result was accomplished in the stamps with grill covering the 
entire surface and those with the large grills, 18x15 ^"^ 13x16mm. But the 
later and smaller forms seem to have been less effective. They rarely pro- 
duced more than a roughening of the surface and, the paper not being 
sufficiently broken, the cancelling ink failed to penetrate it. 

In its first form the grill covered the entire stamp. This process so 
weakened the perforated sheets that they were diflficult to handle and when 
the stamps were torn apart their margins were ragged and unsightly. To 



Process of making 
the grill roller. 



Maniior of use. 



Sixes of grills. 



ISSUE OF 1867. 



99 



remedy this the embossing was reduced to rectangles which covered only a 
part of the surface of each stamp. The size of these rectangles was gradually 
reduced and the impressions, which were at first clear, sharp and deep, became 
fainter and less distinct. The same gradual deterioration is to be noticed in 
the grills of the i86g issue. In the 1870 issue the number of grills which are 
clear and strong is comparatively small. The majority are faint, uncertain 
in outline, and often show only a single row or a few points. These defects 
are not to be attributed so much to wear of the roller as to insufficient support 
by the leaden bed, to the harder paper used for this series and, possibly, to 
excessive pressure in the hydraulic press. 

The grills were embossed with the points both up and down, as viewed 
from the face of the stamps. The normal position is points up, for the grill 
which covers the entire stamp and for those grills which range from 18x15mm. 
to I2xi4j^mm. These grills are frequently found reversed. The smaller 
sizes (usually grouped as 11x13mm.' and 9x13mm.) have the grill with joints 
down. These smaller grills are occasionally found with the points up. They 
do not appear to have attracted much attention from philatelists and the only 
one of which I have a memorandum is a three cents with grill 9x13mm. 

There are numerous oddities in the shape of divided, double and 
triple grills. These are liable to occur on any value and with any size of grill. 
They do not seem to be of sufficient interest to warrant an attempt to list 
them. 

It sometimes happened that a part of a stamp was folded over at the 
time it was being embossed. The result of such an accident is a stamp which 
appears to have parts of two grills, one with points up and the other with 
points down. I have in my collection a three cent stamp which has been so 
folded that it appears to have parts of five or six grills. 

There is also known an oddity in the stamps embossed all over This 
is a strip of stamps from the top row of a sheet of the three cents, which ap- 
pears to have the embossing, on the upper half of the stamps and on the mar- 
gin with the points down while on the remainder of the stamps the points are 
up. Examination with a strong magnifying glass shows that the embossing 
with points up was first applied but failed to cover the upper half of the 
stamps of this row. To remedy this the embossing process was repeated. 
But in the second operation the sheet was reversed, bringing the points of the 
grill down. Thus a part of each stamp is really embossed with points both 
ways but, to the unaided eye, the effect is as at first stated. To a similar ac- 
cident we owe a horizontal pair of three cent stamps on which the grill covers 
the whole of one stamp but only half of the other. 

There is one variety of grill which has attracted much attention. This 
variety shows a strip of embossing extending from top to bottom of the stamp 
and varying in width. This is an impression from a continuous band of 
bosses which encircled the grill roller at each end. Probably these bands 
were intended to maintain a firm hold on the sheet of stamps and prevent it 
from slipping. It was only when a sheet was incorrectly placed, while being 
embossed, that this variety occurred. So far, it has only been found on the 
stamps of the 1870 issue, but impressions on the margins of sheets of the 



PointH up and 
points donn. 



Oddities of 
grilling. 



Marginal grills. 



100 



ISSUE OF 1867. 



Date of issue. 



FiTe and thirty 

cents grilled 

all OTer. 



One cent grilled 
all OTer. 



Paper. 



1867 and 1869 issues show it to have existed on the rollers in use at those 
dates and its existence on the stamps is, therefore, a possibility. 

The date at which the grilled stamps came into use is unsettled. The 
American Journal of Philately for June, 1871 (page 67) gives the date as 
August 8th, 1 867. Tiffany's History of the Postage Stamps of the United States 
says "adopted May 8th, 1867." The date of the patent is Oct. 22nd, 1867, 
but that is presumably the date on which it was granted and the process may. 
have been put into use earlier. The first mention of the grilled stamps in a 
philatelic magazine is in the Stamp Mercury for Nov. 25th, 1867, which says : 
" The three cent stamps, and we suppose the others also, are now embossed 
in little squares over the face." It is scarcely probable that so important a 
change could have been effected without attracting prompt attention and it 
is possible that the date of issue is very near to that of the above notice. On 
the other hand, if at first issued in small quantities and as an experiment 
(sucl^a claim is made and has the support of some slight evidence) some time 
may have elapsed before the stamps met the attention of philatelists, though 
scarcely so long as from May to November. There is in the collection of Mr. 
H. E. Deats a pair of the three cents grilled all over, on the original cover and 
cancelled "Savannah, Ga. Aug. 23, 1867." All things considered, August 
8th, 1867, seems a very probable date. 

In April, 1868, the Stamp Mercury chronicled the two, three and 
twelve cents with the grill. The American Journal of Philately for May, 
I 868 (page 23), says : " All the values under twelve cents are now submitted 
to this process as also will the higher denominations be when the present 
stock on hand is consumed." The same journal, in December of that year 
(page 82), says : "The 24 and 30 cents of the present issue have at length 
been issued with the rectangular embossment on the backs and we learn from 
official quarters that the 90 cents will be subjected to the same treatment this 
month." But it was not until February, 1869 (page 23), that the editor was 
able to report the appearance of the latter value. 

In the Philatelic Journal of America for May, 1889, we find the 
announcement of the discovery of a copy of the thirty cents with grill cover- 
ing the entire stamp. The five cents with that variety of grill was first 
chronicled in the American Journal of Philately for July, 1891. Several 
copies of each of these stamps have since been found. 

The one cent also exists with the grill covering the entire stamp. I 
have seen an unused block of four in this condition. I have no doubt as to 
the genuineness of the grill but I am not certain that the stamp was ever 
issued for use. 

The paper varies from moderately thick to very thin. Beginning with 
the former quality, for the stamps embossed with large grills, it gradually 
decreases in thickness as the grills are reduced in size, until those of the 
smaller dimensions are, many of them, on an extremely thin and brittle paper. 
The paper at first in use was slightly soft but it became harder as it lost in 
thickness and the quality last in use was very hard and crisp. 

The gum is white, yellowish and occasionally almost brown. 

I have carefully examined and measured all the stamps of the following 



ISSUE OF 1867. 



list. The list has been elaborated from one compiled by Mr. J. B. Leavy 
and published in the American Journal of Philately for April, 1896, some 
new discoveries and a number of varieties in my own collection being added. 

Grill with Points Up. 
Grill covering the entire stamp. 



I cent blue 








i2i^xi2 points 1 


to the lomm. 


3 cents rose, rose- 


■red 






a 


a 


it It 


5 cents dark brown 






a 


ii 


It It 


;o cents orange 




Variety 




It 




ii .. 






3 cents rose-red. 


Imperforate 










Rectangular 


Grill. 
















Rows of Points 


. Size in mm. 


3 cents rose 










22x18 


18x15 


3 cents rose-red 










17x20 


13x16 


3 cents rose 










17x19 


13x15^4 


3 cents rose 










17x18 


13x14^4 


3 cents rose 










I 6X2 1 


I2>^Xl6j^ 


3 cents rose 










16x20 


11^x16 


3 cents rose, rose 


-red 








16x19 


I2>^X15J^ 


3 cents rose 










16x18 


I2>^XI4^ 


3 cents rose 










15x18 


I2XI4>^ 



16x19 t2}4'x-i5/4 



Variety : 
3 cents rose-red. Imperforate. 

Grill with PBints Down. 
Grill covering the entire stamp. 

i2j^xi2 points to the 10 mm. 



3 cents rose 

5 cents dark brown 



Rectangular Grill. 



3 cents rose 

2 cents black 

3 cents rose 
3 cents rose 
2- cents black 
3 cents rose 

3 cents rose 

1 cent bright blue 

2 cents gray-black 

3 cents rose-red, lake 
1 2 cents black 

I cent light blue, dark blue 

2 cents gray-black 
3 cents rose, rose-red, brown-rose, lake 



17x19 


I3X1SJ4 


15x19 


12x15 


ti 


tt 


15x18 


12X14}4 


11 


I4j^xi4 


(C 


t( 


15x17 


ii}4xi3>^ 


14x18 


11x14 



14x17 



IIXI'?}^ 



Beference List. 



ISSUE OF 1867. 



14x16 



14x15 



13x17 
tt 

13x16 

12x18 



Rows of points. 
5 cents brown 14x17 

10 cents dark green, blue-green " 

12 cents black, gray-black " 

15 cents black " 

1 cent pale blue 

2 cents black 

3 cents pale rose, rose, rose-red, lake 
lo cents dark green 
12 cents black 
15 cents gray-black 

I cent deep blue 
3 cents rose 
10 cents blue-green 

1 cent dull blue 
3 cents rose-red 
3 cents rose 

2 cents black 

3 cents rose " 
12 cents gray-black " 
15 cents gray-black " 

1 cent pale blue, deep blue, dark blue, pale ultramarine 12x17 

2 cents greenish black, gray-black " 

3 cents rose, rose-red, brown-red, lake " 
5 cents yellow-brown, red-brown, brown, dark brown, 

black-brown " 

10 cents blue-green, yellow-green " 

12 cents black, gray-black . ' 

15 cents black, gray-black, greenish black " 

24 cents gray-lilac " 

30 cents pale orange, deep orange " 

90 cents deep blue " 

1 cent bright blue, pale blue, dark blue 

2 cents gray-black 

3 cents rose, rose-red, brown-red 
5 cents yellow-brown, dark brown 

10 cents blue-green 

12 cents black 

15 cents gray-black 

24 cents gray-lilac, gray 

30 cents orange 

3 cents rose-red 

3 cents rose 

2 cents gray-black 

3 cents rose-red " " 

Varieties : 
3 cents rose-red. Imperforate 12x17 



12x16 



12x15 
11x17 
11x16 



Size in mm. 
iixi3>^ 



11x13 



10x13^ 

10x13 
9x14 



9xi3>^ 



9x13 



9x12 
8j2Xi3>^ 
8>^xi3 



9xi3>^ 



ISSUE OF 1867. 



103 



Rows of points. Size in mm. 

3 cents rose-red. Imperforate horizontally 12x17 9'^i3/^ 

2 cents black. Vertical half and another copy, used 

as three cents 14x17 iixi3JS4 

I have in my collection an interesting oddity in the shape of a fifteen 
cents (with grill 12x17 rows of points, measuring 9x13^^ mm.) printed in 
blackish purple. This can scarcely be called an error of color, as no value Fifteen cents 
of the series was printed in that color. It was probably caused by the plate blackish purple, 
being wiped with a cloth that had been used for the same purpose on a plate 
inked with purple. 

The records show the following quantities of stamps to have been 
printed and delivered to the Stamp Agent : 



statistics of 
manufacture. 



1868 


1 cent 


2 cents 


3 cents 


5 cents 


10 cents. 


Jan. to Mch. 


1,489,800 


14,400,200 


42,864,700 




671,770 


Apl. to June 


3,219,800 


15,475,900 


47,43',40o 




1,281,720 


July to Sept. 


2,814,600 


14,558,400 


76,486,200 




854,-50 


Oct. to Dec. 


3,004,200 


16,405,700 


80,855,700 


174,960 


940,200 


1869 












Jan. to Mch. 


3,351,200 


15,718,900 


74,266,200 


290,520 


902,130 


Apl. to June 
July to Sept. 


475-300 
14,354,900 






149,180 
67,520 

682,180 


639,410 







Total 


76,559,100 


321,904,200 


5,289,380 


1868 


• 12 cents 


15 cents 


24 cents 


30 cents 


90 cents. 


Jan. to Mch. 


639,100 








X 


Apl. to June 


759,175 


206,420 








July to Sept. 


624,800 


333,340 








Oct. to Dec. 


703,600 


428,420 


68,775 


74,210 


8,360 


1869 












Jan. to Mch. 


810,925 


706,420 


62,27s 


69,940 


11,310 


Apl. to June 


48,000 


489,580 


46,050 


53,730 


4,400 


July to Sept. 




372,180 


S7,o7S 


84,860 


6,750 



Total 3,585,600 2,536,360 234,175 282,740 



30,820 



At the foot of this record is a memorandum of the following quantities stamps destroyed, 
of stamps "burned by Stamp Agent :" 

3 cents, 400,000; 5 cents, 424,100; 15 cents, 3,040; 24 cents, 268,450; 
30 cents, 73,100; 90 cents, 123,930. 

No date is given for this destruction nor any information as to the 
proportionate quantities of the stamps with and without embossing. 

It will be observed that stamps of the 1867 series continued to be 
printed long after the 1869 issue was in use. 

The annual reports of the Postmaster General supply the following 
statistics of stamps distributed to deputy postmasters: 



104 



ISSUE OF 1867. 



Dellreries to 




St; 


imps issued d 


uring the fisci 


il year ending 


June 30th, It 


168: 


postmasters. 
























Quarter Ending: 












Sept, 30, 1867. 


Dec. 3', 1867. 


Mch. 31, 1868. 


June 30, 1868. 


Total. 




I 


cent 


2,163,300 


2,805,300 


3,774,400 


3,219,800 


11,962,800 




2 


cents 


12,594,000 


'4,356,800 


18,607,900 


15,475,900 


60,989,600 




3 


cents 


71,696,900 


74,390,800 


78,802,700 


74,431,400 


299,321,800 




5 


cents 


192,860 


269,400 


262,300 


222,920 


947,480 




10 


cents 


',093.730 


','95,93° 


i.573,8'o 


1,281,720 


5, '45. '9° 




12 


cents 


201,075 


416,875 


995,800 


759.17s 


2,372,925 




IS 


cents 


295,900 


324.360 


303,940 


206,420 


1,130,620 




24 


cents 


476,225 


366,700 


110,425 


43,425 


996,775 




3° 


cents 


107,520 


130,370 


73,620 


83,910 


395,420 




90 


cents 


18,430 


13,550 


8,280 


7,630 


47,890 



Plates. 



Plate numbers. 



Whole number of stamps 383,310,500. Value $11,736,264.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1869: 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1868. 


Dec. 31, 1868. 


Mch. 31, 1869. 


June 30, 1869. 


Total. 


I cent 


2,814,600 


3,co4,20o 


3,736,600 


4.043.400 


13,598,800 


2 cents 


14,558,400 


16,405,700 


18,1x1,900 


18,115,450 


67.' 91,450 


3 cents 


76,486,200 


80,855,700 


84.327.500 


87,008,000 


328,677,400 


5 cents 


168,820 


174,960 


290,520 


149,180 


783,480 


6 cents 






60,200 


1,085,750 
928,270 


1,145.950 
3.730.180 


10 cents 


854.150 


940,200 


1,007,560 


12 cents 


624,800 


703,600 


917.050 


817,900 


3.063,350 


15 cents 


233.340 


428,420 


784,160 


606,700 


2,052,620 


24 cents 


54.850 


68,67s 


93.225 


77.650 


294.400 


30 cents 


55,890 


74,210 


86,650 


89,980 


306,730 


90 cents 


10,880 


8,360 


16,330 


16,610 


52,180 



Whole number of stamps 420,896,540. Value $12,706,220.00. 

When we remember that there were no six cent stamps in the issue of 
1867 nor five cent stamps in that of 1869, we at once perceive that the two 
issues are hopelessly mixed in the foregoing table and that it is of little value 
to philatelists. 

The plates of the 1861-66 issues were used for the stamps of the 1867 
issue. The following list is probably incomplete but it contains all the num- 
bers that I have seen or that have been chronicled. It has not been found 
possible to secure minute measurements of the grills on many of the stamps and 
we will, therefore, have to be content with the grouping of sizes adopted in 
the priced catalogues. 

Grill covering the entire stamp. 

1 cent blue No. 

3 cents rose No. 11, 52 

S cents brown No. 17 

30 cents orange No. 7 





ISSUE OF I 


867. 




loS 




Variety . 








3 cents rose. 


Imperforate 
Grill 18x15 


mm. 


No. 52 




3 cents rose 


Grill 13x16 


mm. 


No. 




3 cents rose 


Variety . 




No. 14 




3 cents rose. 


Imperforate 




No. 14 




Grill II 1^X14 


mm. 






2 cents black 






No. 




3 cents rose 


Grill 11x13 


mm. 


No. 




I cent blue 






No. 




2 cents black 






No. 29 




3 cents rose 






No. 36 




5 cents brown 






No. 17 




lo cents green 






No. 




12 cents black 






No. 16 




15 cents black 






No. 41 






Grill 9x13 mm. 






I cent blue 






No. 10, 22, 


27 


2 cents black 






No. 28, 30, 


50.51.53 


3 cents rose 






No. II, 32, 


34, 55 


5 cents brown 






No. 17 




10 cents green 






No. 15, 26 




12 cents black 






No. 16 




15 cents black 






No. 41 




24 cents lilac 






No. 6 




30 cents orange 






No. 7 




90 cents blue 


Varieties 




No. 18 





3 cents rose. Imperforate No. 55 

3 cents rose. Imperforate horizontally No. 55 

The fact that many of the grilled stamps are rarer than the same 
values without the grill has tempted counterfeiters to imitate the embossment. 
This has been done with more or less success. Except for imitations of the »o„„terfemnc"Tiii8 
grill covering the entire stamp the 1867 issue has not suffered greatly from 
the efforts of the counterfeiters. The stamps of the 1869 issue are rarer with- 
out than with the embossing and, consequently, have been but little tampered 
with. The 1870 issue has been the chosen field for most of the fraudulent 
operationSj both because many of the grilled stamps of that issue are rare 
while those ungrilled are plentiful and because the generally poor embossing 
of that period renders the detection of the counterfeits very difficult. 



io6 



ISSUE OF 1867. 



SJze and pORitio: 
not B test. 



There is no absolute rule by which the genuine grills may be known 
from the bad. The best guide is experience, gained by careful study of 
specimens which are undoubtedly genuine. Size is not a guide, as may be 
inferred from an examination of the list on a preceding page. Neither is 
position a test. It has been asserted that genuine grills always have their 
sides parallel with the sides of the stamps. But this is manifestly incorrect. 
The sheets of stamps, when laid on the bed of the grill machine, might easily 
be placed askew, as we know was done in the case of the stamps which show 
a band of embossing. It may be remarked, en passant, that the lines of grill 
points in this band are usually somewhat out of the perpendicular. As was 
noted in describing the grill roller, the rows of points form a spiral around 
the roller. While this spiral deviates but little from the perpendicular, it 
still deviates and the claim of absolute perpendicularity for the grill becomes 
untenable. 

The general characteristics of all grills are the same. The bosses 
Characteristics of which produced them are pyramidal in shape and their effect is to break tiny 
Kcnnine grills, crosses (x) in the paper. On a few grills the breaks assume a slightly dif- 
ferent shape, thus >~< . 

The grills with the points up present, on the face of the stamps, the ap- 
pearance of a series of small squares, defined by depressed vertical and hori- 
zontal lines. Within the squares the paper has been pushed up by the bosses 
and broken. Viewed from the reverse the appearance is the exact opposite, 
the lines of the squares being raised and those within them depressed. On 
the reverse also, the breaks produced by the bosses show more distinctly the 
shape of crosses, which shape becomes more pronounced with the introduc- 
tion of harder paper and smaller grills. The grills with points down have the 
same general appearance but, of course, reversed. 

The grills of the 1869 and 1870 issues were made by the same process 
as those of the 1861 issue, but from differences in the paper, wearing of the 
machinery, and ever lessening care in manufacture, the characteristic marks 
are much less distinct and often quite invisible. Many of the grills on the 
1870 issue are little more than pin pricks. 

The counterfeit grills, as a rule, fail to reproduce the markings of the 
originals, especially the crosses in the squares. Many of them are simply a 
series of small square depressions in the paper, having the intervening spaces 
quite out of proportion, as compared with originals. There is, however, 
a genuine type of the grill coAering the entire stamp which presents the ap- 
pearance of small squares with still smaller depressed squares in their centres, 
but having otherwise the ordinary characteristics of the grills. This variety 
is found only on the three cent stamp and is due to a few of the earliest 
impressions having been made against a backing of cardboard. This was too 
hard and did not permit the bosses to penetrate the paper. So a backing of 
lead was adopted and the grills with cross-shaped breaks were obtained. 
Except in this instance, a square grill, instead of a cross, may without hesita- 
tion be pronounced a counterfeit. 

Grills too strongly embossed should be regarded with suspicion. The 
flattening effect of the hydraulic press must not be overlooked. 



Grills which lack 
tlie X breaks. 



ISSUE OF 1867. 



107 



Cancellations are also a test in many cases. When the ink was thin 
it usually penetrated the breaks in the paper and may be distinctly seen on 
the reverse of the stamp. When, on the contrary, it was thick it covered 
only the raised parts of the grill and the depressed places were left untouched. 
In this connection maybe mentioned a clever counterfeit, made from a three 
cent stamp with a genuine grill measuring v^is mm., to which has been added 
a fraudulent embossing covering the entire stamp. Because a portion of the 
grill shows the genuine markings and the cancellation covering the raised 
parts the balance is apt to be accepted as genuine. Examination shows the 
grill in different parts of the stamp to be quite dissimilar in character. When 
the stamp is viewed in a certain light the rectangle of genuine grilling stands 
out distinctly from the fraudulent part. 

In the case of uncancelled stamps the character of the grill, the gum, 
and the shades of the printing ink must supply the tests. 

The grills of the 1867 issue all measure i2j^xi2 rows of points to the 
10 mm. 



Cancellations 
a test. 



Orill fraud Dlentlf 
enlarged. 



Issue of 1869, 



Historical. 



Date of issue. 



The issue of 1869 was preceded by a contest, both in and out of Con- 
gress, many details of which may be found in a file of the Congressional Globe- 
Messrs. Butler & Carpenter, of Philadelphia, protested against the awarding 
of the contract to th/5 National Bank Note Co., of New York, on the ground 
that their firm had made the lowest bid. A commission was appointed to 
investigate the claim and the relative merits of the bids of the two companies. 
The commisssion reported in favor of the National Bank Note Co. and, on 
October 3d, 1868, the contract was awarded in accordance with this finding. 
As was mentioned on page 98, the control of the embossing patent had much 
to do with securing this award. 

By the terms of the contract the stamps were to be ready February ist,' 
1869. They were not ready, however, until March of that year, and then 
were only issued to postmasters as the stock of stamps of the 1861-66 types 
was exhausted. They made their appearance in the latter part of April. 
Mr. Tiffany gives the date of the issue as March 19th, 1869, but elsewhere 
says : " About the end of April they began to appear." Possibly some were 
issued to postmasters on March 19th, but with restrictions as to their use, as 
set forth in the following circular : 



Post Office Department. 



Sir : 



Finance Office, March ist, 1869. 



Circular auuounc- 
ing the Issue. 



At an early day, in the regular course of business, tlie Department will issue to Post- 
masters stamps of new designs. (See description annexed). In the proposed issue the six 
cent stamp is substituted for the five cents. You are required to exhaust all of the present 
style on hand, before supplying the public with the new ; and in no case will you be allowed 
to make exchanges for individuals, or to return stamps to the Department to be exchanged. 
The stamps now in use are not to be disregarded, but must be recognized in all cases equally 
with the new ones. 

Special attention is called to the fact that sheets of all denominations below 15 cents 
contain iso stamps. The 15 cents and all higher denominations contain 100 stamps on each 
sheet. This must be borne in mind to prevent mistakes in counting, as in the present issue 
each denomination has but 100 stamps to the sheet. Special requests for the new style of 
stamps will be disregarded until the stock of the present issue in possession of the Depart- 
ment is exhausted. Due notice will be given of the date of issue of any new design of 
stamped envelopes, therefore all inquiries respecting them will be disregarded. 

A, N Zeverly, ^ 

Third Assistant Postmaster General. ^ 

Apparently all the values were on sale by about the middle of May, as 

Ciiauges lu the '^^ American Journal of Philately for May 20th, 1869 (pages 57 and 58), 

designs and colors, gives a brief description and criticism of each value and says : " The 



ISSUE OF 1869 



109 



unqualified praise we bestowed on the new issue in our lirst accounts was due 
t&it having been given from an inspection of the proofs, and those are always 
worked off with great care ; the colors also were much better selected than 
those adopted by the authorities. Besides the tints being changed, all the 
designs were more or less altered by enlarging the figures, and in the case of 
the thirty cents a totally different design was adopted." 

The designs, as originally prepared, differed from those finally accepted 
and issued in having much smaller numerals of value, which were more in 
harmony with their surroundings and not so obtrusive and disproportionate. Original deiigns. 
There was a five cent stamp of the design that was afterwards used for the 
six cents ; the ten cents bore a portrait of Lincoln and the ninety cents that 
of Washington ; the thirty cents was of similar style to the fifteen and twenty- 
four cents, with a copy of the picture of the surrender of Burgoyne. It was 
not the intention to print any of these stamps in two colors. All the values 
of this set except the fifteen and ninety cents exist in the shape of fully 
finished, gummed and perforated stamps. 

The official description of the adopted designs and colors is as follows: Designs and colors. 

" One cent. Head of Franklin, after bust by Cerrachi, looking to 
the left, surrounded by a circle of pearls; ' u. s. postage ' on a curved tablet 
at the top; ' one cent ' on two similar tablets at bottom, with the numeral ' i 
in a small panel between the words. Color, Roman ochre. 

Two cents. Post horse and rider, facing to left, surrounded by 
ornamental scroll-work ; ' united states postage ' on a fringed curtain at 
top; ' two cents ' on a scroll at bottom, with large numeral ' 2 ' between the 
words. Color, light brown. 

Three cents. Locomotive heading to the right, surrounded by orna- 
mental scroll-work ; 'united states postage' on a curved and a horizontal 
tablet at top ; ' three cents ' on wide curved tablets at bottom, with large 
numeral ' 3 ' between the words. Color, ultramarine blue. 

Six cents. Head of Washington, after Stuart's painting, three-quarter 
face, looking to right ; frame square, tessellated near the corners, with a 
circular opening, lined with pearls; ' u. s.' in upper left and right corners of 
frame, respectively; the word ' postage ' in upper bar of frame; ' six cents ' 
in lower, with the large numeral ' 6 ' between the words, and ' united states ' 
on each side. Color, ultramarine blue. 

Ten cents. Shield, on which is resting an eagle with outspread 
wings, eagle looking to left; 'united states postage' in upper section of 
shield ; the number ' ro ' in lower; the words ' ten cents ' in a scroll at 
bottom; the whole design surmounted by thirteen stars arranged in a semi- 
circle. Color, orange. 

Twelve cents. Ocean steamship, surrounded by ornamental scroll- 
work ; 'united states postage' at top; ' twelve cents ' at bottom, with 
large numeral '12' between the words. Color, milori green. 

Fifteen cents. Landing of Columbus, after the painting by Van- 
derlyn, in the Capitol at Washington ; ornamental scroll-work at top and 



110 



ISSUE OF 1869. 



Sizes. 



Purport of the 
desigus. 



Types of the 
fifteen cents. 



bottom ; ' u. s. postage ' at top ; ' fifteen cents ' at bottom, with numeral 
'15' underneath. Colors: Picture, Prussian blue; scroll and ornamental 
work, light brown. 

Twenty-four cents. Declaration of Independence, after the paint- 
ing by Trumbull, in the Capitol at Washington ; ornamental and scroll work 
at top and bottom; ' u. s.' surrounded by ovals at upper left and right 
corners, respectively; the word 'postage' between the two; 'twenty-four 
CENTS ' in scroll at bottom, with numeral '24' underneath. Colors: The 
picture, purple lake ; scroll and ornamental work, light milori green. 

Thirty cents. Eagle, facing to left with outspread wings, resting on 
shield, with flags grouped on either side ; the words ' u. s. postage ' in upper 
section of shield; the numeral '30' in lower; the words 'thirty cents' 
across the bottom ; thirteen stars arranged in a semicircle at top of design. 
Colors : Eagle and shield, carmine ; flags and other parts, blue. 

Ninety cents. Head of Lincoln, from a photograph, in an oval, 
three-quarters face, looking to right, surrounded by ornamental and scroll 
work ; numeral ' 90 ' at each of the upper corners ; ' u. s. postage ' at top of 
oval ; ' ninety ' and ' cents ' in scroll at lower left and right corners of oval, 
respectively ; ' u. s.' at lower left and right corners of stamp, respectively. 
Colors: Portrait in black; surrounding ornamental and scroll work, carmine." 

The sizes of the stamps are: One cent, 2oi^x2o^mm.; two cents, 
2oJ4x2omm. ; three cents, 2o^x2omm.; six cents, aoxig^mm.; ten cents, 
2oxi95^mm.; twelve cents, 2o^x2omm. ; fifteen cents, 21 J^x2i?^mm. ; twenty- 
four cents, 22x22mm.; thirty cents, 22x22^^ mm.; ninety cents, 2iJ^X22mm. 

The lower values were intended to be emblematic of the postal progress 
of the country. The one cent stamp fittingly bore the portrait of Franklin, 
the first colonial Postmaster General, also the first under the federation of 
states which became the United States. The two, three and twelve cent 
stamps illustrated the advance from the post boy on horseback to the facilities 
afforded by the railway and ocean steamship. 

There are three types of the fifteen cents. In type I the central 
picture is surrounded by a frame of three parallel lines. Across the top of 
the picture the middle line of the three is thicker than the other two and at 
the middle of the top the lines form a diamond-shaped ornament. This type 
is usually spoken of as "with diamond" or "picture framed." In type I 
there is also, within the space for the picture, a band about ^mm. wide, 
formed of short diagonal lines. This band extends across the bottom and 
the two ends of the tablet but not across the top. In type II the frame lines 
and the diamond are omitted. There is a band of lines, as in type I, but it 
is I mm. wide, the lines are horizontal and the band extends all around the 
inside of the tablet. Type III differs from type II in the absence of the 
band of shading lines, of which only a solitary line remains, crossing the top 
of the tablet where the outline curves up to a point under the " t " of 
"postage." The object of the bands of lines was to form a background for 
the picture and make less noticeable any slight misplacing of it. Type I was 
Type III is only known in the re-issue of 1875. 



the first issued. 



ISSUK OF 1869. 



Additional lines 

drawn on the 

l)late8. 



Reference List. 



The medallions of the fifteen, twenty-four and ninety cents are each 
surrounded by a thin line of color. These lines were not on the original dies, 
but were added separately to each subject on the various plates. Also, on the 
twenty-four cents,' the space for the medallion is framed by a border of pearls 
inside of which are two thin colored lines. These lines were not on the die, 
but were added in the same manner as those surrounding the medallions. I 
have seen a proof having three lines inside the border of pearls but I have 
not found a stamp showing more than two lines. 

The paper is moderately thick and quite hard. 

The gum varies from yellowish-white to brown. 

The grill has the same characteristics as in the 1867 issue but it is 
smaller and nearly square. Complete sets of all values may be found with 
the grill measuring gxg^mm., 12x12 rows of points, and gxgmm., 12x11 Sizes of tiie griu 
rows of points. The ten and twelve cents are also known with a grill measur- 
ing S^^xgmm., iixf I rows of points. The normal position of the grill is with 
the points down but a few copies have been noticed which have the points up. 

White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 

Embossed with a Grill. 

April, 1869. I cent pale brown-orange, brown-orange,, dark brown- 

orange 

2 cents yellow-brown, red-brown, pale brown, brown, 

dark brown 

3 cents ultramarine, deep ultramarine, dull blue, gray- 

blue 
6 cents pale ultramarine, deep ultramarine, dull blue 
10 cents yellow-orange, orange, deep orange 
1 2 cents yellow-green, green, deep green, blue-green 
15 cents (type I), dark blue and dark red-brown, dark 
blue and red-brown, dark blue and pale red-brown 
15 cents (type II), dark blue and dark red-brown, dark 
blue and red-brown, dark blue and pale red-brown 
' 24 cents dark violet and yellow-green, dark violet and deep 

yellow-green, dark violet and blue-green 
30 cents pale rose and pale ultramarine, rose and ultra- 
marine, rose and dark ultramarine, dark rose and 
ultramarine, dark carmine and dull ultramarine 
90 cents black and carmine, black and rose-carmine 

Varieties : 
2 cents yellow brown. Diagonal half and another copy, 
used as three cents 

2 cents yellow brown. Vertical half and another copy, 

used as three cents. Cancelled, December 2Sth, 
1869 

3 cents ultramarine. Vertical two-thirds, used as two 

cents. Cancelled, April 2nd, 1870 



ISSUE OF 1869. 



Inrerted 
medallions. 



Said to be errors 
In the plate. 



15 cents (type I), dark blue and red-brown. Medallion 

inverted 
24 cents dark violet and blue-green. Medallion inverted 
30 cents rose and ultramarine. Flags inverted 

1 cent brown-orange. Without grill 

2 cents yellow-brown. Without grill 

3 cents pale ultramarine, dull blue. Without grill 
15 cents (type 11), dark blue and red-brown. Without 

grill 
J4 cents dark violet and blue-green. Without grill 
30 cents carmine-rose and dull ultramarine. Without grill 
90 cents deep black and deep carrnine. Without grill 

The stamps which have a part of the design inverted are both rare and 
interesting. Tiffany's History of the Postage Stamps of the United States says 
in regard to this variety of the fifteen cents : 

" The error is not, as is sometimes supposed, an error in printing, but 
in the plate. Two plates, one for each color, had to be used. Originally 
there were 150 stamps, as in the smaller values, but upon the plate for print- 
ing the picture, it is said one picture was reversed, and the error once dis- 
covered, the plate was cut down to print only 100 stamps, as stated in the 
circular. It is probable that no copies with the error were ever circulated." 

The same work says of the twenty-four cents : 

" There is the same error of this stamp, ' reversed picture,' stated to be 
from the same cause, a defect in the plate, as for the 15 cents, and the same 
remarks apply." 

Also of the thirty cents it is stated : 

" There is also an error of this stamp in which the flags are reversed. 
It is also stated to be an error on the plate, but may be only an error in 
printing." 

These statements appear to lack confirmation. The records of the con- 
tractors show that the plates for the four values which were printed in two 
colors, were originally made with only one hundred designs on each. This 
smaller size was adopted because of the difficulty of securing good " register- 
ing" when printing with large plates. The official circular of March ist, 1869, 
quoted on a previous page, and which was sent out before the stamps were 
ready for issue, distinctly states : "The 15 cents and all higher denomina- 
tions, contain too stamps on each sheet." 

The claim that none of the errors were circulated would seem to be 
fully refuted by the fact that the majority of the existing copies are used. 

Of course it is not impossible that, on one of the plates for each value, 
one of the designs was reversed but it is far more probable that all of the errors 
Proof that they are are due to misprinting. I have seen sheets of proofs from many of the plates 
of the bicolored stamps and none of them contain such an error. It is well 
known that David H. Anthony, of New York, an agent of the Government 
for the sale of revenue stamps, and who also sold the then current postage 
stamps, had an entire sheet of the fifteen cents with the medallion inverted. 
One copy was purchased of him and went into the Rasmus collection. The 



ETidence to the 
contrary. 



errors in printing. 



ISSUE OF 1869. 



"3 



rest of the sheet was returned to the post office and exchanged for perfect 
copies. There is also the celebrated block of four of the twenty-four cents 
in the collection of Mr. William Thome and the pair of the same stamp in 
the collection of Mr. F. W. Hunter. Thus at least a part of the errors are 
proved to be due to misprinting. 

On the other hand, there is some testimony in support of the claim that 
one or more of the designs, on the various plates, were inverted. In the 
American Journal of Philately for December 1870 (page 141), we read : 

" We are now enabled to inform our readers, and friends of tlie press, of a little cir- 
cumstance that has been kept pretty well concealed ; but perhaps these few lines may open 
the eyes of the people who pay the taxes. 

After a few hundred sheets of the i^; and 24 cent stamps of the 1869 issue had been 
delivered, it was discovered that a few of the stamps on each sheet had the picture inverted 
in the frames. The government refused to receive them, and only half sheets of these values 
were issued. This mistake would have compelled the company to prepare new plates for 
these values, and of course they would not have been paid for them, so they adopted the 
bright dodge of setting the papers to run down the new issue, so that they would be required 
to get new plates by the'department, which they would be paid for. We all know how well 
they succeeded ; however, to philatelists this makes two interesting varieties which are very 
scarce." 

In further confirmation of this Mr. J. W. Scott states that, at the time 
attention was first called to the fifteen cents with inverted medallion, he 
examined his stock and found half a dozen used copies. Believing it to be 
an error in the plate, he tried to buy at the New York post office sheets con- 
taining it, but could get only half sheets, which were without it. He then 
sent money throughout the country, to all offices which he thought might have 
this value, asking always for full sheets. In some instances his money was 
returned because the office could only supply half sheets and on other 
occasions the half sheets were sent. In no case did he secure an entire sheet, 
and the half sheets supplied to him were always the same half and without 
the error. Hence his conclusions, as published in the paragraph just quoted 
from the American Journal of Philately. 

With all due respect to such an authority and with full appreciation of 
the value of this testimonyT cannot unhesitatingly accept these conclusions, 
since there is much to be said on the other side. Primarily, every plate made 
by the great bank note companies is subjected to the most searching and 
microscopical scrutiny by several experts. Plates, which to ordinary eyes 
would appear perfect, are marked in numerous places for fuller and deeper 
impressions and other improvements. It is not to be conceived that such a 
glaring defect as an inverted design would be overlooked or allowed to pass 
uncorrected. As was explained on page 47, the design could readily be oblite- 
rated and a fresh transfer entered in its place. With this simple expedient at 
command, it is absurd to think that the contractors continued to produce 
sheets of stamps of each of which, owing to defects, the government would 
accept only one half. In further contradiction of the half sheet theory it 
must be remembered that the contractors had for the iifteen cents four plates 
for the frames and two for the centers, and for both the twenty-four and 
thirty cents two plates for each part. Even should we grant an error in one 
plate, the others were still available. 

A ninety cents with inverted medallion was listed in the catalogues 
for many years. But no copy is known to exist, and philatelists have long 



Another olaim con- 
cerning the errors. 



Only half sheets 
on sale. 



Defective plates 
improbable. 



114 



ISSUE OF 1869. 



Bisected tliree 
cent stamp. 



Kinety cent stamp ggg decided that the variety originated in the imagination of a western dealer- 
"nic(ia°Uon! collector. Wishing to give eclat to an auction, he inserted in the catalogue 
of the sale this and certain similar and equally mythical varieties of the higher 
values of the State Department stamps. No collector in the United States 
was able to get a view of them, unlimited bids did not secure them at the 
sale, and it could never be learned to whom they were sold ; therefore, it has 
been concluded that they were only a tour de fantasie. But I am informed, 
by a gentleman whose sources of information are entirely reliable, that this 
variety once existed, though no copy was ever allowed to be circulated. My 
informant once saw, among a lot of misprints and similar oddities, sheets of the 
four bi-colored values of this series all with inverted centeres. Of two values 
there were two sheets each, and of the other two values four sheets each. But 
he does not remember of which there were two and of which four. Though 
he was not interested in stamps, he was attracted by the oddity of these 
varieties and tried hard to obtain copies of them, but without success, and 
the whole lot was burned. 

The split three cents is an interesting variety. All the copies of this 
provisional with which collectors are acquainted, were used by Frank J. 
Bramhall (Assistant Assessor of the 6th Division of the 6th District of Virginia) 
in mailing, to residents of that division, blank forms for statements of the 
amount of their income and personal property, liable to taxation. These 
forms were merely folded, endorsed with the name and address of the ta.x- 
payer, the date, and the name and ofifice of the official mailing them. Such 
documents would be carried in the mails as printed matter, at the rate of two 
cents each. Apparently there was a scarcity of two cent stamps and, to over- 
come the difficulty, three cents stamps were bisected. On some of the 
documents two-thirds of one stamp were used and on others a third from two 
different stamps. It is said that several hundred of these provisionals were 
used, but the finder destroyed the philatelic value of the greater part of them 
by removing the stamps from the documents. , The only copy available at 
this writing is dated April 2nd, 1870'. 

It is not known whether the varieties without grill are the result of 
accident or design. Their scarcity makes it certain that but few were issued 
in this condition, probably one or two small lots. The shades of the higher 
values seem to be identical in all copies, suggesting only one printing. But 
the three cents appears in two slight shades, and the two cents has frequently 
a thicker and darker gum than the other ungrilled varieties ; which would ' 
indicate a second printing of these two values. Ungrilled originals of the six, 
ten and twelve cents are not believed to exist. Copies which have very faint 
grills are frequently offered, with the claim that they are without grill but, 
when the stamps are viewed at the proper angle and in a good light, a trained 
eye will usually detect -the grill. The originals without grill may be distin- 
guished from the re-issue of 1875 by the shades and by having brown gum, 
while the re-issued stamps have a crackled white gum. 

There is in the collection of Mr. H. G. Mandel a block of three cent 

stamps on donbie Stamps of this issue on double paper. The upper paper, which received the 

paper. impression, is quite thin and is embossed over the entire surface. The under 



YarletieN witliout 
Brill. 



ISSUE OF 1869. 



I'S 



paper is thicker and serves merely as a backing for the other. The thirty 
cents is also known on double paper, without any grill. It is printed in colors 
slightly darker than those of the ungrilled stamp on ordinary paper. These 
varieties are fully finished, gummed and perforated. Whether they were ever 
in use or are only essays has not been determined. 

Articles have been written about certain lines and dots found on the 
stamps of this issue, especially on the values which are printed in two colors. 
These lines are found parallel to the sides of the stamps and also crossing 
them, either vertically or horizontally, at the center. The dots are usually at 
or near the middle of some of the four sides. Some writers have published 
elaborate lists of the various positions and combinations of these lines and 
dots. As they were merely guide marks on the plates, intended to insure the 
correct placing of the designs, and should have been erased after the plates 
were finished, they have no apparent philatelic value or interest. 

The plates of the lower values contained three hundred stamps each 
and those of the four higher values one hundred stamps each. The impres- 
sions from the plates of the lower values were divided vertically, making 
sheets of one hundred and fifty stamps. There is some evidence that the 
sheets of the higher values were divided in like manner into sheets of fifty 
stamps, though, from the official circular of March 1st, 1869, it would appear 
that the original intention was to issue them in full sheets of one hundred. 

The imprint used for this issue is "national bank note co., new 
YORK," in small white capitals, on a colored panel with rounded ends. Two 
thin lines of color surround the panel. On the values from one to twelve 
cents inclusive, the imprint appears four times on each sheet of three hundred 
stamps, i. e., at the top and bottom of each half sheet of one hundred and 
fifty. Each imprint is accompanied by "Mo." and numerals corresponding 
to the recorded number of the plate. These plate numbers are placed at the 
top and bottom of the second vertical row of stamps on each side of the 
central dividing line. On the four higher values the imprints and plate 
numbers are arranged as on the lower values, so far as is known. On each 
value, those at the bottom are in the color of and belong to the plate of the 
vignette or central part of the stamp, and those at the top belong to the plate 
for the outer part of the stamp and correspond to it in color. Certain plates 
of the twenty-four and thirty cents appear to have been left without numbers, 
at least sheets of proofs show them in that condition, but numbers may have 
subsequently been added to the plates. 

In addition to the imprints and plate numbers there were certain other 
marks on the margins of the plates. On the values from one to twelve cents 
inclusive, these marks were placed at the middle of the top and bottom, and 
indicated the line on which the sheets were to be cut in half. The half sheets 
of one hundred and fifty stamps, fifteen horizontal rows of ten stamps each, 
were marked for further division into fifties, if desired. These marks were 
placed on the sides of the plates, between the fifth and sixth and the tenth 
and eleventh rows. On the one and two cent values the marginal marks were 
short straight lines. On the three to twelve cents they were composed of 
three lines, forming an arrow head. The four higher values had, at the 



Plate maker's 
guide marks. 



Plates. 



Imprints aud plate 
numbers. 



Marginal marks. 



ii6 



ISSUE OF 1869. 



Plate numbers. 



Statistics of 
manufacture. 



middle of each of the four sides, a T shaped mark which, on the printed 
sheets, shows the colors of both the frame and the vignette plates. 

The numbers of the plates were as follows : 



I cent 




No. 


I, 


2. 










2 cents 




No. 


3, 


4, 5 


6, 27, 28. 






3 cents 




No. 


7> 


8, 9> 


10, 


II, 12, 25, 


26, 


29, 30- 


6 cents 




No. 


13 


14. 










10 cents 




No. 


15 


16. 










12 cents 




No. 


17 


,18. 










15 cents 


(type I) 


Frame No. 


19. 


Vignette 


No. 


19. 


IS cents 


(type II) 


' 






23- 






23- 


15- cents 


(type I) 


' 






3'- 






23- 


15 cents 


(type III) 


i 






32- 






23- 


24 cents 




I 






20: 






20. 


24 cents 




I 






20. 






24. 


24 cents 




i 






— 






20. 


30 cents 




i 






2 1. 






21. 


30 cents 




i 






— 






— 


90 cents 




' 






22. 






22. 



The dashes ( — ) in the above table indicate plates which have no 
number. 

Plate No. 33, given in previous lists, is a new plate of the one cent 
value, which was made for the re-issue of 1875. It contains only 150 
stamps. 

The records show the following quantities of stamps to have been 
prepared and delivered to the agent of the Government : 



1869 I cent. 

Mch. to Dec. 

inclusive 11,077,050 
1870 
Jan. to Apl. 

inclusive 5,528,100 



Total, 16,605,150 
1 2 cents. 



1869 

Mch. to Dec. 

inclusive 

1870 

Jan. to Apl. 

inclusive 



2,595,400 



4'7,55o 



2 cents. 
57,387,500 

26,356,100 

83,743,600 
15 cents. 

776,180 
662,760 



3 cents. 
268,857,750 



6 cents. 
2,593,600 



10 cents. 
1,960,280 



117,618,150 2,289,150 1,339,420 



386,475,900 
24 cents. 

139,975 



Total, 3,012,950 1,438,940 



95,375 



235,350 



4,882,750 
30 cents. 

151,520 
92,590 



3,299,700 
90 cents. 

34,940 
12,520 



244,1 10 



47,460 



The report of the Postmaster General, dated November 15th, 1870, 
gives the following quantities of stamps supplied to deputy postmasters : 



ISSUE OF 1869. 



117 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1 870 : 
Quarter Ending: 



DelirerieB to 
postmasters. 



cent 
cents 
cents 
cents 
cents 
10 cents 
12 cents 
15 cents 
24 cents 
30 cents 
90 cents 



Sept. 30, 1869. 

3,179,300 

'7>493.6oo 

87,559.900 
67,520 
706,500 
821,500 
909,500 
470,620 
66,675 
108,340 

I 2, 060 



Dec. 31, 1869. 

3,944,100 

•9,285,300 

84,567,400 

741,050 
744,340 
809,625 
482,780 

67,725 
84,980 
12,300 



Mch 31, 1870. 

5,284,900 

23,'5i,25o 

97,434,900 



June 30, 1870. 

4,835,800 

17,900,500 

89,449,100 



2,091,750 
1,282,250 

399,825 
576,700 

78,350 
82,570 
12,330 



1,678,450 
986,210 

234,97s 

439,780 

30,700 

60,660 

8,330 



Total , 
17,208,100 
77,830,650 

359,01 1, 3°o 
67,520 

5,217,750 
3,834,300 

2,353,925 
1,969,880 

243,450 
336,550 
45,020 



Counterfeits. 



Whole number of stamps 468,118,445. Value $13,976,768.00. 

We know from other sources of information that, during the period 
covered by this table, stamps of the 1867, 1869 and 1870 issues were supplied 
to the deputy postmasters. Thus its value as a guide to philatelists is, un- 
fortunately, greatly reduced. 

It is said that forged grills have_ been placed upon the stamps of the 
re-issue of 1875. As the ungrilled stamps of the 1875 printing have been, of 
late years at least, scarcer than those printed in 1869, it is not probable that 
this fraud has been extensively practiced. In the Philatelic Journal of 
America for March, 1895, is an account of a counterfeit of the ninety cents 
which was made in Brussels. This was produced by some photo-gelatin 
process and is said to have been very perfect. Fortunately, before any of 
the imitations were circulated, the forger was arrested and the plate destroyed. 

This beautiful series, so much admired by philatelists, did not please 
the public. From its first appearance it met with adverse criticism in the 
public press. Objections were made to the size, shape, colors, designs and Public dissatisfac- 
gum. Interesting extracts from the newspapers of the period will be found 
in the, American Journal of Philately for 1869 (pages 57, 58, 74, no, in, 
and 146). In the same journal for August, 1869 (page 100), we find a note 
that, a correspondent "wishes we would give engravings of the new U. S. 
stamps, as the high values are only to be found in a few of the large cities 
of the North." This indicates one of the reasons for the unpopularity of the 
issue. The general public did not see the handsome high values of the 
series. They used only the lower values, especially the three cents which, 
it must be admitted, was neither an interesting nor a dignified production. 

Whether, as was suggested in a paragraph quoted on a preceding page, 
the National Bank Note Co. were interested in stirring up unfavorable com- 
ment, in the hope of bringing about a change in the issue, we have no means 
of knowing. Probably the stamps printed in two colors were difficult and 
expensive to produce but, as the terms of their contract required them to 
supply any new designs and plates without expense to the Government, it is 
doubtful if they were anxious to make so costly a change. 



tlon with the 
stamps. 



ii8 



ISSUE OF 1869. 



Whether it was due to the press, the public or the contractors, it was 

not long before the stamps of the 1861 type were reverted to. The American 

Stamps of the pre- Journal of Philately for September, 1869 (page 107), says : "A new set of 

ceding issue again adhesives are in preparation for our country, all of the 1869 set having been 

brought luto use. .,, ^ . . . . . . ■' . . , , 

Withdrawn from circulation in the city except the four lowest values, and 
those of 1861 used in their stead." And in the number for the succeeding 
month (page 114), we read : "At present the National Bank Note Company 
are working upon 2 and 3 cents stamps only, as the post office authorities 
propose to call in the rest of the new issue, owing to manifold objections 
made by the community at large." 

The stamps used instead of the different values of the 1869 series, 
were of the 1867 issue, rather than that of 186 r, since they, had the grill. 



Issue of 1870, 



The stamps of the 1869 series having failed to please either the public 
or the press, it was decided to replace them by a new issue. The report of 
the Postmaster General, dated November 15th, 1870, explains the reasons for 
the change and gives a brief description of the new stamps : 

"The adhesive stamps adopted by my predecessor in 1869, having failed to give 
satisfaction to the public, on account of their small size, their unshapely form, the inapprop- 
riateness of their designs, the difficulty of cancelling them effectually, and the inferior quality Historical. 

of the gum used in their manufacture, I found it necessary, in April last, to issue new stamps, 
of larger size, superior quality of gum, and improved designs. As the contract then in force 
contained a provision that the stamps should be changed, and new designs and plates 
furnished at the pleasure of the Postmaster General, without additional cost to the depart- 
ment, I decided to substitute an entire new series, one-third larger in size, and to adopt for 
designs the heads, in profile, of distinguished deceased Americans. This style was deemed 
the most eligible because it not only afforded the best opportunity for the exercise of the 
highest grade of artistic skill in composition and execution, but also appeared to be the most 
difficult to counterfeit. The designs were selected from marble busts of acknowledged ex- 
cellence, as follows : 

One cent, Franklin, after Rubricht ; two cents, Jackson, after Powers ; three cents, 
Washington, after Houdon ; six cents, Lincoln, after Volk ; ten cents, Jefferson, after Power's 
statute ; twelve cents, Clay, after Hart ; fifteen cents, Webster after Clevenger ; ^twenty- 
four cents, Scott, after Coffee ; thirty cents, Hamilton, after Cerrachi ; ninety cents, Com- 
modore O. H. Perry, profile bust, after Wolcutt's statute. 

The stamps were completed and issues of them began in April last. The superior 
gum with which they are coated is not the least of the advantages derived from the change." 

The proposed new issue was announced as early as September, 1869. 
The American Journal of Philately for December of that year (page 143), 
gave a list of the portrait busts selected for the series. The stamps were 
not placed on sale, however, until about April 15th, 1870. The issue was 
announced by the following official circular : 

CIRCULAR TO POS TMASTERS. Circular announcing 

v^ _ ^ the Issue. 

^ Post Office Department. 

Office of Third Assistant Postmaster General. 

April 9th, 1870. 

New Series of Postage Stamps. 

At an early date, in the regular course of business, the Department will issue to Post- 
masters, postage stamps of a new design. (See description annexed). 

You are required to exhaust all of the present style on hand before supplying the 
public with the new ; and in no case will you be allowed to make exchanges for individuals 
or to return the stamps to the Department to be exchanged. 

The stamps now in use are not to be disregarded, but must be recognized in all cases, 
equally with the new ones. The stamps known as the series of 1861, of which a few are 
supposed to be yet outstanding, are also to be recognized. Those issued prior to the com- 
mencement of the war of the Rebellion were long since declared to be valueless. 



ISSUE OF 1870. 



Date of issue. 



The seven ceut 
stamp. 



Date of issae. 



First printing of 

tile seven cent 

stamp. 



Special attention is called to the fact that each sheet, of all denominations of the new 
series, contains but 100 stamps. This must be borne in mind to prevent mistakes in count- 
ing, as in the present issue some of the denominations have 150 stamps to the sheet. 

Special requests for the new style of stamps will be disregarded until the stock of the 
present issue, in possession of the Department, is exhausted. 

Wm. H. Terrell, 
Third Assistant Postmaster General. 

The date of issue is given by Mr. Tiffany as May, 1870, but this 
appears to be slightly incorrect. The American Journal of Philately for 
April 20th, 1870, gave a colored illustration of the three cents and announced 
the series as issued. In describing the stamps it said : " For reference we 
reprint from the extra of 25th March." A copy of this extra is not available 
but it is understood to have been merely a single leaf, giving a list of the 
new stamps, their designs and colors. In view of the date of the circular of 
the Third Assistant Postmaster General it would seem doubtful if the stamps 
were actually in issue on March 25th. Possibly they were described from 
proofs or from a set shown by some official. Probably the actual date of 
issue was not far from April 15th, 1870. 

The seven cent stamps did not appear with the other values of the 
series, that rate not being established until April 7th, 1870. Concerning this 
value the report of the Postmaster General, dated November 15th, 1870, says: 

" Upon the conclusion of the postal treaty with the North German Confederation, 
fixing the single letter rate by direct steamers at seven cents, to take effect the ist of July last, 
a stamp of that denomination was adopted, and the profile bust of the late Edwin M. Stanton 
selected for the design. This has been completed in a satisfactory manner but, owing to the 
temporary discontinuance of the direct mail steamship service to North Germany, it has not 
been issued to postmasters." 

The discontinuance referred to was caused by the Franco-Prussian 
war. 

Mr. Tiffany again seems to be in error when he gives the date of issue 
of this stamp as July, 1870. He was probably misled by the fact that the 
postal treaty above referred to was to go into effect on the 1st of that month. 
But it is quite evident that the appearance of the stamp was delayed until a 
much later date. The American Journal of Philately for July 20th, 1870 
(page 84), says : 

"The seven cent stamp that we described, but omitted to state its value, has been 
printed off in a variety of colors and has a very beautiful appearance. They were intended 
to have been issued last week ; but the war in Europe and consequent stopping of the 
Bremen steamer, has made them useless for the present. It is very doubtful if they will be 
issued till peace has been established in Europe." 

In the August number of the same journal (page 95), we read : 

" We understand that the new seven cent stamp will be adorned with the profile of 
Stanton, but they will not be issued yet." 

On November isth, 1870, the report of the Postmaster General, pre- 
viously quoted, distinctly says : " It has not yet been issued to postmasters." 

Finally, the records of the contractors show that no seven cent stamps 
were printed until March, 1871. 

It was not until April 20, 1871, that "C^t American Journal of Philately 
reported : " The seven cent stamp * * has at length made its appear- 
ance." 



ISSUE OF 1870. 12 1 

At that late date it could have been of but little avail for correspon- 
dence to Germany, as the letter rate to that country was reduced to six cents 
by the postal treaty which was signed at Washington on March 3rd, and at 
Berlin on May 14th, 1871, taking effect "on the date of the dispatch of the 
first mail." On December ist, 1871, a treaty was made with Denmark which 
established a rate of seven cents for letters to that country, beginning January 
ist, 1872, and thus renewed the usefulness of the stamp of that value. 

The ofificial description of the stamps of the 1870 series is as follows : Designs. 

" One cent. A lined rectangular ground is left uncovered near the 
edges of the stamp on all sides. Inside this a more distinctly outlined border 
of scroll work and conventionally foliated ornaments fills the space to the 
medallion, which contains a profile bust of Franklin. The sides of this border 
are symmetrically curved inward, the corners being ornamentally rounded, 
and on it, resting upon and following the upper curve of the medallion, is a 
narrow panel bearing the words ' u. s. postage '. The words ' one ' and 
' CENT ', in white capitals, at the bottom, appear in two curves, drooping at the 
ends and separated by an ornate, heavy-faced, white figure ' i ' 

Two CENTS. An oval medallion, containing the profile bust of Jack- 
son, after Powers' statue, rests upon a shield covering almost the entire 
stamp and placed upon a faint-lined rectangular ground. On this shield, 
above the medallion, is an ornamented tablet, curving with the ellipse, except 
at the ends of the line, which tend outward, and bearing the words ' u. s. 
postage '. Faint traces of leafy branches curving upward fill the space at 
the bottom and sides of the shield not covered by the medallion. Across 
this, upon a ribbon-like double-curved tablet flowing at the ends, are the 
words, in white capitals, 'two' and 'cents', divided by the denomination 
figure ' 2 '. 

Three cents. Nearly the whole face of the stamp is taken up by a 
shield resting upon a dimly lined ground, on which shield the bust of Wash- 
ington, after Houdon's statue, in an oval frame, is placed, surmounted by a 
curved ornamented tablet bearing the words ' u. s. postage '. Under the 
portrait, on a flowing ribbon with forked ends, are the words ' three cents ', 
separated by a large Arabic white-faced flgure ' 3 '. 

Six cents. On a delicately lined ground appears a dark rectangular 
mass of color, with heavy side projections nearly one-third of the length, on 
which is the bust of Lincoln in an oval medallion, surmounted by a panel 
bearing the words ' u. s. postage '. Below the medallion, on a waved ribbon 
with forked ends, are the words ' six cents ', in white capitals, separated by 
a large white Arabic figure ' 6 '. 

Seven cents. A large rectangular tablet, ornamented at the four 
corners with heavy balls, rests upon a background, the edges of which alone 
appear. On this tablet is an oval medallion containing the profile bust of 
Stanton, surmounted by a curved panel bearing the words ' u. s. postage ', 
while below the medallion is a similar panel bearing the words 'seven cents' 
in white capitals, separated by a white Arabic figure ' 7 ' 

Ten cents. A large faint-lined shield rests upon a darker rectangular 



122 ISSUE OF 1870. 

ground. On this shield is a profile bust of Jefferson, in an oval medallion, 
with the words ' u. s. postage ' above and ' ten cents ', separated by the 
number " 10 ', below, displayed in the same way as the legends on the six 
cent stamp. 

Twelve cents. On a lined rectangular frame is a raised panel of the 
same shape, with beveled edges. On this panel rests an oval medallion, bear- 
ing the profile bust of Henry Clay. Above and below, in curved tablets, 
connected on the sides by triangular joints, are respectively the words, in white 
capitals, 'u. s. postage' and 'twelve cents', Ihe two latter words being 
separated by the number ' 12 ' in Arabic figures. The words of denomina- 
tion are of block letters. 

Fifteen cents. On a lined rectangular frame, with triangular panels 
set in near each corner, is an oval medallion bearing the profile bust of Daniel 
Webster. Above, in a curved tablet, ending on either side in a circular knob, 
are the words, in shaded white letters, ' u. s. postage '. Below, in a similar 
tablet, but without knobs, in small white letters, are the words ' fifteen 
CENTS ', separated by the number ' 15 ' in ornamented Arabic figures. 

Twenty-four cents. The denomination numerals, ' 24 ' in Gothic 
type, are in each of the upper corners, conforming in their position to the 
curve of an ornamental tablet, placed immediately above an ellipitical medal- 
lion bearing a profile bust of Gen. Winfield Scott. Thirteen five-pointed 
stars are placed on this tablet; two at each end are blank white, while each 
of the eleven remaining bears a small Gothic capital letter, constituting the 
legend ' u. s. postage ', in the color of the stamp. The denomination is given 
at the bottom in small white Gothic capitals ' twenty-four ', close up to and 
following the ellipse line, and ' cents ' in a straight line, in the middle, below. 
In the left lower corner appears a flag, loosely gathered around its staff, the 
muzzle end and part of the wheels of a piece of field artillery, and a pile of 
shells ; in the right are three muskets stacked. 

Thirty cents. On a rectangular-lined ground is placed a heavy 
beveled tablet, rounded in a half circle at the bottom, and with the upper 
corners described by bastion-like projections. From this point down to the 
half circle — a distance of half an inch — the tablet is straight lined on its sides 
and narrower than the stamp by about one-sixteenth of an inch. On the 
tablet is an elliptical medallion bearing the profile bust of Alexander Hamilton. 
The legend, ' u. s. postage ', above the medallion, is curved as on the 6-cent 
stamp, except that no panel encloses it, and the words 'thirty ' and 'cents' 
appear in black capitals at the bottom, on a double-curved ribbon, dropping 
inward, with forked ends. 

Ninety cents. The upper half of an elliptical medallion bearing the 
profile bust of Commodore Perry, is bounded by a rope, attached at each end 
by eye-splices to a swinging panel describing the lower half of the ellipse, and 
bearing the words ' ninety ' and ' cents ' in block letters, assigned to the left 
and right of the number ' 90 '. A plain tablet is the basis of the stamp, and 
is beveled except within one-eighth of an inch of the corners, where it exhibits 
sharp edges. In each upper corner is a five-pointed star, raised in the center, 



ISSUE OF 1870. 



123 



Stamps on donble 
paper. 



Grills. 



and in each lower corner the flukes of an anchor and part of the shank 
project from under the panel." 

The stamps of this issue are of uniform size, measuring 2ox25ram. 

The paper is white wove, varying from thin to moderately thick. On 
many of the stamps the surface of the paper is slightly tinted by the ink. 
This is particularly the case with the thirty cents, which has always a gray 
surface from this cause. 

The gum ranges from yellowish to brown. 

I have recently seen the six and twenty-four cent stamps on double 
paper. The former was on the original cover and cancelled " Providence, 
R. I., Nov. ist, 1870." These stamps were doubtless made under patent 
86,952, issued February i6th, 1869, to Charles F. Steel of New York. Further 
reference to this patent will be made in the next chapter. This double 
paper was composed of a very thin paper, backed by a thicker and firmer 
one. The impressions were to be made on the thin paper which, it was 
expected, would be destroyed by any attempt to remove a cancellation. 
Strange to say, the two copies which I have seen were both printed on the 
thicker paper, which, of course, completely nullified the intention of the 
inventor. I think it is quite probable that other denominations of this issue 
exist on double paper. 

The stamps of this series were issued both with and without the grill 
and both styles appear to have been in use at the same time. The Stamp 
Collectors' Magazine for June ist, 1870 (page 89), announces the appearance 
of the one, two, three, six and ten cents and says : " The i cent and 10 cents 
are on paper impressed with the quadrilled square ; the others, if we may judge 
simply from our specimens, are on plain paper.'' Other journals, when 
describing the stamps, do not speak of the embossing, either because it was 
lacking on the specimens in hand or because it was considered too familiar a 
feature to require comment. The records of the contractors do not make any 
mention of embossing on this series. 

It had long been evident that the grill did not produce the results 
claimed for it nor add anything to the usefulness of the stamps. A clause in 
the contract required the stamps to be embossed and some pretense of apply- 
ing the process was maintained at first. But it was not regularly used and 
finally was abandoned altogether. At such times as it was used the result 
was generally insignificant. On the majority of the stamps only a portion of 
the grill can be seen, on some of them only a few points. There are also 
strips in which some stamps show the grill while others have absolutely no 
trace of it. These defects should not be attributed to the wearing of the grill 
roller. They are due to the deterioration of the leaden bed on which the 
sheets of stamps rested. This bed had so yielded to pressure that it did not 
hold the sheets firmly against the roller and, as a consequence, the grill was 
often imperfect and sometimes lacking entirely. The pressure of the hydraulic 
press also helped to obliterate the grill. 

Philatelists have had much cause to regret that this obsolete device 
was ever impressed on the stamps of this issue. Many values are rare with 
the grill and, as a consequence, have tempted the forgers. When a grill is Connterfeit griUs. 



Defective grills. 



124 



ISSUE OF 1870. 



grill rollers. 



Strongly impressed it is usually possible to decide as to its merits or demerits. 
When, however, it is indistinct, it becomes extremely difficult to pronounce 
upon its character It is impossible to establish any fixed rules for distin- 
guishing the gopd from the bad. A thorough understanding of the character- 
istics of all genuine grills, as well as of the paper, gum and shades of the 
stamps of this particular issue, are the most reliable guides. With study and 
experience there comes an instinctive knowledge of the subject, to which one 
cannot give adequate verbal expression. 

It may be of passing interest to know what became of the grill rollers 
— the only important part of the machinery — after their use was discontinued. 
Destrnction of the In 1884, the American Bank Note Co., who held the contract for printing 
the tickets for the New York and Brooklyn Bridge, were called upon to 
provide a machine to destroy the tickets which Jiad been used. The grill 
rollers were utilized to make this machine. Around them were cut alternate 
grooves and knife-like edges and they were placed in such juxtaposition that, 
when the tickets were passed between them, they were cut into shreds. The 
machine was afterwards abandoned for some other process, but its interest 
for philatelists ceased when there was no further possibility of it being used 
to produce grills. 

The grills of the 1870 issue vary somewhat in size, though they have 
not such an extensive range as those of the 1867 issue. Several values have 
been found with the grill extending from top to bottom of the stamp and 
varying in width. As was explained on page 99, this variety is caused by a 
continuous band of bosses on each end of the roller. 

As many of the grills show only a few points, it would be impossible 
to assign every specimen to a particular heading and, therefore, it seems best 
to give separate lists of the sizes of the grills and shades of the stamps. 

The following list has been arranged from one compiled by Mr. J. B. 
Leavy, and published in the American Journal of Philately for April, 1896, 
to which I have added a number of varieties from personal observation : 



Tarieties of the 
grill. 



Reference List 
of grills. 



1 cent ultramarine 

2 cents red-brown 

1 cent ultramarine 

2 cents red-brown 

3 cents green 
3 cents green 
3 cents green 

6 cents camiine-rose 

1 cent ultramarine 

2 cents red-brown 

3 cents green 

7 cents vermilion 

1 2 cents pale dull violet 
15 cents bright orange 
24 cents dull purple 
90 cents carmine-lake 



Rows of points, 
roxio 

10x12 



Size in mm. 
8x8 

Li 
8X10 



10x13 


8xio>^ 


IIXII 


8>^X9 


11X12 


&H^9H 


IIXI3 


8>^xio>^ 





ISSUE OF 1870. 




125 






Rows of points. 


Size in mm. 


90 cents carmine-lake 




1 1x15 


8>^XI2}^ 


3 cents green 




12x14 


9x11 


24 cents dull purple 




12x15 


9x12 


90 cents carmine-lake 




(( 


(f 


1 cent, ultramarine 




13x15 


10x12 


2 cents red-brown 




tx 


li 


3 cents green 




" 


u 


6 cents carmine-rose 




'• 


u 


7 cents vermilion 




•• 


- 


10 cents brown 




" 


" 


15 cents bright orange 






" 


30 cents black 




" 


it 


1 cent ultramarine 




13x16 


10XI2}4 


3 cents green 




tl 


ii 


7 cents vermilion 




a 


a 


90 cents carmine-lake 




u 


ii 



The stamps are found in the following colors and shades : Beference List 

of colors. 
White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 
With grill 8 to 8>^x8 to io>^mm. 

April iSth, 1870. I cent pale ultramarine, ultramarine, deep ultramarine 

2 cents pale red-brown, red-brown, orange-brown 

3 cents pale green, green 
6 cents carmine-rose 

April, 1871. 7 cents scarlet-vermilion 

April iSth, 1870. 12 cents pale dull violet 

15 cents bright orange 

30 cents full black 

90 cents carmine-lake 

With grill 9 to 10x11 to i2J^mm. 

1 cent pale ultramarine, ultramarine, dark ultramarine, 

bright ultramarine 

2 cents pale red-brown, red-brown, orange-brown 

3 cents pale green, green, pale yellow-green, yellow-green, 

deep green 

6 cents pale carmine-rose, carmine-rose, carmine 

7 cents scarlet-vermilion, vermilion 

10 cents yellow-brown, brown, dark brown 
1 5 cents bright orange, orange, deep orange 
24 cents pale dull purple 
30 cents full black 
90 cents carmine-lake 



126 ISSUE OF 1870. 



Varieties . 



1 cent ultramarine. Grill extending from top to bottom 

2 cents red-brown, pale red-brown " 

3 cents yellow-green, light green " 

6 cents carmine-rose, carmine " 

7 cents scarlet-vermilion " 
10 cents yellow -brown " 
12 cents dull violet " 
30 cents full black " 

Without grill. 

1 cent pale ultramarine, ultramarine, dark ultramarine, 

bright ultramarine, gray-blue, dull blue, chalky 
blue 

2 cents pale red-brown, red-brown, deep red-brown, 

orange-brown, brown, dark brown 

3 cents gray-green, pale green, green, yellow-green 

6 cents pale rose, rose, brown-rose, rose-carmine, carmine, 

brown-carmine, violet-carmine 

7 cents scarlet-vermilion, orange-vermilion, vermilion 

10 cents yellow-brown, brown, dark brown, gray-brown, 

dark gray-brown 
12 cents pale dull violet, dull violet, gray-violet 
I s cents pale bright orange, bright orange 
24 cents red-purple, purple, deep purple, gray-purple 
30 cents full black, gray-black 
90 cents carmine-lake, lake 

Varieties : 

2 cents red-brown. Diagonal half and another copy, 

used as three cents. Cancelled at Hardy, Ala., 
April 2nd, 1872 

3 cents green. Imperforate 

3 cents green. Impression on the reverse 

Double paper. 
6 cents carmine 
24 cents purple 

Each of the plates of the 1870 issue contained two hundred stamps, 
arranged is two panes, side by side. The impressions from these plates were 
Plates. divided into sheets of one hundred stamps each. The imprint appears at the 

middle of the top and bottom of each half of the plate. Between each 
imprint and the central dividing line is the number of the plate, in script 
numerals, preceded by " JVo.'' Two styles of imprint were used. The first 
was " NATIONAL BANK NOTE CO. NEW YORK ", in white Capitals, on a small 
panel with rounded ends, surrounded by two thin colored lines. The second 
imprint was " engraved and printed by the — national bank note co. 
NEW YORK ", in two lines of white capitals, on a tablet with pearled edge and 



ISSUE OF 1870. 



127 



surrounded by a single thin colored line. The first variety has been seen on 
plates numbered as high as 27 and the second on 32 and higher numbers. 

The plate numbers are : 



I cent 


No. 16, 17, 50, 51, 52, 53. 


2 cents 


No. 12, 13, 14, 15, 28, 30, 34, 35, 45, 46, 47. 


3 cents 


No. I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 25, 29, 31, 32, 




36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 54, SS- 


6 cents 


No. 26, 27. 


7 cents 


No. 33. 


10 cents 


No. 18, 19, 48, 49. 


12 cents 


No. 24. 


15 cents 


No. 20. 


24 cents 


No. 21. 


30 cents 


No. 22. 


90 cents 


No. 23. 



The imperforate three cent stamps were printed from plate 11. 

Only a very limited amount of information can be obtained in regard 
to the plate numbers of the embossed stamps. The following numbers are 
all that are known but, doubtless, many other plates were used, especially for 
the one, two and three cent stamps. 



2 cents 


No. 


45- 


3 cents 


No. 


II. 


7 cents 


No. 


33- 


12 cents 


No. 


24. 


IS cents 


No. 


20. 


24 cents 


No. 


21. 


30 cents 


No. 


22. 


90 cents 


No. 


23- 





1870 


1871 


1872 


1873 






Apl. to Dec. 


Jan. to Dec. 


Jan. to Dec. 


Jan. to Apl. 






inclusive. 


inclusive. 


inclusive. 


inclusive. 


Total. 


I cent 


13,404,400 


21,573,400 


64,705,900 


38,408,000 


138,091,700 


2 cents 


54,674,800 


90,416,500 


73,018,200 


22,626,400 


240,735,900 


3 cents 


252,804,450 


369,632,700 


417,952,400 


164,570,100 ] 


,204,959,650 


6 cents 


4,666,450 


8,270,250 


10,193,050 


4,269,100 


27,398,850 


7 cents 




1,486,700 


1,066,100 


394,100 


2,946,900 


10 cents 


2,619,180 


3,395,870 


3,443,27° 


1,187,240 


10,645,560 


12 cents 


665,99s 


1,104,600 


1,075,525 


484,325 


3,330,44s 


15 cents 


1,026,840 


1,856,680 


1,871,420 


826,860 


5,581,800 


24 cents 


122,000 


229,450 


299,625 


135,975 


787,050 


30 cents 


i3',S8° 


258,620 


366,573 


106,770 


863,543 


90 cents 


23,100 


119,240 


57,580 


13,530 


213,450 



Plate numbers. 



Plate numbers of 
the grilled stamps. 



The records show the following quantities of stamps to have been 
printed and delivered to the Stamp Agent : 



statistics of 
manufacture. 



T28 ISSUE OF 1870. 






Remainders. 






1 cent. 2 cents. 3 cents. 6 cents. 


7 cents. 


10 cents. 


12,227,300 5,826,900 56,092,900 1,155,250 


422,600 


925.440 


12 cents. 15 cents. 24 cents. 30 cents. 


90 cents. 




363.05° 390.7°° 581,450 509.060 


85.570 





These remainders doubtless represent an undistributed balance of 
stamps from several preceding issues and not from the 1870 issue alone. 

BeiiTeries to The reports of the Postmaster General supply the following statistics 

poBtmasters. q£ stamps distributed to deputy postmasters : 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1871 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1870. 


Dec. 31, 1870. 


Mch. 31, 1871. 


June 30, 1 87 1. 


Total. 


I cent 


3,684,800 


5,163,000 


5,699,100 


5,605,900 


20,152,800 


2 cents 


17,222,300 


22,756.850 


24.571.100 


21,174,300 


85,724,550 


3 cents 


86,944,500 


97,146,100 


99,791,100 


93,719,500 


377,601,200 


6 cents 


1,414,100 


1,723,500 


2,109,900 


2,038,150 


7.285,650 


7 cents 






166,400 


427,600 


594,000 


10 cents 


803,880 


886,260 


963,030 


926,430 


3,579,600 


12 cents 


231,500 


246,350 


303,725 


232,675 


1,014,250 


15 cents 


326,480 


346,640 


503.320 


463,620 


1,640,060 


24 cents 


30,300 


78,075 


57,725 


71,925 


238,025 


30 cents 


28,920 


67,320 


69,110 


70,150 


235.500 


90 cents 


5,070 


9,910 


14,770 


30,790 


60,540 



Whole number of stamps 498,126,175. Value $14,630,715.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1872 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1871. Dec. 31, 1871. Mch. 31, 1872. June 30, 1872. Total. 

1 cent 4,846,000 5,422,400 6,531,800 10,862,900 27,663,100 

2 cents 21,669,200 23,001,900 25,918,800 21,383,600 9«, 973,500 

3 cents 94,873,100 102,041,000 105,623,600 101,963,800 404,501,500 

6 cents 2,002,700 2,119,500 2,722,950 2,384,600 9,229,750 

7 cents 449,600 361,100 257,300 247,900 1,315,900 
10 cents 808,860 677,550 922,970 708,160 3,n7,S40 
12 cents 268,775 299,425 338,675 318,47s 1,225,350 
15 cents 378,180 411,560 580,900 431,460 1,802,100 
24 cents 52.775 47,025 116,500 61,950 278,250 
30 cents 58,350 Si.o'o 108,990 S7,S8o 27S,930 
90 cents 24,380 12,680 13,650 21,440 72,150 

Whole number of stamps 541,455,070. Value $15,840,649.00. 



ISSUE OF 1870. 



129 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1873 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1872. Dec. 31, 1872. Mch. 31, 1873. June 30, 1873. 
2Si33S.200 21,976,000 26,206,100 24,335,400 



1 cent 

2 cents 11,398,900 14,316,900 17,518,700 13,158,800 

3 cents 100,535,000 109,830,000 109,519,800 108,729,600 
6 cents 2,323,250 2,762,250 3,026,250 2,589,600 

394,600 270,300 281,100 

1,098,930 93z>23° 673,100 

347,600 324,250 322,925 

457,060 536,440 502,900 

85,200 84,400 75,425 

129,780 73,320 71,990 

24,330 7,500 12,750 



7 


cents 


166,300 


10 


cents 


713,210 


12 


cents 


270,77s 


IS 


cents 


399,000 


24 


cents 


35,975 


30 


cents 


70,220 


90 


cents 


8,160 



Total. 

97,852,700 

56,393,300 

428,614,400 

10,701,350 

1,112,300 

3,417,470 

1,265,550 

1,895,400 

281,000 

345,3'o 

52,740 



Whole number of stamps 601,931,520. Value $16,681,189.00. 

As the stamps of the 1870 issue appeared in April of that year and the 
contract of the National Bank Note Co. expired on April 30th, 1873, it is 
evident that the preceding tables do not accurately report the total issue of 
the stamps manufactured by that company. 



Issues of 1873-75, 



Historical. 



Secret marlis on 
the stamps. 



Purpose of the 
secret marks. 



In December, 1872, the Postmaster General, as required bylaw, adver- 
tised for bids for supplying thq postage stamps that would be required by the 
Post Office Department for a period of four years, beginning May ist, 1873. 
This contract was awarded to the Continental Bank Note Co. of New York. 

By order of the Department, the designs prepared by the National 
Bank Note Co., in 1870, were continued in use. The new contractors com- 
pleted their first plate on April 7th, 1873, and began printing stamps at once. 
It is not possible to say how soon after May i st, the issue of the stamps to 
the public was begun. The first notice of thefn appears in the American 
Journal of Philately for August isth, 1873 (page 126), where we read : 

" The difference is easily noticed without the aid of the Company's imprint, the colors 
being paler than heretofore, and of a slightly washy appearance." 

This, however, was not the only difference, for the manufacturers had 
provided other means of identifying the stamps made by them. On most of 
the values they placed secret marks. These marks were quite sufficient to 
distinguish their stamps from those of the preceding contractors but, at the 
same time, were of so unobtrusive a nature as to escape detection for many 
years, even by the sharp eyes of philatelists. Much interest was excited by 
the announcement in March, 1895, of the discovery of the secret mark on 
the twelve cents. This was followed, in succeeding months, by the finding 
of similar marks on all the other values of the series expect the thirty cents. 

Undoubtedly the object of these marks was to provide a simple and 
positive proof that the stamps bearing them were the product of the Con- 
tinental Bank Note Co. For several years previous to 1873 there had been 
much complaint, both by the public and the press, as to the quality of our 
postage stamps, not only in regard to the designs and colors but also as to 
poor printing and gumming. It is understood that the Continental Bank 
Note Co. believed that large quantities of the stamps made by their pre- 
decessors were of inferior quality. And they feared, because the designs 
used by the two contractors were identical, that these inferior stamps might, 
at some later date, be thrown on their hands by the Government, with the 
claim that they were produced under their contract and must be replaced by 
them. To forestall any such possibility the secret marks were added. 

The new contractors also made haste to provide themselves with new 
plates, made from the altered dies, that they might not be required to make 



ISSUES OF 1873-75. 



131 



any use of the plates of their predecessors. By the date of the commence- 
ment of their contract they had an ample supply of plates for all values from 
one to fifteen cents inclusive. In view of these facts, I have never believed 
in printings by the Continental Bank Note Co. from plates of the National 
Bank Note Co., except for the three higher values, though such printings 
have been listed in various publications. The correctness of this conclusion 
is confirmed by those whose position enables them to speak with authority. 

The following enlarged illustrations will assist the reader in under- 
standing the description of the secret marks : 

National Bank Note Co. 




I cent. 2 cents. 3 cents. 6 cents. 

Continental Bank Note Co. 



7 cents. 10 cents. 




I cent. 



2 cents. 3 cents. 6 cents. 

National Bank Note Co. 



7 cents, 10 cents. 




12 cents. 15 cents. 24 cents. 



Continental Bank Note Co. 



90 cents. 




12 cents. 



15 cents. 



24 cents. 90 cents. 



Briefly described, the secret marks are as follows : 
One cent. A small curved dash in the first pearl at the left of the 
numeral " 1." 

Two CENTS. A short diagonal line below the colorless ball at the 
left of the " s " of " u. s." This line can only be seen on very clearly printed 
copies. But if, at this point, the space between the ornamental outline of 
the panel which is inscribed " u. s. postage " and the first vertical line of the 
background (counting toward the left) is blurred or partly filled with color, 
it may be accepted as an indication of the presence of the line. On all the 
stamps printed by the National Bank Note Co. this space is quite clear and 
white. 



Kew platen. 



Description of the 
secret marie s. 



132 ISSUES OF 1873-75. 

Three cents. A heavy shading below the upper fork of the ribbon 
which bears the word "three." 

Six cents. In the curve of the ribbon bearing the word " six " the 
first four lines, counting from the left, are recut and deepened. 

Seven cents. Two small semi-circles drawn around the ends of the 
lines which outline the ball in the lower right corner. 

Ten cents. A small colored semi-circle in the white ball which 
terminates the right hand end of the panel inscribed " u. s. postage." 

Twelve cents. The two white balls of the " 2 " of " 12 " have been 
cut away until they are nearly crescent shape. 

Fifteen cents. In the triangle in the upper left corner, two lines 
at the lower angle have been deepened and form a sort of " v." 

Twenty-four cents. In the star at the extreme right of the semi-circle 
above the medallion five lines have been much deepened and two others 
slightly so. 

Thirty cents. No secret mark have been discovered on this value, 
though the engraver who added the marks to the other stamps is positive that 
the thirty cents was similarly treated. 

Ninety cents. Five lines of the star in the upper right corner have 
been deepened. 

The Continental Bank Note Co. did not make new plates for the twenty- 
four, thirty and ninety cent stamps. They did not print any stamps of these 
No secret marks on values before the year 1874 and then felt themselves safe in using the plates 

the three higher ^f ^j^g National Bank Note Co. For these reasons we do not find any secret 
ralues. ■' 

marks on the stamps of these three values which were printed by the first 

named company. They may only be distinguished by differences in the 
shades, paper and gum. Our knowledge of the secret marks which were in- 
tended to appear on these stamps is obtained from proof impressions from the 
altered dies. 

Except for the addition of the secret marks the designs of the stamps 
of the 1873 series are the same as those of the 1870 issue. The size is, of 
course, unchanged. 

A circular, issued by the Third Assistant Postmaster General, under 
date of June 21st, 1875, announced the reduction of the rate of postage to 
Pire cent stamp five cents, to those countries which had united in the Universal Postal Union, 
announced. ^j^^j jj^g preparation of a stamp of that value. It may be interesting to know 
which countries constituted the Postal Union at its inception. The treaty 
was signed at Berne on Oct. 9th, 1874, by delegates from the following 
countries : 

Germany, Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Denmark (including Iceland 

and the Faroe islands), Egypt, Spain (including the Balaeric isles, the Canary 

Countries lo the islands, the Spanish possessions on the northern coast of Africa, and the 

^"'"uniin^""'''' P°^'^' establishments of Spain on the western coast of Morocco), Great 

Britain (including the island of Malta), Greece, Italy, Luxemburg, Norway, 

Netherlands, Portugal (including Madeira and the Azores), Roumania, Russia 



ISSUES OF 1873-75. 133 

(including the Grand Duchy of Finland), Servia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey 
and the United States. Subsequently this treaty was duly approved and 
ratified by the governments of each of these countries and acts of ratification 
were exchanged at Berne on May 3rd, 1875. At that date France also gave 
its adhesion to the treaty, with certain reservations, the principal of which 
was that the treaty should not enter into effect, so far as France was concerned, 
until January ist, 1876. For the other countries the treaty took effect on 
July ist, 1875. 

The above mentioned circular further stated : 

"The changes in foreign postages will render unnecessary the further use of the 7, 12 
and 24 cent stamps and stamped envelopes, and they will accordingly be discontinued. Three denomlnatious 

In order to avoid the liability to mistake caused by the near similarity in color between disoontinned. 
the two and ten cent stamp, the former will in future be printed in vermilion, the color of 
the discontinued seven cent stamp." 

The stock of the discontinued values was ordered to be used up, so 
far as possible. These changes were to take effect on July 1st, 1875. 

Mr. Tiffany gives the date of issue of the five cent stamp as Oct. 5th, 
1875, ^^^ 'his is evidently incorrect. As will be seen, on a subsequent page, 
in the tables of stamps issued to deputy postmasters, 363,180 of this value Date of issue of the 
were issued in the quarter ending June 30, 1875. And in the American Jour- "^* """t stamp. 
nal of Philately ior June 20th, 1875 (page 90) we find the stamp illustrated 
and described as "come to hand." The report of the Postmaster General, 
dated Nov. 15th, 1875, says : " To meet the new letter rate of foreign postage 
under the treaty of Berne, postage stamps of the denomination of five cents 
began to be issued on the 21st of June last." This statement is apparently 
based on the circular previously quoted, and may not be absolutely correct. 
The stamp was probably issued between the isth and 30th of June, 1875. 

The description of the stamp is as follows : Design. 

"Five cents (Taylor). Tablet, legend, and denomination are of a 
style very similar to the t o cent stamp. The portrait of Gen. Zachary Taylor is 
the only full face in the series. The dress is an open double-breasted military 
coat within which appear the neck stock and high white collar." 

The stamp is of the same size as the other denominations of the series, 
20x25mm. 

The die for this stamp was supplied to the contractors by the Bureau 
of Engraving and Printing, by whom the vignette had been used on the six 
ounce tobacco stamp of the series of 1 87 1 . To conform with the rest of Origin of the die. 
the series the vignette was placed in a medallion, surrounded by devices 
identical with those on the ten cent stamp. The head was too large for the 
medallion and the result was incongruous. 

The years covered by the contracts of the Continental Bank Note Co. 
were prolific in designs and patents intended to prevent the cleaning and 
re-use of postage stamps. Some of these ideas were given a trial while others 
apparently did not get beyond the preparatory stage. 

The majority of collectors are probably not aware that this company 
made use of the grill. In spite of the admitted failure of this device, when 
used by their predecessors, they provided themselves with the necessary machin- Grills, 

ery and applied the process to a few thousand stamps. The correctness 



"34 



ISSUES OF 1873-75. 



of this statement is vouched for by the Treasurer of the company, the 
Superintendent of the stamp department, the patentee of the process and the 
man who made the grill roller. In the collection of a New York amateur is 
an impression from the roller, on a sheet of white paper the size of a sheet of 
stamps. There are also in two New York collections, a very few copies of the 
grilled stamps. The grill is small and very clearly impressed. It measures 
7^x9j^mm., or 10x12 rows of points. The grills are placed 14mm. apart 
horizontally and 18mm. vertically. The bosses, instead of being perfect 
pyramids, as on previous grills, are not brought to a point but have the top 
truncated. Thus the impressions have the appearance of a group of tiny 
rectangles instead of crosses. 

What is known as the Fletcher or cog-wheel grill — patent 91,108, 
issued to C. A. Fletcher, June 8th, 1869— was applied to the one and three 

Fletcher or cog- cent Stamps of this series. It was produced by eight punches, shaped like the 
wheel punch. jgjjg^ ^ ^^^ placed in a circle with the openings inward. These punches cut 
through the paper but did not remove anything. The result was suggestive 
of a wheel with cogs. The expectation was that, the stamp having been 
attached to an envelope, it would be impossible to remove it without destroy- 
ing it. Ten thousand copies of these stamps were made and placed on sale 
in the post office at Washington, D. C, in the year 1877. 

The stamps of the 1873-75 series were also printed, by way of experi- 
ment, on various papers which had been chemically treated. They are known 

Chemical papers, on yellow-brown and violet paper, the latter both wove and laid. These 
papers being sensitive to chemicals, any attempt to remove the cancellation 
would at once become evident. Postmarked copies have been seen, but the 
stamps are not known to have been issued for postal use, and the best informed 
collectors regard them as being only essays. 

In the preceding chapter reference was made to stamps printed on the 
Donhie paper. double paper patented by Charles F. Steel. The following extract from the 
Coin and Stamp Journal for January, 1877, indicates a somewhat extensive 
printing of the stamps of this issue on that paper : 

" It is not generally known, and will be news to our collectors, that about a year ago, 
20,000,000 stamps were issued to the public, printed on double paper. The upper portion 
receiving the impression was soft and porous and it was supposed that any attempt to clean 
off the cancelling mark would render the impressed portion perfectly pulpy and thus effectually 
destroy it. The stamps did not meet with much favor and the plan was abandoned." 

These stamps seem to have been lost sight of until a few years ago 
when search was made and a number of values discovered. The catalogues 
present quite an extensive list but it is doubtful if all these values were really 
printed on the double paper. Many stamps on the soft porous paper used 
by the American Bank Note Co. are not difficult to split and might be mis- 
taken for those on the double paper. But experienced collectors can usually 
tell the difference. As a rule, when an attempt is made to split the stamps 
of the American Bank Note Co., they do not separate smoothly for their 
entire length but the paper divides unevenly and the attempt results in tear- 
ing off a piece of the stamp. On the contrary, those which are really on the 
double paper will separate easily and evenly throughout. Occasionally these 
stamps may be separated by soaking them in water. There were apparently 



ISSUES OF 1873-75. 



135 



only one or two printings and the collector who becomes familiar with the 
shades of the inks which were used can always tell the stamps by that means. 
Another variety of the double paper had the surface paper weakened 
by numerous short horizontal cuts, the object being, of course, to increase 
the difficulty of removing a cancellation. I have seen the three cent stamp 
printed on this paper, gummed and perforated like the regular issue. It is 
stated that this stamp was sold to the public at the post office at Washington, 
D. C. 

A somewhat similar patent was issued to the same patentee. In the 
application for the patent it is described as follows : 
169,125. (Filed March 15, 1875). 
Charles F. Steel, 

New York, New York. 
To all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Charles F. Steel, Superintendent of the manufacture of postage 
stamps for the Continental Bank Note Company, in New York City, in the State of New 
York, have invented certain improvements relating to postage stamps of which the following 
is a specification : 

Many efforts have been made by myself and others to produce a practically successful 
postage stamp, from which the cancelling ink cannot be removed to allow of their fraudulent 
re-use. My present invention is for that purpose. 

1 take a soft unsized paper, analogous to blotting paper, quite soft and absorbent. 
Having printed the face from the properly engraved plates, and allowed the ink thereon to 
dry properly, I treat the back with a soluction of starch of just a proper consistency, having 
the effect both to lay a thin coating or covering on the back surface, and also to fill the 
interstices between the fibers in the paper, so as to give the back surface of the paper a firmer 
character than the front. Then, after flattening in a press, I apply British gum or other 
adhesive layer on the back of the starch layer, and having again pressed the sheet of stamps, 
they are ready for shipment and used like ordinary stamps. My improved stamp is cheaper 
to produce than the double thickness stamp described in my patent of 1869 (No. 86,952) while 
it possesses in a great degree the same desirable qualities. The soft face will readily absorb 
the cancelling ink, and will be soaked and washed away on any attempt to remove the latter. 
This soft body paper should be of such a character, as to be removed and destroyed 
by a moderate friction after being wetted, care being taken to avoid employing so exteremely 
soft a paper as will become destroyed by ordinary unskillful manipulation in affixing the 
stamp. What is called in the trade " water leaf" paper will suffice. 

The layer of starch should be of such consistency as to strike a little, but only a little, 
into the thickness of the paper. The qualities of the soft body induce less disposition in the 
stamp to curl when moistened and applied on a letter, there is also less disposition to curl 
after the gumming, in the process of manufacture. Less care is required in the subsequent 
pressing and preparation, in the handling and shipment. A thinner and lighter paper may 
be employed. I claim as my invention — A Postage or Revenue stamp formed wholly of water- 
leaf or other soft and absorbent paper, provided on the back with a filling coating of starch 
or analogous material, and a superposed coating of ordinary gum, substantially as and foi 
the purpose set forth. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand, on this 13th day of March, 1875, in 
the presence of two subscribing witnesses. 

Chas. F. Steel. 

Witnesses : Wm. C. Dey, 

M. A. Van Namee. 

Stamps made according to this patent are occasionally seen. Postally 
cancelled copies have not been reported, but all, so far as we know, are can- 
celled with pen marks. They are, presumably, only essays. 

The paper used by the Continental Bank Note Co. varied greatly. The 
majority of the stamps are on a stiff, hard paper, varying from quite thin to 
moderately thick. A few copies have been seen which are on a semi-trans- 
parent, almost pelure paper. At some time during the second contract of this 
company, 1877 to 1881, a paper was introduced which somewhat resembles 
that used by the American Bank Note Co. in that it is porous, but it is thinner 



Variety of the 
double paper. 



Starched paper. 



The papers in 
regular use. 



136 ISSUES OF 1873-75, 

and not quite as soft. A few months before the consolidation with the 
American Bank Note Co., which took place February 4th, 1879, the Con- 
tinental Bank Note Co. began to use a thick, soft, porous paper, very similar 
to, if not the same as, that used after the consolidation, or from 1879 'o 1894. 
It is practically impossible to distinguish the printings of the two companies 
on this paper and it seems best to attribute all such to the American Bank 
Note Co. I have seen authentic specimens of the one and three cents printed 
by the Continental Co. on this paper. The colors are soft, pale and rather 
blurred. The one cent is in pale blue and sky blue and the three cents in 
gray-green and deep green. The former value was printed from plates 307 
and 327 and the latter from plates 265 and 290. Beyond this I have no 
information regarding the printings on this paper. 

In addition to these papers and the double paper, previously men- 
tioned, there was a thick hard paper with vertical or horizontal ribbing. It 
nibbed paper. must be admitted that this is not an extremely interesting variety but, possibly 
because some values are difficult to find on this paper, it has attracted the 
attention of philatelists and attained a place in the catalogues. Many of 
the departmental stamps are quite common on ribbed paper and, on the 
contrary, some of the regular issue are scarce. Strange to say, most phila- 
telists pay very little attention to the former but seem eager to secure the 
latter. 

Mr. Crawford Capen says in the Post Office for February, 1897 (page 
151) : "The first use of paper of this kind was made in 1873, the largest use 
in 1874 and the final use late in 1875 or possibly early in 1876." The number 
of shades of the different values is comparatively limited and would seem to 
warrant the conclusion that the stamps represent a few printings but an 
extended period of distribution. 

Stamps on this paper are not easy to distinguish, at least not until one 
has acquired a certain degree of familiarity with their characteristics. A notable 
point is a richness and fullness of color, combined with clearness of impression 
and a high finish which often gives them a sort of sheen. By this quality and 
their characteristic shades an expert is frequently able to select stamps on this 
paper, without having to look for the ribs. By holding the stamps horizontally 
between the eye and a good light the ribbing may usually be detected. As a 
rule, it is vertical on the stamps of the regular issue and horizontal on the 
departmental stamps, though there are, of course, exceptions. Mr. Capen 
also recommends wetting the stamps thoroughly and watching them as they 
dry. The appearance of the ribbing is usually that of fine corrugations, but 
occasionally it is more like that of closely laid paper. Some of the stamps on 
the soft porous paper also present an appearance of ribs, but they are too 
close together and are only an effect of the wire-wove paper. Some of the 
department stamps, especially those of the Department of Justice, show, in the 
background of the medallion, distinct vertical lines, very like ribs. These are 
not the real thing but were caused by the fibres of the cloths, which were used 
in wiping the plates, and which drew the ink into slight ridges. 

The gum is yellowish or brownish ; on a very few specimens it is 
almost white. , 



ISSUES OF 1873-75. 137 

The stamps are found in the following shades and varieties : Keference List. 

Perforated 12. 

White Wove Paper. 

May 1st, 1873. I cent pale ultramarine, ultramarine, deep ultramarine, 

pale dull blue, dull blue, chalky blue, pale gray- 
blue, gray-blue, sky blue, bright blue 

2 cents red-brown, deep red-brown, orange-brown, dark 

brown, black-brown, gray-brown, bistre-brown, 
brown 

3 cents bright yellow-green, pale yellow-green, yellow- 

green, deep yellow-green, green, dark green, blue- 
green, dark blue-green, olive-green, pale dull green, 
dull green, dark dull green, gray-green 

6 cents dull rose, brown-rose 

7 cents vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

10 cents pale brown, brown, dark brown, chocolate, pale 
yellow-brown, yellow-brown, orange-brown, red- 
brown, pale gray-brown, gray-brown 

12 cents dull violet, deep violet, black-violet 

15 cents pale orange, orange, red-orange 

24 cents bluish purple, deep bluish purple 

30 cents gray-black, greenish black 

90 cents pale rose- carmine, rose-carmine 
June, 1875. 2 cents orange-vermilion, vermilion, scarlet vermilion, 

deep scarlet-vermilion 

5 cents blue, dark blue, greenish blue, deep greenish 

blue 

Varieties : 

1 cent pale ultramarine. With grill 7j^x9>^mm. 

2 cents dark brown " 

3 cents green " 

6 cents dull rose " 

7 cents vermilion 

12 cents dull violet " 

15 cents pale orange 

1 cent ultramarine. Paper cut with a cog-wheel punch. 
3 cents blue-green 

2 cents scarlet- vermilion. Imperforate. 

3 cents dull green 

3 cents gray-green. Horizontal pair, imperforate between. 
10 cents brown " 

Horizontally or Vertically Ribbed Paper. 

1873-76. I cent pale ultramarine, ultramarine, gray-blue, dull 

blue, sky blue 



138 ISSUES OF 1873-75. 

2 cents red-brown, orange-brown, dark orange brown, 

pale brown, brown 

3 cents yellow-green dark yellow-green, green, dark 

green, pale blue-green 

6 cents dull rose, brown-rose 

7 cents vermilion 

10 cents pale brown, brown 
12 cents black- violet 
15 cents deep orange, red-orange 
24 cents bluish purple (?) 
30 cents gray-black 
90 cents rose-carmine (?) 
2 cents vermilion 

5 cents dark blue 

Double Paper. 
1876. I cent dark ultramarine 

2 cents dark brown 

3 cents green, dark green, pale blue-green 

6 cents dull rose 
10 cents brown 

30 cents gray-black 

2 cents scarlet-vermilion 
5 cents dark blue 

Variety : 

3 cents dark blue-green. Surface paper weakened by 

short horizontal cuts. 
Soft Porous White Wove Paper. 
1878. I cent pale blue, sky blue 

3 cents gray-green, deep gray-green 

The twenty- four and ninety cents have been reported on ribbed paper 
but, until the information is confirmed by acknowledged experts, it seems 
best not to give full credit to the report. 

The plates of the 1873-75 issue contained two hundred stamps each. 
The impressions were divided vertically through the middle into sheets of 
Plates. one hundred stamps. The imprint appears at the middle of the top and 

bottom of each half of the plate. It is very much like the second style used 
by the National Bank Note Co. and reads "printed by the — continental 
BANK-NOTE CO. NEW YORK.", in two lines of white capitals, on a panel with 
pearled edges and surrounded by a thin colored line. Between each imprint 
and the central dividing line appear ^' No." and the plate number. Numbers 
2 to 1 93 inclusive are ordinary numerals, inserted with punches. Numbers i 
and 219 to 310 inclusive (excepting 233) are script numerals, from ^% to 
7^mm. high, engraved on the plates. Of numbers 194 to 218 inclusive and 
233 nothing definite is known. These numbers were assigned to the news- 
paper and periodical stamps of the 1875 issue but there is no evidence that 
they were ever placed on the plates. 



ISSUES OF 1873-75. 



139 



The plate numbers are : 

1 cent No. 12, 13, 16, 26, 125, 126, 127, 128, 142, 

143, '44, 146, T47> 156, 157, 158, 159, 

160, 181, 182, 229, 230, 294, 295, 298, 
299, 300, 301, 3°77 308. 

2 cents brown No. 2, 3, 4, 6, i6r, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 

167, 168, 169, 234, 241, 242. 

2 cents vermilion No. 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 

169, 234, 241, 242, 24s, 246, 296, 297. 

3 cents No. i, 5, 7, 8, 9, ro, 11, 74, 15, 17, 19, 20, 

129, 130, 131. '32. '33. 13s, 136, 138, 
139, 148, 149, 150, 15/, 152, 153, 154, 

'55, 170, '7', 172. i73> '74, 17s, i7'^6, 

177, 178, 179, 180, 183, 184, 185, 186, 

187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 219, 

220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 

228, 23r, 232, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 

240, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 

258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 

266,267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 

274, 27s, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 

282, 283, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 
292, 293, 309, 310. 

5 cents No. 243, 244, 247, 248, 284, 306. 

6 cents No. 18, 21, 304, 305. 

7 cents No. 22. 

10 cents No. 23, 25, 302, 303. 

12 cents No. 24, 137. 

15 cents No. 31. 

The only plate numbers which have been found for the stamps on 
ribbed paper are : 

7 cents No. 22. 

15 cents No. 31. 

Much has been written concerning the use of hand and steam presses 
by the Continental Bank Note Co. It is certain that we find among the work 
of this company many poorly printed stamps, which some have claimed to be 
the product of steam presses. Among the stamps of this period we find many 
copies of what are known as " plain frames," /. e. stamps on which the outer 
part of the design is very faint and occasionally has almost disappeared. 
This is the only issue in which they are so numerous as to attract attention. 
It is more probable that they are. due to poor workmanship and worn plates 
than to any fault of the presses, since many of these inferior stamps are of 
denominations which have always been printed by hand. 

The facts, however, are these. During the time of its contracts with 
the Government, the Continental Bank Note Co. was located in the Ball and 
Black building, at the corner of Broadway and Prince street, New York. At 



Plate nuinbers. 



Priutingg on 
steam presses. 



140 



ISSUES OF 1873-75. 



Plates used on the 
steam press. 



Statistics of 
manufactare. 



this place they had nineteen hand presses and here most of the stamps were 
produced. The company had also an office in Greenwich street, where they 
had a steam press on which two plates could be used at one time. On this 
press were printed one, two and three cent stamps of the regular issue and 
two and three cent stamps of the Post Office Department. 

These are the only values which the company printed by steam. The 
press was used during the years 1873 to 876, though not constantly. At one 
time it was stopped for a year. For the Post Office Department 578,500 two 
cent and 480,000 three cent stamps were printed. Of the three values of the 
regular issue many millions were printed. 

The following plates were Used on the steam press : 

1 cent No. 156, 157, 182. 

2 cents No. 166, 169, 246. 

3 cents No. 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 170, 171, 172, 

173. 174, 175. 176, 180, 187, 193. 

2 cents, P. O. Dept. No. 37, 38. 

3 cents " " No. 36, 40. 

Th€ contracts from 1877 to 1885 stipulated that only hand presses 
should be used. It was not until the contract beginning July ist, 1885, that 
printing by steam presses was required and then only for the lower values. 

The records of the Stamp Agent show the following quantities of 
stamps to have been printed and delivered to him : 

Year Ending December 31ST: 

1875. 1874. 1875. 1876. Total. 

1 cent S9>35S>ooo 117,930,000 122,937,500 148,067,500 448,290,000 

2 cents 39,013,000 58,206,550 87,372,500 68,505,000 253,097,050 

3 cents 248,132,500 436,919,500 481,156,500 495,085,000 1,661,293,500 



5 cents 

6 cents 






9,870,000 
7,845,000 


5,420,000 
6,630,000 


15,290,000 
38,311,500 


6,177,500 


17,659,000 


7 cents 


588,500 


1,370,000 


1,120,000 





3.078,500 


10 cents 


3,318,500 


3.795,000 


5,137,500 


9,220,000 


21,471,000 


12 cents 


r,oco,ooo 


1,175,000 


740,000 




2,915,000 


15 cents 


1.344,500 




755,000 


952,500 


3,052,000 


24 cents 






365,000 




365,000 


30 cents 




590,000 




192,500 


782,500 


90 cents 




197,000 






197,000 



This table settles definitely the much discussed question of printings 
of the twenty-four, thirty and ninety cent stamps by the Continental Bank 
Note Co. 

I regret that I am unable to supply any information regarding the 
quantities of stamps manufactured after the year 1876. I had hoped to obtain 
the figures but, thus far, my efforts have been unavailing. 

The annual reports of the Postmaster General supply the following 
statistics of stamps distributed to deputy postmasters : 



ISSUES OF 1873-75. 



141 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1874 : 

Quarter Ending: 
Sept. 30, 1873. Dec. 51, 1873. Mch. 31, 1874. June 30, 1874. 



Dellrerles to 
postmasters. 



1 cent 21,545,600 25,641,700 31,548,400 32,338,200 

2 cents 11,365,050 17,247,600 14,689,500 16,790,100 

3 cents 106,718,300 108,041,600 115,068,100 111,708,600 



2>636,55° 3,394,05° 3,014,300 

231,100 413,700 351,300 

827,010 1,028,360 1,183,570 

281,050 330,825 376,375 

324,100 85,700 49, too 

86,675 102,500 42,075 

126,130 100,040 44,890 

17,980 17,040 18,270 

Whole number of stamps 632,733,420. Value $17,275,242.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1875 : 
Quarter Ending : 



6 cents 


2,953,950 


7 cents 


229,700 


10 cents 


832,490 


12 cents 


316,475 


15 cents 


495,140 


24 cents 


54,125 


30 cents. 


55,420 


90 cents 


10,680 



Total. 

111,073,900 

60,092,250 

441,536,600 

11,998,850 

1,225,800 

3,871,430 

1,304,725 
954,040 

285,375 
326,480 

63,970 





Sept. 30, 1874. 


Dec. 31, 1874. 


Mch. 31, 1875, 


June 30, 1875. 


Total. 


1 cent 


28,373,200 


34,206,700 


38,451,300 


29,921,100 


130,952,300 


2 cents 


13,728,800 


15,808,500 


17,883,100 


21,982,800 


69,413,200 


3 cents 


109,835,800 


116,605,600 


118,961,600 


115,932,500 


461,3*25,500 


5 cents 

6 cents 








363,180 
2,892,450 


363,180 
11,648,200 


2,801,650 


2,756,700 


3,197,400 


7 cents 


349,800 


425,700 


415,000 


381,400 


1,571,900 


10 cents 


899,550 


1,043,230 


1,081,780 


",435,690 


4,460,250 


12 cents 


257,550 


310,000 


334,500 


418,175 


1,320,225 


15 cents 


113,760 


107,960 


212,400 


199,260 


633,380 


24 cents 


86,525 


35,175 


44,525 


105,550 


271,775 


30 cents 


108,830 


74,020 


51,170 


102,890 


336,910 


90 cents 


20,090 


8,710 


9,200 


7,650 


45,650 



Whole number of stamps 682,342,470. Value $18,271,479.00. 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1876 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1875. Dec. 31, 1875. Mch. 31, 1876. 

33,427,300 



1 cent 25,036,600 30,909,700 

2 cents 16,647,000 19,696,200 

3 cents 112,466,600 120,030,400 



5 cents 

6 cents 
10 cents 
15 cents 
30 cents 
90 cents 



3,241,620 

1,394,550 

1,243,620 

131,320 

40,460 

4,100 



2,033,420 

1,950,200 

1,188,910 

263,840 

119,260 

6,980 



19,934,400 

120,640,200 

2,510,860 

1,830,900 

1,970,530 

331,860 

100,040 

9,380 



June 30, 1876. Total. 

35,853,200 125,226,800 
18,280,000 74,557,600 



121,529,000 

2,123,400 

1,949,850 

1,595,670 

215,140 

89,680 

2,900 



474,666,200 
9,909,300 
7,125,500 

5,998,730 

942,160 

349,440 

23,360 



Whole number of stamps 698,799,090. Value $18,773,454.00. 



142 ISSUES OF 1873-75. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1877 : 
Quarter Ending : 



Sept. 30, 1876. 


Dec. 31, 1876. 


Mch. 31, 1877. 


June 30, 1877. 


Total. 


I cent 


25,520,800 


34,380,800 


41,494,000 


40,070,000 


141,465,600 


2 cents 


16,489,500 


16,211,300 


19,070,900 


17,921,150 


69,692,850 


3 cents 


111,583,700 


112,827,900 


116,530,000 


115,192,300 


456,133,900 


S cents 


1,931,480 


1,968,440 


2,499,240 


2,313,600 


8,712,760 


6 cents 


1,419,400 


1,213,800 


1,747,700 


1,558,150 


5,939,050 


10 cents 


1,351,580 


1,397,560 


1,912,260 


1,793.040 


6,454,440 


15 cents 


171,720 


130,000 


289,500 


229,420 


820,640 


30 cents 


64,620 


58,520 


"4,450 


90,180 


327,770 


90 cents 


3,680 


19,000 


7,320 


3,660 


33,660 



Whole number of stamps 689,580,670. Value $18,181,676.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1878 : 
Quarter Ending : 



Sept. 30, 1877. 


Dec. 31, 1877. 


Mch. 31, 1878. 


June 30, 1878. 


Total. 


1 cent 


34,402,700 


43,103,600 


45,931,400 


40,296,700 


163,734,400 


2 cents 


15,542,400 


16,756,500 


20,093,000 


'7,993,600 


70,366,500 


3 cents 


115,943,700 


118,525,600 


130,316,300 


118,542,900 


483,328,500 


5 cents 


1,968,780 


2,247,640 


2,961,640 


2,656,040 


9,834,100 


6 cents 


1,523,350 


1,266,200 


1,727,500 


1,419,500 


5,936,550 


10 cents 


1,651,880 


1,613,860 


2,444,470 


2,145,270 


7,855,480 


15 cents 


183,240 


233,020 


360,640 


193,700 


970,600 


30 cents 


65,600 


105,010 


180,850 


60,500 


411,960 


90 cents 


12,040 


2,960 


4,150 


4,700 


«3,8so 



Whole number of stamps 742,461,940. Value $19,468,61800. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1879 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1878. Dec. 31, 1878. Mch. 31, 1879. 

48,958,600 

21,576,300 

"9,675,600 

3,138,800 

1,686,200 

2,615,130 

382,040 

128,170 

6,270 

Whole number of stamps 774,358,780. Value $20,117,259.00. 
After February 4th, 1879, when the Continental Bank Note Co. was 
consolidated with the American Bank Note Co., the latter assumed and com- 
pleted the contract held by the former company. Doubtless, many of the 
stamps distributed in the last two quarters of the fiscal year ending June 
30th, 1879, were the product of the American Bank Note Co., but it is not 



I 


cent 


36,379,400 


47,287,000 


2 


cents 


15,820,600 


18,654,800 


3 


cents 


115,967,700 


122,577,100 


5 


cents 


2,143,860 


2,375,320 


6 


cents 


1,382,600 


1,430,600 


10 


cents 


1,767,690 


2,065,890 


15 


cents 


200,660 


239,160 


30 


cents 


71,180 


97,240 


90 


cents 


4,920 


5,600 



June 30, 1879. 


Total. 


47,405,400 


180,030,400 


18,309,900 


74,383,600 


'25,633,600 


493,854,000 


2,545,640 


10,203,620 


1,254,000 


5,753,400 


2,274,380 


8,723,090 


178,500 


1,000,360 


92,350 


388,940 


4,580 


21,370 



ISSUES OF 1873-75. 143 

possible to separate the stamps of the two companies in the official statistics 
and the report of the Postmaster General must be taken as it stands. 

By an order of Postmaster General Frank Hatton, dated January 14th, 
1885, a committee was appointed to cancel various plates for printing stamps, 
both ordinary and official. This committee was also to destroy certain stamps Remainders 
which were no longer required, including 545,600 of the seven, 503,750 of the destroyed, 
twelve, and 364,950 of the twenty-four cents. The committee reported, on 
February 24th, 1885-, that they had carried out their instructions. The especial 
object of this order was the destruction of the remainders of the official stamps, 
and a more extended reference to this event will be made when considering 
those stamps. 



Issue of 1879, 



Plates of other 
companies used. 



Kefereuce List. 



On February 4th, 1879, the Continental Bank Note Co. was consolidated 
with the American Bank Note Co., under the name of the latter. The con- 
tracts of the former company were assumed by the new organization. . Sub- 
sequent contracts were also secured by the American Bank Note Co., who 
continued to supply the stamps required by the Post Ofifice Department until 
January ist, 1894. 

As has been previously stated, the Continental Bank Note Co. began, 
about the end of 1878 or the beginning of 1879, to use a soft porous paper for 
their stamps. The American Bank Note Co. continued the use of paper of this 
quality, as it was found to give the best results, especially when steam presses 
were employed. The new company used many of the plates of its pre- 
decessor, also the plates of the National Bank Note Co. for the thirty and 
ninety cent and probably for some of the ten cent stamps. It is certain 
that ten cent stamps without the secret mark, and which are undoubtedly 
the work of the American Bank Note Co., exist. It is claimed by some 
writers that these are from the Continental Bank Note Co's plates from which 
the secret mark has worn away. In support of this statement pairs and blocks 
are reported, on which the mark shows with varying degrees of indistinctness 
and is sometimes almost invisible. It is scarcely possible that this claim is 
correct, as the secret mark is deeply cut and ought to be about the last thing 
to wear away. And there are certain other points about the stamps which 
are peculiar to the plates of the National Bank Note Co. and which lead me 
to believe they are from those plates. The question can only be settled by 
finding the stamps with marginal imprint or plate number or by examination 
of the records of the contractors. It is to be regretted that there is no pros- 
pect that the privilege of making such an examination will be granted. 

The gum used by the American Bank Note Co was generally yellowish 
but occasionally it was quite brown and, in their later printings, was sometimes 
almost white. 

The stamps are found in the following shades : 
Soft Porous White Wove Paper. 
Perforated 12. 
1879. I cent pale bright blue, bright blue, deep bright blue, 

sky blue, blue, dark blue, gray-blue, dull blue, 
dark dull blue, dark ultramarine 



ISSUE OF 1879. 



'45 



2 cents vermilion, scarlet-vermilion, orange-vermilion, 

orange 

3 cents pale bright green, yellow-green, dull green, deep 

dull green, gray-green, dark green, myrtle green 

5 cents blue, dark blue, indigo 

6 cents pale dull rose, dull rose, brown-rose 
10 cents (National p^te) yellow-brown 

10 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, orange-brown, 
red-brown, gray-brown, brown, dark brown, black- 
brown 

15 cents pale orange-yellow, orange-yellow, orange, red- 
orange, orange-red, pale red 

30 cents (National plate) gray-black, greenish black 

30 cents full black, jet black 

go cents (National plate) dull carmine-rose, carmine-rose, 
rose-carmine 

Variety : 

90 cents carmine-rose. Imperforate. 

Except when otherwise stated, these stamps were printed from the 
plates of the Continental Bank Note Co. or from plates made from the dies 
of that company. The following plates of the Continental Co. are known to 
have been used by the American Co. : 



1 cent No. 301. 

2 cents No. 296, 297. 

3 cents No. 292, 309, 310. 
6 cents No. 305. 

15 cents No. 31. 

The following plates were probably used : 

5 cents No. 306. 

6 cents No. 304. 

10 cents No. 302. 303. 

It is reasonable to suppose that many other plates of the lower values 
were used. 

In the course of time, as they were required, new plates were made. 
They bore the imprint " American bank note company ", in heavy faced, 
shaded capitals, without frame or other surroundings. The imprints and plate 
numbers occupied the same positions as on the plates of the previous contrac- 
tors. The numbers were all in small italic numerals. The plates contained two 
hundred stamps each, and the impressions were divided vertically into sheets 
of one hundred stamps, as in the preceding issues. 

The numbers of these plates were as follows : 

1 cent No. 319, 320, 327, 328, 336, 337, 344, 353, 354, 355, 

356. 

2 cents No. 338, 339, 391, 392, 393, 394, 412, 413. 



List of Continental 
plates used. 



Plates of the 

American Bank 

Note Co. 



Plate numbers. 



146 ISSUE OF 1879. 

3 cents No. 311, 312, 321, 322, 323, 324, 329, 330, 334, 335, 
340, 341, 341A, 342, 343, 345, 346, 347, 348, 
349. 35°, 350A, 351, 352, 357, 358. 
5 cents No. 325, 326, 379, 380. 
10 cents No. '377, 378. 
30 cents No. 405. 

During the years 1881 to 1888 inclusive there were many changes in 
the engraving, designs and colors of the stamps, also stamps of the 1870 types 
and colors were in issue concurrently with the new varieties. As official statis- 
tics only take notice of values, it is impossible to decide how many stamps of 
each particular variety were issued and I can only reprint the tables as they 
are given in the reports of the Postmaster General ; they will be found at the 
end of the next chapter. 



Issues of 1881-88, 



Issue of 1881-82. 



About 1881 the contractors decided to deepen the lines of certain 
of the designs, in order that the wiping of the plates might be made easier 
and heavier impressions produced. Four values were so treated. Phila- 
telists are accustomed to speak of these stamps with deepened lines as being 
re-engraved but this is not altogether correct. The dies of the one and three 
cents were retouched and those of the six and ten cents were re-engraved 
{i. e. newly engraved) except the busts. The distinction is somewhat technical. 
It cannot be claimed that either process improved the appearance of the 
stamps. Their delicacy and clearness were destroyed and the impressions 
from the altered designs are heavy, blurred and uneven. The stamps may 
be distinguished by the following peculiarities : 

One cent. The vertical lines of the background have been much 
deepened in the upper part of the stamp, so that, in many impressions, the 
background appears to be solid Lines of shading have been added inside 
the arabesques in the upper corners. The fine shadings outside the arabesques 
and at the ends of the upper label have been nearly obliterated by the recut- 
ting. Mr. Tiffany describes three varieties of this stamp, distinguished 
principally by the condition of the oval below the bust, as showing either a 
light spot, a shadow, or a background of uniform solidity. These varieties 
are not in any way due to differences in engraving but to the amount of ink 
on the plate and perhaps, in some small degree, to the condition of the plate 
as regards wear. 

Three cents. Vertical lines have been added to the background of 
the medallion, but they can only be seen on proofs or very clearly printed 
copies. The vertical lines of the shield have been deepened, making the 
shadows of the medallion appear, by contrast, only about one-half as wide as 
before. At the bottom the horizontal lines of the background have been 
deepened, thus obliterating the fine vertical shadings below the ends of the 
ribbon bearing the value. A short horizontal dash has been cut, about a 
millimetre below the '" ts " of " cents ". 

Six cents. The horizontal lines of the panel have been re-engraved, 
obscuring the shadings of the edges and of the oval and giving it a uniformly 
solid appearance. The vertic9.l lines of the background have also been 



Betonclied and 
re-engrared dies. 



Description of 
tile alterations. 



148 ISSUE OF 1881-82. 

re-engraved. There are now only three of these lines at each side of the 
panel, where formerly there were four. 

Ten cents. The lines of the medallion, the shield and the back- 
ground have all been re-engraved. In the medallion the diagonal hatching 
lines have disappeared. At the left side, where there were formerly five vertical 
lines between the medallion and the edge of the shield, there are now but 
four. The fine vertical shadings below the ribbon bearing the value are 
nearly obliterated by the deepened horizonal lines of the background. The 
re-engraved die was made from a transfer of the old National die and so has 
not the secret mark. 

Mr. Tiffany says the re-engraved stamps began to appear in November, 
1882. This date is much too late for at least three values. The Philatelic 
Dates of isine. Record reported the one cent in March, 1882, the ten cents in June and the 
six cents in November of that year. The change in the three cents was made 
earlier than in any of the other values but does not appear to have attracted 
the attention of any of the philatelic journals. I have it on excellent authority 
that the three cents was recut in June, 1881, the one cent in July, 1881, the 
ten cents in March, 1882, and the six cents in May of that year, and that 
stamps from the new plates were issued to the public about one month later 
than the date named in each instance. 

About 1882 or 1883 two stamps of this series, the one and three cents, 
were printed on double paper, a very thin surface paper, backed by a thicker 
" PongiBs patent " and harder paper. The surface paper was punctured by many small holes, 
stsmpti. about i^mm. in diameter. These holes were arranged in circles — eight 

holes to a circle — and the circles were placed at such intervals that one would 
fall on each stamp. The printed stamps did not differ in appearance from 
the ordinary varieties but, of course, the ink had passed through the holes 
and portions of the design were printed on the backing paper. Any attempt 
to erase a cancellation would be almost certain to tear the thin surface paper, 
while the application of liquids would cause the stamp to separate into two 
parts, one showing a circle of small holes and the other a white surface with a 
circle of colored dots. These stamps are known to collectors as the " Douglas 
patent." It is understood that 10,000 of them were printed. They were 
placed on sale at the city post office in Washington. After a trial, it was 
decided not to permanently adojit them and their issue was discontinued. 

The paper, gum, size of plates and location of the inscriptions and 
plate numbers are the same as in the issue of 1879. This remark will apply 
to subsequent issues by the American Bank Note Co. unless especial mention 
to the contrary is made. 

Reference List. Soft Porous White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 
Aug. »88i. I cent dull ultramarine, ultramarine, bright ultramarine, 

gray-blue, slate-blue, dull blue, chalky blue 
July 1 88 1. 3 cents yellow-green, gray-green, blue-green 

June 1882. 6 cents brown-rose, dull rose, claret, deep claret, Indian 

red 



ISSUE OF 1881-82. ISSUE OF APRIL lOTH, 1882. 



149 



April 1882. 10 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, orange-brown, 

red-brown, olive-brown, brown, violet-brown, black- 
brown 

Double Paper. 

Die cut with a circle of small holes. 

I cent gray-blue 
3 cents gray-green 

The following plates were used for this issue : 

I cent No. 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 387, 388, 389, 390, 

40 r, 402, 406, 407, 422, 423, 424, 425, 475. 

3 cents No. 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 
375, 376, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 395, 396, 
397> 398, 408, 409, 410, 411, 414, 415, 416, 417, 

418, 419, 420, 421. 

6 cents No. 426, 427. 
10 cents No. 403, 403A, 404, 404A, 480, 481. 

For the " Douglas patent " stamps the only plate numbers which we 
know are : One cent. No. 362 and three cents. No. 367. 

Beginning in 1885, the plates of the American Bank Note Co. bear a 
serial letter as well as a number. There are usually five plates to each letter. 
This change was occasioned by the use of a steam press which accommodated 
five plates at a time. It is obvious that, in printing with this press, the five 
plates must all be in the same stage of wear or the printing would be uneven. 
By means' of the letters each group of plates could easily be kept together 
and, being subjected to an equal amount of work, they would remain in the 
same relative condition. A letter was usually assigned to the first plate of 
each denomination, even when only one plate was made, since more might 
be added later. 

Under this system the following plates were provided for the issue of 
1881-82 : 

I cent No. C. 497, 498, 499, 500, 501. 

D. 502, 503, 504, 505, 506. 

I- 527, S«8, 529, 530, 531. 

10 cents No. M. 547, 548, 549, 550, 551- 



Plate nnmbers. 



Serial letters. 



Plate nombers. 



Issue of April ioth, 1882. 

The five cent stamp with the portrait of General Taylor had never 
given satisfaction. The full-faced portrait was too large for its surroundings 
and also not in accord with the profile busts on the other values. After the 
death of President Garfield it was decided to place his portrait on the five 
cent stamp. The original intention was to print the stamp in black, the color 
of mourning — as was done with the fifteen cents of the 1866 issue, after the 
ath of President Lincoln — but the color finally adopted was a dark brown. 



Historical. 



ISO 



ISSUE OF APRIL lOTH, 1882. 



Design. The official description of the stamp is as follows : 

" Five cents (Garfield). On a rectangular-lined tablet, the greater 
portion of which is raised in the shape of a shield, is an elliptical medallion 
bearing the portrait of President Garfield. The medallion is bordered by a 
line of small white beads, the legend ' u. s. postage ', being at the bottom of 
the stamp in small black block letters. The words ' five ' and ' cents ' are 
above the legend and partly on the lower edge of the tablet, divided by a 
large five-pointed star, upon which is the white-faced figure ' 5 ' upon a black 
ground. The star is outlined with white, and the denomination words are 
each on lines curved downward at the ends." 

The stamp measure 20x25 J^mm. 

For several years the catalogues have listed two varieties of this stamp, 
the first having the background of the medallion composed of horizontal 
Varieties. lines crossed by fine diagonal lines, and the second showing the horizontal lines 
only. Although well aware that there was but one die for this value, I was, 
at one time, led to accept the two varieties, on the theory that they represented 
plates made from two transfers, one of which was not sufficiently deep to 
bring out the finer lines. It is now understood that the plates are all alike 
and all have the fine lines. The absence of the diagonal lines from a stamp 
is caused by the ink having been removed from them by too much pressure in 
wiping the plate and by the operation having been performed lengthwise of 
the lines instead of across them. It is also probable that wearing of the plate 
affects the appearance of the lines. 

It was intended to issue this stamp to the public on March ist, 1882. 
The first delivery to the Post Office Department was made on February 7th, 
Date of issue. 1882. A few of the Stamps were obtained by favor and used on the 14th of 
that month. They were also reported in the European philatelic journals in 
March of that year but, according to the report of the Postmaster - General 
and the daily newspapers, they were not put on sale until April 10th, 1882. 

The stamps which were distributed in advance of their being placed 
on sale at the post offices were very probably from the first sheet printed. This 
The first sheet, sheet appears to have been sent to the Post Office Department at Washington 
and treated somewhat as a curiosity. I am led to this conclusion by a copy 
of the stamp which has been shown me by Mr. C. F. Rothfuchs. This copy 
is attached to a printed form which was used by the Department when filling 
orders from private individuals for stamps. This form was in use during the 
time the reprints and re-issues were on sale, from 1875 to 1884, and possibly 
for even a longer period. It is addressed to a gentleman in the Post Office 
Department and reads as follows : 



Sir : — 



Washington, D. C, 

Feb. 10th, I J 



In response to your personal application of this day you will find herewith inclosed 
the following specimens of postage stamps, viz : 

Issue of 1882, 1 — 5c Garfield, $005. 

This stamp is from the first sheet printed and one of the first sold by the Department. 

The stamp which is attached to this document is printed in a very 
dark brown having a tinge of red, instead of the grayish tone of the later 
printings. 



ISSUE OF APRIL lOTH, 1882. ISSUE OF OCTOBER 1ST, 1883. 151 



Soft Porous White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 

April loth, 1882. 5 cents yellow-brown, bistre-brown, Van Dyke brown, 

black-brown, gray-brown, gray 

The plates for this issue were numbered as follows : 
5 cents No. 399, 400, 488, 489 

K. 537, 538, 539> 54°, S4i 



Reference Lint. 



Issue of October ist, 1883. 

An Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 1883, provided as follows : 

" Upon all matter of the first class (as defined by chapter 180 of the Laws of Congress, 
approved March 3rd, 1879, entitled : An Act, etc.) postage shall be charged, on and after Hlstorlcitl. 

the first day of October, A. D., 1885, at the rate of two cents for each half ounce or fraction 
thereof, and all acts, so far as they fix a different rate of postage than herein provided upon 
said first class matter, are to that extent hereby repealed." 

Concerning this change the report of the Postmaster General, dated 
November 8th, 1883, says : 

"Soon after the passage of the Act of IVlarch 3rd, 1883, preparations were begun to 
carry the new law into effect. The change left the 3-cent denomination of postage stamps of 
little utility, it no longer representing the single rate of postage on any class of matter, and it 
was determined to discontinue its issue. As the public would undoubtly have regarded with 
disfavor the dropping of Washington from portraits forming the distinguishing feature in 
the series of postage stamps, it was decided to replace the old 2-cent stamp by a new one 
bearing the profile of the first President, thus restoring it to its old place on the stamp in 
most general use. It was also decided to issue a new stamp of the value of four cents, a 
denomination not previously in use, and designed to cover two rates of letter postage. The 
portrait of Jackson, formerly on the 2-cent stamp, was transferred to this new (4-cent) stamp." 

The official description of these two stamps is as follows : Designi. 

" Two cents, a plain tablet ; above the oval surrounding the head 
are the words 'united states postage ' and underneath the tablet are the 
words ' two cents.' It may be added that the tablet is shaped like the 
shield on the 3 cent stamp of this series and that the figure ' 2 ' separates 
the words ' two ' and ' cents,', which form a straight line, resting partly on 
the point of the tablet and partly on the darkly shaded ground below. This 
is the first stamp of the series with the legend unabbreviated. The medallion 
is elliptical, and bears the profile bust of Washington. 

Four cents. The tablet is rectangular and beveled, covering the 
entire stamp, the lower half in solid color. The legend, like that on the 2 
cent stamp of even date, is in the unabbreviated form, ' ttnited states post- 
age,' following the upper line of an elliptical medallion, bearing the profile 
bust of Andrew Jackson, and is in small white capitals. In each lower corner 
is a large white figure ' 4.' Below these and in an unbroken straight line are 
the words " four cents,' in small white capitals with a very small star at the 
right and left and immediately under the figure '4'." 

These stamps are both of the same size, 2ox25j4mm. 

It has been claimed that there are two varieties of the two cent stamp, yurieties of the 
distinguishable by the presence or absence of a shadow below the shield, but two cent stamp. 



IS2 



ISSUE OF OCTOBER 1ST, 1883. 



these differences are entirely due to the amount of ink applied and to the 
condition of the plates. 

According the report of the Postmaster General the stamps were issued 
on October ist, 1883. 
Reference List. Soft Porous White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 

Oct. I St, 1883. 2 cents orange-brown, red-brown, copper-brown, metallic 
red, Indian red 
4 cents deep green, blue-green, dark blue-green 

Plate numbers. The following plates were made for these stamps : 

2 cents No. 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 

439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 

448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 458, 

459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 465, 466, 467, 468, 

469, 470, 471 472, 473, 474, 476, 477, 478, 

479- 

A. 483, 484, 485, 486, 487. 

B. 490, 491, 492, 493, 494. 

E. S°7, 508, S°9, 510, 5"- 

F. 512, 513, 5M, 5'S, 516. 

G. 517, 518, 519, 520, 521. 
H. 522, 523, 524, 525, 526. 
J- 532, 533, 534, 535, 536- 
N. 553, 554, 555, 55^, 557- 
O- 558, 559, 560, 561, 562- 
P- 563, 564, 565, 566, 567. 
Q. 568, 569, 570, 571, 572. 
U. 588, 589, 590, 591, 592. 

V. 593, 594, 595, S96, 597- 
4 cents No. 456, 457. 

L- 542, 543, 544, 545, 546. 

The Philatelic Record for December, i888, says : " Mr. F. De Coppet 
has sent us a specimen of the 2 cents red brown (head of Washington) on 
Laid paper. paper laid horizontally." A similar note subsequently appeared in various 
other journals. When the De Coppet collection was offered at auction this 
stamp was listed as lot 2002. I have not been able to trace the copy further 
than this. I am inclined to doubt that the stamp was really on laid paper. 
Among stamps of the current and recent issues we frequently find copies 
which show what appear to be laid lines. Experts in printing, however, pro- 
nounce these lines to be merely an effect produced by a worn blanket on the 
printing press, the threads being pressed into the damp paper in printing. It 
is possible that Mr. De Coppet's stamp belonged in this category. 

The stamps of this and various earlier issues are found surcharged 
'Specimen" atampB. " SPECIMEN ". This Overprint was applied to stamps intended for distribution 
to foreign countries through the Universal Postal Union. The complete set 
comprises the following varieties : 



ISSUE OF OCTOBER 1ST, 1883. ISSUE OF JUNE ISTH, 1887. 153 



Ordinary postage stamps. Issue of 1879 : 15, 30, 90c 

Issue of 1881-82 : i, 3, 6, loc 
Issue of Apl. 1882 : 5c 
Issue of Oct. 1883 : 2, 4c 
Special Delivery stamps. Issue of 1885 : 10c 

Newspapers and Periodical stamps. Issue of 1879-85 : ic to $60 
Postage Due stamps. Issue of 1879 : i, 2, 3, 5, 10, 30, 500 

The report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, dated Nov. sth, 
1887, says : 

" Upon the change in the rate of postage on first class matter, from 3 to 2 cents a 
half ounce, on the 1st of October, 1883, large quantities of 3 and 6 cent stamps and .stamped 
envelopes were left in the hands of the postmasters and of the public. As those in the hands Kedemptlon of the 
of the public could not be used, except at a loss, under the new rate, it was thought to be ti,„e and six cent 
just that the Department should redeem them by giving the 2 cent denomination of stamps stamps, 

and envelopes for them. Orders to this effect were accordingly given to postmasters, Decem- 
ber 12, 1883; but at the same time, they were forbidden to send to the Department the 
stamps and envelopes thus redeemed. The result was a large and very gener.al accumulation 
of unsalable stock in the post offices^ over one-third probably of all the post "offices in the 
country having more or less of it. On January i, 1886, it was determined to relieve post- 
masters of this accumulation of valueless material ; but as the volume of it was so great that 
it could not be conviently handled if called in at once, circulars were sent monthly to a 
limited number of postmasters, directing them to return to the Department whatever amount 
they might have on hand. As fast as the stock was received under these notices it was 
counted and destroyed, the proper credits for it being given postmasters in their accounts. 

By February, 1887, this unsalable stock had become so greatly reduced that all post- 
masters were instructed to return at once such of it as they might still have on hand." 

Mr. Tiffany says the face value of the stamps and envelopes destroyed 
"soon reached the comfortable little sum of $731,503.61." 

The contract for the manufacture of postage stamps, for the four years 
beginning July 1st, 1885, was awarded to the American Bank Note Co- 
This contract provided that all ordinary postage stamps were to be printed 
on steam presses. The custom of specifying that the paper should be equal 
to the sample attached to the contract was also changed and a standard paper, 
made according to a formula, was required. 

By Act of Congress, approved March 30th, 1885, the rate of postage 

on first-class matter was further modified. The Act provided as follows ; 

"That upon all mattei- of the first class, as defined by Chapter 180 of the Laws of 
Congress, approved March 3rd, 1879, entitled : An Act, etc., and by that Act declared sub- 
ject to postage at the rate of three cents for each half ounce or fraction thereof, and reduced postal rates 
by Act of March 3rd, 1883, to two cents for each half ounce or fraction thereof, postage modifled. 

shall be charged, on and after the first day of July, 1885, at the rate of two cents for each 
ounce or fraction thereof ; and drop letters shall be mailed at the rate of two cents per ounce 
or fraction thereof, including delivery at letter carrier offices, and one cent for each ounce or 
fraction thereof where free delivery by carriers is not established." 



Contract requiring 

printing by steam 

and standard 

paper. 



Issue of June 15TH, 1887. 



A one cent stamp of a new design was issued on June 15th, 1887. It is 
officially described as follows : 

"One cent. A profile bust of Benjamin Franklin upon a disk with 
shaded background, the lower portion of the oval disk being bordered with 
pearls, and the upper portion with a curved panel, containing, in small white 
letters, the words ' united states postage.' The whole is engraved in line 



Design. 



154 



ISSUE OF JUNE ISTH, 1887. ISSUES OF 1887-88. 



upon a shield-shaped tablet with a truncated pyramidal base, bearing on it 
the words ' one cent ' on either side of the figure ' i '." 
The stamp measures 20x25 ^mm. 
Beferenoe List. Soft Porous White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 
June 15th, 1887 r cent dull ultramarine, ultramarine, bright ultramarine 

Variety . 
I cent dull ultramarine. Imperforate. 
Plate uambers. The plates used for this issue were numbered : 

I cent No. R. 573, 574, 575, 576, 577. 
S. 578, S79> 580, 581, 582. 
T. 583, 584, 585, 586, 587- 
F.r. 644, 64s, 646, 647, 648. 
• ■ G.G. 649, 650, 651, 652, 653. 

J.J. 664, 665, 666, 667, 668. 
P.P. 694, 69s, 696, 697, 698. 
U.U. 719, 720, 721, 722, 723. 



Changes In colors. 



Other changes in 
colors. 



Reference List. 



Issues of 1887-88. 

By an official circular, dated August isth, 1887, the following changes 
were announced : 

"On or about the 12th of September, 1887, the following changes in the series of 
postage stamps will be made : 

The color of the 2-cent stamp will be green, instead of the present color, metallic red. 

The color of the 3-cent stamp (issues of which are still made to some of the larger post 
offices) will be vermilion instead of green." 

In addition to the above, the circular announced changes in the designs 
and colors of certain of the stamped envelopes ; the four cents was to be 
printed in carmine, the five cents in blue, the thirty cents in brown and the 
ninety cents in purple. The two stamps and the envelopes were duly issued 
in the new colors and, during the next year, the four, five, thirty and ninety 
cent adhesives appeared in colors corresponding to those newly adopted for 
the envelopes of the same values. The philatelic journals chronicled the 
thirty cents in February, 1 888, the five and ninety cents in March and the 
four cents in December, of that year. On the subject of the'se last changes 
the report of the Postmaster General for 1888 and the Postal Guide are both 
silent. The customary official circular, announcing the contemplated changes, 
appears also to have been omitted. 

Soft Porous White Wove Paper. 
Perforated 12. 

Sept. 1 2th, 1887. 2 cents pale bright green, bright green, deep green, yellow- 
green 
3 cents pale red, scarlet 
Dec. 1888. 4 cents rose-carmine, carmine 



ISSUES OF 1887-88. 



ISS 



March 1888. 5 cents dark blue, indigo 

Feb. 1888. 30 cents brown-orange, orange-brown, deep orange-brown 

March 1888. 90 cents purple, bright purple 

Varieties : 

2 cents deep green. Imperforate 
5 cents dark blue " 

30 cents orange-brown " 

5 cents indigo. Pale pink paper 

The imperforate thirty cent stamps are from plate No. 405. 

The only copy of the five cent stamp on colored paper which I have 
seen was shown me by Mr. F. O. Conant. It had full original gum and 
presented a generally satisfactory appearance. Concerning it, Mr. Conant 
wrote : 

" The five cents blue, Garfield, on pink paper, is one of a lot of ten or 
fifteen, purchased at the Portland, Me., post office in 1889, by one of the local 
collectors. The paper appears to be too evenly colored to be the result of 
accident. Among the lot was a pair with the top margin. The color showed 
evenly on the margin, as on the stamps." 

In printing these stamps the following plates were used : 

2 cents No. N. 553, 554, 555, 556, 557. 

0. 558, 559. 560, 56r, 562. 
P- 563. 564, 565, 566, 567- 
Q. 568, 569, 570, 571, 572. 
U. 588, 589, 590, 591, 592. 

V. 593, 594, 595, 596, 597- 
W. 598, 599, 600, 6or, 602. 
'X- 603, 604, 60s, 606, 607. 
Y. 608, 609, 610, 611, 612, 613. 
Z. 614, 615, 616, 617, 618. 

A. A. 6r9, 620, 62T, 622, 623 

B. B. 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 

C. C. 629, 630, 631, 632, 633 

D. D. 634, 635, 636, 637, 638 

E. E. 639, 640, 641, 642, 643 
H. H. 654, 655, 656, 657, 658 

1. I. 659, 660, 661, 662, 663 
K. K. 669, 670, 671, 672, 673 
L. L. 674, 675, 676, 677, 678, 
M. M. 679, 680, 68r, 682, 683 
N. N. 684, 685, 686, 687, 688 
O. O. 689, 690, 691, 692, 693 
Q- Q- 699, 700, 701, 702, 703 
R. R. 704, 70s, 706, 707, 708 
S. S. 709, 710, 71T, 712, 713 
T. T. 714, 715, 716, 717! 718 



Fire cent stamp 
on pink paper. 



Plate numbers. 



156 ISSUES OF 1887-88. ISSUES OF 1881-88. 

3 cents No. 421. 

4 cents No. L. 542, 543, 544, 54S> 546- 

5 cents No. K. 537, 538, 539, 540, 541. 
30 cents No. 405. 

90 cents No. 23 (National Bank Note Co.) 

It is possible that a few other and earlier plates may have been used 
for the two, four and five cent stamps. 

Plate 6 1 3 of the two cents was added to serial letter Y to replace plate 
611 which was broken. 



As has been said before, the reports of the Postmaster General make 
no distinction between stamps of the same value but of different issues. The 
following statistics of stamps delivered to deputy postmasters between July 
ist, 1879, and June 30th, 1890, are, therefore, presented with the regret that 
they are not in more satisfactory shape for the purposes of philatelists. 



DeliTeries to 




St 


amps issued c 


luring the hsc 


al year ending 


June 30th, 1! 


J8o: 


postmasters. 
























Quarter Ending : 












Sept. 30, 1879. 


Dec. 31, 1879. 


Mch. 31, 1880. 


June 30, 1880. 


Total. 




I 


cent 


42,968,000 


54,511,200 


66,025,900 


62,944,700 


226,449,800 




2 


cents 


16,289,750 


18,865,550 


23,080,900 


'8,349,500 


76,585,700 




3 


cents 


128,951,300 


129,452,900 


148,615,700 


134,583,700 


541,603,600 




5 


cents 


2,606,180 


3,021,100 


3,847,340 


3,297,160 


12,771,780 




6 


cents 


1,496,150 


1,329,200 


1,850,000 


1,689,350 


6,364,700 




10 


cents 


2,209,580 


2,266,220 


3,194,350 


2,679,780 


10,349,930 




'5 


cents 


266,120 


243,140 


307,440 


298,420 


1,115,120 




3° 


cents 


84,640 


95,280 


134,010 


101,620 


415,550 




90 


cents 


7,700 


7,080 


5,620 


5,390 


25,790 



Whole number of stamps 875,681,970. Value $22,414,928.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1881 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1880. Dec. 31, 1880. Mch. 31, 1881. June 30, 1881. Total., 

1 cent 57,783,200 68,475,600 77,951,000 61,097,300 265,307,100 

2 cents 17,166,450 20,455,250 25,918,400 23,111,950 86,652,050 

3 cents 132,174,800 142,142,100 151,953,500 141,143,400 567,413,800 

5 cents 3,182,800 3,799,220 3,944,540 3,923,120 14,849,680 

6 cents 1,226,200 1,768,950 1,698,250 1,711,600 6,405,000 
10 cents 2,514,310 2,932,810 3,553,620 2,988,740 11,989,480 
15 cents 213,140 235,240 424,020 214,180 1,086,580 
30 cents 62,090 118,440 121,840 95,800 398,170 
90 cents 3,900 6,050 6,050 "0,590 26,590 

Whole number of stamps 954,i28,45<j. Value 124,040,627.00. 



ISSUES OF 1881-88. 157 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1882 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1881. Dec. 31, 1881. Mch. 31, 1882. June 30, 1882. Total. 

1 cent 58,349,000 69,592,200 78,612,900 77,380,600 283,934,700 

2 cents 23,499,400 26,407,400 28,861,200 27,578,800 106,346,800 

3 cents i6t, 825,800 166,676,000 183,352,000 168,609,900 680,463,700 

5 cents 4,030,440 4,522,120 S.>93iS2o 5,531,200 19,277,280 

6 cents 1,923,700 1,922,750 2,108,300 2,013,700 7,968,450 
10 cents 2,955,210 3,554,290 4,362,110 3,670,080 14,541,690 
15 cents 324,600 326,560 536,720 299,460 1,487,340 
30 cents ' 90,280 142,290 153,910 123,920 510,400 
90 cents 7,790 10,050 6,170 5,960 29,970 

Whole number of stamps 1,114,560,330. Value $28,679,528.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1883 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1882. Dec. 31, 1882. Mch. 31, 1883. June 30, 1883. Total. 

1 cent 69,662,500 84,371,300 94,134,200 86,031,000 334,199,000 

2 cents 24,177,300 32,501,100 32,435,000 30,777,650 119,891,050 

3 cents 167,930,400 174,138,800 182,868,500 174,862,100 699,799,800 

5 cents 5,226,760 5,733,460 6,233,340 5,838,560 23,032,120 

6 cents 1,941,300 2,519,050 2,404,700 
10 cents 3,276,840 3,668,370 4,538,500 
15 cents 401,280 329,160 479,400 
30 cents 112,770 116,340 138,280 
90 cents 9,180 8,130 6,260 

Whole number of stamps 1,202,743,800. Value $30,307,179.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1884 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1883. Dec. 31, 1883. Mch. 31, 1884. June 30, 1884. Total. 

1 cent 84,582,100 96,221,900 102,338,100 93,814,700 376,956,800 

2 cents 157,598,100 238,918,900 278,928,200 251,623,900 927,069,100 

3 cents 95,461,000- 5,000 25,200 34,900 95,526,100 

4 cents 1,541,200 5,244,200 4,800,500 4,558,050 16,143,950 



1,885,450 


8,750,500 


3,596,450 


15,080,160 


289,260 


1,449,100 


97,620 


465,010 


3,490 


27,060 



5 cents 


5,197,080 


6,1 11,000 


7,570,580 


6,635,740 


25,514,400 


6 cents 


898,050 




40,000 


53,750 


991,800 


10 cents 


3,498,540 


3,712,420 


4,885,750 


3,916,370 


16,013,080 


15 cents 


282,340 


265,260 


377,860 


166,740 


1,092,200 


30 cents 


75,600 


1 10,910 


150,930 


96,460 


433,900 


90 cents 


7,250 


6,220 


7,740 


5,920 


27,130 



Whole number of stamps 1,459,768,460. Value $29,077,444.00. 



158 ISSUES OF 1881-88. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1885 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1884. Dec. 31, 1884 Mch. 31, 1883. June 30, 1885. Total. 

1 cent 80,576,800 90,425,900 97,158,000 96,403,200 364,563,900 

2 cents 244,084,350 247,443,400 279,510,900 266,120,800 1,037,159,450 



3 cents 




200,000 


66,000 


153,000 


419,000 


4 cents 


3,9 1 3.' 00 


4,282,750 


4,718,525 


4,289,900 


17,204,275 


S cents 


6,39 ',360 


6,716,700 


7,756,340 


6,958,940 


27,823,340 


6 cents 







40,000 


14,000 


54,000 


10 cents 


3,388,460 


4,090,170 


4,761,940 


4,057,520 


16,297,790 


15 cents 


255,540 


344,480 


302,900 


273,940 


. 1,176,860 


30 cents 


89,160 


71,860 


150,010 


93,210 


404,240 


90 cents 


5,870 


3,860 


4,910 


5,440 


20,080 



Whole number of stamps 1,465,122,935. Value $28,429,628.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending'June 30th, 1886 : 
Quarter Ending: 

Sept, 30, 1885. Dec. 31, 1885. Mch. 31, 1886. June 30, 1886. Total. 

1 cent 78,335,600 100,412,900 117,394,800 114,386,800 410,530,100 

2 cents 247,262,600 285,245,400 303,255,800 312,142,600 1,147,906,400 

3 cents 200,000 '55,500 319,600 201,200 876,300 

4 cents 2,257,300 3,563,850 3,008,150 3,248,550 12,077,850 

5 cents 5,999,860 7,259,800 8,652,680 7,875,080 29,787,420 

6 cents 55,ooo 50,700 2,100 50,5°° 158,300 
10 cents 3,594,110 4,662,610 5,012,440 4,558,010 17,827,170 
15 cents 258,600 348,500 323,940 267,520 1,198,560 
30 cents 64,950 135,450 126,400 75,930 402,730 
90 cents 3,410 7,770 3,500 4,590 19,270 

Whole number of stamps 1,620,784,100. Value $31,172,364.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1 887 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1886. Dec. 31, i886. Mch. 31, 1887. June 30, 1887. Total. 

1 cent 80,669,900 117,101,800 124,744,900 109,769,700 432,286,300 

2 cents 249,142,600 351,213,400 326,290,200 319,516,150 1,246,162,350 

3 cents 61,100 312,000 791,500 100,000 1,264,600 

4 cents 2,141,500 4,158,700 3,795,350 3,343,300 13,438,950 



5 cents 


6,258,400 


9,073,660 


9,553,400 


7,614,280 


32,499,740 


6 cents 


1,700 


1,000 


54,000 


1,000 


57,70° 


10 cents 


3,582,310 


5.243,850 


5,933,240 


4,417,120 


19,176,520 


15 cents 


256,040 


540,780 


414,520 


419,520 


1,630,860 


30 cents 


89,710 


115,030 


130,900 


97,410 


433,050 


90 cents 


5,710 


12,480 


8,450 


8,810 


35,450 



Whole number of stamps 1,746,985,520. Value $33,774,156.00. 



ISSUES OF 1881-88. 



'59 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1888 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1887. Dec. 31, 1887. Mch. 31, 1888. June 30, 1888. Total. 

1 cent 89,936,700 113,0x5,900 125,318,700 121,718,200 443,989,500 

2 cents 296,217,000 348,012,100 368,931,300 334,520,200 i,347,68o,6co 

3 cents 101,500 604,100 1,884,700 1,441,100 4,031,400 

4 cents 2,976,250 3,750,700 3,924,67s 3,592,125 14,243,750 



5 cents 


7,704,880 


8,7i8;i6o 


10,740,620 


9,045,560 


36,209,220 


6 cents 


61,000 





100,000 


5,600 


166,600 


10 cents 


4,320,780 


S>239.78o 


5.699.870 


4,671,230 


19,931,660 


15 cents 


277,020 


451.560 


357,640 


336,940 


1,423,160 


30 cents 


67,370 


181, t20 


98,480 


95.760 


442,730 


90 cents 


S.920 


11,490 


18,990 


18,120 


54,520 



Whole number of stamps 1,868,173,140. Value $36,293,183.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1889 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1888. Dec. 31, 1888. Mch. 31, 1889. June 30, 1889. Total. 

1 cent 97,022,600 127,794,600 130,074,600 118,141,500 473,033.300 

2 cents 325,272,100 356,527,900 387,213,000 339,427,900 1,408,440,900 

3 cents 825,300 1,715,400 2,005,200 1,545,700 6,091,600 

4 cents 3,055,700 3,553.650 4,018,900 3,744,100 14,372,350 



5 cents 


8,492,220 


9,224,540 


10,202,080 


9,116,680 


37,035,520 


6 cents 


1 10,000 


9,2CO 


50,500 


i6,6co 


186,300 


10 cents 


4,558,150 


5,359,320 


5,711,450 


5,355,020 


20,983,940 


15 cents 


278,700 


519,900 


262,560 


291,500 


1,352,660 


30 cents 


75,290 


116,840 


158,300 


84,330 


434,760 


90 cents 


6,400 


8,410 


11,800 


22,900 


49,510 



Whole number of stamps 1,961,980,840. Value $37,996,027.00. 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1890 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1889. Dec. 31, 1889. Mch. 31, 1890. June 30, 1890. Total. 

1 cent 164,097,000 88,688,400 154,806,500 143,659,400 551,251,300 

2 cents 455,168,500 305,910,500 424,057,300 390,981,500 1,576,117,800 



3 cents 

4 cents 

5 cents 

6 cents 
10 cents 
15 cents 
30 cents 
90 cents 



3,588,900 

5,872,150 

12,815,920 

228,500 

6,439,050 

603,560 

156,090 

15,470 



1,085,500 

2,184,050 

6,501,240 

17,100 

4,427,610 

218,680 

66,860 

2,150 



2,805,400 

5,050,800 

10,411,180 

612,650 

6,671,150 

334,860 

154,3°° 
34,960 



2,666,500 

3,782,200 

9,851,580 

465,950 

4,961,210 

235,700 

90,840 

15-850 



10,146,300 

16,889,200 

39,579,920 

1,324,200 

22,499,020 

1,392,800 

468,090 

68,430 



Whole number of stamps 2,219,737,060. Value $42,734,108.00. 



Issue of 1890. 



From the report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, dated Oct. 
30th, 1890, we obtain the following information: 

"The old contract for adhesive postage stamps exphed on the 50th of June, 1889. To 
afford time in which to make needful preparations for the new contract, the old contract 
Historical. was extended for a period of three months, until the 30th of September, under a right re- 

served to the Department by the terms of the contract. 

After a full examination of the subject an advertisement was issued, under date of June 
17, 1889, calling for sealed proposals, to be received until the 17th day of July, for furnishing 
all the stamps which should be called for during thefour years commencing October i, 1889. 
The specifications furnished to bidders set forth the requirements of the contract with the 
utmost minuteness. They will be found in full in a copy of the contract in the appendix to 
this report. 

The call was made for bids for ordinary stamps of two different sizes, to wit, those 
then in use, measuring 1 by 25-32 inch, and a smaller size, measuririg 5^ by ^ inch. The 
sizes and styles of newspaper and periodical, postage-due, and special-delivery stamps were 
left unchanged. 

An important change was that the color of each of the several denominations of stamps 
was prescribed by the specifications, with the purpose of preventing arbitrary and un- 
necessary changes during the existence of the contract. Samples of the stamps in the 
selected colors, appropriately cancelled, were attached to the specifications and blank forms 
of proposal furnished to bidders. Proposals were called for separately for stamps to be 
printed, first by hand-presses; second, by steam-power presses in which a portion of the 
work is to be done by steam and a portion by hand ; and third by steam power presses on 
which all the work is done by steam ; with the right reserved to the Department to make the 
award upon any one of the three classes of bids. The classification of the bids will appear 
fully in the copy of the specifications referred to. * * * 

In response to the advertisement two bids were submitted, one by Mr. Charles F. 
Steel, of Philadelphia, and the other by the American Bank Note Company, of New York, 
the old contractors for furnishing stamps. The bid of Mr. Steel amounted, upon the basis 
referred to, to $155,017.39 for stamps of the larger size, and to $151,489.06 for stamps of 
the smaller size printed on hand-roller presses; to $124,642.36 for stamps of the larger size, 
and to $122,094 77 for stamps of the smaller size printed on steam-power presses on which 
a part of the work is done by steam and a part by hand; and to $120,723 for stamps of the 
larger size, and to $1 17,587.51 for stamps of the smaller size printed on all steam-power 
presses. The bid of the American Bank Note Company was for printing the ordinary 
stamps on steam-power presses only, and for the remaining kinds of stamps on hand-roller 
presses only, and the totals were $158,033.87, comprehending ordinary stamps of the larger 
size, and $148, 235.47 embracing ordinary stamps of the smaller size. The difference be- 
tween the amount of this bid and that of Mr. Steel for stamps printed on all steam-power 
presses was $37,310.87 for stamps of the larger size, and $30,647.96 for stamps of the smaller 
size. 

At the opening in public of the bids, a protest was made by the American Bank Note 
Company against the award to Mr. Steel, on the ground that he was not eligible as a 
bidder under the terms of the advertisement restricting the bids to steel-plate engravers and 
plate-printers. This protest was shortly afterwards withdrawn, and, preliminary to an 
award, Mr. Steel was, upon the 1st of August, called upon to demonstrate his facilities for 
carrying out the contract. Though not engaged in the business, and being unprovided with 
a plant for printing and engraving, he promised to procure all the necessary equipment and 
material in time to manufacture and begin the delivery of the stamps on the ist of 
October, or shortly thereafter. The specifications called for a fire-proof building in which 



ISSUE OF 1890. 



161 



to manufacture and store the stamps, but though called upon repeatedly to do so, Mr. Steel 
failed to submit for inspection suitable premises for the purpose. He offered only one build- 
ing, though promising a choice of several different ones, and that building utterly failed to 
meet the requirement. The award was consequently witheld, and it becoming evident that 
Mr. Steel was either unwilling or unable to comply with his proposal, the Postmaster- 
General, under date of September 1 1 , 1889, issued an advertisement calling for new proposals 
for a contract for the four years commencing December i, 1889. At the same time provis 
ion was made for a temporary supply of stamps for the interval between October i and 
December i by calling on the American Bank Note Company to furnish a specified number 
of stamps, under the provisions of the contract giving the right to order an extra quanity not 
exceeding a three months' supply. 

At the time appointed for closing the receipt of the new proposals, on the 26th of Sept- 
ember, two bids were submitted. One was from the Franklin Bank Note Company and the 
other was from the American Bank Note Company, both of New York. The bid of the 
Franklin Bank Note Company amounted, on the basis of the quantities specified in the 
previous advertisement, to $163,904.82 for stamps of the larger size, and to $163,904 82 
for stamps of the smaller size, printed on all steam-power presses, and the bid of the Amer- 
ican Bank Note Company amounted, on the same basis and for the same class of work, to 
$i57,64r.93 for stamps of the larger size and to $149,215.31 for stamps of the smaller size. 
The bid of the American Bank Note Company was $391.94 less than its bid under the former 
advertisement for the larger stamps and $979.84 more for the smaller stamps. 

Subsequent to the receipt of these proposals another call was made by letter of the 
Postmaster-General, dated October 8. upon Mr. Steel to comply with the requirements of 
his bid submitted in July, and he responded on the 12th of October by declining to proceed 
further in the matter. There appeared to be no alternative but to make a selection from 
the other bids already received, especially in view of the fact that, through the time lost in the 
endeavor to induce Mr. Steel to comply with his proposal, the Department had exhausted 
its resources for obtaining temporary supplies of stamps. The contract was therefore, on 
the 23d of October, awarded to the American Bank Note Company under its bid received on 
the 17th of July (it being the lowest of all the bids, except that of Mr. Steel, received under 
both advertisements) the award being made for ordinary stamps of the smaller size. No 
hesitation was felt in awarding the contract for stamps printed on all steam-power presses, 
the work having been satisfactorily done by that process during the preceding four years. 
As already shown, the successful bid amounted, upon the basis of the number of stamps 
issued during the year ending March 31, 1889, to $148,235.47. This amount was $9,406. 46 
more than the cost of corresponding kinds and numbers of stamps under the previous 
contract. It is to be observed, however, that under the. terms of the new contract, the 
cost of preparing dies, rolls, and plates for new designs of stamps, or for additional denom- 
inations, is to be borne by the Department, while under the previous contract, the contrac- 
tor was required to make these changes at the discretion of the Department and at his own 
expense; and, moreover, that by the new contract the two-cent stamps, constituting by far 
the greater portion of all the issues, are printed in much more expensive color than 
formerly. 

The contract was duly executed, and it being found impracticable to prepare stamps of 
the new designs prior to December i, arrangements were made with the American Bank 
Note Company by which stamps of the old style were to be furnished at the old contract 
rates until such time as the new stamps should be ready for issue. The issue of the 
new stamps was begun in time to place them on sale at the leading post-offices on February 
22, last." 

When the contract was signed, on Nov. 7th, 1889, the date at which it 
was to become operative was advanced to Jan. ist, i8go. 

The specifications furnished to intending bidders on this stamp con- 
tract provided in regard to colors as follows : 

" The colors selected for the several denominations of the two sizes of ordinary stamps > 
for which proposals are invited are respectively as follows : 
The ordinary stamps of the larger size (A): 
T cent, ultramarine blue 

2 cent, metallic red 

3 cent, vermilion 

4 cent, milori green 

5 cent, chocolate 
The colors adopted for this size of stamps are show on the specimens herewith, each 

being surcharged with the word ' Sample.' 
For ordinary stamps of the smaller size (B): 

I cent, ultramarine blue 6 cent, vermilion 

; cent, carmine 10 cent, milori green 



6 cent, dark red 
10 cent, light brown 
15 cent, orange 
30 cent, black 
90 cent, carmine 



'Sample" stamps 

iu the proposed 

colors. 



l62 



ISSUE OF 1890. 



3 cent, royal purple 

4 cent, chocolate 

5 cent, light brown 



15 cent, steel blue 
50 cent, black 
90 cent, orange 



Additional 
varieties. 



Dates of issue. 



The colors adopted for this s'ze are shown on the specimens herewith, each designated 
as ' Sample A.' 

The inks to be used in printing the stamps must be of the colors shown on the samples 
for the corresponding kinds and denominations, and be fully equal in quality thereto. The 
use of aniline inks will not be allowed " 

These sample stamps were prepared and overprinted by the American 
Bank Note Co., on a special order from the Post Office Department. In 
addition to the varieties enumerated in the specifications, several others are 
known to collectors. They are: the two cents printed in dull lake, car- 
mine-lake and scarlet- vermilion, and surcharged "sample"; the four cents 
green, ten cents brown and ninety cents carmine, overprinted "sample" 
and having the letter "a " added in manuscript, in black ink; and the five 
cents blue (Garfield) surcharged " sample a " in manuscript, in red ink. 

The one, two, three, six, ten, fifteen, thirty and ninety cent stamps were 
placed on sale at one hundred and ten of the larger post-offices on February 
22nd, 1890. The four and five cent stamps were not issued until June 2nd 
of that year. The eight cent stamp did not form a part of the series as 
originally prepared and was not issued until about three years later, March 
.2ist, 1893. Its introduction was due to the reduction of the registration fee 
from ten to eight cents, on January rst, 1893. 

The official description of the designs and colors is as follows: 

" One cent. Profile bust, after Rubricht, of Benjamin Franklin look- 
ing to the left, on an oval disk, with dark background and narrow white 
Designs and colors, border, immediately above which, set in a panel conforming to the curve of 
the disk, are the words ' united states postage ' in white capitals, and 
below which, in slightly larger and shaded letters, arranged in a waved line 
running nearly the whole width of the stamp, are the words ' one cent '. Just 
above these latter words, on either sides, is a white numeral of denomination 
—the arable figure ' i ' — in a small oval space, surrounded by an ornate scroll, 
the upper portion of which is connected with and serves as a support to the 
panel around the medallion. The whole is placed upon a distinctly lined 
oblong tablet, seven-eighths of an inch high by three-fourths of an inch wide, 
with beveled sides and bottom. The color is ultramarine blue. 

Two cents. Profile bust, after Houdon, of George Washington, look- 
ing to the left, on an oval disk. The surroundings of the medallion are the 
same as in the i-cent stamp, with the necessary change of figures and letters 
representing the denomination. Color, carmine. An improved quality of 
color for the 2-cent stamp was adopted May 12, 1890. 

Three cents. Profile bust, after Powers, of Andrew Jackson, look- 
ing to the left, on an oval disk. The surroundings of the medallion are the 
same as in the i-cent stamp, with the necessary change of figures and letters 
representing the denomination. Color, purple. 

Four cents. Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, after a photograph from 
life, three-quarters face, looking to the right, on an oval disk. The surround- 
ings of the medallion are the same as in the i-cent stamp, with the necessary 



ISSUE OF i8go. 163 

change of figures and letters representing the denomination. Color, velvet 
brown. 

Five cents. Portrait of U. S. Grant, after a photograph from life, 
three-quarters face, looking to the right, on an oval disk. The surroundings 
of the medallion are the same as in the i-cent stamp, with the necessary 
change of figures and letters representing the denomination. Color, light 
brown. 

Six cents. Portrait of James A. Garfield, after a photograph from 
life, three-quarters face, looking to the left, on an oval disk. The surround- 
ings of the medallion are the same as on the i-cent stamp, with the necessary 
change of figures and letters representing the denomination. Color, light 
maroon. 

Eight cents. Portrait of Gen. William T. Sherman, after a photo- 
graph from life, full face. The surroundings of the picture are the same as 
those on the stamps below the lo-cent denomination with the necessary 
change of figures and letters representing the value. Color, lilac. 

Ten cents. Portrait of Daniel Webster, after a daguerreotype from 
life, three-quarters face, looking to the left, on an oval disk, with dark back- 
ground and narrow white border, around the upper half of which, set in a 
panel conforming to its curve, are the words 'united states postage', in 
small white capitals, the words 'ten cents' in somewhat similar letters being 
placed in a like panel below the medallion. Below this again, in the two 
lower corners of the stamp, are plain Arabic numerals of denomination, ' 10 ', 
set in circular spaces surrounded with ornate scrolls not unlike those in the 
I-cent stamp. The whole is placed upon an oblong tablet, seven-eighths of 
an inch high by three-fourths of an inch wide, with beveled sides and bottom. 
The color is milori green. 

Fifteen cents. Portrait of Henry Clay, after a daguerreotype from 
life, three-quarters face, looking to the left, on an oval disk. The surround- 
ings of the medallion are substantially the same as in the lo-cent stamp, 
with appropriate changes of figures and letters representing the denomination. 
Color, deep blue. 

Thirty cents. Profile bust of Thomas Jefferson, after Ceracchi, 
looking to the left, on an oval disk. The surroundings of the medallion are 
the same as in the lo-cent stamp, with necessary change of the letters and 
figures of denomination, the latter, however, being of block form. Color, 
black. 

Ninety cents. Profile bust of Commodore O. H. Perry, after Wolcott's 
statue, looking to the left, on an oval disk. The surroundings of the medallion 
are substantially the same as in the 30-cent stamp, with the necessary changes 
of the letters and figures of denomination. Color, orange." 

The stamps are of uniform size, 19x22mm. 

The paper, gum and perforation are the same as in previous issues 
made by the American Bank Note Co. 

There are some minor varieties of the two cent stamps which are of 
trifling interest. These are colorless marks, commonly called "caps ", above 



Paper, etc. 



164 



ISSUE OF 1890. 



Capped nnmerais. one or both of the numerals of value. They are caused by damaged transfer 
rolls. By some means, probably over hardening, a bit of the roll was chipped 
off. In one instance the break occurred above the right-hand numeral, in 
another above the left, and in the third above both numerals. These three 
transfers and others which were not damaged were used in conjunction and 
the resulting combinations are interesting to specialists. There is in the collec- 
tion of Mr. H. E. Beats a strip of ten stamps, from the upper right quarter of 
plate VV246, of which the first three stamps (counting from the left) have 
caps on the left-hand numeral, and the other stamps of the row have caps 
on both numerals. In the same collection are similar strips from plates 
TT235, VV247 and VV248, all the stamps of which have caps on the numeral 
at the left, and a strip from plate VV24S ^i'^h ^^P^ °^ ^o'^'^ numerals. Mr. 
Beats' strips from plates SS232, TT236, 238 and 239 do not show any caps. 
Nos. UU240, 241, 242, 243 and 244 are on plates of the one cent stamp. The 
other adjacent numbers I have not seen. It is possible that some of them 
are of the capped varieties. 

In view of the rigid and almost microscopical examination to which 
stamp plates are understood to be subjected it is surprising that these defec- 
tive plates were not discovered, or, if discovered, were allowed to be used. 

The following shades and varieties are found in this issue : 

Reference List. Soft Porous White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 

1 cent pale ultramarine, ultramarine, dark ultramarine, 
gray-blue, dull blue 

2 cents lake, violet-lake, lilac-rose, carmine-lake, pale car- 
mine, carmine, deep carmine, carmine-rose, bright 
aniline rose, deep aniline rose, rose, crimson 

3 cents bright purple, deep purple 

4 cents dark yellow-brown, black-brown 

5 cents orange-brown, deep orange-brown, bistre-brown, 
dark brown 

6 cents claret, claret-brown, rose-brown 
8 cents gray-lilac, gray-violet 

10 cents deep blue-green, dark gray-green 
15 cents indigo, deep indigo 
30 cents gray-black, full black 
90 cents yellow-orange, orange, red-orange 
J''arieties: 
2 cents carmine. Cap on right numeral 
2 cents carmine-lake, carmine, carmine-rose, rose. Cap 

on left numeral 
2 cents carmine-lake, carmine-rose. Caps on both num- 
erals 
8 cents magenta. Error. Color of the eight cents of 

the Columbian issue 
t cent deep ultramarine, Imperforate 



Feb. 22nd, 1890. 



June 2nd, 1890. 



Feb. 22nd, 1890. 
March 21st, 1893. 
Feb. 22nd, 1890. 



ISSUE OF 1890. 



165 



2 cents carmine-rose, carmine Imperforate 

3 cents purple " 

4 cents dark yellow-brown " 

5 cents orange-brown " 

6 cents claret " 
8 cents gray-lilac " 

ro cents deep blue-green 

15 cents indigo " 

30 cents black " 

90 cents orange " 

Bisected stamps of this and subsequent issues are not at all uncommon. 
By the present rules of the Post Office Department such varieties are not 
receivable for postage and, even should one be accepted at the office where a Bisected stamps, 
letter is mailed, the postmaster at the office of delivery is instructed to treat 
the letter as unpaid. On occasions, the exhaustion of the lower values in a 
post office has appeared to warrant the use of bisected stamps and such 
varieties have even been endorsed by the postmaster, despite the rule of the 
department. But, on the other hand, many such oddities have been passed 
through the post by favor or carelessness and collectors will probably do 
well to entirely eschew such varieties in the later issues. 

While this issue was being prepared, proofs were made, from plates of 
the two, four and five cents, in a variety of shades which closely approach 
those of the issued stamps. There were five shades of the two cents, eleven Proofs. 

of the four cents and thirteen of the five cents. These proofs are on the 
regular paper gummed and finished except that they are not perforated. 
There would be no occasion for mentioning them, were it not that they are 
occasionally offered for sale as imperforate varieties of the issued stamps and 
collectors should be informed of their true character. 

In this issue many plates of the one and two cent values contained four 
hundred stamps each. All the other plates contained two hundred stamps 
each. The impressions were , as usual, cut into sheets of one hundred stamps. piates. 

The imprints and plate numbers were in the same style and occupied the same 
positions as on previous plates of the same contractors. In addition some, if 
not all, of the plates had the inscription "American bank note company " 
at the outer side of each pane of one hundred stamps. 

In the following list the figures enclosed in parenthesis indicate the 
number of the stamps on each plate. 

The numbers of the plates were as follows: P'»t« mimbers. 

I cent (400) C. II, 12, 13, 14, 15 

(400) G. 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 

(400) Q. 89, 90, 91, 92, 93 

(400) BB. 145, 146, 147, 148, 149 

(400) FF. 165, 166, 167. 168, 169 

(400) UU. 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 

(400) Cr. 280, 281, 282, 283. 2i 

(400) Dr. 285,286,287,288,289, 

(400) Fi. 29s, 296, 297, 298, 299 



1 66 



ISSUE OF 1890. 



2 cents 



(400 


) A. 


I, 


2 


, 3, 


4, 


5- 


(400 


) B. 


6, 


7 


8, 


9, 


10, 71 


(400 


) D. 


16, 


17 


18, 


19, 


20. 


(400 


I F. 


3'. 


32 


33, 


34, 


35- 


(400, 


» H. 


41, 


42 


43, 


44, 


45- 


(200' 


) K. 


56, 


57 


58, 


59, 


60. 


(200' 


1 L. 


61, 


62 


63, 


64. 


65- 


(200 


) M. 


66, 


67 


68, 


69, 


70, 99 


(200' 


N. 


74, 


75 


76, 


77, 


78. 


(200 


0. 


79. 


80 


81, 


82, 


83- 


(400; 


> P. 


84, 


85 


86, 


87, 


88. 


(400' 


R. 


94, 


95 


96, 


97, 


98. 


(200] 


S. 


100, 


lOI, 


102, 


■03, 


104. 


(200 


T. 


los, 


106, 


107, 


108, 


109. 


(zoo' 


U. 


no, 


III 


IIZ, 


i'3, 


114. 


(200] 


V. 


I'S, 


116 


i'7, 


118, 


119. 


(400^ 


w. 


120, 


121, 


I2Z, 


'23, 


124. 


(zoo' 


X. 


"5, 


126 


'27, 


128, 


129. 


(400; 


Y. 


130, 


131 


132, 


133, 


134- 


(400; 


1 z. 


13s, 


136 


137, 


138, 


•39- 


(200] 


AA. 


140, 


141 


142, 


143, 


144. 


(400; 


CC. 


'5°- 


T5' 


152, 


'53, 


154- 


(400; 


DD. 


'55, 


156 


'57, 


158, 


I59- 


(400 


EE. 


160, 


161, 


162, 


163, 


164. 


(400' 


GG. 


170, 


171, 


172, 


'73, 


174. 


(400; 


HH. 


175, 


176, 


177, 


.78, 


.79. 


(200' 


II. 


180, 


18. 


182, 


'83, 


184. 


(200] 


JJ- 


18s, 


186 


187, 


188, 


189. 


(200' 


KK. 


190, 


'9' 


192, 


'93, 


194. 


(200' 


LL. 


'95, 


196 


'97, 


198, 


199. 


(400; 


NN. 


205, 


206 


207, 


208, 


209. 


(200' 


00. 


210, 


211 


2IZ, 


213, 


214. 


(200 


PP. 


2'S, 


Z16 


ZI7, 


2 18, 


219. 


(400] 


QQ. 


220, 


2ZI 


222, 


223, 


224. 


(200; 


RR. 


225, 


226 


227, 


228, 


229. 


(400] 


SS. 


230, 


231 


232, 


233, 


234- 


(400; 


TT. 


235, 


236 


237, 


238, 


239- 


(200 


VV. 


245, 


246 


247, 


248, 


249. 


(200 


)■ WW. 


250, 


251 


252, 


253, 


254- 


(200 


XX. 


255, 


256 


257, 


258, 


259- 


(200] 


YY 


a6o. 


261 


262, 


263, 


264. 


(400; 


1 Ai. 


270, 


271 


272, 


273, 


274. 


(400 


) Br. 


27s, 


276 


277, 


278, 


279. 


(400 


) Ei. 


290, 


291 


292, 


293, 


294. 


(400; 


1 Gi. 


300, 


301 


302, 


303, 


304- 


(400 


) Hi. 


305, 


306 


, 3°7, 


308, 


309- 


(400 


) I'- 


310, 


3" 


, 3'2, 


3 '3, 


314- 



ISSUE OF 1890. 



167 



3 cents 

4 cents 

5 cents 

6 cents 
8 cents 

10 cents 
15 cents 
30 cents 
90 cents 

Plates 71 and 99 we: 
damaged plates. 

Stamps from the io, 

2 cents 

3 cents 

5 cents 

6 cents 
15 cents 
30 cents 
90 cents 



400) Ji. 315, 316, 317, 318, 319 

) Ki. 320, 321, 322, 323, 324 

) Li- 32S> 326, 327, 328, 329 

) Mi. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334 

) Nr. 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 

) Oi. 340, 341, 342, 343, 344 

) Pi- 345. 346, 347, 348, 349 

200) 21, 72. 

200) J. 51, 52, S3, 54, 55 

200) MM. 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 



47, 48, 49, S° 



200) I. 46, 

200) 23. 

200) ZZ. 265, 266, 267, 268, 269 

200) E. 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 

200) 22. 

200) 24. 

200) 25. 

e added to the groups lettered B and M to replace 



lowing plates are known in imperforate condition : 

D. 18, F. 34. 

21. 
I. 46. 

23- 
22. 
24. 

25- 

The annual reports of the Postmaster General and of the Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing supply the following statistics of stamps issued to 
deputy postmasters : 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1891 : 

Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1890. Dec. 31,1890. Mch. 31, 1891. June 30, 1891. Total. 

1 cent 121,144,100 146,001,900 160,068,400 151,494,100 578,708,500 

2 cents 394,563,400 435,499,000 464,456,200 425,781,700 1,720,300,300 

3 cents 2,053,700 2,596,300 3,334,400 2,900,700 10,885,100 

4 cents 3,471,350 5,248,100 4,878,250 3,764,100 17,361,800 

5 cents 9,227,460 11,054,240 12,197,780 10,433,200 42,912,680 



6 cents 


531,550 


720,050 


39 ',65° 


348,550 


1,991,800 


10 cents 


4,915,680 


5,783,260 


6,939,180 


5,447,650 


23,085,770 


15 cents 


362,560 


475,000 


580,960 


267,080 


1,685,600 


30 cents- 


91,790 


186,330 


J 60,530 


88,410 


527,060 


90 cents 


13,430 


11,230 


7,790 


12,280 


44,730 



DellTerles to 
postmasters. 



Whole number of stamps :^,397, 503,340. Value $46,239,050.00. 



i68 



ISSUE OK 1890. 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1892 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1891. Dec. 31, 1891. Mch. 31, 1892. June 30, 1892 Total. 

1 cent 123,667,200 172,387,600 170,077,700 159,108,400 625,240,900 

2 cents 402,173,600 474,486,800 489,161,800 447,493,500 1,813,315,700 

3 cents 2,085,800 3,619,000 4,228,200 2,749,600 12,682,600 



4 cents 


3,8ro,ooo 


S,28r,9oo 


5,164,200 


4,559.100 


18,815,200 


5 cents 


9,329,180 


12,404,380 


12,515,540 


10,705,520 


44,954,620 


6 cents 


570,750 


780,900 


626,650 


295,650 


2,273,950 


10 cents 


4,808,690 


6,448,900 


6,770,290 


5,758,880 


23,786,760 


15 cents 


404,720 


543,840 


443,420 


258,360 


1,650,340 


30 cents 


129,290 


135,410 


129,910 


116,670 


511,280 


90 cents 


12,990 


8,000 


7,480 


10,390 


38,860 



Whole number of stamps 2,543,270,210. Value $48,850,562.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1893 : 
Quarter Ending : 



Sept. 30, 1892. Dec. 31, 1892. 

1 cent 133,659,850 160,812,800 

2 cents 439,410,000 470,560,800 



Mch. 31, 1893. June 30, 1893. Total. 

51,128,400 90,341,300 435,942,350 
72,173,600 217,612,200 1,199,756,600 



3 cents 


2,357,550 


3,834,000 


1,117,100 


1,671,300 


8,979,950 


4 cents 


4,270,600 


5,639,875 


1,031,300 


2,559,300 


13,501,075 


5 cents 


10,487,330 


11,838,540 


1,197,460 


4,997,260 


28,520,590 


6 cents 


632,950 


1,074,550 


164,450 


365,800 


2,237,750 


8 cents 






139,250 


1,403,250 


1,542,500 


10 cents 


5,241,000 


6,151,400 


735,350 


1,697,130 


13,824,880 


15 cents 


310,470 


679,600 


46,640 


113,720 


1,150,430 


30 cents 


123,650 


119,180 


12,910 


34,870 


290,610 


90 cents 


15,820 


23,380 


170 


1,990 


41,360 



Whole number of stamps 1,705,788,095. Value $32,527,151.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1 894 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1893. Dec 31, 1893. Mch. 31, 1894. June 30, 1894. Total. 

1 cent 78,059,300 71,907,600 116,841,900 138,586,300 405,395,100 

2 cents 275,632,700 200,240,200 275,930,000 403,934,600 1,155,737,500 



3 cents 


1,221,900 


2,096,500 


4,719,900 


3,774,200 


11,812,500 


4 cents 


2,161,900 


1,871,450 


5,598,000 


4,574,650 


i4,2o6,oco 


5 cents 


3,948,140 


3,434,380 


9,857,560 


9,582,440 


26,822,520 


6 cents 


402,400 


303,400 


959,800 


1,043,800 


2,709,400 


8 cents 


1,013,750 


781,200 


1,609,000 


1,727,450 


5,131,400 


10 cents 


1,722,600 


1,719,670 


3,137,300 


3,050,150 


9,629,720 


15 cents 


118,740 


79,380 


231,200 


368,440 


797,760 


30 cents 


81,190 


13,830 


49,450 


148,610 


293,080 


90 cents 


530 


660 


5,050 


9,030 


15,270 



Whole number of stamps 1,632,550,250. Value $31,189,821.00. 



ISSUE OF 1890. 



169 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1895 : 

Quarter. Ending : 

Dec. 31, 1894. Mch. 31, 1895. June 30, 1895. 
29,186,600 



Sept. 30, 1894. 
I cent 131,620,000 



2 cents 


432,205,100 


23,404,300 


3 cents 


2,517,100 





4 cents 


2,875,400 




5 cents 


9,026,120 




6 cents 


40,500 




8 cents 


1,228,550 


2,138,450 


10 cents 


2,419,030 




15 cents 


2 1 7,020 


47,560 


30 cents 


75.55° 


37,438 


90 cents 


9,120 


70,381 



2,046,900 



Total. 

160,806,600 

455,609,400 

2,517,100 

2,875,400 

9,026,120 

40,500 

5,413,900 

2,419,030 

264,580 

112,988 

79,Sor 



Whole number of stamps 639,165,119. Value $12,184,668.30. 



Issue of 1893, 

Columbian Series. 

The reasons for the issue and other particulars concerning it are given 
in the report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, dated November 
2oth, 1892, as follows : 

" During the past summer the determination was reached by the Department to issue, 
during the progress ofthe Columbian Exposition at Chicago, a special series of adhesive 
Historical. postage stamps of such a character as would help to signalize the four hundredth anniversary 

of the discovery of America by Columbus. This course was in accordance with the practice 
of other great postal administrations on occasions of national rejoicing, and.it was consistent 
with the idea of a display at the Exposition of such articles as would illustrate the history, - 
progress and administrative functions of the Post-Office Department, which Congress, by 
statute, has directed to be made part of a general governmental exhibit. The same idea had 
been carried out in a limited way during the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia, in 1876, 
by the issue, concurrently with that event, of a specal design of stamped envelopes appro- 
priate to the celebration. The measure was not only calculated to prove a popular one, but 
to be the means, through the sale of the stamps to the collectors, and by specially stimulating 
the use of the stamps by the public, of adding largely to the revenue of the Department. 

The collecting of stamps is deserving of encouragement, for it tends to the cultivation 
of artistic tastes and the study of history and geography, especially on the part of the young, 
by the examination and comparison of stamps of different nations of the world, and to a 
more accurate knowledge of their postal systems. The new stamps will be purchased in 
large quantities simply for the use of collections, without ever being presented in payment 
of postage; and the stamps sold in this way will of course, prove a clear gain to the Depart- 
ment. 

The benefits to accrue to the Exposition from the issue of such a series of stamps, by 
constantly drawing to it public attention, both at home and abroad, are too patent to need 
elaboration. 

The necessary arrangements for manufacturing the new stamps were made with the 
present contractors for furnishing all the other stamps in use. The work was begun late in 
September last, and it has progressed with such rapidity that a supply of upwards oT 100,- 
000,000 of the leading denominations has already been accumulated. It is expected that the 
full series will be completed in time to place the stamps on sale on Monday the 2d of January, 
the period fixed for their issue being the whole of the calendar year 1893, and the estimated 
quantity to be required during that time being 5,000,000,000. The new stamps are, how- 
ever, not intended to displace the current series of stamps, but will be in addition thereto; 
so that anyone needing postage stamps will be able to procure either or both kinds, as he 
may prefer. 

The principal feature of the Columbian stamps, with two exceptions, is the delineation 
of some scene in the life of Columbus associated with the discovery of America, one of the 
exceptions being a stamp bearing a profile portrait of Columbus, similar to that on the souvenir 
50 cent coin issued by the Treasury Department, and the other a stamp bearing portraits of 
Queen Isabella and Columbus in three-quarters face. There is a general resemblance in 
the two portraits of Columbus, both being taken from the same original pictuie. To pro- 
perly illustrate the subjects selected it was found necessary to adopt a larger size than that in 
present use, the new stamps being of the same height and of nearly double the length of the 
regular stamps, the engraved space measuring seven-eights of an inch by 1 1 1-32 inches. 

The denominations are the same as those in the present series, except that the 50-cent 
stamp is substituted for the 90-cent, and additions are made of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dollars, such 
high denominations having been heretofore called for by some of the principal post-offices. 



ISSUE OF 1893. 



171 



The subjects on some of the stamps — i-cent, 2-cent, 5-cent, 6-cent, 50-cent and 2-dollar 
stamps — are copied from the works of American artists." 

The report of the Postmaster General for 1892 covers much the same 
ground and says, among other things: 

" In addition, the 'mania,' as it is called, for collecting postage stamps, as specimens, 
is universal throughout the world. It affects every class and condition of people, and is not 
confined by age or sex. It is shared, perhaps, by millions of people, from the school boy 
and girl to the monarch and the millionaire, and the value of stamps in private collections 
which will never be drawn upon to pay postage may safely be placed at many millions of 
dollars. The beauty and unique character of the new Columbian stamps will cause their 
sale in large quantities, simply for use in collections; and not only will they be purchased in 
single or partial sets by collectors, but in view of the limited time in which they will be 
issued, they will be accumulated in great quantities by dealers and others to meet future 
demands. * * * 

The introduction of the new stamps, though not designed primarily for that object, 
will prove to be a revenue measure of the highest importance to the public service. The net 
profit to be derived from their issue, that is the extra amount beyond the ordinary revenue 
that would have resulted from the sale and use only of ordinary stamps, may be fairly 
placed at $2,500,000." 

Appendix L. of the report of the Postmaster General for 1892, sup- 
plies some interesting information about the contract for this issue: 

" The following statement, reference to which has been made in the foregoing report 
of the Postmaster-General, is presented to show the particulars of the arrangement entered 
into by the Department for the issue of the new series of postage stamps intended to com- 
memorate the discovery of America by Columbus. 

The contract now in force for furnishing the current series of adhesive postage stamps 
is with the American Bank Note Company of New York, and was entered into nearly three 
years ago; and as this contract does not expire until the 31st of December, 1893, and 
specifically calls for ordinary stamps of entirely different sizes and designs from those con- 
templated as propel for the new series, its provisions could not be availed of by the Depart- 
ment to carry out its intentions. 

The Department, moreover, had no right to call for proposals for procuring the pro- 
posed stamps under a new contract, since to have the work done by other parties would 
interfere with the rights of the contractors which obligated the Department to procure from 
them all the stamps that should be needed during the contract term. Besides, as work of 
this character involves much machinery not in general use, it was hardly to be expected that 
other parties would go to the expense of a special equipment in view of the limited quantity 
of stamps to be issued, and of the duration of time in which they were to be furnished. 

The number of new stamps to be required, as stated in the report, was estimated at 
3,000,000,000, and negotiations were entered into with the contractors for supplying the 
stamps under a special arrangement. It was at first thought by the Department that, inas- 
much as the new stamps were to be about double the size of the present stamps, a fair com- 
pensation would be about double the present contract price, or, say i? cents a thousand. 
Upon a full consideration of the subject, however, this price was objected toby the contrac- 
tors as not affording a remuneration proportioned to the increased labor and cost of the work. 
It was contended by them that the making of the new stamps involved a large increase of 
their machinery for printing, gumming, and pressing the stamps, as well as a great enlarge- 
ment of their floor space, power, appliances, and force of operatives; and that, when the 
work was at an end, they would be left in possession of a great deal of special material and 
equipment which, from a business point of view, would be worthless. They urged for ex- 
ample, that it would double the number of machines used in printing the stamps, they be 
ing now printed in sheets of 400, while the new stamps would contain only 200 impressions 
to the sheet. 

A special point was made that the requirement to double their capacity came during 
the last year of the contract, and that the extra facilities to be provided would be unnecessary 
to meet the demands for the ordinary stamps, in the event they should be successful in the 
competition for the next contract. The result of the deliberations was the submission of a 
proposition to furnish the desired Columbian stamps, 3,000,000,000 in number, at 18^ 
cents per thousand, upon the condition that the present contract should be extended for a 
period of six months beyond the time fixed for its expiration. The price named was adjudged 
to be somewhat extravagant; and upon carefully considering the subject in all its aspects, 
it was decided to offer 17 cents per thousand for the stamps with, the desired extension of 
the contract. After much hesitation on the part of the contractors, and as the result of 
several personal conferences with them during the past summer, they accepted this offer. 

The necessary orders were accordingly made to carry the arrangement into effect, the 



An official riew 
of Btamp collecting. 



Negotiations with 
the contractors. 



172 ISSUE OF 1893. 

six months' extension being covered by one clause of the contract giving the right of exten- 
sion direct for three months, and under another clause giving the Department the right to 
call at any time during the contract term for an extra quantity of stamps, not to exceed a 
supply for three months. It may be stated that the price paid, under the regular contract, for 
the special-delivery, and newspaper and periodical stamps, which correspond closely in size 
with the proposed Columbian stamps, is 18 cents per thousand, or i cent per thousand more 
than the price agreed upon for the new stamps. 

The course followed by the Department in this matter is the same that has been pur- 
sued in all cases heretofore where it has been found necessary to introduce new kinds or 
sizes of postage stamps or stamped envelopes differing from those covered specifically by 
contracts in force, a course, indeed, which seems to be the only one practicable in such a 
contingency." 

As was noted in the preceding chapter, the fee for registered letters 
The eight cent was reduced from ten to eight cents, on January ist, 1893. In conformity 
stamp. .^^jjj^ (.j^jg change, eight-cent stamps were added to both the regular and the 

Columbian series. 

A circular of the Post Office Department, dated February 28th, 1893, 
says : 

"On the 1st of March, 1893, the Department will begin the issue of the following 
articles of stamped paper: 

I. An 8-cent postage stamp of the Columbian series, intended for use in the pay- 
ment of the reduced fee on registered matter. This stamp is of the same general style as the 
other denominations of Columbian stamps, and bears a reproduction of the picture painted 
by Francisco Jover, the original of which is now in Spain, entitled " Columbus Restored to 
Favor.' The color of the stamp is magenta-red." 

The other sections of the circular refer to the eight-cent stamp of the 
regular issue, the Columbian envelopes and the foreign reply postal card. 

The designs are officially described as follows : 

" The stamps are executed from line engravings on steel, the general 
design of the upper portion of all of them being substantially the same. The 
Designs and colors, details of this design are, first, a white-faced imprint of the years ' 1492 ' and 
' 1892 ', in the upper left and right hand corners, respectively ; then, in white 
shaded capitals beneath, in a waved line, the words ' united states of 
AMERICA ', below which, in a narrow tablet conforming to the curved frame 
of the picture under it, are the words of denomination : for example, 'postage 
TWO CENTS ', ' POSTAGE TWO DOLLARS ', etc. These words end on either side 
of the stamp in a space of circular form with ornamental surroundings, within 
which are Arabic numerals of value — standing alone in the case of denomina- 
tions under f r, but accompanied by the dollar mark in denominations of $1 
and upwards, as ' 2 ' (meaning cents), ' $2 ', etc. Underneath all this is the 
scene represented inclosed in a plain white frame with arched top, extending 
nearly the entire length of the stamp, and taking up, in every case, probably 
three-fourths of its whole face, the appropriate designation of the picture 
being given in small white capitals at the bottom. The scenes represented 
are these : 

One CENT. ' Columbus in Sight of Land ', after the painting by 
William H. Powell. This reproduction is enclosed in a circle. On the left 
of it is represented an Indian woman with her child, and on the right an 
Indian chief with headdress of feathers — each figure in a sitting posture. 
Color, Antwerp blue. 

Two CENTS. ' Landing of Columbus ', after the painting by Vanderlyn, 
in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington, Color, purple maroon. 



ISSUE OF 1893. 173 

Three cents. ' Flagship of Columbus ', the Santa Maria in mid- 
ocean, from a Spanish engraving. Color, medium shade of green. 

Four cents. ' Fleet of Columbus ', the three caravels, Santa Maria, 
Nina and Pinta, from a Spanish engraving. Color, ultramarine blue. 

Five cents. ' Columbus Soliciting Aid of Isabella ', after the painting 
by Brozik, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Color, 
chocolate brown. 

Six cents. ' Columbus Welcomed at Barcelona ', scene from one of 
the panels of the bronze doors by Randolph Rogers in the Capitol at Wash- 
ington. On each side of the scene represented is a niche, in one of which is 
a statue of Ferdinand and in the other a statue of Balboa. Color, royal 
purple. 

Eight cents. ' Columbus Restored to Favor ', after a painting by 
Jover. Color, magenta red. Issued March i, 1893. 

Ten cents. ' Columbus Presenting Natives ', after the painting by 
Luigi Gregori, at the University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana. Color, 
Vandyke brown. 

Fifteen cents. ' Columbus Announcing His Discovery ', after the 
painting by R. Baloca, now in Madrid. Color, dark green. 

Thirty cents. ' Columbus at La Rabida ', after the painting by R. 
Maso. Color, sienna brown. 

Fifty cents. ' Recall of Columbus ', after the painting by A. G. 
Heaton, now in the Capitol at Washington. Color, carbon blue. 

One dollar. ' Isabella Pledging Her Jewels ', after the painting by 
Munoz Degrain, now in Madrid. Color, rose salmon. 

Two dollars. ' Columbus in Chains ', after the painting by Leutze, 
now in Providence, R. I. Color, toned mineral red. 

Three dollars. ' Columbus Describing Third Voyage ', after a 
painting by Francisco Jover. Color, light yellow green. 

Four dollars. Portraits in circles, separated by an ornate device, 
of Isabella and Columbus, the portrait of Isabella after the well known paint- 
ing in Madrid and that of Columbus after the Lotto painting. Color, car- 
mine. 

Five dollars. Profile of head of Columbus, after a cast provided by 
the Treasury Department for the souvenir so-cent silver piece authorized by 
act of Congress. The profile is in a circle, on the right of which is' the figure 
of America, represented by an Indian woman with a crown of feathers, and 
on the left a figure of Liberty, both figures being in a sitting posture. Color, 
black." 

The stamps measure 34x22mm. 

The paper, gum and perforation are the same as in other issues by the 
American Bank Note Company. 

Soft Porous White Wove Paper. Reference List. 

Perforated iz. 
Jan. ist. 1893. I cent pale blue, deep blue 



174 



ISSUE OF 1893. 



Varieties. 



Error of color. 



Pistes. 



Plate numbers. 



2 cents red-lilac, red-violet, gray-violet 

3 cents green, deep green 

4 cents ultramarine, deep ultramarine 

5 cents chocolate, red-brown, yellow-brown, brown 

6 cents purple, red-purple 

Mch. ist, 1893. 8 cents pale magenta, magenta, lilac-rose 

Jan. 1st, 1893. I o cents deep yellow-brown, black-brown, gray-black, gray 

30 cents orange, pale brown-orange, deep brown-orange 

50 cents slate 

1 dollar scarlet, salmon-red 

2 dollars rose-brown, deep rose-brown 

3 dollars pale yellow-green, gray-green, olive-green 

4 dollars pale aniline rose, carmine-rose, carmine-lake 

5 dollars gray-black, full black 

Varieties: 

2 cents red-lilac. Imperforate. 

4 cents deep blue. Error. Color of the one cent. 

It has been said that several values of this series exist in imperforate 
condition but, with the exception of the two cents, I have not been able to 
see them nor even to learn of an actual holder of any such varieties. We 
occasionally see the six cents in a dull blue, this is is not an error of color but 
the results from exposure to light. 

In September, 1893, Mr. J. V. Painter obtained from the post office 
at Cleveland, Ohio, a sheet of four cent stamps printed in blue instead of 
ultramarine. So far as I am aware, no other copies of this error have ever 
been found. 

The plates of this issue contained two hundred stamps each, arranged 
in twenty rows of ten stamps. The impressions were divided horizontally 
into sheets of one hundred stamps. On each plate the imprint, plate num- 
ber and serial letter appear twice at both top and bottom and the imprint 
also appears twice at each side. 

The plate numbers are as follows: 



I cent 


No. J. 


46, 


47, 


48, 


49, 


SO. 




K. 


SI, 


52, 


S3, 


54, 


55- 




P. 


65, 


66, 


67, 


68, 


69. 




MM. 


149, 


150, 


151. 


152, 


"S3- 




00. 


■59. 


160, 


161, 


162, 


163 




vv. 


194, 


19s, 


196, 


'97, 


198. 


2 cents 


No. A. 


I, 


2, 


3. 


4, 


S- 




C. 


", 


12, 


13, 


14, 


IS- 




E. 


21. 


22, 


23, 


24, 


2S- 




F. 


26, 


27, 


28, 


29, 


30- 




G. 


31. 


32, 


33, 


34, 


3S- 




H. 


36, 


37, 


38, 


39, 


40. 




I. 


41, 


42, 


43, 


44, 


4S- 




0. 


60, 


61, 


62, 


63, 


64. 



ISSUE OF 1893. 



17s 



3 cents 



Q- 70. 71, 72, 73, U 
T. 78, 79, 80, 81, 82 
U. 83, 84, 8s, 86, 87 
v. 88, 89, 90, 91, 92 

X- 94, 9S> 96, 97, 98 

EE. 109, no. III, 112, 113 

FF. 114, 115, 116, 117, II 

GG. 119, 120, 121, 122, 123 

HH. 124, 125, 126, 127, 128 

JJ- 134, 135, 136, 137, 138 

KK 139, 140, 141, 142, 143 

LL. 144, 145, 146, 147, 148 

NN. 154, 15s, 156, 157, 158 

PP. 164, 165, 166, 167, 168 

QQ. 169, 170, 171, 172, 173 

RR. 174, 17s, 176, 177, 178 

SS. 179, 180, 181, 182, 183 

TT. 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 

UU. 189, 190, 191, 192, 193 

No. L. 56, 57. 





R. 


75, 


76. 








4 cents 


No. D. 


16, 


17. 


18, 


19, 


20. 


S cents 


No. B. 


6, 


7, 


8, 


9, 


10. 


6 cents 


No. Z. 


104. 










8 cents 


No. II. 


129, 


i3o> 


131, 


132, 


133- 


10 cents 


No. Y. 


99, 


100, 


lOI, 


102, 


103. 


15 cents 


No. M. 


58. 










30 cents 


No. N. 


59- 










50 cents 


No. S. 


77- 










I dollar 


No. W. 


93- 










2 dollars 


No. AA. 


los- 










3 dollars 


No. BB. 


106. 










4 dollars 


No CC. 


107. 










S dollars 


No. DD. 


108. 











The four cents in the wrong color was printed from plate D. 17. 

From the annual reports of the Postmaster General we learn that the 
following quantities of Columbian stamps were delivered to deputy post- 
masters: 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1893 : 

Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1892. Dec. 31, 1892. Mch. 31, 1893. June 30, 1893. Total, 

r cent 43,296,000 130,941,550 72,410,800 246,648,350 

2 cents 116,290,000 361,904,350 259,207,700 737,402,050 

3 cents 1,011,400 4,360,150 2,188,600 7,560,150 

4 cents 1,976,300 9,258,600 3,442,350 14,677,250 

5 cents 3,289,500 9,917,750 6,801,160 20,008,410 



Delireries to 
postmasters. 



176 



ISSUE OF 1893. 



Sept. 30, 1892. Dec. 31, 1892. Mch. 31, 1893. June 30, 1895. 



I' roofs. 



6 cents 

8 cents 

10 cents 

15 cents 

30 cents 

50 cents 

1 dollar 

2 dollars 

3 dollars 

4 dollars 

5 dollars 



289,700 

1,318,900 
170,600 

85.50° 

46,400 

5,800 

5.800 
5.800 
5,800 
5,800 



1.556,550 

877,950 

5,169,710 

580,630 

197,420 

83.748 

18,161 

8,488 

6,425 
5,222 
5,228 



878,650 
3,905, f 50 
2,450,590 

323,820 

156,950 

22,608 

9,866 

3,238 

2,763 
2,764 

2,754 



Total. 

2,724,900 

4,783,100 

8,939.200 

1,075,050 

439,870 

152,756 

33,827 

17,526 

14,988 

13,786 

13,782 



Whole number of stamps 1,044,504,995. Value $21,076,395.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1894 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1893. Dec. 31, 1893. Mch. 31, 1894. June 30, 1894. Total. 

9.943,250 202,548,250 

3.299,050 727.187,750 

273,450 3,942,150 

155,000 4,505.350 

1,250 15,240,890 

378,350 1.983,700 

6,950 5,874,500 

32,740 7,578,800 

30,210 502,950 

18,000 178,430 

44.084 92,044 

580 22,273 

22,421 29,074 

9,369 13.712 

8,931 13,614 

9.465 14,618 

Whole number of stamps 969,728,105. Value $19,399,719.00. 

From the foregoing table we may infer that the delivery of Columbian 
stamps by the Post Office Department was stopped on December 31st, 1893, 
when exactly two billion stamps had been issued, and was resumed at some 
date subsequent to March 31st, 1894, presumably to relieve the department of 
a surplus. Many, if not all, of the stamps distributed in the quarter ending 
June 30th, 1894, were delivered to the post office of the city of Washington. 

From the report of the Postmaster General for 1894, we learn that the 
table of distributions in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1893, includes 16,800 
"proof specimens" (1,050 sets of sixteen denominations), which were supplied 
to the Post Office Department. These 1,050 -sets are understood to have 
consisted of 50 sets of die proofs on India paper and 1,000 sets of plate 
proofs on cardboard. 

It will also be noticed that the grand total of this issue is only slightly 



I cent 


35.540,300 


157,064,7°° 


2 cents 


151,971,500 


571,917,200 


3 cents 


1,746,100 


1,922,600 


4 cents 


1,581,700 


2,768,650 


5 cents 


4,538,380 


10,701,260 


6 cents 


504,300 


1,101,050 


8 cents 


765,75° 


5,101,800 


10 cents 


1,862,690 


5.683.37° 


15 cents 


169,800 


302,940 


30 cents 


43,990 


116,440 


50 cents 


10,916 


37,044 


I dollar 


9,238 


12,455 


2 dollars 


1,258 


5,395 


3 dollars 


538 


3,805 


4 dollars 


608 


4,075 


5 dollars 


2,613 


2,54° 



ISSUE OF 1893. 177 

more than two billion stamps instead of three billion, as called for by the 
contract. Concerning this reduction the report of the Postmaster General, 
dated November 25th, 1893, says : 

"In 1889, the usual contract for the manufacture of adhesive postage stamps was made 
with the American Banl< Note Company at the price of 7.47 cents per thousand. In 1893 
Postmaster General Wanamaker entered into an arrangement with tlie same company for an Modification of 
issue of stamps commemorative of the discovery of America by Columbus, l<nown as ' Colum- the contract. 
bian stamps,' for use during the year 1893 It was agreed that the issue of these stamps to 
be taken and paid for by the Government should not be less than three thousand millions 
(5,000,000,000) in number ; that the price should be 17 cents per thousand, and further, that 
the existing contract for the ordinary stamps should be extended three months and that an 
additional three months' supply should be taken and paid for by the Government. 

It was supposed that these stamps would be in great demand by the stamp collectors 
of the world, and that the contract would result in a large profit to the government ; indeed, 
a profit in all of $2,500,000 was estimated. 

Experience did not establish the correctness of this estimate. In fact as early as June 
last 1 became satisfied that the extra sales of stamps induced by this issue would not be likely 
to yield enough profit to make good the extra cost of their manufacture. 

As this arrangement was made without advertisement or competition, and was no part 
of the original contract of November 7, 1889, I had serious doubts as to its validity and 
binding force upon the Government, and the question arose : What ought to be done in the 
interest of the Government ? 

First, I called the attention of the contracting company to this subject. They met 
this with an opinion from eminent counsel that the contract was a valid obligation, that it 
was duly executed and was within the power of the Postmaster General to make emergency 
contracts without advertising or competition. 

Negotiations ensued, with the result that the contracting company waived its claim of 
right and agreed to the proposition of the Department that the issue of these stamps should 
be limited to 2,000,000,000, also waiving claim for profits on the other r, 000, 000,000 of 
these stamps. The other parts of the agreement to remain in force. 

The result is a saving, in cost of manufacture of 1,000,000,000 stamps, of the difference 
between the existing contract price for ordinary stamps, 7.47 cents per thousand, and the 
contract price for the Columbian issue, 17 cents per thousand, being 9.53 cents per thousand, 
or $95,300 in all. 

The present indications are that the amount of these stamps as limited by this last 
arrangement will be sufficient to meet all demands during the year. 

The action of the American Bank Note Company in this matter is highly commended, 
since it must result in a considerable loss of profits." 

The report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General for 1893 also 
voices the disappointment of the Department at the comparatively small sales 
of the Columbian stamps to dealers and collectors and estimates the probable purchases by stamp 
sales to them during 1893 at not more than f 100,000. It is, of course, not '''"''°,"j*"^ ™'' 
possible to say how large were the investments of collectors and dealers. It 
has been reported that one speculator invested $125,000 and it is well known 
that another bought to the amount of $30,000 and one firm to the amount of 
$20,000. It is believed that the bulk of these purchases were subsequently 
sold to business houses and used for postal purposes. The extent of smaller 
purchases and the ultimate disposition of the stamps cannot be ascertained. 
But there is little doubt that, as a speculation, the issue was a failure, both 
for the Government and for individuals. 

In June, 1899, such of the Columbian stamps as were still in the city 
post office at Washington were withdrawn and destroyed. The denominations Unsold stamps ivith. 

'^ . , ° drawn and destroyed. 

and quantities were : 

6 cents 48,400 4 dollars 3,357 

3 dollars 2,937 5 dollars 5,506 



178 ISSUE OF 1893. 

In March, igoo, the Department learned that a few stamps of this 
issue were still in the post office at Philadelphia and they were at once recalled 
and destroyed. There is no available record of the denominations and 
quantities included in this lot. 



Issue of 1894-95. 



Though the government had long manufactured its own fiscal stamps 
at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in Washington, the postal issues had 
prior to July ist, 1894, always, been supplied by private firms, under contracts 
with the Post Office Department. But, at the date mentioned, a departure 
was made from this long-established method. On this subject I quote from 
the report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, dated October 31st, 
1894: 

" I think it proper to give here a detailed account of the matters connected with the 
termination of the old contract with the American Bank Note Company for furnishing post- 
age stamps, and the making of a new arrangement therefor with the Bureau of Engraving 
and Printing of the Treasury Department. 

By advertisement, dated the i6th of October, 1893, published in number of promi- 
nent newspapers for four weeks, the Department invited proposals up to the 15th of Novem- 
ber, 1893, ' from parties carrying on the business of steel-plate engraving and plate print- History of the 
ing,' or from those who had ' had experience in conducting that business,' for furnishing contract. 

adhesive postage stamps of the several classes in use during the period of four years, be- 
ginning on the 1st of July, 1894, it having been formally arranged by the late Postmaster- 
General that the existing stamp contract with the American Bank Note Company should, 
by an extention of three months from the date fixed in it for its termination, and by the 
purchase of an extra supply of stamps sufficient for the wants of post-offices for'three months 
thereafter, be carried up to June 30, 1894, the end of the fiscal year. 

Under the call thus made three proposals weie received, the amount of each, based 
upon the process of printing them in vogue and upon the number of stamps issued during 
the fiscal year 1893, being as follows: 

Hamilton Bank Note Company, of New York $179,294 40 

American Bank Note Company, of New York 162,401.61 

Charles F. Steel, of Philadelplnia 146,454.93 

As soon as these bids were made known, the American Bank Note Company, for 
various reasons, strenuously protested against an award of the contract to iVlr. Steel, the 
lowest bidder, and he, in a similar way, entered a protest against the giving of the contract to 
the American Bank Note Company. Subsequently these protests were formally presented in 
writing, and oral and written arguments were thereafter made, from time to time, up to the 
2 1 St of February, 1894. 

In the meantime, on the 29th of November, 1895, the Chief of the Bureau of Engrav- 
ing and Printing of the Treasury Department, with the approval of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, claiming the right to compete for the work under a clause in the official specifi- 
cations issued to bidders, submitted a formal estimate, amounting, upon the basis above 
stated, to $139,487.74, and thereupon urged— his estimate being lower than any of the bids 
submitted — that the Bureau be awarded the contract. 

For various reasons — the two prominent being the convenience of having the work 
done at Washington, where nearly all the other securities of the Government are printed 
and the saving to be secured in the cost of manufacture — the claim of the Bureau of Engrav- 
ing and Printing was recognized on the 21st of February, 1894, by Departmental Order No. 
18 of that date, awarding it the work, and by a formal agreement, entered into June 9, 
1894, between the Post-Office and Treasury Departments, prescribing rules for the tran- 
saction of all business relating to the matter, Cop'f s pf these papers wil) be found appended 
to this report, marked No. 18. 



i8o 



ISSUE OF 1894-95. 



Early dlfflcnltles. 



Transfer of stamps 
from New ¥ork. 



Transfer of dies, 
rolls and plates. 



Dates of issue of 
the new series. 



Additions to the 
designs. 



Varieties of the 
triangle. 



Under the agreement thus entered into, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing is now 
regularly engaged in manufacturing all the postage stamps needed by the Post-Office De- 
partment, and is daily issuing them for the use of postmasters throughout the country, the 
same as was formerly done when the contract with the American Bank Note Company was 
in force. 

In entering upon the work under this new arrangement, a great many ditficulties were 
necessarily encountered. A large number of printing machines had to be fitted up by the 
Bureau, perforating and gumming machines had to be secured, a considerable force of em- 
ployes had to be trained to do the work promptly, large numbers of new plates for printing 
were needed, arrangements for storing and shipping the enormous number of stamps con- 
stantly required had to be made, to say nothing of many details entering into the inter- 
course between the two Departments in the transaction of their respective shares of this 
business. But 1 am happy to say that everything has been satisfactorily arranged, and the 
work is now proceeding without serious interruptions. 

Some weeks prior to the Tstof July, 1894, when the arrangement above described 
went into effect, it became necessary to transfer from the custody of the American Bank 
Note Company in New York to that of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in this city 
the entire stock of stamps not required for issue up to the date mentioned, the object being 
to avoid any break in the continuity of supplies to postmasters, and to that end to furnish 
the Bureau with a working stock while its own preparations for manufacture were still in a 
more or less incomplete state. 

Accordingly, under detailed directions given by this office, enough stamps to fill all 
orders up to the ist of July were segregated from the general stock, and the remainder were 
shipped here by registered mail and placed in the vault of the Buieau. 

The transfer was afifected expeditiously, without loss and without expense (the stamps 
being transported as free mail matter), except the cost of cartage from the railroad station 
in this city to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, amounting to not over $50; so that on 
the 30th of June everything at New York was cleared up and the business of making and 
issuing stamps ended, and on the following day the work was going on here, with but little 
change of methods and with no material impediments. 

The number of stamps of all kinds thus transferred amounted to nearly six hundred 
and forty-five million, of the face valueof over $17,000,000. 

All the dies, rolls, and working plates of postage stamps, of present and past series, 
were transferred at the same time, and are now in the custody of the Bureau of Engraving 
and Printing. 

The stock of ordinary stamps of the manufacture of the American Bank Note Company 
thus transferred have been issued by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, according to 
denominations, up to the following dates, since which issues have been made from the 
Bureau's own manufacture: 



I cent 




Oct 


10, 


1894 


2 cents 




Oct. 


5. 


1894 


3 cents 




Sept. 


24, 


1894 


4 cents 




Sept. 


■ 1, 


1894 


5 cents 




Sept 


28, 


1894 


6 cents 




• Juy 


IS, 


1894 


10 cents 




Sept. 


17. 


1894 


15 cents 


. 


. Oct. 


i5i 


1894 


30 cents 


(discontinued) 


Oct. 


51. 


1894 


90 cents 


(discontinued) . 


Oct. 


3'. 


1894 



A large quantity of 8 cent stamps of the manufacture of the American Bank Note 
Company is still on hand. 

After the awarding of the contract to the Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing it was decided not to alter the general designs of the stamps then in 
use but to add to them a mark by which they might be distinguished from 
those made by the previous contractors. The mark adopted was a small 
double-lined triangle, placed in each upper corner. Each triangle has the 
top and outer side parallel to the adjacent top and side of the stamp, and the 
inner side slightly curved to correspond to the curve of the medallion. Within 
the inner triangle there is a small colored dot at the middle of each of the 
three sides. 

There are three varieties of the triangle : 

Type I. The horizontal lines of the background are of equal thickness 
within and without the triangle, 



ISSUE OF 1894-95. 181 

Type II. The lines are thinner within the triangle than without. 

Type III. The space between the double lines of the triangle is blank 
and the lines in the inner triangle are thin. 

At first all values had the triangle of type I, afterwards types II and III 
were used on the two cent stamps. A die of the three cents with triangle III 
was also made but it has not yet been put into use. The other values remain 
as at first. Plate 170 of the two cents presents an interesting variety. In the 
upper left quarter, the first three vertical rows at the left side are of type II, 
the balance of the plate is of type III. 

Concurrently with the placing of the new contract it was decided to 
abandon the denominations of thirty and ninety cents, substituting for them 
stamps of fifty cents and one dollar, and to add stamps of two and five dollars New denominationB. 
to the series, for which denominations there was some demand at the larger 
post offices. These four new values are officially described as follows : 

" Fifty cents. Head of Thomas Jefferson, same as the head on the Designs and colors, 
old 30-cent stamp. Color, orange. 

One dollar. Head of Commodore O. H. Perry, same as the head on 
the old 90-cent stamp. Color, black. 

Two DOLLARS. Head of James Madison, after the portrait by Gilbert 
Stuart. Color, sapphire blue. 

Five dollars. Head of John Marshall, after the portrait by Inman. 
Color, gray green." 

The stamps are of the same size as those of the issue of 1890, i. e., 
19x22mm. 

At first a soft, porous, wove paper was used, similar in quality to that 
employed by the American Bank Note Co., though not showing as coarse a Paper, 

"weave." Afterwards other varieties appeared. In 1895 an attempt was 
made to counterfeit the two cent stamp and, as a check upon such frauds, a 
watermark was introduced into the paper. When the watermark was first Watermark. 
used it was so faint that it was often difficult to discover any trace of it and, 
as a preventive of forgeries, it was of little or no value. But, in the course of 
time, it was improved and is now more distinct, though it is still inferior to 
most of the watermarks used in the other countries. A smaller device and 
harder paper would probably give a much better result. 

The watermark consists of the letters " u s p s " (United States Postal 
Service), in double-lined Roman capitals, 16mm. high. 



U2 q 




On each quarter sheet of one hundred stamps there are ten horizontal 
rows of nine letters each, so arranged as to read in regular order either upward, 
downward, to right or to left, from any starting point ; thus : 



l82 



ISSUE OF 1894-95. 



u 



Laid, double and 
ribbed paper. 



Paper watermarked 
"C 8 I B" 



Chemical paper. 



Reference lilst. 



s u 
u s 



s u 
u s 



u s 



u 



s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 


u 


s 


p 


s 



u 



s u 
u s 



u 



u 



Many of the stamps of this issue and also those of the corresponding 
series of postage-due stamps appear to have laid lines in the paper, in addition 
to the watermark. The probable cause of this variation was explained on 
page 152. The one and two cent stamps are also known on double paper, 
similar to that used by the Continental Bank Note Co. This paper is water- 
marked and the variety is probably due to some accident or variation in 
manufacture rather than to any intentional change in the paper. A copy of 
the five cents without watermark has been seen on paper ribbed with fine 
horizontal and vertical lines (the latter being slightly more pronounced) and 
having the effect of coarsely woven linen cloth. These lines are sufficiently 
raised to produce distinct vertical ridges in the printing ink on the face and 
to have taken up, on the back, some ink from the sheet which lay below it 
after printing. It has been suggested that in the course of manufacture the 
paper pulp was left standing on the cloth carrier until the impression of the 
fibres was transferred to it. 

The eight cent stamp has been found on paper watermarked with 
a large double-lined capital " R ", apparently a portion of the watermark 
" u s I R " (United States Internal Revenue). This would indicate that a 
sheet of the paper designed for revenue stamps had been used for printing 
postage stamps. 

Several values of this series have also been reported on bluish chemical 
paper but, on all copies which I have seen, it was very evident that the 
discoloration was due either to accident or an attempt to deceive. 

The gum varies from white to yellow. The perforation is the regula- 
tion 12. 

The following shades and varieties exist : 

Perforated 12. 

Porous White Wove Paper. 

Without Watermark. 

Oct. loth, 1894. 1 cent pale ultramarine, ultramarine, deep ultramarine, 

gray-blue, pale dull blue, dull blue, deep dull blue, 
dark blue 

Oct. sth, 1894. 2 cents (type I) pale pink, pink, aniline rose, rose, deep 

rose, carmine-rose, dull lilac-rose, lilac-rose, salmon- 
red, red, scarlet, brown-red, rose-carmine, carmine 
violet -carmine, carmine-lake, lake, crimson 



ISSUE OF 1894-95. 183 

2 cents (type II) rose-red, rose, aniline rose, rose-ver- 
milion 

2 cents (type III) rose, rose-vermilion 
Sept. 24th, 1894. 3 cents dull purple, purple, deep purple 
Sept. nth, 1894. 4 cents dark yellow-brown, gray-brown, black-brown 
Sept. 28th, 1894. 5 cents yellow-brown, orange-brown, dark orange-brown, 

red-brown 
July 1 8th, 1894. 6 cents claret, claret-brown 
Mch. 25th, 1895. 8 cents violet-brown, plum 
Sept. 17th, 1894. 10 cents dark green, blue-green, dark blue-green 
Oct. 15th, 1894. 15 cents indigo, dark indigo 
Nov. ist, 1894. 50 cents yellow-orange, orange, red-orange 
Nov. 15th, 1894. I dollar black 

Dec. loth, 1894. 2 dollars sapphire blue, deep sapphire blue 
Dec. loth, 1894. 5 dollars deep yellow-green 

Varieties : 

2 cents (type III) bright rose. Imperforate vertically 

2 cents (type I) bright rose. Imperforate horizontally 

5 cents yellow-brown " " 

6 cents claret-brown " " 
50 cents orange " " 

3 cents purple Imperforate 

4 cents dark yellow-brown " 

5 cents orange-brown " 
10 cents dark blue-green " 

Watermarked U. S. P. S. 

April 29th, 1895. I cent pale ultramarine, ultramarine, pale blue, blue, dark 

blue, navy blue, deep dull blue 
May 2nd, 1895. 2 cents (type I) rose, carmine-rose, carmine, pale aniline 

rose 
2 cents (type II) bright aniline rose, rose, rose-carmine 
2 cents (type III) bright aniline rose, rose, rose-carmine, 

carmine, lilac-rose, scarlet, rose-vermilion, pink, 

crimson, carmine-lake 
Oct. 31st, 1895. 3 cents purple, deep purple 

June 5th, 1895. 4 cents dark yellow-brown, gray-brown, black-brown 

June nth, 1895. 5 cents orange-brown, dark orange-brown, deep brown 
Aug. 31st, 1895. 6 cents claret, deep claret, claret-brown 
July 22nd, 1895. 8 cents brown-violet, plum 
June 7th, 1895. 10 cents bright blue-green, blue-green 
Sept. loth, 1895. 15 cents indigo, dark indigo 
Nov. 9th, 1895. 5° cents yellow-orange, orange, red-orange 
Aug. 12th, 1895. I dollar black 

Aug. 13th, 1895. 2 dollars sapphire blue, deep sapphire blue 
Aug. i6th, 1895. 5 dollars dark yellow-green, dark green 



i84 



ISSUE OF 1894-95. 



Varieties : 

1 cent deep dull blue. Imperforate 

2 cents (type III) carmine-rose " 

3 cents purple 

4 cents dark yellow-brown " 

5 cents deep orange-brown " 

6 cents claret-brown " 
8 cents plum 

10 cents blue-green " 

15 cents indigo " 

50 cents red-orange " 

1 dollar black " 

2 dollars sapphire blue " 
5 dollars dark yellow-green " 

Watermarked U. S. I. R. 
8 cents brown-violet 
All the plates of the one, two and ten cents and a few of the three, four 
and five cents values contain four hundred stamps each. All the other plates 
Plates. contain two hundred stamps each. The impressions are, as usual, divided 

into sheets of one hundred stamps. The lines of division are indicated by 
arrow heads in the margins and on some of the plates by ruled lines. On the 
plates with two hundred stamps the imprint appears at the middle of the top 
and bottom of each half of the plate, on those having four hundred stamps, it 
is placed at the top — or bottom — and outer side of each quarter of the plate. 
The plate number is always placed at the- right of the imprint. 

Three varieties of imprint and three styles of numerals have been used 

for this issue. For numbers i to 154 inclusive shaded numerals 3^mm. high 

Imprints and were used. From number 155 to 327 inclusive the numerals were more 

nambers. ornate and only 2^mm. high. Above number 327 a third style was introduced 

and still remains in use. In this the numerals are thin and without shading 

and 2^4^ mm. in height. 

The first style of imprint used was a plain rectangle with a thin frame 
line. This was applied to the postage and postage due stamps from plate i 
to 75 inclusive and also to number 159. The second style of imprint was 
made by cutting the frame line more firmly and clearly and adding at each 
end a rosette and an arrow-head ornament. This imprint has been used on 
all postage and postage due stamps above plate 75 with the exception of 
number 159. In the third type the letters are all capitals, the panel is much 
longer, the ends are octagonal and finished by a three branched ornament. 
This imprint appears only on the Special Delivery and the Newspapers and 
Periodicals stamps. 
Plate numbers. The list of plate numbers, up to March ist, 1901, is as follows : 

1894. Without Watermark. 
I cent (400) No. 2, 6, 15, 17, 18, 21, 24, 27, 

29. 31. 33> 35. 98, 99. 101. 102. 

119, 120, 121, 122. 



ISSUE OF 1894-95. 



18S 



2 cents (type I) 



(400) No. I 
II 



2 


cents (type II) 


2 


cents (type III) 


3 


cents 


4 


cents 


5 


cents 


6 


cents 


8 


cents 


10 


cents 


IS 


cents 


5° 


cents 


I 


dollar 


2 


dollars 


5 


dollars 



400 
400 

400 
200 
400 
200 
400 
200 
200 
200 
400 
200 
200 

200 
200 
200 



3. 4, S. 

12, 13, 16, 

25. 26, 30, 32, 

88, 89, 96, 97, 

114, IIS, 116, ii7> 
No. 126, 131, 132, 133. 
No. 141, 142, 143, 14s, 

iSi, 152. 153, IS4, 
No. 44, 46, 47, 48. 
No. 91, 95, 103, 107. 
No. 45, 50, 51, 59. 
No. 92, 94, 104, 106. 
No. 49, S3, 54, 56. 
No. 128, 129, 130, 134, 
No. 28. 



7, 


8, 9, 


10, 


'9. 


20, 22, 


23, 


78, 


79. 80, 


82, 


no. 


III, 112, 


"3' 


124, 


125, 144. 




146, 


148, 149, 


ISO, 


iSS, 


iS6> IS7, 


158. 



161, 162, 163, 164. 



No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 



58. 
55, 
52- 
7S- 
76. 
84. 
8S- 
Varieties : 



62, 63, 64. 



2 cents Imperforate vertically No. 153. 
" horizontally No. 

No. 130, 



2 cents 

5 cents 

6 cents 
50 cents 

3 cents 

4 cents 

5 cents 
10 cents 



I cent 



No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 



28 

75 
47 
5° 
53 
63 



1895. 



2 cents (type I) 



Watermarked U. S. P. S. 

(400) No. 24, 29, 33, 35, 
119, 120, 121, 122, 
177, 178, 179, 180, 
276, 277, 278, 280, 
298, 299, 300, 301, 
3«4, 333, 334, 335, 
347, 348, 35°, 352, 
366, 367, 369, 370, 

442, 443, 444, 445, 
455, 493, 494, 495, 
(400) No. 78, 79, 80, 82, 
112, 113, 114, IIS, 
144. 



98, 99, 
165, 166, 

234, 237, 
294, 29s, 
304, 308, 
336, 344, 
355, 360, 
371, 439, 
446, 452, 
496. 

88, 96, 
116, 117, 



101, 102, 
167, 168, 
240, 245, 
296, 297, 
310, 313, 
345, 346, 
362, 365, 
440, 441, 
453, 454, 

97, III, 
124, 125, 



i86 ISSUE OF 1894-95. 

3 cents (type II) (400) No. 126, 131, 132, 133, 169, 170. 

2 cents (type III) (400) No. 141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 

151, 152. IS3; 154, 155, 156, 157. 158, 
160, vjo, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 
iSr, 182, 183, 185, 186, 187, 188, 191, 
198, 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 
207, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 
216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 22r, 222, 223, 
224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 
232. 233. «3S. 236, 238, 239, 241, 242, 
243, 244, 274, 27s, 279, 281, 282, 283, 
290, 291, 292, 293, 307, 311, 312, 315, 
316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 
324, 325, 326, 327. 328, 329, 330, 33". 
332, 337, 338, 339. 340, 341, 342, 343. 
349> 354, 356, 358, 361, 363, 364, 368, 
372, 374, 376, 379, 382, 383, 384, 385, 
387, 388, 393, 394, 395, 39^, 397, 398, 
399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 
411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 
419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 
427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 
435, 436, 437, 438, 464, 465, 466, 467, 
468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 
476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 
484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 

497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503. 505, 
506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512, 513, 
514, 515, 516, 517, 522, 523, 524, 525, 
550, 551, 552, 553, 556, 557, 558, 559, 
560, 561, 562, 563, 593, 594, 595, 596, 

745, 746, 747, 748, 753, 754, 7SS> 756, 
758, 759, 760, 761, 762, 763, 764, 765, 
774, 775, 776, 777, 778, 779, 780, 781, 
782, 783, 784, 785, 786, 787, 788, 789, 
798, 799, 800, 801, 802, 803, 804, 80s, 
806, 807, 808, 809, 814, 815, 816, 817, 
838, 839, 840, 841, 842, 843, 844, 845, 
850, 851, 852, 853, 854, 855, 856, 857, 
858, 859, 860, 861, 866, 867, 869, 870, 
87s, 876, 877, 878, 885, 886, 887, 888, 
89s, 896, 897, 898, 904, 90s, 906, 907, 
910, 911, 912, 913, 914, 915, 916, 917, 
918, 919, 920, 921, 926, 927, 1008, 1009, 
1010, loii, 1024, 1025, 1026,1027,1032, 
1033, 1034, 1035, 1038, 1039, 1040, 1041, 
1046, 1047, 1048, 1049, 1054, 1055, 1056, 



ISSUE OF 1894-95. 187 

1057, 1066, 1067, 1068, 1069, 1070, 1071, 
1072, 1073, 1074, 1075, 1076, 1077, 1080. 

2 cents (type III) (360) No. 988, 989, 990, 991. 

3 cents (200) No. 91, 95, 103, 107, 447, 448, 449, 450. 

4 cents (200) No. 92, 94, 104, 106, 194, 195, 196, 197, 

456, 4S7, 458, 4S9» 460, 461, 462, 463. 

5 cents (200) No. 128, 129, 130, 134, 161, 162, 163, 164, 

189, 190, 192, 193, 250, 251, 252, 253, 

35 f, 353. 357. 359. 389. 39°. 39'. 392- 

6 cents (200) No. 28, 184, 248, 373, 386, 451- 

8 cents (200) No. 58, 249, 555, 928, 929, 930, 931. 

10 cents (400) No. 55, 62, 63, 64, 302, 303, 305, 306. 

15 cents (200) No. 52, 264. 

50 cents (200) No. 75, *286. 

1 dollar (200) No. 76, *287. 

2 dollars (200) No. 84, *289. 
S dollars (200) No. 85, *288. 

The plates marked with an asterisk (*) have hot yet been put in use. 

Varieties : 

1 cent Imperforate No, 314, 334, 336. 

2 cents " No. 319, 340. 

3 cents " No. 103, 107. 

4 cents " No. 94, 106. 

5 cents " No. 251, 351. 

6 cents " No. 373. 
8 cents " No. 249. 

10 cents '' No. 305. 

15 cents " No. 52. 

50 cents " No. 75. 

1 dollar " No. 76. 

2 dollars " No. 84. 
S dollars " No. 85. 

The following plates were prepared but, because of defects, were never 
put to press : 

1 cent No. 14, 309. 

2 cents No. 86, 87, 200, 208, 268, 504, 868, 909. 
S cents No. 375, 377, 378, 380. 

10 cents No. 61. 

On the 1 6th of April, 1900, small books of two-cent stamps were placed 
on sale at the post offices. In these books the stamps are arranged in blocks 
of six, separated by paraffined paper (to prevent adhesion), and protected Books of stamps, 
by covers of thin cardboard. On the covers is printed brief information 
concerning the rates of domestic and foreign postage, money orders and 
registration. The purpose of these books is to enable one to carry stamps in 
his pocket without risk of damaging them. The books are of three sizes, 
containing either twelve, twenty-four or forty-eight stamps. They are sold at 
twenty-five, forty-nine and ninety-seven cents, respectively ; an advance, in 



i88 ISSUE OF 1894-95. 

each instance, of one cent over the face value of the stamps. Each block of 
six stamps is composed of two vertical rows of three and has a stub at the top. 
There are perforations between the stamps and above the top pair, but none 
at the sides or bottom of the block. Hence, each stamp has one or more 
blank edges. It was not possible to produce these blocks with plates of the 
ordinary form and, therefore, special plates were made for the purpose. These 
plates contain 360 stamps each. Thus far, only four of them have been made, 
as will be observed on referring to the list of plate numbers. The report of 
the Third Assistant Postmaster General for 1900, states that, between April 
16th and June 30th of that year, there were sent to post offices 2,263,040 
books, of which 945,281 were sold to the public. 

The annual reports of the Postmaster General supply the following 
statistics of stamps issued to deputy postmasters : 
BeiiTeries to Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1895 : 

postmasters. „ _, 

Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1894. Dec. 31, 1894. Mch. 31, 1895. June 30, 1895. Total. 

1 cent 152,440,100 i77,6r3,7oo 182,294,850 512,348,650 

2 cents 499,920,600 535,462,800 522,322,8501,557,706,250 

3 cents 94,800 4,871,200 5,737,3°o 4,030,350 14,733,65° 

4 cents 816,150 5,934,300 6,121,600 4,940,400 17,812,450 

5 cents 25,660 9,487,880 12,170,760 10,782,430 32,466,730 

6 cents 796,3°° 1,351,95° i,i79>6so 
8 cents 7°,45° 

10 cents 460,350 4,042,680 5,044,470 

15 cents 436,480 450,880 

5° cents 99,54° 36,44° 

1 dollar 11,620 10,751 

2 dollars . ... 3,355 4,967 
5 dollars 1,570 2,737 

Whole number of stamps 2,156,259,689. Value $4r,i67,i2i.oo. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1896 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Mch. 31, 1896. June 30, 1896. Total. 

191,537,200 192,496,600 729,828,200 

574,552,5°° 544,997,5°° 2,174,673,800 

5,988,400 4,218,800 19,511,200 

6,381,300 4,850,600 23,231,150 

12,739,680 10,905,720 43,994,040 

1,513,45° 

2,757,75° 

4,898,550 

603,740 

28,270 

9,64s 

2,07s 

2,465 

Whole number of stamps 3,025,481,467. Value $57,774,638.00. 



i,u3,65° 


4,441,55° 


1,897,800 


1,968,250 


3,644,29° 


13,191,79° 


500,830 


1,388,190 


15,880 


151,860 


11,850 


34,221 


1,790 


10,112 


1,679 


5,986 



Sept. 30, 1895. 


Dec. 31, 1895. 


1 cent II 


50,408,800 


•95,385,600 


2 cents 5 


07,871,400 


547,252,400 


3 cents 


3,839,50° 


5,464,500 


4 cents 


4,355,850 


7,643,400 


5 cents 


9,550,200 


11,398,440 


6 cents 


1,067,100 


1,651,850 


8 cents 


1,997,400 


2,345,85° 


10 cents 


3,725,360 


4,612,550 


15 cents 


331,820 


652,380 


50 cents 


15,620 


27,820 


I dollar 


12,470 


13,852 


2 dollars 


8,345 


5,415 


5 dollars 


3,175 


3,180 



1,404,850 


5: 


,637,25° 


2,084,000 


9 


,185,000 


4,027,560 


17 


,264,020 


4 '0,940 


I 


,998,880 


17,510 




89,220 


6,610 




42,577 


335 




16,170 


1,140 




9,960 



4 cents 


4,473,900 


6,139,600 


5 cents 


9,612,140 


12,200,960 


6 cents 


1,125,250 


i,S'2,4S0 


8 cents 


',771,550 


2,587,000 


lo cents 


3,712,880 


4,621,050 


15 cents 


360,280 


596,740 


50 cents 


20,480 


37,180 


I dollar 


2,040 


10,600 


2 dollars 


190 


880 


5 dollars 


60 


50 



5,232,90° 


21,755,650 


10,310,040 


44,374,020 


1,429,450 


5,583,900 


2,472,900 


9,305,350 


4,120,410 


17,(19,390 


443,940 


1,892,820 


37,970 


109,800 


6,815 


23,335 


20 


2,150 


1,000 


2,670 



ISSUE OF 1894-95. 189 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1897 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1896. Dec. 31, 1896. Mch. 31, 1897. June 30, 1897. Total. 

1 cent 145,068,800 189,247,500 194,221,800 196,113,400 724,651,500 

2 cents 507,131,600 553,723,400 582,508,700 575,663,300 2,219,027,000 

3 cents 3,883,400 5,486,500 5,956,700 4,459,700 19,786,300 

5,909,250 

12,250,880 
1,516,750 
2,473,900 
4,665,050 
491,860 
14,170 
3,880 
1,060 
1,560 
Whole number of stamps 3,063,633,885. Value $58,480,780.00. 

In the Postal Guide for 1898 the number of stamps of the several (juantities of stamps 
denominations which were issued without watermark is reported as follows : "■"''<»>* watermark. 

1 cent 404,168,300 

2 cents 1,271,048,700 

3 cents 20,214,300 

4 cents 16,718,150 

5 cents 30,688,840 

6 cents 5,120,800 
8 cents 2,426,100 

10 cents 12,263,180 

15 cents 1,583,920 

50 cents 175,330 

1 dollar 35,046 

2 dollars 10,027 
5 dollars 6,251 

Whole number of stamps 1,764,458,944. Value $34,411,516.00. 

The table of deliveries during the year ending June 30th, 1895, includes 
750 copies of each value which were sent to the Universal Postal Union. 

In 1897 the current series, as well as the special delivery, postage due 
and newspaper stamps were surcharged "universal — postal — congress," 
in three lines, and' presented to the delegates to the Congress of the Universal stamps with Tarious 
Postal Union, then in session at Washington. One hundred and twenty-five imprmts. 

sets were surcharged. In 1898, 300 each of the one and five cents and 200 
of each of the other values were "delivered for the Post Office album." 
Most, if not all, of these stamps were surcharged " Specimen ", in small type, 
in either black or magenta. 

Concerning the counterfeit of the two cent stamp, which was mentioned 
on a preceding page, the annual report of the Fourth Assistant Postmaster Counterfeit two 
General for 1895, furnishes the following information : 



190 ISSUE OF 1894-95. 

" Counterfeiters have plied their vocation for ages and in many forms, but never until 
the last year have they directed their attention to the manufacture of spurious postage stamps. 
A bold scheme to defraud the Government by means of counterfeit stamps was developed 
through our inspectors last spring. This scheme was operated from Chicago and the adjacent 
Canadian territory. The counterfeiters having produced a supply of bogus stamps, established 
their headquarters in Hamilton, Ontario, under the title of ' The Canadian Novelty and 
Supply Company.' Advertisements were then inserted in various newspapers, alleging that 
this company had received large quantities of stamps in payment for their novelties, which 
they desired to dispose of at a great discount, in order to convert the stamps into money. 
The stamps were declared to be in good condition and were offered at the rate of $115 worth 
for $100 Under the direction of an inspector, a party in Chicago ordered $100 worth of 
these stamps, which upon examination were found to be cleverly executed counterfeits. 
Several packages of them, then in a Chicago express office, were seized, and the inspectors at 
once undertook the work of discovering the criminals. Developments proved that this scheme 
had been nipped in its incipiency, and it is believed that less than 100,000 of these counter- 
feit stamps were produced, the greater portion of which have been confiscated. The investi- 
gation resulted in the discovery of the perforating machine apd other paraphernalia used by 
the counterfeiters and the arrest of Charles O. Jones, Tinsa IVlcMillan, alias Mrs. Mack, and 
Warren T. Thompson." 

At the time this counterfeit was first reported it was generally under- 
stood that the credit of the discovery was due to a stamp collector who, 
having been sent to examine a package of the stamps which his employers had 
ordered by C. O. D. express, at once detected the fraud and notified the 
authorities. It is also certain that the counterfeits were promptly detected 
by the watchful eyes of philatelists in many parts of the country. The 
postmarks on the envelopes to which they were afifixed showed an extensive 
distribution throughout the middle west. 

In official eyes the counterfeits were probably dangerous and many of 
them might have escaped detection in large post offices where the clerks are 
very busy and cancelling machines are largely employed. But their poor 
appearance ought to have attracted the attention of anyone at all observing 
and they certainly would have been at once detected by the average stamp 
collector. 

They were made by some process of photo-lithography and apparently 
were copied from a block of stamps of type I. The general appearance 
Description of the is much blurred, especially around the triangles, while the shading at the 
counterfeit. sides and bottom, indicating the beveled edge of the panel, is almost solid, 
instead of showing fine ruled lines. The original stamps measure 19x22mm. 
while the counterfeits vary from 19 to 19^^x22)^ to 23mm. The perforating 
was done with a machine of the correct gauge, 12, which perforated only 
one row at a time, thus often producing irregular spacing between the rows. 
The color is a very good reproduction of the rose-carmine shade of the 
genuine stamps and the coarse wove paper is sufficiently like that of the 
originals not to attract attention. It is said that there were three printings of 
the counterfeits. The first was in blocks of twenty-five, five rows of five 
stamps each ; the second was in blocks of fifteen, three rows of five stamps 
each ; and the third in strips of five. Some of the last printing were yet 
imperforate when the malefactors were arrested. 



Issue of 1898. 

Trans-Mississippi Series. 

In the latter part of the year 1897, the daily papers announced the 
intention of the Postmaster General to issue a series of celebration stamps in 
commemoration of the Trans-Mississippi exposition, to be held at Omaha in 
the summer of 1898. This exposition was, doubtless, an event of considerable 
local interest and worth, but scarcely of that degree of national or historical 
importance which we except in events that are honored by commemorative 
issues of stamps. 

Collectors, dealers and philatelic societies protested against this issue, 
as being unnecessary and undignified. But their protests were unheeded and 
the stamps duly made their appearance, to be greeted with little praise and 
much unfavorable criticism. When the issue was first announced it was 
promised that the vignettes would be printed in black and the borders in 
colors. But this idea was subsequently abandoned, on the plea that the 
Bureau of 'Engraving and Printing had "found it impossible to furnish satis- 
factorily or in the time desired supplies of the several denominations in two 
colors." The promise that the issue would surpass the beautiful Columbian 
issue was also honored in the breach. The stamps are poorly conceived 
and executed, overloaded with ornaments, heavy in color and blurred in 
printing. 

The stamps are officially described as follows : 

" The Trans-Mississippi stamps differ materially in size from the 
ordinary series, the engraved space being about seven-eighths of an inch wide 
by about one and three-eighths long. The designs are also radically unlike Designs and colors, 
those of the ordinary stamps — consisting of a border (substantially the same 
in all the denominations, except that the figures and letters representing 
values are different), and a central scene indicative in some way of the 
development of the great region beyond the Mississippi River. The scenes 
and the borders are all printed from line engravings on steel, executed by the 
Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the Treasury Department. 

The border, which forms in its inner line an irregular oval framework 
to each of the scenes represented, consists of a fluted figure on either side, 
with interior cross-bars, beginning in a single line near the bottom of the 
stamp, and enlarging until it reaches a shield in each of the upper corners, 
wherein is engraved in white the Arabic numeral of denomination — the dollar 



192 ISSUE OF 1898. TRANS-MISSISSIPPI SERIES. 

mark being also included in the case of the one and two dollar stamps. At 
the top, connecting the two shields, and united to the fluted framework on 
the two sides, is a curved tablet, on which are engraved in small white capitals 
the words ' united states of America '. Above this, on either side, are 
heads of wheat, and between these a small scroll. Immediately below the 
central scene is the title of the picture in diminutive white Gothic letters on a 
curved tablet, and below this on either side, in scrolls, are the words of value, 
' ONE ', ' two ', and so on, in white capitals, except in the case of the two 
highest denominations, when 'fi.oo' and '$2.00' are substituted for letters. 
Above each of these is a projecting ear o£ corn, and at the bottom of all, on 
a straight black tablet, are the words ' postage one cent ', ' postage two 
CENTS ', and so on. 

The scenes represented on the stamps, together with the colors of the 
several denominations, are these : 

One cent. 'Marquette on the Mississippi', from a painting by Lamp- 
recht, now in possession of the Marquette College of Milwaukee, Wis., repre- 
senting Father Marquette in a boat on the Upper Mississippi, preaching to 
the Indians. Color, dark green. 

Two cents. ' Farming in the West ', from a photograph, representing 
a western grainfield with a long row of plows at work. Color, copper red. 

Four cents. ' Indian Hunting Buffalo ,' reproduction of an engraving 
in Schoolcraft's History of the Indian Tribes. Color, orange. 

Five cents. ' Fremont on Rocky Mountains ', modified from a wood 
engraving, representing the Pathfinder planting the U. S. flag on the highest 
peak of the Rocky Mountains. Color, dark blue. 

Eight cents. ' Troops Guarding Train ', representing a detachment 
of U. S. soldiers convoying an emigrant train across the prairies ; from a 
drawing by Frederic Remington, permission to use which was kindly given by 
the publisher, R. H. Russell of New York. Color, dark lilac. 

Ten cents. ' Hardships of Emigration ', from a painting kindly loaned 
by the artist A. G. Heaton, representing an emigrant and his family on the 
plains in a 'prairie schooner', one of the horses having fallen from exhaustion. 
Color, slate. 

Fifty cents. 'Western Mining Prospector', from a drawing by 
Frederic Remington (permission to use which has been kindly given by the 
publisher, R. H. Russell of New York), representing a prospector with his 
pack-mules in the mountains, searching for gold. Color, olive. 

One dollar. ' Western Cattle in Storm ', representing a herd of cattle 
preceded by the leader, seeking safety from a gathering storm ; reproduced 
from a large steel engraving after a picture by J. MacWhirter — the engraving 
having been kindly loaned by Mrs. C. B. Johnson. Color, li^lil biu ii ix Jttijb-^X^, 

Two DOLLARS. ' Mississippi River Bridge ', from an engraving — a 
representation of the great bridge over the Mississippi, at St. Louis. Color, 
sapphire blue." 

It will be noticed that the colors officially assigned to the highest two 
denominations are not those in which the stamps were actually issued. 



ISSUE OF 1898. TRANS-MISSISSIPPI SERIES. 



193 



The stamps are of uniform size and measure 34x22mm. 

The paper, gum, perforation and watermark remain the same as in the 
previous issue by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, but the watermark 
is placed sideways. 

Perforated 12. 



Porous White Wove Paper. 
Watermarked U. S. P. S. 



June 17th, 1898. 



1 cent gray-green, yellow-green, dark yellow-green, dark 

green 

2 cents bright, rose-red, rose-red, copper-red, brown-red, 

dark brown-red 

4 cents yellow-orange, orange, red-orange 

5 cents deep blue, dark blue 

8 cents lilac-brown, violet -brown 
10 cents gray- violet, slate-violet, lilac-gray 
50 cents sage green, deep sage green 

1 dollar black 

2 dollars orange-brown, deep orange-brown 

Variety : 
8 cents violet-brown. Imperforate horizontally 

The plates of this series each contained one hundred stamps. The 
impressions were divided vertically into sheets of fifty stamps, ten rows of 
five stamps each. The imprint was " bureau, engraving & printing ", in 
white capitals on a small rectangular panel, surrounded by a thin colored line 
and having a trident shaped ornament at each end. The plate number and 
imprint appeared at the top and bottom of each sheet of fifty stamps, above 
or -below the third and fourth stamps, counting from the central line of the 
plate. The plate number was always placed at the right of the imprint. 

The plates used for this issue were numbered : 

1 cent No. 590, 59T, 592, 598, 600, 601, 605, 607, 612, 635, 709, 

710, 711, 712. 

2 cents No. 597, 608, 610, 61 r, 616, 619, 621, 622, 623, 624, 625, 

626, 627, 628, 629, 630, 631, 632, 633, 638, 639, 640, 
641, 642, 644, 645, 647, 648, 649, 650, 651, 652, 653, 
654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 659, 660, 66r, 662, 663, 664, 
66s, 666, 667, 668, 669, 670, 671, 672, 673, 674, 675, 
676, 677, 678, 679, 680, 68r, 683, 684, 68s, 686, 687, 
688, 689, 690, 691, 692, 693, 694, 69s, 696, 697, 698, 
699, 700, 7or, 702, 703, 704, 705, 706, 707, 708, 713, 
714, 715, 7'6,'7'7. 718, 719, 720, 721, 722, 724, 725, 
726, 727, 728, 729, 732, 733, 734, 73S, 737, 738, 739> 
740, 741, 742, 743, 744, 749, 75°, 75', 752- 

4 cents No. 599, 634, 636. 

5 cents No. 602, 614, 618. 
8 cents No. 609, 643. 



Befereuce List. 



Plate numbers. 



194 ISSUE OF 1898. — TRANS-MISSISSIPPI SERIES. 

10 cents No. 604, 617, 620. 

50 cents No. 603. 

1 dollar No. 606. 

2 dollars No. 613. 

The eight cent stamps, imperforate horizontally, are from plate 609. 
Plates 589, 723, 730, 731 and 736 for two cent stamps, plate 637 for 
Plates prepared five cent Stamps and plate 757 for eight cent stamps were prepared but, being 
but not nsed. defective, were never put to press. 

The following plates were prepared with a view to printing the stamps 
in two colors but they were never used : 

No. 576 I cent, border (defective). 

No. 577 1 cent, border. 

No. 578 I cent, vignette. 

No. 579 I cent, border. 

No. 580 I cent, vignette. 

No. 581 4 cents, border. 

No. 582 2 cents, border. 

No. 583 2 cents, vignette. 

No. 584 4 cents, vignette. 

No. 585 8 cents, border. 

No. 586 s cents, border. 

No. 587 5 cents, vignette. 

No. 588 10 cents, border. 

About a year after the discontinuance of this issue, two plates of the 
four cent denomination were made. These plates were numbered 1036 and 
Plates for 1037. The former bore only the border of the stamp, the latter, only the 

expenmenta work, yigjjgtj-g These plates were prepared solely for experimental work in con- 
nection with the bicolored series to be issued in commemoration of the Pan- 
American exposition at Buffalo, in 1901. 

The following tabulation of the number of stamps that was issued of 
each denomination, is compiled from the annual reports of the Postmaster 
General : 

Quarter Ending : 

Mch. 31, 1898. June 30, 1898. Sept. 30, 1898. Dec. 31, 1898. Total. 

1 cent 17.635.5°° 28,796,900 24,561,000 70,993,400 

2 cents 26,268,000 76,163,900 57,288,900 159,720,800 

4 cents 1,271,750 1,591,650 2,061,100 4,924,500 

5 cents 1,622,900 2,339,680 3,731,600 7,694,180 

8 cents 897,800 896,100 1,133,300 2,927,200 

10 cents 998,230 1,236,530 2,395,000 4,629,760 

50 cents S°.4io 33.79° 446,200 530,40° 

1 dollar 2°,69S 15,860 20,345 56,900 

2 dollars 14,120 ",555 30.S25 56,2°° 

Whole number of stamps 251,553,340. Value $5,617,691.00. 

There are included in this table 900 stamps (100 of each denomination) 
which were delivered to the Third Assistant Postmaster General to be used for 



ISSUE OF 1898. TRANS-MISSISSIPPI SERIES. 195 

exchanging and similar purposes. These stamps were surcharged " Specimen " " Specimen ' 
in very small type. The surcharge is hand-stamped in black or magenta. I stamps, 

have not found any record of the customary deliveries to the Universal Postal 
Union. 

The stamps of this series were not issued after December 31st, 1898 
but they will continue to be available for postage at any future time. 



Issue of 1898. 



In January, 1898, the color of the one cent stamp was changed to green 
and in March of the same year that of the five cents to dark blue. These are 
Changes in colors, the colors assigned to these two values by the Universal Postal Union. The 
change was made in accordance with the agreement of the Post Office Depart- 
ment of the United States to adopt the colors recognized by the Union, on or 
before January ist, 1899. At subsequent dates the colors of the four, six, ten 
and fifteen cents were changed. This was done to avoid possible confusion, 
which might arise from stamps of different denominations being printed in 
nearly the same colors. 

The size, paper, watermark, gum and perforation remain the same as 
in the series of 1894-95. 

Perforated 12. 



Reference List. 



Plate numbers. 



Porous White Wove Paper. 

Watermarked U. S. P. S. 

I cent pale yellow-green, yellow-green, dark yellow-green, 
dark gray-green, green, dark green 

4 cents rose-brown, claret -brown, dark claret-brown, lilac- 
brown, red-brown 

5 cents blue, deep blue, dark blue 

6 cents magenta, lake, brownish lake, brown-carmine 
10 cents yellow-brown, dark yellow-brown, orange-brown, 

brown, gray-brown 
15 cents olive-green, deep olive-green 
The number of stamps on the plates and the arrangement of the 
imprints and plate numbers are the same as for the corresponding values of 
the issues of 1894-95. Up to March ist, 1901, the following plates are reported 
to have been used for the stamps in the new colors : 

(400) No. 439, 440, 441, 442, 446, 452, 493, 494, 495, 496, 
526, 527, 528, 529, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 
540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 
564, 565, 566, 567, 572, 573, 574, 575, 766, 767, 
768, 769, 770, 77T, 772, 773, 794, 795, 796, 797, 
810, 811, 8t2, 813, 818, 819, 820, 821, 822, 823, 
824, 825, 826, 827, 828, 829, 830, 831, 832, 833, 



Jan. 17th, 1898. 

Oct. 7th, 1898. 

Mch. 8th, 1898. 
Dec. 31st, 1898. 
Nov. nth, 1898. 

Nov. 30th, 1898. 



I cent 



ISSUE OF 1898. 



•97 



4 cents 

5 cents 

6 cents 
10 cents 

15 cents 



846, 847, 848, 849, 862, 863, 864, 865, 936, 937, 

938, 939> 940, 941, 94a, 943> 944, 945, 946, 947, 

952, 953, 954, 955, 95^, 957, 958, 959, 960, 961, 

962, 963, 964, 965, 966, 967, 968, 969, 970, 971, 

972, 973, 974, 975, 976, 977, 978, 979, 984, 985, 

986, 987, 992, 993, 994, 99S, 1000 looi, 1002, 

1003, 1C04, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1012, 1013, 1014 

1015, 1016, 1017, 1018, 1019, 1020, 1021, 1022, 

1023, 1028, 1029, 1030, 1031, 1042, 1043, 1044, 

1045,1050,1051, 1052, 1053, 1058, 1059, 1060, 

1061, 1062, 1063, 1064, 1065. 

(200) No. 460, 461, 462, 463, 530, 531, 532, 533, 790, 791, 

792, 793- 
(200) No. 389, 390, 391, 392, 407, 408, 409, 410, 834, 835, 

836, 837, 948, 949, 950, 951, 980, 981, 982, 983. 
(200) No. 451, 922, 923, 924, 925. 
(400) No. 302, 303, 305, 306, 518, 519, 520, 521, 932, 933, 

934, 935, 996, 997, 998, 999. 
(200) No. 264. 



Plate 442 of the one cent stamp is said to have been used for one 
printing in green, but philatelists have been unable to verify the statement. 

In the summer of 1898, 63,3c 0,000 one cent and 62,000,000 two cent 
stamps were surcharged "i. R.", to be used as revenue stamps. As these stamps surcharged 
stamps were taken from the reserve stock of the Bureau of Engraving and "'• b." 

Printing and not from the Post Office Department, the accounts of that 
department were not in any way affected. 

In the fiscal years 1899 and 1900 large quantities of stamps were over- 
printed for Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands. As in the stamps surcharged 
preceding instance, the stamps had not been transferred to the Post Ofiice *'*'■ f"**, «*"• 
Department and, therefore, the statistics of the regular postal issues remain 
unchanged. 

From the annual reports of the Postmaster General we obtain the 
following tables of stamps issued to deputy postmasters : 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1898 : 



Quarter Ending : 

Sept 30, 1897. Dec. 31, 1897. Mch. 31, 1898. June 30, 1898. Total. 

1 cent 157,455,100 232,761,200 240,260,800 196,354,700 826,831,800 

2 cents 537,752,000 626,453,400 687,151,300 556,126,500 2,407,483,200 



Deliveries to 
postmasters. 



3 cents 


3,843,500 


6,969,000 


7,972,500 


4,872,000 


23,657,000 


4 cents 


4,850,100 


7,061,200 


7,237,000 


5,634,850 


24,783,15° 


5 cents 


10,185,920 


12,760,360 


13,890,700 


10,396,880 


47,233,860 


6 cents 


1,279,200 


7,506,100 


1,608,650 


1,694,500 


7,088,450 


8 cents 


2,'98,3So 


3,363,15° 


3,391,100 


2,479,95° 


11,432,55° 


10 cents 


3,860,740 


5,446,540 


5,508,160 


3,782,880 


18,598,320 


15 cents 


364,640 


818,020 


846,260 


355,240 


2,384,160 


50 cents 


12,35° 


48,040 


84,840 


7,720 


152,950 



3 cents 


4,43S,8oo 


8,080,100 


4 cents 


3,55 '>75o 


7,664,500 


S cents 


8,221,560 


11,900,260 


6 cents 


1,098,350 


1,982,450 


8 cents 


1,850.5°° 


3,552,900 


lo cents 


3,749,460 


S,°37,590 


15 cents 


311,760 


900,680 


50 cents 


16,680 


26,730 


I dollar 


755 


2,975 


2 dollars 


20 


950 


5 dollars 


15 


245 



6,806,800 


27,355,900 


6,495,55° 


24,890,000 


ii,93',95° 


44,169,570 


1,645,050 


6,928,150 


2,778,800 


1 1,520,300 


4,887,050 


18,646,200 


438, ISO 


2,282,810 


16,850 


77,880 


4,615 


14,540 


75 


1,200 


1,005 


2,280 



198 ISSUE OF 1898. 

Sept. 30, 1897. Dec. 31, 1897. Mch. ji, 1898. June 30, 1898. Total. 

1 dollar 6,775 ",'77 7,4^3 4,i3S 29,550 

2 dollars 75 65 800 165 1,105 
5 dollars 70 620 2,055 115 2,860 

Whole number of stamps 3,369,678,955. Value $64,160,613.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1899 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept, JO, 1898. Dec. 31, 1898. Mch. 31, 1899. June 30, 1899. Total. 

1 cent 146,382,500 228,217,500 239,954,600 236,461,150 851,015,750 

2 cents 511,569,400 645,124,600 676,813,20b 669,610,100 2,503,117,300 

8,033,200 
7,178,200 

12,115,800 
2,202,300 

3,338,1°° 
4,972,100 
632,220 
17,620 
6,19s 
155 
i,o'5 
Whole number of stamps 3,490,021,880. Value $66,208,893.50. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1900: 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1899. Dec. 31, 1899 Mch. 31, 1900. June 30, 1900. Total. 

1 cent 207,987,600 237,771,250 274,354,100 245,519,650 965,632,600 

2 cents 662,801,300 702,439,500 755,100,600 705,386,600 2,825,728,000 

2 cents, in stamp books 40,400,904 40,400,904 

3 cents 5,73°,5c° 7,999,7°° 10,149,000 5,745,450 29,624,650 

4 cents 6,66 r, 200 8,374,750 9,037,700 7,589,550 3',663,200 

5 cents 13,138,400 13,248,050 15,893,300 13,860,300 56,140,050 

6 cents 2,368,700 2,742,550 2,275,400 1,839,850 9,226,500 
8 cents 3,364,650 4,036,950 4,043,400 2.848,700 14,293,700 

10 cents 4,978,320 6,088,780 6,718,700 5,032,850 22,818,650 

15 cents 788,800 856,700 701,020 565,560 2,912,080 

50 cents 8,710 17,420 20,780 26,360 73,270 

1 dollar 8,020 7,685 8,505 1,860 26,070 

2 dollars no 175 1,495 665 2,445 
5 dollars 1,220 75 1,075 75 2,445 

Whole number of stamps 3,998,544,564. Value $76,436,757.08. 

The table for 1899 includes 750 copies each of the one, four, six, ten 

and fifteen cents and 850 copies of the five cents, which are reported as being 

DeiiToriea to the delivered to the Third Assistant Postmaster General. As it is customary 

UniTersai Postal jq send 750 copies of each new issue to the Universal Postal Union, it is 

Union. I J f > 

probably safe to assume that such was the destination of this lot. 



ISSUE OF 1898. 199 

In the table for 1900 are included 1,300 stamps (100 copies of each 
denomination of the series), which were also delivered to the Third Assistant "Specimen" 
Postmaster General. These were intended for the Government display at the stamps. 

Paris exposition, for exchanging, etc. The majority of the stamps were 
surcharged " Specimen " in small type, in black. 

Finally, the Post Office Department received, as specimens, 240 copies 
of the new stamp books, valued at $101.28. These are also included in the 
table for 1900. 



Issue of 1901. 

Pan-American Series. 

In the annual report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General for 
1900, we find the following announcement : 

PROPOSED ISSUE OF PAN-AMERICAN POSTAGE STAMPS. 

" At the instance of the authorities of the Pan-American Exposition, to be held at 
Buffalo, N. Y., from May i to October 31, 1901, the Postmaster General has authorized the 
Official description issue of a special series of postage stamps to commemorate the exposition, which, owing to 
of the stamps. its magnitude and international character, is fairly entitled to this mark of recognition by the 
Post Office Department. The new stamps will be furnished to all postmasters upon their 
requisitions, and the first issue will be made at the time the exposition is inaugurated, May 
I, 1 901, the stamps being withdrawn from sale at the close of the exposition, October 31. 

It has been decided to issue these stamps in six denominations, x, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10 
cents, and to make them the most artistic series ever issued by the Department. The Bureau 
of Engraving and Printing has co-operated to this end and has consented to print the issue in 
two colors, an undertaking which involves considerable difficulty, particularly in view of the 
enormous amount of other work required of it. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing took 
control of the manufacture of postage stamps in July, 1894, and has steadily improved the 
character of this work up to date. In executing the wishes of the Department as to the 
Pan-American series, it has thus far equaled all expectations. The result is a stamp that will, 
I believe, at once delight the eye and otherwise gratify the Department and the public. The 
designs selected represent the latest and most improved modes of transportation and auxil- 
iaries thereto, as appears from the following descriptions : 



Denomination. 


Subject. 


Color. 


Legend. 


I cent 


Lake steamer 


Green 


Fast lake navigation. 


2 cents 


Railway train 


Red 


Fast express. 


4 cents 


Automobile 


Red-brown 


Automobile. 


5 cents 


Steel-arch bridge 


Blue 


Bridge at Niagara Falls. 


8 cents 


Ship-canal locks 


Lilac 


Canal locks at Sault Sainte Marie. 


10 cents 


Ocean steamship 


Light brown 


Fast ocean navigation. 



One Cent, — The lake steamer presents the port bow, the pilot house is well forward, 
and it is propelled by side wheels. 

Two Cents. — The train of four cars is drawn by a locomotive with four drivers ; four 
parallel tracks are shown. 

Four Cents — The automobile is of the closed-coach order, with two men on the box 
and a part of the United States Capitol at Washington as a background. 

Five Cents. — This presents the largest single span steel bridge in the world ; two 
trolley cars are seen upon it, and a full view of Niagara Falls is shown under, beyond, and 
up the river, with the graceful springing arch as a frame. 

Eight Cents. — The great ship-canal locks at Sault Sainte Marie, Mich., are given in a 
view from a higher point, including the immediate surroundings. 

Ten Cents — An ocean steamship of the American line, with two smokestacks and 
masts, presents its starboard bow, lapped by a rising wave. 



ISSUE OF igor. 20I 

These stamps are of uniform dimensions — 0.76 by 1.06 of an inch — the longer side 
being horizontal. The borders take the colors of the regular series on the same denomi- 
nations at this date The words " Commemorative series, 1901 " and " United States of 
America " next below, appear above the vignette; and the legend, in a line next below the 
central opening, with the denomination in a line at the bottom, appears in the same order on 
all stamps of the series All the lettering is in white Roman capitals. The numerals are all 
white-faced Arabic in the Roman type, except the 10 cents, which is the block-letter type of 
figure, condensed to secure space for the two figures The openings for the central illustra- 
tions are so varied as to prevent a minute description here ; but their borders are well 
separated from the central pictures. All the central illustrations are from photographs, as the 
objects represented appear to-day, and are to be printed in black." 

The Post Office Department began forwarding the stamps to post- 
masters on April 25th, and they were placed on sale throughout the country 
on May ist. Although the issue will be discontinued on October 31st, the 
stamps will remain valid for postage. 

The engraving is carefully executed but there is nothing especially 
interesting in either the pictures or their borders. The colors are similar to, 
though not the same as, those of the corresponding values of the regular 
series. 

The stamps measure 26J^xi9j^mm. The paper is the same as is used 
for the regular issue of postage stamps and has the watermark " u s p s ". 
The perforation has the regular gauge and the gum is yellowish white. 

Perforated 12. Keference List. 

Porous White Wove Paper. 

Watermarked U. S. P. S. 

May 1st, 1901. I cent deep blue-green and black 

2 cents carmine and black, rose-carmine and black 

4 cents chocolate and black, dark red-brown and black 

5 cents ultramarine and black 
8 cents brown-violet and black 

10 cents yellow-brown and black, orange-brown and black 

As the stamps are printed in two colors it is necessary to use two plates 
for each value, one for the border and one for the vignette. The plates each 
contain two hundred stamps, arranged in twenty horizontal rows of ten Plates and imprints. 
stamps each. The impressions are divided horizontally into sheets of one 
hundred stamps. The imprint is the same as that used on the plates of the 
regular issue. It appears only on the plates for the borders and is placed 
above the third and eighth stamps of the top row and below the correspond- 
ing stamps of the bottom row. The number of the border plate is placed at 
the right of each imprint. The number of the vignette plate appears only 
once. It is placed below the fifth stamp of the bottom row. There appear 
also, in the borders, registry marks, platemen's initials, figures indicating the 
face value of the stamps, etc. 

As this chapter is written on the day on which the stamps appear, it 
is, of course, impossible to give a list of the plate numbers. 



Carriers' Stamps, 

The subject of the stamps used in payment of the fees for delivering 
and collecting letters presents many difficulties and complications. The 
period at which they were used is now remote and, with a few exceptions, 
records concerning the stamps are entirely lacking. So far as we can learn, 
they were issued under a variety of circumstances and with varying degrees 
of authority, from the highest in the land to that of individuals who possessed 
but the shadow of authority, due to their being employees of the Government. 

The power to issue stamps is vested in Congress alone. For reasons to 
be given later, it seems best to separate the special delivery stamps from the 
Origin of tiie general classification of carriers' stamps and to give them a chapter by them- 
varions stamps, ggj^gg After this segregation there remain but two stamps which were issued 
as carriers' stamps under an Act of Congress. These are the " Franklin " and 
" eagle " carriers The stamps of the United States City Despatch Post 
were issued by the authority of the Postmaster General. Others, such as the 
" horseman " and " eye " stamps of Baltimore, appear to have been issued by 
postmasters. And still others were created by letter carriers, on their own 
responsibility. Some of the letter carriers were, at the time they issued their 
stamps, in receipt of a fixed salary from the Government, while others were 
paid only the fees received for the delivery and collection of the letters carried 
by them. It will readily be understood that the latter class were anxious to 
increase their receipts as much as possible. Stamps would appear to be a 
likely means to this end. Their use would obviate the trouble of collecting 
the carriers' fee upon the delivery of letters and insure its prepayment on. 
drop letters. They could also be used on letters sent from other places, to 
hasten their delivery in the city in which the stamps were current. 

The history of the carriers' stamps is so involved with that of the local 
posts that it is difficult to consider them separately. Indeed, one was often 
Local Posts and tiie the outcome of the other or was established because of the success or failure 
carrier service, gf (-jjg other. In some cases the Government was the successor of the local 
post and retained in its service the employees of the latter. It cannot be 
denied that the private posts were usually the more enterprising, the first in 
the field and the first to adopt improvements. In years gone by, the majority 
of the stamps which are now recognized as carriers' stamps and of semi- 
official origin, were believed to be issues of the local posts. Within a few 
years a considerable number have been transferred from the latter to the 



CARRIERS STAMPS. 



203 



former class, through the researches of philatelists. While the local posts 
were competitors of the Government, the carriers were its employees and 
assistants. Their stamps, therefore, had the consent, either actual or implied, 
of those in authority. These stamps are commonly found in company with 
stamps of the regular Government issues and cancelled by official cancella- 
tions. It is largely by means of these cancellations that the status of the 
carriers' stamps has been established. The local stamps, on the contrary, 
bear the cancellations of the local posts, thus indicating their private nature. 
The carriers' stamps undoubtedly performed an auxiliary service of the Post 
Office Department and for this reason, if for no other, their right to a place in 
a collection of United States postage stamps would appear to be established. 

The rates charged for delivering letters varied at different times and 
even in different localities at the same time. At one period, also, there was 
no charge for letters carried to the post office but only for those delivered Rates, 

from it. The report of the Postmaster General for 1855 gives a table showing 
the deliveries by carriers in several cities and the amounts received for the 
service. A foot note to this table says : " The rates charged for carrying 
letters, papers, etc., in the several cities vary ; which accounts for the apparent 
discrepancies in the amounts received." On the subjects of changes in rates 
and competition of the local posts we find many interesting things in the older 
philatelic magazines and in Government publications. The reader will find 
it interesting, at this point, to turn to the historical notes at the beginning of 
this work, and read the quofation from the Stamp Collector's Magazine on 
pages 6 to 8. 

Before the year 1845, New York was the only city in which carriers' 
stamps were used. The stamps in use there were those of the United States 
City Despatch Post and a few of Greig's City Despatch Post which were 
issued provisionally. Each had a face value of three cents. Whether the 
same rate prevailed in other cities I am unable to say. By Act of Congress, 
approved March 3rd, 1845, the rate for drop letters was fixed at two cents and 
carriers were allowed an additional charge of a like amount for delivery. At 
that date carriers did not receive a fixed salary. Their remuneration was 
derived entirely from the fees for delivering letters. The Act of March 3rd, 
1 85 1, reduced the rate for the delivery of letters to one cent each and, for the 
first time, provided for collecting letters and conveying them to the post office. 
This latter work had previously been performed by the private posts. In this 
change in methods we find an explanation of the large number of one cent 
carriers' stamps which came into use about that date. Though the Govern- 
ment provided a one cent stamp in the issue of 1851, the carriers preferred to 
sell their own stamps, whenever they were permitted to do so. 

In the report of the Postmaster General, dated December 3rd, 1859, 
we find the following remarks concerning the local posts and delivery by 
carriers : 

Penny Post. 

"The system of delivering letters by carriers at the domicil of the citizen was first 
recognized by the Act of 3rd IVlarch, 1825, and has within a few years been successfully in- 
troduced into several of our principal cities. Though constant endeavors have been made to Review of the 
improve it, it is still imperfect in its details, and unsatisfactory, alike to the public and to the carrier service, 
department, in its operations, The system cannot be regarded as having accomplished the 



204 



CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Suggested 
legislntion. 



Legislation too 
sweeping. 



Charge for conTcy- 

Ing letters to the 

post oflice. 



Suppression of tlie 
local posts. 



object of its establishment, so long as it does not command and deliver the local correspon- 
dence of the different cities in which it exists, which, thus far, it has wholly failed to do. 
This correspondence is now almost entirely in the hands of private expresses, whose rates are 
so low as to make a successful competition with them, on the part of the government, 
impossible Their charge for the delivery of a letter is generally one cent, while this amount 
is necessarily exacted by the department for the carriers, and one cent in addition is collected 
on the local correspondence, as the postage fixed by the Act of 1825, on 'drop letters.' 
Hence the aggregate postage on the city correspondence, under existing laws, which require 
that the system shall be self-sustaining, is at least two cents, which precludes the possibility 
of any successful competition with the private expresses. 1 therefore recommend the repeal 
of this provision of the Act of 1825, so far as it can be construed as applying to ' drop letters ' 
delivered by carriers. This would not result in any perceptible diminution of the postal 
revenues, inasmuch as the correspondence which would be thus secured by the department, 
does not now pass through its offices. It is true that the Postmaster General might, in his 
discretion, arrest the operation of these private expresses by declaring the streets and avenues 
of the cities to which they belong to be post roads ; but until the department is prepared to 
deliver city letters as cheaply and promptly as such companies can possibly do, I should 
regard the exercise of this power as unwise, if not harsh and oppressive." 

In i860, Congress acted on these recommendations, and rather more 
fully than was desired, if we may judge from the report of the Postmaster 
General for that year. In it he says : 

" In the last annual report it was recommended that the provision of the Act of 1825^ 
levying a postage of one cent on ' diop letters,' should be repealed, in order that the de- 
partment by a reduction of its rates might be enabled more successfully to compete with 
private expresses in the delivery of the local correspondence of the cities. This repeal was 
made, but Congress went further and declared that thereafter the charge on each letter de- 
livered by a carrier should be not exceeding one cent. The effect of this was to take from 
the department the discretion in regulating the charge which had been conferred upon it by 
the acts of July 2, 1836, and iWarch 3, 1851 It has been satisfactorily ascertained that, in the 
smaller and sparsely populated cities and towns, the comj^nsation fixed by the recent act is 
wholly insufficient to support the carrier system. Yet in this class of cities and towns the 
public derrand the delivery of their letters by carriers, and are entirely willing to pay for the 
service a rate of compensation which would render it remunerative As the discretion 
previously existing upon the subject has never been abused, and as there is no probability 
that the rate would ever be raised beyond what would be cheerfully submitted to by the 
public, I recommend that the provision of the Act of last session be repealed, and that the 
department shall have authority to collect such postage on all letters delivered by carriers, 
as shall be deemed necessary to compensate them for the service, provided that it shall not 
exceed two cents per letter. 

The Acts of July 2, 1836, and March 3, 185 1, contemplated that the same charge should 
be made for the delivery of letters into the post office as for their delivery at the domicil of 
the citizen. From some unexplained cause, this provision of the law was not executed, and 
the service of delivering letters into the post office for transmission has been gratuitously 
performed, No reason could be urged in support of this usage, since this service, thus 
rendered without any return, has always, to the extent of its performance, cost the depart- 
ment as much as that for which compensation has been exacted. Orders have accordingly 
been given for the enforcement of this view of the law, and the revenue derived from this 
source, added to the other receipts of the carrier system, will give it adequate support in the 
large cities at the low rate of one cent established by the existing law, provided it can 
command the entire local correspondence for delivery. This can be accomplished only by 
placing the postal system on the same footing in the cities that it occupies in the rural dis- 
tricts. That such a necessity would n rise was clearly foreseen by Congress, and in the tenth 
section of tlie Act of March 3, 1851, the Postmaster General was authorized to establish post 
routes within all cities and towns, where the postmasters are appointed by the President of 
the United States. By virtue of this Act I have by a formal ord?r declared all the streets, 

avenues, etc., within the corporate limits of the cities of Boston, New York and 



lanes, 



K.\l)osltion of the 

laws relating to 

post roads. 



Philadelphia, to be post roads, and have notified all engaged in the transportation and 
delivery of letters, for compensation, in said cities, that they would thereby expose themselves 
to the penalties imposed by the third section of the Act of March 2, 1827. The private ex- 
presses in the cities named have acquiesced in the legality of this step, with the exception of 
one in Philadelphia, known as ' Blood's Express,' which has continued the regular delivery 
of letters in defiance of the order of the department. 

A bill in equity was filed with a view of restraining the company from this habitual 
and persistent violation of the postal laws, but upon full argument and consideration had on 
the questions involved, the injunction was denied. The ground assumed by the learned 
judges in their decision— a copy of which accompanies this report -is that the statute of 
March 3, 185 1 , did not intend to confer upon the government the same monopoly as carriers 



CARRIERS STAMPS. 



205 



of letters, packets, etc., over the post routes thereby authorized to be established, as was 
conferred upon it by the Act of March 2, 1827, in reference to the general post roads of the 
country. While entertaining the most profound respect for the tribunal pronouncing this 
opinion, it is but proper to say that its reasoning has not impressed me, nor have I been able 
to adopt the conclusions at which it has arrived. The streets, alleys, etc., of Philadelphia are 
now, by virtue of the Act of March3, 1851, ' post routes '; this is not denied. The statute of 
March 2, 1827, declares that ' no person other than the Postmaster General, or his authorized 
agents, shall set up any foot or horse post for the conveyance of letters and packets upon any 
post road, which is or may be established as such by law ; and that every person who shall 
offend, shall incur a penalty,' etc. If the words -any post road which is or may be estab- 
blished," do not embrace those declared to be such by law in the city of Philadelphia, it is not 
easy to conceive what terms could be employed sufficiently comprehensive for the purpose. 
The quo animo imputed to Congress in the enactment of the Act of March 3, 1851, is by no 
means made apparent in the course of the argument The monopoly created by the Act of 
March 2, 1827, would seem to extend alike to every post road then existing or thereafter to 
exist, whether pervading the country or the city, or connecting different post offices with 
each other or with the domicil of the citizen. There is no restriction in the language, and to 
impose one by construction is to impair, if not to defeat, the carrier system which Congress 
has recognized as a necessary integral part of the postal service. It seems that every con- 
sideration which can be urged in support of the monopoly, conceded to exist on the general 
post roads of the country, will equally apply to that claimed for those of the city. As the 
constitutional power for the purpose is not seriously controverted, with a view of relieving 
the department from future litigation -upon the question, 1 recommend that, in terms so 
precise and emphatic as not to be mistaken by the courts, Congress shall apply the provisions 
of the Act of March 2, 1827, to all post routes established in the cities under the authority of 
the statute of March 3, 1851. 

No objection, on the score either of policy or principle, can be successfully urged 
against the suppression of the private expresses occupied in the conveyance of letters and 
packets in our cities. The growth of these cities, and the wants of our civilization, render 
the ministrations of the postal service, in the delivery of letters and packets at the residence 
of the citizen, as indispensable as they are in the transportation and delivery of the mails at 
the various post offices in the country districts. But the service can only be maintained as a 
unit by clothing it with the rights and privileges of a complete government monopoly in all 
the fields of its operation. Some of its branches are well known to be heavy burdens upon 
the department ; and they would be insupportably oppressive, were it not for the relief 
afforded by other branches which are remunerative, but which will continue to be so only so 
long as the competition of private enterprise is effectually excluded. 

There are now four daily deliveries of letters and packets by carriers in the city of New 
York, four in Philadelphia, and three in Boston ; and the number will be increased from 
time to time, as the increase of population and correspondence will justify it. The high 
price of labor, however, and the lovi^ rates of our postages, forbid the hope that, without some 
change in the existing laws, the system can ever attain the perfection which distinguishes it 
in some of the European capitals. While this is admitted, it should also be stated that its 
operations thus far have been more successful than could have been anticipated, in view of 
the obstacles it has had to encounter." 

This report includes a copy of a letter from Hon. John A. Dix, Post- 
master at New York, from which the following is quoted : 

" The carriers and collectors are paid from the carriers' fund, which is composed of 
the postage on city letters, one cent each, one-quarter of the fees on letters received by the 
mails and delivered by the carriers. Also one cent each, and the fees (one cent each), on 
letters collected from the lamp-post boxes and carried to the post office to be transmitted by 
the mails Three quarters of the fees on letters received by the mails and delivered by the 
carriers are paid to the respective carriers by whom the deliveries are made, and constitute a 
part of their compensation. They have also an equal share each of the carriers' fund, the 
collectors being first paid from it. 

1 deem it proper to say that the reduction of the fee for delivering letters received 
by the mails from two cents to one, would have rendered it impossible to keep up the carrier 
system with proper efficiency, had not the Postmaster General carried into effect the provisions 
of law authorizing a fee to be charged for letters collected from the street boxe- and carried 
to the post office to be transmitted by the mails. This order, though the fee was limited to 
one cent while the law authorized two, produced some dissatisfaction at the time it was 
issued, but it was so manifestly necessary, and the charge for carrying ■^ letter to the post 
office for the mail was so reasonable that there was a general acquiescence in the propriety 
as soon as the matter was fully understood. In the discussions to which it gave rise, no 
satisfactory reason was shown why the same fee should not be charged for delivering a 
letter received by the mails, and for carrying a letter to the post office to be transmitted by 
mail. It is presumed that Congress, by which the charge for both was authorized, saw no 



GoTernment 

nionoply essential 

to success. 



Letter from the 

postmaster at 

New York. 



206 



CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Prepayment of 
caniers' fees. 



Cities ivliich had 
carriers' service. 



Ofiicial and semi- 
offlcial stamps. 



Arrangement. 



Dates of use. 



propriety in making compensation to the carrier in one case and requiring him to perform the 
service gratuitously in the other." 

By the Act above referred to, that of June 15th, 1 860, carriers were 
for the first time, given a fixed salary. 

Prepayment of carriers' fees, as such, was never made compulsory. 
By the Act of March 3rd, 1863, the rate on drop letters was increased to two 
cents (which may be understood to include the carriers' fee), and prepayment 
compelled. At the same time the delivery tax on letters not of local origin 
was abolished. 

The report of the Postmaster General for 1 854, gives statistics of letters, 
circulars, newspapers, etc. delivered by carriers and the amounts received for 
carriage in the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore and New 
Orleans. The report for 1856 adds to the list Harrisburg, Pa., Lowell, Mass., 
Syracuse, N. Y. and Manchester, N. H. In the three succeeding years the 
following additions were made : 1857: Rochester, N. Y. ; 1858: Troy, N. Y., 
Providence, R. I. and Roxbury, Mass.; 1859 : Washington, St. Louis and San 
Francisco. After 1859 these statistics ceased, probably for the reason that, 
after that year, the carriers were paid a fixed salary and there was no further 
occasion for keeping the accounts from which the statistics were collected. 
It is not clear whether the cities mentioned in the reports of the Postmaster 
General were the only ones in which deliveries by carriers were made, at the 
several dates given, or if they were merely selected for statistical purposes. 

The carriers' stamps must be divided into two classes, official and semi- 
official. To the first class belong only the Franklin and eagle carriers. The 
second class is more extensive and covers all stamps issued by officials or 
employees of the government for the purpose of securing or indicating pay- 
ment of the carriers' fees. It seems best to describe the semi-official stamps 
first, because many of them were issued prior to the official carriers' stamps 
and because they were of a somewhat experimental nature. 

We know that the first of the semi-official carriers' stamps, and in fact 
the first postage stamp used in the United States, was issued in the city of 
New York in 1842. But records concerning most of the stamps of this class 
are absolutely lacking and, for the majority of them, even the dates of issue 
are not well established. It is not possible, therefore, to arrange them in 
chronological order and it seems most suitable to consider them under an 
alphabetical arrangement of the cities in which they were issued. 

A variety of dates are given for the different carriers' stamps in phila- 
telic magazines, handbooks and catalogues. As some of them are manifestly 
incorrect and nearly all are given without any statement of the authority or 
reason for so fixing the date, I have decided to give only dates which are 
confirmed by records or which have been obtained from cancelled specimens, 
either by personal examination or by reports from reliable philatelists. When 
two dates are given for a stamp they are the earliest and latest known dates 
of use. When no other dates can be obtained, those which are assigned to 
the stamps in the older philatelic publications will be given, but such dates 
will be enclosed in parentheses, as an indication that they lack confirmation. 



The Baltimore Carriers' Stamps, 



Of the history of the carriers' stamps used in Baltimore we know 
very little. The several varieties, known as the " Horseman ", " Post Office 
Despatch" and " Carrier's Dispatch " (or "eye type") have long been classed 
among the carriers' stamps. But nothing appears to be known of the dates 
at which they were issued or by whom and upon what authority the issues 
were made. 

A few years ago, at my request, Mr. F. G. Sweet of Baltimore, kindly 
tried to secure some information about the various carriers' stamps used there. 
In an interview with one of the old residents, who had been in a position to 
acquire information on the subject, he was told as follows : 

"The fees derived from the collection and distribution of mail by carriers were, in 
Baltimore at least, a'perquisite of the postmaster. For the central portion of the city, where 
the mail was naturally the heaviest, the postmaster employed full salaried carriers and Stamps said to have 
supplied them with regular stamps' of his own, such as the ' horseman ', ' eye stamps', etc. been supplied by 
Grafflin, it seems, was employed by the postmaster on a kind of commission basis, to collect the postmaster, 
and distribute mail in the less populous sections of the city and, for this purpose, had his own 
stamps whose Iranking powers were, of course, recognized by the Baltimore postmaster." 

These statements would be very interesting if we could be positive 
of their correctness. Unfortunately, the gentleman went far astray in his 
assertions concerning the Grafflin post, and this makes us doubtful of the 
accuracy of his other statements. 

As it has been suggested on several occasions that the Grafflin was a 
carriers' stamp, it may be well to say here that it was a local, pure and simple. 
The post was originally a branch of Blood's post of Philadelphia. In 1853 
or '54 Joseph Grafflin bought it from Blood and ran it for a few years under 
his own name. He issued -his stamps about the beginning of 1856, but had 
no connection with the post office beyond that, as many local posts did, he 
collected letters and deposited them in the post office, to be forwarded to 
other places. These statements are made upon the authority of the widow 
and brother of Mr. Grafflin. 

From carefully noting the dates on a large number of original covers 
bearing the stamps of the Baltimore carriers, it becomes evident that the 
three varieties were in use coincidently, probably by carriers in different parts Sererai desigus in 
of the city. The earliest dates are found on the "Post Office Despatch" 
stamps, the next earliest on the " Eye " stamps, and the " Horseman " stamps 
occupy the third place. 



Grainin's local 
post. 



concurrent use. 



208 



THE BALTIMORE CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Post Office Despatch. 



.DESPATCH. 



Description. 



Reference List. 



Dates of use. 



Couutcrfi'lts. 



Typographed in blocks of ten, two vertical rows of five, each stamp 
differing from the others. Probably these blocks were repeated to make up 
a plate, but this is not certain. A reproduction of a reconstructed block of 
the ten types will be found amdng the illustrations and will make further 
description unnecessary. The stamps measure 20x1 i^mm. 

Imperforate. 

Thin Bluish Wove Paper. 

Jan. I, 1853. — Oct. II, 1855. 1 cent scarlet, dull vermilion. 10 varieties 
Feb. 16, 1854. I cent blue. 10 varieties 

Bluish Laid Paper. 

I cent blue. 10 varieties 



Sept. 18, 1852. 

Sept. 2, 1854.— April, 1855. 

Jan. 29, 1859. — June, 1861. 



White Wove Paper. 

I cent red. 10 varieties 

1 cent blue, light blue, bright blue, dark blue, 

dull blue, dull dark blue. 10 varieties 
1 cent gray-green. 10 varieties 

White Laid Paper. 



Jan. 9, 1858. — Mch. 23, 1858. i cent dark blue, deep dull blue. 10 varieties 

Mr. C. H. Coster, says in his monograph on the " Private Posts of the 
United States": "These stamps were in use in 1852. Although we have 
been unable to obtain the proof, we believe that they have a semi-official 
character, like the U. S. P O. of Philadelphia, and that they were issued by 
the government for use in Baltimore, or by the postmaster of that city for the 
same purpose." 

In the American Journal of Philately for February, 1 889, Mr. J. W. 
Scott gives the dates : "Oct. 4, 1852, 1 cent red on bluish paper ; Nov. 24, 
1852, I cent blue on bluish paper." But he says nothing regarding the source 
from which these dates were derived. 

These stamps, like most of the carriers' and locals, have been exten- 
sively counterfeited. The counterfeits, however, may be readily detected by 
comparison with the illustration of the genuine types. The easiest test is 
found in the relative positions of the "x" of "cent" and the "h" of 
" DESPATCH ". The commonest counterfeit has a small oval " o " in " one ", 
while all the genuine stamps have a large round "o". There is a counter- 
feit which closely resembles type VI of the originals, but comparison will show 
many small differences. 



THE BALTIMORE CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Z09 




These are also known as the " Eye " stamps. Typographed on ordinary 
white paper. There are no varieties, all the stamps being reproductions of 
one original type. Size : 2 2xi6j4mm. The number of stamps in a sheet is 
not known. 

Imperforate. 

White Wove Paper. 

Jan. I, 1856. — Feb. 19, 1859. 1 cent blue, dull blue, dark blue 
Oct. 21, 1858. — May 10, 1861. i cent pale rose, rose, deep rose, rose-red, red, 

brown-red, pale vermilion, vermilion 

The American Journal of Philately for December 20th, 1874, suggests 
that these stamps were issued by the postmaster of Baltimore. There is 
nothing to be learned from references in other philatelic publications. 

There are numerous counterfeits of these stamps, both in the proper 
and in fancy colors. They are usually less blurred in appearance than the 
genuine stamps. The counterfeit most frequently met has the "n"s in "one" 
and "cent" too narrow. Another counterfeit is readily distinguished by 
the narrow " r "s in "carrier's", and a third by having all the letters of 
"carrier's DISPATCH ", as well as the pigeons in the corners, too large. 



Description. 



Reference liist. 



Government City Dispatch (Horseman). 




Typographed in a pane of ten varieties, two vertical rows of five stamps, 
each differing slightly from the others. Two of the varieties are quite promi- 
nent; the second stamp in the pane has the three rays below the letters, " ver " 
of "government" only about half the usual length; on the seventh stamp 
the inscription on the streamer is " one sent ". The pane is repeated several 
times on each sheet. Mr. F. W. Hunter had at one time an irregular block 
which showed portions of three panes in one row and a part of a pane 
in the row below. Furthermore, one of the three panes was placed tete beche 
to the other two. From this it was thought probable that the plate contained 
one hundred stamps, in ten panes, arranged in two rows of five. But there 
is evidence which contradicts this theory. I have recently seen several of 
these stamps, each of which showed, at one end, an overlapping impression 
of a small portion of another stamp. From these double impressions I con- 
clude that the plate contained only one group of ten stamps, that several 



Description, 

Tarieties and 

plate. 



THE BALTIMORE CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Reference List. 



Dates of use. 



Counterfeits. 



impressions were taken on one sheet of paper, and that, through fcarelessness, 
one impression slightly overlapped another. Size: 2^^xt'jmm. 

Imperforate. 

White Wove Paper. 

Aug. 19, 1857. — Sept. 20, i860. I cent rose, lilac-rose, rose-red, red, vermilion, 

brown-red, deep brown-red. 10 varieties 
Sept. 19, 1857. — Mch. 18, 1861. I cent black, gray-black. 10 varieties 

Principal varieties . 

I cent rose, red, etc. Short rays 



I cent 



(( (( 



SENT 



I cent black, gray-black. Short rays 
I cent " " "sent" 

The American Journal of Philately for 1888, says: " 185 1, i cent 
rose, I cent red ; i860, Sept. i, i cent black." The first date is probably 
copied from the same journal for 1877, and is doubtless as incorrect as is the 
last. In the number dated December 20th, 1 874, we read concerning this 
stamp : " This was used in Baltimore in 1861, but was, I am inclined to think, 
issued by the U. S. P. O. in that city for carriers use." 

Coster says ( 1 882) : " All efforts to obtain information about this post 
have been unavailing. However, I have learned from private sources that 
the stamps of the Government City Dispatch were issued by the postmaster of 
Baltimore." 

While August 19th, 1857, is the earliest cancellation that I have seen, 
it is my opinion that the red stamps were in use for some time previous to 
that date.. The red stamps are usually more clearly printed than those in 
black, and indicate an earlier and unworn state of the plate. 

There are a number of counterfeits of the " Horseman " stamps but 
none of them are very good and all may be distinguished by the fact that 
they lack the small white ornaments which are found in the upper corners of 
the originals. 



The Boston Carriers' Stamps, 



Records of the Boston carriers' stamps are yet to be discovered ; con- 
sequently, there is little to be said concerning them, beyond what may be 
learned from examination of the stamps and the covers to which they are 
affixed. 



U. S. Penny Post. 




The stamps are engraved in taille douce and printed on yellowish white 
wove paper. Owing to their rarity. and the limited number of copies available 
for examination, it has not been possible to form any conclusion as to the 
number of stamps on the plate. As each was separately engraved it is 
probable that the plate was not large. A specimen, formerly in the collection 
of Mr. F. W. Hunter, shows portions of several adjacent stamps, sufficient to 
prove there were at least three rows of three stamps each. Probably the plate 
contained twelve or fifteen stamps, possibly as many as twenty-five. The 
ornaments in the corners appear to have been inserted by means of punches, 
the remainder of the design is hand-engraved. Size : 18x22mm. 

Imperforate. 

Yellowish White Wove Paper. 

1849. 2 cents black 

I have never seen a cancelled copy of this stamp. The American 
Journal of Philately for December, 1874, mentions the stamp but says nothing 

concerning any date of issue or use. Coster says : " Issue of ?" The 

Philatelic Journal of America for January, 1889, says : "The earliest dates 
of letters bearing the stamps"of this post that are now recorded are 1849." 

The counterfeits are too poor to require description. They are roughly 
made by lithography or typography, while the originals are finely engraved. 



Description. 
Plate. 



Reference List. 



Date of use. 



Counterfeits. 



THE BOSTON CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Penny Post. 



X POST. 



Description. 



Reference List. 



Date of issue. 



Counterfeits. 



Typographed on pelure paper. Size: 2i}4xg}4mm. All the stamps 
appear to be reproductions of a type-set original and there are no varieties. 
Occasionally some of the rays of the corner ornaments are broken or missing 
but this is probably due to poor printing or defective electrotypes. 

Imperforate. 

Pelure Paper. 

Nov. 8, 1849. — Apl. 26, 1851. (i cent) dull blue, deep dull blue 

The American Journal of Philately for February, 1889, gives the date 
of issue of this stamp as April 3rd, 1845. This is possibly founded on a 
remark in Coster's book : " We possess, on a letter dated 1845, a hand-stamp 
of this post, which gives us reason to suppose it commenced business about 
that period." Perhaps this hand-stamp was confused with the adhesive 
stamps. 

Counterfeits are numerous but not dangerous. The lines of the 
diamonds which form the frame are continuous, while in the originals they 
are broken, each diamond being a separate piece of type. The stars in the 
corners are two small and usually have five points instead of eight rays. 
There is no period after "post". Finally, most of the counterfeits have a 
single-lined outer frame which does not appear on the originals. 



Penny Post Paid. 



PENNY I 

1. POST. f 

Typographed on ordinary wove paper, varying from grayish to blue- 
Description, gray in color. Size: 2o^xi2j^mm. Like the preceding issue, these stamps 
appear to have been reproduced from a type-set original and show no varieties. 

Ueference List. Imperforate. 

Grayish Wove Paper. 

July 20, 1850. — July 26, 1854. ([ cent) blue, dull blue 

Bluish Gray Wove Paper. 

(i cent) deep blue, dull blue 

Counterfeits of this stamp are plentiful but are not difficult to detect. 

The frame is extremely well imitated as is also the word " penny ", though the 

Counterfeits. letters of the latter are a little too much spaced. In " post " the letters are 



THE BOSTON CARRIERS STAMPS. 



213 



not enough shaded and are too narrow, especially the "o" which, in the 
originals, is nearly round. The greatest difference is in the word '' paid " 
In the original stamps this word is in Roman capitals, set close together. In 
the counterfeits the letters are in block type and widely spaced. In some of 
the counterfeits, in the bottom row of the type-set border, the block nearest 
the right corner is turned sideways. This is not known to occur in the 
genuine stamps. The American Journal of Philately for June, 1 872, mentions 
a counterfeit of this stamp which has only twenty-six pieces of type in the 
frame, instead of twenty-eight. 




Hand-stamped in color on colored wove paper. Diameter : 14mm. 

Imperforate. 

Bluish Wove Paper. 

(1853). (i cent) red 

Outside of catalogues I have been unable to find any reference to this 
stamp. I have, however, seen it in black, used as a cancellation for the stamp 
last described. It is possible, of course, that the hand-stamp was used both 
as a cancellation mark and for the production of adhesive stamps, as is 
known to have been done on other occasions. But, pending confirmation by 
specimens on the original cover, the stamp is listed with much reserve. 



Description. 
Reference list. 



Cancellation or 
hand-stamp. 



Hill's Post, 



Before leaving the subject of the Boston carriers' stamps a few words 
must be said about another stamp which may possibly belong to this category. 
This is Hill's post, now classed among the locals (Standard catalogue, 60th 
edition, L147). Very little is known about this post. Oliver B. Hill was 
probably its proprietor. From the Boston city directory we obtain the follow- 
ing extracts : 

1843 Hill, Oliver B., grocer; 172 Hanover St.; House, etc. 

1844 " 



184s 
1846 
1846-47 
1847-48 
1848-49 
1849-50 
1850-51 



Clerk 

Post Office 
Penny Post 



Oysters, 52 Kneeland St. 



214 THE BOSTON CARRIERS STAMPS. 

When two' years are given together the period covered is from July ist 
to July ist. In the two years left blank there is no record of his occupation, 
merely his name and residence. We do not know whether the words " Post 
office " imply a connection with the Government post office or merely the 
office of a private post But it is well known that the term "penny post " was 
applied both to local posts and to letter carriers. The name Oliver B Hill 
does not appear in the official register which contains the names of all post- 
masters, clerks, contractors, etc. Copies of the stamps are known with can- 
cellations dated in 1849 and early in 1850. The limited information which 
we now possess does not appear to warrant the inclusion of this stamp among 
the carriers. 



The Charleston Carriers' Stamps, 

After the un.certainty which surrounds most of the carriers' stamps, 
it is a pleasure to turn to those used in this city. We have very full and 
complete information concerning them, the circumstances under which they 
were issued, by whom and at what dates. Much of this information was 
obtained by the efforts of Mr. W. H. Faber, a resident of the city and 
personally acquainted with the carriers by whom the stamps were issued. 
Their history may be briefly summarized as follows : 

^ In 1849, John H. Honour received from Washington an appointment 
as letter carrier for the city of Charleston. He engaged his brother-in-law, 
E. J. Kingman, to assist him, the service being conducted in the name of Historical. 
Mr. Honour. About two years later they separated and divided the carrier 
business of the city between them, one taking the eastern half and the other 
the western. At the same time Mr. Kingman was appointed a carrier by the 
Postmaster of Charleston. Each carrier was under bonds to the Government 
in the sum of $2,000. 

In March, 1858, Mr. Kingman retired and his place was taken by 
Joseph G. Martin. In the summer of the same year, John F. Steinmeyer, Jr. 
was added to the carrier force. In 1 860, Mr. Honour retired and John C. 
Beckman was appointed in his place. Mr. Martin retired early in 1861, but 
the service was continued by the other two carriers until about 1865. 

Each of these carriers issued stamps. At first the stamps were made 
from engraved dies, but there is nothing to show whether they were printed 
from plates or from groups of electrotypes. It has been suggested that they 
were hand-stamped but the few copies which I have been able to examine 
have every appearance of having been printed on a press. Afterwards the 
stamps were set up from type and some of those issued by Mr. Steinmeyer 
appear to have been printed from electrotypes. The stamps were the product 
of local printing offices. Most of them were gummed with gum arabic which 
was applied, not by the printer, but by the owner himself. A few of the 
stamps were printed on rose or yellow paper but the majority of them were 
on. the ordinary bluish writing paper of that period. For many years the 
catalogues listed several of the stamps on white paper. Prominent philatelists 
claim to have seen them and others, equally prominent, deny their existence 
on this paper. I have not been able to locate any copies in the hands of 
philatelists and, as there is a possibility that this paper may be merely the 



2l6 



THE CHARLESTON CARRIERS STAMPS. 



ordinary bluish or grayish paper from which the color has been discharged, 
I have decided not to list them. 



Stamps of John H. Honour. 




Descriptiou. 



Typographed from an engraved die. Printed in black on thin, colored 



wove paper. Size: i^^xigj4mm. 

Keference List. Imperforate. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

July 14, 1849. 2 cents black on rose, brown-rose 

2 cents black on yellow 

Only a very few copies of this stamp are known. 




Description. 
Keference List. 



Paper. 



Typographed from an engraved die on thin, colored wove paper. Size : 
22x26mm. 

Imperforate. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

Aug. 1 6, 1 849. 2 cents black on rose 

The American Journal of Philately for December, 1888, describes this 
stamp as on yellow surfaced paper and not on rose paper, colored through, 
as we now know it. Probably the writer was misinformed. Coster calls the 
color "bistre-rouge." 




Description. 



Printed from a type-set plate, in black, on glazed paper, colored on the 
surface. I have only seen three varieties but, doubtless, more exist. The 
plate probably contained from ten to twenty-five stamps. Size: 15x11mm. 



THE CHARLESTON CARRIERS STAMPS. 



217 



Imperforate. 

Wove Paper, Glazed and Surface-Colored. 

Oct. 20, 1849. — Mch. 5, 1850. 2 cents black on yellow, lemon-yellow, orange- 
yellow 

Principal variety : 

2 cents black on yellow. Error, " ccnts " in- 
stead of "cents " 

The American Journal of Philately for December, 1888, lists this stamp 
on yellow surfaced paper, blue writing paper and white paper. As the second 
paper has been dropped from the catalogues for some years, it was probably 
found to have been listed by error. The reason for omitting the third paper 
has already been explained. 



Reference List. 




Similar to the preceding but with six pearls at each side, instead of 
five. Type-set and printed on colored wove paper. The number of varieties 
is not known. Size: 15x13mm. 

Imperforate. 
Colored Wove Paper. 
May 8, j 850. 2 cents black on gray-blue 

Some philatelists claim that this stamp is merely a variety in the plate 
of the preceding issue. When we consider the similarity of the two stamps, 
the conclusion does not appear unreasonable. 




Similar to the two preceding stamps but with the word " Paid" added 
at the top of the inscription. Type-set and printed, in black, on colored wove 
paper, varying in thickness. Mr. C. T. Harbeck has in his collection sixteen 
varieties of this stamp. It is probable that the plate contained twenty-five 
varieties arranged in five rows of five stamps each. It is also possible that, 
as this stamp was in use for several years, there was more than one setting 
and printing of it. It is supposed that there were the same number of varieties 
of the stamps on pink pelure paper as on the other papers but, owing to the 
rarity of the pink stamps, it has not been possible to confirm this theory. 
Size : i4^xi2j^mm. 

Imperforate. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

Apl. 25, 185 r. — July 7, 1853. 2 cents black on gray-blue, blue-gray, gray, 

greenish gray 



Paper. 



Description. 



Beference List. 



Description. 



Reference List. 



2l8 



THE CHARLESTON CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Apl. 12, 1852. 



Principal variety : 

2 cents black on gray-blue. Error, " gens ' 
instead of ' cents " 

Pelure Paper. 

2 cents black on pink 




Type-set and printed, in black, on colored wove paper. There are 
probably varieties of this stamp, as always occurs when stamps are type-set, 
Description. but, Owing to the uniform shape and size of the ornaments which compose 
the border, the differences are so minute that they have not attracted the 
attention of philatelists. The American Journal of Philately for Decem- 
ber, 1888, says: " Typographed in sheet showing minor varieties." Size :■ 
i6J^xi7mm. 
Reference List. Imperforate. 

Colored. Wove Paper. 

Dec. 4, 1854. — July 6, 1855. 2 (cents) black on gray-blue 

Strange to say, Mr. J. G. Martin, one of the Charleston carriers, says : 
" There was never a Honour issued of the description of the above," (see 
Stamp repudiated American Journal of Philately for March, 1898). None the less, I have seen 
four copies, all on the original covers, and all cancelled in Charleston at or 
between the dates here given. As the carrier service was at that time practic- 
ally a monopoly of Messrs. Honour and Kingman it is not probable that they 
would tolerate an attempt to establish a similar service and it is also doubtful 
whether the field was sufficiently large to attract the enterprise of others. As 
Mr. Martin was not connected with the carrier service until some four years 
after this stamp was in use, it is possible that he was not familiar with it or 
that his memory was at fault. Prominent philatelists have long considered 
this stamp to be one of the Honour issues and, apparently, with good reason. 



by J. 0. Martin. 



Description. 



Reference List. 




Type-set and printed on colored wove paper. Minor varieties doubt- 
less exist, as in the preceding stamp, but the differences are so trifling that 
they have escaped notice. Size: I7}2xi3mm. 

Imperforate. 

Colored Wove* Paper. 

(1856). (2 cents) black on gray-blue, gray 



THE CHARLESTON CARRIERS* STAMPS. 



219 



The date is taken from Coster's book. In the American Journal of 
Philately for December, 1888, we find the date given as February 24th, 1852, 
but the correctness of this has been doubted. 



Bate of use. 




Printed from a type-set plate on colored wove paper. Several varieties 
have been seen but the differences are minute. Size: 17x1 2 ^mm. DescriptioD. 

Imperforate. Reference List. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

Feb. 21, 1858. (2 cents) black on gray-blue 

This date is taken from the only copy on the original cover which I 
have seen. The year is not very legible but I believe it to be as here given. Date of use. 
Coster gives the date " 1859 or '60." The American Journal of Philately for 
December, 1888, says " May 9th, 1852." This also appears to be questioned. 



Stamps or E. J. Kingman. 



jKINGMAN'ei 

J City Post. 
gPaid— 2 cta.fl 



Printed on colored wove paper from a type-set plate. The number of 
varieties is not known. I have seen only three. Mr. Kingman thinks the 
sheets contained two rows of five stamps each. Size: I7xi2j^mm. 

Imperforate. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

Jan. 19, 1851. — Jan. 20, 1858. 2 cents black on gray-blue 

2 cents black on green 

Coster and the American Journal of Philately both give 1850 as the 
date of this stamp. It is quite possible that they are correct. 



^ i£ ceais. Q^ 

Type-set and printed on colored wove paper. Several varieties, pro- 
bably not less than ten. Size: r4j^xi2j^mm. 

Imperforate. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

1851 (?) 2 cents black on gray-blue 



DescriptioD. 



Keference List. 



Date of use. 



Description. 
Keference List, 



220 



THE CHARLESTON CARRIERS STAMPS. 



I have copied the date from a memorandum but cannot recall my 
authority for it The Honour stamp of similar design was issued in the 
same year. 



Stamp of Joseph G. Martin. 



Description. 



Reference List. 



Date of use. 




Type-set and printed on colored wove paper. Several varieties have 
been seen. Mr. Martin says, in the American Journal of Philately for March, 
1898 : " I think there were twenty-five on a sheet, square, face value fifty 
cents.'' From the word " square " we may infer that the stamps were arranged 
in five rows of five stamps each. Size : 17x13mm. 

Imperforate. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

1858. 2 cents black on gray-blue 

Cancelled copies have not been seen but the date, 1858, is probably 
correct. Much earlier dates have been assigned to the stamp but they must 
be wrong, as Mr. Martin did not become a carrier until 1858. 



Stamps of John F. Steinmeyer. 



Description. 



Reference List. 



Date of use. 



Description. 



) Steinmeyer^s C 

] City Post. ' 

/jPaia— 2cM. ] 

Impression from a type-set plate on colored wove paper. There are, 
doubtless, varieties of this stamp but they have not been chronicled. Size : 
17x13mm. 

Imperforate. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

1858 or 1859. 2 cents black on gray-blue 

The American Journal of Philately for February, 1 889, gives the date 
of this stamp as 1 850, but that is as manifestly incorrect as the locating of the 
post in Philadelphia, which is done by the same journal and by Coster. 




Typographed on various papers. The sheets contain ten stamps, ar- 
ranged in two vertical rows of five. There do not appear to be any varieties 
other than trifling differences in the impression, Size : 17x1 i^mm. 



THE CHARLESTON CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Imperforate. 

Thin Colored Wove Paper. 

1858 or 1859. 2 cents black on gray-blue, gray 

Thick Coloied Wove Paper. 

2 cents black on yellow 

2 cents black on rose, dull rose 

Stamp of John C. Beckman. 

Type-set and printed in black on colored wove paper. The stamp is 
of the same design as that issued by Mr. Martin and those issued in 1850-58 
by Messrs. Honour and Kingman. Only one copy is known but, doubtless, 
there were originally several varieties. Size: j 7x1 3mm. 

Imperforate. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

i860. 2 cents black on gray-blue 



Reference List. 



Description. 



Beferenoe List. 



Counterfeits of the stamps of the Charleston carriers are plentiful. 
Apparently they all emanate from one source, probably that which supplied 
many of the reprints and counterfeits of the United States local stamps. The 
distinguishing marks of the counterfeits are not easy to describe, though they 
are unmistakable when compared with genuine stamps or good photographs. 
There is a clearness and carefulness in the printing which is not found in the 
originals. The letters of the inscriptions have a general resemblance, but 
comparison at once shows them to be from different fonts. The ornaments 
which form the borders are very sharp and are carefully set, while those of 
the original stamps are worn and carelessly arranged. In the second type of 
the Steinmeyer stamps, the ornaments which form the border at top and 
bottom have a shading on the inner side, while those at the sides have it on 
the outer side. In the commonest of the counterfeits the ornaments and, 
consequently, the shadings are reversed. There is another counterfeit which 
has all the ornaments correctly placed except the one on the right side, but a 
small oval has been added at the centre of the top and bottom borders, which 
is not found on the genuine stamps. Finally, the colors are not correct. The 
rose, yellow and green are too bright and the gray-blue, which varies a great 
deal in the originals, is nearly always a light " French gray " in the counter- 
feits. In the last color the paper is hard and highly finished and a little too 
thick. Comparison with the accompanying photogravure reproductions will 
enable the collector to readily detect the counterfeits. 



Counterfeits. 



The Louisville Carriers' Stamps. 

Thanks to the researches of Mr. F. W. H. Hahn of Louisville, we 
have quite full and satisfactory information concerning the carriers' stamps 
Hifttoricni. of that city. The carrier service was first established by the Louisville post 
office about 1854, one carrier being employed for the purpose. Charles P. 
Smith was first appointed. He delivered letters to houses and offices for a fee 
of two cents each but did not collect them for delivery to the post office. On 
January ist, 1856, David B. Wharton succeeded Smith as carrier. Late in 
the year 1857 he decided to use stamps for collecting his fees and had them 
prepared. But before many of the stamps were used — certainly not over fifty, 
and some claim none at all — he. was succeeded by Wilson Gough. This took 
place about the end of 1857 or possibly on January ist, 1858. Soon after 
this Joseph G. Brown was appointed to assist Gough. Gough did not issue 
stamps and only retained the office a few months. On April ist, 1858, S. B. 
McGill was appointed carrier, and he and Brown continued to act in this 
capacity until September 30th, i860. Brown and McGill decided to improve 
the service by issuing stamps. They bought from D. B. Wharton the outfit 
of letter boxes which he had had prepared and also the remainder of his 
stamps. There is a possibility that a few of the Wharton stamps were used 
while the Brown & McGill stamps were being prepared. These stamps were 
used only on letters bearing the regular United States postage stamps, not on 
circulars or private mail which did not pass through the post office. They 
paid the fee for delivering letters from or to the post office. The stamps were 
on sale in the post office, though not usually at the window at which the 
Government's stamps were sold. These carriers were under bonds of $2,000 
each to the Government. 



Stamps of David B. Wharton. 




Lithographed by Robyn & Co. in sheets of fifty stamps, arranged in 
two panes of twenty-five, five rows of five stamps each. The panes were 



THE LOUISVILLE CARRIERS STAMPS. 



223 



separated by a space of 4mm. Each stamp was surrounded by a thin frame Description, 
line, forming a rectangle about 24j^xi8^mm. The rectangles were separated 
by a space of imm. vertically and ^mm. horizontally. The words " robyn 
& CO. LiTH." appear at the bottom of each stamp, extending from the left 
corner to about the middle of the stamp. 

Imperforate. Itefcrence List. 

White Wove Paper. 
1857. (2 cents) blue-green 

I have not seen any good counterfeits of this stamp. 



Stamps of Brown & McGill. 




Lithographed by Hart & Maypother, successors to Robyn & Co. The 
stamps are made in imitation of the -Wharton stamp, from which they differ 
only in the lettering of the upper label and the omission of the name of Description, 
the makers. They are enclosed in a single-lined frame, measuring about 
24j^xi9J4!mm. Having seen only single copies, I am unable to give the 
distance between the stamps and their arrangement. The size of the sheets 
is not known but it was probably the same as for the Wharton stamp. 

Imperforate. Keference List. 

White Wove Paper. 

June 12, 1858. — June 29, i860. (2 cents) dull blue, dark blue 
April 13, (2 cents) black 

Mr. Hahn claims that none of the Brown & McGill stamps were printed 
in black and that, if such exist, they must be either discolored stamps or 
proofs. There is in the collection of Mr. C. T. Harbeck a fine copy, printed Tiie Wacii stamp, 
in black, which has every appearance of being genuine and in its original 
condition. It is on a letter, postmarked "April 13th" but with the year 
omitted. Apparently it is an early impression. It is my opinion that this 
is the color in which the stamp was first printed. 

In a communication which was printed in the American Journal of 
Philately for April, 1898, Mr. Hahn says : 

"About the year 1865 or 1866, Hussey, of New York, asked Mr. McGill for some 
remainders of the Brown & McGill stamps. He may have had some on hand but certainly 
wanted more and ordered Hart & Maypother to print 200 from the original stone. But, the Connterfeits. 
original not existing, a poor imitation or forgery was made and the stamps sent to Hussey as 
originals or reprints. The fact is, McGill, at the time, believed the forged stamps to be 
reprints." 

These so-called reprints are not very successful imitations of the 
originals. The eagle is quite incorrect in size and pose, the foliage is too 



224 THE LOUISVILLE CARRIERS STAMPS. 

abundant, the letters are too large, and there is an eight-pointed ornament at 
each side, instead of a small oval of crossed lines. There must have been 
more than one printing of these imitations, for I possess copies which differ 
widely in shade and paper. 

In addition to the foregoing — which may be called the official counter- 
feit — there are a number of others. The poorest of them should not deceive 
any one but it may be said that, instead of the small ovals which should 
separate the upper and lower labels, they show only two or three faint 
scratches. There is one counterfeit which quite closely resembles the original, 
but the work is too well done, the letters are slightly too large and the wings 
of the eagle do not touch the oval. 

Coster says that these stamps were issued in New York and the 
American Journal of Philately for 1888 assigns them to Baltimore. All of 
which proves nothing, except that it is easy to be mistaken. 



The New York Carriers' Stamps, 

To the city of New York belongs the distinction of placing in use the 
first stamp in the United States and the second in the world. This was a 
stamp of the City Despatch Post, issued in 1842. This post was a private Historical, 
enterprise and belongs to the large and interesting group of local posts. At 
the same time, its history is so involved with that of the government carrier 
service in this city — which was modelled upon and succeeded the private post 
— that one cannot thoroughly consider the one without the other. In addition 
to this, a few stamps of the City Despatch Post v ere used provisionally by its 
official successor, the United States City Despatch Post. 

Greig's City Despatch Post. 

In the American J ournal of Philately iox June, 1894 (page 284), we 
find an article on the subject of this post, written by Charles Windsor, the 
son of its originator. At the commencement he says: "The founder, sole 
proprietor, manager and director was Henry Thomas Windsor, a London 
merchant, then on a visit to the United States, and residing temporarily in 
the suburb of Hoboken." In traveling through the country Mr. Windsor, who 
was familiar with the English postal system, was struck with the inefficiency 
of our postal arrangements and the excessive charges. He decided, as a 
business venture, to establish a private post in New York city. He associated 
with him his friend Alexander M. Greig, in whose name the post was estab- 
lished, with the idea that it would be more successful under the name of a 
well-known resident than under that of a stranger and alien. 

The American Journal of Fhilately for May, 1872, reproduces the 
following circular : 

NEW YORK CITY DESPATCH POST. 
Principal Office, 46 William Street. 

The necessity of a medium of communication by letter from one part of the City to 
another, being universally admitted, and the Penny Post, lately existing, having been relin- 
quished, the opportunity has been embraced to re- organize it under an entirely new propria- circular aniiounciiii! 
tary and management, and upon a much more comprehensive basis, by which Despatch, (j,^ (.j^y Despatch 
Punctuality and Security, — those essential elements of success, — may at once be attained, VoA. 

and the inconvenience now experienced be entirely removed. 

The Proprietors of the " City Despatch Post" enter upon the undertaking with an 
earnest impression of its responsibilities, and with a full determination so to perform the 
required duties as to merit the confidence and support of their fellow-citizens. They have 
engaged the most efficient and trustworthy Assistants and Letter Carriers, and no expense 
will be spared to bring the whole advantage of a well-considered system into active operation. 



226 



THE NEW YORK CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Success of the 
post. 



Disconlinuiuwe of 
the post. 



The following is a brief outline of the plan : 

Branch Offices. — Letter Boxes are placed throughout every part of the City in con- 
spicuous places ; and all letters deposited therein, not exceeding two ounces in weight, will 
be punctually delivered three limes a day, at 9, i, and 4 o'clock, at three cents each ; option 
being given, either to free the letter, in the manner shown in the following regulations, 01 
leave the postage to be collected of the party to whom the letter is addressed 

Post-Paid Letters — Letters which the writers desire to send free, must have a free 
stamp affixed to them. An ornamental stamp has been prepared for this purpose, and may 
be procured at the Principal Office as above, or at those stores which will be advertised in 
the daily papers as having authority to sell them. The charge will be 36 cents per dozen, 
or 2 dols. 50 cents per hundred ; the reduction of price for the larger quantity being made 
with a view to the accommodation of those parties sending a considerable number of circulars, 
accounts, &c. Parcels not exceeding 1 lb. in weight will be charged a proportionate rate. 

NO MONEY MUST BE PUT INTO THE BOXES. 

All letters intended to be sent forward to the General Post-Office for the inland mails 
must have a free stamp affixed to them. 

Letters and Newspapers addressed to the Editors of the Public Press, will be delivered 
free. 

Unpaid Letters — Letters not having a free stamp will be charged three cents, payable 
by the party to whom they are addressed, on delivery. 

Registry and Despatch. — A Registry will be kept for Letters which it may be wished 
to place under special charge. Free stamps must be affixed to such letters for the ordinary 
postage, and three cents additional be paid, for an additional free stamp be affixed,) for the 
Registration ; but all such Letters must be specially deposited at the Principal Office. 

A spec'al ".Despatch " will be expedited with any Letter or Packet, not exceeding one 
pound in weight, (to an address within the limits,) at 12>^ cents a mile, upon application at 
the Principal Office. 

The advantages offered by this undertaking are : — 

First. — The secure and prompt transmission of all Registered Letters containing any 
special notice or matter, by which means legal evidence may be obtained of the due delivery 
ot the same ; and the immediate despatch of any letter or small package requiring instant 
delivery. 

Secondly.— The- certain and expeditious delivery of Mercantile Letters and Circulars, 
of Invitations and Replies (either under free stamp or unpaid), and every descriptior> of Com- 
mercial, Professional, and Social Correspondence ; thus bringing the most distant parts of 
the City in effect near to each other, and providing the means of constant intercourse at a 
very moderate charge. 

Alexander M. Greig, Agent. 

The Limits of the Despatch Post will extend to Twenty-First Street. 

It is interesting to note, in connection with this enterprise, the features 
of registration and special delivery, which are evidently not as modern ideas 
as we are accustomed to think. 

The post began its operations on January ist, 1842. It appears to 
have been very successful and to have provided an efficient and satisfactory 
service. It soon attracted the notice of the Post Office Department as, owing 
to its superior service, it secured the handling of much of the local mail and 
thus reduced the revenue of the post office. The removal of such a rival was 
felt to be imperative. We do not know exactly what means were employed 
to accomplish this end. In the article previously referred to, Mr. Windsor 
says : " The Government soon proscribed the continuance of the Post, assert- 
ing it to be an infringement of governmental rights." And in another place : 
" The Government compelled him to discontinue it." But it is possible that 
other means than force were employed to bring about the result. In the 
American Journal of Philately for April, 1877, we find the following letter : 

Post Office Department. 

Contract Office. 

August I, 1842. 
Sir : — By an order made on Saturday, but journalized to-day, the Postmaster General 
arrangement for the City of New York, to be called the 



has established a letter carrier 



THE NEW YORK CARRIERS STAMPS. 



227 



" United States City Despatcli Post," for the conveyance of letters from one part of the city 
to another, subject to a charge on each letter of three cents, under the 20th section of the Act 
of 1836, and authorizes you to employ Alex. M. Greig, nominated by you, as letter carrier. 
Other carriers are to be appointed from time to time, as may be required, and you are 
requested to nominate for that purpose. And you are also authorized to obtain the necessary 
fixtures, pouches, boxes, labels, stamps, etc., at not exceeding $[,200 for the whole, and to 
appoint a clerk to superintend said establishment at not exceeding $t,oco per annum. You 
will be pleased to report the date of the commencement of this arrangement. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. HoBBIE, 

John Lorimer Graham, Escl, First Asst. P. M. General. 

Postmaster, New York. 

From this letter we may conclude that the Post Office Department, 
having seen the success of a local delivery service, had determined to establish 
such for itself, as authorized by the Act of July 2nd, 1836. By taking Mr. 
Greig into its service it removed a rival and, at the same time, secured an 
efficient and experienced employee. The City Despatch Post was probably 
abandoned temporarily, although this is not positive. We know that it was in 
business in 1848 and continued until 1859. But our interest in it is only as 
the predecessor of the Government post. 

The stamps of the City Despatch Post were engraved on steel by 
Rawdon, Wright & Hatch, 48 Merchants Exchange. They were printed on 
grayish white paper, in sheets of forty-two stamps, seven rows of six stamps 
each. 

It is well-known that these stamps were used provisionally for the 
service of the United States City Despatch Post, presumably during the 
preparation of stamps for the latter. The stamps thus used bear the cancel- 
lations employed in the New York post office, usually the letters "us" in 
an octagon, occasionally a circle with date and the words " new york " or 
"u. s. CITY DESPATCH POST.'' The Only dated copy of which I have a 
memorandum is not on the original cover. It is cancelled "Feb. 15," pre- 
sumably 1843, but, as usual, the year is not given. This, of course, does not 
prove that the stamp was not in use at an earlier date. 

The stamps measure i8^x22mm. 



Letter concerning 

carrier service for 

New Torli City. 



Engraying. 
Size of slieets. 



Stamps used 
provisionally. 




Imperforate. 

Grayish White Wove Paper. 

Feb. 15 (1843?) 3 cents black 

In the collection of Mr. H. E. Deats there is a copy of this stamp 
which has the words " United States " written across the top in red-violet ink. 
Nothing is known of the history of this surcharge but its intention is apparent. 
The letter to which this is attached is dated August 14th, 1842. The can- 
cellation is apparently " Aug. 19th," but examination shows the " 9 " to be an 
inverted "6." 



Reference List. 



Manuscript 
surcltarge. 



228 



THE NEW YORK CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Reference List. 



Aug. 16, 1842. 



Imperforate. 
Grayish White Wove Paper. 
3 cents black. Surcharge in red-violet 



in advance of 
formal orders. 



United States City Despatch Post. 

Turning to the letter quoted on the preceding page, we cannot fail to 
observe that the Postmaster General exceeded his authority when he ordered 
Anthority exceeded, the preparation of stamps, since that is the exclusive prerogative of Congress. 
It is possible that the " stamps " to which he referred were the hand stamps 
used to cancel letters and indicate postage paid ; in which case it was the 
Postmaster of New York who overstepped the limits of authority. A careful 
examinatiTjn of certain facts leads me to the conclusion that the matter had 
been thoroughly considered and discussed previous to the writing of this 
Preparations made letter, that the accessories therein ordered had already been purchased, and 
that, so far as they were concerned, the letter was a mere formality. The 
principal confirmation of this statement is found in dated cancellations. It is 
generally understood that the service was put in operation on August ist, 1842, 
and I have seen a copy of the stamp cancelled "August 5th, 1842." It will 
be evident, at a glance, that this order, made in Washington on the ist, could 
not have been carried into effect in New York by the 5th, unless the stamps 
had been previously prepared. 

The following circular was first reproduced in the American Journal 
of Philately for February, 1872 : 

United States City Despatch Post. 

Hours of delivery every day (Sunday excepted) at the principal office, upper P. O., 
Park, and lower P.O., Merchant's Exchange. 

Letters deposited before 8, 12, 3, and at the stations befoie 7, 1 1 and 2, will be sent 
out for delivery at 9,'! and 4. 

Letters to be sent free must have a free stamp attached to them, which can be pur- 
chased at the upper and lower post offices and at all the stations. The charge will be 36 
cents per dozen. 2 dols 50 cents per hundred. All letters intended to be sent forward to 
the General Post-office for the inland mails must have a free stamp attached to them. Letters 
not having a free stamp will be chajged 3 cents on delivery. 

John Lorimer Graham, P, M. 
New York, June, 1843. 

This circular is again printed in an article in the American Journal of 
Philately for April, 1877. The writer calls attention to its previous publica- 
tion and the date and adds : "We afterwards obtained a very large card bear- 
ing precisely the same matter, but dated sometime in 1842, this was evidently 
issued simultaneously with the stamps." 

The circular was also printed in the Manual of the Common Council 
of the City of New York for 1842-43, with the addition of an almost verbatim 
reproduction of the paragraphs in Greig's circular which related to registra- 
tion and the advantages claimed for the undertaking (see Philatelic Journal 
of America, Vol. V, page 127), and with this further addition : 

" Limits, U. S. City Despatch Post will extend to Twenty-second Street. 
An additional number of sworn carriers have been employed to carry city letters 
wholly independent of letters received by the ni?il,s," 



Ofiicial circular. 



Additions to the 
circular. 



THE NEW YORK CARRIERS STAMPS. 




EngraTing. 

Size of sheets. 

Paper. 



The stamps were engraved on steel by Rawdon, Wright & Hatch, and 
are said to have been in sheets of one hundred. The paper varies in color 
and quality. At first it was of moderate thickness and colored through. 
This was soon changed for a thick paper, slightly glazed on the surface and 
usually not colored through or only lightly tinted. This paper sometimes 
appears to be ribbed. The paper longest in use was highly glazed and colored 
on the surface only. The shades are numerous, especially on the paper last 
described. Size: i8J^x22mm. 

Wove Paper, Colored Through. ueference List. 

3 cents black on rosy-buff 

Aug. 5, 1842. — Sept. I, 1842. 3 cents black on gray-blue, dull gray-blue 

3 cents black on pale green 

Thick Wove Paper, Glazed and Surface-Colored. 

Feb. 22, 1842. — Oct. 24, 1846. 3 cents black on light blue, blue, bright blue, 

deep blue, dark blue, pale greenish blue, 
greenish blue 

July 4, 1843. — July 23, 1845. 3 cents black on bluish green, green, dark 

green, olive-green 

Variety : 

3 cents black on greenish blue, green. Double 
impression 

Several of the older writers mention copies of this stamp printed in 
violet. As the color was dropped from the catalogues many years ago, it was 
probably found not to exist. 

On at least two occasions the stamps of the United States City Des- 
patch Post were used to pay regular postage to other cities. This is proved by stamps used to pay 
original covers bearing the stamps. The first of these is addressed to Phila- regular postage, 
delphia and bears five of the stamps. On holding the cover to a strong light 
there can be seen, written on the paper underneath the stamps : 

" Paid 3 cents for City Despatch 

12^ for Philadelphia. Paid" 

The stamps are cancelled " U. S.',' in an octagon, as usual. On the 
cover are the circular date stamp " New York, May 30 " and the word "paid ", 
both in red. There are also the figures " 12 " in dark blue ink, apparently 
written by the mailing clerk. The second cover is similar to the first. It is 
addressed to Ridgefield, Conn., and bears three stamps, underneath which is 
written " Paid loc." The cancellations are like those just described, the date 



23° 



THE NEW YORK CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Chauge in rates. 



being June 13th, and the written figures " 10." It is unfortunate that neither 
cover bears anything to show the year in which it was used. 

It will be noticed that the written figures and the amount of the postage 
stamps do not exactly agree but such discrepancies appear to have been 
lightly regarded at that period Even the ofificial circular offers 3 cent stamps 
at 2j^ cents each, when purchased by the hundred. 

By Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 1845, the rate for drop 
letters was reduced to two cents. Carriers were allowed to charge a like 
amount. We do not know what steps, if any, were taken in the city of New 
York to meet this reduction. Indeed, to judge by the numerous three cent 
stamps of the United States City Despatch Post to be found on letters dated 
in 1 845 and 1 846, it would appear that the old rates were maintained. Possibly 
an effort in the direction of a reduction may be indicated by a stamp, formerly 
in the collection of Mr. F. W. Hunter, which is here illustrated. 



A prOTiBional 
surcharge. 



Reference List. 



Counterfeits, 





^ 




K 




^^^Mm' 




^^M 





The stamp is on the original letter, which is dated February 14th, 
1846. The surcharged numeral and the bar over the word " three " are in 
red, of the same shade as the cancellations. There are two cancellations : 
first, the usual circle with the name of the post, date and hour; second, 
another circle with the words "new york — fee. 14 — 2 cts.," the numeral 
" 2 " being identical with that used for the surcharge. 

Imperforate. 
Thick Glazed Paper, Surface-Colored. 
Feb. 14, 1846. 2 cents on 3 cents green. Surcharge in red 

It is to be regretted that we have been unable to learn anything of the 
history of this surcharge. 

There are counterfeits of the stamps of this post but they are not 
dangerous. They are poorly made by lithography, while the originals are 
finely engraved on steel. None of the portraits on the counterfeits at all 
resemble that on the original stamp. 



City Despatch. 




Nothing is known of the history of this stamp. The older philatelic 



THE NEW YORK CARRIERS' STAMPS. 



231 



publications assign it to Boston and give 1845 as the year of issue. We now 
know it to belong among the New York carriers' stamps and to have been 
the successor of the United States City Despatch Post. The stamps are 
roughly typographed, probably from metal cliches reproduced from a wood 
cut. Size: igx24}^mm. There are no varieties. The number of stamps in 
a sheet is not known. 

Imperforate. 

White Wove Paper. 

March 13, 1846. 2 cents brown-red 

The above date is taken from a cancelled copy of the stamp. Another 
copy has been seen bearing the date " Dec. 9," but not that of the year. 

The counterfeits are lithographed and differ from the originals in many 
points. They measure 20x26mm., the letters of the inscriptions are too tall, 
and the outer line of the oval is equally distant from the frame line at each 
side, while in the originals it approaches nearer to the line at the left than to 
that at the right. 



U. S. Mail. 




Historical. 



Drscriptioii. 



Keference List. 



Counterfeits. 



Coster, in 1882, and the American Journal of Philately, in 1888, say 
that the stamps of this type were issued by the Postmaster of New York. By 
the Act of March 3rd, 1851, the rate for delivery of letters from or to the 
post office was reduced to one cent each. As we find copies of these stamps 
cancelled early in 1849, we must conclude that, in this city, the reduction was 
made fully two years earlier than the date of the Act referred to. Probably 
this was brought about by the competition of the local posts. 

The stamps are typographed on thick wove paper, colored through, 
and on thick glazed paper, colored on the surface only Diameter : i6mm. 
The stamps are all of one type. The number in a sheet is not known but a 
block of twenty (four rows of five) has been seen. There exists also a pair 
of the stamps, one of which is placed semi tete-beche to the other, i. e. side- 
ways. This pair is on buff glazed paper. The same variety may occur on 
the other papers but it has not been reported. 

Imperforate. 

Thick Wove Paper, Colored Through. 

Feb. 13, 1849.^ — Sept. 12, 1849. i cent black on pale dull rose, dull rose, rose 

Thick Wove Paper, Glazed and Surface-Colored. 

Dec. 8, 1849. — June i, 1853. 1 cent black on buff, brownish buff 
Sept. 16, 1850 — Aug. 13, 1851. I cent black on yellow, bright yellow 



JReduction of tlie 
carriers' fee. 



Description. 



Reference List. 



232 



THE NEW YORK CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Stamps used to pay 
regular postage. 



Counterfeits. 



Variety : 
I cent black on buff. Semi tete-b^che 

I have seen a cover bearing three of the yellow stamps, which appar- 
ently paid the regular postage. The letter was mailed in New York city on 
July 24th, 1851, and was addressed to Newburgh, N. Y. 

There are two counterfeits of these stamps which are quite well made. 
The first is hand-stamped, is 17mm. in diameter and many of the letters are 
too broad, especially those in " one cent". The second counterfeit is typo- 
graphed. The circles and the letters are too thick, the diameter is 17mm., 
there is no period after the "u" and the letters are too broad, especially those 
of the word " one ". The yellow glazed paper is very like that of the original 
stamps. The other two colors are not well imitated. 



The Philadelphia Carriers' Stamps. 



Of the history of the carriers' stamps used in the city of Philadelphia 
we know nothing. For many years the stamps have been accepted by philate- 
lists as belonging among the semi-official carriers' stamps and the manner in 
which they were used appears to confirm this conclusion. But, beyond what 
may be learned from examination of the stamps, we have little information. 
All the stamps bear the letters " u. s. p. o." and were at one time believed to 
be issues of the Union Square Post Office, a local post of New York city. 
After it was discovered that the stamps emanated from Philadelphia and 
belonged among the carriers' stamps, it was decided that the letters were the 
initials of the words "united states post office", which is probably 
correct. 



U. S.P.Q. 
PAID. 
LI CenlP 



Type-set stamps with the value and certain letters in the lower part. 
The letters are : " h ", " s ", " l p " and " l s ". In the American Journal 
of Philately for February, 1889 (page 57), there is listed a variety with the 
letters " l h " but this was probably intended for the variety with the letter 
" H " only. There are a number of varieties of setting for each letter or pair 
of letters. I have seen five varieties with the letter " h ", one with " s ", two 
with " L p ", and five with "' L s ". It is believed that all these varieties, and 
probably others, occurred in one setting. But we have not seen any fragments 
of sheets, or even a pair, to assist in confirming this theory. The number of 
stamps in a sheet and the manner in which the varieties were arranged are, 
therefore, yet to be ascertained. 

The purpose of these letters has never been satisfactorily explained. I 
venture to suggest that they are the initials of the carriers on whose routes 
they were employed. It is evident from the dates of the cancellations that 
the different varieties were in use at the same time. As the carriers were 
not paid a fixed salary but only for the letters they handled, it would be 
necesssry that the stamps used by them should be marked in some way, in 
order that each might receive proper credit and compensation. Hence the 
initials. In subsequent issues the same end was attained by using stamps 
printed on paper of different colors or in inks of various colors. Reference 
to the preceding chapters will show that, in other cities, carriers' stamps of 



Letters on the 
stamps. 



Meauiu^ of the 
letters. 



234 



THE PHILADELPHIA CARRIERS STAMPS. 



Earliest 
cancellatioa. 



Ueference List. 



Couuterfeits. 



Description 



Koferoiice List. 



different designs or printed on different papers were used concurrently. In 
all these instances the object was, doubtless, to secure a division of the 
carriers' fees, in accordance with the work performed by each. 

In the collection of a New York philatelist there is a copy of this 
stamp, bearing the letters " l s " and cancelled " m — 18, 1849 ". Beyond the 
initial letter, the month is illegible. It must be March or May. Accepting 
the latter, this is the earliest known cancellation on any of the lettered stamps. 

These stamps are printed on thick, soft, rose-colored paper and meas- 
ure about i5^xiij/^mm. 

Imperforate. 

Colored Wove Paper. 

I cent black on rose. 

I cent black on rose. 

I cent black on rose. 

I cent black on rose. 



May 18, 1849 — May 25 



June 16, 1849. 

July 16, 1850 — Aug. 10 



■ L S " 
' L P " 
'S" 

■h" 

There are two counterfeits of these stamps. The first is in imitation 
of the variety with the letters " l p ". It measures 143^x1 i^mm The frame 
lines are much too thin and there is no period after "cent ''. The letters of 
" paid" are only i^mm. high, instead of 2^mm. They are also narrower 
and set a little closer together than on the genuine stamps. The color of the 
paper is usually too pale. The second counterfeit is not nearly so dangerous. 
It is in imitation of the varieties lettered "l p" and " l s " and is printed on 
thin lilac-rose paper. It is i6}^mm. long and varies in height from g}i to 
lomm. The letters of the inscriptions are all too short and too heavy 
faced. 



US. P.O. 
PAID. 
1 Cent. 



Type-set stamps, of similar design to those just described but without 
the letters in the lower corners. It is not known whether or not these 
stamps formed part of the setting of those with the letters but, from the fact 
that the stamps on blue, vermilion and yellow paper are only known with- 
out the letters, it is inferred that they are from another setting. From the 
postmarks we conclude that the stamps from the two settings were in use 
coincidently. The stamps measure 15^^x1 ij^mm. and are printed on a 
variety of papers. The rose-colored paper is thick and soft and is colored 
through. The other papers are glazed and colored on the suiface only. 
Seven varieties of this setting are known. The sheets probably contain from 
ten to twenty-five stamps. 

Imperforate. 

Thick Wove Paper, Colored Through. 
May 14, 1849. 1 cent black on rose, dull rose 

Thick Wove Paper, Glazed and Surface-Colored. 
May II, 185c — Dec. 19, 1850. 1 cent black on blue, dark blue 

I cent black on vermilion 
I cent black on yellow 



THE PHILADELPHIA CARRIERS STAMPS. 



23s 



The American Journal of Philately for 1889 (pages 56 and 57), gives 
a reference list of the Philadelphia carriers' stamps, which includes this stamp 
in black on white paper. As no such variety appears in subsequent lists we 
may infer that it was found not to exist. It was probably confounded with 
one of the varieties of the stamp next to be described. 

So far as I am aware, there are no counterfeits which sufficiently 
resemble the genuine stamps to merit description. 




Lithographed in color on a variety of papers. Apparently each stamp 
in the sheet differs from the others. I have recognized sixteen varieties. It 
is possible that some of them may be due to defective printing but, on the 
other hand, I have seen a number of copies of most of them, which would 
indicate that the varieties are constant. It has been said that the sheet con- 
tained twenty or twenty-five stamps but I have not been able to confirm the 
statement. A vertical strip of three and a horizontal pair — the latter with 
margin from the right of the sheet^ — are all that I have seen, otherwise than 
singly. 

The American Journal of Philately for 1889, says the stamps were 
engraved on wood and others have called them type-set and typographed. It 
is probable that the writers were led to these conclusions by the variations in 
the relative positions of the inscriptions and ornaments to each other and to 
the surrounding frame. But a careful examination of the stamps shows them 
to be lithographed. The differences in position of the component parts were 
caused by transferring each part separately, instead of the design as a whole. 
None of these stamps are common, but those most often seen are printed in 
gold bronze on black, surface-colored paper. This paper is highly glazed and 
has a purple sheen when held to the light. Size : 19^x1 5 J^mm. 

Imperforate. 

White Wove Paper. 

Mch. 18, 1850. — Oct. 8, 1852. 1 cent dull blue, dark dull blue 
Aug. 5, 1852. — Dec. 15, 1852. I cent black 

Thick Wove Paper, Glazed and Surface-Colored. 

Mch. 31, 1851. — Dec. 13, 1851. I cent gold on black 

The older philatelic publications list this stamp in black on blue paper. 
I have not been able to locate a copy and have reached the conclusion that 
the stamp which they intended to describe was that printed in blue on white 
paper, which latter they do not mention. 

There are at least four counterfeits of these stamps. One may be 
easily recognized by having a period after the " o " in the upper label and the 
serif of the " 1 " pointing to the left. In all the genuine stamps the serif is 
turned toward the right On each of the other counterfeits there are two 



Counterfeits. 



Description. 



Method of 
production. 



Reference List. 



Connterfeils, 



236 



THE PHILADEtPHIA CARRIERS STAMPS. 



short and nearly vertical dashes below the "o" of " U. s. p. o." As some of 
the genuine stamps have two dots in nearly the same position, this cannot be 
regarded as a positive test and any doubtful specimens should be compared 
with photographic reproductions of the original varieties. 



Various uses of 
the designs. 



Adliesive stamps 
of type II. 



Colors. 





TYPE I. 



TYPE II. 



We have now to consider two hand-stamps which are certainly very 
puzzling. In addition to the fact that they are of some considerable degree of 
rarity, they appear to have been used, at different times, as adhesive stamps, 
envelope stamps and postmarks. It is not always possible to decide for 
which of the last two purposes they were used. This confusion is largely 
due to the irregular manner in which they were hand-stamped on the envel- 
opes. Type I is usually applied at the left side, sometimes in the upper cor- 
ner but more often in a position about equally distant from the upper and 
lower edges. Type II is commonly placed near the middle of the upper 
side and occasionally in the upper right corner. Collectors in Philadelphia 
have advanced the theory that people, when intending to use these envelopes, 
took them to the post office and had them stamped, paying one cent each 
for the impressions. The work was probably done hastily, which would ac- 
count for the irregular positions of the hand-stamps. 

There is in the Tapling collection an unused, unaddressed envelope, 
stamped with type I, which may be accepted as corroborative evidence that 
stamped envelopes were prepared from this design. 

It is said that when type II was used to make adhesive stamps, it was 
always impressed on the margins of the one cent stamps of the regular issue 
011851. I have never seen the adhesives of this type on any other paper 
but am not prepared to assert that they were never made otherwise. I have 
also seen a letter, dated July 18th, 1856, bearing a one cent stamp of the 
1851 issue, which was cancelled with type II, the cancellation being partly 
on the stamp and partly on the envelope. 

The stamps of type I measure 2 1x17mm., those of type II, 27x18^^ 
mm. They are hand-stamped on various papers, in blue, red and black ink. 
Blue was commonly used for type I, black for the adhesive stamps of type 
II, and red for the envelopes. Coster says the red color was used for 
letters on which the fee was paid at the time they were deposited in the post 
office. The limited number of copies, especially those with dated cancella- 
tions, and the absence of information concerning these stamps, does not 
permit us even to venture a theory regarding the colors. They may have 
been employed for different carriers, they may mark different periods of use, 
or they may have been used at convenience and indicate nothing. 

The paper is usually wove. Most of the buff envelopes have a strong 
tinge of orange and some might call them by the latter name. A copy of 



THE PHILADELPHIA CARRIERS* STAMPS. 



237 



Bates of use. 



Ueference List. 



type II has been seen on gray paper, so thick as to be almost cardboard. Paper. 

The catalogues have long listed an envelope of this type, stanaped in blue on 
buff paper. I have not been able to confirm the existence of this envelope 
but, as I am equally unable to disprove it, I do not feel warranted in refus- 
ing to list it. 

Information about the dates of use of these stamps is sadly lacking. 
The cancellations usually have only the month and day. The American 
Journal of Philately for March, 1891 (page 132) gives the date of type I as 
1851. The Philatelic Monthly and World for March, 1892 (page 23) places 
type II at 1852-53, which date is also given by Coster. The only two dates 
which I have been able to secure are included in the following list: 

ADHESIVE STAMPS. 

Imperforate. 
Various Papers. 

I cent blue on buff. Type I 

1 cent blue on blue " 

I cent red on white " 

I cent black on white. Type II 

I cent black on gray " 

ENVELOPES. 

Various Papers. 

I cent blue on buff. Type I 

I cent blue on blue " 

I cent red on buff " 

I cent blue on buff Type II 

Mch. 31, 1856. I cent black on buff " 

I cent black on blue " 

I cent black on white " 

I cent red on buff " 

I cent red on blue " 

July 5, 1852. 1 cent red on white " 

Type I is often cancelled with the small red star which was extensively 
used as a cancellation for the Philadelphia carriers' stamps and also for the 
Government carrier (Eagle) issued November 17th, 1851, and to be described cancellations. 
in a subsequent chapter. Another cancellation closely resembles the stamps 
of type II. It may be known by the inscription " u. s. p. o. despatch" 
which is in Roman capitals, while on the stamps it is in sans-serif capitals. 
Envelopes bearing this cancellation mark are sometimes offered for sale as 
carriers' envelopes and unscrupulous people have even gone so far as to cut 
these marks from envelopes and affix them to others, that they might appear 
to have been used as adhesives. 

The Philatelic Monthly and World for September, 1 898, chronicles an 
envelope which has, at the left side, a stamp of type I printed in blue and 
cancelled with the red star, and, in the upper right corner, a stamp of type II 
impressed in red. The description does not specify whether the latter is the 
cancellation mark or the device used to indicate postage prepaid. 



express. 



Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Pony Express Stamps, 

The pony express has always been a subject of interest, both to the 
student of history and the ordinary reader. Its conception and management 
were bold, daring, spectacular — thoroughly in keeping with the men, the life 
and the phenomenal development of the great west. It existed in a history- 
making epoch and itself helped to make history. As an exhibition of American 
pluck and nerve, it appeals to all admirers of large ideas and bold deeds. 

In Filatelic Facts and Fallacies, volumes II and III, we find a number 
of interesting articles on the origin and management of the pony express. 
These articles are from the pen of Mr. H. B. Phillips — widely known as a 
writer and authority on western franks — and from them the following extracts 
have been selected : 

" It is popularly supposed that Wells, Fargo & Co. started the original Pony Express, 
but such is not the case. Wells, Fargo & Co. operated the Pony express in 1861, but with 
The original pony that of i860 they had nothing to do. 

John S. Jones, a government freighter, and William H. Russell (of the firm of Russell, 
Majors & Waddell, also government freighters to Salt Lake in i8s7-s8), started a stage and 
express line between Leavenworth and Denver, via the Smoky Hill route, in the spring of 
1859, which they operated during that summer. The following winter the firm was re- 
organized, absorbing the John Hockaday line, operating between St. Joseph and Salt Lake 
City, and was styled ' The Central Overland California and Pike's Peak Express Company," 
with William H. Russell as President. This is the company that organized and operated the 
original Pony Express of i860. * * * 

After months of preparation in establishing stations, procuring riders and relays of 
horses, at last, on April 3rd, i860, at four o'clock p. m., the first express was simultaneously 
dispatched from both ends of the run — San Francisco and St. Joseph, Mo. 

The following advertisement, from the Evening Bulletin of April ist, is an official 
record of the established rates of postage, it being understood that they carried nothing 
whatever but letters : 

' The Central Overland Pony Express Com- 
pany will start their letter express f om San 
Francisco to New York and iitermediate points 
on Tuesday, April 3rd. 

Letters will be charged, between San 
Fiancisco and Salt Lake City, $3. 00 for each 
half ounce and under, and at that rate according 
to weight. To all points beyond Salt Lake City, 
$5.00 for each half ounce and under, and at that 
rate according to weight. All letters must be 
enclosed in stamped envelopes. 

Wm. W. Finney, Agent, San Francisco. 

In this connection the term 'stamped envelopes' does not mean, as at the present 
time, the envelopes made by the Government, but that all letters offered for transmission 
should be prepaid with the Government rate of postage, an adhesive stamp on the envelope 
being included in the term ' stamped envelopes.' 

No adhesive stamps were prepared or used by this company, either for sale to the 
public or for the purpose of collecting postage. Hand stamps were placed in use at both 



WELLS, FARGO & CO. S PONY EXPRESS STAMPS. 



239 



ends of the line, following the usual custom of Western expresses at that time. * * » 

The Pony made the time promised for it and carried the letters and news, but the 
projectors were never compensated in money for their outlay. As an undertaking it was a 
success, but financially it was a failure. 

The cost of establishing and maintaining the Pony Express was enormous. Relays of 
horses were kept at each station and riders employed at every third station and, as the 
country produced nothing at that time, all supplies had to be hauled by wagon from the 
Missouri river, Utah or California. 

The newspapers were its principal patrons. The California press depended entirely 
upon the Pony Express for news, until the completion of the overland telegraph line in the 
fall of 1861. * * • 

The letters were wrapped in oil silk for protection against wet, but that did not avail 
when swimming swollen streams. Occasionally hostile Indians chased the pony. On one 
occasion the rider was shot and scalped, the horse escaping with the ' machillas,' and months 
afterwards they were found and the inclosed letters forwarded to their destinations. 

The express carrying the news of Abraham Lincoln's election went through from St. 
Joseph to Denver, 665 miles, in two days and twenty-one hours. The riders usually rode 
about seventy-five miles, but an instance is remembered where one rode nearly 300 miles, 
those who should have relieved him being, for some reason or another, disabled. He made it 
in schedule time, too, but at the end had to be lifted from the saddle, almost dead. The 
distance from St. Joseph to Sacramento was about 1 ,900 miles and was covered in eight days. 
Think of that, for horse and human flesh and blood to do ! 

The pony rider was usually a little bit of a man, brim full of spirit and endurance. 
* * * Both horse and rider went flying light, the rider carried no arms but a revolver, and 
nothing that was not absolutely necessary. He rode a splendid horse that was born for a 
racer, with a skeleton saddle, lightly shod or not at all. There were about eighty riders in 
the saddle all the time, night and day, stretching in a long, scattering, fleeting procession 
from Missouri to California- — forty flying eastward and forty to the west — using some four 
hundred horses continuously." 

The breaking out of the war of the rebellion necessitated some changes 
in transporting the mails between the eastern states and the Pacific coast. 
These changes are briefly described in the report of the Postmaster General, 
dated December 2nd, 1861 : 

Overland California Mail. 

" By the 9th section of an Act of Congress approved March 2, 1861, entitled ' An Act 
making appropriations for the service of the Post Office Department during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, i86j', authority is given to the Postmaster General to discontinue the mail 
service on the southern overland route (known as the Butterfield route) between St. Louis 
and Memphis and San Francisco, and to provide for the conveyance, by the same parties, 
of a six-times-a-week mail by the 'central route '; that is, ' from some point on the Missouri 
River, connecting with thi east, to Placerville, California." 

In pursuance of this Act, and the acceptance of its terms by the mail company, an 
order was made on the 12th of March, 1861, to modify the present contract, so as to discon- 
tinue service on the southern route, and to provide for the transportation of the entire letter 
mail six times a week on the central route, to be carried through in twenty days eight months 
in the year, and in twenty-three days four months in the year, from St. Joseph, Missouri (or 
Atchison, Kansas) to Placerville, and also to convey the entire mail three times a week to 
Denver City and Salt Lake ; the entire letter mail to California to be carried, whatever may 
be its weight, and in case it should not amount to 600 pounds, then sufficient of other mail 
to be carried each trip to make up that weight, the residue of all mail matter to be conveyed 
in thirty-five days, with the privilege of sending it from New York to San Francisco in 
twenty-five days by sea, and the public documents in thirty-five days ; a pony express to be 
run twice a week until the completion of the overland telegraph, through in ten days eight 
months and twelve days four months, in the year, conveying for the Government, free of 
charge, five pounds of mail matter; the compensation for the whole service to be one million 
of dollars per annum, payable from the general treasury, as provided by the act ; the service 
to commence July 1, 1861, and terminate July 1, 1864. 

The transfer of stock from the southern to the central route was commenced about the 
1st of April, and was completed so that the first mail was started from St. Joseph on the day 
prescribed by the order, July 1, 1861." 

The portion of the above mentioned act which refers to the pony 
express is especially interesting to philatelists. It reads : 

" They shall also be required, during the continuance of their contract, or until the 



Chauges in mail 
routes and con- 
tracts. 



Pony express. 



2 40 



WELLS, FARGO & CO. S PONY EXPRESS STAMPS. 



Tariir on private 
coi-respondeuce. 



Stamps. 



Advertisement. 



Description, 



completion of the Overland Telegraph, to run a Pony Express ; semi-weekly, at a schedula- 
tion often days eight months, and twelve days four months, carrying for the Government, 
free of charge, five pounds of mail matter, with the liberty of charging the public for trans- 
portation of letters by said Express not exceeding one dollar per half ounce. ' 

Our interest lies in the last clause, since, by reason of it, the pony 
express stamps were issued and through it they claim a place among the semi- 
official carriers. Though the act does not, in so many words, authorize the 
contractors to issue stamps, it most distinctly authorizes the carrying of letters 
and fixes the rate of postage that may be charged. The manner in which 
payment of this charge should be indicated was a matter of detail to be left to 
the managers of the express. It may also be remarked that no objection was 
ever made to the employment of the stamps. 

The following advertisement appeared in the San Francisco daily 

papers of July ist, 1861 : 

" Wells, Fargo's Pony Express service will 
commence July ist, 1S61, between Placerville 
and San Francisco, connecting at Placerville 
with the Overland Mail Go's Pony Express. 

Letters must be enclosed in our 20c Govt. 
Franked Envelopes and charges beyond Placer- 
ville prepaid at the rate of $1 00 per J^oz. or 
fraction. All letters not enclosed in Govt. 
Franked -Envelopes will be charged 25c each. 

Wells, Fargo & Co.'' 

The Overland Mail Co. held the contract for the " central route," I 
have not been able to learn the exact relations, at that date, between that 
company and Wells, Fargo & Co., but I believe that the latter were sub-con- 
tractors to the former. 

Whether the pony express stamps were used from both ends of the 
route or only from the California end, is another point on which definite 
information is lacking. 

The stamps were lithographed by Britton & Rey, of San Francisco. 
There were two designs, the so-called garter type and the well-known pony 
express stamps. The former are T5^mm. in diameter and the latter measure 
2ix24X™iri- I cannot say which variety was first in use but I believe the 
garter type to have been. 




ileference List. 



July I, 1861. 



Imperforate. 
Thin White Wove Paper. 
1 dollar deep blue, dark dull blue 




WELLS, FARGO & CO.'S PONY EXPRESS STAMPS. 241 

Imperforate. 
White Wove Paper. 

1 dollar deep rose, carmine-rose 

2 dollars deep gray-green 
4 dollars black, gray-black 

The first printing of the pony stamps was on quite thick paper. The 
paper of the later printings varies from ordinary to thin. It is said that only Paper and sum. 
the stamps of the first printing were gummed and that subsequent printings 
were issued ungummed. 

On the completion of the overland telegraph line, in October, 1861, 
the contract for pony express service terminated. By a circular, dated 
October 26th, r86r, the company announced to its agents the discontinuance stamps witiidrawn 
of the service and called in all the stamps remaining unsold. At a subsequent ""* ouMe^ueMy 

j„. ,1, ., ^ ° ^ re-is8ued. 

date the stamps were re-issued and used for the business of the express com- 
pany but they were, of course, no longer government carriers' stamps. The 
ten and twenty-five cent stamps were then added to the series, but with them 
we have no concern. 

The leading collectors of the United States locals and franks have 
been consulted but they are unable to say whether or not the two dollars rose 
and four dollars green stamps were issued between July ist and October 26th, Chanse in colors. 
1861. As such a change of colors would appear to be unnecessary and con- 
fusing, the consensus of opinion is that they probably were not issued until a 
subsequent date. Pending more definite information they are not listed here. 

The garter stamps were printed in sheets (or panes) of sixteen, four 
rows of four stamps each. Copies are frequently found with a pen mark in 
red ink. This is not believed to be a cancellation but to have been applied Counterfeits of the 
to some unused remainders to destroy their franking power. So far as known, ^'""*"' ^*'^»'vs- 
these stamps have not been reprinted but they have been quite extensively 
counterfeited. The counterfeits differ from the genuine stamps in a number 
of minor details, such as a period instead of a comma between " wells " and 
' FARGO ". The mark by which they may be readily distinguished is a hori- 
zontal dash between " >^ oz." and "$t.oo" This dash is not found on the 
original stamps. We occasionally see genuine copies on which such a dash 
has been drawn with pen and ink. Probably this was done to make them 
conform to the illustrations in the catalogues, which, for many years, were 
modeled after the counterfeits. 

The pony stamps were printed in panes of twenty, five rows of four 
stamps each. Two panes constituted a sheet. 

There was a considerable quantity of remainders of most of the values, 
but, rumors to the contrary notwithstanding, there is no evidence that any 
reprints were made until about the first of April, 1897. A son of Mr. Joseph iteprints of the pony 
Britton (a member of the firm of Britton & Rey, makers of the pony express '"press stamps, 
stamps and many California locals), became interested in stamp collecting. 
His father wished to aid him with his collection and made search for samples 
of the firm's work in that line, but found none. He then sought for the 
stones from which the.different stamps had been printed and eventually found 



242 WELLS, FARGO & CO. S PONY EXPRESS STAMPS. 

the original dies of the pony express stamps. These dies consisted of the 
complete design for the one dollar stamp, the frame for the ten cents and the 
numerals for the other values, including a "3 " which was never used. The 
design for the one dollar stamp had the value in the plural. In making up 
the stone for the originals of this value the final " s " was removed, with the 
exception of a small piece which makes a sort of period after the word. On 
many copies of the stamp traces of the outlines of the letter may be seen. 

These die designs were on a stone with a number of other small designs, 
some of which had been in frequent use. As a consequence, the designs for 
the pony express stamps had become much worn and some of the finer lines 
were nearly obliterated. In an effort to remedy this, the dies were retouched 
Because of to this Wearing and retouchings the reprints may be easily distin- 
guished from the originals. Some of the principal points by which the former 
may be recognized are : The crown of the hat is almost white, instead of 
being shaded. There is no shading at the left of the nose of the horse. The 
hoof is separated from the right forefoot. The mouth of the horse is open 
nearly half way up to the eye, while in the originals the lips are only slightly 
apart. Diagonal lines have been added to the shading between the forelegs 
and under the body of the horse. At the right of the scroll containing the 
word "dollars" there are fourteen lines of shading instead of eleven. On 
the ten and twenty-five cent stamps the faint white arabesques in the upper 
corners are missing. On the two and four dollars the word of value is followed 
by a period, which does not occur on the originals. 

By transfers from the retouched dies a new stone was made up, con- 
taining twenty stamps, in five vertical rows of four. All the stamps in each 
vertical row were the same. Beginning at the right they were : 10, 25 cents, 
I, 2 and 4 dollars. From this stone impressions were taken in colors approxi- 
mating those of the original stamps. As a result, we have not only reprints 
but various combinations of colors and values of which there were no originals 
and which, therefore, are merely fancy articles. 

The paper of the reprints is moderately thin, soft and very white. 
They are clearly printed and look very fresh and new. The inks are ap- 
parently aniline. It is said that when Mr. Britton applied to Wells, Fargo 
& Co. for the loan of a set of the pony express stamps, to be used as a guide 
to colors, he was given a set of counterfeits, as they were in a more available 
shape and in approximately, the same colors as the originals. Whatever may 
have been the cause, the colors are not very well imitated. While we are 
only interested in the reprints of the three varieties which were used as car- 
riers' stamps, it may be well, for the sake of completeness, to describe all of 
them. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the number of reprints made of 
each stamp. 
Keforonrc List. Imperforate. 

White Wove Paper. 
April 1897. 10 cents brownish bistre (92) 

25 cents pale vermilion (112), brown-carmine (132) 
25 cents dull blue (it 6) 
I dollar pale vermilion (112), brown-carmine (132) 



WELLS, FARGO & CO. S PONY EXPRESS STAMPS. 243 

2 dollars gray-green (io8) 

2 dollars pale vermilion (112,) brown-carmine (132) 

4 dollars full black (116) 

4 dollars gray-green (108) 

In the prints in blue and black we find that the one dollar stamp 
has the word of value in the plural. Presumably, these printings were made 
before the error in the die was noticed but, it being observed, the stone was 
corrected before the impressions in the other colors were made. 

On the whole the reprints are not very deceptive. A curious point is 
that they are very evidently lithographs, while the originals have more the 
appearance of steel engravings. 

It is satisfactory to know that the stone from which the reprints were 
made has been cleaned off and the original die has been deposited in the 
historical museum of Wells, Fargo & Co. So we need have no apprehension 
of further reprintings. 

There are a number of counterfeits of these stamps. The majority of 
them are too poor to need description. The better counterfeits differ in 
many points from the genuine stamps. The letters of " Wells, Fargo & Counterfeits of the 
Co." are too thin ; the tail of the horse is too straight and stiff ; the foot of '""ta^ps""* 
the rider is too small and stands out from instead of touching the body of 
the horse. Perhaps the most notable difference is found in the edges of the 
escutcheon which contains the vignette. These edges are turned over and 
form points at the corners ; in the counterfeits the points meet at the upper 
left corner, and at the upper right corner they nearly touch, whereas, in the 
genuine stamps there is quite a space between the points at both corners. 



The Franklin Carriers' Stamp. 



By referring to page 65 it will be seen that, by Act of Congress, ap- 
proved March 3rd, 1851, the Postmaster General was authorized to prepare 
Legislation airccting postage Stamps of such denominations as he considered expedient; the car- 
tiie earner service, j-jg^'g fgg ^^g fixed at one cent per letter; and the streets, avenues, roads and 
public highways of the cities of New York, Boston, Philadelphia and New 
Orleans were established as post routes and letter carriers appointed for ser- 
vice thereon. 

This would appear to constitute the first determined effort on the part 
of the Post Office Department to take the carrier service into its own hands. 
In pursuance of this intention, and by the authority conveyed in the act men- 
tioned above, a carriers' stamp was issued on September 29th, 185 1. This 
stamp is officially described as follows: 

" One Cent Carrier Stamp. — Profile bust of Franklin, looking to 
the left, on an oval disk, with very dark ground and a distinct white border. 
Design and color. Around this disk is a tesselated frame, separated at the four corners by lathe- 
work rosettes, similar to those in the 12-cent stamp. In straight panels, at 
the top and bottom of this frame, are the words ' carriers ' and ' stamp ', 
respectively, a white star on a dark circle being at the beginning and end of 
each word. The whole is enclosed in a fine single-line rectangle. Color, 
indigo-blue, on rose-colored paper. The denomination is not shown." 

The stamps were printed on a soft paper, of moderate thickness and 
colored a dull rose. 

I have never seen an unused copy with original gum but I presume 
the stamps had the thick, smooth, brown gum which was used on the other 
stamps of the issues of 1851 and 1857. 

The stamps are imperforate and measure I9j^x24^mm. 
Imperforate. 
Rose Wove Paper. 
Sept. 29th, 1851. (i cent) bright blue, dull blue, dark dull blue 

The date of issue is taken from official records. From the same 
source we learn that the Franklin stamp was replaced by the " Eagle " car- 
riers' stamp on November 17th, 185 r. It does not appear, however, to have 
been declared obsolete, but remained available for postage. Copies on the 
original cover are scarce and the postmarks seldom have the year, but only 



Paper. 



Gum. 



Period of use. 



THE FRANKLIN CARRIERS STAMP. 



H5 



Plate damaged. 



the month and day. The only complete date which I have seen is April 
ist, 1854. 

It is said that in the records of the Post Office department it is stated: 
" First carriers' stamps received from contractors Oct. 21, 1851, 300,000 " 
Here is, obviously, a mistake. Probably the date should be Sept. zi, 185 1. 

The reports of the Postmaster General do not supply any statistics of 
the quantities of this stamp distributed to postmasters but there appears to 
have been only the one delivery of 300,000 copies to the Post Office depart- Nnii'ber of stamps 
ment. If this entire quantity was distributed to postmasters it is to be 
doubted that all of the stamps were issued to the public. The scarcity of 
copies would lead us to conclude that only a limited number were used. 
Probably, on the appearance of the " Eagle " stamp, the remainders were re- 
turned to Washington and destroyed. 

There was only one plate for this stamp. It contained two panes of 
one hundred stamps (ten rows of ten stamps each), placed side by side and 
separated by a single vertical line. The imprint of the contractors appeared Pi»te and imprint. 
at each side, about 3mm from the stamps. It read: " Toppan, Carpenter, 
Casilear & Co. bank note engravers. Phila. New York. Boston & Cin- 
cinnati ". The plate was not numbered. 

The sheets of reprints show the plate to have been damaged at some 
time. In the second horizontal row there is a large crack extending across 
eight stamps, four on each side of the line which divides the two panes. This 
crack was probably made in heating the plate for printing. Had it occurred 
in the course of manufacture it is safe to conclude that the plate would have 
been abandoned and another made to replace it. 

It is understood that this stamp was used only in the cities of Boston, 
New Orleans, New York and Philadelphia. 

A strip of three cancelled copies has been seen. This is supposed to 
have been used instead of a three cent stamp to pay the regular postage. 

We occasionally see copies of the Franklin and " Eagle " carriers' 
stamps which are printed in brown-orange on a hard white paper, known as 
"bond" paper. In the case of the latter design these have always been con- 
sidered to be proofs. But for the former a much more pretentious position 
has been claimed. I am certainly at a loss to understand why one should be 
held in any more esteem than the other, or than proofs of the two stamps 
in this same color on India paper. Nor do I see any reason for regarding 
it with more favor than proofs of other stamps of the same date on bond 
paper, for instance the five cents of the 1851 issue, in various trial colors. 

The favor in which the brown-orange Franklin stamp has been held 
can probably be ascribed to the following circumstance. In 1869, Dr. H. C. 
Yarrow, a well-known philatelist of that period, addressed some inquiries to 
the Post Office Department at Washington. In reply he received the follow- 
ing letter from W. M. Ireland, chief-clerk to the Third Assistant Postmaster 
General, (See American Journal of Philately, August 20th, 1869, page 93) : 

Post Office Department. 

Washington, August 10, 1869. 
My Dear Sir: — Yours referring to " carriers' stamp " has come to hand. The fol- 
lowing is as near a description of it as can be made : Head of Franklin, looking to left ; 



Impressions in 
bron'n-orange. 



246 



THE FRANKLIN CARRIERS STAMP. 



Ufltcial letter in frame oval geometrical lathe work ; ornamental multirayed stars at corners. The word 

reference to the " Carriers" in straight line at top of stamp ; the word " Stamp " in straight line at lower 

bronn-orsuge margin. A five-pointed star at each end of the words, in brackets. Color " Orange "Brown." 

stamp. Typographed in color on white paper. Shape upright rectangular. Proofs were issued 

printed in blue on pink paper ; also in green and yellow. It was issued about Sept. 29, 

1851, but was suppressed almost immediately, owing to its great similarity to the then three 

cent stamp. .Only about 300,000 were ever issued There is but one specimen, a cancelled 

one, now in possession of the Department. I regret there are none, else you should be 

supplied. The plate was, according to our best information, destroyed after the stamps 

were suppressed. 

Truly yours, 

W. M. Ireland. 

Upon this mass of misstatements has been based the claim that the 
original color of this stamp was brown-orange and that the copies in blue on 
rose-colored paper represent a second printing. 

Who has ever seen a proof of this stamp in blue on pink paper ? 

The statement as to the number that were issued is doubtless derived 
from the record of 300,000 copies delivered by the contractors. The impro- 
bability of so many stamps having been issued has already been mentioned. 

There may have been a cancelled copy of the brown-orange stamp in 
the possession of the Post Office Department at the time this letter was 
written but to-day the official collection contains nothing better than a reprint 
in blue on rose paper. 

As the plate was in existence until August, 1897, the value of the 
writer's " best information " on that point is small. 

The statement that the stamp was withdrawn on account of its resem- 
blance to the three cent stamp then in current use has been, for many years, 
accepted and repeated without question. There is certainly very little resem- 
blance between the two stamps. Had Mr. Ireland said the one cent stamp, 
the resemblance in color and design would have been more apparent. 

All of which is merely additional proof of the too frequent carelessness 
and inaccuracy of official statements. 

From the comments of the editor of the American /ourtial of Philately 
on the foregoing letter it is evident that he considered the impressions in 
brown-orange to be proofs in a trial color. He says : 

" We have only been able to see four of these stamps, two of which were blue on pink 

paper, and both were cancelled, we think by a number of square dots similar to the stamps of 

Kditorlal comment the French Republic. We took both of these from letters ourselves. Another was printed 

on the Franklin in Orange on India paper, and was obtained by the owner direct from the P. O. Department 

stamp. at Washington, The remaining one now lies before us, and is printed in brown of the shade 

described in the letter, on similar paper to the 1851 issue U. S. stamps ; it is uncancelled. 

The plate from which this one is printed appears to be cracked, the imperfection extending 

accross the stamp on a line with the chin of Franklin." 

The copy on India paper was, of course, a proof. In a previous para- 
graph I have called attention to the crack in the plate and expressed the 
opinion that it marked a late, rather than an early, state of the plate. If my 
conclusion is correct it would prove that the impressions in brown-orange were 
not the first taken from the plate. 

In the Stamp Collector's Magazine for May, 1870, the well-known 
English collector, Mr. E. L. Pemberton, writes : 

" Recently some half dozen of the rare carrier's stamp, head of Franklin, unused, have 
appeared ; they are in dark, rather brown yellow, are ungummed, on tough thinnish paper; 
whether these are stamps as issued I do not know, but I have received them some time back 



THE FRANKLIN CARRIERS* STAMP. 247 

as proofs. * ♦ • Did the issue consist of orange-brown (or more properly brown-yellow) Opinion of DIr. 

on plain paper, and of blue on pink paper, or of the latter only, all others being proofs or e. t. pemberton. 

specimen.s? 1 think the latter, because the unused brown- yellow has been known tor years, 

as existing in the Ph. collection, and by hearsay as described by Levrault (p. 1 1 1), heading 

Baltimore, hr-un rouge sur blanc. As American proof-stamps, or, more correctly speaking, 

the great majority, have been obtainable at various times, and as the blue on pink, which 

undoubtedly exists as a bona-fide emission, has remained unknown until lately, it is more 

than probable that the only one issued for postage was the blue on pink, others being proofs 

or specimens." 

In addition to all the foregoing we might ask why, if brown-orange was 
the original color, were not the reprints made in that color ? 

The only evidence in f^or of the brown-orange specimens to which 
any apparent value attaches is found in the Illustriertes Briefmarken Jour- 
nal for February 2nd, 1895, (page 44) in which a cancelled copy in this color a cancelled copy of 
is described. On communicating with the author of the article, Mr. Theo- "'* "sump"*"^' 
dore Haas, he very kindly forwarded the stamp for examination. By a care- 
ful scrutiny of the postmark it is possible to discern the letters " ew-ork ", 
following a circular line, and below them " fee 12". The cancellation is 
in red and is evidently part of the familiar postmark which was in use in the 
city of New York in 1851 and proximate years. 

Beyond doubt, the cancellation is genuine. More than this I am 
not willing to admit. One swallow does not make a summer and one can- 
celled copy does not prove a postal issue. I have seen too many cancelled 
proofs, envelope stamps used as adhesives, fiscals used postally, unauthorized 
bi-sected stamps, and similar novelties which have passed through the mails 
by accident or favor, to place much faith in a single example of anything out 
of the usual. 

It may also be remarked that the date of the cancellation, February 
i2th — it must be 1852 or later — is not sufficiently near to the date of issue to 
serve as an argument in favor of priority of the brown-orange color. 

I am not unwilling to be convinced that the brown-orange stamp is 
a postage stamp, but the arguments to that effect must be stronger than those 
which have, thus far, been advanced. Until they are forthcoming, my con- 
clusion must be that the stamp in this color is merely a proof. 

The reprints of the Franklin carriers' stamp have been described else- 
where. It does not appear to have tempted the counterfeiters. 



The Eagle Carriers' Stamp, 

As has been previously stated, the Franklin carriers' stamp was re- 
placed by one of a new design, after it had been in issue only a few weeks. 
This change was probably due to the resemblance between the carriers' stamp, 
and the one cent of the then current series. In the American Journal of 
Philately for August 20th, 1869, we find the following letter concerning the 

new stamp: 

Post Office Department. 

Finance Office. 

July 30th, 1869. 
Sir : — Your communication of the 20th instant is received. The blue stamp, " Eagle," 
was used for prepaying city lettters delivered by carriers. It was issued about Nov. 17, 1851, 
and was withdrawn January 27th, 1852. It was very little used except in Philadelphia, Pa., 
and Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Very respectfully, 

W. H. H. Terrell* 
H. C. Yarrow, Third Asst. P. M. General. 

New York. 

It is possible that by the date mentioned in this letter (January 27th, 
1852), it had been discovered that the one cent stamp of the regular issue 
could be used for the carriers' fee as well as a special stamp, and that the 
latter was superfluous. But from the evidence of postmarks we know that 
the " Eagle " stamps continued in use for many years. Perhaps, however, 
none were issued to postmasters after the date given. 

Mr. Tiffany, in his History of the Postage Stamps of the United States, 

says: 

" As a matter of fact, however, the published reports of the Postmaster General, 
show that there were issued : 

4,777,552 from Nov., 1851 up to June, 1852 
4,370,383 " June, 1852 " " " 1853 
7,103,416 " " 1853 " " " 1854" 

I must confess that I cannot find these figures in my file of reports of 

the Postmaster General. I do find, however, in the report dated December 

I St, 1853, a note of the number of one cent stamps issued in two of these 

years as follows: 

" Fiscal year ending June 30th, 1852, 5,489,242 
" 1852,4,736,311" 

There is nothing to assist us to explain the disagreement in these fig- 
ures. We might reasonably expect the use of one cent stamps of the regular 

*By a typographical error the American Journal r/ Philately gives the name of the Third Assist- 
ant Postmaster General as " W. H. H. Correll." 



THE EAGLE CARRIERS' STAMP. 249 

issue to greatly exceed that of the carriers' stamps; in which case it is not 
impossible that Mr. Tiffany's figures are those for the current one cent 
stamps and that the second table covers both those stamps and the carriers '. 

The stamp is thus officially described: 

" One Cent Carrier Stamp. — Picture of an eagle on the branch of a 
tree, poised for flight, looking to the left, on an oval disk, partly filled with 
clouds and sunrays. Around this disk is a solid band, separated on the Design and color. 
right and left sides by a lined panel, and bearing above the words "u. s. p. o. 
despatch ", and below the words " pre-paid one cent ", all in white capi- 
tals. Above and below the band, and forming corners to the stamp, are 
laurel and oak leaves, oak to the left and laurel to the right. Color, indigo 
blue. This stamp, unlike all other stamps in the series, is of less height than 
width." 

The stamps were printed on hard white wove paper. The gum varied 
from yellowish to brown. The sheets were divided by vertical and hori- 
zontal lines into rectangles about 2 3^x1 9mm. 

The stamps were issued imperforate. In the Hunter collection there 
was a copy, on the original cover, which had a sort of rough pin perforation, 
probably made with a sewing machine. This perforation is interesting 
though, of course, unofficial. 

Imperforate. 

White Wove Paper. 

April 13, i852^0ct. 21, 1859. i cent greenish blue, blue, dull blue, dark 

dull blue, indigo 

Variety: 

Nov. 9, 1 85 1. I cent dark dull blue. Pin perforated 

The plate contained two panes of one hundred stamps (ten rows of 
ten stamps each), placed one above the other and separated by a space of x i 
mm. Through the middle of this space was drawn a thin horizontal line. Plate and imprint. 
The imprint was the same as that on the Franklin carriers' stamp and was 
placed at the bottom of each pane, about 3mm from the stamps. Most of 
the impressions do not show any plate number but a few are known which 
have " No. 1 " below the letters " en " of "engravers ", in the imprint of 
the upper pane. Until very recently it was believed that this number ap- 
peared only on the reprints but we now know that it exists on some of the 
original stamps. 

The reprints are described in the chapter devoted to that subject. 

There is only one counterfeit that is at all dangerous. It is lithograph- 
ed, while the originals are finely engraved. It differs from the genuine in Connterfeits. 
many minor details, especially the foliage around the oval. There is also a 
period instead of a hyphen, between " pre " and " paid ". This counterfeit 
is found both imperforate and perforated. 



Special Delivery Stamps. 



While the special delivery stamps are, in a sense, carriers' stamps, it 
seems best to consider them under a separate heading, for the reason that the 
ordinary rates of postage now include delivery by carrier, in all places where 
such a service is in operation, and for the additional reason that the special 
delivery stamps are intended to prepay an extra and specific service, for 
which a relatively high fee is charged. 

An Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 1885, provided in part as 
follows: 

" Sec. 3. That a special stamp of the face valuation often cents may be provided and 
issued, whenever deemed advisable or expedient, in such form and bearing such device as 
Act anthorizing the may meet the approval of the Postmaster General, which, when attached to a letter, in 
special dellrery addition to the lawful postage thereon, the delivery of which is to be at any free-delivery 
stamps. office, or at any city, town, or village containing a population of four thousand and over, 

according to the Federal census, shall be regarded as entitling such letter to immediate 
delivery within the carrier limit of any free-delivery office which may be designated by the 
Postmaster General as a special-delivery office, or within one mile of the post-office at any 
other office coming within the provisions of this section which may in like manner be de- 
signated as a special-delivery office. 

"Sec. 4. That such specially stamped letters shall be delivered from seven o'clock 
ante meridian up to twelve o'clock midnight at offices designated by the Postmaster General 
under section three of this Act. 

Under the authority of this Act a stamp of a special design was 
prepared and supplied to 555 post offices. It was issued to the public on 
October ist, 1885. The design is thus officially described : 

"Ten Cent Special Delivery. A line engraving on steel, oblong 
inform; dimensions, 13-16 by i 7-16 inches; color, dark blue. Design: On 
Design. the left an arched panel, bearing the figure of a mail messenger boy on a run, 

and surmounted by the words 'united states'; on the right an oblong 
tablet, ornamented with a wreath of oak and laurel surrounding the words 
'secures immediate delivery at a special delivery office'. Across 
the top of the tablet is the legend 'special postal delivery ', and at the 
bottom the words ' ten cents ', separated by a small shield bearing the 
numeral ' 10 '." 

A circular of the Post Office Department, dated August nth, 1885, 

included the following instructions to postmasters concerning the special 

delivery stamps : 

"They are to be sold by postmasters in any required amount, and to any person who 
may apply for them, but they can be used only for the purpose of securing the immediate 
delivery of letters addressed to and received in the mails at any of the offices designated as 



SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMPS. 



251 



special-delivery offices. Under no circumstances are tliey to be used in tlie payment of pos- instrnctions to 
tages of any description or of the registry fee, nor can any ottier stamps be employed to postmasters, 
secure special delivery except the special-delivery stamp. The special-delivery stamp must 
be in addition to the lawful postage, and letters not prepaid with at least one full rate of 
postage, in accordance with the law and regulations, must be treated as held (or postage, 
even though bearing a special-delivery stamp. 

Registered letters will be entitled to immediate delivery, the same as ordinary letters, 
when bearing a special-delivery stamp in addition to the full postage and registry fee 
required by the law and the regulations." 

If, for any reason, the addressee of a special delivery letter cannot be 
found, the messenger returns the letter to the post office, endorses on the back Procednre ta case 
the reason for non-delivery, and attaches a label bearing the following : 

N OTICE. 



of non-deliTery. 



A Special Delivery Stamp affixed to any 
article of mail matter is intended only to 
secure an immediate deliiiery — or one offer 
of immediate delivery. If the article cannot 
for any cause be delivered when FIRST 
offered, it then becomes ordinary mail mat- 
ter and is thereafter treated and delivered 
accordingly. 

The special delivery service was popular and successful from the first. 
But a demand soon arose for its extension to all post offices. If it was desired 
to send a letter to a place other than one of the large cities, the sender found 
it necessary to consult a list of the special delivery offices. Such a list was 
not always at hand. Hence arose uncertainty and inconvenience, which 
tended to curtail the use of the stamp. It was felt that the service would 
only become thoroughly efficient when the privilege was extended to all post 
offices. 

There was also found to be some uncertainty as to the meaning of the 
word "letter," as used in the Act, and also as to whether it was the intention 
of Congress that " immediate delivery " should include delivery on Sunday. 
The first question was temporarily settled by holding the word to mean only 
first-class matter chargeable at letter rates of postage. The second was left 
to the further action of Congress. 

Finally, the requirement of delivery until midnight was found to be a 
hardship, since it compelled the post offices in many small towns to remain 
open long after all mails had arrived and all collections for the day had been 
made. 

The action that was taken on these various points is set forth in the 
following extract from an official circular : 

SPECIAL DELIVERY SYSTEJVl. 

Circular of information and instruction. 

Post Office Department, 

Office of the Postmaster General, 

Washington, D. C, August 10, 1886. 
to aU postmasters except at free delivery offices ; 

By the act of August 4, 1886, the Congress has authorized the extension of this system Official circular and 
to all post offices and to all mailable matter. That act is as follows, viz : regnlations. 

"That every article of mailable matter upon which the special stamp provided for by 



252 SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMPS. 

section-three of the act of Congress approved March third, eighteen hundred and eighty-five 
entitled ' An act making appropriations for the service of the Post-Office Department for the 
fiscal year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and eighty-six, and for other purposes, 
shall be duly affixed, shall he entitled to immediate delivery, according to said act, within the 
carrier-delivery limit of any free-delivery office, and within one mile of any other post office 
which the Postmaster-General shall at any time designate as a special-delivery post office. 
The postmaster shall he responsible for such immediate delivery of every such article, and 
shall cause delivery to be made of all such articles received at his office bearing such stamp 
and entitled to delivery thereat, and may employ any persons, including clerks and assistants 
at third and fourth class offices, as messengers, on such terms as he shall fix as compensation 
for such delivery ; and to defray the expense thereof, such postmaster shall he entitled, upon 
the adjustment of his quarterly account, to eighty per centum of the face value of all such 
special-delivery stamps received at his office and recorded, according to said act and the regula- 
tions of the Post-Office Department, during the quarter ; and such allowance shall he in full 
of all the expenses of such delivery : Trovided, That the Postmaster General may; in his dis- 
cretion, direct any free-delivery office to be excepted from the foregoing provision, and re- 
quire the delivery to be made entirely by special messengers, according to the provisions of 
the act to which this is amendatory : ^ylnd provided further. That he may contract for the 
immediate delivery of all articles from any post office, at any price less than eight cents per 
piece, when he shall deem it expedient. * * * 
The following orders and regulations are prescribed under the foregoing acts : 

I Every post office in the United States and Territories and the District of Columbia 
now established, and which shall be established while the foregoing acts remain, is hereby 
designated as a special-delivery office, and will be governed by-said acts and the orders and 
regulations thereunder. 

2. These regulations shall take effect and be in force on and after October 1, 1886. 

5 On and after said last-named date every postmaster will be held responsible for the 
immediate delivery, according to said acts and these regulations, of every article of mailable 
matter which may be received addressed to his office, properly stamped with a special- 
delivery stamp. 

4. Such immediate delivery must be made when the article is directed to an addressee 
residing or having a place of business within one mile of the post office. The obligation to so 
deliver does not extend to an addressee beyond that distance, but the postmaster will be at 
liberty to make such delivery beyond such limits, and to receive the compensation therefor as 
in any other case. It is commended to him as a proper and considerate thing to be done, in 
accomodation of the sender, whenever it is reasonably convenient. 

5. The hours within which immediate delivery shall be made shall be at least from 
7 a. m. to 7 p. m., and further until the arrival of the last mail, provided that such arrival 
be not later than 9 p. m. This requirement as to the hours of delivery does not necessarily 
extend to the transaction of any other postal business after the usual office hours. Special 
orders for later delivery may be made for first-class offices. 

Postmasters are not required to make delivery of special-delivery matter on Sunday, 
nor to keep their offices open in any different manner on that day from what is now provided 
by regulation. Postmasters will be at liberty, however, to deliver special-delivery letters and 
parcels arriving on Sundays. * * 

No change will be made in the general style of the special delivery stamp now in use. 

The words " Secures immediate delivery at a special-delivery office " will, however, be 
changed to read, '■ Secures immediate delivery at any post-office " But, as stamps with the 
former words are now in the hands of postmasters and the public, their use will be continued 
until the present supply shall be exhausted. 

Similar instructions to postmasters at free-delivery offices fixed the 
hours for the delivery of letters bearing the special delivery stamps at from 
7 A. M. to 1 1 p. M., unless otherwise ordered by the Postmaster General. 

The stock of stamps of the first design was sufficient to last until Sep- 
tember 6th, 1888, when those with the new wording were issued to post- 
masters. In philatelic publications their appearance is first noted in the 
Philatelic Record iox December, 1888. 

In 1893 the Columbian stamps were issued. These stamps were of 
about the same dimensions as the special delivery stamp, and one denomina- 
ciiaiigc of color, tion, the one cent, was of the same color. This caused some confusion and 
gave rise to mistakes in the payment of postage and the treatment of letters 
bearing the stamps. It was accordingly decided to change the color of the 
special delivery stamp. 



SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMPS. 253 

The report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General for 1894, says : 

" Its color was changed from blue to orange, January 24, 1893, and so continued to 
January 5, 1894, when printing in blue was resumed. The ustie of the orange-colored 
stamp was not discontinued until the igth of May, 1894, when the stock on hand at the 
manufactory was exhausted. 

In all there were 5,099,500 stamps of the orange color sent to postmasters." 

The stamp of the new color was reported in use as early as January 
28th, 1893. 

In 1894 the contract for the manufacture of postage stamps passed 
from the American Bank Note Company to the Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing at Washington. The new contractors placed marks on all' the or- Changes in the 
dinary postage stamps, in order that their work might be distinguished from design, 

that of their predecessors. The changes made in the special delivery stamp 
were the addition of small ornamental dashes under the words " ten " and 
" CENTS ", the drawing of lines of shading across the face of the numeral 
" 10 ", and a deepening of the lines defining the edge of the bevel of the 
background panel. 

The stamps of this type were issued on ordinary paper on October loth, 
1894. On August 1 6th, 1895, they appeared on paper watermarked with the 
letters " u s p s " 

On the sheets of special delivery stamps printed by the Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing we find groups of letters in the margin at the upper piatemen's initials, 
left corner. An explanation of these letters is given in the following extract 
from the American Philatelist for 1 886, (page i o) : 

"A rule of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing requires that, each time a plate of 
stamps is printed from, the plateman must cut his initials on the margin of the plate, so that, 
should any irregularity occur, the responsibility may be more easily traced." 

This note refers to revenue stamps. Why the rule has been applied 
to special delivery stamps and not to other varieties of postage stamps I am 
unable to explain. 

The stamps measure 36^x21 mm. 

The papers used for the various issues were : first, the thick, soft, 
porous paper employed by the American Bank Note Company ; next, a Paper, 

similar paper used by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing ; and lastly, the 
watermarked paper mentioned Just above. 

The gum used by the first contractors varied from pure white to brown. Gnm. 

That employed by the present manufacturers is either white or yellowish. 

The following shades and varieties are to be found : 

Printed by the American Bank Note Co. 

Perforated 12. Reference List. 

Thick Soft Porous Wove Paper. 
Oct. ist 1885. 10 cents (" Special Delivery Office") light blue, blue, deep 

blue 
Sept. 6th, 1888. 10 cents (" Any Post Office ") light blue, blue, deep blue 
Jan. 24th, 1893. 10 cents ("Any Post Office") yellow-orange, orange, deep 

orange 



254 SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMPS. 



Printed by the Bureau of Engraving & Printing. 

Perforated 1 2. 

Thick Soft Porous Wove Paper. 

Oct. loth, 1894. 10 cents ("Any Post Office") blue, dark blue, marine blue 

Watermarked "U. S. P. S." 

Aug. i6th, 1895. 10 cents ("Any Post Office") blue, dark blue, marine blue 

Variety : 

I o cents dark blue. Imperforate 

The plates each contain one hundred stamps, arranged in ten rows of 
ten. Usually the sheets are divided vertically into half sheets of fifty stamps 
Plates. This seems to have been the rule with all of the blue stamps but those printed 

in orange were often, if not always, issued in full sheets of one hundred 
The imprint is placed at the middle of the top and bottom of each half sheet 
The plate number appears between each imprint and the central dividing 
line. The imprint of the American Bank Note Co. is as usual, merely the 
name of the company in small, heavy-faced, shaded capitals. The imprint 
of the other contractors is " bureau, engraving & printing ", in white 
Roman capitals, on a colored panel having truncated corners and surrounded 
by a thin colored line. At each end of the panel is a large three branched 
ornament. 

The following numbers are found on the plates of the special delivery 
stamps : 

American Bank Note Co. 

Plates of 1885-88. 

to cents blue ("Special Delivery Office") (100) No. 495, 496. 
lo'cents blue (" Any Post Office ") (100) No. 552. 
10 cents orange ("Any Post Office ") (100) No. 552. 

Plates of 1890-93. 

10 cents blue ("Any Post Office ") (100) No 73. 
10 cents orange (" Any Post Office ") (100) No. 73. 

Bureau, Engraving & Printing. 

Plate nnmberi. Plates of 1894-95. 

Unwatermarked 
10 cents blue ("Any Post Office") (100) No. 77. 

Watermarked " U. S. P. S." 
10 cents blue (" Any Post Office ") (loo) No. 77, 257, 381, 492, 

880, 881, 882, 883 
A plate, numbered 682, was made but, being defective, it has never 
been put to press. The imperforate stamps are from plate No. 257. 

The annual reports of the Postmaster General supply the following 
statistics of the quantities of stamps delivered to deputy postmasters : 



SPECIAL DELIVERY STAMPS. 



255 







Quarter 


Ending : 




SellTeries to 
postmasters. 


Fiscal year 


Sept. 50. 


Dec. 31. 


Mch. 31. 


June 30. 


Total. 


1885-86 


2,074,320 


1,265,750 


241,990 


117,500 


3,699,560 


1886-87 


215,880 


492,050 


254,980 


283,030 


1,245,940 


1887-88 


329.970 


393,810 


311,670 


296,340 


1,331,790 


1888-89 


347,360 


*5 2 1,940 


302,440 


t403,9io 


1,575,650 


1889-go 


719,130 


3S9,6io 


526,810 


515,340 


2,120,890 


1890-91 


596,510 


680,750 


641,550 


650,540 


2,569,350 


1891-92 


660,100 


764,530 


783,790 


908,800 


3,117,220 


1892-93 


720,670 


886,090 


1,032,090 


889,220 


3,528,070 


1893-94 


1,020,610 


862,990 


806,560 


983,860 


3,674,020 


1894-95 


905,300 


1,053,380 


954,820 


995,280 


3,908,780 


1895-96 


1,059,630 


1,187,490 


1,104,420 


1,114,730 


4,466,270 


1896-97 


1,025,720 


1,095,630 


1,046,610 


1,178,370 


4,346,330 


1897-98 


1,277,880 


1,349,660 


1,354,910 


1,182,280 


5,164,730 


1898-99 


1,425,710 


1,570,100 


1,447,810 


1,491,350 


5,934,970 


1899-1900 


1,828,070 


1,646,880 


1,846,440 


1,619,260 


6,940,650 



Whole number of stamps 53,624,220. Value $5,362,422.00. 
*6oo of these are "specimens." 
fi 11,900 of these are "specimens." 

It is understood that the 600 stamps were surcharged with the word 
" SPECIMEN " in red and sent to the Universal Postal Union. The second 
and larger lot of " specimens " were probably proofs. 

The deliveries in the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1895, are made up 
of 1,004,980 stamps printed by the American Bank Note Co. and 2,903,800 
stamps printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. In the latter 
number are included 750 copies which were sent to the Universal Postal 
Union. 

In 189S the tri-ennial congress' of the Universal Postal Union con- 
vened in Washington and, at that time, 125 sets of all the stamps in current 
use, including the special delivery stamp, were surcharged " universal — 
POSTAL — congress " and presented to the attending delegates. In the same 
year 150 copies of the special delivery stamp were supplied "for the Post- 
oiBce album." 

The deliveries for 1900 include 50 copies which were furnished to the 
Third Assistant Postmaster General for exchanging and similar purposes. 
These and the 150 copies mentioned in the preceding paragraph were hand- 
stamped " Specimen " in black or magenta. 

During the last three years 126,850 special delivery stamps have been 
overprinted for use in Guam and the Philippine Islands but, as they were 
taken from the reserve stock of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and 
not from the supplies of the Post Office Department, the statistics are not 
affected. 

The Postal Guide for 1898 says that 3,596,500 of the stamps supplied 
by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing were on unwatermarked paper. 



''Specimen" 
stamps and proofs. 



Stamps snrcharged 

" Universal Postal 

Congress ". 



Stamps surcharged 
for Ouam and the 
Philippine Islands. 



Official Stamps, 



Issue of 1873. 



The use of stamps by the different departments of the Government 
was decreed by Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 1 873. The stamps 
Historical. were prepared by order of the Postmaster General, and their issue, on requisi- 
tions of the various departments, was commenced on May 24th, 1873. The 
stamps went into use on July ist of that year. Their purpose was to abolish 
the much-abused franking privilege, to show exactly the amount of work 
performed for the other branches of the Government by the Post Office de- 
partment and reduce the large annual deficit of that department. 

The following extract, on the subject of the franking privilege, is taken 
from the American Journal of Philately for 1873 (page 109): 

" The second Congress of the United States met in Philadelphia on the 24th of October, 
1791. George Washington was President, John Adams was Vice-President and Jonathan 
Franliing. Trumbull was Speaker of the House of Representatives. The first act passed by this body 

related to ' certain fisheries of the United States,' and the second was an act to establish the 
post office and post roads within the United States This act contained thirty sections and 
was approved February 20th, 1 792. Among other things it provided : 

'That the following letters and packets, and no other, shall be received and conveyed 
by post free of postage, under such restrictions as are hereinafter provided ; that is to say : 
All letters and packets to or from the President or Vice-President of the United States, and all 
letters and packets, not exceeding two ounces in weight, to or from any member of the 
Senate or House of Representatives, the Secretary of the Senate, or Clerk of the House of 
Representatives, during their actual attendance in any session of Congress, and twenty days 
after such session. All letters to and from the Secretary of the Treasury and his assistant. 
Comptroller, Register, and Auditor of the Treasury, the Treasurer, the Secretary of State, 
the Secretary of War, the commissioners for settling the accounts between the United 
States and individual states, the Postmaster General and his assistant ; Provided, That no 
person shall frank or enclose any letter or packet, other than his own ; but any public letter 
from the department of the Treasury may be franked by the Secretary of the Treasury, or 
the Assistant Secretary, or by the Comptroller, Register, Auditor, or Treasurer ; and that 
each person before named shall deliver to the post office every letter or packet enclosed to 
him, which may be directed to any other person, noting the place from whence it came by 
post, and the usual postage shall be charged thereon.' 

This law was altered every few years, and each time large numbers of public officials 
were added to the free list, till at last the loads of unpaid mail matter so embarrassed the 
post office revenue that strenuous exertions were made to do away with the whole system, 
which were happily crowned with success last winter." 

The report of the Postmaster General for 1869 stated that no less than 
3'i933 persons were authorized to employ the franking privilege and estimated 
the annual expense to the Post Office Department for transporting free mail 
matter to be $5,000,000 

There appeared to be but one remedy for this abuse, to abolish the 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1873. 



257 



franking privilege and to provide, by means of appropriations, for the pay- 
ment of postage on all matter sent through the mails by the various depart- 
ments. 

An Act of Congress, intended to effect this reform, was approved 
January 27th, 1873, and provided : 

" That the franking privilege be hereby abolished from and after the first day of July, 
Ano Domini 1873, and that henceforth all official correspondence of whatever nature, and 
other mailable matter sent from or addressed to any officer of the Government or person now 
authorized to frank such matter, shall be chargeable with the same rates of postage as may 
be lawfully imposed upon like matter sent by or addressed to other persons Provided, that 
no compensation or allowance shall be now or hereafter made to Senators or Members and 
Delegates of the House. of Representatives on account of postages." 

An Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 1873, appropriated a sum of 

money, which was estimated to be sufficient for the purchase of postage 

stamps for the use of the various departments. Section 4 of this Act also 

provided : 

" That the Postmaster General shall cause to be prepared a special stamp or stamped 
envelope, to be used only for official mail matter for each of the executive departments, and 
said stamps and stamped envelopes shall be supplied by a proper officer of said departments 
to all persons under its direction requiring the same for official use, and all appropriations 
for postage heretofore made shall no longer be available for said purpose, and all said stamps 
and stamped envelopes shall be sold or furnished to said several departments or clerks only 
at the price for which stamps and stamped envelopes of like value are sold at the several 
post offices." 

The report of the Postmaster General, dated November 14th, 1873, 

expresses satisfaction with the results of the new law, as far as they were then 

apparent, i.e., for the first quarter of the fiscal year beginning July ist, 1873 

The report supplies a memorandum of the quantities of stamps issued in that 

quarter, saying : 

" Section 4 of the Act of March 3, 1873, making it the duty of the Postmaster General 
to provide official stamps and stamped envelopes for the several Executive Departments, has 
been strictly complied with. The stamps and envelopes furnished have been executed in 
the highest style of art, and will compare favorably with those of any other country. From 
July ist to September 30th of the current year, the following varieties, numbers, and values 
were issued : 



Number of 


Number of 




To whom issued. Denominations. 


stamps. 


Value. 


The Executive 


5 


5.150 


$200.00 


The State Department 


■4 


60,495 


20,749.70 


The Treasury Department 


1 1 


7,842,500 


407.000.00 


The War Department 


1 1 


446 500 


17,689 CO 


The Navy Department 


1 1 


247,230 


12,239 00 


The Post Office Department 


10 


10,054,660 


354,535.00 


The Interior Departnjent 


10 


■.058,475 


59,171.00 


The Department of Justice 


10 


65,400 


3,900 00 


The Department of Agriculture 


9 


275,000 


20, 730 00 



The franking 
privilege abolished. 



Oflicial stamps 

and envelopes 

authorized. 



Deliveries during 

the Urst quarter 

year. 



Making a total 91 20,055,410 896,213,70 

It cannot be expected that the sales of official stamps will average throughout the year 
the extraordinary sums above given for the first quarter. A general supply having been 
obtained, .subsequent orders will be made only for the actual consumption " 

From the report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, dated 
November 1st, 1878, we learn that a large portion of the stamps mentioned 
in the foregoing table were issued in advance of the date on which the law stamps issued before 
.became operative, though they were not debited to the various departments 
until the first quarter of the fiscal year beginning July ist, 1873, since, pre- 
vious to that date, the appropriations for the purchase of the stamps were not 



July 1st, 1873. 



258 



OFFICIAL STAMPS.— ISSUE OF 1 873. 



available. The 


following quantities were issued betwee 


July 1st, 1873: 








The Executive 


4,650 




State Department 


60,495 




Treasury Department 


6,317.500 




War Department 


440,500 




Navy Department 


160,830 




Post Office Department 


S>5'°,6'o 




Interior Department 


970,47s 




Department of Justice 


65,400 




Department of Agriculture 


135,000 




Total stamps 


13,665,460 




Total value 


$494,974-70 



May 24th and 



The report of the Postmaster General for 1873 also gives the following 
brief description of the designs and colors of the official stamps : 

" The stamps for the Departments, other than the Post Office, do not differ materially 

from those for sale to the public, except that each Department has its own distinctive color 

Official deBcriptioD. and legend. The colors are : For the Executive, carmine ; State Department, green ; 

Treasury, velvet brown ; War, cochineal-red ; Navy, blue ; Post Office, black ; Interior, 

vermilion ; Department of Justice, purple ; and Department of Agriculture, straw color. 

In the stamps for the Post Office Department the medallion head gives place to a 
numeral representing the value, with the words 'post office department' above and the 
denomination expressed in words below. All the official stamps correspond in denominations 
with those issued for the public, except in the case of the State Department, for which four 
of higher value were made for dispatch bags. These four are of the denominations of $2 
$5, $10 and $20, respectively, are of larger size and printed in two colors, and bear a pro- 
file bust of the late Secretary Seward," 

A circular of the Post Office Department, dated May 15th, 1873, calls 

the attention of postmasters to the repeal of the franking privilege and to the 

Official circular, fact that special stamps and envelopes have been provided for the use of 

the several departments. The designs and colors are described in language 

similar to that just quoted from the report of the Postmaster General. The 

circular concludes ; 

" Postmasters at all offices will be furnished with the official stamps of this Department, 
in suitable denominations and amounts, as far as they can be supplied. The Department 
will exercise its own discretion in filling requisitions, and will send only in such denomina- 
tions and amounts as the needs of an office may seem to require. The less important offices, 
say those at which the money order system has not been established, will need only three 
cent stamps, but comparatively few offices will require stamps above the denomination of 
six cents. The higher denominations will be supplied to a few of the larger offices only. 
Postmasters will combine stamps of the most convenient denominations at hand to meet 
emergencies for which they may have no single stamp exactly filling the rate required." 

As was said in a previous paragraph, the stamps for the various depart- 
ments were, with the exception of those for the Post Office Department, not 
Uesigiis. unlike the same values of the general issue which was then current. The 

series of finely engraved profile busts, which distinguishes the issues of 1870- 
73, was retained. The numerals and words of value in the lower part of the 
stamps were arranged in much the same way as on the corresponding stamps 
of the regular issue. The features which, aside from the color, distinguish 
the set for each particular department are most prominent in the upper part 
of the stamps, replacing the words " u. s. postage ". The additions to the 
lower part are usually of less importance. The devices used may be briefly 
described as follows ; 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1873. 259 

Department of Agriculture. A panel, curved above the central 
oval, bears the word " agriculture ". In the upper left corner are " dept. 
of" and in the upper right corner the letters " u. s." entwined. 

The Executive. A panel, curved above the oval, bears the word 
" executive " In the upper corners are respectively " u '' and " s ", in small 
circles, surrounded by arabesques. The background is filled with vertical 
stripes, alternately light and dark, representing the bars on the national shield. 

Department of the Interior. A broad ribbon, arched above the 
portrait, is inscribed " dept. of the interior ". In the upper corners are 
six-pointed stars and, at right and left in the lower part of the stamps, small 
shields bearing the letters "u" and " s ". On the i, 2, 3, 6, 10 and 30 cent 
stamps these shields are placed above the ends of the ribbons bearing the 
value, and on the other four denominations they are in the lower corners. 

Department of Justice. The word "justice "is curved above the 
central oval, with " dept." in the upper left and " of " in the upper right 
corner. Six-pointed stars, bearing the letters "u " and " s ", occupy the same 
positions as the small shields on the stamps of the Department of the Interior 

Navy Department. The words "navy " and "dept." are inscribed 
diagonally across the upper corners. There is a large star in each upper 
corner and a smaller one at the middle of each side. The top and sides of 
the stamps are bordered by a cable. The letters " u " and " s ", in small 
hexagons, are placed as were the same letters on the stamps of the Departments 
of the Interior and Justice. 

Department of State. Above the medallion is arched, " dept. of 
state " with foliated ornaments below each end. Large letters " u " and 
"s ", somewhat distorted, occupy the same positions as on the stamps of the 
three departments just described. To this set are added four new values, 2, 
5, 10 and 20 dollars. These stamps are about twice the size of the lower 
values and are alike in design. A large portrait of Wm. H. Seward, printed 
in black, occupies the central oval, at each side of which are fasces. Above 
the oval appears, in two lines of large shaded captials, " department of 
STATE." Small arabesques fill the upper corners. The value, in large white 
captials, occupies a straight tablet across the bottom, above each end of which 
are the letters " u. s. of a." In the case of the 20 dollars the word " dollars " 
is abbreviated to " dolls." 

Treasury Department. The word "treasury", in a wavy line, 
crosses the top of the stamps Below it, at left and right respectively, are 
" u. s." and " dept." Drapery with fringes and cords ornaments the sides. 

War Department. The letters "u" and "s" occupy the upper 
corners and the words "war" and "dept." are curved beneath them. 
Elongated national shields appear in the lower part of the stamps and 
shadings to represent the folds of the flag at the sides. 

Post Office Department. For this department a special design 
was adopted. Large numerals, with " official " above and " stamp " below, 
occupy a colorless central oval, above which is curved " post office dept." 



26o 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF J 873. 



Varieties of the 
higher values of the 
Departmeut of State. 



Paper, 



Reference List. 



The upper spandrels are blank except for a small round boss. The words 
and numerals of value are arranged as on the sets for the other departments. 
The letters "u" and " s ", in small circles, appear above the ends of the 
ribbons bearing the value on the i, 2, 3, 6, 10 and 30 cents, at each side of the 
value on the 24 cents, and in the lower corners on the 12, 15 and 90 cents. 

The stamps are of two sizes, viz : 1 to go cents, 20x25 mm.; 2 to 20 
dollars, 25^^x39^ mm. 

Mr. E. D. Bacon has called my attention to an interesting feature of 
the four higher denominations of the Department of State, which has, hitherto, 
been overlooked by philatelists. On comparing several copies of any of these 
stamps, it will be found that they differ slightly one from another. This 
difference lies in the spacing between the tablet bearing the value and the 
ornaments adjacent to its upper corners. The variations in position are 
slight but distinct. The explanation of these variations is simple. There 
was only one die for the borders of the four stamps and it did not include 
the tablet at the bottom. In making a plate for any of these four denomina- 
tions, the border was transferred first and then the label of value was added 
to each transfer. Slight differences would naturally result from this pro- 
cess. Some of the ornaments also show traces of retouching. By means of 
these variations it would be possible to " plate " these stamps, should one be 
inclined to attempt it. 

At the time the official stamps came into use the contract for the 
manufacture of postage stamps was held by the Continental Bank Note Co. 
Subsequently, through consolidation and new contracts, the work passed into 
the hands of the American Bank Note Co. We may, therefore, expect to 
find the official stamps on the characteristic papers of the two companies, i.e. 
thin hard, ribbed and double papers for the former and soft porous paper 
for the latter. When we examine the stamps we find these anticipations are 
confirmed. The gum is the same as that used for the regular issues at cor- 
responding dates. 

Perforated 12. 

Hard White Wove Paper. 

Department of Agriculture. 

May 24th, 1873. I cent golden yellow, deep golden yellow, olive-yellow, 

pale orange-yellow 

2 cents golden yellow, deep golden yellow, olive-yellow 

3 cents golden yellow, deep golden yellow, olive-yel- 

low, pale orange-yellow 
6 cents golden yellow, deep golden yellow, olive-yel- 
low, pale orange-yellow 

10 cents golden yellow, deep golden yellow, olive-yel- 
low 

I 2 cents golden yellow, deep golden yellow, olive-yel- 
low, pale orange-yellow 

15 cents golden yellow, deep golden yellow, olive-yel- 
low, pale bright yellow 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1873. 26r 

24 cents golden yellow, deep golden yellow, olive-yel- 
low, pale orange-yellow 

30 cents golden yellow, deep golden yellow, olive-yel- 
low 

Variety: 

3 cents golden yellow. Imperforate. 

The Executive. 

May 24th, 1873. I cent carmine, deep carmine 

2 cents carmine, deep carmine 

3 cents carmine, deep carmine, violet-rose 

6 cents pale carmine, carmine, deep carmine 
10 cents pale carmine, carmine, deep carmine 

DepartSient of the Interior. 

May 24th, 1873. I cent rose-vermilion, scarlet vermilion 

2 cents rose-vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

3 cents rose-vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 
6 cents rose vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

10 cents rose vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

12 cents rose-vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

15 cents rose-vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

24 cents rose-vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

30 cents rose-vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

90 cents rose vermilion, scarlet vermilion 

Department of Justice. 

May 24th, 1873. 1 cent purple, red-purple 

2 cents purple, light purple 
- 3 cents purple, red-purple, bluish purple 
6 cents purple, red purple, bluish purple, light purple 
10 cents purple, bluish purple 
12 cents purple 
15 cents purple 
24 cents purple 
30 cents purple 
90 cents purple 

Navy Department. 

May 24th, 1873. I cent dull blue, dark blue, gray-blue, ultramarine, 

dark ultramarine, bright ultramarine 

2 cents dull blue, dark blue, gray-blue, ultramarine, 

bright ultramarine 

3 cents dull blue, dark blue, gray-blue, pale ultra- 

marine, ultramarine, bright ultramarine 
6 cents dull blue, dark blue, gray-blue, pale ultrama- 
line, ultramarine, bright ultramarine 



262 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1873. 



7 cents dull blue, dark blue, gray-blue, ultramarine, 
bright ultramarine 

10 cents dull blue, dark blue, gray-blue, dark ultra- 
marine, bright ultramarine 

I 2 cents dull blue, dark blue, ultramarine, bright ultra- 
marine 

15 cents dull blue, dark blue, gray-blue, pale ultrama- 
rine, ultramarine, bright ultramarine 

24 cents dull blue, dark blue, gray-blue, ultramarine, 
bright ultramarine 

30 cents dull blue, dark blue, dark ultramarine, bright 
ultramarine 

90 cents dull blue, dark blue, ultramarine, dark ultra- 
marine, bright ultramarine 

Variety: 

2 cents deep green, deep yellow-green. Error of 
color 

Post Office Department. 

May 24th, 1873. I cent black, gray black 

2 cents black, gray-black 

3 cents black, gray-black 
6 cents black, gray-black 

10 cents black, gray -black 
12 cents black, gray-black 
15 cents black, gray-black 
24 cents black, gray-black 
30 cents black, gray-black 
90 cents black, gray-black 

Varieties: 

1 cent gray-black. Paper with gray surface 

2 cents gray-black " " " " 

3 cents gray-black " 
6 cents gray-black " 

10 cents gray-black 

12 cents gray-black " 

15 cents gray-black " 

24 cents gray-black " 

30 cents gray-black " 

90 cents gray-black " 

6 cents gray-black. Diagonal half used as three 
cents 

Department of State. 

May 24th, 1873. I cent dark yellow-green, dark blue-green, dark gray- 

green 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1873. 263 

2 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green, dark gray- 

green 

3 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green, bright blue- 

green, deep grass green 

6 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green, bright blue- 

green 

7 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green, bright blue- 

green 
10 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green, bright blue- 
green 
12 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green, bright blue- 
green 
15 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green, bright blue- 
green 
24 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green 
30 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green 
90 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green 
2 dollars green and black, bluish green and black 

5 dollars gjeen and black, bluish green and black 
10 dollars green and black, bluish green and black 
20 dollars green and black, bluish green and black 

Treasury Department. 

May 24th, 1873. I cent pale yellow -brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown 

2 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown 

3 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown, red-brown 

6 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown, gray-brown 

7 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown 
10 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown 
12 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown, red-brown 
15 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow -brown, brown, dark 

brown 
24 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown 
30 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown, red-brown 
90 cents pale yellow-brown, yellow-brown, brown, dark 

brown 



264 official stamps. — issue of 1873. 

War Department. 

May 24th, 1873. I cent pale rose red, rose-red, dull rose-red, pale 

brown-rose, brown-rose, dull lake 

2 cents pale rose red, dull rose-red, pale brown-rose, 

brown-rose, deep brown-rose 

3 cents pale rose-red, rose-red, dull rose-red, pale 

brown-rose, brown-rose, lilac-rose 

6 cents pale rose-red, rose-red, dull rose-red, pale 

brown-rose, brown-rose 

7 cents pale rose-red, rose-red, dull rose-red, pale 

brown-rose, brown-rose, deep brown-rose 
10 cents pale rose-red, rose-red, dull rose-red, pale 

brown-rose, brown-rose 
12 cents pale rose-red, dull rose-red, pale brown-rose, 

brown-rose 
15 cents pale rose-red, rose-red, dull rose-red, pale 

brown-rose, brown-rose, deep brown-rose 
24 cents pale rose-red, dull rose-red, pale brown-rose, 

brown-rose 
30 cents pale rose-red, rose-red, dull rose-red, pale 

brown-rose, brown-rose, deep brown-rose 
90 cents pale rose-red, rose-red, dull rose-red, pale 

brown-rose, brown-rose 

Horizontally or Vertically Ribbed Paper. 

Department of Agriculture. 

1873-76. I cent deep golden yellow 

2 cents deep golden yellow 

3 cents deep golden yellow 
6 cents deep golden yellow 

10 cents deep golden yellow, olive-yellow 

12 cents deep golden yellow 

15 cents deep golden yellow 

24 cents deep golden yellow, olive-yellow 

30 cents deep golden yellow, olive-yellow 

The Executive. 

1873-76. I cent carmine 

2 cents carmine 

3 cents carmine 
6 cents carmine 

10 cents carmine 

Department of the Interior. 
1873-76. r cent scarlet- vermilion 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1873. 



265 



1873-76. 
1873-76. 



1873-76. 



1873-76. 



Department of Justice. 
I cent purple 

Navy Department. 

1 cent dull blue, dark blue 

2 cents dull blue 

3 cents dull blue 

6 cents dull blue 

7 cents dull blue 
10 cents dull blue 
1 2 cents dull blue 
15 cents dull blue, dart blue 
24 cents ultramarine 
30 cents dull blue 
90 cents dull blue, ultramarine 

Post Office Department. 

1 cent gray-black 

2 cents gray-black 

3 cents gray-black 
6 cents gray-black 

10 cents gray-black 
12 cents gray-black 
15 cents gray-black 
24 cents gray-black 
30 cents gray-black 
90 cents gray-black 

Varieties: 

3 cents gray-black. Paper with gray surface 

6 cents gray-black " " 
10 cents gray-black " " 
12 cents gray-black 
24 cents gray-black 
30 cents gray-black 
90 cents gray-black 

Department of State. 

1 cent dark yellow-green 

2 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green, dark gray- 

green 

3 cents dark yellow-green 

6 cents dark yellow-green 

7 cents dark yellow-green 
10 cents dark yellow-green 
12 cents dark yellow-green 
15 cents dark yellow-green 



266 OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1873. 

24 cents dark yellow-green 

30 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green 

90 cents dark yellow-green, dark blue-green 

Treasury Department. 

1873-76. 1 cent dark brown 

2 cents dark brown, yellow-brown 

3 cents dark brown 

6 cents dark brown, brown 

7 cents dark brown 
10 cents dark brown 
12 cents dark brown 
15 cents dark brown 
30 cents dark brown 
90 cents dark brown 

War Department. 

1873-76. I cent pale rose-red, pale brown-rose, deep brown-rose 

2 cents pale rose-red, dark rose-red 

3 cents brown-rose, deep brown-rose 

6 cents pale rose-red 

7 cents pale brown-rose 

10 cents bright rose-red, brown-rose 
1 2 cents dark rose-red, brown-rose 
15 cents pale rose-red, dark rose-red 
24 cents pale rose-red 
30 cents bright rose-red 
90 cents dark rose-red 

Double Paper. 

Post Office Department. 

1876. 3 cents gray-black 

24 cents gray-black 
go cents gray-black 

Department of State. 

1876. 3 cents blue-green 

Treasury Department. 

1876. 3 cents dark yellow-brown 

10 cents dark yellow-brown 
90 cents dark yellow-brown 

The two cent stamp of the Navy Department printed in green, the 

color of the stamps of the Department of State, has been the subject of much 

NaTy Department, discussion among philatelists. Opinions have differed as to it being a genu- 

two centB green, jjjg error or only a proof for color. The firm who first discovered it and 

placed it on the market purchased their copies, together with a quantity of 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1873. 267 

Other United States stamps, from a man who was evidently not a philatelist, 
and was therefore free from any suspicion of wishing to bring forward new 
varieties, and who stated that he found the stamps in an old trunk. The 
purchasers of this lot have always believed the stamp to be a genuine error. 
I copy the following from a letter of Mr. C. F. Rothfuchs: 

" I would now like to say a few words about the two cents Navy in green. Some years 
ago 1 received five copies, a strip of tliree and a pair. They had the original gum on the back 
They were kept by gentleman (not a collector) who was a clerk in the State Department 
when they were received at that department. This gentleman has a nephew, a bright boy 
about [4 years of age, who is a stamp collector and who received the stamps from his'uncle 
and traded them with me for a lot of foreign stamps which he wanted to fill up vacant spaces 
in his album. 

In view of this information, it is my opinion that, by mistake, the plate of the two cents 
Navy was used instead of the two cents State. 1 have never heard of a two cents Navy in 
green being found in the Navy Department." 

Finally, under date of April 7th, 1899, Mr. R. A. Tarr writes me that 
he has recently seen a copy of the Navy department error, cancelled and on 
the original cover. 

The bi-sected six cents of the Post Office Department, which is men- 
tioned in the reference list, was shown me by Mr. S. M. Castle. It is used, Post Office Dept., 
in connection with a three cent stamp, on a six cent envelope of the 1874 '•■''«<'*«<'"= "ents- 
issue for the Post Office Department. The cancellation is " Niagara Falls, 
June 1 8th," the year not being given. 

In the collection of Mr. F. O. Conant is an interesting oddity, in the 
shape of a three cent stamp of the Post Office Department used as a postage 
due stamp. On the envelope is a duly cancelled copy of the three cents Post Office Dept. 
green of the 1879 issue. But the letter was evidently overweight, since it ^""aie "'stamp." 
bears the handstamp " due 3 ". In payment of this shortage a three cent 
Post Office Department stamp has been affixed, partly over the original can- 
cellation, and cancelled in turn. This was done at Berlin Falls, N. H., 
April 30th, 1880. It may be added that this does not represent an attempt 
to create a curiosity, since neither writer, receiver nor postmaster were in 
the least interested in philately. 

The catalogues, following the lead of collectors, have listed the stamps 
of the Post Office Department on white and gray-surfaced paper. This dis- 
tinction is scarcely warranted by any actual merit in the two varieties. The Post Office Dept., 
paper is the same, the difference being merely a matter of appeal ance. When s'-»!-s<"-f»«f'i ?»!•"• 
the plates were thoroughly wiped the paper came from the press clear and 
white. When the wiping was imperfectly done the ink which remained on 
the surface of the plate discolored the paper and made it appear of a gray 
tint. The contrast between the two varieties is often very marked and 
leading philatelists have seen fit to place the two sets in their collections, 
thus giving them a standing. 

Some of the bi-colored values of the Department of State were at one state Department, 

. , , , , 1 • J inrerted medallions. 

time reported with the medallion inverted but, as was explained on page 114, 
they were purely imaginary articles. 

In the Philatelical Journal for February 20th, 1875, we find the follow- 
ing letter concerning the use of the higher values of the State Department 
stamps. 



268 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1873. 



" Sir : — The following explanation of the use of the 10 and 20 dollars stamps may be 

useful. These two values are no longer used on packages ; the heavy mails of the State 

State nepartment, Department are now sent to the City Post-office, and charged against the Department. The 

alleged nse of the account is settled monthly by payments in the high value stamps. These are turned over 

higher values. by the city postmaster to the General Post-office as vouchers for the account, and are 

destroyed. Thus you will see that neither used nor unused copies are to be had. 

Yours truly, 

C. E. D. 
Wa.shington, January 1st, 1875." 

This communication is given for what it is worth and in the hope that 
quoting it may possibly elicit further information on the subject. Unless it 
can be confirmed I am not inclined to accept the statement, in view of the 
fact that the law required that postage on all letters and packages should 
be prepaid by means of stamps. 

The plates for the official stamps varied in size. The majority con-- 
tained one hundred stamps each, a few had two hundred, while those for the 
Plates. four higher values of the Department of State had only ten, arranged in two 

rows of five stamps each. The latter stamps being printed in two colors, two 
plates were required for each value. However, the same vignette plate (No. 
123) was used in connection with the frame plates of all four values. The 
impressions from the plates of two hundred stamps were divided vertically 
into sheets of one hundred stamps each. 

The imprint was the same as that on the plates of the ordinary stamps 
at the same date, i. e., "printed by the — continental bank notk co. new 
YORK ", in two lines of white capitals, on a panel with pearled edges and sur- 
rounded by a thin colored line. On the plates having one hundred stamps the 
imprint was placed at the top and bottom, over or under the second, third and 
fourth stamps from the left. The plate number, preceded by "No." was placed 
over or under the sixth stamp from the left. On the plates having two hundred 
stamps the imprint appeared at the middle of the top and bottom of each half 
of the plate. The plate number was placed between each imprint and the 
vertical dividing line. On the impressions from the plates of the four higher 
values of the Department of State we find the imprint, in green, below the 
second, third and fourth stamps of the lower row, while at the top it is printed 
in black and, beginning at the left of the first stamp, extends over that and 
the second stamp. "No." and the plate number, in green, are placed over 
the third stamp and "No." and a number, in black, over the fourth and fifth 
stamps. The imprint and number in green belong to the frame plate and 
those in black to the vignette plate. 

In the following list of numbers of the plates for the official stamps, 
the figures enclosed in parenthesis indicate the number of stamps on the 
plate. 

Plato iiuinbors. DfPARTMINT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Iinpriuts aud plate 
unnibers. 



I cent 


(100) 


No. 


65- 


2 cents 


(100) 


No. 


6^. 


3 cents 


(100) 


No. 


57- 


6 cents 


(100) 


No. 


72. 


10 cents 


(100) 


No. 


114. 


X2 cents 


(.00) 


No. 


73- 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1873. 269 

15 cents (100) No. 105. 
24 cents (100) No. 145. 
30 cents (100) No. 100. 

The Executive. 

1 cent (100) No. 82. 

2 cents (100) No. 75. 

3 cents (100) No. 63. 
6 cents (100) No. 76. 

10 cents (100) No. 111. 

Department of the Interior. 

1 cent (100) No. 52. 

2 cents (100) No. 45. 

3 cents (100) No. 27. 

6 cents (100) ' No. 56. e 

10 cents (100) No. 109. 

12 cents (100) No. 49. 

15 cents (100) No. 93. 

24 cents (100) No. 104. 

30 cents (100) No. 95. 

90 cents (100) No. 108. 

Department of Justice. 



r cent 


(100) 


No. 


85- 


2 cents 


(100) 


No. 


90. 


3 cents 


(100) 


No. 


28. 


6 cents 


(100) 


No. 


77- 


10 cents 


(100) 


No. 


97- 


12 cents 


(100) 


No. 


9r- 


15 cents 


(100) 


No. 


99. 


24 cents 


(100) 


No. 


IIS- 


30 cents 


(100) 


No. 


no. 


90 cents 


(100) 


No. 


■I3- 


Na 


VY Dei 


ARTl 


JENT 


I cent 


(100) 


No. 


80. 


2 cents 


(100) 


No. 


5°- 


3 cents 


(100) 


No. 


34- 


6 cents 


(100) 


No. 


S3- 


7 cents 


(100) 


No. 


119. 


10 cents 


(100) 


No. 


lOI. 


12 cents 


(100) 


No. 


92. 


15 cents 


(100) 


No. 


94- 


24 cents 


(100) 


No. 


107. 


30 cents 


(100) 


No. 


96. 


90 cents 


(100) 


No. 


106. 



270 official stamps. issue of 1873. 

Post Office Department. 
I cent (200) No. 43. 



2 cents 


(100) 


No. 37, 38, 285. 




3 cents 


(100) 


No. 36, 40. 






(200) 


No. 30, 41, 140, 141 




6 cents 


(200) 


No. 39, 47, 249. 




10 cents 


(too) 


No. 62. 




12 cents 


(100) 


No. 71. 




15 cents 


(100) 


No. 66. 




24 cents 


(100) 


No. 74. 




30 cents 


(100) 


No. 68. 




90 cents 


(100) 


No. 88. 




Department of State. 




1 cent 


(100) 


No. 55. 




2 cents 


(100) 


No. 59. 




3 cents 


(100) 


No. 70. 




6 cents 


(100) 


No. 83. 




7 cents 


(100) 


No. 112. 




10 cents 


(100) 


No. 98. 




12 cents 


(100) 


No. 78. 




15 cents 


(100) 


No. 118. 




24 cents 


(100) 


No. 117. 




30 cents 


(100) 


No. 11 6. 




90 cents 


(100) 


No. 67. 




2 dollars 


(.0) 


No. frame 121, vignette 123 


5 dollars 


(.0) 


No. " 120, 


' 123 


lo dollars 


(.0) 


No. " 122, 


123 


20 dollars 


(10) 


No. " 124, 


' 123 


Treasury Department. 




I cent 


(200) 


No. 44. 




2 cents 


(200) 


No. 42. 




3 cents 


(200) 


No. 29, 33. 




6 cents 


(100) 


No. 51. 




7 cents 


(100) 


No. 103. 




10 cents 


(100) 


No. 58. 




12 cents 


(100) 


No. 46. 




15 cents 


(100) 


No. 84. 




24 cents 


(100) 


No. 134. 




30 cents 


(100) 


No. 69. 




90 cents 


(loo) 


No. 61. 




War Department. 




I cent 


(100) 


No. 48. 




2 cents 


(200) 


No. 35. 




3 cents 


(100) 


No. 32. 




6 cents 


(100) 


No. 60. 




7 cents 


(100) 


No. 102. 





OFFICIAL STAMPS.— ISSUE OF I 873. 27 I 

10 cents (too) No. 79. 
12 cents (100) No. 54. 
15 cents (100) No. 87. 
24 cents (100) No. 86. 
30 cents (100) No. 81. 
90 cents (100) No. 89. 

The number 8r, which had been assigned to the thirty cents of the 

War Department, was, by mistake, engraved on the plate of the one cent 

Executive. As soon as the error was noticed the number was defaced by 

chisel marks and the correct number, 82, inserted beside it. The two cents 
of the Navy Department printed in green is, of course, from plate 50, the 
only plate for that value. 

The following quantities of official stamps were printed and delivered 

to the Stamp Agent during the first four years they were in use : 
Year ending December 31st, 1873 : 

Department : 

Agriculture. Executive. Interior. Justice. Navy. 

1 cent 93j5oo 10,800 144,500 30,800 58,500 

2 cents 131,300 11,500 .427>Soo 30.400 i3S;Soo 

3 cents 321,000 12,100 1,214,500 85,500 206,000 

6 cents 126,500 10,700 894,800 66,000 125,600 

7 cents i3>4oo 

10 cents 46,500 10,600 ,66,300 21,400 38,000 

12 cents 48,500 1.69,500 44,800 28,000 

15 cents 46,900 97,300 33-500 26,500 

24 cents 39,500 49,400 20,500 13,800 

30 cents 43,300 53,500 22,200 12,400 

90 cents , 37,900 10,000 10,600 

Total 897,000 55,700 3,155,200 365,100 668,300 

Post Office. State. Treasury. War. Total. 

1 cent 1,336,000 45,800 3,223,400 487,500 5,430,800 

2 cents 714,500 46,300 3,446,500 285,500 5,229,000 

3 cents 15,434,000 45,600 7,027,000 552,500 24,898,200 

6 cents 1,587,000 42,700 1,437,000 156,000 4,446,300 

7 cents 45,800 329,200 38,000 426,400 

10 cents 242,200 45,200 520,300 28,700 1,019,200 

12 cents 528,000 45,600 1,142,500 37,200 2,044,100 

15 cents 171,500 45,600 1,178,900 25,0*00 1,625,200 

24 cents 65,500 45,800 290,000 27,600 552,100 

30 cents 67,800 45,300 184,100 23,300 451,900 

90 cents 37,800 42,400 137,500 23,900 300,100 

2 dollars 700 700 

5 dollars 700 700 

10 dollars 700 700 

20 dollars 700 700 

Total 20,184,300 498,900 18,916,400 1,685,200 46,426,100 



statistics of 
manufacture. 



272 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF I 873. 



Year 



1 cent 

2 cents 

3 cents 

6 cents 

7 cents 
10 cents 
12 cents 
15 cents 
24 cents 
30 cents 
90 cents 

Total 

1 cent 

2 cents 

3 cents 

6 cents 

7 cents 
10 cents 
12 cents 
15 cents 
24 cents 
30 cents 
90 cents 

2 dollars 

Total 
Year 



ending December 31st, 1874 : 

Department : 

Executive. Interior. 
1 90,000 



Agriculture. 
152,000 

154,50° 
95, 000 
95,000 

134,200 
95,000 
95,000 

I33-900 
130,000 



1,084,600 

Post Office. 
2,667500 

13,567,500 



State. 



38,500 



97,500 

39,500 
39,000 

366,000 
Treasury. 



684,000 



192,500 
192,500 
195,000 



1,800 



16,815,000 40,300 684,000 

ending December 31st, 1875 : 



Agriculture, 



1 cent 

2 cents 

3 cents 

6 cents 

7 cents 
10 cents 
12 cents 
15 cents 
24 cents 
30 cents 
90 cents 

Total 



Department : 
Executive. Interior. 

• •• 97,5°o 

95,000 

9,500 1,010,000 
372,500 



9,500 



141,500 
47,000 
46,500 
95,000 

1,905,000 



Justice. 



War. 

92,500 

92,500 

92,500 

95,000 

92,500 
92,500 
92,500 
95,000 
95,000 



Navy. 
95,000 
95,000 
9S,ooo 
95,000 
95,000 
9S,ooo 
95,000 
47,500 
47,500 
47,500 
47,500 
855,000 

Total. 

3,297,000 

442,000 

13,988,500 

1,069,000 

95,000 

519,200 

382,500 

335,000 

508,400 

504,000 

242,500 

1,800 



1,540,000 21,384,900 



Justice. 



37,500 



Navy. 
375,000 
352,500 
735,000 
370,000 
185,000 
190,000 
175,000 
180,000 
185,000 
187,500 
187,500 



37,500 3,122,500 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1873. 



273 





Post Office. 


I cent 




2 cents 




3 cents 


9.997,5°° 


6 cents 


1,280,000 


7 cents 





10 cents 


85,000 


12 cents 


92,500 


15 cents 


85,000 


24 cents 


90,000 


30 cents 


82,500 


90 cents 


87,500 


2 dollars 




5 dollars 




10 dollars 


.... . . • 


20 dollars 





State. 



37.S°o 
32,5°° 



Treasury. 

970,000 

960,000 
1,935,000 

895,000 
92,500 
80,000 
85,000 
95,000 
90,000 

116,000 
8c,ooo 



War. Total. 

190,000 1,632,500 

195,000 7,602,500 

485,000 14,247,000 

185,000 3,135,000 



180,000 
185,000 
175,000 
177,500 
182,500 
180,000 
192,500 



1,980 
1,870 

1.93° 
1,940 



457,S°°- 
540,000 
669,000 

584,5°° 
594.000 
661,000 

547.5°° 
1,980 
1,870 

1.93° 
1,940 



Total 1 1,800,000 



77,72° 5,398,500 2,327,500 24,678,220 



Year ending December 31st, 1876 : 

Department : 



1 cent 

2 cents 

3 cents 

6 cents 

7 cents 
10 cents 
12 cents 
15 cents 
24 cents 
30 cents 
90 cents 

Total 



Interior. 

220,000 
190,000 



90,000 



Post Office. 

185,000 
6,175,000 



Total. 

405,000 
6,365,000 



90,000 



47.500 



47,5°° 



547,500 6,360,000 6,907,500 

I greatly regret that I have not been able to obtain further statistics 
of deliveries to the Stamp Agent. The foregoing tables are not sufficiently 
extensive to enable us to make comparisons and deductions of much value- 
It is particularly to be regretted that we have no statistics of the quantities 
delivered in 1879 and subsequent years, as there are a number of questions 
connected with the official stamps printed by the American Bank Note Co. 
which might be settled if we had at command the records of the quantities 
supplied under the contracts of that company. 

From the fact that, in 1876, stamps were prepared for only two depart- 
ments, and for a limited number of values at that, we must infer either a 
great decrease in their use or considerable overproduction in previous years. 

It may be well to remark that these tables do not include the special 
printing of official stamps made in 1875, which stamps were surcharged 
" SPECIMEN " and sold as companion sets to the reprints and re-issues of the 
several series of ordinary postage stamps. 



Official Stamps. 

Issue of 1879. 

After the consolidation of the Continental Bank Note Co. with the 
American Bank Note Co., in February, 1879, the latter company printed such 
official stamps as were required, using the soft porous paper which distin- 
guishes all stamps produced by them. As it has not been possible to obtain 
access to the records of the printings, the list of official stamps on this paper 
is compiled from discoveries reported by philatelists. Some of the stamps 
are very common on this paper — for example many values of the Interior and 
War departments — while others are quite scarce. 

Reference List. Perforated 12. 

Soft Porous White Wove Paper. 

Department of Agriculture. 

1879. I cent bright orange-yellow 

2 cents bright orange-yellow 

3 cents bright orange-yellow 
6 cents bright orange-yellow 

Department of the Interior. 

1879. I cent pale vermilion, vermilion 

2 cents scarlet-vermilion 

3 cents pale vermilion, vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

6 cents pale vermilion, vermilion, scarlet-vermilion 

rose-vermilion 
10 cents pale vermilion, vermilion 
12 cents vermilion 
15 cents vermilion 
24 cents vermilion 

Department of Justice. 

1879. 3 cents bluish purple, deep bluish purple 

6 cents bluish purple 



official stamps. issue of 1879. 275 

Navy Department. 



1879. I cent dull blue 

2 cents dull blue 

3 cents dull blue 
6 cents dull blue 



Post Office Department. 



1879. I cent gray-black 

2 cents gray-black 

3 cents gray-black 
6 cents gray-black 

12 cents gray-black 
15 cents gray-black 



Department of State. 

1879. 15 cents green 

30 cents green 

Treasury Department. 

1879. I cent dark brown 

3 cents dark brown, dark yellow-brown 
6 cents dark brown, dark yellow-brown 

10 cents dark brown, dark yellow-brown 

12 cents dark brown 

15 cents dark brown 

30 cents dark brown, dark yellow-brown 

90 cents dark brown, dark yellow-brown 

War Department. 

1879. I cent pale dull rose, pale brown-rose, brown-rose, 

dull lake 

2 cents pale dull rose, deep brown-rose, pale dull ver- 

milion, dull vermilion 

3 cents pale dull rose, brown-rose 

6 cents pale dull rose, dull rose, pale brown rose, 

brown rose 
10 cents pale dull rose, deep rose, dull brown- rose 
1 2 cents pale dull rose, dull brown-lake 
24 cents pale dull rose 
30 cents pale dull rose 



Variety: 
3 cents deep rose. Imperforate 



276 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. 



* Specimen" 
stauipH. 



A possible 
provisional issue. 



Plates. 



In addition to these varieties, the one cent Executive and the one and 
seven cents Department of State, all surcharged " specimen ", are found on 
soft porous paper, but copies of these values without the surcharge have not 
been discovered. 

I have in my collection a three cents green, of the regular issue of 
1882, which is overprinted, in black, in two lines, " p. o. dept. — 24c." with 
a bar across the original value. This stamp was presented to me by Mr. C. 
A. Townsend, who writes me that he knows nothing, about the stamp except 
that he found five or six copies (including one pair) in a large quantity of 
stamps which he purchased some years ago. The stamps had been accumu- 
lated by a young lady who was not a philatelist but had made the oft repeated 
attempt to collect a million stamps. My copy is uncancelled. 

The American Bank Note Co. made only one plate for official stamps. 
This was for the one cent stamp of the Post Office Department. This plate 
was numbered 428 and contained two hundred stamps. For printing any 
other official stamps the plates of the Continental Bank Note Co. were used. 
On consulting the list given in the preceding chapter, it will be seen that there 
was only one plate for each of the official stamps, except for the two, three 
and six cents Post Office Department and the three cents Treasury Depart- 
ment. For printing the latter stamp plate 29 was used by the American 
Bank Note Co. and probably the plates with the highest numbers were em- 
ployed for the three stamps of the Post Office Department. To give a list of 
the numbers of the other plates which were used would be an unnecessary 
repetition. 



It was scarcely to be expected that the official stamps would be received 
with favor, either by individuals who were deprived of the franking privilege 
coincidently with the advent of the stamps, or by the various branches of the 
government, which were required to expend large sums for the purchase of 
these stamps from the Post Office Department. As early as February, 1874, 
we read in the American Jouriial of Philately 

"The sales of postage stamps at the post office of the House of Representatives fre- 
quently exceed $50 a day The members begin to feel the inconvenience and loss to 
Abolitieu of themselves fioni the abolition of the franking privilege, now that they are daily called upon 
franking ciiuscs to send public documents to their constituents at their own expense. They say they do not 
dissatisfaction. mind putting stamps on their letters, but when it comes to paying postage on heavy books, 
the burden is too heavy to be long endured. There is a good deal ot talk of a revival of 
franking as applied to public documents only. Another plan is to authorize, by law, the 
Public Printer to mail the documents, free of postage, to such persons as the members shall 
diiect ; and still another is to have a stamping machine with an engraved steel die kept in 
the Clerk's office to stamp documents for free transmission through the malls." 

However, no immediate legislative action was taken in the direction of 
repeal or modification of the law, and Congress continued to make annual 
appropriations of such sums as it was estimated would be required, by the 
various departments, for the purchase of stamps. 

By an Act which was approved August 15th, 1876, a slight change 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. 



277 



was effected in the law, with respect to the manner of crediting the Post 
Office Department for the work of carrying the correspondence of the other 
departments. This Act provided : 

"That the Secretaries respectively of the Departments of State, Treasury, War, Navy 
and Interior and the Attorney General, are authorized to make requisitions upon the 
Postmaster General for the necessary amount of postage stamps for the use of their Depart- Chiinge in method 
ments, not exceeding the amount stated in the estimates submitted to Congress, and upon of obtaining stamps, 
presentation of proper vouchers therefore at the Treasury, the amount thereof shall 'be 
credited to the appropriation for the Post Office Department for the same fiscal year." 

The first important change in the law was contained in the Act, 
approved March 3rd, 1877, which provided in part as follows : 

"That it shall be lawful to transmit through the mail, free of postage, any letters, 
packages or other matter relating exclusively to the business of the Government of the 
United States : Provided, that every such letter or package to entitle it to pass free shall "Penalty" 
-bear over the words 'Official Business' an endorsement, showing also the name of the envelopes 

Department, and if from a bureau or office, the names of the Department and bureau or authorized, 

office, as the case may be, whence transmitted And if any person shall make use of any 
such official envelope to avoid the payment of postage on his private letter, package or other 
matter in the mail, the person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and 
subject to a fine of three hundred dollars, to be prosecuted in any court of competent 
jurisdiction. 

That, for the purpose of carrying this Act into effect, it shall be the duty of each of the 
Executive Departments of the United States, to provide for itself and its subordinate officers 
the necessary envelopes, and in addition to the endorsement designating the Department in 
which they are to be used, the penalty lor the unlawful use shall be stated thereon. 

That Senators, Representatives and Delegates in Congress, the Secretary of the 
.Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives, may send and receive through the 
mail all public documents printed by order of Congress, and the name of each Senator, 
Representative, Delegate, Secretary of the Senate, and Clerk of the House, shall be written 
thereon, with the proper designation of the office he holds, and the provisions of this section 
shall apply to each of the persons mentioned therein until the first day of December following 
the expiration of their terms of office.'' 

It will be observed that by this Act the franking privilege was to a 
certain extent, restored. The so-called " penalty " envelopes were created 
and, by their use, the official stamps were almost entirely superseded for 
franking correspondence from the departments. But subordinate officers, 
especially postmasters, continued to use the stamps on correspondence to the 
departments and elsewhere, as required. 

The effect of these changes appears to have been felt very soon by the 
Post Office Department. The Third Assistant Postmaster General, in his 
report for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1877, says : "The total receipts "fffsed receipts 
for the year were $r, 1 12,612.24 less than those of the preceding '.jiear. The 
decrease is due largely to the reduction in receipts for official postage stamps, 
the amount derived from that source during the last fiscal year being only 
$370,730.47 against $1,281,389.43 for the previous year." It should be 
remembered that these figures do not include the stamps used by the Post 
Office Department but only those purchased from it by the other departments. 

The Postmaster General, in his annual report for 1878, complains of 
the added burden without compensation, saying that, in addition to the 
official correspondence of the various departments which must be transmitted 
free, members of Congress might now send almost anything except letters 
through the mails and were availing themselves of the privilege and sending 
vast quantities of books, documents, seeds, shrubs, etc., etc. 



Use of official 

stamps much 

reduced. 



of the Post Otlice 
Department. 



278 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



By a subsequent amendment of the law the use of official stamps was 
almost entirely done away with. On this subject the report of the Postmaster 
General for 1885, says : 

" The use of official stamps and stamped envelopes was wholly discontinued by this 
Use of oBlcial stamps Department, and substantially so by the other Departments on the ^oth of June, 1879, under 
further deoreftsed. the Act authorizing the use of official penalty envelopes." 

The Act here referred to was approved March 3rd, 1879, and provided 
as follows : 

, " That the provisions of the fifth and sixth sections of the Act entitled • An Act estab- 
lishing post routes and for other purposes ', approved March 3d, 1877, for the transmission 
Franking prlrilrge of official mail matter be, and they are hereby, extended to all officers of the United States 
extended. Government, and made applicable to all official mail matter transmitted between any of 

the officers of the United States, or between any such officer and either of the Executive 
Departments or officers of the Government * * . And the provisions of said fifth 
and sixth sections are hereby likewise extended and made applicable to all official mail 
matter sent from the Smithsonian Institution." 

In conformity with this Act the Third Assistant Postmaster General 
issued the following : 

Circular to Postmasters. 



POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, 
Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, 
Division of Postage Stamps, Stamped 

Envelopes, and Postal Cards, 
IVashington, D. C, ^pril 22, /S7P. 

Use of Free Envelopes — Discontinuance of Official Postage Stamps. 

Under the provisions of Sections 5 and 6 of the Act of Congress " establishing post- 
routes, and for other purposes," approved March 3, 1877, and Section 29 of the " Act 
Circular of the making appropriations for the Post Office Department," &c., approved March 5, 1879, the 
Post Oilice Department will begin the issue, on May ist next, of envelopes for official business, which 

Department. will secure the free transmission through the mails of all official matter, and which are 
intended to supersede the post office envelopes now in use, as well as official postage stamps 
and official stamped envelopes. Accordingly, the issue of official stamps and official stamped 
envelopes will be discontinued on and after the date named. 

These free envelopes will be of the same sizes as the present post office envelopes, will 
be of the same color, (canary,) and will contain the same general forms of printing. Each 
envelope, however, will bear, in addition, the words "Post Office Department, Post Officeat 

, Official Business," and the penalty imposed by law for its misuse, as follows : " y4 

penalty of $^60 is fixed hji law for using this envelope for other than official husiness.' 
When 500 of these free envelopes are ordered at one time, of either the Nos. 1, 2, or 3 sizes, 
the name of the post office will be printed in; also when 250 of the No. 4 size. In all other 
cases, a blank will be left for the name of the post office, which must be written in by the 
postmaster before using the envelope. 

^^'The name of the office, it must be understood, is required by law to appear on the 
envelopes, and, when not in print, must he in writing. 



Post Office Envelopes, and Official Stamps and Stamped Envelopes 
NOW on Hand. 

The stock of post office envelopes now in the hands of postmasters will, until exhausted, 
continue to be used, as heretofore, by the attachment of official postage stamps ; so, also, 
official stamped envelopes now in the hands of postmasteis at Presidential offices will be 
used, as heretofore, until exhausted. 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 279 

As soon, however, as such envelopes or the official stamps on hand are about to 
become exhausted, requisition must be made for a supply of the free envelopes, and the 
official postage stamps remaining on hand must he returned, registered, to the Department. 
If the official postage stamps now on hand should become exhausted before the post office 
envelopes, then the remaining envelopes should be returned to the Department and a supply 
of free envelopes ordered. 

It is expected that postmasters will use these envelopes without waste, and never 
permit them to be used on other than strictly official business. Any violation of this instruc- 
tion will be regarded as good ground for dismissal from office, besides subjecting the offender 
to the penalty of the law. 

A. D, HAZEN, 

Third i/Jss't Tostmaster Gen'l. 

It must be remembered that this circular applied only to the stamps 
and envelopes of the Post Office Department. With the exception of the 
Executive, which had discontinued the use of stamps in 1877, the other 
departments continued to use them to some extent. 

The complete and final abolishment of the official stamps was effected 
by an Act of the Forty-eighth Congress, Session i. Chapter 234, from which 
the following is quoted : 

"Section 5. That section twenty-nine of the Act of March 3d, 1879, tie, and it is 
hereby amended so as to read as follows : 

The provisions of the fifth and sixth sections of the Act entitled ' An act establishing Official stamps 
post-routes and for other purposes," approved March 3d, 1877 for the transmission of official entirely abolished. 
mail matter be, and they are hereby, extended to all officers of the United States Government 
not including members of Congress, the envelopes of such matter in all cases to bear appro- 
priate endorsements containing the proper designation of the office from which or officer 
from whom the same is transmitted, with a statement of the penalty for their misuse. And 
the provisions of said fifth and sixth sections are hereby likewise extended and made applic- 
able to all official mail matter of the Smithsonian Institution : 

Provided, That any department or officer authorized to use the penalty envelopes may 
enclose them with return address to any person or persons from or through whom official 
information is desired, the same to be used only to cover such official information and en- 
dorsements relating thereto : 

Provided further, That any letter or packet to be registered by either of the Executive 
Departments or Bureaus thereof, or by the Agricultural Depaitment, or by the Public Printer, 
may be registered without the payment of any registry fee ; and any postpaid letter or packet 
addressed to either of said Departments or Bureaus may be delivered free ; but where there 
is good reason to believe the omission to prepay the full postage thereon was intentional, 
such letter or packet shall be returned to the sender : 

Provided further. That this act shall not extend or apply to pension agents or other 
officers who receive a fixed allowance as compensation for their services, including expenses 
of postage. 

And Section 3915 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, so far as the same relates 
to stamps and stamped envelopes for official purposes, is hereby repealad. 

Approved July 5th, 1884." 

Thus the use of the official stamps was brought to an end. 



From the annual reports of the Postmaster General we obtain the fol- 
lowing statistics of official stamps delivered to the different departments during 
the years they were in use. The reader will kindly bear in mind that the 
year is always the fiscal year ending June 30th: 



2 8o 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



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OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



§. 



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OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



283 





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284 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. 



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OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



28s 



The official stamps having become obsolete, it is said that the various 
departments were requested to return to the Post Office department any 
unused stamps which they had on hand, and that some of the departments 
complied with this request while others declined, on the ground that they 
had paid for the stamps and should not be expected to give them up unless 
properly compensated. Concerning such official stamps as had been manu- 
factured but not distributed to the departments, the Third Assistant Post- 
master General made the following recommendations : 

Post Office Department, 
office of the third assistant postmaster general, 
Washington, D C, January 14, 1885. 

Sir : — The issue and use of official stamps was discontinued under the 
third section of the Act of July 5, 1884 (General Statutes, ist Session, 48th 
Congress), extending the use of penalty envelopes to all classes of official 
correspondence. At that time the contractors for furnishing stamps, the 
American Bank Note Co., of New York, had and now have in their vaults at 
the manufactory, as shown by the weekly reports made to this office, the 
following numbers and denominations of official stamps, viz : 



Denomination. 


Executive 


State. 


Treasury. 


War. 


Navy. Schedule of unissued 


1 cent 


3>5°° 


13,500 


1,292,950 


37,170 


421,200 official stamps. 


2 cents 


1,900 


4,000 


1,921,500 


75,340 


381,150 


3 cents 


1,100 


11,900 


534,000 


104,463 


454,800 


6 cents 


4,700 


10,600 


169,000 


2,787 


355,300 


7 cents 




7,500 


201,200 


161,772 


276,900 


10 cents 


4,950 


8,000 


•3,300 


231.947 


267,290 


12 cents 




24,300 


444,000 


25.130 


236,199 


15 cents 




22,300 


610,400 


108,540 


216,000 


24 cents 




31,500 


279,500 


103,675 


219,800 


30 cents 




24,700 


20,600 


6.159 


217,300 


90 cents 




35,257 


37,000 


167,728 


233.830 


2 dollars 




472 








S dollars 




1,707 








10 dollars 




1,767 








20 dollars 




1,777 
199,280 










16,150 


5,523.450 


1,024,711 


3,279,769 


Denomination. 


Interior. 




Post Office. 


Justice. 


Agriculture. 


I cent 


56,000 




2,888,750 


24,300 


149,585 


2 cents 


13,700 




449,400 


21,000 


SS.'So 


3 cents 


40,500 




263,100 


79,700 


37,950 


6 cents 


37,800 




559,700 


47.500 


101,000 


7 cents 












10 cents 


32,050 




144,250 


19,400 


84,935 


12 cents 


99,450 




321,220 


17.500 


9».73S 


15 cents 


52,200 




146,715 


20,200 


87.350 


24 cents 


10,17s 




259.875 


13,600 


112,635 


30 cents 


48,700 




209,045 


13,100 


90.535 


90 cents 


20,523 




254,600 


6,300 





411,098 



5,496,65s 



262,600 



810,875 



Grand Total, 17,024,588. 



recoiiimended. 



286 OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 

As it is not likely that these stamps will be needed for use by the gov- 

Destruction ernment, to avoid any risks that may attend their custody, I would respectfully 

recommend that they be counted and destroyed under the supervision of a 

committee to be appointed by the Postmaster General, and the facts certified 

under affidavit by the committee. 

There are also in the vaults of the contractors certain other stamps of 
the regular series that have been rendered unserviceable by reason of changes 
Other unissued at various times in the rates of postage, and as it is improbable that these 
stamps will ever be required for issue, I would recommend that they also be 
counted and destroyed in like manner, and by the same committee suggested 
with regard to the official stamps. 

These stamps are in number and denomination as follows : 



stftnips. 



Denomination. 


Ordinary. 


Newspaper and Periodical. 


Total. 


3 cents 


. 


223,750 


223,750 


7 cents 


545.600 




545.600 


9 cents 




101,240 


101,240 


1 2 cents 


503-750 





503,750 


24 cents ■ 


364.950 
1,414,300 




364,950 


Total 


324,99° 


1.739.290 



I have excepted from this recommendation the three-cent stamps of 
the ordinary series, of which there are 135,800 in the vault, for the reason 
Three-cent stamps that, though their general issue has been discontinued, occasional calls are 
excepted. rnade for them by some of the larger offices. 

The total number of stamps in the foregoing lists, recommended to be 
destroyed, is 18,763,878, which at the contract price of 9.19c per thousand, 
would amount to $204.52. 

In the event that this recommendation should meet with your approval, 
permit me to suggest that the work of counting and destruction be performed 
by the committee selected to supervise the cancellation of the dies, etc., at 
the several places of manufacture. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. D. Hazen, 
Hon. Frank Hatton, Third Assistant Postmaster General. 

Postmaster General. 

These suggestions appear to have met with the approval of the Post- 
master General and they were accordingly embodied in the following order : 
Post Office Department, 

office of the postmaster general, 

Washington, D. C., January 14, 1885. 
Ordered (No. 75), that A. G. Sharp, Chief Post Office Inspector, Geo. W. 
Wells, Chief of the Finance Division of the Office of the Third Assistant 
Postmaster General, and C. M. Walker, Chief Clerk of the Post Office De- 
partment, be designated as a committee to visit the postage stamp manufactory 
at New York, the stamped envelope manufactory at Hartford, Conn., and 
the postal card manufactory at Castleton, N. Y., and in connection with the 
Government agent at each of these places, to dispose of, as hereinafter 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. 287 

indicated, the dies, rolls and plates of the several series of postage stamps, 
stamped envelopes and postal cards heretofore and now in use. 

Postage Stamps. 

At New York, the Committee will effectually cancel all plates of the 
following series and denominations of postage stamps, except one working putes ordered to 
plate of each : *« cancelled. 

Issue of 1847 : Denominations, S and lo cents. 

Issue of 1851 : Denominations, r, 3, 5, 10, 12, 24, 30 and 90 cents, 
also two separate designs of i-cent carrier stamps. 

Issue of 1861 : Denominations, r, 2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30 and 90 
cents. 

Issue of 1865 (newspaper and periodical) : Denominations, 5, 10 and 
25 cents. 

Issue of 1869: Denominations, r, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30 and 90 
cents. 

Issue of 1870 (current series) : Denominations, 3, 5 (Taylor), 7, 12 
and 24 cents. 

Issue of 1874 (newspaper and periodical): Denominations, 3 and 9 
cents. 

Executive (official) : Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6 and 10 cents 

Department of State (official) : Denominations, r, 2, 3, 6, 7, lo, 12) 
15, 24, 30 and 90 cents, and $2, $5, f 10 and $20. 

Treasury Department (official) : Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 
15, 24, 30 and 90 cents. 

War Department (official) : Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 
24, 30 and 90 cents. 

Navy Department (official) : Denominations, r, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 
24, 30 and 90 cents. 

Post Office Department (official) ; Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, 10 12, 
15, 24, 30 and 90 cents. 

Department of the Interior (official) : Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, 10, 
12, 15, 24, 30 and 90 cents. 

Department of Justice (official): Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, 10, 72, 
15, 24, 30 and 90 cents. 

Department of Agriculture (official) : Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, 10, 
12, 15, 24 and 30 cents. 

The one plate of each kind and denomination of postage stamp reserved 
as above, and the dies and rolls from which they have been produced, together 
with all the cancelled plates, to be inventoried, waxed, and carefully boxed 
and sealed, and placed in the vault of the stamp manufactory in the custody 
and under the control of the agent, one copy of such inventory to be given to 
the agent, and one to be sent by the committee to the Department. 

The committee will also superintend the cancellation of any worn out 
and unserviceable plates of the current series of postage stamps that may be 
in the possession of the contractors. ******* 

The committee will also supervise the counting and destruction of 



OFFICIAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



Stamps ordered to certain discontinued issues of postage stamps, at the postage stamp manufac- 
be jestroye . ^^^^ ^^ i^ew York, in accordance with the accompanying recommendation of 
the Third Assistant Postmaster General. 

Upon completing the work for which they are appointed, the committee 
will make a written report. 

Frank Hatton, 

Postmaster General. 

On February 24th, r885, the committee reported : "We have counted 
and destroyed by burning, in accordance with instructions, the official arid 
uncurrent stamps, numbering 18,438,888. The schedule of denominations is 
herewith transmitted." (House Executive Documents, 1884-85, 48M Congress, 
Session II, No. 264.) 

The schedule was the same as that given in the letter of the Third 
Assistant Postmaster General, except that it did not include the newspaper 
and periodical stamps. The decision to destroy .was evidently reconsidered 
in the case of those stamps, and it is understood that at least a part of them 
were subsequently used. 

As has been previously remarked, the tables of quantities of stamps 
delivered to the Stamp Agent are not sufficiently extensive or complete to be 
High raiucs of the of much value for comparison, yet we can make some limited deductions 
Dept. of state. {xq^ them. Let us consider the four higher values of the Department of 
State. Comparing the number received by the Stamp Agent with the 
deliveries to the Department and the quantity burned, we find a difference of 
exactly five hundred of each value. We cannot, with present information, 
explain this discrepancy. It is possible that the stamps not accounted for 
were proofs, though I am advised, by those who are well informed about such 
matters, that this is not probable. For the present we will have to leave the 
question for the consideration of those who are interested in such matters. 



Committee report 
tlie destrnetion. 



]!few8paper stamps 
not destroyed. 



Newspaper and Periodical Stamps. 



Issue of 1865. 

It has been remarked in previous chapters that, in its earlier years, the 
postal service suffered much annoyance and loss through the competition 
of local delivery and express companies. Through legislation the Govern- 
ment finally secured exclusive control of the business of transporting letters 
but in the matter of handling newspapers the express companies continued 
to be active and successful rivals of the Post Office Department. They 
carried papers quickly and cheaply from publishers to distributing agents. 
On the other hand, the routine of the postal service, which required the 
papers to be carried to the post office, assorted, forwarded and again assorted 
before delivery, caused vexatious delays. An attempt to overcome this 
difficulty was made in an Act of Congress,- approved March 3rd, 1863, which 
provided as follows : 

"The Postmaster General may, from time to time, provide by order the rates and 
terms upon which route agents may receive and deliver, at the mail car or steamer, packages 
of newspapers and periodicals, delivered to them for that purpose by the publishers or any 
news agent in charge thereof, and not received from nor designed for delivery at any post 
office." 

As the Post Office Department was anxious to secure the carrying of 
newspapers it is probable that the privileges granted by this Act were promptly 
made available. It is to be presumed that the postage was paid to the route 
agents to whom the packages of papers were delivered. Such a return to the 
old-fashioned method of collecting postage in money, without the use of 
stamps or other vouchers for the Government, could not fail to be unsatis- 
factory. As a remedy, postage stamps were brought into use, at some time 
during the summer of 1865. Concerning them the report of the Postmaster 
Genera], dated November isth, 1865, says briefly : 

"New stamps have been adopted of the denominations of 5, 10 and 25 cents for 
prepaying postage on packages of newspapers forwarded by publishers or newsdealers under 
the authority of law, whereby a revenue will be secured hitherto lost to the Department." 

The stamps are thus officially described : 

"The 5, 10 and 25 cent newspaper and periodical stamps are alike in 
general style, 2 by 3^ inches in dimensions, the denominations being repeated 
in Arabic and Roman numerals, in the upper corners Arabic and midway of 
the sides Roman. The numbers ' 10 ' and ' 5 ', five-eighths of an inch high, 
are white-faced, while those at the sides are the color of the stamp. On the 



Act concerning 

transporation of 

newspapers. 



Announcement of 

first newspaper 

stamps. 



Designs. 



290 NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF I 865. 

25-cent Stamp the side figures are also Arabic. The numerals in the upper 
corners of the lo and 25 cent stamps are inclined outward; those on the 
S-cent are perpendicular. 

The letters ' u ' and ' s ' appear near the top in a horizontal line and, 
immediately beneath, the word ' postage ', in a line curved downward at 
each end. Next below this, in the middle of the stamp and surrounded by a 
border of lathe-work, are the several profile medallion portraits in a misty 
style of engraving. The Washington medallion is circular, i 1-8 inches in 
diameter. The Franklin is an ellipse, i 1-16 by i 5-16 inches; while the 
Lincoln is a parallelogram with clipped corners, 7-8 by 1 3-8 inches. Below 
the tablets are the words representing the denominations, and ' newspapers 
AND periodicals ', in three lines. After this, reference is made as follows: 
'sec. 38. ACT OF congress APPROVED MARCH 3D 1 863.' Below the border 
line proper -the heavy white line— at the bottom, in very small type, are 
the words ' national bank note company, new york '." 

The profile busts are intended to suggest coins or medals. The stamps 
measure 51x94^^ to gsJ^mm. 

The stamps differ from other issues of United States postage stamps in 
that they are typographed instead of being engraved in taille douce. On the 
Manufacture. plates, as Originally made, the surface of the plate between the stamps was not 
cut away, consequently it received the ink like those parts of the design which 
were not incised. The result was that the stamps had a border of color. 
Subsequently the plate of the five cents was altered by removing the sur- 
face between the stamps, thus producing what is known as the " white bor- 
der ". Mr. Tiffany says that 20,140 of the five cents with colored border 
were issued, and "In 1868-69 there were issued 33,420 more of the five cent 
value, but these were improved by having the broad colored border remov- 
ed." I do not know upon what authority he bases these statements, but I 
am not inclined to accept them without question. By referring to the tables 
of statistics which accompany this chapter it will be seen that he quotes the 
quantities of the first and last years of issue but ignores the 80,000 copies 
issued in the two intervening years. The relative quantities to be found of 
the two varieties of the stamp suggest that those with the colored border 
were in use for only a limited period and were replaced by the second type 
at an early date. 

The stamps were perforated 1 2 and were issued ungummed. 

At first they were printed on a paper which was moderately thick, hard. 
Paper. opaque and very white, unless discolored by age. Afterwards a very thin, 

tough, almost pelure paper was used. The latest printings were on a thin, 
crisp, semi-transparent paper. 

They are found in the following shades : 

Kefcrence List. Perforated 12. 

COLORED BORDER. 

White Wove Paper. 

5 cents pale dull blue, dull blue, dark dull blue, deep 
bright blue 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1 865. 



29r 



10 cents pale gray-green, gray-green, deep gray-green, 
green, deep green, bluish green 

25 cents pale orange-red, orange-red, vermilion, scarlet, 
carmine-red, brown-carmine; brown-red 
Pelure Paper. 

10 cents pale gray-green, gray-green, deep gray-green 

25 cents orange-red, scarlet 

WHITE BORDER. 

White Wove Paper. 
S cents pale blue, blue, pale bright blue, bright blue, deep 
bright blue, gray-blue, deep gray-blue 
Pelure Paper. 
5 cents blue, bright blue, deep bright blue 
The plates each contained twenty stamps, arranged in four rows of five 
stamps. The impressions were divided horizontally into sheets of ten stamps 
each. The imprint was "national bank note co. new york,'' in colored 
Rom'an capitals, on a small white panel having rounded ends and surrounded 
by two fine white lines. The imprint was placed above the middle stamp of 
the upper row and below the corresponding stamp of the lower row. On the 
sheets of stamps with the colored borders the plate numbers were in large 
ornamental figures and were placed about iimm. to the right of the imprint, 
thus coming above or below the corner of the adjacent stamp. In removing 
the colored border from the five cent stamp both plate numbers were erased. 
To replace them the same number was engraved close to the end of the imprint 
— at the right of the upper and at the left of the lower imprint — in small white 
figures, i}^mm. high. The plate numbers were : 

5 cents No. 38. 

10 cents No. 39. 

25 cents No. 40. 

The Stamp Collector's Magazine for May, 1867, says : 

" For some reason these labels are only regularly sold at the post office 
in Chicago, Illinois, where they have always been procurable since the time 
of issue, but other offices have occasionally kept them in stock " Other 
writers say, "only at Chicago, 111. and Milwaukee, Wis." It is difficult to 
understand this restricted use, but probably, in other cities, the publisheis 
continued to favor the express companies. 

The stamps were usually cancelled with a brush dipped in black or 
blue ink. Specimens with postmarks are nearly always bogus. Genuinely 
used copies are scarce, as the wrappers to which they were attached were 
usually thrown away as waste paper. Furthermore, the cancelled stamps are 
seldom in good condition. This is probably due to the large size of the 
stamps and to their having been hurriedly and carelessly affixed to the 
packages. 

On January 21st, 1867, there was made, by order of A. N. Zevely, 
Third Assistant Postmaster General, a special printing of r,ooo copies of each 



Plateh. 

Impriut. 

Plate DUiiibcrs. 



Itestricted use. 



Caucellatiuit. 



*^ Specimens,' 



Z92 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1865. 



Use of stampN 
discoutinned. 



Statistics of 
manufacture. 



DelWeries to 
postmasters. 



denomination of this issue. These stamps were overprinted " specimen " in 
large gothic type. 

A few years ago there were in the hands of collectors and dealers in 
Boston, a number of. the ten cent stamps which differed in perforation from 
the regular issue. The gauge ranged from it to 14^ and there were often 
three different perforations on a stamp. The copies were all on pelure paper 
and all had the perforations much closer to the design than usual, often 
cutting the outer white line. They were said to have been purchased from 
" a reliable person who stated that he bought them from the Post Office 
Department." Personally, I believe these perforations to be of a private 
nature, but I give the information of their existence for what it is worth. 

The report of the Postmaster General, dated November 15th, 1869, 
says : 

" The issue of periodical stamps was discontinued by my predecessor 
about 1869.'' 

No reason is given for this action nor any further information on the 
subject. We do not know whether such of the stamps as were in the hands 
of postmasters were used up or returned to Washington. 

During the time the stamps were in use the following quantities' were 
received by the Post OfBce Department from the contractors : 

25 cents. 

S.°40 
10,230 





5 cents 


10 cents. 


1865 


10,040 


20,040 


1866 


38,230 


120,230 


1867 


30,000 


95 ,000 


1868 


55.22° 


140,020 


1869 


10,200 


25,200 


Total 


14.^,600 


400,4Q0 



31,080 

100 

46,450 

The annual reports of the Postmaster General furnish the following 
statistics of deliveries to deputy postmasters : 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1866 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1865. Dec. 31, 1865. Mch. 31, 1866. June 30, 1866. 

10,130 

20,130 

130 

Whole number of stamps 65,420. Value $6,306.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1867 : 
Quarter Ending : 



5 cents 


10,000 


10 


10 cents 


10,000 


10,010 


25 cents 


5,000 


10 



Total. 

20,140 

40,140 



5 cents 


Sept. 30, 1866. 

10,000 

30,000 

5,000 

lole number of 


Dec. 31, 1866. Mch. 31, 1867. June 30, 
10,000 20,000 . . . . 


1867. 


Total. 
40,000 


10 cents 


20,000 50,000 . . . . 




25 cents 






5,000 


Wl 


Stamps 145,000. Value $13,250.00. 





NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1865. 293 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1868 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1867. Dec. 31, 1867. Mch. 31, 1868. June 30, 1868. Total. 

scents 10,000 10,000 20,000 40,000 

10 cents 20,000 25,000 20,000 ' 50,000 115,000 

25 cents 5, 000 SjOoo 

Whole number of stamps 160,000. Value $14,750.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1869 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1868. Dec. 31, 1868. Mch. 31, 1869. June 30, 1869. Total. 

5 cents 15,200 10,020 io,2oo' 35,420 

10 cents 45,100- 25,020 25,200 95,320 

25 cents 15,060 S)02o 100 20,180 

Whole number of stamps 150,920. Value $16,348.00. 

The reprints of this and succeeding issues of newspaper stamps will 
be described in a chapter devoted to that subject. 

Counterfeits of these stamps are occasionally seen and some of them 
are rather dangerous. They are made by photo-lithography. They usually 
appear blurred, especially in the white lathe-work surrounding the medallions. 
They are too small, measuring 48^ to 5o^mm. by 92^ to 94j^mm. The 
perforation is nearly always incorrect, ii, iij^ or i2j^. 



Iteprints. 



Counterfeits. 



Newspaper and Periodical Stamps, 



Issue of 1875. 



From 1.^69 to v&T4 inclusive the postage on newspapers and periodicals 
was again collected in money. From the report of the Postmaster General, 
dated November 14th, 1873, it is apparent that this system was both unsatis- 
factory and unprofitable. He says : 

" In my report for i86g ! had the honor to suggest a plan for the prepayment of 

postage on newspapers and other matter of the second class by we ght of packages, rather 

System sngtrfstcil than by the present system, which requires the manipulation of each particular paper and 

Iiy the I'ostniastiT allows the payment of postage at either the mailing office or the office of delivery. A careful 

Oeiieriil. revision of the subject confirms me in the opinion that the postage on all such matters should 

be collected in advance at the mailing office. Collections are now made with great difficulty, 

and there is no provision whatever by which dishonesty or negligence can be detected. No 

i=tamps are used for the payment of such postage, and the Department is compelled to accept 

in full satisfaction whatever sums of money postmasters choose to charge against themselves. 

So execrably bad is this system that postal officers of high standing have estimated that not 

more than one-third of the postage properly chargeable on newspapers is accounted for and 

paid over." 

The suggestions of the Postmaster General were duly considered by 

Congress and resulted in an Act, approved June 23rd, 1874, which provided : 

"Section 5. That on and after the first day of January, 187^, all newspapers and 
periodical publications, mailed from a known office of publication or news agency and 
rian authorizeil addressed to regular subscribers or news agents, shall be charged the following rates : 
by Congress. On newspapers and periodical publications issued weekly and more frequently than 

once a week, two cents for each pound or fraction thereof, and on those issued less frequently 
than once a week three cents for each pound or fraction thereof ; Provided that nothing in 
this Act shall be held to change or amend Section 90 of the Act entitled : ' An Act to revise, 
consolidate and amend the statutes relating to the Post Office Department,' approved June 
8th, 1872. 

Section 6. That on and after the first day of January, 1875, upon the receipt of such 
newspapers and periodical publications at the office of mailing, they shall be weighed in 
bulk, and the postage paid thereon by a special adhesive stamp, to be devised and furnished 
by the Postmaster General ; which shall be affixed to such matter or to the sack containing 
the same, or upon a memorandum of such mailing, or otheiwi>e as the Postmaster General 
may from lime to time provide by regulation." 

The stamps were first sent out to postmasters on December nth, 1874 
and went into use on January ist, 1875. 

In the re[)ort of the Third .Assistant Postmaster General, dated Novem- 
ber 15th, 1875, we find further interesting details concerning the stamps, the 
manner of using them and the success of the system : 

" On the first day of January, 1S7S, the new law requiring prepayment of postage by 

stamps on all newspapers ;ind periodicals, sent from a known office of publication to regular 

Syntcni round subscribers through the mails, went into operation. The system inaugurated to carry the law 

Niitlsfivolory. into eflect was approved by you in October, 1874, and has been found by experience to he 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1875. 



^95 



admirably adapted to the purpose for which it was devised. No complaints of abuses on the 
part of publishers or postmasters have been received at this office during the nine months 
that have elapsed since the law went into effect. Indeed, it has worked so well in all its 
details, and has given such general satisfaction, that the idea of returning to the old system, 
or materially modifying the new one, ought not to be entertained. 

Previous to the time when this law began to operate, no stamps were required for the 
payment of postage on newspapers sent to regular subscribers, as the postage was collected 
in money quaiterly at the office of delivery. Last year there were 35,000 post offices at 
which newspaper postage was collected, while under the present tiue system of the absolute 
prepayment of all postages, the whole amount is collected at about 3,400 offices, the latter 
representing the number of places in the United States at which newspapers and periodicals 
are mailed. 

The papers for subscribers living outside of the county in which they are published 
are made up in bulk at the publication office, carried to the post office, and there weighed. 
The postage is computed on the whole issue, the proper amount in stamps handed to the 
postmaster, who gives the publisher a receipt as evidence of payment, and on the stubs of 
the receipt book he affixes and cancels the stamps, which correspond in value with the sum 
mentioned in the receipt. Thus, one transaction is all that is required in paying the post- 
age upon a single is.'iue of any regular publication The stubs with their cancelled stamps 
are kept in the post office, as vouchers for the postage paid. In no case are the stamps 
affixed to the papers or packages that pass through the mails. 

These stamps are twenty-four in number, and were prepared by the Continental Bank 
Note Company, of New York, from designs selected in October, 1R74. The denominations 
are as follows, viz.: 2 cents, 3 cents, 4 cents, 6 cents, 8 cents, 9 cents, 10 cents, 12 cents, 
24 cents, 36 cents, 48 cents, 60 cents, 72 cents, 84 cents, q6 cents, $1.92, $3, $6, $9, $12, 
$24, I36, $48 and $60. These denominations were "found to be necessary, in order that 
payment might be made on any given quantity from one pound to one ton, at both the two 
and three cent rate, with the use of not to exceed five stamps in any transaction." 

At first it was required to cancel the stamps witli a punch but after- 
wards various forms of post office "killers " and even pen cancellations were 
allowed to be used. The stubs with the cancelled stamps attached were sent, 
at regular intervals, to the Post Office Department at Washington and, after 
comparison with the accounts, were destroyed. 

The following is the official description of the designs: 
r, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 and 10 Cents. Emblematical figure of America, 
looking to the right and modeled after Crawford's statue upon the dome of 
the Capitol. The left hand rests on a shield and holds a wreath; the right 
grasps a sword. The head is adorned with a coronet of stars, surmounted by 
an eagle's head. The vignette stands in an arched frame, and at the sides 
and top are slabs containing the inscriptions: " newspapers " on the left, 
"periodicals" on the right, and " u. s. postage " at the top. At the 
bottom are shaded capitals representing the value, which is also indicated by 
large figures in the upper corners. The lower corners are ornamented by 
shields. The color of these stamps is black. 

12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 Cents. Vignette of Astraea, or 
Justice, in niche, curved at. the top, holding in her right hand the balance, 
and resting with her left on a shield bearing the United States coat of arms. 
The figure is full-robed, mailed and girdled as to the upper part, and helmet- 
ed. Surmounting the helmet is an eagle with outstretched wings. Figures 
representing values on shields in upper corners, values also in sunken letters 
below, richly ornamented. Inscriptions on sides and at top in shaded capitals 
on lined ground. Color, pink. 

One Dollar and Ninety-two Cents. Vignette of Ceres, Goddess 
of Agriculture, in curved niche. She holds in her left hand an ear of corn; 
her right, holding a wreath, rests against the hip. The figure faces to the 



Manner of nsing 
tlie stamps. 



Iteason for tiie 
various denomi- 
nations. 



Cancellation. 



Designs and colors. 



296 NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS.^ — ISSUE OF 1875. 

front, and is clad in full, flowing robes, ''u. s. postage " at the top; other 
inscriptions in italic letters on obelisks at either side, resting on the lower 
slab, containing value in white capitals. Value also in figures in upper 
corners. Color, deep brown. 

Three Dollars Goddess of Victory, in curved niche, full robed, 
girded, with sword to the left, and mantel thrown over shoulders. The right 
hand is stretched forward, holding a wreath; the left rests on a shield. 
Figures of value in upper corners; value below in letters, on either side of a 
large figure " 3 ". Inscriptions in solid labels, on either side, and on lined 
ground above. Color, vermilion. 

Six Dollars. Clio, the Muse of History, in curved niche, full-robed, 
the toga thrown over the left shoulder. In her right hand she holds a stylus; 
in the left, a tablet. Figures of value in upper corners, surrounded by curved 
ornaments. Inscriptions in white shaded letters on sides, and above in dark 
letters, on lined ground. Color, light blue. 

Nine Dollars. Minerva, the Goddess of Wisdom, full-robed, in 
curved niche. The left hand is placed across her breast, holding a portion 
of her toga ; the right is grasping a spear. Figures of value in upper corners. 
Inscriptions on sides in shaded italics, and above in small letters on lined 
ground. Value also in letters below on scroll. Beneath is a large " 9 ", in 
curved ornaments. Color, orange. 

Twelve Dollars. Vesta, the Goddess of the Fireside, full-robed, in 
curved niche. The left hand lifts her drapery ; the right holds a burning 
lamp. Figures of value in upper corners on tablets ; value also in letters on 
beaded frame beneath. Inscriptions in solid italic letters on sides, and in 
small white letters above. Color, rich green. 

Twenty-four Dollars. Goddess of Peace, in curved niche — a half- 
naked figure, leaning against a broken column. She holds in her left hand 
an olive branch, while the right grasps three arrows. The value is in words 
beneath, on a solid tablet ; also in figures, in ornamented curves, in upper 
corners. Inscriptions in white shaded letters above and -on sides, between 
which latter and each upper corner is a large, six-pointed star. Color, pur- 
plish slate. 

Thirty-six Dollars. Figure representing Commerce, in full gar- 
ments, in curved niche. She holds in her left hand the caduceus, the winged 
rod of Mercury ; in her right, a miniature ship. Figures of value in upper 
corners and in ornamented capitals below. Inscriptions, also in ornamented 
capitals, on sides and above. Color, dull red 

Forty-eight Dollars. Hebe, the Goddess of Youth, partly draped, 
in curved niche. The right hand holds a cup, which she is offering to the 
eagle, around whose neck is thrown her left hand. Figures of value on shields 
in upper corners, the word " postage " between ; value also in letters below, 
in curved ornaments. The letters " u. s.", in circles, between upper corners 
and side inscriptions, the latter being in curved labels. Color, light brown. 

Sixty Dollars. Vignette of an Indian maiden, standing in a rec- 
tangular frame. She is robed from her waist downward. Her right arm is 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1875. 297 

extended while her left hangs by her side. The background is a landscape, 
trees and vines to the left, and wigwams to the right in the distance. Figures 
of value on shields in upper corners ; value also in white letters on solid tablet 
below. Inscriptions in white, on solid labels, above and on sides. Color, 
rich purple. 

The stamps measure 24j^x35mm. 

The paper is thin, hard and slightly transparent. A few values are 
occasionally seen on a paper which is thicker and more opaque. The two Paper. 

and three cents are also found on ribbed paper. The gum is thin and smooth, 
usually yellowish but sometimes almost white. The perforation has the 
normal guage, 12. 

The stamps are found in the following shades and varieties : 

Perforated 12. Iteference List. 

White Wove Paper. 

2 cents black, gray-black, greenish black 

3 cents black, gray-black 

4 cents black, gray-black, greenish black 
6 cents black, gray-black 

8 cents black, gray-black, greenish black 

9 cents black, gray-black, greenish black 
10 cents black, gray-black, greenish black 

12 cents pale rose, rose, lilac-rose, deep lilac-rose, violet- 
rose 
24 cents pale rose, rose, lilac-rose, deep lilac-rose, violet- 
rose 
36 cents pale rose, rose, lilac-rose, deep lilac-rose 
48 cents rose, lilac-rose, deep lilac-rose 
60 cents rose, lilac-rose, deep lilac-rose 
72 cents rose, lilac-rose, deep lilac-rose 
84 cents rose, lilac-rose 
96 cents rose, lilac-rose, deep lilac-rose 
1.92 cents bistre-brown, dark brown 

3 dollars vermilion, orange- vermilion 

6 dollars ultramarine, dull ultramarine 

9 dollars yellow 
1 2 dollars blue-green 
24 dollars dark gray-violet 
36 dollars rose-brown 
48 dollars vermilion-brown 
60 dollars red-violet 

Varieties : 

2 cents black. Imperforate 

3 cents black 

4 cents black " 
6 cents black " 
8 cents black " 



298 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF I 875. 



Plate iiiiiiiborM. 



9 cents black Imperforate 

10 cents black 
12 cents bright rose 
24 cents bright rose 
36 cents bright rose 
48 cents bright rose 
60 cents bright rose 
72 cents bright rose 
84 cents bright rose 
96 cents bright rose 
192 cents dark brown 

3 dollars vermilion 

6 dollars ultramarine 

9 dollars yellow 
12 dollars blue-green 
24 dollars dark gray-violet 
36 dollars rose-brown 
48 dollars vermilion-brown 
60 dollars red-violet 

Horizontally Ribbed Paper. 

2 cents black 

3 cents black 

The plates each contained one hundred stamps, arranged in ten rows 
of ten. Before delivery the sheets were divided horizontally into half sheets 
of fifty stamps. The imprint was "Engraved and printed by the — Con- 
tinental Bank Note Co., New York ", in two lines of white Roman 
capitals, on a panel with beaded edge and surrounded by a thin colored line. 
The imprint was placed above the two stamps in the middle of the top row 
and below the corresponding stamps of the bottom row. There were no 
imprints at the sides, merely three lines forming an arrow head and marking 
the line at which the sheet should be divided. Numbers were assigned to all 
the plates but they do not appear on sheets of the lower values (I have not 
been able to see sheets of the higher values) and probably were not engraved 
on any of the plates, at least not on the face. Sheets from one of the plates 
of the two cents show a script figure " 2 " above the eighth stamp of the top 
row ; and certain sheets of the three cents bear, above the seventh stamp of 
the same row, a large Roman capital " B ", white faced and heavily shaded. 
The numbers assigned to the plates were : 



2 cents 


No. 


200, 


218B. 


3 cents 


No. 


206, 


23-^, 233B 


4 cents 


No. 


2'5- 




6 cents 


No. 


216. 




8 cents 


No. 


213. 




9 cents 


No. 


211. 




10 cents 


No. 


217. 




12 cents 


No. 


195- 




24 cents 


No. 


198. 





NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1875. 



299 



36 cents No. 196. 

48 cents No. 203. 

60 cents No. 202. 

72 cents No. 201. 

84 cents No. 205. 

96 cents No. 204. 

192 cents No. 207. 

3 dollars No. 199. 

6 dollars No. 197. 

9 dollars No. 194. 

12 dollars No. 214. 

24 dollars No. 209. 

36 dollars No. 212. 

48 dollars No. 210. 

60 dollars No. 208. 

These stamps are found surcharged with the word " Specimen " in 

gothic type. This surcharge is of two sizes ; one is similar to the well-known 

surcharge on the stamps of the 1861 issue, while the other is smaller. 

I have only been able to secure incomplete statistics of the quantities 
of these stamps received by the Stamp Agent from the contractors. During 
the first three years of manufacture the quantities were : 
Year Ending December 31ST : 
1875. 



' SpeeinieDS.' 



Statistics of 
manufucturo. 





1874. 


2 cents 


97S,ooo 


3 cents 


975,000 


4 cents 


792,000 


6 cents 


775,000 


8 cents 


198,000 


9 cents 


200,000 


10 cents 


188,000 


12 cents 


200,000 


24 cents 


197,000 


36 cents 


100,000 


48 cents 


100,000 


60 cents 


100,000 


72 cents 


100,000 


84 cents 


100,000 


96 cents 


100,000 


192 cents 


20,000 


3 dollars 


40,000 


6 dollars 


20,000 


9 dollars 


20,000 


12 dollars 


20,0C0 


24 dollars 


5,000 


36 dollars 


S,ooo 


48 dollars 


S,ooo 


60 dollars 


5,000 


Total, 


5,240,000 



90,000 



19,500 



5,000 



114,500 



1876. 


Total. 


175,000 


1,150,000 




975,000 





792,000 




775,000 


180,000 


378,000 


35,000 


235,000 


125,000 


403,000 


175,000 


375,°°° 


175,000 


372,000 


45,000 


145,000 


40,000 


140,000 


40,000 


140,000 


40,000 


140,000 


40,000 


140,000 


40,000 


140,000 


90,000 


129,500 


88,000 


128,000 


62,500 


82,500 


9.5°° 


29,500 


8,500 


28,500 


9>5°° 


19,5°° 


18,500 


23,50° 


9-5°° 


14,500 


i3>So° 


18,500 


1,419,500 


6,774,000 



300 NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1875. 

The annual reports of the Postmaster General furnish the following 
statistics of quantities supplied to deputy postmasters: 
Deiireries to Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1875: 

'"'^'°"'*"'"- Quarter Ending: 

Sept. 30, 1874. Dec. 31, 1874. Mch. 31,1875. June 30, 1875. Total. 

2 cents 470,700 69,795 49,060 589,555 

scents 260,800 33,930 23,365 318,095 

4 cents 272,900 26,600 25,665 325,165 

6 cents 173,250 27,345 25,380 225,975 

8 cents 51,250 14,000 14,405 79,655 

9 cents 29,000 7,520 5,210 41,730 

10 cents ; . . 89,150 28,610 32,410 150,170 

12 cents 84,400 22,340 19,785 126,525 

24 cents 53,750 20,845 17,820 92,415 

36 cents 18,300 12,280 8,585 39,165 

48 cents 17,700 10,940 8,190 36,830 

60 cents 21,750 10,675 11,381 43,806 

72 cents 5,700 7,025 6,725 19,450 

84 cents 4,950 6,850 5,957 17,757 

96 cents 12,750 10,505 9,910 33,165 

192 cents 4,225 9,500 6,337 20,062 

3 dollars 6,969 6,768 7,222 20,959 

6 dollars 2,585 3,544 3,173 9,302 

9 dollars 1,151 2,611 1,606 5,368 

12 dollars 1,350 2,548 2,184 6,082 

24 dollars 554 i,59o 1,046 3,190 

36 dollars 319 1,009 343 1,671 

48 dollars 191 831 305 ',327 

60 dollars 376 640 780 ',796 

Whole number of stamps 2,209,215. Value $815,902.47. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1876 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1875. Dec. 31, 1875. Mch. 31, 1876, June 30, 1876. Total. 

2 cents 6o,9SS 59,675 78,265 64,770 263,665 

3 cents 23,085 21,470 27,600 23,780 95,935 

4 cents 30,495 28,030 35,750 31,850 126,125 
6 cents 32,325 25,905 34,57o 32,785 125,585 

8 cents 14,920 '2,515 20,940 16,440 64,815 

9 cents 5,920 3,630 6,680 6,420 22,650 
10 cents 3', 520 32,500 44,3*o 38,070 146,410 
12 cents 20,770 22,555 25,99s 24,580 93,900 
24 cents 16,830 i8,33S 22,925 22,960 81,050 
36 cents 8,025 9,250 •1,875 «i,io5 40,255 
48 cents 6,975 8,065 10,260 9,565 34,86s 
60 cents 6,025 6,475 10,530 9,280 3',3'o 
72 cents 2,430 2,550 5,825 4,915 15,720 
84 cents 2,790 3,185 5,045 4,570 15,595 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1875. 30I 



9,940 
5,215 
6,319 
1,673 
1,424 
1,672 
404 

S'S 

96 

648 

Whole number of stamps 1,290,347. Value $945,254.75. 
Stamps issued duringthe fiscal year ending June 30th, 1877 
Quarter Ending : 



96 cents 


1 1,460 


192 cents 


6,290 


3 dollars 


6,719 


6 dollars 


3,799 


9 dollars 


2,57' 


12 dollars 


2,219 


24 dollars 


1,636 


36 dollars 


529 


48 dollars 


333 


60 dollars 


691 



h. 31, 1876. 


June 30, 1876 


Total. 


11,300 


10,695 


43,390 


7,050 


6,41s 


24,970 


7,204 


5,874 


26,116 


3,682 


2,921 


12,075 


1,781 


1,576 


7,352 


2,078 


1,884 


7,853 


588 


762 


3,390 


439 


618 


2,TOI 


232 


513 


i,'74 


807 


900 


3,049 





Sept. 30, 1876. 


Dec. 31, 1876. Mch. 31, 1877. 


June 30, 1877. 


Total. 


2 cents 


73,655 


66,510 


72,180 


7',57o 


283,9'S 


3 cents 


26,980 


23,600 


27,360 


27,170 


I05,TIO 


4 cents 


35,480 


32,680 


33,095 


38,040 


139,29s 


6 cents 


3f,345 


28,210 


29,560 


32.265 


121,380 


8 cents 


19,210 


16,095 


16,865 


20,675 


72,845 


9 cents 


6,210 


4,330 


5,530 


6,240 


22,310 


10 cents 


42,f45 


37,955 


42,170 


46,410 


168,680 


12 cents 


26,640 


2 2,495 


25,630 


24,165 


98,930 


24 cents 


23,005 


19,780 


23,160 


20,815 


86,760 


36 cents 


11,385 


10,516 


11,080 


12,470 


45,445 


48 cents 


9,695 


9,435 


10,365 


'0,315 


39,810 


60 cents 


9,119 


8,950 


11,446 


9,705 


39,220 


72 cents 


4,5>o 


4,460 


5,205 


5,250 


19,452 


84 cents 


3,64s 


4,285 


5,555 


4,19s 


1.7,680 


96 cents 


9,190 


9,740 


10,570 


9,605 


39,105 


192 cents 


7,005 


5-275 


7,575 


5,715 


25,570 


3 dollars 


6,746 


6,059 


6,333 


6,2 r5 


25,353 


6 dollars 


3,207 


2,926 


2,867 


3,432 


12,432 


9 dollars 


1,544 


",923 


1,384 


2,234 


7,085 


12 dollars 


1,978 


2,160 


1,55^ 


2,260 


7,949 


24 dollars 


926 


986 


735 


738 


3,38s 


36 dollars 


409 


557 


668 


499 


2,133 


48 dollars 


289 


289 


423 


191 


1,192 


60 dollars 


853 


949 


998 


900 


3,700 


Whole number of stamps 1,388,709. 


Value $t. 


000,605.10. 




Stamps issued during the fiscal year 


ending June 30th, 1878 : 








Quarter Ending : 








Sept 30, 1877 


Dec 31, 1877. Mch. 31, 1878. 


June 30, 1878. 


Total. 


2 cents 


84,57s 


63,740 


104,210 


75,265 


327,790 


3 cents 


32,100 


24,260 


43,510 


29,050 


128,920 


4 cents- 


45,335 


31,600 


52,810 


35,990 


165,735 


6 cents 


40,475 


27,120 


44,230 


33,055 


144,880 


8 cents 


25,090 


18,565 


25,650 


20,115 


89,420 



302 NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1875. 





Sept. 30, 1877. 


Dec. 31, 1877. 


Mch. 31, 1878. 


June 30, 1878. 


Total 


9 cents 


7,730 


5, '90 


7,450 


4,620 


24,990 


10 cents 


54,285 


42,005 


64,775 


47.705 


208,770 


12 cents 


32,580 


20,720 


35,03s 


23,220 


i",5S5 


24 cents 


26,855 


17,490 


30,330 


20,455 


95,130 


36 cents 


i?,350 


9,995 


15,450 


10,690 


48,485 


48 cents 


9,985 


7,295 


14,045 


7,640 


38,965 


60 cents 


11,490 


9,335 


12,820 


8,615 


42,260 


72 cents 


4,945 


4,955 


8,070 


3,945 


2T,9IS 


84 cents 


6,210 


4,910 


6,345 


4,520 


21,985 


96 cents 


12,210 


7,870 


14,040 


8,8is 


42,935 


192 cents 


8,250 


5,980 


9,575 


5.475 


29,280 


3 dollars 


7,220 


6,219 


8,317 


5.499 


27,255 


6 dollars 


3,686 


2,741 


3,165 


3.763 


",355 


9 dollars 


2,336 


1,269 


1,449 


1,530 


6.584 


12 dollars 


2,783 


1,802 


1,882 


2.033 


8,500 


24 dollars 


973 


1,232 


648 


1.177 


4.029 


36 dollars 


825 


599 


377 


470 


2,271 


48 dollars 


660 


325 


253 


540 


1,778 


60 dollars 


■ 961 


960 


872 


998 


3,79« 


Whole number of stamps, 1,609,57 


'8. Value, $1 


,093,845.30. 




Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1879: 








Quarter Ending: 








Sept. 30, 1878. 


Dec. 31, 1878. 


Mch. 31, 1879, 


June 30, 1879. 


Total. 


2 cents 


75,335 


75,450 


84,980 


87,600 


323,365 


3 cents 


29,190 


30,240 


29,530 


13,730 


102,690 


4 cents 


40,380 


39,««5 


43.385 


46,900 


169,780 


6 cents 


36,185 


30,905 


34,455 


33,810 


135.355 


8 cents 


21,545 


23,295 


22,990 


24,020 


91,850 


9 cents 


6,750 


6,260 


6,230 


2,340 


21,580 


10 cents 


50,615 


49,565 


52,390 


52,135 


204,705 


12 cents 


25,310 


25,095 


26,190 


26,240 


102,83s 


24 cents 


22,210 


22,T95 


23,8'5 


24,600 


92,820 


36 cents 


11,710 


12,180 


12,730 


11,985 


48,605 


48 cents 


9,165 


9,660 


9,770 


9,89s 


38,490 


60 cents 


10,065 


Jo,95o 


11,015 


10,180 


42,210 


72 cents 


5,105 


5,655 


6,36s 


4,995 


22,120 


84 cents 


4,545 


3,825 


5,to5 


5,465 


18,490 


96 cents 


12,820 


8,835 


' 1,350 


11,240 


44.245 


192 cents 


6,775 


6,055 


7,>i5 


6,408 


26,353 


3 dollars 


6,566 


5,931 


7-583 


6,662 


26,742 


6 dollars 


3,142 


2,558 


3.634 


2.583 


11.917 


9 dollars 


1,962 


2,756 


2,416 


1,680 


7,814 


12 dollars 


2,13 • 


1,570 


2,819 


1.752 


8.272 


24 dollars 


836 


665 


1,231 


849 


3.581 


36 dollars 


663 


320 


781 


346 


2,113 


48 dollars 


455 


274 


528 


198 


1,450 


60 dollars 


1,148 


927 


1,167 


1,098 


4,340 



Whole nurhber of stamps, 1,552,172. Value, $1,088,412.16. 



Newspaper and Periodical Stamps, 



Issue of 1879. 

In February, 1879, when the leading banknote companies of New 
York City were consolidated under the name of the American Bank Note 
Co., the new corporation assumed the contract of the Continental Bank Note 
Co. for the manufacture of postage stamps. In printing the stamps for news- 
papers and periodicals the American Bank Note Co. used the plates of its 
predecessor and did not make any new plates, with the exception of a plate 
for the one cent value which will be described hereafter. For the two and 
three cent stamps plates 218B and 233B, respectively, were employed, the 
other plates of those values having been previously retired from use. 

By an Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 1879, the postage on 
newspapers and periodicals was fixed at the uniform rate of two cents per 
pound. 

In connection with this change the following official circular was sent 

to postmasters: 

Post Office Department. 

Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General. 

Division of Postage Stamps, Stamped Envelopes & Post Cards. 

Washington, D. C, April 25, 1879. 
The attention of Postmasters is hereby called to the fact that, on and after the fust of 
May proximo, under the act of March jd, 1879, "natter of the second class, commonly 
known as newspaper and periodical matter, will be entitled to pass through the mail at a 
uniform rate of 2 cents per pound. Care will be taken not to collect payment on such matter 
at more than that rate. The same general regulations concerning the collection of news- 
paper postage, as have been heretofore promulgated, will remain in force and the same books 
and blanks, together with the newspaper and periodical' stamps that are now outstanding, 
will continue to be used. In future, however, the issue of the three and nine cents denomina- 
tions of newspaper and periodical stamps will be discontinued. 

A. D. Hazen, 

Third Assistant Postmaster General. 

The rate of postage on printed matter of the second class, when sent 

through the mails by publishers and news agents, was reduced to one cent 

per pound by Act of Congress, approved March 3rd, 1885. This rate went 

into effect on July ist, 1885, and necessitated the issue of a one cent stamp. 

On this subject the report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, dated 

November 18th, 1885, says: 

" To provide for wants that were certain to arise from the change in the rate of post- 
age on newspapers and periodicals sent by publishers and news agents to actual subscribers, 
authorized by the act of Congress of March 3, 1885, the Department began issuing, on the 



Change of 
contractors. 



Kate of postage 
reduced. 



Circular to 
postmasters. 



Rate of postage 
again reduced. 



One cent stamp. 



304 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1 879. 



5d of June, 1885, newspaper and periodical postage stamps of the denomination of 1 cent, 
(or use after July i, 1885. This new denomination is of the same design and color as the 
stamps of the denominations from 2 to 10 cents in the same series ; the only difference is in 
the numeral and the word indicating the value." 

For this new value only one plate was made. Like the plates of the 
series made by the Continental Bank Note Co., it contained one hundred 
Plate. stamps, arranged in ten rows of ten stamps each. At the time of perforating, 

the printed sheets were divided horizontally into half sheets of fifty stamps. 
The imprint appears four times on each sheet, that is to say, at the middle of 
the top, bottom and each side. It is "American bank note company, new 
YORK." in very small colored Roman capitals, ^mm high. The inscription 
is but 33 ^mm. long, thus extending only partly over two stamps. It is not 
on a panel, as is customary, and is entirely without ornamental surroundings. 
Plate nniiiber. Above the imprint at the top of the plate is " No. 482 ", in slanting letters and 
numerals, 2mm high. 

The paper is the thick, soft, porous paper that was used for all issues 
made by this company. The gum varies from brownish yellow to white. 
The perforation is, as usual, 12. 

In the course of time the shades of the lower values changed to a con- 
siderable extent. The colors and shades are: 

Reference List. Perforated 12. 

Thick Soft Porous Wove Paper. 

1 cent black, deep black, gray-black 

2 cents black, deep black, gray black, greenish black 

3 cents black, deep black, gray-black 

4 cents black, deep black, gray-black, greenish black 
6 cents black, deep black, gray-black 

8 cents black, deep black, gray-black 
10 cents black, deep black, gray-black, greenish black 
12 cents pale brown-red, brown-red, pale carmine, rose- 
carmine, carmine, dark carmine, brown-carmine, 
lake 
24 cents pale brown-red, brown-red, pale carmine, rose- 
carmine, carmine dark carmine, brown-carmine, 
lake, violet-rose 
36 cents brown-red, rose-carmine, dark carmine, violet- 
rose 
48 cents pale brown-red, brown-red, dark carmine, lake, 

violet-rose 
60 cents pale brown red, brown-red, rose-carmine, dark 

carmine, violet-rose 
72 cents brown-red, dark carmine, lake 
84 cents brown-red, rose-carmine, dark carmine, violet- 
rose 
96 cents brown-red, rose-carmine, dark carmine 
192 cents yellow-brown, brown, dark brown 

3 dollars carmine-vermilion, deep carmine-vermilion 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



3°S 



6 dollars blue, dark blue, chalky blue 

9 dollars yellow-orange, orange 

12 dollars deep green, deep yellow-green, blue-green 
24 dollars dark violet 

36 dollars dull rose, brown-rose, Indian red 
48 dollars orange-brown, deep orange-brown 
60 dollars pale purple, purple, deep purple 

Variety: 

60 cents dull brown-red. Imperforate. 
On page 285 will be found a letter of the Third Assistant Postmaster 
General, recommending the destruction of certain obsolete postage stamps, 
of which a tabular statement is given. This table includes some newspaper 
and periodical stamps, viz. : 

3 cents 223,750 

9 cents 101,240 

A committee was appointed to carry out the suggested destruction 
On referring to page 288 it will be seen that, in due course, the committee 
reported the destruction of the ofificial stamps and the uncurrent stamps of 
the regular issue but made no mention of any others. We may, therefore, 
conclude that, at that time, the newspaper and periodical stamps escaped, 
though it is probable that, at a later date, those of the nine cent denomina- 
tion were destroyed. 

The three cent stamp was again brought into use in the last quarter 
of the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1885, but the nine cents was not again 
revived, as will be seen by referring to the accompanying tables. 

On pages 152 and 153 reference was made to a series of stamps over- 
printed " SPECIMEN " in block capitals, which were intended for distribution 
to foreign countries through the Universal Postal Union. The stamps thus 
surcharged included the newspaper and periodical stamps, from one cent to 
sixty dollars. The nine cent stamp was of the Continental printing. The 
other values were the product of the American Bank Note Co. The de 
nominations from twelve to ninety-six cents inclusive were printed in brown- 
red. 

The following statistics of issues of the newspaper and periodical 
stamps have been compiled from the annual reports of the Postmaster General 
and certain other sources of information. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1880: 

Quarter Ending: ^ 

Dec. 31, 1879. Mch. 31, 1880. 



2 cents 
4 cents 
6 cents 
8 cents 
10 cents 
12 cents 



Sept. 30, 1879, 
100,620 
57.325 
38.335 
27.750 
62,965 

28,035 



99.705 
58.555 
37.320 
26,930 

61,83s 
26,965 



97,640 

55,655 
37,470 
28,410 
61,707 
27,090 



June 30, iS 

124,220 

68,260 

44.025 

34.240 

73.019 
31,290 



Total. 
422,185 

240,795 
157.150 
J 17.330 
259.526 
"13,38'^ 



Suggested destruc- 
tion of unissued 
stamps. 



Three cent stamp 
again in use. 



" Specimen ' 
stamps. 



Deliveries to 
postmasters. 



3o6 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 





Sept. 30, 1879, 


Dec. 31, 1879. 


Mch. 31, 1880. 


June 30, 1880. 


Total. 


24 cents 


26,900 


22,475 


26,170 


30,405 


•05,950 


36 cents 


15,890 


12,135 


'3.580 


15,670 


57,275 


48 cents 


11,040 


9,620 


9.965 


10,995 


41,620 


60 cents 


14,250 


10,820 


13,040 


13,435 


5',54S 


72 cents 


7,640 


4,370 


6,630 . 


7,00s 


25,645 


84 cents 


6,40s 


3,805 


6,485 


6,515 


23,210 


96 cents 


"-7»S 


11,910 


11,745 


14,010 


50,390 


192 cents 


7,940 


6,810 


7,29s 


7,675 


29,720 


3 dollars 


8,075 


5,964 


7,498 


7,582 


29,119 


6 dollars 


3,441 


3,679 


3,606 


3,270 


13,996 


9 dollars 


2,138 


2,205 


1,595 


2, 206 


8,144 


12 dollars 


2,161 


2,657 


1,851 


2,935 


9,604 


24 dollars 


1,03s 


939 


',043 


1,291 


4,308 


36 dollars 


540 


452 


779 


550 


2,321 


48 dollars 


350 


421 


381 


753 


1,905 


60 dollars 


',093 


I, "S3 


','53 


1,565 


4,964 


Whole number of 


stamps, 1,770,1 


082. Value $1 


,252,903.30. 





Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1881: 
Quarter Ending: 



s 


ept. 30, 1880. 


Dec. 31, 1880. 


. Mch. 31, 1881. 


June 30, i88r. 


Total. 


2 cents 


'03,675 


114,295 


108,715 


111,615 


438,300 


4 cents 


63,980 


69,185 


72,430 


70,330 


275,925 


6 cents 


39,790 


44,410 


48,480 


44,865 


177,545 


8 cents 


30,845- 


34,270 


36,300 


33,780 


135,195 


10 cents 


69,945 


80,297 


81,411 


80,190 


311,843 


12 cents 


28,715 


34,230 


39,630 


34,550 


'37,125 


24 cents 


27,050 


3',83S 


35,390 


33,370 


127,645 


36 cents 


14,840 


17,540 


17,225 


15,670 


65,275 


48 cents 


12,070 


12,050 


12,840 


12,350 


49,3'o 


60 cents 


12,585 


'3,8S5 


16,250 


15,780 


58,470 


72 cents 


6, no 


7,635 


6,285 


8,410 


28,440 


84 cents 


4,975 


6,890 


7,090 


6,300 


25,255 


96 cents 


",385 


14,285 


14,610 


13,570 


53,850 


192 cents 


6,85s 


9,055 


8,725 


7,880 


32,5'S 


3 dollars 


6,472 


7,949 


8,626 


7,813 


30,860 


6 dollars 


2,989 


4,454 


4,009 


3,642 


15,094 


9 dollars 


2,043 


1,622 


2,87s 


1,783 


8,323 


12 dollars 


2,428 


2,385 


2,894 


2,504 


10,211 


24 dollars 


932 


885 


938 


960 


3,7'S 


36 dollars 


340 


752 


755 


653 


2,500 


48 dollars 


275 


601 


5-8 


456 


1,850 


60 dollars 


',339 


2,082 


1,723 


1,398 


6,542 


Whole 


number of 


stamps T,99S, 


788. Value $1 


,398,674.00. 





NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 307 



Stamps 


issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1882 : 








Quarter 


Ending : 






Sept. 30, i88[. 


Dec. 31, 1881. 


Mch, 31, 1882. 


June 30, 1882, 


Total. 


2 cents 


128,300 


131,770 


111,145 


120,19s 


491,410 


4 cents 


79,495 


80,320 


73,505 


79,745 


313,065 


6 cents 


47, '7° 


52,330 


48,160 


47,580 


195,240 


8 cents 


36,540 


37,595 


34,940 


37,955 


147,030 


10 cents 


89,620 


94,675 


84,665 


84,835 


353,795 


12 cents 


34,595 


37,470 


39,145 


37,430 


148,640 


24 cents 


34,T35 


37,425 


37,680 


37,270 


146,510 


36 cents 


18,790 


18,580 


18,535 


19,220 


75,125 


48 cents 


12,795 


12,340 


'4,755 


J 2,445 


52,33s 


60 cents 


16,070 


16,320 


17,765 


I5,'4S 


65,300 


72 cents 


6,t8o 


5,735 


7,430 


7,'35 


26,480 


84 cents 


5,925 


4,840 


7,610 


6,445 


24,820 


96 cents 


11,930 


14,485 


13,905 


13,070 


53,390 


192 cents 


8,73° 


8,640 


8,200 


10,245 


35,815 


3 dollars 


7,9'7 


6,938 


9,292 


8,152 


32,299 


6 dollars 


4,186 


2,932 


4,387 


4,425 


15,930 


9 dollars 


1,858 


1,484 


3,517 


1,716 


8,575 


12 dollars 


2,700 


2,2o6 


3,555 


2,9 '5 


11,376 


24 dollars 


1,100 


787 


1,461 


1,297 


4,645 


36 dollars 


754 


483 


819 


627 


2,683 


48 dollars 


631 


370 


395 


558 


',954 


60 dollars 


1,824 


2,306 


2,340 


2,006 


8,476 


Whole 


number of 


Stamps 2,214, 


893. Value! I 


,602,069.70. 


-'>- 


Stamps 


issued during the fiscal 


year ending June 30th, 1883 








Quarter 


Ending : 






Sept. 30, 1882, 


Dec 31, 1882, 


. Mch. 31, 1883. 


June 30, 1883. 


Total. 


2 cents 


106,220 


103,940 


102,475 


101,025 


413,660 


4 cents 


74,245 


77,495 


77,210 


78,925 


307,875 


6 cents 


49,755 


50,700 


52,345 


5',5io 


204,310 


8 cents 


36,99s 


35,700 


37,350 


36,385 


146,430 


1 cents 


84,820 


81,725 


85,410 


80,020 


331,975 


12 cents 


39,550 


41,605 


37,995 


38,320 


157,470 


24 cents 


41,765 


41,695 


43,630 


40,750 


167,840 


36 cents 


21,335 


20,945 


22,245 


2',5i5 


86,040 


48 cents 


14,035 


16,700 


15,975 


15,885 


62,595 


60 cents 


'6,570 


17,725 


18,465 


19,^38 


71,898 


72 cents 


8,070 


9,2IO 


8,650 


9,525 


35,455 


84 cents 


7,140 


7,145 


7,385 , 


7,290 


28,960 


96 cents 


12,630 


17,405 


'5,525 


16,405 


61,965 


192 cents 


7,645 


11,890 


8,990 


9,405 


37,930 


3 dollars 


7,418 


8,882 


9,701 


9,142 


35,143 


6 dollars 


3,740 


4,755 


4,087 


4,560 


17,142 


9 dollars 


1,901 


3,039 


Z,423 


2,632 


9,994 



3o8 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



Dec. 31,1882. Mch. 31, 1883. June 30, 1883. Total. 

2,963 2.958 2,855 11.307 

1.079 1.306 r.803 5,605 

666 666 946 3.085 

435 503 648 2,149 

3,072 2,266 2,456 9,11' 
Whole number of stamps 2,207,939. Value $f ,752,564.50. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1884 : 

Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 


30, 1882, 


12 dollars 




2,531 


24 dollars 




I.417 


36 dollars 




807 


48 dollars 




563 


60 dollars 




2,317 





Sept. 30, 1883. 


Dec. 31, 1883. 


Mch. 31, 1884. 


June 30, 1884. 


Total. 


2 cents 


112,480 


118,620 


119,420 


118,660 


469,180 


4 cents 


85,595 


86,830 


94.825 


88,525 


355.775 


6 cents 


59,795 


49,885 


64,420 


53,035 


227.13s 


8 cents 


45,810 


39,225 


48,865 


39,620 


173,520 


10 cents 


90,290 


78,795 


95.365 


94,685 


359.13s 


12 cents 


43.3'o 


41,110 


41,845 


39,585 


165,850 


24 cents 


42,700 


40,165 


47,545 


4*,325 


i7?.73S 


36 cents 


24,885 


20,605 


26,130 


22,515 


94,135 


48 cents 


15,55s 


16,105 


17,685 


15,625 


65,970 


60 cents 


18,250 


18,235 


22,195 


19,880 


78.560 


72 cents 


7,795 


8,855 


",965 


8,815 


37.430 


84 cents 


5,800 


9,430 


7,95° 


8,330 


31.510 


96 cents 


15,980 


17,37° 


17.295 


15,965 


66,610 


192 cents 


8,370 


11,245 


11,070 


9,380 


40,065 


3 dollars 


7,696 


10,978 


8,708 


8,559 


35,941 


6 dollars 


3,958 


S.514 


4,706 


5.227 


19.405 


9 dollars 


2,425 


3.459 


2,979 


3,'" 


",974 


12 dollars 


2,520 


3.797 


3.374 


3,507 


i3.'98 


24 dollars 


1,260 


'.775 


1,730 


',025 


5,790 


36 dollars 


614 


1,081 


1-053 


857 


3,605 


48 dollars 


475 


965 


826 


55° 


2,816 


60 dollars 


1,711 


2,926 


2,687 


2,23s 


9,559 



Whole number of stamps 2,439,898. Value $1,923,217.80. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1885 • 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1884. 


Dec. 31, 1884. 


Mch. 31, 1885. 


June 30, 1885. 


Total. 


I cent 








178,180 


178,180 


2 cents 


118,240 


"4,135 


119,010 


134,490 


485,875 


3 cents 








22,730 


22,730 


4 cents 


86,335 


86,555 


91,200 


104,480 


368,570 


6 cents 


56,015 


53,560 


57,080 


64,29s 


230,950 


8 cents 


41,010 


38,975 


44.760 
98,860 


47,680 


172,425 


10 cents 


9',675 


92,690 


104,320 


387,545 


12 cents 


40,425 


4',63S 


42,530 


SS,9'S 


108,505 


24 cents 


44,850 


45,905 


44,190 


44,445 


'79,390 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. 309 





Sept. 30, 1884. 


Dec. 31, 1884. 


Mch. 31, 1885. 


June 30, 1885. 


Total. 


36 cents 


22,705 


22,315 


2S,'95 


18,040 


88,25s 


48 cents 


17,870 


16,620 


18,760 


13,545 


66,795 


60 cents 


18,670 


20,080 


21,405 


15,260 


75,415 


72 cents 


9-745 


9>i65 


9,305 


7,330 


35,545 


84 cents 


7,190 


6,830 


9,5'5 


6,570 


30,105 


96 cents 


17,800 


16,770 


19,795 


14,370 


68,735 


192 cents 


1 1,010 


8,570 


13,45s 


8,250 


41,285 


3 dollars 


10,871 


7,967 


9,829 


9,612 


38,279 


6 dollars 


4,492 


4,094 


4,983 


4,479 


18,048 


9 dollars 


2,852 


2,658 


2,782 


3,084 


",376 


12 dollars 


3,147 


3,3°7 


3.441 


3,409 


13,304 


24 dollars 


I-73S 


',528 


1,539 


1,747 


6,549 


36 dollars 


668 


79° 


8rS 


820 


3,093 


48 dollars 


432 


820 


724 


630 


2,606 


60 dollars 


3,106 


2,919 


3,200 


2,529 


11,754 



Whole number of stamps 2,717,314. Value $2,047,268.50. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1886 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1885. Dec. 31, 1885. Mch. 31, 1886. June 30, 1886. Total. 

1 cent 225,320 146,160 138,740 144,790 655,010 

2 cents 90,930 94,950 113,465 120,180 419,525 

3 cents 62,590 36,520 46,040 49,490 194,640 

4 cents ■ 49,955 63,205 76,160 82,895 272,215 
6 cents 45,655 41,385 53,42o 5^,095 191, 555 
Scents 29,125 29,410 38,890 37,535 134,960 

10 cents 67,280 64,705 86,525 87,355 305,865 

12 cents 29,045 29,870 37,795 36,345 '33,055 

24 cents 24,670 23,560 33,905 32,820 114,955 

36 cents 13,260 10,935 14,820 16,355 55,37° 

48 cents 8,445 7,830 11,905 11,210 39,390 

60 cents io,S45 10,285 11,860 11,190 43,88o 

72 cents 5,815 6,840 5,320 7,475 24,450 

84 cents 6,225 5,850 5,520 7,245 24,840 

96 cents 12,520 10,635 12,480 13,065 48,700 

192 cents 10,105 7,025 7,155 7,850. 32,135 

3 dollars 6,487 5,875 5,066 6,292 23,720 

6 dollars 3,255 3,465 3,473 4,2oo i4,393 

9 dollars 2,694 2,515 1,343 2,138 8,690 

12 dollars 2,625 2,142 1,662 2,198 8,627 

24 dollars 1,185 732 315 746 2,978 

36 dollars 506 400 145 310 1,361 

48 dollars 390 310 160 85 945 

60 dollars 1,356 595 860 1,391 4,202 

Whole number of stamps 2,755,461. Value $1,097,390,00. 



310 NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1887 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1886. 


Dec. 31, 1886. 


Mch 31, 1887. 


June 30, 1887. 


Total. 


I cent 


134,625 


155,290 


164,870 


149,760 


604,545 


2 cents 


116,380 


126,945 


129,440 


117,640 


490,405 


3 cents 


40,845 


47,740 


S7,UO 


56,570 


202,295 


4 cents 


74,165 


84,315 


92,095 


77,700 


328,275 


6 cents 


48,685 


50,585 


57,495 


50,035 


206,800 


8 cents 


35,160 


37,565 


40,910 


42,33s 


155,970 


10 cents 


85,795 


95,145 


96,250 


92,738 


369,928 


12 cents 


34,490 


35,355 


37,590 


39,110 


146,54s 


24 cents 


3',oSo 


34,845 


36,095 


32,45s 


134,445 


36 cents 


13,625 


15,485 


18,390 


17,465 


64,965 


48 cents 


11,795 


8,695 


13,460 


",525 


45,475 


60 cents 


12,090 


ii,c5o 


13,940 


13,135 


50,215 


72 cents 


6,835 


S,i6o 


8,590 


8,755 


29,340 


84 cents 


5,355 


5,165 


8,835 


6,870 


26,225 


96 cents 


13,340 


16,295 


14,775 


14,43s 


58,845 


192 cents 


8,620 


10,225 


9,575 


9,07s 


37,495 


3 dollars 


6,139 


7,794 


7,434 


8,389 


29,756 


6 dollars 


3,23s 


4,502 


4,747 


4,068 


16,552 


9 dollars 


2,103 


2,449 


3,092 


2,842 


10,486 


12 dollars 


2,043 


2,258 


2,63s 


3,13s 


10,071 


24 dollars 


772 


889 


975 


1,582 


4,218 


36 dollars 


285 


342 


580 


526 


1,733 


48 dollars 


310 


253 


370 


520 


1,453 


60 dollars 


i,°35 


1,268 


1,640 


1,615 


S,SS8 



Whole number of stamps 3,031,595. Value $1,364,413.80. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1888 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1887. 


Dec. 31, 1887. 


Mch. 31, 1888. 


June 30, 1888. 


Total. 


I cent 


261,580 


162,960 


169,090 


180,840 


674,470 


2 cents 


137,130 


136,645 


132,365 


134,430 


540,570 


3 cents 


68,780 


64,910 


59,570 


60,650 


253,910 


4 cents 


98,960 


94,615 


99,610 


97,025 


390,210 


6 cents 


57,815 


56,830 


59,825 


60,240 


234,710 


8 cents 


44,140 


41,260 


41,690 


49,780 


176,870 


10 cents 


107,735 


102,470 


101,920 


109,325 


421,450 


12 cents 


37,115 


41,640 


37,670 


48,125 


164,550 


24 cents 


39,120 


37,155 


34,530 


40,655 


151,460 


36 cents 


17,275 


17,935 


18,650 


19,93s 


73,795 


48 cents 


13,785 


13,880 


12,440 


17,050 


S7,>S5 


60 cents 


12,855 


12,170 


14,530 


15,800 


55,355 


72 cents 


7,385 


7,630 


8,890 


11,225 


35,130 


84 cents 


7,830 


7,880 


8,250 


8,350 


32,310 


96 cents 


14,565 


16,610 


16,875 


20,845 


68,89s 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 31 1 





Sept. 


30, 1887. 


Dec. 31, 1887. 


Mch. 31, 1888. 


June 30, 1888. 


Total. 


192 cents 




'c,i5o 


11,005 


'0,775 


12,810 


44,740 


3 dollars 




7,436 


7,460 


8,756 


8,488 


32,140 


6 dollars 




4,572 


3,477 


4,715 


4,698 


17,462 


9 dollars 




3,010 


2,217 


3,113 


3,486 


11,826 


12 dollars 




*,777 


2,466 


3,742 


3,573 


12,558 


24 dollars 




752 


446 


1,313 


1,712 


4,223 


36 dollars 




616 


173 


481 


735 


2,005 


48 dollars 




420 


100 


50s 


626 


1,651 


60 dollars 




790 


1,720 


2,103 


2,360 


6,973 



Whole number of stamps 3,464,418. Value $1,588,425.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1889 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1888. 


Dec. 31, 1888. 


Mch. 31, 1889. 


June 30, 1889. 


Total. 


I cent 


136,560 


146,360 


176,990 


236,050 


695,960 


2 cents 


118,300 


113,080 


130,790 


■87,155 


549,329 


3 cents 


49,630 


49,59° 


63,660 


66,210 


229,090 


4 cents 


88,075 


82,290 


96,195 


103,110 


369,670 


6 cents 


56,695 


53,200 


64,605 


66,940 


241,440 


8 cents 


48,275 


42,300 


52,440 


57,060 


200,075 


10 cents 


96,790 


97,455 


"5,330 


112,725 


422,300 


12 cents 


44,405 


35,515 


40,620 


54,880 


181,420 


24 cents 


43,060 


31,780 


4T,75o 


40,490 


157,080 


36 cents 


27,755 


15,560 


22,115 


20,525 


85,955 


48 cents 


18,055 


11,485 


'5,455 


iS,9'S 


60,910 


60 cents 


15,395 


12,300 


'5,605 


15,525 


58,825 


72 cents 


9,530 


6,710 


■0,525 


8,500 


35,265 


84 cents 


10,560 


7,100 


8,885 


9,595 


36,140 


96 cents 


16,785 


16,650 


16,055 


'8,365 


67,855 


192 cents 


11,100 


11,345 


10,865 


10,820 


44,130 


3 dollars 


9,255 


6,814 


9,656 


9,370 


35,095 


6 dollars 


4,902 


3,813 


5,092 


4,476 


18,283 


9 dollars 


2,301 


2,135 


3,210 


3,130 


10,776 


12 dollars 


3,111 


2,607 


3,506 


2,534 


11,758 


24 dollars 


1,252 


938 


1,176 


',133 


4,499 


36 dollars 


931 


598 


616 


620 


2,765 


48 dollars 


sss 


360 


750 


370 


2,035 


60 dollars 


1,830 


1,750 


2,060 


',570 


7,210 


Whole number of s 


stamps 3,527, 


861. Value $1 


,663,751.00. 




Stamps issued during the fiscal 


year ending June 30th, 1890 : 








Quarter 


Ending : 








Sept. 30, 1889. 


Dec. 31, 1889. 


Mch. 31, 1890. 


June 30, 1890. 


Total. 


1 cent 


202,610 


168,330 


188,200 


196,750 


755,890 


2 cents 


153,340 


141,730 


150,150 


160,600 


605,820 


3 cents 


67,070 


63,980 


56,600 


62,300 


249,950 


4 cents 


102,55s 


86,615 


88,000 


91,700 


368,870 



312 NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 





Sept. 30, 1889. 


Dec. 31, 1889, 


, Mch. 31, 1890. 


June 30, 1890. 


Total. 


6 cents 


61,445 


59,020 


64,300 


67,975 


252,740 


8 cents 


48,395 


45.275 


48,125 


SS.625 


197.420 


10 cents 


118,245 


101,975 


105,180 


109,770 


435.170 


12 cents 


50,620 


49.935 


57,850 


S9,i20 


217,525 


24 cents 


40,660 


38,225 


43.525 


41,125 


163.535 


36 cents 


20,490 


17,865 


21,710 


2o,57S 


80,600 


48 cents 


14,620 


12.415 


16,450 


16,350 


59.835 


60 cents 


15.750 


13.235 


16,645 


18,020 


63,650 


72 cents 


10,165 


8,470 


11,250 


11,100 


40,985 


84 cents 


8,665 


6.585 


",435 


9,100 


35,785 


96 cents 


22,050 


18,130 


18,300 


22,135 


80,615 


192 cents 


14.215 


12,150 


12,950 


11,375 


50,690 


3 dollars 


10,902 


8,128 


10,375 


12,368 


41,773 


6 dollars 


5.'79 


5,075 


5.025 


5.325 


20,604 


9 dollars 


3.354 


2,544 


3.695 


2,656 


12 249 


12 dollars 


3.978 


2,347 


3.565 


3,010 


12,900 


24 dollars 


1.327 


1,056 


1,530 


1,140 


S.OS3 


36 dollars 


635 


442 


665 


695 


2,437 


48 dollars 


310 


480 


456 


356 


1,602 


60 dollars 


1,065 


1,09s 


1,985 


2,515 


6,660 


Whole number of 


stamps 3,762, 


398. Value $1 


,711,464.00. 




Stamps issued during the fiscal ; 


year ending June 30th, 1891 : 








Quarter 


Ending : 








Sept. jb, 1890. 


Dec. 31, 1890. 


Mch. 31, 1891. 


June 30, 1891. 


Total. 


I cent 


216,900 


204,100 


180,200 


215,920 


817,120 


2 cents 


178,300 


160,050 


147,150 


170,660 


656,160 


3 cents 


57,400 


56,100 


41,600 


52,050 


207,150 


4 cents 


106,550 


97,875 


89.375 


102,755 


396,555 


6 cents 


73.850 


72,450 


63.525 


71,005 


280,830 


8 cents 


59,375 


57.375 


51,325 


61,990 


230,065 


10 cents 


129,050 


121,400 


105,765 


121,700 


477,9'5 


12 cents 


64.375 


61,725 


61,850 


64,33s 


252,285 


24 cents 


47.500 


44,900 


40,275 


44,425 


177,100 


36 cents 


25.425 


23,325 


19950 


22,645 


91,345 


48 cents 


21,200 


18,735 


14,375 


18,355 


72,665 


60 cents 


22,605 


18,410 


16,540 


19.065 


76,620 


72 cents 


12,325 


12,450 


10,450 


11,740 


46,965 


84 cents 


10,975 


10,600 


9,675 


11,435 


42,685 


96 cents 


24.500 


23,400 


21,500 


23,685 


93,085 


192 cents 


15,650 


15,585 


13.650 


12,040 


56,925 


3 dollars 


13,090 


11,975 


12,23s 


12,223 


49,523 


6 dollars 


6,729 


5.565 


5,870 


5.930 


24,094 


9 dollars 


3,766 


3,990 


3,395 


3.227 


14,378 


12 dollars 


3,940 


3,960 


3.900 


3,659 


14,459 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS.- — ISSUE OF 1879. 



313 





Sept. 


30, 1890. 


Dec. 


31, 1890. 


Mch, 


. 31, 1891. 


June 30, 1891. 


Total. 


24 dollars 




i,S7o 




1,520 




1,485 


1.935 


6,510 


36 dollars 




83s 




9'S 




655 


1,025 


3.440 


48 dollars 




602 




525 




515 


435 


2,077 


60 dollars 




1,792 




2,290 




1,920 


2,310 


8,312 



Whole number of stamps 4,098,263. Value $2,055,798.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1892 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1891. 


Dec. 31, [891. 


Mch. 31, 1892. 


June 30, 1892. 


Total. 


I cent 


194,940 


207,250 


186,100 


219,300 


807,590 


2 cents 


158,325 


160,800 


159,850 


168,775 . 


647,750 


3 cents 


53,830 


44,650 


50,250 


57,400 


206,130 


4 cents 


91,505 


97,025 


94,400 


107,175 


390,105 


6 cents 


67,73s 


67,425 


69,47s 


74,075 


278,710 


8 cents 


52,945 


62,175 


55. 250 


58,950 


229,320 


10 cents 


118,119 


122,215 


118,640 


134,920 


493,894 


12 cents 


64,265 


61,900 


63.275 


66,800 


256,240 


24 cents 


47,000 


44,900 


45,600 


51,575 


189,075 


36 cents 


22,545 


21,975 


23,400 


25,950 


93870 


48 cents 


20,620 


16,450 


17,975 


19,425 


74,470 


60 cents 


20,890 


16,460 


17,700 


20,830 


7S,88o 


72 cents 


12.03s 


12,025 


10,825 


11,675 


46,560 


84 cents 


10,560 


10,150 


10,400 


10,850 


41,960 


96 cents 


23-945 


23,875 


21,775 


25.500 


95.09s 


192 cents 


14.925 


15,700 


14,375 


17,600 


62,600 


3 dollars 


10,104 


12,09s 


11,050 


14,240 


47,489 


6 dollars 


6,024 


5,705 


5,790 


6,263 


23,782 


9 dollars 


3.4'7 


4,057 


3,370 


3,926 


14,770 


12 dollars 


4,338 


3,977 


3,550 


4,544 


16,409 


24 dollars 


1,400 


1,333 


1,550 


1,649 


5.932 


36 dollars 


465 


690 


735 


772 


2,662 


48 dollars 


185 


345 


595 


737 


1,862 


60 dollars 


2,359 


2,375 


2,7'3 


3,690 


11,137 



Whole number of stamps 4,113,292. Value $2,209,516.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1893 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1892. 


Dec. 31, 1892. 


Mch. 31, 1893. 


June 30, 1893. 


Total. 


1 ce^t 


200,650 


203,030 


199,850 


201,050 


804,580 


2 cents 


148,900 


168,220 


169,800 


166,500 


653,420 


3 cents 


47,150 


50,620 


5 5, 000 


50,100 


202,870 


4 cents 


101,325 


99,340 


107,650 


97,000 


405,31s 


6 cents 


63,875 


66,380 


75,275 


63.500 


269,030 


8 cents 


55.150 


57,j8o 


64,575 


58,825 


235,930 


10 cents 


123,435 


128,195 


132,840 


124,035 


508,505 


12 cents 


64,350 


70,380 


72,900 


64,650 


272,280 



314 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1 879. 





Sept. 30, 1892. 


Dec. 31, 1892. 


Mch. 31, 1893. 


June 30, 1893. 


Total. 


24 cents 


46,875 


48,920 


49.250 


44.325 


189,370 


36 cents 


24,900 


26,085 


23.475 


21,575 


96,035 


48 cents 


20,175 


19,080 


20,400 


18,500 


78,155 


60 cents 


19,690 


22,410 


21,375 


18,045 


81,520 


72 cents 


12,125 


12,225 


12,675 


13.025 


50,050 


84 cents 


11,800 


11.15° 


»o,47S 


",57S 


45,000 


96 cents 


24,500 


23,200 


23,200 


20,600 


91.500 


192 cents 


14,200 


12,050 


13.17s 


12,150 


5',S75 


3 dollars 


13.777 


10,667 


12,912 


9,980 


47,336 


6 dollars 


7.165 


5.455 


6,65s 


5.605 


24.880 


9 dollars 


4,395 


3.105 


3.33° 


3.585 


14,415 


12 dollars 


4,670 


4,625 


3.520 


3,360 


>6,i75 


24 dollars 


1,980 


i,3'S 


1,395 


1,400 


6,090 


36 dollars 


1,575 


605 


540 


810 


3,530 


48 dollars 


1,560 


555 


520 


610 


3.245 


60 dollars 


4,618 


5,297 


S-68S 


4.685 


20,285 



Whole number of stamps 4,171,091. Value $2,850,324.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1894 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1893. 


Dec. 31, 1893. 


Mch. 31, 1894. 


June 30, 1894. 


Total. 


1 cent 


214,850 


195,200 


201,100 


224,200 


835.350 


2 cents 


171,200 


151,425 


154,650 


175,700 


652.975 


3 cents 


60,550 


52,400 


52,300 


59.600 


224,850 


4 cents 


104.525 


92,100 


94.350 


111,050 


402,025 


6 cents 


72,000 


64.775 


65,675 


73,600 


276,050 


8 cents 


66,450 


56.550 


S9,'75 


64,725 


246,900 


10 cents 


128,710 


"4,450 


118,885 


132,240 


494.285 


12 cents 


66,975 


63,500 


63.650 


70,300 


264,425 


24 cents 


47.875 


44.500 


44,'25 


49,625 


186,125 


36 cents 


26,625 


23.175 


25.300 


27.375 


102,475 


48 cents 


18,925 


17,400 


18,925 


19,000 


74.250 


60 cents 


'9.485 


i8,S45 


20,155 


19.595 


77.780 


72 cents 


1 1.500 


12,800 


'2-475 


13.250 


50,025 


84 cents 


'0,675 


11,725 


10,550 


12,350 


45,300 


96 cents 


26,27s 


19.450 


24,900 


22,575 


93,200 


92 cents 


14,800 


12,650 


15,000 


14975 


57425 


3 dollars 


12,691 


10,04s 


11,845 


11,285 


45,866 


6 dollars 


6,020 


4,86s 


6,050 


6,230 


23165 


9 dollars 


3-747 


3175 


4,282 


3,975 


15,179 


12 dollars 


4,225 


3.030 


4.435 


3.905 


'5.595 


24 dollars 


1.775 


1,270 


I.47S 


',655 


6,175 


36 dollars 


775 


665 


605. 


670 


2,7'S 


48 dollars 


550 


580 


435 


540 


2.105 


60 dollars 


3.630 


3,7'S 


5.482 


4,960 


'7,787 



Whole number of stamps 4,212,027. Value $2,613,920.00. 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 187Q. 



3'5 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1895 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1894 


Dec 


■ 3'. 1894- 


Mch 31, 1895. June 30, 1895. 


Total. 


I cent 


45,936 








45,936 


2 cents 


III, 618 








irr,6i8 


3 cents 


48,150 








48,150 


4 cents 


63,829 








63,829 


6 cents 


40,545 








40,545 


8 cents 


70,400 








70,400 


10 cents 


90,888 








90,888 


12 cents 


44.521 








44,521 


24 cents 


29,486 








29,486 


36 cents 


4,390 








4,390 


48 cents 


19,625 








19,625 


60 cents 


25,835 




2,663 




28,498 


72 cents 


•0,350 








'0,350 


84 cents 


39,700 








39,700 


96 cents 


27.300 




32,325 


4,898 


64,523 


192 cents 


13,650 








'3.650 


3 dollars 


'2,33' 




11,425 




23,756 


6 dollars 


5,69s 




7,050 




'2,745 


9 dollars 


3,640 








3,640 


12 dollars 


10,215 








10,215 


24 dollars 


2,077 




1,698 


i,3'o 


5,085 


36 dollars 


595 








595 


48 dollars 


352 




435 


300 


1,087 


60 dollars 


',795 




4,985 


'-335 


8,115 


Whol 


e number of 


stamps 79'>347- 


Value $1,178,923.32. 





On March 7th, 1894, the Third Assistant Postmaster General sent to 
the contractors an order, in the customary form, to deliver to the Post Office Order to tLc 
Department at Washington the following supplies : 



" 25 sheets of blank paper of each three sizes in use, 75 sheets. 

And a sample sheet of each denomination and kind of stamps now used, thus: 

1st. Printed only 

2nd. Printed and gummed 

3rd. Printed, gummed and perforated. 
Newspaper and Periodical stamps: 25 plates, 3 sheets of each 

as above, 75 sheets, 100 stamps per sheet 7,500 stamps 

Postage Due stamps: 7 plates, 3 sheets of each as above, 21 

sheets, 200 stamps per sheet 4,200 stamps 

Regular postage stamps: 11 plates, 3 sheets of each as above, 

33 sheets : 

I and 2 cents: 3 sheets each, 6 sheets, 400 stamps per 

sheet 2,400 stamps 

5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, t5, 30 and 90 cents: 3 sheets each, 27 

sheets, zoo stamps per sheet 5i4oo stamps 

Making a total of regular issue of 1890 of 7,?oo stamps 

Special delivery stamp: 1 plate, 3 sheets as above, 100 stamps 

per sheet 3°° stamps 

Total number of stamps 19,800 stamps 

And I sheet from plate (full size) on card board from each of 

the 44 plates as above." 

It will be remembered that, on February 21st, 1894, the Postmaster 



contractors for a 
special printing. 



3i6 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



Purpose of this 
special printing. 



Ultimate disposition 
of tlio slieets. 



Trouble about tlie 

newspaper and 
periodical stamps. 



Nine cent stamp 

printed by the 

American Bank 

Note Co. 



Paper. 

Perforation. 

Colors. 



General had awarded the contract for the manufacture of postage stamps, for 
the term of. four years, beginning July ist, i8'94, to the Bureau of Engraving 
and Printing at Washington. The sheets which were printed by the American 
Bank Note Co., on the above order, were turned over to the new contractors, to 
serve as guides for color, paper, etc. The blank sheets were subsequently used 
for printing stamps. It is probable that these stamps could not be distinguished 
from other early printings of the same stamps by the Bureau of Engraving 
and Printing. The three varieties of printed sheets were, in due time, 
returned to the Post Office Department. The fully finished sheets were 
eventually turned into stock and issued to postmasters. The sheets that were 
merely printed, without being gummed or perforated, were destroyed. What 
became of the sheets of the second class — /. e. those which were left imper- 
forate — I am unable to say, except in the case of a half sheet, fifty stamps, of 
each value of the newspaper and periodical stamps. These latter passed from 
official into private hands. The new owner retained five sets in imperforate 
condition and had the others perforated — a very unwise act, in my opinion — 
and offered them for sale. 

Following the appearance of these privately perforated stamps in the 
market there was trouble in official circles. By whom it was started and just 
what form it took are only known to those behind the curtain. It led to 
seizure of the stamps, arrest of the holder, action at law, scandal, loss of official 
position and other disagreeable details, much of which was set forth at length 
in the philatelic journals at the time. But the true inwardness of the affair 
was never made public. Eventually the stamps were restored to their owner, 
as being rightfully his property, and are once more in the market. Knowing 
the circumstances connected with them, the reader must determine for himself 
their status and collectability. At the least, they are extremely interesting. 

While these stamps are not exactly like any others of the same series, 
they very closely resemble some of the latest printings by the American Bank 
Note Co. It will be observed that the set comprises all values from one cent 
to sixty dollars, including the nine cents, which thus appears for the first and 
only time in a printing of the American Bank Note Co. 

The paper is very white, fine, close, without sign of weave or grain. 
The gum is yellowish white and usually crackled. The perforation gauges 
1 2 and is very clear cut. It was apparently made by a guillotine machine, one 
row at a time. Evidence of this is found in the fact that the rows of perfor- 
ations are not always parallel nor the holes in line on opposite sides of a stamp. 
The inks are glossy and apparently aniline. The impressions are very clear 
and fine, carefully made and suggestive of proofs. They have not the soft- 
ness of the ordinary prints of either the American Bank Note Co. or the 
Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The denominations one to ten cents are 
printed in a pure black, not a greenish, grayish or bluish black. The color of 
the twelve to ninety six cents has a suggestion of lilac. The color is rich but 
hard and lacks warmth. The ink of the nine dollars contains more red than 
usual, that of the twelve dollars more blue, while the thirty-six dollars has 
more brown. The other values are lighter and colder in tone. As nearly 
^s they can be described the colors are as follows: 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF I 879. 317 

Imperforate and Perforated 12. Ueferencc List. 

AVhite Wove Paper. 

1 cent clear deep black 

2 cents clear deep black 

3 cents clear deep black 

4 cents clear deep black 
6 cents clear deep black 

8 cents clear deep black 

9 cents clear deep black 
10 cents clear deep black 
12 cents rose-carmine 

24 cents rose-carmine 
36 cents rose-carmine 
48 cents rose-carmine 
60 cents rose-carmine 
72 cents rose-carmine 
84 cents rose-carmine 
96 cents rose-carmine 
1 92 cents light yellow-brown 

3 dollars scarlet-vermilion 

6 dollars light ultramarine 

9 dollars deep orange 
12 dollars blue-green 
24 dollars deep dull violet 
36 dollars rose-brown 
48 dollars pale orange-brown 
60 dollars bright purple 



Newspaper and Periodical Stamps, 

Issue of 1894. 

When, in 1 894, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing entered upon the 
contract to supply the stamps required by the Post Office Department, many 
PrintiiiRs from the difficulties were encounted at the beginning of the undertaking, as was to be 
plates of preTious expected. It was necessary to provide an increased force of skilled employees, 
additional machinery, new plates and, in the case of the newspaper and 
periodical stamps, new designs. The plates for these latter stamps were not 
ready until the beginning of the year 1895. In the mean time the necessary 
supplies were obtained by printings from the old plates of the Continental 
and American Bank Note Companies. These printings have marked pe- 
culiarities by which they may, without difficulty, be distinguished from the 
work of the former contractors. The plates were re-entered before they 
were put to press and consequently, the impressions appear sharp and un- 
worn. The shades of the inks, even that of the black, differ from any pre- 
viously used. Many of the impressions have the surface of the paper tinted 
from imperfect wiping of the plates. The paper is white, semi-transparent 
and with very little grain. The gum is white or yellowish white. At first it 
was quite rough and crackled but afterwards it became thin and smooth. 
The perforation of the early printings was blind and the disks of paper, 
which should have been punched out, usually remained in the holes. Im- 
proved machines were used for the sheets of the later printings and the per- 
foration was then clear cut and fine. 
The colors are: 
iieference List. Perforated I 2. 

White Wove Paper. 

1 cent clear full black 

2 cents clear full black 
4 cents clear full black 
6 cents clear full black 

10 cents clear full black 
T2 cents dull pink 
24 cents dull pink 
36 cents dull pink 
60 cents dull pink 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1894. 



319 



96 cents dull pink 
3 dollars pale scarlet-vermilion 
6 dollars very pale ultramarine 

New numbers were assigned to the plates but were not engraved on 
them, at least they do not appear on the printed sheets. Among the old 
plates used by the Bureau the 72 cents and $1.92 have been reported. Mr. 
J. M. Bartels, to whom I am indebted for valued information, assures me 
that neither plate was ever used, though a new number, 65, was assigned to 
the plate of the 72 cent stamp. The following table may be of interest: 

Old Number. New Number. 



I cent 


482 


37 


3 


printings. 


2 cents 


218 


38 


3 




4 cents 


«i5 


39 


5 




6 cents 


216 


40 


I 




10 cents 


217 


41 


5 




12 cents 


19s 


42 


5 




24 cents 


198 


81 


4 




36 cents 


196 


43 


2 




60 cents 


202 


83 


4 




96 cents 


204 


127 


I 




3 dollars 


199 


108 


2 




6 dollars 


197 


118 


I 





Of these stamps the following quantities were issued: 
Fiscal year ending June 30th, 1895: 

Quarter Ending: 



1 cent 

2 cents 
4 cents 
6 cents 

10 cents 
12 cents 
24 cents 
36 cents 
60 cents 
96 cents 

3 dollars 
6 dollars 



Sept. 30, 1894. 

198,164 

88,682 

73.321 

9>705 

52.257 

31.004 

29,339 

9-935 



Dec. 31, 189. 
266,100 
215,100 
"93.875 

157,360 
93,625 
78,475 

31,272 

3,190 
1,075 



Mch. 31, 1895. June 30, 1895. 
105,650 



89,400 
77. '75 

6S,8'5 
32,77s 
34.950 



Whole number of stamps 1,970,731. 



14.460 

7,827 

6.025 

4,'75 

Value $206,289,680.00. 



Total. 

569.9'4 
393.182 

344.371 
9,705 
275,432 
157,404 
142,764 

9,935 

45,732 

7,827 

9,215 
5.250 



Plate uu]nberSi> 



Deliveries to 
postmasterB. 



Newspaper and Periodical Stamps. 

Issue of 1895. 

In the report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General for 1894 we 

read : 

" A new series of newspaper and periodical stamps has also been decided on, differing 

in size materially from tlie old series, but maintaining their general characteristics. Several 

OOicial °^ '^"^ ^'^^ °f stamps of this new series have been engraved, but none of the working plates. 

ftiinouncenient. f^e colors are as yet undetermined, but the denominations will be as follows: 1, 2, 3, 5, 

10, 25 and 50 cents, and $2, $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100. 

Further description of the stamps cannot now be given " 

The reader will observe that the series, as announced, contained a 
denomination, the three cents, which was not included among the issued 
stamps. 

The stamps of this new series were issued on February ist, 1895. 
They are thus officially described : 

" The denominations of these stamps from i to 10 cents, inclusive, are of 
the same design. The numerals in the upper corners are of equal size in the 
Designs. I, 2 and 5 Cent stamps, while those in the 10 cent stamp are condensed so as to 

fill the same space that is given to the others, besides being slightly different 
in style. Those in the i and 5 cent denominations are shaded dark on the 
lower half ; those of the 2 and ro cent stamps are white faced. All these 
stamps bear an engraving of the statue of America, by Crawford, which sur- 
mounts the dome of the Capitol at Washington, the same subject as that on 
the lower denominations of the old series, except that the presentation is in 
full face instead of three-quarters. The words ' u. s. postage ' at the top 
of the stamps are in white block letters upon an arched line, and the words 
' NEWSPAPERS ' on the left and ' periodicals ' on the right are in vertical 
lines. The denominations at the bottom are in white Roman letters, and 
there is a foliate ornamentation in the lower corners. 

The upper border line of the 25 and 50 cent stamps is broken by two 
indentations, separating that border into three equal parts, and the side 
inscriptions follow a curved line upon a scroll. The dimensions of the stamps 
below the $2 denomination are 27-32 by i 3-8 inch. 

The remaining denominations from $2 to $100, are of the same size as 
the stamps of the retired series, that is to say, 15-16 by i 3-8 inch." 

The foregoing description may be supplemented by saying: The 
central figure on the 25 and 50 cent stamps is the same as that on the denomi- 
nations 12 to 96 cents of the preceding issues. Besides slight alterations in 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1895. 



321 



the arrangement of the inscriptions, foliage and other ornaments are added 
in the lower part of the stamps. The numerals in the upper corners are in 
small squares instead of shields. The designs of the $2, $5, $10, $20, $50 
and $100 denominations are adapted, respectively, from those of the $3, $6, 
$12, $24, $36 and $60 stamps of the previous series. In each case the arrange- 
ment of the surrounding inscriptions is slightly modified. 

The sizes in millimetres are : One to fifty cents, 2i%x34}^ mm ; two 
to one hundred dollars, 24^^x35^ mm. 

These stamps were at first printed on a thick soft paper, much like 
that used by the American Bank Note Co, but closer grained and less porous. 
Subsequently they were issued on paper watermarked with the letters "us 
p s ". This paper was fully described in the chapter upon the regular post- 
age stamps of the same period. 

The gum is thin, smooth and yellowish or yellowish white in color. 
The perforation is the standard 1 2. 

The stamps have been seen in the following colors and shades: 

Perforated 12. 
Thick Soft White Wove Paper. 

Feb. I St, 1895 I cent deep black 

2 cents deep black, black 

5 cents deep black 
10 cents deep black 

25 cents, rose, rose-carmine, carmine, lake 
50 cents rose rose-carmine, carmine, lake 

2 dollars scarlet-vermilion, scarlet 

5 dollars dull ultramarine 

10 dollars deep green 

20 dollars black-violet 

50 dollars brown-rose 

100 dollars bluish purple 

Watermarked USPS 

Jan. nth, 1896. I cent black, deep black 

Nov. 2ist, 1895. 2 cents black, deep black 

Feb. 1 2th, 1896. 5 cents black, deep black 

Sept. 13th, 1895. 10 cents black, deep black 

Oct. nth, 1895. 25 cents deep rose, lilac-rose, violet-rose, lake 

Sept. 19th, 1895. 50 cents deep rose, lilac-rose, violet-rose, lake 

Jan. 23rd, 1897. 2 dollars vermilion, scarlet vermilion, scarlet 

Jan. 1 6th, 1896. 5 dollars dark blue 

Mch. sth, 1896. lo dollars dark yellow-green, dark green 

Jan. 27th, 1896. 20 dollars black-violet, violet black 

July 31st, 1897. 50 dollars brown-rose, deep brown-rose 

Jan. 23rd, 1896. 100 dollars purple, deep purple 

The plates each contained one hundred stamps, arranged in ten rows of 
ten. At the time of perforation the impressions were divided horizontally into 



Paper. 



Ucference List. 



322 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1895. 



Plates. 



Plate numbers. 



half sheets of fifty stamps. The line of division is, as usual, marked by an 
imperforate edge. The imprint is " bureau, engraving and printing." 
in white, Roman capitals, on a tablet with octagonal ends. A thin line of 
color surrounds the tablet and at each end are pointed ornaments. The 
imprint is placed at the middle of the top, bottom and sides. Three colored 
lines, meeting in a point above the " v " of " engraving ", mark the middle 
point of each side. The plate number is placed at the right of each imprint. 
The plate numbers are : 

Without Watermark. 



Plates not used. 



I cent 


No. 


90. 


2 cents 


No. 


too. 


S cents 


No. 


93- 


10 cents 


No. 


105. 


25 cents 


No. 


123. 


50 cents 


No. 


109. 


2 dollars 


No. 


136. 


5 dollars 


No. 


137- 


10 dollars 


No. 


138- 


20 dollars 


No. 


'39- 


50 dollars 


No. 


I3S- 


100 dollars 


No. 


140. 


Watermarked USPS 


I cent 


No. 


90, 262. 


2 cents 


No. 


100, 265. 


5 cents 


No. 


93, 266. 


10 cents 


No. 


105, 269. 


25 cents 


No. 


123. 


50 cents 


No. 


109, 259. 


2 dollars 


No. 


136. 


5 dollars 


No. 


137- 


10 dollars 


No. 


138. 


20 dollars 


No. 


139- 


50 dollars 


No. 


•35- 


100 dollars 


No 


140. 


Certain other plates were 


prepared for these stamps but they were not 


to press. The numbers ass 


igned to them were: 


I cent 


No 


36. 


25 cents 


No. 


258. 


2 dollars 


No 


270. 


5 dollars 


No 


273- 


10 dollars 


No 


271. 


20 dollars 


No 


272. 


50 dollars 


No 


284. 


100 dollars 


No 


285. 


From the annual reports 


of the Postmaster General and other sources 


obtain the following statistics of stamps issued to deputy postmasters : 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1 895. 323 



oictuips issut 

Sept. 30, 
I cent 


;u uui 
1894. 


ing ine nscai year enamg Ju 
Quarter Ending: 
Dec. 31, 1894. Mch. 31, 1895. 

157,880 

'47,410 

'58,750 

124,940 

70,630 

50,575 

'6,973 

6,140 

2,528 

885 

'S 

1,515 


ne 3otn, 1895: 

June 30, 1895. 

3'2,3So 

329,500 

294,990 

270,240 

133,030 

99,430 

37,756 

17,77s 

9,545 

6,250 

1,949 
3,745 


Total. 
470,230 

476,910 

453,740 

395,'8o 

203,660 

150,005 

54,729 

23,915 

12,073 

7,'35 
1,964 
5,260 


DeliTcries to 
postmaMtcrs. 


2 cents 




S cents 




10 cents 




25 cents .... 




50 cents 




2 dollars 




5 dollars 




10 dollars . . ., 




20 dollars 




50 dollars 




00 dollars 





Whole number of stamps 2,254,801. Value $r, 319, 026.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1896: 
Quarter Ending: 





5ept. 30, 1895. 


Dec. 31, 1895. 


Mch. 31, 1896, 


June 30, 1896. 


Total. 


1 cent 


270,650 


273,100 


293,15° 


248,650 


',085,550 


2 cents 


303,650 


314,600 


349,750 


312,100 


1,280,100 


5 cents 


252,070 


236,720 


250,160 


228,600 


967,550 


10 cents 


257,880 


269,290 


273,840 


270,585 


1,071,395 


25 cents 


99,540 


106,820 


106,400 


121,680 


434,430 


50 cents 


99,010 


116,900 


110,965 


113,700 


440,575 


2 dollars 


23,630 


32,485 


34,610 


32,570 


123,295 


5 dollars 


8,9!o 


11,782 


12,380 


11,525 


44,597 


10 dollars 


5,583 


7,082 


8,705 


6,510 


27,882 


20 dollars 


2,583 


4,430 


4,585 


4,255 


15.853 


50 dollars 


908 


1,355 


1,035 


9'5 


4,213 


TOO dollars 


932 


3,250 


3,090 


2,950 


10,222 



Whole number of stamps 5.505 672. Value $2,819,177.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1897: 
Quarter Ending: 



S( 


spt. 30, 1896. 


Dec. 31, 1896. 


Mch. 31, 1897. 


June 50, 1897. 


Total. 


I cent 


275,200 


287,000 


249,900 


233.050 


1,045,150 


2 cents 


340,925 


347,050 


320,650 


312,400 


',321,02s 


5 cents 


235,640 


259,150 


242,000 


212,570 


949,360 


10 cents 


259-025 


285,245 


282,825 


248,850 


1,075,935 


25 cents 


1 14,610 


118,060 


109,594 


1 1 1,800 


454,064 


50 cents 


'17,85' 


117,020 


112,346 


118,710 


465,927 


2 dollars 


29,158 


3',875 


33.692 


29, '85 


123,910 


5 dollars 


11,259 


13,120 


10 440 


10,780 


45599 


10 dollars 


6,964 


8,130 


6565 


5-855 


27,514 


20 dollars 


5,000 


4,990 


4,280 


4,190 


18,460 


50 dollars 


1,255 


1,115 


930 


1,120 


4,420 


CO dollars 


3,265 


3,495 


3-065 


3,090 


12.915 



Whole nuniber of stamps 5,544,279. Value 13,171,068.00. 



324 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1 895. 



Other deliTerics. 



Stamps i 


issued duri 


ng the fiscal 


year ending June 30th, 1898 








Quarter 


Ending : 






Sept 


■ 30, '897- 


Dec. 31, 1897. 


Mch. 31, 1898. 


June 30, 1898. 


Total. 


I cent 


279.75° 


264,700 


256,100 


176,950 


977-500 


2 cents 


360,950 


338-400 


335,'5o 


223,650 


i,2S8,'So 


5 cents 


257,420 


244,400 


242,130 


144,300 


888,250 


10 cents 


278,69s 


280,800 


281,905 


168,935 


i,oio,33S 


25 cents 


1 1 1 ,040 


ic6,ooo 


115,860 


70,420 


403,320 


50 cents 


117,500 


115,580 


124,290 


76,940 


434,310 


2 dollars 


35,460 


30,940 


34,880 


21,980 


123,260 


5 dollars 


•3,085 


i',75S 


13,090 


9,635 


47,565 


10 dollars 


7, '75 


7,505 


8,450 


5,325 


28.455 


20 dollars 


4,695 


4,430 


5,680 


3,925 


18,730 


50 dollars 


r,coo 


I, '65 


1,240 


1,525 


4,930 


100 dollars 


3,040 


3,380 


3,285 


2,610 


i2,3'5 



SetN sold to tilt' 
i?oueral public. 



Whole number of stamps 5,207,120. Value $3,119,864.00. 

In the foregoing tables no distinction is made between the stamps on 
unwatermarked and those on watermarked paper and, so far as I am aware, 
statistics covering the exact quantities of the two varieties have not been 
published. 

In addition to the issues to postmasters certain other deliveries of these 
stamps have been made at various times : 

In 1895 there were sent to the headquarters of the Universal Postal 
Union at Berne 750 copies of each value from i cent to $100. 

In 1898, 125 sets were surcharged "universal— postal — congress" 
and distributed to the delegates attending the meeting of that congress at 
Washington. 

In the report of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for the same 
year we find a table headed : " Statement showing the Specimens of Post- 
age Stamps for Post-Oflfice Album, Delivered in the Fiscal Year 1898 " This 
table includes 50 sets of the newspaper and periodical stamps In the same 
report is another table headed : " Statement showing the Specimen Postage 
Stamps Delivered to the Third Assistant Postmaster General during the 
Fiscal Year 1898." This delivery consisted of 500 sets of the newspaper and 
periodical stamps. 

I am unable to say whether or not any of the stamps comprising the 
last two items were overprinted with the word "specimen." 

The report of the Postmaster General for 1898 says that 18,000 of the 
five dollar stamps were overprinted for use as internal revenue stamps. The 
report of the Bureau for the same year does not quite agree with these figures, 
the quantity being given as " 355 sheets, 17,750 stamps." 

Finally, in the report of the Bureau for 1899, we find that in that year 
55, coo sets of these stamps were placed on sale to the public and 1,250 " speci- 
men " sets delivered to the Third Assistant Postmaster General. These sets 
contained a quanity of reprints as will be seen on referring to the chapter 
devoted to that subject. It has been stated that the sets delivered to the 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1 895. 



325 



Third Assistant Postmaster General were all originals except the five dollar 
stamps. At least a part of them were handstamped " specimen ' in small 
type. As I have seen original five dollar stamps and reprints of some of the 
other values with this surcharge. I conclude that the statement regarding the 
stamps delivered to the Third Assistant Postmaster General is not absolutely 
correct. It will be shown, on a subsequent page, that all of the 55,000 sets 
were not sold. 



ing tlie newspnpor 

and periodical 

stanipB. 



Regulations not 
heeded. 



The use of the newspaper and periodical stamps was discontinued on 
July I St, 1898. The causes leading up to this are especially interesting to 
philatelists. The original purpose and manner of use of these stamps are set Keguintions concern- 
forth in the report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, dated November 
15th, 1875, as quoted on page 294. A part of this report is clearly a trans- 
cription of the postal regulations, which were, in turn, founded on the laws of 
Congress. Here we read : " The proper amount in stamps handed to the 
postmaster, etc." From this wording it is evident that, at first, the stamps 
were sold to publishers and news agents, otherwise they could not have them 
to hand in. It is quite probable that they were sold to any one who applied 
for them. At a later date regulations were promulgated by the Post Office 
Department which forbade the sale of the stamps and required the postage 
on second-class matter, when mailed in bulk, to be paid in money, and an 
equivalent amount of stamps to be taken from stock, by the clerk having them 
in charge, and affixed to the receipt. 

In various official publications we find evidence that the regulations 
concerning the sale of these stamps were not always observed. For instance, 
in the Postal Guide for 1898, we read : 

" Postmasters throughout the country are being solicited to sell postage-due stamps 
and newspaper and periodical stamps and are in some cases complying with such requests, 
in spite of the law and the rules of the Department Newspaper and periodical stamps are 
never to be sold to any person nor loaned to other postmasters. Their only proper use is to 
be affixed to and immediately cancelled on the stub of every receipt given for second-class 
matter accepted for mailing." 

Officials even went so far as to assert that collectors and dealers who 
held these stamps did so in defiance of the law ; that the stamps must have 
been stolen and were liable to seizure and their holders to punishment. This official opinions, 
in spite of the fact that the stamps had been, at one time, freely sold to pub- 
lishers and news agents, had been given in quantities to the Universal Postal 
Union and had been sold with the sets of reprints and re-issues from 1875 to 
1884. The question appears to have been revived by the trouble over the 
privately perforated stamps, which were referred to in a preceding chapter, 
and the Department decided to test the merits of its claims. In May, 1897, 
certain lots of these stamps, advertised for sale at public auction by a New 
York dealer, were seized and an action at law instituted to recover the stamps sei/,ure of stamps, 
and nominal damages, on the ground that "said stamps were stolen, embezzled i-es"* »»*'<"> *»*«■>■ 
and purloined from the Government, that they were prepared and printed 
for the Government and were and have ever since the time they were printed 
continued to be the property of the Government, and it has never lawfully 



326 NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS, ISSUE OF I 895. 

and voluntarily parted with the possession thereof, nor have any of its ofificers, 
employees or agents had lawful authority to part with title and possession 
thereto." 

Collectors and dealers joined together and subscribed liberally to 
defend this action. Even before the case came to trial the postal officials 
must have recognized the weakness of their position and — which should have 
been apparent long before — that the stamps were not necessary for the proper 
transaction of business between the Post Office Department and publishers. 
Corroboration of this is found in the following extract from the report of the 
Third Assistant Postmaster General, dated October 7th, 1897 : 
DISCONTINUANCE OF THE USE OF NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. 

" Under the present law and the Postal Regulations postage on newspapers and 
periodicals mailed in bulk by publishers and news agents, commonly called second-class 
niscoiitiiiniince of matter, is collected by postmasters in monev. for which they are required to give receipts to 
tlie stamps rerom- the senders of the matter, and to attach to the stubs of such receipts, retained in books kept 
iiirudrd. in the post office, the equivalent of the money received in newapaper and periodical stamps, 

or stamps provided solely for that purpose, which are not good for postage on any other class 
of mail matter, and which are not to be sold, loaned or given away. Every postmaster at 
whose office this class of matter is mailed is further required to cancel the stamps used there- 
for, and to transmit them eveiy quarter to the office of the Third Assistant Postmaster 
General, with the stubs to which they are attached, and with an itemized report showing 
the names of the mailing parties and of their publications, and the amount of the postage 
paid thereon ; and these canceled stamps, after being carefully counted and the amounts 
found to agree with the accompanying reports, are destroyed. 

Upon a very slight consideration of this system it will be seen that, as the stamps used 
are never bought by the senders of second-class matter, are never in their hands, but are 
always, both before and after use, in the custody of postmasters or their subordinates, who 
can apply them or not to the stubs of their receipt-books, as they may elect, and in any 
amounts the use of them in the manner described is unnecessary. A receipt to be given in 
every case to the sender of such matter, with a manifolded copy of it to be sent by the post- 
master to the Department, would present precisely the same evidence of the collection of the 
postage as is now sought to be secured by the use of the stamps. The only difference would 
be in the manner of showing the postmaster's collections : under the present plan he simply 
reports to this office the amount of postage received and sends to the Department the stamps 
used, while to the Auditor he reports these stamps as sold ; under the other, he would still 
report the amount of postage received, accompanied by manifolded copies of the receipts 
given therefor, which could be examined and verified, if necessary, both by the Third 
Assistant Postmaster Geneial and by the Auditor. 

These newspaper and periodical stamps are not only unnecessary, but they involve 
labor and expense, which could be saved by their abandonment. The cost of their manu- 
facture is not very great, it is true — not over a thousand dollars a year ; but the transmission 
of them in the mails, the custody of them in post offices, the application of them to the receipt 
books of postmasters, the canceling and forwarding of them to the Department, and their 
examination and destruction here, amount to very much more, all of which could be saved. 

Not being willing, however, to rely entirely on my own judgment as to the matter, 1 
have had special inquiry made of the postmasters at three very large cities as to whether the 
present system is a proper one and they have all agreed that so far as concerns the use of 
newspaper and periodical stamps the system should be modified, and could be without any 
inconvenient derangement of their office methods. 

On the whole, I am thoroughly convinced that the use of the stamps in question 
affords no protection whatever to the Government or to postmasters, but is expensive and un - 
necessary, and I accordingly recommend that Congress be asked to authorize their discon- 
tinuance, and the substitution of such a system of accountability on the part of postmasters 
and their subordinates as may be deemed best by the Postmaster Geneial." 

The case was tried in April, 1898 and a decision was rendered in favor 
of the defendant, in which decision the Government ultimately acquiesced. 
In the meant me, Congress, in compliance with the recommendation of the 
Postmaster General, ordered the use of the newspaper and periodical stamps 
to be discontinued on and after July 1st, 1898. This act was approved on 
June 13th, 1898, and on the next day the following official order was issued : 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. ISSUE OF I 895. 327 

ORDER OF THE POST MASTER. GENERAL 

Post Office Department, 
Order No. 232. Washingtom, D. C, June 14th, 1898. 

Under authority of the act of Congress approved on the 13th iii.^tant, making ap- 
propriations for the postal service for the next fiscal year, it is hereby ordered that the use 
of newspaper and periodical postage stamps shall cease on and after the ist of July, 1808. Order aiscoutiuufiig 
From that date postmasters will collect in money the postage on second-class matter mailed Hie use of flie 
in bulk by publishers and news agents, and will give receipts therefor, as they have hereto- stampR. 

fore done; but instead of including this money in the amount covered by the sale of stamps, 
as is now the practice, they must charge themselves with it in their quarterly returns to the 
Auditor, by a special entry to be inserted between items 1 and 2 of the official form. 

Carrying out this change, Sections 103 and 130 of the Postal Regulations are hereby 
modified so as to read as follows; 

Sec 103. Postage. Stamps: Kinds and Denominations — Of postage stamps two 
kinds, each consisting of various denominations, are provided, viz: Ordinary stamps which 
are used to prepay postage on ordinary mail matter of the first, third and fourth classes, as 
well as on second-class matter mailed by others than publishers and news agents, and the 
fees on registeied matter; and postage due stamps, which are used for the collection of 
postage due on mail matter that has not been fully prepaid at mailing offices.'' 

•'Sec. 130. Second class matter, elsewhere defined, must be brought to the post 
office and there weighed in bulk, and the postage collected in money, for which receipts, 
made out on forms taken from books furnished by the Department, are to be given. No 
credit is ever to be allowed for newspaper and periodical postage; but, for convenience, the 
postmaster may receive from a publisher or news agent the deposit of sufficient money in 
advance to pay for more than a single mailing. In every case where advance deposits of 
postage are thus made, the postmaster must charge against it every mailing, and must see to 
it that the amount on hand shall never fall below what is necessary to cover any matter that 
is offered for dispatch. Postmasters must transmit punctually at the end of each quarter, 
to the Third Assistant Postmaster General, by ordinary mail, in special envelopes provided 
for the purpose, the stubs of all receipts given for newspaper and periodical postage collected 
during the quarter, together with the statement required by Section 20S." 

" Before returning the stubs, the calculations and footings should be reviewed and 
made correct. The stubs should then be detached from the book, arranged in numerical 
order, fastened together at the upper left-hand corner, and the name of the post office, 
county and state written thereon. The postmaster will continue to use what is left of the 
stub book." 

Section 194 will be also modified so as to require postmasters lo report specially on 
their quarteriy returns to the Auditor the amount of money collected during the quarter as 
postage on newspapers and periodicals; and Section 208 will be changed so as to require the 
quarterly statement of postage sent to the Third Assistant Postmaster General to be made in 
duplicate. 

Ch. Emory Smith, Postmaster General. 

The use of the newspaper and periodical stamps having been discon- 
tinued, postmasters were instructed to return to the Post Office Department, 
for redemption, any stocks of them remaining in their hands. An official stamps returned to 
circular, dated February 2d, 1899, limited the period of this redemption to 
the T5th of that month, at which latter date the ss,oco sets of reprints and 
remainders were offered for sale to the public In compliance with these 
orders a quantity of the stamps were returned to Washington. The stocks 
returned consisted of stamps of the various printings of the Bureau of En- 
graving and Printing and a number printed by the American Bank Note Co. 
It is even possible that a very few of the Continental Bank Note Co's pro- 
duct may have been included among them. I am not aware that any report 
of the amount of stamps redeemed has been made public. If published, it 
would doubtless be confined to a statement of the total value, without giving 
quantities of the several denominations or separating the issues 

The stamps returned by postmasters were usually in broken sheets and 
often stuck together. None of them were used toward making up the SS,coo 
sets for collectors. Such stamps of those sets as were originals were obtained 



the Post Oflice 
Department. 



328 NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1895. 

from undistributed stock in the vaults of the Stamp Agent at the Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing. The balance of this stock was subsequently 
destroyed, as were also the stamps returned by postmasters 

Only about one half of the 55,000 sets were sold, as is shown in the 
following extract from the annual report of the Third Assistant Postmaster 
General for 1900 : 

In my report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1899, it was stated that the Depart- 
ment had realized $117,175 from the sale of obsolete newspaper and periodical stamps at $5 
Number of sets sold per set. This sum represented the value of the sets reported sold by first-class postmasters 
to the public. to whom they were furnished, but upon final settlement it developed that many postmasters 
had reported as " sold ", in addition to their actual sales, a number of sets which had simply 
been placed in the hands of their stamp clerks for sale. Many of these stamps were after- 
ward returned to the Department, and this reduced the value of the sets sold by postmasters 
from the time they were issued in February, iSgq, until their withdrawal from sale Decem- 
ber 31, 1899, to $109,945. To this amount should be added the value of 5,000 sets sold by 
the Department direct, $25,000, making the total income derived from this source $134,945. 
The newspaper and periodical stamps remaining in the hands of postmasters December 31, 
1899, were returned to the Department for destruction. The following statement shows in 
detail the disposition made of the entire isiue : 

Number Value at $5 

of sets. per set. 

Placed on sale — At first-class post offices, 50,000 $250,000 

At Post Office Department, 5,000 25,000 

Total, 55,000 $275,000 

Returned to Department unsold, 28,011 '40,055 

Sold, 26,989 §134,945 

The sale of these stamps was discontinued after December 31st, 1899, 
at all post offices except that of the city of Washington, where the stamps 
remained on sale until February loth, 1900. 



Postage Due Stamps, 



Issue of 1879. 



Previous to July, 1879, whenever a letter was sent unpaid or insuffi- 
ciently prepaid, the amount of postage due was written or stamped on the 
envelope and collected from the addressee. No vouchers were given for 
money thus collected and there was nothing, beyond the honesty of the post- 
master, to insure its delivery to the Government. 

As a remedy for this unsatisfactory system an Act of Congress, approved 
March 3rd, 1879, provided : 

" Sec 26. All mail matter of the first-class, upon which one full rate of postage has 
been prepaid, shall be forwarded to its destination, charged with the unpaid rate, to be col- 
lected on delivery ; but postmasters, before delivering the same, or any article of mail matter Act authormng 
upon which prepayment in full has not been made, shall affix, or caused to be affixed, and postage due stamps, 
canceled, as ordinary stamps are canceled, one or more stamps, equivalent in value to the 
amount of postage due on such article of mail matter, which stamps shall be of such special 
design and denomination as the Postmaster General may prescribe, and which shall in no 
case be sold by any postmaster nor received by him m prepayment of postage. That, in lieu 
of the commission now allowed to postmasters at offices of the fourth class upon the amount 
of unpaid letter postage collected, such postmasters shall receive a commission upon the 
amount of such special stamps so canceled, the same as now allowed upon postage stamps, 
stamped envelopes, postal cards, and newspaper and periodical stamps canceled as postages 
on matter actually mailed at their offices : Provided, The Postmaster General may, in his 
discretion, prescribe in'-tead such regulations therefor at the offices where free delivery is 
established as, in his judgment, the good of the service may require. 

Sec. 27. Any postmaster or other person engaged in the postal service who shall collect, 
and fail to account for, the postage due upon any article of mail matter which he may deliver, 
without having previously affixed and canceled such special stamps as hereinbefore provided, 
or who shall fail to affix such stamps, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on 
conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of fifty dollars." 

In accordance with this Act the following official circular was issued : 

SPECIAL STAMPS FOR POSTAGE DUE. 

Post Office Department, 

Office of the Third Assistant Post.master General, 

Division of Postage Stamps, Stamped Envelopes, and Postal Cards. 

Washington, D. C, May 5, 1879. 

By Sections 26 and 27 of the act of Congress " making appropriations for the service of 
the Post Office Department for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1880, and for other purposes," 
approved March 5, 1879, it is made the duty of postm.asters to affix to all mail matter that Circular anuouncing 
has arrived at destination without full payment of postage, and before delivery of the tiie issue of postage 
same, an amount of stamps equal to the postage due— the stamps to be of such special design due stamps. 

as the Postmaster General may direct. 

To avoid any confusion in theaccountsof postmasters with the Aduitor, and on account 
pf the length of time necessary to prepare for the change contemplated by the above section 



33° 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1 879. 



Dates of issue. 



Design and color. 



in the mode of collecting and accounting for short paid postage, it has been decided to have 
the same go into practical operation on the ist of July next. The Department, however, will 
begin issuing, some time during the present month, in anticipation of the wants of postmasters 
special stamps for the collection of postage due, of the denominations of 1, 2, 5 and 5 cents. 
* * * * The color of all is the same — a reddish hrown 

These stamps are intended exclusively for the collection of postage due on matter 
arriving at destination through the mails, and are to be used in combination wherever 
required to cover unusual amounts of postage. They are to be canceled in the customary 
way, after being attached to mail matter, and are never to be sold or received by postmasters 
for prepayment of postage. 

Postmasters must distinctly understand that these stamps are not to be used until the 
ist of July, r879 

A supply of them will be sent at first to a'l post offices, in advance of requisitions from 
postmasters, and charged to their account ; but afterwards they must be ordered on blank 
forms (No. 3285) to be furnished by the First Assistant Postmaster General. With the first 
supply of stamps, however, blank requisitions for future use will be inclosed. 

The stamps will be accounted for to the Auditor the same as other stamps, and will 
enter into the monthly report of stamps &c., received, sold, and on hand, required by the 
Regulations to be made by postmasters at Presidential offices to the Third Assistant 
Postmaster General. 

On the next page of this circular will be found the sections of the new Postal law and 
Regulations relating to the above described stamps, which are published in advance for the 
information and guidance of postmasters. The distinguishing numbers of the sections can- 
not now be given ; but the instructions are here printed in the same order in which they will 
appear in the forthcoming volume of the new Postal Regulations. 

A. D. Hazen, 

Third Assistant Postmaster General. 

Among other provisions of the regulations were the following: 

" At all post offices where the free delivery service has not been established, postmasters 
will not affix the postage due stamps until the delivery of the matter has been requested. At 
all free delivery post offices, matters which has not been sufficiently prepaid will be rated up, 
and postage due stamps of the necessary denominations will be affixed as soon as the matter 
is received at the post office, unless an order is on file for a letter to be forwarded, in which 
case it will be forwarded without affixing the postage due stamp." 

The Stamps of the denominations i, 2, 3 and 5 cents were first issued 
to postmasters on May 9th, r879; those of the other three values, ro, 30 and 
50 cents, were issued on September igth of the same year. 

The stamps are thus officially described: 

" These stamps are alike, except as to the denominations, which are 
expressed by Arabic numerals, in the middle, upon an elliptic ground of 
delicate lathe work. Upon the upper line of this ground are the words 
' POSTAGE DUE ' in white capitals; on the lower border is the denomination, 
in letters of the same kind. On the left and right side, respectively, and 
separating these inscriptions, are the letters ' u ' and ' s ' upon white shields. 
There is a complex angular ornamentation of light line work surrounding 
this, and the whole rests upon a darker colored beveled tablet, of which but 
little can be seen, though it covers the entire stamp, which is a parallelogram 
I by 25-32 of an inch in dimensions. The color of all the stamps is a dull 
red or reddish brown." 

The paper is the thick, soft, porous, white wove paper, which was 
always used by the American Bank Note Company. 

The gum varies from pure white to brownish. 

The perforation is 12 and the stamps measure 2ox25^mm. 

The stamps were at first printed in a brown ink having a yellow tone. 
This was followed by various shades of red-brown and eventually by lake or, 
a.s it is usually termed, claret. 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. 



331 



The following colors and varieties have been noted: 

Perforated 12. 

Thick Soft Porous Wove Paper. 

May 9th, 1879. I cent yellow-brown, pale brown, brown, deep brown, 

light red-brown, red-brown, lake-brown, carmine- 
brown, rose-brown, dull-rose, claret, light claret 

2 cents yellow-brown, deep yellow-brownf pale brown, 

brown, deep brown, light red-brown, red-brown, 
lake-brown, carmine-brown, rose-brown, dull rose, 
claret, dark claret 

3 cents yellow-brown, pale brown, brown, deep brown, 

red-brown, lake-brown, carmine-brown, claret, 
light claret, dark claret 
S cents yellow-brown, deep yellow-brown, pale brown, 
brown, deep brown, red-brown, carmine-brown, 
rose-brown, claret, light claret, dark claret 
Sept. 19th, 1879. '° cents yellow-brown, deep yellow-brown, pale brown 

brown, deep brown, red-brown, lake-brown, car- 
mine brown, rose-brown, dull rose, claret, light 
claret 

30 cents bistre-brown, pale brown, brown, deep brown, 
red-brown, lake-brown, claret, dark claret 

50 cents bistre-brown, pale brown, brown, deep brown, 
red-brown, claret, dark claret. 

Variety: 
10 cents yellow-brown Imperforate 

The plates each contained two hundred stamps, arranged in two panes 
of one hundred (ten rows of ten) placed side by side. Each impression was 
divided between the panes, making half sheets of one hundred stamps. As 
usual, this division left one side of each sheet imperforate. The line of 
separation was marked by arrow heads in the upper and lower margins. The 
imprint was " American bank note company," in colored capitals. It was 
placed above the two stamps in the middle of the top row of each pane and 
below the corresponding stamps in the bottom row. Between each imprint 
and the central line of the plate was " No.", followed by the plate number in 
slanting Arabic numerals: 

The plate numbers were: 

1 cent No. 3x3, 314. 

2 cents No. 315, 464. 

3 cents No. 316, 317. 
5 cents No. 318. 

10 cents No. 331. 
30 cents No. 332. 
50 cents No. 333, 



Reference List. 



Plates. 



Plate uumbers. 



332 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. ISSUE OF 1879. 



used to pay regular 
postage. 



Although the law expressly forbade postmasters to receive postage due 
stamps in prepayment of postage, instances are known in which this was done, 
Postage due stamps and in at least one of them the postmaster himself was responsible for the 
infraction. In the America-n Philatelist, volume III, page loo, is an article 
on this subject, a portion of which (the extract here quoted) is reprinted 
from the Independent Philatelist for March, 1885: 

" On the afternoon of February 14, 1885, the post office at Bergen Point, N. J., ran 
short of the one cent stamps on account of the increased local mail of drop letters, and in 
order to meet the demand the postmaster was obliged to utilize the one cent unpaid. 

This we learned late on Monday afternoon, and on arrival at the post office found a 
new supply of one cent stamps ready for customers. The postmaster informs us that about 
fifty were in use on the afternoon of February 14, and the morning of the 16th, 1885." 

The reader is reminded that February 14th is St. Valentine's day 
which, in the year 1885, fell on Saturday. This will explain the sudden in- 
crease in the number of drop letters and the reason that no stamps were 
used on the 15th. 

I have seen an envelope, mailed at Lesley, Va., on August loth, 1893, 
on which the regular postage was paid by means of a two cent due stamp of 
the 1879 type, printed in deep claret. The letter was delivered to the ad- 
dressee in Richmond, Va., without any claim for unpaid postage. 

A special printing of the postage due stamps was made in 1879 to 
supply the wants of collectors and dealers. This will be further described 
in the chapter on reprints and re-issues. All values of these stamps, printed 
in red brown, exist with the surcharge " specimen " in red. These were 
probably prepared for exchanging through the Universal Postal Union. 

From the annual reports of the Postmaster General and other sources 
we obtain the following statistics of stamps issued to deputy postmasters: 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1879: 
Quarter Ending: 
Sept. 30, 1878. Dec. 31, 1878. Mch. 31, 1879. 

1 cent 

2 cents 

3 cents , 

S cents 

10 cents ...... 

30 cents 

50 cents 

Whole number of stamps 15,667,600. Value $365,957.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1880 : 
Quarter Ending : 



Special printing. 



** Specimen ' 
stamps. 



Deliveries to 
postmasters. 



June 30, 1879. Total. 
S.7SS.400 5,755,400 
642,900 



8,396,000 
873.3°° 



642,900 
8,396,000 
873.30° 





Sept. 30, 1879. 


Dec. 31, 1879. 


Mch. 31, 1880. 


June 30, 1880. 


Total. 


I cent 


196,900 


258,000 


349,900 


394,200 


1,199,000 


2 cents 


200,800 


146,200 


167,700 


180,300 


695,000 


3 cents 


390,700 


640,400 


1,013,000 


955,800 


2.999.900 


5 cents 


377.70° 


78,000 


152,400 


159,400 


767,500 


10 cents 


194,200 


65,800 


123,400 


119,400 


1502,800 


30 cents 


47.480 


S,ooo 


700 


11,100 


64,280 


50 cents 


35.87° 


10,000 


100 


10,050 


56,020 



Whole number of stamps 6,284,500. Value $251,836.00. 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. 33^ 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1881 : 
Quarter Ending : 





isept. 30, 1880. 


Dec. 31, 1880 


. Mch. 31, 188 


I. June 30, 1881 


Total. 


I cent 


279,100 


465,600 


400,500 


450,500 


1,595,700 


2 cents 


129,700 


227,900 


142,500 


231,950 


732,050 


3 cents 


967,600 


1,231,200 


1,147,900 


1,287,500 


4,634,200 


S cents 


91,060 


124,980 


170,900 


J33>84o 


520,780 


10 cents 


130,740 


113,510 


i37,5°o 


170,500 


552,250 


30 cents 


5° 


1,400 


200 


7,650 


9,300 


50 cents 




200 


400 


830 


1,430 



Whole number of stamps 8,045,710. Value $254,393.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1882 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1881. 


Dec. 31, 1881. 


Mch. 31, 1882. 


June 30, 1 


1882. Total. 


1 cent 


440, 1 00 


525, >oo 


55', 200 


811,950 


2,328,350 


2 cents 


137,250 


203,750 


228,950 


388,350 


958,300 


3 cents 


1,389,900 


1,763,200 


1,784,000 


1,864,550 


6,801,650 


5 cents 


86,560 


127,460 


137,940 


180,600 


532,560 


10 cents 


128,550 


137,270 


197,230 


276,880 


739,930 


30 cents 


620 


1,620 


760 


8,050 


11,050 


50 cents 


300 


400 


570 


2,200 


3,470 





Sept. 30, i8f 


I cent 


580,850 


2 cents 


190,600 


3 cents 


1,718,250 


5 cents 


117,540 


10 cents 


205,070 


30 cents 


>o,730 


50 cents 


10,300 



Mch. 31, 1883. 


June 30, 1883. 


Total. 


769,550 


578,450 


2,475,375 


366,500 


436,650 


1,244,475 


2,123,750 


1,681,950 


7,383,530 


198,760 


114,600 


525,145 


280,310 


230,220 


948,965 


1,310 


2,810 


17,960 


3,100 


400 


•4,450 



Whole number of stamps 11,375,310. Value $352,170.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1883 
Quarter Ending : 
Dec. 31, i8i 
546,525 
250,725 
2,859,580 

94,245 
233,365 
3,no 
650 
Whole number of stamps 12,609,900. Value $404,915.90. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1884 : 

Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1883. Dec. 31, 1883. Mch 31, iS 
863,900 
2,032,100 
50,500 
76,500 
147,370 

2,2tO 
1,848 

Whole number of stamps 13,612,198. Value $353,611.00. 



I cent 


853,300 


2 cents 


1,679,100 


3 cents 


662,050 


5 cents 


100,190 


10 cents 


220,300 


30 cents 


6,930 


50 cents 


5,810 



Ich 31, 1884. 


June 30, 1884. 


Total. 


912,600 


837,700 


3,467,500 


,204,000 


1,990,400 


7,905,600 


11,700 




724,250 


158,060 


119,800 


454,550 


402,380 


251,220 


1,021,270 


16,050 


1,170 


26,360 


5,010 




12,668 



334 POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1885 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1884. 


Dec. 31, 1884. 


Mch. 31, 1885. 


June 30, 1885. 


Total. 


I cent 


604,600 


758,300 


81 r, 200 


880,250 


3,054,350 


2 cents 


',843,550 


2,281,800 


2,246,250 


1,880,900 


8,252,500 


3 cents 




10,500 


55,500 


6,700 


72,700 


5 cents 


71,220 


86,920 


194,540 


130,480 


483,160 


10 cents 


195,240 


175.300 


211,570 


202,315 


784,425 


30 cents 


5,350 


1,400 


6,540 


5, '40 


18,430 


50 cents 


5,000 




70 


106 


5,176 



Whole number of stamps 12,670,741. Value $308,492.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1886 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1885. Dec. 31, 188; 
614,100 
411,400 
50,000 
73,780 
261,200 
310 
1 00 
Whole number of stamps 5,469,650. Value $159,989.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1887 : 

Quarter Ending : 



I cent 


473,800 


2 cents 


534,250 


3 cents 


700 


5 cents 


54,t20 


10 cents 


124,900 


30 cents 


300 


50 cents 





ch. 31, 1886. 


June 30, 1886. 


Total. 


712,800 


591,800 


2.392,500 


400,100 


545,350 


1,881,100 


5,600 


5,000 


61,300 


134,780 


96,600 


359,280 


234,340 


150,670 


771,110 


2,130 


520 


3,260 


J, 000 




1,100 





Sept. 30, 1886. 


Dec. 31, 1886. 


Mch. 31, 1887. 


June 30, 1887, 


Total. 


I cent 


817,200 


952,800 


843,000 


823,200 


3,436,200 


2 cents 


652,300 


907,350 


909,250 


725,700 


3,194,600 


3 cents 


50,000 


5,000 


12,700 


200 


67,900 


5 cents 


182,160 


101,460 


135,000 


97,580 


516,200 


10 cents 


188,850 


273,440 


328,210 


219,840 


1,010,340 


30 cents 


1,020 


5,000 


5,150 


2,060 


13,230 


50 cents 


1,000 


5,020 


1,000 


1,044 


8,064 



Whole number of stamps 8,246,534. Value $235,136.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1888 : 

Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1887. Dec. 31, 1887. Mch. 31, 1888. June 30, 1888. Total. 

1 cent 936,600 1,403,900 1,868,600 1,312,500 5,521,600 

2 cents 

3 cents 
5 cents 

10 cents 
30 cents 
50 cents 

Whole number of stamps 10,805,572. Value $283,954.00. 



705,950 


992,500 


970,800 


661,650 


3,330,900 


60,000 


12,500 


60,200 


4,400 


137,100 


83,800 


160,440 


215,440 


120,780 


580,460 


212,300 


320,740 


43S,i6o 


246,340 


1,214,540 




3,300 


10,900 


580 


14,780 




24 


5,350 


818 


6,192 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. 335 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1889 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1888. 


Dec. 31, 1888. 


Mch. 31, 1889. 


June 30, 1889. 


Total. 


I cent 


i,S'3.So° 


1,774,700 


1,515,200 


1,517,200 


6,320,600 


2 cents 


i,03S>8so 


851.350 


880,850 


792,150 


3,560,200 


3 cents 


SS.200 


ir,ioo 


70,200 


12,400 


148,900 


5 cents 


183,360 


102,260 


130,260 


103,340 


519,220 


10 cents 


297,020 


380,120 


328,960 


334,100 


1,340,200 


30 cents 


SO 


220 


640 




910 


50 cents 


30 


100 


10 




140 



Whole number of stamps 11,890,170. Value $299,201.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1890 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1889. 


Dec. 31, 18S9. 


Mch. 31, 1890. 


June 30, 1890. 


Total. 


I cent 


1,980,200 


1,540,900 


1,71 r, 800 


1,839,300 


7,072,200 


2 cents 


1,261,200 


1,059,100 


1,051,100 


1,253,000 


4,624,400 


3 cents 


23,200 


77,500 


25,250 


13,000 


138,950 


5 cents 


133,160 


100,060 


140,370 


131,300 


504,890 


10 cents 


300,390 


282,260 


383,020 


320,840 


1,286,510 


30 cents 


5,450 


1,050 


1,310 


3,100 


10,910 


50 cents 


100 




130 


100 


330 



Whole number of stamps 13,638,190. Value $324,712.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1891 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1890. 


Dec. 31, 1890. 


Mch. 31, 1891. 


, June 30, 1891 


Total. 


I cent 


1,915,600 


1,887,700 


',99',5°o 


1,877,500 


7,673,300 


2 cents 


1,286,700 


1,146,600 


1,263,900 


1,359,650 


5,056,850 


3 cents 


73,300 


24,700 


25,600 


70,200 


193,800 


5 cents 


116,060 


137,640 


157,800 


143,860 


555,400 


10 cents 


340,060 


340,820 


420,940 


391,340 


1,493,160 


30 cents 


320 


40 


310 


1,000 


1,670 


50 cents 


100 


100 


300 


100 


600 



Whole number of stamps 14,974,820. Value $361,573.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1892 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1891 


. Dec. 31, 189 


1. Mch. 31, 1892. 


June 30, 1892 


1. Total. 


I cent 


2,012,000 


2,048,100 


2,458,900 2 


1,270,800 


8,789,800 


2 cents 


1,293,300 


1,482,600 


1,748,400 I 


,613,100 


6,137,400 


3 cents 


26,500 


38,700 


80,300 


31,800 


177,300 


5 cents 


189,100 


132,500 


251,800 


167,600 


741,000 


10 cents 


301,990 


456,600 


507,400 


431,200 


1,697,190 


30 cents 


2,420 


.1,700 


1,200 


300 


5,620 


50 cents 


200 


1,300 


J.Soo 


100 


3,100 


Whole number of st. 


amps 17,551, 


410. Value $4; 


25,970.00. 





336 POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — ISSUE OF 1879. — ISSUES OF 1894-95. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1893: 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1892. 


Dec. 31, 1892. 


Mch. 31, 1893. 


June 30, 1893. 


Total. 


I cent 


2,048,950 


2,050,000 


2,211,500 


2,657,000 


8,967,450 


2 cents 


i,6i9>SS° 


1,435,600 


1,698,000 


1,845,350 


6,598,500 


3 cents 


74,35° 


26,900 


50,400 


41,300 


192,950 


5 cents 


173,75° 


168,700 


213,200 


252,860 


808,510 


10 cents 


364,550 


418,500 


352,700 


389,800 


1,525,550 


30 cents 


1,050 


2,200 


1,400 


2,000 


6,650 


50 cents 


850 


1,200 


200 


100 


2,350 



I cent 


1,866,200 


2 cents 


',391,750 


3 cents 


69,000 


5 cents 


167,840 


10 cents 


366,330 


30 cents 


1,180 


50 cents 


300 



1,646,750 


2,203,300 


7,131,700 


125,500 


29,600 


242,900 


180,460 


134,100 


603,780 


485,920 


361,280 


1,608,470 


1,160 


1,070 


6,290 


574 


1,100 


3,106 



Whole number of stamps 18,101,960. Value $423,583.50. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1894 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1893. Dec. 31, 1893. Mch. 31, 1894. June 30, 1894. Total. 

2,286,300 3,068,000 2,221,400 8,441,900 
1,889,900 
18,800 
121,380 

394,940 
2,880 

1,132 

Whole number of stamps 18,038,146. Value $428,816.00. 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1895 : 
Quarter Ending : 
Sept. 30, 1894. Dec. 31, 1894. Mch. 31, 1895. June 30, 1895. Total. 

1 cent i>35°,369 1,350,369 

2 cents 50,164 50,164 

3 cents 29,500 92,600 54,200 14,000 190,300 
5 cents 147,160 197,980 211,240 47,940 604,320 

10 cents 277,780 277,780 

30 cents 2,370 14,470 6,100 490 23,430 

50 cents 1,156 10,800 2,604 470 15,030 

Whole number of stamps 2,511,393. Value $92,753.97. 



Issues of 1894-95. 



On July ist, 1894 the contract of the American Bank Note Company 
for the manufacture of postage stamps expired. Such reserve stock of stamps 
as was in the vaults of the Company was transferred to Washington and issued 
as required. Conc-erning this stock the annual report of the Third Assistant 
Postmaster General, dated October 31st, 1894, says : "Of the postage-due 
stamps, the transferred stock of the i cent denomination was exhausted August 
14th, 1894; the 2-cent, July 20th, 1894 ; and the lo-cent, September 24th, 
1894." The other values were not exhausted until April, 1895." 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. ISSUES OF 1 894-95. 



337 



It has been reported, on supposedly good authority, that the Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing made printings of the postage-due stamps from the 
plates of the American Bank Note Co. This statement has, until recently, 
been generally accepted. But it is now officially denied that any such print- 
ings were made and the records of the Bureau confirm this denial. The 
stamps which have, heretofore, been assigned to these supposed printings were 
distinguished by the transparency of the paper and the whiteness of the gum. 
We must now conclude that they were merely a late product of the American 
Bank Note Co. 

In the report of the Third Assistant Postmaster General for 1894 (page 
476), we read : 

Change of Postage-Due Stamps. 

It was also decided, upon the suggestion of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, to 
make a change in the designs of the postage-due stamps — the change consisting of a reduction 
in the size of the stamps and some immaterial changes in the general design. The denomi- 
nations of the stamps are those of the old series, and the color was intended to be the same 
but, owing to some difference in the character of the engraved plates, the former color has 
not been exactly preserved. The new color is somewhat deeper than the old, and some of 
the earlier issues of the stamps have even been printed a bright red. 

The following is a description of the new stamps : 

The shape of the whole engraving is oblong, the size being seven-eighths by very 
nearly three fourths of an inch. In the center is the indication of denomination — large white 
Arabic numerals being used — surrounded by fine lathework, forming an equilateral device 
with thin white edges, rounded corners, and curving side.s — the four corners of the outline 
pointing to the top and bottom and two sides of the stamp Above this is a semi-circular 
panel bearing in white capitals the words " postage due", with a small cross at each end, 
and above this still, in the two upper corners, are the letters "u " and "s ", over which, 
and descending some distance on the two sides, is a line of ribbed ruling. At the bottom 
of the stamp, in a curved panel, are the words of the denomination in white capitals, above 
which, coming from each of the lower corners, is a large original scroll ornament somewhat 
resembling a cornucopia. 

The stamps measure i8J^x2 2 mm. 

They were at first printed on a thin white wove paper, usually semi- 
transparent. Afterwards, in common with other issues of the same period^ 
they appeared on paper watermarked with the letters " U. S. P. S." They 
have been reported, as have the stamps of the regular issue, on paper which> 
in addition to the watermark, showed laid lines, and also on paper which 
was apparently double. It is claimed, by those who should speak with 
authority on the subject, that neither of these varieties of paper was inten- 
tionally made or used and that they must be due to some accident of 
manufacture. Such varieties appear to be of only trifling interest. 

The gum varies from smooth to rough and from white to brownish. 
The perforation is as usual. 

The colors are : 



Aug. 14, 1894. 
July 20th, 1894. 
Apl. 27th, 1895. 



Perforated 12. 
White Wove Paper. 

1 cent pale vermilion, vermilion, violet-rose, pale claret, 

claret, deep claret, lake 

2 cents vermilion, dark vermilion, claret, bright claret, 

deep claret, lake 

3 cents deep claret, lake 

5 cents claret, bright claret, deep claret, lake 



Supposed printings 

from plates of tlic 

American Bank 

Note Co. 



Auuounceraeut of 
the issue. 



Color. 



Paper. 



Reference List. 



338 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — ISSUES OF 1894-95. 



Sept. 24th, 1894. 10 cents lake, brownish lake 

Apl. 27th, 1895. 30 cents lilac-rose, violet-rose, rose, claret, lake 

50 cents lilac -rose, violet-rose, brownish claret, lake 

Watermarked USPS 



Aug. ist, 1895. 

Sept. 14th, 1895. 

Oct. 30th, 1895. 
Oct. 15th, 1895. 

Sept. 14th, 1895. 
Aug. 2ist, 1897. 
Mch. 17th, 1896. 



1 cent dark carmine, violet-rose, claret, bright claret, deep 
claret, brownish claret, lake 

2 cents violet-rose, claret, bright claret, brownish claret, 
deep claret, lake 

3 cents crimson, deep claret, lake 
S cents claret, bright claret, deep claret, brownish claret, 

lake 
10 cents claret, deep claret, lake 
30 cents lake 
50 cents brownish claret, lake 

The plates for these stamps are made up of two panes, placed side by 
Plates. side Each pane contains one hundred stamps, arranged in ten rows of ten. 

The impressions are divided vertically, between the panes, at the time of per- 
forating, thus leaving one edge of each sheet blank. 

A line is drawn across the plate between the fifth and sixth horizontal 
rows. This line terminates in arrow heads in each side margin. There are 
Imprints. two varieties of the imprint. The first is " Bureau, Engraving & Printing," 
in small lower-case letters and initial capitals, on a small rectangular panel, 
surrounded by a thin colored line. The second variety is made by adding a 
rosette and a three-pointed ornament at each end of the panel. The imprint 
is placed above the two stamps in the middle of the top row of each pane 
and below the corresponding stamps of the bottom row. The plate number 
is placed at the inner side of each imprint. The plate numbers are : 

Plato numbers. Without Watermark. 

No. 57, 
No. 34, 
No. 70. 
No. 71. 
No. 72. 
No. 73. 
No. 74. 

With Watermark. 

No. 57, 147, 246, 267. 
No. 60, 159, 247, 268. 
No. 70, 254. 
No. 71, 255. 
No. 72, 256. 
No. 73, 260. 
No. 74, 261. 
Four plates for one cent stamps, numbered 66, 67, 68 and 69, were 
also prepared, but they were never put to press. 



I 


cent 


2 


cents 


3 


cents 


S 


cents 


10 


cents 


30 


cents 


5° 


cents 


I 


cent 


2 


cents 


3 


cents 


S 


cents 


10 


cents 


30 


cents 


50 


cents 



147. 
60. 159. 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — ISSUES OF 1894-95. 339 

From the annual reports of the Postmaster General and other sources 

we obtain the following statistics of quantities of these stamps issued to 

deputy postmasters : 

Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1895 : DeiiTeries to 

postmnsteis. 

Quarter Ending : 

Sept. 30, 1894. Dec. 31, 1894. Mch. 31, 1895. June 30, 1895. Total. 

1 cent 883,531 2,233,600 2,391,100 1,939,850 7,448,081 

2 cents 1,825,036 2,016,250 2,436,400 1,864,450 8,142,136 

3 cents 39iioo 39jIoo 

5 cents 88,200 88,200 

10 cents 62,600 337.79° 3S1.870 339.iio 1.091.370 

30 cents 700 700 

50 cents 890 890 

Whole number of stamps 16,810,477. Value $352,698.53. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1896 : 
Quarter Ending : 

Mch. 31, T896. June 30, 1896. Total. 

2,439,400 1,953,700 8,582,800 

2,236,450 2,029,450 8,249,850 

92,500 96,900 383,050 

180,860 175,540 612,910 

419,150 359,190 1,504,610 

4,040 1,760 10,060 

3,350 1,060 8,434 
Whole number of stamps 19,351,714- Value $450,658.00. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1897 : 
Quarter Ending : 



I cent 


Sept. 30, 1895. 
1,822,900 


Dec. 31, 1895 
2,366,800 


2 cents 

3 cents 
5 cents 


1,578,400 

95,550 
128,550 


2,405,550 

98,100 

127,960 


10 cents 


325,950 


400,320 


30 cents 


2,220 


2,040 


50 cents 


1,390 


2,634 





Sept. 30, 1896. 


Dec. 31, 1896. 


Mch. 31, 1897. 


June 30, 1897. 


Total. 


I cent 


2,259,600 


2,106,000 


2,062,900 


2,285,000 


8,713,500 


2 cents 


1,937,900 


2,130,650 


2,072,800 


2,315,400 


8,456,750 


3 cents 


39,400 


108,500 


49,600 


103,100 


300,600 


5 cents 


133,880 


237,440 


181,600 


153,740 


706,660 


10 cents 


277,590 


344,790 


394,410 


366,450 


1,383,240 


30 cents 


2,790 


2,060 


1,180 


1,120 


7,150 


50 cents 


2,160 


1,520 


i,oio 


570 


5,260 


Whole number of 


' stamps 19,573,160. Value $443,720.00. 




Stamps issued during the fiscal 


year ending Ji 


ane 30th, 1898 


: 






Quarter 


Ending : 








Sept. 30, 1897. 


Dec. 31, 1897. 


Mch. 31, 1898. 


June 30, 1898. 


Total. 


1 cent 


2,186,800 


2,506,400 


2,637,600 


2,487,600 


9,818,400 


2 cents 


2,339,350 


2,511,800 


2,666,250 


2,771,500 


10,288,900 


3 cents 


58,000 


119,200 


114,100 


186,000 


477,300 


5 cents 


123,820 


149,400 


262,360 


246,740 


782,320 


10 cents 


245,650 


338,730 


408,060 


492,990 


1,485,430 


30 cents 


740 


1,420 


1,650 


1.310 


5,120 


50 cents 


1,610 


1,650 


6,470 


1,030 


10,760 



Whole number of stamps 22,868,230. Value $512,856.00. 



34° 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — ISSUES OF 1894-95. 



Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1899 ; 
Quarter Ending : 



Deliveries to tlie 

Universal Postal 

Union. 



Universal Postal 

Congress. 



"Specimen' 
stamps. 





Sept. 30, 1898. 


Dec. }i, 1898. 


Mch. 31, 1899. 


June 30, 1899. 


Total. 


1 cent 


2,020,300 


1,113,400 


949,000 


918,700 


5,001,400 


2 cents 


2,405,500 


2,147,400 


2,450,400 


2,'5f.35o 


9,154.650 


3 cents 


96,300 


SS.Soo 


97,600 


39.55° 


318.950 


5 cents 


119,500 


184,200 


232,600 


135.750 


672,050 


10 cents 


243,120 


374,600 


4'4,9So 


276,500 


1.309.170 


30 cents 


2,310 


55° 


330 


7,210 


10,400 


50 cents 


160 


200 


20 


1,070 


1.470 



Whole number of stamps *i6, 468,090. Value *$4i 1,050.00. 
*4,5oo " specimens ", value $750, included. 
Stamps issued during the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1900 : 
Quarter Ending : 





Sept. 30, 1899. 


Dec. 31, 1899. 


Mch. 31, 1900. 


June 30, 1900. 


Total. 


1 cent 


1,172,300 


1,500,000 


1,722,200 


1,084,000 


5,478,500 


2 cents 


2,888,900 


3.137,200 


3,561,600 


2,949,500 


12,537,200 


3 cents 


111,600 


73,100 


121,500 


104,200 


410,400 


5 cents 


159.500 


261,800 


270,600 


161,800 


853.700 


10 cents 


396,950 


371,100 


561,850 


352,550 


1,682,450 


30 cents 


460 


S40 


1,690 


2,740 


5,430 


50 cents 


390 


570 


60 


710 


',730 



Whole number of stamps 20,969,410. Value $531,265.00. 

In the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1895, there were delivered to the 
Universal Postal Union at Berne 750 copies each of the i, 2 and 10 cent 
stamps. In the succeeding year a like quantity of the other values of the 
series were supplied to the Union. In the reports of the Postmaster General 
for those years, these stamps are included in the tables of deliveries to post- 
masters. 

In the year 1898, 200 stamps of each denomination of this series were 
delivered "for the Post Office album ", and 125 sets were overprinted in blue 
" UNIVERSAL — postal — CONGRESS " and presented to the delegates attending 
that congress. These two lots are not included in the statistics quoted from 
the reports of the Postmaster General. 

The 4,500 " specimens " referred to at the foot of the table of deliveries 
to postmasters in the fiscal year 1899, consisted of 750 copies of each value 
of the series except the one cent. It is understood that these were all sur- 
charged " Specimen " in small Gothic type, in black or magenta ink, by means 
of a hand-stamp. 

The table of deliveries for the fiscal year 1900 includes 700 copies 
(100 of each denomination), valued at f 101.00, which were delivered to the 
Third Assistant Postmaster General as "specimens". 

During the last three years large quantities of postage due stamps have 
been overprinted for Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philippines. As they were 
taken from stock in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing which had not 
been transferred to the Post Office department, the statistics of deliveries are 
not affected, 



POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — PROVISIONAL ISSUES. 



341 



Provisional Issues. 



From time to time, and in different parts of the country, postmasters 
have resorted to a variety of makeshifts to supply temporary shortages of 
certain values of the postage due stamps. Such provisional issues have 
usually emenated from small post offices and the majority of them seem to be 
of entirely honest intent and free from any suspicion of having been made 
for philatelic purposes. While these issues were not authorized by the Post 
Office Department, the fact that they were made by postmasters gives them 
some standing. They are certainly interesting to a specialist. 

The following varieties have come under my notice : 

In the collection of Mr. F. O. Conant is a cover which was received 
in Berlin Falls, N. H., on April 30th, 1880. The cover is stamped " Due 3 " 
and a three cent stamp of the Post Office Department has been affixed, to 
represent the short postage, and has been duly cancelled. A more detailed 
description of this cover was given on page 267. 

In the American Journal of Philately for August, 1 895, I find a com- 
munication wherein it is stated that provisional postage due stamps were in 
use in Detroit, Michigan, from June 21st to 27th of that year. I have not 
seen these stamps but infer from the description that they were made by sur- 
charging (probably with a hand-stamp), the one and two cent stamps of the 
regular issue " Due i " and " Due 2 " and also by a similar surcharge in 
manuscript. 

In the same year in Winside, Nebraska, one cent stamps of the 1890 
issue were surcharged " due \" in a circle and used as postage due stamps. 
The circle is 19mm. in diameter. The word "due" is in large capitals, 
6mm. high, and is placed above the " i ". The surcharge is in magenta ink 
and appears to have been made with a rubber hand-stamp. I have seen 
copies used on parts of the wrappers of newspapers and cancelled July 20th 
and August 6th, 1895. 

In North Branch, N. J., two cent postage due stamps were bisected 
diagonally and used as one cent stamps. The only copy at hand is on a piece 
of the cover of a magazine which is dated June, 1895. 

Mr. W. F. Goerner has shown me a similar provisional which was 
used in Warwick, R. I., in 1897. In this case two cents stamps were divided 
vertically. Mr. Goerner writes me: 

" In September, 1897, while in Bayside one evening I called upon Mr. O., who 
stopped there during the summer. Looking over some of the periodicals of the day I was 
quite surprised to find one or two of them bearing the enclosed provisionals Further search, 
then and some days later, revealed eight copies. Bayside at that time, had no post office — 
the mail coming through Warwick. Not knowing whether the stamp was affixed at 
Providence (whence the mail was originally sent) or Warwick, 1 went to the latter office to 
inquire. I found a young woman, the assistant, in charge and asked her if the split stamps 
had been used at that office. She said : Yes, that they were out of one cent ones and that 
the postmaster had cut them before and so she supposed it all right to do so and she hoped 
they had done nothing wrong and that no harm would come from it. 

1 did not understand what she meant but she soon told me that she thought I might 
be a post office inspector and that she meant to tell the truth. 

If I asked her how long they had been using the stamps in this way, I have forgotten 
what she told me. But it is my impression that she said it was not very long and that not 
many were so used. The earliest copy that 1 saw was on the Literary TJigest of August 7th, 
and the latest on the same paper of September 1 ith." 



Post Office Dept. 

stamp used to pay 

postage (Ine. 



Ordinary postage 

stamps surcharged 

as postage dne 

stamps. 



Bisected stamps. 



342 POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. — PROVISIONAL ISSUES. 

A more ambitious provisional was issued in Jefferson, Iowa, in October 

1895. On this occasion two cent postage due stamps were overprinted on 

stamps biaected each side " Due I cent " and subsequently divided vertically and each half 

and surcharged, ^^g^j ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ stamp. The surcharge is in black and on my copy reads 

upward. The following brief history of this provisional is taken from the 

Philatelic Era for May 7th, 1898 : 

United States Post Office. 

Jefferson, Iowa, February 12, 1898. 
To Whom it may Concern : 

This is to certify that about the 6th day of October, 1895, my supply of one cent post- 
age due stamps was exhausted. I had made requisition for a new supply and expected them 
daily, and pending their arrival had a local printer print " Postage Due i Cent" on a few 
half two cent due stamps and these half stamps 1 used on matter requiring one cent stamps, 
until arrival of one cent due stamps Not more than twenty of these one half stamps were 
used, as 1 only had thirty printed and had about a dozen left when the new supply arrived, 
after which the half stamps were not used. I am not a stamp dealer or collector ; know 
nothing about it and am not in any way interested in it. 

Yours, 

(Signed) F. R. McCarthy, 

Postmaster, Jefferson, la. 

I have two covers, used in Jersey City, N. J., in 1897. One is a large 
envelope, cancelled November 20th, and marked " Due 6 ". In payment of 
Postage due paid fcy this shortage three 2 cent stamps of the regular issue were affixed and hand- 
ordinary postage stamped in purple " Due 2 cts." The surcharge was applied after the stamps 
were placed on the cover. The other envelope bears a one cent stamp, 
similarly surcharged in magenta ink. The' date of use of the latter is not 
legible. 

I have seen several envelopes which were received in Richmond, Va., 
between September 20th and 23rd, 1897. Each was marked as being in- 
sufficiently prepaid, and the deficient postage was supplied by two cent 
stamps of the regular issue instead of due stamps. 

I have also seen a cover, received in Beaver Dam, Wis., on October 
10th, 1894, on which a shortage of one cent was paid by a stamp of the 
Columbian series. 



Reprints, Re-Issues and Special Printings. 

In this chapter will be considered not only those printings of obsolete 
issues which may rightly be called reprints (happily a limited number) but 
also all re-issues and special printings which, while available for postal pur- 
poses, were issued with a view to their sale to stamp collectors rather than 
for the franking of letters. It is probably superfluous to specify that I am 
referring only to Government issues, any reprintings of Postmasters' stamps 
or the semi-official carriers' stamps having been described in the chapters 
devoted to those subjects. 

The first issue of this nature took place early in 1875. The intention 
of the Government was known in advance, though possibly its full extent 
was not realized. Strange to say, the proposition to make reprints does not ifo protest against 
appear to have evoked any protest from philatelists or comment in the stamp *''* rinur'' '^''' 
journals. A careful search of the leading journals for 1874 and the early 
months of 1875 is not rewarded by finding any announcement of the im- 
pending reprinting or remarks on the subject. Even the appearance of the 
reprints in the market occasioned only slight comment, at least compared 
with the storm of protest that such a reprinting would evoke to day. 

In the Philatelical Journal for April 20th, 1875, we find an article en- 
titled " Official Jobbery and Sanctioned Forgery " which appears to be from 
the pen of the editor, Mr. E. L. Pemberton, and in which the action of the Post 
Office department is roundly condemned. Speaking of the official stamps — 
which the authorities had, hitherto, refused to sell to philatelists — he says: 

"Such specimens will be obliterated by the surcharge of the word 'specimen'; and 
such specimens likewise will be ungummed ! Not very bad, is it ? Very neat to offer 5, 10 
and 20 dollar stamps of the most puissant department of State, obliterated and ungummed, Journalistic 
at their facial values ! The G. P. O. evidently thinks that if philatelists are really timbro- criticism. 

maniacs, they may as well be humored as have to remain without copies of the things they 
will not sell in an unobliterated state ; i. e., for your 5, 10 or 20 dollars you may purchase 
a thing which has no facial value, and which the Department would never discount again at 
any percentage, supposing you ever got tired of the lovely features and god-like nose of Mr. 
Secretary Seward atfour shillings and two pence to the dollar." 

After reading this, it is rather amusing to turn to the official record of 
the sales of the reprints and re-issues and note that there were only two pur- 
chasers of complete sets of the four higher values of the Department of State, 
one of whom was Mr. E. L. Pemberton. 

" A Protest by the National Philatelical Society, New York " was 
published in T^e Philatelist for July, 1875. 



344 



REPRINTS, RE-ISSUES AND SPECIAL PRINTINGS. 



ReANOus for making 
tliu reprints. 



Offlcial circular. 



The American Journal of Philately was the only journal that took the 
trouble to describe the stamps. 

I have not been able to find any official statement of the reason for 
making the reprints and re-issues of 1875, but it is generally understood that 
the prime cause was the desire of the Post Office Department to display a full 
set of our postal issues, as part of its exhibit at the International Exposition 
of 1876. The collection of the Department being incomplete and the miss- 
ing stamps not being obtainable, except by purchase at a considerable advance 
over their face value, the simplest way to secure them appeared to be by 
making impressions from the old plates. In addition to this, the Department 
had received frequent applications from stamp collectors for specimens of its 
obsolete issues and this seemed a favorable opportunity to provide material 
to satisfy such requests. 

This action of the Post Office Department — as well as similar acts of 
other governments — gives rise to the thought that, in official eyes, one print- 
ing of a stamp is as good as another. The possibility that it may be less 
satisfactory to others does not appear to be considered, any more than the 
difficulty of making a successful reproduction, after a lapse of years. 

When the stamps were ready for distribution the following circular 

was issued : 

SPECIMEN POSTAGE STAMPS. 



POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, 
Office of Third Assistant Postmaster General, 
Division of Postage Stamps, Stamped Envelopes, and Postal Cards, 

Washington, D. C, March S7, 1875. 
The Department is prepared to furnish, upon application, at face value, specimens of 
adhesive postage stamps issued under its auspices, as follows : 

ORDINARY STAMPS FOR USE OF THE PUBLIC. 

1. Issue of 18^7. — Denominations, 5 and 10 cents. Value of set, 15 cents. 

2. Issue of 1861. — Denominotions, i, 3, 5, 10, 12, 24, 30, and 90 cents; also two 
separate designs of i-cent carrier stamps. Value of set, $1.77. 

3. Issue of 1861. — Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 cents. Value 
of set, $1.92. 

4. Issue of 1869. — Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 cents. Value 
of set, $1.93. 

5. Issue of 1870, (current series). — Denominations, i, 2 (brown), 2 (vermilion), 3, 5, 
6, 7, ID, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 cents. Value of set, $2.07. 

OFFICIAL STAMPS. 

1. Executive. — Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, and 10 cents. 

2. Department of State. — Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 
cents, and $2, $5, $10, $20. Value of set, $39. 

3. Treasury Department. — Denominations, i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30 and 90 
cents. Value of set, $2. 

4. War Department.— Y>enomm3.i\ox\%, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 cents. 
Value of set, $2. 

5. Navy Department. — Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 cents. 
Value of set, $2. 

6. Post Office Department. — Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, is, 24, 30, and 90 
cents. Value of set, $1.93. 

7. Department of the Interior. — Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 
cents. Value of set, $1.93, 

8. Department of Justice. — Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 
cents. Value of set, $1.93. 

9. Department of Apiculture. — Denominations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, u, 15, 24, and 30 
cents. Value of set, $1.03. 



Value of set, 22 cents. 
10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 



REPRINTS, RE-ISSUES AND SPECIAL PRINTINGS. 



345 



NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. 

1. Issue «/ 7565.— Denominations, 5, 10, and 25 cents. Value of set, 40 cents. 

2. Issue of 1874- — Denominations, 2, 3, 4, f, 8, 9, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 8/ 
cents, $1.92, $3, $6, $9, $12, $24, $36, $48, and $60. Value of set, $204.66. 



The 1847 and '851 stamps are obsolete and no longer receivable for postage. The 
subsequent issues of ordinary stamps are still valid. The newspaper and periodical stamps 
of 1865 are also uncurrent ; those of the issue of 1874 can be used only by publishers and 
news agents for matter mailed in bulk, under the Act of June 23, 1874. The official stamps 
cannot be used except for the official business of the particular Department for which 
provided. 

All the specimens furnished will be ungvmmed ; and the official stamps will have 
printed across the face the word " Specimen ", in small type. It will be useless to apply for 
^OT»«^(/ stamps, or for official stamps with the word " Specimen" omitted. 

The stamps will be sold by sets, and application must not be made for less than one 
full set of any issue, except the State Department official stamps and the newspaper and 
periodical stamps of the issue of 1874. The regular set of the former will embrace all the 
denominations from 1 cent to 90 cents, inclusive, valued at $2 ; and any or all of the other 
denominations ($2, $5, %\o, and $20) will be added or sold separately from the regular set, 
as desired. 

The newspaper and periodical stamps of 1874 will be sold in quantities of not less 
than two dollars' worth in each case, of any denomination or denominations that may be 
ordered. , 

Stamps of any one denomination of any issue will be sold in quantities of two dollars' 
worth and upward. 

Under no circumstances will stamps be sold for less than their face value. 

Payment must invariably be made in advance, in current funds of the United States. 
IVlutilated currency,! internal revenue and postage stamps, bank checks and drafts, will not 
be accepted, but will in all cases be returned to the sender. 

To insure greater certainty of transmission, it is strongly urged that remittances be 
made either by money order or registered letter. Applicants mill also include a sufficient 
amount for return postage and registry fee, it being desirable to send the stamps by registered 
letter. Losses in the mails or by any mode of transmission must be at the risk of the pur- 
chaser. 

iS" Applications should be addressed to " The Third Assistant Postmaster General, 
Washington, D. C." 

No other stamps will be sold than are included in the above list ; and specimens of 
stamped envelopes, (either official or ordinary), or of envelope stamps, postal cards, or used 
stamps, will not be furnished in any case. 

A. D HAZEN, 

Third Ass't Postmaster Gen'l. 

It is probable that there was an issue of this circular bearing an earlier 
date than that here given. 

The circular was re-issued at various subsequent dates. In a copy, 
dated October i6th, 1882, we find the following changes in the section headed 
"Ordinary Stamps for Use of the Public." 

5. Issue of 1870, {current series): — Denominations,!, 2 (brown), 2 (v_ermilion), 3, 
5 (Taylor), 5 (Garfield), 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30 and 90 cents. Value of set, $2.12. 

6. Issue of 1879, {postage due jteOT/j).— Denominations, i, 2, 3, 5, 10, 30 and 50 
cents. Value of set, |i.oi. 

In December, 1883, the 2 cents red-brown (Washington) and 4 cents 
green (Jackson), issued on October ist of that year, were added to the so- 
called 1870 issue. It has not been learned whether or not a circular was 
ever issued in which these two stamps were mentioned. 

Before proceeding to describe the various stamps listed in the circular, 
it may be well to say a few words regarding their status and also to briefly 
define the words " reprint " and '" re-issue." Reprints are printings of stamps 
which are not available for postage, either because the original stamps have 
been declared obsolete or because the reprints themselves are not allowed to 



Additions to the 
circular. 



Reprints and re- 
issues diferentiated. 



346 



REPRINTS, ETC. — ISSUE OF 1847. 



do postal duty. Re-issues are printings of stamps which are available for 
postage, though the originals may have been replaced by a later issue. In 
1851, at the breaking out of the Civil War, the stamps of the issues of 1847, 
1 85 1 (including the stamps for delivery by carriers) and 1857 were declared 
obsolete and invalid for postage. At a later period the stamps for newspapers 
and periodicals, of the 1 865 issue, suffered a similar fate. As a consequence, 
subsequent printings of any of these stamps must be called reprints. The 
stamps of the issues of 1861 and 1869 have never been deprived of their 
franking power and the same privilege extends to any printing of them, 
without regard to the date at which it was made. The stamps made and sold 
in 1875 are, therefore re-issues. The other series enumerated in the circular, 
i.e , the 1870 issue, the department stamps and the newspapers and period- 
icals stamps of 1874, were then in use and the specimens prepared for sale 
under the terms of the circular were neither reprints nor re-issues but special 
printings. 

These stamps were not in any way a part of the regular issues of the 
Post Office Department and were always kept carefully and entirely separate 
Special treatment from the regular stock. They were manufactured upon special orders and, 
when possible, by the makers of the original issues. They were not sold at 
post offices but from the office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General. 
A special set of accounts was kept for them, in which every purchase was 
carefully detailed and the name of the purchaser recorded. From these ac- 
counts we learn that the first of the stamps was sold on February 23rd, 1875, 
and the last on July 15th, 1884. The sale was discontinued and the stock 
on hand counted on July i6th, 1884, and on the 23rd of the same month the 
remainders were destroyed, by order of the Postmaster General. 

It was originally intended to make ic.ooo of each denomination of 
each series, except the four higher values of the State Department and the 
newspapers and periodicals stamps. But this quantity was supplemented in 
a few instances, as dealers took advantage of the privilege of buying two 
dollars worth of any value and bought largely of the lower values of some 



for the reprints. 



Dates of flret and 
last sales. 



Quantities. 



The records do not give the dates at which the first consignments 
were received from the various contractors, but it is probable that the deliv- 
eries were made late in 1874 and early in 1875. We must content ourselves 
with saying 1875. 



Issue of 1847. 



The originals of this issue were made by Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & 
Edson of New York. The reprints were made by the Bureau of Engraving 
Dies and plates, and Printing at Washington. The dies and plates were not the property of 
the government, but of the contractors, and were destroyed after the termina- 
tion of the contract. Consequently they were not available when it was 
decided to reprint. To supply the deficiency new dies were engraved, in 
imitation of the originals, and new plates made from them. These plates 
were without imprint or plate number and each contained fifty stamps. 



REPRINTS, ETC. ISSUE OF I 847. 



347 



arranged in five rows of ten. The original plates contained one hundred 
stamps each. 

The report of G. B. McCartee, Chief of the Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing, for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1875, says : 

" Engraved two dies for the Post Office Department, Special Agent Commission, die 
No. 2,088 with one 5 cent and one 10 cent stamp on the same die. Engraved two plates. Official record. 
5 and 10 cents, postage, 1847. 

Printed 11,450 — 5 cent stamps. 

Printed 10,000—10 cent stamps." 

These stamps are, strictly speaking, not even reprints but official 
counterfeits. They differ from the originals in many points, the following 
being the most notable. 

The reprints are slightly shorter and wider than the originals. The 
initials "r. w. h. & e." at the bottom of each stamp are quite indistinct in the 
reprints and it is usually difficult to tell what some of the letters are intended Differences between 
to be. They may be further distinguished by the following points : Five *''*ori^^ai9. *"* 
cents : In the originals the background of the medallion is formed of vertical 
and horizontal lines. In the reprints the vertical lines are either very in- 
distinct or entirely wanting. In the originals the left side of the white shirt 
frill touches the frame of the oval on a level with the top of the " f " of 
" FIVE ", while in the reprints it touches the oval opposite the top of the 
figure " 5 ''. Ten cents : In the reprints the line of the mouth is two straight 
and there is a sleepy look about the eyes. The white collar is so heavily 
shaded as to be barely distinguishable from the collar of the coat. In the 
hair, near the left cheek, there is a lock which appears like a very small white 
circle with a black dot in the centre ; this is not found on the originals. On 
the originals there are four horizontal lines between the " ce " of " cents " 
and the lower line of the central oval. On the reprints there are five lines in 
the same space, the upper line touching the oval and the lower line the tops 
of the letters " ce ". 

The stamps of the 1847 issue are usually on a thin crisp bluish wove 
paper of fine quality. They exist also on laid paper and on thin yellowish- 
white wove paper. The reprints are on a thicker wove paper, of coarser Paper. 
quality and deeper color (gray or gray-blue) than that of the originals. The 
five cents is also known on horizontally laid paper. The reprints are usually 
without gum but a few copies have hetn seen which have a white gum, very 
much crackled ; this is apparently simple gum arable. 

The reprints are found in the following colors : 

Imperforate. Reference List. 

Gray-blue Wove Paper. 
5 cents bistre-brown, yellow-brown, red-brown, brown, 

dark brown, lilac-brown 
10 cents black, gray-black 

Deep Blue Wove Paper. 
5 cents yellow-brown 

Gray-blue Laid Paper. 
5 cents bistre-brown 



348 



REPRINTS, ETC. — ISSUE OF 1857. 



From the records we are enabled to compile the following table: 

Quantities sold. •> cents, 10 cents. 

1875, Received ",450 10,000 

July 16, 1884, On hand 6,671 6,117 



Sold 



4,779 



3,883 



Plates. 



Types. 



Paper and 
perforation. 



Iteference List. 



Issue of 1857. 

The only difference between the issues of 185 1 and 1857 is that the 
stamps of the former are imperforate and those of the latter are perforated. 
As the reprints of this series were all perforated they can only be considered 
as reprints of the 1857 issue. 

The original stamps of this issue were made by Toppan, Carpenter, 
Casilear & Co. of Philadelphia. The reprints were the work of the Con- 
tinental Bank Note Co. of New York. In 1874, probably about August, 
there were sent to the latter Company the original plates of the 5 , 24, 30 and 
90 cent stamps and the transfer rolls of the 1, 3, 10 and 12 cents. By means 
of the latter, new plates were made for those four values. These plates had 
neither imprint nor plate number and contained one hundred stamps each. 
The original plates contained two hundred stamps each. On the new plates 
the stamps were set far apart, so that the sheets might be perforated by the 
machines then in use without damage to the designs, as would have happen- 
ed had the original plates of these values been used. 

The 1 cent stamps are all of type I, with full ornamental scrolls at the 
bottom. The 3 cent stamps are also of type I, having the outer lines at top 
and bottom. The 5 cent stamps are from plate No. 2 and, consequently, 
show the same varieties as the original stamps from that plate, i.e., alternate 
rows of types II and III. The 10 cent stamps are all of type I, showing full 
side ornaments and complete lines outside the top and bottom labels. Of 
each of the other values there was never more than one type, therefore, in 
the matter of design, the originals and reprints agree. The plates of the 
24, 30 and 90 cents each bore the number " i." 

The paper is very white, crisp and hard; the stamps are without gum; 
the perforation gauges 12 instead of 15, which, of course, affords a very 
simple test by which to distinguish the reprints. 
The colors are as follows: 

1 cent (type I) bright blue 
3 cents (type I) scarlet 
S cents (type II and III) orange-brown 
10 cents (type I) blue-green 
12 cents greenish black 
24 cents dull violet 
30 cents yellow-orange 
90 cents indigo 
The color of the three cents does not at all resemble any of the shades 



REPRINTS, ETC. — ISSUE OF 1861. 



349 



of the original and no attempt was made to imitate the scarcer shades of the 
five cents. 

The records supply the following statistics : 



1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 


1 cent. 

10,000 

6,154 


3 cents. 

10,000 

9,521 


5 cents 

10,000 

9,122 


10 cents. 

10,000 

9,484 


Qnantltics sold. 


Sold 

1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 


3,846 

12 cents. 

10,000 

9,511 


479 

24 cents. 

10,000 

9,521 


878 

30 cents. 

10,000 

9,520 


516 

90 cents. 

10,000 

9,546 




Sold 


489 


479 


480 


454 





On August 26th, 1874, the Post Office Department sent an order to 
the National Bank Note Co. directing the printing of 10,000 stamps of each 
denomination of the issues of 1861 and 1869. This order was filled in due 
time and the stamps forwarded to Washington. 



Issue of i86i. 



The re-issued stamps are of the types known as the "September issue." 
The rarer " August issue " was either unknown or unheeded by the postal 
officials. For some reason new plates were made for the i, 2, 5, 10 and 12 
cents. These plates were numbered respectively 56, 57, 58, 59 and 60. 
They contained one hundred stamps each while the original plates had two 
hundred stamps each. The 3 cent stamps were probably printed from plates 
54 or 55. The 15, 24, 30 and 90 cents were from the only plates made for 
those values, which were numbered 41, 6, 7 and 18, respectively. 

The paper is very white and hard and is almost identical with that 
used by the Continental Bank Note Co. for the same purpose. 

The stamps are perforated 12 and have a yellowish-white gum, very 
much crackled. They are frequently found without gum but there are usually 
indications of its presence at some former time. The very positive assertion 
of the official circular that "all specimens furnished will be ungummed" is 
set at naught by the re-issues of this and the 1 869 issue. 

The stamps were very carefully printed and have a highly finished 
appearance, suggestive of proofs. The colors are : 

1 cent ultramarine 

2 cents deep black 

3 cents brown-red 
5 cents pale brown 

10 cents blue-green 
1 2 cents deep black 



Plates. 



Paper. 



Perforation and 
gum. 



Reference List. 



35° 



REPRINTS, ETC. — ISSUE OF 1 869. 



Qnantities sold. 



15 cents deep black 
24 cents dark brown-violet 
30 cents brown-orange 
90 cents dark blue 

No attempt was made to reproduce the pink and scarlet three cents or 
the yellow and red-brown five cents. The grill was not applied to the re- 
issues of the 1861, 1869 or 1870 series. Re-issued stamps with forged grills 
are mentioned by Mr. Tiffany but, though I have made extensive search 
for them, I have never succeeded in finding any copies. The stamps are 
sufficiently scarce to make it improbable that this sort of fraud would often 
be attempted. 

The following quantities were prepared, sold or destroyed : 

I cent. 2 cents. 3 cents. 5 cents. 10 cents. 

1875, Received 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 

July 16, 1884, On hand 6,805 9,021 9,535 9,328 9,549 



Sold 

1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 



3>'9S 

12 cents. 

10,000 

9,611 



979 

15 cents. 

10,000 

9>6o3 



465 

24 cents. 

10,000 

9.654 



672 

30 cents. 

10,000 

9.654 



451 

90 cents. 

10,000 

9,683 



389 



397 



346 



346 



317 



Characteristics. 



Plates. 



Plate nnmbers. 



Issue of 1869. 

The re-impressions of this issue, being made at the same time and by 
the same firm as those of the 1861 issue, naturally show the same character- 
istics of paper, gum, perforation, bright colors and careful printing. The 
re-issues are without the grill. Most of the original stamps were grilled and 
the very rare ungrilled varieties may be easily distinguished by their smooth 
brown gum and duller colors. 

For the one cent stamps a new plate, numbered 33, was made. This 
plate had only one hundred and fifty stamps. All the original plates of this 
denomination had three hundred stamps each. A new plate was also made 
for the frame of the fifteen cents. This is of a type which was not used for 
the originals. It is called type III. In types I and II a band of ruled lines, 
about I mm. wide, extends around the inner edge of the space for the picture. 
In type III this band is omitted, with the exception of a solitary line which 
crosses the top of the tablet below the letters " sta " of " postage ". This 
new plate bore the number 32. 

The following plates are believed to have been used for printing the 
re-issues, though a few of them la'ck confirmation : 



I cent 


No. 33. 


t cents 


No. 4. 


3 cents 


No. 30. 



REPRINTS, ETC. — ISSUE OF 1870. 



351 



6 cents 


No. 13. 




10 cents 


No. 15. 




12 cents 


No. 17. 




15 cents 


Frame No. 32. 


Vignette No. 23. 


24 cents 


20. 


24. 


30 cents 


21. 


21. 


90 cents 


22. 


22. 



The colors do not differ greatly from those of the originals but appear 
brighter and fresher. They are : 

1 cent dark brown-orange 

2 cents brown 

3 cents ultramarine 
6 cents ultramarine 

10 cents pale orange 

1 2 cents dark blue-green 

15 cents dark blue and dark brown 

24 cents dark violet and blue-green 

30 cents rose-carmine and dark ultramarine 

90 cents deep black and deep carmine 

The one cent stamp is more frequently found on the soft porous paper 
used by the American Bank Note Co. than on the stiff hard paper of the 
National Bank Note Co. This would indicate a reprinting by the former 
company. But the records are silent concerning it and we must content 
ourselves with the knowledge that the stamp exists. 

The statistics of this re-issue are as follows: 



Beference List. 



One cent stamp on 
soft paper. 



1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 


I cent. 

10,000 

1,748 

8,252 

12 cents. 

10,000 

8,416 


2 cents, 

10,000 

5,245 


3 cents. 

10,000 

8,594 

1,406 

24 cents. 

10,000 

7,909 

2,091 


6 cents. 

10,000 

7,774 


10 cents. 

10,000 

8,053 


Qnantities sold. 


Sold 

1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 


4,755 
15 cents. 
10,000 
8,019 


2,226 

30 cents. 

10,000 

8,465 

1.535 


1,947 

90 cents' 

10,000 

8,644 




Sold 


1,584 


1,981 


1,356 






Issue 


OF 1870. 







To speak correctly, this was not a re-issue of the stamps of the 1870 
series but a special printing of the 1873 and 1875 issues, which were then 
current. The work was not done by the National Bank Note Co., makers Dates of deUyery. 
of the 1870 issue, but by the Continental Bank Note Co. and from the plates 
they were then using. The 1873 set, from one to ninety cents, was pro- 
bably delivered in Washington not far from May ist, 1875. The first sale of 
the stamps was made on May 5th, 1875. The two cents vermilion and five 
cents (Taylor) were added to the set early in 1876. 



352 



REPRINTS, ETC. — ISSUE OF 1870. 



Possible reasons for 
this printing. 



Cliaracteristics. 



Beference List. 



Flatcs. 



Printing by tlie 

Americftn Banic 

Note Co. 



It is not easy to understand why a special printing should be made of 
stamps that were in use at the time. As it was announced that the stamps 
would be without gum — and, therefore, unfinished — collectors could scarcely 
be expected to be eager purchasers, when perfect specimens might be obtain- 
ed at post ofifices. Perhaps they were designed to meet orders from abroad. 
But, in all probability, the intention was to make complete the series of 
postal issues placed on sale. As has been said in an earlier paragraph, the 
transactions in these stamps were kept entirely apart from the regular busi- 
ness of the Department and this may account for this series being printed 
upon a special order instead of being taken from the regular stock. 

It is extremely difficult to distinguish the stamps of this printing from 
those of the regular issue. It requires a keen eye for color and great fami- 
liarity with the stamps of the period. The stamps of the special printing have 
the freshness and appearance of careful workmanship which have been noticed 
in companion sets. Many of them, however, were printed from worn plates. 
They are on the peculiarly white, crisp paper which was used for the reprints 
and reissues. Occasionally one has the crackled white gum, but most of them 
have none A notable feature of this set is that the perforations are seldom 
perfect. The stamps were not separated in the usual way, by tearing them 
apart, but were cut apart with scissors and very carelessly. As a result the 
perforations were usually much mutilated and the design is frequently dam- 
aged. 

The colors, as nearly as they can be described, are : 

1 cent bright ultramarine 

2 cents dark brown 

3 cents carmine-vermilion 
3 cents blue-green 

5 cents bright blue 

6 cents dull rose 

7 cents scarlet-vermilion 
10 cents brown 

12 cents dull black-violet 
15 cents bright orange 
24 cents dull purple 
30 cents greenish black 
90 cents violet-carmine 

The highest three values were printed from the plates of the National 
Bank Note Co., Nos. 21, 22 and 23. The 7 and 15 cent stamps were printed 
from the only plates made for those values, viz., Nos. 22 and 31. The 2 
cents vermilion were from plates 241 and 242 and the 5 cents (Taylor) was 
from plate 248. It has not been possible to learn what plates were used for 
the other values. 

The records of the Third Assistant Postmaster General shows that, on 
July i6th, 1880, there were received from the Stamp Agent 500 copies of 
each value of this series. These are, of course, the work of the American 
Bank Note Co. We have yet to learn the reason for thus adding to a stock 
which was already too abundant. 



REPRINTS, ETC. — ISSUE OF 1870. 



353 



A careful examination of a set of these stamps shows them to be a 
special printing also. So far as we are aware, nothing was ever done to bring 
this set to the attention of the public. They were unknown to philatelists 
until discovered and reported by the author (i,t^ American Journal of Philately 
for May, 1896). 

The paper and the perforation are the same as were then in regular 
use. The stamps were not gummed. The 2 cents (brown), 7, 12 and 24 
cents were obsolete and are, therefore, re-issues. These four values may be 
readily distinguished by the soft porous paper. All the originals were on the 
hard paper used by the National and Continental companies. It is very 
difficult to tell the other values of this set from the stamps of the regular 
issue. The colors are slightly deeper and richer than usual but the differences 
are not easily expressed. Very careful comparison with a set known to have 
been purchased at the period is the only certain way to identify specimens. 
The stamps are of extreme rarity. Only five complete sets and a few odd 
copies are known to exist. The colors are : 

1 cent dark ultramarine 

2 cents black-brown 

2 cents scarlet-vermilion 

3 cents blue-green 

5 cents deep blue 

6 cents dull rose 

7 cents scarlet-vermilion 
10 cents deep brown 

12 cents black-violet 
15 cents deep orange 
24 cents dull purple 
30 cents greenish black 
90 cents dull carmine 

It has not been possible to learn the numbers of the plates used for 
this printing. The 7, 15, 24, 30 and 90 cents must, of course, be from the 
only plates that were made for those values. 

The two special printings of the 1873 series are treated in the re- 
cords as being one issue and we are, therefore, unable to say how many of 
each were sold. The total of the two is small and it is probable that the 
sale of the later printing was extremely limited. The figures are as fol- 
lows : 





1 cent. 


2 cents 


2 cents 


3 cents. 


5 cents 






(brown). 


(vermilion). 




(Taylor). 


1875, Received 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


1 0,000 


10,000 


July 16, 1880, Received 


500 


500 


500 


500 


500 


Total 


10,500 


10,500 


10,500 


10,500 


10,500 


July 16. 1884, On hand 


10,112 


10,084 


9.583 


10,233 


10,183 



Characteristics. 



Beference List. 



Plates. 



Quantities sold. 



Sold 



388 



416 



917 



267 



3'7 



354 



REPRINTS, ETC. — ISSUE OF 1 882. — ISSUE OF 1 883. 



1875, Received 

July 16, 1880, Received 


6 cents. 7 cents. 

10,000 10,000 

500 500 


10 cents. 
10,000 
500 


12 cents. 15 cents. 

10,000 10,000 

500 500 


Total 
July 16, 1884, On hand 


10,500 10,500 
10,315 10,027 


10,500 
10,320 


10,500 10,500 
io,2i8 10,331 


Sold 185. 473 

24 cents. 
1875, Received 10,000 
July 16, 1880, Received 500 


180 

30 cents. 

10,000 

500 


282 169 

90 cents. 

10,000 

500 


Total 
July 16, 1884, On hand 


10,500 
10,214 


10,500 
10,321 


10,500 
10,330 


Sold 


286 


179 


170 




Issue of 1882. 







From the records we learn that there were on hand, at the time of the 
Incomplete recoids. final counting of the stock before its destruction, 7,537 copies of the 5 cent 
stamp with the portrait of James A. Garfield, but we do not find any memor- 
andum of the quantity originally received. We are probably correct in 
Quantity sold, placing the number at the customary 10,000. This would give a total of 
2,463 sold to the public. 

The stamp was issued on April loth, 1882, and the special printing 
was doubtless made soon after that date. The soft porous paper, on which 
the ordinary stamps of the period were printed, was also used for the special 
printing. The color is a light brownish gray and the impression is very clear 
and sharp, while that of the regular stamps is usually soft and slightly blur- 
red. The special stamps were not gummed. Plates 399 and 400 were pro- 
bably used for this printing. 



Characteristics. 



Plates. 



Issue of 1883. 

Still another printing was received from the Stamp Agency, on Decem- 
i)atf of deiiTcry. ber 5th, 1 883. This consisted of 2,000 copies each of the 2 cents red-brown 
(Washington), and 4 cents blue-green (Jackson), which were originally issued 
October 1st, 1883. 

It is scarcely possible to describe the shades so accurately that the 
stamps may be distinguished, without fail, from originals. The two cents is 
Characteristics, printed in a light red-brown, while the majority of the originals are in shades 
of orange-brown and dark red-brown bordering on chocolate. The four 
cents is in a dark blue-green, not unlike the shade known as Prussian green. 
The impressions are fire and clear, especially that of the two cents, on which 
the shadow below the shield is sharp and distinct. 

The four cent stamp is without gum but the two cents is an exception 
among special piintings in that it is gummed. We do not know the numbers 



REPRINTS, ETC. — CARRIERS* STAMPS. 



355 



of the plates which were used for the two cent stamps. For the four cents, 
plates 4s6 or 457 must have been used. 

The records show an extremely limited number of these two stamps 
to have been sold : 



Dec. 5, 1883, Received 
July i6, 1884, On hand 

Sold 



2 cents. 
2,000 
1,945 

55 



4 cents. 
2,000 
.i>974 

26 



Qaantities sold. 



Carriers' Stamps. 



At the same time that the plates and rolls of the 1851-57 issue were 
delivered to the Continental Bank Note Co. the plates of the Franklin and 
" Eagle " carriers' stamps were also placed in their charge, with instructions 
to make reprintings from them. This was done on two occasions, April 
22nd, 1875 and December 17th, 1875, on both of which dates 10,000 copies 
of each stamp were printed. 

The first printing of the Franklin stamps was made on remainders of 
the original rose-colored paper. The second printing was on a slightly thicker 
and softer paper of a paler tint. It is very difficult to distinguish the reprints 
on the first paper from the originals. The latter are found in bright blue, 
dull blue and dark dull blue. The reprints shade from a marine blue to 
indigo. But the best test is to be found in the printing. The impression of 
the originals is clear and fine while the reprints are too heavily inked and 
often blurred. In the original stamps the background of the medallion shows 
a hatching of diagonal lines. Traces of these lines can occasionally be seen 
in the reprints but, as a rule, the background appears to be solid. Around 
the medallion extends a tessellated band with rosettes at each corner. This 
band is composed of alternate light and dark diamonds, crossed by groups of 
colorless lines. On the original stamps these lines are clear and sharp, while 
on the reprints they are indistinct and often filled with color, especially 
where they cross the dark diamonds. 

The reprints of the Franklin stamp are imperforate and without gum. 

The reprints of the " Eagle " carriers' stamps are on the hard white 
paper which was used for other reprints and special printings. They are also 
found on a coarsely woven paper which some have thought might be the 
paper of the American Bank Note Co., but it lacks the thickness and softness 
which characterize that paper. It is probable that this is the paper which 
was used for the second printing. The paper of the original stamps has 
usually a yellowish tinge and the gum is smooth, varying in color from brown 
to yellow-white. The reprints are not gummed. 

The reprints of the " Eagle " stamp were at first perforated 1 2 but 
they were afterwards issued imperforate. There is nothing in the records to 
show the number prepared and distributed of each variety. 

The originals are found in greenish blue, dark dull blue and indigo. 
The reprints are in bright deep blue and dark blue, 



Paper. 



Color. 



Impression. 



Paper. 



Perforation. 



Color, 



3S<5 



REPRINTS, ETC. — OFFICIAL STAMPS. 



As was said on page 249, the majority of the original stamps appear 
to have been printed from the plate before it was numbered. I have never 
Plate number, seen or heard of an original sheet which bore a number. I have, however, 
recently obtained a used stamp which has attached a portion of the marginal 
imprint and the number " i." All the sheets of the reprints have this number 
below the imprint of the upper pane. 

The records supply the following figures for the two carriers' stamps: 
Qnantlties sold. Franklin. Eagle. 

1875, Received 10,000 10,000 

Jan 3, 1876, Received 1 0,000 10,000 



Total 
July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 



20,000 
2,890 

17,110 



20,000 
10,320 

9,680 



Official Stamps. 



Plates. 



Colsrs. 



Krror iu the 
surcharge. 



The special printings of the stamps for the various Departments were 
made by the Continental Bank Note Co. from the plates then in use. With 
the exception of the two, three and six cents of the Post Office Department, 
there was only one plate for each denomination of each series. The spec- 
ial printings of these three stamps were made from plates 37, 36 and 47, re- 
spectively. An enumeration of the numbers of the other plates would be 
superfluous. 

The paper and perforation are the same as were employed for similar 
printings by the Continental Bank Note Co. Many of the stamps show the 
mutilation by scissors that was noticed in the special printing of the regular 
issue of 1873. 

The colors do not differ materially from those of the stamps issued 
to the several departments. They usually appear to be a trifle paler and 
brighter but this may be due to the absence of gum and the whiteness of the 
paper. The two, three, six and twelve cents of the War Department have a 
brownish tint, which is not found in the other values of this set. 

The stamps are ungummed and each is surcharged " specimen " in 
small block letters. The surcharge is in carmine on the stamps of the Agri- 
culture, Navy, Post Office and State Departments. On the stamps of the 
other Departments it is in blue. On a few of the stamps the word is spelled 
" SEPCIMEN " in error. This variety occurs on the first stamp of the third 
horizontal row. It does not, so far as we know, exist on all the denomina- 
tions that were surcharged. Furthermore it is known on certain stamps and 
yet is not found in entire sheets of the same stamps, thus proving that it did 
not exist at all times in the surcharging form. Either there was a mistake in 
setting up the form, which was afterwards corrected, or, while it was in 
use, some of the letters were dropped and replaced in wrong order, The 
error has been found on the following stamps : 



REPRINTS, ETC. — OFFICTAL STAMPS. 



3S7 



Department of Agriculture 2, 15c 

Department of the Interior 2c 

Department of Justice i, 2c 

Navy Department 2, 7, 12c 

Post Office Department i, 2c 

Department of State i, 2, 3, 7, 24c 

War Department r, 2, 3, 7, 24, 30, 90c 
The records say: Aug 21, i88r. Received from Agency, New York, 
5,000 — I cent State Department.'' These stamps are, of course, on the Printings by the 
paper of the American Bank Note Co. We also find copies of the i cent 
Executive, 1 cent Navy and 7 cents State Department on this paper, though 
they are not mentioned in the records, We await further information about 
them. 

The following tables are arranged from the records: 

Department of Agriculture. 



American Bank 
Note Co. 





1 cent. 


2 cents. 


3 cents. 


6 cents. 


10 cents. 


Qnantities sold. 


1875, Received 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


1 0,000 


10,000 




Jan. 3, 1876, Received 


10,000 












Total 


20,000 


1 0,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 




July 16, 1884, On hand 


4,766 
15.234 


S,8o8 


9,611 


9,627 


9,610 




Sold 


4,192 


389 


373 


390 






12 cents. 


15 cents. 


24 cents. 


30 cents. 






187s, Received 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 






July 16, 1884, On hand 


9,621 


9.630 


9,648 


9,646 







Sold 



379 



370 



352 



354 



The Executive. 





1 cent. 


2 cents. 


3 cents. 


6 cents. 


10 cents. 


1875, Received 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


Jan. 3, 1876, Received 


10,000 











Total 
July 16, 1884, On hand 



Sold 



20,000 
5,348 

14652 



10,000 
2.570 

7.430 



10,000 
6,265 

3.735 



10,000 
6.515 

3,485 



10,000 
6.539 

3.461 



Department of the Interior. 





I cent. 


2 cents. 


3 cents. 


6 cents. 


10 cents. 


187s, Received 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


July 16, 1884, On hand 


2,806 


8,737 


9,912 


9,917 


9,918 


Sold 


7,194 


1,263 


88 


83 


82 




12 cents. 


15 cents. 


24 cents. 


30 cents. 


90 cents. 


1875, Received 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


io,coo 


10,000 


July 16, 1884, On hand 


9,925 


9,922 


9,923 


9,925 


9,923 



Sold 



75 



78 



77 



75 



77 



358 



REPRINTS, ETC. OFFICIAL STAMPS. 



Department of Justice. 





I cent. 


2 cents. 


5 cents. 


6 cents. 


10 cents. 


1875, Received 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


Jan. 3, 1876, Received 


10,000 






10,000 




Total 


20,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


July 16, 1884, On hand 


271 


6,60s 


9,822 


9,837 


9.837 


Sold 


19,729 


3>395 


178 


163 


163 




12 cents. 


15 cents. 


J4 cents. 


30 cents. 


90 cents. 


1875, Received 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


July 16, 1884, On hand 


9,846 


9,843 


9.850 


9>8so 


9,848 



Sold 



1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 

1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 



'54 



157 



15° 



Navy Department. 



I cent. 

10,000 

818 



2 cents. 

10,000 

8,252 



3 cents. 

10,000 

9,874 



ISO 

6 cents. 

10,000 

9,884 



116 



9,182 1,748 126 

I o cents. 1 2 cents. 1 5 cents. 24 cents. 30 cents, 

10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 

9,888 9,893 9,893 9,894 9,896 



152 

7 cents _ 

10,000 

9.499 

501 

90 cents. 

10,000 

9,898 



112 107 107 106 

Post Office Department. 



104 



187s, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 

1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 



187s, Received 

Jan. 3, 1876, Received 

Aug. 12, 188 r 

Total 
July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 



I cent. 


2 cents. 


3 cents. 


6 cents. 


10 cents. 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


3.985 


9,410 


9,909 


9,913 

87 


9.823 


6,015 


590 


91 


177 


12 cents. 


15 cents. 


24 cents. 


30 cents. 


90 cents. 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


9,907 


9,918 


9,916 
84 


9,919 


9,918 


93 


82 


81 


82 


Department of State. 






1 cent. 


2 cents. 


3 cents. 


6 cents. 


7 cents. 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 










5,000 










25,000 


lC,QOO 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


3,328 


4,85s 


9,207 


9,533 


9,209 



21,672 



5,145 



793 



467 



791 



REPRINTS, ETC. — NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. 



359 







10 cents. 


12 cents. 


15 cents. 


24 cents. 


}o cents. 


187s. 


Received 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


July 


16, 1884, On hand 
Sold 


9,654 


9,720 


9,743 


9,747 


9,751 




346 


280 


257 


253 


249 






90 cents. 


2 dollars. 


5 dollars. 


10 dollars. 


20 dollars. 


187s, 


Received 


r 0,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


July 


16, 1884, On hand 


9-7SS 


968 


988 


992 


993 



Sold 245 32 12 

Treasury Department. 









I cent. 


2 cents. 3 cents. 


6 cents. 


7 cents. 


1875, 


Received 




10,000 


10,000 10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


July 


16, 1884, On 


hand 


7,815 


9,691 9,916 


9,91s 


9,802 




Sold 




2,18s 


309 84 


8S 


198 








10 cents. 


12 cents. 15 cents. 24 cents. 30 cents. 


90 cents. 


1875, 


Received 




10,000 


10,000 10,000 10, 


,000 10,000 


10,000 


July 


16, 1884, On : 
Sold 


hand 


9,918 


9,925 9,92s 9,901 9,926 


9,928 




82 


75 75 


99 74 


72 








AVAR : 


Department. 












I cent. 


2 cents. 3 cents. 


6 cents. 


7 cents. 


'875, 


Received 




10,000 


10,000 10,000 


10,000 


10,000 


July 


16, 1884, On 


hand 


5,39° 


8,382 9,882 


9,889 


9,461 




Sold 




4,6 fO 


1,618 118 


III 


539 








10 cents. 


12 cents. 15 cents. 24 cents. 30 cents. 


90 cents. 


1875, 


, Received 




10,000 


10,000 10,000 lOj 


,000 10,000 


10,000 


July 


16, 1884, On 
Sold 


hand 


9,881 


9,89s 9,89s 9, 


,894 9,896 


9,894 




119 


los 105 


106 104 


106 



Newspaper and Periodical Stamps. 



Issue of 1865. 

The original stamps of this issue were made by the National Bank 
Note Co., who doubtless printed the reprints also. We do not learn of any 
special order covering the reprinting of this series but it is possible that the 
order to make re-impressions of the stamps of the issues of 1861 and 1869 was 
intended to cover any intermediate issues. 

The reprints are from the original plates, numbered 38, 39 and 40. 

The paper is the same as was used for the re-issues of the 1861 and 
1869 series. Some of the original stamps were printed on pelure paper but 
the majority of them were on a crisp white paper, very like that used for the 
reprints. The perforation is identical and neither originals nor reprints were 



Plates. 



Paper. 



360 



REPRINTS, ETC. — NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. 



Colors. 



Printing by the 

American Bank 

Note Co. 



Bemainders of the 
original issue used. 



Quantities sold. 



gummed. There remains, therefore, only color by which to distinguish the 
stamps. The shades of the reprints are darker and heavier than those of 
the originals. They also have the appearance of having been printed with 
thicker inks. The colors are : 

5 cents deep dull blue, dark blue, purplish blue 
10 cents deep green, dark blue-green 
25 cents dark carmine-red 

The five cents with colored border was not reprinted. 

We do not find in the records any mention of reprintings of these 
stamps by the American Bank Note Co., but we occasionally see copies of 
the five cents on the soft porous paper peculiar to the issues of that Company. 
These are undoubtedly reprints, made at some date subsequent to February, 
1879, but we have no information beyond the bare fact of their existence. 
The shades of these stamps are dull blue, deep dull blue and purplish blue. 
There was some delay in delivering the reprints of this issue. To meet 
orders for them, 750 copies of each value were obtained from remainders of 
the original issue, which were in the possession of the Post Office Department. 
The early orders were, therefore, filled with original stamps. We have no 
means of knowing whether or not all these originals were distributed. 

The first sale of these stamps was made on April ist, 1875. 

The statistics are : 



1875, Received (originals) 

July 21, 1875, Received (reprints) 



5 cents. 


10 cents. 


25 cents. 


75° 


75° 


75° 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 



Total 



July 16, 1884, On hand 



Sold 



'0,730 
4,355 

6,395 



10,750 
2,23s 

8,51s 



>o,7So 
3,316 

7,434 



Continental Banli 

Note Co, 



Characteristics. 



About the time the reprints and re-issues were being prepared, the 
Continental Bank Note Co. made new plates for the three values of this series. 
Plates made by the Why these plates were made and put to press, while the original plates were in 
existence and in good order, has never been explained. These new plates 
were without imprint or plate number and contained ten stamps each, arranged 
in two horizontal rows of five. The stamps printed from these plates are 
known in both imperforate and perforated condition. All three values are 
without the colored border. By this change we may readily distinguish the 
two higher values. The five cents, when perforated, may be known by the 
outer colored line, which has a uniform width of about ^mm., while on the 
originals it is of irregular thickness, in places not more than a hair's breadth. 
These stamps are printed on a paper which is thin, hard and very white, such 
as was used for the reprints and re-issues. The impression is entirely flat, 
lacking the embossing usually seen in the numerals and larger letters of both 
the originals and reprints. The colors do not agree with those of any other 
printing. The inks were evidently thin and did not cover the paper with the 
customary strong body of color. The colors are : 



Colors. 



REPRINTS, ETC. — NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. 



361 



5 cents soft dull blue 
10 cents dark gray-green 
25 cents rose-red 
These stamps were, doubtless, intended to form part of the 1875 series 
of reprints and re-issues, but it is not certain that any of them were ever sold 
as such. Only a very limited number were acquired by collectors before the 
destruction of the remainders of obsolete issues. 

Issue of 1875. 

The special printing of this issue was made by the Continental Bank 
Note Co. The only values for which there was more than one plate were the 
two and three cents. There can be very little doubt that the first plates made, 
which were numbered respectively 200 and 206, were used for the first special 
printing. It is reasonable to assume that the two cent stamps which were 
received in 1883 and 1884 were printed from plate 218B. 

The paper is the crisp white paper that was employed for this work, 
but in these stamps it seems to be more transparent than usual and has a 
waxen tone. The stamps are perforated 12 and ungummed. 

The impressions were very carefully made. The values two to ten cents, 
inclusive, are printed in a clear gray-black and the twelve to ninety-six centsi 
inclusive, in a soft pale rose. The other values I have not seen, nor are they 
known to the leading specialists in United States stamps, but there is no 
reason to expect the colors to differ from those of the same values of the 
regular issue. 

On referring to the table compiled from the records, it will be seen 
that there were deliveries of certain of the lower values in 1883 and 1884. 
As the last of these deliveries was made about six weeks before the stamps 
were withdrawn from sale, and as the quantity of the remainders exceeds the 
number in this delivery, it is quite possible that none of the stamps of that 
printing were sold. I have a copy of the two cents which is known to have 
been purchased from the office of the Third Assistant Postmaster-General. 
It probably belongs to the lot delivered in 1883. The stamp is printed in a 
rich deep black, on very white, soft paper, like thin blotting paper. 

The official figures for this series are : 

2 cents. 3 cents. 4 cents. 6 cents 8 cents' 

187s, Received S.ooo S,ooo S.ooo S>°°° 5>°^° 

Jan. 3, 1876, Received ro.ooo 10,000 

Apl. 30, 1883 " S,ooo 

May 31, 1884 " ?,ooo ■; 000 

Total 25,000 15,000 10,000 Si°°° 5>° ° 

June 16, 1884, On hand 5,486 8.048 S.^'iQ 2,652 3.°7o 

Sold 19.514 6,952 4.45> 2'348 1.93° 

9 cents. 10 cents. 12 cents. 24 cents. 56 cents. 

1875, Received 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 

July 16, 1884, On hand 3,205 .•?,5oi 3 687 4,580 4,670 

Sold 1,795 ^499 1.313 411 33° 



Plates. 



Paper. 



Quantities hold. 



362 



REPRINTS, ETC. — NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. 



1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 

187s, Received 

July 1 6, 1884, On hand 

Sold 

1875, Received 

July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 



48 cents. 60 cents. 72 cents. 84 cents. g6 cents. 



5,000 

4732 

268 

[92 cents. 
500 
459 



41 

24 dollars. 
100 
98 



5,000 

4,778 

222 

5 dollars, 
500 
480 



5,000 
4,826 

'74 

6 dollars. 

500 

486 



S.ooo 
4,836 



S.ooo 
4.859 



164 141 

9 dollars. 12 dollars, 

500 500 

496 495 



20 

36 dollars. 
100 
98 



14 

48 dollars. 

100 

99 

I 



4 
60 dollars. 
100 

99 
I 



5 



Circular announcing 

tlio sale of the 
newspaper stamps. 



Issue of 1895. 

In February, 1899, the series of newspaper and periodical stamps which 
had became obsolete on the first of the preceding July, were placed on sale to 
the public at the nominal price of five dollars per set. In many of these sets 
the five higher values were reprints. There was at least a poor excuse for 
the reprints of 1875, but for those of 1899 there is, in the opinion of good 
philatelists, absolutely none. For this reprinting we must, to a large extent, 
blame one or two short-sighted dealers who, valuing a present small profit 
more than the future good of philately, persuaded our postal authorities to 
undertake this sale as a source of revenue. We cannot regard stamp peddling 
as commendable in any government, least of all in a great and wealthy one, 
and we are glad to know that, in this instance, the resulting sales were so 
unsatisfactory as to make it improbable that a similar expedient will soon be 
attempted. It is also quite apparent that this issue was an injury to philately 
and lessened the interest of collectors in the newspaper and periodical stamps, 
instead of increasing it. 

After the Post Office Department had decided to confer this un- 
appreciated boon on philatelists, the following circular was issued : 

SALE OF NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. 
Post Office Department, 
Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster General, 

Washington, D. C, Feb. 4, 1899. 
Announcement is hereby made that, in compliance with numerous requests made to 
the Postmaster General by collectors and others, enough of the newspaper and periodical 
stamps lately in use by postmasters to mal<e up 50,000 complete sets have been reserved by 
the IDepartment for sale, and that on and after the 15th instant, they maybe had of post- 
masters at first-class post offices, or upon application to the Third Assistant Postmaster 
General, at the rate of five dollars a set — the set consisting of one each of the following 
twelve denominations : One, two, five, ten, twenty-five, and fifty cents, and two, five, ten, 
twenty, fifty, and one hundred dollars. When applications are made by mail, the money to 
pay for the stamps must accompany the order, with ten cents additional to pay for postage 
and registry fee on the returned packet. 

Not less than a full set will in any case be sold ; but as many more whole sets as may 
be wanted can be bought, When two sets or more are desired, any or all of the several 



REPRINTS, ETC. NEWSPAPER AND PERIODICAL STAMPS. 



363 



denominations may be had in an unsevered condition, that is to say, in strips not exceeding 
ten stamps each, or in blocks of four or more. The Department, however, cannot require 
postmasters to segregate, for the accommodation of purchasers, marginal strips of stamps 
bearing plate numbers ; nor can any guarantee be given that the stamps shall be perfectly 
" centered". It must also be understood that the stamps are not good for postage, and that 
after their purchase they cannot be redeemed or exchanged for others by the Government. 

The sale of these stamps will continue up to the 31st of December next, unless the 
stock is sooner disposed of ; but no more than the 50,000 sets will be sold, and no more will 
hereafter be printed. In fact, the working plates from which the stamps were printed will 
shortly be destroyed. 

The newspaper and periodical stamps of a former issue— of which fragramentary lots 
have been returned to the Department by postmasters — will not be sold, but together with 
the stock of the last issue returned in excess of the 50,000 reserved sets, will all be des- 
troyed, 

JoHM A. Merritt, 

Third Ass't P. M. Gen'l, 

Although this circular contained the promise that only 50,000 sets 
would be sold, we now know that that number were distributed to post offices, 
and, in addition, 5,000 sets were placed on sale at the Post Office Department 
in Washington, and 1,250 sets supplied to the Third Assistant Postmaster 
General. It will be observed that nothing was said about some of the stamps 
having been especially printed to make up these sets. On the contrary, the 
circular was so worded as to convey the impression that all the stamps were 
remainders. 

On attempting to make up the 50,000 sets it was found that there 
was not on hand a sufficient quantity of five of the values, so reprints were 
made to supply the deficiency. The five values -were the 5, 10, 20, 50 and 
100 dollars. The reprinting was done in February, 1899, from plates 137, 
'3^! '39> '35 3^iid 140. The quantities were: 





Remainders. 


Reprints. 


5 dollars 


iSS 


49.845 


10 dollars 


11,640 


38,360 


20 dollars 


8,780 


41,220 


50 dollars 


16,245 


33,755 


100 dollars 


7,685 


42,315 



It is said that eventually 5,000 originals of each of the four higher 
values were used and 45,000 reprints. It has not been ascertained whether 
or not any originals of the stamps above 2 dollars were included in the 5000 
and 1250 sets mentioned in a preceding paragraph. 

The reprints are on the regular paper, watermarked U. S. P. S. They 
have a smooth white gum while the gum of the originals is yellowish. The 
colors lack depth and richness and look cold and thin. They are: 

5 dollars slate-blue 
] o dollars gray-green 
20 dollars lilac-gray 
50 dollars brownish rose 
1 00 dollars bluish purple 

On referring to page 328 it will be seen that 26,989 of the sets were 
sold; we do not know how many reprints were included in them. 



Additional sets 
placed on sale. 



Plates. 



Qnantlties 
reprinted. 



Characteristics. 



Quantities sold. 



3^4 



REPRINTS, ETC. — POSTAGE DUE STAMPS. 



Postage Due Stamps. 



Characteristics. 



Plates. 



Quantities sold. 



In 1879 there was added to the reproductions of our postal issues a 
special printing of the stamps for postage due. The stamps of this printing 
are on the paper of the American Bank Note Co., perforated 12 and without 
gum. They are printed in dark red brown. 

For each of the four higher values there was only one plate, probably 
the two cent stamps were printed from plate 315, but, in the absence of 
copies with plate numbers attached, we have no means of knowing which 
plates were used for the one and three cents. 

There were prepared, sold and destroyed as follows : 



Oct. 25, 1879, Received 
July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 

Oct. 25, 1879, Received 
July 16, 1884, On hand 

Sold 



1 cent. 


2 cents. 


3 cents. 


5 cents. 


5>Soo 


5,500 


s,s°° 


3,500 


1,080 


4,139 


5,064 


3,251 


4,420 


1,361 


436 


249 


10 cents. 


30 cents. 


50 cents. 




3,500 


1,500 


1,500 




3.326 


1,321 


1,321 





174 



179 



179 



From the report of the Postmaster General, dated October asth, 1897, 
Plates destroyed, we learn that, in the preceding summer, the plates of all obsolete issues of 
stamps were destroyed. The unpleasant possibility of future reprintings of 
these issues is thus removed. 



Official Seals, 



Beginning in the year 1872, there have been used in the postal service 
various adhesive labels, commonly termed official seals. They do not bear 
any expression of value, have no franking power, and are in no sense postage 
stamps. Consequently they have no claim to a place in a work devoted to 
that subject. But — probably because they are in the form of stamps and are 
affixed to letters — many collectors have thought them to be of interest and 
have admitted them to their albums. In deference to these collectors I shall 
briefly describe the several varieties of the seals. 



Seals for Registered Letters and Packages. 

The first seal issued was designed to secure registered letters from 
being tampered with while in transit. It was intended to be affixed over the 
juncture of the flaps of the large envelopes in which registered letters are Dnte of issue, 
enclosed. Its issue was announced in a circular of the Third Assistant Post- 
master General, dated February 14th, 1872, but it does not appear to have 
attracted the attention of philatelists until some months latter. It was first 
described in the American Journal of Philately for June, 1872. 

A communication to the American Philatelist for December 1 oth, 1 889, 

claims that these seals were intended to be used for a variety of purposes. 

But Mr. Duncan S. Walker refutes this, in the number dated January 10th, 

1890. He says : 

" Now a word as to the green registered seals. They were never ' issued ', as stated 
by your correspondent in the article mentioned, ' to postmasters, (0 seal letters opened by 
mistake, to be returned to the Dead-letter Office and to prevent their contents from falling purpose of the seal, 
out.' They were never used for any other purpose than to seal the registered packages in 
which were carried registered letters. The Post Office Department especially prohibited 
their use for any other purpose. When the registered package envelope of the design of 
February, 1872, was adopted for use, these green seals were adopted currently with it. They 
were issued to postmasters in like quantities with the registered packages, i. e. where 1,000 
registered packages were sent to a postmaster, he was supplied at the same time with 1 ,000 
registered seals. Although these registered packages were gummed and fastened securely at 
the top and flap, it was thought the seal, heavily gummed and intended \.o be made, accord- 
ing to the intention of the designer, of brittle paper, would be an additional security. Their 
use was discontinued when a later style of registered package was adopted." 

This seal is engraved on steel and printed typographically In the 
middle is a circle, 3i>^mm. in diameter, filled with ruled lines which diverge 
like rays from a central point. Around the circle is a broad white band, Design. 



366 



OFFICIAL SEALS. 



Onm and 
perforation. 



Reference LUt. 



Plates. 



Reprint. 



inscribed in colored sans-serif capitals, " stamp here — date and place of 
MAILING." The two parts of the inscription are separated by small Maltese 
crosses. At the left, in three curved lines of large white Roman capitals, is 
"post — OFFICE — department", and at the right, similarly arranged, "united 
— states — OF America". The background is filled with horizontally ruled 
lines. The word "registered", in very large shaded capitals, extends entirely 
across the circle and inscriptions. In the corners are small tablets, surrounded 
by a triangular device of involved lines. The tablets in the upper corners 
bear the letters " u. s." in monogram. Those in the lower corners have the 
letters " p. o. d." interlaced. The entire design is surrounded by a single 
thin colored line and forms a rectangle 72x40mm. 

This seal is found on a variety of papers. The gum is yellowish or 
brownish and the perforation is of the same guage as that of the postage 
stamps of that date. Copies which are imperforate at either top or bottom 
are very common. From these and from fragments of sheets which I have 
seen, I conclude that many of the sheets were not perforated along those two 
edges. I have never seen any evidence that they were imperforate at the 
sides. 

Perforated 12. 

White Wove Paper. 
Feb. 14th, 1872. No value, pale yellow-green, yellow-green, pale gray- 
green, gray-green, light green, green, dark green 

Varieties : 
No value, deep green. Imperforate 
No value, gray-green. Impression on the reverse 

Pelure Paper. 
No value, light yellow-green 

Horizontally Laid Paper. 
No value, green, deep green 

The plates for this issue were made by the National Bank Note Co. 
At least two are known to have existed. The first had thirty seals, arranged 
in six rows of five; the second had only nine seals, in three rows of three. 
The smaller plate had neither imprint nor plate number. I have never seen 
a full sheet from the larger plate and so cannot say whether it had an imprint 
or not, but the records show that it had no number. The stamps with 
imperforate margins, mentioned in a previous paragraph, came from the 
larger plate. 

The use of this seal was abandoned at some time in the year 1875. It 
was reprinted about 1880. The reprint was probably sent to the Post Office 
Department in company with the special printing of the postage stamps of the 
1870-79 issue which was placed on sale July i6th, 1880. It was made by the 
American Bank Note Co. and is on the soft porous paper which they always 
used for postage stamps. The gum is yellowish-white and rather streaked. 
The reprint has a very fresh and new appearance and may be readily dis- 
tinguished by the whiteness of the paper and the bluish tint of the ink. 



OFFICIAL SEALS. 

Soft Porous Wove Paper. 
Perforated i2. 
July 1 6th, 1880 (?) No value, bluish green, deep bluish green 



367 



Seals for Packages of Stamps sent to Postmasters. 

Two forms of seal have been employed upon packages of stamps sent 
to postmasters from the United States Postage Stamp Agency or the Post 
Office Department. Mr. Tiffany says they were first used about the end of 
the year 1875. I have not found any other mention of them. 

The first design forms a large rectangle, io2xS2mm. In the centre is 
the monogram " u. s.", in large white ornamental capitals. The letters are 
displayed on a mat of geometric lathework of irregular outline. A broad 
band of ruled lines frames the design. This band is broken at the bottom 
by a tablet of lathework, at each side by an ornamental device, and at the 
top by a tablet of solid color, inscribed " u. s. postage stamp agency ", in 
white block capitals, 5mm. high. At each corner is a trefoil of geometric 
lathework and the background is filled with a network of interlaced loops. 

This seal is lithographed on white wove paper, of poor quality and 
varying slightly in thickness. The design is nearly covered by a large type- 
set inscription reading : 

postmasters receiving this package 

will please 

NOTE ITS CONDITION. 

If showing signs of having been tam- 
pered with, report the same and return 
this package to 3rd Asst. P. M. General, at 
Washington, D. C. This package 
should be opened at the end. -^- ^- Barber, 

3rd Asst. P. M, G. 

The first line is in a double curve. The signature reproduces the 
autograph of the Third Assistant Postmaster General. The name of E. W. 
Barber was subsequently replaced by that of A. D. Hazen. In the years 
1887 and 1 888 H. R. Harris filled the position of Third Assistant Postmaster 
General. It is reasonable to suppose that there was a seal bearing his name, 
though I have never seen a copy. 

At first the seals were printed in brown and the overprint in black. 
At a later date the colors were changed to rose (often very pale and indistinct) 
for the lithographed portion, and red for the overprint. 

These seals are imperforate and usually have a margin of about 4mm. 
aU around. There is nothing to indicate by whom they were made and we 
have no printed information on this subject or in regard to the number in a 
sheet. I list such varieties as I have seen. 



Date of iHsae. 



First design. 



Overprint. 



Ciianges in tlie 
signature. 



Colors. 



368 



OFFICIAL SEALS. 



Reference List. 



Second design. 



Varieties. 



Reference List. 



1875- 
1877? 

1889? 



White Wove Paper. 

Imperforate. 

Black surcharge. Signature of E. W. Barber. 
No value, yellow-brown 

Black surcharge. Signature of A. D. Hazen. 

No value, yellow-brown, pale yellow-brown, bistre-brown 

Red surcharge. Signature of A. D. Hazen. 

No value, rose, pink, pale pink, salmon-pink 



The second design is slightly larger than the first and forms a rectangle 
i2oJ^x66^mm. The rectangle is almost filled by a mat of geometrical lathe- 
work. The outline is broken by semi-circular ornaments at each corner. 

The design is printed by lithography, on coarse white wove paper. It 
is nearly covered by a type-set overprint, in black, which reads : 

OPEN AT END. 



THE POSTMASTER TO WHOM THIS PACKAGE IS SENT MUST NOTE 
ITS CONDITION AND CAREFULLY COUNT ITS CONTENTS. 

If it shows signs of having been tampered 
with, the fact should be reported to the third 

ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

If the count shows a deficiency in ihe contents of the package, or an excess, 
the case must be treated as indicated in Sec. 120 P L. & R. The Postmaster 
should not correspond with the Stamp Agent, but with the Third Assistant 
Postmaster-General. See also Sec. 1088 as to misdirected packages. 

EBRR CRAIGG, 

Third Assistant Postmaster-General. 

A second variety has the name of Kerr Craige obliterated by two 
horizontal bars and that of John A. Merritt printed at the left, in sans-serif 
capitals. It is probable that this seal was made either to meet an urgent 
demand or to use up a large quantity which had been prepared with Mr. 
Ciaige's name. We may expect that there was a later printing on which only 
Mr. Merritt's name appeared. 

In 1899, Edwin C. Madden became Third Assistant Postmaster Gen- 
eral and still retains the office. The current seal bears his name. The design 
and color are the same as those of the seal just described but the overprint 
has been reset, different fonts of type being used, and the arrangement of the 
last three lines slightly changed. 

These seals are imperforate and have a margin of about 4mm. on each 
side. I am unable to say by whom they are made or how many there are in 
a sheet. 

White Wove Paper. 
Imperforate. 

Black surcharge. Signature of Kerr Craige. 
1893 ? No value, dull rose 



OFFICIAL SEALS. 



369 



1897? 
1899? 



Black surcharge. Signature of John A. Merritt. 
No value, dull rose 

Black surcharge. Signature of Edwin C. Madden. 
No value, dull rose 



Seals for Letters Opened in the Dead Letter Office, or Through 
Mistake, or Damaged in Transit. 

In the early part of 1 87 7 — the American Journal of Philately for 1 888, 
gives the date as January, 1877 — a seal was issued which was designed to be 
used in re-sealing letters opened in the Dead Letter Office. It is said to have 
also been used to seal letters opened by mistake and those damaged in transit. 
I have not been able to confirm these statements in regard to this particular 
seal. 

It is engraved in faille douce on steel. In a small oval medallion in 
the center is a head of Liberty, full-faced. On solid tablets, at left and right 
respectively, are " officially " arid " sealed ", in white sans-serif capitals. 
Above these is curved " post office department ", in shaded block letters, 
and in a double curve below is " united states of America ", in " Old 
English" type. In each corner are the letters " u. s." in monogram. The 
background is filled with the words "post obitum" in minute Roman capitals, 
many times repeated. The entire design is surrounded by a broad rectangular 
frame with rounded corners. This frame is composed of closely ruled vertical 
lines and is so shaded as to appear to be raised above the rest of the design. 
The lower side of the frame bears the inscription, "national bank note 

company, new YORK." 

There were one hundred stamps on the plate, arranged in ten rows of 
ten. There was no plate number. I do not know whether there was an 
imprint or not. The work was done by the National Bank Note Co., though 
the contract for the manufacture of postage stamps was, at that time, held by 
the Continental Bank Note Co. 

This seal measures 44x2 7 J^ mm. It is printed on thin hard paper, 
perforated and has brownish gum. 

White Wove Paper, 
Perforated 12. 
Jan. 1877. No value, dark brown, dark red-brown. 

It is said that the words " post obitum " were placed on the foregoing 
seal as a joke. Either the joke ceased to be amusing or it was decided to be 
in poor taste. Consequently a new design was prepared, differing from that 
of the first seal only in the background, the small letters being replaced by a 
pattern of loops in cycloidal ruling. At the same time the vertical lines on 
the face of the frame and many of its outlines were recut and strengthened. 
The size remained the same as before. 

The American Journal of Philately for July, 1888, gives the date of 
issue of this second seal as May, 1879. 



Design. 



I'latp. 



Reference List. 



Cliangcs ill Hic 
dcsigu. 



Date of issne. 



37° 



OFFICIAL SEALS. 



There were at least two plates made for this seal. The first contained 
one hundred impressions, arranged in ten rows of ten. It had no plate number, 
Plates and imprints, at least none was assigned to it at the time it was made. I do not know if it 
had an imprint or not but I suspect that it bore that of the American Bank 
Note Co. The second plate contained fifty seals, arranged in ten rows of 
five. At the middle of each of the four sides was placed the imprint 
" AMERICAN BANK NOTE COMPANY, NEW YORK," in very Small Roman capitals, 
%mm. high and 33j^mm. long. This is an exact duplicate of the imprint 
placed on the plate of the one cent newspaper stamp, issued June 3rd, 1885. 
This style of imprint is not known to have been used on any other plates, 
which would tend to confirm the theory that they were both prepared at 
about the same date. On this second plate, at the right of the imprint in 
the upper margin, is a figure " 2 ", reversed and apparently inserted with a 
punch. 

These seals are usually printed on a thin hard semi-transparent paper, 
not at all like that generally used by the American Bank Note Co. Copies 
Paper. on goft porous paper are scarce. The gum varies from yellowish to pure 

white. 



Beference List. 



May, 1879. 



White Wove Paper. 

Perforated 12. 

No value, brown, dark brown, yellow-brown, red-brown, 
dark red-brown 



Anotlier ciian^e in 
the seal. 



Jletliod of 
production. 



DIstluKuishiiig 

marks of the 

lithographed seal. 



Mr. M. C. Berlepsch has a sheet of these seals from plate 2 which he 
claims was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. I think he is 
mistaken in this conclusion, which is largely based upon the date at which 
he obtained the sheet. As will be shown shortly, this work is done by the 
Government Printing Office and not by the Bureau of Engraving and Print- 
ing. The character of the work and the paper are not those of the former 
establishment. My opinion is that the sheet belongs to one of the older 
printings by the American Bank Note Co. 

In 1888 a further change took place in the official seal. This was 
first announced in the American Philatelist, dated July loth, i888. But 
copies had been obtained by dealers in the early part of June of that year. 
This new seal differed from its predecessor in the absence of the inscription 
on the lower side of the frame and in its generally rough and blurred ap- 
pearance. It was at first announced as being lithographed. Subsequently it 
was said to be " printed from relief plates taken from a wood cut." 

A lithographed seal certainly exists, though it is quite scarce. I have 
not been able to find anything in support of the wood cut theory. An expert 
in engraving and printing informs me that the rough looking seals which are 
so common are phot-engraved and typographically printed. 

The lithographed seal is evidently the result of an attempt to get rid 
of the imprint of the National Bank Note Co., which appeared in the lower 
border of the engraved seals. On a careful examination of the seal, it be- 
comes apparent that the change was effected by first making a lithographic 
transfer of the entire design and then covering the inscription with a piece of 



OFFICIAL SEALS. 



371 



the upper border, taken from another transfer. This piece frequently ex- 
tends a trifle below the bottom line of the lower border and the vertical shad- 
ing lines usually fail to join. There is another point by which this seal may 
be distinguished from the photo-engraved seals. In the left border there 
are eight vertical lines of shading, not counting the line which marks the 
edge of the outer bevel. T he ninth line is interrupted by the edge of the 
inner bevel. However, this line is unbroken from about the level of the 
bottom of the " u " of " united " to the edge of the lower bevel. On the 
photo-engraved stamps this line is broken about imm. below the level of 
the "u". 

This seal is printed on very porous white wove paper and perforated 
I 2. The gum is white. The size remains unchanged. 

Porous White Wove Paper. 
Perforated 12. 
June, 1888. No value, yellow-brown 

The stone bore one hundred and forty-three transfers, arranged in 
thirteen rows of eleven stamps each. It had neither imprint nor number. 

Concerning the photo-engraved seals, we find in the American Philate- 
list for January icth, 1890, the following : 

" The two previous issues were finely engraved and comparatively costly. Being 
without an appropriation sufficient for their manufacture, the department had the present 
wretched transfers made and printed at the Government printmg office. They were first- 
issued imperforate and were sent in that condition to the Dead-Letter Office and to a few 
postmasters, but the bulk of them were sent to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to be 
perforated." 

The first lot of these seals could not have been a source of pride to 
their makers. They were coarsely engraved, over inked and illegibly printed. 
The central medallion was often little better than a blot. The first printings 
were in a chocolate colored ink and the perforation was rough and blind, 
as much of the paper that should have been punched out remained in the holes. 
The color will serve to distinguish the stamps of the first printing which were 
issued imperforate from those of later printings which were left in the same 
condition, either by accident or favor. Subsequently, much clearer impres- 
sions were produced in lighter shades of brown. The perforation was also 
improved. Many, if not all, of the sheets were not perforated around the 
outside rows, thus leaving certain of the seals imperforate on one or two sides. 
About 1 891, the seals were rouletted, for a time, but perforating was soon 
resumed. The paper is always thick, usually soft and porous, but sometimes 
hard and with little or no grain. The gum ranges from brown to pure white. 
These seals do not differ in size from those previously issued. 

White Wove Paper. 
Imperforate. 
1888. No value, chocolate, dark chocolate. 

Perforated 12. 
No value, chocolate, dark chocolate, brown, dark brown, 
pale brown, rose-browh, bistre-brown, gray-brown. 



Reference List. 



Stone. 



Historical. 



Characteristics. 



Reference list. 



372 



OFFICIAL SEALS. 



Sheets. 



Origin. 



Design. 



Reference List. 



Varieties : 

No value, bistre-brown. Imperforate vertically. 

No value, pale brown, gray-brown. Imperforate. 

No value, dark chocolate. Double impression. 
Rouletted 5>^. 
1 89 1. No value, gray-brown. 

From 1888 until the present time the Government Printing Office has 
made all the official seals, with the exception of certain type-set varieties. I 
have not been able to learn much about the plates that have been used. Such 
sheets and parts of sheets as I have seen did not bear any imprint or plate 
number. Of the first printing I have seen a sheet of nine rows of eight 
stamps each, with margins at the sides and bottom but cut close at the top, 
apparently indicating that part of the sheet had been cut off. In the later 
gray-brown shade I have seen a sheet with full margins all around, but having 
only six rows of seven stamps each. 



Type-set Seals. 



The type-set seals have always been something of a puzzle to phila- 
telists. Nothing very definite appears to be known about them. So far as 
can be learned, they are the result of an attempt at governmental economy. 
The Post Office Department appears, at one time, to have compelled post- 
masters to provide stationery and many office fixtures at their own expense- 
This was probably due to insufficient appropriations by Congress. In many 
volumes of the Postal Guide will be found '.the advertisements of firms who 
dealt in cancelling stamps, pads, inks, blank-books, etc , etc. I am told that, 
in at least one number of this publication, official seals, such as I am about 
to describe, were offered for sale. Most of them are said to have been 
made by a firm of printers " up in New York State," and the advertisement 
referred to was probably theirs. This should have appeared about 1889 or 
1890, for which years I have not been able to obtain the Postal Guide. 

The first of the type-set seals was announced in the America?i Phila- 
telist, dated February nth, i88g. It was described as being on flesh-colored 
paper; this was probably the color which has since been termed pink or rose. 

This seal may be briefly described as follows: A rectangle, 47x29 
mm., formed of border type, in a pattern of small scallops. Across the seal, 
slightly above the middle, are two heavy rules, between which is " officially 
SEALED ", in large sans-serif capitals, followed by a square period. Above 
this is " u. s. POST office department ", in block type; and htlo-vr " Opened 
through mistake by.'' At the bottom is a dotted line for the signature. 

The seal is imperforate, but I have not been able to learn whether it 
was printed singly or in sheets. The few copies which I have examined did 
not show any varieties The paper is soft and of medium thickness. 

Colored Wove Paper. 
Imperforate. 
Feb., 1889. No value, black on rose 



OFFICIAL SEALS. 



373 



A second variety of this seal differs only in the border, which is of the 
style known as Greek or "key pattern," and in having a round period after 
"sealed". I have seen only four or five copies of this seal, all of which 
were alike in every detail. I think it is possible that there was only one 
variety and that the seals were printed one at a time, but the limited amount 
of material at command does not permit a positive conclusion. This variety 
is also imperforate. The size is soJ^X29mm. The paper is white and the 
gum yellowish. I do not know at what date it appeared. 

White Wove Paper. 
Imperforate. 
No value, black 

The variety which, I believe, was next issued has also a Greek border 
but it is less open than that on the preceding seal. Across the center is 
" OFFICIALLY sealed ", in fancy capitals, followed by a period and placed 
between two heavy rules. Above this is " u. s. post office department " 
in " Old English " letters, set in a curve, with an ornamental dash below 
" OFFICE ". In the lower part are " Opened through mistake by " and a dotted 
line, as on the preceding seal. Size : so^xagmm. 

The only copy of this seal which I have seen was rouletted, in color, 
across the bottom, from which I infer that it was printed in pairs, like the 
seals next to be described. 

White Wove Paper. 
Rouletted i6^ on one side. 
No value, black 

The foregoing seal appears to have been the predecessor ofa group, 
the members of which differ only slightly from it and from each other. The 
setting is the same as that just described except that there are dotted lines, 
instead of solid rules, above and below " officially sealed '', and a large 
round period between these words but none after the latter one. The size 
remains unchanged. 

The earliest mention of these seals is in the American Journal of 
Philately for August isth, 1890, and the color is there given as blue. I was 
at first inclined to regard this as a misprint but I have since learned that the 
seal exists in blue, though it is much more common in black. 

These seals are printed in vertical pairs, separated by a line of roulet- 
ting, gauging iij4 ot i6}i. This rouletting, like all the rouletting of the 
type-set seals, was made by setting, between the seals, printer's rule which had 
a serrated edge. The rule received ink at the same time as the designs and, 
consequently, appears in color. The seals are imperforate except for the 
rouletting between them. 

The paper varies from thin to medium and the gum is yellowish. 

White Wove Paper. 
Rouletted iij^ on one side. 
Aug. 1890. No value, dark dull blue 

No value, black 



Changes in the 
design and paper. 



Reference List. 



Ueference List. 



Design. 



Colors. 



Rouletting. 



Reference List. 



374 OFFICIAL SEALS. 

Rouletted i6j4 on one side. 

No value, black 

The type-set seals were subsequently printed in blocks of four, pro- 
bably with a view to increased rapidity of production. In these blocks two 
of the seals are placed tete beche to the other two. There are two of these 
groups : in the first, one of the seals has a period between " officially " 
and "sealed "; in the second, all the seals are without the period. Except 
for the removal of the period the setting remains the same as for the seals 
which were printed in pairs. These blocks are rouletted horizontally and 
vertically between the seals but are otherwise imperforate. The rouletting 
gauges 11^ or 12^. 

Rouletted 12^ on two sides. 

No value, black. With period 
No value, black. Without period 

Varieties, tSte biche : 

No value, black. Without period 

No value, black. With and without period 

Rouletted 11^ on two sides. 

No value, black. Without period 

Variety, tHe Mche : 

No value, black. Without period 

Rouletted 12 }4 on two sides. 

No value, black. Without period 

Variety, tSie Mche: 

No value, black. Without period 



Appendix, 



Abstract OF Laws Relating to the Postal Service in the United 
States from the Year 1639 to the Year 1888. 



From the Report of the Postmaster General for 1888. 



colonial period. 

Massachusetts. — Order of the general court, 1639. — " It is ordered that notice be given 
that Richard Fairbanlis his house in Boston is the place appointed for all letters which are 
brought from beyond the seas, or are to be sent thither, to be left with him, and he is to 
take care that they are to be delivered or sent according to the direction. And he is allowed 
for every letter a penny, and must answer all miscarriages through his own neglect in this 
kind." 

' Massachusetts, — Maji, 1677. — Mr. John Hayward appointed by the court "to take in 
and convey letters according to their direction." 

Virginia. — Act of assemhly, March 13, 1657. — " That all letters superscribed for the 
public service shall be immediately conveyed from plantation to plantation to the place and 
person directed, under a penalty of 1 hogshead of tobacco for each default ; and if any 
extraordinary charge arise thereby, the commissioners of each country are hereby authorized 
to judge thereof , and levy payment of the same. These superscriptions are to tie signed by 
the governor, council, or secretary, or any commission of the quorum, or any of the com- 
mittee appointed for the militia." 

Virginia. — Act of assembly, March 23, 1661. — Provides that all letters superscribed 
for the service of his majesty or the public service shall be immediately conveyed from 
planation to planation to the place and person directed, under a penalty of 350 pounds of 
tobacco for each default. " If there is any person in the family where the said letters come 
as can write, such person is required to indorse the day and hour he received them, that the 
neglect or contempt of any person stopping them may be better known and punished 
accordingly." 

Virginia. — Act of assembly, March 16, 1692. — For encouraging the erection of a post- 
office under letters patent granted to Thomas Neale, dated February 17, 1692. (This act 
was conditional, and was never carried into effect.) 

New York. — 1672 — Establishment of a " post to go monthly from New York to Bos- 
ton ;" postage to be prepaid. 

New York. — December 6, 1702. — The Postmaster General ordered that the post be- 
tween Boston and New York should set out once a fortnight during the months of Decem- 
ber, January, and February. 

Pennsylvania.— Act of provincial assembly, March, 1683. — "Every justice of the 
peace, sheriff, or constable within the respective countries of this province and territories 
thereof, to whose hands or knowledge any letter or letters shall come directed to or from the 
governor, shall dispatch them within three hours at the furthest after the receipt or knowledge 
thereof, to the next sheriff or constable, and so forwards as the letters direct, upon 
the penalty of 20 shillings for every hour's delay. And in such cases, all justices of the 
peace, sheriffs, or constables are herewith empowered to press either man or horse for that 
purpose, allowing for a horse or man 2 pence a mile, to be paid out of the public stock." 

Pennsylvania. — Act of general assembly, May, 1693. — " To the end that mutual cor- 
respondences may be maintained, and that letters may speedily and safely be dispatched 
from place to place : Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, that a general post office 
may be erected by Andrew Hamilton, at Philadelphia, from whence all letters and packets 
may be with all expedition sent into any of the parts of New England and other the adjacent 
colonies in these parts of America, at which said office all return . and answers may be received. 



First colonial post- 
master appointed. 



Conveyance of 

offici