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TWENTY-SK(X)Nl) ANNUAL l(EfQt^T> 



State Board of IIhalth, 



STATE OF RHODE ISLAND, 



The Tkar e:nding December 31, 1809, 



AND INCLUDING 
THE REPORT UPON THE REGISTRATION OF 



BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS IN 1898. 




P liOYl I) E N c; E , 1{ . I . 

E. L. FKEEMAN & SONS, STATE PRINTERS. 

1903. 



MEMBERS 



Rhode Island State Board of Health, 



Post Ofice Address. 

ALBERT G. SPRAGUB, M. D., President River Point Kent County. 

SAMUEL M. GRAY, C. B Providence Providence Countt. 

JOHN C. BUDLONG, M. D Pkovidence Providence County. 

REV. GEORGE L. LOCKE Bristol Bristol County. 

ALEXANDER B. BRIGGS, M. D Ashawat Washington County. 

RUPUS E. DARRAH, M. D Newport Newport County. 

GARDNER T. SWARTS, M. D ■ Providence Pkovidence County. 



GARDNER T. SWARTS, Secretary. 






O 

r— t 



To the Honorable the General Assembly : 

lu compliance with, the General Laws, tlie Amiual Report of 
the State Board of Health is hereby respectfully submitted. 

Gaedner T. Swarts, 

Secretary. 



23 349275 

CO 



GENERAL CONTENTS. 



General Report. 

Report of the Secretary. 

Reports op Town Clerks in relation to Sanitary Im- 
provements IN the Towns. 

Reports of the Health Officers. 

Water Supplies. 

Meteorology. 

Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 

Report of Contagious Diseases. 

Results of Examination of Sputum from Suspected 
Cases of Tuberculosis. 

Records of All Cases of Consumption in the State. 

Outbreak of Typhoid Fever in Woonsocket. 

Improvement in the Water Supply of the East Prov- 
idence Water Company. 

Addition to the Laws governing the Registration op 
Births, Marriages, and Deaths. 

Working of the Medical Practice Act. 

Appendix. 

A Report of a Four Months' Test of a Mechanical 
Filter Plant at East Providence, R. I. 

Methods of Compilation used in preparing Census and 
Registration Reports. 

General Laws op the State Board of Health. 

General Laws of Medical Examiners and Coroners. 

Index. 



GENERAL REPORT. 



The work of the State Board of Health during- the yeixr has 
been a continuation of study of the various conditions pertaining- 
to the public health, especial use being- made of the more recent 
methods of diag-nosis and iuvestig-ation which have been made 
available during- the past few years. 

CONTAGIOUS DISEASES. 

Monthly reports of the number of cases of communicable dis- 
eases which have occurred in the various townis, including- scarlet 
fever, diphtheria, and typhoid fever, have been continued. This 
makes it i)ossible for comparison of the comparative prevalence of 
any of these diseases in any of the towns or throughout the State. 
These records were begun in the year 1894, and thus comparison 
of increase or decrease may be made. The local health authori- 
ties are yearly giving more intelligent attention to this class of 
work, and the control of these diseases has been more thoroughly 
systematized. 

WATER SUPPLIES. 

There has been no change in the system of water supplies of 
the State since the previous report. An improvement in one of 
the sources of supply has been made as a result of the work of the 
board during the previous year. 

The city of Providence continues to receive its supply from the 
Pawtuxet river, the intake being located at the P^ttaconset pump- 
iug-stati<Mi. The gross contaminations which existed along the 
banks of this river years ago have been removed. A'aults and 



2 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

cesspool wastes are prevented from entering- the stream. There 
still exists the possibility of a new contamination being- estab- 
lished at any time by the location of a drain, or stable, or barn- 
yard, which may contribute to the surface flow any detritus that 
may accumulate. Surface flow from streets and from fertilized 
farm lands continues to flow into the river. It is assumed that 
dye-stufl's and refuse wastes from manufactories do not find their 
way into the river, at least without a gross form of filtration, 
which removes some of the color and organic matter. Owing to 
the ineflicient and unsatisfactory means of filtration in these cases, 
it becomes necessary to allow the wastes to run free into the 
stream. Bathing in the stream is not prohibited, and is made use 
of freely during the summer months by the operatives residing 
along- the stream. On aesthetic grounds, permission for bathing in 
the storage reservoirs is not given. The greatest danger which 
might occur from such a case would occur only when a person who 
was convalescing from typhoid fever made use of the stream for 
this purpose. 

The supply of the city of Woon socket continues the same. The 
water-shed is closely guarded, and is completely controlled by the 
city by ownershi^D of the entire water-shed. Legal control of this 
supply is the only public law which has ever been enacted for the 
protection of drinking-water in this State. 

Although the enlarged reservoir of the Newport Water Com- 
pany has given an increased available supply, yet the constantly 
increasing demand and the limited water-shed require the utmost 
economy to be exercised to avoid unnecessary waste. 

The Bristol Water Company continues to supply the towns of 
Bristol and Warren. The endeavor of the town of Bristol has 
been in the hands of a master of arbitration, and there appears 
little prospect of a change of ownership at present. The quality 
of the water remains the same. The water-shed is shallow, and 
the storage also. The chance of contamination is extremely slight, 
and depends upon the surface washings from fields occupied by 
cattle. The color and taste remain of the same intensity. 



1899.] OENEKAL KKI'OKT. 3 

The wsiter supply of the city of Pawtucket, which supplies ji 
large uumber of the surrounding- to^vus and villages, still maiu- 
taius its superior quality. Althoug-h filtered throug-h a coarse 
gravel or pebl)le and charcoal bed, yet this prr)bably removes little 
but the coai"ser matters, which are held in suspension. It does 
not serve to remove any of the dangerous elements which might 
find their way into the river from careless use of mill privy vaults. 
A certain amount of inspection of the banks of the river is main- 
tained, and any possibility of contamination is corrected as soon 
as discovered. 

There exists at one point on the stream a mill which has its so- 
called tight privy-box so located that an oveiilow from this might 
be carried into the stream in the time of heavy rains. 

EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 

The regular inspection of the banks of the Pawtuxet river for 
existing pollutions or possible intent to contaminate the river 
throug-h desii'e to dispose of refuse, or by ig-uorance, has been 
continued by, the inspectors engaged by the city of Providence, 
and under the direction of the commissioner of public works of 
that city. The fact remains, however, that there is always the 
possibility of the river being- contaminated by some member of 
the population in that district placing- noxious matter in the stream. 
Thft last prevalence of typhoid fever, connected with the water 
supply, was traced to contamination ])laced in the river by attend- 
ants of a typhoid patient. To thoroiighly dispo.se of the excre- 
ment, and to insure its removal from the premises, the stools of the 
patient were all dumped into the river. Manufactories upon the 
stream have large quantities of dye-stufis to dispose of. An en- 
deavor is made to filter or precipitate the suspended matters in 
these wastes. The result is more or less successful, but at times, 
owing- to the necessity of cleansing- the clogged filter, it is alleged 
that the wastes are allowed to g-o free into the stream, thereby 
heightening the color of the supply, if not possibly admitting 



4 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899 

other filtli wliicli may prove injurious to those ing-esting tlie 
water. 

A semi-monthly chemical analysis of the water is made by the 
city of Providence, the sample being- taken from the intake at the 
Pettaconset pumping-station, and a monthly bacteriolog-ical and 
chemical analysis is made, by this board, of sami^les taken at the 
villages of Hope and Washing-ton, above points of pollution, as 
well as of a sample taken from the Pettaconset pumping-station, 
at the point where the water is taken from the river. 

This data has been obtained for several years, and now proves 
of g-reat value to the city of Providence in determining the com- 
parative values of the waters now used as compared with the sup- 
ply at previous times. It also makes possible a comparison of the 
quality of the supply as found before and after pollution. As is 
to be expected, the water received at the Pettaconset pumping- 
station (and which is supplied to the city through the reservoir at 
Sockanosset and thence through pipes to the city) shows a greatly 
inferior quality to that taken from the two points above any source 
of pollution, namely, at Hope and Washington. 

Although this has been stated many times, and is in full knowl- 
edge by the board of public works and by the council of the city 
of Providence, yet no attempt has been made to correct this con- 
dition. The joint special committee of the common council, ap- 
pointed to report upon the means at hand for the purification of 
the supply, replied that it was not only desirable but necessary 
that the water be purified before being delivered to the con- 
sumers, and that it was possible to do this by means of either 
sand filtration or by mechanical filtration, but that mechanical fil- 
tration was to be preferred, and has recommended it to the council, 
on account of its lower first cost, its simplicity in operation, its per- 
fect control in cleaning, and from its non-dependence upon severe 
changes in the weather during the winter months. 

Opposition to the process of mechanical filtration was made by 
certain physicians, on account of the presumed possibility of the 
alum, used in the process as a j)recipitant or coagulent, getting 



1 899. I fi K \ K K A r, u i: iM ) kt. 5 

into tlio tilteretl w.itor, aud hoiuy- a source of daiii^'-or to tlio pulilic. 
While this objection was uot supported hy any data or facts in re- 
gard to the daucffr of the use of ahini in this manner, yet the 
sentiment ag-aiust its use prevailed with the common council ; and 
while the endeavor to establish such a plant was defeated, vet no 
attemjit was made to introduce and pass a resolution recommend- 
in*;- that the sand filtration be adopted. The city was therefore 
allowed to drift alouo-, supplying- a contaminated water to its 
consumers, with the possibility of an epidemic pendin^: at any 
time. 

The East Pro^^deuce Water Company supplies a portion of the 
town of East Providence, the water being^ taken from the Ten Mile 
river, at Hunt's Mills. This river, as stated in the previous re- 
port, passes through a populous distnct and receives the wash- 
ings of the water-shed from fields which are more or less fertil- 
ized. In addition, the stream receives the wastes from sewers and 
waste-pipes from factories and from the town of Attleboro, Mass. 
The number of persons contributing to this contamination is esti- 
mated at 3,500. D\-e-stufi"s and acid-washings from dj'e-houses 
and jewelry manufactories add to the pollution. It becomes nec- 
essary either to abandon this supply, or to cause the nuisances in 
the form of pollution to be abated, or to purify the contaminated 
water before deliver}- to the consumers. 

As stated in the previous report, attention was given to this 
matter, inspections were made, communications sent to the State 
Board of Health of Massachusetts, asking for relief from the 
contaminations, and replies from that board that nothing could be 
etlected by them. The owners of the water company were wai'ned 
as to the continued use of the water without purification, and they 
promised to give the subject immediate attention. During the 
yeju' a mechanical filtration plant has been established, and has 
l)een in operation since February 2t»th. A rejiort as to the char- 
acter of the filtered water and the tests made of the working of 
the plant will be found in the body of this report. 



6 STATE BOAED OE HEALTH. [1899. 

EXAMINATION OF SPUTUM FROM CASES OF SUSPECTED TUBERCULOSOS. 

The free examination by the board of all samples of sputum 
received from cases of suspected tuberculosis, for physicians only, 
has been continued with gratifying results. By this means a 
physician is assisted in making an early discoverj^ of the presence 
of this disease, and is able to give to his patient more prompt and 
assiduous attention. The patients are at times made aware of the 
fact that they are suffering from this disease while in its incipi- 
ency, and are enabled to obtain for themselves such treatment as 
may be available. 

The public receives the benefits from this work by the greater 
care of the patient to avoid indiscriminate expectoration, thus 
reducing in a great measure the opportunities of spreading the 
disease. Money spent by the State in this manner is a good 
investment. 

EXAMINATION OF CULTURES IN CASES OF SUSPECTED DIPHTHERIA. 

The examinations of the secretions of the throat and the growths 
therefrom upon a nutrient blood serum, for physicians, in cases 
suspected to be diphtheria, have been continued with the same 
advantage to the physician, the public, and the health officer, as 
in previous years. Many cases of simple pharyngitis presenting 
no clinical symptoms of diphtheria have been found to contain 
the organisms which jaroduce this disease ; the corroboration of 
. the bacteriological diagnosis being confirmed later by the appear- 
ance of the membrane and the train of symptoms to be found in 
diphtheria. This systein of control was commenced by this board 
in 1894, Rhode Island being the first State to establish the system 
as a State, the city of New York having been the pioneer health 
department in this matter. 

PERSONNEL OF THE BOARD. 

There has been no change in the personnel of the board since 
the previous report. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



TOWN SANITATION. 



1899. 



RETORTS FROM TOAVNS, 



IN UKl.ATION TO SANITARY I M I'UOVKM ENTS, KTC. 



It has been observed, iu the previous issues, that a complete 
annual report of a State Board of Health properly includes an ac- 
count of the measures taken each year by the municipal authori- 
ties, corporations, or individuals for the promotion of the health 
of the communities under their respective supervision or control. 
In order, therefore, to ascertain the facts iu relation to such meas- 
ures, and for the purpose of presentation in this report as iu the 
reports heretofore issued, and in the continuance of the design to 
keep well informed of all proceedings throughout the State on 
the part of town or city councils or any form of municipal au- 
thority in the appointment of health officers or boards of health, 
and in the direction of improvements which have iu view and 
seem to promise the promotion of public health by the abatement 
of nuisances or the removal of unsanitary conditions and sur- 
roundings, or by the introduction of water for general use, or 
construction of sewers, or the establishment of other public works 
which may not only be of great public utilitj^ and convenience 
but also serve in some measure, large or small, in the prevention 
of disease, the secretary has, as heretofore, solicited replies from 
the Unvu and city clerks of the several towns and cities, or other 
municipal officers, in answer to questions proposed in a circular 
sent for that purpose. 

It is designed and hoped that a connected history may thereby 
be secured of all sanitary improvements of a public chai'acter iu 
all parts of the State, from ye^u' to year ; and the gradual awukeu- 

2 



10 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

ing- of the citizens of tlie different towns to tile necessity of sanitary 
public measures thereby be shown ; and also whatever intellig-ent 
appreciation of such necessity, and whatever public spirit in ex- 
istence in the towns there may be, may be known as manifested 
by the readiness with which needed sanitary measures are adopted. 
The following- is the form of circular sent at close of the year 
1898 : 

CIECULAE No. 130. 

Office of Secretary of State Board of Health, 

48 Weybosset Street, 
Providence, E. I., Jan. 1, 1899. 
To the Town Clerk : 

It is, by statute law, made the duty of the secretary of the State Board 
of Health to make inquiries of town or city clerks, or of the clerks of 
local boards of health, in regard to the general health and sanitary con- 
dition of the towns, and also in regard to measures taken for the improve- 
ment of the same, as may be seen by the following section from the 

Public Statutes, Chapter 83. 

Sec. 6. The secretary of the said board shall make inquiry, from time 
to time, of the clerks of town and local boards of health, and practicing 
physicians, in relation to the prevalence of any disease, or knowledge of 
any known or generally believed source of disease, or causes of general ill- 
health, and also in relation to the proceedings of the said boards of health 
in respect to acts for the promotion and protection of the public health, and 
also in relation to diseases among domestic animals, in their several towns 
and localities, respectively; and the said clerks of town and local boards 
of health and said practicing physicians shall give such information in 
reply to said inquiries, of such facts and circumstances as have come to 
their knowledge. 

In order to make complete the annual report of this hoard to the General 
Assembly, the secretary would respectfully ask your co-operation by answers 
to the following questions : 

1. Has any work for the promotion of public health been contemplated 



1899.] secrktaky's kei'Out. 11 

or completed in your town by the town authorities, or hy jirivate enter- 
prise, (luring the year? If any, please state what. 

2. If by introduction or extension of water service for general use, 
please state what proportion of the population, by estimation, was sup- 
plied with the same at the end of the year.* 

3. If city or town has sewage system, state the aggregate length of 
sewers, by estimation or otherwise, and about what proportion of the 
population has drainage connected with them at the end of the year.* 

4. If by new ordinances in abatement of nuisances, or for any sanitary 
purpose, please send copy of same ; also state how far, to your best knowl- 
edge, all the sanitary ordinances have been enforced. Copies of town 
ordhiances especially desired. 

5. Has your town any legal board of health beside the town councilV 
If so, please give the names of the officers of the same. 

6. Please give the names of the health officers of your town. 

7. Has gratuitous vaccination been provided in your town during the 
past year ? W hat proportion of the population was vaccinated, according 
to your best knowledge? 

8. Have undertakers promptly sent in their returns of death ? Please 
give names of any who do not. (See Public Statutes, Chap, 85, Sec. 1.) 

9. Do clergymen make returns of marriages promptly each month, as 
required by Public Statutes, Chap. 85, Sec. 4? 

Thanking you in advance for your assistance, I am, 

Vours truly, 

CJARDNER T. SWARTS, 

Secretari/. 

N. B.— The town or other cUn-k sht)uld charge a reiminei-ative fee for replying to the above 
circular, and present to the town council or board of health, it being a service required by law. 



♦If not known by the person replying, please state where or of whom such information 
may be obtained. 



13 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 



BEISTOL COUNTY. 

BAERII^GTOK 

1. IsTo thing for the promotion of tlie public liealth has been done during 
the year. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. ISTo new sanitary ordinances have been adopted during the year. 
(See contagious disease ordinance, report of 1897, p. 10.) 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

6. Charles H. Bowden, health officer, 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided in this town during 
the year. 

8. In the main, undertakers have made returns of deaths promptly. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Frederick P. Church, Town Clerk. 

BEISTOL. 

1. In the early part of the summer season the town council instructed 
the surveyor to give close attention to cleaning streets and gutters. The 
health otBcer was also instructed to have sewers, cesspools, and vaults 
cleaned. All of these orders were carried out and strictly enforced. 

2. The compact part of the town is dependent wholly upon water ser- 
vice. 

3. This town has no sewage system. There are many sewers leading 
to the harbor, all of which have been built by private parties. 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

6. George H. Peck, health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided during the year. 

8. Returns of deaths and births are promptly sent to this office. 

9. Returns of marriages are promptly made to this office. 

Herbert F. Bennett, Town Clerk. 



ISU'.I. I SECKlC'I'AltY's Ulll'UKT, 13 

WAIJHKX. 

1. !Notliiufj spoi'i;il for the iiroiiiotiun (if llic iiiil)lic licaltli lias Ihm'ii done 
during the year. 

2. To the best ol' niy kii()\\ic(l,t>:(' tiicrc was no extension oi' the water 
service of tliis town (Uuinj^- tlie year. 

:>. This town has no public sewage system, ^fany tenements of the 
^Varren Manul'acturing Company and several streets in diflerent parts of 
the town are drained by sewers. 

4. The only new ordinance governing sanitation passed during the year 
is as follows : 

It is ordained hi/ the Town Council of Warren ((sfolhnrs .- 

Skctiox 1. No person shall suffer or allow the carcass of any dead 
horse, cow, or ox, or any other animal, to be or remain unbnried on his 
premises, or on the premises occupied by him, in the town of Warren, so 
as to be prejudicial to health or an annoyance to the neighborhood. 

Sec. 2. Any person who shall violate this ordinance shall be fined not 
exceeding twenty dollars, or be imprisoned not exceeding thirty days. 

Skc. 3. This ordinance shall take effect immediately. 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 
(J. Abraham Bowen, health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided during the j'ear, and about 
one twenty-fourth of the population has availed itself of the same. 

8. Undertakers have generally made prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptlj'. 

Charlks 13. Mason, Town Clerk. 

KENT COUNTY. 

COVEKTRY. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 

2. This town has no public water service. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. No new sanitary ordinances have been adopted during the year. 

."). This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 



14 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1899. 

6. John Winsor, M. D,, health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided in this town. 

8. Undertakers have made prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Stephen W. Griffin, Town Clerk. 

EAST GEEEKWICH. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of the public health has been contem- 
plated during the year. 

2. There are about live hundred water-taps in town. Fully sixty-four 
per cent, of the population is supplied with water. 

3. The aggregate length of sewers in this town is 6,335 feet. This 
affords drainage to 125 estates, 75 per cent, of which have connections 
made. The population of the area drained is probably between 600 and 700. 

4. No new health ordinances have been passed during the year. All 
sanitary regulations, as far as is known, have been well enforced. (Health 
ordinance, see report of 1894, p. 27.) 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

6. Elb ridge G. Carpenter, M. D., health officer. 

7. It is understood that gratuitous vaccination is given to any who may 
apply to health officer. 

8. Undertakers are prompt in making returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen are prompt in making returns of marriages. 

George A. Loomk, Town Clerk. 

WEST GREENWICH. 

No reply from the town clerk. 

WARWICK. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 

2. This town has no public water service. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. No new sanitary ordinances have been adopted during the year. 
(Contagious disease ordinance, see report of 1893, p. 45.) 



1891).] secrrtauy's kki'okt. 15 

ri. Tliis town has no Icjjal buanl ol' hcaltli otlitT (liaii tlic town (•(»iiiicil. 

(1. Albert G. Spraj?ue, M. D., health officer. 

8. Undertakers iiave made inoiiiiit returns of deaths. 

0. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

.Ia.mks T. TjOCKWood, Tonui ('hrk. 

NEWPOKT COUNTY. 

JAMESTOWN. 

2. About two-thirds of the population of this town are supplied by the 
public water service. 

3. A small extension of the town sewers has been made. The length 
of sewers in this town is about four and one-(iuarter miles, and about two- 
thirds of the population are connected therewith. 

4. No new health ordinances have been passed during the year. All 
sanitary regulations have been well enforced. (Health laws, see report of 
1893, p. 46, and 1894, p. 29.) 

5. This town has no legal board of liealth other than the town council. 

6. Abbott Chandler, health oflicer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided during the year. 

8. Undertakers have made prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages i)romptly. 

William F. Ca.swkll, Totoi ('lerk. 

LITTLE COMPTON. 

\. Nothing for tlie promotion of tlie public health has been done during 
the year. 

an ordinanck fok thk kegulation and i'hkvkntlox of (_ ()nta<ii()rs, 
infp:ctk)Us, and epidemic diseases. 

The following ordinances are hereby declared to be the ordinances of 
this town, and shall go into operation and effect on and after their passage. 

It is ordaitied hy the Town Council of the Toini of Little C'onipton us JdUdws : 

Section 1. Every physician or householder having knowledge of the 
existence of any case of contagious, infectious, or epidemic disease within 



16 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH, [1H99. 

the town of Little Compton shall immediately make report thereof, in 
writing, to the health officer of said town, with particulars. And said 
health officer shall forthwith take necessary precautions to prevent the 
spread thereof. 

Sec. 2. The diseases referred to in the preceding section shall include 
asiatic cholera, cerebro spinal meningitis (spotted fever), membranous 
croup, diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever, small-pox, typhus fever, typhoid 
fever, whooping cough, yellow fever, and such other contagious, infectious> 
or epidemic diseases as the health officer shall from time to time designate. 

Sec. 3. Any physician, householder, or person who shall fail to comply 
with the provisions of the preceding sections shall be fined not less than 
five dollars, nor more than ten dollars, for each day of such neglect, after 
having knowledge of the existence of any of the diseases aforesaid. 

Sec. 4, Whenever the health officer shall believe, or is notified that 
there exists in the town of Little Compton, any case of malignant or con- 
tagious disease, he shall have authority to visit the premises where the 
disease is supposed or suspected to exist, and to investigate the matter of 
such existence, and to take proper precautions to prevent the spread of 
such disease, and he may, if necessary, call upon the town sergeant for 
assistance in making such investigations, or in enforcing the observance 
of such precautions as may be issued advisable. 

Sec. 5. The health officer having knowledge of the presence of scarlet 
fever, diphtheria, measles, small-pox, or Asiatic cholera in any house, shall 
place or cause to be placed a card or cards upon such house where such 
disease or diseases exist, bearing the name or names of the disease or 
diseases in such house, which card or cards shall not be removed without 
the consent of the health officer. Any person who shall wilfully remove 
or deface said card or cards shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined ten 
dollars for the first offence and twenty dollars for each subsequent offence. 

Sec. 6. The health officer may, upon consultation with, and by the 
advice and consent of, some member of the town council, set a proper 
guard to prevent the spread of any contagious, infectious, or epidemic 
diseases, and shall give such directions as he may deem proper concerning 
the ingress and egress of persons to and from any house in which any of 
said diseases exist ; and any member of the town council in his discretion, 
if, in his opinion, immediate action is required, upon receiving notifica- 
tion that any person is sick with any infectious, contagious, or epidemic 
disease, may set such guard as aforesaid without consulting with said 
health officer, and give such direction as he may deem proper, in which 
case such member of the town council shall notify said health officer 



1899.] sKcitKTAiiv's I!i:i'()i;t. 17 

Every pcrsdii wlio shall wiUiilly (lisrcf^^iinl or violate any (lii-cctioii, lulc, 
refjulation, or order of said health ollicer, of member of town council, con- 
cerning the inpress or egress of persons to and from said house, siiall be 
fined not exceeding twenty dollars, or imprisoned not more than ten days. 

Skc. 7. No person living in a family where tliere is a case of small-pox 
shall attend scliool, Sunday-scliool, or any public place, or ride in any pub- 
lic conveyance ; and no person emidoyed in any workshop or place of 
business shall return to work unlil the patient has passed the period of 
dessication (falling off of scal)s), nor till the house has been properly disin- 
fected and fumigated by, and mider the direction, and to the satisfaction 
of, the health ollicer, nor without a certificate or permit from tlie health 
ollicer. 

Skc. s. Xo person living in a family where there is a case of scarlet 
fever shall attend school, Sunday-school, or any public place or public 
gathering, until at least six weeks from the beginning of the last case in 
said family, nor till desquamation (peeling of the skin) shall have ceased, 
nor until the house has been disinfected and fumigated by, and to the 
satisfaction of, the health ollicer, nor without a certificate or permit from 
the health oflicer. 

Sec. 0. Xo person having diphtheria sliall attend school or be employed 
at any business, and no person living in a family where diphtheria exists 
shall attend school, Sunday-school, or any public place, until one week 
after the recovery of the patient, and until the absence of the disease has 
been demonstrated by bacteriological examhiation of the secretions of the 
throat, nor until the house has been disinfected by, and under the direc- 
tion, and to the satisfaction of, the health officer, nor without a permit or 
certificate from the health officer. 

Sec. 10. No person having measles or living in a family where there is 
a case of measles shall attend school or Sunday school, until one week af- 
ter the recovery of the last patient, nor until the last patient in said family 
has ceased to desquamate, nor without a certificate or permit from the 
health oflicer. 

Sec. 11. Xo person witii wliooping cough, mumps, or chicken pox, shall 
attend school or Sunday school, until complete recovery, nor without a 
certificate or permit from the health oflicer. 

Sec. 1'2. The above rules shall, when deemed necessary by the health 
officer, be extended to all persons living in the same house where any of 
the above diseases exist, and the liealth oflicer may at his discretion ex- 
tend the period of isolation specified in the preceding sections. 

Sec. 13. Xo teaclier in a pul)lic or private school, or other educational 
■6 



18 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1899. 

institution, who has knowledge of such case, shall admit a person from a 
house in which there is or has been a case of small-pox, scarlet fever, 
diphtheria, or membranous croup, without a permit from the health officer. 

Sec. 14. Every physician having knowledge of the death of any person 
within the town of Little Compton from any contagious, infectious or epi- 
demic disease, upon whom he had been in attendance, shall immediately 
make a report thereof in writing to the health officer of this town. 

Sec. 15. The funeral of any person who has died while suffering from 
or afflicted with small-pox, scarlet fever, diphtheria, or membranous croup, 
and the funeral of any person that has died while any member of the fam- 
ily of such person is suffering from or afflicted with small-pox, scarlet 
fever, diphtheria, or membranous croup, shall be private, and the attend- 
ance thereat shall be limited to the immediate relatives of the deceased, 
adult pall bearers, clergymen and undertaker, together with such other 
persons as shall have received from the health officer permission to be 
present. 

Sec. 16. ISTo person who has the care or custody of the body of any per- 
son who has died while suffering from or afflicted with small-pox, scarlet 
fever, diphtheria, or membranous croup, and no person who has the care 
or custody of the body of any person who has died while any member- of 
the family of such person is suffering from or afflicted with small-pox, 
scarlet fever, diphtheria, or membranous croup, shall permit any funeral 
other than such as is specified in the foregoing section, and no person hav- 
ing the care or custody of such body shall permit any assemblage or gath- 
ering to be held in any house containing such body, and when such body 
has been placed in a casket, the casket shall be immediately closed, and 
not opened again before burial. 'Ro person having the care and custody 
of the dead body shall knowingly or wilfully do or permit to be done 
any unnecessary act by which such disease may spread from such dead 
body. 

Sec. 17. No undertaker shall assist at the funeral of any person who 
has died while suffering from or afflicted with small-pox, scarlet fever, 
diphtheria, or membranous croup ; and no undertaker or clergyman shall 
assist at the funeral of any person who has died while any member of the 
family of such person is suffering from or afflicted with small-pox, scarlet 
fever, diphtheria, or membranous croup, unless such funeral be conducted 
in accordance with section 15. 

Sec. 18. Every person who shall violate any provision of the preceding 
sections shall, upon conviction thereof, pay a fine of not more than twenty 
dollars, or be imprisoned not exceeding ten days. 



1800. 1 secretary's hei'ort. 19 

Skc. 10. Any person who shall violate any ol' the i)rovisions of this 
ordinance, the punishment wiiereot has not l»ecn iicrciiibefore i)rovi(h'(l 
for, sliall, upon conviction tlun-eof, pay a line of not more tlian twenty 
(loHars, or be imjjrisoned not exceedinj? ten days. 

Skc. '20. It sliall he the duty of the health ollicer of this town to make 
complaint of the violations of the i)rovisions of the ordinances of this 
town. 

Si'X'. 21. All comi)laints of the violation of any of tlie provisions of this 
ordinance shall be made to the town council, who shall examine into the 
cause of said complaint, and if said town council shall lind just cause for 
comi)laint, said town council shall cause tlie person complained of to be 
prosecuted. 

Skc. 22. All violations of tlie provisions of each and every ordinance 
now in force, or which shall hereafter be adopted, shall be prosecuted by 
complaint and warrant, or other legal process, before any court of compe- 
tent jurisdiction ; and in cases of prosecution by complaint and warrant, 
the town sergeant and such constables as the town council shall, from 
time to time, appoint for that purpose, shall alone be authorized to make 
complaint without giving surety for costs. 

Sec. 23. In all cases where default sliall be made in the payment of the 
fine and costs imposed by the court, for the violation of this ordinance, 
each and every person upon whom such fine and costs shall be imposed 
shall be committed to the Newport county jail until the sentence be per- 
formed in all its parts. 

Skc. 24. All ordinances and parts of ordinances inconsistent herewith, 
and the ordinances passed March, 1898, are hereby repealed. 

Skc. 2."). This ordinance shall take effect immediately. 

Passed by the town council Jmie ;kl, 1899. 

Attest: F. 11. Bkownkll, Clerk. 

.5. Adam S. MacKnight, M. 1)., health officer. 

7. fJratuitous vaccination has not been provided during the year, 

8. Undertakers have made prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages irregularly. 

Frederick R. Huownell, Town Clerk. 

MIDDLETOWN. 

1. No special work in relation to the protection of the pul)lic health or 
the improvement of sanitary conditions lias been begun or designed dur- 
ing the year. ' 



20 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

2. There was no extension of the water service of this town. A few 
families are supplied free from the mains of the I^fewport water works, 
which run through several highways of this town. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. No new ordinances were passed during the year. Ordinances in rela- 
tion to health have been generally complied with. The presence of con- 
tagious disease in a house has not always been indicated by a notice outside. 
(Contagious disease ordinances, see report of 1893, p. 48.) 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

6. George E. Ward, health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination was provided in the month of June, and Dr. 
C. F. Barker, of Newport, was engaged to make the vaccinations. The 
number vaccinated was not reported to this office. 

8. Returns of deaths have been promptly sent to this office. In most 
cases before the burial of the deceased person. 

9. But few marriages are solemnized in this town. These are returned 
as required by law. 

Albert L. Chase, Town Clerk. 

NEWPORT. 

No report from the city clerk. 

NEW SHOREHAM. 

1. Nothing special for the promotion of the public health was done 
during the year. An appropriation was made for the purpose of improving 
the "Harbor Pond," at present a pond of brackish water. 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

6. Hamilton A. Mott, health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided during the year. 

8. Undertakers are fairly prompt in making returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Edward P. Champlin, Toimi Clerk. 

PORTSMOUTH. 

1. Nothing particular for the promotion of the public health has been 
done during the year. In fact, there is not much cause for anything of 
this kind. 



1809.] SKCRETAIiV's KKI'OKT. 21 

2. Tliis town has no ])ublic water service. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. At a session of the town conncil as a hoard of licalth, held on th<' 
sill (lay of May, it was voted and onhiincd that any and all jx-rsons be, and 
are hereby, strictly forbidden to dnnip any rubbish of any kind whatsoever 
on any part or within any of the resitective highways in this town. 

5. The town council constitutes the board of health. 
G. Minot A. Steele, M. I)., health ollicer. 

7. (iratuitons vaccination has been provided durinpr the year, and about 
one-eighth of the population has availed itself of the same. 

8. Undertakers are prompt in making returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

WiLLiA3r F. Braytox, Town Clerk. 

TIVERTON. 

No reply from the town clerk. 

4. (Contagious disease ordinances, see report of 1S07, p. 17.) 

PKOVIDENCE COUNTY. 

BURRILLVILLE. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 

2. This town has no public water service. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. No new ordinances have been passed during the year. Those in 
force are fairly well enforced. (Contagious disease ordinances, see report 
of 1897, p. 20.) 

T). This town has no legal board of health otiier than the town council 
G. John Clavin, health ofHcer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided during the year. 

8. The undertakers have been coniniendably prompt with their returns 
of death. 

9. Clergymen generally maki' returns of marriages promptly. 

EixiAU A. Mathkwsox, I'oim Clerk. 



23 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

CENTRAL FALLS. 

1. IsTothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 

2. About 95 per cent, of the population of this city is supplied by the 
water service of this city. 

3. The length of sewers in this city is 8.03 miles, and about 35 per cent, 
of the population is connected therewith. 

5. The board of aldermen constitute the board of health of this city. 

6. Charles F. Sweet, M. D., health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided during the year, and 316 
persons availed themselves of the same. The city physician acts as vacci- 
nating physician, and all who wish it are vaccinated or revaccinated. 

8. LTndertakers are prompt in making returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

C. Fked. Crawtord, City Clerk. 

CRAKSTOK 

1. ISTothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 
(3. Daniel S. Latham, M. D., and John Bigbee, health officers. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided during the year. 

8. Undertakers are prompt in making returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Daniel D. Waterman, Toxon Clerk. 

CUMBERLAN^D. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 

2. There has been no extension of the public water service during the 
year. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. There have been no new ordinances adopted during the year. Those 
in force at present are well enforced. (Contagious disease ordinance, see 
report of 1893, p. 53.) 



1899.] seckktaky's KKi'oirr. 33 

5. Tliis town lias no Icfj^al board of licaltli otlici' lliau tlic town council, 

(i. William .1. Mcdunnaslc, health olliccr. 

7. (iratuitous vaccination has not been provided durinf,^ tiie year. 

8. Undertakers are prompt in making: returns of deaths. 
!». ('ler<,^ynien do not make returns of marriages promptly. 

.Toiix F. Clakk, Toirn Clerk. 

EAST PROVIDENCE. 

1. Notliin.n' for the promotion of the public health has been done during,' 
tlie year. 

2. About To per cent, of the population of this town is supplied by the 
water service of this town. 

3. The length of sewers in this town is one and one-quarter miles, and 
about two per cent, of the population is connected therewith. 

4. There have been no new ordinances adopted during the year. Those 
in force at present are well enforced. (Contagious disease and garbage 
ordinances, see report of 1893, p. 54.) 

5. This towii has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

6. Mason B. Wood, health otHcer. 

8. There have been some violations of the law requiring the prompt 
returns of deaths. All these, however, have been remedied. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

James G. Peck, Toicn Clerk. 

FOSTER. 
6. Henry Arnold, M. D., health officer. 

8. Undertakers are fairly prompt in making returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen are fairly prompt in making returns of marriages. 

Emory D. Lyon, Town Clerk. 

GLOCESTEH. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of the i)ul)iic health has been done during 
the year. 
4. No new ordinances have been adopted during the year. 
6. George A. Harris, M. I)., liealtli ollicer. 



24 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided during the year. 

8. Undertakers have made prompt returns of deatlis. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Charles W. Farnum, Toion Clerk. 

JOHI^STOK 

1. To the best of my knowledge, nothing for the promotion of the public 
health has been done during the year. 

4. 'No new sanitary ordinances have been adopted during the year 
The present ordinances are well -enforced. (Contagious disease and nui- 
sance ordinances, see report of 1896, p. 20.) 

5. Ralph H. Shaw, M. D., Charles A. Barnard, M. D., and Hiram Kim- 
ball constitute the board of health. 

6. Ralph H. Shaw, M. D., town physician. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided during the year. Out of 
an estimated population of 4,500, about 100 school children have been 
vaccinated. 

8. Undertakers have made prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Sterry K. Luther, Town Clerk. 

LINCOLN. 

2. During the year water-pipes have been laid oia Grove, Arnold, and 
Front streets. About 1,000 people are thus accommodated with Abbott 
Run water. 

3. The village of Manville is the only place in town where there are 
sewers connecting with private residences. The Prospect Hill sewer has 
been extended some 800 feet. This is a sewer for surface drainage only. 

4. (Contagious disease and nuisance ordinances, see report of 1896, p. 20.) 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

6. James W. Walker, M. D., health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination is provided for school children, of whom 
about 180 have been vaccinated during the year. 

8. Undertakers have made prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Charles F. Easton, Town Clerk. 



181)i). I SKciiKTA i;v's hi:i'()|;t. 25 

XOKTII IM!()\'II)I:N('K. 

1. Notliiiijj: tor tlic promotion ol" tlie public iii-altli luis been doiu; diiriiifj 
till' year. 

2. There has been no extension of the i)ul)lie water service of this town 
during the year. 

3. Tliis town lias no sewage system. 

6. Sanford E. Kinnecom, health oflicer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided during tin; year. 

8. Undertakers have made fairly prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Thomas II. Angkll, Toio)). Clerk. 

NORTH .SMITHFIELD. 

1. To the best of my knowledge, nothing for .the promotion of the public 
liealth has been done during the year. 

2. This town has no public water service. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

C. Remington P. Capwell, 'SI. D., health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vacchiation has not been provided during the year. 

8. Undertakers are rather slow in making returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Charles S. Seagkavk, Town Clerk. 

PAWTUCKET. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of the public health lias been done during 
the year. 

2. About 90 per cent, of the population of this city is supplied by the 
public water service. 

The following extracts are taken from the report of tin- Roard of Public 
Works : 

WATER SERVICE. 

Snmmari/ of rioiijiinfj at No.'i. 1, 2, and 3 Station.'^ /or (he Year Eudinn 

September 30, 1S90. 

Total expenses for the year $20,221 29 

Total number of U. S. gallons inuiiped into reservoir 2.227, 109,-.")17 

•1 



26 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



Total cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons into reservoir $9.07 

Total cost of raising 1,000,000 gallons one foot high .031 

Average daily consumption of w^ater in U. S. gallons 6,101,642 

Maximum daily consumption of water in U. S. gallons 10,009,011 

Minimum daily consumption of water in U. S. gallons 2,766,748 

Respectfully submitted, 

John H. Walker, Chief Engineer. 

Table Showing Amoimt of Bain and Melted Snoio, in inches, for the Year 
Ending September 30, 1899. 



Days of Month. 


K 

w 

M 
O 

o 

O 


K 
W 

w 
1> 
o 


K 

« 
o 


P3 

1-5 




W 
o 
K 
< 

'"6!25 


s 

<5 




P 

1-5 


1-5 


E-i 
00 

<1 


K 

H 
PM 
H 


a 

iz; 


IS 




1 








M.26 


*0.14 


*+ 












1 


2 








0.25 








0.45 
0.38 


2 


3 


















3 


4 










0.45 
+0.11 














4 


5 


0.87 


"o'so 


0.58 


'to'.ii- 

1.16 


1.29 














5 


6 














6 


7 


+1.07 


0.03 
0.34 

"6. "62 














7 


8 


0.11 






1.12 


0.81 


0.01 






0.05 


8 


9 








2.23 




9 


10 






















10 


11 


"o.'si 


1.62 












0.245 




'6!637 


1.47 

"6!6i5 


■■6!69 


11 


12 


0.50 






0.04 


i0.07 


12 


13 




+2.65 


0.04 




13 


14 


"6!85 


6.20 




0.30 




0.01 


* 
0.287 




14 


15 












15 


16 






1.05 


6.375 
0.39 


tl.28 






1.105 






16 


17 








to. 51 


0.20 








17 


18 


















18 


19 


0.96 


i.6G 






$1.99 














19 


20 


i0.31 










0.095 






6.05 
0.23 


20 


21 












0.09 


0.20 






21 


23 


2.00 










to. 71 
JO. 78 




0.35 


0.10 


22 


23 




0.80 












23 


24 




6.32 






0.40 












24 


25 




1:2.11 








1.510 


6. '925 

0.07 


0.123 


"6!2o 


25 


20 










+0.30 


6.40 




26 


27 


2.03 


t2.34 






0.42 






27 


2« 


















28 


29 












+0.57 


"i.'88 


0.29 








0.93 


29 


30 


0.13 


to. 61 








1.65 


0.085 




80 


31 














31 






























7.76 


7.04 


2.19 


5.05 


5.20 


7.60 


4.48 


2.03 


3.55 


4.80 


1.717 


8.98 





Total rain, 60.39. 
Total snow, 80 Indies. 
* Too small to measure. 
+ Snow. 
% ISnow and rain. 



1899. J seckktaky's kkpokt. 27 

KILTKK FIKLDS. 

Oiir lilter fields have continiu'd to dispose of tlie sewage of the Moslias- 
suck river section in a satisfactory manner, yielding an eUhient very niucli 
pnrer than the river water ever is. 

The amount of sewage treated this year has been larger than in any 
previous year. Tho work of the phmt is sliown in detail by tlie following 
tables. 

The following table shows the number of gallons of sewage received and 
treated at the plant during the year : 

Month. Gallons of sewage. A v. galls, per day. 

October, 1898 2,405,100 77,.'J84 

November, 1898 2,521,000 84,584 

December, 1898 2,645,500 85,-339 

January, 1899 3,370.640 108,730 

February, 1899 2,212,460 79,016 

March, 1899 2,344,600 75,632 

April, 1899 2,593,240 86,441 

May. 1899 1,801,280 58,106 

June, 1899 2,442,820 81,427 

July, 1899 2,859,260 92,234 

August, 1890 2,774,140 89,488 

September, 1899 2,796,860 93,228 

Total 30,766,900 

Average number of gallons per day lia.« been 84,293. 



28 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



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'-;0'-ht-^mi-^,-.oot-.0'-. 

CXlC0CMT-'CO(Ml>i(M(MCMG^Tj3 



•gjOB J9d snon^S ni 9Soa; 



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1899. 



SECUKTAKY S KKI'Oirr. 



29 



Tahle shou-inu Wnrkituj nf Beds from Dec. 1, ISO.'f, In Oct. 1, 1899. 



V 

o 

a 


Cubic yards of poor 
sand removed from 
Dec. 1, 1894, to Oct. 1, 
1899. 


>•? o 

•§ss 


Average depth in 
inches of poor sand 
removed from Deo. 
1. 1894, to Oct. 1, 
1899. 


Total number of gal- 
lons of sewage let on. 


1 
i 
Cubic yards of poor '• 
sand removed for 
each l.OOO.OOOgalloDS 
of sewage. 

1 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


67 
75 
65 
62 
94 
115 
78 
65 
59 
82 
60 
61 
61 


88.45 
83. G8 
82.24 
84.61 


4 

'iH 

3% 

m 

4 

2^ 

3% 

•i% 

2 

2 


4,328.702 
4,539,130 

3,.556,871 
3,223,1. 54 
16.699,2.'J5 
9.237.314 
9,267.000 
9,924,898 
11,006,266 
10,837,635 
10,961,625 
9,606,782 
9,627,012 


15.49 
16.52 
18.27 
19.23 
5.63 
12.45 
8.42 
6.. 55 
5.86 
7.57 
5.47 
6.35 
6.34 


6 
7 
8 


16.81 


9 




10 




11 




12 




18 










944 


355.79 




112,810.734 


Average, 8.17 



Began using beds 1-2-5-6-7 regularly on December 1, 1894. 

Began using beds 8-9-1011 regularly on January 1, 1895. 

Began using beds 3-4 regularly on August 1, 1895. 

Began using beds 12-13 regularly on November 1, 1895. 

Began using bed 6 as a sludge bed in August, 1898. 

Average number of cubic yards of poor sand removed per acre of filtering area, 402.9. 

Average depth in inches of poor sand removed per acre of filtering area. 3. 

Average number of cubic yards of sludge removed per 1,000.000 gallons sewage, 3.15. 

George A. Carpenter, Cit;/ Ennineer. 

Total length of water mains connected with the Pawtucket 

water works 144.38 miles. 

Capacity of pumphig engines 12,000,000 gallons per 24 hours. 
Water pressure in Main street square 110 lbs. per square inch. 

Total length of sewers 48.8:> miles. 

Total length of electric railways 2:].r)2 miles. 



3. About 20.10 per cent, of the population of this city is connected with 
the sewers. 

4. (Rules relating to the removal and disposal of nightsoil and the con- 
tents of cesspools, see report of 1898, p. 22.) (An ordinance relating to the 
registration of deaths, see report of Lsos. p. 23.) 



30 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

RULES OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

1. All complaints relating to threatened or existing nuisances, or to 
any state or condition of things which is or may become deleterious to 
health, shall be made to the health officer of the city. 

2. It shall be the duty of the health officer, whenever such complaint 
is made to him as aforesaid, to investigate said complaint, and examine 
the premises complained of within twenty-four hours from the time such 
complaint is made. 

3. If, upon such examination, in his judgment a nuisance exists, or a 
condition of things which is or may become deleterious to health, he shall 
at once notify the owner or occupant of the premises to cause the same to 
be abated within forty-eight hours from the time of notice, and in case said 
nuisance is not abated within said period, the health officer shall make his 
report in writing to the mayor, setting forth the facts, with such recom- 
mendation as he deems advisable ; and if the mayor deem the circum- 
stances of the case to require it, he shall at once call a meeting of the 
board of health to take such further action as may be necessary in the 
premises. 

4. The health officer shall make a report in writing to the board of 
health at least once in each month, and in such report he shall set forth 
the number of complaints made under these rules, and his action thereon. 

5. All previous rules of the board of health are hereby repealed, and 
these rules shall go into effect immediately. 



1. iSTo person shall spit upon any part of any railroad station, railway 
station, waiting-room, steam-car, electric-car, public building, hall, church, 
theatre, market, or upon any sidewalk within the limits of the city of 
Pawtucket. 

2. Any person violating the preceding rule shall be fined five dollars for 
each offence. 

5. This city has no legal board of health other than the city council. 

6. Byron U. Eichards, health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has been provided during the year, and about 
1.5 per cent, of the population has availed itself of the same. 

8. Undertakers are prompt in making returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Samuel H. Koberts, City Clerk. 



189t).] 



SKCKKTA I:Y S K KI'OK'I'. 



31 



PROVIDENCE. 

1. A hufje ainomit ol' work lias been coutemplatt'd and <'X('cut<'(l dmiiifx 
tlie year. 

2. Extract from report of city engineer : 

The population of the city is estimated at l(is,()()(), and tin; popnhition 
supplied in the suburbs is estimated at 10,900. 

The number of meters in use in the city is l."),i»i)o, and tiie number of 
meters in use in the suburbs is 1,134. 

The number of service pipes in use in the city is 19,.582, and tlic number 
of service pipes ui use in the suburbs is 1,438. 

The average daily use of water per service for the year 1809 has been ATw 
gallons. 

The average daily use of water per capita for the j^ear 1809 has been .53 
gallons. 

The water receipts for 1800 were §.522,124.46. 

The net cost of maintenance for 1809 was $00,802.84. 

The net cost of the water works construction from November 8, 1809, 
to .Tanuary ], 1900, is $6,43.5,568.24, upon which there has been a revenue 
for water sold of 88,878,214.35. 

The monthly and annual and the average daily and monthly consump- 
tion of water in gallons, including waste and leakage, during the year is 
shown by the following table : 



Months. 



January . . 
February. 
March — 



April. 
May. . 



Consump- 
tion per 
Month. 



June. 



July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December. . 



Total 8,490,151,148 290.846.029 



293, 
2G6, 
276, 
255, 
284, 
335, 
810, 
313, 
291, 
283, 
278, 
293, 



020,144 
836,105 
339,616 
689,521 
535,106 
426,161 
431,534 
636,225 
101,392 
551.690 
033,930 
489,815 



Average 
monthly 
consump- 
tion. 



Average 
daily con- 
sumption 
per month. 



9.452,263 
9,529,861 
8,914,181 
8,522,984 
9.178,552 
11,160,872 
10,207,469 
10,117,298 
9.705,376 
9.146,829 
9.267,798 
9,531,930 



Average 
daily con- 
sumption 

for the 
year. 



9,582,068 



32 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

The amount of water consumed, shown in the above table, mcludes the 
supplying of about thirty-four miles of distribution pipes, located in ad- 
joining towns, as well as supplying the greater part of the State institu- 
tions at Cranston. A considerable quantity of water has been used during 
the year for irrigating at the Dexter Asylum, and also upon the improved 
sewerage system. Also, in the colder months, a large quantity of water 
has been run from the distribution pipes, through small blow-offs at dif- 
ferent points where the pipes are not sufficiently protected in crossing 
bridges and elsewhere, for increasing the circulation in order to prevent 
the water from freezing in the pipes. 

The maximum consumption of water for any one day during the year 
1899 was 1.3,356,000 gallons. 

The records relating to meteorological observations have been kept by 
this department. 

Following will be found a table giving a summary of water works sta- 
tistics prepared in accordance with suggestions adopted by the iSTew 
England Water Works Association : 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. — REPORT OF 1899. 

In accordance with suggestions adopted by the ;N"ew England Waterworks 
Association. Providence Water Works, Providence county , E. I. 

Population of Providence 168,000 

Estimated population supplied in suburbs 10,900 

Date of construction 1870 to 1876- 

By whom owned City of Providence. 

Source of supply Pawtuxet river, in the town of Cranston. 

Mode of supply: 

The water is pumped from the Pawtuxet river into a storage reservoir 
located upon a hill about one mile distant. Erom this reservoir it flows 
into the city by gravitation, directly supplying a second storage reservoir 
within the city limits, and also that portion of the city which is of suffi- 
ciently low elevation to be served by gravitation. To supply that part of 
the city of too high an elevation to be served by these reservoirs, a third 
reservoir is located in the town of North Providence. The water is pumped 
by supplementary pumping machinery from the second reservoir above 
mentioned or from the mains, into the high service reservoir. This 
supplementary pumping machinery can also supply the high service dis- 
trict, if the reservoir should be out of service, by pumping directly into 
the mains. 



18!)!J.J 



.SHCKHTAUY S Ki:i'()KT. 



33 



111 addition to tlie rcfjular distiilmtioii idpcs tlicrc is an indciH-iidfiit liif^li 
l)ri'ssiir(' lire systi'in (diTiviiifj: its supply fi-mii the lii^'li service), I'or i)rotect- 
iu.H' an area ol' alxml oiie-liaH' of one s»iuare mile in the centre of tlie Ijiisi- 
ness portion of the city. 

ITMl'IXG. 

1 IJuihlers of i»niiii)iii,L>' machinery: 

<i. \\'orthin,ntoii Duplex engine, built by Henry U. Worthington. 
I). Cornisli engine, built by Panlding, Kemble & Co. 

c. Corliss A'ertical engine, built by (Jeorge II. Corliss. 

(/. Worthington Triple Expansion engine, built by Henry K. Worth- 

ington. 

e. Nagle High Service engine, built by the Providence Steam Engine Co. 

/. Holly High Service engine, built by the Holly Manufacturing Co. 

Wortliington Nagle Holly 

Triple High High 

Expansion. Service. Service. 

2 Description of coal nsed : 

a. Hituminous. Anthracite. Anthracite, 

c Egg. Egg. 

d. George's Creek Beading hard. Reading hard. 

Cumberland. 

e. Price, per gross ton delivered, 

8:].98 ^5.04 .$5.17. 

(J. Wood, price per cord, 

s4..jO $.").00 $.").00 

3. Coal consumed for the year, in pounds, 

5,39.5,900 43,014 788,971 

Pounds of wood 

4. consu med. _coal ill pounds. 

3 
300 40 1,019 

5. Total fuel consumed for the year, {3)-f-(4) in pounds, 

5,390,200 43,0.54 789,988 

0. Total pumpage for the year in gallons, 

3,()92,751,000 22,749,951 .504,2.59, 180 

7. Average static head against wliich pumps work, 

170.30 110.08 111.90 

S. Average dynamic liead against which i)umps work, 

17(i.4(i 117.23 120.47 

9. Number of gallons pumped per pound of coal (3), 

084 529 * 639 



34 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

10. Duty in foot pounds per 100 pounds of coal, using following formula, 
making no deductions for starting or banking fires, heating buildings, or 
anything else. 

Duty Oallons pumped. (6) x 8.34 (lbs.) x 100 x d ynamic head (8i 

Total fuel consumed (5). 

100,710,400 51,662,100 67,326,600 

Cost of Pumping, Figured on Pumping Expenses, Including Cost 
OF Fuel, Salaries, Oil, Waste, and other Supplies, Cleaning Ex- 
GiNES AND Houses, and Repairing Machinery and Boilers, was 
$15,750.84 FOR THE Low Service, and $5,599.92 for the High Service. 

11. Per million gallons raised against dynamic head (8) into 

low service reservoir, the cost was $4.27 

Into high service reservoir (pumped twice, $4,27+$10.63) 14.90 

12. Per million gallons raised one foot high (dynamic), low 

service the cost was 0.0242 

High service (pumped twice, $0.0242 -t- $0.0843), the cost 

was+ 0.1085 

Xet cost of works to date $6,435,568.24 

consumption. 

1. Estimated total population of district at date 178,900 

4. Total number gallons consumed for year 3,490,151,148 

7. Average daily consumption 9,562,058 

8. Gallons per day to each inhabitant 53 

10. Gallons per day to each tap (distribution 22) 455 

distribution. 

MAINS.* 

1. Kind of pipes used Cast iron. 

2. Size From 6 to 3 inches. 

3. Extended 19,645.57 feet. 

4. Discontinued ■ 768.93 feet. 

5. Total now in use t 318,4279 miles. 

8. Small distribution pipes, less than four inches, total 

length None 

* Not including high pressure fire service. 

+ Includes 10,084 feet of 36-inch pipe, 561 feet of 30-inch pipe, and 695 feet of 24-inch pipe, 
which are force mains, and 19.66 feet bf 30-inch pipe, and 19,478.46 feet of 24-inch pipe, which 
are used both as a force and delivery main. 



1S99.] secretary's report. 35 

1). Ilydiiuits added * 39 

10. Number now in usi- * 1,854 

1 1 . Stop pates added 46 

IL'. Xiiinl)er now in use 3,331 

14. Number of blow-off gates ■ 32 

1."). l{aiif,fe of pressure on mains at centre of city for day 

and niglit 04 to 73 lbs. 

IIIOII I'KK.SSURE FIRE SERVICE. 

Kind of pipes used Cast iron. 

Size 12, l(i, and 24 incli. 

Total now in use t 5.5008 miles. 

II ydrants added 1 

Xumber now in use 92 

Stop gates now in use • 31 

Number of blow-off gates 4 

Pressure on mains at center of business portion of city for 
day and night 114 lbs. 

SERVICES. 

10. Kinds of pipe used Lead from i to li inches, and cast iron. 

17. Size From i to 10 inches. 

21. Services added 006 

22. Xumber now in use 21,020 

25. Meters added 730 

20. Number now' in use 17,124 

27. Elevator supplies added 8 

2S. Number now in use, 134 of 4 and 0-iuch, and 20 smaller 

supplies connected to house elevators. 

HEMAKKS. 

The Cornish engine was not run during the year. 

The Worthington Duplex engine was not run during the year. 

The Corliss Vertical engine was not run during tiie year. 

The Worthington Triple Expansion engine was run on 317 days. 

The Nagle engine was run on 17 days. 

The Holly engine was run on 301 days. 

♦ Not including high pressure fire service. 

% No connections of any description except for city fire hydrants. 



36 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

The work in this department was in charge of Edmund B. Weston, 
assistant engineer, until May 1st, when he resigned. Irving S. Wood, 
assistant engineer, has been in charge since tliat time. ■ . 

SEWAGE SYSTEM. 

The construction of the precipitation tanks, section two, has been 
brought nearly to a close, there remaining only the finishing touches and 
cleaning up to do in the spring. The 88-inch conduit has been extended 
from its former end, near the pumping station, to the tanks. The sludge 
press house is now ready for the roof, and the sludge storage reservoirs 
are nearly completed. Most of the machinery necessary for operating the 
plant has been contracted for, and some of it delivered. 

Plans for the other buildings necessary to the plant are in process of 
completion, and it seems probable that the time is not far distant when 
the process of precipitation may be begun. 

Near the pumping station a screen house has been built and connected 
with the rider sewer of section five, for the purpose of screening the 
coarsest of the material from the sewage of the Elmwood district before it 
reaches the tanks. 

The pumping machinery has run in a very satisfactory manner throiigh- 
out the year, and the record shows a gain in total quantity pumped, 
caused by the connections made with section twenty-one and twenty-two, 
as before mentioned. 

The total gallons pumped for the year is estimated at 5,101,046,934, at 
an expense for labor, fuel, work in screen chamber, and all other charges, 
of $12,283.37, or $2,41 per million gallons pumped, or $.0888 per million 
foot gallons pumped. The average amount pumped daily is shown by the 
following table : 

Daily average for the year 15,483,842 gallons. 

Daily average for wet weather, or days in which the rain fall was enough 

to visibly affect the quantity pumped 17,709,905 gallons. 

Daily average for dry weather 13,824,355 gallons. 

Sunday average for dry weather 8,504,696 gallons. 

Number of wet days 86 

Number of dry days 279 

This department has been charge of John E. Bowen, assistant engineer. 

PUBLIC PARKS. 

There are .532,017 acres of land devoted to the purpose of public parks. . 
The largest park, known as Roger Williams park, contains 422,423 acres. 



1899.] secretary's kki'out, 37 

of whifli 117.44 acres is covered with water, roriniii},' a series of lakt-s. In 
tliese lakes are to he fonml live islands, tiie hirj,'est containiu^ al)o\it 
tliirty-five acres. 

Otis V. Ci.Ai'i', ('il;i Eiif/hieer. 

:>. Tiie hoard of aldermen is tlii' hoard of iiealtli. Dr. Ciiarles \'. 
Cliapin is the superintendent of health. 

7. Cratuitous vaccinations were afforded to a large number of school 
children, and a certain number of adults were vaccinated. A detailed 
report of this work will be found under the report of the health oHieer. 

SCITUATE. 

1. Xotliing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 
•2. This town has no public water service. 
;). This town has no sewage system. 

."). This town has no legal board of health other tlian the town council, 
(j. Alberto E. Wood, health oOicer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided in this town during 
the year. 

8. Undertakers make prompt returns of deaths. 

0. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Damkl U. Rkmixgtox, Toim Clerk. 

SMITH IT ELD. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of tlie public health has been done duriirg 
the year. 

4. (Nuisance and contagious disease ordinances, see report of 18!t4, 
pp. 48-.-50.) 
."). This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 
0. Jencks Smith, health otlicer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided during the year. 

8. Undertakers make prompt returns of deaths. 

Osc Ai; .\. T(»ni:v. Tturn Clerk: 



38 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

WOONSOCKET. 

3. The aggregate length of sewers in this city is H miles. About one- 
thirtieth of the population is connected therewith. 

The following extracts are from the report of the superintendent of 
water works department: 

REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. 

I have prepared the usual statistical tables which give in detail the 
work of the department during the year. 

The pumping station and contents are in good condition. The amount 
of water pumped the past year has increased about 10 per cent, over last 
year. If this increase continues it 'will be necessary to enlarge our 
pumping plant in the near future. 

The supply of water has been ample, but the quality has not been 
satisfactory during the summer months. With the receipts of the 
department more than sufficient to pay the maintenance, the surplus 
would pay the interest and cost of maintenance of a filtration plant; 
and in view of these facts I would recommend that during the coming 
year investigations be made as to the best method of Altering the water 
supply. 

In compliance with your instructions I engaged Stone & Webster, 
electrical engineers, to make an electrical survey of the water mains. 
Their report to me is annexed to this report. You will observe that the 
amount of electricity flowing over the water mains is large, and voltage 
is above the average found in the various cities where they have made 
examinations. Their recommendation " that, wherever the main pipers, 
and particularly the service pipes along railway streets within half mile 
of the power house, are, on account of excavations, for any purpose 
esrposed to view, you will note the condition of pipe and soil," I have 
carried out, and during the construction of the Main street sewer I 
examined all exposed pipes and have found many places where electro- 
lytic action was taking place. I found several places where cast of 
quarter of an inch, several service pipes showing corrosion, lead joints of 
the hydrant branches show electrolytic action. The cause of this trouble 
is the electric current escaping from the rails of the St. R. R. Co., and if 
allowed to continue, will in time prove serious and expensive. There is a 
remedy— the Woonsocket Street Railway Co. should be compelled to so 
construct their tracks that the leakage of electricity should be reduced 
below the danger point. 



1801). J SKCKETAIiV's liKI'ORT. 39 

Duriiip tlic year the reservoir Xo. :j lias been drawn to a point .'{.s:} feet 
below tilt' overllow, and at the present time it is '2.') feet below. 

Uyhon I. Cook, Siqyerintendent. 

i!i:roi:r ro r.vnoN i. (ook, supkkintkndknt watku works, on klkc 

TROl.VrU INVKSTKJATIOX OF WATKIt I'lIMNO SVSTK.M WOONSOCKKT, 
K. I. 

Stonk & Wkhstkk, Boston, Mass. 
Bi/ron I. Cook, E.s(j., Superintendent Water Work.s, Woonsocket, li. I.: 

Dkar Sir :— At your request we have made an electrical survey of the 
water piping system of Woonsocket, to determine in a general way the 
probability of serious deterioration of the pipes from electrolytic action 
now going on, owing to current escaping from the street car rails. 

We have found from the measurements taken, indications that the cur- 
rent Hows, in quantities varyhig from small to large accordmg to the mun- 
ber of cars moving, first from rails to pipes and then back on the rails 
again in finding its way by the easiest path to the power house. The places 
where it leaves the pipes are the only ones where electrolytic action will 
take place : hence only in the region of the power liouse,is trouble likely 
to occur, except under conditions which we do not need to consider in this 
case. 

As we were not asked to make a complete investigation, we did not have 
any holes dug for the purpose of examining the condition of pipes and soil 
in the power station district, the place where trouble would naturally be 
expected and where the voltmeter readings showed indications that it 
might well occur. We understand, moreover, that there lias been no case 
in the city where a water pipe has been known to be eaten througli and 
therefore become unfit for use, owing to electrolysis. 

Within the conditions to which we were limited, however, we have found 
out enough to lead to the conclusion that there is likelihood of the water 
pipes, particularly the lead service pipes, now undergoing serious corrosion 
in places along the electric railway streets near the power house. If 
trouble is apparent it will probably be found, not along a large section of 
pipe, but limited to short lengths of a few feet or even a few inches, de- 
pending largely upon the condition of the soil. A dry soil is almost a non- 
conductor of electricity. 

As a result of our hivestigation we recommend that wherever the main 
pipes, and particularly the service pipes, along railway streets within a 
half mile of the power house are, on account of excavations for any i)ur- 
pose, exposed to view, you note the conditions of pipes and soil, and that 
you always preserve for future comparison ayy ineces of i)ii)e which you. 
take out of the ground which seem to have sulVered from corrosion «if any 
kind. We further recommend that you continue to take voltmeter read- 
ings as you have before, as they are likely to be of value for compari- 
son. 

The list of readings in the appendix to this report will probably be use- 
I'ul to refer to in keeping watch of tlie conditions of your piping system 



40 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899, 

from now on. So long as no manifest case of electrolytic action has ap- 
peared, you will hardly have sufficient ground for complaint against the 
street railway company for threatened damage ; but if trouble from elec- 
trolytic action once begins we believe from the conditions noted that it 
will break out frequently, and that the data with which you will be pro- 
vided will serve for good evidence of the cause of trouble. We believe 
that any action which the railway company might now take to better con- 
ditions is simply what it ought to do, and not what it is bound to do. 

Yours very truly, 

Stone & Webster. 

appendix a. — record of voltmeter readings. 

Electrolytic Investigation of Water Piping System in Woonsocket, R. I. 
(Appendix to report to Byron I. Cook, Superintendent.) 

Hydrant to rail maximum readings 5-15-99, 10 A. M. 

Main street opposite No. 28 : -f 6 fluctuating and dropping off. 

Main street opposite Ko. 165 : + 2 to -f 4. 

Main sjbreet opposite No. 238 : -h 4 to — 2 car passing makes it — . 

Monument square and Blackstone + 1. No carnear. 

N. Main st. opp. 275 :X4to — 6( — 6 = with car coming ( up hill : + 

when car stopped.) 
Blackstone and W. School : + 2 to — 1 mostly +, no car near. - 
Harris av. last in Woon. -i- 1 to — 4 largest — when car is climbing hill. 
South Main and Glenark : — 2 to — 5 car climbing hill ; — 1 with no car near. 
South Main at Old Bank Village + 1.5 to — 13 last in Woonsocket. 
South Main opp. Woonsocket Hill Rd. : to — 12 car passing up hill. 
Providence st. last in Woon. : -i- 2 to — 6 — with car passing ; -i- with no 

car near. 
Park avenue, last in- Woon. + 1.5 to — 1 no car near. 
Cass avenue at Mendon Rd. : — 5 to — 50 ace. to car. 
With car stopped nearby : — 20 + quite steady showing disturbance from 

other car perhaps a mile off. 
Social St. and Diamond Hill Rd. : -h 2.2 to — 6 ; — with no car climbing 

up hill. 
Reading taken for several minutes : -t- 2.2 to 1 most of time with no car near. 
Cumberland st. at Kendrick ave : —20 to — 2 ace. to car ; quite steady at 

— 20 with car climbing hill. 
Little or no reading to ground at pumping station. 
In front of Manville Co's office : — 20 to — 50 with car moving ; with 

car still. 



—28 


6 


10 


20 


32 


8 


34 


24 


24 


1(5 


20 


2 


16 


1 





20 


1 


2() 


28 


1 


16 


28 


12 


10 





26 



20 


30 


9 


26 


18 


30 





30 


6 


38 


16 


38 


18 


44 


20 


40 


10 





14 





1 


18 


20 





28 


16 



1899,] secretary's report. 41 

Reading to river close by about same, only in opposite direction. 

Court and Main streets : -t- 2 to -f- 7, (10 min. reading, hydrant to ground 

+ .2). 
Cass av. at Mendon lid. Readings taken every 10 seconds lor aljout 10 
minutes with car going towards Manville : 
28 
32 
32 
34 
34 
34 
24 
24 
26 
32 
30 
32 
36 

Keadhigs taken every 10 seconds for about four miuutes, with car going 
towards Woonsocket : 
—30 36 20 

28 44 30 • 

26 50 18 10 36 

30 20 16 8 

30 18 20 

Cumberland street at Kendrick avenue — 10 to 20. 
Rail to river + 10 to + 20, about. Hydrant to river almost 0. 
Main st. near P. S., opp. Xo. 32, + 3 to + 12. 

10 second Readings for about 6 minutes : 
-1-8 9 2 6 8 

8 4 2 4 

6 8 4 5 6 

6 5 6 6 6 

8 8 8 6 6 

7 6 8 6 7 

9 4 7 5 8 

Court and Front streets, 3:30 p. m. Points at which needle stopped 
without reference to time. Readings taken every few seconds : 
+ 1 (i 2 5 6 

4 5 5 5 * 

6 



43 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

6.5 i 4 6 5 

4 i 6 6 4 

6-1 6 6 3 

2 4 6 6 4 
4 5 5 4 4 

3 4 6 4 5 



KEADINGS TAKEN ALONG SECTIONS OF TRACK. 

5-24-99, 12 M. About 1,000 feet in either direction from corner of Cass 
avenue and Mendon Eoad ; about 2 volts drop along track with cars in 
the neighborhood. (=.2 per 100 feet, maximum.) 

2:20 P. M. Social street, from Diamond Hill Eoad to Elm street, along 
track, distance about 2,000 feet : + i to -i- 1 — i, towards city. Car 
climbing hill. (=.075 per 100 feet, maximum.) 

3:15 P. M. Harris avenue, about 2,000 feet of track a little north of 
Winter street : + 1 to -h 3 (mostly 1) toward Woonsocket ; cars passing. 
(=.15 per 100 feet, maximum.) 

6-20-99, 11 A. M. South Main street, about 2,400 feet of track. Ballon 
street to junction of Old Bank and Woonsocket Hill Eoads ; maximum of 
6>ol^s towards Woonsocket. Car probably in section. (=.25 per 100 feet, 
maximum.) 

About 2,400 feet of track beyond the last to Charlie Paine's Hill ; 4 to 6. 
Car passing up hill into section. (=.25 per 100 feet, maximum.) 

12 M. Park avenue from last hydrant along about 2,400 feet of track 
north, 2 to 8 towards city. Eeading taken for about five minutes. Car 
going out from city. (=.33 per 100 feet, maximum.) 

2:30 P. M. Joe Cook's Hill, about 2,400 feet of track ; -M to — i. + = 
towards Woonsocket. Probably did not get full strength of current, 
as line was taken off before car climbed steep hill. (.04 per 100 feet, 
maximum.) 

3:30 P. M. Manville Hill, 2,400 feet of track : -f- 4 to — i. + = towards 
Woonsocket. Eeading was — when car was coming up hill from Woon- 
socket. (=^.17 per 100 feet, maximum.) 

4:30 P. M. Mendon Eoad, 2,400 feet north from Walker's Switch ; — 3 
to + 1. — = towards Woonpocket. Car coming, probably. (=.13 per 
100 feet, maximum. 



1899. 



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44 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1899. 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS ; WOONSOCKET WATER WORKS DEPARTMENT, 
CITY OF WOONSOCKET, COUNTY OF PROVTDENCE, STATE OF RHODE 

ISLAND. 

Population, 1899 25,000, 

Date of construction '. 1884. 

Source of supply Crook Falls Brook. 

Mode of supply Pump to tanks. 

1. Builders of Tanks. 
ISTo. 1. Cunningham Iron Works, 30 feet high, 50 feet diameter 442,780 

gallons. 
]Sro. 2. Porter Manufacturing Co., 35 feet high, 50 feet diameter, 515,310 

gallons. 
ISTo. 3. E. Hodge & Co., 30 feet high, 76 feet diameter, 1,020,705 gallons. 
Total capacity 1,978,795 gallons. 

2. Builders of pumping machinery \ %ll^^ ii^^^^'iZftl ■ 

fa. Bituminous coal, American Co.'s. 
b. George's Creek, Maryland Co.'s. 

3. Description of coal used<i c. $4.01 (2,200). 

d. 6.5^ Ash. 
[e. Wood $3.00 per cord. 

4. Coal consumed for the year 1,101,150 lbs. 

5. Pounds of wood consumed for the year (754 -H- 3) 251 lbs. 

6. Total fuel consumed for the year, (4 + 5) 1,101,401 lbs. 

7. Total pumpage for the year in gallons 292,314,210. 

8. Average static head against which pump works 237,909 feet. 

9. Average dynamic head against which pump works 239,063 feet. 

10 Dutv Gtallo ns pumpe d (6) x 834 x 10 x dynamic head (8) (. fi9 qi ' 407 

•' Total fuel consumed (5) no allowance ' ' ' ' 

11. Pounds of coal per million gallons pumped, 3,767 lbs., 

cost of pumping figured on pumping station expenses, 

viz $3,728 45 

12. Per million gallons raised against (dynamic) head into 

tanks $12 75 

13. Per million gallons raised 1 foot high (dynamic) .053 cost 

of pumping figured on total maintenance, viz $30,473 83 

14. Per million gallons raised against (dynamic) head into 

tanks $104 25 

15. Per million gallons raised 1 foot high (dynamic) $.43 

16. Amount received for 1,000 gallons based on pumpage 

and total revenue, viz : $64,896.87 $.222 



1899.] secki:tauy's in: pout. 4^ 

CONSUMPTION. 

1. Estimated total population (includin}? ^[aiiville exten- 

sion) 2H,500 

2. Estimated population on lines of pipe 2(5,500 

3. Estimated population supplied 20,000 

4. Total gallons consumed for tiie year 292,241,970 

5. Average daily consumption 800,922 

0. fJallons per day to each inhabitant (1) 28 

7. Gallons per day to each consumer (3) 22 

8. Gallons per day to each tap (distribution services 7) 380 

FINANCIAL. 

In accordance rcith sicggestions of the New England Water Works 

Association. 

DIVISION I.— MAINTENANCE. 

Beceipts. 
From consumers. 

A. Water rates, domestic $30,461 47 

iJ. Water rates, manufacturers 7,842 35 

c. Xet revenue for water $44,303 82 

D. Miscellaneous, 

(rents, repairs and sales) 99 96 

E. Total $44,403 78 

Due from public funds, 

F. Ilj'drants $15,812 50 

G. Fountains 1,640 44 

H. Street watering 1,914 73 

1. City departments 294 80 

J. Public buildings 824 62 

K. General appropriation 12,000 oo 

L. Gross revenue $76,896 87 

Expenditures. 

A. A. [Management and repairs (book account^ $12,-372 30 

B.n. Interest on net cost Xov. 30, 1898 18,101 53 

c.c. Total maintenance for the year $30,473 8:^ 

D.I), balance 40,423 04 

Total $76,89(i S7 



46 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1899. 



DIVISION II. — MAINTENANCE. — Continued. 

From i M. Domestic, $2,092.37, not including water for city. 

fixed < 

rates : ( N. Manuf actvirina' . . 



O. $2,092 37 

From ^ p. Domestic 34,369 10 

meter ] 

rates: ( Q. Manufacturing.. 7,842 35 



R. Total $44,303 82 

PUMPING STATION. 

Boilers. 

1. Type, horizontal tubular; number of boilers, three; size of two, 

4 feet 6 inches x 14 feet ; size of one, 6 feet 4 inches x 16 feet 2 inches. 

2. Grate area 50.5 square feet. 

3. Steam pressure carried 55.6 lbs. 

Pumjos. 

4. Type — One Worthington, compound, duplex, direct acting, with 

independent condenser. 

Capacity — One million gallons in 24 hours. 

5. Type — One Worthington, high pressure, duplex, direct acting, with 

independent condenser. 

Capacity — One million gallons in 24 hours. 

6. Type— One Deane, compound duplex, direct acting, with independent 

condenser. 

Capacity — Two and one-half million gallons in 24 hours. 
Capacity per revolution, as used in calculating duty (Deane), 
70,000 gallons. 

8. Static head on pump (Deane) 237,909 feet. 

9. Dynamic head on pump (Deane) 239,063'feet. 

10. Number of days pumping 318 days. 

11. Total pumping time in hours 2,866.50 hours. 

12. Average pumping time per days 9.01 hours. 

13. Average number gallons pumped per days run 919,227 gals. 

14. Average number gallons pumped per hour run...... 101,976 gals. 

15. Total pumping station expenses, not including fuel. . . $1,823 45 



1899.] 



SECUETAKY S UK TOUT. 



47 



MONTH LV CONSUMl'TION. 





Avfj. Consumption. 


AvR. Consumption, 


Total AvR. Dally 


Total f '"iisunip 


Month. 


I'. M. to A. M. 


6 A. .M. to 6 P. M. 


Consumption. 


tion for Month 


Dec... 


2().-),0:}8 


485,820 


091,704 


21,444,098 


Jan 


195,539 


475,725 


071,264 


20,809,185 


Feb.... 


220,100 


508,703 


734,803 


20,574,493 


Marcli . 


201,605 


477,333 


078,998 


21,048,977 


April . . 


201,002 


512,021 


713,023 


21,390,692 


:\ray ... 


255,767 


580,005 


842,702 


26,024,919 


J line . . . 


271,172 


731,103 


1,002,335 


30,070,068 


July . . . 


234,853 


634,750 


869,603 


26,957,723 


Aug. . . . 


• 231,278 


001,080 


892,964 


27,690,808 


Sept. .. . 


226,853 


024,779 


851,632 


25,548,937 


Oct. ... 


232,297 


591,409 


823,706 


2.5,534,988 


Xov. . . . 


240,540 


588,073 


838,213 


25,140,401 


.Total 


2,732,004 


08,790,003 


9,011,007 


202,241,970 


Av'gs 


227,607 


573,255 


800,922 


24,353,498 



TOTAL VKARLY COXSL'MPTIOX FROM 1885 TO 1899. 

1S85 53,884,669 gallons. 

1880 88,024,040 

1S87 98,507,585 

1888 . . months 74,158,335 

1889 101,152,979 

ISOO 120,32.5,803 

1801 131,770,308 

1S02 153,527,852 

1893 204,208,187 

1894 205,080,010 

1 895 225,203,830 

1890 250,429,005 

1897 271,230.500 

1898 209,505,878 

1899 292,241,070 



KAINFALL AT PUMPING STATION. 

December -j .37 

January 5.10 

February ;j . 72 



48 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

March 6.51 inches. 

April '. . 2.23 

May 1 .27 

June 3.57 " 

July 5.06 

August 1 .96 

September 6.27 " 

October 1 .73 

ISTovember 2.97 " 

Total " 42.92 

6. William C. Monroe, M. D., Leonard S. Allen, and Henry A. Barsalou, 
health officers. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided in this city during the 
year. 

8. Undertakers make prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

AVjlliam C. Mason, City Clerk. 



WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

CHARLESTOWK 

1. Kothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 

2. This town has no public water service. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. There were no new sanitary ordinances adopted during the year. 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

6. H. Yemon Weaver, M. D., health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided in this town during 
the year. 

8. Undertakers make returns of deaths promptly. 

9. Clergymen are fairly prompt in making returns of marriages. 

George C. Cross, Toimi Cleric. 



18'J1).| SECKlvTAIiY's KEl'OllT. 49 

EXETER. 

1. Not liini;' lor tlic p ion nil ion of tlic piililic licaK li lias liccii done duriiij,' 
tlif year. 

2. This town lias no i)ublic water service. 
.3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. There have been no new sanitary ordinances adopted during tlie year. 

5, Tliis town has no legal board of health other tlian the town coinicii. 

7. (iratuitous vaccination has not been provided in this town during tlie 
year. 

8. Undertakers make fairly prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

John R. Edwakds, Tonm Clerk. 

HOPKINTON. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 

2. This town has no public water service. • 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. There have been no new sanitary ordinances adopted during tiie 
year. (Contagious disease ordinances, see report of 1894, p. 59.) 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 
G. George X. Langworthy, health officer. 

7. Gratuitous vaccination has not been provided in this town during 
the year. 

8. Undertakers make prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Edwin K. Allkx, Toirn Clerk. 

NARRAGANSETT. 

3. Tliis district lias about 20,000 feet of pulilic and about :).000 feet of 
l>rivate sewers, besides house connections. About 25 per cent, of the 
winter resident population, and about 00 per cent, of the summer popu- 
lation, have sewer connections. 

6. Daniel A. Caswell, health officer. 

7 



50 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

T. Gratuitous vaccination lias not been provided in tliis district during 
the year. 

8. Undertakers are not prompt in making returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

W. Herbert Caswell, District Clerk. 

KOETH KINGSTOWN. 

1. ISTothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 

2. This town has no public water service. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. (Nuisance and contagious disease ordinances, see report of 1896, p. 60.) 

5. This town has no legal board of health other than the town council. 

6. Harold Metcalf, M. D., health officer. 

8. Undertakers make prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

, Thomas J. Peirce, Toivn Clerk. 

RICHMOND. 

1. Nothing for the promotion of the public health has been done during 
the year. 

2. This town has no public water service. 

3. This town has no sewage system. 

4. There have been no new sanitary ordinances adopted during the year. 
(Contagious disease and nuisance ordinances, see report of 1894, p. 61.) 

6. Charles A. "Fuller, health officer. 

8. Undertakers make prompt returns of deaths. 

9. Clergymen make returns of marriages promptly. 

Halsey p. Clarke, Town Clerk. 

SOUTH KINGSTOWN. 

No reply from the town clerk. 

4. (Contagious disease ordinances, see report of 1896, p. 64.) 



1899.] secretary's hi: pout. 61 

WESTERLY. 

Tlie followiiif'' extracts arc taken from tlic report oi" tlie Ixtard of water 
commissioners : 

The board, deeming? it advisal)le to have analyses made each year of tlie 
watt'r supply from the wells, suljuiittcd, in Ai)ril, isno, a sample of the 
water supply to I'rof. Charles F. Chandler, of Columbia I"'niversity, X. Y., 
for analysis. The report on the quality of the water, with the analysis 
submitted to us by Professor Chandler, also the opinion of Mv. C. E. ilob- 
erts, manager of the New England department of the Hartford Steam 
IJoilcr Insurance and Inspection Company, in regard to the ([uality of the 
water lor steam boiler use, are particularly gratifying. 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. 

Beport of 1S98-9. 

In accordance with suggestions adopted by the Xew England Water 
Works Association : 

By whom owned Town of Westerly. 

Works built by company in 1886-87. 

Purchased by town of Westerly in 1898. 

Source of supply Driven w'ells. 

Mode of supply Pump to tank. 

1. Builder of pumping machinery, Henry R. Worthington. 

2. Description of coal used, George's Creek, Cumberland. 

3. Coal consumed for the year, 808,800 pounds. 

4. Total pumpage for the year, in gallons, 176,508,800. 
'). Average static head against which pumps work, ll).5. 

(>. Average dynamic head against which pumps work, 200. 
7. Xumber of gallons pumped per pound of coal, 211). 

^ i)nfv (■'fl^fo"* pumped (7) .v SSU x 100 x dynamic head (S) „ , .^.^ ^.^^ 
^' Total j'utl (S) 7to altoivance. ' ' 

9. Pounds of coal per million gallons pumped, 4,.560. 

Cost of pumping, ligured on pumping station expenses. $3,479 SO 

10. Per million gallons raised against (dynamic) head into 

tank 19.71 

11. Per million gallons, raised one foot high (dynamic) 0.098 

12. Cost of pumping, ligured on total maintenance 16,882 

13. Per million gallons raised against (dynamic) head into 

tank 9o.64 

14. Per million gallons raised one foot high (dynamic) 0.47S 



52 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

Consumptio7i. 

1. Estimated total population, Westerly 8,000 

" Pawcatuck 3,000 



11,000 

2. Estimated population on lines of pipe 8,000 

3. Estimated population supplied to date 7,000 

4. Total gallons consumed for the year 176,508,800 

5. Average daily consumption in gallons 486,160 

6. Gallons per day to each inhabitant (2) 60 

7. Gallons per day to each consumer (3) 69 

8. Gallons per day to each tap (services 4) 523 

Distribution. 

1. Kind of pipe Cast iron. 

2. Size of pipe 4 to 12 inches. 

3. Extended = 196 feet. 

4. Lowered 620 feet. 

5. Changed to larger size None. 

6. Discontinued Kone.' 

7. Total now in use. Westerly and Pawcatuck 20f f f ^ miles. 

8. IS'umber of leaks per mile .93 

9. Hydrants added 1 

10. Total now in use. Westerly 22 

" " " Pawcatuck 18 

" " " private 31 

11. Total connected with works 71 

12. Stop gates added •. None. 

13. Total now in use 122 

14. Number of blow-off gates added None. 

15. Total now in use 4 

16. Kange of pressure on mains, centre of town, 82 to 92 pounds. 

Services. 

1. Kind of pipe Lead and iron. 

2. Size of pipe i to 4 inches. 

3. Services discontinued 8 

4. Total now in use 930 

5. Service taps added 47 

6. Average cost of service per foot $0.29 



1899] secretary's report. 63 

7. Average cost per service s7.82 

8. Meters added 4(i 

i). Total now in use 676 

10. I )onH'stic 641 

1 1 . ManufactunMs 35 

12. Elevators and motors addi'd 1 

I'J. Total now in use 10 

FINANCIAL. 

MAINTENANCE. 

From ('on!<umers. 

A Water rates, fixed 82,490 OS 

B Water rates, metered, and miscellaneous i;],!.")"; ta 

C Hydrant rentals 708 60 

D Xet revenue for water from consumers 16,45;', 00 

E Miscellaneous, services, etc 074 10 

F Total 17,427 25 

From Public Funds. 

( ; Hydrants— a Pawcatuck Fire District $680 00 

b Westerly Fire District 822 57 

II ^Fountains, (4) not metered 120 00 

I *8treet watering, and highways 50 00 

J *Public buildings 10 00 

K Gross revenue 10,109 82 

ExpouJitures. 

AA Alanagement and repairs $7,104 80 

151 > Interest on net cost 9,687 50 

CC Addition to sinking fund 2,:554 oo 

DD Total maintenance for the year 19,2o() :]o 

Construction. 

A From sale of pipe, asbestos, etc *70 40 

P. From maintenance account 388 19 

C From water receipts 4:17 ('4 

D Total receipts 905 2;; 

* No cash inconie (iciivcil, Init luiiouiits cliar?,'!-!! iiiul creditt'd in luiimul report. 



54 STATE BOARD OP HEALTH. " [1899. 

Ex2oenditures. 

E Pumping station, construction $2,855 07 

F Pipe lines, services, etc 3,464 36 

G Preparing and issuing bonds, etc 730 90 

H Total expenditures 7,050 33 

I ISTet expenditures 6,145 10 

Total cost of works, May 1, 1898 $268,920 85 

Total net cost of works, May 1, 1899 275,065 95 

Value of sinking fund 29,117 95 

I wish to call your attention to the filters at the old pumping station. 
I have kept water running through and around these filters- during the 
year, as much as possible, but nothing short of constant washing, or daily 
use, will prevent their rapid deterioration. I therefore recommend that 
they be taken down and disposed of, if possible, for, should occasion ever 
require their use, the expense of maintaining them in proper condition 
would probably be greater than that required to replace. 

Thomas McKenzie, Superintendent. 

APPENDIX A. 
[copy.] 

Boston, April 17th, 1899. 
T. McKenzie, Esq., Westerly Water Works, Westerly, K. I. 

Dear Sir : — Your favor of the 14th inst., in reference to the quality of 
water which you are using in your boilers, is at hand. 

In reply would say that this compares very favorably with our &e.s? 
New England waters, as it forms practically no scale and does not seem 
to have any injurious effects. 

Yours respectfully, 

C. E. Roberts, 
Manager Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection 
and Insurance Go. 

[copy.] 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, HAVEMEYER HALL, 

116th Stkeet and Amsterdam Avenue. 

PROF. C. F. CHANDLER, 
Telephone : 289 Hablem. 

ISTew York, April 18th, 1899. 
Thomas McKenzie, Esq., Westerly, E. I. 

My Dear Sir :— Enclosed please find my report of analysis of the 
sample of water received from you. You will see on examiniug it that 



1899.] 



SKCRKTAKY S KKI'OUT. 



65 



tlu' wator is extreuichj pure, about as piiic as a city water supply can be. 
There is no evidence whatever of any kind of contamination, either 
from a sanitary point of view or from a manufacturing jioint of view. 

\'ery sincerely yours, 

C. F. ('iiANi)ij;i:. 

No. 3491. 
CKHTIFICATK OK AX.\ LYSIS. 

Xkw Yohk, April 18th, 1899. 
Water Commissioneks, Westerly, K. I. 

Gentlemen : — The sample of Water from T. McKenzie, marked 
Westerly, R. I., submitted to us for examination, gives on analysis the 
following results : 

Appearance Clear. 

Color None. 

Odor (heated to luo" Fahr.). .None. 
Taste None. 



Sanitary Analysis. 

Results Expressed 

in Grains per 

U. S. Gallon of 

231 Cubic Inches. 

Chlorine in Chlorides 0.. 530.5 

Equivalent to Sodium Cloride 0.8742 

Phosphates (as P, O,,) None 

Nitrogen in Nitrites None 

Nitrogen in Nitrates .0720 

Free Ammonia .0000 

Albuminoid Ammonia 0.0015 

Total Nitrogen 0.07.54 

Hardness equiv. to { before boiling 0.0000 

Carb. Lime, < after boiling 0.6090 

Organic and Volatile (loss on ignition) — 0.3498 
Mineral Matter (non-volatile), COj restored 

with Ammonium Carbonate 3.0809 

Total Solids (by evaporation), dried at 

110° C 3.4397 



Results Expressed 

in Parts by 

Weight in One 

Hundred Thousand. 

0.9100 
1.4995 

None 

None 
0.1251 
0.0010 
0.0020 
0.1294 
1 . 2000 
1.2000 
O.GOOO 

5.3000 

5.9000 



Analysis for ^[((nvf<(cluri)i(i Purposes. 
Remarks : Residue on Evaporation Pure White. 

Sodium Chloride 0.8473 

Potassium Chloride 0.0349 

Calcium Sulpliate 0.2000 



1.4.534 
0.0.590 
0.3442 



56 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

Calcium Carbonate 0.6189 1 .0615 

Magnesium Carbonate . 2244 . 3849 

Oxide of Iron and Alumina 0.0384 0.0660 

Silica 0.7870 1.3500 

Kespectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. F. Chandler, Ph. D. 

For earlier report upon the character of the water tests made, see 
report of 1898, p. 43. 



REPORTS OF 



llExVLTll OmCEHS. 



1899. 



CIRCULAR TO HEALTH OFFICERS. 



CIRCULAK No. 131. 

Office of tiik Skcretaky of tiik State Board of Health, 

Providence, January l, ISOI). 
To the Health Officer : 

Dear Sir :— An important feature of the annual reports of the Rhode 
Ishviul State Board of Health is that of giving a connected history of the 
occurrence of contagious and epidemic diseases from year to year, as they 
may iiave prevailed in the different towns, whether epidemically or in a 
less degree, together witli the location in the town (village or otherwise) 
and season of the year. 

If the proportion of the fatal cases to the whole number of cases of the 
same disease could be given, the value of such reports would be very much 
enhanced. Such proportion can be ascertained only in such towns as hij 
toivn ordinance require physicians to report all cases of such diseases as 
come witliin their charge. 

An approximate proportion can, however, be given, after the subsidence 
of the disease, by inquiry of persons living in the immediate neighborhood 
of tlie prevalence of such disease, as to tlie number of the sick, or by house' 
to house visitation wliere the sickness occurred, with the same inquiry, 
and by the comparison of the deaths with recoveries as so ascertained. 

It is for the purpose of obtaining such information, in full or approxi- 
mate, and also what may have been done to prevent and restrict diseases, 
that tlie questions in the inclosed circular are sent to the various health 
otlicers of tlie State. 

To Health Officers who are not physicians, it may be said tiiat the term 
epidemic, within the meaning of the questions proposed, is the prevalence 
of some disease to the extent of one or more persons aftected with the dis- 
ease to every five or six persons living in adjacent tenements or in the near 
neighborhood, or a smaiU-r proportion, not less than one case of the disease 



60 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



in every ten or twelve of the population, extending over a large area of 
territory. One sick in every twelve to sixteen persons might be called a 
large prevalence, and one sick in every twenty to twenty-five, a moderate 
prevalence. The number of cases of any one disease may have to be 
estimated, but make them as nearly correct as possible. 

If, therefore, you will have the kindness to reply to the questions in the 
said circular, according to the best knowledge you have been able to obtain, 
and forward in the inclosed stamped envelope, you will favor one of the 
most important interests in the State, and greatly oblige, 

Yours truly, 

GARDNER T. S WARTS, 



Secretary State Board of Health. 



CmCULAE No. 132. 

Dear Sir: — Replies to the following questions, as suggested in the 
accompanying circular (No. 131), are respectfully solicited ; said replies to 
be made on this circular, following each question : 

1. Name of town. 

2. Name of health officer. 

3. Have there been, within your knowledge, any epidemics, or any large 
prevalence of contagious or infectious diseases in your town during the 
past year ? If so, of what disease or diseases ? in what locality or local- 
ities ? how many of each disease ?* number of deaths ? and in what months 
of the year ? 



Diseases. Locality. 



No. of cases. 



No. of deaths. 



Months in which they occurred. 



4. Was isolation maintained or attempted ?* 

5. What proportion of the sick, if any, were isolated ? 



*According to the best knowledge obtainable. 



1890. 1 rkcretary's kki'Oki-. Gl 

(i. AVas any inspection of premises made, where sickness prevailed, as 
to tlie sanitary condition of the cellars, pantries, sinks, sink-drains, water- 
closets, if any, cess-pools, out-hduse privies, distance of wells from accu- 
mulations of filth, etc., etc.? If so, please give a general statement as to 
w iiether they were sanitarily in conditions good or bad, or, if any thing or 
l)hu'f was unusually unsanitary, give a full description. Or, if the cause 
of any (luthivak of disease was found, please state what, 

7. Did you make any sanitary inspections during the past year, by 
order of tlie town council or from your own option? If so, what were tliey 
antl how made? 

8. Do you know of any location in your town that seems to be particu 
larly unhealthy to any considerable number of persons? If so, and the 
cause is suspected, can such cause be removed at any reasonable expense ? 

9. Do yon report to your town council nuisances dangerous to the public 
health, or unsanitary premises within your knowledge ; or of buildhigs 
unsafe for occupants in case of fire? (See Chapter 49.5, Section (J, Public 
Laws.) 

10. Has tliere, to your knowledge, been any contamination of any of 
the water, milk, or ice supplies hi your town? 

11. I'lease give names and addresses of dealers in ice in your town. 



REPORTS OF HEALTH OFFICERS. 



BEISTOL COUNTY. 

1. Barrington. 

2. Charles H. Bowden, health officer. 

3. The contagious diseases reported during the year were five cases of 
scarlet fever, during February and March. ISfone of these were fatal. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

5. All of the sick were isolated. 

6. Inspection of premises where sickness prevailed was made, and 
found to be in good saidtary condition. It is thought that the disease was 
brought from out of town. 

7. ISTo sanitary inspections were made during the year. 

8. ]^o unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. All public nuisances and unsanitary premises are reported to the 
town council, but not buildings unsafe in case of fire. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. E. Tiffany, of Barrington Centre, and William A. Leonard, of 
Drownville, are the ice dealers of this town. 

1 . Bristol. 

2. George H. Peck, health officer. 

3. Typhoid fever was quite prevalent during the summer months, there 
being forty cases of this disease. The other contagious diseases reported 
were as follows: chicken-pox, twelve ; scarlet fever, nine ; measles, two ; 
and diphtheria, one. None of these cases were fatal. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

5. All the scarlet fever and diphtheria cases were isolated. 



1899.] secretary's report. 63 

6. Inspection of premises where sickness prevailed was made in each 
case, but sanitary conditions were fovuul to be good, and no cause for the 
disease could be found. 

7. On complaint, several cess-pools and water-closets were inspected. 

8. No unliealthy localities in this town are known. 

0. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 

town council. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. John P. Reynolds and Terence P. Morris are the ice dealers of this 
town. 

1. Wakrkx. 

2. Abraham Bowen, liealth otiicer. 

3. Scarlet fever was prevalent during the months of September and 
October, there being sixteen cases of this disease. There were also a 
number of cases of mumps, the exact number of cases not being known, 
during the mouths of November and December. No deaths occurred from 
either disease. 

4. In the scarlet fever cases, isolation was maintained. 

5. All of the sick were isolated. 

a. Inspections of premises where sickness prevailed were made, but no 
unusual unsanitary conditions could be found that would account for the 
presence of the disease. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to tiie 
town council. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

KENT COUNTY. 

1. Coventry. 

2. John Winsor, M. D., health oMicer. 

3. There were no epidemics in this town during tiie year. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

o. All of the sick wore isolated. 



64: STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

6. Inspections of premises where sickness prevailed were made, and 
were usually found in good condition. 

7. Sanitary inspections were made when cases were reported. 

8. ]Sro unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. Manchester Bros., of Anthony, are the ice dealers of this town. 

1. East Greenwich.— InTo report from the health officer. 

West Greenavich has no health officer. 

1. Warwick. — No report from the health officer. 

NEWPOET COUNTY. 

1. Jamestown.— IsTo report from the health officer. 

1. Little Compton. 

2. Adam S. MacKnight, health officer. 

3. The contagious diseases reported were as follows : measles, one case 
in May ; and scarlet fever, live cases, four of which were in IsTovember 
and one in February. None of these cases were fatal. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

5. , All of the sick were isolated. 

6. Inspection of premises where sickness prevailed was made in every 
case, and sanitary conditions found to be good. The cases were all im- 
ported from neighboring towns. 

7. One sanitary inspection was made at my own option. This was a 
case of an unburied, decomposing horse. I reported the same to the town 
council, who ordered it buried. 

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., whenever any such 
are brought to my notice, are reported to thp town council. 



18'.)!). I sk(Ji:i:taky',s i;i:i'()i;t. 65 

1(1. 'I'licii' has hi'iMi, to my knowledge, no coiitaiiiiiialion ol' tlic water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. .lami's ]j. (iray and A. I'cckliani »fc Sons art' tlic ice dealers of tiiis 
town. 

1. MiDDLKTOWN. 

2. (Jeorge E. Ward, health oflicer. 

8. There w'ere no epidemics in this town during the year. 

6. There were no inspections of premises made. 

7. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., when any .siu h are 
brought to my notice, are reported to the town council. 

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. The Ne\vport Ice Company is the ice dealer of this town. 

1. Xkwi'okt. 

2. George C. Shaw, executive officer, board of health. 

.3. The contagious diseases reported during the year were as follows : 
typhoid fever, thirty-nine, with four deaths ; scarlet fever, twenty-one, 
with no deatlis ; and diplitlieria, nine, with one deatli. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

0. All of the sick were isolated. 

G. Sanitary inspections of premises were made in all cases, but no 
cause for the disease could be found. 

7. Sanitary inspections of all privy vaults in the city were made, and 
tliose found to be two-thirds or more full were ordered cleaned. 

8. No unhealthy localities in this city are known. 

0. All i)ul)lic nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
city council. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this city. 

11. The Arctic, Citizens, and Newport Hygienic Ice and Water Com- 
Companies are the ice dealers of this city. 

1. New Siiorkham. 

2. Hamilton A. Mott, health ullicer. 



66 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

3. There were no epidemics in this town dnring the year. 

7. Sanitary inspections were made dviring the year. 

8. N'o unliealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. C. A. & M. L. IS"egus and H. S. Millikin are the ice dealers of this 
town. 

1. Portsmouth. 

2. Minot A. Steele, M. D., health officer. 

3. There were no epidemics in this town during the year. 

6. Several inspections of premises were made, upon complaint. 

I. No sanitary inspections were made during the year. 

8. N^o unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., when any such 
occur, are reported to the town council. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

II. William H. Tallman is the ice dealer of this town. 

1. Tiverton. 

2. Edward P. Stimson, M. D., health officer. 

3. There were seventeen cases of scarlet fever reported to me during 
the year. None of them, however, were fatal. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

5. All of the cases were quarantined. 

6. Inspections of premises where sickness prevailed were made, and 
sanitary conditions generally found good. 

7. No sanitary inspections were made by order of the town council. 

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council. 



1890 ) secretary's report. 67 

10. Tliere has been, to my kTiowledpe, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies, of this town. 

11. Hnnvncll, of Tiverton, and r(;ckiiani, of 'fivciton Four Corners, aer 
the ice dealers of this town. 



PROVIDENCE COUNTY. 

1. BURHILLVILLK. 

2. ,Iohn Clavin, healtli otlicer. 

3. There have been no epidemics or prevalence of disease in this town 
during the year. 

4. There were no cases were isolation was necessary. 

(5. Xo inspections of premises where sickness prevailed were made, as 
there seemed to be no necessity for same. 

7. I have caused to be abated a number of ordinary sink-drains, cess- 
pools, and othernuisances during the year. 

8. Xo unliealthy localities in this town are known. 

0. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., when any such come 
to my knowledge, are reported to the town council. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. The Pascoag Ice Co., and ,J. Ross, of Pascoag, Wood Bros., of Har- 
risville, and John Fields, of Nasonville, are the ice dealers of this town. 

1. Central Falls. 

2. Charles F. Sweet, M. D., health otlicer. 

.3. There were no epidemics in this city during the year. Whooping- 
cough was quite common. 

4. Isolation was maintained in all cases of scarlet fever and diphtheria. 
In cases of whooping-cough, chicken-pox, and mumps, the children were 
kept from school. 

0. Inspections of premises where sickness prevailed were made, and 
sanitary conditions found to be generally good. 

7. Sanitary inspections are made upon notilication by anyone, in all 
cases of nuisance or unhcaltliy locality or thing. 

8. X() unhealthy localitirs in (iiis I'itv arc known. 



68 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

9. All nuisances not abated are reported to the board of aldermen. The 
building inspector attends to buildings unsafe in case of fire. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. The Central Falls, Pawtucket, East Providence, Seekonk, Moshas- 
suck. South Attleboro, Crystal, and Union Ice Companies are the ice 
dealers of this city. 

1. Craistston. 

2. Daniel S. Latham, M. D., health officer. 

3. There were no epidemics in this town during the year. 

4. Isolation was always attempted, and, in most cases, maintained. 

5. Seventy-five per cent, of the sick were isolated. 

6. Inspections of premises were made only in suspicious cases. The 
sanitary conditions in most cases were good. 

I. No sanitary inspections were made during the year. 

8. Malaria seems to have been quite prevalent in the vicinity of stag- 
nant water at the corner of Park avenue and Wellington street. Auburn. 
The cause can be removed only at expense of filling hole. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council in cases where measures were not taken by owners to abate 
same after due notice. 

10. There is a contamination of the ice supply of Dyer's pond and Po- 
casset river by pollution from mills at Thornton. 

II. The Crystal Ice Company is the ice dealer of this town. 

1. Cumberland. 

2. William J. McGunagle, health officer. 

3. There were no epidemics in this town during the year. 

4. Isolation was not mamtained. 

6. jSTo inspections of premises were made. 

7. A number of -unsanitary sink-drains, cess-pools, etc., were abated 
during the year. 

8. jSTo unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council. 



1899.] SECKKTAIiY'S IU:i'<»I{T. fiO 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no conttimination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. The Pawtucket Ice Company and I5eath & Co. are the ice dealers of 
this town. 

1. East Providkxck. Xo report from the health ortlcer. 

1. Foster. Xo report from the health officer. 

1. Glocester. 

2. George A. Harris, M. T)., health officer. 

•S. Pertussis was quite prevalent during the latter part of the year, 
there being about thirty cases, none of which, however, were fatal. 
4, Isolation was not maintained. 
G. Xo inspections of premises were made. 

7. Xo sanitary inspections were made during the year. 

8. Xo unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. I have had no occasion during the year to report to the towni council 
any nuisances, etc. 

11. Leward Hopkins and Fred Wilson, of Chepachet, are the ice dealers 
of this town. 

1. Joiixstox. 

2. Ralph H. R. Shaw, M. D., health officer. 

3. There were no epidemics in this town during the year. Only a few 
scattering cases in separated localities. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

5. All cases were isolated. 

6. In all cases of sickness sanitary inspections were made, and condi- 
tions found to be fairly good. 

7. Sanitary inspections were frequently made upon complaint. 

8. The stream leading through Thoniton village to Cranston Print 
Works is in a most filthy condition, owing to wool washings and dye stuff 
from mills. The new filtering plant will prevent such contamination in 
the future, and stream can be cleaned out at small cost. 

0. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council. 



10 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. Merritt & Sons and the Hughesdale Ice Company are the ice dealers 
of this town. 

1. Lincoln. 

2. James W. Walker, M. D., health officer. 

.3. There were no epidemics in this town during the year. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

5. All of the sick were isolated. 

6. All premises are inspected when a case of contagious or infectious 
disease exists; also when a nuisance is reported; and am proud to say that 
little if any changes could be made owing to the public having taken such 
an interest in the matter. 

7. I have personally made inspections of all sanitary conditions where 
there is doubt of its being poor ; and if found to be such, it is at once 
abated. 

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known, 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or, ice supplies of this town. 

11. The Manville, Spauldings's, Lonsdale, Moshassuck, and Saylesville 
Ice Companies are the ice dealers of this town. 

1. ISToRTH Providence. 

2. Sanford E. Kinnecom, health officer. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council. 

11. W. A. Sweet and John Leuthes, of Centredale, and Charles O. An- 
gell, Harris Glicksman, and Herman Rasner, of Geneva, are the ice dealers 
of this town. 

1. North Smithfield. 

2. Remington P. Capwell, M. D., health officer. 

3. Scarlet fever was quite prevalent in the town during the latter part 



IS!)!). J SKCIiKTAKV's llKPOltT. 71 

of the j-ear, tlicic lu'iui,' ninctocn cases of tliis disease, hoik; of wliich were 
fatal. 

4. Isolation was inaintained. 

5. All of the sick were isolated. 

('). All premises were inspected and found in fairly }?ood eondition. He- 
pairs were made where necessary. The disease was probably imported 
from outside the town. 

7. Sanitary inspections of school-houses and some private cess-pools 
were made during the year. 

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

0. .Ml public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council. 

11). There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. .Ulan Schnoir, of Slatersville, and C. 11. Day, of :Millville, :\ra.ss., 
are the ice dealers of this town. 

1. r.VWTUCKET. 

2. Byron U. Richards, M. D., health officer. 

3. There were no epidemics hi this city during the year. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
city council. 

10. The only ice contamination known to me is the pollution of the 
Moshassuck river by manufacturing plants. 

11. The City, Crystal, Pawtucket, Seekonk, and Union Ice Companies 
are the ice dealers of this city. 

1. Providence. 

removal of privy vaults. 

As has been the case during'the past few years, particular attention has 
been given to the removal of privy vaults. I have always believed that 
the worst nuisance and the most dangerous nuisance in the city is the 
l)rivy vaults. During the past year 480 vaults have been abolished, and 
only (mQ remain on sewered streets. Many of these belonged to that class 
of persons wiio never make improvements unless obliged to. These cases 
entail a great amount of work, and the chief inspector's time has been 
largely occupied with them. Thirty-five warrants were issued for persons 



72 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

who persistently refused to obey the orders of your board, but most of the 
cases were discontmued on the payment of costs as soon as the work was 
completed. Special thanks are due the chief of police for his assistance in 
securing obedience to the orders of your board. 

SWILL. 

During the year swill was collected as heretofore by Messrs. A. H. & J. 
Barney. Their contract to collect and dispose of the swill at the rate of 
15i cents per capita per annum expired May 1st, and since that time they 
have continued to do the work under a temporary arrangement. The 
amount paid has been $2,144.17 per month. 

INSPECTION OF PROVISIONS. 

The inspector of provisions has faithfully performed his work during 
the year and has done much to improve the quality of the goods sold, par- 
ticularly the meat and poultry. Special attention has been given to the 
enforcement of the statute in regard to "bob veal," so called. A good 
deal has been seized and the business has been restricted, but considerable 
is still sold, as the profits of the business offer inducement for dealers to 
engage in it. The inspector devotes his attention to perishable goods only, 
meats, poultry, fish, vegetables, fruit, and the like. The detection of the 
adulteration of groceries is not a part of his work. There is no law of any 
value in this State concerning the adulteration of food. Such a law, with 
inspectors appointed by the State, would undoubtedly save consumers 
many times more than the execution of the law would cost. 

BABY FARMS. 

In 1898 there were eight baby farms licensed under Chapter 464 of the 
Public Laws. These eight parties were licensed to care for twelve children 
collectively. In 1899 there were 14 licenses for 35 children, but probably 
not more than one-third of that number of children were received for 
board at any one time. There are no baby farms in the ordinary accepta- 
tion of the term in the city, that is there are no places where large num- 
bers of children are kept together under poor surroundings and with 
neglect of all sanitary precautions. This is owing partly to the new law 
and partly to the provi,sion made by the St. Vincent de Paul Asylum and 
the Lying-in Hospital for those persons who would otherwise be patrons 
of baby farms. 



IS'JIJ.J 



SECRBTAKY S lti;i'(JlCT. 



73 



DISINFECTION. 

Disiiifcc'tiuu after eoiiinnuiicahle disease in the city is not coniitulsory, 
and is only done at tlie re(iuest of tlie family. It is done by this depart- 
ment witiiont charge. Tlie following are the nnmber of disinfecticjns 
since 18SS : 



Year. 


Scarlet Fever. 


Diphtheria. 


Phthisis. 


Miscellaneous. 


Total. 


1888 1894 










1,210 


1895 


555 
338 
264 
223 
301 


188 

558' 

478 

129 

145 


1 

16 
10 
20 
22 


11 
27 
27 
14 
32 


755 


1896 


939 


1897 


779 


1898 


386 


189'j 


500 






Total 


1,681 


1,498 


69 


111 


4,569 



Formaldehyde disiufection has been done in nearly every instance. 
During the first nine months Novy's apparatus was used, but during the 
last part of the year the sheet method, as used in Chicago, was adopted. 
Considerable steam disinfection is also done. Corrosive sublimate and 
formalin are left at nearly every infected house, with directions as to their 
use. 

VACCINATION. 

During tlie year 1890 the number of persons vaccinated was 2,863. The 
only public vaccination has been at the fourth ward room, on Fountain 
street, Saturday afternoons, irumanized virus is largely employed. The 
number of transfers of humanized virus in 1899 was 33, making the total 
number of transfers since 1808, when an accurate record was begun, 038. 
The number of certificates of vaccination issued was 2,050. The following 
table gives the number of persons vaccinated and the number of certifi- 
cates issued from 1850 to 1890, and during each year since that time. 



10 



74 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



Year. 



1856-1880 

1881-1890 ■.... 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

Total, 1856-1899 




CONTAGIOUS DISEASE HOSPITAL. 

The contagious or "city ward" of the Rhode Island Hospital, a 
description of which may be found in my report for 1896, page 3Y, was 
built by the city on the grounds of the Rhode Island Hospital, and was 
opened January 13, 1896, The ward is maintained by the Rhode Island 
Hospital, and the city pays $15 per week for every patient sent to the 
hospital by this department. During the year there were removed to the 
hospital under my direction ninety-three cases, and the total expense to 
the city for caring for them was $4,390.06. 

The Rhode Island Hospital lirst began to receive patients with scarlet 
fever and diphtheria in 1891, and the following shows the number of cases 
admitted since that time, and also the number of deaths that occurred in 
the hospital : 



1899.] 



secretary's report. 



75 



Year. 



1891 

1895 

1893 

1984 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

Totals 



Scarlet Fever. 
Cases. Deaths. 



221 



Diphtheria. 



Cases. Deaths. 



4 

4 

5 

4 

27 

108 

57 

70 

47 



321 



Total 
Cases. 



10 
17 
25 
31 
64 
1.S8 
79 
91 
93* 



Expense. 



$486 48 
1,558 36 
1.267 77 
2,297 07 
3,614 78 
4,679 64 
4,924 35 
8.404 74 
4,890 06 



548* $26,618 20 



'Measles, 6. 



INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 



3reasles caused 27 deaths in 1899. Physicians are now required to report 
this disease ; but comparatively few cases are reported, due chiefly to the 
fact that in measles the doctor is rarely called. The number reported in 
1899 was 451, in 1S9S it was 48, in 1897 it was 84, in 189G it was 278. 

Whooping cough caused 59 deaths in 1899. 

Physicians are required to report certain communicable diseases, but 
sometimes neglect it. The following is the number of cases not reported 
since 1890 : 



Year. 


Scarlet Fever. 


Typhoid Fever. 


Diphtheria. 


1891 


6 

6 

11 

24 

18 

6 

5 

11 

2 


7 
6 
9 
12 
13 
13 
12 
33 



9 


1892 


1 


1893 


2 


1894 

1895.. 


1 
8 


1896 


10 


1897 


6 


1898 


6 


1899 


2 







76 STATE BOAED OP HEALTH. [1899. 

In addition to the above, during 1899, ten cases of scarlet fever, 5 of 
diplitheria, and 4 of small-pox were discovered by the medical inspector 
where there was no physician in attendance. The law requiring the re- 
port of measles is very often neglected, and only a small proportion of the 
unreported cases ever come to the notice of the health department. 

The following pages contain an account of the cases of communicable 
disease that came under the notice of this department during the last 
sixteen years : 

TYPHOID FEVER. 

During the year there were 150 cases of typhoid fever reported. There 
were 42 deaths from this disease, the ratio of deaths to cases being 28.00. 

In 9 instances there was more than 1 case in a house. In one house 5 
cases, in three 3 cases, and in the others 2 cases. As is usvial, a consider- 
able number of the cases were contracted outside of the city. 

DIPHTHERIA. 

In 24 families, including 35 cases which were reckoned as diphtheria, at 
no time were any diphtheria bacilli found, and the diagnosis rested on 
clinical signs alone. In 11 of these families deaths occurred, and from 
only two of the persons who died was any culture taken by the physician. 
In one of these cases one culture was taken, and from the other two cult- 
ures on the day of death, but they were both negative. In 29 instances 
the attending physician did not take a culture, being satisfied from clinical 
signs that the case was diphtheria. In many of these the patient was 
very ill when the physician was called, and he did not deem it necessary to 
further disturb it by taking a culture. It appears then that in only about 
one quarter of the cases in this city during the past year did the physician 
venture to rely on clinical signs alone in making his diagnosis. 

In 7 persons the first culture showed no bacilli present, but in five of 
these it was found on the second culture, and in two on the third culture. 
In 13 persons who were sick no diphtheria bacilli were found, though they 
were found in other members of the family. In 5 of these only 1 culture 
was taken, in 5 of them 2 cultures, and in 3 of them 3 cultures, none of 
which showed the presence of bacilli, although there were very good rea- 
son to believe that they were all cases of diphtheria. 

During the year 3,574 cultures were examined for diphtheria bacilli, 
which indicates a far greater effort than has probably been made in any 
other city to search out and isolate those infected with this organism. 

During the year there were 198 cases of diphtheria, with 33 deaths, or a 
ratio of deaths to cases of 16.66. 



1899.J 



SECRETARY S REF'ORT. 



77 



The following table shows the number and percentage of persons of 
different ages exposed to diphtlieria who contracted it, and the number 
who did not. This table includes both the Klebs-Loeftler diphtheria and 
clinical diphtheria. When I began to collect these facts in issfi, the in- 
spector was not careful to obtain the age in every case, so that until 1890 
only a portion of the cases are contained in the table, and it was only since 
180:3 that the facts in regard to all the adults in the family were obtained. 

The number exposed means all the members of the family where the 
disease occurred : 

DIPHTHERIA. 



Cases. 



Ages. 



Under 1 year . . 

1 •■ . 

2 years.. 

3 " .. 

4 '• 

5 ■■ .. 

c ■• 



Adults 



Totals. 



189 



176 

296 

299 

338 

318 

274 

230 

220 

151 

144 

122 

125 

SO 

58 

43 

39 

51 

28 

27 

28 

477 



Number Exposed. 
INCLUDING Cases. 



3611 



59 130 

43 114 

I 
74, 156 

164 

168 



71 
75 
68 
69 
58 
52 
49 
39 
53 
28 
33 
17 
30 
12 
14 

8 

9 
752 1286 



41 
1386 



1689 38748113 



67 31 
36| 44 
39 38 



37 35 

48 86 



36 



24 
33 
84| 22 
28 18 



1664 



1181' 760 



409 
355 
444 
449 
501 
490 
442 
425 
421 
329 
321 
258 
301 
228 
205 
193 
177 
147 
139 
107 
95 
5315 



11,781 



OS 



21.2 
49.5 
66.6 
66.5 
67.4 
64.8 
61.9 
54.1 
52.2 
45.8 
44.8 
47.2 
41.5 
85.0 
28.2 
22.2 
22.0 
34.6 
20.1 
25.2 
29.4 
8.9 

80.6 



78 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1899. 

The cases which occurred in public institutions are not included in the 
above table. 

On February 27th a case of diphtheria was reported at the Lying-in 
Hospital. The child was fifteen days old and was at once removed to the 
Ehode Island Hospital, where it died the next day. A culture taken Feb- 
ruary 27th showed diphtheria bacilli present. On February 28th a culture 
was taken from the throats of all the mothers and children and nurses in 
the hospital, with the result that all were negative except two, in which 
there was no growth on the tube. On March 4th another child six months 
old became sick, and a culture from the throat showed the presence of 
diphtheria bacilli. Two days later he was removed to the Rhode Island 
Hospital. On March 6th and 7th cultures were taken from both the throat 
and nose of every person connected with the institution, including the 
visiting physician. Diphtheria bacilli were found in three persons, 
one of whom was removed to the Rhode Island Hospital. By this time it 
was determined to utilize a small house in the rear as a detention ward for 
all persons in the institution who were found to have diphtheria bacilli in 
their throats or nose. In all eight examinations were made of all persons 
in the institution to weed out those who showed the bacilli. The last of 
these cultures was taken March 19th, after which the main hospital was 
disinfected thoroughly with formaldehyde, corrosive sublimate and steam. 
The infected persons in the detention ward were not discharged until three 
successive negative cultures had been obtained. This house was then dis- 
infected. There has since then been no diphtheria in the institution, but 
no cultures have been taken to show whether diphtheria bacilli still 
persist. On March 6th antitoxin was administered to every one in the 
institution. After that date there was no one who appeared to be sick 
with diphtheria, but on April 11th one child died with what appeared to be 
diphtheritic paralysis, though he had not at any time been appreciably ill. 

At the Rhode Island Institute for the Deaf, during 1898, there had been 
several cases of not very severe sore throats, which, on examination, 
showed the presence of diphtheria bacilli. These cases were always isolated 
and generally removed to the Rhode Island Hospital. After the last case in 
1898 on December 15th every person connected with the institution had a 
negative culture from the throat. During the winter and spring of 1899 
there were fifteen cases of sore throat in the school which were examined 
with negative results. On November 13th a case was found with diphtheria 
bacilli present, and on November 17th every throat was again examined, 
with the result of discovering two infected with diphtheria bacilli. On 
the 19th cultures were taken from both the throat and nose of each per- 



1899.1 secretary's KKl'OKT. 79 

sou, resulting in the discovery of over a dozeu cases iufected witli diph- 
theria bacilli. Similar exaniiuations were made on Xoveml)er 21st. 2.">th, 
and 27th. The iufected persons were isolated and kept so until two or 
three successive negative cultures were obtained from both throat and 
nose. Pretty thorough disinfection was secured by the use of formalde- 
hyde and corrosive sublimate, and some of the wards were disinfected 
several times. At the time of the Christmas vacation the institution was 
apparently free from dii)htheria bacilli, and tlie children were sent to their 
homes. Afterwards they returned to tlie school, and on January 7, 1000, 
another case was discovered, and, at the present writing, February 8, lUOO, 
the school is not free from infection. 

On December 2!)tli a child died at St. Vincent's Asylum of diphtheritic 
croup, but subsequent history of the infection at this Institution must be 
left for another report, as the card still remains up at the present writing. 

The following table is similar to that found on page 77, but contains 
only cases from families in which Klebs-Loeffler bacilli were found. It 
does not include institution cases. 



80 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1899. 

CASES FROM FAMILIES WHEKE KLEBS-LOEFFLER BACILLI WERE FOUND. 



Ages. 



Under 1 year. 

1 " . 

2 years 

3 " 

4 " 

5 " 

6 " 

7 '^ 

8 " 

9 " 

10 " 

11 " 

12 " 

13 " 

14 " 

15 " 

16 " 

17 " 

18 " 

19 " 

20 " 
Adults 

Totals 



Cases. 



CO 
UO 


C30 


00 


00 


11 


10 


6 


5 


37 


27 


17 


3 


48 


36 


26 


18 


49 


37 


19 


17 


61 


50 


33 


15 


48 


62 


30 


10 


47 


54 


25 


12 


47 


41 


10 


12 


50 


36 


18 


6 


39 


29 


8 


4 


30 


22 


12 


8 


31 


16 


11 


4 


13 


17 


13 


3 


19 


13 


10 


2 


13 


11 


3 


2 


10 


4 


5 


3 


8 


5 


4 


3 


10 


9 


2 


4 


2 


3 


3 


2 


8 


6 








5 


1 





3 


75 


64 


35 


10 


661 


553 


290 


154 



Totals. 



33 
84 
128 
122 
159 
150 
138 
119 
110 
80 
72 
62 
46 
44 
29 
22 
20 
25 
10 
14 
9 
192 



1,658 



NuMBBE Exposed. 



77 
91 
94 
114 
113 
91 
104 
102 
73 
66 
79 
49 
53 
59 
40 
33 
33 
26 
29 
31 



2,417 



63 
33 
35 
27 
38 
28 
38 
29 
43 
33 
35 
23 
29 
30 
21 
29 
16 
23 
11 
13 
13 
862 



1,472 



32 
44 
38 
36 
57 
46 
44 
35 
36 
28 
35 
25 
33 
22 
18 
20 
19 
12 
20 

3 

572 



1,181 



627 



Totals, 



189 
164 
187 
183 
234 
211 
197 
190 
196 
146 
151 
134 
129 
114 
112 
101 
78 
72 
64 
55 
52 
2,738 



5,697 






16.9 
51.2 
68.4 
66.6 
67.9 
71.0 
70.0 
57.8 
56.1 
54.7 
47.6 < 
46.2 
35.7 
38.5 
25.8 
21.7 
25.6 
34.7 
15.6 
25.4 
17.3 
7.0 

29.1 



The following shows certani facts m the natural history of diphtheria : 

1889-90. 1891-95. 1898. 1897. 1898. 1899. Totals. 

Number of families in which there 

was more than one child 233 574 433 326 161 107 1,834 

Number of these in which there 

was more than one case 89 179 172 125 57 35 657 

Number of children in all the 

above families 894 1,614 1,690 1,262 643 458 ' 6,560 



ISU'J.J secretary's KEi'oirr. 81 

1889 !)0. 180195. ISOG. 1897. 189S. 1899. T.itul.s. 

NiiinljL'r iif tlit'so cliildrcn wlio 
wore attiicked '1^2 'i'lO 793 .'■>78 287 191 3,(«1 

Number of adilitioii.'il fatniliu.s 
with t'liitdren ill the siimn lioiise. 97 829 323 S.')! 119 79 1,201 

Number of children in the.se fami- 
lies 202 854 898 CO.") 311 19!) 3.189 

Number of these additional fami- 
lies attacked 18 24 30 9 II 2 94 

Numiier of children in tliese fami- 
lies who were attacked 2.5 28 55 20 13 7 153 

Number of tenements which were 
disinfected where there were 
other families with children in 
the house 23 108 192 188 82 59 G.52 

Number of instances of the above 
where the disease spread to 
other families in the house 5 10 11 9 11 1 47 

Number of well children who 
were at once removed 54 202 141 ITG 71 57 701 

Number of those who were at- 
tacked on their return 2 7 3 1 13 

As ill previous years, the safety of other families hi tlie house is sliowu 
to be very great. In only 2 of 79 cases did the disease extend beyond the 
(irst family attacked. But in three other instances diphtheria bacilli 
were found in other than the initial family. In all of these cases communi- 
cation was free between the families. In no case did the disease extend 
beyond one family, where there was any isolation at all. Of the 57 chil- 
(Iron who were sent away from home, not one acquired the disease on its 
n-tiun to its home after the card had been removed. In other houses, 
wiu'ii the sick person was removed to the hospital not one of the 24 chil- 
dren left at home was attacked after the return of the sick one from tlic 
hospital. 

The following table shows the number of persons exposed to diphtheria 
who had diphtheria bacilli in their throats, and who were not sick, 
and also the number exposed, in the same families, who did not have 
bacilli in tlicir tliroats, and who were not sick. This tal)U' may prolitably 
\h' conipared with the table on page 77, wiiich shows the nuinlu'r of 
exposed persons who were sick : 



82 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



WELL PERSONS IN FAMILIES WHERE THERE WAS DIPHTHERIA WHOSE 
THROATS WERE EXAMINED FOR DIPHTHERIA. 



Ages. 



Under 1 year . , 

1 " .. 
3 years 

3 " 

4 " 

5 " 

6 " 

7 " 

8 " 

9 " 

10 " 

11 " 
13 " 

13 " 

14 " 

15 " 

16 " 

17 " 

18 " 

19 " 

20 " 
Adults 

Totals... 



Persons Examined. 



1897. 1898. 1899. Total 



36 
34 
33 

28 
34 
39 
43 
36 
41 
34 
37 
20 
39 
34 
31 
23 
12 
16 
13 
9 
10 
653 



1,324 



10 
6 

10 
9 

11 
9 
5 

10 
2 
4 
5 
5 
4 
1 
159 



298 



18 
14 
12 
10 
15 
16 
17 
18 
11 
' 10 
15 

6 
16 

6 
13 
14 

4 
8 
7 
1 
336 



580 



57 
59 
47 
51 
58 
53 
67 
64 
58 
54 
61 
37 
54 
45 
44 
39 
23 
25 
36 
30 
12 
1,148 



2,102 



Number in which Bacilli 
Were Found. 



1897. 



1899. 



82 



87 



Total. 



153 



359 



14.0 
10.1 
27.6 
21.4 
37.9 
15.0 
37.3 
23.4 
24.1 
22.2 
23.9 
10.8 
34.0 
33.3 
23.7 

7.6 
13.0 
28.0 

7.6 
15.0 



17.0 



All the persons above mentioned who had diphtheria bacilli in their 
throats were isolated just as if they presented clinical symptoms. Of the 
74 persons isolated 30 were children, and of the 44 adults 20 were women. 

During 1897 and 1898 no record was kept by this department of the use 
of antitoxin. During these years the use of this remedy undoubtedly in- 
creased, and it was deemed advisable in 1899 to again collect data in regard 
to it. In all antitoxin was given to 106 persons, of whom 17, or 16.04 per 



1899.] secretauy's report. 83 

cent, died ; 30 of these were treated in tlie liospital, and of these .">, or 
10.0(t per cent., died. Tliere were '.»4 cases of diplitheria in whidi antitoxin 
was not used, with K! deaths, giving a fatality of 17.02. In 12 of the cases 
and 3 of tlie deatlis where antitoxin was used, eitlier no culture was taken, 
or else no bacilli were found. In all the others treated with antitoxin 
diphtheria bacilli were found. It may fairly be said, I think, that in the 
majority of the milder cases antitoxin is not given, so that as a rule the 
non-antitoxin cases are not so severe as the antitoxin cases, but whether 
this is surticient to account for the apparent failure of antitoxin to give 
the results reported from other cities I am not prepared to say. Antitoxui 
was used for immunization in 17 instances in private families, in none of 
which the disease afterwards developed. It was used in about sixty per- 
sons at the Lying-in Hospital. One of the little children so treated died 
about four weeks after injection, apparently of diphtheretic paralysis, 
although it had not been otherwise sick. Most of the antitoxin used was 
distributed by the State board of health, very little being furnished by 
this department. 

There were 11 deaths from croup, and one case of croup which did not 
die. In several of these, cultures were taken, and no diphtheria bacilli 
found. If these 12 cases of croup should be counted in with the cases in 
which antitoxin was Uot used (for it was used in none of them), the fatality 
would be 23.58. 

SCARLET FEVER. 

During the year there were 4SS cases of scarlet fever, with 10 deaths, or a 
ratio of deaths to cases of 9.24. 

The following table gives the result of my observations, during the past 
twelve years, concerning certam pohits hi the etiology and prevention of 
scarlet fever. This table, for the years previous to 1802, does not include 
all the families and cases : 

1887-90. 1891-95. 189G. 1897. 1898. 1899. Totals. 

Number of families in which there 

was more than one susceptible 

child 615 l.COO 305 174 178 267 3.\S9 

Number of these in which there 

was a second case 334 711 128 58 68 90 1.389 

Number of susceptible children in 

all the above families 2,270 5.571 1,032 644 6.".5 992 n.liVl 

Number of these children who 

were attacked 1,194 2,935 526 318 322 477 5.772 



84 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



1887-90. 1891-95. 

Number of additional families with 
susceptible children in the same 
house 273 817 

Number of susceptible children in 
these families 799 2,259 

Number of these additional fami- 
lies attacked 45 91 

Number of children in these fami- 
lies who were attacked 81 157 

Number of tenements disinfected 
where there were other families 
with susceptible children in the 
house 119 374 

Number of above where the dis- 
ease spread to other families in 
the house 10 9 

Number of susceptible children 
who were at once removed 60 374 

Number of these who were at- 
tacked on their return 4 20 

Number of children who were ex- 
posed and who had previously 
had scarlet fever 278 

Number of these who were at- 
tacked a second time 40 

Number of adults who were ex- 
posed and who had previously 
had scarlet fever 541 

Number of these who were at- 
tacked a second time 10 

Number of families with suscepti- 
ble children where there was iso- 
lation 285 

Number of families where more 
than one child was attacked 97 

Number of susceptible children in 
families where there was isola- 
tion 758 

Number of the above who were 
attacked 309 



1890. 1897. 1898. 1899. Totals. 



197 



545 



139 



10 



112 



20 



132 



106 



161 



83 



79 



48 



27 



143 



60 



84 



82 



63 



87 



206 1,738 

628 4,866 

5 173 

9 309 

137 939 

36 

134 930 



73 588 



155 


982 





12 


64 


490 


18 


170 


220 


1,436 


104 


616 



Of the 206 instances where there was more than one family in the in- 
fected house the other families were invaded in only 5 cases, and in all 
of these there was free commmiication between the families, and in 3 of 
these the disease spread from the initial family before the disease was 
recognized, or at least before the case was reported. In no instance did 



1809,] SKCUKTARY's RKl'ORT. 85 

tlie disease spread to another family after the card was removed. Of the 
1:54 children who were removed from home as soon as the disease was 
recognized, 4 were attacked while away, 1 on the first day, 1 on the fourth 
day, 1 on the sixth day, and 1 on the seventli day after removal. These 
were probably hifected before removal. The others escaped both while 
away and after their retuni. Patients were removed to the hospital from 
22 families In which there remained 53 susceptible children, of whom one 
was attacked on the return of the patient from the hospital. In that 
case the patient was taken sick November 21st, went to hospital No- 
vember 2:)d, returned December 27th, and the other child was taken sick 
January 3d. When the inspector called January 4th the hospital child 
was desquamating freely, though the hospital authorities stated that there 
was no sign of desquamation when it left the hospital. 

The following table shows the number and percentage of persons of 
different ages exposed to scarlet fever who contracted it, and also the 
number who did not. When I began to collect these facts the inspector 
was not careful to obtain the age in every case, so that until 1890 only a 
portion of the cases are contained in the table, and it was only in 1S94 
that the facts in regard to all adults in the family were obtained : 



8.6 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



SCARLET FEVER. 





















Number Exposed, In 


CLUDING 


"d 








Cases. 




















m 

CO Q, 




















Cases. 






Ages. 


































o 
i- 


4 

CO 


to 

00 




oo 

00 


00 


"3 
o 

Eh 


o 
oo 


1 


to 

00 


00 


2B 

CO 


00 


"3 
o 


Under 1 year . . 




29 


117 


10 


11 


7 


8 


182 


117 


425 


49 


24 


38 


61 


714 


25.4 


1 " .. 




39 


160 


34 


15 


9 


21 


278 


93 


302 


34 


19 


37 


57 


602 


46.1 


2 years . 




108 


257 


43 


24 


29 


30 


491 


193 


478 


32 


23 


44 


54 


824 


59.5 


3 " . 




108 


320 


54 


32 


31 


41 


586 


190 


554 


25 


19 


46 


76 


910 


64.3 


4 " . 




116 


309 


59 


35 


25 


60 


604 


186 


.518 


26 


16 


42 


87 


875 


69.0 


5 " . 




91 


383 


61 


.32 


41 


61 


669 


197 


621 


24 


13 


61 


88 


1,004 


66.6 


6 •' . 




113 


348 


52 


30 


32 


49 


624 


188 


559 


27 


12 


47 


78 


911 


68.4 


7 " . 




103 


326 


53 


32 


32 


47 


593 


169 


581 


23 


15 


48 


72 


908 


65.3 


8 " . 




83 


223 


43 


31 


17 


30 


427 


168 


436 


30 


10 


36 


53 


733 


58.2 


9 " . 




74 


194 


27 


18 


19 


31 


363 


166 


380 


21 


17 


39 


53 


676 


53.6 


10 " . 




51 


157 


33 


14 


15 


17 


287 


96 


339 


19 


15 


38 


46 


553 


51.8 


11 " . 




43 


113 


23 


4 


10 


22 


215 


104 


252 


19 


16 


26 


49 


466 


46.1 


12 " . 




34 


104 


23 


8 


8 


10 


187 


104 


266 


22 


13 


21 


32 


458 


40.8 


13 '• . 




33 


69 


7 


6 


12 


5 


132 


83 


199 


24 


14 


23 


35 


378 


34.9 


14 " . 




21 


67 


11 


4 


8 


8 


119 


76 


191 


23 


19 


23 


35 


367 


32.4 


15 " . 




18 


41 


8 


2 


1 


6 


76 


67 


142 


13 


13 


12 


26 


273 


27.8 


16 " . 




12 


33 


8 


4 


1 


2 


60 


47 


139 


20 


16 


14 


18 


254 


23.6 


17 " . 




8 


28 


5 


3 


1 


5 


50 


33 


104 


15 


18 


12 


19 


201 


24.8 


18 " . 




4 


19 


3 




5 


8 


34 


10 


98 


19 


14 


15 


17 


173 


19.6 


19 " , 




6 


17 


3 


5 




4 


35 


16 


86 


22 


12 


10 


17 


163 


21.4 


20 " . 




8 


17 






2 


2 


29 


18 


76 


23 


8 


12 


11 


148 


19.5 


Adults 




42 


169 


23 


13 


15 


15 


277 
6,318 


106 

2,427 


2,952 


838 


506 


510 


792 


5,704 


4.8 






Total 


1,144 


3,471 


583 


323 


320 


477 


9,758 


1,348 


832 


1,154 


1,776 


17,295 


36.5 







Besides the above, one case occurred at the Home for the Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Children, January 4th, and one at Brown Uni- 
versity, April 30th, both of which were removed to the Rhode Island 
Hospital, and no other cases developed. On January 4th there was a case 
at St. Aloysius Asylum, which was removed to the hospital, and no other 
case occurred there until October 8th, when another case was removed to 



isi)!.i. I secretaky'r kki'ort. 87 

tlic hospital. <)ii ()cti>l)t'r Islli and Xovciiil)ci liiid an additional case was 
removed. At t]\v St. \'incent's ,\syliini a case wa.s di.scctvfrcd and 
removed Ai)ril "tli, and anotiier on tlie lotli. On Ai)ril 27tii another cti.se 
wa.s fonnd wliicdi was desquamating, and on ('arefnl iiKjuiry it was decided 
tliat the eliild liad probably been slightly ill with the disease on April 
loth, and during the entire interval had been mingling freely with about 
seventy-five children from two to four years of age, yet during this time 
only three cases of scarlet fever developed, namely, on April 10th, 15th, 
and i'()th. 

SMALL-POX. 

On February 20th a case of small-pox was discovered by Dr. G. T. Swarts 
in his skin clinic at the Rhode Island Hospital. The patient had been 
sitting with the other patients for some time before he was discovered. 
Tie was speedily removed to the hospital at Field's Pohit, and the out- 
l)atient apartments were disinfected with sulpliur dioxide and washed 
with corrosive sublimate. The patient was a seaman on schooner Grade A. 
lUirlnnudi, which had sailed from Newport News, January 30tli. On the 
preceding night the patient had been confined in jail at Newport News, 
and previous to that time he had been on his vessel since he left Provi- 
dence, January ITth. There was said to be no small-pox in Newport News, 
but there was much in the vicinity. He said that he began to feel sick 
February 11th, while at sea. Between the arrival of the Buchanan, Feb- 
ruary 14th and February 20tli, he had been at a sailors' boarding house at 
tlie rear of 02 Wickenden street. The rooms that he occupied were disin- 
fected with formaldehyde gas and by spraying and washing with corrosive 
sublimate, and all textiles w^ere treated by steam. The forecastle of the 
Buchanan was disinfected in the same way. Of course all persons exposed 
were, if possible, vaccinated ; but the keeper of the house, who had been 
vaccinated a number of years before, refused to be re-vaccinated. The 
patient was never vaccinated. The disease, however, ran a mild course, 
and he was discharged from the hospital March 20th, after disinfection in 
a corrosive sublimate bath. Ilis clothes were either steam disinfected 
or were entirely new. 

On April 20th the keeper of the boarding house at 02 Wickenden street 
was found to have a mild attack of small-pox which probably dated from 

-Vpril 10th, Another Portuguese sailor, Julio G , who roomed with 

the keeper was taken sick at about the same time. IJoth patients were 
removed to the hospital on April 20th and the apartments disinfected as 
before. These cases were both mild and were discliarged with the usual 



88 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

precautions May 16th and 18th. It appears to be probable that both these 
cases were developed from the first case at that house through some un- 
recognized case which had been hidden there between the outbreaks, and 
which was contracted from the first case on his return from the hospital. 
One of these cases was discovered by the attorney who owned the house, 
and to whom the keeper came to pay the rent. The other case, Julio 

G , was discovered by Dr. Chas. H. Leonard, when he went to the 

house to vaccinate the inmates. This patient was said to have been vacci- 
nated eight years before, but there was no cicatrix on his arm. 

On May 10th another case was discovered on the street by an employee 
of the shipping commissioner. This case was like the others, a Portuguese 
sailor, who was taken sick in Philadelphia, May 6th, where he left his vessel, 
about 12 days after she had sailed from Fall Eiver. He came by train 
and boat to Providence, and was discovered within two hours after his 
arrival. He was removed to the hospital and disinfection and vaccination 
practiced as usual. He was discharged from the hospital June 9th. He 
had been vaccinated in infancy and presented a good cicatrix. The indica- 
tions are that the disease was contracted in Fall Kiver, although it is not 
known that there were any cases there so early as April, though a number 
were discovered about the last of May. 

On June 2d, Antone G , a Portuguese sailor, arrived by train from 

Boston and went to 62 Wickenden street, where he was met in the yard by 
the agent of the house, who recognized the case as small-pox, and at once 
reported it to this office. He was immediately removed to the hospital at 
Field's Point, where the disease ran a mild course and he was discharged 
July 1st. There was no cicatrix to be seen, and he said that he was vacci- 
nated unsuccessfully at New Bedford, in April, when he returned from 
the Cape Verde Islands. He had been at 62 "Wickenden street from May 
14th to 17th, and then shipped on a vessel which arrived in Boston June 
1st. He was taken sick on board the vessel May 28th, so that he doubtless 
contracted the disease during his short stay at 62 "Wickenden street from 
May 14 to 17th. 

The total cost of caring for these five patients was $737.14. Three of the 
men were sailors, and the duty of caring for them should have fallen on 
the United States Marine Hospital Service. Dr. B. J. Brown, the repre. 
sentative of that service here recognized that duty, but had no hospital 
facilities for meeting it. He therefore made arrangements by which the 
Federal government paid board for them at the City hospital at the rate 
of 16 per day, which, however did not cover the expenses. The amount 
received from the Marine Hospital Service was $354, which unfortunately 



IS'.)!).] Sia'RETAKY's RKPUliT. 89 

(lid not po into tlie Ilcaltli Dcitartinciil approiJiiatioii, altlionj,'li tlu' cx- 
l^'iKst's came tmt of that appropriation. 

ClIAKLES y. (HAI'lN, 

Superintendent of Ilenlth. 

I'orULATION. 

Census, .hnic I, 18i)0 .l;32,14ii 

Jan. 1, 1893 14S,".i44 

,J une 1, 1805 14.5,472 

Kstiuiated, June 30, 1899 (including 8,000 annexed) 108,000 

ASSESSED VALUATIOX. 

1898. 

Ileal estate S142,430,200 00 

Personal estate 30,127,020 00 



Total sisi,. 588,120 00 

Total amount of all tax $2,995,708 98 

STKEETS. 

1898. 

raved. 39 .2 miles. 

Curbed and built, but not paved 148.55 " 

Huilt, but not curbed 30 .22 

Received, but not built 5.48 " 



1899. 


.sl4G,701,900 00 


41,799,880 00 


$188,501,780 00 


§3,110,279 37 


1899. 


40.32 miles. 


1.50.95 


30.22 " 


2.07 " 



Total 223.45 " 223.50 " 

WATER AND SEWERS. 

Miles of water pipes 314.528* 318.033* 

Number of service pipes in use 20,473 21,020 

Number of meters in use 10,388 17. 124 

Average daily consumption of water 9,148,993 gals. 9,.502.058 gals. 

Miles of sewers 168,904 miles. 174,955 miles. 

Number of sewer connections 14,007 14,790 

1. SciTUATE. — Xo report from the health ollicer. 

1. Smithfield. — No report from the health officer. 

» Besides 5..")69 for fire purposes. 
13 



90 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

1. "WOOKSOCKET. 

2. George IST. Girard, Leonard S: Allen, and Ara M. Paine, M. D., health 
officers. 

3. There were no epidemics in this city during the year.^ 

6. Particular inspections were made in regard to a limited number of 
typhoid fever cases, but probable cause for same could not be located. 

7. A few sanitary inspections were made by order of the board of health, 

8. No unhealthy localities in this city are known. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
city council. 

10. There has been, to our knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this city. 

11. George H. Miller, B. W. Jencks, and A. J. Kelley are the ice dealers 
of this city. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

1. Charlestown. — No report from the health officer. 

1. EsETEE. — Has no health officer. 

1. HOPKINTON. 

2. George A. Langworthy, health officer. 

3. There were no epidemics in this town during the year. 

4. Isolation was maintained. 

5. All of the sick were isolated, 

6. No inspections of premises were made. 

7. No sanitary inspections were made during the year. 

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. Whenever complaint of public nuisances, etc., are made to me, all 
such are reported to the town council. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. John Smith and S. N. Avery, of Hope Valley, H. G. Kenyon, of Hop- 
kinton City, and Charles W. Clarke, of Ashaway, are the ice dealers of 
this town. 



LS99.J SECKKTAilY's RKI'OIiT. 91 

1. Xakkaoaxskxt.— Xo report from the liealtli oflieei-. 

1. North Kingstown. 

2. Harold IMetcalf, M. I)., health officer. 

;^. (Irippe was prevalent durhig January and February, there being a 
very large number of cases with a few deaths, chiedy old people. Tliere 
were also about twenty or thirty cases of whooping-cough during Novem- 
ber and December. None of these latter cases were fatal. 

4. No isolation was maintained in the grippe cases ; some was main- 
tained in the whooping-cougli cases. 

5. One case of scarlet fever was quarantined promptly. There was no 
otiier occasion for quarantine during the year. 

G. Inspections of premises were made wjiere demanded. In one case 
wliere tjq^hoid existed the origin could not be found. 

7. Several sanitary inspections of various premises hi different localities 
were made at my own option. 

8. No unhealthy localities in tliis town are known. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town coiuicil. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. Rose & Artist, of Saunderstown, and James Brayman, George 
Orpin, and Charles McGetrick, of Wickford, are the ice dealers of this town. 

1. Richmond.— No report from the health officer. 

1. South Kingstown. 

2. John P. Case, healtli officer, 

3. There were no epidemics in tliis town during the year, although there 
were a great many cases of whooping-cougli during the fall. 

4. \^ery little isolation was maintained. 

5. None of the sick were isolated. 

6. Inspections of premises where sickness prevailed were made, and 
conditions found generally fair. 

7. Sanitary inspections of nuisances in the form of cess-pools were 
iiKule. and said nuisances were subsequently abated. 

8. No uiihcalthv loealilies in this town are known. 



92 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

9. All public nuisances, unsanitary premises, etc., are reported to the 
town council, except in special cases. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

11. George T. Friday and N. G. Armstrong are the ice dealers of this 
town. 

1. Westerly. 

2. E. Howard Clark, health officer. 

8. There were no epidemics in this town during the year. 

I. ISTo sanitary inspections were made during the year. 

8. No unhealthy localities in this town are known. 

9. All public nuisances and unsanitary premises are reported to the 
town council, but not buildings unsafe in case of fire. 

10. There has been, to my knowledge, no contamination of the water, 
milk, or ice supplies of this town. 

II. L. D. Eichmond is the ice dealer of this town. 



WATER SUPPLIES. 



WATER SUPPLIES. 



Ill July, 1894, the board commencecl a systematic monthly 
chemical and bacterioloo-ical examination* of the waters of the 
Pawtuxet river. This river supplies the g-reatest number of pop- 
ulation of the State, the population of the city of Providence l)eing- 
14:5,4:72 as determined by the State census of 1895. 

The advantage of periodical examinations has a value in com- 
parison of the results from month to month, and from j^ear to 
year, and thereby a determination as to the possibility of contami- 
nation may be made. An individual examination made at any one 
time would alone be of little value, for if the sample taken showed 
a purity compared with samples from other rivers it would lead to 
a conclusion which would be misleading-, since during- all the rest 
of the year the supply mig-ht be poor in quality. Likewise an in- 
dividual sample mig-ht be taken during- peculiar and unusual con- 
ditions of the source of supply, whereby a Avater of a ver\' poor 
quality would be obtained and on analysis might be condemned 
as a continuous supply for drinking- purposes, j-et it mig-ht be the 
case that eleven other samples taken at periodical intervals would 
show an averag-e quality which would be up to the standard. 

Another advantage of the periodical examination is the possi- 
bility of determining the opportunities for an outbreak of disease 
before the epidemic may occur, and to study the relation of epi- 
demics to the sujiply ; and after years of records it Avould be possi- 
ble to obtain information which would give practical deductions. 

Owing- to the limited amount of appropriations received from 
the legislature, this Avork has been limited to the one supply re- 
ferred to; and it is to be hoped that in future j'ears a sufficient 



96 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

amount may be appropriated to enable the board to keep in- 
formed of the condition of the various supplies, some of which are 
controlled entirely by private corporations where care is some- 
times diverted to the quantity rather than the quality. 

The collections of the samples were not made on any particular 
date, but were collected usually on the Thursday coming- nearest 
to the fifteenth of the month. This was done upon the suggestion 
given by the engineer's department of the State Board of Health 
of Massachusetts. 

It was considered that a sample taken from the river on a par- 
ticular date, as, for instance, the first or fifteenth of the month, 
would not give a fair average of the quality of the water, inasmuch 
as those dates might fall upon a Monday, in which case, the mills 
having been shut down since Saturday night, thirty-six hours 
would have passed, during which time the river was not being- 
used at its maximum, and the maximum contamination would not 
be present. Likewise if the sample was collected on a Saturday, 
it would give the result of a whole week's contamination. Being 
taken on a Thursday would give a sample which would have a 
better average. 

The locations from which the samples were taken from the 
Pawtuxet river were as follows : one from the north branch of 
the river at the village of Hope, at a point where the water enters 
the mill in the trench. The second sample was taken at Washing- 
ton, on the southwest branch, at a point located above the mill 
and where the supply of the mill is taken in. The third sample 
was collected on the same day as the other two and some hours 
later, at the intake of the Pettaconsett pumping station and at the 
same point where the samples are collected by the city of Provi- 
dence for their analyses. 

The north branch from Hope to where the river meets the 
southwest branch at River Point flows a distance of about three 
and one- quarter miles and has a drainage area, as given by Mr. 
Weston, of the city engineer's department, of Providence, of about 
107.79 square miles. The distance from Washington on the south- 



1899.] secretaky's kki-okt. 97 

west In-aiicli to the poiut where it joins tlie nortli brancli is ahont 
six miles aud has a (lraiiia<»-e area of about G7.79 square rllih^s. 
From River Point to the intake at the Pettaconsett pumping- sta- 
tion, where the third sample was taken, is about five miles and has 
a drainage area of al)out 10.42 square miles. The total area of the 
whole water-shed above the pumping- station is 195 square miles. 

Along- this stream, at frequent intervals below the points where 
the first two samples were collected, there are numerous cotton and 
woolen mills from which, and from the toAvus which are made up 
of the population which supplies these mills with labor, produce 
a certain amount of refuse matter which finds its way into the 
river. In addition to this, the distance of the points where the 
different samples are taken would go to show that the sedimen- 
tation, which occurs at the various dams where the water is held 
back at these various mills, is not sufficient to reduce the amount 
of accumulated contamination to any appreciable extent. 

The reports of the examinations of the water taken at these 
points are given lielow. The results are shown in parts in 100,000 
as is customary in the reports made by the Massachusetts State 
Board of Health. 

The first arrangement is made collectively by dates, giving the 
results of the examination of the samples taken at the different 
sources on the same day, which admits of comparison of the 
changes in the water from one poiut to the other. 

The next arrangement is made collectively by dates at one point 
only and Avill give the differences which occur from month to 
month diiring the different seasons. This is followed by the ar- 
rangement of average by years of each place. 

The chemical analyses were made by Mr. Charles E. Swett, 
State assayer ; and the bacteriological analyses were made by the 
Rhode Island Laboratory, which is under the direction of Gard- 
ner T. Swarts, M. D., and Jay Perkins, M. D. 



98 



state boakd of health. 
Water Supply of Providence. 



[1899. 



Chemical Examinations of the Pawtuxet River Water, taken at the 
Pettaconsett Pumping Station, hy months, on the first and fif- 
teenth of each month, for the year 1899. 



Date. 


6 
o <o 




u CO 


d 
1 

p cS 


o d 
•S'S 

11 

« 


of 


J 
is 15 


02 
iS.S 


u 
o 
o 
O 


< 




35. 
35. 

58. 
42. 

35. 
29. 

27. 
31. 

34. 
39. 

41. 
51. 

43. 

42. 

53. 
56. 

60. 
55. 

51. 
64. 

63. 
55. 

51. 
57. 


11. 
11. 

16. 
16. 

11. 
11. 

9. 
11. 

12. 
15. 

18. 
15. 

18. 

17. 

21. 
23. 

23. 

18. 

19. 

28. 

26. 
22. 

19. 
22. 


24. 
24. 

42. 
26. 

24. 

18. 

18. 
20. 

22. 

24. 

23. 
36. 

25. 

25. 

32. 
33. 

37. 
37. 

32. 
36. 

37. 
33. 

32. 
35. 


5.32 
4.73 

4.73 
4.73 

3.62 
3.95 

3.18 
7.25 

8.56 
6.59 

9.22 
9.12 

9.55 
9.55 

10.20 
10.20 

12.18 
7.91 

8.89 
10.87 

11.88 
9.88 

9.88 
9.55 


.20 
.15 

.22 
.30 

.24 
.20 

.14 
.20 

.22 
.20 

.36 
.30 

.28 
.21 

.26 
.34 

.34 
.30 

.29 
.26 

.32 
.29 

.23 
.34 


.05 
.02 

.04 
.02 

.02 
.02 

.06 
.01 

.01 
.02 

.07 
.06 

.05 
.03 

.03 
.03 

.04 
.07 

.09 
.06 

.03 
.05 

.05 
.05 


.60 
.70 

.60 
.60 

.60 
.60 

.60 
.60 

.60 
.50 

.60 
.40 

.60 
.40 

.10 
.50 

.50 
.30 

.60 
.60 

.60 
.60 

.70 
.50 






trace 











trace 





trace 

trace 
trace 




trace 


trace 
trace 
























March 1 


















Anril l^i 




















.50 

.30 
.45 

.40 
.40 

.35 
.35 

.60 
.45 

.50 
.65 

.45 
.35 






18.00 


July 1 


.20 


July 15 ....*. 


11.00 




12.00 




10.00 




11.00 




10.00 


October 2 


11.00 




10.00 




11 00 




9.25 




11.50 




9.50 








46. 


17. 


29. 


7.98 


.26 


.04 


.54 





.44 


10.73 







1S!)1). I 



SECKETAKY 8 KHI'OKT, 



90 



VVaTEU Slil'l'l.V OF PUOVIDENCE. 



Chemical Examinattoiia of the Pawtuxet Rimr Water, taken at the 
Pettacousett Pumping Station, gioing averageH, by years, for 
twenty-four yearn. 

[Parts (ill weij^'ht) in one million imrts of water (in weight).] 



Year. 



1876.. 
18T7.. 

1878. . 

1879.. 

1880. . 

1881.. 

1882.. 

1883.. 

1884., 

1885.. 

1886. 

1887.. 

1888. . 

1889.. 

1891).. 

1891 . . 

1892. . 

1893. . 
1894.. 
189.5.. 
1896.. 
1897.. 
1898.. 
1899.. 



Total 
Residue. 



50 
43 
37 
38 
45 
41 
43 
47 
45 
46 
46 
42 
41 
38 
41 
51 
48 
46 
49 
46 
44 
46 
42 
46 



62 
56 
54 
59 
70 
55 
59 
64 
72 
63 
59 
63 
59 
52 
55 
107 
71 
66 
75 
61 
57 
61 
55 
64 



107 



Mineral 
Matter. 



74 



Organic 

and 
Volatile 
Matter. 



30 

24 

24 

24 

22 

21 

25 

24 

29 

24 

25 

25 

3U 

27 

25 

33 

29 

22 

24 

27 

25 

28+ 

24 

C8 



Common 
Salt. 



5.72 
5.46 
5.47 
5.73 
6.35 
4.95 
4.43 
4.60 
4.79 
4.20 
4 14 
4.18 
3.49 
2.86 
3.63 
3.99 
5.22 
5.27 
5.72 
5.73 
5.51 
5.33 
4.87 
7.98 

4.98 



8.50 
7.09 
8.51 

10.83 
8.76 
8.07 
6.60 
7.95 
7.33 
6.74 
5.95 
6.84 
5.62 
4.99 
5.30 
6.52 
8.48 
8.89 
8.90 
8.45 
7.71 
8.60 
6.80 

12.18 



12.18 



Albuminoid 
Ammonia. 



S 



Ammonia. 



.40 
.32 
.25 
.23 
.26 
.28 
.38 
.36 
..32 
.30 
.30 
.86 
.80 
.30 
.86 
.38 
.46 
.34 
.46 
.48 
.46 
.36 
.84 
.36 



.48 



06 
.06 
.04 
.05 
.02 
.02 
.03 
.04 
.04 
.05 
.05 
.04 
.05 
.04 
.04 
.04 
.07 
.05 
.04 
.09 
.08 
.05 
.04 
.04 

.04 



.11 

.12 

.10 

.10 

.14 

.05 

.08 

.14 

.14 

.20? 

.14 

.10 

.14 

.10 

.12 

.14 

.20 

.12 

.18 

.34 

.20 

.16 

.08 

.09 



.84 



100 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



Cheirdcal and Bacteriological Examination of Water from the Pawtaxet 
River, at Hope Yillage, collectively, hy Months. 



(Parts in 100,000.) 



Date of 
Collection. 



Jan. 12.. 
Feb. 16.. 
Mar. 16 . 
Apr. 13.. 
May 18.. 
June 15. 
July 13. 
Aug. 17 
Sept. 14 
Oct. 12. 
Nov. 16 
Dec. 14. 



Appbaeancb. 



^ 


p 


.'2 
1 

Eh 


a 


none 


none 


none 


none 


slight 


slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 



.30 



.25 



.40 



.50 



Residtje 
ON Evapo- 
ration. 



2.59 



3.26 



2.91 



3.13 



3.81 



1.3 



1.32 



1.27 



1.53 



2.21 



1.3' 



1.8 



1.64 



2.18 



1.82 



Ammonia. 



.000 



.002 



.000 



.005 



.003 



Albuminoid. 



.0180 



.016 



.030 



.026 



.022 



.020 



.014 



.018 



.020 



.026 



.018 



.016 



.0000 



.000 



.001 



.005 



.004 



.010 



.004 



.005 



.28 



.29 



.35 



.18 



.18 



Nitrogen. 



.00 



.030 



.040 



.02 



.03 



.025 



.02 



trace 



.00 



trace 



26 



630 



.81 1117 



99 92 



.90, 141 



1.01 2777 



1.9 



.67 483 



1899. 



SECRETARY S HHI'OKT. 



Kll 



( '/lehiic'd and Bacteriological Examination of Water from the Pawtuxet 
River at WanhuHjton Village, collectively, ly MontliH. 



(Parts in 100,000.) 



Date op 
Collection, 



.Tiin. 12 

Feb. 10 

Mar. 16.... 

Apr. 13 

May 18 

June 15 

•July 13 .... 
Autr. IT.... 
Sept. 14.... 

Oct. M 

Nov. IG.... 
Deo. 14 



Appearance. 



3 


c 

s 

03 


none 


none 


none 


none 


slight 


slight 


very 
sliglit 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


slight 


very 

slight 


slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


slight 


slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 


very 
slight 



.20 



.70 



.45 



Residue 

ON EVAI'O- 
ItATION. 





d 




o 
















a 




61) 








a 




o 






as 


rti 








O 


H 


1-4 


l.t 


1.3 


2.8 


1.25 



2.86 .56 2.30 



2.55 1.01 



J. 70 1.03 



3.10 1.61 



3.95 2.03 



3.16 1.44 



4.69 2.10 



3.43 



1.61 



1.92 



1.72 



1.94 



.003 



.003 



.004 



.005 



.008 



8.59 .004 



.004 



AiM.MONIA. 



Albuiiiiiidiil. 



H 
o 
Eh 


a 
.2 

3 

o 
c 


.0175 


.0175 


.010 


.010 


.012 


.012 


.018 


.018 


.022 


.011 


.025 


.023 


.028 


.019 


.025 


.025 


.024 


.024 


.026 


.023 


.032 


.022 


.019 


.019 



.000 



.000 



.011 



.002 



.009 



.003 



.010 



NlTUOGEN. 



.9 .004 



4 .000 



.23 



.28 



.44 



.37 



.36 



.22 



.80 



.040 



.020 



.025 



.04 



.04 



.OS 



.0001 



.00 



1.0 



.81 



.77 



1.05 



128 



1085 



472 



95 



1.00 190 



trace .99 544 



802 



.90 



52 



1.12 2858 



2.1 506 



1.01 



84 



102 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of Water from the Pawtuxet 
River, at Pettaconsett Parnjmig Station, collectively, hy Months. 



(Parts in 100,000.) 



Date of 
Collection. 



Jan. 12.. 
Feb. 16.. 
Mar. 16 . 
Apr. 13. 
May 18.. 
June 15 
July 13. 
Aug. 17 
Sept. 14 
Oct. 13. 
,Nov. 16 
Dec. 14. 



Appearance. 



distinct 



very 
slight 



very 
slight 



very 
slight 



very 
slight 



very 
slight 



very 
slight 



slight 



very 
slight 



very 
slight 



slight 
floe. 



slight 



very 

slight 



slight 
slight 
slight 



very 
slight 



very 
slight 



slight 
slight 
slight 



.25 3.7 



Residue 
ON Evapo- 
ration. 



.25 



.25 



.50 



.45 



.50 



2.16 



3.37 



1.6 



.76 



1.9 



1.26 2.81 



1.95 



1.05 



3.09 



6.55 2.70 3.85 



5.62 1.73 3. 



6.46 



6.02 



2.60 3. 



2.26 



3.65 



1.03 



.001 



.001 



.002 



.006 



.004 



.003 



.005 



.003 



Albuminoid. 



.025 



.028 



.034 



.025 



.030 



.028 



.030 



.025 



.014 



.018 



.011 



.026 



.015 



.020 



.020 



.001 



.018 



.013 



.008 



.010 



.010 



.008 



.85 



.28 



.39 



.59 



.58 



.29 



Nitrogen. 



trace 



.050 



.04 



.00 



trace 



.040 trace 



.015 



.05 



.04 



trace 



1.4 



1.10 



1.55 



1.83 



1.32 



418 



1654 



1294 



1022 



1.90 4588 



2.02 



1.90 



6510 



844 



1809.] 



skcrhitary's HKPOUT. 



103 



Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of Water fr 01 n the Pavjtuxet 
River, collectively, hy datcx, at <Hff<;reni j>oiiif.s, I situ. 



(Parts ill 100,000.) 







KKsinuE 








• 










ArPKAKANCE. 


ON EVAPO- 
UATION. 




Ammonia. 






Nitrogen. 




















AlbumiiK 


.id. 












I'l-APK OF 








a 

c 


















d 


I'OI.LECTION. 
















d 










d 






























t. 




4^ 

C 

S 






"3 



c 

(» 





6 
v 


2 



1 

c 


CO 

c 

a 
a 


0) 

'E 


S 


1 
en 




a 

•s 

C0 


3) 
* 


cs 




C» 





H 


l-l 


P>=< 


^ 


Eh 





<! 


< 


a 


pa 



JANUARY. 



Hope 

Washington . , 
Pettaconsett , 



3.0 1..3 



.0015 .0180 .0180 .0000 
.0015 .0175 .0175' 



.001 



.025 .025 



.004 
.004 
.006 



1.1 26 
1.0 128 

1.2 314 



FEBRUARY. 



Hope 


none 


.2 


2.8 1.0 


1.8 


.000 


.010 


.010 


.000 


.4 


.000 


trace 


1.8 


6.<i0 


Washington 


none 


.25 


2.8 1.25 


1.55 


.001 


.010 


.010 


.000 


.4 


.000 


.0001 


1.8 


1086 


Pettaconsett 


slight 
floe. 


.25 


3.7 1.6 


2.1 


.001 


.015 


.014 


.001 


.5 


trace 


.0' 


1.4 


1494 



MAKCil. 



Hope slJKlit I .80 

I 
Washington slight ; .25 



Pettaconsett slight 



.25 



1.66 
2.86 
2.16 



.16 1.50 .002 
.56 2.80, .004 
.76 1.40 .002 



.014 
.012 



.014 I .000 

.012 I .000 

I 

.010 .018 



2.. 


.05 


.00 


.81 


23 


.06 


.00 


.81 


28 


,00 


.00 


1.19 



1117 
478 
418 



104 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of Water from the Pawtuxet 
River, collectively, hy dates, at different points, 1899. — Continued. 



(Parts in 100.000.) 





• 


Eesidue 
















Appearance. 


ON Evapo- 
ration. 




Ammonia. 




Nitrogen. 






Place op 














Albuminoid. 


































Collection. 


















o 










6 










M 










.2 






0) 

OS 


CO 


m 






S 


u 
O 


"3 


a 
o 


•6 


a> 


"5 


3 


a 


a 
o 


4-3 


S 


C 














\< 
























o 


o 


o 







_ 


a 


^ 


GO 


cn 








M 


o 


H 


1-1 


E 


fe 


Eh 


'-' 


o 


<l 


< 


W 


PQ 



APRIL. 



Hope 

Washington . 
Pettaconsett 

Hope 

Washington . 
Pettaconsett 

Hope 

Washington . 
Pettaconsett 



very 
slight 


.25 


2.59 


.79 1.80 


.000 


.016 


.015 


.001 


.28 


.030 


.0 


.88 


very 
slight 


.30 


2.55 


101 1.54 


.003 


.018 


.018 


.000 


.31 


.040 


.0 


.77 


very 
slight 


.25 


3.47 


1.36 S. 11 


.005 


.022 


.018 


.004 


.36 


.050 


trace 


1.10 



MAY. 



very 
slight 


.30 


3.26 


1.32 


1.94 


.003 


.017 


.012 


.005 


.29 


.040 


.0 


1.17 


very 
slight 


.50 


2.70 


1.03 


1.67 


.003 


.022 


.011 


.011 


.28 


.020- 


.0 


1.05 


slight 


.60 


4.07 


1.96 


3.81 


.003 


.026 


.011 


.013 


.39 


.040 


trace 


1.55 



140 

95 

1654 



JUNE. 



very 
slight 


.40 


2.91 


1.27 


1.64 


.003 


.022 


.018 


.004 


.35 


.02 


trace 


.90 


slight 


.45 


2.39 


1.41 


.98 


.004 


.025 


.023 


.002 


.44 


.01 


trace 


1.00 


slight 


.50 


5.04 


1.95 


3.09 


.006 


.034 


.026 


.008 


.50 


.03 


trace 


1.83 



1899.] 



secretary's RKl'ORT. 



106 



Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of Water/ rtwi the Paiotv^et 
Rioer, collectively, l>i/ dates, at different points, 189'.). — (.'ontinued. 



(Parts in 100,000.) 







Residue 
















Appearance. 


ON Evapo- 
ration. 




Ammonia. 




NiTROOKN. 






Place of 














Albuminoid. 


































Collection. 
















B 










d 










c 








s 

o 


O 

'S 

s 




« 


4) 








a 
B 


o 


"5 


B 
O 

09 


■d 


<a 


73 


3 
O 


CO 

a 


.9 
3 


s) 


2 


a 


r. 
















































a 


d 


a 


00 


oa 




at 




CO 


o 


H 


hJ 


tx. 


fe 


Eh 


O 


< 


< 


» 


CQ 



JULY. 



Hope 

Washington . 
Pettaconsett 



slight 
slight 
slight 



.45 3.13 1.53 1.60 

I ! 

.45 8.10 1.611.49 
.45 i3. 37 1.0512.32 



.005 
.004 
.004 



.030 .0^0 

I 

.028 I .019 

.025 .015 



.010 .18 .03 
.009 .40 .03 
.010 i .44[ .04 



trace 


.99 


trace 


.77 


trace 


1.32 



284 
544 
1294 



AUGUST. 



Hope 

Washington . 
Pettaconsett 



very 
sligrit 

very 
slight 

very 
slight 



.55 4.39 2.21 2.18 .004 .026 



.50 3.95 2.03 1.92 



.85 6.55 2.70 8.85 



.003 .025 



.026 
.025 



.003 .080 .030 



.38 


.025 


.37 


.015 


.59 


.040 







trace 



.99 98 
.88 802 

loas 



SEPTEMBER. 



Hope 

Washington . . . 



very 
slight 


.35 


2.99 


1.17 


1.82 


.005 


.022 


.018 


.004 


.80 


.025 


.0 


.90 


very 
slight 


.35 


8.16 


1.44 


1.78 


.005 


.084 


.024 


.0 


.36 


.025 


.0 


.90 


very 
slight 


.35 


5.62 


1.73 


8.89 


.006 


.080 


.030 


.010 


.68 


.015 


.0 


I.IO 



141 

52 

4668 



14 



106 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of Water from the Pawtuxet 
River, collectively, hy dates, at different points, 1899. — Concluded. 



(Parts in 100,000.) 







Residue 
















Appeakance. 


ON Evapo- 
ration. 




Ammonia. 




Nitrogen. 






Place or 














Albuminoid. 
















a 




























Collection. 


















d 
o 










o 










W) 








.2 








to 
0) 








S 


o 


"cS 


o 


'6 


6 


"cS 


3 

o 


p 


.9 
o 


g 


g 


d 


t4 
0) 


































s 


o 


O 


o 




t, 


o 




fl 


.a 


CO 






03 




CB 


o 


H 


h-i 


t^ 


^ 


ir* 


'-' 


o 


< 


<: 


W 


pq 



OCTOBER. 



Hope 

Washington . 
Pettaconsett 

Hope 

Washington . 
Pettaconsett 

Hope 

Washington . 
Pettaconsett 



very 
slight 


.45 


3.65 


1.75 


1.90 


.005 


.022 


.018 


.004 


.21 


.03 


.0 


1.01 


slight 


.65 


4.10 


3.16 


1.94 


.008 


.026 


.033 


.003 


.22 


.04 


.0 


1.12 


slight 


.45 


6.46 


3.60 


3.86 


.005 


.028 


.024 


.004 


.29 


.05 


trace 


2.03 



■ 2777 
2858 
6510 



NOVEMBER. 



very 
slight 


.50 


3.81 


1.37 


2.44 


.003 


.022 


.017 


.005 


.19 


.04 


.0 


1.9 


very 
slight 


.70 


4.69 


2.10 


2.59 


.004 


.032 


.022 


.010 


.21 


.04 


.0 


2.1 


slight 


.50 


5.91 


3.26 


3.65 


.003 


.030 


.020 


.010 


'31 


.06 


trace 


3.1 



387 
506 
844 



DECEMBER. 



very 
slight 


.40 


3.41 


1.38 


2.03 


.003 


.020 


.016 


.004 


.18 


.04 


.0 


.67 


very 
slight 


.45 


3.43 


1.61 


1.82 


.004 


.019 


.019 


.0 


.20 


.02 


.0 


1.01 


slight 


.40 


6.02 


1.99 


4.03 


.003 


.030 


.022 


.008 


.29 


.04 


trace 


1.90 



483 



5801 



1899.] 



secretary'.s report. 
Water Supply of Providence. 



107 



Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of Water frora the Pawtxixd, 
River, hy place, giving averages hy years. 



(Parts per 100,000.) 



Year. 



Residue 
ON Evaporation. 



Ammonia. 



Albuminoid. 





Nitrogen. 




« 


OB 


a> 


s 


















t4 

o 


!a 


55 


•a 


J3 


a 


OD 


d 


o 


-sj 


< 


» 



HOPE. 



1894.*. 
1895. . . 
1896... 
1897. . . 
1898.. 
1899. . . 



5.2 
4.7 
4.4 
3.5 
3.0 



1.2 
1.9 
2.7 
2.2 
1.6 



3.9 
2.7 
2.0 
1.4 
1.9 



3.13 1.27 l.f 



.0014 
.0019 
.0021 
.0015 
.0012 
.0029 



.0012 .0118 

.0178^ .015 

1 

.01771 .016 



.015 
.014 



.0145 
.0115 



.0005 
.0008 
.0008 
.0002 
.0007 
.003 



.8 
.8 
.5 
.4 
.4 
.32 



.008 



.006 
.006 
.000 



.026, .0 



1.19 
.8 
SI 
3 
51 
05 



568 
698 
3830 
329 
616 
502 



WASHINGTON. 



1894.' 
1895.. 
1896.. 
189T . 
1898.. 
1699.. 



4.6 


1.5 


3.2 


.0007 


.0131 


.0129 


.0003 


.78 


4.04 


1.9 


2.14 


.0012 


.0164 


.0145 


.0007 


.58 


4.0 


2.0 


2.0 


.0111 


.014 


.0136 


.0007 


.5 


4.1 


2.6 


1.6 


.0015 


.014 


.016 


.0009 


.43 ; 


3.8 


1.9 


2.0 


.0014 


.013 


.011 


.001 


•4 1 


3.20 


1.46 


1.74 


.0037 


.0215 


.0213 


.003 


.38, 



.02 

.007 

.012' 

.002 

.000 

.025 



1.24 



8970 
.89 560 
.325: 7678 
.29 12i'4 



.000 .52 
.0 I 1.08 



615 
590 



1894* 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 



PETTACONSETT. 



5.7 


1.6 


4.2 


.0015 


.0199 


.0192 


5.3 


1.9 


3.0 


.0023 


.0081 


.0174 


5.6 


2.7 


3.1 


.0043 


.0197 


.0166 


5.3 


2.9 


2.4 


.0042 


.018 


.Oie.'i 


4.6 


2.0 


•J. 5 


.0057 


.0168 


.0143 


4.75 


1.74 


2.92 


.004 


.087 


.020 



0006 


.67 


.0033 


.66 


.0029 


.57 


.0018 


.52 


.0013 


.50 


.007 


.45 



.02 I 

.006' 

I 

.013 

.023 

.011, 

.036 



.001' 1.56 9021 

....| .57 ' 8900 

....I .53 11479 

i 

....i .6 6564 

.001 .76 1547 



1.70 1968 



* Average of the last six months of the year only. 



METEOROLOGY. 



It lias been remarked in previous reports of tlie Board that the 
influence of the meteorological conditions of the atmosphere, as 
well as the floating matter suspended therein, are recognized and 
acknowledged by all pathologists as causes of disease ; and the 
following tables are therefore introduced, as heretofore, for the 
purpose of comparing the large prevalence of certain diseases, at 
different monthly periods of the year, with the temperature, the 
atmospheric pressure, the relative humidity, prevailing direction 
and force of the wind, and other conditions of the atmosphere, 
and also the amount of cloud and rain-fall during each month of 
the year. All of the said diseases and monthly prevalence of the 
same may be found in the report upon the registration of deaths 
arranged by months, in Table VII of the Registration Heport. 

The first table is compiled from the monthly reports of the city 
engineer of Providence, and shows the mean, maximum, and mini- 
mum temperature of the different months, and the extremes and 
average daily range of the same ; the rain-fall, and prevailing di- 
rection of the wind. 

The second table will give a more comprehensive monthly sum- 
mary of observations during 1899, including a large number of 
atmospheric conditions for each month, and also yearly summaries 
for each of the nineteen preceding years.' 

It is condensed from the annual summary of monthly observa- 
tions at Hope reservoir and the city hall, in Providence. 



1899. 



SKCKETAIiY's KKl'OHT. 



100 



Table I. 

Temperature, Range of Temper at are, Rain-fall, and I^eoailing 

Direction of the Wind for each Month during 

the year 1899. 



t 
















"S 










Temperatuue. 






"3 




















g 








































o «; 














a> 






cS 














to 




u> 


"■^ 














a 


a 


ca 


KC 


Prevaii.ino Direction 


Months. 1899. 










» 


K 


"c ^ 






s 






& 


>. 


^ 


>, 




OF THE Wind. 




D 








5 


>. 


s! 


3 5 






n 
o 


a 

s 
S 


a 

3 

a 

'S 


a 
o 


1 

(55 

ID 


'5 


a 
1 


c a 
< 

o 






S 


S 


s 


S 


o 


i-J 


< 


c^ 




January 


30.2 
26.3 
34.9 


53.5 
52.0 
59.5 


-2.0 

-2.5 

17.5 


.55.5 
54.3 
42.0 


32.0 
25.5 
21.5 


6.5 
4.0 
3.5 


17.0 
12.3 
13.2 


5.18 
6.00 
8.88 


N.W. 




N.W., Variable. 


March 


N.W. 


April 


48.5 
58.9 


.79.0 
88.5 


28.5 
41.0 


50.5 
47.5 


31.0 
28.5 


7.0 
7.5 


19.1 
20.0 


2.12 
2.60 


N., S., N.W. 


May 


S. 




72.2 
73.4 
70.6 


94.5 
94.5 
91.0 


.55.0 
.54.5 
54.5 


39.5 
40.0 
36.5 


35.0 
29.0 
30.0 


7.5 
6.5 
4.0 


20.5 
18.9 
18.7 


3.62 
4.69 
1.56 


\'ariable. 


July 


S.W. 


Au(,'u.st 


Variable. 


September 


62 9 


82.5 


43 5 


39.0 


27 


7 


16 9 


9.16 


N., S.. S.W. 




54.5 
42.3 


75.0 
65.0 


32.5 
25.0 


42.5 
40.0 


29.0 
22.5 


4.5 
6.5 


14.1 
13.4 


l.CiS 
2.37 


Variable. 


November 


N.W. 


December 


36.0 


61.0 


7.0 


54.0 


28.0 


4.5 


18.3 


1.88 


N.W. 


For the year 


.')0.9 


74.7 


82.8 


44.3 








49.24 


N.W. 













110 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



n 


•saqoni ni 
Mous JO md9(i 


4.50 
35.25 


5 

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* 












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: ^ 

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MOUS P81I8H -lo 

urea .}o lunorav 


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rH o m r^ lO 

»n 5D od oj (N 


7J C:5 to to 00 !> QO 

to to in 1-1 to CO oo 

CO -qi -->" oi ^ O! t4 




• OS 




a 


■piioio 
JO janoniv uBan 


CO (?< T- 


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1 o o 


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•rt t- 


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CO 




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to 






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g 




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to OS CO 'S' in <N OS 




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to to t- t- i> to c- 


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to 








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to T|i 00 00 

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to 00 i> CO in i> 00 
in in in 00 00 o in 


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29.72 
29.64 
29.73 
29.61 
29.62 
29.43 
29.10 






QC 
OS 




rancnixBK 


GO Tj< -i!j( CO W 

o o o o o 


30.28 
30.22 
80.30 
30.44 
30.47 
30.50 
30.68 


: 




c 




■soBaH 


g g § 2 

o oi 05 c 
CO oj o« cr 


o 
o 

o 

CO 


OS -91 OO -M I- i- .- 

OS OS OS O ^ OS o 

OS OS OS O O OS o 
OS OJ OS CO CO OS CO 


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1899.] 



SECRET .VRY'S REPORT. 



11 



<^ 






'b'aqout a| 
MODS jo qidaa 



'saq-oui ui 
Mous p^Ji^K JO 
uiBH j'l lunooiv 



■pn»lO 
jo^nnooiy uBaw 



b:: 



sjaqio uv 



'MODS JO 



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■•>re.a 



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•^jiooiaA nB3H 




a; ^ 
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■jsaMq^Jojsi 




isa^^i 




■IsaAiqinos 


^ 


•qjnos 




•ISBaqinos 




•jsea 




ISBaqiJOii 



•AXIOIK-IH 
XAIXTIXH I 



•qjjojst 



•aBSK 



aifnBa 



■lunniiujK 



'mnaiiTBK 



•ireapi 



adiiBH 



'oiniuiuiiv; 



-ainai{XBi^ 



'SUB3H 





g 




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lO 






o 






s 






0» 






i 






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1 




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t; 






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ao - 
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go 






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at 






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4 

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s 






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s 






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: 1 




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g : : 


1.09 
1.08 




* So 




: £ 


20.09 


>■ 

a 
s 
> 
u 
C 

a 
C 
a 
a 


i 
II I 


' 



113 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



R 


MO 


•saqoui ni 
ug JO qjdaa 


S8110UI ni 
uiua JO 5unocnv 


K 

M 
H 
■< 


•pnoio 
JO 5nnorav u'Bapi 




■sjamo nv 


•Mons JO 
urea: 


•GiqBIJBA 
•JIB^ 


•jBaio 




•AiiooiaA ii^aw 


.2 S 
^^ 

t> o 

Oh 


•aiqBUBA 


•}saM.q5J0jsi 


■5S9M. 


•^S3Mqinos 


■q^nog 


•jsBQq^nos 


•ISBaqiJOM 


•q^joM 


•Axiairean 
SAHYaaa 


■WS9M. 


W 

o 

a 


•gSaBji 


•ranramipi 


•uinaiix^j\[ 


•u-eeH 


K ■ 

a 
o 

K 

pq 


03 


■aSnBa 


•miTtuixBM 


■sn^aK 



















00 




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to 






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00 






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CO 






g 






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CO 






2 






CO 






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CO 






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s 






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s 




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1 








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a: 
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c 


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to 
to 






in 






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05 1 






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g 






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03 






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03 




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£ 




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00 


id 






c 












to 

00 






CO 


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00 
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05 






> 

c 

c 

cs 
a 


a 
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1- 

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a 
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1 





1899.] 



KEORET.VIiY'S RKI'OKT. 



113 







: 8 
: 5 








: S 
: ^ 














• I- 








• S 


. 






a> 








2 








^ 






00 • 
















e 












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o 




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a> 








s 




> 


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■A 


05 


s 


1 




\ 


■N 


1 






at 




i 








o 


§ 








s 
^ 












s 
^ 








b 

a 

> 
00 

e 

oi 
a 


ce 

4. 

> 



1 


s 

£ 


1 
1 





: ^ 




5.1 

.... 53.19 


i^- 




in 






s 






t- 






00 






g 


— 


00 • 




I- 






22 






§ 






O 


1 




s 


! 




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00 






51 






CO 




?: 






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§ 






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00 
03 


lO 






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s 
s 








g 






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3 
V 

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u 
C 

n 

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> 
b 
c 

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1 


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§ 






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t- 






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■fl; ; 
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1.15 
1.97 


: : § 
: : S 


: : g 
: : g 


g : : 
§ : : 




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■> 
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so 

a 

1 


u 

cs 

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1 1 


i 



S cd 



a £ 



O J3 
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■a ja 



5 ■§ . 

£ £ a 

ago 
a) 4) ® 

E- E- ^ 



114 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 


















■13 
05 

o 
Q 








■saqoui ni 
Mons JO qidad 


•seqoui ni 

MOUS P31I9M JO 

urea J') innorav 


M 


■pnoio 
JO jnnorav u^aM 


•1 

CD ■-- 
..d CD 

a !*. 

15 


•sjemo nv 


■A\ons JO 
urea 


•aiqBUBA 


■JIB^ 


UB8I0 


a 


•AJI00I9A UBGH 


.2 S 

OS 

t> O 

£» 

PL, 


•aiqBij'BA 


■jsaMm.iOK 


•*S8M 


•^saMqinos 


•T^nos 


•}SB9qinos 


•IsBa 


•^sBamaoM 


•qiJojsL 


isr^sl --^^-H 


H 
H 

O 
P3 
M 


aSuBa 


uinnimiM 


•catiniixBK 


•UB8I\[ 




11 


•aSaBy; 


•ranniiati\[ 
■cancaixBH 


■soBam 











o 

CO 




■ CO • 




in • 1 






in '■ 












CO '■ 






s : 










Oi 1 






g 






§: 






S 






CO 

CO 






■* 






- 






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J^ 






in 




05 • 




in _ If 

CO • r- 






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in 

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05 ; 

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1.21 
3.07 




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CO ; 






a 

1 

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t- 
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in '• • 






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CO 




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1899.] 



SEORETAKY's KEl'UKT 



Hi 



o 

« 








: g 
: 5 






g 

§ 




lO • 






S 






CO 


— 




^ 




s 










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s 


in 

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a 
a 

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a 

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a 
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g 


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to . 




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CO 






t~ 






i 






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CO 




g 






CO 






o 












^ 






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5 






CO 




gi 






in 


lO 

o 






lO 

d 
1 






CO 

03 


00 


'~i 


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SB 




— 


o 

03 


— 


a 
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C 

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5 


t 

> > 

c 

af 

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a; 
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I 





o 





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CD 






2 






S 






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CO 


— 




§ 






c 




§ 






CO 






CO 


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CO 
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s 










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d 

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d 






g 

8 






3 
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= B 



Ch c^ 



116 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 












CO 



pi 
I— I 
o 
fl 
o 
O 



EH 



<•» 



P5 



•soqoui ui 
A\ons JO mdaa 



saqoui ni 
Moug paapK JO 
nrea JO ^unorov 



pnoio 
JO lunoOTV uBopi 



Si 




6^ 












.=! CD 




a t» 




S cs 




bT. 










< . 









"A 





•SJ9qio nV 



•M.ons JO 
urea 



•a^qBUBA 



•JIB^ 



•jBaio 



■AipoiaA HBaM 



•aiq^ia^A 



■^sajttq^aojsi 



■^saM 



t> o 



•jsaMqanog 




^SBa 



•^SBoqiJOM 



■q^JOii 



•AxiaireaH ■ 
dAixyiaH 



•UB3H 



•aSuBa 



•rancaraiK 



•u-eaK 






•gga'Ea 



■uininiuiM 



■ninniix'BK 



■saBai^ 



: ^ : 
: ^ : 




irj ; ; 


• 00 • 
. at • 


: i : 


• in ; 


■ CO 

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■ '-' ''. 


in . - 


: S : 


: S : 


: S : 




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10 ; 


'. 05 • 


<S ; 


; CO • 

CO ; 




CO ■ • 

(-. . . 


44.5 
100. 


: : 1 


05 


1.08 49.6 
1.83 ... . 




8 : -• 

~ ; : 


Means for year . . 
Totals for year.. 
Extremes 



p- s 



® -s -^ 



1899.] 



SECKETAKY's KKPnliT. 



117 



«• O D 

M S fc 






.?; S5 



•naj uiBH I 

ao AVOUS SABQ I 

JO jaqtuuK | 



CO »o »o in »rt 



"T :o lO 03 00 



•saq.iui ut 
A\ous paJl-'I^ 



— — t- 

O 00 « 



CO ^ 50 



o» — I- oo o o 

•^ lO so O »0 iO 



XjipicunH uisaK 



t- I- 1- i- 



t- c- t- 



■aSuBa UBaw 



•mntU!aii\[ 



^ 1-1 in 



00 CO 00 

■^ « ?D 



lO Ol If3 



I I I 



(N O in 



lO " in — o 



05 -H 

I 7 



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in 00 00 



ci a a a Oi Oi 



in o 00 o c^ ^ 



03 O 03 C3 C^ OS C3 



C! 00 00 



'UB9I\[ in y^ 



in in in in 



— • O — 00 05 00 



o5t-.oo«^'-'oo'*c»— •5ocoin2'*S2 9BSE; 

■J9iain0.lBfr l0D<O050050t-00050pe»OC--»»0S05<100»C» 

10-l*A^\rT QOQOooooxjxjoooooocsooooooooaoaogowoo 



« = 



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IsaqaiH 


to 

CO 


m 


s 
s 


s 
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118 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



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130 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 





1 

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PRECIPITATION 

(IN inches). 


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(in degrees FAHRENHEIT). 


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1899.] 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



121 



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122 



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[1899. 



WIND. 


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1899.] 



secretary's report. 



123 













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'A z. 



BIKTHS, DEATHS, AND MAEEIAGES. 1899. 



The value of reliable reports in their various bearing-s, relating 
to the records of births, marriages, and deaths, and the items of 
fact connected therewith, showing the vital movements of the 
population from year to year, has been so frequently presented in 
the previous reports of this Board as to need no repetition at this 
time. It is gratifying, however, to be able to state that, with no 
exception, persons eminent in social and political science every- 
where recognize the indispensable information such reports fur- 
nish, and that in every civilized country they occupy places of im- 
portance in the government reports scarcely second to any other 
department. 

The forty-sixth report on the registry of vital movements in 
Rhode Island was completed and issued by the end of the year, 
and will be found appended to this report. 

The work of collecting the data for the forty-seventh report, the 
enumerating, classifying, arranging, and collecting in tables for 
the purpose of presenting the various facts in such detail as to 
facilitate examination and study has been in progress during the 
time of making up this report, and affords some facts which may 
be presented at this time. 

Below will be found some of the general results of the registry 
of births, marriages, and deaths during 1899. 



BIRTHS. 



SEX. 

Males 5,591 

Females 5,240 



PARENT NATIVITY. 

Native* 4,3S1 

Foreign 6,510 



Whole number of births 10,831 



* Including all whose fathers were born in the United States, whether the fathers were of 
foreign parentage or native. 



1899.] secretary's rkport. 125 

marriages. 

Native born Groom and Bride l.e^S 

Foreign born Groom and Bride 972 

Native Groom and Foreign Bride 411 

Foreign Groom and Native Bride 8M 

Whole number of marriages 3,433 

Native Grooms 2,069 | Foreign Grooms 1,3&4 



DEATHS. 



SEX. 

Males 3,725 

Females 3,733 



NATIVITT. 

Native 5,247 

Foreign 2,211 



Whole number of deaths 7,458 

There was one birth to every 39.0 of the population, or 25.6 births in every 1,000 

One person married in every 61.5 of the population, or 16.2 persons married in every 1,000 

And one death in every 56.7 of the population, or 17.6 deaths in every 1,000 

Population for 1899 422,620 



126 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



CD 



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1899.] 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



127 



The following' table will present the miml)er, paroiitjipfe, and 
proportion to total mortality of deaths from several of the most 
prominent causes of death, in their order of precedence. 



Whole No. 

of deaths. 

Consumption 972 

Pneumonia 686 

Heart Diseases 648 

Kidney Diseases 477 

Cholera Infantum 473 

Apoplexy and Paralysis 457 

Cancers 292 

Accidents 276 

Brain Diseases 267 

Bronchitis 241 

Old Age 228 

Influenza 219 

Enteritis 212 

Typhoid Fever 90 

All causes 7,458 



Percentage 






Excess of 


of deaths 


Pareni 


tage. 


Foreign 


from all Causes. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


over Native. 


13.03 


316 


656 


340 


9.20 


317 


369 


52 


8.60 


334 


314 


-20 


6 39 


215 


262 


47 


6.84 


127 


346 


219 


6.13 


280 


227 


-8 


3.91 


135 


157 


22 


3.70 


109 


167 


58 


5.58 


117 


150 


38 


3.23 


73 


168 


95 


3.07 


148 


80 


-68 


2.94 


104 


115 


11 


2.84 


76 


130 


eo 


1.21 


41 


49 


8 



3,725 



LONGEVITY or DECEDENTS. 



Average age in years of Male decedents. 
Female " 
Total 



1899. 
34.04 
37.30 
35.67 



1898. 
34.34 
36.34 
35.31 



1897. 
33.71 
37.06 
35.37 



1896. 
30.86 
34.47 
32.61 



1895. 1894 

31.70 32.47 

36.49 34.40 

34.08 33.44 



There has been a gradual increase during- the last thirtj^-nine 
years in the average length of life of decedents, taking periods of 
five years each, running from about twenty-nine and thirty-two 
one-hundredths years, at the beginning-, to thirty-four and sixty 
one-hundredths years at the ending, in 1899. 



PERCENTAOE OF MOllTAl.lTV BY CLASSES. 

1899. 1898. 1807. 

Zymotic diseases 82.41 29..53 82.-.M 

Constitutional diseases 4.57 4.56 4.27 

Local diseases 39.73 41.05 39.63 

Developmental diseases 18.24 18.18 18.78 

Violence, etc 5.05 5.78 5.08 



1S06. 


1895. 


1891. 


32.34 


34 02 


2-,'. 02 


3.80 


3 98 


16 05 


38.25 


37.34 


46.18 


20.13 


19.18 


10.92 


5.48 


5.48 


4.82 



128 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

The large increase of percentage in the class of local diseases 
previous to 1894 was due to the increase in number of deaths from 
pneumonia, the greatest number of deaths being due to this cause 
in 1893, there being 121 more than in 1892 and 208 more than in 
1891. There were 111 less deaths from i3neumonia in 1894 than 
in 1893, 20 more deaths from same cause in 1895 than in 1894, in 
1896 16 less deaths than in 1895, 34 less deaths in 1897 than in 

1896, 93 less deaths in 1898 than 1897, and 142 more deaths in 1899 
than in 1898. 

RATIOS OF MORTALITY. 

As compared with the year 1898 there was little change in 1899 
in the proportional mortality of several of the most important 
diseases occuring in larger or small numbers every year. 

Apoplexy and Paralysis. — The deaths from these diseases were 
nearly the same in each of the years 1891 (335) and 1892 (338). 
In 1893 these had increased to 407 ; in 1894, to 415 ; in 1895, to 417 ; 
in 1896 there were 419 deaths from apoplexy and paralysis ; in 

1897, 469 ; in 1898, 416 ; and in 1899, 457. 

Bronchitis. — The deaths from bronchitis were but 5 more than 
in the previous year. There has been a steady increase in the pro- 
portionate mortality from bronchitis during the last twenty years, 
which must be attributed to something more than increased skill 
in differential diagnoses. 

Cancer. — The deaths from cancer were 292 in 1899 ; 279 in 1898 ; 
254 in 1897 ; 226 in 1896 ; and 234 in 1895. Cancer has increased 
considerably in its proportion of mortality to whole number of 
causes of death, during the last twenty-five years, and is probably 
due to increased- facilities in diagnosis. 

Cholera Infantum. — There Avere 473 deaths from cholera in- 
fantum in 1899 ; 468 deaths in 1898 ; 425 deaths in 1897 ; 545 deaths 
in 1896 ; and 500 deaths in 1895. The proportion to whole num- 
ber of deaths was 6.34 per cent. For the last 33 years it has been 
about 6.4 per cent. 



1899.] secretary's kki'okt. \2U 

Consumption. — There were 823 deaths from cousuiuption, or 
pulmouary tuberculosis, in 18;)'.). This does not include 40 from 
g-eneral tuberculosis. Added to this there were 71 deaths from 
tubercular menin^-itis, 12 from tubercular enteritis, 5 from tuber- 
cular larj'ngitis, 11 from tubercular peritonitis, 8 from tabes mes- 
enterica, and 2 from tubercular adenitis. 

A decided contrast will be seen in the proportion of the different 
diseases, by observation of the diagram shown on pag-e 131. Here, 
considering the condition for 34 j^ears, it Avill be seen that con- 
sumption has exceeded pneumonia nearly one hundred per cent, 
as a cause. 

DiARRHaii AND DYSENTERY. — The mortality from these diseases 
was 13 more in number than in the previous year, or 111 in 1899, 
and 98 in 1898. 

Diphtheria. — This disease had a mortality of 86 in 1899, which 
was 7 less than in 1898 ; 68 of these were in Providence county, 
40 being in Providence citj\ The percentage to tlie whole num- 
ber of deaths was 1.15. In 1898 it was 1.35. 

Fevers, Malarlu..— These had a mortality of 30 in 1899, and 31 
in 1898. 

Fever, Typhoid. — There were 90 deaths from typhoid fever in 
1899, and 76 in 1898. Typhoid fever, as a disease and as a cause 
of death, has gradually lessened in both proportions, as compared 
with other important diseases, during the last 15 j'^ears. 

Heart, Diseases of. — The deaths from diseases of the heart 
numbered 648, against 549 in 1898. Diseases of this organ have 
been gradually increasing during the last thirty-three yeai's. See 
Table LXXYIII, page 231, Keg. Kep. 

Influenza. — The number of deaths reported as from this disease 
in 1899 was 219, an increase of 114 over that in 189S. During the 
year 1892 there were 336 deaths from this cause. 

17 



130 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

Kidneys, Diseases of. — The number of deaths from diseases of 
the kidneys in 1899 was 477 ; the number in 1898 was 471. Dis- 
eases of these organs have been gradually assuming large impor- 
tance as causes of death during the last thirty-four years. The 
ratio of mortality for five years, 1885-89, was nearly five times as 
large as the ratio for the years 1890-95. See Table LXXXI, page 
241, Eeg. Kep. 

Pneumonia. — The number of deaths caused by pneumonia in 
1899 was 686, as against 542 in 1898. Pneumonia has gradually 
increased in importance as a cause of death for the last fifteen 
years. See Keg. Eep., Table LXXXVI, page 251. 

ScAKLET Fever.— The number of deaths in 1899 was 29, 8 more 
than in 1898. The proportion was 0.4 per cent, of the whole num- 
ber of deaths. Scarlet fever has largely decreased in epidemic 
prevalence and proportion of mortality during the last fifteen 
years, as compared with previous periods of fifteen years each. 

Small-Pox. — There were no deaths from small-pox in 1899, 
there were two in 1894, none in 1893, and four in 1892. The dimi- 
nution of cases, and the decrease of mortality as a consequence, 
has been quite remarkable during the last fifteen years. The effi- 
cacy of vaccination has had remarkable endorsement. 



1899.] 



secretary's; rkport. 



131 



-^ 









lllll 













>» 




































a> 


























c 




*- 






B 








■ ^ 




: •« 














<a 




o 

J3 




>- 


Q 




3 : 


Q 








a 


03 




o : 


1 

00 


1. 

a. 








a 

3 


I 




K 



« -5 - 



J. o s 






a 5 ~ If ?; 



132 



STATE BOARD OF SEALTH. 
DIPHTHERIA FOR 1899. 



[1899. 



Cities 
AND Towns. 


cS 

a 

03 

i-= 









3 



1 







o 
a 





1 




'u 

p. 



1 










1 


a 
a 







1 


a 

1-5 




1 





a 
be 

a 
< 



1 














i 

o 
o 
O 









a 

o 

IS 








u 

<v 
.Q 

a 

o 

<0 







73 
o 


Barrington 





Bristol 


1 


^Varren 


3 


Coventry 


1 


East Greenwich. . 
* West Greenwich 


2 


Warwick 








3 






















1 

2 


1 





1 




1 


3 










1 





























3 








1 










""b" 


5 

1 






"6" 









1 

3 



1 


Jamestown 





Little Compton... 

Middletown 

Newport '. 





8 


New Shoreham... 





Portsmouth 

Tiverton 







3 







1 














11 































1 
1 





]9. 


Burrillville 





Central Falls 

Cranston 


13 
9 


Cumberland 

















East Providence . 










Foster 












3 
14 


4 
















4 

3 
















9 




3 




1 

8 





1 





2 
17 








3 
15 





1 


8 

3 
31 





Glocester 





Johnston 


9 


Lincoln 











8 



North Providence 
North Smithfield 


1 


6 






1 







Pawtucket 


2 
15 







5 






2 

11 


22 


Providence 


15 


3 


■'"6" 


3 


140 


Scituate 




6 





Smithfield 



2 




1 


1 
6 


1 
10 


1 

10 


3 
6 


5 


Woonsocket 

Charlestown 


51 


*Exeter 




























Hopkinton 

Narra°'ansett 

















"o" 












1 











1 











1 



North Kingstown 
Richmond 


3 





1 





1 



1 

51 

31 

70 

125 

164 

58 


6 



South Kingstown 
Westerly 





18 

54 

103 

117 

62 

35 





23 

46 

47 
76 
33 
17 





22 

31 

67 
74 
31 
31 





11 

30 
59 
108 
26 
23 





19 

28 
61 
70 
50 
41 





35 

19 
48 
49 
35 
32 





16 

13 
38 
53 
55 

7 





14 

6 
59 
45 
53 
10 





28 

13 
77 
69 
100 
23 




85 

34 
147 
121 
137 

33 



6 

41 

39 
117 
114 

227 
32 




7 


Total 


298 


" 1898 


343 


'• 1897 


893 


" 1896 


1031 


" 1895 


973 


" 1894 


341 







*Has no health officer. 



1899.] 



SECRKTAItY S RHI'OUT. 
SCARLET FEVER FOR 1899. 



133 



Cities 
AND Towns. 


>> 

>. 

St 

9 
P 
03 


>> 

u 

03 

a 

.s 

1 






1 


J3 


2 


1 
5 


1 

< 







1 


03 





2 


a! 

c 




1 





>. 


2 



2 


00 

S 

u, 

s 
< 









B 
a> 

O. 

n 
w 


3 
5 

1 



O 


2 
2 

2 



B 

o 



1 


.S 
s 

V 

a> 
Q 


4 




Barrington 

Bristol 




1 

8 

1 



1 

15 


Warren 


16 


Coventry 


2 

1 




2 


9 


East Greenwich.. 
*W'^est Greenwicli 


18 


Warwick 




1 



1 



...„. 




4 
4 


3 


1 

5 

"o" 

3 


5 
3 
3 


2 




3 

5 
1 

2 

1 
1 


3 





1 




1 

2 

1 
9 


2 




6 


1 
■"6" 


3 


1 




2 


3 




2 


1 







3 




3 


2 


4 



...„ 



1 
4 
2 


6 
...„. 



1 



1 


5 
5 
5 


97 


Jamestown 


1 


Little Compton... 

Middletown 

Newport 


5 

1 
96 







Portsmouth 

Tiverton 






1 

8 



3 






3 






2 






2 



1 



4 


1 
3 
4 


5 
9,1 


Burrillville 

Central Falls 


4 
20 
87 


Cumberland 











5 


19 














Foster 


3 





U 
1 


4 
13 
1 

2 


() 







1 



1 




1 







2 
U 




2 




12 







1 
1 
38 





2 

2 
3 
32 


1 

1 



12 
6 

38 


1 




3 
6 
64 


6 


Glocester 







3 


Lincoln . .. .1 






"6"' 


6 


NorthProvidence 
North Smithfield 



U 
3 




u 







18 


Pawtucket . ... 


1 

21 




2 
16 


2 


2 
11 


28 


Providence 


23 



U 
■4 


...„. 


2 


268 


Scituate . 


I 

4 


4 


Smithtield 








J! 




7 



5 




8 



9 





Woonsocket 

Charlestown 


43 


*E\eter 




























Hopkinton 












U 




"o" 









U 



























Narragansett 





North Kingstown 
Richmond 

















3 

115 

45 
65 
87 
91 
122 




u 


South Kingstown 
Westerly 



1 

33 

66 

80 

78 

168 

133 





46 

57 

47 

97 

132 

95 





48 

47 
47 
61 
118 
91 





20 

40 
51 

72 

123 

70 


1 


43 

58 
34 
48 
69 
71 





30 

48 
57 
30 
78 
53 





25 

15 
41 
29 
56 
33 





23 

25 
35 

28 
47 
33 





65 

26 

42 
33 
55 

58 





68 

79 

1 1 

46 
63 

77 


1 


91 

66 
53 
92 
87 
103 


2 

4 


Total 


607 


" 1898 


579 


" 1897 


6-^9 


" 1896 


701 


" 1895 


1087 


" 1894 


989 



♦ Has no health ofiBcer. 



134 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



TYPHOID FEVER FOR 1899. 



Cities 
AND Towns. 


oi 
§ 



1 







;-< 
C8 

^^ 
X2 



2 






O 

i.. 
CO 









p. 
< 









d 








s 

3 
•-= 







1 


1-5 



1 




1 


4J 

3 

Sao 


5 


1 

2 


a 

P. 
tw 



22 
2 

1 

8 


■ s 

O 

o 


4 



1 


S3 

a 

o 



1 





0) 

X> 

i 
o 

o 







o 

Eh 


Barrington 

Bristol 



36 


Warren 


2 


Coventry 


2 


East Greenwich.. 


13 


Warwick 







2 









.... 














9 








1 








1 







2 


1 
""6" 



1 







6 


1 





8 


1 




5 


1 







14 







2 

...„. 









'"6" 


9 










4 


Jamestown 

Little Compton.. 

Middletown 

Newport 








50 







Portsmouth 

Tiverton 








1 







2 








3 


1 












1 







1 



1 









2 




1 
1 


Burrillville 





Central Falls 


4 
16 































Foster 













4 























"o 

5 




1 








'"6" 

12 




1 





2 
15 



1 




) 

9 

28 




2 
1 


2 
18 


1 







1 

17 




1 






1 

24 


1 


Glocester 


8 




9. 












1 


North Providence 
North Smithfleld 
Pawtucket 

















'"o" 

4 






1 

15 


Providence 


3 






""o 

1 
1 


180 


Scituate 










Smithfleld 




2 







4 


U 
3 




2 



1 


1 


Woonsocket 

Charlestown 


14 


*Exeter 




























Hopkinton 

Narra°"ansett 












1 



































1 


2 




North Kingstown 
Richmond 





1 





1 






1 

88 

28 
35 
26 
90 
31 


2 



South Kingstown 
Westerly 



3 

7 

20 
18 
33 
104 
61 





8 

20 

9 

17 

35 

27 





13 

33 

6 

21 

15 

54 




1 

5 

18 
8 
14 
18 
23 




1 

10 

10 

12 

9 

8 

25 





10 

6 
9 

13 
13 
14 




1 

24 

8 

5 

19 

30 

13 



4 

40 

16 
21 
46 
25 
54 



5 

89 

28 
33 
65 
34 
59 



2 

50 

39 
39 
31 
46 
76 


2 
5 

32 

25 
35 
31 
53 
55 


2 

23 


Total 

" 1898 


326 

251 


" 1897 


9,80 


" 1896 


85^5 


" 1895 


471 


" 1894 


492 







* Has no health officer. 



TUBERCl JA)SIS. 



]^a:aiiu)Hiii()nt< (if Sj^i/ti///t /'or Tahercalo^h from. Jamutrij /, ]S!)'i, 
to January 1, WOO. 



Clinical Diagnosis. 



Bronchitis 

Bronchitis, chronic 

Tuberculosis, pulmonary 

Tuberculosis, general 

Tubercular laryngitis 

Pleurisy 

Pneumonia 

Influenza 

Asthma 

Empyema 

Post nasal catarrh 

Pharyngeal catarrh 

Trachitis 

Acute rheumatism, with symptoms of T. B. 
No diagnosis, susp. tuberculosis 



Total. 



74 

35 

309 

1 

11 
5 

10 
4 
2 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 

25 

485 



a; — ' a^ 

s =3 ^ I = SJ 



10 

12 

149 



58 

23 

100 

1 

5 

2 

9 

3 

2 

4 

2 

1 

1 

1 

19 



194 



291 



21 
12 
101 
1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
1 



153 



TUBERCULOSIS. 

Number of examinations of sputum 485 

Number in wliicli tul)ercle bacilli were found 194 

Numbrr in wliich tulx-rcli' bacilli were not found 'J'.il 



136 STATE BOARD OF HEALTPI. [1899. 

During tlie year tliere were 485 specimens of sputum submitted 
for examination, witli the supposition on the part of the attending- 
physician that tuberculosis might be a factor in the causation of 
the symptoms of the patient. 

Of these, in 309 the clinical symptoms present were sufficiently 
distinctive to lead the physicians to believe that tuberculosis of 
the lungs was present. In 194 of these cases the examination of 
the specimen of sputum showed the presence, in greater or lesser 
quantity of tubercle bacilli. This would make 40 per cent, of 
cases where the clinical diagnosis coincided with the bacterial 
findings, while in 160 cases, or in 60 per cent., the bacilli of this 
disease were not found. While this negative result is of value, yet 
it does not carry the weight of a distinct negative, as to the actual 
presence of the disease, for it is possible to obtain from the patient 
a specimen of sputum which is composed of only the saliva and 
secretions from the larynx, and containing none from the air pas- 
sages in the lungs. The organisms may also be present at times, 
in the lung, either lying dormant or encapsulated, and will not 
be discharged into the air passages, and become a part of the 
sputum, until a degenerative process is set up which breaks down 
the tissues about the organisms and sets them free. 

In the eleven cases of tubercular laryngitis six were positive. 
The application of this method of diagnosis is especially valuable 
in this form of the disease, inasmuch as the appearance of the 
larynx may indicate the presence of ulcerative processes, and the 
formation of tubercles from other causes. 

It is of especial value in these cases, for the organism may not 
as yet have invaded the lung, but if the cases are neglected, they 
may readily be carried to the lung or intestine, and there propa- 
gate the disease. 

It is of interest to note that, of 109 cases of chronic and acute 
bronchitis, in 28 cases the diagnosis was erroneous, and the pres- 
ence of tuberculosis was established in the bronchi, if not, also, in 
the lungs. The constitution of the patient, however, being suffi- 
ciently strong, as yet, to prevent the invasion of the organisms 



1899.] secretary's report. 137 

into larjji-e areas, tlie symptoms present werr not sufficiently dis- 
tinct, or alarmino-, to warn the physician of the dang-erous element 
which was present. In 33 instances, wliere the diag-uosis of bron- 
chitis was made, there had l)eeu other cases of the disease in the 
family. 



18 



RECORDS OF ALL CASES OF CONSUMPTION IN THE STATE. 



As a part of the investigation of the subject of tuberculosis in 
man, a card cataloiiue record of all deaths from pulmonary tuber- 
culosis has been arranged. At present this data is available from 
the commencement of the year 1890, and is completed to date. 
This division of the work afibrds much interesting material for 
study. The numlier of deaths for the different years was as follows : 

Deaths in 1890 852 

" 1891 740 

" 1892 759 

" 1893 722 

" 1894 705 

" 1895 839 

" 1890 846 

" 1897 777 

" 1898 88f; 

" 1899 972 

Total .■ 8,098 

These 8,098 cases are recorded on cards with the following data : 
Name, address, age, color, mamed, single, or widow, name before 
marriage, and date of death. By collecting the names in this way 
it is observed that certain names recur at varying periods of time, 
and by looking up the individual case further it will be found that 
this death has occurred in a family where previous deaths from 
consumption have taken place, the address in many cases being 
the same. 



1899.] secketart's report. 139 

In addition to the card catalog-ue of the names of the decedents, 
a separate card catalog-ue of the pre?mses where the death occurred 
has been kept, and thus it is possible to ascertain when any par- 
ticular house may have, by chance, been infected with this disease. 
It is further possible to ascertain if more than one case has oc- 
curred in any one house. 



OUTBREAK OF TYPHOID FEVER IN WOONSOCKET. 



During the latter part of May, information was received from 
the superintendent of the Woonsocket Water Works, Mr. Byron 
I. Cook, that there was a report circulating* that an unusual num- 
ber of cases of typhoid fever were present in that city, and, for the 
purpose of ascertaining if the cases present could be connected 
in any way with the city water supply, requested the secretary to 
visit the city and investigate the local conditions. 

For the purpose of ascertaining- how many cases existed, and 
what knowledge of the condition might be obtained at once, a 
communication was directed to the health officer of the city. Dr. 
A. M. Paine, asking- for the number of cases present, and the 
association of water and milk supply to these cases. 

In answer to this inquiry the following statement was received : 

Woonsocket, R. I., June 13, 1899. 
Gardner T. Smarts, M. D., Secretary of the State Board of Health : 

Deae Doctor. — In reply to yours of the 12th instant, I have to state that 
I have received no official report of any cases of typhoid fever in this city 
during the past two months or more, and as all the physicians in Woon- 
socket thoroughly understand that they are expected to report such con- 
tagious or infectious diseases as may come to their knowledge from time 
to time, to the health department, according to the city ordinances, and 
personal instructions as by inclosed card, which cards are always in their 
hands, I conclude that if there is typhoid fever here they are uncertain in 
their diagnosis and therefore have not reported. 

I have heard incidentally of one or two families where there are cases 
of supposed typhoid fever, but have been able to trace them to no definite 
conditions as source. 



1899.] SJ:CKEtAUY's REPOUT, Ul 

r sliivll look alter the luatlcr at oiicc. ami cdiircr with yon if tlierc are 

any new devek)pnients. 

^'(Kirs truly. 

A. M. PAIXR. 

Ilrallli OlUcer. 

NOTICE OF CONTAGIOUS DISEASES. 



Maine of Patient 

Age of Patient 

Residence 

Disease 

Physician. 

Date 



WOONSOCKET CITY ORDINANCES, CHAP. 50, SECS. 1 And 2. 

Every physician liaving knowledge of tlie existence of any contagious disease within the 
city of Woonsocket shall immediately make a report thereof in writing to the Health Officer 
of said city, on blanks furnished for tlie purpose. 

The diseases referred to in the preceding section shall include, among others, small-pox. 
diphtheria, typhoid fever, typhus fever, scarlet fever or scarlatina. 

As is customaiy under these conditions, when the i)hysicians 
have for any reason become lax with their reports of contagions 
diseases, and for the purposes of immediate and correct informa- 
ticm as to the amount of typhoid fever present, the followini^- 
circular letter was sent to every physician in Woonsocket and 
adjacent villages : 

Dkar Doctor. — "Will you kindly report to me any eases of typhoid 
fever wliieli you may have attended duriiin- tiie past live weeks, and oblige. 

Replies were promptly received tVcnn oiglit physicians. From 
the fact that no response was received from otlier physicians to 
whom the letter was sent, it is assumed that they had had no cases. 

From the physicians reporting it was ascertained that four had 
had no cases, one had had two suspicious cases but which had not 
developed suthciently distinct symptoms to consider them as ca.ses 
of typhoid fever. Blood from tliese two cases, submitted by 



142 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

the attending- physician to the department for examination, 
showed no reaction to the Widal test. One other case in another 
family, reported by this physician as typhoid fever, was taken sick 
on May 12th. The Widal test of blood from this patient was 
made on June 14th, and showed a positive reaction. Another case 
also examined at the same time showed the Widal reaction. Two 
other physicians each reported two cases in one family. One 
physician reported six cases, three being- in one family and the 
other three in separate families. 

It will be seen from these reports that there were twelve cases 
of typhoid fever which had been present, attended by three differ- 
ent physicians, and that none of these cases were reported to the 
health officer of the city. One of these physicians inquired if it 
was a requirement that these cases should be reported, and ex- 
pressed his desire and intention of reporting all future cases. 

An inspection of the premises where the actual as well as the 
supposed cases occurred, disclosed the fact that the residences of 
the patients were not confined to any one locality ; the water supply 
varied, some having the city supply and others using- wells upon 
the premises. 

A bacteriological analysis of the well water. of one of the cases 
showed the water to be of fair quality for a surface well. It was 
so situated as to preclude any chance pollution from drains, cess- 
pools, or vaults. 

The milk supply was from various sources. 

As a result of the examination of the five premises where the 
twelve cases had occurred, no determination could be made as to 
where the patients had contracted the disease. 

The conditions, however, which existed between the physicians 
and the health officer were to be deplored, since it placed the city 
in an unfortunate position in case an epidemic should be pending 
or under way, and much valuable time might be lost in searching 
out a common cause, in case one existed, owing to the failure of 
the physicians to report the cases as soon as reported. 



IMPROVEMENT IN THE WATER SIPFEY OF THE EAST 
PKOVIDENTE WATER COMPANY. 



DuriDo- the year 1898 the board inspected the water shed of the 
Teu Mile river, being- the stream from which the East Providence 
Water Company obtained its supply of water. This supply was 
furnished to a larg-e number of consumers in the town of East 
Providence. 

The attention of the water company was called to the fact that 
the stream was being- polluted by the wastes of numerous factories, 
and received house and surface sewag-e from many towns in Massa- 
chusetts and from some localities in the State of Rhode Island. 
It was estimated by the Massachusetts Board of Health that the 
contaminations included the wastes from 4,500 persons. 

A request was lodged with the board of health of Massachusetts 
asking- for relief from these conditions, but it was found that that 
boai'd could give no assistance. 

The attention of the East Providence Water Company Avas called 
to this condition of affairs, and the need and urgency of that com- 
pany in taking some steps to purify the supply or to abandon the 
same was shown. 

The water company at once agreed to take immediate steps for 
the improvement of the supply' so far as it might be able to do so ; 
and upon recommendation of the secretary of the board of the 
system, known as the mechanical or American method of filtration, 
the company placed a contract for a mechanical filter with the 
New York Filter Company, the operation of which should he 
satisfactory to the board of health. 

A plant was placed in a filter building- near the pumping station. 



144 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

with all the necessary piping, valves, and tanks necessary for the 
perfect operation of a mechanical filter plant. 

Before acceptance of the plant, and to satisfy the board of health 
and for its own satisfaction, the company at its own expense insti- 
tuted a series of experiments or tests of this plant. 

The plant proving satisfactory in every way, it was accepted 
and continued in commission, and has continued to furnish to the 
consumers a clear, white water, freed from the taste of the raw or 
unfiltered water, and freed from bacteria to the extent of 98 to 99 
per cent, on the average. 

A paper, read by the secretary before a meeting of the 
American Public Health Association, giving the figures and de- 
tails of the experiment, will be found in the appendix. 



ADDITION TO THE LAWS GOVERNING THE REGISTRATION 
OF BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES. 



As mio-ht he expected by those familiar with the conditions 
g-overning- the record of vital statistics, it not infrequently happens 
that important data in reference to an incomplete record of a 
death or of a marriage or birth is brought to the notice of the 
.city or town registrar. Facts in reference to parentage or other 
relationship may have been omitted in an original return. Old 
papers may be discovered or information received establishing 
the identity of a person unknown so far as the facts on the record 
show. Man}^ deaths are recorded on tombstones of ancient date, 
but no record is to be found in the town clerk's office. The tomb- 
stone may go to decay, but the records, if properly preserved, will 
always be available. Births are quite frequently unreported. No 
physician or even midwife is in attendance at the confinement. The 
parents are not familiar with tlie requirements and advantages of 
the law in this connection, and make no report. The records to be 
found in the parish church, where the record of the christening of 
infants is to be found, is often replete Avith the names of children 
born in the State, but no record of the birth is found in the town 
records. 

That these cases might not be lost, and as no provision had 
been made to preserve them, the following act was passed at the 
January session of the legislature : 

19 



146 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1899. 



STATE OF RHODE ISLAND AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS. 



January Session, A. D. 1899. 



AN" ACT IN Addition to CHArTER 100 of the General Laws, 
Entitled "Of the Registration of Births, Deaths, and 
Marriages." 

It is enacted hy the General Assembly as folloivs: 

Section 1. Chapter 100 of the General Laws, entitled "Of the regis- 
tration of births, death, and marriages," is hereby amended by adding 
thereto a section to read as follows : 

"Sec. 25. If it shall come to the knowledge of a town clerk, or any per- 
son appointed under the provisions of section 1 hereof, that any birth, 
marriage, or death which has occurred in his town or city has not been 
returned to him as required by this chapter, or has not been recorded, 
such town clerk or person shall record the facts called for by section 3 
hereof to the extent he shall receive in any way any credible information 
of the same. If any error shall be made in the return of any birth, mar- 
riage, or death, or shall be discovered in the records of births, marriages, 
or deaths, such error shall be corrected without erasure. In each case 
the source of the information from which the addition or correction is 
made, and the date of making the same, shall be noted on the face of the 
record, and such town clerk or person shall attest the same by his signa- 
ture thereon. Such town clerk or person shall annually, on or before the 
first Monday in March, make duly certified returns to the secretary of the 
state board of health of all such additions and corrections made during 
the year ending on the thirty-first day of December next preceding. Such 
town clerk or person shall receive, for each such additional record and re- 
turn of a death, marriage, or birth made by him, the same fees specified in 
sections 12 and 19 hereof for recording and returning deaths, marriages, 
and births respectively." 

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect from and after its passage. 



WORKING OF THE MEDICAL PRACTICE ACT. 



LEGISLATION. 



A l)ill was introduced at the January session of the legislature 
amending the medical practice act, and providing for the issuance 
of a certificate only upon the examination of the applicant ; a di- 
ploma from a recognized medical school not being sufficient to 
prove the qualifications of the applicant. 

The amendment also provided for the omission of freedom to 
practice midwifery to midwives, thej^ being under the present law 
permitted to practice, being excluded from the requirements of 
holding a certificate under the present law. Provision was also 
made wherebj^ it would be possible to refuse to grant a certificate, 
or whereby a certificate already granted might be revoked, upon 
presentation of evidence that the applicant or practitioner had 
been found guilty of crime ; also a more distinctive explanation 
as to what constitutes the practice of medicine, the latter provis- 
ion being introduced for the purpose of correcting the Aveakness 
of the present law as interpreted by the supreme court on the 
appeal of three cases of the State Board of Health against three 
Christian Scientists, so-called. 

In the decision it was ruled that the practice of medicine nec- 
essarily embraced the use of drugs in the common acceptance of 
the term as a remedial agency, and that prayer and suggestion did 
not constitute the practice of medicine. 

The bill was referred to the Committee on Judiciary, and a [tre- 
liminary liearing was accorded the petitioners to explain the 
purpose of the amendment, and upon application from attorneys 



148 STATE BOAKB OP HEALTH. [1899. 

representing the Christian Science church, and others, a public 
hearing- was given. 

The hearing was attended by over two hundred persons, mostly 
ladies representing the sect of scientists, and some so-called meta- 
physicians and mind curers. They were represented in their 
argument against the amendment by four attorneys and by a 
leader of the church. 

The committee was impressed by the arguments presented, 
which were directed to questioning the constitutionality of such 
a law and the question of individual or personal liberty, and the 
bill failed to pass even with modifications which were satisfactory 
to the opponents of the amendment. 

RULING. 

August, 1899,' the following ruling was passed by the board in 
respect to the requirements of schools to be in good standing 
before the board for the issuance of a certificate to practice medi- 
cine upon the presentation of a diploma only, without examination : 

"On and after January first, 1900, the diploma of any medical 
college where a course of instruction does not extend over a period 
of at least eight months in each and every year of its four-year 
course will not be accepted, and such a college shall be rated as 
not in good standing, and a supplementary examination will be 
required of applicants presenting such a diploma." 

CONTINUANCE OF APPEAL. 

In the year 1896, Julius A. Pirlot made application to the board 
for a certificate, presenting as his qualifications a duplicate of a 
diploma purporting to be issued by the Faculty de M^decine de 
Paris. 

The board, not being satisfied with the credentials shown, had 
referred the applicant for examination. He refused to undertake 
the examination, but established a drug store in the city of Provi- 
dence, declaring to the secretary that he thought he could prac- 



1899.] SECIiKTAKY'.S KKI-olcT. Hd 

tico witliout compliance with the requirements f)f tlio board, wliere 
he ottered to the jiublic free Cf)nsnltation and sohl to Huch perHons 
as sought his advice dru^s which lie componiided in his store, 
which drui^s always cost the purchaser at least two dollars. The 
l)()ard secured evidence of this procedure and placed it before the 
court, and he was found jSfiiilty at a trial by jury in the court of 
common pleas. 

An exception was placed against this decision, on the ground 
that the judge in charging the jury stated that it did not matter 
whether the defendant received a fee or not, meaning that the 
reception of a bonus for the drugs supplied with the advice really 
constituted the fee. On this exception, however, the appellate 
di-vasion saw fit to reverse the decision and quashed the trial. 

A second suit was at once instituted on the same evidence and 
brought to the higher court. The jury disagreed, and the case 
was left for the time being ; and pending the action taken by the 
defendant in making an appeal against the refusal of the board to 
grant a certiticate, it was considered advisable by the attorney- 
general, who prosecuted the case, to remove from the evidence 
before the jury any influence which might arise as to any genuine 
value of the diplomas presented by the defendant. 

After manj' delaj'S, owing to illness on the part of the appellant, 
a hearing was brought to issue before the appellate division. 

The appellant presented the alleged copy of a diploma from the 
Faculty de M^decine de Paris, and claimed a right to a certificate 
upon that ground. The board submitted evidence showing that 
he had been guilty of unprofessional conduct in the State of 
Massachusetts, where he had imposed upon a citizen to the extent 
of an endeavor to take away the man's real estate and home in 
payment for alleged professional services, shown to be unnecessaiy 
and extortionate, and whereon he had brought suit against his 
patient. 

The evitleuce also presented affidavits from the records of the 
Faculty de M^deciue de Paris, stating and showing that Julius A. 
Pirlot never attended that school of medicine ; that his name was 



150 STATiE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

never entered on its books, and that consequently no diploma was 
ever issued to Julius A. Pirlot. ^ 

The defendant offered a plea that there was some mistake some- 
where, and petitioned the court for time to rebut this later evi- 
dence. The court granted a period of time for this purpose. The 
defendant, however, never re-appeared to establish his claim, and 
the decision of the board in its refusal was affirmed. The defend- 
ant leaving- the State, the prosecution for practice of medicine 
without license was abandoned. 

PEOSECUTION. 

During the year 1898 the attention of the secretary was called 
to four different cases wherein certain persons were alleged to 
have established a business for the treatment and cure of disease. 
One of these cases was that of a graduate of a medical school, the 
standing of which was not rated at the standard required by the 
board as in good standing. An examination was required of the 
applicant, who failed to appear for examination, and, without ob- 
taining a certificate, opened au office in the city of Providence, 
and proceeded in the practice of medicine. 

Investigation of the case proved the allegations to have founda- 
tion, and he was brought before the district court, and upon 
evidence presented was found probably guilty and referred to 
the grand jury. Before the grand jury, upon evidence presented, 
he was found probably guilty, and his case was set down for trial 
before the court of common pleas, where, after due trial, he was 
found guilty. 

The other three cases of the four which came before the board 
at this time were practitioners, or operatives, in that form of 
practice known to the medical profession as healing by suggestion, 
or mind curists. 

In one of these cases it was found that the practitioner, or healer, 
had made several visits upon a boy suffering with disease of the 
knee joint ; that he, the practitioner, had made several visits upon 



1899.] secretaky's kki-okt. 151 

the imtieiit, who was the son of jieople in poor circnmstanceH ; 
tliat he had advised the patient in reference to tlie diseased joint 
to tlie effect that he should not l)elieve that there was pain or 
disease present, and that the joint wouhl get better, and for this 
advice had collected as nnich of his fc^e as the jiarents of the 
patient could accumulate and borroAv from friends 

The second case was brought to the attention of the board 
through a member of the board being called upon to advise in a 
case where a gentleman had liecome so interested in the subject 
of mind healing that his own mind had become weakened, and he 
was committed to the Butler Hospital for the Insane for a certain 
period. It was ascertained that the agg-ravation and continuance 
of his diseased condition was caused by his taking- readings or 
lessons or interpretations of certain works on mind cure, for -which 
lesson he paid each time a fee of ten dollars ; but with each visit 
to the reader the patient's mind became more unsettled, until he 
meditated violence to members of the family. 

The third case was brought to the notice of the board by a phj'- 
siciau who was called to treat a little girl who was suffering- from 
a severe state of nervous depression caused by her being accosted 
on the street by a g-entleman. 

The child w^as suffering from a diseased hip, which caused lame- 
ness. The gentleman who spoke to her, evidently noting- the de- 
formity, stopped her and told her that she ought not to suffer 
from such a trouble, and that if she would come to his ofHce lie 
would cure her of the disease. This Avas the statement broug-ht 
home to the parents by the child. In corroboration of her ex- 
jierience was the state of nervousness in which she appeared, and 
also a business card which the gentleman had presented to her, 
and which l)ore the name of a well-known and mucli respected 
business man and the legend that he was a metaphysician. The 
card also bore the address and office hours. 

Through the ag-ents of the board it was ascertained that all 
three of these persons were prepared to receive patients who were 
suffering from supposed or real disease, and to give theni advice 



153 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

for which they accepted a fee for the services rendered. No drugs 
were g-iven or ordered. The advice was oral, and the treatment 
consisted of prayer in the presence of the patient. 

Assuming that the treatment of disease, or the offer or attempt 
to treat disease, and, from the instructions given by the various 
chairs of therapeutics in the various medical schools, that the use 
of suggestion was an important and useful part of the medical 
resources of the regular practitioner, an.d was as necessary at times 
as the use of drugs, the secretary, agreeably with the provisions of 
the statutes or general laws of the State, entered complaint against 
these three practitioners, and they were heard before the district 
court and found probably guilty and remanded to the grand jury, 
which body in turn, upon the evidence presented, also found a true 
case against each of the three men. 

Pending their assignment for trial before the court of common 
pleas, a demurrer was entered before the supreme court upon the 
question of constitutionality of the complaint as fully set forth 
in the following copy of the record of the decision handed down 
by the full bench of the supreme court of the State : 

STATE vs. WALTER E. MYLOD. 

Providence— July 18, 1898. 

Present : Matteson, C. J., Stiness, Tillinghast, Wilbur, Rogers, Douglas 

and Bosworth, J. J. 

One cannot question the constitutionality of a statute unless liis rights 
would be affected by its enforcement. The duty of a court to construe 
a statute arises only when its meaning is obscure ; if the legislature has 
plainly expressed its meaning, construction is excluded. In the con- 
struction of penal statutes, words and phrases must be taken in their 
ordinary acceptation and popular meaning, unless a contrary intent ap- 
pears. 

Words of such statutes are not restricted hi meaning within the narrowest 
limits, nor extended beyond their common interpretation ; and the ac- 
cused is entitled to the benefit of any reasonable doubt as to whether 
the acts done are within the meaning of the statute. 

The object of the statute relating to the registration of physicians is to 
regulate the practice of medicine and surgery, and thereby secure the 
safety and protect the health of the public. 



1899.] secretary's rei'Okt, 153 

The "practice of medicine" relates to the art of preventing, curing', or 
alleviating disease or pain ; popularly, it consists in the discovery of the 
cause and nature of disease and the administration of remedies, or pre- 
scribing treatment therefor. 

Mere words of encouragement, praj'er for divine assistance, or the teach- 
ing of "Christian Science," do not constitute the practice of medicine 
in either of its branches. 

The State Board of Health is not clothed with arbitrary power; it can 
only determine whether an applicant for a certificate to practice medi- 
cine possesses tlie statutory qualifications to practice in accordance with 
the recognized theories of a particular school or system. 

The assumption of the title of "doctor" is not prohibited by statute, and 
is not unlawful. 

Complaint charging the practice of medicine and sui-gery for reward 
without registration and license. Certified from a District Court and 
heard on the constitutionality of Gen. Laws, K. I., cap. 105. 

BoswoRTH, J. The defendant was adjudged probably guilty in the Dis- 
trict Court of the Sixth Judicial District of the State of Rhode Island. 
Said complaint, which was made under cap. I(i5, Gen. Laws, R. I., alleges 
that the defendant, at Providence, on the twenty-sixth day of Xovember 
1807, "did then and there practice medicine and surgery for reward and 
compensation, Avithout lawful license, ceftificate, and authority, and not 
being then and there duly registered according to law." 

The defendant, upon arraignment, pleaded guilty, and subsequently, 
and before judgment, raised a question of the constitutionalty of said cap. 
165, which question, in accordance with the provisions of cap. 250, Gen. 
Laws, H. I., was certified and transmitted to the Appellate Division of 
the Supreme Court for decision. 

Gen. Laws R. I., cap. 165, provides for the registration of physicians 
and its object is to regulate the practice of medicine and surgery, f uder 
this chapter, authority to practice medicine and surgery is through a cer- 
tificate issued by the State Board of Health, and said board, upon applica- 
tion, and without discrimination against any particular school or system 
of medicine, is required to issue such certificate to any reputable physi- 
cian, practicing or desiring to begin the practice of medicine or surgery in 
this State, who possesses certain specified qualifications. 

Section 2 of said chapter, in part, is as follows : 

"Sec. 2. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice medicine or 
surgery in any of its branches, within the limits of this state, who has not 
exhibited and registered in the city or town clerk's ofiice of the city or 
town in which he or she resides, his or her authority for so practicing 

20 



154 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1899. 

medicine as herein provided, together with his or lier age, address, place 
of birth, and the school or system to which he or she proposes to belong." 

Section 8 of said chapter is as follows : 

"Sec. 8. Any person living in this state, or any person coming into 
this state, who shall practice medicine or surgery, or attempt to practice 
medicine or surgery in any of its branches, or who shall perform or at- 
tempt to perform any surgical operation for or upon any person within 
the limits of this state, for reward or compensation, in violation of the 
provisions of this chapter, shall upon conviction thereof be fined fifty dol- 
lars, and upon each and every subsequent conviction shall be fined one 
hundred dollars and imprisoned thirty days, or either or both, in the dis- 
cretion of the court ; and in no case, where any provision of this chapter 
has been violated, shall the person so violating be entitled to receive com- 
pensation for services rendered. To open an office for such purpose, or to 
.announce to the public in any other way a readiness to practice medicine 
or surgery in this state, shall be to engage in the practice of medicine 
within the meaning of this chapter." 

For the State, Everett Hall testified, substantially, that he called upon 
the defendant at his residence and asked to be cured of malaria ; that the 
defendant said he was Doctor Mylod ; that the defendant sat looking at 
the floor, with his eyes sliaded, as if engaged in silent prayer, for about 
ten muiutes, and then looking up said, "I guess you'll feel better ; " that 
defendant gave him a book entitled "A Defence of Christian Science ; " 
that he gave defendant one dollar ; that defendant did not recommend nor 
administer any drug or medicine, nor take his pulse or temperature, nor 
do any of the things usually done by physicians. 

Clarence Vaughn, in behalf of the State, testified that he called upon 
the defendant at his residence on two occasions and requested to be cured 
of grippe ; that he gave defendant one dollar each visit ; that the defend- 
ant said he was Doctor Mylod ; that defendant gave him a card stating 
the defendant's office hours and describing defendant as Christian Scient- 
ist, but not in any way referring to defendant as a physician ; that de_ 
fendant did not take his pulse or temperature, nor do any of the other 
things that physicians do in treating disease, but seemed to be sitting in 
silent prayer; that defendant gave him a book entitled "An Historical 
Sketch of Metaphysical Healing ; " that defendant told him to look, not 
on the dark side of things, but on the bright side, and to think of God, and 
it would do him good, since thought governs all things. 

Dr. Gardiner T. Swarts, secretary of the State Board of Health, testified 
that the defendant is not a registered physician ; that said defendant does 



1890.] SfiCRETAKY's KKrOliT. l66 

not have autliority to practice medicine in Riiode Island, and that pliysi- 
cians often cnre disease without the use ol" drugs or medicine. 

For the defence, the cliarter of the I'mvidence (Miurcli of Christ, Scient- 
ist, was introduced in evidence, and the defendant testified, substantially, 
that he is the president and lirst reader or pastor of said church ; that 
said cluurli lias been organized and has held regular services for seven 
years ; that said church belongs to tlie sect known as Christian Scientists, 
in whose belief (Jod and Jesus Christ and the JJible hold a supreme place ; 
that the principal distiuguishiug dilference between Christian Scientists 
and other sects consists in the belief of the former regarding disease, 
which they believe can be reduced to a minimum through the power of 
prayer ; that the public religious services of said church consist of silent 
prayer, music, reading of the scriptures, and of extracts from "Science 
and Ilealtli," by ]\Iary (1. Baker Eddy ; that he, beyond a greater realization 
of truth which liis longer study of Christian science may have given him, 
professed to have no greater power over illness than that possessed by any 
member of his church ; that he did not tell the witnesses Hall and Vaughn 
that he could cure them, nor did he call himself a doctor ; that he did not 
attempt to cure them by means of any power of his own ; that he assured 
them that it is God alone who heals, acting through the human mind ; 
that all he did was to engage in silent prayer for them, and to endeavor to 
turn their thoughts to God, and toward the attainment of pliysical perfec- 
tion ; that the efforts made for them were precisely the same in character 
as those which he makes for his congregation at the public services of his 
church ; that he does not practice medicuie nor attempt to cure disease ; 
that he has no knowledge of medicine or surgery; that, as a Christian 
Scientist, he never recommended to anyone a course of physical treat- 
ment ; that he has only the method of prayer, and effort to encourage 
hopefulness for all who come to him in public or private, and whatever 
disease they imagine they have ; and that his ministrations often can be, 
and are, rendered as effectively in tiie absence as in the presence of the 
beneticiary. 

Other witnesses were called, but there was no material variance in the 
testimony, except that the witnesses Hall and \'aughn testified that the 
defendant said that he was Doctor Mylod, wliicli testimony was contra- 
dicted by the defendant. 

The constitutional question raised by the defendant is that, under ^^3, 
Art. 1, Const. R. I., which secures to him religious freedom, he has a right 
to perform the acts shown by the testimony to iiave been performed, and 
that, therefore, said cai). 105, (Jen. Laws li. I., under wliicli said complaint 



156 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

was made, is unconstitutional if, and in so far as, it provides a penalty for 
the performance of said acts. 

This question, properly, cannot be considered by the court unless said 
cap. 165 is sufficiently broad to include within its prohibitive provisions 
the acts of the defendant ; for the defendant cannot question the consti- 
tutionality of said chapter unless his rights would be affected by its en- 
forcement. State V. Snoiv, 3 R. I. 64. 

There is no testimony tending to show that the defendant practiced or 
attempted to practice surgery, or that he made any diagnosis or examina- 
tion to ascertain whether the witnesses Hall and Vaughn were suffering 
from disease, or that he administered or prescribed any drug, medicine, or 
remedy, or that he claimed any knowledge of disease or the proper reme- 
dies therefor. 

Upon the testimony, the only claim that can be made by the State is 
that iipon a card handed to one of the witnesses appeared the name and 
office hours of the defendant ; that the defendant said he was Doctor 
Mylod ; that he offered silent prayer for the witnesses Hall and Vaughn, 
who claimed to be suffering from disease ; that he gave said witnesses 
each a book in which, presumably, the principles of Christian science were 
taught, explained, and defended ; that he told the witness Vaughn, sub- 
stantially, to look on the bright side of things and think of God, and it 
would do him good ; and that he accepted compensation for his services. 

Did these acts of the defendant constitute the practice of medicine, in 
violation of cap. 165, Gen. Laws R. I.? 

It is the duty of the court to give effect to the intention of the law- 
making power as embodied in the statutes. The legislature is presumed 
to mean what it has plainly expressed, and when it has so expressed its 
meaning, construction is excluded. It is only when the meaning of the 
statute is obscure, or the words employed are of doubtful meaning, that, 
in order to give effect to the legislative intention, the duty of construction 
arises. In the construction of penal statutes, a well-established rule is 
that words and phrases must be taken in their ordinary acceptation and 
popular meaning, unless a contrary intent appears. While the words of . 
such statutes are not to be restricted in meaning within the narrowest 
limits, neither are they to be extended beyond their common interpreta- 
tion ; and if there is a reasonable doubt as to whetlier the acts done are 
within the meaning of the statute, the party accused of its violation is en- 
titled to the benefit of that doubt. Endlich on Int. of Statutes §§ 329, 330. 

It follows, therefore, that the acts complained of are excluded from the 
operation of said cap. 165 unless the words "practice of medicine," taken 



1809.] skcretary's rkport. 157 

in their ordinary or popular nicaniiiff, include them, or unless it apitcars 
from said e]iai)ter that the lej;islative intent was to fjive to said \V(irds a 
nicaiiiii^' l)niader and more inehisivc lliau tiic pupular one. 

Medicine, in tlie popular sense, is a remedial substance. The practice of 
medicine, as ordinarily or popularly understood, has relation to the art of 
preventing:, curlns", or alleviating disease or pain. It rests largely in the 
sciences of anatomy, physioloo;y, and hys'ioie ; it recjuires a knowledge of 
disease, its origin, its anatomical and physiological features, and its causa- 
tive relations ; and, further, it requires a knowledge of drugs, their prepa- 
ration and action. Popularly it consists in the discovery of the cause and 
nature of disease, and the administration of remedies or the prescribing 
of treatment therefor. 

I'rayer for those suffering from disease, or words of encouragement, or 
the teaching that disease will disappear and physical perfection be at- 
tained as a result of prayer, or that humanity will be brought into har- 
mony with God by right thinking and a fixed determination to look on 
the bright side of life, does not constitute the practice of medicine in the 
popular sense. 

The State, however, contends that said cap. 165, taken as a whole, indi- 
cates a legislative intention to give to the w^ords " practice of medicine " 
a meaning broader than the popular one. In support of this contention it 
calls attention to the provision contained in section 8 of said chapter, 
that " To open an office for such purpose," that is, for the practice of med- 
icine or surgery, "or to announce to the public in any other way a readi- 
ness to practice medicine or surgery in this State, shall be to engage in the 
practice of medicine within the meaning of this chapter." In view of this 
provision, the State contends that to practice medicine it is not necessary 
to use internal or other remedies, nor to make diagnoses, nor to have a 
patient, but that the opening of an oHice for the practice of medicine, or 
the announcement of a readiness to engage in such jiractice, constitutes a 
practice of medicine ; and, therefore, as the statute applies not only to 
those who actually practice, but also to those who announce in any way a 
readiness to practice, the State contends that the legislature intended to 
give a broader than the gcMicraily accepted meaning to the words, "prac- 
tice of medicine." 

We are unable to agree witli tliis contention, ^^■itllout passing upon the 
provision referred to, and whatever its signiru-ance, it certainly cannot be 
construed to broaden, in a general sense, tlu^ meaning of the words "prac- 
tice of medicine." The most that can be claimed for it is that it oiierates 
to broaden the offence created by saiil cap. in."., so that the attempt or the 



158 STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

announcemeMt of a readiness to practice medicine becomes equivalent to 
the actual practice. 

The State further calls attention, in support of its contention, to section 
6 of said chapter, which provides that "nothing in this chapter shall be so 
construed as to discriminate against any particular school or system of 
medicine," and it argues that, as the statutory prohibition relates to the 
practice of medicine " in any of its branches," and that as certain dis- 
eases, such as insanity and nervous prostration are treated by the so-called 
"regular school" without the use of drugs, and that as all schools recog- 
nize the study of mental conditions as affecting bodily health as forming 
a distinct branch of medicine, the legislative intention to give to the 
words "practice of medicine " a construction sufficiently broad to include 
the practice of Christian science is clearly manifest. 

The words of the provision against discrimination, like the words "prac- 
tice of medicine," must be taken in their ordinary sense and meaning. 
It is a matter of common knowledge that among medical men there are 
defined differences regarding the treatment of diseases. These differences 
have resulted in different schools or systems of medicine. A recognition 
of the existence of such differences, however, does not broaden the mean- 
ing of the words "practice of medicine" to include the practice of that 
which, in the popular sense, is not a practice of medicine. Neither does 
the statutory reference to the practice of medicine "in any of its 
branches" affect the meaning of the words in question. While it is true 
that the study and treatment of mental disease constitute one of the' de- 
partments or branches of medicine, in which the influence of the mind 
over the body is recognized, yet mere words of encouragement, prayer for 
divine assistance, or the teaching of Christian science as testified, in the 
opinion of the court, does not constitute the practice of medicine in either 
of its branches m the statutory or popular sense. 

To give to the words "practice of medicine" the construction claimed 
for them by the State, in the opinion of the court would lead to unintended 
results. The testimony shows that Christian Scientists are a recognized 
sect or school. They hold common beliefs, accept the same teachings, 
recognize as true the same theories and principles. If the practice of 
Christian science is the practice of medicine. Christian science is a school 
or system of medicine, and is entitled to recognition by the State Board of 
Health to the same extent as other schools or systems of medicine. Un- 
der said cap. 165 it cannot be discriminated against, and its members are 
entitled to certificates to practice medicine, provided they possess the 
statutory qualifications. The statute, in conferring upon the State Board 



18'.>0. I SECJIETAKY's KKl'UllT. 15!^» 

of Tlciiltli authority to pass upon the (lualilication of ai)plicants for sudi 
I'crtilicatt's, docs not confer upon said l)oard arl)ilrary ])i»\ver. 'I'lio board 
cannot di'Lcniiiiii' which sciiool or system (tf nu-dicinc, in its theories and 
practices, is rigiit ; it can only determine wlietiier the applicant i)ossesses 
the statutory (pialilication to practice in accordance witli the recognized 
theories of a particular school or system. It would lie altsuid to iiold that 
under said cap. Ki."), which provides against discrimination, the re(iuire- 
ments necessary to entitle an applicant to a certilicate were such that the 
members of a particular school or system could not comply with them, 
thus adopting a construction wiiich would operate not as a discrimination 
only, but as a prohibition. On the other hand, to hold that a person who 
does not know or pretend to know anything about disease, or about the 
method of ascertaining the presence or the nature of disease, or about the 
nature, preparation, or use of drugs or remedies, and who never adminis- 
ters them, may obtain a certificate to practice medicine, is to hold that 
the operation of the statute is to defeat the beneficial purposes for which 
it was enacted. 

The cases cited by the .State do not sustain its contention. In Kehon 
V. Harrinfjton, 72 Wis. 591, the plahitiff brought suit agauist the defend- 
ant, who w^as a clairvoyant physician, to recover damages for alleged un- 
skillful treatment. In testimony, it appeared that the defendant held 
himself out as a healer of disease and accepted compensation ; that he 
determined the nature of the disease for which he treated the plaintiti, and 
the character of the remedies he administered, while in a mesmeric state 
or trance condition. The court held that the defendant was bound to 
exercise reasonable skill, and that the knowledge of the plaintiff of his 
methods was no defence to the action. 

In Bibber v. Simpson, 59 Me. 181, which was an action brought to recover 
compensation for services, the opinion of the court is as follows: "The 
services rendered were medical in their character. True, the plaintift' does 
not call herself a physician, but she visits her sick patients, examines their 
condition, determines the nature of the disease, and prescribes the reme- 
dies deemed by her most appropriate. AVhether the plainlill calls herself 
a medical clairvoyant, or a clairvoyant physician, or a clear-seeing physi- 
cian, matters little ; assuredly such services as the plaintilf claims to have 
rendered purport to be, and are to be deemed, medical, anil are within the 
clear and obvious meaning of 11. S. isTl, c i:3, ^^ ;;, which provides that ' no 
person except a physician or surgeon, who commenced prior to February 
10, 18:31, or has received a medical degree at a public medical institution in 
the United States, or a license from the Maine Medical Association, shall 



160 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

recover any compensation for medical or surgical services, miless previous 
to sucli services he had obtained a certificate of good moral character from 
the municipal officers of the town when he then resided.' The plaintiff 
has not brought herself within the provisions of this section and cannot 
maintain this action." 

In Wheeler v. Sawyer, Atl. Rep. 67 (Me. 1888), the plaintiff, a Christian 
Scientist, brought suit to recover for services. Cap. 13, § 9, li. S. (Me.) 
1888, is the same as cap. 13, § 3, R. S. 1871, except that it does not relate 
to physicians and surgeons practicing prior to February 16, 1831. The 
plaintiff had received the certificate of good moral character required by 
the statute. The court said : "We are not required here to investigate 
Christian science. The defendant's intestate chose that treatment. There 
is nothing unlawful or immoral in such a contract. Its wisdom or folly is 
for the parties, not for the court to determine." 

In State v. Buswell, 40 Neb. 158, the defendant was indicted for the un- 
lawful practice of medicine. In Nebraska, Laws of 1891, cap. 35, the 
practice of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics is prohibited except by per- 
sons possessing certain qualifications. Section 17 of said cap. 35, in part, 
is as follows : " Sec. 17. Any person shall be regarded as practicing medi- 
cine within the meaning of this act who shall operate on, profess to heal, 
or prescribe for or otherwise treat any physical or mental ailment of 
another." The defendant was a Christian Scientist, and the evidence 
against him upon which the State relied was similar in character to that 
in the case under consideration. The trial court instructed the jury that, 
in order to convict the defendant, they must find that the defendant had 
practiced medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, as those terms are usually 
and generally understood, and the State excepted. 

The Supreme Court, in sustaining the exception, uses the following lan- 
guage : " Governed by the instruction, the jury could not do otherwise 
than to acquit, for there was no proof to meet its requirements." 

Again : "The statute does not merely give anew definition to language 
having already a given and fixed meaning. It rather creates a new class 
of offences, in clear and unambiguous language, which should be inter- 
preted and enforced according to its terms." 

Again: "Under the indictment the sole question presented, upon the 
evidence, was whether or not the defendant, within the time charged, had 
operated on, or professed to heal or prescribe for, or otherwise treated, 
any physical or mental ailment of another." 

The decision of the Nebraska court, therefore, is that while the practice 
of Christian science is not a T)ractice of medicine as those terms usually 



ISlC). I SKCRKIAKY S RKl'OKT. I li I 

and gfiH'iallv arc uiKlrislood, ycL that, iiikKt tlin sccliun h1»<ivc (iiiotcd, 
the practice n\' Christ iaii science, l)einfj: ;i tieiituient for pliysical or mental 
aihncnts, is a violalion id' llic law. 

Ill Missonri. the statnte recpiires that i)ef()re a person may lawtnlly 
practici' medicine or sururcry he must lile a <'oi)y of iiis diploma with the 
clerk (d' llic CDiiiity ('(uirl. and it fiirtlin- provi(h^s{H. S. sWi;!0-l) that any 
person, not (lualilied, wiio sliall jiractice medicine or sursjery shall not be 
IH'rmitted to receive compensation for services rendered, "as any such 
l)hysician or surcfeon." 

In Ddvidson v. Bolilmaii, o7 Mo. App. 570, the i)laintiff having bronght 
suit to recover for services, the question raised was whetlier the services 
wtM-f ])('rf()rmed by the ]>laintiff as a physician. Tiic idniiitilT jiad jiracticed 
medicine, lawfully, for nearly thirty years, first as an allopathic physician, 
and later as an electric ])hysician : he had a diploma from an electric med- 
ical ('(dles'e, but bad failed to (lie a copy of it, as- required by law ; the 
services for which he claimed comi)ensation consisted of electrical treat- 
ment : the bill for services furnished the defendant described the plaintiff 
as "Dr. 'r. 1*. Davidson," and the ])laintiff called a medical practitioner to 
testify to the value of the services hi question. The Court of Appeals, upon 
the testimony, held that the services w^ere performed by the plaintiff as a 
physician, and that, not being qualified to practice, he could not recover. 

The assum])tion of the title of "doctor," if defendant assumed such 
title, was not unlawful. Cap. 165 does not, in terms, prohibit the use of 
the word "doctor" by any person, whatever his business or profession 
may be. Its use is entirely immaterial, in any case, luiless mider such 
conditions or circumstances, or in such coiniection, that it may serve as an 
announcement or indication of a readiness to engage in tjie practice of 
medicine* or surgery. 

The object of the statute in (|uestion is to secure the safety and protect 
the health of the public. It is based upon the assun!i)tion that to allow 
incompetent ix'rsons to determine the nature of disease, and to jirescribe 
remedies therefor, would result in injury and loss of life. To jirotect the 
l)ublic, not from theories, but from the acts of incomix'tent i)ersons, the 
legislature has prescribed the (|iialilical ions of those who may be entitled 
to i)erform tla- important diitii'S of ini'dical jtraclif ioners. The statute is 
not for the i)uriiose of compidling persons sufiering from disease to resort 
to remedies, but is designed to secui'e to those desiring remedies com- 
petent pliysicians to prepare and administer tiiem. See Sniith v. Lane, '24 
II un. (01 X. Y.) (-.32. 

The opinion of the Courtis that tlie words "practice of medicine" as 
•ii 



162 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

used in Gen. Laws R. I. cap. 16.5, must be construed to relate to the 
practice of medicine as ordinarily and popularly understood, and that the 
acts of the defendant do not constitute a violation of said chapter. The 
court, therefore, cannot properly pass upon the constitutional question 
raised, for the rights of tlie defendant would not be affected by any con- 
clusion to which the court might arrive. 

STATE vs. DAVID ANTHONY. 

Providj:nce— July 18, 1898. 

Present : Matteson, C. J., Stiness, Tillinghast, Wilbur, Rogers, Douglas, 

and Bosworth, J. J. 

The practice of "Christian science" by one who has not complied witli 
the provisions of Gen. Laws R. 1. cap. 165, is not an unlawful practice 
of medicine ; and hence in a complaint against him tliereunder, he can- 
not attack the constitutionality of said chapter. 

Complaint charging the unlawful practice of medicine. Certified from 
a District Court, and heard on constitutional questions. 

Pee. Curiam. The defendant, who is a Christian Scientist, was adjudged 
probably guilty, by the District Court of the Sixth .Judicial District, of the 
unlawful practice of medicine, in violation of cap. 16.5, Gen. Laws R. I. 
The defendant claims that said cap. 165, so far as it relates to the acts 
complained of, is in violation of Art. 1, § 3, Const. R. I. The evidence 
upon which he was adjudged guilty showed a practice of Christian science, 
and, substantially, was like that set forth in the opinion of the court in 
State V. Mylod, ante, 262. The testimony fails to show any violation of 
said cap. 165. Said chapter does not relate to the acts of the defendant, 
and, therefore, he cannot, in this proceeding, attack its constitutionality. 

See opinion. Stale v. Mylod. 

STATE vs. HENRY S. TAFT. 

Providence — July 18, 1898. 

Present : Matteson, C. J., Stiness, Tillinghast, Rogers, Douglas, and Bos- 
worth, J. J. 

Practice of the art of "metaphysical healing," for reward, without regis- 
tration and license, is not a violation of Gen. Laws R. I. cap. 165, and 
the question of the constitutionality of the act is not open to a defend- 
ant in a complaint thereunder when the evidence shows only the prac- 
tice of such art. 



1899.1 SIX ur.rAitv''s kki-out. Hjy 

('oMri.AiNT cliai'^iiiLr tlic uiil.iwriil iJracticc (tf mt'dicinc. Ccrlilicd from 
a District ("miit, and licani on cunstitutioiial (lut'stioiis. 

I'Ki: Ci iMA.M. Tlir (Irrciidaiit was adj iidi^fd piohaldy .>,Miiity, Ijy tlie Dis- 
trict Court of the Sixtli Judicial District, (da violation of fap. Ki.'j, (ieii. 
Laws H. I., "of the practice of medicine." The defendant, who is a be- 
liever in metaphysical healing, claims that said chapter, so far as it relates 
to the acts complained of, is in violation of Art. 1, $ 8, Const. R. I. 

Although the testimony differs somewhat in character from that in Stale 
V. Mi/lod, ante, ();32, and State v. Anthony, ante, (544, it fails to show that 
the defendant, in the statutory sense, was guilty of an unlawful practice 
of medicine. This being so, the constitutional question is not before the 
court. 

See oi)iiiioii. Stale v. ^f!/lod. 



APPENDIX. 



A EEPOET OF A FOUR MONTHS' TEST OF A MECHANICAL 
FILTER PLANT AT EAST PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



BY GARDNER T. SWARTS, M. D.,* 
Secretaky State Board of Health, Providence, R I. 



I desire to report tlie result of a test of a mechanical filtration 
plant, located at East Providence, in the State of Rhode Island : 

The supply of a portion of this town is taken from the Ten 
Mile river, which is a stream of about twelve miles in length. It 
rises in the State of Massachusetts, and has on its borders several 
towns and a larg-e number of jewelry manufactories, woolen mills, 
and dye houses. The wastes from all of these deliver directly 
into the river, and the river receiving' the wastes from a popula- 
tion of 3,700. 

It was impossible for the State of Rhode Island to require a 
discontinuance of the pollution of the river, and the State of 
Massachusetts apparently had no authority in the matter. A 
civil suit, broug-ht by the water company, ag-ainst each polluter, 
would be the only means of enjoining- ag-ainst pollution. This 
would not only be expensive, but would require years of litigation 
before final removal of every source of pollution. It was there- 
fore necessary that some immediate action be taken and the sup- 
j)ly, with its pumping station and mains, condemned and aban- 
doned, or the water purified, as far as practicable, before deliver- 
ing the supply to the consumers. 

Upon request of the management of the company for advice 
from the State Board of Health, the mechanical, or American, 
filtration method was recommended. This advice was given in 

* Paper read before the Americaa Public Health Association, October 31, and November 
1, 2 and 3, 1899, at Minneapolis, Minn. 



P Mfg. Co. 
X IS and gallon 
FilLei- riant. 



Water Co. 



,JCVA.TION. 





C Sedime. in 

D Filter Be a 

A Supply to rih.en 

B Wash to Filter. 

E Outlet for Filtered Water. 

H Controller for reijulatma^ discharge c 

Water, C Butterfly Valve notshownJ = 
J Suction Pipe for Wash Pump. — 

K Pump for washing' Filter Bed. 
M Float Tank to rejulate supply to Filtci 
T A^^itatmy Apparatus. 

V Chemical Tank 

V Aluin Feed Pump. 
W AKirri Feed Pipe to Filter 
X Propeller for operating Alum Fcev- Pv;i — 

V Supply Pipe for Alum Feed Pvn ; 



^T 



m 



m 



%y- 



New Yoi-k Filter Mfg. Co. 

Five Hundi^ed. Thocisana gallon 

Jewell Gi-avity Filter- IMarit. 

-^ of t.h= — 

East Providence Water Co. 




1899.] SfeCRbTAKY*S KEPOK'r. l66 

preference to the use of tlie natural sand bed filtration on account 
of the location of the pumpiug- station ; the necessity of coverino' 
the beds in this climate, which would add materially to the 
original cost ; for the purpose of removing- completely the coloring* 
matter which was found in the supply, and from the satisfactory 
and perfect control and celerity of cleansing- to be found in the 
mechanical form of filtration. 

The ]3lant, w^hile not a larg-e one, yet consists of one initial of 
the type known as the " Jewell Gravity Filter," and supplied by 
the New York Filter Manufacturing- Company, of New York. 

In case a larg-er supply was required, it would be only necessary 
to repeat this initial size of filter indefinitely, therefore, the work 
of one initial would be the same as a number, although the water 
company, at the present time, is supplying- but 200,000 g-allons of 
water to its consumers. The daily capacity of the filter is avail- 
able to 500,000 gallons at the rate of filtration of 125,000,000 
gallon per acre per 24 hours. 

The tests covered a period of about 144 days, or four months, 
and the operation of the filter was under the charge of the regular 
pumping engineer of the water company. The quantities of 
sulphate of alumina used were weighed out by him under advice 
of Mr. E. B. Weston, C. E., who also planned and superintended 
the construction of the whole plant. 

The chemical analyses in the test were made by Prof, John 
Howard Appleton, of Brown University. 

The bacterial analyses, as well as the determination of color and 
alkalinity, were made by the writer. 

The precipitant, or coagulaut, or chemical used throughout the 
test was sulphate of alumina, which was dissolved in the propor- 
tions of one part of sulphate of ahimina in about 20 parts of 
filtered water. This solution was made about twenty-four ho'urs 
before being used, the supply for the day's run being taken from 
a second tank in which the alumina had been dissolved the day 
before. 

The sulphate of alumina used contained about 22 per cent, of 



l66 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

alumina (AL.2O3), except from March lOtli to lltli, inclusive; from 
June 1st to 7tli, inclusive, and from June 27tli to 28tli, inclusive, 
when an inferior and cheaper grade, containing about 17.53 per 
cent., was used. The object in using- this inferior grade was to 
determine if the same, or increased, quantities of sulphate of 
alumina might not give equally good results with less cost. It 
was found, however, that the increase in quantity brought the 
expense to equal the cost of smaller quantities of the expensive 
sulphate of alumina, the maximum efficiency depending upon the 
amount of the alumina (AL2O3) in the applied chemical. 

Sulphate of alumina was added to the raw water at the rate of 
one grain per gallon, except from March lOtlito 11th; March 20th 
to 25th, and from May Ist to 6tli, when 0.75 of a grain was used ; 
March 27th to 30th, when 0.6 was used, and from June 22d to 
28th, when 1.25 grains were used. These variations were naturally 
made to determine the minimum amount of the applied chemical 
which would give maximum efficiency. 

The average removal of bacteria during the test, including the 
use of the inferior grades and the increased quantity of sulphate 
of alumina, was 98.7 per cent. The average removal of bacteria 
was 99.2 per cent, during the time when one grain of sulj^hate of 
alumina of the higher grade which contained 22 per cent, of 
alumina (AL2O3), was used. 

Ten per cent, gelatine was used in the bacteriological test, and 
the plates ex^josed to ordinary refrigerator temperature, the period 
of growth being from four to six days, according to the variation 
of the external temperature. 

The sample of applied water was taken from the mains within a 
few feet of the sediment chamber, the sulphate of alumina being 
introduced by means of a (so-called) Egyptian pump whose move- 
ments were controlled by a propeller in the supply main a short 
distance beyond the point from where the supply was taken. 

The effluent, or filtered, sample was taken a few feet distant from 
the outlet of the filter. 



1899.] secrktauy's rkpokt. 167 

As tilt' result of tlir f(mi|)nt;iti<)iis iu.mIc by ^Fi'. AN'cstim. tlie 
eheraii'al results show that there was: 

Six per ceut. less total solids in the liltereil water than there was 
in the raw water. 

One per cent, less c-hlorine in the filtered water. 

Sixty one per cent, less ferric oxide in the filtered water. 

Thirty-eio-ht per cent, less aluniinic oxide in the filtered water. 

Twenty-nine per cent, less free ammonia in the filtered water. 

Sixty-three per cent, less albuminoid ammonia in the filtered 
water. 

Eij^hty-three per cent, less color in the filtered water. 

Twenty per cent, increase of hardness in the filtered water. 

The filtered water in every instance was alkaline. 

Attention is called to the fact that the preceding- summary of 
results shows that the filtered water contained 38 per cent, less 
alumina than did the raw water before the sulphate of alumina 
was added to it. 

It is customary to uive the results of the renioAal of bacteria in 
percentages, the efliciency or removal being- computed in that pro- 
portion. 

In making- a proi)osition for satisfactory filtration, it is some- 
times stated that an average eiliciency of 98 or 99 per cent, re- 
moval will be guai-anteed. It seems to the writer that such an 
indicator, although mathematically correct, is not fair to the 
operation (^f a given plant. 

As ail illustration, if the efHuent shows the presence of ten 
organisms to the cubic ceutiinenter of water tested, and the ap- 
plied water contained one thousand, an efficiency of 99 per cent, 
is attained, but should there be but one more organism in the 
count of the efUuent, or eleven, the percentagfe would drop to 
98.98 2)er cent., or below a guarantee of 99 per cent. The same 
drop from 99 per cent, would occur if there was one less organism 
in the applied water, giving an efficiency of only 98.99 ])er cent. 

When, as it sometimes occuis, there is an increase in the applied 
Avater fi-om the average of ou^ or two hundred, to up into the 



168 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

tliousands, tlie effluent does not show any such increase over the 
two or ten as the case may be. There is not the proportionate 
increase in the effluent, that we should look for, and yet this is 
not api^arent when we consider the results of percentages. This 
is especially evident when we study the filtration of sewage 
wastes, where we deal with millions in the applied water and have 
only hundreds in the effluent, the efficiency being apparently 
exceedingly high when judged by percentage. 

Again, although a filter may be giving its average efficiency in 
the effluent, say, of ten, should the applied water drop to two 
hundred, there is a great drop in the efficiency and yet the water 
which we are to supply to the consumer is of no worse quality 
than when we were treating the filter with a supply having a high 
count. 

It would seem fairer and more satisfactory to speak of the 
efficiency of a filter as being one which will give an average 
effluent count of not over a certain number under the conditions 
of an applied water which shall not have a count loAver than a 
certain high maximum. These conditions would be more satis- 
factorily attained and would appear more applicable to the con- 
ditions of efficiency than by comparison of percentages. 

Another illustration may be seen in cases, where of two filters, 
the second gives a lower count in the effluent than the first ; yet 
the first will give apparently increased percentage of average 
efficiency over the second, simply on account of a large increase 
in the numbers of the applied water. 

In other words, all other requirements being equal, we should 
favor the process, whatever it may be, that is going to give us the 
purest water bacteriologically, regardless of the amount of im- 
purity of the original supply. 

It may be stated that no Complaint has been received from any 
consumer concerning the increase in hardness, which naturally 
comes with this method of treatment, but commendation has been 
given for the whiteness of the water. 

The apparent increase in hardness is in fact more a matter of 



1899 ] sIvchktaky'.s kki'oim. 160 

chemical coinpntatioii than any actual cliani^e which can lie per- 
ceptible to the (inlinary senses and i)liysi('al functions of persons, 
or which may be noticeabki to the proibicers of st(;Hm. Shtnild 
any objection exist in tlie use of this water for the production of 
steam, there will \)v available an excellent oppoiiunity to deter- 
mine that fact throus'h the present use of the water in iron con- 
densing' vtits in a certain chemical manufactory which is attached 
to this supply. 

The following- tables give briefly the chemical and bacteriolog-i- 
cal results of this short run, under actual conditions of supply to 
the consumers : 



S2 



170 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



TABLE No. 1. 

Test of thk F^ast I'hovidkm k Mkchaxual Filter. 

CIIEMICAJ. ANALYSES OF SAMPLES. 

BV I'UdKKSJrMK .loIlN HoWAKll AlMM.ETON. 

liate of Filtration, 125,000,000 (Jalloiis per Acre per 24 hours. 

'Die numbers express parts (l)y weiglit) in one million i)arts of water 
(by weight). 



Date. 



T..t«l "^"^^ 



Chlo- 
rine. 



Keiric A'"""- 





N. a* Al- 






N as 


bumi- 


N. as 


N. us 


Free 


noid 


Ni- 


Ni- 


Ammo- 


Ammo 


trates. 


trites. 


nia. 


uia. 







l{.\w \\'.\'iKi; 



March 

April 

xMay 






3(5.4 


15.0 


3.0 






0.01 


0.1(5 


:;o 


3(i.7 


15.0 


2.1 


0.42 


1.23 


0.00 


0.14 


(5 


:!'.».(» 


1(5.0 


4.8 


0.58 


0.47 


(1.04 


0.22 


i;; 


3! I.;; 


14.0 


7.0 


0.(50 


O.SO 


0.10 


0.2(5 


20 


3il.!t 


17.0 


(J.4 


0.(51 


1.05 


0.05 


0.20 


27 


43.7 


18.0 


(J.2 


1.00 


0.75 


0.02 


0.22 


4 


51.5 


17.0 


(i.S 


0.08 


1.(57 


0.03 


0.28 


11 


53.1 


21.0 


(5.4 


0.01 


1.84 


0.03 


0.38 


KS 


54.0 


21.0 


(i.l 


1.01 


0.34 


0.03 


0.34 


25 


4tt.(; 


20.0 


0.4 


1.00 


0.7(5 


0.04 


0.32 



0.70 
0.60 
0.(50 
0.00 
0.70 
0.70 
0.(50 
0.(50 
0.(50 
0.60 



Trace 




Trace 



Fl LTEK EI> W ATEK. 



March 


•1 


32.2 1 


17.0 


" 


30 


30.7 


18.0 


April 


(5 


38.9 


22.0 


" 


13 


40.4 


10.0 


" 


20 


37.4 


22.0 


" 


27 


30.(5 


19.0 


May 


4 


40.5 


22.0 


" 


11 


47.2 


23.0 


" 


18 


40.8 


23.0 


" 


25 


46.5 1 


24.0 



3.0 




4.0 


0.18 


4.8 


0.61 


6.0 


0.45 


6.4 


0.28 


<5.2 


0.19 


7.7 


0.42 : 


6.3 


0.20 


.5.8 


0.13 


7.2 


0.40 





0.(J3 


(J. 97 


0.04 


0.44 


0.04 


0.55 


0.05 


l.tJ2 


0.05 


0.26 


(LOl 



1.08 
0.55 
0.47 
0.45 



0.02 
0.02 
0.03 
0.02 



0.07 0.60 Trace 
0.10 0.50 



(J. 10 
0.11 
0.10 
0.07 
(J. 11 
0.14 
(J. 12 
0.13 



0.60 
0.70 
0.(50 
0.60 
0.(30 
0.40 
0.50 
0.(50 




Trace 



1899.] 



secretary's report. 
TABLE No. 2. 



171 



Test of the East Providence Mechanical JFilter. 

BACTERIOLOGICAL AI^ALYSES OF SAMPLES. 

Rate of Filtration, 125,000,000 Gallons per Acre, per 24 hours. 





Bacteria per cubic cen- 
timetre. 






DATE. 




Per cent, 
of 


Grains of Sulphate 






of Alumina per 




Raw 


Filtered 


Reduction. 


Gallon. 




Water. 


Water. 






March lO 


954 


55 


94.24 


0.75* 


11 


480 


47 


90.21 


0.75* 


13 


768 


4 


99.48 




14 


595 


5.5 


99.08 




15 


Sterilized filter bed. 






16 


1299 


9 


99.31 




IT 


1257 


7 


99.45 




18 


683 


4 


99.41 




20 


658 


7 


98.94 


0.75 


21 


1888 


26 


98.62 


0.75 


22 


1044 


31 


97.03 


0.75 


23 


1.550 


37 


97.61 


0.75 


24 


3652 


51 


98.60 


0.75 


25 


• 1818 


16 


99.12 


0.75 


27 


512 


11 


97.85 


0.60 


28 


1142 


6 


99.47 


0.60 


29 


1025 


4 


99.61 


0.60 


30 


822 


16 


98.05 


0.60 


31 


782 


1.5 


99.82 




April 1 


499 


7 


98.60 




3 


636 


1.5 


99.76 




4 


628 


2 


99.68 




" 5 


545 


4 


99.27 




6 


855 


3 


99.65 




7 


1910 


19 


99.01 




" 8 


1009 


6.5 


99.36 




10 


1175 


6.5 


99.45 




11 


943 


9.3 


99.01 




12 


1443 


9 


99.38 




13 


336 


4.3 


98.73 




14 


Lost. 


4 






15 


998 


1.6 


99.84 




17 


765 


7.5 


99.02 




18 


578 


6.3 


98.91 




19 


865 


11 


98.73 




20 


546 


3 


99.45 




21 


699 


2 


99.97 




22 


359 


3 


99.17 




24 


293 


3 


98.98 




25 


697 


0.5 


99.93 




26 


724 


11 


98.48 




27 


422 


9 


97.87 





^ Inferior grade of sulphate of alumina having a relative value of about 80 per cent, of the 
sulphate of alumina used at other times. 



172 



state boaiid of health. 
Table No. 2. — Continued. 



[1899. 





Bacteria per cubic cen- 








timetre. 


Per cent, 
of 


Grains of Sulphate 
of Alumina per 


DATE. 






Raw 


Filtered 


Reduction. 


Gallon. 




Water. 


Water. 






April 28 


280 


2.5 


99.11 


1 


29 


370 


6 


98.38 


1 


May 1 


370 


4.5 


98.78 


0.75 


2 


469 


8 


98.30 


0.75 


3 


403 


13 


96.77 


0.75 


4 


289 


61 


78.89 


0.75 


" 5 


310 


6 


98.07 


0.75 


6 


316 


21 


93.35 


0.75 


8 


266 


9 


96.62 




9 


976 


3 


99.69 




10 


708 


13.5 


98-. 09 




11 


150 


5 


96.66 




12 


466 


3.5 


99.25 




13 


305 


4 


98.69 




15 


225 


1 


99.56 




16 


238 


0.5 


99.79 




17 


306 


0.5 


99.83 




18 


473 





100.00 




19 


210 


0.5 


99.76 




20 


228 


1 


99.56 




22 


238 


0.5 


99.79 ' 




23 


279 


1 


99.64 




24 


228 


1 


99.56 




25 


275 





100.00 




26 


270 


0.5 


99.81 




27 


185 


1 


99.46 




29 


454 


4.5 


99.01 




30 


334 


11.5 


96.56 




31 


458 


10 


97.82 




June 1 


1478 


10 


99.32 


1* 


" 2 


387 


16 


95.87 


1 * 


3 


411 


21 


94.89 


1* 


" 5 


548 


18 


96.72 


1* 


6 


434 


23 


94.70 


1* 


" 7 


587 


]0 


98.30 


1* 


8 


331 


4 


98.79 




" 9 


494 


8.5 


98.28 




10 


341 


6.3 


98.15 




12 


354 


0.3 


99.92 




13 


243 


2 


99.18 




14 


181 


0.3 


99.83 




15 


265 


1 


99.62 




16 


388 


0.6 


99.85 




17 


277 


2.5 


99.10 




19 


Lost. 


14 






20 


233 


8 


96.56 




21 


291 


4.3 


98.52 




" 22 


175 


2.3 


98.69 


■ 1.25* 


23 


162 


1 


99.38 


1.25* 



* Inferior grade of sulphate of alumina having a relative value of about 80 per cent, of the 
sulphate of alumina used at other times. 



isno. 



SKCKKTAUY S KKI'oUr. 

Taiu.e No, 2.— Concluded. 



\r.\ 





Bacteriii 


H T cubic cen 






DATK. 


til 

l(:iw 
Water. 


lie tie. 

KiltiMvd 
Water, 


Per f.Mit. 

..f 

Kfdiiclioii. 


Cirains of Sul|>liate 
i>f Aliiiiiiiia |n-r 

Ualluii. 


June 24 


27« 


2.3 


99.17 


1.25* 


2(5 


41(1 


3.3 


99.21 


1.25* 


27 


22(i 


3.(5 


98.41 


1.2.5* 


28 


242 


1.0 


99.34 


1.25* 


29 


209(j 


4 


99.81 




30 


8-19 


4 • 


99.53 




July 10 


202U 


5.G 


99.72 




11 


321 


11 


96.. 57 




12 


398 


12 


• 90.98 




10 


2(52 


20 


92. .37 




14 


402 


.") 


98.70 




15 


148 


l.(j 


98.92 




17 


383 


5.0 


98.54 




18 


279 





10(\00 




19 


225 


1.(5 


99.29 




20 


8(5 


2.3 


97.32 




21 


3(i5 


S.:] 


97.73 




' ' 22 


7(54 


o 


99.01 




27 


175 


().() 


99.(50 




28 


159 


4.0 


97.11 




29 


473 


2.3 


99.51 




31 


444 


L3 


99.71 




August 1 
2 


424 
313 


1 
2 


99.70 
99.30 





* liil'ei-ii)r trra<le of sulphate of aUuniiia having a relative value of about so per c-eiit. of the 
?ulpiiate of alumina used at otber times. 



lU 



STATE BOARD OV HEALTH. 



[1899. 



TABLE No. 3. 

Test of the East Providence Mechanical Filter. 

COLOR OF SAMPLES. 

Rate of Filtration, 125,000,000 Gallons per Acre per 24 hours. 

The unit of color is practically that color yielded by properly nesslerizing 
50 cubic centimetres of water containing one one-hundredth of a milligram 
of ammonia gas (or its equivalent). 









Grains 

of Sulphate 

of Alumina 

per 

Gallon. 








Grains 


DATE. 


Raw 
Water. 


Filtered 
Water. 


Date. 


Raw 
Water. 


Filtered 
Water. 


of Sulphate 

of Alumina 

per 

Gallon. 














March 10 


.50 


.10 


0.75* 


April 21 


.60 


.10 


1 


" 11 


.50 


.10 


0.75* 


" 22 


.60 


.10 


1 


" 13 


..50 


.10 


1 


" 24 


.60 


.10 


1 


" 14 


.50 


.10 


1 


" 25 


.60 


.10 


1 


" 15 


Sterilized li 


Iter bed. 


" 26 


.60 


.10 


1 


" 16 


.50 


.10 


1 


" 27 


.70 


.10 


1 


" 17 


.-50 


.10 


1 


" 28 


.70 


.10 


1 


" 18 


.50 


.10 


1 


" 29 


.60 


.10 


1 


" 20 


.50 


.10 


0.75 


May 1 


.60 


.10 


0.75 


" 21 


.50 


.10 


0.75 


!! 2 


.60 


.10 


0.75 


" 22 


.50 


.10 


0.75 


o 


.70 


.10 


0.75 


" 23 


.50 


.10 


0.75 


4 


.70 


.10 


0.75 


" 24 


.40 


.10 


0.75 


5 


.70 


.20 


0.75 


" 25 


.40 


.10 


0.75 


6 


.70 


.40 


0.75 


" 27 


.40 


.10 


0.60 


8 


.70 


.10 




" 28 


..SO 


.10 


0.60 


9 


.70 


.10 




" 29 


.40 


.10 


0.60 


" 10 


.70 


.20 




" 30 


.40 


.10 


0.60 1 


" 11 


1.00 


.10 




" 31 


.40 


.10 


1 


" 12 


1.00 


.10 


1 ' 


April 1 


.40 


.10 


1 


" 13 


.90 


.10 




3 


.40 


.10 




" 15 


.80 


.10 




4 


.40 


.10 




" 16 


.90 


.10 




5 


.40 


.10 




" 17 


.80 


.10 




6 


.40 


.10 


1 ' 


" IS 


.80 


.10 




7 


.40 


.10 




" 19 


.70 


.10 




8 


.40 


.10 




" 20 


.70 


.10 




" 10 


..50 


.10 




" 22 


.70 


.10 




" 11 


.40 


.10 




" 23 


.60 


.10 




" 12 


..50 


.10 




" 24 


.60 


.10 




" 13 


.50 


.10 


1 


" 25 


.70 


.10 




" 14 


.50 


.10 


I 


" 26 


.60 


.10 




" 15 


.50 


.10 




" 27 


.60 


.10 




" 17 


.50 


.10 


I \ 


" 29 


.60 


.10 




" 18 


.60 


.10 


1 j 


" 30 


.60 


.10 




" 19 


.60 


.10 


1 


" 31 


.50 


.10 




" 20 


.60 


.10 


1 











* Inferior grade of sulphate of alumina having a relative value of about i 
sulphate of alumina used at other times 



per cent, of the 



IM)'..'. J 



SECUETAKYS KEI'OKT. 



175 



TABLE No. 4. 

Test or the Kasi' I'kon iih.ni i; >[i;< hank ae Fietei:. 

AI.KAIJMI ^' (»K SAMI'I.IvS. 

Kiitc (»r I'illralioii, liTi.doii.ooo (ialloiis jxt Ac-re [icr lM hours. 

('I'lif Alkalinity is t'Xi)r»'sst'(l as Calcimn Caiboiiate, in J'arts per 1,0(M),000.) 











Grains 


DATE. 


Raw 
Water. 


Filtered 
Water 


of Sulphate 

of Alumina 

per 

Gallon. 










Maivl 


1 10 


(;.4 


■' 3 


U.75* 




11 


(i.O 


2.7 


0.75* 


" 


13 


5..") 


1.7 


1 


" 


14 


7.. J 


•> 


1 


" 


1.-) 


Ster 


ilized lil 


ter bed. 




11) 


(i.7 


1.5 


1 




17 


7 


2 


1 


" 


IS 


6.7 


2 


1 


" 


20 


6.2 


1.7 


0.75 


" 


21 


7.7 


1.5 


0.75 


" 


2'2 


6.5 


2 


0.75 


" 


23 


5.5 


1.7 


0.75 


" 


24 





2 


0.75 


" 


2r> 


5.7 


1.5 


0.60 




27 


7.2 


3 


0.60 




28 


9 


4 


0.60 


" 


29 


6.5 


3 


0.60 


" 


30 


7.7 


3.5 


0.60 


" 


31 


9 


2.7 


1 


April 


1 


8.5 


3 


1 


" 


3 


9.2 


2.7 


1 


" 


4 


9.5 


3.2 


1 


" 


o 


8.7 


3.2 


1 


" 


rt 


6.5 


3 


1 


" 


7 


11 


3.7 


1 


" 


8 


10 


3.2 


1 




10 


9 


3.7 


1 


" 


11 


10.5 


3.2 


1 


" 


12 


11 


4 


1 


" 


13 


10.2 


Lost. 


1 




14 


11.5 


4 


1 




15 


11.5 


5 


1 




17 


12 


4.5 


1 


" 


18 


11 


4 


1 



4.5 




May 



April 21 



24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

S 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

29 

30 

31 







Grains 


Raw 
Water. 


Filtered 
Water. 


of Sulphate 

of .Muniiiia 

per 

Gallon. 


11 


4.5 


1 


S.5 


4.7 


1 


14 


7- 


1 


14 


7 


1 


14 


6 


1 


14 


6 


1 


14.5 


6 


1 


13.5 


(i 


1 


14.5 


7 


0.75 


15 


,s 


0.75 


13.5 


7.5 


0.75 


15 


7.5 


0.75 


14 


6.5 


0.75 


15.5 


6.5 


0.75 


15 


6.5 


1 


14.5 


(\ 


1 


15 


() 


1 


14 


(j 


1 


14,5 


6.5 


1 


14.5 


5.5 


1 


15 


5.5 


1 


14 


5 


1 


14.5 


(i.5 


1 


14.5 


(> 


1 


14 


6 


1 


14.5 


6 


1 


14 


8 


1 


14 


6 


1 


14 


7 


1 


14 


7 


1 


15 


6 


1 


14.5 


.5 


1 


14 


5 


1 


14 


.5 


1 


14.5 


6 


1 



* Inferior grade of sulphate of alumina having a relative value of about SO per oent. of the 
ulphate of alumina used at other times. 



METHODS OF COMPILATION USED IN PREPARINO CENSUS 
AND REGISTRATION REPORTS. 



BY DK. GARDNER T. SWARTS," 

Secretart, State Board of Health of Rhode Island, 



Owing to the increased interest in vital statistics evinced by one 
of our western States, and the stimuhis given to other States by 
the zealous agitation of the subject by its earnest registrar, I 
have been requested by the President of the Association to 
present such facts as are available as to the various methods at 
present in use for the computation, or compilation, of the data to 
be found in the return, or certificate, of death. 

From the earliest times, a record of successive incidents of the 
same kind was kept by means of markings, and varied signs, upon 
parchment, tile, or stone. The aborigines of this country were in 
the habit of keeping their record hanging at their belt, in: the form 
of scalp-locks, taken from their victims, while the earlier settler 
recorded his mortality statistics of aborigines destroyed, by notches 
cut into the stock of his gun. 

At the present time, with the ready means afforded by the use 
of plumbago, inks and paper, the simplest form of notation has 
been what is called " the dot and dash system," a successive dot 
or dash being set against each distinct item that the data on the 
return presented. These in turn are counted, and the total set 
against the item. A variation is made at times between the dot 
and the dash, or any other distinctive mark, or check, which per- 

* Paper read before the- A merioan Public Health Association, October 31, and November 
1, 2 and 3, 1899, at Minneapolis, Minn. 



IS!)!), I skokktahy's jtKroitT. 177 

mits of tliH more ready discovery of tlu^ |);iiticnl;ii- Itiiinlh; of if- 
tiirns wliicli are successively examined. 

One of the disa(lvanta.^('S of tliis system consists of the im[)(js- 
sibility of tlctcnniiiini;- which iji(li\i(iiLal ictuni lias hei^n noted 
incorrectly. If a failuii^ is made to place a dot or dash, tlu; dis- 
covery is not made until the total is made up ; it then becomes 
necessary to do the work all over aoain, since the individual re- 
turn which is omitted cannot be distinguished. 

As an assistance, both in rapidity and convenience, in recording* 
the tally, a self-counting-, or tally sheet, was devised by Mr. Chas. 
F. Pidgin, who has been connected with the statistical work of 
the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor for the jjast 
twenty-nine j^^ears, filling- the position of chief clerk of that bureau 
since 1876. This sheet consists of a separate line for each item, 
the line consisting- of a series of dots, the tejitli dot being- larg-er 
and more distinct that the previous nine. The advantag-e of this 
form of tally sheet is that the total may be read off at any time 
without counting- up the number of dots or dashes. Variations of 
the form of dot, dash, bracket, or circle indicating- the tally, may 
be used on these sheets to indicate diiierent data, but which mig-lit 
be desirable in connection with the data first entered upon the 
same line, such as a diiierent district, ward, or toAvn. 

This is more useful Avhen the number of returns counted are 
small. It has the disadvantag-e of any dot and dash system. 

In the course of his association with statistical work, and from 
his experience of the needs of the forms of work, Mr. Pidg-in has 
invented and introduced many devices for facilitating- the work of 
comi)ilation. 

The first of these was the use of the slip, or card system, upon 
which the whole data of the return was marked. These cards, or 
slips, were sorted into boxes, or racks, according to the data given 
upon the cards. These cards could then be counted, and if any 
deficiency Avas found in the total, the individual pack, or sort, 
could be quickly run through, and the missing- or mistaken item 
found. 



178 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

As an adjunct to the original Pidgin System, the trays, or boxes, 
receiving' the cards were supplied with lids which closed auto- 
matically, by means of a stiff spring, but upon being- opened, i3ress 
upon a counting- dial, thus giving- the result of the count at the 
end of a sorting-. This did away with counting- the cards by hand. 

As a part of the original system, and as a check against the in- 
troduction of a wrong card into the sort, or boxes, the record of 
the return was indicated by holes punched into the cards against 
the various data required. This punching was done by means of 
a hand puncher. A bunch of these when sorted would each neces- 
sarily have the same corresponding hole, and a wire being passed 
through this hole in the collected bunch, would meet with no 
resistance unless a wrong sort had been made, in which case the 
oflending card could be withdrawn and placed in its proper 
division. 

Improvement was next made upon the sorting boxes, by intro- 
ducing into boxes a simple but effective counter which is operated 
by hand when the cards are sorted into their respectiye compart- 
ments. This form of machine, called "The Automatic Multiple 
Counting or Tabulating Machine," was devised and used by Mr. 
Pidgin in compiling the State Census of Massachusetts in 1895. 
This machine is operated directly from the original schedule, or 
return. It consists of a box having saw-tooth slits across the tin 
front. By lightly pressing a projecting arm, or wire, a spring 
throws this arm into the slots between the teeth. Each slot has a 
number indicated over it from one to nine. The lowest row indi- 
cates units, the second tens, the third hundreds, and the fourth 
thousands. When the unit arm has reached slot nine it is thrown 
back to zero with one sweeping motion, and the lever, or arms, of 
tens is touched once, throwing it into the first notch of the tens. 
Thus, by the aid of this simple device, counts may be made as 
high as ten thousand. 

A device called " The Pin Board Electrical Tabulating System" 
was next produced by Mr. Pidgin. This consists of a stack of 108 
counting machines which automatically adjust themselves at zero 



1899.) seckktaky's report. 1'5'9 

MS tlio rosult of simjily ]irossin.2f a button. Tlipso foniitpi's aro 
orected before tlio oporation, aud are set in motion by au elec- 
trical connection which is o]ierated from a pin board. A card 
liaviny- letters or characters re[)resentiu.q- the items to be recorded 
is i)laced over the pin board', and the pin and jiiinch are driven 
thrmiorh the card at the items indicated. This operation causes 
tlie counters to register aud at the same time ]n*oduces the 
punched card, thus accomplishiug- two results with one motion. 

For this pin board may be substituted what Mr. Pidgin terms 
"The Electrical Typewriter Tabulator." The keys of the type- 
writer may be marked with transferable labels indicating- the 108 
items which are to be counted. 

This machine is operated directly from the schedule, or return. 
This does away with the use of a card and with punching-. 
Twenty -one index keys, or g-uides, are arranged on two sides of 
the keyboard which gives a g-uide to tabulation. By using- the 
index, or guides, in correlation with the keys, a comlunatiou of 
items may be registered by the pressure of one key. In this way 
it is possible with one stroke to count the items of sex, nationality, 
color, conjugal relation, and age periods. 

Mr. Pidgin claims that if this form of machine is operated even 
as slowly as one-half the ordinary speed of the type^Titer, that 
lOo tables may be made per minute, or 0,300 registers per hour, or 
44,100 tallies per day of seven hours. 

A "Multijile Adding or Chip System" has been used by Mr. 
Pidgin for a number of years. This system is for adding small 
numbers where a great number of totals are desired. Its capacity 
is from units to millions. Colors are used to indicate units, tens, 
etc. The digits are printed in large characters, the six being 
distinguishable from the nine. The operator selects the card 
'numerals from the case as a tpye-settor would ])ick his type. 

By this process, two hundred columns may be added at a time 
with only one result slip for the totals. The chi]is are counted 
after being drawn from the rack in which they are sorted. This 
may be done bj' using any of the counting devices previoush' de- 



180 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [1899. 

scribed, the typewriter tabulator being- the most satisfactory. As 
the cards are counted, they may be sorted into a sorting- box near 
by the operator, and thus be available at once for placing in the 
rack from which they are first drawn. 

A device similar in operation to the " Pin Board Electrical 
Tabulating- System," but differently constructed, has been devised 
by Mr. Herman Hollerith, of Washington, D. C, and is known as 
the " Hollerith Electrical Tabulating System." 

This system consists of first preparing a card of exact size and 
shape uiDon which is printed the numbers, or the letters, which 
shall correspond to all the data which can possibly be found upon 
any given return of death or schedule of census. 

Inasmuch as the causes of diseases, as well as occupations, are 
exceedingly numerous, it is found impracticable to represent 
each disease by a given number, or sign, but it is feasible to indi- 
cate the several classes of causation, and to indicate by a specific 
number the sub-divisions of those classes. 

By a specially prepared machine these numbers, or signs, are 
punched out of the card for each item of the data given on a 
single return ; this card, therefore, represents the return, reading 
in the form of punched holes. It is now possible to sort these 
cards by hand, using the punched holes as the heading, but where 
the number is large, the objection to the original Pidgin System 
in this method is not removed. 

The next detail in the Hollerith System was to sort these 
punched cards by the use of the electrical sorting and counting 
device. The punched cards are placed one by one, by hand, upon 
a rubber slab holding as many small mercury cups as there are 
indications on the unpunched card. Above the slab with its cups 
is suspended an equal number of needles, or wire points. The 
bottom of the mercury cups are each individually connected with 
a dial-hand operated by small electric magnets. The needles are 
individually connected on the opposite pole of the magnets. The 
card being placed on the rubber slab, the needles are all brought 
down at once by a single motion of a lever. Certain of the 



IROO. I SECnisTAItY's IlKl'OKT. ISl 

needles will drop (liidiii^li llic puiKdicd lioltis in tlie card, conif 
iuto c'oiitiU't with tiio iiiorcuiry iu tlio cups, thus coinph^in^- u eui- 
reut tlirousfh tho nias'iiet Mdiicdi releases tlie hand on tho dial one 
point. 

Eucli time a current is made a register of one is recorded on the 
individual dial wliicli corresponds to the hole iu the card, which, 
in turn, re]iresents a^e, sex, color, conjuq-al conditions, etc. "When 
the di<^it hand on the dial has completed a count, a second hand 
tallies one hundred on the dial so that a computation of ten thou- 
sand ma}^ be made on each dial. 

After a certain division, or bunch of cards, represeutinq- a city 
or county has been passed throug-h the tabulating- machine, the 
totals on the dials may be read off and noted on the total tables 
of the report. 

One dial is reserved and placed iu a common count Avhich 
records the exact number of cards which pass through. The 
total, therefore, of any given item, as for instance in color, the 
total of black, white, and mixed must be equal to the total on the 
reserved dial. By this means any failure to have punched the 
card for these items, or failure on the part of the dial to record, is 
immediately noted and the card discovered by running the bunch 
through and noting the total for every five or ten .cards passed. 

Since the number of items called for in the rejiort may number 
ui)wards of two hundred and forty, it is evident that this number 
of dials, each of which is about three inches scpiare, would oc- 
cupy too much space. An electric connection is therefore made 
with a sorting box, which consists of a certain number, say "id, all 
of which have a light metal cover, which is held in place by means 
of an electric magnet. A sort is made by counting up each cell, 
or box, with the items, the primary division of occupations, or (^f 
divorces. 

When the needle passes through the item hole, the contact of 
the needle with the mercury causes the lid, or cover, <^f the box to 
be released. A spring throws the cover wide oi)en. Thi^ card 
having Ixmmi on the riM-ovd, is slid olV by hand into th(^ cell, (U- com- 



182 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

partment, found open. The cover is tlien thrown into place, bj^ 
hand, being' cauo-lit by the hook on the electric magnet and from 
which it was released Avheu the magnet moved. The opening of 
the sorting box, and the working of the one or more dials, operate 
at the same time. 

The cards accumulating in the boxes are taken in their sorted 
bunches to the dial portion of the machine, and a record is made 
of the holes found in the sub-divisions of occupations, or diseases. 

Although each card is placed and removed by hand, yet an 
operator quickly acquires great celerity and rapidity i]i the work- 
ing of the machine. It ^^ ill be noted that the operator does not 
read the cards, but the instrument does. The power for operation 
of the magnets is provided by about twenty-four carbon zinc cells. 

When any sort, or bunch, consists of but few cards, they are 
more readily worked by hand. The limit of this method of sort- 
ing and counting varies with the operator. The reading- is made 
by observation of the holes which correspond with the data as 
given in the original certificate, or return. 

As a variation or simplification of the work of punching, a ma- 
chine has been devised by Mr. Gore, of the Actuary Department 
of the Prudential Life Insurance Company, of Newark, N. J. 

This consists of the union of cutting, or punching, rods with 
the key-board of a typewriter. In this instrument the cards are 
fed and expelled automatically to and from the punching blade. 
As a matter of economy, and for the purpose of having cards ac- 
curately cut that there may be no variation in size, which would 
lead to obstruction in the several machines through which it 
passes, Mr. Gore has devised a machine which will automatically 
cut these cards from strips of cardboard distributed from a roll. 
These cards are also stamped automatically^ with a consecutive 
number, and printed with the letters, or signs, representing- the 
data to be noted. 

Mr. Gore's method of sorthig consists in placing bunches of the 
punched cards in a number of hoppers which are arranged on a 
circular platform, several of these circular receptacles being im- 



18!>'J.] SI'X.UETAKY's KHroKT. 183 

l)osed one upon the otlier, e;i<'li beinq- free to revolve independent 
of the eirch^ jibovc ;ind l)('h)\v. In eneh circle there are receivini; 
i'oini)artnients in whii-li the iJrojectiny- wire is inserted at a jioint 
which will c()rr('s|)()iid with the loc-atioii of the hole in the card 
the notation of wjiich is desired. As these circles are readily re- 
volved by hand, or i>lectric motor, each successive card conies in 
contact with these i)ins, and if the hole be [U'eseut directly (jver 
the pin, the card will drop into its i)ro[)er receptacle; if not, it con- 
tinues to revolve until it finds a point, or pin, which does corre- 
si)ond. In this way all of one age, or difterent age periods, may 
be sorted at the same time. These pins are adjustable in sockets 
for any of the signs found on the cards. In this Avay the sorting- 
is done Avith great rapidity, many thousands being- separated 
within an hour. 

Succeeding- this operation, an instrument has been devised 
which shall receive these cards from a hopper, and automatically 
c<>in)t and register the number of cards of any individual sort 
placed in a hopper. As this does away the with mistakes which 
are liable to accrue by lack of memory of the hand-sorter, the 
results are more accurate. A mistake made by the hand-sorter, of 
passing- two cards at one time, is obviated in this counting- instru- 
ment, since two cards cannot enter at the same time. Any failure 
to enter checks the operation of the machine. 

There is on the market a hand adding- machine which will 
record single tallies, or items, or one subject, to the number of 
'.>'.il», the next pressure upon tlie projecting- lever of the machine 
throwing- the reading- dials, or rather registering- wheels, over 
again to 000, making 1,000. These counters are used by iimpires 
of liase ball and other g-ames, by insi)ectors of steamboats, and in 
any large assembly to tally the number of persons present. 

It is a circular box of metal, about two inches in diameter, -with 
glass center on the front, protecting- the registering wheels. Each 
wheel may be thrown back to zero by means of thumb keys on 
the back. The wheels are set in motion by pressing a lever which 



184 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

projects on one side. This is useful only in adding- by single ad- 
ditions of one or two. 

For the purpose of adding" numbers including units, tens, thou- 
sands and upwards, a device known as the comptometer is to be 
found on the market. It consists of a box fourteen inches long 
and eight inches wide and four inches deep, containing a series of 
wheels, each having ten notches with a cam on each wheel at the 
tenth notch which will cause the neighboring wheel to advance 
one notch, or number. The turn of the wheel is produced by 
pressing upon a key button upon which is imprinted a number. 
There are nine digits in each vertical column of units, tens, etc. 
These buttons press perpendicular rods which force horizontal 
arms, or levers, to press against the notches on the wheel, the 
amount of push being governed by the length of arm or the lever- 
age of each number. The numbers being farthest removed from 
the register or dial has the longest leverage. All the numbers 
on the dial may be brought to zero by turning a small wheel on 
the side of the machine. 

A device for the same ]3urpose is found in the Electrical Ad- 
ding and Multiplying Machine of the Pidgin System. It differs 
from the previous machine by the numbers being notated by 
mearis of sliding keys instead of stiff upright keys. The keys, or 
arms, with pointer, are pushed up on the scale to the number to 
be added. All of the numbers up to a billion, being set, it is pos- 
sible to read the numbers off for correction before bringing them 
back into place and registering on the dials. 

This form of machine has the advantage of accuracy, and noise- 
less and easy of operation, very little effort being- required to push 
the sliding arms into position. The only disadvantage is the 
necessary width of the machine. An attachment also provides for 
locking the machine to avoid intentional or accidental movement 
of the arms by some person other than the operator. 

As with the Comptometer, multiplication and division and other 
mathematical computations may be mechanically executed Avith 
the aid of this machine. 



189'.).] SECKETAliV's KKI'OKT. 185 

As to tlie ;ulv;int;i^eK of one systuiii over the other, it may be 
statod that any iiiecliaiiit'til clevi(;e which will lehevo the miud, the 
hiiml, aiul tlio eye from coiitiiiuous routine eilbrt will serve the 
avoidance of mistakes. Huch devices necessarily increase rapidity 
of ol)taiHin,i;' results, and it is the aim of all registrars of vital 
statistics to issue their rei)()rts at the earliest possible date which 
is consistent with completeness and acciiracy of the information 
comi)iled. 

The card catalogue system has the advantaije of a permanent 
record, for reference. It has the advantage of sorting- by hand, 
which, as has beeu stated, is preferable in dealing- with small 
totals. 

The perforated card sj-stem has the advantage of availability of 
mechanical devices which insure accuracy, biit more especially 
rapidity. Thousands of cards may be handled in this Avay when 
Inindreds are counted by hand. One great advantage that this 
system has is the possibility of accumulating and sorting to ab- 
tain one item, or several, covering a period of five or ten years. 

The introduction of the perforated card involves one more pro- 
cess in the operation. The card must be punched by hand, and 
must be fed to the automatic counting- machine. 

Reading direct from the schedule, or return, and recording the 
count automatically by machine, brings the information direct 
from the return into the total and is thus a saving of time as well 
as an increase in accuracy. If, however, a mistake is made in re- 
cording one too many, or too few of a particular item, it is not 
possible to correct that except l)y a rereading- and recount of 
that item for all the returns that are in the schedule. 

In the nse of the dials, with clock hands as indicators, it is very 
essential that the operator stand directly in front of each dial, for 
from a i)oint diagonal from the dial, the angle at which it is 
viewed will give a mistaken notation. With the numerical indi- 
cator the numbers are at once evident. No counting- of inter- 
mediate divisions on a dial is necessary, the total being read oft' 
at once and noted on the total sheet. 



II 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



On May 18th last, a commission on the tabulation test for the 
next United States Census was appointed. This commission sub- 
mitted to the contestants schedules representing- approximately 
20,000 persons which were selected from the population of the re- 
turns of the eleventh census. Individual data was to be obtained 
from these schedules, and to be represented in twelve tables, com- 
prehending a distribution of the population by sex, general 
nativity, and color, age, conjugal condition, place of birth, 
parentage, illiteracy, school attendance, citizenship, occupations, 
and months employed. 



(County) 


(City or Town) 


(Month) 






(No.) 






f Col or and Race) 


(Conj. Cond.) 




AGE 






(Years) 


(Months) 


(Days) 




(Res. or Non. Res.) 






Disease 

or 

Cause of Death 


(Class) 


(Order) 


(Detail) 


Occupation 


(Class) 


(Section) 


(Detail) 


Place 
of 


A 


; 


^ 


IF 


A 





Birth 

and 

Parent 

Nativity 






o o o 



Massachusetts Kegistration : Deaths— ISSt. 



Copyrighted, 1887, by Chas. P. Pidgin. 



1899.] 



SKCRETARY's UEI'OKT. 



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According- to the WashingtoD Star of July 2Stli, " Four systems 
of tabulation were entered into competition : First, the Hollerith 
Electric Tabulating- System. Second, the Automatic Multiple 
Counting' Machine. . Third, the Pin Board Electrical Tabulating- 
System, and the Electrical Typewriter Tabulator," the latter three 
being entered by Mr. Pidg-in, and all of which have been de- 
scribed in this paper. 

The Star states that " the Hollerith System completed its work 
in 185 hours and 53 minutes when considered as the labor of one 
clerk. Of this total time, 135 hours and 30 minutes were con- 
sumed in transcribing- the cards bj' punching, including 'gang- 
punching;' ()8 hours and 38 minutes in running the punched 
cards through the electric counting machine, and 11 hours and 
45 minutes in transferring the results to the forms of tables as 
submitted by the commission. Six hours and 30 minutes (^f the 
time were used for the hand sorting of certain of the smaller oc- 
cupation groups. 

"The Automatic Tabulating System consumed 452 hours, of 



188 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

which 228 hours were occupied in transcribing (by marking) of 
the cards. The counting and tabulating occupied 224 hours. 

" The Pin Board System was not continued through the test but 
was stopped by agreement, it having been demonstrated that the 
rapidity of this system was practically the same as that of the 
typewriter tabulator and the relative efficiency of the two systems 
could be determined by confining the test to the last named 
system. 

"The test of the last three systems was begun on June 14th. 
Work was continued on the typewriter tabulator until July 27th, 
when it was discontinued by direction of the commission. Up to 
this time 163 hours had been consumed by the test and nine tables 
were wholly compiled. 

"The tabbies relating to foreign percentage and occupation re- 
spectively and a part of table seven relating to age detail, had yet 
to be compiled." 

The conclusions as reached by the commission were as follows : 
"As the result of the test of the several systems submitted the 
commission are jointly and severally of the opinion that the 
superiority of the Hollerith Electric Tabulating System for the 
compilation of individual data which is necessary to be made 
from the returns of the twelfth census has been clearly and fully 
demonstrated and they so report." 

Of the very few States and cities having any system of registra- 
tion, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont use the card cata- 
logue system which consists of a copy of the original return 
placed upon individual cards by town clerks and forwarded to the 
State registrar. These cards are then sorted by hand, and the 
cards filed away as a card catalogue for future reference. As 
these returns are received monthly, it is possible to keep the 
compilation well advanced so that at the end of the year a sum 
total of the months will give total for the year. This system also 
has the advantage of making it possible to correct any ill defined 
causes of death, by correspondence with the physician before the 
end of the year. 



1899.] SKrRKTAKY's KKroitT. J 89 

New York City makes use of the Holleritli Tabulating- Macliine, 
the smaller numbers bciii^'- counted by liand. The State of Rhode 
Island made use of the entire Hollerith machine for two or tliree 
years, when it was found to be more i)racticable to sort the 
punched cards b}^ liand instead of ninninii' them tln'ouj^li tlie 
electrical counting- machiue. It is found also that the cards could 
be punched with greater rapidity, and sorted more readily, than 
by using the Pidgin Card System, which requires markings with 
pencil. 

It is a difficult matter to satisfactorily explain the workings of 
these various devices without having the machines at hand for 
demonstration, and should any registrar contemplate the use of 
any of them, he would naturally visit and examine the devices 
wherever the}' might be in operation. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY, 1899. 



Agricultural Experiment Station, Kingston, B. I., Twelfth Annual 

Report 

Augusta, Ga., Twenty-first Annual Report of the Board of Health, for.lS98 

Befolkningstatistik (29) Mouvement de la Population en 1897 

Berlin, Statistiches Jahrbuch de Stadt, for 1896 

Boston, Mass., Annual Report of the Health Department, for 1898 

Boston Public Library, Annual Report, for 1898-99 

British Columbia, Annual Report of Provincial Board of Health, for. 1897 

Brookline, Mass., Report of the Board of Health, for ' 1898 

Brooklyn, K. Y., Report of the Department of Health, for 1898 

Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S., Annual Report, for 1898 

Cambridge, Mass., Report of the Board of Health, for 1898 

Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Studies 

from Department of Pathology (Vol. 6, Part 1st) 1898-99 

Conference of State and Provincial Board's of Health, Proceedings of 

the Twelfth Annual Meeting 1899 

Connecticut, Annual Report of the State Board of Health, for 1898 

District of Columbia, Report of the Health Officer, for 1898 

England, Sixtieth Annual Report of Registrar-General, for 1897 

Finland, Statistisk Arsbok, for — 1898 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Annual Report of the Board of Health, for.. 1898-99 
Illinois Society of Engineers and Surveyors, Thirteenth Annual Re- 
port, for 1898 

International jSTomenclature der Todesursachen 

Ireland, Thirty-fifth Annual Report of the Registrar-General, for 1898 

Louisiana, Sanitary Code State Board of Health. 
Maine, Sixth Annual Report on Births, Marriages, Deaths, and Di- 
vorces, for 1897 

Maine, Tenth Annual Report of the State Board of Health, for. . . .1896-97 

Manchester, IST. H., Report of the Board of Health, for 1898 

Massachusetts, Annual Report of the State Board of Health, for 1898 

Massachusetts, Annual Report of Statistics of Labor, for 1898 



181)9. J SKCKKTAKY's Ill.l'oliT. 101 

Massacliusetts, Animal Report of Statistics ot Maiiiilaftiuvs, tor is9s 

Mii-liigan, Aiiiiiiai Report ot tlie State, lioanl ot iiealtli, for 1W>S 

Michigan, Registration Report, tor isit" 

Minnesota, Annnai l{ei)ort State Hoard of Ileaitli ls!)r>-<)8 

National Contect ioners Ass'n, Proceedings ot tlie Meeting of. held in.lSflO 

Newark, N. . I.. Annual llepoil. Department (»!' l'id)lic iieiillh isos 

New RrnnswicU. 'rweH'lii Annual Ifeport, Provincial Ihiard ol' Health, 

tor ISOT 

Newhurgh, Report of the Iiealtli Ollicer, for 180S 

New Jersey, Annnai Report of Medical Examiners of, for 1808 

New Hampshire Medical Society, Transactions of, for 1808 

New Hampshire, Report of the State Board of Health, for 1808-90 

New Hampshire, Sixteenth Registration Report of 1896-97 

Ne\v Haven, Conn., Report of the Board of Health, for 1898 

New York City, Annual Report of Hoard of Health, for 1898 

New York Hospital, One Hundred Twenty-Seventli Annual Report of 

the Society, for 1808 

New York State, Eighteentli Annual Report of tlu' Hoard of Health, 

with accompanying maps, for 1809 

North Carolina, Hienuial Report of Board of Health, for 1897-98 

Ohio, Annual Report of the State Board of Health, for 1898 

Oklahoma, Fourth Hiennial Report of Superintendent of Public 

Health, for 1807-98 

Ontario, Annual Meeting, Association of Health Officers, held 1899 

Ontario, .\nnual Rei>ort of the Provincial Hoard of Health, for 1898 

Ontario, Registration Report, for 1897 

Pennsylvania, Animal Report of the State Board of Health, for 1898 

Peinisylvania. Report of Filth Annual Meeting of Associated Health 

Authorities of, for 1898 

Providence Athena-um, Sixty-fourth Annual Report of 

Providence City Manual 1898 

Providence Pultlic Library, 'rweiity-tirst Animal Rejtort of, for 1808 

Providence. R. I., Forty-fourth Animal Report, Hirths, Marriages, and 

Deaths 1808 

Providence, R. I.. Animal Rt'port of the City Hngineer, for 1898 

Providence, R. 1., Report of the Health Department, for 1808 

Quebec, Annual Report of the Provincial Hoard of Health, for 1808 

Reading, Pa., Report of the Hoard of Health, for 1808 

Redwood Library and Athena-um, (,)ne Hundred Sixty-Ninth Annual 

Rei)ort 



192 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

Report of Surgeon-General of the Army to Secretary of War, for 1898 

Rhode Island Hospital, Annual Report 1898 

Rhode Island, Twelfth Annual Report of Industrial Statistics, for. . . .1898 

Rhode Island Manual, for 1898-99 

Rhode Island School Reports, for 1898 

Rhode Island State Board of Agriculture, Annual Report 1898 

Rhode Island State Charities and Corrections, Annual Report 1898 

Rhode Island Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Twenty- 
Ninth Annual Report, for the year ending March 31, 1899 

San Francisco, Cal., Annual Report of the Board of Health 1897-98 

Sanitary Reports— Weekly Abstracts 1898 

South Carolina, Eighteenth Annual Report of the Board of Health, for. 1898 

State Auditor's Report, for 1898 

St. Louis, Mo., Report of the Health Commissioner, for , 1898 

St. Paul, Minn., Annual Report of Commissioner of Health 1898 

Terra Haute, Ind., Annual Report of the Board of Health, for 1898 

United States Department of Agriculture, Year-book of, for 1898 

United States M. H. S., Annual Report of the Supervising-General, for.1898 
Wisconsin, Seventeenth Biennial Report of State Board of Health. 1897-98 



gi:m:iial i.aws. 



CHAPTER 96. 

OF THE STATE P,(»A1{I) OF HEALTH. 

Section l. Tlie governor, with the advice and fouseiit of the sen The state 
ate, shall appoint six persons, two from the county of Providence, health, ap- ' 
and one from each of the other counties, who shall constitute the vacancies, how 
state board of health, one of whom shall be appointed in each year movais, how 
for the term of six years from the first day of July. Any appoint- 
ment to fill a vacancy shall be for the remainder of the term. Of 
the persons so appointed, at least three shall be well-educated physi- 
cians and members of some medical society incorporated by the state. 
The governor may remove any member, for cause, at any time, ui)on 
the written request of two-thirds of the board. 

Sec. 2. The board shall take cognizance of tlii' interests of life Duties of the 

board, with 

and health among the citizens of the state ; they shall make investi- reference to 

life and health 

gations into the causes of disease, and especially of epidemics and among the 

citizens of the 

endemics among the people, the sources of mortality, and tlie effects state. 

of localities, employments, conditions, and circumstances on the 

public health, and shall do all in their power to ascertain the causes 

and the best means fur tiie preventioii of diseases of every kind in 

the state. They shall publish and c-irinilatt', from time to time, such 

information as they may deem to be important and useful for diffusion 

among the people of tlie state, and sliall investigate and give advice 

in relatioji to sucli sul)jects, relating to the public liealth, as may be 

referred to tiiem by the general assembly, or by tiie governor wlicu 

the general assembly is not in session. 

Sec. 3. The state board of healtli shall also investigate the subject J." 'uvestiprate 

' •" di.^eases 

of diseases among cattle or other animals. amons cattle. 

" etc. 

Sec. 4. The board sliall meet in the city of IMovidence once in Meetings, 
three months, and as nuich oftener as they may deem necessary. Xo 

25 



]94 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



Secretary. 



Duties of sec 
reiary. 



Compensation, member of the board, except the secretary, shall receive any com- 
pensation for his services ; but the actual personal expenses of any 
member, while engaged in the duties of the board, shall be paid by 
the state. 

Sec. 5. The board shall elect a well-qualified physician as their 
secretary, who shall be ex-offlcio a member of the board, the com- 
missioner of public health and state registrar ; but he shall not be 
permitted to vote on any question in which he is personally interested. 

Sec. 6. The secretary of the board shall make inquiry, from time 
to time, of the clerks of town and local boards of health and prac- 
ticing physicians, in relation to the prevalence of any disease, or 
knowledge of any known or generally believed source of disease or 
causes of general ill-health, and also in relation to the proceedings 
of the said boards of health, in respect of acts for the promotion and 
protection of the public health, and also in relation to diseases 
among domestic animals in their several towns ; and the said clerks 
of town and local boards of health and said practicing physicians 
shall give information, in reply to said inquiries, of such facts and 
circumstances as shall have come to their knowledge. 

Sec. 7. The secretary shall perform and superintend the work 
prescribed for said board by law, and such other duties as the board 
may require ; he shall prepare and publish, in every calendar month, 
a general summary of all the deaths, and causes of the same, which 
have occurred in the state during the preceding month, the same to 
be made up from returns of deaths which shall be made to him on or 
before the tenth day of the month following the date of such deaths, 
by the several town clerks, the city registrar of Providence, and the 
city clerks of the other cities ; he shall also prepare and publish for 
general distribution a monthly circular giving information and advice 
in regard to the preservation of health, suitable for each particular 
season, and giving also such information as he shall deem of advan- 
tage to the public, as to the prevalence and character of infectious 
diseases of domestic animals. He shall hold his office during the 
pleasure of the board, and may be removed at any regular meeting 
by a majority vote of the members of said board. 

Sec. 8. The governor shall provide a suitable office for the board 
in the city of Providence ; and the actual expenses of the board and 
of the members thereof, when certified by the chairman and approved 
by the governor, shall be paid from the state treasury. 



Same subject. 



Office and ex- 
pense of the 
board. 



1K99. 1 SErUKTARV's RKI'Oiri'. 195 

Skc. U. 'I'lic Ixmnl sIimII nrnkf a n>i)()rt in ])riiit to tlie pcnoral as- Toreportan- 
scinltly, ;iiiiMiall\ , <il' its |nucc('(liii<rs (lurinjif (lie j'ciir endiiij,'' on tlie '""* *' 
tliiity-lirst (lay nl' I >rcfiiil)t'r iicxi ]>r('cc(liim', witli siicli sii^ftrcstiuns 
ill iciatioii (() the sanitary laws and intrrrsts (if IIk:" state as tliey 
sliail deem iiiiportant. 



CHAPTER 1(>5. 

OF Tin-: JMIAC'l'ICK OF MEDICINE. 

[As amend(;fl Xovemljer, 1901.1 

Skctiox 1. It shall lie the duty of each town and city cderk to Register of 
imrchase a book of snitable size, to be known as the "medical reg- be kept by city 
ister" of each city or town, and to set apart one full page for the clerks, 
registration of eacli pliysician ; and wlien any pliysician shall die or 
remove from the city or town, said clerk shall make a note of the 
same at the bottom of the page, and shall on the first day of January 
in each year transmit to the ottice of the state board of health a duly- Annual list to 

state board of 

certified list of the physicians of said city or town registered under health, 
this chapter, together with such other information as is hereinafter 
required, and perform such other duties as are required by this chap- 
ter; and such clerk shall receive tlie sum of iifty cents from each C'ompensation. 
pliysician so registered, which shall be his full conipensatioii for all 
tlie duties required under this chapter. 
Skc. 2. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice medicine Practice of 

,. ., , , -J., • i , ,• -.L i. .L, ■ i ., , medicine is un- 

or surgery m any ol its branches, within the hnuts ot this state, who lawful without 
has not exhibited and registered, in the city ur town clerk's otHce of certificate of 
the city or town in which he or she resides, his or her authority for 
so practicing medicine as licrcin prescribed, together with his or lier 
age, address. i)la('(^ of l)irtli, and the school or system of medicine to 
which he or she proposes to tieiong; and the person so registering 
shall siiliscrilic ami verify by oath, before such clerk, an alVidavit 
containing such fai-ts. which, if wilfully false, shall subject the 
alhant to conviction and punishnicnt for jierjury. 

.Skc. :l Authority to inaclice medicine under this chapter shall |,",t[iVor?ty^,u,d 
be a certificate fr.»m the state board of health, and said board shall, byZwd'''" 
upon application, after examination, issue a certificate to any repu- 
table ])liysician w ho iiileiids to practice medicine or surgery in this 



196 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[1899. 



Fee. 



Certificate to 
be how signed; 
fee therefor. 



Itinerant doc- 
tors are pre- 
cluded. 



Certificates 
may be refused 
or be revoked, 
when. 



Board may ad- 
minister oaths, 
summon wit- 
nesses, and 
compel produc- 
tion of boolis 
and papers. 



Contempt, how 
punished. 



Perjury. 



state and who shall present himself before the state board of health 
and pass in a satisfactory manner such examination as said board 
may require. Any physician so presenting himself shall pay to said 
board the sum of ten dollars ($10) for each examination, and said fee 
shall in no case be returned, but shall be applied to pay the expenses 
of said board of health in conducting such examinations. Each cer- 
tificate so issued shall be signed by the president and countersigned 
by the secretary of said board and shall be attested by the official 
seal, and not more than two dollars ($2) shall be charged for a cer- 
tificate. 

Sec. 4. Nothing in this chapter shall be so construed as to au- 
thorize any itinerant doctor to register or to practice medicine in any 
part of this state. 

Sec. 5. The board may, after due notice and hearing, in its dis- 
cretion refuse to grant the certificate provided for in section 3 of this 
chapter to any physician who is not of good moral character, or who 
has violated any of the laws of the state, or who has been guilty of 
gross unprofessional conduct or conduct of a chaaracter likely to 
deceive or defraud the public, and may, after due notice and hearing, 
revoke any certificate issued or granted by it heretofore for like 
cause or for any fraud or deception committed in obtaining such 
certificate, or for any other cause which in the opinion of said board 
shall render the holder of such certificate an unfit person to practice 
medicine in this state. The members of said board are hereby 
severally authorized to administer oaths, and said board, in all cases 
or proceedings pending before it, is hereby authorized and em- 
powered to summon witnesses by subpoena signed by the secretary 
of said board, and to compel such witnesses to attend and testify in 
the same manner as witnesses are compelled to appear and testify 
in either division of the supreme court ; and said board is author- 
ized to compel the production of all papers, books, documents, rec- 
ords, certificates, or other legal evidence that may be necessary or 
proper for the determination and decision of any question or the 
discharge of any duty required by law of said board, by issuing a 
subpoena duces tecum, signed by the secretary ; and every person dis- 
obeying any such writ shall be considered as in contempt, and said 
board may punish any contempt of its authority in like manner as 
contempt may be punished by either division of the supreme court. 
Any person who shall wilfully swear falsely in any proceeding, mat- 
ter, or hearing before said board shall be deemed guilty of the crime 



1899,] RKfliKTAKY's HKI'OKT. 197 

of perjury. Said board sliall serve a eojjy of its deeisioii or riiliiiy^ 
upon any person whose certificate has been refused or revoked. Any 
person agjrrieved by any decision or ruIiuLr of said board may, within Api.eals. 
ten days after receiving said notice, exchisive of Sundays and ii-jj^al 
holidays, take an appeal thei'efrom to the appellate division of tlic 
supreme court, sitting at Providence, and shall tile therein iiis rea- 
sons of appeal, and serve a copy thereof on the secretary, or i)erson 
performing tlie duties of secretary, of said board ; and said appellate 
division of the supreme court sliall, as soon as may be, iiear and 
determine said appeal. 

Skc, 6. Nothing in this law shall be so construed as to discrimi- To whom this 

rhapter does 

nate against any particular school or system of medicine, or to "ot apply, 
prohibit gratuitous services in case of emergency ; nor sliall this 
chapter apply to commissioned surgeons of the United States army, 
navy, or marine hospital service, or to legally qualided physicians of 
another state, called to see a particular case, in consultation with a 
registered physician of this state, but who do not open an office or 
appoint any place in this state wliere tliey may meet patients or 
receive calls. 
Sec. 7. Complaints for violation of the provisions of tliis cliapter Prosecutions, 

secletary of 

shall be made bv tlie secretary of said board, and said secretary shall >^tat.' ijuard of 

health n(>t re- 
be exempt from giving surety for costs on any complaint made as quired to give 

siiiety for 

aforesaid. L<>sts. 

Sec. 8. Any person who, not being then lawfully aulliovized to Penalties for 

praeticiii!.' 

practice medicine within this state, and so registered according to without certifi- 
cate, 
law, shall practice medicine or surgery or attempt to practice medi- 
cine or surgery, or any of the branches of medicine or surgery, after 
having received therefor or with the intent of receiving therefor, 
either directly or indirectly, any bonus, gift, or compensation, or 
who shall open an office with intent to practice medicine, or shall 
iiold himself out to the public as a practitioner of medicine, whether 
l)y appending to his name the title of doctor or any abbreviation 
thereof, or M. D., or any t)ther title or designation implying a practi- 
tioner of medicine, or in any other way, shall be deemed guilty of 
a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be lined lifty dol- 
lars, and upon each and every subsequent conviction shall Ik- lined 
one hundred dollars and imprisoned thirty days, either or l)otli, in 
the discretion of the court; and in no case when any provision of 
this chapter has been violated shall the person so violating sui-h 
provision be entitled to receive conipensatitin for services reuderetl. 



INDEX. 



Additions to lil)rarv. 

Allen, Edwin R 

Angell, Thomas H.. 
Apoplexy * 



Baby farms 

Bennett, Herbert F 

Births in 1890 

new law governing registration of 

Bowden, Charles H 

Bowen, Abraham 

Brayton, William F 

Bristol water supply 

Bronchitis* 

Brownell, Frederick K 



Cancer* 

Capwell, Dr. Remington P 

Carpenter. ( Icorge A 

Case, Jolin 1' 

Caswell, William F. 

Caswell, William II 

<'li;imi)liii, Edward P 

< liapin. Dr. Charles Y 

< Iiase. Albert L 

(iiolera Infantum* 

Cliristiaii .Scientists, prosecution of 

decisions in cases of. 
Cluirch, Pri'derick P 



PAGE. 

190-192 

40 

25 

128 

72 

12 
124 
145 
62 
fio 
21 
2 

128 
10 

128 

70 

20 

91 

15 

50 

20 

89 

20 

128 

150 

1.52 

12 



* See Index to Forty-fifth Registration Report. 



300 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

BAGE. 

Clapp, Otis F 37 

Clark, E. Howard 92 

Clark, John F 23 

Clarke, Halsey P : - 50 

Clavin, John 67 

Compilation in census and registration reports, methods of 176-189 

Consumption* (see Tuberculosis) 129 

deaths from 129-131 

Contagious diseases 1 

" " hospital for 74 

reported in 1899 132-134 

Cook, Byron I 39 

Crawford, C. Fred 22 

Cross, (j-eorge C 48 

Cultures from diplitheria 6 

Deaths in 1899 124-131 

" causes of 127 

" diagram of eighteen chief causes 131 

" new law governing registration of 145 

" percentage of 127 

" rate for twelve years 126 

Diarrhoea * 129 

Diphtheria* 6, 78, 129 

" cases reported 132 

Disease, infectious 77 

Disinfection 73 

Dysentery* 129 

Easton, Charles F 24 

East Providence water supply, inspection of 143 

Edwards, John H 49 

Electrolysis of water pipes 39 

Examination of cultures from diphtheria 6 

Examination of sputum from tuberculosis 6,- 135 

Expectoration, ordinance prohibiting 30 

Famum, Charles W 24 



* See index tu Fdiiy-fifih Kegistratiun Keport. 



18!)!).] INDI'X. 201 

PAOE. 

I'^ilttT iTclds, sewage 27 

IMlt ration, East I'rovideiu'e water company 6, 164-175 

rrovideiicc water supply 4 

( i a rhage 72 

( uMieral laws 193 

(Jritlin, Stcplu'ii W 14 

iianis, Dr. (irorge A 69 

1 1 ealth officers, reports of 59 

1 1 oart disease * 129 

Hospital for contagious diseases 74 

Hoxsey, William 51 

Infectious diseases 75 

lurtuenza* 129 

I uspection of provisions 72 

Kidney diseases* 130 

K innecom, Sanf ord E 70 

Langworthy, George A 90 

r.atham, Dr. Daniel S 68 

Laws governing registration of births, marriages, and deaths 145 

I iegislation, medical 147 

Jabrarj% additions to 190-192 

Lockwood, James T 15 

Loomis, George A " 14 

1 Aither, Sterry K 24 

Lyon, Emory J) 23 

MacKnight, Dr. Adam S 64 

Malaria* 129 

Marriages in 1N'.»'.» 125 

new law governing registration of 145 

Mason, Cliarles B 13 

Mason, William (' 48 

Mathewson, Edgar A 21 

♦See iiide.is to Kurty-lifth Registration Report. 
36 



202 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 



McGunnagle, William J. , • • ■■'■ 68 

McKenzie, Thomas 54 

Medical laws 195-197 

Medical legislation 147 

" " appeals from decisions of Board 148 

" " legal decisions 152 

" " " " "Christian Scientists" 152 

" " prosecutions 150 

" " rulings of Board 148 

Metcalf, Dr. Harold 91 

Meteorology 108-123 

Methods of compilation in census and registration reports 176-189 

Mortality statistics 124-131 

Mott, Hamilton A 65 



Xewport city water. supply. 



Ordinances, new sanitary — 

Little Compton 15 

Pawtucket 30 

Portsmouth 31 

Warren = 13 

Paine, Dr. Ara M 92 

Paralysis* : 128 

Parks, public 36 

Pawtucket city water supply. 3 

Pawtuxet river 3 

Peck, George H 62 

Peck, James G 23 

Peirce, Thomas J 50 

Personnel of the Board 6 

Pneumonia* 130 

Privy vaults, removal of 71 

Providence, assessed valuation 89 

" city water supply 3 

" population of 31 

Provisions, inspection of 75 

*See index to Forty-fifth Registration Report. 



1899.1 INDEX. 203 

I'AOE. 

Publ ic parks 30 

Rain tall 'JO, 109-12:} 

" Woonsoc'ket 47 

Registration to practice medicine — 

Appeals , 148 

" Christian Science " 1.52 

J^egal decisions 152 

Legislation 147 

Prosecutions 150 

Rulings 148 

Remington, Daniel IT 37 

Richards, Dr. Byron I" 71 

Roberts, Samuel II 30 

Sanitary ordinances, new — 

Little Compton 15 

Pawtucket 30 

Portsmouth 31 

Warren 13 

Scarlet fever* 75, 130 

" " cases reported 133 

Seagrave, Charles S 25 

Sewage, filtration of " 27 

" disposal of. Providence 30 

Shaw, George C 65 

Shaw, Dr. Ralph II. R 69 

Smallpox* 87, 130 

Sputum from tuberculosis 

Statistics, mortality 124-131 

Steele, Dr. Minot A 60 

Stimson, Dr. Kdward I' 00 

Sweet, Dr. Charles F 07 

Swill, collection of 72 

Temperature 109-123 

Tobey, Oscar A 37 

*See index to Forty-fifth Registration Report. 



204 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [1899. 

PAGE. 

Towns, reports from 9 

Barrington 12, 62 

Bristol 12, 62 

Burrillville 21, 67 

Central Falls 22, 67 

Charlestown 48, 90 

Coventry 13, 63 

Cranston 22, 68 

Cumberland 22, 68 

East Greenwich , 14, 64 

East Providence '. 23, 69 

Exeter 49, 90 

Foster 23, 69 

Glocester 23, 69 

Hopkinton 49, 90 

Jamestown 15, 64 

Johnston 24, 69 

Lincohi 24, 70 

Little Compton 15, 64 

Middletown 19, 65 

ISTarragansett 49, 91 

Newport 20, 65 

New Shoreliam • 20, 65 

North Kingstown 50, 91 

North Providence 25, 70 

North Smithfleld 25, 70 

Pawtucket '■ 25, 71 

Portsmouth 20, 66 

Providence 31, 71 

Richmond • 50, 91 

Scituate 37, 89 

Smithfleld 37, 89 

South Kingstown 50, 91 

Tiverton 21, 66 

Warren 13, 63 

Warwick 14, 64 

Westerly 51, 92 

West Greenwich 14, 64 

Woonsocket 38, 90 



18(t0."| ixDKX. 205 

I'Aae. 

'I'ultcrculitsis. imlinoiiary* 129 

cxamiiKit ion of split 11111 fiDiii 0,135 

" " expectoration rnrl»i(l(lcn 30 

" " record of all cases of 138 

'ryi)lioi(l fever* 75, 129 

" " cases rei)ortc(l 134 

" " ill >V(ionsocket 140 

Vaccination 73 

Walker, Dr. James W 70 

Ward, George E 65 

Waterman, Daniel D 22 

Water analysis 98-107 

" " Westerly 54 

supplies 1, 93 

" " electrolysis 39 

" " improvement of — 

Pawtneket 25 

Pawtuxet river 3 

Providence 31 

Ten-Mile river 143 

" works — 

Bristol 2 

East Providence 5 

" " examination of 3 

Newport 2 

I'awtucket 3 

Providence 3, 31 

Westerly 52-57 

Woonsocket 2, 38 

Wind, prevailing: direction of 109-123 

AVinsor, Dr. .Tolin 03 

Woonsocket. typiioid lever in 140 

•See index to Furtytiltli Uefrixt ration Ucpoil. 



FORTY-SIXTH HKINJRT 



REI,ATINO TO TIIK 



REGISTRY AND RETURN 



Births, Marriao;es, and Deaths, 



AND OF DIVORCE, 



STATE OF RHODE ISLAND, 



YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1S9S. 



PltEPAUED BY 



GARDNER T. SWARTS, M. D. 



STATE REOISTBAR OF VITAL STATISTICS; SECRBTAKY OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH; 
COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 



PROVIDENCE : 

E, li. FREEMAN i SONS, PRINTERS TO THE STATE. 
1900. 



MEMBERS 



Rhode Island State Board of Health, 



Post Office Address. 

ALBERT G. SPRAGUE, M. T)., President River Point Kent County. 

SAMUEL M. GRAY, C. E Peovidence Providence Co. 

JOHN C. BUDLONG, M. D Providence Providence Co. 

REV. GEORGE L. LOCKE Bristol Bristol County. 

ALEXANDER B. BRIGGS, M. D Ashaway Washington Co. 

PETER F. CURLEY, M. D Newport Newport County, 

GfARDNER T. SWARTS, M. D Providence Providence Cq. 

GARDNER T. SWARTS, Secretary. 



J^tate af Uhurtc ^$\nm\ and ^H'oviacucc 5,Mantatiou,s. 



C)F1 U !■: OF TIIK STATK RkOTSTHAI! OF VlTAL STATISTICS. 

Pkovidence, li. I., ]Marcli 1, lUOO. 

To the Honorable General Assemhhj : 

The Forty-Sixth Aiuuial Keport upon tlie Eegistration of Births, Mar- 
riages, and Deaths hi Kliode lsh\nd, and hicluding judicial i)roeedures hi 
relation to divorce, durhig the year 1808, with compeudiary Tahles of the 
results of registration in the previous years, is herewitli respectfully suh- 
mitted. 

The plan of preceding years, hi regard to the general arrangement of tlie 
Tables, summaries, and comments, has been followed in this report, with 
some additional Tables, and a few special changes made to meet certain 
requirements. 

In the special Tables the object has been to present the important facts 
of many years of registration, as well as of single years, in such manner as 
to make them readily apparent and relieve the reader of the statistics 
of much of the labor of personal examination of each of the general Tables 
of the preceding reports for the purpose of ascertaming the relation the 
various facts bear to each other. 

In previous reports the proportion of births, marriages, and deaths to 
the population has been estimated m various ways. For a few years the 
estimation was made upon the figures derived from the census taken in a 
given year, and the same number of population used each year until 
the next census was available. In other periods an estimate was made 
upon an arithmetical increase. The present issue, however, gives all esti- 
mates in proportion to population by geometrical ratio, and which gives a 
more rational uniform increase than has been previously observed. This 
is seen in Table Wl. 

The same form of nomenclature and classification that was introduced 
into the previous issue has been retained, since it is believed that it con- 
forms more correctly to tlie present understood a'tiology of disease. 

Changes have therefore been made which may seem arbitrary, but are 
surely more satisfactory as a classilicalion than that lueviously used. 



iv FORTY-SIXTH REGlSTRATlOi^ REPORT. [1898. 

Under the class of Zymotic Diseases we have previously had Miasmatic 
Diseases as Order, or Group, One ; and Enthetic Diseases as Order, or 
Group, Two. As the word Miasmatic is inappropriate at the present day 
to such diseases as diphtheria, measles, and scarlet fever, and as these 
are, with many other, dependent upon the introduction into the system of 
a morbific material, they are, therefore, contagious or infectious. As 
some controversy is liable to arise as to the preference in use of either of 
these terms, it has been thought desirable to use the word Communicable, 
which will include both. In this group have been gathered all diseases 
acknowledged to be dependent upon the presence of some morbid entity 
which in some instances has been demonstrated to be due to a micro- 
organism, while with others it is assumed by analogy to these conditions 
that they may be due to the same cause. 

A more extended explanation of the reclassification of these diseases 
will be found under Names of Causes of Death, in Appendix A, page 283, 
of this report. 

Respectfully, 

GARDNER T. SMARTS, 

State Begistrar. 



CONTENTS 

See Index, page 309. 



General, Tables. 



Table I. General summary of the birtlis, marriages, ami deaths, 
in 1898, ill each town and each county in the State, showing the 
number of births, the sex and parentage of those bom ; the num- 
ber of marriages, with the nativity of those married ; the number 
of deaths, with the sex and nativity of those who died ; the aggre- 
gate and average age of the decedents of each sex, and of tlie 
whole number of decedents whose age was given 2-5 

T^VBLE II. Births ; showing the number of each sex bom in each 
month of the year, in the several divisions of the State 6-7 

Table III. Plurality births ; arranged by months, sexes, and di- 
visions of the State, and showing the nativity of the parents 8 

Table IY. Marriages ; the number in each month and in each 
quarter of the year, in the several divisions of the State 9 

T.UJLE y. Deaths; sliowmg the number of decedents of each sex 
in each month, in the several divisions of the State 10-11 

Table VI. Deaths ; showing the number of each sex that died at 
certain stated periods of life, hi each town and division of the 
State ; also the population of every town and division, with the 
percentage of deaths to population 12-19 

Table VII. Causes of death and season, in 1898, arranged alpha- 
betically ; showing the number of decedents of each sex from 
each cause, ui each montli and in the whole year, the number of 
native bom ;iiul t'orcitiii born, and also tlu' number of native and 
of foreign percentage for thti whole year 20-34 

Table Vlir. Causes of death and age; arranged alphabetically, 
and showing the nnniber of decedents of each sex from eacli 
cause, in each period of life or)-49 

Taiu^e IX. Classilication and percentage; showing the number 
and percentage of deatlis from each cause and hi each class of 
causes, hi tlic wliole State, and in each division of the State 50-(i3 



Vi i'OETY-SlXTH HEGISTEATION REPORT. [189^. 

Table X. Nosological classification of causes of death in Khode 
Island, in each of the forty-six years 1853-1898 64-79 

Table XI. Occupations and ages at death ; showing the number 
and the aggregate and average age at death of the decedents, in 
each occupation and class of occupations, ui the whole State, for 
1898 and for 46 years and 1 months, ages under 20 omitted 80-91 

Table XII. Occupations and causes of death ; showing the num- 
ber in each occupation and class of occupations, who died from 
each specified cause, during 1898, omitting ages under 20 92-107 

Table XII. Supplementary 108-110 

Special Tables, Eesults, and Comments. 

Births, Marriage, and Deaths. Table XIII-XVI 113-122 

Diagram I. Birth Bates 124-125 

Births. Special Besults. Tables XVII-XXX 127-144 

Marriages. Special Eesults. Tables XXXI-XLIII 145-149 

Divorces. Tables XLIV-XLY 161-164 

" Katio of, to Marriage, different States. Table XL VI- 165 

Deaths. Special Eesults. Tables XLVII-XCY 166-273 

Diagram II. Death Bates 182-183 

" III. " " 274 

Betums of the Medical Examiners 277-279 

Nomenclature of Diseases. Appendix 281-292 

Suggestions Concemmg Physicians' Certificates of Death 283-286 

Laws ui Belation to Vital Statistics. 293-297 

Synopsis of the Law of Marriage 298-299 

Laws m Relation to Divorce 300-302 

" " " " Medical Examiners and Coroners 302-307 

Index , . 309 



REPOKT rPOX THK l(K(ilSTKATI()\ 



15IRTHS, MAKRTAdES, AND DEATHS 



RHODE ISLAND, 



THE YKAR KXDTNCJ DECEMIJKrv 31, 1898, 



FOR VARIOUS YEARS FROM 18.33 TO 1898, 



INCI.l'STVE 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table I. 

General Summary of Births and Marriages in the State of Rhode 
Island during tlie year 1898. 





BIRTHS. 


MARRIAGES. 


TOWNS 

AND DIVISIONS OF THE 

STATE. 


i 
a 

o 


SEX. 


parentage. 


S 




nativity. 


3 


.2 
"3 
S 


<i5 
> 


a 

fee 
'S 




9-B. 
cd 


6 
> 

"S 


d 
1 


t- 


g 

=s 




.S3 
138 
139 


68 


22 
65 

71 


15 
61 

27 


13 
42 
86 


3 
19 
15 

' 37 

10 
5 


8 

16 
11 

89 

12 
5 


11 

40 
36 


14 
15 


3 
14 
13 


6 
15 


1 


Bristol 


3 




8 






Bristol County 


310 

137 
39 

7 
798 


152 

77 

23 

3 

398 


158 

60 

16 

4 

400 


103 

57 
14 

190 


141 

58 
15 


87 

18 
31 


36 

16 
14 


30 

1 
7 


6 
1 


East Greenwich 


4 




445 


95 


68 

85 

1 

"'2' 

65 

..... 

2 


156 


64 


■61 


15 
21 


16 






Kent County 


981 

20 
17 
25 
577 
80 
3fi 
35 


501 

10 
12 
12 
287 
9 
14 
19 


480 

10 
5 

13 
290 
11 
22 
16 


268 

12 
18 
11 

207 
18 
18 
19 


518 

5 
3 

12 

253 

1 

16 

10 


110 

2 

2 

"52' 

1 
1 
4 

62 

20 
58 
13 
31 
21 


205 

S 

3 

150 
10 
6 
11 


94 

2 
6 
3 
87 
9 
5 
6 


69 


21 


Little Compton 


1 










Newport City 


42 


14 


7 
1 




1 
4 








1 








Newport County'. . . . 
Burrillville 


730 

167 

503 

227 

238 

232 

21 

23 

197 

221 

67 

81 

1,067 

4,256 

58 

38 

808 


363 

79 

291 

114 

106 

123 

13 

9 

108 

111 

42 

35 

524 

2,182 

26 

22 

417 


367 

88 

272 

113 

132 

109 

8 

14 

89 

110 

25 

46 

543 

2,074 

32 

16 

391 


297 

55 
93 
98 
57 

117 
19 
18 
41 
18 
81 
20 

355 

1,312 

49 

18 

151 


300 

77 
858 

91 
117 

71 


71 

15 
60 
25 
33 
23 
2 
1 

16 

21 

4 

8 

113 

.373 

1 

3 

91 

788 


189 

32 

148 
69 
62 
74 
15 
7 
17 
63 
4 
19 

270 

1,566 

25 

11 

828 


118 

18 
33 
39 
18 
48 
15 

6 

10 

2 

116 

694 

19 

7 
89 


48 

4 
65 

14 
25 
16 


15 

4 
29 

10 
6 


8 
6 


Central Falls 


21 
9 




9 


East Provideuce 

Foster 


4 




2 

117 

163 

36 

48 

496 

2,185 

7 

14 

484 


2 

23 

19 

6 

5 

103 

386 

1 

4 

88 

768 

1 








Johnston 


5 

32 

1 

4 
82 
512 
2 
2 
73 


4 

10 

..... 

37 

181 

3 

1 

31 

334 


2 




11 


North Providence 

North Smithfield 


1 

2 

35 


Providence City 

Scituate 


179 
1 


Smithfield 


1 




35 






Providence County-. 
Charlestown 


8,264 

16 
10 
47 
23 
74 

113 
17 

145 


4,202 

4 
6 
20 
14 
42 
53 
13 
73 


4,062 

12 
4 

27 
9 

32 

60 
4 

72 


2,448 

13 

10 
41 
17 
55 
93 
14 
60 


4,866 
2 


2,610 

15 
25 

4 
26 
31 

8 
71 


1,123 

14 
21 

4 
24 
88 

8 
45 


837 


316 


Exeter 






1 




2 
8 
4 
2 
62 


2 

4 

8 

14 


2 

"'3' 
2 

1 
15 

23 




1 


3 


Narragansett 




North Kingstown 

South Kingstown 

Richmond 


1 


2 


1 
1 


Westerly 


6 


14 


6 






Washington C(junty. 


445 


825 


220 


303 


88 


37 


187 


151 


7 


17 


13 



State institutions not included. 



1898.] 



iiiUTiis, MAUi;i\ni:s. wn kiiaths. 



Ta]{LE I. — Continued. 

(h'lKi-dl ,Si(iinn(inj of Deaths in the Stale of Rhode Island durincj 

the year 1S98. 



DEATHS. 





SEX. 


NATIVITT. 


AGES 


AGGREGATE AGE 


AVERAGE AGE 




















IN YEARS. 


V 

tU) 

< 




u 

a 






















60 






tn 








m 




»■ 










e 




(U 


O 






<h 




<u 




v 


^ 


S) 




























o 


"5 


s 


15 




1> 
3 


E 




^ 
fe 


1 


i 


bo 

< 


> 


19 


8 


11 


15 


4 


7 


11 


366 


503 


52.29 


45.73 


869 


48.28 


109 


53 


50 


85 


24 


53 


56 


2,400 


2,306 


45.28 


1 42.25 


4.700 


43. 12 


84 


38 


46 


59 


25 


38 


46 


1,221 


1,003 
4,472 


.32.13 
40.68 


1 34.85 
39.58 


2,824 
8,459 


33.62 


212 


99 


113 


1.59 


53 


98 


113 


3,987 


40.09 


81 


45 


30 


69 


12 


45 


30 


1,732 


1,308 


38.49 


36.33 


3.040 


37.53 


53 


24 


29 


40 


13 


24 


29 


1.212 


1.260 


.50.50 


43.45 


2.47;i 


46.64 


9 





3 


9 




6 


3 


363 


221 


00.50 


73.67 


584 


64-89 


373 


183 
258 


190 


279 


94 


183 


189 


5,715 
9,022 


5,051 
7,840 


31.23 
31.97 


26.72 
30.51 


10,700 
16,862 


28.94 


516 


258 


397 


119 


258 


257 


32.74 


12 


- 


5 


11 


1 


r. 


5 


333 


294 


47.57 


.58.80 


627 


52.25 


17 


9 


8 


17 




9 


8 


340 


431 


37.78 


53.88 


771 


45.35 


15 


10 


5 


15 




10 


5 


476 


319 


47.60 


63.80 


795 


53.00 


349 


109 


180 


274 


75 


169 


179 


6,382 


6,754 


37.76 


37.73 


18.1.36 


87.75 


17 


13 


4 


15 


2 


13 


4 


698 


202 


53.69 


50.50 


900 


52.94 


28 


10 


12 


23 


5 


10 


12 


842 


575 


52.63 


47.92 


1,417 


• 88.. 56 


50 


30 


20 


48 


8 


.35 


20 


1,174 


646 


33.54 


32.30 


1.820 
19.466 


33.09 


494 


200 


23-1 


403 


91 


259 


233 


10.245 


9,221 


39.56 


.39.58 


39.57 


95 


40 


49 


74 


21 


46 


49 


1.720 


1.470 


37.39 


30.00 


3.190 


33.50 


218 


118 


100 


147 


71 


118 


100 


3,144 


2.602 


20.64 


20. Oi 


5.740 


20.36 


17J 


89 


83 


144 


28 


89 


83 


2,799 


3.040 


31.44 


43-93 


0.4J5 


37.47 


146 


72 


74 


97 


49 


72 


73 


2.502 


2.672 : 


3-1.75 


36.60 


5.174 


:».08 


123 


04 


59 


98 


25 


04 


59 


2.292 


2.109 1 


35.81 


30.70 


4.401 


36.27 


17 


12 


5 


16 


1 


12 


5 


482 


200 i 


40.17 


52.00 


742 


43.05 


27 


10 


17 


25 


2 


10 


17 


443 


1.126 1 


44.30 


06.24 


1..5fi9 


.58.11 


130 


70 


00 


88 


42 


70 


60 


2,471 


2.0.50 


.35.30 


34.17 


4..52I 


34.78 


115 


54 


01 


04 


51 


54 


61 


ijm 


2,028 j 


28.90 


S:i.2b 


3.592 


31.23 


35 


18 


17 


24 


11 


17 


17 


543 


947 1 


31.94 


.55.71 


1.490 


43.82 


52 


42 


10 


30 


10 


42 


10 


1.424 


483 j 


.33.90 


48.30 


1.907 


.36.07 


543 


m) 


203 


339 


204 


280 


203 


9,905 


9.645 


35.59 


36.07 


19.010 


30.11 


2.929 


1.489 


1.440 


2.032 


897 


1,489 


1,440 


46,0-36 


50.553 


31.. 32 


35.11 


97.189 


.33.18 


53 


22 


31 


40 


7 


22 


31 


1,240 


1..322 


50.30 


42.05 


2.562 


48.. 34 


31 


19 


12 


28 


3 


19 


12 


542 


ti04 


28.. 53 


50.33 


1.146 


.30.97 


458 


235 


223 


317 


141 


235 
2.039 


223 


.5,513 


6.080 


23.40 
31.50 


27.20 
35.02 


ll,59:i 
170.937 


25 31 


5,144 


2.040 


2.504 


3.575 


1.569 


2,503 


83,280 


87,657 


3;j.2i 


15 


^ 


S 


13 


2 


7 


8 


407 


802 


58.14 


.37.75 


709 


47.27 


13 





7 


12 


1 


6 


7 


426 


405 1 


71.00 


57.86 


831 


63.92 


49 


20 


23 


48 


1 


20 


23 


1,-368 


1.299 


52.62 


50.48 


2.067 


54.43 


13 


5 


8 


12 


1 


5 


H 


188 


443 


37.00 


55.. 38 


031 


48.. 54 


03 


.32 


31 


57 


6 


32 


31 


1.842 


1.571 


.57.50 


.50.08 


.3.413 


54.17 


83 


40 


43 


79 


4 


40 


43 


1.975 


2.210 


49.37 


51.40 


4.185 


50.42 


24 


12 


12 


21 


3 


12 


12 


718 


472 


59.83 


.39.33 


1.190 


49.58 


109 


03 


46 


82 


27 


63 ; 


46 


2.811 


2.107 


44.02 ^ 


45.80 


,4.918 
18.544 


45.12 


309 


191 


178 


324 


45 


191 


178 


9,735 


8,809 \ 


50.97 1 


49.49 


50.25 



FOETY-SIXTH REGISTEATlOlSr REPORT. 



[li 



Table I. — Continued. — Eecapitulation. 

General Summary of Births and Marriages in fJie State of Bhode 
Island duriny the year 1898. 





BIRTHS. 


MARRIAGES. 




i 
a 

3 

o 
.a 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 


a 

o 


NATIVITY. 


COUNTIES. 


0) 


Is 
S 


6 

> 


i 


cS o 


II 

□ 


6 

> 

Iz; 


"S 
o 


c^ 
G 

^« 

cS o 

15 
21 
15 
334 
17 


a 

O =8 




310 

981 

, V30 

8,264 

445 


153 
501 
863 
4,202 
225 


158 
480 
367 
4,062 
220 


103 
268 
297 
2,442 
303 


141 

518 

300 

4,266 

82 


37 
110 

62 
768 

37 


29 
85 
71 
788 
23 


87 

205 

189 

2,610 

187 


36 
94 

118 
1,123 

151 


30 
69 
48 
837 

7 


6 




21 


Newpoetj 


8 
316 


Washington 


12 
















996 






991 


402 




Whole State 


10,730 


5,443 


5,S8T 


3,413 


5,307 


1,014 


3,278 


1,522 


363 



1898.] 



BIRTHS, M.VI{KIA(;i:S, AND DKATHS. 



Table I.— Continued. — Recapitulation. 

General SuDinKiri/ of Deaths in fhe State of Rhode Island, Jnj 
Cniinfirs, (Jnrinij the year 1S9S. 



DEATHS. 













AGES 


AGGREGATE AGE 


AVERAGE AGE 








































IN YBAns. 


IN YEARS. 


< 


























to 


a 






















bt, 


s 






















S3 


< 


15 




oi 








m 




oj 




oi 


a 


ID 






a> 












<u 




<u 






o 


CO 

Si 


03 
B 


> 


'5 


V 


i 




a 


m 

0) 


S 


< 


A vera 


212 


99 


113 


159 


53 


98 


113 


3.987 


4.472 


40.68 


39.58 


8,459 


40.09 


51G 


258 


258 


397 


119 


258 


257 


9.022 


7,840 


34.97 


30.51 


16.862 


32.74 


49-1 


2G0 


234 


403 


91 


259 


233 


10.245 


9.221 


39.56 


39.58 


19,466 


39.57 


5,144 


2. 640 


2,504 


3,575 


1,569 


2,639 


2.503 


83,280 


87,657 


31.56 


35.02 


170,937 


33.24 


3C9 


191 


178 


324 


45 


191 


178 


9,735 


8,809 


50.97 


49.49 


18,544 


50.25 


170 


lOG 


64 


99 


71 


106 


64 


5,689 


3,651 


53.07 


57.05 


P,340 


54.94 


6,905 


8,554 


3,351 


4,957 


1,948 


8,551 


3,348 


121,956 


121,650 


34.34 


36.34 


843,008 


35.31 



FOKTY-SiXT'Bt SEGISTRATIOI? R£P'OE,t. 



[189^ 



Table II.— BIETHS, 1898. 
Arranged hy Months, Sexes, and Divisions of the State. 





SEX. 


.a 


DIVISIONS OP THE STATE. 


MONTHS. 


3 
o 

a 

o 

m 


a 

3 
O 

a 
a 

(D 


3 
2; 


o 


a 

3 

o 

^ to 

o a 
o& 
a o 

S 
'>■ 
o 

u 


1 
a 

o 


o 


"5 

o 

a 
a> 

"2 
V 
o 


4) 

O 
O 

m 

a 
o 

o 


a 
a 
o 
o 

S 
to 

a 
2 


January 


Males 


484 


15 


36 


10 


41 


68 


31 


54 


178 


41 


10 




Females. . . 


453 


10 


48 


6 


39 


67 


18 


41 


175 


34 


15 




Total 


mi 


25 


84 


16 


80 


135 


49 


95 


353 


75 


25 


February 


Males 


437 


14 


57 


4 


23 


55 


21 


43 


168 


38 


14 




Females . . . 


408 


11 


34 


7 


15 


64 


24 


38 


163 


33 


19 




Total 


845 


25 


91 


11 


38 


119 


45 


81 


331 


71 


33 


March 


Males 

Females . . . 


461 
443 


17 
10 


32 
39 


12 
1 


19 
19 


98 
82 


26 
19 


38 
47 


163 
175 


32 
30 


94 




21 




Total 


904 


27 


71 


13 


38 


180 


45 


85 


338 


62 


45 


April 


Males 

Females . . . 


415 

371 


17 

8 


38 
22 


1 

8 


15 
19 


68 
60 


23 
19 


53 
35 


150 
167 


32 
17 


18 




16 




Total 


786 


25 


60 


9 


34 


128 


42 


88 


317 


49 


34 


May 


Males 

Females. .. 


446 
452 


14 
13 


41 

48 


4 

7 


21 
16 


83 

78 


21 

22 


31 
49 


177 
165 


37 
29 


17 




25 




Total 


898 


27 


89 


11 


37 


161 


43 


80 


342 


66 


42 


June 


Males 

Females . . . 


435 

443 


10 
11 


47 
42 


4 
4 


12 
26 


63 
65 


21 

29 


42 

47 


182 
163 


36 
36 


18 




20 




Total 


878 


21 


89 


8 


38 


128 


50 


89 


345 


72 


38 


July 


Males 


503 


11 


39 


8 


'>?^ 


82 


90 


37 


225 


33 


95 




Females . . . 


475 


13 


39 


9 


33 


80 


21 


37 


194 


33 


16 




Total 


978 


24 


78 


17 


56 


162 


41 


74 


419 


m 


41 



1898.] 



BIRTHS, MAliKI.U. i:S, AM) DHATJIS. 



Taijle II.— births.— Continued. 



^IrrdiKjeil hi/ Months, Sexes, (iitd Dii-isions of the Slok 



M()NT11!>. 



Auffust. 



S(']ttfiiil)er. 



OctoluT, 



SEX. 



Xov(.'inber. 



JJuffinluT 



AVIioIc Year 



Males . . 
Females 
Total . . . 

]\rales . . 
Females 
Total . . . 

Males . . 
Females 
Total . . . . 

.Males . . 
Females. 
Total . . . , 

Males . . , 
Females. 
Total . . . . 

>[ales . . . 
Females. 



DIVISIONS OF TIIK STATK. 



lO o 
1 aH 
1^ 



512 
467 
979 

405 
440 
845 

457 
444 
901 

423 
430 
853 

465 
461 
926 



5,443 



15 41 

15 37 
30 ' 78 

44 
20 
25 82 





>, ■ 
























a 












s 






>> 






8, 

Si 






<o 


u 




s 


<u 


o 




*.» 


s o 


M 


a 


o 


o 


^■<^ 


2 


o 

3 




o 

to 

c 


is 


o 




at 


o 


o 
o 


'A 


a. 


O 


O, 


cu 


^ 



152 



5,2S7 158 
Total 10,730 310 



)01 

4S0 
,)81 



9 
11 
20 

8 

7 

15 

6 

6 

12 



6 

12 



76 287 
771290 



64 

51 

115 

67 

61 

128 



30 
33 

63 

t 

211 

19 
40 



45 32 



57 
102 



46: 23 

62: 19 

1081 42 

49 22 

55 1 29 

104 51 



788 291 

I 
782 272 



46 

56 

102 

42 
45 

87 

50 
54 



104 377 



524 
543 



201 
188 
389 



].j3 
168, 3() 
321 61 



193 40 
169 35 
362 75 



182 
180 
362 

210 
167 



2,182 



17 
29 
46 

23 
20 
43 

19 
16 
35 

26 
12 
38 

14 
11 
•2.^ 



417 225 



2,074 3911220 



153 577 1,570 .563 l,067i 4,256 808,445 

I ' ! I I 



FOETY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 





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<J 
HI 

o 

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5^ 


•S3SB0 JO jaqranjsi 


Q0010JC-(MiO-*i>5-*l:-010ol'2 
^ ,1 rH ^ i-H 1 ;il 


^ 

^ 




IB 

o 






< 




> 

5 1^ 


c 

li a 
■» be -^ 

*1 IX 


3 • a 

1 I 


5 3 

> a 
c 
a 

P 




a; 



189S. 



MA i!in.vf;i:s. 



Taijle IV.— marriages, LS'JS. 

.IrraiKjtd hij Munllis (iiid hirisions of /he Slah 



MONTHS. 



January 

February 

:Marcli 

First ()uarter 



April 
May. 
J une. 



267 
256 
152 
675 

321 
201 
396 



SiH'ond (Quarter 91S 

July 186 

Auj,nist 231 

September 332 

Tliird ()uarter T4S) 

i 

Octolu'r 342 

X«)veinl)er 384 

December 210 

Fourtii (.Miarter l»36 



DIVISIONS OF TIIK STATE. 



O 







00 








s 




s 




is- 




is 




o 




o 




c-i 




H 




>• 




>. 




c 








3 








O 






X? 


o 


« 










O 


o 


(C 


!:« 






s 


fa 










u 


o 




:« 








^ 


5: 


ct 


>• 











<u 


» 


•A 


a, 


O 



X 




•— 


1 




*: 




« 


u 


.M 


c 


o 




c 








C 1 


> 


o 


o 


« 


h 


> ' 







7| 16 4 16 

I ' ' 

9 15 1 11 

2 10 3 4 

: i I 

18 41 8 31 



9 19 

6 11 

I 
8 25 

I 
23 55 



3 19 

I 



27 12 23 

I i I 

31 13 21 

I i ! 

19 3 10 

77 28 54 



46 16 14' 150 



7 21 8j 19: 



. -.1 



131 


19 


12 


117 27 

1 


11 


73 


9 


19 i 


321 


55 


42 


150 


21 


24 


98 


15 


11 


186 


27 


19 


434 


63 


54 



9! 22 



8 121 

I i 
4 211 3 

I I 

9 19 6^ 16 44 



Wiiolf Year l3,278 



21 


52 


9 


:«' 


7 


25 


2 


9 


15 


20 


6 


22 


3 


12 


2 


11 



42 

48 

26 

25 57 10. 42116 



87 20.-) 39 150 39 

' I I I 



12 


5 


11 


20 


11 


25 


34 


50 


14 


34 


15 


38 


s 


17 



2.53 

210 
162 
625 

239 
212 
421 

872 



95 14 9' 19r) 

106 19 7 -i-n 

1571 26 19' 314 



3581 59 35 



167| 26, 16 

183 18 19 

I i 
103 7 21 



730 



321 



■1\1 



37 89 4.->3 51 .">(> '.Mil 



14.S -.iTtt l..")(lti 228 1S7 3. 1.'.7 



10 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table Y.— DEATHS, 1898. 
Arranged by Months, Sexes, and Divisions of the State. 





SEX. 


Whole State. 


DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE. 




MONTHS. 


c 

o 
o 

3 

m 
fQ 


c 

3 
O 

o 




S 

o 
a 


>> 

s 
o 

> 
o 

;-< 

CL, 






>> 

o 

<o 
o 

s 

p 


O 
C 

a 

O 

o 


1 
O 

o 

a 
o 

bSl 

a 
'i 


O 

a 

CO 


January 


Males 


287 


6 


17 


6 


10 


49 


11 


28 


112 


18 


21 


9 




Females — 


253 


9 


21 


4 


10 


50 


5 


18 


105 


7 


18 


6 




Total 


540 


15 


38 


10 


20 


99 


16 


46 


217 


25 


39 


15 


February 


Males 


WP, 


7 


16 


8 


9 


49 


10 


17 


108 


25 


8 


6 




Females .... 


242 


4 


18 


1 


18 


41 


4 


13 


105 16 


15 


7 




Total 


505 


11 


34 


9 


27 


90 


14 


30 


213 


41 


23 


13 


March 


Males 

Females 


315 

267 


14 
10 


12 

19 


11 
9 


14 
12 


47 
42 


13 

6 


26 
16 


129 
113 


22 

22 


21 
14 


fi 




4 




Total 


582 


24 


31 


20 


26 


89 


19 


42 


242 


44 


35 


10 


April 


Males 

Females 


307 
2G9 


5 
9 


26 
26 


6 
5 


9 
12 


50 
46 


14 
13 


28 
24 


129 
96 


18 
26 


12 
10 


10 




2 




Total 


576 


14 


52 


11 


21 


96 


27 


52 


225 


44 


22 


12 


Mav 


Males 


281 


1'^ 


'>S 


9 


6 


35 


7 


15 


129 


94 


8 


13 




Females 


287 


15 


23 


2 


22 


35 


14 


23 


117 


19 


12 


5 




Total 


568 


27 


46 


11 


28 


70 


21 


38 


246 


43 


20 


18 


June 


Males 

Females 


280 
219 


15 
10 


17 
12 


1 

2 


15 

22 


36 
25 


10 
3 


29 

18 


115 
94 


14 
13 


20 
15 


8 




5 




Total 


499 


25 


29 


3 


37 


61 


13 


47 


209 


27 


35 


13 


July 


Males .... 


295 


7 


•>o 




18 


31 


9 


30 


130 


■^l 


18 


6 




Females — 


300 


12 


20 


3 


9 


36 


10 


28 


148 


17 


15 


2 




Total 


595 


19 


40 


8 


27 


67 


19 


58 


278 


S8 


33 


8 



I SOS. 



DCATrrs, 



n 



Taule Y.— deaths.— ( 'ontiim.Ml. 

\ rriim/rd J)// .]fi)ii/lis, Sr.rrs, diid Dicisioii^ of iJir SInlr. 



SEX. 



Au":ust. 



September. 



October 



DIVISIONS OP THE STATE. 



Males . . . 
Females . 
Total.... 



Males 

Females . . 
Total 



372 

358 
730 

348 
325 
G73 



Males 258 

Females — ! 285 
-Total 543 



XDveiiiber Males j 25(5 

I Females — 253 

Total .509 

DtH't'Uibcr Males ! 202 



>> 








a 




o . 




og 


o 



o 


; . * 


j^ 


CJ 


o o 


c 


s 


r 


is 


<u 


(D 


V 


^ 


K 


^ 















a 


















o 






<->m 


03 




Si 




^ 


fe 


1> 


- o 


^ 


0,^ 


"3 


^ 








o 


a 


S 




<D 




CL 


o 


a, 



Females ! 293 7 



Total 



585 



13 



Wliole Year. . . Males ' 3,5.54 99 

Females. . . . 3,351 113 

I 
Total (),905 212 



38 
31 
69 

38 
30 

68 

22 
18 
40 

14 
20 
34 

15 
20 
35 



14 



211 58 
17j 52 
38110 



34100 24 41 



13 40; 6 20 

' i I 
7j 13 39 8, 32 

' I 
15 26 79; 14 52 



9j 18 
3 9 



31 4 27 



12 



27 



91 17 

7 21 

16; 38 



26| 3 

571 7 



40 9 



I 
91 169 518118 280 



258 
258 
516145 349996 218 54:3 



144 .34 

1 
1.50 29 

294 63 

147| 16 

135 23 

I 

282 39 

j 

106 12 

I 
114 20 

220 32 

i 

106 1() 

1 

125 20 
231 36 



15 11 

16 8 

34I 19 

i 
I 

15 7 

16 8 
31 15 

24 1 4 
19 7 
4S 11 

i 
9 13 

i 

12! 6 



21 



19 



l:!4 1.") IT 1:; 



138: 11 



272 



26 



1,489 235 

i 



54 180 478 100 263| 1,440 223 



I I 



2,929458 



1(1 4 

33 17 

I 



191 10(i 
178; (54 
369170 



12 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTEATIOX REPORT. 



[189? 



Table YI.— DEATHS, 1898. 

Exhibiting the Whole Number, the Proportion to Population, and 
Number of each Sex, in every Town and Division of the State. 



TOWNS 

AND DIVISIONS OP THE STATE. 



BaiTiiieton. 



Bristol. 



Warren 



Bristol County. 



Coventry. 



East Greenwich. 



West Green wicli 



Warwick. 



Kent Coukty. 



Jamestown. 



Little Compton. 



Middletown . 



Newport City 



New Shoreham. 



Portsmouth . 



19 


1,755 


109 


7,039 


84 


5,301 


212 


14,095 


81 


5,102 


53 


3,216 


9 


675 


373 


24,143 


516 


33,136 


12 


930 


17 


1,128 


15 


1,494 


349 


22,116 


17 


1,307 


28 


1,780 



15.5 



15.8 



15.0 



15.9 



16.5 



13.3 



15.4 



15.6 



12.9 



1.5.1 



10.0 



15.8 



13.0 



15.7 



DEATHS. 



Sex. 



Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 



Males . . . 
Females 



Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 

Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males. . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 



Males... 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 



* Geometrically estimated. 



R08.] 



hi: ATMS. 



13 



Tadle A'l.— deaths, 185)8.— Continued. 



K.rJiihitint/ the Xinnher of Deaths in each Period of Life, in every 
Town and Dirision of the State. 















Periods op 


Life. 
















c 


2 


o 


o 

CO 


o 


d 
O 

1 


in 


o 


2 

to 


o 


d 

o 


g 

o 


S 
2 

o 

in 

3 

8 
7 

3 
3 

11 
1:5 

2 

4 

2 
3 


d 
i- 

c 

o 

2 
3 

14 

8 

5 
5 

21 
10 

10 

8 

1 
3 


o 


a 

o 

i 


i 

> 

o 

-a 
§ 

o 


■6 

o 

c 














1 
1 

3 

3 
5 

4 
9 

3 
2 

2 
3 


1 
1 

6 

1 
4 

2 
11 

2 
4 

2 

1 


1 
2 

4 
9 

3 

8 
11 

1 
1 

2 
3 


1 


1 




1 


1 
















l-> 


1 
2 

2 
4 

3 

G 

1 

1 

1 










1 
1 


2 
2 


5 
3 

4 
.5 

10 

8 

2 
3 

8 

4 

1 
1 

27 
17 

38 
25 


4 
5 

2 
5 

7 
10 

6 

1 

2 
4 

3 

1 

9 

7 

20 
13 

2 
2 

1 
1 

3 


1 
1 




q 












1'^ 


2 

2 

1 
1 










!•> 


1 








2 

2 

4 

1 
1 

1 

2 






■T) 




1 


1 
1 

1 


1 

1 

1 


1 


■J 2 

14 
y 


1 
1 


1 




s 












4 


1 


1 


1 




































1 

19 
10 

30 
22 


.... 




(iO 


13 

12 

14 
14 


8 
3 

9 
5 


1 

3 

3 
3 


2 

1 
3 


5 

7 

5 

7 


1 

2 

1 
3 

1 


4 

(i 


9 


7 
14 

12 

19 

1 


6 
14 

11 

18 

1 


13 

8 

U) 
12 

1 


10 

18 

14 
25 

1 
1 

2 






(■>.") 

77 

7S 


1 

1 
1 




1 












1 

1 


2 
2 

1 
2 

20 
1(5 

3 
1 

5 
4 






1 


1 


1 






1 
1 








1 


1 

1 
1 

l(i 
17 

3 
1 
















1 






1 


1 








1 


1 


1 


















1 

21 
17 

1 

1 
2 


1 

17 
24 

1 




40 


8 
9 


1 
3 


3 
3 


3 


(i 
2 


1 
2 


3 
4 

1 


10 
9 

1 

3 
3 


22 
13 

3 
1 

1 
1 


8 
14 

1 


1 

3 
1 


1 


















') 
















3 










1 




















1 

















14 



fORTY-STXTH IlEGISTRATIO]Sr REfOET. 



[1898. 



Table VI.— DEATHS, 1898.— Continued. 

Exhibiting the Whole Number, the Projjortion to Population, and 
Number of each Sex, in every Town and Division of the State. 



TOWNS 

AND DIVISIONS OF THE STATE. 



Tiverton 



l^EWPORT County. 



Burrillville. 



Central Falls. 



Cranston. 



Cumberland. 



East Providence. 



roster 



Glocester 



Johnston. 



Lincoln , 



Korth Providence . 



I^orth Smith field. 



Pawtucket 



qj O 



Providence City 2,929 



56 


3,038 


18.4 


494 


31,793 


15.5 


95 


5,830 


16.3 


218 


17,462 


12.5 


172 


10,284 


16.7 


146 


8,932 


16.3 


123 


11,432 


10.8 


17 


1,129 


15.1 


27 


1,549 


17.4 


130 


12,. 529 


10.4 


115 


9,213 


12.5 


35 


2,820 


12.4 


52 


2,743 


18.9 


543 


36,088 


15.0 


929 


154,333 


19.0 



DEATHS. 



Sex. 



Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 



Males. . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 



Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 



* Geometrically estimated. 



I8n8.] 



UKATIIS. 



15 



Taklk VI.— deaths, IH'JH.-Coiitiiinod. 

hj.vhihiftiKj the Nuvihrr of Deaths in ectrJi Period of Life, in every 
Town (inil Division of Hie S((tle. 



Pbkiods of Life. 



oj 


CO 


•* 


o 


O 


o 








- 


ej 


eo 



14 



4S 



17 



14 



10 
9 



1 


4 

1 

s 


1 
2 


1 ' 


(is 


4 


.")S 


14 


7 


8 ' 


4'.» 


88 


.S4 


22 


04 


(i.5 


2(5 


11 



IC 


o 


o 


<D 




<N 






O 


O 


o 


o 




in 




o 











i;3 ^ 



41 



1 
1 

15 
15 

2 
8 



3 
1 

111 
■_'i) 



IS r 



2 
2 

30 
17 

3 

2 

() 

8 



25 
19 



10 
4 



IS 









h 








o 








> 


o 


o 


o 










•a 


o 


o 


o 


e 


g 


p. 


s 


s 



18 



II I in |; 



;> 


2 


(5 


8 


2 


1 


27 


20 


37 


2(5 


80 


2(5 ' 


4 


8 


7 


8 


4 


4 

1 


18 


17 


2 ^ 


.") 


11 


4 : 


.") 


10 


i 
11 ! 


9 


18 


9 


10 


4 


(5 


.^ 


12 


5 


7 


8 


12 


8 


2 





2 




2 




1 


2 


1 




5 




3 


2 


8 


4 


(5 


7 


4 


(5 


^! 


8 


4 


7 


y 


5 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


7 


1 




2 


88 


42 


25 


21 


37 


85 


1(51 


144 


107 


1(58 


15G 


182 



1 

2 
19 



1 



4 !. 

2 |. 

18 ' 

8 j 

51 ! 

m 



7 I 1 



3 
11 



16 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTKATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table VI.— DEATHS, 1898.— Continued. 

Exhibiting the Whole Number, the Proportion to Popidatioyi, and 
Number of each Sex, in every Town and Division of the State. 



TOWNS 

AND DIVISIONS OF THE STATE. 





* 














J3 








a> 


o 


O 


1i 






ce 


^ 






o 


o 


H 


Oh 



Scituate. . . 

Smitlifield. 



WOONSOCKKT , 



53 3,492 15.2 



31 2,325 I 13.3 



458 



Providence Covnty 5,144 307,752 



27,591 



Charlestown 



Exeter. 



Hopkinton . 



Narras'ansett 



Xorth Kinastown. 



South Kinsstown 



Richmond. 



Westerly. 



Washington County 



State Institutions . 



15 964 



13 869 



49 



2,679 



16.6 



16.7 



15.6 



14.9 



18.3 



13 1,302 i 10.0 



63 



4,571 



13.8 



83 5,376 15.4 



24 



109 



1,623 14.8 



8,049 



13.5 



369 2.5,433 14.5 



170 



2,204 i 77.1 

i 



DEATHS. 



Sex. 



Males . . . 
Females 

Males... 
Eemales 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 



Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 

Males . . . 
Females 



Males. . . 
Females 



* Geometrically estimated. 



1808.] 



i)i;.\Tiis. 



17 



T.MJLK VI.— DEATHS, 18!)8.-Coiitiiino(l. 

KxhihituKj llic Xiimher of Deallis in each I'criod of Life, in erertj 
Town and Division of the Slate. 



Periods op Life. 











ni 


o 


o 


o 


o 


d 


d 






















































O 


o 


o 


O 


O 


O 


O 








































































•«> 


in 






OJ 


n 




« 


to 



3 i 
1 ' 

12 I 
11 

140 
124 



2 
5 

53 
54 



41 
30 



4 
2 

29 
22 



8 
9 

73 
65 



3 
2 

46 
30 



20 
15 



16 ! 14 
24 I 17 



m 222 199 223 
68 220 224 195 



14 

8 



11 
15 

17 



4 
2 

2 
2 


5 

15 
15 

14 



17 
19 

274 
258 



7 
1 

13 
9 

17 

13 



4 
2 

2 

2 

15 
19 

264 
'-77 

1 
1 



29 

28 



15 

It; 



d 

00 

2 


80 to 90. 
90 and over. 


i 
t 

a 


s 


'> 









5 

2 

3 

7 

102 
133 






9 


, 




15 
11 

221 
226 

4 


1 

2 

1 

11 
29 


1 
1 


'? 






•> 


2 
8 






3 



1 




6 
1 




3 




•? 


2 

7 
3 

7 
9 

2 






3 
6 

8 
5 

4 


1 
2 

1 
2 










IS 


5 
6 

26 
•_>o 

lii 
1 






s 






44 

i:. 
II 


2 

,>< 

2 
1 





18 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOJST REPORT. 



[T898. 



Table VI.— DEATHS, 1898.— Continued. 

( RECAPITULATION. ) 

Exhibiting the Whole Number, the Proportion to Population, and 
Number of each Sex, in every Division of the State. 



DIVISIONS OF THE STATE. 



Bristol County. 



Kent County. 



]S'ewpoet County^ 



Providence County. 



Washington County 



State Institutions . 



Whole State. 





o 


1 
















„'0 














a 


U^ 




o 


as 




!^ 


ft 




CS 


X O 







^^ 




a 


ai-i 




o 


<B O 




PM 


fi 





212 14,095 ; 15.0 



510 33,1.36 15.6 



494 



31,793 15.5 



5,144 307,152 



369 



170 



6,905 



25,433 



2,204 



DEATHS. 



Sex. 



j Males . . . 
! Females 

! Males . . . 
Females 



Males . . . 

Females 



16.7 



14.5 



77.1 



414,413 16.7 



Males 2,640 



Females 



Males . . . 
Females 



Males... 
Females 



Males . . . 
Females 



^03 






99 
113 

258 

2.58 

260 
234 



2,504 

191 

178 

106 
64 

3,5.54 
3,351 



i 



SOS. 



DF.ATirs. 



]'.) 



Taule VI.— deaths, 1808.— Coiitimi(!.l. 

( i!i;(Ai'i'rii,.\'n<)\.) 

Kd-hilntiiKj lite yiniiJicr of Deailis in each Period of Life, iv evrnj 
Division of the State. 



Pbbioss of Life. 



u 














at 














V 














;» 


























in 


& 














0) 


m 


"T 


•o 




O 


■o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 
















&. 


" 


(M 


CO 


-1' 


lO 





22 

77 
78 

r,o 
48 

675 
548 

27 
22 

3 
4 

857 
722 



14 



14 



140 53 



124 



168 
160 



68 
68 



89 



52 



4! 2 



11 



83 



77 30 01 



12 
19 

15 

15 

222 
220 

14 

8 

8 
3 

275 



30 



25 



17 


19 


199 


223 


224 


195 


11 


15 


15 


15 


17 


14 


3 


5 


270 


301 


288 


257 



14 
25 



26 

274 
258 

13 
9 

17 
13 



21 
16 

30 
22 

20 
30 

264 
277 

29 
28 

15 
16 



356 379 



344 389 329 



10 

8 

38 
25 

37 



7 
10 

20 
13 

19 



26! 19 



221 
226 

44 
33 

15 
11 

3(55 



102 
133 

26 
20 

12 
7 



186 21 3 



202! 4;; 



20 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTEATIOK REPORT. 



[1898. 



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^ 


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S C) 


^ 


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S -o 


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1—1 


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Cl 


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^ 




he Number of e 
Number of N 


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s 


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^1 : : : 


iHiHiHi— l(M'*-*CO<XiCO 
1— 1 1— 1 lO 




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■" [ 


iH . CO 

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cq -xH «o CO 

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< 


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cq 


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> 

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1 


1— 1 


tH tH tH CO 


•rH t-CM'^COOl 

cq 


^■ 


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1-1 rH CO 


d 

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5 
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u. 

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f 
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03 



1898. 



CAUSES or DKATir. 



21 



1-1 • 'M :r 



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Tf) U3 <» Ci ''f* 
CC rH 



(M 00 • 00 • •-> -t ri 



1 


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CO (M <M i-H • G<l O 50 


3 
< 


•C<imi«(M •rHCO'M -OXCCCO -r-ICD -lOi-HlO -OOCC 
(M • -i-Hi-li-l- •i-Ht-rH. 


o 


<M I— 1 1-H »-H • i-H C^ t-1 



T-H O -* 00 «o 
CO 






CO i-H lO 
00 • (M 



©q oo" 



o 

> 



© 






Qi ^^ 



OS »0 CO 00 (M CO C5 
rH G<l (N 



(M (M • tH 



lo CO -co 



rH OO • 01 



tJ< 00 



>: 



2 .- .^ CD X . . 



(N 00 ■ -<* 



-* 



U3 O O 
i-H 00 CO 



<N t- rH 

o< O^CO 
I— I CO I— I 



Ttt o: lo 

I— I 



rH CD CO 
• X rH' 



i-H C5 rH 



(M 00 rH 

• CO G^l" 

• rH 



(M cr ur 



i-\ iH 
rH 

00 CO 






rH t~ t- 



rH CO (N 
__!"'__ 
rH t- rH 

r-k 

rH CO rH 



03 

^ 2SPh 

? ^ =J =^'-^ 



S^q^^^Cfi; (|>^^ E:; S;£! sI^S ^^^'® 



i- X -2 



2^ 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGtSTRATlON REPORT. 



[1898. 



o 
O 



A 
o 

P 
Q 



M 

Hi 

m 
o 



to 


fe 




I— 


I— 




X 


CN c: 




cc 

CM 




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<M 
CC 


1— 


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tc 




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• 


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•i-it-iXiCO00i-IC<l(M -i-ltO • -CO -rHCqcq 
1-1 GO CM • • • 


iH 


A* 


u 

o 






• iHi-llOQ0t-COi-ICOiHTH(Mi-lrH-<^ ■ .(jqi-J 
iH G^ CO r-^ • ■ 
1—1 




iH 


a" tHi— liH •^CO'^Cl-'^i— (COtH •'^t— I -^i— It— llOr- 

5 • 1-1 CO i-H • cq • 


iH • 












S 




• -^ -ccc^iCi-icM • -cqOi-i^N • •(^^l-l • • \ 

• • • CO cq • • 1-1 ■ • ■ • 


r-l 


CO rH rH lO iH 1-1 i-l 


6 
<a 

ft 


ft' 












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iH i-H 


- 


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; 




1—1 




g 












1-i 


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CM 




1-1 ■ 




Nov. 


ft 





tH 




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-- 




cq 






CM 


iH • 










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1— 1 • 














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o 
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ft 










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tH 












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1—1 1—1 1—1 • lO 1— 1 1— 1 • 




















P. 


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1—1 




1-1 


1-1 -rj< (M 








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• 




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I— 1 






• 


1—1 








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i-H 












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iH iH to • 










rH 












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1— t 1— 1 iH t~ CN 


I— 1 






tH 














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cq cq 


CO 
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1—1 • 
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ft 






1—1 




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1-1 1-1 


^ 










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CM 




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1-1 














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rH 






CO 








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CCt 










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ta 












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• 1—1 
























ft 










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CO 
















s 










iH CO iH O Cq 
1—1 








1—1 




iH 






iH 




C 


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c 


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c 

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1808.] 



cAUSKs (»!•• i»i;aiii. 



23 



[ 
w 

Hi 






\ 




1 


^ 




•rH7I>-H -1- .:7:^^_,_'JJ . . 

• • • CC 1- • • , 


i ' • rH Cs 
■1 • • 


• rH (M 


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• rH rH L- 


• rH IT 1—1 ^ 

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• rH • rH rH 1 


s 

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■ rH I— 1 rH • r-' i—< 




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■71 


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i - • r-\ i-t r-i r-i --^rH 'rHOOrHOJCMrHt-rH 
. . . . 00 '"Jt 


• 1-^ 


i 

2 


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»-H 00 • tH i-l iH • • iH • • rH • T»< • Ci • iH 00 iH <N • rH 
rH> •• ... . . (^ . r-\ • , 


£ 




• CO r-( 
r-( 




• rH rH rH rH rH T^ rH 


rH CO »C 


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" 


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; 


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rH 


























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S x-^ i^ C © S ^ > 3 = 









g;:qH^^,S:^H;<9oopi^PH;:^?HpHxxHr 



o 






24 



FORTY-SIXTH KEGISTKATION REPOIIT. 



[1898. 




180S.] 



CAUSES OF DEATFr. 



25 



o 

a 
o 
Q 



ft 



CZ2 






X CO 



-t U5 -t l-T -tH • 'Ji \Z 



-M ~ -M 






'^ 


ooOi-H(McC'#oo(Nc:mco;r>Oi-tG<icicoi;ot-i-tt«-ec(MCM 

G<l 


c 

s 


U5 O 

O tH 


i-HlOCilO-^OCOi-t-^C^Xi-lUSCOClCOXClCQlOrM-^ 
(N(NrHt- COi-trH(M rHeC(M 


E 

-< 


CO 

1— 1 


•rH05eCC5COCC<MLO'*C:>iHCSCOCOC3CO<M»0»Oi-('* 
i-H T-H -^ -^ (M r-l rH (M iH 




C- Tjl 


• <N • iH <N • SC CO • • • i-H -* CO OO (M CO «i O lO iH O 
• • • i-H ri tH iH rH 




S^ ^-^ 3 



SS g ^..^ P.?^. r%.'ij<r=^^'Zr^ Z'^'.i'^.^ 



ri^"^^ O _ 



ft ft 



26 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOlSr REPORT. 



[1898. 



COCOrHTHCiOOO'^i—IO 
I— I CO '^ CO rH 



CO 1-1 t- CO 
rH CN r-l 



T— I t~ r-l 1— I 1— I 







... . 1-^ r> '-I 3 •"; "-I d:> ■ 
0) a 2jr^ ® ?2 p ^ UJ , 






1S08. 



CAl'SES OF DEATir. 



< 



)i 


^ 


•^ »-t f-t i?» .-t 


• 1—1 


la -* 


c: 


X a: 


2 ... 
1 ... 
1 ... 

. . . ' 2 

"is 7 

... 1 
1 1 

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i 8 


a 




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■00r-<COXi-ieO»OC5'?i:£ 
ec r-t t^ 
i-H 


S3 i - 




■ i-» 


• eor-i-^iOSQ-^ioiaicr-.r:. • r 


^" * 


-?< 


r:i § 


I— t 


■«i-t • eo t- fH -I* -* le ta « 

. T-l 1-1 Ci 

• 1-t 


la • 


-.- 


'"' 








1 


"^ -I-* .th ?H»o ooc ec* X »s ;c 


^ 


CI -?» 


< 






•dOO -C^t-r-llQlCS^OaOOO^i-ti-iC^CSrH 

.»* 1-1. i-t t- 
• i-t i-t 


CO 


O 
b 


^ 


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- 


— 


I— 


t- • 


• I— t 














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s 


CC 




t- • 


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1-1 IH 




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r-1 




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T^ 




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— 


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si 


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1—1 r- 


CO 






— 








f-t 


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t~ 1- 


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cc 


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la~ 






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— 


?— 1 


t 






: 








X 


1 


X 

'7 


X ^ 

5 c 

^ X - 


f 


§ > 

_ ^ 


X 
11 


•p 


_2 


X 


f. 




— 


— 



28 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOlSr REPORT. 



[1898. 











lO 


i-i 


-n 


r-HCNGOrHO-*OOOrHlOrHG<('* 




cq 


rH 


cq 


rH cq 1 






PR 


CO -tH i-H 


• 




V, 






rH • 






iHOO -o •t~iOTHa5»ocq^t~jq 


• • I>- rH rH rH rH '^ cq 






S 


• r-l • 'Tt< (M iH 


• • OS 






^ 


iHXrHCO •COt-'*lOt-tHOtilO'* 


rHCqCO -rHrHrHT^Cq 






o 


CO CO 


• 








7—{ 






• lO • 


rHi-|(X)i:Di-IOCNt~C0C0C0 


• • 10 rH cq rH cq rH cq 




h 


<1 




rH -* '^ tH 1— 1 


• • CI 




^ 


u 


i-H OC • 


• • • r^H IX) K2 rH 00 CO ^ iH • IC • rH • • CO (M | 




EH 






• • ■ th crq 


• 00 • • • 






a 
















lOr-iTt<rHCiCi»Oai'*t-':#K5CO 


• cqixrHcqcqcocqcq 




<l 




r-i :C ^ 1-1 rl 


i-\ 




% 


<1 






7-i 






fe 1 




•T-( • • -I— ICOi— li— li— 1 • • • 


• • -^ • T-{ • • • • 




O 

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,_! . . . 














^ 1 








• rH CM Oi • rH CO rH • 




rH rH • 




T-4 








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r-i • r-i 1-^ r-i tH C^ • • 




r-\ • 










rH 




o 

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] 




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ri 










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• 






r-i • 








fe' 1 














r-i • 












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r-i 


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. 




r-i 














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3 
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r-i 




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• 


• 




rHlOrHrHC<lrHrHrH 


• r-t t- 














g 






CO 


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rH • 

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cq 


cq 


• 




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r-i 










1— 1 


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rH 












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r-i 




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a 


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CO 


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r-i • 






PR 














cq • CO cq 


rH 









1-^ 




























• 


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• 




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s 








• i—{ 




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tH 


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rH 








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cq 


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t- 








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. 


cq ^ rH 


i-{ • r- 


• T-i -^ 














a 

1-5 


k; 


















1-i 














s 


i-H iH 


• r-i 


• T-i 


CO CO 










• to 






















f) 












































cS 
























































• P 


























5 
m 






O 




'' B 






• 
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05 




• p 















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5 






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a 

a 
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3 
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t3 '^ T3 CD ir: 


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a 

Is 

c 


• 02 

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• 
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^ ! a; 


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1S08. I 



t'AUSKS Ol'' DI'.ATII. 



29 



a 
o 



00 



O 

m 

P 






X 


^ 


r-H 




I ^ ^- 




1 I— ( 


• 1.' 


1- 


- 1— ( I— 1 1- 





'N rH 1-t -H 1- 




-f T 


- 




(Nr-lrl •rHr«(»i-<-J4l~CO •iHCOi-l -OCMG^i-li-l^iXL^ 
a G<« • • rH •'* rH Ci CO 






00 ■cct-icccc'M ••ci-T-<rHr:t-^'Mr--r-H:r:u5-^c;'r:jco 

1—1 


5 


COi-H ■ •i-lCC»«r-('i<L-00 ■OG^ • •'*{7< •CCCOt-HlOTji 
T-H • . . • • 00 • CO i-t 


i 

& 

■< 


o 


'<* • CO 1-1 CO <M 1-1 -CO ■ • i-( CO (M C<J X C<l <M 

(M- • ........ ^rt 






i-l-<*COrH(X)'>^'^i-l00O5i-l(MTH(M 
rH iH t- 


CO U5 <M to U3 

r^ »0 10 rH 

rH 


n 


fa 


G<» 














• (M I- 


4 


! 


• tH rH 




• tH 






• • (N • • 


s 


CO 


.— 


— 


— 


c 


(M 




• C^ 


4 


• 






CO 


_ 


r- 


• • cc 

• -M ~i 


3 CN • 


o 


fa 




1— 1 ■ i-< 
• rH • 

■ ~. oo~.~ 


1—1 


- 


- 


rH 

■ co~ 


< 1-i 1-H 
3 rH " • 


i 

o 
O 

D. 

(» 


fa" 


<M 








iH • 


• rH CO CO rH 


(N 










• 


r-l (M rH 


(N 






ec 


1-H 


• ■ '^ rH • 


fa 


(M 


iH 






r-{ 


I— 1 iH 




(M rH 




0^ 




• <M CO rH • 


s 


iH 


• 






• r-* T-i i-t 









1— 1 


r-{ 


• • 00 7-t 1-i 


•< 



fa 


(M 








• 


• -H 




• 1-H 


rH CO 


rH 


rH L— 1-H rH 


)S 


• I— 1 rH 






1— 1 








r-i 




• CO 


• (M 


• rH 10 • 
1-H 


fa 


tH 










• 


r-{ 






rH 




rH (N 


i-\ y-i 


to '^ • 


g 


1—1 










1— 1 
















^ rH 






CO rH 


0^ 

c 

3 

S" 

i 


fa 


C<» 








1— I 


















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c 

r- 


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- 


— 


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<M 


- 


- 


• r-t 


rH ~ 

CO ' 


) Tj< CO 

1 


• 










1-1 




•^ 




fa 




- 


- 




rH 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






1— 1 


CO 




CO (M 


iH 


• 


<M 




CO CO (M 


fa 


CO 






• 1-t 




iH 






r-i r-i 


- 


~cc 












(M 




















rH 


rH 






t-* 


fa 


1—1 






1—1 






1— 1 








1 




(M 








t~ G^r-i 








rH <M 
















; 




rH 




1-i 


00 rH rH 


^ 


T-< 








r-{ iH 




tH 




CO T-i 








tH 


tr- rH tH 


03 


fa' 


rH 


r-i 










tH 




<N • 




rH 




1 


CO CO rH 


s 


I— i 










iH 










CI rH 




CO 




rH r- 





iH 


&■ 

C 
& 

c 

b 


i 

3 

> 

3 

1 
3 

3 


cc 

O 

1 

Q 

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K - 

.^■■^ 
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ft fc 

0) c 


1 

c 


« 

b 
a 

> 


> 

1 


■3 

-1 

X 

c 
- a 


c 
c 


c 
c 
c 
a; 

> 






< 

C 


-1^ 


> 

c 




a 


Cr— 

■5' 3 

I-* 


1 


l-H 





X 

a 




r 

Z 


r 
1 





3P 



FORTY-STXTH REGISTRATIOK REPORT. 



[1898. 





fii 


CO 


lO 


CO 


r-l 


r-l 




IC 


CD '^ rH rH t~ 

CD Oi 








rH 




CO cq 




r^ 


-* Oi '^ii 1 


g 


CO . lO lO • • • CD 


^ (M 10 




^■" 


CO C^ CO •^' "• >0 <Xi CN^-l I— 1 »0 • 
CO . . . <X) !Xi lO • 


rH 


1— 1 rH • 


^ CD rH • 


CO a; t- 


S 
< 


i-l-xHr-I^T-lr-ICOCD(M • -CDiH 
C^ CO lO ■ ■ O 


• ■ r-\ 


• T-t • 


rH CM CM cq 


< 

•A 


o 


COi-Ht-I • • -CO-^tM •i-IC<l • -1-1 •T^'^ • 
■ • • '^ lO . lO • • • 


• UO »0 CO 


< 


'TiHtOCO^THi-lOi-ICqrH • 
lO CD C^ 


0:> rH 1—1 rH • 
r-i 


1—1 • 


CO rH rl CO CD CD 


6 


^- 1 ^ : : . 






10 rH 
1—1 

'c6~^~ 


- 


-■ 


Oi ■ 


i-\ 


- 


- 


- 


1-^ ~ 


- 


• CN • 


s| "^ : : 






o 


^' 


tH 1— 1 1— I 






CO CO 






Oi 










r-i • 




1— 1 • • 


g 


^ • . • 






CO >o 






»o 




r-< 




• j—l 








o 


fe' 


CN CN • 






10 10 






00 






1— 1 


' 








rH 


g 


i-H iH 1-1 iH 


1-1 C~ (7<1 






^ 










1— 1 










p. 
'Jl 


^ 


CO 






t- CO r-l 






rH 


















r-i ■ r-i 


s 


CO 


• I— 1 




'rt^ -* 






01 


















r-i T-t • 


sib 
P 
<1 


p=; 




1—1 r-l 




CO ■rJ^ 






OS 


















r-i CO • 


s 


C^ 










r-\ 1-1 






^ rH 


















• T^ 




fe 


CM 










CO '^ 




. 


1-^ 










r-t 




1— 1 


T-\ rH 


s 


CO 










CD ^ 






CD 










• r-i 








rH 


a 


fe 


CO i-( 








':*< T^i rH- 


r-l CO 










T-t 








r-*. 


s 


CO 










^ 10 






t- 








1— 1 


r-t 




r-t 




fe 


CO 






rH 


UO 00 






CD 












cq 






^->, 


s 


-^ 










(M CN 






-rJH 






















p. 
<1 


fe 


^ 










IC CO 






OS 


















r-i 


• 


s" 


»o 










t- 00 






t^ 


















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^->i 




fe' 


', 










<M i-H 








rH 


















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s 


cq 




1— 1 




10 t- 






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rH 


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■^ 




















(N • 


s 


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^ 


























li; 


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00 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 






— 


- 


- 


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ig 


r~\ 










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T-t 


t 
E 

f 
f 

f 
C 

c 
c 

1 
c 


H 

o 
c 

D 


o: 
a 

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a 


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1 XI 


H c 
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2 a 
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il 

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3 C 

3^ 


H 

2 

3 ;: 
3 a 

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_c; 
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2 


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a. 

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c 


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18118. 



CAUSKS OK DDATir. 



31 



fa 


a ■ zz TC ■ -r-ii— i-trc-t*'— i>-H^r^ 


^ 


'"' ; 


— 1 rH -M 


— • ■ 


s 


t-i-iOOC5rH(M(M • •00SOU3 • • • 

CC 05 i-H . • . . . 

C^ ■ ■ . . . 




• I— 1 


• rH • 


• rH r-i 


1 


«OTH00T*i^C<JOJi-IC0(MO55OiHrHi-H 
CO 




rH • 


• <N rH 


• • 1-H 


E 
< 


O • CO 00 • O i-l . rH ■«* i-l . . . . 

U5 • -H • i-H • . . . . 

(M • • . . . . 


iH 


• 1— 1 


i-l • i-t 


1— 1 r-« 



to r-4 iH (M rH 



t- to rH rH 



05 



O; rH • O (M 

Ci • j-i 

CC • 






(N O CO rH 



CO 
CO 



ZC 1-i Oli-i 



Ci 



rH CO 

CM 

rH 00 

(>1 

r-* lo" 
CO 



CM C5 



CO 



rH CO 

CO 

• C5 

■ (M 

CO 



cr 






35 -^-- 






•^ /•> ^^ 




::fe 



be 



pHpLnpHflnpHpHPHflnPUpHCH 



PHa:x 



Si 



FORTY-SIXTH KEGISTRATIOIS' EEPORT. 



[1898. 





^ 


iH 




T— 1 


1— ( 
I—I 


(N 


1—1 


1—1 


cq 




^ '^iH CO 






?^ 






CN 


1— 1 


CO 






' 


M 


•1— 1 •OrHC<»i— l(Mi— l(NC~ -i— li— l(MC<l<MCOGOi— li— li— tCO 
• 1—1 




o 


• • -t-C^TOeMOqi-l-^lOi-i •iHCOeMrHCOJO .iHrHCO 


S 
<1 


i-lT-lr-l-:JHi-i • -CN -(MtXiCMi-l -tH •i-ICM'<*^ • • • 
,_(... . . ... 




o 




. .,_|^c(j(;^5 .^^^ . .^,_,,_|,_|(X)•rt^ • • -CO 




iH tH O (N 




^ 


CM t~ CC t-l 


IOrHiHCqiO-^1— (i— ( • 


d 

ft 


fe 








; 












• 














• 1—1 






S 




















rH 




rH 








tH 






-; 


&; 








1—1 


































^ 


S 








(M 








I— 1 


















CO 






rH 


o 
O 

02 


fe' 








G^ 


1—1 






(M 
















• 1-1 






S 








1—1 






1-1 


tH 














1-1 cq 








&; 








■ tH 










I— 1 






















s' 


























- 


— 


- 






1— 1 










fe 








1— i 




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s 
























iH 








- 


1-1 




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f^n' 


















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— 


— 


— 


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<M 










• ^ 






rH iH 




rH 


&; 








crq 






1—1 




i-i 




• 




• 










s' 








1— 1 iH iH 


• 


T-\ 










cq 1-1 












fe 


T— 1 




1-1 1-1 




I— 1 












1—1 




iH 1—1 




— 


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s 












iH 






1— 1 
















<1 


fc 








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1-1 r^ 








iH 






r 


(M 


g 








O^ 












r-l 






1—1 




CO 


'- 




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fe' 








1-1 










1—1 iH 




















s 














1—1 






























fe 






1—1 I— 1 












• 
























s 




T— 1 


CN 












1—1 










— 


— 


— 




1—1 


-; 


d 

03 


^ 








1— 1 












1-1 






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tH 




s 












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CM 








1—1 














f 

f 

C 


D 
d 


c; 

£ 
c 
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a 

=+- 

c 

C 
c 

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i 

3 

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5 


a 
c 

p: 
c 

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J 

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p 

a: 


ir. 

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a 

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a 
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a 


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c 
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a 
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c 


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a 

a: 


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> 

c 


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b 

!^ 







1898.] 



CAUSES <»F HEATir, 



33 



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i- 




• 1—1 




• -f I' 








■ '"' a 13 ■"■ 










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■ 








: ~ 


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»H •OOi-tiHi-l'^i-lOi-i — C-. .1-H .|-Hi-I • .00 • f — 
1— 1 I— 1 1— 1 X • • ... 




b 

£ 


»H i-l ©< • <M 00 -^ • C- 1-1 O X iH i-l rt • • t-t tH eO • »H • 3^ 
tH CO • • • • 
lO . . . . 


. i< 


< 


• • i-t tH S<l • • • 

. . (M • • • . • 




1 

a 

< 


• • 


• rH • C- • -«11 CO • • IH 
OS • • 


• • tH • Ofl • .- 




•< 

1 X 


tH 


•i>iHCOX:CT-i-oc<ir:i-i.-i,-i 

rl 1-1 t~ 

1* 


• ri rH CO rH lO IH 


• rH C5 


§ 


^• 








; ; 


• iH 




; ; 


• • o 










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;— 






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3 


s 








• rH 








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CC 










• rH 










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• (M 


• rH a 

CO 






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. 


w 


- 














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• rH 










• 


C 


^ 






1— 1 




C<J rH 






• rH CI 

1-t 


rH 




















^ 


^• 










I— 1 tH 








CO 






















■ • 


73 


^ 












rH 


rH rH 
























• 


si 

3 
1 '^ 


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s 












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i-t ' 


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rH 


3 


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y-i 


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iS 


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rHi-l 'COi-H 

• CO 


• r^ 








•- 




— 


^1 














I— 1 


• 


















r^ 




u 


^1 










i-H (M 






• -* 

• ?2 






- 


- 


- 


— 


1-^ 


- 






< 


rH 






• 1—1 




r-t 


• CO 






rH 


^ 


^1 










1 1 






rH C^ 

CO 














rH rH 




• 


s 


:s| 










rH ?1 r-( 




rH O 






















• 


^• 


^1 




i-H 




• T-t 




rH 
























(M 


^ 


^1 










• -M 




tH 


• CO 






















• 


B 


^1 










(N iH 








•CO ■ 






r-i 














t-t 


"^ 


s| 






(N • 




rH 








iH CO • 

CO 














tH 








■J 

< 






X 

f 
> 




2 
a: 


1 


■3 


3 

r. 


5 


X 

^ 


X 

x 


3 '■ — 

x" >^ X 
'x 2 'x 


X 




'■*J 


X 


I> 


-i 


_ 


-.■ 




t( 


>, 



34 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 






O 

O 



CO 

CS 
00 



M 

H 

ft 

O 
in 

w. 

P 

<! 

O 






>^ 


-! 




I— I 


I— i 


i—l 










1—1 


1—1 


i-i 


lO 




! - 


s 


rH-'-.-li-l7-(<M-^- Iffl 
... • i-H • 1-1 


Z ..^ 


o 


,-1 . .,-( . • 'iHiHOOi-l O 
. . ... ^-H ^H 




1^ 


< 1 






> 
■< 


o 

I! 


1-1 • 


. ,H • • • r-l lH r^ 
. • • iH 


1-1 to 




r-l 


1—1 • 


1— 1 T— 1 1— 1 1— 1 • 


1-1 




tH 


o 
13 

o 
O 


^' 1 
^ i 
^ 1 


— : 


-; 


- : 


- 


-; 


-; 


-; 


tH • 


1—1 


• 


rH • 


iH 






1-1 


s 1 




















iH 


<M 


& 1 


— ; 


~ ; 


-; 














1-4 






- 


~; 


— ; 


— 


rH 


iH 
1-1 






ft 










'^ 




-; 


-, 


- 


- 


-. 


- 






rH 


(M 1 


i SP 




— ; 




y-^ 


• 


1—1 • ! 


<1 






CO 


<M 1 


May. June. July. 




— ; 


1—1 • 


- 


- 


- 


— 


— ; 


— 


I-t 


1-1 


-; 


- 


-; 




(M 






fa 


— 


















r-\ 


• 




1—1 iH 










CO 


rH 


s 






















(M 




fa 


— 


- 


















t-l 










1-1 




CO 






i S 


fa' 




















. 1—1 






^ 




















• 1-1 






.o 


fa' 




















. CO 






!■ ^ 


g 




















• 1—1 


Ol 


c 


fa 




















. I—l 


1—1 


•-5 


s 


1—1 






• rH 1-1 






• CO 


(M 




t 
t 


< 

a 

fa 
o 

K 
iC 




I 

c 
a 

=4- 

?■ 
c 


3 




• c 
. .f- 

• E 

: 8 

. c 

■ '■*■ 

• ? 

I a 

. d 
% 

C 

'A 

M 

h- 


3 

H 

I 

3 

2 

D 
-1 5- 

D a 

~ 1— 


• -t- 

- 1 

• c 

. a 

• c 

? I 

5 ? 

H - 


3 



3 


; a 

• *5 

• ?: 

• a 

• > 

; C 

■^ • r- 

3 -4- 

1 ? 

h- 


i 


'a 
b 
c 

t 

5- 
C 

a 
a 

'5 
a 

: 

c 
> 


3 


J i 
3 

1 
) 

3 

J 
3 
3 
) 



1808. 



rAt'SEs OF nr.ATfr. 



35 



o 






S -2 



hH ?•- I 



••IVJ.OJ, 


G<J « 


<M i-< i; 


?4 1- 


CC 


1-1 1- 


'~ 




■" 


'• 




-f 


rH C 


L- 


-t 


H 

m 


b 


iHl— 1 -.-li;;-— l»-l?CrH 


. . . •I.'; . 00 -f -♦« • 

r-li-(i-lTl-t-tCC-.C?C'1< 


S 


iH (M 3<l 


f-l 1-1 








90 I Age 
and not 
over, stated. 


b 




















— 


- 


- 


— 


- 




— 


- 


'-' 




s 




















fo 

s' 


























































— 


- 






^1 


^ 












- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


— 




1-i • 


s 
















2 


^' 


















- 
























s 


















rH 


lH 


- 


- 














oS 


&; 










(M 






- 


- 


— 


- 


iH 


tH iH iH 


§o 


s 






iH 


• 






iH lH • • 


o 


liJ 


tH 




I— I 


















• 


• 


rH • 




s 










1-1 


















r-i 


• t- 




" 




fa 










1-1 i-l 


1-H 












'• 


(M iH 


: 


;^ 










• 
















(N iH 


rH 




rH 




fa 










1—1 




(M rH 










• 




• 


s 


>-l 


























(M <>4 


CO (N 


r- 


"2 


fa 




1-1 
























• tH 


• 


• 




1-1 












— 






- 






tH fH 1- 


r- 


^,8 

" o 


fa 

fa" 


— 


- 






iH 


- 


- 










rH T-^ 


' 


rH 




- 












lO 


r-" 


id 

" o 


























s 
















- 


- 


- 


- 














l:~ 






fa 




























rH 


• 


s 












rH 




















(M X 


' 


id 


fa 


— 




- 


- 




- 


- 






















~ 


• 










- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


lH T- 


■ 




fa 
PS 







- 


- 


- 


- 


-- 










ft • 
1-t • 




















CNiH 


CO 

"2 


fa 


































(M 






s 


































rH 






"SI . 


fa 






























rH 


tH 






«3 1 S 




























iH 


CO r-l 




a 


fa 














1-H 














eo 


• 






s 




I-l 


















iH iH <N lO 


<M 


C^ 




AUSES OF DKATIl 




X 

x 




> 


■s 




^ b 


C^ 




-, X 


X 


-k^ 


-1-^ 


> 

<5 


<■- 

X 

33 

X 


> 
r. 


- 


71 


b 


-4J 
53 

> 



X ly^^ >;^ ^ ^ 2 ^^ '^^ "^ '^ **-^ -X -r- 'f. ^ *** **' "^^ *'''' ^^ 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTEATIOK REPORT. 



[]898. 






a 
o 
O 



00 

oc 



<l 
ft 

O 

P 








•ivxox 1 


t~ 


cc 

lO 


Ci 


CO 1-1 lO CO t- 
C<1 


1-1 


o t~ 

CO CO 


CO 


CI 


CO 


to 


CO 

1—1 


cq '^ cq to i-< 1-1 03 

cq t- ^ y-^ 

cq 






f^ 


^ • • • • • • I— 1 CC T-1 

• • • • • 1—1 




^ 1 


lO.!X> Ct ^ 1-1 lO CO CO i-H CO i-l • 
CO 1-1 CM CO • 


^ CO cq '^ 

CO 


'^ cq ci • 
1-1 -H cq • 
1—1 


t- ZD 




90 Age 
and not 
over, .stated. 


"^■"1 


































rH • 




; ; 




N! 
























1— 1 • 










CO~' 


-; 


^ • 




^' 




1—1 • 


































s 




G^ • 






























1-1 cq • 








o 


fo 




(M ■ 


iH • 














1—1 • 










tH CO ■ 

1—1 • 












^ • 








1—1 • 


1— 1 1— 1 • • 










rH • 

cq • 




rH • 




o«) 


&^ 




CO • 


CM • 












■ 1—1 










CO CO 
CO 


— i 


— ■ 


y-{ • 




So 


^ 




(X> . 












cq (M 


cq 










1-1 
to 


' 




oS 


^ 


1-1 1- • 


Oa • 












1—1 




cq 




CO '^ 1-i 1-1 cq • 1 

-* • 1 




^ 


1-1 to • 


•^ • 


1— ( 






(M 1-1 


to 






to ^ • 

CO • 


1—1 • 






^ 






1—1 










(M 1-1 


1—1 




cq 


• CO 1-t 

■ cq 






s 




CO 1-1 -1-1 


cq cq 


CO to 


iX> 1-1 


i-i 


^ ci cq 


CO • 




o 
^ o 


f^ 




C^ • 1-1 




• • 


• <M 


cq • rH 1-1 1-1 rH t- rH 






^ 


iH CO (M ■^ 


i-l iH iH rH «0 ^ 


Ol rH -CO 


rH Ci cq 


cq • 




o 

CO Q 


^ 




1 


I— 1 




CO 


rH i-H 


• '^ T-\ 








s 


(M i-l 1-1 '^ 


<M 






X to 


t~ 




1-1 ^ to 








§1 


fa 












r-l 


• cq 1-1 tH rH to 








^ 


1-1 ^ <N i-< 


1—1 






ZD CO 


'^ 


1-^ 




• CO 00 




: 1 




'- o 


fa 


• r—l • 














• 1— 1 










1—1 


CQ 




- 


— ; 




s 


• rH (M 














'^ 




iH 








oc 






fa' 


1-1 cq • 






























cc 

^C5 










s 




■ rH 














(M 
























o 


fa 




G<I 
















1—1 














1—1 1—1 








s 




CO 














1-1 1-1 














• cq 










fa 




































• 1—1 








s 
















1-1 




1—1 














• rH 










"5 


fa 
















































s 
















































CO 

«o 


fa 






















• 1-1 


























s 




tH 










• 1—1 


































fa 




• T— 1 


• 1— 1 






















• r-t 
















^ 




• rH 






















• rH 


















a 


fa 




• 1-1 


• tH 












• 1—1 






• iH 














Cl 




g 




• (M 


• 1-1 












• (M 






















ZD 




CAUSES OF DEATH. 




r 

5 
c 

r 
> 

a 


3 

i 

u 


• 

'r- 


H c 

-( r 

4H 


Ht- 


1 a 
3^ 


• a 
. a 


J 

H 

H 

3 

- c 


^ 


i C 


i a 


! c 

J r 
2 r 

.. r 

■< 


1 "^ 


■ a 

: p 

. a 

• £ 

P 


2 
3 

3 
^ 

y 


J a 


■'a 

: 


• XJ 

:t 

- c 

. -l- 

. c 

. a 

\^ 
< 


'•XI 

■ "xi 

:> 

• c: 

• '<- 

■ T. 

\^ 
3T 

i a 
c c 
5< 


■5 

1 a 
i: 

< 


■ » 

• C 

] a 

\ a 


2 

3 
1 
^ 

3 

H 

3 

3 0: 

' E 

II 




B 

•3 

c^ 

© 

I3 
-4-= 

< 



1898. 



CAUSKS OF nEAtil. 



31 



1 


1 1— ( 1— ( I— 1 1— 1 i.T X 'M Ct I- T 
1 T-i <M X -11 


J IZ 


^ 


J rH ::: 


'M 1— 1 X I— 1 I— ( I- 

CO 


" T 


' •- 


i 


u 

7. 

1 _ 


. iH iH iH • 00 (N OS i-l to • tJ< <M . rH <M fH Cq r-( • U3 • rH • 
b • OC^- -CO ... 

1 • tH • • ... 


S 






•rHt-OC000rH(M(M 
iH CO (N 


• j-t la 




• CO 


rH G<l G<l 


rH 


90 1 Age 
and nut 
over, stated. 


^ 










































;- 


;— 


;-; 


S 










































P^ 




























;- 


• 1-i 
















;^ 


— 


;- 


;— 


- 








•01 










, 
















cc-o 


p^ 


• tH 


■ tH C- U3 








■ r-i CO 
















s 












tJH CO rJ4 










rH 






• y-i 




'-0 


&; 


1— ( 


• rH 


• iH 


U5 Oi U3 


l-{ T-i 


•~C5 


tc 


rH 




rH 






s 














CO r-llO tH • 




•"«D 


T-t 




• <N 




;-; 




fa 




• t-H 








Cq (M in • rH 

tH 






T-i lH 


yi 




;^ 














(M 'rJH t- rH • 




• CO • 


(M 


rH • rH 




50 
to 60. 


fa 










• iH 


rH •t}< CO 


rH rH 




00. 


• 




o\ 






fa 
Id 
fa' 




;— 




— ' iH 


r-l <» CO 










r-< 








1-i 


o" 










iH iH 


j-i 






o 








i-< 




-; 


— 


:- 


— 




• iH 




<M tH 


<M 






; 














1 o 
1 o-a" 

1 "O 

1 ■" 








rH r-i 










CO rH 










• rH • 


1^ 












1— 1 


', ', 














r-{ 












§1 


fa 














(M rH 




























s 












tH 


(M 








rH 


















: 


" o 


fa 
















T-i 






























s 
















































" o 


fa 






























- 


- 


- 














s 












rH 




























o 


fa' 










• 






CO (M 




























s 
















"* 






























in 

; ^o 


fa' 
















(M 












- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


— 


-; 


s 




























' "s 


fa' 




— 


- 


— 


(M rH 


r-i i-t 




























iH 




CO 






























! TO 

1 ^O 


fa 










<M 




Tj) 






























s 










r- 1 




(M 
































fa 










iH 




rH 




























N 










(M 




^rH 
rH 




























c 


fa 










• »H 


OS y-i 
CO 




























s 










tH CO 
































■< 
t 

1 ^ 

b 

j 
1 


1 

) 

) 
> 


C 

s 

c 
it 
a 

< 


<v 

c3 
X 

1— 1 

a 


hH 


si-- 
CC 

a: 

T. 

/-^ 


r. 

fc 




a 
c 


c 

X 

-^ 
c 


c 

3 


X 




c 
5 

J: 




S 
1—1 


X 

ci 

1— 


^>^ 

3 

^ 






5 
W 


X 

4 

'■*^ 
X 


t^ 


> 


a 



^^ 



FORTY-SIXTH RECTistllATiOK EEPORT. 



[1898. 



<a 

S3 
• I— t 

-1-3 

o 
O 



00 
CO 



<^ 
ft 

o 

QQ 
P 
oi 
O 







1898.] 



CAUSES OK DKATII, 



39 



ivxox 






<s5 



§11 



»H -fHiHr-liHi-lCqOOTtft- fflCOWrHOt^iH iHrHC^ 



tH (N <M <M U3 



COtHi-H (MlOOqi-HCDd 



— 3 






P £3 

2 fee 






© tc 



^ 5. 



w 



'-3 5 



X "H 



& 


•^ bc-ti 


-< 


.^ 0) ^ 


o 


SS'B 




"o" S 




o ^ 



■-3 ^ "^ = i, H" 5 £ ? ■= -1^ '-^ 5 



-e'T-^ 

rz '^^ >-. O -^'aTj^ 



3 b£ 















5 Pi 



40 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



a 
o 



00 
CO 



ft 

fin 
O 

GQ 

P 

Q 






•ivxox 


00 ^ 


I-H 


iO 


00 


00 


CO 
CO 


CO 

1— ( 


1—1 


CO 
1— 1 
1-1 


Ci 


X) t~ cq -H CI 

T-i ^ r-i 
rH 


tCC<J^rHOOOCOOO' 
d CO rH cq rH IX> CO 




X 
H 


fR 


00 


Cq iH -I* -^ C^rHi— liH i-Hr-ld i— t 


g 


oooiHcqco-*occ^a5iocoi:c>OiHC<iCscc<xit-i-it-co(M(M 

Tti (Mi— li— ItHCO t-C^rHi— (1— IC0<M 


Age 

not 

stated. 


^ 














































s 






























• 
















90 
and 
over. 


lij 
















-. 


— ; 


— 


— . 


-. 


~, 


-^ 


cq 

c^ 




T-i 


-[ 


-; 


-; 


-; 


-. 


-; 


-; 


N 


















cq 


4 


P4 




























— ; 


cq • 

rH 

I— 1 • 

iH 


cq 

'zo 


CO cq • 


-■ 


- 


- 


rH 

cq 


:^ 


















t- 








T-i T-i 




^ 




(M 






















t~ 




00 cq rH rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


s 




1—1 












ZD 










ci cq 'xH CO rH cq • 


r— 


rH 


60 
to 70. 


fe 
























i-li-llOrHCOCqiOCO 


• cq 


g 




i-l 












^ 








1— 1 


cq rH iH cq cq 10 


rH 10 


ino 


fe 




T— 1 
























cq 


rH cq • '^ 




CO 


a 
















cq 












•^ 


th cq CO • 




CO 


o 


p^; 




cq 


1—1 






















r-^ 


• • rH r-{ 




rH 


s 




i-H rH 


























r-< r-i C^ ■!-{ rH 




o 


fe 
































r-i 






C? iH 




CO 


s 
































1-i 






rH • 






20 
to 30. 


fe 
































T-i 


— 


- 


"•"i-l^ 


- 


-; 


g 
































— 


— 


o 
in IN 


fe 














1—1 
















1—1 




s 














































in 
"" O 

4.i 


p^ 






































■ 








s 














1—1 










' 














rH 


rH 




4 5 
to 5. to 10. 

i 


fe 








1— 1 




-* 


























• rH cq 

rH 




s 




(jq 


1—1 


tH CO 




















r-i 






^ 




-; 


fe 




r-i 


1—1 




1—1 




















' 






CC 


s 




1-1 


























rH 






XI 




1 Tji 

"2 


fe 






• i-t 




• • 


























IC 




^ 




cq 






cq 




















• 






10 




CO 

■^2 


Sa 


^ 




• • 1—1 


• CO 




















C5 






cq 




^ 


to 




• r-i r-i 


• CO 




I— 1 






















CD 




a 


fR 


IX) 
CO 






• cq cq rH 




cq 






















CO 


cq 


S 


00 






• CO cq ^ 




T)H 






















CO 


cq 


fM 


00 

00 






• cq cq lo ^ 

• cq 


. 1:0 ZD 










to 






j 


CO 


■ 1 t~ 

g 1 o 






• Ci rH lO cq 

• 1-1 1-1 


CO CO 








t- 






• cq 


• Oi 


o 
o 

03 




"4- 

H 

a 


I c 


; a 


• xt 

) s: 
5 C 


2 


I 

c 


• ? 


2 
3 
2 

^ K 


2 

2 »■ 

2'-C 

3 V 


r; 

. c; 

1 


2i 

> 


2 PC 


'A 


1^ 

1 

> a 
> 

'a 
P 




d 

a 
P 


1 

a: 

a: 


p 


p 


1 

a; 

p 




a 
P 


> 

P 


ft 



1898.] 



CAUSES OF 1) MAT II. 



41 



I rHCOfMi— IICI~00X-»HI t^i— li— |-O(MO;0t-I.— It— (0-t< 

•'IVJ.i)X r-i JO t~ Ci r-1 i-O i-H 1?^ l~ iH i-< 



CCOOi-li-IOi0005'*i-lOiHiHCOr-lt-»iH 



iH t- iH ?H i-H 



1-1 • rH 



Tt< X O CJ O i» ■>* 
iH ->* -^ .-( (M 









Ss? 






»0 (?q Tt< 



Tt< CO <M tH 



00 CO rH 1—1 



1-1 CO CO CO iH 



i-{ • ■<* iH 



CO 






iH O iH -^ iH 



•Or.; 
o 



1-t "^ <M CS 
<N CO rH 



'be 



:^ : 5 --^ : -^5 • : • :^ i^-*^ g ® a: c - : 

: I g ^ S ^ 2 ? ^^ ^^-l ^ SS 3 - o'^ ?5 c = S aj 
0)^11^1, ;i-^ <D ^ s ©^ ^^.4-( 9 J^!^ ^^ • - =4-, ® 



a — 






fH 



-K '" -N; 



43 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



I o 



CO tH 1-i t~ tH iH I— I 

CM iH tH 



(M O T-H Cq lO 
CM 



CO 



<M rH ■ i-H '^ CO »0 "* r-l CO CXi 05 

■ O C5 CO 



CM t- iH 1-1 U5 



(M 

CO 



coiHcoxi— ico»oc5(rq^co<M 

CO tH t- '^ 



iH C~ i-H i-l CO 



^ 



CD 

'-4-3 

o 

o 



00 

00 



EH 

ft 
o 

GO 

GQ 
P 



EH 









CO • 
(M •_ 

'ZD CO 
CO 



K5 (M t~ ,H 
CM 



O 
O 



t- CM 

CO 

'oo • 






c 

t3 



cS 



2 6c 



CO 



^•S c«- ?^ d 2 be g-Q ^ 






© 

Q 

be 



=3 



^. 



1« g.2 






=5 -■ 

02 -!-=> 



• O 8i K i) H pH PH I — I r o^ UJ UJ 

"^ WWW 



2 S^ ^ a-3 a 



WWW w 



^ b w w a)^ 

OOWWW 



03 

I— I tH 

^P 



O-zl-rt 



1898.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



43 



1VXOJ, 


tH 


CO 


T— 1 


r-t 


I— 1 


rl L^ t~ T-l C<» 


rH 


'M 


O 

CI 


y-< 


CO (M CO 


»o 


— 




H 


1 .lOiH'<4<TH<M00rH<:O-*CO00»-l>OrH(M-* '(Mi-HOItHCN 

&; • CC -t* rH O • 




iH 00 • 

s : 


O • 


t- lO '* Oi lO C^ tH t- <N • 
■<i< (M 1-1 




l- rH rH rH rH -i^ Tl 
OS 

. 






b 














; 




• ; 








; 




















^ 














• 




• ■ 








• 
















— ; 




90 
and 
over. 


fe 














• 




U3 ■ 








rH 
















^ 














\ 




1-i • 
































^ 














rH • 


THrH • 












U3 


(M • 










^ \ 
















^ : : 












00 


• 1 










t- o 


fe 














■ 


a -y-t T-i ' 








Oi 


! ! 










^ 














CO • 


■^ T-{ • <M rH rH 




t- rH rH • 










4 


fe 














(M • 


U3 "<* (M »0 


rH 


rH 




»o 

<M 

CO 
(M 


-' 


— * 


- 


- 


rH 




S 


















(M CO rH rH 


• 




"2 


&; 




1-1 




tH • 






lO (N • • 


(M 




(M 










l-\ 




^ 


r-l • 












CO ■ • '^ 


r-i 




rH 
(M 








T-K • 




o 
ow 

'5 


^ 




G<l 








rH • 


rH (M rH • 


1-i r-{ 


lO 




j-\ 




' • 




s 




iH 










^^ 




»o 








7-\ 








• 1-i 




o 


fe 
s 




rH 


— 






j-k • 


CO 




rH 








lO 








' 












CO 




• CM 






■r-\ 




r-< 


rH • 




^1 






rH iH 










(M rH 


i-H • 




• (M C5 








rH • 


'd 




to 












(M • 


r-i T-^ 






CO 








<N • 


§ 


" o 


fe 














1-i • 


• rH (N • 








<M 














s 




















r-< 


- 






T-\ 
















&; 














1-t 


r-i 












rH 












^ 


g 






























rH 












o 




fe 
















' 




























• 


s 














T-i 


T-\ 






rH 






















lO 

"2 


b' 




















r-i 




























a 














w-J 


(M 


































"5 


b 














T-i • 
















rH 














i^ 
















rH 
















• 
















1^ 
















• 1-i 














■ i-\ 






• (N 






a 








• r-i 






(M • 














r- 








• T-K 






B,2 ■ 
'-I 3 


pi^ 








• ; 






CO (M 






rH 




















a 








• rH 






(jq r-{ 






• r-t 






















1^ 


&; 








.-rH 


• (M 


00 00 (M 






\ 














;- 




;— ; 










•00 


• t- 


• cc 


•^ 1-i iH 




'. 


• a 

. fl 
. a 
. e 
. C 

• .^ 




• i-\ 








CAUSES OF DEATH. 




a 
a 

c 
<3 
a 

C 


3 3 


;1 

: £ 

. a 

:U 

!^ 

3 1^ 

H "^ 
t c 


H 


; 3 

« '7 

r a 


• C 
; -t- 

i. c 

i C 
; Q 

I ^ 

' a 

-1- 


^ a 


5^ 

1-1 


1 s 


•J 

c. 

• F 

• X 

• 2 

- a 

in 


3 

) 

i C 


/ a 


'■ c 

' '■+■ 

' r 

. C 

?? 
3 ■J 
- V 

5k 


3 

: c 


: Q 

. a 

c 

n 1 

3 .^ 

J t— 
; ^a 

i c 

^ a 


; a 

- ,^ 

:^ 

1 r— 


1 

! 

i 

1 ^ 


1 c 




: a 

■i ' 


• c 

^ c 
c 9 

r 


. en 

- ® 
3 a: 

1 J-" 

- n 

;3 


1 
1 

1 



44 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGlSTEATlOl^ REPORT. 



[1898. 



05 
pi 

a 
o 
O 



CO 
Oi 
00 



ffl 

H 

P^ 
ft 

Ph 
O 

GC 

GQ 
P 

Q 



Hi 



•ivioi, 


1 iHrHCOi-l'^iXit^rHOi'^'^i-ICCaSiHCqrHCOOOOt-Ot-t- 
1^ rHrH t-T-Ht-iXiTH 
1 tH 




1^; 


OS -(Mi-ICOcMt-I -lOt-rHrHt-iX) •CMi-Hi-l'sHC-O-^OlO 
1-1 • • -CO C~ Cq rH 


s 


G<l 1— 1 1— 1 


• i-l ^ CO 1-1 Tji t- CO 


• rH CO rH 

• rH 


•OCqcMrHrHCOOOt- 

• ^ 7-< o:> CO 


MO-S 




































































































035 


f^ 


















































^ 




















































i 


^ 


















































s 


iH 














































■ s 


fe 


K3 






1-1 


























• 7-\ 


• •!-{ rH 




s' 


CM 






• • (M CM 






















• rH 


• • cq 




"^2 


p^ 


Tt^ 






(M • r-i 


• CO 


















• rH 


• c<i <?q 




s 


»o 






• • cq 






















• rH 


• • 7-\ 






0=0 

'°S 


ft' 


^ 


rH iH • tH 
























• iH 


• cq cq rH rH 


s 


tr- 


1-1 


tH . 


rH 
























• rH CO rH • 




ft 


io 


rH 




iH 




























• rH • • rH 


^ 


Tt* 








i-l rH 




























CO • ■ 


TO Q 


ft 


r-l 








1 • 






















• ■<-{ rH 


10 cq • 


s 


CO 








rH 1-1 


1— 1 
















• (M 






rH 


0* Q 


ft 


















1-i 
















• r-\ 






cq CO • 


















r-{ 
























'^ 10 • 


"0 


ft 


















r-i 
























cq cq • 


s 


















r-i 
























cq cq rH 


in 

" 


ft' 


















' 
























cq • • 


N 


















T-i 
























■^ CO rH 





ft' 








































rH 


CO CO rH 


s 




rH 


































r-\ 


cq CO rH 


10 

^0 


ft' 








































7-{ • 


t~ • rH 


g 








































T-^ • 


CO cq • 


"5 


ft 


• 








































CO rH rH 


s 


• 






































cq • 


CO CO • 


TO 


ft' 








































(M • 


CO cq • 


N 








































tH • 


d rH rH 


r-C P 


ft 


































cq • 




' 


^ CO 


^ 




















rH • 












^ • 




^ • 


^ • 

rH 


ft 




















t- rH rH t- CO • 






cq • 


CO 00 cq 
cq 


s 




















CO CO • 


rH CO rH • 


CO • 
CO • 




cq • 


CO 00 CO 
CO 


CAUSES OF DEATH. 




a 
'a 



t 

CO 

03 

CO 

cS 

03 
03 

•rH 
P 
fH 

03 
t> 

•l-H 

Hi 




02 
03 

5. 






03 

g 

03 


d 


?-l 

03 
fl 
03 

bj 

03 

.0 


r- 

> 


_C0 


■- 0: 

02 


•rH 




a 





g 



0) 

s 
Hi 


0: 
IE 


05 

IE 


CO 



a 
_o 

B 


-1^ 

ft 


> 


CD 

a 

F 



03 
c3 


a 
b; 

!> 

a 


03 

ca 

•rH 

(X) 

CO 

a 
P 


a 


?- 


6 
a 

< 

'a 




•l-H 

a 


^ l-H 

Q 


03 
03 


c3 

•r-l 

a 


CO 

*-t-= 

•SI 
_a 

03 


a 

•IH 



GQ 
1 



IH 

r^ 

03 


_a 



1898.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



45 



•'IVJ,Oi ip 



CO U5 CO rH 
(M 



•^ T-H i-H CO 
CO 



O «0 tH ,H rH t- 

to :o Oi 



i-H CO «> 
U3 lO 



iH • CO ?^ 

I— I 1—1 lO 



i-H "* OS ■>* 
-* (M »0 



•a 



s|i 



rj^ 



t- CO 

iH 

"lis CO 



10 10 



-rt< 10 






"O^" 



!3 
O 






.2 =3«»H 



-4-3 c; -, 












he 



a.^ -f^ 



©5 "'S'j2'j3-'^?s" 






'CD O -y. o '^ ■^ 5 r5 r^ r— ^ '-^ '-^ ^ -" ." 



-^ p^ b -^ ® 

,-1^ -^ ^ ~*~^ ^^ 



'^^ 






46 



■73 

d 
o 
Q 



00 

00 



ft 

;^ 
o 

P 
Q 






■avxox 


i"ORTT-SlXTS REGISTEATIOK EEPORT. 

COTH'^C^THCqCOrH'THCSOCCTHi-li-li-lr-li-ltHOqCM 

o:> I— 1 ^ 1— 1 iH 


[1898. 

rH rH rH 




^' 




CO • 

-* • 

OS iH <?^ 

OS 1- 


iHi-i'^CO'^rHi-Hi-liHiHi-l -i-liHtMi-H • • 


s 


t- iH OC 
CO 


(M 




co <x> »o 










rH 


rH 




rH rH 


90 Age 
and not 
over, stated. 


fe' 
















































^ 
















































fe 








(M 








































s 










iH 




































CJ 


&; 








cq 


• 




































g 








1-1 


CO 






































p=i 






<N 


o 

CO 




























rH 










^ 






(M 




UO 










cq 
























'=° o 


p^ 






iH 00 

cq 


• 










• T-K 














r-i 






s 






1-1 00 
CO 


CO iH 






cq cq 
















' 








ph 






• CO 












r-i • 


T-\ 


rH 








r-\ 






s 






cq 












^ 1-i 










rH 








•^^ T^ 


o 

Mo 


fe' 






• 1—1 








T-l 


r-l 


























M 






• CO 




























rH 








fe 






iH 






iH <M 














rH 














a 






tH lO 

cq 








































o 


fe 






tH 03 














T^ 




rH 


















a 






rH -* rH 

Y— 1 






































o 


fe 






• lO 








iH 1—1 rH 


























a 




i-H iH ^ 






































■" o 


p^' 




















r-t 




















r-{ 




N 








'^ 






































o 
"=0 


p^' 


i-H 




Oi 








































a 


(M 




cq 




iH 


































in 


^ 


cq 




CO 








































N 


. 




lO 








































^ 


CN 




CO 








































s 

fe 


~cc 




1-1 t- 








- 


- 




































00 




tH 




























s 


«^ 




00 










T-i 




























"SI . 


lij 


































rH 








s 


O 




CO 

cq 










r^ 
























— 


— ; 


S3 
a 


&; 


CO 


1-1 1-1 
U5 










cq 






















s' 


1— ) 














rH 




























P 

o 




'v 

V 

a 


c 

E 

b 

> a 


a 


■^ c 

r- 
P- 


a 

a: 

a 
"c 


P 

A- 


C 

1 


3 

P- 


c 


'.2 

p: 


B 

a 


1 
< 




=+- 

c 

a; 
a; 
P 

a: 

b 
b 


.2 

T 

cc 


c 

< 

c 
GC 


1 


E 


E 


> 


■5 

a: 
> 


C 

T 
q; 

> 


o 
Ph 


'o 

a 

be 



1898.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



47 



IVAOX 


I— 1 


.— ( 


rH 


1—1 


CO 


cc 


-ri ~r 


r-t 


'■-' 


I-H 


CO 


rH 


rH 


"+ 


c« 


OJ 


X 


— 


~H 


I-H 


I-H 


CC 


H 

OD 


iH • iH rH (N iH r-( <N • tJ( •**) CO • • (M • • O^ rt CO • • • 

fe ; iH • : : I : ! i i ( 


s' 




iH • 


O i-l(M i-H (M i-l(M t- • 
i-H 


rHrH(M(>»(M«O00rHrHrHCO 

1 


Age 

not 

stated. 


^ 












1-i 


































s 


















































^' 
















































^ 










































- 


— ' 


— ; 


oS 


fc 










































*2 


!^ 




i-i 
















1-* 






















rH 


oS 


' &^ 
















rH 


rH CO 
























3 


s' 














1-i 1-i 


• <N 














r-i 








2 


f^' 






iH 












r^ • 














i-t 








s 




















• rH 




l-t 


1-i 


rH rH 






T-\ 




fe 










r-l 








(N rH 






rH 




1-i • r-i 




• 


s 




















1-i rH 










rH rt< (M rH 




rH 


o 
2"" 

2 


b 






















! 












'. '. ', 




i 


g 






















tH 


1-t 




j-i 


r-i y-i • 


*"* ' 1 


"2 


fe 


1— 1 










rH rH 


















i-i • i-{ 






s 












r-{ 




















rH 


' r-i - r-t 




^" 


&; 
























rH 




r-i 






• i-{ 






2 


S 




















r-{ 








T-i 






Cfl 










fe" 












































• 1 


s 






























r-^ 
















"2 


&; 








rH 
























- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






s 








tH 


r-t 


• rH 




















C9 

'2 


&■ 








CO 




















- 


- 
















g 
fe 








?H 








• r-i 


rH 


























• 






































^ 








^ 






































"2 


fe 








CO 






































s 








I-H 


- 




































CO 

"2 


fe 








1-1 




































s 








• tH iH 




































^ 3 


fo 








•CM • 




































s 








iH • 




































o 


fe 








• rH r-l 












• (N 






















s 








• iH 






































CAUSES OF DEATH. 




a 

c 

-t- 

a 

«*- 

c 

c 

E 

c 

z 

c 

a 


i 

3 

3 

3 

11 

2 


• a 

• c 

• c 

:p: 

• -i- 

• C 

: c 

:^ 

• «*. 

• c 

' Q 
■1 -•- 

3 a 


) 

s 

i 

1 

h 


2a 


- c 

id 


•* 

• a 

• a 

• a 

i 
U 'J 

: r- 

, 1— 

2 7 


r '-• 

2* 


• C 

• a 

: £ 

. a 

• ?> 

a 


> 
] 
) 

: 7 

fa 


: c 

» — - 


> 

1.2 


• ? 

. -t- 

. a 

• (— 

ia 




•f- 

5 


i ^ 

- > 


•J 

C — 

-> > 




u 


•J 

1— 


: 5 

' £»- 

- > 


c 5 

-5 > 


s 



o 



48 



PORTY-SIXTH REGISTEATIOK REPORT. 



[1898. 



'■+=> 
PI 

o 
O 



00 

00 



w 

H 
-^ 

ft 

o 

<^ 
Q 



M 
<l 



■lyioj. 


i-H iH X 1-1 »0 00 t- 


rH CO (>l CO -rH rH rH 


rHCqrHrHrHI>-rHrHrH 




f^ 


•rH • -^t-eO -COr-ICOtOrH -i-li-l -^JHrH^i-l • • 
. . . tH t- • • • • 
■ . . CO • • • • 


S 


iH 


00T-lrHi-lT:HrHOiHOas 

1— 1 I— 1 I— 1 00 

(TO 


r-< 


rH r-\ 




CO 


r^ r-i 


Age 

not 

stated. 


f^ 
















































S 
















































«s o 


^ 
















































S 
























rH 
























f^ 


















rH 




CO 






















^ 


















cq 


























■4-3 


fe 






















rH 
rH 










l-\ 


rH 






S 


















tH 




O 










' 


rH 


r-i • 


oS 
""^ 


Pij 


















(M 




rH 






T-\ 


r-i 


• r-i 


• 


S 


















^ 




CO 


















r-i 


40 50 
to 50. to 60. 

1 


fe 










(M 










rH 00 












rH rH 






S 






iH 


• 










• CO 

• -* 














r-i 






fe 






• 


S<I 










T-^ r-\ 




rH 














S 


I— 1 


to 


r-i 


rH 






CO tH 






r-^ 












o 

Mo 


.fe 












• 






T-K 00 
00 














r-i 






!^ 






I-H 






rH 






T^ CO 

00 


i-\ 










r-i 








&^ 




tH • 














to o 

(M 

rH 






















S 






1— 1 














(M 

rH 








rH 












O 

" O 


[i^ 






















• 00 

• CO 














1-i 






S 








tH 












CI 






















i6 

■^ o 


&; 
























CO 












^ 










s 












rH 










C^ 






















o 

""3 


s^' 














rH 




T-i 


■^ rH 




















g 






















T^ T^ 






















X5 

^O 


fq 
























r-i 










r-i 










s 












rH 
























- ■ 










1^; 










































s 












• 










T-^ 






















CO 

=^3 


p^ 












I— 1 








T^ 0\ 






















s 




















r-i • • 






















1 and 

under 

2. 


fe 






















• CO 










r-{ 










s 














CM 






r-i (N 
























^ 
^ 












ZD <M 






TiH (M 
































Ol 


rH 




r-{ as 






















CAUSES OF DEATH. 




1 

o 

02 

•r-l 

o 
Ph 

rS ^ 

•i-H 


o: 
PC 
P 

c 

i 

c 

p: 

> 




1 


■3 

a: 


a 
b 

c 


C 

a 

a- 
a 

E- 


£ 

I 

c 

i 

-*^ 

a 


r 

B 
C 


C 


a 

e 

a 
'a 

c 

c 
1 


C 


r 
C 
1- 

i 

(- 




■3 






a 

c 
t: 

< 

C 
C 


0: 


• rH 




> 


a 



1808. J 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



49 




50 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIO:sr REPORT. 



[1898. 



00 
Oi 
00 



o 

ft 



O 



O 



s 

s 



^ 



H 


CO 


< 


1^ 


1— 1 


f^ 


M^ 




h- 1 


^^ 


(f> 


o 


rn 


c 


< 




>A 


r^ 


CJ 


•■^ 


1 


-^ 


XI 




1— 1 




^ 


<a> 


a 


C 


<1 


C^ 



I 



•iS'janoo lo^sug 



•l^nnoo ?aa5[ 



■snAVox 



■ji^jO ^JOdMavj 



■suMox 



•S[iB^ IBJ^nao 



•^asion^MBj 



8 


(M C 


o 
o 
1—1 


00 T 



5 O 


00 
CO 




»0 (M 

lo CO 




00 


CO 
CO 


CM 


3 OD 
5 (M 


CO 




CO 1-1 


■1 00 


'^ 


CO 


1—1 1—1 



Ol 1-1 tH 



•ifl!0 80uapiAOj<j 



■^ajjoosuooAV 



■A^unoo uo^SuiqsBAi 



8IoqM aq^ ui 9SB:)naoj9c[ 



•a^B^S aioqAi 



>; 

S 

OI 
o . 

O 



■i£?niioo no^SaTqs'BjVV 



•^83[0osnoOjVi 



•^JIO eonapiAOJti 



■jailoiHAi.'Bj 



■silBj I'BJjnao 



"SnAAOX 



•j£^IO }J0dAA8JsI 



•SUMOX 

it^nnoo ^JodAi8j«i 



•A^nnoo ^Ti93 



•X^nnoo lo^sijg 



o 

o 


CO 




-* 




t- 


o 

CO 


CM 


o 
o 

1—1 






CO 


-* 




1—1 


o 


o 
o 


o 

o 






CO 




o 


co 


o 
o 


o 
o 




CI 
C<1 


1— 1 


CO 


I— 


TfH 



p 
< 

1-1 



h-( 


C) 


\^ 


;£l 


o 

CD 


IB 


rn 


w 


W 


M 


02 


C/l 


(=> 


t) 


< 


<; 


CJ 


CJ 



'X! 
-X' 

-^ 



o 
o 



o 

o 



-!l 


^ 




« 
w 


fi 


hH 




H 


(-) 


O 


-Jl 




H 


« 


^ 


Jzj 


W 


-«^ 


^ 


3 


(^ 


o 


O 






n 


w 


M 


p 


>- 



> ^ 



1808.] 



CLASSIFICATION' AND ['ERCf-NTAGf:. 



51 



?1 

•M 


X 
1- 




- 




S c 







X -M O 

CO o « 


^ 


^ -r 






o ao 00 


00 


a» 


• 


• 


n -t T. 


QO 


X 






-- X TT 


O 


-f 


=: 




CO •>! I- 


Ci 


-t l.l (N 


CI 


CC ; 







i? 


~ 


jj c o 


2J 


-t 


^ 


l.~ 


I- O t~ 






X 


?i 


U U '€ 


EZ 


X X 


X 


-^ 


■^ --= X 







t- X •-: 



X 




L-i 


o 

-* 


O 
O 


t- 


X 


iCt 






r^ 


1^ 1' 

■3 i: 


X 




^ 


-N 


== 


to 


t- 


o 










r^ 


*■; 


Ti 


r-t 


o 


-t 


Z^ 


tH 


X 


*s 


■M 




f. 


- 


I— 


■M 


=:: 


I.-: 


- 


-- 




: -^ : 


- 


'' 



— < Jt- -"t 






s- = i ^ C 



a; 


>-> 


>v 


^ 




7- 


o 

-4-> 


o 


OJ 


^ 


a: 


rt 


> 


>3 


O 


-^ 




02 


^ 


■' 


r' 


B< 




^ 



>» :: 






a; ^ -* -r- 



^ -1-^ — — 0/ 






OT — — 



X 


^ 


— 


— 


_ 


^ 


^' 


— 


^ 


■-r 


■— 


■-r 


'"tr 


■— 


'— 


■■r 


"t: 


~ 


y: 


y. 


r' 


.22 


■j: 


a: 


■j: 


■y; 


.2 



~- -x. -J-. -J-. 



OJ i, 3, 
> > > 

0) 1/ :. 



c^ 


1^ 






X 

CO 




-* 


-* 


cc • ; 




cq 


t- 


1^ 


g 


t- 


cc 


i 


^ ; ' 



X CO ■* 

CO <N i-c 
<N TH CO 



X 

1 Tf 


CO 


CO 


o 
eo 




(N 


'"' 


'"' : 


7^ 


i-t 


s 




(N 


5^ 


^ 





.-H t— CO ift •^ 

X C5 eo o c; 



IM S; r-i 



CO .-1 t-H 



X — =: 



-* 


^ 


t- 


1-1 « 


CS 


-f 


i.*^ 


— . -, 


- 


?^ 


-f 


- 




1-1 




o 
CO 




M 


1- 




X 


M 1- 
M — 


1- 


r 


r"! 




rj 



52 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGlSTRATlOIsr RT<:POKT. 



[1898. 



O 

a 
•i-i 

o 

o 



00 
05 
00 



o 

EH 

Q 

Ph 
fi 

<^ 

o 
I— I 

Q 
I— I 
Ph 
I— I 

m 
o 



M 






•jl^unoo lo^sijg 



■A'iauoo 'jnag 



■snM.ox 



■X:(iO 'j.iod.wajsL 



■saMOiL 



•siiB^ IB-uaao 



■^aiiornM.'Bci 



•A^iO aouapiAOJj 



■;8i[0OSUO0AV 



•vi^anoo uo^SuiqsBAi 






l-O Ot CO 



^ 






'be 

PI 



r^ O 



•8^'B}S 9IoqAV 



<ri CO <r> -* 



o 

D3 



■A^unoo uo^Saiqs'BjVi 



•;85[0OsuoOiVi 



•iC^io 9oaapiAoaci 



■^85lf)niM'Bd; 



■siiB^ IBj^nao 



■SUAVOJj 

Ainnoo aonapiAoaj 



•A^jo ^JOdAiajvi 



■SUAiOX 

Ajiinoo ?aodA\.9js[ 



■il^unoo inas 



•A^nnoo lo^siaa 



Q 



O 



C»J 



~co co~ 



.a ^ 



i ci 


Ph 










5 =« 


o 


^ o 




i m 


O 


D 1-1 


CO 


H cq 


CO 



05 




IC 


1— 1 


CO 


CO 


1— ( 


i- 






tH 


CO 


CO 


(M 




i-H 


CO 


»o 


o 


t- 


^ 


<?q 




^ 


CO 


tH 


T-^ 


CM 



1898. 



CLASSTFTCATION' AND I'i:i;( lA'TAfi ll. 



53 











1- 

-t 


1- 


1- 


^ 


1- 
1- 




-M 


1- 
1- 

co 


1- 


1- 

-f 










3" 




■Ti 

CI 










OS 


OS 


00 

I- 




CO 


00 




OJ 

eo 




35 

eo 


eo 


CI 


C5 

eo 


a. 
eo 


S 




01 

1— 


?5 














• 










1- 


















X 




CO 
CO 






















^ 


















o 
Iff 




'-' 














CO 


(M 






Ol 












"?~ 


~"o 




t- 








rT 


Cj5 
•M 




c. 


t^ 


OJ 

1- 






•o 


q: 






35 
-M 






C5 
71 


— 


1~ 
















^ 






— 


- 


















c-i 






o 








OS 


lO 


r- 


C5 

1-1 




i-i 


eo 

OD 

00 




§ 






1^ 

I-H 


1- 


C5 
C5 




X 

d 


^ 






■? 




^ 








^ 






ire 












c; 


























o 


















1—1 




2? 






'2 


>o 


CO 


C5 


1— 






I— 


CO 
1- 


I— 

C'T 






CO 






!? 


X 


T- 


-/i 










































— ' 




c^ 






o 




eo 


^ 


eo 
CO 


05 

00 


CO 

o 






^ 


r-t 


o 


1— 

o 






o? 

o 


o 


t^ 


to 


'-' 










'-^ 




^ 






tH 


GO 










~ri"" 


~oi 


1^ 




i-( 




;:; 








•^ 


X 




■c 






i 


<?l 


C-1 


01 






Ol 






(N 




















tH 


1- 














T-^ 


— 


T-1 




lit* 


3^1 




1— 
7^1 


-H 








x 




X 


r- 




I— 
•M 


t— 
c-i 




•M 




t^ 


t- 

■M 






















■^ 


-t 


















1- 






"^T 


CO 
o 


CO 


CO 


C5 




O 


05 

o 


1—1 
o 


C5 
CO 


03 


CO 

CO 


o 

■M 


1;;^ 


o 


ri 


1— 


co 
00 


CO 


X 

o 











r. r^ H 



r! --5 CO 






fj-i << !ii fi-( 



O (N Ol C: (M 1^ 1-1 O O 
"^ Ol O CO I— t-- 






o 




ct 


c« 










c 


f—^ 


o 


^ 


:3 






=♦-1 


















>» 


>-> 


y 


ril 


X 


1— 1 


-/. 


of" 


~"eo~ 


~^~ 


"ifs" 


-* 


o» 


1-1 





t: 



X 



tj fcc fcf s s i 

~ >. -5 .-s 3 5 

S "^ t— 1 1^ ?-• aT aT 

1^ t- ^ ^ i- M M 

^ cS :« rt rt O O 



X — — 






r" H H E-< H H 



t- -^ lO r- C5 lO 35 



(M 


1-4 


rH 


OJ 




(M 


rH 


CO 


~f 


1(0 




rH 


T-\ 




-tH- 


-,H- 


1— 1 




X 
01 


" 


O 






CO 


tK 




eo 


>-( 


ta 


eo 
eo 


'"' 


tH 




r-\ 


rH 


1(? 




o 

CO 




• eo 


t- 


CO 


eo 


05 

CO 


5D I- 




(N 


eo 

1-1 


'^ 


(N 


(N 


t- 




8 


«o 


eo 








• eo 


eo 


^ 


t- 


« 


CO 


(N 


05 

eo 


(N 


-* 




Ol 




~"(M 


CO 

~or 

^oo~ 


^ 


~ 


'"' 






" : 


i-i 








TH 




eo 

(N 

I-I 


~co~ 








'"' 




oi 




aj 


1-1 




-+ 


o 


o 


C5 


1(5 

1-1 


t^ 


rH 






Ol 




Ol 

rH 


uO 


" 




1-1 i-( 




'"' 


!N 


o 


'"' 


TjH 


eo 






rH 






'"' 


•^ 


'"' 


:? 


OJ 


(N 












»o 


■* 




00 










': 


[ 






- 




(N 




r-( 


rH 


-* 




eo 


eo 


IN 


05 

eo 
~oo~ 


<N 


<N 


1-^ 


(M 


a 


j-t 


<N 




1(5 


o< 








iH 


I-I 


l-( 


00 


»(i 


rH 


rH 


I 


: 


; 


: 


IN 




to 

C4 


rH 



54 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



•A^unoo lojsug; 



•j?5unoo ?nag 



•saMox 



•jS;!0 ;jJ0dAi.9js[ 



•saMox 



■siiB^ I^Jinao 



Oi Oi 0:^ 



CO t- t- i^- 



•^GJIOn^jU.'BJ 



'Alio aonapiAOjj 



■^asfoosnoo^ 



•jt-junoo ao:)Sniqs'BAi. 






Cl 



S CO 

o -.^ 

5 f^ 



cc -f-i p] 



Cb ^ 



PM 






q 



cq 



^ ^ o Q o 



•a^uiS apqM 



»o O C<l CO 



CO OJ (N GO 



o 

HI 
o . 

E-H W 

Ro 
o 

w 

pq 
1^ 



■l^nuoo uojSniqsBjVi. 



•;a3toosaoo_Ai 



■ji^IO aonapiAOJd^ 



-* 


T-l 




1—1 




CM 


(M 


1—1 


7—1 












CM 
G<1 




(M <M 


1—1 
T-l 


-* 


(M 

1—1 


CN 



•^aJlOtHMBJ 



■SIIB^ lei^uso 



•SDAioX 



'Alio %io(iM.&ii 



•saMox 



■jC^nnoo ?n95[ 



•j£:fnnoo lo^sug 



<N • CO 



CO iM Oi (N 



isns.] 



CLASSIFICATION A XI) PERCENTAGE. 



55 



■>\ ■ ~. r\ T. -M 

-r • X -t X/ • c 




01 1- ■ 1- 

-r t ■ -r ■ 


^ . ^ ^ ^ . oc 




'. "^ : : 


X • ~ 1' O • <M 

ire • ere — — 1 ■ X 


o ci •-<•.?:■ ci 


-H ■ ire 


01 • 01 


t- X C5 IM 

• o CO o I- 




■ a a ■ c. a 


I— 1 






o Oi ire c: • t— X 
X rei -< ret • ire x 




• c: o c: ire • 

Ol i-i Ol — • 


— rei • X 




;'--'; 


- ;S 5 ? 5 § X 




•o o cr o 01 c: 
01 X 01 -r 1- c 


— ire 




-f Ol — 


•o • • • o o o 

-f • • • Tt< Tfl O 




• O 1~ Ol OI • 

■ rf O O Ci • 


; >^ 




CO 


-f 1^ I- I- ire -t X 

i~ CO CO CO ire o o 




1- t— X ire X 

CO -t ^ ire rH 


T-H o 




: -' 


-^ O CO CO X o c. c- 
■ re ri — — -f — ^ ~ 




-t -+ lO o c: i~ CO 

Ol CO rl r-l X ^ — 


— — .-: 


0. 


■M • ^< (M »re • O 

'•N • -* (M «0 • X 




Ol (M r-l lO -t< • 01 
<M 01 i-H O -f • 


-t" 




JC 


X t— -t -t ire t- -t 
o rei -t ire CO oi — . 




01 X X • X • • 


— O) -H X 




^ : : : 









= y aj d 



^ ^ ^ cc 

:, a; a; a) 3i 5 

o u y Ci ii - 

^ S fi S S ^ 









-f -* l-H O X 

^ » t- -^ 1-1 






o 2 o 
<5 o O 



•--1 cc 

T. 2 



>^ >» r K 

cc -u fcc fcc 



fcC -^ 



jj „ .„ .^ 



P. 



!/3 ^ 

l-H (^ 



1* ;~ 



C^ ? 







Cl 








<» 


■^ 


;j 


^ 










!? 


O 



T}< ,-( 


'-' 


Ol 


ire 


■^ 


CO 
CO' 






l-( 


t- 


CO 




CO 






>-l 


o» 

CO 


CO 


CO 




Ol 






■^ 


l-H 

1-H 


X 
Ol 


CO 

""co" 


0^ 
Ol 




l-H 


.0 -o 


■■' 


Ol 


l-H 




l- 


10 


"^ 


-»< n 


01 


Ol 


eo 


~ 


CO 

CO 








Ol 


X 


'"' 


CO 


'^ 




'"' [ 


~x" 


""rtf" 


~x~ 


^^ 


CO 








^ 


X 


01 


01 






Ol ^ 


r-l 


X 






co 


o 
ire 


Ol 


r- 


o 

Ol 


'^ 




00 -H 


-+ 


X 




Ol 


CO 








rH 


00 


'"' 


•^« 








~oi~ 


CO 

~re~ 


Ol 


'"' 


t- 


-." 






-.- 


" -f 


- [' 


01 


-^ 






^ 




TO 


^ O) 


'^ 




CO 


-* 


eo 


•* 




t— 








CT 




— 







56 



EOKTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



■ji:)nnoo lo^sug 



^ CO -^ 



•yC^unoo 5na3 



•SUMOX 



■jI^IO ^JOdM.8^ 



■snMox 



■SUM IB-r;naO 



■^a^Ion'jAVBd: 



■jI^IO aonapiAOJti 



1-. OD O 



•la^ioosnooAi 



^ CN ^ 



•itiunoo no^SniqsBA^ 






>;^ 



PM ^ 5 



.a o 






6 



,p^ 



-jf p 
<1 o 



^ ;! S fcq ^ 



^ 


^ 




bn 


o 


o 


di 


rH 


i:^ 


p5 




t>j 


O 


o 


o 


Pi 


!-l 


7h 


!-l 


a 


pq 


m 


o 


^ 



•aji3:»S aioqAV 



> 

3 
a 

o . 

W "^ 
H W 

o 

K 



•iS^unoo uo^SniqsBAV 



•^ailoosuooAi 



•A^io aonapiAoaj 



•:>85[piHAiBd: 



■SII'BJ IBJineo 



•SUMOi 



:i%xo ^JodAia^ 



»0 <M i-H 



■SUAiOI, 



•iS^nnoo ^nax 



CO CO f-H 



oi lO c<i 



•jS^unoo lo^sug 



tH IC T-l 



1898.] 



CLASSIFICATIOX AN' I) PERCENTAGE. 



67 



1- 1- 

-r -r 




ri • -f 71 


vi 








: '^ : ^ : 


: ^ 






2 : f^ S 


c; — o -n -^ ex 


~ -^ 


X c; c; r: 




— ^ — 


~ 




: : § : 


• QO I— 31 o r: 

• cc o -^ » -^ 


■ c^ 


§ • 






T-^ (M 








S •• 15 g § S :;;?,:?? g 




• ?i 




'-' 








izi ^^V^^^^S^^ 


s [3 


?"i fi 




— — — 








: : : ^ 






CC 
■ X 










rH • -^ • 


: ^ 






:?: :i;;SSS:^:S;: 


X t- 


- 1- 




: : ^ : '-' 








cc o - !r 5 5 i ^' ;? g ':5 


7) — 


?. ':- ?, H 


— — -M 


— 








-M r- C3 i-< ^ 

■M CO O CC C^ 


: zi 


: ?1 








-, - ^ 


-^ 






t" t" 'X t 


r- . x t- -t ^ i~ • r: I- i- i- i- — 

■>\ ■ O T^l -t X -M • •-= -M 71 Tl ri x 






-^ ■>^ 


; - 










^ M 






^ o 



^ 



Z. -Jl X 



i=\ IS 



a; a^ ca 

^ -4J +J ,^ 

*-*< ^ rN <*i 

■< fH M ^N 



5 -2 4 •- 



-^ -J^ -^ ci ^ -i-i -tJ .ti J - .S 

::: "l- '^ ' — ' t 'r" 't" -4-^ .^ * t^ 



.=y 3^ iJ ^ 



.;:5 >» S S .;2 :« 03 c3 



^ E s I i 



■4-3 W 

»-H I— I (— ! 1-3 



i'^ OS 00 1-1 r- 



■<i< T-l O CO T-l 



O r-l i-H rt i-H CO 



• 1-1 -* 1.1 «5 O 


■ «c 


1-1 


— ' c^ CO >c n ri -N -t o X o 

" CO CO <N rH M O 


t- CO 

CO 


:2 t- :;; CO 


CO- •S^i-i,-<(N50-'M?C 


1-1 171 


. Tf 


• rt • . ^ CO • O 


• -r 




71—1 Meo-*»c<Nt-r-^C5 


1-H — 


CO CO ■ • 


»-i- -l«C0^^5^T-<-'rt,-« 




1 "^ ! ! 


• • ,^ . . . oq j/j ^ ^ ^ 


[ '"' 


"^ ! ! ! 


— • 71 71 • -H ri X » ;2 71 


'"' X 


to 1—1 — — 


: : "■■"':: ^ ; ^ •• ; 


: "^ 





58 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATIOK REPORT. 



[1898. 









(M 








Jt- 














^ 








^ 












•A^niTOO lo;sua 


1— 1 




















00 








CO 






. ■ GO 








lO 








o 






• t- 




^ 


■l^nnoo ^na3 






















o 
























m 


























OJ 






00 








. • CO 




t> 


•SUMOX 


CO 






CO 








• CO 






j^jnnoo ^aodiiajsL 










1—1 








TH 






o o 






















CD (M 


















<) 


•jI'JIO ^JOdA\.9Js[ 


























^ tH 






























t- 


CR. t- 






•SUMOX 


M 00 












1—1 


O rH 




t» 


iC^unoo GonapiAOJd 






















W 
























Eh 






• CC 
CO 


















IS] 


•siiT?^ IBj^neo 




: -^ 




















lO lO 


cr, 




CC 


00 






• 00 








LO >-0 














1— ( 




1^ 


•^aHoniAVBd: 






















<1 


























lO lO 






t- 






^- 


CO t- 














(N 






o 


O 1-, 




Iz; 


"Ajio QOUapiAOJd 


























c 






















5 (M 








(N 






• (M 




H 




O (M 








(?5 






■ (>) 




FM 


•583[OosnooM 


1— !■ 




















th r- 




t- 










• 00 








CC (75 




tM 


V . 








• o 






•Xiunoo uo:>SntqsB_AV 


















1—1 








Oi (M 


^H 


1—1 


CO 


O 




CO 


CO 00 






•ajB^s 


lO ^ 


o 


o 


T^ 


o 




o 


O <M 




a[0 


qM aq^ ui aSB^uaojaj 






































()i 
























S^ 
























o- 










W 














CO ^ 










^ 










q-i 




"» S 




















o 




CO sa 










P 










o 




CC >1 










fe 


C 




02 




'^ 


CC 


q^ 










O 


a 






CC 




CC 


1 ^^ 


CO 








!» 


1/ 




i» 




<v 


^ 


. S 












c 


CO 

e 

=0 






p 


CC 




CO 








O 


C 


^ 


^ 


'S 


o 






S .^ 










" ^ 






rt 




o 


■^ 


'.J -M 








a 


■Si 














« ■*^ 








1> 


p 


^ 


^1 


o 


o 


^ 


rS 


cS 0» 








1— 


H 


^A^ 


OQ 


m 


^ 




^ 


O O 










o 


1—1 


1—1 


1—1 


-o 




-* 


iM Oi 






•aVi%'8 QloqM 


-i- 


(M 






■^ 








1—1 








CC 


,_, 














■ -* 




o 


•ji^anoo no^SaiqsBAV 






















CO 




m 


T-t 








1—1 






1—1 




1— ( 

> 


■}8J[0osnoojii 






















p 




CO 


O 






00 






i?5 


1-1 lO 




a . 


•A;io eongpiAOJd: 


tH 

CO 


1—1 

O0~ 


1—1 


— ^'- 


1—1 














1— 1 






1—1 






■^83[0THM'B<J 






















■SU'EJ IBJiuao 




CO 


















o 


•SUMOX 


-^ 


-* 












(N 


1-1 (M 




ji^nnoo eonapiAOJti 






















■Ji%lO 5JOdA\8Js[ 


CO 


" 


















•SUAVOX 


T-H 








CM 








• CM 






jS^nnoo qaodM8js[ 
























(TO 










CO 






• TtH 




P3 

t3 


•jl^ntioo ^naji 
























10 










rH 










^ 


•j^^unoo lo^sug; 






" 















1898.] 



CLASSIFICATION' AN'F) PEUCKNTAQF:. 



59 



o o o >- 

CO <N (N Ci 









cc 
» 


X. 


'^ 




X 






1- 










<N 


-^ 


»1 




»-t 












c. 


^ 


r. 


ft 


X 

1- 


^ 


- 














OS 


^ 




^ 












■ c: 






o 


CO 
CO 


05 












c: 






S 






IN 


IN 














?1 


c. 


;:JH 


o 

5^ 


C5 


c 


l.O 


• ^ 






: o S 








c^ 


^ 


0^1 






















■X 
CO 




rh 








05 




I— 


'5 


7-^ 


IS 




S 


X 


co 


• ■x 




X 


• X 








•M 


" 


^ 








"3 






1- 






-f 


I- 


X 


-* 
^I 


-t 


;=; — 


X 


»r o 








Tt 


-- 


— 




















o 


C5 


OS 

c 

T-l 




"* 
•^ 




7-1 






s 






^1 


S^ 


CO 










1— 1 

X 








aT *^ 



m 



.2 .2 :s 3 sr sr g « 






S rt o S5 

O O ?H ►^ 



I I I 



o •§ S 
» S > 



rHX-*'*COSqNQ0 



CO r-l 




CO 
(N 


-<* 


>o 


1-1 








CO 






■^ CO 




O 


o 


Its 




(N 




*" 


• 






lO t- 


t- 


OJ 


o 


X 


t- 


(M 


CO Tt< 


Tt 


1-1 


-t 


•: '' 


Tf CO 


30 


CO 
i-H 


CO 


o 
i-t 


'"' 


IN 




T-( 


1-1 


1-1 


(M 


■^" 


Tj< 


CO 


<N 


I-t 








(N 


: 


c:i rl 


05 

CO 




o5 


l-< 


ffl 




-f 




^ 




(N 


CO 


00 


X 




'"' 






1-1 






'"' 


^ 




'"' 


• 




- 








• (N 


■^ 


1-1 


(M 


-* 


^ 


i-t 






; 




'- ' 


1-1 




o 


~f 


lO 




-t 








1-1 







60 



I'ORTY-SIXTH ilEGISTRATIOlsr REPOKT. 



[1898. 



o 

1— 1 

m 

S 

o 
< 

pa 

m 
W 

fi 

&^ 
O 

12; 


•jC^unoo lo^sug 












•i^nnoo ^uaH 










■SUM-OX 




CO 








•Xijo :).io(IxWajs[ 










■snMojj 




1—1 


^ '. 




•sil'B^ IBJ^uao 












•;9I[0n;M'Bc[ 




CO 

1—1 






■A^io aonapiAOJd; 


CO i-H O ■ £- 

O -* i-H , • C 


> 


■^85[0OSUOOA\. 


1 






■jfianoo nojSujqsB^ 




CO 
1-1 




81oqM 9iW ui aSB'jngojati 


1-1 (M ^ CO CO 

o -* o '-'.'—'. 


O 

CO 

O) 

t3 

<1 
Q 


s 

i» 
to . 

^^ 1 

CO 

-^ so 

1 I 
« 1 






Group Nine.— Organs of Special 
Sense. 

Exopthalmic Goitre 


3 




rH Oi CO (M C 


4 


NUMBER OP DEATHS IN EACH DIVISION 
OP THE STATE. 


•l^nnoo no^Sniqs'BAi 


■ «> • ; ; 


•;85lOOSIIOOjVi 


• (M • ; 


i" 


•IjiQ aouopiAOJd 


1-1 (N CO • O 
1—1 


■'jeJlorHM'Bd 




1-1 






■silB^ IBj^nao 










■saAi.ojj 
A^unoo 9on3piAOJd; 




• o 


iH 




■&\\0 ?J0dM.9JSI 




iH 


1—1 




■SUMOX 

Aiunoo iaodA4.ajs[ 




l-H 






•A^unoo ^n83 










Ajnnoo lo^siaa 













1898.] 



CL.VSSIFICATION AND I'ERCEN'T.VGE. 



CI 



'~ s. "2 


.47 
2.83 










.47 

2.8:5 

.47 


■ o •-: 


Ci « c: 




:o c: X ;+ c; 


S 


2.07 


OS ® 














C5 O CS 
<N rl ■>! 

1- 


C5 tC 










1": •?! 


^ 


S Z -B 


-; ~ 










-.c t- I- -f I- 
X I- — rr — 


7.80 
1.38 

.46 
6.42 

.46 






■^ 


— o - CO 


- X O X — "* 
r-l O 1-1 rj t- 

1— cc 








-.c — X in X 

•M — 


t- 2? '2 "♦■ Ez H IC 




Cr ii 


■C 7) -t — X 


• X " 


7f 1— 

■M — 








■ I- M ri 
X ri ■>! 


-t J- t- — -r 
-r -M ?i X in 




1— 


t- X - I- 
?1 O • Tl 


— I- t^ T- 


^ - ^ 




i 


- 


= 


5 ^^ 13 ? 


ri 



<5 i 









= -i :r ;^ 



^ 2- - - ^ -" 



;- — v: ^j 












fc, 3^ — — 

fi^ t: t= = Ji :- 






XXX«500t-'M — 5^0t-iiOiOC5« 
^S-ti-i'M— 1 t-00 (M 



q '^^ 



— Ox-: 



c: 1-1 r-i ec »i 




'^ 


1-1 -t - -1 


• o? t- • eo Ci • • • • 

• X -1-1 .... 


• -r rt th 


• l-^COCOOCSr-lT-irj,-! 

-t 1-1 —1 Tjl O 


•* o -t o -r 

CO TO i-l rH 


• 5 JO « oo -* • 






>0 50 rl CO « 


• r- CO r- -r r- 




""* 


I- «.o • ^ 


1-1 5^ t- • M t- 

r— . 1— 1 






O c: T'l -f M 


f-i la rt • « eo 






-* 50 • • ,1 


• eo • • .-1 •* • _ 






• O • • 


. sq 00 • t- cq tH 




CO iH eo O 1-1 - (N 


r-i -f ?) • —. :r 






1-1 «D . rH 



62 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



0) 
pi 

■rH 

a 
o 
Q 



00 

en 

00 



Q 

ft 
O 

M 

H 
<! 
Q 

I— I 
Q 



M 

Hi 
O 











. 








IC 






















<^ 








•j^^anoo lo^sijg 














-* 















CI 






or 














1—1 














15 


•j£}unoo iuo2 











































m 




































^ 


-^ 


Oi 


'>. 


•snAvoj, 


















<» 


S 


lannoQ ^aodMajsi 














-* 


Tt 


















cr. 


h- 


a 


















<>■ 


<x 


(M 


-j! 


•i^IO ()J0(lM.9M 
















































i— 




(SD 




c: 


c: 






•saMox 






■r-\ 




(M 






i?j 


• 


t» 


A-junoo aouapiAOJd: 














^ 










































cq 






<! 
















cr. 






R 


•SIIB^ IBjqUGO 








m 
















cr 


t- 


t^ 




(T 


r- 


CO 










00 


tH 


(to 






c: 


1— 1 


^ 


•q95[onqM.'Bj 














CO 







<1 
























JC- 


r- 


t- 


t- 







or 


or 


00 


E-i 






<r 












c> 


<r 





^ 

H 


•.^ITo aonapiAOJd; 




















§ 






























:M 


^ . 




-^ 




(M 


H 










0\ 


^ 




'd 




(M 


P-( 


•ia:5[oosnoo^ 
























r- 














r- 








c< 


• 










a 


<M 




■Iqunoo uojSniqsBM 








"CS~ 






^ 










cc 


CC 





^ 




or 


o- 


Oi 




•a^Bis 


c 


c 







7—1 




CO 


C£ 





8[0 


RM 8^ ni aSTJinaojaj 














C<1 




















































a 






^ 
















p 





K 


1 

^ 




'S 




'^ Ph 










OJ 




> 


M 


cS 


'f-( 


<li o' 




^ 


) 







a 

b 


4 







Ah 


■4i 


a 


5 
> 


• 

■1 : 






r 


"^ 


c« 


a; 


a> 


5^.2 


b 


] i- 


' i 








^ ? 


' rt^ 


1^ 


& 


iq 


< 




bJD 









= « 


' 10 


O) 


o; 






A- 















^ 


Cb 




a 


) cS 






^ 


\ p; 


1 Ph 


Ph 


^ 




C 


^ 









(> 


"^ 


t- 












-^ 


K 




•8?'B5S aioqM 










'"' 




V. 


^ 










^_ 


• 








t- 


0- 


7—1 


izi 




•jSqunoo noqSaiqsBAi. 




























I— 1 


<N 




(M 




T-H 


> 


•qgiloosnoOjVi 






















s^ 


<> 


(N 


(M 


CO 




■s; 


c 


T-H 


. 


•j£!)iO aouapiAOj^ 
























^ 


cq 


T-^ 


CM 




c 


(> 


T-H 




•qa5[0THM'Bd 














c^ 






■siltijE I'BJqnoo 


















Eh M 


•snMol, 






(M 




CO 






c." 


• 


^lunoo aonapiAoad: 
















c 


















cc 


1— ( 


•jIiiO ^JodAvaK 













































■SQAiOi 




















P5 
El) 


^qnnoo :)aodAi9j«i 


























T-( 


<N 












m 


•jf^nnoo ^U83 




















t3 




































cs 






t?; 


•L'\\moo loqsua 






■ 















1898. 



CLASSIFICATION AND I'HICCKN TAf; K. 



03 



X. O t- C^ 



t- -t -M 






X 



^i^t^^::^^ 



Ci 



^ S o 

-'' !=i t- 

cq ft 



2- ^ 



^ =: iJ :- 






:=• 2 - 3. .li; = 

-» '^ Cw ^^ y-. '^ 



&i; tH fcH ^ 



flH « O 



O t- 30 O O CO X O 





1 — 


-r 




— 




1- 






■M 












-r 






O/ 




t 






-r 












— 


1— 


* 


CC 








ai 


X 


^ 


X 


X 


1— 
































Ci 


y^ 




Oi 


Cl 








X 






00 


X 




52 


!» 




o 


o 














CO 


CO 




















'^ 






'^ 


•^ 




O 


a 


o 










o 




l.t 


Ci 


I- 




00 


<N 


(N 


1— ' 










- X 




-" 


■M 










_ 


'"' 






_ 


_ 






-^ 










•^ 


.-' 


y— ^ 


f^ 


— ■ 


-^ 






— -f 


- 


", 


r. 


-M 


^. 


^. 


"M 


■M 


^ 


'M 


ri 






• ?o 






(N 






o 


IM 


<S> 








?o 




"* 






05 






-* 


C5 


•^ 








■* 




00 


1— 




-r 






00 


OO 






'>J 


CO 












t- 














'• 



















-*< 


O 


■M 


CO 








X 


GO 

o 


o 


X 

o 


• 5^ 


-t 


o 


->1 


5^ 


-1< 





I -£ ^: 



5 'S 


2 


P aj 


'^* 


■^ ^ 


■s 


v. 
















^ ^ 


•^^ 


^ " 


=Q 


■-; "^ 


3J 


O ao 


m 






Cv 


g3 


O 


O 


o 


>*< 


c^ 


(N 



-H (N 50 



o o CO Tt< t- 1-1 o ^ 



'"' 




(M 




■^ 


" 




^^ 


^^ 


\ 




lO 


"^ 






^ 






!M 






y-K 


'M 


^ 








1-1 


(M 


lO 


T-t 


1-1 


O 

T-t 


CO 


'"' 


1-4 


CO 


rj< 


1-1 


CO 


CO 


iri 


K) 




iH 


t-i 


■'*' 










*' 




'^ 


rH 


(N 


'"' 




Oi 




1-H 


'"' 


!. 




\ 


N 


i 




M 


!M 




71 


O 


^^ 


CO 








■* 


CO 


'^ 


CO 


CO 


O 




■^ 


3^ 




Tj< 










CO 











64 



rOKTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPOB.T. 



[1898. 



Table X. — Causes of Deaths Registered in Rhode Island, 





CAUSES OP DEATH.* 


1853. 


1854. 


1855. 


1856. 


1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


1 


ALL CAUSES 


1,S91 


1,806 


1,970 


2,225 


2,510 


2,793 


2,447 




SPECIFIED CAUSES 


1,176 


1,655 


1,782 


1,919 


2,222 


2,483 


2,184 




[CLASSES.] 
















I. 


ZYMOTIC DISEASES 


504 


604 


682 


820 


924 


1,124 


915 


J] 


CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES 


67 


58 


68 


88 


106 


112 


96 


III. 

IV. 
V. 


LOCAL DISEASES 


834 

308 
63 


580 

357 

56 


476 

482 
74 


440 

510 

61 


549 
561 

82 


564 
596 

87 


552 


DEVELOPMENT \L DISEASES 


532 


VIOLENT DEATHS 


89 




[GROUPS.] 
















J 




489 


588 


668 


804 


891 


1,088 


887 




2. DiETio Diseases 


14 


11 


8 


15 


29 


26 


23 




3. Parasitic Diseases 


1 


5 


6 


1 


4 


10 


5 


II 


1. Diathetic Diseases 


67 


58 


68 


88 


106 


112 


96 




Diseases of— 
















III. 




101 


90 


126 


117 


158 


165 


164 




29 


40 


65 


43 


67 


67 


64 






46 


62 


72 


93 


93 


101 


94 




4. Digestive Organs 


14« 


376 


186 


158 


188 


198 


196 




5. Ueinart Organs 


6 


4 


13 


10 


26 


17 


33 




6. Organs of Generation 




4 


3 


5 


2 


7 








3 


1 


2 


7 


6 


6 


9 






2 


3 


9 




9 


3 


2 




9. Organs of Special Sense. Eye and Ear... 


















Developmental Diseases op— 
















IV 




122 
10 

58 
18 


255 

7 
67 

«8 


342 

9 

84 

47 


362 
14 
76 

58 


376 
13 

119 
53 


403 
24 

114 
,55 


.358 






14 






117 




4. Diseases of Nutrition 


43 


V. 




57 


53 


57 


56 


73 


73 


79 


2. Battle 


















3. Homicide 


3 




9 


1 


1 


1 


1 




4. Suicide 


3 


3 


8 


4 


8 


13 


9 






15 


20 


19 


14 


30 


14 


22 






100 


131 


169 


292 


258 


296 


341 









* still-born Included in this table. 



1898. 



CAUSKS OK I) i: A III. 



(J5 



Fur each uf the FuHij-lSix 1 ea/-.s-, isr,.; lo is'JS. 



I860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868 
8,124 


1869. 


1870. 1871. 


1872. 


1878. 


1874. 

i 


1875. 


1876. 


1 
2,8531 8,078 


8,714 


8,818 


8,498 


8.582 


8,142 


8,052^ 


8,602 


8,472 


3,567 


4,449 4,681 


1 
4,506 4,!568 


4.840 


S,6-.i8 


2,858 


2,505 


3,081 


8,255 


8,335 


2,938 


2,827 


2.788 


3,251 


8,270 


3,275 


8,986 


4,344 


4,297 


4,800 


4.095 


1,073 


1,108 


1,032 


1.278 


1,477 


1,.54.<1 


1,172 


1,003 


1.093 


1,413 


1.268 


1,265 


1,.S77 


1,689 


1,690 


1,657 


1,613 


131 


126 


122 


141 


123 


139 


132 


123 


130 


144 


167 


151 


I87j 198 


155 


193 


190 


• 632 


768 


660 


925 


855 


835 


804 


809 


666 


758 


767 


844 


1,081 1,090 


1.103 


1.104 


1.110 


657 


653 


584 


612 


684 


715 


698 


710 


784 


810 


985 


890 


1,195 2,211 


1.199 


1,175 


1.020 


135 


108 


107 


125 


116 


103 


132 


122 


115 


122 


139 


125 


146 


1.56 


150 


171 


153 


1,038 


1,156 


1,002 


1,235 


1,437 


1,525 


1,160 


1,043 


1,076 


1,390 


1,242 


1,235 


1,353 


1,670 


1,662 


1,632 


1,581 


29 


34 


24 


36 


31 


10 


7 


11 


11 


20 


20 


19 


23 


14 


25 


18 


27 


5 


8 





7 


9 


8 


5 


9 


6 


3 


6 


11 


1 


5 


8 


7 


5 


131 


126 


122 


. 141 


123 


139 


132 


123 


130 


144 


167 


151 


187 


198 


155 


193 


199 


170 


212 


170 


203 


217 


202 


207 


2J5 


208 


238 


249 


277 


299 


351 


812 


386 


.346 


73 


108 


113 


99 


124 


99 


117 


115 


116 


128 


120 


146 


190 


193 


217 


191 168 


110 


119 


104 


140 


140 


127 


99 


92 


74 


90 


106 


123 


150 


156 


164 


191 191 


233 


261 


280 


427 


326 


364 


333 


285 


194 


232 


217 


220 


387 


267 


283 


263 284 


29 


27 


25 


35 


28 


26 


29 


43 


46 


40 


48 


57 


77 


85 


85 


85 69 


1 


9 


1 


3 


1 


4 


1 


1 


2 




1 




5 


8 


3 


l' 2 


5 


15 


8 


9 


7 


5 


5 


6 


12 


11 


15 


5 


11 


18 


15 


16 


27 


11 


17 


9 


9 


12 


8 


13 


22 


14 


8 


" 


16 


12 


17 


24 


16 


23 


476 


440 


371 


390 


436 


498 


454 


455 


515 


523 


647 


566 


857 


844 


853 


884 


071 


13 


19 


23 


21 


23 


18 


24 


26 


22 


27 


28 


34 


86 


29 


44 


35 


30 


116 


122 


143 


161 


193 


152 


178 


188 


206 


217 


204 


232 


233 


254 


223 


216 


241 


52 


62 


47 


40 


42 


47 


42 


41 


41 


52 


56 


58 


69 


84 


79 


90 


78 


119 


93 


91 
7 


104 
8 


106 
2 


90 

1 


119 
1 


102 


97 


105 


107 
.... 


106 


126 


145 


128 


143 


131 


4 


3 


1 


5 


2 




1 


5 




2 


5 




2 


3 


' 




4 


12 


12 


8 


18 


6 


12 


11 


15 


18 


15 


27 


19 


18 


8 


18 


26 


18 


37 


18 


21 


20 


34 


40 


83 


30 


48 


51 


59 

1 


43 


87 


70 


1 ^' 


56 


32 


188 


202 


188 


! 217 


209 


207 


171 


105 


888 


800 


1 

137 


249 


i 
376 817 


152 

1 


an? 


! 
213 



66 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRiVTION" REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table X. — Causes of Deaths Registered in Rhode Island 



CAUSES OF DEATH.* 



1877, 



1878. 



1879. 



1880. 



1881. 



1882 



I. 

II. 
III. 
IV. 

V. 



IV. 



V. 



ALL CAUSES 

SPECIFIED CAUSES. 



[CLASSES.] 

ZYMOTIC DISEASES 

CONSTITUTIONAL DISEASES. 

LOCAL DISEASES 

DEVELOPMENTAL DISEASES. 
VIOLENT DE A-THS 



[GROUPS.] 
1. Communicable Diseases . . . 

8. DiETic Diseases. . . 

3. Parasitic Diseases 



1. Diathetic Diseases. 



Diseases or— 

1 . Nervous System 

2. Organs of Circulation 

3. Respiratory Organs 

4. Digestive Organs 

5. Urinary Organs 

6. Organs of Generation 

7. Organs of Locomotion 

8. Integumentary System 

9. Organs of Special Sense. Eye and Ear. 

Developmental Diseases of— 

1 . Children 

2. Women 

3. Old People 

4. Diseases op Nutrition 



1. Accident or Negligence. 
3. Battle 

3. Homicide 

4. Suicide 



4,692 
4,444 

1,819 

231 

1,817 

1,015 

163 



1,794 
17 



231 



375 
187 
191 
335 
98 
4 
15 
18 



4, 
4,430 

2,000 

185 

1,126 



1,978 
16 
6 

185 



361 

172 

206 

264 

92 

1 

10 
20 



4,386 

1,867 
221 

1,845 
926 
127 



414 
208 
203 
270 
113 

20 

17 



5,021 

4,742 

1,970 
205 

1, 

1,122 
157 



1,949 
21 



205 



415 
237 
210 
278 
119 
7 
15 



5,280 

4,871 

1,87 

239 

1,461 

1,119 

182 



29 
2 

239 



481 
271 
238 
324 
110 
3 
11 



684 



13^ 



648 
26 

228 
64 

135 



591 



220 

79 



113 



706 

36 

273 

107 



247 
82 



5,327 

5,011 

1,776 

213 

1,553 

1,254 

215 

1,742 
32 
2 

213 



484 
252 
214 
43 
118 
6 
25 
17 



Causes ill-defined , 



Causes not stated. 



49 



210 



843 
22 
283 
106 

178 



45 



254 



233 



* Still-born included in this table. 



1808.] CAUSES OF DEATH. fJ7 

For each of the Fortij-Six Yecus, 1S'>3 to 1S08. — Continued. 



1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1880. 1890. 1891. 1892. 1 80S. 



5,413 5,660 6,142 6,61G 
5,852 5,544 6.053 6,5C2 



1.808 1,924 2,121 2,394 



2%; 26J 264 



1,863 
1,370 1.260 
221 201 



1,877 
47 



2,013 2,174 
1.443 1.506 



6,889 
6,81 

2,.S35 

307 

2,258 

1, 



213 



2-^4 216 



2,084 2,34' 



296 262 



527 
358 
299 
393 
215 
14 
84 
23 



843 



267 
122 



178 



22 20 



57 



598 
333 
305 
495 
222 
12 
26 
22 



1,000 

31 

270 

136 

194 

3 
17 



89 



46 
1 

264 



613 
411 
346 
527 
220 
14 
23 
20 



1,053 

29 

278 

146 

206 

2 
16 

35 



2,294 

40 

1 

307 



642 
442 
363 
516 
244 
10 
15 
26 



6,588 
6,500 

2,025 

312 

2.274 

1,646 

243 



1.949 
74 
2 



1,21 
33 
290 
159 

190 

5 
21 



46 



59 



19 38 



554 
467 
402 
541 
272 
10 
18 
10 



1,161 
27 
22 
231 

216 

3 
24 

49 



7,330 
7,142 

2,437 

299 

2,356 

1,789 

271 

2,365 

61 

1 

299 



612 
413 
423 
553 
300 
8 
25 
22 



6,892 
6,823 

2,201 

283 

2,331 

1,731 

274 



1894. 1895.11896. 1897. 



7,739 7,852 7,553 7,902 7,928 

I ! 

7,677 7,753,7,495 7,819 7.853 



2,464 2,548 2,425 3.563 



805 325 



2,596 

1,980 

332 



2,130 2,405 
59 



283 



607 
485 
378 
513 
300 
15 
20 
13 



1,325 

26 

198 

240 

250 

2 

19 



39 43 



305 



660 
509 



2,701 
1.891 



2.427 

291 300 285 
I 
2,672 2,814:2,870 



1,819 
288 



1,812 



1,935 
336 



2,465 2.366 2.525 2.381 



82 
1 

325 



535 



4651 438 
595 628 
325 877 



38 



291 300 



748 
476 
363 



790 
535 

383 



46 



23 
185 
217 

2as 

1 

40 
35 
34 



4 

256 
241 

309 



600 581 
397 431 



1,467 1,497 



50 
183 
191 



62 
18' 
73 



264 284 



19 



34 81 



285 



760 
556 
371 
595 
472 
53 
22 



1,490 1,598 
40 44 



283 



68' 55 



6S 



•,533 
■,488 

3.292 

304 

2,818 

1,758 

361 



2,348 
44 



304 



7.318 
7,274 

2,039 

315 

2,897 

1 



1,963 
56 



ToTai. Awn Pm- 

CINTAOI 

roR 45 ritRx, 
18:>3-1«97. 



315 



784 i 
551 ' 
283 
647 
54' 



209.606 100.00 
200,548 95.04 



73.571 
8,796 
61,40»i 
49,098 
7,077 



72.004 

1,395 

172 



393 



296 



40 



39 



1,457 
48 
253 



26;) 



20 



35 



1,408 
49 
311 



296 



SO 



24 



,790 



17,335 

10.735 

9.311 

16.076 

6.186 

409 

652 

666 

36 



34.&51 
1.301 
9.125 
8,821 

6.703 

14 

137 

823 



1,680 



7,468 



:35.09 

4.19 

29.29 

33.41 

3. 60 

34.34 
.67 
.08 

4.19 



8.S6 
5.13 
4.44 

7.e7 

2.95 
.20 
.31 
.32 
.02 



16.62 

.(-.3 

4.:}5 

1.82 

3.20 
.01 
.06 
.39 



.80 



3.50 



68 



POETY-SIXTH EEGISTRATIOK REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table X. — Continued. 





CAUSES OF DEATH. 


1853. 


1854. 


1855. 


1856. 


1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


I. 


Group 1. 

1. Varicella 

2. Fever, Typhus 




"'is 

46 
11 


'"3 

71 
5 

"is 

6 
.... 
'"3 

""2 

63 
4 

'""4 

79 

.... 

58 
8 

'345 

.... 

5 
1 

"32 

4 

27 

"3 

3 

26 
33 

20 

8 

"""s 

31 

1 

1 

63 


"""2 

208 
9 

.... 

12 
10 

.... 

"4 
.... 

3 
53 

""ig 

120 

"""2 

47 

7 

"sos 

13 
1 
1 

1 

'"56 

4 

26 

"4 
4 

19 

39 

9 

14 

"""e 

. 30 

1 

1 

41 


""e 

147 

"i4 

8 

""e 
'""2 

76 
15 

""'9 
141 

"52 
11 
4 

'466 

25 
"""4 

3 

1 

""48 

6 

37 

"'"s 

7 

25 
42 
21 
16 

1 

8 

45 

2 
""65 


'"75 

234 

1 

6 

.... 

20 

7 

.... 
.... 

""4 

42 

6 

""i.3 
166 

""3 

65 
11 
6 

"426 

21 
""'5 

9 
1 

"'44 

12 

44 

1 

7 

4 

42 
43 
21 
14 

'"9 
36 

"""i 

66 






3. Measles 




3 




4. Scarlet Fever 


108 
14 


71 




5. Small Pox* 


5 




6. Diphtheria 

7. Qiiinsyt 


20 




8. Tonsilitis 




""8 
2 






9. Carbuncle 




1 




10 Erysipelas 


3 
2 

.... 


15 




11. Fever. Puerperal 


11 




12. Septicemia — 

13. Glanders 

14 Hydrophobia 


1 




15. Malignant Postule 


6 




16. Meningitis, Cerebro-Spinal 

17. Tetanus 




'3 

"39 

1 

"u 

54 


3 




18. Cholera 








19. Fever, Malarial 








20 Fever, Remittent+ 


1 
25 

2 

'"2 

48 


1 




21. Fever, Typhoid^ 


70 






3 




23. Parotitis 

34. Pertussis 


""46 
135 




26. Gonorrhoea 






27. Syphilis 


1 

33 

6 


"46 
5 

.... 
349 

10 
1 

4 
1 

"31 
6 

18 

""2 
1 

19 

25 

6 

6 


5 




28. Hydrocephalus (Tubercular Meningitis) 

29 Scrofula 


56 
8 




.30 Tabes Mesenterica 


2 




31. Tubercular Enteritis 

32. Tubercular Meningitis 

33. Tubercular Peritonitis 

34. Tuberculosis, General 








35 Tuberculosis, Pulmonary 


243 
14 


436 




Group 2. 

1. Alcoholism— Delirium Tremens, Intemperance 

2. Inanition , 


22 




8. Purpura and Scurvy 




1 




Group 3. 
1 Thrush 


1 

"4.5 
2 
13 

1 
4 
2 

28 

22 

12 

4 


3 








11. 


Group 1. 
1. Gout 


"4i 






2 






43 












3 






7 


III. 


Group 1. 


20 






51 




2. Apoplexy and Paralysis . \ 


38 






16 






2 






4 
31 


"34 

2 
'"38 


6 






41 




7. Ne7"ve Diseases 

Group 2. 


1 






1 
28 


1 






6ff 









* Includes 8 cases of Chicken Pox. + Includes Mumps. t Includes Yellow Fever. 
§ Includes Bilious, Typhus, and Continued Fevers. 



iSflS. I CAUSES OF DMATH. 09 

Causes of DeaUis Registered in Rhode Island. 



I860. 


1801. 


1862. 


1868. 


1864. 


1865. 


1806. 


1867 


1868. 


1809. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


■■"8 


"ii 


"12 


".30 


"26 


"i6 


"i.5 


"12 


"26 


"19 


"26 


""0 


"24 


"0.3 


"'7 


■"2 


"4 


04 


57 


47 


91 


206 


255 


28 


14 


93 


280 


75 


00 


54 


287 


402 


1K5 


80 


9 


5 




7 


12 


22 


2 


1 


2 


3 


6 


12 


25 


28 


8 


4 


1 


67 


140 


81 


155 


100 


82 


04 


81 


20 


83 


33 


57 


48 


45 


59 


38 


l.^9 


3 


.... 






2 


1 


"2 




.... 


1 
"2 


8 
"1 


"'2 




1 
.... 




.... 


"i 


aii 


14 


ii 


14 


28 


21 


10 


25 


25 


14 


21 


18 


23 


39 


20 


21 


18 


U 






14 

.... 

3 


14 


13 


7 

"1 


8 


12 


10 
"2 


16 

.... 


18 


9 
.... 


17 
.... 


16 
3 

"1 


18 

1 

.... 


18 
"2 













5 


1 


4 


3 


1 


3 


14 


23 


62 


10 


13 


7 


5 


5 




8 


4 

.... 





3 

47 
2 


3 
3 


3 


2 
"2 


5 


5 


8 


2 


8 


5 


2 


1 


H 














1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 








68 


94 


84 


128 


110 


283 


152 


126 


86 


100 


157 


1.30 


190 


172 


121 


ISO 


123 


2 


3 







5 




1 


1 


2 








1 


1 


2 


6 




"46 


45 


"is 


24 


31 


"56 


28 


12 


26 


"48 


89 


"25 


"27 


"32 


"45 


"si 


"48 


lea 


103 


147 


174 


201 


175 


193 


172 
1 


191 


190 


182 


218 


229 


234 


250 


400 

1 


339 


2 


5 


3 


2 


5 


2 


5 


5 


3 




5 





9 


3 


7 


8 


8 


K 


63 


50 


47 


49 


63 


50 


41 


57 


70 


51 


71 


44 


.52 


51 


57 


08 




14 


14 


13 


14 


12 


5 


9 


3 


11 


19 


22 


9 


20 


20 


21 


18 




3 


3 




3 


7 


2 


2 


2 


10 


4 


5 


5 


7 


3 


4 


' 












"e 


"'4 


"16 


"9 


"ia 


"io 


"24 


"23 


"is 


"21 


"h 


"is 


505 


523 


sis 


si'j 


498 


547 


520 


503 


517 


555 


577 


585 


000 


584 


536 


657 


000 


26 


30 


22 


32 


27 


10 


7 


10 


10 


18 


17 


ir 


23 


14 


22 


17 


21 


3 


4 


2 


4 


4 






1 


1 


"2 


""3 


"2 






"3 


.... 


5 


S 


4 


4 


3 


8 


5 


2 


a 


4 


3 


4 


11 




5 


2 


5 


4 


3 


4 


2 


4 


1 


3 


3 


1 


2 




2 




i 




1 


2 


1 


"56 


"48 


"46 


"52 


"45 


"ei 


"49 


"49 


"49 


".53 


"oi 


"50 


".55 


"ofl 


"S9 


"50 


"06 


5 


3 


4 


12 


4 


3 


3 


2 


4 


4 


2 





4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


44 


58 

1 


61 


62 


61 
1 


55 


04 
2 


58 


60 


00 


80 


66 

1 


95 
5 


100 
1 


87 


1 


106 


io 


10 


7 


8 


5 


12 


4 


7 





4 


7 


9 


7 


11 


5 


10 


11 


16 


6 


4 


7 


7 


8 


10 


7 


11 


17 


17 


18 


21 


17 


22 


26 


14 


41 


43 


80 


54 


49 


39 


46 


52 


40 


54 


42 


44 


57 


109 


60 


66 


80 


51 


57 


43 


02 


54 


55 


56 


72 


57 


09 


(!4 


77 


.58 


07 


70 


67 


95 


32 


40 


.30 


81 


42 


45 


36 


52 


54 


48 


00 


79 


07 


67 


86 


99 


70 


11 


13 


7 


10 


15 


20 


IS 


14 


13 


14 


18 


16 


20 


19 


13 


32 


19 


4 


11 


6 


6 


8 


7 


4 


12 


5 


5 


4 


"io 


"is 


15 


16 


20 


12 


81 


48 


42 


40 


54 


86 


62 


43 


88 


48 


55 


51 


78 


74 


67 


52 


70 


8 


2 








1 
























1 


1 


2 




1 




1 


1 






3 


2 


1 


2 


1 


4 


2 


69 


105 


111 


90 


123 


98 


116 


114 


116 


128 


117 


144 


189 


191 


216 


187 


166 



10 



fowiY-^stxTHi rectIsTeaTiok report. 
Table X;: — Continued^ 



[1898. 



5 


CAUSES OF DEATH. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1883. 


I. 


1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
20. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 

1. 
2. 
8. 

1. 
2. 

1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 

1. 
2. 

3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

1, 
2 
S. 


Group 1. 
Varicella 




"si 

86 

1 

435 

3 

"'17 
17 
3 

""3 

"ii 

8 
.... 
136 

"54 
317 

'4 

70 

13 

6 

"27 

685 

15 
.... 

4 
2 

"38 

2 

119 

1 

9 

16 

81 
102 
86 
22 

'"s 

62 

'"e 

166 


"sii 
1 

259 

.... 

25 
9 
2 

"io 

6 

"2 

101 
4 

"43 
311 

"io 

57 
13 
3 

"'36 
645 

15 
.... 

1 
1 

"'56 

8 

125 

1 

13 

24 

79 
137 
83 
17 

'"i.3 

85 

.... 

207 


""9 

468 

"i52 
1 

""17 
15 

"26 
3 

" "4 

141 

"'26 
364 

"io 

46 
12 
3 

""i2 

652 
15 

""'e 
"37 

8 

125 

2 

9 

24 

88 
119 
96 
19 
3 
14 
76 

"'"2 

235 


"'37 

1.38 

3 

216 

2 

"'"2 
37 
22 

1 

.... 

18 
8 

9 

117 
3 

"68 
327 
2 
4 
56 
15 
8 

"'39 
712 

24 
2 
3 

1 
1 

"'47 

4 

145 

"'14 
29 

107 
146 
101 
32 

"13 

82 

""'2 
269 


"""e 
45 

2 
101 

.... 

30 

28 

.... 

28 
8 

"'"s 

"2i4 

1 

"7i 

344 

'"ie 

49 
14 
4 

""27 
744 

27 
1 
4 

2 

""56 

4 

133 

""e 

21 

95 
154 
111 

23 

'"i4 

87 

2 
250 






Fever, Typhus 

Measles 


"ii 

62 

5 

492 

4 

'"3 

21 
17 


14 




Scarlet Fever 


34 




Small Pox* .' 


2 




Diphtheria 


95 




Quinsy t 


3 




Tonsilitis 

Carbuncle 

Erysipelas 


""3 

28 






16 




SeptiCcemia 


3 






1 
2 
2 
8 
5 






Hydrophobia 














26 




Tetanus 


8 




Cholera 








1 


21 




Fever Remittents 








123 
1 


239 


















32 
226 
2 
10 
55 
11 
10 


9 




Pneumonia 


400 










Syphilis 


18 




Hydrocephalus (Tubercular Meningitis) 


54 
22 






5 




Tubercular Enteritis 






Tubercular Laryngitis 

Tubercular Meningitis 


"25 
665 

12 


29 




Tuberculosis, Pulmonary 


766 




Group 2. 

Alcoholism— Delirium Tremens, Intemperance 
Inanition 


29 
10 






5 

8 


3 




Group 3. 
Thrush , 


2 




Worms 




II. 


Group 1. 
Gout 










63 

1 
135 


47 




Ansemia 


7 






169 




Noma (Canker) 


1 




Mortification (Gangrene) 


8 
24 

81 
109 
73 
12 
1 
19 
81 


9 




Rheumatism 


27 


III. 


Group 1. 
Cephalitis 


91 






157 




Apoplexy and Paralysis. - 


118 




Insanity 


29 




Chorea 


1 






18 




Brain Diseases, etc , 


86 




JSerm Diseases 

Group 2. 
Pericarditis 


17 






4 
183 


8 




Heart Diseases, etc 


308 









* Includes 8 cases of Chicken Pox. t Includes Mumps. % Includes Yellow Fever. 
§ I ncludes Bilious, Typhus, and Continued Fevers. 



1898.] 



CAUSES OF DKATII. 



71 



Cau-sea of Deaths lieij inter ed in Rhode IsUind. 



1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


1887. 

"i32 

260 

287 
8 

""s 

32 
25 
18 

.... 

.... 

24 

7 

"83 

2 

116 

"ai 

488 
1 

13 

51 

21 

6 

"29 
710 

16 

28 

2 

1 

1 

39 

16 

159 

"is 

34 

112 

206 

122 

64 

1 

17 
91 

29 

5 

377 


1888 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1 
1892. 1893. 1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


Total akd P«r. 

CKNTAOK 
FOH 45 rKAlU, 

18ja-Il>97. 


"is 

97 

'ii9 

1 

"'•i 

25 
12 
13 

"■3 

21 

5 

"29 

'i28 
2 

"43 
363 

56 
20 
15 

".% 
739 

30 
1 

2 

1 
40 

156 

5 

10 

34 

78 
182 
116 

.36 

"ii 

83 

"3 
290 


"45 
91 

"99 

1 

.... 

36 
19 
10 

.... 

16 
4 

"34 

105 
2 

"42 
465 

1 

7 

47 

18 

7 

"43 
783 

22 

2J 

3 

"44 

6 

193 

"19 
33 

94 
185 
104 

35 

"23 
86 

10 

4 

344 


"is 

88 

228 

1 

"2 
31 
10 
10 

"io 

8 
"4.3 
"121 

"49 
481 
1 
12 
54 
23 
19 

"41 

827 

12 
20 
3 

2 

1 

47 

15 

159 

"e 

34 

104 

2:W 

107 

49 

a 

14 
92 

21 

a 

310 


"ii 

207 

'igi 

4 

"si 

18 

24 

.... 

2 

22 

9 

"69 

2 

224 

7 

"44 

508 
2 
11 
50 
12 
13 

"32 

800 

. 16 
19 
5 

.... 

"47 

13 

193 

"i9 

35 

133 
211 
156 
43 

a 

16 
81 

23 

6 

413 


"29 
51 

'ilM 

7 

"28 
17 
8 

"2 
1 
9 
7 

"ss 

2 

135 

4 

"77 

483 

1 

13 
58 
17 
11 

"46 

727 

37 

30 

7 

2 

2 
44 
21 
189 

3 
23 
80 

109 
210 
113 
22 
1 
19 
80 

29 

7 

431 


"62 
16 

1 

211 

10 

"2 
22 
19 
14 

"i? 

107 
168 

"76 
569 

"is 

72 
11 
11 

36 

852 

25 
31 
5 

"i 

"46 
19 

16.T 

4 

20 
45 

172 

242 

99 

30 

"23 
46 

27 

8 

378 


"12 
33 

1 

102 

6 

"2 
26 
12 
12 

i 
"io 

3 

"29 

2 

149 

177 

568 

3 

8 

66 

21 

12 

"52 
740 

29 
37 
3 

2 

"35 
20 

177 

1 

15 

85 

178 

aio 

116 

21 

1 

27 
45 

33 

5 

447 


"28 

67 

4 

89 

6 

"4 
25 
80 
13 

.... 

18 
6 

"34 

2 

1.S3 

336 

"25 
655 

"i4 

62 
18 
26 

"56 
759 

36 
22 

1 

".39 
16 
181 

"'ii 

48 

167 
2:w 
124 
27 

"25 
79 

19 

3 

487 


'ioo 

193 

'is? 

6 

"■3 

31 

7 

11 

"i 

40 

8 

""e 
4 

129 

85 

"23 

776 

1 

16 

53 

13 

8 



72 
722 

47 
30 
5 

"i 

1 

39 

23 

205 

"ii 
40 

137 

276 

131 

39 

4 

12 

75 

8 

17 

4 

514 


"'9 
123 

2 
133 

5 

"3 
27 
10 

7 

1 
2 

"is 

6 

"36 

"ieo 

166 

"iao 

665 

"io 

51 

12 

n 
"so 

705 

39 
14 
5 

1 

.2 

7 

20 

214 

"13 
85 

145 
289 
156 
49 
1 
19 
76 
13 

4 
37 
435 


1 

54 

107 

'346 

"7 

3 

20 

15 

.... 

11 
12 

"29 

"i25 

115 

3 

45 

085 

1 

15 

.58 

13 

5 

"7 

8 

46 

799 

24 
11 
3 

'29 
234 

"37 

2 

|4.S0 

72 

T 

20 

252 

13 

8 
.520 


2 

".58 
53 

'288 

"3 
2 

17 
10 

"22 

4 

"42 

iis 

42 

1 

59 
669 

"i2 
17 
12 

7 

"4 
56 

47 
846 

34 
8 
4 

■'si 

226 
"28 

419 

19 
84 
21 
259 
8 

12 

6 

588 


"8.3 

29 

'23i 

"'2 

1 
14 
12 

"19 
2 

"44 

"66 

153 

1 

56 

635 

"2i 
16 
23 
12 

"2 
55 
44 

777 

39 
4 
1 

"24 
254 

" 'k 
23 

469 

103 
1 

17 
286 

17 

IS 

4 

553 


"is 

21 

"2 
2 
9 

22 

"67 

"si 

"76 

75 

1 

96 

542 

"23 

14 

5 

7 

14 

5 

57 

38 

765 

56 
>> 

3 

"is 

279 

"is 

416 

% 

14 

262 

9 

8 

2 

541 


8 

' i'.aos 

5,860 

221 

8,702 

80 

10 

56 

987 

596 

153 

2 

22 

83 

583 

231 

50 

588 

56 

5,485 

1.3:37 

1.742 

14.652 

23 

319 

2,400 

623 

280 

"is 

119 

1.019 

27,567 

978 
299 
118 

129 
43 

8 

1.951 

397 

5,087 

33 

413 

907 

3.144 

9.137 

1.114 

57 

557 

3,267 

59 

275 

153 

10.307 


..58 
2.79 

.11 
2.72 

.04 

"ios 

.47 
.28 
.07 

".'6i 

.02 
.25 
.11 
.02 
.28 
.03 
2.62 
.64 

■ ■ 183 
6.99 
.01 
.17 
1.14 
.:30 
.13 

":6i 

.06 

.49 

13.15 

.47 
.14 
.06 

.06 
.02 

"!93 
.19 
2.42 
.02 
.20 
.43 

1.49 

4.. 36 

.53 
.03 
.26 

.03 

.13 

.07 

4.92 



72 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOlSr REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table X. — Continued. 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



1853. 1854. 



1855. 1856. 



1857. 



1858. 



Group 3. 



1. Epistaxis 

3. Laryngitis 

3. Bronchitis 

4. Pleurisy 

5. Croup 

6. Asthma 

7. Lung Diseases, etc. 



Group 4. 



1. Gastritis 

2. Enteritis 

3. Peritonitis 

4. Ascites 

5. Ulceration of Intestines 

6. Hernia 

7. Illeus (Appendicitis) 

8. Intussusception 

9. Stricture of Intestines 

10. Fistula 

11. Stomach Diseases 

1 2. Pancreas Diseases 

13. Hepatitis 

14. Jaundice 

15. Liver Diseases, etc 

16. Spleen Diseases, etc 

17. Bowel Diseases, etc 

18. Diarrhoea (Cholera Morbus) . 

19. Dysentery 



Group 5. 

1. Nephritis (Bright's Disease, etc.). 

2. Ischuria 

3. Diabetes 

4. Calculus (Gravel, etc.) 

5. Cystitis 

6. Prostate Disease 

7. Kidney Diseases, etc 

8. Bladder Diseases, etc 



Group 6. 

1. Diseases of Male Organs of Generation. 

2. Ovarian Diseases 

3. Uterine Diseases, etc 



Group 



1. Arthritis 

2. Joint Diseases, etc . 



Group 8. 



1. Phlegmon 

2. Ulcer 

3. Skin Diseases, etc. 



Group 9. 



1. Eye and Ear. 



Group 1. 



1. Stillborn 

S. Cholera Infantum 

3. Convulsions 

4. Cyanosis 

5. Debility (Infantile), Premature Birth, etc. 

6. Teething 

7. Hemorrhage, Umbilical 

8. Icterus Neonatorum 

Indigestion 

Innutrition 

Spina Bifida , 



10 
11 
12. Other Malformations. 



5 
6 

2 

4 

215 

118 



124 
91 
53 
1 
34 
28 



183 

77 
64 
1 
17 
15 



185 
70 
57 

"17 
35 



1898,' 



CAUSES OF DKATIf. 



73 



Causes of Deaths Registered in Rhode Island. 



I860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1868. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1860. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1878. 


1874. 


1875. 


i8;'6. 


'"s 

18 

20 

57 

3 

4 

11 
23 
14 

'"a 

16 
1 

1 

'"9 

""9 

7 
31 

'"12 
48 
49 

1 
1 
8 
1 
2 
1 
15 

.... 

""5 

7 
3 

1 

167 
151 
70 

"42 
31 

"is 



18 
21 
68 

8 
12 

"24 

7 

.') 
9 

"ir 
■■■4 

31 

■■■4 

64 
96 

'"s 

.... 

15 
3 

■"2 

7 

"15 
11 

""e 

146 
126 
70 

"45 
40 

"k 

10 


.... 

7 
17 
76 

3 

4 

30 
14 

7 

""% 

(5 

5 

32 

"3 
66 
52 

■"3 

1 
4 

'"17 
1 

.... 

'"s 

4 
3 
2 

123 
106 
55 
2 
35 
39 

""ii 


.... 

17 
14 
97 
8 
3 

8 

27 

5 

7 
5 

"i 

'"12 

"2 

34 
1 
3 

61 
262 

""4 
4 
4 

"23 

1 

"3 

"9 

7 
"2 

111 
114 
71 

"47 
34 

"13 


.... 

7 
16 
105 
7 
4 

11 
27 
19 

""3 
5 
1 

""4 

'"4 

3 

37 

.... 

102 
110 

"is 
2 

"ie 

4 

.... 

" 7 

9 

1 
2 

138 
133 
73 

"46 

28 

"'8 


.... 

10 
16 
94 

I 

6 
20 
13 

"'5 

7 

1 

""2 

"'4 

3 

20 

1 

4 
90 

188 

.... 

6 
3 

"3 

13 
2 

"4 

""5 

8 
""i 

177 
145 
73 

"62 
81 

"io 


"i 

17 
20 
53 
4 
4 

2 
30 
13 

.... 

9 
1 

"'4 

"'7 

6 

37 

.... 

74 
148 

8 

"'e 
2 

""8 
5 

.... 

5 

8 
2 
3 

172 
110 
88 

"54 
23 

"12 


.... 

19 
10 
50 
4 
2 

9 
34 
11 

"'6 
11 
2 

"'8 

"'.5 

3 

30 

1 

"47 

lis 

17 
.... 

3 

"15 

7 

.... 

""e 

15 

3 

4 

163 
117 
68 

"eo 

30 

"i? 


"2 
22 
18 
30 
5 
2 

7 
19 
9 

5 
6 
1 

"'7 

"4 
4 
23 

"2 

55 
52 

10 

"ii 

3 

"■3 

8 
5 

"'2 

"is 

10 
3 
2 

212 

154 
63 

"47 
28 

"io 


""4 

20 

10 

41 

3 

3 

9 

25 

6 

8 

1 

"2 

""e 
3 

28 
2 
3 

61 

74 

18 

"e 
3 

""i 

14 

4 

"ii 

4 
4 

• 

220 

151 
79 

"84 
24 

"is 


"2 
28 
12 
58 
8 
3 

10 

29 

8 

""e 

5 

1 

""s 

"'6 

2 

37 

""4 
46 

55 

15 

""8 
1 

"2 
16 
C 

"i 

"is 
9 

234 
223 

a5 

"57 
84 

"i4 


"'2 

84 

18 

72 

4 

8 

"36 
11 

"7 
13 

"i4 

"35 
.... 

60 
43 

24 

"5 

4 

19 
3 

5 

11 
2 
3 

228 
172 
83 

"58 
20 

"is 


"2 
26 
12 
60 
4 
40 

16 
15 
24 

"'2 
3 

1 

"is 

"2 
3 

31 

"27 

118 
83 

37 

""7 
5 

"2 

18 

8 

"5 

"ii 

10 
1 
1 

202 

391 
116 

"ioo 

81 

"ii 


"'4 
29 
14 

68 

34 

10 
24 
17 

""4 
5 
2 
1 

"i.5 

"2 

43 

2 

29 
77 
36 

39 

""s 

3 

"'4 

27 
5 

"3 

"is 

10 
5 
2 

228 

285 

97 

"m 

50 

"is 


'"k 
40 
10 
65 
10 
30 

8 
37 
20 

"'6 
1 

"33 

"4 
36 

1 
26 
73 
38 

42 

"5 
4 

"34 
10 

"'3 

"is 

18 
3 
8 

27; 

265 

98 

*i54 
48 

"i7 


"4 
58 
10 
96 
10 
18 

28 
29 
28 

.... 
.... 

"is 

"'4 
48 

1 
11 
73 
36 

40 

"ii 

2 

"3 

35 
4 

.... 

"ic 

9 
3 
4 

246 
318 
100 

'ias 

20 

"is 


■"2 

57 

9 

102 

7 

14 

13 
36 
24 

"7 

8 

"io 

"5 

1 
39 

"5 
86 
50 

88 

"5 

1 

■■■4 
12 
9 

"2 

27 

18 
8 
8 

224 

250 

89 

"75 
22 

"ii 



74 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. 

Table X. — Continued. 



[1898. 



3 


CAUSES OF DEATH. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1883. 


1883. 


III. 


Geoup 3. 






'""2 

67 
13 
96 
13 
12 

17 
34 
24 

"12 
9 
2 

"13 

"".5 

3 

44 

"""2 

61 
44 

61 

"'15 
1 

'"4 
20 
12 

""26 

14 
"3 

216 
161 
104 

'"69 
32 

'"19 


'"k 

94 
17 
66 
11 
14 

18 
33 
24 

9 

""io 

'"e 

3 

49 

'"9 

81 

28 

56 
"15 

'"4 

35 

9 

'""7 

""15 

5 
""'2 

192 

247 

133 

3 

93 

25 

""is 


'"e 

86 
9 
101 
16 
20 

27 
44 
27 

"'16 
10 
5 

""12 

"""8 

3 

35 

""'e 

95 
42 

54 

"ie 

1 
.... 

25 
13 

""*3 

"ii 

17 
3 
3 

264 
240 
102 

""92 

28 

'"26 


"'"7 
101 

8 
77 

9 
12 

30 

75 
30 

'"ii 

8 
5 

'"i4 

"""8 

8 

50 

""e 

124 
68 

44 

'"is 

""3 
44 
14 

'"e 

"25 

14 
2 
1 

253 
325 
110 

"ioi 

33 
""2i 








2 

73 

5 

95 

8 
8 

22 
39 
17 


2 

80 
8 

93 
8 

15 

14 
40 

22 


5 






111 






13 






71 






14 






34 




Group 4. 


35 






47 




3 Peritonitis 


40 






1 




5. Ulceration of Intestines 


"'5 

8 


""'7 

12 

3 

.... 


4 

7 






11 






3 








1 






7 

"e 

7 

39 

2 

1 

1.30 
5d 

46 


13 

'"'5 

4 

40 

1 

4 

59 

40 

54 

'"4 
1 

"4 

27 
2 

.... 

"16 

13 
2 
5 

248 
168 
112 

"72 
16 

'"32 


16 




12. Pancreas Diseases 

13 Hepatitis 


"7 






6 






38 












30 






155 






54 




Group 5. 


93 






2 




3 Diabetes 


9 
9 


15 






1 






8 






2 
21 
11 

""4 


7 




7. Kidney Diseases^ etc 


36 
11 




Group 6. 
1, Diseases of Male Organs of Generation 


'"e 

20 




Group 7. 








15 

7 
2 
3 

242 
239 
83 


2fi 




Group 8. 


18 




2 Ulcer '. 


1 




3 Skin Diseases, etc 




IV. 


Group 9. 
1. Eye and Ear 

1. Stillborn 


253 






242 






126 






17 




5. Debility (Infantile), Premature Birth, etc 

6 Teething 


67 
27 




137 
30 




7. Hemorrhage, Umbilical 

8. Icterus Neonatorum. , 






10. Innutrition 

11. Spina Bifida 


"26 


"19 









1898.] 



CAUSES OF DKATir. 



75 



Causes of DeciUis Registered in Rhode Island. 





















1 












Tot*!, 


KD P««- 


18»4 


1885 


1S86 


1887 


1888 


1889 


1690 


1891 


1892 


1893 


1804 


1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


FOK *b YKAKH, 

1 1853-lb»7. 








1 


2 




1 


1 
















5 




"ii 


"9 


""9 


8 




"h 


5 


3 


"vz 


"'? 


"ia 


"'fl 


"\h 


"is 


"s 


223 


.11 


118 


108 


174 


170 


228 


260 


275 


247 


308 


815 


254 


274 


276 


226 


286 


4,871 


2.08 


5 


7 


12 


15 


18 


23 


18 


26 


34 


22 


24 


38 


.S3 


18 


19 


1 704 


.34 


80 


94 


90 


113 


79 


80 


83 


67 


89 


50 


32 


80 


24 


17 


9 


8,087 


1.47 


10 


21 


15 


20 


18 


16 


23 


28 


12 


17 


21 


24 


21 


17 


12 


1 454 


.22 


10 




5 


13 


11 


17 


18 


6 


10 


27 


20 


8 


1 


1 


4 


467 


.22 


27 


29 


30 


34 


37 


42 


88 


25 


53 


47 


48 


62 


52 


62 


76 


924 


.44 


76 


64 


S) 


43 


88 


78 


63 


71 


73 


68 


175 


194 


197 


180 


176 


2,3.38 


1.12 


40 


85 


59 


66 


60 


63 


63 


68 


62 


74 


81 










1,112 


.53 


2 




2 




1 


7 


2 


3 


3 


5 












29 


.01 


1 




1 


'"'5 


8 


1 




7 


4 




"'s 


""i 




"'2 


"'s 


37 


.02 


11 


"16 


15 


13 


11 


10 


"'ie 


16 


22 


"is 


15 


19 


"'s 


14 


28 


340 


.16 


8 


17 


13 


15 


22 


80 


20 


18 


21 


16 


17 


24 


29 


25 


45 


506 


.24 


5 


4 


1 




3 





2 


6 


2 


11 


4 


7 


7 


8 


8 


93 


.04 




2 


1 


2 


.... 


1 


1 




3 


3 


.... 


4 


. . .. 


.... 




25 


.01 


.... 




1 


1 




1 


1 






1 




2 




2 


"*i 


12 


.01 


16 


"'22 


29 


84 


24 


33 


35 


"'32 


""i4 

1 


17 


19 

1 


23 


"15 


19 
2 


17 
1 


644 
4 


.31 


'"io 


""e 


"'9 


■"9 


■"3 


7 


""9 


7 


IS 


"i4 


9 


"io 


"28 


7 


14 


252 


"!i2 


5 


9 


2 


12 


12 


11 


15 


•16 


13 


10 


11 


5 


15 


7 


7 


252 


.12 


40 


47 


60 


65 


53 


68 


56 


55 


61 


72 


78 


70 


69 


49 


80 


1,787 


.85 


2 




1 


1 


1 












1 


8 


1 




1 


24 


.01 


7 


'■'8 


10 


10 


10 


" "7 


'"14 


"is 


"i7 


"7i 


40 


37 


85 


"76 


87 


617 


.29 


131 


104 


110 


151 


110 


114 


131 


112 


160 


162 


105 


79 


58 


62 


60 


3.982 


1.90 


40 


36 


66 


66 


77 


71 


87 


59 


71 


42 


41 


41 


31 


45 


38 


3,098 


1.48 


90 


143 


140 


130 


192 


176 


213 
1 


229 
2 


220 
2 


258 


266 


314 
3 


369 


379 


457 


3,826 
16 


1.82 
.01 


'"25 


"21 


"24 


"22 


"13 


"32 


27 


26 


37 


"46 


"38 


40 


■^i 


"48 


"39 


644 


.31 


.... 


1 




1 


1 


5 


2 


2 




4 


5 


6 


3 


4 


2 


91 


.04 


7 


12 


"23 


17 


10 


18 


36 


15 


"is 


22 


21 


16 


21 


16 


19 


278 


.13 


4 


4 


8 


7 


4 


1 


2 


8 


5 


3 


10 


15 


10 


7 


12 


147 


.07 


39 


25 


24 


39 


21 


34 


16 


16 


39 


44 


47 


31 


27 


8 


14 


947 


.45 


18 


9 


3 


4 


3 


6 


3 


2 


4 
1 


6 


10 


6 



1 


9 


4 


237 
3 


.11 


""12 


*"8 


■■'8 


""5 


"5 


""4 


■■■4 


"s 


6 


"9 


"ii 


17 


"ie 


"'s 


"i2 


141 


"!67 


2 


6 


4 


9 

1 


5 


6 

1 


4 
2 


7 
1 


8 
2 


11 
5 


18 

1 


24 


87 


80 


24 


265 
18 


.13 
.01 


■■32 


"34 


"'26 


22 


"'is 


17 


23 


19 


15 


9 


18 


"23 


"22 


"is 


"12 


689 


.80 


18 


21 


13 


15 


19 


7 


13 


6 


5 




1 


7 


24 


13 


29 


486 


.21 


4 


""2 


6 
3 


1 
4 


7 


■■"3 


2 

7 


4 
3 


1 

4 














70 
160 


.03 


5 


"'5 


"26 


"io 


"i2 


"s 


"4 


.08 


.... 






.... 












2 


10 


11 


5 


8 


4 


86 


.02 


272 


271 


298 


276 


295 


829 


296 


272 


343 


412 


892 


367 


424 


423 


418 


10.561 


6.04 


325 


279 


377 


355 


467 


427 { 


582 


546 


633 


603 


496 


500 


545 


425 


468 


;i 1.892 


6.67 


139 


111 


121 


159 


154 


136 1 


1.50 


137 


162 


151 


147 


120 


102 


65 


49 


4.381 


2.0!) 


5 


6 


" 1 


10 


16 


11 i 


14 


28 


19 


21 


27 


27 


20 


31 


24 


266 


.13 


128 


132 


157 


211 


230 


195 


225 


251 


245 


224 


373 


389 


883 


366 


248 


5.446 


2..')9 


21 


29 


26 


24 


35 


44 


27 


52 


18 
.... 


27 
5 


34 
5 


28 
18 
5 
23 
31 


'"k 

7 
40 
37 


3 

6 

6 

63 

39 


1 

""21 

9! 

751 

85 


1.2.37 
42 
18 

126! 

107 


.59 
.02 
.01 
.06 
.05 


.... 








""4 


"4 


"h 


"s 




"5 


"'8 


5 


11 


9 


9 


68 


.03 


22 


"is 


"15 


■'18 


16 


16 


19 


20 


15 


19 


15 


27 


21 


21 


26 


707 


.33 



76 



FOETT-SIXTH REGISTEATION REPOET. [1898. 

Table X. — Contimied. 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



1853. 



1854. 



1855. 1856. 



1857. 



1858. 



1859. 



IV. 



Group 2. 



1. Paramenia. 

2. Childbirth. 



Group 3. 



1. Old Age. 



Group 4. 
1. Atrophy and Debility 



Group 1. 
(Accidents or Nbgligbnce.) 

1. Fractures and Contusions* 

2. Burns and Scalds 

3. Drowning 

4. Falls 

5. Poison 

6. Suffocation and Strangulation 

7. Otherwise 



Group 2. 



1. Battle. 



Group 3. 



1. Homicide. 



Group 4. 



1. Suicide. 



Causes ill-defined. 



Causes not stated . 



58 



18 



28 



15 



100 



47 



131 



169 



58 



119 



53 



292 



24 



114 



117 



30 14 



258 



296 



22 



* Includes railroad accidents. 



1898. I CAUSES OF DEATH. 77 

Causes of Deaths Reyistered in lihode Island. 



I860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1868. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1878. 


1874. 


1875. 


1870. 






1 




2 


























13 


19 


22 


21 


21 


IS 


24 


26 


22 


27 


28 


34 


30 


29 


44 


85 


30 


IIG 


132 


143 


101 


193 


152 


178 


188 


200 


217 


204 


232 


823 


254 


223 


216 


241 


52 


02 


47 


40 


42 


47 


42 


41 


41 


52 


50 


58 


09 


84 


79 


90 


78 














12 


8 


8 





9 


12 


15 


16 


16 


12 


10 


24 


21 


14 


10 


12 


10 


18 


10 


16 


15 


12 


12 


12 


14 


23 


17 


12 


82 


29 


29 


21 


20 


20 


27 


23 


20 


24 


30 


24 


29 


86 


89 


35 


37 














17 


14 


18 


21 


19 


25 


18 


15 


12 


20 


12 


7 


9 


2 


1 


3 


2 





2 




4 


4 


2 


1 


5 


5 


6 


4 


1 


3 


3 


1 


1 


1 
















4 


6 


5 


9 


55 


31 


43 

7 


71 
3 


C4 
2 


51 
1 


39 

1 


39 


35 


35 


33 


31 


51 


55 


87 


47 


47 


4 


3 


1 


5 


2 




1 


5 




2 


5 




2 


8 


4 


8 


4 


12 


12 


8 


13 


6 


12 


11 


15 


18 


15 


27 


19 


18 


8 


18 


26 


18 


37 


18 


21 


20 


34 


40 


33 


30 


48 


51 


59 


43 


87 


70 


57 


56 


32 


188 


202 


188 


817 


209 


807 


171 


195 


288 


800 


137 


849 


376 


217 


152 


20T 


813 



78 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 

Table X. — Continued. 



[1898. 



CAUSES OP DEATH. 



1877. 1878. 



1879. 1880. 



1881. 



1882. 



1883. 



IV. 



V. 



Geotjp 2. 



1. Paramenia. 

2. Childbirth.. 



Geoup 3. 



1. Old Age. 



Group 4. 
1 . Atrophy and Debility, 



Gboup 1. 
(Accidents or Negligence.) 

1. Fractures and Contusions* 

3. Burns and Scalds 

3. Drowning 

4. Falls 

5. Poison 

6. Suffocation and Strangulation 

7. Otherwise 



Group 3. 



1. Battle. 



Group 3. 



1. Homicide. 



Group 4. 



1. Suicide. 



Causes ill-defined. 



Causes not stated. 



89 



22 



56 



198 



26 



210 



254 



36 



38 



107 



82 



22 



283 



106 



275 



130 



46 



233 



45 



347 



25 



22 



186 



* Includes railroad accidents. 



1898.J CAUSKS OF DEATH. 79 

Causes of DecUJis Registered in Rhode Island. 

































Total *iid Pnt- 


1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1898. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


CBNTAOI 
rOB 45 YEIM, 

1853-1)197. 


4 


2 




1 








1 


2 








4 


3 




23 


.01 


35 


26 


31 


28 


33 


27 


26 


22 


45 


50 


62 


40 


40 


45 


49 


1.278 


.61 


293 


267 


276 


278 


290 


227 


198 


185 


256 


183 


187 


197 


20C 


159 


161 


! 9,125 


4.35 


126 


122 


136 


146 


159 


231 


240 


217 


241 


191 


73 


85 


87 


94 


50 


1 
3,821 


1.82 


16 


15 


20 


47 


33 


48 


57 


59 


89 


25 


19 


36 








694 


.33 


20 


19 


23 


17 


27 


20 


20 


18 


21 


26 


28 


28 


25 


41 


21 


781 


.37 


41 


42 


58 


39 


46 


52 


71 


52 


48 


47 


52 


61 


39 


40 


60 


1,521 


.72 


31 


25 


19 


17 


18 


31 


32 


21 


33 


25 


28 


57 


48 


64 


58 


768 


.37 


8 


9 


6 


7 


12 


7 


n 


16 


23 


14 


6 


8 


8 


7 


8 


284 


.14 


11 


10 


10 


14 


8 


9 


12 


17 


26 


14 


21 


22 


24 


22 


19 


313 


.15 


70 


58 


58 


65 


46 


49 


47 


50 


69 


113 


80 


81 


152 


89 


130 


2,342 
14 


1.12 
.01 


2 


3 


2 


2 


5 


3 


o 


1 


4 


3 


9 





2 


12 


13 


137 


.06 


22 


20 


17 


16 


21 


24 


19 


40 


19 


21 


45 


31 


88 


41 


46 


823 


.39 


19 


57 


39 


85 


46 


49 


45 


35 


34 


31 


2 


31 


46 


20 


24 


1,680 


.80 


42 


59 


51 


19 


28 


39 


43 


84 


28 


68 


55 


52 


29 


25 


20 


7,468 


3.56 



80 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES OF DECEDENTS. 

Shoivijig the Number and Occupation of Decedents for the year 

1898, and for a period of Forty-Six Years and Seven Months, 

1852 to 1898, inclusive. {Ages under Tiventy excluded.) 





State of Rhode Island. 




J 898. 


Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1898. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


^ O 


<D 

Is . 
51) CD 

ki be 
< 






■^ . 




I. 

Tillers of the Soil. 
Farmers , 


173 

2 

12 


12,218 

94 

701 


70.62 
47.00 

58.42 


6,883 

60 

294 


462,054 

3,302 

17,250 


67.13 


Florists 


55.03 


Gardeners 


58.67 






Total 


187 
1 


13,013 

48 


69.59 
48.00 


7,237 

15 

1 

15 

38 

7 

1 

7 

2 

1 

52 

267 

1 

3 

43 

22 

14 

13 

15 

15 


482,606 

522 

23 

871 

1,954 

455 
25 

477 

' 65 

58 

2,587 

17,045 

44 

173 

2,247 

1,117 

473 

492 

792 

991 


66.69 


II. 

Professional and Per- 
sonal. 

Actors 

Aeronauts 


34.80 
23.00 


Architects 


1 
1 

2 


68 

72 

153 


68.00 
72.00 

76.50 


58.07 


Artists 

Assayers and Analytical 
Chemists 


51.42 

65.00 


Athletes 


25.00 


Authors , . 








68.14 


Ball Players 








32.50 


Chiropodists 








58.00 


Civil Engineers 

Clersrvmen 


2 
19 
1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
1 
5 


83 

1,221 

44 

70 

120 

115 

93 

43 

289 


41.50 
64.26 
44.00 
70.00 
40.00 
57.50 
46.50 
43.00 
57.80 


49.75 
63.84 


Couriers 

Dancing Masters 

Dentists 


44.00 
57.67 
52.26 


Designers 


50.77 


Draughtsmen 

Electricians 


33.79 

37.85 


Inspectors 


52.80 


Inventors 


66.07 




' 









1898.] OCCUPATIONS AND AOKS AT nEATH. 81 

Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Coutiuued. 





State of Rhode Island. 




1898. 


Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 1852, to Dec. 81, 1898. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


Si 

^1 


to 

< 


< 


^1 


as . 
bnco 

< 


0) 
CS O) 

< 


Journalists (Editors and 

Keporters) 

Judg-es and Justices 

Lawyers 


3 
1 
5 


141 
66 

272; 


47.00 
66.00: 
54.40^ 


43 

16 

176 

2 

75 
14 

27 

323 

2 

144 

87 

3 

1 

2 

130 

3 

83 

24 
3 

8 

7 


2,009 
1,047 
9,918 

108 
3,592 

743 

1,258 

19,347 

68 

7,139 

5,195 

152 

60 

80 

7,197 

131 

1,895 

731 
147 
372 

478 


46.72 
65.44 
56.35 


Tjftptnvevs 


54.00 


Musicians 

Nurses 


3 


158| 


52.67 


47.89 
53.07 


Photog-raphers and Litlio- 
orapliers 


2 
7 
1 
3 

1 


95 
419 

28 
197 

63 


47.50 
59.86 
28.00 
65.671 
63.00 


46.59 


Physicians 


59.90 


Postmasters 


34.00 


Professors and Teachers. . 

Public Officers 

Publishers 


49.58 
59.71 
50.67 


Scientists . 




: 


60.00 


Sculptors 




1 1 


40.00 


Sheriffs and Policemen. . . . 
Steno^'raphersi 


3 


160 


53.33 


55.36 
43.67 


Students 


2 


'59 


29.50 


22.83 


Telephone and Telegraph 
Operators 


30.46 


Treasurers 






49.00 


Veterinary Surgeons. . . . 




1 


46.50 




1 
73 

5 
2 
4 


80 


80.00 


68.29 


Total 


4,157 

297 

88 
269 


56.95 

59.40 
44.00 
67.25 


1,705 

221 

21 

13 

6 

148 

6i] 

47 

3 

9 

; 294 


92,078 

11,439 
1,151 


54.00 


III. 

Optional Activity. 

Agents and Canvassers. . . . 
Ins\irance 


51.76 
54.81 


Real Estate 


832 64.00 


Auctioneers 


274' 45.67 


Bankers and Brokers 

Bank Officers 


1 ^ 
1 

3 


243 

76 
90 


, 60.75 
76.00 

30.00 

i 


8,762 59.20 
4,248j 64.36 


Bartenders 


l,709i 36.36 


BodlvSPI lf>l'S 


2131 71.00 


Bottlers 


1 

C 


41 

348 


41.00 
58.00 


314i 34.89 


Butchers and Marketmen. . 


15,142 


!l 51.50 



83 rOETT-SIXTH KEGISTEATION EEPOET. [1898. 

Table XI.-OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Continued. 







State of 


Rhode Island. 




1898. 


Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1898. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


>> 

P 

i-i O 


? • 

s: Ml 






bS) 


C^ IX) 

t><l 


Carriage Dealers 








2 

12 

4 

21 

3 

4 

5 

3 

13 

2 

122 

16 

3 

20 

1 

12 

2 

1 

14 

26 

20 

116 

110 

6 

449 

175 

196 

73 

39 

3 

12 

643 

1,306 

6 

6 

- 1 

19 

98 
5 


113 

684 
207 

1,261 
175 
239 
316 
132 
714 
81 

5,542 
895 
179 

1,140 

48 

623 

152 

56 

803 

1,497 
880 

6,870 

8,019 

241 

24,415 

9,569 

9,054 

3,970 

2,007 

151 

530 

39,333 

76,714 

338 

402 

24 

830 

4,559 

318 


56.50 


Coal and Wood 


1 

2 
1 
1 


75 

139 

42 

43 


75.00 
69.50 
42.00 
43.00 


57.00 


Dry Goods 


51.75 


Fish and Oyster 

Furniture 


60.05 
58.33 


Grain 


59.75 


Hardware 


2 


155 


77.50 


63.20 


Ice 


44.00 


Junk ... 








54.92 


Leather 








40.50 


Liquor 


7 
1 


334 
63 


47.71 
63.00 


45.43 


Lumber 


55.94 


News 


59.67 


Provision 


2 


128 


64.00 


57.00 


Rubber 


48.00 


Shoe 

Stove 


2 


64 


32.00 


51.92 

76.00 


W^ool Waste 








56.00 


Clothiers 








57.36 


Collectors 

Commercial Travelers 

Contractors and Builders . 
Drug-gists and Apotheca- 
ries 


1 

4 

7 

5 


81 
187 
495 

239 


81.00 
46.75 
70.71 

47.80 


57.58 
44.00 
59.22 

72.90 


Fruiterers 


40.17 


Grocers 


15 

6 
5 
5 

7 


846 
314 
211 

278 
319 


56.40 
52.33 
42.20 
55.60 
45.57 


54.38 


Hotel and Innkeepers 

Saloon and Restaurant . . 

Stable 

Store 


54.68 
46.19 
54.38 
51.46 


Ice-cream Makers 


60.33 


Mail Carriers 








44.17 


Merchants 


21 

48 


1,394 
2,893 


66.38 
60.27 


61.17 

58.74 




56.33 


Organ and Piano Tuners . . 








67.00 


Policy Brokers 








24.00 


Pork and Meat Cutters and 
Packers 


3 
5 


117 

284 


39.00 

56.80 


43.68 


Railroad Ofl&cials 

Ship Chandlers 


46.52 
63.60 



J 898. J OCCUPATIONS AND AGES AT UKATif. 83 

Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Continued. 





State of Rhode Island. 




1898. 


Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1896. 


Of'CCJPATIONS. 




Is 

< 


bo . 
< 




Is 

< 


« 

< 


Tobacconists 








14 


830| 59.29 


Tradei-s 

Undertakers 


1 

3 


71 
234 


71.66 

78.00 


283 
49 


14,259i 50.39 
2,927 59.73 


Total 

lY. 

GuTDOOE.— Zom^. 

Boat Builders 

Briekmakers 


181 
3 


10,458 
212 


57.78 

70.67 



4,743 

29 

8 

13 


265,181 

1,770 
352 
611 


55.91 

61.03 
44.00 


Brick and Stone Layers. . . 








47.00 


Calkers 

Carpenters and Joiners . . . 
Masons 


1 
86 
35 

1 


74 
5,365 
2,064 

69 


74.00 
62.38 
58.97 


14 

2,151 

905 


977 69.79 

120,240 55.85 

50,507' 55.81 

2,464 66.59 


Milhvriglits 


69.00 37 


Pavers 




3 

22 

6 

79 
9 

292 

1 


129, 43.00 








...... I 


1,254 57.00 


Roofers 






1 


332 55.33 


Ship Carpenters 

Slaters 


1 


67 


67.00 


5,476 69.32 
398 44.22 


Stonecutters and Marble 
Workers 

"wavs 


17 


923 


54.29 


1 
14,174 48.54 

79 79.79 


Tanners and Curriers 

Wheelwrights 


5 
4 


341 

254 


68.20 
63.50 


56 
112 


3,536! 63.14 
6,775 60.49 


Total 

V. 

I-SBOOH.—ActiL'e. 
Axe and Scythe Grinders 


153 


9,369 


61.24 


3,737 
4 


209,074 
222 


53.27 
55.50 


Bakers 

Basket Makers 

Belt 


14 
1 


654 
'"'84 


46.71 
84.66. 


159 

7 

13 


10,468' 
404 
760, 


65.84 
57.71 
58.46 



84 FOETY-SIXTH KEGISTRATIOlSr REPOET. [1898. 

Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



State or Rhode Island. 



1898. 





(a 










f^ 


^1 


Ho 




SltKC 


S 


< 






Bobbin Makers -. 

Boiler 

Bolt 

Broom and Brush 

Button 

Cabinet . . . 

Card 

Carriage, and Trimmers . 

Chair 

Comb 

Mattress 

Pattern 

Pianoforte 

Picker 

Plane 

Pump and Block 

Eeed 

Sash and Blind 

Scythe 

Spindle 

Stopper • 

Stove, and Mounters 

Tool 

Trunk 

Umbrella 

Wringer 

Beamers 

Bell Hangers , 

Blacksmiths and Farriers , 
Bleachers and Fullers.. . . , 

Bonnet Dressers 

Brewers 

Britannia Workers , 

Calico Printers 

Car Builders 

Stair 

Carders , 

Card Grinders 

Carvers 

Confectioners 

Cooks and Caterers , 



53 

149 



255 

"'82 



27 
4 



135 



126 



1,404 
250 



1 
13 



81 
45 



71 
731 



53.00 
49.67 



63.75 

82.66 



67.50 



63.00 



52.00 
62.50 



40.50 
45.00 



71.00 
56.23 



Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1898. 



Eh o 



611<| 



3 


143 


75 


3,153 


1 


41 


15 


743 


1 


37 


138 


8,017 


4 


201 


74 


4,081 


1 


70 


5 


187 


1 


38 


81 


4,746 


3 


157 


5 


303 


1 


79 


14 


788 


6 


352 


9 


440 


1 


83 


5 


297 


1 


22 


5 


245 


30 


• 1,587 


3 


89 


2 


103 


1 


32 


2 


59 


2 


47 


696 


37,691 


68 


3,458 


2 


73 


20 


978 


1 


65 


57 


3,106 


1 


57 


4 


219 


7 


378 


3 


138 


3 


147 


43 


2,018 


110 


5,325 



S3 (D 

< 



47.67 
42.04 
41.00 
49.53 
37.00 
58.09 
50.25 
55.15 
70.00 
37.40 
38.00 
58.59 
52.33 
60.06 
79.00 
55.71 
58.67 
48.89 
83.00 
59.40 
22.00 
49.00 
52.90 
29.67 
51.50 
32.00 
29.50 
23.50 
54.15 
50.85 
36.50 
48.90 
65.00 
54.49 
57.00 
54.75 
54.00 
46.00 
49.00 
46.93 
48.41 



1898.] OCCUPATION'S AN'D A«KS AT DKATIf. 85 

Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Coutinued. 







State or Rhode Island. 






1888. 


Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months. 
Jane 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1898. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


^1 


1 

< 


>< ! 
< 


la 

E- 




< 


>< 
< 


Coopers 

Coppersniitbs 


3 


147 


i 

49.00 


129 

14 

7 

12 

14 

1 

136 

10 

8 

12 

4 

61 

11 

24 

1 26 

6 

14 

1 

6 

1,643 

496 

9 

15 

338 

935 

24 

53 
3 
5 
3 
115 
6 
4 
3 
1 
7 


5 
7 
7 


8,490 

844 

344 

490 

526 

77 

6,931 

381 

472 

687 

195 

2,696 

449 

1,314 

1,400 

219 

633 

47 

240 

80,058 

26,119 

500 

836 

15,63C 

45,078 

1,251 

2,51 C 

193 

32C 

12J 

4,551 

261 

, 12c 

1 153 

76 

311 

llr 

353 

29-2 


65.81 
60.29 


Cutters 








49.14 


Xail 








40.83 


Decora toi-s 

Distillei-s 


1 


32 


32.00 


37.57 
77.00 


Dvei's 


5 


271 


54.20 


50.96 


Fouiitlers 


50.64 


Brass aiicl Iron 






1 


59.00 


Fountli'TiueD 








57.25 


Furnacemeii 








48.75 


Oastitters 


2 


124 


62.66 


44.20 


Gilders 


40.82 


GuD and Loeksinitlis 








54.75 


Hatters 








53.85 


Heaters 


1 
2 


39 

85 


39.66 
42.50 


36.50 


Iron Eollers and Workers . 


45.21 

47.00 


Lathers 








40.00 


Alaoliinists 


71 
11 

1 


3,802 

618 

64 


53.55 
56.18 
64.00 


48.73 


Alecbanics 


52.66 


Melters 


55.56 


Aliners 


55.80 


Painters and Glaziers 

Paperhangei-s 

Plasterei-s a n d Stucco- 
Platers 


15 

39 

1 


706 

1,881 
47 

50 


47.67 
48.23 
47.00 

50.00 


46.24 
48.21 
52.12 

47.36 
64.33 


Gold 


2 


108 


54.00 


64.00 
41.33 




11 


406 


36.91 


39.57 


Pressmen 


43.50 


Retinei's 


1 


36 


36.00 


\ 30.00 


Gold 


51.00 


Oil j.... 


76.00 


Susrar 1 . . . . 


1 




44.43 


Scissoi"S Grinders 






57.50 


Soap Boilei"S - 






t 70.60 








! 41.71 


Stove Mauufactui'ers 




1 




1 59.43 




' 







86 FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOlSr REPORT. [1898. 

Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Continued. 





State of Rhode Island. 




1898. 


Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1898. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


E-io 


< 


Si 


Ho 


£ bo 
SJO<ri 


Ml . 

>< 
< 


Superintendents and Over- 
seers 


26 


1,350 


51.92 


344 

4 

134 

56 

14 

4 

7 

46 


18,988 

322 

6,337 

2,244 

604 

149 

383 

1,901 


55.20 


Tallow Chandlers 


80.50 


Tinsmiths 


7 
1 
3 


431 
26 
91 


61.57 
26.00 
30.33 


47.29 


Upholsterers 


40.07 


Wire-workers 


43.14 


Wood-carvers 


37.25 


Finishers 








54.71 


Turners 


1 


59 


59.00 


41.32 






Total 


281 
6 


14,493 
240 


51.58 
40.00 


6,473 

249 
26 

424 

18 

1 

5 

107 

40 

131 

7 

25 

38 

621 

14 

1,253 

3 

1 

21 

7 

139 

92 

1 


328,277 

8,575 
1,203 

19,073 

814 

66 

261 

4,858 

2,219 

6,591 

389 

1,672 

2,207 

35,974 

518 

47,333 

175 

34 

1,016 

414 

6,711 

3,774 

40 


50.71 


YI. 

Indoor. — Activity Restric- 
ted. 

Barbers 


34.44 


Bookbinders 


46.27 


Bookkeepers and Account- 
ants 


19 


970 


51.05 


44.98 


Box Makers 


45.22 


Braid 








66.00 


Chain 








52.20 


Cigar 


1 
2 
3 


41 
104 
192 


41.00 
52.00 
64.00 


45.40 


Clock and Watch . 

Harness, and Saddlers . . 
Paper 


55.47 
50.31 

55.57 


Bope 








66.88 


Sail 








58.08 


Shoe 


16 


1,026 


64.12 


57.93 


Chasers 


37.00 


Clerks and Salesmen 

Compositors 


49 
2 
1 


2,006 

100 

34 


40.94 
50.00 
34.00 


37.78 
58.33 


Die Cutters 


34.00 


Sinkers 


48.38 


Enamelers 








59.14 


Engravers 


4 
3 


265 
138 


66.25 
46.00 


48.28 


File Cutters 


41.02 


Forgers 


40.00 



1898.] OCCUPATIONS AND AGES AT DEATH. 87 

Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Continued. 





Statb of Rhode Island. 




1898. 


Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1898. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


E-io 


as . 

< 


ID 
M . 

>< 

< 




la . 

< 


^ . 

>< 

< 


Finishers 


4 
1 


177 
53 


44.25 
53.00 


17 

6 

1 

1,096 

3 

1 

11 

13 

3 

48 

2,536 

3 

3b 

1 

1 

1 

208 

1 

32 

1 168 

125 

440 

60 


840i 49.41 


Brass 


283' 47 17 


Glass Blowers 


57 57.00 


JeAvelers 


64 


2,997 


46.83 


45,552: 41.56 
182 fiOfi? 


Shell 


Knitters 


1 


21 


21.00 


21 

362 

414 

224 

2,739 

111,835 

122 

1,336 

62 

23 

42 

11,878 

70 

1,852 

7,021 

5,592 

24,311 

2,851 


21.00 


Lajiidaries 


32.91 


Laiindrynieu .... 

Leather Dressers 


2 


52 


26.00 


31.84 
74.61 


Millers 

Operatives 


1 
103 


3i 

4,898 


31.00 
47.55 


57.06 
44 10 


Pearl Cutters 


40 67 


Polishers 


2 


54 


27.00 


44 53 


Marble 


62 00 


Silver 








23 00 


Steel 






42 00 


Printers 


8 
1 


360 
70 


45.00 
70.00 


57 11 


Proofreaders. . . . 


70 00 


Poll Coverers 


57 87 




8 

3 

17 

5 


350 
183 
997 
230 


43.75 
61.00 
58.65 
46.00 


41 79 


Silversmiths 


44 74 


Tailors 


55 25 


T\'^ool Sorters. 


47 52 






Total 


326 
2 


15,589 
126 


47.82 
63.00 


8,028 

8 
4 
2 

29 

120 

2 

54 

41 
200 


361,5861 4.fi n4 


VII. 

Occupations At Large. 
Army Officers 


3,346 


41 82 


Ba<:f prage-masters 


124' 31.00 


Bill Posters 


1 


• 42 


42.00 


101 .^n ^0 


Boatmen 


1,673 

3,532 

57 

2,395 

1,568 


50.14 


Brakemen 


10 


318 


31.80 


29.43 


Butlers 


28.50 


Car Drivers, Conductors, 
and Motormen 


1 

3 
13 


59 

138 
626 


59.00 

46.00 
48.15 


44.35 
.S8 24 


Coachmen 


8,740 4.3.70 









FOETT-SIXTH EEGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



State of Rhode Island. 



6e<! 

61) 



Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 185S, to Dec. 31, 1898. 



Ui ho 



Drivers 

Drovers 

Elevator Operators 

Engineers and Firemen . . . 

Expressmen 

Fire Company Members . . 
Fishermen and Oystermen 

Highway Surveyors 

Hostlers 

House Movers 

Icemen 

Janitors 

Laborers 

Lamplighters 

Linemen 

Lumbermen 

Mail Carriers 

Mariners 

Messengers 

Milkmen 

Naval Officers 

Peddlers 

Pilots 

Porters 

Sailors .... 

Scissors Grinders 

Sea-captains or Ship-mas- 
ters 

Servants 

Sextons 

Sinkers of Artesian Wells . 

Soldiers 

Stage Drivers 

Stevedores 

Stewards 

Switchmen, Gatemen, etc.. 

Teamsters 

Theatre Managers. . 

Waiters 

Watchmen 

Well Diggers 



243 



27 
4 
2 

11 



1,607 
232 
117 
583 



10 
3 



395 

188 



9 

359 

2 

1 



544 

18,114 

131 

42 



134 



142 



287 



2 

14 

1 



61 

729 

72 

468 
24 



244 



2 

32; 

2 
10; 



105 

58 

1,468 

59 

61 

650 



34.71 



59.52 
58.00 
58.50 
53.00 



39.50 
62.67 



60.44 
50.46 
65.50 
42.00 



44.67 



71.00 



71.75 



30.50 
52.07 
72.00 

58.50 
24.00 



30.50 



52.50 
58.00 
45.87 
59.00 
30.50 
65.00 



44 
2 
1 

444 

103 

8 

257 

1 

142 

9 

5 

91 

10,361 

20 

10 

2 

5 

529 

2 

17 

19 

176 

22 

49 

291 

1 

188 

28 

12 

3 

151 

8 

16 

25 

20 

643 

2 

123 

178 

4 



1,645 

83 

79 

21,890 

5,265 

334 

13,199 

61 

6,144 

611 

324 

4,851 

513,042 

1,109 

491 

153 

241 

26,373 

105 

545 

941 

8,812 

1,197 

2,272 

13,998 

72 

12,534 

1,196 

751 

163 

4,657 

398 

766 

1,169 

1,088 

30,025 

102 

5,000 

10,137 

295 



1898. 



OCCUrATIONS ASM) AGES AT DKATII. 



89 



Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Continued. 





State op Rhode Island. 




1898. 


Forty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 1852, to Dec. 81, 1898. 


OCCUPATIONS. 




ID 
< 


® 

< 


Ho 


® 
< 


<5 


Whitew<aRliei's 








8 
5 


452 

239 


56.50 


AVood Sawyers 








47.80 




556 








Total 


28,067 


50.48 


14,485 

3 
1 
5 
2 
5 
1 
1 
1 
4 
8 
373 

26 
1 

15 

35 
1 

49 
2 
2 

16 

' 16 

1 

45 
2 
2 

58 

4 

117 

1,037 

11 
1 


714,345 

112 

59 

276 

149 

150 

34 

66 

28 

152 

243 

15,099 

1,626 

60 

460 

994 

28 

2,638 

124 

55 

456 

699 

49 

2,241 

102 

128 

2,063 

125 

6,945 

32,723 

647 

28 


49.32 


VIII. 

Employments of Women. 
Actresses 


37.33 


Ag'ents 








59.00 


Artists 

Basket Makers 


1 


55 


55.00 


55.20 
74.50 


Box 








30.00 


Broom and Brush 








34.00 


Braid 








66.00 


Cap 








28.00 


Chaiu 








38.00 


Cig-ar 

Dress, and Seamstresses. 
Boardiiigbouse Keepers. . . 
Boatwomeu 


1 

15 

1 


40 

474 

66 


40.00 
31.60 
66.00 


30.37 
40.48 
62.54 
60.00 










30.66 


Clerks and Saleswomen . . . 

Compositors 

Cooks 


5 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 


135 

28 
130 
58 
30 
80 


27.00 
28.00 
65.00 
58.00 
30.00 
40.00 


28.40 
28.00 
53.84 


Farming- 

Hairdressers 


62.00 
27.50 


Jewelers 


28.50 


Laboring" 


43.69 


Lace Knitters 








49.00 


Laundresses 

Matrons 


3 


162 


54.00 


49.80 
51.00 


Midwives 








64.00 


Milliners 


2 


100 


50.00 


35.67 


Musicians 


31,25 


Nurses. 


6 
33 


32i 
1,118 


53.50 
33.88 


59.36 


Operatives . . 


31.56 


Physicians 


58.82 


Postmistresses 


1 


28 


28.00 


28.00 



1? 



90 FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 

Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Public Officers 

Rubber- workers 

Servants 

Sisters of Mercy 

Stenographers 

Stewardesses 

Storekeepers 

Superintendents 

Tailoresses 

Teachers 

Telegraph and Telephone 

Operators 

Type-setters 

Upholsterers 

Waitresses 



Total 



State of Rhode Island. 



1898. 



e o 



be™ 



<1 



11 
1 
1 
1 



466 
36 
20 
76 



356 



58 



96, 3,837 



42.36 
36.00 
20.00 
76.00 



59.33 



58.00 



39.97 



rorty-Six Years and Seven 

Months, 
June 1, 1852, to Deo. 31, 1898. 



2 

20 

549 

33 

1 

2 

2 

2 

149 

242 

6 

1 

1 

10 



110 

589 

26,273 

1,258 

20 

114 

99 

126 

6,935 

12,357 

166 
58 
34 

291 



2,865 116,989 






55.00 
29.45 
47.86 
38.12 
20.00 
57.00 
49.50 
63.00 
46.54 
51.06 

27.67 
58.00 
34.00 
29.10 



40.87 



1898.] OCCUrATTONS and ages at DEATir. 91 

Table XI.— OCCUPATIONS AND AGES.— (Recapitulation.) 





State of Ruodk Island. 




1898. 


Forty Si.x Years and Seven 

Months. 
June 1, 1852, to Dec. 31, 1898. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


















« 

a,* 
< 


o 

M . 

i| 
>< 
< 


E-i o 


<; 


< 


I. 














Tillers of the Soil 


187 


13,013 


69.59 


7,237 


482,606 


66.69 


II. 














Professional & Personal 


73 


4,157 


56.95 


1,705 


92,078 


54.00 


III. 














Optional Activity 


181 


10,458 


57.78 


4,743 


265,181 


55.91 


rv. 














OuTDOO-R.—Zoeal 


153 


9,369 


61.24 


3,737 


209,074 


53.27 


V. 














Indoor. — Active 


281 


14,493 51.58' 


6,473 


328,277 


50.71 


VI. 










Indoor. — A ctivity Restric- 
ted 


326 


15,589 


47.82 


8,028 


361,586 


45.04 


VII. 










Occupations At Large. . . 


556 


28,067 


50.48 


14,485 


714,345 


49.32 


VIII. 














Employments of Women . 


96 


3,837 


39.97 


2,865 

! 


116,989 


40.87 


Alt, Classes 


1,853 


98,983 


53.42 


49,273 


2,570,136 52.16 



92 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. 



[li 





■sisoinoaaqnjj 


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: 1 ^ 








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1-1 


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■■BirasBoiidas 


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O 

O 

o 
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Tillers of the Soil. 

Farmers 


c 


03 
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1 
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II. 

Professional and Per- 
sonal. 

Actors 


-5 


m 

< 



1898.] 



OCCUPAflOltS A-iiD CAUSKS OF DEATtt. 



93 



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, 






















■ 


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• 






















• 


IBUBIBK 'SJaA3^ 






• 




















iH 


• 


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• 






















iH 


■^sdGiida 
































•snpa^ua 






• 


























•ssdoja 






• 


























■Aia%u9si(l puB BaoqjjBia: 
































■saiaqBia 
































' -iililjqaa: 












— 




















•nojjdoinBnoo 






(N 


tH 




tH 


i-H 


tH 








•jaonBO 






(M 








— 


— 














; sniqonoja 






1 


- 


- 


— 


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- 


;- 


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1 -JO s9SBas!a: 'niBjg 




iH 


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i sasBaBiQ pAiog 






tH 
























i JO sasBesiQ 'JappBia 






• 
























•BtUq^BV 






1 
























! -siBiJiBJBd poB ^xajdodv 




T-4 CO 


iH 








(M 


tH rH <n 


■insiioqoojv 




• • • 


• cq 








• • • 


■Bjuaptoov 




• • iH 


• • lH 




(M . . . 


•jequinK QioqAi 


<N (M Ot iH tH (M (M (>» iH »0 CO tH CO 00 (M 


OCCUPATIONS. 


< 
£•1 

>: a 

ccr 


; 

• c 

: c 


ii 

' a 

H r— 


3 
t's: 


• a 
. ^ 

. a 
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. 

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:^ 

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i !■ 
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3 

3 -J 

3 ;: 
3 a 


^ c 
3 a 


• a 
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3 

is 


3 c 

5k 


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:@ 
Mi 


• a 

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■ -C 

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1— 




3 

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3 

3 

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! 

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1^ 


■ 6 '. 
:a : 

'■■■% ; 

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3 ." S 



u 



fOilTY-SIXTH RJlGiSTHATlOlir RllPOEt. 



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X 

EH 



•stsoinoaeqiix 
















- 


— 










• 


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1 


•sasBasia qo'Bnio^s 


















cq 








rH 


•"Biniaeoi^dGS 




























•msi:^'Bmn9qa; 




























•Binoraneud 




iH 


tH iH 






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■&SUU9ld 






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■snino^ijaj 


















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•sasBasid J9A11 










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^ G<l i-l 






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cq 










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rH 




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7-^ 




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•uoj^dninsnoo 


















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•si^iqonoag 


















}r^ 










•JO sasBasid 'ureag 


















oq 










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rH 










•JO s8SB9sia 'aappBia 


















-- 






<M 




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iH 






rH 






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• 






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rH 






1 






lO 






• 


•jaqranjsE eioqj^ 


lO 1-1 CO iH CO (M iH 


00 li: 

CO 


Cq Tfl CO rH 


iz 

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P 
O 

o 
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P- 


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1 
1 


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a: 

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PL 


a 
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p 
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1898. 



OCCn'ATIONS ANM) CAUSKS OF [)I;ATII. 



95 



•Bisoinojaqnj, 



•opjoins 



•sasuosjci HDBiuois 



t Biuiaioiidas 



'tnsiiBumaqH 



'eiuomnaud 



XsiJnaiti 



•sniuo^jjaa 



■aSy pio 



sasBasitl jaAii 



sasBasjci XanpiNi 



XiiuBsni 



Bzuanmii 



sasuasici laBaH 



<M • 1-t ^ 



o^a 'pioqdiJx 'saaAa^ 



IBUBiBj^ 'saaA3^ 



■SBiadisXaa 



•Xsdanda 



siii-iajna 



AsdoJCE 



•XjajuasiQ! P^b uaoqjjBici 



•saiaqBio; 



•Ji^inqaa 



•uoi^doinsnoo 



■jaonB.) 



suiqoao.ia 



•JO sasBasiQ 'inBjg 



•sasuasja laAiog 



•JO sasBasiCE 'aappBig 



••Btaqjsv 



•sisXiBJBd puB Xxajdodv 



•cusnoqooiv 



•sjnapioay 



■jaqrariK aioq^ 



eOrH<X>iH<MTHTH<>»b-r-l(N<MiH'*CD 






c3 O 



o . 
r:i O T.Q 

,'^ a 3 ~ 

MO 






2 _© 






o 



OQ 



t: -u cc © cj 

;: ;:: ;3 -rH --^ 



o 

o 



96 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIGlSr REPORT. 



[1898. 



n3 

a 
o 
Q 



CO 
00 



w 
-"I 

p 

o 

O 
ft 

<i 
o 

I— I 
<! 

p 

Q 

o 
o 



Hi 



•sisoinojgqnx 


























:| 


■appms 




















1 'H 
1 


•sasBasio; qoBrao^y 












i-H 










cq 


•T3itnseoi;d8s 
























■rasuBninaqa 












• 












■Binorananj 






t— 1 


CO CO 










CD 
iH 


•Isune^j 










1 1 












•spjao^iied 










"(M^~ 


— 


— 






~a 




•asy PIO 










rH 




•sasBasjo: .laAiT; 




rH 




G<J (73 










00 


•sasBasia jS8upi3 




tH <?q 


^ U5 (M 








CO 
(M 


■A'^mvsui 




• • tH • iH 










CO 


•Bznangni 




• • • . 1-1 










(M 


■sasB9sia: ^JB8H 


(M iH iH r-l CO <:0 


C^ iH iH 


00 
CM 


•0^3 'pioqdj£x 'saaA8^ 
























•I-BiatiiBM 'saaAa^j 




























■sBpdisAja 
•jSsdaxjda 
•sijua^ng; 






























— 


— 


— 


-^ 




























CM 


• 


•jSsdojo; 
























! ! 


•iaa^aasia puB 'eaoqjj'Bia: 












cq 










CO 


•sajaqTJTcr 












i-H 










CO 


•^qinqsa 






















• 


•uoi^duinsnoo 




(M 


<M 


<M rH tH 






iH 


•aaouBO 






T-l tH iH iH 










O rH 
iH 


•si^iqoaoaa 






















•JO sasBosia 'niBja 










1-H i-H 










»o 


•sasBasjo: pM.oa 












iH 










iH 


•JO sasuasjo: '.lapp^ia 








J 




CO 






iH 


CO 


•Bnimsv 












1 












•siSi^i'Ba'Bj puB j^xe^dodv 


CO 




<?q lo CO 








_ 


CO (M 
(M 


•msjioqooiv 






• • (M 








•s^napioov 


1-i 




• • (M 


iH 






lO 


•jaqnin^ QIoqAi 


<X>»OlOt-THCOCO-*i-ICO 


lO CO 
tH 


OCCUPATIONS. 


so 

5h 
03 

53 

a 
a 

M 
o3 

r-H 

c 


Ph 

o 
a: 


3 

GC 


C 


-t-= 
a 

i 


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a 
a 

o 

0) 


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-+=1 

fl 
03 

O 

Ph 


O 

O 

f- 

Ph 


c3 


m 

0) 

c3 

fH 
0) 




'a 
-1-2 
O 


ly. 

Outdoor.— Z/ocaZ. 
Boat Builders 



1898.] 



OCCUl'ATIONS AND CAUSES OF DEATH. 



97 



■8|soinojaqiix 


— 


. 












: 








•epjojns 


iH 












rH . • < 




'sa6ti9g|Q qoBoio^s 




i-l 












1 rH iH < 




■B|aia80iid9S 




1 












1 : : 




•msjiBuinaqH 




■ r-{ 










1 ^ : 




-Biaoninaaj 




t- Ui 




iH 


^ , ;* 




•isjanaij 




• • 










1 : 






•eniao^ijad 




' 










1 : 






•aavpio 




00 CO 










1 :::: 


rH • 


•S8SB98J(I JSAll 




• 




r-t 




1 '~' 






-sasBasiQ ^9UP!H 




t- 1-1 


rH rH rH rH 1 (M (M 
1 rH 




■^C^iuBsai 




iH • 




• • 


1 '"' 




■Bzaangni 




• 7-^ 






1 "^ 




•sasBasiQ ^-iBSH 




lO -^ 
1— 1 




CO rH 


1 CO iH 
1 (M 


rH 


013 'pioqdi£x 'SJaA9^ 
















1 ! '. 




•IiiuiBiBK 'sjaAa^ 




rH 












1 r-^ 




•SBiadisXjg 
















1 ■ '"' 




•Xsd8[ida 




1—1 












1 '"' 


























■visdojo; 
















1 






•jSaajaasila pni3 BGoqjJBio: 




1-1 rH 








-- 


1 (?» y-i 


— ; 


•saiaqBiQ: 




• iH 








1 '"' 


•-Ciinqaa 














1 




•uoi^dtunsuoo 




O CO 
rH 




iO 


rH 1 O CO 
1 (M 




■aaouBO 




t- !M 




• rH • 1 rH rH 
• 1 1-t 




■sniqonojg 




iH • 




<M 


: |«> 






•JO sasBasiQ 'uiBjg 


r-l CO G^ 








rH 1 ^ 






•sasB9sia pMog 
















1 






•JO s9SB88ia '-lapptiia 




iH 


rH 




1-i 


1 CO yi 


■-; 


•Bnu[;sv 
















1 '. '. 


•si8ilB.iBd poB /txaidodv 




05 rH 










1 (M 

1 y-i 




•msijoqooiv 




• • • 










• 1 • r-i 




sinapioov 




Oi Ol 




(M rH 


1 i-i r-t 
1 (M 




aaqtunM aioqM 


r-1 CO -^ iH i-l ;0 to -<*) 1 00 "* 1-1 r-( 
00 CO yi "^ rH 


CO 

c 

< 

3 
o 
o 
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^11 




a 
-»^ 

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p ; 


) 03 -J 

< ti a 

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202 


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Q 
1— 1 J- 

p: 


■ t. 

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l£| 



98 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTKATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



•sisoinojaqnx 



■apiomg 



■sasBasfd qoBcao;s 



■Biaiajoi^dag 



•insi^'Bnmaqa 



■^fuorauatij 



o 
O 



00 
Oi 
00 



p 
o 
;^ 

P 

o 
ft 
<^ 

O 
M 

p 

O 
Q 
O 



pq 



•jisuna^j 



•snino^uad 



■aSv pio 



•S8SBaSIQ[ .I9An 



sasuasta: Aanpj}.! 






■jI^m'Bsni 



"Bznanpui 



•sastosid ^.reaH 



■o;a 'pioqdjfx 'sjaAa^j 



"I'BUBi'BH 's.iaAa^ 



•SBjadis^ia 



■jlsdaijda; 



•siij.iaiua; 



•Asdojd 



•laa^uasjla: pn^ 'naoq.u'Bia: 



■sajaqBTCE 



•Aiuqaa 



•aondmnsnoo 



iH -<* iH iH 



•jaon'BO 



■suiqonoaa 



■JO sasBasid 'nrejg 



•sasTjasid laAiog 



•JO sas'sasid 'aapp^ig 



"enjiqjsv 



•sisXiBJUti pu'B jixaidodv 



•msjioqcoiv 



■s^napiooy 



■jaqranjs[ apq^vi 



COCOrHG<lCqC~rHG^rHT-l(MCqiHlOrHrH 



Cq 00 

ZD 



03 



1^ a 
PQ 



a 

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w 



p 



CD 



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a ce 
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02 cS 



CD 

2 f3 ., 

j3 cS ^c 



r-H CO -i^ (D 

^ >:^ ^ O O O ® w ^ 
n-,^ ce ce O O 0®>^<g® 

pqpqOQQQOfiPOW 






o <^ 



1898.] 



OCCUF'ATIONS AND CAL'SES OF DEATH. 



99 



•8|80inoj9qnj, 





;— 




;— 


; — 


* 


' 




iH 








• 1 iH 

: r<^ 


■epiojns 
'B38B9S!a qomuois 


• tH 


;- 


! 


;- 


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;- 


;— 


-V|UICB0|)d98 


•insnwuinQiia 










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1 ""* 


• r-< -+ 






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• 1 C5 

• 1 rH 


•iS8ijn9[d[ 


', 


iH • 








• V • 








■ 1 '^ 


•suiaojiaaj 


1—1 




,- 












|» * 








• 1 • 


•aSv PIO 








rH 


(N l-H 






• 1 G<I 

• 1 rH 


•89SB9S{a: J9An 


[ T— 






• 1 






• 










• 1 Tjf 


•sasBOsja ^snpiJI 






• t- 






• (M 


. tH 


;- 


• (N iH 1 CO 1 
1 CO 1 


•A%mvsai 


] 


• ^ 


1 • 
















• 1 CO 


•■Bza9ngui 


; 




r-^ 












<M 








• 1 \a 


•S9SB9S!a 1J'B9H 


I CO 


• r- 












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• 1 CO 


059 'pioqdXx 'SJ9Aa^ 






tH 








• i-H 


tH 








• 1 >* 


•IB|JBIBM 'SJ9A9d 




















• 








• 1 rH 


•SBiadisXaa 




















iH 








• 1 CO 


■iJsdanda 
































•si-ji-ra^na 
































•/Csdo.ia 
































•^J9}U9sXa puB BaoqjJBja 
•sa^aqBja; 






























• 1 CO 






























1 ""^ 


■^mn^a 
































•nojidoinsnoo 






<?fl CO rH rH tH lO 


cc 




iH 




1 ^ 
1 w> 


•jaouBO 




— 


^ 


CO 






• 




?H 






1 ""I 

1 tH 


1 -sniqouoJa 


• 






~r-\~ 












1 "* 


•JO S9SB9Sia 'niBjg 


rH 


iH 


rH 
















1 "H 
1 i-i 


•S9SB3Sia; lOMOg 








• 






















1 '"' 


•JO S9SB9S!a 'J9ppBia 






















iH 






1 CO 
1 (M 


•BtUmSV 
























- 






•sisXiBaBj pnB Xx9idodv 


CO 




!M (M 








i-l 


CO 


lH 


msjioqooiv 




• (M 






• 


! 






1 "^ 


•8JU9P500V 


rH • 


(M ta • 




iH • • 


■^ tH • 


'. 


1 00 
1 <M 


••wqumK 9loqAv 


i-H ,-( O lO rt r-l(M r-i T-4 U3 CO tH CO iH 00 
^ iH CO fH <N i» 


OCCUPATIONS. 


O 

•rH 

c 
o 

CD 


-4-> 




3 


a 


o 
o 
o 

ee • 

•/: P 




2 

9 

s 


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Ph 


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> 

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a • 
cc ! 

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s i 


2 

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a 


X 

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x 


e3 1 
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HI 
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100 



PORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOK REPORT. 



[1898. 



pi 

a 
o 
O 



GO 

00 



ft 

P^ 
O 

GO 

P 
Q 
ft 

o 

M 

Ph 

p 

Q 



PQ 
EH 



•sisoinojgqnx 1 














tH 














i-{ 


•epioins 1 




(?q • 






iH CO • • 










tH 


•sas'easia: qoBrao^y 1 




• 










rH iH • 










1-1 


■■Bitnaaondes 1 
























• 


■rasi^Boinaqa 1 
























• 


•■Biuoninand 1 




iH ■ 




»H (M (M iH • 










lO 


■^sunaici 1 




























"snyio^Tjaj: 1 




', 








<M~- 


-; 


— : 


— ; 


-■ 


— ; 


— ; 


-; 


•aSvpiO 1 












•sasBasiQ jgait: 1 




1 








iH ■ 














iH 


•sasBasjo: jt8upi3 1 




CO 






• t- • 


1-1 1-1 <M iH • 


Oi 


•XiiuBsni 1 




', '. 






tH • • 












•■Bzugngni 










iH tH • 












•sasBasiQ ^juajj 1 


1-1 CO rH • 


CM (M CO • 




(M 


— 


1-1 1- 1 


•oja 'pioqdjix 'SJ8Aa^j 














tH • 










iH 


'IBia'Bt'BM; 'Sa9A8jI 




























■sBiadiSiiaa 




























•Asdanda 







- 


-; 


- 


- 


iH 


" 


- 


— 


— 


— 


~i-l 


•spua^ng: 








■Asdoid 






























■Aaain^ftAd puB BaoqajBto; 




























1-1 


'sa^aqBio; 




















i-l 


• iH 


-; 


■^iniqaa 
























; 


•^Ol:^dlansaoo 


tH tH 






iH 








iH 


r-i 

iH 


•jaouBO 




1—1 


rH 
















•sniqoaoja 




1 






• T-^ 














• • 


•JO sasBasia 'niBag 




1 






















CO 


■sasBastd ^8A\og 




iH 






















• 1-1 


•JO sasBasiQ 'aappB^g 




• 








tH 












• T-i 


•■emq^sv 




1 








• 














•siSj£[BJBd puB ixa^dodv 




<?^ 


• T-l 


• CO "^ 








• rH 


• to 


•rasi[oqooiv 


1-1 


; 1 


• • iH 








• 1 


1 • 


■s^napiooy 


C^ 




• rH Cq 










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•jaqninM aioqM 


CO Cli-IOqcOCOt-G<»rHTHC1'*i-ICO 
1-t r-i^ <X> 


02 

O 

PL, 

o 
o 
o 


VI. 

Indoor. — Activity Restric- 
ted. 


. 1 

:@ 

• O 

• O 

:^ 

:i 

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• ® 

3 O =^ 




3 o: 
c 

H C 


i 

r 
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a 

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3 
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3 5 

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XI 

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3 
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2 a 

4 -1- 
) -^ 

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2 
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rp 


2 
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'A 





1898. 



OCCUPATIOXS AM) CAUSES OF DLATU. 



lUi 



-8|80in3J0(|nj, 1 






tH 




', 


• 


• 










|CO 




■appins 1 


— ; 


-; 


-; 


CO • 


iH • 


-; 


-; 


-; 


-[ 


1 :^ 
1^ 




-838V98]a qoBino^g 1 


•1 


-t)!tua>o)id9S 1 






• 


• 


• 


1 : v:' 


'uisiiBoinaqti 1 








cq • 


' 












1 ^ : 


-vinoninaaj 1 








OS • 


• 


iH • 






<N 


1 ^ : 


•iCsianeid | 




















• 


1 : : 


•sniaojuaj j 








• * 


' 










I 


1 : : 


•aSVPlO 1 








(M • 


• 








(M • 


1 CO . . 


-S9S«98!a JSAtT 1 








Tt( • 


1 








• 


1 ^ : 


sasBdsia -iaapiM 1 








00 • 


y-{ - 


CO iH CO • 


1 ^ : 


■.£)iaB8ai 1 


— ■ 


-■ 


— . 


1m 




' 


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r-l • 


1 <^ 


• 


•■Bzaengni 1 




• 


• 


■ 


: 


•s3SB38ia i-isaH 1 








CO 


iH 


iH 


CO 


1 S? 


•oja 'pioqilXx 'sjaA8j 1 


r-i 




'^ 














1 ^ : 


■lB!JB[BIt 'SJ0A8J 1 




tH • 


<M 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 =^ : 


•sBiadisXaa 










1 : 


• 


•^sdaiidg; 








1-1 














! 


•spiaajna 








(M 














1 ^ : 


•XsdoJd 





- 


— ; 


1h 






— 


— 






i : ' 


•S849qBia 


p-l 


r^ 


iH 1 to • 








• 








• : : 1 ^ : 


Aqiqaa 
















: : : 1 : 


uondinnsnoo 








O Cq (M 
(M 


• CO 1-1 CO tH 1 (M 
1 CO 


•j9onBO 




• I— t 


t- 






• I— 1 


• • 


: 1 ^ : 


siiiqonoja 








CN 










• T-l 


: 1 -" : 


■JO sas-BasiQ 'niBaa 

























|CO . 


■sasBasiQ lo.siog 






















:\<^ : 


•JO sasBasi.a 'jappB[a 
























:| ^ : 


•Bcnqisv 
























: 1 : : 


'sisXiBJBj puB ^xaidodv 








<X> 


• iH 




• tH 1-1 iH 1 CD 
1 (M 


•tnsjioqooiv 








<N 






: : : :| ^ : 


sjnapiDov 








lO 






: :^ : 1 ^ : 


•aeqa,nK9,oqM | ^ <^ ^ ^ <^^ oo ^ oc CO co u= | ^ 


i-i 


OCCUPATIONS. 


< 

-J 

! 


2 \ 


5 
3 

- ? 


. -J 

. a 
■ > 

: -t- 

: c 

^ r 

tc 






T. "t 

hP 


hP 


* 

• % 

■ c 

c 1 


D 


r. 

3 

J J 


• a 

• ^ 

H C 


i 

H 
H 


YII. 

OccurATioNs At Large. 
Army Officers 



102 



FOETT-SIXTH EEGISTEATION REPORT. 



[1^ 



•sisoino.iaqi\i 






















1— ( 






tc 








•spioins 








T-i 




rH 












"go 


-- 






•sasBesio: qoBuio:)g 


























r^ 






•■BiuiEeoi^dgs 
































■nisuBrangqa 


























• t- 






•■BtnocanaUti 




1-1 tH 


iH 1-1 Cq tH 


iH 1-1 


1-1 ^ 




1-1 


■Asun^iJ^ 


























CO 




iH 


•snino;ijad; 
































•aSy PlO 










1-1 
















00 






•sas-Besja agAiq 










• 
















o 

r-l 




- ; 


•s9SB9Sta jSanpjH 








C^ tH • 


^ 


(M 




1-1 


O rH 
CO 


■A^iuBsni 










; 


• irH 










CO 






■■Bznan];ai 












rH 




I— 1 






'^ 






•sas'Basici ^j-egH 


iH I— 1 




cq CM CO 




CO 




CO CO 
CO 






•o:j8 'pioqd^f X 'sj9A8^ 












1-1 iH 












OS 






•IBi.xBl'Giv: 'saaAe^j 




























CO 






•sBfadis^ia 


































•jSsdaijda: 


































•si^uaing; 




























lO 






isdoJd 


































•j£j9ia9Sj£a; pu-B ■BGoqaaBio: 




























CN 






•sg^aq'Gia 














1-1 


















•^4inqaa 
































■nondoinsaoo 




iH 




•^ CO CO iH 


iH ^ 


cq CO iH 
CO 




•aaooBo 












<M • 








1-i o:> 






•si^iqonojg; 










IH 
















CO 






■JO s9SB9sia: 'uiBja 




























to 






•S9SB9Sia I9M0a 




























CO 






•JO S9SB9si(i '.lapp^ia 
































tH 


■■Bcnqjsv 




















iH 






<M 






•siSjiii.'j'Bd pav Ax9idody 














lO 




1-1 (M 




cq 
cq 






■uisnoqoo[y 




















iH 05 






•s:)U9pioov 




t- 




(M 


CO iH 


CO cq iH -00 

• CO 


1-1 • 


■.raqmnjs: g^oq^ii 


T-HOrH COCqt-tD'TtfCMi-lOlMClt-CNi-ICO 
rH r-i Cq 1-1 1-1 -* 

CO 


OCCUPATIONS. 


5 

-4- 

c 

p- 


^ 


• 5 
: E 

• C 

• c 

• a 

It 


In 

pa 

)0 


a 

' C 




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: £ 

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) c 


> c 
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a; 

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a: 
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C 


a 


a 


02 

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O 



1898.] 



OCCUPATIONS XSD OAUSKS OF DHATIF. 



103 



a 

• FN 

-4.9 

a 
o 



00 
00 



H 
ft 

o 
p 

Q 

O 
t— I 

< 

P 

Q 

C 



< 



-s]soitiojaqnx 






i 1- 
























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•appins 1 






























1 °° 


-S38B38|a qOBUlOlS 1 




























BluivKondas 1 




























1 : 


uisnntnnaqu 1 






t— 






















.1 ^ 


'viaoinnsud 1 








■ tH 


1-i rl 




• CO 








15 


•X8ian3i J 1 




















1 








•sniu.nuaj 1 


























1 : 


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rH 












r-t 




^ 1 2 


sasBosia .laAji 1 






I— ( 












• 




• 




sasBasjd JiauptH 1 






cq 


tH 








<Mr-l 


f-« 


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(M 










• 




• 


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li<l 








1 '^ 

1 <:o 


•s3SB9s!a laiiaH 1 '"' *"* 


C<» 


(M 












(M 


■oja •pioqd.ix 'sj8Aad[ 1 














<N 




<M 






1 lO- 

1 1-H 


•[BiaBrBjV 's.i9Aaj 1 














(M 












1 "^ 


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1 


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1 


siiua^na 1 


C<J 






i-l 
















1 °° 


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•ijajaas.Ca puB UrTjqjaBici 1 














1—1 1—1 


1— 1 






1 "^ 


■sajaquici 1 
























1 '"' 


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1 


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I— 1 iH 






iH 




I— 1 


1—1 




1— ( 


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iH 








1-1 








•sunionoaa 1 










" 






I— 1 rH 






1 ^ 
1 1—1 


•JO sasBasiQ 'uiBja 1 










T— ( 




I— 1 


CQ 


— 




1 ^ 


sasBasiQ laA^og 1 
























1 ^, 


'JO sasBasjo: 'jappsig 1 




























1 *"* 


Buimsv 1 




























1 CO 


•RisXiBJBj puB Axaidodv 1 










l?1 














1 CO 


•msiioiiooiv 1 


iH 














CO 




• 


rH 


s^uapioov 1 


• 


CO 




1-1 




I-l 


rH 1-1 




..^„„„,, .. ! <M-^<M^tH 00rH00(M.-lO,HCqi> 

•jaqoinsi aioq^ rH CO 


CO 






3i :i 



2 S i; 
J2 '"^ -ti - 7- 










Gatemen . 
agcrs 
















j X 


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= O l) V 


5 





r^ '"" .—' ~ -r »^ r' "•""•- P ^ -^ -i_j ij -v 



X 



X 






re 3i 3 






104 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTEATIOlSr REPORT. 



[1898. 



■stso|noj8qni 



•apiojns 



■sasBasio; qo^raois 



•BitnsBoijdag 



■nisi^Buinaqa 



■T3 

•S 

a 
o 
O 



00 

as 

00 



<! 
ft 

O 

QQ 
P 

o 

p 
<1 

OQ 

o 

I— I 

<l 
Ph 
P 
O 
Q 
O 






"Binocanaud 



•i:sun8{(i 



si^ino^iaad 



■aS^f pio 



•sasBesjd J9AI1 



■sasBasiQ AenpfH 



"A^m^sai 



■■Bznengai 



■S8S139SI(I ^JBOH 



■o^a 'pioqdAx 'saaA9^ 



qUUBIBK 'SJ8A8^ 



•SB[8dlSiJa 



•Asdgijda: 



•si'jijajna; 



•Asdoaci 



•jfja^uasjSo; puB ■eaoqaj'Bid 



•sa^aqBio: 



■^^iiiqaa 



■nondainsaoo 



CO T^ iH iH 



•jeanBo 



■si-nqonoag 



■JO sasBasid 'niBjg 



■sasBasjcr laMog; 



•JO sasBasjo; 'jappBia 



•'Binq^sv 



•siSii['Bj'Bj paB Axaidody 



■nisqoqooiv 



■s^uapioov 



•jQqmn^ aioq^i 



iH CO 



> 



o 

o 



O 



CO d 

(X) 0) 



CO 



1^ 

o3 CO 

Co o5 rj -iJ 



CC 



?3 ^ g ® 2 

M jr c; '-H m 



CO 3 li-(r^ 

■■^ br.fi ® 
<1Q 



CO 
© 
1> 

-^ - -r-l 

© 02 -*J 

id © S3 






1898.] 



OCCCI'ATIOXS AM) CAUSES OF DRATM. 



105 



--3 

P 



O 



QO 
C5 
00 



H 
Q 
O 

Piq 
Q 



;^ 

O 
I— I 
H 

Pi 

Q 
Q 

O 



XI 

« 
EH 



'siBoinoj<)(|ii.L 
















(M 


•appins 


•Bliuaiopilas 
'insHBtanaitu 




— 


— 


— 


- 






tH 


'V{aoain3Ud 




1-i 

1—1 










U3 
(M ~ 


■jJsunaid 
•sn'nojuaj 


— 


•aSv PIO 


I— 1 


•S9SBas|a Xaupix 


•XjiuBsni 




1—1 




— 




~ 




•wzuangui 
•SaSBOSlQ ;JB8H 


•oja 'pioqd.tx 'sa3A9j 


•IBiaBiBK 's.iaAa^ 




















sBiadtsXaa 
















• 




•Xsdaiida 




- 


- 


- 




- 


- 




— 


•siii-iaiug^ 


Xsdoaa: 
•XaajaasXa: puB Baoq.i.reia 

•sa^aqBia 


■uondiunsaoo 

•J90UB0 


• 




'^ 


r- 




'<^ 


r- 




CO 

OO 


■sniqouoja 
















•JO sasBasiQ 'nrejg 


iH 




y-i 




"sasBasja pMog 
















• 


•JO sasBasiQ Mappejg 


















•Bcnqjsv 








;- 


;- 


.- 




1— 1 
co~ 


•sis^lBJBj puB jJxaidodv 
•rasiioqoDiv 


• rH 












•sjuappov 




• 










iH 


1 •jaqraiiii aioqAi 


1— t O tH iH U5 tH 
-* 


OO 


O 

< 
D 

8 

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a 

a 
a 
a 

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7 

1 

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P- 


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V 


< V 

r. ; 

3 a 
3 -1- 


3 y 

2b- 


I '-i 
3 c 


"5 




1 



106 



FDRTY-SIXTH REGISTKATIOX KEPOKT. 



[1898. 



■nisiToqooiY 



"sjaapiooy 






To" 



' STSOtnojsqnj, 


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PORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[189S. 



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110 



T'ORfY-SlXTIt REGISTRATION REPORT, 



[1898. 



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RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 



The number of births registered iu the State of Rhode Island, 
during the 3"ear 1808, was ten thousand seven hundred and thirty 
(10,730) ; the number of marriages, three thousand two hundred 
and seventy-eight (3,278) ; and the number of deaths, six thousand 
nine hundred and five (6,905). 

Table XIII. 

General results of Registration for ten years, lSo4--63, and for 
each of the last thirty-five years. 

Whole Number Living 

Years. of Births. Still-born. Births. ^[arriages. Deaths. 

1854-1863 38.042 1,471 36.571 14,943 24,230 

1864 3.892 138 3.754 1,844 3,360 

1865 3,9.55 177 3,778 1,896 3,405 

1866 4.902 172 4,730 2,318 2.970 

1867 5,127 163 4.964 3,344 2,889 

1868 5,372 212 5,160 2.285 2,912 

1869 5,245 220 5,025 2,289 3,382 

1870 5,215 234 4,081 2,362 3,238 

1871 5,678 223 5,455 2.336 3.344 

1872 0.143 202 5.941 2.537 4.247 

1873 0.022 228 5,794 2.630 4.403 

1874 6,466 277 6.189 2,541 4.229 

1875 6,508 246 0,262 2,485 4,317 

1876 6..329 224 G.105 2.253 4,116 

1877 6.235 242 .5,993 2,282 4.450 

1878 6,714 248 6,466 2,324 4.441 

1879 6.350 216 6,1.34 2,396 4.472 

1880 6.295 192 C.103 2,769 4.829 

1881 6.761 264 6.497 2.750 5.016 

1882 6.825 '.^3 6.572 2,6.34 5.074 

1883 7.046 25;j 6.793 2,611 5,282 

1884 7,305 272 7,033 2,558 5,141 

1885 7,028 271 ..6,757 2.488 5.-389 

1886 7.621 293 7,328 2.750 5.849 

■ 

Ip 



114 FOKTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 

Table XIII. — Continued. 

Whole Number Living 

Years. of Births. Still-born. Births. Marriages. Deaths. 

1887 7,668 276 7,392 2,839 6,340 

1888 7,840 , 295 7,545 3,023 6,594 

1889 8,220. - 329 7,891 3,029 6,259 

1890 8,550 296 8,254 3,195 6,934 

1891 9,426 372 9,154 3,320 6,630 

1893 9,370 343 8,927 3,503 7,396 

1893 10,048 412 9,636 3,544 7,440 

1894 9,985 .392 9,593 3,271 7,160 

1895 10,249 367, 9,882 3,497 7,535 

1896 11,174 424 10,750 ,..3,327 7,504 

1897 11,218 423 10,795 3,137 7,110 

1898 .11,143 413 10,730 3,378 6,905 

During the period of forty-five years there were recorded, in 
Bhode Island, 291,867 births, of which number 10,933 were still- 
born, and 280,934 were living children. 

During the same period there were recorded 109,586 marriages, 
or 219,172 persons married, and 204,782 deaths. 

These results show that in every 26.7 births there was one still- 
born child, or that in every 1,000 births there were about 37 still- 
born and 963 living children. 

The same results also show that the ratio of whole number of 
living births to the whole number of persons married, and to the 
whole number of decedents respectively, during the same period, 
was as follows : 

Of persons married Of deaths, 
For every 100 living births there were 74.5 and 72.9 

The number of births in 1898 was 65 less than the previous 
year ; the number of marriages 141 greater, or 284 more persons 
married ; and there was a decrease of 205 deaths. 

For every 100 births there were : 

Of persons married. Of deaths, 

In 1894 68.2 and 74.6 

In 1895 70.8 and 76.3 

In 1896. " 61.9 and 69.8 

In 1897 58.1 and ' 65.9 

In 1898. .., 61.1 and 64.4 



Ift98.] 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 



115 






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116 



FOETY-SIXTH REGISTEATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



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180R.] GENERAL SUMMARY. 117 

The varying" numbers of the events of births, niarriag'eH, and 
deaths occnrring' in the dift'erent towns, durinf^ each of the six 
3^ears ending* December HI, 18*.)8, are very concisely presented in 
Table XIV, and a ready means is thereby afforded of comparing 
and studying" the changes in the vital movements of the people in 
the ditt'oront precincts during those years. 

The actual increase of population in the State, for the ten years 
1885 to 1895, was 80,-474, or 2G.-i5 per cent., or an annual averag-e 
of two and six-tenths per cent. The increase by immigration 
must have been nearly twice as large as the natural increase. 



118 



FOETT-SIXTH EEGISTEATION RBPOET. 



[1898. 



Table XV. 

Births, Marriages, and Deaths in Rhode Island, in 1898, with the 

number and ratio of each in every 1,000 of the Population of 

each Town, and the ratio of excess of the Births over 

the Deaths in every 1,000 of the Popidation. 



TOWNS AND DIVISIONS 
OF THE STATE. 



Barrington 

Bristol 

Warren 

Beistol County 

Coventry 

East Greenwich 

West Greenwich 

Warwick 

Kent County 

Jamestown 

Little Compton 

Middletown 

Newport City 

New Shoreham 

Portsmouth 

Tiverton 

Newpokt County 

Burrillville 

Centeai, Falls 

Cranston* 

Cumberland 

East Providence 

Foster 

Glocester 

Johnson 

Lincoln 

North Providence 

North Smithfleld 

Pawtucket 

Pkovidencb City. . . . 

Scituate 

Smithfield 

woonsocket 

Pkovidencb County. . 

Charlestown 

Exeter 

Hopliinton 

Narragansett District, 

North Kingstown 

South Kingstown 

Richmond 

Westerly 

Washington County. 

State Institutions. . . 
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s 


PP 


S 


Pm 


fi 


fi 


1,755 


33 


18.8 


11 


12.5 


19 


10.8 


7,039 


138 


19.6 


40 


11.4 


109 


15.5 


5,301 


139 


26.2 


36 


13.6 


84 


15.8 


14,095 


310 


22.0 


87 


12.3 


212 


15.0 


5,102 


137 


26.8 


18 


7.1 


81 


15.9 


3,S16 


39 


12.1 


31 


19.3 


53 


16.5 


675 
24,143 


7 
798 


10.4 
33.1 






9 
373 


13.3 
15.4 


156 


12.9 


33,136 


981 


29.6 


205 


12.4 


516 


15.6 


930 


20 


21.5 


2 


4.3 


12 


13.9 


1,128 


17 


15.1 


7 


12.4 


17 


15.1 


1,494 


25 


16.7 


3 


4.0 


15 


10.0 


22,116 


577 


26.1 


150 


13.6 


349 


15.8 


1,307 


20 


15.3 


10 


15.3 


17 


13.0 


1,780 


36 


20.2 


6 


6.7 


28 


15.7 


3,038 


35 


11.5 


11 


7.2 


56 


18.4 


31,793 


730 


22.9 


189 


11.9 


494 


15.5 


5,830 


167 


28.6 


32 


11.0 


95 


16.3 


17,462 


563 


32.2 


148 


16.9 


218 


12.5 


10,284 


227 


22.1 


69 


13.4 


172 


16.7 


8,932 


238 


26.6 


62 


13.9 


146 


16.3 


11,432 


232 


20.3 


74 


12.9 


123 


10.7 


1,129 


21 


18.6 


15 


26.5 


17 


15.1 


1,549 


23 


14.8 


7 


9.0 


27 


17.4 


12,629 


197 


15.7 


17 


2.7 


130 


10.4^ 


9,313 


221 


24.0 


63 


13.7 


115 


12.5 


2,830 


67 


23.8 


4 


2.8 


35 


12.4 


2,743 


81 


29.5 


19 


13.8 


52 


18.9 


36,008 


1,067 


39.5 


270 


14.9 


543 


15.0 


154,333 


4,256 


27.6 


1,566 


30.8 


2,929 


12.5 


3,492 


58 


16.6 


25 


14.3 


53 


15.2 


2,335 


38 


16.3 


11 


9.5 


31 


13.3 


27,591 


808 


29.3 


238 


16.5 


458 


16.6 


307,752 


8,264 


26.8 


2,610 


17.0 


5,144 


16.7 


964 


16 


16.6 


7 


14.5 


15 


15.5 


869 


10 


11.5 


15 


34.5 


13 


14.9 


2,679 


47 


17.5 


25 


18.7 


49 


18.3 


1,302 


23 


17.7 


4 


6.1 


13 


9.9 


4,571 


74 


16.2 


26 


11.4 


63 


13.8 


5,376 


113 


21.0 


31 


11.5 


83 


15.4 


1,623 


17 


10.5 


8 


9.9 


34 


14.8 


8,049 


145 


18.0 


71 


17.6 


109 


13.5 


25,433 


445 


17.5 


187 


14.7 


369 


14.5 


2,204 
414,413 










170 


77.1 


10,730 


25.9 


3,278 


15.8 


6,905 


16.7 



* Not including State Institutions. 



t Geometrically estimated. 



1898. J. 



GENliilAL SUMMAUV 



119 



Births. Pi-oport'ion to l\>pnlation.. 

In Tiible XV, on the precedinf:;' paf^fe, may be found the varying 
proportions of the number of births, marriag-es, and deaths to 
every 1,000 of the population in the various towns and cities in 
the State, as thej^ occurred in 1898. 

In regard to births, the extreme rang-e of proportion to popu- 
lation was from 10.4 in every 1,000, in West GreeuAvich, to 3.3.1, 
in Warwick. Following AVarwick, in the line of largest propor- 
tion, are Central Falls, with 32.2 ; and North Smithfield and 
Pawtucket, with 29.5 each. Following West Greenwich, in the 
line of the smallest proportion of births to population, are Rich- 
mond, with 10.5 in every 1,000 ; and Exeter and Tiverton, with 
11.5 each. 

The proportion of births to population in all the counties 
entire, and in the cities of Central Falls, Newport, Pawtucket, 
Providence, Woonsocket, and the whole State, during the last 
seven j'^ears, are as follows : 

Births to Every 1,000 Persons. 





1898. 


1897. 


1896. 


1895. 


1894. 


1893. 


1892. 


Bristol County 


23.0... 


...27.1... 


...23.0... 


...25.2... 


...19.7... 


...19.6... 


...17.0 


Kent County 


29.6... 


...28.0... 


...30.1... 


...25.2... 


...23 2... 


...22.9... 


...23.0 


Newport County 


23.9... 


...22.8... 


...24.8... 


...24.8... 


.. 25.2... 


...26.3... 


...23.1 


Newport City.. 


26.1... 


...25.4... 


...27.9... 


...26.9... 


.. 27.8... 


...30.1... 


...24.4 


Providence County 


26.8... 


...27.9... 


...28.3... 


...26.8... 


...28.2. . 


...27.9... 


...26.9 


Central Falls 


32.2... 


...30.2 .. 


...35.2... 










Pawtucket 


29.5... 


...28.3... 


...27.5... 


...28.4... 


...24.7... 


...27.0... 


...24.5 


Providence City 


'...27.6... 


...27.2... 


...27.8... 


...27.5... 


...28.9... 


...27.9... 


...27.8 


Woonsocket 


29.3... 


...32.5... 


,...33.9... 


...32.4... 


...32.1... 


...34.1... 


...31.2 


Washington County 


17.5... 


...18.5 .. 


...19.6... 


...17.9 .. 


...19.4... 


...19.1... 


...16.8 


Whole State 


25.9... 


...26.8... 


...27.3... 


...25.7... 


...26.6... 


...26.5... 


...35.2 



Persons Married. Pro])ortion to Population. 



The proportion to the population, of persons married, can be 
more correctly shown in counties, or in cities and aggregates of 
towns, than in single towns. 

The following summary will present the proportions in the 
manner suggested, for the last seven years: 



120 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Persons Married in Evert 1,000. 

1896. 1895. 1894. 

..14.0 14.2 18.5. 

..10.3 11.2 13.5. 

..13.1 15.2 14.5. 

..14.4 17.1 15.7. 

..18.2 19.6 18.5. 

Central Falls 16.9 14.1 15.3. 

Pawtuoket 14.9 16.7 20.9 21.2 18.8. 

Providence City 20.3 27.2 21.4 22.2 21.1. 

Woonsooket 16.5 32.5 16.8 20.4 15.0. 

Washington County 14.7 18.5 16.7 17.2 14.4. 

Whole State 15.8 26.8 17.0 18. 2...... 17. 4. 



Bristol County 

Kent County 

Newport County 

Newport City 

Providence County . . 



1898. 


1897. 


..12.3... 


...13.5. 


..12.4... 


...10.7. 


..11.9.. 


...13.1. 


..13.6... 


...14.1. 


..17.0... 


...16.5. 



1893. 

.19.9. 

.15.9. 

.14.5. 

.15.6. 

.19.8. 



.23.7. 
,.21.4. 
,.20.2. 
,.14.4. 

.18.7. 



1893. 
..15.3 
..16.3 
..15.9 
..16.0 
..20.2 



..32.3 
..23.4 
..19.3 
..16.2 
..19.1 



Deaths. Proportion to Population. 

The number of cleatlis, in proportion to the living population, 
varies considerably from year to year in the different towns. 
The smaller the towns the greater generally is the annual vari- 
ation. 

The highest rate occurred in North Smithfield, that is, 18.9 
in every 1,000 of the population ; followed by Tiverton, 18.4, 
and Hopkinton, 18.3. 

The lowest death rate was in the District of Narragansett, 
that is, 9.9 in every 1,000 of the population ; followed by Middle- 
town, with 10.0, and Johnston, with 10.4. 

The following summary will give the ratios of mortality to the 
population in the cities and counties of the State, during the 
seven years ending December 31, 1898 : 



Deaths in Every 1,000 of Population. 

1898. 1897. 1896. 1895. 1894. 

Bristol County 15.0 18.6 17.9 20.9 16.5.. 

Kent County 15 6 16.7 18.8 17.4 19.8.. 

Newport County 15.5 16.2 17.0 15.9 16.9.. 

Newport City 15.8 16.9 17.5 16.5 17.7.. 

Central Falls 12.5 13.2 19.9 

Pawtucket , 15.0 17.7 18.3 30.1 18.7.. 

Providence City 12.5 18.6 19.9 21.3 20.3.. 

Woonsocket 16.6 17.5 . . 

Providence County 16.7 17.6.. 

Washington County 14.5 14.7. . 

Whole State 16.7 17.6 19.1. 



.20.8. 
,19.2. 
.15.3. 



....18.3.. 
....20.1.. 
....15.0.. 
....19.6.. 



17.6.. 
19.1.. 
16.4.. 
19.1.. 



1893. 
.19.9. 
,.19.4. 
.17.9. 
,19.1. 



.19.6 
.20.9. 
.18.6. 
.19.9 
.12.6. 
.19.6. 



1893. 
..20.0 
..20.7 
..20.1 
..20.0 



. 21.7 
..20.9 
..19.5 
..20.2 
..15.2 
..20.1 



1898. 



(JKNKIiAL Sl'MMAKY. 



121 



The proportiou of tleatliH to the living- populutiou, in 1898, was 
noticeably smaller than the annual average of the previous six 
years in each county and city in the State. 

, Table XVI. 

Proportion of Births, Marricu/es, and Deaths to the Pojndatian, in 

the Wliole State, in each of the last thirty 

years, geometrically estimated. 



YEAKS. 



1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1886 

1687 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1893 

1893 

1894 

1893 

1S96 

1897 

1898 



Popu- 
lation. 



BIRTHS. 



Number. 



211,380 
218,555 
225,968 
233,637 
241,561 
249,765 
358,239 
262,513 
266,850 
871,269 
275,753 
280.319 
284.960 
289,667 
294,460 
399,329 
304.284 
311,507 
318,907 
326,477 
334,233 
842,169 
3.50.293 
358.008 
367.125 
375,836 
384.7.58 
393,891 
403,245 
414,413 



5,245 
5,215 
5.676 
6.143 
6.022 
6.466 
6,508 
6,329 
6.235 
6.714 
6.350 
6.395 
6.761 
6,825 
7.046 
7,305 
7,028 
7,631 
7,668 
7,840 
8,230 
8,550 
9,436 
9.370 
10,048 
9,985 
9,882 
10.750 
10,795 
10,730 



Of popu- 
lation, 
one birth 
in every 



40.3 
41.9 
39.8 
38.0 
40.1 
38.6 
39.7 
41.5 
43.8 
40.4 
43.4 
44.5 
42.1 
42.4 
41.8 
41.0 
43.3 
40.9 
41.6 
41.6 
40.7 
40.0 
37.2 
38.7 
36.5 
37.0 
38.9 
36. B 
87.4 
38.6 



MARRIAGES. 



Number. 



2.289 
2,362 
2,336 
2,537 
2,630 
2,541 
2,485 
2,253 
2,282 
2,324 
2,396 
2,769 
2,750 
2,634 
2,611 
2,558 
2,488 
2,750 
2,839 
3.032 
8,029 
8,195 
8,320 
3,502 
3,544 
3,371 
8,497 
8,.327 
8,187 
3,278 



Of popu- 
lation, 
one per- 
son mar- 
ried in 
every 



46.2 
46.2 
48.4 
46.0 
45.9 
49.1 
52.0 
58.3 
58.4 
58.4 
57.5 
50.6 
51.8 
55.0 
56.4 
58.5 
61.2 
56.6 
,56.2 
54.0 
55.2 
53.5 
52.8 
51.2 
51.9 
57.4 
55.0 
59.2 
64.3 
65.2 



DEATHS. 



Number. 



8,382 
3.238 
3,344 
4,247 
4,403 
4,229 
4,317 
4,116 
4.450 
4.441 
4,472 
4,839 
5.016 
5,074 
5,283 
5.141 
5,889 
5.848 
6,340 
6,594 
6,259 
6.934 
6,620 
7,396 
7,440 
7.160 
7.535 
7.504 
7,110 
6,905 



Of popu- 
lation, 
one 

death in 
every 



62.5 
67.5 
67.6 
55.0 
54.8 
59.0 
59.8 
63.8 
60.0 
61.1 
61.7 
58.0 
56.8 
57.1 
55.7 
58.2 
56.5 
53.8 
50.8 
49.5 
53.4 
49.3 
52.9 
48.5 
49.3 
52.5 
51.1 
52.5 
56.7 
60.0 



Deaths 
in every 
1.000 of 
the popu- 
lation. 



16.0 
14.8 
14.8 
18.2 
18.2 
16.9 
16.7 
15.7 
16.7 
16.4 
16.2 
17.2 
17.6 
17.5 
17.9 
17.2 
17.7 
18.8 
19.9 
20.3 
18.7 
20.3 
18.9 
20.6 
20.2 
19.1 
19.6 
19.1 
17.6 
16.7 



132 FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTEATION REPOKT. [1898. 

During" the ten years 1871-1880, the average annual birth rate 
was one birth to every 39.7 of the population, or 25.2 births in 
every 1,000; during- the ten years 1881-1890, the average birth 
rate was one birth in every 41.0 of the population, or 24.3 in every 
1,000; a falling off of a proportion of nealrly one birth in every 
1,000 of the population. 

From 1891 to 1898 the average annual birth rate was one birth 
in every 37.7 of the population, or 26.3 in every 1,000. 

During the period of ten years 1871-1880, the average annual 
death rate was one in every 58.4 of the population, or 17.2 in every 
1,000, according to the returns. During the ten years 1881-1890, 
the average annual death rate was one in every 53.3 of the popu- 
lation, or 18.8 in every 1,000 of the living. From 1891 to 1898 the 
average annual death rate was one in every 53.6 of the population, 
or 19.0 in every 1,000 of the living. 

It must be remembered, however, that the returns during the 
last ten years have been more complete than in previous years. 



I 



I 



124 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT 



[1898. 






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BIRTHS, isos. 



The general statistics of Inrths in Kbode Island, during- the 
year 1808, derived from the returns sent to the office of the State 
Registrar, niaj' be found on pages 2 to 8, inclusive, in Tables I, 
II, and III. 

The -whole number reported is 10,730, as before stated, and is 
65 less than the number in 1897. 

Sex of the Children. 

Of the 10,730 children whose births were registered in 1898, 
there were 5,443 males and 5,287 females. This gives 102.9 males 
to each 100 females, or 507.3 males and 492.7 females in each 1,000 
children. 

The following Table shows the number and sex, and the pro- 
portions of each sex, of the children born in Rhode Island, during 
the ten years 1854-18G3, and in each of the last thirty-five 3'ears : 

Table XYJI. 



Males to each Per 1,000 Births 

Years. Males. Females. 100 Females. Males. Females. 

1854-1S63 19.:i86 13.686 103.6. or 508.S and 491.2 

1864 1.949 1,W2 100.3. or 500.9 and 499.1 

1865 2,096 1.857 112.9. or 530.2 and 469.8 

1866 2,546 2.356 108.0, or 519.4 and 480.6 

1867 2.665 2.464 107.0. or 518.7 and 481.3 

1868 2,745 2,627 104.5, or 511.0 and 489.0 

1869 2,685 2,500 101.9. or 511.9 and 488.1 

1870 2,679 2,536 105.6, or 513.7 and 486.3 

1871 2,878 2,800 102.8. or 506.9 and 493.1 

1872 3,085 3,058 100.8, or .502.2 and 497.8 

1873 3,145 2,887 108.6. or 520.6 and 579.4 

1874 3.311 3,155 104.9, or 512.1 and 487.9 

1875 3,-362 3.146 106.9, or 516.6 and 483.4 

1876 3.291 3,038 108.3, or 520.0 and 480.0 

1877 3,163 3,072 10.3.0, or 507.3 and 492.7 

1878 .3,402 3,.312 102.7, or 506.7 and 493.3 

1879 3,259 3,091 102.4, or 513.2 and 466.8 

1880 3,241 3.0.->4 106.8, or 514.8 and 485.2 

1881 8.498 3,2(V1 107.2. or. 517.3 and 482.7 

1882 3,509 3.316 105.8, or 514.1 and 485.9 

1883 .3.548 3.19S 101.4, or 503.5 and 496.5 

1884 3,713 3.592 103.4, or 506.3 and 491.7 

1885 3,591 3,437 104.4, or 510.3 and 489.7 



128 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table XVII.— Contiimed. 



Years. Males. 

1886 3,897. 

1887 3,968. 

1888 4,033. 

1889 4,193. 

1890 4,351. 

1891 4,926. 

1893 4,765. 

1893 5,105. 

1894 5,139. 

1895 5,136. 

1896 5,461. 

1897 5,493, 

1898 5,443. 



Males to each 
^Females. 100 Females. 

....3,724 104.6, or.... 

....3,700 107.2, or.... 

....3,817 105.4, or.... 

,...4,027 104.1, or..., 

....4,199 103.5, or..., 

....4,500 109.5, or.... 

... 4,5C5 105.8, or..., 

....4,943 103.3, or..., 

....4,856 , 105.6, or.... 

....4,746 108.2, or..., 

....5,289 103.3, or... 

....5,303 103 6, or..., 

....5,287 103.9, or... 



Per 1,000 Births 
Males. Females. 
...511.3 and 488.7 
..517.5 and 482.5 
...513.1 and 486.0 
...510.0 and 490.0 
...508.8 and 491.2 
...522.6 and 477.4 
...514.1 and 485.9 
...508.1 and 491.9 
...513.7 and 486.3 
...519.7 and 480.3 
...508.0 and 492.0 
...508.8 and 491.3 
...507.3 and 493.7 



The average proportion for forty -five years is 104.8 males to 
every 100 females. At the end of five years from birth the num- 
ber of each sex is about equal, the males having a larger mortality 
during that period. 

Proportion of the Sexes. Localities. 

In Table II, on pages 6 and 7, will be found the number of chil- 
dren born in the different divisions of the State during the year 
1898, together with the number of each sex. 

The following Table will give more concisely the whole number 
of children born, arranged according to sex and locality, and the 
proportion of male children to every 100 female children : 

Table XYIII. 



BIRTHS, 1898. 


If 


o a 
« S 

Mo 
o 


ftcl 

03 C 


t> o o 

PL 


a 
o 

■&^ 

S d 

m O 


Q 

u 
o 
ft 

12; 


a 
o 


$ 

03 

PL, 


O 

a . 

o 

u 
Ph 


a 
o 
o 


® 
o 

.a 


Males 


153 
158 


501 
480 


76 

77 


788 
782 


325 
220 


287 
290 


291 
272 


524 
543 


2,182 
2,074 


417 
391 


5,443 




5,287 






Total 


310 
96.2 


9^ 
104.4 


153 
98.7 


1,570 
100.7 


445 
102.3 


577 
99.0 


563 
107.0 


1,067 
96.5 


4,256 
105.2 


808 
106.6 


10,730 


Males to each 100 females 


102.9 



Compared with the previous year, the decrease in the propor- 
tion of male births in the whole State was 0.7 per cent. 

The following Table exhibits the proportions of births of the 
sexes for the past thirty-six years in the larger divisions of the 
State and in the whole State : 



]S98.] 



BIRTHS. 



120 



Table XIX. 
Number of Males to each 100 Females. 



BIRTHS. 



166S. 
1864. 

1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
18T0. 
1871 . 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1675. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 



120.0 

106.8 

119.8 

109.4 

115.5 

117.4 

115.7 

126.4 

131.8 

109.2 

129.2 

98.7 

95.2 

142.1 

138.7 

120.5 

124.3 

117.2 

91.2 

94.7 

94.0 

105.0 

132.2 

120.0 

115.1 

98.1 

81.9 

96.5 

107.1 

120.0 

90.7 

103.4 

118.4 

96.5 

101.2 

90.2 



c c 

9) 3 

\£ o 

o 



98.4 
87.3 
118.2 
113.1 
98.3 
88.7 
116.7 
111.6 
97.9 
92.8 
113.0 
111.9 
103.1 
104.4 
102.4 
120.6 
95.5 
110.5 
111.3 
110.2 
97.6 
111.7 
107.3 
81.7 
121.7 
105.1 
122.0 
113.0 
110.4 
102.1 
101.8 
102.4 
116.3 
95.4 
108.4 
104.4 



o >• 



97.0 

90.6 

108.8 

103.4 

117.8 

100.2 

102.7 

100.0 

132.5 

109.1 

117.9 

101.3 

97.7 

108.5 

98.5 

94.8 

103.6 

113.5 

102.0 

112.5 

97.0 

92.9 

98.0 

102.6 

106.6 

105.0 

107.5 

106.8 

118.4 

102.4 

97.7 

181.1 

100.8 

108.7 

97.5 

98.9 



111 

1^^ 



iJ>i 



101.8 
107.4 
118.8 
104.9 
106.3 
101.6 
98.0 
105.1 
100.8 
103.5 
104.5 
110.4 
104.3 
108.0 
100.3 
101.5 
105.4 
102.4 
105.9 
103.1 
103.5 
102.5 
104.8 
100.7 j 
103.9 I 
103.4 
103.6 
108.5 
107.0 j 

110.7 I 

I 
104.1 

I 

110.2 ! 
105.0 I 
102.4 
103.9 
101.6 



111.4 
97.8 
113.8 
108.4 
104.5 
102.4 
107.5 
104.9 
95.2 
95.7 
109.0 
102.9 
109.1 
106.8 
104.9 
106.8 
105.7 
107.6 
109.0 
106.5 
102.2 
105.8 
103.6 
105.0 
107.9 
107.4 
101.4 
98.3 
109.1 
100.0 
104.1 
99.6 
109.6 
105.8 
104.4 
105.8 



59 
So 



108.7 
103.4 

88.1 
124.0 
120.4 
136.5 
120.6 

99.5 
113.3 
110.6 
104.7 

94.0 
134.3 
103.7 

95.3 

76.8 
106.3 

95.4 
115.7 
105.7 
102.2 

99.0 
104.3 
121.7 
106.7 
110.2 
110.2 

97.4 
106.4 

98.5 
109.0 
106.5 
115.6 
108.5 

96.2 
102.8 



^ 



105.8 
100.3 
112.9 
108.7 
107.7 
104.5 
104.9 
105.6 
102.8 
100.9 
108.6 
104.9 
106.9 
108.3 
103.0 
102.7 
105.4 
106.1 
107.2 
105.8 
101.4 
103.4 
104.4 
104.6 
107.2 
105.4 
104.1 
103.6 
109.5 
105.8 
105.8 
105.6 
108.2 
103.3 
103.6 
102.9 



* Including city of Newport, t Including cities of Central Falls, Pawtucket, and Woonsocket. 



130 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



There will be found in the following summary in the aggregate, 
the average number of males to each 100 females, born during 
the thirty-six years from 1863-1898, in the different divisions of 
the State : 

Bristol County lll.l males to each 100 females. 

Kent County 105.6 males to each 100 females- 
Newport County* 104.8 males to each 100 females. 

Providence County Townst 104.9 males to each 100 females. 

Providence City 104.9 males to each 100 females. 

Washington County 107,1 males to each 100 females. 

Whole State 108.0 males to each 100 females. 

Births and Season. 

Table II, on pages 6 and 7 of this report, gives the number of 
births occurring in the different months of the year, in the several 
divisions of the State. 

According to this Table, the greatest number of births in any 
one month, in 1898, occurred in August, and the largest in any 
quarter in the third. 

The following table shows the total number of children born 
in the State of Rhode Island, according to the returns, in each 
quarter of each of the last six years ; and also the aggregate 
number and the percentage of the aggregate of each quarter in 
forty-five years, from 1854 to 1898, inclusive : 

Table XX. 





1898. 


1897. 


1896. 


1895. 


1894. 


1893. 

2,374 
2,291 

2,674 
2,709 

10,048 


1854-1898, 


inclusive. 


quarters. 


Number. 


Per cent. 




2,686 
2,562 
2,802 
2,680 


2,749 
2,386 
2,983 
2,677 


2,604 
2,461 
2,790 
2,895 


2,260 
2,345 
2,704 
2,573 


2,368 
2,511 
2,524 
2,583 


68,844 
68,604 
76,043 
76,749 


23.72 




23.64 




26.20 




26.44 






Whole Year 


10,730 


10,795 


10,750 


9,882 


9,985 


290,240 


100.00 







Table XX presents results showing that, according to the regis- 
tration of forty-five years, the average proportions of births to 
the whole number of births in the different quarters of the year 
were as follows : 



* Including Newport city. t Including Pawtucket, Central Falls, and Woonsocket. 



1808.] ijiiniis. 131 

January— March 2'17.2 in every 1,000 births. 

April-June 230.4 in every 1,000 l)irths. 

July— September 202.0 in every 1,000 l)irlhs. 

October— December •■iVAA in every 1,000 birtlis. 

The proportions of birtlis in Rhode Ishiiul, in tlie different 
quarters of the year, to the whole number of births in 1898, were 
as follows : 

1. -lanuary— !Marcli •ih.O per cent., or 250 in every 1,000 

3. April— June 23.9 per cent., or. 239 in every 1,000 

3. July— September 26.1 per cent., or 201 in every 1,000 

4. October— December 2.5.0 per cent., or 250 in every 1.000 

First six months 489 birtlis in every 1,000 of whole number. 

Second six months 511 births in every 1,000 of whole number. 



Births. Sex and Seaso7i. 

In Table II, on pages 6 and 7, will also be found the number of 
births of eacJi sex by months, as they occurred in the difterent 
divisions of the State, during the year 1898. From it we ascer- 
tain the number of each of the sexes born during each quarter of 
the year, with their relative proportions, and also the aggregates 
and proportions of the same for the whole State, 

The following Table will present a summary of the quarterly 
periods, number of births, and proportions of the sexes, for the 
same year. 

Per 1,000 
Males to each each quarter. 

Males. Females. 100 Females. Males. Females. 

1. January— March 1,382 1,304 106.0 515 485 

2. April— June 1,290 1,266 102.4 500 494 

8. July -September 1,420 1,882 102.T ."iOT 493 

4. October -December 1,.345 1,.385 100.7 502 498 

Whole Year 5,443 5,287 102.9 .507 493 

The following Table shows the number of male children born 
to every 100 female rhildron, in each (quarter of the last three 
years ; and also the i)roportiou of births of male children to each 
100 female children born during six periods of five years each, 
from ISGG to 1895, inclusive : 



132 



FOKTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOX EEPORT. 

Table XXI. 



[1898. 



YEARS. 



1897. 1896. 



; years, years, years, rears, years, years, 
1891 to IS86 to ISSl to 18T6 to 1871 to 1866 to 
I 1895. 1890. 1SS5. 1880. 1875. 1870. 



First Quarter 106.0 97.6 i 101.9 

Second Quarter 102.4 108.7 101.6 

102.7 j 101.7 105.1 
100.7 ' 107.7 ' 104.2 



Third Quarter 

Fourth Quarter 

Total Ayerage 102.9 103.6 103.3 ! 106.5 



104.6 
107.3 
108.6 
105.8 



104.3 


105.8 


106.0 


101.5 


105.4 


104.8 


102.7 


104,7 


104.6 


105.1 


107.1 


104.8 


106.5 


103.5 


108.2 


106.5 



106.6 
107.3 
106.0 
i04.8 



105.2 104.5 106.2 104.2 I 106.2 



The above Table shows the vaiiation of the proportions of the 
sexes in the different quarters in the different years, and seems to 
conchisivelj' determine that season has very little, if any, influence 
in the causation of sex. 

Paeentage. 

By reference to Table I, page 4, in the division of births, there 
will be found the parentage of the children born in Ehode Island 
during the year 1898. It will be seen that of the whole number,. 
10,730, there were 3,413 of native parentage, 5,307 foreign, and 
2,010 of mixed parentage. 

By mixed parentage is meant the children born of native fathers 
and foreign mothers, and of foreign fathers and native mothei*s. 

Of native fathers and foreign mothers there were 1,014, and of 
foreign fathers and native mothers, 996. 

The following Table will show the number and parentage of 
the childi'en born in the State and the vai-iations of the same 
from year to year, in each of the last three years ; and also the 
number and variations occurring in four periods of five years 
each, and two of ten years each, from 1858 to 1898, inclusive : 

Table XXn. 



PARE >"T AGE. 


1898. 


1897. 1896. 


years. 
1893 to 
1897. 


5 
years, 

1888 to 
1892. 


5 
years. 

1883 to 
1887. 


5 10 

years, years, 

1878 to 1868 to 

1882. 1877. 


10 
years, 
1858 to 
1867. 


NatiTB father and mother 


3,413 


3,453 


3,422 


16,762 


16,511 


15,001 


14,169 


^,645 


20,321 


Foreign father and mother 


5,307 


5,318 


5,292 


25,084 


18,737 


15,245 


13,562 


26,356 


19,665 


Native father, foreign mother. . 


1,014 


998 


l,a39 


4,819 


4,021 


3,044 


2,327 


3,135 


1,690 


Foreign father, natiye mother. . 


996 


1,026 


997. 


4,795 


4,037 


3,378 


2,887 


4,077 


1,696 




















293 




10,730 










36,668 








Total 


10,7^ 


10,750 


51,460 


43,306 


32,945 . 59,213 


43.665 



1898.] 



BIRTHS. 



133 



Tlie followiug- Table of j^crceiitages will show, in u difiereut and 
perhaps clearer way, the same chanw-es that have occuned in the 
proportions of the births in the different classes of parentage 
dining the last three years ; and during forty-one years, from 1858 
to 1898, inclusive, in four periods of five years each and two of 
ten years : 

Table XXIII. 



PARENTAGE. 


1898. 1897. 


1896. 


5 

years, 

1893 to 

1897. 


5 

years. 
1888 to 
1892. 


5 5 10 1 10 

years, years, years, years. 

1883 to 1878 to 1868 to 185S to 

1887. 1882. j 18T7. , ISti". 

1 1 


Native father and mother 


31.81 


31.99 31.83 


32.60 


.38.25 


40.91 


43.03 


43.36 


46.84 


Foreign father and mother 


49.46 


49.26 49.23 


48.73 


43.14 


41.58 


41.23 


44.53 


45.38 


Native father, foreign mother.. 


9.45 


9.25 


9.67 


9.86 


9.30 


8.30 


6.% 


5.37 


3.89 


Foreign father, native mother.. 


9.28 


9.50 


9.27 


9.31 


9.31 


9.21 


8.79 


6.74 


3.91 


Total 


100.00 


i 
100.00 100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 100.00 

















The registration of births, in 1898, is of interest as showing a 
smaller proportion of children born of native fathers than of for- 
eign fathers. A considerable number of those recorded as native 
fathers were themselves children of foreign parentage. 

The percentage of children of mixed parentage was about the 
same, in 1898, as in the previous year. 

The following table will present the percentages of children of 
native and of foreign-born fathers, and of native and foreign-liorn 
mothers, respectively, in each of the last three years, and in each 
of four periods of five yeai"S each and two of ten years each, fi-om 
1858 to 1898, inclusive : 

Table XXTV^ 



CHILDREN WITH 



1897. 



1896. 



5 I 5 ' 5 I 5 1 10 i 10 
years, ' years, years, i years, years, years, 
1893 to 1S88 to 188;i to 1878 to 1868 to 1S58 to 
1897. 1892. i 1887. I 1883. ; 1877. ; 1867. 



Native fathers 41.26 

Foreign fathers i 58.74 

Native mothers '41.09 

Foreign motliers 58.91 

17 



41.24 41.50 
58.76 i 58.50 



41.49 \ 41.10 
58.51 I 58.90 



41.96 
58.04 



41.91 
58.09 



47.56 49.21 j 50.08 
52.44 51.79 49.98 



47.57 
52.43 



49.91 51.79 
50.09 ; 48.21 



48.7S 
51.27 



50.73 
49.26 



50.10 50.75 
49.90 49.25 



134 FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 

The percentage of the children born of foreign fathers and of 
foreign mothers, during 1898, was about the same as in 1897. 

The number of native fathers of children born, in 1898, was 
1,876 less than the number of foreign fathers, and the number of 
native mothers was 1,912 less than of foreign. 



Births of Colored Children. 

The number of births of children of colored parentage reported 
for the year 1898 is 216. This number is 10 more than in 1897, 
and also 10 less than in 1896. 

In regard to sex, the numbers and proportions were as follows, 
viz. : males, 105 ; females, 111 ; or 94.6 males to each 100 females. 

As the number of colored persons in the State was, according 
to the census of 1895, 7,928, the ratio of births in this class would 
be 27.2 per thousand, or 1 to each 36.7 colored inhabitants. 

The following summary will show the changes that have occurred 
from year to year, in the proportions of the sexes of colored chil- 
dren born in Rhode Island, during the last twenty -three years : 

Whole Males to each 

Years. Number. Males. Females. 100 Females. 

1876-1885 1,763 849 913 93.0 

1886 213 117 95 123.0 

1887 311 Ill 100 111.0 

1888 203 109 93.. 117.3 

1889 194 87 107 81.3 

1890 183 89 94 94.6 

1891 173 86 87 98.9 

1892 183 94 88 106.8 

1893 203 91 113 81 .3 

1894 221 113 108 104.6 

1895 221 117 104 113.5 

1896 336 104 123 85.3 

1897 206 100 106 94.3 

1898 216 105 Ill 94.6 

The following Table will show the location, number, sex, etc., 
of colored births durins- 1898 : 



1898. 



JtlKTIIS. 



135 



Table XXV. 
Shounny Number, Sex, etc., of Colored JJIr/hs, 1S98. 



TOWNS AND CITIES. 



Barriiigton 

Rristol 

Warwick 

Jamestown 

Newport Citt 

New Shoreham 

Portsmouth 

Central Falls 

Cranston 

East Providence 

Johnston 

Pawtucket 

Providence Citt — 

Narragansctt District 

North Kingstown 

South Kingstown 

Richmond 

Westerly ^ 

Whole State 



Whole 








Males. 


Females. 


Number. 






1 
2 




1 

1 


1 


.3 


3 




3 




3 


34 


17 


IV 


1 
3 




1 
3 




3 
3 




3 
o 


1 


3 


2 


1 


1 
5 




1 

3 


2 


133 


08 


C.5 


2 


1 


1 


3 


2 


1 


11 


G 


5 


1 
4 


1 
1 




3 


216 


105 


111 



COUNTIES. 



Bristol County 3 

Kent County 3 



Newport County 41 



Providence County.. 148 



Washington County. 21 
216 



Number of Child of the Mother. 

In the following- tulile will be found the number of the child of 
the mother born during" 1898 ; that is, how many of the children 
born were reported as the first, second, or third child, etc., of their 
respective mothers. The statistics on tliis subject beg-in with the 
year 1857, and the following Table includes the children rei)orted 
during the last six years, and also the total for forty-two 3'eai"S, 
1857 to 1898, inclusive : 



136 



POETY-SIXTH EEGISTEATIOSr REPORT. 

Table XXVI. 



[1898. 



Number of tub Child of the Mother. 



1893. 



1894. 



1895. 



1896. 



1897. 



1898. 



42 years, 
1857-1898, 



First 

Second 

Third . 

Fourth 

Fifth 

Sixth 

Seventh 

Eighth 

Ninth 

Tenth 

Eleventh 

Twelfth 

Thirteenth 

Fourteentli 

Fifteenth 

Sixteenth 

Seventeenth — 

Eighteenth 

Nineteenth 

Twentieth 

Twenty-first 

Twenty-second. 
Unstated 



a,500 
1,981 
1,484 
1,138 
825 



297 

224 

160 

107 

81 

44 

23 

12 

9 

3 

1 

1 



100 



Total 10,048 



2,377 

2,026 

1,519 

1,106 

818 

578 

445 

306 

203 

148 

112 

73 

71 

28 

12 

12 

3 

4 



2,329 

2,008 

1,512 

1,129 

895 

640 

429 

304 

203 

148 

102 

65 

36 

27 

22 

5 

2 

2 

2 



2,574 

2,125 

1,672 

1,233 

918 

666 

488 

337 

259 

161 

123 

71 

40 

26 

12 

13 

4 

3 

3 



2,438 

2,098 

1,687 

1,291 

927 

712 

499 

342 

260 

180 

132 

89 

50 

37 

14 

6 

4 



142 



22 



22 



2,393 

2,059 

1,631 

1,310 

982 

715 

532 

378 

231 

180 

105 

80 

54 

33 

10 

5 



67,871 

55,280 

42,866 

32,350 

24,152 

17,705 

12,711 

9,038 

6,130 

4,175 

2,599 

1,678 

975 

517 

272 

142 

80 

35 

24 

8 

4 

S 

334 



9,985 



9,882 



10,750 



10,795 



10,730 



278,948 



There was a decrease of 65 in the whole number of births in 
1898 from the number in 1897. 

There are varying differences in the proportions of all classes 
in the different years. 

The most of those in the class " Unstated " (number of the child 
of the mother) were French Canadians and Italians. 

There were eight returns of births in the seventeenth and three 
in the nineteenth classes. 

The proportion of each class to the whole number will be shown 
by the following Table, which gives the percentage of the children 
born in each of the last four years who were respectively the first, 
second, third, etc., children of the mothers ; and which will also 
give the average percentage of each class of births in each of the 



18!JS. 



nruTirf!. 



137 



last four years, and also in two ])eriods of ten years and two 
periods of live years cominTsinq- the tliirty-one years from 1808 
to 181)8, inclusive : 



Ni:mi!?;i! or I'lii-; ( 'iiii.i). 



First 

Second 

Third 

F<iiirtli 

Fifth 

First to Fifth 

Sixth and over, and unstated 

Total 



1898. 



22.30 
10.19 
15.20 
12.20 
9.15 



78.04 
21.90 



100.00 



1807. 

22.58 
19.43 
15.03 
11.9G 
8.59 



78.19 
21.81 



100.00 



1890. 



23.94 
19.77 
15.55 
11.47 
8.54 



79.27 
20.63 



1895. 



23.57 
20.32 
15.30 
11.42 
9.06 



79.67 
20.33 



100.00 100.00 



5 

years, 
1893 to 
1897. 



28.78 
19.90 
1.5.29 
11.45 
8.52 



78.94 
21.00 



100.00 



5 
years, 
1888 to 
1892. 


10 

years, 

1878 to 

1887. 


10 
years, 
1808 to 


25.20 


23.7 


25.2 


19.77 


19.1 


20.7 


14.94 


15.5 


1.5.5 


11.10 


11.7 


11.4 


8.23 


8.8 


8.4 


79.24 


78.8' 


81.1 


20.76 


21.2 


18.9 


100.00 


100.0 


100.00 



Table XXVII. 

Shoiviug the Ages of tJie Fathers and Mothers of Children horn 

in 1898. 















Ages 


OF Mothers. 










05 


Ages of Fathers. 


u 

in 

1 
1 
1 
5 


12 


£ 


od 
>> 

00 


£ 

2 


n 

1 


t 

o 

CO 


^ 
^ 
^ 
§ 


o 


in. 

3 


i 
<i> 
>^ 

o 


£ 

SS 

? 

in 
in 

o 
in 


13 


1 

O 

d 
{5 


18 years 


1 

14 
1 

1 


1 
6 
14 
22 
2 


1 

8 
67 
35 
6 
S 
1 


5 
98 
45 
17 

8 


2 

7 

769 

1,109 

332 

91 

23 

15 

8 

1 


1 
1 

162 

1,401 

1,078 

397 

85 

29 

3 

8 

1 

2 






r. 


19 years 


16 

239 

1,106 

718 

242 

101 

14 

6 

1 


1 

1 

29 

1.58 

719 

454 

164 

47 

7 

7 










29 


20-25 years 


1 
2 

18 

84 

256 

168 

57 

15 

2 

1 




] 


I.IU 
2888 


25-30 years 




30-35 years 


1 
1 

12 
28 
9 
4 






2,719 

2,021 

1,078 

505 


.35-40 years 




40-45 years 








:: 




45-50 years 








50-55 years 












183 


55-00 years 












36 


GO 05 years, 
















11 


05-70 years 




















3 


70-75 years 
















2 
4 








a 


ITnstated 




2 


3 


7 


IS 


42 


19 


10 








59 


159 













Number of Mothers. . . 


8 


19 


48 


128 


186 


2,394 


3,182 


2,453 


1,593 j 004 


55 1 


59 


10,780 



138 FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATIOK REPORT. [1898. 

The nativity of the mothers under 19 years was as follows : of 
the eight at 15 years, 4 were American, 2 were Italian, 1 was 
Canadian, and 1 Portuguese. 

Of the nineteen at 16 years, 17 were American, 1 was Scotch, 
and 1 Italian. 

Of the forty-eight at 17 years, 25 were American, 9 Italian, 6 
Canadian, 3 Portuguese, 2 Armenian, 2 Swedish, and 1 Russian. 

Of the one hundred and twenty-eight at 18 years, 81 were 
American, 20 Canadian, 8 Italian, 5 English, 4 Portuguese, 3 Rus- 
sian, 2 Swedish, 1 Armenian, 1 Irish, 1 Nova Scotian, 1 Scotch, 1 
Syrian. 

The 10,730 children were divided as follows, to mothers of dif- 
ferent age periods : 

Number of Mothers. Per cent. 

Under twenty years 389 3.63 

Twenty, and under twenty-five 2,.394 22.31 

Twenty-five, and under thirty 3,182 29.65 

Thirty, and under thirty-five 3,453 22.86 

Thirty-five, and under forty 1,593 14.85 

Forty, and under forty-five 604 .- 5. 63 

Forty-five and over 56 53 

Unstated age 59 55 

Total 10,730 100.00 

Plurality Births. 

The general statistics in relation to plural births, in Rhode 
Island, may be found on page 8, table III. 

There were one hundred and fifteen cases during the year, one 
hundred and twelve of which were twins and three were triplets, 
thus making the number of two hundred and thirty-three children. 

Of the 233 children of plural birth, 109 were males and 124 were 
females. 

The cases occurred in the different divisions of the State as fol- 
lows : Bristol county, 1 ; Kent county, 8 ; Newport county towns, 
3 ; Newport city, 10 ; Providence county towns, 32* ; Providence 
city, 50 ; Washington county, 8. 

The following exhibit will show the parentage of children of 
plural birth in Rhode Island, in 1898, and number of each : 

* Including Central Palls, Pawtucket, and Woonsocket. 



1808.] itiiiTiFS. 130 

Parents both native Americans v;5 

•' " Austrlans 1 

" British Americans 2 

" French Canadians 17 

" " born in England '^ 

France 1 

" " '■ Germany 2 

Ireland 12 

Italy 8 

" " " Portugal 4 

" ■* ■' IJussia , 3 

Scotland o 

Sweden 1 

Native father and British American mother 2 

Native father and F"renfli Canadian mother 3 

Native father and Enijrlish mother 2 

Native father and Irish mother 7 

Belgian father and Irish mother j 

British American father and Irish mother 2 

English father and American mother 4 

English father and Irish mother 2 

French Canadian father and American mother 2 

German father and Swiss mother 1 

Irish father and native mother 

Irish father and English mother 1 

Norwegian father and Swedish mother 1 

Scotch father and British American mother 1 

Total births 115 

Total children 233 

The months in which the phirality births occurred Avere ;is t\)l- 
lows : 

■lanuary 18 April 7 July M October 7 

February May 12 • August 12 November 9 

March 10 June 5 September -1 December 8 

First Quarter 37 Second (Juartor. . .21 Third Quarter 30 Fourth Quarter.. . .24 

First half of year 01 Second half of year 5» 

Total 11.-, 

The soii^i'il stiitistics of births, aiul number of C(m\s reported 
in Rhode Ishind during- a period of forty -live years, that is, from 
1854 to 1808, inclusive, are as follows : 



140 FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. [1898. 

385,740 cases of single births giving 285,740 children. 

3,015 cases of twin births giving 6,030 childi'en. 

31 cases of triple births giving 93 children . 

1 ease of quadruple births giving 4 children. 

Of tlie whole number of cases of child-birth (288,787) during the 
forty -five years, one in 95.8 produced twins, one in 9,316 produced 
triplets, and one in 288,787 produced quadruplets. 

Of the whole number of children born during the same period 
(291,867), ascertained from the reports, one in every 48.4 was a 
twin ; one in every 3,138 was a triplet. 

Of the 3,047 cases of plurality births which have occurred in the 
State during the last forty-five years, there were 1,154 cases in 
which both parents were natives ; 1,461 cases in which both parents 
were foreign ; 423 cases in which the parents were mixed, that is, 
one native and one foreign parent ; and 9 in which the parentage 
was not stated. 

The whole number of children born in plurality cases, during 
the forty-five years, was 6,127, of whom 3,089 were males, and 
3,034 were females ; the sex of the remaining four was not given. 

Still-Born. 

The whole number of still-born children reported in Rhode 
Island, for the year 1898, was 413 ; this number is 10 less than for 
the year 1897. 

The following are the numbers reported from the different divis- 
ions of the State : 

Bristol County 11 

Kent County 33 

Newport County Towns 11 

Newport City 31 

Providence County Towns 60 

Central Falls 8 

Pawtuoket 28 

Providence City 208 

Woonsocket 20 

Washington County 13 

Whole State 413 

The following Table will give the number in each town from 
which still-births were reported, with the sex, parentage, and 
color : 



1898.] 



BIRTirS. 



141 



Ta]$le XXVIII. 
Still-Born, 1898, LocaHiy, Number, Sex, Parentage, and Color. 



TOWNS AND DIVISIONS OF 
THE STATE. 



Bristol 

Warren 

Bbistol Coux'] 



Coventry 

East Greenwich. 

Warwick 

Kemt County... 



Little Compton 

Middletown 

Newport City 

New Shoreliam 

Portsmouth 

Tiverton 

Newport County . 



Burrillville 

Central Falls 

Cranston 

Cumberland 

East Providence 

Glocester 

Johnston 

Lincoln 

North Providence — 

Pawtucket 

Providence City 

Soituate 

woonsocket 

Providence County, 



Exeter 

North Kingstown. 
South Kinpstown. 

Westerly 

Washington Coi> 



42 

4 

8 
12 

8 
14 

1 

3 
12 

3 
28 
208 

8 



324 

3 

6 
1 
3 



Total 418 



18 



17 

112 

2 

12 
182 



PARENTAQK. 



142 
3 



10 



240 178 



10 



13 



2 
12 

3 
15 
131 

1 
12 



120 


198 


3 




5 


1 


1 




1 


2 



4 

8 
12 

8 
14 

1 

3 
12 

3 
28 
193 

8 
20 



309 
3 



13 

393 



15 



142 



FORTY-SIXTH KEGISTEATION EEPORT. 



[1898. 



Summary of Sex of Still- Born. 

The following- table shows the number and sex of the still-born 
children whose births were reported in Rhode Island during- each 
of the last five years, and also of a period of forty -five years, ex- 
tending from January 1, 1854:, to December 31, 1898 : 

Table XXIX. 















Jan. 1, 1854, 


SEX. 


1898. 


1897. 


1896. 


1895. 


1894. 


to 
Dec. 31, 1898. 


Males 


240 


258 


244 


233 


211 


6,470 
4,591 


Females 


173 


165 


180 


144 


181 




Total 


413 


423 


424 


367 


392 


11,061 





The average proportions of the sexes of the still-born, for the 
period of forty-five years, were as follows : In every 100 still- 
births there were about 58 males and 42 males. 

Season of Still-Births. — During 1898 the proportions in relation 
to season, by percentage, were as follows : 

1898. 1898. 

First Quarter 25.42 Third Quarter 22.52 

Second Quarter , 27.60 Fourth Quarter 24.46 



Per cent, first half of the year 53 . 02 Last half of the year , 



46.98 



The births of the still-born in the different months of the year, 
although somewhat variable in number, do not, as a rule, show- 
great discrepancies. 



Parentage of the Still-Boen. 

Of the 413 still-born children reported in 1898 there were 176 
of native, and 237 of foreign parentage, reckoned by the nativity 
of the fathers, that is, the father's name given : and 171 of native 
and 242 of foreign, reckoned by the nativity of the mothers, name 
of father given or not given. 



1898.] 



BITlTnS. 



143 



Illegitimates. 

In the following- Table will be found the whole inimbor of ille;,'-it- 
inijite births returned during 1898, with the sex, color, parentage, 
and locality of birth : 

Table XXX. 
Illegitimates, 1S98. '» 





S 

a 

o 

ja 


SEX. 


COLOR. 


PAnENTAOE. 


"3 


TOWNS. 


Is 


a 


6 

3 


O 

5 


1 




•cc 

a o 

|l 
1'" 


Bristol 


1 
1 
1 

8 
1 
2 

6 
3 

2 i 
70 
3 
2 
2 
1 


1 

1 
1 

2 
2 
3 

37 


4 

1 

83 
1 
2 
2 


1 
1 

1 
2 

1 
1 
5 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
61 
3 
2 
2 
1 


1 

1 
1 

9 


1 

1 
1 
7 
1 
2 
6 
2 

43 

2 
2 

1 








1 










1 
1 




NEwroKT City 


2 










1 


5 






East Providence 


1 






Qlocester 












Lincoln 






North Smithfield 








1 

27 
3 






43 






Charlestown 




UopkintOD 




















111 


56 


55 


99 


12 


76 


35 


51 







There were returns, dTuing 1898, of 111 children of illegitimate 
parentage. The number is 17 less than that of the previous year. 

Sex. — Of the 111, there were 56 males and 55 females. 



144 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898'. 



Color. — Of tlie 111 illegitimates born during- 1898, 99, or 89,2 
per cent., were white ; and 12, or 10.8 per cent., were colored. 

Parentage. — Of the 111, 76, or 68.5 per cent, of all, were born of 
native mothers ; and 35, or 31.5 per cent., of foreign born mothers. 
The colored illegitimates were all of native parentage. There 
were of the 99 white illegitimates, 64 born of native mothers, and 
35 of foreign mothers. 

The ages of the mothers were as follows : 



No. of 
Age. Mothers. 

16 3 

17 3 

18 ,.. 7 

19 14 

20 15 

31 9 

32 4 



No. of 
Age. Mothers. 

23 14 

24 4 

25 6 

26 2 

27 9 

28 4 

29 2 



No. of 
Age. Mothers. 

30 8 

31 3 

33 t 

35 % 

39 1! 

Unknown.. i 

Total , 1111 



Fifty-one of the illegitimates were born of indigent, pauper, or 
criminal mothers, in public, charitable, or penal institutions. 

Forty-three of these fifty-one births occurred at the Lying-in- 
Hospital, in the city of Providence. 

The proportion of illegitimates to the whole number of births 
was about one in every 97 cases, or about ten in every 1,000. 



MARRIAGES, 1898. 



The number of marriages registered in Rhode Island, during" 
the year 1898, was 3,278. This number is 49 less than in 1896, 
and 1-41 more than in 1897. 

The general statistics of marriage, in 1898, in relation to season 
and number, in the different divisions of the State, may be found 
in Tal)le IV, on the ninth page. 

The statistics in relation to the proportion to population of per- 
sons married in 1898, in each of the towns and general divisions 
of the State, may be found in Tables XV and XVI, on pages 118 
and 121. 

The following Table will present the number of marriages, and 
the ratio of marriage to population, in each year for a period of 
thirty -nine years, 18G0 to 1898, inclusive : 



146 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table XXXI. 



YEARS. 



1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 



1,748 
1,533 
1,450 
1,618 
1,844 
1,896 
2,318 
2,344 
2,285 
2,289 
2,362 
2,336 
2,537 
2,630 
2,541 
2,485 
2,253 
2,282 
2,324 
2,396 
2,769 



<s> a 

p.rH 

Org 



O to fc, 



Jp-I o 



50.0 
56.8 
61.1 
54.7 
50.1 
48.7 
39.9 
39.8 
40.5 
47.5 
46.0 
46.5 
42.9 
41.3 
50.8 
52.0 
57.3 
56.6 
55.7 
57.8 
49.9 



a> 

%^ 

^ P 
oSPh 

oo g 

mo O 



20.0 
17.6 
15.1 
18.3 
19.9 
20.5 
25.1 
25.1 
24.8 
21.1 
21.7 
21.5 
23.2 
24.2 
19.6 
19.2 
17.5 
17.7 
17.9 
17.5 
20.0 



YEARS. 



1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 



2,750 
2,634 
2,611 
2,558 
2,488 
2,750 
2,839 
3,022 
3,029 
3,195 
3,320 
3,502 
3,544 
3,271 
3,497 
3,327 
3,137 
3,278 



Annual average.. 



0"^ 



fto >. 

O ai t- 

a. t; "^ 



50.3 
52.5 
54.4 
58.1 
61.3 
56.5 
55.8 
53.5 
57.8 
54.1 
53.5 
52.4 
53.6 
57.4 
55.0 
59.2 
64.3 
63.2 



53.7 



Season. 

The following' Table will show the number and percentag-e of 
marriages in Bhode Island, in each month and each quarter of 
the year 1898, together with the aggregate number and percent- 
age in each quarter for forty-five years, viz., from 1854 to 1898, 
inclusive : 



1898.J 



MAKUIACiKS. 

Taijle XXXII. 



147 



MONTHS. 



January- ■ 
February 
Marcli.... 



April. 
May.. 
June.. 



July 

August 

September. 

October . . . 
November . 
December. . 



Total. 



•£2 
S5 



am 



2671 
I 

258}- 
I 

152J 

3211 
I 

201 1- 
I 

396 J 

1861 
I 

231 }• 
I 

332 J 

3431 
I 

384 1- 
I 

210 J 



Number of Mar- 
riages each Quar- 
ter, 1898. 



1st Quarter. .. 675 



2d Quarter ... 918 



3d Quarter.... 749 



4th Quarter . . 936 



3,278 



Oao 






20.59 



28.00 



22.85 



28.56 



100.00 



Number of Mar- 
riages per Quarter, 
45 yrs., 1854-1898. 






1st Quarter. .23,.536 21.48 



2d Quarter... 28,284] 25.82 



3d Quarter... 25,627 28. S 



4th Quarter.. 32,118 29.31 



♦109.585 100.00 



The largest number of marriages in any one month, during 1898, 
occurred in the month of June. For thirty-eight years previous 
to 1892 the greatest number of marriages was in the month of 
November. Since then, with the exception of in 1895, the greatest 
number of marriages has been in the month of June. The rule 
has been as follows : the largest proportion in the last quarter • 
the next largest in the second quarter ; followed by the third 
quarter ; and, finally, the tirst quarter having the smallest propor- 
tion of any. In 1893, 189-4, and 1896, the largest proportion was 
in the second quarter. 

During 1898 the proportions in the different quarters, from the 
largest to the smallest, were as follows : fourth quarter, 29.31 per 
cent. ; second quarter, 25.82 per cent. ; third quarter, 23.39 per 
cent. ; tirst quarter, 21.48 per cent. 

Natb'ity of Persons Married. 

The following Table shows the nui/iher of marriages, according 
to the nativities of the parties, for each of the last four years, and 

* Including 20, date not given, recorded previous to 1860. 



148 



FOKTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



also for the aggregate of twenty-five years, from 1858 to 1882, in- 
clusive ; of five years, from 1883 to 1887, inclusive ; of five years, 
from 1888 to 1892, inclusive ; and of five years, from 1893 to 1897, 
inclusive : 

Table XXXIII. 



BIRTH-PLACE. 


1898. 


1897. 


1896, 


1895. 


5 

years, 

1893 to 

1897. 

Total. 


5 

years, 

1888 to 

1892. 

Total. 


5 

years, 

1883 to 

1887. 

Total. 


35 
years, 
1858 to 
1882, 
Total. 


United States 


1,5S3 
991 
402 
363 


1,494 
942 
344 
357 


1,587 

1,021 

363 

356 


1,649 

1,088 

390 

370 


7,846 
5,318 
1,785 
1,827 


7,813 
4,973 
1,637 
1,645 


7,157 
3,601 
1,323 
1,165 


33,553 
13,753 




Native groom, foreign bride 

Foreign groom, native bride 

Not stated 


3,488 

3,876 

64 




















Total 


3,278 


3,137 


3,337 


3,497 


16,776 


16,068 


13,246 


54,734 







It will be understood that in the above enumerations the parent 
nativity of the persons married is not considered, but the country 
where born. 

Parties born in the United States, although children of foreign 
born parents, are reckoned as natives. 

In the following Table are given the percentages by birth, of 
native, foreign, and mixed marriages, in each of the last four years, 
and in the aggregate of five years, 1893 to 1897, inclusive ; of five 
years, 1888 to 1892, inclusive ; of five years, 1883 to 1887, inclu- 
sive ; and of twenty-five years, 1858 to 1882, inclusive : 

Table XXXIV. 



BIRTH-PLACE. 



United States 

Foreign countries 
Mixed nativity... 

Total 



1898. 


1897. 


1896. 


1895. 


5 years, 
1893-1897. 


5 years, 
1888-1892. 


5 years, 
1883-1887. 


46.43 
30.23 
23.34 


47.62 
80.03 
32.35 


47.70 
30.69 
31.61 


47.16 
31.11 
21.73 


46.81 
31.65 
21.54 


48.62 
30:95 
20.43 


54.02 
37.19 
18.79 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 



25 years, 

1858-1883. 

61.30 
25.13 

13.57 

100.00 



It will be of some interest to notice that by the exhibit of the 
two preceding Tables it is shown that, although the marriages of 



1898.] 



MAIlUIAOrS. 



149 



the Uiitivo boiii (wliotlior the issue of foreiiirii Itoiii parents or u.-u 
tives) have, as a rule, hicreased in numhers, they have also steadily 
decreaaeiJ in proportion, ■with two or three exceptional years, that 
is, to the whole number of marriages ; while the marriages of the 
class of the exclusively foreign born have been, for the past thirty 
years, gradually increasing in proportion. 

Denominational: — The 3,278 marriages in 1898 were performed 
by clergymen of various denominations, or by civil authority, as 
follows : 

Denominational. 



Boman Catholio 1.315 

Baptist 507 

Protestant Episcopal 378 

Congregational 284 

Methodist 271 

Free Baptist. . , 91 

Lutheran 75 

Universalist 67 

Christian 47 

Presbyterian 32 

Justices of Supreme Court 31 

Hebrew 30 

Advent 23 

Seventh Daj- Baptist IG 

United Presbyterian IG 



Evangelical 12 

Advent Christian 12 

Primitive Methodist 10 

People's Mission 10 

Disciples of Christ 8 

Unitarian 7 

Armenian 5 

Second Advent 5 

Independent 4 

Friends' Ceremony 3 

Latter Day Saints 3 

New Jerusalem 2 

Warden of New Shoreham 1 

Denomination not stated 10 

Total 3.278 



150 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATIOif REPORT. 



[1898. 



Ages of the Married. 

In the following Table the varying ages of persons married 
during 1898 are presented : 

Table XXXY. 



• 


AGES OF BRIDES. 


CO 

g 




























o 

o 


AGES OP GROOMS. 


























CM 
O 




^ 


^ 


§■ 


}p. 


o 


i6 


o 




g 


Jg 


g 


!> 








o 


2 


o 


o 


O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


g 




t) 


§ 




S 


la 


o 




o 


iO 


o 


CD 


o 


!z; 


Under 20 


52 

307 
102 


22 
745 
495 


3 
124 
361 


1 
16 
69 


1 

12 


3 










•• 




78 


20 to 25 


1,193 


25 to 30 


1,042 


30 to 35 


22 


112 


146 


92 


27 


5 




1 










405 


35 to 40 


13 


46 


77 


51 


44 


7 


5 












243 


40 to 45 


4 


14 


25 


23 


30 


17 


6 












119 


45 to 50 




5 
3 


7 
7 


11 

4 


25 
5 


19 
11 


13 
11 


2 
10 


1 
1 


1 






83 


50 to 55 


1 


54 


55 to 60 




3 


3 


1 
1 
1 


5 
2 


3 
2 
1 


5 

1 
2 


8 
4 
1 
2 


2 

2 
1 


1 
1 

2 




1 


31 


60 to 65 




11 


65 to 70 




1 




10 


70 to 75 




6 


75 to 80 














1 


9, 


3 












151 










Number of Brides . . . 


501 


1,446753 


270 


68 


44 


28 


7 


9 


■• 


1 


3,278 



1898.] 



MARRIAGES. 



IT)! 



The extreme discrepancies in the ages of some conples married 
in 1898 were not so frequent as in some previous years. 

The same results in 1898, in rehition to numbers in the diflerent 
ag-e periods, may be presented in a diflerent and perhaps clearer 
waj^ as follows : 

Table XXXVI. 



1898. 


o 

u 
<u 

a 


in 

o 


o 


o 

s 


o 

o 


iri 

3 

O 


o 
•a 

2 

lO 


o 

o 


§ 
o 

in 
in 


o 
g 


o 


in 
i- 

O 

o 


o 
o 




78 
501 


1,193 
1,446 


l,04i> 
753 


405 
270 


243 
151 


119 
68 


83 
44 


54 

28 


31 


11 
9 


10 


6 
1 


3 












579 


2,639 


1,795 


675 


394 


187 


127 


82 


38 


20 


10 


3 







The whole number of persons in each divisions of ages, of both 
sexes, married in Khode Island in each of the last thirty-three 
years, that is, from 18GG to 1898, inclusive, is presented in the fol- 
lowing Table : 



153 



FOETY-SIXTH EEGISTRATlON REPOET. 



[1898. 



Table XXXVII. 



YEARS. 



1867. 



1870. , 
1871.. 
1872, 
1873. , 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 



1889. , 
1890. . 
1891. 
1893. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 



693 
696 
644 
642 
744 
697 
786 
762 
770 
681 
691 
631 
618 
639 
688 
599 
498 
497 
484 
438 
505 
501 
582 
543 
596 



1,931 

1,886 

1,835 

1,814 

1, 

1,914 

2,073 

2,177 

1,992 

2,058 

1,741 

1,745 

1,832 

1,879 

2,301 

3,208 

2,125 

2,108 

2,027 

1,973 

2,133 

2. 

2,427 

2,463 

2,693 

3,141 

3,011 

2,777 

2,760 

3,763 

2,647 

2,490 

2,639 



1,025 
1,104 
1,050 
1,051 
1,084 
1,118 
1,182 
1,156 
1,179 
1,108 
1,041 
1,118 
1,123 
1,156 
1,262 
1,410 
1,377 
1,370 
1,289 
1,296 
1,552 
1,552 
1,608 
1,493 
1,632 
1,442 
1,729 
1,869 
1,613 
1,887 
1,841 
1,746 
1,795 



419 

416 

433 

468 

415 

393 

434 

50' 

459 

475 

450 

459 

441 

481 

556 

547 

563 

486 

569 

540 

603 

607 

640 

712 

673 

635 

732 

776 

680 

767 

713 

659 

675 



213 

211 

319 

22' 

216 

228 

237 

253 

268 

252 

224 

244 

259 

273 

339 

298 

301 

319 

307 

309 

283 

294 

330 

379 

320 

315 

389 

436 

375 

417 

352 

359 

394 



127 
148 
133 
134 
159 
115 
131 
140 
159 
150 
154 
125 
162 
133 
163 
187 
161 
183 
153 
163 
174 
162 
307 
182 
206 
158 
301 
337 
183 
327 
204 
184 
187 



73 
81 
87 
101 
101 
80 
93 
74 
78 
91 
107 
103 
115 
114 
103 
103 
114 
105 
121 
102 
115 
122 
133 
150 
142 
124 
125 
127 



59 



In the following Table will be found the number and proportion 
of the persons married under 20 years of age, both sexes, in eight 



1898. 



Marriages. 



153 



periods of five years each, from 185G to 18'.).'), inclnsive; for the 
whole period of forty years, iiiid in 179G, 1897, and 1898 : 

Table, XXXVIII. 



5-YEAR PERIODS, 


1i 

a 

Eh o. 


o 

i = 


a 

a 
« 

2 


1856-1860 


15,8.38 
16,682 
23,196 
25,058 
24,048 
26,082 
29,670 
31,268 


3,294 
2,406 
3.419 
3.696 
3,267 
2,516 
2,727 
3,249 


20 79 


18G1-1865 


14.42 


1866-1870 


14 74 


1871-1875 


14.75 


1876-1880 


13 59 


1881-1885 


9 65 


1886-1890 


9 19 


1891-1805 


9 48 






40 years. 1856-1895 


194,842 
6.654 
6,274 
6.556 


24,574 
617 
543 
579 


12 61 


1896 


9 27 


1 897 


8 64 


1898 


8 83 







Per cent., first fifteen years 

Percent., second fifteen years. 
Per cent., last three years 



.16.37 
.12.60 
. 8.92 



154 



fOKTlr-SlXTH ilEGiSTEATIOiq" REPORT. 



[1898. 



Proportion of Sex. 

Table exhibiting the percentages of grooms in each division of 
ages, in each of the last thirty -nine years : 

Table XXXIX. 



TEARS. 



861, 

862, 
863, 
864. 
865. 
866. 
867. 
868, 
869 
870, 
871 
872, 
873, 
874, 
875, 
876, 
877, 
878 
879 
880, 
881 
882, 
883, 
884 
885 
886 
887 
888 
889 
890 
891 
893 
893 
894 
895 



42.8 
44.5 
37.8 
38.0 
38.8 
37.0 
40.9 
40.1 
39.9 
39.6 
40.4 
40.1 
41.3 
42.4 
40.4 
40.9 
37.5 
36.0 
38.5 
37.8 
38.9 
37.2 
86.0 
36.2 
36.2 
34.7 
35.2 
37.1 
36.1 
37.6 
36.9 
44.7 
40.1 
35.3 
37.4 
36.0 
35.5 
35.5 
36.4 



36.9 
25.4 
27.9 
29.6 
37.3 
38.4 
S7.0 
27.9 
28.2 
27.7 
28.1 
28.9 
28.2 
26.7 
27.2 
37.8 
28.6 
30.3 
29.0 
28.8 
27.5 
29.7 
31.4 
31.7 
39.1 
30.2 
31.9 
31.6 
31.1 
37.8 
30.8 
26.4 
29.3 
30.7 
29.3 
30.6 
33.2 
32.6 
31.8 



16.3 
15.5 
18.3 
17.3 
17.9 
18.9 
16.4 
16.8 
17.1 
18.5 
16.0 
16.5 
16.6 
17.0 
17.5 
17.6 
17.9 
18.7 
18.0 
19.3 
19.9 
19.5 
30.0 
17.7 
21.1 
30.9 
19.6 
19.6 
19.8 
31.3 
18.9 
17.3 
19.0 
31.0 
19.9 
21.0 
19.6 
19.3 
19.8 



5.7 

5.8 

5.9 

5.8 

7.4 

7.5 

6.3 

6.8 

6.1 

6.1 

6.4 

4.9 

5.2 

6.0 

6.4 

6.1 

5.6 

5.9 

6.3 

5.4 

5.8 

6.8 

6.1 

7.2 

6.2 

6.8, 

6.8 

6.2 

6.5 

6.6 

6.1 

5.3 

6.1 

6.3 

6.8 

6.3 

6.1 

6.3 

6.1 



3.3 

4.2 
5.9 
5.9 
4.3 
4.7 
4.1 
4.1 
4.6 
3.8 
4.3 
4.3 
4.4 
4.1 
4.4 
4.2 
4.3 
6.9 
4.3 
4.8 
4.8 
4.0 
4.3 
4.3 
5.0 
4.8 
4.0 
3.8 
3.7 
4.4 
4.0 
3.3 
3.2 
3.8 
3.6 
3.9 
3.5 
4.0 
3.5 



1898.] 



MA Kill AGES. 



155 



Table exhibitin-j;- tlio percentag-es of brides in eacli division of 
ages, in each of the last tliirty-iiino years : 

Table XL. 



YEARS. 



ri860. 
1801. 
18G2 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1870. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883., 
1884., 
1885., 
1886., 
1887., 
1888., 
1889., 
1890., 
1891.. 
1892. . 



1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
11898. 



25.8 
29. 6 
24.9 
24.9 
24.2 
22.6 
24.7 
25.4 
24.4 
24.1 
26.8 
24.6 
26.7 
25.3 
26.3 
23.9 
25.6 
23.4 
22.7 
22.8 
•21.1 
19.0 
10.7 
1G.2 
16.4 
14.9 
15.8 
15.9 
16.4 
15.1 
15.4 
17.4 
16.8 
16.2 
15.7 
15.3 
16.4 
14.9 
15.3 



44.1 
42.0 
41.3 
42.6 
43.4 
43.3 
43.9 
40.5 
40.9 
40.5 
39.4 
41.9 
40.5 
40.8 
.38.1 
42.1 
39.8 
40.4 
40.4 
40.7 
44.2 
43.0 
44.8 
44.2 
43.0 
44.6 
42.4 
44.1 
44.3 
43.7 
47.3 
49.9 
45.9 
43.0 
47.0 
43.0 
44.1 
43.9 
44.1 



3 

17.0 
15.2 
16.7 
16.9 
17.8 
19.1 
17.4 
19.3 
18.1 
18.7 
17.9 
19.1 
18.4 
17.5 
19.3 
16.8 
17.6 
18.8 
19.3 
19.4 
18.0 
21.5 
20.9 
20.6 
21.3 
21.8 
24.5 
22.8 
82.1 
21.5 
20.4 
17.0 
20.1 
22.0 
20.0 
23.4 
22.1 
23.1 
22.9 



9.1 

7.8 
11.8 

9.8 
10.3 
11.0 
11.0 
10. 
11.6 
12.1 
10.8 
10.1 

9.9 
12.0 
11.1 
11.8 
12.0 
12.1 
12.2 
13.1 
12.0 
11.3 
12.6 
13.3 
13.3 
13.2 
12.5 
13.1 
12.4. 
14.7 
12.0 
11.4 
13.0 
13.3 
12.3 
12.8 
13.4 
18.2 
12.9 





u 




0) 








o 




"O 


o 


c 


■*-• 


S3 


o 


o 




in 



2.6 

4.1 
4.1 
4.1 
2.9 
3.5 
2.7 
3.4 
3.3 
3.4 
3.9 
3.1 
o o 

2.7 
3.9 
4.0 
3.7 
3.6 
3.8 
3.0 
3.3 
3.8 
3.9 
4.3 
4.2 
3.8 
3.3 
3.5 
3.7 
3.4 
3.6 
3.1 
3.1 
4.1 
3.4 
4.3 
3.8 
3.5 
3.4 



1.4 
1.3 
1.2 
1.7 
1.4 
1.5 
1.3 
1.4 
1.7 
1.3 
1.3 
1.3 
1.3 
1.7 
1.3 
1.4 
1.3 
1.7 
1.6 
2.0 
1.4 
1.5 
1.1 
1.5 
1.9 
1.7 
1.5 
1.6 
1.1 
1.6 
1.3 
1.2 
1.1 
1.4 
1.6 
1.3 
1.2 
1.4 
1.4 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100 
100.0 
lOO.O 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



156 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTEATIOIST EEPORT. 



[1898. 



It will be noticed in the preceding tables that the proportions 
of persons married of both sexes, under 20 years of age, largely 
decreased during the last decade. 

Of grooms, the proportion, compared with the first decade, has 
decreased nearly 40 per cent., and of females about 37 per cent. 

The proportion of males married, between the ages of tAventy 
and twenty-five, has decreased over 6 per cent., and has corre- 
spondingly increased in the more advanced age periods. 

The proportion of females married, between twenty and twenty- 
five years of age, has not varied much, while of those between 
twenty-five and forty there has been an increase of proportion 
similar to that of males. 



Number of Times Married. 

There will be found in the following Table the number of grooms 
and of brides who were married for the first, second, third, etc., 
time in 1898 : 





Table XLI. 






/' • 




First 
Marriage. 


Second 
Marriage. 


Third 
Marriage. 


Fourth 
Marriage. 


Total. 




2,790 
3,896 


421 
365 


6T . 
16 


1 


3,278 


Brides 


3,278 







The proportion of grooms married for the first time, in 1898, was 
85.1 per cent, of the whole number, and the proportion of hrides 
married for the first time was 88.3 per cent. 

The following Table will show not only the number of times 
each of the parties was married, but also the number of bachelors 
and widowers who married spinsters, the number who married 
widows of first or second widowhood, etc., and of spinsters and 
widows who married bachelors, and widows of the second, third, 
or fourth marriage, etc. : 



1898.] 



MAKKIAOKS. 



157 



TAJiLE XLII. 





BRIDES. 


■1 

E 
o 


GROOMS. 




§ 
g 

CO 


1 


O 


o 

1 


First marriage 


2,605 

256 

35 


182 

ICVS 


a 


1 


2.790 

1 43( 


Second marriage 


154 i 10 
29 3 


Third marriage 


67 






Total brides 


2.896 


365 I i*^ 


1 


3.278 









It will be seen, by Table XLII, that 185 bachelors married 
Avidows, 3 of Avhom married brides that had been twice widowed. 
Of the 488 widowers who married in 1898, 291 married spinsters, 
and 197 married widows. Of the widows who married widowers, 
13 had been twice married previously, and 1 three times. 



Marriages of Persons of Color. 

The number of marriages of persons of color in Rhode Island, 
in 1898, was 85. This includes seven man'iages in which one of 
the parties was white. The number and color of the individuals 
was, therefore, 163 persons of color and 7 persons white. The 
white persons were females. The marriages, however, may be 
properly included in the above class, inasmuch as the offspring of 
such marriages are persons of color. 

The number reported during 1898, from the different towns, was 
as folloAvs, viz. : 



Warren 2 

Newport 13 

Portsmouth 1 

Central Falls 2 

Providence City 62 

Exeter 2 

South Kingstown 2 

Westerly 1 

Total 85 

30 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTK A.TIOX REPOET. 



[189S. 



MaREIALtES of THE Dr^OECED. 

The follo^viiLir Table will gixe tlie towns fi'om wliieli returns of 
marriage with the facts of diroree were reported during- 1898, the 
whole number of marriages of divorced persons, whether of one 
or both piuties : also whether the second or third marriage of the 
divorced groom or bride : 

Table XUH. 





X 


•3 
















^ 


S— ; 






- 


— 


- 


— 






~ S 








* 




* 




3 


^r 






U 


3: 


S£ 


5: 


TOWNS. 


S 








11 


■f =■ 


^^ 


--3 




c 


:. C 


i 


X 


S t. 


Si 


■^£ 


S^ 




§ 


P^ 


o 


1 !H 




■= 


3 






•z 


^ 


a 


a 


m 


^ 


m 


f 




96 

i 

I 
2 


108 
2 

4 
1 
3 


5S 

3 

1 
2 


56 

2 

I 

1 


4T 


5 


54 

: 


^ 






Bristol 


3 

1 

a 






Warren .i 




Coven try 




1 




Warwick 


10 
6 

1 
3 


11 

S 


5 
3 


6 
3 

1 
1 


5 
3 




5 
3 
1 
1 


1 


N^EwpoBT Crrr 




Tivarton 




BarrillTine. 


1 

3 


1 





(">rNTK»T, Fi^rs. . 




Prsiiistnn 


: 


4 


3 


1 






8 

1 




Cumberland 


3 






East ProTidenct? ... 


5 

1 

„ 

5 

3 


5 

3 


1 
8 

3 
1 


5 

: 

3 


1 




5 
1 
4 

2 
2 

o 




•Johnston 




Pa \» V I rKT.T 


... 


1 




Softn3»r«» .... 




Smithfield. 








WOOXSOCKET . . 


3 

1 







Eseier 




Hopkiaton 


-1 




o 


o 


1 


1 


2 




"Vorch Kic^5ro^v~n 


I 


1 


1 


1 

1 






1 

1 




Westerly 


1 




Total 


174 


IN'* 


r<i 


P.V, 


-J 


- 


95 


3 



1S9M.J 



NrArtRIAGES. 



IT) 9 



There were 174 marrias-es, in 189S, in which one <5r both of the 
parties had been divorced. 

The proportion of the luunher of niarnage.'s of which one or both 
of the parties had been divorced, to the whole number of mar- 
riag-es, was about one in every 10, or 5.3 per cent. 

But the proportion of divorced jjer.'^on.s married during 1898, to 
the whole number of persons married in the same year, was about 
one in every 35, or 2.9 per cent., or 29 in every 1,000. 

The number of divorced persons married, in 1808, was one less 
than in the previous year. 

These 1T4 marriages of divorced persons were performed by 
clergymen of the different denominations, or by civil authority, as 
follows : 



Baptist 68 

Methodist 29 

Congregational 20 

Univei-salist 13 

Free Baptist 10 

Justices of Supreme Ci.>urt 8 

Christian 7 

Protestant Episcopal 3 

Presbyterian :i 



Roman Cathollf' :j 

Hebrew 2 

Advent.. : 

Unitarian . i 

Lutheran 1 

Disciples of Christ . : 

Independent i 

Second Adveut 1 

Unknown j 



Marriage and Education. — Of the number of persons married, 
in 1898, 406 signed their marriage certificates with a mark. The 
following will show the number of males and females who did so, 
and their nativity : 



Whole Xo. 

Males .191 

Females 21o 



Native. 
.. 41... 

.. -tr... 



Foreiarn. 
.... 150 
.... ltS8 



Total 401). 



8S. 



S18 



BlYOliCES, 1898. 



According- to the returns made to the Secretary of the State 
Board of Health (State Registrar) by the clerks of the Supreme 
Courts of the different counties of Rhode Island, the number of 
applications for divorce, during 1898, was six hundred and fifteen 
(615). 

The number of divorces granted, during" 1898, was four hundred 
(400). 

There were 71 more applications, during* 1898, than during the 
preceding year, and the number of divorces granted was 28 more. 



Divorces are decreed for the following seven statute causes, viz.: 

1. Adultery. 

2. Extreme cruelty. 

3. Wilful desertion for five years of either of the parties, or for 
a shorter period, in the discretion of the court. 

4. Continued drunkenness. 



5. Neglect or refusal to provide necessaries (having ability) 
for the subsistence of a wife. 



6, Gross misbehavior and wickedness other than aforesaid. 

7. Impotency. 

Divorces are also decreed, or marriages set aside, in the discre- 
tion of the court, for ascertained affinity, consanguinity, idiocy^ 
insanity, penitentiary crimes, and bigamous or otherwise illegal 
marriage. 



1 8!»8. ] 



DIVORCES. 



k;i 



The following- Table shows the number of applications for di- 
vorce, and the nninl)er q-ranted, in 1808, in each county of the 
State ; also the causes alleged for the applications : 

Table XLIV. 





o 




Causes Alleged. 






















■c 




^ 










, 












0* 




si 










a 


m 


' 






•a f' 


be 


COUNTIES. 


"a, 
< 


a 

s! 











c « 




tX) 






Ol 




o 


O 


a) 




O 
3 


a 






5 


o 




o 




e 


a 


pj 


k. 






SfO) 


4> 


•a 


?- 


a 




a 


7 


I •« 


X 


9 
21 

8 


o 


(UJ', 




o 


e 


•t Ol 


p 




14 
31 


7 
22 

11 


< 

4 
5 


2 

10 
6 


o 

2 
5 
3 


10 
21 
13 


o 

3 
4 
5 


t> 


HJta 


^ 


Bristol 


30 










66 










42 




526 

95 


333 

1<» 


86 
9 


220 


179 

18 


132 

7 


333 

17 


80 
9 


3 






1,033 








62 




615 


400 


104 


247 


235 


149 


394 


101 


3 


— 





1,233 











There were, during the year 1898, six hundred and fifteen (615) 
applications for divorce, and the whole number of causes alleged 
was twelve hundred and thirty-three (1,233). There was, there- 
fore, an average of rather more than two causes alleged in each 
application. 

The causes alleged why divorces should be granted in the ap- 
plications, during 1898, were 187 more in number than in 1897. 

In order to show the actual number of applications, and the 
number of divorces granted in each of the last twenty-six years, 
the following summary is presented : 



163 FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 

Applications 

Applications Divorces refused or continued 

for divorce. granted. or withdrawn. 

18T3 261 173 88 

1874 276 242 34 

1875 227 1.58 69 

1876 .'.... 254 196 58 

1877 257 178 79 

187S 258. 196 62 

1879 255 246 .. 9 

1880 347 273 74 

1881 350 268 83 

1883 339 271 68 

1883 321 257 64 

1884 320 261) 54 

1885 293 227 66 

1886 336 257 79 

1887 322 248 74 

188S 304 224 80 

1889 366 ' 274 92 

1890 337 244 83 

1891 362 275 87 

1893 412 396 116 

1893 529 301 228 

1894 506 280 226 

1895 516 373 143 

1896 526 363 163 

1897 544 373 172 

1898 615 400 215 

36 years, total 9,433 6,858 2,565 

The average annual proportion of decrees of divorce granted 
during the last twenty-six years, to the applications therefor, was 
72.8 per cent. 

During the last ten years the proportions were as follows : 

1896, 1897, 1898. 
.69.0 68.4 65.0 

The proportion of divorces granted, in 1898, to the whole number 
of marriages during the same year, was one divorce to every eight 
and two-tenths marriages. 

The proportion of applications for divorce to whole number of 
marriages, during the year, was one application to every five and 
three-tenths marriages. 



Years 


....1889, 


1890, 


1891, 


1892, 


1893, 


1894, 


1895, 


Per cent 


....74.8... 


...74.6.. 


...76.0... 


...71.8... 


,..56.9... 


,..55.3... 


...72.3. 



1808, 1 



nivoiiCKs, 



1C:J 



Tlie followinj^'- Tiible shows tho number of divorces granted in 
each connty, and tlio whole State, in each of the last thirty years, 
and the proportion of niarriag^es to each divorce <^ranted in each 
year : 

Table XLV. 



YKAKS. 



18G9. 

isro. 

1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1866. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1693. 
1894. 
1895. 
1696. 
1897. 
1898. 



Bristol 
Couuty. 



Kent 
County. 



15 
18 
11 
13 
22 
20 
18 
15 

9 
11 
19 
23 
26 
18 
15 
20 

9 
17 
23 
14 
27 
19 
20 
19 
10 
22 
17 
21 
20 
22 



•25 



12.5 
11.8 
17.9 
15.7 
9.8 
8.0 
8.6 
12.8 
16.3 
13.3 
9.0 
9.4 
7.3 
10.3 
11.5 
8.0 
18.0 
11.0 
8.0 
13.5 
8.8 
12.1 
11.2 
12.4 
23.8 
9.0 
9.9 
7.5 
8.5 
9.3 



Newport 
County. 



11 
10 
15 

9 
12 
17 
15 
13 

4 
14 

1 

17 
20 
21 
18 
11 
18 
16 
19 



•2h 



27.7 
20.3 
49.7 
22.9 
21.9 
29.0 
23.4 
20.5 
26.0 
12.8 
24.1 
17.6 
16.9 
13.0 
21.2 
15.7 
11.2 
12.3 
13.4 
46.0 
14.0 
2.32.0 
12.6 
11.6 

9.9 
12.3 
21.3 
11.3 
12.9 

9.9 



Providence 
County. 



120 
152 
123 
149 
131 
190 
120 
148 
134 
156 
195 
208 
207 
221 
214 
209 
186 
194 
187 
188 
211 
196 
214 



WashlnRton 
County. 



13.8 
11.3 
13.3 
12.6 
14.8 
10.0 
14.9 
11.1 
12.4 
10.9 
9.1 
9.7 
10.0 
8.9 
9.2 
9.3 
10.1 
10.9 
11.8 
12.5 
11.2 
12.3 
11.2 



2.36 I 11.6 



235 


11.5 


207 


12.4 


318 


8.8 


.S04 


8.8 


300 


8.1 


3S3 


7.8 



21 

18 

22 

6 

10 
11 
20 
21 
12 
20 
23 
19 
11 
13 
21 
12 
26 
24 
13 
16 
24 
14 
19 
22 
26 
10 
13 
SI 
19 



a> O 
tit. 



15.5 

9.3 

11.4 

8.9 

33.7 

11.6 

20.5 

8.8 

9.9 

17.3 

9.7 

17.0 

11.0 

16.2 

13.3 

8.2 

15.0 

7.3 

7.9 

16.5 

10.8 

8.8 

14.3 

10.4 

8.0 

6.8 

11.8 

10.1 

9.7 

9.8 



Whole 
State. 





B 
O 


B 




o 


a 6 

o 


?, 


0)0 

tt,> 


r. 


•=« 


o 




> 


OJ 


O 


s 



162 
200 



242 
158 
190 
178 
196 
246 
273 
268 
271 
257 
266 
227 
237 
248 
224 
274 
244 
275 
296 
301 
280 
373 
863 
372 
400 



14.1 
11.8 



161 I 14.5 
200 I 12.7 
173 15.2 



10.5 
15.7 
11.5 
12.8 
11.9 
9.7 
10.1 
10.4 
9.7 
10.2 
9.6 
11.0 
10.7 
11.4 
13.5 
11.1 
13.0 
12.1 
11.8 
11.8 
11.7 
9.4 
9.2 
8.4 
8.2 



164 FORTY-SIXTH REGISTEATION REPORT. [1898. 

The ratio of divorces granted in the entire State, during 1898, 
to the whole number of marriag-es during the same year, was one 
divorce to about every eight and two-tenths marriages, as pre- 
viously stated. 

During the ten years 1869 to 1878, inclusive, the ratio of divorce 
to number of marriages was one divorce to every thirteen ; during 
the ten years 1879 to 1888, inclusive, the ratio was one divorce to 
every ten and six-tenths marriages. 

The average of the last ten years was one divorce to about every 
ten and four-tenths marriages. 

During the thirty years 1869-1898 the average proportions of 
divorce to marriage, in the several counties and the State, have 
been as follows : 

Bristol County One divorce to every 20.8 marriages. 

Kent County One divorce to every 11.7 marriages. 

Newport County One divorce to every S9.9 marriages. 

Providence County One divorce to every 10.9 marriages. 

Washington County One divorce to every IS.l marriages. 

Whole State One divorce to every 11.4 marriages. 



1808.] 



DIVORCKS, 



1G5 



?^ ~ 



X 

(J 



\ ^ 



OJ T-H 






C^ i-H 



rH C< 



> 



DEATHS, 1898. 



The number of deaths registered in Rhode Island, during 1898, 
according to the returns made to the State Registrar, was six 
thousand, nine hundred and five (6,905). 

This number is smaller by 599 than that of the year 1896, and 
is 205 less than that of 1897. 

The death rate (16.7 in every 1,000 living persons) was nine- 
tenths less than that of the previous year. 

The following summary will show the death rates per 1,000 for 
each of the last five census years, in comparison with the last five 
years : 

1875. 1880. 1885. 1890. 1895. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 1898. 
16.7 17.5 17.7 20.7 19.6 19.1 19.6 19.1 17.6 16.7 

Since 1876 the returns have been more complete than previously, 
and during the last ten years few deaths have occurred in the 
State which were not reported. 

On the following page will be found the death rates, by coun- 
ties, for thirty-eight years ; 



1808.] 



DEATHS. 



10' 



Table XLVII. 

Denlh rates per 1,000 lirinf/, hy counties, for thirty -eir/ht years, from ISGl to 1S9S. 

inclusire ; also the averurje rate of each period of fux years each, from 

1861 to 1895, inclusive, for the whole State. 



YEARS. 


o 
n 


a 


1 

o 
o. 

OJ 

'A 


§ 
1 


1 
it) 

a 

1 




STATE. 

ANNUAL AVERAGE OF 
FIVE-TEAB PERIODS, 

1861-1895. 


Five years, 1861-1865 


17.7 
19.2 
17.0 
15.7 
17.9 
15.5 
16.3 
21.1 
18.4 
14.7 
14.9 
14.7 
18.2 
17.5 
13.2 
19.2 

17.9 
16.5 
17.7 
17.7 
16.3 
19.2 
18.2 
21.3 
17.6 
22.1 

20.5 
20.0 
19.9 
16.5 
20.9 
17.9 
18.6 
15.0 


15.9 
14.2 
15.1 
13.7 
16.7 
13.5 
17.5 
16.1 
13.8 
13.2 
14.9 
11.7 
13.1 
14.2 
15.1 
14.9 
16.5 
15.3 
14.6 
17.1 
16.4 

]7.r, 

15.5 
18.4 
20.1 
17.6 i 
18.0 i 
20.7 
19.4 
19.8 ; 
17.4 i 
18.8 i 
16.7 
15.6 


18.9 

17.3 

15.0 

14.7 

13.2 

14.1 

12.2 

14.5 

19.0 

10.8 

13.5 

13.5 

12.4 

13.7 

14.8 

14.5 

15.7 

17.2 

17.7 

14.5 

14.5 

15.0 

15.1 

18.0 

14.7 

16.5 

20.6 

20.1 

17.9 

16.9 

15.9 

17.0 

10.2 

15.5 


17.7 
16. G 
16.4 
17.0 
16.0 
15.5 
15.9 
21.2 
22.0 
17.7 
17.5 
16.8 
18.7 
18.3 
17.2 
18.5 
19.3 
19.7 
20.8 
17.8 
18.5 
19.2 
21.1 
21.0 
19.2 
22.1 

18.6 

20.2 

19.9 

19.1 

fO.l 

19.2 

17.6 ! 

16.7 


12.4 

11.4 
10.9 
10.0 
12.8 
12.0 
12.3 
14.7 
15.1 
13.7 
15.5 
15.9 
12.8 
13.0 
11.1 
12.7 
11.9 
11.0 
9.8 
12.6 
14.0 
15.0 
15..-. 
16 
14.6 
13.5 
12.6 
15.2 
12.6 
16.4 
15.0 
15.3 1 
14.7 
14.5 


17.1 

16. n 

15.6 

15.7 ^ 

1 
15.6 

14.9J 

15.41 

19.1 

20.2 1- 

16.3 

16.7J 

15.91 

,r.! 

17.2)- 

16.2 

17.5J 

18. M 

18.4 

19.1 ;• 

16.9 

17.7 1 

18.81 

10.9 

20.4 \ 

19.0 j 

20.7J 

19.61 

20.1 

19.6 y 

-'■'! 

19.6J 
19.1 
17.6 
16.7 


...17.1 per 1,000 living. 


1806 


1867 




1868 


...15.6 per 1,000 living. 


1869 


1870 




1871 




1872 




1873 


...17.5 per 1,000 living. 


1874 

1-75 


1876 

1877 

1878 


...16.8 per 1,000 living. 


1879 


1880 




1881 




1882 

1883 


...18.0 per 1,000 living. 


1884 


1885 




1886 




1887 




1888 

1889 • 


...19.8 per 1,000 living. 


1890 




1891 




1892 




1893 


...19.6 per l.COO living. 


1894 


1895 




1896 




1897 




1898 








Annual average, thirty-five yeai 


•s, 1861-1895 




...17.8 per 1,000 living. 



168 FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 



Sex of Decedents. 

Of tlie 6,905 persons whose deaths were returned, during the 
year 1898, 3,554 were males, and 3,351 were females ; the ratio 
standing" at 106.1 males to each 100 females, or about 515 males 
and 485 females in every 1,000 decedents. 

The following Table will show the number and proportion of 
males and females among the decedents in Rhode Island, during 
the ten years 1853 to 1862, inclusive ; also in each of the thirty- 
six years from 1863 to 1898, inclusive, and for the entire period of 
forty-six years : 

Table XL VIII.— DEATHS. 



Males to 

Males. Females. every 100 females. 

lOyessrs, 18.53-1862 10,930 11,269 96.9 

1863 1 ,621 1,586 102.2 

1864 1,633 1,727 92.4 

1863 1,686 1,719 98.1 

1866 1,497 1,473 101.5 

1867 1,448 1,447 99.7 

1868 1,413 1,499 94.3 

1869 1,696 1,686 100.6 

1870 1,588 1,650 96.2 

1871 1,621 1,723 94.1 

1872 2,118 2,129 99.4 

1878 2,166 2,237 95.5 

1874 2,111 2,118 99.7 

1875 2,108 2,209 95.4 

1876 1,969 2.147 91.7 

1877 2,132 2,318 92.0 

1878 2,161 2,280 94.8 

1879 2,183 2,289 95.4 

1880... 2,366 2,463 96.0 

1881 2,467 2,549 96.8 

1882 2,487 2.587 96.5 

1883 2,027 2,655 99.0 

1884 2,486 2.655 93.6 

1885 2,(i07 2,782 98.7 

IKKli 2,8^3 3,016 93.9 

1887 3,177 3.163 100.4 

18(<S 3,199 3,395 95.4 

1889 3,093 3,166 97.7 

1890 3,501 3,433. 102.0 

1891 3,341 3,279 101.9 ^ 

1892 3,725 3,671 101.5 

1893 3,789 3,651 103.8 

1894 3,559 3.601 98.8 

1895 3,799 3,736 101 .6 

1896 3,874 3,630 106.7 

1897 3,587 3,523 106.7 

1898 3,554 3,351 106.1 



46 years 102,146 103,812. 



1898.1 DEAtns. 16^ 

The followiug- table of hirt/ia, during the same period of time as 
the iireeedino:, Avill show by comparison tlie difTerent jiroiKJitions 
of the sexes in the two ckxsses of events : 



Table XLIX.— BIRTHS. 



Males to 

Males. Females. every 100 female?. 

10 years, 1S53-18C2 18.377 17.200 106.4 

18C3 1,892 1,788 105.8 

1864 I.n49 1.042 100.3 

1865 2,096 1,857 112.9 

1866 2.546 2.256 108.0 

1867 2,655 2,464 107.0 

1868 2,745 2,627 104.5 

1869 2,685 2.560 104.9 

1 870 2,679 2.536 104 .9 

1871 2.878 2,800 105.8 

1872 3,085 3,058 100.9 

1873 3.135 2,887 108.0 

1874 3.311 3.1.55 104.9 

1875 3.362 3.146 106.9 

1876 3.291 3.038 108.3 

1877 3,1G3 3.072 103.0 

1878 3.402 3.312 102.7 

1879 3.2.59 3.091 105.4 

1880 3,241 3,054 106.1 

1S81 3,498 3,263 107.2 

18S2 3,.509 3,316 105.8 

1S83 3.548 3,498 101.4 

1884 3,713 3..592 103.4 

1885 3.591 3.437 104.4 

ISKO 3.897 3,724 104.6 

1887 .3,968 3,700 107.4 

ISSS 4,02;3 3.817 105.4 

1889 4.193 4,027 104.1 

1890 4,351 4,199 103.2 

1891 4,920 4,.-)00 109.5 

1892 4.765 4.505 109.3 

1893 5.105 4,943 103.3 

1894 5,129 4.856 105.6 

1895 5,136 4.746 108.2 

1896 5,461 5.289 103.3 

1897 5,493 5,30J ia3.5 

1898 5,443 5,287 102.9 

46 years 149,500 142,004 105.3 



170 



FORTY-SI^TH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Season and Mortality. 

The whole number of decedents, and the sex of the same, in 
each month of the year 1898, and in each division of the State, 
may be found in Table V, on the tenth and eleventh pages. 

The influence of season upon mortality may be further illus- 
trated by the following- Table, which shows the number and per- 
centage of deaths, compared with the whole number of deaths, in 
each quarter of each of the last five years, and in the aggregate 
for forty-five years, 1853 to 1897, inclusive : 

Table L. 





1898. 


1897. 


1896. 


1895. 


1894. 


45 years, 
1853-1897. 


SEASON. 


S 

a 

5?5 


o 
o 

s 

Oh 


a 


c 
o 

CD 
CM 


S 


a 
<v 
o 


S 
xi 

s 


o 
S 

Ph 


0) 

a 


a 

<D 

S 

Ph 


u 

6 
3 


(V 

o 


Ph 


January-March . 

April-June 

July-September . 
Oct.-December.. 


1,6S7 
1,643 
1,998 
1,63T 


23.56 
S3. 79 

28.94 
23.71 


1,937 
1,540 
2,024 
1,609 


27.24 
21.66 
28.47 
22.63 


1,833 
1,856 
2,212 
1,603 


24.43 
24.73 
29.48 
21.36 


1,962 
1,673 
2,091 
1,809 


26.04 
22.20 
27.75 
24.01 


1,919 
1,696 
2,056 
1,489 


26.80 
23.69 
28.71 
20.80 


47,004 
42,029 
55,526 
48,235 


24.38 
21.80 
28.80 
25.02 


Total 


6,905 


100.00 


7,110 


100.00 


7.504 


100.00 


7,.535 


100.00 


7,160 


100.00 


192,794 


100.00 





















Comparing the percentages of 1898 with those of the forty-five 
years, we find that of the first quarter is .82 per cent, smaller ; the 
second quarter is 1.99 per cent, larger; the third quarter .14 per 
cent, larger; and the last quarter 1.31 per cent, smaller than for 
the average of the forty-five years. The greatest mortality for any 
one season of any year is usually found in the third quarter, but 
in 1890, owing in large measure to the epidemic of influenza, the 
first quarter had the largest mortality. 



1898.] 



^ 
w 






^ 
'==; 



^ 






o 



DKATIfS. 



i 


s? 


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i^ ?^ 








•a in 


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u* 












































u 






M 










a 


CO 




o 


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t- 


-o 


ri 










S 






















a 




ii 


o 




c 


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1 


►? 


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73 



171 



?; < S 



>n o in in m 






Z C 



15 — t- 



r- -^ — 



3 3 C 



1) s >. 



O = — 



£_5 c ;5's c.xj« 



S C 



C ^ S2 



cs — C5 c; 

fir; :o I-? TT- 



< s ;s i; 



i: - 2 3 



O =; ^5 



5 3 =■ 5. ^ 

<5 "-5 < <! C 



o 5" o 



5 o 




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w 


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172 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Nativity of Decedents. 

There may be found in Table I, on pages 2-5, the number of 
decedents in 1898, by division of the two classes of native and 
foreig-n born. 

Of the whole number of decedents, 6,905, 4,957 were native born, 
that is, were born in the United States, and 1,948 were born out- 
side of the United States. 



Parentage of Decedents. 

Of the whole number of decedents, 6,905, reported in 1898, 2,938 
were of native, and 3,967 were of foreign and unknown parentag-e. 

By the term '^ ioveign pa?'e?Hage" is meant the decedents whose 
fathers were born in some other country and not in the United 
States. The grandchildren of the foreign born are reckoned as of 
native parentage, if their fathers were born in the United States. 

The following eleven towns reported a larger number of decedents 
of foreign parentage than of native, namely : Warren, Warwick, 
Burrillville, Central Falls, Cumberland, Johnston, Lincoln, North 
Providence, North Smithfield, Pawtucket, Providence, and Woon- 
socket ; also the State Institutions at Cranston. 

These numbers varied from a moderate excess to three or four 
times as many of foreign as of TLdXvuQ lyarentage. 

The following Table gives the number and proportion in every 
one thousand deaths of decedents of native and of ioreign paroit- 
age, in each of the last five years ; and in the aggregate for forty 
years, or from 1858 to 1897, inclusive : 

Table LII. 





1898. 


1897. 


1896. 


1895. 


1894. 


40 years, 
185S-1897. 


PARENTAGE. 


§3 

a 
1 


o 

s 

Si 
CD 

Oh 


S 

15 


o 
o 

05 


a 

3 


o" 
o 

u 


s 

s 


o 
o 

Ph 


S 

a 


1 


S 
1 


o 

s 

P-I 


Native 


2,938 
3,967 


425.5 
574.5 


3,102 

4,008 


436.3 
563.7 


3,088 
4,416 


411.5 
588.5 


3,244 
4,291 


430.5 
569.5 


3,054 
4,106 


4-26.5 
573.5 


103,927 
102,579 

206,506 


503.5 
496 7 






Total 


6,905 


1000.0 


7,110 


1000.0 


7,504 


1000.0 


7 535 


1000 


7,160 


1000.0 


1000 











1898.] DEATHS. 17,3 

Age of Decedents. 

In Table I, on pa^es 2-5, may be found the aggres^ate and aver- 
age age of all the decedents whose deaths oceuiTed in 1898, and 
with the age of each sex, in each town and county in the State. 

By that Table it will be seen that the average age of all the 
male decedents in the State, in 1898, was 3-1.34 years, and that the 
average age of all the female decedents, in the same year, was 36.34 
years ; the average age of all decedents, of both sexes, was 35.31 
j-ears. 

The average age of the total decedents in the State, in 1898, was 
six one-huudredths of a year less than the average for 1897. 

The average age of the male decedents, in 1898, was greater by 
sixty-three oue-hundredths of a year, and the average age of the 
female decedents was sixty-two one-huudredths of a year less than 
in the previous year. 

The followiugjTable ^Nill present, separately, the average age of 
the male and female decedents, and the average age of all dece- 
dents in each year for thirty-eight years ; also the average age in 
seven periods of live years each, from 1861 to 1895, inclusive : 



22 



174 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOlSr REPORT. 



Table LIII. 



[1898. 



YEARS. 



1861 
1863 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875, 
1876 
1877, 
1878, 
1879 
1880, 
1881 
1882 
1883, 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889, 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1594 
1895 
1896 
1897 



^^ 



> o 



26.95 
29.64 
28.29 
28.13 
26.88 
31.13 
32.16 
30.47 
28.62 
31.02 
32.57 
28.41 
26.18 
28.03 
29.72 
31.47 
29.25 
29.02 
31.29 
29.62 
30.99 
31.33 
33.64 
32.29 
33.53 
33.02 
30.97 
83.17 
32.20 
31.04 
82.70 
32.96 
30.97 
82.47 
31.70 
80.86 
33.71 
34.34 



? d 
boa 

^^ 

05, 



30.58 
32.65 
80.86 
30.43 
28.97 
35.07 
35.86 
35.08 
31.29 
32.75 
34.43 
31.15 
28.62 
31.66 
32.75 
33.21 
31.56 
31.11 
83.24 
32.06 
34.07 
35.57 
37.44 
35.12 
35.60 
34.91 
32.91 
35.74 
35.74 
34.26 
36.28 
37.75 
33.99 
34.40 
36.49 
34.47 
37.06 
36.34 



^< 



Average Age, 

5-year periods, 

1861-1895. 



28.821 

31.15 

29.56 1- 

29.40 

27.69J 

33.091 

34.01 

32.85 I- 

30.25 

81.90J 

33.521 

29. 

27.42 1- 

28.86 

31. 27 J 

32.371 

80.45 

30.09 } 

33.29 

.30. 86 J 

32.551 

33.50 

35.55 !- 

33.76 

34.59J 

34.011 

81.95 

84.53 1- 

34.00 

33.62J 

34.471 

35.34 

32.46 1- 

I 

83.44 I 

34.08J 

32.61 

35.37 

35.31 



1898.] 



DEATHS. 



175 



Tlio above Table shows that the averag-e longevity of the dece- 
dents ill lUiode Island increased nearly five years, during a period 
of tliirty-tive years, ending with 181)5. 

The following- Table will present some of the facts of the preced- 
ing as occurring in the difl'erent divisions of the State, as well as 
of the State at large. It will show the average age of the dece- 
dents in each of the larger divisions of the State, in each of the 
last four years, and also the average of each of seven periods of 
five years each, comprising- the thirty-five years from 1863 to 1897, 
inclusive : 

Table LIV. 



Divisions 
OF THE State. 



Bristol County 

Kent County 

Newport County 

Providence County*. 

Providence City 

Washington County. 



Whole State. 



1898. 


1897. 


189C. 


1895. 


Si 

ooo 


^'2 

r a 
oo >. 

OOi-O 


00 in 


1878-1882, 
5 years. 


40.09 


37.84 


40.88 


43.94 


42.78 


39.76 


38.45 


36.68 


32.74 


31.79 


80.92 


33.15 


31.07 


32.22 


37.66 


37.11 


39.57 


41.37 


37.27 


39.22 


39.98 


40.63 


43.41 


39.21 


32.18 


33.98 


29.74 


31.90 


30.79 


31.63 


31.83 


80.60 


33.18 


33.44 


31.33 


31.76 


32.03 


33.44 


32.19 


29.50 


50.'25 


4fi.O? 


44.95 


48.35 


46.55 


46.77 


43.39 


41.01 


35.31 


35.37 


32.61 


34.08 


33.59 


34.19 


33.97 


31.86 



OCIO 



33.61 35.12 34.78 

36.20 34.77 ! 35.81 

I 

40.68 i 40.04 33.54 

28.46 25.26 29.16 

27.19 25.45 28.50 

41.14 39.67 30.87 



30.28 i 31.66 i 30.73 



By reference to Table LIV, it will be seen that the average age 
of all decedents during the last four years is nearly five years 
greater than the first period of five years, 1863-1807. 

Percentage of Decedents by Different Ages. 

In Table YI, on pages 12 to 17, inclusive, will be found the num- 
ber of deaths in 1898, in each town and each county, of each sex, 
and in each period of life, with the percentage of the whole num- 
ber of deaths in each division to the population of the same bj'- 
geometrical estimation from the census of 1895. 

The following Table shows the percentage of decedents in each 
division of ages, to whole number of deaths, in each of the last 
six years, and in the aggregate for three periods ; one of twenty 
years and seven months, from June 1st, 1852, to December 31, 
1872, inclusive; one of ten years, from 1873 to 1882, inclusive; and 
one of ten years, from 1883 to 1892, inclusive : 



* Exclusive of Providence city. 



176 



FOETY-SIXTH REGISTEATION EEPORT. 



[1898. 



Table LV. 



PERIODS OF LIFE. 



Under 1 year 

1 and under 2 

2 and under 5 

Total 

5 and under 10 

10 and under SO 

20 and under 30 

30 and under 40 

40 and under 50 

50 and under 60 

60 and under 70 

70 and under 80 

80 and under 90 

Over 90 and not stated 

Total 



1898. 



22.9 
4.7 
4.1 



31.7 

2.4 

8.8 

8.0 

8.1 

8.1 

10.1 

11.1 

10.1 

5.6 

1.0 



100.0 



1897. 



22.5 
4.9 
4.5 



31.9 

2.5 
4.4 
8.0 
7.7 
7.6 
8.5 
11.5 
10.9 
6.0 
1.0 



100.0 



1896. 



24.4 
4.7 
5.9 



35.0 

3.1 

4.4 
8.0 
8.0 
7.6 
8.9 
10.0 
9.0 
5.0 
1.0 



100.0 



1895. 



21.7 
5.3 
6.3 



33.2 

3.6 
4.3 
8.6 
7.5 
8.0 
8.6 
10.3 
9.8 
5.3 
.9 

100.0 



1894. 



23.1 

4.8 
5.1 



33.0 

2.7 
5.1 
8.6 
7.4 
8.5 
8.9 
10.2 
9.3 
5.0 
1.3 



100.0 



1893. 



23.3 
5.2 
5.3 



33.7 

3.9 
4.5 

7.9 
8.0 
8.4 
8.9 
10.0 
8.9 
4.8 
1.0 



100.0 






30.4 
5.6 

5.8 



31.8 

3.5 
5.1 
8.7 
7.9 
7.5 
8.5 
9.7 
9.9 
5.9 
1.5 



100 



IN 
OS 

ff o 



18.9 



8.4 



34.9 

5.0 

5.8 
9.2 
7.8 
6.9 
7.2 
8.2 
8.8 
5.1 
1.1 



100.0 






17.8 
8.8 
8.7 

35.3 

4.8 
6.0 
9.6 
8.4 
7.3 
7.0 
7.6 
7.2 
5.1 
1.1 



Compared witli the average of thirty years, ending with 1882, 
the average proportion of the mortality of children under one 
year of age, during the last six years, was 4.8 per cent., or about 
48 in every one thousand deaths more than the average in the 
longer period. 

The proportions in the other periods were not greatly different 
from previous years, although there was some increase of per- 
ce ntage in the age periods above fifty 3'^ears. 

The following Table will present the varying proportions of 
deaths to whole number of deaths, in four different periods of life, 
from 50 years of age to 90 years, grouped in four periods of aver- 
ages of ten years each, 1853-1892 ; in 1893, 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897, 
and 1898 : 



1898. 



DEATirS. 



177 



Table LYI. 



Age of 
Decedents. 



oS2 

"a 



Pr.ct. 
50 to 60 1 6.7 

60 to 70 6.9 



70 to SO. 
80 to 90. 



7.3 
4.6 



SS5 






Pr.ct. Pr.ct. 
7.3 

8.3 



8.4 
5.4 



7.2 
8.2 
8.8 
5.1 



Pr.ct. 
8.5 

9.7 

9.9 

5.9 



1893. 



10.0 
8.9 
4.8 



1894. 



Pr.ct. Pr.ct. 
8.9 8.9 



10.2 
9.3 

5.0 



1895. 



Pr.ct. 
8.6 

10.8 

9.8 
5.3 



1896. 



Pr.ct. 

8.g 

10.0 
9.0 
5.0 



1897. 



Pr.ct: Pr.ct. 
10.1 

11.1 



8.5 
11.5 
10.9 

6.0 



10.1 
5.6 



Colored Decedents. 

There were 196 deaths of persons of color during 1898. 
The towns from which they were returned, and number in each, 
were as follows : 

Providence City 117 

Bristol 2 

Warwick 3 

Jamestown 1 

Newport City 39 

Cranston 16 

East Providence 2 

Johnston 1 

Pawtucket 3 

Hopkinton 2 

Narragansett 2 

South Kingstown 5 

Richmond 1 

Westerly 2 

Total 196 



Season. — The deaths in the different months were as follows : 



m 



I'ORTY-SiXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Months. Deaths. 

January 13 

February 13 

March 18 



Months. 
April . . . 
May — 



Deaths. 

13 

16 



June 19 



Months. Deaths. 

July 17 

August 30 

September 18 



Months. Deaths. 

October 16 

November 8 

December 16 



Pirst Quarter 43 Second Quarter. . .48 Third Quarter 65 Fourth Quarter . . .40 

First six months, 91 ; second six months, 105. Total, 196. 

The following summary will show the proportion, to the whole 
colored population, of each of the events of birth, marriage, and 
death of colored persons, during the twenty-one years from 1878 
to 1898, inclusive : 



879. 



881. 



885. 



887. 



One Birth 
in every 
....36.4.... 
....39.6.... 
....47.1.... 
....34.3.... 

,...36.8 

....83.4.... 
....34.8.... 
....36.7.... 
....34.6.... 

,...35.8 

....37.6.... 



890. 
891. 
89S. 



895. 
896. 
897. 



.45.3. 
.42.8. 
.40.6. 
.38.6. 
.34.3. 
.35.9. 
.35.1. 
.38.5. 
,37.9. 



One Person 
married in every 

39.2 

51.4 

........43.3 

39.2 

44.5 

63.3 

46.0 

51.7 

43.2 

38.9 

55.0 

52.0 

57.6 

41.2 

38.5 

44.2 

56.6 

42.6 

38.9 

36.0 

48.2 



One Death 

in every 
....40.2 

37.3 

....44.0 
....35.4 
....45.4 
....39.7 
...34.5 
....40.1 
....37.8 
....37.2 
....38.0 
....40.0 
.. .41.0 
....36.4 
....31.3 

31.3 

....34.2 

32.1 

....37.9 
....41.3 
....41.8 



In every one thousand of the colored population there were, in 
1898 : 



Of Births. 
26.4... 



Of Persons Married. 
20.8 



Of Deaths. 
23.9 



The following exhibit will show the number of living births, 
marriages, and deaths among the colored population of Rhode 



1«U8. I DKATIIS. 179 

Tsl.uul, during' ten years, from 18G1 to 1870, inclusive ; 10 years, 
from 1871 to 18H0, inclusive ; 10 years, from 1881 to 1800, inclu- 
sive ; and for 1801, 1802, 180:J, 180i, 1895, 1800, 1897, and 1808, and 
the aggregate of the same : 

10 years, 1801-1870 1,131 births 557 marrla^'es 1,153 deaths. 

10 years. 1871-1880 1,GI5 births 705 marriages 1,573 deaths. 

10 years, 1881-J890 1.951 births 752 marriages 1,800 deaths. 

1891 173 births 95 marriages 304 deaths. 

1892 182 birtlis 98 marriages 236 deaths. 

1893 203 births 90 marriages 2.50 deaths. 

1891 221 births 07 marriages 222 deaths. 

1895 221 births 93 marriages 247 deaths. 

1890 220 births. . 102 marriages 209 deaths. 

1697 200 births 110 marriages 192deaths. 

1898 216 births 85 marriages 196 deaths. 

Total, 38 years 0,348 births 2,754 marriages 6,342 deaths. 

During the first ten years (1861-1870) there were 22 more deaths 
than births ; during the second ten (1871-1880j, 42 more births 
than deaths ; during the last ten years (1881-1890), 94 more births 
than deaths. During 1891 the number of births was 31 less than 
the number of deaths. During 1892 the number of births was 54 
less than the number of deaths. In 1893 the number of births 
was 47 less than the number of deaths. In 1894 the number of 
births was 1 less than the number of deaths. In 1895 the num- 
ber of births was 26 less than the number of deaths. In 1896 the 
number of births was 17 more than the number of deaths. In 
1807 the number of births was 14 more than the numl)er of deaths, 
and in 1898 the number of births was 20 more than the number of 
deaths. 



182 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT 



[1898. 





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1898.1 



DKATIIK. 



183 



- B 

3« 







( AT Si:s OF DKATII, l<Si)8. 



The statistics of the causes of death in Khode Island, in 1898, 
may be found in Tables YII, VIII, IX, and X. The whole num- 
ber of deaths, as previously stated, was 6,905, which was 205 less 
than the number returned in 1897, and 599 less than the number 
reported in 1896. The number of which the cause of death was 
reported was 6,885, and the number of which the cause was not 
stated was 20. 

The following Table shows the number of deaths, in 1898, in 
each large division of the State, and the number and proportion 
in each division from which causes were reported unknown : 

Table LYII. 





Bristol 
County. 




Kewport 

County 

Towns. 


9 

256: 

t> o o 


a 
o . 

S o 

'Ji O 


1 

a 
o 


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Number of deaths 

Cause not stated 


212 


516 
3 


145 
2 


1,168 
3 


869 
3 


218 


349 

1 


548 

1 


2,929 
8 


458 


6.905 
20 












172 T9 


888 


184 




349 


543 


866 




345 













29 



186 



FOETT-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table LVIII. 

Proportion of Deaths reported with " Causes Unknoivn " in each 

Division of the State, for a period of forty -three years, 

from 1856 to 1898, inclusive. 



YEARS. 



856-1860, One in every. 
861-1865, One in every 
866-1870, One in every. 
871-1875, One in every. 



876, One in every 

877, One in every 

878, One in every 

879, One in every 

880, One in every 

1-1880, One in every. 



881, One in every 

882, One in every 

883, One in every 

884, One in every 

885, One in every 

-1885, One in every. 



5, One in every 

7, One in every 

8, One in every 

9, One in every 

0, One in every 

6-1890, One in every. 



891, One in every 

892, One in every 

893, One in every 

894, One in every 

895, One in every 

891-1895, One in every. 



896, One in every. 

897, One in every. 

898, One in every. 



State Divisions. 



Wo 



18.1 
33.1 
83.9 
38.6 

11.5 
201.0 
32.1 
16.6 
21.9 
31.9 

204.0 
37.6 
40.4 
100.0 
185.0 
75.4 

110.5 
212.0 
251.0 
208.0 



228.0 



1,155.0 



5.0 
13.1 
8.9 

8.6 

7.9 
17.7 
7.4 
9.2 
23.5 
17.2 

13.0 
11.6 
15.9 
40.0 
355.0 



go 



20.1 

192.5 
343.0 
408.0 
152.0 



413.0 



96.3 
192.3 
522.0 



277.5 

116.6 
536.0 
172.0 



7.2 
16.1 
26.7 
13.1 

18.5 
9.7 
9.0 
12.4 
13.5 
19.9 

11.2 
10.9 
15.0 
81.6 
137.0 
18.8 

86.0 
73.5 
152.7 
221.0 
236.0 
125.1 

598.0 
591.0 
64.2 
173.0 
123.7 
159.6 



127.7 
104.6 



'2 « 
o o 



7.1 
9.9 

9.9 
11.9 
13.7 

9.5 
10.5 
18.1 

7.3 
10.6 
15.3 
91.7 
45.6 



15.7 

87.0 
782.6 
164.3 
176.7 
109.0 
154.8 

159.0 

240.0 

70.3 

91.6 

280.6 



126.5 

707.5 
139.5 
596.3 



30.'; 



83.4 

124.3 
323.0 
124.2 
225.1 
122.3 



39.6 

143.0 
187.0 
392.8 
372.1 
309.1 
242.2 

195.1 
264.0 
293.8 
120.0 
190.0 



189.0 

175.0 
212.0 
324.0 
144.9 
90 



151.8 

155.6 
187.4 
366.1 



7.3 
23.7 
16.4 
13.6 

22.8 
16.0 
21.7 
8.6 
17.8 



26.9 

6.5 
7.7 
17.0 
90.4 
52.2 



14.0 

55.2 
351.0 
368.0 
338.0 
159.0 



171.2 

154.0 
184.0 
307.0 
402.0 
123.7 



195.2 
383.0 



184.5 



9.4 
15.1 
14.1 
17.1 

19.3 
23.2 
21.1 
17.6 
20.7 
25.2 

14.4 
18.8 
38.4 
123.4 
91.3 
28.6 

113.7 

333 

235.7 

160.0 

161.0 



177.6 

194.0 
264.0 
109.9 
130.2 
144.9 



152.5 



284.4 
345.2 



106.8 
66.0 
70.9 
58.4 



* Not including Providence city. 



I8!)S. 



CAUSKS OF r»KATFr. 



187 



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188 PORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 

The number of deaths from consumption, in 1898, was 109 more 
than in 1897, an increase of over 14 per cent. 

From pneumonia there was a decrease of 93 deaths from that 
of the previous year, or over 14^ per cent. The fatality from 
pneumonia has, however, been slowly increasing, in proportion to 
whole number of deaths, for the last twenty years. 

From diseases of the heart there was a decrease of 28 deaths 
from 1897. For more than 16 years, previous to 1898, diseases of 
the heart have been steadily increasing as causes of death, the 
mortality in 1897 being the largest ever recorded in this State. 

There were 93 deaths from diphtheria, in 1898, a decrease of 138 
from the number in 1897. ■ 

From kidney diseases there was an increase of 84, or nearly 22 
per cent, over the number in 1897. 



ISOS.] CAUSES OF DEATH. 189 



COMPAILVTIYE STATISTICS AND (X)MMENTS. 



There have been presented in the preceding- pages, numerically 
and in tabular form, the different causes of death in Rhode Island, 
in 1898, with various summaries and illustrations. In Tables VII 
and Till they were presented at considerable length, in various 
specific terms ; in Table IX more or less grouped in a general 
nosological arrangement ; and in Table X the same for a period 
of forty-six years. 

In Table YII the number of deaths from each cause and of each 
sex is shown, for each month in the year, and the nativity and 
parentaije of the decedents from each cause during the year. 

In Table YIII the number of decedents of each sex, from each 
cause, in the t/ijferoit periods of life, is given. 

In Table IX, with the classification and percentage of causes of 
death, the number of each general cause, in each division of larger 
population, is given. 

In Table X a nosological summary of causes of death for the 
whole State, in each of forty-six years, is given. 

Table LX is a compend, in part, of Tables YII, YIII, and IX, 
previously alluded to, and contains the particulars of the most 
important causes of death in 1898, and comprises the principal 
causes which will be commented upon in the following pages : 



90 



FOETT-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 






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192 FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 



Deaths from Accidents. 1898. 

The number of deaths from accidental causes of all kinds, re- 
ported in Rhode Island, in 1898, was 296. 

Among the 296 deaths from accidents there were 19 from 
asphyxia ; 4 from bicycle accidents (collision of bicycles, 1 ; col- 
lision of bicycle with team, 1 ; fall from bicycle, 2) ; 21 from burns 
and scalds ; 60 from drowning ; 7 by electric car (5 were struck by 
car while walking on or crossing track ; 1 by falling or stepping 
from car while in motion ; 1, a child, deaf and dumb, was run over 
by car while rolling a hoop) ; by elevator, 4 (fall into well, 3 ; 1 
crushed between floor of car and door) ; 7 by exposure to cold and 
storm ; 58 from falls ; 9 from firearms ; 23 from insolation ; 1 by 
lightning ; 5 by machinery ; 3 from overdose of medicine ; 8 from 
poison ; 30 by railroad ; and 37 by various other accidents. 

Among the groups of causes there were in detail causes as fol- 
lows : 

Asphyxia. — By bed clothing, 6 (infants) ; by overlaying, 4 ; in 
sewer trench, by caving in of sand, 1 ; by illuminating gas, 3 
(adults) ; by smoke in burning building, 3 ; by piece of meat, 1 
(adult) ; while in drunken stupor, owing to position of head, 1. 
Total, 19, or 6.4 per cent, of the whole number of accidents. 

Burns and Scalds. — In burning building, 3 (ages, 21, 65, 67 
years ; by explosion of kerosene lamp, 3 (ages, 18, 22, 49 years) ; 
by upset kerosene lamp, 1 (child pulled lamp from table) ; by ex- 
plosion of oil-stove, 1 (adult) ; plajdng with matches, 3 ; by clothes 
taking fire from bonfire, 1 (age, 5 years) ; by falling into pail or 
tub of hot water, 2 (children under 5 years) ; by hot fat, 1 (age, 1 
year) ; by upset teapot or gravy dish, 3 (infants) ; manner unspeci- 
fied, 3. Total, 21, or 7.1 per cent, of whole number of accidents. 

Droioning. — Bathing, 12 ; from wrecked schooner or^ sloop, 3 ; 
by capsizing of boats, 9 ; by falling overboard from small boats, 
6 ; while crossing ice, 1 ; from a scow, while riding a bicycle on 
same, 1 ; in uncovered cistern, 1 (age, 3 years) ; by falling into 
while playing on edge of water, 7 (ages, 4, 5, 5, 6, 7, 7, 9 years ; 1 
in bath-tub (climbed into tub while mother was hanging out 
clothes, age, 1 year) ; found in water, manner unknown, 19. Total, 
60, or 20.1 per cent, of whole number of accidents. 



1898.1 CAUSES OK i»i;atii. 193 

Fidls. — Fi(Mu l)uil(liiiy or staj^fing-, 4; into oojil-lioU', 1; down 
stairs or steps, 17 (ages, 1, 15-20; 1, 20-30; 3, 40-50; 4, 60-70; 4, 
70-80; 4, 80-00); from ladder, 2; from, or over, a Icdf^e, 1 ; from 
load of hay, 1; from tree, 1; from Avindow, 4 (a<jcs, 1, 1, 2, 97 
years) ; on ice, 3 (ages, 8, 42, <j5 years) ; from tniek in mill, 1 (age, 
13 years) ; from high bed, 2 (infants) ; from cradle, 1 ; on floor, 
ground, or sidewalk, 7 ; from veranda, 1 (age, 84 years) ; from 
chair, 1 (age, 90 years) ; on jiicket fence, 1 (age, 8 years) ; in 
bleachery, 1 (machinist) ; unsi)ecitied, 9. Total, 58, or 19.(5 per 
cent, of whole number of accidents. 

Fireanas. — Seven out of the nine accidents by firearms occurred 
while out hunting ; 2, by the careless handling of loaded revolvers 
in the hands of others. 

Overdone of Medicine. — One by chloral, and 2 by morphine (self- 
administered), 

I^ii^vn. — Ammonia, taken bj" mistake for Jamaica ginger or other 
medicine, 2 ; corrosive sublimate, given by mistake to child, 1 ; 
corrosive sublimate or acetic acid taken by mistake in one case, 
and muriatic acid in another ; 1 by strychnia (tablets found and 
eaten by child) ; turpentine or a polishing liquid drank while 
under influence of liquor, 1 ; by lead (a painter), 1. 

Baihoad. — Fourteen were walking on or crossing track, 1 was 
trying to climb on moving train, 1 at grade crossing (crawled 
under gate), 1 stnick by engine while trying to stop runaway 
horse. Of the employes that were killed, 5 were on track and 
were struck by engine, 3 were thrown or fell from moving train, 1 
was caught between car and bumping-post, 1 caught between 
moving car and station platform, 1 was struck by overhead bridge, 
1 while coupling cars, and 1 in a collision. 

Accidents, Various. — Thrown from carriage or wagon, 10 ; 1 
each : by explosion of djaiamite (while heating it in water over a 
forge), thrown from saddle h\ fall of horse, over-exertion from 
bicycle riding (peritonitis), kicked by a horse, crushed by grind- 
stone, by falling tree, by violent exercise (peritonitis), stepped on 
broken bottle (tetanus), foot-ball accident — rupture of bladder, hit 
by derrick-boom, crushed between car and post at coal whari, 
slight injury to thumb (septicjrmia), wound of lung while trying 
to stop runaway horse, hanged himself by clothesline to door (in 
play, age, 16 years), chestnut in bronchial tube (age, 2 years), blow 
on stomach while diving (peritonitis), stepped on rusty nail (septi- 



194 FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOlSr REPORT. [1898. 

csemia), crushed skull by falling boiler at brewery, cut in knee- 
joint with axe, fracture of skull — struck on head in drunken row, 
shocked by live wire (a lineman), injury to foot — cause unknown, 
by swallowing copper coin — causing- gastro -enteritis, injury to toe- 
nail (gangrene), wound of hand with nail (septicaemia) ; unspeci- 
fied, 2. Total, 37. 

Of the whole number of deaths by accidents, 233 were males 
and 63 were females ; 111 were of native and 185 of foreign parent- 
age, or 37.50 per cent, of native to 62.50 of foreign. 

Of the sexes, the proportion was 78.72 per cent, of male dece- 
dents to 21.28 per cent, of female decedents. 

In regard to periods of life, the decedents from accidental causes 
were divided as follows : under 5 years, 43 ; 5, and under 10, 19 ; 
between 10 and 20, 29; between 20 and 40, 67 ; between 40 and 60, 
76 ; over 60, 62. 

In regard to sectional divisions of the State, 11 of the deaths 
from accidental causes were in Bristol county ; 18 in Kent county ; 
26 in Newport county ; 219 in Providence county ; and 22 in Wash- 
ington county. 

The whole number of deaths from accidental causes, in 1898, in 
proportion to the w/iole numher of deaths in the State, was about 
43 in every one thousand. The number in proportion to the whole 
population was .71 in every one thousand. 

The number of deaths in each division of the year was as fol- 
lows : 

First Quarter 52 Thii-d Quai-ter 101 

Second Quarter 56 Fourth Quarter 87 

First half 108 Second half 188 

Whole year 296 

In the following Table may be found the number, sex, parent- 
age, and locality of mortality f^'om accidents, for thirty-three 
years, ending December 31, 1898 : 



1898.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



195 



Table LXI. 

MortnliUi in the Stfttefrom Accidevtx, \r,ith the Percevtar/e of the Whole Number of 

Denthn; Sex, rarentrir/e, and Locality, for thirtji-threc yearH, from 

ISGG to ISOS, inclnsire, in three periods of fire years each, 

and f 01- each of the last eighteen years. 





1 

© 

o 


VARIETIES. 


o 


SEX. 


PARENT- 
AGE. 




STATE DIVISIONS. 


YEARS. 


2 
o 

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5 yrs. 1866- 
1870 


490 


77 


124 


89 




14 


43 




143 


2.18 


375 


115 


238 


252 


22 


84 


46 


187 


162 


39 


5 yrs, 1871- 
1875 


610 


78 


164 


90 




21 


71 




186 


2.97 


493 


117 


283 


827 


26 


46 


50 


200 


240 


48 


5 yrs. 1876- 
1880 


607 


75 


166 


69 




28 


58 


14 


197 


2.72 


450 


157 


249 


358 


17 


58 


47 


178 


281 


81 


1881 


155 


16 


29 


19 




9 


20 


19 


43 


3.09 


107 


48 


62 


93 


5 


17 


12 


60 


56 


5 


1882 


178 


17 


40 


31 




6 


16 


8 


60 


3.50 


130 


48 


72 


106 


5 


9 


15 


60 


80 


9 


1883 


153 


18 


27 


21 




6 


16 


12 


53 


2.83 


117 


36 


61 


92 


4 


8 


9 


63 


66 


3 


1884 


197 


20 


41 


31 




7 


16 


11 


71 


3.82 


147 


50 


90 


107 


5 


19 


14 


65 


76 


18 


1885 


173 


19 


42 


25 




9 


15 


9 


54 


3. SO 


135 


38 


72 


101 


5 


6 


8 


58 


83 


13 


1881-1885... 


856 


90 


179 


127 




37 


83 


59 


281 


3.20 


636 


220 


357 


499 


24 


59 


58 


306 


361 


48 


1880 


190 


23 


58 


19 




6 


20 


9 


55 


3.25 


141 


49 


84 


106 


16 


11 


16 


62 


72 


13 


1887 


206 


17 


39 


17 


23 


7 


24 


14 


65! 


3.24 


158 


48 


92 


114 


5 


11 


23 


81 


71 


15 


1888 


190 


27 


46 


18 


8 


12 


25 


8 


46 


2.87 


145 


45 


63 


127 


4 


6 


14 


70 


88 


8 


1889 


216 


20 


52 


31 


25 


7 


23 


9 


49 


4.10 


146 


70 


88 


128 


2 


14 


13 


73 


101 


13 


1890 


250 


20 


71 


82 


26 


11 


31 


12 


47 


3.60 


199 


51 


99 


151 


7 


" 


24 


75 


111 


16 


188G-1890... 


1052 


107 


266 


117 


82 


43 


123 


52 


202 


8.29 


789 


263 


426 


626 


34 


59 


90 


861 


443 


65 


1891 


233 


18 


52 


21 


29 


16 


30 


17 


50 


3.54 


174 


59 


78 


155 


5 


18 


16 


95 


89 


10 


1892 


309 


21 


48 


33 


60 


20 


29 


8 


90 


4.18 


225 


84 


115 


194 


8 


IS 


21 


100 


158 


9 


1893 


264 
284 


26 

28 


47 
52 


25 
29 


25 
20 


14 
8 


39 
86 


14 
21 


74 
40 


3.55 
8.27 


195 
189 


69 
45 


88 
74 


176 
160 



6 


21 
24 


21 
18 


75 
88 


126 
81 


12 


1894 


17 


1895 


293 


28 


61 


57 


2 


8 


86 


26 


75 


3.89 


2S3 


60 


88 


205 


6 


23 


18 


85 


141 


25 


1891-1895... 


1383 


121 


260 


165 


136 


06 


170 


86 


329 


3.69 


1016 


317 


443 


890 


84 


99 


89 


443 


595 


73 


1896 


296 


25 


39 


48 




8 


36 


24 


116 


3.04 


226 


70 


101 


195 


6 


25 


84 


85 


ISO 


17 


1897 


263 


41 


40 


64 




7 


24 


22 


65 


8.70 


197 


66 


94 


160 


12 


15 


22 


87 


115 


12 


IS98 


206 


21 


60 


58 




8 


30 


19 


100 


4.29 


233 


68 


111 

1 


185 


11 


18 


26 


85 


m 


82 


Total,33yrs 


5803 

1 


035 


1298 


827 


218 


232 


688 


276 


1679 


3.33 


4415 


1888 


2308j 


8501 


186 


408 

1 


452 


1982 


2470| 


855 



* Kxclusivt" i)f I^rnviileiu'i' citv. 



]96 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTEATION" REPOET. 



[1898. 



Table LXII. 

Mortality in fhe State from Alcoliolism, with the Percentage of the Whole Nmnher 

of Deaths, Sex, Parentage, and Locality, foi^ thirty-three years, 

from 1866 to 1898, indusim. 





a 

o 

03 to 

a 


a 

O 
u 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 




DIVISIONS OJ 


THE 


5TATE. 




YEARS. 


Is 

% 

53 

73 

52 

17 
16 
17 
19 
16 


m 
0) 

a 


6 
> 


d 


P 

o 
o 

o 

m 


a 
s 
o 

Q 

c 


a 

o 
o 

o 
p. 


* 

a 

o 
o 

ai 

"> 
o 


O 
<u 
o 

•a 
!S 
"> 
o 

u. 
Ah 


3 
o 
a 
fl 
_o 

"So 

a 
!a 


5 years, 1866-1870 
5 years, 1871-1875 
5 years, 1876-1880 
1881 


63 
93 

79 

24 
28 
29 
27 
23 


.40 

.45 

.35 

.51 
.58 
.54 
.53 
.41 


9 
20 

27 

12 
13 
8 
6 

45 

3 

3 
6 
8 
5 


32 

37 

25 

5 
8 
7 
10 
6 


30 

56 

54 

19 
20 
22 
17 
16 


5 

2 

2 

1 


6 
6 
4 


6 
9 
6 
1 


18 
25 
18 

9 
10 

9 
11 


25 

48 

45 

14 
18 
16 
12 

7 


3 
3 
4 
1 


]^882 


1 


1883 


2 


1 
1 
1 


1 
4 


1 


"1884 


1 


1885 


1 






1881 1885 


130 

12 
16 
16 
31 
25 


.50 

.20 
.25 
.32 
.50 

.37 


85 

9 
14 
10 
23 
20 


36 

2 
4 
5 
12 

8 


94 

10 
12 
11 
19 
17 


3 

1 
2 


3 

2 


6 

1 
2 
2 

1 


46 

3 
5 
5 
13 
11 


67 

7 
4 
9 
14 
11 


5 


1886 




1887 


1 


1888 




1889 


2 
2 


1 




1890 


1 










1886 1890 


100 

29 
36 
44 
39 
24 


.31 

.47 
.. .48 
.59 
.54 
.32 


76 

22 
27 
34 
33 
19 


24 

7 
9 
10 
6 
5 


31 

8 
8 
15 
12 
5 


69 

21 
28 
29 
27 
19 


1 
1 

1 


3 

1 

3 

4 


6 

4 
4 

7 
2 


.37 

10 
12 
9 
14 
10 


45 

13 
17 
23 
16 
13 


2 


1891 




1893 


2 


1893 


3 


1894 


2 


1895 


1 












1891-1895 


172 

34 

36 

45 

751 


.48 

.45 
.51 
.65 
.43 


135 

28 

26 

37 

565 


37 

6 

10 

8 

186 


48 

7 

10 

13 

239 


124 

37 

26 

33 

512 


3 

1 

23 


8 

2 

1 

3 

36 


17 

6 

5 

3 

64 


55 

10' 

11 

13 

233 


82 

14 

15 

22 

363 




1896 


1 


1897 


4 


1898 


4 


Total, 33 years.. 


32 



Exclusive of Providence city. 



1808.] f'AL'SKS OF DEATir. 10? 

Apoplexy and Paralysis, 

There were 410 deatliH from apoplexy .'uid ])aralysis in IHiode 
Tslaud, ill 18!)8, acconliiig' to the returns. The iinmber reported 
is 53 less than in the year 1897. 

The whole number of deaths from these two causes represents 
fi.02 per cent, of all causes, and a proportion of 1 to every one 
thousand of the population. 

Of the sexes, there were 203 males and 213 females. 

Of parentage, 245 were of native parentage, and 171 of foreign. 

As observed in previous reports, the older native population 
has steadily been, in a very large proportion, more prone to apo- 
plexy than the foreign, or the children of the foreign population. 

It will be observed that the proportion of deaths from apoplexy 
and paralysis, to the whole mortality from all causes, has steadilj^ 
increased from about three and three-quarters per cent., during 
the first quinquennial (186G-1870), to nearl}^ five and three-quar- 
ters per cent., during the quinquennial (1891-1895). 

The following Table will present the sex, parental, and local 
relations of apoplexy and paralysis, as causes of death, during 
the last thirty-three years : (Providence city not included in the 
Providence county statement.) 



198 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTEATIOK REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table LXIII. 

Mortality in the State from Apoplexy and Paralysis, 1S66 to 1898, inclusive. 





|i 

Is 
o 


^1 

S CD ^- 
III 


a 
o 


SEX. 


PAEBNTAGE. 




DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE 




YEARS. 


to 
a> 


a 

to 


!> 
1 


'3 

;-> 
o 


.2 3 
U o 

mo 


Wo 


o >> 


o 

2g 


a 
tu 

-a 

PmO 


fl 
o 

s >> 


1866-1870. . 


15,391 


574 


3.73 


384 


290 


464 


110 


53 


43 


77 


145 


324 


33 


1871 


3,344 


156 


4.66 


73 


83 


113 


43 


10 


17 


15 


40 


61 


13 


1872 


4,247 


135 


2.97 


62 


63 


96 


29 


17 


9 


10 


37 


52 


10 


1873 


4,403 


134 


3.04 


59 


75 


109 


25 


9 


8 


17 


26 


57 


17 


1874 


4,339 


156 


3.69 


84 


73 


120 


36 


14 


10 


16 


43 


59 


15 


1875 


4,317 


166 


3.61 


79 


87 


133 


33 


7 


13 


17 


46 


75 


8 


1871-1875.. 


20,540 


787 


3.59 


357 


380 


571 


166 


57 


57 


75 


181 


304 


63 


1876 


4,116 


165 


4.01 


79 


86 


130 


35 


13 


11 


13 


45 


68 


15 


1877 


4,450 


181 


4.07 


87 


94 


123 


58 


10 


10 


18 


52 


74 


19 


1878 


4,441 


188 


4.23 


104 


84 


145 


43 


13 


16 


21 


58 


66 


15 


1870 


4,472 


230 


4.92 


114 


106 


146 


74 


12 


9 


29 


71 


89 


10 


1880 


4,829 


315 


4.67 


109 


106 


157 


58 


18 


13 


22 


71 


78 


13 


1876-1880.. 


32,308 


969 


4.77 


493 


476 


701 


368 


65 


59 


101 


297 


875 


72 


1881 


5,016 


244 


4.86 


116 


138 


170 


74 


17 


15 


25 


70 


101 


16 


1883 


5,074 


265 


5.22 


139 


136 


168 


97 


15 


29 


24 


65 


117 


15 


1883 


5,283 


275 


5.22 


138 


137 


192 


83 


11 


28 


22 


75 


118 


31 


1884 


5,141 


298 


5.80 


135 


163 


176 


122 


21 


14 


28 


108 


105 


S3 


1885 


5,389 


289 


5.38 


144 


145 


183 


106 


16 


18 


38 


99 


110 


18 


1881-1885.. 


25,902 


1,371 


5.29 


673 


699 


889 


482 


80 


104 


127 


417 


651 


93 


1886 


5,849 


333 


5.70 


173 


160 


230 


103 


11 


27 


32 


108 


120 


35 


1887 


6,340 


328 


5.17 


161 


167 


313 


115 


21 


27 


23 


101 


128 


38 


1888 


6,594 


367 


5.41 


164 


303 


234 


133 


29 


26 


29 


118 


137 


33 


1889 


6.359 


323 


5.17 


140 


183 


204 


119 


33 


33 


28 


101 


106 


33 


1890 


6,934 
31,976 


341 


4.91 


168 


173 


S06 


135 


21 


21 


23 


110 


144 


22 


1886-1890. . 


1,692 


5.29 


806 


886 


1,087 


605 


105 


133 


135 


533 


635 


151 


1891 


6,620 


335 


5.08 


160 


175 


307 


128 


17 


29 


33 


118 


118 


21 


189S 


7,396 


362 


4.29 


176 


186 


195 


167 


12 


29 


39 


124 


134 


34 


1893 


7,440 


407 


5.47 


206 


301 


227 


180 


21 


28 


26 


138 


171 


23 


1894 


7,160 


445 


6.23 


231 


214 


243 


202 


19 


83 


40 


155 


165 


33 


1895 


7,535 


417 


5.53 
5.71 


199 


218 


288 


179 


18 
87 


29 


80 


150 


153 


37 


1891-1895. . 


.36,151 


1,966 


972 


994 


1,110 


856 


148 


167 


685 


741 


138 


1896 


7,504 


419 


5.58 


199 


220 


235 


184 


20 


30 


43 


146 


141 


40 


1897 


7,110 


469 


6.70 


229 


340 


263 


206 


13 


33 


40 


175 


184 


24 


1898 


6,905 


416 


6.02 


203 


213 


245 


171 


17 


30 


48 


136 


152 


83 



* Not including Providence city. 



1898.] causes of death. 199 

Table LXIV. 

Aijesof Dccedentxj'rum Ajiuplexy and Puralynia, in each of the last thirty three years. 



Periods of Life. 



Al'olT.KXV AND I'AKALYSIS. 



1866. 
1807. 
18U8. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
l!-75. 
1870. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883., 
1S84. 
1S85., 
188G.. 
1887.. 
1888., 
1889., 
1890.. 
1891.. 
1892.. 
1893.. 
1894.. 
1895.. 
1890. . 
1897.. 
1898.. 



Total . 



155 



187 



11 
14 
11 
16 
7 
10 
13 
18 
11 
13 
15 
17 
19 
16 
24 
17 
13 
12 

359 



16 

6 
11 
12 
9 
14 
17 
14 
9 
19 
13 
12 
14 
18 
18 
20 
28 
19 
21 
25 
25 
26 
29 
36 
29 
24 
40 
45 
39 
39 
34 
37 
87 



9 

15 
16 
20 
12 
21 
20 
22 
30 
23 
25 
24 
41 
27 
21 
36 
41 
45 
32 
29 
52 
50 
61 
45 
52 
61 
60 
62 
88 
76 
76 
77 
75 

1,344 



24 

38 
27 
28 
33 
46 
26 
35 
39 
40 
43 
50 
40 
57 
59 
55 
57 
56 
68 
76 
65 
90 
85 
87 
84 
88 
91 
110 
108 
101 
118 
136 
108 

2,168 



95 

94 ] 
112 j 

96 I 
100 i 

92 I 
100 

90 

95 
108 
111 
106 
110 
144 
117 



7 
17 
16 
15 
20 
15 
11 
16 
25 
22 
23 
22 
26 
38 
34 
42 
38 
49 
45 
44 
51 
85 
60 
39 
50 
47 
49 
43 
65 I 
63 1. 
55 I 

..L 

54 



8,478 1.198 



29 



200 fokty-sixth kegistratiok repoet. [1898. 

Appendicitis. 

From a greater perfection in diagnosis of disease of the abdom- 
inal viscera, the disease known as appendicitis has received greater 
attention. This was probably reported in previous years under 
the head of diseases of the bowels, intussusception, or peritonitis. 

During 1898 there were 45 cases of appendicitis reported, and 
of this number operations were performed in 24 cases. 

As there were 11 deaths from peritonitis, in 1898, this would rep- 
resent over 80 per cent, of the combined numbers. 

Of the 45 cases of appendicitis, 29 were males, and 16 were 
females. Fifteen were of native, and 30 of foreign parentage. 

Brain Diseases. 

The number of decedents from diseases of the brain proper, in 
1898, was 327. 

This number represents 4.73 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of .79 to every one thousand of the whole ^ojndation. 

Of the 327 decedents, 176 were males, and 151 were females. 

In regard to parentage, 131 were of native, and 196 of foreign 
parentage. 

The deaths in the different seasons of the year were as follows : 

First Quarter 88 Third Quarter 83 

Second Quarter 93 Fourth Quarter 63 

First half 181 Second half 146 

Whole year 337 

Brain diseases occur largely in children. Of the 327 decedents 
from those causes, in 1898, 133 were under 5 years of age, and 19 
were from 5 to 10 years of age. 

The following Table will present the statistics of mortality from 
diseases of the brain, for thirty-three years : 



1808. 



C'ACSrO.S ()!■• DKATn. 



201 



T.vi'.LK LXV. 

Mortalitt/ in Ihe State from Bniin DiseaneK, with the Percentage, Sex, Parentage, 
and Locality, for thirty-three years, from 1S6G to ISUS, inclusice. 





.a 

1 1 

s pq 


o 

0} 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 




DIVISIONS OP THE 


STATE. 




YEARS. 


i 


S 


1 v' 
> 

1 


s 
tifi 


'E o 


ll 


u ■ 

.Jo 


g 

It; 

ll 

£5 


e 
o 

c 
o 


a 
o 

" . 

ll 


lSOG-1870 


465 
607 

150 
160 
143 
163 
164 


3.02 
2.95 

3.64 
8.59 
3.19 
3.65 
3.39 


249 
381 

92 

88 
75 
82 
87 


216 
276 

58 
72 
67 
81 
77 


274 
358 

89 
91 
76 
88 
89 


191 
249 

61 
69 
66 
75 
75 


21 
12 

8 
3 
1 
3 
3 


24 
82 

11 
7 
13 
13 
6 


84 
89 

7 
11 
12 
15 
12 


189 
167 

39 
49 
45 
51 
56 


222 
337 

85 
85 
68 
75 
81 


25 


1871-1875 


20 


1S76 


.5 


1S77 


5 


1878 


3 


1S79 


6 


1880 


6 






1876-1880 


779 

186 
181 
187 
148 
189 


3.49 

3.69 
3.50 
3.54 
2.88 
2.. 51 
3.44 

3.09 
3.81 1 
3.21 
3.58 
3.13 


424 

103 
93 

1 96 
90 

i 98 


355 

83 
88 
91 
58 
91 


483 

i 85 
92 
100 
77 
94 


346 

101 

89 
87' 
71 
95 


13 

7 
4 
8 
4 
2 


50 

11 
10 
14 
9 
11 


57 

14 
10 
15 
8 
20 


240 

58 
71 

41 
53 


394 

91 
80 
94 
83 
100 


25 


ISSl 




1SS~ 


6 


1883 


4 


1884 


3 


1885 


3 






1881-1885 

1880 


891 

182 
203 
212 
189 
217 


, 480 

108 
120 
114 
91 
113 


411 

74 

1 
83 I 

1 
98 

98 

104 


448 

' 84 
103 
109 
96 
119 


443 

98! 
100 
103 

93 

98 


25 

4 
8 
4 
5 
7 


55 

14 
9 
19 
12 
13 


67 

18 

14 
12 
17 
17 


275 

69 
75 
76 
72 
90 


448 

78 
95 
90 
78 
85 


21 
4 


1887 

1S88 


2 
11 


1S89 


5 




5 






1886-1890 

1891 


1,003 

222 
246 
257 
221 
258 


3.14 

3.36 
3.33 
3.46 
3.09 
3.42 


546 

135 
180 
139 
122 
123 


457 

87 
116 
118 

99 
135 


511 

108 
122 
116 
93 
126 


492 

114 
124 
141 
128 
132 


28 

8 
8 

12 
4 

14 


. 67 

19 
22 
17 
24 
25 


73 

19 
27 
23 
18 
22 


882 

93 
96 
100 
82 
81 


426 

78 
83 
98 
84 
105 


27 

5 


1892 


10 


1893 


7 




14 


1 895 


11 






1891-1895 


1,204 

299 

328 

327 

5.903 


8.83 

3.98 
4.61 
4.73 
8.41 


649 

152 

179 

176 

8,186 


555 

147 

149 

151 

2,717 


565 

186 

151 

181 

3,007 


639 

163 
177 
196 i 
2,896 


46 

10 

7 

5 

167 


107 

24 
26 
26 
411 


104 

38 

SO 

26 

468 


452 

139 

178 

157 

2,129 


448 

79 

78 

100 

2,532 


47 


1896 


9 


1897 

1808 


9 
13 


TuImI, :« years.. 


196 



♦ Exclusive of Providence city. 



25 



202 forty-sixth registration report. [1898. 

Bronchitis. 

The number of decedents in 1898, whose deaths were reported 
as having- been caused by bronchitis, was 236. This is 10 more 
than in 1897. 

This number represents 3.42 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of .57 to every one thousand of '(hiQ pop^ilation. 

Of the 236 decedents, 109 were males, and 127 were females ; or 
at the rate of 85 males to each 100 females. 

In relation to parentage, 76 were of native, and 160 of foreign 
parentage. 

In regard to age, 129 of the decedents were under 5 years of age, 
10 were between 5 and 20 years, 7 between 20 and 40 years, 21 be- 
tween 40 and 60 years, and of the remaining 69 decedents above 
60 years of age, there were 31 deaths from chronic bronchitis. 

During the first four months of the year the decedents from 
bronchitis numbered 115, during the last four months the number 
was 66. 

The very large increase in the proportionate mortality from 
bronchitis, during the last twenty years, will scarcely fail to be 
noticed in Table LXVI. 

The following Table will show various facts in relation to the 
mortality from bronchitis, for thirty -three years : 



1898.1 



CAUSES OF D EAT FT. 



W.] 



TAliI.E LXVI. 
Mortality in the State from Bronchitis, thirty-three yvars, I811G to 1S98, inclusive. 





' i 

V 

Q 


.0 
S 

3 

55 


a 

8 

u 


SEX. 


PABBNTAOB. 




DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE 




YKAUS. 


CO 

0) 

"5 


i 

S 


> 

1 


1 


It 
•Co 


a s 

4) 

MO 


n 

^8 



c* 

2§ 

fl-O 


9 

a 
•0 

cuo 


B 


^8 


1860-1870 


99 


.64 


43 


56 


47 


52 


1 


4 


7 


29 


.50 


2 


1871 


24 
25 
27 
30 
57 


.78 
.65 
.64 
.96 
1.39 


10 
10 
12 
22 
32 


14 
15 
15 
17 
25 


11 
11 
11 
12 
29 


18 
14 
16 
27 
28 


1 


1 

1 


1 
1 

1 


5 


6 
21 


17 
16 
18 
32 
.33 





1872 




1873 


1 


1874 






1 


1875 






1 


2 










1871-1875 


172 


.84 


86 


86 


74 


98 


1 


2 


4 


45 


116 


4 


1876 


57 
09 
80 
02 
91 


1.46 
1.62 
1.89 
1.47 
1.86 


23 
.<}2 
30 
31 
49 


34 
37 
50 
31 
42 


26 
35 
37 
31 

44 


31 
34 
43 
31 

47 


1 
1 

1 
1 


1 
2 

1 
G 


1 

6 
5 
6 


22 
22 
21 
21 


46 
44 

48 
34 
50 


2 


1877 




1876 .' 


1 


1879 




1880 


1 






1870-1880 


359 


1.61 


165 


194 


173 


186 


4 


12 


18 


93 


228 


4 


1881 


84 


.87 


48 


36 


39 


45 


1 


1 


2 


25 


53 


.> 


188-^ 


100 


1.27 


39 


61 


47 


53 


3 


2 


6 


25 


60 


4 


1883 


111 

118 


2.10 
2.29 


56 

58 


55 
60 


51 
40 


60 

78 


5 



2 


3 

8 


42 
42 


57 
62 


2 


1884 




1885 


108 


8.08 


82 


86 


91 


77 


5 


3 


13 


71 


76 








1881-1885 


581 


2.24 


283 


298 


268 


313 


20 


8 


32 


205 


308 


8 


1886 


174 
176 


2.96 
2.77 


75 
90 


99 
86 


81 
60 


93 i 
110 


8 
3 


4 

(i 


9 
19 


74 
63 


83 
84 


1 


1887 


1 


1888 


228 


3.45 


105 


123 i 


79 


149 


3 


4 


17 


110 


88 


6 


1889 


260 

275 

1,113 


4.20 
4.01 


128 
140 


132 
135 


90 
116 


170 
159 


4 
5 


8 
4 


18 
15 


109 
107 


110 
138 


11 


1890 









1880-1890 


3.48 


538 


575 


426 


687 


18 


26 


78 


463 


503 


25 


1891 


247 


3.74 


108 


139 


95 


152 


13 


15 


21 


85 


111 


2 


1892 


308 


4.16 


147 


161 


117 


191 


5 


15 


21 


130 


130 


7 


1893 


315 


4.24 


164 


151 : 


105 


210 


4 


9 


21 


150 


126 


5 


1891 


254 


3.55 


112 


142 1 


82 


172 


4 


15 


11 


98 


120 


6 


1895 


274 


3.64 


138 


141 1 

1 


92 


182 


8 


15 


19 


103 


122 


7 


1891-1895 


1,398 


3.87 


004 


734 


491 


907 


34 


69 


93 


500 


009 


27 


1896 


m 


8.68 


143 


138 


101 


175 


8 


19 


9 


112 


110 


12 


1897 


220 


3.18 


123 


108 


88 


143 


G 


19 


13 


88 


94 


6 


1898 


236 


8.42 


109 


127 


76 


160 

1 


6 


14 


It 


67 


103 


15 



* Bxclusive of Providence city. 



204 F0RTY-SI:S;TH EEGISTRATIOlSr EEPORT. [1898. 



Cancer. 

There were 279 decedents, in 1898, wliose deaths were caused by 
cancer, according to the returns. The term cancer includes all the 
various kinds, and in whatever place located. 

This number represents 4.04 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of .62 to every one thousand of ihe po2Julation. 

The varieties of cancer, as reported, may be found in Tables 
VII and VIII, on pages 22, 23, 37, and 38. They are classed in 
Table IX as follows : cancer in various localities, or cancer vari- 
ous, 46 ; cancer of abdomen, 8 ; of the breast, 32 ; of face, 8 ; of 
the liver, 36 ; of rectum, 14 ; of the stomach, 64 ; of the uterus, 71. 

In 1898 the deaths from cancer, in the several divisions of the 
year, were as follows : 

First Quarter 71 Third Quarter 74 

Second Quarter 64 Fourth Quarter 70 

First half 135 Second half : . . 144 

Whole year 279 

Seoe. — Of the 279 decedents from cancer, 83 were males, and 196 
were females ; or 30 males and 70 females in every 100. 

Parentage. — There were 159 of native parentage, and 120 of 
foreign. 

The following Table will show the facts of mortality from can- 
cer, in relation to sex, parentage, and locality, for thirty-three 
years : 



1808.] 



CAUSES or i)i:.\T[r. 



205 



Table LXVII. 

Mortality in the State from Cancer, 186G to ISDS, inclimve. 





0) 

Q 
o 

s 

1 


g 
o 

u 


SKX. 


PARENTAGE. 




DIVISIONS OF 


THE 


5TATE. 




YEARS. 


i 

18. 


CO 

•a 


6 

> 


B 

1 


1^ 




4^ 

C >• 

15 


Providence 
County.* 


e 

u 

s 


a 
o 

hi 


r. yoari^. 18(;0-1870 


328 


2.13 


98 


230 


269 

1 


59 


19 


33 


38 


87 


131 


20 


1871 


60 2.13 : 
95 2.46 
100 2.53 

87 2.13 : 


25 
26 
45 
23 
24 


41 
69 
61 
64 
71 


47 
66 
76 
67 
62 


19 
29 
30 
20 
33 


4 
4 
4 
3 


7 
7 
6 
6 
6 


5 
9 
12 
12 
7 


25 
21 
32 
24 
25 


25 
50 
44 
38 
49 


4 


1872 


4 


1873 


8 


1874 


3 


1875 


95 


2.81 


5 






1871-1875 


449 


2.18 


143 


306 


318 


131 


15 


32 


45 


127 


206 


24 


1870 


106 
135 


2.72 
3 17 


27 
29 
38 
39 
45 


79 
106 
81 
86 
80 


72 

87 
79 
70 
73 


34 
48 
40 
55 
52 


5 
3 

i 5 
9 
5 


6 

11 
6 
10 


8 
9 
8 
9 
12 


27 
37 
37 

28 
20 


53 

66 
48 
66 
68 


7 


1877 


13 


1878 


119 2.82 
125 1 2.96 
125 2.72 


10 


1879 


7 


1880 


4 


1870-1880 


610 2.73 


178 


432 


381 


229 


27 


40 


46 


155 


301 


41 


1881 


145 1 2.90 


40 


105 


90 


55 


8 


10 


12 


42 


05 


8 


1882 


132 2.75 


40 


92 


82 


50 


5 


15 


9 


43 


52 


8 


1883 


169 1 3.20 


51 


118 


105 


04 


3 


17 


12 


49 


86 


2 


1884 


150 3.05 j 


39 


117 


88 


68 


2 


18 


21 


41 


70 


4 


1885 


193 , 3.59 1 
795 1 8.07 1 


52 


141 


114 


79 


8 


9 


8 


67 
242 


88 
301 


13 




222 


578 


4T9 


316 


26 


69 


02 


35 


1880 


162 2.77 


42 


120 


75 


87 


6 


11 


9 


37 


87 


12 


1887 


l.-JO 2.50 


49 


110 


96 


63 


8 


5 


10 


49 


80 


< 


1888 


193 2.93 
189 1 3.03 
165 i 2.41 
868 2.71 


07 
65 
56 


126 
124 
109 


128 
104 
92 


65 
85 
73 


9 
4 
14 


10 
10 
10 


12 
13 
13 


57 
57 
46 


68 
82 
74 


17 




23 


1890 


8 


1880-1890 


279 
48 
63 
54 
67 


589 
129 
128 
151 
147 


495 
104 
108 
124 
121 


373 
73 
78 
81 
93 


41 
8 
7 
6 

13 


46 

11 
16 
15 
11 


57 
15 
16 
17 
23 


246 
46 
57 
56 
75 


411 
83 
75 
92 
78 


07 


1891 


177 
181 


2.67 
2.45 


14 


1892 


10 


1893 


205 2.75 
214 2.99 


19 


1894 


19 


1865 


234 3.11 
1,011 2.79 
226 1 8.01 
2.54 3.57 
279 1 4.04 


74 


160 


106 


128 


13 

1 

47 

6 
12 
18 


12 
05 
21 
14 
18 


17 
88 
12 
22 
21 


79 


96 
419 

89 
103 
119 


17 


1801-1895 


290 
61 

77 
88 


715 
165 
177 
196 


558 
117 
128 
169 


463 
109 
120 
120 


313 
81 
86 
75 


70 


1890 


17 




17 


1898 


25 







• Exclusive of Providence city. 



206 forty-sixth registration report. [l8l:>8. 

Child-Birth. 

Under the head of " Child-birth " are included, in this connec- 
tion, puerperal convulsions, and whatever causes of death that 
may have occurred as the direct result of child-birth, or parturi- 
tion. 

The number reported in 1898 was 71, 25 of which were from the 
immediate effects of child-birth, including- metritis, hemorrhage, 
rupture of uterus, etc. ; 10 from peritonitis ; 14 from puerperal 
nephritis and convulsions ; 22 from puerperal fever or septicaemia. 

Of the whole number, 22 were of native, and 49 of foreign pa- 
rentage. 

This number represents 1.03 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of .17 to every one thousand of ihe population. 

There were 14 more deaths from "child-birth" in 1898 than in 
1897. 

The following Table will present the various relations in regard 
to the mortality from child-birth, for thirty-three years, 1866-1898 : 



isos.] 



CAirSKS ()V DKATH, 



207 



Table LXVIII. 

MortnUlij ill the Stale from ChiUl-Birth, with the Percenturje of the Whole Number 
of Deaths, Parentage, and Loculitri , for thirty-three yearn, 
from 1S6G to ISDS, iuclusirc. 



YKARS. 



PS 

ES 



1800-1870. 
1871-1875. 



1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1876-1880. 



1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1881-1885. 



1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1886-1890. 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1891-1895. 



1890. 



1807 



1898 

Total, 33 years. 



155 
245 

48 
46 
43 
43 



1.01 
1.19 

1.24 
1.09 
1.01 
1.02 



51 j 1.11 
231 I 1.04 



CO 
50 
58 
47 
47 
262 

41 
53 
51 
41 
41 



274 

32 
75 
57 
72 
55 



291 

50 

57 

71 

1.636 



1.28 
1.03 
1.10 
.91 
.87 
1.04 

.70 
.71 
.77 
65 
.58 
.86 

.35 
1.01 

.76 
1.01 

.73 



1.03 
.94 



1 1 

PARENTAGE.' 

i 


> 


So 
"53 

s 


1 

j 62 


93 


111 


134 


21 


27 


1! IS 


28 


23 


20 


21 


22 


23 


28 


106 


125 


26 


34 


18 


32 


f 




26 


32 


17 


30 


; 21 


26 


j 108 


154 


1 17 


24 


i 15 


38 


: 13 


38 


' 14 


27 


12 


29 


92 


182 


8 


24 


29 


46 


23 


34 


15 


57 


16 


39 


91 


200 


16 


34 


18 


39 


23 


49 


626 


1,010 



DIVISIONS OF THE STATE. 



"E o 



*^ a 

C 3 
(U o 



of? 

15 



3 


4 


4 


24 




3 


1 


9 




5 




8 




3 


1 


88 




2 



6 
130 



o 5 



90 

24 

21 

28 

543 



>o 



56 

no 

23 
17 
21 
23 
27 
111 

29 



125 



12 



17 

26 

I 

20 ' 3 

13 4 

_J7_' 3 

117 i 12 

I 

iq I •> 
19 J 

29 ! 9 

29 4 
32 4 

30 4 



139 I 23 

17 6 

22 4 



32 
729 



3 
101 



♦ Exclusive of Providence city. 



208 FOETY-SIXTH REGISTRATION" REPORT. [1898. 



Cholera Infantum. 

The number of deaths from cholera infantum, according- to the 
returns for 1898, was 468. 

This number represents 6.78 per cent, of deaths from all causes, 
and a proportion of 1.13 to every one thousand of ^e population. 

Of the 468 decedents, 240 were males, and 228 were females. 

Of parentag-e, 163 were of native, and 305 of foreign parentage ; 
or about 187 of foreig"u to every 100 of native parentag-e. 

The mortality from cholera infantum, during- 1898, was .80 per 
cent, g-reater than during- the year 1897. 

As may be seen on the following- pag-e, the number of decedents 
from cholera infantum, during the thirty-three years from 1866 to 
1898, inclusive, was 11,065. 

The proportion to total mortality, for the period of thirty-three 
years, was 6.3 per cent. For 1892 the proportion was 8.6 per 
cent. ; for 1893, 8.1 per cent. ; for 1894, 6.9 per cent. ; for 1895, Q.Q 
per cent. ; for 1896, 7.3 per cent. ; for 1897, 5.9 per cent. ; and for 
1898, 6.7 per cent. 

There were 105 males to every 100 females among the decedents 
during the thirty-three years ; and 187 decedents of foreign pa- 
rentage to every 100 of native, during the same period. 

The following Table shows the whole number of reported deaths 
from cholera infantum ; the sex and parentage of the decedents ; 
and the number in each of the larger divisions of the State, in 
each of the last thirty-three years : 



1898.] 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



209 



Table LXIX. 

Mortnlitji in the State from Cholera Tnfdntum, ISGG to 1S9S, inclusire. 





i 

o 

b 

E 

3 


a 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 


1 


DIVI8IONB OF THE 


STATE. 




YEARS. 


1 
I 

1 ' 00* 

1 a 

403 
85 
195 
148 
140 
156 


8 
73 

a 

842 

87 
196 
137 
125 
162 


1 


1 


'u. C 

39 
14 
16 
17 
4 
20 


>> 

ll 

44 
12 
16 
14 

12 
16 


n 

46 
12 
21 
16 
5 
20 


£0 




a 
•a 

tt 
324 

62 
151 

99 
184 
186 


C 


5 years. 186G-18T0 

1871 

1872 

1873 


7-15 
172 
391 
285 
265 
318 


4.84 
4.82 
S.71 
6.19 
5.86 
6.97 


852 
82 
167 
165 
115 
155 


893 
90 
224 
120 
150 
163 


245 
59 
157 
120 

84 
108 


47 
13 
80 
19 


1874 


26 


1875 


IK 






1871-1875 


1,431 
250 
259 

168 


6.97 
5.75 
5.52 
3.58 


! 724 
131 
139 
96 

i 88 
i 123 


707 
119 
120 
72 
73 
124 


684 
105 
96 
73 
71 
109 


747 
145 
163 
95 
90 
138 


71 
5 

12 
7 
8 

13 


TO 
12 
13 
14 
16 
11 


74 
29 
9 
7 
21 
10 


528 
68 
96 
64 
51 
93 


582 
124 
122 
71 
59 
100 


106 


1876 


12 


1877 




1878 


.«; 


1879 


161 ! 3.43 

247 5.12 

1,085 4.86 


6 


1880 


20 






1876-1880 


577 
130 
173 
124 
177 
150 
754 
179 
200 
239 
209 
282 


508 
110 
152 
118 
148 
129 


454 
102 
133 
104 
139 
128 


631 
138 
192 
138 
186 
1.51 
805 
234 
210 
283 
264 
880 


45 

10 
20 
12 
10 
5 


66 
22 
11 
7 
12 
2:i 


76 
14 
19 
22 
26 
16 


372 
75 

132 
88 

114 

133 


476 
102 
130 
108 
144 
86 


50 


1881 


240 
325 
242 
325 
279 


4.54 
6.10 
4.37 
6.00 
4.02 


17 


1882 


13 


1883 


5 


1884 


19 


18a'5 


16 






1881-1885 


1,411 
377 
855 
467 
396 


5.45 
6.14 
5.36 
6.78 
fi ni 


657 
198 
155 
228 
187 
300 


606 
143 
145 
184 
182 
202 
806 
170 
210 
186 
162 
155 


57 
4 
16 
18 
18 
19 


75 
29 
16 
35 
82 
57 


97 
15 
35 
28 
20 
88 


542 
194 
160 
219 
199 
245 


570 
120 
119 
149 
116 
209 
718 
137 
201 
183 
180 
150 
801 
148 , 
120 i 
144 1 
8,878 


70 


1886 


15 


1887 

1886 

1889 


9 
18 
11 


1890 


582 8.01 


19 






1886-1890 


2,177 
546 

63;^ 

603 
496 
500 


6.81 
8.25 
8.56 
8.10 
6.93 
6.64 
7.. 55 
7.26 
5.98 
6.78 
6.. 37 


1.109 
298 
336 
324 
248 
268 

1,469 
313 
204 
240 

5,793 


1,068 
248 
297 
279 
258 
238 1 

1,309 

211 i 

228 

5.272 ' 


1,871 
876 
423 
417 
884 
845 


75 
21 
18 
11 
18 
14 
77 
5 
12 
14 
395 


169 

68 
77 

82 

1 

76 ' 

57 
3(iO 

62 

63 

62 
971 ^ 


131 
50 
43 
44 

25 

19 
181 

38 

30 

28 
701 1 


1,017 
255 
281 
267 
225 
241 

1,269 

«r 

179 

211 

4,640 j 


72 


1891 


15 


189a 


18 


1898 


16 


1894 


27 


1895 


19 


1891-1895 


2.778 
545 
425 
468 

11,065 


883 
165 
160 
163 
4.278 


1,895 
380 
265 
805 

6,792 


90 


1896 


15 


1897 


21 


1898 


9 


Total, 33 years.. 


480 



' Not including Providence city. 



210 fokty-sixth registration report. [1898. 

Consumption. 

The decedents from consumption, dnring- 1898, numbered 886. 
The number is 109 more than in the preceding- year. 

This number represents 12.83 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of 2.14 to every one thousand of ih.e population. 

Sex.—Oi these 886 decedents, 460 were males, and 426 were 
females ; being- about 93 female decedents to every 100 male de- 
cedents. 

For the period of twenty years (1866-1885) there were nearly 
124 females to every 100 male decedents from consumption, and a 
very considerable excess every year since, excepting in 1890, 1891, 
1893, 1897, and 1898. 

Parentage. — There were 272 decedents of native parentag-e, and 
614 of foreig-n ; a proportion of 226 of foreign parentage to every 
100 of native. 

Season. — The largest number of deaths, 87, occurred each in 
March and May ; the next largest, 86, in November ; the smallest, 
60, in October. 

The number in each quarter of the year was as follows : 

First Quarter 226 Third Quarter . . 211 

Second Quarter 230 Fourth Quarter 219 

First half 456 Second half 430 

Whole year 886 

Ages. — During 1898, of the 886 decedents from consumption, 
254 were between the ages of 20 and 30; and 179, or over one 
quarter, were between the ages of 30 and 40. 

In order to show more concisely the relation of age to mortality 
from consumption, during 1898, the following age periods and 
numbers are presented : 

Under 10 years of age 110 

Between 10 and 20 years 80 

Between 20 and 30 years 254 

Between 30 and 40 yeai's 1T9 

Between 40 and 50 years 115 

Between 50 and 70 years 123 

Over 70 years 26 

Total , , ,.,..,,..........,,.,, 88(i 



1898.] cArsKs ()!• dkatii. '^11 

TllO followilii;' 'r;il)I(> sliows tlio totill (Icatlis from ;ill icportcil 
Jkihnrii cif list's, witli tlie iiiiiiihiT i\,\n\ jxrcinldt/r of (l(>;it,]is from con- 
sumi)ti(Mi of tlio siime, in each of the hii-f,''e divisions of the St;it(i, 
juid ill tlic whole State, 'm each of the lant Hcrentee.n ycurs, aiul also 
th(( ao-o'iv^ate for a ]iorio(l of thirty years, from IHCl tr) 1S!)(), in- 
clusive : 



CONSUMPTION. 



STATISTICS BY COUNTIES 



NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE, 



THIRTY-EIGHT YEARS. 



214 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 









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(/'AUSKS OF DKATM, 



215 






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2t6 



FOSiTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT, 



[1898. 



Table LXXI. 

Mortality in the State from Consumption, with the Percentage of the Whole Number 

of Deaths, from all causes, and the Sex, Parentage, and Locality, 

in the Aggregate of Different Periods, 1866-1S98. 





a 
o 
o 

a 

o . 

.2 

si 

o 


a 
o 


.SEX. 


1 

1 PARENTAGE. 

1 


DIVISIONS OF THE STATE. 


YEARS. 


1,244 

1,267 

1,435 

1,692 

382 
312 
391 
356 
422 


S 


1 

Is 


i 


t4 

a 

o 
o 

o 

'^- 
cq 


a 
a 
o 
O 

B 


o 
a 
o 
o 


* 

a 
a 
o 

O 

a 
o 
a 
m 
-O 
'> 

1 


O 

o 
a 

o 


a 

o 
O 
a 
o 

-a 
.s 

to 


1866-1870 


2,718 

2,883 

3,271 

3,729 

826 
710 
800 
727 

852 


17 66 

14.03 

14.66 

14.40 

14.12 
11.19 
12.13 
11.61 
12.29 


1,474 

1,616 

1,836 

2,037 

444 
398 
409 
371 
430 


1,567 

1,504 

1,473 

1,427 

308 
266 
284 
239 
280 


1,151 

1,379 

1,798 

2,302 

518 
444 
516 

488 
572 


122 

94 

104 

113 

23 
20 
28 
20 
31 


231 
213 
194 

208 

43 
34 

55 
45 
38 


219 
163 

188 

242 

57 
41 
32 
37 
51 


891 

953 

1,048 

1,222 

276 
246 
, 273 
267 
305 


1,051 

1,234 

1,498 

1,751 

368 
823 
862 
315 
394 


204 


1871-1875 


226 


1876-1880 


239 


1881-1885 


193 


1886 

1887 


59 
46 


1888 


50 


1689 


53 


1890 


33 






1886-1890 


3,915 

740 
759 
722 
705 
839 


12.24 

11.18 
10.26 
9.72 
9.85 
11.13 


1,863 

380 
360 
364 
337 
392 


2,052 

360 
399 
358 
368 
447 


1,377 

248 
249 
230 
214 
284 


2,538 

492 
510 
492 
491 
555 


122 

17 
29 
18 
10 
29 


215 

47 
51 
55 
46 
54 


218 

51 
45 
35 
46 
59 


1,357 

236 
265 
259 
242 
271 


1,762 

347 
342 
328 
325 
304 


241 


1891 


42 


1892 


27 


1893 


27 


1894 


36 


1895 


32 






1891-1895 


3,765 

846 

777 
886 

22,790 


10.41 

11.27 
10.93 

12.83 

13.11 


1,833 

409 
395 
460 

10,598 


1,932 

437 
382 
426 

12,192 


1,225 

273 
269 

272 

9,387 


2,540 

573 
508 
614 

13,403 


103 

27 
13 
29 

727 


253 

59 
55 
54 

1,482 


236 

66 
55 
60 

1,447 


1,273 

292 
283 
307 

7,626 


1,736 

367 
341 
405 

10,145 


174 


1896 


35 


1897 


80 


1898 


31 


Total, 33 years.. 


1,363 



* Exclusive of Providence city. 



1808.] 



r'AUSKS OF DKATH. 



2] 7 



Consumption. Proport'inu <>f Jhdths to pDjxihd'nn,. 

The proportion of deaths from coiisuinptioii to the jK>j>ii/ati<jii 
ill tlie different localities in the State, during- the last thirteen 
years, may be seen in the following- summaries : 



For five years, ISSG to JSUO, iucliisire. 

Persons, 
One Death to every 

Bristol County 494 or. 

Kent County 569 or. 

Newport County 708 or. , 

Providence County* 598 or. 

Providence city 3.56 or. 

Washington County 497 or. 

Wliole State .420 or. 



in every 1,000 
of Population. 



.2.09 
.1.85 
.1.48 
.1.91 
.2.82 
.2.10 
2.40 



Fo)' five i/cais, 1S91 to IS05, inclusive. 

Persons, 
One Death to every 



Bristol County 671. 

Kent County 577. 

Newport County G47. 

Providence County* 537. 

Providence City 413. 

Washington County 700. 

Whole State 497. 



In every 1,000 
of Population. 



.1.74 
.1.73 
.1.58 
.1.91 



.1.34 
.2.02 



1S06. 



I'ersons, 
One Death to every 

Bristol County 456 or 

Kent County 526 or 

Newport County 474 or 

Providence County Towns 457 or 

Central Falls 000 or 

Pawtucliet 013 or 

Providence city .• 404 : or 

Woonsocket 4,55 or 

Washington county 713 or 

Whole State 406 or 



In every 1,000 
of Population. 

2.19 

1.90 

2.11 

2.19 

1.05 

1.6;J 

2.47 

2.12 

1.40 

2.15 



* Kxclusive of Providence citv. 



218 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



1897. 

Persons, 
One Death to every 

Bristol County 954 

Kent County 583 

Newport County 5T3 

Providence County Towns 583 

Central Falls 938 

Pawtucket 562 

Providence City 444 

Woonsocket 482 

Washington County 840 

Whole State 519 



In every 1,000 
of Population. 

1.05 

1.71 

1.74 

3.04 

1.07 

1.78 

S.25 

3.08 

1.19 

1.93 



1S9S. 

Persons, 
One Death to every 

Bristol County 486 

Kent County 613 

Newport County 530 

Providence County Towns 539 

Central Falls 602 

Pawtucket 508 

Providence City 381 

Woonsocket .400 

Washington County 820 

Whole State 468 



In every 1,000 
of Population. 

3.06 

1.63 

1.89 

1.85 

1.66 

1.97 

2.62 

3. .50 

1.23 

3.14 



There was an increase in the mortality from consumption, in 
1898, as compared with the preceding- year, not only in numbers, 
but also in proportion to the population. 



1898. I CAUSKS OF DEATH. ^il'.t 

Choup. 

There were 9 decedents from croup, in 1S1)8, as aj^ainst 17 in 
1897. 

Sex. — Of the 9 decedents from croui), in 1898, there were 4 
males and 5 females, a proportion of 80 males to each 100 fe- 
males. 

Parentage. — There were 3 decedents of native parentage, and 
G of foreign parentage. The proportions were in the ratio of 
200 of foreign to each 100 of native parentage. 

Age. — There were 4 of the decedents under 1 year of age, 4 of 
1 year and under 2, and 1 between 5 and 10. 

Season. — 

First Quarter 4 Third Quarter 1 

Second Quarter 3 Fourtli Quarter 1 

First half 7 Second half 2 

Whole year 9 

The following Table will exhibit various facts in relation to 
mortality from croup for thirty-three years : 



220 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table LXXII. 

Mortality in the State from Croup, from 1866 to 1S9S, inclusive. 





J3 
cS 

a> 
P 

o 

V 

S 


a 

ID 

o 


' SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 




DIVISIONS OF 


THE STATE. 




YEARS. 




g 


> 




o 


'S o 
pqo 


a 3 
Ma 


o >. 
tzio 


o 
c* 


o 
C 
CD 


d 

3 

&J0 . 

B >> 


1866 1870 


237 
367 

102 
95 
93 
96 
66 


1.47 
1.79 

2.61 
2.23 
2.20 

2.28 
1.45 


113 
198 

50 
48 
45 
58 
33 


115 
169 

53 
47 
48 
38 
34 


96 
164 

42 
34 
43 
40 

27 


131 
203 

60 
61 
50 
56 
39 


6 
13 

1 
4 
14 
3 
3 


13 
80 

6 

3 
3 
6 
3 


19 
^ 13 

1 

15 
4 


82 
131 

26 
47 
25 
25 
20 


99 
169 

65 
40 
39 
43 
30 


8 


1871 1875 


11 


1876 


4 


1877 




1878 


5 


1879 


4 


1880 


6 


1876 1880 


453 

101 

77, 
71 
80 
94 


2.03 

2.16 
1.60 
1.40 
1.55 
1.74 


333 

45 
41 
33 
40 
45 


219 

56 
36 
39 
40 
49 


186 

38 
33 
33 
32 
42 


266 

63 
45 
38 
48 
52 


25 

2 
1 
1 
2 

4 


21 

6 
2 
6 
11 

8 


27 

4 
6 
4 
4 
6 


143 

38 
33 
25 
29 
46 


317 

49 
33 
35 
34 

28 


19 


1881 


2 


1883 


3 


1883 




1884 

1885 


2 


1881-1885 


423 

90 
113 
79 
80 
83 


1.63 

1.53 
1.79 
1.19 
1.38 
1.19 


203 

45 
58 
43 
37 
53 


220 

45 
55 
36 
43 
30 


177 

39 
43 
34 
24 
28 


' 246 

51 
70 
45 
56 
55 


10 

2 

9 
4 
3 

2 


33 

18 
13 
2 
15 
14 


34 

12 
4 

7 
1 
2 


171 

34 
43 
34 

27 
32 


178 

32 
39 
27 
33 
31 


7 


1886 


2 


1887 

1888 


6 
5 


1889 


1 


1890 


3 


1886-1890. ....... 

1891 

1892 


415 

67 
89 
50 
32 
30 


1.39 

1.46 

1.20 

.67 

.45 

.40 


236 

40 
52 
39 
16 
14 


209 

27 
37 
21 
16 
16 


168 

17 
44 
13 
10 
9 


277 

50 
45 
37 
22 
21 


20 

1 
1 
4 
1 


61 

11 
10 
11 

7 
6 


26 

11 

21 
3 
2 
4 


160 

27 
21 
25 
15 
11 


162 

16 
33 

7 
9 


16 

1 
3 


1893 




1894 

1895 




1891 1895 


268 

24 

17 

9 

2,232 


.84 

.32 
.24 
.13 

1.28 


151 

16 

11 

4 

1,164 


117 

8 

6 

5 

1,068 


93 

5 

4 

3 

896 


175 

19 

13 

6 

1,336 


7 
81 


45 

4 

8 

2 

217 


41 
150 


99 

12 

5 

4 

807 


72 

' 8 
4 
2 

911 


4 


1896 




1897 

1898 


1 


Total, 33 years. 


66 



* Exclusive of Providence city. 



IS'.IS. I CArSHS OK DKATll. 22l 

DlAURTKEA AN' I) DYSENTERY. 

There were 5)8 decedents from diarrhtjea and dysentery, in 18'.)8. 
This number rei)resents 1.4 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of .24 to every 1,000 of the population. 

/Sex. — Of the 08, 53 were males, and 45 were females, or a pro- 
portion of 118 males to every 100 females. 

Parei\taxie. — There were, of the 98 decedents, 33 of native par- 
entage, and 65 of foreign parentage, or a proportion of al)out 1*.)7 
of foreign parentage to every 100 of native. 

Age. — There Avere 35 of the decedents from diarrh(pa and dys- 
entery under 5 years of age, aud there were 51 over 50 years of 
age, leaving 12 for all the 45 years between 5 and 50. 

Locality. — Of the 98 decedents, 72 were in Providence county, 
and 5 in Newport county ; 2 were reported from Bristol county, 
14 from Kent county, and 5 from Washington county. 

Seaso7i. — Fifty-nine of the deaths from diarrhoea and dysentery 
occurred during the months of July, August, and September. 

The decrease in mortality from diarrhoea and dysentery, in 1898, 
compared with the previous year, was al)out 8 per cent. 

The following Table Avill show the deaths from diarrhoea and 
dysentery, with the percentage, sex, parentage, etc., for each of 
33 years, beginning with 18G6 : 



222 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table LXXIII. 

Mortality in the State from Diarrhma and Dysentery, 1866 to 189S, inclusim. 





.a 

o 
S 
S 
|2i 


0) 

o 

u 
ID 
PL, 


SEX. 


PARENTAGE. 




DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE. 




YEARS. 


« 

"S 
^ 


IS 

"3 
S 
P 


> 




.2 pi 

!- O 


<S o 

Mo 




o 
n* 

'OS 


o 
q 
m 

£"5 


a 
o 

be 

^6 


5 years, 1866-1870 
1871 1875 


677 

580 

123 
142 
93 
97 
98 


4.40 

2.60 

2.96 
3.19 
2.09 
2.17 
2.03 


353 

317 

66 
64 
42 
48 
49 


324 

263 

56 
78 
51 
49 
49 


333 

305 

52 
73 
51 
47 
50 


354 

275 

70 
69 
42 
50 
48 


36 

27 

3 

8 
5 
9 
4 


46 

46 

6 
6 
8 
6 
6 


89 

23 

3 
9 
3 
10 
10 


215 

183 

41 
54 
34 
27 
32 


254 

289 

65 
55 
39 
43 
43 


47 
12 


1876 


5 


1877 


10 


1878 


5 


1879 


3 


1880 


4 


1876-1880 

1881 


553 

119 
158 
■ 183 
153 
130 


3.47 

2.37 
3.11 
3.45 
3.98 
3.23 


269 

56 

75 
86 
74 
61 


283 

63 
83 
96 

79 
59 


273 

54 
69 
88 
69 
51 


279 

65 
89 
94 
84 
69 


29 
2 

7 
10 

7 


32 

4 
4 
7 
5 
6 


33 

3 

38 
16 
11 
6 


188 

47 
57 
74 
66 
62 


243 

57 
64 
75 
56 
35 


6 


1882 


3 


1883 


3 


1884 


5 


1885 


4 






1881-1885 

1886 


732 

159 
199 
157 
159 
182 


2.89 

2.72 
3.11 
2.31 
2.54 
2.62 


352 

64 
107 
69 
73 
84 


380 

95 
92 
88 
86 
98 
459 

74 
99 
80 
63 
63 


331 

70 
70 
97 
67 
74 


401 

89 
129 
60 
92 
108 


28 

7 
6 
6 
1 
5 


26 

11 
16 

8 
12 
9 


64 

1 

4 

3 

17 

32 


306 

73 

93 
54 
71 

77 


287 

59 
72 
71 
50 
63 
315 

58 
89 
66 
43 

37 


21 

8 


1887 


9 


1888 


15 


1889 


8 


1890 


6 


1886-1890 


856 

143 
199 
159 
124 
101 


2.68 

2.16 
2.69 
2.14 
1.73 
1.34 


397 

69 
100 
79 
61 
38 


378 

51 
82 
56 
36 
40 


478 

92 

117 
103 
88 
61 


25 

4 
6 
5 

6 


56 

15 
14 
14 
8 
9 


47 

13 
8 
7 
4 
3 


367 

48 
76 
60 
59 
41 


46 


1891 


5 


1892 


6 


1893 


7 


1894 


10 


1895 


5 


1891-1895 


726 

89 
107 
98 

4,417 


2.01 

1.18 
1.50 
1.42 

2.54 


347 

49 
48 
53 

3,185 


379 

40 
59 
45 

2,332 

1 


265 

40 
37 
33 

1,985 


461 

49 
70 
65 

2,433 


21 

2 

1 
3 

161 


60 

5 

14 
14 

299 


35 

8 
7 
5 

311 


284 

39 
41 
32 

1,655 


293 

28 
36 
40 

1,785 


33 


1896 


^ 


1897 


8 


1898 


5 


Total, 33 years.. 


206 



* Exclusive of Providence city. 



1808.] CAL'SKS 01- DKATII. 223 

DirilTllEKIA. 

Tlie munlx'v of deatlis from diplitlieria, in 1808, wuh 03, which 
wiis 138 less than in 1807, or a decrease of al)out GO per cent. 

This number represents 1.35 per cent, of all causes, or a propor- 
tion of .22 to every one thousand of the population. 

/Se,v. — Of the i)3 decedents, TjI were males, and 42 were females. 

Pxreiittuje. — There were 34 of native, and .50 of foreign parent- 
acfe, or a pvojiortion of about 173 of foreign parentage to every 
100 of native. 

Season. — There were 30 deaths from diphtheria in the first quar- 
ter, 24 in the second (juarter, 7 in the third quarter, and 32 in the 
fourth (piarter. 

Age. — There were 64 deaths under 5 years of age, 25 between 
5 and 10, 2 between 10 and 15, 1 between 15 and 20, and 1 above 
20 years of age. 

Loadifi/. — Of the 93 decedents, 72 were in Providence county, 
none in Bristol county, 12 in Kent county, 5 in NeM'port county, 
and 4 in Washington county. 

The following Table shows the mortality in the State from 
diphtheria for thirty-three years, beginning with 1866, also the 
percentage of deaths, the sex, parentage, etc. : 



224 



PORTY-SIXTH EECtISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table LXXIV. 

Mortality in the State from Diplitheria, 1S66 to 1898. 







P 

So 


c 
o 


SEX. 


PAKENTAGE. 

1 


DIVISIONS OF THE STATE. 


YEARS. 




to 

s 

0) 


> 

OS 

'A 


a 

'S 
o 




<» o 

Mo 


o >. 

IS 


c* 

> s 
£8 


c 
-a 

So 


a 
o 

tt. : 


1866-1870. 

1871-1875. 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 


15,391 

20,540 

4,116 
4,450 
4,441 
4,472 
4,829 


181 

242 

159 
493 
435 
259 
152 


1.18 

1.18 

3.86 
11.56 
9.80 
5.79 
3.40 


83 
118 

77 
239 
224 
121 

73 


98 

- 1 
124 

82 
253 
211 
138 

79 


103 

154 

69 

233 

. 201 

143 

75 


78 

88 

90 
259 
234 
116 

77 


5 

4 

1 

12 
21 

7 

3 


28 
35 

2 

44 

29 

19 

6 


30 

20 

9 
2 
23 
20 
2 


40 

54 

29 

1^ 

106 

95 

63 


44 

105 

111 
295 
245 
106 
61 


34 

24 

7 
17 
11 
12 
17 


1876-1880. 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 


22,308 

5,016 
5,074 
5,282 
5,141 
5,389 


1,497 

216 
101 

95 
119 

99 


6.71 

4.63 
1.99 
1.88 
2.31 
1.88 


734 

106 
48 
39 
65 
47 


763 

110 1 
53 
56 1 
54 
52 


721 

118 
55 
45 

47 
48 


776 

98 
46 
50 
72 
51 


44 
10 

1 
8 
5 


100 

16 
3 
7 
1 
5 


56 

8 
4 
3 
9 
6 


415 

53 
29 
26 
39 
39 
186 

64 

114 
58 
56 
86 


818 

116 
48 
54 
58 
37 

313 

98 
108 
98 
97 
94 


64 

13 

17 

4 

4 

7 


1881-1885. 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 


25,902 

5,849 
6,340 
6,594 
6.259 
6,9.34 
31,976 

6,620 
7,396 
7,440 
7,160 
7,535 


630 

228 
287 
191 
184 
211 


2.43 

3.90 
4.53 
2.86 
2.93 
3.04 


305 

98 
135 

87 
80 
112 


325 

130 

152 

■ 104 

104 

99 


313 

101 

101 

79 

89 
1 

93 


317 

127 
186 
112 
95 
118 


24 

20 
15 
13 
3 

1 


32 

21 
11 

3 
10 

9 


30 

23 

4 
9 
11 
16 


45 

2 
35 
10 
7 
5 


1886-1890. 

"1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 


1,101 

102 
89 
157 
133 
340 


3.44 

1.50 
1.20 

2.11 
1.86 
4.51 


512 

52 
48 
75 
74 
166 


589 

■ 50 
41 

,82 
59 
174 


463 

48 
44 
57- 
61 
145 


638 

54 
45 

100 
72 

195 


52 

2 

1 
1 

3 


54 

7 
1 

11 
3 

7 


63 

6 
8 
13 
8 
6 


378 ! 495 

40 47 
23 39 

67 j 65 
72 47 
221 j 94 


59 

17 

3 
9 


1891-1895. 

1896 

1897 

1898 

Total, 
33 years 


36,151 

. 7,504 
7,110 
6,905 

173,787 


821 ■ 

283 

231 

93 

5,079 


2.24 

3.77 
3.25 
1.35 

2.92 


415 

149 
120 
51 

2,487 


406 

134 
111 
42 

2,592 


355 

120 
84 
34 

2,347 

1 


466 

163 
147 
59 

2,732 


7 

5 
3 

144 


29 

19 
19 
12 

328 


41 

6 
8 
5 

259 


423 

109 
111 
32 

1,748 


292 

I 140 
86 
40 

2,333 


29 

4 
4 
4 

267 



* Exclusive of Providence city. 



1808.] CAiisKs (II' i)i;.\'iii. 226 

Fever, Malarial. 

TIio uumber of deutlis, (lurii]<^- 18'J8, froju diseases cliissed as 
fever malarial, Avas 31. The number in 1897 was 44 ; in 189G was 
42 ; in 1895 was 29 ; in 1894 was 2() ; in 1893 was 20 ; in 1892 was 
36 ; in 1891, 31 ; in 1890, 42 ; in 1889, 40 ; in 1888, 71 ; in 1887, 85 ; 
in 1886, 44 ; in 1885, 30 ; 1884, 25. 

Se;v. — Of the 31 decedents from malarial fevers, in 1898, 15 were 
males and 16 were females, or 94 males to every 100 females. 

Parentage. — There were, of the 31 decedents from malarial dis- 
eases, 10 of native parentage, and 21 of foreig-n. 

Season. — The deaths from malarial diseases occurred in the dif- 
ferent seasons of the year as follows : 

First Quarter 7 Tliird Quarter 10 

Second Quarter 5 Fourth Quarter 9 

First lialf 12 Second half 19 

Whole year 31 

Age. — The number of decedents in the different periods of life 
was as follows : 

Under 5 years of age 2 

From 5 to 20 years of age S 

From 20 to 40 years of age 10 

From -10 to GO years of age 5 

CO and over G 

Total 31 

Localities. — Bristol county, 1 ; Kent county, ; Newport county, 
2 ; Providence county, 26 ; Washing-ton county, 2. 



Fevers, Typhoid, etc. 

The number of decedents whose deaths were returned as having 
been caused by " fever " of some form, not malarial nor cerebro- 
spinal, was 76. Deaths from puerperal fever are not included. 

The following Table exhibits, for each of the last thirty-three 
years, the number ami the percentage, and the sex and parentage 
of the decedents from fevers returned as from typhoid, and the 
number in each division of the State : 



226 



FOKTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table LXXV. 

Mortidity in th.e Stale from Fevers, Typhoid, etc. — 1S6G to 1898, iadusive. 





« 

o 
u 

s 

1 3 


a 
o 
u 


1 

SEX. 


1 

PARENTAGE. 


1 


DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE 




YEARS. 


1 


1 


6 
> 


n 




l| 
'C 
P30 


c 3 

OJ 

Wo 


+3 

n 

is 






a 
■a 

h 


a 


be . 

s >■ 

Is 


1866-1870 

18T1-18T5 

1876 


1 641 

1 

740 

126 
134 
150 
114 

158 


4.2 

3.5 

3.0 
3.0 
3.4 
2.7 
3.4 


314 

350 

65 
63 
68 
47 
74 


327 
890 

61 

71 
82 
67 
84 


398 

419 

71 
65 
77 
63 
94 


243 

321 

55 
69 
73 

51 
64 


35 

12 

5 
8 
13 
4 
8 


39 

43 

9 
10 
13 
13 

12 


34 

13 
8 
6 
6 
5 


243 

263 

44 
52 
59 
44 
66 


184 

299 

33 
44 
47 
40 
52 


63 

89 
32 


1877 


12 


1878 


12 


1879 


7 


1880 


15 






1876-1880 

1881 


682 

143 
239 

258 
165 
158 


3.1 

2.8 
4.7 
4.8 
3.2 
2.9 


317 

74 
111 
146 
83 
71 


365 

69 

118 
112 
82 
87 


370 

74 
100 
117 
78 
70 


312 

69 
129 
141 
87 
88 


38 

4 
6 
9 

6 


57 

13 
11 
16 

7 
14 


38 

14 

5 

10 

12 

8 


265 

58 
56 
82 
66 
69 


216 

41 
145 
134 
64 
53 


68 
13 


1882 


6 


1883 


7 


1884 


9 


1885 


8 


1881-1885 


953 

169 
127 
235 
143 

107 


3.7 

2.9 
2.0 
3.6 
2.3 
1.5 


485 

78 
67 
125 
85 
58 


468 

91 
60 
110 
58 
49 


439 

76 
58 
88 
56 
39 


514 

93 
69 
147 

87 
68 


32 

6 

2 

20 

2 

7 


61 

8 
14 
24 

17 
8 


49 

11 
9 

14 
9 
5 


331 

66 
49 
66 
46 

37 


437 

70 
38 
102 
60 
43 


43 


1886 


8 


1887 


15 


1888 


9 


1889 


9 


1890 


7 






1886-1890 


781 

149 
133 
115 
159 
125 


2.5 

2.2 
1.8 
1.6 
2.2 
1.7 


413 

86 
75 
65 
93 
73 


368 

63 
58 
50 
66 
52 


317 

56 
55 
41 
46 
55 


464 

93 

78 
74 
113 
70 


37 

5 
5 
4 
5 
3 


71 

8 
12 

7 
13 

7 


48 

17 

9 

5 

13 

11 


264 

46 
49 
40 
56 
52 


313 

63 
51 
52 
70 
48 


48 


1891 


10 


1892 


7 


1893 


7 


1894 


2 


1895 


4 






1891-1895 


681 

113 
66 
76 

4,733 


1.9 

1.5 
0.9 
1.1 

2.7 


392 

66 
43 
49 

2,429 


289 

47 
23 
27 

2,304 


253 

44 
33 
23 

2,296 


428 

69 
33 
53 

2,437 


23 

6 
4 
2 

188 


47 

8 
4 
3 

333 


55 

9 

4 
11 

3,5 


243 

39 
25 
20 

1,693 


284 

43 
33 
39 

1,838 


30 


1896 


8 


1897 


6 


1898 


1 


Total, 33 years.. 


356 



* Exclusive of Providence city. 



]S08.] CAUSES OF DHATFT. 227 

During- 1898, of the 76 decedents from typhoid fever, there were 
40 nijiles juid 27 females, a in'0])ortioii of about 181 males to every 
100 females. The ditt'erence in the sexes of the mortality from 
fevers is not usually very great. 

During- the period of thirty-three years, 18G6 to 1898, inclusive, 
the proportions of the sexes of the decedents from " fever," in the 
State, were 95 females to every 100 males. 

Parentage. — There were 23 decedents from enteric fever, of 
native parentage, in 1898, and 53 of foreign parentage, a pro- 
portion of 70 of foreign and 30 of native in every 100 decedents. 

Season. — 

First Quarter 20 Third (iuiirter Kj 

Second Quarter 1-^ Fourth Quarter 28 

First half 33 Second half 44 

Whole year 7G 

The following Table shows the number of decedents from fevers, 
in each division of ages, in each of the last thirty-three years, in 
the State of Ehode Island : 



228 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATIOlSr REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table LXXVI. 

Mortality from Typlioid Femr in Age Periods. 













Periods of 


Life. 










YEARS. 


d 

53 

d 


in 

o 
o 


d 

o 

lO 


d 

CO 

O 

o 


1 

d 
o 

i 


d 

in 

_o 
o 


d 
o 

i 


d 
o 
o 


s 

o 
o 


> 

o 
a 
o 

CO 


o 


1366 


23 
17 
10 
10 
26 
13 
17 
27 
10 
23 
21 
22 
17 
19 
35 
25 
24 
36 
24 
K5 
29 
24 
27 
18 
13 
12 
10 
6 

18 
10 
10 
6 
8 


10 
6 

8 

18 

10 

18 

13 

14 

14 

10 

13 

16 

7 

13 

9 

22 

25 

13 

12 

9 

8 

27 

12 

11 

10 

11 

7 

8 

9 

3 

4 

5 


21 
33 
10 
14 
31 
20 
34 
34 
26 
19 
15 
18 
27 
14 
34 
19 
44 
46 
19 
16 
35 
16 
42 
29 
13 
25 
18 
16 
31 
10 
18 

8 


26 
33 
31 
28 
46 
38 
54 
31 
32 
43 
24 
36 
47 
26 
43 
29 
69 
75 
47 
25 
41 
31 
75 
41 
35 
50 
42 
43 
57 
56 
35 
22 
23 


31 
12 
8 
9 
19 
18 
20 
25 
9 
18 
14 
20 
13 
15 
23 
14 
27 
31 
22 
26 
20 
16 
29 
18 
14 
20 
20 
15 
21 
15 
13 
11 
21 


16 
11 

8 

25 
16 

9 
13 

5 
10 

9 

8 
11 

6 
12 
11 
14 
12 

9 
11 
14 
10 
16 

8 

5 
10 
15 
10 
12 

7 
16 

9 

9 


9 

8 

10 

9 

8 

9 

12 

13 

10 

10 

6 

5 

12 

3 

10 

9 

9 

11 

12 

11 

17 

5 

12 

9 

6 

7 

10 

10 

6 

9 

6 

3 

1 


14 
4 
5 
8 
8 
4 
11 
7 
3 
6 
16 
7 
2 
12 
5 

13 

10 

10 

10 

12 

8 

8 

3 

5 

6 

6 

6 

6 

3 

5 

7 

3 

1 


10 
2 
5 
6 
8 
5 
3 
8 
6 
4 
6 
2 
3 
8 
3 

11 
9 
8 
5 
6 
5 
4 
4 
3 
4 
3 
1 
2 
2 
4 
5 
1 






1867 


2 


1 


1868 




1869 


2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 




1870 


1 


1871 




1873 




1873 




1874 




1^75 




1876 

1877 


3 
o 

2 
3 

4 
1 

2 
3 

4 

1 
4 


3 

1 


1878 






1 


1880 


1 






1888 






2 


1884 


1 






1886 






1 


1888 










1890 








1 


1893 










1894 




1 






1896 .... 


























Total 33 years 


615 


375 


732 


1,314 


603 


364 


287 


233 


155 


43 


13 







1898. 



rAFSES or DKATFf. 



:i29 



s 



■-*-> 



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(iO 


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bs 





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o ■ 
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CO : 


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230 forty-sixth registratioiir report. [1898. 

Diseases of the Heart. 

The number of decedents from the various forms of diseases of 
the heart, as reported in 1898, was 549. The number is 21 less 
than that of 1897. 

This number represents 7.95 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of 1.32 to every one thousand of the population. 

Bex. — There were 295 male decedents, and 254 female dece- 
dents ; a proportion of about 116 males to every 100 females, but 
these proportions, although varying" from year to year, are not 
greatly different. 

Parentage. — Of the 549 decedents from diseases of the heart, 
in 1898, there were 282 of native parentage, and 267 of foreign, a 
proportion of about 106 of native parentage to every 100 of for- 
eign. Except in 1892, 1893, and 1896, it has been the invariable 
rule of the whole period of registration that the native population 
is more subject to heart disease than the foreign. 

The following Table exhibits, for each of the last thirty-three 
years, 1866 to 1898, inclusive, the number and percentage, and the 
sex and parentage of the decedents from diseases of the heart, 
and the number of the same in each division of the State : 



1898. 



CAUSES OF DKATll. 



231 



Tai!LE LXXVIII. 

Mortality from Diseases of tlic Heart, ISGG to ISOS, iiiclndre. 



YEA US. 



5 years, 18GC-1870 

1871-1875 

187G 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1876-1880 

1881 

1883 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1S81-1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1886-1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1891-1895 

1S9G 

1897 

1898 

Total, 33 years.. 



0} 

Q 




3 


4.) 

a 
u 


590 


8.83 

1 


922 


4.49 ! 


166 


4.03 


182 


4.09 


166 


8.73 


202 


4.78 


231 


5.08 


947 


4.25 


264 


5.65 


255 


5.31 


325 


6.20 


285 


5.60 


349 


6.48 


1,478 


5.71 


330 


5.20 


406 


6.40 


'436 


6.56 


460 


7.35 


405 


5.84 


2,037 


6.37 


480 


7.25 


506 


6.84 


535 


7.19 


476 


6.65 


535 


7.10 i 
7.01 ; 


2.532 


556 


7.41 


570 


8.02 


549 


7.95 


10,181 


5.86 



458 

86 

94 

88 

114 

125 

507 

181 

116 
167 
135 
162 



152 
205 
196 
233 
222 



1,008 

248 
260 
264 
251 
260 



282 

464 

80 



106 



133 
139 
158 
150 
187 



178 
201 
240 
227 
183 



1,029 

232 
246 
271 
225 
275 



1,283 1,249 



294 
805 
295 

5,169 



266 
254 

5,012 



PARENTAOE. 



395 

595 

109 
110 
109 
127 
146 
601 

154 
162 
179 
163 
198 



850 

184 
240 
240 
258 
219 



1,141 

244 
252 
264 
246 
275 



DIVISIONS OP THE STATE. 



346 

no 

93 
146 
122 
151 



622 

146 
166 
196 
202 
186 



236 
254 
271 
230 
260 



1,281 


1,251 


266 


1 
290 1 


295 


275 i 


282 


267 j 


5,712 


4,469 : 



01 3 

"C o 

no 



195 I 22 

827 

57 
72 
57 
75 
85 



34 



44 107 



64 

21 
22 
20 
16 
14 
93 

19 
9 
17 

323 



O 3 
a> o 
WO 



20 
21 
22 
31 
49 
143 

37 
47 
43 
32 
41 
200 

40 
88 
42 

734 



ID 


o 


O 


u 


a* 


s 


£>. 


o 



^3 

4) 



©2 
^ c 

P-O 



>■ -1. 



Gd •^ 
!>0 



48 184 262 26 



82 I 248 

38 
57 
38 
38 
59 



79 230 

24 78 
23 55 
70 



25 



94 



127 I 379 



82 
123 
122 
143 
114 



465 I 60 



86 
93 
83 
111 
104 



477 

121 
142 
172 
139 
159 



160 I 584 



137 
163 
174 
161 
180 



168 
193 
210 
199 
172 



942 

210 
200 
238 
192 
210 



211 


815 


1,050 


38 


189 


231 


42 


200 


230 


44 


171 


237 


881 


8,000 


4,627 



16 
11 
18 
12 
81 
88 

30 
26 
31 
29 
28 
144 

37 
26 
30 
» 
36 
163 

39 
51 
3S 

666 



* Exclusive of Providence city. 



232 FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 

Sex. — Of the 10,181 persons deceased from diseases of the heart, 
in the last thirty-three years, 5,169 were males, and 5,012 were 
females ; or 103 males to each 100 females. 

Parentage.— Oi the 10,181 decedents, during thirty-three years, 
5,712 were of native parentage, and 4,469 of foreign. The pro- 
portions would, therefore, stand as follows : To every 100 of for- 
eign parentage there were about 128 of native ; or about 56 native 
and 44 of foreign parentage in every 100 deaths. This difference 
has been gradually diminishing. In 1892 there were 2 more 
deaths of foreign than of native parentage ; in 1893 there were 
7 more deaths of foreign than of native parentage ; in 1896 there 
were 24 more deaths of foreign than of native parentage ; in 1897, 
however, there were 20 more deaths of native than of foreign 
parentage ; and in 1898 there were 15 more deaths of native than 
of foreign parentage, 

, Diseases of the heart rank second in the order of causes in 
1898. 

I'he following Table shows the number of decedents from dis- 
eases of the heart, in each divisional period of life, in each of the 
last thirty-three years. 



1808.] 



TAirsKS or DKATII. 



233 



Tai'.le LXXJX. 
Mortality from Diseases of t/ie Heart, in Age Periods. 











Periods of 


Life. 








YEA US. 


u 


o 


5 


o 


o 
es 

O 




3. 


Si 

s 


•6 




f, 


§ 


§ 


o 
•a 


o 


g 


s 


K 


1866 


18 


8 


14 


17 


10 


23 


21 


4 




186T 


11 


11 


10 


13 


22 


16 


27 


4 




1808 


!.■) 


d 


13 


11 ; 14 


28 


2.) 


5 




1869 


21 


4 


14 


18 20 


22 


21 


7 


1 


1870 


19 
9 
27 
19 
20 


6 
12 
12 
11 
IG 


11 
10 
22 
28 
26 


13 20 
19 23 


21 
36 
36 
35 

50 


23 

28 
29 
42 
40 


3 

6 
13 

9 
12 


1 


1S71 


1 


1872 


19 
18 
21 


31 
25 
27 




1873 


2 


1874 


2 


1575 


14 


16 


25 


20 


32 


29 


41 


9 




1876 


14 
15 
16 
19 
15 


10 

11 

8 

9 

f 

10 


15 
20 
18 
13 
18 


19 1 20 
18 27 


38 
45 
36 
51 
49 


39 
33 
35 
36 
49 


10 
13 
11 
16 
28 


I 


1877 




1878 


16 
25 
23 


26 
33 
38 








1880 


1 


1881 


32 


13 


26 


33 


37 


49 


53 


21 




1882 


22 


17 


24 


25 


36 


51 


61 


17 


2 


1883 


39 


13 


21 


33 


52 


65 


70 


26 




1884 


15 


25 


21 


32 


45 


61 


50 


32 


4 


1885 


88 


13 


24 


42 61 


69 


78 


24 




1886 


89 


18 


28 


38 I 52 


68 


69 


18 




1887 


52 


30 


23 


35 ' 61 


79 


87 


39 




1888 


89 


25 


30 


54 \ 84 


97 


74 


33 




1889 


45 


25 


37 


45 ; 69 


85 


118 


35 


1 


1890 


34 


15 


24 


53 


69 


78 


96 


36 




1891 


40 


18 


45 


41 


85 


109 


101 


38 


3 


1892 


54 


21 


82 


59 


93 


111 


104 


31 


1 




55 
40 


27 
28 


48 
36 


68 
64 


81 
69 


116 
102 


97 

102 


42 

35 


1 


1894 




1895 


33 


20 


44 


57 82 


137 


111 


51 




1896 


40 


33 


46 


65 : 98 


106 


117 


50 


1 


1897 


40 


34 


43 


68 1 74 


145 


117 


4'.l 




1898 


34 


22 


81 


57 ; 91 


1.34 


i;io 


50 




Ti)t<il, 33 years 


943 


546 


840 


1,139 1.607 


2,177 


2,180 


777 


« 











29 



234 FORTY-SIXTH KEGISTRATIOX REPORT. [1898. 

The results of thirty-three years of registration, with record of 
ag-es of decedents from diseases of the heart, show in periods of 
twenty years each of life, the following percentages : 

Under 20 years of age 9.3 per cent. 

Between 20 and 40 13.6 per cent. 

Between 40 and 60 27.0 per cent. 

Between 60 and 80 42.3 per cent. 

Orer 80 7.6 per cent. 

Xot stated 0.2 percent. 

Total 100.0 per cent. 

It will be seen that more than 42 per cent, of all the deaths 
from diseases of the heart were of persons over 60 years of age, 
and under 80. 

Diseases of the heart have acquired large importance as a cause 
of death. From 38.7 in every 1,000 deaths from all causes, in 1866, 
heart diseases gradually increased to about 73 in every 1,000, in 
1889, and falling back to slightly less than 60 per 1,000, in 1890, 
and rising to 72.5 per 1,000, in 1891, and falling to 68.4 in 1892. 
In 1893 there were 71.9 deaths from heart diseases in every 1,000, 
in 1894 there were 66.5 deaths in eveiy 1,000, in 1895 there were 
71.0 deaths in every 1,000, in 1896 there were 74.1 deaths in every 
1,000, in 1897 there were 80.1 deaths in every 1,000, and in 1898 
there were 79.5 deaths in every 1,000. 



Influenza. 

The event, during the first four months of the year 1890, of a 
very extraordinary and perhaps unprecedented prevalence of a 
form of influenza, which was unlike that of ordinary occurrence 
in that it affected indiscriminately all the functions and nearly all 
the organs of the body, varying with the individuals attacked, 
and the reappearance of the same, although in greatly lessened 
numbers, in 1891, warrants a continued notice not given previous 
to 1890 in the Registration Reports to the affection so named. 

The disease was, in 1890, most largely confined to the respira- 
tory passages, and resulted in a largely increased mortality from 
bronchitis and consumption. During 1891 the disease was equally 
as severe, affecting in a larger measure the brain and other nerve 
centres, and the direct mortality was even larger than that of 1890. 
The prevalence was largest during the second quarter of the year, 
and again in December. 



1898. J CAfSES OF f»F.ATfr. 235 

The increase iu December of 1801 was follr>we<l bj- a sudden 
ang-raentation in the first four months of the folIowing^ year, 1802, 
the greatest number of deaths, 108, occuning in Januaiy of 1802. 
The total for 1892 was 336, or about twice as much as for either 
of the previous yeai-s. In 1803 there were 84 deaths reported as 
resulting- from intiuenza. This was 251 less than in 1802. In 1804 
there were 166 deaths from influenza reported, an increase of 0.=3 
per cent, from 1893, and a decrease of over 50 per cent, from 1802. 
In 1805 there were 115 deaths from influenza. In 1806 there were 
but 42 deaths from influenza. In 1807 there were 153 deaths from 
influenza. In 1808 there were 75 deaths from influenza. 

,SVi,/'._Of the 75 deaths from influenza, in 1808, 20 were males 
and 46 were females, a proportion of 52 males to eveiy 100 fe- 
males, 

Parerd'Kjfi.—Tixa parent nativity of the decedents was 40 of 
native and 35 of foreign. 

Season.— Oi the 75 deaths from influenza, during 1808, 24 oc- 
curred in the first quarter of the year, 27 in the second, 3 in the 
third, and 21 in the fourth quarter. 

^4^g._There were 16 under 5 years of age, 2 from 5 to 20 years, 
10 from 20 to 40, 13 from 40 to 60, 20 from 60 to 80, 14 from 80 
years of age and over. 

The following Tables will show the proportionate nativit}% sex, 
and locality of the disease. 

The greatest mortality appears to be among females, there 
being 153 females to eveiy 100 males. The nativity appears to 
be nearly equally divided between native and foreign, there being- 
101 foreign to 100 native. 

The largest number of deaths occurred in Providence citv, but 
this is not out of proportion to the proportionate number and 
density of population. 

Refendng to the age periods, it will be seen that the greatest 
age is 70 to 80, there being 267, or 20.27 per cent, of the whole 
number of deaths from this disease. Taking the three decennials 
including 60 to 00 we have 644 deaths, or 48.80 per cent, of all 
by ages. 

By season, the greatest number of deaths occurred during the 
winter months, the most severe being during Januar}-, Febi-narv*, 
and December. The number in Januai-y and Febniary make a 
total of 674, or 51.18 per cent, of all. 



236 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Mortality in the State from Influenza, 1S90 to 1898, inclusive. 





CS 

a> 

P 

o 

ID 

a 

3 


CO 

o 
Ph 


SEX. 


PABBNTAGE. 




DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE. 




YEARS. 


<D 


S 


iz; 


d 
o 


.s ^ 

E o 


>> 

+j a 

P 3 
® o 

Wo 


4^ 

> 3 


o 
C* 

P-O 


0) 

o 

a 
© 

PhO 


3 

o 

M . 


1890 


168 
177 
366 

85 
166 
115 

42 
153 

75 


2.42 
2.67 
4.54 
1.14 
2.32 
1.53 
.56 
2.15 
1.09 


72 
67 
142 
34 
62 
48 
15 
52 
29 


96 
110 
194 

51 

104 
67 
27 

101 
46 


68 
91 
170 
47 
88 
63 
16 
72 
40 


100 
86 

166 
38 
78 
52 
26 
81 
35 


6 

7 
11 
7 
6 
3 
2 
3 
8 


14 

14 

27 

3 

9 

10 

1 

6 

3 


12 

14 

13 

5 

15 
9 
2 
3 
5 


61 
60 
115 
33 
48 
42 
30 
72 
30 


70 
69 
144 
33 
75 
41 
6 
64 
26 


5 


1891 


13 


1893 


26 


1893 


5 


1894 


13 


1895 


10 


1896 


1 


1897 


5 


1898 


3 






1890 1898 


1,317 


2.04 


521 


796 


655 


662 


53 


87 


78 


491 


527 


81 







Influenza by Age Periods, 1890-1898. 



YEARS. 


u 

HI 

3 


o 


o 
o 


o 

o 
o 


o 
m 

_o 

o 


o 
o 
o 


o 
o 


o 
o 

17 
21 
33 

4 
12 
10 

4 
22 

8 

131 
9.95 


o 
o 

19 
29 
74 
13 
32 
16 
13 
22 
7 

235 

17.08 


o 


o 
o 
o 

11 

19 

41 

16 

17 

9 

6 

25 

8 

152 

11.54 


> 

O 

3 
cS 
O 


to 

o 
!5 


1890 


14 
11 
26 

7 

6 
14 

1 

11 
12 

102 

7.75 


18 
12 
20 

5 
14 
10 

3 

1 

4 

87 
6.61 


4 

2 
4 
2 
1 

2 

S 

1 

18 
1.37 


8 
8 
6 
3 
5 
5 
1 
5 
1 

42 

3.19 


14 
14 
13 

6 
11 

8 

1 

2 

4 

73 
5.54 


£2 

6 
19 

1 

6 

6 

2 
10 

6 

78 
5.92 


18 
14 
25 

20 

9 

2 
10 

5 

110 
8.35 


17 
42 
74 
16 
37 
24 
6 
38 
13 

267 

20.27 


5 
1 
3 
2 
4 
3 
1 
5 
6 

30 

2.28 


1 


1891 




1892 




1893 


1 


1894 




1895 




1896 




1897 




1898 




1890 1898 


2 


Per cent, of all ages, 9 


.15 







* Exclusive of Providence city. 



1 808. 1 



OAUSns OF DF.A'rif. 



"SI*} t 



Influenza by Months, ISHO-ISOS. 



YKAh'S. 


>. 

cS 

3 

l_ 

108 

4 
198 
5 
10-,' 
12 
9 
26 

471 


5 
£ 

1 

27 
3 

r)2 

1 

27 
20 

4 
67 

2 

203 


J3 

1 

11 

1 

31 
2 
10 
43 
5 
29 
15 

147 


a 
< 

8 
22 
27 
19 

9 
16 

11 
13 

132 


CS 

•?>. 

4 
19 
9 
12 
7 
7 
5 
4 
9 

76 


o 

•? 

2 
19 
6 
4 
3 
6 
4 
3 
5 

52 


a 

2 
2 

1 
2 
5 
1 


m 

s 
s 

2 
2 
2 

1 


u 

s> 

Xi 

S 
a> 

a 
s> 
tn 

1 
2 
3 

1 
1 


i 

o 
u 
O 

3 
4 
2 

1 


Si 

6 

V 

(- 

o 

>^ 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

2 

3 
1 

11 


i 

B 

§ 

o 
1 

9S 
5 

36 
3 
4 

2 

6 
20 

175 




1890 


1C8 


1691 


117 


189a 


330 


1893 


85 


1894 


166 


1895 


115 


1896 


o 


2 
2 

1 

13 


1 
2 

13 


42 


1897 


153 


1898 


2 

15 


9 


75 


1890-1898 


1 317 







Insanity. 

There were 82 deaths from insanity, in 1898, a decrease of 21 
from 1897. The percentage to the whole number of deaths was 
1.19. These deaths occurred chiefly at the Cranston institutions, 
and in the Butler hospital. 

^ex. — There were 41 male and 41 female decedents. 



Parerdagi.'. — The number of native decedents from insanity was 
37, and of foreign ])arentage 45. 

Of the 82 deaths in 1898, there were 19 from dementia, 25 from 
senile dementia, 3 from acute mania, G from chronic mania, 7 from 
melancholia, and 22 from insanity. 

Of the 19 deaths from dementia, the secondary cause given in 
3 cases was chronic Blight's disease; 3, pulmonary tuberculosis; 
5, paralysis ; 2, cerebral softening ; 1, cancer of abdominal viscera ; 
1, j)arotitis and meningitis; 4 cases, no secondary cause given. 

Of the 25 deaths from senile dementia, the secondary cause 
given in 3 cases was chronic nephritis; 2, diarrhoea ; 1, cystitis; 



238 I'ORTT-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 

1, epilepsy ; 1, pulmonary tuberculosis ; 1, pneumonia ; 1, valvular 
disease of heart ; 15 cases, no secondary cause given. 

Of the 22 deaths from insanity, the secondary cause given in 
7 cases was paralysis ; 2, chronic nephritis ; 1, valvular disease .of 
heart ; 1, childbirth ; 1, cystitis ; 1, pulmonary tuberculosis ; 1, 
epilepsy and meningitis ; in 8 cases no secondary cause was given. 

Of the 3 deaths from acute mania, the secondary cause given in 
1 case was Bright's disease ; 1, pulmonary tuberculosis ; 1, tuber- 
cular meningitis. 

Of the 6 deaths from chronic mania, the secondary cause given 
in 3 cases was chronic nephritis ; 1, diarrhoea ; 1, pulmonary tuber- 
culosis ; 1, no secondary cause given. 

Of the 7 deaths from melancholia, the secondary cause given in 
1 case was chronic Bright's disease ; 2, pulmonary tuberculosis ; 
1, malignant tumor of brain ; 3, no secondary cause given. 

Secondary causes, with insanity in some form as a primary cause, 
were as follows : chronic Bright's disease, 6 — dementia 1, insanity 
1, acute mania 2, chronic mania 1, melancholia, 1 ; cancer of ab- 
dominal viscera, 1 — dementia ; cerebral hemorrhage, 2 — dementia 
1, insanity 1 ; cerebral softening, 3— dementia 3 ; childbirth, 1 — 
insanity ; cystitis, 2 — insanity 1, senile dementia 1 ; diarrhoea, 3 — 
senile dementia 2, chronic mania 1 ; epilepsy, 2— insanity 1, senile 
dementia 1 ; paralysis, 13 — insanity 10, dementia 3 ; phthisis pul- 
monalis, 9 — dementia 3, senile dementia 1, insanity 1, acute mania 
1, chronic mania 1, melancholia 2 ; valvular disease of heart, 2 — 
senile dementia 1, insanity 1 ; tubercular meningitis, 1 — acute 
mania ; parotitis and meningitis, 1 — acute mania ; pneumonia, 1 — 
senile dementia ; chronic nephritis, 7 — dementia 1, chronic demen- 
tia 3, insanity 1, chronic mania 2 ; malignant tumor of brain, 1 — 
melancholia. 

The following Table shows the mortality in the State from in- 
sanity for thirty-three years, with percentage to deaths from all 
causes, sex, parentage, etc., from 1866 to 1898, inclusive : 



181J8 



(JAUSHS (»I- DKATH, 



239 



Table LXXX. 

Mortalit}/ in (he State from InHanity. 





m 

Q 
o 

e 
1 

72 

lOG 

12 
19 
22 
17 
19 


s 

b 

.47 

.52 

.28 
.49 
.50 
.40 
.39 
..S9 

.63 
.45 
.55 
.69 
.67 


SEX. 


FARGNTAOE. 




DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE. 




YKAUS. 


tn 

v 

a 

;i3 

55 

i 

5 

; 9 

5 
11 
9 


1 
S 


'a 
y 

13 
52 
76 

9 

1 ^ 
16 

10 

13 


"5 

1 


•1% 
cao 






11 


o 

c 
o 

&-0 


a 

o 

it 


lf>(JG~l.STO 


39 
51 

10 
10 


20 
30 

3 

10 
6 
7 
6 


' 3 

i 

1 ■ 


5 
2 

2 

1 


4 
8 

1 

1 


7 

88 

1 
5 
3 
5 
6 


53 
58 

6 
12 
17 
11 

9 


1 


1871 ISTS 


3 
1 


1876 


1ST7 


1 


1878 


1 


1879 


1 

1 




1 


1 880 


1 
i 


1 i 2 


1 






1870-1880 

1881 


89 

32 
23 
29 
36 
35 


1 39 

15 
9 
12 
17 
16 


50 

17 
14 
17 
19 
19 


57 

22 
18 
17 
24 

! 18 


82 

10 
5 
12 
12 
17 


1 

1 

1 
2 


4 

1 
1 
2 
3 


4 



3 


20 

10 

8 

7 

21 

23 


55 

16 
12 
18 
9 
10 


5 
1 


1882 


3 


1 S83 


1 

1 


1S84 

1 885 










1881-1885 


1.55 

49 
64 
43 
22 
.30 


.59 

.83 
1.01 
.64 
.35 
.44 


69 

\ ^' 
1 35 

; 21 

14 
19 


86 

28 
29 
22 
8 
11 


! 99 

' 28 
1 33 

24 
! 12 

16 


5G 

21 
31 
19 
10 
14 


4 

3 

' 1 
1 


1 
2 


5 

1 

1 


69 

37 
56 
33 
14 
13 


65 

8 
14 


5 


1880 

1887 


6 


1888 




1890 


1 




1 








18!)1 


208 

■ 21 
27 
39 
49 
72 


.65 

.32 
.37 
.53 
.68 
.96 


1 110 

10 

17 

14 

1 20 

i 36 


98 
11 

10 : 

25 1 

29 

36 


113 

16 
15 
13 
22 
44 


93 

5 
12 
26 
27 
28 


6 
3 




3 


153 

5 

8 

80 

27 

41 


86 

13 
14 
9 
18 
27 


6 
2 


189-2 


1 


1893 




1894 


1 
3 




1 


o 


1 895 








1891-1895 


208 

53 
103 
83 

1.076 


.57 

.70 
1.45 
1.19 

.62 


97 

28 
53 
41 

525 


111 

25 
50 
41 

.551 


110 

22 
51 
87 

617 


98 

81 
52 
45 

459 


7 

3 
24 


3 

3 

80 


1 
4 
81 


111 

40 
78 
GO 

571 


81 

11 
13 

10 

383 


5 


18915 


1897 

1898 


6 


Total, 33 years.. 


.37 



* Esclusire of Providence city. 



240 fokty-sixth eegistkation report. [1898. 

Diseases of the Kidneys. 

There were 471 deaths returned, during 1898, with diseases of 
the kidneys assigned as the cause. 

This number represents 6.82 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of 1.13 to every 1,000 of the population. 

jSex. — Of the 471, there were 228 males, and 243 females. 

Parentage. — There were 207 of native parentage and 264 of for- 
eign, or about 78 of native, to every 100 of foreign parentage. 

Previous to 1890, the decedents from diseases of the kidneys, of 
foreign parentage, outnumbered those of native parentage. 

Age. — Of the 471 decedents from kidney diseases, 14 were under 
5 years of age, 22 from 5 to 20, 104 from 20 to 40, 149 from 40 to 
60, 149 from 60 to 80, and 33, 80 and over. 

Diseases of the kidneys have largely increased in number, and 
much more largely in proportion, during the last thirty -three 
years. 

During the ten years from 1866 to 1875, inclusive, the propor- 
tion of deaths from kidney diseases, to whole number of deaths 
from all causes, was but little more than one per cent., while 
during the ten years from 1886 to 1895, inclusive, the proportion 
was nearly three and one-half per cent. 

The following Table will present various facts in relation to the 
mortality from diseases of the kidneys, in Khode Island, for thirty- 
three years, 1866-1898 : 



189S. 



CAUSKS OF DEATir, 



241 



TAliLE LXXXI. 
Mortality in the State from Kidney Diiieases, ISGd to JSDS, inclufrire. 



YEARS. 



5 years, 18G6-1870 

1871-1875 

1870 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1876-1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1881-1885 

1886 

1887 

1688 

1880 

1890 

1886-1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1891-1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

Total, 33 years.. 



135 

295 

50 
67 
80 
79 
91 



1.44 

1.28 
1.57 
1.8» 
1.88 
2.02 



367 I 1.65 



79 


1.69 


86 


1.79 


129 


2.43 


118 


2.29 


159 


2.97 


571 


2.20 



155 

169 

1 
213 j 

210 I 

229 I 

976 I 

245 
258 I 
302 ' 
313 
J41_ 
1.459 

395 



2.49 
2.66 
3.23 
3.38 
3.20 
3.05 

3.06 
3.49 
4.06 
4.37 
4.54 
3.90 

5.26 
5.44 

6.82 



5,056 2.91 



94 

167 

22 
40 
50 
51 
52 



215 

40 
50 
72 
53 
92 



807 

85 
92 
102 
119 
116 



514 

123 
135 
154 
152 
176 



740 

209 
198 
228 

2,672 



128 

28 
2t 
30 
28 



152 

39 
36 
57 
65 
67 



264 

70 
77 

111 
91 

113 



462 

122 
128 
148 
161 
165 
720 

186 
189 
243 

2,384 



PARENTAGE.' 


i 
1 


a 

1 


91 


1 
44 


187 


108 


32 


18 , 


35 


32 1 


49 


31 1 


44 


35 


51 
211 


40 


156 


47 


32 


45 


41 


74 


55 


66 


52 


86 


73 


318 


853 


93 


68 


90 


79 


122 


91 


122 


88 


109 


120 1 


586 


440 


122 


123 


127 


131 


141 


161 


164 


149 


171 


170 


725 


784 


188 


807 


185 


202 


807 


264 


2,648 


8,408 



DIVIHION9 OF THE STATE. 



it 

uo 

6 


« o 

O S 
<U o 

7 


n 


o 

■OS 

'>5 
£S 

£,0 


S 

g 


1 

SB . 

n 


25 


23 


66 


8 


11 


11 


17 


67 


172 


17 


1 


1 


7 


10 


28 


3 


2 


1 




14 


49 


1 


4 


3 


3 


21 


47 


8 


1 


3 


1 


23 


43 


8 


1 


5 


10 


27 


46 


8 


9 


13 


21 


95 


213 


16 


7 


5 


4 


14 


48 


1 


2 


5 


10 


15 


52 


2 


5 


2 


17 


37 


60 


8 


5 


11 


12 


38 


54 


8 


8 


10 


17 


31 


88 


5 


27 


33 


60 


125 


302 


24 


3 


10 


22 


37 


71 


18 


5 


6 


16 


43 


92 


7 


10 


10 


24 


46 


115 


8 


14 


13 


15 


62 


96 


10 


15 


8 


21 


59 


116 


10 


47 


47 


98 


847 


490 


47 


9 


18 


25 


78 


114 


13 


9' 


11 


24 


70 


128 


16 


19 


15 


85 


81 


147 


15 


28 


80 


S3 


84 


136 


18 


23 


19 


29 


96 


163 


11 


88 


77 


136 


403 


688 


73 


19 


39 


34 


125 


160 


18 


84 


19 


80 


129 


164 


81 


19 


83 


25 


153 


219 


88 


844 


860 


4-16 


1,367 


2,474 


856 



30 



Exclusive of Providence city. 



242 foett-sixth registration report. [1898. 

Diseases of the Liver. 

There were 91 deaths reported, in 1898, as having been caused 
by structural diseases of the liver. 

This number represents 1.32 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of .22 to every 1,000 of the population. 

Of the 91 decedents, there were 41 males and 50 females, or ]22 
females to every 100 males. 

There were 31 of native parentage, and 60 of foreign, or about 
52 of native to every 100 of foreign. 

Seventy -nine of the whole number were of persons of 40 years 
of age and over. 

In the age period of from 5 to 40, there were but 11 decedents 
from diseases of the liver. 

The mortality from such diseases does not depend to any marked 
extent upon the influence of season. 

Table LXXXII will present various facts relating to diseases of 
the liver during thirty-three years : 



1898.] 



CACSKS OF DFATFI. 



243 



Table LXXXII. 

Mortality from Diseases of the Liver, ISGG to ISUS, incUmre. 





CO 

1 

s 

a 




1 

SEX. 


FARBNTAOB. 




DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE 




YEARS. 


1 
1 

1.81 

.98 


1 


1 

"3 

a 


a> 

> 

1 


d 

tic 

1 


It 

T. o 

pao 




It 
II 


® 
o 
c« 

1° 

u o 


1 a> 

1 2 

£0 


1 
si . 


1866-1870 


i 201 
202 


1 

! 118 

91 

i 


88 

111 


118 
119 


88 
83 


12 

18 


14 

14 


36 

12 


47 
56 


70 

88 


22 


1871-1875 


14 


1876 


45 
52 
49 
52 

58 
256 


1.09 
1.17 
1.10 
1.24 

1.27 
1.15 


: 26 

23 
! 25 
' 27 

29 


19 
29 

24 1 

25 

29 


27 
31 
32 
31 
40 


18 
21 


1 
1 


5 

1 
4 
3 


5 

7 
6 
2 

8 


11 
16 
14 

14 
15 


18 
24 

18 
22 

25 


5 


1877 


4 


1878 


17 1 8 


2 


1879 


21 
18 


4 
4 


6 


1880 


3 


1876-1880 


130 


126 


161 


95 18 


13 


28 


70 


107 


20 


188! 


46 
62 


.92 
1.22 


, 30 
34 


16 

28 


21 
36 


26 1 3 


2 
5 


6 
10 


8 
17 


24 
24 


4 


1882 


3 


1883 


51 


.94 


27 


24 


20 


31 i 5 


6 


4 


16 


18 


2 


1884 


48 


.93 


22 


26 


23 


25 5 


3 


5 


2 


31 


2 


1885 


61 


1.13 


j 24 


37 \ 


32 


29 


2 
17 


6 


6 


21 


24 


2 


1881-1885 


268 


1.03 


137 


131 


132 


136 


22 


31 


64 


121 


13 


1886 


54 


.92 


29 


25 


26 


28 4 


4 


4 


14 


28 




1887 


86 
68 
70 

65 


1.35 
1.08 
1.12 

.94 


40 
38 
30 
42 


46 

30 
40 i 
23 


38 
36 
31 
29 


48 1 3 
32 1 
39 1 

36 I 3 


5 
5 
2 
4 


3 
6 
10 
6 


31 
28 
26 
21 


39 
20 
29 
26 


5 


1888 


2 


1889 


2 


1890 


5 






1886-1890 


343 


1.07 


179 


164 


160 


183 '] 12 

1 


20 


29 


120 


148 


14 


1891 


81 
8«| 
T2 
9S 


1.23 

i.ao 

.97 
1.80 


41 
89 
43 
48 


40 
50 
29 
50 


28 
34 
SO 
42 


53 3 
55 1 8 
42 4 
51 1 2 


4 

5 
8 
9 


9 
4 
6 
9 


26 
27 
15 
42 


38 
45 
36 
24 


1 


1892 


5 


1898 


3 


1894 


7 


1895 


81 


1.07 


43 


38 i 


28 


53 


6 


10 


27 


31 


7 


1891-1895 


416 


1.15 


209 


207 


162 


254 12 


82 


88 


137 


174 


23 


1896 


110 1 


1.47 


56 


54 j 


37 


73 1! 3 


7 


6 


40 


48 


6 


1897 1 


58| 


.82 


31 


27 


22 


36 1 4 


3 


6 


15 


25 


5 


1898 


91 


1.82 


41 


50 


31 


60 


3 


7 


6 


26 


41 


8 




1,945 


1.12 

1 


987 


958 

1 


942 


1,008 


99 


132 


198 


675 


822 


125 



♦ Exclusive of Providence city. 



244 forty-sixth eegistratiolsr report. [1898. 

Dropsy. 

During 1898 there were 3 deaths returned as having* been caused 
by dropsy. This number represents .04 per cent, of deaths from 
all causes. 

It has been repeatedly observed in previous reports that al- 
though this term is a misnomer in a large measure, and conveys 
no definite idea of the pathological condition preceding the drop- 
sical accumulation, it is, nevertheless, the only cause returned, 
and as it is in some instances the apparently immediate cause 
of death, it is given a place in the Registration Reports ; and as 
a frequent result and concomitant of diseases of the kidneys and 
liver, it has been placed in comparison with them in the following 
Table. 

Of the 3 decedents from dropsy, 2 were males and 1 was fe- 
male. 

Of the parentage, 1 was of native and 2 of foreign parentage. 

It will be noticed that the number of deaths from dropsy, for 
1898, was but three. This is explained by the fact that the diag- 
nosis of dropsy was not accepted as a cause but as a symptom. 
In these cases strenuous effort was made by the Registrar to 
ascertain the cause of the dropsy from tlie physician, in every 
case so reported. The large number returned from that cause 
was distributed under the headings of heart disease, liver disease, 
or disease of the kidneys, as finally ascertained from the physician 
in charge. These groups of diseases are therefore correspondingly 
increased over the numbers of previous years. 

In these three cases the causation of the ascites was so obscure 
that no decision could be arrived at, either as a result of the phy- 
sician having been called after death, or in the absence of any 
previous history. 

An examination of Table LXXXIII will serve as evidence of 
the greater carefulness and better judgment of the medical prac- 
titioners of the present time, inasmuch as the causes of dropsy 
are now better understood and reported, and for that reason the 
number of deaths attributed to dropsy is very small. 



1898. 



("ATSES or DKATir. 



24o 



Table LXXXIII. 

Mortality from Kichuy and Liver DincaseH compared with Dropny (no returned^ 
for thirty three years, 1SG6-1S9S. • 



Total, 33 years, 



DEATHS FItOM 
KIDNEY 

DISKAftES. 



135 

295 

50 
67 
80 
79 
91 
367 



129 
118 
159 
571 

155 
169 
213 
210 
229 



976 

245 
258 
302 
313 
341 
1,459 

395 
387 
*47I 

5,056 



94 

167 

22 

40 
50 
51 
52 
215 

40 
50 
72 
53 



85 
92 
102 
119 
116 
514 

123 
135 
154 
152 
176 
740 

209 
198 
2-^8 

2,672 



128 

28 
27 
30 
28 
39 
15a 

39 
36 

57 
65 
67 
264 

70 
77 

111 
91 

118 



122 
123 
148 
161 
165 
719 

186 
189 
243 

2,384 



DEATHS FROM 

I.IVKIt 

DISEASES. 



"3 
1 


1 


201 


113 


202 


91 


45 


26 


52 


23 


40 


25 


52 


27 


58 


29 


256 


130 


46 


30 


63 


34 


51 


27 


48 


22 


61 


24 


268 


137 


54 


29 


86 


40 


68 


88 


70 


30 


65 


42 


348 


179 


81 


41 


89 


39 


72 


43 


93 


43 


81 


43 


416 


209 


110 


56 


58 


81 


91 


41 


1,945 


987 



88 

111 

19 
59 
24 
25 
29 
126 

16 
28 
24 
26 
37 
131 

25 
46 
80 
40 



TOTA r, 

DEATHS FROM 

KIDNEY AND 

LIV£U JUISKASES. 



1 


1 
"3 


836 


207 


497 


258 


95 


48 


119 


63 


129 


75 


181 


78 


149 


81 


623 


845 


125 


70 


148 


84 


180 


99 


166 


75 


220 


116 


839 


444 


209 


114 


255 


182 


281 


140 


280 


149 


294 


158 
693 


1,S19 


826 


164 


347 


174 


874 


197 


406 


195 


422 


219 


1,875 


949 


505 


265 


445 


229 


562 


269 


7,001 


8.659 



129 

239 

47 
56 
54 
58 
68 
278 

53 
64 
81 
91 
104 
395 

95 
123 
141 
131 
136 



162 
178 
177 
211 
208 



240 
216 
293 

8,342 



DEATHS FKOM 

imorsv. 



302 

294 

70 
64 
44 
54 
46 
278 

48 
52 
47 
40 
' 44 



231 

45 
35 
47 
42 
44 
218 

85 



7 

4 

124 



2 
2 
8 

1,449 



143 

130 

35 
25 
23 
28 
22 



159 



164 



35 



133 145 



117 I 114 



27 
21 
29 
28 
26 
181 

27 
22 
28 
4 
8 
84 

1 
1 
2 



648 801 



>>>> 

CO OJ 

B.S ■ 

So-- 
B2-0 

5.si 



-34 

-208 

-25 
—55 
-85 
-77 
—103 
-345 

—77 
-96 
—133 
-126 
—176 



—164 
—220 
-284 
—238 
-250 
-1,106 

-291 
-308 
-335 
-899 
-418 
—1,751 

-508 
-448 
—559 

-5,552 






1.96 

1.43 

1.70 
1.44 

.99 
1.21 

.95 
1.25 

.96 
1.02 
.89 
.78 
.82 
.89 

.77 
.55 
.71 
.67 
.68 
.67 

.52 
.58 
.52 
.10 
.06 
.84 

.03 
.03 
.04 

.63 



246 forty-sixth eegistratiok report. [1898. 

Measles. 

There were 18 decedents from measles as a cause of death in 
1898. The number is 15 less than in the preceding year. 

This number represents .26 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of .04 to every 1,000 of the population. 

Of the 18 there were 11 males and 7 females. The sexes as a 
rule seem to be nearly equally susceptible to measles and to mor- 
tality therefrom. 

Of parentage there were 3 of native, and 15 of foreign. 

During the last ten years the proportion of mortality from 
measles has been about 53 of native to every 100 of foreign par- 
entage. 

During 1898 the number of decedents under 5 years of age 
was 15. 

The number in the different divisions of the State may be found 
in Table LXXXIV : 



1898. 



CAUSES OF DK.VTir. 



247 



Table LXXXIV. 

Mortality in the State from Measles, 1866 to 1808* 





CO* 

cd 

» 

O 
1 

S 

9 


u 


SEX. 


PARBNTAQE. 




DIVISIONS OF 


THE 


STATE. 




YEARS. 




1 

S 




I 


1^ 

no 


Mo 


S50 


4> 
O 

£8 


p 


a 
1. 

c >, 

Is 


5 years. 1866-1870. 


92 


.60 


44 


48 


26 


66 


6 


4 


12 


35 


25 




5 years, 1871-1875. 


102 


.50 


43 


59 


53 


49 


5 


12 


7 


39 


35 


4 


1876 


4 
11 
81 


.10 

.25 

1.82 


3 
39 


4 

8 

42 


1 

2 

25 


3 

9 

56 








4 

8 

26 






1877 






1 


2 




1876 


2 


3 




1879 


























1880 


9 


1 
.20 i 


3 


6 


2 


7 








6 


3 














1876-1880 


105 


.47 


45 


60 


30 


75 


2 


3 


1 


44 


55 




1881 


37 


.74 


17 


20 i 


15 


22 


! 


1 


2 


9 


25 




1882 


6 
14 


1 


1 
11 


1 
5i 

3 




9 


6 
5 








2 
3 


4 

8 




1883 




1 




o 


1884 


18 


.35 ! 


10 


8 


5 


13 


1 


6 


1 


3 


7 




1885 


45 


.84 1 


27 


18 


19 


26 




7 


o 


•>~ 


8 
52 


1 


1881-1885 


120 


.46 


66 


.54 


48 


72 


1 


15 


5 


44 


3 


1886 


18 
132 


.30 
2.08 


11 
69 


7 1 
63 1 


4 

57 


14 
75 




5 
5 


6 


4 
26 


9 
90 




1887 


3 


1888 


11 


.22 


5 


6 1 


3 


8 




2 




7 


2 




1889 


29 


.47 


15 


14 ! 


10 


19 




8 






14 




1890 


92 


1.32 


45 


47 1 


42 


50 


2 


10 


3 


41 
85 


31 
146 


a 








282 


.88 
.18 


145 


137 i 


116 


166 


2 


80 


11 


1891 


12 


7 


5 1 


4 


8 


1 


2 


2 


3 


3 


1 


1892 


28 


.38 


14 


1 
14 1 


10 


18 




2 


4 


11 


11 




1893 


100 


1.34 


56 


44 { 


83 


67 




11 




22 


64 


3 


1894 


9 

5S 


.12 

.70 ' 


4 

24 


5 
29 


3 


6 
42 






2 


2 

8 


5 
40 




1895 




5 




1891-1895 


202 


.54 


105 


97 ' 


61 


141 


1 


20 


8 


46 


123 


4 


1896 


58 


J 


28 


80 


1 22 


86 




6 


8 


28 


• 19 


2 


1897 


83 


.46 


21 


12 


11 


22 


5 


1 


1 


8 


18 




1898 


18 
1,012 


.26 

.58 


11 

508 


604 


8 
870 


15 
642 






1 
46 


12 
341 


4 

487 


1 


Total, 33 years.. 


22 


91 


25 



♦ Exclusive of Providence city. 



248 porty-sixth^registration report. [1898. 

Old Age, 

The number of deaths, in 1898, attributed to old age as a cause, 
was 205. This is 46 more than in 1897. 

This number represents 2.97 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of .59 to every 1,000 of the population. 

Of the 205 decedents from old ag-e, 86 were males, and 119 were 
females, or about 72 males to every 100 females. 

Of the parentage of the 205, there were 135 of native and 70 of 
foreign parentage, or 193 of native to every 100 of foreign. 

The following Table will present the statistics of deaths in 
Rhode Island from old age for thirty-three years : 



ISDS.] 



CAUSKS oi'' i»i:\'i'ii. 



249 



Table LXXXV. 



MorliilUij ill the State from Old Af/c, JS('>i> to ISfiS, indusirc. 





i 
1 

Q 

o 

u 


1 


SEX. 


FABENTAOE. 




DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE. 




YKARS. 


to 

1 


i 

"3 
S 


> 

1 


n 
bo 

2 




■SB 

a s 
<o o 
Mo 


1 

;z;o 


9) 

'■J 

a» 

I- o 

cuo 


O 

B 

'> ..• 

ft.O 


e 
o 

^ . 
B. ^ 

•is 
l8 


5 years. 1800-1870 
1871-1875 


998 

1.158 

241 
213 
232 
220 
273 


6.48 

5.64 

6.18 
5.00 
5.25 
5.22 
5.95 


1 
300 

467 

107 
96 
84 
82 

121 


032 

691 

134 
117 
138 
138 
152 


764 

833 

177 
145 
172 
152 
186 


284 

325 

64 
68 1 
50 
68 
87 


55 
61 

12 

12 
15 
14 
12 


102 

103 

14 
23 
8 
19 
20 


157 

101 

38 
29 
32 
26 
34 


233 

332 

65 
.57 
76 
69 
90 


207 

348 

71 
63 
61 
67 
73 


134 

153 


1870. 


41 


1877 


29 


1878 


30 


1870 


25 


1880 


44 






1876-1880 

1881 


1,169 

247 
283 
275 
293 
267 


5.24 

5.29 
5.89 
5.S2 
5.68 
4.95 


490 

101^ 
110 
105 
101 
86 


679 

146 
173 
170 
192 
181 


832 

107 
190 
184 
196 
183 


337 

80 
93 
91 
97 
84 
445 

05 
111 
92 
91 
75 


65 

12 
20 
17 
16 
9 


84 

24 
25 
18 
20 
32 


159 

30 
40 
44 
39 
47 


357 

03 
100 

91 
100 

87 


335 

73 
79 
84 
86 
70 


169 
10 


1882 


13 


1883 


21 


1884 


26 


1885 ... 


22 






1881-1885 


1,365 5.27 1 


503 

101 
103 
108 
75 
72 


862 

175 
175 
182 
152 
126 


920 

181 
167 
198 
136 
123 


74 

16 
17 
16 
10 
16 


119 

24 
19 
20 
23 
19 


200 

36 
29 
25 
33 
19 


483 

100 
109 
124 
73 
59 


391 

73 
76 
64 
71 
63 


92 


1886 


276 
278 
290 
227 
198 


4.69 
4.38 
4.35 
8.63 

2.87 


27 


1887 

1888 


28 
35 
27 


1890 


22 




1,269 

185 
256 

las 

187 
197 


3.97 

2.80 
3.46 
2.44 
2.61 
2.61 


459 

83 
95 
72 
60 
82 


810 

102 
161 
111 
127 
115 


805 

121 
168 
113 
109 
105 


464 

64 
88 
70 
78 
92 


75 

18 
9 
8 
12 
17 


111 

16 
24 
10 
21 
17 


132 

26 
29 
19 
23 
16 


465 

65 
91 
83 
64 

87 


347 

41 
71 
93 
51 
51 


139 


1891 


19 


189',' 


32 


1893 


15 


1894 


16 


189.5 


9 


1891-1895 


1,008 
206 


2.78 

2.74 


392 

84 
51 
80 

2,898 


616 

122 
108 
119 

4,639 

1 


616 

112 
96 
185 

5,113 


392 

94 
63 
70 

2,424 


64 

8 
7 
9 

418 


94 

23 
9 
11 

656 


113 

13 

6 

30 

977 


340 

89 
69 
79 

2,497 


806 

57 
57 
56 

2,164 


91 


1800 


16 


1897 


159 2.24 


11 


1898 


205 
7,537 


2.97 
4.34 


20 


Total, 33 years.. 


825 



♦ Not including Providence city. 



350 forty-sixth registration" report. [1898. 

Peritonitis. 

There were 11 deaths which were caused by peritonitis during 
1898. 

This number represents .16 per cent, of all causes, and a propor- 
tion of .03 to every 1,000 of the population. 

Sex. — Of the 11 decedents from peritonitis there were 2 males 
and 9 females, a proportion of 22 males to every 100 females. 

Parentage. — There were 2 of native parentage and 9 of foreign, 
or a ratio of 22 native to every 100 of foreign parentage. 

Season. — The seasons do not as a rule have a notable influence 
in regard to the mortality from peritonitis. 

Pneumonia. 

There were 542 decedents from pneumonia in 1898. The num- 
ber is 93 less than in 1897. 

This number represents 7.8 per cent, of all causes, and a pro- 
portion of 1.3 to every 1,000 of the population. 

Sex. — Of the 542 decedents from pneumonia, and including 
congestion of the lungs, 299 were males and 243 were females ; 
or about 81 females to every 100 males. 

Parentage. — By parentage, there were 218 of native and 324 of 
foreign parentage. The proportion of decedents from pneumonia 
was about 67 of native to each 100 of foreign parentage. 

Season. — There were 258, or about 47 per cent., of the deaths 
that occurred during the first four months of the year. The 
largest mortality by months was 83 in March and 83 in De- 
cember. 

Pneumonia, as a cause of death, has increased in the ratio to 
whole number of deaths, during the last thirty-three years, from 
an average of 6.3 per cent., during the first ten years, to an aver- 
age of 8.8 per cent, during the last ten, including 1898. 

The following Table presents, for each of the last thirty -three 
years, the number and the percentage, with the sex and the par- 
entage of the decedents from pneumonia, and the number in each 
year, in each division of the State : 



1808.J 



CAUSES OF DEATfr, 



X'51 



Table LXXXYI. 

Mortality in the State from Pneumonia, 1SG6 to 1898, incluaire. 



YEARS. 



5 years, 18GC-1870 928 



1871-1875. 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1876-1880.. 



1881 

1882 

1883 

1S84 

1885 

1881-1885. 



ISSG. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



1891 

1892 

1893 

189-1 

1895 

1891-1895. 



1896. 
1897. 
1898. 



1,331 

339 
226 
317 
311 
364 



1,557 

327 
344 
400 
363 
465 



1886-1890... 2,529 



1,899 

481 
488 
508 
483 
569 



568 
6,55 
776 
665 
685 



3,349 

669 
635 
542 



6.0 

6.5 

8.2 
5.1 
7.1 
7.4 
7.9 



7.0 

6.5 
7.2 
7.8 
7.1 
8.6 



8.2 
7.7 
7.T 
7.7 
8.2 



8.5 



10.4 



9.1 



Total, 33 years.. 13,439 



9.2 

8.9 
8.9 

7.8 

7.7 



467 



164 
104 
143 
148 
180 



461 

664 

175 
122 
174 
163 
184 



739 818 



177 

178 
192 
167 
214 



928 

232 
260 
274 
255 



150 
166 
208 
196 
251 



1,309 

270 
335 
412 
344 
340 



971 

249 
228 
234 
228 
281 



298 
320 
364 
321 



PARENTAGE 



556 



162 
127 
176 
163 
177 



805 

190 
163 
198 
192 
271 



372 

548 

177 
99 
141 
148 
187 



1,014 885 



752 

137 
181 
202 
171 
194 



234 
227 
227 
213 
247 



1,220 i' 1,148 



247 
265 
319 
305 



247 
261 
281 
270 
822 



1,381 

321 
390 
457 



345 I 289 I 396 



1,701 1,648 1,425 



866 



308 



299 243 

I 

6,813 I 6,630 



1,924 



867 



274 
268 
218 

6,491 ! 6,948 



DIVISIONS OP THE STATE. 






99 



25 

8 

462 



Sx 



287 407 



166 

40 
57 
42 
47 
49 



125 

37 
89 
29 
29 



385 

97 
81 
110 
103 
92 



483 

81 

61 

108 

125 

151 



662 

163 
98 
140 
156 
192 



164 

70 
52 
49 
46 
25 



556 

161 
142 
171 
169 
206 



749 

174 
176 
204 
172 
227 



849 

183 
216 
232 
224 
243 



953 

209 
227 
219 
208 
246 



1,109 

232 
277 
392 
276 
292 



235 


242 


1,098 


1.469 


45 


39 


268 


256 


88 


86 


254 


251 


89 


41 


198 


241 


816 


856 


4,373 


6,097 






69 

97 

27 
16 
28 
15 
20 
106 

22 
21 
14 
26 
19 



102 

28 
40 
36 
22 
35 
161 

26 
35 
43 
54 

48 
206 

43 
36 
15 

835 



* K.'cclusive of Providence city. 



252 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table LXXXVII. 

Exliihiting the Number of Decedents from Pneumonia, in each of the several Periods 
of Life, during each of the last thirty -three years, from 1S66 to 189S, inclusive. 













Periods 


OF Lirs. 










YEARS. 


s 


o 


id 
O 
o 


o 
o 


o 

i 


o 
^ ■ 
o 


o 
O 
o 


o 
o 


o 
-^-^ 
o 

CO 


o 

00 


o 
a 

•A 


o 


1866 


57 
57 
70 
64 
84 
71 
83 
105 
76 
130 
116 
79 
115 
102 
95 
103 
71 
88 
103 
121 
111 
133 
103 
120 
161 
126 
139 
176 
169 
172 
220 
194 
202 


4 
9 
4 
11 
6 
7 
5 
4 
9 
9 
5 
2 
9 
8 
18 
4 
3 
15 
14 
9 
10 
15 
20 
14 
7 

10 
10 
35 
19 
16 
20 
14 
11 


4 
2 
3 

1 
5 
2 
1 
8 
4 
3 
4 

4 
1 
3 
2 
4 
2 
5 
10 

7 
5 
3 

10 
4 
9 
8 
9 
9 
7 

10 
4 


5 
3 
3 
2 
4 
7 
7 
3 
6 
8 
3 
7 
10 
3 
16 
5 
14 
13 
11 
8 
19 
7 
15 
20 
12 
11 
10 
17 
18 
20 
17 
17 
9 


13 
10 
15 
11 
6 
10 
17 
10 
17 
22 
20 
15 
14 
14 
14 
15 
22 
32 
23 
23 
33 
32 
49 
37 
46 
42 
89 
49 
47 
49 
33 
33 
23 


10 
11 

8 
12 

7 
17 
20 
14 
17 
30 
20 
15 
17 
27 
33 
22 
36 
33 
34 
29 
35 
43 
48 
36 
55 
54 
69 
68 
56 
56 
55 
46 
39 


14 

13 

16 

9 

8 

16 
19 
16 
25 
35 
32 
34 
38 
36 
37 
36 
49 
40 
34 
50 
50 
51 
61 
51 
55 
60 
75 
96 
67 
77 
56 
58 
40 


21 
16 
18 
28 
14 
16 
22 
17 
21 
89 
35 
27 
20 
35 
46 
45 
33 
53 
33 
49 
58 
56 
62 
57 
55 
70 
74 
115 
73 
66 
71 
58 
58 


25 
25 
19 
25 
20 
35 
24 
24 
40 
61 
48 
22 
42 
38 
47 
48 
41 
49 
53 
76 
74 
64 
70 
77 
79 
84 
110 
102 
78 
94 
88 
73 
66 


33 
13 

27 
16 
19 
17 
19 
33 
27 
43 
39 
24 
45 
38 
43 
31 
46 
46 
37 
59 
55 
53 
54 
47 
54 
70 
71 
70 
77 
77 
66 
75 
54 


9 
13 
13 
11 

8 
19 
11 
10 

8 
28 
17 

9 
13 
19 
12 
36 
21 
27 
23 
29 
30 
28 
21 
31 
33 
37 
44 
50 
52 
49 
40 
57 
36 




1867 


1 


1868 




1869 




1870 

1871 


1 
1 


1872 


1 


1873 




1874 




1S75 


2 


1876 

1877 


2 


1878 




1879 




1880 




1881 


1 


1882 


4 


1883 


2 


1884 

1885 


4 
2 


1886 




1887 




1888 




1889 




1890 


2 


1891 




1892 


5 


1893 




1894 


1 


1895 




1896 


1 


1897 




1898 








Total, 38 years . . . . 


3,804 


346 


160 


330 


823 


1,072 


1,304 


1,454 


1,816 


1,467 


883 


30 



IROS.] CATTSKS OF I)r:ATTI. 253 

A(/e. — Of ihc. (lecctlent« from imcuiiioiiia, dmiiic;' the ])orio(I of 
tliii'ty-tlireo yc.-irs, 28. 3 ])or ('(Mit. wore iiiidtu' 5 years of iv^o. Of 
over tifty years of a,L;e tlie imuiber of decedents was 41.4 i)er cent, 
of the whole number. Tho foHowing summary will present the 
percentages for ISOS, in round numhers : 

Under five years of age 28 per cent. 

Five years and under twenty, and not stated G per cent. 

Twenty years and under fifty 24 per cent. 

Fifty years and over 42 per cent. 



Scarlet Fever. 

The number of deaths returned as having lieen caused by scarlet 
fever, in 1898, was 21. The number is 8 less than in 1897. 

This number represents .3 pev cent, of all causes, and a propor- 
tion of .05 to every 1,000 of the population. 

Sex. — Of the 21 decedents from scarlet fever, 10 were males and 
11 were females, or 110 females to every 100 males. 

I\irentaije. — There were 14 of native parentage and 7 of foreign, 
a proportion of 50 of foreign parentage to every 100 of native. 

The following Table will present the statistics of scarlet fever 
for the last forty-three years, from 1850 to 1898, inclusive, the 
number and percentage and sex of the decedents from scarlet 
fever, and the number from scarlet fever in each division of the 
State. It also shows, from 1800 to 1898, inclusive, the parentage 
of the decedents from scarlet fever : 



254 



i'ORTy-SlXTH REGISTRATIOlSr REPORT. 



[1 = 



Table LXXXVIII. 

Mortality in tlie State from Scarlet Fever, 1S56 to 1898, inclusim. 



YEARS. 



lOyrs., 1856-1865. 



1866-1870. 



1871-1875. 



1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 



1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1881-1885. 



1886. 
1887. 
1888. 



1890 

1886-1890. 



1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1891-1895. 

1896....... 

1897 

1898 



Total, 43 years. 



03 

n 




o 

CD 

a 


a 
o 


1,440 


5.2 


496 


3.2 


1,053 


5.1 


80 


1.9 


62 


1.4 


86 


1.9 


311 


7.4 


468 


10.0 


1,007 


4.5 


138 


3.0 


45 


0.9 


34 


0.6 


94 


1.8 


91 


1.7 


405 


1.6 


88 


1.5 


266 


4.2 


207 


3.1 


51 


0.8 


16 


0.2 


628 


2.0 


33 


0.5 


67 


0.9 


193 


2.6 


123 


1.7 


107 


1.4 


523 


1.4 


53 


0.7 


29 


0.4 


21 


0.3 


5,655 


2.8 



700 

231 

503 

34 
26 
41 
164 
215 



480 

79 
24 
17 
39 



195 210 



46 

120 

101 

24 

11 



30? 

17 
38 
86 
59 
52 



30 
15 
10 

2,718 



550 

46 
36 
45 
147 
253 



42 
146 
106 

27 
5 



16 
29 
107 



23 

14 
11 

2,937 



PARENTAGE. 


<6 
> 


u 

o 


t 


+ 


210 


286 


513 


540 


42 


38 


29 


33 


35 


51 


130 


181 


216 


252 


452 


555 


62 


76 


16 


29 


14 


20 


41 


56 


48 


43 


181 


224 


29 


59 


95 


171 


91 


116 


14 


37 


6 


10 


235 


393 


12 


21 


21 


46 


75 


118 


52 


71 


42 


65 


202 


321 


24 


29 


IS 


16 


14 


7 


1,844 


2,371 



DIVISIONS OF THE STATE. 



'E o 



26 



1 


2 


6 


40 




3 


1 


1 




1 



200 



Mo 



11 25 
3 



350 



191 



27 



22 



4 
3 
2 
3 

12 

1 
4 
1 

384 



u o 



414 



142 



21 
21 
14 
37 
143 
236 



41 

7 

9 

28 

24 

109 

41 
80 
87 
14 
2 



224 

9 
20 
68 
55 
37 
189 

9 
10 
13 



634 



236 



35 

12 

57 

255 

243 



602 

45 
18 
16 
57 



30 

154 

80 

25 

8 

297 

17 
38 
97 
56 



271 

33 
12 
4 

2,797 



* Exclusive of Providence city. 



+ Records incomplete. 



1898.] 



CAUSKS OK DEATH. 



255 



Ciiour, DiriiTiiERiA, and Scarlet Fever. 
SiViNon and Mortdlity. 

The followino- Table is coutinucd, to show by coiuparisou the 
influence of season in reg-ard to the mortality from croup and 
scarlet fever for forty-five years, and diphtheria for forty-one 
years. The Table will give the average monthly and quarterly 
percentages of deaths from each cause : 

Table LXXXIX. 



MONTHS. 



January 

February 

March 

First Quarter. . . 

April 

May 

June 

Second (>uarter 

July 

August 

September 

Tliinl Quarter.. 

October 

November 

December 

Fourth (Quarter 
Total.s 



CROUr. 
1853-1898. 






39T 
349 

287 



231 
164 
139 



534 

107 
89 
185 



381 

331 
411 
433 



3.153 



12.59 
11.07 
9.10 



32.76 

7.33 
5.20 
4.41 



16.94 

3.39 

2.83 
5.87 



13.08 

10.50 
13.99 
18.73 



38.22 



100.00 



DIPnTHEKIA. SCARLET FEVER. 
1858-1898. 1853-1898. 



J3 * 



501 
421 
447 



1,429 

400 
401 
341 



1,142 

320 
343 
483 



1,096 

725 
754 
644 



2,123 



5.790 



9.09 
7.27 
7.72 



24.68 

6.91 
6.92 
5.89 



19.78 

5.53 
5.92 
7.48 



18.93 

12.52 
13.02 

11.13 

30.(17 
100.00 



704 
633 



2,112 

544 
563 

484 



1,591 

365 
801 
318 



984 

437 
534 
690 

l.tiCl 
6,348 



13.21 
11.09 
9.97 



33.27 

8.57 
8.87 
7.62 



25.06 

5.75 
4.74 
5.01 



15.50 

6.89 
8.41 
10.87 



26.17 



256 fokty-sixth eegistration report. [1898. 

Suicide, 

The number of deaths by suicide, in Rhode Island, during- 1898, 
was 46, which is 5 more than in the preceding year. 

There were 38 male and 8 female decedents from that cause, or 
a proportion of nearly 5 males to every 1 of the females. 

Of the 46, 20 were of native parentage and 26 of foreign. 

The means of self-destruction, according to the returns, were 
as follows : 

By arsenic, 1 case ; by carbolic acid, 4 ; by cyanide of potassium, 
2 ; by cutting throat, 2 ; by drowning, 8 ; by hanging, 9 ; by illum- 
inating gas, 4 ; by jumping from window, 1 ; by laudanum, 1 ; by 
" paris green," 3 ; by " rough on rats," 1 ; by shooting, 8 ; by strych- 
nine, 1 ; by unknown poison, 1. 



1808.] 



CAU.SK8 OF DKATir. 



257 



Taule XC. 
Mortality in the State from SuiQide, 1806 to 1898, inclimve. 



89 

18 
22 

21 

13 I 

10 1 

84 j 

I 
23 i 

31 

25 

22 

20 



121 

17 
16 
21 
24 
19 



Total, 33 years.. 



41 
46 

758 



.56 I 

.43 \ 

j 

.46 j 

.52 I 

.50 I 

..31 I 

.20 

.38 

.49 
.64 
.47 
.48 
.37 
.47 

.29! 
.25 i 
.42 
.38 



.30 

.61 
.26 
.38 
.63 
.41 



.46 

.51 
.58 
.67 

.44 



67 



84 



22 



118 

28 
SS 



587 



28 



22 



10 
8 
8 

171 



PARENTAGE. 


1 


1 


66 


20 


57 


32 


6 


12 


15 


7 


12 


9 


5 


8 


8 


2 


46 


38 


15 


8 


23 


8 


11 


14 


13 


9 


11 


9 


73 


48 


12 


5 


8 


8 


15 


6 


9 


15 


12 


7 


56 


41 


15 


25 


10 


9 


10 


11 


24 


21 


18 


18 


72 


84 


20 


18 


21 


20 


1 20 


26 


431 


827 



DIVISIONS OF THE STATE. 



It 

.22 3 
Co 

nu 



P s 
<o a 

MO 



28 



^5 
© o 



13 






20 



26 



8 



30 



10 
6 
7 
5 i 14 
5 
14 

2 
5 
4 

68 



oS" 



84 



48 



5 10 

5 12 

5 7 

5 7 

6 2 



38 



14 

12 

8 15 

6 11 

3 6 

25 



58 

4 ; 7 

5| 7 

6 I 9 

7 10 



^5 



10 



38 


5 


24 


2 


8 


1 


12 





5 


13 


42 


™ . 


11 


20 


11 


18 


14 ' 


24 


no 


349 



19 3 

3 
9 

2 
3 
1 

53 



82 



♦ Exclusive of I'rovidence city. 



258 FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. [1898. 

WHOoriNG Cough. 

The number of deaths from whooping cough, returned in 1898, 
was 40 more than the number in 1897. 

Of the 96 decedents from whooping cough, 37 were males and 
59 were females. 

There were 50 decedents of native parentage and 46 of foreign, 
or a proportion of 109 of native to 100 of foreign. 

Ninety-three of the decedents were under 5 years of age. 

The following Table will present the mortality from whooping 
cough, for thirty-three years, 1866-1898, inclusive, with the death 
rate, sex, parentage, etc., of the decedents : 



1898. 



CAUSES OK DFATir. 



25fl 



Table XCI. 

Mortality in the State from Whooping Cough, 18G5 to ISOS, inclunirr. 





P 

o 

B 
3 
S5 


s 

o 
.99 


SKX. 


PARENTAGE. 


11 

li 


DIVISIONS OF THE 


STATE 




YEARS. 




CD 

"3 
S 


i 
1 


d 

1 


£5 


/ 

a s 


« o 

14 




a* 

si 

1 54 


«> 

<s 

a 
a 
•0 

63 


a 


"Sd . 
ISO 


5 years, 18CO-1870 


153 


1 
■ 78 


75 


68 


85 


2 


13 


7 


1871-1875 


160 


.78 


65 


95 


64 


96 


4 


11 


13 


56 


78 


3 


187G 


48 
32 
54 
43 
20 


1.17 
.72 

1.22 
.96 
.41 


19 
18 
26 
17 
10 


29 
14 
38 
26 
10 


20 
6 

30 

22 
7 

85 


28 
26 
24 
' 21 
13 


5 


3 


1 
1 

1 
2 


7 
15 

9 
12 

6 


31 
■0 

43 
15 
11 


1 

1 


1877 




1878 




1 
11 


1 , 


1879 


4 


1880 


1 




5 


15 




1876-1880 


197 


.88 


90 


107 


112 


5 


49 


116 


7 


1881 


68 


1.36 


33 


35 


30 


38 




2 


2 


24 


40 




1882 


71 


1.40 


83 


38 


32 


39 




4 




26 


40 


1 


1883 


9 
43 


.17' 
.83 


6 

17 


3 
26 


5 
23 


4 
20 


1 
5 






4 
6 


4 
28 




1884 




2 


2 


1885 


42 


.79 


23 


19 


24 


18 


i 


' 


4 


9 


24 


4 






1881-1885 


233 


.90 


112 


121 


114 


119 


6 


7 


8 


69 


136 


' 


1886 


49 


1 
.83 


28 


21 


■ 17 


82 


4 


8 




18 


28 
10 
28 
43 


] 


1887 


21 
44 


.32 . 
.75 


9 
17 


12 
27 


10 
16 


11 

28 '■ 




4 
2 


6 
11 


1 


1888 




3 




1889 


77 


1.23 ' 


39 


38 


36 


41 


1 


12 


7 


SO 




1890 


70 


1.00 


25 


45 


25 


45 


2 


« 


27 


30 


2 




261 


82 i 


118 


143 


104 


157 


7 


20 


14 1 

3 1 
3 

4' 

15 1 


82 


134 
54 


4 
1 


1891 


77 


1.16 


39 


38 


37 


40 


3 


1 


15 


1892 


25 


.34 


10 


15 


14 


11 




1 


12 


9 




1893 


23 ' 


.31 


n 


15 


9 


14 


1 




9 
88 


2 

4 


1894 


129 : 


1.80 


52 


77 


62 


67 


3 


19 


55 


1895 


45 


.60 


19 


26 


13 


82 1 




8 


2! 


7 


27 


1 


1891-1895 


299 


.84 


128 


171 


135 


164 


7 


29 

4 
8 
2 

109 


27 

7 

n 
4 


76 
16 


152 

24 

17 


8 

6 
5 


1896 


59 


1 
.79 


25 


34 


24 


85 


2 


1897 


56 


.79 


27 


29 


26 


80 1 


1 
5 


14 


1898 


96 


1.39 I 


87 


59 


50 


46 


24 


57 


Total, 83 years.. 


1 
1,514 

1 


1 
.87 i 


680 


834 


670 


844 

1 


39 


103 


440 


772 


51 



• Exclusive of Providence city. 



260 



-^FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Q 






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^ 




rSi 




« 




■^ 




C) 




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CO 


Co 


Ni) 


c^ 


CO 


OO 


S 


f-i 


« 


1 


o 


to 




Co 


^ 


>-l 



s 



^ 



M 


'■^ 




^, 


"ji 


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rO 


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< 


« 


;:;; 


H 


s 


<W 




^ 


^ 




<ii 


5- 




o 


^ 



^ 






Ss 



5- 

o 









o 


■^ 


in 


CO 


in 


(^ 


L- 


00 


CO 


CO 


1 






s 


OT 


o 


t- 


Tf 


o 


QO 


CO 


1- 




o 






O) 


Tj' 


CO 


■^ 


CO 


^ 


CO 


05 












■•"< 


























^^ 


r^ 


CO 


en 


OS 


(^ 


i^ 


m 


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„ 






t-" 


l- 


CO 








o 


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05 


CO 






CO 


co 


CD 


■w 


CO 


CO 


CD 


d 






ySi 






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CD 


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r^ 


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05 








05 


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in 


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CO 


T-4 


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OS 


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O 
OS 


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05 




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CO 


05 


05 




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CO 


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Tf 


05 


00 


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05 


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CD 


t- 


CO 


(3 


CO 


o 


,_( 


!^ 


OO 


t- 






oi 

00 


■^ 




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05 


o 


oo 


CO 




03 


o 






00 


CO 


in 


CO 


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CO 


cd' 


yj, 


05 


yS. 


oJ 






T-l 














T— f 












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00 


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QD 


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05 




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CC 


CO 


i> 


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ifi 


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05 


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t- 


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m 


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t- 


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00 


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co 


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y-. 


in 


OS 


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00 


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c; 


oo 


oc 


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00 


CO 


m 


CO 


^ 


CO 


in 


IT 


05 


05 


05 






f-i 




























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■^ 




05 


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« 


OC 


IT 








o 


It: 


5c 


TT 


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l- 


TP 


c 


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00 


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05 


in 


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t- 


CO 




o- 


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in 






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t- 


T* 


OS 


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c 


^ 


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CO 






00 


a 


ir 


co 


-^ 


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T'ORTY-Sr^iTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table XCIII.— BIETHS. 

Occupations of the Fathers. — 1898. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Actors 

Agents and Canvassers 

Architects 

Army Officers 

Artesian "Well Sinkers 

Artists 

Assayers and Analytical Chemists 

Baggage Masters 

Bakers 

Bankers and Brokers 

Bank Officers 

Barbers 

Bartenders 

Base Ball Players 

Belt Makers 

Bobbin 

Boiler 

Bolt 

Box 

Brick 

Brush 

Cabinet 

Cap 

Carriage, and Trimmers 

Cigar 

Clock and Watch 

Comb 

Core 

Film 

Harness and Saddle 

Hoop 

Mattress 

Pattern 

Reed and Harness ■ 



3 

18 
6 
1 
1 
3 
6 
5 

83 

18 

3 

110 

29 
1 
3 
4 

27 
6 

10 
7 
4 

30 
1 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Sail Makers 

Sash and Blind 

Screw 

Soap 

Shoe 

Shuttle 

Spectacle 

Spindle 

Tool 

Wringer 

Blacksmiths 

Bleachers and Fullers 

Boat Builders 

Boatmen 

Bookbinders 

Bookkeepers 

Bootblacks 

Bottlers 

Brakemen 

Brewers 

Brick and Stone Layers. . . 
Butchers and Marketmen. 

Butlers 

Cab Drivers and Hackmen 

Calenderers 

Carders 

Card Grinders 

Carpenters 

Chasers 

Civil Engineers 

Clergymen 

Clerks and Salesmen 

Clothiers 

Coachmen 



1898. 



IIIKTIIS. 



203 



Tahle XCIII.— Continued. 




Coal and Wood Bealers 

Dry Goods 

Fisli and Oyster 

Furniture 

Grain 

Granite 

Hardware 

loe 

Junk 

Leatlier 

Liquor 

Lumber 

Mineral Water 

News 

Paper 

Provision 

Shoe 

Collectors 

Commercial Travelers 

Compositors 

Concreters 

Conductors and Motormen.. . 

Confectioners 

Contractors and Builders 

Cooks and Caterers 

Coopers — 

Coppersmiths 

Cutters 

Cutters (Velvet) 

Decorators 

Dentists 

1 )esiKuers 

Die Cutters 

Die Sinkers 

Draughtsmen 

Drivers 

I>ruf,'gisls and Apothecaries . 
Dyers , 



2 

6 

9 

12 

84 

7 

3 

G2 

20 

27 

84 

5 

2 

2 

5 

5 

18 

5 

2 

4 

14 

46 

22 

59 



Electricians 43 

Electrotypists 1 

Elevatormen 4 

Enamelers 3 

Engineers and Firemen 186 

Engravers 21 

Expressmen 36 

Farmers 334 

File Cutters 42 

File Forgers 8 

Finishers 11 

Brass 6 

Fire Company Members 14 

Fishermen and Oystermen 43 

Fish Culturists l 

Florists I 7 

Folders I 14 

Foundrymen 2 

Fruiterers 15 

Furriers 1 

Gardeners 51 

Gas Fitters 5 

Glass Workers 1 

Grocers 124 

Grooms 1 

Hatters 1 

Heaters i 3 

Horse Dealers 4 

Horse Trainers 1 

Hostlers 55 

Hotel and Inn Keepers 1 

Saloon and Restaurant 37 

Icemen 8 

Inspectors 20 

Interpreters 1 

Insurance Agents 40 

Real Estate t 

Inventors 1 



264 



FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATION REPORT. 

Table XCIII. — Continued. 



[1898. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Iron Rollers and Workers 

Janitors 

Jewelers 

Journalists (Editors and Reporters) . . 

Journeymen 

Knitters 

Laborers 

Lamplighters 

Lathers 

Laundrymen 

Lawyers 

Linemen 

Longshoremen 

Loom Fixers 

Machinists 

Mail Carriers 

Managers 

Manufacturers 

Mariners 

Masons 

Mechanics 

Melters 

Merchants 

Messengers 

Milkmen 

Millwrights 

Moulders 

Musicians 

Nurses 

Operatives 

Opticians 

Painters 

Carriage 

Paper Hangers 

Pavers 

Pearl Workers 

Peddlers 

Photographers and Lithographers — 



13 

34 

186 

9 

15 

4 

1,573 

6 

3 

8 

16 

11 

27 

455 

13 

16 

27 

9 

111 

44 

3 

103 

5 

20 

2 

105 

13 

1 

,201 

1 

206 

7 

5 

4 

9 

138 

13 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Physicians 

Piano Movers 

Pilots 

Plasterers and Stucco Workers 

Platers 

Electro ... 

Gold 

Plumbers 

Polishers 

Gold 

Silver 

Polo Players 

Pork and Meat Cutters and Pork Packers 

Porters 

Postmasters 

Pressmen 

Printers 

Proofreaders 

Property Men •. 

Public Officers 

Publishers 

Railroad Officials 

Employees 

Refiners 

Gold., 

Riggers 

Roll Coverers 

Roofers 

Rubber Workers 

Sailors 

Sculptors 

Sea Captains and Ship Masters 

Secretaries 

Servants 

Sextons : 

Sheriffs, Constables, and Policemen — 

Ship Carpenters 

Showmen 



1898.] 



I )i; AT IIS, 



2G5 



Table XCIII.— Continued. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Silversmiths 

Slaters 

Soldiers 

Stable Keepers 

Stampers 

Stair Huildcrs 

Station Agents 

Steam I'ipcrs 

Stenographers 

Stereotypcrs 

Stevedores 

Stewards 

Stone Cutters and Marble Workers 

Store Keepers 

Stove Fitters and Mounters 

Students 

Surveyors, Highway 

Superintendents and Overseers 

Switchmen 

Tailors 

Tanners and t 'urriers 



57 
3 

2.3 
6 
5 
1 
3 

15 
1 
2 
3 
1 

23 

4 

1 

1 

106 

14 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Taxidermists 

Teachers and Professors 

Teamsters 

Telephone and Telegraph Operators. 

Tinsmiths 

Tobacconists 

Treasurers 

Type Setters 

Type Writers 

Undertakers 

Upholsterers 

Valets 

Veterinary Surgeons 

Waiters 

Watchmen 

Wheelwrights 

WMre Workers 

Wood Finishers 

Wood Turners 

Wool Sorters 



1 

3r> 
81. S 

2 
30 
1 
5 
3 
2 
12 
22 
2 
4 

16 
34 
12 

9 
14 
13 



33 



266 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 



[1898. 



Table XCIV.— MAEEIAGES. 

Occupations of the Grooms. — 1898. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Actors 

Agents and Canvassers 

Architects 

Artists 

Baggage Masters 

Baliers 

Bankei's and Brokers 

Bank Officers 

Barbers 

Bartenders 

Belt Makers 

Bobbin 

Boiler 

Bolt 

Box 

Brick , 

Cabinet 

CaiTiage, and Trimmers 

Cigar 

Clock and Watch 

Core 

File 

Harness and Saddle 

Hat 

Paper 

Pattern 

Reed 

Sail 

Shoe 

Soap 

Spectacle 

Spindle , 

Spool 

Tool 



^. i 

s 


OCCUPATIONS. 


u 

a 


6 
14 

1 

3 

3 
31 

4 

5 
35 
14 

1 

5 

^ 
2 

6 

3 

9 

7 

3 

4 

1 

8 

3 

1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

9 

1 

1 

1 

S 

14 


Wringer Makers 


2 




48 


Bleachers and Fullers 


9 




4 


Bookbinders 


3 




43 


Bootblacks 


1 


Bottlers 


4 


Brakemen 


8 


Brass Workers 


1 


Brewers 


2 


Brick and Stone Layers 

Building Movers 


5 
1 




24 


Butlers 


1 


Cab Drivers and Hackmen 

Calenderers 


2 

1 


Carders ■. 


7 




1 


Carpenters 


117 


Chasers 


4 




4 


Civil Engineers 


2 




11 


Clerks and Salesmen 


358 




4 




28 




2 




1 




5 


Furniture 


2 




4 




1 




1 







ISflS.] 



^r Ai;ur.\f;F,s. 
Table XCIV.— Continued. 



267 



0C< ri'ATIONS. 



.Funk Dealers 

Leather 

Liquor 

News 

Jfonument 

Paint and Varnisli 

Piano 

Provision 

Shoe 

Collectors 

Commercial Travelers 

Compositors 

Conductors and Motormen.. 

Confectioners 

Contractors and Builders. . . 

Cooks and Caterers 

Coopers 

Coppersmiths 

Cutters 

Decorators 

Dentists 

Designers 

Die Sinkers 

Draughtsmen 

Drivers 

Druggists and Apothecaries 

Dyers 

Electricians 

Elevatormen 

Enamelers 

Engineers and Firemen 

Engravers 

Etymologists 

Expressmen 

Farmers 

File Cutters 

File Forgers 

Finishers 



Number. 


1 
2 , 

1 ;i 

6 



OC<'L I'ATIONS, 



4 
1 
1 

1 
5 
5 

16 
3 

32 
4 
8 

16 
1 
2 
2 
2 
5 
4 
1 
8 

19 

22 

29 
7 
2 
4 



1 
4 
165 
8 
1 
8 



Finishers, Brass T) 

Fishermen and Oystermen 13 

Fire Company Members 2 

Flagmen, Kailroad 1 

Florists 7 

Folders a 

Foundrymen 6 

Fruiterers 4 

Gardeners 22 

Gilders i 

Grocers 25 

Hatters i 

Horse Trainers 1 

Hostlers 30 

Hotel and Inn Keepers I 7 

Saloon and Restaurant , 

Icemen l 

Inspectors j 7 

Insurance Agents I 16 

Real Estate i 3 

Iron Workers , 2 

Janitors j 15 

Jewelers 88 

Jobbers i 

Journalists (Editors and Reporters) : 5 

Knitters i g 

Laborers j 349 

Lathers | 3 

Laundrymen j 6 

Lawyers : 12 

Life Saving Service Men i 

Linemen lo 

Longshoremen .■) 

Loom Fixers ! 11 

Lumliermen l 

Machinists 1.S7 

Mail Carriers ; 6 

Managers I 11 



268 



FORTY-SIXTH REGISTRATION REPORT. 

Table XCIY.— Continued. 



[1898. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Manufacturers 

Mariners 

Masons 

Mechanics 

Merchants 

Milkmen 

Millers 

Moulders • • • • 

Musicians 

Nurses , 

Operatives 

Opticians 

Organists 

Painters and Glaziers 

Painters, Carriage, 

Paper Hangers 

Pavers 

Paymasters 

Pearl Workers 

Peddlers 

Photographers and Lithographers. . . 

Physicians 

Piano Movers 

Tuners 

Planters 

Plasterers and Stucco Workers 

Plumbers 

Polishers 

Pork and Meat Cutters and Pork Packers 

Porters 

Postmasters 

Pressmen 

Printers 

Public Officers 

Railroad Employees 

Refiners, Gold . . , 

Roll Coverers 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Roofers 

Rubber Workers 

Sailors 

Sea Captains and Ship Masters 

Servants 

Sextons 

Sheriffs, Constables, and Policemen 

Silversmiths 

Soldiers 

Stable Keepers 

Stair Builders 

Stampers 

Station Agents 

Stationers 

Steam Eipers 

Stereotypers 

Stevedores 

Stewards 

Stone Cutters and Marble Workers. 

Store Keepers 

Students 

Superintendents and Overseers 

Switchmen and Gatemen 

Tailors 

Tanners and Curriers 

Teachers and Professors 

Teamsters 

Tinsmiths 

Trout Culturists 

Undertakers 

Upholsterers 

Waiters , 

Watchmen 

Wheelwrights 

Wire Workers 

Wood Turners 

Wool Sorters 



1898.] 



DEATHS, BY OCCUPATION'. 



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DKATHS, HY OCCl'l'ATIOX. 



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CAUSES OF DEATH. 



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THE RETURNS OE THE MEDICAL EXAMINERS. 



The number of deaths investigated by the medical examiners 
during the year 1898 was 383. These deaths resulted from sudden, 
suspicious, unknown, and violent causes. Of this number 21)G, or 
77.3 per cent., were males ; and 87, or 22.7 per cent., were females. 

HoMicroE. — The number of deaths from homicide was 12, or 3.1 
per cent, of the whole number investigated. Of the 12 cases from 
homicide, 5 were by violence to head, 2 by pistol shot wound of 
heart, 1 by pistol shot wound of intestines, 1 by stab wound of 
thorax, 1 by broken neck (body found in water), 1 drowning, caused 
by being pushed oft' pier. In three cases the assailants were 
brought to trial, convicted, and sentenced. In 1 case the jury 
disagreed twice and the case is still on tile. In 2 cases it was 
called "justitiable homicide," as the shooting in each case was 
found to have been done in self-defense. 

SuicroE. — The number of deaths by suicide reported by the 
medical examiners in 1898 was 41, or 10.7 per cent, of the whole 
number examined. Death was caused as follows : By drowning, 
8 ; shooting, 6 ; hanging, 7 ; illuminating gas, 3 ; arsenic, 1 ; car- 
bolic acid, 3; cyanide of potassium, 2 ; Paris green, 2; "Kough 
on Eats," 1; strychnine, 1; poison unknown, 2; cutting throat, 2; 
jumping from window, 1 ; by throwing self in front of engine, 1. 

Accidents. — The returns of the medical examiners shoAv 203 
deaths from accidents, specitied as follows : Asphyxia, 17 ; 
*bicycle, 5; burns and scalds, 11; drowning, 57; electric car, 5 ; 
^elevator, 4 ; exposure to cold and storm, 4 ; falls, 26 ; fire-arms, 3 ; 
lightning, 1 ; machinery, G ; poison, 8 ; railroad, 28 ; shock from elec- 
tric light ciirrent, 1 ; vehicular, G; insolation, 10 ; 1 each by fall of 
boiler in brewery, injury to head during drunken row, crashed by 
falling grindstone, struck by falling tree, crushed between car iuid 
post (a coal wharf casualty), hit by derrick bt)om (fractured skull), 
kicked by a hoi-se, injured (ruptured bladder) while playing foot- 
ball, injured while trying to stop runaway horse, hangoil while in 
play ; and 1 unknown accident. 

* See page 1!12 of this report. 



278 FORTY-SIXTH EEGISTRATIOK KEPORT. [1898. 

Asphyxia, 17. — Eight (infants) by becl-clotlies and overlaying" ; 
1 by caving of sewer trench ; 2 by food in larynx ; 3 by illumina- 
ting gas; 2 by smoke in burning building; 1 (infant), cause 
unknown. 

Burns and Scalds, 11. — In burning building, 4 ; by clothes taking 
fire from stove, 1 ; by explosion of lamp, 1 ; by explosion of kero- 
sene stove, 1 ; from a dump fire, 1 ; upset dish of hot water, 1 ; 
playing with matches, 2. 

Drowning, 57. — Twelve were bathing or swimming; 9 were 
drowned by capsizing of boats ; 4 fell overboard from small boats ; 
1 was drowned while swimming horse in bay ; 1 fell into water 
from railroad bridge ; 1 from oyster boat ; 1 from raft ; 1 from 
steamer ; 3 fell into water while playing on edge ; 1 while riding 
a bicycle on scow was precipitated into water ; 1 through ice ; 1 fell 
into uncovered cistern ; 1 (child) in bath-tub which mother used as 
a wash-tub ; 20 were found in water, circumstances of the drowning 
unknown. 

Electric Car, 5. — ^By falling from car, 1 ; run over while rolling 
hoop across track, 1 ; struck by cars while walking on, or crossing, 
tracks, 3. 

Falls, 26. — From building, 1 ; from ladder or staging, 3 ; down- 
stairs, 11 ; from embankment, 1 ; from horse, 1 ; from tree, 1 ; from 
load of hay, 1 ; on ice, 1 ; from window, 3 ; on floor or ground, 3. 

Poison, 8. — By ammonia, 1 ; overdose of chloral hydrate, 1 ' 
corrosive sublimate, 2 ; overdose of morphine, 2 ; muriate of zinc, 
1 ; turpentine, 1. 

Machinery, 6. — The ages of the victims of machinery accidents 
were 24, 38, 48, 58, 58, and 62 years. 

The following cases are deemed worthy of special mention : 

Accidental Drowning.— A young man was riding a bicycle on a 
scow in the Pawcatuck river, no one being on the scow but him- 
self. He evidently struck the coaming of the scow, and both he 
and the bicycle were precipitated into the water. His cry was 
heard by comrades on the dredger close by, but they were unable 
to recover body until life was extinct. 

Accidental Hanging. — Deceased (a boy 16 years old) had been 
alone with his mother during the afternoon, engaged in playing 
games. Mother retired to an adjacent room to do machine sewing. 
Soon after coming out into the kitchen, found son with a rolled 
sheet about his neck, and sportive in his manner. Mother said 
she laughed at him, and returned to her work. Coming out again 



1898.] 



RETURNS OF MKDK'AI, KXA MIXF.US. 



2V.i 



soon, she found deceased suspended from an open door, l»y pait 
of !i clotlios line. 

The whole number of deaths by aec'ideid in the State; (birinj^ 
18t)8 was 25)(), showing that there were 93 deaths by accident where 
no medical examiner was called. In these cases a i)hysician had 
been in attendance and had reported the cause of death. In 
many instances the death was not immediate. 

The division of these 290 deaths by accident was as follows: 
(See pages 20 and 21 of this report) Asphyxia, 19; bicycle, 4; 
burns and scalds, 21 ; drowning, GO ; electric car, 7 ; elevator, 4 ; 
exposure, 7 ; falls, 58 ; fire-arms, 9 ; insolation, 23 ; lightning, 1 ; 
machinery, 5 ; poison, 11 ; railroad, 30 ; other and various, 37. (See 
page 193 of this report).) 

A comparison of these figures with the cases of accidents which 
are viewed by the medical examiners will show the cases which 
are more open to suspicion of avoidable violence. The ditference 
(32) is more marked under the cause of "falls." 

Under sudden deaths which were investigated by medical 
examiners, were as follows : Alcholism, 15 ; apoplexy and cerebral 
hemorrhage, 10 ; bronchitis, 1 ; childbirth, 2 (includes 1 puerperal 
septica'mia) ; cholera infantum, 2 ; convulsions (infantile), 1 ; de- 
bility from malnutrition, 1 (adult) ; debilitj^ (infantile) from mal- 
nutrition and neglect, 7 ; heart disease, 39 ; hydrocephalus, 1 ; 
indigestion (infantile), 4 ; influenza, 1 ; malaria, 1 ; measles, 1 ; 
meningitis, 5 ; cerebro-spinal meningitis, 1 ; chronic nephritis, 3; 
(fdema of lungs, 1 ; old age, 4; pneumonia, 8 ; premature l)irth, ] ; 
pulmonary hemorrhage, 1 ; pulmonary tuberculosis, 5 ; whooping 
cough, 1 ; unknown natural causes, 6; still-born, 5. 



Nuviher and Per cent, of Each Group of Cases Viewed by Medical Examiners — 

1804-1S9S. 



1 
YEARS. 


1 
Homicide. 


1 ' 
Suicide. 


Accident 

or 

Negligence. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Q 

a 


a 
a 


C 

<u 

a 

o 
15 


1 

(Li 


1894 


9 
6 

12 
12 


3.1 
1.7 
0.3 
3.4 
3.1 


45 
31 
27 
32 
41 


15.6 
8.5 
8.8 
9.2 

10.7 


141 
223 

157 
203 


49.0 
61.4 I 
54.3 
45.1 

68.0 1 

1 


1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 





Natural and 

I'nknowu Causes. 

Includiug Alcoliul- 

ism. 



93 
1U3 
121 
147 
127 



« 

32.3 
28.4 
37.1 
42.3 
38.2 



288 
363 
326 
348 



APPENDIX A. 



NOMENCLATURE OF DISEASES, 



OB 



CAUSES OF DEATH. 



XAMKS OF CAUSES Ol DKATII. 



It should be stated that the nomenclature of diseases in the nos- 
olog-ical arrangement on the following- pages is not intended to 
include the names of the whole list of morbid phenomena aflect- 
ing the human organism, but the names of such only as are directly 
the cause of death, or such as ordinarily predispose to or set in 
motion the morbid processes that end in death. 

The classiticatiou which has appeared in the previous issues of 
this report, and which was the result of a report of the committee 
of the Royal College of Physicians of England, has been modified 
to accord with the changes which have taken place in our knowl- 
edge of the pathological causation of diseases since that classifi- 
cation was made. 

The changes which have been made apply more especially to 
Group One, the title of which has been changed from Miasmatic 
to Communicable, and has absorbed all of Group Two, which was 
known as the Euthetic group. This included glanders, gonor- 
rli(va, hydrophobia, malignant pustule, septicaemia, and sj'philis, 
all of which are at the present day considered as communicable 
diseases, and probably dependent upon a morbific entity which in 
some of these diseases has been demonstrated. 

In Group Two delirium tremens has been dropped to the sup- 
plementary list, being but a symptom or a result of the condition 
of alcholism, which, while not strictly correct, is j^et more com- 
prehensive in covering this class of causations. 

Apth;c, worms, and other parasites should be classed as commu- 
nicable, the parasites being of a higher order than those produc- 
ing diphtheria and cholera, and are dropped from this class. 

As dropsy is a result or symptom rather than an immediate 
cause of death it has been left out. 

Gangrene, occurring in old age, has been transferred to the 
group Developmental Diseases of Old Age. Other conditions 
where gangrene is found have been traced satisfactorily to trau- 
matisms, or diseases of the circulatorj'^ system. 

In Class III, in the group of diseases of the Nervous System, 
cephalitis has been dropped as being obsolete. Convulsions has 
been transferred to the grou]) of D«nel<~)])mental Diseases of Cliil- 



284 APPEITDIX. 

dren, all siicli deaths having- been found to be within these age 
periods. 

From the group of the Respiratory System pneumonia has been 
transferred to the list of Communicable diseases. 

In Group Four, of the Digestive System, appendicitis has been 
introduced as being a sufficiently distinct and frequent disease, 
and concerning which statisticians will desire information as to 
the mortality therefrom. Peritonitis, being a sequel of a traumatic 
or a septic condition, is usually traceable to a primary cause if 
inquired into. AVhen no specific cause is obtainable it is jjlaced 
under causes ill-defined. Ascites, being a secondary cause, is rel- 
egated to causes ill-defined, unless the original cause of the ascites 
can be ascertained. Hernia is retained in this group, rather than 
in the group of Accidents and Negligence. Other new^diseases 
which are introduced into this group as being now more specifi- 
cally diagnosticated, are obstruction of the bowels, colitis, entero 
colitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, gastro enteritis, and gallstones — which 
is retained for want of a more definite term which shall express 
the conditions causing the formation of the gallstones — and acute 
gastritis. 

Under diseases of the Urinary System, the word nephria is 
omitted, the term Bright's Disease being retained in the absence 
of the ability or practicability of the ordinary diagnostician to 
be able to distinguish the difi^erent forms of nephritis, or blood 
changes or other causes giving rise to the presence of albumen in 
the urine. Diabetes is divided into the two forms of mellitus and 
insipidus. While perhaps belonging to the group of nervous dis- 
eases, yet it is not j^et sufficiently well explained to prove in 
which group it might be placed, and custom in this case is allowed 
to prevail. Diseases of the testicles has been omitted as it has, 
by experience in this department, been found to be dependent 
upon some pathological change, such as neoplastic formations or 
traumatic or septic conditions, and the primary cause usually finds 
its way into these groups. Ursemia is placed in the primary group 
as being expressive of the direct location of the disease, although 
not being specific as to the causation. 

Under diseases of the Generative System we are at the present 
day able to specify more accurately the condition present, owing 
to the increased knowledge required of the gynecolog"ist. Ovarian 
dropsy is therefore dropped, and ovarian tumor, diseases of the 
uterus, and pyosalpinx are submitted as subdivisions. This group 
will probably be enlarged as physicians become better educated 
in specific diagnosis in this special department. 

As still-births are classified by themselves they are removed 
from the group of Developmental Diseases of Children. To this 



AIM'KNIIIX. 280 

i^^ioup has been added atelectasis puliuonuin, also cholera infan- 
tum. Convulsions is allowed to remain. Althono-h every eftortis 
made to ascertain the cause of this symptom, and it is freciuently 
dependent upon intestinal distiirbances as Avell as nervous derang-e- 
ments, yet it is impossible for the physician to ascertain the pro- 
vokinsr cause. As it is not sufficiently "ill-defined" to be rele- 
q-atod to that g-roup, being- a disease of childhood, it is [)lacod in 
this group. 

Under Developmental Diseases of Women the various sulxli- 
visions of the causes of death in childbirth have been g-iven and an 
eflbrt made to obtain these special causes rather than let them 
remain as simply " childbirth." 

Diseases of Nutrition are omitted, as atrophy or debility is 
found to be either in the group of old age, or diseases of infants, 
or caused by some disease which can be ascertained. If the cause 
is not evident to the phj'sician, it is evidently a cause unknown, 
and should be classed as such. 

Under the group Accident or Negligence, the term fractures or 
contusions is omitted, as it is ascertained in every case what 
caused these injuries. The results of the injuries are treated of 
as supplemental, as is also the instrument causing the injury, or 
the form of poison, or the method of drowning, etc. The division 
Various is sulnlivided into more specific causes, and introduces 
into this group electric car accidents, falls, tire-arms, machinery, 
overdose of medicine, railroad, and " otherwise." 

Under Causes lU-detiued, and which are invariably inquired 
into for more satisfactory information, there are a large number 
which maj^ be found in the supplementary list. Blood poisoning 
is due usually to some known traumatic or infectious cause, as is 
septicaemia. "When not known it is ill-detined. The cause of 
coma should be given if known, as it may be from cerebral hem- 
orrhage or from uni'mia. Convulsions, not infantile, are usually 
due to some traceable cause. Ascites, colic, dropsy, exhaiistiou, 
and inflammation are symptoms and not causes. Debility and 
asthenia not infantile and not senile, can usually be traced to 
some definite change in the system, otherwise it is ill-detined. It 
has been customary heretofore for physicians to give as a cause 
of death " heart failure," meaning that the heart ceased its action 
or that the cause was a natiiral one not accom})anied by violence. 
It is generallj' admitted that this is unsatisfactory, and with this 
compilation, when the cause of the heart failure cannot be ob- 
tained, it is classed as ill-detined. "While peritonitis may be idio- 
pathic, in most instances a cause of the iieritt)nitis has been ascer- 
tainable; it has been classed as ill-detined if no cause is known. 
Shock, when occurring as surgical shiu-k, being usually the result 



286 



APPENDIX. 



of accident or surgical operation, is classed under these groups. 
When no accompanying cause is given, as might be the case from 
fright, or sudden joy, the cause is usually due to some abnormality 
of the nervous system or disease of the heart, and in the absence 
of the specific cause must be placed under ill-defined. When 
given as a single cause in cases of cerebral hemorrhage or apo- 
plexy, the latter cause can be ascertained by inquiry, and proves 
to be the cause in most instances. The following list comprises 
those causes, which have been returned and, not being sufficiently 
definite, have led to inquiry from the physician in attendance. 
The only causes which cannot be more explicitly defined, and are 
sufficient as primary causes, are appendicitis and hernia. In these 
two instances inquiry is made as to whether an operation was per- 
formed for relief of the condition. In acute gastritis it is desira- 
ble to ascertain if the condition was due to the ingestion of some 
irritant, as alcohol, poison, or is the result of indigestion. More 
specific cause is asked for in childbirth, miscarriage, premature 
birth, and still-birth, in order to determine in as many cases as pos- 
sible what was the condition of the mother or the complication in 
confinement which has led up to the result which is the cause of 
the death of the child. By spinal disease is sometimes meant dis- 
ease of the spinal cord, in other cases diseases of the spinal col- 
umn, and calls for inquiry. 



Abscess, 

Accident, 

Appendicitis, 

Ascites, 

Asphyxia, 

Asthenia. 

Blood Poisoning, 

Bowels, perforation of, 

Burns, 

Brain, concussion of. 

Brain trouble. 

Brain fever, 

Cancer, 

Carbuncle, 

Childbirth, 

Colic. 

Convulsions, 

Coma, 

Croup, 

Debility, 

Dentition, 



Diabetes, 

Dropsy, 

Drowning, 

Eclampsia, 

Erysipelas, 

Exhaustion, 

Fever, 

Fistula, 

Fractures, 

Gangrene, 

Gastritis, Acute, 

Heart failure. 

Heart trouble. 

Heart, paralysis of, 

Hernia, 

Haemorrhage, 

Homicide, 

Inflammation, 

Laryngeal obstruction. 

Lungs, ffidema of. 



Malformation, 

Marasmus, 

Miscarriage, 

Mortification, 

Natural causes, 

Necrosis, 

Peritonitis, 

Poisoning, 

Premature Birth, 

Scalds, 

Septicemia, 

Shock, 

Spasms, 

Spinal Disease, 

Stillborn. 

Strangulation, 

Suffocation, 

Suicide, 

Tumor, 

Wounds. 



-XOMKNCLATUUE OF CAISKS OF DFATII 



CLASSES. 

I. General Diseases. — A. specific and febrile. {Zymotic.) 

II. General Diseases, — B. cachetic. {Constitutional.) 

III. General Diseases. — A. functional or organic. {Local.) 

IV. Special Diseases. — B. developmental. {Developmental^ 
V. Violence. — C. from injuries, etc. ( Violent.) 

SUB GROUPS OR ORDZRS. 

CLASS I. Zymotic Diseases. 

Group one, Communicable. Group tavo, Dietic. 

CLASS II.— Constitutional Diseases. 

Group one, Diathetic. 

CLASS III.— Local Diseases. 

Group one, Diseases of the Nervous System. Group two, 
Organs of Circulation. Group three, Organs of Respira- 
tion. Group four, Organs of Digestion. Group five. Urinary 
Organs. Group six, Reproductive Organs. Group seven. Os- 
seous and Locomotory Organs. Group eight. Integumentary 
System. 

CLASS IV. — Developmental Diseases. 

Group one. Of Children. Group two. Of Women. Group 
THREE, Of Old Age. 

CLASS V— Deaths by Violence. 

Group one, Accidents and Negligence. Group two. Homi- 
cide. Group three, Suicide. 



288 



APPElSfDlX. 



STATISTICAL NOSOLOGY. 



CLASS L— Zymotic Diseases. 



TABU -AR LIST. 



For Table IX of the Registration Rejiort. 



Geoup 

I. One.— 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



10. 
11. 
13. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19, 
30. 
21. 
33. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
37. 
28. 



One. — Communicable. 

Varicella 

Measles 

Scarlet Fever *. 

Diphtheria 

Small-Pox 

Tonsilitis 

Carbuncle 

Erysipelas 

Fever, Puerperal 

Malignant Pustule 

Meningitis, Cerebro Spinal. 

Tetanus 

Fever, Malarial. .... 

Fever, Typhoid 

Influenza 

Parotitis 

Pertussis 

Pneumonia 

Gonorrhoea 

Syphilis 

Hydrocephalus 

Scrofula 

Tabes Mesent erica 

Tubercular Laryngitis 

Tubercular Meningitis 

Tubercular Peritonitis 

Tuberculosis, Pulmonary . . . 
Tuberculosis, General 



Group Two. — Dietic. 

I. Tvvo.^l. Alcoholism 

2. Inanition 

3. Purpura and Scurvy . . 



SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 



Synonyms or Related Diseases. 

Group One. — Communi- 
cable. 

I. One.— 1. Chicken-Pox. 
Miliaria. 
Roseola. 

2. Rotheln. 

3. Scarlet Fever. 

4. Membranous Croup. 

6. Quinsy. 

7. Anthrax. 
Gangrenous Boil. 

8. Hospital Gangrene. 
Pyemia. 
Laryngismus. 
Lockjaw. 

Trismus Nasoentium. 
Mumps. 

Whooping Cough. 
Congestion of Lungs. 
Stricture of Urethra. 
Gonorrhosal Opthalmia. 
Psoas (Lumbar) Abscess. 
Goitre. 
Adenitis. 
Lymphangitis. 
Morbus Coxarius. 
Pott's Disease. 
Hemoptysis. 



12. 



16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 

22. 



27. 



Group Two. — Dietic. 

I. Two.— 1. Delirium Tremens. 
Intemperance. 



CLASS IL— Constitutional Diseases. 



Group One. — Diathetic. 

II. One. — 1. Anaemia 

2. Cancer, Abdomen. . . . , 

3. Cancer, Breast 

4. Cancer, Face 

5. Cancer, Liver , 

6. Cancer, Rectum , 

7. Cancer, Stomach 

8. Cancer, Uterus 

9. Cancer, Various 

10. Rheumatism 



Group One. — Diathetic. 

II. One.— 1. Leuoothythasmia. 
Chlorosis. 
10. Rheumatic Carditis. 
Rheumatic Synovitis. 
Gout. 



Al'l'KNDlX. 



289 



CAUSES OF DEATH, 



CLASS III.— Local Diseases. 



TABULAR LIST. 



SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 



Gitori' Om:, 



III. 



One — 1. 



— Nervous System. 

Apoplexy and Panilvsis. 

Ccrcl)ntis 

Cboit'ii 

Epik'psy 

Insanity 

Meningitis 

Meningitis, Spin;;! 

Brain Diseases* 

Nerve Diseases* 



III. Ont-.-i. 



Gnorr Two. — Circulatory System. 



III. Two. — 1. 


Aneurism 


Ill Two r 


o 


Angina Pectoris 

Endocarditis 


1 


4. 

5. 


Peiicurditis 

Phlebitis 

Sclerosis 


! 


1 . 

Group Thkee- 

III. Three.— 1. 


Heart Diseases* 

—Respiratory System. 

Asthma 


III. Three.-l. 


3. 

3. 
4. 


Bronchitis, Acute 

Bronchitis, Chronic 

Croup 

Laryngitis 


4. 
6. 


a. 

7. 

Gitori'Foui 

III. Four.— 1. 
2. 
3. 


Pleurisy 

Lung Diseases* 

;. — Digestive System. 

Appendicitis 

Bowels. Obstruction of.. 
Bowel Diseases* 


, III. Four. -2. 


4. 



r,. 


Colitis 

Colitis, Entero 

Diarrha'a 


12. 
15. 


( . 

9. 
10. 
11. 


Dysentery 

Enteritis 

Enteritis, Gastro 

Fistula 

Gall Stones 


IC. 

17. 
21. 


12. 


Gastritis 




18. 
14. 
15. 

1H. 
17. 
IN. 
19. 


Gastritis, Acute 

Hepatitis 

Hernia 

Intestines, Stricture of., i 
Inlestines, Ulceration of. 

Intussusception 

Jaundice 




20. 
21. 


Liver, Cirrhosis of 

Liver Diseases* 




22. 
28. 
24. 


Spleen Diseases* 

Stomach, Ulceration of.. 
Stomach Diseases* 





Cerebral Hemorrhage. 

I-ocomotor Ataxia. 

1'are.si.s. 

Deiueiitia. 

Mania. 

Monoiiiaiiia. 

Melanihoiia. 

Xciirastliciiia. 

lMsea.se of .'spinal CorcL 

Ilysteria. 

Nervous Prostration. 

Neuritis. 

Myelitis. 

Pleurodynia. 

Hypertrophy. 
\'alvular Disease. 
Embolism. 
Tlirombosis. 



Emphysema. 
(Edema Glottidis. 
Empyema. 



Constipation. 

Illeus. 

Obstipation. 

Stomatitis, 

(Esophasritis. 

Femoral. 

Inguinal. 

I'mbilieal. 

^"elltral. 

Strieture of (Esopha- 

fTUS. 

Perforation of — 
Dyspepsia, 
(iastralsia. 
Iliematemesis. 



♦ Not otherwise placed. 



290 



APPENDIX. 



STATISTICAL NOSOLOGY. 



CLASS III.— Local Diseases. — Continued. 



TABULAR LIST. 



Group Fiye. — Urinary System. 

III. Five. — 1. Bladder Diseases.* 

2. Calculus 

3. Cystitis 

4. Diabetes 

5. Diabetes, Mellitus 

6. Ischuria 

7. Kidney Diseases* 

8. Kidney, Bright's Dis. of. 

9. Nephritis 

10. Nephritis, Chronic 

11. Prostate Disease 

12. Uraemia 



Geoup Six. — Generative System. 



III. Six. 



FEMALE. 

1. Ovarian Diseases*. 

2. Ovarian Tumor. . . . 

3. Diseases of Uterus. 

4. Pyo Salpyox 



Group Seven. — Osseous and Loco- 
motory System. 

III. Seven. — 1. Bones, Diseases of 

2. Joint Diseases* 

3. Vertebrte, Diseases of . . . . 



Group Eight. — Integumentary Sys- 
tem. 

III. Eight.— 1. Eczema 

2. Phlegmon 

3. Skin 'Diseases* 



Group Nine. — Organs of Special 
Sense. 

III. Nine. — 1. Ossis Petrosi 

2. Otitis 



SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 



III. Five.— 1. Urethritis. 

7. Hfematuria. 

8. Albuminuria. 



III. Six.-3. 



Tumor, Fibroid. 
Pelvic Cellulitis. 
Hemorrhage of. 



III. Seven.—]. Ostitis. 

Periostitis. 



Rickets. 
Caries, Necrosis. 

2. Synovitis. 
Hip Diseases. 

3. Spine, Caries and Nec- 

rosis of . 



III. Eight.— 2. Abscess, part not stated. 
Boil. 
3. Pemphigus. 
Psoriasis, etc. 
Dermatitis. 



* Not otherwise placed. 



APr'p:Ni»ix. 



291 



CAUSES OF DEATH, 



CLASS TV.— Developmental Diseases. 

TABULAR LIST. 11 



SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 



GitoLi' ()m;.— Developmental Dis 
eases of Children. 

IV. One. — 1. Ati'lcctiisis Piilinoiium . . . 

2. Cliolcru Infaiituin 

•). Convulsious 

4. Cyanosis 

5. Debility, In fantik' 

(i. Premature Birth 

7. Dentition 

8 Hemorrhage, Umbilical. . . 

i). Icterus Neonatorum 

10. In(li!j:estion 

1 1. Innutrition 

\'2. S|>ina Bifida 

13. Other Malformations 

Gi;orr Two. — Developmental Dis- 
eases of Women. 

IV. Two. — 1. Paramenia 

2. Difficult Labor 

3. ^liscarriage 

4. Placenta Pnvvia 

.■). Post partum Hemorrhage. 

0. Puerperal Eclampsia 

7. Puerperal Mania 

8. Puerperal Peritonitis 

9. Childbirth* 

Cxiioup Thi?ee. — Developmental Dis- 
eases of Old People. 

IV. Tliree.— 1. Old Age 

2. Debility, Senile 

3. Gangrene 



IV. One. 



Asthenia. 
Ha'inorrhagic 

Diathesis, 
Malnutrition. 
Imperforate Anus. 
Cleft Palate. 



IV. Two.— 1. Climacterla. 



CLASS v.— Deaths by Violence. 



Gitoup One, 



V. One— 1. 
2 
3. 
4. 



9. 
10. 
11. 



— Accident or Negli- 
gence. 

Asphy.xia 

Burns and Scalds 

Drowning 

Electric Car 

Falls 

Firearms 

Mac;liinery 

Overdose of Medicine. . . 

Pois(ui 

Railroad 

Otherwise 



v. One.-ll. 



Freezing:, 
Kxposiire. 
Insolation. 
Lightning. 
Surgical Operation. 



♦ Not otherwise placed. 



30 



292 



APPENDIX. 



STATISTICAL NOSOLOGY. 



CLASS V. — Deaths by Violence. — Continued. 



TABULAR LIST. 



Group Two. — -Homicide. 



Group Three. — Suicide. 

V. Three. — 1. Drowning 

2. Hanging 

3. Poison 

4. Wounds, gun or pistol. 

5. Wounds, knife . . . 



SUPPLEMENTAL LIST. 



V. Two.— 1. Infanticide. 
Patricide. 
Matricide. 
Fratricide. 
Filicide. 



V. Three.— 3. Arsenic. 

Laudanum. 
Paris Green. 
Other. 



1. 


Causes ill-defined 


1. Blood Poisoning. 
Oonpa. 

Convulsions (not infantile). 
Colic. 

Debility (not infantile and not 
senile). 


2. 


Causes not stated 


Dropsy or Ascites. 

Exhaustion. 

Heart Failure. 

Inflammation. 

Mortification. 

Peritonitis. 


8. 


Stillborn 


Septicfemia. 

Shock. 

Dentition. 



appendix b. 
The Laws of Rhode Island 

(As amended Feliniary 1, IfOO.) 
IN RELATION TO THE REGISTRATION OF 

BIRTHS, MAIIRIAGES, AND DEATHS, 

AND OF DIVORCE. 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 100. 
OF THE RECISTllATIOX OF BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS. 

Skctiox 1. The town clerks of the several towns, or any person whom 
the board of aldermen of any city, or the town council of any town, may 
appoint for that purpose, shall obtain, chronologically record and index, 
as required by the forms prescribed by section three of this chapter, all 
information concerning births, marriages, and deaths occurring among 
the inhabitants of their respective towns; and on or before the tirst Mon- 
day in March, annually, shall make duly certified returns thereof to the 
secretary of the state board of health for the year endhig on the thirty- 
first day of December next precedmg, accompanying the same with a list 
of the persons required by law to make returns to them who have neg- 
lected to do so, and with such remarks relating to the object of this 
chapter as they may deem important to communicate. 

Si:c. 2. The secretary of the state board of health shall receive the re- 
turns made in pursuance of the i)receding section, and annually make a 
giMH'ral al)stract and report thcrcol', in form as prcscriltt'd by section tlircf 
of tliis chapter, and puhlisli not exceeding one tl\onsand copies thereof; 
and for preparing, tabulating, and publisiiing said annual report such sum 
as may be provided by law sliall be i)aid to the state registrar. Said re- 
turns, after such reptirt is prepared, shall be depositeil in tlie otlice of the 
secretary of state, who sliall cause the same to be arranged, full aljihabeti- 
cal indices all the names to be made, and tlie wliole to be bound in volumes 
of convenient si/t' and carefully preserved in liis ollice. 



294 APPENDIX. 

Sec. 3. The blank forms required to carry out the provisions of this 
chapter shall, on application, be furnished by the secretary of the state 
board of health to clergymen, physicians, undertakers, town clerks, clerks 
of meetings of the Society of Friends, and other persons requiring them, 
substantially as follows: The record of a birth shall state the date and 
place of birth, name of the child if it has any, the sex and color of the 
child, whether bom alive or still-bom, the name and surname, color, resi- 
dence, and birthplace of the parents, and the occupation of the father, and 
the time of recording, so far as the same can be ascertained. The record 
of a marriage shall state the date of the marriage, place, name, residence, 
and official station of the person by whom married, names and surnames 
of the parties, age, color, occupation, and residence of each, condition, 
that is, whether single or widowed, what marriage, that is, whether first, 
second, third, or other marriage, the occupation, birthplace, and name of 
their parents, and the time of recording, so far as the same can be ascer- 
tained. The record of deaths shall state the date of the death, name and sur- 
name of deceased, the sex, color, and condition, whether smgle or married, 
age, occupation, place of death, place of birth, names and birthplace of 
parents, disease or cause of death, and the time of recording, so far as 
can be ascertained. 

Sec. 4. Every meeting of the Society of Friends, clergymen, and all 
others authorized to join persons in marriage, shall make a faithful record 
of every such rite performed by them, in manner and form aforesaid, and 
return the same for the last preceding month, on or before the second 
Monday of every month, to the town clerk of the town in which such rite 
shall have been performed; and no marriage shall be solemnized until the 
parties shall have signed and delivered to the person about to solemnize it, 
or to a clerk of a meeting of the Society of Friends, a certificate containing 
the information required for the record of a marriage, as prescribed by 
this chapter. 

Sec. 5. The town clerk of every town shall annually, in the month of 
January, collect the information required by this chapter, in relation to 
all children bom in the town during the year ending on the thirty-first day 
of December next preceding. 

Sec. 6. Physicians and midwives shall, on or before the fifth day of each 
month, report to the clerk of each city or town a correct list of all children 
bom therein during the month next precedmg, at whose birth they were 
present, stating the date and place of each birth, the name of the child if 
it has any, the sex and color of the child, the name, place of birth and 
residence of the parents, and the occupation of the father. The fee of the 
physician or midwife shall be twenty-five cents for each birth so reported, 
and shall be paid by the city or town in which the report is made. 

Sec. 7. Whenever any person shall die, or any still-bom child shall be 
brought forth in this state, the pliysician attending at such bringing forth 



API'KN'DIX. 295 

or last sickness, if any i)liysician so atteiidfd, shall, witliin forty-fijrht 
hours after such death or brinj^iuff forth, leave with the faiiiiiy. if any, or 
l>ers«)n iiaving the care of the deceased, or the person brinprin^,' forth such 
still-boni child, or give to the undertaker or i)erson \vh<» conducts the 
funeral, a certiticate statinjr, in case of a death, tlie name of the deceased, 
the date of the death, and the disease or cause of the death, and in case 
of the bringing forth of a still-bcmi child, the date and the cause of such 
child being brought forth still-boni. Prorided. howerer, that if the phy- 
sician last in attendance shall not have knowledge of such death, or is 
otherwise reasonably prevented from leaving witli the family or giving the 
undertaker sucli certilicate within the time liereinbefore si)ecilied, or i)e- 
fore the funeral or disposal of the remains of tlie deceased, lie shall, within 
five days after having knowledge of such death by notification or otherwise, 
send to the town or city clerk or registrar of the town or city in which such 
death occurred a certificate, stating the name, date, and disease or cause 
of death of such decedent. 

Sei'. S. Every town council may appoint a sutticient number of persons 
to act as undertakers, removable at the pleasure of such council. 

8kc-. 9. Xo undertaker or other person shall conduct a funeral, or bury 
or deposit in a tomb, or remove from this state or otherwise dispose of the 
remains of any deceased person or still-born child, unless he shall first ob- 
tain the physician's certificate required by section seven of this chapter, 
if a physician was in attendance upon sucli iierson wlio has deceased or 
the person bringhig forth such still-boni child, and sliall return the same, 
together with liis own certificate of the information required by section 
three of this chapter, to the town clerk of the town where such death or 
bringing forth took place: Prorided, hoa-eve); that in such towns as allow 
the burial or removal of bodies of deceased persons without a permit from 
the town clerk, and if the undertaker or other person who has i-liarge of 
the disposal of the remains of the deceased person is \niable to t)l)tain the 
said i)]>ysician's certiticate. after reasonable attempts therefor, before the 
burial or n'lnoval of the said remains, then the said undertaker or other 
person shall make his return as recjuired by section three of this chaitter. 
including the cause of death and the name of the physician last in attend- 
ance upon the deceased, immediately to the town or city clerk or registrar 
of the town or city in wliich the death occurred, lie shall, also, within 
two days thereafter, notify the pliysician last in attendance upon the de- 
ceased person of the name and date of death of the same. 

Ski , 10. Clergymen of all denominations who ofiiciate at the finierals 
of decedents when no undertaker is in attendance, shall, when requested 
by the state registrar, or the town or city clerk or ri'gistrar of the town or 
city in wliich such deaths occurred, make returns of such deaths in the 
same manner and with the satne comjiensation as undertakers. 



29G APPEE"DIX. 

Sec. 11. xiny town may make ordinances more elTectually to attain 
tlie objects herein contemplated. 

Sec. 12. The town clerks, or persons appointed as aforesaid, shall re- 
ceive for each record of a death made and returned as required by law, 
and for each record of a marriage made and returned as required by law, 
twenty cents, to be paid to them out of their respective town treasuries: 
Pi'ovided, that the yearly compensation to be paid out of the town treasury 
as aforesaid, to any one town clerk or person appointed as aforesaid, who 
shall perform the duties prescribed by this chapter, shall not be less than 
five dollars. Undertakers and others making returns of deaths, as required 
by sections seven and nine of this chapter, shall receive for each full report 
of a death made to the town clerk, five cents in the cities of Providence and 
Kewport, and ten cents in the other towns of the state. 

Sec. 13. Every clergymen, physician, midwife, undertaker, town clerk, 
clerk of a any meeting of the Society of Friends, or other person who 
shall wilfully or unreasonably neglect or refuse to perform any of the 
duties imposed on or required of him by this chapter, shall be fined not 
exceeding twenty dollars nor less than two dollars for each offence, one- 
half thereof to the use of the town in which the offence shall occur, and 
one-half thereof to the use of the person who shall complain of the same. 

Sec. 14. Every clergymen, physician, coroner, undertaker, medical ex- 
aminer, or clerk of any meeting of the Society of Friends, shall cause his 
name, residence and post-office address to be recorded in the town clerk's 
office of the town where he resides. 

Sec. 15. No letters of admmistration or letters testamentary shall be 
granted by any court of probate upon the estate of any person, until the 
death of such person, or the facts from which the same is presumed, shall 
be duly certified, as near as may be, to the town clerk, in order that the 
same may be duly registered according to the provisions of this chapter. 

Sec. 16. The town and city clerks, and registrars of the several towns 
and cities, shall have the custody of all records of births, deaths, and mar- 
riages of their respective towns, whether made imder the statutes now in 
force or any former statute, and a certificate signed by them, certifying 
that any written or printed statement of any marriage, birth, or death is 
a true copy of the record in their custody, shall be admitted as evidence 
of such marriage, birth, or death. 

Sec. 17. Births, marriages, and deatlis of non-residents sliall be distin- 
guished from those of residents in the returns by being arranged separately. 

Sec. 18. The secretary of the state board of health may from time to 
time vary the forms of returns, and require such additional information 
as he may consider necessary to accomplish the object of this chapter. 

Sec. 19. The town clerks or other officers appointed under this chapter 
to collect, record, and return the birth in the ^veral cities and towns, 
shall receive fees therefor as follows: For making record and return of 



AI'I'KNDIN. 21)7 

tlu'Sf fju'ts as riMjiiiicd l)y law, twenty cents fur eacli entry and rctnin: 
to hv ])i\\(\ l)y (lie city (»r town in wliicli tlie l)irtli is recorded. 

Si;c. •_'(). 'I' lie clerk or retfist ra rot each town and city shall, on the first day 
of each and every month, make a certilled cojjy of all births, marriajfes, 
and deaths recorded hi the books of said town or city during the previous 
month, whenever the parents of the child born, or the bride or the groom, 
or the deceased person, were resident in any other town or city in this 
state, or in any other state, at time of said birth, marriage, or death; and 
shall transmit such certified copies to the clerk or registrar of tlie town, 
city, or state in which such i)arents of the child born, the bride or the 
groom, or the deceased, were resident at the time of said birth, marriage, 
or death, stating, in case of a birth, tlie name of the street and number of 
the house, if any, where such parents resided, the place of birth of such 
parents, and the maiden name of the mother, whenever the same can be 
ascertained; and the clerk or registrar so receiving such certified copies 
shall record the same in the books kept for recording births, marriages, 
and deaths. Such ceititied copies shall be made upon blanks to be fur- 
nished for that imrpose by the secretary of the state board of health. 

Skc. 21. The town clerks of tiie several towns, or other pei-sons ap- 
l)ointed under this chapter to collect the births ui the several towns, shall 
annually in the month of January collect the facts concerning the births 
within their resjjective towns, retjuired by this chapter, and shall, so far 
as practical)!!', at the same time collect the names of all persons lialile to 
be enrolled in the militia, as required by title thirty-four, and the census 
of all persons between the ages of live and fifteen years inclusive, as pro- 
vided by chapter fifty-four, and sliall receive therefor such comiiensation 
as the town council or the board of aldermen of their respective cities 
shall determine: Provided, that the city of Providence shall be exempt 
from so much of the provisions of this section as relates to the collection 
of the statistics of births. 

SKf. -22. T31anksfor the foregoing purposes shall be furnished, on ai)i>li- 
catioii therefor, on or before the first day of December in the year preced- 
ing, by the state board of health for the collection of births, by the 
adjutant-general for the takhig of the enrolled militia, ami by the com- 
missioner of public schools for the census aforesaid. 

Skc. 2:]. Tlie person or persons who shall discharge the duties requiretl 
by section twenty-one of this chapter, if other than the town clerk, sliall 
make full return thereof to the town clerk of his or their town, on or 
before the tenth day of February next following. 

Skc. 24. The returns reipiired to lie made by the clerks of the appellate 
division of (he sn]>renie comt. in relation to divorces, to the secivtary of 
the state board of health, (U a prepared abstract thereof, shall be published 
in the annual repent on (he l)ir(hs, marriages, and deaths in the state. 



298 APPESTDIX. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LAW OF MAKRIAGE. 



GENERAL LAWS, CHxlPTER 191. 

Sections 1, 2, aiicl 3 show wliat kiudred persons cannot marry, and de- 
clare marriages within prohibited degrees null and void. 

Section 4 makes an exception in favor of Jews, within the degrees of 
affinity or consanguinity allowed by their religion. 

Section .5 declares the marriage of persons having a husband or wife 
living, and of idiots and lunatics, absolutely void. 

Sec. 6. Any minister or elder of any religious denomination who shall 
be domiciled in the state, and shall have registered with the town clerk 
and have received a lirense, may jom persons in marriage .in this state. 

Section 7 designates who shall be considered as belonging to a religious 
denomination within the meaning of the precedmg section. 

Sec. S. Wardens in the town of Xew Shoreham may join persons in 
marriage in said to\\^i. 

Section 9 designates who may jom persons in marriage when solem- 
nized among Quakers, or among persons professing the Jewish religion. 

Sec. 10. Every person desiring to be joined in marriage in this state 
shall furnish to the town or city clerk of the town or city where such per- 
son resides, or, if such person is not a resident of the state, then to tlie 
to^vn or city clerk of the town or city where such marriage is to be solem- 
nized, the information called for in a blank form provided by the town or 
city clerk. Such person shall also procure from the town or city clerk a 
certified copy of such blank form so subscribed to, and present the same to 
the person Avho is to solemnize the marriage. For issuing such certified 
copy the to^ai or city clerk shall be entitled to a fee of one dollar. Such 
clerk shall endose his certificate upon the back of said copy. 

Section ll provides for the control of marriages of minors, and requires 
the written consent of the parent or guardian before the information pro- 
vided for in section ten can be given. Persons over eighteen years of age, 
however, who may have no parent or guardian, may make oath relative to 
that fact to tlie city or town clerk, and may then give the required informa- 
tion called for in-the application. 

Section 12 requires that each of the persons married must present to 
the officiating clergyman a certified copy, as provided in section ten. These 
must also be signed by the respective parties to the marriage m the pres- 
ence of the clergyman. This is intended to identify the parties as being 
the same who appeared for the certificate from tlie town clerk. 



AIM'KNDIX. 299 

Skction I:', nMiuircs tliat the o(lici;iliiiK clt'i^jyiiu'ii shall ciHUtrsc tiie ccr- 
tilicat*! statiiiff that III' has joined Ihr parties in inariiai,^'. and also that 
two witnesses of the niarriajre sliall append their sif,'natures. It also pro- 
vides that the minister shall make a retnrn of tiie eertilicate to the town 
clerk oil or before the second Monday of the inontli succeeding' the date 
of the marriage. 

.SKtrrox 14 provides for the care and preservation of the records. 

Skction 15 provides for the work of registration in tlie city of Provi- 
dence to be done by the city registrar. 

Skctiox 1(5 provides for the recording of the returned certificates in the 
oflice of the town clerk, and the final lodgment of the certificates with 
the secretary of state. These are there to be properly indexed, and open 
to hispection only in the presence of some one connected with the office 
of the secretary of state. 

Si-:cTiON 17 provides that two witnesses shall be present at tlie marriage 
ceremony. 

Skction 18 provides that lawful objection to a marriage shall be made 
in writing, and the ofliciating clergyman shall not proceed with the mar- 
riage until the objection is removed. 

Sk< TION 10 provides for a penalty of six months imprisonment, or a fine 
of one thousand dollars, for joiiung persons in marriage without first hav- 
ing been itreseiited with the certified copies required in section ten, or with- 
out having first returned any lawful objection to the marriage. 

Skction -jo provides for a penalty a fine of not exceeding one hundred 
dollars, lor failure to perform any of the duties devolving upon the ofiicia- 
ting otlicer under this chapter. 

Sk( TION 21 i)rovides for a line for joining persons in marriage who have a 
husband or wife living. 

Ski TION 2-2 provides that no marriage shall be deemed or adjudged to be 
void by any failure on the part of the officiating oiHeers to comi)ly with 
the law, if the marriage is in other respects lawful, and has been performed 
with a full belief on the part of the persons so married, or either of them, 
that they have been lawfully joined in marriage. 

Skc. 2:). Every person who shall solemnize a marriage without being 
legally authorized thereto, shall be fined Wm.' hundred dollars. 

ADDENDUM. 

Section 10 was modified at the January session of the Legislature, and provides that a 
license shall be issued to the persons to bo joined in marriafie, and that the signatures of the 
persons must be affixed to the declaration of intention of marriage, and in the presence of 
the clerk of the records. In case the parties reside in different towns in the state, then the 
fee shall be fifty cents for each town instead of i.ujc dolhir. 



300 APPENDIX. 



GENEKAL LAAVS. CHAPTEK 195. 



OF DIVORCE. 

Section 1. Divorces from the bond of marriage shall be decreed in case 
of any marriage originally void or voidable by law, and in case either party 
is for crime deemed to be or treated as if civilly dead, or from absence or 
other circumstances may be presnmed to be actually dead. 

Sec. 2. Divorces shall be decreed for impotency, adultery, extreme 
cruelty, v^dllful desertion for five years of either of the parties, or for such 
desertion for a shorter period of time in the discretion of the court, for 
continued drunkenness, for the habitual, excessive, and intemperate use of 
opium, morphine, or chloral, for neglect or refusal on the part of the hus- 
band, being of sutlicient ability, to provide necessaries for the subsistence 
of his wife, and for any other gross misbehavior and wickedness in either 
of the parties repugnant to and in violation of the mai'riage covenant. 

Sec. 3. Whenever in the trial of any petition for divorce from the bond 
of marriage it shall be alleged in the petition that the parties have lived 
separate and apart from each other for the space of at least ten years, the 
court may in its discretion enter a decree divorcmg the parties from the 
bond of marriage, and may make provisions for alimony. 

Sec. 4. Whenever it shall appear that the absence, adultery, cruelty, 
desertion, or other cause of complaint as aforesaid was committed or oc- 
casioned by the collusion of the parties, and done and contrived with an 
intention to procure a divorce, in such case no divorce shall be decreed. 

Sec. 5. Whenever a divorce is granted for fault on the part of the hus- 
band, the wife shall have dower as if the husband were dead; but such 
dower shall be claimed on proceedings begun within six months after the 
absolute decree, and, if not claimed within said period, or if claim be 
made for alimony within said period, then dower shall be deemed to be 
waived and released, aird the only relief of the wife shall be a claim for 
alimony chargeable upon the estate of the husband, or some specific por- 
tion thereof as the court may decree: Provided, that m case of such 
divorce between parties married before the Digest of eighteen hundred 
forty-four went mto operation, the Avife shall be re-instated in all of her real 
estate, and have restored to her all of her personal estate not, in either 
case, disposed of at the date of the filing of the petition for said divorce. 

Sec. 6. Whenever a divorce is granted for fault on the part of the wife, 
the husband, if he be entitled to curtesy- initiate, shall have a life estate 
in all the lands of the wife as if the wife were dead, but subject to such 



Ai'n:N[»i\, 301 

allowauct' to tlir wilt', to Itc charjfpfl on such life estate, as tlie court in tin- 
IH-cwliiir circumstMuct's of tlie case may deem just and i>roi»er. 

Si;( . 7. < )t!i('r\vise tliaii asi)rovi(lerl in the two incccdinfr sections neither 
husband nor wife, on divorce beinff trranted, sliiill havf any ripfht in the 
estate of tlie other. 

Skc. S. Divorces from bed. l)oard, and furtlier colial)itation, until the 
parties l)e reconciled, may lu-iifranted for any of the causes for wiiicli bylaw 
a divt)rce from the bond of marriage may be decreed, and for such other 
causes as may seem to require tlie same. In case of such divorce the court 
may assi<,ni to the petitioner a separate maintenance out of the estate or 
])roperty of the husband or wife, as the case may be, in such manner and 
of such amount as it may think necessary or jiroper. 

Skc. it. ICvery i»etition shall be sisjned by the petitioner, if of sound 
mind and of letial i\^e to consent to marriage; otherwise, upon ai)plication 
tt) the court, and after notice to the party in whose name the iietition shall 
be filed, the court may allow such petition to be signed by a guardian or 
next friend. 

Si-x-. 10. Xo petition for divorce shall be granted unless the petitioner 
shall at the time of preferring such petition, be a domiciled inhabitant 
of this state, and have resided therein for the period of one year next 
before the preferrhig of such petition. 

Sp:c. 11. All such petitions shall be filed, heard, and tried in Providence, 
unless the petitioner shall reside in the county of Xewport or hi the county 
of AVashington, in which case such petition shall be filed, heard, and tried 
in X'ewport or South Kingstown respectively. 

SEf. 12. The court may by general nile determine the return-day of 
petitions for divorce and prescribe the notice to be given, withhi or without 
the state, on all such petitions, and may issue such process as may be nec- 
essary to carry into effect all powers conferred upon it in relation to the 
same; and said court may also, by general rule, fix the times, during its 
session, when all petitions for divorce shall be heard, as they may be filed 
in Providence, Xewport, or South Kingstown, respectively. Such general 
rules shall, however, be subject to such special orders as the court may 
make in special cases. And, until general rules are made, special order 
in each case shall be made. 

Skc. 1:',. Whenever any petition for divorce shall have been filed or be 
pending in the ai)pellate division of the supreme court, and said court 
shall be of the opinion that sutficient notice of the pendency of said peti- 
tion shall not, from any cause, have been given to the adverse party, said 
court may order notice or further notice to the adveree party to be given 
in siuli iiianni'r as the court may prescribe. 

Sk^'. 14. The said court may regulate the custody and provide for the 
education, maintenance, and support «)f the children of all persons by them 
divorced or pt-titioning for a divorce, and all jx-rsuns to wIkmu a st-paratc 



303 APPENDIX. 

maintenance maybe granted or who may petition for the same; may ui 
its discretion make such allowance to the wife, out of the estate of the 
husband, for the purpose of enablmg her to prosecute or defend agamst 
any such petition for divorce or separate maintenance, in case she has no 
property of her own available for such purpose, as they may think reason- 
able and proper; and may make all necessary orders and decrees concerning 
the same, and the same may at any time alter, amend, and annul for suffi- 
cient cause, after notice to the parties interested therein. 

Sec. 15. Any woman to whom a divorce from the bond of marriage is 
decreed may be authorized by such decree to change her name, subject to 
the same rights and liabilities as if her name had not been changed. 

Sec. 16. After the filmg and during the pendency of any petition for 
divorce the said court may make such interlocutory decrees and grant such 
temporary mjmictions as may be necessary until a hearing can be had 
before said court. 



GENEEAL LAWS. CHAPTEE 225. 

or DIVOKCES. 

Section 9. The clerks of the appellate division shall make returns to the 
secretary of the state board of health, on or before the hrst day of March 
in each and every year, for the year ending on the thirty-first day of De- 
cember preceding, of all the applications for divorce, showing the number 
of applications, the number thereof contunied, the number granted, and 
the causes for which the same are granted, but without the names of the 
parties, in accordance with the blanks which shall be furnished them by 
the secretary of state. 



GENEEAL LAWS. CHAPTEE 287. 
OF MEDICAL EXAMII^EES AND CORONERS. 

Section 1. The governor shall appoint, in each county, able and dis- 
creet men, learned in the science of medicine, to be medical examiners in 
such county. 

Sec. 2. The number of medical exammers appointed as provided in the 
preceding section sliall be as follows : 

For the county of Washuagton five examiners, one in each of the five 
following districts, viz. : District one, composed of the town of Westerly; 
district two, of the town of South Kingstown; district three, of the town 



APiM'N-nix. 303 

of Ilopkintoii; district four, of tlu' towns of North Kiiif^stow n and ilxttii: 
district live, of tlie towns of Ciiiirlcstown and IJicliniond. 

For the county of Kent two examiners, one in eacii of tlie two fnili)wiii>,' 
districts, vi/. : Distrii-t one, coniiiosed of tlie towns of West (ireenwicii 
and ("oveiitry; <listrict two, of tlie towns of East (Jreenwicli and Warwick. 

For tlie county of i'rovidence eleven examiners, one in eacli of tlie lirst 
nine followitifj districts, and in district ten two examiners, viz.: District 
one, coniiHised of the towns of Scituate and Foster; district two, of the 
towns of Cranston and Johnston; district three, of the town of (llocester; 
district four, of the towns of Smithlield and North Providence; district 
five, of the towns of Burrillville and Xortli Smithfield; district six, of the 
city of Woonsocket; district seven, of the town of Cumberland; district 
eight, of the cities of Paw^tucket and Central Falls and the town of Lin- 
coln; district nine, of the town of I'ilast Providence: district ten, of the 
city of Providence. 

For the county of Bristol two examiners, one in each of the folhnvinp: 
districts, viz.: District one, composed of the towns of IJarriiiifton and 
Warren; and district two, of the town of liristol. 

*The number of medical examiners for the county of Newport shall be 
five, one in each of the tirst three districts and two in district four: and 
said districts shall be composed as follows: District one, of the towns of 
Tiverton and J.ittle Compton; district two, the town of Portsmouth; dis- 
trict three, the town of New Shoreham; district four, the city of Newjiort 
and the towns of Middletown and .Jamestown. 

Skc. 3. If either of the medical examiners shall, at any time, from any 
cause, be unable to perform the duties of his said ollice, or shall be deemed 
by the attoniey-peneral for any cause disqualified therefor, a medical ex- 
amin(>r from an adjoiniui? district may be called upon to perform them. 

Si:c. 4. Every medical examiner shall hold his ollice for the term of six 
years, and until another is appohited and qualilied to act in his place, un- 
less sooner removed by the appointment of some other i)eisoii to lill his 
place. 

Si'X'. .'). l-^very medical examiner shall, within thirty days after his ap- 
pointment, and before enterhig niton the duties of his ollice, give bond 
with surety to, and to the satisfaction of, the general treasurer in the sum 
of oiu^ thousand dollars for the faithful i)erf"ormance of his duties, 

Skc . (i. If the condition of any such bond be broken, to the injury of 
any jierson, actions may be brought iiiton such lioiid as upon tlu' ullicial 
V)onds of sherilTs. 

Sin'. 7. Medical exaiuiiieis shall make examinations as hereinafter pro- 
vided, upon bodies of such persons only as are supposed to have come to 
their death by violence: rrocided, that in case any prisoner in the state 

*As amended April Ki, It-Oti. 



S04 APPENDIX. 

prison or in any county jail dies while so imprisoned, it shall be the duty 
of the medical examiner of the district in which such prison or county 
jail is situated, upon being notified of the death of such prisoner, to make 
at once an examination upon the body of such deceased prisoner. 

Sec. 8. When a medical examiner has notice that there has been found, 
or is lying, within his district the body of a person who is supposed to 
have come to his death by violence, he shall forthwith repair to the place 
where such body lies and take charge of the same; and if, on view there- 
of and personal inquiry into the cause and manner of the death, he deems 
a further examination necessary, he shall, iipon being thereto authorized 
in writing by the attorney-general, or by the mayor of the city or presi- 
dent of the town council of the town where such body lies, make an 
autopsy in the presence of two or more discreet persons as witnesses, and 
shall then and there carefully reduce, or cause to be reduced, to writing 
every fact and circumstance tending to show the condition of the body 
and the cause and manner of death, together with the names and ad- 
dresses of said witnesses, which record he shall subscribe^ Before making 
such autopsy he shall call the attention of the witnesses to the position 
and appearance of the body. 

Sec. 9. Should the medical examiner deem it advisable to have present 
a physician as one of the witnesses as aforesaid, such physician shall also 
subscribe the record made by the medical examiner, and for such service 
he shall receive a compensation of five dollars. 

Sec. 10. Town councils shall select a suitable person to act as coroner 
for their respective towns, to hold his office for three years and until 
another is elected and qualified to act in his place, unless sooner removed 
by the election of some other person to fill his place. 

Sec. 11. The coroners so elected shall have exclusive jurisdiction as 
coroners in their respective towns. 

Sec. 12. The coroner shall appoint in writing, under his hand and seal, 
one or more discreet persons to act as his deputy in case of his absence or 
inability to act, who shall have all the powers of a coroner, and be subject 
to like pains and penalties, for malfeasance in office; and the coroner shall 
file a copy of the appointment in the town clerk's office of his town. 

Sec. 13. The coroner may suspend or discharge a deputy. The sus- 
pension or discharge of a deiDuty shall be in writing, addressed to the 
deputy; and the coroner shall forthwith file a duplicate thereof in the 
town clerk's office of his town. 

Sec. 14. Every coroner and deputy coroner shall, before entering upon 
the duties of his oflice, take the engagement prescribed in section five of 
chapter twenty-five. 

Sec. 15. Whenever the coroner has notice that there is in his town 
any person who has been injured by the criminal act, omission, or care- 
lessness of another, and that said person believes that his death is impend- 



MM'KNDl \. ;J05 

inp: from sucli injury, said cnnMicr may Uikv liu* statfimMit of such person 
coiK'eniinu: tin' manner in wliicli, and tiic immsciii by whom, such injury was 
inflicted; and the statement so taken siiali !)»• rfdiiccd to writing and, if 
practicable, in the i)resence of the injured jterson. 

Si:( . Hi. If, upiin sncli view. i)ersonal iuiiuiry, or autopsy, the medical 
examiner is of the opinion that the deatli was caused by the act or neglect 
of some per.soii other than tiie deceased, he shall at once notify the attorney- 
general, and coront'r of the town where the body was found, or in wiiich 
it lies, and shall Die a duly attestecl copy of the record of his autopsy, or 
view, with the said coroner and a like copy with the attorney-general; and 
shall in all cases certify to the oflicer having the custody of the records of 
deaths in the town in which the deceased came to his deatii, the name and 
residence of tlie person deceased, if known, or when the name and resi- 
dence cannot be ascertained, a dQScrii)tion of the deceased, as full as pos- 
sibly may be, for identification, together with tlie cause and manner by 
and in which he came to his (Icath. 

Sk( . 17. The coroner shall thereupon hold an incpiest, whicli may be 
private; in which case any or all persons, other than those required to be 
l)resent by the provisions of this chapter, may be excluded from the place 
where such hiquest is held, and such coroner may also direct the witnesses 
to be kept separate so that they cannot converse with each other until 
they have been examined. The attorney-general, or some person designa- 
ted by him, may attend the inquest and examine all witnesses ; and tlie 
coroner shall cause the testimony to be reduced to writing and signed by 
the witnesses. The attorney-general may, if he deem it necessary or ex- 
pedient, direct an inquest to be held in the case of any casualty from 
which the death of a person results. 

Skc. is. The coroner may issue summons for witnesses, returnable be- 
fore him. The persons served with such process shall be allowed the same 
fees, their attendance maybe enforced in tlie same manner, and they shall 
be subject to the same penalties, as if served with a summons in behalf of 
the state in a criminal prosecution pending before a district court. 

Sec. 11). The coroner shall, after hearing the testimony, draw ui> and 
sign a report, in which he shall tind and certify when, where, and by what 
means the person deceased came to his death ; his name, if known, and 
all material circumstances attending his death ; and if it aitjiears that his 
death resulted wholly or in part from the unlawful act of any other per- 
son, he shall further state the name of such person, if known to him. and 
he shall lile siich report, and the testimony iiy him taken, together with a 
coi)y of the record of the autt)psy or view, in the otlice of the clerk of the 
court wherein an indictment for the otVence may be found. 

Ski'. -20. The coroner shall hind such witnesses as he deems necessary, 
or as the attorney-general may designate, by recognizance in a reasonable 
sum, with suliicient surety, to personally appear, at such time as the cor- 



306 APPENDIX. 

oner may designate, at the district court of the district wherein tlie in- 
quest is lield, and not depart therefrom until discharged by said court ; 
and if any such witness sliall refuse to recognize as aforesaid, the coroner 
shall commit such witness to the jail in the same county, there to remain 
until he shall so recognize or be otherwise discharged according to law. 

Sec. 21. If the report of the coronor shall state that the death was 
caused by the unlawful act or by the gross carelessness of any other per- 
son, and by whose act the same was committed, he shall immediately 
make a complaint thereof against the person accused, in writipg and on 
oath, to the justice or clerk of the district court in the district where the 
offence was committed, to the intent that the person killing or being in 
any way criminally uistrumental to the death may be apprehended ; but 
nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent complaint 
being made at any time before the finding of the report. And the coroner 
shall forthwith, in writing, notify the attorney-general of the complaint 
aforesaid, that he may appear by himself or some person appointed by him, 
at the examination, and prosecute the complaint in behalf of the state. 

Sec. 22. If a medical examiner reports that a death was not caused by 
the act or neglect of some person other than the deceased, and the attor- 
ney-general is of a contrary opinion, the attorney-general may, notwith- 
standing such report, direct an inquest to be held in accordance with the 
provisions of this chapter ; at which inquest he, or some other person des- 
ignated by him, shall examine all the witnesses. 

Sec. 23. The medical examiner may, if he deem it necessary, employ a 
chemist to aid in the examination of the body, or of substances supposed 
to have caused or contributed to the death ; and such chemist shall be en- 
titled to such compensation for his services as the medical examiner cer- 
tifies to be just and reasonable, the same being audited and allowed in the 
manner hereinafter provided. 

Sec. 24. When a medical examiner views or makes an examination of 
the dead body of a stranger, he shall cause the body to be decently buried; 
and if he certifies that he has made careful inquiry, and that to the best 
of his knowledge and belief the person found dead is a stranger, having 
no settlement in any town of the state, his fees, with the actual expense 
of burial, shall be paid from the general treasury. In all other cases the 
expense of the burial shall be first paid by the town wherein the body is 
found, and such town may recover the money so paid from the town where 
such person last had a settlement : Provided, hotoever, that the general 
treasurer, or any town, ultimately paying any such burial expenses, shall 
have the right to recover such burial expenses from the estate of the de- 
ceased person. 

Sec. 25. When services are rendered in bringing to land the dead body 
of a person found in any of the liarbors, rivers, or waters of the state, the 
medical examiner may allow such compensation for such services as he 



Al'l'ENDIX. 307 

(l('(»iT)s reasoiiiible; l)ut this provision sliiill not ciititlc any jxTson to (•()in- 
pcnsiition for scrvifi'S rtMidcrcd in scairliiiif,'' ior a dead body. 

Skc, 2(1. In all cases arisiu!,'' under the provisions of this chapter, tiie 
medical examiner shall take cliar^t' of any money or other jx'rsonal proj)- 
erty of the deceased, found upon or near tiie body, and shall deliver tlie 
same to the i)erson entitled to its custody or possession; or if not claimed 
by such person within sixty days, then to an administrator, to be admin- 
istered upon according to law. 

Sec. 27. A medical examiner who fraudulently neglects or refuses to 
deliver any such property witlun three days, after demand upon him there- 
for, shall be imprisoned not exceedhig two years or be lined not exceeding 
live hundred dollars. 

Skc. 28. The fees of coroners shall, for the services specified in this 
chapter, be as follows, namely: For receiving and filing a duly attested 
copy of the record of an autopsy, fifty cents; for every page of two hun- 
dred words of written testimony, tliirty cents; for each day's attendance 
in holding the inquest, five dollars; for the recognizance of witnesses, 
thirty-five cents; and for drawing up and filing a report in court, five 
dollars. Said fees having been audited by the state auditor, upon certifi- 
cate of the attorney-general, shall be paid by the general treasurer. 

Sec. 20. Each medical examiner shall receive fees as follows : For a view 
without an autopsy, four dollars; for a view and an autopsy, thirty dollars; 
and for travel, at the rate of ten cents a mile to the place of view. He 
siiall also have power, in case of an autopsy, to employ a clerk at an ex- 
pense not exceeduig three dollars per day for each day's actual service. 

Sec. ?,0. Every medical examiner shall return an account of the ex- 
penses of each view or autopsy, including his fees, to the state auditor, 
and shall annex to his return the written authority under whicli the 
autopsy was made. The state auditor shall audit such account and certify 
to the general treasurer what items in such accoimt are deemed just and 
reasonable, and such items shall be paid by said treasurer to the persons 
entitled to receive the same. 

Sec. 31. Medical examhiers shall, in tlie books provided by the secretary 
of state, keep a record of all views of bodies found dead, together with 
their view and autopsy reports, and, on the first of January, April, July, 
and October, shall forward to the secretary of the state board of health 
attested copies of such records of views, together with the view reports 
and conclusions from autopsies. Should the commission of service of a 
medical examiner expire before the end of a quarter, the said examiner 
shall at once forward to the said secretary of the state board of health the 
records and reptn-ts of all cases unreported at date of expiration of said 
service. 

Sec. 82. For each and every copy of said records and n'ports forwarded 
to the said secretary of the state board of health, medical examhiers shall 
33 



308 APPENDIX. 

receive twenty-five cents, which shall be paid by the state upon the voucher 
of said secretary of the state board of health that such copy of reports 
and records have been received by him. 

Sec. 33. The secretary of the state board of health shall cause the re- 
turns received by him for each year, in accordance with this chapter, to 
be bound together with an index thereto; the state registrar shall prepare 
or cause to be prepared from the said returns such tabular results as will 
render them of practical utility, and shall make report thereof annually 
in connection with the report of births, marriages, and deaths required by 
chapter one hundred. 



INDEX. 

See Also Contents, Page V. 



Aecidents 20, 21, :35, :'.(i, c.:;, lc>--<\ i;il'. id.-) 

" and occupations '.(2-107 

" form of, for thirty-three years 105 

Ages at time of death ; disease and sex ;'., 5, 3.")-4!» 

Alcoliolism 21, -m, 54, OS-71, I'.KJ 

Apoplexy 21, :!U, 5.'), (iS-71, i(i7-i'.t;i 

Birth, by towns ='. •"» 

" colored l-'-t. l-'"* 

" comparative number by towns ii."). ii<". 

" diagram of 124, 1 25 

" forty-five years 1 !•'• 

" illegitimate 143, 144 

" laws govenihig the registration of 20:5-207 

" ages of father and mother i:'>7 

" number of child of mother 1:5<> 

" parentage 132, 138 

" plural 8, 138-139 

" proportion of, to population 1 IS, 119, 121 

" for tliirty years 121 

" rates in towns 1 is, 110 

" season 130, 131 

" sex and localities 12S-130 

" " for thirty-live years 127-12S 

" still-l)oni 140, 141. 142 

r.rain. diseases of -'2. 37. 5.5. (;s-71. \W, 2(m. 201 

Jironchitis 22, :">7, 5(i, 72-7.5, loo, 202, 203 

Cancers 22, 23, 37, 38, 54. 55. 70-73, 190. 204. 205 



310 INDEX. 

Causes of death, alphabetically arranged 20-49 

" " nosologically arranged, forty-six years 64-79 

" " " " in divisions of the State. ...50-63 

Childbirth 24, 39, 61, 62, 76-79, 206, 207 

Cholera infantum 25, 40, 61, 72-75, 208, 209 

Comparative statistics and comments 189-261 

Deaths, 1898 3 

" by counties 5 

" causes of 20-49 

" " for each of forty-six years 64-79 

" " in alphabetical order, months 20-34 

" ages 35-49 

" " thirteen principal, order, number, and proportion 187 

" twenty-six principal diseases in 1898 190, 191 

" twenty principal diseases in 1898 : diagram 275 

" causes unknown 185, 186 

" classification and percentage : table 50-63 

" diagram of 182-183 

" per 1,000 living, by counties 18, 19, 167 

" proportion of, to population 118, 120, 121 

" ' " " for thirty years 121 

" rates of, in towns and counties 12-19, 118, 120 

" seasons 10, 11, 170, 171 

sex 168 

" summary, forty-five years 113 

Decedents, ages : tables 163-177 

" colored 177-179 

" comparison with births 168-169 

" occupations and ages : table 80-90 

" " " causes of : table 92-110 

" parentage 172 

" season 170, 171 

" sex and age 173 

Divorces, law governing registration of 301 

" statute cavises 300 

Dropsy 25, 40, 244 

" compared with diseases of kidney and liver 245 



INDEX. 311 

Fevers, nmlarial 2(S, 41, .");{, rW-Tl, liii.'. 

" tyi)li()id, etc 2<;, 41, :.:;, <;s 71, •2-2i\-22s 

" " percentage in dilTereiit States ii2!» 

Ih'ait, diseases of 27, 42, :>(>, (;s-7l, ]<i(», ^.M) -I'.U 

Illegitimates 1 4:!, 1 44 

Intlueiiza 2S, 43, 5:5, 08-71, 1!»(), 2:54-2:!7 

Insanity 28, 43, 55, 68-71, 237-239 

Intemperance (alcoholism, delirium tremens) 21, 30, 54, 08-71, 100, 100 

Kidney, diseases of 28, 43, 58, 50, 72-75, 100, 240, 241, 245 

Bright's disease of 28, 43, 50, 72-75 

I>aryugitis 28, 43, 50, 72-75 

Laws in relation to registration of birtlis, marriages, and deaths. . .203-2ii7 

divorce 300-302 

" of marriage 20s-2!t!t 

" in relation to medical examiners and coroners 302-307 

Liver, diseases of 28, 20, 43, 44, 58 08-71, 72-75, 100, 242, 243, 245 

Malarial diseases, fevers 20, 20, 41, 44, 53, 225 

Marriages, 1808 2, 4, 0, 145-150 

" ages of persons married 150-155 

" colored 157 

" comparative number by towns 115-117 

" denominational 140 

" and education 1 50 

" laws governing registration of 203-207 

" " synopsis of 208-200 

" nativity of 2, 4, 147-148 

" of the divorced 158, 150 

" rates in towns 118 

" season 0, 147 

" times married 150, 157 

" forty-live years 1 13, 1 14 

" widowers and widows 150. 157 

" proportion of to population 118-120 

for thirty years 121 

Measles 20, 44, 52, 08-7 1 , 240, J47 

Mother, number of child of 1;;5-137 

Nomenclature of diseases 281-202 



312 INDEX. 

Occupation and ages at death 80-91 

" " causes of death 92-110 

" " ages of decedents for forty-six years 269-273 

Old age 30, 45, 62, ^e-TO, 92, 190, 248, 249 

Paralysis (apoplexy) 21, 36, 55, 68-71, 190, 197-199 

Peritonitis 30, 45, 250 

Physicians' certificates concerning death 283 

Pneumonia 31, 46, 53, 68-71, 92, 190, 250-252 

Population, proportion of births, marriages, and deaths to 118 

" geometrically estimated for thirty years 121 

Puerperal fever 24, 39, 53, 68-71, 206 

Eetums of medical examiners 277-279 

Results, comparative, twenty- three years 260-261 

Eheumatism 31, 46, 55, 68-71, 92, 190 

Scarlet fever 32, 47, 52, 68-71, 190, 253-255 

" diphtheria and croup, by season 254 

Still-bom children 72-75, 140-142 

" forty-five years 113, 114 

Suicide 32, 33, 47, 48, 63, 64, 67, 76-79, 92, 256, 257 

Whooping cough (pertussis) 31, 46, 53, 68-71, 190, 258, 259 



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