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Full text of "The Virginia magazine of history and biography"

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REYNOLDS HISTORICAL! 
ENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN.CpUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



, 3 1833 01740 4697 



GENEALOGY 

975.5 

V82385 
1916 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/virginiamagazine1916bruc 



THE 



VIRGINIA MAGAZINE 



OF 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY 




Published Quarterly by 

THE VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

FOR THE 

YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1916. 



VOU. XXIV. 



Richmond, Va. 

HOUSE OF THE SOCIETY, 

No. 707 East Franklin St. 



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PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 

ARCHER ANDERSON, 
C. V. MEREDITH, 
E. V. VALENTINE. . 



Editor of the Magazine. 
WILLIAM G. STANARD. 



MITCHELL & HOTCHKISS, PRINTERS, -V 
RICHMOND, VA. "'■ 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Baylor, John, Will (1772) 357 

Book Reviews 104, 223 334 446 

Byrd, William (1st), Letters of 225, 350 

Council and General Court Minutes, 1622-1629 56, 142, 23S, 337 

Council Papers 1698-1702 70, 151, 204,' 395 

Genealogy: Blackwell 99 204 312 

Fleming 94, 2O6, 327, 440 

Gorsuch and Lovelace 81, 214, 317, 425 

Harrison (Northern Va.) 97, 2II 

Payne 221 315 

Taylor (Southampton) 102, 213, 314 

Todd _'_425 

Yeardley 444 

Illustrations: Ivlap of Virginia, 1702. By F. L. Michel. Frontispiece. 

Walkern Church, Hertfordshire 80a 

Gorsuch Arms .- gl 

Tomb of Daniel and Alice Gorsuch 86a 

Portraifof Mrs. Mary (Boiling) Fleming 94a 

Wm. & Mary College 1702. By F. L. Michel 126a 

Indians of Virginia, 1702. By F. L. Michel 130a 

Fac-Simile of Signatures to Treaty of Fort Pitt 
1778 168a 

Church & houses in Williamsburg, 1702. By F. L. 

Michel 274a 

Dr. Graffenried's Map of Potomac River 302a 

Portrait of Judge William Fleming 326a 

Toddsbury , Gloucester Co 424a 

King William County Records, Notes from 388 

Michel, F. L., Journey to Virginia 1701-1702, (Translated by Dr. W J 

Hinke.) 1_ 113^ 275 

Notes and Querries 193, 305, 417 

Pittsylvania County Tithables, 1767. Contributed by Mrs. N. E 

Clement 180, 271 

Virginia Frontier in History. By David I. Bushnell, Jr 44, 168 

Virginia Gazette, 1752 and 1755, Extracts from .404 

Virginia Gleanings in England. By Lathrop Withington and 

LeoCullcnton 66, 158, 261, 379 

Virginia in 1678 _ _ 77 

Virginia in 1678-79 _163, 250, 361 

Virginia Historical Society, List of Officers and Members, January 
Magazine. 

Virginia Historical Society, Proceedings of Annual Meeting, April 
Magazine. 

William & Mary Collegers. Frewen, Chancery Suit, 1702... ..374 



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EDITOR X)F THE MAG AZINE, 

K WILLIAM G. STANARD. 



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CONTENTS. 



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'ir|'. The Journey of Francis Louis MicHelj.-^^^rV^r 
- ^2/? Tlie^A^LTgima Frontier in History ' / - " 






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: 3. Minutes of the:Council and General Coiirt • >- 
•^^iVirginia^'Gleamngs in England 
];5S^ Council^^pS^, 1698-1701i^;^fc;; ;- .^-^ . -; 
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.:-^7r? -Geneaiogy^^%* -^i^'l^i^-^U'-^^ 

and Lovelace, Fleming, Harrison (N 
i.j. . Blackwell and Taylor (Southampton). 



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Gorsuch and Lovelace, Fleming, Harrisdri (Northern Virginiay,t^g»\ 



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MICHEL'S MAP 

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THE "'■:.:■ 



Virginia Magazine 

■ ' ' ""' OP ' ' ''\[ 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

Vol. XXIV. January, 1916. No. 1 



Report of the Journey of Francis Louis Michel from 

Berne, Switzerland, to Virginia, October 2, 

1701-December 1, 1702.(1) 

Translated and edited by Prof. Wm. J. Hinke, Ph. D, 

[The attention of the translator (Prof. Hinke) was first drawn 
to the reports and letters of Michel by Mr. Albert Cook Myers, 
the well known Quaker historian of Pennsylvania. In his 
researches, connected with the editing of the "Complete Works 
of Wm. Penn," Mr. Myers had come across these valuable 
documents, which had been printed in part in 1898 in a histori- 
cal yearbook, published in Berne, Switzerland. It is entitled, 
"Neues Bemer Taschenbuch auf das Jahr 1898," i. e., "New 
Berne Pocket Book for the Year 1898." In this Year Book (pp. 
59-144) Mr. J. H. Graf published a series of reports and letters of 
Michel, from a Ms. in the city library of Berne, under the title: 
"Francis Louis Michel of Berne and his first Travels to America, 
1701-1704." As there were a number of omissions in this pub- 
lication, a complete copy of the Ms. was secured through the 

(l)-Tliis report of Michel is accompanied by a map, which he himself 
drew of the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay. The reproduction in the 
M.'VGAZiNE is a reduced copy of Micliel's map. 



T. 1^ 



2i ; '.■■-:•■■ VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

>:• ". ''.\> kindness and courtesy of the Chief Librarian of the Berne 
; . .1 library, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang F. von Miihnen. The whole Ms. 

is now published for the first time in an English translation. (la) 
. ' Francis Louis Michel, who is well known through his con- 

nection with Baron Graffenried and the establishment of the 
\,;,. . first Germ.an colony at New Berne, North Carolina, in the year 
:; ' 1710, belonged to a prominent Berne family, Michel von 
• . .,/, . Schwertschwendi. His father, David Michel, bom 1634, was 
Lord of Ralligen, becam.e member of the Great Council of 
■•;. ■ Berne in 1673 and prefect of Gottstatt in 1684. He died Feb- 
•'■ ' r ruary 7, 1696. He had three children. His younger son, John 
iJ: ,1 ! Louis, born April 6, 1684, became Lord of Aarau and revenue 
ccmimiissioner in Yverdon. His older son, whose date of birth 
scem.s to be unknown, led an adventurous life as traveler and 
explorer in Am.erica. His daughter, Johanna Esther, was 
married to Abraham Wild, prefect of Buchsee. In his early 
life Francis Louis Michel had a military training. He probably 
served as an officer in the French army. His whole later con- 
..... V, duct, as well as his interest in military affairs, point in that 
1 ... direction. After he had returned hom.e, Michel made two 

1 lu- bui v)i journeys to Am.erica, between the years 1702-1704. His letters 
f'...;-,",: I' and reports show that he aim.cd at setthng a Swiss colony in 
? ill- ,..■ • ", Am:erica. In this he was not directly successful, but his letters 
CaU'-.: :'v led to the organization of a joint-stock company, known as 
firu' .1 V .; George Ritter and Co., under whose auspices Christopher von 
'•• '■■■■ < Graffen-ried founded the Genr.an colony of New Berne, N. C, 
■ 1..' .. ; in the year 1710, at the m.outh of the Trent and Neuse rivers. 
,,.-,, ..: The more important documents of Francis Louis Michel, 
i'.,. ■ ' ■ preserved at Berne, are in rcahty not the originals themselves, 
.1 ' ri l.._ but copies, m.ade by his brother, John Louis Michel. They 

consist of the following: 

1 r ;■ a I A short report of his journey to America, October 2, 1701- 

'■ December 1, 1702, accompanied by a series of sketches: (a) A 

' ■ • ■ n-ap showing the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay; (b) a sketch 

•■• ■■-'•■ ■ "•■' of the College at William.sburg; (c) a sketch of the State House, 

(la)-ln the interpretation of difr'cult words, the translator had the 
:: ' , assi.-tancc of Prof. A. B. Faust, of Cornell University, and of Prof. W. F. 
;,,.• • .. von Miilinen, of the University cf Berne, Switzerland. 



.1 



\jt\ r 1 .! 'I.-/! 2i;' 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. .• 6 

begun 1702; (d) a sketch of the Church at Williamsburg; (e) a 
sketch of a waterspout; (f) a sketch of three Indians and their 
houses. 

2. "Several letters, which arrived after the departure of my 
brother, dated February 14, 1703, from London, and from 
America." 

3. A draft of a petition to the Queen of England, asking for a 
concession, in order to found a colony there.] 

Short Report of the American Journey, which was made 
FROM the 2nd of October of Last Year to the First op 
December of this Current Year 1702. , , 

On the Ship Nassau, 

built for 700 tons and forty pieces [of cannon]. 

Account of my first travels. 

Soli Deo Gloria. , . ' 

1701, October. After I had determined upon this ioumey, 
I engaged passage on a ship going down the Rhine, at Basle, on 
the Sth of October, and on the 30th of said month I arrived in 
Rotterdam, where an English yacht lay ready, to convey 
Milord Galloway to London. I made use of this opportunity. 
On the evening of the 31st, we left the land and with the ebb 
and a weak but good wind sailed for three hours, then anchored. 
In the morning we made use of the tide and at ten o'clock 
reached Bricl [Brielle](2), a city five hours distant from Rotter- 
dam. As the wind was too weak Milord stayed there till the 
following morning. In the forenoon we sailed with an east wind 
out of the Rhine into the ocean, for about two hours, when we 
were forced, Ijccause of the weak wind and the unfavorable tide, 
to cast anchor. At evening the aforesaid wind increased and 
we advanced during the night about 30 hours [90 miles]. At 
noon we saw land, which looked as if it were encloc:d by high, 
white walls, inasmuch as the largest part of England towards 
the ocean lies upon white and high cliffs of chalk. At evening 

(2)-Brielle lies at what is now the mouth of the New Meuse River, on 
the island of Voorne. 



4 ' VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, 

we anchored in the Terns [Thames]. In the morning we sailed 
up the stream, covered with ships, through a beautiful and fer- 
tile district, passing the town of Gravesend. 

1701, November. To-night, namely the 4th of November, 
we landed in London, not far from the Tower. But before we 
landed we were carefully searched for the third time, whether 
we had any dutiable goods. Even the trunks of Milord were 
not spared. The dutiable goods consist among other things 
of yam, laces, linen, that is unused, wine, whiskey, and other 
foreign goods. As it was already dark and as I was unacquaint- 
ed with English customs and the English language, I had great 
difficulty in finding a lodging place for the night. But in the 
morning a Frenchman showed me a room, in the so-called 
Quarter Gracq, which was rented by the week, where I stayed 
till my embarkation. 

I shall not delay long in order to describe this great and mighty 
city and the fertile country, because, as one of the most beautiful 
and richest countries, it is sufficiently well known. In this great 
metropolis the splendid St. Paul's cathedral is especially note- 
worthy, whose size and costly workmanship excite attention, 
since m.ore than thirty six years have been spent in its erection 
and m.ore than ten years will still be necessary before it is com- 
pletcd(3). It is built of large white hewn stone. To secure the 
necessary mioney for it the burning of hard coal is taxed. Each 
wagonload is taxed a crown, which yields an incredibly large 
sum. 

Not far from the city two royal castles arc located, together 
with the adjoining pleasure and game parks, where the late 
king William used to spend much time. One is called Kensing- 
ton(4), the other Grenwitsch [Greenwich]. (5) 

(.3)-According to Baedeker's Lon^/o?i, IGtii cd.. 1911, p 91, "the present 
church, desig^ned by Cliristophcr Wren and bepun in 107.5. was opened for 
divine service on Deceinljcr 2, 1G97, and completed in 1710. The greater 
part of the cost of the construction, which may be estimated at about 
850,000 1., wat^ defrayed by a ta.x on coal entering the jjort o'' London." 

(4)-Kensin{,ton Palace was purchased from the second Earl of Nottinjr- 
ham by Kinf^ William III. in 16S9. The present brick edifice was built 
for William and Mary in lGSO-91. Sec Baedeker's London, p. 264. 

(5)-Grecnwich Palace, l:uilt by Charles II. in 1667, was converted into 
a Hospital for aged and disabled soldiers by William III. in 1G94. See 
Baedeker's London, p. 393. 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 5 

In order to gain my purpose, I went out daily to inquire when 
the West India ships would sail. After eight days I learned 
that within four weeks, as usual, a large number of ships would 
leave for that country, but especially the ship Nassau, upon 
which it was possible at that time, because of the King's liberal- 
ity, to travel free of charge. To that end I inquired of the 
commissioner, appointed for that purpose, who at o.ice ap- 
proved of my desire and informed me that the ship would sail 
within four weeks. The stranger can find out daily, at the 
Bourse, when and where the ships ready to sail leave, and also 
the name of the captain and at what place and time he is to be 
found; the size of the ship, the number of sailors and cannons 
is also stated. 

The ordinary fare is five pounds, sometimes six, for the jour- 
ney across, but only half that amount for the return journey. 
After I had made sure of the ship, I inquired what marketable 
goods could be purchased. I bought, as far as I was able, SDme 
of every kind, also what was necessary for the journey and my 
stay there, namely: A mattress, linen, whiskey, ready-made 
clothes, hats, stockings, shoes, rifles, all kinds of household 
goods and implements, knives, scissors, shoe buekles, hair 
powder, especially amber, all kinds of perfumes and laces; in 
short everything that a man needs, except food. Tae ordinary 
and lowest profit is fifty per cent. But there are goad^ on which 
one can double and even treble his money. The largest profit 
of the merchants is due to the fact that the inhabitants of the 
West [Western World] have to order everything from England, 
because through lack of artisans nothing can be made in that 
country, although the materials for many things can be found 
there. It is probable that the merchants in England make no 
search for this [material], but rather discourage it, because they 
would lose much in trade. 

When I had finished my purchases and the appointed tims 
had come, I went to the commissiDner, named Captain Jaco, 
who resides in St. Anne street. (6) He informed me that tha 
ship would soon be ready to leave and that it was lying at anchor 

(6)-St. Anne St. is near Westminster Abbey, connecting Orchard St 
and Great Peter St. 



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6 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

at Blackwahl [Blackwall](7), one hour from London. He gave 
me a note to Captain Robert Trischen, to receive me and to 
board me according to custom. 

1701, December. On the 15th of December I went on board 
of ship. I looked at once for a well located cabin and with some 
effort made myself comfortable. There were 140 persons on 
the sam.e deck. We stayed there without prospect [of depart- 
ure] till January 14, 1702. 

1702, January. The cause [of the delay] was the contrary 
wind and also the fact that our ship, because of its size, was 
Eubjcct to m;ilitary service. But Mr. William, the owner of the 
ship, substituted another ship in its place. He was able to 
secure this concession because he was a member of parliament 
at that time. Fourteen ships are owned by him. The king 
has knighted him. He has great wealth. In his youth he was 
a ccm.m.on sailor. 

During this tim.e m.erchandise and provisions were daily taken 
on beard, and also scm.e poor English (*) people, or persons who 
had been guilty of some crim.e, young and old, sold into servitude 
for four years. Those who are not of age must serve, according 
to law, till they have reached the 21st year, for food and clothes. 
When they are sold in Virginia the ordinary price is from ten to 
eighteen pounds. After they have gained their liberty, they 
work for scm.e years, until they themselves can set up a planta- 
tion or farm, as indeed mxst of the inhabitants of that land have 
ccme in in such a m.anner and have settled there in that way. 

In passing, I cannot emit to relate briefly what happened on 
the 22nd at night, at ten o'clock, through those sold into servi- 
tude. It should be known that there are people in England 
and especially in London, who sell foreigners and simple- 
mir.dcd people to go on West India ships. About fifty of these 
deceived and liberty-loving people plotted together, supplied 
thcm.selves secretly ^^ith sticks, to be used in case they would 
meet opposition in their effort to seize the sloop by force and to 

(7)-The Blackwall docks, near Blackwall tunnel, are at the east end of 
London. 

(*)-The original does not read"Armee Leutcn," as the printed edition 
(Year Book, p. 67) gives it, but "armen Leuten," as Prof, von Mulinen 
reads it. 



.aKI\Ai')Ati. 



nc 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 7 

return to the land. But they had to come up the stairway, 
close to which I and four French famiUcs had settled. We 
looked in upon the commotion for a while, not knowing of their 
intention, until they all made a furious rush to seize the stair- 
way. We thought their object was to attack us, hence four 
of us seized swords and held the passage-way, until the ship's 
owner, together with twelve sailors, who had heard the uproar 
in their beds, came down in their shirts with their guns and 
anchor bars, saw the tumult and knocked down everybody who 
resisted and did not escape. Many were badly wounded and 
beaten. They took twenty of the leaders, whom they laid, 
during the whole cold night, backvv'ards across the cable and the 
anchor-ropes. The noise was heard on shore and became known 
in London. The captain came to hear what was the nature 
of the tumuli. After he had heard of their plan, he ordered 
twelve of the chief ringleaders and also two women, who had 
incited the revolt, to be locked up in irons. They had to suffer 
for it during the whole journey. The owner of the ship and 
also the captain were very grateful, that so few of us had held 
up the mob, and had taken the part of the ship's owner, in re- 
turn for whirh we were well treated. Especially at our de- 
parture, when the King refused to pay the passage money for 
the fugitives from France [Huguenots], as the commissioner in- 
formed us, wc had no other thought than that we would have 
to pay, namicly six pounds sterling. But the rich owner asked 
us to see him. We had to relate to him from beginning to end 
how it all hr.d happened. He told us that, though there was 
no hope that we be paid from the king's treasury as hitherto, 
yet in consideration of our services and faithfulness, he wished 
us good luck on our journey, but asked no money. Each one 
also had to drink to his health. 

After the above date we were fully ready for the journey and 
we weighed anchor for the fifth time, in vain. On the 14th, 
however, we had good sailing weather, hence we left in the fore- 
noon and in the evening reached Gravesend, situated about 21 
miles from London. It is provided with a stron g fort (8)^ on 

(8)-"0n the Essex bank, opposite Gravesend, we observe the low 
bastions of Tillniry Fort, originally constructed by Henry VIII. to defend 
the mouth of the Thames, and since extended and strengthened;" see 
Baedeker, London, p. 392. 



1 'a.'' 



8 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the other side of the water, where ships stop, sometimes be- 
nt u ]• cause of stormy weather, at other times to get papers of clear- 
ance and ammunilionO). The servants of the ship are also 
paid here, if they have anything to demand. 
\ , J We lay there till the 2-ith. As there was good wind then, we 
f . ,, left in the forenoon and in the evening reached the mouth of the 
,i: Terns [Thames] at Northpoint(lO). There we anchored. The 

■ t.s"; • ■ battle ships of the first class pass the winter here. On the fol- 

lowing day, with a weak wind, we advanced 88 miles. The 

next day we passed a dangerous place over the covered sand- 

' ■ . 'i banks(ll),which lie between Northpoint and Dunes [Downs](l2) 

. .. The path of the ships is marked, as being 3, 4, 5 to 6 fathoms of 

: I v.ater. The dangerous character of the place is shown by the 

masts, which protrude out of the water at many places. These 

lie not far from Marget [Margate]. On the 2Gth, in beautiful 

weather, but with weak, contrary wind, we reached Dunes 

• < ( ■ [Downs], where 64 large as well as small warships and mer- 

.... chantmen of different nationalities were assembled. This 

' ■ . harbor is guarded by two sea castles, between them lies an open 

notable place (13), but the east wind is very dangerous to the 

ships, which stay there, as five days before our arrival fifteen 

; ! I . small and large ships, through the severe storm and the breaking 

:. -i ; of anchor ropes or cables, were broken to pieces on the chalk 

, , ; . cliffs, and partly were driven to and upon sandbanks where 

.../.. m.ost of them suffered shipwreck. 

' . .■ ' , 1702, February. We stayed there to the 6th of February, on 

• ' ;■■ ' account of the contrary north-west wind. Two ships returned 

cr. , from the sea badly used up through the rough weather. Inas- 

"^.iii. ■ : ; much as the wind blew fro m the east in the evening, we, to- 

■ ■ ^ (9)-The description of Baedeker aj^rees closely: "Vessels on their way 
. ■. . , up the Thames here take pilots and customs house officer on board, and 

outward hound vessels also usually touch here;" see London, p. 43"f. 
'■• <'••'' ■■ (lO)-Northpoint is identical with the promontory North Foreland, 
alaout half a mile from Margate. . 

'' . ' ■ (ll)-These sandbanks are the dangerous quicksands, called Goodwin 
' ' Sands; sec Baedeker, Crea; 5n'/(zjn, 3rd ed., 1S91, p. 2t. _ 

' ■■ ) . • . (12)-"The 'Downs,' between Goodwin Sands and the mainland form 
■ •' • an excellent harbour of refuge in stormy weather;" see Baedeker, Great 
' "• ■ " ■ ' Britain, p. 25. 
' ■ (13)-This notable place is Deal, with Deal Castle to the north of the 

town and Walmer Castle to the south of it; see Baedeker, Great Britain, 
p. 25. 



•J..:.••^. <.^A^ti.:l'^c^ 



■.;•,•» Jk..;. 



iv.r.i; lr[> >.i 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. U 

gether with twelve other ships, weighed anchor, but we could 
not leave this evening with the others, because the captain de- 
layed too long on shore and we had to weigh two heavy anchors. 
At dawn, on the 7th, we sailed by Douvres [Dover], six miles 
from Dunes. Here the channel is only 21 miles wide, so that 
Calais in France can well be recognized. The wind changed to 
our disadvantage, hence we had to tack about, towards the 
coast of Normandy. We saw some French fishermen together 
with a large ship. It soon signalled by a flag that it was Eng- 
lish. Finally wc were compelled to make for Spit heat [Spit- 
head] (14), which Hes opposite the Isle of Wight. We had great 
difficulty in veering about, because the wind was altogether 
contrary. There is a strong fort which guards the harbor(15) 
This is one of the best and securest sea ports of England. A 
large number of warships were there, most of them ready to 
sail. They were filled with men pressed into service. We 
stayed there during the night. The next morning we sailed 
about six miles, in storaiy weather, and cast anchor before Cow 
[Cowes], a beautiful place in the island(16). There were 56 
merchantmen there, waiting for east wind, which had not blown 
for ten weeks, the northerly and westerly wind is especially 
common. There was among others a large Dutch ship there, 
destined for the East Indies, which had waited six weeks for 
favorable wind. The ship's company was large and sickness 
was among them, so that more than forty persons had died 
since they were lying there. , , ■ 

We had to wait again for wind till the 18th. In the mean- 
time the empty water barrels were filled in the beautiful and 
fruitful Isle of Wight. It extends thirty miles in length and 
six miles in width(17). Oysters are taken there in large quan- 
tities. It looked as if the wind would not change soon, hence 
the captain sent for his wife from London. It is only forty 

(14)-The roadstead of Spithead is between Portsmouth and the Isle of 

WiRht. , . 

(l.j)-B]ockhouse Fort, opposite Point Battery in Portsmouth, is prob- 
ably meant; sec Baedeker, Great Britain, map facing p. 55. 

(iG)-West Cowes has the best harbor in the Isle of W ight, see Baedeker, 
I.e., p. 74. 

(17)-Baedekcr's Great Britain, p. 67, gives the extent of the island as 
22 miles in length and 13 miles in width. 



10 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

miles by land(18). She reached the ship Saturday evening. 
Bui in the morning of the 18th, at dawn, it began to blow from 
the east. At noon it was very good sailing weather, so that all 
preparations for sailing were made. The captain's wife took 
leave and was taken back on a sloop with two pieces of cannon. 
At the same time our pilot, Mr. Bonnus, went on land, because 
of his health, in his place Mr. Buller cam.e. At two o'clock all 
the ships were under sail. They were saluted by the fort lo- 
cated there, with many shots of cannon, to which the ships gave 
many replies and thus they took leave. They sailed together 
between the island and the mainland, passed the last fort(19), 
which lies on the land near the place of exit, and then they 
passed into the sea. Each ship showed by its flag its nation- 
ality, namely English, Dutch, Swedish, Danish and those from 
Hamburg. Most of them took their course southv.-ard. Our 
ship alone turned westward. The condition of our ship was as 
follows: We had only 18 pieces of cannon that could be used, 
besides the captain, officers, sailors, passengers and merchants, 
together with 130 persons that had been sold, in all 218 souls. 
We were also sufficiently supplied with all kinds of provisions. 
Food was henceforth distributed in the following manner : Five 
passengers had to club together. They received daily four 
pounds of biscuit, one quart of beer, two quarts of water, two 
pieces of beaf and pork, weighing six pounds, in addition every 
noon, which was mealtime and announced by the ringing of 
bells, a dish full of large peas. On Sundays and Wednesdays 
we received in place of the meat two pounds of flour and half 
a pound of pork lard, out of which a thick paste is made, which 
is put into a linen sack. It is cooked with the meat, but not as 
long as the latter. Grape juice is often put into it, which is a 
good dish, called boudin [pudding]. It happens often that in- 
stead of meat fresh and large beans with butter are given out. 
The food is often, on account of the heat and because it is not 
salted sufficiently, like the water, of such bad taste that we 
suffered considera bly, especially because the large number o f 

(18)-The exact distance from London to Portsmouth is 44 miles; see 
Baedeker, Crcal Britain, p. 55. 

(19)-Probably Hearst Castle is meant, one of the cost defences ot 
Henry VIII; see Baedeker, Creal Britain, p. 95. 



.StVfi; 



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lirH \y.u: ) 



£ ;•: (1-)'.: 



'I J; J 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. '"'^- 11 

inice spoiled our bread altogether. The captain and those 
that cat at his table arc always supplied with fresh meat, nor do 
they use wine and strono; beer sparingly. It costs ten pounds 
for the journey outwards and six pounds for the return trip to 
eat at his table, besides the transportation fare. 

This night the ship began to rock. In the morning we saw 
no land, but two ships came in sight. As the wind increased 
the ship rocked more than before, so that almost all were seized 
with sea sickness. With many others I was unable to cat any- 
thing within four days. Even if one did eat something, it did 
not stay, but the stomach had to surrender it again, which was 
a great hardship to the people. Usually one cannot eat for 
some time even that food, which one could cat before the sick- 
ness. The meat was lying about in large quantities, because 
the rations were cooked as usual, although during the first days 
hardly anylody ate anything. 

The cast wind continued constantly, so that we needed from 
twelve to sixteen sails. On the 21st, we passed Sorlingen(20) 
[Scilly islands], the extreme end of England, a dangerous cliff. 
A French woman died to-day. She was a lively, sensible and 
thoughtful woman, who left a husband together with two little 
bo'j's. Three hours after her death a sack full of stones was 
attached to her and thus she was consigned to the deep. 

1702, March. The above mentioned wind continued blowing 
strong to the 8th of March. We sailed every twenty four hours 
between sixty and eighty m.iles. While doing it we were 
troubled considerably by the violent motion of the ship. During 
this time nothing remarkable occurred. On the 8th, at noon, 
as on every day when the sun shines, the captain took the lati- 
tude. He found that we were on the 45th degree, about 650 
hours or 1950 m.iles from London. Day and night there was at 
this point a difference of two and a half hours in time. The 
more one turns west, the longer the day becomes, compared 
w ith our country or Europe. The acute fever prevailed among 
us very much, so that about forty men and women were sick, 
and every \^'eek one or two were taken off. They were all 

(20)-Sorlinpues is the French name of Scilly Islands, forty miles from 
Land's End, the extreme south-west corner of England. 



.. ■) 



jinhuG 



12 H K». VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

cL\ I thrown into the ocean as mentioned above. Hitherto I have 

kept well, except getting sea-sick, but on the 11th I fell asleep 

- : t on the stern of the ship, lying in the sun. The climate of this 

region is said to be warm throughout the whole year. During 

;■ : ;•, this time there died among others an English lady, of high 

I I family and great wealth. As she had been guilty of some in- 

; , discretion, her family was sending her to Virginia. The captain 

•...:.. had a coffin made for her, in which were placed stones and 

■■ l through which holes were bored, so that it might sink more 

readily. 

From the date mentioned last till Easter we advanced fairly 
well. Inasmuch as a long journey was anticipated, the daily 

rations were diminished, especially did we suffer for lack of 

:., . • i water. On Easterday a driving storm blew from north-east, 

1 ., ; mixed with rain and showers We could not cook to day, be- 

\' ■ • cause the ship was repeatedly thrown from one side to the other. 

I, I At noon the storm increased, so that not more than half a sail 

; .'.: could be hoisted. A large rope, which was meant to steady the 

J,:,! ',: mast, was torn. 

• : 1702, April. We had again beautiful sailing weather, with 

wind from the north-cast. The captain, with the owner of the 

.. .i . ship, took the latitude. They found that we had passed the 

31st degree. We saw, upon our left, about an hour's distance 

i :j ■• [three miles] from us a waterspout(21), which are usually seen 

at certain places, when good sailing weather is coming, but they 

I \( are terrible and dangerous to the ships, if one cannot escape from 

them, or break them up through cannon balls, which are shot off 

at them. They appear like a cloud on the water and in the air. 

From the lower cloud rises a stream of water like a serpent into 

the upper cloud. Experience shows that when a ship comes 

near and breaks up the waterspout, a mass of water falls down, 

which, if it does not sink the ship, damages it seriously. 

On the 2nd we had beautiful warm weather. We saw a ship 
in the morning behind us, well provided with sails. It was ap- 
proaching us. We made ready for a fight, if it had to be. To- 
■ :■: wards evening we were still close together. We thought it was 

(21)-This waterspout must have impressed Michel very much, for he 
made a sketch of it, which forms part of the Ms. 



.!■( : . i,i 






-oT 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 13 

surely a pirate. Finally the captain hoisted the English flag. 
It was answered by the same, which pleased us very much. We 
did not feel much desire to fig;ht. Finally we came together 
so closely that the captains could talk to each other through 
the speaking trumpet and could drink to each other's health. 
The ship was from Bristol and like ourselves on the journey to 
Virginia. As this was the first company we had, the captains 
would have liked to come together to celebrate, but the high sea 
did not permit it. Upon our inquiry how far we were from land, 
he answered, 250 miles. According to our count it was 300 
miles. In order to find out how far a ship has sailed or gotten 
away from land, on the one hand, the degrees of latitude are 
taken, on the other hand the English have the custom to take 
soundings every two hours, day and night, without interrup- 
tion, by m.eans of a line, to which a little board in triangle shape 
is attached. On the one side, namely below, it is covered with 
lead. It [the triangular board] is attached with a cord at two 
places. It remains perpendicular and almost immovable in one 
place in the water. When the ship goes fast, much cord on the 
ship is unrolled from a capstan. A sandglass of half a minute 
is used at the same time and when the little board in the water 
is ready, the glass is turned around, and the cord is let go. When 
the glass is empty, the cord is held, which is marked, and it can 
be seen easily how many fathoms the ship made in half a minute. 
Then they figure out how many miles the ship makes in two 
hours, which is recorded in the [log] book. 

A large number of fish were encountered. From that time 
I had more and more heat in my head, until I lost consciousness 
on the 16th. The physician, a Saxon, who cared more for 
eating and drinking than for his calling, gave me various 
remedies, so that after a lapse of eight days I improved. 
What was most troublesome was the fact that I could not cat 
the ship's food, but we did not have any other. About this 
time the favorable wind began to fail. The captain stated 
that he had traveled westward nine times, but had never seen 
this wind last so long, nor had traveled westward so far in so 
little time. It should be known that on the journey across 
north and west winds generally prevail. 



8C 



nu m «'ii! 



tuon. 



14 ! .^;-r'.' VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

I After the calm had lasted two days and we had traveled in 

that time hardly thirty miles, the wind began to blow from the 
. . north, which was not favorable for us. On the 19th, at day- 
break, we discovered a ship on our right, about twelve miles from 
) VIS. As the wind carried us towards it, it made every effort to 
' approach. In this latitude pirates are commonly found. We 

, ;. : saw that it approached u? and was sailing better than we, hence 

't.. . . : we prepared our defence. The masts were fastened with chains, 
• .. the cannons and firearms were loaded, the broad swords and 
, -. V short pikes were laid out. All the men were assembled, the 
women were locked in the hold. The sailors had to fix their 
beds and hammocks on the quarter deck as a breastwork, so that 
we might be safe against the small arms. Forty bottles of 
whiskey were ready to fill the people with courage. Meanwhile 
we approached closer. We saw through the fieldglasses that it 
was not as large as ours, but we could not discover the nation- 
r ,. ality or whether it was a pirate. Finally evening came and, 
because of the darkness, we saw it no more. But we kept a good 
•u lookout and changed our course, so that in the morning we had 
lost sight of each other. In clear weather one can see from 
; seven to ten hours [21-30 miles]. The wind was eight days 
north north-west and often even west. We had to change our 
course not only, but were even driven back about one hundred 
' ,'''• miles. During this time we suffered very much through the 
roughness of the sea, so that we could not lie down at night, 
It*.'! much less could we rest. If we did not hold fast somewhere 
. we were thrown from one side to the other. With great trouble 
:.''%, and cost I had a pitcher of ptisan(22) cooked for me, which one 
i.i.rr, night was hurled down from its place, because the ship was 
- !. :i ' thrown on one side, and all was lost. We saw at different times 
large and small fish. Once at evening during a violent rain- 
. . storm, we saw a part of a broken ship, drifting close to us, in- 
deed so near that it was difficult to turn away from it. The 
... .. wind turned to south and often north-east, so that we had to go 
'r <;i' with a quarter sail and even less, yet we made day after da y 28 

0! (22)-Theformof the word used by Michel is "phtisana." It is a Greek 

i ' word, plisanc, peeled barley, then also barley water. Webster defines 
■' " ■ ptisan as "barley water with other ingredients." In Latin the form is 
ptiiana, in French tisane, in English ptimn, pronounced tizan. 



.aM;s 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL, y^. ,(/. 15 

to 36 hours. On the 22nd two large ships hove in sight, east of 
us. It was stormy weather and dark, so that we were soon 
unable to see them. On the 3rd of May it was beautiful 
weather for sailing. The captain of a ship which had sailed 
with us since yesterday came on board during the calm of to- 
day. He was well received by our people and entertained till 
evening. 

1702, May. On the 4th, the wind came from the south-east, 
which expedited our journey. We saw again two ships. The 
one seemed to be a warship. But we made no efforts for our 
defense as before, because we did not regard ourselves capable 
of making a resistance, if they should attack. It also looked 
like an English ship, but it could not approach us to-day. On 
the morning of the next day it was an hour [three miles] away 
from us. It made straight for us. We were rather afraid. But 
we soon saw by the flag that it had an English emblem and 
color, red with a white cross in a white field, at the upper corner 
near the pole. As it was good sailing w^eather, the captains 
came to our ship, where they were hospitably entertained. The 
large ship, wliich we had taken for a warship, was one of the 
most beautiful merchantmen, named "Indian King" or "Wild 
King," because it had been built in Virginia. Three years ago 
it fell into the hands of the pirates not far from land, but was 
rescued after a hard battle by the governor(23). Sixty pirates 
were taken prisoners, of all kinds of nations, nearly all of whom 
were later hung in England. The joint reckoning of all the 
captains agreed that we were not more than fifty miles from 
land, because we had seen signs of land for four days, plants of 
roses from the Bahamas, as also all kinds of land birds. The 
water had already changed its former blue color into green. 
To-day we saw a large fish [whale], which could swim very fast 
and from time to time threw up much water archlike. The 
"Wild King" sailed to-day close to us, as also the other ships, 
because, as stated above, their captains were with us. The 
crew of the above mentioned ship had a large fishing-hook, to 

(23')-Robert Peverlcy in his History and l^resent State of Virgiiiia, Lou- 
den, ITn.'i, Poole I, {). 1021" , shows at lengtli that it wasnot Governor Nich- 
olson who dcicrved credit for the capture of the pirates, but Captain 
Passenger, Commander of the Shoram, a fifth rate man of war. 






16 ■• VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

which four pounds of meat were attached by a rope. In the 
evening a hundred pound fish was hanging to it, which caused 
great joy and rejoicing. Our cook, an Indian by birth, was sent 
by the captain to that ship to get a piece [of the fish]. It was at 
once prepared and distributed, but it was not good. 

On the 6th we had still beautiful weather. We saw various 
signs of land. We made a sounding for 200 fathoms, but con- 
trary to expectation, did not strike bottom. To the rope an 
oblong piece of lead is attached, to the bottom of which a piece 
of tallow is pasted. If it strikes stony soil, the tallow frequently 
stays down. By the soil that adheres those who are expert in it 
can tell how far the land is and what region it is. On the 7th 
another sounding was taken, but, to our surprise, we were again 
unable to find bottom. The reckoning is perhaps sixty miles 
wrong. At night bottom was struck to our great joy at 118 
fathoms. The lead and the tallow were cut off and, according 
to custom, were fastened to the small mast, the number of the 
fathoms being added with chalk. White sand and small 
oyster shells had adhered to the tallow. On the following day 
bottom was found at 90, 78 and 52 fathoms and, as we did not 
dare to sail at night, for fear of running upon the large sand- 
banks, which lie before the bay, we anchored. At break of day 
we heard from the mast the pleasant call: Land, land! Every 
one appeared happy and thanked God. It is customary to give 
a bottle of whiskey to the one who first sees the land. 

The coast appears at first like a forest standing in water. 
When we drew nearer, we could recognize out of the different 
green colors the various kinds of trees, growing together. At 
noon we sailed between Accomac and Quiqucdam into the 
[Chesapeake] Bay, with four and five fathoms of water. Four- 
teen miles further up we ran into the York river and on the same 
night we reached Yorktown, where six ships were lying at 
anchor. We were greeted with many salutes, to which wc 
replied. 

What has become known to me of this country and what I 
have learned from my own experience and have heard from the 
inhabitants. I shall now relate briefly: 

It is well known that this fourth part [continent] of the world 



■!j:i.': v:i.;u! 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 17 

was first discovered in the 15th century, about 1492, hy Jean 
[Christopher] Colombo, an Italian of Genoa. The first island 
which he saw towards the south he called Hispaniola. From 
there they sailed to the kingdoms of Peru and Mexico, so rich 
in gold and silver. Whole books have been written regarding 
the things that happened on their further journeys and the in- 
hum.an cruelty which they showed towards the poor natives. 

After he had found such a great kingdom and fruitful coun- 
try and it had become generally known, other nations sailed 
forth to become acquainted with that country and, if possil^lc, 
gain a foothold there. The first colony was planted in the 
north, called New York (24), which is now the principal pro- 
vince of the British empire. The capital in the west is called 
Boston. It is governed like other lands and islands mled by the 
king of England, without participation of Parliament. For 
these lands are hereditary possessions of the English kings, who 
caused them to be discovered and colonized by their own means. 
They also protect them and, in the beginning, waged fierce wars 
with the ancient inhabitants or savages. 

Pennsylvania or New Netherland(25), adjoining New York, 
was first settled by the Hollanders, as even today a large number 
of them dwell there. In the treaty made in 1GG5 this country 
was surrendered to England by way of exchange for the island 
of Courshaw [Curacao] and Surinam, small but advantageously 
located places for commerce, which is carried on with the 
Spaniards. It [Surinam] lies not far from the Spanish islands 
of the Amazon River. 

The capital is called Philadelphia. According to the state- 

ments of those who have visi ted it. it is described as a large, 

(24)-Miche! evidently never heard of tho .\cw Enjibn] colonics and 
thcu^ht Poster, was in Xe>.v York. There arc a number o'' other miutakcs 
in the tollowir.'.^ paragraphs, introdurtory to his description of Virginia, 
but it is not necessary to point out all of them in detail. 

(25)-What Michel writes here about Pennsylvania applies to New'York. 
It is an intcicstinp, point, generally overlookci!. that' the exchange men- 
tioned by him took place. The article "Guiana" in the Emycl. Brit., 
11th cJ., Vol. XII, p. 67G. states: "Tliis colonv | Surinam i was however 
formally ceded to the Netherlands in 1007 hv tho i)cace of Breda. Great 
Britain takinfr New York. According to tlicrf/wirif^'f Modern Hislory, 
Vo\. V, p 1121 it was agreed by the treaty of Breda that both England 
and Holland should keep their conquests. 



TI 



lO'-i ir 



T.il J 



18 ,, ,,,, VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ricli, commercial city, as also the country itself is said to be one 
of ihe most fruitful countiiss which the English hold there in 
their possession. It is especially rich in grain. Charles II, 
for services rendered gave this province, together with the gov- 
ernment and full religious liberty, to the Baptists(26), who live 
there in large numbers. But the government was taken from 
William Penn, the last governor, because he harbored sea- 
robbers or pirates. Many towns and villages are found in it. 

Then follows Maryland, adjoining the last mentioned coun- 
try. It took its name from Queen Mary, becaiise it was dis- 
co^'ercd and first settled in her reign. It is rich in tobacco, 
which, however, cannot be compared to that of Virginia, nor 
is it sold as dearly. It is mostly exported to Holland. It is the 
snallcst province. 

Then follows Virginia. As I have lived there, it is my purpose 
to describe its characteristics m.ore at length. 

Carolina borders on it in the south. It was discovered and 
settled under a king Charles. An extensive wilderness lies 
between Virginia and this country [Carolina], so that thus far 
people have not been in the habit of traveling by land [from 
one to the other]. 

Finally follows Florida, of which I do not know much to 
report, except that it borders on the Spanish and French pos- 
sessions. Although unknown to me, this country comprises 
an incredibly large area, whose inhabitants are very numerous 
and increase every year. All these are part of the American 
continent. In the east they are bounded by the ocean, in the 
north by Canada, which is inhabited by the French, but be- 
cause of the great coldness very inconvenient, in the west by the 
unknown wilderness and in the south by the Spanish country. 

The m.any streams and large rivers, together with the innum- 
erable smaller ones, which branch out into the country from the 
larger on all sides, and their abundance of fish are indescribable. 

Regarding the islands, which like the above mentioned coun- 
tries are in English possession, it may be said that there is first 
of all Barbados, very rich in sugar, of which mostly rum isdis- 

{26)-Quakers shculd be substituted for Baptists. The story about 
Penn harboring pirates is of course fictitious. 



9d 






atoh'.'/iiA SilJ U> )"r:.'j • ic o^oiit tlA .ifi'.>v 



111 v.-: 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. ' ' " '' 19 

tilled, which is a kind of whiskey, the gallon or four quarter 
ban-el is sold at the place for three shillings. Many ships stop 
there every year and a considerable commerce is carried on with 
that island. It lies about 100 miles from the main land. 

Jamaica is another island, situated not far from the first(27), 
also rich in sugar. Many negroes are brought from this island 
and sold in Virginia. Besides all kinds of fruits arc raised there 
and also much cattle. 

St. Christopher was only half inhabited by the English. But 
when they heard of the war this year, they took up arms and 
drove out the French, who occupied the best part. They were 
compelled to go to St. Dominique. It is very warm in that 
island, but it is rich in money, which the privateers took from 
the Spaniards. A terrible wi-nd is said to come there every 
year, called hurricane, which causes great damage on land and 
sea when its period arrives, which is November. Then the 
water appears of a whitish color and rises higher than usual. 
Indeed it often passes beyond its barriers and does damage. 
When the ships see such signs, they seek the best possible safety. 

As stated above we arrived here on April 8th [read May 8th]. 
I shall now state briefly what has become known to me. 

Virginia (*) lies on the 37th degree of latitude, westward or to- 
wards the setting sun. The differencp in time between London 
and here is six hours, namely when it is noon in England, it is 
six o'clock in the morning in this country. 

The extent of the country is as follows: The width from 
Maryland to Carolina, together with the wilderness between 
the two countries, amounts to 500 milcs(28), the length extends 
into the wilderness, which is not known to any one and the end 
is impossible- to find. 

(27)-The geographical knowledge of Michel is somewhat defective. 

(2S)-This extent is of course much too large. It may be, however, 
that Michel uses "Virginia" herein a wider and more original sense. Bev- 
erly in his History, Book II, p. 2 says: "The least extent of Bounds in 
any of the Grants made to Virginia, since it was settled, and which wa 
find uoon Record there is Two Hundred Miles North from Point Comfort, 
and Two Hundred Miles South." 

(*)-In editing the latter part of Michel's report, the translator had 
the able assistance of the editor of the Magazine Mr. Stanard, who 
very kindly furnished notes 30, 33, 3G, 37, 40, 42 and 49. 



♦>! 



.■^ffl OJ »//Onii 5iYlO0;Xl fJF.Xl WOff il) )' ^ 



20 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

; 'Oil it. Among the navigable and principal waters the bay, which 

^xr^VL. runs between Accomac and Quiquedam for more than 400 

,,:. : '- n-iiles(29), must be mentioned first. It ends or rather begins 

;, in Pennsylvania. The entrance or mouth is 25 miles wide, full 

•. . of dangerous sandbanks, as shown by the fact that recently a 

^ ■ .-. : royal ship suffered shipwreck on one of the banks, where a part 

\ -.i.^ -. s i of the ship can still be seen. Ebb and tide control this water 
'": > ■.»..^ like the ocean. Into this bay empty m:any large and small 
•i.v./ (I, ■ rivers. I shall m.ention only the four principal rivers, which 
',;. ,,,,. 1. pass through Virginia and are navigable for large ships for 80 
• i : .' to 100 miles up stream. They have 3, 4 to 6 fathoms of water. 
• ■, ■ : From these four m.ain rivers branch off an innum.erable number 
■. of tributaries or smiall rivers, which are very convenient for the 
' people, who seek to live near them, because of their convenience. 
The first is called Jam.es or Jacob's river, whose mouth not far 
from the ocean or Quiquedam (30), is a very broad and wide- 
■ - , spread river. According to the testimony of the Indians its 

■ ' end or rather its beginning has never been found. This river 

abounds in fish till Falensgrig [Falling Creek], 80 miles up inland. 
That far reaches the ebb and tide of the ocean. It cannot get 
, M • farther, because the river falls there over high rocks, which 

: causes miuch noise that can be heard far away. The salt water 

also reaches as far as the falls, above them it is a smoothly flow- 
ing, sweet water river, about half a miile wide. Twenty five 
miiles farther up this river is a French colony, of which more 
will be reported later on. 
• , t The second is called York river. It empties sixteen miles 

from the first into the bay. They are equally wide. It has 
...■': .its full width till fifty miles farther up, where it bran?h25 at West 

• (29)-It is only 200 miles. 

(30)-Quiquedam is evidently intended for Kcckotan or Kickotan, the 

' Indian name of the present town of HamtJton, \'a., on KamiJton Roads. 

, .. There was an Indian villat'o here at the time of the first settlement; but 

within a few vears the tribe was exterminated by the Powhatans. At 

tlictimcof Michel's visit Ham.ptnn (or Kickotan) was a prosperous village 

with a church and at least one inn. the Rose and Crown. 

'■ Fallini:; Creek ilow>- into James River on the south side 6 miles below 

. Richmond. Here, in 1620, the first iron furnace in .America was estab- 

*" lished. It was destroyed and the workm.en killed by the Indians in the 

- '' * Massacre of 1022. Lumps of ore (some with par11\- melted charcoal in 

l\'-'' ■'- - them) are still found at the site of the furnace. Bcp, ore, found in shallow 

' ' '•:■ pockets along the creek, was used. 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 21 

Point. The large ships, as well as ebb and tide, come up to this 
point. Farther up the water is sweet. As stated, half of the 
river branches off northwestward, for about thirty miles, called 
Mattabaney river. The other branch runs sDJthwest a great 
way into the wilderness. It is called PomDuquay river. It 
runs quietly, like the other, with sweet water. It is two to three 
fathoms deep and half a mile wide. 

The third is the Rabahanock river. It runs into the bay 
thirty miles from the last. It has the same width, as well as 
ebb and t-ide, like the other two. It extends into the wilderness 
through Straifort County. It is also plied by ships for sixty 
miles up into the country. With sloops or other boats one can 
go up still farther. 

Th.c fourth and last is the Pattom'ae River, the broadest of all, 
about eighteen miles wide at some places. It runs far up into 
the country, v/ith ebb and tide like the others. It is much 
vi.sitcd by merchantmen and divides Virginia and Maryland. 
These four rivers come partly from the bay, but partly and even 
mostly from the interior or the wilderness. When they meet, 
that part v/hieh comes from the interior is sweet and runs con- 
stanily, but the part that comes from the bay flows up and down, 
like the ocean, and is salty. 

Regarding religious services it may be said that they are held 
according to the principles of the reformation, as in our [Swiss] 
churches, although with some customs in the English language 
not current among us, except at Manigkintown(ol), where the 
French Huguenots dwell. There services are held in their own 
language. I shall shortly report more about Manigkintown, 
which is located on the James River. 

Going to church means at some places a trip of more than 
thirty miles, but, as can be seen from what follows, it is not a 
great hardship, because people are well mounted there. Horses, 
which are hardly used for anything else but riding, are half 




of 

I^Iuuul; uib ur i\i iii'jcuns, a Lriiju uivv;iys> uu-iluc lu luc i u wn iumo. m 
imO they nun'jc'rel 33 bowmen or about 103 individuals; \)\it by 1700, 
they had eTii:>rat2i or begone e.xtinct and their lands were given to the 
Huguenot colony in Virginia. 



m:xlJ •j;vm "io ahi f. 



.C2 J^ 



22 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

"i , deers. They run always in a fast gallop. When services are 

t ■ . -i I. ■ ■ '.,, held on Sundays or on other days none goes to church except on 

;■.: I •■ ; t ■ horseback. The churches are not all built alike. Most of them 

are of timber, without towers or bells. In every county there 

are one, two or three churches, according to the population, 

, ; ;. whether it is thickly settled or scattered. There are also stone 

;i .,.M '. ■. churches, of which I have seen three, built of bricks, especially 

li • at Jamestown (3 2), where the church has a tower and a bell. 

: ', i;i The other [brick church] is at Williamsburg(33) and the third 

',_ <.'... I ^ in Claster [Gloucester] County. 

(32)-There is no mention elsewhere of any stone churches in Virginia; 
■■''.'■' il* but it is obvious, from the context, that Michel means brick. There 
( ^ . L , were more than three brick churches in Virginia at this time. 
' ' ' ' ' •' After the first log churches in the fort at Jamestown, several frame 

'" ' ones were erected. In 1617, a new church 50x20 feet was built. It was 
• , , a fram.e building and probably stood on the site of the later brick church. 

When the foundations of the brick church were excavated the walls were 
•' '• ' ' found to be three feet thick and to have heavy buttresses. There was 
; , , ^ also a tiled chancel unearthed. Within these foundations were discov- 
' ; ercd fragments of a 9 inch brick wall, based on round cobble stones. 
1 '■'•' Builders and architects who examined it stated that it would not have 

sustained a brick wall, and was no doubt the brick under-pirning of a 
frame church. This could have been only that of 1617. If this supposi- 
''i"; ■ tion is correct, the first American legislature, the Virginia Assembly of 

1019. met here. Between 16.39-45, a substantial brick church and tower 
, were built. This was burnt by Bacon's men in 1676; but there is good 
reason to believe that the low, thick walls did not fall, and that they 
were used in the church which was rebuilt soon afterwards. The last 
was the church Michel saw. After Jamestown was abandoned it grad- 
ually fell to decay; but exactly when it was pulled down to the ground is 
not known. There is so much moisture at Jamestown, in soil and atm.cs- 
f)here, that any disinterred brickwork left open to the air rajiidly 
.< crumbles away. To prevent this a brick structure which is a rem.arkable 

' reproduction of the old church was built over the foundations, and by an 

ingenious use of hidden concrete piers rnd steel beams, the new structure 
■■■ •' though apparently resting on the old foundations does not really do so. 

The earth has been cleared away from these foundations inside making 
them visible. This building was a present to the Association for the 
^ " Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (which owns the grounds at Jam.es- 

' ';• town) from the National Society of Colonial Dames. Excavations within 

the church showed three tiled chancels, one beneath another, evidently 
belonging to the three successive churches. 
./ (3.3)-There was a parish and church here in 1632 when the place was 

' ■• • ' ' called Middle Plantation. Bruton parish was organized in 1074 and in 
, ' 16S3 a brick church (that seen by Michel) was completed. It became 
dilapidated and in 1715 a new church, the present one was completed. 

Gloucester county had four parishes, Petsworth, Abingdon, Ware and 
Kingston. The first three certainly had brick churches (two of them, 
Abingdon and Ware, still standing and in regular use); but all were prob- 
ably built in the 18th century. The particular church Michel refers to 
cannot be identified. 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 23 

The clerical profession in that country is worth visiting, es- 
pecially those who are well educated. They arc well respected 
and well paid. There are congregations in which every sermon 
costs one guinea. Ordinarily members, whether they are few 
or many, must make up for the services yearly 16,000 pounds 
of tolDacco(34). In addition certain fees are fixed in money for 
marriages, baptisms and funerals(35). They have also their 
residence and their glebe. 

Mr. Blair (3 6) is Bishop in this country, and also president in 
the Council or Parliament. He is a learned, sensible and well- 
to-do man. Together with others I had some business with 
him. He showed us much courtesy and kindness. Nor can 
I pass by in silence the many kind acts I experienced from a 
certain Mr. Foes(37), a Frenchman by birth. He has two 
churches to take care of. He has lived for thirteen years in 
this country as an English clergyman. Through a marriage 
with a widow, who died soon afterwards, he has amassed large 
means. There are also some Catholics, who can hold their 
religious services in Maryland. But there are only a few of 
them. 

(31r)-This statement is supported by Jones, Present State of Virginia, 
London 1721, p. 71: "The salary of the Minister is yearly 16000, and in 
some parishes 20000 1. of Tobacco." 

(35)-The fees, according to Jones, 1. c, p. 72, were: "20 s. for every 
wedding by license, and 5 s. for every wedding by Banns, with 40 s. for 
a funeral sermon, which most of the middling people will have." 

(36)-Jam.e3 Blair, D. D., A. M., University of Edinburgh 1673, came to 
Va. in 1685, v.'as minister of Henrico parisl^ for nine years, then reaioved 
to Jamestown, where he was for some years the minister. In lOSO he 
v/as appointed Commissary of the Bishop of London in V'a., end being 
most influential in founding Wm. & Mary College was chosen its first 
President in 1692. In 1710 he was appointed minister of Bruton parish, 
was appointed m.ember of the Council of State of Va. 1GS9, was long 
President of that body, and as such was acting governor Dec. 1740- July 
25, 1741. He died April IS, 1743. 

(37)-Rev. Stephen Fouace came to Virginia in 16S8, and was minister 
of York-Hampton parish. In 1692 he was one of the first trustees of 
Wm. & Mary College; but returned to England in 1702, and died at Bed- 
font, Middlesex. 



m 



24. . . VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Regarding the government(38). The governor, sent by the 
English King for six years or even longer, is appointed as his 
viceroy. He rules absolutely in the name of the king. A 
Parliament has been associated with him, which serves him with 
help and counsel. The members are selected from the most 
respected men in the country. They are usually those who fill 
the highest offices. 

After this supreme authority follows the semi-annual Court 
or Assembly. These are two chosen, honorable and able men, 
from every county who remain usually from two to three weeks 
with the governor. They decide those things that are not of the 
highest importance. Each one receives one hundred pounds of 
tobacco daily as long as he stays. The county must pay the 
costs, just as in the case of the religious establishment. 

Then follows lastly the monthly Court. Each county namely 
has a court or house of assembly, where every householder is 
obliged to appear at the specified time, in order to assist in 
settling difficulties which one m.ay have with the other. But 
if no settlement can be made in this assembly, it is submitted 
to the semi-annual assembly, and if it cannot be settled there, 
an ai^peal is taken to the parliament as the last court, from 
whicli no further appeal is possible. But if it is an insignificant 
dispute or accident there is in every county a justice of the peace. 
But if the dispute cannot be settled by him, it is reported to the 
above-named courts. 

This country, as far as it is settled, is divided into twelve 
parts, called counties(39). The first is call ed Cl a ster [Glou- 

(3S)-The statements of Michel regarding the government of Virginia 
are inadequate and inaccurate. The appointment of the governor ran 
"during pleasure" ofthe Crown (Beverley, History, Book IV, p. 2). There 
Vv'as associated with him the General Assembly, made up of the Upper 
House consisting of the Governor and twelve Councillors, who had execu- 
tive power, and of the Lower House of Burgesses, two delegates from 
every county. The General Court consisted of the Governor and th.e 
twelve councillors, which met twice a year, in April and October, for 
eighteen days. The County Courts consisted of eight or more Justices 
of the Peace in each countv. (See Beverley, History, Book IV, Chapter 
VI). In civil cases an apo'eal from the General Court to the Queen and 
Council in England was possible in certain instances, see Beverly, History, 
Book IV. p. 21. 

(39)-The number of counties in Virginia in 1702 was twenty-five. See 
Beverley, //ii/orv, who gives a tabular list of all the counties for the year 
1702, witli the acres of land, the number of souls, of titheablcs. of womicn 
and children, of the militia, and the names of the parishes in each county. 
According to him the total number of souls in 1702 was 00,003, the tithe- 
ablcs 25,023, the m.ilitia 9,522 and 31 parishes. 



.f. 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. . .' . 25 

cester] County, the second York, the third New Kent, the 
fourth King and Queen, the fifth Stratfort, the sixth Charles, 
the seventh City County, the other five have escaped my mem- 
ory. These counties appear to be very large and populous, 
t)ut although the number of people is unknown to me, it can be 
estimated from three facts. In the first place, there are said 
to be about 20,000 negroes or black people, of whom I shall re- 
port more at another place. Secondly, I have traveled through 
most of this country and have seen the large number of people. 
And lastly at the Lime the Queen was proclaimed six counties 
were called to muster, when about 2000 men responded. I .shall 
soon relate how this proclamation was miade. The governor 
made his residence at Jamestown(40), situated on the James 
River. It is one of the largest and most beautiful places in the 
country, although it does not have more than thirty-five houses. 
Four years ago the late King William ordered at Middle Planta- 
tion, v.'hi.ii i ; now called Williamisburg in his honor, a large 
building, a so-called Collcgc(4r), together with a State House(42) 
to be erected. He contributed 4000 guineas to it. The gover- 
nor now resides there. It is, moreover, because of the con- 
venient place or situation, and also because of the many 

(-t'J)-The rest- aches of Mr. S. H. Vonge ("Site ot Old Jamestown"), 
show tliat the e irliest s^overnors houses were east of the present church- 
yard in what was called the "Newtown." Various houses were occupied, 
but the site of the house in which the governor resided in Michel's time 
is not known. 

(tl)-The charter of Wm. & Mary College was dated Feb. 8, 1693. The 
design for the building to be erected at Williamsburg contemplated a 
rectangular structure two stories and a half high, 136 feet long and 40 feet 
wide, with two wings, each 60x23 feet inside measurement. The build- 
ing was completed about 1700 (when the first commencement was held), 
and several sessions of the Assembly were held in it; but on Oct. 29, 17C5 
it was burnt, only the sturdy walls remaining. It was soon rebuilt. 
Michel saw the original building. 

(42)-The capitol at Williamsburg was at the eastern end of Duke of 
Gloucester street It consisted of two buildings, 75 feet long, inside 
measurement, connected by a gallery with rooms above it. The whole 
was of the shape of the letter H. The buildings were two stories and a 
half high with a hip roof. One end of each building was semi-circular, 
and at this end of each was a room, 50 feet long, on the first floor, for the 
Burgesses ond Council. A detailed description may be found in "Will- 
iamsburg The Old Colonial Capitol," by Dr. Lyon G. Tyler. The Capi- 
tol was complet("<l in 1704; but was burnt in 1746, and another erected on 
the same site which was completed in 1752. The foundations can still be 
seen. 



j.r' 



rn ,21 



2G ' VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

:■': • 'if ; • springs(43) which are there, a larj^e place, where a city is in- 

;;• -.,.,! tended and staked out to be built. There are at present, be- 

'; • ;•, sides the Church, College and State House, together with the 

' • r .M residence of the Bishop, some stores and houses of gentlemen, 

\ . and also eight ordinaries or inns, together with the maga- 

,'..<:. \ . zinc(44). More dwellings will be built year after year. This 

' : ; place lies between the James and the York rivers, six miles from 

!,..., •- •; Jamestown and ten miles from Yorktown. The youth is in- 

' i . structed in the higher branches in the College there. But, be- 

j. ' ■'■ .] '■ < cause most of the people live far away, only the more well-to- 

!'i i do parents, who have the means, can secure boarding for their 

^ ; sons there, which costs yearly twenty guineas. There are about 

forty students there now. Before this it was customary for 

■ . ,, ■ .. wealthy parents, because of the lack of preceptors or teachers, 

• to send their sons to England to study there. But experience 
. , 1 , showed that not many of them came back. Most of them died 
. , , of small-po:_\45), to which sickness the children in the West are 
, ■, subject. 

Regarding the military organization it may be said that the 

,,, governor is the general. The present one is a distinguished 

man and a good soldier(46). This he showed in person, as 

stated, in the sea-battle four years ago with the pirates, not far 

r from Quiquedam in the Bay, when he rescued the ship "Indian 

King" after fierce resistance. 

Then follow the colonels, of whom there are twelve in the 
( , country. They are conspicuous, rich men, v/ho allow themselves 

.- ; : , ^ , to be used for police as well as military duty. When they are in 
•' service, they have a salary. At other times it is an honorary 

, ,,. title, like that of major and captain, as it is in our country 

..H-. 1 [Switzerland]. Thus the people are summoned when neces- 

sary. No fort or soldiers are kept in the country, because the 
V. •. • inhabitants protect themselves. They are on horseback most 

• 1.. (43)-Jones in his Presettt Stale, p. 31, refers also to the "excellent 

springs of good water" in Williamsburg. 
' .--., ■ (44)-The "magazine" was a "large octagon tower," used as "a reposi- 

„, , tory of arms and ammunition," cf. Jones, Present Stale, p. 31. It is still 

standing. 
', (15)-Jones, Present Slate, p. 46, corroborates tliis statement. More 

I sons would be sent to England, he says, "were they not afraid of the 

, Small-Pox, which rrost commonly proves fatal to them." 

(4G)-The governor of Virginia in 1702 was Col. Francis Nicholson. 



:u 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL, 27 

of the time, anned with carbines, pistols and swords. They are 
divided into cavalry or dragoon squadrons, and also some in- 
fantry. But they are very inexperienced in military training 
or manoeuvers, which are unheard of in this country, much 
less attended. There are indeed every year two and even three 
musters, when the guns are examined and the most necessary 
things are reviewed. At first there were fierce and numerous 
battles with the aborigines, namely the wild Indians. In par- 
ticular can I not pass by with silence how the country was first 
settled by Christians in the reign of Queen Elizabeth(47). 

This happened as follows: The captain of a ship, whose name 
I have forgotten, sailed by this country. He made as careful 
inquiries as possible, saw the many kinds of lofty trees, the 
beautiful streams, the good soil and that there was an abundance 
of game, birds and fish. After his return [to England] he re- 
ported to the Queen that this was a very advantageous country 
to settle. In consequence of his elaborate report, the command 
was issued to gather together all the criminals, and who else 
had come into the land, in the whole kingdom, whose number 
was 400. They were taken on board of a ship, provided with 
all kinds of provisions, necessary for life and war. The ship 
left England in the year 1530 [15S5]. After the lapse of several 
months they made a safe landing in this country. They took 
along their provisions, arms and ammunition. They were 
shown where they were to settle and build their cabins. They 
were commanded to stay together there and to guard the place 
with breastworks or pallisades, so that, if something should 
happen, they could defend themselves better. They were 
promised that they would be visited again within a year and the 
additional promise was made that they could rely upon the 
favor and assistance of the Queen. They were well satisfied 
with that and began to build their cabins. Meanwhile the ship 
returned to England, after the settlers had been provided with a 



(47)-The following story of the three expeditions must be based on 
oral statements, which Michel heard. It is too inaccurate to go back to 
any printed history. It is an interesting instance of how tradition dis- 
torts history. The story is an echo of the three colonies sent out under 
Raleigh, 1585-1589. Sec Beverley, History, Book I, pp. 1-10; Winsor, 
Crilical History,, Vol. Ill, pp. 105-120. 



28 ■'' VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ' 

physician, with the report that they [the settlers] had been safely 
landed and that there was no apprehension that after a year's 
time they would not be found alive and in good condition. 
Meanwhile they gathered up in England all persons, who were 
dangerous and burdensome to the country, about 800 of them, 
who like the first were supplied with all kinds of provisions and 
implements. With these they sailed, upon the order of the 
Queen, in two ships, to strengthen the above meniioned 400, 
and to make a beginning with a new colony. They had a long 
and troublesome journey. But finally they landed, expecting 
to encamp with the above-mentioned settlers, in order to learn 
from them how they had fared thus far. To their great con- 
sternation they found no one, not even a trace of their labors. 
They were much surprized and fearful that there might be 
Indians near by. They concluded to supply themselves with 
provisions for several days and, following the river, to march 
into the country, in the hope of finding a trace of their people. 
But they were unable to find anything" except an immense quan- 
tity of game of all kinds. Finally they saw from a mountain 
smoke and thought they might find there what they were looking 
for, namely their people. But when they reached the place 
they found nothing but a large fire that had been made there, 
around which they found game and other th'.igs. From these 
and other indications they were able to conclude that the 
Indians had been there. They then believed that their people 
had been surprized by the Indians. In time they learned that 
they had been killed by the InQians(48), for, when they fought 
with them later, they found many things among the Indians 
which had been taken from the four hundred. 

Then the others withdrew after this discovery, hoping that 
if they would attack them again, they could take vengeance for 
their lost people. They enclosed their settlement at once with 
pallisades. At the same time several small pieces of cannon 
from the ship were left with them, which they placed in the most 
favorable position. They also kept good watch. The ship, 

(4S)-The first colony was taken back to England by .Sir Francis Drake, 
but when Sir Walter Raleigh sent the ne.xt expedition which did not 
find tliem, he thought they were all destroyed by the Indians. Beverly, 
Hii,tory, Book I, p.' 9. 



nojufi. J 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 29 

after leaving the people in a good position and after promising 
to return in a little time with further assistance, left the land, 
after commending them to the protection of the Most High. 
They returned safely to England, and reported how they had 
found matters. Meanwhile the Indians came again to surprize 
the settlers at night, but they met such a reception that many 
of them were left on the place. Afterwards they returned no 
naore. 

In England meanwhile a third expedition of volunteers and 
others, men as well as women, was fitted out on four ships. 
They all arived safely in this country among their people, which 
caused rejoicing on both sides. They undertook at once an 
expcdiiion against the Indians, whom they defeated several 
times, althougli they were frequently the weaker party. Of 
this I could write more at length, but I shall endeavor to be 
brief. From that time on more people were imported yearly, 
and tlicy also increase here. The country has expanded in such 
a manner that it is surprizing. It will also continue to enlarge 
every year, because there is no lack of land. The farther they 
push inland, the better and more productive the soil is found 
to be. 

Regarding the military equipment it should be mentioned 
that, since three years ago, warships lie at anchor not far from 
Ouiqucdam. Whenever pirates are noticed they must, accord- 
ing to miiiitar) orders, attend to their duty. They are usually 
two to four in number. 

Now as to the condition of the land. It consists of hills, 
vaHcys and plains, which arc by nature covered with high trees, 
whose kinds and names I shall soon mention. The soil is 
mostly light and partly sandy, except at Manigkinton, where 
it is black and heavy. The aborigines, namely the Indians, 
had reason to choose this place for their settlement. Their 
city, called Manikinton by them, stood there. To-day there 
is a red, rough stone, standing four feet out of the ground, where 
at certain times they held religious services, as they supposed. 
What has become known to me of their religious beliefs, I shall 
report, when I describe their arrival in Williamsburg. Beside 
the above mentioned stone there are also mulberry and peach 



■f3© . VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

'u^ 1' trees planted there. About thirty years ago they still dwelt 

.-■\ '• there. But when they inflicted some injury upon the Christians, 

"•■''••- ' Colonel Bomn(49), who is still alive and who was then living 

on the frontier, namely at Falensgrig [Falling Creek], as soon 

as he heard of this ravage, mounted at once his company (he was 

then captain) and attacked the Indians boldly (who had prom- 

•. . ised obedience but had not kept it) . He soon overcame them 

after some resistance and put all of them to the sword, without 

v; sparing any one. He also destroyed their settlement and what- 

.. ever they owned. For this service the then king of England 

granted him the whole district between his land and this place, 

which extends twenty -five miles in length and eighteen miles in 

width. Those Indians who were not at home or escaped, still 

camp during the summer not far from their former home. 

Regarding the fruitfulness of the country it may be said that 
almost everything grows that is put into the ground. Es- 
pecially tobacco is the principal article there, with which trade 
is carried on. It passes for money, because gold and silver are 
seldom seen there, especially among the common people. All 
purchases or payments are made in tobacco. It is planted in 
such quantities that this year 150 ships, large and small, but not 
more than twenty small ones among them, left the country 
laden with tobacco. Merchants pass up and down through the 
country. They have their store houses or magazines filled with 
all kinds of goods which are needed there. When the inhabi- 
tants need something, they go to the nearest merchant, who gives 
them what they want. It is recorded according to agreement. 
When the tobacco is ripe, the merchant arrives to take what is 

(49)-Prof. von Mulinen has very kindly verified the reading of this 
nan-ie. The original, he says, has undoubtedly Bornn It is, however, 
probable that Michel misunderstood the name or failed to remember 
ot correctly. He describes an event that happened before his time. 
• "Col. Born" is probably intended for Col. Wm. Byrd, who owned much 

land on Falling Creek, though he lived at the site of the present Rich- 
mond. He received no such grant as Michel describes; but in April IG79, 
! ! I the General Assembly granted him a tract of land five miles long and three 
miles wide lying on both sides of James River at the falls, on condition 
that he kept 50 armed men there as settlers. It is possible, though not 
, ■ at all probable, that Michel may refer to Col. Wm. Claiborne, who 
thou'/h he neither owned land nor resided near Falling Creek, was a dis- 
tinguished Indian fighter. There was a certificate of his valor, dated 
March 17, 1G77, formerly on record at King William C. H. 



.S; 



0?' 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 31 

coming to birn. A hundred [pounds] are usually reckoned at 
twenty shillings. When the rainy season comes, the tobacco 
is packed .solidly, one leaf above the other, into a barrel which 
holds or weighs from 700 to 1000 pounds. It is a laborious job, 
demanding much care. Tobacco is planted after the soil has 
been prepared. Then with a broad hoe the soil is loosened on 
top and made into round little heaps, six feet apart. It is 
planted in rainy weather. When it is fully grown it spreads 
so much that all the plants touch each other. It grows best in 
new il, but tlie land miust be very good if it is to bear tobacco 
for L.vcnty years. However, it is not done. Hence the in- 
habitants do not live close together and the country is not 
settled in villages, because every twenty or thirty years new 
ground must be broken. A settler who has a piece of land, di- 
vides it into tbiree parts, the first for tobacco and com, the 
second and third parts as meadows for his cattle and as forest, 
if he needs wood. When the tobacco field does not want to 
bear any more, he sows com in its place. After six or eight 
years it does not yield com any more. Then he lets it lie fallow 
and takes up the second part and so forth. A workman must 
plant yearly from 15 to 2000 pounds of tobacco, besides six or 
eight barrels of corn. 

As to corn, the "Wirden"(50) or Turkish com is grown in 
most cases. It is so productive that it yields fifty to a hundred 
fold. It makes pretty good bread. It is also pounded and 
cooked, called liumin [hominy]. Its flour is taken arid cooked 
thick in water. Then it is put into milk. It is mostly the food 
of servants. The flour is also frequently taken and a thick 
dough is made out of it with water. Then, by means of a hot 
fire and many coals, it is baked in a little while(51). When the 
com is planted, a small hole is made and three or four grains are 
put into it. Then they are covered with ground. Like the 
tobacco they are always planted six feet apart. This grain is 

(50)-This is the reading of the word, as confirmed by Prof, von Mulinen 
after renewed examination. What it means is not known to the trans- 
lator. Pie tlicught at first of "Welsh" com. Eut the original appar- 
ently does not adm.it of that interpretation. 

(51)-This corn bread was called pone or ponn, cf. Beverley, History, 
Book IV. p. 55f; Falkner, Curieuse Aacl:ricf:t Von Pennsylvania, 1702, p. 28 
(see Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Gcrm.an Society, Vol. XIV, p. 143). 



ii 



x. 



18 



32 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

!'• ''• '■ raised in great quantities and is used for people and cattle. 
The stalks grow over ten and even fourteen feet high and are 
■ v. very thick. They bear usually from two to four ears, while 

there are three or four stalks to a hole. Throughout the sum- 
mer the weeds must be removed from time to time, as in the 
case of the tobacco. The ordinary price of this com is two 
shillings a bushel, or about two measures as used here [in Swit- 
zerland]. 
': ■ The other kind is wheat, which is planted by every family for 

'"■' ' its use, in such places where the cattle have been penned in at 
t'' night. After they have been in a field for three or four weeks, 

'■>■' '' ■' they are moved to another field. In this way the soil is fer- 
■ ' • tilized, for no other manure is used. This grain bears twenty- 
>; ■ five fold. It is planted as in our country and it costs in ordinary 

years three or four shillings per bushel. 

Barley and oats are also planted and they turn out well 
usually. The inhabitants pay little attention to garden plants, 
except lettuce, although most everything grows here. But 
fresh seeds must be imported every year from Europe, for, if 
the seed of this country is planted, it turns into the wild kind 
again. 

The custom of the country, when the harvest is to be gathered 
in, is to prepare a dinner, to which the neighbors are invited, 
and for which two men have sufficient work to do. There are 
often from thirty to fifty persons cutting grain, so that fre- 
quently they have work for only two hours 

This is one of the principal festivals or times of reioicing. 
When I was unable to travel at one time, because of the rain, 
I stayed at a house, where they intended to cut wheat that day. 
When everything was ready to receive the guests at noon, it 
looked in the morning as if the weather was going to be favor- 
able. Ten persons had already arrived, when the weather 
changed and turned into a violent rain, so that the hope to har- 
vest in a few days came to nothing. Fresh m.eat cannot be 
kept in summer longer than twenty-four hours, hence the good 
pco]5le were compelled, if they did not want to let the sheep and 
chicken, which they had prepared, spoil, to entertain us, which 
lasted for a day and a half. 



7"i(H. 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 33 

Fruit trees are growing in great abundance. I shall describe 
them according to their several kinds. The apple trees are 
very numerous, most of them not very large nor high, like pear 
trees. But they are exceedingly fruitful. I was at many places 
this year, where I could not estimate the large quantities which 
were rotting. They are the nicest apples that can be seen. 
There is a kind somewhat earlier than the others, they are called 
Cattalines. They are pointed and of a sour taste. The sum- 
mer cider is made of them. A later kind is valued more highly 
and, like the first, cider is made of them, which keeps longer 
than the other. The gallon or four quarts cost one bit or four 
Batzen(52), according to our coin. It is drunk mostly during 
the winter. As the common man does not have good cellars, 
this drink cannot be kept during the summer, but it turns sour. 
There are also pears of all kinds, but they are not as common as 
the apples. There are several kinds of peaches, and in such 
quantities that people cannot eat the fourth part of them. :. The 
rest is fed to the pigs. It should be noted that this fruit ripens 
in a few days. Cherries, especially the cultivated cherries, are 
found in great abundance, where they are planted. Good wine 
is made of them. 

All kinds of berries grow in the wilderness and also on the 
plantations, in such abundance that it cannot be estimated. 
There are also many different kinds, namely of black and white 
color. The best are brown, long and large. This berry is 
largely eaten by pigs and birds. Whoever has a desire for 
berries, does not need to buy them or ask for them, for the 
abundance is so great that no one pays any attention to them, 
nor are they used very much, because people do not want to 
take the trouble to pick them, as they have enough other food. 

There are also plums, but they are not common. Also many 
other kinds of fruit, but they are not known to me. There is, 
especially among the garden plants, a certain kind of beans, 
not unlike the Turkish, which is planted with the Indian com (53) 
It g rows up a long the stalks and is very productive. It is 

(52)-A bit is worth 123^ cents, according to Webster, and a Batzen is 
a Swiss nickel coin of the value of ten centimes or two cents. 

(5.'5)-The bean planted with the com. "upon whose stalk it sustains it- 
self," is also mentioned by Beverly, History, Book II, p. 29. 



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34 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

nourishing food. There is another kind which creeps on the 
ground. There are also different kinds of peas, planted in the 
gardens, but growing also outside of them. Besides, there are 
potatoes in great quantities and many kinds of melons. Some 
are cooked, others, like the water melons, are eaten raw, since 
this fmit is very refreshing in the hot summer because' of its 
cool, sweet juice. They are grown in great quantities and one 
can get as many as he desires. 

The water is no less prolific, because an indescribably large 
number of big and little fish are found in the many creeks, as 
well as in the large rivers. The abundance is so great and they 
are so easily caught that I was much surprized. Many fish 
are dried, especially those that are fat. Those who have a line 
can catch as many as they please. Most of them are caught 
with the hook or the spear, as I know from personal experience, 
for when I went out several times with the line, I was surprized 
that I could pull out one fish after another, and, through the 
clear water I could see a large number of all kinds, whose names 
are unknown to me. They cannot be compared with our fish, 
except the herring, which is caught and dried in large numbers! 
Thus the so-called catfish^is not unlike the large turbot. A very 
good fish and one easily caught is the eel, also like those here 
[in Switzerland]. There is also a kind like the pike. They 
have a long and pointed mouth, with which they like to bite 
into the hook. They are not wild, but it happens rarely that 
one can keep them on the line, for they cut it in two with their 
sharjj teeth. We always had our harpoons (54) and gims with 
us \\ hen we went out fishing, and when the fish cam.e near we 
shot at them or harpooned them. A good fish, which is com- 
mon and found in large numbers, is the porpcise. They are so 
large lliat by their unusual leaps, especially when the weather 
changes, they make a great noise and often cause anxiety for 
the small boats or canoes. Especially do they endanger those 
that 1 athe. Once I cooled and amiused myself in the water 
v.ith s\Nin-m.irg, rot knovii^g that there was any danger, but 

(54)-Michel uses here the peculiar Swiss word "guerre." which 
accord in^'to Prof, vcn A'ruhncn, is still used today, in the'form of "Gchr" 
or Licer, for a harpoon or spear. 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 35 

my host infonned me that there was. This is only a small part 
of what could be told about the fish there, but I could not learn 
everything in the short time I was there. The [larger] waters 
and especially the tributaries are filled with turtles. They 
show themselves in large numbers when it is warm. Then they 
come to the land or climb up on pieces of wood or trees lying 
in the water. When one travels in a ship, their heads can be 
seen everywhere coming out of the water. The abundance of 
oysters in incredible. There are whole banks of them so that 
the ships must avoid them. A sloop, which was to land us at 
Kingscreek, struck an oyster bed, where we had to wait about 
two hours for the tide. They surpass those in England by far 
in size, indeed they are four times as large. I often cut them in 
two, before I could put them into my mouth. The inhabitants 
usually catch them on Saturday. It is not troublesome. A 
pair of wooden tongs is needed. Below they are wide, tipped 
with iron. At the time of the ebb they row to the beds and 
with the long tongs they reach down to the bottom. They 
pinch them together tightly and then pull or tear up that which 
has been seized. They usually pull from six to ten times. In 
summer they are not very good, but unhealthy and can cause 
fever. 

There are frogs in the water, which at night all together, make 
a v^'onderful noise. Indeed, if one is not acquainted with it, 
it soimds as if the noise or sound was made by people. In the 
large waters of the wilderness there is a very large kind. When 
they call, their voice can be compared to the bellowing of an ox. 
It is not the same but as deep and audible as far. I saw one 
on the other side of the water at Manigkinton, which was a foot 
long, with an awful head or mouth(55). When he jumped into 
the water there was a splash as if one had thrown a pretty large 
stone into the water. There are also water snakes and all kinds 
of costly animals, which live in the water, such as beavers, 

(55)-This sounds incredible. But Beverley in his History, Book IV, 
p. 613, tells of a similar story: "Last year I found one of these .bull-frogs 
near a Stream of fresh water, of so prodigious a Magnitude, that when 
I extended its Leggs, I found the distance betwixt them, to be seventeen 
Inches and a half. I am confident six French-Men might have made a 
comfortable Meal of its Carcase." 



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36 . ,; VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Otters and muskrats, which smell very agreeably. I left two in 
England. The Indians shoot many of these animals. By 
means of rum or other more insignificant things one can get 
them from them. They can afterwards be sold advantageously 
in London, especially the beavers, of which castors(56) are made 
in part. 

Now I shall again turn to the land and report what animals 
are found there, first of all the tame animals. The horses, like 
the English breed, are very lightfooted. They never ride them 
in a walk, but always in a gallop, as if a deer was running. They 
are very ccmm.on. It must be a poor man who cannot afford 
one. Not many people can be seen traveling on foot, even if it 
is only an hour's distance. They are seldom used to draw 
wagons or the plow, because the nature of the country does not 
demand it. They cost from three to eight pounds of sterling. 

Horned cattle are found in large numbers, so that in summer 
time much mulk is used. Butter is also made, as much as is 
needed. But m.ost of the people know nothing of cheese. 
There were a few who undertook to make it. It was good but 
could not be ccmipared to ours. The common farmer has 
usually frcm ten to forty heads of cattle. The gentlemen have 
about a hundred. There is little trouble taken with cattle, be- 
cause they are left the whole year on the meadows. Not even 
a stable is built for them, but they are driven into pens, as stated 
above, in order to fertilize the ground, where wheat is to be 
planted. No hay is stored, for the wmter is not like ours, and 
even if it snows a little or is cold, it passes away in a few days. 
It is true the poor cattle are at times half frozen and starved, as 
I have seen in spring by their bodies. But when the weather 
is severe, they are given corn. The north wind is said to blow 
very cold. But such weather does not last long, as soon as the 
south wind ccmes it is warm again. 

Pigs arc found there in such numbers that I was aston- 
ishcd(57). Thcv arc not large, but increase s o rapidly that 

(56)-Castors are hats made of beaver fur. The Latin word for beaver 
is castor. 

(,'37)-Bcverky {Hislcry. Book IV, p. SI) puts it more pieturesquely 
when he says: "Hog,s swarm like vcrm.in upon the earth, insomuch tha't 
when an inventory of a considerable Man's Estate is taken by the E.xecu- 
tors, the Hogs arc left cut and not listed in the Appraiscm.ent." 



ii 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 37 

their number becomes large in a short time. Their meat or 
pork is considered by everybody as the best and most delicate. 
Many are taken every year alive to England. As they are fed 
with nuts, acorns, berries, apples and corn, they cannot be less 
than the best. They must be better than those which are fed 
with poorer food. This is shown by the Carolina ham, which 
smells after fish, because the pigs there are fed with fish. The 
pigs cause no care, as they are always left in the woods near the 
house or not far away. They find their food throughout the 
whole year. They often do not come home in eight weeks. 
But many are lost when they run off into the wilderness. On 
the frontiers the bears do some damage. Each farmer has his 
mark, with v;liich he marks their ears. 

Sheep are raised in constantly increasing numbers. They 
thrive well. But, as the necessary workmen are wanting to 
use the wool, they are kept only for their meat('58). 

Turkeys, geese, ducks and chickens are very common. As to 
the game, this land is a real zoological garden, filled to overflow- 
ing with all kinds of animals. They might justly be called 
half wild, because they do not fight shy of man. 

In the first place, stags are very plentiful, deer also. Bears 
are found in large numbers. They are not vicious, hence they 
are shot without fear. Then there are wild boars and wild 
horses; also raccoons, fierce animals like wild cats but larger; and 
the "monac"(50), an animal, unknown in this country [Switzer- 
land] and not much larger than a cat, but of a different kind. 
We had one on our ship, on the return journey, but it died. 
Foxes and hares are much smaller than in this country, fox- 
squirrels are also numerous, but are more than four times larger 
than here and not of the color found here, but grey; also another 
kind of squirrel, like those above, but smaller. Furthermore, 
ground-squirrels, but they are very small and of brown color, 
more like mice. The fourth and last kind are bats, very small 

(58)-This statement is corroborated by Beverley, History, Book IV, 
p. 64. The deficiency was, however, soon supplied. In 1721 Jones men- 
tions (Present Slate, p. 41) wool from Leominster being "near as good as 
any." 

(59)-The monac or moonack, is according to Webster, a word of Indian 
oriL;in (cf. Delaware, monachgen). It is a dialectical word used for the 
woodchuck or groundhog, the marmota monax. 



38 . VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and pretty, of brown color, but with white belly. They fly only 
in the evening or at night. Instead of wings they have skin 
over their toes which they spread when they fly. 

The feathered game is very common and tame. The first is 
properly the eagle. Then comes the turkey, whose number is 
very great. It is a large bird, which weighs from twenty to 
forty pounds. Many of them are shot because of the fine meat. 
The first two which I met in the woods, I thought I could over- 
take with running without shooting them. But when I came 
near them, they ran so fast that I could not catch up with them. 
Finally they flew away. Wild geese and ducks, together with 
all kinds of snipes and waterfowl, are very numerous during the 
winter season. They are unlike those here [in Switzerland] in 
size and color. They are not wild. No hunter will shoot at 
one or two of them, but they are hunted in uncounted numbers. 
Patiidges are also numerous and tame. It is not an uncommon 
sight to see them eating with the chickens. They are smaller, 
but excel them in the fineness of their meat. I was surprized 
to see them sitting on trees and hear them sing. I have shot 
many of them for their good meat and because they are found 
everywhere, but never only one of them. Regarding the others 
I must confess that I do not know their names, because they 
are not like the European birds. One species Is as large as a 
finch, of scarlet color, another is blue, others green and others 
have variegated colors, wonderfully mixed. Then there is a 
little bird, somewhat larger than a hornet, which always hovers 
over flowers(60). When one looks at its wonderful colors, one 
cannot help being surprized. Another kind is also worthy of 
observation, because it has aurora color mixed with red. The 
noxious birds are like a species of blackbird, which do not a 
little damage when the com is sown and cut. They come in 
incredibly large numbers. At such times the fields must be 
guarded. But that docs not help much. When they are 
chased from one field they fly to another. They fear people 
hardly at all. Hence it happens that fields must often be sown 
three times. They even pick it out of the ground after it has 
sprouted. The most valuable species, because of their song, 

(60)-The humming bird is meant. 



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^nr ) 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 39 

are the "mocketbort" [mocking bird], which are sold in England 
for two guineas and more. They can be compared to the 
nightingale, because, they change their sweet song in many 
different ways. They are not unlike a shrike (61). The "noise- 
maker" comes to the houses in spring. He screams at night 
with such a loud voice and so continuously that, if one is not 
accustomed to it, one can hardly sleep. I could catch a sight 
of many other species and still others I have forgotten. 

Poisonous animals did not become known to me, except the 
so-called rattle snakes, a species which is large and much feared. 
They stay most generally at swampy places. When angry they 
rattle with their tail as if it were a bell. When they bite any- 
body he has to die. There is no help for him. Only the Indians 
know the secret, but they don't want to make it known (62). 
If one can come to them in time, they can cure him at once. At 
one occasion I traveled with some others from Manigkinton on 
a wet, rainy day. Seven miles from that place we came across 
such a snake in the forest, l^ing on the road. We had not seen 
any thus far. As we were looking at it, it rattled with the tail 
as wiih a bell (63), and, since we had heard that such were of the 
dangerous kind, we went back and intended to avoid it. Then it 
rose partly on its tail and we thought that it would attack us 
every moment. One man who was with me ran off. I had my 
gun ready to fire, but, as there was only one bullet in it, I was 
afraid to miss. Hence I turned slowly away. There is another 
large snake, but it is not poisonous like the one just mentioned. 
It is so delicate that one needs only to strike it gently on the 
head with a slick to kill it instantly. 

In the hottest part of summer it is troublesom.e to travel 
because of vermin (64). Hence no one can lie or sleep on the 

(61 )-Michel uses here the Swiss word "Dorn-Aegerste," which, accord- 
ing to Prof, vcm Miilinen, is the great "shrike," the Lanius excubitor. 

(62)-Beverlcy, History Book IV, p. 04, says on the contrary that "the 
remedies are so well known that none of their servants are ignorant of 
them." At another place (Book II, p. 23) he mentions Rattle-Snake- 
Root, as effectually curing the bite of a rattle snake. 

(63)-The peculiar Swiss word "Rollin" is here used by Michel, which, 
according to Prof, von Miilinen, is a kind of a bell. 

(64)-The san:e fact is expressed more strikingly by Beverly, History, 
Book IV, p. 62:"'.A11 annoyances and inconveniences of the Country n'ay 
fairly be summed up under these three Heads, Thunder, Heat and troub- 
lesome Vermin." 



40-;, .M. VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. • ; 

'one ground, because so many vermin have crawled over the same, 
since the creation, that it is poisoned so to speak, for experience 

,' ... shows that those who work with bare feet in new soil are often 

t . . poisoned all over. 

',,,.. In summer the mosquitoes are very annoying. Rains are 

usually warm and the sun has such power that, when something 
is planted, it grows in a short time. It is astonishing to see a 
. : , thing, half grown or half ripe one day, reaching ripeness in a 
few days. The fruits are all ripe much earlier than in this 
country [Switzerland]. But this year everything has been very 
late compared with other years. The trees began to blossom in 
April. Half of June, July and August were very hot, so that 
one thought the air was on fire in some places and people were 
parched with thirst. But the cool springs are very refreshing 
at that time. Their water is not inferior to ours. If one desires 
a drink at that time, half a vessel of cold water is taken, sugar 
is put in with some vinegar and nutmeg, together with some 
good glasses full of rum. At times they mix in some lemon. 
It is a good drink. One could easily get drunk from it. It is 
called Pons [punch]. A tanl<ard or half quart costs from four 
to six "Batzen." 

Thc-y have also severe thunderstorms, such as we saw this 
year in June at Yorktown, when a ship, lying there at anchor, 
was covered with waves, which broke over the deck. The car- 
penter was in the sailor's cabin, the door was locked. There 
were two loopholes in the wall. Against one he placed his 
shoulder, which became black and burnt by the heat. At the 
other hole lay his axe, whose head was melted by the heat, 
which many people came to see(65). 
: : TciTible winds, called hurricanes frequently come with such 

violence and force that people often fear that houses and trees 
will have to give way. But they are soon over. One can see 
and hear them come. Corn and other grain is often blown ofT 
. ■ the fields. The winter is not long nor cold. Not much snow 

falls. The cattle, as stated before, can stay outside, on the 
' ' _ meadows, all the time, because they do not make hay. The 
north wind is said to be very cold in winter, but it does not last 
(65)-This is of course a sailor's yam. 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 41 

long. As soon as the south wind blows it is warm again. One 
can see trees split and bent through the cold. But it does not 
stay so long. During that time they make huge fires in the big 
fire places. There is as much wood as one desires at the 
door(G6). 

Regarding wild [forest] trees, it may be said justly that none 
can be found which are superior to them. I rightly regai-d as 
first the cedar tree, which is very common. The governor of 
late fenced in a garden. The trees were all cedars, whose wood 
is very durable. There is, furthermor, a kind of wood or spice, 
of saffran color, whose name I have forgotten. This wood is cut 
into chips. They are cooked afterwards and drunlc. Every 
year much of it is exported to England. The tall, wild nut 
trees [walnuts] are very useful for building purposes, if fine work 
is desired. It is of brown color. This tree bears a fruit like 
our beech trees, but larger. It cannot be opened without a 
nail. The pigs usually eat them. There are chestnuts at some 
places, but they are small. The most numerous and the largest 
trees are the oaks. There are also very tall and straight red 
pines. White pines I have not seen, and also only one beech 
tree. The little boats, called canoes, are usually a trunk of a 
tree hollowed out. From six to ten persons can ride in them 
comfortably. Besides the trees mentioned there are many other 
species unknown to me by name. They blossom beautifully. 
Some of them are not like the trees here either in wood or in 
foliage, nor are they difficult to cut. The branches do not start 
way down the trunk, but far up. On one occasion a sloop or 
canoe came from Carolina. It was made of one piece, its size 
was astonishing. It had two sails and carried forty barrels of 
pork. The forests are very convenient to ride or hunt in. The 
trees are far apart, with no undergrowth on the ground, so that 
one can ride anywhere on horseback. The game is easily dis- 
covered, because of the openness of the forest. The hunting 
of the Indians he lps not a little to clear the forests and pastures. 

(60j-Almost the identical expression is used by Beverley, History, Book 
II, p. 9: "Wood grows at every Man's Door." 

(67)-This "fire hunting" of the Indians is described more at length 
by Beverley, History, Book II, p. 39. 



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42 * I "'""' VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

It takes place in October, in the following manner(67) : From 
twenty to forty persons and often more gather and make a 
circle, assigning to each a certain section in the circle. After- 
wards each sets fire to the foliage and underbrush, which 
through the heat is dried up. The flames devour everything 
before them, until finally the area is much narrowed and the 
game, fleeing before the fire and the smoke, is driven together 
to a small space, around which the hunters stand, shooting down 
everything. Then they take only the skins and as much of the 
meat as they need. The rest they leave to decay. This is their 
great hunt. They are good shots. They do not hold the rifle 
as we do. Their left hand takes hold of the barrel as far for- 
ward as possible. Thus they direct it mostly with the left hand. 
I shall soon report more about them. 

The wild horses are hunted (68) in April and May, at the time 
of the year when, being famished after the winter, they fill 
themselves with the fresh grass to such an extent that they be- 
come lazy and are unable to run. The English place their 
best horses for four or five weeks into the stable, feed them with 
oats. Then they mount and ride their horses in companies 
while they hunt them. They are soon found, because they run 
about in large numbers. As soon as they are sighted, they are 
chased. They can stand the running for some time, but are 
finally overtaken by the horses that have been fed with oats. 
They are then caught, kept for a time with the tame horses 
and broken in. They develop great endurance. They are 
grey, but not quite as tall as the others. Their meat is good to 
eat. They are also caught in pits. When it is known v/hich 
way they go to the water, a deep pit is dug, which is covered 
slightly. When the horse passes over it, it falls down and can't 
get out again, until it is bound with ropes and pulled out. There 
are people who make their living by this practice. 

Turtles of different kinds are found in the woods. They are 

gathered and eaten by the negroes or slaves. The largest 

which I have seen was like a small hat in circumference. They 

(68)-The hunting of wild horses, "which young people take great de- 
light in," is also described by Beverley, History, Book IV, p. 75f. 



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J . THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 43 

are of various colors and very beautiful. There is especially 
a small species, which is found in large numbers on roads, 
mostly of a yellow color. They are most beautifully decorated. 
I took one of them with me and used it on board of ship as a 
drinking cup. 

This is the small amount of information which I can give 
about things in general. There are many other facts regarding 
them unlcnown to me. \-':\' oy '^\..,\ ":,i 

(To be Continued) 

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44 . ., VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

THE VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN fflSTORY— 1778. 

By David I. Bushnell, Jr. 



IV. Events Leading to the Treaty of Fort Pitt 

The winter of 1777-1778 was one of the darkest periods in the 
history of the western frontiers of Virginia and Pennsylvania. 
The death of Cornstalk on November 10 had caused his followers 
to assume a more restive attitude, and thus endangered the 
scattered settlements beyond the Blue Ridge. Northward, on 
the border of Pennsylvania, small bands of hostile warriors 
reached the settlements eastward from Fort Pitt and did great 
damage: destroying property and killing the settlers. About 
this time a letter was sent by Col. Lochry, Lieutenant of the 
county of Westmoreland, to Thomas Wharton (1) setting forth 
the grave perils surrounding the outlying posts. The original 
letter is in the Library of Congress (Pennsylvania State Papers, 
No. 09, Vol. 1, folio 437). The letter follows: 

"Honoured Sir: 

"The distressed situation of our country is such that we have 
no prospect but desolation and destruction. The whole coun- 
try on the north side of the road, from the allegany mountains, 
is all kept close in forts, and can get no subsistance from their 
plantations. — they have made application to us, requesting to 
be put under pay and receive rations; and as we can see no other 
way to keep the people from flying and letting the country be 
evacuated, we were obliged to adopt their measures, requesting 
your excellency to give the necessary orders to enable us to put 
them in execution — if these very measures is not adopted I see 
no other method that can secure the people from giving up the 
country — these people, whilst they support t hese frontier posts, 

1-Thomas Wharton was born in 1735, and died May 22, 1778. On 
March 5, 1777 he was inaugurated as President of Pennsylvania and 
held that office until his death. 



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VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. 46 

are certainly serving the publick, and certainly cannot continue 
long so to do, unless supported by the publick. Lieutenant 
Colonel Charles Campble and four other persons are made 
prisoners on the waters of black legs creek, (2) four other men 
killed and scalped near the same place, one man kil'd near 
Wallaces(3) fort on conemaugh; eleven others person killed 
and scalped at Palmers(4) fort and near Ligonier, amongst 
which is Ensign Wood. At the place where Colo. Campble was 
made prisoner four rascally proclamations was left by the 
savages, by the Governor of detroit, requesting all persons to 
come to him or any other of the governors occupied by his 
majestys troops, and they should receive pay and lodgings as 
they rank with us. Every private for encouragement to have 
two hundred acres of land. In short there is very few days 
there is not some Murder committed on some part of our 
frontiers. If your excellency will please to adopt our meastires 
and give the necessary orders for putting them in execution, I 
hope with divine assistance, we shall be able to hold the country 
till we are enabled by the more effectual measures ; that is carry- 
ing on an expedition in their country. We have likewise ven- 
tured to erect two Stockade forts at Ligonier and Hanna'stown 
at the public expence, with a store house in each, to secure both 
publick and prviate property in, and be a place of retreat for the 
suffering frontiers in case of necessity; which I flatter myself 
will meet with your excellencys approbation — and beg leave to 
subscribe myself Your excellencys 

"Westmoreland, 4*^^ Nov. 1777 most Obliged 

To his excellency most humble servant 

Thomas Wharton, jr. Pres. A. Lochry. Lieut" 

2-ln The American Gazetteer, by Jedidiah Morse, Boston, 1797, is 
the following brief note which may refer to this creek: "Black Lick, 
lie? in Westmoreland co. Pennsylvania, about 3G miles E. of Pittsburg." 

3-Wallace's Fort. "The Fort was erected on the farm of Richard 
Wallace, who was one of the first settlers in that part of Derry township 
in Westmoreland county, which lay between the old Forbe.'^ road and the 
Conemaugh river. * * * This fort was the place of resort and refuge for the 
inhabitants of the frontiers l.sing north of the Old Road and east of 
Hannastown and Fort Hand al! through the Revolution; and particularly 
for those who lived along the Conemaugh river and north of that as far 
as settlements were made." Report of the Commissioners to locate 
the site of the Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania, 1S9G. Vol. II, p. 344 ct seq. 

4-P.nlmer's fort, or stockade, stood in Fairfield township, Westmore- 
land countv. 



^ 



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46 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

In the same volume of manuscripts is a communication from 

; , the Council of Safety to the Delegates in Congress, in which 

reference is made to the receipt of the preceding letter. It is 

dated from Lancaster, November 14, 1777, and from it the 

following quotations are made: 

"Sir: 
, "This Council is applied to by the people of the County of 

Westmoreland in this Commonwealth with the most alarming 
Complaints of Indian Depredations. The letter of which the 
inclosed is a copy will give you some Idea of their present situa- 
tion. We are further informed by verbal accounts, that an 
Extent of 60 Miles has been evacuated to the savages, full of 
Stock, Com, Hoggs & Poultry, that they had attacked Palmer's 
Fort about 7 miles distant from Fort Ligonier(5) without 
success; and from the infonnation of White Eyes(6) and others 
:, circumstances; it is feared Fort Ligonier has by this time been 
attacked. There is likewise reason to fear the Savages will 
, . extend to Bedford county and along the frontiers. We shall 

order out the Militia of Bedford county and take such other 
steps as may be immediately necessary for the relief of these 
settlements, but we find they are greatly deficient in the article 
of aiTns, and especially ammunition and flints. In fort Lig- 
. . onier, when our informants left it, there was not more than forty 

poimds of powder and fifteen pounds of lead, flints are sold at a 
: , ^ dollar a piece. We know not the situation of Gen. Hand, (7) 
^v . , his forces or his views; but we have reserv^ed the militias of Bed- 
1 . , ford & Westmoreland, for the purpose of co-operating with him 
., ,, ,;. in those parts of the states, & the neighbourhood." 

The letter from the Council of Safety was refeiTcd to a com- 
mittee in congress which reported six days later. A copy of the 
report was imm ediately sent to Virginia. This copy of the 

5-"Fort Ligonier lies on the road from Philadelphia to Pittsburg; 266 
miles from the former and 54 from the latter, and 9 miles from the E. 
' -^Z • side of Laurel Hill." (Morse, Jedidiah, op. cit.) A fort had been 
1 erected here by the British during the French and Indian war. 

6-White Eyes, a chief of the Delaware and friend of the Americans. 
He was succeeded by Killbuck. 

7-General Edward Hand was at this time in command of the Western 
Department, with headquarters at Fort Pitt. 



.aKi5f> 



VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. '• ' "47 

report, together with Governor Henry's letter transmitting it 
to the General Assembly, are preserved in the Virginia State 
Library, Riclimond, and are given below: - ." ■ 

"Dec'5*M777 - 

"Sir. 

"I beg Leave to communicate to the general Assembly, the 
Resolutions of Congress & the letter from M"" Laurens, which 
accompany this. I also enclose you a Letter from General 
Washington & have the Honor to be 

Sir "' ■ / - ■ ^ ■■ 

Your most obedient ' ' 

Servant 

P. Henry" 

On the back of the letter is the address: "The Hon'ble George 
Wythe Esq'', Speaker of the House of Delegates," and the sub- 
scription "Commissioners for indian affairs at Fort Pitt — 
Detroit." 

The document received from Congress is in a perfect state of 
preservation, and is of great interest: 

"In Congress: Nov^ 20: 1777 — 

"The committee, to whom the letter of the 14 : from the coun- 
cil of safety of Pennsylvania & the letters from fort Pitt were 
refen-ed, report: 

"That an inroad has been made on the Western frontiers of 
Virginia & Pennsylvania, by some savage tribes of Indians, 
wherein a number of helpless people have been cruelly mass- 
acred, & the pcaceble inhabitants driven from their homes, & 
reduced to great distress: That from a number of papers stiled 
proclamations, under the hand and seal of Henry Hamilton, 
lieut. gov' of fort Detroit, left by the Indians, where they com- 
mitted their murders, & of which there is one, now in the pos- 
session of the committee, as well as from other information & 
circi-imstances, it appears, that these savages have been insti- 
gated by the British agent and emissaries & particularly, by the 
said Henry Hamilton to this barbarous & murderous war — 

"The committee apprehend. That so long as that post con- 
tinues to be garrisoned by British troops, who are restrained 



\k 



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48 • - •■ VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

by no laws of humanity, from using every means to accomplish 
their purpose of subjugating these States, those frontiers will 
be incessantly exposed to the barbarous ravages of the Indian 
tribes under their influence. — 

"That by means of the said agents & emissaries, a dangerous 
spirit of disaffection has been excited & formented, among some 
worthless & evil disposed persons on the said frontiers, who lost 
all sentiments of virtue, honor or regard for their country have 
been induced to aid our remorseless enemy. — 

"That the Shawanese & Delawares continue well affected & 
disposed to preserve the league of peace & amity entered into 
with us for which reason they are threatened with an attack by 
their hostile neighbours, who have invaded us, & are at the same 
time exposed to danger from the attempts of ill disposed, or ill 
advised persons among ourselves. — 

"Your committee therefore are of opinion. That for the safety 
& security of the frontiers, as well as to preserve the public faith 
of these United States plightes to our Indian allies, speedy & 
effectual measures ought to be taken to suppress the spirit of 
disaffection among our own deluded people — to repel & put a 
stop to the hostile invasion of our enemies — to protect ourlndian 
allies & confirm them in their good disposition & to remove, if 
possible, the cause from whence all the evils in that quarter 
arise : whereupon 

"Resolved, That three commissioners be appointed to repair 
without delay to fort Pitt. That they be instructed to inves- 
tigate the rise, progress & extent of the disaffection in that 
quarter, & take measures for suppressing the same & bringing 
the deluded people to a sense of their duty. 

"That the said commissioners be invested with full power to 
suspend for misconduct any officers in the service of the United 
States employed in that quarter & appoint others in their room, 
& confine in safe custody all such officers, against whom they 
shall have satisfactory proof of being offenders against the rights 
Sc liberties of America. 

"That the said commissioners be directed to cultivate the 
fri(;ndship of the Shawanese & Delawares & prevent our people 
from committing any outrages against them. 



UIV 



(VL 



nc 






VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. , 49 

"That they be impowered to engage as many of the Delaware 
& Shawanese warriors in the Service of the United States as 
they judge convenient. 

''That they be impowered & directed, for effectually checking 
the progress of the enemy, to concert with brigadier general 
Hand, a plan of carrying the war into the enemy's country, & 
cause the same to be executed with all convenient dispatch. 

"And in order to prevent such barbarous incursions for the 
future, that the said commissioners be impowered to cause the 
operations of ihe war to be extended against the British gar- 
rison at Detroit & its dependencies, provided the reduction of 
that fortress can in their opinion be effected at this season of the 
year, & the whole can be accomplished by a force not exceeding 
two thousand men, exclusive of Indian auxiliaries. 

"That it be earnestly recommended to the legislative powers 
of Virginia & Pensylvania, to invest the commissioners with 
every necessary authority over their respective militias; to 
impower them to arrest and commit for tryal, such of their 
respective inhabitants on the Western frontiers as shall appear to 
have been concerned in any conspiracy or plot, against the United 
States, or otherwise to afford the said commissioners, such 
assistance, as shall be necessary in consequence of these resolves— 

"Resolved, That the case of colonel Geo. Morgan be included 
in the business referred to the consideration of the commissioners 
Vi-ho are to be appointed for various purposes on the Western 
frontier, that in the mean while col. Morgan be restored to the 
a|:ipointm-cnt of agent for Indian affairs, & that he be appointed 
deputy-comm.issary-general of purchases in the Western district. 

"Congress proceeded to the election of commissioners to pro- 
ceed to fort Pitt, & the ballots being taken, Colo. Samuel Wash- 
ington, Gabriel Jones Esq. & Col. Joseph reed were elected. 
Extract from the Minutes Chas. Thomson Secy. "(8) 

8-Col. Samuel Washington, of '"Harewood," l^crkcley Co., Va., 2d 
sen of Augustine and Mary Washington, was born Nov. 14, 1734. He has 
many descendants. .j 

_Gabriel Jones, of Augusta and Rockingham Counties, bom May 17, 
l/_'4, died O'.tober 1S06. He was long a distinguished lawyer, and was 
frcciuently in the House of Burgesses. Sec Waddcll's "Annals of Augusta 
County" 8I-S4. He married Mrs. Margaret (Strother) Mcrt-n and has 
descendants 

Col. Joseph Reed, born at Trenton, N. J., Aug. 27, 1741. died in Phila- 
delphia, M;irch 5, 17^5. He was actively engaged during the Revolution 
and was tne close friend and confidential secretary of Gen. Washin;:ton. 

Chas. Tliomson, of Pennsylvania, Secretary of Congress, 1774-17S9. 



9^ 



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60 ' ' VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The following letter, the original being in the Library of 
Congress, among the Papers of the Continental Congress (No. 
56, folio 89), is self explanatory: 

"Sir: 

"His Excellency Patrick Henry Esq"" has been Pleased to 
apoint Colo. Saml. McDowell & my self in the Room of Saml. 
Washington & Gabriel Jones Esq"" who have Declined the 
apointmcnt of your Honourable Body on the 20^'' Nov' Last. 
The Inclemency of the Season has prevented us from Setting 
out on our Journey, but should the weather Permitt we purpose 
going on mxcnday the 23*^ Ins* & hope to be at Pitsburg in Ten 
days after y* time, where we shall Expect to meet with the 
other jxntlcmen who may be apointed from the State of Pen- 
sylvarici — I have the Honour to be for Colo. McDowell & my 
self— Sir 

Your most obedient 

& Most Humbl Servant 

Samp. Mathews" (9) 
Staunton 13*^ Febry 1778 

Addrc.:std on back: 

"To the Honourable Henry Laurance 
President of Congress" 

Pennsylvania appointed one comm.issioner, George Clymer, 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He reached Fort 
Pitt hefore the Virginian and on March 7, 1778 communicated 
with Congress. The letter, dated from Pittsburg, is preser\^ed 
in the name volum.e with the ] receding, it is in part: 

"Ncitlicr of my Collegues having joined me from Virginia, Con- 
gress has yet reaped little advantage in this Quarter from the Ap- 
pcintn'cnt of Commissioners * * *. To repair this unhappy 

9-Saraucl McDowell, bom in Pennsylvania Oct. 27, 1735, removed to 
Va. in 1737, died near Danville, Kentucky, Oct. 25, 1S17. A member 
of I.ewi'-'s company at Braddock's del'eat, and for many years a member 
of the \ irj^inia Assembly. In 17S2 he was appointed a commissioner 
to settle lar.d claims in Kentuck}-, and served in the Kentucky Legisla- 
ture. 

Sanijison Mathews, of Augusta County, Va., died in 1S07. He was long 
a prominent citizen of the county, was commissary of Col. Charles Lewis' 
Tcgimenl in the Point Pleasant ram[)aign and served in 17S1 as Colonel of 
Augusta militia. (See Waddcll's "Annals of Augusta County.") 



a:- 



'i/:ti .c:afi': 



^jY 



^X\l ^o(ioi "^Zi ifOJiim:l3 



„ ^ 



• - VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. >•' -^-i iN.'^ , 51 

loss of time as much as lies in my power, I shall of my own 
Authority send off a Messenger to the Delawares tomorrow, 
to make known to them the friendly disposition of Congress, 
to communicate the prosperous Situation of our Affairs, and 
to invite their principal Men to Fort Pitt: confessing to you at 
the same time my Doubts whether they will incline to put them- 
selves in the power of our frontier people, whose indiscriminate 
hatred of Indians, has been such as to make them shew, on 
some occassions, little regard to the Laws of Protection or 
Maxims of good policy * * *." 

Mathews probably reached Fort Pitt about the middle of 
March, being the only representative from Virginia, thus he 
and Clymxr served as the commission by virtue of the resolu- 
tions of Congress of November 20, 1777. A very interesting 
letter, signed by them jointly, and addressed to the President 
of Congress, is among the Papers of the Continental Congress, 
(No. 78, folio 155) and is here quoted in full: 

"Sir: 

"In our Letter of the 31 March which we had the honor to 
write you, v.e communicated the several steps pursued by us, 
previcius to tlic elopement of McKce,(10) to cultivate the Friend- 
ship of the Delawares : since when we have laboured assiduously 
by messages, and letters to take off any bad impressions he, 
and his associates, might have left on the Minds of these people. 
By these Means, and Fixing on a new day, we have obtained 
a visit from two of their Chiefs; but as a particular relation of 
our Proceedings with them accompanies this, we shall only 
obser^^e that 'tho these Indians appear well disposed to be in 
friendship with us, we could not ventiu'e to make them any 
proposition towards engaging a number of them in our service. 

Congress will perceive the Expediency of appointing Com- 
missioners to Conduct the Treaty proposed to be opened here 
the twenty-third day of July next. 

10-This refers to the escape of McKee and some followers, includirii? 
members of the Thirteenth Virginia regiment, from Fort Pitt on the 
nii^ht of March 28, 1778. They had remained loyal to the English and 
appear to have made their way to Detroit. 



to 



:ii' 



52 ^ ., VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

We have already endeavoured to give Congress some Idea 
of the weak and disjointed state of the Frontier, against which 
the VVyandots, and other Indians from the neighbourhood of 
Lake Erie, continue to exercise their crueUies, and we have now 
more possible Reasons to apprehend that so far from effectually 
repelling the Indians the Inhabitants will rather retire to the 
other side of the Mountains — an event perhaps to be deprecated, 
less as temporary loss of country, than as it may produce in 
many an aversion to the cause, an attachment to which has 
occasioned their sufferings. And we may add, a political 
change of this nature will not be thought improbably to take 
place in minds ill-informed, and when consequently but little 
steadiness of Principle is expected. This among other con- 
siderations induces us to submit to Congress the propriety of 
imn:ediately setting on foot an Expedition, whose object shall 
be Detroit, the source of all the Calamity, in which if we are 
fortunate, Peace and Security will undoubtedly succeed in this 
Quarter. If the Idea is adopted by Congress, it is proposed to 
cm.i;loy in it three thousand of the IMilitia, as we conceive a 
smaller numiber would not effectually secure a march through 
the Indian Country, but as an Assult may be found necessary, 
they would be accompanied by at least four hundred regular 
trcops, together with a small Artillery. The Dependence for 
Militia we have supposed must be almost altogether on Vir- 
ginia, frcm a presumption all the force, that of two most westerly 
counties excepted, which the Government of Pennsylvania can 
draw into the field must necessarily be employed this Campaign 
within the State. The great Kenahwa is thought of as the 
properest Rendezvous of those frcm the nearest Counties, to 
consist of fifteen hundred men, and Fort Pitt for that of the 
remainder, but a junction of the Divisions to be made at the 
Great Kenahwa, from whence the whole should proceed to- 
gether. 

Scm.e Estim.ates, with a Calculation of the Sums that will be 
required to be lodged in Virginia, to set fon\"ard the Division 
to Kenahwa cc;n:e herewith for the View of Congress. 

This attcmjpt heirg made with so powerful a Force, we are 
not without hopes the Delawares generally, with the well dis- 



.3HIJ(/ 



'"«9l>fM vf*©^!* «>Vpd "^^^^ 



;;,'(;.<«^ii. rtM '.'^ . jorr f/ rtB 



.■•■•1 ");- » rlHw 

•■•;V ... 



; : ; 1 1 

. -J 



0;..>:! lO > iq 



od liw ./. ii . ■;■;.•■ ' of!r .'w . 

CJJ 

mi: )/ 



VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. ■ ' j '53 

posed Shawanocs, would engage more decisively in our favour, 
as from what we learn, they are already greatly irritated by the 
Threats, and Insults they have received from the enemy 
Indians in passing through their Country to ours. 

Nothing material remaining for us to do in this Question, we 
propose this to finish the Business of our Commission, and shall 
set out for home Tomorrow 

We have the honor to be 

with Sentiments of Regard, Sir 
Your most obed* hum Serv'^ 
Pittsburgh Geo. Clymer" 

April 27, 1778 Samp. Mathews." 

The honorable Henry Laurens Esq'' President of Congress." 
On the back of the letter is this note: 
"Letter from Commissioners 
at Fort Pitt, 27 April 1778 
rcc'd 6 May ■ . . , 

referred to the board of war 
who are directed to report 
thereon. — " 

Thus the commissioners m.ade two distinct suggestions to 
Congress, first the desirability of an active campaign, with 
Detroit as tl:e objective point, and second "the Expediency of 
appointing Commissioners to Conduct the Treaty proposed to 
be opened here [Fort Pitt] the twenty-third day of July next." 
Both suggestions were accepted by Congress and the campaign, 
as conducted by General Mcintosh, formed the subject of the 
second article of this series. The question of the proposed 
treaty was probably discussed by the Commissioners in an 
earlier comimunication to Congress, as it was merely mentioned 
in the above letter of April 27. 

The letter was duly considered by the Board of War, and on 
June 4 the following resolutions were entered in the Journal 
of Congress : 

"The Board of War having represented the expediency of 
appointing commissioners to meet the Indians at Fort Pitt, and 
to attend the treaty proposed by the late commissioners, 



6fi 



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54 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Resolved, that three commissioners be appointed for the 
,' ' purpose of holding a treaty with the Delawares, Shawanese, 
and other Indians, who may assemble at Fort Pitt, on the 
twenty third of July next. 

Rcsohed, That the governor and council of the State of 

Virginia he requested and authorized to appoint two gentlemen, 

■ and the executive power of the State of Pennsylvania, to appoint 

one gentlciran, of suitable characters, for the purpose aforesaid. 

-' 1 Resolved, That Congress will make an adequate allowance 
■* • for the services and expences of said commissioners." 

And on June 20 the following entry was made in the Journal 
of Congress: 

"The Comimittee on Indian Affairs to whom was referred the 
letter of Colonel G. Morgan, dated the 10'^ instant, brought 
in a report: Whereupon, 

Resolved, That the Comimittee of Commerce be directed to 
prccr.re goods, and such other articles as are proper for presents 
■ to the western Indian nations, to the amount of ten thousand 
dollars, and transmit the sam.e to Fort Pitt, to the commission- 
ers, who are to treat with the Indians there on the 23 day of 
July next: and that the said com.missioners be also directed to 
dispose of the said goods amongst the said Indians in such 
manner as they shall judge will best conduce to conciliate their 
affections and secure them in the interest of these states : 

That the said commissioners be empowered to draw on the 
military chest at Fort Pitt, for such sums as shall be necessary 
to defray the contingent expenses of the said treaty." 

The resolution of Congress of June 4, was acted upon by 
Governor Henry of Virginia on June 18. On that day the 
following was entered in the Journal of the Virginia Council, a 
manuscript volume now in the State Library at Richmond: 

1 "Agreeable to a Resolution of Congress, Andrew Lewis (11) 

■ ' ll-Andrcw Lewis was born in Ireland about the year 1720. and died in 

Bedford county, Virginia, September 27, 1781. He was closely assoc- 
iated with Washington during the campains of 1754 and 1755. In 175(i 
be led the Sandy Creek exi:edition. On March 1, 177G he was com- 
missioned Brigadier General in the Continental army, but soon r-^signed 
on account of failing health. 



w''J VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. , 55 

& John Walker(12) Esquires, are, by the Governor with the 
advice of Council, appointed Commissioners for the purpose of 
holding a Treaty with the Delaware, Shawanesse & other Indians 
who may assemble at Fort Pitt on the twenty third day of July 
next." 

And again on July 4, the subject was mentioned in the Journal 
of the Couticil : 

"John Walker esquire having signified that it will be out of 
his power to Act as a Commissioner at the Indian Treaty to be 
held at Fort Pitt on accoimt of the Indisposition of his family, 
Thomas Lewis(13) esquire of Augusta is appointed in his room; 
And as there is a probability of Andrew Lewis Esquire his 
refusing to Act on Account of the Indians having committed 
Hostilities near his house, in that Case, Sampson Matthews 
Esquire is appointed to act in his stead." 

Pennsylvania failed to have a commissioner at the treaty 
which was conducted by the two brothers, Thomas and Andrew 
Lewis, on behalf of the United States, and the three Delaware 
Chiefs, White Eyes, Pipe, and Killbuck as representatives of 
their nation. On account of the delay in the arrival of conti- 
nental tr.'jops at Fort Pitt, it became necessary to change date 
of July 23, as originally set. Colonel Brodhead, with the 
Eighth Pcnns^'lvania regiment, reached Fort Pitt on September 
10, 1778. The Commissioners and Indians were gathered there, 
and two days later, on September 12, they met in Council. 
The events of the succeeding days, closing with the signing of 
the treaty on September 17, will form the subject of the fifth 
article of this series. 

12-John Walker, eldest son of the well-known Dr. Thomas Walker, 
of "Castle Hill," Albemarle Co., Va., was born Feb. 13, 174t, and died 
Dec. 2, 180^. He was a member of the House of Burgesses, the Conven- 
tions of 177.5, was an aide to Washington in the Revolution and U. S. 
Senator from Virginia in 1790. 

13-Thomas Lewis, the older brother of Andrew Lewis mentioned 
above, was born in Ireland in 171S: died in 17P0. He was a member of 
House of Burgesses and likewise a member of the State convention that 
ratified the Federal constitution. 



r. vj i.Tii. n 



56 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT 

16221629*. 



From the Originals in the Library of Congress. 



(Continued.) 



*A11 erasures in the originals are here printed in italics. 

The practice, previously followed, of printing these records 
line for line with the original will not be, hereafter, continued. 

[150] 

*(l)And with them they kept ye frigott wch they had first 
taken and theire ov/ne And tooke A negro and A Frenchman 
who came away with them willingly. And a Portugall to be 
Their Pilott out of the AVest Indyes because they had longe gone 

*(1) The depositions here and in XXIIT, 404-400, relate to one of 
those halt privateering, half piratical cruises so common at the time. 
The Dutch were willing to use any weapon in their desperate war with 
Spain and privateering commissions were freely given by the States or 
the Prince of Orange. In many instances, the operations of these priva- 
teers were not confined to attacks on Spanish ships. The interest in this 
case is that there should have been alioard the Black Bess two men who 
had helped to lay the foundations for so much history. Capt. Powell 
had cvMiimanded one of the ships which brought the first negroes to Va. 
and his subordinate Capt. Jones had comrrianded the Mayflower in its 
famous voyage to Plymouth. Both had been in the service of the Earl 
of Warwick. Capt. John Powell had been sent out by the Somers Islands 
Company in 1616, in a boat called the Hopewell; but had taken to piracy 
and gotten that Company into much trouble at home. In IGIO, in "a 
Dutcli man-of-war" he brought some of the first negroes to Virginia. 
In \(V.:'-, the Va. Company was asked to allow him to trade to Virginia, 
but refiLsed as they were "afraid Capt. Powell should go to the West 
Indies," and there return to piracy. 

Capt. Thomas Jones, in or prior to 1610, commanded in the East 
Indies a ship, "the Lion," belon'j;ing to the Earl of Warwick, and after 
his vovage with the Pilgrims in 1G20, continued in the service of the Vir- 
ginia Company'. In 1622, in the Discovery, he made a voyage to explore 
the neighborhood of Cape Cod and furnished the Plymouth people with 
needed supplies. He died in Virginia soon after landing from the voyage 
dcscriljod in these depositions. A frigate of the time here spoken of was 
a small sailing vessel and not the war ship of later d.-^ys. 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 57 

upp and downe and could nott gett Clerre. After this they gott 
cleere and came to ye cape of fflorida where they intended to 
take in fresh water and to gett some provisions and soe came to 
an anchor, and sent to the shore and gott in some Water and 
Turtles but by extremitie of fowle weather they lost two 
anchors and cables and theire boate Sunk at the Shipps stearne 
so as they were forcte to leave two of their Company ashore and 
were driven them selves out into the Current so yt they could 
not putt in to gett theire men abourd nor could not putt ye 
Portugall ashore as they intended at any place where his 
coimtrymen were. And after this not beinge Sufficiently Victuled 
to goe for England They resolved to shape their Course for 
Virginia. Theire ship also beinge very leakey, And sayeth that 
they landed at Cape Hatteras in a small boate wch they made 
themselves abourd ye shipp wth parte of ye rowne house to gett 
fresh Avater but could gett none And after yt ye next Daye They 
gott in at ye Capes and ran into this river uppon Alondy the 
eleventh of this month of January 1625 



[151] 
William Gundry of Feversam in Kent swome and Examined 
Sa^eLh yt he was shipt at fflushing by Capt. Jonnes into ye 
blacke Bess and yt he harde Capt Powell's Commission readd, 
and 3't they having \-ictuled at the Isle of Wyght and taken in 
Some miorc Company they putt to Sea & shaped theire course 
for ye v/esLcrn Islands where they beate upp and Downe a few 
days and after went for the West Indies and at the Granados 
they builte them a shallopp, And they bay levinge ye shipp at 
an Anchor They went in the shallope aboute 25 men and boarded 
a Spanish frigott but the men v.'ere all ashore where they found 
some small p'visione and certen Raw hides on the shore, And 
they m.ande ye frigott and kept her in Consort with them, But 
after Capt Powell cutting short theire allowance and requiringe 
them to signe to Certen Articles, among wch one was yt thay 
should fyght againste any whether they were Friend or Foe, 
whereuppon they resolved to depart from him and to goe for 
theire Country, and soe v/as Capt. Jounes for theire Capt and 
mor who was willinge to com.e with them. And furnishinge 



Ta 



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58 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

thcra with Some provisions and fresh water, They parted from 
their Admirall and beatinge upp and Downe one nyght lying 
at hull in the morninge the espied this frygott, and makinge 
after her, The men hoysted out theire boate and went ashore, 
when the went aboarde ye frygott and found never a man in her; 
but 60 live Goattes and fower pecks of meale and some lynnen 
and woollen Cloathes and some 5 or 6 hundred weight of 
Tobacco and 2 peeces of ordynance and som.e other small 
matters. Soe they man'd this frygott and carried her wth them 
and after came to Cap Carebe 



[152] 
There they fownd another frigott wch ran under theire lee 
they went w'th her to the v\-ateringe place And often they took 
owt of this frigott Certen Raw hides and some Tobacco and a 
frcnch nian and a negro who were very willinge to come wth 
them and a Portugall to be theire pilott leavinge wth them the 
frigott wch they had first taken and theyre owne, And after 
they came to Cape Florida, and having sent ashore for water 
and theire men caringe aboard wth water and some Turtles, 
leaving two of their Company ashore for the fcatchinge of 
Turtles, By fowle weather they lost two Cables and Anchors 
and theire boate sunlce at the Shipps Stearne, and were forced 
to sea by wch means they could not recover their men nor putt 
the Portugall ashore, whom they were forced to take in to be a 
Pilott for to bringe them out of the Islands, their victualls 
being short and the shipp leaky they resolved to shape their 
course for Virginia and arrived there on Mondye the eleventh 
day of July 1625 

[153] 
Andrew Poe of Holte in Northfolke sworne and examined 
Sayeth yt he was shipt in fflushinge by Capt. Powell and Capt 
Jonnes in the Black Bess, and having victuled at Isle of Wight 
they put owt to sea and went forth to ye western Islands, and 
from thence to ye West Indies where they lighted on a f riggott, 
but he, this Examint was not aboard her the shallopp yt took 
her. Soe they mand the frigott and tooke her alonge wth them 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 59 

and after because they could Capt. Powell would not allow them 
Sufficient water and victualls and required them to sett their 
hands to Certen articles the Company grew Discontented and 
soe Capt. Powell bid them that would goe for thcirc Country 
to take the frigott and goe in her, Whereupon the Chose Capt 
Powell Jonnes for their Capt and M'r and parted from him 
intendinge to goe Immediatelie for their Country but their few 
p'vysions and water being spent, they were forced to putt in for 
relcefe, And having gott some pr'vysions they could nott gett, 
findc the way owt of the Islands, the Capt bcinge unacquainted 
in those ]jarLs, And after beating upp and Downe they lighted 
uppon a ffrygott where they found 60 Turtles and some Tobacco 
and meale and other small matters and takeing her wth them 
afterwards lighted uppon a Spanish frigott wch came under 
their lee and they gave them their first frygott taking out of her 
some Raw liides and some Tobacco and a negro and a ffrench- 
man who 



[154] 
were desirous to goe along wth them and a Portugall to be theire 
Filott OWL of the Islands intendinge to sett him ashore uppon 
Cape fflorida or thereabouts when bcinge ari\'ed there and after 
they gott some fresh water and p 'visions ashore They left two 
of theire C'ompany ashore and the weather growinge fowlc they 
lost two cr;ijles and anchors and theire boate sunke at the ships 
stenie, by means wherof they coulde not goe for tlieir men but 
were driven out to sea, And after had no oportunitie to sett the 
portugall ashore but came directly for Virginia, where they 
Arrived one Mondye the Eleventh of July 1625 
July the xxi being present Sir ff rancis Wyatt Knight, Governor 
&c., Capt Francis West, Capt. Roger Smith, Capt Raphe Hanor, 
Mr William Cley borne 

Yt is ordered yt fourteene of those men wch came in wth Capt 
Jones shalbe sent upp to James Cittie wth ye first. To be dis- 
posed of by the Governor and Coimsel to such places in the 
Colony as they shall thinlce fitt, wherof the Frenchman to be 
one, And yt Capt Francis West make Choyse of such otheis 
as he shall thinke fitt of. 



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60 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

And ye Courte doth Consent to ye request of Capt. Francis 
West that he may make use of the frygott and all the Tackell 
Apparell Munitions masts saylcs sayle yardes &c., now to her 
belonginge or appertayning, Provided that he shalbe account- 
able for the valuable some of twelve hundred pounds weight of 
Tobacco wch some Capt Jounes and the ships company hath 
Demanded for her To any such to whom of right she shall 
Appertaine uppon further Consideration 

Yt is also ordered yt the Companie shalbe sent upp to ye 
neck of lande unto Mr Luke Boyse, there to abide untill further 
order 



[156] 
November 1624 
Received of Doctoris Christmas and John Shepparde for the 
use of Southampton Hundred fower barrels of come by the 
appoynlmentt of I\Ir John Powntis 

^ me John Utie 
Mr Pciuntis receaved yt them when he v»'ent a trading for the 
use of his Pynnace said baiTcll of Corne 

Witnessed by Richard (x) Croker 
Receaved the 9"^ of December 1623 for the use of Mr Pountis 
in ptc of another some one hundred and fowre pounds of To- 
bacco, I say receaved of John Shepparde the same above 

Nathaniell Basse 



1157] 

A Courle held the xxii of August 1625 

being pr'snte Sr francis Wyatt, Knight Governor &c, Capt. 

Fra. West, Capt. Roger Smith, Capt. Raphe Hamor, Mr Wm. 

Cleyborne. 

Jolm Sou theme swome and Sayeth that Thomas Passmore*(2) 

and Christopher Haule came unto him for to have him make 

(2) Thomas Passmore was a carpenter who lived, with his wife Jane, 
on James City Island. Christopher Hall appears from the Census of 
1021-5, to have been a neij^hbor. The same l~ensus shows that John Hall 
and Elizabeth, his wife, also lived near by. The name rendered Kcisie 
in the text, should probably be Kerhtt. Thomas Kerntt, aged 24, in 
1021-5, was one of Passmore's servants. 



7.11 



J. ■■ , i^yi; 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 61 

a payr of covenants betwixt them, the saide John Sutheme 
demanded of them w't their bargain was, they said the cropp 
was to be sett in seaven p'tes wherof Mr Passmoure was to have 
fowre shares and Christopher Haule to have three, But Mr 
Passmoure saide he would have a little peece of grounde to him 
sclfe for his wife and his bcJy to plant and tend. Christopher 
Haule said I will make no new bargaine and yt you will stand 
to our first bargaine (so) otherwise will make no other bargaine 
and so they departed. Thomas Bradfiel swome and Examined 
Sayeth that he sitting in Company wth Passmoure and Christ- 
opher Haule he heard Mr Passmoure saye that Christopher 
Haule should have three shares of ye Cropp and yt he would 
leave his men over to Christopher Haule and meddle not wth 
them and this was spoken before this 'Examin't after they had 
been wth Mr Southerne. Mr Passmoure called this Examt 
to take notice wt the said 

Yt is ordered that John Haule have his house and fowre acres 
of land joyninge to the land of Thom.as Passmoure sytuate in 
James Cyttie Island where he hath now built & seated 



• [158] 

Thomas Kersie swome and Examined sayeth That Christopher 
Haule did woorke about ye Cropp sometymes two howers in a 
D'ye and sometymes three houres and very seldome a whole 
D'ye together. 

John Buckmaster swome and Examined affirmeth as much as 
Thomas Keisie hath formerly said. 

It is agrecde by and wth the Consentt of Thomas Passmoure 
and Christopher Haule (as followeth) that is to say yt ye Cropp 
now in question between them Mr Passmoure shall have fower 
shares thcrof & Christopher Haule to have three shares and 
Thomas Passmoure to have the little hill now planted with pease 
and pompions to him selfe, And if Christopher Haule shall 
iieclect his lawfuU labour for ye good of ye Cropp, That then 
he shall malcc allowance to Thomas Passmoure for the same. 



2f 

n't j.'i.w;v 



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C2 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. . ,,? 

Wkeras Mousyer Bomoimt*(^) Yt is ordered yt Mounseycr 
Bomounte may seate him selfe and his people uppon any place 
About ye Esteme Shore being five miles from any land actually 
possessed by ye Company or any other man. And for any other 
order the Courte cannot determine before they be farther in- 
formed wth ye Certentie of ye bounds of ye lande wch he de- 
sireth to have granted. 



[159] 
A Courte held the xxx*^ of August 1625, beinge present Sr 
ffrancis Wyatt, Knight, Governor &c, Capt. Roger Smith, 
Capt Raphe Hamor, Mr Wm Cleyboume. 
Cadwallader Jonnes Sworne and Examined sayeth yt uppon 
Tuesday nyght last he harde a Tumulte in Joseph Johnsone*(4) 
his house betwixt the said Joseph [and his?] wiefe. And sayeth 
yt Mr Bransbye his m'r caled to this Examint and other of his 
fellows to come to him soe this Examinat and Robert Crew his 
fellow servant went to Joseph Johnsones house where he and his 
fellow servant found their M'r and Joseph Johnsone fallen fowle 
together they being uppon the bed where they p'ted them, And 
further sayeth yt Mr Bransbie caled Joseph Johnsone said this 
I have for p'tinge a Newgate birde and Bridewell whore. 

George Proust sworne and Examined Sayeth yt uppon 
Thursday last Mr Bransbie his m'r after he came from Joseph 
Johnsone's house sent this exam'nt to Johnsones house for his 
hatt and hat band And Cominge away from ye house he heard 
Mr Bransbie say to Joseph Johnsone yt yf he did beat and 
abuse his wiefe any more he would beate him tyghtlie unless 
ye Govcrno'' comanded ye contrary. 

And further Cadwallader Jones sayeth yt about ye midst of 
October 1G24, Joseoh Johnsone goinge abroad with his peice, 

(3) It is singular that there is no mention of this Mons. G. Beaumont 
in Hottcn, the Minutes of the Virginia Company, or in any other record 
but this. Neill (Virginia Carolontm, p. 30) says that Giles IBeaumont. a 
Frenchnian, arrived in 1G23 with some colonists, authorized to claim the 
privile,^es of an English subject and establish a plantation. 

(4) Joseph Johnson, his wife Margaret and Georgia Prouse, were living 
at yVrchcrs Hope, 1021-5. At the same time Thomas Bransbie, with three 
servanls, Nicholas GreenViill, Cadwallader Jones and Robert Crew, was 
living at the same place. The account shows that Bransbie was command- 
er of Archers Hope plantation. 






iH'ii 'jnto'fJi' iamri'l ■j-yhy.u) 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 63 

very far from his house and in great danger of the Enemie, 
Mr Bransbie being Comander of ye Plantation, hath often ad- 
morjishcd him therof, And Mr Bransbie offering to disarme him 
of his peece ye said Joseph bcinge gott into his house, pre- 
sented his peece against Mr Bransbie, sayinge come if you will. 

[160] 
And further George Proust before swome and examined sayeth 
that about Easter laste Joseph Johnsone, beating of his wiefe, 
Mr Bi.p.isbie and others wth him Cominge upp towards John- 
sones iiouse to pacifie them. The said Johnsone presented his 
peece owt at his window and said To them wt have you to do 
hecre, 3'ou were best kepe back or I will keepe make yo, stand 
back 

Yt is ordered at this Courte that Joseph Johnsone in regard 
of his contempt against the Comande of the Plantacone as 
also for ye Contynuall assaultinge of his wiefe, shall enter into 
bonds of fortie pounds wth a sufficient securitie to be from 
henceforth of good behaviour, as well towards our Souveragne 
lord ye Kingc as other his liege subjects 



[ink folio 161] 
A Courte heldc the 12'-'' of September 1625 beinge present Sr: 
Francis wyatt Knight, Gouenior, & Capt' Roger Smith Capt' 
Samucll Mathewes M"" Abraham Peersey m"" Wm Clcy bourne 

Yt is orckavd yt william Browne Boatswayne of the good 
shi[jp called the Elizabeth, shall deliuer three hatts to m'' 
Thomas Allnut'^'(5), wch were sent him owt of Englandc, wch 
the said Wm Browne sold at Kackowtan, At or before the xix'^ 
daye of this instant moncth of September beinge mondye next 

M'' Jam.es Slogden minister swome and examined sayeth that 

he by the Ai,03ntmcnt of m"" John Powntis did paye to m^ 

Edward Cage and m'' Tho: Edvsards two hundred and twenty 

pov>nd waight of Tobacco for w"^^'' they gave y*^ said m'' Stogden 

Accqviianc for y" receipt therof (w'^'' was lately burnt in his 

hov>se liy Casraliie of fycr 

(.0) 'i hoinas Alnutt, who came in the Gijte, and his wife who came in 
the Mar\i!_oid, were living at James City at the census of 1624-5. Ed- 
ward Caj^e, who came in the Marmaduke, lived near him. 



i ) 



bii 



64 ■• : VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Doctoris Christmas being swome (Deposeth that he brought 
the said Accqviittance from m"" Edwardes and DeHuered it to 
m'' Stogden. 

Further m'' Stogden deposeth y^ m'' John Powntis did accept 
of a bill of dept for fower barrells and a halfe of Come, W^'' M'' 
Samuell Jorden had bounde him selfe to pay to m"" Tho. Dowse, 
And in leu of the said bill, did discharge Dictoris Chrismas and 
John Hassarde of fower barrells & halfe of come dev/ from them 
to ye said m'' Jo. Powntis w^'' bill he said he was y" more wilUnge 
to accept of for y' he was indepted to m'' Jurden. 



[ink folio 162] 
A Courte held the xix*^ daye of September 1625 beinge present 
Sr. Francis wyatt, Knight, Gouemor, &c., Capt' Roger Smith, 
Capt' Raph Ham.er, M*" Abraham Persey m'^ Wm Cleyboume 
Walter Horsefoot swome and examined sayeth that the shipp 
caled the Ehzabeth was acosted at Dover for the King service, 
v/hervppon the purser of the shipp rid to London and brought 
A Letter to the Livt' of Dover Castle. And soe the shipp was 
discharged. 

Further he sa3^eth y* John Hobbs a servant of Capt' Bickley 
cam away from the shipp and after M" Page goingc w"' the 
water baylie to y'' Capt' w'='' when Hobbs was had him del'vcd 
agayne. 

And further sayeth y' some of M'' Persey s men marched in 
thcire armes, before m"" Page his face. And further sayeth y'^ 
one Hugh Symstcr A Carpenter offered m'' Page y' yf he wold 
paye xx** and discharge his hoste he wold come alonge w'^' him 
w''' Carpenter was one of m'' persyes men 
Yt is ordered in Courte y^ m"" Pcersey shall have one of the boyes 
named Burrows sold by the purser, or otherwise the purser to 
Compound w"> m'' pcrsy for him M'' Persy desireth now to haue 
Robert Burrows 

Walter Horscfoote further sayeth y' m'' Page saidc that m'' 
Wake was to haue a boy of his named burrows. 
Wm Webster purser Doth Consigne over to M*" Abraham Persy 
Hugh Brooke, Wm Larancc and Jane Steckie, in lew of three 
servantc w''' y" M^ and Company suffered to goc away from 
them beinge three of m"" persie sevance 






','-A'J:".'<^^ '/f?EO \o UiLn->p g 






'in ;•.': j. .'y. 



I'lW ,r: ji-'ij-] "rn i<- j-m 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 65 

[ink folio 163] 

Received of m" Woollrige 

one hogshed marked— T D ' ' ' '^ ■ 

one barrell marked — T D 

one servante 

William WB Browne 
" his marke ' ' " ' ' ' ' ' 

Ytt ys ordered y* m' woolgrige shall haue a boye servante Caled 
whiffle now remayninge w'^ Thomas Spillmas in satisfaction for 
his servante, w^'' ye ships Company suffered to goe away. 
Yt is Also ordered y' for a kilderkin and smale chest of Surgery 
sent over by m^^ Woodall to Christopher beast, the Colony beinge 
in great want of said surgery That not w^'standing of m' 
woodalls desire of hauinge the same retomde, m-" wake Do leaue 
the saide goods heere w**^ y^ Phisitions and Chirurgions y^ they 
be furnished therw''', they puttinge in securitie to this Courte, 
To pay to m' woodall in Englande so much redie money as it 
Cost w'^ such resonable proffit as shalbe to his Content. 

Y' is ordered y* the Purser of the Elizabeth shall pay to m' 
Pcarle for G tonne of beere and 9 hundred of bred W^'' they spent 
of his at sea the some of twelve hundred waight of good Mar- 
chantable Tobacco at or before the last Dye of November next 
enswinge, vppon payment wherof, M"- Pearle shall give the said 
purser A Discharge for all the goodes shipt aboorde the Eliza- 
beth by m'' Benet And for five servantes y' rann away in Eng- 
lande at Dover, M^ Benett is to Receive satisfactione for them 
in England. 

(To be Continued.) 



J{ 



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66 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 



(Contributed by the late Lothrop Withington, London, Eng.) 

Simon Aston, Citizen and Grocer of London. Will 2 August 
1638; ])roved 15 August 1638. To wife Elizabeth Yi of goods 
and executrix. Overseers: Brothers William Wheeler Esq. 
and Robert Aston, Citizen and Grocer of London. Richard 
Nelme £10 to make up accounts of Shopp. To poor of St. 
Peters Cheap £4. To Mother £20 per annum. To eldest 
son William Aston £50. Witnesses: James Smith, Thomas 
Lavender, John Hope. Lee, 99. • ■ '' ■ ■*' i - * ■ ' 

Elizabeth Aston of London, widow. Will 12 April 1647; 
proved 25 September 1647. I commit my body to the earth 
to be buried in decent manner in the parish church of All Saints 
Staining, London, as near to my later dear father, John Wheeler, 
esq., deceased, as conveniently may be, but not with pomp and 
solemnity or mourning, which I leave to the discretion of my 
brother and executor to do therein as I have to him declared. 
I gi\e to my sisters Ann Wynn and Mary Anesworth 40s apiece 
to buy them rings. To my sister Lucilia Dodd £10 to remain 
in the hands of my executor to her proper use. To my brother 
John Wheeler 40s. for a ring to wear in remembrance of me. 
To my sisters Agneta Moone and Clara van de Welde the like 
sum apiece. To my sister Mrs. Elizabeth Wheeler a ring of 40s. 
price- in testimony of my love and affection unto her. To my 
cousin Mrs. Ehzabeth Aby 40s. To my cousin Mrs. Mary 
Rucidiard, widow, a ring of 40s. price to wear in remembrance 
of Tile. To my ser\'ant Elizabeth Comwell £5. To Marie 
Buti, sometimes my sen'ant, 20s. To eight poor widows, at the 
election of my executor, 10s. apiece. To the poor of St. Kath- 
erine Coleman, London, and of all Saints Steyning, 40s. to 



'rrr ,n. 



•jf,: * ■ •y):iL^.'.\ni'yr.)i uj 'iftW. <^; gun £ lol .cOt 



Vii: '>T 'vj.l '>. n U{n! J ,ni;-\> 



C/r...!/". dl" ''-i 1! iirui) 



jauvio 



OJ .iiO^ .iidtn/jir; ,-.,nii; < Hi'. V) 



VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. '" 67 

either parish. To Master WilHam Engler 40s. To my three 
sons, William, Simon, and Robert Aston, £200 apiece at their 
several ages of 21. To my eldest daughter Anne Aston £300, 
and to my youngest daughter Sarah Aston £200, at their 
several ages of 18. I give also to my said daughters such of my 
plate, linen, and woolen things, as I have set apart for them, and 
parcelled out with my own hands and set their names thereon. 
To my three sons, £5 apiece in old gold. I give unto my 
executors, children, and servants mourning apparel only, and 
desire that the rest of my friends will be contented with the 
legacies only before mentioned and intended unto them. The 
residue of my goods I give equally among my said five children. 
I ordain my very loving brother William Wheeller, of West- 
burie county, Wilts, esq., and my son William Aston my over- 
seers. And to my said brother Master WiUia m Wheeller, for 
his great care and pains to be taken therein, and for a remem- 
brance of my love to him, I give £10 to buy him a piece of plate 
at his discretion and pleasure. Codicil 24 July 1G47. I do 
further declare that, in regard my sister Dod has shown great 
love to me in the time of my long sickness, to the £10 formeriy 
given to her £10 more be added; and likewise that £5 more 
be distributed to poor widows. The mark of Elizabeth Aston 
Witnesses: William Steedman, Thomas Coleman, servt. to 
Thomas Bostocke, scr. Proved by William Wheeller, with 
power reserved, etc. Fines, 188. 

The Visitation of London, 1634, states that Walter Aston, of Long- 
don, Staffordshire (grandson of Sir Walter Aston of Tixall), had issue- 1 
Thomas, living at Kilbary, Ireland; 2. Simon, of London, Grocer who 
married Elizabeth, daughter of John Wheeler, of London; 3. Walter, 
' now in the West Indies;" 4. Robert, of London, grocer. As Virginia 
was then frecjuently referred to as in the West Indies, it is very probable 
that the Walter Aston referred to was the one whose tomb is at the site 
of the old church at Westover. The epitaph is as follows: 
"Here Lyeth interred the body of leftenant ' 
Colonoll Walter Aston who died the Cth 
.' I Apr ill 1056. He was Aged • 

49 years And 
Lived in this country 28 yeares 
Also here lyeth the Body of Walter Aston 
the son of Leftenant CoUonel Walter Aston 
who departed this life ye 29th of lanuari 1666 
Aged 27 Yeares and 7 Monthes." 
Walter Aston, Sr., came to Virginia in 1028, and settled in Charles City 
County. He was a member of the House of Burgesses for Shirley Hundred 



k) 



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68 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ''' 

Island 1629-30, Both Shirley Hundreds &c., 1631-32, Shirley Hundred 
Maine and "Cawseys Care" Sept. 1632, and Feb. 1632-3, and Charles 
City Co. 1642-3. He was also justice of the peace and lieutenant colonel 
of militia. His first wife was named Warhoro, or Narbrow, and his 
second (who survived him and married Col. Edward Hill) was Hannah. 
On Aug. 2, 1646, Walter Aston patented 1040 acres in Charles City on 
Kymages Creek, including 200 more on "Cawseys Care." Lt. Col. Aston 
died in 1656 having issue: (1) Susannah, widow, in 1655, of Lieutenant 
Col. Edwa-d Major; (2) Walter; (3) Mary, married Richard Cocke; (4) 

Elizabeth, married Binns. The will of Walter Aston, Jr., was 

dated Dec. 21, 1666, and proved Feb. 4, 1660-67. Legatees: to his 
mother Hannah Hill, a parcel of land called "The Level:" to godson John 
Cocke, son of Richard Cocke, deceased, 4000 lbs. tobacco; to godson 
Edward Cocke, son of Richard Cocke, 6000 lbs. tobacco; the survivors 
to have the whole'amount of 10,000 lbs. and if they were without issue 
it is to go to the other children, sisters Mary Cocke and Elizabeth Binns 
20 shillings each for a ring; a gun called Pollard to servant John Mitten 
and a sow; to testators Irish boy Edward a sow, to Mr. George Harris, 
merchant, all the dividend of land at Cawseys Care, the land at Canting 
Point and rest of estate]. 

Henry Eltonhead of London Merchant bound for a voj^age 
to the East Indies in the good ship called the Hound of London. 
Will 23 November 1616; proved 12 February 1619-20. To my 
brother Nicholas Eltonhead of Greenwich county Kent, gent 
all my estate whatsoever and I m.ake him sole executor. William 
Manley servant to Nicholas Reeve, scr., Edward Pierce ser- 
vant to said scrivenor. Soame, 22. 

The ancient family of Eltonhead, of Eltonhead, Lancashire, has 
many descendants in Virginia. Sec Haydcn's Virginia Genealogies 228- 
230. Henry Eltonhead, whose will is given here was evidently the 
son of William Eltonhead. His name and that of his brother Nicholas 
appear on the chart pedigree. Henry Eltonhead. whose will was dated 
in 1665. was a brother of Richard Eltonhead, of Eltonhead, though not 
named in the chart. This is evident as he mentions his brother Thomas 
Meares ]. 

Henry Eltonhead late of London Esq deceased. Will 27 
July 1665. These seuerall following I doc giue to my Brother 
R. Eltonhead if I dye a single man. Moneys due to me in 
Ireland by bond in Mr. John Doughty's hands in Dublin £100. 
Mr. Thom.as Houghton is bound interest due 10 in hundred this 
bond is in hands of Mr. Walter Scudamorc. In hands of Mr. 
Timothy "GroUiers" in Dublin wherein Mr. James Buttcele 
is bound at 10 in hundred. In my landlords hand Mr. Joseph 
Stokers in Dublin £100 at his house in Castle Street Dublin, 
interest to be paid by him by reason I lay two yeares in his 



.nv 



T 



VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 69 

house and paid nothing for my chamber which I ought to pay 
for after the rate of fiue pound ten shiUings a year. In my 
brother Richard Barrys hands my salary due from the King as 
Commissary for Munster £97. Two bonds of Mr. Edwd Rands 
£90 some years ago. Two bonds of my brother Tho. Mearas 
£6 in hands of Mr. Nathaniell Foulkes he Hves at the sign of the 
Horseshoe in Castle Street Dublin. I owe Mr. William Rich- 
ardson £2i. Mr. Clement Hog for two last terms Business 
£8. Due from Mr. Denton £100. Due to my proctor Mr. 
John Clements £10. Grant BoDk 1638-1G75 fo. 51. Letters 
of Administration with will etc to Richard Eltonhead of Elton- 
head in county Lancashire in England Esq of goods of Henry 
Eltonhead late of London Esq deceased on 23 August 1670. 
Prerogative Court of Ireland, Will BDok 1658-72, folio 165. 

William Barlowe. Will 21 February 1617; proved 15 June 
1625. If I die at Easton my body to the Chancell. G3d having 
given me ability in my lifetime to provide for my wife and 
children, I will now be the shorter. My daughter Anne having 
as }'et very little of certainty I make her estate worth £303. 
To my brother John Barlowe 103 marks. To my son Thomas 
all my Loadstones and Mathematical books and instruments. 
To the poor of Winchester 40s. To those of the scale 33s. To 
poor of Easton 40s. To poor of Avington 23s. To my men 
servants and maids half a years wages. My wife Julyan Bar- 
lowe and my son William Barlow joynt exeeutors. My son 
William Barlow shall have £40 to assist his mother but all 
things to her direction. My daughters Mary and Katherine 
portions may amount to £300 apiece. All such reversions of 
the Church Coppihoulds as I shall have at my death unbar- 
gained for and unsold I give to my son Barnaby Barlowe. 
Clarke, 67. 

About the middle of the Seventeenth century a Ralph Barlowe lived 
in Northampton Co., Va. Various references in the records there show 
that he was related to Robert Parker of that county, who, like William 
Barlowe, whose will is given above, was a Hampshire man. On Oct. 
28, 1653, Mr. George Parker sued Mr. John Elsey, executor of Mr. 
Ralph Barlowe, and on June 28, 1658, Jone Elzey "of Old England" 
petitioned Northampton Court that Mr. John Elzey executor of Mr. 
Ralph Barlowe, should pay her 500 lbs. tobacco left her, in Ralph Bar- 
lowe's willj. 



'•] 



\V qv 



70 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



COUNCIL PAPERS, 1698-1701 

(From the Original in the Virginia State Library.) 

(Continued) 

Thanksgiving Proclamation 

Whitehall November ye 11*^ 1702 
Sir 

We send you here inclosed her Majestys proclamation direct- 
ing a pubhck thanksgiving throughout England for the great 
Successes of her Ma'tys Arms by Sea and land. And we do 
hereby Signify to you her Majestys pleasure that a day of pub- 
lick llianksgiving for those Successes be likewise solemnized 
throughout all her plantacons in America; You are therefore to 
take care that a day be accordingly set apart for that purpose 
as soon as conveniently may be after your receipt hereof, And 
that the same be obser\'ed throughout her Majestys Colony 
and Dominion of Virginia under yo"" Government, with such 
due Solemnities as are Suitable to so great an occasion. So we 
bid you heartily farewell. 

Yo"" very Loving Friends 
:('' ;i. > . . 't ; 1 Rob. Cecill 

■ i^ f < Ph. Meadows 

. ■."•- I,' 1 'i ■ . r, t r, ,;,, Wm. Blathwajrt 
„, .' 1 , John Pollexfen 

Mat Prior. 



i.n 



Council of Virginia to the Queen Anne 

To the Queen's most excell^ Maj*'^ 
May it please yo' Ma'ty 

We the Council of yo"" Maty's Colony and Dominion of Vir- 
ginia after due perusal and serious consideracon of Yo'' Maj"°* 



AyiA . 



COUNCIL PAPERS 71 

gracious Letter signifying yo'' Royal pleasure concerning a 
voluntary Contribution of men and money for New York laid 
before Us by his Excellency Francis Nicholson Esq"" yo"" Majestys 
Lieu' and Governor General of this Colony and Dominion, 
being extremely concerned that oiir answer to the like demand 
made b}'' Yo"" Matys Royal Brother William the third of blessed 
memory contained in our petition of October ye P* 1701 did not 
give your Maj*^"" the expected satisfaction, but that our manage- 
ment of that affair was disallowed by the Lords of the Council 
for Trade and plantacons Humbly beg leave in the most dutifull 
manner to lay before Yo'' Majesty our answers to those partic- 
ulars wherein by the advice of the said Lords, We find yo' 
IMajesty disapproves our conduct in that petition, together 
with an account of our late endeavors to comply with yo'' 
Ma''^^ commands in the said Letter as far as is within the reach 
of our Station and province. 

Whereas in the first place we are charged as having made 
our application to yo"" ]\Ia*''=* Royal Brother in an irregular 
manner by an Agent of our own without the consent of our 
Governour We himibly offer to yo'' Ma''*^^ consideracon that 
as we were altogether free from any ill design in this method, 
so we Never heard before that any such Rule had been sett 
limiting the Addresses of Subjects in the plantations to their 
Soveraign to be m.ade only by the consent and through the 
hands of their Governors, and in this particular case, our Gov- 
ernor had signified so much of his disapprobation of the pro- 
ceedings of the General Assembly on acco* of the said Address 
that we judged it would have been improper to have desired 
or expected his mediation or concurrence therein : But now that 
we know yo'' Maj''''^ pleasure we shall take care in this, and all 
other applications to yo'' Majesty to observe the said Rule as to 
the manner of presenting our petitions. 

In the next place it is observed of the said petition w"^** was 
presented to Yo'' Maj*'° in the name of the Council and Bur- 
gesses of Virginia that it was signed by no more than four of the 
members of the said Council: But to this we humbly offer to 
yo'' Maj'"^^ consideracon that it often happens by reason of 
sickness, and the very remote and distant habitations of many 



IT 



t»." e^ ••i-.j.'l t.'i'-^ -J : I 



EAW *'• 



72 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of the members of yo'' Council, the badness of weather, and the 
unpassableness of great Rivers and Bays at certain Seasons that 
we are obHged to act with very small numbers : and particularly 
at that time there being but a thin Council before the late nom- 
ination, and these reduced to m^any inconveniences by a tedious 
absence from home during a very long Session of Assembly, 
Several of them had repaired to their homes to look after their 
business which Sufferred exceedingly by so long absence, by 
which means it came to pass that there were no more of the 
Council left, but those few who subscribed the said petition, 
the rest who went away before it was finished having been con- 
senting while they staid to the several Resolves that had been 
made about it. So that it was really an unanimous consent of 
the Council, tho' signed only by those four who gave their 
attendance to the last. 

Besides the objections against the manner of presenting the 
said petition, the reasons for excusing ourselves from the afore- 
said contribution are excepted against as insufficient. To 
which all we have to offer is, that tho' we were then, and still 
are of the opinion (with Submission to the better Judgements 
of the Lords of Council for Trade and plantations) that the 
Reasons laid down in the said petitioa were very Sufficient to 
justify the proceedings of that Assembly with relacon to a Con- 
tribution of men and money for New York; Yet so great is the 
defercrice we have for yo'' Maj*'^^ recommendation of that 
affair to the present General Assembly, that tho' the said 
reasons seem to us to be still in full force, We have taken no 
notice of them, but have used our best endeavors consistent 
with the methods of Assembly to further the intent of Yo' 
jyjg^tus gracious Letter with the House of Burgesses, and to take 
some good method with the said House for Yo"" Ma''*"* satis- 
faction. 

And therefore we doubt not Yo' Majestys candid construc- 
tion of our proceedings and endeavors, w"^*^ tho' ineffectual to 
overcome the general dissatisfactions of the Country and their 
Rcijresentatives in this affair of New York, Yet we think it our 
duty to assure Yo'' Majesty that you reign entirely in the hearts 
of Yo'' Virginia Subjects, and that there are none in all yo' 



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COUNCIL PAPERS. 73 

Dominions better affected to Yo"" Matys person and Govern- 
ment than they are. 

And upon this occasion we humbly take leave to congratulate 
the wonderfull Success of Yo'' Ma''°^ Forces by Sea and land 
in this last Summers expedition, and to pray to Almighty God 
that the remaining part of yo'' auspicious Reign may answer 
so glorious a begining, to yo' Maj*''^* immortal honour the terror 
of yo"^ enemies, and the happiness of all yo'' Subjects and Allies 
William Byrd E Jenings J Lightfoot 

Benja Harrison Matthew Page James Blair 

Robert Carter Phill. Ludwell jun' Wm Bassett 

Jno. Custis -, . Hen. Duke. 



Memorandum 



April y^ 24"' 1703. His Excell'cy was pleased to appoint Major 
Arthur Allen to be Naval Officer & Collector of the Virg'a 
dutys in the Upper District of James River who thereupon took 
the Oaths appointed by Act of parliam' to be taken in stead of 
the Oaths of Allegiance & Supremacy Subscribed the Test & 
took the Oath of Naval Officer, And entered into three sev'U 
Bonds for the due execution of his Office with Henry Duke of 
James City County Esq'' as his Security. 



Money Furnished by Virginia to New York 

Received of his Excellency Francis Nicholson Esq' her 
Majestys Lieuten' and Governor Gen'll of her Colony and 
Dominion of Virginia, three bills of Exchange all of the same 
tenure & dale, upon Messieurs Micajah Perry Tho: Lane & 
Rich'* Perry Merchants in London for the Sum of 900 lb. Sterl- 
ing, which said Sum of 900 lb. Sterling is the Quota appointed 
by his late Majestys Royal comands dated the 19'''' of January 
1700-1 and by her present Majestys Royal commands dated the 
day of to be furnished by her Matys s** 

Colony of Virginia towards the ffortifications on the Frontiers 
of New York ; but the Colony of Virginia having refused in the 



er 



u.. . 



I <';rr'\ 



Jii 



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74 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Gen '11 Assembly to raise the s'' Sum of 900 lb. Sterling required 
by the Crowii, & his s^ Excellency having given the s*^ three 
Bills upon his own Credit, through the zeal he has for the 
service of the Queen, I do hereby promise & engage that unless 
the Queen shall be pleased to allow the s'^ bills to be paid out 
of her Ma'tys Quitt rents of the Colony of Virginia the s'' bills 
shall immediatly be cancelled & made void & of none effect 
Witness my hand this 24''' day of May, 1703. 
' ' ''' '^ ; ^ " ' - . Combury 



Additional Instructions 
Lurs Sigilli Anne R — to our Trusty and Welbeloved 
Francis Nicholson Esq"" Our Lieut- 
enant and Governor General of our 
Colony and Dominion of Virginia. 
Given at our Court at S* James's the 
7'^ day of January 1702-3 in the first 
year of our Reign. 
Whereas it has been represented to us that Ships sailing from 
our plantacons in America without Convoy during this time of 
War are Subject to great hazards, and that diverse of them have 
been taken by the Enemy to the great Loss and detriment of 
our Loving Subjects: And whereas for the preventing the mis- 
chiefs that may happen in that manner to the Trade of those 
parts, We have been pleased to give direction that a Convoy 
do proceed from hence with the outward bound ships the latter 
end of this instant January, Which Convoy is to return from 
Virginia the first or tenth of July next with the Trade that shall 
then be ready to accompany them, and that another Convoy 
be likewise sent with such Ships as shall be ready to sail from 
hence to Virginia & Maryland in July next, It is therefore our 
will and pleasure that you take especial care that during the time 
of War, no ships do sail from Virginia otherwise than with Con- 
voy, Such ships only excepted as shall have Licence from Us 
under our Royal Sign manual, our Order in Council, or from 
our high Admiral. And for yo"" so doing this shall be yo' 
Warrant. 

- •-•■-• A. R. ■ ■ 



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council papers. 75 

Board of Trade to the Governor of Virginia. 

^ _ . . ,, . Whitehall January the 2Q'^ 1702-3 
Sir 

Since our Letters of the 4''' and IV^ November, We have not 
received any from you; So that what we have now chiefly to 
acquaint you with is in relation to the Convoys appointed this 
year for Virginia & Maryland. 

The Merchants trading to those parts not agreeing as you 
did foresee about the time for the sailing of those Convoys, nor 
about the restraining or permitting ships to return from thence 
without Convoy; Her Majesty has been pleased to give her 
directions according to the Instructions w'^'' you will herewith 
receive. 

The Arms and Stores formerly appointed for Virginia are 
now ready, tho' they are not in the same quantity as you de- 
sired, Yet they are as many as her Majesty could conveniently 
spare. They will be sent to you by the first Convoy, and we 
do not doubt but you will make the best use of them for the 
defence of yo'^ Govemm*. 
So we bid 3'ou heartily farewell. 

Yo' very Loving Friends 
Rob. Cecil 
John Pollexfen Ph: Meadows 

Mat Prior Wm. Blathwayt. 

March y« 25"^ 1703 

We herewith send you two lett'^ from the Earl of Nottingham 
relating to the French & Spaniards upon occasion of the present 
war, not doubting of yo'' care in observing the directions thereby 
given within her Matys province imder yo'' Government. 



Governor and Council of Md. to the Governor of Virginia 

Maryland port of Aimapolis May 5^^ 1703 
May it please yo'^ Excell'cy 

We being Sensible by many signal instances how ready yo* 
Evcell'cy is on all occasions to promote the Trade as well of yo* 



CT 



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.a\rnen 



TO aovi- 



tOTX ^T. Y 



76 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, 

own as this Countrey & others concerned therein, especially in 
the many speedy notices you have been pleased to give us on all 
occasions to joine the Convoys from yo' Excell'cys Government, 
and that to yo"" no small trouble & expence — presuming upon 
yo"^ wonted goodness, We address Ourselves to yo' Excell'cy 
for yo'' favourable protection to Cap* James Mitchell comman- 
der of the ship Owners Adventure of London who has lately 
received many abuses and hard threats from Cap' Nathaniel 
Bostock Commander of her Matys Advice boat the Eagle (now 
supposed to be in yo"" Excell'cys Govemm*) and is still appre- 
hensive of further insults from him; Therefore in regard the 
said Mitchell is a fair Trader and a very Civil honest man (in 
his way) We intreat yo"" Excell'cy will be pleased to grant him 
yo"^ protection that his person may not be abused nor his Voy- 
age cndammaged or retarded by the said Cap' Bostock 's im- 
pressing his men or otherwise within yo'^ Govemm', In w"'*' you 
will continue to oblige 
Sr 

Yo'' Ex'cys most faithful humble Serv'' 
Jno Hammond Thomas Tench Presid* 

Edw'J Lloyd Robert Smith 

Wm Holland 
'" ' James Sanders ' - - :> 

(To be Continued) ' 



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VIRGINIA IN 1678, . \ ' 77 



VIRGINIA IN 1678. 



(Abstracts by W. N. Sainsbury, and copies in the McDonald 
and De Jamette Papers, Virginia State Library.) 
(continued) 

July 6, 1678 
Certified copy by Gov. Jeffreys of a deposition of Paul 
Williams in reference to what Col. Edward Hill said concerning 
his Maj. letter if any should come in favour of Byrd [indorsed 
by Col. Moryson] "who was a prisoner of Bacon's and carried 
about with him when Col. \\^amer was plundered for which they 
have awarded a thousand pound for Bird to pay tho' after his 
Maj. pardon." Indorsed Read. 14 Dec. 1678. 
(Colonial Papers. 1. p.) 



Virginia July 10, 1678 
Governor Herbert Jeffreys to Colonel Francis Mory- 
son— Wrote him a full account of all affairs last week by Capt. 
Jeffreys of the Golden Fortune, and now refers him to the bearer 
Col. Place, an eye witness of many of the particulars — Desires 
he will inform himself of what he long since propecied, what a 
sad and hard game Jeffreys had and has still to play, besides 
the misery of sickness he has undergone and is not yet quite 
rid of. 

(Colonial Papers. 1. p.) 



James City, Virginia, Aug. 8, 1678 
Wm. Sherwood to Secretary Sir Joseph Williamson. 
The peace of the Country interrupted by the malice of discon- 
tented persons of the late Governor Berkeley's party who en- 
deavour to bring a contempt upon Col. Jeffreys, their present 
good Governor — the chief being Lady Berkeley, Col. PhiHp 
Ludwell, Thos. Ballard, Col. Edward Hill & Major Robt. 
Beverley, all cherished by Sec. Ludwell, who acts severely. 
Their faction upheld by the hope of Lord Culpeper doing 



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(.q .1 .ai^fiil Lsin, 






78 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

mighty things for them. Is hated and abused for opposing 
that faction & vindicating the King's authority — Refers him 
to the bearer Col. Rowland Place, for a more ample accoimt. 
(Colonial Papers. 1. p.) 



'-'' Sept. 24, 1678 

■ ■■ ' ' List of Acts made in Virginia transmitted by Capt. 

■■'"' Jefferies and received from M' Secretary Coventry on the 

24th of Sept. 1678^ Sir Wm. Berkeley Governor. 
' '• ■ '"- Which Acts begin in March 1660 and end in October 1677. 
''^■'^ r '"-' 1st Session from 3 March 1660 to 23 Dec. 1662. 

2 Dec. 1662 to Sept. 1663. 
10 Sept. 1663—20 Sept. 1664. 
20 Sept. 1664—10 Oct. 1665. 
5 June 1666. 

5 June 1666—23 Oct. 1666. 
23 Sept. 1667. ^^"f"" 

23 Sept. 1667—17 Sept. 1668. 
17 Sept. 1668—20 Oct. 1669. 
20 Oct. 1669—3 Oct. 1670. 

3 Oct. 1670—20 Sept. 1671. 
20 Sept. 1671—24 Sept. 1672. 

24 Sept. 1672—20 Oct. 1673. 

20 Oct. 1673—21 Sept. 1674. 

21 Sept. 1674—7 Mar. 1675. 
5 June 1676. 

20 Feb. 1676-7. ■ - 

10 Oct. 1677. 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 84.) '•-■^' .- vj- • 
Also Copies of the above Acts certified by Robt. Beverley, 
Clerk of the Assembly. 

(Ibid. pp. 1-102.) ■'• "•' - ■■ ■■■ .. '»: ■ 





2nd Do 




3rd Do 




4'^' Do. 


•■ '- 


5'^ Do. 


• 1- . ! 


6^*^ Do. 


> ■■ " , : 


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S*"^ Do. 


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9'*^ Do. 


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''^ 10'^ Do. 


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IV' Do. 


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12'»^ Do. 




13*'' Do. 




14"> Do. 


'.■'■■" ■ 


15^1^ Do. 




16'^' Do. 


'■.■ .•, : 


17"' Do. 


.■.-. . 


• 18 'I' Do. 



Oct. 25, [1678] 

Col. Francis Moryson to W. Blathwayt, Sends an order 

lately received from Virginia [see 23 Oct. 1677.] wliich will 

give their Lordships (of Trade & Plantations) a prospect of 

the arrogancy of Virginia Assemblies — It was made by an 



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VIRGINIA IN 1G78. ■: • • ,.. 79 

Assembly which was called after their coming away — that 
which sat during the time the Commiss" executed their 
Commission, never so much as questioned their power which 
was sufficiently understood — This very Beverley (that com- 
plained) had a sight of as much as concerned his de- 
livery of the records before they had them — Did not 
think it necessary to record an executed Commission in an 
Inferior Court — This order was made by the House of Burgesses 
and not by both Houses so he will see how unfit Appeals in 
causes lye to them from the Governor & Council that make the 
other house. , . , 

(Colonial Papers. 1. p.) ... > . 



Oct 29 [1678] 

Col. Francis Moryson to [Wm. Blathwayt] — Has sent 
the Conunission the Commiss" acted upon in Virginia that the 
Lords may be informed the records and other papers were com- 
manded by virtue of their Commission and not by force as the 
Order of Assembly imports (see 23 Oct. 1677). That Beverley 
had a sight of said Commission before he delivered the records. 

Rej^lies to other points in reference to said Order. 

(Colonial Papers. 1. p.) 



Whitehall, Oct. 30, 1678 
Order of the Privy Council on Representation of the 
Assembly of Virginia to Gov. Jeffryes setting forth that 
his IMaj. Conmiissioners had forced from the Clerk of the 
Assembly all their original journals, acts and other public papers 
which they took as a great violation of their privileges and de- 
sired that they might be assured no such violation should be 
offered for the future, his Maj. taking notice of the great pre- 
sumption of said Assembly in calling in question his authority 
derived to his said Commissioners refers the consideration 
thereof to the Lords of Trade and Plantations for their report 
wluil, lln-y till 111. fit to be done in vindication of his Maj. auth- 
oiiiy and (vv biinging said Assembly to a due sense and acknow- 
le(l[.anent of their duty and submission towards his Maj. and 
such as arc coir.missionated by him — also to prepare a Scheme 



•V 



•n>>U>iv 



;„' > ■ \> 



80 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of Laws & Orders to be transmitted to said Colony of Virginia. 
(Colonial Papers. 1. p.) 



Dec 13, [1678] 
Col. Francis Moryson to [Wm. Blathwayt]. Has advice 
that Col. Rowland Place is lately arrived from Virginia — He is 
the gentlemen Gov. Jeffreys mentions as able to give a true in- 
formation of all transactions in Virginia since the Commiss" 
coming away [see letter of 10 July 1678] — He is one of the Coun- 
cil and a very honest Gentleman — Conceives it necessary for the 
King's service to have a true prospect into the affairs there 
before Lord Culpeper goes — Wishes him to defer giving in the 
papers — the Queen [of Pamunkey]'s letter & complaint — the 
Governor's deposition concerning the denial of his Maj. letter 
in the case of Bird, and the Interpreter's letter. 
(Colonial Papers. 1. p.) 



Dec 12, 1678 

Minutes of a Committee for Trade and Plantations — 
Proposals received from Lord Culpeper in reference to the 
Governor of Virginia (read on 14 Dec.) "in pursuance of his 
Maj. commands" with marginal notes — Some of the Articles 
are "agreed" (see Orders of 14 and 20 Dec. 1678.) — These heads 
were delivered in Jan'y 1677 (-8) to Secretary Coventry and 
read at the Committee of Foreign affairs in May last, but by 
reason of my Lord Treasurer's absence, nothingdone — But 
on the IP'' August after a full debate upon every one, it was 
resolved as in the margin and so set down by M' Secretary 
Some lesser points were then also agreed to. 

(Colonial Papers.) 

Another Copy is entered in Col. Entry Bk. No. 80. pp. 258- 
263. 

(To be Continued) 



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GENEALOGY. 



81 



GENEALOGY. 



The Gorsuch and Lovelace Families. 



(By J. H. P., Baltimore, Md.) 



(iorsiiicf)* 






A brief but very interesting sketch of the Love- 
lace and Gorsuch families, representatives of 
which were early settlers in Virginia, Maryland 
and New York, contributed by the editor, ap- 
peared in The Virginia Magazine in 1909 (Vol. 
XVII-p. 288-293). The editor also presented new 
evidence identifying Francis Lovelace, the early 
colonial governor of New York (1G68-1673), as a 
brother of Richard Lovelace, the poet, of the 
Bethorsden family of Lovelace, and disproving 
the usually accepted statement that he was of the 
Hurley branch of the Lovelace family and a son of 
John Lovelace, Baron Lovelace, of Hurley. Ac- 
companying this sketch there was published a 
chart pedigree of the Lovelace and Gorsuch fami- 
lies showing connections by descent or m.arriage 
with the families of Sandys, Gilbert, Raleigh, 
Bame, Digges, Wyatt and with other noted fami- 
lies whose names are intimately associated with 
the early efforts to colonize Virginia. 

Since the publication of this sketch in The Virginia Magazine several 
years ago, the present writer has secured a great deal of data in regard to 
the Lovelace and Gorsuch families which was not accessible to the editor 
at the time the sketch just referred to was written, which corroborates 
the evidence then produced as regards the identity of Governor Love- 
lace, and also gives much additional information in regard to the early 
Lovelace and Gorsuch settlers in the new world, and their English an- 
cestors. Photographs recently secured of several members of these 
families as well as of places of interest with which their names arc asso- 
ciated, also seem of sufficient interest to warrant publication. 

The few errors which have been detected in the sketch just referred to 
arc due to the fact that some of the evidence in the hands of the editor 
was meagre and therefore misleading, or due to clerical errors in copying 




82 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the original records. Attention will be directed to any statements 
which additional evidence or a reexamination of the original records, 
has shown to be incorrect. While the reader is referred to the sketch 
itself for the evidence which is there presented in full, it will be well to 
summarize here the main points of the evidence as presented, which 
have an important bearing upon the subject. (1) The Gorsuch 
pedigree in the Visitation of London, 1G33. (2) Daniel Gorsuch's 
will, 163S. (3) Petition of Richard, Robert and Charles Gorsuch, 
sons of John Gorsuch, to the Lancaster, Va. court, April 1, 1657, for the 
appointment of their sister, Katherine Whilty* as guardian. (4) Con- 
firmation by Charles Gorsuch of the title to land in Maryland granted 
to his ijiother, Lovelace Gorsuch, in 1G6I. (5) A letter from Governor 
Francis Lovelace of New York to Governor Berkeley of Virginia, De- 
cember I), 1C)G9, requesting the lattcr's interest in liehalf of Will Whitbey, 
a son of Lovelace's niece, Mrs. i?«//jt Gorsuch. (G) Deed of gift of Anna 
Todd of Maryland mentioning her brother Charles Gorsuch, 1070. (7) 
Marriai'.c certiticate of Charles Gorsuch, 1090 1, giving his parentage. 
(8) Will of William Whitby, Jr., 1076, of Middlesex County, Va. 

Based upon the above evidence, the editor in his sketch stated that the 
first mention of the Gorsuch family in Virginia ocucrred in the petition 
of 1657 to the court of Lancaster County, Va., by Richard, Robert and 
Charles Gorsuch, "sons and coheirs of John Gorsuch, P'fessor in Divin- 
ity," that their sister Katherine [Vhitty might be appointed their guardian 
for their English interests, and that Francis Moryson (afterwards gov- 
ernor of Virginia) guardian for their Virginia estate. 

Attention was also called to the fact that these three brothers soon 
afterwards moved to Maryland, where their names thereafter appeared 
upon the records of that colony, and further that in 1609 title to certain 
lands in Maryland, granted to another brother, Lovelace Gorsuch in 1001, 
was confirmed by Charles and Lovelace Gorsuch. It was also noted 
that January 13, 1070-7 Mrs. Anna Todd, widow of Thomas Todd, of 
Baltimore County, made her brother Charles Gorsuch her attorney to 
transfer certain lands to her children. Still further corroboration of the 
Gorsuch pedigree was noted by him in the certificate of marriage of 
Charlc, C}orsuch dated 1090-1 to Anne Hawkins, recorded in the West 
River, Md. Quaker Meeting records in which it is stated that Charles 
wa.i theson of John and Anne Gorsuch, of the Kingdom of England, de- 
ceased. The above evidence from the colonial records cited by him, led 
the editor to the conclusion that John and Anne Gorsuch had four sons, 
Richard, Robert, Charles and Lovelace, and three daughters, Katherine 
W h i tty, Ruth Whitby and Anne Todd. Attenti on was further directed to 

*As will be shown later, the correct reading of this name in the Lan- 
caster records is Whitby not W/iiHy. 

jThe reading Ru.'h Gorsuch is also an error in copying. The correct 
reading in the original is Kalli Gorsuch. In modern terms she would 
have been "Miss Kath Gorsuch." 



GENEALOGY. " ' ' 83 

the fact that the Gorsuch pedigree in the Visitation of London, 1633, 
showed that the Rev. John Gorsuch, rector of Walkem, married Anne 
Lovelace, sister of the poet Richard Lovelace and daughter of Sir William 
Lovelace of Bethersden, Kent, and that in addition to the above, they 
had three older sons, Daniel, John and William. 

Recent researches by the writer in England and Maryland have added 
very considerably to our knowledge of the Gorsuch and Lovelace fam- 
ilies and their connections, and would seem to be of sufficient interest to 
justify rewriting the Gorsuch pedigree with the new evidence upon which 
the corrected pedigree is based, and also presenting a sketch of the Love- 
lace family. Some of this new material has been obtained from English 
wills and parish register records hitherto unpublished. Additional light 
has also been thrown upon the subject by an examination of certain more 
or less inaccessible printed publications. The Maryland records have 
furnished much new information in regard to the Gorsuch family, while 
the unpublished and recently published colonial records of New York 
have cleared up many uncertain questions in regard to several members 
of the Lovelace family. From the latter sources every doubt in regard 
to the identity of Francis Lovelace, Governor of New York, has been 
settled, so that it now is possible to give a more or less accurate sketch 
of his life and to clear up the confusion which has so long existed in dis- 
tinguishing between him and Francis Lovelace of Hurley. The photo- 
graphs of the portraits and places of interest, so far as is known, have 
never been previously published. Incidentally, in following the fortunes 
of the various members of the Gorsuch family in their migration from 
Virginia to Maryland, a fact of very great interest to students of Maryland 
history has been established. This is that the first actual settlement 
along the shores of the Patapsco, where the City of Baltimore now stands 
and in its immediate neighborhood, was made about 1659 by a group of 
settlers from Lancaster, County, Va. All the evidence points to the fact 
that many if not all ul these settlers, were recent converts to Quakerism, 
and that they left Virginia on account of religious persecution, just as a 
decade before the Virginia Puritans had sought refuge in Maryland and 
settled Providence, or as it was afterwards called Annapolis, and the 
neighboring parts of Anne Arundel County. 

Gorsuch Pedigree 

In the Visitation of London 1033-5 (Ilarleian Society; Visitations Vol. 
XV- [I. 327) there is to be found the pedigree of the Gorsuch family of 
Bishopsgate Ward, London, recorded in 1633 by Daniel Gorsuch of Lon- 
don, father of the Rev. John Gorsuch, who married Anne Lovelace. An 
illustration and description of the Gorsuch arms accompanies the pedi- 
gree. 

I. "William Gor.such of London, Marchant, descended out of Lanca- 
shire nigh Ormchurch." Married "Avice da. of Hillscn, brothers 

daughter to Robert Hillson of London, Marchant." Issue. 



S6 



bu-.a 



84 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. * ' 

•'*' II. "Danyell Gorsuch of London, Marchant, late Alderman's deputy of 

•- ' Bishopsgate Ward living 1633." An illustration of the arms as borne by 

■ ■•' ' Danyell Gorsuch (see illustration) is given and the statement is made 
that they were by "Letters pattents dated L577 granted to Robert Hill- 
son of London marchant by Clar. Cooke and continued to the descendants 
of Gorsuch to bear as their paternal coate." Danyell Gorsuch is stated 
to have married "Alice da of John Hall of London, marchant sometimes 
one of the Bridge Maisters." Issue, 1 son and 1 daughter. 

III. (l)"John Gorsuch, Rector of Walkhorne in Hertford, 1633." 
Married "Anne da of Sir William Louelace of Kent, Kt., etc." and (2) 
"Kalherin, wife of Thomas Haynes of Auborne Wiltshire." John and 
Anne (Lovelace) Gorsuch had issue living 1633, 3 sons and 1 daughter. 

IV. "Danyell Gorsuch aged about 4 yere ao 1633, John, William, 
' ■ Catherine." 

No efTort has been made by the writer to trace back the Gorsuch family 
beyond William of Ormskirk (Ormchurch), Lancashire, but confirmation 
of the Visitation pedigree and much additional data has been obtained 
from independent sources. The will of Daniel Gorsuch, the father of the 
Rev. John Gorsuch, has previously been published among Mr. Lathrop 
Withington's Virginia Gleanings in England in The Virginia Magazine 
(Vol. XVIT, p. 302-303). The will is quite lengthy and the reader is re- 
ferred to the Magazine for its full details. Only a few points having a 
' ' genealogical interest need be again referred to here. In this will dated 

' • ■ October 0th, 1638 and proved November 24. 1638 in the Prerogative 
■<" ' ■- Court of Canterbury, Daniel Gorsuch is de.-cribed as of Walkcrne, county 
• '• Hertford, gent, late citizen and mercer of London. He refers to his wife 
■'•' ' Alice and to "Mother Hall, deceased." He mentions his son John and 
i"^' • the latter's wife Anne, and leaves to him sundry tracts of land, rents, 
• • leases, etc., as well as horses and cattle about the parsonage grounds. 
He leaves to his grandson John, son of his son John, certain freeholds in 
Weston and settles certain other lands in Weston upon his son John's 
five other children, Daniell, William, Kathcrine, Robert and Richard, 
and upon any other children who may be bom to his son John. He also 
makes a bequest of £500 to his daughter Katherine Haynes and leaves 
to her husband Thomas Haynes £20 for mourning. To his daughter 
'■' "'^ Ann Gorsuch (wife of John) he leaves £20. To his ^C£f50M Daniel Haynes 
he leaves £.5. Reference is made to his brother-in-law Johnathah Browne, 
Doctor of Civil Laws, his brother Richard Bcresford, his coscn Mar- 
garet Browne, his coscn Barnard, and his coscn Edward Gorsuch in Lans. 
To William Gorsuch he leaves his gold ring with W. G. engraved in it. 
This will of Daniell Gorsuch is thus seen to confirm the Visitation pedi- 
gree and moreover shows that there were two other children of his son, 
John, viz. Robert and Richard, bom between the date of the Visitation 
(1633) and the date of the will (October 6, 1638). The Visitation shows 
that "my godson Daniel Haynes" of the will was in reality his grandson. 
His brother-in-law Johnathan Browne, Doctor of Civil Laws, will be 



GENEALOGY. '85 

shown later to be the second husband of Anne Barne who, by her first 
husband, Sir William Lovelace, was the mother of Anne Lovelace, who 
had married the testator's son, John Gorsuch. The exact relationship 
of the other persons mentioned in the will has not been determined. 

An examination of the parish register of Ormskirk published bj- the 
Lancashire Parish Register Society (Vol. XIII) shows numerous entries 
under the name Gorsutch in the 16th and 17th centuries, although none 
can be directly identified as of the immediate family of the Rev. John 
Gorsuch. his father or grandfather, although Edw. Gorsuch, whose son 
Edw. was buried July 1, 1611, may be "cosen Edward Gorsuch in Lans." 
mentioned in the will. 

The will of Alice Gorsuch. widow of the above mentioned Daniel Gor- 
such, which the writer has recently been fortunate enough to locate and 
to secure an abstract of, throws additional light upon the family. Alice 
Gorsuch outlived her husband twenty-five years. Her will dated July 
7, 1662, was proved February 3, 1662-3 in the Prerogative Court of 
Canterbury. 

Abstract of the will of Alice Gorsuch of Weston, co. Hertford, spinster, 
dated 7 July, 1662. (Prerogative Court of Canterbury — Juxon. 17) 

I give to my crandson Robert Gorsuch, £20 

To my grandson Richard Gorsuch, £10- 



To my granddaughter Elizabeth Powell, £10- 

To my grandsons Charles and Lovelace Gorsuch, £10 apiece, all these 

being children of my son John Gorsuch, D. D. 

I\ly lease for about five years yet to come, of about £52 a year in the 
parish of St. Olave, Southwark. payable by Frances Wilkinsonne and 
Richard Daniell, shall be divided equally among six of my grandchildren, 
viz. Johanna and Frances Gorsuch, daughters of my said son John, Ann 
Gorsuch, daughter of my grandson Daniell Gorsuch, John Gorsuch, son 
of my grandson William Gorsuch, and William and Elizabeth Whittby, 
son and daughter of my granddaughter Katherine Whittby. 

All the rest of my goods, leases, lands, etc. I give to my grandson 
Daniell Gorsuch, gent., whom I make my executor. 

(signed) Alice Gorsuch 
Witnesses: Edmund Hinde, Dorothy Caesar, John Crouch 
Proved 3 February 1662 (-3) by the executor named 

The will shows that the widow at the time of her death was living in 
Weston, a parish which adjoins Walkern, where her husband also owned 
property. Mention is made of five grandchildren described as the chil- 
dren of her son John Gorsuch, viz. Elizabeth Powell, Charles Gorsuch, 
Lovelace Gor.such, Johanna Gorsuch and Frances Gorsuch, who were not 
mentioned \n her husband's will and who therefore evidently were born 
after the luLter's death in 163S, while the will shows that of the older 
children of her son John at least three, viz. Daniel, Robert and Richard 



86 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Gorsuch were still living. The will leaves us uncertain as to whether 
two other of her son John's older children viz. William Gorsuch and 
Katherine Whittby, to whose children, however, bequests are made by 
name, were still living. The term "spinster" as applied to the testatrix 
in the probate was in common use, especially in Essex and thereabouts 
even down to the early part of the ISth century, as the equivalent of 
gentlewoman, whether married or single. 

Cussan's History of Hertfordshire (Vol. II. Hundred of Broadwater, 
p. 72-85), in a description of Walkern gives an interesting account of 
Daniel Gorsuch and his son John Gorsuch, who became rector of this 
parish. It appears that the living was at the disposal of the owner of the 
rectory. After tracing the various owners through several centuries 
it is stated that the rectory was "Purchased November 30, 1616, by Ed- 
ward Beale of London, grocer, who sold it to Daniel Gorsuch of London, 
merchant, who presented his son John Gorsuch D. D. as rector, 
July 28, 1632, and built a new rectory for him." In the chancel of the 
Walkern Church there is a handsome marble monument erected by Daniel 
Gorsuch to his own memory and to that of his wife. The name Gorsuch 
incised upon the monument is said to have been mutilated. This may 
possibly have been done by some of the Puritan enemies of the rector 
durmg the Civil Wars. Cussan, after commenting upon the error in the 
inscription gives its reading as follows: "Daniel Gorsnor Citizen & 
Mercer Of London In Ye Month of July 1638 Cavsed Ys Tombe To Be 
Made For Himself & His Wife Alice By Whom He Had Three Children 
lohn Katherine & Mary His Age Being Yn 69 Years 6 Monthes And Odd 
Dayes, Who Died The Eighth Daye Of October Ao DO 1638." Cussan 
in describing the monument says that it shows the arms of Gorsuch im- 
paled with the arms of Hall. The writer has been fortunate in securing 
a photograph of this monument. Cussan states that in the east window 
of the Church there are four shields. One shield is charged viz. Sable; 
two Bars engrailed between three Fleur-de-lys, or; Crest; Issuant from a 
Ducal coronet a Lion rampant or, for Gorsuch. Another shield is 
charged with the arms of The Mercers Company of which Daniel Gorsuch 
was a member. The arms of Hall as impaled with Gorsuch on the monu- 
ment are described viz. Argent; seme of Crosses— crosslct gules, three 
Griffins heads erased sable. The Bishop's Transcripts of the Parish 
Register of Walkern contain the entry that "Danyell Gorsuch of London, 
merchant (was) buried Oct. 1638." The monumental inscription shows 
that in addition to John and Katherine there was a daughter Mary who 
apparently died young, as her name does not appear in the Visitation 
among the children of Daniel and Alice Gorsuch, nor is she mentioned 
in either her father's or mother's will. 

An effort to obtain additional information in reference to the Gorsuch 
family from the Parish Register of Walkern disclosed the fact that the 
Register itself prior to IGSO was missing. Through the assistance of the 
Registrar of the Lincoln Diocesan Registry, the writer was recently able 



4 

.SMIXAOAM ZiW ^^ 



n 



li 




TOMB OF DANIEL AND ALICE (HALL) GORSUCH 
, , .. , South Side OF Chancel cfWalkekn Church, 

r '. • : ABOVE THE SeDILIA 



GENEALOGY. 87 

to locate the "Bishop's Transcripts" of the Walkem Parish Register, 
for a portion of the period which it was important to cover. For some 
unexplained reason these Transcripts are not deposited in the Diocesan 
Register, but from 1009 to 1813 with breaks from 1G42-1G60, and a few 
others of shorter period, are now in the possession of Mr. W. O. Times of 
Hawkins & Co., Hitchen, Hertfordshire. Mr. Times has kindly made 
copies of the I7th century Gorsuch entries up to the break of 1G42. 

Gorsuch Entries — Bishop's Transcripts of the Walkern Herts 
Register 

1G32 July 28 — John Gorsuch, Rector of Walkem, instituted. 

1G33 November 26 — Katheren Gorsuch, daughter of John, baptised. 

1G35 November 19 — Robert Gorsuch son of John and Anne his wife, bap- 
tised. 

1G37 April 19— Richard Gorsuch son of John and Anne his wife, baptised. 

1G3S October 16— Danyell Gorsuch, London, merchant, buried. 

1G38-9 March 13— Anna Gorsuch daughter of John and Anne his wife, 
baptised. 

1641 May 13— Elisabeth Gorsuch, daughter of John and Anne, baptised. 

1642 August 25— -Charles Gorsuch, son of John and Anne, baptised. 
1642 — John Gorsuch, rector of Walkem, ejected. 

Among the marriages for 1639 is entered — 1639-40 March 15-Anna Gor- 
such, daughter of John and Anna Gorsuch, baptised. 

The Bishop's Transcripts are intact for the entire period of the Rev. 
John Gorsuch's incumbency at Walkem. The Visitation (1G33) for- 
tunately gives a list of the children born prior to the period covered by 
the Walkem Transcripts (1632-1642). Daniel Gorsuch's will confirms 
the Visitation and the Transcripts down to 1638, while from Alice Gor- 
such's will (1G62) we are able to supply the names of several children 
born after the eviction from Walkern, and are thus from various sources 
enabled to construct what is probably a complete list of the children of 
John and Anne Gorsuch. The only point of uncertainty is whether 
Johanna Gorsuch mentioned in Alice Gorsuch's will is identical with 
Anna of the Walkem Register or whether there were two daughters 
Anna and Johanna. 

The Rev. John Gorsuch appears to have been an aggressive Royalist. 
In Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714 (part ii, page 251) there is an 
account of the charges filed against John Gorsuch D. D. rector of Walk- 
herne by the parliamentary party. As an example of the unrestrained 
rancour of the times and as typical of the trumped up charges under 
which hundreds of inoffensive clergymen of the established church were 
persecuted and deprived of their livings, the charges are of sufficient in- 
terest to publish, although some of the phrases employed are too coars^i 
to reprint. The date here given is obviously incorrect and should read 



T8 



88 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. '''' 

1642 instead of 1652. The account in part is as follows: "In 1652. He 
was the son of Daniel Gorsuch, of London, Mercer. The Charge against 
him was the Hackney one of Drunkenness, as also Gaming, seldom 
appearing in the pulpit, and observing the Orders of the Church. But 
that which carrieth the greatest Vonom in it is that he had 'Endeavored 
to hire one Jones to ride a Troop-Horse for Prince Rupert, to serve under 
him against the Parliament, , and had pub- 
lished a wicked Libel against the Parliament, that some of the Lords 
who he named were Fools, Bastards and Cuckolds. And if this be not 
enough to make him Scandalous and Malignant, I know not what is.' 
He had been presented to the Living by his Father; who if I mistake not 
had also built a new Parsonage-House from the Ground, before he gave 
his son a Living." Cussan's History of Hertfordshire (idem) throws 
additional light upon John Gorsuch's eviction. It quotes the following 
order under date of October 26, 1647 contained in the Accounts of Plun- 
dered Ministers (Add. Mss. 15671, fol. 253 Brit. Mus.) "Upon Com- 
plaint made by Mr. Nath: Ward to whom ye Rectorie of Walkerne in ye 
County of Harford is sequestered that Doctor Gorsuch from whom ye 
same is secjuestered hath in com tempt of the sd. Sequestracon taken 
awaie by force & detained from ye said Mr. Ward the corne of the gleab 
of good value to the great p'iudice of the said Mr. Ward. It is therefore 
ordered that the wife of the said Doctor Gorsuch doe shew cause before 
this Comittce on the ISth day of November next whereof shee the said 
Mrs. Gorsuch should not bee debarred of the 20 li a years granted her 
in lieu of the 5th pt. for ye saide wronge & contempt & in case the said 
Mr. Ward shall forbeare paymt of the said 20 li a yeare unto her in the 
mean tyme. It is ordered that the said detainer shall not be accompted 
a contempt of the said order of this Comittee." Cussan adds that the 
Commissioners appointed by Parliament in 1650 reported that the 
Walkern rectory was a "Rectory prcscntative of the value of £160 and 
then held by Mr. Simon Smeath." It is also stated by Cussan that 
there is a note made about 1740 by the Revd. Thomas Tipping, 
Vicar of Ardeley in a copy of Chauncy's Historical Antiquities of 
Hertfordshire which reads: "Dr. Gorsuch was smothered in a Hay- 
mow. Fairclough of Weston acting Rascal! under Manchester, set a 
body of rebels to Seize and eject Gorsuch for Smeath, Vicar of Weston. 
Gorsuch betook himself to ye Haymow & there lost his life. He left a 
very good name." It seems possible that Gorsuch dissatisfied with this 
meagre allowance lost his life about 1647 in attempting to assert his legal 
rights, if the story related by the Vicar of Ardley is really authentic. 
On the other hand it is just possible that the story of his death was fabri- 
cated to facilitate his escape, although certainly there is no authentic 
record of him either in England or Virginia after this time. It is an 
interesting fact that Smeath for whom he was ejected and who then 
became rector of Walkern, was the vicar of Weston, the parish adjoining 
Walkern. The Gorsuch family also owned property in Weston and lived 



GENEALOGY. - . . . ■ gg 

there after the eviction and prior to their emigration to Virginia. It is to 
be noted that the Vicar of Ardley bears witness as to John Gorsuch's 
good name, while as regards the motive for the charges made against 
him we need not go further for an explanation than the desire of Smeath, 
vicar of the adjoining parish of Weston to obtain the more lucrative 
living at Wal kern and its new parsonage. An able assistant was found 
in "Fairclough of Weston, acting Rascall under Manchester" who seems 
to have brought to fruition the ambitions of the vicar of Weston. 

The Gorsiicb family next reappear in Virginia. The Virginia Land 
Office records show that a patent was issued February 22, 1G52 to Theo. 
Hoane for 720 acres of land on the north side of the Rappahannock River, 
for the transportation of fifteen persons into this colony. The names of 
Elizabeth, Charles, Lovelace and Kath: Gorsuch head the list of "rights." 
The fact that the patent to Theo. Hoane was issued at this date does not 
mean that the individuals for whose transportation he received his land, 
may not have been brought over by him some time previously. The 
Virginia records do not show when or how Anne Gorsuch the mother 
or lier children Robert, Richard and Anna came to the colony. It seems 
probable thai they were the first to arrive and were followed later by 
the three younger children, Elizabeth, Charles and Lovelace under the 
charge of their oldest sister Katherine. That their mother had probably 
come to Virginia as early as ICol is shown by the administration granted 
upon her estate in England recently discovered by the writer. "Letters 
of administration issued 2 June 1G.j2 to Daniel Gorsuch son of Anne Gor- 
such, late of We.-:ton Co. Hertford, but deceased in parts beyond the 
seas, widow" (Prerogative Court Canterbury; Admons. 1G52). While this 
shows almoU conclusively that Anne, the widow of John Gorsuch, died 
either in Virginia or at sea, it does not support the supposition bj' Bruce 
(Institutional History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, Vol. I, 
p. 17'J) and others, that her husband ever lived in Virginia. This assump- 
tion would ajjpear to be based entirely upon the [petitions of 16o7 to the 
Lancaster County, Virginia, court for the appointment of guardians for 
some of the children of "John Gorsuch, professor in Divinity, dec'd." 
Even if the story of John Gorsuch's death by sufTocalion in the hay mow 
sometime about the year lGf7, be regarded with suspicion, this admin- 
istration upon Anne Gorsuch's estate shows that she was a widow as 
early as 1652. The explanation for the emigration of the widow Gorsuch 
and her younger children to Virginia is probably to be found in her brother 
Colonel Francis Lovelace's association with that colony. It will be re- 
called that in 1G.>2 Francis Lovelace, who was then in Virginia, was en- 
trusted by Berkeley, with the consent of the Parliamentary commission, 
to carry to Charles the Second the news of the surrender to the repre- 
sentatives of the Parliament of this colony (vid. Francis Lovelace). 
The numerous connections between the Lovelace family and various 
persons prominent in the early settlement of Virginia have already been 
shown by the editor in the chart pedigree which accomp.anied the sketch 



90 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of the family in this Magazine, and seem sufficient to explain why Anne 
Gorsuch selected Virginia as the place where her younger children should 
cast their fortunes. 

The Rev. John Gorsuch married Anne Lovelace, the daughter of Sir 
William Lovelace, Knighl, of Bethersden, Kent, and his wife Anne Barne. 
She was the sister of Richard Lovelace, the poet and cavalier, and of Col. 
Francis Lovelace, Governor of New York. This marriage is proven not 
only by the Gorsuch pedigree in the Visitation of London already re- 
ferred to, but is confirmed by the will of her mother "Dame Anne Love- 
lace," in 1632, which makes mention of "Anne Corsage, my daughter," 
to whom she bequeaths "my third suit of diaper which I made in the 
Low Countries," and also refers to "Daniell Gorsage and his wife and my 
son Gorsage." Under the will of her father, Sir William Lovelace, 
dated 1622, his daughter Anne Lovelace was left by him "all my stock 
and adventures in the East India Company with all the profits thereon 
to be paid her at the age of twenty-one or marriage." Full abstracts 
of these wills will appear later in an account of the Lovelace family. The 
exact date of Anne (Lovelace) Gorsuch's birth is not known, but as her 
eldest son was born in 1G2S or 1629, it would appear that she was married 
not later than 1628. She was probably born about 1610. She died, as 
has been stated, early in 1652 "in parts beyond the seas," doubtless in 
Virginia. 

The additional information which has come to light since the sketch of 
the family by the editor, which appeared a few years ago in the Magazine, 
was written, requires the correction of a few minor errors found there as re- 
gards some of the children of John and Anne Gorsuch. In the sketch there 
was published in full (page 28S) a letter dated December 6, 1669, from 
Francis Lovelace, then Governor of New York, to Governor Berkeley 
of Virginia, in which Lovelace refers to the appointment of "Mr. Tho. 
Todd of Mockjack bay — Guardian to the will Whitbey's son by my niece 
Mrs. Ruth Gorsuch." As no reference to a daughter of John and Anne 
Gorsuch named Ruth has ever been found elsewhere, and as it is definitely 
known from the will of John Gorsuch's mother, Alice Gorsuch, that the 
eldest daughter Katherine married a man named Whittby and had by 
him two children, William and Elizabeth, it has seemed advisable to 
have the contemporary copy of the letter in question now in the Con- 
gressional Library among the "Virginia Miscellaneous" of the Thomas 
Jefferson Collection, reexamined to determine whether an error had not 
been made in deciphering or copying the name in question. A tracing 
of the name kindly made by one of the Library staff, very recently ob- 
tained for me by the editor of the Magazine, who has assisted me in 
every way in his power to straighten out these matters, shows that the 
proper reading is Kalli Gorsuch, which makes the entire matter perfectly 
clear, thus corroborating the will and establishing the fact that Kath- 
erine Gorsuch married William Whitby, and that there was no daughter 
named Ruth Gorsuch. An error which has also occurred in transcribing 



.tWf 



nv 



ai ^c-'ij'M oi 



<tiii.j 111 ' ji'i/i li' 



GENEALOGY. 



91 



he Lancaster records, previously referred to in a footnote, by which 

wtiur^ , H T'" '^""'' " "— -ly -ade to read Katherine 
n fully anc] wh:ch gave rise to an erroneous conclusion that one of the 
Gorsuch sisters married a Whitty and another sister a Whitby, would 
seem to make it advisable to publish here in full the petitions and orders 
of he Lancaster Court as very recently transcribed for the present 

Robert & Charles Gorsuch. sonnes & Coheirs of John Gorsuch, professo; 
of Divinity, dec'd^did by their petition presented to this Court noiate (? 
that their sister Katheryn Whitby, widd. their guardian for such estate 
as doth any ways belong to them in Englande. The Court taking the 
question into consideration did accordingly admitt & approve of the s'd 
Katheryn guardian according to the request of petitioners. At this 
Court persona ly appearing Richard, Robert & Charles Gorsuch sonnes 
& Coheirs of John Gorsuch, professor in Divinity, dec'd. did by their 
pe 1 ion presented to this court noiate (?) that Francis Morrison Esc^ 
their guardian for such estate as doth any ways belong to them in Vir- 
ginia, craving this court to admit thereof, of such request this Court 
taking consideration did admitt & approve of the s^ Coll. Franc 
Morrison according to the request of the petitioners. (Lanc'te 
County Records Vol. 1656-LXVI p. 7). ancasier 

A brief statement of ceriain facts known in regard to the twelve children 
of John and Anne (Lovelace) Gorsuch, before considering each child sco" 

t"e thfrd" W ;;'" '^ °^"^^"^^- ^^ ^^^-^^ ^^^ ^'^'-'-^' Daniel and 

c\a d o T T """"^' •" ^"^'''^"^- Nothing is really known in 

been thl T ''" "^"^^ "' '" ^'^^"^ '° ^'•^"^•^^' ^^o appears to have 

been the youngest son; possibly neither of them reached maturity. Nor 

fereCc tor''""^' '"°T '" "^^^' ^° J^^^""^ °^^- ^^an^ mere 
possible t.tth" ^-"dmother's will. As already stated, it seems 

known ; ?r ""'"? " ""''''''' " "^^'^'^'°" °f ^""''^' ^hose history is 
known. I so the number of children is reduced to eleven. Seven of the 

Char?" Ir :''■ ^'^'^""^' ^°'^^^^' ^-^-d- A"-' EH.abeth 
se tlin^;'Tn T''<^' ''"' '° ^"^^'"'^^ "^°"' ^«^- ^' thereabouts 
w- rd .o . h" ^°"'^' ^-ih.unc marrying in Virginia and aflerl 
Im 1 h '"ir^o "^ ' "u""^ '" ^"2''''"^^' '^' °^'^- ^i- ^^-"-ving to Mary- 

^e P uau o " "I''" ' '"^' ^^^" '^^^^' ^^■^^''"'' - ^'- -^^h side of 
the I atapsco nvcr at or near where the city of Baltimore now stands 
Anna, whose husband Captain Thomas Todd of Gloucester Countv* 
K- ulednc "'^ ' "'"'^^ °" ^'^ ^^^^'^^^° ^ ^-^ y-- later, ad 

cavl ' vi "n r^r^f ^;^°'^''''' ^'"^"^ ^° ^^^^ ^°th married before 
AnnTfJ ' ; ''' ^^'■^"'^ ""^ '^^h^'^a^ T°dd and his wife 

Anna remained as permanent settlers on the Patapsco Richard and 

fo^a few "^^ ^"' ^'^ ^°^^^"^' ^''^^^ ---"-^^ '" Baltiitre Coun y 
for a few years, later moved to Talbot County on the Eastern Shored 



19 



92 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

with which section they were afterwards identified. Robert Gorsuch 
returned to England a few years after coming to Maryland, and does not 
reappear in the colonies. Several of the Gorsuch brothers and sisters 
who came to Maryland were Quakers. Whether they became converted 
to Quakerism in Virginia and emigrated to Maryland on account of the 
repressive measures exerted against this sect in Virginia at this time, 
cannot be certainly determined, but seems very probable. It is certain 
that Charles and Lovelace Gorsuch were Quakers, as their names figure 
conspicuously in the Maryland Quaker records. The same may be said 
of the Powell family. Nothing certain has been learned of the religious 
afhliations of Richard or Robert Gorsuch, although a deed from Richard 
Gorsuch to Thomas Powell dated "the 12th day of the 11th month called 
February" has a distinct Quaker flavor. There is nothing to suggest 
that Thomas Todd or his wife were Quakers. 

The record of the establishment of this little colony stretched along 
the north shore of the Patapsco and made up of various members of the 
Gorsuch family would appear to begin with an entry in the Maryland 
Land Oihce records which reads "July 16, 1659, Warrants granted the 
undersigned conditionally that they enter Rights and seat their land 
between this and the 25th of March next: Thomas Powell 700 acres; 
Walter Dickinson 600 acres; Robert Gorsuch 300 acres; Richard Gorsuch 
300 acres; Howell Powell 300 acres; William Ball 500 acres; William 
Clapman jur. 500 acres; Richard Ball 500 acres; Thos. Humphry 600 acres; 
Hugh Kcnsey 400 acres (Md. Patents Vol. IV, fol. 51). Most of these 
names occur soon after in the Quaker records of the province, so that it 
seems C[uite probable that they were a little group of Quaker colonists 
who had come up from Virginia to take up the recently opened lands on 
the Patapsco in Baltimore County, which appears to have been erected 
into a county this same year. The Gorsuches, Powells, Claphams, 
Dickensons, Balls, Kinseys (Kenseys) and Humphreys are known to have 
come from Lancaster County, while the Todds, who came a year or two 
later, were from Gloucester. That the conditions in regard to entering 
their rights and seating their lands were complied with by the warrantees, 
is shown by the subsequent entries in the records of the Land Ofhce of 
certificates of survey, and finally by the issuance of patents to all whose 
names appear in the warrant of 1659. July 28, 1659 a tract of 500 acres 
called "Gorsuch" was surveyed for RoVjert Gorsuch, planter, on the north 
side of the Patapsco river "respecting" (i. e. opposite) the land of Hugh 
Kcnsey on the south side of the river (Md. Patents, Vol. IV, fol. 22S), 
and a patent issued February 13, 1659-60 (Idem. fol. 322). July 29. 1659 
a tract called "Richardson" of 500 acres was surveyed for Richard Gor- 
such, planter, on the north side of the Patapsco east of Welshman's 
Creek, and the patent issued February 14, 1659-60 (Idem. fol. 234 & 311). 
Thomas Powell and Richard Gorsuch May 13, 16G1 entered rights for 
transporting various members of the Powell and Gorsuch families into 
Maryland (Idem. fol. 551). As will be shown later the Powells were from 
Corotoman River, Lancaster County (see Elizabeth Gor.sucli)- Love- 
lace Gorsuch, August 1, 1661, had surveyed for him "Cold Comfort" 50 



J't.' 



GENEALOGY. 93 

acres on the north side of the middle branch of the Patapsco (Idem. Vol. 
V, fol. 18). Charles Gorsuch, August 3, 1G61 had surveyed for him 
"Whetstone Point" 50 acres, comprising that part of the present city 
of Baltimore now occupied in part by Fort McHcnry. Among the others 
who received lands on the Patapsco under the warrant of July IG, 1G59, 
William(CIapman) Clapham, Jur. is referred to a few years later in a power 
of attorney from Thomas Todd, dated 1G70, empowering Todd to transfer 
lands which Clapham had taken up in Baltimore County, as "William 
Clapham of Lancaster County, Va." (Baltimore Deeds I. R.:P. P. fol. 
88). William Ball and Richard Ball, each of whom received warrants 
for 500 acres (,f land under the warrant of 1G59 and became settlers on the 
Patapsco, have been shown by Dr. Christoi^hcr Johnston to be the sons 
of Colonel William Ball, of Lancaster County, the progenitor of the dis- 
tinguished Virginia !"amily of that name (Virginia Mag. Vol. VII p. 440 
and Vol. VIII p. SO). Hugh Kinsey and Thomas Humphrey have been 
shown by Mr. Miles Wh.ite, in his Ancestry of Johns Hopkins, to have 
also come from Lancaster County (Publications Southern Historical 
Association.. Vols. IV. p. 395 and V, p. 300). Walter Dickenson, another 
one of the warrantees w^ho patented land on the Patapsco is without 
doul:it the individual of the same name who appears in 1654 among the 
tithables of Lancaster County (Va. Mag. Vol. V, p. 158 el seq.) It seems 
highly probable that an investigation of the headrights which these 
settler.i from Lancaster brought into the province, would show that very 
many of these were also from Lancaster. 

That a vltv considerable proportion of the early settlers in Maryland 
drifted v.p the Chesapeake from Virginia, has always been known. While 
lands along the Patapsco had been patented by a few prominent residents 
of Anne Arundel County as early as 1651, is also well known, but as Mr. 
C. W. Bump has shown, all the evidence points to the fact that these men 
were merely speculating in lands and did not become bona fide settlers 
on the Patapsco (Md. Hist. Mag. Vol. Ill, p. 51-GO). Infact nopatentsup- 
on the Patap'^co appear to have been issued between 1G51 and the date of 
the issuance of the above mentioned warrant of July IG, 1G59. That the act- 
Uv-.l settlement of the Patapsco and the foundation of what afterwards 
became Baltimore City dates from the latter year has always been gen- 
erally recognized. It is interesting to find however, that many if not all 
of these first acual .settlers were probably a group of friends who came up 
together from Lancaster County and that the probable motive of their 
migration was religious persecution, as most of them arc known to have 
been Quakers, and it was at this time that Virginia began to put into full 
effect the various repressive measures against the numerous recent con. 
verts to this sect, in order to drive them out of that colony. 

To the very numerous descendants of certain of the children of the 
Rev. John Gorsuch and his wife Anne Lovelace living in Virginia and 
Maryland anrl elsewhere throughout the country, some account of thc-se 
children and their descendants to the fourth generation, where it has 
been possible to trace them, will doubtless be of interest. 
(To be Continued) 



94 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The Ancestops and Descendants of John Rolfe with Notes 
OF Some Connected Families. 

The Fleming Family. 
(Continued) 
9. John^ Fleming; b. ; d. April 21, 1767, in Cumberland County; 

m. ; Susanna . 

John Fleming lived in Cumberland, doubtless at "Maiden's Adventure" 
which had been left him by his father. He was a lawyer, and soon ob- 
tained note at the bar, and an extensive practice. His fee book, covering 
the period 1754-1766, has been preserved, and shows the extent of his 
practice. In 1756, he was elected a member of the House of Burgesses 
for Cumberland, and represented that county continuously for eleven 
years, until his death in 1767 {Journals of the House of Burgesses). When 
the political troubles with England began, he sided with the advanced 
adherents of colonial rights, and became the warm friend of Patrick 
Henry, and a supporter of the measures he advocated. Wirt and Henry, 
in their lives of Henry, state that John Fleming of Cumberland, and 
George Johnston of Fairfax, were the only members to whom Patrick 
Henry showed his famous resolutions of 1765, before offering them in the 
House. Edmund Randolph in his manuscript fragment on the history 
of Virginia, says "The resolutions offered by Mr. Henry are understood 
to have been written by Mr. John Fleming, a member for Cumberland 
County, distinguished for his patriotism, and the strength of his under- 
standing." 

The Virginia Gazette, April 30, 1767, contains a notice of the death of 
Col. Fleming: "On Tuesday, the 21st of this instant died, at his home in 
Cumberland, Col. John Fleming, member of the Assembly for that 
county, and an eminent practitioner in the law. He was a gentleman of 
distinguished merit and abilities, which makes his death much lamented 
by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance, and may be considered 
a public loss." 

The following is an abstract of his will, dated April 7, 1763, and proved 
in Cumberland April 27, 1767: "I John Fleming, of Cumberland Co., 
attorney at law. In compliance with will of deceased father John Flem- 
ing, have given my brother Charles Fleming, land on Willis' Creek. To 
wife Susanna my land at and adjoining Maiden's Adventure, including 
100 acres I purchased of Wm. Dudley and 100 of Silvester Alford, for her 
life, and at her death, to my son John. To my wife 3001 acres in Lunen- 
burg Co., I purchased of Hugh Miller, and two lots in Gatesville [Ches- 
terfield Co.] and also all my slaves and personal estate. Wife to provide 
for the maintenance and education of the children. To son John the 
violin I bought of Col. Hunter, and my case of razors. * * * Ap- 
point my brothers Thomas, William, and Richard guardian of my son 
John, and my daughters." 



-13! 



• ?• 




1 V. •,. a I; MARY BULLING, 

. I .>.' Wife OF Col. John Fleming, Sr. 



Negative Property of 

H. P. Cook, Photographer, 

Richmond, Va. 



> SU ill 



GENEALOGY. -" " ' 95 

Col. John^ and Susanna Fleming had issue. 

t 17. John*; b. ; killed at the battle of Princeton, Jan. 3d, 1777; 

never married. 

t IS. Mary''; married (1) Warner Lewis, Jr., of "Severn Hall," Glou- 
cester Co.; (2) Ellis; died without surviving issue, leaving Susan 

Lewis, afterwards Mrs. Byrd, her chief legatee {Vouchers in Va. Land 
Office). 

t 19. Susanna*, married Addison Lewis of Gloucester Co. (See geneal- 
ogies of Lewis and Byrd families). 

There is on record in Goochland, a deed dated September, 1777, from 
Mary Fleming daughter of John Fleming, deceased, attorney at law, con- 
veying to Wm. Fleming, of Powhatan Co., attorney at law, and Charles 
Fleming, Captain in the Seventh Virginia Battallion in the Army of the 
United States of America; for love and affection to the said Wm. and 
Charles, her uncles, one full moiety of a tract of land in Goochland, on 
the north side of James River, and on both sides of Little Lickinghole 
Creek, containing 750 acres, which tract v/as devised to Thomas Fleming, 
uncle of said Mary, by the will of John Fleming deceased, dated Nov. 
1756, and recorded in Cumberland, and was devised to John Fleming, 
father of the said Mary, by the will of the said Thomas Fleming, dated 
Goochland, Jul^' 1759, and also all the right of the said Mary in the slaves 
and other per.sonal estate of the said Thos. Fleming, who made John, 
father of the said Mary, his residuary legatee; said Wm. and Charles to 
pay all debts due from the estate of her father, John Fleming, deceased. 

There is also recorded in Goochland, a deed dated Nov. 11, 1777, from 
Warner Lewis, Jr., of .Severn Hall, Gloucester Co., to John Page, of Rose- 
well, conveying a tract of land in Goochland, called Dover, containing 
700 acres, which had lately become vested in the said Mary and Susannah 
Fleming her sister, as co-heirs of their brother John Fleming, deceased. 

The two sisters, Mary and Susanna Fleming, appear to have lived 
much in Williamsburg, and a letter written from that place has been pre- 
served. . • . 

Williamsburg April 16, 1777 ■ ;. ' :• 
"My Dearest Uncle, 

I received your favor acquainting me of your having been five days 
under Inoculation, and have since had the pleasure to hear that you have 
recover'd from the Small-Pox; ten thousand blessings on the kind old 
woman that nursed you, Robinson I think is her name, I shall ever hold 
it in high veneration for the tenderness she has shewn towards you; for 
my sake, for the- sake of all the friends you have left behind, be as careful 
of your Health as your situation will allow, let me not be depriv'd of all 
that's dear; already have I lost too much in the best & most lov'd of 
Brothers [Jno. F. killed at Princetoni — You also my Uncle know what 
it is to have lost a Brother; [Col. Thos. F.J I thought of your situation 
at the time of his Death, and believe me I sufTer'd more for the surviver, 



29 



96 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

than for Him whom I trust is supremely blest and out of the reach cf 
those distresses we poor mortals are subject to, & no doubt looks down 
with pity and compassion on thofc he has left behind him, & wor.d^rs 
how they can be so short-sighted as to grieve for those who en-^ny the 
blessings prepared for them who die in the Lord; they enjoy that hap[)i- 
ness which no tongue can tell, no pen describe, nor has it enter'd into the 
Heart of Man to Conceive. 

I have the pleasure to tell you that my Uncle Wm. is much better 
than you left him, and in a fair way of recovering entirely. I w/otc to 
him respecting our living with Mr. Webb, but have received no ansv.er 
yet. 

I suppose you have receiv'd my poor dear Brother's things by this 
time, if he shou'd have left any letters, shall be oblig'd to you to take 
particular care of them. I wrote to Him by Colonel Bland but as he 
did not get there before the Death of my Brother, shou'd be obliged to 
my dear Uncle if he will enquire of Him what he did with the letter, and 
if he has not destroy'd it get it and commit it to the flames. My sister 
desires her love to you and will write by the next opportunity. Miss 
Polly Clayton's best wishes attend you, & when you have accepted of 
my love & duty conclude nie 

Your most afTcct. 

and faithful Niece 

Mary Fleming" 

Mr. and Mrs. Webb desire their love and best wishes to you. 

M. F." 
"Capt. Charles Fleming 

of the 7th Virginia Reg." 

Some time prior to 1777, a Williamsburg versifier, supposed to have 
been St. George Tucker, or Dr. McClurg, wrote lines intitled "The 
Belles of Williamsburg," describing the leading beauties and belles of 
the capital city. An annotated copy was printed in the Richmond 
Standard, of July 16, 18S1. The stanzas relating to the Fleming sisters 
arc as follows; 

"- ' ' IV 

"Advance Then, each illustrious maid 
In order bright, to our parade 

With Beauty's ensigns gay; 
And first, two nymphs, who, rural plains ^'>'T^t - 
Forsook, disdaining rustic swains 
No where exact their sway ' ^ a ' ' 



-ft "lUcY 



/ol T:orf1 



■<C7 



GENEALOGY. ^ 97 

V 



Myrtilla's * beauty who can paint? 
The well turned form and glowing tint 

May deck a common creature 
But who can make th' expressive soul 
With lively sense inform the whole 

And light up every feature? 

VI 

At church Myrtilla lowly kneels 
No passion but devotion feels 

No smiles her looks environ 
But let her thoughts to pleasure fly 
The basalisk is in her eye 

And on her tongue the syren. 

VII 
Fond youth no longer gaze; beware! 
Lest, once enslaved, the dangerous fair 

Should leave you in the lurch 
The god whom poets make their care 
I supplicate that I may ne'er 

Behold her but at church. 

VIII 
More rigorous beauty, fresher bloom 
With tints from Nature's richest loom 

In Sylvia's! features glow 
Would she her sister's arts apply 
And catch the magic of her eye 

She'd rule the world below." 

*Miss Fleming \Miss S. Fleming." 

(.To be Continued) 



Harrison of Northern Virginia. 
^ ' ■' ' (Continued) 

Before continuing the genealogy it is desirable to give some corrections 
and additions derived from later information. 

3. Thomas-' Harrison (XXIII, 215, 21G) had, in addition to the sons 
named, a daughter Elizabeth who married in 1727, Benjamin Bullitt, 
of Prince William Co., who died in 1757. She was the mother of Cuthbert 



t9 



IIV 



.*/iJi HI Utiww 3iij 



{b9fO' 



:j-..>:o;ivo:>crr..- ^v ;;;j 



1 T>rToV 



98 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Bullitt and other children. Thos.^ Harrison also had daughters Frances 
who married Valentine Peyton (who died in 1751) and Ann Frances who 
married John McMillan. 

5. Burr'* Harrison (XXIII, 331, 332) had 15. Jane, who appears cer- 
tainly to have married Triplett; 22. George, bom 1737, married 

Elizaticth, daughter of Tavenner Beale and removed to Kentucky; 17. 

Elizabeth, born 1741; married Linton; 21. Sarah, born 1740, 

married Col. Lion Powell. 

36. Sarah, wife of Rev. Thomas Harrison (XXIII, 444) died Dec. 16, 
1842. 

34. Frances Harrison married Wiley Short. ' 



18. BuRR^ Harrison (Burr*) of Prince William County, was born 
June 16, 1734, and died Aug. 2, 1790. The Virginia Council Journal 1776-7, 
p. 347, shows that he was colonel of the militia of his county. He was a 
member of the House of Delegates 1778. He married, Sept. 1760, Mary 
Ann, daughter of Matthew Barnes. His will was dated Feb. 5, and proved 
in Prince William Feb. 7, 1701. His legatees were, his wife Mary Ann, 
daughter Ann Catherine Harrison, son Matthew, son Cuthbert (to whom 
he gave a military claim for 2000 acres in Kentucky &c), son Thomas (to 
whom he gave land purchased from testators brother Cuthbert Harrison), 
a daughter Mary Ann Harrison. Mrs. Mary Ann Harrison died Dec. 2, 
1803. Her will was proved Jan. 2, 1804. 

Issue: 56. Ann Catherine, born Oct. 23, 1761, died Dec. 6, 1839; married 
April 5, 1793, by Rev. Thomas Harrison, Francis Hereford; 57. Matthew'^; 
58. Jane, bom 1765; 59. Burr^, born 1767; 60. Cuthbert", born Dec. 28, 
1768. died Sept. 26. 1795, unmarried; 61. Ann Barnes, born Feb. 20, 1771; 
62. Thomas«, born May 22, 1774; 03. Mary Ann, born May 1, 1776. 

20. Matthew'' Harrison (Burr"*) was born Oct. 7, 1738, and died . 

He y.as a merchant at Dumfries. He married (I) Miss Slaughter, (2) 
Miss Wood, sister of Governor James Wood; (3) Miss Webb; (4) Eleanor 
Tyler. 

Issue: (1st. m) 64. Matthew", went to Bermuda, married and died 
there; (2d. m) 65. Daughter, married Obed. Waite of Winchester, Va., 
66. Daughter, married Col. Andrew Wood, of Romney, now W. Va.; 67. 
Daughter, died unmarried; (3d. m.) 68. George", went to Kentucky; 69. 
Fanny, married Mr. Jones and went to Kentucky; (4th. m.) 70. Charles, 
went to sea in early life and was not heard of after 1S13; 71. Gustavus"; 72, 
William Alexander"; 73. Eleanor, married Wm. P. Hale of Loudoun Co., 
and removed to Mason Co. in 1817; 74. Nancy, married Dr. Elias T. 
S^fTord, of Gallipolis, Ohio, who removed to Parkersburg, now W. Va.; 
75. Frederic Tyler", died unmarried. 

23. Wii.i.iam'' Harrison (Thomas') married Jane . She married 

secondly Mallory. 



.av. 



b^!-!-. 



;l:^^ 



b''i!j Lrn L>nii.n; 






GENEALOGY. ' . ^^ 

Issue (Harrison): "76. William", died unmarried in 1791, leaving his 

estate to his brother Burr, and sister Lucy Mallory, late Lucy Harrison; 
77. Burr*'; 87. Lucy, married Mallory. 

37. John Pkyton'' Harrison (Thomas^), of Fauquier County, was bom 
about 1718. He was appointed by the State of Virginia ensign in the 
2d regiment, Sept. 21, 1775, and by Congress Jan. 23, 1776; 2d. lieutenant 
June 177G, Captain May 4, 1777. He appears to have resigned Sept. 27, 
1780, and on March 10, 1783, received from Virginia 3000 acres of land for 
three years service. He was appointed a justice of Fauquier Co. in 1787. 
He married (1) Jan. 12, 1779, Frances (born March 4, 1754, died April 6, 
1795), daughter of John Peyton, and (2) in 179G, Elizabeth (born 1761, 
died July 25, 1816), daughter of Yelverton Peyton (see Hayden's Virginia 
Genealogies, 510, 511). 

Issue: (1st. m.): 79. Robert Peyton'^, born Oct. 10, 1779, died without 
issue at Dumfries; 80. Seth, bom March 18, 1781, married Mr. Atwell, 
of Middleburg; 81. John Peyton^, born Oct. 6, 1782, died Aug. 4, 1786; 82. 

Sarah Ann, born Oct. 31, 1784, married Short; 83. Frances, bom 

June 4, 1787, died unmarried; 84. Elizabeth, bora April 24, 1789, died 
April 27, 1862, married Gabriel Freeman; 85. Jane Linton, bom April 27, 
1791, died in the District of Columbia Jan. 19, 1870, married Feb. 13, 1817, 
Nelson Green, of Fauquier Co.; (2d m.) 86. Dr. DanieF, married Jane 
Cecilia, daughter of Thos. Harrison and granddaughter of Rev. Thos. 

Harrison (and had issue: a. Walter Peyton**; married 1st. ; 2d 

Catherine S. Conway; 3d. Elizabeth W. Conway; b. Thomas^). 

Dr. Daniel Harrison was not a son of Thomas^ Harrison as previously 
stated. 

(To be Continued) 



The Blackw?ll Family. 

(By Miss Stella Pickett Hardy, Batesville, Ark.) 
(Continued) 

5-1. Lucy Pickett, b. May 2, 1707; d. 1825; m. Sep. 13, 1787, Hon. 
Charles Marshall, of Warrenton, Va., b. Jan. 31, 1767; d. 1805; son of 
Col. Thomas & Mary Randolph (Keith) Marshall, of "Oak Plill," 
Fauquier Co., Va., and had issue. 

6-2. Ann Pickett, b. 1770; m. cir. 1790, Francis Brooke, of Fauquier 
Co., Va., Clerk of the County Court, 1793 to 1805. Son of Humphrey 
& Ann (Whiting) Brooke, of Fauquier Co., Va., and had issue, 

5-3. Judith Pickett, b. 1772; m. Stanton Slaughter, of Culpeper Co., 
Va., son of Col. Robert Slaughter, of "The Grange" Culpeper Co., Va., 
and his wife Miss Stanton; and had issue. 

5-4. Mildred Pickett, b. June 1, 1777; d. Mar. 22, 1805; m. Jan. 9, 1794, 
William Clurkson, of Fauquier Co., Va., son of Henry Clarkson of 
Stafford Co., Va., and his wife Dorcas; and had issue. 



QQ 



.8 



100 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ' ' 

5-5. Geor-ge Blackwell Pickett, of Madison Co., Ala., b. 1779 in Fau- 
quier Co., Va.; d. 1820 in Huntsville, Ala , removed to Alabama, about 
1S2G, and located in Madison Co.; m. in Richmond, Va., 1S18, Courtney 
Heron, b. 1797 in Richmond, Va.; d. 1865 in Lexington, Ky.; daughter 
of James & Sarah (Taylor) Heron, of Richmond, Va., and had issue. 
5-6. Leticia Pickett, b. 1780; d. 1802; m. Hon Charles Johnston, of 
Richmond, Va., son of Hon. Peter & Martha (Butler) Johnston, of 
"Chiny Grove," Prince Edward Co., Va., and had issue. He married 
second, Elizabeth Prentiss Steptoe, daughter of Hon. James & Frances 
(Calloway) Steptoe, of "Federal Hall," Bedford Co., Va. 
5-7. Elizabeth Pickett, b. 17SS; m. 1805, Judge John Scott, of Fauquier 
Co., Va.. b. Feb. 3, 1781 :d. Jan. 17, 1850; son of Rev. John & Eli:.abeth 
(Gordon) Scott, of "Gordondale," Fauquier Co., Va., and had issue. 
5-S. Steptoe Pickett, of Limestone Co., Ala., b. at "Paradise," Fau- 
quier Co., Va., June 22, 1790, d. in Limestone Co., Ala., Dec. 16, 1843; 
removed to Alabama in 1821; m. in Westmoreland Co., Va., Jan. 10, 
1811, Sarah Orrick Chilton, b. at "Currioman," Westmoreland Co., 
Va., Oct. 2, 1793; d. in Limestone Co., Ala., Feb. 19, 1865; daughter, 
Orrick & Felicia (Corbin) Chilton, of "Currioman" Westmoreland 
Co., Va., and had issue. 
4-4. Lucy Blackwell, b. 1749; m. Sep. 24, 1773, William Stanton of, 
Fauquier Co., Va., Issue, among others, 
5-1. Joseph Blackwell Stanton, of Tennessee. 
4-5. Leticia Blackwell, b. Oct. 3, 1750; m. Apr. 10, 1768, Capt. John 
Chilton, of "Rock Spring," Fauquier Co., Va., b. Aug. 29, 1739, in 
Westmoreland Co., Va., d. Sep. 11, 1777 on the Battlefield of Brandy- 
wine; served in the Revolution, Captain of 3rd Virginia, Apr. 29, 1776, 
(Hcitman's Historical Register, p. 154.) A number of most interesting 
letters written by him, during his military career, are now in the 
possession of his descendants, also a diary. Son of Thomas & Jemima 
(Cooke) Chilton, of Westmoreland Co., Va., Issue, 
5 1. Thomas Chilton, of Kanawah Co., Va., b. May 10, 1767; m. 1797, 

Jane Corbin, b. Sep. 6, 1779; d. 1843; daughter of Hon. Gawin & 

Joanna (Tucker) Corbin, of Middlesex Co., Va., no issue. 
5-2. George Chilton, of Henry Co., Ky., b. July 5, 1770; d. 1852; m. 

Mary Ellen Ball, b. 1771; d. 1855; and had issue. 
5-3. Nancy Chilton, b. Oct. 8, 1771; m. Augustine Smith, b. Sep. 

28, 1774; son of Thomas & Elizabeth (Adams) Smith, of Fauquier Co., 

Va., and had issue. 
5-4. Lucy Chilton, b. Dec. 20, 1773; m. John Hansdell, of Fauquier 

Co., Va., and removed to Henry Co., Ky., and had issue. 
5 5. Joseph Chilton, of Fauquier Co., Va., b. Sep. 20, 1774; d. Nov. 

10, 1841; m. Apr. 25, 1795, Ann Smith, b. June 20, 1775; d. 1820; 

daughter of Capt. Thomas & Elizabeth (Adams) Sm.ith, of Fauquier 

Co., Va., and had issue. 



.aMRASAM JA'5t-»r- m: t-^v 001 



,10 noir. 



I ri!j.::H_ y^ .i.;r_>r 









'^' GENEALOGY. -^- ''■'•'■ '- '^^^J^- fQl 

4-G. Joseph Blackwell, of Fauquier Co., Va., bo. 1752; served in the 
Revolutionary War, as Major in the Subsistence Department Vir- 
ginia Line; received a large grant of land in Kentucky for his service. 
He was a signer of the Westmoreland Protest of 177G; He was a staunch 
Churchman, a Vestryman of Dettcngen Parish, Prince William Co., 
Va.; m. 1783, Mrs. Anne Eustace Hull, widow of Capt. Edwin Hull, of 
15th Va.; killed Sep. 15, 1780; and daughter of Isaac & Agatha (Conway) 
Eustace, of Staffonl Co., Va., Issue, 

5-1. Ann Blackwell, b. 1786; d. 1873; m. 1802, John Hancock Gaskins, 
b. 1781; d. 1851; son of John & Frances Sinah (Cole) Gaskins, and had 
issue. 
5-2. Joseph Blackwell, b. 1788; m. Elizabeth Blackwell Edmonds, 
b. 1791; d. 18G0; Issue, 
6-1. Octavia Edmonds Blackwell, m. 1832, John Chilton, and had 

issue. 
6-2. Elizabeth Miller Blackwell, m. 1835, James Edmonds. 
6-3. Jane Blackwell, b. 1820; d. unm., 
6-4. Ann Blackwell, d. young. 

6 5. Joseph Blackwell, d. young. ^ ,, 

6 6. Elias Blackwell, d. young. 
&-7. Frances Blackwell, d. young. 

6-8. James DeRuyter Blackwell, C. S. A., b. 1828; m. 1851, Judith 
Emma Edmonds, b. 1828; daughter of Capt. Elias Edmonds, of 
Fauquier Co., Va., had issue 1. Frances Blackwell, b. 1852; 2. 
Joseph Wildy Blackwell, b. 1854; 3. Elias Edmonds Blackwell, b. 
1855; m. 1SS2, Fannie Grayson Blackwell, b. 1858; daughter of 
Moore Carter & Sarah Alexander (Foote) Blackwell; 4. Edmonia 
Blackwell, b. 1857; d. 1860; 5. Elizabeth Miller Blackwell; 6. 
Adeline Blackwell; 7. Austin Edmondson Blackwell; 8. DeRuyter 
Blackwell. 
5-3. John Blackwell, b. 1791; d. 1866; m. (first) 1819, Rebecca Daven- 
port, d. 1831; daughter of John & Ellen H. Davenport, of Frederick 
Co., Va.; (second) 1832, Frances Cordelia Digges, d. 1860; daughter 
of Edward & Ann (Eustace) Digges; (third) 1862, Catherine R. 
Diddes; Issue by 1st m. 

6-1. Joseph Blackwell, b. 1819; m. 1842, Lucy Blackwell Smith, 
b. 1822; daughter of Col. William Rawley & Lucy (Blackwell) 
Smith, Issue, 

7-1. William Blackwell. 7-2. John Blackwell, 

7-3. Joseph Blackwell, 7-4. Lucy Blackwell, 

7-5. Edwin Smith Blackwell, b. 1849; m. 1878, Anna Leavell, 
daughter of John Leavell, of Culpeper Co., Va., had issue 1. 
Agnes Newton Blackwell, b. 1880; 2. Louise Steptoe Blackwell, 
b. 1881; 3. Nannie Leavell, b. 1882. ^ 

7-6. Agnes Conway Blackwell, b. 1852; d. 1877. 



fOI 



v1 . '• 



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102 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

;,i.il . ,• 7-7. James Blackwell. 

. y. 6-2. Ellen Harris Blackwell, b. 1820; d. 1878; m. 1839, Richard M. 

\ ,,,! ,,, Smith, son of Col. William Rawley & Lucy (Blackwell) Smith, 

' - and had issue. 

, 6-3. John Davenport Blackwell, D. D., b. 1822; d. 1887; an eminent 

' . Methodist Divine, served in C. S. A., as Chaplain of 18th Va. Inf.; 

m. (first) 18.53, Julia Anna Butts, d. 18G6; daughter of Francis P. 
& Emma P. Butts, of Southampton Co., Va.; (second) 18G9, Fannie 
Grayson Smith, daughter of Henry & Frances (Foote) Smith, of 
Fauquier Co., Va., and had issue by 1st m. 
(• J ,^ 7-1. Robert Eustace Blackwell, b. 1854; m. 1877, Effie Duncan, 

1 I- .-..^ daughter of Rev. James A. Duncan, and had issue. 

I ),..,, 1. Effie Blackwell, b. 1879. 

, , , ,3, ' 7-2. Ellen Denegre Blackwell, b. 1856; d. 1857. 
; 1. .;, : 7-3. Gertrude Blackwell, b. 1858; m. Lewis Milton. 
[, l':,|r .' 7-4. John Francis Blackwell, b. 1861. 

7-5. Anna Davenport Blackwell, b. 1863; m. Mr. Mosby. 
7-6. James Denegre Blackwell, b. 1866; d. 1871. 
Issue by 2nd m. 
7-7. Henry Davenport Blackwell, b. 1871; d. 1871. 
■..;,^ , 7-8. Irving Hall Blackwell, b. 1872. 

.) • •. , (To be Continued) 



Taylor of Southampton &c. 
(Continued) 



23. John* Taylor (Henry^) was bequeathed considerable property 
by the will of his father in 1781. He lived in Southampton County and 
died in 1799. His will, "John Taylor, Jr.," was dated Feb. 10, 1799, 
and proved Dec. 19, 1799. Bequest to wife for her life. The estate 
given her to be used also for support of children William, Henry, Eliza, 
and Hannah until they are of age and then to be equally divided. All 
lands to be equally divided between William and Henry. John Taylor 
married, March 3, 1783, Martha Peterson (Southampton marriage re- 
turns). Her will as Martha K. Taylor was dated May 19, 1808, and 
proved in Southampton August, 1808. She gave her son William Taylor, 
a negro, son Henry Taylor a negro, daughter Nancy Fitzhugh her riding 
chair and a negro, daughter Eliza Peterson a negro &c., and appointed 
her son William Taylor and friends John T. Richeson and Thomas Ridley 
executors. There is in Southampton the record of a suit by Joshua Claud, 
administrator, Henry Taylor, Ellis G. Blake and Polly his wife, William 
Hall in right of his wife, William Taylor, Nancy Taylor, Elizabeth Tay- 
lor, Hannah Taylor and Henry Taylor, children of John Taylor, deceased, 



bf fl 






O) 



,' -.T '': 



Vni,./. 



GENEALOGY. 



103 



and Co-hdrs and representatives of Temperence Taylor, deceased fthe 
rnother o John^ -Taylor .. Nicholas and Edward Fa' Icon, executor o 
William Browne, deceased. ^^uuib oi 

Issue: 30. William- 40. Henry^ 41. Polly, married Ellis G. Blake- 4^ 

Daughter, marned Wm. Hall; 43. Nancy, married Fitzhugh 44' 

Elizabeth, married Peterson; 45. Hannah ^ 

An account with the estate of Hannah Taylor, deceased, by Thomas 
Fitzhugh, executor, 1808, &c., includes a payment to William Taylor oi 
the amount due him in the division of John Taylor's estate 

24. Henrv^ T..YLOR (Henry^) of Southampton County. ' He was not 
of age in 17SG, for on March 20th of that year. Etheldred Taylor leased 

o Henrv t" f ^^"^f^""^^' ^r^'"-^- ^^ 250 acres adjoining belonging 
o Henry Taylor infant son of Henry Taylor, deceased. He left no wilt 
(a least in Southampton) and the date of his death is not known. The 
only other Henry Taylor living in Southampton at this time was the son 
of John Taylor, Jr., and was a child at the date of his father's will in 1799 
A record preserved by a descendant states that 24. Henry* Taylor' 
married Rebecca Tyson, and had only one child ' 

n,^!",- Km^'?'"p^ ^r """- -'• ''^'' ^''^ ^''^y ^'' 1831.. married 
f M ' • I ^^°'' ^''°'" ^^y ^0' 1^71)' ''^ Southampton, but later 

llmwT' n ^' d^^^^^-^^^'d in Southampton, and dated Jan. 6. 
IS09, Wilham 1 aylor and Angelina his wife, of Southampton, conveyed to 
Peter Blow of the same county, the interest of the said William Tavlor 
m a tract of land, allotted as dower to Rebecca wife of Richard B.rham 
and widow of Henry Taylor. Evidently this was land which, on the 
death of Henry* Taylor without male issue, reverted to his brother 
Jonn s heirs. 

(To be Concluded) 



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104 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



The Hord Family of Virginia. A Supplement to the Genealogy op 
THE Hord Family. Compiled by Rev. Arnold Harris Hord, 
Registrar of the Diocese of Pennsylvania, Member of the Executive 
Board of the Church Historical Society, Member of the Virginia 
Historical Society. Anno Domini 1915 [Philadelphia! pp. 119, 
with a number of illustrations and charts. 
Dr. Hord is already, through his Genealogy of the Hord Family, wcll- 
knowij as a genealogist. In this book, taking as a clue the fact that Alan 
Hord came to Virginia as a head-right in a grant to Moore Fauntleroy, 
and following this iip with a careful investigation of English genealogical 
sources which show a relationship between the families of Hord and 
Fauntleroy in England, he has worked out a very plausible theory of 
descent from an old English family. The author does not claim that the 
proof is positive; but the evidence is so strong that it is believed that it 
may yet be confirmed, beyond doubt, by farther discoveries. Inci- 
dentally he gave much information about the Fauntleroys. The latter 
part of the volume contains much new matter in regard to the Hords of 
Virginia. Dr. Hord has done a thorough and valuable piece of work. 

The Jefferson-Lemen Comp.^ct. A Paper Read Before the Chicago 
Historical Society, Feb. 16, 1915. By Willard C. MacNaul (with 
an Appendix of Documents), University of Chicago Press 1915, pp. 
59. 
This address, to which is appended a number of documents, states the 
claim that Jeflferson made a secret compact with James Lemen, a native 
of the Valley of Virginia, to go to the Northwest Territory and oppose 
the introduction of slavery there. This claim is supported by extracts 
from two letters stated to have been written by Jefferson. The origi- 
nals of these letters are not known to be in existence. In one of these, 
addressed to Robert Lemen, a brother of James, Jefferson says, in ref- 
erence to the latter "Among all my friends who are near, he is still a little 
nearer. I discovered his worth when a child." Though copies are given 
of letters from Lincoln and Douglas, and an account prepared by a Rev. 
Mr. Peck in 1857, which refer to those letters, the whole thing has an air 
of unreality. One would suppose that in the vast mass of Jefferson's 
work.s and letters and the numerous lives, there would be frequent 
mention of his dearest friend; but, strange to say, in not a single in- 
stance is there such a reference. 



.a; 






BOOK REVIEWS. "i ■' ; . ' 106 

To take another point of view. James Lemen was bom in 1760 in or near 
Harper's Ferry, evidently the son of a small farmer. Anyone who knows 
Virginia, knows that small farmers rarely in those days (or indeed at 
present) went outside of their own counties. Jeflferson, of course, was 
at Harpers Ferry prioi" to 1781, as the well-known passage in the "Notes" 
shows, but there is not one jot or tittle of evidence to show that he was in 
that section long enough to know anything of the child of an obscure 
farmer. It would be difficult to convince any critical student that Jef- 
ferson wrote such a letter unless the originals were produced. 

Extracts from James Lemen diary which are quoted, seem equally 
open to doubt. Under date "Near Yorktown Va., Sept. 26, 1781," he 
says "My enlistment of two years expired sometime ago, but I joined 
my regiment today and will serve the siege." The records of the War 
Department show that James Lemen enlisted in the 4th Va. regiment 
March 3, 1778, "to serve one year." J. B. Lemen adds that James Lemen 
"had his term of enlistment extended for two years and was transferred to 
another regiment." After his term expired 'he rejoined his old regiment 
and served through the siege of Yorktown." Now the 4th Virginia regi- 
ment, his "old regiment" was not at Yorktown. and may not have existed 
as an organization at all as it was captured at Charleston. There was no 
Virginia regiment at Yorktown which had been in existence in 1778-79, 
and tlierefore, none which could have been called his "old regiment." 
The only Virginia regulars at Yorktown were two newly organized regi- 
ments under Colonels Gaskins and Dabney. Neither the Revolution- 
ary records at Washington or Richmond contain any mention of Lemen's 
second enlistment, though, of course, this is not positive proof that he 
did not re-enlist. 

In the diary he also says that he served under Lafayette in the assault 
on the redoubt on October 14th. It is a well-known fact that there were 
no Virginia troops engaged in this assault. Another discrepancy to be 
accounted for. 

The whole matter of this alleged "compact" needs thorough inves- 
tigation before it can be accepted as history. 

A Brief History of the First Harrisons of Virginia. Descendants 

OK Cuthi:ert Harrison OF Ancaster, ENGLAND. From A. D. 

1600 to A. D. 1915. By Henry Tazewell Harrison. April 2, 1915 
[Leesburg, Va.l, pp. 36. 

The title page of this handsome little book is misleading. This family 
of Harrisons was not the first of that name in Virginia nor is there any 
positive proof that they had anything to do with Ancaster. The sole 
authority for their origin is the entry in the parish register of St. Mar- 
garets, Westminster, showing that Burr, son of Cuthbert Harrison, was 
born there in 1G37. And of course this old English register, written long 
before there was any Harrison at Chappawamsic in Virginia, makes no 



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106 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. )07 

mention of Chappawamsic. It is simply a misunderstanding on the part 
of the author of the book. Neither is there any evidence that Cuthbert 

•- Harrison, father of Burr, ever came to Virginia. It is stated without 

qualification that Burr Harrison the emigrant, was father of William 

'i'liiT Harrison. This is probably true, but there is no absolute proof. With 
these exceptions the genealogy seems to be very well done. The line of 
descent from Burr Harrison through his son Mathew, who was the head 
of the Lcesburg line is particularly full. Mr. Harrison does not attempt 
to give many details nor to trace fully the other branches of the family. 
This is being done as far as possible in the genealogy now in course of 
publication in the Magazine, though we will not trench on Mr. Harri- 
son's sjjecial province, the descendants of Mathew Harrison. He has 
done that too well to need repetition. 

'-:•:' BURFORD GENEALOGY SHOWING THE ANCESTORS AND DESCENDANTS OF 

1 '; . Miles Washington Burford and Nancy Jane Burford. By 

Wesley B. Burford. Privately Printed. Indianapolis, 1914, pp. 
133. Illustrated. 
This is a carefully prepared account of the descendants of Elijah Hast- 
ings Burford, who was bom in the town of Burford, Oxfordshire, Feb. 9, 
1682, who emigrated to America in 1713 and finally settled in Amherst 
• '■ ■ County, Va., where he died in 1771. Descendants through female as well 
:■■ ' .as male lines are fully given. 

The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861. A History of the Edu- 
cation of the Colored People of the United States from the 
i Beginning of .Slavery to the Civil War. By C. G. Woodson, 

«■ Ph. D. (Harvard). G. P. Putnams Sons, New York and London. 

""■■ • 1915, pp. 454. 

fen • This carefully studied and valuable book goes into every phase of the 
•"■ education of the negro prior to 1861. There may be some things in which 

i • we of the South differ with the author; but when it is considered 
J. '''' . that this author is a negro, we find that the instances are rare. There is 
nothing in the title to indicate that the author is a negro and the writer 
of this notice has no other information in regard to him; but a negro he 
'' certainly is; none but one of his race would write "Reverend Thomas," 

«■ "Reverend Taylor," "Reverend Whitmore" as he does. It is odd 

that in spite of his Harvard Ph. D., this trait of negro writing should 
Gs«. t remain. This is indeed only worth noting as a curious example of an 
adhering race trait, and has nothing to do with the merits of an ex- 
cellent book. 

i 
A List of Documentory Material Relating to State Constitutional 
Conventions. Compiled for use in the Newberry Library by 
Augustus Hunt Shearer, Ph. D. of the Library Staff. Bulletin 
' of the Newberry Library No. 4, Chicago, 1915, pp. 37. 






,)M i.f .." '.' rf"'. ',n . r. 



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':<■ BOOK REVIEWS. : •. > 107 

The title of this valuable publication is the only needed description. 
It should be in every library and in the hands of all students of Constitu- 
tional history. 

The Trezevant Family in the United States, from the arrival of Daniel 
Trei:evant, Huguenot, at Charles Town, South Carolina, in 16S5, 
to the {present date. By John Timothie Trezevant, Columbia, 
S. C. The State Company 1914, pp. 122. 
This is a very careful and complete account of one of the most distin- 
guished of the old Huguenot families of South Carolina. Like otiier 
American families it has now spread to other states, and has been well- 
Icnown in Virginia. John Trezevant (1758-1816) removed to Virginia, 
and served as a surgeon in the Virginia Continental Line. Lewis Cruger 
Trezevant, a nephew of John also came to Virginia ; so the family has been 
largely represented here. The book is an admirable example of gencal- 
logical work. , . 

The Preston and Virginia Papers of the Draper Collection of Man- 
uscripts. Publications of the State Historical Society of Wis- 
consin. Calendar Series, Vol. L, Madison Wis., 1915, pp. 357. 
That the Wisconsin Historical Society is to publish a Calendar of the 
Draper Manuscripts is good news to all students of American history. 
Much most valuable material from this source has already been pub- 
lished by the Society or by individual writers; but a full calendar has 
always been greatly desired. In making a beginning the editors have 
conformed to the original arrangement of the manuscripts and printed 
first the Preston and the "Virginia" papers. The Prestons and their 
relations and friends the Pattons, Buchanans and other well-known 
Western Virginia people bore a leading part in the settlement and de- 
fence of the frontier of the Colony of Virginia. The 146 pages of the 
calendar containing these papers include much of great historical value. 
The Virginia Manuscripts (pages 147-309) cover dates from 1742 to 
1901, and these, also, relate chiefly to events or people in the western 
portion of Virginia. There is, however, a great deal of matter relating 
to Western Pa., Kings Mountain, &e. The volume is indispensable to 
to anyone interested in early frontier history. It has an admirable 
index. 

George Washington, Farmer. Being An Account of His Home Life 
and Agricultural Activities. By Paul Leland Haworth. Author 
of The Path of Glory, Reconstruction and Union, America in Fer- 
ment, &c. With Many Illustrations, Fac-Similes of Private Papers 
and a Map of Washington's Estate Drawn by Himself. Indian- 
apolis. The Botts-Merrill Company, Publishers [19151, pp. 33G. 
This book is a curious mixture of knowledge and ignorance. When 

the author is writing on the subjects indicated in his title (and this, of 






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108 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

course, comprises the chief part of his book), he writes with full know- 
ledge and does valuable and interesting work. . When he writes of con- 
ditions in general in Virginia he shows great ignorance. The reason is 
plain. In regard to Washington's home life and agricultural activities, 
there is a great mass of evidence, which Dr. Haworth has carefully stud- 
ied. There is also elsewhere a great amount, scattered it is true, 
in regard to agricultural conditions in Virginia, but of this the author 
knows practically nothing. 

George Washington's life, aside from that portion of it devoted to 
public service, was that of a great planter and he was always a most 
devoted and painstaking student of agricultural problems. We all know 
this is a general way; but no one who has not read this book can realize 
how much of interest there is in the plantation side of Washington's life. 
Dr. Haworth has made a careful investigation of this, and has brought 
to light many hitherto unknown facts. 

"He hnds that Washington was one of the great scientific farmers in 
America, that he was one of the first to conserve the soil, that he per- 
formed hundreds of interesting agricultural experiments, that he made 
farming machinery with his own hands, that he was a pioneer in improving 
the breeds of stock, that he was the first American to raise mules, that 
he owned over sixty thousand acres of land and died the richest citizen 
of the Republic. 

He was one of the first American experimental agriculturists, always 
alert for better methods, willing to take any amount of pains to find the 
best fertilizer, the best way to avoid plant diseases, the best methods 
of cuhivat-on, and he once declared that he had little patience witn tliose 
content to tread the ruts their fathers trod. Tf he were alive to-day, we 
may be sure that he would be an active worker in farmers' institutes, an 
eager visitor to agricultural colleges, a reader of scientific reports and an 
enthusiastic promoter of anything tending to better American farming 
and farm life." 

So far nothing but praise can be accorded to the book. But when the 
author leaves what he has studied, and writes in a cock-sure way about 
things of which he knows little or nothing, he goes far astray. 

We A-ill consider only three subjects, horses, sheep and coaches. On 
page 53, the author seems to think that Randolph's "Shakespere" was 
an exceptional thmg in the way of high bred horses. He evidently does 
not know that every writer who treats of Colonial Virginia speaks of the 
quality of the horses. For an instance, J. F. D. Smyth, who v/as in 
Virginia in 1772, says "Indeed nothing can be more elegant and beautiful 
than the horses bred here, either for the turf, the field, the road or the 
coach." Of course, Dr. Haworth does not know that between 1710 and 
1775, the names of at least fifty stallions and thirty mares, of thoroughbred 
(or "blooded" as was the frequently used term) stock imported to Vir- 
ginia, are preserved. The whole thing is too obvious to waste time 
in discussing farther. 



0*^1 



^ <' BOOK REVIEWS. 109 

On page 55, he says "Sheep raising was not attempted to any great 
extent." One of course does not know exactly what the author means 
by "any great extent," but if he means that sheep were not common 
in Virginia, he is again badly informed. Without asking him to go to 
manuscript srmrces, it may be said that if, to any great extent, he had 
examined the volumes of the Va. Magazine of History and Biography and 
The William and Mary Quarterly he would have found sufficient mention 
of sheep to show him that they were bred in Virginia to a considerable 
extent. Such an examination shows the following persons owned sheep 
(the references are chiefly to wills and inventories): George Menifee, 
1645 (who bequeathes his "Sheep at Buckland" in Charles City County), 
Giles Brent, 1G71, James Godwin, 1688 (had 33 sheep), Thomas Taberer, 
1692, John Sandford, 1693 (had 24 sheep), George Brent, 1694, John Pitt, 
1702, John Farnefold, 1702, Samuel Timson, 1704, Joseph Ball, 1711, 
William Churchill, 1711 (had 118 sheep), Benjamin Harrison, 1711, 
William Armistead, 1714, Thos. Ballard, 1711 (had 29 sheep), Edmond 
Berkeley, 1718, James Burwell, 1718 (had 107 sheep), Robert Brent, 1719, 
Samuel Selden, 1720, Thomas Chisman, 1722. Joseph Walker, 1723, 
Ambrose Madison 1731 (had 19 sheep), Robert Carter, 17-32 (had 573), 
William Stanard, 1733 (had 29), John Tayloe, 1747, Wm. Daingerfield, 
1734 (had 300 sheep), Anthony Thornton, 1757, John Herbert, 1700, 
Philip Ludwcll, 1767 (had 175), Benjamin Ward, 1770 (advertised for 
sale at his plantation in Charlotte County, "GOO choice sheep"), Landon 
Carter, 1776 (who had at "Sabine Hall" alone, 158 sheep "in addition 
to the fatted sheep"), and Peter Presley Thornton, 1781 (who had 172 
sheep). 

Even at the end of the Seventeenth century sheep had become numer- 
ous. Bruce {Economic History I, 481) says "In the last decade of the 
century, the inventories reveal the fact that sheep formed a not unim- 
portant part of many estates." 

Dr. Haworth reaches, perhaps, his climax of ignorance when he quotes 
Martha Washington (page 49) as saying that she remembered a time 
when there was only one coach in Virginia. If she said this she was at the 
moment in a state of mental debility of which there is no other record. 
Coaches were not entirely unknown in Virginia even in the Seventeenth 
Century and as early as 1701, William Fitzhugh bequeaths "both my 
coaches." Mrs. Washington was born in 1732 and her first intelligent 
knowledge of such things would have begun about 1747. In the middle 
of the Eighteenth century it would be a most conservative estimate to 
say that there were, at least, fifty coaches in Virginia. A systematic 
examination of our county records (such as Mr. Bruce made for the pre- 
ceding century) v/ould easily prove this; but in lieu of such research we 
may consult the volumes of the Va. Magazine of History and Biography, 
The William and Mary Quarterly, and a few printed genealogies which 
contain wills. In a few cases, abstracts of unpublished wills and admin- 
istrations, which were at hand, have been used. The following list has 



ffii Heoc 



&«i i»i;ii ij lY/i io»j ,iiOji'i\jn i (3l«">iS l-,»;'^ I I'ltrt ,\ «j3vii'. v* 



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110 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

been compiled from these sources of men who owned coaches (or four or 
six horse chariots, calashes, chaises and phaetons, which amount to the 
same thing). These references* are mainly to wills and inventories, and 
of course persons concerned had probably owned the vehicles for a num- 
ber of years. The names are as follows: William Churchill, 1710, John 
Custis 1714, Edmund Berkeley 1718, James Burwell 1718, Joseph Walker 
1723, Robert Carter 1726, (2 coaches), T. W. Belfield 1730, Alexander 
Spots wood 1732 (a coach and a chariot), Francis Eppes 1733, Sir John 
Randolph 1733, William Byrd 2d 1732, Gawin Corbin 1739 (in will names 
his white coachman), Moore Fauntleroy 1739, William Randolph 1742, 
William Thornton 1743 ("a chair and a carriage"), Benjamin Harrison 
1743, Thos. Nelson 1745, Richard Randolph 1747 (a coach and a chaise), 
Henry Lee 1747, John Tayloe 1st, 1747 (chariot and six horses, and coach 
and fdur horses), l^hilip Lii.;htfoot 1748, Thomas Bray 1751, John Dixon 
1751, John Blair 1751, John Lightfoot 1751, William Montgomery 1752, 
William Dawson 1752, James Steptoe 1755, Philip Grymes 175G, Philip 
Rootcs 175G, William Beverley 1756, John Spotswood 175S, Nicholas 
Meriwether 1758, Richard Kennon 1761, John Martin 1761, George Lee 
1701, William Kennon 1761, Mrs. Mary Lee 17G2, Richard Eppes 1702, 
John Tabb 1762, Clement Read 1763 (a chariot and a chair) Charles 
Carter 1764, William Byrd 3d, 1765, Robert Page 1765, Philip Ludwell 
1767, Willoughby Newton 1767, Peter Randolph 1707, John Wayles 1768, 
Landon Carter 1770, William Nelson 1772, Wilson Gary 1772 (a coach and 
a post chariot), John Tayloe 2d, 1773 (a coach and a chariot), William 
Daingerfield 1774, Peyton Randolph 1774, John Nash 1776, Anthony 
Walke 1776 ("my newest chariot and four horses"), Robert Burwell 1777, 
Richard Bland 1777, Tarleton Fleming 1778, David Minge 1779. 

Turning to other evidence on this subject; Hugh Jones ("Present State 
of Virginia," 1722) says "most people of any note in Williamsburg have 
a coach, chariot, Berlin or chaise." A traveller to America, whose 
account was published in the London Magazine in 1746, states in regard 
to Yorktown, "Almost every considerable man keeps an equipage, tho' 
they have no concern about the different colours of their coach horses." 
When the same traveller reached Williamsburg, he was struck by "the 
prodigious Number of Coaches that crowd the deep, sandy Streets of 
this little City." The Virginia Gazette states that on July 13, 1749 "This 
day the Hon. John Robinson, Prcsid't. and the rest of the gent; of the 
Council went all in Coaches to wait on the Gov'r."; and finally v.e quote 
Francis Jerdone, a merchant of Yorktown, who in a letter dated Se[)t. 
20, 1753, acknowledged the receipt of a second hand chariot which had 
been ;;ent him from London for sale, and said "I now advise you that I 
have sold the chariot you sent me by Capt. Paterson for forty pistoles 
being £43 current to Col. ITolke Moseley, which was the most I could 
make of it, and if that gentleman had not bought it, I believe it would 
have been on hand at this time, second hand goods being no way saleable 
here; for our Gentry have such proud spirits that nothing will go down. 



;yi^ 



BOOK REVIEWS. Ill 

but equipages of the nicest and newest fashions. You will not believe 
it when I tell you that there are sundry chariots now in the country which 
cost 200 guineas and one that cost 260." 

•The fol'owing are the printed sources fnr the statements made above: Virginia Maga- 
line of History and Biography. 11.278; III, 1 25 , 2tj3 . 391 ; IV. 06, 03; V, 145; VI. 4, 2()8, 3tl9; VII. 
M.aOS; IX. 2,«l; X. ISII IWJ; XI, 424; XIV. 242. 328.421; XVI. 97. 98; XVII. 322. 370.372, 373- 
X\n!. 911, 188. 44(i: XIX, 87; XXI, 2U4, 397, 405, 414; XXII. 278, 442; William and Mary 
Quarterh: IX, l()7,21(i, 217; IV, Hi, 2(10; VI, 41, W, 143. \M; VII. 88. I8.S, 2.">3 3a». 312- VIH. 
o\l. 40 41, 128, 130. 14(i; IX. 188; X. 110; XII, 150. ItO, 220. 2.55; XIII. 40, 205; XIV, 1^3 101. 
180; XV, 223; XVII. 240; XIX. 270; XX, 10; XXI, 175; Pape's "Page Family." 1(;3; Waters' 
•Gltaninf;';," 513; Lee's "Lee of Virginia," 134, 130, 143; "Writings of Wm. Byrd" (Bassett), 
333, 370; Hayden's "Virginia Genealogies," 59; "Rootes of Rosewali," IS; Gri&th'a "De- 
scendants of Nicholas Meriwether," 42. 43. 115, 

Christopher Columrus. By Mildred Stapeley, New York. The Mac 
Millan Company, 1915, pp. 240. 

D.WY Crockett. By William C. Sprague. New York. TheMacMillan 
Company, 1915, pp. 189. 

RonERT Fulton. By Alice Gray Sutcliffe, Great-Granddaughter of 
Robert Fulton. Author of "Robert Fulton and the Clermont," 
&c. New York. The MacMillan Company, 1915, pp. 195. 

Nath.\n Hale. By Jean Christie Root. New York. The MacMillan 
Company, 1915, pp. IGO. 

Benjamin Franklin. By E. Lawrence Dudley, Author of "The Isle of 
Whispers," "The Ghost Ship," &c. New York. TheMacMillan 
Company, 1915, pp. 232. .•..•■.• ,i: ' i'. , 

WlLLL\M Penn. By Rupert V. Holland, Author of "Historic Boyhoods," 

"Knights of the Golden Spur," &c. New York. The MacMillan 
Company, 1915, pp. 166. 

The MacMill-.ms are doing a most excellent work in the publication of 
"True Stories of Great Americans" — the general title of the scries. In 
contrast to various "true" biographies published previously, and which 
were frL-quently compounded of misinformation and trivial gossip, these 
books are the result of real scholarly work. Though intended primarily 
for younger readers, they will prove equally valuable to the great mass 
of people who have no time nor inclination to read long biographies and 
yet are anxious to have comijact interesting narratives of prominent 
men, which can be gone through in a short time and which yet contain 
the latest results of research in regard to the various subjects. To such 
readers as well as to school boys and girls, these books can be highly 
commended. 



112 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

In the Footsteps of Napoleon. His Life and its Famous Scenes. By 

James Morgrai, Author of "Abraham Lincoln, the Boy and Man" 
&c. New York. The MacMillan Company, 1915, pp. 524, with 33 
illustrations. 
To those interested in Napoleon — and who is not? — this is a very in- 
teresting and timely book. Just before the outbreak of the present 
great war, the author made a journey of nearly twenty thousand miles 
to visit the famous scenes of Napoleon's life and along the line of his 
celebrated marches. This alone would qualify an intelligent student 
of the great Emperor's life to give freshness and value to any new book 
about him. The present great war adds intense interest to nearly every 
phase of Napoleon's life. The author is of the opinion that, though some 
of the parties to the old combat have changed, sides "in their mo- 
tives and their strategy, the two wars are strangely alike, and I have 
depicted the earlier as the forerunaer of this later conflict." 

Some Emigrants to Virginia. Memoranda in Regard to Several Hun- 
dred Emigrants to Virginia During the Colonial Period, Whose 
Parentage is Shown or Former Residence Indicated by Authentic 
Records, Compiled by W. G. Stanard. Second Edition Enlarged. 
The Bell Book and Stationary Company Publishers, Richm.ond, 
Va., 1916. 

The first edition of this book was exhausted early in 1915, and 
another, with considerable additions is published this month. 

The Majors and their Marriages, By James Brach Cabell, with 

Collateral Accounts of the Allied Families of Aston, Ballard, 

Christian, Dancy, Hartwell, Macon, Marable, Massie, Patterson 

Pressey, Seawell, Stephens, Waddill and others. The W. C. Hill 

Printing Co., Richmond, Va. 11915i, pp. 188. 

Through minute investigations in the records of Henrico, Chesterfield. 

Charles City and York counties, and with the fortunate preservation of 

some notes made from the records of Nansemond, Mr. Cabell has been 

able to make a valuable addition to Virginia genealogy. Much of the 

work is now presented for the first time. This is particularly so in regard 

to the families of Major, Patteson and several others included. 

The author has throughout printed confirming or illustrative docu- 
ments from the records. The deductions seem to be carefully made 
and are mainly, indisputable; but there does not appear to be any 
very clear proof given that William Stephens of Warwick County was a 
son of Capt. Richard Stephens. 

Mr. Cabell's book covers a wide field and will interest great numbers 
of Virginians and people of Virginia descent. 



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OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 



OF THE 



Virginia Flistorical Society 

JANUARY, 1916. 



President. 
W. Gordon McCabe, Richmond, Va. 

Vice-Presidents. 

Archer Anderson, Richmond, Va. 
Edward V. Valentine, Richmond, Va. 
Lyon G. Tyler, Williamsburg, Va. 

Corresponding Secretary and Librarian. 
WiLLL\M G. Stanard, Riclim.ond, Va. 

Recording Secretary. 

D. C. Richardson, Riclimond, Va. 

Treasurer. 
Robert A. Lancaster, Jr., Richmond, Va. 

Executive Committee. 

C. V. Meredith, Richmond, Va. \Vm. H. Palmer, Richmord, Va. 
Chas. W. Kent, University of Va. Rt.Rcv.A.M.RANDOi I'H, Norfolk, Va. 
J. Stewart Bryan, Richmond, Va. Daniel Gkinnax, Richmond, Va. 
A. C. Gordon, Staunton, Va. J. P. McGltre, Jr., Richmond, Va. 

S. S. P. Patteson, Richmond, Va. Wm. A. Anderso.v, Lexington, Va. 
S. H. YoNCE, Richmond, Va. Morgan P. Rodinsox, Richmond, Va. 

and ex-officio, the President, Vice-Presidents, Secretaries 
and Treasurer. 



~\'<^ 



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w \i ■ w. ^ 



The Annual Meeting of this Society 
will be held early in 1916. The Pro- 
ceedings of the Meeting will be pub- 
lished in the April Magazine. 



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VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Richardson, D. C., Richmond, Va. 

Rives, Hon. Geo. Lockhart, New York, 

N. Y. 
Robinson, Morgan P., Richmond, Va. 
Scott, Frederick W., Richmond, Va. 
Scott, Winfield, New York, N. Y. 
Stevens. Mrs. Byam K., New York, N. Y. 
Stires, Rev. Ernest, M. D. D., New York, 

N. Y. 
Stubbs, Wm. C.. New Orleans, La. 
Swansoii, Hon. Claude A., Chatham, Va. 



Sweet, Mrs. Edith M.. St. Albans, W. Va. 
Talcott, Col. T. M. R., Bon Air, Va. 
Waterman, W. H.. New Bedford. Mass. 
Webb. W. Seward, New York, N. Y. 
Wickham, Henry T., Richmond, Va. 
Williams, A. D., Richmond. \'a. 
Williams, Thomas C, Richmond, Va. 
Winslow, H. M., Harriman, Tenn. 
Woodson, Captain R. S., U. S. A., St. Louis, 
Mo. 



ANiNUAL MEMBERS.* 



',hr 



( .;!u 



Abney, John R., Nev/ York, N. Y. 
Adams. Samuel F., South Boston, Va. 
Adams, Vi'alter, Framingham. Mass. 
Addison, E. B., Richmond. Va. 
Adkins. S B., Richmond, Va. 
Aguilar de, Mrs. P. B., New York, N. Y. 
Alexander, F. W., Oak Grove. Va. 
Alexander, Dr. W. T., New York, N. Y. 
Allen, E. W., Savannah. Ga. 
Allen, Herbert F. M., Washington, D. C. 
Ambler, Ben. Mason, Parkcrsburg, W. Va. 
Ames, Mrs. Joseph S., Baltimore. Md. 
Ancell, Rev. B. L., YanRchow, China. 
Anderson. Col. Archer. Richmond, Va. 
Anderson, B. P., M. D., Colorado Springs, 

Col. 
Anderson, Charles C, Richmond, Va. 
Anderson, Davis C, Cincinnati. Ohio. 
Anderson, Edward L., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Anderson, W. A., Lexington, Va. 
Andrews, Prof. C. M., Yale University, New 

Haven, Conn. 
Antrim, Hugh. Richmond, Va. 
Atkins. Mrs. G. W. E., New York, N. Y. 
Atkinson, Thomas, Richmond. Va. 
Austin-Leigh. Richard A.. London, Eng. 
A.xtell, Decatur, Richmond, Va. 



Bagby, Mrs. Parke C Richmond, Va. 
Baker. C. C Azusa, Cal. 
Baker, Mrs. Gibbs L., Washington, D. C. 
Ballard, N. H., Brunswick, Ga. 
Barbour, John S., Fairfax, Va. 
Barham. Dr. W. B., Xewsoms, Va. 
Barton, R. T.; Winchester, Va. 
Baskcrvill, P. H., Richmond. Va. 
Baync. Howard R., New York, N. Y. 
Beatty, Mis. John. Blackwell. Oklahoma. 



Beckett, John T.. New York, N. Y. 
Bcckwith. Thomas S.. Sr., Petersburg, Va. 
Beer. George Louis, New York, N. Y. 
Beirne, Francis F., Baltimore. Md. 
Bell, Landon C, Columbus. Ohio. 
Bell. Robert O., Richmond, Va. 
Belmont. August, New York, N. Y. 
Belt, Mrs. Eliz. Talbot. Millen. Ga. 
Bennett, Robert R-, Washington, D. C. 
Best, Frank E.. Chicago, 111. 
Beveridge, Hon. A. J., Indianapolis, Ind. 
Blackstock, Ira B., Springfield. 111. 
Blair, Miss Louisa Coleman, Richmond, Va. 
Blow, A. A., Gloucester Co., Va. 
Boatwright, Mrs. Gertrude F. H., Roanoke, 

Va. 
Boisscau, Sterling. Richmond, Va. 
Boisscau, P. H., Danville. Va. 
Boiling. Charles E.. Richmond, Va. 
Boiling, Stanhope. Richmond. Va. 
Bondurant, Dr. Eugene D., Mobile, Ala. 
Booker, Mrs. Hunter R., Hampton, Va. 
Boreman, R. J. A., Parkersburg. W. Va. 
Bosher, Mrs. Robert S., Richmond, \'a. 
Bourgeoisie. Mrs. A. C. St. Louis. Mo. 
Bowles. Henry L., Denver, Col. 
Bowling. Benjamin L., Urbanna, 111. 
Boyle, Mrs. P. A.. Birmingham, Ala. 
Boyle, Mrs. Virginia Frazier, Memphis, 

Tenn. 
Bradshaw, Mrs Rosena, Padecah, Ky. 
Branch, John K., Richmond. Va. 
Brodhead, Mrs. Lucas. Vers-nilles. Ky. 
Brooke. George D.. Chillicothe, Ohio. 
Brooke. Richard .\'.. Wa.shincton. D. C. 
Brooke. Richard. Newark. Ohio. 
Brooke. Robert T., Birmingham, Ala. 
Brooke, S. S.. Roanoke, Va. 
Brooke. Dr. T. V.. Suthcrlin, Va. 
Brown, P.'of. W. G., Columbia, Mo. 



•This list also includes subscribers to the Magazine. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS 



Brov/n, J. Thompson, Richmond, Va. 
Brown, Wallace F., Richmond, Va. 
Bruce, Hon. C. M., Clarkton, Va. 
Bruce. Philip Alexandfr, Norfolk. Va. 
Bruce, Mrs. Mary Howard, Richmond, Va. 
Bryan. George, Richmond. Va. 
Bryan, Thomas P., Kichmond, Va. 
Bryan, St. George T. C., Richmond, Va. 
Budlong, Mrs. Milton J., New York, N. Y. 
Bukey, Mrs. John Spencer, Vienna, Va. 
Bullard, Mrs. B. F., Savannah, Ga. 
Bullitt, VVm. Marshall, Louisville, Ky, 
Burges, Richard F., El Paso, Texas. 
Burruss, Mrs. Nathaniel, Norfolk, Va. 
Burwell, D. S., Norfolk, Va. 
Byrd, Samuel M., Kosciusko, Miss. 



Callahan, G. C., Philadelphia. Pa. 

Cameron, Col. Benthan, Stagville, N. C. 

Cameron, Gcort;e. Petersburg, Va. 

Campbell, Mrs. A. A., WytheviUe, Va. 

Campbell. R. K. Washington, D. C. 

Cannon, G. Randolph. Richmond, Va. 

Capps. W. L., U. S. N., Washington, D. 0. 

Cargill, Mrs. T. A., Houston, Te.xas. 

Carpenter, Pay Director J. S., U. S. N., Bos- 
ton, Mar>s. 

Carr, Frank Overton. Wichita, Kansas. 

Carter, Mill. Ashland, Va. 

Cartwright, Mrs. S. .\. Brooke, Washing:ton, 
D. C. 

Cary, T. Archibald, Richmond, Va. 

Catlctt, Mrs. Richard H.. Staunton, Va. 

Chamberlayne, Churchill G., Richmond, 
Va. 

Chandler, Prof. J. A. C, Richmond, Va. 

Chandler, R. G.. Chicago. 111. 

Chandler, Walter T., Chicago, 111. 

Chauncy, Mrs. Agnes C, Narberth, Pa. 

Chilton, W. B., Washington, D. C. 

Christian, Judge Geo. L., Richmond, Va. 

Christian, Walter, Richmond, Va. 

Claiborne, Dr. J. H., New York, N. Y. 

Clark, W. Welch, Danville. Va. 

Clark, Wm. Hancock, New York, N. Y. 

Clarke, P. N.. Louisville, Ky. 

Clayton, Joseph C, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Clement. Mrs. N. E., Chatham, Va. 

Clyde, W. P., New York, N. Y. 

Cobb, Win. H., Elkins, W. Va. 

Coflin, Charles P., Brookline, Mass. 

Coke, Captain John A., Richmond, Va. 

Coleman, Charles W., Washington, D. C 



Coles, Mrs. T. B., Brooklyn, N. Y. ' 

Colston, Edward, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cook, Miss Mary E., Columbus, Ga. 
Cooke, Mrs. James P., Concord, N'. C. 
Coolidge, Archibald C, Cambridge, Mass. 
Corbin, Richard Beverley, New York, N. Y. 
Corbin, Richard W., Newport. R. I. 
Corbett. Mrs. L. G., Greenville, S. C. 
Courtney, Miss Emma, Louisville, Ky. 
Co.\, General Wm. R.. Penelo. N. C. 
Cram. Mrs. R. A., Boston, Mass. 
Crenshaw, S. Dabney, Richmond, Va. 
Cridlin, W. B.. Richmond, Va. 
Crittenden, W. L., Stigler, Okla. 
Croasdaile, Mrs. Richard, Canton, Ohio. 
Crocker, .Major J. F., Portsmouth, Va. 
Crockett, R. H.. Franklin, Tcnn. 
Crump, Judge Beverley T., Richmond, Va. 
CuUeton, Leo., London, Eng. 
Outright, W. B., Buckhannon, W. Va. 



Dabney, Dr. William M., Baltimore, Md. 
Dabney, Prof. R. H., University of Va. 
Daingerfield, Francis Lee, Alexandria, Va. 
Dandridge, Miss Mary E., Cincinnati, O. 
Darling, Mrs. Frank W., Hampton, Va. 
Daughters, A. R., Washington, D. C. 
Davenport, G. A., Richmond. Va. 
Denham, Edward, New Bedford, Mass. 
Denson, C. B., Raleigh N. C. 
Dickey, Judge Lyle A., Lihue, H. T. 
DooUttle, Mrs. Wm. W., Passadena, Cal. 
Doran. J. J., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Doremus, Mrs. C. A., New York, N. Y. ■,. 
Downing, George C, Frankfort, Ky. 
Dnscoll, Mis. Owen E., Charlottesville, Va. 
Duke, Judge R. T. W., Jr., Charlottesville. 

Dunn, John, M. D., Richmond, Va. 
Dupont. Col. H. A., Winterthur, DeL 
Duval, Miss Maria P., Charlestovvn, W. Va. 
Dwight, Dr. E. W., Boston, Mass. 



Easley, J. C, Richmond, Va. 
East, John P., New York, N. Y. 
Eaton, George G., Washington, D. C. 
Eckenrode, Dr. H. J., Richmond, Va. 
Ellis, Wade H.. Washington, D. C. 
EUyson, Hon. J. Taylor, Richmond, Va. 
Embrey, Judge Alvin T., Fredericksburg, 
Va. . . .. . 



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VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Empie, Adam, Wilmineton, N. C. 
English, Mrs. W. E., Indianapolis, Ind. 
Eskridae, R. S., Seattle, Wash. 
Eustace. Wm. Corcoran, Oatlands, Va. 

Farragiit, Loyall, New York, N. Y. 
Farrar, Edgar H., New Orleans, La. 
Faulkner, C. J., Boydton, Va. 
Feild, W. P., Little Rock. Ark. 
Feldhauser, Mrs. Goode K., St. Paul, Minn. 
Ferrell, Mrs. Chas. C, Anson, Te.x. 
Fife. Prof. R. H.. Middletown, Conn. 
Fitzhugh, Gen. Chas. L., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Fitzhugh. E. H., Montreal, Can. 
Flctnher, William Meade, Sperryville, Va. 
Fontaine, W. W. Austin, Tex. 
Fountain, General S. W., U. S. A., Devon, 

Pa. 
Fox, Fred. L., Sutton, W. Va. 
Frances, Mrs. Charles E., Bedford, Ind. 
Freeman, D. S., Richmond, Va. 
French, Dr. Jno. Herndon, New York, N. Y. 
Furlow, Floyd C, New York, N. Y. 

Gaines, C. Carrington, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Garland, Spotswood, Wilmington, Del. 
Garner, J. W., Falls Church, Va. 
Gibson, Rt. Rev. Robt. A., Richmond, Va. 
Gilbert, Mrs. R. M., New York, N. Y. 
Glover, Rolfe E., Richmond, Va. 
Good. D. Saylor. Roanoke. Va. 
Goodwin, Rev. E. L., Richmond. Va. 
Goodwyn, Mrs. W. S.. Emporia, Va. 
Gordon, Armistcad C, Staunton, Va. 
Gray. Henry W.. Jr.. Hartford. Conn. 
Gregory. George C, Rio Vista, Va. 
Grinnan, Judge Daniel, Richmond, Va. 
Grinnan, John C Norfolk, Va. 
Groome, H. L., Warrenton, Va. 
Guthrie, John W., Flagstaff, Arizona. 

Hagan. John C, Richmond. Va. 
Hairston. S. W.. Roanoke. Va. 
Hamilton, .Alexander, Petersburg, Va. 
Hamilton, Mrs. Amelia C, New York, N. Y. 
Hardy, Miss Stella Pickett, Batcsville. Ark. 
Harpel. Mrs. Almeda B.. Des Moines, Iowa. 
Harris, A. B. B.. Chicago. III. 
Harrington. Howard S.. New York, N. Y. 
Harris Alfred T., Jr., Richmond, Va. 
Harris, Graham H., Chicago. III. 
Harris, John T., Jr., Harrisonburg. Va. 
Harrison, Mrs. Carter H., Staunton, Ya. 
Harrison, Hon. Francis Burton, Manila, P.I. 
Harrison, Geo. T., M.D.. Charlottesville. Va. 
Harrison. Robert L., New York. N. Y. 



Harrison, W. Preston, Chicago, III. 
Harvie, Miss Anne P., Richmond, Va. 
Hawes, S. H., Richmond, Va. 
Hays, Francis B., Oxford, N. C. 
Heatwole, Prof. C. J., Harri.ionburg, Va. 
Heath, James E., Norfolk, \'a. 
Hempstone, W. D., Lcesburg, Va. 
Herbert, Col. Arthur, Alexandria, Va. 
Herbert. R. Beverley, Columbia. S. C. 
Herndon. J. W,. Alexandria. Va. 
Heyer, Mrs. Mary B.. Wilmington, N. C. 
Higgins, Mrs. D. P., Joliet. 111. 
Hill. W. M.. Richmond. Va. 
Hine. Major Cha,les DcLano. Vienna, Va. 
Hogg. Mrs. Clara H. D.. Cadiz. Ohio. 
Holladay. A. Randolph, Richmond, Va. 
Holmes. J. T.. Columbus. Ohio. 
Holt. R. O., Washington, D. C. 
Hord. Rev. A. H., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Horsley, Dr. J. Shelton, Richmond, Va. 
Howard, Mrs. Eleanor Washington, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
Howard, Major McHenry, Baltimore, Md. 
Hughes. A. S., Denver, Col. 
Hunt, Gaillard, Washington, D. C. 
Hunter. James W.. Norfolk. Va. 
Hunton. Eppa. Jr., Richmond. Va. 
Hurt, George P., Atlanta, Ga. 
Hutcheson, H. F., Boydton. Va. 
Hutcheson. Mrs. J. C. Houston. Tex. 
Hutchins, W. S., Washington. D. C. 
Hutchinson. Gary T.. New York. N. Y. 
Hyde. Mrs. Charles R., Chattanooga, Tenn. 

James, Mrs. J. O., Petersburg, Va. 
Jameson, Mrs. S. W.. Roanoke, Va. 
Jarman, Prof. J. L.. Farmville. Va. 
Jcflress. T. F., Drewry's Bluff, Va. 
Jenkins, Luther H., Richmond, Va. 
Jewett. W. K.. Colorado Springs. Col. 
Johnson, B. F., Washington, D. C. 
Johnston, Dr. Geo. Ben., Richmond, Va. 
Johnston, Miss Mary, Warm Springs, Va. 
Jones, Fairfax C, Richmond, Va. 
Jones, Judge L. H., Louisville, Ky. 
Jones, W. Strother, Red Bank, N. J. 
Junkin, Francis T. A., Chicago, 111. 

Kable, Mrs. W. G., Staunton, Va. 
Reach, Mrs. O. A., Wichita, Kan. 
Keim, Mrs. Betty L., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Kelly, Mrs. Effie Bowles Richmond, Va. 
Kemper, Charles E., Washington, D. C. 
Kent, Prof. C. W., University of Va. 
Kimber, A. L., Chicago, 111. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS 



VII 



Lamb. E. T.. Norfolk, Va. 
Lambert, Mrs. W. H., Germantown, Pa. 
La Monte, Geo. M., Bound Brook, N. J. 
Lancaster, R. A., Jr., Richmond, V 
Lathrop, Bryan, Chicago, 111. 
Lav/ton, Mrs. James M., New York, N. Y. 
Leake, J. Jordan, Richmond, Va. 
Lecky, Robert, Jr., Richmond, Va. 
Ledbetter, Mrs. C. R.. Little Rock, Ark. 
Lee, Blair. Washington, D. C. 
Lee, R. E., Jr., Fairfax County, Va. 
Le Grande, Mrs. J. H., Tyler, Tex. 
Leigh, Egbert G., Jr., Richmond, Va. 
Levy, Jefferson M., New York. N. Y. 
Lev/is, Charles, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Lev/is, Herbert, L Wast Point, Va. 
Lewis, Judge Lunsford L., Richmond, Va. 
Lodge, Hon. H. C, Washington, D. C. 
Lomax, E. L., San Francisco, Cal. 
Long. E. McL., New York, N. Y. 
Lorton. Heth, Garden City, L. L. N. Y. 
Loyall, Captain B. P., Norfolk, Va. 
Lukeman H. Augustus, New York, N. Y. 
Maddox. E. L., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Mallory, Lt. C. K., U. S. N., Syracuse, 

N. Y. 
Mallory, Col. J. S., U. S. A., Culebra, Canal 

Zone. 
Maloncy, Mrs. Eva Grant, New Castle, Va. 
Mangum, Mrs. Wm. W., New Orleans, La. 
Markham, George D.. St. Louis, Mo. 
Mnstin, Mrs. Geor-,e R., Lexington, Ky. 
Matthews, Albert, Boston, Mass. 
Maxwell, Mrs. AUi on, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Mayo, E. C, Richmond, Va. 
Mayo, Mrs. Etta Booth, Commerce, Tex. 
Mayo, P. H., Richmond, Va. 
Mercer, Mrs. William P., Elm City, N. C. 
Meredith. Charles V., Richmond, Va. 
Meredith, Philip T., Ilarrisburg, Pa. 
Meriwether, Mrs. Minor, Shreveport, La. 
Merrill. Mrs. Lida W., Terre Haute, Ind. 
Meyer. Mrs. Augu;t R., Kansas City, Mo. 
Miller, Rudolph P., New York, N. Y. 
Minnigerode, Charles, Baltimore, Md. 
Minor, Benj S., Washington, D. C. 
Mitchell. Robert, Richmond, Va. 
Mitchell, Kirkwood. Richmond, Va. 
MofTett. Miss Edna V.. Wellesley, Mass. 
Montague. Hill, Richmond, Va. 
Moore, Warner, Richmond, Va. 
Morehcad, C. R., El Paso, Texas. 
Morgan, Dr. D. H., Amelia C. H., Va. 
Munford, Mrs. Beverley B., Richmond. Va 
Munford. R. B., Jr., Richmond, Va. 
Myers, Barton, Norfolk. Va. 



McAllister. A. S.. New York. N. Y. 

McAllister, J. T., Hot Springs, Va. 

McBryde, Dr. J. M., Blacksburg, Va. 

McCabe, Capt. W. Gordon, Richmond. Va. 

McCluer, W. B.. Chicago, 111. 

McClung, C. M.. Kno^iville, Tenn. 

McConnell, Prof. J. P., Radford, Va. 

McCormick, R. Hall, Chicago, 111. 

McCormick, Harold F., Chicago, 111. 

McDonnel, Mrs. Eugene, Fort Howard. Md. 

McFadden, Charles, Jr.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

McGraw, John T., Grafton. W. Va. 

McGuire. Dr. Edward, Richmond, Va. 

McGuire, Mrs. Frank H., Richmond, Va, 

McGuire, John Peyton, Jr., Richmond. Va. 

McGuire, Murray M., Richmond, Va. 

McKim, Rev. Randolph IL, Washington, 
D. C. 

Mcllwaine, Dr. H. R., Richmond, Va. 

McIIwaine, W. B., Petersburg, Va. 

Mcintosh, Charles P., Norfolk, Va. 

McKenny. Miss Virginia Spotswood. Peters- 
burg, Va. 

McNeil, Mrs. Walter, Richmond, Va. 

Nash, Dr. F. S., U. S. N.. Washington, D. C. 

Neilson, Miss Lou, Oxford. Miss. 

Nichols, Rt. Rev. W. F.. San Francisco, 

Cal. 
Nixon, Lewis. Metuchen, N. J. 
Nor veil, Mrs. Lipscomb, Beaumont. Texas. 

Osborne, W. L. H.. Glade. Oregon. 
Outerbridge. Mrs. A. J., University, Va. 
Owen, Thomas M.. Montgomery. Ala. 

Padgitt, Mrs. J. Tom, Coleman, Texas. 

Page, Mrs. Mann, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Page. S. Davis, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Page, Rosewell, Beaver Dam, Va. 

Page, Hon. Thomas Nelson. American 
Embassy, Rome, Ita^y. 

Palmer, Mrs. Potter, Osprey, Fla. 

Palmer, Col. William H., Richmond, Va. 

Parker. Col. John, Brovvsholme Hall, Cle- 
thiroe. Lancashire, Eng. 

Parker, W. S. R., Beaumont, Texas. 

Patteson, S. S. P., Richmond, Va. 

Paxton, T. B., Jr.. Cincinnati, O. 

Payne, John B., Chicago. 111. 

Pegram, Lt. John C, U. S. A.. San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Penn, Mrs. James G., Danville, Va. 

Pcscud, Peter F., New Orleans, La. 

Peterkin, Mrs. George W., Parkersburg, 
W. Va. ■ 



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VIII 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Pettus. William J.. M. D., U. S. Marino 

Hospilal Service, Charleston, S. C. 
Phelps, Wni. B., Duluth. Minn. 
Pinckarl, W. P., Birmingham, Ala. 
Pinckncy, C. C, Richmond, Va. 
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Pleasants, Dr. J. Hall, Baltimore, Md. 
Plummer, .Miss Lucy Dupuy, Chicago, 111. 
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Pollard, Henry R., Richmond, Va. 
Powell, J. E., Washington, D. C. 
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Purcell, Col. J. B., Richmond. Va. 

Raines, Dr. Thomas H., Savannah, Ga. 
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Randolph, Rt. Rev. A. M.. D. D., Norfolk, 

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Roberts, Mrs. James W., .Marietta, Ohio. 
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Smith, Willis B.. Petersburg, Va. 
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Stewart, Miss Annie C, Brook Hill, Va. 
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Terhune, Mrs. E. T., New York, N. Y. 
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Thompson, Jliss Geor.re. Ft. Worth, Texas. 



x> y. 



V V 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



U> II 



IX 



Thompson, Mrs. Maurice, Chicago, III. 
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ThruEton, R. C, Ballard, Louisville, Ky. 
Tidball, Prof. Thomas A., Sewanee. Tenn. 
Tiffany, Mrs. Louis McLane, Baltimore, 

Md. 
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Trabtr, Mis. Herman, Muskogee, Oklahoma 
Travers, S. \V., Richmond, Va. 
Trippe, Mrs. M. W., New York, N. Y. 
Tucker, H. St. George, Lexington, Va. 
Tunstall, Richard B., Norfolk, Va. 
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Valentine, B. B., Richmond, Va. 
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Wise, Wm. H., Chicago. III. 

Withers, Alfred D., Roane's, Va 

Woodhull, Mrs. Oliver J., San Antonio, Tex, 

Woodward, Dr. E. L., The Plains. Virginia 

Worsham, John C, Henderjon, Ky. 

Wortham, Coleman, Richmond, Va. 

Wrenn, Rev. Virginius, Amelia C. H., Va. 

Wright, E. E., New Orleans, La. 

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Wynn., Mrs. James O., Atlanta. Ga. 

Wynne, Miss Mae, S. M., Huntsville, Texas. 

Wysor, Harry R., Muncie, Ind. 



Yoakum, R. B., Leavenworth, Kan. 
Yonge, Samuel H., Richmond, Va. 



Zimmer, W. L., Petersburg, Va. 



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roe, Va. 



XI 






VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



IfT 



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York, N. Y. 
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Cal. 

University of Illinois Library, Urbanaa, 111. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS 



XI 



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THE ARMISTEAD FAMILY, 

1G35 1910. 
By Mrs. VIRGINIA AR?.JISTEAD GARBER. 

A book of 30;") pages, with index, containing the Armistead Arms In 
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Tlif editor of Vu. His. Soc. Mag. says the author: "She is no daubt the chief authority 
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abled her to prepare what is by far the fullest account of that family." 

r . . V ; Oct-14-ly 



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THE 

Virginia Magazine 

OF 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

Vol. XXIV. April, 1916. • No. 2 



Report of the Journey of Francis Louis Michel from 

Berne, Switzerland, to Virginia, October 2,(1) 

1701-December 1, 1702. 



Part II 



Translated and edited by Prof. Wm. J. Hinke, Ph. D. 

Now I return again to York Town, where, as mentioned be- 
fore, we arrived on April 8th. On one side lies York, opposite 
Closter [Gloucester]. On the following day the captain de- 
parted for Willemsburg, where the Governor resides, a dis- 
tance of about 18 miles, to announce his arrival. At night he 
returned again. On the 10th we went to him to learn whether 
we could land. He replied, the Governor had been informed 

(1) After the first part was in print, the translator noticed that he 
had failed to render one sentence correctly. It is the last sentence on 
page 37 of the Magazine, continued on page 38. It should read as fol- 
lows: "The fourth and last kind are flying [squirrels), very small and 
pretty, of t)rown color, but with a white belly. They lly only in the 
evening or at night. Instead of wings they have loose skin along the 
side of their body which they spread when they fly or jump." 

On page 19, note *, a misprint was overlooked. It should read "Mr. 
Stanard very kindly furnished notes 30-33, 36, 37, 40-42, and 49." 

The editor of the Magazine, Mr. Stanard, very kindly contributes the 
following: notes to this part: Nos. 2a, 3, 5, 7, 11, 12, 24, 25, 26, 27, 40, -13. 



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114 VIKGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. . ., 

of our arrival, (because of the four French families, with whom 
I traveled) . He congratulated us on our arrival. We were also 
allowed to go where we pleased. We asked him [the captain] 
for peiToission to leave oiu' clothes and the rest of our goods in 
the vessel until we had explored the land and had foimd a 
suitable ]^lace for us to settle in. He consented to this. To- 
getl.er with two Frenchmen (the name of the one was Peir, the 
other Fal:)attier, (2) honest and good people) I had myself at 
once brought to shore, on the Closter [Gloucester] side. It 
gave us great pleasure when we could again step on land for the 
firsi time. It was in the most beautiful season of the 3'ear, 
the flo\Aers, trees, birds, their song and ever^'thing we saw bore 
no compaiison to European things. The lovely fragrance of the 
many trees that blossomed, their strange species and leaves de- 
ligl'lcd us not a little. 

After we had passed through the forest for several miles, we 
sa^^' at our right and left plantations or farms (for as already 
indicate'] peojjle do not live closel)^ together, but each one 
selects a suitable place, where he finds good soil, pasture and 
water.) Finally we became i arious to know how the houses 
looked inside and what food people were eating. We entered 
one which stood near the road, but no one was at hom.e, except 
the maid servant, whom we asked for some water. She gave 
us also some food, a species of small white beans, cooked with 
bacon, which had been prepared for the overseers of the slaves. 
It was good. The food prepared for the negroes that v/ork was 
pounded Turkish maize, cooked in water, called hominy, a 
healthy food. The bread was made of the above-mentioned 
com, baked on the fire (2a). We did not like it very mv:ch 
and could hardly eat it. The bread, baked in an oven, is better. 
Bread is also made of wheat, but not for the slaves or servants. 

Before I continue my journey I find it necessary to report a 
good habit or custom which prevails there with regard to 
strangers and travelers. Namely, it is possible to travel 
through the whole coimtry without money, except when ferry- 

(2) Pierre Sabattie occurs .several times as godfather in the baptismal 
record of King William Parish. 

(2a) This was the ash cake now almost as unfamiliar to Virginians 
as to Michel. 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. ' 115 

ing across a river, which costs not less than 1 bitt or 4 Batzen. 
In the first place, there is little money in the country, the little 
that is found there consists mostly of Spanish coins, namely 
dollars. Tobacco is the money with which payments are made. 
There are also few ordinaries or inns. Moreover, it is not a 
country in which much traveling is done, though the inhab- 
itants visit one another. Even if one is willing to pay, they do 
not accept anytliing, but they are rather angry, asking, whether 
one did not know the custom of the country. At first we were 
too modest to go into the houses to ask for food and lodging, 
which the people often recognized, and they admonished us not 
to be bashful, as this was the custom of rich and poor. We 
soon became accustomed to it. Thus we continued our joumc}'. 
It was our purpose to travel to ?\Iattabany(3), where Swiss 
people were living, especially a man named Willion, known to 
me from military service, another of the Pays de Vaux de 
Bcxd), back of the bailiwick of Aehlen, who was lieutenant 
captain under Saccona3^ After we had proceeded some dis- 
tance, we saw the Closter [Gloucester] Church, (5) standing 
solitary in the forest, which I have already mentioned as being 
one of the most beautiful, built of bricks. From there we con- 
tinued through the forest. We met a man on horseback (it is a 
strange sight to see anyone traveling on foot) whom we asked 
about the way. For the guidance of those not knowing the 
way it is only necessary to watch the signs that are found on 
trees along the great high road. Ever}' year white places are 
cut into the trees with hatchets, by the removal of the bark. 
There are so many ways that otherwise one could easily go 
astray. There are many paths that lead to plantations, 
others have been made by the cattle or the game. The man 
on horseback just mentioned, asked us where we came from and 
where we intended to go to. He told us that not far from that 
place Swiss people were living. I was anxious to see them. 

(3) Mattabany {Mattapony) — Willion, is he known? Possible Willeroy, 
a name still found in King William County. 

(4) Pays de Vaux de Bex is the Canton of Waadt in Switzerland, 
called Pays de Vaux in French. Bex is a small town near the R^one 
river. South-east of Aigle, to which Michel refers by the German name 
Aehlen. 

(5) Gloucester Church. From the statement that he soon reached 
the Swiss peo!)le at Mattapony, this was probably Petsworth Church. 



o.t 



115 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

We reached the house in a short time. I expected to find 
[French] Swiss, but met there the four sisters Lerber(G) fr^m 
Berne. I do not want to stop to describe their condition. 
It would be very desirable if they had someone, who could 
manage their place and secure servants for them. Their 
mother died shortly after their arrival. From there we con- 
tinued our journey. In the evening we came to a kind-hearted 
man, of whom we inquired about the way, but, as it was late, 
he did not want us to proceed, but gave us good lodging. He 
showed us an unoccupied farm, which he was willing to let us 
have for a year without rent, but we did not like it. There 
are many people who have plantations for rent. Two to five 
pounds secures a good dwelling, and as much land as one can 
work. Most of the wealth consists in sla\'es or negroes, for if 
one has many workmen, much food-s.tuff and tobacco can be 
produced. These negroes are brought annually in large num- 
bers from Guine and Jamaica, (the latter of which belongs 
to England) on English ships. They can be selected according 
to pleasure, young and old, men and women. They are entirely 
nalced when they arrive, having only corals of different colors 
around their neck and arms. They usually cost from 18-30 
pounds. They are life-long slaves and good workmen after 
they have become acclimated. Many die on the journey or 
in the beginning of their stay here, because they receive meagre 
food and are kept very strictly. Both sexes are usually bought, 
which increase afterwards. The children like the parents 
must live in slavery. Even if they desire to become Christians, 
it is only rarely permitted, because the English law jjrescribes 
that after seven years' service they are [in that case] to be freed, 

(b) The following note is found in the "Berne Year book," page 83f. 
about these ladies. They were probably the daughters of Francis Lud- 
wig Lerber, Secretary to the city treasurer of Berne, who had the fol- 
lowing daughters: Anna Barbara, born 1675; Anna Magdalena, born 
1070; Catharine, born 1078; Maria, born 1680; Johanna Margaretha, born 
1082; and Barbara Elizabeth, born 1085. In the proceedings against 
the Annabaptists at that time the "Lerber sisters" are mentioned. It 
is, therefore, probable, though not certain that they left Switzerland, 
because of their faith. In Brock's Huguenot Emigration to Virginia, 
page 33, "Madame Iferbert and her four daughters," is mentioned as a 
Swiss settler. Could they be identical with these ladies? 



SMi; 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 117 

(7) in accordance with the Mosaic law. When a slave is bought 
from the captain of a ship, he is not jjaid at once, but the slave so 
bought usually plants tobacco, in order that the captain may be 
paid with it. Lately, before my departure, I was over night on a 
ship, which several days before had come from Guine* with 
230 slaves. They get them there for a small sum, as also gold 
and ivory, but a hundred of them died on the journey to Vir- 
ginia. It is said to be a very unhealthy country. Half of 
the sailors died also, including the brother of the captain, 
who had sailed along as clerk. The others were sickly and 
yellow in their faces. It often happens that the ships must be 
left in Guine, because everybody dies of sickness. The cap- 
tain, to whom I refer, was named Schmid. He almost shared 
the same fate. I was surprized at the animal-like people, 
The savages [Indians] are a far better breed. Among such peo- 
ple food tastes so badly, that one can hardly stand it. The 
negro fever is due to this, because it is their common sickness. 
It clings to ],eople for a long time and emaciates them very 
much. 

To return lo my fonner journey, After five days we came to 
my countrymen, who had arrived in this coiuitry two years 
ago(S). We were sur])rized at the good condition they had 
reached in so short a time. Especially one of them, born at 
Neiienstatt(9), was well provided with house, cattle and grain. 
The)' are the last settlers on the side of Mattabany. Mr. 
Willon had not becom.e accustomed to such v/ork and did not 
have the means at that time to buy slaves. Besides, his house 
burnt dovnr once with all of its contents. They entertained 
us according to their ability. We stayed with them for two 
days. But their conditions [of settlement] which they had made 

(7) Was there such a law? Under various Virginia laws servants 
over 19 years of age, coming in without indentures were to serve five 
years. In 16G7, the Assembly enacted that baptism of slaves did not 
free them. As the parish registers show, the baptism of slaves soon 
became common. 

(*) This is French Guinea in West Africa, called Guinee by the French. 

(8) This Swiss colony at Mattapony was probably a branch of the 
Huguenot colony at Manakintown. Michel dates its establishment in 
the year 1700. 

(9) Neuenstatt, usually called by its French name Neuveville, lies 
at the Lake Bicnne, in the Canton of Bcme, Switzerland. 



Vii 



118 ^ VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE ! '.* 

with IV'kijor Borell(lO), did not suit us. They were to i>lant 
and clear the land for fourteen years. Meanwhile he would 
advanee to them whatever they needed. They in return were to 
give him one-third of the cattle, together with several 100 pounds 
of to])acco annually, repay the money loaned and at the end 
of the above mentioned years he should be free to decide 
whether he would allow them to stay there any longer or not. 
This agreement did not suit us, although it [the settlement] 
was located at a cheerful, healthy and good place. We bade 
them farewell, hoping that we would find a more suitaljle 
place. It is very important to make inquiries first l:;efore 
settling. We traveled on the other side of tlie stream, between 
two ri\ers for about 50 miles till we came to Westpoint,(ll) 
where two rivers part, aS stated above. As the river is \-ery 
broad and the ferryman lives on the other side, it is customar>' to 
make a smoke. As soon as he notices it, he comes across. 
Each person must pay one shilling as fare. 

We had forty miles to travel to Willemsburg to greet the 
Go\'ciT.or. Mr. Peir had a letter of recomniendation to give 
to him, which is of miuch ^^^sistance in such places. We came 
to see him one morning, when he had sent for us and had read 
the letter. We had to go with him to prayers because it was 
time for them. Afterwards he asked us what our desire was. 
We told him, nam.ely, to settle at a favorable place and we asked 
him to give us advice. He promised to remember us and told 
his Secretary [Edmund Jenings] to take us to the Bishop, 
who is also called President Blair, with instructions to inform 
us what the custom and usage of the country was. Before 
leaving he ordered dinner to be served to us, with command to 
treat us well. The servants, however, are not on good terms 
with the French and did not carry out the order right. They 
gave us soup with fresh ham and some small beer. But the 
butler took us into the cellar, filled with all sorts of strange 

(lOj This was no doubt Major Lewis Burwell, of "Carter's Creek,' 
Gloucester County, and "Kings Creek," York County. He was a mem- 
ber of the Council itnd died Dec. 19, 1710. 

(11) Westjwint, at the head of York River, where the Mattapony and 
Pamuiikey meet, was on a large tract of land owned by Col. John West, 
Jr., nephew of Lord Delaware. In 1691, a town was establi.shed here 
whicli was named Delaware in 1705. 






CMf 1 



v..ifr 



<.0»J 111 *>. 



' • *■' THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 119 

driiiks. He gave us some English stout, very strong, after- 
wards Rhine wine. The Governor drinlvs no wine nor sLrong 
drinl-:. From there we went with the Secretary to jMr. Blair, 
who recei\'cd us courteously and dranlv to our welcome from 
silver vessels. After he had been informed of our desire, he 
laid before us a number of points in the French language as 
well as he could (for he could speak only a little French). 
He told us that it depended upon us entirely, whether we would 
take up some college land according to custom, as mucli as we 
desired, and for three years without taxes. After that time v/e 
would liave to pay the royal taxes, namely, every male jjerson 
who had reached the 16th year, annually 100 pounds of tobacco 
and about the same amount for the Church. These are all the 
taxes. When this small amount is paid, one enjoys freedom 
and protection in this country. This proposition suited us 
much beitc-r than the first at ivlattabany. Nevertheless, 
in view of the worship, my companions preferred to see Man- 
igkinton tirst, for they have a preacher there paid by the King. 
The soil there is also mueh better and more fertile than in most 
places in Virginia. Besides, the settlers there have seven years 
in which they pay nothing. We therefore postponed decision, 
wishing neither to refuse nor to accept this offer, but we took 
it under advisement. On the same day we went to Mr. Fo''s, 
[Fouace] to whom I have already referred. He gave us liow- 
ever a short answer. The reason was that he had done mueh 
for the French but they had rewarded hira ill. He told us 
that when twelve Frenclimen were together, ten of them wore 
no good and not worth getting a lodging. We attempted to 
excuse ourselves as well as we could, but it was of no avail. 
He asked whether we had the mark [of our worth] on us, by 
\\'hich we could be recognized. Later, when he heard from our 
cajjtain how we had acted on the ship, he showed us much 
kindness and love. 

/\fter we had been away till the 20th of April, we returned to 
our people, who were very anxious for tis and were afraid that 
something had happened to us. In the morning the captain in- 
formed us that he had to sail to Westpoint and he would like to 
have ns remove our goods, which v/as agreeable to us. Wc had 



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120 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

our boxes and barrels removed from our sloop to another. The 
c-a])tain gave us two sailors to take us to Kinskrig [Kings- 
creek] ( 12) not far from Willemsburg. Then we took leave of 
him. He promised to be ready at all times to help us, except 
one of us, an aged man, who had lost his wife on the journey, 
named Savori. He would have to pay his passage, because he 
had made the captain angry several times and had had many 
quarrels with him. As soon as we had left the ship, they 
weighed their anchors and sailed 40 miles farther up into the 
country. We made only 5 miles tonight, then anchored. 
On the following day, however, with good wind we sailed to 
the abo\-e mentioned Kingscreek. We ran against an oyster- 
hank and had to wait there for two hours, till the tide came. 
At three o'clock we reached our destination, where we left the boat 
lo look for a place in the nearest houses to store and get shelter 
for our goods. There was on a hill a house next to our peoi)le, 
I.L'if 'nging to a man Refhubert. All of us made a weekly agree- 
nent with him for ten shillings. We unloaded the goods 
a id l)rcught them on land that evening, but because there 
was .so much of them and it was already late we could not get 
tl-icni into the house. We intended to keep vratch with them. 
Tovards midnight we went there all together with rifles to 
\\'atch. We made a fire, but soon there came such a thunder- 
storm and rain that our fire v/as quickly extinguished. We lay 
down under a sack with covers and mantles, but we could hardly 
siand it half an hour. Finally we got very wet and as no im- 
I'rovcmtnt could be expected and as it rained still faster, we 
k "i our post. We had the greatest trouble to get up the hill, 
A\ i;ich v;as overgrown with trees, and find our way to the house, 
r. ihe morning we found everything in good condition. We 
carried our goods that day into the house and counselled about 
taking :: new journey. Together with Sabattier I was a])- 
ij>;)intcd to trax'cl to Manigkinton, which was about 75 miles 
distant. On the 23rd we started on our journey, telling the 
others to take good care of themselves. I had a map of the 
country ^^•ilh me which was ver}' serviceable. I also took my 
rifle and l^ayonet along, ]:)artly to shoot partridges, which we 
(12) Kings Creek flows into York River. 






.tKis' 



li ,K 



■fwti.; 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 121 

had met on our last journey in large numbers, partly for the 
sake of security, although there is not the least danger to travel 
in lh:U country because of wicked people. But in case of travels 
to and bej'ond the frontiers, none goes without a rifle because 
of the savages. 

After a three days' journey we came to Falensgrig [Falling 
creek'] during which time nothing of note happened to us. We 
found good lodging places everywhere and since the people 
love strangers, we had a good time. During the day we shot 
tiirtle-doves which are found there in large numbers, together 
AA ith some partridges.' From there it is 25 miles to the [French] 
ci>l(jny through the wilderness. On the way there were no 
houses, hence we were concerned about going astray. We had 
received the best possible instructions as to the situation of 
the ] ilace. Hence we left the river on our right. Thus we could 
noi go astray, as the place lies on the river. In the morning 
VL started our journey. We met some countrymen armed, 
who came from a plantation. We asked whether they came 
from a hunt, they said no, but that it was not safe in this 
region because of the savages. After we had followed till 
nexrn a path, pointed out to us, over hills and valleys, Vv'e 
finalh came to two roads and did not know which one to take. 
Wc took the one on the right hand, which we followed till 
eA ening. We saw no end and became impatient thinking 
that Vv"e had missed the right way. The outlook was for a 
tlanderstorm and night was approaching. We marched, 
according to the best of our ability, till we saw a little house, 
1) .1 found no sign that anybody lived there. We continued a 
li tie farther, when we saw a number of huts. But they were 
i'M abandoned. Finally we saw smoke, which gladdened us 
vox a little. When we reached it, it was a small house with no 
one in it, and as the rain began to fall, we went in and started a 
fire. The house was in sad condition regarding beds and fur- 
riiiure, nor v/as food there in abundance, only a piece of game 
and a little bread. From there we came in half an hour to a 
F.enehman, who was cutting down a tree. He told us that wo 



isr 



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122 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

were near Manigkinton,(13) which we reached soon. I recog- 
nized at once a man from Aargau,(14) who gave me lodging 
and was very glad to meet a countryman. On the follov.ing 
morning I visited two French Swiss, named Nicon and Detoit.(l5) 
The first is lieutenant of the place. They are richh' provided 
witli e\'erything. The governor dined with him recenth/. 
The captain or head of the place is a surgeon by profession, 
named Chaltin,(16) who had long resided at Ifferton [Yverdon, 
Switzerland]. We vrent to the pastor, Air. Dujoux.(17) Since 
his house burnt down recently he lodged in the church, which is 
still very small, but £200 have been set aside to build a new 
churcli. Conditions here differed in every respect from those 
of other places. Things that are grown are there in such 
abundance that many Englislimen come a distance of 30 miles 
to get fruit, which they mostly exchange for cattle. Gardens 
are filled there v/ith all kinds of fruit, especially the garden of 
the man from Aargau. The cattle are fat because of the 
abundant pasture. The soil is not sandy, as it is generally 
in Virginia, but it is a heavy, rich soil. Each person takes 50 

(13) Beverley in his History of Virginia, ed. 1725, part IV, page 45 1 
describes the settlement of the Huguenots at Manakintown as follows: 
"In the year 1G99, there went over about three hundred of these, and the 
year following about two hundred more, and so on, till there arrived in 
all, between seven and eight hundred men, women and children." They 
were settled on a tract of 10,000 acres about twenty-five miles above the 
falls of the James River, on the south side of the river, in what is now 
Powliatan County. The district had formerly been occupied by the 
Monacan tribe of Indians, after whom the settlement retained its name 
Mon;'.c:m (Manakin)-town. A disagreement in the second year of their 
settlement caused many to leave, so that in May 1701 there were about 
250 settlers left. See Brock, Huguenot Emigration to Virginia. 

(14) Aargan is a Canton in the northern part of Switzerland, adjoin- 
ing the Canton of Basle. 

(15) The nearest approach to Nicon is Abraham Nicod, who came to 
Manakin-town as a member of the first colony, see Brock, 1. c, p. 45. 
Pre. Dutoit is mentioned in a list of French Protestants in King William 
Parish, of about the year 1714, They may be identical. See Brock, 1. c, 
p. 74. 

(,1G) Chaltin is probably ide.itical with Stephen (Etienne) Chastain, 
who came with his wife Martha as a member of the first colony (Brock, 
1. c, p. 45). They had four children (Brock, 1. c., p. 21), among whom 
were probably Jean and Pierre Castain. They were prominent about 
1714. Brock, 1. c, p. 74. 

(17) Rev. Benjamin De Joux, formerly pastor of the Reformed Church 
at Lyon, headed the second colony. He served as pastor till 1704. An 
inventory of his estate is dated April 1, 1701, sec Brock, 1. c, pp. VIII, 
13, 20. 



):•- '. 



.aMiSASA;- ^« 'I,. 



9ffT .-nn\p:ein trf^fifurff: 



' ■.; THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 123 

paces in width, the length extends as far as one cares to make it 
or is willing to work it. (18) I have already mentioned that the 
Indians had a town there and how it was destroyed. Since 
that time trees have not grown very large, so that in a short 
time and x\ith little effort a large place could be cleared for 
building purposes. I have seen there the most awful ;vild 
grapevirics, whose thickness and height are incredible. There 
are several kinds of grapes, the best are as large as a small nut. 
They make fairly good wine, a beginning has been made Lo 
graft them, the prospects are fme.(19) It is much healthier 
there than towards the ocean. The country is full of ^-arne and 
fish. The Indians often visit there, bringing game, iimi and 
oiher smaller things. There is a good opportunity to trade 
wrch skms. They [the Indians] often bring pottery and when 
desired fill it with com. There are more than CO fPrenrh] 
families there. (20) They all live along the river. 

Lately two wealthy gentlemien came and had buildings erected 
there, because of its convenient location. In a word, we saw 
that this place would be ver}- useful to us. To further our end 
the nnmsler gave us a letter, signed by the officials of the place 
and addressed to the Governor, requesting that we might en- 
joy the same privileges(21) as they did, which was later granted 
by the State Council. We left there much pleased and re- 
turned to our people, where we made everything ready for our 
journey thither. We rented a sloop which carried our bag- 
gage till Falensgrig [Falling creek]. Thence with carts and horses 
It was brought to the proper place, v/here we occupied our land 
I handed mine over to Mr. Dutoit, who will manage it in my 
absejice^Hnstructe d him to malce every preparation, so that, 
1. ^c^\x ^T^ ^"""'''^ atlvi^kin-town was allowed 133 acres, see Brock, 

(19) This is corroborated by Beverley, who writes: "The last vear 
they began an Essay of Wine, which they made of Wild Grapes eathe^d 
m the Woods; the effect of which was a Noble strong bS Claret of 
a curious flavour." Ed. 1725, part IV p 46 'claret, ot 

(20) On May 10, 1701, Col. Randolph, Capt. Eppes and Capt Webb 

Brocl^ 1 c"t"4'^""' ""^^ '''"' '°""' '''''' "^°"' seventyTutrsee 

wis crea^ted'^n^r'''' ^' V^^' ^^e French settlement at Manakintown 
w^as created mto a separate parish, King William's Pari.sh, with their 



.:li 



124 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

When I rctuni, he can carry out my intention. I re-^etted not 
a httle that was not sufficiently provided with m an'aTd 
hence eornpelled to returti. About 400 dollars are ZtJ^ 
. n order to set up a man properly, namely to enable hta o 
bu3 _t«-o slaves, with whom i„ two years a beautiful fam, can 
be cleared, because the trees are far apart. Afterwar™ " 
settler must be provided with cattle, a horse cost^.a 
us^al price 4 lbs., a cow with calf 50 shilH g;, a n a e PI 
h,lh„,,s, Funiiture and clothes, together wifh took and pr 
to be"' >rr' ""'' ''^° ^ °" *'■'""' " - indeed posdbfc 
pass by before one gets into a good condition. The one «*o 

n,uTh Wore" if ™ 'T "-'''• '''"""'' ''^^ ™<^ --" -•« 
much, before he can make progress by his work alone By 

ear t^ he' " b' T" " '"' '"'° ^"^^ ^ -"*"- '^e firs 

™h^ ewm! nV "" f'"' '"""'^y' "here it is possible 
. ith sc UH means and so easily to make an honest livinJ and be 

• ban o.r™f '"T- ^"^ '™ "™"'^ -" -'- - bigge C, 

tub, "LT':; "" ^f"^'""-- incredibly fast fvithott 

°e is ,;i merr '" '^■'>""'"''-'"™- When a tree or something 

and bear fi^l sTd ' ■ '"f '° "= '' ^'°'^ "P » -- 
desires Th^ '' '" """ ^■'''"■''™' S''^^^ "''clever one 

atsires. The cows are pasturing round about the house dur 

n addition there is no lack of game and fish. Besides it is a 

quiet land devoted to our religion, and he who wan sto n Iv 

onest exercise finds' opportunities enough for it espechlh- 

the 01,0 who loves field work or hunting. It ' he e o ' 

^_, possible to live an honest life, quietly and content dlyMui 

'" u-^., '"SI- 'M''°f ^^^ '^"'^ aud gain a sufficient knowled-v of 
. ade, so that, if the Lord will bring me back again safcl 
here may be no doubt that I shall have the pleasure rf ^ ' 
io mo- h^ T "', ™"'' '° '''''' "P '■■••"l>"g "ceds no io 
:.■.''■.', T^'^ ^'"■-' "-'*»'^'c for one who has c : 



perience in it [iradel 



SK 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 125 

Poor people, such namely as ask for alms, are not seen. If 
one is disabled in means and strength, the county keeps him. 

If one wants to hire out, as there are some who do so, he can 
get annually from 4 to G pounds from merchants; the wealth- 
iest gentlemen do not pay more than 10 pounds. In short, 
provisions are there in abundance. It is a land for people, 
who desire with small means to reach a coinfortable living 
and do not care for society and luxury. 

.After I had stayed in IManigkinton for several days, on my 
second visit, and had received from my countrymen, as well as 
from the others, much kindness, I took leave. With the hope 
that I would soon see them again, I returned alone through the 
wilderness and lost my way, because, when I reached a path, 
I thought ii was the way, but it was only used by the game. 
After several hours it suddenly ended, which dumbfounded 
me not a little. After much trouble and walking about I 
found the right road again. I saw much game. After travel- 
ing four days I reached Kinskrig [Kingscreek] near Willems- 
Inirg at our first lodging place, where I had left most of my 
baggage, namely what I needed for the return journey and what 
I wanted to sell. As the time had been fixed when the fleet 
was to sail for England I sold all my merchandise, a part at 
the house, Lmt most of it at Willemsburg. I was well pleased, 
as I could dispose of nearly ever>^hing. One who has no ex- 
perience makes many mistakes, especially when taking in 
money, wliich consists mostly in Spanish piasters and is paid 
by weight. I also made a mistake in not exchanging every- 
thing for tobacco, but, as I shall soon report, I did not want to 
return this year. 

Meanwhile, about the middle of May, a small French frigate 
arrived from Ireland, which announced the sad news of the 
death of King William. A few days later four warships reached 
Quiquedam which confirmed this report and brought a letter 
from the English Government to the Governor, with the order 
to announce the death of the late King (22) and to proclaim 
Queen Anne, which caused general grief and consternation. 
The Governor caused the order, which he had received, to 

(22) King William III, had died March 19, 1702. 



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'r.vjityj^ ' 



126 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

be read from the pulpits of his province and he called out the 
militia uf the six nearest counties to appear about the 18th of 
IMay under aims before liis residence. Meanwhile he caused 
everything to be in readiness, which was necessary for a me- 
morial service of the King, as well as for the proclamation of 
and rejoicing over the new Queen. He also asked the Indians 
to be present, who appeared at the appointed time with two 
queens together with forty of their most distinguished war- 
riors and servants. Inquiry was made whether any one knew 
how to set off fireworks. Several from the warships volunteered 
v/ho with micagre knowledge made the preparations. Three 
theatres [grand-stands] were erected before the college where the 
fireworL's were to be set off. On the appointed day a large num- 
ber of people appeared with as well as without arms. The 
celebration began on a Thursday morning. The armed con- 
tingents, on foot as well as on horse, were drawn up in line. 
Two batteries were also mounted and a tent was pitched, 
where the bishop delivered an oration on the King's death. 
The anncd men were then drawn up before the college in a 
threefold formation, in such a way that the college building 
formed one side. Then there were soldiers on both sides and 
also oi>posite, making three divisions, so that the calvary 
and the dragoons were stationed on the two wings and the 
infantry in the center. I have already given their number as 
about 2000. As can be seen from the drawing, the college 
has three balconies. On the uppermost were the buglers from 
the warships, on the second, oboes and on the lowest vio- 
linists, so that when the ones stopped the others began. Some- 
times they all played together. When the proclamation of 
the King's death was to be made they played very movingly 
and mournfully. Then the constable appeared with the 
scepter. It was like the English standards [flags], which v/cre 
wovev with gold, covered with crape. Likewise those who 
carried them were dressed in mourning. Then followed the 
Governor in mourning, as also his white horse, whose harness 
was draped with black. The death of King William was then 
announced by the Secretary. Afterwards the Governor or- 
dered the rifles reversed under the amis and with mournful 



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11 









.- ■ [v^ "^"^ Yr^^>:-n>^' ^vq r3' ^iM c-t- r^' ( ><?r ^^?^F?=i7t^l^>M' ;^^f ? 




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THE COLLEGE STAXUING L\ WILLIAMSBURG IN WHICH THE G(A"ER.\()R 
HAS HIS RESIDENCE, 1702" 
(Michel's crude drawing shows the first college building which was burnt in 1705. It 
had a high basement, with three stories and a half above.) 



i 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 127 

music they marched with the clergy to the above named tent, 
where a toi;ching oratii^n was dcHvered, which caused many 
people to shed tears. After considerable marching and counter- 
marc hing, the troops were ordered back to their former place [be- 
fore the college] holding their rifles as is customary. It was now 
noon. The musicians began to play a lively tune. Then the 
constable appeared in a green suit, the scepter no longer draped. 
The Governor, who had retired, api^cared in blue uniform, cov- 
ered v.iih braid. He had also exchanged his horse. The Secre- 
tary then read publicly, while heads were uncovered every- 
where, the royal letter and edict, that the second daughter of 
the departed and late. King James had been chosen and crowned 
Queen, in accordance with royal decree and law, with this 
added command to render her obedience and dutiful homage. 
Then everybody shouted three times Hurrah! that is, may she 
live. They Vv'a\'ed their hats in the air, gave three salutes 
with the cannons as well as with the small arms. /\fter this 
was done, the arms were stacked. Then the Governor caused 
most of those present, i. e., the most prominent people, to be 
entt-rtauied right royally, the ordinary persons received each 
a glass of rum or brandy with sugar. 

After the meal was finished, the troops were again drawn up 
in line as before and marched to the State House which is rmder 
constn:ction, ai a distance of about three rifle shots, where 
the new Queen was proclaimed. Thence they marched to 
another place, called Anna Land, where the same proclama- 
tion was read as at the first place. Finally it began to grow 
dark (it ought to be stated that in this country day and night, 
in summer and winter are not more than one hour shorter or 
longer). i\s tliere were not enough houses to lodge all the 
people, they had to be content to camp under the open sky. 

At night the Governor entertained again as at noon, the var- 
ious toasts were repeatedly answered by cannons and buglers. 
A master [of eeremonies], who was stationed on one of the 
bridges, was considered the most expert and boasted of his 
skill. But the result showed that he did not succeed in gain- 
ing much honor. In order to presen.^e liis reputation he acted 
as if the fire had fallen unintentionally into the fireworks, 



iii 



128 , VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

for he blew up everything at once in a great blaze and smoke. 
As there were all kinds of fireworks, many and large rockets, 
he like others had to run and he had his clothes burnt. Many 
regretted the accident, but others saw clearly, that it had been 
set on fire intentionally, in order that his false boasts and 
clumsiness might not come to light. When the proper time had 
come, the Governor mounted his horse to superintend the rest 
of the fireworks himself. The college was full of the leading 
people, to see them [the fireworks], as also a large number of 
people outside; for such a performance had never been seen 
nor held there there before, the windows were set with a double 
row of candles, the musicians played as best they could, the 
buglers were especially good. When it was to begin the Gov- 
ernor asked if they were ready. They answered: yes. Then he 
commanded them to set off the fireworks. This was done with a 
reversed rocket, which was to pass along a string to an arbor, 
where prominent ladies were seated, but it got stuck half 
way and exploded. Two stars were to be made to revolve 
through the fireworks, but they succeeded no better than with 
the rockets. In short, nothing was successful, the rockets also 
refused to fly up, but fell down archlike, so that it was not worth 
while seeing. Most of the people, however, had never seen 
such things and praised them highly. The one who had set 
his part on fire carried oft" the highest praise, because they 
thought he had done something extraordinary. The fire- 
works were very expensive, but there was not much diversion 
for one who had seen much more than these. I had taken my 
place in the highest part of the tower on the [college] build- 
ing, ^vhence the best outlook was to be had by day and night. 
As it was eleven o 'clock at night and my lodging place was two 
miles away, being also compelled to pass over a miserable, 
misleading road, I stayed up there over night, although I was 
afraid that, if somebody should find me there, it might be mis- 
interpreted of me, being a stranger, but no one came. When 
day dawned,. I left the building, without anybody noticing me. 
On this day the troops were again drawn up in line. They 
rendered the oath of allegiance and the Governor ordered some 
military drills. After much marching and skirmishing noon 



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128 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

for he blew up everything at once in a great blaze and smoke. 
As there were all kinds of fireworks, many and large rockets, 
he like others had to run and he had his clothes burnt. Many 
regretted the accident, but others saw clearly, that it had been 
set on fire intentionally, in order that his false boasts and 
clumsiness might not come to light. When the proper time had 
come, the Governor mounted his horse to superintend the rest 
of the fireworks himself. The college was full of the leading 
peoi)le, to see them [the fireworks], as also a large number of 
people outside; for such a performance had never been seen 
nor held there there before, the windows were set with a double 
row of candles, the musicians played as best the}' could, the 
buglers were especially good. When it was to begin the Gov- 
ernor asked if they were ready. They answered : yes. Then he 
commanded them to set off the fireworks. This was done with a 
reversed rocket, which was to pass along a string to an arbor, 
where prominent ladies were seated, but it got stuck half 
way and exploded. Two stars were to be made to revolve 
through the fireworks, but they succeeded no better than with 
the rockets. In short, nothing was successful, the rockets also 
refused to fiy up, but fell down archlike, so that it was not worth 
while seeing. Most of the people, however, had never seen 
such things and praised them highly. The one who had set 
his jjart on fire carried off the highest praise, because they 
thought he had done something extraordinary. The fire- 
works were very expensive, but there was not much diversion 
for one who had seen much more than these. I had taken my 
place in the highest part of the tower on the [college] build- 
ing, \vhence the best outlook was to be had by day and night. 
As it was eleven o 'clock at night and my lodging place was two 
miles away, being also compelled to pass over a miserable, 
misleading road, I stayed up there over night, although I was 
afraid that, if somebody should find me there, it might be mis- 
interpreted of me, being a stranger, but no one came. When 
day dawned,. I left the building, without anybody noticing me. 
On this day the troops were again drawn up in line. They 
rendered the oath of allegiance and the Governor ordered some 
military drills. After much marching and skirmishing noon 



,<1*IIJ ^ n. 



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I ■ THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 129 

t:ame, wlicn the dinner, as on the preceding day, began with 
much poTnp and sumi^tuousncss. After it was over, the Gov- 
ernor showed his HberaHty by arranging a rifle match. When 
tlie soldiers had finished, no one was allowed to shoot excei:it 
those born in the country and some Indians. The prizes con- 
sisted of rifles, swords, saddles, bridles, boots, money and other 
tilings. When most of the shooting was done, two Indians 
were brought in, who shot with rifles and bows so as to sur- 
jjrize us and put us to shame. I shall now relate of these 
jHople as much as I was able to learn. 

As mentioned above the representatives and principal men 
of four different tribes, about forty in nrunber, appeared on 
the appointed day. First of all, there is in this country, 
pretty far up in the wilderness, a large people, governed by an 
emperor. They have not come into the colony to inflict dam- 
age, because for one thing they are afraid of English power, 
but especially because they are unable to flee from the cavalry, 
as they have but few wild horses of which they can make use. 
If the English hear the least report, they mount their horses 
and hunt them up in the wilderness, whoever falls into ihcir 
hands is doomed to death. Then they also remember their 
neighbors, most of whom were killed in the earlier wars. Some 
years ago the emperor offered to the Governor several thousand 
men, to use them together with the English troops in fighting 
against the Indians in Canada, who at times tra\'el great 
distances to inflict damage on the English and the Indians in 
Virginia. But the Governor answered him, that he was neither 
afraid of the Indians of Canada nor of others and he thanked 
him for liis oft'er. Those who survived the recent wars, who 
were at first regarded as one with them, are subject to the King 
of England. They pay annually a certain number of beaver 
and otter skins as tribute and as a sign of their submission. 
Some years ago one of the subject chiefs was brought to Eng- 
land, upon the order of the English King, where he received 
more honor and attention than he had expected. He was sent 
back well dressed and with presents. 



130 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINK. 



Those who are still alive, are four different nations. (23) 
In summer they stay in the forests here and there for the sake 
of hunting, but the permanent homes of one of the nations are 
at the Potomac (24) River, several hundred miles inland or 
in the wilderness. Another nation dwells at the Rabahanac 
River, (25) far up in the country% the third not far from Manig- 
kinton,(26) the fourth along the ocean, between Virginia and 
Carclina(27). Those who were present at the proclamation 
brought with them as much as they could cany of all kinds of 
v.'ild animal skins, prepared or fresh. They prepare them 
entirely white. They also brought a large number of baskets, 
carried on the arms, of different colors, made very artistically! 
The material is a kind of root(28). They weave into them all 
kinds of animals, flowers and other strange things, very beauti- 
fully. Everything that they bring is bought to send it as a 
present to England. They also make tobacco pipes, very 
beautifully cut out and formed. Their hats are small, round 
above and well closed, as the drawing shows. 

They have no clothes, except what they get through trade with 
the English (29). They wear them when they have to go the 
Christians, which happens once a year, at the annual muster of 
the troops, in order to show them the power [of the English]. 
Their loins and feet are then covered with a little piece of skin. 
They arc well formed brown people, of ordinary size, but a 
Htile smaller than we. They have small fierce eyes set deep 
in their heads, black hair, hanging down upon their shoulders, 
most of them, however, have it cut short, except the women! 
who wear long, black hair. Wh en thejy^re summoned, their 

1 7.^^^^ 7''^. fo ""^ statement is found in Jones, PresliU~State ofvit^Riida. 
liZi, p. IS. But the tributary Indians, of which there are but four small 

aflowed til ^''^-'"'^ °" ^^'^ ^'^'^ °^ ^^^ Mountains, Keep to the Bounds 
(24) Indian settlement at Potomac, Rappahannock, &c. See "The 

Powhatan Confederacy Past and Present," by James Mooney, in the 

American Anthropologist, January-March 1907 
(25)] 

(26) \ For these notes see reference as under (24) 
(27)J 

(28) According to Beverley, History, 1725, Booklll, pn 7 62 the 
Indians made their baskets of silk grass. ' ' 

(29) This does not a^ree with Beverley, History, 1725, Book III, pp 
^-/, who describes at length the summer and winter clothes of the Indians. 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 131 

t 

king or queen, as also their princes and nobles (but with some 
difference) wear crowns of bark, (30) a little more than a buckle 
wide, round and open above, with wliite and brown stripes, 
half an inch long, set in beautifully in spiral form, so that no 
bark is visible. The women, especially the queen and her three 
servants, were overhung with such things, strung on big and 
small threads or something similar, in place of chains. (31) I 
wondered what kind of material it was. I examined, therefore, 
the fmery of one of the maids of the queen. I cannot compare 
it to anytliing better than to strips of leather, hung over the 
harness of horses in this country [Switzerland]. They had per- 
haps three pounds of such material hanging around their neck 
and arms. They are not unfriendly and ugly people, but their 
language is very wonderful, so that I cannot describe how it 
sounds and how they change their voice. 

Regarding their religion, I have heard from reliable people, 
who have had much intercourse with them that they fear Satan, 
who torments them frequently (32). They also say that 
water is stronger than fire, because fire can be extinguished by 
water, hence water was to be feared and honored more. They 
further believe that if they are disobedient to one of their 
superiors or kill one of their people or live badly otherwise, that 
after their death they will come into a land in the north, cold 
and evil, but those who live honorably, according to their 

(30) This crown-is also described by Beverley, ed. 172.5, part III, p. 2: 
"The people of condition of both sexes wear a sort of coronet on their 
Heads, from 4 to 6 inches broad, open at the top and composed of Peak 
or Beads, or else both interwoven together, and worked into Figures, 
made by a nice mixture of the Colours. Sometimes they wear a Wreath 
of Dyed Furs." Plate 3 facing p. 5 of Beverley's account shows such a 
coronet. 

(31) Michel r Jers evidently to what Beverley, History, 1725. Ill, 58f. 
calls "wampon peak." These, he says, "they wear instead of Medals 
before or behind their Neck, and use the Peak, Runtees and Pipes for 
Coronets, Bracelets, Belts or long Strings, hanging down before their 
Breast, or else they lace their Garments with them." 

(32) Devil V/orship by the Indians is also alluded to by Beverley 
(ed. 1725, part III, p. 32). One of the Indians explained to him: "If they 
did not pacify the Evil Spirit, and make him propitious, he would take 
away, or spoil all those good things that God had given, and ruin their 
Health, their Peace and their Plenty, by sending War, Plague and Fam- 
ine among them." 



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132 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

opinion, will come into a land in the east, good and warm(33). 
They like strong drink or nun beyond all ^measure. They 
drink it without modesty till they are drunlv. Afterwards 
they make wonderful faces and act as if they were angry and 
wanted to strilce their enemy. There were at that time no 
king but two queens among them. The older one got so drunk, 
that she lay on the ground like an unreasonable brute. When 
they, especially the men and unmarried fellows, want to mal<e 
merry, they wet their heads and faces. Afterwards they smear 
it over with a red paint, so that not the smallest place can be 
seen that is not red. 

There were also some who had a narrow spangle drawn through 
their nose. Its meaning is unknowm to me. Some had also 
a tuft of strange feathers under their ears, in some cases larger 
than in others (34). I think it indicates those who are the best 
hunters. They were ridiculously dressed. One had a shirt 
on with a crown on his head, another a coat and neither trou- 
sers, stockings nor shoes. Others had a skin or red cover 
around them. In their homes they are naked, as I have seen 
one at Manigkinton, who came back from hunting. He had 
nothing but his rifle, knife and powder horn, except a linen 
rag which covered his sexual parts a little, and a deer skin 
[moccasin] protecting his feet, that the thorns might not hurt 
him. He had also a tuft of feathers behind his ear. When 
strangers come to them, they entertain them according to the 
best of their ability, with roasted game, wild fruits, fish and a 
kind of food, made of coarse and fresh meal. If one does not 
\.-ant to eat what they place before him, they say he is sick 
but if they notice that this is not the case, but that it is done 

(33) Jones, Present State of Virginia, p. 16, describes the belief of the 
Indians in a future life similarly: "They believe that they go to Mohomo- 
ny that lives beyond the Sun, if they have not been wicked, nor like Dogs 
nor Wolves, that is, not unchaste, then they believe that Mohoniony 
sends them to a plentiful Country abounding with Fish, Flesh and Fowls, 
the best of their kind, and easy to be caught; but if they have been 
naughty, then he sends them to a poor barren Country, where be many 
Wolves and Bears, with a few nimble Deer, swift Fish and Fowls, diffi- 
cult to be taken; and when killed, being scarce anything but Skin and 
Bones." 

(34) Beverley {History, III, 4) speaks only of one feather stuck into 
the knot of hair behind the ear. 



XMIS; 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 133 

through contempt, they are angry. I once saw one of them 
eating this kind of meaL Then I also took some of ^it, raw as it 
was, out of the sack, which he had carried around with him, 
and I tried to eat the dry, coarse meal with a Httle stick of 
wood or knife, but I could not eat it, because it was so bitter 
and of unpleasant taste in the mouth (35). When they have 
taken a mouthful, they do not open it again, until all has gone 
down the throat. There was at one time much laughter over one 
who was eating meal. He saw alongside of him a piece of a glass 
bottle. He thought it would be handy to put the meal into 
his mouth with it, he tried it, but he cut himself in two places, 
so that it bled. Another stepped upon a piece of glass, Ijcing 
barefoot. He also bled profusely and did not know what 
caused it. 

The most wonderful thing is their dancing (36) . The Governor 
when he was sitting at the table in the evening, with the other 
gentlemen, had the young queen come in, who was wearing 
nice clothes of a French pattern. But they were not put on 
right. One thing was too large, another too small, hence it 
did not fic. She was covered all over with her ornaments, 
consisting of large and small pieces, of all kinds of colors. 
Her crown was like those of the others, but it v^^as much more 
beautiful, set with stones more artistically. She was a nice 
person, but timid and shy, like the others. When she entered 
tiie hall, the gentlemen took off their hats, she, the queen, bowed 
also. When the Indian king himself is present, the Governor 
gives him the right hand. Then they began to play, but the 
queen danced so wonderfully, yea barbarously, that everyone 
was astonished and laughed. It has no similarity to dancing. 
They make such wonderful movements with body, e>'es and 

(35) This mciil is called "Rockahomonie," by Beverley (History, III, 
18). "SonieLimesalso in their travels, each man takes with him a pint or 
quart of Rockahomonie, that is, the finest Indian-Corn, parched, and 
beaten to {)owder. When they find their Stomach empty (and cannot 
ktay for the tedious Cookery of other thinj^s), they put about a spoonful 
of this into their mouths, and drink a draught of water upon it, which 
stay.s in their Stomachs, and enables them to pursue their journey with- 
out delay." 

(36) For Indian dancing see also Beverley, History, 1725, III, 22, 53f 
Jones, Slate of Virginia, 1724, p. 8; and Lawson, History of Carolina, ed 
1S60, pp. 6Sf,2S5. 



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134 VIKGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ' ■■ 

moiuh, as if they were with the evil one. At one time they 
rave a.s if they were angry, then they bite their arms or other 
parts with their teeth, or they are entirely quiet. In short, it 
is inijiossible to describe this mad and hididrous dance. 

Tliey do not esteem silver or gold, and do not want to tal<e it. 
Their money is like the material they hang around them, 
but small, of white and pearly color, like small corals, strung 
on a string (37). It is sold by the yard so to speak. They 
measure from the index finger to the elbow, which length costs 
half an English crown. 

After the celebration was over, I endeavored to sell, as best I 
could, whatever remained of my merchandise. I intended to 
exchange with the Indians skins and baskets for powder and 
knives. A deer skin would have cost me a dollar, a basket 
half a dollar. But I refused to do it. ^. y nfle was valued at 
twelve skins. I did wrong not to malie this bargain, for in Eng- 
land a deerskin is valued at more than two dollars. A Frcnch- 
m.an and I \\ ere astonished at the ba.skets and that two of them 
could speak English. One of them looked at V:S and said in poor 
English, whether we thought that if they had been taught like 
we, they could not leani a thing just as well as we. I asked him, 
where he had learned to speak English, he answered, they were 
not so stupid, because they had to come every year, the}' could 
hear us speak and leanit it that wa\'. It is certain that good 
talents are found among them. When I \\'as looking at one 
of the skins and found that it Vv'as full of holes because of the 
shot, I pointed it out to him (because he knew about as much 
English as I did) he asked, how one could get the animals 
without shooting them. I said, shoot in the head. He then 
asked \^'hether I could answer, whereupon he looked at me and 
shook his head. 

After several days had elapsed and I was almost thro^igh 
sellii^g my goods, except those things for which there was no 
market and which I did not want to give away with loss, one 

(37) According to Beverley, History, 1725, III, p. 5S, "the Indians 
had nothing which they reckoned riches, before the English went among 
them, except Peak, Roenoke, and such like trifles made cut of Cunk 
fConch] shell. The}' past with them instead of Gold and Silver, and 
serv'd them both for Money, and Ornament." 



.IK. 



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:!./•;, :.. •>• 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 135 

day a sloop passed by my lodging place to load lumber on a 
pink, (38) belonging to Bristol, which was then lying at anchor 
at Yorktown. Among the sailors who brought the sloop was 
a Hollander and a Swede, who talked with me. They said 
rhat next to their ship a large sloop was ready to sail to New 
York. This pleased me very much, for I was in the country 
to travel through it and, as I had heard many good reports 
about that country, I had a desire to visit it. The cajjlain, 
whose name was West, was with a merchant named Wacker, 
[probably Joseph WaUcer of York Co. who died in 1723. His 
will is in the Wm. & Mary Quarteriy VI, 150], not far from my 
dwc]lin.t^^ place. I asked him to load my baggage on his sloop, 
m order to take me to the above named place, which he granted. 
Hence, (after taking leave of my host, who had provided me 
with various victuals) we left at noon, and after much rowing 
and pulling, because the wind was contrary, we arrived at his 
ship at night. I asked at once whether the New York sloop 
was still there. They said yes, its captain had beffli on their 
ship during the evening. Hence I stayed over night on this 
ship. Eariy in the morning I rose up to make an agreement 
with the skipper if possible, but, to my consternation saw the 
ship already under sails. Thus my plan had miscarried, as 
such opportunities are rare. I was, therefore, compelled to 
hunt a place in Yorktown, where I could stay till another 
opportunity offered itself. I stayed there twelve days, but I 
.saw that there was no opportunity and that I could not trade. 
It was also expensive to Hve there, because at such a j^lace 
where ships land, it is usually more expensive than elsewhere. 
During that tiane I heard many good reports about Pennsyl- 
vania and that some people from Virginia moved there. One of 
them from France, who was captain there, named Mr. Chariere 
de Cossonay, was known to me, who is said to have great wealth. 
Many Germans and Hollanders live there and many othe* 
advantages were related to me. As I intended to travel 
another year before returning to England, I handed my trunlcs 
overdo a trustworthy man, upon sufficient receipt and security 
(38) A pink is a vessel with a narrow stern. 



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136 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and as that country [Pennsylvania] was only 700 miles (39) by 
land, I went to Quiquedam to find there, if possible, a sloop 
to talce me to Philadelphia. I reached it in one day as it is 
only 25 miles from York. There I found ^ sloop, in accor- 
dance with my desire, which had brought beer from Phila- 
delphia. But it was stopped by the warships which were then 
lying tliere and was compelled to make a trip to Carolina to 
fetch salted pork from there for the ships. I met the master 
of the sloop, who gave me a letter to his wife in Philadelphia, 
together with instructions as to the route I should take. The 
nearest way would have been to sail to Accomac, but there was 
no opportunity. Hence I had to return to Yorktown. The 
hot weather continued, so that it was pretty difficult for me to 
travel. Nevertheless, I was ferried over the York River, 
being well armed and provided with maps. Then I marched 
all alone for four days when I crossed a swamp called the 
"Dragon's Swamp" (40). There I lost my way. FinaUy I 
saw a house, where I entered to inquire about the way. There 
I met two men, who took me for an escaped servant. All my 
explanations were in vain. They led me to a justice of the 
peace, who lived not far away. He asked me for my passport. 
I told him I had recently come into the country and that its 
customs were unknown to me. He inquired about the ship 
and the name of the captain as well as about other details. 
I answered him as best I could, because the English language 
was then barely known to me. He saw that they had done me 
an injustice and he released me again. But he told me that I 
could hardly proceed without a passport. Besides, he was 
surprized that I undertook alone in such a hot season a long, un- 
known journey. But I hated to return such a long way in order 
to gel a passport from the Governor. Hence I made up my 
mind firmly to go as far as possible. This man wanted to give 
me food, however, I would not accept anything but a drink. 
When he saw that he could not induce me to give up my plan, 

(39) The distance is of course much overstated. The distance iipm 
Richmond to Philadelphia is not over 250 miles. 

(40) The Dragon Swamp extends from the head of the Pianketank 
river uinvards between the counties of Gloucester and King and Queen 
on the south, and Middlesex and Essex on the north. 



.L.. 



THE JOURNEY QF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 137 

he V. ished nie good luck for the journey. The two men, who had 
arrested me, begged my pardon and asked mc to go with them, 
offering to give me a dinner, but as they lived away from the 
road, I declined their offer. In the evening of this day, it was 
Saturday, I lodged with a Hollander, who received me very 
kindly. I stayed with him the following day, because it is not 
considered becoming there to travel on Sunday. He also told 
me that I could hardly travel through Maryland without a pass- 
port. I remembered that a certain Mr. Ladenin,(41) who upon 
our amval visited us on board of ship and spoke with me and 
the (jtliers, was the English minister at the Rabahanak River. 
I inquired after him and heard v/ith pleasvire that he lived only 
three miles away from there. On Monday I set out to hunt him 
u]). But I came to a branch of the large river, whose water was 
ver\' high and as there was no other way, I hardly knew what to 
do. Finally I undressed and waded across, but the water 
reached up to my neck. Thence I noticed a house, which proved 
to be Landenin's dwelling. I asked for him. He came to 
see what was my desire. I related to him about my journey 
which I had contemplated, how I had been stopped aftd that 
according to the statement of all the people I had seen, it was 
not possible lo travel without a passport. I, therefore, asked 
him to give me a recommendation to the nearest justice of the 
peace, who would not have refused, in that case, to give me a 
passport. 

But he was unwilling to do it, because he did not know me 
well, and although he had spoken with me, yet that was of no 
consequence, hence he could not comply. But I showed him. 
that there was no danger in granting my request and I asked 
him to give me simply a statement that he had seen me on such 
and such a ship, having come from England as a free passenger. 
Finally he could not help himself, but had to testify to the truth. 
He told me to go to a house, three miles from there, where a 
justice of the peace lived. But he had ridden away when I 

(41) This is the Rev. Louis Latane, who with his wife, child and ser- 
vant arrived in Vir{:,inia in the year 1700 and was till his deatn in 173-5, 
rector of the South Famhnm parish, in Essex County, f )n July 20, 1722, 
he became joint patentee with seven other men of 24,000 acres of lanci in 
Spotsylvania County, on the south side of the Rapidan. See Brock, 
Huguenot Emigration, p. 29. 



m 



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138 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE ' ' 

arrived. Half an hour later Mr. Landenin also arrived there, 
but when he heard that the justice was away, he was unwilling 
to assist me further. On that day it was very hot and an 
accident almost befell me. I traveled in the great heat with- 
out food until noon. Then I found that my strength was giving 
away and it was growing dark before my eyes. When I felt 
this and could see no house, I hardly knew whether it would be 
best to lie down behind a tree or not. But I determined to 
walk on as long as I could. I soon saw a clearing through the 
woods, also a house and people working in a cornfield. I 
hastened to them, but I had to climb a fence, while I grew 
constantly weaker. I placed my rifle on the other side of the 
fence, but a black sack, wliich I was accustomed to carry on the 
shoulder, in which was my linen, and especially a good part of 
my money, I placed on the fence. Then I tried to climb over, 
but I fell back. The third time I fell backwards on my back 
and head, as I found out later. The jjeople, who were watching 
me, thought that I was drunlc and laughed at me. But finally 
they came to see who I was. I was lying there in a faint. As 
they saw me in such a condition, they took me up and carried me 
into the house, together with my rifle and bag. If they had 
known what was in it, there is no telling what might have hap- 
pened. After I had lain there for a while, I regained con- 
sciousness. Then I took some of my balsam and orvietan 
(42), which I always carried with me, in a little rum or brandy, 
whicli strengthened me at once. I also ate something. Then 
I looked for my money. I fovmd everything untouched, ex- 
cejit my knife, which was of Aarau make, I could not find. 
Afterwards v/hen I wanted to pay the people, they would not 
take anything. On the same evening I traveled four miles 
farther and at Pascataway(43), crossed a river. On the fol- 
lowing day I continued my journey through large forests. 
In that part the land is not closely settled, because it is at the 
uppermost part of the Rabahanalc River in Stratford County. 

(42) Orvicton is here some home remedy. In French it is used of 
quack medicine, so named after a quack doctor from Orvicto, Italy. 

(4o) Pascataway Creek in the present Essex County. Michel was 
mistaken in thinking he had reached the upper part of StafTord on the 
nc.xi ilay. In fact he had not crossed tlie Rappali.innock. 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 139 

Phis diiy I missed the road. I traveled till noon without food 
in great heat through the wilderness, but did not meet a single 
person, the road becoming smaller and smaller, so that I feared 
something imtoward might happen. In the middle of the road 
I foimil a large sack, which was full and tiei shut. I wondered 
what il might be. I stepped on it with my foot. What was 
inside fell down and rose up again, so that the bag became 
stretched tight and round. I stepped on it again and it fell 
together as before. I could not regard is as something good. 
As I was alone and lost in this wild place, I had all kinds of 
anxious thoughts and concluded to let it alone, whatever 
it might be. Thus I continued my journey with apprehensive 
thoughts and hungry. I could see few signs that people v/ere 
living near. (Otherwise it was my habit when I traveled 
through the country, to inquire about the way and to mark all 
the roads, which I was to meet, upon a paper. Then I added 
how far I was away from such roads, in short I noted all the 
accompanying circimistances and how the right wa^' could 
be known.) I soon emerged from my cares, because I saw a 
field that had been cut and then a house. When I entered it I 
found good people, who showed me kindness and expressed 
compassion with me that I had to travel on foot in such heat. 
They told me that I had gone far astray. They showed me a 
good road . I went on a little distance, until I came to an English- 
man and a Frenchman, who were keeping house together. 
Because of the heat I stayed a day and a half with them. I did 
not feel well. They asked me to stay with them. They would 
treat me as I desired. I thanked them for their offer and their 
kindness. They took me across the Rabahanak River. I went 
onward a day's journey when I lodged with an honest man, 
who lived at the Pottomac River. When he heard of my in- 
tention he dissuaded me from the journey with good reasons. 
He was suprized that I had come alone thus far. He said, 
if I passed this river, I would be in Maryland and the first man 
who would get a sight of me had power to demand my passport. 
He who does not have any, is jailed until a rej^ort has been re- 
ceived from the place whence he came. Whoever in such 
cases, he said, was strange and unknown and had none to in- 



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140 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

quire after him, would lose his liberty and his money, for he 
would have to pay half a crown a day. From this and other 
warnings I had received I saw the impossibility of going any 
farther. I thanlced him for his infonnation and turned back 
im])atiently, having traveled half of the way in such great 
heat in vain. I drank much water daily, which I had to sweat 
out while walking. 

I became so weak that I found it difficult to get back again. 
The country is more fruitful and has a better soil that many 
places in Virginia. Meanwhile rainy weather set in. Finally 
I reached Yorktown after I had made such a long and trouble- 
some journey in vain. I felt afterwards, day after day, as if 
sleep would overcome me, which is a precursor of land-sickness. 
People are much inclined to sleep in this country. I have 
heard from people that they had seen men, overcome by the 
death-sleep, who had been led and wanted to sleep while walking, 
but nothing could keep them, until they finally passed away (44) . 
To travel alone is not good and I do not want to undertake it 
again, because one is subjected thereby to many dangers. 
I was often made to sleep in outhouses, and when tired and 
sleepy had to be apprehensive of some accident that might 
happen to me, because I was often compelled to take lodging 
in remote places where there was but a single house. If they 
had committed an overt act against my life or property, who 
could have made a complaint? Otherwise I lived better 
while traveling than when not. I made good use of their hos- 
pitality. One must, however, be surprized when lodging with 
poor people, for better food is frequently met with there than 
among the rich. At other places where I stayed I exchanged 
merchandise for food, and thus supplied myself with provisions. 
There is little opportunity to sell eatables, except in harbors 
and in inns. At these places it is expensive, for a meal usually 
costs a shilling. 

(44) This is no doubt the well known sleeping sickness, which was first 
known to exist on the west coast of Africa, and which later appeared in 
some of our Southern States. It is caused by a protozoon, called try- 
fonosonia, and is transmitted to both the animal and the human 
species by the bite of a fly. 






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THE JOURNEY OP FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 141 

At York town I met again one of the Lerber sisters on board 
of ship, because she had come into the country with the same 
captain, who had shown them much kindness. He was also 
the cause that she received help from his friends. She was 
traveling back to England, besides other reasons, in order to 
buy there clothes and other things. As soon as I came on board 
of ship, the captain saw me. He asked me whether I had 
letters to send off. I said no, but I^intended to return myself. 
He said at once, if the ship was good enough for me, it was at my 
service. 1 thanked him and accepted his offer. I ordered at 
once my goods to be brought to the ship. I must report that, 
if one does not have a passport to leave the country, and if his 
name has not been read in church three weeks before and has 
not been posted, the captain is not permitted under oath to 
take him out of the country. But, inasmuch as this captain 
had himself brought me into the country, he let it pass. No 
stranger ^^'ould have accepted me, if he had known that I had 
not comjJiL'd with these regulations. 

(To be continued.) 



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142 • VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT 

1622-1629*. 



From the Originals in the Library of Congress. 

1 — 

(Continued.) 



*A11 erasures in the originals are here printed in itaUcs. 



(164.) 
Y' is ordered that Capt. West shall deliver some Cloathes 
to the Portugall out of Capt. Jones his clothes chest of Cloathes 
for his present use w'ch is to be satisfied out of ye negroes 
labour. Y' is ordered y' the negro y* cam in w'th Capt. 
Jones shall remaine w'th y^ L'a. Yardley till further order be 
taken for him and that he shalbe allowed by the Lady Yardley 
monthly for his labor forty pound weigght of good merchant- 
able tobacco for his labor and service so longe as he remaine 
' with her. ... . i 

i. ^r . .;,,.■ (165.) '<'n 

A Copie of }1' John Woodall (1) His Letter M^ Richard Wake. 

Y' so god have appoynted y' my servante Christopher Beste 
be not living at your cominge into Virginia or that he before 
your cominge bee come for Englande, then I pray you to take 
into your Custodie on ban-ell of whet flower marked as in 
■: the margent & (W. No. 8) also one Rundlett of six gallons of 
aquavitac, and Al so one Rundlett of like (W. No. 2) quantitie 

^ . ^^} J'^.^^" Woodall as a surgeon of London who made business ventures 
,. in Virginia. Long afterwards he was suing to recover for other losses. 

See this Magazine, XI, 175, 178, 285, 287. Christopher Best was living 

at James City in 1023. 

(2) At the Census of 1624-5, Robert Saben, aged 30, who came in 

the Margaret and John in 1022, was living at Elizabeth City. 






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MINUTES OF THE COUNXIL AND GENERAL COURT. 143 

fillt'd with Taniarindos 3G li and to sell them for me to tlie best 
advorjtage )'ou can and I will give unto you for your love 
[r] tu me in selling of them as honest Just p'ffett, the Rundletts 
are marked (W. No. 4) as in the margent, and for y" Kilderkni 
(W. No. 5) and sm^ale cheaste marked as in the margent I 
] ra\ you desire the m'r of the shipp to bring them back again 
to me uiiop- (C. B. No. 2) ened and well Condiconed and I 
will i-iaye him fraught as also all my letters I wrote to Chris- 
topher Beste. I desire you to return them sealed unto me 
and 1 jjray }'ou speak to him for them and soe God blesse 
}'our Vioagc. In witness whereof I have hereunto sett my 
hande the 5*'' of November 1624. 
By me John Woodall, 



To his lo\'ing friend M' 
Wake, Chirurgeon 

This 



& 



(166.) 

A Courte held the thirde daye of October 1625, being present 
S'r ffrancis Wyatt, Knight, Governor &c., Capt. Francis West, 
Cajjt. Roger Smith, Capt. Raphe Hamer, Capt. Samuel Math- 
ews, Mr. William Cleyboume. 

Y* is ordered y' A warrant be sent for Robert Saben(2) and 
William Pryor to appeare before the Govern "■ and Councill at 
James Cyttie uppon monday next, and y' Pryor doe bringe up 
his Covenant with him. 

Y* is ordered ,y'' Walter Horsefort shall put in Sufficient 
securitie betwixt this and monday next to the Purser and ships 
Companie for such defi as shalbe dew unto them. 

The Court hath ordered [word illegible] uppon the annext 
peticone of Thomias Southemc, one of the Company's tenants 
y^ he shall i)resently have his freedom, payinge his rent for the 
year, And putting in bond with sufficient securitie in a hundred 
pounds Ster. y* he shall pay for the residue of his tyme he is to 
sen^e as an}- of the publique Tenants shall paye, whether he 
live or dye. :..,t'.K. ^f :; ■ ■ '■■ ... : j. t 



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144 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ■ 

Y* is ordered y' y^ master of the Elizabeth shall pay for a 
hogg's [hogshead] of meale, a bushell of peas, one bushell and 
a half of meale and one firkin of suet beinge the goodes of Jo. 
Peckenell, Deaceased, one hundred & fyfteen pound of Tobacco. 



(107.) 

Y' is ordered y* Mr. David Sandys, (3) minister, dying about 
the first of August laste, shall have the dewes paide for his 
ininisterie as yf he had lived till the Cropp had been gathered, 
And that all his p'rishoners do paye their tythes to the 
Administrator or Executor of the said Mr. Sandys or theire 
lav\"full Assignes. 

Y' is ordered y^ accordinge to y^ great Charter of orders, 
the Counsell shall receave for their moytie the moytie of the 
rents of the publique Tenants, Allowing out of it to Mr. Wm. 
Cleyboume for his means belonging to his office of Surve}'or 
for this year fower hundred weight of Tobacco. And to Randall 
Smallwood, (4), Provost IVIarshall two hundred pound of 
Tobacco and three barrells of Come. And the other mo>i:ie 
to remaine in the hands of S'r ffrancis Wyatt, Governor &c., 
a p'te Satisfaction of his meanes dew to him. 

Y* is ordered y^ negro caled by the name of brase shall be- 
long lo S'r ffrancis Wyatt, Governor &c.. As his servant, not- 
w'thstandinge any sale by Capt. Jonnes to Capt. Bass, or any 
other chaleng [?] by the ships company, And neither Capt. 
Bass shalbe lyable to his bill to Capt. Jones, nor Capt. Jones 
to his Covenant of making good the sale to Capt. Bass. 



(168.) 
The Oathes of Thomas Swyft (5) and William Bynks Taken 
before the ryght Worp'U S'r ffrancis Wyatt, Knight, Governor 
&c., the seventh day of October 1625. 

(3) David Sandys, minister of James City, 1G24-5, came in the Bona- 
venture in 1620. 

(4) Randall Smallwood, who was for some years provost marsha 
at Jamestown, was living there in 1023. 

(5) Thomas Swift who came in the Tiger in 1622, was living on George 
Sandys' plantation near Jamestown 1624-5. He seems to have succeeded 
Capt. Norton at the Glass House. In 1623 he, John Burland and William 
Bincks, were living at "the plantation over against Jamestown." VVm. 
Bincks and Ann his wife came in the George. 



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MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 145 

Thomas Swyft, gent., uppon his oath deposeth that he 
hath herde John Burland sundrie tymes demande of Mr. Therer 
[Treasurer] satisfactione for certen Tobacco and three bar- 
rells of Come w'ch Capt. Wilham Norton did owe him and 
sayeth that Mr. Trear. did p'mise him payment as soone as 
Capt. Norton's goodes were solde. 

And further he sayeth y' he hath herde it often tymes re- 
cited by divers p'sons that Thomas Wilson did worke a longe 
time vv'ith Capt. Norton (but how longe he doth not certenly 
know), and further sayeth that he hath herde Mr. Peirce Ber- 
nardo who Hved in house with Capt. Norton saye that the 
said Willson did never receave sattisfaction of Capt. Norton 
for his worke. 

Wilham Bynckes swome & deposeth that he knew that 
the said John Burland did remain with Capt. Norton before 
his death and after, A twelve month at the lest, but [what?] 
wages he was to have he knoweth not. 

And as Conceminge Thomas Willson he deposeth as Mr. 
Swyft hath saide. 

(169.) . . , , 

A Courte held the XVP*" of October 1625 beinge present 
Sr ffrancis Wyatt, Knight, Governor &c., Capt. ffrancis West, 
Capt. Roger vSmith, Capt. Raphe Hamor, Capt. Samuell 
Mathews, Mr. William Cleyboume. 

Y^ is ordered y* William Davis (5) shall pay to the Assignees 
of Morris Thompson Imediately three hundred pounds weighs 
of Tobacco w'ch was dew to the Morris Thompson by bonde 
the fhrst of December last past as by y-' bond p'duced in Coiu-te 
Appeareth, And by the said Wm. Davis Acknowledged in 
Courte. 

Yt is ordered y* the Provost Marshall shall receeve all such 
depts and Tobacco as shalbe dew to Elizabeth ffox widdow 
and to take the charge of sendinge the same to her to Eng- 
land receaving a bill of lading for y'' same & to pay such depts 
as ffox did o we in this Country. 

(5) William Davis, aged 33, who came in the William and Thomas, 
in 1618, was living on the Eastern Shore 1G24-5. 



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146 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. -«•«•-» ' 'i^ 

It is ordered y* there be a warrant sent for Henry Geny 
doe appear before the Governor & Councill at James Cyttie 
within XXX days next after y'' sight of the warrant to answer 
to his Contempt in goinge A Tradinge Contrary to the Act 
of the generall Assembly. 



(170.) 

The deposition of John Tay>or (6) about the age of xxxviii 
years taken before Abraham Persie, Esquire and Capt. Wm. 
Tucker the xxiiii'^^ of June 1625. 

The deponent sayeth y* Capt. George Thorpe came unto 
him and demanded wh.[at?] were two of the best cowes be- 
longing to S'r Thomas Dale biddinge of him for to api)oyntc 
him unto two of the best Cowes for he was to have them, w'ch 
this Examanant did do. The w'ch Cowes were deHvereci 
unto Capt. Thorpe about six dayes after, but by whose ortler 
he knoweth not, for at that Tyme Mr. Henry Watkins was 
overseer of the La. Dales servantes and Cattle and had tlie 
comand of them, This Examanants knowledge therof is That 
Mr. Watkins p'mised him a rewarde to have a care of the 
Cattle l^elonging to the La. Dale, And to this Examinants 
knowledge S'r George Yardley, Knight, did never give order 
for the lending of these two Cowes to Capt. Thorpe, for by 
whose order he had those Cattle he knoweth [not?], yett 
by all likely wise it was by order from Mr. Watkins, when 
this Examinant saw Capt. Thorpe & the saide Henry Wat- 
kins talke sundry tymes together about that tyme. And further 
this Examinant Sayeth that the names of those Cowes were 
to the "best of his remembrance called Bellowman and the 
other Morgan, w'ch were also marked with S'r Thomas Dales 
markc uppon the homes. And as this Exa't tliinketh was 
about the tyme of our Lord 162 0, neither doth he know of any 

(6) John Taylor, aged 34, who came in the Swan in 1610, was living 
at Elizabeth City 1624-5. Rebecca Taylor, aged 22, who came in the 
Margaret and John, 1623, appears next to John Taylor in the census and 
was doubtless his wife. John Taylor, it is evident, had, previous to the 
massacre, lived at Berkeley Hundred. Henry Watkins lived on the 
Eastern Shore in Feb. 1623-4, and in March 1623-4, was a men^ber of the 
House of Burgesses. He, too, seems to have lived at Berkeley before 
the Massacre. 



<l lor^Al 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 147 

Other Cattle or goates of the said S'r Thomas Dales that were 
delivered to any other p'sone w'tsoever, He also affirmeth 
that S'r George Yardley aforesaid never spoke to him or to any 
other to his knowledge for the delivering of any cattle y' did 
any way belong unto the Ladie Dale, And this is as much as 
this Examinant can saye unto the firste and second Interroga- 
tories p'duced by Charles Hamar in the behalfe of the La. Dale. 
William. Tucker. The Marke of John X Taylor. 

(171.) 
Interrogatories to be imp'ted [?] to John Taylor of Elizabeth 
Cyttie one the p'te and behalfe of the right Worp'l the Lady 
Elizabeth Dale as followth 

In primis. doe you know whether Capt. Thorpe late de- 
ceased had in his possession Cattle of any kinde w'tsoever be- 
longing of ryghte to the la. Dale aforesaide 
• Did not S'r George Yardley Knight loan two Cowes of the 
said La. Dales to the saide Capt. Thorpe, what were the names 
and markcs of the said two Cowes, and how longe tyme were 
they so lent unto y« saide Capt. Thorpe, do you know whether 
any other p'sons were presente or pryvee to the delivery of 
the s'd two Cowes or of any other Cowes or goates of the La 
Dales to the saide Capt. Thorpe or his Servants by Sr George 
Yardley his order, what are the names of the saide p'sons, 
and how many are the saide Cattle or goates or eyther of them! 
Declare the truth of your Knowledge according to your best 
remembrance unto every poynte of this Interrogatorie. 

Item, do you know whether S'r George Yardley himself or 
any other p'son either deceased or now livinge in this land or 
elsewhere hath at any tyme within your remembrance pos- 
sessed and employed to his owne p'pr use any of the Cattle 
or goates or the breede of them belonging of right to the saide 
La Dale, w' are the names of such p'sones and how many are 
those Cattle and goates or their breede that were so possessed 
and used, how long it is since the saide p'sones had them, by 
what order, and of whom had the saide p'sons those Cattle, 
and their breede, declare ye truth of your knowledge to your 
remembrance. 



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148 '^ VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. '.'■*''•) 

• '■ (172.) ■' ■■ • ■•■ 

Whereas John Southeme (7) of Titchfield in the Countie of 
Southampton was divers years since sent over into Virginia 
for the managinge the afifayrcs of Southampton Himdred but 
by the Commandments of the Governor was sent upp to the 
Iron Workes where he was in many places of his bodie greavously 
wounded, To his ahnost utter Undoinge and growing now old 
and weake havinge theere Wiefe & Children is willing to Come 
for Englande, We whose names are hereunder written Adven- 
turers for the Plantacone of the sfime Southampton Hundred, 
havinge promised libertie to the saide Southeme before his 
goinge hither that he Should retume at his pleasure. Doe 
heereb}^ Desire the Governor and Counsell of Virginia for the 
tyme beinge and in p'ticular S'r George Yardley to whom the 
principall charge of the saide Hundred is Committed, to permitt 
the said John Southeme to repayre Unto England whenever he 
shalbe willinge soe to Doe w'ch reasonable request hoping you 
will nott Deny, We take our Leaves and rest this ffirst of August 
1624. from London, Your very lovinge friends, 

H. Southampton (8) 
Arthur Branfield, John Farrar. 

Nicholas Farrar, Gab'l Barber. 

(173.) 

A Courte held the XXP*^ of November 1625, beinge present 
S'r ffrancis Wyatt, Knight Govemor &c., Capt. ffrancis West, 
Capt. Roger Smith, Capt. Raphe Hamor, Mr. WiUiam Cley- 
boume. 

Robert Newman (9) swome and examined sayeth y* 

(7) John Southeme came in the George in 1G20, and lived at James 
Cittie 1^)24-5. He was a Burgess in 1623 and 1029-30 for James City 
Island, so that he must have returned from England. The "iron works" 
were at Falling Creek. The Earl of Southampton had an estate at 
Tichfield, and was buried there. 

(8) Henry Wriothesly, 3d, Earl of Southampton, friend and patron 
of Shakespeare and an eminent member of the Virginia Company. One 
cannot help feeling regret that a document with signatures of such in- 
terest (which was of course sent to Virginia) was not preserved. 

(9) The "Muster" of William Gayne and Robert Newman at Eliza- 
beth Cily in the Census of 1G24-5, included eight per.sons, among them, 
Newman, himself, aged 25, who came in the Neptune in 1618 Edward 
Nevell seems to have been agent or supercargo for Thos. Weston, mer- 
chant, of London. 



r I • ^ ir.ji 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 149 

M"" Crispe demanded his Tobacco of Mr. Nevell and Mr. Nevell 
made his answere y' he wold not deliver Mr. Crispe to the 
vallew of a pounde w'thout order from Mr. Weston or that Mr. 
Weston did come himselfe, and saide let the Tobacco rott or 
Spoyle he cared nott. 

And further this deponent sayeth that Mr. Crispe did often 
tymes demand his Tobacco of Mr. Nevell but he wold not de- 
liver it to him. 

Edward Nevell beinge examined sayeth y* Mr. Crispe did 
divers Tymes demande his Tobacco of him & that he told 
Mr. Crispe y* unles he would bring Mr. Wetheredge to enter 
into bond y' Mr. Crispe should not Truck away this Tobacco 
in y Countrey he would not deliver him any without Speciall 
order from Mr. Weston. Mr. Weston gave the order not to 
deliver Mr. Crispe any Tobacco unles Mr. Wetheredge would 
enter into a bond for Mr. Crispe or some other M^ And fur- 
ther he acknowledgeth y'' these denials were made before Mr. 
Wetheredge went away. 



(174.) 

A CourLe held the 24 ^'^ of November 1625, beinge present 
S'r ffrancis Wyatt, Knight, Governor &c., Capt. Roger Smith, 
Capt. Samuel Mathews, Mr. William Cleyboume. 

Y* is ordered y' Capt. Tucker shall deliver to Mr. Samuell 
[Daniell] Gookins servants for there necessary use and Susten- 
tatione Sujjport Apparell Wheat and Come for one whole yeere, 
According to theire Covenants, And that the same be delivered 
unto them presentlye, for that theire tyme of service is fully 
expired. And in regard y* Capt. Tucker hath written to 
Mr. Gookin Conceniinge the Covenante between Mr. Gookin 
and these rnen now sett free, The Court conceaves it fitt that 
these men may dispose of themselves for this next yeere untill 
putting in securitie to Capt. Tucker to give Mr. Gookin such 
Satisfactione as the law shall awarde. 



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J 50 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

And further it is ordered that John Curtis (10) shall have his 
Pass to goe to Englande his brother Thomas Curtis goinge 
bond to be answerable for such suits as by Mr. Gookin shalbe 
comenced against him for one Conceminge any Covenant be- 
twixt Mr. Gookin and him. 

(10) Joltn Curtis, aged 22, who came in the Flyinge Hart, in 1621, 
lived at Elizabeth City 1624-5. Thos. Curtis, aged 24, who also came 
in the Flyinge Hart was then one of Daniel Gookin's servants at "Newports 
Newes." Gookins men had evidently came over under "covenant" or 
indenture to him. 

(To be continued) 



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COUNCIL PAPERS. 



151 



COUNCIL PAPERS 1698-1702 



From the Originals in the Virginia State Library 
(Continued) 

Certificates in Regard to Rev. Samuel Gray 

We the Subscribers Justices of the peace as well as Vestry- 
men in and for the County of Middlesex & parish of Christ 
church in Virginia, Do hereby Certify all & several whom these 
presents may or shall concern, That among us hath lived sev- 
eral years Samuel Gray, Clerk, a peacefull neighbour, upright 
& fair in his dealings 8c of a good conversation. Given under 
our hands this moneth of December in the year of our Lord God 
1702 and in the first year of the Reign of our Soveraign Lady 
Oueen Anne 



Rob' Daniel 
Wm. KHbee 
Rich"^ Kemp 
William Skipwith 



Jno Grymes 
Wm. ChurchhiU 
Harry Beverley 
Matth. Kemp 



Francis Weeks 
Henry Thacker 
Edwin Thacker 
G. Corbin 



To his Excellency Francis Nicholson Esq'' her Ma'^^^ Lieu'' 
and Govern' General of Virginia - ■ 

May it please Yo'' Excell'=y 

We the Subscribers Vestrymen of Copley parish in the 
County of Westmorland being destitute of a Minister and hav- 
ing the bearer Samuel Gray Clerk well recommended to us 
by many v/orthy Gent of the County where he has lived sev- 
eral years. Are v/illing with yo"" Excell'^y" Leave to entertain 
him as our Min' for the erisuing year as hath been usual ever 
since we were a parish. 



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152 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ' ' .". 

Yo' Ex^y^ most humble Servants 
Jno Gerard Gerard Hutt Rich*^ Lee 

James Wcstcomb Jno Bush wood Fra. Wright 

Miclill Willington W. Allerton Jno Sturman 

Rob' Barrett 
At a Vestry held in & for 
the s'' parish 
March y 17'^ 1702-3. " . . • 



Arms Sent to Virginia. 

Her Majesty by her order in Council of the 6th of August 
last having directed y^ sending of Arms & Ammunition for 
y" service of her Matys Colony of Virginia which being laden 
on board the ship Cuthbert and Spranger of London, Jno 
Markham M"" bound for York River, and by bill of Lad- 
ing consigned to be delivered to you or yo'' order in James 
River or to the Governor or Com'^'^'' in chief for the time being, 
We send you inclosed her Ma''^" letter with an accompt of the 
Cost &: charges of the said Arms and ammunition Amounting 
to three thousand three hundred eighty eight pounds three 
shillings & four pence directing payment of y'^ said Sum for the 
same out of her Ma''*^* Revenue of Quitt rents within that Col- 
ony by transmitting Bills of that value to the Treas'' & paym' 
of this office, and desire on receipt of y*" s'* arms & ammuni- 
con you will transmitt bills for y® s*^ Siun of £3388. s3. d4 
payable to the honbl^ Charles Bertie Esqr'' Treas'' & pay M'' 
for y^ time being, and give advice thereof to this board. We 
are y^ humble servants 

J. Musgrave ' " J. Granville Wm. Bridges 

J. Pulteney 
Office of Ordnance 1" Febmary 1702 
Gov of Virginia. 






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council papers -■ 153 

■ Arms Sent to Virginia 



Lord Nottingham TO THE Governor OF Virginia 

Whitehall, Feb. 25^*' 1702-3 
Sir 

The Queen commands me to acquaint you that War 
having been declared in the West Indies as well as in Eurojie 
in pursuance of her Ma'''-'^ orders ag"' the Spaniards; Her 
Ma'y would have you be very vigorous & severe in prevent- 
ing any Amnumition or Stores of any kind from being carried 
to them, and would have you use all proper methods that may 
be most effectual for this purpose. I am 

Yo' most humble Servant 

Nottingham. 



Whitehall, March 20*'^ 1702-3 
Sir 

Her Majesty having considered the ill practice of the 
Merchants and planters in the West Indies during the last war 
in corresponding with the French not only in trading with 
them, but in carrying intelligence to 'em to the great prejudice 
and hazard of the English plantacons. I am commanded to 
acquaint you, that by all possible methods you must endeavor 
to hinder all manner of Trade & correspondence with the French 
whose strength in the West Indies gives very just apprehension 
of the mischiefs that may ensue, if the utmost care be not taken 
to prevent them. I am 

. ••./ . , , Yo"' most humble Servant 

Nottingham. 
Both To Francis Nicholson Esq'' 
directed her Ma'''''^ Lieu' & Gov' .i ,, , 

Genl 8c Gov'' of Virginia, 
&c. . . • 



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154 virginia historical magazine. 

Account of William Byrd, Auditor General, 1702 
Virginia es. William Byrd Auditor to her Ma'»®^ Revenue 
of two shill^ p hh*^ for every hogsh** of Tobacco exported out 
of this Colony 15^^ p Tunn for every Ship Lading here G*^ p poll 
for every person imported also all Rights for land sold from 
the 10''' of July to the 25'*' of October 1702 following is D^ 
hh*^^ Tuns, passeng" 

To Ballance due her Maty £ O d ■ 
as p acco' sent July y" 10"'.. 3515. 10 .3}4 
625. 405. 34. 

To CoU'o Wm. Wilson 

Naval Officer in thelow^ 

District of James River 

his acco * of 2 'o p hh^'port 

duty and head money 88. 13 . 3 

18841 i. 424. 212. 

To CoU'o Miles Cary 

Naval Officer in York 

River his hh''^ Tuns. 

passeng" acco' of Ditto.... 218. 5 . 
401. 50. 2890. 879. 246. 

To M'' Hancock Custis 

Naval officer on the 

Eastern shore his acco' 

of Ditto to y'' 25"^ of 

October 43. 4.6 

3865. I3T 0}i 
No acco' from Potomack, Rappahan- 
nock, the upper District of James River. 

To Rights for Land Sold to this date £3892. 18 . ]4 

Contra C'' 
To paid his Excel^'^ 3^ a year sallary, ending 

y« 25'h Octo' by order of his Excell^>' 1000. . 

By p"i his Excell'^^ }/2 a years house rent end- 
ing y'= same time by ord"" as above 75. 0.0 

By paid the Gentlemen of the Council }^'2 a 
years Sallary ending y*^ same time by ord"" as 
above .. 175. 0. 



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By paid William Blathwait Esq'' Yi a years Sal- 

lary ending y*^ same time by ord' as above- 50. 0.0 

By paid M'' Robertson Yi a years Sallary as 
Clerk of the Council ending y** same time by 

ord-- as before 25. 0.0 

By paid the Sollicitor of Virginia affairs Yi a 
years Sallary ending y^ same time by ord'' as 

before. - 50. 0.0 

By paid IVP Harrison as Attorney Genii Yi a- 
years Sallary ending y'^ same time by ord' as 

before _... 20. 0.0 

By ]jaid A'P Robertson for so much paid the 

Ministers for one Genii Court ._ 10. 0.0 

By paid Edward Ross Gunner of James City 

Yi a i'ears Sallary ending y^ same time 5. 0.0 

By paid M'' Robertson for so much paid by him 
for sevll charges about the Indians & other 

Contingencies by order of his ExcelP^..... 89. 10 . 

By paid y'' same for Messengers to New York, 

Maryland, &c by order as above 94. 16 . 8 

By the Collectors Sallary of £350. 2. 9 at 10 

p C^ is 35. . 3 

By the Auditors Sallary for £315 rec'' of the 
Coll^ & for £27. 5 rec^ for Rights makes £342. 
7. 6 at lYi P Cent 25. 13 . 61^ 



1655. . 534 
So that there remains due to her Majesty from 
this accomptant the sum of Two thousand two 
hundred thirty seven pounds seventeen shill- 
ings & seven pence Sterling 2237. 17 . 7 



3892. 18 . Y^ 
William Byrd, Audi to' •■ 



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166 virginia historical magazine. 

Virginia ss. 
William Byrd Auditor of her Ma''" Revenue 
of two shillings p hogshead for every hogshead 
of Tobacco exported out of this Colony 15*^ 
p Tun for every Ship lading here, and six pence 
p pole for every person imported, also for 
Rights for Land sold since the 25 "^ of October 
1702 till the 25^'' of April 1703 is D' £ O d 

Hogs'^ Tuns. pass". 

To Ballance due to her 
Majesty by acco' 25'^ of 

October past .__ _ 2237. 17 . 7 

2148. 1115. 104. 

To Coll'o Miles Gary Naval 
Officer of York River District 
his acco' of 2'o p hh<^ port 

dutys, head money 288. 19 . 3 

1539>^. 450. 34. 

To Cap' Natll Harrison Naval 
Officer in the Upper District of 
James River his acco' of 2° p 
hh'' port dutys &c 652. 501. 
To Collo Wm Wilson Naval 
Officer in the Lower District of . 
James River his acco' of 2° p 

hh'* and port dutys 96. 10 . 3 

882. 435. 28. 

To Coll 'o Gan.dn Corbin Naval 
Officer of Rappahannock River 
District his acco' of 2'o p hh"^ 

port dutys and head money 116. 1 . 9 

898. 161. 

. To Collo Rich<^ Lee JiJaval Offi- 

cer of Potomack District his 

acco' of 2'^ p hh'^ & port dutys 99. 18 . 3 

3022. 5.7 

To several Rights for Land sold amounting to 101 5^0 

£31237l0 . 7 



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Contra C'' 
By paid his Excellency 3^ years Sallary ending 

yo 25tii April by order of his Excell'^^'.. ._ 1000. . 

By paid his Excell'^y }^ years house rent 

ending y" same time by order of his Excel^y 75. 0.0 

By paid the Gentlemen of the Council }/2 year 
Sallary ending y" same time by order as above.... 175. 0.0 
By paid Wm Blathwayt Esq'' J^ a years Sal- 
lary ending y'' same time by order as above 50. 0.0 

By paid M^ Robertson }/2 ^ years Sallary as 

Clerk of the Council ending &c 25. 0.0 

By paid the Sollicitor of Virgima affairs 3^ a 

years Sallary ending &c 50. 0.0 ' 

By paid M" Robertson for so much paid y 

Ministers for one Court & Assembly 10. 0.0 • 

By paid JM' Harrison as Attorney Genii 3^ 

years Sallary ending &c 20. 0.0 

By paid Edward Ross Gunner of James City 

}/-2 a years Sallary _ 5 0.0 

B>- paid M'' Robertson for so much paid M" 

John ffrecman for his Journey to New York ; 

and back again by order as above 30. 0.0 

By paid M'" Robertson for sevll messages 

& other Contingencies by ord'' as above..... 98. 15 . 

B}' paid the same for charges about Indians 

& sevll extraordinary Expresses 87. 8.0 

By the Collectors Sallary for £784. 8. at 10 

P C' 78.16. 93^ 

By the Auditors Sallary for £806. 16. 23^ at 

Iji P C' 6 0. 10 . 23^ 

£1765. 10 . 
So that there remains due from this acco' to her 
Majesty tlie sume of One thousand three'hun- 
dred fifty eight pounds and seven pence to 
B'lllance _ 1358. 0.7 ' 

£3123. 10 . 7 

William Byrd Auditor 

(To be continued.) 



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158 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ir .i V \ vViU 2<,' 

VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 



(Contributed by Leo Culleton, 92 Piccadilly, London, W., 
and the late Lathrop Withington.) 
(continued) 
Sir Sampson Darell, Knight. Will 21 May 1635; 
proved 1 July 1635. To each of my children £1000 each 
except my eldest son. Sir John Parsons to have the order- 
ing of my part in the Cole farm for my wife. Executors- 
my wife and Sir John Parsons. Witnesses : Buchan Robert 
Lesley, Barth: Cressener. Proved first by Elizabeth Dar- 
rell, relict, and 14 June 1642 by Marmaduke Darrell son of 
deceased on death of Elizabeth. Sadler, 84. 

[Sir Sampson Darrell probably had descendants in Virginia as the name 
Sampson was frequently borne by members of a Darrell family here. 
See this Magazine XVII, 115.] ,,, ,, 

Robert Filmer of East Sutton, county Kent, gentleman. 
Will 11 April 1629; proved 4 M^y 1629. Body to upper 
Chancel of Church of East Sutton. To the poor 40s. To 
the lady Filmer my sister £10. To my brother Henry Fil- 
mer my gold ring and three suites of apparel two of cloth and 
one of pink sattin. Two hats and two pairs of silk stockings. 
To my neece, Mrs. Mary Knatchbull, to Sir Robert Filmer, 
Mr. Edward Filmer, Mr. John Filmer, Reynold Filmer and 
Henry Filmer gent, my nephews 40s. apeece. To my neeces 
Mrs. Elizabeth Faulkner, Mrs. Katherine Barram and Mrs. 
Sarah Filmer 40s. each for rings. To Edward Filmer my 
brother Anthonie's son £20 at 22 years. To his brother 
Henry £10 at 23. To his sister Mrs. Francis Filmer my 
neece £10. To my daughter in law Penelope Bellinger 
her mother's wedding ring. To Mrs. Elizab. Faulkner 
my neece a black taffeta gown. To my Lady Filmer my 
sister a pair of gloves wrought with pearls. Residue to my 
brother Sir Edward Filmer Knight, sole executor. Wit- 
nesses: Laurence Foxe, Thos. Gateley. Ridley, 49. 



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VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. ; .*«. 159 

Sir Edward Filmer of East Sutton, county Kent, Knight 
(aged 63, 17th January last.) Will 20 October Vth Chas. I; 
proved 5 December 1629. To my daughter Elizabeth wife 
of William Faulkner Citizen and Draper of London, if she 
survive her husband £500. If said husband survive said 
Elizabeth then to her children £300 equally divided. If 

she die without issue then to her husband £20. Executors 
to find meat drink and apparel to said Elizabeth to the value 
of £40 yearly. To my three sons Edward, John and Henry 
Filrner £10 each. And because my son Reynald's estate 
consists in trading beyond the seas I forgive him all debts 
(£550). To said Reynold £50. To my son Henry if 
he commence M. A. in University of Cambridge £40 and fur- 
thur £100. To my daughters Mary KJnatchbull and Cath- 
erine Barham £20 each. To Edward Knatchbull my god- 
son £5. To his sister Mary £20. To his brother John £2. 
To Edward Barham my godson. To Elizabeth Barham 
my wive's goddaughter £5. To other grandchildren, Rob- 
ert, Thomas, Charles, and Richard Barham 40s. each. To 
Dame Ann wife of my son Sir Robert Fikner lb20 for a ring. 
To my daughter Sara £1000 further £500 annuity of £10 
to my brother Henry. To Dorothy daughter of my brother 
Anthony Filmer £10. To Dame Elizabeth my wife £120 
and all her chains and jewels and all my household stuff in 
CoUedghouse in Maidstone, a third part of linen and silver. 
My lease of Rectory of East Sutton towards payment of my 
debts. The other two parts of linen, silver, etc., to my son 
Sir Robert Filmer. My wife shall have the leases of cer- 
tain houses in KJnightrider Street lately given me by my brother 
Robert Filmer, esq.. Dame Elizabeth and Sir Robert my son 
executors. Witnesses: Wm Davy, Wm Gregory, Richd 
Clowgh. For disposing my land in county Kent and else- 
where. Lands called Nicholls in Chartham, my lands in 
Otterden and lands in Romney Marsh shall stand according to 
Indentures made. To my son John £15 yearly out of houses 
in Darrant. To said son John also my houses and lands in 
Yalding and to his heirs. For default to my eldest son Sir 
Robert and heirs. For default to Edward Filmer my second 



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160 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

son and heirs. For default to Reynold my fourth son and 
heirs. For default to Henry my fifth son and heirs. To my 
son Edward after my wife's decease all houses and lands 
in Darrant. For default to Sir Robert my eldest son. For 
default to John my third son. For default to Reynold. 
For default to Henry. To Henry my oth son and heirs af- 
ter my wife 's decease tenement and land in Warren Street par- 
ish of Lenham and one in parish of Charing. For default 
to Sir Robert. For default to Edward. For default 
to John. For default to Reynold. To my wife Dame 
Elizabeth for life all my houses and lands in Darrant, Lenham, 
Charing and Sutton Valence, one tenement in parish of Borden. 
After her decease the lands in Sutton Valence shall be sold by 
Sir Robert if need be. If not needed lands to Sir Robert 
and heirs. Witnesses: Wm. Gregory, Wm. Davy, Richd 
Clough. Ridley, 110. 

[Robert Filmer, whose will was proved in 1629, was a brother of Sir 
Edward Filmer, whose will (also proved in 1629) follows. Sir Edward 
was the father of Henry Filmer, who emigrated to Virginia. See this 
Magazine, XV, 181, 182; XXI, 153, 154. Edward Filmer, grocer, was no 
doubt a descendant of some younger son of the family. These wills add 
considerably to the pedigree in Berry.] 

Edward Fillmer of Cittingbome, county Kent, grocer 
Will 3 March 1646 (-7); proved 1st July 1653. I give unto 
the poor of the parish 40s., to be distributed among them at 
the discretion of the churchwardens. To my cousin Thomas 
Fillmer, son of my brother Robert Fillmer, in recompense of 
the title which the said Thomas hath, or henceafter may claim, 
in certain land in Ottenden, county Kent, now in my occupa- 
tion, £60 at his age of 21, provided he then release aU such 
right or title to my daughter Elizabeth Fillmer. To my 
cousin Jane Fillmer, daughter to my said brother Robert £5 
at 21. To my cousins John and Anne Fillmer, son and 
daugliter of my brother WilHam Fillmer, £20 apiece at 21. To 
my brothers Henry and William Fillmer, 20s. apiece to buy 
them rings. To my apprentice Thomas Leshington, all the 
wares in my shop and warehouse, and all debts due unto me 
by my books, on condition he discharge all such debts as I 
shall owe at the time of my decease in the city of London. 



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VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 161 

To my friend William Allen of Cittingbome, gent., £5. I 
\vill thai the said Thomas Lessington shall during the term of 
his life enjoy my shop, with the workhouse and warehouse, 
and one half part of my dwelling house with the half of the 
backside thereunto belonging, with the garden called the White 
Heart garden, which is in my occupation, and also the house 
and garden that Roger Pannell now dwelleth in in Cittingborne 
aforesaid, on condition he pay to my daughter for rent of the 
premises £20 a year. My wife Eleanor shall, during her 
life, hold the other part of my said dwelling-house rent free; 
and if she be not minded to continue her dwelling there, the 
said Thomas Leshington shall have the whole of the said house, 
paying yearly to my wife for her half part £4. I give to my 
wife all the bed, bedding and furniture belonging to it, which 
is in my best chamber; also (in lieu of her dower in all my free- 
hold lands,) an annuity, of £20. I bequeath all my free- 
hold lands and tenements where soever to my daughter Eliza- 
beth Filhner and her heirs; for default of issue to her, I give 
the house and land where Roger Pannell dwelleth to the said 
Thomas Leshington, and my said cousins Thomas and John 
Fillmer in bail successively, and for the rest, in case of my said 
daughter dying without issue, I give them to the said Thomas 
and John. All the residue of my goods I give to my daugh- 
ter; and I make the said William Allen and Thomas Leshington 
my executors, earnestly entreating them to be careful of my 
daughter. (signed) Edward Fillmer. Witnesses: John 
Wheately, scr., Willm Goddard. My will is that my execu- 
cutors sliall deliver my estate to my daughter at her age of 2L 
7 February 1G51 (-2) I, the said Edward Fillmer, of Sitting- 
borne, mercer, will that my fonner will and testament shall 
stand in fu]l force, except that whereas I appointed Mr. Wil- 
liam Allen one of my executors, my mind now is that the said 
William Allen shall not any ways intenneddle therein, but that 
the other executor by me named shall by my sole executor; 
and I give to the said William Allen 10s. To my brother 
William I'illmer, an annuity of £5. My mind is that my 
faithful servant Thomas Lushington shall have my cherry 
garden commonly called Butts garden in Sittingbome, until 



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162 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

my daughter Elizabeth accomplish her age of 19 years, and for 
a term of 20 years after, if he will, at a rent of £20, payable 
half to my wife Ellen, half to my daughter. And my wife, 
and daughter shall yearly have delivered to them 3 bushels 
of cherries of the choicest of the fruit, and shall have free 
liberty with their friends to walk in the said ground, and take 
and eat of the fruit upon the trees there growing at their will 
and pleasures. I devise to my daughter my messuage or 
inn called The Adam and Eve in Sittingbome, immediately 
after she accomplishes her age of 19. (signed) Edward 
Filhner. Witnesses: John Hurlstone his mark; Wilkn. 
Bowell. Proved by Thomas Lesington the executor named. 
Brent, 216. 






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VIRGINIA IN 1678. ■ 163 



VIRGINIA IN 1678-1679. 



(Abstracts by W. N. Sainsbury, and copies in the McDonald 
and De Jamette Papers, Virginia State Library.) 
■'■ (Continued) ' ' 



^''' '" . ' '"■ ' Whitehall, Dec. 17, 1678 

The King to Thos. Lord Culpeper. Governor Herbert 
Jeffreys, Lieut. Governor and the Council of Virginia. To 
permit and suffer Ralph Williamson or his assigns to land 
and dispose of fifty-two convicted persons of Scotland, sen- 
tenced to be banished, and transported to our English Plan- 
tations and such others as shall be convicted in Scotland and 
sentenced to be transported and delivered into Williamson's 
custody, without any hindrance or molestation, any law, or- 
der or custom of Virginia to the contrary notwithstanding. 
(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 95. p. 166.) . , ■„ ,..,,. , 



Whitehall, Dec. 20, 1678 
Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
In reference to a report to be presented to his Majesty upon the 
several heads of Lord Culpeper 's paper about the establish- 
ment in Virginia "it being a Colony of greater extent (than 
Jamaica) and of more advantage in point of the customs and 
yearly revenue to the Crown;" the Quitrents of Virginia; the 
settlement of Towns upon each great River; the laws agreed to 
be immediately transmitted to Virginia; the payment of sol- 
diers; the patents granted to Lords Arlington & Culpeper an I 
the departure of ships from Virginia. 3 pp. 'n': 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 105. pp. 283-285.) ::iu. , ■ 



Whitehall, Dec. 20, 1678 
Order of the King in Council for the Earl of Danby Lord 
High Treasurer of England forthwith to take care that an es- 
tablishment be made for the Lord Culpeper and others employ- 



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164 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ed in the Gov* of Virginia as also for the two foot Companies 
in the like manner and proportion as is already setled for 
Jamaica and that his Lordship do provide a fund for the same. 
(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 80. p. 263.) 



Whitehall, Dec. 21, 1678 
Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
That Lord Culpeper propose to the Committee such heads as 
he shall think fit to be inserted in his Commission and Instruc- 
tions. And that in the meantime a draught of such Commis- 
sion and Instructions be prepared for their Lordships view 
and the Commission and Instructions formerly given to the 
Governors of Virginia as also those to the Earl of Carlisle be 
made use of as far as it is proper herein. 
(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 105, p. 286-287.) 



Petition of Lieutenant Edward Rous to the King. 
Has long and faithfully served his Majesty and particularly 
in Virginia where during the sickness of the late Colonel Jef- 
freys (died Dec. 1678) and the disability of Sir William Berke- 
ley, he had the chief care of the forces sent thither — but on his 
return another was made (contrary to the usual practise) 
Captain of the Company whereof he was Lieutenant. The 
Captain of his present Company being dangerously ill, prays 
for the command as soon as it shall become void. 

(Colonial Papers, 1 p.) 



1678. 

Petition of Edward Rous to the King. Has served 
ten years as Ensign in His Maj. own regiment of foot guards 
and being amongst other Officers comjnanded to Virginia 
to suppress the insurrection of Bacon, the greatest trouble of 
that business devolved upon him thro' the continual indis- 
disposition of Col. Jeffreys. Since his return a Captain's 
place in said Regiment has been given from him, prays for the 
company whereof Captain Langley was late Captain. 



Whitehall, Jan. 24, 1678-9 
Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 



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VIRGINIA IN 1678. 165 

in reference to an examination (continued from 18 Dec. 1677) 
of the Grievances presented to his Maj. late Commiss" by 
the people of Virginia; report agreed to be presented to his 
Maj. thereon. Draught of Commission for Lord Culpeper 
to be Governor of Virginia read; several amendments agreed 
upon; five to be a quorum of Councillors instead of three, 
unless upon extraordinary occasions. 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 105. pp. 192-194.) 



Whitehall, Feb. 6, 1678-9 
Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
The first personal Grievance of Virginia, proved by oath before 
his Maj. late Comm" is read, also letter from said Comm''* 
to Sir W. Berkeley protesting against the illegal seizures made 
by him; their Lordships think fit to report the injustice of the 
seizure of the goods belonging to the petif Alex. Walker & 
that restitution be made by Berkeley's executors if the same 
were seized after 16 Jan. 1676-7 on the surrender of West Point 
which put an end to the Rebellion. Draught of Instructions 
to be delivered to Lord Culpeper who is to attend on Monday 
next with his Proposals. The latter part of his Lordship's 
paper presented 14 Dec. last is considered in reference to the 
impost of tobacco, presents for the Indian Princes, a mace* 
& sword for Virginia & furniture for a chapjjel, furniture for 
200 Dragoons & 50 horse with tents, an Auditor and writs to be 
issued in the King's name. On reading Order in Council of 30 
Oct. last (which see) their Lordships looking upon this Declar- 
ation to be seditious & even tending to Rebellion think fit that 

(*) The mace seems not to have been sent at this time; but on Dec. 
7, 1700, Governor Nicholson presented the House of Burgesses with a 
mace, and John Chiles was appointed messenger and mace bearer. 
The mace was doubtless used from the beginning as it is in the English 
House of Commons; but there are no entries in the journals of the Bur- 
gess as to this use until Feb. 1, 1727, when the house was organized and a 
speaker chosen. Then "the mace was brought in and laid under the 
table." When the Governor had confirmed the choice the mace was 
no doubt placed on the table, though there is no entry in regard to this. 
On August IG, 1736, Sir John Randolph was elected Speaker *and with the 
members went to the Governor for his confirmation. When tliey re- 
turned to their chamber "the mace was laid on the table." The mace 
continued in use until the Revolution, and an account of how it was dis- 
posed of by the fanatical legislators of that day and its later history can 
be found in this Mi'.ga>;ine XIX, 3()-')-o0ii. 



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166 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL .MAGAZINE. 

Lord Culpeper at his arrival in Virginia do signify his Maj. 
high resentment thereof & inquire, with the assistance of the 
Council who were the authors & abettors of this presumption. 
3 pp. 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 105. pp. 298-301.) 



Whitehall, Feb. 10, 1678-9. 

Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
On Order of Council of 20 July last (which see) on petition of 
Morris, Pryn & Conset; that his Maj. grant them double the 
sum expended by them in extraordinary charges & their names 
lodged in the Admiralty as deserving persons to serve his Maj. 
Answer of Sir John Berry & Col. Moryson concerning the 
present Council j in Virginia read. Names of persons to be pro- 
posed as fit to sei"ve his Maj. in that tru^. Of Col. Francis 
Willis & Col. Jos. Bridger their Lord?'* will make further in- 
quir)^ concerning their ability and deserts. Col. Ballard, Col. 
Philip Ludwell and Col. Bray to be excluded out of the Coun- 
cil; Major Robt. Beverley Sc Col. Edward Hill "of evil fame & 
behaviour " to be put out of all employment & declared unfit 
to serve his ]\'Iaj. Consideration of Grievances from several 
Counties; also of petition of Elizabeth Dudley, her tobacco or 
the value thereof forced from pef by Sir Wm. Berkeley for her 
husband's pardon, to be restored to her. Agreed that all in- 
juries committed since 16 Jan^'. 1676-7 be redressed & for those 
complaints of injuries done by Sir Wm. Berkeley or his order 
during the Rebellion unto such as continued loyal, their Lord- 
ships will take them into consideration as they shall offer ; & will 
recommend the case of Wm. Carver for restitution of his estate 
unto Lord Culpeper. 3 pp. 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 105. pp. 304-7.) 

(t) Biographical sketches of all these Councellors have been pub- 
lished in former volumes of this magazine. 



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i' vu^i. VIRGINIA IN 1677. 167 

Council Chamber, Feb. 10, 1678-9 
Draft of Report from (the Lords of Trade and Plan- 
tations) to the King. On petition of Elizabeth Dudley relict 
of Wm. Dudley, senior, late of Middlesex County, Virginia, 
complaining of the seizure of Sir Wm. Berkeley of fifteen hogs- 
heads of tobacco for the Governor's clemency to her deceased 
husband in giving him his pardon. That such seizure was in 
dervgation of his Maj. pardon, signified by Proclamation of 
20 Oct. 1676 and therefore restitution sh*^ be made of the said 
tobacco by the executors of said Berkeley so that petitioner be 
not deprived of the full benefit of his Maj. pardon. 

Draft unsigned, full of con-ections. , m . 

(Colonial Papers. 3 pp.) ■, 

(To be Continued) 



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168 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



THE VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY— 1778 

,r ,, By David I. Bushnell, Jr. •■ , 

V. The Treaty of Fort Pitt. 

On September 10, 1778, Col. Daniel Brodhead with the 
Eighth Pennsylvania regiment reached Fort Pitt. The Vir- 
ginia Commissioners, Andrew and Thomas Lewis, and the three 
Delaware chiefs, White Eyes, Captain Pipe, and John Killbuck, 
were awaiting the arrival of the troops, and two days later, 
Sei:)tember 12, met in council. The fort had, ever since the 
winter of 1753, been the most important of the frontier posts. 
Erected by the French, though begun by the Virginians, it was 
named DuQuesne after the Governor of New France. Before 
the close of the French and Indian war it had been taken by the 
British, '^'hen its name was changed, later it was occupied by 
troops of the United States. Here, within the inclosure of the 
historic post, gathered the commissioners of the newly formed 
government, and the Chiefs of the Delawares from beyond the 
Ohio, for the purpose of formulating a treaty of peace and friend- 
ship. 

Preserved among the miscellaneous papers of the Continental 
Congress, in the Library of Congress, is a document of the 
greatest interest: an account of the conferences which resulted 
in the making and signing of the treaty on September 17. The 
document is here given in full: 

Fort Pitt, Sept. 12th. 1778. 
In Council present 

The Honourable Andrew Lewis Esqrs Commissioners 

and the United States 

Thomas Lewis 

White Eyes 

Pipe Chiefs of the Delawares 

John Killbuck 



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VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. '■''.?•'■• {QQ 

The Honourable Brigadier General Macintosh, Coins. Brod- 
head, (jibson, Bayard, Crambray; Majors Macintosh, Vernon, 
Amberson, Honoured the Council with their prcsence(l). 

l-Referring briefly to the commissioners, and others mentioned, in 
this document. Thomas and Andrew Lewis of Virginia, (see notes 13 
and 11 of the preceding article of this series). 

White Eyes, or Koquethagechton was a friend of the whites, and did 
much to encourage the Moravians in their work among his people. In 
the spring of 1778 he was presented a silver medal "in the name of Con- 
gress." He died of smallpox at Fort Pitt in November 1778. 

Pipe, or Hopocan ('tobacco pipe') was an hereditary chief of the Wolf 
division of the Delawares, and was war chief of the tribe. At the close 
of the French and Indian war he settled with his people on the upper 
reaches of the Muskingum river, in the present state of Ohio. He was 
ever influential among his people, and never firm in his friendship for the 
whites. 

Killbuck, or Celelemend ('leader'), was born about 1722, and on the 
death of White Eyes was chosen acting chief to serve during the minority 
of the heredity head of the Turtle, or Unami division of the tribe. He 
showed great friendship for the whites and joined the Moravian settle- 
ment, being baptized William Henry. He died in January, 1811. 

Gen. Lachlan Maclntosli (see note 3 in the second article of this series, 
July 1915). 

Col. Daniel Brodhead, was appointed in command of the Eighth Penn- 
sylvania regiment March 12, 1777. On October 27, 1779, he was voted the 
thanks of Congress "for executing (under direction of General Washing- 
ton) the important expedition against the Mingo and Munsey Indians, 
and the part of the Senecas on the Allegheny River." Died November 
15, 1809. 

John Gibson, Lieutenant Colonel Thirteenth Virginia regiment Nov- 
ember 12, 1776; Colonel Sixth Virginia regiment October 25, 1777. Trans- 
ferred to the Ninth Virginia September 14, 177S, and to the Seventh Vir- 
ginia February 12, 1781. Retired January 1, 1783. Died April 10, 1822. 

Stephen Bayard, appointed Major in Eighth Pennsylvania regiment 
March 12, 1777. Wounded at Brandywine, September 11, 1777, and 
transferred to the Third Pennsylvania January 1, 1783. Died September 
13, 1S15. 

Chevalier du Crambray, arrived in America with de Carmichael during 
the month of June 1778. Later he was commander of the artillery in the 
Department of the West. At the close of the war he was appointed 
Major in the provincial troops. 

Lachlan Macintosh, Jr., son of Gen. Macintosh, was appointed first 
Lieutenant in the First Georgia regiment January 7, 1776. October of 
the same year he was made Brigade-Inspector. 

Frederick Vernon, appointed Major in Eighth Pennsylvania regiment 
June 7, 1777, and was transferred to the Fourth Pennsylvania January 
17, 1871. 

William Amberson, of the Eighth Pennsylvania regiment, was wounded 
at Brandywine, September 11, 1777. He served as aid-de-camp to Gen- 
eral Lafayette in 1778 and 1779. 



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170 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The Commissioners addressed the Chiefs as follows: 

Brothers. 

The Chief and Wise men of the Delaware Nation. 

The Wise men of the United States have sent us to offer you 
their friendship. You are a Wise people, Listen to what we 
have to say to you, and that it may sink deep into your hearts, 
and that you may do so with more attention, we present you 
with this String. 

■ A String of White Wampum(2). 

Brothers. 

You know as well as we, that many Treaties that have been 
held at this and at many other places, with the Six Nations, 
and Western Indians in order to engage their friendship and 
peaceable Conduct. These Treaties, however Solemnly En- 
tered into, were no sooner Concluded, but the Indians or some 
of them Began to Break the peace by Stealing from and Rob- 
bing our people. Killing our Women and Children and Com- 
mitting other Outrageous Acts against the faith of the said 
Stipulations. You alone of all the Western Indian^(3) seem 
incHned to hold fast the Chain of friendship and even in this 
instance it has Contracted some Rust, of a very Dangerous 
Nature. The paths between us are grown up with Bushes, so 
that they can scarce be seen. They are Bloody, your and our 
peoples Bones are scattered thro' the Woods, our people Stum- 
ble over them. Black Heavy Clouds hang over our heads. 

•2-True Wampum (the abbreviated form of the New England Algon- 
quian term 7vam pumpeak), ' v^as made for the most part from the shells 
of the Venus mercenaria. The beads made of this shell were of two 
colors, white and purple, the latter often shading from violet to almost 
black. The beads were cylindrical in form, averaging about J inch in 
diameter and 3/^ inch in length. These were formed into bands resemb- 
ling belts, often with ligures represented in the contrasting color; again 
they were strung on a single cord. When used ceremonially white ex- 
pressed peace, friendship, and the like, while the dark beads signified 
war, hatred, or sorrow. The most famous of all Wampum belts is that 
which was presented by the Delawares to William Penn in 1082. It is 
interesting to see how important was wampum in the treaty with the 
same people nearly a century later. (For an account of Wampum see the 
article in Handbook of American Indians, Bulletin 30, Bureau of American 
Ethnology.) 

3-The term Western Indians was used in referring to those who lived 
b ond the Ohio. 



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VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. 171 

Under these unhappy Circumstances we Bid you Welcome to 
this Council fire; and to Convince you on our parts how de- 
sirous we are of Removing these from you and transferring to 
your and our Enemies, We present you with this Belt of Wam- 
pimi, by which we open the path between us, once more, and 
wash away the Blood that has been Spilt on it, we Bury the 
scattered Bones of our Deceased Relations, and Dispel the Black 
Clovids, and wipe the tears from your Eyes, we remove all sor- 
row from your hearts, that joy and the Bright Sun of friendship 
may shine on you with greater Lustre than ever. 

A Road Belt of White Wampum, with a Road and the 
Thirteen United States and Delaware Nation, De- 
cyphered on each side with Black Wampum. ' ' 
Brothers. 

We told you before that the United States has sent us to you 
to Offer you their friendship, if you accept the offer, they will 
Consider you as their own people; they will give you hold of 
that Bright and Extensive Chain that Unites them to the Great 
and Powerful King of France, by whose friendship and assist- 
ance we hope in a little time to trample all our Enemies uiider 
our feet. In Entering into Engagements with the United 
States nothing will be Required of you but what will be for 
mutual Good and Happiness, on sucli principles that if faith- 
fully adliered to, will secure our future peace whilst the Sun or 
the Earth endures. Influertced by such Motives that the United 
States stretch out their hands to you — Consider well the offer. 
It is of great Importance, not only to yourselves. But to your 
Children and Grand Children. Take time and give your 
Answer like wise men. We have laid our hearts open to you 
without Reserve. We expect you will Act with the like Can- 
dour and openess of hearts and that you may do so, we present 
you with this Belt of Wampum. 

A Belt of White Wampum with the Thirteen United 
States and the Delaware Nation lying hold of the same 
with their hands Decyphered in Black Wampum. 
Brothers. 



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172 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

You may Remember that in our letters sent to your Tovvns(-lj 
(which we presume was the means of the pleasure we now have 
in Conversing and Consulting with you) we told you that we 
were Extremely anxious to have such an Opportunity in order 
to Establish a Mode in the prosecution of the present Expedi- 
tion against our Common Enemy, as would prove the more 
Effectual in securing and protecting our wise and good friends 
amongst you, from the hostile Attempts of those who wish the 
Destruction of you as well as us. You cannot forget the many 
threats that have been thrown out against you. We are happy 
in the present prospect we have not only of Checking, But 
Chastising our heartless Enemies. In order to Effect this 
Valuable purpose, evidently Calculated for your immediate 
protection, Genl. Mcintosh, who has the Interest and good of 
your Nation much at heart, Cannot Reach your and our Enemy, 
otherwise than by marching his Army thro' your Country, to 
which (when we consider you as our friends and Allies we pre- 
sume you can have no Objection, But on the Contrary that 
you will give him the most evident proofs of your great attach- 
ment to our Mutual Interest and that he will not have it to say 
that he and his men stood in the Gap of Danger, covering your 
heads without some of you Being Witnesses of his Exertions 
in Establishing peace and tranquility in this seat of Tyranny, 
Murder and Rapine(5). We Beg you take under your most 
serious Consideration this very important matter, and that 
you will in a friendly, open, and Candid manner, without the 
least Tincture of Artifice or Disguise give us your Sentiments 
and that as soon as you can make it Convenient. 
A Belt of White Wampimi. 

Capt. White Eyes, Rose up and made the following Answer. 

Brothers. 

I am greatly Rejoiced to hear what you have now told the 
few of your Brethren which you now see come for that purpose. 

4-George Clymer wrote from Fort Pitt March 7, 1778, and said in part: 
"I shall of my own Authority send off a Messenger to the Delawares 
tomorrow, to make known to them the friendly disposition of Congre.ss, 
to comnnmicate the prosperous Situation of our Affairs, and to invite 
their principal Men to Fort Pitt * * *." (Sec the preceding section of 
this series.) 

5-This refers to the British Post at Detroit. 



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VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. I73 

You may Depend on it we shall Consider well what you have 
said to us and return you an [answer] this Afternoon, as we see 
you are desirous of proceeding on the Intended Expedition 
which we hope will be the means of our living in peace. 

■' , . , 

Sept. 13th. ., „ . 

In Council. 

Capt. White Eyes infonned the Commissioners that the 
Arrival of Nimwha, a Shawnese Chief(G), Capt. Wingeund(7) 
and some other Delawares, had prevented them from attending 
yesterday Agreeable to promise, But that they were now 
Ready, he then addressed the Commissioners in the followint^ 
Words: ^ 

Brothers. 

We are greatly Rejoiced to hear the many good things you 
have said to us; we return you our hearty thanl.-s that you have 
Renewed and Strengthened the Chain of Friendship which our 
Wise Forefathers made. We also return you our thanlvs that 
you have taken pity on us and have wiped the Tears from our 
Eyes, that you have set our hearts at Ease, After having in a 
Brotherly manner Buried the Bones of our Deceased Relations 
and Removed the Cause of our Grief. Brothers, you desired 
us to consider well what had been said to us. We now inform 
you we have done so, as far as we are Capable of judging. But 
as you are wiser, we hope you will Consider well for us. By so 
doing it v.-iU be for the Advantage of us Both. 

A Belt of White Wampum. 
Brothers. 

It is Customary, when Brethren who Consult the Mutual 
Interests of their young men, their Women and Children do 
undertake anything, t hat Both should join in the work. Yes- 

6-The name of Nimwha does not appear on any treaty, nor can it be 
Srown-by'^anSES'am^^^ '^^" ' "^^^ '' ""^°^^^"^^ ^"^ -- P^^ably 

J^^^.^b Wingenund, a War Chief of the Delawares, signed the treaty 
of Fort Mcintosh, January 21, 1785, as VVingemmi. His name was also 
attached to the treaty of Fort Harmar. Jam.fry 9. 17,S<), wEen it appetrs 
as Wingenoud He was a fnend of Col. Crawford, and when this officer 
was abou to be burned at the stake he called fur the chief, but the latter 
was unable to obtam his release. 



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174 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. |' ' 

terday you informed us You intended to Clear the path Be- 
tween us and you. We now inform you that we join you most 
heartily in the work and nothing shall be wanting on our parts. 
But should our young men fail in their Attempts we desire you 
not to Blame us. We have not Concealed any thing from you. 
The Bad people who have stopped the path Between us shall see 
us Both hand in hand Repairing it. 

A Belt of Wliite Wampum, with a Road 
Dccyphcred in it with Black Wampum. 

Brothers. 

Yesterday you desired us to take fast hold and join in the 
Chain of Friendship, which you informed us was Strengthened 
by the King of France having joined it. Brothers we now 
inform lyou] that we and our Grand Children, the Sha\\Tiese(8) 
of the Maquegea tribe who are Settled with us and Become the 
same people, have taken fast hold of it, and are determined 
never to part the hold, tho' we should loose our Lives. We 
hope while we keep fast hold of it, our Young Men, our Women 
and Children, will be happy. We have now spoke the Senti- 
ments of our hearts, without Deceit. 

A Belt of White Wamjjvmi. 

The Commissioners then informed the Chiefs that they 
would Frame the Articles of Confederation, and as soon as they 
were Ready they would Acquaint them. 

Capt. White Eyes then Addressed the Commissioners. 

We now are become one people, the Enemy Indians as soon 

as they hear it will strike us, we desire that our Brethren 

would Build some place for our Old Men, Women and Children 

to Remain in Safety whilst our Warriors go with you. 

8-The Delaware referred to the other Algonquian tribes as Grand- 
children, while the Delaware, "By virtue of admitted priority of politi- 
cal rank and of occupying the central home territory, from which most 
of the cognate tribes had diverged, they were accorded by all the Algon- 
quian tribes the respectful title of 'grandfather,' a recognition accorded 
by courtesy also by the Huron. The Nanticoke, Conoy, Shawnee, and 
Mahican claimed close connection with the Delawares and preserved 
the tradition of a common origin." (Handbook of American Indians, 
Bulletin 30, Bureau of American Ethnology.) "Maquegea tribe" refers 
to one of the five general divisions of the Shawnee, usually designated 
Mequachake ('red earth.' — Hewitt). Their villages stood on the head- 
waters of Mad river, in the present Logan county, (^hio, and were de- 
stroyed by United States troops in 1791. 



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VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. ]75 

14th. Sept. . ■ '. 

The Coir.missioners and Chiefs met, when the Articles of 
Confederation and Union were Read and Explained to them 
the Commissioners desired them to Consider them ^^'ell if any 
thing was wanting which they might think of, they xxonld Add 
It and that when they were Ready they would Return an 
Answer. 

15th. Sept. 

The Badness of the Weather prevented a meeting. 

16th. 

The Com.missioners and Chiefs met in Council when Capt 
White Eyes addressed the Commissioners. 

Brothers. 

We have Considered well every thing mentioned in the Con- 
federation, we like them well and we are Ready to join you in 
every thing therein mentioned. We now inform you that as 
many of our Wamors as can possibly be spared shall join you 
and go with you. We are at a loss to express our thoughts 
But we hope soon to Convince you by our acts of the Sincerity 
of our hearts. We desire you not to think any of our people 
will have any Objection to your Marching thro' our Country 
on the Contrary they will Rejoice to see )-ou. We are well 
pleased to hear that part which Relates to our foolish young 
Men. in future doing any Mischief to one another. We heartily 
join in It. and shall fully Comply with it, and should our own 
bons ofTcnd we shall secure them to be Dealt with Agreeable 
to the Confederation. We now desire that our Young Men 
may be made Acquainted with one another and that there may 
be no Distinction between them. 

A String of White Wampum. 
Brothers : 

You desired us in the speech which you made to us yesterday 
that If we could think of any thing that might be for the Advan- 
tage of Both of us. that we would mention it. We now Re- 
quest that our Wise Brethren in Congress may be informed that 
It IS our particular Request that Colo. Jno. Gibson may be 
Appointed to have the Charge of all Matters Between you and 
us. We esteem him as one of ourselves, he has always acted 



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170 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

an honest part by us and we are Convinced he will make our 
Common good his chief vStudy, and not tliink only how he may 
Get Rich. We desire also that he may have the Charge and 
take care of the Warriors of our people who may join you on 
the present Expedition. When we were last in Philadelphia 
our Wise Brethren in Congress ma}'- Remember we desired them 
to send Schoolmasters to our Towns to instruct our Children 
as we think it will be for our Mutual Interest, we Request it 
may be Comjjlied with. 

A Belt of White Wampum. 
17th. 

The Commissioners and Chiefs met in Council when the 
Articles of Confederation and Union were again Read and 
Interpreted, when they were then Asked if they approved of 
them, to which they Returned for i\.nswer they did and were 
now come to sign them. A Triplicate then of the Articles of 
Confederation and Union was signed by the Commissioners 
and the Chiefs in presence of the Subscribing Evidences, one of 
which copies was kept by the Commissioners to be sent to the 
Honble. the Congress, another given to the Chiefs, and a third 
given to Genl. Mcintosh. 

The Commissioners then informed the Chiefs that they had 
a present, which was sent by the Honble. Congress to them as a 
Testimony of their Regard for them(9) which they should 
Deliver the next Day to them. 

Brigadier General Macintosh informed the Chiefs that as the 
Articles of Confederation and Union were now signed by the 
Commissioners and them he intended to Celebrate the Hajjpy 
Occassion with a Feu de joye. The Troops would parade for 
that purpose and that he should speak to them. 
12 O'clock A. M. 

The Troops prepared on the Common near the Fort and two 

Field pieces were drawn out on the Occ asion, the Genl. and the 

9-Congress had, on June 4, "Resolved That the Committee of Com- 
merce be directed to procure goods, and such other articles as are proper 
for presents to the western Indian nations, to the amount of ten thousand 
dollars, and transmit the same to Fort Pitt, to the commissioners, who 
are to treat with the Indians there on the 23 day of July next." (See 
preceding article of this series.) 



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VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. 17? 

Commissioners, and the Indian Chieft^ on the Green near the 
Fort, when Capt. White Eyes addressed the General. 

Brothers : 

I acquainted you some time ago, that the Bad people at De- 
troit had sent me a Tomhawk desiring me to Strike you with it. 
As soon as I received it I immediately Acquainted you of it and 
have Wrapped it up, so that none of my Young Men or my 
Counsellors have seen it. I now have Brought it here and you 
may make what use you please of it. 

He then threw dowai on the Groimd the two Belts, the one a 
plain one, the other painted Red with a Tomhawk Decyphered 
on it(lO). Genl. Macintosh then took up the Belts and in- 
fomied the Chiefs that he should use them against their Com- 
mon enemy. The Genl. then Addressed the Chiefs as follows; 

Brothers : 

I dont love many words, or long and formal talks. We have 
been too often Cheated by them. The time is now come that 
Actions alone must declare who are our Friends and who are 
our Enemies. I have told you already our Fathers the Wise 
Men of the United States in the great Council Assembled in 
Congress, have sent me here to protect those whom I tind, and 
will Shew themselves our true and real Friends; and punish 
those that are our Enemies. And I will not be put off, or de- 
ceived by their Offers, or pretences when they see just Ven- 
geance ready to overwhelm them for their wickedness, unless 
they give Substantial Satisfaction and proofs uf their Repent- 
ance. We have great patience with those Red Men who were 
bought like Slaves with a few paultry Goods by the English to 
strike us. Still wishing them to become wiser; and earnestly 
desiring that as we grew from the same Ground, so we might 
be one people, without Regarding Colour. You are a small 
people. Not a handfull, We wanted to take care of you; and 
Nurse you, as Women nurse their Children; until you become a 
great people as we are. You know we are in Nmnber like the 

10-It is quite probable the painted belt was sent by the British, to- 
gether with a tomahawk. The white belt was added by the Delaware 
Chiefs to show they did not accept the former; that they were the friends 
of the Americans and repudiated the mission from tlieir enemies. The 
reference to the tomahawk having been wrapped up, is purely tiguralivc 



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178 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

stones upon the Ground. And grow every Day more and more. 
You have heard we have beat the Enghsh every where, and al- 
most killed and drove them all off of our land which they wanted 
to take from us. That the French and Spaniards have now 
joined us, and beat them on the great Water also, so that they 
are in Danger of losing their own little Island. Therefore every 
wise man among you will see as Clear as the sun Shines; that 
! . the English cannot keep Detroit, Niagara, and other little 

i places they hold upon the Great Lakes long, nor supply you 

i long with Goods. What then will become of these foolish 

I people who have made us their Enemies without Cause? 

j Brothers and fellow Warriors of Cochocking(Il). 

We are at last Angery. You know we have great Reason 
to be so. I am going soon to your Country with my Waniors. 
I find your few Towns alone among all the Red people have been 
wise. Now is the Time to Shew it, by talcing up this Hatchet 
like men determined to be free with us, against all our Enemies 
and your Enemies. And this Belt to Confirm it, expecting 
when I go over this River your Warriors will join me, that we 
may grow great together, and be as one people (as you have de- 
clared this Day) Whilst the Sun and Moon Shines or the Waters 
Run. And I cannot answer for the Conduct of my Warriors 
towards any who Refuse it. 

[End of the Document.] 
Attached to the preceding docuinent is a copy of the treaty, 
which, as stated, was signed in triplicate, one copy being sent 
to Congress, the second remaining with General Mcintosh, and 
the third being taken by the Delaware cliiefs. It is quite 
evident the copy in question has always been attached to the 
document, this is shown by many stains which penetrate all the 
pages. These were probably the papers sent to Congress, and 
mentioned in the Journal of Congress, October 6, 1778, as fol- 
lows : 

"A letter, of 24 September, from Andrew Lewis and 
Thomas Lewis, Esqrs, commissioners at Fort Pitt, was 
read, together with their proceedings at a treaty held with 

11-Coshocton, on the site of the present Coshocton, Coshocton county, 
Ohio, was the most important settlement of tlie Turtle tribe of the Dela- 
wares. It was destroyed by the whites in 1781. 



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VIRGINIA FRONTIER IN HISTORY. 179 

chiefs of the Delaware nation, and an agreement or con- 
federation entered into between them and the said chiefs." 
The signatures of the two commissioners, and of the witnesses, 
likewise the marks of the three Delaware chiefs, as they appear 
on the copy of the treaty now in the Library of Congress, are 
shown in the accompanying plate (12). Another copy of the 
treaty, probably the one retained by General Mcintosh, is now 
preserved in the State Department, Washington. The copy in 
the Library of Congress is written on both sides of several 
sheets of paper, but the State Department copy is on one side of 
large sheets which were joined together so as to present a single 
surface for the writing. Attached to this copy are the signa- 
tures of Joseph L. Finley and John Finley, both captains in the 
Eighth Pemisylvania regiment who signed as witnesses. Their 
names do not appear on the Library of Congress copy. The 
text of the treaty has been given in several official publications, 
and will not be quoted here. 

12-The majority of the names have been included in note 1 of this 
article, the others may be referred to here: 

William Crawford was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the Fifth Vir- 
ginia regiment February 13, 1776. Colonel of the Seventh Virginia 
regiment, August 14, 1776. Resigned March 22, 1777. Later he served 
on the western frontier and commanded an expedition against the In- 
dians. He was captured, and burned at the stake, in the present Wyan- 
dotte county, Ohio, June 11, 1782. (see note 7 above.) 

John Campbell, probably the second lieutenant in the Pennsylvania 
Militia, who was killed in action with the Indians west of the Ohio, June 
4, 1782. 

John Stephenson, an influential citizen of western Pennsylvania. 

Alexander Graham, appointed ensign in the Fifth Pennsylvania Bat- 
talion, August 9, 1776. Second lieutenant in Eighth Pennsylvania regi- 
ment, July 13, 1777. 

Benjamin Mills, First lieutenant Eighth North Carolina regiment, 
November 28, 1776, Resigned July 12, 1777. Recorded in the Journal 
of Congress, June 27, 1778, is the recommendation of the Board of War, 
to Congress, that Benjamin Mills, Lieutenant of the first troop, be 
granted a commission "in the Corps of North Carolina Light Dragoons," 
to date from July 16, 1777. The following reference to North Carolina 
troops at Fort Pitt, appearing in the Journal of Congress, December 5, 
1778, is of interest in this connection: "The Board of War being applied 
to by Captain Medici of the North Carolina dragoons, for direction for 
his future government, beg leave to state the case of the said troops: 

"That from an impracticability to provide for them, they have be-n 
hitherto unemployed in the held, except about forty, who were lately 
compleatly fitted out and sent to Brigadier MTnlosh under Captain 
Ashe, in expectation that the men whose terms of service were near ex- 
piring, would agree to stay two months beyond their time; but on or ^oon 
after their arrival at Fort Pitt, their times being expired, all but 14 
(|uitted the service and went home." 



180 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



TITHABLES OF PITTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1767. 

(Contributed by Mrs. N. E. Clement, Chatham, Va.) 
. I , . (Continued from p. 304.) 

Tithes Land 

Capt. John Wards (17) Tithes 17 
John Cleveland, Thos. Hardy, Peter Lee, 

Harry, Jack, Abram, Bess, Tom, Ben, 

Nant, Jack, Dick, Matt, Tom, John, 

Thomas & Nant 17 

John Nichols l IQO 

Samuel Smith, Jack, Tom, Will, Hannah, & 

Bess, 6 150 

Edward Policy, Jr., l 

John Adams, John Adams, Jr., 2 894 

Allan Adams...... l 200 

Charles Beasley, l 

William Pigg, 1 200 

(17.) John Ward came to Pittsylvania from Albemarle about 1763. 
(Book of Surveys, Pittsylvania Records). He built his home on the 
north side of Staunton River, now Campbell, which he called the "Man- 
sion," for its elegance in those pioneer days. It is standing to-day, a 
quaint old homestead, with its corner fire places and cabinets either side 
the mantel. There are three stories and the third story was the ball 
room, covering the entire house, and here the daughters of the house 
,vere married. John Ward married 1st Anne Chiles, daughter of Henry 
Chiles of Amelia (Va. Mag. Hist. Vol. 20), by this marriage there was 
issue: 

1. William Ward, married Mildred Adams, daughter of Robert Adams 
and Penelope Lynch. 

2. Agatha Ward, married Col. Jolin Calloway. 

3. Anne Ward, married Christopher Lynch, son of Major Chas. Lynch 
and Sarah Clark Lyncla. 

4. Thomas Ward married Mildred Walden. 

5. Jeremiah Ward moved to Texas. 

6. John Ward, settled "Sulphur Springs" home. 

7. Henry Ward, born Ap. 5, 1751, died Ap. 12, 1823 (taken from tomb 
at the "Mansion.") Married Martha Barbour. 

John Ward married secondly Mrs Sarah Clark Lynch, widow of Major 
Charles Lynch, Dec. 17, 17GG (Bedford County Records). 

During the Revolutionary War, John Ward was appointed Major of 
the Bedforil Militia. His will is recorded in Campbell County, 1S17. 



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TITHABLES OF PITTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1767 181 

A List of Tithables Taken by John Hanley (18), Gent for year 
1767. 

Tithes Land 

William Hinton, 2 

John Panill,...- - 1 

John Condaman, . 1 

Wm. Huntsman,...- _ -. 1 

James Lyon, _ 4 200 

John Bollin,.. _ - 1 

Wm. Bollin, 1 

Wm. Stevens, 3 

James Anderson, 1 

Daniel Wells, 2 

Joshua Bewclett, - 2 

Jac. McPais (?)..._ 1 

Abraham Brend, _ 1 

William Brend, _ 1 

Beni Sanders, 1 

John Hall,.... 1 

Nathan Bewclett, 3 

Daniel Con,. 1 

John McGown, 4 

Bedford Jinkins, _ 1 

Eliphes Shalton, _ 2 

George Cowton, 4 

Shelton _.._ 2 

George Carrail, (?) 1 

John Williams, — - 1 

Ralph Shelton, Sen., 4 200 

John Hanby,... 4 

A List of Tythables Taken July 17, 1767 by Peter Copland (19) 
Gent 

John Kendricks,— _ 1 

James Roberts, _ 1 

(18.) John Hanbey was one of the first Justices of the Peace for 

Pittsylvania County, and lived in that portion which later was known 
as Patrick County. In 1775, was appointed Captain of the Militia. 

(19.) Peter Copland, one of the tirst Justices of Peace for Pittsyl- 
vania, and lived in that portion C)f the county which later became Henry. 



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VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Tithes. Land 



Dauzwell Rogers, _ 

Thorn. Nunn, 

Rich White,. 

John Rowland, John Palfery, Jack & Pegg,. 

Capt. WilHam Blevins, Dawl & Peter,.. 

Daniel Newman Jun, 

Dennis Bryan, 

Thomas Wright, __ 

John Rice,. 

Neel Roberts, _ 

James Wallen, 

Charles Scaggs 

Edw'i Callaham,.. 

Do. Baker, 

Harry Dillen, _ 

Wm. Young...... 

Wm. Baily Jun, _ 

Rich. Baker, 

Little William Blevins, 

Frederick D. 0. Daniel...... 

William Bailey, Sen^ 

Wm. Ashart, 

David Shadwell & Bob, 

John Handy,.... 

Jacob Cooger & son Henry, 

James Filley, 

Wm. Reed, 

David Hailey, 

Robt McVatta..... 

Wm. McVatta 

John Barker 

Jeremiah Claimck, Jun 

John Newman... 

Kave Bailey.. 

Thomas Cooper, Sen... 

Wm. Reeding 

Thomas Shanam & David Cazey 



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TITHABLES OF PITTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1767 183 

Tithes Land 

Jessey Bound & Pompey 2 

Enguim Nunn 1 

Joseph Nunn & Nan 2 

Thomas Gazaway _ 1 

Joseph Wallen _ 1 

EHsha Wallen Sen"- 1 

Thomas Cooper, Jr., Terence Daniel, negroes 

George & Winney... 4 300 

William Bass 1 

Elisha Harbour... 1 150 

Elijah Harbour & negro Hannah 2 310 

Fosyth Bradberry 1 

James Merrydeth 1 '■■ 

Barclay Merrydeth.... 1 

William Merrydeth, Constable... 1 

Thomas Webb 1 

John Wells...... 1 

William Thomas, John Davis, Benj Davis & 

Charles Mitchell 4 ■■ '■ 

Waters Dunn, Waters Dunn, Jr., Rich*^ Dunn, 

Rich*^ Bradberry, negroes Tom, MoU & Lilly 7 
Peter Copland, Rich*^ Copland, Dan'l Mc- ' 

Bride & negro Hannah 4 

Ambrose Jones, negroes Dinah & Judy 3 

Thomas Cooper, jr 1 

Philip Ryan 1 ' . 

John Talbot 1 765 

James Calk 1 

John Cox, Sr., John Cox, Jr., Neg^ Lucy.. 3 

Nemian Prater, Nemiah Prater 2 . 

Charles Semple 1 

Matthew Small ._ 1 



99 
The above List of Tithables taken by me. 

.^ -- Peter Copeland. 





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184 ' ^ ^' VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Tithes Land 

A List of Tithables & Land taken by Gordon, 

Pittyslvania County, 1767. , 
John Wimbsih, James IVIitchell, negro Cyrus, 

Orange, Sail, Pegg, in all _ 6 G27 

John Martin, Joseph Cox._„ 2 

William Candler, Arestripes Baghan, negro 

Chester -..- 3 

William Stanley, John Stanley, Wm. Stanley, 

Jr- - - --- 3 

William Pain - 1 

Thomas Stone 1 

John Stone, jun"" 1 

James Stone. 1 100 

Thomas Justice 1 

Israel Justice. 1 300 

Simeon Justice - 1 

Samuel Gordon Tom 

Archibald Gordon (20), negros Dick, Kildare, 

Lucy, Sarah 5 (torn) 

John Hickey (21) _ (torn) 

A List of Tithables taken by Hamon Critz (22), Gent., for 
the year 1767. 
Thomas Walling _ 1 12^ 

(20.) Archibald Gordon, one of the first Justices of the Peace. Was 
appointed Lieutenant of the Militia in 17G7. In 1774 was made Col. of 
of the County. Elected Sheriff in 1771. "He was Scotch by birth, 
and lived and died without marrying" (Va. Mag. Hist. Vol. 7). 

(21.) John Hicky, very probably the Mr. Hikki mentioned in the 
Moravian Diary, 1753. (Va. Mag. Hist. Vol. XIII). When passing 
through what isnow Henry County, they say, "Mr. Hikki who lives half a 
mile from here and keeps a store (which is nearest house at which we can 
buy salt), came to us and showed himself very friendly. We had a 
miserable road to his house. Here we bought some provisions." In 
the earliest records of the county we find mention of "Hicky 's old 
road. ' ' It traverses the county from Staunton River on the north straight 
to the Court house, and then turns due west into Henry County, and this 
same road is to-day called Hicky's road. 

(22.) Hamon Critz, one of the first Justices of the County. He lived 
in that part of the county later known as Patrick. At a meeting of^the 
Vestry of Camden Parish at Pittsylvania Courthouse, July 22, 1709, 
"a chappel of ease" was ordered to be built near Captain Hainan Crites 
of a size 20 by 24 feet, Round loggs for the body, a claplxjard Roof and 
Benches, & etc." 



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TITHABLES OF PITTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1767 185 

Tithes Land 

William Hays._ 2 

Cillis Ratlift 1 

Arch'l Hughes 1 

Geo. Allan 

Henry France 

David Gowing._ 3 272 

Nicholas Langford. 2 

James Fee 1 

Geo. Poor. 2 

Rob* Crump, Jun'' 

Rob* Crump, Sen"' 

Frederick Fulkerson 

Alex'' Deputy 

Adam Loving (23) 2 

William Loving 1 

Joseph Cameron.... 1 400 

John Pluk 3 

Zacheriah Cook 1 

Thos. Harbour 4 790 

David Witt 1 

Paletiah Shelton... 1 144 

Geo. Gibson 1 

John Wildrich Bender..... 402 

John Parr 2 400 

William Denson 1 

William Tirpin _ 1 

Geo. Gray _ 1 

William Harrald __ 1 

John Jinings.. 1 

Peter Rentfro 2 

John Koger 1 

John France 3 

John Camron 1 

(23.) Adam Loving is mentioned in the Moravian Diaries, 1753. 
They were passing through what is now Henry County and write" we drove 
four miles further and ate dinner at Adam Loving's plantation. They 

were very friendly to us. The man showed us the ford aeross the first 
brancli of Mayo River." (Va. Mag. Hist. Vol. 13.) 



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186 ,, VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Tithes Land 

David Lyler 1 

Miles Jinings 2 185 

Lambath Dodson 1 

Phillip Buzzard 1 ;. . 

Thorn. MuiTy_ 1 ., • 

Solomon Smith..... 1 

John Spain.. 1 

John Gooch 1 

James Pritchard 2 

Haman Critz 2 200 

A List of Tithables taken for Pittsylvania in 1767 by John 
Dix (24). 

John Armstrong Annica. 2 210 

Thomas Ayers 1 

Daniel Ayers... 1 

Moses Ayers..... 1 

John Bynum 1 200 

Arthur Bynum.. 1 

Lawrence Barker 1 

William Barker.. 1 

Edward Burges. 1 

John Bynam Jr 1 

Moses Cornelius _ 1 

Thomas Colley _ 1 

William Cornelius 1 

William Colley 1 

John Chipman, Constable 1 

James Collie 1 

Thomas Dudley 1 

Henry Dixon, Jas. Durough, Jas. Borough 3 

John Dix, Ephraim Dismunkes, James Evalto, 

Will, Joe, Minkes, Ben, Lett, Old Janney & 

Janney and 1 chair, deduct 2 tithes being 

ferrymen 10 307 

(24.) John Dix, established a ferry across Dan River in 17G0, wliich 
was used constantly in Southern Campaign of Revolution (see Pitts 
Records). Was one of the first Justices of tlie County. Appointed 
Captain of the Militia in 1775. 



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TITHABLES OF PITTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1767 187 

Tithes Land 

William Durrett, Peter 2 

Edward Floyde -— 180 

Lewis Green, William Green.... 2 100 

John Hamilton - 100 

Samuel Harris (25), Bob. Honeyball, York, 

Pompey, Janney, Sally, Lucy 8 757 

James Hogan, William Hogan 2 100 

John Hensley - 1 

Thomas Pistole - 1 

Samuel Pruett - - --- 1 590 

Hugh Mahone -- - - - 1 165 

John McClane' - - 1 

Thomas Merriwether, William Meriwether, 

Jason Bowcock, Paul, Frank, Southsea 

Betty, Nann, Hannah, Nann, Nedd, Sue, 

Judy, Creshea, Joe, Paul, Jacob, Gate, 

Peter & Judy... - 20 545 

William McDaniel, Tom, Dick, Daniel, 

Lovoney, Milley, Liddy & Janney 9 960 

Daniel Ober 1 

William Owen -- - 1 100 

John Roberts, Jas. Roberts & Jas. Roberts, Jr.... 3 383 

Gabriel Richards - 1 200 

David Ross... - - 640 

Geo. Southerland - 2 175 

John Southerland - - 1 

Jacob Stillwell -- 1 

Philip Southerland 1 , 

(25.) Samuel Harris was a pioneer Baptist Minister of Virginia. 
He was also an early settler of this county, having many surveys made 
Ap. 2, 1748. An old book entitled "Pioneer Baptist Preachers of Vir- 
ginia" says of him that "he was born 1724. in Hanover County. When 
young he moved to the County of Pittsylvania. As he advanced ui age 
he became a favorite of the people. He was appointed church warden, 
sheriff, a justice of the peace, burgess for the county, Colonel of the 
Militia, Captain of Mayo Fort, and Commissary for the Fort and Army. 
On one of his visits to the fort in his official character he called at the 
home of William and Joseph Murphy, dressed in his uniform ♦ * * * 
Was converted and was baptized in 1758 by the Reverend Daniel Marshall 
During the war when it was extremely difficult to procure salt, kept 
two wagons running to Petersburg to bring up salt for his neighbors." 



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188 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Tithes Land 

John Stamps '^ 

Timothy Stamps 1 

James Terry 3065 

William Travis..._ _ 1 

William Thomas, Arthur & Janny 3 1005 

William Tredvvell 1 

William Wynne, Prince, Peter, Nedd, Cale & 

Judy - 6 400 

Thomas Wyrme & Lucy 2 165 

Robert Wright _ - 1 

William Wynne, jr., Saunders Southerland & 

Prince - 3 500 

John Worsham & Sirus. - 2 

Joshua Worsham, Will, Frank, Abram, Lucy, 

Judy & Pegg - 7 300 

Robert Wynne 1 

Thomas Wynne, jr - 1 400 

John Wheler -- 1 

Signed John Dix. 

List of Tithables taken by Peter Perkins (26) for the year 1767. 

White Blacks Acres Wheels 

George Chadwell Land....._ 125 ac 

Dutton Lain tith. Land 1 83 ac 

David Terrill Land..._ 275 

Edward Sweeton (?) tithe 1 

John Morton tithe, land .- 1 450 

James Burn ett tithe - 1 

(26.) Peter Perkins was the son of Constant Perkins and owned a 
large plantation "Oak Hill," in southern part of the county, on Dan 
River. He took an active part in the life of the county, being one of the 
first Justices of the Peace. Was a Vestryman, member of the County 
Committee of Safety. & in 1775, appointed Captain of the Militia. Com- 
manded a Pittsylvania Company of Minute Men in Cherokee Expedition 
of 177(3. By the close of the Revolution, had been jjromoted to Colonel 
and commanded a regiment m battle of Guilford (Pittsylvania Pension 
Papers). In the spring of 1781, a Continental Hospital was established 
at his home for three months, as the Book of Claims, for Pitlsylvania 
shows. 





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TITHABLES OF PITTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1667 



189 



While Black Acres Wheels 



Davie Fields tithe 

George Russell Land 

George Young, 1 negro woman, 1 Land . . 

Christopher Bowlin, son William 

Joseph Bowlin, 1 tithe. 

James Bowlin, 1 tithe 

Ephram McGoff 

George Thompson 

Richard Churchwell, tithe.-- 

John Rich tithe 

Conoway, 1 tithe. 

Archibald Thompson 

Rodden Thompson 

Randolph Gipson, tithe, negro Bomber. 

Land 

Thomas Calaway, sons Charles and 

Richard's land 

John Court & soninlaw Jas. Coursey 

Peterson 

John Frederick Richel, 1 tithe Land 

William Rice Sadler 

Patrick Stiel, 1 tithe 

Thomas Smith, son Thomas, Land 

Edward Smith, negro Will, Land.. 

John Fulton, 1 tithe Land 

John Smith, negro Dinah Land _ 

Henry Lansford, negro Judy, Land— 

Ralph Elkins Jun - 

Richard Elkins, 1 tithe 

Nathaniel Elkins, son Jessey 

John Rukey, son Jarhes. 

Thom. Gresham 

Christopher Bowling Jun 

Jolin Gresham son of Phil Gresham. 

Edward Perogog, tithe 

James Elkin on leather wood 

Samuel Shields, Land 



1 

180 
1 1 520 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 1 100 
3 100 

2 - . 
190 



400 
1 150 

300 
1 355 
1 377 



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VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



White Black Acres Wheels 



John Gresham son of Thorn Gresham 

Jesse Elkins, 1 tithe 

John Cox 

John Givins 

William Shields... 

George Button..... 

Henry Burnett 

Thorn. Cunningham Jun 

James Shields, 1 tithe, Land 

James Strong 

B en j amine Croley, negro Peter, Land 

Thomas Strong _ 

Charles Cloke, tithe.—. 

Benjamine Croly, 1 tithe land 

John Strong, Joseph Martin..... 

Jeremiah Walker, negro 

Joseph Cunningham 1 tithe land 

Joseph Morton, 1 tithe, negro Dinah 

Land 

Abraham Passley 1 tithe 

Martain Dunkin 

John Scags 

James Edwards 1 tithe land 

Thom. Bullock 

Richard Bullock 

John Lankford 1 tithe Land..... 

Joseph Cotton 

James Presnall son James, negro Jane 

George Hide 1 tithe 

Owen Wait 

Joel Certain 1 tithe 

Shadrack Turner sons John & Josiah...„ 

Thomas Watson, 1 tithe land 

John Watson Jun, Land 

James Gravely Jun'r 

John Watson, sen tithe & Land 

John Warring 



210 

1 48 

210 
100 
1 
370 

1 400 

90 
360 



256 
100 
220 

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191 



Whites Blacks Acres Wheels 



Thorn. Gravely 

James Gamer 1 tithe 

Thomas Garner 1 tithe 

Thomas Horgeth tithes 

John Morton tithes Negroes dogery & 

seftis.- 

Arthur Fuller 

Daniel Hankins negroes frank, Nan & 

patt and Land.. 

Nicholas Perkins 1 tithe negro moll _... 

Joseph Harris 

David Harris 

John Harris Constable 

Benjamine Neal Constable 

John Roach i tithe 

John Oaks 

John Rice 

Henry Dunlop 

John Gwin.... 

John Sams 

William Bean & son Wm. Land.. 

John Harcliman son Thomas Land 

Constant Perkins negro Jacob 

John Chadvvell negro Farmer & Tiller, 

Land 

Zacheriah McCubbins 

John Been Jun. 

John Jones, 1 tithe Land 

John Join Land 

Wm. Edwards son Thom. Land 

Robt Pcrriman 

Thomas Billings 

WilUam Murphy 

Thom. Edwards, negro Andrew Land 

William McCubbin 

Henry Rice Land 

Nathan Carter 



3 1780 
1 



1083 
100 
1 

2 748 



200 
525 
293 



1 91 
200 



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VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



A List of Land & Tithes taken by Hugh Innes (27) for 
Pittsylvania County Anno. Dom. 1767. 



Tithes 
1 



Land 



400 



400 
200 

536 
130 



Samuel Collins.— 

Rowland Judd & Nathaniel Judd 

James Keith 

Charles Atkinman 

Morris Atkinson _ 

Abner Cochrvmi _. 

John Law John Law jr. negroes Jeany & Keat 

Henry Atkinson jr ._ 

Thomas Hall 

William Hall & Lansford Hall 

Jesse Hall... 

William Hall jr _ 

William Hill 

Isom Hall.. 

Thomas Dunkin Jr 

Thomas Jones 

Thomas Anderson & James Anderson 

William Griffith 

Joseph Clements, Gabriel Clements & Var- 

diman Clements 

Francis Easom & Wm Hungett, John Hungett 

& Chas. Hungett. 

Christopher Shot & Christopher Shot Jr 

Benjamine Barten 

John Ferguson & negro Dinah 

John Savory Jr 

William Bramby _. 

Samuel Walker & negro Judd 

William Davis 

Joseph Bird 

Reuben Kiefi 

Ro bert Hill, vSwiniie ld Hill & Thomas Hill 

(27.) Hugh Innes was a Justice of Peace, Vestryman & member of 
County Committee of Safety. He, with John Donelson, represented 
Pittsylvania in Convention of August 1774. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. ' 193 

''■*■■' '"'• • '• ■■ ''■ ■ ' t",:i. ,':.,.■ ; 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(V. v 



Captain Cuthbekt Harrison. ■ 

Cuthbert Harrison, who was Captain of Virginia Light Dragoons 
the Revolution, is shown by the Virginia Revolutionary records not to be 
of the family in which the name appears so often; but to be a Brunswick 
Co. man. He was probably a descendant of William Harrison, an early 
sheriff of Prince George Co. 

The land bounty warrant is as follows: - '<,<'. ■ },:,:[ 

"No. GG60, 2000 acres; GG(J1, 2000 acres, . , . 

In Council Nov. 20, 1824. 

It is advised that Cuthbert Harrison be allowed Land bounty as a 
Captain of Dragoons in the Continental Line for service during the War. 

James Pleasants. 

Two warrants for 2000 acres each, 6000 and 6661, issued on the 3d of 
December 1824 to Cuthbert Harrison and delivered to S. H. Sanders, 
attorney of Gabriel Harrison." 

"Warrant 9SS3 additional land to the heirs of Cuthbert Harrison for 
1 year, 6 months and 12 days, as Captain Continental Line." 

"Exchange warrant 668, to Joel Hale, administrator de bonis non 
with will anne.xed of Cuthbert Harrison, deceased. Captain of Dragoons, 
Continental Line." 

"Power of attorney from Gabriel Harrison, son and executor of the 
estate of Cuthbert Harrison, deceased, of Brunswick Co., to S. H. 
Sanders." 



Certain Advantages of Book Lkarning. . ^ 

Why have there been three Randolphs governors of Virginia, and a 
fourth acting governor for about a week? The explanation must be in 
part that the Randolphs were well instructed in their youth, and it is of 
interest to make certain who any of the teachers of the three governors 
Randolph were, or for that matter who any of the teachers in their 
fathers' families were. 

The Dictionary of National Biography sub Sir John Leslie [1766-1832], 
the celebrated physicist and mathematician, has the statement that 
"the year 1789, Leslie spent in America as tutor to tAvo young Americans 



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^^^ VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

named Randolph. - In the eircumstances this is not at all precise But 
who the two young Americans were is pretty clear by referenc to H '" 
nas Men^o^rsofDr. Chalmers (New York. 1850) VoL I, p 4 5 ^^ 
tters are here quoted from the young Leslie to the yo^g Chalm rs 

urri7^; T;,'"''r °:.'^^^°--J- ^^e one dated Edinburgh Fet 
ruary 1788, and the other Richmond, Virginia, January 1789 Lesli^^ 
and Chalmers had been fellow students at St. Andrew's. In his fi 

et ter Leshe says he is to sail for America in March, and is enthusias c 

lA )" "T- '°""''''- "' ^""^^^^^ ^y^'"' '^ - -tizen of the worll- 
ubt hbertas, ^b^ palnar The second letter runs-"My dear Tames Mv 

At m> fir t arrival I was extremely struck with the peculiarities -^nd 
had I written you at that time my letter would have been full of marks 
The novelty is now over, and I am inclined to make cool reflectio^l I 
must con ess that Virginia has fallen below my expectations re kon 
Mr. Randolph s the best family, and Tuckahoe the best land AK re 
pub lean notions are now completely sobered. If any person be d " 
contented at home, let him be acquainted with other countries I am 
afraid my schemes in America will not succeed " I eslio „• i , 
Edinburgh by February 5, 1790. ""' ^""'^ ^" 

Hence it is very reasonable to affirm that Sir John Leslie was tutor for 
parts of two years in the family of the Randolphs of "Tuckahoe And 
n IS hkely that offer of the post was made by Thomas Mann Randolph 
(later governor) when he was a student at Edinburgh in 17SS ^'''^°^^^' 

rr-i TI7-,,- T^ ^, ^- J- Morrison. 

Ri^dolph ™ fsOO r""'.r' '"^'^ '"^ ^'^ ^^""'^ °f David Meade 
dolph tutors. J ' "' """''''' '"'"^"^ "^^" ^° the list of Ran- 

AKDREVVs-On page 182 of the current volume of your Magazine in the 
April number, there is a note in reference to Robert Andrews a one time 
Professor in William & Mary College, in which it is statert'hatr mTr! 

riea , and had issue, etc. 

His wife's name was Elizabeth Ballard. The marriat/e i. rp^-n.^.^ 
in Norfolk County, date January 3, 1775. ^ ^'"^'^ 

B. L. Ancell. 
• . Vangchow, China. 



Notes on Roblnson Family, Eastern Shore. 

The will of Elizabeth Robinson, of Shadwell in the parish of Steben 

heath as Stepney, Middlesex, England, was dated Dec. 3 1067 and 

proved June 29, 10G8 (recorded Accomac Co., Vol. 8. p. 66). She makes 

bequests to her sons William. John and Benjamin Robinson, dL hte 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 195 

Ann Robinson, to grandson John Custis a red stone ring. Her daughter 
Anna, executrix, and John and Alicia Custis proved the will (T. T. 
Upshur stated that Major-General John Custis married, Alicia, daughter 
of the testatrix. He did not marry Alicia until about 1657 and his eldest 
son John was born in 1653, so there was a former wife). 

It appears from the Accomac records (Vol. 15, Order Book 1710-16, p. 
239) that Col. Tully Robinson heir-at-law of Benjamin Robinson, de- 
ceased, whose widow was Elizabeth Robinson objected to the probate 
of Benjamin Robinson's will because there were not three witnesses, and 
in the will the decedant had willed him only a part of the land, while he 
claimed to be entitled to all. The court decided that the part of the 
will bequeathing the land was null and void; but ordered the will to be 
probated March 20, 1715-16. 

Col. Tully Robinson (born Oct. 31, 1658, died Nov. 30, 1723— tomb at 
Onancock) made his will Nov. 21, 1723. It was proved August 8, 1724, 
and includes bequests to his children Ann Robinson, Mary Robinson, 
\Vm. Robinson, West Smith, Scarburgh Wise, Sarah Smith, Susan Mc- 
Lanahan, Elizabeth wife of John Smith, grandson Wm. Robinson Smith, 
youngest daughter Anna Robinson to be under her mother's care. I tern ; 
"I give my daughter Scarburgh Wise six of my best silver spoons and the 
oval table in the hall." Wife Sarah executrix. She qualified (Vol. 
1715-29, pp. 7,8. (Sarah Robinson was the daughter of Lt. Col. John and 
Matilda (Scarburgh) West). 

Col. Tully Robinson was son of William Robinson. 



Claiborne. 



Letitia White Clark, daughter of Howson Clark of Pittsylvania County 
was born Nov. 11, 1800, and married Dec. 5, 1818, Col. Leonard Clai- 
borne of Danville, Va. and had i.ssue: 1. William, married Miss Haden. 
He was a colonel in the Confederate army (Issue: Letitia, Richard, 
William, Ella and John); 2. James, died of yellow fever in Galveston; 3. 
David Augustine, married Elvira, daughter of Col.Wm. Clark, of Halifax 
Co. (and had issue); 4. Mary Jane, married Sterling Edmunds, of Halifax 
Co. (Issue: Lilly, Ethel, and Sterling); 5. John Ferdinand, of Danville, 
Va., married Jane Augustine, daughter of Samuel Stone, and died Nov. 
25, 1856, no issue; 6. Letitia, married John Smith; 7. Bettie, married Dr. 
John Drury; 8. Thomas, Colonel C. S. A.; badly wounded in the leg and 
died after amputation; 9. Grandy, served in C. S. A., married Miss Pal- 
mer of Richmond, Va.; 10. Langston, married Miss Hairston, of Henry 
Co., Va.; living in Winston, N. C; 11. Ellen, married Col. Carrington of 
Louisville, Ky.; 12. Letitia White Clark, died in Danville, Va., May 12, 
18GS. 



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196 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

., Wyatt. 

Edmond Wyatt buys land of Morgan Jones, Westmoreland Co., Sept. 
22, 1G73. This land Edmond Wyatt devises to his sons James and 
William Wyatt and their heirs by his last will and testament in writing. 
"James and William Wyatt of the Parish of Copely, in the county of 
Westmoreland, planters of the one part," sell to Thomas Browning, two 
hundred and six acres in the forest of Nominy, Feb. 23, 1707. Court 
Certilicate on deed states "and Eliz. Moon wife of John Moon, and moth- 
er of said Wyatts voluntarily relinquishes her right of dower" etc. 

James Wyatt's inventory returned to Court in Westmoreland in 1734 
by Kathrine his widow and adm'r. 

William Wyatt died 1727 or 8, in Westmoreland. His wife Martha 
was appointed adm'r. Wanted to know the connection between Edmond 
Wyatt of Westmoreland and his sons William and James, and other early 
Wyatts in Virginia. The records indicate that the descendants of the 
above later lived in Stafford and Prince William. Correspondence 
solicited by incjuirer who has much data about Wyatts. 
. - : .- ,,, Mrs. A. E. W., 

• . , • 81 Peachtree Circle, 

' ',. ' • ' '■ Atlanta, Ga. 



BoLLiNG Hall, Bradford, England. 

The people of England and of the United States are now interested in 
the alliance of two families of North of England Stock — (See an article 
in "the Yorkshire Observer Budget" published Oct. 30th, 1915, in Brad- 
ford) thcCity has lately received a Deed of Boiling Hall the time honr'd 
home of the Boilings & have employed the most skillful Architects to 
restore & prepare it for use as an Historical Museum, they have torn 
out partitions of brick-masonry-lath & plaster-removed paint of Oak 
Panell, exposed & restored fine carved oak beams, old fire places & 
their fixtures-the old ghost room, ancient furnishings, The old Norman 
Tower of the time Scott writes of in "Ivanhoe," Elizabethian additions 
& masonry up to the present time will undoubtedly be of great interest 
to English & American people — Virginians particularly. After the 
Boilings left for Virginia — & probably the Washingtons & others 
left about the same time for they in those days had peculiar troubles & 
cares, old feudal days passing away a new Era beginning as now — it was a 
beautiful country well timbered which was cut down and & did service in 
ships of war as Steel does today, after coal was found on the estate, then 
iron. Then John Sturges founded the Bowling Iron Co. & the toughest 
iron on earth was manufactured. Then James Watt perfected his con- 
densing steam engine & the Bowling Iron Company constructed them 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. ' 197 

before he got his patent papers properly made out, he charged them with 
piracy £2000., settled it. There has been no improoveinent to those en- 
gines since except governers & Corlis valves. Tlie oldest steam boilers 
in the world were there a few years ago. The Corlis Turbine is our 
modern engine. The first two railroads were started to run coal & iron 
from mines to foundry and coal to Bradford. Fixed engine and wire 
cable was the motive power. The first locomotive tyres were manufac- 
tured there and at Low Moor. Big guns for forts & navy in 1857. 
Those guns were on fortress at Quebec, at entrance to Mersey, Liverpool 
and at forts all over the globe, & the iron was in the sugar kettles of 
Jamaica & Cuba, &'c. The second Naysmith steam vertical hammer. 
& Joshua Pollard & John Burch & my father had a struggle with 
Henry Bessmer as to who had the best right to manufacture steel. Mj' 
father was an employe of the Bowling Iron Co. for 20 years & over. I 
was born on that estate in 183G. I still am interested in the history of 
the Boilings and would like to know more of their Virginia Estates and 
their experiences. There are two president Harrisons from that stock 
& two Mayor Harrisons of Chicago & the former mentioned Virginia 
lady destined to be the first lady of our land. I think it is our duty to 
try to bring about peace & good will all over the English speaking 
world & Historical Societies are going to take a hand in it. I hope I 
as one individual may be able to give & receive instruction. 

Yours Sincerely 
\Vm. L. Hill 
November IGth, 1915. Central City, Iowa. 



Edw.\rd Washington. , , • ^ 

Information is desired concerning the ancestry of Edward Washington 
of Fairfax County. His will is on record at Fairfax C. H., as is that of 
his son Edward. In the will of the second Edward he refers to his son 
John. Both wills are printed in Welles "History of the Washington 
Family." In the expense account his name is given as John A. Minnie 
Washington, daughter of the last named, married William Alder, Jan. 
25, 1865, and is still living. John Augustine Washington was fifteen years 
of age when his guardian was appointed. Welles states that the first Ed- 
ward was born in 1745. The Pohick Parish register shows that in 1737 
Edward Washington was collector of levies. Later, in 17G5, he was a 
vestryman of Pohick. Lund Washington, who wrote an account of his 
own Washington family, says that he saw Edward Washington Sr., then 
a very old man in 1788; but that they could trace no relationship. 

C. J. 



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198 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. I '>' I 

IiNDiAN Medal. 

In XXIII, 197, I inserted a query in the "Virginia magazine of history 
and biography" regarding a Virginia Indian medal now in possession of 
the Bangor Historical Society, and apparently unknown to Virginia 
historians and antiquarians. 

This brought a reply from Mr. E. E. Wright of New Orleans who 
called our attention to certain authorities where this medal is described: 
"American journal of numismatics" April, 18G8 (vol. II, pages 110-111) 
and same periodical April 1873 (vol. VII, pages 89-90), and "American 
colonial history illustrated by contemporary medals" by C. W. Betts, 
page 261-262. 

In each of these citations allusion is made to another Indian medal, 
evidently struck by New York in 1764; the reverse of each and the loop 
for attaching at top, being practically identical. This latter medal is 
also described on page 79 of vol. I of "Historical and statistical informa- 
tion respecting the history, condition and prospects of the Indian tribes," 
by H. R. Schoolcraft (illustration in Plate 20). 

No information is forthcoming in regard to the origin or history of the 
medal. It would seem that some peace or treaty by Virginia with the 
Indians was commemorated by it. Mr. Howland Wood of the American 
Numismatic Society of New York writes usthat it is one of a number of 
medals given to Indians in colonial times, regarding which ne.xt to noth- 
ing is known. 

Chas. A. Flagg 

Bangor Public Library 
, Bangor, Maine. 



Notes from the Records of Sussex County. 

Will of James Mason, dated Jan. 1784, proved March 1784. Legatees: 
•wife Rebecca, sons John and George, daughter Jane Mason, Beth Hays 
150 acres, William Adams 50 acres, Thomas Jones, sons John, Edmund 
and Robert, father and mother still alive, "aged parents" John and 
Elizabeth Mason, brothers William and John Mason. 

Will of Elizabeth Wager, dated Sept. 1784, proved Dec. 1784. Lega- 
tees: Rebecca Clack, Mary Mooring eldest daughter of Henry Smith, 
Elizabeth Judkins daughter of George Cryer, Mary Smith daughter of 
Samuel Magot, Nicholas Cryer, Rebecca daughter of William Waller, 
Sally daughter of John Barnes, Elizabeth daughter of Ann Ross, Ben- 
jamin Chapman, Samuel Cryer. 

Will of Nathaniel (X) Harrison (in a low state of health), dated Feb. 
17, 1782, proved May 26, 1785. Legatees: son Miles, wife Dolly, sons 
Hubbard and William Batt. Peterson and brother Richard Harrison, 
executors. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 199 

Will of Mary Wynne, dated Dec. 1780, proved Oct. 1787. Legatees: 
son Robert Powell, grandson, son of Edward Powell, deceased; grand- 
daughter Mary wife of James Lee, grandson Isaac son of Thomas Collier, 
granddaughter Tabitha Tuell Powell daughter of Edward Powell, 
daughter iMary wife of Robert Powell, son John Powell, &c. 

Will of Jacob (X) Lanier, dated Sept. 1788, proved Nov. 178S, Legatees: 
brothers Thomas and Benjamin Lanier. 

Will of William Batte, dated March 1789, proved April 1789. Legatees : 
■wife, sons William, James, Lewis, and Alexander Watson Batte, daughter 
Sarah Parham Batte, daughter Mary Batte, daughter Elizabeth Parham 
Batte, daughter Frances Beverley Batte. 

Will of Lewis Batte, dated June 1789, proved March 1790. Legatees: 
Brother James Batte, mother Sarah Batte, sister Sarah Batte, sisters 
Mary, Elizabeth Parham and Frances Beverley Batte, brother Alex- 
ander W. Batte. 

Will of Edward Goodrich, Sr., 1790, daughter Sarah Thornton, &c. 

Will of Robert Rives, Sr., proved May 24, 1792. 

Will of John Mason, dated April 1793, proved Aug. 1793. Legatees: 
brother Edmunds Mason, all his slaves, uncle William Harrison, brother- 
in-law Isaac [?] Maclin. 

Will of James Maclin, proved Dec. 1794. 



Notes from Goochland County Records. 

Deed Oct. 8, 1734, from John Carter of Goochland to Thomas Carter, 
of same, conveying 200 acres. 

Will of John Peter Bondurant, dated Spt.e 21, 1734, proved Jan. 21, 
1734 (5), son John, land where said John lives, sons Peter and Josej)h, 
daughter Ann Ford, wife Ann. ,, 

Deed March 18, 1734, to Thomas Ballew of Goochland. 

Inventory of Joseph Watkins, deceased, March 1, 1734. 

Deed from Arthur Hopkins of Goochland and Elizabeth his wife, May 
16, 1735, to Charles Lewis, of Goochland, gent. 

Deed, May 19, 1735, from John Cobb, of Goochland. Signed "John 
Cobbs." 

Deed from Thomas Carter to his son Edward, June 10, 1735. 

Deed, June 17, 1735, from James Ncvill, of Goochland, to Michael 
Thomas, conveying land patented by said Nevill in 1729. 

Deed March 14, 1734, from Josias Payne to George Payne. Witnesses: 
Robert Payne, George Payne, Jr., John Payne. 

Deed June 10, 1735, from Thomas Carter and Susannah his wife. 

Deed, 1735, from Henry Hudson of Henrico to his brother-in-law 
Thomas Russell of Henrico. 



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200 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Deed, July 14, 1735, from Capt. James Holman of Goochland. 

Inventory of estate of Judith Johns, dated July 15, 1735, 25 head of 
cattle, &c., valued at £21. 10. 8. 

Deed, Feb. 14, 1735, from John Woodson of Goochland to Stephen 
Bedford, late of Gloucester Co., conveying 350 acres on James River and 
Deep Creek. 

Deed from John (X) Price and Hannah his wife of Henrico, conveying 
800 acres in Goochland, April 5, 1736. 

Deed from Richard Parker of Goochland, Nov. IS, 1735. 

Deed (1735) from James Nevill of Goochland to James Daniel of 
Middlesex, conveying land on the south side of Fluvanna River in Gooch- 
land. 



Payne Portraits. 



In reference to my promise to furnish you, for publication, the descend- 
ants of Archer Payne, of "New Market," Goochland, and his wife 
Martha Dandridge [which will be printed later]. 

By the by, there are extant oil portraits of Archer Payne and his 
wife and all of their children. They were painted by an artist, who was 
said to have considerable talent as a painter, but it was hard to keep him 
sober enough to do his work. 

Archer Payne is depicted with one hand holding a sample of wheat 
and the other resting on the handle of a plow. 

His wife wears on her head what the ladies of the present day call a 
"Crazy Jane." She has a waiter of peaches. 

Their oldest son Archer (who died without issue & unmarried) has a 
gun & dog & sc^uirrcl, which he has just killed. 

Their oldest daughter Anne Spotswood (Mrs. Fleming) is dressed in 
the fashion of the day and with a hooped skirt. She has a little dog. 

Dorothea (Mrs. Edward Boiling) is quite beautiful in the picture. 
She has a red bird perched on her finger and tied with a black cord. 

Martha (Mrs. Strother) has a cat in her picture. 

Jane — Mrs. Boiling and second Mrs. Ferguson — has a basket of fruit. 

There is a large picture appearing — my grandfather dressed in the 
fashion of the day — a boy of some 10 or 12 who has been out with his 1 'ow 
and arrow and shot a woodpecker which he hands to his little brother 
(John Robert Dandridge Payne) who is dressed in his shirt only, while 
a negro nurse dressed in homemade clothes, cut very simple & with a 
necklace of blue beads around her neck, is watching the little boy as he 
reaches for the bird. 

Then there is another large jncture of two little girls with baskets of 
roses and two lambs with them. One of these little girls was Catharine, 
who married Archibald Boiling, and tlie other died young. 



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' NOTES AND QUERIES. /Kii 201 

Only three of these portraits are in my possession, but I think it would 
be easy to have them all photographed. 

As for the descendants of Philip Payne and Elizabeth Dandridge, I 
will try to get that done by one of their descendants who will fill out 
more completely, what I have already. 

Jno. M. Payne. 



; G.^RDEN OF Prince Edward County. 

In the year 1773 died the Reverend James Garden, minister of St. 
Patrick's parish in Prince Edward County. From Mr. Garden's will 
[Pr. Edward W. B. I., 156] it appears that he left a very good estate- 
four plantations (in Charlotte and Cumberland covmties) and twenty- 
five negroes. His wife was named Sarah, and by her he had five chil- 
dren: Alexander, James, John, Ann and Sarah. In his will Mr. Garden 
was careful to direct his executors "that they narrowly look into the 
education of my sons." He further specified— "as to my library my will 
is that none of my books be sold, but kept for a present to be given to that 
son of mine who inclines to be a minister of the Church of England, to be 
directed in his studies by the Reverend Mr. James Craig." Executors 
named in the will were the Rev. Mr. Craig and Mr. Robert Lawson, a 
few years later General Lawson of the Virginia line. Bishop Meade 
[Vol. I, p. 484] mentions Mr. Craig, who 'united the practice of medicine 
with the duties of the ministry; his glebe was larger and better than most 
of those in the state and he was a better manager. He had a mill of his 
own, which Tarleton, knowing Mr. Craig to be a true American, took in 
his route and destroyed.' Mr. Craig was minister of Cumberland par- 
ish, Lunenlmrg County, and perhaps served for a time at Cornwall parish, 
Charlotte County. 

So far as is known, none of Mr. Garden's sons became a minister. It 
was perhaps his son Alexander who was long a physician in Charlotte 
county. There was a bias towards medicine in the family, if the local 
tradition was according to the fact— that James Garden, minister of St. 
Patrick's, was a brother or near relation of the celebrated physician and 
botanist Alexander Garden of Charleston in South Carolina, who, born 
in Scotland, was a royalist during the Revolution, left the country for 
England, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. 

A descendant of the Rev. Mr. Garden married into the family of Wood- 
son of Prince Edward County, who were skilled in the management of 
land and in the care of fruit trees and vines. The Spring Hill Nurseries, 
under the direction first of Woodsons and then of Gardens, were pretty 
well known in this region before the Civil War, and even after the war. 

A. J. Morrison, 
, , Prince Edward County. 



lo 



202 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

European Tr.\vi;i,lers in Virginia 1769-1802. * 

From November 1908 to January 1909, the undersigned ran a series of 
twelve articles in the Sunday Ti>iies-Dispatch, under the caption "Travels 
in Virginia in Revolutionary Times." The books, some account of the 
Virginia chapters of which was given, were those by John F. D. Smyth 
[1769-1776]; Thomas Anburey [1778-1779]; the Marquis of Chastellux 
[1782]; Dr. Johann David Schoepf [1783]; Count Luigi Castiglioni [1786]; 
Dr. Thomas Coke, the great missionary [1785-1791]; Captain F. M. 
Bayard, late of the French army [1791]; Isaac Weld, a clever Irishman 
[1796]; the Duke of La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt [1796]; John Davis of 
Salisbury, a man of letters professionally [1801-1802]. 

It may be as well to file a note regarding a few other travellers in Vir- 
ginia of this period: — The Abbe Robin (translation by Philip Freneau, 
Philadeljjhia 1783) was with the French troops, and gives some particu- 
lars of the road from Klaryland to YorktowTi — Dr. Thomas Cooper's 
Sone Information Respecting America [Dublin 1794] contains at p. 95 fif, a 
list of j)rices current at Norfolk recorded by the Rev. Mr. Toulmin. 
[This list has been published in part, Magazine XVII, 95.] — Brissot de 
Warville (2nd ed. London 1794], was at Alexandria and Mount Vernon — 
Henry Wansey [Journal of an Excursion the Summer of 1794, Salisbury 
1796] was at the Federal City— Francis Bailey [London 1856] was at 
Norfolk in 1796, finding prices there already higher than those listed by 
Dr. Cooper. Bailey, a very young man (later an eminent astronomer) 
went from Norfolk to Baltimore by packet boat, and thence to the 
Mississippi country — Volney in his Tableau du Climat et dti Sol des 
Etats-Unis (Paris 1803), mentions that he was at Richmond, Vol. I, p. 7, 
and at Stalmton, Vol. II, p. 384. From the nature of his work Volney 
gives little of the anecdotal or parochial. His attempt to interpret 
West Virginia literally gives nomenclature, like Ouarm-Sprigne [Warm 
Spring], Agrine-Braiar, Chinando [a further variant of Shenandoah). 
Why Volney should call Washington, "Gen. Ouachinton," it is difficult 
to imagine. Perhaps it was because the administration, as he hints, was 
severe with him. 

Somebody who has the money to spend could amuse himself very much 
to the purpose by making a collection of all these extremely interesting 
books, and then have published a thick volume made up of the Virginia 
items set down by these observers from abroad. 
Hampden- Sidney, Va. A. J. Morrison. 



The King Family. 



Airs. Edward Feldhauscr (Goode King Feldhauser) of St. Paul, Minne- 
sota, is compiling a genealogy of the King family in general. Space will 
be given to the Clifton, Grymes, Nicholas and Wiles families. 



.EV?U 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. ■" 203 

Robert King (son of Francis King who came to Virginia headrights of 
Giles Brent 1653) married Elizabeth Brooke, daughter of Robert Brooke, 
of Maryland. Robert King owned land in Stafford county 1608. He had 
many sons, among whom were, Robert, William, George, Joseph, Ben- 
jamin and John. 

William King (Robert Francis) married Judith Peyton. Issue: four 
daughters. Sons: 1. Thomas; 2. William Alfred, who married Sophia 
Burgess and had: Valentine; George; William; John; Walter; Cyrus; 
Josiah; Elias; Daniel; Anne and Judith. 

William King (Alfred, William, Robert), married Elizabeth Edwards 
in Stafford co. 1738. Issue: John; Valentine, b. 1739, who died in Nelson 
CO. Ky leaving a will; 3. William, born Stafford co. 1745, who married 
Letitia Bland. He was a distinguished man in Nelson co. Ky. and was 
the founder of a notable line in Kentucky and Louisiana; 4. Withers, who 

married Sarah ? in Stafford county, and died in Nelson co. Ky. 

leaving a will, and left a long line of descendants, one of whom was Yelvcr- 
ton Peyton King, bom Nelson co. 1794. 5. Nimrod, of whom nothing is 
known save that he fought in the Revolution. Information much de- 
sired regarding him. 6. Elizabeth who married an Owens. 7. Judith, 
who probably married a Brent. 8. John Edwards King, b. 1757, of whom 
so much has been written. He fought in the Revolution, was a general 
at Battle of the Thames, 1812. Married Sarah Clifton, daughter of 
Burdette Clifton. 

There were several Yelverton Peyton Kings, all bom between years 
1794 and 1797, in Kentucky, Virginia, Alabama. Information desired 
from descendants of each. Address Goode King Feldhauser, The Aber- 
deen Hotel, St. Paul, Minnesota. 



NORVELL. 

1. William Norvell of James City County, Va. died 22nd of Novem- 
ber, 1802, in the 77th year of his age. (Poulsons Advertiser (Phila.) 8th 
of Dec. 1802.) 

2. Captain William Norvell, Sr., marries Anne, dau. of Col. Juhn 
Wyatt. (Sketches and Recollections of Lynchburg.) 

What relation were the above to each other; and can any one give in- 
formation as to the names of the parents of either or both? The first 
above was a Member of the House of Burgesses 1775-1776. The second 
William Norvell was from the County of Amherst and President of the 
Bank of Virginia in Lynchburg. 



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204 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



GENEALOGY. 



' The Black well Family. 

(By Miss Stella Pickett Hardy, Batesville, Ark.) 
(Continued) 
7-9. Davenport Lee Blackwell, b. 1874. 
7-10. Eleanor Foote Blackwell, b. 1875. 
7-11. Edith Sumpter Blackwell, b. 1876. 
7-12. Karl Sigismund Blackwell, b. 1879. 
6-4. Benjamin Blackwell, b. 1825. 
6-5. Ann Eustace Blackwell, b. 1826. 
6-6. Rebecca Blackwell, b. 1828; d. 1832. 
6-7. George William Blackwell, b. 1831; d. 1833. 
5-4. Agatha Blackwell, b. 1792; m. Major Enoch Jeffries, of Fauquier 

Co., Va., and had issue. 
5-5. Lucy Blackwell, b. 1793; d. 1879; m. 1809, Col. William Rowley 
Smith, of Fauciuier Co., b. 1781; d. 1857; son of William & Elizabeth 
(Doniphan) Smith; Col. Smith commanded a Co. of Cav. in War of 
1812: Col. of Fauquier Militia, 1815; Member of Virginia Legislature 
three terms; had issue 19 children. 

5-6. William Blackwell, b. 1800; m. 1819, Anne Spark Gordon, daughter 
of Churchill & Anne (Sparke) Gorgon, of Culpeper Co., Va., Issue. 
6-1. Ann Eliza Blackwell, b. 1822; d. 1854; m. 1837, John Marshall, 
b. 1811; d. 1854; son of Thomas & Margaret (Lewis) Marshall, of 
Fauquier Co., Va., and had issue. 
6-2. Joseph Eustace Blackwell, b. 1824; m. Amanda Hudson, and had 
issue, 

7-1. Joseph Eustace Blackwell. 
7-2. Anne Eliza Blackwell. 
6-3. James Gordon Blackwell, b. 1826. 
6-4. Harriet Eustace Blackwell, b. 1828; m. Dr. Douglas Moxley, 

and had issue. 
6-5. Lucy Harrison Gordon Blackwell, b. 1830; m. Dr. John Daniel 

Payne, and had issue. 
6-6. William Sparkes Blackwell, C. S. A., of Prince William Co., Va., 
b. 1832; m. 1855, Julia Travers Nutt, b. 1836; daughter of Moncure 
Conway & Anne Eustace (Smith) Nutt; and had issue, 
7-1. William Moncure Blackwell. 
7-2. Ann Conway Blackwell, m. Rev. Robert B. White. 



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GENEALOGY. 205 

7-3. Churchill Gordon Blackwell, m. Lucy Douglas Moxley, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Douglas & Harriet Eustace (Blackwell) Moxley, and 
had issue. 

7-4. Leroy Moncure Blackwell. ,.•.■, ■.;■:, 

7-5. Richard Smith Blackwell. 
6-7. Sarah Agnes Blackwell, m. Isham Keith, C. S. A., of Faucjuier 

Co., Va., son of Isham & Juliet (Chilton) Keith, of Fauquier Co., 

Va., and had issue. 
5-7. James Blackwell, of "The Meadows" Fauquier Co., Va., b. ISOo; 
d. 1864; m. 1831, Elizabeth Carter, b. 1808; d. 1884; daughter of Moore 
Fauntleroy & Judith Lee (Edmonds) Carter, Issue. 
6-1. Joseph Hancock Blackwell, b. 1832; d. 1005; m. (first) 1856, 

Roberta Edmond, b. 1837; d. 1884; (second) Mollie Saunders, and 

had issue by 1st m. 

7-1. Helen Madge Blackwell, b. 1858; m. 1879, Charles Perry, and 
had issue 1. Vivian Perry; 2. Maud Perry; 3. Edna Perry; 4. Mamie 
Perry; 5. Edith Perry; 6. Charles Perry; 7. Ernest Perry. 

7-2. Edward Claxton Blackwell, b. 1863. 

7-3. Josephine Moore Blackwell, b. 1865; m. William Garth, and 
had issue 1. Robert Garth; 2. Mary Garth; 3. William Garth; 4. 
Lewis Garth; 5. Woods Garth; 6. Hugh Garth; 7. Daisy Garth. 

7-4. Ernest Evor Blackwell, b. 1868; 

Issue by 2nd m. 

7-5. William Carter Blackwell, b. 1885. 

7-6. Paulina Carter Blackwell, b. 1887. 
6-2. Moore Carter Blackwell, C. S. A., of Fauquier Co., Va., b. 1833; 

living; m. 1854, Sarah Alexander Foote, b. 1831; daughter of Richard 

H. & Frances (Grayson) Foote, of Fauquier Co., Va., Issue, 

7-1. James Eustace Blackwell, b. 1855; m. (first) 1880, Lula McLean 
(second) Eleanor Riggs; Issue b}' 1st m. 
8-1. Wilmer Carter Blackwell, b. 1880. 
8-2. Fannie Grayson Blackwell, b. 1882. 
Issue by 2nd m. 
8-3. Lewis Riggs Blackwell, b. 1S92. 

7-2. Elizabeth Moore Blackwell, b. 1857; unm., 

7-3. Fanny Grayson Blackwell, b. 1858; m. 1882, Elias Edmonds 
Blackwell, b. 1852; son of James DeRughter & Judith Emma (Ed- 
monds) Blackwell. Issue 

8-1. Estell Foote Blackwell, b. 1883; m. 1903, Brooks Johnson, 
and had issue 1. Brooks Johnson, Jr., b. 1905; 2. Virginia Black- 
well Johnson, b. 1908. , , ,.<!!•.. ■ • 

8-1. Elizabeth Blackwell, b. 1885. ' '• ' ' • 

7-4. Mary James Blackwell, b. 1861 ; m. 1885, Dr. Thomas W. Smith, 
son of Anderson Doniphan & vSusan (Norman) Smith, and had 
issue. • , • .,' 



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206 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. '" 

7-5. Edward Maurice Blackwell, M. D., Surgeon U. S. Navy, b. 
1865; Volunteered his services to the U. S., at the beginning of the 
Spanish American War; was appointed Assistant Surgeon U. S. 
Navy, Apr. 25, 1898; served through the war in the West Indies, 
on the U. S. S. Vulcan; promoted 1908 to Surgeon, with rank of 
Lieut. -Commander; m. 1897, Mary Bowen; no issue. 
7-6. Lucian Alexander Blackwell, b. 1-866; unm. 
- 7-7. Richardetta Henry Blackwell, b. 1868; m. 1898; Willis Carter. 
■ 7-8. Eva Ashton Blackwell, b. 1872. 

7-9. Mildred Chancellor Blackwell, b. 1874; m. 1897, William Stan- 
ley Himtlan, and had issue. 
6-3. Elizabeth Carter Blackwell, b. 1837; m. 1858, Maj. Albert Galla- 
tin Smith, C. S. A., son of Col. William Rowley & Lucy (Blackwell) 
Smith, of Fauquier Co., Va., and had issue. 
6-4. Agnes Ettstace Blackwell, b. 1840; m. (first) 1866, Isaac Eustace 
Smith, C. S. A., b. 1837; d. 1874; son of Col. William Rowley & Lucy 
(Blackwell) Smith, (second) 1887, Washington Tazewell Capps, of 
Lambert Point, Va., and had issue. 

6-5. Lucy Steptoe Blackwell, b. 1845; m. 1879, Alexander Fontain 
Rose, b. 1843; and had issue. 
6-6. Mary James Blackwell, b. 1847; d. 1860. 
5-8. Elizabeth Blackwell, b. 1807; d. young. 
5-9. Samuel Blackwell, b. 1809; d. young. 
4-7. George Steptoe Blackwell, of Fauquier Co., Va., b. 1753; d. after 
1787; m. unknown, and had issue, 

(To be Concluded) 



The Ancestors and Descendants of John Rolfe with Notes on some 
Connected Families. 
The Fleming Family. 

(Continued) 

10. Thomas^ Fleming; b. , d. 1777; was never married. Thomas 

Fleming, resided in Goochland County, where he owned two plantations, 
"Dover," and another on Little Lickinghole Creek. He was commis- 
sioned a lieutenant in the Virginia Regulars, May 26, 1757, and for sev- 
eral years served in the French and Indian War. In June 1759, when his 
will was written, he describes himself as "Captain in the frontier battal- 
lion of Virginia forces." In August 1758, he was included in a return, 
as a captain in Byrd's regiment, then stationed at Fort Cumberland 
{Campbell's History of Va., 500). There are also on record in the \'ir- 
ginia Land Office, several bounty warrants to men who were privates in 
his company, in one instance described as "Captain Thomas Fleming's 
Company, first Virginia regiment," and in another, as in Byrd's regiment. 



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GENEALOGY. M^<•^^>N*' 



207 



Captain Fleming doubtless served to the end of the War, and then re 
- turned to Goochland; where he served as high sheriff in 1769. Like all 
, of h . family he took an active part in favor of American rights a^^ains 

S^fetvln 1?75 7w ' "7.'7 V""' ^°°^^^^^ ^^^^^ Committee 
Safety m 1775 (Wm. and Mary Quarterly, V, 254) At the first call to 
arms he re-entered the military service, and in July 1775 was in comn Ind 
of a company of rnmute men from his county, statlned at VVniiamsTurg 
(Document m Rd. Standard). Has record as an officer in the French 
and Indian War must have been a good one, for on January 12th i?76 
.he Virgmia Convention elected him Colonel of the Ninth Virginil re.i 

uTGj""'"f f f---."'-")- His commission was dated A^ch 2d' 
177G iJo:^rnal of Comnnttee of Safety). He had been assigned to the 

4 r^r t. '/''"""' '° '^ ^'^^^^"^^ °" ^^- Eastern Shore for on Feb 

14 luiy, the Committee had ordered that Col. Fleming, of the Eastern 

Shore regiment, be called into duty immediately. Col. Fleminflt 

once repaired to his post, and remained in comnLd in that section 

through the remainder of the year. A return of his regimen dated Mav 

31st was laid before Congress June 19, and on June 21. tLt body d 'ec td 

powder to be sent to Col Thos. Fleming's regiment on the Eastern Shore 

ot Virgmia {Forces Arclnves) John Page, President of the Virginia Coun! 

cil. m a letter dated July 12. 1776, states that shortly before! there hTd 

been an uprising of Tones on the Eastern Shore of Alaryland, and that 

Col. Thomas Fleming had marched with a force of 120 men and sup 

pressed .t {Force) On Dec. 6th, Col. Fleming issued an orde that the 

officers and men of the 9th regiment who were absent on leave sLZl 

return at once, or join on the march to Philadelphia, the regiment being 

ordered to reinforce General Washington {Force). A letter i^ the vfr- 

U™9th v""'' '^''''^^^''^' J^""^^y 2d. 1777. says "This we k 

the 9th Virgmia regiment, Col. Thomas Fleming, arrived in the city." 
Col. Fleming died not long after this, but whether in action, or of dis- 

.Ta T ^nT 'T'' ^" ''^ ^- '■ ^^^^ Department, n^r the V r- 
ginia Land Office show. Most probably, however, it was the latter 
On March 16. 1784^ the State of Virginia granted the rcpreenativ of 
Thomas Fleming, Esq., 6666f acres of land for his services as a colone 
m the Continental Line. These representatives, as appears by a cert 
ficate of their uncle Wm. Fleming, were AL.ry, wife of Warner Lewis Esa 
and ^isanna, wife of Addison Lewis, Esq., only surviving dau^'efs of 
John F eming deceased, eldest brother of the said Col. Thomas Flemng 
{Records of Va. Land Office). ^ 

The will of Thomas Fleming, "Captain in the frontier Battalion of 

]Zn^% TT. V 'k' ^r '^'' ''''' ^"^ P^°-d - Goochland 
PI '^ JL ^ ^'' ^'■°*^''' ^^^'''^'" ^^00' ^-"^t money; brother 

Richard £150 current; brother Charles £150 current. Gave £100 in 
nist o purchase slaves for his sister Mary Bernard, and £100 In tni t 
for he same purpose, for his sister CaroUne Deans. Brother John 
residuary legatee. Brothers John and William, executors 



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208 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. '' 

11. Charles^ Fleming; b. — ; d. about 1793 (dateof will), never married. 

At the beginning of the Revolution, Charles Fleming commanded a 
company of minute men raised in Cumberland County. On Feb. 5, 1776, 
the Committee of Safety of that county elected him captain of the com- 
pany of regulars to be raised in the county, and he is stated to have been 
at the time of this election, captain of a minute compemy {Journal of 
Climb. Committee). On March 4th, 1775, a return of his company was 
received by the general Committee of Safety, and he had leave to sus- 
pend the march of his company one week after his return from William.s- 
burg to Cumberland, to give him time to furnish them with arms and 
necessaries; at the same time warrants were issued for the pay of himself 
and company, described as of the 7th regiment, and it was directed that 
commissions should be issued to him and his subalterns, to be dated 
Feb. 29, 1776. A statement of his services from the records of the U. S. 
War Department is as follows "It is shown by the records that Charles 
Fleming served as a captain in the 7th Virginia regiment of foot, com- 
manded by Colonel Alexander McClenahan, and also by Lieutenant 
Colonel Holt Richeson, Revolutionary War. His name appears on the 
rolls of that regiment from June 1777, to May 1778. He is also borne as a 
captain on the rolls of the 3d and 7th V^irginia regiments, commanded 
by Lieutenant Colonel Heth, for the months of July and August, 1778. 
He is reported as having been comissmoned February 29, 1776. 

It is also shown by the records that Charles Fleming served as lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the 8th Virginia regiment, commanded by Colonel 
James Wood. His name appears on the rolls of that regiment to Septem- 
ber 1779. The records shown him commissioned lieutenant-colonel 
June 28, 1778, and resigned December 15, 1778." 

Heitman states that he was major 4th Va.; Lieutenant-Colonel 3d, Va. 
2Sth June, 1778, and transferred to 8th. Va., 14th Sept., 1778. 

After he retired from the regular army Colonel Fleming was frequently 
in service with the Virignia militia. Several letters, which have been 
printed in Vol. I, Calendar of Virginia State Papers, show something 
in regard to this service. 

The letters are as follows: , 

{ . . "Chas. Fleming to the Governor" 

j . ' "Tuckahoe, Jan. 1st. 1781. 

!■ Sir 

; I left the enemies lines at Westham yesterday evening a little before 

j sunset. Their proceedings there you are no doubt well acquainted with. 

i There will be a very considerable Body of Militia will be collected be- 

tween this & Westham, in the course of the day — It appears to be wish of 
all parties, that Colo. Nicholas & my self shall take command of them 
as field officers & as I am informed by Mr. Webb, it is your determina- 
tion with the advice of Council that the Militia, on the present alarming 
occasion, will be officered as before, with respect to the field officers — 



.fAisADAU dkomor-' -'oaiv BOS 



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GENEALOGY. .; , , 209 

I am ready and will at all times Sir, to render any and every service 
to my Country in my power. As I have no commission of any sort, dont 
doubt but you will think with me, that it is necessary I should have a 
commission, or some writing under your signature for my taking com- 
mand with propriety. 1 am. Sir, Yr: most obt. lible Servt" 

"Quarters near Manakin-town Ferry, January 8th, 1781, Colo. Chas. 
Fleming to Col: Davies, at Briton's Ferry— sending the Governor's 
letter to Genl. Steuben, with a wagon load of Ammunition from the other 
side to be forwarded by Col: Davies — has just sent a load to Richmond 
also for Genl. Nelson — has with him two hundred and twenty men, arm- 
ing by companies, who will march to Westham in due order as soon as 
ready." 

"Manchester January lOth, 17S1. '■ 
Col: Charles Fleming to Col: Davies — 

'We arrived here last night, & in conseciuence of the want of house- 
room for the men, they had a very disagreeable night, seven of them 
taken sick. I shall proceed on my march as soon as they are got com- 
fortably dried, and get their breakfast.' Is much in want of wagons 
and Camp Kettles. Concludes 'the Governor lodged on this side last 
night, whom I have seen. He informs me the enemy were yesterday 
lying still at & about Colo. Harrison's Mills, that they surprised & 
routed abt. 100 foot & 25 horse, at Charles City, the night before— he 
hadn't heard what loss they sustained. There is a report that they 
are intrenching, but by no means authentick. Col: Nicholas is at Mr. 
James Cocke's at Malburn Hills with between 3 &• 400 men.' He is 
informed there are forty-five Beeves at Richmond, and a large quantity 
of flour in Mayo's Mills in Manchester." 

"Col. Chas. Fleming to Gov: Jefferson 

Camp, Holts Forge, January 17, 1781. 
Sir 

I am now with the Troops under my Command at this place by order 
of Genl. Nelson. I have to inform your Excellency, that there is not a 
fourth part of the Regt. supplied with Ammunition & as I am ordered by 
the Genl: to join the Baron & begin my march early tomorrow, unless 
ammunition is sent me, or ordered to follow me, I shall find myself in 
rather an awkward situation. Your Excellency will no doubt consider 
this matter & inform me by Mr. Bates, who I have (iis[)atche(l with this, 
& who will join me on my march. The situation of the Regt. being com- 
posed of Goochland & Hanover Militia, it may not be amiss to acquaint 
you with. The numerous applications for leave of absence are not un- 
common; but when I reflect that there is scarce a man left in those 
Counties, that a considerable number have just returned from their 
tour of duty & many have now substitutes in actual service, that not 



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210 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

more than half having been first called out, the rest were hurried precipi- 
tately from home, totally unprovided for a Campaign of any continuance, 
I cannot think their complaints entirely groundless. Your Excellency 
may rest assured I do my utmost endeavors to silence their murmers & 
to impress them with a sence of the necessity of their continuing in ser- 
vice, but still I can by no means continue a Stranger to their complaints. 
Might I have liberty to observe on this occasion, it should be, that I fear 
the Militia of these two Counties, will, on any future emergency, be with 
infinite diflficulty drawn out, unless (as they wish for) those who did their 
tour of duty in the last invasion, might be discharged, as soon as the 
situation of aftairs will admit & from what I can gather in Wmsburg, 
there are nearly Militia enough to oppose the Enemies designs, already 
in service, and more expected from the back countries. 

Your Excellency will consider if it may not be necessary to give them 
some kind of promise this on head. Every exertion, in my power, shall be 
used to quiet their minds, & I hope I may stand excused in making you 
acquainted with these circumstances. 

I have the honour to be with very great respect. 

Your Excellency's mo. Obt. svt., 

Chas. Fleming 

Lt Colo. Commdg." 

<» 

These letters were written during Arnold's invasion of Virginia. 
From the words "officered as before," included in the first letter it is 
probable that Col. Fleming held command in the large force of militia 
called out to resist the attack made in 17S0. Too little is known in regard 
to the 7000 militia under General Nelson, who were at Yorktown, to 
speak positively; but there can be but little doubt that Chas. Fleming 
also commanded a regiment there. 

During the latter part of his life Col. Fleming lived at "Summerville," 
Chesterfield County, the home of his brother. Judge Wm. Fleming. 
His will, dated Oct. 8, 1793, was recorded in Chesterfield. He gave his 
real estate in Kentucky to his brother Wm. Fleming, and nephews John 
and Richard Bernard, in tnist, for his creditors and to pay legacies. 
This real estate consisted of 18,000 acres in the county of Mason on the 
waters of the Ohio River; another of 20,000 acres, in the same county 
and on the same waters, and another of 10,191 acres in the same county, 
at the mouth of Glen's Creek, about four miles from Frankfort. Only 
one half of these tracts of land belonged to him, however. Of his share 
he gave one fifth to his nieces Mary and Susanna Lewis; two fifths to the 
same trustees for his sister Mary Bernard and her children and the re- 
maining two fifths to his brother Wm. Fleming. 

(To be Continued) ' 



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GENEALOGY. • ' ' '■? 211 

The Harrison Family of Nortiilrn Virginia. 

' • (Continued) • ' ,/ > • 

Corrections and Additions. 
Mr. H. T. Harrison, author of "A Brief History of the First Harri.sons 
of Virginia" states in reference to tlie review published in January, that 
his book does not claim that the descendants of Cuthbcrt Harrison were 
the first Harrisons in Virginia and that the reference to the parish reg- 
ister and Chappawamsic does not refer to the English register but to that 
of Dettingen parish in Virginia. 

We are indebted to Dr. H. J. Berkeley, Baltimore, for the following 
additional entries in the register of the parish of St. Margarets, West- 
minster: Jany 11th 1607, baptised Cuthbert son of Cuthbert Harrison, 
and Alexander Harrison son of Cuthbert and Susan Harrison was bap- 
tized at St. Margarets, Westminster 1644. 

The first entry evidently gives the birth of the father of Cuthbert who 
came to Virginia, and the last gives the birth of a younger brother of the 
emigrant, and also (probably) the Christian name of his mother. 

Dr. Berkely also states that Susanna, daughter of Thos. Harrison, Jr., 
of Chappawamsic, married (1) Moses Linton, gent., of Prince William 
Co. and (2) John Berkely. 

A lady writing from Florida states that she has a copy of an old record, 
written by a granddaughter of Burr Harrison (named in the following 
extract), which states that "Thomas Harrison from England [an error, 
of course] settled in Fauquier Co., Va., and had the following children: 
1. Thomas, moved to Ky. "and Harrison Co. was named for him, and 
Cynthiana, the county seat for his two daughters." He had one son 
Benjamin and probably other sons; 2. Benjamin; 3. William, who was 
killed by his negroes in Virginia; 4. Burr, bom 1738, died 1822 in Chester 
District, S. C, served in the Revolution under General La Fayette, at 
Yorktown; married Elizabeth Dargan, of Sumter District, S. C; 5. 
Nancy, married Mr. Quartie (?) of Va.; 6. Molly married Mr. Gillison 

of Va.; 7. Susan married Mr. Gibson of Va.; 8. , married Mr. Faulke 

[Fowke] of Va. This account, though containing some errors as tonanies, 
confirms the conjecture that Burr Harrison, of South Carolina, was a son 
of 6. Thomas^ Harrison (XXIII, 332). 

From another lady in the South, the following (derived from the War 
Department) as to the Revolutionary service of Burr Harrison; served as 
a corporal in Capt. Richard Lee's company and in Capt. Francis Mercer's 
company, 3d Va. Regiment, commanded at various times by Col. Thomas 
Marshall and Lt.-Col. William Heth. He enlisted Feb. 15, 177G and his 
name appears last on June 11, 1778, and from the same source a list of the 
children of Burr and Elizabeth (Dargan) Harrison; 1. Burr, nuirried 
Nancy Hart, and lived in Columbia, S. C; 2. Mary married Benjamin 
May; 3. Jonathan married Sally Tyler; 4. Kate nuirricd Samuel Johnson; 



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212 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

5. Elizabeth died single; C. Rebecca married Nathaniel Cocknell; 7. 
Susan married William Head; 8. Sophy married Christopher Thompson; 
9. Dorean married (1st) James Runnell and (2) Hartwell Macon; 10. 
Narcissa, married James Ragsdale; 11. Mordecai married Susan Alston; 
12. Anne, Mr. McLelland, of Charleston, S. C. 

Corrections: P. 1)S, 1. 8, for "Lion" read "Leon"; p. 99, 1. 19, for "Free- 
man" read "Green"; p. 97, 2d 1. from bottom, Elizabeth Harrison niar- 
ried Benjamin Bullitt. Benjamin Bullitt (son of Joseph and Elizabeth 
Brandt Bullitt) was born April 28, 1G93 (see record of births, Charles Co., 
Md., Liber P, No. 1, folio 212, in the Land Office at Annapolis, Md.) and 
instead of dying in 1757, died in 1760, as is shown by the fact that his will 
(See Fauquier Co., Va. Will Book I, 108, and Minute Book 17G4-68, p. 
227) was dated May 3, 17G6, and proved Oct. 27, 17GG. Hischildren by 
Elizabeth Harrison were: Joseph, Capt. Thom.as, Cuthbcrt, Seth (who 
married Combs) and Benjamin, killed in the French and Indian War. 
Mrs. Elizabeth (Harrison) Bullitt died in 1742. We are indebted to Mr. 
William M. Bullitt, of Louisville, for the correction. 

39. Rev. Tho.mas** Hakkison (Thomas^), was born Oct. 2, 1750, and 
died June 21, 1814. He was ordained by the Bishop of London, Aug. 24, 
1774, and licensed for Trinity Parish, Maryland. He was minister of 
Bloomfield Parish, Culpejjcr Co., and Dcttingen Parish, Prince William 
Co., in Va., and was appointed a Justice of Prince William. He married 
Dec. 9, 1775, Sarah (born July 26, 1754, died Dec. 16, 1842) daughter of 
Cuthbert Harrison. 

Issue: 87. Cuthbert''; 88. Thomas^; 89. Frances, born March 12, 1779, 
married Philip Alexander; 90. Phiup-'; 91. Ann Barnes, bom Feb. S, 1783, 
died single; 92. Sythia (or Seth?) born April 9, 1785, died unmarried; 93. 
BuRR^; 94. James"; 95. John^; 9G. Walter^; 97. Elizabeth, born A])ril 
8, 1797, married Lawrence Alexander; 98. Sarah, bom Jan. 23, 1799, died 
Dec. 20, 1870, married March 7, 1S2G, Gabriel D. Freeman. 

57. Matthew^ Harrison (Burr'^), bom Sept. 19, 1763; married Cath- 
erine Elzey. Member of the House of Delegates for Loudoun Co., 1840- 
47. For descendants see "A Brief History of the First Harrisons of 
Virginia," by H. T. Harrison. 

71. GusTAVUs*^ Harrison (Matthew^) married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Col. A. B. Magruder, of Georgetown, D. C, and died in 184^, aged 
57 years. 

Issue: 99. George William^; 100. Gusta\ais7; 101. Frederick Lloyd^; 
102. Colin^; 103. Eleanor^; 104. Ann Matilda^; 105. Virginia'. 

72. William Alexander^ (Matthew^), born Aug. 29, 1795, of Clarks- 
burg (now West Va.), represented Harrison County in the House of Dele- 
gates 1835-37, U. S. District .Attorney for the Western District of Vir- 
ginia 1829, and afterwards a judge. He married, Nov. 19, 1828, Anna 
Mayberry. 

Issue: 106. Frederick", died young; 107. Thomas W.*. married Mary 
Robertson of New York; 108. Matthew Waite**, married Eliza Hoffman, 



'I./ol.l A 



GENEALOGY. 213 

of Lewis County; 109. Charles Tyler^ 110. Wuliam Gustavus-- lU 
Mayberry«; 112. Sus:in Ellen; 113. Elizabeth; 114. .Ann Rebeeea' ll.j. 
Llewellyn Cuthbert^. 

(To be Continued) 



Taylor of South.\.mi'ton &c. 
(Concluded) 



6i). 



Bennett" Taylor (John'*), inherited considerable property from 
his lather and his brother Charles. There is on record in Southampton 
a deed dated Feb. 1810, from Bennett Taylor to Robert Adams, convey- 
mg 130 acres called Seacock on Seacock Svvamp, which was purchased hv 
litheldred Taylor from Matthew Revell, and by him devised to Ethel- 
dred Taylor his son, and also a deed May 20, 1811 from Bennett Taylor 
to John C. Gray conveying 230 acres called Howells, which had been 
devised by Etheldred Taylor the elder to his son Etheldred. Bennett 
faylor was educated at Wm. & Mary College 1790-95. He removed 
first to the neighborhood of Berryville and later to Jefferson County 
where he lived at his seat "Avon Hill," when he died in 1816 He 
married Susan Beverley, daughter of Governor Edmund Randolph 
Issue: 4/. Charlotte Randolph, married Feb. 2, 1835, Moncure Robinson, 
of Richmond, afterwards of Philadelphia; 48. John Qiarles Randolph^^ 

39. \\illiam5 Taylor (John"). Of him the compiler has no further 
information except that, about 1810, he, with Angelina his wife, made a 
deed in Southampton, conveying to Thomas Fitzhugh, 320 acres which 
were allotted to said William at the division of the lands of John Taylor 
deceased. 

40. Henry^ Taylor (John"), of Southampton Co.; born died 

1815. His will was dated Aug. 22, 1814, and proved Jan. 1815. Legatees- 
wife Jane W. Taylor, for life, 7 negroes <S:c &c; provision for unborn child" 
to nephew VVm. Taylor, one negro; to nephew Henry Taylor, one negro' 
to nephew Drury Fitzhugh, two negroes. Friend Thomas Fitzhu-di' 
executor. " ' 

There are probably many descendants of this family of whom the com- 
piler IS not informed and any additions will be welcome. 

48. John Charles Randolph^ Taylor (Bennett") of Albemarle 
Cx.unty; died Jan. 0. 1875, married, in 183S, Martha Jefferson, daughter 
of Thomas Jefferson Randolph, of "Edgehill," Albemarle County. 

Issue: 49. Bennett^, born Jefferson Co., Va., 1836, educated at Univer- 
sity of Virgmia. Captain Co. F 19th Va. Infantry C. S. A.; wounded at 
Williamsburg and Gettysburg, at Johnsons Island until 1865, promoted 
to Lt. Colonel; married Lucy daughter of Edward Colston (and had six 
children); 50. Jane Randolph; 51. Susan Beverley, married John Black- 



.f.^^.^ii, » ^i..iM„ii iiiiii'i .f.vui«f,"i t^vri 



214 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

burn; 52. Rev. Jefferson Randolph", C. S. A., iirivate in Southall's Artil. 
lery and Ordnance Sergeant in Jackson's Corps; 53. Margaret Randolph' 
5-1. Charlotte, died in infancy; 55. Stephen Mason*^, C. S. A., private 
Rockbridge Artillery 1SG4-5; 56. Cornelia Jefferson; 57. Edmond Ran- 
dolph", married Julia, daughter of Edmund Pendleton Kennedy; 58. (and 
had issue: a. John Paca'', born Jan. 31, 1S94; b. Elizabeth Gray, bom 
June 10, 1S95; c. Edmond Randolph", bom Oct. 8, 1S45; d. Margaret Bev- 
erley, bom Jan. 190S); 58. John Charles Randolph"; 59. Sidney W."; 60. 
Moncure R<jbinson". 



The Gorsuch and Lovelace Families. 

(Continued) 

Children of the Rev. John^ Gorsuch (Daniel-, William^) and his wife, 

Anne (Lovelace). 

1. Daniel GoRSUCH4(John^, Daniel^, William'). Born in 1628 or 
1629, as he was "aged four years" in 1633. Recorded in the Visitation. 
There is no reason to believe that he ever went to the Colonies. He 
and all of his brothers and sisters were left an interest in sundry lease- 
holds in Weston, Herts., by their grandfather, Daniel Gorsuch". He was 
living in England in 1652, when he was made administrator of his mother's 
estate, and in 1662 when he was made residuary legatee and e.xecutor 
under the will of his grandmother, Alice Gorsuch. He was m.arried 
some time prior to 1662, as his grandmother leaves a legacy to his daugh- 
ter Ann. Nothing further is known in regard to him or his descendants. 

2. John Gorsuch^ (John^, Daniel^, William'). Born about 1630. 
Recorded in the Visitation. His grandfather, Daniel Gorsuch", leaves 
to him individually certain freeholds in Weston. No later mention of 
him has been found in the English or Colonial Records, nor is it known 
whether he went to Virginia with his mother. 

3. WiLLL^M Gorsuch* (John^, Daniel-', William'). Born in 1631 or 
1632. Recorded in the Visitation. There is no reason to believe that he 
was ever in Virginia. He was. doubtless the "Wm. Gorsuch of Weston 
Herts, Gent., Bach'r. ab't. 25 [who married] Catherine Morgan of St. 
Margaret's Westminster, Sp'r. ab't. 25; at Marybone, Middx. — 12 ' )i-t. 
1660." (Marriage Licenses, Westminster & Vicar General — Harleian 
Society Vol. 26, p. 53). His grandmother Alice Gorsuch in 1662 leaves a 
legacy to John, the son of her grandson, William Gorsuch. Mr. Wm. 
Onslow Times of Hitchin, England, in a recent letter to the writer (1913), 
states that he is a descendant of this William Gorsuch, and adds "William 
who did not leave England, and who died in 1608, left a son Daniel, wliose 
daughter Christiana Gorsuch, married a Sheppard, and was the mother 
of my great grandmother, Mrs. Lawrence Times." No attcmjJt has been 
made to trace the descendants of William Gorsuch . 



GENEALOGY. ;, ■'■.'■ ^^^ 

4. Katherine Goksuch'' (John'*, Daniel'-', William'). Rcconknl in 
the Visitation. Baptised at V.alkern Nov. 20, 1033. She is one of the 
4 brothers and sisters for whose transportation land was granteii to Theo. 
Hone, Feb. 22, 1052, on the Rappahannock. She married, in Virginia, it 
would appear from the above, William Whitby, a prominent citizen of 
Warwick County. The earliest reference to William Whitby is an extract 
from the lost W^arwick County records, showing that he was a justice in 
1047. He was speaker of the House of Burgesses in 1053. From an order 
of the Virginia Assembly dated December 1st, 1C5G in a suit decided in 
her favor, it appears that Mrs. Whitby, who had been a widow at least 
since October 9th, 1055, was apparently then living in Virginia (Va. Mag. 
Vol. XVII, p. 129-130). As previously stated, the Lancaster Co. Court 
was petitioned April 1st, 1057 by Richard, Robert and Charles Gorsuch to 
appoint their sister, Katherine Whitby, v.-idd. guardian for their estate 
in England (see ante p. 91). It therefore seems certain that she had re- 
turned to England with her children or was just about to return. The 
will of her grandmother, Alice (jorsuch, 1002, mentions "William and 
Elizabeth Whittby, son and daughter of my granddr ughter ?.'atherine 
Whittby," but leaves us uncertain as to whether Katherine, the mother, 
was then living. In the letter already referred to from her uncle. Gov- 
ernor Francis Lovelace of New York, to Governor Berkeley of Virginia, 
dated December 0th, 1009, Lovelace informs Berkeley that "Mr. Thos. 
Todd of Mockjack bay" has been appointed "Guardian of will Whitbey's 
son by my niece Mrs. Kath. Gorsuch," that this lad which he (Lovelace) 
has brought over [from England] is "the recitable child and heare to 
Mr. Wiiitby," and that "he is now an orphant." The letter goes on to 
request Berkeley to do what he can for the boy's interests (Va.. Mag. 
Vol. XVII, p. 288-9.) As has been already explained an error occurred 
in the text of this letter as previously published, due to a mistake of the 
copyist in deciphering the name Kath: Gorsuch, making it read Ruth 
Gorsuch, thus confusing the Gorsuch pedigree, until the error was dis- 
covered (see ante pp. 90-1). Mr. Tho. Todd referred to by the writer 
was Captain Thomas Todd of Mobjack bay, Gloucester Co., Va., and 
later of Baltimore Co., Maryland, who had married Anna Gorsuch," 
sister of Katherine Whitby, and who was another niece of Lovelace. 
After his return to Virginia, William Whitby^, Jr., son of William and 
Katherine Whitby, lived on the Pyanketank River, Middlesex Co., Va., 
and died unmarried. An abstract of his will dated July 15, 1070, and 
proved July 20th, 1077, has been previously published (Va. Mag. Vol. 
XVII pp. 290-1). Among several legacies left by him is one of £200 
"out of rent due me out of Kent, in England" to "my brother Joseph 
Summers," and a bequest to Thomas Todd. He leaves £100 to Major 
Robert Beverley, and £100 to Mrs. Mary Kibble [Kccblcl. He leaves 
land on Moratico Creek to John Cocking and John Wright, and land on 
Potomac Creek to be divided between Joseph Summers and Mrs. Mary 



216 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Kibljle. From this will it would appear that Elizabeth Whitijy, the 
testator's sister, may have married Jose[)h Summers. The editor of 
the Magazine writes me that it appears from the Middlesex reeords that 
Major Robert Beverley married first Mary, the widow of George Keeble, 
and that Mks. Mary KirtBLE may actually have been Miss Mary Keeble, 
a step-daughter of Beverley. Beverley's second wife was the widow of 
Theophilus Hone. It will be recalled that it was Theo:Hone who Feb. 
22, 1652, received land on the Rappahannock for transporting Katherine 
Gorsuch and three of her younger brothers and sisters to Virginia (see 
ante p. 89.) Hone lived at Jamestown, and was a man of prominence in 
Virginia. It is by no means improbable that the Gorsuches were in some 
way related to Theophilus Hone or his wife. 

5. Ro-^-EHT GoKsucH-* (John-\ Daniel'-^, William' ) . Baptised Nov. 19' 
1635, at Walkern. His name does not appear with the names of his two 
younger brothers and his two sisters brought to Virginia by Theo. Hone. 
It seems possible that he, his brother Richard, his sister Anna and his 
mother, may have come to Virginia at a somewhat earlier date. He 
joined his brothers Richard^ and Charles^ April 1st, 1657, in petitioning 
the Lancaster County Court for the appointment of a guardian for their 
interests in Virginia and England. This seems strange as Robert"*, ac- 
cording to the above date of baptism, was then of age. At the December 
term of the same court, 1057, however, we find an order appointing Rob- 
ert Gorsuch guardian for his brother Charles Gorsuch, then aged 14. (Va. 
Mag. Vol. Ill, I). 85). We next hear of him in Maryland when July 2s, 
1659, a tract of 500 A. called "Gorsuch" was surveyed for "Robert Gi;r- 
such, of this province, planter" on the north side of the Patapsco River 
"respecting" the land of Hugh Kensey (i. e., opposite a tract called Kcn- 
sey, situated on the south side of the river, aljout nine miles from its 
niouth, surveyed the same date), and the patent for the tract was issued 
Feb. 13th, 1059-00 (Md. Patents Vol. IV, fol. 228 8c 322). This tract 
"Gorsuch" was located at what is now known as Canton, its water front 
including Gorsuch Point or Lazaretto Point, a district now occujned 
by some of Baltimore's most important industrial and shipping ac- 
tivities. The little that is known in regard to Robert Gorsuch and 
his heirs is learned in tracing the subsecjuent history of this tract. 
Robert Gor.such married either before or soon after his arrival on 
th.e Patapsco. His wife's name is not known, but we learn from 
the early archives that she was murdered by the Indians April 11th, 
1661. At a meeting of the Council of Maryland held at Spesutia, 
Baltimore Co., May 13th, 1661, to incjuire into the sundry murders 
by Mincjua or Sinego Indians on the Gunpowder and Patapsco River.s, 
the following testimony Was given by Robert Gorsuch: "that upon 
the Uth of Aprill there came to his howse some Indians in blew anil 
some in red Matchcoates whoe killed his wife and plundered his howse" 
etc. (Arch. Md. Vol. Ill, \). 413). It would seem from the will of his 



GENEALOGY. , ' 217 

brother-in-law, Thomas Todd, dated Feb. 21.st, 1C75-G that Robert 
Gorsuch had left the province and was then living in England — "I like- 
wise bequeath to my saj'd wife one hundred seavcntie six poundes ster- 
ling being in the hands of Robert Gorsedge and my parsell of land lying 
on old England which the said Robert Gorsedge is now possessed of." 
(Baltimore County Wills Vol. I, fol. 1.) In the light of the following 
facts the statement previously made (ante p. 92), that Robert Gor- 
such did not reappear in the colonies, must be cjualified. 

The name of a Robert Gorsuch does not again appear in the Maryland 
records until twenty-five years later. The list of taxables of Baltimore 
County for 1695 does not reveal anyone bearing this name then living in 
the county. The Baltimore County Rent Roll bearing the date 1700, 
but probably compiled a year or two earlier, shows that the tract "Goi- 
such," 500 A. surveyed July 2Sth, 1059, for Robt. Gorsuch, was then 
"possessed by Charles Gorsuch, on behalf of sd. Robert" (Balto. Co. 
Rent Roll 1700, Md. Hist. Soc. small unbound MSS). This would seem 
to indicate that Charles Gorsuch* held the land and paid the quit rent 
for his brother Roberf* who was not at the time resident in Maryland, or 
for the latter's successor of the same name who was either absent or a 
minor. About this time a Robert Gorsuch, either the original patentee 
or his heir of the same name, reappears in Baltimore County, for July 
11th, 1700, a special warrant for the resurvey of this tract is filed in the 
Land Office which reads that "Robert Gorsuch of Baltimore County, 
by his hum.ble petition — has set forth that he is seized in fee simple — of a 
tract of land called Gorsuch, originally laid out for 500 A. the 2Sth day of 
July, 1059." The petition recjuests a resurvey on the ground that there 
is some confusion in regard to one of the bounds and also for the purpose 
of adding certain adjacent vacant land (Md. Land Office Warrants Liber 
A. fol. 230). Under date of Nov. 22nd, 1700, a certificate of resurvey of 
the tract "Gorsuch" under the name "Rockford," 500 acres, was issued 
(Land Ofiice— Unpatented Certificates Balto. Co. No. 1400). A new 
patent for this resurvey was never issued, a caveat apparently having 
been entered by Benjamin Tasker, agent of Lord Baltimore, to prevent 
t!ie inclusion of the adjacent vacant land, and Robert Gorsuch continued 
to hold the tract under the original patent of 1059-00. A somewhat 
later Rent Roll, covering the period from about 1700 to 1720, shows that 
the tract "Gorsuch [which had been] possessed by Charles Gorsuch on 
Ijehalf of the said Roliert [was] now possessed by Robert Gorsuch him- 
self" (Annapolis— Balto. Co. Rent Roll Vol. II, No. 2). Although re- 
ferred to in the petition for resurvey dated 1700, as of Baltimore County, 
the name of Robert Gorsuch does nut appear among the taxables of Balti- 
more County in the lists from 1099 to 1705, which are supposed to include 
the names of all males 10 years and over. In the year 1700 however 
his name appears on the list of the taxables of the North-Sitle 
Patapsco Hundred, bracketed with John Gorsuch and Jonathan Mur- 



218 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

thorritt, which probably indicates that the three were then living 
on the same plantation (Balto. Co. Taxables 1699-170(3: Aid. Hist. Soc. 
MSS). Aug. 3, 1709, he appears as the principal creditor of Tobias 
Stansburj' of Baltimore County (Test. Proc. 29: 40S). Nov. 1710 
he was appointed by the Court surveyor of highways from Hurst's 
Falls to Back River (Court Proc. I. S. No. B.: 1S3). The will of 
Robert Gorsuch'* of Baltimore County dated June 25, 1714, was probated 
June 14, 1720. To his son Daniel he leaves 5 shillings; to his son Robert 
he leaves the "pl<T-ntation whereon I now dwell containing 500 acres 
[tract "Gorsuch"[, to him and his heirs," as well as a fourth part of his 
personal estate. To his daughter Dorothy he leaves certain live stock 
to be delivered to her at 16 years of age or at marriage. To his wife 
Johanna he leaves the remainder of his estate and appoints her executrix. 
The witnesses are Nicholas Rogers, John Thomas and Jon Gay. When 
the will was probated, the widow renounced her rights as executrix in 
favor of "my near kinsman John Gorsuch" (Annapolis Wills; 16; 2S). 
The inventory tiled by John Gorsuch, Sept. 12, 1720, was signed not only 
by the appraisers, but by Thomas Gorsuch, Chas. Gorsuch and Elizabeth 
Gorsuch (Annap. Inv. & Accts. 4; 177). An account filed by John Gor- 
such Aug. 4, 1721, shows that the stock to be given Dorothy at 16 years 
or marriage had already been transferred to her (Annap. Accts. 3: 502). 
The final account was not filed until May 22, 1728 (Test. Proc. 28; 213). 
Tlie widow Johanna Gorsuch died in 1728 and her estate was administered 
upon May 22, 1728, by Wm. Green, with Thomas Broad and John Miller 
his sureties. The inventory of her estate, appraised by John Willmot 
and John Moore at £40-6-2, dated Aug. 1, 1728, gives Geo. Walker, as 
creditor and adds "no other creditor, nor no relations to deceased." 
Her administrator in filing his account Mar. 6, 1730, adds "the oqjhans 
at age this summer" (Annap. Inv. & Accts. 11: 8). Robert Gorsuch the 
son and heir to the tract "Gorsuch" died Mar. 19, 1733 (St. Paul's Church 
Balto. Register). His estate was administered upon Aug. 2, 1733, by 
John Gorsuch with Wm*. Rogers and John Ensor sureties (Test. Proc. 
2<J: 298). Administration de bonis non upon the same estate was issued 
Sept. 10, 1733, to Thomas Gorsuch of Baltimore County with Wm. Rogers 
and John Edwards sureties (idem. 29: 307), indicating that John Gorsuch 
in the interval had probably died. The inventory dated Aug. 1, 1733, 
was signed by Charles Gorsuch as principal creditor and by Lovelace 
Gorsuch as next of kin (Balto. Inv. 3: 180). x\t the June Court 1737, 
Thomas Gorsuch, the administrator d. b. n. was released from giving 
further security because "the representative of the sd. Robert is at full 
age." (Balto. Co. Court Proc. 1736-8; 43). Aljout two months after 
Robert Gorsuch's death, a deed dated May 25, 1733, was recorded from 
John Gorsuch of Baltimore Co., planter, to Waller Dallas conveying the 
tract ["Gorsuch,"] oOOacres, for £100 sterling (Annap. Prov. Court Deeds 
P. L. no. 8; 161). May 28, 1733, Dalhis con\cys the same tract to Ecn- 



.VI i 



.rraiooa jAt»i*fOT«t' " ' i^J*' 



GENEALOGY. 219 

jamin Tasker, Charles Carroll, Daniel Dulany and others, later known 
as the Baltimore Company (Balto. Co. Deeds I. S. no. L; 373). In this 
latter deed it is recited that "Robert Gorsuch late of Baltimore County, 
dec'd. planter, by his will — devised to his son Robert, his heir, all that 
tract and plantation whereon he dwelt containing 500 acres and there- 
after died — and that Robert, the devisee entered into possession and died 
intestate and without issue, whereby the said land descended unto John 
Gorsuch, the cousen and heir at law of Robert the devisee," and that 
John Gorsuch then conveyed the land to Walter Dallas etc. 

All the data bearing upon this line of Robert Gorsuch"* has been given, 
because the evidence would seem to be susceptablc of at least three diff- 
erent interpretations. Robert Gorsuch who appears in Baltimore County 
about 1700 in possession of "Gorsuch" may have been: (1) Identical 
with Robert*, bom 1635 and the patentee of 1659-GO; (2) The son of 
Roberf*, the patentee; (3) A nephew of the patentee Robert'*, and a son of 
Charles* of Baltimore County. If the first hypothesis is correct Robert 
Gorsuch who was bom in 1635, living in Baltimore County in 1661, and 
living in England in 1675, returned to Baltimore County Vvhen 65 years 
old, became the father of a daughter Dorothy when between 65 and 70 
years of age, was appointed a road surveyor at 75, and died in 1725 at 85, 
leaving a widow and three children, at least one of whom was under 16, 
and two other children who were probably older. While this is all per- 
fectly possible, the dates and ages throw some doubt upon its probability. 
The second hypothesis assumes that Robert, who appears in Baltimore 
County about 1700, had inherited the tract "Gorsuch" from his father, 
the patentee of 1659-60, and dying in 1720, left "Gorsuch" to his mm 
Robert, the third of this name. Neither of these two theories are sup- 
ported by the inheritance of the land by John Gorsuch^, "cousen and heir 
at law" of the younger Robert, who died intestate and without issue in 
1733. As a matter of fact Robert Gorsuch* the patentee of 1659-60 had 
three brothers Richard* , Charles* , and Lovelace* , v.ho lived in Maryk.nd. 
All three were dead before 1733. Richard*, who was older than Charles*, 
is believed to have had male descendants then living on the Eastern 
Shore of Maryland (see Richard Gorsuch*, post), liut John Gorsuch'^, 
the eldest son of one of the younger brothers, Charles*, inherited "Gor- 
such" as the heir at law. This fact weakens the theory that Roljert who 
died in 1733 was of the direct line of Robert the patentee. Yet if "cousen" 
is given its modern meaning, and the words of the deed are to be taken at 
their face value, no other exjjlanation seems possible, and for some reason 
the heirs of the elder brother Richard"* were passed over. The third hypo- 
thesis that Robert who possessed "Gorsuch" in 1700 v. as a son of Charles* 
is only tenable if we assume that "cousen" in the deed means nncle, a 
sense in which it was occasionally used. Jolin Gorsuch^ who inlierited 
from Roljert, the younger, as "cousen and heir at law," was unfjuestion- 
ably the eldest son of Charles* . There is no reason wh v Charles'* ir.av not 



9tS .YW>c»*^ ' 



f 
1 1 

I: '' 

1 r 



220 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

have also had a son Robert, although there is no jjroof of the faet (see 
Charles Gorsuch'', post). If so the latter may have inherited "Gorsuch" 
under a will of his uncle Robert'* proved in England or elsewhere. There is 
no deed on record in Maryland from Robert*, the patentee, to his nephew 
or to anyone else, but the property may have been conveyed to hirn in 
some less formal way. Certainly Charles Gorsuch* held the land "in be- 
half of "Robert for some years, which means that he paid the cjuit rent 
for him. There was certainly a very intimate connection between this 
Robert and the family of Charles'. He was living in 1706 with John^, the 
eldest son of CharlesT This John Gorsuch^ acted as his executor, ^d 
John's wife Elizabeth , together with John's two younger brothers Thomas"' 
and Charles-'' Gorsuch signed his inventory, apparently as relations. 
John^ and Thomas^ Gorsuch later appear successively as administrators 
in 1733 of the younger Robert Gorsuch's estate. It is interesting to note 
that a Lovelace Gorsuch signs the younger Robert's inventory as next of 
kin. ThisLovelace cannot becertainly placed; it is possible that Charles 
had a son of this name; or he may have been Lovelace'', son of that 
Thomas^ (Charles*) who became administrator d. b. n. of Robert in 1733, 
although a.t Thomas^ was not married until Aug. 19, 1714, his son could 
not have been of full age Mar. 6, 1734-5. 

While it seems impossible to draw any absolutely definite conclusion 
from the above evidence as to the paternity of Robert Gorsuch who had 
three children living in 1714 and who died in 1720, certain definite facts 
are known in regard to his descendants. The maiden name of his wife 
Johanna is not known. That her estate was administered upon by 
William Green in 1728 and not by any of her husband's relations may have 
some significance. The statement in her inventory that there were "no 
relations," of course does not necessarily refer to any minor children she 
may have left, or to her husband's relations. While Robert Gorsuch had 
three children, Daniel, Robert and Dorothy, living in 1714, it is not cer- 
tain that any or all of these were the children of his wife Johanna, but the 
statement of her administrator in 1730 "the orphans of age this summer" 
rather indicates that she was probably the mother of at least two of the 
children, that the youngest child was then of age, and that at least one 
of the three children was born nearly as late as 1710. Of the three 
children of Robert, Daniel, who was cut off with 5 shillings, disappears 
from the records and probably died, or he would doubtless have appeared 
as the heir of his brother Robert to "Gorsuch." Robert, we knov,-, died 
intestate and without issue, March 19, 1733. It seems unlikely that he 
married. Of Dorothy, who was living in 1721, and who was then over 
IG years old or married, as she in that year received her portion, noth- 
ing further is dehnitely known. That she did not inherit "Gorsuch" 
from her brother Robert in 1733 does not indicate that she was then dead, 
as the land folluwed the male line. It seems quite possible that she may 
have married and left issue, for it has been shown that in June, 1737, there 



GENEALOGY. 221 

is a Court entry by the administrator of the personal property of Robert 
Gorsuch (died 1733) that the "representative of the said Robert had tlien 
come to full age." Whether this representative was of the line of Dor- 
othy or of the line of John Gorsuch^ (Charles'*), the "cinisen" who in- 
herited tlie land and who appears to have died soon after, is at present 
a matter of uncertainty (see Charles Gorsuch', post). It seems cjuite 
jjossible, however, that Dorothy, who may have dieil jjrior to receiving 
her share of her brother Robert's personal property, left a child who 
came of age 1737, and then became entitled to receive it. It is also 
just possible that Dorothy had a younger sister born after her father 
made his will in 1714, although this would appear to conflict with the 
statement of Johanna Gorsuch's administrator in 1730, that the orphans 
were then of age. 

(To l>e Continued) 



Descendants or Akchek Payne of "New Market." 
(Contributed by Juhn !M. Payne.) 
Goochland County, Virginia, and his wife Martha daughter of Na- 
thanial West Dandridgc and Dorathea daughter of Governor Alexander 
Spotswood. 

Mr. Payne was born in 1748 and married in 17G9. He was a son of 
Colonel John Payne of "White Hall" who represented Goochland in 
the House of Burgesses from 1752 to 17GS. 

Their children, omitting those who died in infancy, were: 

2 Annie Spotswood Payne, born April 19, 1772, married Thos. Mann 
Fleming; 

3 Martha Payne, born Nov. S, 1773, married Jeremiah Strother; 
Archer Payne, born Nov. 20, 1775, died unmarried; 

4 Durathea Dandridgc Payne, born July 10, 1777, married Edward 
Boiling; 

5 Jane Payne, married 1st Robert Boiling; 2nd James B. Ferguson; 

(3 Alexander Spotswood, born Oct. 20, 17S0, married Charlotte Bryce; 

7 Catherine Payne, married Archibald Boiling; 

8 John Robert Dandridgc, married Susan Bryce. 

2 

Anne Spotswood Payne, married Thomas Mann Fleming, son of 
Tarlton Fleming, and Mary Randolph of Tuckahoe. 

They had: 

Tarleton Fleming, who married Rebecca, daughter of Walter Coles of 
Albemarle. 

The issue of Tarleton & Rebecca Coles Fleming were: 

I Thos. Mann Fleming, married Virginia Hobson— issue. 

II Elizabeth Anne Fleming, married Capt. Wm. Wel)b, C. S. Navy — 
issue; 



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222 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

III Sarah Eleanor Fleming married Jesse Heath — Issue; 

IV William Randolph Fleming, married Mrs Lelia Wynn, widow of 
Robert E. Wynn and daughter of Wm. II. Shields of Yorktown — issue. 



Martha Payne, married Jeremiah Strother and they had: 

I Dr Strother, married died in Monroe Co.: 

II Martha Strother, died unmarried. 
Note- 
Mrs Martha Payne Strother died and her husband married 2nd, a 

Miss Clayton and were the parents of Sarah Strother who married 
James Logan of Dungeness, Goochland. 



Dorathea Dandridge Payne married Edward Boiling (see "Des- 
cendants of Pocahontas" by Gov'r Robertson) and ided early leaving 
one son. 

I Powhatan Boiling who died unmarried. 



Jane Payne married 1st Robert Boiling, no issue; 2nd James B. Fur- 
guson. She died in 1806 leaving one daughter a few months old: to- wit; 
Jane Elvira Ferguson, born April Gth, 1806, and married Peachy R. Grat- 
tan in 1827. She died Sept. 8, 1988. 

Mr. Grattan, the well known Reporter of the Court of Appeals of 
Virginia, was born November 7th, 1801 and died September 8th, 1881. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs Grattan, omitting those who died in in- 
fancy, are: 

I Elizabeth Gilmer, born April 11th, 1837, unmarried; 

II Sally Gay, born Aug. 10, 1838, married Otho H. Kean and had 
issue; 

III Lucy Gilmer, born Aug. 10, 183S, married Mr Alexander and 

died Oct. 14, 1899, leaving i.ssue; 

IV James Ferguson, born July 11, 1840, married Miss 

Morris, died in 1879 without issue; 

V George Gilmer, born Oct. 12, 1844, killed at Battle of Seven Pines. 



Alexander Spotswood Payne, born Oct. 20, 1780, married Sept. Gth, 
1804 — Charlotte Bryce, daughter of Archibald Bryce and Mary Michel. 
They inherited "New Market" in Goochland and lived there until 1840 
when they removed to a farm on Ivy Creek near Lynchburg where they 
lived the remainder of their lives, Air. Payne d}ing in 1859 and Mrs. 
Payne in 1870. 

(To be Continued) 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 223 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Empire and Armament, By Jennings C. Wise, New York and London, 
1910. G. P. Putnam's Sons, pp. 365. 

"It is a very valuable addition to our military historical literature and 
indicates most intelligent and comprehensive research. It will be of 
great use to all who wish to make a study of our past policy with a \iew 
to forming an opinion as to what should be done in the way of prepared- 
ness for national defence. The subject of preparation is approached in a 
systematic and logical manner and the reader takes up this chapter of 
the work with a very good understanding of the reasons for a most care- 
ful consideration of this vital subject. 

"The author's study of the subject of national defense must bring to 
all who understand that tnie democracies are founded upon manhood 
suffrage, an appreciation of the fact that with it goes, haml in hand, man- 
hood obligation for service. 

"There is not a dull sentence in the volume, so clear and simple is the 
style, and so well arranged and thoroughly' digested is the matter. It i:, 
reasoned out with the utmost clarity, and most logically and convincing- 
ly. Nothing oould be more timely than this book, and I feel sure that it 
will exercise a strong influence on public sentiment. It expresses the 
soundest common sense, and breathes the most ardent, yet most rational, 
patriotism." 

A BiBLioGR-^PHV OF VIRGINIA, Part I. Containing the Titles of Books 
in the Virginia State Library Which Relate to Virginia and Vir- 
ginians, the Titles of Those Books Written by Virginians and of 
Those Printed in Virginia. But not including the Titles of the 
Official Editions of the Laws, of the Journals of the Legislative 
Bodies, of the Reports of the Administrative C)fficers and r)thcr 
Published Official Documents. By Earl G. Swem, Assistant 
Librarian, Bulletin Va. State Library, April-October 1915, Ricli- 
mond 1916, pp. 767. 
It would be difficult to exaggerate the importance of this book to stu- 
dents of any phase of Virginia life or history. The author states that i t is 
not complete. This is a matter of course, but all interested will feel sure 
that in the able hands of Dr. Mcllwaine the Lil)rarian, and of Mr. Swem, 
it will ultimatel}' be brought to completion. The book covers meor 
ground than ever its comprehensive title would indicate, for, in addition 
to books, many magazine articles and several publications are catalogued. 
In order to economize space, subject titles are, as a rule, shown only in 
the index, the various works appearing under authors in the text. 



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224 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Journals oi" thk House of Burgessks ok Vik(.i\ia 1G19-1(j3S-50. Edited 
by II. R. Mclhvaine, Va. State Lil)rary, Richmond, Va., MCMXV, 

pp. 283. 

This, the 13th volume, completes the most important historical pub- 
lication ever begun in Virginia, the journals of the colonial House of Bur- 
gesses so far as they remain. During the period covered by this volum- 
the records of the Assembly are very defective, but Dr. ;Mclhvaine has 
brought together all that remain and has added a number of valuable 
illustrative documents. Dr. Mcllwaine's prefaces and notes are, as 
usual, most valuable. This volume also contains a general index to the 
whole thirteen. 

A Man's Reach. By Sally Nelson Robins. Philadelphia and London, 

J. B. Lippincott Co., 1916, pp. 333. 

This departm.ent does not review works of fiction; but we acknowledge 

the receipt of this story laid in Virginia; almost at the present time, by a 

lady who was long the very effioitnt Assistant Librarian of this Society. 

Some E.MUiRANTS to Virginia. Memoranda in regard to Several Hun- 
dred Emigrants to Virginia During the Colonial Period whose 
Parentage is shown or former Residence indicated by Authentic 
Records. By W. G. Stanard, Second Edition Enlarged lOlo, Bell 
Book Sz Stationery Company, Richmond, Va., p]). 94. 

Kentucky in the War ok ISLJ. By A. C. Ouisenberry. Ky. Historical 
Society, Frankfort 1915. 
This valuable book gives in minute detail the services of Kentucku.ns 
in the last war with England. Among the hundreds of names mentioned 
and, of course, many natives of Virginia and sons of Virginians. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



Virginia Historical Society 



AT ITS 



ANNUAL MEETING 



HELD IN THE 



HOUSE OF THE SOCIETY 



ON 



March 20. 1916 



MITCHELL ii: HOTCHKISS 
PRINTERS TO THE SOCIETY 
KICH>l()NU, VA. 



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Virginia Historical Society 

' ' ■ IN ' 

Annual Meeting Held March 20, 1916. 
The Annual Meeting was held in the Society's House, 707 
East Franldin Street, on March 20th, at 4 P. M., with Presi- 
dent W. Gordon McCabe in the chair. 

The first business was the reading of President McCabe 's 
Annual Report as follows: 

Annual Report of the President of the Virginia 
Historical Society for 1915. 

To THE Members of the Virginia Historical Society: 

I have the honor to submit the following Report, giving 
a summary of the work of the Society and presenting a detailed 
statement of its finances, m.embership and proj^erty for the year 
ending November 30th, 1915 — which Report has been duly 
examined, minutely verified, and unanimously approved by 
}'our Executive Committee. 

While it is true that little of special significance has occun-ed 
since our last Report, it is yet a source of no small satisfaction 
to record that much solid achievement has marked the history 
of the Society during this time and that our finances, notwith- 
standing the increased expenditures incident to the broadening 
of the scope of our work, were never in a sounder condition. 

Despite the "hard times" which prevailed during the greater 
portion of the year, we have more than held our own, adding, 
indeed, no insignificant sum to our "Permanent Fund," which, 



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IV VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

while still far below what our aims demand, is yet the largest 
as to amount in the annals of the Society 

Collections of annual dues have been far more i'atisfactory 
than for the past two or three years, owing, no doubt, to the 
drastic purging of our rolls by order of the Executive Com- 
mittee. There are, however, still left some few of these de- 
linquents, who turn a deaf ear to the "gentle reminders" of 
our "collector," and others, who, like the debtors in King Henry 
IV, "pay some and promise infinitely." If these members 
could, in any way, be brought to realize to what extent their 
failure to pay their just debts not seldom embairasses the 
Society (which scrupulously pays its own), perhaps for very 
shame's sake they would cease their cynical indifference or (to 
employ a more euphemistic phrase) their inexcusable negli- 
gence, and by prompt payment enable your Executi\'e Com- 
mittee to broaden still further the scope of our Magazine. 

Further appeal to the consciences of these delinquents seems 
futile. To paraphrase Shakespeare a trifle, some men are born 
honest, some achieve honesty (as a sort of "best policy"), but 
our records prove beyond cavil that there are others who stub- 
bornly refuse to have it even thrust upon them. We have 
been not only considerate, but most indulgent, and now 
"where the offense is, let the great axe fall." 

In spite, however, of "hard times" and of these recalcitrant 
debtors, who, from time to time, were dropped after repeated 
warnings, our rolls show a mcmbershi]) of 757, an increase of 
7 over last year. 

That our finances continue in a thoroughly sound and sat- 
isfactory condition, is evidenced by the subjoined 

Treasurer's Report: 
Balance in Bank December 1, 1914 S210.50 

Receipts. 

Annual Dues S2,939.05 

Life Members 100.00 

Sale of Magazines 291.90 

Sale of Publications 37.50 

Interest G37 .45 

Advertising 44.50 

Rent 150.00_ $4,200.40 

§1,410.90 



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PROCEEDINGS. ... :. V 

Disbursements. 

Salaries . SI, 521. 00 

Wages 300.00 ... ' 

Books, Binding, etc 7!). 15 

Sundry Bills 241.07 

Postage and Express 121. l.S 

Checks returned 15.10 

Miscellaneous Printing 63.50 

Repairs 43.43 

Printing Magazines 1,340.47 

To Permanent Fund 300.00 

Insurance. 6.00 

Di.scount .50 4,041.16 

Balance in Bank November 30, 1015 -. 309.74 



S4, 410.90 



Permanent Fund. • 

3% Savings Deposit $1,100.00 

Mortgage 6% 1,000.00 

Mortgage 6% 5,500.00 

Twenty-live (25) Shares of Stock in the Citizen's Bank of 

Norfolk, Va., paying lO^'o dividends, estimated value 5,000.00 



$12,600.00 



In accordance with an order of the Executive Committee, the Treasurer 
presents the following tabulated statement showing the sources from 
which the Permanent Fund is derived. What is termed the "Society's 
Fund" comprises the amount the Committee has been able to save from 
year to year out of the ordinary revenues of the Society. 

The Virginia Sturdivant McCabe Fund, given by the Pres- 
ident of the Society in loving memory of his grand-daugh- ■ < 
ter Virginia Sturdivant McCabe, born February 1, 1900, 

died August 11, 1909 $500.00 

The Jane Pleasants Harrison Osborne McCabe Fund given 
by the President of the Society in loving memory of his 
wife, Jane Pleasants Harrison Osborne McCabe, who died 

November 22, 1912 500.00 

Daughters of the American Revolution Fund 100.00 

Bvam K. Stevens Fund 650.00 

Edward Wilson James Fund 4,500.00 

Society's Fund 6,350.00 

$12,600.00 

It should be observed that while the report of current receipts and 
disbursements is for the fiscal year ending November 30lh, the state- 
ment of the amount of the Permanent Fund is brought up to the date of 
the Annual Meeting. 

Though our total receipts from regular sources are less by $25.24 than 
last year (on account of the very unusual sale of sets of the magazine 
during 1914) it is very gratifying to see that the receipts from annual 
dues are $174.20 more than last year. E.xcluding the large expenditure 



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VI VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

for repairs in 1914 (for which the means were derived from the Perma- 
nent Fund) our expenditures this year arc less than last. The best in- 
dication that we have had a prosperous year from the financial stand- 
point is that though we have promptly met every obligation and con- 
ducted the affairs of the Society with all necessary liberality, we have 
this year a balance of $369.74 against $210.50 last year, and that, though 
there have been no gifts to the Permanent Fund this year, we have been 
able from our regular income to add $400.00 to it, making the amount 
$200.00 more than it has ever been before. $100.00 of this addition was 
made before the date of the last annual meeting, February 1915, so the 
net increase of the Permanent Fund over the last report is $300.00. In 
addition to these facts it may be stated that within a week after the 
end of the fiscal year the Society did not owe a dollar. 

Respectfully submitted, 
. , ROBERT A. LANCASTER, Jr., 

Treasurer. 

Additions to the Library. 

The addition to the library in books and pamphlets total 840, 
an increase of 235 over last year. Thedonors to whom is due 
grateful acknowledgement are: Hon. Amiistead C. Gordon, 
Col. Jennings C. Wise, Judge George L. Christian, Major 
"William A. Anderson, Sir Gilbert Parker, Bart., Judge Norris 
S. Barratt, W. Gordon McCabe, Douglas H. Thomas, R. A. 
Lancaster, Jr., James Branch Cabell, Marshall D. Haywood, 
J. G. Hankins, Auditor C. Lee Moore, Gideon I\L Harris, 
Henry A. Sampson, M. A. Shiree, David L Bushnell, Jr., A. P. 
Wilmer, W. K. Chisholm, R. H. North, W. W. Hamson, Frank 
A. Owen, Lindsay Russell, H. T. Ezekicl, Albert Matthews, 
A. W. Alderson, E. D. Millette, G. E. Dwelley, Fisk Kimball, 
Edwin J. Sellers, Henry T. Harrison, John T. Trezvant, James 
Sprunt, Robert B. Munford, Jr., Bauman L. Belder, E. F. 
Pratt, Thos. B. Rowland, H. A. Statenbttrgh, Chas. G. Bosher, 
Fred'k B. Hyde, H. E. Deats; Rev. A. H. Hord, D. D., Rev. 
W. J. Hinke, D. D.; Professors Lyon G. Tyler, Charles A 
Graves, J. W. Wayland, Ulrich B. Phillips, and A. J. Morrison; 
Doctors J. B. Earnest, Emory Jordan, McGuire Newton, H. 
L. E. Johnson; Mesdames Sally Nelson Robins, Lipscombe 
Norvell, Chas. R. Hyde, James M. Lawton, John W. Holcombe, 
Wells Thompson; Misses M. M. Pleasants, Jane S. Stanard, 
E. L. Stanard ; Smithsonian Institution, Royal Society of Canada, 
Carnegie Endowment for Universal Peace, Rockefeller Founda- 
tion, Rockefeller Sanitary Commission, Library of Congress, 



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PROCEEDINGS. , ' VU 

Virginia State Library, Yale University Library, Columbia 
University Press, University of California, Apprentices Lib- 
rary (Philadelphia), Newberry Library (Chicago), Indian 
Rights Commission, Virginia Society of Colonial Dames, New 
York Society of Colonial Dames, Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Company, the Paris (France) Chamber of Commerce, 
Richmond (Va.) Chamber of Commerce, California Society 
S. A. R., National Society S. A. R., Alliance Francaise, Amer- 
ican Bar Association, Virginia Bar Association, Japan Society 
of America, Hispania Society of America, Swedish Historical 
Society, Georgia Historical Society, Trustees of Philadelphia 
Museum, Adjutant-General of Kentucky, and Gettysburg 
National Park Commission. 

A very large number of newspapers, periodicals, and pam- 
phlets (beyond the usual 8vo. size) have been substantially 
bound, while our "binders" now number 351, containing about 
three thousand five hundred pamphlets. We are also pre- 
serving in "binders" numerous local imprints and clippings, 
which cannot fail to prove most helpful to future historians 
of Richmond. 

Gifts and Bequests. 

1. A full length portrait in oils of the late Joseph Bryan, so 
long the beloved President and benefactor of this Society, 
presented by his sons. 

2. Five large photographs (framed, and almost of the same 
size as the originals) of: (1) Robert Boiling (1G4G-17U9); (2) 
Robert Boiling (1682-1749); (3) Robert BoUing (1730-1775); 
(4) Robert Boiling (1759-1839— of "the Petersburg Boilings" 
branch of the family); and (5) Colonel William Heth of the 
"Continental Line" — all presented by their lineal descendant, 
Heth Lorton, esq., formerly of Virginia, now of "^vlatoa," 
Garden City, Long Island. 

3. The original official appointment (Dec. 6, 1752) of John 
Maury as surveyor of lands in Prince William County, Vir- 
ginia, signed by Colonel William Fairfax (cousin and agent of 
Thomas Lord Fairfax), who was Lieutenant of the County of 



.«T?! ••" " ' ' ' DtmO 






Vm VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Fairfax and President of the Virginia Council — given to Presi- 
dent McCabe by the late Charles H. Conover of Chicago, well 
known as an ardent "collector" and antiquarian, and presented 
by the fomicr to the Society. 

4. An old "whipping-strap," used in early Colonial days in 
legal whippings at Gloucester, C. H., (Va.) — presented by W. 
B. Cridlin, esq., of this city 

5. (1) A copy of the famous correspondence that passed 
between John Randolph of Roanoke and Mrs. Gouverneur 
Morris (Anne Cary Randolph), in which that sprightly and sar- 
castic dame got decidedl}^ the better of her acrid kinsman; (2) 
a "broad-side" advertising Miss Hunneywell's gallery of cuts 
and needlework; (3) a silhouette cut by Miss Hunney well- 
presented by Miss Lucie P. Stone, Hollins, Virginia. 

G. A framed photograph of the miniatiu^e of Patrick Henr}'' 
painted by Laurence Sully in 1793 — presented by the former 
owner of the miniature, John Syme Fleming, esq., of Richmond, 
together with various interesting documents relating to the 
original. 

7. A photogravure of Trumbull's portrait of Washington 
(now in Yale University), presented by the Secretary, William 
G. Stanard. 

8. A steel engraving of Hon. Jefiferson Davis, when Secre- 
tary of War of the United States — presented by Arthur L. 
Steams, esq., of New York City. 

9. A steel engraving (very rare) of General Robert E. Lee, 
executed b}^ John Sartain — presented by Arthur L. Steams, esq. , 
of New York City. 

10. An engraving of "Bathurst," a very ancient residence 
in Essex County, Virginia — presented b}^ Judge L. H. Jones, 
Louisville, Ky. 

IL A large number of copies of "The National Intelligencer" 
(Washington, D. C.) — presented by R. L. Peyton, Esq., The 
Plains, Virginia. 

Publications. 

1. Volume XXIII of our (Quarterly) Magazine was puh- 
lished during the year, and, it is needless to add. was conducted 



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PROCEEDINGS. • ^^ 

on the same high plane that historical students at home and 
abroad confidently look for in it, its accomplished editor stead- 
ily adhering to his settled purpose of printing (save in very rare 
instances) only original documents dealing with Virginia 
Colonial history. 

2. The ''Minnies oj the Council and General Court" {1622- 
162"/), transcribed from the originals in the Library of Congress 
1j_\' Mr. Lothrop Withington of London, have run through the 
year, but the untimely death of this generous friend and keen 
antiquarian (who perished in the dastardly and stupid destruc- 
tion of the "Lusitania") rendered it necessary that provision 
should be promptly made for the uninterrupted continuation 
of this valuable series of documents, which, for the first time, 
have given historical students a detailed account of the inti- 
mate every-day life of the Colony. Under direction of the Presi- 
dent of the Society, the Corresponding Secretary went to 
Washington, and, through the courteous permission of the 
Cliief Librarian, had "photostat" copies made of a large portion 
of the original IMS. This he is now transcribing and annotating, 
and the first instalment of his work is already in type for the 
January (1916) number of the Magazine. We may repeat here, 
without fear of successful contradiction, what was asserted in 
our Report of two years ago — that no printed document what- 
ever dealing with early Colonial industrial and social life is of 
more solid and illumining value than these "Minutes." 

3. The series of ''Abstracts," by the late W. N. Sainsbury, as 
well as the "Complete Transcripts" from the originals in the 
British "Public Records Office" (now in the Virginia State 
Library and commonly known as the "Dejamette," "Winder," 
and "McDonald" Papers) have regularly appeared in each 
number of the Magazine, covering the years 1677 and 167S. 
These latter instalments, it may here be noted, offer minute 
details of the very troublous period immediately following 
"Bacon's Rebellion." 

4. The "Council Papers" (i6g8-i'/oi), transcribed by our own 
co|)yist from the rare and long-forgotten MS volume, so en- 
titled, in the Virginia State Library (which bears on the fly- 
leaf the inscription, "This Book begun by Mr. Benjamin Har- 



ir// 



X VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

rison, Clerk of ye Council in 1698") have also ran through the 
year to the increasing delight of both the historical student 
and the idlest general reader. These "Papers," never before 
in print until published in our pages, constitute, in truth, a 
veritable "human document," containing, as they do, not only 
formal official communications, "instructions" and proclama- 
tions, but a wealth of personal letters vividly portraying the 
social and economic life of the Colonists. 

5. We ha\'e also drawn largely during the year from the 
manuscript treasures of our own collections: 

As worthy of especial note among the papers so published, we 
may mention: (1) Letters of Thomas Adams (brother of Col. 
Richard Adams, some of whose letters we published last year 
in our Magazine), which, dealing, as they do, with the trade 
between Virginia and the mother-country in the years immedi- 
ately preceding the Revolution (1708-1775), must prove of 
distinct interest to economic students; (2) a series of "Letters 
and other Papers," which embrace as wide a range in subject- 
matter as they cover in time (1705-1829); chief among them 
being the letters from Edward Athawes, London Merchant, 
to "the Hon'ble John, Charles and Landon Carter, Esquires, in 
Rappahannock River, Virginia," relating to the consignments 
of tobacco, made to him from the estate of their nephew and 
ward, Robert Carter of "Nominy," at that time a minor, who 
was, later on, to Ijc known as that "Councillor Carter," who has 
been so graphically portrayed for us by Philip Fithian in his 
delightful "Diary." The s]Decial value of these Athawes 
letters lies in the minute details they give as to the conditions 
at that time (1735) of the Virginia tobacco trade, then (as for 
many years before and after) the chief commercial business of 
the Colony.- Tliese are followed by a number of letters of 
considerable moment to Revolutionary students written to 
Col. Theodorick Bland (commanding the regiment guarding 
British prisoners in Albemarle Co., Va., 1779) by John Allen, 
CajJtain and Quartermaster; then (going back chronologically) 
a scries of letters from Nathaniel Blackiston (fonnerly a Gover- 
nor of Maryland, but, at the time, "Agent of Virginia and 
Maryland" in England) to Philiij Ludwell (Second) of "Green- 



PROCEEDINGS. ' XI 

Spring," James City County, Va. (the uncompromising enemy 
of quarrelsome Governor Nicholson), mainly taken up with the 
political gossip "at home." More attractive still to the general 
reader, who finds his interest in social life and manners rather 
than in poHtical or economic discussions, will prove the intimate 
family letters of Mrs. Lucy Ambler of "Morven," Fauquier Co., 
to her cousin, Mrs. Sallie Massie of Nelson Co., which portray 
in artless and lively fashion the busy life of the mistress of a 
Virginia plantation in the early part of the last century, and 
which, incidentally, give most abundant proof of the kindly, 
nay, afifectionate, relations, that existed between master and 
servants (they were never called "slaves" by gentle-folk) in 
those brave old days. Their charm is no whit impaired by a 
variegated, not to say picturesque, orthography, which the 
most radical "Spelling Reformer" has never rivalled in his 
most daring aberrations from the norm. Nor do these eccen- 
tricities of orthography, even in a more exaggerated degree, 
detract from our keen interest in the letters of Mistress Eliza- 
beth Beverley of "Blandfield," Essex Co. (sister of the Revolu- 
tionary statesman, Richard Bland of "Jordan's Point," Prince 
George County), evidently a "Colonial Dame" of masterful 
mind, who did not hesitate to score relentlessly her "grate 
relations" for not succoring her "Sis'r JMunford" left in straitened 
circumstances. Other letters under this general title, treating 
of Colonial and Revolutionary matters, are equally readable. 
6. Of special value is a series of papers entitled ''The Vir- 
ginia Frontier in History, 1778", contributed by Mr. David I. 
Bushnell, Jr. (a member of the Society), who has achieved high 
reputation as an expert in Indian history in the "Bureau of 
American Ethnology." It is the work of a trained specialist 
and contains many highly important documents transcribed 
by the writer from the archives of the Virginia State Library 
and the Library of Congress, that deal with the history of our 
frontier in 1778 and our relations with "the wily red-skins." 
Three instalments of this most valuable paper have been pub- 
lished (beginning with the April number of the Magazine) and 
the series is to be continued. It is admirably annotated 
throughout, and, when completed, should be j^resented in book 



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XU VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

form as constituting a solid contribution to tlie early history 
of this commonwealth. 

7. To the long list of historical "finds" that stand to our 
credit during recent and past years, we have added yet another 
of prime importance, vi'hich appeared in our July number under 
the title "Acts, Orders and Resolutions of the General Assem- 
bly oj Virginia, At Sessions of 1643-1646." These Acts and 
other "proceedings" (not printed in Hening, it is to be noted) 
are contained in a manuscript volume, which Mr. Charles F. 
Mcintosh (an indefatigable antiquarian and member of this 
Society) discovered a short time ago while making researches 
in the Clerk's Office at Portsmouth, Virginia. Apprized of the 
"find", Dr. Henry R. Mcllwaine, our alert and accomplished 
State Librarian (who is as keen in running down an old Vir- 
ginia manuscript as ever was Sir Francis Drake in his roving 
quest of the treasure-ships of "Old Spain")went at once to Ports- 
mouth in person, examined the precious, long-forgotten, vol- 
ume and, having secured from the proper custodians pennission 
to do so, brought back the book to Richmond, and had it copied 
by one of the trained scribes of the Library Staff, with the view 
of incorporating these "Acts" in any future collection of Vir- 
ginia laws. But, as there seemed no prospect of publishing 
such a collection for some time to come, he most generously 
handed over his copy to our Editor for publication in the Mag- 
azine. 

The Acts of the Session of March 1643, deal especially with 
the Second Indian War, an episode in our Colonial history of 
which very little has been, heretofore, known. There are also 
other "Acts" of no small importance, among them one (printed 
it is true, in Hening, but erroneously dated) entitled, "A Dec- 
laration concerning the Dutch War, 1647," which (pp. 244-246 
of the Magazine) contains a very vigorous statement of Colonial 
rights in the matter "granted unto us by ancient charter." 

Your Committee takes this occasion to make grateful 
knowlcdgement of Dr. Mcllwaine's courtesy, which affords 
additional evidence of his constant readiness to serve the in- 
terests of the Society, which in this instance are identical with 
"the good of the State." 



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8. Of noteworthy value to determined historical students 
may be also mentioned: (1) "Index to Bnmswick County 
(Va.) Wills" (Letter H), wliich we owe to the industry of Air. 
W. B. Cridlin of this city (a member of the Society) and which 
is to be continued by that painstaking antiquarian; (2) the con- 
tinuation of "Animadversions on a Paper Entitulated Virginia 
Addresses, Printed in Philadelphia," a document prepared by 
the House of Burgesses during their quarrel with Governor 
Spotswood (1719), which we dealt with at length in our last 
Report; (3) "County Court Proceedings in Virginia, 1734," 
which contains some very amusing reading to the "layman," 
whatever its worth to the legal profession; (4) "Lists of Tith- 
ables of Pittsylvania County, year 17G7," for which we are 
indebted to Mrs. N. E. Clement of Chatham, Virginia (a mem- 
ber of the Society), for whose valuable contributions to our 
Alagazine we have often had occasion to express profound 
gratitude. These "Lists" give the number of acres of land 
owned by each resident in the county together with the names 
of the "tithables." It is greatly to be regretted that we have 
not similar lists for all the counties in this commonwealth, 
which, through close comparative study, would enable us to 
solve not a few vexed problems of our economic history ; 

(5) "Abstracts of Lists of Wills and Administrations from 
British Probate Courts," which have been published in our 
Magazine during the past twelve years (beginning January, 
1903) under the title "Virginia Gleanings in England." 

It would be idle for us to dwell again on the illumining side- 
lights shed on the social and economic life of our early Col. 
onial era by these "Gleanings," so generously "compiled and 
presented" to the Society by our staunch friend, Mr. Lothrop 
Withington, of London. Repeatedly, year after year, have we 
made grateful acknowledgement to him of his unwearied labors. 
This alphabetical reference list to the entire series (which will 
prove a boon to all students of Virginia history) was also 
"compiled and presented" by Mr. Withington, and alas! is to 
be the last of the many kind services that he so ungrudingly 
rendered the Society. Finis opus coronatl; (G) an artless, yet 
shrewd, and, we doubt not, veracious, description of Virginia 



mz 



XIV VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, 

as it was in 1785, contained in a lengthy letter written by a 
young Irishman, John Jo^'ce, to his uncle, the Rev. Robert 
Dickson, of Narrow Water near Newry, County Armagh. 
This most interesting letter was given to the vSociety many 
years ago by Governor John Letcher (Virginia's "War Gover- 
nor") and according to tradition was found in Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia, during the war of 1812. From certain allusions in this 
letter, Joyce was probably tutor in the family of Thomas 
Lomax of "Portobago Bay," on the Rappahannock. The 
letter has been admirably annotated by our Editor and fonns 
most agreeable reading. It is amusing to see that the groans 
of the farmers over "unjust taxes" were as deep and dismal in 
1785 as they are now, and, no doubt, will continue to be till the 
crack o'doom. 

The Departments of "Notes and Queries," "Book-Reviews" 
and "Genealogy," have been conducted on the usual high plane. 
As regards the last-named department, it is pertinent to men- 
tion here that the general reader, who may care little for gen- 
ealogy in itself, will find, on even a cursory glance, that many 
of these "genealogies" (comprising, as they do, wills, inven- 
tories and domestic letters) throw unexpected light on the 
social and economic history of the time, while affording most 
delightful and instructive reading. It is gratifying to recall 
that not a few men and women, who originally joined the 
Society for only a single year in order to receive the Magazine 
during the publication of some particular genealogy, have 
gradually become deeply interested in general Virginia history 
and are' now reckoned among our most dependable subscribers. 
It seems, indeed, safe to say that a large i^roportion of our 
present membership had this origin. 

. 1916. • • 

Our Editor has already mapped out a most attractive pro- 
gramme for 1910. 

The ''Minutes of the Council cuid General Court" will con- 
tinue through the whole year, as will also the "Sainsbnry Ab- 
stracts" and "Complete Transcripts" from the originals in the 



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PROCEEDINGS. XV 

British Public Records Ofilce, from 1077 on (known as the 
"Dcjarnette," "Winder" and "McDonald" Papers.) 

The "Council Papers" will be continued (and jfrobably 
concluded) during the year. 

Mr. David I. Bushnell, Jr., has kindly j^romised to contri- 
bute at least two more instalments of his most valuable mono- 
graph on "The Virginia Frontier in History, 177S," the previous 
sections of which have already excited wide-spread interest 
and commendation. Mrs. Clement's "Pittsylvania Tithables" 
and Mr. W. B. Cridlin's "Index to Sussex County Wills" (the 
last instalment of which appeared in 1913, Vol. XXI, pp. 2o9- 
276) will, both, be resumed and carried through to com};letion. 

Most of our readers, no doubt, still cherish delightful recol- 
lections of the "Moravian Diaries of Travel through Vir- 
ginia," translated from the Geraian originals in the archives 
of the Moravian church at Bethlehem, Penn., by Rev. William 
J. Hinke, Ph. D., assisted by Mr. Charies E. Kemper of Wash- 
ington, D. C. These "Diaries," minutely annotated by these 
two able scholars and acute antiquarians, of the brave and 
pious Isloravian IVIissionaries, who came from Pennsylvania 
to the Western portion of this Colony about the middle of the 
eighteenth century (1748 on), contain vivid pictures of the rude 
settlers among whom they labored, and, when presented to the 
reading public in our pages (where they appeared for the first 
time in English), were, ever>^vhere and at once, recognized as a 
contribution of prime import to a more precise knowledge of 
the influence of the Gemian element in the settlement of many 
Virginia counties, notably in the settlement of "the Valley." 

Dr. Hinke has now translated (from a copy of the original 
in the "City Library" of Berne), the "Report of the Journey 
of Francis Louis Michel from Berne, Switzeriand, to Virginia, 
Oct. 2nd, 1701— Dec. 1st, 1792." This "Report," carefully 
annotated by the translator, will appear for the first time in 
English guise in the pages of our Magazine for the coming year. 
The first instalment will be printed in our January (1910) 
number, accompanied by a very curious map (on a reduced 
scale) drawn by Michel himself. The traveller also left a 
series of sketches of such ancient historic buildings as the first 



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XVI VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

College of William and Mary, the Virginia State House, Old 
Bruton Church, of the Indians and their houses etc., all of 
which will appear as illustrative of the text, as it api:ears in 
successive instalments. 

A close investigation recently made by our Corresponding 
Secretary and Editor, disclosed the fact that only about twenty- 
nine of the one hundred and forty letters contained in the 
"Letter-Book" (1683-1G91) of Captain William Byrd (father 
of the more celebrated Col. William Byrd of Westover) had 
been printed in Maxwell's "Historical Register" (I, GO, 11-i; 
n, 78, 203). Mr. Maxwell (nomen venerabile!) appears to have 
selected at random those that he decided to print from the little 
MS volume that has been for so many years in our possession. 
However, some of the "curious" may recall that those that he 
did print excited at the time very lively attention, and our 
Editor, finding these unpublished ones no whit inferior in in- 
terest to those already given to the public, has decided to print 
(beginning, probably, with our April number) the entire col- 
lection until completed. 

While our lamented friend, Mr. Lothrop Withington, left 
unfinished much of the work which he had proposed doing for 
the Society in the matter of "Abstracts" from British Wills 
relating to Virginia and Virginians, he yet left with us (on the 
eve of his faring on his last fateful voyage) a very considerable 
number of completed abstracts, wiiich will enable us to carry on 
the scries of "Virginia Gleanings in England" for some time to 
come. As repeatedly dwelt on by us in Report after Report 
(and as touched upon above), these abstracts throw such light 
(direct and indirect) on the character of Virginia immigrants 
and on their social and industrial life, that it is earnestly to be 
hoped that some enthusiastic antiquarian over seas may siill 
be found to continue this part, at least, of Mr. Withington 's 
manifold activities in furthering the aims of this Society. 

The publication of letters and documents relating to our 
Revolutionary soldiers and to Virginia matters during, and 
immediately subsequent to, that momentous struggle, will be 
continued. ., , . 



Itl 



PROCEEDINGS. XVll 

The "Book-Reviews," "Notes and Queries" and "Genealogy" 
will, of course, be earned on with the same conscientious care 
as heretofore. For this last department, we have been for- 
tunate enough to secure from Dr. J. Hall Pleasants of Balti- 
more, Md. (a member of the Society) a series of contributions 
that we are confident will be found of si)ecial historical value, 
as well as of marked interest to the general reader. Taking as his 
text (so to speak) the children (immigrants to Virginia) of the 
Rev. John Gorsuch, an aggressive and fearless "Royalist" par- 
son, and of Anne, his wife, daughter of Sir William Lovelace 
and sister of Richard Lovelace, i)rince of "Ca\'alier Poets," 
Dr. Pleasants has through painstaking investigations, boih 
here and in England, established kinship of these children with 
a group of famous Kentish "Worthies," who exercised a com- 
manding influence on early Virginia colonization. Licluded in 
this group are names that still stir the blood of Virginians "to 
the manner boni" — Sir Edwin Sandys, George Sandys, Sir 
Francis Wyatt, and of an earlier date, Christopher Carlisle, Sir 
Humphrey Gilbert, Sidney, Walsingham, and the Earl of Essux. 
The inherent value of Dr. Pleasants' printed images vrill be still 
further enhanced by the insertion in the text of a number of 
illustrations — photographs of family portraits, old churches, 
monuments etc. — which this delightful antiquarian secured 
during his various pilgrimages to England. 

It is pertinent to suggest here that a "General Index" to our 
Magazine is greatly needed. The demand for it comes again 
and again to us from busy historical students, but such an 
imdertaking is at j^resent beyond the means of the Society. 

If a sufficient number of subscribers to such a volume could 
be secured beforehand, it would be feasible at the close of 1917 
to publish a general index covering the twenty-five volumes 
of our Magazine. Subscriptions may be sent to our Secretary. 

Your Committee, while recording here, as is only just, its 
high sense of the industry and fidelity of the whole working 
staff of the Society, desires to mark in an especial manner its 
deep appreciation of the unwearied labors of our Corresponding 
Secretary, who by his learning, critical acumen and Hterary 
skill has achieved for our Magazine an assured position among 



IIVX 



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XVni VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the foremost of like historical publications at home and abroad — 
steadily maintaining its prestige, as the years go by, until today 
it is everywhere quoted as definitive "authority" by all students 
who deal with Virginia history. 

It is pleasant to record in this connection that the ancient 
foundation of "William and Mary" has during the year, in rec- 
ognition of his learning and devotion to letters, conferred upon 
him her highest (and rarely accorded) degree of "Doctor of Laws." 

Necrology. 
Life Members. 
Judge Theodore S. Garnett, Norfolk, Virginia. 

Annual IMembers. 
Major John P. Branch, Richmond, Virginia. 
James N. Boyd, Richmond, Virginia. 
Lucas Brodhead, Versailles, Kentucky. 
Mrs. F. M. Boykin, Richmond, Virginia. 
Commander M. B. Buford, U. S. N., Paris, France. 
C. B. Bryant, Martin.svillc, Virginia. 
Alexander Cameron, Richmond, Virginia. 
Brig.-General C. C. C. Carr, U. S. A., Chicago, Illinois. 
Hon. Holmes Conrad, Winchester, Virginia. 
Jacob Hefflefinger, Hampton, Virginia. 
Robert L. Parrish, Jr., Covington, \'irginia. 
L. R. Warren, Richniond, Virginia. 
Hon. Joseph E. Washington, Wessyngton, Tennessee. 
Dr. John F. Winn, Riclmiond, Virginia. 
LoTHROP Withington, LondoH, England. 

This is next to the longest "Necrology" that we hav^e ever 
had to record in the history of the Society. 

Not a few of the names embraced in the sad roll are of those 
who were not only men of distinction in their respective com- 
munities and states, but conspicuous for their talents and high 
personal and civic virtues throughout the whole country. 

During recent years, it has been usual for the President to 
sketch in outline the careers of our deceased members, but so 
long is the present mournful roll that it is manifestly impossible, 



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PROCEEDINGS. XIX 

within the limits at his command, for him to do this in every 
case for the current year. In not a few cases, indeed, lack of 
intimate personal knowledge would alone forbid such an at- 
tempt, for the mere conventional notice always rings false and 
not only defeats its well-meant purpose, but, oftentimes, does 
grave injustice to the dead. 

Yet, surely, it is only becoming that in the "Minutes" of the 
Society there should be some record, however halting, of those 
who were not only knit to us by ties of long and intimate friend- 
ship, but whose loyalty to this association never wavered when 
our skies were not so bright as they are to-day 

Foremost among these is Judge Theodore S. Gamett of Nor- 
folk, the only name, indeed, stricken from the roll of Life Mem- 
bership, yet a loss of such grievous import to the community 
and commonwealth, to the jwofession and to the ancient com- 
munion to which he belonged, as well as to a large circle of 
kinsmen, comrades, and friends, that it is difficult to speak of 
this daring soldier, learned jurist and humble-minded christian, 
this n:ost lovable and most loyal of friends, save in terms 
which to those who did not enjoy the privilege of his intimate 
I friendship must savor of rhetorical extravagance. 

But in this presence, at least, where so many of \^ou knew him 
as he was, one need not fear that imputation. The misgiving 
is, rather, that you will deem the outline blurred by excess of 
caution and repression. 

Living slightly beyond the Psalmist's limit of three score 
years and ten, his career was a busy and beneficient one to the 
end, and though, speaking with rigorous exactness, it was in 
the main uneventful, yet not a few honors came to him as the 
3^ears went by, and, as he himself loved most to remember, in 
"the May of youth and bloom of lustihood" he had known many 
a "crowded hour of glorious life," and had, on field of battle, 
won the plaudits of grizzled veterans ere the down was on his 
cheek. So strenuous indeed was his life from early boyhood, 
that it is not possible to set down here more than a mere outline 
of its varied activities. ,.,>„.: ■ ■, , > ! 

Briefly then, Theodore Stanford Garnett, Jr., was born in 
Richmond, Virginia, on October 28th, 1844, son and namesake 



JIOV/ 



XX VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGARINE. 

of Theodore S. Gamett, an able civil engineer, and of his wife, 
Florentina Isidora Moreno of Pensacola, daughter of Francisco 
Moreno and grand-daughter of Fernando Moreno, of an ancient 
Spanish family, who had migrated from Malaga to Florida, and 
settled there, while as yet it was a province of "Old S]Dain." 

As a lad of ten, his parents, at the time, living in the county of 
Hanover, he entered the famous "EpiscoiJal High School" near 
Alexandria (of which he was destined in after years to become 
one of the "Trustees") and there remained until the outbreak 
of the "War Between the States." 

Virginia having seceded on April 17th, 18G1, young Gamett 
(true to the instincts of his martial blood on both sides of his 
house) hastened back to his coimtry home and at once enlisted 
as a private soldier in the light battery that was then being 
formed by that gallant old soldier, Captain (afterwards Colonel) 
Wilham Nelson- — a battery that was destined in the impending 
struggle to win great glory under the name of the "Hanover 
Artillery." 

The necessary quota of men was rapidly made up and the 
comiJ^any, forthwith, marched to Richmond to be mustered in. 
There the lad's military ardor met an unexpected check. He 
was but sixteen and a half years old and looked much younger, 
so, despite his almost passionate pleading, the enrolling officer 
refused to accept him. In desjieration, and much aggrieved, 
"The." (as he was always affectionately called by his intimates), 
along with two other youthful companions who had been 
similarly rejected, sought out General Robert E. Lee, who, as 
"Military Adviser" to President Davis, was occupying at the 
time as his head-quarters a small one-story building that had 
been hastily constructed within the "Capitol Square " General 
Lee, always kindly and accessible to young folk, and who, be- 
sides, knew Gamett's "people", listened patiently to the boyish 
trio, but proved as inexorable as the hard-hearted mustcring- 
officer: "Go back to your homes, my boys, and wait a little. 
We shall need you later on," was his answer to their eager 
pleas — almost identical, as to words, with his firm refusal to his 
own son, Robert (exactly a year older than "The."), who was 



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PROCEEDINGS. XXI 

"wild" to enlist in the early days of '01. So, Garnett sadly 
went his way, and, in default of anything better, accepted 
gladly a clerkship in the "Navy Department," offered him by 
the Hon. Stephen R. Mallory, who was Secretary of the Navy 
in Mr. Davis's Cabinet and who had married a sister of "The.'s" 
mother. With this he had to be content for over eighteen 
months, but the longed-for chance was close at hand, and he 
owed it to the fact that he wrote a fine and fast and flowing 
hand. Stuart having asked the Secretary if he could recom- 
mend to him as clerk at his headquarters some trustworthy 
young man, who wrote a "rapid and distinct hand" (the latter 
he especially insisted on), the kind uncle, who had watched the 
lad fretting over "being in a bomb-proof" and who sympathized 
with his longing to be with his brother and other near kinsmen 
yonder at the front, recommended his nephew for the coveted 
billet, and "The.," having promptly enlisted (in June, 1803) 
in the "Essex Troop (Co. F, 9th Va. Cavalry), was straightway 
detailed by Stuart as a clerk at his headquarters. At last he 
had his heart's desire, nay, even more than that, for he had 
never dreamed of such luck as serving under the immediate 
eye of the great cavalry leader. 

Stuart from the first took a great fancy to the handsome 
youngster, who was modest and anxious to please, while his 
penmanship, even at that early age, was distinguished for its 
beauty and legibility, as one may see who cares to examine 
the original of one of Stuart's "Official Reports" now on file 
in the Archives of the "Confederate Museum" in this city, 
which is entirely in Gamett's handwriting. 

But better things were to come. In that vigorous campaign 
of '03, the headquarters of the Cavalry Corps, except for rare 
intervals, was "in the saddle," and Stuart who saw everything, 
observing with an approving eye the eager valor of his young 
scribe, who seemed to be quite as ready with sword as with pen 
when occasion demanded, soon began to count on his alert in- 
telligence and cool courage in carrying orders, and Garnett 
speedily became one of his most trusted "couriers." 

You will find his name in the small list of "couriers" men- 
tioned for gallantry by Stuart in his "Official Report of the 



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Gettysburg Campaign." This eager valor in the melee and 
ready efficiency in office-work were, in no long time, to be still 
further rewarded, for in February of 'G4, Stuart recommended 
that he be commissioned lirst-lieutenant of cavalry, and on 
March 11th announced him in "General Orders" as his personal 
aide-de-camp. 

From that time on, Garnett was always to be found riding 
hard by the bridle-rein of our "Rupert of the South," whom it 
is no exaggeration to declare he fairly worshipped with all the 
intensity of his generous boyish heart. 

But alas! he was not destined long so to ride, for exactl}^ sixty 
days from the time when he had been officially announced as 
his "A. D. C.," came that fateful May-evening yonder at 
"Yellow Tavern," when Stuart received his mortal wound, 
while barring the way to the Confederate capital with a mere 
handful of his veteran horsemen, who, inspired, as it were, by 
their youthful leader's splendid audacity, hurled back (though 
the odds were easily four to one) the desperate onslaught of 
Sheridan's bold troopers seeking to pierce the "inner lines" of 
the "Richmond Defences." 

The city was, indeed, saved, but at a cost second only to the 
price paid for victory at "Chancellorsville," where (one year 
before almost to the day) Jackson had fallen, and Stuart had 
been chosen by Lee as fittest to tal-ce his place in the tumult 
of the wavering combat. 

As his aide-de-camp, Gamett was one of the three staff- 
officers who bore their stricken chief to this city,, where he 
quietly passed away the next evening. 

To the day of his death, though fifty years and more had 
passed, Gamett could never speak, without a sob in his voice, 
of that last scene, when his brilliant young chief (he was but 
thirty-one) breathed out his heroic soul The same was true 
of Major Andrew Reid VenaVjle, another of the staff-officers 
who bore him from the field, though Venable had stayed with 
him but a few brief moments and had then galloped back to 
the front. 

It may interest some of you to know that this scene, so feel- 
ingly portrayed by our Virginia novelist, John Esten Cooke, 



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PROCEEDINGS. . xxiii 

in his "Alohun," is based entirely on a long letter written to 
Cooke (who was also on the Cavalry Head-quarter Staff, but 
not present) by Gamett in 1868. Gamett's letter, the original 
of which Cooke returned to him and which, later on, he gave to 
his life-long friend, Joseph Bryan, President of this Society, is 
even more touching in its boyish grief, than the page from the 
"practiced" pen of the accomplished man-of-letters. "Every- 
one of us," he ends, "was in tears. We had lost our father, our 
brother, our friend, our beloved General." 

On Stuart's death, Gamett's commission as "A. D. C." 
lapsed, but he was immediately re-commissioned first-lieutenant 
of cavalry in the "Provisional Army of the Confederate States" 
and assigned to the staff of Major-Gen eral William H. F. Lee, 
with whom he served during the rest of that wondrous cam- 
paign of '64, reckoned by competent military critics as the 
greatest that Lee ever waged. 

Eariy in the brief, but tragic, campaign of '65, he was pro- 
moted Captain and transfeiTed. as "Assistant-Adjutant-Gen- 
eral," to the Staff of Brigadier William P. Roberts of North 
Carolina, an enterprising and daring young cavalry officer, 
under whom he served until the "Surrender" at Appomattox 
C. H. 

This ended his active career as a soldier, but a soldier in 
heart and in outward bearing he remained to the end. His 
martial port, his rather swarthy complexion, inherited, no 
doubt, from his Spanish ancestry, his firm-set jaw, which not 
even the heavy beard could conceal, his quick, decisive, tread 
and ringing voice, all proclaimed him a veteran even to the 
most careless eye. In truth, t'was in the blood. His mother's 
Castilian ancestors had been soldiers in Spain, while on his 
father's side his kinsmen had won distinction in every war 
waged since the settlement of the Colony— in the French and 
Indian wars, in the Revolution, in the War of 1812, and in 
Mexico. Above all, he was proud to remember that in the 
great struggle in which he himself had borne honorable part, 
the name of these kinsmen had been legion— all capable and 
valorous soldiers— not least among them, his close cousins. 
General Robert Selden Garnett, who yielded up his life in the 



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XXIV VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

very first year of the war at Carrick's Ford, and General Richard 
Brooke Gamett, who fell at the head of his brigade in Pickett's 
immortal charge on the third day at "Gettysburg." 

Yet, however martial in outward seeming, Gamett himself 
was, in reality, one of the gentlest, the most gracious, and most 
lovable of men, and though God had given him the heart of a 
lion, He had also given him the heart of a little child. 

In the autumn of 18G5, scraping together such meagre funds 
as liis immediate family could give him, he entered the Law 
School of the University of Virginia. Sprung as well from a 
long line of jurists and statesmen, as of soldiers, it was only 
natural that he should turn to the law as a profession. But, 
beyond that, it is certain that he was influenced in his choice 
by the advice of his brother, between whom and himself there 
existed a singularly deep devotion. This brother, James 
IMcrcer Garnett, who had taken a brilliant M. A. degree at the 
University, had at the outbreak of the war, enlisted as a private 
soldier in the famous "Rockbridge Battery," and, rising to the 
grade of Captain of Artillery in '62, had served gallantly as 
Divisional Ordnance Officer on the staff of the lamented Rodes, 
and, after the heroic death of that officer at Winchester in Sep- 
tember 'G4, on the staft" of Alajor-General Bryan Grimes to the 
end. James Garnett, in obedience to his scholarly instincts, 
ha\'ing resolved in '05 to make teaching his life-work, had de- 
cided to re-enter the University (in which, later on, he was 
destined to become full professor) as a simple "Licentiate in 
Ancient Languages," and we may be sure that this decision 
had much to do with solving "The".'s knotty problem as to his 
own future profession. 

And, just here, it is not only pertinent, but, indeed, necessary, 
even in so slight a sketch as this, that we should pause and con- 
sider the unique conditions that existed at the Uni\'ersity dur- 
ing the two sessions ('65-'66 and '66-'67), when Gamett was 
attending lectures there in the Law School 

To essay this may seem to some an irrelevant excursus, but 
this is far from true We must know sometliing of his environ- 
ment during those years that ushered in his fomial manhood, 
if we would know the man himself. 



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PROCEEDINGS. ' XXV 

As the conditions that existed were unique, equally unique 
was the "atmosphere" they created — an "atmosphere" which the 
\'outhfuI student drank in with full lungs and which inspired 
in him those lofty ideals as to the conduct of life that were to 
iufonn well-nigh every act and utterance of his maturer 3'ears. 
Ne\'er before and never since have there been two such sessions 
in the history of the great institution, which is the pride of the 
commonwealth and of the whole South. It was a veritable 
era of "plain living and high thinking." The state, harried by 
four years of devastating war, lay prostrate and could extend 
ixit meagre help to "the child of Jefferson's old age." Every- 
where were the outward signs of what is called "poverty," but 
it was the "poverty," which the great Greek tragedian, in a 
well-known fragment, calls "tlie stem parent who breeds the 
more strenuous sons, better fitted for the strife of life." Beside 
such "poverty"— the ''panperies nitida" of the Roman poet— 
the smug luxury of the rich foundations of this commercial age 
seems mean and tawdry. 

Never was there gathered within "the well-remembered 
gates of Alma Mater" such a band of determined students, a 
very large proportion of them, though young in years, veterans 
of Lee's arniy, who every day went to class in their faded old 
uniforms, making merry over the silly order of the military 
satrap who at the time reigned over "District No. 1" (as "the 
Mother of Presidents" was then designated), requiring them 
(and all other old soldiers) to cover carefull}^ the military but- 
tons on their "fighting jackets." Richard Coeur de Lion was 
still "in every bush!" No doubt, the "District Commander" 
(they soliloquized) was an ass, to descend to such pettiness— 
but let it go! — as for themselves, they had no time to give to him 
and his covering of buttons. 

The perils and privations they had undergone had sobered 
them beyond their years, yet, withal, they were a cheerful set. 
full of health and vigor (save in a few cases) and touched with 
a natural exaltation at the thought that they had done their 
duty as good soldiers (as was attested by the many honorable 
wounds they could count among them), that they had stuck to 
"Ole Mars' Robert" to the last and "seen the thing through;" 



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XXvi . VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. '^ v U 



and now here they were, safe and sound, with still a fighting 
chance to retrieve, in some measure, the educational sacrifices 
that they had cheerfully made for hearth and home and coun- 
try. 

Optimism disdained to "consider too curiously" the very 
palpable "res angnsta." They wanted so little, that they felt 
that they still had much. Even if things were ill to-day, it 
should not be so to-morrow. Hadn't Horace said the identical, 
thing nearly two thousand years ago? 
* * * Non, si male nunc, et olim 

Sic erit. '■'" ' •" ■'" -^ 

And, so, they buckled afresh to their tasks with hearts as 
high as when they charged with vStuart at Aldie or went up the 
slopes of "Cemetery Ridge." 

Never before was the tie .so close between professors and 
students, for it was the tie of comradeship, than which none on 
earth is stronger. The professorial staff was^ indeed, small, but 
it was of the first order. Many of its members had been 
trained in the best universities at home and abroad, and, fired 
by unselfish devotion to their state and a proper pride in their 
calling, they gave without stint the best that was in them to 
their pupils, quite content to share the common lack and to 
labor for the most meagre stipend. 

Some changes had, indeed, come about in the personnel of the 
Faculty since the University had practically closed its doors in 
'62 and been turned into a hospital, but they were not many. 

Albert Taylor Bledsoe, Professor of Mathematics (who had 
been at West Point with Jefferson Davis and been appointed 
by him, at the outbreak of hostilities, Assistant Secretary of War) 
had, it is true, resigned his chair and gone his way to Baltimore 
to edit the "Southern Review" and to write his famous book, 
"Is Davis a Traitor?," which carried consternation into the 
ranks of Radical demagogues, who had been clamoring for 
President Davis's blood, and which, by its inexorable logic and 
wealth of constitutional learning, drove the reluctant law-ofticers 
of the Government to advise the dismissal of the indictments 
against the Confederate Executive. Mr. Davis was never 
tried, because the Federal Government was afraid to try him. 



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PROCEEDINGS. " XXVii 

But Bledsoe's chair had been taken by Colonel Charles Scott 
Venable, a brilliant mathematician trained in Germany, whose 
martial face and figure were familiar on every battle-field to 
old soldiers, who knew him as one of Lee's most alert and daring 
staff-officers. 

Lewis Minor Coleman, Professor of Latin (the gentle scholar, 
whom some of us (the lingering few) still hold fast in our 
"heart of heart") had fallen mortally wounded amid his black- 
ened guns in the moment of victory on the snow-clad heights 
of "Fredericksburg," lieutenant-colonel of the "First Virginia 
Artillery" — but in his place came in '66 William E. Peters 
(also trained in Germany), who, as colonel of the 21st Virginia 
Cavalry, had fallen desperately wounded in the fierce cavalry 
combat at "Moorefield" and been left for dead on that san- 
guinary field. 

Yet another there is of these "fighting professors," who 
should find mention here — Basil L. Gildersleeve, now of the 
"Johns Hopkins University," the greatest "Grecian" of our time 
and one of the greatest scholars of any time — long since so 
recognized both in Germany and in England — who, still limping 
heavily from the grievous wound, received in "the Valley" while 
serving on John B. Gordon's staff, might be seen daily mailing 
his way to his lecture-room, where he expounded more brilliantly 
than ever to his eager class, out of his own experiences in the 
field, the varying fortunes of the Peloponnesian War, as set down 
in the matchless pages of Thucydides, elucidating many a puz- 
zling bit of strategy by apt illustrations drawn from the recent 
contest, in which professor and pupils had alike borne honorable 
part as tried comrades. Not seldom, too, would this great 
scholar relax for a brief space his inexorable syntactical "grill- 
ing" and enliven the close of the lecture-hour by reading aloud 
(the reading punctured by tumultuous applause) his o^^^l ex- 
quisite and inspiriting translations of the marching-songs of 
Tyrtaeus, the rush of whose swift anapests recalled to his 
delighted hearers the lilt of their own war-songs, which they had 
sung it seemed but yesterday to the rhythmic beat of tramping 
feet, as they swung down the "Valley Pike" under "Old Stone- 
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XXVlll VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Others among the instructors had also served their state in 
aiTns, but we may not pause longer to make mention of them. 

In the law-class with Garnett, what a bede-roll, had we but 
time to call it ! 

John W. Daniel, still on his crutches (as he was to the last 
day of his brilliant career) from the frightful wound he had re- 
ceived at the "Wilderness" in '64, and Thomas S. Martin, who, 
too young to enter the army until the last year of the war, had 
yet seen active service in the Cadet Corps of the "Virginia 
Military Institute," sat beside him on the rude wooden benches — 
both of them destined to represent Virginia for many years in 
the Senate of the United States. There too, of scarcely less 
note in after years, sat the brilliant Upshur Dennis of Maryland, 
Lunsford Lomax Lewis of Rockingham (afterwards on the 
Bench of the Supreme Court of Virginia), and Edward Christian 
Minor, who had lost his arm in a Cavalry skiiTnish at Luray in 
"the Valley" — all destined to become judges of note, who did 
honor to the ermine. 

Other future judges there were among these class-mates 
of Gamett's (who himself became judge), and, in addition, a 
surprising number of men who in after years attained notable 
distinction in their profession-among them— William H. White, 
who, be it noted, had taken part as a "V. M. I." cadet in the 
thrice-glorious battle of "Newmarket") and who became, later 
on, Gamett's law-partner in a firm whose high reputation 
extended far beyond the boundaries of their native state. 

One cannot resist the temptation to set down here that his 
most intimate friend (not however in the Law School) was the 
late Joseph Bryan (so. long the beloved President of this So- 
ciety), his old chum at the "Episcopal High School," who had 
been twice wounded while serving as a simple trooper under the 
dashing Mosby. Another of these intimates (also in the 
"Academic Department") was the lovable and talented Frank 
Preston of Lexington, who, like Minor, had lost an arm in 
battle ("brave old Frank with the empty sleeve!") and who, 
after a brilliant record for headlong valor in the field, and an 
equally brilliant record for exquisite scholarship in the uni- 
versities at home and in Germany, was struck down by fell 
disease in the full flush of his young manhood. 



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PROCEEDINGS. *•, ;.^.. ' XXIX 

Was there ever a nobler, a more inspiring, chapter in the 
educational history of any people! It is a chapter unwritten 
before, so far as is known to us, and written here only in part. 
But, such as it is, we hold that it finds a fitting place in the pro- 
ceedings of this Society, whose aim and jjurpose it is to preserve 
and transmit to posterity the veracious record of Virginia's 
glory, not alone in Colonial and Revolutionary times, but down 
through all the centuries, culminating in those heroic days of 
'61-'65, when our Mother attained what future ages will haply 
hold the supreme height of her great renown. 

In 1867, Garnett took his B. L. degree and "offered for prac- 
tice," as the saying used to be, in WaiTcnton, Virginia, mean- 
while supporting himself, until the coveted clients should come, 
by "fairing classes" in a private school. As nearly the whole 
adult population of Warrenton, at the time, consisted of lawyers, 
and as there was but a limited number of clients, Ganiett in 
1869 left that changing town (which has preserved more of the 
fine old distinctive traditions of ante-bellum days than any 
place known to us) and moved to Norfolk, but in the same year 
began practice in the near-by town of Suffolk. His praciice 
was good and remunerative from the start, and his personal 
popularity such, that in 1870 he was elected "County Judge" 
of Nansemond. This office he held for three years, when he 
voluntarily relinciuished it in 1873 and returned to Norfolk, 
where he formed a jjai tnership with the brilliant William H. Whi te, 
now "President of the Richmond, Fredricksburg & Potomac 
Railroad." There he continued in acti\'e practice until his death. 

Inadequate as is this sketch, it would be still more imperfect, 
did we fail to make mention of the absorbing interest that he 
took in all "Confederate activities." As is well known, the 
prime puri^oses of these Confederate organizations were (and 
are) to render substantial help to such old comrades as, in- 
capacitated by disease or wounds, were unable to "make a 
living;" next, to "keep the record straight" by driving out of 
the public-schools the text-books dealing with the war, which 
at that time were crammed with the most brazen perversions of 
historical truth; and, lastly, to foster old ties of comradeship 
by monthly meetings of the local "camps" (as they are called) 



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XXX VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and by "Grand Reunions," annually, of a certain number of del- 
egates from these local organizations. 

To a man of his warm and generous temperament, who, in 
addition, disdained to the last to be "reconstructed," these 
activities appealed irresistibly, and he threw himself into them 
with an ardor characteristic of the man. At all the great 
"Reunions", both of the "Grand Camp of Virginia" and of the 
"United Confederate Veterans," his was alwa3^s a prominent 
figure. He especially delighted in the "Re-Unions of the Cav- 
alry Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia," and would lay 
aside his business and travel many miles to attend them. As a 
staff-officer of Stuart's, he knew personally all the officers and 
well-nigh all the men of that immortal band of "Rough Riders." 
And if he delighted to come, his comrades of all arms of the 
service were ten-fold more delighted to welcome him. He had 
a gracious heartiness of manner, with never a touch of con- 
descension to the humblest of them, that made them "swear by 
him." He was always "Captain The.," or, oftencr, "Old The.", 
to them, while his own affectionate greeting of these old com- 
rades leapt from his eyes ere the lips could form the words. 
Not only was he one of the simplest and most genial of men, 
but he was possessed of a marvelous memory as to intimate 
incidents of the past events in which they had all shared. Be- 
sides, he was an admirable raconteur, modest as to the part that 
he himself had played, but ever enthusiastic in his generous 
praise of those — no matter whether otlncer or private — who had 
proved themseh-es good soldiers in the brave old days the}- had 
met to recall. 

In the great organization, known as the "United Confederate 
Veterans" (which, let us thank God, unlike certain other or- 
ganizations elsewhere, has kept itself, thus far, uncontaminated 
by politics), honor after honor came to him— unsolicited, we 
need not say. In 1900, he was placed in command of the first 
Brigade of the "Virginia Division," with the rank of Brigadier- 
General; in 1906, he was promoted to the command of the 
"Virginia Division," with the rank of Major-General; and in 
1912, was still further promoted to command the "Department 
of Virginia," with the rank of Lieutenant-General. It may have 



PROCEEDINGS. , . ' XXXl 

been, as some of us old soldiers have always thought, ill-advised 
on the part of the organization to have created such high- 
sounding military titles, but, in any event, that such posts of 
dignity and responsibility should have been accorded him, 
c\'idences the great regard and affection in which he was held 
by these old comrades, who had seen him tested in the actual 
dust and sweat of battle. 

Other honors of a different kind also came to him as the 
years went by. He w^as made Trustee (as we have seen) of his 
old school, and also of the "Virginia Theological Seminary"; a 
member of the (Virginia) "State Library Board," and v.^as 
elected into the "Alpha Chapter" (at William and Mary Col- 
lege) of "Phi Beta Kappa." 

So busy was his life as a lawyer in active practice, that the 
literary output he has left behind him is meagre, but he was an 
eloquent and persuasive speaker and his oration pronounced 
at the unveiling of the equestrian statue of his great chief at 
Richmond was of very high order of inerit both from a military 
and literary point of view. This was expanded later into a 
more elaborate monograph and published in Nevv' York in 1C07. 

He was, of course, a member of the "Virginia" and also of the 
"American" "Bar Associations." 

On A|3ril 27th, 1915, he passed away in the midst of his 
family, who simply adored him, mourned in no common meas- 
ure by liis community, his state that he loved so passionately, 
and by countless friends and comrades throughout the whole 
country. 

By right of birth, he had inherited the highest and best 
traditions of Virginia's "Golden Age," and he never once, from 
youth to gracious old age, forgot the "noblesse oblige" of his 
blood. 

Three great influences shaped his career — his experiences in 
the field— the high and heroic "atmosphere" of his college life, 
and, above all, his unquestioning Christian faith. Of the first 
two of these have we spoken. Of the third, abashed in spirit, 
we dare not speak at all. 

But fortunately there is one — his old comrade, his old pastor, 
his loyal kinsman — who can on this point speak with"authority." 



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XXXn VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

In a notice of his death, which appeared anonymously in the 
"Southern Churchman" of June 19, 1915, though known to be 
written by his Hfe-long friend, Bishop Beveriey Dandridge 
Tucker, of the Diocese of Southern Virginia — a notice of sin- 
gular beauty and power — occur these closing words, which may 
fitly foiTn the conclusion of this halting tribute to this noble 
gentleman : 

"Back of all that he was and all that he did was the strength 
and the inspiration which com.e only from communion with God. 
He served the Lx)rd Christ with the same simplicity and the same 
w hole-heartedness with which he had served his State. He 
walked humbly with God — and he is not (that is, not here on 
earth), because God took him. His memory and the example 
of his life abide, and are a i^art of the heritage which comes to 
Virginia from a long line of true and chi\-alric sons." 

Turning to the death-roll of our "Annual Members," those of 
us who are- citizens of Richmond, cannot fail to mark with poig- 
nant sorrow how many of our lowns-people, knit to us by ties 
of long personal association, are included in the dread list — of 
three of whom we can make but bare mention for lack of sfjccilic 
information: Mrs. F. M. Bo\kin, a gracious woman of high 
intelligence, ^^■ell-known both in society- and in the huml'ler 
circle of the hapless jioor, wh.o will keenly miss the generous 
largess of her silent benefactions; the amiable and engaging L. 
R. Warren; and the learned and accomplished specialist. Dr. 
John F. Winn. 

Three others there are in the list, who to the very end of their 
strenuous careers held so commanding a position in the finan- 
cial, industrial, and social life of the city, and who were ever 
such potent factors in its moral and economic develojjment, 
that, even if no printed memorial were left of them, a great 
tradition of their forceful personalities and of their splendid 
services v.'ould be certain to endure long after most of us shall 
resolve into a mere handful of dust'. 

But, as you all know, such printed memorials do exist, and 
that too in great volume, written by sympathetic and competent 
hands, and it would be, indeed, like gilding refined gold or 
painting the lily for us to attempt to add aught to the just 



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PROCEEDINGS. .;■,•• ■ XXXlll 

eulogies pronounced by them upon these dear friends in the 
first poignancy of the city's grief. 

Yet, passing over, as being thus familiar to most of you, the 
details of their varied activities, it may, perhaps, be allowed us 
to set down in these "Minutes" a few bald facts in their re- 
spective careers and to add some not impertinent reminiscences 
drawn from long and intimate friendshij) with these illustrious 
citizens. 

First, in order of their "passing," is our old friend. Major 
John Patteson Branch. 

He was bom in Petersburg, Virginia, December 9th, 1830, 
son of Thomas Branch and of Sarah Pride Read, his wife, and 
seventh in descent from Christopher Branch and Mary, his 
wife, who migrated to Virginia in the good ship, "London Mer- 
chant," in 1619-20. You will find the story of his thrifty, 
God-fearing, forebears for well-nigh three centuries all set down 
in the delightful pages of the volume entitled "Branchiana," 
compiled by his great-nephew, James Branch Cabell, who en- 
joys the distinction, well-nigh unique in letters, of being at 
once a brilliant novelist and an accurate, painstaking, genealo- 
gist. 

He received a sound education from a sound old schoolmaster 
(who would have been horrified, if designated by the hideous 
name of "educator"), but he had always been a delicate lad, 
and, suffering a "break-down" just at the time when he should 
have entered Randolph-Macon College (of which institution 
he. was, in after years, to become a "Trustee," LL.D., and most 
munificent benefactor), he entered the counting-house of his 
father, who was both commission-merchant and banker, be- 
sides being Mayor of the staunch little town on the Appomattox. 

There he remained until the storm of war broke in April, 
1861, when he at once enlisted in the "44th Virginia BattaHon" 
of infantry, commanded by the gallant Fletcher Archer, who 
had won laurels in Mexico as a valorous youth, and who was 
again to prove himself an admirable soldier despite his years. 

In this command, young Branch rose to be first-lieutenant, 
but it was not long before his characteristic energy, native 
shrewdness and fine administrative ability attracted the favor- 



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Xxxiv VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ' " • 

able notice of his superiors, and he was soon transferred, with 
added rank, to the Quarter-Master Department, where he ren- 
dered most valuable and eflficient service to the end. 

At the close of the war, he rejoined his father in business and 
in banking in Petersburg, and in 1871 accomj^anied him to this 
city, whither the elder Branch had determined to transfer his 
rapidly expanding mercantile and banking interests. In that 
year, Thomas Branch established here the "Merchants' National 
Bank," and, on his death in 1881, the son succeeded him. 

Of his commercial and financial successes, solid and brilliant 
as they were, we do not propose to speak, nor yet of his religious 
and philanthropic activities. As already indicated, these have 
been set down at length elsewhere by those better equipped for 
the pious task than we can pretend to be. They have told us 
in specific detail of his splendid benefactions to the poor, to the 
church, to education, and of his equally splendid achievements 
in finance— and, as well, of his commanding energy and unerring 
sagacity in shaping and guiding to full fruition numberless 
activities looking to the social betterment of his fellow-men. 

For ourselves, we love best to tliink of him (and, in the main, 
to speak of him) simply as of an old friend, whom we knew long 
and well, in days of sunshine and of storm — one who is forever 
associated in heart and brain with others of his time, whose 
forms and faces we shall see no more save in happy dreams. 

Of the few personal recollections here offered, some of them, 
perchance, may seem so trivial as to border on flippancy, but 
they are none the less characteristic, and find their place in any 
veracious picture of the man as he moved among us. 

What struck one as especially distinctive of the man was his 
immense capacity for mastering the details of any subject that 
interested him. Like all "bom financiers," he possessed quick 
imagination and, after mastering the details, he intuitively saw 
the meaning hidden beneath the mass of minutiae, and acted 
promptly, while other men, seeing nothing, dallied and doubled. 
He not only had this capacity, but he had a distinct fondness 
for details, and that, too, quite as much in matters of purely 
l^ersonal import as in financial problems. He tliought with 
Pope that "the proper study of mankind is man," and often 



PROCEEDINGS. XXXV 

in conversation he would propound about men and about in- 
cidents innumerable questions that betokened, no doubt, to many 
merely an idle curiosity. He was quite aware of what was thought. 
Some of us, who knew him well enough to "chaff" him, would 
sometimes laughingly say to him that his inquisitiveness was 
as great as his acquisitiveness, and he would laugh back and 
accept the friendly quip \\^th great good humor. But, in truth, 
it was no idle curiosity. Oftener than not, he was weighing 
in his mind whether some plausible appeal made to his gener- 
osity was really a deserving one, and he was thus seeking by 
what old Polonius calls "assays of bias" to resolve his doubt. 

In matters of opinion he was one of the most tolerant of men. 
Yet he held most decided views on all "burning questions" 
that arose in community, state or nation, and had a most origi- 
nal and incisive manner of stating what he held to be the truth 
in the matter. Nor was he ever backward in giving utterance 
to his convictions. He practiced with fearless vigor what 
Archbishop Whately preached: "It is not enough to believe 
what you maintain. You must maintain what you believe, 
and maintain it because you believe it." 

But opposition excited not a scintilla of resentment in his 
bosom, and, if the arguments adduced by those who held dif- 
ferent views seemed sound to him, he was never ashamed to 
change his mind. 

Yet, in the main, like most men who "do their own thinking," 
as the homely phrase hath it, he was tenacious of opinion. He 
was absolutely independent of judgement in the bestowal of 
his charities, great and small. He gave, not because other 
people gave, or because other people thought that he ought to 
give. He investigated personally the cases of his smaller 
charities, whenever possible, and his munificent benefactions 
were the result of most careful pondering. But it must be 
added that, nine times out of ten, he decided that he ought to 
give, and he gave, then, with a lavish hand. 

Like most men of original mind, he cared little for "prece- 
dent" or any so-called "authority" — always excc])ting in mat- 
ters of religion. There, as has already been set down, he held 
the Bible, from cover to cover, to be the inspired word of God 



laooH*? 



K >. :v V 1 

XXXVi VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and he accepted it, from first line to last, with the meek sub- 
mission of a little child and a simple faith that knew no turning. 

In social life, he was one of the most genial and kindly and 
companionable of men. He belonged to all the clubs, but he 
very rarely went to them. He was at his best in his own home, 
where he constantly dispensed a gracious and profuse hos- 
pitality. He was an admirable talker, his conversation being 
marked by great shrewdness of obser\'ation dashed with humior. 
He had travelled extensively in Europe at various times — his 
family, indeed, lived in Paris for several years — and his original 
observations on the life of the "old world" were both instructive 
and amusing. 

Of his domestic life, this is not the place to speak beyond the 
barest allusion. In 1863, in the midst of the war, he had mar- 
ried Miss Mary Louise Kerr in Petersburg. It was in all 
respects an ideal union, and the death of this accomlished 
woman in 1896, after thirty-three years of unclouded happiness 
to both, was a blow from which he never altogether recovered. 
It was in her memory that, in after 3'ears, he erected a mag- 
nificent "donnitory" at Randolph-Macon College. Another one 
he, later on, erected in memory of his father, whom he greatly 
revered. 

To his children he was the fondest, the most indulgent, of 
fathers, and these children, in turn, encompassed him, in the 
long widowed years, with such sweet previsions, bom of respon- 
sive devotion, as made his old age an unusually bright and happy 
one. 

On the evening of February 2nd, 1915, surrounded by these 
sorrowing children (all save one, who was far away overseas) 
and by others of his immediate family, in the eighty-fifth year 
of his age, yet with the fresh, unquestioning, faith of a little 
child, he "crossed the bar" and, with no shadow of misgiving, 
went to "meet his Pilot face to face." 

On the evening following the death of Major Branch, Rich- 
mond was again called upon to mourn the "passing" of a man, 
whose exceptional abilities had long assured him high place 
among the foremost of her "captains of industry," while his 



9d itxl . 



tl 



x-jfli v' r .birfi •n&undiA 






€.1.1 JU 



.1 r< ,V i^cjji-'ii. i^> ■^••ij.jifu^ IJii \\J Jr^Utiiv'lv/i .^ilj ^iiL'tii 



PROCEEDINGS. XXXVii 

delightful personality had caused him to be universally regarded 
as one of the chief ornaments of her society. 

Like Major Branch, he had passed the hmit of four-score, 
and, like him, he had preserved unimpaired, long after he had 
passed that limit, the vigor of his intellect and a freshness of 
feeling that we rarely associate with old age. 

This man was Alexander Cameron, who died on the evening 
of February 3rd, 1915, in the 83rd year of his age. 

Of him, it is but seemly that some mention should be found 
in the "Minutes" of this Society, prefacing that we shall, in the 
main, speak only of his personal characteristics, touching but 
in briefest fashion on the phenomenal industry, capacity and 
boldness in business affairs, which enabled him, with no ad- 
ventitious aids, to achieve a great fortune that ran into the 
millions. 

Briefly: ;■•;;'!, 

Alexander Cameron, son of Alexander Cameron, was bom 
November 1st, 1832, at Granton, a small Highland village of 
Invemesshire, on the pleasant river Spey. All his life he was 
proud of being "an Inverness man," and, had he lived but a few 
months longer, he had been made prouder still, because of the 
splendid exploits of the men of Inverness at Ypres and Loos. 

On the death of his father, he, then but thirteen years of age, 
came to Virginia with his mother, who settled in Petersburg. 
After brief schooling, he began his business life with Mr. David 
Dunlop; later on, securing a position with Mr. Edmund Har- 
rison Osborne. These two, at the time, ranked chief among 
the "tobacco magnates" of the "Cockade City," and under 
them he acquired minute and thorough knowledge of the mys- 
teries attending the manipulation of the "divine weed" before 
it was ready for the marts of the old world. 

Had either of these conservative old "manufacturers" been 
told that their young assistant, always so pleasant-tempered, 
alert, and dependable, would one day estabHsh (in conjunction 
with his two brothers) a business destined to send its "output" 
to the four quarters of the globe, and that, in time, he would 
think in millions where they had tiiought in thousands, they 
would have deemed the prophet daft. Yet that was just what 



IIVXXX 



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XXXviii VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

fortune (who "truckles to the bold alone") had in store for these 
three keen-eyed and quick-witted young "Inverness men," each 
oneof whom was endowed with the "grit," enterprise and "hard 
Scotch sense," so signally characteristic of the race from which 
they spi-ung. It is pleasant to add that one of these old-fash- 
ioned "magnates" Hved to sec it, and, without a scintilla of envy, 
was tremendously proud of his impil's dazzling achievements. 

From the very start, the business established by the three 
brothers prospered, and, the war coming on, they, in addition, 
engaged in "blockade-running" and there, too, scored an enor- 
mous success. You must go to the voluminous notices, that 
appeared in the press tlu-oughout the whole country at the time 
of Alexander Cameron's death, if you care to follow the history 
and titles of the firms established in various cities in this 
country and in Australia by these brothers, as their business 
expanded in magnitude. 

For the present purpose, it is enough to say that in 18G8, 
Alexander Cameron left Petersburg, came to Richmond (just 
as Major Branch was to do three years later), and established 
here branch factories, under the title of "Alexander Cameron 
& Co." (All of these businesses were, some ten or twelve years 
ago, sold to the "British-American Tobacco Company.") 

He was then a little over five-and-thirty years old, and, as 
some of you, no doubt, remember, a singularly handsome man, 
as he was, indeed, to the day of his death. From the first, he 
scored quite as marked a success in society, as he had done in 
business. Small wonder, for he was possessed of all the quali- 
ties that make a man popular alike with men and women. 
He was young, handsome, rich, was absolutely "independent" 
and despised a snob, while his whole face and bearing were 
instinct with the "joie de vivre." 

Then came the sudden crowning happiness of his life, which 
gave society a distinct "sensation." Perhaps (we speak with 
caution for obvious reasons), the "reigning belle" of Riclimond 
at that time was Miss Mary Haxall, daughter of R. Barton 
Haxall, esq., of this city. She had great beauty, high birth, 
brilliant wit, and would some day have a comfortable fortune. 
Suitors were many, but she seemed in no hun-y to choose. 



2ii;j/ (vte-'^i 



r\ :■■ . C'V. ■ ' V 



PROCEEDINGS. ' XXxix 

Then, suddenly, in rode our handsome Scot, like another bold 
"Young Lochinvar," and carried off the brilliant maid, while 
many an amazed swain stood "dangling his bonnet and plume." 
Later on, her equally brilliant and beautiful sister married Cap- 
tain Robert E. Lee, youngest son of our great Confederate 
chieftain. 

It was a happy union, blessed with numerous children, and 
their home here, to the day of his death (which preceeded hers 
by but little over half a year), was a recognized social centre, 
where the cleverest men and most accomplished women of the 
day gathered around the witty hostess and hospitable master 
of the house with delightful informality, everybody feeling sure 
of hearty and gracious welcome. 

One pauses, from time to time, to consider whether one is 
merely a "temporis acti laudator," when he finds, or fancies 
that he finds, lacking in the society of to-day the indefinable 
charm that penneated that simple and kindly society of some 
thirty or forty years ago. At any rate, if memory may be 
counted on at all, the society that gathered so often in the 
drawing-rooms of the Camerons at the time, and that kept 
the ball flying to and fro with nimble wit and flashing repartee, 
was in no wise akin to the "Society" satirized by Byron in 
"Don Juan" as "a polished horde" composed of "bores and 
bored." 

In these gatherings, the brilliant hostess reigned supreme, and 
we were all proud to acknowledge her undisputed sovereignty. 

But there were other gatherings under that hospitable roof- 
tree, when the master of the house was the central figure, as a 
sort of "Epularum arbiter," and when all of us, for a single 
night, at least, resolved ourselves into a band of "brither 
Scots" and joined him, in song and in impromptu speech, in 
celebrating the historic glories of the "Land o' Cakes." 

We have already adverted to the fact that he was intensely 
proud (always in his modest way) of being an "Inverness man." 
He was equally proud that he belonged to the clan of which 
"Lochiel" was the head, and a portrait of this chief (then 
Colonel Donald Cameron of Achnacarry), Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the "Cameron Highlanders," always hung in the hall of his 
town-house. 



XIXXX 



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Xl VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Devoted son as he was of the state of his adoption and ever 
ready by purse and brain to further her interests, lil-ce Burns, 
his "heart" was "in the Highlands," and he loved every inch 
of "Auld Scotia's" bonnie heather "frae Maidenkirk to Johnie 
Groat's." 

Now, in the >'ears we are speaking of, some of his Scotch 
friends never failed to send him annually a munificent present 
of Scotch pheasants, and thus every year occurred what was 
reckoned the social event of the season (so far as "mere man" 
was concerned), known in society as "Cameron's Pheasant 
Supper." The Governor, judges of the Supreme Court, law- 
yers, doctors, bankers, business men, were all hospitably bidden, 
and no man was ever known to decline. 

Cameron, always the soul of hospitality, was in his element. 
His genial temper that shone in his face and sounded in the 
deepening burr of his voice (which distinctive mark of a Hie'- 
lander, by the way, he never lost), his manifest eagerness to 
make everyone happy— all combined to render these gather- 
ings the delight of his guests. 

The pheasants (which in good old Scotch fashion were always 
brought in "in their feathers") were "high" and "a morsel fit 
for the gods" while the "Wickham Madeira of '30" (which had 
"doubled the Cape") was worthy accompaniment, and there was 
great jollity and many a merry quip and much harmless laughter. 
It was not so far back in the past, as men count time, and yet, 
it sometimes seems a thousand years ago. It was, at any rate, 
a time when gentlemen had not been reduced to the pass of 
having their "daily walk" mapp-ed out for them by legislative 
enactment and when such phrases as "moral uplift," "service," 
"self -consecration," and "a quickening of the public conscience" 
("soiled with all ignoble use," as Tennyson sang of the "name 
of gentleman") had not yet attained their rubricated pre-emi- 
nence in the Liturgy of Cant. 

Mark you, there was no sort of excess. Gentlemen simply 
clung to their old-fashioned notions as to the liberty of the in- 
dividual and did not think that a man was necessarily going 
straight to perdition if he offered a gentleman a glass of wine 
at his board— just as Washington and the Lees and John Mar- 



PROCEEDINGS. ' ' xli 

shall and all the other great Virginians had been wont to do, 
when Virginia guided the destinies of the nation. 

Even so slight a sketch as this would fall far short of truthful 
delineation, if it did not emphasize the fearless candor, simplicity 
and modesty of the man. He despised shams of every sort 
and could be very direct of speech whenever they came into 
evidence, no matter how plausible the guise. On the other 
hand, his unaffected modesty touching his own achievements 
was immensely attractive. He had started at the foot of the 
ladder, and by sheer "grit," intelligence and industry had mount- 
ed to the top, and when, in time, he had reached what to so man}'' 
others has proved a dizzy height that made them "lose their 
heads," he lost neither head nor balance, but remained the same 
quiet, kindly, unostentatious gentleman that he had ever been. 

Still another trait that made him most lovable was his great 
kindness to young men, who were striving to "make their way 
in the world." This man, rich in experience, was never too 
busy to listen to their troubles or perplexities, to give them 
freely of his counsel, and, if needs be, of material help. 

He and his wife were keen travellers — in Europe and in the 
East — had, both, been "presented at Court" in England, and had 
made many delightful friends all over the world. Even after 
he was four-score, he preser\'ed, as has been hinted above, to a 
most remarkable degree a fresh and eager interest in men and 
in events, and his virile bearing and conversation no whit 
suggested the veteran lagging superfluous on the stage. 

But the lethal stroke was destined soon to fall. 

In June of last year, at his beautiful country-place in Orange 
County, "Cameron Lodge," whither he had gone, as usual, for 
the summer months, he suffered his first stroke of paralysis. 
He recovered somewhat and took up again, to a certain extent, 
his interests in life. But, in reality, he was never the same man 
again. 

He was brought to his town-house in Richmond early in the 
autumn, where he later suffered a second stroke, and his famil}' 
gathered about him knew that the end was not far off. Yet so 
vigorous was his constitution, that he lived on for several months. 
In January of this year, he suffered the third and fatal stroke, 



Uyi 



I ,. 






Xlii VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

which rendered him an easy prey to pneumonia, which fell 
disease carried him off on the evening of February 3rd. It is 
no mean consolation to his old friends to know that the end 
was absolutely free of pain. 

In the contemplation of a life so rich in achievement, so 
I manly, candid and modest, so rooted in the precepts of the 

j "Golden Rule," and, withal, so kindly and beneficent to his 

( fellows, one can surely say of him, as Carlyle said of Walter 

j Scott, "When he departed, he took a Man's life with him." 

[ Of this notable trio of "Captains of industry" and of finance — 

: three of the greatest that have ever adorned the annals of 

i Richmond — by far the youngest was James N. Boyd. Indeed, 

i he was not yet bom when Branch and Cameron were young 

' men, who had already begun their successful careers. 

' As his most salient characteristic was innate sincerity, it is 

I specially seemly that the events of his busy life should be set 

down with like simplicity. 

James Nalle Boyd, son of John W. Boyd and of his wife, 
Virginia Nalle, also grandson of the Rev'd John H. Boyd, of 
Scotch ancestry, was bom in this city. May 28th, 1850. He was, 
thus, not quite eleven years old when the great "War Between 
the States" began. Yet, his was the marvellous good fortune, 
through an alert and daring spirit, to share, in some measure, 
in the great events that constitute Virginia's paramount claim 
to be counted among the heroic jjeoples of the earth. 

In May, 1864, when Sheridan's enterprising horsemen sought 
to force the inner line of fortifications of this city on the "Brook 
Road," the high-spirited lad quietly sHpped away from home 
and stood in the trenches, shoulder to shoulder, musket in 
hand, with the local battalion that behaved with great finnness 
under attack and finally balked the ambitious attcmijt of 
Grant's alert chief of cavalry. 

When Richmond was evacuated, April 2nd, 1865, not yet 
fifteen years of age, he slipped away again, and, joining a 
veteran infantry regiment, shared with it the hardships, and 
participated in the actions in which it was engaged, during llie 
tragic "Retreat," which culminated in "the Surrender" at 
Appomattox C. H. 



21 



an 



m 



PROCEEDINGS. xliii 

It was foreign to his modest nature to be proud of anything, 
but this was the one thing in his hfe of which he was unques- 
tionably proud in his quiet fashion, and he remained an ardent 
"Confederate" down to the day of his death. 

When, after "the vSurrender," he made his toilsome way 
(afoot and in casual freight-cars) back to Riclmiond, he found 
the city (at least, the business portion of it) a mass of smoulder- 
ing ashes and, at the same time, found himself, as most of us 
did, without a single penny in his pocket. 

But he was a sturdy, well-set-up, lad, older than his years, 
with frank, open, manners (as he was to the last), had been well 
grounded in "the rudiments" by a thorough school-master of 
the fine, old-fashioned, type, and, above all, was endowed with 
the traditional Scotch common-sense and indomitable "grit," 
which came to him by inheritance. 

To all such, the wide world over, poverty is a stimulus and no 
handicap. 

He almost at once secured a subordinate position with the 
famous firm of Thomas & Oliver, at that time the recognized 
heads of the leaf-tobacco trade, and under them learned thor- 
oughly the details of the business. In later years, thanks to 
this training, it was said of him by men who were "experts" 
themselves that he was the finest judge of leaf tobacco on "the 
Exchange." 

It is not our purpose to follow minutely the successive stages 
of his wonderful business career. In the elaborate notices that 
appeared in the public press at the time of his death, you will 
find it all set out in detail— how, as this lad grew to manhood, 
he became, in time, head of a great "leaf-tobacco" house- 
President of one of the leading banks, not only of Richmond, 
but of the whole South— President of a powerful Trust Com- 
pany—President of the "Tobacco Exchange"— recognized 
leader in the "Chamber of Conmierce"— Director in many 
Corporations. All this, while a testimony to his thrift and 
sagacity, will inevitably, in time, sink into oblivion. 

But there is one great tradition of him that shall endure. 

Richmond is by no means a big city, as cities are rated in this 
twentieth century. Yet as Zaragossa (far smaller in popula- 



1. .. ( J :..•: w ; 



Xliv VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

tion than our own town) is reckoned "great" by lofty souls, 
who count self-abnegation and constancy and antique valor 
above multitudinous aggregations of brick and mortar, so, for 
the same reason, is Richmond's place assured among the 
"great" cities of the world. But her proud, defiant, port during 
four 3'ears of war, when she stood girdled by steel and fire — the 
antique patriotism that made her strong, at the last, to meet 
with unshaken front the very stroke of fate — this, noble and 
splendid as it is, is not her only claim to be reckoned "great." 

When she fell well-nigh in throes of annihilation, another 
tragic blow was yet to smite her. 

At the "Evacuation," a devastating conflagration swept over 
the proud capital and left the whole business section in hapless 
desolation. 

As poets and historians will continue to celebrate her glories 
in war, so, we may rest sure, shall one day be told in all its 
noble austerity the wondrous story of her rehabilitation — her 
resurrection from the ashes of what seemed to the outside 
world irretrievable disaster. 

It was done, not in a day nor in a year, nor was it done by 
any alien help. It took many days — nay, not a few years — • 
but it was done, and supremely done, through the dogged in- 
dustry and indomitable spirit of the very men who had hedged 
her round with stubborn steel during the driving storm of war. 

Whenever that story is written, 3'ou will find the name of 
James Nalle Boyd conspicuous on every page. 

This, we repeat, is the tradition of him that shall longest 
abide. It is not too much to say that from that pinched be- 
ginning until Richmond flowered out into a beauty and solid 
opulence that eclipsed all her former material glories, there 
was no undertaking, however large or small, looking to the 
moral or material advancement of his native town, in which 
this devoted son of hers did not do his full part in manly, wise 
and generous fashion. 

There is no need to dwell in this presence on his engaging 
personality. Long shall we miss on our streets his handsome, 
leonine, face, his hearty, gracious, greeting, the engaging sim- 
plicity of his manner to gentle and simple alike. In all sorts 



^ , VI PROCEEDINGS. K. ■ xlv 

of charities and benevolent organizations, he ever took a most 
active and intelHgent part. There was not one of them that did 
not lean on his wise counsels, and all men recognized that his 
was the open eye to discern clearly where aid should be promptly 
rendered, the open heart to sympathize, the open hand to give. 
Especially will he be long missed by the "Police" and the 
"Firemen's" "Benevolent Associations," to both of which he 
gave freely of his time and money. 

He was equally generous and active in all Confederate or- 
ganizations, and he literally fell "in harness" working for the 
success of the "Grand Re-union of United Confederate Veter- 
ans," that took place here last June. Night and day, though 
the mortal disease already held him in its fell grip, he remained 
at "Reunion Head-Quarters" arranging, as "Chairman of the 
Finance Committee," countless details for the comfort and 
entertainment of the coming veterans. But, alas! when the 
longed-for gala days came, and his old comrades marched with 
drum-corps and band and tattered, grimy, battle-flags within 
a stone's throw of his house, the shadow of death was hovering 
over him, and he could only send them (as he did) the blessing 
of a soldier, who was slowly passing over the river to the great 
bivouac "Beyond." 

Of his religious life, we can only say simply that from boy- 
hood on, through all the years of strenuous and varied activi- 
ties, his whole being was saturated with unaffected piety. For 
twenty-six years he was a Vestryman of "All Saints' Church," 
and the "Resolutions" passed at his death by his colleagues 
portray with touching eloquence the beauty and steadfastness 
of his Christian faith. 

After several months of suffering, which he bore with serene 
constancy and courage, came the fateful day, September 6th, 
1915, when Death's bright angel placed within his dying hand 
(as Milton finely says in "Comus") 



That golden key, 
That opes the palace of Eternity. 



II'V. 



'Tis a far cry, indeed, from the imperious activities of these 
three great capitaHsts to the scholarly investigations of the 



.. - -f- 



xlvi VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

expert genealogist and antiquarian, Mr. Lothrop Withing- 
TON, whose tragic fate will long be mourned, not alone by mem- 
bers of this Society, but by many historical specialists both at 
home and abroad. 

As he had lived most of his life in London since reaching man - 
hood, most people conversant with his work thought him an 
Englishman; but such was not the fact. He was of pure, un- 
hyphenated, American strain on both sides of his house and never 
gave up his American citizenship, though, as years went by, his 
devotion to his adopted home became well-nigh as intense as 
that of any Londoner "bom within the sound of Bow bells." 

Briefly, he was bom January 31st, 185G, in the little village 
of Newbury, which Hes contiguous to the ancient "home of the 
whalers," Newburyport, Massachusetts, and, as we have indi- 
cated above, came of undiluted New England stock. The love 
of letters was in his blood. His father, Nathan Noyes Withing- 
ton, was a clever joumalist, well-known through New England 
for his incisive editorials, while his grandfather, the Rev'd Leonard 
Withington, D. D., a graduate of Yale in the early years of the 
nineteenth century, was a scholarly divine of the old-fash- 
ioned type, who, in his long span of ninety-six years, wrote not 
a few books, chiefly polemic theology, which were, indeed, 
highly praised in the pages of the ''North American Review." 
though it may well be doubted whether his "unorthodox" 
grandson ever found time to glance through any of them. 

As a lad, young Withington went in and out of the offices of 
the "Newburyport Herald" which his father edited, learned to 
set type while still a school-boy, and, shortly after graduating 
from the "Putnam High School," secured, to his great delight, a 
position in the "Government Printing Oftice" at Washington. 
Here he worked hard, thriftily saving his salary, while living 
the life of a young Spartan, and was thus enabled, within a 
twelve month, to realize his dream of seeing the wonders of 
the Old World. He first went to Paris, where he seems to have 
lived for a full year, revelling in the galleries, Hbraries and 
theatres of that fascinating capital, meanwhile practicing his 
"l)rentice hand" in writing trenchant criticisms of all that he 
saw for the columns of the local paper in his native town. 






\t) cTTJbrTOW 



PROCEEDINGS. xlvii 

From Paris, he, not unnaturally, drifted over to London, and 

though, for a time, he came back to his New England home. 

the world s capital-' (for so it is) had laid its nameless spell 

upon him, and m the eariy '80's back he went to what was 

practically his home to the last. 

^ Apparently, the purpose had gradually been shaping itself 
m lus mind to devote hiznself to specialistic historical study and 
■ settling down m "Little Russell Street," under the very slLow 
of the Bntish Museum, delving daily deeper and deeper into the 
only-partially explored mines of its incomparable MS riches 

TlTT"tT^.^""7l'^'''^' "^^ '' "^^y ^^ ''''^y s^id that.' 
at last, he had "found himself." His industry was prodigious 
his flatr m picking up obscure clues was almost unerring and 
It was not long before he became known to a small band of 
fellow-craftsmen as a man who "knew his business." From 
speciahstic historical study to genealogy it is but a step-in- 
deed, the two are often so closely interwoven as to blend-and 
1. was finally as an expert genealogist that he achieved what is 
likely to prove his most lasting claim to remembrance 

The histoncal work that he did was, it is true, recoanized as 
admirable of its kind-an edition of the "a.^^.c/..'- thaVgo 
under the name of "HoUnsked-'-and one or two Elizabethan 
monographs-but they were really never widely known anS 
brought him no great reputation, and even less money, from 
the outside world. y , ^ium 

But, on the other hand, he had won an assured place among 

the elect genealogists, who find their "happy huntir.^- 

Kround in "the Museum" and "Public Records Office" and 

Somerset House," and, as his reputation grew, there came to 

him a numerous cUentele of well-to-do Americans of good 

hx Mith definitive exactness the degree of their kinship to 

md rj TT"' ""''''"'■ ^^^' ''-''''' ^^' '^ 1^- taste 
and the tees highly remunerative. 

Such was his position and the happy tenor of his life, when 
some twelve 3'ears ago, happening on a copy of our Magazine 

bv t'hV: ^\%^"^f ;^— or elsewhere, he was attracted 
by the careful work done by our Editor, and at once wrote 



<J ff.V 



xlviii VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

offering to contribute to its pages. We could offer him no 
remuneration, but, like the true scholar that he was, he cared 
nothing for money, and from that time until his untimely end 
there is scarcely a number of our Magazine that is not enriched 
by some contribution from his generous pen. 

Not only did he contribute during these years his delightful 
"Gleanings from English Wills," which have proved so attrac- 
tive to our readers, but he transcribed with laborious exactness 
from the originals in the British Museum and elsewhere his- 
torical documents of grave imjjort, of which some of the best- 
known historians had previously possessed but imperfect 
knowledge. 

It would be idle for us to reiterate here what we have said 
in Report after Report during the past ten or twelve years 
touching the significant value of these "Gleanings." Not only 
do they shed instructive side-lights on the social life and econo- 
mic development of the Colony, but they abound in precise 
biographical details that clear up many obscurities in the public 
and private lives of some of our foremost "Worthies" of the 
Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries. 

To recall to you but a few instances out of many — in the 
cases of the Royal governors. Captain Francis West, Sir John 
Harvey, Kemp, Digges, Nott and Dinwiddie — of "pious JMr. 
Whitaker," and that staunch Royalist, Rev'd Philip Mallory, 
"very diligent in the advancement of religion in this country" 
(to quote from the resolutions of the Assembly of 1660-61) — 
of the Virginia historical writers, William Strachey and William 
Bullock — of the barely-known "Councillors," George Ivlinifie 
and William Tucker — of the dauntless "Physician-General of 
Virginia," Lawrence Bohune, whose dying utterances, as he 
fell mortally wounded on the deck of Captain Chester's ship 
in her action against two Spanish men-of-war in the Vv^est 
Indies (March, 1621), are fit match for those of that valorous 
old "sea-dog," Sir Richard Grenville of "the little Revenge," 
immortalized by Tennyson — of that "compleat sparkish 
Gentleman" (as Mr. Commissary Blair sneeringly called him) 
and dashing soldier, Colonel Daniel Parke, Jr., who for his 
headlong valor at "Blenheim" was singled out by Marlborough 



.av 



PKOCELDIN-GS. ' ^j;^ 



on whose staff he was a volunteer) to bear tidings of the 
tamons v.etory" to Her Majesty. Queen Anne, the latter in 
reeog.,t,on of the joyful news, giviny h.m her portrait set " 
d,amonds-,„ all of these instances (and we could muUp" 
hem), we are enabled through the precise details given in the e 
a.a«„„s - to fill-in with an assured hand much that was 
vague or blurred m the traditional portraiture of these "VVor 
h,es and >n not a few eases, to reconcile apparent eontrad^c- 
tions m their respective careers. oniraaic 

Of the -historical documents of grave import" which he 
transcnbed for us, from time to time, and to wlrieh u" have 
• R^orttrJh ?°^'% P-»aps. the most significant w^ the 
Report of the Surrender of Virginia to the Parliamentary 
Commissioners, March. IG51-52." Until it appeared in the 
pages of our Magazine (Vol. XI. pp. 32-41), it had" t before 

Ma> 0th, 1652), a contemporary news-sheet (now in the 
Bntish Museum), which latter was evidently as unknown to 
histonans as was the original in the State Paper Office The 
eonsequence has been that they have written vague y when 

the hi tory of the Colony. A careful reading of it proves 
beyond peradventure, that not only has our own delilht^ul old 

dftXoT h^s'°" M™''k"""*^=^ ''^^'>' - - i™ -- 

sIm el R r„ H "' 'l ^"' "'"' " *>'^«'''" 'han Beverley, 
Samuel R. Gardiner, in his well-known ■'Commonwealth aid 
Protectorate," has gone still further astray 

„1i?ri-T''^'.'"'''^'^' ^"^ "' '° enumerate fully and fairly 

ed trirnd'lrtr^ ^^^^ ^-^ °^™ '° "^-^ --• <"- - 

ested fnend. But there is a special service of his which 

hough mentKin of it has been made in previous krorts' 

should agam be dwelt on in this slight memorial, as illustrit^ne 

oflrma:'""' "^ "'"■■ ^^"''^^-^ '"^ ^'"-- ""'<•- ^--i ty 

In 1911, he ascertained in some way that this .Society was 
most amnions to have transcribed by an expert, with v iew Mo 

General Cert of Virginia, the originals of which, as you afi 
know, are in the "Congressional Library" at WashinTton 



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As some few of you also know, the crabbed hand-writing and 
bewildering abbreviations employed by the various scribes 
who recorded these "Minutes," render them almost unde- 
cipherable except by a trained and liighly intelligent expert. 
The employment of such an expert (as Mr. Withington well 
knew) was far beyond the reach of the slender purse of our 
association. At once, he volunteered to do the work himself, 
expressly stipulating that he was to receive no sort of remunera- 
tion. Nay, more than this did he do, later on. In the midst 
of tliis "labor of love," his own imperious engagements in 
London forbade his making his usual annual visit to America, 
at which time it was his custom to work hard over his self- 
imposed task. But not for a moment did he turn from his 
voluntary promise. He at once caused "photostatic" copies 
of large portions of the "Miniites" to be made at his own ex- 
pense by experts in the "Congressional Library" and sent over 
to him. These he found time to decipher and forthwith des- 
patched them to our Secretary. Even for this outlay out of 
his own pocket, he declined to be re-imbursed, laughingly 
putting aside the insistence of our Secretary and pretending 
with rare delicacy that it was a matter of trivial moment, 
which we knew that it was not. 

In order to appreciate the full extent of this large-hearted 
generosity, you must bear in mind that he was, in the language 
of his craft, a "high-priced man," who could readily transmute 
every moment of his precious time into minted "coin of the 
realm." 

His generosity was, indeed, so ready and persistent, that our 
Secretary, in a sort of comic dismay, was finally driven to con- 
fess that he was afraid to mention to him any rare historical 
document, of which he specially wished a copy, lest Withington 
should at once insist on sending it to the Society. 

There can be no doubt, in truth, that this enthusiastic anti- 
quarian, whose whole soul was in his chosen field, entertained 
a peculiar affection for the Society in whose behalf he had 
labored so long and so unselfishly. In fact, he came, in time, 
to consider himself a member of our regular staff. 



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PROCEEDINGS. ll 

Whenever he ran across the seas to have a gUmpse of old 
scenes and old friends and near kinsmen, he always came to Rich- 
mond for a flying visit, spending nearly every moment of his 
time at the "Society House," where he was ever sure of cordial 
welcome. Small wonder, for he was a man of what our ances- 
tors were wont to term "engaging manners," an "original" 
and incisive talker, v/ho possessed the happy "Art of Putting 
Things," and might, in consequence, count on welcome wher- 
ever men of "light and leading" gathered for social converse. 

He paid his last visit to us towards the end of April of this 
year, and was never in better spirits nor more enthusiastic 
as to his work (then in hand or already planned) for the coming 
years. He was carrying back to London with him a large port- 
folio of the "photostatic reproductions," already mentioned, 
which he was to decipher and soon send back to us. Other 
things of a like kind he characteristically proposed to do for 
the Society. 

At the beginning of the next month, he set sail for England 
in the ill-fated "Lusitama," and on May 7th, he, along with 
other non-combatants, with helpless women and still more 
helpless children, was done to death by the stealthy hand of a 
miscreant, "whom 'twere gross flattery to name a coward." 
Whoever he may be, he and his fellow-miscreant, von Bissing, 
who murdered Ediih Cavell, may for a few brief years flaunt 
upon their breast the "Iron Cross," bestowed by an approving 
Kaiser, but on the forehead of each stupid malefactor God 
Himself has stamped the "mark of Cain." 

The last seen of Withington (according to a letter written 
by a fellow-passenger, Mr. Harold Boulton of London) was 
that, not taking time to secure a life-belt for himself, he was 
cheerily helping to put the women and children into the few 
boats that could be lowered. To alter Hamlet but a trifle, 
"Look here upon this picture, and on thaty 

As men count years, Mr. Withington was not a young man, 
and yet, when we contemplate his amazing physical vitality, 
his intense alertness of mind, and the undimmed flame of his 
enthusiasm for his chosen work, we cannot choose but think 
of him as another "Lycidas" "dead ere his prime," whose un- 



'.X J 



111 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

toward fate, closely akin to Withington's own, has been com- 
memorated in one of the noblest threnodies of our English 
tongue. And while it is not vouchsafed to us to attain the lofty 
note that has immortalized that more famous Lycidas, "floating 
upon his watery bier, and weltering to the parching wind," it 
may yet be allowed us to attest here in humblest fashion and 
in homeliest sincerity, that, outside his im.mediate family and 
the small circle of his intimates, Lothrop Withington will no- 
where be mourned more deeply and unaffectedly in death than 
in this "Old Dominion," for the perpetuation of whose historic 
glories he had in the fulness of life wrought so long and well. 

Although this Report has already far transcended in volume 
the limits proposed, duty bids us pause to make mention, even 
though it must be in briefest fashion, of one, who for more than 
five-and-twenty 3'ears was an enthusiatic member of this 
Society — the distinguished Kentuckian, Lucas Brodhead, who 
was not only a "man of mark" in "the blue-grass region," but 
widely known throughout the Eastern states as "the prince 
of gentlemen horsemen . " . ■ ' • ■ 

He came of a long line of gallant men and high-bred women 
and, had he so minded, could, of right, have taken as his own 
the proud, yet homely, legend inscribed upon the family-vault 
of the Lords of Colchester — "All the men were brave, and all 
the women virtuous." 

Lucas Brodhead, son of Lucas Brodhead and of his wife, 
Mary Cordelia Upshaw Price, was sixth in descent from Cap- 
tain Daniel Brodhead (of the family of that ilk, created by 
James II Lords of the Manor of Monk Britton in Yorkshire) , 
who came to America in 1664, as a "Captain of Musketeers," 
in Colonel Nickoll's expedition against the New Netherlands 
(See Mr. A. A. Bowmar's admirable article in the "New York 
Genealogical and Biographical Record," April, 1915). 

Lucas Brodhead, the father of the subject of this sketch, 
migrated from Ulster County, New York, to Kentucky in 1820, 
and, settling at Frankfort, the capital, became, in time, one 
of the leading lawyers in the state. 



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PROCEEDINGS. Uu 



Through his mother, Miss Price, young Brodl-iead was allied 
by blood to many of the oldest Virginia families, "gentry- 
folk, ' ' as they used to be called in the old days — for her mother 
was Hannah Upshaw of Essex County, daughter of that John 
Ui^shaw, whose name occurs so frequently in the "Journals 
of the House of Burgesses", and who was also one of the Sig- 
natories of the famous "Articles x)f the Westmoreland Associ- 
ation, drawn by Richard Henry Lee and presented by him to a 
meeting of restive patriots held at ' ' Leedstown ' ' in West- 
moreland County, February 27th, 176G — the first public de- 
fiance in the Colonies of the odious ' ' Stamp Act ' ' and the first 
(scarcely-veiled) threat of separation from the mother-country — 
promulgated (you will observe) more than nine years before 
the apocr}'phal ' ' Mecklenburg Declaration ' ' in North Car- 
olina, and more than ten years before the historic ' ' Declaration 
of Independence" in Philadelphia. Well might Bancroft 
declare, without a shadow of exaggeration, " Virginia rang the 
alarm bell for the continent. ' ' 

For the long line of Mr. B redheads forebears, "officers and 
gentlemen" for generations, we must refer you to Mr. Bow- 
mar's delightful article mentioned above, which is well worth 
careful reading. 

Young Brodhead was fortunate in receiving, as a lad, a very 
thorough classical training, but, after a brief college-course, 
he entered upon a business career, in which he scored a ver}' 
notable success. But, within a few years, he gave up "business" 
as we commonly understand the term, and undertook the more 
congenial task (indeed, the most congenial task to a true Ken- 
tuckian) of managing the large estates, including the cele- 
brated stud-farm, of his kinsmen, the Alexander brothers. 
This remained his life-work until he retired. 

He was a man of marked executive ability, a shrewd financier, 
and, as might be expected, had been from boyhood passionately 
fond of horses. His knowledge of both the English and American 
"stud-books" was unrivalled, and in any disimte as to equine 
pedigrees that arose, East or West (and they were many), 
his decision was accepted as final. Famous as the " Woodburn 
Farm" became under the elder Alexander, it became more 



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liv VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

famous still under Mr. Brodhead's management, and was uni- 
versally conceded by expert "horsemen" to be the "foremost 
breeding-farm" in America, if not in the world. 

It was said of that fine old Virginian, "Jack" Roane of "Up 
pomac, ' ' in King William County, who represented Virginia 
for so many years with marked distinction in the Congress 
of the United States (and who, by the way, was a kinsman of 
Brodhead's, for his mother was Sally Upshaw), that he was 
"a living encyclopaedia of Virginia pedigrees of men and horses.'' 

The same (mutatis mutandis) could be said with perfect 
truth of Mr. Brodhead. According to Mr. Bowmar's lists, 
he possessed a collection, unrivalled outside of great public 
libraries, of family -letters, military commissions of his ancestors, 
land-grants, deeds, family-muniments of all sorts, running back 
for over three centuries. If the scientific breeding of "thorough- 
breds" was the pursuit in life he most preferred, genealogy 
was scarcely less a passion with him, and, when he retired from 
active management of the stud-farm some twelve or fourteen 
years ago, the absorbing occupation of his busy brain was in 
arranging and annotating this great mass of family documents. 
In this engrossing task (which was really no "task," but a 
veritable ' 'labor of love"), he was fortunate in having the keen 
sympathy and active assistance of a congenial helpmate, whose 
distinguished ancestry matched his own, and we trust that it is no 
impertinence on our part to express the hope that, now that he 
is gone, this accomplished lady will see fit to edit and to publish 
to the reading world this intimate family record of her hus- 
band's gallant forebears, who served king and republic alike 
with distinction for over three hundred years. 

Mr. Brodhead never entered "public life," as that term is 
commonly accepted, but he was, nevertheless, immensely 
interested in all public questions, and, as he was a man of wide 
acquaintance and universal popularity, the politicians had alwa}s 
to reckon with his disinterested, yet potent, influence. 

In appearance, he was the beau-ideal of the "gallant Ken- 
tuckian" — of commanding presence and gracious manners, 
possessing the indescribable "6e/ air'' of the bom aristocrat. 






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PROCEEDINGS. ]v 

yet, withal, what is commonly known in these latter days as 
"a good mixer" with all sorts and conditions of men. 

He had little more than rounded out his "three score years 
and ten, ' ' when he fell quietly asleep at ' ' Okalee, ' ' his country 
home m Woodford County, Kentucky, Oct. 1st, 1914 (though 
the announcement of his death did not reach us until the 
spring of the current year). 

He was universally lamented throughout his native state and 
widely elsewhere, while this Society will long miss the active 
support and keen sympathy with its aims which he ungrudgingly 
accorded it for over a quarter of a century. 

In conclusion, we must emphasize once more our poignant 
regret that, for reasons already stated, \ye are debarred from 
paymg even a passing tribute to others in this mournful roll- 
especially to three old friends.— Major Holmes Conrad 
of Wmchester, the daring soldier, learned jurist and brilliant 
orator— Jacob Hefflefinger, the modest and erudite anti- 
quanan of Hampton, whose "Kecoughtan, Old a}id New'' 
gave him high rank among our local historians— and last, 
but by no means least, the witty and genial Robert L. Parrish, 
Jr., of Covington, who, but for the untimely fate which snatched 
him from us in the full flush of his young manhood, had surely 
achieved high reputation as an expert in rare ''Virginiana." 
Yet, after all, words are, at best, but idle things, and, mayhap, 
even m the land beyond the stars, these three old friends' 
divining the wistful tenderness and regret that underiie our 
hns\ied^jequicscaV\m^y, like Browning's dead "Evelyn 
Hope," "remember and— understand. " 

All of which is respectfully submitted. ' ' . 

W. GORDON McCABE. 

President. 

At the conclusion of the Annual Report, Mr. J. Alston 
Cabell was called to the chair. 

The next business was the election of officers and members 
of the Executive Committee. On motion, a nominating com- 



lf"/l3V»l 



noi&iA .(. .iM .Jioq^^ U:- 



Ivi VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

mitteeconsistinj^' of Mr. W. Clayton Torrence, Col. Jennings C. 
West and Mr. Charles C. x'Xnderson was ajipointcd. 

When the committee retired a motion was made and adopted 
thanl-cing President McCabe for his sei-vices to the Society during 
the past year. Mr. Cabell gracefully tendered the thanks of 
the Society to President McCabe. 

The nominating committee returned and recommended that 
the following be elected : 

President— \N . Gordon McCabe, Richmond, Va. 

Vice-Presidents — Archer Anderson, Richmond, Va., Edward 
V. Valentine, Riclimond, Va. and Lyon G. Tyler, Williams- 
burg, Va. 

Corresponding Secretary and Librarian — William G. Stanard, 
Richmond, Va. 

Recording Secretary — D. C. Richardson, Richmond, Va. 

Treasurer — Robert A. Lancaster, Jr., Richmond, Va. 

Executive Coinmittee — C. V. Meredith, Richmond, Va., 
Charles W. Kent, University of Virginia, J. Stewart Bryan, 
Richmond, Va., A. C. Gordon, Staunton, Va., S. S. P. PaLte- 
son, Richmond, Va., S. H. Yonge, Richmond, Va., WiUiam 
H. Palmer, Richmond, Va., Rt. Rev. A. 1\L Randolph, Nor- 
folk, Va., Daniel Grinnan, Richmond, Va., J. P. McGuire, Jr., 
Richmond, Va., Wm. A. Anderson, Lexington, Va., Morgan 
P. Robinson, Riclmiond. Va. ^ ; ,' . 

On motion the ofhcers and members named were unani- 
mously elected. 

President Mc Cabe resumed the chair, and there being no 
further business, on motion, the meeting adjourned. 



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THE ARMISTEAD FAMILY, 

1635-1910. 
By Mrs. VIRGINIA ARMISTEAD GARBER. '^ ^ 

A book of 305 pages, with index, containing the Armistead Arms in 
color, the old Armistead book plate and data connected with some of 
the families that have intermarried with the Armisteads. Price, $5.00. 
Sold by Mrs. V. A. Garber, 211 East Franklin St., Richmond, Va., and 
Whittet & Shepperson, Pub., Richmond, Va. The Armistead Arms in 
color can be bought for $1.00 each; the old book plate for $1.25 per 
hundred. 

The editor of Va. His. Soc. Mag. says the author: "She is no doubt the chief authority 
on the Armistead family, and her linowledge of her subject and tireless industry haT* ea- 
abled her to prepare what is by far the fullest account of that family." 

Oct-U-ljr 



The Virginia IHagazine of History and Biograpliy. 

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, which is issued 
quarterly by the Virginia Historical Society, will accept for publication 
a limited number of advertisements of a suitable character. 

The special attention of Schools, Colleges and booksellers are called 
to these rates 

The edition of the Magazine is 1,200 copies, and its circulation it 
•cnstantly increasing among foreign and American scholars. 

Those who have old books, pamphlets, antique furniture, curios, 
etc., for sale will find it of advantage to avail themselves of thii 
medium of advertising them. 

A> ' - ■ WILLIAM G. STANARD, Editor, 

707 E. Franklin, Richmond, Va 



Eastern Shore Genealogies 

Genealogical Investigation made in the 
records of the counties of Northampton 
and Accomac, Va. 

STRATTON NOTTINGHAM, 
Eastville, Va. 



' ','i i\ itit. ._U- 1« iAiJii;^^ it,' 



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Quality -Promptness 

The Twins 

' that Bring 

' Business 

'■',., to . . .,, 

Mitchell & Hotchkiss 

==Printers of=^ 

Books, Pamphlets and 

Commercial Work of 

Every Description 

6-8-10 North Eighth Street 
Richmond, Virginia 



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cidbi^^ ,bnomdii5I 



Genealogical Researched in England and in Europe Generally. 

Leo Culleton Imembur of English and Foreign Historical Record Societies. I 
92, Piccadilly, London, England. 

Original researches in all classes of records. State, Municipal. Manorial, Ecclesiastical 
(including non-conformist. Quakers, etc.). Probate. Collegiate. Military, Naval, Indian. 
Colonial. 

Wills & Chancery Suits ha»e been aptly described as the backbone of Pedigrees. 

Lists of testators of a particular surname, compiled from the Official Calendars in the 
various Probate Courts in London, also in the numerous provincial probate centres. Esti- 
mate of expense sent on request. Similar lists of Chancery Suits (plaintiff's names) com- 
piled. From these lists or from lists already printed, selections can be made & abstract £ 
of wills in the London Courts furnished at ti-i cents each. Abstracts of Chancery suits at 
75 cents pach. 

Mr. Culleton 's Heraldic & Genealogical reference library of 3000 indexes includes the fol- 
lowing unique manuscript indexes. 

Early Chancery Proceedings: names of plaintiffs and defendants 

Vol. I.-1385 to l-lt)7; 32,000 Vol. V.-1515 to 1529; 32.000 

Vol. n.-1467 to 1485; 34,000 Vol. VI.-1558 to 1579; 32,000 

Vol. 1II.-14S5 to 1500; 30,000 Vol. Vn.-1579 to 1621; 30,000 

Vol. IV.-1500 to 1515; 30.000 Vol. VIIL— lt)21 to 1060; 30,000 

llater period searched by arrangement). 

Court of Star Chamber Court of Requests 

Vol. IX.-1485 to 1558; 30,000 Vol. X.— 1485 to 1585; 32,000 

Index to pedigrees in the "Additional" MSS. at the British Museum; 46,(J00. 

Index to pedigrees in the "Harleian" MSS. at the British Museum. 

Index to every name in Rupps "Emigrants to Pennsylvania"; 30.000, 

Irish Chancery Proceedings, &c.. 1514 to 1575; 12,tKM). 

Armorial Bearings in Cole's heraldic MSS. at the British Museum; 8.000. 

For searches in above mentioned MSS. indexes, the charge is 50 cents each volume, plus 
5 cents for each name found. 

Among other manuscript indexes are: , , , , , 

Collection of familv mottoes; 12,000, arranged under hrst word and Index of families us- 
ing the mottoes; Search $1.00; each name 5 cents; each motto with translation 50 cents. 

Additions to Marshall's Genealogist's Guide; many thousands. 

Annotations to Burke's General Armory; many thousands. 

Pedigrees in Mr. Culleton's private collection. 

Abstracts of Wills; many thousands. 

Wills proved in India. . 

MS. indexes to hitherto unindexed family & county histories, printed parish registers, 

Complete index of all families and arms in Siebmacher's Wappenbuch (Heraldry book), 
60 Vols. Search for a particular surname 12.50. ,. ■ - 

A general search through all indexes including copy of all genealogical & heraldic informa- 
tion found: from $1.25 according to the name. This usually results in a most interesting 
collection of family data from earliest period to modern times & forms the basis of a Family 
History. 

Searching by time, $1.00 per hour for short investigations; 75 cents per hour on lengthy 
searches. 

Ancient records transcribed & translated. Foreign records translated. 

Pedigrees engrossed & illuminated on vellum. 

Armorial Bearings painted in correct heraldic colours. 

Scarce heraldic, genealogical & other works searched for. 

Remittances by dollar notes, P. O. Money Orders or Drafts payable in London. 

Leo Culleton, 92 Piccadilly, London, England 



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, .,^ . Entered al ihp Posloffirt. at Richmond, Va , as Swond ciass'MaKeV'^ 




K^-^l^Hih^^^^ ot William Byrd, Firs£ 



F^^%^^^^ Gleaningg iu England -^^It^r;^^^/^ 
i^^^'^'i^'^^^^^^^^^'ttsylvamaC^^^ mr^'t^i-, 271 -^X"^ 
fcs^^ er-vlieport of Tourrev of Francis J.am^ \'{^nh^^ .^\ % otk ,'^Jl^ 




THE 

Virginia Magazine 

OF 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 



Vol. XXIV. June, 1910. No. 3 



LETTERS OF WILLIAM BYRD, FIRST. 

[Many years a^^o a letter book of William Byrd, first of that 
family in Virginia, was presented to this Soeiety. Thirty-two 
of the letters were printed in the Va. Historical Register I, 
60-66, 114-119; II, 78-83, 203-209; but the selc^-tions seem to 
have been made with no especial reason. The numerous un- 
published letters throw light on trade between England and 
Virginia and conditions in the Colony as it has been determined 
to print them. The writer needs only a brief notice here. He 
came to Va. as a young man to inherit the very considerable 
landed estate of his maternal uncle, Thomas Stegg, who was 
Auditor General of Virginia 1664-70. Wm. Byrd lived first at 
Belvidere on the present site of Richmond and near the close 
of hsi life bought "Westover." He was an extensive planter, 
trader in tobacco, furs, etc., owned stores in Virginia and was 
interested in the Indian trade and in exploration of the West. 
He was a member of the House of Burgesses and Council and 
was Auditor and Receiver General of Va. 1687-1704. He 
married Mary, daughter of Warham Horsmanden, a Royalist 
refugee. His son WiUiam was educated in England, and the 
daughter Ursula or Nutty (as was his pet name for her, doubt- 
less on account of her complection) was also sent to England. 



226 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

On her return she married Robert Beverley, the historian. 
The will of Thos. Grendon (referred to in se\'eral letters) is in 
Waters' Gleanings, 420-431]. 

To Mr. North. 

Vir-'a ffeb'ry the 25, 1688. 

Yo""^ by Ruds & Wynne lately came to my hands with most 
of the Goods you Sent mee by the latter, but have not yet 
opened any, being but last night return 'd from Gloster where 
I have been to wait on our new Govern'' & where Pate & my 
Selfe did not forgett yo'''' & Dick Johnsons good health. I 
wrote to you formerly by Paggen by whom I sent you fiftyHds. 
Tobo. w:'' I hope ere this time is come Safe to your hands. I 
have now nothing to adde, but could not misse this oppertunity 
by So good a Conveyance as my Coz. Grendon by whom have 
Sent a small token to be sj.ient amongst our friends. Yo'^ is 
not yet come to hand, but care is taken for it, our onely mis- 
fortune is my Coz. Tom will loose his vShare of it. 

You shall hear farther by Wynne, who I believe (if any) will 
get his Ladcing though at low rates, by him I shall send you 
Some Tobacco & I hope other goods. Mine & my wives best 
respects & Ser\'ice to yo"" Selfe & Lady from 
S^ 

Yo'' hmiible Servant 

Will. Byrd. 
To M^ North p^ Culpcper. 



•; ■■ To Mr. Coe. 

Virg'a ffeb'ry the 25, 1683. 
Dear S^ 

Yo'''' by Cap' Ruds & Wynne lately rec'^, as allso what things 
sent to my wife w:'' I suppose shee hath given yo'' Lady an 
acco' of Sc wee must e\'er acknowledge our Selves infinitely 
oblidged to }'ou both, for your many favo'''* both to us & ours, 
& wish it lay in my power any way to testify my acknowledge- 
m*^ of yo'' kindnesses; this I hope will come Safe to you by my 
Coz. Tom by whom I have Sent a Small token to bee Shared 






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LEITERS OF WILLIAM BYKD, FIRST. 227 

amongst our friends. I give you ihanlvs for j'o" though not 
yet come to hand, but care is taken for it, & though Coz'n 
Grcndon will not fast it, wee shall not faile to drink yo'' & his 
good health with it at Cap' Randolphs, where wee Order"^ it to 
been put on Shoar. Pray gi\'e my best resi)ected & Service 
to all where its due, Especially to yo'' Lady &: accept the Same 
yo'' Selfe from Dear S^ 

Yo"" oblidg'd fe'^ & Servant 
, . \V. 13. 
To M"" Coe p"" Culpeper. 



To Mr. Gower. 

Virg'a ileb'ry 2lji'' 1(JS3. 
S^ 

I rec' one froin you this year jj'' Caj^' Bradly, wherein you 
promise mee I shall hear more at large by Wx'nne, & tell mee of 
roots ev seeds, but Wunne being arrived, I cannot hear of so 
much as a letter froin you w:'' would make mee doubt yo"" 
wellfare, did not others tell me that all our friends were well, 
in w:'' catalogue, \'ou e\'er had our Esjieciall ])lace, in my Esteem 
&. therefore I could not Ijut vSalute \'Ou with a line or two by so 
good a friend as brings this, to assure you I shall ever acknow- 
ledge the many favo'" I have So frequently rec"^ from you; Wee 
Seldome meet but remember yo"" good health; & Shall Suddenly'' 
\A-hen wcQ dispose of yo"" kind token, w:'' I doubt not but you 
have a share in. All our friends here in health & give you their 
best respects & Service, pray present mine to all at yo'' House, 
& elsewhere its due, assureing you I shall qv<jv remain 

Yo' Oblidg's fr'' c^' Serv'. 
W. B. 

P. S. I wrote last year 2 letters to my bro. Robinson, Sister 
Rich'*'' & Godmother but have not had one tittle from any of 
y'm tliis year. , ,, .,, .,,,... . ■ -. 

To AP Gower in y*^ Culpe]jer. ^ '■..'■'■ ■ ■ ■ ' '• ■ '■ 



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228 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ■ •' 

■ To Perry and Lane. . 

Virginia, ffeb'y 26^''. 1683. 
Gen'. 

I wrote to you yesterday p' the Culpeper & have little now 
to adde, this Serveing only to accompany Cap' Bradly with 101 
H'^'* Tobo. as p'^ bill of Ladeing & Invoice inclosed will appear 
P the next I hope to Send you some fturres, shall not trouble 
you farther at present, but take Leave 

Gen' 

Yo^ wall fr^' & Serv' 
W. B. 
To m' Perry & Lane P Bradly. 



To Perry and Lane. 

James City in Virga. Apr '11 y« 25"^ 1684. , , 
Gent 

My last to you by the Culpeper & Bradly I hope ere this are 
Safely come to yo' Hands with what I sent therewith, have 
little now to adde onely acquaint you with our wellfare, I could 
have w4shd you had been more particular in yo"' letters of y'' 
markett of furrs & Skins, I haeing ingaged for a considerable 
quantity before my rec' of yo'' last at I fear too great a price. 
You shall (god willing) receive some by Cap' Tibbett who Saith 
hee shall Saile about the 20"' of next month. I have had many 
complaints about my stockings this year as allso of Hats, threds 
& Some of y'^ Linnen iron worke & nails y'' worst ever saw, 
which I hope will hereafter bee mended. 

Wee are in lilcelyhood of forward Crops this year, & dout 
not God saying amen, to bee as forward as any of ye Mary- 
landers. I have inclosed Sent for some additional things w:^ 
were bespoke Since my last, w ■}' pray lett mee have as soon as 
may bee, & let mee not faile of all my Indian Tnicke betimes, 
the want of Beads, or Some other trifles being oftentimes a 
great prejudice, shall not trouljle >'ou farther, but acquaint 
you I have charged bills of Ex«^ to mr Peter Perry on you for 






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LETTERS OF WILLIAM BYRD, FIRST. 



229 



5G£.19s.02d., allso some others w:" please to pay aceordin^^ly 
I mus confesse was Surprized to find my Selfe'So far bch nd 

'r;:r"^s;:^/-^^^^^-^-^ 

Gent 
,,„ Yo' rcall friend & Servant 

^^ hat you wrote about English Servants I had anticipated by 
he Culpeper & therefore shall say no more of it, for y' ne-ro's 
W they come), I shall take some if ,hey pro^•e well 
To m' Perry & Lane P Tailor. 



To Mr. North. 

James City in Vn-ga. Apr'il v 2U"' IGSt 
RIy last to you was by my Coz. Grendon, sv:'' I hope with 

re™ r.\"' r '; 'T' ?"n "■ ■ "^^'^ ""'<^ '" ^^^^' --'>'i "- 

Sent ^ w »'^"'''" '^ ^'■™' ^"^" '•*" lh°^« gooJ.^ you 

Sent mee by Wynne & can find no fault with them, onely I find 

many tlungs as Duffeilds Cotton, Brandy, na.ls &c much 

dearer than I paid p L, but the different Seasons they "■' 

bought ,n may bee some reason for a. y french Hats I sent 

or extraordmary for mj- Selfe, were worse than those 1 Td 

Indian Goods, that yon may take the advantage of a more 

\\ ynne, by whom & des.gne you about 90 Hds of Tobo & other 
Goods, itee reckons to saile about the last of next Alo'teth 
by whom I shall write more at large. My Service to all our 
fnends, & accept the .Same yo' selfe from 

S' 

Vo' f}-iend & Servant 

I have charged a bill of Exchange on you paj'able to [no 
Herbert for 2oC. JGs.Od. & inclosed se.tt jou one of mv Coz' 
Grendons for :i-l£.0s,0d. 
To M' North P. Zach Tailor. 



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230 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. '/i, 

To Thomas Byrd. 

• ' •■:•. Virginia May 20 '84. 

Dear Bro. 

I was glad by yo"" letter to hear of yo'' wellfare as allso of all 
our friends. My wife & little ones are very well & desire to bee 
remembered to you, pray give my best respects to yo'' Master, 
& remember mee to my Bro. & Sister Robinson & Sister Rich- 
ards & tell them I take it very unkindly that (though Iwrote 
twice to each of them last year) 1 have not reed one line from 
Either of them this year. Pray remember mee to my Grand 
]\Iother; I shall not doubt yo' diligence to improve yo' time. 
Assuring you none more desires yo' benefit then 

Yo' affectionate Bro 
To T B p Wynne 



To Perry and Lane. 

Virginia May the 20^'' 1684. 
Gen» 

This accompany Cap' Wynne with four Hds of ffurres as p 
bill of Ladeing & Invoice inclosed may appear. Cap* Tibbett 
promised mee to fetch them, but I hear he designes to excuse it, 
wherefore I was forced to i^ersuadc Wynne to take them in; 
There is little of news the Assembly not yett broke up; great 
likely hood of forward Crops being abundance of raine lately. 
Wee are in great anxiety for y*^ Quaker Ketch, & very desirous 
to hear where abt the market may bee, I hope the Dolphin got 
well home, though here is a report of a very hard winter you 
have had in England ; with a continued E wind for many weeks. 
I shall not trouble you farther at prsent but with best respects 
& Service take leave 

Gent 
'^ . • Yo* reaU friend & Servt 

W. B. 
Since my last to you I have charged 36£ to m'' Hartwell 
Si'Os.Od. money to m' Place & 8 to Ben Harrison, pay pass 
accordingly. "■ • ■ ■■■..'' ' '■'■"< •i, i'm 

To m' P by Wynne. ' i i- - ., .:' , ; , 



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LETTERS OF WILLIAM BYRD, FIRST. 231 

To Perry and Lane. m^ . ■ 

'K Virga. Hb-- the 30"' 1784. 

Gen' 

I wrote to you lately by a Yorke Ship, &: hopec then Cap* 
Hall would hav^e Vjeen ready to have Saild with this, & so might 
have been, had others indeavor'd his dispatch as I have done, 
haveing now 81 Hds on board, when Shee will vSailc I know 
nott, but Shall Shi]) no more on board her this year, hope others 
will make it up. Shee had a tedious jiassage heither, & by all 
rejjort is no runner. Cap* Hall thinks if shee were lengthned, the 
increase of her Burthen would soon answer the Charge, & shee 
would Saile much better, but that shall leave wholly to yo' 
discretion, I could have wished wee had bought or built a new 
one, rather then to have been at so much charge with this w;*" 
had like to have ruined us, Butt of this too much: What you 
projxDse as touching the Cargoe sent P Dolj^hin, I am willing 
to goe my jjart (of whatsoever on her Acco') proportionable 
to my part of the ship; What you mentioned about the Pinke 
for the Barbados have answered in my last & Shall expect her, 
else shall provide other way's, Wee here desire not to be Con- 
cern 'd w:'' too many, & therefore if wee find her Concem'd all 
over the River, wee shall have nothing to doe w'^ her; for the 
Cargoe P Hall, I find itt reasonably well, onely Cottons, w:^ 
you say are Cheajjer & better, I find much dearer, as fonnerly, 
you sent y'm at IGJ^d. p Goad, you now Charge 20d. i>c not 
oncly so but have (by mistake I su])pose) Charged mee just 
ten pounds too much in that Article in yo"" Invoice Viz'. 
422H Goads of Cotton Chargd— 451 :4s :()2d at 20d. P Goade 
w :'' comes to but just 351:4s:02d 



lUl:0s:00d 

I am vSorry that Scarce once in a year I can recieve any Acco' 
of the markett of ffurres or skins, by w:'' being in the darke, I 
have been a Considerable looser within tliis twelfe moneth; for 
the En-oe in the of Cok' plletting I shall keep them, since 

'twill bee scarce worth while to send it to Cap' Hall for the bed 
ticke you micntion I have it not mine being barely 41. as allso 



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232 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Cap' Randolphs w:'' is the Same w**' mine, I must confesse I 
am now under great dissatisfaction about tlie damage in the 
Culijcper, Especialh' since by no indeavo''-' of mine I can learne 
how faire I am concern'd therein, & tmely were not the year so 
untoward that few Shijjcs {Sc tliem with difficulty) will get their 
ladeing. I Could almost forever deny shijjping one U'^'' on 
board her whilst I live, but Shall venture once more; I am under 
an unhapp}' disapointment for want of Severall things I sent 
for, Esijccialh' for the Rresse Wire, the Pattom wherof, I put 
in the Letter w''' my owne Hands; Servants at the rates you 
mention, at the latter Season of the year, Cannot bee v;orth 
while, others had much Cheaper &' forward; Shijis will bee 
generally very latter this year no Seasons, to Ship Tobo. ik the 
planter who hath twice or thrice (it may bee) allready sold his 
Tobacco is in no Hast to Strip itt, Shall not troul)le you farther 
at present but tak k-axe 

I am Gen' 

Vi^^fr'^ & Serv' 

\V. B. 
If you send y Pinlce to Barbadoes on our acco' I would have 
by her 5U0 Negros between 12 & 24 years old about 1000 Gall'ns 
Rum 3024000 1. of Sug^ (nuiscox-ado) & abou 200 1. Ginger 
To P p Booth. 



To Mr. North. 

Virga. XI)' the- 20"' 1084. 
S' 

I lately wrote to \-ou by way of Yorke, 1j_\' w ;'' I ga\'e xcni a 
acco' of m}' Coz Grendons death, & design'd to ha\-e sent you 
by this a Copy of his will & : but this shi]) Sailing vSooner then I 
expected & the Badnesse of the \\cathcr pre\-ented mee, this I 
hope will come Safe to yo' Hands b}' the Booth w"> 40 Hds of 
Tobacco as P bill of Ladeing & invoice may a])])ear, if Scarcity 
will ever make Tobo. a Commodity, it will l^ee this year, I am 
Sure it Scrace 6c dear enough, i<: w"' worse generally \ery bad. 
m"" Grendons death hath ])ut mee to Some trouble, that I can 



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LETTERS OF WILLIAM BYKD, FIRST. • 233 

Scarce give you any acco' of y*' Goods rec*^, onely one p'' lac'*^ 
ruffles you sent mee, I sui>i)ose the lace had been tramp''' in y° 
kennell before it was made (the Wrist Bands not being Soild), 
& are I fear not worth a farthing, st> y Saddle you Sent mee for 
my Selfe, I find the Stirnip of a Side Saddle w:'' I su])]jose was 
Sent instead of a Curb bitt, w:'' I find Wanting. You shall have 
it again P Bradly. You shall hear farther ere long, in the 
mean tinie accept of mine w^'' my wives best respects cv Service 
to ycj"" Selfe & Lady, m"' Coe & his & all the rest of our friends 
from 

S'- Yo^ fri'd & Serv' 
W. B. 
To m^ North P Booth. 



To Perky .\>:d Lane. 

Virga. iTeb'ny the 2-' 1684.- ' 
Gen' 

I wrote to you al)out a moneth eine P the Booth. Since w:*^ 
I ha\'e not reed one letter from you, nor can hear any certainty 
of Winne or Tibbets, this (1 hope) Vvill come Safe to yo'' Hands 
by Cap' Hall, w:'' 81 Hds of Tolxicco. Wee have left her to 
yo"" discretion whether for London or Rotterdam. 

There hath been now a good Season, most Tobacco is Strip 'd 
& I'll assure you I never knew so little made in these parts in 
my life, nor I think So bad; I ha\"e inclo.sed Sent for the iron 
worke of a Saw Mill, w:'' I desire may bee Sent by the first Ship, 

6 that the Cranke may bee made exactly according to y in- 
closed patteme. If it is cast (wiihoui flaws) il may doe best; 
the Racke & Nutt must fitt; I am told it may bee best & cheap- 
est had out of Holland, but I thinke wrought iron is prohibited, 
therefore must leave it to you, onel}' earnestly desire that great 
care may bee taken (in y Cranke especially) that the iron 
worke bee well & Exactly according to ye dimensions inelo-etl, 
for I hope my timber worke will l)ee finished before }-'' End (jf 

7 b"" next: Inclosed is allso a note for Some Indian Goods w:'' 
I allso desire by the first oppertunity. I had some complaints 
of my Duffeilds & Cottons this year, by my next I shall givu you 



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234 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

a fuller acco* my Clo: w'td Plains & Cottons very bad & indeed 
all the Cottons very dear, D'' Bullard Sent mueh better both 
Duffeilds & Cottons, w:'' are vSold as cheajj as possibly I can 
afford mine, pray Speake to the Gun Smith that the Dogs of 
all the Gun locks have good Hold otherwise the Indians will not 
buy them; I shall tiot trouble you farther at present but with 
best rcsj)ects '& Ser\'ice take lea\'e 

Gen'' 
• Yo'' friend & Servant 

W. B. 
To m' Perry & Lane P Hall. 



1\) \[. 

Vu-ga. ITeb'ry 2^^ 1G84. 
S^ 

I wrote to you about 5 weeks since by the Booth by whom 
I sent you 40 H'^'^ of Tobo. w:'' I hope v/ill long ere this come 
Safe to your Hands, have little now to adde, onely inclosed have 
Sent our Invoice for some Indian trade, & hope you will mend 
your Hand, the Duffeilds Herbert brought in much exceeds 
yo" the cloth cold plains you Sent is not So good by a groat a 
yard as some I had w:'' did not cost So much by 23/^d. a yde, 
by Ruds Idesigne you Some Tobo. & other Goods & by him 
Shall Send my Invoice for what Goods I designe, but would 
willingly first See my Acco'' Pray give my best respects & Ser- 
vice where its due, & accept the Same yo' Selfe from 

S' 

Yo' reall iV^ & Ser\^^ 
W. B. 
To M. P Hall. 

Speake to y^ Gunsmith that the Dogs of the Ix)cks have good 
hold, otherwise the Indians will not buy them. 



To His Brother and Sister Robinson. 

' Virga. Mo. March 1G85 (4?). 

Dear Bro : & Sister 

Yo" of y* 29"' of July came Safe to hand, though y'= unhappy 



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LETTERS OF WILLIAM BYKI), FIRST. 235 

Bearer dyed at vSea, I will assure you twas great Satisfaccon to 
mee to hear of your wellfare, & notwithstanding the distance 
of ])lace nothing can bee more to my Content then to hear of the 
prosperity of my (So near) relations, therefore yoii will omitt 
no oppertvmity to lett mee hear from you by letters, w^'' (Since 
heaven hath placed us at that distance) is the onely way wee 
have to communicate our thoughts, therefore hope I shall hear 
from you oftener, IVIy little daughter Ursula comes herewith, 
to whom I shall not doubt your l;indnesse, Pray give my kind 
love to our Sister Mary & all our friends, & Accept of mine w**" 
my wives to your selves heartily wishing us a men-y meeting 
in England I remain 

Yo'' affectionate Bro 
W. B. 
To Bro : Robinson P Culpeper 

Virga. 31-^' March 1684 
Dear Sister 

Yo^-' of y*^ 29"' of July came to my Hands d' was glad to hear 
from you, though Son-y to understand you were in So Sickly 
a Condition Pray God if it bee his blessed Will restore you to 
your former health w:'' would bee ver)' wellcome news to mee. 
My poor Coz. Grendon dyed att Sea in Octob^ last, My wife 
& little daughters are well. One of y'm (Ursula) comes here- 
with pray God Send her a good Voyage. M}' wife gives you 
her kind love & Service, Pray give mine to all where its due, 
especially to my Sister Mary & accept y*" Same yo'' selfe w^*" 
my pra)'crs to God for your health & wellfare I remain 

Dear Sister 

Yo"" ever loveing Bro: 
W. B. 
To Sister Rich^^ P Culpeper. 



To Thomas Byrd. 

Virga. Ulto. March 1684. 
Dear Bro: 

Yo" of y*" T**" of August came to my Hand, though my friend 
by whom twas Sent dyed att Sea; I am heartily glad to hear of 
your wellfare, & doubt not but you will So well improve yo"' 



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236 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

selfe that when you come to bee out of yo'' time, you will bee 
able to manage yo"" buisinesse to y'' best advantage, wherein 
I shall bee ever ready to assist you. One of my little Daugh- 
ters comes herewith. M}' wife desires to be remembered to you. 
Pray give my best respects to my Sister Mary & all where its 
due & accept the same yo"" selfe from 

Yo'' affectionate Bro: '"^^ 
W. B. 
To Bro: Tom P Cul])eper .• . 



• To His Brother Rand. ' ''- 

Yirga March 31-^^ 1685 
Dear vS' • 

Yo""^ by Cap' Dell came Safe to my Hands & was heartily 
Wellcome, bringing us the good news of your Wellfare & my 
Sisters Safe delivery of a vSon, of whom I wish you both much 
Joy. My wife & 2 Girls are I thanke God in health. Little 
Nutty comes herewith, if vShee calls on you by the way, I doubt 
not your kindnesse I should ha\'e been heartily glad to have 
Seen you in England this year, had not my affairs here (most 
of w:*^ I am Sure bring more trouble then profit or pleasure) 
hindred mee, but it may not bee long first. My Coz Grendon 
(in y*-" flower of his Age) dyed y^ 10 of 8 b"" last at Sea & the Old 
Woman (not indureing to lye alone) Marryed abt y latter end 
of Jan'ry to one m"" Edw'^ Brain a Stranger here. My best 
respects & Ser\'ice to j'o'' selfe. Lady, Sister Dudly, m' Knowles, 
w*^ all the rest of our friends in ^'o"" parts from 

Dear S' 
Yo'' affectionate Bro: (S: Serv^ 
W. B. 
To Bro: Rand P Culpeijcr 



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LETTERS OF WILLIAM BYRD, FIRST. 237 

To Daniel Horsmanden. 

., r, s, ;,< ' Virga. March y'^ 3P' 1685 . , , 
Dear Bro; 

Yo'''* of y° 6"^ of July last come to my Hands, by w:*' was glad 
to hear of yo'' wellfare, for one letter a year is the most I have 
reed from you, therefore wonder you should blame mee in that 
who have allways doubled, & most comimonly trebled y*^ num- 
ber. IMy wife & girls are in health, little Nutty comes here- 
with, God Send her well to you, & I shall not doubt your kind- 
nesse to her. Poor Coz Grendon dyed at Sea in Octob'' last 
& y"' old woman finding itt not convenient to bee alone hath 
man-yed one m"" Edw* Brain (a Stranger) in Jan'ry last. Cap' 
Randolph & m'' Banister, present their Service to you, whom 
wee allways remember when wee meet. Pray give my blessing 
to my Children when you See them, w^'' best respects & Service 
to all where its due, & accept y"^ Same yo'' selfe from 

Dear Bro. 
Yo'' affectionate Bro: & Servant 
W. B. 
To Bro: Dan '11 P Culpeper 

(To be Continued) 



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238 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT 

1622-1629*. 



From the Originals in the Library of Congress. 
(Continued.) 



''All erasures in the originals are here printed in italics. 



(175.) ^. - ■•-. ■ 

Edward Nevell swome & examined sayeth yt Mr Crisi^e did 
promise to give Mr. Weston (1) seat n tie yt he would he would 
not Truck any of his Tobacco at Canada & yt before he had his 
goodes ashore he wold putt him in good securitie not to Truck 
away any of his Tobacco, excei)t some hundred weyght to buy 
him apparell and some oth er necessaries. 

T [l^_,.'^'^"''J"^a^ Weston, a London merchant, was one of the associates of 
John Pierce, to whom a grant of land was made by the Virginia Company 
Jan. 12 lOiy-20. He was closely associated with the emigration of the Pil- 
grims; but later, diflerences arose between him and them. Weston owned 
a number of slaps and was actively engaged in trading to America and in 
tishing. He decided to attempt a settlement in x\'e\v England, and is the 
summer of 1G22, his ships the Charity and S2oun. and, probably, the Spar- 
row, brought hfly or si.xty men for a settlement at Wassagussel (now 
Ueymouth). The Chanty also carried thirty passengers on to Virtnnia. 
ihis settlement seems to have been very obiectionable to the Plvinnulh 
peoi)le, who accused the new-comers, generally, of much bad cor.duct 
though stealing corn is the worst specific charge. Roliert Cushman wrote 
from hngland to his brother Pi]grims.in regard to Weston's men "I pray 
you therctore signify to Squanto [the Indian interpreter] that they are a 
distinct bt.dy from us, and we have nothing to do with them, nor must be 
blamed for their faults, much less can warrant their fidelity " The 
savage mmd could draw but one inference from this Christian 'message 
and promptly made plans to e.xtiqjate the Weston colony. It is of 
course, not intended to imply that Cushman mstigated an attack i,n the 
new settlement; but he should have known the danger of .such a message 
the Weston colony was soon abandoned, most of its members r<-lurning 
to l^ngland while a few went to Plymouth and Virginia. 

Weston continued for a number of years his trading and fishing ventures. 
Alexander Brown states that later he owned land in Virginia and Mary- 
land. He was for a lime a rcsi.lenl in Virginia and was a member of the 
House of Burgesses m ](i2:S. h should be noted here that the present 
Maine was then called Canada. Thomas Weston is said to have died m 
Bristol during the Civil War. 



T?) 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 239 

Yt is ordered yt Mr. Weston shall ])ay to Mr. Newman for ye 
service of Arthur Avelince si.\ baiTcUs of shecld come and two 
firkins of butter or ihe valcw therof in Comodities, as ye said 
butter and Comodities cost in Englande. 

And for the fraught of Certen goods purchased [ ?] at one town, 
yt lie take for the fraught therof after ye rate of fower jx^wnde 
to be paid in Tobacco at the rate of three shillings p. ])owrid 
accordinge to the agreement. 

Thomas Cr3^spe, gent., swome & examined sayeth that he 
was witness to A Covenant when Edward Ne\^ell did Co^'enant 
to deliver one hundred pound weight of Tobacco to Robert 
Newman uppon theire arix^all at Canada, in consideracon yt 
the said Edward Nevell had a bill signed [ ?] over to him by John 
Warde (2) for the rejjayment of ye said hundred waight of 
Tobacco at this Crojj]). 

And fourther sa}-eth yt when they ari\'ed at Canada Robert 
Newman demanded \'e Tobacco of Mr. Ne\'ell at damarells 
Cove(3), and ]\lr. Nevell Answered peradventure it is at 
Massicusis [?] yt you shall have, And sayeth yt after this Mr. 
Newman made a second demand of it and he refused to \ydy it, 
saying yt it was at hib choyse luhe for ther Jie wold jmy it or no 
at Canada was noe day or place ai)])ointed for the pa>'ment 
therof so it was paid in Canada. 



(170.) 

Yt is ordered yt Mr. Nevell shall paye to Robert Newman (4) 
and John Warde ffyftie pownde waight of good merchantable 
Tobacco, And to deliver upp to them one Bill v/herin they 

(2) Captain John Ward, who made a number of voyages to Virginia 
settled a plantation in the Colony at Ward's Creek, and with hi.s Lieut- 
enant, John Gibbs, represented it in the Assembly of 1G19. 

(3) 'i'he Damarells-Damaris-, Damarinscove Islands, are five or six 
in number and lie off the coast of Maine, between the Kennebec and 
Penotjscot. They were early resorted to by hshing ships and occupied 
for fishing stages. 

(4) The "iMuster" of William Gayne and Robert Newman, appears 
in the Census of 1624-5. Robert Newman, aged 25, came in the Neptune 
in 1018, and the "muster" also included Ji^hn Coker, aged 20, and .Arthur 
Avelon, aged 2G, the latter having come in the Elizabeth in 1020. 



Ct£ 



.r .'/, ? ■ I !• 



i/>iT'«A^ 



(OTI.) 



240 :■- " VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

stand bound to him for ye payment of one hundred pounds 
\vai<,'ht of Tobacco 

Yt is ordered yt Mr Weston shall ijay Robert Thresher one 
hundred and fower score jx^wnd waight of good merchantable 
Tobacco ]jresently, In consideracon of that Tobacco \\''ch he 
laid owte of Robert Threshers at Canada for his owne comodities 
And two hundred and ffiftie pound waight more for his not 
bringing a servant for ye said Robert Thresher according to 
agreement and twenty pounde of ye like Tobacco a weekx- for 
John Coker his servant from ye fourteenth of June to the eigth 
of October next JoUounng last jjast. 

Killibett Hitchcock (5), gent., swome & examined sayeth 
That he was over to Archers Hope with the wyddow Bush and 
was present when she did make an absolute bargaine with Mr 
Thomas Farley for the land he was then seated one, for six 
y ceres, And that Air Farley did tender her payment of a hun- 
dred waight at that present, but beinge late and the weather 
doubtful she would not then take it \^'ith her but did defer the 
payment therof until Mr Farlow had his leafe sold. 



' ■• (177.) 

John Elysone(G) swome & Examined sayeth, that he was 
present when the widdow Bushe did grant a lease to Mr fl'arle}'' 
of the lande he was then seated one for six yeares. And that 
Mr ffarley was to pay therin present a hundred waight of To- 
bacco, And that she offered to have made Mr ffarley a lease 
therof at that tyme yf there had been candle length in the house 
and yt Mr ffarley was to paye to the widdow Bush sixtie pound 
of Tobacco yearly rent for the place. 

(5) Kilibett Hichcocke, was living at James City in 1023; but was out 
of the county or omitted in the Census of 1024-5. 

(0) John Ellyson who came in the Prosperous and his wife Ellin, who 
came in the Charitie were living at Archers Hope 1024-5. At the same 
time, Susan Bush aged 20, who came in the George, 1017, widow of John 
Bush, who died in 1024, was living, together with Sarah Spence, aged four, 
born in Virginia, and live servants, at Elizabeth City. Sarah Spence 
was daughter of Ensign William Spence, who had been a burgess for 
James City in the Assembly of 1019 and who, with his wife, was returned 
in the list of dead Feb. 10, 1023, as "Lost," doubtless killed by the 
Indians. Sarah Spence seems in some way to have been the heir of Susan 
Bush, who must have died not long after the Census of 1024-5. 



.av 



H 



.(IT 'J. 'mi Oi 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 211 

In regarde of the greatc charge yt. Thomas Bennett (7) hath 
uppon his hands and other considerations The Court doth con- 
descend yt he shall have two barrells of Come abated him of his 
rent for this year. 

Yt is orderd yt gardians of Sara Spence shall make satysfac- 
tione to Thomas ffarley for the cost & charges he hath been at in 
Clearinge and building uppon the lande he now is seated one, 
w'ch he hath p'fonned since the widdow Bush made him grante 
of a lease. 

Yt is ordered w'th ye Consent of ye Governor yt six hundred 
waight of Tobacco dew Mr Cleyboume as by a former order 
apeareth and one hundred waight to Clarence Maye [?], one hun- 
dred waight to Wm Julyan, And sixtie waight to John Powell, 
being dew to them from the Company shalbe paid to them owt of 
the Companys rent of their rent this yeeres rent, W'ch the Gov- 
ernor was formcrlv ordered to receax'e in sattisfacon of this Deft. 



(178.) ^ ' --:■': ■ -.- 

k Courte held the xxviii"' of November 1625 beinge present 
S'r flrancis Wyatt, Knight, Governor, Capt ffrancis West, 
Capt Roger Smith, Capt Samuell Alathewes, I\Ir William Cley- 
boume 

Yt is ordered yt the p'vost marshall shall give a discharge 
to the purser of the Elizabeth for the receipt of those goodes 
w'ch he hath receaved of John ffox and John Pickemell who died 
at sea. And to take the Charge of sendinge of the Tobacco made 
of those goodes into England 

Wlieras Thomas Thackthorpe [or Shackthorpe] and Robert 

BuiTOws beinge brought over as servants for Richard Page, 

m'r of the Elizabeth, who by order of C^^urt dated ye 19'^ of 

September 1G25 weere delivered the one to Mr Abraham Persia 

(7) In the muster of Thomas Bennett (at the census of 1624-5) at 
Basses Choice, appear Thomas Bennett, aged 38, who came in the Neptune 
in 1618, Mary Bennett, aged 18, came in the Southampton, 1622, Roger 
Heford, and Benjamin Simes, aged 33. Tlie last was no doubt the Ben- 
jamin Symes, later of Elizabeth City, who by his will in 1634, founded a 
'chool in that county, still represented by the Syme.s-Eaton Academy 
at Ham])ton, the oldest endowed school in the United States. Thomas 
Bennett was probably a brother of Edward Bennett who had a great 
plantation not far away at Warrosquoiacke. 



iua'tj 



) A 



omuixi 



242 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and the other to Air John Woolrich for 2 servants of theirs who 
went away after they were shipt by neekhj^^ence The Court 
refers it to be tried in England betwixt the owner and the 
wyddow Page who shall stand to the loss of those two Ser\^ants 

Yt is ordered yt the purser of the Elizabeth shall pay to Caleb 
Page for the use of the widdow of Richard Page late m'r of the 
Elizabeth COO pounds waight of good merchantable Tobacco 
and that the jjurscr shall ship the said Tobacco aboarde the 
Elizabeth and give ye bill of lodinge for the same into this 
Court to be recorded 

And yt Caleb Page shall take the charge of receavinge ui)p 
the rest of the Tobacco and other depts due to his brother 
Richard Page, and to be accountable for the same to this Courte 
to ye use of ye \A'3-dov/ Page v^-hen he shalbe therunto caled. 



(179.) 

Thomas Weekes swome and Examined sayeth yt A boye 
shipt by Thomas Page aboarde the EHzabeth did doe all such 
Busines and labour duringe the voiage as the Boatswain did 
Comand him to Doe 

Yt is ordered yt Caleb Page shall prefer in Court A trew and 
iuste accoupt of all such depts and Tobacco as he shall receave 
in Virginia for depts dew his Brother Thomas Page 

Yt is ordered yt Capt Tucker shall deli\^er such goodes as he 
hath in his handes of Mr Vincent Barber's unto Mr MaiTnaduke 
Rayner(8), or otherwise that he appeare hcere before ye Go\'- 
emo- and Councell at James Cyttie one mondye next come 
sennight beinge the twelf d'ye of Decemiber next to show cause 
too the Contraire 

John Snode [?] swome and Examined sayeth deposeth that 
the Inventorie by liim i)'duced in Court ^^■as A trewe Inventory 
of the goodes of Thomas Clarke, deceased. 

Yt is ordered yt a warrant be sent to Lt Bairy yt yi the Con- 
troversie depending between him and Henry Geny cannot [be 

(S) Marm;idul:e Rayncr was a member of llic Virijinia Comijany and 
as mate and master made several voyages to Virginia. In the summer 
of 1G20 he made an exploring expedition from Virginia to Roanoke. 



IjliiOTc 



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0<;fi»»j Wt*;i/; UJ j/.'^n rji 



V 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 243 

settled?] at ye Court at Elizabeth Cyttie yt then Lieut Barry 
do appeare heere one this daye three weeks to answer to said 
Henry Geny to his duitc. 

Wheras John Utie, gent., deposeth in Courte yt certain 
things Demanded in Courte by Mr Hanvood, were received by 
him of Mr Harwood for the [use"'] of Southampton hundred 
Company. A note of ye p'ticulars 19 i'hirtes, 8 payer of shewes, 
18 payer of fish firkins [?], 4 felling Axes. 



(180.) 

John Utie, gent., deposeth yt the bond wheron John Shep- 
pard(9), Doctoris Christmias, & Mr Jonas Stogden stand bound 
to Mr John Pountis late Thresurer of Southampton Hundred 
was for the discharge of said John Shepparde and Doctoris 
Christmas from the servdce of Southampton Company 
.; Yt is ordered yt John Shejjparde and Doctoris Christmas 
havinge discharged their bonde to Mr Pountis shal have their 
ffredom accordinge to agreement as other tenants have had. 

Yt is ordered yt a warrant to Christopher Lee (10) to deliver 
the fortie fower boushels of Come of the pursers now in his 
hands of Mr Peirsie to any of the ships Comjiany or else to 
ap]jeare here one Monday next to show cause to ye Contrary. 

Yt is ordered yt notw'thstandinge the Covenant made be- 
tweene Mr David Sandys, minister, and the ])arishoners of 
IMartins Hundred, That they shall paye the full dews as other 
jjarishes doe, nottw'thstandinge his not p'forming his covenant 
by reason of his Death. 



(181.) 
A Courte held the 5*'' D'ye of December 1625, beinge present 
Sr ffrancis Wyatt, Knight, Governor, Cajjt. ffrancis West, 
Capt. Roger Smith, Mr Wm Cleybourne 

(9) Doctoris and Elizabetli Chri.stmas were living at Elizabeth City 
in 1()2.3, and he wa-i in Viri^inia in November 1G2.5; but is not included in 
the Census of 1(324-5. It is evident that tiiis census is not complete. See 
tliis A'laj^azine XIX, 085 for note on Doctoris Christmas. John Slieppard 
was probably the "Lieutenant Shei)))ard," living at I^li/.alx'lh City in 
1023; but not named in the Census of 1(121-5. 

(10) In the Census of 1G21-5, Christopher Lee, aged 30, who came in 
the Southampton in 1G23, appears as a servant of Abraham Persey at 
James City. 



£H .T«UO0 JA48KdO OMA Mbv 



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244 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Nicholas Roe(ll) swome and Examined sayeth yt he re- 
membreth at Canada yt Mr Weston gave order to Mr Nevell 
not to deHver Mr Crispe his Tobacco unless he brought Mr 
Wetheridge to give securitie yt Mr Crisp should not Truck away 
any of his Tobacco in ye Country, but wether Mr Weston did 
absolutely demande Mr Wetheridge should give his bonde or 
to deliver it uppon his word this deponent doth not well re- 
member 

And further he sayeth that being at Damerells Cove Jeffry 
Coniish came abourde the ship caled the Swan and demanded 
this deponent the cause of his brothers execution, sayinge yt 
hath been told his brother was put to death wrongfully and that 
he wold be revenged of them that were ye occasion of it. 

And further sayeth yt whilst Jeffry Comish and this deponent 
were in talke Mr Nevell cam in place and told ye said Jeffr>^ Cor- 
nish yt he was at the triall of his brother and at his execution 
and that he could say more conceminge his execution than this 
deponent could doe, after w'ch this deponent was caled down 
into ye hold, so yt wt other Conversation was betwixt them con- 
ceminge that, he knoweth not The said Comish and Nevell re- 
mayninge uppon the deck talkinge together, and further he 
cannot depose. 

John Giles swome and examined sayeth yt he heard Jeftry 
Comish sware and sale that he w;old be the cause of the death 
of those yt were ye cause of putting his brother to death, This 
deponent beinge abourde their owne shipp caled the Swann, 
And coming abourd another shipp riding hard by, but yt Ed- 
ward Nevell or another told said deponent he was put to death 
w-rongfuUy, he cannot say. 



(182.) 
Christopher Knollinge swome and examined sayeth that 
being a shore at Damarells Cove in Canada JefTery Comish 
cam unto him an d demanded of hi m w't he could say concer ning 
""(TlWHcholas Rowe, who came in the Elizabeth in 1621, and Mary 
Rowe who came in the London Merchant, 1020, were livmg at Elizabeth 
City 1621-5. 



•31 



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U-l'vt<r« Tit.^ 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 245 

his brother being putt to death, sayinge that some of ye Swan 
should tell him yt his brother was put to death wrongfully & 
said yt he would spend his blood for his brother to be revenged 
on them yt did it, but this deponent askinge him Deponent the 
said Cornish who told him so, he refused to tell him. and more 
he cannot say. 

Nicholas Hodges swome and examined sayeth he herd Mr 
Weston say to Nicholas Roe at Canada yt unles he would signe 
a release unto him he would putt his two men ashore, and would 
not bring them to Virginia 

It is ordered yt A warrant be made to cause xMr Weston to 
appeare [before] ye Governor and Councell at James Cyttie 
one mond'ye the 12^^ ^f December and to bring up his pynnace 
w'th him yf winde and weather will serve, yf not yt he do p'son- 
ally apeare him self, and his pynnace to come upp after and yt 
Mr Cnspe, Mr Newman, Mr Nevell, Thomas Godbie and all 
others who have ought against or for Mr Weston do appear heere 
the same D'ye Concerninge the business of 3'e Swan and yt Mr 
Weston bring upp Mr Nevells goodes in ye barke 

Yt is orderd yt Robert baring shall pay eight barrells of Corne 
to Mr William Hanvood for ye Companyes dept w'ch is dew 
unto him. 

Yt is ordered yt Mr Procter shall paye to Mr Perry(12) in 
recompense of his boat w'ch was splitt by Mr Procters meanes- 
the some of fiftie pound weight of good merchantable tobacco,' 
present payment. 

Peter Busbey [or Bayley] swome and examined saith yt 
commgedownin Mr Procters shallopp w'th passengers [and >] 
Tobacco Edward ffysh [Fysher ?] espeied a duck ahead and spake 
to ye Company to take her upp, and ye duck fiew away, but ye 
shallop at that tyme sh ipt noe water 
Th^^^L. ,^^'\'^^^'" P'--'"^y came to Virginia in 1611 and died Au?. 6. 1637 ' 

bore a sh^; Zvfrh "^"1'^ historian, who also states that the tomb 

oore a shield with armorial bearings too worn to be identified Perrv 
was appointed to the Council 1632-3: See this Magazine 11, 151 ^ 



240 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

(183.) 

Caleb Page swome and examined sayeth ye he herde John 
Pickcnell say 3't he did owe William Webster, purser of the 
Elizabeth, fyftie pounds waight of Tobaeco, wherupon it is 
ordered yt the purser shalbe paid tliis sum out of the Tobacco 
w'ch Ijy order of Courte he is to i)ay to the provost marshall for 
Peckem.ells goodes 

And where it doth appear by Richard Page's books that he 
doth owe William Brewere for five gallons of Aquavitae, and 
tVvO barrells of grecne ginger yt is orderd yt Caleb Page shall 
payc him for ye same, twenty-fower pounds of Tobacco 

Yt is ordered that Thomas Dowethome(13) shall pay to 
Sergeant John Harris for a dept of William Gantlett, deceased, 
the quantitie of three ban-ells of Indyan Come presently, The 
bill of Gauntletts p'duced in Court affirminge ye same to be 
dew dept. 

Yt is ordered yt Caleb Page shall receave the goodes of Thomas 
Page his brother and to receave Tobacco for the sum, x\nd to 
bring in a perfect Accoumpt therof unto this Courte, & shipping 
3^e goodes. Tobacco for Englande deliver into ye Courte a bill 
of ladinge for the samiC. 



(184.) 

A Courte lield the xii'' daye of December 1625, being present 
Sr ffrancis W^'att, Knight, Governor &c, Capt Roger Smith, 
Raphe Hamor, Mr William Cleyboume 

At the humble desire of Captayne Thomas Willowby(14) ye 
Courte hath assented he shall have two hundred acres of land 
scituate aboute two myles w'thin the mouth of Pamunkey river 

(13) The muster of Thomas Dunthonie, of Elizabeth City, at the 
Census of 1624-5, included himself aged 27, who came in the Margaret & 
John, 1620, Elizabeth Dunthorne, aged 38, who came in the TryalL. 1010, 
and six servants. Dunthorne's wife v.as eleven years older than he, and 
had been in the colony ten years longer; but marriage with an experi- 
enced and thoroughly acclimated widow had its compensations. 

John Harris owned 200 acres in Charles City in 1G26. William Gaunt- 
let!, curiously, is entered in both the lists of living and dead in 1623; 
but the latter was probably correct. 

(14) Notices cf Thomas Willoughby, William Claiborne, Roger 
Smith, and Ralph Hamor and their families have appeared in former 
numbers of this Magazine. For a note on John Jefferson see XXIII, 
19. 



9r 



(Mi) 



.-../v/. ^ : ) y-.-l .-i.-i^ ..- ..-il L .^i 






MJNUTES OF THE COl'NCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 247 

and abuttingc westerlye on to Creeke and thence extendinji; one 
hundred i^ole along ye banke of ye river and ye southedye side 
of the said River, provided, that he plant and seate uppon the 
saide lande, or some parte of the saide lande, v/'thin seaven }'ears 
next after the date herof ensueinge or else ye s'd land to Vje free 
any other to mal<;e choyse & yn[thenl ye saide Thomas 
Willowbie to tal<e his said devident in some other playce. 

Mr William Cleybounie, Counsellor of Estate, doth likewise 
desireth of the Courte to have two himdred and ffyftie acres of 
land granted unto him sytuate Aboute Archer's Hop^e and 
abuttinge westerly uppon the lande of Joakin Androos & esterly 
ui^^jjon the land of Lieut. John Jeffersone, vSoutherlie uppon the 
maine river & northerly upi)on the maine lande unto w'ch his 
request. The Courte doth willinglie consent Provided yt he 
ymj^loy plant or seate uppon the said land w'thin seaven yeres 
after the date therof 

Capt Roger Smith Counsellor of estate doth likeu-ise desireth 
of the Courte to have one hundred acres of lande for his own 
p'sonall ad\'enture he beinge an old planter, fower Acres of the 
said lande hteinge w'thin the jjrecincls of James Cyttie & the 
other nyntie six sytuat uppon a Creeke w'thin the mouth of the 
back river w'thin ye Corporalion of James Cyttie, deviding it 
^^ 'esterly from the gleabe land, and thence extendinge along the 
band: of the river fortie eight pole sutherly upi)on the mouth of 
the said back river, and westcrl}' u]jpon ye maine land, unto 
w'ch his request the Courte do willinglie consent he having 
alreadie seated and planted u])on the said lande. 



(1S5.) 

Capt. Raphe Hamor Counsellor of estate doth like desireth 

of the Courte to have five humired acres of land s^'tuate one 

the northe side of Blunt poynt river, about three miles upp the 

saide river & abuttinge northe westerlie upjjon A Creek deviding 

it from the land of John Baynum(15), gent., &: thence extend- 

(15) The Muster of Mr. John Banum and Robert Sweet, at Elizabeth 
City, at the Censu- of 1524-5, includes John Banum a^ed 51, who came in 
the Sivan in IGIG, Elizabeth Banum, at^n-d 43, who came in the Bona Nova 
in 1G2(), Robert Sweet, aged 4J, who came in the Neptune in 1G18, and ^even 
servants. 



T« TJ. 



b- ! V lii.f.f 



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OJ.'Uf J':;;;! ;!;•', if j/ fTo<|qt.f vh'Jia'iW !)i:tj; , i/>'ir ;!..i-i ftiiu: Ofli 
^r'rv/.rf nl .'tr ' ' ■■■ 



248 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

inge Easterlie two hundred and ffyftie pole along the baiilce of 
the said Blunt poynt river, sutherly uppon the maine lande, 
unto w'ch his request the Courte doth willingly assent, provided 
that the saide Capt. Hamor doth seat & plant uppon the said 
lande or some parte of ye saide lande w'thin sea\'en }'eeres next 
ensuinge after the date herof . 

Randall Smallwood swome and examined sayeth that ffrarx'is 
Michell(lO) did buye of Joseph Charde two houses iind six 
Acres of land at Charles Hundred for a hundred and ffyftie 
pound of tobacco and three bushells of Indyan Come w'ch 
Tobacco and come was to be paid to the said Joseph Charde 
when he did deliver ye writtings and the possessione of the said 
houses and lande to the said ffrancis IMichell, And further saieth 
That w'thin three or fower D'yes after The massacre happen- 
inge, and the said Joseph Charde being in possession of the said 
houses was forced by the Emcrgencie w'th others to cjuitt ye 
saide hoiiscs, by reason wheras shortly after it was burnt by the 
Indyans, And the said ffrancis Michell never ])ossest therof 

The Courte findinge by \\iiness, and by the bill itsclfe yt the 
said Tobacco was to be paid for the said houses and land wherof 
he was never possest, do not conceave in equitie yt ffrancis 
Michell should t)c compelled to paye the said Dept. 



(18().) 

John Sutheme swome and examined sayeth, That he was 
p'fecting some Accompts for JMr Rowsley, (17) at w'ch tyme 
he was very sicke, And among other writings Anthony West 
his indenture cam to his hande, w'ch Indenture jMrs Rowsley 
willed this deponent to give her, sayinge I will laye it by, for I 
will give him his Indentures & sett him free 

(IG) Francis Michell lived at Elizaljelh City Feb. 1G23, and Josuah 
Chard, at^ed 36, who came in the Seaventine, May 1007, and Ann his wife, 
aged 33, who came in the Bonny Bess, Auj^iist 1()23, were living at the 
Neck of Land in Charles City 11)2-1-5. 

(17) William and Eli.''.abeth Rowsley and a maid of theirs died at 
James City between Feb. 1022 v.vd Feb. 1()23. Anthony West, who came 
in the James, 1622, lived on the Treasurer's Plantation, jame^ City, U)24-5 



a\ 



•.q '1.1 t 



f J . ' » 'Jl 1 (^ I A- ^>ll/. < I-. 1 « |». i, I I I >1| . U'.J i> 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 249 

Henry Menefie [?], Marchant, swome and examined sayeth 
yt he was in place at Mr Rovvsleys house with Capt. Sampson 
Mr Rich. Bass when Mrs Rowsley did sett Anthony West free 
and deHvered his Indentures to Capt Sampson to Gary into 
England to his ffriends 

Uppon the Testimonys above recorded the Courte doth order 
that Anthony West shall have his ffrcedom, and his passe for 
England. 

(To be continued) ' 



c.i-, r 



It;. ; > .■( ,. 



Q*^S .TH'Jo 



250 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



MRGINIA IN 1678-1679. 

(Abstracts by W. N. Sainsbcry, and copies in the McDonald 
and De Jamette Papers, Virginia vState Library.) 
(Continued) 



Whitehall Feb. 18, 1678-9. 

Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
Several heads of Instructions for Lord Culi)cper are read and 
approved; such as relate unto the Church being put off 'till 
Thursday next. To move his Maj. that some men of War be 
appointed to cruize off the Channel to protect a considerable 
fleet of homeward bound ships from the Algerines. On reading 
petition of Col. Augustine Warner to except Capt. Bird(l), one 
of the late rebels in Virginia out of the Act of Indemnity which 
is preparing, by reason of jjctitioner having obtained a judg- 
ment of £1000 against him, it is referred to the Attorney Gen- 
eral. 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 105. p. 311.) 



Whitehall, Feb. 24, 1678-9. 

Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
Draught of an Act of Indemnity for Virginia being presented 
to the Committee their Lordships think ft to refer it to M"" 
Attorney General. ■■ 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 103. p. 314.) 



Feb. 26, 1678-9. 

Lords of the Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
to [the Attorney General?] For his report upon a Draught 
of an Act of Indemnity for Virginia prepared by his Maj. Order 
in Council, whether it be agreeable to same and in a legal form 
and desiring him to make such alterations as he shall find nec- 
essary. Draft. , , ' , . 

(Colonial Papers.) 

^ (T) WilUam Byrd the first of Henrico Co. and of "Westover." 



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vip.GiNiA IN 1G78. ,, .. 251 

Feb. 26, 1G78-9. 

Detosition on Oath of Major Rcbeut Bristov/(2) late 
of Virginia but nov/ of London, Merchant : that upon dcUvery 
v\p of West's Point the ReL'iels laid down their arms and dis- 
persed themselves— that Sir Wmx. Berkeley & his party then 
came ashore and went to Green Spring, and afterwards caused 
several persons estates to be seized including a parcel of to- 
bacco belonging to Alexander Walker of Virginia. 

(Colonial Papers, 1. p.) 

Whitehall, Feb. 28, 1678-9. 

Warrant by the King to the Attorney or Solicitor 
General to j^repare a Bill for his Maj. signature containing a 
Grant of the office of Secretary of Virginia to Nicholas Spencer(3) 
from the date of the death of Thomas Ludwell late Secretary: 
with povv'cr to execute the same by De]juty. > 

(Colonial Pai:>ers. 1. p. see 12 May 1675.) , , 



WhiLchall, March 4, 1678-9. 

Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
Report prepared by order of the Committee for the disptach 
of Lord Culpeper is read and approved, \Nhereupon the Earl of 
Sunderland delivers a paj^er containing an Instruction to Lord 
Culpeper for disposal of the Rex'cnue in Virginia a])j>ioveu by 
his Majesty & to be added to his Lordshi[/s Insmictions. 
Paper read from the Bishoi^ of London concerning the Church 
in Virginia, Lord Culijeper to confer with the Bishop and to 
agree upon heads fit to be inserted in his Instructions. Petition 
of Robert Ayleway read touching his Patent of the Auditor's 
Place of Virginia, to be jjostponed until Sec. Coventry be present. 

(Colonial Entry Bk No. 105. pp. 317-318.) 

(2) Robert Bristow, second son of R(jbert Brislow, Esg. of Ayot St. 
Lawrence, Hertfordshire, was born in 1653, and settled in Virginia about 
1060. He returned to England soon after Bacon's Rebellion and at his 
death in 1707 was "of the parish of St. Gabriel Fenchurch, London, mer- 
chant." He owned large landed estates in Virginia, which were pos- 
sessed by his descendants (not residents in Virginia) for several genera- 
tions. See this Magazine XIII, oD-dJ. 

(3) Nicholas Spencer, 2d son of ,\'icholas Spencer, Esq. of Cople, 
Bedfordshire, came to Virginia about 1659. He was a member of the 
House of Burgesses. Secretary of State, President of the Council and 
Acting Governor. See this Magazine I, 33, 31. 



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252 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Virginia March 10, 1G78-9 
Mistress Susan Jeffreys(4j to Secretary CovExXTRY. 
Her most deplorable condition caused by Col. Spencer, Lord 
Culpeper's attorney, who lays claim against her for all per- 
quisites since her hu.sband's arrival, notwithstanding the word- 
ing of the King's letter. Has offered to give security, but that 
will not satisfy therefore 'tis plain they seek her life in malice. 
Begs his intercession with the King on her behalf. 
' (Colonial Entry Bk. No. 80. pp. 305-300.) , . ,, 

' •■ '" ' "' Whitehall, March 14, 1078-9 

Order of the King in Council on Report of Committee 
FOR Trade and Plantations of 18 February last touching 
Lord Culpeper's Commission and Instructions as Governor of 
Virginia, recommending that his Maj. revoke the Grants(5) 
to the Earls of St. Alban and Arlington, Lord Culpeper & others 
according to his gracious promise made to the Country satisfy- 
ing the patentees for their interests: that the Quit rents be 
applied to building one considerable Fort: that James Town 
be speedily rebuilt and be the Metropolis of Virginia as the most 
ancient & convenient place: that they cannot advise that dis- 
placed Councillors should be incapable of being chosen into the 
Assembly as in Jamaica: that all persons of what degree or 
quality soever be obliged to take the Oath of Allegiance: that 
furniture be sent for 200 Dragoons with tents to enable the 
Gov to mount foot soldiers to prevent incursions from the 
Indians: that after Lord Culpeper's departure a mace & a 
sword be sent to Virginia with furniture for his L<3rdships' 
chappel also that the presents to the Indian Princes be forth- 
with delivered to his Lo'p: that all writs be issued in his Maj. 
name only: that Sir Hen. Chicheley, Colonels Nath. Bacon, 
Wm. Cole, Daniel Parks, Tho. Swann, Robt. Smith, Nich. 
Spencer, Rowland Place, Ralph Wormley, Augustine Warner, 
Jos. Bridger, Major Richard Lee, Major General Custis, and 
Francis Leigh be continued in the Council : that Colonels Ballard 
Bray and Philip Ludwe ll, for their unworthy behaviour and 

(4) The widow of Governor Herbert Jeffreys. 

(5) The grant for the Northern Neck of Virginia. • 



oj 



ve 



■' VIRGINIA IN 1678. 253 

demerits be dejirived of that honor & trust: and that Col. Robt. 
BcAX'rley, Clerk of the Assembly and Col. Edward Hill, Presi- 
dent of Charles City Count>" who "have appeared unto us 
under a character of evil fame and behaviour in their respective 
offices," be put out of all employment & not admitted to any 
place of tioist until his IMaj. pleasure be further known: and 
that Lord Culpej^er be ordered, on his amval in Virginia to 
signify his Maj. high resentment of ihe disloyal and seditious 
declaration of the Assembly about his Maj. Commiss" calling 
for their Original Journals &c. and find out the authors & abet- 
tors thereof that they may receive the marks of his Maj. dis- 
pleasure for this their great presumption ; approving said Report 
and that Lord Culpeper's Comn:ission and Instructions be 
prepared accordingly and Henry Meere [Meesc] added to the 
List of Councillors for Virginia. 7 pp. 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. SO. pp. 260-273.) V ''' /' 



Whitehall, March 19, 1678-9 
Order of the King in Council on Report of the Com- 
mittee FOR Trade and Plantations of 10 February last [see 
abstract! on petition of Elizabeth Dudle3^ widow, approving 
same and directing Governor Lord Culpeper, on his arrival in 
Virginia to cause restitution to be made to the i^etitioner or 
her assigns of the fifteen hogsheads of tobacco or the true value 
thereof. 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 80. pp. 276-S.) 



April 1, 1679 
The King to the Council of Virginia. His Majesty has 
received the ill news of the death of Herbert Jeffreys, Governor 
of Virginia and has understood by their letter to Sec. Coventry 
that they have received Sir Henry Chicheley as Deputy Gov- 
ernor according to the King's Commission under privy seal 
heretofore given to him. Well approves of this act of oedience. 
Is resolved to send Thos. Lord Culpeper, Governor, by the first 
ships and in the mean time his Maj : requires that all further 
suits relating to the late Rebellion be superseded until his 
arrival. 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 80. p. 304.) 



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254 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 2.^'.' 

-■: .^^•.tu^„-,^ ; ,. ru nH.f .■ Whitehall, April 2, 1679 

The King to Sir Henry Chichelev, Deputy Governor 
OF Virginia. Apj^roves of hi.s taking u])on himself the com- 
mand of the Colon}' as Deputy Governor since the death of 
Lieut. Gov. Herbert Jeffreys — Intends disjmtching Thos. Lord 
Culpeper, Governor, by the next ships with full instructions 
to settle matters there and requires that in the mean time all 
further suits relating to the late Rebellion there be superseded 
till his arrival. 

(Colonial Papers. L p.) see 12 May 1675. 



Whitehall, April 14, 1679 
Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
Lord Culpeper 's Commission prepared by the Committee is 
read, but being doubted whether the same being only during 
pleasure might not prejudice his Lord'p's former grant of the 
Government w^hich is during life, Ordered that M'' Attorney 
General prepare such clauses and provisoes as may secure his 
Lordship's right. Ix)rd Cul])eper's Instructions read and 
approved. Their Lordships taking notice of the Complaints 
made in Virginia of the heaviness of taxes raised by poll order 
an Instruction to be prepared that his Lordship recommend to 
the Assembly the finding out a more equal and easy way for 
levying money — Sec. Coventry acquaints the Committee in 
reference to Robt. Ayleway's petition that the place of Auditor 
of Virginia had been foiTnerly possessed by Col. Nath. Bacon 
& confinned to him under his Maj. Sign Manual in 1675 & that 
Ayleway's Patent ought to be void as obtained without a know- 
ledge of the right already vested in Bacon. 
(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 105. pp. 325-6.) 



'■■ ' Whitehall, April 16, 1679 
Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
Acts of Oblivion, of Naturalization, and for raising a public 
revenue in Virginia read and approved. Several Laws made 
by Sir Wm. Berkeley on 20 Feb'y 1676-7 to be repealed accord- 
ing to an Instmction given to Lord Culpeper, viz. — Acts of 
Free Pardon, of Attainder, inflicting Pains, Penalties and Fines 



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. , VIRGINIA IN 1G78. '•* ' • • 255 

upon great offendors, for the relief of loyal persons who have 
suffered loss by the late Rebels, limiting times of receipt and 
payment of public tobaccos, regulating Ordinaries and the 
prices of Liquors, disposing Amerciaments upon past actions, 
concerning servants who were out in Rebellion, & for laying of 
Parish levies: as also two Acts passed at Middle Plantation 10 
Oct. 1677 viz: — for dehvery of stray horses' &c. and for signing 
executions on judgments. 

Their Lordships having thus finished Lord Culpeper's Com- 
mission and Instructions & the Acts before mentioned agree to 
report that same be transmitted to Sec. Coventry to be dis- 
patched with all speed: also that the Master of the Ordnance 
take care to change the powder now in Virginia. All which is 
ordered same day in Council & the papers delivered to Sec. 
Coventry on 20**' Inst. 

(Col. Entry Bk. No. 105. pp. 327-328.) ' -'" • '' ". ' 



Whitehall, April 16, 1679 
Order of the King in Council. That Lord Culpeper's 
Commission and Instructions and the Acts of Oblivion and 
Naturalization be transmitted to Secretary Coventry to be 
dispatched with all convenient speed. 

(Colonial Entry Bk. No. 80. p. 312.) ■"'■■^ ' •'• ' ' "' 

,. " '•■'■".■ ' ■■''■'•■■'■■■'■■" * ■■ ■' 

May 1, 1679 
Memorandum of Receipt by Ja: Kenvin of papers from 

William Blathwayt relating to the case of the Widow Dudley 

of Virginia, including her petitions to the King, Sir Wm. 

Berkele}' and the Commissioners of Virginia — together six 

papers. 

(Colonial PapcxS.) :',;■. a- . .. ■ -■ 



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250 virginia historical magazine. 

• ■, Sir Henry Chicheley to Secretary Coventry. 

;■ : . ■ . (Copy) ■ •■ ' ';; '- . 

; Read in Council July 25, 1679. ' " '" • ' 

,:, ;, , Virginia, May 20, 1 079. 

Right Hon'blc 

The Inclosed is a Letter from the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia to His most Sacred Ma'^', being a compendious Narrative 
of this Countrys sufferings and our humble su])plications for 
such relief as to His Ma*'*-'^ wisdom shall seem meet. Upon 
wliich I beg leave to enlarge in this Address to your worthy Self. 
To w^hose promice the affairs of this place do properly belong 
and of v/hose Justice and favour to Our low and calamitous 
condition myself and the whole Colony are \\el\ assured by 
many past instances. The present Sessions the Assembly re- 
ceived complaints from the Countys Isle Wight, Nanzemond, 
York and James City in relation to the quartering of His INla*'''^ 
Soldiers. The two first named by virtue of a Warrant from the 
late Lieuten' Governor having received command to quarter 
and provide for Major Mutlows Company from the 14"' July 
1677 till the 16'^ January following for which they are still in- 
debted to the said Inhabitants the full and just sum of two 
hundred and forty nine pounds six shillings and three pence as 
by account under the hand of John Tong Lieutenant of that 
Company dated the 26"' January 1677-8 exhibited by their 
Burgesses doth appear. The t\\'o last mentioned have Yet had 
no satisfaction for twelve months Quarters and provisions 
allowed to His Ma""'' Soldiers now under the Command of 
Captain William Morris whose pay for no part of that time is 
yet anived. So that His Ma''"^ subjects and Soldiers of, and 
in, this Country are equally distressed; To this may be added 
that our late troubles and distractions with the frequent in- 
cursions of Indians for three years last past and recent murther 
of our frontier people hath so much impaired our Stocks that 
the remnant of them will barely give assistance for defence of 
the Country and support of our familys : I therefore humbly beg 
Your Honor that in consideration of the vast charge the In- 
habitants of this Country ha\'e been and daily are at, for pre- 



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vrsM VIRGINIA IN 1G78. '*'"'• 257 

servation of this weak and depopulated place you would be 
pleased to further our humble motion to his Ma'^ for release 
of all Arrears of Quit Rents which having been so long due and 
amounting to so vast a vSum, would otherwise fall heavy upon 
all and especially the ix)orest, with this addition that, for such 
time as may be agreeable to His Ma'^'=' Royal Compassion the 
Money growing due from the same may be appropriated to de- 
fray part of the Expence necessary for our safety. For these 
and all other Favours past and future I have nothing to offer 
but constant gratitude and assurance that in what I shall be 
capable will ever be ready to own the Honor I now assume by 
siibscribing 

Right Hon'ble 

Your most [humble] servant 
' Hen'y Chicheley 

To the Right Hon'ble 
AI'' Sec'y Coventry 
Princi]3al Sec'''-''* 

of State. ' ' ' ' ' ,. 

' ' A true Copy teste 
' W. Davis. * ■' 



Sir Henry Chicheley to the King. 

(Copy) 

Read in Council July 25, 1679. 

May it please Your most Excellent Ma'^ 

The late intestine divisions of this Your Ma""^^ Colony of 
Virginia together with the Charge of a tedious War with the 
Indians who daily make Incursions and sometimes murthers 
upon us have reduced us to a poor and distressed Estate and 
enforced us to interrupt Your Ma''^" most mighty affairs with 
this our humble supplication in behalf of Y M Soldiers 
and ourselves. The first of which we have out of the small 
remnants of our S xxx funiisht with what is necessary for a 
twelve month past and as in duty Ijound shall continue our care 
towards them till Your Ma'^ shall be pleased to commiserate 



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258 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

both our conditions and in regard of the great losses we have of 
late sustained We hope that Your Royal Goodness will pardon 
us our request for remission of all Arrears of Quit Rents due to 
Your Sacred IMa'^ and for the supply of the excessive charge 
we must necessarily undergo in defense of our Frontiers that 
for such time as Your Royal Wisdom shall allow the same be 
to that use a])propriated. 

That Your Ma'^ may be protected by the King of Kings 
from all Temix)ral and Spiritual Enemies and Rcigne long in 
peace and prosperity are the incessant prayers of 

Your Ma"''^ most himible and most obedient subjects and 
servants 

Hen: Chicheley 
Mathcw Kemp Speaker 
A true Co]}y teste 

W. Davis. 



At the Court at Whitehall the 25"' July 1679. 
Upon reading this day at the Board a Letter from S"" Hen: 
Chicheley and the Speaker of the Assembly of Virginia to His 
Ma'ty together with a Letter from S"" H. Chicheley to the 
Right Hon'ble M' Sec. Coventry. It is ordered that the same 
be referred unto the Right Hon'ble the Lords of the Committee 
for Trade and Plantations to take care therein. 

John Nicholas. 
A true Copy teste 
Wm. Davis. 



At the Council Chamber at Whitehall the sixth of 
August 1679 
Present 
Lord Archbishop of Canterbury Earl of Halifax 

Lord President Earl of Radnor 

Earl of Bridgewater M' Sec. Coventry"- 

Earl of Essex M^ Chanc' of the Excheq"" 

M' Powle 



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VIRGINIA IN 1678. 259 

The Right Hon'ble the I^ords of His Ma^'®" most Hon'ble 
Privy Council having penised a Letter from S'' H. Coventry 
[Chicheleyl Lieuten' Governor of Virginia to the Right Hon'ble 
M'' Sec'y Coventry dated the 20'*" May last as also our Address 
to His Ma'ty from the Great Assembly of Virginia in behalf 
of themselves and His Ma'''"" soldiers for the payment of the 
Arrears due unto the Country and them and for remission of all 
Arrears of Quit Rents due unto His Ma'ty as likewise for the 
Appropriation of such as shall hereafter become due during 
such tenn as His Ma'ty shall think fit for the defence of the 
Colony and their Lordships understanding that the Lords 
Commissioners of his Ma""'* Treasury had taken care to provide 
for their full pay until the first day of Jul. last exclusively think 
fit to desire the Right Hcm'ble M' Sec'y Coventry to prepare a 
Letter for the Royal Signature unto the Right Hon'ble the Lord 
Culjjcper His M. Governor of Virginia dircK^ting His Lord- 
shi]j to acquaint the As.sembly upon his arrival in Virginia with 
the care His Ma'ty had taken at the instance of the Lord Cul- 
peper, before the receij^t of their Address for payment of their 
Arrears due unto the Soldiers unto the time above mentioned 
and for the continuance of the same for the future without any 
charge or other trouble unto the Colony than only to giv^e crcHilit 
for their Quarters at two shillings per week each until Money 
for their discharge can be from time to time remitted. And 
as for the Quit Rents that His Ma'ty on the Representation of 
the Lord Culpejjcr hath also had that matter long before the 
receipt of that Address under His Royal consideration and will 
shortly give such Orders as shall consist with His service and 
ease of the people. 

And lastly, to acquaint them that he hath sent some laws to 
thein and given the Lord Culpeper Instructions to signify His 
further pleasure and Command to them, to which he expects 
a cheerful and ready com])liance assuring them on all occasions 
of his particular care and Kindness for that His Ma""^ Colony. 
And whereas it is convenient for His Ma'"'^ sen'ice that the 
Lord Culpepers Additional Ct)mmission dated the 



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260 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE, 

be not published until some time after His Lordships arrival the 
Right Hon'ble M"" Sec'y Coventry is likewise desired to prepare 
an Instruction to the L^ Culpeper whereby his Lordship may 
be directed to forbear the publication of the said Additional 
Commission for the space of six Months after his arrival in Vir- 
ginia if his Lorship shall so think fit. 

A true Cojjy teste 

W. Davis. 

(To be Continued) 



IV 



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2t>2 



VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 261 

VIRGINIA GLEANING IN ENGLAND. 

t. . • i > ■ 



Thomas Atkins of Chard, county Somerset, being aged but 
of good and perfect memory. Will 10 August 1641; proved 20 
July 1653. I give my body to be buried in the churchyard of 
Chard according to the discretion of my friends. All such im- 
plements and household stuff as my wife Elizabeth had before 
I married her, I wholly bequeath and redeliver to her again. 
Out of my own proper goods I bequeath unto Anna Sell wood, 
my daughter, my bedstead now standing in the parlour, with 
the truckle bedstead under him. To Mathew Sellwood, my 
grandchild and godson, my small square table board standing 
in the hall. To Sarah Sellwood, my grandchild, my small 
chest. All the rest of my own proper goods I bequeath to 
Thomas Sellwood and Abraham Sellwood, whom I ordain my 
executors, provided that all the goods and chattels that were 
bequeathed to me by Elizabeth Atkins, my aunt deceased, shall 
remain to the use of my wife, to use with her ov^ti, as formerly 
she hath done, without any voluntary spoil thereof, for such 
time as she doth remain my widow. I do appoint to be my 
overseers in trust for the benefit of my executors, my brother 
William Atkins and my cousin William Atkins the younger, 
desiring them of their loves, as much as in them lies, that this 
my will may be performed according to my true intent and 
meaning. Per me Thomas Atkins. Witnesses: John Boyle, 
Amfusten Walker. Proved by Thomas Sellwood one of the 
executors named, with power reserved to grant a like com- 
mission to the abovesaid Abraham Sellwood Brent, 166. ,, ; 

John Atkins, of Chard, Somerset, merchant, died in 1636. His will, 
published in this Magazine XI, 150, shows that he had a grandson, John 
Atkins, then living in Virginia. The will also names a brother Thomas 
Atkins, probably the testator above.] 



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262 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

William Bedell, of greate Catworth in the Countie of Hunt., 
Gent., Dated 27 May 1612. Proved 6 July 1012. My bodie 
to bee buried in the Chauncell of great Catworth aforesaid And 
as conceminge the disposition of my landes, Tenements, and 
Hereditaments. I doe devise as followeth: All the Ferme 
called the Brooke end Ferme in Catsworth with all landes, 
Tenemts, and hereditamts. thereunto belonging, nowe in the 
tenure of Silvester Bedell my sonne, and all those twoe Cottages 
in the tenure of Michaell Smith and Edward Kinge, to my sonne 
George Bedell. To hold the same during the life of Ehzabeth 
my wyfe And after her decease the same to Henry Bedell my 
sonne and to the heires males of his body, and for want of such 
issue to George Bedell my sonne and to the heires males of his 
body, and for want of such yssue to Francis Bedell my sonne 
and the heires males of his body, and for want of such yssue to 
Silvester Bedell, my eldest sonne and the heires males of his 
body, and for want of such yssue to the right heires of mee the 
said William Bedell for ever. All the residue of my messuages, 
houses, landes, and Hereditaments, in the Towne parish and 
Feildes of great Catworth aforesd. in the Counties of Hunt, 
and Northampton to my wife Elizabeth during her l^de and 
after her decease the same to my said sonne Geoige Bedell and 
to the heires males of his body. And for default of such yssue 
then to Henry Bedell my sonne, and to the heires males of his 
body And for default of such yssue then to Francis Bedell my 
sonne and to the heires males of his body. And for default of 
such yssue then to Silvester Bedell my sonne and to the heires 
males of his body. And for default of such yssue to the right 
heires of mee forever. All that my wood and woodgrounds in 
the parish of Ellington and my meadowe and meadowe grounde 
in Waybridge meadowe in the parish of Awconburyc and my 
Closes in the parish of Brington in the Countie of Hunt, to my 
said wife Elizabeth during her lyfe, and after her decease to my 
said Sonne George Bedell and to the heires males of his body. 
And for want of such yssue to Henry Bedell my sonne and to the 
heires males of his body. And for want of such yssue to Francis 
BedeU my sonne and to the heires males of his body. And for 
want of such yssue then to Silvester Bedell my sonne and to the 



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'^.' i ■' : ; - > 



VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 263 

heires males of his body. And for default of such yssue then to 
the use of the right heires of nriee for ever. Also to my said wife 
Elizabeth, my two Cottages with the landes thereunto belonging 
in Bythome in the said County of Hunt, during her lyfe, and 
after her decease to my grandchild Willm Bedell sonne of my 
said Sonne Sylvester Bedell and to the heires males of his body. 

And whereas I have reserved certain pastures and inclosed 
groundes called IVIoldesworth olde als Moldesworth wolde in 
Moldesworth in the County of Hunt, for the terme of my lyfe 
and twelve yeares after my decease, as appeareth in the con- 
veyance betweene my brother in lawe Mr James Pickering and 
me, my will is that all my stocke of Cattell going upon the said 
groundes shalbe sould towards the jjayment of my debts. And 
that the groundes and Closes shalbe given to Elizabeth my wife. 

To my daughters Dorothy and Jane Bedell, one hundred 
poundes a peece. I will that all my Writings conceminge my 
landes in Kymbolton shalbe kept by my wife unto the use of 

my Executors And my said landes, Tenements, and 

Hereditaments, in the towne and parish of Kymbolton, afore- 
said, in the County of Hunt, to my Executors and their heires 
to be sold by them for the payinge of my debtes, (except that 
Messuage wherein widdow Carter now dwelleth, which I give 
to said Sonne Francis Bedell and to his heires for ever upon 
Condicon that hee paye the some of one hundred poundes 
towardes the pa>4nge of my debtes). And to my said wife 
Elizabeth that Tenement in Moldesworth olde wherein-Petiver 
nowe dwelleth and the Close there called Petivers Yarde con- 
taining by estimacon eight acres and also that other Close there 
called Horse Close containing by estimacon xxiiij acres. 

To my Cosen Bate and his wyfe, Tenn shillings apeece. 

To such Children as my sonne in lawe Mr Henry Godfrey 
hath by my daughter Ann, deceased, twenty marks, to be equally 
de\'ided amongst them. And to my said sonne in lawe Henry 
Godfrey his wife that nowe is, tenne shillings. And to their 
lytle sonne Henry Godfrey tenn shillings. 

To my daughter Bedell, the wife of my sonne Silvester 
Bedell, Tenn shillings. "And to my grandchild Willm Bedell, 



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264 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

twentie shillings and to the rest of their Children, tenne shill- 
ings apeece." 

To my daughter Elizabeth Robinson twentie shillings. 

To my Sonne in lawe Richard Dixey and Bridgeli his w>^e, 
my daughter Twenty shillings apeece, and to every one of their 
Children, tenne shillings apeece. 

To my twoe sonnes Gabriell Bedell and John Bedell, Five 
poundes a peece. 

"To Sr Thomas Bedell xxvs. and to my Nephew Capell 
Bedell his sonne, tenne shillings. And to every of the Children 
of my brother Sr John Bedell tenn shillings a peece other then 
to the said Sr Thomas Bedell." 

My will is that George Bedell my sonne shall remaine with 
m)' wyfe and have his meate and drinlce and lodgeinge free, 
"to the end hee may loke to her husbandry and bee a good 
husband for her profitt." I have in m}^ yron Chest in great 
Cattworth thirty poundes and also a gold ringe having my seale 
of Amies u]jpon it, which was my fathers. I give thereof to my 
said wife one peece of gold beinge a "portigne," to my said sonne 
Silvester one other "jiortagne". and also the said gold ringe. 

To my sonne Petitt and my daughter Petitt, twenty shillings 
apeece, And to every of the Children of my said daughter Petitt, 
tenne shillings a peece. And to every of the Children of my 
said daughter Pettitt tenne shillings a peece. 

To my sonne Hawes and Mary my daughter his wife, twenty 
shillings apeece, and to my other Children George, Henry, 
Dorothy and Jane, twent}' shillings apeece. 

To my Cosen Mr Gabriell Clarke, tenn shillings. To Mr 
Mosley and his w}^e. Five shillings a peece. To the Towne of 
Hamton for the use of the poore. Five poundes. And to the 
towne of greate Catworth other Five poundes to the use of the 
poore. And to the towne of Moldesworth other Five j^oundes 
to the use of the i)oore. To the townes of Brington, Laighton, 
Stowe, Tilbroke, lytle Catworth and Covington to the uses of 
the poore. Five shillings apec^ce to every of the said townes. To 
my godchildren xijd a peece (other then to Willm Mosley) my 
godsonne to whom I give Twenty shillings. To ever_\' of my 
servants, Five shillings ajjeece. To the poore of great Cat- 



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VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 265 

worth, Twenty shillings to be distributed amongst them on the 
daye of my buriall. 

Executors, my said wife Elizabeth Bedell and my sonnes George 
Bedell and Francis Bedell. 

Overseers. Sr John Bedell, my brother, and my brother in 
la we, Mr Thomas Wightman and my said sonne in la we Mr 
Henry Godfrey. 
Residuary Legatees, my said Executors. . . , 

Thomas Whitman, Thomas Emery, Gabriell Clarke, Brude- 

nell Mosley: Witnesses. 

Proved 6 July 1612 by the Executors named. 64 Fenner. 

[Dorothy, daughter (;f William Bedell, the testator, who, in the Hunt- 
tingtonshire Visitation of 1013, is styled "of Moldsworth," married first, 
Edward Burwell, of Harlington, Bedfordshire (and was mother of Lewis 
Burwell, emigrant to Virginia) and secondly Roger Wingate, Esq. of 
Bedfordshire, who was Treasurer of Virginia 1639-1641. The sons 
Gabriel and John were probably in Virginia. Gabriel and John Beadle 
(a frequently used spelling of Bedell) came m the Secf)nd Supply in 1608, 
and Captain Smith, who soon afterwards took Gabriel on an expedition, 
called him "a gallant" and "a proper gentleman." John and (iabriel 
Bedell were members of the Virginia Company. Sr John Bedell 
whose will follows, was brother of William Bedell, above, antl Sir John 
was a son of Sir John. See also Keith's Ancestry of Benjamin Harrison, 
pp. 34, 35.] 

Sr John Bedell of Hamerton in the Countie of Hunt, 
knight. Dated 25 Feb. 1612-13. Proved 23 Apr. 1613. To 
my sonne Henr}' Bedell, All those my Messuages, Fermes, 
Cottages, Closes, landes. Tenements medowes and heredita- 
ments in Steple Giddinge in the Countie of Hunt, to the said 
Henry Bedell and to his heires for ever. And upon Condicon 
that he shall not Convaie the same to any person or persons, 
one Annuytie of Twentie poundes to be taken out of my Mannor 
of Wolley wth thapptirtenances in the Countie of Htmt. 

To John Bedell, my sonne. All that my Mannor of Wolley, 
and all my messuages, Fermes, Cottages, laandes, tenements, 
and hereditaments in Wolley aforesaid. And all my meadowes, 
landes. Tenements, and hereditaments in Anconburie in the 
said Countie of Htmt, And the Donation, free disfKJsicon and 
right of pronage of the Rectorie, pi.she Churche, and psonage 



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206 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of Wolley. And the donation of the Rectorie, parish Church, 
and parsonage of Thuming in the said Countie of Hunt. The 
said Annuytie of Twentie poundes given to my said sonne Henry 
out of the Mannor. of Wolley accepted. To the said John 
Bedell and to his heires for ever. 

And whereas I have jjurchased of my sonne Sr Thomas 
Bedell certen landes in Cottesbroke conteyninge f3^ftene acres 
more or lesse. In Condicon my said sonne be pleased to accept 
the same in satisfaccon of his porcon of my goods I doe give 
unto him all the said fiftene acres, to hold to him and his heires 
for ever. To Capell Bedell, sonne of my said sonne Sr Thomas 
Bedell, my Bason and Ewer of Silver 

To my daughter Francis Bedell, the some of foure hundred 
poundes, and all my howsehold stuffe in my house in Hamerlon 
aforesaid. And whereas there is Due to me by my sonne in lawe 
Mr George Catesbie upon a statute the some of Threescore 
poundes. I doe forgive the said Debt, and will that my Eexec- 
utor vshall deliver unto him the said statute to be cancelled. 
And upon Condicon that my saide sonne Catesbie doe not molest 
or troble my Executor I doe give unto everie of the Children of 
my said sonne and daughter Catesbie nowe livinge wch shall 
accomjjlish the age of one and Twentie yeres. Twentie poundes 
a peece, to be paid unto them as they accomplish their severall 
ages of one and Twentie y cares. 

To every of the Children of my sonne in lawe Sr Seymor 
Knightley and my Daughter Dorothie his wife nowe livinge 
wch shall accomplish the age of one and twentie yeares, Twentie 
poundes a peece to be paide unto them severall when they shall 
accomplish the ages of one and Twentie yeares. 

Towardes the repaire of the Church of Hamerton, Five 
poundes, To the poore people in Hamerton, aforesaid, fourtie 
shillings. To the poore people of Buckworth, Laighton, Old- 
weston, Steple Gidding and Coppingford, To each Townshipp, 
Twentie shillings a peece, to be distributed wth the adivce of 
my *"Tennt (sic), *[Tenant?] Phillipp Hustwhatt of Wolley 
aforesaid. 

To every one of my yeoman servants, that have dwelt with 
me two yeares, Fortie shillings a peece And to everie one of my 



VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 267 

maide servants wch have dwelt with me one yeare. Five shill- 
ings a peece. 

Residuary Legatee and vSole Executor, my said sonne John 
Bedell. Supervisor, my said sonne Henrie Bedell. 
RO: STEVENS ) Witness. 

Proved 23 April 1613 by the Sole Executor named. 28 Capell. 

Sir Thomas Bedell, Knighte, *of Hammerton, Hunts. 
Dated 5 Jul> 1613. Administration 21 July 1613. 
*Pro Act Book. 

To be interred in Hammerton in the Countie of Huntingdon 
in the churche there at the feete of my Fathers Interment. 

I commend the Tuition and guardianshipp of my sonne 
Capell Bedell, during his minority to Sir Arthur Capell, Knighte, 
his grandfather. I will that all the debtes which I owe be dulye 
payed; to Mr Woodrooffe at the Golden Bell in Cheapeside, 
twelve poundes. 

To my brother Henrye Beadle, threescore poundes. "To 
my brother John Bedell, the debts (sic) touching which I re- 
ferre my selfe to my specialties sealed to hym." I have in the 
handes of my cosin William Smithe a bond for the satisfying 
of twoe thousand poundes with the Interest which is due to me 
from the Compan3^e of the Adventurers to East India. 

All my goods Cattells, moveable and unmoveable reall or 
personall of what nature soever, to my said sonne Capell Bedell. 
And for the ymploying and disposing of all my sayed goods to 
the best benefitt of my sayd sonne during his minority, I doe 
appointe Sir Arthur Capell to take the Chardge. Out of which 
sayd goods I doe except suche parte as I shall hereafter dispose 
of vizt : 

To my Cozen Silvester Bedell, one guilt bowle with a Cover. 
To my brother Harry Bedell, one hundred poundes. To my 
brother John Bedell, twoe hundred poundes and twoe gueld- 
inges which I nowe have in the Citie of London. To my Sister 
Bridget Catesbye, one hundred i_)Ounds. To my Sister Dame 
Dorothie Knighteley, one hundred poundes. To my Sister 
Francis Bedell, one hundred poundes. To Sr Arthur Capell 
Knighte, one Bason and an Ewer of Silver, twoe Salts of Silver, 



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268 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZHSTE. 

three Silver Bolles, twelve silver spoones, and One hundred 
poundes. To my Cosin Mr Henry Smithe, Doctor of phisicke, 
Twelve peeces of gould of twentie and twoe shillings the peece. 
To Mr John Bignett, Minister at Hamerton, f>^e poundes. To 
John Baker, tenne poundes. To Thomas Else, my servant, 
tenne poundes. To my servant John Hill, fower poundes. To 
John Tall, of Woolley in Huntingdonshire, a Sorrell nagg which 
I have at Hammerton. To Moncke and Woodall, my twoe 
Sheppards at Hammerton, fyve poundes a peece. To my ser- 
vant Richard Allen, fortie shillings. To my servant, Thomas 
Brilston, fyve poundes, whome I doe entreate Sr Arthur CapeJI 
to receyve into his service. To John Frier, my servant, fortye 
shillings. To my servant, Thomas Pitman, fower poundes. 
To my servant, Solomon Johnson, tenne poundes. To every 
of Sr Arthur Capells Children a peece of gould of twoe and 
twentie shillings. To my brother in lawe Mr Arthur Capell, 
a blacke Cloathe cloake lyned with plush. To the poore In- 
habitants of Hammerton, fyve poundes. And to the poore 
Inhabitants uppon my parte of the Land in Cottesbrooke, tenne 
poundes. To the Reparacon and use of the Parish Churche 
of Hammerton, fyve poundes. To the Reparacon of the parishe 
churche of Cottesbroke, fyve pound To the children of 
both my Sisters the Ladye Knighteley and my Sister Catesbye. 
to every of them a peece of gould of twoe and twentie shillings. 
To Sr Francis Canlton [Caulton], Knighte, fyve poundes. 

Sole Executor, my said sonne Capell Bedell. 

Thomas Cannon, Henry Smithe, Maurice Canon, Solomon 
Johnson, Johane Bayhe, Witnesses. 

21 July 1613. Administration of the goods etc. of the late 
Sr Thomas Bedell Knight, granted to Sr Arthur Capell, Knight, 
during the minority of Capell Bedell the Exor named. 87 
Capell. 

John Belfield of Paignton in the Countie of Devon, gent. 
Dated 24 Feb. 14 Jas. Proved 4 July 1617. 

My bodie to be buried in the Church of Paington. 

To the poore of the parish of Paington, the some of fower 
poundes, to bee disposed by the discreacon of David Davies, 
vicker of Paington and Allen Belfeilde my .sonne. 



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VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 269 

To Allen Belfcild, my sonne and Amies Bickford, daughter of 
Gregory- Bickford of Rattery whome the said Allen intendeth 
to take to wife, all those cloases of land called or knowne by the 
name of the North Kill parke. And alsoe one other Cloase of 
land called the plaine Close before Huckwill "Yeat" [?Yeat: 
that] with all and singuler thappurtenaunces "which before this 
tyme unto the said two Closes of land were allotted and laid 
out and were parcell of Goodrington parke" all wch premisses 
doc cuntaine *[yt: it] by estimacon threescore and six acres of 
land be *yt more or lesse and are seituate within the parish of 
Paington aforesaid, to have and to hold unto the said Allen 
Belfcild and Ames Bickford and their assignes duringe the lives 
of John Belfcild the younger, Richard Belfcild and Suzan Bel- 
fcild Children of the said John Belfeild thelder and every of them 
longest livinge the said Allen Belfeild and Ames Bickford paye- 
inge therefore all such Rentes and agreementes as the said John 
Belfeild and his assignes or any of them are bounde to pay and 
performe for the same during the said term. 

I will that my sonne Allen Belfeild shall demise and lease unto 
Jolm Belfeild the younger, my sonne, "Flatchers bargaine" and 
"Fosses Browne Parkes," for tcrme of two lives in revercon of 
the lives alreadie in possession by deed suilficiente in the lawe 
of which twoe lives the said John to be one. My sonne Allen 
shall lykewise lease unto Richard Belfield, my sonne, two lives 
in one Tenemente called Brownswill otherwise Browneswill 
lying in Holberton.in revertion of the state alreadie in the same 
graunted by deede sufhciente in the lawe of which two lives the 
said Richard to be one. 

To Catherin, my daughter, the some of five poundes. 

To Margaret Belfeild, my daughter, one hundred poundes. 

To my daughter Joane Belfcild, the some of one hundred 
poundes to be paide to each of them at their marriage dales. 

To each of the Children of my daughters, vizt. Marie, Cath- 
erine, and Cicellie, fower Ewes and foure lambes. 

To my daughter Suzan, her childe, yf she be with child, fower 
Ewes and fower lambes. 

Residuary Legatee and Sole Executrix, Margarett my wife. 



270 I ; • 1 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Davide Davies "Vicario de Paington," Edward Sweatland 
and Allen Belfeild, Jacob Emott, Witnesses. 

Proved 4 July 1617 by the Sole Executrix named. 74 Weldon. 

[In a note to Worthy's Devonshire Wills, there is reference to a Toljy 
Belfield, clothier, who was a witness to the will of Wm Adam of Paignton, 
16SS. Worthy states that subsequently the Belfields acquired property 
at Paignton, known as "Primley" by marriage with Finney and the 
manor of Leworth in the parish of Hcatheringtun. In Paignton Church 
is a memorial inscription to Allan Belfield, 1800. The latter endowed a 
school at Paignton with the sum of £1000. John Finney Belfield, son 
of Rev. Finney Belfield, succeeded to Primley and other piroperty at 
Paignton in 1858. The will proved here gives much earlier information 
in regard to the family. The index to Devonshire wills, administrations 
and estate accounts in the Consistory Court of the Bishop of Exeter (Har- 
lein Society, Vol. II) contains references to the following: Alane Belfield, 
of Mauldon, 1548; Allan Belfield, Paignton, 1715; Allen Belfield (reference 
top. 23. but not there); Elizabeth Belfield, Paignton, 1G40; John Belfield, 
Paignton, 1507; Margaret Belfield, Paignton, 1G39; Richard Belfield, 
Paignton, 1589; Richard Belfield, Paignton, 1604; Thomas Belfield, 
Chardleigh, 1669; Tobias Belfield, Paignton, 1707; Tobias Belfield, Paign- 
ton, 1748; Tobye Belfield, Paignton, 1020; William Belfield, Paignton, 
1593, and William Belfield, Paignton, 1060. The will of Thomas Belffylde 
or Belfield, Paignton, 1573 is also noted. Dr. Joseph Belfield emigrated 
from England and settled in Richmond County, Va., prior to 1707. His 
grandson John Belfield, born 1725, left a short account of the family in 
which he stated that Dr. Joseph Belfield was son of John Belfield of 
England. This John Belfield would have been born about 1035. Dr. 
Belfield was the ancestor of a well-known Virginia family. It would 
seem from the information here given that any one especially interested 
might with the aid of a competent English genealogist, probably trace 
the ancestry of the emigrant.] 



TITHABLES OF PITTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1767 



271 



TITHABLES OF PITTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1767. 

(Contributed by Mrs. N. E. Clement, Chatham, Va.) 
(Concluded from p. 192.) 

Tithes Land 



Swinheld Hill __ _ 

Austin Shot 

Thomas Shoat 

John Vanbibber _ 

Henson McDonal ...._ 

Francis McGuier 

John McGuier.... 

Thomas Carter 

John McGuier Jr 

Merry McGuier 

Paul Henson 

John Henson 

William Henson. 

James Standeford 

William Murphy 

Miller Dogget 

Richard Hough 

Joshua Barton 

David Barton 

Isaac Barton 

William Ferguson 

Thomas Miller & William Sumers 

Francis Bird 

Andrew Ferguson 

Joseph Rentfro. _ 

Robert Jones, Thomas Jones & Henry Jones .... 
John Jones 



150 



400 



113 



107 



240 

280 
520 
400 



ITS 



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272 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Robert Jones Jr..... 

Philip Smith 

William Cook 

John Fushon... 

James Rentfro jr 

James Rentfro Sen, Joseph Rentfro & Peter 

Rentfro 3 

Veath Dilingham & negro Jeany 2 

Peter Vanbibber, jr _ 1 

Isaac Vanbibber... 1 

Mack Foster Sen _. 1 

Richard Pearis's tithes are, William Lowry, 

negroes: Jack, Harry, Jeany, Hannah tS: 

Silviah. 6 

Anthony Li tie 

Christopher Lackenair.... 

John Meadly 

John Dilingham _ 

James Lamb 

William Webb 

John Ramsey 

Joshua Weaver & Isaac Weaver 

Holden McGee 

Edward Richards. 

William Dilingham & Joshua Dilingham 

Amos Richardson Sz negro Moll 

Benj. Jenl<:ins 

Robert Tormet 

John Hall : 

Francis Farley.. 

Wm. Heard, George Heard & Wm. Beans 

Thomas Bird 

Richard Shoat 

Jeremiah Muray 

John Stevenson. 

John Callaway, negroes Flemen, Asher, Nan 

& Nell 5 

Abraham Motley & negro Peter._ 2 



220 

150 
GIO 
225 



600 
100 
200 



170 
200 

230 



140 

93 

150 

300 

200 

400 



526 



500 



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TITHABLES OF PITTSYLVANIA COUNTY, 1767. 273 

Stephen Heard & Jesse Heard... 2 460 

Hu<^4i Innes, James Parberry, negroes Juba, 

Keat & Peat 5 1245 

John Heard 1 165 

Stephen Heard jr.. 1 247 

Lewes Jenkins & negro Jack 2 1250 

John Justice Constable..... 100 

Wilham Henson 1 

Vvilham Witcher (28) & negro Sawney 2 100 

William Keeny 1 190 

James Wade ....- -... 1 

Daniel McKenzie - 1 

William Atkinson & Owen Atkinson 2 200 

John Good jr 1 600 

Joseph Deal 1 

Richard Shockley - 1 50 

Daniel Witcher. _.._ - 1 191 

David Dalton&Benj. Dalton :.... 2 (ioO 

Samuel Paterson 1 1687 

John Wilcher. 1 190 

Robt Dalton, John Dalton & Robt Dalton jr.... 3 30 

John Dalton 45 

Richard Walding, John Walding 6c negroes 

Jed, Jeffry, Greace, Phoebe & Luc}^. 7 500 

Richard Adkinson 1 50 

William Lawson 1 76 

William Hodges & Thomas Neville — .. 2 

John Hensley _ 1 

David Polly 150 

James Dalton 1 65 

Henry Atkinson. 1 

Jacob Seartin 1 

James Stewart & James Stewart jr 2 

Arch Graham & negro Robin 2 750 

(2S.) William Witcher took the oath of Vestryman 1768. Was mem- 
ber of County Committee of Safety. Appointed Captain of Militia in 

1775. Cc)mmanded a Company of Alilitia in Indian E.xjjedition of 1770. 
When the Regiment under Col. Christian jjushed on into Tenn., a force 
of 200 men were left under the command of Capt. Witcher to guard Fort 
Pcitrick Henry. (Pittsylvania Pension Papers). 



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274 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



George Philige, Thorn. Lawrence, John Blackes- 
ley, negroes Tobias, Robin, Tom, Madey, 
Betty - 

John Hunsman 

Richard Remington.... 

John Heard 

Wilham Beams 

WiiHam Graham 

Nicholas Alley. 

John Willis 

Benjamine Griffith 

Jonathan Davis 

Jacob Adkinson 

Edward Wade & negro Pegg ..- 

David Wade 

William Tyrie 

Jacob Stober 

Jeremiah Stober 

William Hodges 

Sherwood Adkins 

Thomas Potter... 

John Simons 

Bragan Pnmty & Robt Prunty 

Benj Dunkin... 

John Anderson 

Richard Perryman & negro Billiak 

John Alitlleton 

Nathaniel Evans 

Hezekiah Pigg.... - 

Adam Stilts 

. ■ ,' Signed 



298 
635 

130 



200 
326 



400 
150 



315 



Hugh Innes. 



(.20.) John Wimbisli, a justice of peace & vestryman for Pittsylvania 
County. There is an order Calendar of State Papers that "the enemy 
(British) havin^; returned from Dan River, Mr. \Vm. McCaw is appointed 
to that station, and to keeiJ his princijjal post at Wimbish's stores at 
Peytonsburg." 



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Wll I lAMSBURG FROM MICHEL'S DRAWINGS. 

(.X) The Nt w Courcil H.^use Nvhich ihcy 1 e^-an 1 uildrnK this year 17r2: IM, Home ot 

Merchant; (c) Fcurdation (Kionr.d plan) of Slatehouse; (.<) 1-arnur s l.nu^c , 

(Kl 'riie rliurili whirli stands at W dl lamsl .urK- 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 275 



Report of the Journey of Francis Louis Michel from 

Berne, Switzerland, to Virginia, October 2, 

1701-December 1, 1702. 



Part III 



Translated and edited by Prof. Wm. J. Hinkc, Ph. D. 

After v/e had stayed there eight days in order to complete 
all our preparations, and Imd also taken water on board (namely 
twenty-two tons), we weighed anchor on a Sunday, at noon, 
while the weather was beautiful and a good but weak wind pre- 
vailed. We sailed that day a few miles down the Bay. At 
evening the sky was co^'cred with \'ery dark clouds towards 
tl:e north. There was hardly time to take in the sails and drop 
the anchor. It is a dangerous ])lace, because of a sand-bank 
which extends \^ery far. There were only four fathoms of water 
where we were lying. The clouds scattered after a short rain, 
no dangerous storm having developed. On the following morn- 
ing we came in time to the place of assembly, where we foimd 
most of the fleet together and ready to sail. We were almost 
the last. On our arnval we shot off six cannons, which was 
answered by the commander with one. It was a pleasure to see 
the large number of ships, namely 154 in number. After we 
had lain there a day and a half (about this time the wheat har- 
\'est as well as the sirmmer fruit and peaches were past) the time 
api^jointed for the ships to assemble at Quiquedam had come, 
when most of the ships were riding at anchor at the mouth of 
the Bay. The ship Nassau, together with others, was still uj) 
the river, but one Sunday it appeared and cast anchor before 
York town. 

As the time was up and I saw no possibility of tra\-eling far- 
ther by land or water, because of the heat, and, as I also felt 
weak because of the many fatigues and thought the fever was 



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276 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

coming upon me, I concluded, as I was compelled to return, not 
to let this opportunity slip by. I had myself, therefore, first of 
all taken to Captain Schmid's ship, who had come back from 
Guine and was an honest man. He offered to take me to Eng- 
land free of charge, if I would agree to do guard duty like the 
others, who are relieved every four hours. But I was so weak 
that I could not accept this. He then said, if I would give him 
40 shillings I would not be compelled to \^'o^k, the ordinary 
charge is GO shiUings. However, I did not accept, because it 
was a little ship, having every place filled with tobacco to such 
an extent, that there was no place of shelter in case of rain. 
Moreover, I rather preferred to go to my old captain [of the 
Nassau], who showed me much kindness at all times and all of 
whose sailors I knew. Besides, the doctor, a Saxon, was my 
friend and the ship was better sup]jlied with provisions than 
any other shij) in the fieet. Experience confirmed this, because 
the other ships frequently sent for provisions from ours. In 
addition to the abo\'e mentioned reasons, I was induced to 
take passage on the ship Nassau, because Mr. Foes,(l) who sev- 
eral times show ed me kindness in his home, was also a passenger, 
intending to take a jouniey to England. Hence I thought, if 
sickness should overtake me, I would be among people who 
would render me assistance. 

When a good wind arose, the signal was given [to start] with 
a cannon shot and a blue flag, divided to the middle and running 
out into two points, which was fastened to a yard of the small 
mast. Before the ships could hoist their sails fully, the wind 
subsided again, hence they had to ride at anclior till the following 
moniing, the 2nd of July, when they left with a good but weak 
wind. But the wind fell again, so that we with many other 
ships had to drop anchor. Before we had lain there an hour, 
the wind started once more from south-west. 'We hoisted our 
sails and commenced to advance rapidly. Thus far the Go\-er- 
nor had accompanied us on a warship, which is ordered to stay 
in that country. To make my story short, we sailed success- 
fully many a day until we struck a calm which lasted two days, 
while it was \'ery hot. Then we had good wind again, but we 

(1) For Rev. Stephen Fouace see MAGAZINE, XXIV, 23, Note 37. 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 277 

ran too far south and lost it again by and by, for the farther 
north one gets, the more wind is met. On the return journey 
[to Europe] there is mostly good wind, so that the trip is com- 
monly made within eight to ten weeks. During that time I had 
several attacks of fe\x'r, but it developed only twice. Mean- 
while we sailed very successfully with beautiful weather. How- 
ever, a Captain West, who commanded the ship Bristol, died. 
He had been on our ship four days before, because he was a good 
friend of our captain. It is customary when a captain dies to 
lower the flag at half-mast and to fire off two shots, a minute 
apart. The carj^enter came to fetch a box from our ship in 
order to make a coffin. On the following day he was lowered 
into the ocean. The flags were hoisted as usual [at half mast]. 
All the captains who knew him ga\'e each a salute of four shots, 
ever}' minute a shot. After a large number of shots had thus 
been fired, the pilot, who took over the command in the cap- 
tain's absence, expressed his thanks by firing all his cannons 
slowly in succession. 

We had always beautiful sailing weather, so that the prin- 
cipal men visited each other almost daily. At such times they 
are treated lavishly and they spare neither wine nor strong 
drink, especially not punch, which I have already described. 
Englishmen pay much attention to good eating and drinking, 
but especially to meat. Our captain had fresh meat every day. 
There were about 45 pigs, small and large, on board of ship, 
one calf, three sheep, more than 2U turkeys and turkey hens, 
14 geese and more than 100 roosters and chickens, nearly all of 
which were a present to him, except what Mr. Foes, the preacher, 
brought with him, who had taken along many fowls and much 
strong drink, of which many of us had a share. They slaughter- 
ed daily, but the meat could not be kept more than 24 hours, 
and had to be thrown into the sea frequently. On the return 
trip the common people had only water to drink, but it was good 
and of sufficient quantity. The food was very poor, because 
the heat spoiled that which had been salted and was more than a 
year old, and made it taste badly. In addition, our biscuit was 
full of worms, so that the smallest particle could not be broken 



VTS 



278 ' ' VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. --•'* 

off without finding them in it. This caused a general and great 
longing for the land. 

It happened once at night that a great noise arose. Shots of 
distress were heard and fire signals were seen. Then the fleet 
was ordered to stop, which order is given from the admiral's 
or con-in.ander's ship by firing off a certain number of shots and 
by fire signals. Whatever v/ind may prevail (unless a storm is 
raging) the ships are turned against the wind, catching the wind 
with one sail and holding up the ship W'ith anothei . As a result 
the ship hardly leaves its ])lace. The ship often yields to such 
an extent that it rolls to and fro on its sides, as we did almost 
daily towards evening, when we waited for those in the rear. 
This is the most disagreeable thing about a fleet, because some 
of the ships are not well provided with sails, or otherwise sail 
poorly, hence there is constant waiting for them, and often the 
best time is lost. 

Now to return to the noise. There was no ship which did not 
fire off several shots to signal to others. This continued through- 
out the night. They thought pirates had fallen upon the fleet. 
The war ships sailed back at once to the place of the fire signals, 
but they found that two ships had merely stuck to each other, 
being entangled in their ropes. The bowsprit, which extends 
forward, had become entangled, and through the action of the 
waves, the shi])s bumped together, so that they would have 
done great damage to each other, if others had not come to their 
rescue. Especially when a strong wind blows and when it is 
dark and stormy, there is great danger in a fleet, because the 
ships often come so close to each other that they frequently 
pass less than four feet from each other and thus cause great 
anxiety. Each ship has indeed from one to four lanterns, in 
each of which there are four or more lights. One of them they 
hung way up on the mast, which could be seen afar off. But 
the watch is often kept so poorly, that the ships run one against 
the other. Otherwise, during good sailing weather, none is 
allowed to give fire signals except the commander of tJie fleet, 
which is done every night at eight o'clock, with the firing off 
of a cannon. Whereupon all the bells are rung, which is pleas- 
ant to hear in cjuiet weather. By means of the fire the ship of 






ij iud 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 279 

the commander can always be distinguished and the other ships 
can take their course accordingly. But if a ship tries to i^ass 
him, he orders a solid shot to be sent across its bow to make it 
stay back. These shots must be paid for as a fine. They are 
very expensive. But if the weather is gloomy, so that the light 
cannot be seen, the commander fires off a shot every minute. 
This could be cleariy recognized by a broad, red flag, hung from 
the main mast, it being the highest. But if a long, blue flag 
could be seen, it meant to hoist more sails. Often as many as 
three different flags flew at the same time, each had its own 
meaning. The commander had a war ship of 70 pieces of 
cannon and wonderful sails, for he often sailed faster with half 
a sail than we with eight. 

After we were about 1500 miles away from land, the water 
looked as blue and clear as the sky, so that we could often see 
things moving in the depth. Experienced seamen said, they 
were fish at a depth of periiaps a mile. In this region we amused 
ourseh-es with fishing. There are in that neighborhood a large 
number of flying fish which follow the ships. They have an 
enemy, named dolphin by the English. It is one of the best 
fish, often twenty pounds in \\eight. These fish do not swim 
deep in the water, but on to]). When the flying fish notices 
that his enem}' is after him, he flies up from the water, often a 
distance of two gun shots. This he repeats, when he does not 
feel secure. They often fly in shoals. It happened once that 
one flew against our sail and fell down on the ship. We took 
him and put him in vinegar and thus kept him a long time. It 
is a fish like a herring, with two long, pointed wings, not of 
feathers, but like the tail and side fins. When one throws out 
a line and hook, the doljjhin is at once there and swallows the 
bait. All the ships caught many of these fish for two weeks. 
Most of them were speared with harpoons. These were seven 
foot poles, below with five hooklike jxiints, above balanced with 
lead and tied to a rope. The fish swim on the surface of the 
water, close to the ships, so that they can be hit easily. They 
are like salmon, blue on toj). We were surprized at some land 
birds, which had doubtless gone astray. They came to rest 
on the masts, following the ships for a great distance. Pigeons 



QTS 



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280 _ VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ,,, 

had been taken along on the ocean. They were let go and often 
flew away to a great distance, but they did not fail to return to 
their cote. Much weed, coming up from the bottom, was 
swimming there on the water. We saw also a large turtle h'ing 
asleep on the water, but, as the sea was stormy, we could not 
take it. Thus far we sailed successfully, but did not see a single 
strange ship, except one that came from Barbados, laden with 
sugar. 

We reached safely the 4'7th degree, where we had a fa\'oral:)le 
wind again for several days. But there were many signs of a 
storm. Towards midnight the sky turned all yellow and red. 
There were also sufhcient signs in the air for the seamen. But 
especially the porpoises showed themseh'cs, which were regarded 
as an infallible storm sign. On the 2nd of September we saw 
a dull sky and the wind began to blow from the south with such 
force that only the foresails could be used. But all this was 
nothing compared with what happened on the 3rd of September, 
old style. I cannot possibly describe our condition and the 
terror of death at that time. When day was breaking, the wind 
increased to such an extent that we all feared a disaster. The 
fleet at once scattered, that we might not be hurled against each 
other to our destruction. The weather was dreary and black. 
The wind took the water and drove it along like clouds and fog. 
The waves rose to such a height and broke down upon us with 
such a roar that it was terrifying to behold. The wind also 
howled awfully through the masts and sails. That, however, 
was like nothing. But when the storm tore the sail away and 
the helm or rudder refused to work, so that the ship was laid 
over on one .side, and was thrown about from one side to the 
other, then such a quantity of water dashed over and into the 
ship that, when the\' tried to luimj) it out and wanted to work, 
it was impossible to stand upright, and they had to hold fast 
to the ropes, that the water and wind might not sweep them out. 
The greatest terror was caused by the fact that, when they 
measured how much water was in the ship, they fcjund that there 
were already five feet in the tobacco room, as the color of the 
water soon showed, for when it was pum]>ed out it was all 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 281 

yellow from the tobacco. In addition, the conncr(2) announced 
the bad news that there was a hole in the ship ! Truly, hope for 
our rescue was small at that time, even among the most exjjer- 
ienced. Death was depicted upon the faces. Everyone moaned 
so that it was pityful to hear. Whatever was not well tied or 
nailed down, was partly thrown into the ocean, partly broken 
to pieces, for nothing of such things was safe. The greatest 
damage was done when one of the highest waves broke down 
upon the ship from behind, injured the stem and knocked out 
the windows above and below. It dashed over the upper part 
of the ship, knocked down the captain and the physician, who 
were on the quarter dcK;k, then it covered us on the main deck 
to such an extent that we could hardly bear the weight of the 
water and thought nothing else but that we were all drowned. 
At the same time the cry was raised that we should run to the 
cannons, fire off two shots, hoist our flag at half mast and thus 
signal our distress. But we saw none to help us, nor would it 
have been possible at such a time. When the storm had raged 
for four hours, it began to clear a little. The sun came out and 
the merciless wind subsided slightly. But then the waves be- 
gan to rise still higher, that one's hair stood on end, so to speak. 
However, we succeeded so far that we were able to hoist half 
of another sail, in order to let the ship rtm before the wind. 
We also made every effort to pump out the water as best we 
could. We succeeded so far that it did not increase, and then 
we began to have some hope. The captain and Mr. Foes dis- 
tributed brandy and strong ale to encourage the people. It 
heljx'd not a little. We all w^orked till evening to hoist up the 
tobacco and to let down pumps with chains, which was our sal- 
vation. Afterv\'ards four pumps could be used. Before night 
a ship came near to offer assistance, which we needed much. 
On account of the high seas we could not approach each other. 
But they promised through the sj^eaking trumpet to keep us 
company during the night, which made us happy. During the 
night we had a fairly good rest, except the work of pumping 
out the water, as the ship was leaking very much. In the 

(2) A Conner, spelled "coner" in tlie ori):jinal, is one who j^ives steer- 
ing directions to the hehnsman of a shij). 



ll(tt-^ 



282 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. .; 

mominj.^ of the 4lh [of Septembei] we saw no fleet [at first], but 
soon there was a call from the mast that about 9U ships were in 
sight. 

Shortly afterwards the fleet was seen, but not as strong as 
before. More than twenty shijDs were missing. We did not 
know what had become of them or whether they had been lost. 
At one time we saw much woodwork and many barrels floating 
on the water. We learned that we were not the only ones that 
had suffered damage, for there were four other ships ready to 
sink. Our captain had himself at once taken to the commander 
to make known his distress and ask for help. He told him that 
others had been with him for the same reason and that he had 
given tip everybody whom he could spare. But he sent his 
carpenter along. He nailed lead, prepared for that purpose, 
over the hole. Nevertheless, we had to work day and night 
to pump out the water. Double rations were distributed from 
nov,' on till we reached England, because we had to jDump so 
hard and incessantly day and night. This fear did us more 
harm than death itself, for it was a slow death and we felt it for 
some time afterwards. At that time every one would have 
given all he had if he could have been on land, and I thought 
I would never venture into such danger again, but I soon forgot 
it. 

After the storm was over, we were yet 900 miles from land. 
But following it we had for two weeks good weather till about 
the 18th, when we struck ground at 89 fathoms, which made us 
glad. After another day of sailing we met again very boister- 
ous, stormy weather. W^e were not a little afraid at that time, 
because we were not far from land and the condition of our ship 
was very poor. We could not leave the pumps nor dry our- 
selves. We met also another ship, and passes! each other so 
closely that we threw up our hands in fear, but we did not touch. 
Whoever has not experienced the terror of the water, can hardly 
believe what the feelings are. But finally we saw land, which 
was the Isle of Wight. 

In this last storm one ship lost its mast. But a warship, four 
of which were with us, took this damaged ship in tow, but kept 
a great distance between them. It was towed to the land. 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 283 

When we came into the Channel, we saw tweh-e sails or ships. 
We soon noticed that they were Dutch. They jjassed the 
island. The same day we aiTi\'ed at Dimes [Downs], where 
we learned from a Diitch ]3ri\'ateer that there was war between 
England, Holland and France. (3) It was said that Cadix [in 
Spain] was talcen,(4) about which they rejoiced in vain. From 
there we came to Margate, and on the following day across the 
dangerous sandbanlcs, where the \\-ater was only 18 fathoms 
deep and the ship touched, so that the water becam.e muddy. 
The captain was in fear, for if a ship strikes such a bank, the 
sand yields and in a short time the ship sinl<s. On the next 
day we came to Gravesend, whence I traveled by land to Pop- 
lar, (5) in order to deliver a letter to the wife of the captain. I 
cannot omit to make mention of the kindness which the captain 
showed me. He made known to me, through Air. Foes and the 
physician, that, if I wanted to go to sea with him and keep book 
for him, he would give me daily half an English crown. I con- 
sented finally, but the constant traveling on the ocean did not 
suit me. Hence I thanked him and paid him, but he gave me 
back two crowns, because I had worked during the stonns. At 
last he invited me to dinner and told me that he did not doubt 
but that I could travel safely. After I had stayed in London 
for several days, I handed over certain things to a Swiss, named 
Boraas, who was manied to a woman by the name of A\'alther, 
to keep them for me till my return. 

From there I went to Starwit [Hanvich](ti) by land, a distance 
of 06 miles, where I had to wait for a mail boat. I went to the 
commissioner, who gave me a passport, so that I could cross 
[the Channel] for nothing, except paying two shillings, one for 
the clerk, the other as a head tax. Otherwise one has to pay 
14 shilling^dtn-ing_ war time s. Those known to him can cross 
(3) It was the war of the Spanish Succession. 

(4)^ In 1702 a futile attack was made upon Cadiz by the British under 
Sir Ueorge Rooke and the Duke of Ormonde, but oii October r> 170'? 
a combined French-Spanish Heet was destroyed by the British at' Vigo.' 
(o) ioplar, lymg between Gravesend and London, can only be the 
metroijohtan borough of London, bearing that name, three miles E bv 
S. of St. Paul's. ■ ^ 

(G) Starwit is no doubt a misprint in the Berne Yearbook for Harwit 
by which Harwich is intended, the well-known English seaport in the 
County of Essex, 70 miles northeast of Londtm. 



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284 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

free of charge. In Briel is another commissioner, who gives 
passports to those who want to go to England. The Queen of 
England maintains six of these mail boats, which sail twice 
every week. The}^ are built lightly and armed with only four 
to six cannons, but they are so well equipjjcd with sails, that it 
is not easy to capture them. 

October. We left with good wind, but when we wished to 
pass from the harbor into the ocean, we met the boat coming 
from Holland, which reported that there were enemies. Hence 
we stayed at a certain place till night. We were much troubled 
by the waves, because the ship was so small. I became sick, 
contrary to my expectations. We sailed very fast during the 
night, so that we saw land in the morning, and about ten o'clock 
we reached the Rhine, where we landed. The passengers and 
the mail were taken on land. We came to Briel, where I took 
some refreshments. On the same day, the 10th of October, 
we reached Rotterdam. From there I traveled with a French- 
man, named Jonget, whom I met at Harwitz [Harwich], to Nim- 
wegen, hoping that we would find an opportunity there to con- 
tinue our journey. We had to go by land, because the wind 
was too strong. We lodged on the other side of the river. We 
crossed over the jtontoon-bridge, but we did not know how to 
get into the city. We tried the sentry, who asked whence we 
came. We answered, that we resided in the city. They let us 
pass. We went then to a Mr. Du R.ang, a French minister, 
whom we asked for a certificate, which he did not refuse. We 
thought it was better than nothing. We then set out on the 
road to Wesel and from there to Duysburg. We were allowed 
to pass Wesel, but at the latter place we were led to the com- 
mandant. He remarked that we had no extra fine passport, 
but he allowed us to go on. A few days before, Rynberg 
[Rheinberg], which can be seen from here, had been bombarded 
by the Brandenburgers, but, according to their own statement, 
they had lost about a hundred men. Thence we proceeded to 
Dusseldorf. On the way, we met two Frenchmen, whom we 
asked whence they came. They said, they had intended to 
travel to Switzerland, but they had been stopped above Cologne. 
They had taken away their rifles and everyone wanted to harm 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 285 

them, because they were not able to speak with the people. I 

tried to strengthen our company, hence I encouraged them to 

come with us, which they did. On the way to Cologne nothing 

happened to us, except that a soldier asked for our passports. 

I asked him to show us his authority for m.aking such a demand. 

Pie final]}' withdrew. When we wanted to cross the Rhine at 

Mellen [iMuelhcim],(7) we had to wait there for a while. I went 

to an oflicer of the guard, who was stationed there. He told 

me of the double and even thieefold danger of traveling, as 

daily unfortunate accidents were reported, on the one hand 

fiom the French, who make strong raids from Bonn, on the 

other hand the farmers in Bavaria and in the Spessart forest 

were very dangerous. Whenever they met a person, they 

wuuld take his clgthes and often hi:, life. He counselled me 

esijcciall)- noL to travel with the Frenchmen, who were now 

much hated in that neighborhood, because during the past 

summer this district had been plundered b}- tlie French. This 

niade me think. While wc tluis spoke together, there came 

twenty Switzcrs, among whom \\'ere se\'enil Gennans from 

Lcuk, of the Schartreuw(8). They had a passport from the 

English General Cut (9), as people who had left the service of 

the enemy. They also inquired about the way to Switzerland, 

which jjleased me so much, that I made their acquaintance. 

Two of them were from the Canton of Berne. We stayed there 

overnight. During the night a part)' came into the house with 

great noise. We thought they were Frenclimen, but they were 

Hollanders. In the morning wu set out on our way. It was 

very cold. AVe wanted to go to Bruggen [Bmeck], a village 

about two hours [six miles] distant. Fortunately we lost our 

way. We met a driver who told us that a p arty was on guard 

(7) In spite of the dissimilarity of the names, Muehlheim must be 
mtended by Mellen. It is the only city between Cologne and Bonn 
which resembles Mellen in sound. Michel evidently spells the names 
phonetically. 

(S) Leuk is probably Leukerbad, a famous watering place in the 
Canton of Valais, vSwitzerland, on the right bank of the Rhone. Schart- 
reuw is probably the French word Chartreu.se, the name of a Carthu-.ian 
monastery. 

(9) This is Baron John Cutis of Gowran, Ireland, 1GGI-17U7, who 
accompanied Marlborough to Holland in 1701 and tool: part in the war 
of the Spanish Succession as lieutenant-general. 



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VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



not far from Bruggen, on the great highroad. We thought we 
were betrayed, and turned, therefore, to the left into the forest. 
We wandered about till evening, when we met a farmers' guard 
of twenty men, provided with loaded rifles. They took us for 
an opposing party, aimed their rifles and waited for our arrival. 
We showed our i)assport. The)- demanded a sword from us, 
but we refused to give it. They did not dare to take it. 

Then we came to Syberg [SiegburgI, where an allied garrison, 
containing also Swiss, was stationed. The Governor did not 
want to allow us to stay overnight in the towTi. Hence we had 
to lodge in an inn before the gate. This place is about two hours 
distance from Bonn. We feared that night that they would 
come to take us p^risoners. Some days before they had taken 
away a wagon with a horse at this same place. On the following 
day we continued our journey. We heard that four French 
companies were keeping guard on the great high-road in tlie 
forest. This was unwelcome news to us. We inquired ^^^hether 
we could not take a roundabout route. Yes, if we would make 
a detour of three days. The company was fearful that it would 
cost their life, if they should fall into the hands of the French. 
Hence we were shown the detour and we tra\'eled through wild 
regions, already covered with sno^^■, to Hagen, Siegen, Dillen- 
burg, Wetzlar, where the imperial chamber meets. Thence to 
Freybuig, in the Breissgau(lO), finally to Frank-fort, where we 
were strictly examined. However, they did not ask for all our 
passports, but one was sufficient for us. The Gennans sta3-ed 
there and we were also olTercd jiosiiions. From there the rest 
of us, twelve in all, traveled safely to Tiibingen, in Wirtemberg, 
where we had to ]:)ass through between the French and the 
Bavarians. In the center were the dragoons. Everybody 
told us how unsafe it was to travel and that some people had lost 
everything. We told them that wolves do not bite each other. 
We were soldiers too, who had swords and pistcjls. We ar- 
rived safely at SchaflTiausen. 
God be i)raised for ever! Amen. 

(10) The Breisgau is now a fjart of the Grandduchy of Baden com- 
prising the valley of Freiburg and the southern part of the Black Forest. 
In the Middle .\ges it was one of the largest districts of the Allc-manni 
1 he writer ouglit to have reversed the order of hVeiburg and Franldort 
as Preiburg is inueh nearer the Swiss l^order tlian I'>anl-J\irl. 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 287 

In conclusion. I report some things which may not be known: 

A guinea is 4 Enghsh crowns or 18 stueber. 

An English crown is 5 shillings. 

A shilling is 12 stueber. 

A stueber is a little more than half a batzen. 

A pound sterling is 4 crowns, a shilling and a half less than a 
guinea . 

Three English miles make an hour. 

N. B. I must add that I forgot something at certain places. 

Thus I placed New York at the Canadian boundary, while 
New Jersey and New I^^ngland are the most extreme [prov- 
inces]. (11) 

Likewise with regard to the diseases, I wish to add that they 
consist mostly of the negro fever, which often stays with a person 
for a long time, especially those who live near the ocean shore. 
Open legs full of sores are to found with most people. The 
principal cause is the fever, which finds an outlet there. Another 
cause is because most people \\'ork without shoes and stockings 
in the soil, so that, esi)ecially in the new soil, the legs are all 
swollen and full of white pimples. It seems as if the ground was 
poisoned by the snakes. Doctors and surgeons are well-to-do 
and have a large income. 

Mechanics are generally scarce and expensi\'e. The best 
trades, among others, are carpenters, joiners, coopers, ship- 
builders, masons, smiths, locksmiths, tailors and glassblowers. 
Skilled workmen are much esteemed and w ell ] ^aid. I have seen 
a common journeyman paid annually 30 lbs. sterling, including 
his board. But I ha\'e heard of master workmen, who rccei\'ed 
above a guinea daily. Moreover, a skilful artisan or workman 
can reach America with little expense, by means of an instruction 
from Holland to England, issued In- the commissioner at Briel, 
so that neither the i)assage nor the meals cost anything, because 
the Queen maintains such mail-boats. In London such an 
artisan can go to a Virginian captain, none of whom will lefuse 
to tal:e him along, if not for the labor on the ship, at least for the 
payment promised on landing. For, when such a ship annves, 
the inhabitants come in large numbers to buy or hire serwants. 

(.11) Tliis correction needs lo be corrected again. 



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288 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. "V > 

Everyone would be willing to pay the passage money. The 
debtor then belongs to the ereditor till he pays it ofl. The wages 
are fixed, namely, according to law each workman must jjay his 
master for his boaid and lodging annually 400 lbs. of tobacco 
and three barrels of com. Whatever he can raise above that 
amount, he can sell, so that within a short time he can pay 
liis passage money. Then he can hire out as a freeman or he can 
continue to work in the above manner until he has saved some- 
thing and can himself set up an establishment. 

I also forgot to refer to the allspice, which is a certain medicine 
planted l)y the Indians and is sold by them. This plant has 
such strength and jjroperties that it can be used in place of every 
other spice, as is also imi)lied by the nam.e. There also grows 
a sort of red shells, like crab's claws, in which seeds are found 
AN'hich are \'ery strong. 

There are also a large number of glow-worms [fire-flies], which 
fly at riiglit through the trees in large numbers, as if they were 
full of fire and light. 

There is another kind of bugs or worms which are very harm- 
ful to the finest trees of the forest and cause the destruction of 
a great many of them. 

In conclusion, he who will take the trouble to read this im- 
perfect essay, will find that I have not been diligent to observ^e 
order, nor did I make a clean copy, hence it is difficult to read, 
full of disorder and \\ithout orthogra])]iy. As I was requested 
to inalvc a short rei-iort, I have drawn it up hastily, hoping that 
if the reader will find some mistakes, he will coiTCCt them him- 
self; the rest will be found to be titie. 



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THE JOIkXEV OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 289 



Letters Regarding the Second Journev of Michel to 

America, February 14, 1703, to January 1G, 

1704, AND his stay in America till 1708. 

[After Francis Louis Michel had reached Benie, on December 
1, 1702, lie started on his second journey to America on Feb- 
ruar)' 14, 1703, about which the fohowin*^ letters ^ive us some 
information. Michel had of course related his experiences in 
\''irginia to his friends in Beme, amonj^ whom were John Rudolf 
Ochs and George Ritter. With them he had conceived the plan 
of settling a Swiss colony in America. As the next letter shows, 
negotiations had been begiui with William Penn, in order to 
locate this Swiss colony, if jjussil^le, in Pennsylvania]. 

DIFFERENT LETTERS 

which, since the departure of my brother from Berne, on Feb- 
ruary 14, 1703, have been sent fnjni London and America, ad- 
dressed to Mr. Ochs(12), his coiTes]jondent. The first letter 
was dated London, May 6TG, 1703. 

I ask that you will not take the delay of my letter ill of me. 
Already in Rotterdam I have had a package read\', in wltich was 
enclosed a thorough rejjort, together with a map of Philadelphia, 
from which detailed infoniiation can be gathered, in short it is a 
complete guide for those wIkj want to tra\'el there. Aleanwhile 
I secured two other [printed] reports, but, since the post in 
Holland would not accept this except at a very high rate, I 
foimd it advisable to retain it until I have received an oral re- 
]jort and confirmation from Mr. William Penn, and can send 
it together with a complete report through Mr. Gaudot. Thus 
far I have been unable to secure an audience with him [Penn], 

(12) John Rudolf Ochs, son of Samuel Ochs and Esther Koch, was 
bajjlized Septeml)er 2, 1()73. He was a seal and stone engraver; went 
to Pennsylvania in 170o, returned to England and settled in London, 
where he became a Quaker. He was married to Catharine Lerljer, 
daughter of David Lerljcr and his wife Catharine Schmaltz, widow of 
the Rev. Niklaus of AlToltem. She had six children, five sons and a 
daughter, born 1702-1715. Ochs is the author of a book, entitled "Amer- 
ikanischer Wegweiser" i. e., ".'\merican Guide," Beme 1711, pp. 102. 
See Berner Taschenbuch, 1898, p. 127f, note. 



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290 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. , . 

but I have been requested to appear to-morrow morning. (13) 
I have handed in a memorial, in which the case has been pre- 
sented in the best possible fonn. I am now waiting with eager- 
ness for the outcome. I have made inquiries about that coun- 
try to my satisfaction and have concluded to leave here with a 
Pennsylvania ship, which will sail within two months. I re- 
gretted that I had to see the fleet leave here for America, 12 
days ago, and was not able to go along. But I am much sur- 
prized about the process begoin here against the above named 
Governor Penn, which was legall>- instituted here. (14) I have 
already gotten some yjrinted tracts, which expose him and his 
officials in Pennsylvania most severely and shamefully, and in 
which he and his ])eople are accused of many and disgraceful 
actions, in the civil government as well as in church matters. 
Many think the so-called Quakers, together with the Governor, 
stand in danger of losing the freedom they enjoyed so long. I 
shall have to give you a sufficient report before my departure 
from here about one thing or another. Two weeks ago I ad- 
dressed a letter to Mr. Gaudot, but he informed me yesterday 
that the mail-boat of the 16th, upon which the letter was, had 
unfortunately been taken near Harwitz [Harwich]. I here- 
with desire to send you a few words, otherwise, if I had the 
necessary time, I would make a longer and more detailed rei^ort, 
hoping that you will pardon the liberty I thus take. I cannot 
omit to mal.'e mention of what has happened on the journey 
from Holland hither, and how this short trip turned out to be 
so full of dangers and accidents. 

Many must wait ten weeks for a suital^le wind, I w^as com- 
pelled to stay three weeks in Rotterdam and Briel. Finally on 
Sunday the 15th, n. s. lne\N' style] there was such stormy weather 
that many ships lying before Bricl had to go back to Rotterdam, 
because they wove torn from their anchor. Such a drifting ship 
ran against our shnj_wiai_^h_\aolen^ 

^OsT'Accordmg't^he French Diary of Gr^Henned (German -^"'^rican 
Annals XII, 106) Penn appointerl Michel Director General of a 1 the 
mines in l>eun.sylvania. He also made a delimte cotnpaci ,;^,ith t^/^ 
society whieli Michel represented. See also S. G. l-isher. flie True 

Willi'im Penn, p. 380. , , r i, .^ 

(1 i) About the trials and persecutionb ot Penn at tins tune .-.ee f ibUer, 
The True Wni. Penn, pp. :5(H-37G. 



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THE JOURN-EY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 291 

mast was toni down. In the evening we saw the distressed 
Enj^^Hsh fleet, consisting of about 80 ships, laden mostly with 
com and cloth, being driven by the strong wind back from the 
sea into the Meus(i river. There, 22 ships, which could not 
reach the mouth of the river, ran in part on the land, others 
stuck on the sandbanks, some were at once broken to pieces, so 
that the IMcuse, in a few hours, was full of com and boxes of 
bread and parts of ships which drifted about. On the 18th, 
we had some good wind and we sailed with 60 merchantmen, 
two convoys and a transport, into the sea. On the 20th, in the 
morning, the fleet from London to Rotterdam met us, abcjut 
80 ships in number. But, in the afternoon, u'hen we were ten 
hours [30 miles] from land, we discox'cred sc\'en ships, which 
were earned by the wind towards us and came with full sails. 
We saw at once that they were French, which alanned us con- 
siderably. Our two convo}'s sailed ahead of the fleet, to wait 
for them. Finally they were so near that our ships realized 
that they were not strong enough for them, because they were 
four large ships and three privateers. Hence they sailed as 
best as they could right through the French fleet, all the rest 
followed. Half of the fleet was cut off. 

The front part, in which I was, continued its course to Norwit 
[Norwich], (15) the rear ran hither and thither. The privateers 
took eight or ten of them. The warships also met together. 
They shot very rapidly upon our commander Salisbury. After 
a considerable battle he surrendered, and also the transport, 
with 30 ineces of cannon. As the weather was rainy and gloomy 
we did not see them any longer, but we reached England before 
night. Thus on this short trip more unpleasant things hap- 
I)encd to me than lately on my whole journey. Mr. Gaudot 
shows ine much kindness because of his respect for you and your 
recommendation. In return I would like to show him coires- 
ponding gratitude. He asked me for [certain] stones, for he 
knew that you had given them to me to talvc along. Howe\'er, 
I did not have full confidence in the matter. As soon as there 
will be an opportunity I shall send one thing or another through 

(15) By Norwit the writer evidently meant Norwich (cf. Harwit= 
Ilarwicli) a c;iLy in the county of Norfolk, OS miles N. X. K. of London. 









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292 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Mr. Gaudot, as the tobacco mentioned by you. I make every 
possible prej^aration for what will contriljute to good progress. 
I buy all kinds of goods which I regard as useful. Meanwhile 
I shall not forget you, but will make arrangements to receive 
you there as best I may, the sooner the better. With the next 
opportunity 1 shall report more. Conmiending you to the 
Divine providence, I remain, 

Yours read}' for service 
^ ' ' , . . , « . L. Michel. , : , 

Now^ follows the second letter, sent from Annidel County, 
Maryland, to Mr. Ochs, dated May 20 '30, 1704. 

'' Very Worthy vSir and Friend: — 

I send you this with my friendly greeting and the hope that 
you will receive it in good condition as a small token of our 
unchangeable acquaintance and friendship. 

The great distance between us does not hinder us to renew 
at times our old oneness of mind. Especially, since I entertain 
the hope that I shall soon be able to receive such a dear friend 
in my calnn, quickly erected, not indeed according to new 
fashions, but in the old simjjlicity. It is not my intention to 
write at length, although the material is not wanting, because 
I am still at work to fulfil my promise to send, God willing, 
next year an elaborate report and guide, of which I have made 
a good beginning. I do it with the hope that those who are 
willing or intend to visit this country, for the sal-ce of profit, 
curiosity or settlement, will not suffer harm. It was not possible 
in this short time, alongside of my private business and jour- 
neys, to investigate everything thoroughly. Besides I am now 
equipped to imdertake a new journey of discovery. I shall, 
therefore, as briefly as possible, give a summary of what hajj- 
pened to me hitherto, fearing that, if I should pass it by en- 
tirely with silence until my undertaking is completed, }'OU 
would not receive it well, and believe that I had no regard for 
our agreement. 

Regarding the journey from England, I may say that it was 
very unpleasant, partly because of the inconvenient winter 



.y. 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 293 

time. On August 20th of last year, I went on board of the 
"Hopewell" at Gravesend. Contrary winds kept us at Dunes 
[Downs], Portsmouth and other places till the beginning of 
October. On the 4th of that month, we lost sight of the land. 
For a time we had a great heat and calm, because we were 
so far south, namely on the 27th degree. We spent a long time 
making but little progress, until we came farther north, where 
we had such unusually long drawn-out winds for five weeks, 
with the exception of a few days, that the ships could not keep 
company together. Such distressing weather scattered our 
fleet in such a way that even now ships are still arriving, which, 
because of lack of water, loss of masts, sickness and other acci- 
dents were compelled to seek land at the Bermudas, Barbados, 
Carolina and other places. More than enough has already been 
reported about the loss of the ships. The governor of this 
province was on board of the commander's ship, which arrived 
here only four weeks ago. We were 100 sails strong, among 
\\'hich were four warships, but several left us and sailed to 
Guinea. As to our ship, it was one of the best, namely the 
second to reach land, on January the 16th. Such a long and 
dangerous passage is unusual. My daily Journal, containing 
all the details, will follow with the next opportunity. (16) We 
found such unusual cold here, even five da}'s ago, as I have 
never experienced. Most of the rivers were frozen and hence 
I had to postpone my trip to Pennsylvania till si)ring and had 
to take a house. As my long stay in Holland and England gave 
me an opportunity to buy all kinds of necessaries of life, the 
inhabitants soon learned of it. Besides, European goods and 
wares are very expensive in war times, but especially this year. 
They compelled me almost to exhibit them. Contrar}' to ex- 
pectation they were taken with a rush and with good profit, 
and the statement was made that so many useful things had 
never been seen here before. What kind of goods should be 
brought here and what other things are necessary, will be re- 
ported as stated above. 

(16) This Journal of Michel has not been preserved. At least it is 
not in the city library of Berne. 



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■=XO V) 



294 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

After 1 had sold most of my wares, I traveled with the rest to 
Pennsylvania, about 60 hours [180 miles] distant from here. 
With the exception of 8 English miles it is possible to go there 
by water. After my arrival I sold the rest of my merchandise 
even more advantageously than in Maryland. Nothing is sold 
under 50 per cent profit, most goods bring more than 100 ]jercent. 
How easily, then, can one, who knows business here, make 
money I 

I-'hiladelphia is a city twenty-two years old, whose growth and 
fame is to be preferred to most English-American cities. I was 
astonished to see the diilerence, compared \\ith other cities of 
this country, with regard to her size, splendid edifices, daily 
construction of new houses and ships, the regularity of the 
streets, the abundance of provisions, at a much cheaper price 
than in the neighboring cities. But the strongest reason, why 
there is such an influx of people from other provinces is i)artly 
due to the liberty which all strangers enjoy in commerce, belief 
and settlement, as each one understands it, and also because 
the money has 50 per cent more value. Six miles from there 
lies a large village, a mile long, named Germantown, where 
almost all the inhabitants are Germans. A Frankfort company 
bought 30,000 acres of land with this object, that, when they 
and their people should be compelled through war, religion or 
other accidents to leave their homes and country, they might 
there find a certain and secure dwelling jjlacc. 

Among other acquaintances I met there the prefect IMatheys 
of Heimbhausen ( 1 7) and the sons of the gunsmith Bondeli , ( 1 8) w ho 

(17) According to information, kindly furnished by Prof, von Miilinen, 
the full name of this man was Hans Conrad Matthey, who from 1674-lOSO 
was bailiff of Wanton. He owned an estate at Heim (en) hausen, not 
far from Berne, which his son-in-law, Hans Jacob Lerber, inherited 
in 1703. With this information at hand, it is possible to identify this 
man. He is the well known Conrad Matthaei, the last leader of the 
Hermits on the Wissahickon. They had erected a Monastery on the 
Ridge now within the city limits of Philadelphia. Matthaei himself 
lived as a recluse in a rude hut till his death in August 174S See Sachse, 
German Pietis of Pe}insylvania, Vol. I, pp. 388-401. 

(18) Prof, von Miilinen gives the following information about the 
family of the gunsmith Bondeli (or Bundeli): "John Bundeli was bailiff 
of Aarwangen, his son Abraham B., a gunsmith, born 1G17; his son, David, 
B, a gunsmith, who lived about lf)80, married to Elisa Dick. They had 
a son who died in Pennsylvania." It is the last to whom Michel refers 
in his letter. 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 295 

arrived here some time ago from New England. As they have 
been rather inexperienced in their undertaking, they have had 
but Httle profit thus far, but they entertain, nevertheless, good 
hope and they have brought their newl}'-bought farm of 100 
acres (which they bought for the sum of 20 doubloons) into 
fairly good condition. I found the place very convenient, 
partly because it is so near to the city, partly because it is just 
like living in Germany. Three large tracts of land of equal 
size, were for sale for a small sum, adjoining each other. I found 
this place so convenient, that I fixed my designs on it, awaiting 
a better opportvmity, with the jjurpose of living in the neighbor- 
hood of the aforesaid estates. The reason why I have gone to 
Maryland is to collect my outstanding debts completely. But 
especially because of my joumc)', which is about to begin to the 
rather unknown western regions, of which the Indians here have 
wonders to tell, on account of their high mountains, wann 
waters, rich minerals, fruitftil lands, large streams and abundance 
of game which is found there. To that end I associated myself 
wiih eight well experienced Englishmen and four Indians, taking 
along eight horses, two of which are to carry skins at my o\mi 
expense. Although we are talcing provisions for only six days, 
we do not expect to return before four weeks. The game is so 
abundant that daily more can be caught than we can use. 
Some of the company, including myself, have the intention to 
take uj) land, if it is feasible, some go to hunt, some to discover 
mines, I for my part to satisfy my old curiosity, to seek out un- 
known things and to collect the wonders of nature, as I have al- 
ready a large number of pieces, which cannot be examined with- 
out astonishment. Last e\'ening I shot two ragun [raccoons] 
on a tree. I have also a live bossoon [opossum]. It carries its 
young in an open pocket, which it opens and closes at will. 

I am altogether of the opinion that the government [of Berne] 
as well as private persons will most of them in time get a better 
knowledge of this country. How praiseworthy and easy would 
it be to send out a colony lilce other nations, which would be a 
greater glory and jjraise for our country than to send a large 
number, for the sake of money, to slaughter in battle. We 
think that it is an honor. Other nations, however, speak of it 



28& 



■.ijdii 



296 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

differently. What else can be the intention of Hollanders, 
Swedes, Finns, Germans and other nations, which send people 
to this country, than to make use of such places in case of nec- 
essity. I have already had opportunity to remark sufificiently, 
how \\dllingly the English government \\'ould consent to this. 
Who has more reason to look for expansion and places of re- 
treat than our country r I cannot think othen\'ise than that the 
government acts culpably in not assisting in this matter with 
w^ord and deed the many em].)ty hands and hungry mouths. 
It would be easy to present a memorial to the English cro\\'n, 
the answer would soon show whether it is feasible or not. It is 
a great pity that such a large country, suitable for all kinds of 
fruits, remains unsettled. But it is necessary that people 
should not be deceived by some who came to this country, not 
knowing ^^'hy they came and who had empty and lazy hands. 
Such people are an injury and obstacle to many others. But 
how do those get along, of whom a considerable number are to 
be found here, who not only bring nothing into the country, 
but are even bound out for a certain time to serve, and yet in a 
few years acquire more than would be possible to do in tl'ic l)est 
countries ? 

There is absolutely no hunger among the peojjle, Ijut the 
cattle suffered much want this spring, yet only among those 
who owned too large a niunber of them, and who had no sufficient 
supply of fodder for the long winter. One man who o\\ned 103 
heads of cattle lost 102 heads, the last he gave away tor nothing. 

I must close, commending it to your discretion to do in this 
matter as your sound judgment will decide. I ask you to 
assure Messrs. Gaudard, Ritter, Noblemen von Graviset and 
the other good friends and acquaintances of niy respect and 
willingness to ser\'e. I intended to write a niiml;)er of letters, 
but the near departure of the ships and m\' own journey pre- 
vented me. In future I shall have more material to write. 
I am at a very inconvenient place, regarding ])aper and ink, 
which I secured with difhcvilty. (The ink was made altogether 
of gun powder). I hope to receive a letter from you during 
the next spring sent to the enclosed address. Meanwhile I 
assure My Lord of m>' service and friendship and remain, 

Yours ready for ser\ice, 
L. Michel. 



THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 297 

[In this letter the thought of sending a Swiss colony to Amer- 
ica is clearly expressed. Alichcl also mentions for the first time 
George Ritter, a councillor of the city of Berne. The latter 
proceeded to carry out the suggestion of IMichel and undertook 
to organize a Swiss colony for America. On March 19, 1705, 
he submitted the following petition to the Council of Berne]: 

Respectful Petition to the Mayor and Council, made by 
George Ritter, Druggist, of Benie: — 

Your Lordship's obedient citizen, George Ritter(19), druggist, 
begs to submit herewith in all humility that he plans to trans- 
port himself with a colony of four to five hundred persons from 
here to Pennsylvania, in America, under the English crown and 
to settle there, if it will be acceptable to and please her Royal 
Majesty in England to concede and grant most graciously to 
him and to his comjjanions the enclosed articles of agreement. 
Now, in order that your petitioner and his companions may all 
the more surely and certainly gain their intended puq)Ose, he 
requests your Lordships in his and in all his associates' name 
that you will be pleased to grant them graciously not only the 
necessary permission of the government, but also aid them that 
the enclosed articles, proposed by them (which we meanwhile 
submit to your most wise correction and appro\'al), will be sent 
to the English envoy, now residing in the Cantons, to transmit 
them to his government; and that at the same time they may 
be accompanied with your strong and weighty recommendation, 
so that we may all the better secure their acceptance. For this 
favor, granted by you, your petitioner and his associates will 
implore the Highest, that your noble Lordshii^s in all >our 
blessed undertakings may continue to flourish forever. 

[This petition was accompanied by the following ])roi)osals, 
written in French, which Mr. Ritter sent to the Marquis Du 
Quesnes at Gene\'a. The proposals, translated into English, 
read as follows] : 

(19) George Ritter, son of Jacob Ritter and Magdalena Gouttes, 
was baptized August S, 1007. He was a druggist by profession. He is 
said to have been twice in America. He was married to Elizalicth 
Gaudard, daughter of Commissioner Samuel Gaudard. He died without 
issue. See Berner Taschenbucli, IS'.IS, p. MS. 



res 



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298 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

TO THE QUEEN. 

George Ritter, citizen of the city of Berne, submits with pro- 
found respect, wliich is due to }'our Majesty, that the Noble 
Francis Louis Michel, citizen of the said city, having settled at 
a favorable opportunity in Pennsylvania, has induced your 
petitioner to solicit a number of persons of the laudable Canton 
of Benie, to go and settle near him in America, and having a 
desire for this, after having obtained the permission of the 
noble Lordships of the laudable Canton; said Ritter has been 
charged, in the name of all, to entreat most himibly your 
Majesty to give your consent to the establishment which is 
proposed to be made of a Swiss colony and which is intended 
to be formed, in order to settle some land located either in 
Pennsylvania or on the frontiers of Virginia, with the Divine 
assistance and the royal and powerful protection of your 
Majesty. This colony may number at first from four to five 
hundred Swi.ss i)crsons. Reformed Protestants, as many mer- 
chants and manufacturers as agriculturists. In whose behalf 
the said Ritter, who acts for them, petitions your Majesty most 
htunbly to grant them, if it is your pleasure, 

THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS: 

1. That they be treated and regarded as the true subjects of 
your Majesty. 

2. That to this colony be granted a district of land, well 
situated as regards climate, soil and water; near some river, 
navigable for commerce. 

3. That to each person be given 100 acres of land in the said 
settlement, which shall be named Berne. 

4. That materials for building be conveyed to the place 
which will be convenient. 

5. That there be full liberty to trade, as the natives of the 
country, as well as other subjects of your Alajesty have. 

G. That they be exempted from all taxes during the first six 
years of their settlement, after that, that they shall pay them 
as the other subjects of your Alajesty. ■ 



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THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 299 

7. That they shall have liberty to choose ministers of the 
Gos])el, officers of justice and the ])olice, at all times under the 
direction of the Governor, whom your Majesty will have ap- 
pointed in that country. 

8. That, after having prayed publicly for your Majesty, they 
be permitted to pray also for their noble Lordships of the Re- 
public of Berne, who have the honor to be allied with your 
Majesty. 

9. That the same favors and privileges will be accorded later 
also to all those who in future will come from Switzerland, to 
enlarge their colony, notably those from the Canton of Berne. 

10. And as this colony will not be able to pay the expenses 
of their voyage to America, your Majesty is most humbly 
petitioned to have the goochiess to give orders that said colony 
be conducted thither with every possible safety, in such a way 
that it may embark at Rotterdam in Holland and that it be 
transported, at the expense of your Majesty, to the place ap- 
pointed for their settlement. To that end, said Ritter, being 
advised in time, will betake himself, with the help of God, with 
said colony to Rotterdam, at the time which shall be appointed 
for him. 

Meanwhile said Ritter and his associates i^ray God most 
fervently for the happy and long presei-\-ation of the sacred 
person of your Majesty, for the prosperity of your flourishing 
kingdoms and for the glory of }'our \ictorious anns. 

[These proposals were examined by Du Quesne, corrcK;ted 
by him in some unessential details and sent back to Berne. 
Then a "clean copy" was made of them, which was sent to 
England to be submitted to the Coimcillors of the Queen. 

The Council of Berne addressed Mr. William Agliomby, the 
English envoy at Zurich, on March 19, 1705. His answer was 
received on April 3, 1705. There is also presented a letter of 
Agliomby, dated London, September 1 1 , 1705 ; further a memoir, 
presented to the EngHsh envoy, Mr. Stanian, dated August 25, 
1706, a letter addressed to Mr. George Ritter, merchant at 
Berne from Wrest in Bedfordshire, dated March 15, 1707. The 
writer, Mr. Gaudot, mentions in it Mr. Oks. Finally in a letter 



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300 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of George Ritter to Mr. Stanian, the suggestion is made that, 
if ParUament be unwilHng to naturaHze the whole colony, the 
directors of the colony, namely Francis Louis Michel, John 
Rudolf Ochs and George Ritter, be naturalized. This letter 
is followed in the original Ms. by another plan of an agreement 
without date and signature, addressed to the English govern- 
ment, in which a petition is made to appoint a commission. 
This petition may have led to the instruction or commission 
referred to in the following letter of Mr. Michel to George 
Ritter;] 

To Mr. George Ritter, Merchant at Benie. 

Virginia, the 24th of September 1708. 

This present letter is only to advise you that I have carried 
out satisfactorily the commission which was given to me by our 
gentlemen at Berne, and wheras, I have not had any payment 
from you since I have anived in America, I have drawn on you 
to-day for two hundred pounds sterling, payable to the order 
of Mr. Jean Monbeaux in London, to whom I pray }'ou to do me 
the honor of referring me upon my arrival in London(20), in 
order to inform you of all my progress. Awaiting yours I am 

Luys Michel. 

[A further report of Mr. Michel to George Ritter is dated 
America, December 14 — 25, 1708, of which the following sum- 
mary has been preserved:] 

A Report of Mr. Michel from America, 
dated December 14 — 25, 1708, to Mr. George Ritter, merchant 
in Berne, in which, in addition to the publications already sent 
over, others are transmitted. He urges that the business of the 
colony be conducted with zeal now, when the most favorable 
moment has come and many members of the government and 
of parliament are at Court, during the winter season. He makes 
the suggestion that the articles of agreement, fonnerly drawn 
up, be not presented, but that properly qualified commissioners 

(20) This sentence shows that Michel intended to return to England, 
which intention he carried out in the year 1708. 



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l' J THE JOURNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 301 

be sent and that full authority be j^nven them to carry on the 
negotiations i^ersonally and to remove every obstacle as may 
be found necessary, for plans may be sent from a distance, but 
they cannot be carried out at a distance as well as near at hand. 
He then mentions, in connection with other statements, that 
Mr. Robert Collie fCallie] of Aldemiary Church Yard, himself 
as well as other distinguished friends and acquaintances, was 
not a little inclined to promote the project. He advises that 
he [Ritter] send him a letter, outlining the project, since he 
could, without doubt, accomplish much, and that in future letters 
be sent to him [Michel] through this patron instead of through 
Monsieur Mondant, whose large business was already causing 
him a heavy correspondence. 

(The story of Michel is continued in the Journals of Christ- 
opher Graffenried, of ^^'hich the original German and French 
texts (21) were recently ijublished by Prof. Faust of Cornell 
University in the "German American Annals," Vol. XI, (1013), 
pp. 210-312 (German text); and Vol. XII (1914) pp. 04-190 
(French text). According to the German version of Graffenried 's 
journal, Michel returned to Berne in 1708, where he met 
Graffenried, to whom he related with evident enthusiasm his 
American experiences. Graffenried states with regard to this 
interview: "Of late I received a more accurate report of the 
American countries from a citizen of this city, who had been in 
America for five or six years. He infomied me what a glorious 
country it is, how cheap, what liberty, what large growth, good 
business, rich mines and other good things it has. He told 
me especially what beautifvd silver mines he has found and dis- 

(21) Four copies of the journals of Graffenried, describing the found- 
ing of New Berne, are in existence. The first, in French, is in the public 
library of Yverdun, Switzerland. A literal English translation appeared 
in the Colonial Records of North Carolijia, Vol. I (1S8G), pp. 905-9S5. The 
second, in German, is in the possession of Prof. W. F. von Mulinen, city 
librarian of Berne. The German text was published by Prof. Faust. 
The third, in French, the m.ost complete of all, in the handwriting of 
Graffenried himself, is also in the possession of Prof, von Miilinen of 
Berne. It was also published by Prof. Faust. The fourth, in French, 
is a copy of a letter, written by GrafTenried on January 4, 1712, to Gov- 
ernor Hyde of North Carolina. It includes also the copy of a treaty 
made between Graffenried and the Tuscarora Indians in October 1711, 
and the copy of a letter written by Governor Spottswood, on October 8, 
1711, to the Indians, who held Graffenried captive. 



302 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

covered." As Graff enried was deep in debt and saw no opF>or- 
tunity to improve his condition in Switzerland, the prospect 
of opening up silver mines seemed to him exceedingly attractive. 
It is, therefore, not surprizing that he accepted "the beautiful 
propositions of the above-named citizen." As later events 
clearly showed, these propositions were to the effect that Graff en- 
ried should conduct a Swiss colony to the banks of the Potomac 
river, where Michel claimed to have taken up land. A map, 
drawn by Graffenried, is still in existence, which illustrates 
this colonization scheme. Two settlements were contemplated 
along the Potomac, one below the falls of the Potomac, in the 
triangle formed by the Potomac and the Gold Creek. The 
other settlement was to be near the Indian village Canavest, 
along the upper banks of the Potomac river (22). jMorcover, 
a correspondence was begun with German miners, and, on the 
way back to Holland, Michel had an interview with the head- 
miner, who was authorized to procure all the necessary tools 
and implements for mining. To carry out this scheme Graffen- 
ried left Switzerland in 1708, and went to England. There he 
met influential friends who encouraged him in his colonization 
scheme. Two events happened about this time which turned 
the enterprize into a different direction. A Swiss colonization 
society, a stock company, called Ritter & Co., had been formed, 
which Graffenried was persuaded to join and to which the pro- 
prietaries of Carolina made very favorable offers (23), ^in order 

(22) See the French Diary of Graffenried in German American Annals, 
Vol. XII, p. 166. 

(23) GratTenried concludes the third of the Journals, menlioned in 
the last note, with the following sentence: "It is true, that, besides the 
beautiful promises of [Surveyor General] Lawson, the Vjeautiful promises 
of the Lord Proprietors [of North Carolina] were the cause which in- 
duced us to establish the colony first of all in North Carolina." In 
1708 Lawson was in England, where he met Michel. He refers to him in 
his History: "My ingenious friend, Mr. Francis Louis Mitchell, of Bern 
in Switzerland, has been for several years, very indefatigable and strict 
in his discoveries amongst those vast ledges of mountains and spaciou.-i 
tracts of land, lying towards the heads of the great bays and rivers of 
Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, where he has discovered a spacious 
country inhabited by none but the savages, and not many of them, who 
yet are of a very friendly nature to the Christians. This gentleman has 
been employed by the Canton of Bern to find out a tract of land in the 
English America, where that republic might settle some of their jjeople, 
which proposal, I believe, is now in a fair way towards a conclusion be- 
tween lier Majesty of Great Britain and that cantun, which niu-^t needs 
be of great advantage to both." See Lawson, History of Carolina, cd. 
Raleigh ISGO, p. 334. 



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THE JORNEY OF FRANCIS LOUIS MICHEL. 303 

to induce the Swiss colonists to settle in Carolina. About this 
same time, in the spring of 1709, a large immigration of Ger- 
mans into England took place, variously estimated from 10,000- 
15,000. Of these Graffcnried was permitted to select GOO i)er- 
sons, to which later 50 more were added. These were sent to 
North Carolina, where they were settled at the confluence of the 
Trent and Neuse rivers, and the settlement was called New 
Benie.(24) Graffenried and Michel were not with this first colony 
They came with the second contingent, consisting of about 120 
Swiss emigrants, who left England in July 1710 and reached 
Carolina in September of that year. The mining scheme of 
Michel and Graffenried never materialized, but the miners 
whom they engaged actually came to Virginia in the spring of 
1714 and were settled by Governor Spotwsood, at Germanna, 
to work the Governor's iron mine there.] 

Additions and Corrections. 

Page 30, note 49. For the };roi)osed identification of Col. 
Bornn with Col. Wm. Byrd, the following passage of Beverly's 
History may be quoted: "This gentleman has for a long time 
been extremely respected, and fear'd by all the Indians round 
about, who without knowing the name of any Governor, have 
ever been kept in order by him." Beverly, History, 1705,111,36. 

Page 37, 1. 30. In connection with the four kinds of squir- 
rels mentioned by Michel, it may be noted that Lawson, in 
his History of Carolina, ed. 18G0, p. 204, mentions also four 
kinds: fox squirrels, English squinx4s, ground squiiTcls and 
frying squirrels. 

Page 122, note 13. Of Beverly's History of Virginia, the 
edition of 1705 has been used throughout, not 1725, as given by 
mistal-:e. 

Page 122, note 14. Read Aargau instead of Aargan. 

Page 12b, I. 22, read cavalry instead of calvary. 

Page 138, note 42, read Orvieton instead of Orvicton and 
Orvieto instead of Orvicto. 

L. 140, note 44, read trypano.soma instead of tryfonosonia. 

(■-4) For the history of the Nt-w Nerne Col(jny see Prof, von Miilinen's 
authoritative account, based entirely on Mss. sources: Christoph von 
Graffenried ; Landgraf von Carolina, Cr under von Neu-Beni, Born 1806. 
Based on it is Prof. Vincent It. Todd's monograph Christoph von Graffen- 
ried and the Founding of Neiu Bern, N. C, published in Vol. XII (1(112) 
pj). l-lL':! of the yearbook of the Gernicui-Anierican Historical Socii-ty 
of Illinois. 



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304 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



COUNCIL PAPERS 1698-1702 



From Ori^'inal Volume in Virginia State Library 
(Continued) 
Virginia: William Byrd Audito"^ to His Alaj*^^ Revenue of 
two Shill^ for every lih'' of To]:)acco exported out of this Colony 
of Virginia, & 15"^ p tunn for every Shipp tradeing here & Six 
pence p'' pole for every p son imported into this Colony, & the 
forfeiture here due to lii.s Maj'^ for One Yeare Ending y-' 17"' 
Aug«» 1G98: 

To Ralph Wormeley Esq' Collector of Rappa- is D"" 

hannock District his Acco^ of two Shilb p hh*^ to £ s d 

this day.. - -- 70S. 8. 00 

To his Acco* of Port Duties & head money.. 180. 13. 00 

To Collo. Edmund Jenings Collector of Yorke 

District— his Acco* of two Shill^phlA.-. 706. 15. 01 

To his Acco' of Port Duties and head money 195. 04. 03 

To Collo. Edward Hill Collecto' of y'^ Upper Dis- 
trict of James River his Acco* of two Shill^ p hh'^ 601. 12. 07 

TohisAcco^ of port Duties and head money 103. 14. 3 

To Collo. Xtopher Wormeley (by ]\P Griffin his 
Deputy) Collecto'' of the lower District of Poto- 

mackhisAcco^of twoShilPphh'i 165. 02. 00 

To his Acco^ of port Duties..... 66. 15. 73^2 

To Collo. Richard Lee Collecto'of the Upper Dis- 
trict of Potomack his Acco' of 2=* p hh'' 287. 3. 8 

To his Acco^ of Port Duties and head money 56. 10. 9 

To M"" Peter Heyman Collecto"' of the Lower Dis- 
trict of James River his Acco^ of 2« p hh'^ 261. 02. 04 

To his Acco' of Port Duties and head money 89. 08. 03 

To Cap* William Randolph Ex' of M' Hugh Davis 
late Deputy CoUecto' of y'- Lower district of 

James River his Acco* of 2^ p hh^ 68. 09. 09 

To his Acco' of Port Duties 18. 04. 09 

To Coll'o Charies Scarbrough Collect' of the 

Easteme Shore District his Acco^ of 2' p hh'^.. 152. 12. 00 

To his Acco' of Port Duties and head money ^50._12^ 06 

(To be Continued) 3712. 08.09i^ 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. ' - ' 305 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Greensville Co. AI.arriage Binds. 

Compiled by Mrs. J. O. James, Peter.sburg, Va. 

John Heath & Lucy Young, Feb. 13th, 171S7. 
Nathaniel Heath & Sarah Collier, Mar. 12th, 17S2. 
Absalom Harris & Clara Jeter, Dec. 1-lth, 1785. 
Edward Harrison & Frances Wilburn, July 10th, 17S7. 
James Hinton & Winny Rives, Dec. l(jth, 17SG. 
Reuben Harris & Mary Rawlings, Oct. IDlh, 17S5. 
Meshack Hitchcock & Elizabeth Jones, Dec. 2o, 1789. 
Howell Heathcock & Mary Woodall, Jan. 30, 17Sli. ; 
Richard Harrison & Dolly Harrison, Aug. 23, 1789. 
\Vm. Holt & Frances Mabry, July 26, 1786. 
Dudley Hargrove & Polly Coalman, Jan. 19, 1791. 
Peyton Harwell & Sarah P. Batte, Feb. 5, 1790. 
Joel Heathcock & Nancy Heathcock, Dec. 24, 1795. 
John Harrison & Rebecca Dillshay, Sept. 21, 1793. 
Reuben Heathcock & Mary Jones, Aug. 6, 1793. 
John Hunt & Agnes Sills, Nov. 18, 1790. 
Colley Heathcock & Grief Jeffrie, July 24, 1794. 
John Harwell & Ann Spencer! July 24, 1794. 
Richard Hall & Martha House, May 4, 1799. 
John Hall & Elizabeth Jordan, Oct. 1, 1802. 
John Heath & Wihnuth Richards, Dec. 27, 1800. 
Robert Harris & Ann Lancaster, Dec. 7, 1789. 
Joseph Harrison & Elizabeth Ferguson, Aug. 31, 1786. 
Jess Hart & Lucy Cato, Dec. 17, 1787. 
Wm. Harwel & Oney Smith. 

Edwin Howard & Nancy Goodwyn, Dec. 26, 1794. 
Sterling Harris & Patsy Woodruff. 
Wm. Harris & Francis Bran.scomb, Feb. 4, 1793. 
Simon Harris & Rebecca Davis, Mar. 22, 1791. 
James Hailey & Anne Person, Mar. 22, 1790. 
Hugh Hall & Amey Tyus, Apr. 13, 1797. 
James Harrison & Susanna Jones, Dec. 4, 1801. 

I 

Abel Israel & Sarah Whitehoni, Mar. 3, 1786. -' , 



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306 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Lattna Jones & Lucretia Night, Nov. 10, 1788. 
Archilles Jeffie & Mary Wall, Mar. 15, 1783. 
Drury Jeffrie & Silvia Scott, Jan. 28, 1790. 
Nathan Jeffrie & Clary Jeffrie, June 23, 1791. 
Benjamin Jordan & Eliza Clark, Aug. 27, 1801. 
Benjamin Johnson & Polly Foster, Mar. 16, 1802. 
Wm. Jones & Martha Loftin, Mar. 11, 1797. 
Ben. Jones & Martha Rivers, Oct. 1, 1783. 
Edmund Jeter & Rebecca Rives, Jan. 13, 1791. 
John Johnson & Lucy Sissons, Dec. 39, 1790. 
Wm. Jordan & Elizabeth Goodrich, Dec. 39, 1799. 
Upsham Jordan & Patsy Rives, Jan. 23, 1800. 
John Jones & Patsy Dean, Feb. 12, 1801. 
Lewis Jefferson & Polly Hill, Jan. 10, 1792. 



John Lundy & Elizabeth Nelson, Aug. 20, 1786. 
Joseph Long & Annis Lawrence, Sept. 8, 1786. 
Edwin Lundy & Lucy Peterson, Feb. 3, 1789. 
John Lifsay & Hollan Allen, Mar. 31, 1789. 
Littleberry Lee & Lucy Cook, Jan. 19, 1792. 
Edmund Lucas & Betsy Hobbs, Dec. 11, 1784. 
Alexander Lowe &: Rebecca Vincent, June 20, 1787. 
James Lee & Mary Collier, April 27, 1786. 
Nathaniel Lucas & Sarah Rivers, April 10, 1783. 
Simon Lane & Nelly Jones, May 27, 1790. 
Peyton Lundy & Dorothy Harris, Oct. 5, 1790. 
Isham Lundy & Dolly H. Rives, Jan. 27, 1796. 
John Lundy & Dorcas Took, Feb. 6, 1703. 

Wid. Dempsey Took 
Thomas Yates Lundie & Elizabeth Maclin, June 9, 1800. 
James Lockhart & Clara Morriss, Sept. 2, 1807. 
Joshua C. Lundy & Polly Tyus, Sept. 8, 1794. 
Edwin Lanier & Amy W. Goodrich, Oct. 27, 1803. 
Alex. Fergusson Lundie & Susanna Maclin, Dec. 17, 1804. 
Charles Locke & Mary Batte, July 15, 1790. 
Edmund Lawrence & Sarah Lanier, Feb. 5, 1794. 
Jonathan Lawrence; Mary Hazelwood, May 10, 1802. 
Lyson Lewellening; Sally Hart, May 27, 1790. 

M 

James Mitchell & Sally Lewellyn, June 7, 1787. 
Banks Meacham & Elizabeth Person, Dec. 6, 1785. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. ' 307 

William Waclin & Winnie Wyche, Sep. 20, 1781. 

William Morris & Winnie Wilkinson, Aug. 19, 1796. 

John Mason & Lucy Cardail, Nov. 8, 1780. 

Jabez Morris & Elizabeth Bland Lundie, .Vug. 19, 1783. 

Richard Mabry & Amy Grigg, Feb. 23, 1793. 

Alex. Madilland & Martha Wall, Nov. G, 1792. 

James McKennee & Martha Wilkinson, Dec. 27, 1792. 

William Massey & Fanny Goodrich, Feb. 25, 179G. 

Jeremiah Mangum Sc Nancy Jackson, Dec. 20, 1798. 

John Massey & Anna Shelborn, Oct. 12, 1799. 

Benjamin Montgomery &. Betty Tatem, Dec. 13, 1802. 

Richard Mason & Mary Woodford (wid), Jan. 14, 1799. 

John Mason & Mary Maclin, Oct. 23, 1788. 

Robert Mabry & Rebecca Mason, Sep. 22, 17S7. 

Henry Mason & Rebecca Jeter, Nov. 11, 1790. 

David Mitchell .V Elizabeth Scott, Mar. 22, 1794. ' ' 

Joshua Mays & Hannah DuprcL-, Jan. 2S, 1790. 

Joseph Mitchell & Molly Emory, May 22, 1793. 

Chislon Morris & Tabitha New, Dec. 30, 1794. 

John Murrel & Charlotte Jones, May 19, 179.5. 

Joseph Malone &: Sarah Malone, Apl. 21. 1795. 

Nathaniel Morris & Angelina Adams, Sep. 17, 179G. 

Bannister Mitchell & Celia Mitchell, Feb. 12, 1795. 

James Moore & Permelia Payne, May 10, 1802. 

Henry Mitchell & Polly Mitchell, Feb. 2, 1797. 

Richard Mabry & Polly Braxton Mabry, Aug. 19, 1799. 

William Mason & Tabitha Tuell (or Suell), Sep. 10, 1798. 

William Mason & Rebecca Richardson, Aug. 9, 1800. 

Hartwell Mosely & Patsy Wrenn, Dec. 10, 1800. 

Henry Mangimi, Jr. & Nancy Harrison, Feb. 9, ISOl. 

Isham Mangum & Patsy Allen, Dec. 1, 1800. 

William Moss & Elizabeth Collier, Oct. 4, 1783. 

Henry Morris & Selah Clarke, Jul. 21, 1787. 



Le Neve oe Virginia. 



The Clerk of Prince Edward County, from its setting off in 1754 until 
1783, was John Lk Nevk. The statement is made that Mr. Le Neve was 
drowned in a fresh cjf 1783. Wood's careful map of Prince Edward 
County, 1820, gives the name Le Neve's Creek to a small stream entering 
Buflalo in the northern part of the county. It is possible Mr. Le Neve 
lived in that neighborhood; it is possible that the name was given merely 
from the circumstance of his death there. He had a son christened 
Ludwell, which plainly connects him with the Williamsburg country. 
Mr. Le Neve had married a daughter of Samuel Cobbs, first clerk of 



T08 



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Mv.iaaiV V 



308 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Amelia Counly, 1734-1757. It would be logical if Mr. Le Neve had l)een 
deputy to Mr. Cobbs. 

Was John Le Neve, Clerk of Prince Edward, a son or near kinsman of 
the Rev. William Le Neve, who 'arrived in Virginia from England on 
St. Mark's day 1722,' and was minister of James City and Mulberry 
Island in 1724, fulfilling also the duties of a lectureship at Williamsburg — 
£20 a year for Sunday evening lectures? In 1723 William Le Neve was 
appointed, on his own petition, chaplain to the House of Burgesses, to 
attend for reading prayers every morning at ten a clock, at a salary of 
£20. He was still continued in this office in 172G, and was living in 1737 
when he advertised in the Virginia Gazette the loss of an "'old Pocket 
Book tied with a blew string." 

And were John Le Neve and the Rev. William Le Neve, of Virginia, 
kinsmen of John Le Neve, Peter Le Neve, and Sir William Le Neve, those 
well known English anticiuaries from KiOO to 1711? It is an engaging 
guess that John Le Neve, Clerk of Prince Edward, was son of William Le 
Ne\cof England and James City; and that William Le Neve of James City 
was one of the eight children of John Le Neve, rector of Thornton-le- 
Moor, Lincolnshire, all of whose anticjuarian works 'were unsuccessful 
from a pecuniary point of view.' 

We need to be precise about our early Clerks, for through them was 
brought in how much of the lore of Old England. 



ROUINSON OK THE EASTERN SHOKE. 

Further information is desired regarding the family of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Robinson, whose will appears in the Virginia Magazine for April 1916, 
page 194. She was the grandmother of Col. Tully Robinson, son of 
Wm. and Col. John Custis, only child of Major General Jolin Custis and 
her deceased daughter Elizabeth. Maj. Gen. John Custis and his second 
wife, Alicia, widow of Capt. Peter Walker witnessed the will of the widow 
Elizabeth Robinson, which was probated June 29, IOCS, Accomac Co., 
Vol. 8, p. GO. 

The name, age of the husband of the above Elizabeth? When he 
arrived in this country and where he originally settled. When he died 
and when and where was the will probated. Also who did Ann the 
executrix of her mother, Elizabeth, marry? The family were financially 
comfortable as well as officially prominent. 

It is claimed they were the same family as Christopher Robinson and 
used the same crest. Any data referring to the families will be grate- 
fully appreciated through the Magazine. 



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,,,^ NOTES AND QUERIES. \ J; ' "' 309 

CoRRItCTlONS IN BroOKE GENEALOGY. 

Vol. XVI, July 190S, p. lOii. Should be "Ben Arnold a German married 
and died in this country and left," etc. 

Vol. XVI, Oct. 190S, p. 213. Should be "Col. Humphrey Hill stood 
father," etc. (not God-isiiher). 

Vol. XX, Oct. 1912, p. 435. The oldest son of Francis E. Brooke of 
St. Julien should be Francis Taliaferro (named for his grandfather) and 
not Francis E. Same error on p. 436. 

Vol. XIX, p. 320. Samuel C. Bockius, not Boskins. 



L.\ws OK Virginia 1643-46 — A Correction. 

It was stated in the last annual report of the President of this Society 
that the manuscript laws of the dates named were first discovered by 
Mr. Mcintosh of Norfolk. Since the publication of the President's 
report, attention has been called to the fact that these laws were referred 
to and quoted by Mr. P. A. Bruce in his Ecconomic and Institutional 
histories. The only excuse that Mr. Mcintosh, Dr. Mcllwaine, Presi- 
dent McCabe and the editor of this Magazine can make is that Mr. 
Bruce's books are such vast mines of original information that it is im- 
possible to remember all that he has published. 



Roy ALL and Royster. 



Richard Royall died in Pittsylvania County; will proved 1819. He 
came from Mecklenburg Co. where he had married Elizabeth Miniard 
Royster. By this marriage there were sons John and Nathaniel, and 
daughter Susannah, Elizabeth, Mary Royall Morrison, Judith Royall 
Stone, mother of Governor J. M. Stone of Mississippi, Sarah, Nancy and 
Caroline. 

Any information concerning the Royall ahd Royster families will be 
gratefully received. 

Mrs. N. E. Clement, 
' ■ > Ciuitham, Va. 



A Description of Jeiferson. 

[The following communication was received a number of years agoi 

Dr. Samuel J. Bumstead living at No. 268 W. Eldorado Street, De- 
catur, 111., has a small bound volume of copies of letters (in manuscript), 



006 



.v.*-^n ■ '- l-fll nvrr- •" 









310 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

written by his father, Rev. vS. A. Bumstead, in Aug. 1822, to his sisters, 
mother and aunt, giving a description of a journey from Goshen, Md., to 
Harper's Ferry and thence up the Shenandoah Valley, via Staunton to 
Hot Springs and from there via Staunton, Charlottesville and Richmond 
to Brookville, Md. This little manuscript volume has the appearance 
of being very old. The paper is yellow with age. These copies of letters 
are in the hand-writing of the author himself. Rev. Mr. Bumstead was 
at the time a school teacher at Brookville Academy, Md , and he seems 
to have taken the journey he describes to learn something of tht s/in !;< ru 
country and southern manners. A map of his travels accompanied the 
letters and is bound with them. Among these letters there is one dated 
Aug. 23, 1822 and is written to his Aunt Lilly from "Fluvanna Co.," 
which contains a vivid description of Jefferson's personality and which 
is new so far as I know. In this letter Mr. Bumstead, after describing 
his travels from Staunton over the Blue Ridge by way of Fisher's Gap, 
his visit to the Virginia University; his breakfasting at Charlottesville 
and noting his disappointment at not finding Mr. JefTerson at home and 
his disappointment at having to leave Monticello without meeting him, 
he goes on to say: 

"After I got about 3 miles from his house and was about entering the 
Richmond road, I saw a man on horse-back at a distance off; it was diffi- 
cult to conceive what the matter was or whether he wanted anything 
of me by his making toward me with so much speed — as he advanced 
within plain sight I was v;ell aware by the cut of his jib who it was. His 
costume was very singular — his coat was checked gingham, manufactured 
in Virginia I suppose. The buttons on it were of white metal and nearly 
the size of a dollar. His pantaloons were of the same fabric. He was 
mounted on an elegant bay horse going with speed — and he had no hat on 
but a lady's parasol, stuck in his coat behind, spread its canopy over his 
head, which was very white — his hair is quite thick — his complexion sandy 
— and his eye, the eye of an eagle — his features regular and resembling 
very much the portrait you have in your parlor — He cast his very pene- 
trating eye at me and gave a polite nod of his head as he passed. This 
was Thomas Jefferson — and as you may naturally expect quite gratifying 
to me in having my curiosity answered. Had he not have appeared in 
such a hurry I should have stopt and entered into conversation with him. 
I intended to have inquired the road that leads into the Richmond road 
of the first person that I met — but as soon as I saw him I forgot all about 
it — such a great man in such a plain and singular garb so struck me that 
I had not another thought about me but the request you made of me — I 
should have complied with your recjuest if he had not appeared so much 
in haste — but I am told it is his usual gait. He does not appear as old as 
he really is — He is in his 84th yea;- — He was remarkably erect and had 
every appearance of anticjuity about him. I am told he always rides in 
this manner during the summer without any hat — often times many miles- 
it was very warm when I met him to-day and I thought he looked pretty 



DJOll ? 



irii 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 311 

well heated. Thus much of this extraordinary man of whom, the world 
has heard so much— whose writings have made somuch bustk. I think I 
can never forget his looks— indeed they are pretty well fixed in my minds' 
eye. I am now at a public house in Fluvanna Co— there is no village 
here. I shall expect to reach a place called Beaver Dam tomorrow. 

With affection 

Your nephew S. A. Bumstead." 



' Hob SON. 

In the Land Patent Books of Richmond there is a grant of 400 acres 
in Spottsylvania County, patented by Thomas and Adcock Hobson of 
"St. George's Parish in the same county," dated June 20, 1733. 

Later, I find Adcock Hobson living in Cumberland County, having, 
in 1741, married Joanna Lawson, daughter of Christopher Lawson. 
They had children John, Winnefred, bom 1744, Thomas, \Vm. Caleb, 
bom 1750, Lawson, Edward, Lucy and Elizabeth. 

Caleb Hobson married in 1774 Phoebe Brackett and left many descen- 
dants in Cumberland Co. 

Winnefred married Thomas Carter in 17G6, and in 1783 moved from 
Cumberland to Pittsylvania County. I am anxious to find Adcock 
Hobson's father. I presume Thomas was his brother. 

Did John Hobson of the Royal Council have descendants? 

Any information concerning the Hobson and Lawson families will be 
gratefully received. 

Mrs. N. E. Clements, 
■■ ■' ■ • Chatham, Va. 



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312 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



GENEALOGY. 



The Blackwell Family. 

(By Miss Stella Pickett Hardy, Batesvijle, Ark.) 
(Concluded) 
5-1. Lucy Steptoe Blackwell. 

5-2. William Blackwell, m. 1822 Mary Anne Bronaugh, daughter of 
William and Mary Catherine Pope (Peyton) Bronaugh, and had 
issue. 
5-3. There were other children, but I have been unable to secure 
their names. 
4-8. John Blackwell, of Fauquier Co., Va., b. 1755; d. 1808. He served 
with distinction in the Revolutionary War, 1st. Lieut. 3rd Va., Apr. 29, 
1776; wounded at Brandywine, Sep. 11, 1777; captain Sep. 15, 1777; was 
taken prisoner at Charleston, May 12, 1780; prisoner on parole to close 
of war; Bevet Major, Sep. 30, 1783; (Heitman's Historical Register, 
p. 105). Was High Sheriff of Fauquier Co., from 1783 to 1785; and 
County Lieutenant, and General of Va. Militia, 1794 (Fauquier County- 
Records and Manuscripts in Virginia State Library). He received 
5,1663^ acres of land on May 16, 1783 for his services as Captain in Re- 
volution (Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, p. 265). Hem. (first) 1779, 
Agatha Arm Eustace, b. 1765; d. after 1795; daughter of Issaac and 
Agatha (Conway) Eustace, of Stafford Co., Va.; (second) about 1797, 
Mrs. Judith Lee Pierce Peachy, a widow; b. about 1770; d. about 1805; 
daughter of Kendall and Betty (Heale) Lee, of Northumberland Co., 
Va.; (third) Nov. 28, 1804, Frances Parker, b. about 1765; daughter of 
Judge Richard and Mary (Beale) Parker, of Westmoreland Co., Va., 
Issue by 1st m. 
5-1. Lucy Steptoe Blackwell, b. 1785; d. 1817; m. (first) 1805, Hugh 
B. Campbell; (second) 1816, Rawleigh William Downman, of 
"Belle Isle," son of Rawleigh and Frances (Ball) Downman of 
Lancaster Co., Va. 
5-2. Steptoe Blackwell, b. 1786; d. unm. 
5-3. Agatha Conway Blackwell, b. 1788; m. Charles Bell, of Ohio 

and had issue. 
5-4. Eloise Blackwell, b. 1790; m. Mark Anthony Chilton, of Mo., 
son of Col. Charles and Elizabeth (Blackwell) Chilton, of Fau- 
quier Co., Va., and had ibsue. 
5-5. John Eustace Blackwell, b. 1793; m. Ricey Morris, and had 
issue. 



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"^ ' ' •• ' GENEALOGY. -' -' ' i:*'i ' 313 

5-6. William Blackwell, of Kanawha Co., Va. (now \V. Va.), b. 
1795; d. unm. 
Issue by 2nd m., 
5-7. Emma Blackwell, b. 1798; m. about 1815, George William 
Downman, b. 1794: d. 1845; son of Joseph Ball and Olivia (Payne) 
Downman, of Lancaster Co., Va. 
5-8. Ann Eliza Blackwell, b. 1800; d. 1847; m. 1817, Dr. James 
Kendall Ball, of "Edgewood," Lancaster Co., Va., b. 1790; d. 
1S3G; son of CdI. James and Frances (Downman) Ball, of "Bewd- 
Icy," and had issue. 
4-9. Judith Blackwell, b. 1759; d. 1867; m. May 23, 1775, Capt. Thomas 
Keith, of Fauquier Co., Va., who served with distinction in the Revo- 
lutionary War, commissioned Lieut, of Fauquier Militia, Mar. 24, 1778; 
serving under Capt. Turner Morehead (McAllister's Virginia Militia 
p. 201). He was later commissioned Captain (Manuscripts in Virginia, 
State Library). He was a staunch and liberal churchman; son of Rev. 
James and Mary Isham (Randolph) Keith, of Fauquier Co., Va., I-;sue. 
5-1. John Marshall Keith, m. Elizabeth Jones, and had issue. 
5-2. Harriet Keith, m. Mr. Skinker, and had issue, their descend- 
ants removed to Missouri. -.■■'• 
5-3. Mary Isham Keith. i •iv.iv 
5-4. James Keith. . '.^ 
5-5. Susan Keith, m. Davis James, and had issue. 
5-6. Peter Grant Keith, of Tenn., m. unknown and had issue. 
5-7. Tarleton Fleming Keith, m. unknown and had issue. 
5-8. Isham Keith, of Fauquier Co., Va., b. 179-; d. Apr. 25, 1887; 
m. 1822, Judith Chilton, h. 1800; daughter of Joseph and Ann 
(Smith) Chilton, of Fauquier, Issue 

6-1. Isham Keith, C. S. A., of Fauquier Co., Va., m. Sarah 
Agness Blackwell, daughter of William and .\nne Sparks (Gor- 
don) Blackwell, and had issue. 
6-2. James Keith, C. S. A., of Richmond, Va., b. 1S39; living, a 
distinguished lawyer and judge; m. (first) 1S75, Lilias Morson, 
b. 1848; d. 1877; (second) 1SS7, his sister-in-law, Frances Barkes- 
dale Morson, b. 1855; d. 1908; daughters of Hon. Arthur Alex- 
ander and Maria Martin (Scott) Morson, of Richmond, Va., and 
had issue. 
(Authority for the foregoing line of descendants of Hon. Joseph Black- 
well and Lucy Steptoe, are as given in parenthesis, also Fauquier County 
Records, Manuscripts in Virginia State Library, Old Family Papers, 
Family Bibles, Letters, etc., Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, p. 265 and 
266, Hardy's Colonial Families of the Southern States of America, p. 58 
to 70. For a fuller line of the lineage of Blackwells, Downings, Steptoes, 
Chiltons, Cookes, Colliers, Slaughters, Picketts, Bouldins, Marshalls, 
Keiths, Clarksons, Taylors, Scotts, Johnstons, Corbins, Balls, Lees, 
Smiths, Footes, etc., see Hardy's Colonial Families of the Southern 
States of America). 



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314 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Till-: Hakkison Family ok Nokthkrn Virginia. 

(Concluded) •' " '' 

(XXIIl, p. 332) 24. Thomas^ Harrison (Thomas^) bom 1726, died 
1727, married , and removed to Kentucky. 

Issue- a. Benjamin''; 1). Thomas Grayson^; c. Anne; d. Aiicie; e. Eliza- 
beth- f William Butler<\ born . died Feb. 2S, 1835; was a Cornet m 

Lee's Le-ion from 1779 to the close (;f the war. After the Revolution 
he was a resident of Loudoun Co., Va., and drew a pension to the time of 

his death. ,r, \ 

(XXIV 211) 1. Burr (error, should be) Benjamin Harrison (Burr) 

married Nancy Hart and had issue: 1. Betsey married Dunwoody; 

2. Benjamin, married Elizabeth Russell; 3. Dernel married Nancy Ana- 
barett; 4. William married Rohb. 

(XXIV, 211). Jon.\than Harrison (Burr) married Sally '1 yler and 

had issuel 1. Burr, married Kato; 2. Mary, married — Robb; 3. 

Cuthbert, married ; 4. Elizabeth married Ashford. 

(XXIV 212)- MORDECAI Harrison (Burr), married Sarah Alston and 

had issue: 1. Burr, married Liddle; 2. Jonathan, married Caroline 

Ragsdale; 3. Elizabeth married Mitchell; 4. Rebecca, married — 

Cole; 5. Lucinda married Noidite; 6. Benjamin, died single; 7. Will- 
iam, died single; 8. Thomas, married Mrs. Sykes. 

The children and descendants of Burr, Jonathan and Thomas Harrison 
lived in the South. 

87. CuTHUKRT^ Harrison (ThomasS), born Jan. 26, 1777, died May 
20, 1837, married , and had issue: Thomas«, and Edward\ 

88. Thomas^ Harrison (Thomas^), born Jan. 26, 1777, died , 
married Elizabeth Fitzhugh, and had issue: Anne, married John Carter 
Armistead; Jane Cecilie married Dr. Daniel Harrison, and Frances 
Barnes married Dr. William W. Taliaferro. 

90. Philip' Harrison (Thomas"), born May 31, 1781. died Jan. 1, 
1852; a distinguished lawyer of Richmond, Va.; married, 1810, Maria, 
daughter of John Lawson (born Feb. 22, 1754. died Aug. 6. 1823) of I nnce 
William County and his wife Mary M. daughter of Charles Tyler, of 
Prince William. 

Issue- 116. Lucy Erskine, born Feb. 10, 1812, died 1814; 117. Anna 
Maria, born Nov. 13, 1815, died Jan. 19, 1880, married Oct. 3, 1838 Dr. 
James Bolton; 118. Napoleon«, born 1815, died 1816; 119. Cora, born Nov. 
13 1812 married Frederick Anderson; 120. John Henry«, born April 15 
1819, died unmarried; 121. Thomas Botts«, born Oct. 17, 1821, married 
Steptoe Freeman and had a son Bolton'-* Harrison; 122. Walter ; U3. 
Philip", bom Dec. 28, 1829, died unmarried; 124. Elizabeth bom June 
28, 1831, married Austin Smith. 

93 Burr- Harrison (Thomas'*), bom Aug. 26, 1787, died Dec. 12, 1832, 
married Mary, widow of Mann Page, and daughter of Alexander Lithgow. 



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GENEALOGY. =• 315 

Issvie: 124. William Lilhgow**, burn at Fredericksljurg, Va., July 21, 

1816, married ; 125. Sarah, bom at Georgetown, D. C, July 21, 1819, 

married Dean; 126. Mary, married Henry Robinson. 

94. James" Harrison (Thomas^), born April 29, 17S9, married Ann 
Short and had issue: Byrd", Sarah, and Elizabeth. 

95. John'' Harrison (Thomas C) born Feb. 11, 1793, married Susan 
Sweeney, and is slated to have had twenty-one children. 

96. Walter'^ Harrison (Thomas") born April 3, 1795, died Feb. 5, 
1826, married Anne Lawson (sister of his brother's wife) and had Walter^ 
who tlied in infancy. 

122. Waltkk Hamilton'** Harrison (Philip?), of Richmond, Va., bom 
May 29, 1827, died Jan. 5, 1871; Lt. Colonel C. S. A.; A. A. G. and Chief 
of Staff Pickett's Division, author of "Pickett and his Men," and other 
productions; married Helen Elizabeth, daughter of James Brown Mac- 
murdo, of Richmond, Va. 

Issue: 125. Walter Hamilton'', married Mackie Worthington; 126. 
Philips, married Anne Lee Ansley; 127. Frank Bolton*^, died young; 128. 
Marie Helene, married 1890, Linn B. Enslow, of Richmond, Va. 

There are a number of members of the family whose descendants we 
have no means of tracing and should be obliged for any additional in- 
formation in regard to such descendants of the name Harrison. Space 
will not permit publicatitjn of lines of descent through daughters. 



Descenuants oi- Archer Payne, of "New Market." 

Contributed by John M. Payne. 
(Concluded) 

8. John Robert Dandridge Payne, married Susan Bryce, daughter of 
Archibald Bryce and sister to Mrs. Spotswood Payne. He lived in 
Lynchburg and was one of the Mayors of that city and then removed to 
Richmond where he died. They had only one child, to wit: Mary Jane 
Payne, married Colonel James Turner. She died early, leaving one son, 
William S. Turner, who married Miss Holt of Alabama. 

Note. — Colonel Turner removed to Alabama and married there. 

9. Robert Spotswood Payne, born in Goochland January 15, 1809, 
was a prominent physician in Lynchburg until his death September 28, 
1884. He was married, January 30, 1840 to Frances Ann Russell Meem, 
daughter of John G. Meem and Eliza Campbell Russell, daughter of 
Andrew Russell of Abingdon, Va. Their children were: 1. John Meem 
Payne, Captain S. C. A., bom November 11, 1840, married December 2, 
1863, Elizabeth Allen Langhorae daughter of John Archer Langhome 
and Margaret Kent. Captain Payne and his wife celebrated their golden 
wedding in 1913 and are the oldest representatives of the Archer Payne 
family. They have issue. 



dl£ 



316 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

2. Alexander Spotswood Payne, V. i\I. I. Cadet at Battle of New Mar- 
ket, born July 9, 18i5, married Elizabeth B. Burks, daughter uf Judge E. 
C. Burks and Elizabeth daughter of Capt. Pascal Buford of Bedford 
County. He died Oct. 2, 1910, leaving one daughter. 

3. Eliza Russell Payne, born March 3, 1848 and died in Lynchburg 
Dec. 23, 1900 unmarried. 

10. George Woodson Payne, born in Goochland Dec. 29, ISIO, married 
Ann Dabney, sister of Rev. Ro. L. Dabney, D. D. They lived in Louisa 
County on the South Anna river. He died in 1869. His wife survived 
him for many years. They had no issue. 

11. David Bryce Payne, bom in Goochland August 10, 1812, married 

Helen James, daughter of Doctor James and his second wife Lillias 

daughter of Archibald Bryce. Mr. David Payne was a book merchant 
of Lynchburg for many years until his death in 1888. Their children 
were: 1. Ella Grattan Payne, mar. Dr. Geo. K. Turner; left issue. 2. 
Robert S. Payne, mar. Meta Eskridge of Augusta Co. and have issue; 3. 
David B. Payne, Jr., mar. Ellen Scott and have issue; 4. Richard J. 
Payne, died unmarried; 5. Mary C. Payne, unmarried; 6. George A. W. 
Payne, mar. Louise B. Mitchell and have issue; 7. Helen Stockton, mar. 
Edward T. Page and has issue. 

12. James Ferguson Payne, born in Goochland September 10, 1814, 

married Frances Dudley, daughter of Capt. Peter Dudley and Davis. 

Was a well known and respected citizen of Lynchburg until his death. 
They had no issue. 

13. Martha Dandridge Payne, born in Goochland Apr. 25, 1820, 
married Isaac Vandeventer of Loudoun County. They left two children, 

to-wit: Robert Vandeventer, mar. ; died without issue; Helen 

Vandeventer, mar. N. S. Purcell and died without issue. 

14. Ann Bryce Payne, married May 3, 1849, Rev. Henry R. Smith of 
Otsego, New York. She died in Abingdon Dec. 12, 1907, leaving: 1; 
Lillias Payne, born Sept. 17, 1852, mar. Late Salmon M. Withers and has 
issue; 2. Eliza Bell, born Sept. 18, 1853, mar. Jas. Isaac Hutton of Kansas 
City and has issue; 3. Nansie Bryce, bom Jan. 14, 1857, mar. John Emil 
Roberts of New York and has issue; 4. Addison Melvin, born July 3, 1859. 
unmarried. 

15. William M. Payne, born in Goochland Feb. 15, 1828, married Dec. 
2, 1852 Frances Mitchell, daughter of Rev. Jacob Duche Mitchell, D. D. 
and his wife Harriet Morford. Wm. M. Payne served throughout the 
Civil War and was Major and Quartermaster of General Walker's Divi- 
sion at Appomattox. He died in Kinston, N. C, October 31, 1898. 
Their children are: 1. James Mitchell, born Sept. 8, 1855, mar. Margaret 
Belville and died Aug. 19, 1913, leaving issue; 2. William Spotswood, 
born May 16, 1858, mar. Mary Norvcll and died July 9, 1907, without 
issue; 3. Ida M., born April 30, 1860, died Mar. 26, 1880 unmarried; 4. 
Josephine M., bora Nov. 20, 1861, married Dr. R. W. Wooton of Kinston, 
N. C. and has issue; 5. J. Duche, horn July 7, 1867, mar. Minnie Kobe, no 



GENEALUUy. 317 

issue; G. Alexander S., born July 31, 1869, mar. \'ora VanLear Huddleson 
and has issue; 7. Franees Dandridge, born Sept. 14, LS71, mar. Rev. E. D. 
Brown and has issue. 

16. Charlotte E. Payne, born in Gooehland Jan. 9, 1829, married Dec. 
21, 1848, John H. Winston of Louisa County. She died in Bristol, Oct. 
27, 19L"). Children: 1. Charlotte P., mar. (first) SamuelRead; (second) 
Alexander West and has issue by both marriages; 2. Sarah Alctha, mar. 
John Brown, died leaving issue; 3. Harriet, mar. Mr. Gwathmey and has 

issue; 4. Frank, mar. ; 5. Mary Lee, unmarried; G. John, mar. Miss 

Taylor and died leaving issue. 

17. Harriet J. Payne, born in Goochland Feb. 11, 1831, married Capt. 
Wm. Steptoe in 1867 and died in 1876 without issue. Capt. Steptoe served 
in the 2nd Virginia Cavalry during the Civil War and was a grandson of 
James Steptoe the well l:nown Clerk of Bedford Co. 

18. Dr. Archibald Boiling married Ann E. Wigginton. daughter of 
Benjamin Wigginton of Bedford County. He practiced medicine in 
Bedford County until his death during the war. His family then moved 
to Wytheville. They had three children: 1. Judge William Holcombe, 
married Sept. 1860, Sallie Wliite; 2. Harriet, mar. Mr. Waddell of .Miss- 
issippi, has issue; 3. Mary Jefferson, mar. Mr. Teusler and has issue. 

The late Judge William H. Boiling left his widow and nine children, of 
whom Edith married (first) Norman Gait of Washington and (second) 
Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States. ^ ,, 

IFor additional Payne genealogy, see this Magazine Vol. VI, number 
3 and 4; VII, 1, 2; XIX, 2.) 



The Gokslch and Lom-x.xce F.amii.ik.s. 

(Continued) 

Children of the Rev. John-* Gorsuch (DanieH, William') and his wife 

Anne (Lovelacej, Richard Gorsuch'*, of Talbot County, Maryland. 

6. RiCH.\kD Gorsuch' (John •*, Daniel-, William' j. Baptized April 
19, 1637 at Walkem, Herts. He was one of the four younger children 
for whose transportation Theo. Hoane received land on the Rappahan- 
nock February 22, 1652 (see ante p. 89). He joined in the petition to the 
Lancaster Court April 1, 1657, asking for the appointment of guardians 
(see ante p. 91). With Thomas Powell July 16, 1659 he entered rights 
for 300 acres of land for Powell and himself in Baltimore County (Mary- 
land Patents; 4; 54). The tract "Richardson" on the north shore 
of the Patapsco on the east side of Welshman's Creek was surveyed 
for him July 30, 1659 and patented February 14, 1659-60 (Idem.; 
4; 234 and 341). May 13, 1661 he entered rights for transport- 
ing six persons, among them an Elizabeth Gorsuch, into the province 



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318 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

fidem • 1- 551). Richard Gor.such (no wife mentioned in the deed) 
''14th of 1st month, IGtil" assigns to Thomas Powell the tract (unnamed) 
300 acres on the north side of the Patapsco surveyed tor h.m m 1 ...J 
(Balto Co. Deeds R. M.: H. S: 5); and again 'Tith ot 11th month WA- 
5 ■■ Richard Gorsuch and his wife Elizaheth convey to Thoma. 1 owcl, 
bV what seems to be a confirmatory deed, 300 acres of land, apparently 
this same tract, but here called "Walnutt Neck"*, on the east side of 
February" lGfyl-5, when his wife Elizabeth joins him m transfcrnng 
Welshman's Creek (Idem. I. R: P. P: Wi). If the Elizabeth Gor.uch 
mentioned above for whose transportation he claimed rights was hi. 
wife Elizabeth, it seems probable that he married her before coming to 
Baltimore County, although it is just possible that this Elizabeth was 
his sister who, about that time, married a Powell. It i. certain tha 
Richard Gorsuch married prior to the "12th day llth month caled 
"Walnutt Neck" [or "Richardson"). He probably removed to lalbot 
County soon after disposing of this tract, for his name as well as that ot 
his brother Lovelace and of the Powell family soon appear on the records 
of this county. Richard Gorsuch and his brother Lovelace appear as 
executors of the will of Thomas Powell of Talbot County, dated January 
17 1669-70 and proved April 11, 1670. Soon after this time Richard 
Gorsuch appears to have wandered into the Province of New York where 
his uncle. Col. Francis Lovelace was then Governor, as there can be litt e 
question that the following reference applies to him: "Richard Gorsuch, 
conveyed his right to a patent for a tract of land on the west side of Dela- 
ware River to Governor Lovelace. It is described as bounded on ye 
North by a Creek called ye Indyans Quiackkitkunck Creek als N.cam- 
banack Creek '-General Entries, vol. 4, p. 189; dated in an order re- 
lating thereto, August 12, 1672" (New York Executive Council Mmutes; 
1668-1073, Administration of Francis Lovelace; Albany, UIO, \ol. J, 
p 167) In the Minutes of the Executive Council of the Province of the 
New York Jan'ry 28th, 1672, there is an entry "relatmg ye Miscarriage 
of a Packett from his Ma'tie [Majesty], w'ch Mr. Gorsuch was to give Ac- 
cot of, but his Letter IS not Arrived." (Idem) The editor o the recently 
published Minutes of the Executive Council, identUies Mr. Gorsuch 
the bearer of the Packett as Richard Gorsuch the patentee ot the tract 
on the Delaware, but on what grounds he does not state. It seems 
possible, however, that his brother Robert Gorsuch. whose whereabouts 
at this time is not known, might well have been in New York. 

Richard Gorsuch^ , Oct. 3. 1603, before he finally left Baltimore County, 
purchased from Edward Lloyd 200 acres on the north west side ot Divid- 
ing Creek on the north side of the Choptank River, part ol a large tract 
*In later deeds this tract is referred to as "Richardson" vulgarly 
known as "Walnutt Neck'.'-see deed from James lodd to Mark bwift 
(Balto. Deeds; H. W.: No. 2, 153). 



818 



.■n> 'vvl 



GENEALGOY. 319 

of 3050 acres patented by Lloyd and known as "Hier Dicr Lloyd" (Talbot 
Co. Deeds 1; G), where Richard Gorsuch and his descendants appear to 
have afterwards lived. Tliere is an acknowledgment from Thomas 
Powell, dated March 21, 1GG5-G to Ricliard Gorsuch, which recites ihat 
a tract of land at the head of the norih west branch of the Great Ghop- 
tank ["Old Town"] containing hOO acres, had been surveyed for Thomas 
Powell and Richard Gorsuch, but as the patent had been issued to Powell, 
he wishes to acknowledge that half of this land belongs to Gorsuch (Tal- 
bot Co. Deeds A. No. 1; 1G9). With it is hied a letter from Edward Roe 
certifying that he was a witness to this acknowledgment. This tract 
was afterwards resurveyed by his son, Richard Gorsuch'', under a special 
warrant issued March 3, 1G95-G. (Annap. Warrents Liber A; 7G). Henry 
Parnam of Talbot, Jan. 20, 1671 deeded his personal property and all of 
his landa by deed of gift to Richard Gorsuch, the latter agreeing to sujjply 
Parnam "with sufficient food and rement honestly performed as becometh 
a man and nourished in sickness or in health — during this my naturall 
life" (idem; 34). It was doubtless in this way that Richard Gorsuch 
acquired "Rigby's Marsh," 300 acres, afterwards sold by his son, Rich- 
ard Gorsuch-''' March 11, 1703-4 to Howell Powell (Talbot Deeds 9; 307). 
This tract lying on the Cabin Branch of the Choptank had been sold 
"3d 10th month 1665" by James Rigby and his wife Catherine Rfingold] 
Rigby to Henry Parnam (Talbot Deeds A No. 1; 23). 

The Annapolis Testamentary Proceedings show that Richard (}or- 
such^ acted as Deputy Commissary for Talbot County in 1674, 1675 and 
1676. "Mr. Richard Gorsuch," Jan. 20th, 1673-4 was a Commissioner 
of Talbot County (Talbot Co. Deeds I No. A; 273). Richard Gorsuch 
was appointed March 2, 1675-6 one of the "Gent. Justices" of Talbot 
(Archiv. Md. 15; 71). It is uncertain whether Richard Gorsuch became 
a Quaker, as his brothers Charles and Lovelace and his sister Elizabeth 
Powell are known to have done. It is of course possible that the pur- 
chaser, Thomas Powell, was responsible for the Quaker phraseology of 
the two deeds already referred to, by which Richard Gorsuch transferred 
land on the Patapsco to Powell. 

Under the will of lidward Roe of Talbot Co. dated March 4, 1675 and 
proved July 3, 1676, Thomas Duncan, the son of the testator's wife, re- 
ceived the tract "Bachelor's Plantation," while the remainder of the 
land was left to his wife Mary and to his daughter Elizabeth. He left 
10,000 pounds of tobacco to Anne Gorsuch, the daughter of Richard 
Gorsuch and an additional 10,000 pounds to be divided among the rest 
of Richard Gorsuch's children. The widow, Mary Roe, Capt. Philamon 
Lloyd, Capt. Peter Sayer and Richd. Gorsuch were appointed executors. 
(Annap. Wills 5; 59). Richard Gorsuch died intestate and his estate 
was administered upon Apr. 2, 1G77 by his widow Elizabeth (Annap. 
Test. Proc. 9, 23). The inventory filed June 23, 1677 showed a personal 
estate of 36,624 pounds of tobacco appraised by Thos. Alexander and 
Richard Girling (Annap. Invs. & Accts. 4; 1S7). A petition was tiled in 



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320 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the Prerogative Cuurt Mareh 12, 1().S2 by Samuel Hatlon and his wife 
Elizabeth, relict of Richard Gori^uch, in which it was recited that Edward 
Roe left a legacy of 10,000 pounds of tobacco to Ann, daughter of Richard 
Gorsuch and a like amount to be divided among Gorsuch's other children. 
It is further recited that Ann Gorr^uch died unmarried and that Richard 
Gorsuch at the time of the death of Edward Roe had four cliildrLU then 
living, viz., Mary, Richard, Elizabeth, and Sarah, one of v.hom, Mary, 
had since married Richard Keene. The Court ordered the two executors, 
William Combs and his wife Mary, the daughter of Richard Roe (the 
other executors ajjpointed under the will of Edward Roe having renounced) 
to make distribution of the legacies (Annnp. Test. Proc. I'.i; 13). En- 
tered at the end of Liber II of the Talbot County Court Proceedings are 
to lie found a number of seventeenth century records of births. Among 
these entries are the follov.-ing: Richard Gorsuch, the sonn of Ricliard 
Gorsuch was born Feb., 1(372: Charles Gorsuch, the sonn cjf Rieiiard 
Gorsuch born Feb., KiTO. These are both unquestionably the sons 
fjf Richard Gorsuch'. The date of Charles Gorsuch's birth being really 
Feb., 107G-7 explains why he did not share with his brother and si.-iers 
the legacy of Edward Roe who had died before his birth. 

From the above evidence Richard Gorsuch^ appears to have married 
prior to May 13, 16G1, probably before coming into Maryland. The 
surname of his wife Elizabeth is not knovv-n. It would appear that there 
may be a relationship between her and Henry Parnam who deeded his 
property to Richard Gorsuch in 1(371. It is also possible that there may 
have been a connection between her and Edward Roe who left legacies 
to the Gorsuch children. It is known from the petition of March 12 
1(382 that she married secondly Samuel Hatton of Talbot County. She 
appears to have married him prior to Sept. 23, 1078, when Samuel Hatton, 
Gentleman, and his wife Elizabeth convey their moiety in the tract 
"Hatton" to Geo. Conoley (Talbot Co. Deeds 3; 215). Samuel Hatton in 
a deed dated Jan. 20, 1073-4 conveys a tract called "Chairpinham" in St. 
Michael's River to Abraham Bishopp, in which Hatton describes him- 
self as of the City of Bristol, England, merchant, (idem A. No. 1;2S7-S). 
There was evidently a close relationship between this Samuel Hatton 
and a "Thomas Hatton of Tewkesbury in the county of Glouster in the 
Kingdom of England, brother and heir of John Hatton formerly of 
London," as all three are mentioned in a Maryland Chancery .suit about 
1608-71 (Annap. Chan. Proc. CD; 87-91). In this suit a tract "Persimmon 
Point," 4.00 acres in Baltimore County on Rumley Creek purchased by 
John Hatton is one of the tracts involved. Samuel Hatton and his wife 
Elizabeth March 11, 167S-9 gave a power of attorney to Charles Gorsuch 
and James Phillips to convey this tract to Miles Gibson describing it: 

"which land has come into the hands of Samuel Hatton" (Balto. 

Deeds IR; PP. 32-33). Samuel Hatton probably died in 1087-8 as his 
estate was administered upon by Elizabeth Hatton Mar. 8, 1087-8 (Test. 
Proc. 9; 474). Whether Samuel and Elizabeth Hatton had issue is not 



GENEALGOY. '" 321 

known. The widow married very promptly a third husband, as Herman 
fToakc's and Elizabeth his wife soon afterwards file an account (Test. 
Proc. 10; 184). Nothing further has been learned in regard to this last 
marriage. 

From the petition in regard to the distribution of the estate of Edward 
Roe it has been seen that Richard Gur.'uch' and his wife Elizabeth had 
live children bom prior to July 3, 1G7G viz., Anne, Mary, Richard, Eliza- 
beth, and Sarah, while from the old Talbot register of births not only 
the date of the birth of the eldest son Richard is learned, but the fact 
that there was another son, Charles, born Feb., 1076-7. Down to this 
point we are on comparatively solid ground. When an attempt is made 
however to trace the descendants of the two sons, Richard"* and Charles'', 
difliculties are at once encountered in establishing identities. It will be 
recalled that Richard Gorsuch'' and his younger brother Lovelace^ were 
the only two of the four Gorsuch brothers who came to Maryland, who 
settled permanently upon the Eastern Shore, the former establishing 
himself in Talbot and the latter in Dorchester, the adjoining County. 
Fortunately the line of Lovelace Gorsuch-* (see post) can be thoroughly 
worked out by wills, deeds and the Tred Avon Quaker Meeting records. 
There remain however a considerable number of individuals bearing the 
name Gorsuch found recorded in the registers of the established church 
of Talbot County, and among the other county records, during the first 
half of the eighteenth century, definitely known not to be of the line of 
Lovelace Gorsuch*, who not only by exclusion but by various indirect 
evidence, would certainly appear to be descendants of Richard^ and 
Charles^, sons of Richard Gorsuch'*. In view of the impossibility of 
drawing positive conclusions from the insufficient data now in hand, it 
seems best at this point to give all the Gorsuch entries in the Register* 
of old St. Peter's Parish, Talbot County, and to construct therefrom, 
and from the few other Gorsuch references of this period available, what 
must be a more or less tentative pedigree of these latter lines. It is 
hoped that the publication oi this pedigree may be the means of bringing 
to light additional evidence from sources not available to the writer. 
The writer wishes to take this opportunity of thanking Miss Harriet 
P. Marine, of Baltimore, for the invaluable assistance she has rendered 
by her researches among the Talbot Covmty Court records, and for the 
interesting data which she has unearthed. 

Richard Gossutch and Elizath. Martin, married Dec. 3, 1696 

Charles Gorsuch and Sarah his wife married 12th day June, 1700 by Mr. 

Nobbs, minister 
Charles Gorsuch, son Charles & Sarah Gorsuch, bom Sept. 25, 1703 
Thomas Bowdle & Sarah Gorsuch married Dec. 6, 1709 
William Ridgway & Sarah Gorsuch married Nov. 19, 1724 

*Gorsuch Entries — St. Peter's Parish Register Talbot County 



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322 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Charles Gorsuch married Mary Comich Dec. 2, 172.5 

Sarah Gorsuch, daughter of Charles & Mary, born June l.S, 172,S 

Elizabeth Gorsuch, daughter Charles & Mary, born April 10, 1730 

John Gorsuch, son Charles & Mary, bom March 14, 1731 

Hannah Gorsuch, daughter of Charles He Mary, born Feb. 20, 1733 

Richard Gorsuch & Elizabeth Eason married June 5, 1732 

Richard Gorsuch & Mary Wheeler married May 29, 1730 

Daniel Gossage, son of Charles Gossage & Eve Hopkins his wife, bom 

Feb. 2S, 1760 married Nov. 28, 1783 to Elizabeth Hopkins. 

St. Luke's Register, Queen Anne County: 
Rachel Gossage married John Starkey, June 20, 175S by license. 

Talbot County Marriage Licenses: 
Charles Gorsuch married Mary Dodson, Oct. IS, 174G by license. 

Children of Richard"* (john^, Daniel^, William i) and Elizabeth 
Gorsuch: 

1. Anne Gorsuch^ (Richard^, John'^, Daniel-, William*). Died un- 

married prior to March 12, 1GS2. 

2. Mary Gorsuch^ (Richard*, John^, Daniel-, William*). Married 

prior to March 12, 1682, Richard Keene. Line not traced. 

3. Richard Gorsuch^ (Richard*, John^, DanieF, William*). He was 

bom February 4, 1672 (Talbot Co. Court Proc. Liber II). There 
is no c^uestion that he was the Richard Cossutch*, who Dec. 3, 
1696 married Elizabeth Martin (St. Peter's Reg.). Her identity 
has not been determined with certainty. She was probably the 
daughter of Thomas Martin, who appears to have lived on the 
plantation, also a part of the tract "Hier Dier Lloyd," adjoining 
the land of Richard Gorsuch on Dividing Creek branch of the 
Choptank Rixer, and who Feb. 8, 1693-4 petitioned the Coiuicil of 
Maryland to order a resurvey of the bounds between his plantation 
and that of Richard Gorsuch (Archiv. Md. 26; 38-9). This Thomas 
Martin in his will dated August 27, 1690, proved August 2, 1705, 
names his sons, vSamuel, Thomas, William, Henry, and Robert 
Martin, and his wife Jane, but only makes reference to a daughter 
Hannah (Annap. Wills; 3; 067). That he had at least one other 
daughter seems certain from the will of his son, Thomas Martin, Jr., 
of Talbot, dated Jan. 5, 1715, proved June 14, 1741 in which he men- 
tions his sister, Mary Lyon (Annap. Wills 1741). There seems 
every likelihood therefore that Thomas Martin, Sr. had other 
daughters provided for during his life and therefore not mentioned 
in his will, one of whom apparantly married Richard Gorsuch^. 
There is a tomlistone in the old Martin graveyard at "Hampden," 

*The name is spelt Cossutch in the original register; in the Md. Hist. 
Soc. transcript it has been incorrectly copied Gossuloh. 



Oi 



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•tw bo«c 1 

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GENEALOGY. ' 323 

Talbot, Countyof "Elizabeth Martin ye daughter of Thomas Mar- 
tin"died lG7G(Ridi,'ley's Historic Graves of Maryland; 219). It was 
probably another daughter of the same name, born shortly after- 
wards, who married Richard Gorsuch-"'. The Martins of Talbot 
have been an intiuential family for generations. Richard Gorsuch 
July 17, 1700, leased to Alexander Boyess [Boyce] a tract, unnamed 
and of unstated acreage, upon which Boyess was then living, lying 
on the north side of Divitling Creek adjoining the plantation of 
Thomas Martin, during the life of Alexander Boyess and his wife 
Sarah (Talbot Co. Deeds; 11; 20). Richard Gorsuch, Dec. 27, 
1703 conveys to Nicholas Goldsborough his one-third interest in 
the tract "Old Town," SOO acres (Talbot Co. Deeds 9, 2G2). This 
was the same tract which had been sur\'eyed originally for his 
father Richard Gorsuch"* and Thomas Powell. Richard Gorsucii^ 
March 11, 1703 conveyed to Howell Powell a tract of 300 acres 
called "Rigby's Marsh" on Cabin Branch of the Choptank River 
(Talbot Deeds; 9; 307). It has already been shown that this 
tract had been acquired by his father, Richard Gorsuch* from 
Henry Parnam. Richard Gorsuch^ died in 1705, as his widow, 
Elizabeth Gorsuch, exhibited her administration bond, with John 
MuUikin and John Lyon her securities in £200, Oct. 7, 1705 (Test. 
Proc. 19B; S9). The inventory of Richard Gorsuch of Talbot 
County showing personal property valued at £103:10:10 was tileii 
Ajjr. 17, 1700; and the administration account by Elizabeth Gor- 
such, the widow, filed July 19, 1706, showed a total personal 
estate of £438:8:10 (Annap. Inv. & Accts. 25; 371 & 42). 
The Talbot County Rent Roll for 1707 (Md. Hist. Soc. 
MSS.), shows that Richard Gorsuch's widow was then in 
possession of 200 acres, a part of "Hier Dier Lloyd," 
bought by his father in 10G3. As corroborative evidence of the 
identity of Elizabeth iMartin, the wife of Richard Gorsuchs, it 
should be noted that one of her sureties for the administration of 
her husband's estate was John Lyon. It will be recalled that 
Thomas IMartin, Jr. had a sister Mary Lyon. This supports the 
theory that Elizabeth Martin, who married Richard Gorsuch^, 
was probably a sister of Thomas Martin, Jr. Furthermore ihe 
lease executed in 1751 by Thomas Martin to Richard Gorsuch'", at a 
nominal rent, of "Hier Dier Lloyd" for the remainder of Richard's 
life may indicate that Martin wished to render assistance to a 
hard-up relation. The widow of Richard Gorsuch^ was living in 
1733, when she appears in the Annapolis Debt Book as charged 
with the quit rent of "Hier Dier Lloyd." Richard Gorsuch, who 
appears in a transaction involving the Gorsuch tract, part of "Hier 
Dier Lloyd," in 1724 was certainly the son of Richard^ and Eliza- 
beth (Martin). It is mot known whether there were other childrcm. 



£SZ 



324 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ['^n, 

Issue of Richard'^ and Elizabeth (Martin) Gorsuch: 

(l) Richard" Gorsuch (Richard^, Richard-*, John'', Daniel-, 
William^). Born prior to 1706. The marriage of Richard 
Gorsuch and Elizabeth Eason took place June 5, 1732 (St. 
Peter's Register). Again May 29, 1739 the marriage of 
Richard Gorsuch and Mary Wheeler is recorded (idem). 
What little else is known in regard to Richard Gorsuch^ is 
learned through a rather remarkable series of transactions 
in which the Gorsuch portion of the tract, "Hier Dier Lloyd," 
figures. Richard Gorsuch Sept. 7, 1724 leases all this tract 
of 200 acres to Loftus Bowdle for the life of Loftus and the 
latter's son Thomas, With this lease was filed the bond of 
• Loftus Bowdle under which he binds himself in return to pro- 

vide for Richard Gorsuch during the remainder of Gorsuch's 
, V life. This bond is of considerable interest as it gives a pic- 
t ■ turesque view of the every-day life of the times, and would 
seem to be a not unusual form of agreement existing in Talbot 
County in early times, and if carried out in spirit, was not 
altogether an unsatisfactory method of assuring a comfortable 
old age to a broken-down relation or friend. Bowdle under- 
takes "to keep and maintain Richard Gorsuch in good and 
sufficient drink, washing, lodging and wearing apparell of 
. ( every kind with all other necessarys suitable to the following 
• 1 stuffs or chattels, to be worn by the said Gorsuch according 
to the season of the year, that is in summer sogathy, duroy, 
or camblet, in the winter English kersey, or for want of these, 
some other like price service and decency, and also to keep 
or provide saddles and bridles for the said Richard Gorsuch 
his use, farther the said Loftus hath undertaken for the said 
Richard to free & exempt him from all manner of public tax 
or pole money whatsoever, and from all labor, and also to pay 
unto the said Richard Gorsuch three gallons of rum or brandy, 
[a year] and two barrels of maze or Indian com with good and 
sufficient pasturage for one horse— during the whole term of the 
natural life of the said Richard and no longer — and to maintain 
i and keep or cause to be maintained or kept in the dwelling- 
". house of him the said Loftus and his heirs with good and suf- 
ficient meat, drink, and all other things necessary — so that the 
before mentioned Richard be handsomely and neatly kept and 
maintained — (signed) Loftus Bowdle." (Talbot Deeds 13; 135- 
145). Thomas Bowdle, the son of Loftus, and his wife Mary, 
Sept. 22, 1741 sold to Thomas Martin what would seem to be 
their leasehold interest in a part of the Gorsuch tract (idem 
15; 92), and July 22, 1746 the remainder of the tract to Martin. 
There was some difficulty about the title for it would appear 
from the deed that Martin had brought suit against Bowdle 



IV 



IS 



oi 



GENEALOGY. 325 

in the Provincial Court Apr. 1740, and that the Court had 
ordered Richard Gor.such and Thomas Bowdle to execute 
confirmatory deeds (idem 16; 294, 297, 311). Apparently to 
perfect the title, Thomas Martin July 16, 1751 leases part of 
this same tract to Richard Gorsuch for the latter's life, and 
immediately thereafter Richard Gorsuch assigns his lease to 
Loftus Bowdle (idem 17; 524). It will be recalled that there 
was a connection between the Gorsuch and Bowdle families, 
Thomas Bowdle having married Sarah Gorsuch Dec. 6, 1709. 
It is supposed that this Sarah Gorsuch was the aunt of Rich- 
ard^. No further trace of Richard Gorsuch has been found 
in the records, nor is it known whether he left descendants. 

4. Elizabeth Gorsuch^ (Richard'*, John^, Daniel-, William^- Living 

and unmarried in 16S2. Not traced. 

5. Sarah Gorsuch^ (Richard-*, John•^ DanieF, William'). Living and 

unmarried in 1GS2. It was probably this Sarah Gorsuch who 
Dec. 6, 1709 married Thomas Bowdle (St. Peter's Register). The 
Register records the birth of Joseph son of Tho. and Sarah Bowdle 
30th 8th mo 1710, and also records the death of Sarah Bowdle 
May 12, 1724. This Bowdle line has not been worked out. 

6. Charles Gorsuch^ (Richard •',John^, Daniel-, William')- He was 

bom Feb. 1670-7 (Talbot Co. Court Proc. liber II). The St. Peter's 
Register records the marriage June 12, 1701 of "Charles Gorsuch 
and Sarah his wife" and the birth of Charles, son of Charles 
and Sarah Gorsuch, Sept. 25, 1703. The birth of no other child 
of this marriage is recorded. The Sarah Gorsuch whose marriage 
Nov. 19, 1724 to William Ridgway is recorded in the St. Peter's 
Register may be another child of Charles^ or she may be a child 
of his brother Richard'^. The name Sarah rather suggests the 
first possibility. The date of Charles Gorsuch^ death is not 
known, neither has his v/ill nor administration been found. The 
will of John Burnyeyat (Barnyeat) of Talbot County dated Apr. 
26, 1726 and proved Aug. 3, 1720, mentions his kinsman Charles 
Gorsuch (Annap. Wills 19;1). This may refer however either to 
this Charles^ or to his son Charles". 
Issue of Charles^ and Sarah Gorsuch: 

(1) Charles Gorsuch*' (Charles-\ Richard^ John-', DanieF, Will- 
iami). Born Sept. 25, 1703 (St. Peter's Register). This is 
unquestionably the Charles Gorsuch whose marriage to Mary 
Comich Dec. 2, 1725 is recorded (St. Peter's Register). A 
Talbot County deposition gives the age of Charles Gorsuch 
as 35 or 30 in 1741 (Dr. Christopher Johnston's Depositions 
MSS. ) . Nothing further has been learned in regard to Charles 
Gorsuch'' except the record of the births [)etween 1728-1733, 
of four children of Charles and Mary Gor.such in the St. Peter's 
Register viz., Sarah, Elizabeth, John and Hannah. There is 



SSf. 



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i"l'j-. vefii r'ut 1 



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326 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

no Register record of the birth of a son Charles, although there 
is every likelihood that the Charles Gorsuch who married 
Eve Hopkins prior to 1700, was another son. There may also 
have been another son Robert (see foot note*). Whether the 
Charles Gorsuch who married Mary Dodson 1740 is Charles^ 
making a second marriage or a son Charles'' is uncertain. 
Issue of Charles** and Mary (Cornich) Gorsuch: 

i.? Charles Gorsuch^? {Charles", Charles^, Richard*, John^, 
Daniel-, William'). As stated before there was a Charles 
Gorsuch living in Talbot during the middle of the eighteenth 
century, who for the following reasons would seem to belong 
here. A Talbot County marriage license to Charles Gorsuch 
and Mary Dodson was issued Oct. IS, 1746. The St. Peter's 
Register records the birth of Daniel son of Charles Gossage 
and Eve Hopkins his wife Feb. 28, 1760. It seems probable 
that the latter record alone refers to Charles Gorsuch''' . The 
writer has seen a deposition made by Mrs. Elizabeth (Gorsuch) 
West a granddaughter of Charles Gorsuch the husband of Eve 
Hopkins, dated June 4, ISSO, she being then 74 years old, in 
which she declares that her grandfather who is buried in White 
Marsh Church (St. Peter's Parish) near Oxford, Talbot 
County.was a son of Charles Gorsuch of Talbot. The affidavit 
gives the children of her grandfather Charles Gorsuch as 
Daniel, Peter, Solomon, James, Joshua, Samuel, Elizabeth 
and Nancy, the deponent being a daughter of Peter. The 
statements contained in this deposition are confirmed by an 
entry in the St. Peter's Register: "Daniel Gossage, son of 
Charles Gossage & Eve Hopkins his wife, born Feb. 28, 1700 
married Nov. 28, 1783 to Elizabeth Hopkins." If the order 
of birth of the children as given in the deposition is correct, 
is it probable that they were all the children of Charles and 
Eve (Hopkins) Gorsuch. It also seems probable that the 
Gorsuch family of Talbot, which until comparatively recently 
was rather numerous in that county, were all descended from 
this Charles, many of them adopting the spelling Gossage* 
later. These lines are not carried down here. 



*In "Heads of Families— Maryland, 1790," under Talbot County 
are to be found the following "heads": Charles Gossage, with 1 free 
male under 16, and 2 free white females; Robert Gossage, with 4 free 
white males under 16, and 2 free White females; Daniel Gossage, with 
2 free white males under 16, and 2 free white females; John Gossage, 
with one other free white male over 16, and 3 free white females; 
Greenberry Gossage, with 4 free white females, In the lists the first 
two names immediately follow each other, as do the last three. All 
are doubtless of this same line, although some cannot be placed. No 
other individuals bearing the name Gossage or Gorsuch are found in 
the lists of any of the other Eastern Shore counties. 



.^u.^-; 




IrUGK Willi AM Fl.lCMING 



Negative Property of 

H. P. Cook. Photographer, 

Richmond, Va. 



.^ .^.' fa-ifrV.IW . 



GENEALOGY. ' ' 327 

ii. Sarah Gorsuch" (Charles^, Charles^, Richard*, John '^, DanieP, 

Williami). Born June 13, 1728 (St. Peter's Reg.), 
lii. Elizabeth Gorsuch^ (Charles^. Charles-'', Richard'*, John^, 

Daniel-. William^). Born Apr. 16, 1730 (St. Peter's Reg.). 
iv. John Gorsuch^ (Charles", Charles^, Richard"*, John^, Daniel^, 

Williami). Born March 14, 1731 (St. Peter's Reg.). 
V. Hannah Gorsuch" (Charles'% Charles^, Richard*, John^, 

Daniel^, Williami). Born Feb. 20, 1733 (St. Peter's Reg.). 
(2) ? Sarah Gorsuch'' ? (Charles^ , Richard"* , John-' , Daniel2 , Williami ) . ? 

It seems probable that the Sarah Gorsuch whose marriage Nov. 
19, 1724 to William Ridgway is recorded in the St. Peter's Register 
belongs here. This line has not been traced. 



The Ancesioks and I.'Escendants of Jok.v Roue with Notes on some 
Connected F.xmieiks. v,r 

The Fi.EMiNfi Family. . :> i- 

(Continued) ' ' ' 

13. WiLLi.AM^ Fleminc;, "fourth son and si.xth child was born at Mt. 
Pleasant in the county of Goochland (now Powhatan) on the 6th day of 
July 1736, and married Bettie Champe, the 6th and youngest daughter 
of Col. John Champe, late of the county of Kmg George (merchant) on 
the fifth day of Oct. 1766 and had issue four daughters who lived to be 
women, and one son. He died at Summerville, February 15, 1824." 
{Family Bible). 

William Fleming was educated at 'William and Mary College, and 
while there was the collegemate and friend of Jefferson, and others, who 
became leaders in the Revolution, and with whom he remained on inti- 
mate terms in after life. On completing his College course he studied 
for the bar, aq^d commenced the practice of law in Cumberland and the 
neighboring counties. Not long before the Revolution he entered public 
life, taking his seat as a member of the House of Burgesses for Cumber- 
land in February, 1772, and was reelected to the sessions of March 1773, 
May 1774, August 1774, and June 1775. Like all his family, Wm. Fleming 
was an active supporter of American rights, and in Feb. 1775 was a mem- 
ber of the county committee of safety of Cumberland. He was recom- 
mended by the committee for appointment as Colonel of the militia of 
the coiuity, and qualified in this office by taking the oath Oct. 23d, 1775. 
On Nov. 26, 1775, when a new election was held to choose members of the 
committee, he received next to the highest vote, and on October 28, 1776 ' 
was again re-elected, he and George Carrington receiving the same vote, 



\^K 



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328 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ■ • 

more than was cast for any other (Journal of Committee). He was a 
member of the Conventions of Marcli 1775, July 1775, December 1775, 
and of that which met May 0, 1770, and declared the independence of 
Virginia, and in the last named he was a inemljcr of the "independence 
committee." {Jourtiuls of Conventions). -After the establishment of 
the state government he continued a member of the House of Delegates, 
representing Cumberland in Oct. 177G, Dec. 1770, May 1777, and Oct. 
1777, and Powhatan (which had been formed from Cumberland) in the 
sessions of May and October 1778, Dec. 1779, and Chesterfield in May and 
Nov. 1780. During the sessions of 1780, he was Chairman of the com- 
mittee of the whole. On Dec. 10th, 1778 the Virginia As.senibly elected 
him a member of Congress, in the room of John Banister resigned, to 
serve until August 11, 1778. {Journals of House of Delegates). lie ap- 
pears not to have taken his seat in the latter bcjdy until April 28, ]77»>, 
for on that date the Journals of Congress record that he attended and 
presented his credentials. On Xm'. 20, 1780 the Virginia Legislature 
again honored hmi by electing him a judge of the General Court, and 
some years later promoted him to the bench of the newly formed Ci)urt 
of Appeals. His commission to the latter position, dated Dec. 31, 17SS, 
and signed by Gov. Beverley Randolph, is preserved. 

Nor was it only in a civil capacity that Wm. Fleming rendered service 
during the Revolution. When the county of Powhatan was formed from 
Cumberland he was appointed county lieutenant, his commission, signed 
by Gov. Henry, bearing the date July 31st, 1777. He probably held this 
office for several years, and as documents remaining show, rendered 
useful service. Among the few of his papers which remain is a subscrip- 
tion list taken in Powhatan county, for the purpo.se of paying bounties to 
recruits and preventing a draught of the militia. It is as follows, the 
number after the names indicating the number of dollars subscribed: 

"We the subscribers hereby oblige ourselves to pay on demand, to the 
commander of the militia of Powhatan, the several sums of money set 
against our names respectively, to be by him equally distributed amongst 
such able bodied men as will engage to serve in one of the Virginia regi- 
ments on continental establishment, for one year, in order to prevent a 
draught of the militia for completing the sd regiments; provided that not 
more than 200 dollars, besides the public bounty, be paid to any one 
person so enlisting. 

"Wm. Fleming 40, Cha. Fleming 30, Wm. Mayo 30, Jas. Bagbey 10, 
Samuel Hobson 10, Thomas Moseley 10, Robt. Hatcher 10, Wm. Tucker 
Jur. 10, Jos. Mayo 10, Thos. Harris 20, Robt. Smith 10, John Moseley 10, 
Littleberry Mosby 40, David Hughes 10, Joseph Thomson 10, Wm. 
Pointer 3, Pete Wilkinson 3, Jas. Wilkinson 5, Absalom Toler 4, Saml. 
White 3, Patrick Fitzsimmons 4, Danl. Hi.x 3, Rd. Cnimp 30, Robt. 
Richardson 10, John Moss, D. Creek 6, Chas. Rice 4, Saml. Woodson 0, 
John Porter 10, John Steuart Senr. 5, Geo. Mosl)y S, Kdv.-ard Mumfcjrd 
20, James Pleasants 10, S. Hyde Saunders 10, Jas. Drake 10, Henry Bagby 



.8 



GENEALOGY. 



329 



Jr. 6, W. Watson Sr. 3, Sam. Webster 4, John Wilkinson 4, Ananias Han- 
cock 3, W. Goode 5, T. Wilkinson 2, P. F. Turpin 20, Capt. Binns 2, Wm. 
Karr 3, Thos. Epperson 3, Jesse Winfree 7, Jas. Toler 2, John Wilkinson 
10, John Perkins 4, Jos. Baker 3, Peter Crawford 10, Jas. Kerr 2, AIj. 
Stovall 2, Egbert Woodfin 2, John Gilbies 0, Otey Prosser 4, Wm. Scott 
3, Danl. Bagby 3, Bennett Goode 10, Edwd. Cox 20, Wm. Bagby 0, John 
Cannifax 5, John French 2, John Carter 10, Jacob Moseley 4, John Hurt 
3, J. P. Bondurant 4, John Welburn 4, Saml. Morgan 4, Wm. Moss 4, 
Wm. Hules 9, Jos. Vaughan, Frank Stegar 10, Sandy Cousins 3, John 
Bryant 1, Wm. Bennet 1, Wm. Howard 2, Jos. Salle 2, Jas. Scott 3, Wm. 
Cooper 10, Wm. Forsie 10, John Sublit 0, John Depp 4, John Harris 4, 
John Sandefar 4, Wm. Burner S, Wm. Street 5, John Short 5, Fell Leseur 
3, C. Forsie 10, Robt. Cardin 5, Peter Lookado 10, Jos. Clark 3, David 
Flournoy 2, Shadrach Roper 12, Lewis Chadoin 8, Henry Holman 10, 
Danl. Branch 5, Noel T>acy 3, John Deans 30, Robt. Moseley 5, John Har- 
ris 20, Martin Leseur o, Anth'y Martin 20, Geo. Stov. Smith 10, Wm. 
Burton 5, John Howard 20, John Moss 3, Dutoy Branch 2, Wm. Gay 40, 
John Moss, 5, David Lync 5, John Bernard 2o, Danl. Scott, John King, 
Jas. Bedford. 

"Rec'd of Vincent Markham 12th Feby 177S, £23. 3. 9, or 77 dollars and 
1. 9d. W. Fleming. 

"Besides wch Jno. Baugh pd. 20 and T. Dawson 10 dollars. W. F. p'd 
at the G. muster 100 dollars to Vine. xMarkham, wlio gave 30 of them to 
Rd. Crump. 

"Collected by V. Markham and W. Mayo at Gen. Muster 207 Dollars." 

From 1788 until his death, thirty six years, Wm. Fleming remauied 

a judge of the Court of Appeals, and from 1810, was President of the court. 

While not a man of brilliant talents Judge Fleming was an able lawyer, 

and an efficient and useful judge. 

In the series of biographical sketches of Virginia judges given in Coil's 
Reports (IV, XIX) it is .said: "He had good sense, was an ardent patriot, 
and a very upright judge. Indulging in no theories or suljtilties, his 
opinions were on the honest side of the cause; and always aiming to de- 
cide rightly, he generally attained his object." 

Another writer says: "Roane could give more reasons for his oi)inion; 
but Fleming was most apt to be right." 

The Richmond Encjuirer of Feb. 19, 1824, prints a brief obituary: "We 
pay the melencholy duty we owe to a pure, revolutionary patriot, a 
most venerable citizen, an upright judge, in recording the death of 
William Fleming, esquire, Presiding Judge of the Court of Ajjpeals of 
Virginia, fte has descended to the tomb full of years and accompanied 
by the universal resiject of his fellow citizens. The life of such a man 
calls for something more than a hasty paragraph in a newspaper. We 
should feel obliged to the pen which will furnish us witli a biographical 
sketch of the deceased patriot, who has served his country near GO 
years." 



«»«} T SifiO<: 



330 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

In the House of Delegates of Virginia, on Feb. inih, "On motion of Mr. 
Braneh the following resolution was adopted. 

"Resolved unanimously, That this House from a grateful sense of the 
long and faithful public services of the late William Fleming, one of the 
Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals, feel the deepest sympathy on 
account of his death. 

In offering this resolution, Mr. Branch made a few handsome and 
appropriate remarks, in eulogy of the merits and virtues of that venerable 
and beloved citizen. His faithful and gallant services during the whole 
of the Revolution, both in the armies and the councils of the nation; his 
able and upright services for more than half a century, without the inter- 
mission of a day, in the various public stations, to which the admiration 
and confidence of his fellow citizens had called him, were all referred to 
by Mr. Branch as giving him a just claim to this tribute of respect and 
gratitude. But, Mr. Branch said, his amiable and gentlemanly deport- 
ment, his merits as a man; as a patriot, and as a friend and servant of his 
country, were too well known to recjuire of him the least illustration." 

Judge Fleming was throughout life a careful and systematic man in 
matters of business, and at his death left a large quantity of papers, and 
letters, neatly filed, filling several barrels. In addition to his own 
papers covering a public life of fifty years or more, there were many which 
had belonged to his father, and brothers, to all of whom he was surviving 
executor. This very valuable collection (which included his diary for 
many years) was almost entirely lost through the carelessness of his 
executor, and the latter' s representatives. 

In the Southern Literary Messenger for 1837, pp. 304-30G, are printed 
several letters from Jefferson to William Fleming, and one from Fleming 
to Washington. The first letter is without date; but was evidently 
written shortly before the second, in 1704. These letters were found 
among Judge Fleming's papers. The second letter is endorsed by the 
recipient "Tom Jefferson's letter 20th March, 1764." The third letter, 
not represented here, is a request that Fleming take charge of the busi- 
ness of the Clients of Dabney Carr, who had just died, and the fourth and 
fifth (neither reprinted here) are on political subjects. The first two are 
given as illustrations of the life of the time and of the intimacy between 
Fleming and Jefferson. 

"Ri xxxx 

"Dear Will, 

From a crowd of disagreeable coinpcinions, among whom I have spent 
three or four of the most tedious hours of my life, I retire into Gunn's 
bedchamber to converse in black and white with an absent friend. I 
heartily wish your were here that I might converse with a Christian once 
more before I die: for die I must this night unless I should be relieved 
by the arrival of some sociable fellow, but I will now endeavor to forget 
my present sufferings and think of what is more agreeable to both of us. 



•• """^--"-■=1 <• 



"' ' GENEALOGY. »..Lt>Ju' 331 

last Saturday 1 leit Ned Carters ["Blenheim," Albemarlel where I had 
been happy in other good company, but particularly that of Miss Jenny 
Taliaferro and though I can view the beauties of this world with the 
most philosophical indifference, I could not but be sensible of the justice 
of the character you had given me of her. she has in my opinion a great 
resemblance of Nancy Wilton, [Ann Randolph of "Wilton"] but prettier. 
I was vastly pleased with her playing on the spinnette and singing, and 
could not help calling to mind those sublime verses of the Cumberland 
genius. 

"Oh! how I was charmed to see 
\ Orpheus' music all in thee." 
When you see Patsy Dandridge, tell 'god bless her.' I do not like the 
ups and downs of a country life; today you are frolicking with a fine girl 
and tomorrow 3'ou are moping by yourself. Thank god I I shall shortly be 
where my happiness will be less interrupted. I shall salute all the girls be- 
low in your name, particularly S — y P — r. dear Will 1 have thought of the 
cleverest plan of life that can be imagined, you exchange your land for 
Edgehill, or I mine for Fairfields, you marry S — y P — r, I marry R- — a 
B — 1 [Rebecca Burwell, his "Belinda"], join and get a pole chair and a 
pair of keen horses, practise the law in the same courts, and drive about 
to all the dances in the country together. How do you like it? well I 
am sorry you are at such a distance I cannot hear your answer, however, 
you must let me know it by the first opporttmity, and all the other news 
in the world which you imagine will affect me, I am dear Will 

Yours affectionately 

Th: Jefferson." 

"Wms.burg. March 20. 17G4. 11 o'clock at night. 
Dear Will 

As the messenger who delivered me your letter, informs me that your 
boy is to leave town tomorrow morning I will endeavor to answer it as 
circumstantially as the hour of the night, and a violent headach, with 
which 1 have been afflicted these two days, will permit. With regard 
to the scheme which I proposed to you some time since, I am sorry to 
tell you it is totally frustrated by Miss R. B's marriage with Jacrjuelin 
Ambler which the people here tell me they daily expect. I say, the 
people here tell me so, for (can you believe it?) I have been so abominably 
indolent as not to have seen her since last October, wherefore I cannot 
aflfirm that I know it from herself, though am as well satisfied that it is 
true as if she had told me. well the lord bless her I say! But S — y 
P — r is still left for you. I have given her a description of the gentleman 
who, as I told her intended to make her an offer of his hand, and asked 
whether or not he might expect it would be accepted. She would not 
determine till she saw him or his picture . Now Will, as you are a piece 
of a limner I desire that you will seat yourself immediately before your 
looking glass and draw such a picture of yourself, as you think proper. 



Jdyin ii. H'Mh'o ii M^l .u£: i^ 



law TBiQ 



• I • ' . '. J 



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332 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. '^-'^ 

and if it should be defective, blame yourself. (Mind that I mentioned 
no name to her), you say you are determined to be married as soon as 
possible, and advise me to do the same. No, thank ye; I will consider 
of it first. Many and great are the comforts of a single state, and neither 
of the reasons you urge can have any influence with an inhabitant and a 
young inhabitant too of Wms.burg. who told you that I reported you 
was courting Miss Dandridge and Misi; Dangerfield? it might be worth 
your while to ask whether they were in earnest or not so far was I from 
it that I frequently bantered Miss J — y T — o about you, and told her how 
feelingly you spoke of her. There is scarcely any thing now going on 
here. You have heard I suppose that J. Page is courting Fanny Burwell. 
W. Bland, and Betsy Yates are to be married thursday sinnight. The 
Secretary's son is expected in shortly. Willis has left town intirely so 
that your commands to him cannot be executed immediately, but those 
to the ladies I shall do myself the pleasure of delivering tomorrow night 
at the ball. Tom Randolph of Tuckahoe has a suit of Mecklenburg silk 
which he offered me for a suit of broadcloth, tell him that if they can 
be altered to fit me, I will be glad to take them on them terms, and if 
they cannot, I make no doubt but I can dispose of them here to his ad- 
vantage. Perhaps you will have room to bring them in your portman- 
teau, or can contrive them down by some other opportunity. Let him 
know this immediately. My headachs, my candle is just going out, and 
my boy asleep, so must bid you adieu. 



William Fleming to George Washington. . 
Dear Sir, 

This will be handed you by my friend Mr. William Claiborne junr. who 
is at present a judge of the superior court of the state of Tennissee, and 
w'ho aspires to the office of District judge in that state, where I spent 
several days in a late tour through the western country. Mr. Claiborne 
has much the respect and confidence of his fellow citizens in that quarter, 
among whom he has been a very successful practitioner of the law for 
several years; indeed his superior talents, great sobriety, and intense 
application to business, distinguish him from the generality of young 
gentlemen of his age; and I am persuaded, should he be so fortunate as 
to succeed in his application you will never have cause to regret the 
appointment. 

I hope sir, you will pardon the trouble I have given you on this occasion; 
and whilst the pen is yet in my hand, and you are about to retire to the 
enjoyment of domestick tranquility, permit me to express my entire 
approbation, and admiration of the wisdom, ability, and firmness with 
which you have discharged the arduous duties of the most important 
office in the United States, at a time when party prejudice, interested 
views, and (perhaps) resentment for supposed injuries combined are ever 



yni 






GENEALGOY. ' 333 

active in misrepresentations to the people, and in unremitting endeavours 
to thwart a wise and just administration of one of the best governments 
in the universe. 

With the highest veneration for your publick and private virtues, and 
most fervent prayers for your presents and future happiness, I have the 
honor to be &c — . 

Judge Fleming's portrait and that of his mother Mary (Boiling) Flem- 
ing were in the possession of Mr. Wm. Fleming Eggleston, deceased, 
Birmingham, Ala. 

William and Elizabeth (Champe) Fleming had issue: 20. Son, died 

young; 21. Lucy Champe, married Jan. 9, 1794, John Markham; 22. ; 

23. Mary Boiling was married to Beverley Chew Stanard, of Spotsy- 
lvania County on the 8th day of February 1799. She died at Summer- 
ville, Chesterfield County, on 22d day of Jan. 1812. in the 34th year of 
her age. {Family Bible). 

(To be Continued) ... . 



8£€ 



334 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



The Mastering of Mexico. Told After One of the Conquistadores and 
various of his Inteq^reters. By Kate Stephens, author of "The 
Greek Spirit," "Workfellows in Social Progression," etc. [Illus- 
trated]. New York, The Macmillan Company. 1916, pp. XI, 335. 
The descriptive printing on the "jacket" of the book does it an in- 
justice as it would be inferred that, to some extent, it was a work of fiction 
This is not the fact as it is a very readable condensed translation of the 
narrative of Bemal Diaz del Castillo, the companion of Cortez. No 
fiction is needed to enhance the thrilling interest of this account of the 
conquest of Mexico by one who was an active participant. Its statements 
are facts, yet it reads like some romance of almost incredible adventure. 
Such a book would find a large audience at any time, but it comes at a 
particularly apt moment. 

The Great Revival in the West, 1797-1805. By Catharine C. Cleve- 
land. University of Chicago Press 191G, pp. VI, 215. 

We cannot do better in treating of this valuable book than use Dr. 
Dodd's words in his introduction: "In this story of the Great Revival 
in the West, Miss Cleveland has shown clearly the religious 'destitution' 
of the frontier, the craving of men for excitement, and the effect of power- 
ful emotional appeals upon the minds of simple folk far removed from the 
main currents of contemporary civilization. The author certainly pre- 
sents in the following pages, the best, and I believe, the only scientific 
account of this important movement. The result is a distinct and posi- 
tive contribution to our knowledge of the social and moral conditions of 
primitive life in America." 

This great revival, with its strange accompanying phenomena, and its 
great effect on the spiritual condition and the morals and habits of the 
people is well worth the attention of every student of American history. 
A good bibliography adds to the value of the book. 

Nation.'VLITY in Modern History, By J. Holland Rose, L. H. D., Fellow 
of Christ's College, Cambridge [&c. &c.] New York. The Mac- 
millan Company 191G, pp. XI, 202. 
"The varied manifestations of nationality among the chief European 
nations are studied in this book. The author, one of the ablest of mod- 
ern historians, has supplied, in eft'ect, the background of the conflict in 



V/>li, .|. 






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,:, BOOK REVIEWS. 335 

Europe, contributing largely to a clearer understanding of those factors 
which made for war. Beginning with a discussion of the dawn of the 
national idea, he takes up in turn the growth of that idea in France, 
Germany, Spain, Italy and the Slavic Kingdoms, concluding with a con- 
sideration of The German Theory of the State, Nationality and Mili- 
tarism, Nationality since 1855 and Internationalism." 

A History of the National Capital from its Foundation through the 
Period of the Adoption of the Organic Act. By Wilhelmus Bo- 
gart Bryan. Vol. II, 1S15-1S78. New York, The Macmillan Com- 
pany 1916, pp. XVI, 707. 
The second volume of this valuable work maintains the high standard 

of the first. 

Richmond College Historical Papers. Vol. I, No. 2, June 1916, Vir- 
ginia Loyalists 1775-1783 and Essays on the Presidential Election 
of 1850 in Virginia, Andrew Stevenson, and the Campaign of 1855 
in Virginia and the Fall of the Know-Nothing Party with Important 
Historical Documents. Edited by D. R. Anderson, Ph. D. Head 
of the Department of History and Political Science. Published 
annually. Price SI. 00. For copies address the Editor, Richmond 
College, Va., Richmond, Va., 1910, pp. 182. 
Richmond College (and it should be added, Randolph-Macon) is doing 
a most valuable work in studying the Revolutionary and post Revolution- 
ary history of Virginia. These studies were begun not long ago and have 
already produced results of importance. In the present instalment the 
papers, as they appear, are by John A. George, M. A., a young man of 
marked talent whose death is much lamented; Margaret K. Monteteiro, 
B. A.; Eugene N. Gardner, M. A., and Constance M. Gay, B. A. It is a 
pleasant thing for believers in the higher education of women to see what 
serious and scholarly work the young ladies of Westhampton College are 
doing. At the end of the historical studies is published a collection of 
petitions and letters to the Virginia Conventions and Legislatures 1775- 
1783 asking redress for various grievances. 

As has been said all the papers are valuable; but our space will admit 
detailed notice, even brifly, of only one. Mr. George's paper on the 
Virginia Loyalists 1775-83 presents the recent view of the subject in 
opposition to that formerly held, as a mere matter of belief without 
much investigation, that they were few in number. In his carefully 
studied and very interesting paper the author certainly shows the pres- 
ence of a considerable Loyalist element; but in such things numbers are 
not all. One cannot help feeling that the large Loyalist element in Vir- 
ginia (like some other historical discoveries) is a historian's party rather 
than a real vital fact. Theoretically the Loyalists should have been 
of considerable importance — really they mattered but little. There 
were two classes of Loyalists whose position was creditable. People 



ist 



336 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

like Beverley, Corbin, Wormeley and some others had been educated at 
English universities and had so many associations with England that it 
was a bitter wrench to break the ties. Some of these men entered the 
English army; but others, like Lord Falkland in the great Civil War, saw 
so much reason on each side that it was difificult for them to support one 
or the other. The other class composed of British merchants, factors 
and clerks, were really not Virginians at all and were entirely right in 
their support of the home government. The remainder of Loyalists 
in the East were an obscure leader less mob, some of whom drifted from 
side to side as fear actuated, and others were in gangs held together by 
"cohesion of public plunder." The Tories of the West were equally 
unimportant. It is absurd to suppose that a set of illiterate and half 
barbarous mountaineers should be actuated by convictions on constitu- 
tional matters or patriotic devotion to England. Like the Union men 
in the mountains during our Civil War they were simply "agin' the gov- 
ernment" which was nearest. They disliked the taxes and the draft 
as their descendants did. 

Reviews of Dr. H. J. Eckenrode's The Revolution in Virginia, and Col. 
J. C. Wise's The Long Arm of Lee, are unavoidably postponed until the 
next number. 



$500 per Ahhum 




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^K-^ HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY-i'l^^f <? 






S^RGINIAMAGAZINE 






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, J VOL. XXIV^No. 4 







October; .1^16,,, ^7»^i 

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, .". : ." , '■ THE / ■ 

Virginia Magazine 

OP 

history and biography. 

Vol. XXIV. October, 1916. No. 4 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT 

1622-1629*. 



From the Originals in the Library of Congress. 



(Continued.) 



"All erasures in the originals are here printed in italics. 



(187.) 

John Parsons (1) swome and Examined sayeth y* Phillip 
Kytely made an agreement w'th Zacharie Cripse, Edward 
White and Mathew Hayman beinge then in [their] howse 
& beinge w'th him to have for his labor a Share and to beare 
the share of such provis'con as was brought into the howse. 

Anthony West swome and examined sayeth y* he made an 
agreement w'th Zacharie Crips, and Edward White, to have 

(1) John Parsons, who came in the Mary gold, 1619, was living at the 
Treasurers Plantation, James City, 1624-5. Philip Kithly, who came in 
the Furtherance, 1622, was living at the same place 1624-5, as were Zach- 
ary Cripps, who came in the Margaret and John, 1621, Edward White in the 
Bona Nova, 1620, Mathew Hamon in the Southampton, 1622, and Anthony 
West in the James, 1622. Planting on shares seems to have been common 
at the time. 



338 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

fyfteen hundred plants and after, he intending to goe for Eng- 
land, he quitted that agreement, and after, purposing to stave 
about planting tyme, Zacharie Crips promised to give the said 
deponent content for his labor, and so he stayede and Con- 
tynued in worke w'th him till the cropp was in. And further 
sayeth y' after Mathew Hayman was dead Phillip Kyteley did 
wish y^ divers t}Tnes/z(; had ?nore hayides to Zacharie Crips and 
Edward White would gett more handes to help for\\'ard ye 
Cropp. 

Thomas Willson (2) swome and Examined sayeth y'' Phillip 
Kyteley did often tymes wysh y' they hadd more handes to 
help him onward w'th the cropp and y' after plantinge tyme 
when Mr. Blaynies men were sick, ye said Kyteley spoke words 
to y^ effect. 

The Court doth order y' ye said Phillip Kyteley should have 
but a sixt parte of ye Cropp, another beinge dew to Zacharie 
Cripps, another to Edward White, another for Thomas Willson 
who workinge abroade uppon his trade had three d'yes work for 
two, Another for two men hired of Mr. Blayney, and a seasoned 
man putt in their roome after they died, & another for Anthony 
West. Consideringe also y^ the howse and ground belonged to 
the said Zacharye Cripps and Edward White, They havinge 
a shorte lease thereof. 



(188.) 
Nicholas Thompson (3) swome and Examined sayeth that 
one frydye the second of December about eight of the clock at 
night Zachary Cripps came to Mr Swifte beinge sent for by Mr 
Swifte, And when Zacharie Cripps came into the room where 
Mr Swifte laye, he asked Mr Swyft whether he did know him, 
and Mr Swyfte answered I know you well enuff. Then Zach- 

(2) Thomas Wilson, aged 27 in 1624-5, who came in the Abigaile, 1620, 
was one of Dr. Potts' servants in 1625. 

(3) Nicholas Thompson, who came in the George, 1621 was a servant 
of George Sandys' 1624-5. "Mr. Swift" was living at "The Plantation 
over against James City." in Feb. 1623. He was probably Ensign 
James Swift, who was with the party wrecked on the Bermudas, which 
reached Virginia in 1610. In 1620 he was with Dr. Bohun and others 
granted land in Va. on condition of the transportation of 300 people to 
the colony. Elias Long lived at West and Shirley Hundred Feb. 1623. 



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MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 339 

ary Cripps said to him Mr Swyftc you said the other d'ye y' you 
would dispose of your Tobacco and other your goodes, and to 
have it sent into England, w't is your will, and how doe you 
intend to dispose therof now. To whom M'' Swyfte said, I will 
have yourselfc and Edward White to take the charge therof 
and to send my tobacco and w't shalbe made of my other goodes 
into Englande to my Brother-in-law Robert Lee at Graves End 
for the use of his children. 

David Mansell Swome and Examined Sayeth he was sent 
by Mr Swyfte for Zachary Cripps and was in place and hearde 
Mr Swyfte saye the same words to Zachary Crij^ps as Nicholas 
Thompson hath foiTnerly saide. 

Elias Longe sworn and Examined sayeth y' he was in place 
when Mr Swyfte spake the same wordes to Zacharie Cripps and 
Nicholas Thompson and David Mansell fonnerly delivered. 

The Courte doth order Zacharie Cripps and Edwarde White 
shall have a letter of Administration wherby to Administer 
Mr Swyfte's goodes. 



(189.) 

Capt. Marten alledgeth y' he hath paid Mr Rastell three 
hundred and ff>'ftie pownde of Tobacco for w'ch he hath Mr 
Rastell's receipt And two hundred more by Capt. Epps, and 
fowr score by Mr Weston, And two hundred weight of Elizabeth 
Jones w'ch was to goe for 1501 And two hundred weight of 
Robert Thresher w'ch Capt Tucker accepted for payment. 

Thomas Weston, merchant, swome and examined sayeth y' 
IVIr Rastell desired him to make an agreement between him and 
Capt. Martin and sayeth y* he drew them to an end, and y' 
this deponent paid Mr Rastell 80 pownd of Tobacco for Capt. 
Martin, And that Mr Rastell was contented to accept of 200 li. 
of Tobacco y* Elizabeth Jones did owe to Capt. Martin, w'ch 
200 li. Mr Rastell was to have for 150 li. in regarde he stode to 
the Adventurers of the receavinge of ye same And for the rest 
of Capt. Martin's Dept Mr Rastell was Contented to take Capt. 
Martin's bond to pay him next Cropp, And y' Mr RasteU was 
after willed by order from Capt. Martin to come and see ye 
bond seald. 



340 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

George Grave (4) and Elias I^onge do undertake that Robert 
Wright shall appear before the Governor and Counsell of estate 
at James Cyttie one Mondye fortnight next after Christmas 
being the 14*'' of January to answere to the suit of Capt Wm 
Tucker. _l j 



(190.) 
William ffoster swome and Examined sayeth, that he this 
deponent demanded of Mr Nevell at Canada beinge abord the 
Swann, wherfor IVIr Comishe was hunge, unto whom Nevell 
answered he was hung for a rascally boye wrongfully, And that 
he hath heard Mr Nevell say so divers tymes. 



(191.) 
A courte held the xix*** of December 1625 being present 
S'r ffrancis Wyatt, Knight, Governor &c, Capt ffrancis West, 

Capt. Smith, Capt. Mathews, Capt Hamor, Mr Abraham 

Peersie, Mr William Cleybourne. 

Y' is ordered y' a warrant be sent for Mr Wm Bentley to 

(4) George Grave, who came in the Seaventure, his wife Elinor, who 
came in the Susan, and their son Jolin, aged ten, were living at James 
City 1624-5. Robert Wright, aged 45, who came in the Swan, 160S, and 
Jane Wright, and two children bom in Virginia, were living at Anthony 
Bonall's plantation 1624-5. So many of the early settlers of Virginia 
died intestate after a short illness, that the administrations granted in 
the Prerogative Court of Canterbury should give a good deal of informa- 
tion in regard to them. 

(5) William Bentley, aged 36, who came in the Jacob, 1624, was living 
at Farrar Flinton's plantation 1624-5. In 1626 he owned 50 acres below 
Blunt Point. On Dec. 1, 1624, he was granted, as his first dividend, 50 
acres between Newport News and Blunt Point. He is described as "a 
new planter who came over into this country at his own charges." He 
was a Burgess for Nutmeg Quarter, October 1629. "Lieutenant Giles 
Aldington of Kiccoughtan in the Corporation of Elizabeth City, gentle- 
man, an ancient planter," was granted, as his first dividend, 100 acres 
between Newport News and Blimt Point Dec. 1, 1624. He was a mem- 
ber of the Va. Company in 1620, and probably was of the family of AUiug- 
ton, of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire, in the name Giles was frequent 
in that family. The Census of 1624-5 shows that the "Muster" of Farrar 
(frequently spelt Pharaoh) Flinton at Elizabeth City, included himself 
aged 36, who came in the Elizabeth, in 1612, Joane Flinton aged 38, who 
came at the same time, Wm. Bently, and four servants. On Dec. 1, 1624, 
as "Pharaoh Flinton, gentleman, an ancient planter," he was granted 
150 acres between Newport News and Blunt Point. 



23frr^; 






MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 341 

Testifie his knowledge between Mr Allington and Mr fflinton, 
to be heere one mondye the 14"' of January now next ensewinge. 

Robert Thresher swome and examined sayeth that, Thomas 
North came over in ye shipp w'th Capt. Nuce, but that he is 
ffree this deponent knoweth nott 

Y* is ordered y*- Thomas North (6) shall serve owt his seven 
yeeres Prentishipp, And then to have his ffreedome 

Edward Baker swome and examined sayeth that he did 
wame Arthur AveHnge to be at the Courte and handed him the 
warrant, and sayeth that Mr Newman his m'r said he should 
come upp, and his m'r did read the v/arrant to him. 

Robert Saben swome and examined sayeth that one Thurs- 
dayc last was sen 'night he caled to Richard Ewens and asked 
him whether his man Arthur Avelinge should not goe upp to 
James Cyttie to the Courte, and y' said Ewens answered and 
said y'his man had no business to do there, And there deponent 
replied why he is in the warrant, and Ewans answered I have 
other business for him to Doe, he shall not goe upp, This de- 
])onent again replyed you doc mean as you saye, w'ch Ewans 
rej^lyed yes by my troth do I. 



(192.) 

Thomas Cripps [Crispe], gent., swome and Examined sayeth 
that on Thursday mominge beinge the viii"' of December 
Capt Tucker and his Sergent Richard Evans (7) were goinge 
to Newports News to serve A warrant one Mr Weston and as 
they were specking of the warrant Capt. Tucker told this de- 
ponent that he must be at James Cyttie and told Rich. Evans 
that Arthur Avelinge must be there also, and Evans made 
Answere y* he could not, unles Mr Weston would give Se- 
curitie to bringe him dowm againe 

(G) Thomas North lived at Elizabeth City Feb. 1623, 
(7) Richard Evans lived at Basses Choice Feb. 1623. His is another 
name omitted from the Census of 1G24-5. 



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342 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

John Weayne (8) swome and Examined sayeth y* one Thurs- 
dye last was sennight Capt Tucker and his Sargent Evans were 
goinge to Newports News, and beinge at this deponents howse, 
Capt. Tucker told Evans that liis man Arthur Avelinge who 
was there p'sent must be at James Cyttie at Court on Mondye 
foUowinge, And Evans replied, y' he had been abourd Mr 
Weston's shipp the d'ye before to demand securitie y' Mr West- 
on should bringe downe Arthur Avehnge againe and y' Mr 
Weston refused to give securitie and therefore he should not 
goe upp. To w'ch Capt Tucker replied, that is no matter he 
must goe upp, And charged ye said Arthur to goe upp. 

Robert Saben sworn and Examined sayeth y* that Mr Weston 
and Robert Newman were at this deponent's house, And Mr 
Weston demanded of Mr Newman w't comodities he would 
bringe from Canada, Mr Newman replied y* the choicest things 
that he wotdd bringe should be two or three servants & asked 
Mr Weston w't he must give for the transportinge 8 men from 
Canada, Mr Weston said y* the said Newman must provide 
the men him selfe and give xx li, for ye transport of 8 men and 
find them provisions. 



: (193.) 

Thomas Cryspe, gent., by the oath he hath formerly taken, 
sayeth y* Mr Newman demanded of Mr Weston at Canada 
for to bringe A servant man to Virginia. Mr Weston replied, 
he wolde bringe, none yf he wolde give him a hundred pounds 
Mr Newman asked him why, And Mr Weston replied y' New- 
man's mate was not able to keepe them but would star\'e them. 
And ye said Mr Weston further said y' servants were sold theere 
upp & downe like horses and therefore he held it not law^ull to 
carie any 

George Menefie, merchant, swome and examined sayeth 
y* Mr Pountis at his departure for E ngland, appoynted this 

(8) The Muster of John Waine at Elizabeth City 1624-5 included 
himself, aged 30, who came in the Neptune, 1618, Amity e Waine, aged 30, 
who came in the Swan, 1610, George Ackland, aged 7, and .Mary Ackland, 
aged 4, born in Va. (probably her children by a former marriage] and 
three other persons. 



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MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 343 

deponent and Mr Blaynie to sattisfie Mr Sandys about a dept 
w'ch Mr Pountis was indepted for Southamj^ton Hundred, and 
y'' A dept of 322 li. Tobacco dew to Mr Langley was rebated to 
Mr Sandys. 

Capt. Raphe Hamor, Esquire, Counsellor of State, affirmeth 
y'' when it was ordered in Court y' Mr Pountis should pay Mr 
David Sandys 2000 weight of Tobacco for Southampton hund- 
red, That then Mr Pountis alleged y^ Mr Sandys did owe to Mr 
Pountis b}^ a debt of Mr Langley's to whom he was executor 
300 weight or therabouts of Tobacco w'ch Tobacco Mr Sandys 
did accept of as p'te of y' 2000 weight of Tobacco w'ch Mr 
Pountis should have paide him, and at ye same tyme Mr Sandys 
demanded a xxii s. peice [?] for a sermon at ye buriall of Mr 
Langley (9), And Mr Pountis answered he would allow him 
such Tobacco as should valewe ye peece, but Mr Sandys wold 
not accept therof but wold have a peece of xxii s. 



(194.) 

Edward Barker swome and examined Sayeth that ye Swan 
was maide at Dambrells Cove in Canada, where she laye safe 
and owt of danger. And after beinge left in charge w'th Mr 
Nevell he removed her awaye to A stage head where she hung 
and tooke hurte and w'thin 2 or 3 d'yes after she became leaky. 

Robert Newman swome and examined Testified in open 
Court y' the Certificate under the m'rs handes & his owne 
WTitten at Canada is A trew Certificate. 

It is ordered y' Mr Weston shall pay to Mr Crispe for the 
damage of his Tobacco five hundred and three score pounds 
weight of good merchantable Tobacco, And Mr Crispe not to 
pay for his Transporte from Canada to Virginia. 

Y' is ordered y' Mr Weston shall pay to Mr Crispe w'thin 

these fowerteene d'yes xxx li. in money. And fowerteen pound 

of good sweete and holesome English byskett or els to deliver 

the green ginger to Mr Crispe and xxx li. in money. 

(.9) "Mr. Langley out of the Margarett and John," died between Apri 1 
1622 and Feb. 1623. 



(.m.) 



344 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Nicholas Roe sworn and Examined saycth y* when Mr Nevell 
did move the shipp shee lay agrounde at A low water. 

Y' is ordered y' Mr Nevell shall pay the one half of the 
damages done to Mr Crispc, Vizt; three hundred and thirtie 
pounde weight of Tobacco., W'ch Tobacco shalbe paid by 
Mr Weston and Mr Nevell by the xx^'' d'ye of January at James 
Cittie, And Mr Weston to can-ye it to Kickotan gratis for Mr 
Crispe. 

^:r- -;V.. • ; (195.) 

Y' is ordered y* Nicholas Roe shall quietly enioye Those two 
men he now hath for his wages and the Business & Covenant 
granted [?] between Mr Weston and him. 
° Y' is ordered y* Mr Weston shall satisfie Robert Thresher 
for Accordinge to the former order of the vi'*^ d'ye of January 
next ensuing. 

Thomas Crispe, gent., by the oath he hath formerly taken 
afhrmeth y' Jefferey Cornishe did say y' Edward Nevell should 
tell him y* his brother suffered death wrongfully, and the said 
Thomas Crispe wyshed the said JeiTery Cornishe to take hcede 
w't he saide for sure the Governor would do no wronge or in- 
iustice to any man, for y' he shalbe anserable for w't he doth. 
Thei-uppon the said Jcffcry Coniishe did vow y' he would be 
the death of the Governor yf ever he came for England. 

Y' is ordered y' a warrant be sent for Richard Evans and 
Arthvir Avelinge to appeare here at James Cyttie one mondye 
next come sennight. 



(196.) 
Whcras the" Company under their scale did grante assign and 
sett over unto the Governor the whole term of yeers w'ch xx 
Tenants and xii boys, were by theire severall Covenants to 
serve, and in and by the saide Comistione it may Appear, Vv-'ch 
grant & Assignment was after confirmed under the handes of 
the Lordcs of his Maties most hon'all prince Cornwcll, The 
Courtc doth Conceave it to be righte .^ equilic that the Gov- 
ernor should enioy the said grant & assignment According to 



(Ml) 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 345 

the trew intent & meaning therof, And dyspose of the said 
Tenants and boys to his best advantage & benefitt. 

Uppon the request of Capt. Samuell Mathewes ye Counsel 
hath assented he shall have leave to take upp his Divident of 
lande at Blunt poynt when he is already seated. 

Lawrence Poole swome and examined the xxx^^ d'ye of 
December 1625 by the Right worp'll S'r ffrancis Wyatt, Knight, 
Governor &c, sayeth y' about August last past was three ycere 
Robert Leyter Cominge downe from James Cyttie, This de- 
ponent hard the said Leyter saye y' Capt. Tucker had given him 
very harsh wordes w'ch grie\^ed him very much and said y* he 
would be revenged of Capt. Tucker yf he lived. 



(197.) 

A courte held the third day of January 1G25, being present 
S'r ffrancis Wyatt, Knight, Governor &c, Ciipt. ffrancis West, 
Capt. Roger Smith, Capt. Raphe Hamor, Mr Abraham Peirsie, 
Mr Wm Cley bourne. 

Clement Dilke (10), gent., swome and examined sayeth, that 
uppon the weighing over of my La. Yeardley's Tobacco at 
Hog Islande he founde the Tobacco to be Cx)ntrary to my lady's 
Com 'and and directions given to Maximilian Stone (11) for y' 
it was mixed the most p'te w'th ill condicioned leaves, soe y* as 
this deponent conceaves she had been better to have lost four 
or five hundred weight of Tobacco, for it was so mixed ye good 
and bad together, And said this deponent Thinkelh y' she had 
Transix>rLed the said Tobacco for England soe condicioned it 
would have been a \^ery great loss and preiudice to her in the 
sale therof and further sayeth y'' uppon the weighinge and re- 
ceaving the Tobacco w''='' Mr William Peirce understood 
that this deponent meant to inform m}' La. of the truth in w't 
Condicion he found it the said Stone desired this deponent to 
make the best of it t o my La. to whom this deponent did answere, 

(10) Clement Dilke and Mrs. Dilke were living at James City Feb. 
1623, but are omitted in the Census of 1024-5. vSee note on him th.^' 
Magazine I, 443. 

(11) In 1624-5, Maxmilian Stone, aged 30, whocame in the Temperance, 
1620, appears at the head of the list of "Sir George Yeardly's men" at 
Hog Island. Elizabelli his wife, who eame in the same ship, and Max- 
imilian his son, aged 9 months, are also in the list. 



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346 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ,j,j ; 

y' he would neither make it better or worse, but would inform 
her trewly how he found it. 

Lieut. Peppet (12) swonie & examined affirmeth as much as 
Mr Delke hath said, save in the late clause y' Maximilian 
Stone requested Mr Delke to make the best of itt to my La. 
w'ch he heard nott. 



' ' ■ (198.) 

Y' is ordered y' Maximilian Stone shall loose the hundred 
and fyfteen pound of Tobacco dew to him by his Covenants 

• and shall serve my La. Yardley as her sen'ant untill the last 
d'ye of ffebniary now next ensewinge. 

''' Mrs. Isabel Perry swome and examined sayeth that Mr 

' ' Robert Langley having been longe sick in her howse and think- 
inge himself somewhat recovered, intended to goe downe to 
Kickotan, but went no further than Hog Island, and cominge 
back againe found himself very sicke and came to this deix)nent's 

*> ■ howse where he found himself very sick, And told this deponent 
that he did exjject to make Mr Pountis and this deponent's hus- 
band overseers of his estate, but said he Avould do nothinge till 
his fitt was past, and in that fitt he dyed, makinge no other 
order in his concerns, And this deponent was by him from that 
tyme to the tj^me of his death. 

Wheras Mr Robert Tokeles [f] by his letter of attorney as 
Administrator to Mr Robert Langley, hath given Authoritie 
to Mr Abraham Pearsie to Receive [ ?] upp all such depts as are 
dew to the said Robert Langley in this Country of Virginia, 
But the said Robert Tokeles hath not sent over any testimony 
or proff to this Country that letters of Administration of ye 
said Robert Langley 's goodes were granted to him in England, 
The Courte doth require the said Robert Tokeley to send over 

(12) Gilbert Peppelt lived at Flowerdew Hundred Feb. 1G23, and 
owned 50 acres at Blunt Point in 1G2(3. On Aug. 18, 1627, he was granted 
250 acres on the south side of Warnock River, 50 acres of which was in 
right of his wife Alice who came in the Jonathan, in 1020 "for whose pas- 
sage Sir George Yeardley is satisfied," and 50 for Richard Evans (see 
above) who came from Newfoundland in the Temperance in 1G19. Pep- 
pett was a member of the convention held in 1G25. He does not ap- 
pear in the Census. 



her 



MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 347 

Testimony therof, And in the mean tyme do order that the 
deptors of the said Robert Langley do putt in Sufficient se- 
curitie to Mr Abrahan:i Persie for ye sattisfaction of those depts 
to the right Administrator of the said Robert Langley ^^•hen 
sufficient proof shalbc brought into the Courte. 



(197.) 

Wheras Mattahias Fenton (13) died intestate and his goodes 
being praysed Amounted to five score pownde of Tobacco, And 
there beinge two billes of dept p'duced in Cotirte, the one for 
265 pound of Tobacco and the other for fortie two pound e of 
Tobacco, y' is ordered y' Mr Emersone shall pay to Mr Steph- 
ens [?] 60 li., And to Capt. West 20 li. And that there havinge 
been noe other bills of dept produced in Court and no more of 
Mr ffienton's left to pay any depts y'' Mr Emersone shall nor 
any other shalbe further troubled for any of his depts in re- 
spect of his goods left behinde him, but be sattisfied as they 
may by his freendes in England. 

William Carter swome and examined sayeth that he did 
hold the breech of the Peece ^^'hilst John Jeffersone (14) did 
cutt it and lenthen it, and further sayeth that John Jefferson 
did carry the peece so mended home to Ca])t. vSmith's howse. 

Rychard Allforde swome and examined sayeth that John 
Jeffersone him selfe did bringe the peece home to Capt Smith's 
howse, y' did hurte Henry Booth, and deliver ye peece to ye 
hands of this de]3onent (see Johnson's oath). 

Y' is ordered y* John Jefferson shall pay Doctor Pott for the 
cominge of Henry Booth's Eye, And to give the said Henry 
Booth sixteen pound weight of good merchantable Tobacco 
towards his mayne't, The Court doth ye rather mittigate ye 
Crime because ye strive [?j in ye peece in the barrel was faultie, 
and him self being a poore man and A Tenant to the Company 

(13) Probably the "Mr. Fenton, minister," who was buried at Eliza- 
beth City, Sept. 5, 1624. 

(14) Whether John Jefferson, the blacksmith, left descendants is not 
known. The other John Jefferson, London merchant, was probably not 
at this time in the colony. 



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348 . VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ' ;.; ; ^ 

[200.] 

Y4s ordered y » the Prentises sent over at the Cytties( 15) charges 
shall Accordmge to the condicions sent over by the Company 
(Vidlt) for the Tearme of seaven years or more so as theire 
apprentishipp may expier at their severall ages of xxi yeares or 
uppwards, And after their app'tship is passed, To serve seven 
yeares more as Tenants for halfes, The Company furnishing 
them w'th such things as their Agreement w'th the Cyttie was 
Richard Evans swome and examined sayeth y^ he did wame 
Wm. Geney the xxvi^*^ of December 1621 [5?] eyther to agree 
w'th Capt. Tucker for a Dept dew to Mr Rastell, or else to 
appear at James Cyttie the next Courte D'ye Following, to w'ch 
Mr Geney made this deponent Answere y' he would eyther 
agree w'th Capt Tucker or-els appear at James Cyttie accord- 
inge to the d'ye of waminge. 

Y* is ordered y' a Spec3\ill warrant be sent for Wm Geney 
to Appeare at James Cyttie one mondy cum fortnight beinge 
ye xxiii*'^ d'ye of January there to answere his contempt, as to 
answer to Capt Tucker's suite 

Y^ is ordered y* yf Mr Humphrey Rastell come nott in by the 
last of this month, to deliver Capt Bass a boye that this Capt 
Tucker shall pay to Capt Bass or his assigne five hundred jx^wnd 
weight of good merchantable Tobacco owt of Mr Rastell's 
goods yf Capt Tucker ca n recove r upp so much depts. 

[20L] 
Capt Tucker sworne and examined sayeth that Mr Rastell 
did acknowledge to owe to Capt Bass Fyfteen bushells of Come 
or therabouts, ye w'ch ye said Rastell prayed tliis Deponent 
to p'cure for Capt. Bass either in Come or other P'viz'one. 

Y^ is ordered y* in regarde of the loss and hindrance Capt. 
Bass sustayned by want of his Come, That IMr Rastell or Capt. 
Tucker for him of his goodes shall pay Capt. Bass one hundred 
and twelve pownd of ye best merchantable Tobacco. 

Y* is ordered y^ Capt Tucker shall pay Thomas Jones for the 
dept of Mr Rastell one hundred and f >-ftie pounds weight of the 
best merchantable Tobacco, or furnish such good Com'odities 

as it shall come unto. ^ ^ 

^15) On UecT 28, 1619, the Common Council of London agreed in 
response to a petition of the Virginia Company, to send 100 more children 
to Virginia. 



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MINUTES OP THE COUNCIL AND GENERAL COURT. 



349 



Anthony BuiTows,(lG)gent, swome and examined Sayeth that 
when Capt. Tucker came aboarde the Fleeinge harte he found 
John Geney aboarde the shipp Contrary to the Governor's 
express com'ands And Capt Tucker Chided him for his soe 
doinge, And Tucker sentenced [?] servant [r] to by neck and 
heeles for his offence, And when Capt. Tucker was gone the 
said Geney said that Capt. Tucker would be the death of him 
as he was of Robert Leyster. 

George Thompson swome and examined sayeth, That he 

heard John Gqney say that Capt Tucker by some woordes he 

used was the death of Robt Leyster and that the said Glyney 

said he would certifie it before the Governor & Counsell. 

(16) At the Census of 1624-5, Anthony Burrows, aged 44, who came 
in the George, in 1617, lived at Elizabeth City. He owned land near 
Blunt Point in 162S. The ship referred to, the Flying Hart, of Flushing, 
made frequent voyages to Virginia. 



(To be continued) 



350 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



LETTERS OF WILLIAM BYRD, FIRST. 

(From his letter book in the Collection of the Virginia Historical 

Society) 



'"'_ . '■ ' " (Continued) ' '" ' '■'•'• 

'; " ■ To Mr. Gower. 

. . Virg'a. March y^ 3PM685 

S^ ■..'.-•. ^:., 

Yours of the 8"' of August last come Safe to my Hands, 
though y'' poor Gen* that was to bring itt, dyed att Sea the 
10^'' of Sb"" much lamented by all his friends, y'^ Old Gentle- 
woman Seemed mighty disconsolate Some short time, however 
was marry 'd again abt y'' latter End of Jan'ry & is now mighty 
earnest to gett all y'^ Estate injto Ijer hands, & I daily expc<;t a 
Writt against Cap* Randolph & my Selfe (Ex" here) for her 
bond of 1900 1. w^'' I fear will in a manner carry away all the 
Estate here. 

I am Sorry I could recieve but one letter from you this year, 
but hope to hear oftner hereafter. I retume you hearty thanks 
for your token, w*'' w^*' wee remembred all your Good healths 
& shall Suddenly Send you Some Small retume. My wife & 
Girls are well, & y*^ biggest (Ursula (1) ) comes herewith. My 
wife Salutes you, Pray give my Sei-vice to all where its due, & 
accept the Same most heartily from ' ' ' ' 

Yo"" oblidged friend & Servant 

Wm. Byrd 

Pray Send mee Some Savoy 

Cabbage Seed • ... 

To m' Gower ^ Culpeper 

(1) Ursula Byrd, known in her family (doubtless from her complec- 
tion) as "Little Nutty" was bom about 1681. She returned to Virginia, 
married Robert Beverley, the historian, and died before she was seven- 
teen, leaving one child, William Beverley, afterwards of "Blandfield." 
Her tomb with Byrd and Beverley arms impaled, was formerly at James- 
town. See this Magazine XII, 317, for copy of epitaph, and a drawing 
of part of the tomb containing the arms. 



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Letters of William Byrd. First, ,»■• 351 

To 

Virg'a. March y*^ 29"' 1685. 
Gen' 

This Serves to accompany Cap* Bradly with Sixty one H'*^ 
of Tobacco & 6 of Skins, w'*' I hope will come Safe to hand. 
Since my last, I reC' your acco* via Maryland, truely I belie\'e 
y^ Wm & Mary a very hard pen>'worth, I wish shee gets well 
home, for shee is a very dull Sailer by all report. I am Sorry 
the losse of Sugars keeps mee So far behind hand, & Hall comeing 
in So late, y" Tob'o was generally bought up, before his arriveall, 
that I fear I shall make a bad x x [illegible] of it this year, hope 
shall Send enough to clear all [illegible] I have sent for. I have 
rec'd great complaints of m}'- DufTeilds, the colour is too light, 
a Darker blew pleases better plentifuUy Supplyed & if I 
have not as good [illegible] not expect to Sell them to any Ad- 
vantage, [illegible] oiler'* for Tob'o next year, & y<^ planter 
(if [illegible]) a great Crop, & hath prepared accordingly. 
Paggens concern [illegible] certain intelligence of a negro ship 
w'^^ will be here by [illegible] of May, if no extrorardinary acci- 
dent inten'cne, they offer for the trade. I believe To- 
bacco may doc well another year, but am Sure, they that are not 
early Supplyed here, can expect little, & I am halfe out of heart 
with Hall, to expect liim a first ship, unlesse he comes out a 
month or two before any other. M"" Brain (who hath marry 'd 
M'^ Grendon) pretends great matters though I cannot conceive 
w*^ incouragement they have found this year, comeing into the 
Country in Sep^ w*"^ 30 Servants & 1000 or 12001. worth of Goods, 
& could not (notwithstanding they tooke 100 H'*'' fraight) dis- 
patch a Small ship of ab* 350 or 360 H'*^ If your designe by 
barbados fails, wee shall bee fouly disappointed for without 
Sen^ants or slaves, no great crop is now to bee purchased, by 
Cap* Morgan (w^ho designs to Saile with or before this) I shall 
Send my Invoice, & by him write whats farther necessary. I 
hope to hear from you by all oppertunitys, & shall not trouble 
you farther at present but with my best respects & Service take 
leave 

Gen* 
I have charged a bill of Ex^'* on yo Yo'' reall iv^ 8c Serv* 
to Cap* Bradly for 8 1 10s St'g w<='' W B 

please to pay accordingly 



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352 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL xMAGAZINE. 

To Mr North 

, ..•,,:,.. I . , ,, . y-j-g..^ March y^ 29'^ 1685. 

M}' last to 3'-ou by Hall, by whom I sent an Invoice for my 
Indian trade, w'^'' I hope may come in timely to Satisfaction 
this onely Ser\^es to Salute you & our friends l^y Bradly I shall 
. . write more largely by Ruds who Sails w*-'' or before this, by 

,' whom have Sent you ab* 89 H^' Tob'o & Six of furres, as allso 

my Invoice for English Goods; I had no occasion for those Guns 
m'' Dyose Sent mee, they now ly by & I have writ him word that 
if hee will take (P') cost for them (w;'' is 51. 15s) I would desire 
you to pay him, otherwise shall deliver them to his Order. Yo'' 
DufTeilds much complain 'd of both y'' goodnesse & color a 
darker blew pleases the Indians best. Cap*' Bradly tells mee 
hee expects his ship will bee Sold when hee comes home, & y' 
"X hee may buy her & Sett her out to Sea under 10001. St'g. If 

So I promised him if you would come in (& mony will hold out) 
to hold T8, Cap*^ Randolph & Some others here have promised 
the like; I looke on him to bee an industrious & succesfull man 
& imagine it can bee no hard bargain if (as hee Saith) y^ ship 
bee well found ; Pray remember mee to all our friends & accept 
of mine & my wives best respects & Service to yo'"selfe & Lady 
from '■'!.' 

' S^ 

Yo' friend & Serv* 

W B , . , . 
Yo'' blew plains were y best onely Something too dear 
To m' North ^ Bradly 



^ . To Charles Dyose 

Virginia Aprill y^ P* 1685. 
S' '■■ ■'•■■, 

Yo" by Cap* Bradly came to my Hands w*'' Eight Guns (as 
I suppose) in a Case not yett open'd, I have at this time about 



'3 



Letters op William Bvrd, First. 353 

100 of my owne, & cannot expect to Sell them this year, I have 
offcr'd y'm to m^ Harrison on your Acco« but hce told mee hee 
had no occasion for y'm nor an}' Order ab^ them, the Countr>' 
at this time is much over Stocked with tradeing Goods, of all 
Sorts. I am Sorry I could not Sen'e 3'Ou in this; if you will take 
y' V cost (w:'' is 5. 15) for y'm, I will write to m^ North to pay 
it you, othenvise order whom you please to receive them, & they 
shall bee deliver^^; My best respects & Service to your selfe ^' 
Lady from 

Yo"" friend & Serv^ 
To m' Charls Dyose \y b 



To 



, 'j'^^ 



Virg'a P'o Aprill IttS5 



I wrote to you 2 days Since p^ Bradly who is not yet gone, 
this will (I hope) come Safe to your Hands, by Cap^ Ruddes 
w"' 8 H'l' of Tob'o & 6 of furres & skins. I have now allso 
Sent my Invoice for English Goods, & I fear drawne it a little 
too largely, but if mony will not hold out you may abate Some- 
things for I doe not care to bee in debt. Pray Send my Goods 
in a first Ship but not where m" Perry & Lane ship my other 
Cargo. If the Booth will take them Send by her. My Little 
Daughter Ursula comes in the Culpeper pray if shee wants 
anytliing lett her bee Supplyed. I shall not doubt yo^ kindnesse. 
I suppose my father Horsmonden (2) will take care for her w'n 
hee hears of her Arriveall. Cap* Rudds is now with mee & 
tells mee hee hath but 83 h^^ of Tobacco on board, though there 
?^_ 84 mention^ in my Invoice, (his men as hee Saith) haveing 
• ^"? ''Father Horsmanden,'"' was'Warham HorTsmandcn, who h^^em- 
igrated to Virginia during the Civil Wars an.l had been a member of the 
House of Burgesses and Council. He returned to England at the Restora- 
tion and lived first at Lenham, Kent., and later at Purleigh, Essex where 
he was patron of the rectory. He was son of Rev. Daniel Horsmanden, 
Rector of Llcombe, Kent and his wife Ur.sula, daughter of Sir Warham 
St I^eger. of Ulcombe He d>cd in 1691. aged 04. His son Daniel (the 
,Sn t""' ^''"''''^ °^ ^}'^ ^y""^ letters), M. A. Magdalen Hall, Oxford 
1070, became rector of Purleigh 16S0. See this Magazine XV 314-317' 






[i 7 






,T.'t>I 



13 




a 



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354 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. '*" 

left one behind. However hee promiseth if the H*^" bee foun : 
on board, itt shall bee deliver'^ you. I guesse it may bee No 
299 but am not certain; I shall not trouble you faither att 
present, but vvdth best respects & Service to yC selfe, Lady & 
all our friends, take leave 

S^ 
Yo' friend & Servant 
• Wm B 

To M p Ruds ^ 



•' . , To 

Virg'a Aprill the first 1685. 
Gen« . ^ " 

I wrote to you 2 days Since p'' Cap^ Bradly, w"'' I hope w*^ 
w' Goods I sent will come Safe to Hand, as allso this p the 
Culpeper w"" the Tobacco & fun'es as p bill of Ladeing & invoice 
inclosed, allso a little daughter of mine (w"' her maid) who is 
designed to my father Horsmonden in Essex. I hope you'l 
please to bee kind to y° Child, & assist her on her way. In- 
closed is my invoice for Goods which I hope may come in timely. 
Cap' Morgan is now with m.ce & tells mee hee cannot give mee 
bills, yett not knowing whether all is on board or not I suppose 
there is no mistake, & if I have not opertunity m*" P' Perry 
will Send you a bill of Ladeing. If you could help mee to a 
likely Youth that might bee tmsty, & was capable of buisinesse, 
it would doe mee a Kindnesse, hee should bee put to no hard 
worke, his chief buisinesse would bee in the Store, the boy I 
have now is allmost free & I cannot bee without one. I hope 
you will bee carefuU in my Indian Tioicke y'' nothing bee want- 
ing, but Buffeilds, Cottons & plains to bee good in their kinds 
& of a Darker blew then formerly, there is on board this ship 
5 H''* of Tob'o (as p inclosed invoice) ship'' by order of m' P' 
Perry for a Servant boy (belonging to y'= Wm & Mary) Sold to 
John Willson. By Cap* Tibbets you shall hear farther My 
best respects & Service to all where Due & please to accept 
the Same your selves from 

Gen' • ■■■ ' • ' 

Yo' reall frd & Serv' 
W B 



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Letters of William Byrd, First. 355 

My humble Service to my Lady Berkeley (3) if not come away. 
If my Datitrhter wants an^ahing lett her bee Supplyed. 



To 

Virg'a Ap'll y^ 1"' 1685 ,. 
Dear S^ 

I am Sorry I was So imhappy as to receive but one letter from 

you this year & that gave mee an ace* you were indisposed, & 
truely I should liave fear'' youj- liealth, had not m'' North, often 
writt mee word all our friends were Well of w'm you Ime Sure 
ever deservedly hath y first place in ray thoughts, & truely if 
kindnesse to any one in a Suj^erlative degree bee a demonstra- 
tion of friendship, I have ever found it from you beyond ex- 
pression, Vv'''*' I shall never bee able Sufficiently to acknowledge. 
I am Son-y our poor friend that should have brought yo"" letf 
dyed att Sea, So vintimely before hee had past y° meridian of his 
age, the good old wom : (that shee might loose no time) marry^ 
again in Jan'ry to a Stranger, wee lately dranke your token 
att Cap* Randolphs amongst a great deale of good company 
& retunie our hearty thanlcs for the Sa,me. We dranke all yo'' 
Good healths & designe you shall hear farther from us Suddenly. 
I have a little daughter comes home in this ship & have no 
reason in the least to Suspect yo'' kindnesse to her, nor Assistance 
one her way into Essex. Pray present Cap* Morgan w'^ a 
p* of plate ab* 6 or 1.7 price. My best respects & Service to all 
where due, & in a more p'ticular manner to yo'' selfe & Lady 
from 

^ ,,. D' S^ 

Yo^ Oblidged fr^^ & Serv* ;-.,.., 
^ Vf B 

(3) "My Lady Berkeley," widow of Sir William. It is probable that 
not long after her return to Virginia she married Col. Pliillipp Ludweli, 
of "Rich Neck." She was a Kentish Culpeper (a first cousin, it seems 
to Governor Lord Culpeper) and was probably related to Byrd's wife. 
On Oct. 5, 1G80, Lord Culpeper wrote to his sister in England "My Lady 
Berkeley is married to Mr. LudwcU and thinkes no more of our world." 
.^fter the English fashion she retained her higher title, and at Jamestown 
a fragment of stone with the letters "Frances, La." is all that rt-malns 
of her tomb 



ids 



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356 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

To Daniel Horsmonden 

Virginia June y'^ 5*'' 1685 
Dear Bro. 

Least you should have just occasion to blame mee, for not 
giveing you an acco' of our Condition here, I send this to ac- 
quaint you of our wellfare, though allmost x x x x ab'' 5 weeks 
Since, by a mighty fiood w"'' came v/'*" great Violence do\N'ne 
the river & raised it upward of 20 foot above y*" common, & 
hath done mee & my neighbo" much damage. My wife is fair 
for another little one; little Molly is well, & I hope little Nutty 
by this is well with you. Cap* Randolph, m'^ Banister in 
health & give you their best respects &: Sei^vice. Pray give 
mine to all our friends & my blessing to my Child'n and accept 
of my most unstained love & Service yo*" selfe from 

Yo'' loveing bro & Serv' 
W B 
To Bro. Dan'll 



To 



Virg'a June 6*^ 1685 
Gen* 

Since my last I reC' one from you via Barbados, w^ keeps us 
still in hopes of the Pinke, you fonncrly menconed : & wee now 
daily expect if it should faile twould bee an unhappy dis-appoint- 
ment haveing neglected all other ways of Supplying our Selves 
w*^ those commodityes. the 26 Sz 27"" of Ap'U last here a 
mighty fresh came downe this river, itt rise ab' 3 foot higher 
then ever any knowne before, cany'd away all our fences, de- 
stroy'd all our Tob'o plants, w**' much more mischief. Since 
which hath been such a drought, that I feel wee (hereabouts) 
shall Scarce make any Come or Tob'o either: I hope what 
Goods Sent you by Hall, Bradly Sc Culpeper got Safe, this by 
Cap' Tibbet w"' x x x x H*^^ of Tob'o & five of fuiTes I hope will 
doe the like. Should have been glad by my last to have had 
our Acco' of y*^ market of furres & as well as others, but its 
possible was forgotten: Pray Send some better paper p next, 



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Letters of William Byrd, First. 357 

for this is not fitt for vvriteing as you ma}' easily perceive. I 
have Sent iDy Cap' Tibl^et a patteme of a Saw for a Saw mill 
& would desire you to Send mee a do of Saws according to that 
paterae, onely would have them G inches Longer, the Bever Sent 
herewith (I thinkc) is generally good though a great part of it 
hath been Wctt w'^'^' makes it show rough, yett being well dryed 
I conceive its nere the worse, w' y'' Tob'o is I know not but 
Col'o Powell promised it should bee as good as their parts did 
afford. I shall not trouble you farther at psent, but w^'' re- 
s])( cts & Service take Leave 

Gen< 

Yo^ fr^ & Serv' 

W B 



To Rand(4) ' 

Virg'a June 8"' 1685 
Dear S' 

I wrote to you last by the Culpeper by whom I sent my little 
daughter Nutty & hope ere this is Safely arrived, my wile is 
fair for another, because shec will not bee behind her Sister; 
ab' the latter end of Aprill here hapen'd the greatest flood was 
ever knowne, ore floweing all our Lands came into my dwelling 
house (5), & did us infinite mischief, should bee glad to hear 



(4) This "Brother" Rand, appears to have married a Horsmanden, a 
sister of Mrs. Byrd. This conjecture is confirmed by some entries 
in a Purleigh register. Susanna, daughter of Daniel Horsmanden had 
in 1G91 for one of her godfathers "Nordest Rand Esq.," while in 1692, 
line of the sponsors for Ursula, another daughter, was "Mrs. Ursula Rand, 
her aunt." 

(5) Byrd's dwelling house into which the Hood came could not, of 
course, have been on the present Belvidere Street or anywhere else on Ore- 
gon Hill in Richmond. The residence on this height must have been built 
later. Probably this freshet induced the removal to the hill. This 
reference seems to render it very, unlikely that William Byrd, the founder 
of Richmond, who was bom in 1674, had as his birthplace either of the 
known sites on the hill. It is more probable that he was bom at this 
house accessible to the water, near the river bank. Thomas Stegg from 
whom the elder Byrd inherited much land near the Falls of James River 
had a stone house in the low grounds on the south side of the river oppo- 
site the present Chesapeake Sc Ohio wharves. This may have been 
Bvrd's residence in UiSO. 



T 



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358 VIRGINIA Historical magazine. 

oftner from you, how all our friends doe, & what news, of w^'' 
you have often the Speediest way of Sending the ships Some- 
times lyeing long att Deale. All friends here in he^ilth & p.ivo 
you their Service. Pray give mine v/here due; especially to 
Sister Betty, Dudly, m"" Knowlcs, & most unfeigned to yo"^ 
selfe & Lady from 

Dear S' 
Yo"" affectionate Bro. & Sei'v' 
W B 
To Bro. Rand 



To Mr Gower 

Virg'a June 8'"^ 1685 , 
S-^ 

I wrote to you formeily by the Culpepcr & gave you then an 
acco* of the losse of our good friend Coz Grendon, I hope his 
Estate in England will Satisfy his ingagements there for here 
will not bee any thing to bee had, the old Gentlev/o. ha\'cing a 
very firme bond for 1900 1. St'g. w"^^'^ Vv'ill talce preheminence Sc 
Sweep av;ay all the Virg'a Estate, I wish wee could have served 
our friends that way. Wee dranke your health memly \v''' 
yo"" token, & by Col'o Hill have Sent a retume. Yo"" Bro.^o) 
& all y° friends here in health, onely allm^ost drowned lately 
by a mighty flood w'^^ raised our river upward of 20 foot above 
an Ordinary tide. Pray give my best respects to all our friends 
at Edmonton, & where else you know its due, & accept the Same 
yo"" selfe, w^'' hearty thanlcs for all yo"" favo"^^ from 

Yo"^ reall fr*^ & Servant 
W B 
To m'' Gower 



,. To P 

, Virg'a Nob^y^S^^' 1685 
Gen* 

This Serves oncly to cover the iriclosed bill of Ladeing & In- 
voice, hope to have time to inlarge, if I can gett a convcniency 
to Send m.v letters downe 

Yo' fr-i & Serv* 
To P p Wy ii W B ^_ 

(G) "Your brother" was Alel Cower ol Henrico County, in regard 
to whom see this magazine XVII, 400, 401. The person addressed was 
Thomas Cower, of Edmonton, England. 



'T VC! 



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Letteks op William Byrd, First. 359 

To Mr North ' . ' ' ' 

Virg'a Nob^ y« S'^ 1685 ■ 
S' 

This Serves onely to cover the inclosed Invoice & bill of 
Ladeing for 20 I-P' of Tobacco, this ship saileing sooner then 
expected have not time to adde any thing but respects to all 
our friends from 

Yo' fr'* & Serv' - ' 

W B ■ 

To m' North p y«= Booth 



To 

Virg'a Xb^ y'' 8"' 1685 
Gen* 

Its about three weeks since I wrote to you by Wynne who 
(I hope) is, by this prety well on his Voyage. Last weeke I 
hear the Booth Sail*^, I had not notice thereof So could n 
write. I hope this p Hall will not bee long after, herewith I 
have Sent 36 h^^ Tob'o & foiu' of furs & Skins, w'^'' Cap' Hall 
would not let mee put on board w^^ out leaving 4 H^^ of Tob'o 
of y® 80 hce promised mee though hee could fetch Tob'o from 
m'' Cainfields. Its possible hee may bee glad of them another 
year. Yo"" Goods sent p him I hope prove well, I hear few com- 
plaints as yet, for Indian Goods none as yet Sold. Hereafter 
shall give you Acco^ how they prove. I wonder you should 
Send mee 2 Close stools (w'^'' to mee or any else I tliinke are 
uselesse) without pans. I suppose they might bee forgo It, as 
allso womens Stockings of w^** I rec'^ one doz. though had none 
charged mee. I want one Reame of paper 2 being charged but 
1 come to Hand, these I thinke are the most materiall Errors, 
if I find more shall hereafter acquaint you with them. Hope 
Tob'o may doe well this year. All agi-ee its generally better 
y'n hath been of late years. The proposition ab' negro's I hope 
will bee comply'd w*'' & Wynne dispatched, for Pa ggens (7) 

(7) Petter Paggen & Co. of London, did a large trade with Virginia 
about this period. 



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VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Concernc may justly glory in the trade of this River haveing 
been mighty Successfull these two last years. No News as 
yet of our Salt from Ortou, Roger Newliam hath lately prom- 
ised us to Send it up. Ime Sure I want it. Ships here will find 
a ready dispatch, Newham & Bradly will Saile within a month 
if Weather p'mits. Wee are in daily expectation of y^ Culpeper, 
fraight yet wanting. All our friends well. Pray pay any 
charge my father Horsmonden shall desire you, or shall bee 
any otherwise due, for my Child"' maintenance & Schooling 
in England, its but 8 days Since yours Via barbados & p Dept- 
ford ketch came to Hand, w'^ an Acco^ of y*^ HoU'^ Venditia I 
wish it proves no worse this year, shall not enlarge att present, 
but w*'' best respects take Leave G* 

. ' . Yo' reall fr-^ & Serv^ ' • 

...V ^ ■" W B. ■■ - 

' ' ■' •• ' (To be continued) <■•«.■■ . 



■,.4 : '\i .;,„■ 



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VIRGINIA IN 1078. 361 



VIRGINIA IN 1678-1679. 



(Abstracts by W. N. Sainsbury, and copies in the McDonald 

and De Jamette Papers, Virginia State Library.) 

(Continued) 



May 20. 1679 
Petition of Bartholomew Price, Guardian to John 
Jeffreys a Minor son to Col. Herbert Jeffreys, to the King. 
For payment of £300, granted by his Maj. to Col. Jeffreys, 
still in the hands of Alderman John Jeffreys and an'ears of his 
salary from 25 March 1678 for the relief of the poor widow now 
in prison & the maintenance of her poor orphan and to grant 
an order for her release. "Delivered to the Committee by M"" 
Secretary Coventr^^ 20^i> of Ivlay 1679." 
(Col. Entry Bk. No. 80. p. 304.) 



Letter Mrs. Jeffreys to Secretary Coventry. 
Sir 

I presume so much upon Your kno\vn Justice and Charity 
to represent to You my sad condition here which now is more 
deplorable than anybodys was. I paid or gave Bail to all 
Debts that came to me and when I thought I had satisfied the 
most strictest Laws in the World and was ready to come home 
in Captain Morris ship, Coll. Spencer, my Lord Culpepers 
Attorney, lays in a claim against me for all perquisits since my 
husband came into this Colony notwithstanding that the words 
of the Kings Letter is that all perquisils, and Airears not actuall}' 
received by You, shall remain in custody for the said Lord Cul- 
peper and I have offered to give Security to pay all that can be 
found my husband has received since the 25*** March 1678 but 
that will not satisfy, therefore 'tis plain they seek my life in 
malice to my husband though none of them can tax him of 
doing any injustice therefore Sir, May most humble Petition 



IK 






!!• t: < I 1 



: 362 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ,^,. 

■ ■ to you is thai you will be pleased to take the cause of so miser- 
; able a poor Yvidow into Your Prc/iectioii and make it accent- 
able to His rvia"-^ by your ivi-e.-^enling of it for I cannot hoi>e 
to outlive this persecution but I most Irombly beseech you to 
intercede for me to Kis Ma'^^ that my child may not be ruined 
since his father lost his life in most faithfully performing his 
duty to His Ma}^. I do not doubt that if my enemys here 
would give me leave to come and cast myself at the Kings feet 
but His Ma^y would be graciously pleased to extend his accus- 
tomed goodness to me and my poor fatherless Child and give 
him a comfortable subsistence in this world. 

But I am most unjustly kept here therefore do most humbly 

■ beg of you to take the cause of the poor fatherless child into 
your protection and whilst I breath you shall never want the 
prayers of Sir, ., 

Your humble and obedient , . 

■ , Ser. Jeffreys. 

: Sir 

j I beseech you to pardon all faults here, for so great a load of 

' afflictions distract me. 

I . ., . A true Copy teste 

' ' \V. Davis. 



Whitehall, May 20, 1579 
Minutes of a Committee of Trade and Plantations. 
Inforaiation of Capt. Rudge, Master of the Hopewell, lately 
come from Virginia, summoned by Order in Council of IQ^^ 
inst. in reference to the great disorders committed by the 
Indians who had lately made peace with the English, in kilHng 
several of the people & totally ruining Col. Place's plantation, 
who is now in England; the great tcn-or caused by a body of 8 
or 10,000 Indians assembled about Blackwater upon the North- 
em borders of Carolina; the people not reconciled to one anotlier 
since the Rebellion wliich has a deal of ill blood. Sir Henry 
Cliicheley the present CIO^^emor very old, sickly and crazv (1). 

(1) At this time "crazy" referred to bodily, not mental, weakness. 
No serious attacks by the Indians followed the great gathering of the 
tribes referred to. It may have boon nothing but a baseless rumor. 



--?•-.;. f T n'' 1' 



iUBiih: ... 

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VIRGINIA IN 1678. 363 

Information of Capts. Grantham & Rider that at York liver 
there was a reix)rt of a great incursion of Indians about Rappa- 
hannock River, that many people had left their plantations 
thro fear. Concerning a Convoy for the next fleet to Virginia. 

Petition of Bartholomew Price, Guardian to John Jeffreys 
son to Col. Herbert Jeffreys late Governor of Virginia, com- 
plaining of ill usage to Mrs. Jeffreys, Widow, by reason of a 
pretended debt of Col. Spencer, Attorney to Lord Culpeper for 
perquisites received since her husband came into the Countr>-. 
Lord Culpeper's answer to the same. 4 pp. 

(Col. Entry Bk. No. 106, pp. 5-8.) 



Whitehall, May 21, 1679 
Order of the King in Council on Report of Comliiti-ee 
FOR Trade and Plantations on Petition of Bartholomew Price, 
Guardian to Col. Jeffrey's son directing that Sir Henry Chiche- 
ley, Governor of Virginia inform himself of the differences de- 
pending between Lord Culpeper or his Agents and Mistress 
Jeffreys who is to be pemiitted to come to England to settle 
her deceased husband's debts; and that vSecretary Coventr}'' 
take sufficient security on the part of Lord Culpeper as of said 
Mrs. Jeffreys that all things be duly perfomied jjursuant to lus 
Maj. letter of 27 Dcx:. 1677. (which see) 3 pp. 
(Col. Entry Bk. No. 80. pp. 309-311.) 



Council Chamber June 27, 1679 
Mem'dm. The Lord President is Desired by the Lords 
OF Trade and I^lantations to report to his Alaj. in Council 
That upon a motion made by the Earl of Essex from the Lords 
of the Treasury, their Lordships are of opinion that it will Lest 
consist with his Maj. sei"\4ce and tlie ease of the Treasury that 
all allowances made by his Maj. inito the Governors and other 
Officers of the Plantations as also for the Companies maintained 
there may be paid by the pay-master of his Maj. forces upon 
the general cstabUslmient settled for that sei-\"ice. ,, 

(Col. Entry Bk. No. 97, p. 63.) 



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•^*^4 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. ■•' 

Whitehall June 27, 17G9 
Order of the King in Council on report of Lords of Trade 
and Plantations on the present allowances for support of the 
Government of his Maj. Colonies in America; that the following 
Allowances & Establishments shall be continued & no others 
viz.; ^ :- ' 

For Virginia (among others) 

To the Governor per ann. v . 

To the Lt. Gov. per ann. •■::. 

To the Maj. Gen. per ann. ,. 

For maintenance of forts , .. 

For two Companies of 100 each 3327 n g 

To the Chimrgeon per ann. 92 5 q' 

Tt the Chaplane per ann. \ . • ,• 12113 4 



1000 
600 
300 
600 



6040.10.0. 



Besides an allowance to an Engineer to be retained 
for some time longer in case the Country proceed to 
build a Fort after the rate of 10s. per diem for him- 
self & 4s.p^ diem for one serv* p' ann. 219 
As also to a Gun.smith & two mates to be cont<i some 
time longer at 8s. 4d. per diem— per ann. 152 



Total £6371.10.0. 

To be paid as they become due by the Paymaster of his Maj 
Forces upon a General Establishment to be settled for that 
service uhich the Lords of the Treasury are hereby directed 
to see done accordingly— The two foot Companies of Virginia 
to be continued for one year and until further order. 

(Col. Kntrv Bk. No. 97, pp. 63-66.) 

Whitehall, July 25, 1679 
Order of the Privy Council, refening to the Committee 
ot Plantations a letter from Sir Henry Chicheley and the Spealcer 
ot the Assembly of Virginia to the King together with a letter 
from Sir Henry Chicheley to Sec. Coventry, see 20 May 1679 
(Col. Entry Bk. No. 80, p. 362.) 






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IsioT 



VIRGINIA IN 1678. -, 3()5 

Whitehall Aug. 6, 1679 
Order of the Privy Council. That an Act of Assembly 
begun at James City 25 April last entitled An Act (2) enabling 
Major Lawrence Smith and CaT)t. Wm. Bird to seat certain 
Lands at the head of Rappahannoc-k River and James River be 
forthwith suspended until his Maj. further pleasure be signified 
and that no Assembly be called in Virginia before 1*" Januar>- 
next of all which Sec. Coventry is to give intimation to Sir 
Henry Chicheley Deputy Governor of that Colon>- — also t(^ 
signify that his Maj. has received the Address concerning the 
pay of the soldiers there and the arrears of Quit Rents. 
(Col. Entry Bk. No. 80, p. 359.) 



Whitehall, Aug. 6, 1679 
Order of the Privy Council on letter from Sir Henry 
Chicheley of 20 May last and Address of the Assembly of Vir- 
ginia inclosed (which see). That a letter be prepared for the 
King's signature to Lord Culpeper to acquaint the Assembly 
on his aiTival that his Maj. before the receipt of their address, 
had taken care for payment of the arrears due to the soldiers 
& for the continuance of the same for the future ; and that as to 
the Quit rents, his Maj. had long had that matter under con- 
sideration & will shortly give orders therein for his own service 
& the ease of the people. Also that he has sent some laws to 
them to which he expects a cheerful & ready compHance. assur- 
ing them of his particular care and kindness for that his Colony. 
That an Instruction to Lord Culpeper be prepared to forbear 
the publication of his additional Commission for six months 
after his arrival if he thinl-: fit. 

(Col. Entry Bk. No. 80, pp. 363-4.) ■ : 



Aug. 9, 1679, Whitehall 
Sec. Coventry to Sir Henry Chicheley, Deputy Governor 

(2) This act of the Assembly of April 1G79, appears in Hening II, 448- 
454. It was intended as a cheap provision for the defense of the heads 
of James and Rappahamiock Rivers. Major Lawrence Smith, of Glou- 
cester, was granted a tract at the falls of Rappahannock f(nir and a half 
by four miles, and Wm. Byrd of Henrico, a tract five by three miler. at thv 
falls of James. Each was to keep fifty armed men constantly on their 
grants and was given some local jurisdiction. 



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300 VIR(JIN1A HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. : \; 

of Virginia. Is commanded by the King to signify to him that 
an Act enabling Major Lawrence Smith & Capt. Wm. Bird to 
seat certain lands at the head of Rappahannock River and James 
River be forthwith suspended so that no proceedings may be 
had thereupon until his Maj. shall signify his further pleasure — 
that no Assembly be called or held in Virginia before 1 January- 
next — and that having received an Address concerning the pay 
of the soldiers there and the aiTcars of Quit rents such order 
will be taken therein upon the arrival of Lord Culpeper as shall 
be for the good of his Maj. subjects there. 
(Col. Entry Bk. No. 95, p. 175.) 



WhitehaU. Aug. 9, 1679 
Secretary Co\entry to Sir Henry Chtcheley, Deputy 
Governor of Yirgania. Has received his letter of 20''' May last 
wherein he enlarges upon the matter of the Address from him- 
self and the Assembly concerning the paj^ of the soldiers there 
and the arrears of the Quit rents to wliich his Majesty has 
ordered his answer. Shall endeavour to deser\'e his good 
opinion by showing his heaity inclinations for the welfare of 
Virginia, and also to his own particular. 

(Col. Entry Bk. No. 95, p. 175.) , 



Whitehall, Sept. 10. 1079 
The King to Thos. Lord Culpeper. 

At his earnest and reiterated instances and in contemplation 
of the condition of affairs in Virginia where his presence is 
highly necessary his Maj. has condescended to his speedy rejjair 
thither notwithstanding the great and urgent occasions the 
King has of his ser\'ices here. He is hereby granted full power 
to repair back to the King's presence as soon as in his discretion 
the state of affairs in Virginia will in any sort permit his absence, 
as well in person to give an exact account of the same and con- 
tinue his services to his Maj. here, as for some short tune to 
take care of his own private concerns, which his constant 
attendance on the King has hitherto liindered him from suffi- 
ciently providing for — After which the King will give orders 
for his speedy return thither again to perfect the settlement 
and welfare of that Colony. 

(Col. Entry Bk. No. 80, pp. 380-1.) 

(To be continued) 



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Will of John Baylot. -'567 



THE WILL OF JOHN BAYLOR OF iNEW MARKET. 



■ Made 19th Febmary, 1770. Proved 16th May, 1772. ,, 

In the name of God, Amen. — 

I, John Baylor of New Market, in the County of Caroline, 
being of sound mind and disposing memory do make this my 
last will and testament for settling my temporal concerns after 
recommending my soul to my blessed Saviour and Redeemer, 
trusting not in my own merits but in His mercy for Salvation 
and my body to the earth to be buried at the discretion of my 
dear v.ife and friends. 

Imprimis. — I give to my well beloved wife, Frances Baylor, 
in lieu of dower and claim out of my estate the use of all that 
part of the tract of land whereon I now live, within the follow- 
ing bounds, that is to say — Beginning at the end of Peridleton 
Hill road opposite to my house and running thence to the branch 
which nms between miy dv/elling house and that wherein ray 
stewards have lived — thence down tlie said branch to v/here it 
em.pties itself into the Great IMeadow Swam.p — thence along 
the said swamp to a dam formerh'- made across the same — 
thence a straight line to the river at a ford called Swift Water, 
down the river to Todd's line, along that line to the main road 
and along the road to the beginning. Also the following slaves, 
to wit: 

Carpenter, Tom, Old Guilbert, Ben and Tom in the house, 
Michael, Joe, Sam. Ismael, Peler, Lewis, Ralph, Kicky, Robin, 
Pompey, Young v'^arnson. Old Sarah, Beck, Caroline and her 
four children, Grace and Clara, Judy, Sam, Gabriel and Beck, 
Scilla and her six children, C^aleb, Lewis, Amiistead.Beniard, 
Agga and Scilla, Old Hannah, Isbell, Sail, Milly, Betty, Jenny, 
Thone and her two children Fannie and Bick, Christian and 
her two children Bird and Polly, Old Malade, Nan, Hannah, 



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308 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Scylvia, Daphney, Esther and Humphrey, with their increase 
from the date of my will during her natural life and after her 
death, I give the said lands to my son John for such estate and 
subject to the like limitations and remainders as her-in-after 
mentioned in the devise to him of the residue of my home tract, 
and the said slaves with their increase to be equally divided 
between my four sons, John, George, Robert and Wallcer Bay- 
lor, or the sundving heirs in case either of them should die before 
their marriage without issue. I give to my said Vvife as her 
absolute property one half of my stocks of black cattle, sheep, 
and hogs, half the grain of all sorts and plantation tools, all 
plows, horses and wheel carriages which shall be at m.y home 
plantation and Goose Pond Oviarters at my death, also my 
charriot and .seven horses now used to draw it, my riding chair, 
with one half of my household and kitchen furniture, spinning 
wheels and looms, and their lackle, to her Executors, Admini- 
strators or assigns forever. And the estate given my said wife 
to be exempt from the pa>Tnent of debts and legacies. 

Item — I give and devise to my oldest son Jolin Baylor the 
residue of the tract of land whereon I now live and the several 
parcels purchased thereto adjoining on the north side of Matta- 
pony river, with my Mill and Mill Quarter lands to my son John 
and the heirs of his body, and in default of such heirs I give the 
same with the lands lent my wife to my son George and the 
heirs of his body, and in default of such heirs to my son Robert 
and the heirs of his body, and in default of such heirs to my son 
Walker and the heirs of his body forever. I also give to my 
said son John all the lands I hold in the County of Orange with 
the slaves thereon, being eighty in number, and their future 
increase, also all stock of horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs, grain 
of all sorts, pots and pans, and plantation tools upon the said 
lands, also the following slaves, to-wit: Sawney a carpenter 
Gabriel and Ben (Smiths), two Martins (wheelwrights), Gilbert 
(miller), Lunny, Peg, Carter, Tom, Miles, Gabriel, Patty, Dol- 
phin at home, and Old Jamie, Young Jamie, Austin, Dick, Lott, 
Penn, Grace, Zachary, Neil, Nan, rvlice, Lott, Sarah and her 
children, at the Mill with their future increase, also all grain 
at the Mill, and all grain. Stocks of black cattle, sheep, and hogs 



■ ^ Will op John Baylor. ' •' ''• 359 

and plow horses, pots, pans, and plantation tools of all sorts 
on the Mill Quarter plantation — half of my stock of black cattle, 
sheep and hogs at my home and Goose Pond Quarter plantation, 
my English horse Feamaught, and these mares, namely: Old 
Jenny. Dismal, English, Gray Steady, Sally and Lovely, and 
all my books, all of which I give to my said son John and his 
heirs, forever — upon this express condition, that he shall pay 
unto my son Walker Baylor six htmdred pounds, when the said 
Walker shall become of the age of twenty-one. At the same 
time deliver to him two young male, Virginia bond tithable 
slaves to be his absolute property, and also a good young riding 
horse, and shall pay to him and each of his brothers George and 
Robert the sum of twenty-five pounds sterling to assist in a 
library which I higlily recommend to be yearly added to, sub- 
ject also to the charges here-in-after laid on my son John, but 
if my son John shall die before he arrives at the age of twenty- 
one years then the said slaves and stock devised to him shall 
be equally divided between my other three sons George, Robert, 
and Walker, or the survivors of them, subject, however, to the 
charges aforesaid. 

Item — I give my lower Pole Cat tract of land in this county 
containing about three hundred acres to my son George Baylor 
and the heirs of his body forever, and in default of such issue, 
to my son John and the heirs of his body, and on failure of such 
heirs to my son Robert and the heirs of his body, and in default 
of such to my son Walker and the heirs of his body forever — I 
also give to my said son George all the grain, stocks of black 
cattle, sheep, and hogs, plow horses, pots and pans, and planta- 
tion tools upon the said lands, his own riding mare, Jenny, Dis- 
mal's colt, Godoplhin — his young mare Sprightly at the old 
house, and the young brown English begotten mare Ballad 
Stella, with