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-Z W\ •^- ^ ■■: 





;\. Mdi'] 









lonlKon : 




{The Right of Tramlation is reserved.] 






/Vrj/ Edition 1S78. 

Kfprinted 1882, 1888. 




My dear Dr Kennedy, 

Once more, after the lapse of a quarter of a 

century, I render the account, which you have the best 

right to demand, of my studies on the last great writer of 

heathen Rome. 

You, who even 'between whiles' surprise the world 

with finished pieces and dream on Parnassus, may find 

much to censure in the form of my commentary. I shall 

be content, if only in the matter of it there appears that 
IXJV. II. 6 

labor improbus, which men have learnt to associate with 
Shrewsbury <j)i\ofia0€U. 

If you see here a just advance on the first-fruits of 
my pen, I shall feel more at home in the Sparta founded 
in your honour and adorned by the genius of the editor of 

I am, 

My dear Dr Kennedy, 

Ever gratefully yours, 



The notes on sat. x were written, and nearly all stereo- 
typed, in the summer of 1871 ; those on great part of 
sat. VIII in 1872, the remainder to the end of sat. Xlil 
in 1877 ; the last three satires have been added in the 
last two months. 

I give these details, partly to explain any apparent 
neglect of materials lately brought to light, and partly as 
an example of the use of our long vacation. Many of us 
are unable during term to engage in any work requiring 
prolonged attention. Even in Bentley's time, Cambridge 
could only make hay when the sun shone \ 

I have to thank several friends for help. Mr Munro 
supplies many notes (marked H. A. J. M.) and some emen- 
dations. I have also profited by communications from 
tlie late Professor Conington (J. C), the Eev. H. R. 
Bailey (H. R. B.), the Public Orator (J. E, S.), and my 
brother (J. B. M.) *. I have, as will be seen, examined 
^^e manuscript notes of Stanley, Hadr. Beverland, John 
Taylor', Markland*, Bottiger and John Mitford^ From 

^ Praefatio to Hor. p. xv=xxii qnaliacumque yero haec sunt, aestivis 
l^'i'MW mensibus (ita tamen ut uno alteroque biennio fuerint prorsus 
mtenniggaj et primo impetu ao calore sine lima curisve secundis de- 
^Pta, sio madida fere charta (at nemini hie meorum uon comper- 
tissinimn est) ad typographos deferebantur. 

^ Prof. Garrod kindly answered my zoological queries. 

^ These three in Cambridge university library. 

* In St John's college library. 

' These two penes me^ the former bought at 0. Jahn's sale, the latter 
ftt liir MitlBid*i wlSH^ where a noble collection sold for an old song. 


the friends of Otto Jahn I learn that his commentarv 
was only completed for a few satires, and that he intended 
to re-write the whole. In general he trusted to memory, 
but for Juvenal and Persius had formed collectanea. It is 
much to be hoped that his labours will be given to the 
world, for few scholars have ever lived so well furnished 
with the historical and antiquarian learning required in 
an editor of Juvenal : his library was perhaps the best 
working collection that the world has seen in its depart- 

I give elsewhere (bibliographical clue to Latin lite- 
rature Cambr. 1875 96-97) a list of the principal com- 
mentators and dissertations. Prof Bernays*, I am glad 
to see, does justice to the few notes of N. Rigault. Is. de 
la Grange (Grangaeus) is a commentator akin to Cerda or 
Passerat, widely read especially in the poets. France also 
contributes the notes of Adr. and Charles de Valois (pub- 
lished by Achaintre). The essays of Martha, Boissier, Widal, 
Nisard, are all more or less worth reading. 

Italy supplies the commentary of Silvestri de Rovigo, 
the life of Juvenal and occasional notes by Borghesi; 
Denmark the two dissertations of Madvig and a treatise 
on the poet s style by Kiaer. 

Critical readers of my book will possess Otto Jahn's 
two editions (the larger with the scholia and full critical 

When at Gotha, I examined G. H. Flathner's ms. commentary and found 
Bnperti's censure justified. 

1 In the magnificent Yolume which greeted Mommsen's sixtieth 
birthrday *commentationes philologicae in honorem Theodori Mommseni. 
Berol. 1877' p. 566. The admirers of Heinrich may be surprised to read 
(p. 565) *der gute Buperti, immer noch der einzig Neuere, der einen 
'^fortlaufenden Commentar" zn Juvenal geliefert hat.' 


apparatus Berl. 1851 ; the smaller with Persius and Sul- 
picia and select critical notes in Weidmann's series Berl. 
1868). A few tracts by Friedlander, who is employed on 
an edition of Martial, are of value ; but his Sittenge- 
scliichte almost supplies the place of a commentary both 
to Martial and Juvenal ; the same may be said of Mar- 
quaidt's Alterthiimer and (in an inferior degree) of For- 
biger's Hellas und Rom (left unfinished by his death at a 
great age a few months ago). 

I have on all the satires collections on the same scale 
as the fullest here printed and hope to publish as a 
basis for a commentary on satires II. VI. IX. the substance 
of ms. notes by the scholars named above and by others 
(eg. Casaubon). In course of time, when I have cleared off 
other arrears, I propose to prepare a critical text founded 
on a new collation of P (cod. Pithoeanus or Budensis saec. 
IX, once in the library of Matthias Corvinus, now in the 
biblioth^ue de I'^cole de medocine at Montpellier n. 125) 
^th the early mss. in this country. 

A bibliographical catalogue, with biographical notices, 
of all English works, printed or manuscript, on Juvenal 
to the year 1850, a reprint of scattered translations to the 
end of the I7th century, and a dissertation on Roman 
satire and satirists*, are tasks which I have in view, but 
cannot promise to undertake for several years. A smaller 
edition for schools, in three parts, will cost little labour, 
and may, I hope, be completed by the end of 1879. 

^ A learned diyine (Keim Gesch. Jesn v. Kazara i 881) generously 
pltimps up the meagre list: *ein spater romischer Satiriker des 4. Jahrh. 
Makrobius.* Oddly enough, in the next line the words * aus Versehen' 
occur. The source of t/ii« * Versehen' is all too obvious. 


In my notes I have endeavoured at once to meet the 
wants of English students (in general little accustomed 
to consult original authorities and debarred from the 
best and latest books of reference) and also to supply 
new materials for the grammarian, lexicographer and 
historian \ Following the steps of Casaubon and Gataker, 
Scaliger and Hemsterhuis, I have drawn materials from 
writers, accessible to me, of every race and creed. I see 
only a riddle in the taste, which, allowing Libanius, lays 
Chrysostom under ban ; scouring the world for an inscrip- 
tion, while blind to a vast literature ready to hand. Were 
Philo a pagan, his historical tracts would assuredly rank 
as priceless evidence respecting the early empire. Even 
lexicography has suffered by the stigma cast on men, who 
had served many philosophies before they bowed their 
necks beneath the cross ; for it might then be said, fiunty 
non nascuntur Christiani. 

I have purposely abstained from consulting any English 
edition of Juvenal. 

J. E. B. M. 

St John's, Sept. 9, 1878. 

^ I know not "why Mr A, Palmer (Hennatliena i 391) should suppose 
that Ov. m. Yin 283 had * escaped my notice'. It is printed at length, in 
hoth editions, in the note on rv 27, and this note is cited on v 147, the 
verse which Mr Palmer is discussing; see too Dohree advers. ii 387. 
The other quotation should he not * met. x. 38. v. 1 * but v 381, which, 
with this correction, I gratefully accept. If Mr Palmer will consult the 
ind. under sed, he will see other authorities. He does not observe that 
Bibbeck corrupts hoth lines by the same cheap nostrum, nee for sed (iv 27 
neo maioiis se) . Bergk's warning (speaking of the Teubner Gellius Jahrbb. 
cxni 1876 276) la certainly opportune: *wenn dies so fort geht, so wird, 
ehe nochmals dreissig jahre verflossen sind, jeder mann von bildung und 
gesohmack sich mitwiderwillenvon den in Deutsohland erschienen neuen 
ausgaben lateinisc^er sohriftsteller abwenden.* 


luNius luvENALis libertini locupletis incertum filiiis an 
alumnus ad mediam fere aetatem declamavit, animi magis 
causa quam quod scholae se aiit foro praepararet. dein 

5 paucorum versuum satura non absurde composita in Paridem 
pantomimnm poetamque semenstribus militiolis tumentem 
genus scripturae industriose esrcoluit. et tanien diu ne modico 
quidem auditorio quidquam committere eat ausus, mox magna 
frequentia tantoque successu [bis ac ter] auditiis est, iit ea 

lOquoque quae prima fecerat inferciret novis scrip tis 

quod non dant proceres, dabit histrio. tu Camerinos 
et Bareas, tu nobilium magna atria curas? 
praefectos Pelopea facit, Philomela tribunos. 

erat tunc in deliciis aulae histrio multique fautorum eius 
l^cotidie provehebantur. venit ergo luvenalis in suspitionem, 
quasi tempora figurate notasset,, ac statim per honorem militiae 
quamquam octogenaiius urbe suramotus est missusque ad prae- 
fecturam cohortis in extrema parte Aegypti tendentis. id 
supplici genus placuit, ut levi atque ioculari delicto par esset 
20 verum intra brevissimum tempus angore ac taedio periit. 

'temporibus Claudii Neronis ad vita cod. Voss. \ *Domitiani pauto- 

mimum Voss. \ ^poetamque P. Statium Voss. | ^*in deliciis apud Traia- 

num imperatorem vita cod. Bonon. \ ^^ extremis Domitiani temporibus 

missus in exilium vita cod. Kulenkamp, \ ^^ Traianus fecit eum prae- 

25 feetnxn militum contra Scotos cod. Bonon. \ ^^ tempus debs aMs adscri- 

bitnr divorum choro reyertiturque luvenalis Bomam, qui tandem ad 

Nervae et Traiani principatum superyivens senio et taedio Voss. \ 

^decessit longo senio confectus exul Antonino Fio imperatore cod. 



SCHOL. 1 1 luvenalem aliqui Galium propter corporis magni- 
tudinem, aliqui Aquinatem dicunt. ea tempora Domitiani 
tyranni, quibus etiam ipse vixit, co quod in aula ipsius plus 
histriones quam bonae vitae homuies posaent, graviter carpsit. 
hos autem libros iu exilium missus ad civitatem ultimam 5 
Aegypti Hoasim ab ipso Domitiano scripsit. ideo autem in 
exilium missus est, quia dixit versum illimi [vii 90J 

quod non dant proceres, dabit histrio. 

SCHOL. IV 38 hoc convicium in Flavium Domitianum Titi 
fratrem Yespasiani filium iactat, qui calvus fuit. propterea 10 
quod luvenalis sub specie honoris relegatus est ad cohortis 
curam in Aegypto Hoasa, ubi mortuus est. 

SCHOL. VII 92 propter hunc versum missus est in exilio 
a Claudio Nerone. 

SCHOL. XV 27 de se dicit luvenalis, quia in Aegypto 15 
militem tenuit. 

lOANN. MALALAE CHRON. X p 341 Chilm. d Sc [avTos jSactXcvs] 
Ao/xeriavos cc^iXei rov op)(7jaTqv tov irpaaivov fxipov^ [njs *F(6fxrjs\ 
Tov X€y6fJt.€vov UdpiSa, Trcpl ov kol cAoiSopctro diro t^5 <nryK\iJTov 
['Pw/xiys]. KOL ^IovP^voXlov tov iroirjTov [tov 'Pw/iatov oJs xaipfnv cts 20 
TO TTpaxnvov^ ooris poLtriXcv^ €$(tipur€ tov [clvtov] *lovP€vd\iov 
[tov iroiTfT'qv] iv IIcvrairdAei iirl Tyv Ai^vrp/* 

SUIDAS 'lov/SevdXios ttoii^t^s *Pco/Aato9. ovtos ^v iirl Aofieriavov 
PaortXeu)^ 'Pcu/iauov. d SI — AiPvrjv (omissis quae uncis inclusa 
sunt). 25 


Cum luvenale meo quae me committere temptas, 

quid non audebis, perfida lingua, loqui? 
te fingente nefas Pyladen odisset Orestes, 

Thesea Pirithoi destituisset amor, 2q 

tu Siculos fratres et mains nomen Atridas 

et Ledae poteras dissociare genus, 
hoc tibi pro meritis et talibus inprecor ausis, 

ut facias illud, quod puto, lingua, facis. 



De nostro facunde tibi, luvenalis, agello 

Satumalicias mittimus, ecce nuces. 
cetera lascivis donavit poma puellis 
5 mentula custoditt luxuriosa deL 

MARTI AUS XII 18 1 — 9 

Dum tu forsitan inquietus erras 

clamosa, luvenalis, in Subura 

aut coUem domiuae teris Dianae, 
10 dum per limina te potentiorum 

sudatrix toga ventilat vagumque 

maior Caelius et minor fatigant, 

me multos repetita post Decembres 

accepit mea rustic umque fecit 
25 auro Bilbilis et superba ferro. 

AMMiAN. MARCELLIN. xxviii 4 § 14 quidam detestantes ut 
venena doctrinas, luvenalem et Marium Maximum curatiore 
studio legunt, nulla volumina praeter haec in profundo otio 
contrectantes, quam ob causam non iudicioli est nostri. 

20 ACRO in Her. seim. i 1 (p. 3 3 — 7 Hauthal) satira dicitiir 
lancis genus tractum a chora Liberi Patris, qui est minister 
vini et epularum. satira istius inter Lucilii satiram est et 
luvenalis (media?), nam et asperitatem habet, quam Lucilius, 
et suavitatem, quam luvenalis, mixtam in suo carmine, deni- 

25 que nisi luvenalis (carmen) scripsisset, isto nemo esset melior. 


huius vulnificis satura ludente Camenis 
nee Turnus potior nee luvenalis erit. 

lOAKNES LYDUS DE MAG. I 41 Tovpvog Sc KoX *lovp€vdkLO^ koI 
30 H^Tfxovtos avToOev rats XotSoptats cttc^cX^oi'tcs rov crarvpiKov 
vofiov irapiTpiiHrav. 


TiTULUS AQUiNi REPERTUS (iRN 4312. Orelli 5599) 

cere Ri • sacrtx 







lion qui tempore Caesaris secundi IC 

aeterno incoluit Tomos reatu. 

iiec qui consimili deinde casu 

ad yu]gi tenuem strepentis auram 

irati fuit histrionis exul. 


To this day the praenomen of luv. is often mistaken. 
Drakenborcli ^ (*in autores latiuos praelectiones jmblicae, in- 
choatae Sept. 20 1725' ma, penes me p. 574) *en*ant...retrus 
Crinitus 1. 4 de po6t. lat. et alii, qui Dedum vocant hunc 
poStam, ut ostendit Lud. Carrio L 1 emendat c. 1. Becimua 2(] 
enim erat huius scriptoris praenomen ; nam Becitcs numqiiam 
fuit praenomen Romanum.' So Ausonius*and Decimus Brutus 
and many others (see Hofmann's lexicon under Decius) have 
been falsely named. Holyday (pp. 9 10) notes that the mis- 
take was in Lily's grammar, and that D. in Polyb. DS. DH. 25 
DCass. is always represented by Acki/ios. Cf. Quintus, Sextus 
and the christian name of Vicesimus Knox. 

^ Like Dodwell Drakenborch assigns the publication of all the satires 
to Hadrian's reign. 

^ e.g. Cave hist. litt. i 288b (ed. Bas. 1741). Lorenz catalogue de la <>/■ 
librairie Fran9aise Far. 1867. 


C. Barth ad vers, vi 1 fin. Iuvenali8...ex materia quam 
tractat, satirico sale vitia, plerumqiie magnatum, insectans, 
ETHicus dictus est. id. on Namatian. I 604 iuvenalis sane 
ei-uditissimus scriptor, elegantissimns poeta et censor morum 
liberrimus et acutissimus. summo pretio antiquitati habitus, 
a quo nftsTituli nostri temporis adeo futiliter dissentiunt, ut 
etiam latinitatem hominis tarn praeclare docti et ingeniosi 
vitupei*are audeant. de quo latius nos alibi disserere non 
vetabit illorum de se ipsis opinio, quae ut praecipites in 
aliorum contemptum eos agit, ita domesticoa naevos prorsus 
perpendere non patitur. nuditatem sermonis et vitioruni 
velut exinde disciplinam carpunt viri doctissimi. at talia 
describenda sunt, ut evitari eo melius possint, sententia Dionis 
Ghrysostomi, cuius lege orationem 31, quae Khodiaca inscri- 
bitur. aestimatio autem luvenalis etiam ad extrema tempora 
duravit. media enim barbaria per excellentiam ETHicr titulo 
citatur, summis philosophis comparatus, ut a loanne Saris- 
beriensi, Alano et eius generis non paucis philologis eorum 

This statement has been repeated by Fabricius, Ruperti, 
Achaintre, Francke, Weber, Com. Mtlller, Bemhardy and 
many others; Having seen reason, since my first edition, to 
doubt whether luv. was in any exclusive sense known as 
ethicuSy I have looked through the works of John of Salisbury 
and Peter of Blois, who constantly cite him. As regards 
Alanus de Insulis Barth's wonderful memory has deceived 
him. On turning over the^ 1012 columns of his works, I 


find only the following scraps of luv., who is named but 
once, and never called ethicus. 

de arte praedicatoria 25 (Migne ccx 162*) luv. vi 165 with 
a strange variation rara avis in terria alboque simillima 
corvo. distinctiones dictionum theolog. (969*) 'tenuis dicitur 
etiam vilis, unde poeta [luv. vii 145] 

in tenui rara eat /acundia panno,* 

ib. (959**) 'SUBDUCERE notat supponere^ unde [luv. i 15] 

et no8 quandoque manum fervlae subduadmvs.* 

ib. ° under subsellia he cites luv. byname and vii 86fi'egie sub- 
sellia versu, I may notice that Alanus often cites Seneca, some 
additions to whose fragments he may perhaps supply. Vincent 
of Beauvais in volumes I (naturale) and II (doctrinale) of his 
speculum constantly cites luv. by name and book (e.g. I vi 
21 fin. xix 28. xxxi 84. 86. 115. II iv 7. 13), but I nowhere 
observe the title ethicus, 

John of Salisbury and Peter of Blois by no means confine 
the title to our poet lo. Sarisb. pol. iii 8 (489® Migne) unde 
et QihiQMS provide quidem et utUiter ^optimam* inquit *vivendi 
consuetudin^m ah ineunte a^tate elige, earn tibi iucundum v^sus 
eficiet,* VIII 12 (760*) Horace cited as ethicus. so i 8 (405*). 

II 27 (470*). Ill 8 fin. 9 (492*'). 14 fin. (512*'). iv 9 (531*). vi 
prol. pr. (587*). viii 12 (760*). 13 (762°). 24 bis (817^), 
metalog. i 4 (831*). 7 (834*). ep. 185 (195°) ethicus et et/i^ 
nicus, luvenal is ethicus pol. i 13 (414*'). iii 4 (483*). 12 
(501*). VII 13 (668*). VIII 15 (773*). satiricus i 12 (408*), 

III 6 (486*). 12 fin. viii 8 (738*). JStoicus v 4 (546*). eth- 
nicus viii 13 (767°). Ovid is ethicus ep. 134 fin. pol. i 8 
(405*). So the epigrammatist cited in Suet. Caes. 19 ep. 183 
(184*). the author of the verse noli Fortunam, quae non est, 
dicere caecam (pol. iii 8 490^). In poL viii 13 is a notice not 
found in schol. I 12 Tronto, secundum quosdam nepos Plu- 
tarchi, cuius meminit in primo [libro] luvenalis sic : Frontonis 
platani clamant,' metalog. I 8 (836^) *obtusioris in genii 


tradimfc fuisse Scaurum Kufum, sed sedulitate exercitii in id 
virium evasisse, ut Ciceronem ipsum Allobroga nominaret' 
cf. luv. VII 213 — L 

Peter of Blois (Migne ccvii) calls luv. satiricua ep. 15 (54*). 
59 (178»); poeta ep. 17 fin. (66'»). 42 (124^). 81 (25P): poef.a 
Aquinas ep. 59 (177*); Aquhias ep. 95 (293^); ethicua ep. 72 
(221«). 74 (229^). 85 (261»). 239 (543«); ethnicus ep. 95 
(299«). Horace is ethnicus ep. 60 (179^). ethictis ep. 72 
(222'>). 81 (25P). 150 (441*'). 

Prudentius c. Symm. ii 5o7 — 8 stantis^'ite drices in 
cnrribus altis \ Fabricios, Curios, cf. luv. viii 3. ib. 1010 
—1 et qtuie /umificas arbor viMata lucernas | servahat, cf. 
luv. XII 92. 

Gerbert (Silvester ii t 1003) lectured on luv. at Paris 
(Richer hist. ed. Pertz Hannov. 1839 in 47 p. 133) cum ad 
Aetoricam suos provebere vellet, id sibi suspectum erat, quod 
sine locutionum modis, qui in poetis discendi sunt, ad ora- 
toriam artem ante perveniri non queat. poetas igitur ad- 
nibuit, quibus assuescendos arbitrabatur. legit itaque ac 
docuit Maronem et Statium Terentiumque poetas, luvenaleni 
quoque ac Persium Horatiumque satiricos, Lucanum etiam 
'iistoriograpbum. quibus assuefactos locutionumque modis coni- 
positos ad rhetoricam transduxit. 

luv. is quoted by Alcuin, by Rather bp. of Yerona (saec. x), 
l>y Everhardus Bethuniensis cir. 1212 (Lyser po^tae lat. medii 
aevi p. 825). I do not remember that the abbat Lupus cites 
or names him. cf. T. Wright biograph. Brit. lit. i 40 n. 
(Rutebeuf). 41. 476. In a catalogue (probably saec. x) of 
Bobbio library, more than one ms. of luv. (Muratori antiq. 
Ital. Ill 820). 

Many projected editions are recorded by Fabricius and 
Ruperti. see Casaub. ep. 289 p. 151 Elmenhorst preparing 
one in 1602. ib. 523 Casaubon himself: eum poetam gravis- 
simum, si superi annuerint, accurate recensebimus. Boxhom 
from 1634 (Boxhomii ep. pp. 29. 35. 46. 48. 50). Beitzer 
(Uhlii sylloge nova epist. i p. 558). 

xviii DATES 


L. FRIEDLAENDER de luvenalis vitae temporibua Konigsber^ 
1875 4to. XIII 17 written 60 or 61 years after Fonteius cos. 
AD. 67, i.e. in 127 or 128. In verses 13 {tu) and 33 {senior 
huMd digniamne) and throughout the satire Calvinus is ad- 
dressed in the second person, hence stupet haec, qui iam post 
terga reliquit aexaginta annos, Fonteio consule natusy must refer 
to the poet, not to Calvinus. 'se stupere dicit, quod amicus 
casum tarn aegre ferat, quern ipse in sexaginta annis saepissime 
viderit. se igitur poeta Fonteio consule natum verbis disertia 
dicit' vita cod. Voss 'luvenalis... ex Aquinio Volscorum op- 
pido oiiundus temporibus Claudii Neronis.' 

In all the lives, except iv and vii, he is said to have de- 
claimed * usque ad mediam aetatem ': if he died (vita cod. Yoss) 
shortly after his 80th year, or (vita iii) *anno aetatis suae 
altero et octuagesimo' *il mezzo del cammin' of his life would 
be aet. 40 or 41. Whether 'middle age' had any precise mean- 
ing Friedlander cannot determine from the only authorities in 
which he has found it Phaedr. ii 2 3 aetatis mediae quLcn- 
dam, with the old and young wife. Plant, aul. 157 sed grandior 
es: mulieris est aetas media. In Censorin. 14 § 10 Staseas 
fixes as the limit of life 7 x 12 = 84. 

Taking 40 as 'middle age', the first book of satires will 
have been written 107 — 116, nearer to 116. 

Sat. VI 407 instantem regi Armenio Partlioque comet en a 
comet seen at Rome Nov. 115. ib. 411 nutare urbes, suhsidere 
terras earthquake at Antioch 13 Dec. 115 (Friedlander Konigsb. 
progr. V for 1872 and Gutschmid cited there). Sat. vi then (or 
book ii) will have been written A.D. 116 or 117. 

The emperor Hadrian, welcomed in sat. vii, came to Rome 
A.D. 118 (went to the provinces 119 120). 

Book IV written between 120 and 127 AD., for xv 27 nuper 
consrde lunco shews that book v was written after 127. Fried- 
lander gives to Aemilius luncus two nomina gentUicia, Claudius 
and Aemilius. 


Books I — ^ni written ia Rome, iv V possibly in exile, vita 
cod. Kulenkamp ' in exilio ampliavit satiras et pleraque mu- 
tavit.* Fr. Riihl* (*zu den vitae luvenalis' in Jahrbb. cix 
1874 868 — 9, who tells us that the luv. mss. of the Brit. 
Mus. *bieten samtlich den gewohnlichen, nicht Pithoanischen 
Text und sind daher Torlaufig ohne besonderes Interesse') 
gives from cod. Harl. 3301 saec. xv exeuntis a life which 
also states that the satires were written in exile. 

Martial shews that luv. was in Rome A.D. 92 and again 
101—2 (Friedlander Sittengesch. in' 372—390 *Chronologie 
der Epigiumme Martials '). Paris the actor was put to death 
A.D. 83 aet. luv. 16. All the authorities agree that luv. was 
'irati histrionis exuP but the name Paris, given in the lives, 
seems to be taken at hap-hazard from sat. vii 87. Crispinus, 
colleague of Fuscus as praef. praet. under Domitian (ind. * Cris- 
pinus ') may have stationed luv. in Egypt ; he may have been 
exiled after 92 and returned before 101—2. 

The dates then, as given by Friedlander, are : birth 67 A. d. 
at Rome 92 and 101—2. declaimed to 107. bk. i 107—116. 
n 116—118. Ill 118—119—20. iv 120—127. v after 127. 
death 147. 


*Ab altera parte legitur decretum Aquinatium de tabula 
patronatus et statua constituendis IRIST 4342.' Grotefend 
(I*hilologus XII 489 — 490). Mommsen supplies the word 
'^iMnua, If in the old life of luv. we read missus ad 
praefecturam cohortis and in the life ex cod. Omnibonian. 
^ Achaintre (cf. K. Fr. Hermann in ind. schol. Gott. summer- 
term 1843 p. 9) Traianus .. .fecit eum praef ectum militum 
contra Scotos, if in the inscription we see him as officer of a 

^ In Fhilologns xxx 676 — 7 Biihl shews the necessity for a new 
collation of P. i 21 it reads vacat, i 51 sit capiendi, but the t is 

a e 

cnised. I 150 diceSf e afterwards erased, i 169 animante 1st hand, 

altered afterwards to animante, anime therefore is the true reading. 


coh. Delmatarum, and learn from the diploma of Trajan in 
Cardinali tav. xii, and from that of Hadrian (Orelli-Henzen 
5455), that the coh. l Delmatarum (without the addition mil- 
liaria) was then in Britain, and consider that the inscriptions 
of the raefectus coh. i Delmat. (Orelli 2716 — 7) were found in 
Cumberland, we cannot refrain from claiming for Iuy. also the 
title of a praefectus cohortis, and think we discover the sting of 
Trajan's words et te Philomela promovit [vita v Jahn] chiefly in 
this, that bj virtue of them the poet received bj the Philomela 
only the lower grade of praefectus, whereas (vii 92 praefectos 
Pelopea facit, Philomela tribunos) he had ascribed to the 
Philomela the promotion to the tribunate. Anyhow Momm* 
sen's inscription, in addition to what I have here cited, adds 
greatly to the weight of the report of Juvenal's exile in Scot- 
land. Grotefeud shews that tribuni are commanders of cohortes 
milliariae, praefecti of ordinary cohorts. The coh. i milliaria 
Delmatarum (Or. 1833. Murat. 455 1) has a tribune, the or- 
dinary coh. I Dehnatarum (Or. 2153. 2716— -7. 40S2. 4132. 
Murat. 812 8) has a praefectus. The inscription will run then: 
(Cere)ri sacrum (D. Iu)nius luvenalis (praefectus t) coh(ortis i) 
Delmatarum, ii(vir) quinq(uennalis), flamen divi Yespasiani, 
vovit dedicav(itq)ue sua pecunia. 





YiBTUE is the only true nobility : il you are just in word and deed, ]by 
these featnres I recognUe you (agnosco 26) as a noble : otherwise your 
illuBtrions name may bnt be applied in mockery, as we call a dwarf 
an Atlas (1 — 38). Bubellius may boast of his ancestor lulus: but if 
he sits still as a stock, while plebeians are actively serving their 
country in the law-court or the camp, he must look to be condemned 
like the lagging horse in the circus, whom no pedigree can save from 
the mill or the cart (39 — 70). Would you know how to live as befits 
your descent ? Be a brave soldier, a just judge, an honest governor, 
fi,s well in unwarlike Corinth as in rude Gaul or Spain. $o will high 
birth be indeed an honour to you; whereas it only brings out iu 
more glaring colours the crimes of the oppressor or debauchee (71— 
145). So is it with Lateranus, who, though a consular, lives the life 
of a vulgar sot : a slave, who should do the same, would be sent to 
work in chains in the country (146 — 182). Other nobles, still more 
completely lost to shame, appear on the stage. Be it so, that they 
are well paid : what of that ? No plea, but that of necessity, can 
palliate the offence. Nor indeed can that: better were it to die, 
than to act with Thymele or Corinthus (183 — 197). Beyond this 
there is but one lower stage of infamy, — the arena: and even there 
you may see a Gracchus, and see him too, as though determined to 
publish abroad his shame, choose those arms which least of all hide 
the wearer's features. No wonder that the very gladiators are 
ashamed of so degenerate an antagonist (198 — 210). None can be 
of nobler birth than Nero, yet he exceeded the crime of Ore&te%> 

„ JUV. IT. \ 


without the excuse of Orestes (211 — 230;. The high-bom Catiline 
would have laid the city waste with fire and sword, but for Cicero, 
a new man from a country town; justly then did this new man 
receive the title of Father of his country (231 — 244). Marius also 
and the Decii were plebeian ; Servius Tullius was the son of a slave ; 
and these Borne reckons among her chief benefactors (245 — 268). 
The sons of Brutus, the deliverer of Bome, would have betrayed 
their country, had it not been for a slave (261 — 268). After all, this 
long pedigree of which you boast, ends at last in some peasant or 
robber (269-275). 

Cf. Stob. fl. Lxxxvi. Sen. ep. 44. VM. m 4 and 5. Veil, ii 128. Hor. 
s. I 6. Sail. lug. 85. 

1 40. The imagines themselves, together with the painted lineae 
which connect them, constitute the stemma or pedigree Becker ii 1 220 
seq. Marquardt v 1 247. Plin. xxxv § 6 aliter apud m^iores in atriis haec 
erant, quae spectarentur ; non signa extemorum artificumy nee aera aut 
marmora: expressi cera vultus [veteres cerae luv, 19 n.] singulis 
disponebantur armariis, ut essent imagines quae comitarentur gentilicia 
funera; semperque defuncto aliqu^ totus aderat familiae eiusy qui umquam 
fueratf populus, stemmata vero lineis discurrebaut ad ima- 
gines pictas. Sen. de ben. iii 28 § 2 nemo altera nohilior^ nisi cui 
rectius ingenium, et artibus bonis aptius, qui imagines in atrio 
exponunt et nomina familiae suae longo ordine ac multis 
stemmatum illigata flexuris in parte prima aedium collo- 
cant, non noti magis quam nobiles sunt? Mart, cited on 20. 
Suet. Galb. cited on 5. id. Ner. 37 obiectum est , , , , Cassio Longino 
iuris consulto ac luminibus orbatOy quod in vetere gentili stemmate C 
Cassi percussoris Caesaris imagines retinuisset. cf. Forcellini. 
PACiuNT . . . PRODEST Mart, in 75 3 — 4 sed nihil erucae f aciunt . . . | 
improba nee pro sunt iam satureia tibi, 

2 SANQUiNE cENSEBi cf. Freuud *to take rank by.' *to be rated at' as 
in parvo acre censeri. Apul. apol. 57 fin. pro sttulio bibendi quo 
solo censetnr. M. Sen. contr. 24 § 3 p. 244 26 mendicitate 
censentur. picros Macrob. Sat. 

II 3 clypeatam im agin em eius ingentibu^ lineamentis usque ad pectus 
ex more pictam. Polyb. vi 53 ^ 5^ €lKd>v iffn irpoffujirop [a mask] 
els biioLorrfTa dia^epovrtas J^eipyaa-fUjfov koI Kard, t^j' irXdciy Kal Kara t^v 
(nroypatp-fiy, he adds that at funerals the ancestors of the deceased were 
personated, and their imagines worn, by persons resembling them in 
stature and betging. There were special slaves to attend to the imagines 
Bianchini camera ed iscrizioni sepulcrali de' liberti Bom. 1727 n. 32. 

3 STANTis etc. triumphal statues vii 125 n. 
X 59. The enemies of the Jews set up such a statue of Caligula in the 
• principal proseucha of Alexandria Phil. leg. ad Gaium 20. 
AKMiLiANOS the SOU of L. Aemilius Paulus, when adopted by the son of 
^cipio Africanus the elder, received the name of P. Cornelius Scipio 
Aemilianus Africanus minor. 4 cubios xi 78 n. 

M'. Curius Dentatus, the opponent of Pyrrhus. Luc. vii 359 — 60 si Cu- 


rios his fata darent reducesque Camillos \ temporilms. The family was 
now extinct Marqoardt hist, equit. rom. 50. 

nminios mutilated xv 5. Mart, x 2 10 dimidios CrUpi mulio ridet 
equos, UMBBOS minorem Sil. in42 frontemque 

minor t run cam amnis Acarnan, the abl. is in Lao. 11 717. 

5 coBYiNUM 1 108 n. Lac. cited on 9. 

OAusAM Suet. Galb. 2 Neroni Galba successit, . . . hand dubie nobilis* 
simus magnaque et vetere prosapia; ut qui,,, invperaUyr , , . 
etiam stemma in atrio proposuerit, quo paternam originem 
ad lovem referret. Tac. h. 1 15. ib. 11 76 Galbae imagines, ib. 
48. Plut. Galb. 3. comp. Arist. c. Cat. 1. The most eminent of this 
family were (Suet. 3) P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus (cos. b.c. 211 and 
again 200), who conducted the war with Philip of Macedon ; and Ser. 
Sulpicius Galba the orator, consul b.c. 144. 

6 seq. 135 seq. 7 several mss. omit this Terse : 
it cannot have followed upon 6 i because Corvinus has been mentioned 
jast before ; ii because the tablet need not be capax to contain a single 
name. contingebs xi 62. 

ViBGA variously explained i schol. multis fascibuSf dignitate, ii Bup, 
the lineae or rami (Pers. iii 28), which connect the irnagines, iii Heior, 
who however rejects the verse, a broom Ov. f. rv 736. iv K. F. Hermann 
(who retains 7, but strikes out 5 — 6, Bhein. Mus. 1848, p. 454 seq.) the 
wand with which the noble points to {cont.) the imagines. 
8 TUHOSOS 1 120 n. Sen. ep. 44 § 4 non f acit nobilem atrium pie- 
num fumosis imaginibus. Cic. in Pis. § 1 obrepsisti ad honores . , , 
commendatione fumosarum imaginum. Boeth. de cons. phiL i pros. 
1 ante med. quarum speciem, sicut fumosas imagines soletf caligo 
qtuiedam ncglectae vetustatis obduocerat. The imagines stood in the atrium 
19 n. Serv. ad Aen. i 726 ibi [in atrio] et culina eratf unde et 
atrium dictum est: atrum enim crat ex fumo. Mart. 11 90 5 — 8 
differat hoc patrios optat qui vincere census \ atria^u^ immodids artat 
imaginibus. | me focus et nigros non indignantia fumos | tecta 
iuvant. Isidor. orig. xv 3 4. Marquardt v 1 246. St. Luke 22 55. 

9 coBAM Sen. ep. 97 § 1 numquam apertivx 
quam coram Oatone peccatum est. 

liEPinis VI 265 — 7 dicite vos neptes Lepidi caecive Metelli \ Qurgitis 
aut Fabiif quae ludia sumpserit umquam \ hos habitus ? A noble family 
of the Aemilia gens Cic. Phil, xiii § 8 m^gnis et multis pignoribus M. 
Lepidum respublica illigatum tenet, summa nobilitas est homi- 
nis. ib. § 7. Veil, ii 114 § 5. Tac. an. in 22. Luc. vii 583—6 nobilitas 
venerandxique corpora ferro \ urgentur, caedunt Lepidos ca£duntqu£ Me* 
tellos I Corvinos^wfi simulTorquataque nomina, regum \ saepe duces sum- 
mosque hominum. male vivitub YM. ii 9 § 1 

quid prodost [luv. 1] foris esse strenuum, si domi male vivitur? 

EFFIGIES QUO i. 0. quo pcrtinct habere effigies etc. 
142 n. XIV 135. xv 61. Cic. fam. vii 23 § 2 Martis vero signum quo 
mihi pacis auctorif Hor. ep. i 5 12 Bentl. and Obbar (not. crit.). Ov. 
her. II 53 Heins. and Buhnk. ib. rv 157 Heins. id. amor, in 4 41. 
Qmntil. v 10 § 70 quo schema, si intellegitur } quo, si non intellegitur f 
M. Sen. contr. 2 § 1 p. 68 2 quo mihi sacerdotem? 20 § 2 quo 
mihi lumen? Phaedr. in 18 9. app. Burm. 17 9. Mart, v 53 2 quo 
iihi vellHiohen, Basse^ vel A.iidTom.&oh.en? ib.ix662. xrv 27. 116. 
Sen. q. n. i 16 Gron. unde is similarly used luv. xiv 56 n. 
10 ALSA I 88 n. 11 ANTE 9. 144. 

1— a 


VCTKASTiHos Sdpio Africaiiiu the yoimger, who loreed Nnmaiitia to sor« 
lender b. c. 133 App. yi 98 KoXouct yoim mvrim ol Ttt/uuoi /Uxp*- >^ ^^ 
TMT avi»4>opiiif, at eri$7fK€ rtus rokuri, 'A^piggwar t€ koI ^ofiawrlpow. 
Prop. T=:iy 11 29 — 30 si cui fama fait per arita tropaea de- 
cori, I Afra Kumantinos rcgna loqaantur avos. ApnL apoL 66 
^n, hoe ego Aemiliano, mm huic Afro, Med illi Africano et Nnman- 
tino et praeUrea eentorio, vix credidissem. Or. f. i 596. Sulpic. 45. 
Plin. ep. Tm 6 § 2 speaking of the senate's fulsome flattery of Pallas 
conferant se miteeantque, nan dieo illi veteres^ Africani, Aehaici^ 
Numantini, »ed Mproximi, J/oni, SuUae, Pompeii. . . . infra PaUantis 
laudes iaeelnint, dobmuue etc. Sen. 

ep. 122 § 9 seq. Ineet: somni tempus est: quie* est: nunc exercea- 
mur, nunc gettemur, nunc prandeamus . . . dies publicus relinquatur: pro- 
prium nobis ac peculiare mane fiat .... cum hos versus reeitasset [Mon- 
tanns Inlins] *incipit ardentes Phoebus produeere flammas, . . .' Varus 
. . . exelamavit *ineipit Buta dormire.' deinde cum subinde reei- 
tasset * iam sua pastores stabulis armenta loeanmt, \ iam dare sopitis nox 
nigra silentia terris \ incipit,* idem Varus inquit *^quid dieis f iam nox 
estf ibo et Butam salutabo" . . . is erat ex hoe turba lueifugaram etc. 
Gic. fin. II § 23 Dav. [asotos], qui solem, ut aiunt, nee oecidentem um- 
quam viderint nee orientem. id. in Pis. § 67 nbi galli eantum audi^ 
Tit, aynm suum reyixisse pntat: mensam tolli iabet. id. p. 
Sest § 20. Hor. s. i 3 17. Plin. xiy § 142 interea, ut optime eedat, 
solem orientem non yident et minns din yiyunt. Sil. xi 42 — 3 
orta conyiyia solis deprensa. Mart, yn 10 5. Gal. ad Hippocr. 
progn. II xyui 2 p. 129 dXX' irl rw 'IrroKpdTous XP^<^ o^>^ ^^o fUw ^<^ 
rb Kara, <f>JLf<nr, cTXXo 2^ rd ($rf, pvpI 6* (/iraXiy ol rXo^ioi bpCkruf iv cfXXoct 
ri Turi Kol Kard roi^s vrvovi, t^s fikp ^fi4pai KoifJH»)fi€roif rvKTcap Si 
iypriyop&T€i. Lamprid. Elag. 28 traieoit et dierum actns nocti-. 
bus et noctnrnos diebns, aestimans hoe inter instrumenta luxuriae, 
ita ut sero de somno snrgeret et salatari inciperet, mane 
antem dormire ineeptaret. Tao. xyi 18. Sen. Thjest. 466. anthol. 
Meyer 1138 1 fit de nocte dies, tenebrae de Ince serena. Snid. 
Ti/idffLos, Plant. Menaechm. 175. Hor. c. in 21 23. Mart, i 28. Claud. 
in Entr. ii 84. 12 quo etc. at whose rising your 

ancestors at the head of their troops broke up their camp. 
13 ALLOBBOoicis Liy. cplt. Lxi Q. Fabius Maximus consul[B.c. 121] 
Pauli nepos adversus AUobrogas et Bituitum Arvemorum regem feUciter 
pugnavit . . . AUobroges in deditionem accepti. Yell, ii 10 § 2 
Fabio . . , ex victoria cognomen Allobrogico inditum. cf. Plin. h. n. 
yn § 166. Strab. iy p. 185. Claudius in his speech on the iv* honorum of the 
Gauls in Kipperdey Tae. n p. 225 tot ecce insignes iuveneSy quot intueor, 
non magis sunt paenitendi senator eSj quampaenitet Persicum; . . inter 
imagines maiorum suorum Allobrogici nomen legere. The 
AUobroges occupied the tract between the Bhone and the Isdre (Dau- 
phin6 and Sayoy). Their chief city was Yienne. 

HAONA ASA. the ara maxima HercuHs, built, as was belieyed, by Hercules 
himself, or in honour of Hercules by Eyander : it stood between the 
Tiber and the circus maximus (Sery. Aen. yni 271 ingens enim est 
ara Hereulis, sicut videmus hodieque post ianuas circi maximi) and 
the cattle-market DH. i 40. Qy. f. i 581 — 2 constituitque sibi, quae 
maxima dicitur, aram | hic^ ubi pars urbis de hove nomen habet. 
In the great fire in Nero*8 time Tao. xy 41 magna ara fanumque, 
quae praesenti Herculi Areas Eyandof sacrayerat, . . . . eo;. 


ti8ta, c£. LiY. I 7 §§ 10—11. Prop. v=lv 9 67 seq. Pint. qu. Bom. 60. 
Macrob. Sat. iii 6 §§ 10 — 17. Sil. vii 48 when the Fabii marched out to 
Cremera maximaqne Herculei mugivit numinis ara. Becker 
I 469. 476. Schwegler i 353 3. Metzger in Pauly in 1176—7. Bum 
Borne and the Campagna 82. 40. 194. 

14 HERCTJLEo Fabius, a degenerate descendant of Hercules, the model of 
rigid virtue X 361 n. Ovid (to Fabius) Pont, iii 3 98 — 9 conveniens 
animo genus est tibi : nobile namque \ pectus et Herculeae sim- 
plioitatis hahes. Eleomed. meteor. 11 1 § 92 ovk oXada, 6ri ij <pi\o(ro4>la 
*lB.paK\4a Kcd dvSpas 'HpakXelovt KaXeiy dXX' ovxi, f*dk Ala^ Ktvaitovu On 
the descent of the Fabii from Hercules and Vinduna daughter of Evan- 
der cf . Pint. Fab. Max. 1. Ov. f. 11 237 seq. Sil. ii 3. esp. vi 627 seq. vii 
34. 44. VIII 217. On the greatness of the Fabii Liv. 11 42 § 8. 49. 
Drumann i 59. Haakh in Pauly iii 366. Such a Fabius (cos. 34 A. d.) 
is described by Seneca de ben. iv 30 § 2 quid nuper Fabium Persi- 
cnm, cuius osculum etiam impediret viri vota boni, sacerdotem non 
in uno collegia fecit^ nisi Verrucosi et Allobrogici? cf. ib. 11 21 
§§ 4—5. luv. 191 n. 15 EUGANEA Liv. i 1 § 3 

iEuganeisgtitf qui inter mare Alpesque incolebant pulsis, Henetos 
Troianosque eas tenuisse terras. Their name is derived by Pliny from 
eZyof^ii (h. n. in § 134 praestantesque gev^re Euganeos, inde tracto 
Twmine ; caput eorum Stoenos) and still remains in that of the Euganean 
hills, nine miles south-west of Padua, in the delegation of Verona. Their 
chief towns were Verona (Plin. in § 130), Patavium (Sidon. speaking of 
liivy'fi works paneg. Anthem. 189 vet quidquid in aevum | mittunt Euga- 
neis Patavina volumina chartis. Luc. vii 193), and Altinum Mart, iv 
26 1 — 4. id. XIV 155 velleribtis primis Apulia^ Parma secundis | nahilis : 
Altinum tertia laudat ovis. Colum. vii 2 § 3 nunc Gallicae 
[eves] pretiosiores habentur, earumqne praecipue Altinates. 

]tfOLLiOB AGNA Mart. V 87 1 — 2 puella .... 
agna Qalaesi mo Hi or Phalantini, ib. 41 2. Wetst. on 1 Cor. 6 9. 

16 fichol. Cat in a oppi- 
dum Siciliae usque ad probra dissolutum notatur^ ut et Biba- 
c ulus ' Osce senex Catinaeque puer, Cumana meretrix. * Catina was 
founded (about 728 b.c.) by ChalMdians from Naxos Thuc. vi 3. The 
volcanic pumice-stone abounded there, as it lay at the foot of Aetna to 
the soutli-east Sil. xiv 196 Oatane nimium ardenti vicina Ty- 
phoeo. Serv. Aen. ix 584 nrbe Catinensi. There are considerable 
remains at Catania, pumice 114 — 5 n. 11 12. 

1x14.95. XI 157 n. Plin. xxxvi § 154 ti pumices, qui sunt in usu 
corporum levandorum feminis, iam quidem et viris, . . . . 
laudatissimi sunt in Melo Nisyro et Aeoliis insulis. Mart, xiv 205 1 sit 
nobis aetate puer^ non pumice levis. ib. v 41 6. Ov. a. a. 1 506 nee 
tua mordaci pumice crura teras. Cio. in Clod. 5 p. 105 Beier qui 
effeminare vultumy attenuare vocemt levare corpus potes. Phaedr. iv 
6 22 glabros. Sen. brev. vit. 12 § 6. Pers. rr 85 seq. Plin. ep. 11 11 § 23 
Cort. Auson. epigr. 131. Pitch was also used as a depilatory Philostr. 
ApoU. IV 27 § 1 Ap. seeing the men at Sparta Xeiovt rd <rKi\ri^ persuaded 
the ephors to issue an edict n/jv re irlrrav rOv ^aXcwduty i^aipovrrai koI 
rds rapariKrplas i^eXavvotrras. id. soph, i 25 § 12 describes the sophist 
Skopelianus tus iKde^uKora iavrbv trirry Kal irapariXr plan. Jacobs 
addit. ad Athen. 109 seq. and on Ael. n. a. xiii 28. Meineke on Menand. 

5. 876. Marquardt v 1 152. 

6 TRADUCrr. VENENL ATBIA. [Vini7— 28 

exposes to ridicule, disgraces n 159. xi 31. Sen. de proT. 5 nulla 
modo magis potest deus concnpita tradncere, qnam si ilia ad 
tarpiBsimos defert, ab optimis abigit. id. q. n. tii 31 § 5 quO' 
tidie eomminUcimur, per quae virilitati Jiat iniuria aut tradncatnr, 
quia non potest exui. id. de ben. n 17 § 5 malignis lusorihus propositum 
est eoUusorem tradncere. ib. iy 32 § 3 hie eorpare deformis est^ aspectu 
foedus et ornamenta sna traducturns. 

YENENi I 70 — 2 n. add Plin. tux. § 20 of the medical profession quid 
enim yenenornm fertilius aut unde plures testamentorum insidiae f 
with I 72 cf. Oy. m. i 444 effuso per vulnera nigra Yeneno. ib. ii 198 
nigri . . . Yeneni. QnintiL y 9 § 1 among inartijicialia signa reckons 
liYor. YU 2 § 13 cum quaerimusde ambiguis signis cruditatis et Yeneni 
ApnL m. n 27 — 30 a husband poisoned by a wife. 

FBAJ^GENDA isiAoiNS the statnes and other memorials of great criminals 
were destroyed by public authority x 58 seq. n. 

19 CEBAE In. Yi 163. Oy. f. i 591 dispositas generosa per atria 
ceras. id. amor, i 8 65 Yeteres . . . cerae. Marquardt y 1 246. 

20 ATBIA 8 n. Mart. r7 40 1 atria Pisonum 
stabant cum stemmate toto. Snet. Galb. cited 5 n. YM. y 8 § 3 videhat 
enim se in eo atrio consedisse, in quo Imperiosi illiu^ Torquati severitate 
eonspicua imago posita eratf prudentissimoque vivo succurrehat effigies 
maiorum cnm titnlis snis idcirco in prima aedium parte po- 
ni solere, nt eornm Yirtntes posteri non solaxn legerent Bed 
etiam imitarentar. Sen. ad Polyb. 33 § 3. 0. Miiller Etr. i 254 seq. 
Marquardt rr 33. nobilitas uxica yibtus 

Stob. fl. Lxxxvi 17 iyii tk filap €\>yiv€iav dperriv oZ5a. Eurip. ib. 1 
fikp yap i<Td\6s evyeprji Hftjoty^ dinqp' \ 6 ^ ov dlKaios, xh^ afulvovos 
iraTpbs I Zri^bs TetpvKy, SvcrYcri;; ehcu Sokci. Epich. or Menand. ib. 6 
Of dp cJJ ycyovfhi •§ t^ 4>va€i vp6s rdyadd, | Kctf kWLoyjf ^^ M'W^P* ^(f'rlv 
evyev^s, | ^KvOrjiTls; 6\€6poi' 6 8' ^Kvdxapffit ov S/cv^itj; Sen. ep. 44 e.g. 
§ 4 quis ergo generosus f ad virtutem bene a natura compositus. Cic. in Non. 
Yetustiscere cum enim nobilitas nihil aliud sit^ nisi cognita Yirtns. 
Tollus Hostilius in DH. in 11 ov ydp h dXXt^ rtA t^v dvOpbtvUnpf evyi- 
yeiap i/Trdpx^iP vopi^ofieify aXX' iv apery, ind. Philo virtus, 
21 PAULUS such as the conqueror of Perseus at Pydna, b.c. 168 ii 146. 
On the Aemilii see 9. 192. yii 124. Sil. Yin 293 — 7 genus admotum su- 
peris summumque per altos \ attingebat avos caelum etc. 
oossus III 184. Such as Ser. Cornelius Cossus, who won the spolia opima 
from Lar Tolumnius king of Veii b. c. 437. 
DBUSUS 40. such as the stepson of Augustus Hor. c. iv 4. 
mobibus xiy 52. 22 hos i. e. mores. * Bank 

Yirtue aboYe high birth, and let it take precedence even of the fasces when 
you are consul.' PUn. ep. y 17 § 6 mireque cupio ne nobiles nostri 
nihil in domibus suis pulchrum nisi imagines habeant, quae 
nunc mihi hos adulescentes tacite laudare adhortari et, quod 
amborum gloriae satis magnum est, agnoscere Yidentur. 

23 YIBGAS 136. 
24 DEBES my first demand upon you is etc. 

AKiMi BONA VM. VII 5 § 3 nobiUtatis splendore et animi bonis. Burm. 
on Petron. 75 p. 486. sanotus 127. On the constr. 

cf. Ill 100 n. Bamshom 855 n. 26 pbocebem 

Charisius (i p. 93 16) and Servius (on Aen. i 740. ix 309) obserYO that this 
noun has no nom. or voc. sing. : other grammarians reckon it among plu- 
ralia tantum. Capitolinus however uses procer^ and Paulinus of Nola 


procerU Gesner. Nend Formenlehre 648. cf. infra 47 n. 
GAETULics Cossns Comelius Lentulus cos. b.c. 1 : afterwards Flor. 11 
31=iyl2§40 Gaetulos accolas Syrtium Cosso duce compescuit [Angas- 
tas]: unde illi Gaetulici nomen. Yell. 11 116 §2 quern honorem [triom- 
"phaUsk} . , . . Passientu et Cossus, viri quibiLsdam diversis virtutibus 
celebres, in Africa meruerant, sed Cossus victoriae testimonium etiam in 
cognomen filii contulitf adulescentis in omnium virtutum exem- 
pla geniti. Tac. an. rv 44. 27 silanus 

supply es, Silanus was a cognomen of the lunia gens. Tac. an. iii 24 
illustrium domuum adversa . .. solacio affecit. D. Silanus luniae 
f amiliae redditus. ib. xyi 7 fin. 

28 coNTiNois said of good fortune, accidere being used to denote mis- 
fortunes M. Sen. contr. 31§ 4 p. 306 5 solebas semper optarey ut contin- 
geret tibijilium habere meliorem. Sen. ep. 110 § 3 scis plura mala 
contingere nobis quam accidere. quotiens enim felicitatis causa 
et initium fuity quod calamitas vocabatur I id. ad Folyb. 29 § 5. Flor. 
cited 250 n. Ov, met. xi 268. Phaedr. iv 24 9. Mart, i 99 16—7 optamus 
tibi milienSi Calene. \ hoc si contigerit, fame peribis. xii 6 1. Plin. 
pan. 24 § 3 amhulas inter nos, non quasi contingas i.e. you do not 
expect us to regard your familiar presence among us as a special blessing, 
vouchsafed by the gods. 29 exclamabe libet 

Sen. q. n. lu pr. § 3 libet igitur mihi exclamare ilium poetae incliti 
versum, Stat. s. iv 6 39 tamsn exclamare libebit. Mart. 11 75 9 
exclamare libet * crudelis^ perjide^ praedo' etc. Boeth. cons, i pros. 
4 ad fin. itaque libet exclamare stelliferi conditor orbis etc. 
osiBi Yi 534. schol. h. 1. ' why should I speak' asks Athenagoras 19 * of 
Osiris, ov a<f>ay4vTos inrb Tv<f>(cvoi rod d5€\<f>ov, • . ij*I(rts lyjTov(ra rd fii\rj 
Kol € if p ova a -fjffKriffev els Ta<t>'fiv' rj Ta<f>tj ^ws vvu ^OaipiaKij KaXeirai, . . . ra 
yap arotx^ia Kal rd jxopia avrQu deoTroiovffiPy dWore dWa. dvofiara airrdls ri- 
$ifi€voi, TTjv fi^v rod (tLtov (Tvopdv "Otripiv [supply icaXoui^es], 6d€v, ^acrli 
fiviTTiKuts lirl ry dv€vp4ff€L tQv fieK(av yj twv KapTtov iiriXexSv^cLt ry "Icrt^t, 
cupiJKafievt <rvyxalpofiep» So when Claudius arrived in Tartarus 
Sen. lud. de morte CI. 13 § 4 cum plausu procedunt cantantes evp-qxa- 
fiep, (Tvyxaipofiev, Minuc. Fel. 22 Isis perditum filium [i.e. Osirim] 
cum Oynocephalo [Anubi] suo et calvis sacerdotibus luget plangit inqui- 
ritf et IsiaH miseri caedunt pectora et dolorem infelicissimae matris imi- 
tantur: max invento paryulo gaudet Isis, exultant sacerdotes, 
Cynocephalus inventor gloriatur, nee desinunt annis om- 
nibus vel perdere quod inveniunt, vel invenire quod 
perdunt. nonne ridiculum est vel lugere quod colas vel colere 
quod lugeas t haec tamen Aegyptia quondam nunc et sacra Romana 
sunt, Lact. i 21. Aug. civ. 1). vi 10 § 2 cum in sacris Aegyptiis 
Osirim higeri perditum^ mox autem inventum magno esse 
gaudio derisisset [Seneca], cum perditio eius inventiogue Jinga- 
tur, dolor tamen ille atque laetitia ab eis^ qui nihil perdiderunt inva- 
nerunt, veraciter exprimatur^ * huic tamen^ inquit ^furori certum 
tempos est. tolerabile est, semel in anno insanire\ Plut. Is. et Os. 39 t^ 
5' h^drri iwl ScKa pvkt6s ewl OdXaffcrav KdrcKTi. Kcd rifv Uph.v Kiarriv oi <tto- 
\urral koX oi lepetj €K^pov<n XP^^^^" ^^tos ^x^^^^^^ KL^(jynov, els voti/jlov 
Xa^vres vdaros iyx^ovaif Kal yLperai Kpavy-rj tujp vapoPTWP, ws 
tvprffiipov Tov 'OfflpiSoi. Tert. adv. Marc, i 13 sic et Osiris quod 
semper sepelitur et , » . quaeritur et cum gaudio invenitur, recipro- 
earum frugum et vividorum elementorum et recidivi anni Jidem argumen- 
tantur, Jul, Firmio. Matem. 2 Typhon husband of Isis, learning that 


she lived in incest with her brother Osiris, slew him, and threw his limbs 
piecemeal on the banks of the Nile. Isis took with her a hunter Annbis, 
who is represented with a dog's head, because he tracked the remains by 
the help of hounds. He inventum Osirim Isis tradidit sepulturae . . . 
inadytU habent idolum OsiridU sepultum : hoc anntds . luctibus- plangunt, 
radunt capita, ut miserandum casum regis sui turpitudine dehonestati de- 
fleant capitis, tundunt pectus, lacerant lacertos, veterum wUnerum resteant 
cicatrices, ut annuis luctibus in animis eorum funestae ac miserandae necis 
exitium renascatur. et cum haee certis diebus feeerint, tune fingunt se 
lacerati corporis reliquias quaerere et, cum invenerint, quasi 
sopitis luctibus gaudent. The rationalistio interpretation was 
Osiris is seed [Plut. Is. et Os. 33. Eus. praep. ii 1. iii 12. Suid. Z&yfia]^ 
Isis earth, Typhon heat, the death of Osiris the sowing of the seed, his 
discovery the new growth of spring, o miser homo I invenisse te nescio 
quid gaudes, cum animam tuam ex istis sacris per annos singulos perdas, 
nihil illic invenis, nisi simulacrum, quod ipse posuisti, nisi quod iterum 
aut quaeras aut lugeas, quaere potius spem salutis , , , . et, cum veram 
viam salutis Inveneris, gaude et tunc erecta sermonis libertate pro- 
clama eup-^Kafiep, avyxaipofitp. Herod, in 27. Namatian. i 373 — G. 
cf. the finding of Adonis and Attis and Horus. 

30 OENEBOSUM etc. Marius in Sail. lug. 85 §§ 14 — 16 contemnunt novita- 
tem m£am, ego illorum ignaviam ; mihi fortuna, illis probra obiectantur. 
quamquam ego naturam unam et communem omnium existumo, sed for- 
tissimum quemque generosissimum. ac si iam ex patribus Albini 
aut Bestiae quaeri posset, mene an illos ex se gigni maluerint, quid respon- 
suros creditis, nisi sese liberos quam optimos voluisse f 
QUI etc. obs. the omission of est in a relative sentence. Hor. ep. ii 9 139 
cui sic extorta voluptas, 

32 NANUM I 35 n. pdyvop. the older Latin word was pumilio Gell. xix 13. 
ib. XVI 7 § 10 nanits is classed among the innovations of Laberius. Dwarfs 
often formed part of the household of the rich Suet. Tib. 61 annalihus 
suis vir consularis inseruit frequenti quodam convivio, cui et ipse affuerit, 
interrogatum eum a quodam nano astante mensae inter copreas. 
id. Aug. 83 Cas. id. Domit. 4 per omne gladiatorum spectaculum ante 
pedes ei stabat puerulus coocinatus parvo portentosoque 
capite, cum quo plurimum fabulabatur, nonnumquam serio. 
auditus est certe, dum ex eo quaerit, * ecquid sciret, cur sibi visum esset 
ordinatione proximo Aegijpto praejicere Maecium RufumJ* Prop. v=iv 
8 87 — 42 at a wanton feast Lygdamus ad cyathos .... Nilotcs tibicen 
erat, crotalistria Phidis, \ . , , n&nvLS et ipse suos breviter con- 
cretus in artus { iaotabat truncas ad cava buxa manus. Hor. 
s. i 3 45 — 7 adpellat . .pater . . pullum, male parvus | si cui filius 
est, ut abortivus fuit olim \ Sisyphus, where schol. Cruq. M. An* 
tonio triumviro pumilio fuisse dicitur intra bipedalem staturam, 
quern ipse Sisypbum appellabat ob ingenii calliditatcm. Mart, xiv 
212 pumilus. Philodem. irepl ffrifjieluu col. 2 3 in Gompertz Hercul. stud. 
I 4 among other rarities p yivSfievoi ^/a/ttijxi^s &vdp<>jTros iu " AXe^avdpei^, 
K€<f>a\^v 8i Ko\o(r<TiK^v ix^^t ^0' ^* iafpvpoKdirovp, 6v iwedelKvvop ol rapi- 
XsvraL also pygmies in Akoris (on the Nile) like those brought by 
Antonius from Syria. Suet. Aug. 43 until it was forbidden by a decree 
of the senate Augustus sometimes exhibited Koman knights as stage- 
players and gladiators, postea nihil sane praeterquam adulescentulum L. 
Icium honeste natum exhibuit, tantum ut ostenderet, quod erat bipedali 
minor, librarum septemdecim ac vocis immensae» Dwarfs with tam- 


boarinds are s^en in the antich. d'EreoIan. btdnzi 11 tav. 91. 92. For 
other representations, where they generally appear bald luv. y 171 n., see 
O, Jahn arcbaol. Beitrage 480— 4. Friedlander i^ 39 seq. Lamprid. Al. 
Ser. 34 § 2 nanos et nan as et moriones et vocales exoletos et omnia 
acroamata et pantomimos populo donavit; qui autem usuinon erant, singu- 
lis eivitatibus putavit alendoa singulos, ne gravarentur specie mendicorum. 
They were sometimes exhibited as gladiators Stat. s. i 6 57 seq. DCass. 
LXYii 8 § 4 Fabric. Lncr. ly 1162 parvula, pnmilio. The Sybarites kept 
dwarfs and had special terms to designate them Ath. xii 518^^ iirixdfpt'd' 
j^tip di Tap* auToiis dtd T^y rpv(f>^v AvOpcoTcipia /itKpd rods CKiarralovSt 
u9 <p7i<TiP b TifjLaios, rods KoKovfUvovi wapd tktl (TTlXirijivai, Like the feet of 
women in China, the bodies of these dwarfs were distorted and stunted 
by art [Longin.] de subl. 44 § 6 taairep of/v {el ye <prjffl tovto xiirrdv iffriv) 
dKOuUf rd yXtaTTOKOfiaf iu ott ol HvyfiaioLy xaXovfjievoi di polpoi 
rpiipoPTai, ov fiopop KuXisi T<2v iyK€K\ei<rpiiviav rdi avj^-fiaea^ 
6.\\d K0.I ffupaipei bid rbv TpoKei/xevop ro<s <Tu)iia<n, de(rfi6p. ovtus 
airaactp do6\€iapf k&p ^ SiKcuoTdrrj, ^vxv^ yXwrroKOfiop Koi Koipbv bij ris dire- 
pi^paro defffiurrripiov. The fairies of pantomimes are dwarfed among us 
by chemical rather than mechanical means. Philostorg. x 11 a Syrian, 
Antonius, of five cubits and a span, bandylegged: an Egyptian 
dwarf who imitated partridges in their cage 5^ Alyvimos ovrta Kart- 
/3/>axw''«"0, (OffTe firj^ dxap^oTcus radt ip rots ^XoU/Sots vipdiKat iKjufieiirOaL 
Kal avpa0up€ip avrifi vpbt (piv ckcIpovs' to 5k vapabo^orepop, 6ti Kcd if <^po- 
tnjo'it ipijp r<fi dpOptlh-ifi ovdep vtco TTJi ftpaxirrrp-oi Kara^XairTOfUpri, Kcd 
ydp K<d TO ^Oeyfia ovk &fiov<rof 7}P koI ot \6yoi tou vov vapeTxop opdadai 
rrjp ycppaioTTiTa. Plin. vii § 75. Atlanta xi 24. 

ziii 48. Schol. ut si nanum gigantem vocemus. cf. Yerg. Aen. iv 
246 seq. Ov. m. ly 630 seq. hie hominum cunctos ingenti corpore 
praestans | lapetionides Atlas fuit etc. The names of heroes, Priam, 
Achilles etc. were sometimes given to slaves Orelli inscr. 2783. Hence 
Isid. ocig. I 36 24 antiphrasis est sermo e contrario intellegenduSf «£.... 
Pareae et Eumenides Furiae quia nulli parcant vel benefaciant Jwc tropo 
et nani Atlantes et caeci videntes et vulgo Aethiopes appellantur 
argent ei. cf. Mart, vi 77 7 — 8 non aliter monstratur Atlas cum com- 
pare ginno \ qitaeque vehit similem helua nigra Libyn. 

33 AETHioPEM II 23. VI 600. Such slaves were much used in Home 
V 53 n. Jebb's Theophrastus p. 199. In an entertainment given by 
Nero to Tiridates a.d. 66 none but Ethiopians, men, women and chil- 
dren, were admitted to the theatre DCass. lxiii 3 § 1. 
PASTAU xxTOBTAMQUE V 3 n. 4 u. 46 n. a slave who both as a dwarf and as 
deformed would fetch a high price. Suet. Aug. 83 ' Augustus used to 
amuse himself with the prattling of Syrian and Moorish boys, nam pu- 
milos atque distortos et omnes generis eiusdem, ut ludihria naturae 
nuUique ominis abhorrebat.* Quintil. ii 5 § 11 distortis et quocunqne 
modo prodigiosis eorporibus apud quosdam mains est pretium, 
quam iis, quae nihil ex communis habitus bonis perdiderunt. 
[id.] decl. 298 p. 575 habent hoc quoque dellciae divitum : malunt quaerere 
omnia contra naturam, gratus est ille debilitate, ille ipsa infelici- 
tate distorti corporis placet. Pint, de curios. 10 p. 520°. Plin. h. n. 
Tii § 34 gignuntur et utriusque sexus quos Hermaphroditos vocamu^^ olim 
androgynoM vocatos et in prodigiis habitos^ nunc vero in deliciis. 
Pompeitu magmts in omamentis theatri mirabiles fama posuit effigies ob id 
diligentius magnorum artijlcum ingeniis elaboratas, inter quas legitur 
EutyehtM a viginti liberie rogo inlata Trallibus enixa xxx partus^ Alcippe 


eUphantum, qttamquam id inter ostenta est, ib. §§ 7^ — 75 proeerissimum 
hominem aetas nostra divo Claudio principe Gabbaram nomine ex Arabia 
advectum novem pedum et totidem unciarum vidit, fuere sub divo Augusta 
semipede additOj quorum corpora eius miraculi gratia in eonditorio Sallus- 
tianorum adservabantur hortorum; Pnsioni et Secundillae erant 
nomina. eodem praeside minimas homo dnos pedes et palmam 
Conopas nomine in deliciis luliae neptis eius fait, et malier 
Andromeda libetta luliae Augustae. Manium Maximum et 
M. Tullium equites Komanos binum oubitorum fuisse auctor 
est M. Yarro, et ipsi vidimus in loculis adseryatos. sesquipe- 
dales gigni, quosdam longiores, in trimatu inplentes ritae 
cursum, hand ignotum est. Sen. ep. 47 § 9 ridicula mancipia. GelL 
XI 13 § 10 homines insigni deformitate ad facienda ridicula. 
ib. y 8 § 6 fatua grandi capite. Tao. xii 49 Cappadocia£ procurator 
Julius PelignuSf ignavia animi et deridioulo corporis iuxta despicien- 
duSf sed Claudio perquam familiariSf cumprivatus olim conversatione scur- 
rarum iners otium oblectaret, Nikol. Dam. in Strab. xy 719 Porus an Indian 
king sent to Augustus among other presents a man without arms, t6v re 
*Epfiajff awd tCjv uifii2v d.(f>'Qp'rifjjivov Ik vrprlov rdf ftpaxtoyaif dv Kcd ijfieis etdo- 
fi€v, there was a special market in Bome for these misgrowths, deliciae 
Piut. mor. 520 (Sairep oZv iu'Fibfi'Q rivks rhs ypa<f>ki koL roifi dydpidyras Kcd vij 
Aia tA KaWrj T<dv u)viu>p iraLduv koI yvvaiKuiv iu firjdepl \&y(fi TiBifievoi^ irepl t^p 
Tbiv Tepdriav ay opbiv dvaoTpi^ovrai, rods dicv^fiovs Koi Toi>s yaXedyKtavas 
Kai To^s Tpio(pdd\fiovs Kcd Toin (rTpov6oK€<f>d\ovi Karafiayddvovret koX ^ovp- 
Tfj, d TL yeyivrp-at (r6fifiLKT0v eldos KdTOiP(i)\iop ripas. d\\' ^cti' 
auvex^Jifi Tis iirdyrf rots tolovtois airroits Oed/xaaif rax^ xKrffffiovijv Kcd vavriav 
t6 Trpdyna irapd^eu Clem. Al. paed. iii § 30 dW* at ye AaTeidrepai rovnav 
6pv€ii ^IvSiKovs Kai rawvas MrjdiKoirs iKTpitpovaiv ical cvvavaK\ivoVTat 
Toli (f>o^ols vai^ovaai, (FiKivvoit ripaffi yavv jxevaiy koI top 
fih QepalTTjv aKovovaoL yeXtSaiv, airal dk iroX wrt/xijTous (hvovfiepai 
Qepclras o v k iir* dpSpdcrtp ofiojpjyoiSf dW ix^ iKeipots auxovaiPy & 
Sv dx^os iarl yijif xal XVP^^ M^'' "fapoptZffi acotppovoOaap MeXira/oi; iroXX^ 
5ca<pipovffap KVvidioVf Koi Trpea^vTrjp irapa^\iirov<n SiKaioPj evirpcTicrrepoPf 
olfxaif riparoi a pyv pUPi^Tov , . , , koI cis rd dpyvpioprp-a dvSpdiroda 
(nra0<Z<ri koI diappnrTovcn ri xpi/^ara. Philostr. soph, i 8 § 4 Favorinus 
bequeathed to Herodes his books and house and Autolekythus tjp 5* ovtos 
'Ivdos fikp Kai iKaptas fiiXas^ ddvpfia 8j^ ^"ELpuSov re koI ^a^(Spipov' 
^vixvivoprai yap avToifS di'^yep iyKarafiiypvs ^IpSlkois 'ArrtKci Kai TrcjrXayi;- 
fiiPTj T-g yXujTTTi ^ap^apl^ujv. So among the slaves of Nasidienus Hor. s. ii 
8 l^fuscus Hydaspes. 34 the daughter of Agenor 

Hor. c. Ill 27 25 Europe niveum doloso \ credidit tauro lathis. Ov. m. ii 
836 seq. 36 tigbis the name of one of Actaeon's 

hounds Ov. m. in 217. 37 ergo since a great name is 

sometimes ironically applied. Plut. qu. conv. ii 1 6 § 2 SdKvovai fidWop ol 
did Tujv eixprifxdyp opeidi^ovres' roi)$ iropripovi 'AptflrrctSas Kai rovs SeiXovs 
'A^iXXets KaXovPTCS' 6 Kai to 2o0o#cX^ous OiStVous* ravrrfi Kp^up 6 wkftos, 
oif^ dpxvs 0iXof. 38 TU Ponticus. 

CRETicus II 67. Q. Caecilius Metellus, cons. B.C. 69, in the two following 
years completed the conquest of Crete, but could not obtain a triumph 
until B.C. 62. He afterwards received the title Creticus (Flor. in 7 § 6. 
Cic. ad Att. i 19 § 2. Veil, ii 40 § 5. App. p. 47 27 Bekker iSpidfipevae 
Kai Kp7)TiK6s cKX-ndr}). The nobility of the Metelli appears from the line 
of Naevius Ascon. in Cic. Verr. act. i§ 29 fato Metelli Bomae fiunt 
consules. casiebinus vii 90. Ser. Sulpicius 

38—43] BUBELLIUS. lULUS. AGGER. 1 1 

Camerinns was cons. b.o. 500, and in the early period of the repnhlio 
other members of the family filled high offices. Under the empire the 
Gamerini again appear in history DCass. lxiii 18 Xov\vIkiov Ka/ie- 
plvov avdpa rvov trptaTuv, On the thought cf. 

Plin. pan. 3 § 4 non enim periculum est, ne cum loquar de humani- 
tate, exprobrari sibi superbiam credat; cum de frugali- 
tate, luxuriam etc. 39 RUBelli C. Bubel- 

lius Blandus married a.d. 33 lolia, daughter of Drusus the son of Tibe- 
rius Tac. an. yi 27. 45. By her he had a son Kubellius Plautus ib. xiv 
22 quasi iam depulso Neroney quisnam delig-eretur anquirebant; et omnium 
ore Bubellius Plautus celebratWy cui nobilitas per matrem ex 
lulia f amilia [cf. quae sanguine fulget luli Iuy. 42]; ipse placita 
maiorum colebat hahitu severo casta et secreta domo quantoque metu occuU 
tior, tanto plusfam^e adeptus. It was a charge against Agrippina ib. xiii 
19 destinavisse earn Bubellium Plautum, per maternam origi* 
nem pari ao Nero gradu a divo Augusto [Plautus was great- 
grandson of Tiberius, stepson of Augustus: Nero's mother, Agrippina, 
was daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina, daughter of Augustus's 
daughter lulia] ad res novas extollere. When he was put to death by 
Nero's orders a.d. 62 he left a wife and children ib. xiy 64. One son 
appears (as was usual) to have assumed his grandfather's cognomen, and 
in Juvenal's time to have been notorious for his pride of hirth, cf. infr. 
42 n. Fritz Wolfgramm Kubellius Plautus und seine Beurtheilung bei 
Tacitus uud lu venal. £in Beitrag zur Geschichte des Claudisch-Iulischen 
Geschlechts. Prenzlau, Uhse. 1871. 8vo. 40 tumss 

Tac. h. I 16 Nerot quern longa Caesarum serie tumentem etc. 


42 QUAE BubeUius Plautus the father, who was the son of Julia, is here 
confounded with his son (Haakh in Pauly). sanguine Tac. 
an. lY 52 Agrippina calls herself caelesti sanguine ortam. ib. xii 58. 

lULi 1 100 n. XII 70. Aen. i 267 at puer Ascanius, cui 
nunc cognomen Julo. ib. 288 Julius a magno demissum nomen 
lulo. ib. VI 756 seq. id. g. iii 48. Strab. xiii p. 594 seq. * Caesar was 
inclined to favour the Hians, both as a Boman (the Bomans regarding 
Aeneas as their progenitor), and also because he was called Julius, from 
Julos one of his ancestors, who as being a descendant of Aeneas took the 
name from Julus [son of Aeneas]. Accordingly he gave them land and 
liberty and immunity from state burdens, pri'^eges which they retain to 
this day.' App. b. c. ii 68. 154. iii 16. Mart, vi 8 1. On the nobility of 
the lulii and their descent from Julus see DH. i 70. Klausen Aeneas u. 
d. Penaten 1059 seq. Venus genetrix is on their coins. Caesar claimed 
descent from Yenus ib. 731. 1067. Caesar in Suet. Caes. 6. Liv. i 3 § 2. 
VelL n 41 § 2. Tac. an. iv 9. DCass. xli 34 § 2. xliii 14 § 6. 22 § 2. 

43 § 2. XLiv 37. lxiii 29 § 3. cf. Schwegler i 306. 338. Serv. Aen. i 
267. So Julius Proculus DH. n 03. Plut. Bom. 28 § 1. AV. orig. 15, 
where Cato is cited, is a forgery. 43 conddcta 
Tibull. I Q 79 firmaque conductis annectit Ucia telis. 

AOOEBE T 153 n. VI 588 plebeium in circo positum est et in aggere 
fatum, Hor. s. i 8 15 aggere in aprico spatiarL This mound, which 
lay to the east of Itome, is ascribed to Servius Tullius (Liv. i 44 aggere et 
fossis et muro circumdat urbem. Strab. v p. 234 * Servius enlarged the 
city by the addition of the Esquiline and Yiminal hills. These also are 
open to assault from without. Accordingly they dug a deep trench, 
throwing up the earth inside, and carried a mound six stadia in length 


along the inner brink of the trench ; on this they raised a wall and towers 
from the Colline gate to the Esqmline. Halfway in the monnd is a third 
gate, bearing the same name as the Yiminal hill ') or to Tarqniniaa Sn- 
perbus. Plin. h. n. in §67 clauditur ah oriente [Boma] aggere Tar- 
quinii Superbii inter prima opere mirabili ; namque eum muris aequavit^ 
qua maxime patebat aditu piano. Perhaps Tarqoin completed and 
enlarged the work of Servius DH. ly 54. The thickness of the naonnd 
was 50 feet, its length 7 stadia ib. ix 68, bat see Strab. 1. L Cicero de 
rep. 11 6 calls it maximns, Plin. xxxvi §104 agger is vast am spa- 
tinm. From hence criminals were precipitated Suet. Cal. 27. Schweg- 
ler 1 727 4. 

44 iNQUis says Kubellins. yuloi pahs ultima. 
Luc. Yi 690 — 1 non ultima turbae | pars ego Homanae, Ma-ffni ela- 
rissima proles. Sen. brev. vit. 13§7altimomanoipio. 

45 !▼ 98 n. 46 CECROPiDES 53. cf. 1 100 n. vi 
187 Troiugenae. lustin. ii 6 § 7 ante Deucalionit tempora regent habuere 
[Athenae] Cecropem. ApoUod. iii 14 1 § 1 KiKpoxf/ aurbxOwp . , r^y *Ar- 
Tt/c^s i^aaiXevcre irpioTos. Lucian Timon 23 tvycviffrepoif . . • • roO K^- 
Kpo'Kot^ Kddpov. VIVAS *long life to yon.* DOass. 
Lxxii 18 § 2 Commodus after despatching 100 bears in the amphi- 
theatre took a draught of sweet wine iced in a cup shaped like a clab ; on 
which the populace and we all toOto 5^ t6 iv roit avfiwoalois elaudbs 
\4y€(rdai i^e^oi^a'afietf * j^ijcreiasJ' cf. viva^ vive. 6vato rrjs evyeuelai. * I 
wish you joy.' 47 cf. 237 seq. Hor. s. 1 6 6 seq. 

TAMEN though you scorn the poor. iua plebb 

Ov. m. IX 306 una ministrarum media de plebe Galanthis. 
QUiBiTEM not used in the sing, by good prose writers. It is found in 
poets and in some legal formulae Neue Formenlehre i 456. cf. lav. 26 
procerem. Becker ii 1 21. 48 tacundum )( vii 145. 

49 NOBiLis iNDOCTi noMUs is nsed as a substantive cf. in 233 plnrimns 
aeger. vii 30 dives avarus. 170 veter^s caecos. xiii 124 dubii 
aegri. Cic. Lael. § 54 insipiens fortunatus. Gossrau on Yerg. 
Aen. II 562. Eur. Oed. fr. 6. Andr. 631. Liv. v 20 § 6 otiosorum 
nrbanorum. iv 48 § 18 Weissenb. xxii 84 § 8 plebeios nobiles. 
Luc. V 699 felix naufragus. vii 373 sacros canos. 
VBNiET QUI VII 184. TOGATA opposed to amUs 

industrius. * Among low-bom civilians will be fonnd great lawyers, among 
low-bom soldiers great captains.' On the toga as the garb of peace 
and of the law-courts cf. 240 n. Two examples of orators, who raised 
themselves from the lowest rank by their talents, are given by Tac. 
dial. 8 quo aordidius et abiectiu^ nati sunt quoque notabilior paupertas et 
angustiae rerum nascentes eos circumsteterunt, eo clariora et ad demon- 
strandam oratoriae eloquentiae utilitatem illustriora exempla sunt, quod 
sine commendatione natalium . . . per multos iam annos potentissimi sunt 
eivitatis. 50 lURis kodos Gell. xiii 10 § 1 Labeo 

Antistius was a master of . grammar, logic, etymology, eaque praecipue 
scientia ad en o dand o s plerosque iuris laqueos utehatur. cod. iv 29 
23 pr. antiquae iurisdictionisretia et dlfficillimos nodos resolventes 
et supervacuas dlstinctiones exsulare cupientes. leouh 

AENiouATA soLVAT cod. I 14 12 § 1 legum aenigmata solvere et 
omnibus aperire. solvat students of law in their 

fourth year were termed lytae (Xi5raO» in their fifth prolytae dig. prooem. 
§ 5. 51 Hic another plebeian cf. hie 48. 

EUPHBATEN 169. serves against the Parthians and Armenians. See the 


stations of the fleets and anmes of Borne in Tao. an. iv 5 praecipuum 
robur Bhennm iuxta, commune in Germanos Gallosque subsi- 
dinm oeto legiones erant .... dehine initio ah Syria tuque ad flnmen 
Enphraten, quantum ingenti terrarum $inu arr&iturf quattuor legioni- 
Imt coercitaf accoUs Hibero Albanoque et aliis regibus, qui magnitudine 
nostra proteguntur adversum externa imperia» Stat. b. y 1 86 — ^91 
magnum late dimittere in orbem \ Romulei mandata ducis viresque mo- 
dosque | imperii tractare manu ; quae laurus ah arcto, \ quid vagus E u- 
phrates, quid ripa binominis Istrif \ quid Bheni vexilla ferant^ quantum 
uUimus orbis \ cesserit et refugo circumaona gurgite Thule. Fhilo leg, 
ad G. 2 II 647 M in a striking description of the greatness of Borne 
dpxM • • • '''^'^ vKcCffTWP Kol djfayKaioT.drcjp fiepwv r^ oUovfji^v^Sy d $^ koI 
KvpUas &p res olKovfiivtiv dwoif dvcl TorafAoTs bpL^oiiivqv^ ilv^pdrjj 
T€ xal 'Pi)y(p T^ jx^p aTOTefivo/xivifi Tcpfiaviay Kal Sffa Otipiw* 
Z4<rr€pa idvri, "EOippdr^g di HapditiP Kal rd Xapfiaruif yivij Kal 
2iKV0(ap, dwtp ovx ^TTov i^fjypicaTai t(2v VepfiaviKWv. 
BATAYi the Batavi or Bat&vi (Lucan i 431), a German people (Tac. Germ. 
29. h. IV 12), who occupied the country between the rivers Bhine Waal 
and Maas. They made an unsuccessful attempt under Claudius Civilis 
(a. d, 69) to shake off the yoke of Bome ib. 12—37. 54—79. v 14—26. 
ib. I 59 ferox gens. id. G. 29 omnium harum gentium virtute prae- 
cipui Batavi... nee trihutis contemnuntur nee publicanue atterit : 
exempti oneribus et collationihiu et tantum in usum proeliorum eepositi^ 
velut tela atque arma^ bellis reservaniur, Sil. iii 607 — 8 to Domitian 
at tu transcendes, Germanicey fatta tuorum \ iam puer auricomo prae- 
formtdate Batavo. 52 industbius Sen. cited 

on 70. 53 CECBOPIDES 46 n. The son of Cecrops 

(king of Athens) is aptly compared to a Hermes, 

HERMAK a bust Supported on a quadrangular pillar Plut. an seni sit ger. 
resp. 28 § 4 p. 797 tup 'Ep/xwy rods irpea^vripovi dxetpas Kal dvodas, 
Themist. or. 26 p. 316* irpd p^p AaiddXov rerpdyupoi rjp ov /jlopop ^ tQp 
'Eppuop ipyofflaf dXX^ Kal ilj tu>p Xoiirdp dpdpidvTujp. The noble, who has 
nothing but his birth to recommend him, is as useless as if he had 
neither hands nor feet. DL. v § 82 Idivp irore [Demetrius Phalereus] 
pedpKTKOP dauTop *Z5oiJ' i(f>7i ^ Terpdytapoi'Iipfirjs ^^wv (rijppxi, KoiXiaPf aldoToPf 
TriSsr/fOPo.* Stob. fl. iv 68 f>/Xtir7ros toi>$ 'JLdrjpaiovs etxa^e roTs 'Bpjuaiy, 
a)f ffrhfxa puSvop Itxovffi koX aldoia fji€yd\a» Sidon. ep. iv 12 ilium ipsum 
Hermam stolidissimum, of a blockhead. Liban. ep. 1308 fidWop 
&p Tis rott dpdpidffip oItUlp iin^peyKep ipcariK^p rj roilfTCf, id. or. i 200 
of students at lecture some stand like stocks with wrist idly resting on 
wrist, \i0Lpois ioiKoretf Kapwtp Kapvop iTripdWopres, Eur. Electr. 383 
seq. ov juLtj <f>pop^<T€d* , ot k€p<2p bo^aapudnap \ irXi;/3cts TrXai'ao-tfe, r^ 3' 6p.CKl<^ 
ppoTods I KpipeiTC Kal TotJ rjdecrtp roi^s evyepeis; \ ol yd,p toioOtoi rds iroXets 
oUoOtrtp etT | Kal dii)\ al di adpKCi at Kcpal <pp€P(ap | dyd\p.aT 
dyopds elffip. Cic. in Pis. § 19 trunctts atque stipes, p. red. in sen. § 14, 
ApuL apol. 66 fin. frutex cf. Plant, most, i 1 12. Strab. cited on 33. 


IMAGO ' you are a breathing statue :' there seems 
to be also an allusion to the imagines maiorum^ which were a chief 
distinction of nobles. 56 teucbobum pboles 

1 100 n. Tac. an. iv 55. Hieron. ep. 108 = 27 3 Paula, whose mother 
was descended from the Scipios and Gracchi, her father from Agamem- 
non, married ib. 4 Tozotius, qui Aeneae et luliorum altissimum 
aangninem trahit. unde etiam Jilia eius Christi virgo Eustochium 


I alia nuncupatur , . . et haee dicimtu, non quod habentibus grandia- 
nnt^ sed quod contemnentibus mirabilia, ioeculi homines suspiciunt eos, 
qui his pollent privilegiis, Iob. belL i 24 § 2 Herod's daughter-in-law 
Glaphyra provoked Salome yeveaXoyovffo. r^v airrrjt evyipeiay Koi cat vaaw 
T(Sv Kard rwp ^crlXeioif etri deffT^is, Kara trar^pa fiiv diro TrjfiipoVf Kard 
firjTipa d^ dwd Aapeiov tov 'Ta-Tcunrews ovaa. As late as 1284 abp. Peek- 
ham rebuked the Welsh for their boast of a Trojan origin Warton- 
Hazlitt 1 100. ANinALiA MUTA this 

illustration of true nobility from the inferior creation was familiar 
to the schools Quintil. y 11 § 4 an example of induction * qv^d est pomum 
generosissimum 9 nonne quod optimum V concedetur. *quid equus? 
qui generosissimus? nonne qui optimus?' et plura in eundem 
modum, deinde^ cuius rei gratia rogatum est: 'quid homo? nonne 
is generosissimus, qui optimus?' fatendum erit Apul. apol. 21 
hocine Iwmini opprobrari [poverty] qv>od nulli ex animalibus vitio datur^ 
non aquilae, non tauroy nonleoni} equus si virtutibus suis polleat 
ut sit aequabilis vector et cursor perniz, nemo ei penuriam 
pabuliexprobrat, tu mihi vitio dabis nonfacti vel dicti alicuius pravi- 
tatem, sed quod vivo gracili lare etc. Stob. fl. cvi 8 6 KpdTiarot tmrot 
iTifi€\€(TTipav ?x" I AXXou OeparreLav k.t.\. cf. Theogn. 183 — 6 Kpioifs fih 
Kol 6vovs Stfif/AC^a, K6pv€y Kal tinrovs \ eCryeviatj koU tis ^odXtraL i^ d'yaB(iv\ 
^T^ffecrdai' yijfiai d^ KaKrjv KaKov oit fieKedcUvei | iffOXbs dvifp, 

57 GENEROSA Verg. g. Ill 75 pecoris geneioai pullus. Serv. id est, qui 
ex optima genere descendit. Bremi on Nep. xxv 1 § 3, who compares 
yepvcuos, nempe Hand. Turs. iv 161 ' interrogatione 
facta respondent Latin! offirmando per nempe ^ quando res ipsa aperta 
aut omnibus nota, aut necessaria videtur esse.' infr. x 110 n. 

58 PALMA cod. Theodos. xv 7 6 quidquid illud est [of the horses in the 
Circus], quod palmarum numero gloriosum et celebratis utrinque vic- 
toriis nobile congregatur. Suet. Ner. 22. 

59 o^ tbe shouts in the circus cf. ix 144. Mart, x 53 1. Sen. ep. 83 § 7 
ecce circensium obstrepit clamor, subita aliqua et universa 
voce feriuntur aures meae. nee cogitationem meam excutiunt nee 
interrumpunt. Quintil. i 6§ 45 tota saepe theatra et omnem circi tur- 
bam exclamasse barbare scimus, Auson. epitaph. 35 1. Plin. ep. ix 6 
§ 2. Bulenger de circo 47. 60 nobilis lustin. ix 2 
§. 16 viginti milia nobilium equarum ad genus faciendum in 
Macedoniam missa. 61 in aequore in the course. 

62 but the breed of Coryphaeus and Hirpinus 
are a worthless herd,^ such as their masters would gladly dispose of, if 
etc. pecu^ is often used contemptuously mutum et turpe pecus etc. 
COBYPHAEI Kopvipalov, leader. postebitas on the 

pedigree of horses cf. Stat. s. v 2 21 seq. Bomulei qualis per munera 
circi I cum pulcher visu et titulis generosus avitis | exspectatur 
equus, cuius de stemmato longo | felix cmeritos habet ad- 
missura parentes, | ilium omnes acuunt plau^us, ilium ipse volantem | 
pulvis et incurvae gaudent agnoscere vietae. Cypr. de spect. 5 quam 
vana sunt ipsa certamina, lites in coloribu^, contentiones in cursibus, 
favor es in honoribusy gaudere quod equus velocior fuerit, maerere quod 
pigrior^ annos pecoris computare^ consules nosse^ aetates discere^ pro- 
sapiam designare, avos ipsos atavosque commemorare! quam 
hoc totum otiosum negotiumy immo quam turpe et ignominiosumy hunCy in- 
quamy memoriter totam equini generis sobolem computan- 
tern et sine offensa spectaculi cum magna velocitate refer.'> 


entemi DChr. or. 15 i268D l<rrt Si cij irepi ro^t yepwalovs Kal rodt 
fiyevets. tovtous yap ol i^ &PXVi Mfiaaav roifi ev yeyopdras rp6s 
dp€Ti/jv, oifSiv iroKvirpayfjLovovpTes ix tIvcjv cUtIv uarepov di ol iK ri2v irdXou 
thwtlbjv KoX Ttav iudd^tjtf virb rivuv evyiveit iKXi^Orfjav. rovrov 5k (njfielojf 
caijtieraTov' ivl ydp twp dKcKTpvovuv Kal tcjp iirwuiP Kol rwv kuvQv dUfieipe 
To6po/ia, (aawep xaX itrl twp avdptbvtap ct^e to 'wa\ai6v. h ydp Xtttop Oea* 
ffd/iepot Oufioeid^ Kal yavpop Kal irpos Spofiop ed lxo»'Ta, ov 
tv06fi€PO5 eire e| ^Apxadias 6 vaT^p avrov irvx^^ w** ^^tc c/c 
yiiriHat etre GerToXoj, <l>rf<rlp evyeprj top Ittwop avrop Kpipuip, 
so with hounds and cocks, ovkovp SrjXop &n Ktd ev* dp0 ptbirwp ovT<ai 
fxoi dp, ware 0$ dp ^ irpos dper^p jcaXws yeyoPibSf tovtop vpoiT- 
^K€i yeppatop \iy€<r6at, k&p firjSels iTrlarrfrat roifs yopiai avrov 
fijldk Tovs irpoyopovs, Ambr. enarr. in ps. i § 46 quid gloriaris^ quia 
multa te servitia anibiuntf multi amid tegunt latera tua, plurimi te equi 
tequuntuTt qnorum tu enarras prosapiam et tamquam maio- 
rum tuorum genus? praefers divitiaSf quia conviviis pascis aodales, 
utinam egenos pasceres ! utinam non iocorum ministros, sed votorum ad- 
iutores ! iactas quia prodeunti ilico ceditur, et homines te tamquam feram 
declinant aut bestiam. id. de Nabuthe § 54 quid te iactas de nobilitatis 
prosapia / soletis et canum vestrorum origines sicut divitum recensere : so- 
letis et equorum vestrorum nobilitatem sicut consulum 
praedicare. ille ex illo patre generatus est et ilia matre 
editus: ille ayo illo gaudet, ille se proavis adtollit. sed 
nihil istud currentem iuvat; non datur nobilitati palma, sed 
cursui.* deformior est victus in quo et nobilitas generis pe- 
riclitatur. cave igitur, dives, ne in te erubesoant tuorum 
merita maiorum. ne forte et illis dicatur *cur talem insti- 
tuistis, cur talem elegistis heredem?' non in auratis laque- 
aribus neo in porphyreticis orbibus heredis est meritum. 
See Hemst. and Gron. on Lucian Nigrin. 29 ras ip ry iroXei rapaxds Sie^^et 
Kol TOP (aOuTjxop aimap Kal rd Oiarpa koX t6p lirirodpofiop koX rds tup tjplo' 
Xwy elKOPai Kal rd tup tva-tap dpofiara Kal toi>s iv tois (rreptjirois irepi 
To&rujp dtaXoyovs. ttoXX^ ydp ds a\r}dci% ii iTrrrofiapia Kal ttoWlSp r}87] airov- 
Saiup tXvai 8okovptu)p iTretXrjirTai. Friedlander 11^ 189 — 192 and in Mar- 
quardt iv 617—8. 63 hirpini Mart, iii 63 12 

where he is describing a belliu homo, Hirpini veteres qui bene novit 
avoB. lapis ap. Lips, ad Ital. et Hisp. 26 (op. 11 572 Vesal.) hirpinus n. 


The grandsire Aquilo had won the first prize 130 times, the second 88 
times, the third 37 times (ib.). See the names of several horses Orelli 
inscr. 2593. 4322. 64 ibi in the circus. 

RESPECTUS Suet. Ner. 20 a Greek proverb 
occultae musicae nullum esse respectum, i.e. ttjs \av0apov(T7]i fiova-iK^s 
oi586i$ X670S. 65 seq. the horse of highest pedigree is 

sold for a small sum to draw a cart, if he wins no palms in the course. 

66 EPIREDIA schol. ornamenta redarum aut 
plaustra, Forcell., Gesner, Scheller, Freund understand by the word 
lorum seufunem et collare, quo equus ad redam alligatur. So Orelli, but 
Dncange currus. On the form cf. Quintil. 1 5 § 68 iunguntur autem [voces] 
, , .ex diiobus peregrinis, ut epiredium. nam cum sit praepositio eirl 
Graeca, reda Gallicum, nee Graecus tamen nee Gallus utitur composito, 
Romani suum ex utroque alieno fecerunt. The word reda (^^5a, ftaidlop, 
p€8iop) is however found in late Greek apocal. 18 13. Suicer paiUov, 

TBiTO coLLO Mart. IX 58 4 ruptae recutita 

1 6 MOLA ASINABU. TITUU. [VnieS— 09 

€olla mulae, 67 seomipbdss seeoi? 

to occur nowhere else. 

MOLAU mills were commonly worked bv asses (Ov. a. a. ui 290 
ut rudit ad scdbram turpis asella molam. id. f. vi 311 seq. 818. 
Yarr. r. r. ii 6 § 5 plerique [asini] deducuntur ad mo las. Colom. tii 1 
§ 3 iam vero molarum et conficiendi frumenti paene soUemnis est 
huius pecoris labor. Cato reckons among fanning stock 11 § 7 asi- 
num molarium; and ib. § 4 molas asinarias. anthol. Meyer 960. 
Catnll. xcvii 10. St Mark 9 42 /tuXos 6vik6%, St Matt. 18 6. Lyd. de 
mens. r7 59) or by mules (Isidor. in 1 67), or by horses (Mus. Chiara- 
monti n. 497, ap. Welcker kL Schr, n civ Anm. cf. Apul. infr.) ; some- 
times by slaves Wallon ii 227 seq. Marquardt v 2 25. 30 — 32. Phaedr. 
append. 19 equum q quadriga multis palmis nobilem | abegit qui- 
dam et in pistrinum vendidit. | prodiu:tu8 ad bibendum cum foret a 
molls, I in circum aequales ire conspexit suos, J ut grata ludis redde- 
rent certamina, Auson. epist. 21 33 — 5 cui subiugabo de molarum 
ambagibus, | qui machinali saxa volvunt pondere, | tripedes 
caballos terga ruptos verbere. Lucian's ass complains of being 
employed in a mill blindfold asin. 42 dOojnjv rotf Sfifiaaw iTriTCTdaavrei 
inro^evyvvoval fi€ r^ KihwQ t^s /iuXiys. above the upper millstone a 
horizontal beam, Lucian's Kihirri, projected, to which the ass was fastened 
by a trace, helcium, and thus as he was driven round the mill, turned the 
upper stone on a pivot. All this is delineated, together with the 6^01^17, 
or bandage over the eyes, in a cut in Pompeii L. E. E. 11 134. ib. 140 
* the fragment of a jawbone, with several teeth in it, was found i^ a room 
which seems to have been the stable ; and the floor about the mills is 
paved with rough pieces of stone, while in the rest of the rooms it is 
made of stucco or compost.' Apuleius' ass also worked blindfold ix 11 : 
cf. the remonstrance of an ass Secund. 2 in Brunck anal, in 5 0^ dXis 
OTTL fjLvXoio TtpldpofJLoy &-)(^0os dvdyKrjs \ CTeiprjdop (tkotocis kvkXo- 
dluKTos (x^t Apuleius' ass was sold to a miller (ix 11 seq. cf. vii 15 
mola machinaria), who kept several mills at work day and night ; it 
was attached to the largest of these by a trace of twisted broom (ix 12 
helcio sparteo cf. 22): among its companions were c. 13 muU senes 
and cantherii [geldings] debileSy whose various infirmities are minutely 
described. How ill a horse would fare with Nepos appears ib. vii 15 fin. 
mihi vero per diem labor losae machinae attento sub ipsa vespera furfures 
apponebat incretos ae sordidos multoque lapide salebrosos. cf. Lucian 
asin. 28 ifwl 5^ irhvpa to dpiarov rjv. In order to prevent the animals 
from eating the meal, they were muzzled with a iravaucdirri Phot, 
and Suid. s. v. In 1838 the monument of Eurysaces a baker was 
opened at Borne, near the Porta maggiore, and a bas-relief discovered 
representing all the processes of the trade and amongst them asses 
working a mill, Otto Jahn in the annali dell' inst. archeol. 1838 x 202 
seq. cf. mus. Borb. iv 84 from a sarcophagus in the Villa Medici j and 
mus. Chiaramonti n. 685. Pauly iii 310. v 130. See the * interior of 
a baker's shop ' in Donaldson's Pompeii ii. 
NBPOTis a miller of the day, not Martial's friend vi 27 etc. 
68 P»ivuM something of your own. 69 titulis 

the inscription on a tomb (vi 230. x 143) or on a statue (i 130). xi 86 
titulo ter consults, cf. v 110. vin 241. Tibull. iv 1 33 at tua non 
titulus capiet sub stemmate facta. Prop. iv=in 4 16 titulis op- 
pida capta legam. Hor. c. in 24 27 — 8 pater urbium I subscribi statuis. 
Marquardt v 1 247. 2 224—5. Liv. xxii 31 § 11 Fabri titulum imaginis. 


lb. IT 16 § 4 faUum imaginis titnlum. G. C. Lewis credibility c. 6 § 2. 
Flk ep. Tin 6 § 2. YM. iv 4 § 1. 5 § 2. M. Sen. soas. 1 § 7 p. 4 13 cum 
AnUmius veUet se Liberum patrem did et hoc nomen statuis snbscribi 
inheret. honobbs z 58 n. los. bell. 1 10 § 3 

Antipater appointed by Angastas governor of ladaea and permitted to 
nslore the Trails of Jerusalem rds fihf drj nfidt ra&rat Kauffap dwiareXXtp 
iy T(p Kav€T(o\l<fi x^P^X^V^<'^h "f^^ ^^ airrou diKaioffvvtjs ffnifxtlov Kal 
7?r 70V ipBpos iper^s iabfuvop* 

70 iu<is Sail. log. 85 § , 38 maioreB eorum omniat qttae Ucebatt Hits 

reUquere, divitiaSf imagines, memoriam sui praeclaram : virtutem non 

reliquere; neque poterant. Sen. de ben. iv 30 § 1 aliquando daturum me 

etiam indignis quaedam non negaverim in honorem aliornm, sicnt 

in petendis honoribus qnosdam turpissimos nobilitas 

indnstriis sed novis praetulit non sine ratione: saora est 

magnarnm virtutnm memoria et esse plures bonos iuvat^si gratia 

bojiorum non cum ipsis cadat. § 3 hoc debemus yirtntibas, nt non 

praesentes solum illas, sed etiam ablatas e oonspeotu co- 

lamus. § 4 hio egregiis maioribus ortus est: qualiscumque 

est, sub umbra suorum lateat. ut loca sordida repercussu solis 

inlustrantur, ita inertes maiorum suorum luce resplendeant. 

DAMUS AC DEDiMus III 190. Liv. zxi 13 § 3 Fabri. 
63 § 12. xxu 34 § 8. GO § 14. Quintil. z 7 § 19 non quia nostris quoqtie 
temporibiLs non et feoerint quidam hoc et faciant. 

71 invENEM 39 n. 73 febhe * in general.' 

xni 236. Hand Turs. ii 693. * Generally speaking, it is only now and 
then that you will meet with an example of due consideration for others 
in that rank of life.' 

8KHSU8 coMtfUNis Hamilton's Beid p. 759 a (see the whole note A csp. § 5) 
* an acquired perception or feeling of the common duties and proprieties 
expected from each member of society — a gravitation of opinion — a 
sense of conventional decorum — communional sympathy, — general Men- 
Uanee — ^public spirit.* Hor. s. i 3 65 — 6 Bentl. forte legentem \ aut 
taeitum impellat quovis sermone : molesttUf | oommuni sensu plane 
tATei, inquimus. Phaedr. i 7 3 — 4 hoc illis dictum est [cf. luv. 71], 
quibuB honorem et gloriam J Fortuna tribuit, sensum com- 
munem abstulit. Bigaultib. Sen. ep. 5 § 3 hoc primum philosophia 
promittit, sensum commune m, humanitatem et congregationem. ib. 
105 § 4. de ben. i 12 § 3. Quintil. i 2 § 20. In the premier discours 
before tiie Logique de Port-Boyal p. 9 new ed. is a saying often ascribed 
to Voltaire * le sens commun n*est pas une quality si commune que 
Pon pense.' 

EABUS IN iLLA FOBTUNA PHu. ep. viii 23 §§ 2 — 3 of luiiius Avitus latum 
elavum in domo mea induerat : suffragio meo adiutus in petendis honor" 
Umt fuerat: ad hoc ita me diligebat, ita verebatur, ut me formatore 
morum, me quasi tnagistro uteretur. rarum hoc in adulescentibus 
nostris. nam quotus quisque vel aetati alterius vel auctori- 
tati ut minor cedit? statim sapiunt, statim sciunt omnia, 
neminem verentur, imitantur neminem atque ipsi sibi ex- 
em pla sunt. 74 CENSEBi 2 n. 

LAUDE cL 77 laudis. On the repetition see Heerw. on Liv. zxii 42 § 4. 

75 NOLUEBiM on this use of the perf. conj. cf. xv 21. 
Madvig § 350 b. For the thought cf. Stob. fl. xxxvi 6 diroKet /xe rb y4vor 
till \iy^ fl 0(X€?t ifU, I M-^epf i^* iKdart^ ro y^voi* oU dv ry <f>6afi \ dyaBov 
intdpxQ f^V^ oIkciom Tpoabv, \ iKeure Kara^e^yovaLP clt rd fivT^/xaTa | koI to 

JUV. II. "i 


yiuos, ipiOfiovffip re rodt Tdrrovt 6<roi. Sen. Hf. 342 qai genus iactat 
Buum, I aliena laudat. id. ep. 44 § 4 nemo in nostram gloriam vixit; 
nee quod ante not est, nostrum eat. Plat, moral, p. 5' evyiweia icoXdr /tdpt 
dXXd Tpoy6y<iJv &ya06p. Philostr. soph, i 22 § 1 whether Dlonysias of 
Miletus was of high ancestry or no, is a question which may be waived 
rd yap icaro^euyeu' is Toi>t dv<a aTofie^XtiKOTUP i<rrl rbp i<p* iaurtop 
iratpop. 77 N> Madvig compares 

Cio. Verr. i § 46 verbum tamen facere non audebanty ne forte ea ret ad 
Dolabellam ipium pertineret, 78 Liban. ep. 218 

ypdfpe Si; ^eXribj Kal iiri rifv lLixTi\ov if x^P"-^ Tpodidov. Aristoph. 
vesp. 1291 eXra vvp i^rjwdTijffcp ij x^-po,^ rtjp d/ATeXop. schoL ad loc. 
wapoifila . . . Btop i^awarrfd^ th Tiare^cras. paroemiogr. gr. ii 51 Leutsch. 
Ov. amor, ii 16 41 ulmus amat vitem, vitis non deserit ulmum. 
Philo de animal. 94 moventur et crescunt atque tamquam osculo dilectionU 
Galutando amplectuntur se invicem,ut olivam hedera et ulmum vitis. 

viDUAS Hor. c. II 15 4 — 5 platanu8qv£ coelebs i 
evincet ulmos. ib. rv 5 30 vitem viduas ducit ad arbores, id. epod. 2 
9 — 10 adulta vitium propamine \ altos xa at ii & i populos, 
ULMOS VI 150 ulmosque Ealernas. 79 tutor 

XV 135 n. 80 seq* Hor. c. iii 3 1 seq. ep. 1 16 

73 seq. Obbar. 81 phalabis this most cruel of all 

the Sicilian tyrants (vi 486) seized upon the government of Agrigentum 
about 570 b.c. Grote v^ 274 * His brazen boll passed into imperishable 
memory. This piece of mechanism was hollow, and sufficiently capacious 
to contain one or more victims enclosed within it, to perish in tortures 
when the metal was heated : the cries of these suffering prisoners passed 
for the roarings of the animal The artist was named Perillus, and is 
said to have been himself the first person burnt in it by order of the 
despot. The story of the brazen bull . . . seems to rest on sufficient 
evidence : it is expressly mentioned by Pindar (Pyth. i 185 al. 95 top 8^ 
Tavp(fi XaXK^tfi Kavryipa ptiKia p6op \ ix^P^ ^dXapiP KaTix^i- """ovrd 
<f>dTis)f and the bull itself, after having been carried away to Carthage 
when the Carthaginians took Agrigentum, was restored to the Agrigen- 
tines by Scipio when he took Carthage Polyb. xii 25. DS. xiii 90. Cic. 
Verr. iv § 73.' Cf. Pers. iii 39. Sen. de ben. vii 19 § 4 seq. Plut. 
parallel. 39. On the cruelty of Phalaris cf. Aristot. eth. N. vii 5 §§ 2. 7. 
eth. magn. ii 6 § 40. Orelli onomast. Tullian. Phalaris. Cic. ad Att. vii 12 
^aXapifffiop, i.e. tyranny. Ov. tr. iii 11 39 seq. Ibis 437 seq. and the 
proverb ^aXdpidos dpxai paroemiogr. Leutsch i 318 n. cf. 203, ii 50 n. 
706 n. ^aXdpiSos dpx^ koI 'Ex^tXov, Sen. de ira ii 5 § 1. In Lucian's 
tracts, Phalaris prior and Phalaris alter, Phalaris presents the bull, 
which, he says, has only been tried upon the inventor, to the Delphian 
god Phal. pr. 11 seq. 83 — 4 xii 50-— 1. 

83 BUDORi honour xvi 34. 

84 VIVENDI CAUSAS XI 11. * cuds of life.' Sen. Med. 547 haec causa 
vitae est. Plin. ep. i 12 § 3 plurimas vivendi causas habeutem, 
optimam conscientiamt optimam famam, max imam auctoritatem ; praeterea 
filiam, uxoremj nepotem, sorores^ interque tot pignora veros amicos. ib. v 5 
% 4i qui voluptatibus dediti qvusi in diem vivunt^ vivendi causas qtu)- 
tidiefiniunt; qui vero poster os cogitant et memoriam sui operibus exten- 
duntj his nulla mors non repentina est^ ut quae semper inchoatum aliquid 
abrumpat. Quintil. decl. iii § 14 non enim nobis .... mortis contemptus 
facilior, quam plerisque barbaris causam vitae non habentibus. 

85 PKRiT Sen. ep. 93 § 4 vis scire, quid inter 


hune intersit ... in aummum honum eius [vitae] tectum et ilium cut multi 

(tttni trammisii sunt f alter post mortem quoque est, alter ante mortem 

periit. cf. Wetst. on 1 Tim. 5 6. Liban. ep. 1320 dT€x»'w* h-i ^uiirres re- 

iif^ofitp, Tiber, in Tac. an. yi 6 and Saet. Tib. 67 quid scribam vobis, 

patret eonscriptif aut quomodo scribavif aut quid omnino non scribam hoc 

tmporef dii me deaeque peiut perdant, quam perire me quotidie sen- 

tio, ti scio. 86 OAUBANA schol. ostrea a lacu 

Lucrino, Gaurus {monies Gaurani), a volcanic cbain of hills between 

Comae and Neapolis, which produced excellent wine ix 57 : at its foot 

iaj the oyster-beds of Baiae (xi 49 n.) and the Lucrine lake iv 141 n. 

Plin. h. n. Ill §§ 60 — 1 dein consurgunt Massici Gaurani Surrentinique 

mmtes. . . . haec litora fontibus calidis rigantur, praeterque cetera in toto 

mari conchy lio etpisce nobili annotantur. 

C08MI a perfumer Mart, i 87 1 — 2 ne gravis hestemo fragres, Fescennia, 
vino, I pastillos Cosmi luxuriosa voras etc. id. iii 55 1 — 2 quod qua- 
cunque venis, Cos mum migrate putamus \ et jiuere excusso c inn a ma 
fusa vitro, ib. 82 26 Cosmianis ipse fu»us am pull is. id. ix 27 2. 
id. XI 8 9 quod Cosmi redolent alabastra. ib. 16 5 — 6 qui vino 
madeat nee erubescat | pingui sordidus esse Cosmiano. ib. 51 6. xii 
65 4. 87 PROviNCiA see on the government of 

a province the famous letter of Cic. ad Qu. i 1, with Pliny's imitation 
YU 24. Sal. lug. 81 § 25 nonpeculatus aerari /actus est ne que per vim 
sociis ereptae pecuniae, quae quamquam gravia sunt, tamen con- 
suetudine lam pro nihilo habentur. Suet. Tib. 49 the chief men 
of the Gauls and Spains, of Syria and Greece had their estates confis- 
cated, some for no graver crime than quod partem rei familiaris in pecu- 
nia haherent, Capitolin. Pert. 3 integre se usque ad Syriae regimen 
PerHiMX tenuitf post excessum vero Marci pecuniae studuit. . . . curiam 
Romanam post quattuor provincias consulares. . . . iam dives 
ingresBUB est. Bein Criminalr. 604 — 643 laws relating to the crimen 
repetundarum and early examples of their execution. 643 — 6 trials before 
the iuBtitution of the quaestio perpetua. 646 — 52 trials under lex Cal- 
pumiaf lunia, Servilia, 652 — 67 trials under lex Cornelia and lulia. 
667—72 trials under the empire. Severe measures of Claudius against 
oppression Hock i 3 294 — 6. Philo de spec. leg. 30 11 325—6 M tortures 
employed by a tax-gatherer to extort money from the destitute. los. 
bell. II 14 §§ 1 — 2 cruelties practised by the successors of Festus, 
Albinns and Gessius Florus, on the Jews. id. ant. xviii 6 § 5 Tiberius 
avoided frequent changes in provincial governorships, because where 
the tenure was brief and uncertain, the governor was likely to be more 
rapacious, making hay while the sun shone. 

88 FRENA Hor. ep. i 2 63 Obbar hunc [animum] f renis, hunc tu com- 
pesce catena, 

90 VAcuis shrunken. Calpum. v 115 et quibus est aliquid plenae vitale 
medullae. exucta Ammian. xxx 4 § 13 in 

qvas [depravatorum iudiciorum foveas] si captus ceciderit quisquam, non 
nisi per multa exsiliet lustra adusque ipsas medullas exuctus. Burm. 
antlL rv 279 2 — 5 on a son Orcus cum te voravit, \ delicium mihi omne 
abstulit, I baculum exuctis medullis | edentulae senectutis secuit. Lu- 
dan Timon. 8 ol dk [Timon^s Jlatterers] rd dard yvfii^uxravres aVpt/Sws Kal 
TtpiTpay&PT€S, el hi rtj koX fivcXds ipijv, iKixv^-fiaavret koX tovtov ev fidXa 
irifUktaf, (^otrro avov airrbv . . . aroXiirovTes. Bentl. on Hor. epod. 5 37. 
los. bell. 18 § 3 Herod, after the capture of Jerusalem, demanded of 
the Boman commander Sossius, el xPVf^^'''^^ ^c '(^^ dvhpuv ttju voXuf 



'Ftafieuoi Ktpunramt KaraXcl^ovfftP avr^ ipfiftlas ^aaCkia, ib. T 8 § 2 ^t 
yap Trap^v icdUuf iK rw iij/toaiwp Kcucuif koL to riji ir6Xewt atfia 
tLp€ip, id. ant. xiv 15 § 7 Maohaeras, in command of t^o Boman 
legions, cat down all Jews whom he met, friends as well as foes. On 
which Herod naturally considered that he had no need of snch allies, 
o! /3\d^ov<r(v aCrop fjuiWop 17 rovt iroKefdovs. On the seyerity of Boman 
taxation ib. xyii 2 § 2. 

92 FULMiNB Plin. ep. Ill 11 § 3 septem amicit meit aut oecisU aut rele- 
gatUf .... tot circa me f alminibns qtuui ambuattu. id. pan. 90 § 5. 
Stat. Ill 3 158. y 2 102. Artemid. 11 9 p. 145 Beiff. cf. u p. 321 rovs 
KaradiKcurBiPTas h r^ axnnfitlt^ K€pavpovff0al tl>afi€P. 

93 CAPITO Tac. XIII 33 Gossutianum Capitonem Cilices detale- 
rnnt [a.d. 57] maculosum foedumque et idem ius audacicLe in provincia 
ratum, quod in urbe exercuerat : ted pervicaci €Lccu$atione eonjlictatus, 
postremo defennonem omisit ac lege repetundarum damnatut est. By the 
interyeution of his father-in-law Tigellinus he recoyered his seat in the 
senate (ib. xiy 48), and was afterwards an accuser of Thrasea Paetus 
(lay. V 36 n.) a.d. 66 Tac ib. 21Capito Cossutianus, praeter animum 
ad flagitia praedpitem iniquus Thraseae, quod auctoritate eiua eonoi- 
disset, iuyantis Cilicum legatos, dam Capitonem repetnnda- 
ram interrogant. ib. 22. 26. 28. 33. Qaintilian remembered the 
trial of Capito yi 1 § 14 egregieque nobis adulescentibus dizisse aoousa- 
tor Cossatiani Capitonis videbatur, Graece quidem, sed in hune 
sensum^ eruhescis Caesarem timere. One Capito plundered ludaea Philo 
leg. ad Gaium 30 p. 575 M. numitob a goyemor 
of Cilicia, perhaps the niggardly Numitor of yii 74. 

94 piBATAE ciLicnM schol. spoUatoTcs latronum. On the Isaurian pirates 
see Ammian. xiy 2. cilicum Philostr. yu 23 
a rich Cilician is forced to bribe informers and officers of the goyemment 
in order to secure his wealth. quid dax- 
MATio coNFERT ? I 50 at tu victvix provincia ploras, Lact. ii 4 ad fin. 
after quoting from Cicero the complaint of the Sicilians, sese iam 
ne deos quidem in suis urbibus, ad quos confugerent, ha- 
bere; quod eorum simulacra C, Verres ex delubris religiosissimis 
sustulissetj adds that, knowing the impotence of their gods of stone, 
they sought redress of a man, Cicero. * at enim Verres ob haec faci- 
nora damnatus est J* non ergo di vindicaverunt, sed Ciceronis indus- 
trial qua vel defensores eius oppressit vel gratia^ restitit, quid, quod 
apudipsum Verrem non fuit ilia damnatio, sed yacatio? ut quern 
ad modum Dionysio deorum spolia gestanti di immortales bonam dede- 
rant navigationem, sic etiam Yerri bonam quietem tribuisse 
yideantur, in qua sacrilegiis suis tranquille frui posset, nam 
frementibus postea civilibus bellis sub ostentu damnationis ab 
omni periculo et metu remotus, aliorum graves casus et miserabiles 
exitus audiebat, et qui ceeidiBBe solus uniyersis stantibus yide- 
batur, is yero uniyersis cadentibus solus stetit, donee ilium 
et opibu^ sacrilegio partis et vita satiatum ac senectute confectum pro- 
scriptio triumviralis auferret, confert i 106 n. 

96 PRAEcoNEM yii 6 seq. 
CHAERIPPE probably a Cilician, who had been forward in getting up the 
case against Capito. schol. quid tibi prodest^ Chaerippe, si damnatur 
iudex [praeses], quern tu damnandum a^cusaxti, cum illius successor plura 
ablaturus sit tibif magis provide tibi praeconem et auctionem fac 
rerum tuarum quae super averunt, ut inpecuniam totum confer aa^ ne et 


iptot pannos tuos perdat qui remanserunt : nam nee- accusatio HH proderit 

(t muper naulum perdis, cibcumspicx sohol. provide. 

Ter. haat. 459 aliud lenitu sodes ride. Liy. y 6 § 2 tuc, sicut aettivM 

avUf statim autumno tecta <ic recessum ciroumspioere. xxi 58 § 11 

locum inndiis oiroumspectare Poenus coepit, xzu 15 § 2 i^t Hanni- 

W. .. hibemis locum oiroumspectaret. Plin. ep. i 14 § 1 petU tU 

fratrU tut JUiae prospioiam maritum. Theokr. id. r7 2 oprj Mtj^pw, 

EiWa, avr^, Gic. Att. v 1 § 3 intercesserat Statius ut prandium nobU 

videret. Ter. hant. 458 — 9 asperum \ pater , hoc est: aliud lenitu sodes 

vide. Cic. Tnso. iii § 46 Eiihner. Victor, on Cio. Att. t 1 § 8. Heins. on 

0?. a. a. I 588. Gell. zvii 8 § 8 puerum iubet Taurus oleum in 

ovlam rider e. Plin. ep. ui 3 § 3. 

'AVKis Petron. 44 quod ad me attinet, iam pannos meo8 comedi, 
tt ti perseverat haee annona, casuUu meaa vendam, 
97 NAULON the passage-money to Rome. XQO plena 

BOMus TUNC OMNis Cic. Yorr. r7 § 46 Yerres removed the jewels set in 
eeosers and retomed the yessels tenuit hoc irutitutum in turibulis ornni- 
hu quaeeumque in Sicilia fuerunt. incredibile est antem qnam 
mnlta et quam praeolara fnerint. credo turn, cum Sicilia JUyrehat 
mpibut et copiis, magna artijicia fuisse in ea insula; nam domus erat 
ante istam piraetorem nnlla panlo locupletior, qua in domo 
haec non essent, etiam sipraeterea nihil esset argenti, patella gran- 
dis cam sigillis ao simulacris deorum, patera qua mulieres 
ad res diyinas nterentnr, turibulam. haec autem omnia anti- 
qno opere et summo artificio facta. Plat. Ant. 28 §§ 8 — i Phi- 
lotas, physician to a son of Antonius, so charmed his patron at dinner by 
a sophism which silenced a vapouring quack, that the boy pointing to the 
table laden with golden plate, said raJra, tS ^cXc6ra, X'^-P^tofjuu Tih^ra <roi. 
Next day the plate was sent, but redeemed at its full value: * t(r<as ydp dp 
KoL ro0^€HP o xar^p ipia r(ov ToKaiijov Ivra koI avovSa^ofUvup Karit rijp 
rkxrqif ipyiop,^ On the treasures of art carried from Greece by Flamini- 
nns B.C. 194 see Liv. xxxrr 52; by Fulvius b.c. 187 ib. xxxix 5. Cio. de 
imp. On. Pomp. § 40 accounting for the rapidity of Pompey's movements : 
be had no miraculous force of rowers, no new art of steering, no strange 
windbs to speed his course ; but he was free from the obstacles which im- 
pede others : non avaritia ab instituto cursu ad praedam aliquam devo- 
cavit; . . .postremo signa et tabulas ceteraque ornamenta Grae- 
coram oppidorum, quae ceteri tollenda esse arbitrantur, ea 
sibi ille ne visenda quidem existimavit. ib. §§ 64 — 7. E. 0. Mtiller 
Archaologie §§ 164 — 5. J. G. L. Ramshom de statuamm in Graecia 
moltitadme, Altenb. 1814. 4to. L. Xlenze ilber das Hinwegfuhren 
jl^astiseher Eanstwerke aus Griechenland, Miinchen 1821. 4to. Tac. 
Agr. 6 sors quaesturae provinciam Asiam, pro consule Salvianum TitU 
anum dedit, qiLorum neutro eorruptus esty quamquam et provincia 
dives ac parata peccantibus, et pro consule in omnem aviditatem 
promts quantalibet facilitate redempturus esset mutuam dissimulationem 
mali .... after his praetorship electus a GaWa ad dona templorum re- 
cognoscenda diligentissima conquisitione effecit, ne cuius alterius sacri- 
legium res publica quam Neronis semisset, DCass. lxiii 11 § 1 of Nero 
A.D. 67 dMrxep iwl To\4fi(p ffraXeis, vdaay fih rijp *£XX(£da fKeyjKd.Ttiae, 
On art collections in Rome see Marquardt v 2 210 seq. 272. Friedlander 
in 210 seq. 

101 SPABTANA Plin. XXXV § 45 Tyrium aut Gaetulicum vel Laconioum, 
undepretiosissimaepurpurae. ib. xxi22(8). ix 60 (36). Hor. c.u 


18 7. Mart, viu 28 9. conchtlu i 27 n. m 81. 

Yii 135 — 6 n. Lncr. vi 1072 pnrpnrensqne colos oonohyli mergitur 
una I corpore cum lanae, Plin. h. n. ix § 124 conohylia et purpuras 
omnis hora atterit^ quibus eadem mater luxuria paria paene et margaritis 
pretia fecit, ib. § 130 concfiarum ad purpuras et conchylia (eadem 
enim est materia sed distat temperamento) duo sunt genera, 
Marquardt y 2 121. The purple was diluted to make conchylium, of 
which there were three varieties, the blue of the heliotrope and the mal- 
lowy and the golden hue of the autumn violet Plin. xxi § 46. 

coA II 66 seq. vi 259—260. Sen. ad Helv. 16 § 4 nunquam tibi 
placuit Testis, quae ad nihil aliud quam ut nudaret, compone- 
retur. Plin. xi § 76 of bombyces telas araneorum m^do texunt ad vestem 
luxamque feminarum, quae bombycina appellatur. prima eas redordiri 
rursusque texere invenit in Coo mulier Pamphila .... non fraudanda 
gloria excogitatae rationiSy ut denudet feminas vestis, § 77 bombyca^ et in 
Coo insula nasci tradunt. [Then follows an account of the mode of 
keeping the silkworms.] § 78 nee puduit has vestes usurpare etiam 
viros Uvitatem propter aestivam, Hor. c. iv 13 13 Acron nee Coae 
referunt iam tibi purpurae. id. s. i 2 101 — 5. Marquardt v 2 124. 

102 PARBAsii Hor. c. IV 8 5 — 8. 
Ath. XII 643c seq. a painter of Ephesus (Plin. xxxv § 67), a contemporary 
of Zeuxis. Quintil. xii 10 § 4 Zeuxis atqv^ Parrasius non multum aetate 
distantesy circa Peloponnesia ambo tempera {nam cum Parrasio sermo So- 
cratis apud Xenophontem [mem. iii 10 § 1 seq.] invenitur) plurimum arti 
addiderunt. qu^orum . . . secundus examinasse subtilius lineas traditur. 
§ 5 ita circumscripsit omnia^ ut eum legum latorem vocent, quia deorum 
atque heroum effigies qtuiles ab eo sunt traditae, ceteris tamqu^m ita necesse 
sit, sequuntur, Isocr. d. permut. § 2 p. 310. Plin. ib. § G5 descendisse hie 
in certamen cum Zeuxide traditur et cum ille detulisset uvas pictas tanto 
successu ut in scenam aves advolarent, ipse detulisse Hnteum pictum ita 
veritate repraesentata, ut Zeuxis alitum iudicio tumens flagitaret tandem 
remote linteo ostendi picturam atque intellecto errere concederet palmam in- 
genuopudore, qv^niam ipse volucres fefellisset, Parrasius autem se artijicem, 
ib. §§ 67 — 8 primus symmetrian picturae dedit, primus argutias veltus, ele- 
gantiam capilli, venmtatem oris, confessione artijicum in lineis extremis paU 
mam adeptu^, haec est picturae summa suptilitas . . . extreme corporumfa4;ere 
et desinentis picturae modum includere rarum in succesau artls invenitur, 
ambire enim se ipsa debet extremitas et sic desinere ut promittat alia post 
se ostendatque etiam quae occultat. The sources for the lives and works 
of these artists are collected in Fr. lunii de pictura veterum, Boterod. 
1694 fol. lul. Sillig catalogus artiiicum Dresd. 1827 8vo. J. Overbeck 
die antiken Schriftquellen zur Gesch. der bildenden KUnste bei den 
Griechen, Leipz. 1868 8vo. cf. H. Brunn Gesch. d. gr. Kunstler, Stutt- 
gart, 1857 — 9, 2 vols. 8vo. Jul. Overbeck Gesch. d. gr. Plastik, 2"'* ed. 
Leipz. 1869 8vo. myronis Plin. xxxiv §57Myronem 

Eleutheris natum Ageladae [an Argive who had instructed Polyclitus 
also § 55] et ipsum discipulum bucula maxlme nobilitavit celebratis versi- 
bus laudata e.g. anth. Pal. ix 713—742. 793—8. Ov. Pont, iv 1 34 ut 
similis verae vacca "M-jTonia opus. Auson. epigr. 58— 68. In the time 
of Cicero (Verr. iv § 135) it was still at Athens, in the time of Prokopius 
(b. Goth. IV 21) at Bome. Several of his works were removed to Bome 
Plin. ib. §§ 67 — 8 Herculem, qui est apud Circum maximum in aede Pom- 
peii Magni , , . Apollinem, quem ab triumviro Antonio sublatum restituit 
Ephesiis divus Augustus admonitus in quiete. The Hercules was carried 

102103] . MYBO. PHIDIACUM EBUR. 23 

away from Messana in Sicily by Verres Cic. Verr. iv § 5, as was a statue 
of Apollo, bearing Myron's name, from the temple of Aescnlapins at Agri- 
gentnm ib. § 93. On the imitations of the famous diskobolus see Welcker 
alteDenkm. i 417 seq. cf. Quintil. 11 13 § 10. Before the porch of the 
Palatine temple of Apollo Prop. 111 = 11 31 7 — 8 aram circum steterant 
armenta Myronis, | quattuor artifices, vivida signa, boves. Mart, iv 39 
l—5argenti genus omne comparasti \ et solus veteresMyronosartes, | 
folus Praxitelus vmnum Scopaeque, \ solius Phidiaci toreuma caeli, | 
tolus Mentoreos habes labores. yiii 51 1 — 2 quis labor in phialaf 
doctlMyos anne Myronos? | Mentoris haec manus est an, Polyclite, 
tut Stat. s. I 3 50. II 2 63 — 7 quid referam veteres ceraeque aerisque 
fyurasl I si quid Apcllei gaudent animasse colores, \ si quid adhuc vacua 
toMen admirahile Pisa | Phidiacae rasere manus, quod ab arte Myro- 
nis I aut Polycliteo iussuni est quod vivere caelo. tv 6 20 — 30 mille ibi 
tune species aerisque ehorisque vetusti \ atque locuturas mentito corpore 
teras ] edidici. quis namque oculis certaverit usquam \ Viiidicis artificum 
teteres agnoscere ductus \ et non inscriptis auctorem reddere signis ? | hie 
tibiquae docto viultum vigilata Myron i | aera, labor iferi vivant quae 
maniiora caelo \ Praxitelis, quod ebur Pisaeo pollice rasum, | quod 
Polycliteis iussum spirare caminis, \ Unea quae vcterem longa fatea- 
tur Apellem, \ monstrabit. Lucian somn. 8 also classes Myron with Phi- 
dias, Polyklitus, Praxiteles. Cic. de or. iii § 26. Plin. xxxiv § 58 primus 
hie multiplicasse veritatem videtur, numerosior in arte quam Polyclitus 
etin symmetria diligentior, et ipse tamen corporum tenus curiosus animi 
tensus non expressisse, capillum quoque et pubem non emendatius fecisse 
quam rudis antiquitas instituisset. Phaedr. v prol. 7. 103 

PHIDIACUM Phidias the friend of Perikles, under whope direction the Pro- 
pylaea and Parthenon were built. See 0. MUller de Phidiae vita et ope- 
ribus, Gotting. 1827. Preller in Ersch u. Gruber. Pausan. v 10 § 2 
inscr. on the Zeus Olymp. ^eibiai Xapfudov vlbs ^AOrjpatSs p.* irrolTjae. 
Plut. Perikl. 13. 31. viyebat Verg. Aen. viii 848—9 

excudent alii spirantia mollius aera \ credo equidem, vivos ducent de 
marmore vultus, ebur Paus. v 12 § 1 <f>iX&rifju)i 5^ is 

T& /idXiffrd /JMi Kol is OeQp Tifirjp oif <f}€Lhu)\ol XPW^'''^^ doKovffip ol "lEtWrjveSy 
cits ye iraph. ^IvSuv TJyero Kcd i^ AWioirLas i\i<p as is Trolr^ffiv dyaX/jidTWv. 
Max. Tyr. xxi § 6. VM. 1 1 E 7. DS. xxvi 1 § 1. schol. Aristoph. nub. 
859. pax 647. Philo de ebriet. 22 i 370 M. On chryselephantine works 
see O. Muller Archaologie § 312. Of ivory and gold were 1) an Athene at 
Pallene in Achaia Paus. vii 27 § 2. 2) an Athene in the Akropolis Ov. 
Pont. IV 1 31 — 2. schol. Aristid. iii 320 D. schol. Dem. c. Androt. 13 
p. 597 B. 3) Athene pai-thenos in the Parthenon [Plat.] Hipp. mai. 290'*. 
8trab. ix 396. schol. Dem. l.c. Plin. xxxiv § 54. xxxvi § 18. Parid. 
and Nepotian. epit. VM. 1 1 E 7. Clem. Al. protr. iv p. 41 P. Themist. 
or. 25 p. 374 D. Tzetz. chil. viii 330. 4) the Olympian Zeus Paus. v 11. 
cf. IV 31 § 6. Strab. viii 353. Prop. iv=iii 9 15 Phidiacus signo se 
Inppiter ornat eburno. VM. iii 7 E 4. Eust. II. p. 145. Hygin. 
f. 223 and PhiL Byz. 3 § 2 reckon it among the seven wonders of the 
world ; the latter makes it the final cause of elephants and their tusks. 
So others in Overbeck Schriftquellen 133—4. Kedren. comp. hist. p. 322^. 
5) Aphrodite Urania in Elis Pans, v 25 § 1 . 6) Athene in Elis ? id. vi 
26 § 3. -7) Asklepius in Epidaurus ? Athenag. 14. 8) Zeus at Megara, 
in which Phidias aided Theokosmus Paus. i 40 § 4. Sen. ep. 85 § 34 non 
ex ebore tantum Phidias sciebat facere simulacra, faciebat ex aere. 
Quintil. XII 10 § 9 Phidias in ebore longe citra aemulum. Mart, ix 


24 2 Phidiaenm Latio marmore vidt ebar. Stat s. it 6 27. Lneian 
Gallns 24. Pint PerikL 12. Laot n 4 p. 126 Dofresn. after qnoting 
Persins non videbat enim HmiUaera ipsa et effiffies deorum Polycliti 
et Euphranoris et Phidiae manu ex auro atqxu ebore perfeetas nihU 
aliud esse qtuim grandes pupas^ non a virginitnu^ quarum lusibuM venia 
dari potest^ sed a barbatis hominibus consecratat. 
KBO NON m 204 n. 

poLTCLin lu 217 n. Stat. a. iv 6 28. Joined with Phidias by Aristot. 
eth. N. Yi 7. DH. de Isocr. 3. de Thuc. 4. de Dinarch. 7. Cio. aead. 
pr. u § 146. Yitray. in pr. § 2 (also with Myro). Plin. xxznr §§ 53. 55. 
Orig. c. C^els. vni 17. Strab. viii 372 in the Heraenm at Argos the statues 
of Polyclitiis surpassed all in art, though inferior in cost and size to those 
of Phidias, cf. Mart x 89. with Myron Plin. xxxiy § 10. Cic. de or. in 
§ 26. ad Herenn. it § 9. Yitmy. 1 1 § 13. Lacian somn. 8. Inp. trag. 
7. Among the collection of Heins, plundered by Yorres, were canephoroe 
of Polyclitus Cic. Yerr. ly § 5. Symm. ep. i 23. QuintiL xii 10 § 7 
attributes to him accuracy and grace, but denies him majesty : his men 
were more than men, his gods wanted dignity; he eyen shunned the 
grayity of age nihil aiuus ultra leves genas. 

104 MULTUS 1 120 n. LABOR YFL I 143 poculaque, 
insignis veterum labor. Mart, xry 95 2. vdyos is similarly used, so 
ars, rixyih fnanus, mentore this most famous 
caelator argenti (i 76 n.) Uyed before the temple of the Ephesian Diana 
was burnt 356 B.C. Plin. xxxiii § 154 mirum auro caelando neminem in- 
claruisse^ argento multos, maxime tamen laudatus est Mentor, de quo supra 
[yn § 127] diximus. quattuor (vasa) paria ab eo omnino facta sunt, ae 
iam nullum exstare dicitur Ephesiae Dianae templi aut Capitolini ineen- 
diis. Varro se et aereum signum eius hahuisse scribit. Lu Crassus the 
orator bought two scyphi of Mentor's workmanship for 100 sestertia, but 
was ashamed to use them ib. § 147. Yarr. ap. Non. dolitum. Prop. 1 14 
2. ry=ni 9 13. Mart, iii 41. ix 59 16. xi 11 5 te potare decet gemma, 
qui Mentora frangis, xiy 93. Lucian Lexiphan. 7 there were cups of 
all kinds on the sideboard rpviiSls fi^vropovpyfis etc. Sidon. c. xxni 503 
seq. post qiLos nos tua pocula et tuarum \ musarum medius chorus tenebat, | 
quales nee statuas imaginesque \ acre aut marmoribus coloribusque | Men- 
tor, Projciteles, ScopoM dederunt, \ quanta^ nee Polyclitus ipse finxit, | 
nee Jit Phidiaco figura ca^lo, Cicero describes the efforts made by 
Yerres to possess himself of a Mentor, the property of one Diodorus 
Yerr. iv § 38 seq. Verri dicitur, habere eum perbona toreumata, in its 
pocula quaedam, quae Thericlia nominantur, Mentoris manu summo 
artificio facta etc. 

105 on the plunder of Greek works of art by Boman generals, emperors, 
goyemors see Miiller Archaologie § 165. 

DOLABELLAE 1 Cu. Dolabella, cons. B.C. 81, afterwards proconsul in 
Macedonia. He was accused by Caesar, b.c. 77 Suet. 4 Comelium Do- 
labellam, consularem et triumphalem virum repetundarum postula- 
vit; absolutoque, Rhodum secedere statuit. YM. yiii 9 § 3. Drumann 
II 561 seq. ii Cn. Dolabella, praetor b. c. 81, and afterwards goyemor 
of Cilicia, where Yerres was his legatus Yerr. act. i § 11. lib. i § 41. 
Both oppressed the proyincials not only in Cilicia itself (Yerr. i § 95 cum 
iste civitatibus frumenta coria cilicia saccos imperaret, neque ea sumeret, 
pro his rebus pecuniam exigeret; his nominibus solis Cn. Dolabellae 
HS, ad triciens [about £24,000] litem esse aestimatam, quae omnia etsi 
voluntate Dolabellae fiebant, per istum tamen omnia gerebantur), but la 


Athens (ib. § 45 Athenis audistU ex aede Minervae grande auri pondus 
d^tvm, dictum hoc est in Dolabellae iudieio)^ Delos (ib. §46), Hali- 
eanasQS, Tenedos (ib. § 49), Samos (§ 50) etc. On his return from 
his province, b.c. 78, Dolabella was accused by M. Scaorus (ib. § 97), and 
eondemned ib. § 77. iii P. Dolabella, consul b.c. 44, Cicero's son-in- 
law. Before his consulship had expired, he crossed over to take posses- 
Bion of the province of Syria. On his way he plundered proconsular Asia 
Ijental. ap. Cic. fam. xii 15 Dolabella vastata provincia. ib. fin. 
he calls him sceleraiistimum latronem, Cic. Phil, xi § 6 cum hoc bellari' 
dum hoste est ; cuius taeterrima crudelitate omnis barharia superata est. 
^uid loquar de caede civium Romanorumf de direptione fanornm? 

ANTONIUS C. Antonius Hybrida, younger 

son of Antonius the orator, uncle and father-in-law of the triumvir. 

After bis consulship, in which he was Cicero*s colleague, b.c. 63, he 

Weired Macedonia as his province, and grievously oppressed it. DCass. 

UXTni 10 ovTos ydip iroXXd fih koX Seu'd koI to inniKoov ro ev 'ULaKtHoviq., 

<f/>^af aur^f , kcuL to iKffiroviav elpydaaro. He was afterwards condemned and 

ba&ished, probably on a charge of repetundae Cic. in Yatin. § 28. The 

sceonnts of his trial are obscure and contradictory Drumann i 638 seq. 

Hahn on Cic. 1. c. § 27. 106 sacbilegus vebbes n 26. 

m 53. sacr. not to be supplied with DoL and Ant, (as by Orelli) ; Yerres 

vas preeminently <acnZ«pu<. Cic. in Yerr. act. i § 14 delubra omnia 

• .. . depopulatus est; deum denique nullum Siculis, qui ei 

panllo magis affabre atque antiquo artificio factus videre- 

tnr, reliquit. id. in Caecil. § 3. Yerr. i § 53 seq. Lact. 11 4 § 34 

seq. quid C. Yerres, quern Tullius accusator eius eidem Dionysio et 

Phalaridi et tyrannis omnibus comparat f nonne omnem Siciliam compi' 

lavit, sublatis deorum simulacris ornamentisque fanorum? 

otiosum est persequi singula, unum libet commemorare, in quo accusator 

omdbus eloquentiae viribu^t omni denique conatu vocis et corporis deplora- 

vU, de Cerere Catinensi vel Ennensi. . . . haeo igitur Ceres ... ex 

arcanis et vetustis penetralibus a C. Yerre immissis latroni- 

hut servii impune sublata est. idem vera cum affirmaret se a Siculis, ut 

cawam provinciae susciperet, oratum, his verbis usus est ^sese iam ne 

decs quidem in suis urbibus, ad quos confugerent, habere, 

^uod eorum simulacra sanctissima C. Yerres ex delubris 

leligiosissimis sustulisset.* quasi vera si Verres ex urbibus delu- 

hrisque sustulerat, de caelo quoque sustulerat, unde apparet istos deos 

^hil habere in se amplius quam materiam de qua sunt fabricati, nee tm- 

nerito ad te, Marce Tulli, hoc est ad Iwrninem, Siculi confugerunt^ quo- 

nfam triennio sunt experti deos illos nihil valere. essent enim stultissimi, 

'i ad eos ob defendenda^ iniuria^ hominum confugissent, qui C, Verri nee 

pro se ipsis irati esse potuerunt, . . . quin etiam felix in eo ipso fuit, quod 

o-nU mam mortem crudelissimum exitum sui accusatoris audivit; dis vide^ 

^eet providentibus ut sacrilegus ac praedo ille religionum sua- 

'um nan ante moreretur, quam solacium de ultione cepisset, cf. luv. 

^ n. VEBBES a summary of the works 

of art stolen by Yerres is given by Facius Collectaneen zur gr. u. rom. 

Alterthumskunde, Coburg, 1811, 150—170. 

107 OCCULTA Cic. Yerr. v §§ 66 — 7. on the lengthening of the a see 
Barm, on Phaedr. in prol. 20. L. Muller de re metr. 320. This is the 
only ex. in luv. sfolia Serv. Aen. viii 202 

spolium est, quidquid de hostibus tollitur. Cic. Yerr. rv §§ 17—19. 
▼§§44. 46. 63—4. Plin. h. n. ix §§ 117—8 I have seen Lollia Paulina, 

^^3 PROVINCES DESPOILED. [Vni 107— 113 

ix^y. jH(f it Hi prineipia matronal bedizened with jewels to the valae of 
|^^^^H^|iHH) Hi^nwteeu, and that on not on any great state ceremoniEd sed 
iH^ivH'f-^f^fM 0tiam apofualium cena, nor had those gifts been received 
hi^Hi HU iitii|)oror'B prodigality, sed avitae opes^ provinciarnm scili- 
L^\ M^MiJiU partae. hie est rapinarnm exitus, hoc fuit quare M, 
YnUiM injamatus regum muneribus in toto oriente interdicta amicitia a C, 
(^{i^nura Aufftutiftlio venenum biberet, ut neptis eius quadringentiens ses- 
^^r^u operta tpectaretur ad lucemas, 

liMiHKi than were gained in war. 108 bouu 

Tau. an. iv 72 prinu) boves ipsos, mox agros, postremo corpora coniu- 
gum aut liberorum servitio tradebant, cf. Marquardt iii 1 291 — 2. y i 
177. 110 cf. Cic. Verr. iv e. g. § 1 

uego in Sic ilia tota, tarn locupleti, tarn vetere provincia, tot oppidis, 
iot familiis tarn copiosis^ ullum argenteum vas, nllnm Gorin- 
thium ant Deliacum fuisse, uUam gemmam aut margari- 
tam, qaidqnam ex auro ant ebore factum, signum ullum 
aeneum, marmoreum, eburneum, nego uUam picturam ne- 
que in tabula neque in textili, quin conquisierit, inspex- 
erit, quod placitum sit abstulerit. cf. §§ 2. 48. ib. § 18 res 
ilium divinas apud eos deos in suo sacrario prope quotidiano facere vidisti: 
Tion movetur pecunia. . . . tibi habe Canephoros : deorum simulacra 
re at it ue. id. p. Sest. § 94 speaking of Piso neque tamen ullo in publico 
aut religioso loco signum aut tabulam aut omamentum reliquisse. Of his 
brother Cicero says ad Qu. fr. 1 1 §§ 8—9 praeclarum est enim summo 
cum imperio fuisse in Asia trienniumt sic vii nullum te signum, nulla 
piotura, nullum vas, nulla vestis, nullum mancipium, nulla 
forma cuiusquam, nulla condicio pecuniae {quibus rebus abun- 
dat ista provincia) ab summa integritate continentiaque deduxerit . . . non 
itineribus tuis perterreri homines, non sumptu exhauriri, non adventu com- 
moveri 7 . . . . cum urbs custodem, non tyrannum^ domus hospitem^ non ex- 
pilatorem, recepisse videatur. 111 si quis in 

▲EDicuLA. DEUS UNicus Tibull. I 10 19 — 20 turn melius tenuere Jidem, cum 
paupere cultu | stabat in exigua ligneus aede deus. Patron. 
29praeterea grande armarium in angulo vidi, in cuius aedicula erant 
Lares argentei positi Yenerisque signum marmoreum, et 
pyxis aurea non pusilla, in qua barbam ipsius conditam esse dicebant, 
Tert. de idol. 8 nee enim differt, an extruas vel exomes, si templum, si 
aram, si aediculam eius instruxeris, Apul. cited on 157. On Nero^s 
plunder of Italy and the provinces and of their temples see Tac. xv 45 
interea conferendis pecuniis . , . provinciae eversae sociique populi et quae 
civitatum liberae vocantur, inque earn praedam etiam di cessere, 
spoliatis in urbe templis, egestoque auro quod triumphis quod votis 
omnis populi Romani aetas prospere aut in metu sacraverat, enim vero 
per Asiam atque Achaiam non dona tantum sed simulacra 
numinum abripiebantur, missis in eas provincias Acrato ac Secundo 
Carrinate. Suet. Ner. 38 fin. DCass. lxii 18 § 5. Oros. vii 7. 

112 DKSPiciAS Plin. ep. viii 24 § 5 to a friend going as governor to 
Achaia recordare, quid quaeque civitas fuerit^ non ut despicias, quod 
esse desierit : absit superbia asperitas. 

113 iNBELLis BHODios VI 296. Mart. X 68 1. Plut. de curios, div. 5 p. 525^ 
Tois fiiy ovp*l^odlovs 6 'LrparbviKoi iiricKwirTev els iroXvr^Xeiay, oUodo- 
ficiv fikv u)i ddavdrovs X^cai', dypwveiv di (hs dXtyoxpovLovs. Athen, viii p. 
361°. lb. p. 352*>° Toin 5i 'PoS/ous 6 avrbs ^rparouiKOS (nraraXuvas Kal 
Oepjj.oTTOTas dewpCov, i<pri avrobs XevKoifs eiyai KvprjvtUovs, Kal aMiv 5i rijy 


'Poior cf cEXf I fmj<m^puy v6\t». xpc6Aiart fiiw €li iautrlav StaWdrreiP 
utbup ^yoOfiepos avroi/t, ofioioTrjTi d^ tit Karatpdpeiay ijlioir^ .... 
((rd^. UNCTAM unguentis madentem 

d n 297. XI 122. 

uifCTAMQUE coBiMTHON III 61. Wetst. On 1 Cor. 12. 6 9 seq. Cio. de 
ivp* ii§§ 7 — 8 Corinth by its commerce withdrawn from agficoltore and 
from war; Inxories imported; Jiabet iam amoenitas ipsa vel snmp- 
tnosas.yel desidiosas inlecebras mnltas cupiditatum. Mart, 
z 65 1 seq. cum te municipem Gorinthiorum | iactes, Carmenion, 
wgtmte nuUo; \ . . , tu ficxa nitidus coma vagarU, \ Hi span is ego 
cntimax eapillU, i levis dropace tu qnotidiano. ib. 68 10 — 11. 
Pftroemiogr. gr. Gott. 1 135. ii 180. 

Hi— 115 16 n. Plin. xiv § 123 pudetque confiteriy m>aximum iam hono- 

rm Hut [resinae] esse in evellendis yirorum oorpori pilis. ib. 

zzzi§ 26 ilia perdidere imperii mores . . . pilorum eviratio institnta 

resinis. Qointil. y 9 § 14 fortaxse corpus yulsnm, fractum incessum, 

vettem muliehrem dixerit mollis et parum yiri signa, si cui .... tit 

sanguis e caede, ita ilia ex impudicitia fiuere videantur. Scipio in Gell. 

TisTii 12 § 5 nam qui cotidie unguentatus adversum speculum ornetur^ 

cuius supercilia radantur, qui barba yulsa feminibusque sub- 

ralsis ambnlet, . . . eumne quisquam dubitet, quin idem fecerit, quod 

einaedi facere solent ? Lacian de mere. cond. 33 Thesmopolis the Stoic 

hyed in the house of a rich and luxurious lady: r6 fiiv irpOrov ckcivo iradeiv 

(^^ y^KoL&rarWy trvyKaOlj^oSai Tap* avrip vapaSedoffOai <f>i\oa6^(p 6irn Kivai- 

d<Sr rtFO row irtirirrdifiivuv tA aKiKri kclI t6p inlrycaya ir€pie^vprffi4v(ay. 

Marquardt y 2 368. lexx. }f/i\io0pov, psiloihrum. Moyers ii 3 220—3 

identifies (with the lxx and Tulg.) resina with the balm of Gilead. Mart. 

zii 32 21 — 2 nee plena turpi matris olla resina | Summoenianae qua 

pilantur uxores. ib. iii 74 4. Tert. de pall. 3 fin. unde apud hirtos 

et hirsutos, tam rapax ab ala resina, tam furax a mento yol- 

bbUa? . . . revera enim quale est Graecatim depilari magis quam 

anUciri f Clem. Al. paed. iii 3 § 15 seq. 

116 Cic. de prov. cons. §§ 29. 32—4. Tac. Agr. 24 si quidem Hibemia 
medio inter JBritanniam atque Hispaniam sita et Galileo qu/oque 
mari opportuna yalentissimam imperii partem magnis in vicem 
usibus nUseuerit, cf. ib. 12 of the Britons, h. ii 6. iii 53 suis exhorta- 
tioni&t» GalliasHispaniasque, yalidissimam terrarumpartem, 
ad Vespasianum eonversas, Liy. xxii 46 § 5. 

HisPANiA Mart. X 65 cited 113 n. Cic. ad Qu. f r. 1 1 § 27 quod si te sors 
Afris aut Hispanis aut Gallis praefecisset, immanibus ac 
barbaris nationibus. 

OALLicns DCass. lxiii 22 §§ 2 — 4 Yindex, himself a Gaul, assembled the 
Gauls A. D. 68 who had suffered and were still suffering grievously from 
continual impositions, and called them to rise against Nero, 6ti Traaap ttjv 
r<ip'Fu/JuU<aif oUovfiipijp ff€ffv\rjK€P, cf. Tac. an. iii 40 Florus and Sacroylr 
A. D. 21 disserebant de continuatione tributorumf gravitate fenoriSy sae- 
yitia ac superbia praesidentium, . . . egregium resumendae libertati 
tempus, si ipsi florentes, qvam inops Italia^ quam inbellis urbana 
plebes, nihil yalidum in exercitibus nisi quod externum, 
eogitarent, ib. 44 a report at Borne that sixty-six Gallic clans had 
revolted, adsumptos in societatem Germanos, dubias Hispanias. ib. 
46 the Boman general Silius made very little of Gallic valour pudendum 
ipsis quod Germaniarum victores adversum Gallos tamquam in 
hostem ducerentur, * una nuper cohors rebelUm Turonum, una ala Tre- 


verum, paueae huitu ipsiuu exercitus turmae profligavere Sequanog^ 
quanta pecunia dites et voluptatibiu opuUntos^ tanto ma^i inbelles, 
Aeduot evincite,* iv 5. 72. xi 18 a. d. 47 Gannasco at the head of tii9 
Chauci praedabundus Gallornm maxime oram vcutdbat, non ignarum 
dites et inbelles esse. Germ. 28 inertia Gallornm. k^t. 11. 
Gallos qnoqne in bellis flornisse €Lceepimu» ; mox segnitifr 
cnm otio intravit, amissa yirtnte pariter ac libertate, 
AXIS Yi 470. xiY 42. Lnc. yii 423. schol. SeptentrionalU pan. Avien* 
desor. orb. 534 Assy Hum suspeetant eminus axem. 

117 ILLYBICUM Liy. X 2 lUyrii Libumique et Istri, gentes ferao 
et magna ex parte latrociniis maritimis infames. The revolt of 
the neighbouring Pannonians and Dalmatians a.d. 6 was dne to oppressive 
taxes DCass. lv 29 § 1. Their leader Baton threw the blame on the 
Bomans, saying to Tiberins a. d. 9 ib. lvi 16 § 3 ' yon send to keep yonr 
flocks not dogs nor shepherds but wolves.' los. beU. n 16 § 4 p. 118 
52 Didot ol 2^ . . . 'I\\(//Moc tt^ /(^XP^ AaKfiarlas &Tor€fUfOfiiinfif 'larp^ 
KaroiKOvm-es ov Hvffl iibvoti rdyfunraf vveUovo'if fieO* u¥ a^cH rdf Aairwr 
dwaKbTTowruf opfidi; the whole chapter, a speech put into Agrippa's 
mouth, sets forth the greatness of Bome with great effect. The career of 
Quintilius Varus is a commentary on the words of Inv. he was for nine 
years governor of Syria Yell, ii 117 § 2 quam pauper divitem ingreutu 
dives pauper em reliquit : but when a. d. 9 he treated the Oermaru as 
slaves DCass. lvi 18 § 3, the Boman arms sustained a reverse equal 
to the ruin of Crassus Flor. ii 30=iv 12 §§ 30—32 Germani vieH 
magis quam domiti erant . . . Vari Quintilii Ubidinem ac superbiam 
haut secus quam saevitiam odisse coeperunt, ausus ille agere con- 
ventum et incautius edixerat^ quasi violentiam barbarorum lietoris 
virgis et praeconis voce posset inhibere, at illi, qui iam pridem robigine 
obsitos enses inertesque maererent equos, ut primum togas et saeviora armu 
iura viderunt, du>ce Arminio arma corripiunt. Hock i 2 90 — 95. 

LATUS Stat. s. IV 4 68 Istrum servare latus. Flor. i 
21 = 11 5 §1 Illyrii . . . longissime per totum Adriani maris litus 
effusi. MEssoBiBus etc. v 119 n. xii 75 n. 

From Yarro r. r. ii pr. § 3 ' most farmers have now abandoned plough 
and pruning-hook, choosing rather to employ their hands in the theatre 
and Circus than on cornfields and vineyards ; we have com imported, 
qtui saturi^mtM, from Africa and Sardinia.' cf. Colum. i pr. e.g. 
§ 20 * in this Latium and land of Saturn, where once gods taught 
agriculture to their children, in this land, I say, we now receive tenders 
in public sale for the importation of corn from provinces beyond sea, 
that we may not be pinched with famine.' Tac. h. i 73 transgressa in 
Africam ad instigandum in arma Clodium MaA^rum^ famem populo 
Bomano baud obscure molita. Caesar on his return from Libya, 
B. c. 46, Plut. 55 ' said that he had conquered a countiy large enough to 
supply annually to the treasury 200,000 Attic medimni of com.' Tacitus 
speaking of a dearth in Claudius' reign xii 43 * once Italy sent stores to 
her legions in distant provinces ; nor is our present distress owing to 
barrenness of the soil, but we till Egypt rather and Africa, navibusque et 
casibus vita populi Romani commissa est.* Suet. Dom. 7 cited on in 2. 
Plin. pan. 31 § 2 Mt was held of old, that our city could no otherwise be 
fed and supported but by the granaries of Egypt. That vainglorious 
people boasted that, if we were their masters, we at least owed our suste- 
nance to them, and that on their river and their ships depended the 
plenty or dearth of provisions at Borne.' cf. ib. 30. Commodus first 


appointed a classU Africana on the model of the clcusis Alexandrina 
(establidied by Aogustus?), in order to supply any failure in the 
harrests ol Egypt Lamprid. 17. cf. Hor. c. i 1 9 Lambin. s. 11 3 87. 
Claud. belL Gild. 52 seq. Sen. ep. 17 cited lu 141 n. Plin. h. n. y 8 (4). 
ZYii 3 (5). Mamertin. grai act. lul. Aug. 14 § 6. Lips, elect, i 8. 
SalTian. de gubem. ti p. 138 Baluz. calls Africa anima rei publicae, 
A. D. 41 Gains (Caligula) had withdrawn so many ships from commerce 
in building his bridge at Puteoli, that the magazines of com were 
wellnigh exhausted Sen. brey. yit. 18 §§ 5—6. DCass. lix 17 § 2. AY. 
Caes. 4 § 3. Suet. Claud. 18. 19 Claudius, who was once mobbed and 
pelted by the hungry crowd, deyised a. d. 51 measures to secure a 
constant supply eyen in winter. He founded a secure harbour partus 
Romanui at Fiumicino. Traders were assured from risks by storms, and 
priyileges granted to such as should build merchantmen civi vacationem 
legit Papiae Poppaeae^ Latino iu» Quiritium, feminis ins iiii Hberorum; 
quae eonstituta hodieque servantur, Tao. xii 43. dig. l 5 § 3. cf. the 
proyisions against wreckers ib. XLyii 9 3 § 8. The senate struck coins 
in honour of Claudius with the effigy of Ceres Augusta holding ears of 
com Eokhel yi 289 ; others with the inscr. ex S, C» oh cites servatos ib. 
others with the effigy of Claudius holding scales with a modius between 
them ib. 188 (partly from Lehmann). H^ i 3 278 — 9. Marquardt in 
2 154—7. y 2 &— 6. 14. Friedlander i* 33—5 has collected the notices of 
dearths in Bome, which were sometimes caused by the floods, to which 
the emporium and corn-magazines were specially exposed. Plut. 0th. 4 
§ 4 ▲. n. 69 the flooding of the magazines caused great scarcity for many 
days. Symm. ep. in 55. 82 risk of famine in Bome from the failure of 
the African crops. DCass. lx 11 § 2 necessity for a new harbour, as 
all the grain, Cis ivos elveiy^ consumed in Bome was imported. los. 
bell, u 16 § 4 p. 120 12 and 20 Didot grain for 8 months' consumption 
imported from * Africa,' for the remaining 4 months' from Egypt. 

118 ciBCO x81 n. Tac. h. i ^plebs sordida ct 
circo ac theatris sueta. yACANTEu it was the 

policy of the emperors to amuse the people by shows : as Pylades, when 
Augustus had complained of a disturbance occasioned by the riyalry 
between him and Hylas, answered Macrob. 11 7 § 19 xal dxaparrm^ 
pofftXev ; icuroy airroits irepl rjfias d<rx,o\€iff0au 

119 BO^* ^^^ ^^ you do commit this unnatural crime, what will you gain 
by it, seeing that Marius Priscus lately stripped the needy Africans of 
their all f dibae because by plundering Africa 
you starye Bome. 

120 TENUES yu 80 n. mabius i 49 n. 

nisciNXEBiT cf. despolia the word of command to lictors Sen. contr. 25 
§ 22 p. 257 1. 21 'despolia.' meretrix, agnoscis hoc verbumf certe 
provincia agjioscit. 122 misebis king Jerome to Napoleon 

Deo. 1812 in Bignon : ' la cause puissante de ces mouyements n'est 
pas seulement la haine centre les FrauQais, et Timpatience du joug 
Itranger ; elle existe dans la mine de toutes les classes, dans la surcharge 
des impositions, contributions de guerre, entretien de troupes, passage 
de soldats et yexations de tous les genres continuellement r^pdt^es. le 
disespoir des peuples qui rCont Hen a perdre^ parce qu^on leur a tout 
enlevS, est a redouter,* 125 sententia schol. 

nuda verba, in sententia nam solet interdum aliquid esse falsi, 
'What I just now said is no commonplace of the schools, but sober 
truth.' Petron. 1 n. rerum tumore et sententiarum yanissimo stre- 

30 FOLIUM SIBYLLAE. COHORS. [Vin 125— 128 

pitu. ib. 10 sententias, i<2 ett vitrea fracta et somniorum in- 
terpretamenta. ib. 118 controveniam sententiolis yibrantibus 
pic tarn. M. Sen. contr. i pr. § 23 p. 55 24 has irarulaticiat qtuu 
propne sententias dicimus, quae nihil hahent eum ipsa controversia 
inplicitum, sed satis apte et alio transferuntury tamquam quae de for- 
tuna, de crndelitate, de saeenlo, de divitiia dicnntur: hoc 
genus sententiarum Bupelleotilem vooabat. 
126 '^i ^^^* Ov* &• A* II ^^^ ^^c tibi non hominem, sed quercus erode 
Pelasgas | dicer e. M. Sen. i contr. pr. erratis, optimi iuvenes, nisi 
illam vocem^ non M, Catonis^ sed oraculi creditis, Plin. xxix 7 (1) 
hoc 2^uta vatem dixisse. Cio. de rep. y § 1 quern quidem ille versum, 
ijiqiiit, vel hrevitate vel veritate tamquam ex oraculo mihi quodam 
esse effatus videtur, Lucr. i 739. Arnob. i 1. Burm. anth. iv 16 6. 

FOLIUM Verg. Aen. in 444 seq, fata canit foliisque notas 
et nomina mandat. { quaecunque in foliis descripsit carmina 
yirgo, I digerit in numerum atque antro seclusa relinquit. \ iUa manent 
immota locis neque ab ordine cedunt, \ verum eadem, verso tenuis eum 
cardine ventus \ impulit et teneras turbavit ianua frondes, | numquam 
deinde cavo volitantia prendere saxo | . . . curat, Serv. adl. in foliis 
autem palmarum Sibyllam scribere solere testatur Varro. 
Aen. VI 74 where Serv. cites the words of Varro. Symm. ep. rv 33. Varr, 
in Plin. xiii §69 in palmarum foliis primo seriptitatum, dein qua- 
rundam arborum libris. Later the Sibylline books are spoken of as writ- 
ten on linen Claud, bell. Get. 231 — 2 quid carmine poscat \ fatidico eustos 
Romani oarbasus aevi, Symm. ep. iv 34 monitus Cutnanos 1 in tea 
text a sumpserunt, 

127 — 145 if both your suite and your wife be blameless, if no long- 
haired minion sell your awards, then you may choose the founder of 
your race from amongst the Titans ; no one will deny your descent even 
from (Titan xiv 35) Prometheus himself, for all will gladly do honour to 
your desert : but if you be the slave of lust and the oppressor of your 
province, then your noble birth only makes your guilt more flagrant. 

127 coHOBS cohors praetoria^ properly the military staff of 
the governor, including young nobles, who as contubemales or comites 
praetoris were entering upon military service. Other officers, such as 
lictoresy praeconesy scribacy interpretes, accensi, haruspicesy appantoreSy 
were less properly included in the term Cic. ad Qu. fr. 1 1 §§ 12—13 quos 
vero aut ex doviesticis convictionibus tecum esse voluisti, qui quasi ex co- 
horte praetoris appellari solent, horum non modo factay sed etiam dicta 

omnia praestanda nobis sunt sit anultis tuus non ut vas aliquod, sed 

tamquam ipse tu ; non minister alienae voluntatisy sed testis tuae etc. id. 
Verr. ii§ 27 comites illi tui delecti maniis erant tuae; praefectiy scribaCy 
mediciy accensi, haruspiceSy praecones erant manus tuae, . . . cohors tota 
ilia tutty quae plus mali Siciliae dedity quam si centum cohortes fugitivo- 
rum fuissenty tua manus. ib. § 29 tuos amicos in provinciam, quasi in 
praedamy invitabas. ib. § 75. Becker in 1 284 seq. Hor. ep. i 3 6 Ob- 
bar. Nep. XXV 6 § 4 of Atticus multorum consulum praetorumque praefec- 
turas delatas sic accepit ut neminem in provinciam sit secutus, 
honore fuerit contentus, rei familiaris despexerit fructum. Gatull. 
X 6 — 23. 128 ACERSECOMES iutonsuSy epithet of 

Apollo. On such am^isii cf. in 186 n. v 56 n. vi 378. The most famous, 
known by works of art, is Hadrian's minion Antinous. Tac. Agr. 19 ant- 
morum provinciae prudens . . . causas bellorum statuit excidere. a se 
suisque orsus primum domum suam coercuit, quod plerisque 


hand minus arduum est quam provinciam regere, nihil per liber to s 
seryosqne publioae rei. coniugb Tac. an. in 

88 Lips. Severus Caeeina censuit [a.d. 21], ne quern magistratum cui prO' 
meia ohvenisset^ uxor eomitaretur. . . . frnud enim f rostra placitum olinif 
nefminae in socios aut gentes extemas traherentur. , , . cogitarent ipsi, 
quotiens repetundaram aliqui arguerentnr, plnra nxoribas 
obiectari. Plin. ep. in 9 relates the trial of Classicus for oppression in 
the province of Baetica [lay. 116]. § 19 on the third hearing minor 
offenders were accused, excepta tamen Classici uxore, quae sicut inpli- 
eita nupieionibits ita non satis eonvinci probationibus visa est. § 20 the 
charge against the daughter of CI. was not pressed, of. § 29. Ulp. in dig. 
iUi^2 proficisci autem proconsulem melius quidem est sine uxore: 
ftd tt cum uxore potest^ dummodo sciat senatum Cotta et Messala consuli- 
(ttt [A.D. 20] censuisse faturunif ut si quid uxores eorum qui ad 
officia prof ioiscuntur deliquorint, ab ipsis ratio etvindicta 
exigatur. Pilate's wife Matt. 27 19. Suet. Aug. 2i disciplinam 
teverissime rexit : ne legatorum quidem cuiquam^ nisi gravate hibemisque 
damm mensibus, permisit uxor em intervisere. Tac. an. iv 19. 20 a.d. 24 
SoBia Galla, wife of C. Silius the conqueror in the war with Sacroirir, 
banished for extortion ; proposal of Messalinus Cotta cavendum senattis 
conmltOt ^^ quamquam insontes magistratus et culpae alienae nescii 
proyincialibus uxorum QxiixiiTiihii^ perinde quam suis plecterentur. 
Ti 29 and DCass. lyiii 24 § 3 a.d. 34 Pomponius (Pompeius) Labeo, eight 
years governor of Moesia after his praetorship, being with his wife accused 
of taking bribes, committed suicide with her. lix 18 § 4 a.d. 39 in like 
manner Calvisius Sabinus governor of Pannonia and his wife committed 
suicide: her offence was that she inspected the guards, and was present at 
the exercises of the troops. Plancina offended in the same way Tac. an. 
n 55. id. h. i 48 the wife of Calvisius Sabinus. Plut. Galba 12 § 1. 

129 coNYENTus Hirt. bell. Alex. 56 § 4 ex omnibus conventibus 
iohniisque, Gron. obs. iii 22 p. 310 Frotscher ' conventus dicebant Ro- 
inani oppida in provinciis selecta, in quibus praetores et proconsules con- 
TentnB agebant et pro tribunali ius reddebant occurrentibus eo ad diem 
edictam, qui in circumiectis locis et horum alicui attributis lites habe- 
rent.' See the whole chapter. . There were seven such assize- towns (as 
they may be called) in Hispania Tarraconensis, four in Baetica, three in 
Lnsitania, three in Illyria etc. Becker in 1 267. cf. ib. 136 seq. Rein in 
IP&oly n 685. los. ant. xiv 5 § 4 Gabinius made five conventus^ Jerusalem, 
Oadara, Amathus, Jericho, Sepphoris in Galilee. 

130 i^^ PABAT Aen. IV 118 in nemus ire par ant. Staveren on 
Hep. XXV 9 § 2. 

CBUBfo Verg. Aen. in 211 seq. qims dira Celaeno | Harpyiaeque colunt 
<ilta« . . . virginei volucrum vultus . . . uncaeque manus et pallida semper \ 
Ofd fame. Serv. ad 1. fame, quam iis infer ebat non inopia, sed avaritia. 
BntiL Namat. imitates Juvenal's metaphorical use of the name i 609 — 610 
Sarpyiast quarum decerpitur unguibus orbiSy | quae pede glutineo quod 
tttigere trahunt. 131 Ov. m. xiv 320 seq. Picus in 

•^tttoniw, proles Satumiat terns \ rex fuity utilium bello studiosus equorum 
fitc. Verg. Aen. vii 48 Fauno Picus jpafer, isque parentem \ te^ Satume, 
refert, cf. ib. 189 seq. numerks Theokr. id. xvii 27 

^M^ircpoi i* ipiOfievvrai is ^<rxaroi''Hpa/cX^a. 

ALIA 40. 132 TiTANiDA XV 23 u. Ruddim. II 4. 

^^uoshom 288 g. On the scorn with which the Titans regarded the new 
godt see Aesch. PV. 35. 96. esp. 205 seq. 310. 389. 942. 955. So in the 


Eumen. 133 pbomethea it 183. 

136 viROAS 268. XIV 18 seq. Cic. in Verr. v § 112 seq. 

139 FACEM Holyday 'holds a torch before thy shame.' Marios said 
of the nobles who abused him as an upstart, ap. SaU. lug. 85 § 21 seq. 
tnaiores suos extoUuntt eoruvi fortia facta memorando clariores setepiUant, 
quod contra est, nam quanto vita iUorum praeclariorf tanto horum socor' 
dia jiagitiosior. etprofectoitase res hahet, maiornm gloria poste- 
ris quasi lumen est, neque bona neque mala eorum in occulto 
patitur. See Wasse ad 1. p. 295 Haverc. id. CatiL 51 § 12. ad Herenn. 
IV § 60. Cio. off. II § 44. Beier on Cic. or. fragm. p. 109 seq. Cic. to 
Lentulus Catil. ui § 10 the likeness of your grandfather on your seal te a 
tanto scelere etiam muta revocare debuit. Sen. de clem. 1 8. La Bochef ou- 
cault la fortune fait parottre nos vertus et nos vices comme la lumiire fait 
parottre let objets, Tennyson the fierce light that heats upon a throne, 
Daniel to lady Anne Clifford in Chalmers' British poets iii 531 b she tells 
you, how that honour only is | a goodly garment put on fair deserts ; | 
wherein the smelliest stain is greatest seen, \ and that it cannot grace 
unworthiness ; \ hut more apparent shews defective parts, | how gay 
soever they are decked therein. 

PBAEFEBRE PUu. Y 17 § 4 pergcTet, qua coepisset^ lumen- 
que, quod sibi maiores sui praetulissent, posteris ipse 

140 coNSPECTius Bremi etc. on Nep. xxv 13 § 5. 

142 QX70 Ov. a. a. i 803 quo tibi, Pasiphae, pretiosas sum ere vestesf 
Supply some such word as prodest, Heind. on Hor. s. i 6 24. ct luv. 

FALSAS I 67. What is it to me that your ancestor built that temple in 
which you seal a forged will ? Wills were kept in the temples (dig. xliii 
5 3 § 3 si custodiam tahularum aedituus , . . suscepit, Tac. an. i 8 Lips.) 
like other valuables luv. xiv 260 n. ; here the degenerate noble substitutes 
a forged will (which he seals in the very temple itself) for a true one, 
which he abstracts. 144 J^'^'^ ^1* 


Mart. XIV 128 1 Gallia Santonico vestit te bardocucuUo. Hie 
Santones occupied the coast of France to the north of the Garonne ; their 
name survives in Saintes (Mediolanum), the capital of the old province 
Saintogne. velas adopebta Yerg. Aen. iii 405 purpureo 

velare comas adopertus amictu. cucullo in 170 n. 

VII 221 n. IX 28 seq. vi 118 sumere nocturnes meretrix Augxtsta 
cucullo s. ib. 330. Hor. s. ii 7 55. Cic. PhlL ii § 77 Antonius, in 
order to surprise his mistress, domum venit capite involute, id. cited 
on 158. Isidor. orig. xix 26 cum egrediehantur de ludi prostibulo 
iuv^n^^, . . . velamento tegebant caput et faciem: quia solehant 
eruhescere qui lupanar i7itroissent. Sen. vit. beat. 18 § 2 et vitia sua cum 
coepit putare similia praeceptis, indulget illis, non temere nee ohscure: 
luxuriatur etiam inoperto capite. Fetron. 7. Lucian dial. mort. 10 
11 Menippus says that the philosopher laments the loss of sumptuous 
feasts, and because now no longer vi^Krotp i^tuv dtrairrai \ay0dj^uif rf 
IfiaTitfi r^v K€</>a\ijv icaretXTjcaj Tcpleiaiv iv K6K\(fi rd xa/uac- 
TV Tret a. Philostr. soph, i 25 § 25 a speech of Polemon's 6 funx^i 6 iyKC- 
KoKvfifjLipos, Apul. met. viii 10. ix 20. Laev. ap. Non. s. v. latihulet, 
Capitolin. Ver. 4 vagari per tabernas obtecto capite cucullione 
vulgari viatorio. Lamprid. Elag. 32 ad omnes meretrices teotus 
cucullione mulionico ne agnosceretur ingressus. cf. DCass. 

145—153] CUCULLUS. CABPENTUM. WfflP. 33, 

iszix 13 § 2. L. Pompon. Bonon. ap. Nod. s. v. paenula paenulam in 
caput I indnce ne te noscat. Flin. ep. in 12 § 3. Suet. Ner. 26 
post orepnscnlum statim adrepto pilleo yel galero popinas 
inibat cireumque vicos vagabatur ludibundus. » . . ac saepe in eius modi 
rixis oeulorum et vitae periculum adiit, a quodam laticlavio, cuius uxorem 
a^eetaverat^ prope ad necem eaesus. Forttmatian. rhet. i 6 p. 85 24 H 
adtdteros licet occidere, infamisfuit in nurum ; invenit filius adulte rum 
obYoluto capite nee eum occidit. interrogatur apatre, qui fait adulter, 
cut pepereerit; non dicit et ahdicatur. Mart, xiv 132. Marquardt 
T 2 186. Bich companion eucnllus. These cuculli seem to have been of 
wool ct Mart, i 53 5. 92 8. iv 19 for other Gallic stuffs in use 
at Borne. 146 seq. 

cf. I 56 seq. Driving in Italian cities being forbidden in the daytime 
(ill 10. 236. PUn. h. n. vii § 141. cf. Nep. xx 4 § 2), Lateranus diives 
out on one of the main roads. maiorum i 171 n. 

Ci&p. Mil. § 18 itaque in eadem ista Appia via cum omatissimum 
equitem Romanum P, Clodius M, Papirium occidisset, non fait illud /aci- 
nus puniendum: homo enim nobilis in suia monumentis equitem 
Itomanum occiderat, cf. ib. § 17. 147 cabpknto 

It 132. It was a covered carriage with two wheels, used by the luxu- 
rious. Claudia, sister of P. Claudius Pulcher, cos. b. c. 249, drove in a 
carpentum from the games Suet. Tib. 2. So Messalina (id. Claud. 17. 
DCaas. lx 22 § 2) and Agrippina (id. Lx 33 § 2. Tac. xii 42) received per- 
mission from the senate to drive m a carpentum (DCass. retains the word 
KapTiifT(p -xpTiffffaL) on solemn occasions cf. Artemid. i 56 dyaOot^ iXev- 
Bipui yvvai^lf afia xal TapOivon T\ov9lais rd Scd vbXetai &pfia i\a^. 
"ti"' d7a^df 7&/» Upotrvpas a&rais 7r€piiroc€trac. Marquardt v 2 321. The 
form of the carpentum is known from the coins of the empresses who 
received from the senate the right to use it at the pompa circensis Isid. 
orig. XX 12 3 carpentum, pompaticum vehiculi genus, Caligula Suet. 
15 instituted circensian games in honour of his mother Agrippina after 
her death carpentumgue, quo in pompa traduceretur. The coins of this 
Agrippina, of Livia, of the Domitillae wife and daughter of Vespasian, 'of 
Hadrian's wife Sabina, of Faustina iun. wife of M. Aurelius, have the 
^jpentum. It was also used for travelling, by Tarquin and Tanaquil 
Ifiv. 1 34 § 8 ; Cynthia Prop. v= iv 8 53 is driven to Lanuvium in one with 
oik curtains serica namtacco volsi carpenta nepotis, Marquardt ib. 
327—8. Becker Gallus iii 10. lateranus x 17 n. 

he had been ejected from the senate on account of an intrigue with 
Messalina, a.d. 48, but was restored by Nero, a.d. 55 Tac. xiii 11. cf. xi 
30. 36. When consul elect, a.d. 65, he engaged in Piso's conspiracy 
it. XV. 49. IPSE I 62. 

JWi, IPSE VI 166 — 7 malo, malo. 148 suf- 

W41IIX1J XVI 50. schol. vinculum ferreum, quod inter radios mittitur, 
dum elivum descendere coeperit reda, ne celerius rotae sequantur et ani- 
^liavexent, 149 luna videt vi 311 luna teste. 

TESTES nominative. 152 tbepidabit 

«• ace. X 21. 153 viRGA III 317. Sil. in 293. Aug. cons. 

®^iig. u § 72 virga intellegitur .... corporaliter, qua utimur sive ad 
c^unm, sive ad aliquid aliud opus fuerit. DCass. says of Caracalla, 
^hea he appeared as auriga, lxxvii 10 TpoatK^vei re a^oOs [the um- 
P^'W] KdrcoBtv T^ ftdiTTiyi. id. lxii 16 § 1 a.d. 64 roffavrtf 8' tjv tjtov 
^^pwos oKoXaffia wore Kcd dp/iara Hrjfioffl^ i^Xavre. id. LXiii 1 § 1 
^. 66 d re ydp N^pwr A* rotf Ki0ap<fidoii '^(aviffaro, koI viKifT^^pia avrtp Mevc-; 

JUV. IL <l 


Kpdrovs ToC Tijs KiOafXfidias diSaffKciXov ipttfi imro^phiufi voi-fiowrroi ijpioxv^^* 
ib. 6 § 2 on the purple awnings of the theatre Nero was embroidered ap/ia 
i\avv<i)v, amid stars of gold. § 3 after a snmptnoas feast to Tiribates 
Nero Koi iKiOap^hiffe drifuxrlq. koI iipfiaTtiXdrrjo'e tt^p t€ ctoX^v rijp 
irpaaivov ivScdvfiivos xal to Kpdpos rd iiPioxf-Kdy irepiKeifiepos- 
ib. LXi 17 §§ 3 — 5 A.D. 59 men and women of equestrian and senatorian 
rank descended into the stage and circus and amphitheatre, some play- 
ing the flute or the guitar, dancing, acting tragedies and comedies, driving 
Jiorses and slaying wild beasts and fighting as gladiators, some freely, 
others sore against their will : and men saw the great families, Furii, 
Fabiiy Porcii, Valerii, and the others whose trophies and temples were to 
be seen, standing below and doing ihv ina ovi* itv* d\\<ap yiyuifxepa iOetJ^ 
poxfp. and men pointed them out to one another with the finger, the 
Macedonians saying, 'this is Paulus descendant,' the Greeks 'ovros roi; 
'MofifiLov,^ the Siceliots ' see Claudius/^ the men of Epirus ^seeAppius!* 
the Asiatics Lucius^ the Iberians PuhliuSf the Carthaginians Africantu. 
So already Caligula a.d. 87 id. lix 5 § 2 was ruled by charioteers, ib. § 5 
himself drove in the circus, ib. 14 §§ 2, 6—7. cf. luv. xi 198 n. vu 
114 n. 243 n. and Vitellius DCass. lxv 6 § 1 before he was emperor rubbed 
down the horses of the blue faction, cf. Suet. Vit. 4. 
PRIOR he does not turn away his head in shame, but tries to catch his 
friend's eye by jerking his whip. 154 inpundkt 

it is a mark of the dypoiKos Theophr. char. 4 roip inro^yylois iMPdKetp 
TOP xoprop, HOBDEA this plural is cited by 

Quintil. as a barbarism i5§16 hordea et mulsa.. , non alio vitiosa 
sunt, quam quod pluralia singulariter . « . . efferuntur. It is used how- 
ever by many poets, e.g. by Verg, g. i 210, who was ridiculed by 
Bavins and Maevius in the verse ap. Serv. ad loc. hordea qui dixit, 
superest ut tritica dicat. Aug. doctr. Chr. iii § 19 hordeo vesci 
more iumentorum. Marquardt v 2 23 — 4. Bations of barley were 
served out to soldiers as a punishment ib. iii 2 89 n. 417. Suet. Aug. 24. 
Plin. XVIII § 74 panem ex hordeo antiquis usitatum vita damnavit, 
qu'adripedumquo fere cibus est. Apul. met. i 24 plane quod est 
mihi summe praecipuum, equo, qui me strenue pervexit, faenum atque 
hordeum acceptis istls nummulis tu, Fotis, emito. iii 26 after his 
transformation Lucius calls on luppiter Iwspitalis et Fidei secreta fiU' 
mina, to attest the ingratitude of his steed abigor quam procul ab hor- 
deo, quod apposuoram vesper! meis manibus ill! gratisslmo 
famulo. ib. iv 22 nobis unus ilia recens hordeum affatim et sine 
ulla mensura largita est., . ego vero numquam alias hordeo ciba- 
tus. vii 14 sospitatorem nuncupatum matrona prolixe curita^at, ipsoque 
nwptiarum die praesepium meum hordeo passim repleri iubet, ib. 16, 
16. 28. 155 LANATAs used substantively, 

as lanigcr, bidens, etc. robum bo Orelli, 

Madvig, Jahn. Schol. robum^ i.e. robustum, rufum : unde Hercules robus 
dictus est. Paul. Diac. p. 134 Lind. robum rubro colore et quasi rufo 
significari, ut bovem quoque rustici appellant, manifestum est . ... hinc 
et homines valentes et boni coloris robusti. cf. Cramer ad schoL h. L 
The word is archaic (more Numue) , Red oxen (Colum. vi 1 § 3 colore 
rubeo, cf. ib. § 2) were most highly valued. 

156 NUMAE III 12. 138 n. Liv. i 42 Numa divini auctor iuris. 
Numa's sacrifices unbloody Schwegler i 681 3. cf. 641. Luc. ix 477 
sacrifico Numae. Marquardt iv 34. 44. 
CAEmT as consul. The consuls offered an ox to luppiter Capitollnus ,oq. 


flDtering npon their office (Or. Pont, iv 4 29 seq. ib. 9 30. Cic. de leg. 
agr. I § 93. cf. Serv. ad Aen. ix 627), and .also to luppiter Latiaris on 
the Alban mount. 

157 XPONAM sohol. Epona dea mnlionum est. Agesilaus Ital. iii 
in Pint, parall. min. 29 p. 312« #ou\j3io; ZWXXa fiio&v yvi^cuKas tinrtfi awe- 
liiayero* if S^ xard xpdvotf irexe Kbptiv <rvfifxop<pop Kal wvofmffcv 'Evopav. 
kriii Beos Tpopoiop iroiovfiivri iiriruv. Tert. apol. 16 vos tamen nonnega^ 
hitiset iumenta omnia et totos cantlierios cum sua Epona coli a vobis, 
Minno. Octav. 28. Prudent, apoth. 197—9 nemo Cloacinae aut Eponae 
Afper astra deabus | dat solium, quamvis olidam persolvat acerram \ sacri^ 
Ifgisqne molam manibua rimetur et exta, ApuL met. iii 27 respicio pilae 
tnediae, qiMe stabuli trabes sustiiiebat, in ipso fere meditullio Eponae 
deae simulacrum residens aediculae, quod accurate corollis roseis et 
qmdem recentibus fuerat omatum. inscr. in honour of Epona Orelli 
402. 1792—4. Henzen 5804. cf. Florencourt in the Jahrb. des Vereins 
Yon Alterthumsfreunden im Bbeinlande iii 47 seq. Wafz ib. yiii 129 
Beq. Schwegler i 696 1. Epona has the p as frirof, to which equus is 
related as sequor to Iro/uat. cf. Gurtius Grundzuge 11^ 50. 52. 56. 
nau rude representations of Epona and other gods painted on the 

stalls. 158 PERVIGILES XY 43 u. 

P0PINA8 these appear to have had warm baths attached to them 108. 
Other exx. of nobles frequenting taverns Cic. in L. Pis. § 13 ineministinef 
caenum, cum ad te quintafere hora cum C, Pisone venissem, nescio quo e 
gurgustio te prodire, involute capite, soleatum? et cum isto ore foetido 
taeterrimam nobis popinam inhalasseSy excusatione te uti valetudinis, 
quod diceres vinolentis te quibusdam medicaminibus solere curari ? quam 
noi causam cum accepissemus . . , paulisper stetimus in illo ganearum 
tuarum nidore atque fumo: unde tu nos .... turpissime ructando 
eiecisti. The grammarian Lenaeus called SaUust Suet, gr, 15 lurcho^ 
nem et nebulonem popinonemgue. id. Yit. 13. Mart, v 70. Apul, 

met. VIII 1 iuvenis natalibns praenobilis sed luxuriae 

popinalis scortisque et diurnis potationibus exercitatus atque ob 
id faetunUbus latronum male sociatu^, Marquardt v 2 79 — 82. Becker 
Callus III* 18—28. Friedliinder ii^ 21—8. 
ISSassiduo Markl. coni. Assyrio cl. Hor. c. ii 11 10. 
STBopHOBNix cf. Ill 62 n. Under the Bomans Phoenike, which was 
iAclnded in the province Syria» received the name IvpotpoivUri (St. Mark 
7 26) to distinguish it from Syria proper or Xvpla KoiXrj (cf. ^vpofiri^ia). 
It comprised three districts with Tyre, Damascus and Palmyra for their 
respective capitals Marquardt in 1 196 — 7. Lucian deor. cone. 4 with 
a sneer Zvpo<polviK&t nyos ifivopov Kddfiov. Cf. Wetst. on Mar. 7 26. and 
for the similar form AtjSu^o/w/ccj Pape-Benseler. amomo iv 

108 n. Mart, v 64 3 pingu^scat nimtomadidus mihi crinis amomo. 
I*lin. XIII §§ 6. 18. Movers ii 3 257. 160 idumaeae portae 

Wme suppose that a pass in Phoenicia (cf. VF. in 497 Albana porta) 
is meant ; others, the triumphal arch of Titus. 

161 HospiTis ADFECTn=Apul. apol. 87 tabernariis blandiliis. That the 
^nj^ofiiet invited passers-by to enter appears from Cic. p. Cluent. § 163 
** invitaverit [caupo], id quod solet, sic hominem accipiemus, ut 
^lesteferat se de via decessisse. Casaub. on Suet. Ner. 27. Plut. de 
^tioso pudore 8 p. 532 we do not choose physicians, tutors for our 
^dren, advocates, for their merit, but for their importunity or from 
private friend^p. To wean ourselves from this false shame, let 
^ exercise ouys^lves in slight matters of every day Ufe, never tp em» 




ploy Karii ivauwiap a barber or fuller, nor io put up at a poor inn, whta 
there is a better at hand, 6ti ttoWcLkis 6 Tav$oK€i>s ^(rira<rartf ^i/Mt, 
The Syrophoeuicians were famous for their insinuating address Eunap. 
vit. Liban. p. 496 16 Didot 5 TdvT€s ol Xvpo^olvixei ixov<ri Karit 
T^v KOipijp ivrev^ip 4iSi> xal Kexo-pifffJ^ivov. 

DOHiNUM BEOBMQUE Y 137 n. 161 u. Mart. X 10 5 cited on iii 185. iy 83 
5 <oZ2icttusdona«, dominumregemque salutas. id. i 112. ii 68. xii 
60b 8. Sen. ep. 3 § 1 ohviot, ii nomen non tuccurritf domino s saln- 
tamus. Suet. Aug. 53 Torrent. Friedlander diss, de appellations 
domini a Bomanis usurpata, Begim. 1859, 4to (cf. Sittengeschichte i' 
356 — 362 * on the use of the form of address domine in ordinary life ') 
cites Petron. 86 a pupil to his paedagogus rogo, domine, ubi est 
asturco ? Mart, v 57. ti 88 by chance 1 saluted you this morning by 
your true name, forgetting to call you my 'lord,' Caecilianus. The 
freedom cost me 100 quadrantes (the usual sportula), Epikt. ii 7 §§ 
9. 15 to augurs. 15 § 15 and iii 10 § 15 to physicians. 23 § 11 to an 
auditor at a recitation, nr 1 § 57 Ai* dKovcyi Xiyom-os (awOeif Kal iK 
irddovs *Kvpi€f^ K&¥ d(i)S€Ka jta^Zoi Trpodyuxrit \4y€ SovXop. 
Fronto ep. ad amic. i 7 p. 179 Naber. ib. 25 p. 188, where correspondents 
are addressed as domine and domine f rater respectiyely. Apul. m. u 14 
the hero is addressed by his host, ib. iii 11 by the magistrate of Hypata, 
who is apologising for a practical joke played upon him, as Luci diomine* 
ib. Yi 22 luppiter to Cupid domine Jili, So Symm. ep. yi 41. 68 of and 
to his daughter dominajilia. So in inscriptions on boys domino filio meo 
Fabretti inscr. p. 582 167 n. Of. Lucian somn. 9. Nigrin. 23 the 
flatterers are to blame for their patrons' insolence : drop ydp avrdv ritv 
vcpiovfflav $avp,d<7<aai koI top p^pv<r3y iTraivifftaffi Kcd rods irvXuipas f(a0€P 
ifnrkfyfiaai. koX irpo(r€\06vT€i iSffvep SecTiras irpoffelTroxri, ri koX ^po- 
tr/jaeip iicelpovs ekos iariv ; los. ant. xyi 4 § 7 icoU paatXia koX SeaxorriP. 

BALUTAT Fabri on LIy. xxii 29 § 11 
V08y militeSt quorum vos modo arma dexterae texeruntt patronos salu- 
tabitis. Tac. XII 41. Suet. Ner. 7. cf. * hail Him Lord of lords.' 

162 criANE a copa Syrisca such as is addressed in YirgU's copa. Lndl. 
Ill 33 caupona /lie tamen tina Syra. 


163 DEFENSOR CULPAE DiCET MiHi Phacdr. Y 4 9 sed dicis. where Burm. 
cites III prol. Sfortasse dices. Sen. n. q. i 1 § 4 dices mihi, 6 § 3. 


5 — 6 minus mirandum est, illaec a^tas si quid illorum facit, \ quam si 
nonfaciat, feci ego istaec itidem in adulescentia. 

164 DESiSTi Sen. contr. 14 §§ 2, 3 p. 167 obicit luxuriam propriam et hoc 
dicit : adulcscens frugaliter vixi quamdiu frugi patrem habui, ante me 
desiste, ante me coeperas . , . * senex luxuriare' ais; respondeo 
tibi * adulescens enim navigavi.* *ego* inquit *iam desii, tu nondum.^ 

* non miror si prior desisti; prior coeperasJ* see the whole contr. 

* quidam luxuriante filio luxuriari coepit ; filius accusat patrem demen- 
tiae.* NEMPE Hand Turs. iv 155 voeabuJuni 
colloquii indicat claram esse et affirmandam rem ex alterius qui eollo- 
quitur sententia. Hot. ep. i 16 76 — 6 ^adimam bona.* *nempe pecus, 
rem, \ leetos, argentum: tollas licet.* *We did the same ourseWes in 
our youth.' * Be it so : you have given it up now, you mean to say.* 
166 — 167 III 186 n. Mart, iv 77 9 — 10 haec facient sane iuyenes; 
def ormius, Afer, I omnino nihil est ardelione sene. 

168 THBSifABUM Yii 233 n. XI 4. Mart, zu 70 5 seq. frangendos ca- 


iiees effundendumque Falemum \ clamabat, biberet qui modo lotus 
eqnes. | asene sedpostqttam patruo venere trecenta, \ sobrius a ther* 
mis nescit abire domum. Sen. ep. 122 § 6 frequens hoc adulesceri' 
Hunvitium est ^ qui vires excolunt^ut in ipso paene balnei limine 
inter nudos bibant, immo potent, et sudorem^ quern moverunt 
potionibns crebris ac ferventibus, subinde distringant. QuintiL 
i6§44Y6lli €t coznam in gradus frangere et in balneis perpo- 
tare, quamlibet haec invaserint civitatem^ non erit consuetude, quia nihil 
horum caret reprehensione. adyertisements of baths in country inns 
Marini atti 11 532. Friedliinder 11' 25. 

LDTTEA schol. hoc cst pictis velis popinae succedit, aut lintels capsariciis 
tergitur. If the latter explanation (cf. Sen. supr.) were the true one, 
linUa must be figured towels (iii 263 n.) used in the bath. Rather 
understand curtains (yi 228. ix 105. Gasaub. on Suet. Ner. 27). Orelli 
'piotnm velum seu siparium ante ostium tabemae, thermopolii, cau- 
ponae, popinae suspensum. in quo erant tituli rerum venalium, in- 
Titationes praetereuntium, veluti haec Lugduni reperta inscr. Lat. 
4329 Mercurius hie lucrum promittitf Apollo salutem : Septumanus hos- 
piHum cum prandio. qui venerit, melius utetur. post, hospes ubi 7na- 
neas, prospice. ea igitur in tabema alea offerebatur, iatnilipta, hos- 
pitinm, prandium.' 

169 ABMXNiAE SYBiAEQUE the Farthians since the death of Crassus were 
a constant terror to Rome Hor. c. i 12 63 — 4. 19 11—2. 11 13 17—9. 
BCass. XL 14 — 15 describes vividly the suddenness and fury of their 
onsets, cf. apocal. 9 13 seq. loseph. ant. xiv 13 § 3 seq. b. I. i 13. 

ABMENiAE 51. Stat. s. V 2 34. Suid. MdpTLos, Tac. 
an. n 3. 56—9. The rivers are Euphrates and Tigris Plin. h. n. vi § 25. 
los. bell. Ill 1 §§ 2 — 3 choice of Vespasian for the Jewish war after he 
had conquered the Glermans and Britons. Yerg. g. i 509. 

170 BHENo ATQUE HiSTBO 51 u. esp, Stat, there cited. 
IV U7. Stat. 8. IV 4 61 — 4 forsitan Av^onias ibis frenare cohortes, \ aut 
Bheni populos aut nigrae litora Thules \ aut Hist rum servare 
latus metuendaque portae \ limina Caspiacae. v 1 127 — 9 tecum 
geUdas comes ilia per Arctos, \ 8arm4iticasque hiemes Histrumgt/^ 
ft pallida Rheni | frigora. los. bell, ii 16 § 4 Agrippa in a long 
speech sets forth the power of Rome, from the Euphrates to the 
6Uter, to Gades and to Britain; Gauls, Germans (in spite of their 
^t stature, their daring and their guardian Rhine), Spaniards, Illy- 
nans, all have yielded ; the Parthians send hostages ; and shall the 
Jews alone, of all nations under the sun, resist ? In the time of Tibe- 
rias Tac. an. iv 6 eight legions were on the Rhine, to curb the Gauls 
»nd Germans ; two in AMca, two in Egypt ; four from Syria to the 
Snphrates ; four on the Danube, two in Pannonia, and two in Moesia, 
^th two others in reserve in Dalmatia. Marquardt rom. Staatsverwal- 
tnng Leipz. 1876 n 432—4, 437. Hock i I 37a— 388. J. Schneider 
Beitrage zur Geschichte des romischen Befestigungswesens auf der 
linken Rheinseite, Trier 1844. The Euphrates, Rhine and Danube 
^ere the natural boundaries of the empire ; conquests beyond the E. 
uid the D. were neither permanent nor a source of strength Hock iii 

(1) 107. HISTRO IV 111. 

nuESTABE etc. Lateranus is in the prime of life ; he has vigour 
enough to secure Nero from all fear of foreign enemies. Send, Caesar, 
lend him to Ostia to command your fleet, but seek your general etc. 

171 SC^- MITTE...INVENJES I 155 U. OSTIA the po^t 


bf Borne at the Tiber's mouth, from which the fleets sailed zi 75 n.; 
commonly Ostiat >ae, but Strab. used the pi. neut. and so Sail. Chazis. 
I p. 98 16 E and Liv. iz 19 § 4. zxii 37 § 1. zxvii 23 § 2. 
172 POPiNA placed near to legatum to enhance the shame. See Fried- 
lander 11' 38 — 9. 173 seq* Apul. met. vni 1 
iuvenis natalibus fyraenohiliSf loco claru8t...8€d luxurie popinali... 
et diurnis potationibus exercitatus atque ob id factionibus 
latronum male sociatus. So Nero (DCass. lxii 14 § 2) trdj^ra d>f 
€lir€Ty rhv ^iop iv icaTijXiiKJ biair-Q ToioOfjieyos. Marquardt y (2) 79 — 80. 

PEBCussoBE schol. sicario aut gladia' 
tore, 174 nautis Hor. s. i 6 4. Plat. Phaedr. 

p. 243^ iv vaijTait tov redpafifUvtay Koi oi^iva iXeijOepov iptara iiapaKhrtaw, 
Theopomp. fr.297 MiQler (in Athen. vi p. 254>>) vavrQv Kal \u)iro5vT(3v» 
Pint. Dion 48 6 pavTiKbs 6x^05 Kod fidvavffos, inst. Lac. 42 p. 239. 
id. Demosth. 7 KpaiTa\(an-€S AyBpunroi pa Or at Kal dfiaOeit AKOijotrrai Kai 
Karixovci rb pijfM. Plat. legg. 707». Eur. Hec. 607 (in DChr. or. 32 

I 695 B). TertuH. adv. Yalent. 12 quis nauclerus non etiam cum dedecore 
laetatur? videmus quotidie nauticorum lascivias gaudiornm. 
Themist. or. ly p. 61 Hard. KdirrjXoi Kal yavrai Kal 4>opTiK6t tx^os. 
They were often slaves Bockh Staatsh. b. 11 c. 21 (I* 367). Gelsus in 
Grig. I 62. II 46. Lact. v 2. Plut. de sanitate 16 p. 130 a student must 
exercise the voice continually, even in an intiy though all should deride 
him. For where it is no disgrace to eat, it is no disgrace to exercise 
oneself either: dXX' af<rx(ov rd dedoiK^vai Kod duaonrtiaOax vadras xal 
dpewKdfxovs Kol iraydoxcis KarayeKuifTai. Claudius also in the reign of 
Tiberius Suet. Claud. 5 ex contuhernio sordidissimorum hominum super 
veterem segnitiae notam ebrietatia quoque et aleae infamiam subiit. So 
Nero DCass. lxi 8 § 1 iroXXd jj^v otxoi, iroXXd 8i koI iv r^ ir6X6(, vCxrup 
KoX /j.€0^ iifUpay iTnKpvrrrbfievbs irxi VA70ti'€, koX h re KairTfXeTa iayci koX 
'iravTaxb<r€ ws Koi I8n»n-rjs iTXavaro. Vitellius lxv 2 § 1 rjy fxkif yap 
Kal djr' dpxn^ otoi wcpi re tA KaTrjXeTa Kal irepl rd Kv^evT'ijpia...€<nrov- 

ZaKivai. 175 CABNIFICBS 

VI 480. SANDAPiLABUM schol. capulorunif in quibus 

gladiatores mortui de amphitheatro eiciuntur, the rich were carried out 
to burial on a lectus or lectica funebris ; the poor in a coffin sandapila, 
Hor. s. I 8 9 vilis area. Mart, x 5 10 orciniana sponda. It was car- 
ried out by slaves id. viii 75 9 — 10. Suet. Dom. 17 cadaver eius popu- 
lari sand a pi la per vespillones [Mart, i 30 48] exportatum. cf. Mart. 

II 81. Marquardt v (1) 361. 176 besupinati 
schol. ebrii, turpia patientis, cf . iii 112 n. tympana 

III 64 n. Aristoph. vesp. 119. Varro in Nonius s. v. mansuetem p. 483 
when the galli saw a lion tympanis.../(ec€run£ mansuetem. Catull. 
63 8 seq. Ellis niveis citata cepit manibus leve typanum | typanum, 
tubam, Cybelle, tua, mater, initia ; \ quatiensque terga tauri niveis cava 
digitis. ib. 20 21 Phrygiam ad domum CybelleSf Phrygia ad nemxyra deae, | 
uhi cymbalum sonat vox, ubi tympana reboant. Lucret. 11 619 seq. 
Yerg. Aen. ix 619. Suet. Aug. 68 de gallo Matris deum tympani- 
zante. Phaedr. iv 1 7. Dempster on Bosin. 11 4. Lips, on Sen. vit. 
beat. 13 § 4. Spanheim on Callim. h. Dian. 247. Claud. Eutrop. i 
278. GALLI II 110 seq. vi 513 seq. Phaedr. iv 1. 
Movers die Phonizier 1 670. Apul. met. vm 24 — 31. ix 1—10. Lam- 
prid. Heliog. 7. Hier. in Osee lib. i c. 4 ver. 14 (vi 41»> ed. Ven. 1768). 

177 LiBEBTAS V 161 u. Suct. Yitell. 7 fin. tota via caliga- 
torum quoque militum obvios exoscuUms^ perque stabula ac deversoria 


muUonibus ac viatoribus praeter modum comis, ut mane singulos, Hamne 
ienimsent,'' sciscitaretur sequefecisse ructu quoque ostenderet, 
rocuiii y 37 seq. n. 127 seq. n. lectus ib. 17 n. 

178 HENSA Flin. pan. 49 § 5 non tibi semper in medio cibus sem- 
perque mens a communis? cf. ib. § 6. bemotiob 
on the comp. and superl. of participles, see Jahn*s Jahrb. Suppl. xv 208 
seq. [and Neue Formenlehre 11* 119 — 128. H. A. J. M.] Neue gives 
remotior from Gic. and Ov. and the adv. remotius from Cic. 

179 Colom. I 8 § 2 socors et somniculosum id genus servorum^ 
otiif, campOy Circo, theatrist aleae^ popinae, lupanaribus consuetum. 

180 NBMPB * to be sure,* supr. 57 n. lucanos 

slaves were sent into the country as a punishment Ter. Fhorm. 249 250 
fnolendumst in pistrino, vapulandum^ habendae compedes^ \ opus ruri 
faciandum. Hor. s. 11 7 117 118 ocius hinc te | ni rapis^ accedes opera 
agronona Sabino. Plant, most. 1 1 8, 15 seq. asinar. 11 2 325. Sen. 
(leira in 29 § 1 si rusticum laborem recusat aut non fortiter obiit a 
servitute urbana et feriata translatus ad durum opus. dig. 
xxYiu 5 35 § 3. P. Faber semestr. 11 5. Wallon hist, de Tesclavage 11 
226, 241, 345 seq. Marquardt v (1) 185—7. 

TUSCA III 2 n. Tiberius Gracchus (Plut. 3) noticed that Tyrrhenia was 
ooltivated by slaves. The social war and Sulla's tyranny depopulated 
the country still more. In order to repeople Italy Caesar (Suet. 42) 
sanxiine.. ii, qui peciuiriam facer entf minus tertia parte puberum 
ingenuorum inter pastores haberent. Mart, ix 23 4 et sonet in- 
nnmera eompede Tuscus ager. broastula 

*barracoons.' xi 80 n. xiv 24. Sen. de ir. in 32 § 1 magnam rem sine 
dubio fecerimuSf si servulum infelicem in ergastulum miseri- 
mnsl Colum. i 8 §§ 16 17 ut ergastuli mancipia recognoscant, ut 
n^lorent, an diligenter vincti sint^ an ipsae sedes custodiae satis tutae 
munita^que sint : num vilicus aut alligaverit quempiam domino nesciente 
aut revinxerit...tantoque curiosior inquisitio patrisfamilias debet esse pro 
tali genere servorumt ne aut in vestiariis aut in ceteris praebitis vnvuHose 
tractenturi quanto et pluribus subiecti^ ut viliciSf ut operum magistris^ ut 
ergastulariis, magis obnoxii perpetiendis iniuriis et rursus saevitia atque 
avaritia Uusi magis timendi sunt. Ergastula were sometimes under- 
ground ib. 6 § 3 vinctis quam saluherrimum subterraneum ergastulum 
plurimis idqus angv>stis illustratum fenestris, atque a teri'a sic editis, ne 
mnu contingi possint. Plin. xviii § 36 coli rura ab ergastulis pessi- 
miim est et quicquid agitur a desperantibus. On the number of the slaves 
vho were thus employed cf. App. b. c. i 7. Sen. ben. vii 10 § 4 vasta 
Bpatia terrarum coUnda per vinctos, Luc. vii 402 vincto fossore coluntur \ 
llesperiue segetes, Tac. aim. iv 27. sat. iii 141 n. xiv 305. 


Hor. s. I 3 22 WUstemann egomet mi ignosco, Maenius inquit. 

182 TUBPU DECEBUNT IV 13 nam quod turpe bonis ^ Titio Seioque, 
decebat | Crispinum. xi 1. 175. cebdoni iv 153. 

Pers. IV 51. schol. Graece dixit [Kipdwu is a slave's name Demosth. 
Nicostr. p. 1252 fin.] turpem vulgar em, lucri cupidum. id est, si pauper 
adulterium committat, crimen admisisse dicitur; si dives, iocosus dicitur. 
ef. Mart, in 16. 59 (in which passages a cobbler is meant). 99. 
TOLisos On the use of the plur. cf. 1 109 n. p. 140. The father of P. 
Valerius Publicola (Liv. i 58. ii 30) was named Yolesus. An ancestor, 
Volesus Valerius, came to Home with Tatius (DH. ii 46. Nieb. i 538). 
Antonin. iv 33 words once current now need a gloss, yXuxrffrjfiara vOv. 


So the names of famous men of old» Camillas, Eaeso, Vole$tu...,Aiid this 

I say iwl tup Oavfiaffrtas vuts Xafiypdvnav, 
BBUTUM 262. V 37. XIV 43. Luc. vii 689. 

183 — 210 nobles on the stage and in the harena Friedlander 
ii' 290 — 2. DCass. lit 2 § 5. lx 7. Plancus danced *Glaucns' before 
Cleopatra (Pint. Ant. 29. Veil, ii 83 § 2). Suet. Tiber. 35 ex iuventute 
utriusque ordinis prqfligatissimus quisqttef quominus in opera scaenae 
harenaeque edenda senatus consulto teneretur, famon iudicii notam 
sponte subibant. 185 consumptis opibus bankrupt 

rakes i 33, 59—62, 88—109. xi 1—55; shifts of starving poets vii 3—14. 

TOCEM L0CA8TI schol. praeco fuisti in mimo. vi 380 
Yocem yendentis jpraetondu«. Mart, yii 64 9. 

DAMASIPPE of. Hor. s. II 3. A noble of the day, having wasted his 
fortune, appears as a crier on the stage, there to act the noisy Apparition 
of Catullus. 186 siPABio * to the curtain,' i. e. 

scenae * stage' or * boards.' schoL velum, sub quo latent paradoxi cum in 
scenam prodeant. Opposed by Sen. to the tragic cothurnus tranq. an. 

II § 8 Publius [a mimographtui] tragicis comicisque vehementior ingeniis, 
quoties mimicas ineptias et verba ad summam caveam [the gallery] 
spectantia reliquit, inter multa alia cothumo, non taj^tum sipario 
fortiora, et hoc ait etc. A folding screen (see ApuL in lexx. and Bich). 
Tertull. adv. Talent. 13 alia autem trans siparium cothumatio est. 
Inscription on a pillar at Pompeii (ephemeris epigraphioa 1872 i 179 
n. 283) Fumiolus cum archimimo a sipario recepttu. In Tert. apol. 
16, ad nat. i 15 sipharum is a flag. The root is ffL<f>apos {supparum)^ 
a sail. Tiberius decreed (Tac. ann. i 77) ne domos pantomimorum 
senator introiret^ ne egredientes in publicum equites Romani cingerent 
aut alibi quam in theatre sectarentur. Gains (Caligula) on the other 
hand took lessons of the tragic actor Apelles (DCass. lix 2 §§ 2 — 5. 29 
§ 6) and once summoned the principal senators in hot haste by night, 
that he might dance before them (ib. 5 § 6). Cf. Philo leg. ad Gaium 
p. 57. Marquardt v (2) 95 — 6. clamosum as a praeco, 
schol. or perhaps the character personated by Damasippus screamed 
at the sight of the ghost. phasma the Phasma 
of Menander was translated l^y Lavinius Luscus Ter. eun. prol. 10 
Doflat. (who gives the plot). catulli schol. nojnen 
est mimographi. xiii 111 urban i qualem fugitivus scurra Catulli. 
Mart. V 30 3 facundi scena Catulli. See L. Mliller in Bhein. Mus. 
1869 621—2. Ribbeck com. Rom.=' 393. TeufifeP 285 n. 1. 

187 LAUREOLUM schol. in ipso mimo Laureolo figitur crux, unde 
vera cruce dignus est Lentutus, qui tanto detestabilior est^ quanto melius 
gestum imitatus est scenicum, hie Lentulus nobilis fuit^ et suscepit 
servi personam in agendo mimo. Tert. adv. Valent. 14 * being unable 
to fly [cf. velox] over the cross .... as not having been practised in any 
Laureolus of Catullus.' Mart, (spect. 7) speaks of a criminal, compelled 
to act the part of Laureolus, and in that character exposed upon a 
cross to be mangled by a bear : qualiter in Scythica religatus rupe 
Prometheus \ assiduam nimio pectore pavit avem: \ nuda Galedonio sic 
pectora praebuit urso \ non falsa pendens in cruce Laureolus. | 
vivebant laceri m^mbris stillantibus artus J . . . vicerat antiquae sceleratus 
crimina famae, \ in quo, quae fuerat tabula, poena fuit. Among 
the ominous occurrences of the day before Caligula was murdered (Suet. 
57) eum in Laureolo mimo, in quo actor proripiens se ruina san- 
guinem vomit, plures secundari/tm certatim experimentum artis darentt 


cruoTi, seefia abtmdavit. losephns (xix 1 § 13) adds, that Laur, was 

a captain of robbers : * the mimus was represented, in which a captain 

of robbers is crucified : . . . . and there was a great effasion of blood upon 

the stage about the criminal who hung upon the cross.' Bibbeck com. 

fragm.' 392. yelox probably the * runaway' of 

xni 109. LENTULUs a noble as in yi 80. vii 95. 

188 BiONus CBUCB actors were infames, Aug. civ. D, 11 

13 Romani, quamvis iam superatitione noxia premerentur, ut illos decs 

coUrentf quos videbant sibi voluisse scaenicas turpitudines consecrari, 

suae tamen dignitatis memores ac pudoris actores talium fabularum 

nequaqaam honoraverunt more Graecorum, sed sicut apud Cice' 

Ttmm [de re p. iv § 10] idem Scipio loquitur *cum artem ludicram 

seaenamque totam in probro ducerent, genus id hominum 

non modo honore civium reliquorum carere, sed etiam tribu 

moveri notatione censoria voluerunt.' cf. Aug. ib. 27. 29 § 2. 

6ell.xx 4. Ghrys. hom. 37=38 in Matt. 5 p. 421« ol fiiv pdfioi ol 

Topd Tw *1S\\iivuv ypa^>4vT€s drlfiovs a&rods etpai ffo6\ovTai. This homily 

describes with great force of indignation the corruptions of the stage. 

Qointil. Ill 6 § 18 qui arttm ludicram exercuerity in qv^ttuordecim primis 

ordinUms ne sedeat, dig. in 2 1. 2 § 5. 3. xkiii 2 § 47. xxxviii 1 37 pr. 

XLTm 5 25 (24) pr. (sat. x 315 n.). Laberius, when compelled to act 

hy Caesar, inserted in his prologue the verses (Macrob. 11 7. Bibbeck^ 

296 109 — 112) ego bis tricenis annis actis sine nota^ \ eques Romanus 

t lare egressus meo \ domum revertar mimus. nimii'um hoc die \ uno 

plus vixi mihi quam vivendum fuit. Su^t. Caes. 39 Gas. Tertull. 

de spect. 22 ipsi auctores. et administratores spectaculorum quadri- 

garios, scenicos, xysticos^ harenarios illos amatissimos, quibus viri 

animast feminae autem illis etiam corpora sua substemuntf propter quos 

in ea committunt quae reprehendunt, ex eadem parte qua magnifaciuntt 

deponnnt et diminuunt, immo manifesto damnant ignominia 

et capitis minutione, arcentes curia, rostris, senatu, equite 

eeterisque honoribus simul et omamentis quibusdam. quanta perversitas ! 

emant quos multant, depretiant quos probant ; artem magnificant, 

artificem notant. qu4iU iudicium est, ut ob ea quis offuscetur, 

per quae promeretur! immo quanta confessio est malarum rerum, quorum 

auctores, cum acceptissimi sintj sine nota non sunt ! 

NIC TAMEN IPSI lONoscAS POPULO if they had any shame, they would 

not sit out such plays, cf. Friedlander 11^ 416—9. Mart, in 86 ne 

Ugeres partem lascivi, casta, libelli, \ praedixi et monui : tu tamen ecce 

legis, I sed si Panniculum spectas et casta Latinum, | non 

snnt haec mimis improbiora, — lege, 

189 FBOMS DI7B10B Tert. de yirg. vel. 2 delicti durior frons est, ab 
ipso et in ipso delicto impudentiam docta, 

190 TBiscuBBiA schol. iocos noMUum, The tri seems to have a su- 
perlative force, as trifur, triparcus, trivenejica. 

191 PLANIPEDES actors said by Diomed. in 490 E to be so called as 
appearing barefoot, not in sock or buskin. See Forcellini, Bich and 
Teuffel* § 7 n. 3. Auson. ep. 11 nee de mimo planipedem nee dc 
eomoediis Jiistrionem (cf. Herm. opusc. v 254 seq.). Atta aedilicia 
(p. 160 B^) daturin* estis aurumf exultat planipes. Gell. 1 11 § 12 
quid enim foret ista re ineptius, si, ut planipedi saltanti, ita 
Graccho contionanti nufneros et modos et frequentamenta quaedaM 
varia tibieen incineret ? Sen. ep. 8 § 8 quantum disertissimorum ver- 
iuum inter mimofi iacet! quam multa Publii non excalceatis, 

42 ALAPAE. FUNEBA VEND ANT. [Vm 191 ig2 


"sed cothumatis dicenda sunt/ Macr. n 1 § 9 planipedis . . • im- 
pudica et praetextata verba iacientis. Lyd. de mag. i 40. 

FABios 14 n. DGass. lxi 17 speaking of Nero's time 
*men and women [ i 22 n.], not only of equestrian bnt also of senatorial 
rank went on to the stage and circus and amphitheatre, just like the 
lowest of the people; and some of them played the flute and danced, 
and acted in comedies and tragedies, and played on the lute, and drove 
horses, and slew wild beasts^ and fought in single combat (inf. 199 seq.), 
some of choice, others sore against their will [cogente Nercfne]^ and then 
people saw the great families, the Furii, the FabiV etc. 
192 MAMEBcoBUM a uoblo family of the AemHia gens (supra 21) ; the 
whole gens traced its descent from Mamercus a son of Numa Plut. Num. 
8. Aemil. 2. Paul. Diac. s. v. Aemiliam. In the 5th cent. a.d. the 
Mamerci held many honours ; one of the name e. g. was thrice dicta- 
tor. ALAPAS V 171 n. Mart, v 61 11 12 o quam 
dignus eras alapis, Mariane, Latinil \ te successurum credo ego Panni- 
culo. Cypr. de spect. 8 ictibus Tulnerum infelix facies locatur, 
ut infelicior venter saginetur. quanti sua funbba 
VENDANT etc. [*'Madvig has well pointed out how confused and self- 
contradictory the explanations of the older editors are: much that he 
says is manifestly true ; but I am not at all satisfied with his own expla- 
nation of the most difficult point, quanti sua funera etc. : funera^ as he 
takes it, even if Latin which I doubt, could not have been intelligible 
with the context to a Latin reader; and in my opinion his interpreta- 
tion weakens, if it does not destroy, the point of the contrast between 
these words, and Finge tamen gladios cet. with which they were evi- 
dently intended to contrast. Juvenal here, as in other places, referring 
to an age long past, that of Nero, in his rhetorical way, as if it were 
present, and indeed mentally thinking of it as present, is necessarily 
obscure. In describing too this Res memoranda novis annalibus atque 
recenti Historia I believe he had Tacitus annal. xiv 14 etc. before him, 
and perhaps some other of the authorities of Dio quoted by you : 188 
189 foil, seems almost to refer to Tacitus: mox ultra vocari popultus 
Romanus laudibusque extoUere, ut est vulgus cupiens voluptatum...nobi- 
Hum familiarum posteros egestate venales in scenam deduxit cet. I 
cannot understand why Madvig should deny that funera vendere for 
vitaih vendere is Latin, the two ideas being interchangeable and the 
Latins often thus using mors, redimere aliquid vita and the like are 
common in Cicero : see Nizolius and Freund : but theu Caesar bel. Gall. 
I 44 12 says omnium gentium atque amicitiam eiu^ morte redimere 
posset: Ovid ex Pon to III 1 105 Simea mors redimenda tna,... esset: i.e. 
si venderes tuam mortem ut meam redimeres. Well then Juvenal says 
* At what price these creatures sell their deaths, what matter f (I omit 
for the moment 193 vendunt—ludis), Sume tamen gladios cet. * yet if the 
choice were given them ** will you go on the stage or be killed?" I should 
have thought that none would have hesitated for a moment to choose 
death, rather than be zelotypus etc.:' thus you get a direct contrast 
between quanti s. /. v., and Stime tamen gladios etc. which is surely 
intended. Juvenal in his indignation does not choose to distinguish 
between their actual degradation and what he thinks they ought to feel : 
then 198 foil. Res haut mira cet. seems still a reminiscence of Tacitus : 
I. c. 15 non nobilitas cuiquam {citKprinc, mimus Nobilis) non aetas 
aut acti honores impedimenta quominus Graeci Latinive histrionis artem 
exercerent usque ad gestus modosque haud.virile8.»», ajid postremo ipse 

192-195] Cobles on the Stage. 43 

feenas ificedit temptans Htharam cet.t so that now DOthing was left but 
the 'Indus.' Now to return to 194 Vendunt cet.: this must be as it were 
a parenthetical thought of Juvenal, as before and after he is talking of 
Nero's days: they seem meant to point the contrast between the quanti 
cet. and the tamen cet. : he knew from Tacitus 1. c. * notos quoque equites 
Bmanos operas harenae promittere subegit donis ingentibuSf nisi qxwd 
merces ab eo qui inhere potes-t vim necessitatis affert* (i. e. 
cogente Nerone); and he knew that in his ovm days it had become a 
fashion and a passion with nobles to enter the harena as gladiators or 
to fight with wild beasts. This parenthesis then has no reference to 
Nero's times of course, as what precedes and follows has : * What matter 
then at what cost they sell their lives (or deaths) : (we know from what 
ve see going on at the present day that they do sell them readily 
enongh, tho' no Nero compels, nay they unhesitatingly sell them at the 
games of the Praetor), I should have thought then that they would have 
chosen the gladii at once, when the choice was between death and 
dishonour of this kind/ Many trains of thought must have been 
running through Juvenal's mind at the same time." H. A. J. M. So 
Mr Oonington wrote: 'I don't think anything of Madvig's objection 
that it should be vitas vendunt. Yirgil uses indifferently vitam pro 
laudepacisci and letum pro laude pacisci.*] 

l93NULii0 cooENTE NEBONE Acn. zii 423 secuta manum nullo cogente 

iagUta, cf. georg. ii 10. Stat. Th. xi 694 non uUo cogente manum. 

Oy. m. 1 103. The definition of voluntas by lulianus in Aug. op. imperf. 

cinl. v42 ismotus animi cogente nullo. DCass. (191 n.). Tac. h. ii 

62 (infr. 199 n.). ib. 71 Neronem ipsum Vitelliv^ admiratione celehrahaty 

uetari cantantem solitujtf non necessitate, qua honestissimus 

quisque, sed luxu. ih. rv 42 hoc certe Nero non coegit. id. ann. xiv 

U15. 20 ne spectaculorum quidem antiquitas servaretur quoties prae- 

tores ederent, nulla cuiquam civium necessitate certandi...degene' 

retque studiis extemis tuventu«. ..principe et senatu auctoribus, qui 

fnodo licentiamvitiis permiserintf sed Yim. adhibeant; proceres Romania 

tpecie orationum et carminum, scena polluantur. quid super esse 

nisi ut corpora quoque nudent et caestus assumant? ib. xv 

83. Suet. Ner. 12. DCass. lxi 19. 

194 CELSi PBAETORis Madvig aptissime amplitudo praetoris in sella 
eurtUi sedentis signijicaturf ut eo acerbius foeditas nobilium hominum huic 
ie inter vilem histrionum gregem offerentium notetur. The praetor now, 
as formerly the aedile, superintended the games of the circus (x 36 37) 
and the theatrical representations (vi 380 vocem vendentis praetoribus. 
XIV 257 n. DCass. liv 2 says that Augustus committed to the praetors 
tbe whole arrangement of the shows. Plut. Brut. 10. Tao. Agric. 6. 
Suet. Ner. 4, 21. Galb. 6. Plin. ep. vii 11 § 4 fuerunt [mihi] et cum 
JUio maxima [tura], adeo quidem, ut praetore me ludis meis prae- 
sederit. Quintil. in 6 § 18. Becker rom. Alt. ii (3) 264). 

195 FiNGB V 72 n. Ov. epist. i 6 77. met. n 74 finge datos 
currus: quid agest * Supposing that you were compelled to choose 
between running on a sword, and appearing as an actor on the stage— 
which is the better?' Cf. Epict. diss, i 2 § 12 seq. •• Agrippinus, when 
Florus was deliberating, whether to take part in a show exhibited by 
Nero, advised him to do so. On being asked, why he did not himself do 
the same, he replied, * Because I do not so much as entertain the ques- 
tion at all... For what is it you ask me? Whether death or life be pre- 
ferable t I answer, Life. Pain or pleasure f I answer, Pleasure. But 


if I djo not play a part on the stage ^ I shall lose my head. Away, and 
play your part, bnt I will not,* etc.*' In the christian church charioteers 
and pantomimi were received only on renouncing their calling cone. EU- 
bent. A.D. 305 can. 62. pulpita tii 93 u. 

196 QUID =u£rum Yerg. zn 726—7 fata imponit diversa duo- 
rum I quern damnet labor et quo vergat pondere letum. lb. 719. 
Pers. II 20. Phaedr. iy 23 2. Tae. ann. i 47 quos igitur anteferrett 
Madvio. add Hor. ep. ii 1 41. Phaedr. i 24 8. Luc. 1 126. yi 807. vu 
260. So quisquesxuterque i 41 n. Madvig on Gic. fin. iv §16. Aug. 
de beata vita 6. Mart, i 6 5 n. hobteh estne quisquam qui 

dubitet? adeo mortis timidus, ut eius yitandae causa se in scena, ridi- 
cule suscepta persona, traducat ? Madyio. 

QUISQUAM Burm. on Aen. i 48. 197 zelotypus 

the part of the jealous husband of the mima Thymele i 36 n. 
BTUPiDi blockhead, the clown in a mime, Arnob. in y 171 n. Orelli 
inscr. 2645 Aurelius EutycJies stupidus greg. urb, (i. e. stupidus gregis 
scenicorum urban!: persona quae risum stupiditate quadam incitabat). 
ib. 2608. Capitolin, Antonin. phil. 29 cum Tertullum etiam prandentem 
cum uxore deprehenderit; de quo mimus in scena praesente Antonino 
dixit, cum stupidus nomen adulteri uxoris a servo quaereret, et ille 
diceret ter *TulluSy et adhuc stupidus quaereret, responderit ille, *iam 
dixi ter, Tullus dicitur.* Cypr. de spect. 6 patresfamilias togatos modo 
stupidos, modo obscenos, collboa fellow- 

actor of the mimuM Corinthus. 

198 cf* sat. YI 617. ciTHABOEDo to play on an 

instrument, to sing, or to dance, was thought unbecoming in a Boman 
of condition (Nep. 15 1 § 2 and praef. Macrob. in 14=ii 10 §§ 4 — 10, 15). 
Subrius Flavius in Tac. xy 66 *non referre dedecori, si citharoedus 
demoveretuTy et tragoedus succederet:* quia (adds Tac.) ut Nero cithara 
ita Piso tragico omatu canebat. cf. ib. xiy 14 15. zyi 4. DCass. lxu 
24. Suet. Ner. 20 statim ut imperium adeptus est, Terpnum citharoedum 
vigentem tunc praeter alios arcessit: diebusque continuis post cenam 
canenti in multam noctem assidens, paulatim et ipse meditari exercerique 
coepit : nee eorum quicquam omittere, quae generis eius artifices vel eon- 
servandae vocis causa vel augenda^e factitarent etc. ib. 21 nomen suum 
in albo profitentium citharoedorum iussit ascribi: sorticulaque in 
urnam cum ceteris demissa, intravit ordine suo simulque praefecti 
praetorii citharam sustinentes, etc. A lampoon posted about 
the city ib. 39 dum tendit citharam noster, dum comua Parthus, \ 
noster erit Paean ille iKarrj^eXirrjs, When his dethronement was pre- 
dicted, he replied (ib. 40) *rd rixviov vdaa yaia Tp44>€Lf* quo maiore sci- 
licet venia meditaretur citharoedicam artem principi sibi gra- 
ta m, privato necessariam (cf. DCass. lxiii 27). ib. 41 nothing in the 
iuYectives of Yindex Yexed him so much quam ut citharoedum malum 
se increpitum; he turned to one courtier after another, asking: nos' 
sentne quenquam praestantiorem f ib. 43 he hoped to. melt the rebel 
armies by going alone to meet them, weeping, and prepared epinicia to 
be sung the next day: almost his last words were ib. 49 qualis artifex 
pereo. id. Vit. 4 Neroni acceptior...peculiari merito, quod praesidens 
certamini Neroneo cupientem inter citharoedos contendere nee 
quamvis flagitantibus cunctis promittere audentem ideoque egressum thea- 
tro revocaverat, ib. 11 (cf. DCass. 1. c. 29). DCass. lxi 20 § 1 iffrrj t€ cri 
ffKiiviis 6 Kaiaap k.t.X. ib. 21. lxiii 1. 6. 8. 9. 14. 17 §§ 5 6. 21. 22. 26. 
Philostr. Apoll. iv 39 § 1. v 7 § 2. 19. [Luc] Ner. 2. bibyll. y 141 seq. 

M8-200] LUDUS. MIRMILLO. 45 

Plin. xzx § 14. ^onaras xi 18. infr. 227 n. For the jaxta-pofiition 
eitharoedo principe cf. vi 118 meretrix Augusta. DCass. lxi 19 §§2 3 
(at Nero's iuvenalia Aelia Gatella, a lady of high hirth, 80 years of ^ge, 
danced, and many other nohle ladies ; from some Nero, at the biddings 
of the spectators, plncked off the masks by which they sought to dis^* 
guise their shame). 20 § 1, 21 § 2. lxii 6 §§ 3—5. 18 § 1. 24 § 2. 
uinl§l. 6§3. 8§2seq. 12 § 2. 17 §§ 5 6. 
Mmus 191 n. Aug. de magistro § 5 hUtriones iotas in theatris fabulas 
fine verbis plerumque exponunt et aperiunt. Suet. Dom. 8 quaestorium 
vinaUf quod gesticulandi saltandique studio teneretur, movit 
matu. Lamprid. Heliogab.' 25 in mimiois adulteriis quae solent 
fivmlato fieri effici ad verum iussit. 

199 HiEc ULTBA QUID EBiT NISI LUDUS what worse (than the noble 

actors in the pantomimes) remains, except the school of the lanista and 

the combats of the amphitheatre ? Nor is this crowning disgrace want- 

iiig; Gracchus has entered the harena and chosen the equipment which 

leaves the face bare. cf. Tac. xiv 20 complaints of the better citizens on 

the institution of the quinquennale tudicrum : outlandish fashions were 

nining morals |>atrto« mores funditus everti...ut degeneret studiis extemis 

twenttt«...see more supr. 193 n. On the degraded position of gladiators 

NeQointil. deol. 9 § 5 inter debita noxae mancipia contemptissimus tiro. 

Calpom. decL 50 servum ex libero et gladiatorem ex viro /orti...gla^ 

diator infamis in iudicio loqu,or...iieqvLe enim condicione gla- 

diatoria quicquam est humilius in vulgo. Flor. 11 19 § 3 ser- 

nlia, ne quid turpitudini desit, gladiatoria. id. iii 

20 § 1. Tac. h. II 62 cautum severe [by Vitellius], ne equites Romani 

ludo et harena polluerentur. |)rtore« id principes pecunia ac saepius 

vi[sapr. 193] perpulerant: ac pleraque municipia et coloniae aemulaban- 

^ [jsapr. 188 189] corruptissimum quemque adulescentium pretio illi- 

6ere. ludus xi 20 n. Madvig * gladiatorius, 

in qno lanista magistro artem discebant : Gic. in Cat. 11 § 9. Oaes. b. c. 

I U § 4. Suet. Caes. 31. Hor. ep. 1 1 3.' Sen. ep. 87 § 9 hie [some 

trosiulus of the day] sine dubio cultior comitatiorque quam M. Cato vide- 

fiturf hie, qui inter illos apparatus delicatos cummaxime dubitat, utrum 

se ad gladium locet an ad cultrum. ib. 99 § 13 aspice illos 

iuvenes quos ex nobilissimis domibus in harenam luxuria 

proiecit. illic in the ludus. Freemen 

and even nobles cmitended in the harena ly 95. xi 8. Sen. de proT. 2 § 5. 

q. n. y 31 § 5. DCass. Lyii 14 (knights), lix 10. lxxii 19. Fronto ad 

i Caes. y 22 p. 82 Naber consul populi Romani posita praetexta mani- 

cam induit, leonem inter iuvenes quinquatribus percussit populo Ro- 

nano spectante. Didius lulianus (Lamprid. yit. Did. c. 9). Commodus 

(id. yit. Comm. 11 — 3. 15). Tert. ad mart. 5. ad nat. i 18. Markland 

eon},iUud...habe cl. iii 187 — 8 illud fermentum libi habe. 

200 MiBMiLLONis a gladiator equipped in Gallic fashion, with 
a fish (see below) on his helmet (yer. 203. schol.) When the retiarius 
fought with the myrmillo, he cried in Ionic a maiore yerse * non te peto, 
piteem peto, quiji nusfugV, GalleV (Festus, see Forcellini). See Fried- 
linder ii' 516 myrmillones (or murmr- Henzen 6174 seq.) were not quite 
identical with the Galli, for the two classes appear separately in the list 
in Mommsen IBN 736. The myrmillo appears as the opponent of the 
reUarUts also in YM. i 7 § 8. Quintil. yi 3 § 61 Pedo de myrmillone, 
qui retiariam [qttem — usf] consequebatur nee feriebat, ^vivtim' inquit 
*c«qf€rc vuU*p generally of ^e Threx Suet. Dom. 10 Threcem myr- 



milloni parem^ munerario imparem, Ans. monosyU. Qdyll. xn) quu 
myrmilloni componiturt aequimanus Threx. Gic. I^hU. tii § 17 
(where observe the contrast: Gracchorum potentiam maiorem fuUse 
arhitramini, quam huius gladiatoris futura sitf) Saet. Cal. 55. His 
armour completely covered him Amm. zvi 12 §49 seque in modnm 
myrmillonis operiens. ib. zziii 6 § 83 pedites enim in speciem 
myrmillonum contecti. Tac. an. in 43 gladiatursu destinati, quu 
bu8 more gentico \he is speaking of Gauls ; and myrmilUmes were called 
Oalli, Festos. Plut. Crass. 8] continuum ferri tegimen. The name myr- 
millo is derived from a fish, fidpfivpot or fi6pfiv\os (Aristot. etc.), Lat, 
mormyr (Ov.) On a Thasian inscription (Bdckh 2164) the word /zo^ 
/u/XXwves occurs. Bich mtrm. 

201 Gracchus does not appear as a Threx, Paul. Diac. p. 156 Lind, 
Threces gladiatores^ a similitudine parmularum Thraciarum. Fried- 
lander ii' 517 — 9. Plin. h. n. xxiii § 129 parmae Threcidicae. Artem. 
II 32 they were well defended (KareffKeirdadai. rdis ^tXms), rose upon their 
enemy {iiripalveii')^ and bore a scimitar (rd fi^ dpdbp fyeip rb ^l<f>os). cf. Suet. 
Gal. 32 myrmillonem e ludo rudibus secum battuentem et sponte 
prostratum confodit f errea sica ac more victorum cum palma discucur- 
rit. Clem. Al. str. 1 16 § 75 ' the Thracians first invented the so-ccdled 
dpTtft a bent sword, and first used targets on horseback.' The Thra- 
cians on Trajan*s column are armed in the same manner. 
FALCE SUPINA * a reversed sickle', a sabre bending backwards instead of 
forwards. Labbe gloss, sica Qpq.Kixhv ^l4>oi iTiKafiris. Bespecting this 
Gracchus cf. ii 144 — 9 vicit et hoc monstrum tunicati f uscina Grac- 
chi, I lustravitque fuga mediam gladiator harenam | et Capi- 
tolinis generosior et Miircellis \ et Catuli Paulique minoribu^ et Fabiis 
et I omnibus ad podium -spectantibus, his licet ipsum \ admoveas, cuius tunc 
munere retia misit. cf. Hier. ep. 107=7 ad Lactam § 2 propinquus 
vester Gracchus, nobilitatem patriciam nomine sonans, cum 
praefecturam gereret urbanam, 202 damn at et odit 

Ov. tr. Ill 1 8. 203 GALEA VM. I 7 § 8 

incidit deinde t<£...retiarius cum myrmillone introduceretur : cuius 
cum faciem vidisset, idem dixit ab illo se retiario trucidari 
putasse. Suet. Claud. 34 prolapsos iugulari iubebat: mazime reti« 
arios, ut exspirantium faciem videret. Quintil. decl. 9 § 9 a 
friend bids farewell to a gladiator suprema per gale am dederam oscula. 
The helmets had vizors (see the cuts in Diet. Ant. or in Bich). 
tbidentem the three-pronged spear (harpoon, f uscina) ^ with which the 
retiarius dispatched lus opponent, after entangling him in his net. He 
is equipped as a fisherman spearing thunnies (Horn. Od. x 124 n.) Prud. 
c. Symm. ii 1109 seq. spectant aeratam faciem quam crebra trident i | 
impacto quatiant hastilia, saucius et quam \ vulneribus patalis partem per- 
fundat harenae, \ cumfugit. Mart, of a gladiator v 24 12 Hermes aequo- 
reo minax tridente. A retiarius named Aequ^oreus in Mommsen IBN 
2872. Arn. vi 12 cum f uscina rex maiis, tamquam illi pugna sit 
gladiatorii obeunda certaminis, cf. Isidor. xviii 54. DS. xvii 43 the 
besieged Tyrians used nets and harpoons against the Macedonians. 
From VM. (1. 1.) and from the story of Pittacus (Strabo p. 600 when 
challenged by Phryno to single combat, he equipped himself as a fisher- 
man, caught Phryno in a casting-net, speared him with a trident and 
dispatched him with a dagger. DL. i § 74 Menage, Festus p. 238 Lind. 
Polyaen. i 25) it appears that a dagger was also used by the retiarius^ 
This dagger is seen in the cut (fig. 488*^) in Guhl und Eoner (ii^ 3^8). 


The best account, with references to works of art, in Friedlander 11' 
511—5. 204 BETiA technically called iaculum 

(Isid. origg. xnii 51). gloss. Labbe retiarius SiKTvo4>6pot diKTvop6\os» 

205 NUDUM DCass. lxi 19 (cited 198 n.) 
BPECTACVLA the bcnchcs of the amphitheatre ; cf. Liv. i 35. 

206 FuoiT Artemid. 11 32 if a man dreamt that he fought 
viih a retiaritUf it was a sign that his wife would desert him \rf\f/€TaL 
1fvmKa...(f>vyddaL. While he is engaged in combat, and turned towards 
Ills foe, he may remain unknown, but when he flies along the rows of 
spectators and lifts his face to them, there is no room for doubt. 

207 CBEDAMUS incredible as it may be, let us believe 
our eyes, as he runs barefaced before us. Eiaer 43 --48 rightly makes 
fpira subject to porrigat (cf. vi 248—50. vn 20 21. 63—5. x 287—8. 
326—7. xrv 125. Pers. rv 11 12) and reads credavius, tunicae de f. * ag- 
noBcimus faciem Gracchi; credamus igitur eum tunicam retiarii nobili 
Bomano indignam sumpsisse*. tunicae the 

retiarius wore the tunic alone, sat. 11 (supr. 201 n.). Suet. Cal. 30 
retiarii tunicati quinque numero gregatim dimicantes sine certamine 
^lo totidem secutoribus succttbuerant : cum occidi iuberentur, unus 
Teiuapta fuscina omnes victores interemit. 

AVBEA his lasso is of gold lace ; this foppery and the size of his armlet 
inake him the more conspicuous. 208 i^onoo in the 

Bignor mosaic (archaeologia xyiii 203 Friedlander) the shoulder-plate 
stands out like a wing. iactetur dangles as he runs. 

SPiBA schol. huiusmodi aliquidf quo citius sparsum 
funm vel iactatam retiam colligate a kind of amentum (d^Ki^Xi;), a band 
P&ssing round the body from the left shoulder to the right hip, and at- 
tached to the net (Friedlander). GALERO schol. galcrus 
tit umero impositu^ gladiatoris the technical name for a guard, of leather 
or metal, worn on the left arm and reaching over the shoulder, which 
served as a shield to the retiariiu (see Bich and Guhl und Eoner's cut 
W). Some found at Pompeii are figured by Garrucci in bullet. Nap. 
anova ser. 1 101 seq. 103 pi. 7. cf. rev. arch^ol. v 8 pi. 165 (Friedlander). 

269 ERoo since Gracchus is recognised by his features 

uid his dress, the gladiator by trade, the slave, blushes to be pitted 

against so degraded a foe, smarts at the disgrace of meeting Gracchus. 

How are the mighty fallen! Sen. de provid. 3 §4 ignominiam 

iudicat gladiator cum inferiore componi et scit eum sine gloria 

^nci qui sine periculo vincitur. cf. ib. 4 § 4. ep. 78 § 16 (of athletes). 

Cic. Tusc. 11 § 41. 210 SECUTOR matched with 

the retiarius also in Suet. Cal. (207 n.) and in the cut referred to 204 n. 

ad fin. 208 ; therefore called contra rete in inscriptions (Wilmanus 2605 

n. 6=CIL VI 631—2. ib. 2616 = Henzen 6174). Commodus fought as 

teeutor with sword (cf. Prud. c. Symm. 11 1100 altitu impresso dum pah 

pitat ense secutor) shield and helmet (DCass. lxxii 19. 22. Lamprid. 

Comm. 15). Friedlander 11' 616 — 7, who cites for the helmet Philogelos 

87 Eberhard. schol. luv. vi 108. His name is derived from his following 

the retiarius in his flight (cf. Artem. 11 32). 

211 — 230 The people if free to choose would prefer the Spaniard 
Seneca to Nero the scion of lulus, but yet a parricide worthy of 
many deaths. * Orestes also slew his mother'; true, but at Apollo*s 
behest, to avenge the treacherous murder of his father ; and it was his 
Bingle sin; he laid no finger on his sister or on Hermione, mixed no 
poison for his kinsfolk,— ^never sang on the stage, wrote no Trojan epic; 



for what of all Nero's crimes called louder for the avenging sword of; 
Yerginius, of Yindez or of Galba? Behold the exploits, the accomplish- 
ments, of your high-bom emperor; it is his pride to sing on a foreign 
stage, to win the parsley-wreath in Greek concerts. Fix the trophies of 
his voice on the family statues, the flowing train of Thyestes or Anti- 
gone at the feet of Domitius, and hang np his guitar from a marble 
colossus. On Nero see especially Herm. Schiller Gesch. des rom. £ai- 
serthums unter...Nero Berlin 1872, and for his progresses in Greece 
G. F. Hertzberg Gesch. Griechenlands unter der Herrschaft der Bomer 
II Halle 1868. 211 suffraoia x 77 seq. n. 

212 SENECAM the philosopher (v 109. x 16), 
Nero's teacher. Tac. xv 65 Jama fuit (a.d. 66) Subrium Flavum cum 
centurumibus occulta consilio neqtie tamen ignorante Seneca destinavUsef 
ut post occisum opera PisonU Neronem Piso quoque interficeretur 
tradereturque imperium Senecae, quasi ... claritudine virtu- 
tum ad summum fastigium delecto. See on the Stoic opposition 
under the empire Schiller's Nero 666 — 705. W. A. Schmidt Gesch. d. 
Denk- u. Glaubensfreiheit Berl. 1847. 

213 Nero deserved, not once alone {non una iii 151, vi 218), but many 
times, to die the parricide's death. For he was privy to, and afterwards 
jested on, the murder of Claudius (v 148). Early in a. d. 55 he poisoned, 
by the help of Locusta (i 71 72 n.), Britannicus, son of his step-father 
Claudius (Tac. xiii 15 — 18 : Agrippina was alarmed because, ib. 17 par- 
ricidii exemplum intellegebat). Among his other victims were his father's 
sisters Domitia Lepida (a.d. 54, before the death of Claudius, ib. xii 64) 
and Domitia (shortly after the murder of Agrippina DCass. lxi 17. 
Suet. Ner. 34), his mother Agrippina (March a.d. 69 Tac. xiv 3 — 13. she 
had long looked forward to such an end, ib. 9 consulenti super Nerone 
responderunt ChaldoM, *fore ut imp^raret matremque occideret:* atque ilia 
* occidaV inquit *dum imperet.* DCass. lxii 18 a Sibylline oracle was 
fulfilled in Nero, the last emperor of the Julian line, i<rxja.To^ Alueaduy 
fiijrpoKTdvos ijyeiJLove^aei. cf . Lxi 2 § 1 the crime foretold by an astrologer. 
After the murder he was filled with guilty fears Tac. ib. 10, 11. DCass. 
lxi 14. Suet. 34 saepe confessus exagitari se matema specie verberibus 
furiarum ac taedis ardentibu^s, cf. Stat. s. i 7 116 — 9 as emended by 
Haupt [no8ci8...nocentem]. The indignation of the people, amidst great 
outward rejoicings, still found some vent : e. g. a child was found exposed 
in the forum, and with it a tablet inscribed, DCass. ib. 16 *I rear thee not, 
lest thou shouldst kill thy mother.' Verses were posted about the city, 
such as Suet. 39 ^quis negat Aeneae magna de stirpe Neronem? | sus- 
tulit hie matrem, sustulit ille patrem.* cf. Tac. xv 67. Namatian. ii 
57 — 60), his wives, Octavia the daughter of Claudius (June a.d. 62 Tac. 
xrv 64. DCass. lxii 13. Suet. 67), and Foppaea (Tac. xvi 6. DCass. 
LXii 27 § 3); Antonia daughter of Claudius, and Bufius Crispinus son of 
Foppaea (Suet. 25). 

214 CULLEUS a skin (wine-skin dig. xxxiii 6 3 § 1): a bag was hung 
round the neck of one of Nero's statues, with the inscription Suet. 
46 ego quid potiii ? sed tu culleum meruisti. DCass. lxi 16. dig. 
XLViii 9 9 pr. poena parricidii more maiorum haec instituta est, ut par- 
ricida virgis sanguineis verberatus delude culleo insuatur cum cane, 
gallo gallinaceo et vipera et simia: deinde in mare prqfundum cul- 
leus iactatur. hoc ita, si mare proximum sit: alioquin bestiis obicitur 
secundum divi Hadriani constitutionem,. Excluded £rom the air of hea- 
ven and from burial in earth the criminal was shut up, like with like, 



vith the parricide viper (otymoL magn. s. v. ix*^s) the ape that aqneezes 

its young to death, and impious creatures that fight with their parents 

(Theophil. antecessor paraphr. inst. iv 18 § 6 pp. 921 — 3 Beitz. cf . 

Gothofr. on dig. 1. c. cod. ix 17. DH. iv 62. VM. 1 1 § 13. Tzetzes on 

Lyk. 1778). The murderer of father or mother, grandfather or grand- 

iQother (Paul, sentent. v 25 adds of brother or sister or patron), were 

liable to this punishment Dig. 1. 1. § 1 (ib. 1. 1 a much wider definition of 

parricide is given), cf. Sen. contr. vii 2 § 3. luv. xiii 166 — 6. Suet. Aug. 

^. Dosith. in div. Hadr. sent. § 16 (corp. iur. anteiust. i p. 212 [also 

inValpy's HSt viii 408 — 9, where see notes], who says, that the impious 

man, sewn into a sack with impious auimals, was carried down to the 

sea on a wagon drawn by black oxen). Sen. de ir. 1 16 § 6. de clem, i 

15 §7. 23 § 2 (addressed to Nero!) parricidae a lege coeperunt et illis 

jaemu poena monstravit, pessimo vero loco pietas fuit, postquam saepius 

cnlleos vidimus quam cruces, Gic. de invent, ii § 149. p. Bosc. Am. 

§70. liv. periocha 68. Tert. de an. 33. ad nat. ii 13 Oehler in duos 

culIeoB dividi lovem decuit. Martian. Gapella v § 466. Bein Criminalr. 

-457. Schrader on lustin. inst. p. 767 seq. E. C. Clark early Boman 

law 45— 6. Budorff rom. Bechtsgesch. ii 371 n. 6. 

215 AOAniEMNONiDAB DGass. LXi 13 § 3 whcu Nero attempted to drown 

Agrippina, the sea would not endure rriv fiihXowav iv ain-g t pay (^t Lav 

^w9au Cf. 11 § 3 lAvBoXoylav. Suet. 39 multa Graece Latineque 

fnscripta aut vulgata sunt, sicut ilia : Nipufp *Op4<rT7is ^AXKfialcjy /irj- 

"ffmhvoi, I vebvvpjtpoi Idlap firjrip AiriKTetycv Nipuv (so Baumgarten-Crus.j. 

cf. [Lncian] Ner. 10. So ApoUonius in Philostr. iv 38 § 3 *you cannot 

say of wild beasts, that they ever feasted on their own mothers, but 

Nero has battened on this food. If the same was the case of Orestes 

and of Alkmaeon, yet tJieir fathers were an excuse for the deed, the 

one having been slain by his own wife.* So Vindex (in DOass. lxiii 

23 §6) ouroj Si Ztj Sv^cmys re Kal Oldivovs, ^AXxfJuaiuv re Kal 'Opiarrjs 

ha^6Tar aiv icaXwro* ro&rovs yiip (nroKpLverax. cf. ib. 9 § 4. Suet. Ner. 21 

inter cetera cantavit. ..Orestemmatrioidam. In the schools of rhetoric 

the crime of Orestes was a hackneyed theme. Cic. de inv. i §§ 18 — 9 

^(Uio est quae continet causam, quae si suhlata sit, nihil in causa con- 

'teniae relinquatur, hoc modo, ut docendi causa in facili et 

pervnlgato exemplo consistamus: Orestes si accusetur ma- 

tricidii, nisi hoc dicat 'iure feci; ilia enim patrem meum 

oceiderat,' non habet defensionem etc. ad Herenn. i § 26. Liban. decl. 

5 an apology for Orestes (iv 110—137 B). Plutarch parallela 37 has 

<ui exact counterpart of Orestes in Fabius Fabricianus, who was saved 

by his sister, slew his mother and her paramour, and was acquitted by 

the senate. In Isae. 8 § 8 we find one 'sumamed Orestes.' 

CAUSA Quintil. in 11 § 4 ratio autem est, qua id, quod 

f<Kium esse constat, defenditur. et cur non utamur eodem, quo sunt usi 

ojunes fere, exemplo? Orestes matrem occidit: hoc constat, dicit 

*i iuste fecisse : status erit qualitatis, quaestio, an iuste fecerit, ratio, 

^uod Clytaemnestra maritum suum, patrem Orestis, occidit. 

ib. § 5 11—12. vn 4 § 8 fortissimum est, si crimen causa facti tuemur, 

'plead justification.' 216 i>bis auctobibub 

Quintil. in 11 § 6 idem putant et sub una quaestione esse plures rationes, 

vt si Orestes et alteram adferat causam matris necatae, quod 

responsis sit inpulsus. Orestes acted by direction of Apollo 

(Enr. Or. 416 ^</3os, iceXei/tras firiTpbs iKvpS^ai <pliVov. ib. 28. 691 seq. 

id. £1. 1246. Aeseh. Eum. 466 seq. 679. 694 seq.> Ch. 269 seq. 1030. 





Sopt. El. 33 aeq.) speakmg in tbe name of Zana (Earn. G16 seq. "T" 9 

Eeq.). Cio. p. Boss. Am. gS <J6 — 7. 

DLioB Ot. uui. I 7 Q Tindei iu matre pstrie, vuilui nltor, OreBt ^^ 

217 CmSI UEDU. t^TEB POOQLl AgOmeiUllOD B^^ 

in Homer Od. ix 400 ecq. dXAi *»i Afyiirflot roijm SitraTir rt lUr^^ 

KUT^iraK ^DJJv ^irl ^rrg. 8a Sen. Agam. 807 eeq. la AeBoL7ln»> 
bath is the scene of the murder Ag. 1128. Eum. 461. 633. 
217 ««!' imitated from Hor. 9. u 3 201—4 insuniu quid entm Aic^ 
fecit, cum itravit /erro pecia! aliatinnit vim ] more et gnat^ • 
mala multa prtcalia Alridii 1 uon ille ant TeDcrnm aat ipBi*" " 
violavit Uliien. 218 Orestes did not is=^ 

Eleotra ((rom Hor. s. 11 3 133 seq. e. g. 139—140 aon Pyladtn lei .^° 
violara auaaaTe Borotem eat | Elaotram), us Nero did OoUtu ik» 
Antonift. idodlo Blomf. gloBs. Aeecli. PV. 888, ' 

BPABTANi Eermione, daagbtEr of Mecclaiis and Helen; tlxMi 
hie Spartan irifo Orestes did not kill, as Nero did tictavia and Foppaa«^ I 
219 co!iiDan = conii(i;ii. add to leu. Ambr, euiorti n 
Tirg. 4 I S3 plur. So mam'monium. tavilMm. i 

icoNli* 1 158 n. supr. 17 a., Paul. Aegin. v 43 (n 220 Adajns). Bprenjgel 
Geaoh. d, Attn, 1* 41. Ot. m. 1 147 lurida terribilea miactnt aoonil* 
novercal. y:i 407. Nero poisoned BritanniDaB, Domitia and Antoni* 
(supr. 213 n.) : he tlirioe sttetnpted to poison his mother, bat she vh 
seaoied by antidotes (Suet. 34. Tac. nr 3). at Baet. 35 fin. 36 fia. 
he thought ot poisoning the whole senate i1). 43. 

230 BCEHA 1S8 n. S25 n. Suet. 20 blatiAientc profcctu {qiiarnqvam adg\uu 
vocU tt f-aicae) prodirt in leettam cottctipivit : 4ubinde inter familiani 
Groecum proverbium iactaju, 'occultae masicae nuiium caae retpeOmn.'' 
et prodiit Neapoli primuin : ac tu eoncwio quidem repente motu temu 
theatro ante oantars deititit quam abioUieret vi^v, ibidem eaipivi etper 
plurtM canlavit diet: dtmog the great fire (ib- 38) aXumv Ilii ia illo 
sao saeniao hnbitn decantavit. el. Isidoms ib. 39. He vowed, it 
TiotoriouB over Yindex, to appear as a hiitrio ib. 64. Befom singing on 
the stage in the pubho theatrss, he practised in a private theatre Plin. 
SUTU % 19. Tao. uv 15. [Lucian] Nero G. Buet. 21. DCasB. Lim S. 10. 
23. ClnviuB Rufas, who had been consul, acted as herald Bnet 21. 
CCass. Liiiii 14. HDugDui: CAKrAvrr on this merit oE 

silenoa Philostr. iv 44 Apollonius to Tigellinns: ' I aia better dieposed 
totrardB Nero than joa; ;ou think him worthy to ling, I to be silent.' 

ctsxiJit 198 a. At the time of Mero's faU Snet. 4G 
ascriptuia et colitmnii; iam Galloa euia cantando txcitasic. He was 
compared to Apollo D Cass, lxi 20. txui 30, Snot. 53. Latian Mar, 10. 
Sen, apoo. i 15 seq. 221 on this hnmorona 

climax cf. iii 9. ti 898 seq- where the go.'^sip, 434 aeq. whers tha 
ilue-Btocking, is gravior than the adultresH or the drunkard. Ariatoph. 
ran. 147 aeq. tt 101/ ^iroy nt ^SiniTire iriiirorf, | 7 raiSa ciydw ri/iyipior 
iifitlKfTo, I i liTjTip ^Xonrre)', 19 rarpis -^viSav | ^Tdrajfc, ^ 'wlopnor 
Bfiicar wtiafft¥f \ '^ Mopjitioij Tis jnioiv dfrypa^aro, Demostb. 371 sra- 
mSpyn wr kai dewi txOpht Kui ypaiiii-aTtit, 

TBoioA on Nero's poema see Tao. xin 3. uv 16. xt 49. Suet. 10, Mart 
vm 70 8. n 27 9 seq. Pers. i 121. Teofley g 28fl u. 8 who indicates 
Jragments, Frledlander ni' 309. Ben. n. q. t 6 § 6 ut ait Nero Caesar 
diaeTiiiitJne. 'colla Ci/tkeriacae splendent agitata columbae.' PUo. xxxni 
I GO Domitiui Nero in celerii vilae tuae portenlit capilloa guoquc 


Poppaeae coniugis suae in hoc nomen adoptaverat qnodam etiam 
carmine sucinos appellando. Suet. Yit. 11. Dom. 1. Some affirmed 
tbat he was not the author of the works which went by his name, but 
Saet. (52) had seen some originals, with erasures and corrections, all 
in his handwriting. The Troica was an epic. DCass. lxii 29 6 9i 
^ipw aXXa T€ 7e\o?a hrparre kqX iirl t-tip tov Oedrpov 6px'^(yTpatf iv toi'- 
^i)^ TUfl Biq, Kari^rit Kal Aviypta TpufCKd rufa iauroO iron^pLara k,t.\. Tac. 
^n i and Suet. 10 mention such a public recitation. The aXoxrii *I\iov 
'^di Nero sung during the great fire of Borne (64 a. d. ) was probably 
an extract from it (DCass. lxii 18 § 1. Suet. 88. Tac. xv 39). The 
fom was known to Servius (g. iii 36. Aen. t 370). 
OiHD etc. 'For what crime, of aU that Nero committed in his cruel 
tyranny, more called for vengeance than this ?' Madvig cites Cic. Phil. 
nn § 34 quid non aut probavistis autfecistia, quod/actaf, si reviviscat 
Cn. Pompeitts ipse ? i. e. what is there, of all that Pompeius would do, 
if he were to come to life again, that you have not either applauded or 
performed? veroinius L. Verginius Bufus, consul 

I'D. 63 was governor of upper Germania a. d. 68, when G. Julius Yindex, 
propraetor of his native Gaul, rose against Nero, and (finding the 
prorincial levies insufficient to found a Gallic empire) ofifered the crown 
(Hut. Galba 4) to Ser. Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarra- 
MDonsis, who declared himself 2 Apr. 68 (Suet. G. 10. Plut. G. 5. 
Sehiller 278 — 9). Yerginius marched against Yindex. In the battle 
of Yesontio (BesanQon) Yindex was slain with his whole army (Tac. 
h. I 51. IV 57). Yerginius repeatedly refused the empire; he lived 
until A.D. 97, when Ms funeral oration was pronounced by Tacitus, 
«OMul that year (Plin. ep. 11 1 § 6). Pliny the younger, his neighbour 
and ward (ib. § 8), speaks of him in the highest terms of praise. He 
left directions for this epitaph to be inscribed on his tomb. ib. vi 10 
\iUc situs est RufuSfpulso qui Yindice quondam \ imperium asseruit 
wm tihi sed patriae. An inscription lovi • o • m | pro • salvte | et • 
ncTOBu • L I vERGiNi • RVFi sct up by his slavo Pylades at the critical 
time, when Yerginius had been saluted imperator by his troops, is 
in CIL V 611 n. 5702. See Mommsen in Eeil's Plin. ep. p. 429. 
On tiie attempt of Yindex to establish a national kingdom (Tac. h. nr 
17 el 57) in Gaul see Schiller 261 — 278, who corrects the errors of 
XijdiiUnus and modem writers ; on Galba's revolt ib. 278 — 284. 

223 SAEVA C. Fannius wrote exitus occisorum aut rele- 
gatmm a Nerone (Plin. ep. v 5 § 3) ; three books only were completed 
tnd greedily devoured by the public. 
CBTJDA Mart. IV 49 4 cenafn^ crude Thyesta, tuam, 
224 seq. cf. n 104 seq. 225 voedo cantu 188 n. x 315 

n. ad fin. Nep. Epam. 1 § 2 scimus enim musicen nostris moribus 
abesse a prinoipis persona, saltare vera etiam in vitiis poni: 

ru omnia apud Oraeeos et grata et laude digna ducuntur. Sen. contr. 
pr&ef. § 8 cantandi saltandique obscena studia effeminates 
tenent. Yet even Thrasea (Tac. xvi 21) habitu tragico cecinerat in 
his native town Patavium, at the games instituted by the Trojan Antenor. 
PULPITA VII 93 n. los. b. I. 11 13 § 1 Nero's murder of his 
hroiher, wife, and mother, his extension of his cruelty to the noblest 
of the land, koI (is reXevraiop inrb <l>p€Pop\apelai i^iaKeiXep elt aKrivrjp 
cat Biarpap. The tribune Subrius Flavus, when Nero asked why he 
had forgotten his oath of allegiance Tac. xv 67 *No soldier was more 
loyal, while yon deserved love: odisse coepi, poatqtiam parricida 




inatriB ot niorie, auriga et bistria rt tnceiuiiartiu e^rtitUti.' XTM 
game Subrius FlBias ib. 65 declared tlist there was Bmall choice betw^^U 
Nero and Piso: nan Ttftm dedeiori li cithaiaodaa demovtretur * 
tcagoedus lucced^rel, quia ut Neio cithara, ita Piio t: 

ocnatu canebat. Flin. pan. 46 popuim iUi, atiquaTuUi bo ^ 

imperatorie Bpeotator et planaor nunc in pantomimii qttojtte at^'^q 
latar et datnnal tgeminatat artei el indecora laecuio itudia. DO^ ■*" 
T:im 17 S 5. HertKberg n 09-108. In the jear 64 Tac, xr 
acriore in diei capidtTie aiUgebatur Nero promuroisoaenaB/re^Hcnlaie 
nam adhuc per ^munt aal hortot eeciaeral iuvenalibui ludii, guot 
pamm celebret et tautae voei anguslot spemebat, non tamai Sow^ 
ineipert auiut Neapolim quati Gneoam delegit : inde tniciuni fir- 

uE tiansgreBBUB in Achaiam iuBigaes et antiqc"-- 

ooionas adeptuB maiore (ama Btndia olTinm elici . . 
last he retained his paasion tor the at^e Suet. 44. 64 ; he had imUl 
the taste in obildbood from a dancer his paedagogiis ib. Q. 30. Bohill'V 
69, 133—4. 137—8, 180—1, 198—200, 225, 24S— 7, 258-9, 282 n. * 
FriedlSndBT u' 429—30, 463—4. 226 OBAl*» 

Soet. 23 nee conlentui hamm artiara experimaita Roiniu dedtMtt, 
Achaiaia, uf diximta, peliil [A.D. 6S], h!ne Tnaxime mattti. iiutituenat 
civitatet, apud qaai miaiei agima edi talent, omrui aitharoedornm 
ooTonaB ad Ijxum mitttre, tat adeo grate reeipiebat, ut legato* gai 
ptrtiUieient, . . . familiaribus epulU interponeret. a quibiudam esc iu» 
TOgatta, ut aantaTet inper cenant, excepttuqut Justus, boIob icbt 
audire Graeaoa, aoloaque ee et atndiis ania dignoa ait. et ib. 
23 34. 53. TeBpaEian (Saet. Veap. i) iaaurred the extreme diapleaauie 
of Neio, eo that he nos baiiiahed from his court, and feared for ilia Hfs, 
because, haTing been in his suite in his musical tour, cantante eo out 
dUeederet laepiut nuE praitena obdonaiaceret. [Liiciaa] Nero 2 aeq. 

iv Tit MoiSirai itapAKtireiu tjotoc, t.T.\. PMoatr. Apollou. it 24 | 2, 
36. T 7 S. DCasa. lani 8 seq Tao. sr 33. 

AFIUH DCaaa. uui 9 g 3 rtt a« >f«ij iTOraripa, iv f Tliv k6tlh)i/ 4 r^r 
Sa^yTl' fl ri ai\iroy ^ Tij. iriTW Xn^iii, AwiiXeat [i Sipue] rbr JfoXirw^: 
Plin. XIX g 1S3 konai [npio] in Ackata coronare \ictorea bboii 
certaminia Nemeae. Lncian Anaoh. 9 'OXv/iTriBiii ixir trri^amt 
in torifev, 'laS/uil Si it triruai, if ISiniif, H Be\lyiiir Tti-Xry^voi. epigr. 
incert auct. 463 (Uiunck iii 217, tianslated by Aua. eclogar. p. ^0 
Par, 1730 guattuor antiqaoa cetebravit Ackala ludoa, \ . . . scrta qtiibut 
pinm, laalus, oliva, apium). Moineke'a Euphocion 103 seq. DiphiL 
l^iToyiot fr. 1 23. Plut. Timol. 20 g 3. Thomiat, p. 186-. Plat. qn. codt. 
V 3 ;i3 cites Beveral anthoritiea to shew that paisle; naa at one time 
employed at the Isthmian games; thita OaUimachus said of it (3 g 3) 
eijiTOvijii' tilt?)! <ri!^o\oi. 'IffSfuoSoi | l^\i^ Tuy Kt^^ijAf. cf. Procles ib. 
§ i. Find. Olymp. 13 33 (46|, whore the aohol, (p. 270 BiieUi, cf. p. B\ 
says that the •r^Xivoi' used at Nemea was green, that at the latkoiiu 
dry: id. lathm. 3 16 = 2* Bchol. p. 627. 7 01=138. Nem. 4 SS (US), 
NicB:ndr. alexiph. 606 (618) schoL id. ther. 649 schoL (cf. Euteon. 
metaphr.). US. xti 79. Oreg. Naz. or. 24 § 19. los. citedp. 308. 
227 aeq. Suet. 2S lacrai ooronaa in cvliili eireum lectoi posuU : item 
atataas anas citharoedico babita: qua nuta etiam nummam per- 
c\aHt. ib. 22. 32. An Achaean cuin (Eclihel vi 276) Neroni ApolUni. 
He retumed in triumph from Grucce, having tbe catalogue of his 
le before him, wearing liia Oljmpian, and bearing in bia 

227-^31] NERO ON THE STAGE. 53 

band liis Pythian crown (ib. 25). He htmg his crowns (1808 in number) 
on the Egyptian obelisk in the circus mazimns DOass. lxiii 21 § 1. 

Yocis III 91 n. Plin. pan. 2 § 6. Suet. 21 flagitantibusque 

cvneiU caelestem vooem. it was one of the charges against Thrasea 

f&etna (DCass. lxii 26), that he had not sacrificed to the emperor's 

Icpd ^if. On Nero's return in triumph from Greece, the multitude 

exclaimed ib. lxiii 20 § 5 oi^a 'OXvfiiriopiKa, obS. HvOiwiKa, . . . Ifipuvi 

fi'krbWtavL ws cTs vepiOdopUrjSf eU dir* aluivoi . . . leph. ffxairfi* fiaKdpioi 

oT m iKo6ovT€i. ib. 8 § 3. 10 § 1. 14. 18 § 2. 21. 22 §§ 4—6. 26 §§ 1—2. 

cf. Philostr. Ap. iv 39 § 2. 44 § 1. v 7 § 3. He brought sectivum porrum 

into fashion (Plin. xix § 108) vocis gratia ex oleo statis mensum omnium 

diehu nihilqvs aliud ac ne panem quidem vescendo. Cf. xxxiy§ 166. 

Suet. 20. See the criticisms of [Lucian] Nero 6 7 and DCass. lxi 20 

§2 Kol ^paxi> KoX fJi/Kouf. . . 4>6v7ffjLa. cf. lxii 26 §§ 3 — 4. 

228 DOMiTi Nero was son of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus. Suet. 1 functi 

autm [Ahenobarbi] consulatihus septem, triumpho censuraque duplici 

tt inter patricios cUlecti , . , ita degenerasse a suorum virtutibus Nero, 

vt tamen vitia cuiiuquej qtmsi tradita et ingenita^ rettulerit, 

THYESTAE Ylndex also (DCass. supr. 215 n.) charged Nero with 
appearing in this character, cf. id. infr. 229 n. other characters are 
named (somewhat at random, as Friedlander thinks 11^ 430 n. 1) by 
Philostr. V 7 § 2. Suet. 21. 39. DCass. lxiii 10. 22. 
2298TBMA xv 30^n. Hor. a. p. 215. antigonae Nero 

himself wrote a tragedy Antigone Philostr. rv 39 § 2. 
RBSONAH Suet. 21 tragoedias quoque cantavit personatus, heroum 
deorumque item heroidum ac dearum personis ejictis ad similitudinem 
or%8 tut etfeminaBf prout quamque diligeret. inter cetera cantavit C ana- 
ten parturientem, Orestem matricidam, Oedipodem excaeca- 
tnm, Herculem insanum. cf. ib. 46 fin. DCass. lxiii 9 §§4 — 5 t6 
tpwiaweiov ihrodj^vwp dr^/^aXXe t6 t^j iiyefioplas &^l(t)/iaf iSeiTo ihs dpairiri^s, 
^oiftiyeiTO C)S Ti;0X6j, Meif iriKTCPf ifiaiycro, ^Xaro, t6u re Oldliroda Kal 
"TOP Qv^arfjv top re *H/>aicX^a Kcd top AkKfwitapa top t€ *0pi(TT7jp tij rrX'^dei 
^OKpufSfUPos. Kol rd 7^ trpofftaireia Tori fikp a&rois ixelpon Tvrk 8^ koX 
km-(p eUafffiipa i<f>€pe, to, ydp t<2p ywaiKwp trdpTa irpbs n^p l^aPipop 
ivKeiarro. melanippes Melanippe, daughter of 

AeoloB and Eurydice, bore to Poseidon twins, Aeolus and Boeotus. Two 
of the tragedies of Euripides bore her name, "KeXoplinrrj ^ 0-00^ imitated 
hy Ennins ; and M. 97 defffuHyrn, imitated by Accius. The various legends 
oe collected in Welcker Ghiech. Trag. 11 840 seq. cf . Cic. off. i § 114. 


ram uutem a iudicibus adse delatam adoravit, ferrique ad August! 
statnam ins sit. colosso not the colossal 

Btatne (120 feet high) of Nero himself, which stood in the vestibule of 
the golden house Suet. 31 ; for this was of brass Plin. xxxiv § 46. Pro- 
bably title statue of a Domitius is meant. 

231 — 244 The nobles Catilina and Cethegus plotted Home's ruin, 
fierce against their native city as the Gallic hordes their allies, but the 
consul, an upstart from a provincial town, is on the alert. So the gown 
of peace won for him that title for which Octavius steeped his sword in 
eontmnal slaughter; but when Cicero was called * father of the country,' 
the voice of Bome was still free. Cornelius Severus in Sen. suas. 6 § 26 4-~7 
tune redeunt animis ingentia consulis acta | iurataeque manus de- 
prensaqne foedera noxae | patriciumque nefas extinctum: 
poena Cethegi | deiectusque redit votis Catilina uefandis. 


Sen. ben. y 16 § 1 ingratus Catilina: parum est iUi capere patriam, 
nisi verterit, nisi Allobrogum in iUam cohortes immiserit et trans Alpes 
accittu hostis Vetera et ingenita odia satiaverit ac diu debitas inferias 
Gallicis bustis duces Rqmani persolverint, 

231 CATiuNA II 27. X 288 n. xiy 41. The Sergia gens was patrician 
(Si^.5 §1L. Catilina nobili genere ortns. ib. 31 § 7 n« existima- 
rentf he exclaimed, sibi, patricio homini, cuius ipsius atque maiorum 
pUirima beneficia in populum Romanam essent, perdita republica opus 
esse, cum earn seryaret M. Tnllius inquilinns ciyis urbis 
Bomae. ib. 60 § 7. Cic. p. Mur. § 17. Liy. ly 26. yiii 18. App. b. c. 
II 2. Flor. ly 1 §§ 2 — 3 senatum confoderey consules trucidarCf distrin- 
gere inoendiis uTh em,.., et quicquid nee Hannibal videretur opta^sct 
^uibuSf nefas/ sociis aggressus estt ipse patricius: sed hoe 
minus est; Ourii, Porcii, Snllae, Cethegi...qaae familiae! 
quae senatus insignia!), and claimed to be of Trojan descent. Aen. 
y 121 Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomey. See 
Ben Jonson's Catilme. natalibus in the sense 

of * birth,* * descent,* *rank,* the word belongs to the Silver Age. Plin. 
ep. lu 20 § 6 nonnumquam candidatus n at ales competitoris aut annos 
aut etiam mores arguebat, ib. x 12 (7) natalium splendor* ib. 4 (8) 
§ 5. CETHEGi X 288 n. Flor. supr. Sail. Cat. 

17 § 3. Yell. II 34 § 4. The Cethegi were a patrician family of the gens 
Cornelia, In the division of labour among the conspirators, C. Cethe- 
gus undertook to murder the senators Cic. Cat. 4 §§ 11. 13. p. Soil. 
§ 53 Cassius incendiis, Cethegus caedi praeponeretur: and it 
was in his house that arms were discovered Cic. Cat. 3 §§ 8. 10. Pint. 
Cic. 18 19. 233 FLAMHAs PABATis Cic. de diy. 

I § 21 (from the poem on his consulship book ii) et clades patriae flam- 
ma ferroque parata. p. Flacco § 97 nos, qui P. Lentulo ferrum et 
flammam de manibus extorsimus, Plut. Cic. 18 'Lentulus... determined 
to kill all the senators and as many of the rest of the citizens as he 
could, and to bum the city... A night had been fixed for the attempt, one 
of the Saturnalia, and they took and hid in the house of Cethegus 
swords and tow and brimstone. They also appointed a hundred men 
and assigned by lot as many parts of Bome to each, in order that by 
means of many incendiaries the city might be in a blaze in a short time 
on all sides. Others were to stop up the water-conduits.' Cic. Cat. 
3 §§ 14. 25. 4 §§ 2. 13. Sail. Cat. 43 § 2. A supplicatio was voted 
to Cicero. Cic. Cat. 3 % 15 et his decreta verbis estj quod urbem 
inoendiis, caede cives, Italiam hello liberassem. Clodius also 
was suspected of plotting to burn the city Cic. p. Mil. § 64. cf . § 63. 

234 BBACATOBUM a name given to what was afterwards 
the provincia Narbonensis, because the inhabitants wore bracae (u 169) 
or breeches Plin. ni § 31 Narbonensis provincia.,.hT &oa,t& ante dicta^ 
Tac. h. II 20 brae as, barbarum tegimen. Mel. iii 5 § 1 Tzschucke. 

SENONUM the Senones were bounded by the Parisii 
on the north, and the Aedui on the south. Their name still survives in 
that of the town Sens. A branch of them settled on the Adriatic 
between Bavenna and Ancona. This was the nation which took and 
burnt Bome b.c. 390 (Liv. v 35. 41 § 10 diripi tecta, exhaustis inici 
ignes. 42. 43 pr. 48 pr.). So entire was the devastation that it was 
proposed to desert the ruins for Veii (49 — 55), and few historical docu- 
ments were saved (vi 1). G. C. Lewis credibility c. 12 §§ 76. 78. 
Sohwegler m 25a 269—271. cf. Stat. s. v 3 195—8 subitam civilis Eri- 


nyt I Tarpeio de montefcLcem Phlegraeaque movit | proelia, sacrilegiff 
kieeat Capitolia taedis { et Senonum lurias Latiae sumpsere 
eohortes. Sen. apocoL 6 quod Galium facer e oportebat, Bo- 
mam oepit. 235 TUNICA molesta a cruel 
jest 1 155 n. schol. testis ex charta facta, pice illita, in qua ignibus in 
poenam addicti ardere soUnt. ausi estis id conari, quod hoc pacto 
debeat puniri. Sen. ep. 14 § 5 cogita hoc loco carcerem et cruces et ecu- 
kot et uncum et adactum per medium hominem, qui per cs emergeret, sti- 
pitem et distra^ta in diversum actis curribv^ mem^raj illam tunicam 
alimentis ignium et illitam et textam, quicquid aliud praeter 
haec commenta saevitia est. Mart, x 25 5 6 nam cum dicatur tunica 
praesente molesta | ^ure manum,* plus est dicere *non facioJ Plut. 
de ser. num. yind. 9 ' some men are just like children, who often when 
they behold malefactors in the theatres in tunics of gold and purple 
shawls crowned and dancing the pyrrich admire and envy them as 
happy; until they are seen goaded and scourged and discharging fire 
ircnn that flowered and costly attire irOp ivi^vref ix rfjs dvOivfjs iKebnjs 
col TohrreXoOs iffOirros.* Like the shirt of Nessus or Medea's fatal gift 
Fiiedlaiider u' 386. Marquardt v (1) 195. Tert. ad mart. 5 ad ignes 
qtddam se auctoraverunt, ut certum spatium in tunica ardente 
confieerent. id. ad nat. 1 18 incendiali tunica, cf. ad Scap. 4 fin« 
CTwrinala were thus burnt to represent Hercules on Oeta. id. apoL 15 
qui Yiyas ardebat, Herculem induerat. 

236 TioiLAT on the night of the 1st of November B.C. 63, Catiline had 

plaoned an attempt upon Cicero, who however checked it Cic. CatU. 1 § 8 

inielUget multo me vigil are acrius ad salutem, quam te ad perniciem 

reipiibUcae. 237 Novus Plut. Cic. 26 * Metellus Nepos in a debate 

with Cicero often asked, Who is your fatlierV Veil. 11 34 § 3 M. Cicero 

...Tir novitatis nobilissimae. Cic p. Plane. § 67. in Pis. § 2. de^leg. 

^» 2 § 3 jpauci nabiles in hoc civitate consules facti sunt: novus ante 

me nemo. id. Oat. 1 % 28. Phil. 6 § 17. p* Cluent. § 111. Sail. Cat. 

^ § 6 antea pleraque nobilitas invidia aestuahat et quasi pollui consular 

^ eredebant, si eum quamvis egregius homo novus adeptus f<yret, 

Q. Cicero encouraged his brother to disregard this prejudice de pet. 

cons. c. 1 2. cf. Drumann y 397 seq. Oudend. schol. in Cic. ep. 

p. 129. liiv. xxn 34 §§ 7 8 (a.d. 216) id foedus inter omnes nobiles 

ictttnt, necfinem ante belli habituros, quam oonsulem vere plebeium, 

iiest, hominem novum creaxsent; nam plebeios nobiles iam eis- 

^ imtiatos esse sacris et contemnere plebem coepisse. Yell. 11 

128 §§ 1 — 4 Boeder. Tac. dial. 7 non eum diem laetiorem egi, quo mihi 

^(itiuclavus oblatus est, vel quo homo novus et in civitate minime 

fayorabili natus quaesturam aut tribunatum aut praetu- 

ram accept, id. ann. iii 55 novi homines e municipiis et colo- 

ntu atque etiam provinciis in senatum crebro adsumpti, esp. Plut. Cat. 

nuu. 1 § 3. App. b. c. n 2 p. 176. 

ARPHTAB 245. Sail, cited 231 n. Arpinum, a Yolscian town (infr. 245 n.) 
to the east of Bome, near the junction of the Liris and Fibrenus (Cic. 
kgg. n c. 3, cf. c. 1. Drumann v 208. .212 seq.). Quid homini Arpi- 
oati cum Baiis, agresti ac rustico? asked Clodius (Cic. fragm. in 
Clod, 4 § 2 p. 101 Beier. cf. ad Att. 1 16 § 10). [Sail.] decl. in Cic. 1 § 1 
feperticiusj accitus ac paulo ante insittis huic urbi civis, ib. 3 § 4 homo 
novus Arpinas. ib. 4 § 7 (cited by Quintil. ix 3 § 89) o Bomule 
Ar pin as I L. Marian! Arpinum and its antiquities in the days of 
CieeiD. . Lend. 1871. 238 municipaub 


Toe. i 

EijDES p. Mar. S 17 non 
tonsul drsignatun ab ei 
di geneHt novitato ac 
■gr. 1 % 27. p. Cnel. g 
Cio. 11 (Di 

Auguttat, locir Tiberiiu, ex DruJO liberi, 
I manicipnli aialioro faedabat. 
arbitrabar, cum ex familia vttere tt illiulri 
BitiB Bomani filio oonsnle defeadentuT, 
Hiatort, CO dieturo,. in Tare, u g 174. leg. 
I, ol. QniolU. H 1 g 28. p. MU. § 18. Pint. 
"'' ■ § 31 who traoea to Cioero'E 

oonaolaHp the increaeed importaace of the equestrian order. Beneca 
in Too. UT 63 fin. egone equeatri et ptovineiali loco orltu proetribut 
civitatii admanerorl inter nobilet et longa decora praeferenltt novitaa 
men enitmt I Priedlander r* 231 — 1. 

OAJJEATUU eto. the Bomaa knighta ^Cic od Alt. ii 1 g 6) under Atticna, 
irere aUtioned hj Cieero on Uie Capitol. SestiaB iilao brought troops 
trom Capua (p. Seat. § 11 aeq. Dronuum y 481). 

239 ATTOKms the bewildered oitizena Sail. Cat. 31. 
iiOSTB yi 396. II 131. 

240 TOOA 43. X 8 n. Aa Ciceio himself boaated in FIb. g 73 Beq. 
cedartt arma togae, concedat laiirea laudi, off. i % 77. cf. id. Catil. 
3 % 23. Brut, g 2S3. Dmmann t 497 n. 21. Plin. vii g 117 lotoe primta 
omniam parens patriae appellate, primut in toga trinmphnm 
linguaeqne lauream merito et facundiae Latiaruntque litleranan 
parens atqtie, ut dietalor Caeiar hoitii quondam tuui dt te leriptU, 
omniam triumpAorunt iaarea maior, quanlo plai til, tnjntu Romm 

Unaiaoi in tantuni promavUae q-uaia imperii. Cameliua SarerOB ill Sen. 
aaaa. 6 g 26 13 — 11 illesenatus \ vindei, iltefori, tegum rieuxque togaei 
gut. Qointil. K 16 g 7 non divina M. Tnlli eloquentia . .. Cati- 




lello dm „ . 

3 ga imperium mulcenle toga. Plin. ep. i 22 g 6 Doring. Liv. tt 10 
g 8 aeiinavit, quod hand facile eit, Qainctiiu consnl togatQB 
armati gloriam ooUegae. Luc. tie G2--^ Romani maximia a?ictor | 
Tnllina cfo^uii, onina anb inre togaque | pacilicaa aaevQS tre- 
mnit Catilina aecarea etc. The toga iraa irom \>j adrocatea in 
the conrta Tac. xi 7 Oroa.pUbem, qvae toga eTdteiceret. Eat. m 45 n. 

241 rmli.1 69 n. vis K F. Hermann'a 

conj. P8 have in (L. Mliller de ro metr. 311 omntno faUumit in), 
pu non (so Jalin'). Mr Munro's conj. quantum turn in is elegant and 
easj. Eiaer 83 — 7 shewB that non cannot be nnderatood from the first 
clause with the aecoud (quantum non etc. would mean 'the like of 
which 0. did nut win at Actium, bnt did win at Philippi,' aa xt 107— S 
nee cnini oinnia, quatdam | pro vitafaciendaputant). Sunk a hiatus OS 

?!iflnt«m in haa no parallel in Inv. except is 118 (6th foot) turn hit. 
he negative is ont of place, for luv. meong to say : Cic, the man of 
lav, won the lame title to whioh 0. waded through aeas of blood,— 
Iral, when Cio. was hailed parent and father of hia countrj. Borne 
was free. i^ucuie Leucaa (lormerl; Nedtmn, now 

Hagia ilaura), a peninatila distant 210 stadia from Actimn, yet often 
apoken of oa the acene of the battle of Aotinm {2 Sept. b. o. 31) Aen. 
VIII 67fi — 7 elaaaet aeratai, Actla beUa, | cemere erat. totumque initrucio 
ilarte videres \ fimere Leucaten. Prop. it = iii 11 69. Floe, it 11 


§ 4. Luc. I 42. V 479. tii 872. x 66. Leuoas is d/cr^; iivelpoio in Horn. 
Od. a 378; the Corinthians dng a canal through the isthmus (Straho 452), 
which in the time of Thucydides and again in 197 b. c. was choked witn 
sand; the Romans cleared it out, hut it was once more filled in Pliny's 
days, and only made navigable again by the English (Bursian Geogr. 
▼. Griechenl. i 115 116). 

242 THEssAi<iAE CAMPis Merivalo iii^ 214: * Regarding the battle of 
Philippi [B.C. 42] a curious error was perpetuated among the Roman 
writ^ They persisted in representing it as fought on the same spot 
as the battle of Pharsalia. The name p| Macedonia was given by the 
Bomans to the whole rjBgipn between the Adriatic and the Hellespont, 
and such names as Aemathia, Haemonia, were applied very loosely 
by their poets. The mistake arose from an ambiguity in Virgil's 
lines, which became a lociu clasaicus with succeeding writers g. i 
489 seq. ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis \ Bomanas acies ite- 
JVLXavidere Philippi : | nee fuit indignam superis bis sanguine nostra \ 
Amaihiam et latos Haemi pinguescere campos. The poet here refers 
to two distinct battles, one in Thessaly (Aemathia is not a correct 
term), the other in Thrace, but the words might very easily mislead. 
The Bite of the battles is accordingly confounded by ManiL i 906. 
Ov. m. XV 824. Flor. iv 2 § 43, Luc. i 680 seq. vii 864 seq. ix 270. 

244 PATBEM PATBiAE this title was firs I; given to Cicero in the senate 
hy Gatolus p. Sest. § 121. in Pis. § 6. ad Att. ix 10 me^ quern 
nomiUi conservatorem istius urbis, quern parentem esse dixerunt, 
Cato was the first to salute him by it in the popular assembly Plut. 
Cic. 23. App. b. c. 11 7. of. Cio. ep. fam. xv 4 § 2. Plut. (L 1.) and 
%y (supr. 240 n.) erroneously state that Cicero first received this 
Uonoor. Livy ascribes it to Romulus (i 16) and Camillus (v 49); 
Cicero himself (p. C. Rabir. perd. r. § 27 both pater and parens) to 
Marias. Caesar also (Cic. Phil. 2 § 31. off. iii § as. DCass. xliv 4. 
I^nunann ni 662 n. 7). was saluted by this title. It was conferred, 
upon Augustus 5 Febr. b. c. 2 Ov. f. 11 121 seq. dum eanimus sacras 
oitemo carmine Nonas | . • . sancte pater patriae, tibiplebSf tibi curia 
^^onen \ hoe dedit : hoc dedimus nos tibi nomen eques, id. trist. 11 39. 
18L IV 4 13. Suet. Oct. 68. DCass. liii 18. Flor. iv 12 § 66: to 
^▼ia also the name. of mater patriae was given Tac. ann. i 14. DCass. 
ivn 12. Lvni 2. The title was declined by Tiberius (Suet. 26. 60. 67. 
XK}a88. LVii 8. Lvni 12. Tac. ann. i 72. iv 38), and Nero (Suet. 8 
^ his accession propter aetatem, yet Pliny says of him xxxvii § 20 
^Mnoranda res tanti imperatorem patremquepatriae bibisse, Schiller 
^). As regards the later emperors, cf* Becker rom. Alt. 11 (3) 302 ; 
'^d for the import of the term, DCass. liii 18. Sen. de clem, i 14 
§ 2. Tac. XI 25 A. D. 48 the consul Yipstanus proposed that Claudius 
B^d be called 'father of the senate'; quippe promiscum patris 
P&triae cognomentum, Tert. apol. 34 qui pater patriae est^ quomodo 
^^nus estf The beat account in Mommsen rom. Staatsrecht 11^ 
787—8, who points out that Pliny, App., luv. are mistaken in con- 
founding the mere compliment paid to Cicero by partisans with the 
^ imperial title. To his citations add Capitolin. Anton. Pius 6. 
Anton. phiL 9. 12. Cicero was also saluted as * saviour and founder' 
Hut. 22 § 3. [Sen.] Oct. 444 servare cives maior est [virtus] patriae 
patri. LiBEBA Luc. ix 601 — 4 of Cato ecce parens 

v^ras patriae, dignissimus aris, \ Boma, tuis, per quern numquain. 





ire piulfbit, I ;[ jucm, si ateteris nmquam 
Hunc oltm/actura devm «. 

245 — 253 Another rustic from Arpinam, Mailus, vas oDoe a 
day-labomer, then a private in the arm; ,- yet he repelled the invBEicin 
of the giant Cimbri, and bia high-born ooUea^o Catnlua was fain to 
reap bnt the second lanreU. 

245 ABPiNAB Auus Cioero often names Marius as his fellovr-townsmBii 
1 276—7 n, de legg. n 9 S quod rx fo [Orpine] duo lui caniervatoret 
futiCtsMfK. p. Snll. g 33. p. red. ad Qnii. S3 19 20. p. Sest. gS 60. 116. 
VM, VI g 11 C. MariuB . . . Arpinatibna honoribm iuetieatiu in- 
ferior quaataram Eomat pelere aiumt eat..'..ei illo Mario tttm 
bDmili Arpinate, tam ignohili Ilomae, tarn faBtidiendo ean- 
didato ille ilariiu evasil, qui Africam eiibegit, qui lugurtham regem 
taitt currtim tgit, qni Teutonomia Cimbrornmqua eiereltna 
delevit anthol. lat. S43 B, The father of M. uuitnovm AeL t. h. 
sn 6. voLBcoBDu 8U. in 176 clani-m Volsoornm 

Tnlli deetM. schot. Cic. p. Bull, g 22 natuiimuni mi autem fuime Ciee- 
ronem aatioiie Tolsoum, Arpino mnnioipio, und« illi qaaedam 
fUregriititatii ab invigortbiu concinnabatar infamia. 
218 UEBCBDsa I 108. Ecr. s. n 2 116 Heindori forlem mexoede ea- 
lORum. Plut. Mar. 3 'Marina vas the aon of c^BOnre parents, nho 
gBined their living by the labour of their haods, aod were poor. It 
iraa late before be saw Borne, and became acqnaiated with the habits 
of the citj, op to which time he lived at Cirrheaton (?|, a village in 
the territory of Arpinam, vhere hia mode of life vas rude nhea oon- 
trasted with the polite and ortiScial fashions of a city, but temperate 
uid in Hccordanoe with the old Boman djeoipliiie. He flrst served 
aguQBt the Celtiberiaun, when Seipia Africanua was beaieging Nnmon- 
tio.' Cio. p. Font, g 33. p. Balb. g 47, Sail. b. 1. US g S. VM. n 3 g 3. 
PUjl sum g 160 ille arator Arpinas et manipulBris imperator. 
Fronto princ. biat. p. 206 Nabec omuibnB Aipinati paapertate 
aat Nureina duriiia doeibUB bellicoiior exiitii. Ael. t. h. zn 6 Petit. 
Sen. de ben. v 16 g 2 C. Matins ad eonsulatam a ealiga perdue- 
tas, qui niii Oimbriois caedibns Rotaana fvnera aequaverit eto. 
247 NOBOBiM Apol, met. n 40 lad ubi nallis predbai mitigari milium 
magiique in (iioni peniiciem advertit ij'erari, iamqjte inaerea vita de 
vastiore nodulo cerebrum anum dillindere. 
raiSDBBAT vr479 hie It angit Jerul/u. vitem xtv 

193 n. MorciTiardt in (2) 282, 248 noLiBHi aee 

Bich. Maeoenas.intheapeechputintohia month bj DCass. iji26g§6^7, 
wama Augustus to exclude those who have served h- rlji rerayiUrif from 
the senate. tdi>tuiv ) yip tui' tal ^op/io^opijo-dpTwi' kbJ ^ap^:o^^- 
pijcdrTur Koi alirxP^' ""1 ijroi'CiStirrii' fmir ^i r^ fioiAivTuci^ Timi ^ferd- 
len^ai. Plutaioh Mar. l.'i gives tiro eiplanations of a alaug term 1) he 
trained the aoldiera to suoh drudgery, raees, long marches under heavy 
burdens, cooMng for themaelves, eto. that willing and hardmirMng boI- 
dieiB were thenceforward called Marine' mules. 2) Soipio in the degs 
of Numantia was ao pleased with the condition of the horse and mi^e 
groomed by M. that he often apolre of them : aurut dpa rain trKiirTorrm 
t iraiuf riv 4rit\txv ■<'' TX^/unia icai •^tXiravor MapauAr ^plaiai rpoirayo- 
pfiaK 2B0 rior. iB7 = iii3g4 aed nte primaaa 

iwpttum barbaroruni Silanim [ooua. K. c. 109], nre senaidum Afanlitu 
[oona. D.c. 10a], net lertitim Caepio [proo. B.C. 106], suflinere potuemni ; 
omnei /ugali, exuti cailrU, actum erat, nisi Marina ilU saeciiio conli- 

250-2541 CIMBRI. CATULUS. DECH. 59 

gisHt. Sail. Iag« 114 per idem tempus adversum Gallos ah ducibus nos- 
tris Q. CaepUme et Cn. Manlio male pugnatum; quo metu Italia 
omnis oontremuit...I2o7nam sic hahuere, alia omnia virtuti suae prona 
esstf cum Gallis pro salute, non pro gloria oertarc.ea tempes- 
tate spes atque opes civitatis in illo [Mario] st'^a^. Cicero calls 
Marins p. imp. Pomp. § 60 tpes imperii, p. Sest. § 37 conservator 
paJbnM, cl ib.' § 38. de prov. cons. § 32. Liv. epit. lxyiii. 

252 Diodor. exc. Yat. zxzvii p. 113 Mai (p. 125 Dind.) 
*TlidGimbri,in form like giants, in strength imsnrpassed.' Plat. Mar. 
11: 'the most probable conjecture was, that they [the Cimbrij were Ger- 
manic nations belonging to those who extended as far as the Horth- 
em Ocean, and this opinion was founded on their great stature,* etc. 
Sen. deira 1 11 § 1 quid enim est aliud, quod barbaros tanto robus- 
tiores corporibus, tanto patientiores laborum comminuat, nisi ira infes- 
Mmasibi?... § 2 quid Cimbrorum Teutonorumque tot milia super- 
fitsa Alpibus ita sustuUt, ut tantae cladis notitiam ad suos non nuntius, 
tedfamapertulerit, nisi quod erat illis pro virtute ira ? Flor. i 37 = 111 3 
says of the Teuton king Teutobocchus who used to vault oyer four or six 
bones: insigne spectaculum triumphi fuit. quippe vir proceritatis 
eximiae super tropaea sua eminebat, [Quintil.] decl. 3 § 14 non enim 
mkiU Yehementiora corpora, quam vel his ecce Cimbris. ib. § 13 
imuitata corporum magnitudo. So of the Germans Colum. iii 8 § 2. 
Tac. h. V U. G. 4. Agr. 11. 253 lauro Oy. tr. iv 2 

5162 tempora Phoebea lauro eingentur, *io*que \ miles, *io,' magna voce 
* Triumph e ' canet, met. i 660 — 6. collega Plut. 

^. 14 * The many, seeing that the circumstances required a man of his 
^ergy and good fortune, voted for the fourth consulship of Marius 
[b.c. 102], imd gave him for colleague Catulus Lutatius, a man who was 
esteemed by the nobility.* Veil. 11 12 § 5 'Marius, in his fifth consul- 
8^p [b.<3. 101], in the plains called the Baudii Campi on this side the 
■^ps, gained a decisive victory in conjunction with the proconsul Q. Lu- 
tatios Catulus. One hundred thousand men were killed or taken. ' Plut. 
^. 27 * The whole credit was given to Marius, both on account of his 
preTious victory, and his superior rank. And, what was most of all, the 
P^ple gave him the title of the third founder of Borne... and they 
t^Moght that he alone ought to celebrate both triumphs. Marius how- 
ever did not triumph alone, but Catulus shared the honour ^ for Maiius... 
VM afraid of the soldiers, who were prepared not to let Marius triumph, 
i{ Oatnlns was deprived of the honour.* YM. ix 12 § 4 Q. Catulus* 
Cimbriei triumphi C. Mario particeps a senatu datus, Cic. 

254 — 258 ^^0 souls of the Decii were plebeian, plebeian their names, 
yet to mother Earth and the gods below their sacrifice was an atonement 
^dent for all the legions of Bome, * themselves more worth than all 
tbe host they saved.* 254 beciobum xiv 239. Before 

^^ great battle with the Latins near Vesuvius, b.c. 340, the two con- 
Bols, P. Deoius Mus and T. Manlius Torquatus, having been warned in a 
d^eam (Liv. viii 6 § 10) ex una acie imperatorem, ex altera exercitum 
die manibus matrique terrae deberij agreed that whichever of 
them should see his wing give way, should devote himself. The wing 
of Decins giving way, he devoted himself with these words ib. 9 § 8 
*pro repuhlica Quiritium, exercitu, legionibus, auxiliis populi 
Bomani Quiritium, legiones auxiliaque hostium mecum dis manibus 
Xellurique devoveo,* ib. x 7 §§ 3—4. Att. fab. praetext. 15 of 


I>eoius I 


a [ = deTOTero] hoitibui. Luo. th 300 De- 
aioaque capni istaje yoTontes. VM. i 7 S 8. t 6 g 6. Orelli 
onomaat. TuIUod. SUJ. Pint, moral. 499 states that he demoted himself 
to Stttura. Again P, Daoiua Mus, the son of the toregoing, followod hia 
fatliei's example, vhon consul far the fourth time, B.C. 3^5, in a gieat 
battle irith the Sammtea and Ganla at Sentianm Uv. 1 36 (see Mieb. 
h. B. Ill 383(. CicQTo in two pnsaiigea (fin. ii g 61. Tqso. i % 89) men- 
tions a third derotion by the graudaon o{ the firat Decius. in a battle 
fought at A-ioulnm nith Pyrrhns, n. c. 27U. Eteewhere hoirevei be 
epeaka nulj of the father ani son (.Arnold h. B. ii 509). ClaHon (rSm. 
Oeaoh. ii 240) rejects the story of the devotion. 

267 EiB iKFEBKia TEBRiEQCE psBKNii AV. CaoB. 33 cutii imicTu tmlgui 
pari clamori terram matrem deoaque inferos pricaretar, aedt* 
impiat uli Oalliejio darent. With the devotion of the Uecii, considered 
as an eipiatorj SBcrifloe, compare thoae of Codma, (Flut. paiall. 18), of 
MenoBceuB (eat. iiv 240 n.), of the daughters of Erechthena (Cio. Tnso. 
I S 116 with nhioh Pint. paralL BO aompares the imraolation by Marina 
of hii dangbtei Calpurnia in the Cimbrio war), of Metioohe and Me- 
nippe daughtera of Orion, who thiice invoked the infernal goda (Antonin. 
Liberal. 25. Ov. m. mi 692 — 6), of the maidens of Laeedaemoii and 
Fnlerii (Pint. paraU. 35), of U. Cnrtioa (Schwcgler i 484 n. 2), of Iphi. 
eeuia (Cie. ib.), of the daughter of Aristodemns (Fauaan. it 9 g 2 seq. 
orac. ap. Euseb. p. e. v 27 S * rapOivor MrvriSa tXg/joi ttaXii, ^rraia Saliit 
I i5o(»iom fepTipimt, xal ter (riiaeioi 'lOii/iip-), of Palinnrua (Aen, y 816 
nnum pro multia dabitur oaput) and of the old patricians when 
Eoma was taken by the Ganla (Plot. Cam, 21, cf. Liv. v 41 g 3); also 
tbe ver nacmm (Sohwegler i 340—1, u 254). See Winer Beai-Wiirtetb. a. v. 
Biibnopfer. oomm. on Petron. 1 fin. p. 9 Burm. Panly vi 681, 689 n. 
cap. Lnsaulx die Siihnopfer der Griechen o. Biimer (in his Stndien des 
'aas. ^tcrthums, Begensb. 1854 233 — 82). Preller riim. Myth.' 466 — 9, 
258 Markland 'totua versus mihi non admodum placet.' 
259 — 268 A Blavo-girl's aon, Seirius Tullius, wore the crown of 
Bomnlus; the aonanl'a aona Buffered death aa traitora; the alave who 
diynlged their treason was honoured with a pubiio mourning. 

L NATUB Yii 199n. Cio. rep. 11 % 37 Serviua Tnlliua 
jtrivrai immnt populi regnavUss traditur, guem fenmt ex aerva Tar- 
quiniensi natum. Hor, a. I 6 9. Liv. i 39 g 5 Torqninius betrothed 
hia daughter to Serviua; a diatinotion which mokes it incredible Berva 
natum eum parvumqne ipsnm aerTisse. ib. 40 S8 2— 3 (oited on 
(^iriiii below). 47 § 10. 48 g a. itB § 12 Ser. Tulliam...OBptiTa 
Oorniculana natam, patre nulla, matro serva, in^onio, virtnte, 
regnnm tenuiase. DH. it 1 (oalled Serviai because of the servile 
condition of bis mother). VM. i 6 g 1. iil 4 g 3 vnde proceiierit el quo 
perveturit, ttatuac ipsitii titaba aliunde ifitalur, Bervili cagnomiTie et 
regia appellatione perpUxii. Sen, coutr. i 6 g 4. Ben. ep, 108 | 30. Plin. 
invi g 204 callB hie mother TanaquilU reginae ancillam Ocraiiom. 
Insthi iDTiii 6 5 7. Paul. Diac. p. B4S M tfraoram die» feilnt tral 
liihu! Augvtti, quod to dif Serviaa, filins ancillae, aedem Dlawae 
didicavit. cf. Festus p. 343 a 7 M. Plut. qu. Bora. 74. 100. cod. yii 
16 g 9. TBABi^u £ SS n. Aeu. Tn 612 Berriua 

Quirinali trabea. Plin. h. n. viii g 195 trabeis naos acoipio 
teges. id. u g 136 piirpuroe usum Romae lempeT fulese video, ted 
EomnlD in trabea. Ot. (. i 37 trabeati aura Quirini, ib. j( 
603—4 trabeaque docorus Bomnlna. ib. ti 375. 796. met. mt 


828 trabelkti forma. Qnirini. Suet, de genere vestium in Senr. Aen. 
Tn 612 (reliq. 266 Beiffersch.) distingnishes three kinds of irabeae^ tho 
Becond regum, quod est pwrpweum^ habet tamen album aliquid, Momm- 
senrom. Staatsr^ i' 414. Marqnardt v (2) 119. 

DiADBMA xm 89. DH. in 62. Lyd. de mag. i 7. Wesseling on DS. 
1 47. HtLbner in Hermes i 348 seq. Marqnardt y (2) 292. Suet. Calig. 
22 non tnultum afuit, quin statim diadem a sumeret, speciemque princi- 
patut in regni formam converteret, quibimi 

the name of Bomulus as a god in 67. Liv. i 40 §§ 2 3 the sons of 
Aliens were indignant, si ne ab Tarquinio quidem ad se rediret regnum, 
sHpraecept iride porro ad servitia caderet, ut in eadem civitate post 
cetOesimum fere annum, quod Bomulus, deo prognatus, deus ipse, 
tennerit regnum, donee in terris fuerit, id servus serva natus 
po8Bideat...co7nmu7t€ Bomani nomini8...dedecusforey «i...seryis etiam 
regnum i2ama€ pater eU 260 Liv. i 48 § 8 

Seryius Tullius regnavit annos quattuor et quadraginta ita^ ut bono 
etiam moderatoque succedenti regi dijicilis aemulatio esset, ceterum id 
qmque ad gl&riam accessit^ quod cum illo simul iusta ac legitima 
regna oc cider unt. 261 laxabant the im- 

pert, as in iSldov, 'offered,* denotes the attempt. Liv. ii 3 § 7 — 4 §1 
de aecipiendis clam nocte in urbem regibus colloquuntur. Vitelliis Agui- 
Hitque fratribus primo commissa res est. Vitelliorum soror consuli nupta 
■Bruto eratf iamque ex eo matrimonio adulescentes [iuvenes, 262] erant 
liberif Titus Tiberiusque: eos quoque in societatem consilii avunculi 
ammimt, pobtabum claustba Heins. on Ov. m. 

IV 86. 262 rovENEs in 158. x 310. xiv 121. 

coNSULis Liv. II 5 §§6 — 7 consulis liberi omnium in se 
averterant oculos; ...illos eo potissimum anno patriam liberatam^ patrem 
liberatoremf consulatum ortum ex domo Iunia...induxi8se in animum ut 
snperbo quondam regi, turn infesto exsuli proderent. 

264 cocLiTE etc. Liv. ii 10. Verg. Aen. viii 650 — 1 pontem 

anderet quod vellere Codes, | et fluvium vinclis tranaret 

Cloelia ruptis. Schwegler i 22 n. 4. ii 62—3. 187. 

Hucius C. Mucins Cordus (schol. Bob. in Cic. p. Sest. § 48) Scaevola, 

Liv. II 12. Mart, i 21. Schwegler ii 64. 183 — 6, who derives the legend 

from the surname. 265 imperii fines tibebi- 

KUM cf. XIV 160. Prop. V =iv 1 8 e« Tiberis nostris advena bubus 

eraU After the surrender of the city (Tac. h. in 72 dedita urbe) to Por- 

sena, the Bomans lost territory on the right bank of the river Liv. 

n 13 § 4 (26 agro Veientibus restituendo impetratum, expressaque neces- 

fitas obsides dandi, si laniculo praesidium deduci vellent. In the poet's 

days Euphrates, Ehine and Danube were the frontier line supra 169 170 

n. Tac, I 9 mari Oceano aut amnibus longinquis saeptum impe- 

rium. viBQO Yerg. supr. Sen. cons, ad Marc. 16 § 2. 

Schwegler ii 66. 185 — 7, who derives the legend from the equestrian statue 

of Cloelia (i. e. of Venus Cluilia or Cloacina) on the via sacra ib. i 22. 

NATAviT with ace. as in English * swam the Tiber,' Verg. g. in 260. 

266 SEBVUS Liv. n 4 §§ 5 6 cum ... coniurati...remotis arbitris 

imdta inter se de novo, utfit, consilio egissent, sermonem eorum ex servis 

unus excepit; ...rem. ad consules deinlii*,. . ,5 % 5 damnati proditores 

...§ 8 consules in sedem processere suam, missiqu£ lictores ad sumendum 

supplicium nudatos virgis caedunt securique/munt:...§ 9 praemium 

indici pecunia ex aerario, libertas et civitas data. Schwegler ii 44-r-5. 

267 MATBONis ui 212. When Brutus died. 


Ut. n 7 S 4 matrocfte annum, at parent™, evm Inxerunt. Of like 
honour thia Blava ahowed himsalf wortlij-; but the aona of BmtnB died bj 
public oxeaation, sfter having been Sogged like et&Tes (t 173 ».). 
For VBleriuB aldo (Liv. ii 16 g 7) and Augnatus (DCaaa. lti 43), the 
matrons wore monming during a year. Sun, ep. 63 ^ 13. 
- '■ uBSgll totgo ao CBpite pBuJretnr. 

.EDHM the Gtat legui, Ba oppoaed to arbitrary {regni ifeurit), 
eTBcntion. Liv. ii 1 § 1 imperia legnm potfntiora qiiam Aominim. 
Luc. VII 441—2 de Bnitis, Fortuna, loquor, quid tempora legnm | 

de ira t l<j 3 etH pemtna induenda mngiitratui vfstii tt fonvoeaitdn 
slaiiico coniio eit, procedam in tribnnal uou furena neo JnfesinB, 

!rba lei 


269—275 Holjday 'It were better to be the son nt an anworthy 
Tberaitea, eo Uiat one's self were an Achilles, than to be a ThersiteB, 
tbongh one were the eon of an Aahilles. But, aaya he, by way of jeer, to 
the noblest Boman, thou canst not properly decive thyself hotter than 
from tho company which oasemblcd at Bomulus's Asvlum.' 

269 IHEKSITEB D. II 216 orffXiffToi 3* dj.*,p iirj-lXip. ^Xfltr. cL aia 
Beq. Achillea killed him Quint. Smyni. : lH) seq. sl^a 1' draXnt dTD 
fitXitijv ^i/yt BvfxoJ \ dpipot oiiTiSaysio' "xApij S ipa Xaov ' AxatCji^ \ rait y&^ 
rtiKte viuTav /rtafiotdTiiri latrpjip, | aurAt luv Xuj^i)Ti!- a 7iip ivaar irt\et 
. I. PMl. 489 seq. Encomium of Th. (also of a quartan ague) 
Bcliool parodoxea b? FaTorinQB GelL im 13 § 2. cf. Quintil. i 1 g 47 

[I 222. 225. 270 AB4CIDAB 

i c( Achillea, Hon of Peleoa, the Hon 
AeacuB. Achilles is contrasted with Theraitea (ii iJO 31 n. exc. ihet. in 
Halm rhet. ant. 688 2 cetervia ridirMtam videtar, si Achillea in apei 

tur. of, Theonprogymn. 9 in Waiz 
rhet, er. i 232. After death Luc. Char. 22 Bipalr-g S Isos eiritos 
rail ^Jii^ioio, cf. quom. hist, oonscr. 14. Plotin. enn. iii 3 to cenania tbe 
whole from the parts is li^e taking a hair or toe aa a sample of a 
man, or Thersilea of humanitj), aa being not only the bravest, but 
the laireat of the Greeka B. ii 6H. 769. 

i. when, after the death of Pstroclua, the arms ol AchiBes 
had been borne oS by the Trojana, Thelia besought Hephaystua to supply 
her son with a new suit II. iviii 369—616, Aen. xn 739 of the snit o£ 

a dei ad Vulcania. Cic. Tusc. ii g 33 Davies Uclits Val- 

ia, id eit foTtiludini!. Liban. ep. 125. 

jr I 240. Haha on Cic. p. Seat. § 140. 
With 272—5 cf. Sen. ep. 44 %3FlBto [Thcaet. 176'] ait.- neminem 
. sgem non ei servis oriundum, neminem non Bervam ex regi- 
bns. LOHOE EBPETSB Cio, (am. xm 28 S 3 ex- 

epectare te arbitror, hare tarn longo ropetita principia qua sptettnt. da 
legg. 1 § 28. Luc. 1 34 nee longe /oforiim exempla petantur. Qointil, 
v7gl7 longins inlerrogatione repetita. Plin. ep. i8§8jm lon- 

flua exempla ropetantur. So rep, alif etc. cf. Klotz repeto ii A 
, and luup&Bft. Aua. grat. act. p. 1116 b Walker deduttum at lieroibui 
femia ad deomm itemma replicare. 

BETOLTAs Ben. contr. i6§4 quemcnioqtiB volueria rerolve aohi- 
lem; ad humilitatem perveniea. guid recmseo liiijuloi [he hud 


named MariuSf Servius]^ cum hanc urbem possim tibi ostendere f 

273 ASTiiO Xiy. I 8 locum, qui nunc saej^tus descendentibus inter 
duoslucos est, asylum aperit: eo ex Jinitimis populis turba omnis sine 
discrimine, liber an servus esset, avida novarum rerum profugit, 
Strab. Y p. 230 * haying established an asylum between the arx and the 
Capitol' DH. II 15 * the place between the arx and the Capitol, which is 
now c^ed between the two groves,* Veil, i 6 §8 asylo fa^to inter 
im lucos, Becker i 386—7. 410. 11 19. Schwegler i 469—60. 
464-8. Pauly i^ 1948. Preller rom. Myth.i 237. Winer Bealworter- 
bnch s. Y. FreistatU On the right of sanctuary and its abuses Hock i^ 
94 5. in Ephesus Strabo 641. On the asylum itself, cf . Liv. 11 1 § 4 ilia 
pastorum convenarumque plebs, transfuga ex suis populis, sub tutela 
irmolati templi aut libertatem aut certe impunitatem adepta, August, 
c. Crescon. 11 16=13 non igitur, sicut conviciaris, tamquam in 
asylum Bomuli Testros nooentes recipimus, id. de cons. ev. i 
^19 in prijnordia sv^ recoUmt, facinorosorum asylum. ..asylum 
cmtituerunt Remus et Itomultis, ut quisquis cuiuslibet sceleris 
reus 60 confugisset, inultum haberet commissum. Plut. Bom« 
9. DCass. xLvii 19. Flor. i 1 § 9. Verg. Aen. yiii 342. esp. Ov. f. 
ni43l8eq* lustin zzxnii 7 § 1 conluvie conyenarum. That the 
Bomaos were (DH. i 5) ix rwv ^avKordrtiv i$pQy (rvP€\rj\v66T€s, Bome's 
founders (ib. 4) dofiffTioi rive^ koX vK&vijfrei Kal pap^apoi, Bome's original 
population (ib. yii 70) iBvii pdp^apa koI dvi<ma, and ancient Bome itself 
(ib. 1 89) a KaTa<l>vy'fj ^ap^ptav Kal hpavtrvv koL dvetrrliov dvOpuirtov, are to 
I)H. slanders i 89. 11 8. ly 26. Minuc. Fel. 25 § 2 asylo prima plebs 
congregata est, confluzerant perditi facinerosi incesti sicarii 
proditores. 275 pastob schol ' quos coUegit 

fiomnlus.' lustin xxyiii 2 § 8 quos autem homines Romanos esse ? nempe 
pastores, qui latrocinio iustis dominis ademptum solum teneant., 
DCass. LX 29 § 3 /ScurtXets iyivovro xoZ wplv tvrei olirbKoi, 
QCOD etc. schol. ' seryus aut infamis yel latro.' 

NOTE ON X 1 2 


The following was accidentally omitted in s. x n. 1 after *to the 

Sen. n. q. i pr. §13 quantum enim est, quod ab ultimis litori- 
bas Hispaniae usque ad Indos iacet? paucissimorum dierum 
ipatium, si navem suus ferat ventus, implebit. Plin. 11 § 242 pars nostra 
terrarum...longissime ab ortu ad occasum patet, hoc est ah India ad 
Herculis columnas Gadibus saeratas. §§ 243 — 4 two measure- 
ments are giyen, each starting from the Ganges, He giyes many other 
measurements always reckoning from Gades to the west, Ganges to 
the east (Sillig's ind.) and places Gades y § 76 extra orbem. Claud, 
names Gades as the furthest west ly cons. Hon. 43. bell. Gild. 1 59. in 
Eutr. J 353. Sidon. c, 5 28G — 7. Ambr. de Abraham 11 § 40 ab In- 
diae quoqv^ litoribus ad Herculis, ut aiunt, columnas. Strabo p, 
38 and viii pr. Luc. x 457 parvaque regna putat Tyriis cum Gadibus 
Indos. Sil. Ill 3—4. xiy 8. xyii 637 terrarum fines Gades. 



Men pray for eloquence, strength, wealth, and thus invite their own ruin 
upon themselves (1 — 27). Well might Democritus and Heraclitus in 
this vanity of human wishes find matter, the one for laughter, the 
other for tears (28 — 63). For what may we pray (54 — 5) ? Vaulting 
ambition overleaps itself: witness Seianus, Crassus, Pompeius, Caesar 
(56 — 113). The schoolboy envies the eloquence of Demosthenes and 
Cicero ; yet it had been well for Cicero, if he had only been known 
as the meanest of poets : for Demosthenes, if he had never left Met 
father's smithy (114—132). How passing is military glory, and how 
uncertain military power, appears in Hannibal and Xerxes ; Alexander, 
for whom the world was all too strait, found rest at last in an nm 
(133 — 187). Length of days does but bring decay of body and mind. 
Feleus and Nestor, had they died early, would not have mourned the 
loss of Achilles and of Antilochus. Priam, Hecuba, Croesus, Mithri- 
dates, Marius, Pompeius were spared to their own hurt (188 — 288). 
Beauty is dangerous even to the chaste ; example of Silius (289 — 345). 
Leave to the gods, who know what is best for you, to order your lot as 
they will : pray only for health of mind and body, that you may 
bravely bear the worst (346 — 366). 

Cf. [Plat.] Alcib. ii. Pers. ii. VM. vii 2 E § 1. Sen. ep. 10 §§ 4—5. 
32 §§ 4 — 5. 60 § 1. 118 §§ 4 — 9. Lucian. navig. 13 seq. id. Icaromen. 
25. Max. Tyr. 11 = 30. Euseb. ap. Stob. flor. i 85. Fr. Jacobs verm. 
Schriften iii 107 — 112. Lasaulx Studien d. class. Alterthums 137 — 158. 
Dollinger Heidenthum u. Judenthum 199 — 202. P. Ch^telat de preca- 
tione apud poetas gr. et lat. Par. 1877. 8. 

Our satire is referred to by Chaucer Troilus and Creseide iv 25 * 
Juvenall lord, true is thy sentence, | that little wenen folke what is to 
yeme, | that they ne finden in hir desire offence, | for cloud of errour 
ne lette hem discerne | what best is.' Warton-Hazlitt hist. engl. 
poetry iv 414 ' In 1617 one W. B. produced the earliest attempt at an 
euglish Juvenal... r/iat which seems best is toorst, Exprest in a para- 
phrastical transcript of JxivenaVs tenth satyre,^ A few verses are 


borrowed by Hall. There is a fine Tersion by Sir John Beaiimont, 
Chalmers british poets vi 43 — 7 ; and another in Hen. Vaughan's 
works, ed. Grosart, 11 31 — 55. Johnson's * Vanity of human wishes' 
is an imitation. 

1—11 In every land, from farthest west to furthest east, few only 
can discern true blessings from their counterfeits, clear from all mist of 
error. For what do we with reason fear, covet with reason ? what do you 
undertake with foot so right, with a start so lucky, but you rue your 
attempt and the success of your desire ? Whole houses have fallen on 
their own petition, when indulgent gods have taken them at their word. 
In peace, in war, men crave what will only harm them ; his flood of 
speech is often the orator's death-warrant ; rash trust in his thews, the 
wonder of the world, made Milo a prey of wolves. VM. vii 2 E § 1 (a 
passage which, as also Plat. Ale. 11 and Pers. 11, luv. had before him) 
* mind of mortals, wrapt in thickest darkness [luv. 4 nehula]^ over how 
wide a field of error dost thou throw thy prayers broadcast : thou seekest 
wealth, which has been the destruction of many [12—27]: thou lustest 
after honours, which have ruined not a few [133 — 187] ; thou broodes't 
over dreams of sovereignty, whose issue is often seen to be pitiable 
[56--113]: thou graspest at splendid marriages [350 — 3]; but they, 
though sometimes they add glory to families, yet not seldom overthrow 
them utterly' [/uTuittiM domes evertunt. cf. 7]. 

1 OApiBus XI 162. Cadiz, beyond the pillars of Hercules (Herodot. 
tv 8 § 1), was the western boundary of the world, the ne plus ultra, to the 
ancients Pind. Nem. rv 69 Tadelpwv t6 vpds ^6<pov oO veparSy, Ana- 
creontic, xiii Bergk= XXXII 2& — 6 koI rods TaSelpup iKTos \ roifs BaKTplunf 
T€ Klpiw [cf. here 2 Gangen], Sil. 1 141 hominum finem Gades. Veil, i 
2 §4. Stat. s. Ill 1 183 solisque cuhilia G&des. Solin. 23§12extremus 
noti orbis terminus. Aristid. 11 p. 354 Jebb. Paroemiogr. ed. Leutsch 11 
661 n. 19. Avien. descr. orbis 98—100. St Paul (Clem. Rom. ep. i 6) 
'went to the boundary of the west,' i.e. he fulfilled his declared intention 
of Tisiting Spain. On the alliteration in Gadibit^ usque see 122 n. 

USQUE without ad before the names of towns 
nsually, before other nouns in Plin. Stat. lust. 

2 AUBOBAM Ov. m. I 61 Eurus adAuroram Nabata£aque regna recessit, 

OANOEN ib. IV 20 — 1 oriens tihi victus ad usque | 

decolor extreme qua tinguitur India Gange. Luc. 11 229 — 234. 

Stat Th. I 686. Here were the pillars of Bacchus Avien. descr. orbis 

824-8. supra p. 63. pauci 19. 112. 337. 11 53 * only few.' To limit 

paud, unus, Cic. either uses modo (sometimes solus) or has no particle ; 

liv. and the writers of the silver age (e. g. Quintil. 1 12 § 2) often add 

tantum (Krebs-Allgayer Antibarbarus 706. 969). Caes. b. c. 11 43 § 3 

horumfuga navium onerariarum magistros incitabat: pauci lenunculi ad 

ojficium imperiumque conveniebant. dinoscere In other 

eompounds the initial g of the second member is preserved, ignosco, cog- 

^otco etc. See Corssen iiber Aussprache u. s. w. i" 82. 437. Pers. v 106, 

107veri speciem dinoscere calles \ ...qimeque sequenda forent, quaeque 

evitanda vicissim, DL. vi § 42 * Diogenes blamed men for their prayers, 

laying that they asked for what they thought good, not for the true 

goods.* Sen. ep. 46 §§ 6. 7 resfallunt: illas disceme. pro bonis mala 

fin^Uetimur : optamus contra id, quod optavimus. pugnant vota nostra 

cum voti$...adulatio quam similis est amicitiae/...doce quemadmodum 

JUV. II. 5 


hane similitudlnem passim dino8cere...vttia nobis sitb virtutum nomine 
obrepunt, ib. 110 §§ 5. 7 nemo nostrum, quid veri esset, excussit... nihil 
videmuSf nee quid noceat, nee quid expediat. ib. 32 §§ 4— d. 118 §§ 5 — 9. 
Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 10 29. Arrian. Epict. ii 3 §§ 1. 5. 
3 XLL18 i.e. veris bonis dat. as in VFl. iv 157 — 8 diyersaqne regi | corda 
gerens. So Hor. Veil. Lao. Curt, and QointiL often (Miihlmann col. 
460). So the dat. is foand with differre, distare, abhorrens, 
xtiiiis MULTUM DiYERSA i. e. mala. So recte an secus, recte s^cusne, bene 
an secus, rd KoKd Kal rd ft% rd XPW^^ V """^ trcpa (Wytt. ad Plat. 
Phaod. 114* cited by Heinrich). 4 ebroris nebula. 

from [Plat.] Ale. ii 150** * as Homer [E 127 seq. cf. P 643—9] says that 
Athoua removed the mist [dxXiV] from the eyes of Diomedes, that he 
might well distinguish a god and a man, so you too, as it seems to me, 
muftt first remove the mist from the soul, which is now upon it, and then 
apply the moans whereby you are to distinguish the good and the bad.' 
Bee Max. Tyr. DCass. Eus. in HSt. dx>^vs ad fin. Theodoret. gr. aff. cur. 
X 4 p. 4 I. 48 * we must discover every method to dispel the fog [ofitx^tivl 
that weighs them down, and to shew them the bri^tness of the intel- 
lectual light.' Lact. V 10 § 5 tenebrarum et errorum nubes hominum 
ptTtora obduxit. Prud. hamart. 88 sunt animis etiam sua nubila cras^ 
sus et aer. cf. the context. bjltione *on principle,* *by 

reason's rule.* Plin. ep. ix 7 § 1 aedijicare te scribis, bene est: invent patro* 
cinium; aedijico enim iam ratione quia tecum. Generally cum is prefixed 
to the abl modi, when not accompanied by pron. or adj. ; a few substan- 
tives however are used almost adverbially without cum, as vi, more, modo, 
iure, dolo, silentio Zumpt § 472 n. 1. Madvig § 258 n. 2. 
TiMEMus AUT cupiMus Obbar on Hor. ep. i 6 9, 10. Munro and Lach- 
mann on Lucr. vi 25. Sen. ep. 82 § 6 sciat, quo iturus sit, unde ortus, 
quod illi bonum, quod malum, quid petat, quid evitet, quae sit ilUi 
ratio, qu4ie adpetenda ac fugienda discemat, qua cupiditatum man- 
suescit insania, timorum saevitia compescitur. ib. 88 §§ 3 — 4. Philo- 
sophy teaches us to discriminate true from false pleasures and pains, 
Xcdpcip Kal \vireiff9at oU del Aristot. eth. Nic. ii 2 § 9 — 3 § 2. Berkeley 
minute philos. vii 34, Sen. ep. 123 § 13 debemus itaque exerceri ne haec 
[labour, death, pain, reproach, spare diet] timeamus, ne ilia [riches, 
pleasures, beauty, ambition] cupiamus. ibid. 121 § 4. 

5 DEXTBo PEDE Petrou. 30 * after we had been sated with 
these pleasures, as we were about to enter the dining-room, one of the 
slaves, appointed to the express function, cried out dextro pede,* Sil. 
VII 171 — 2 attulit ho8pitio...^eQ dexter et hora Lyaeum. Prudent, 
c. Symm. ii 79 feliciter et pede dextro. Vitruv. lu 3 §4 the steps 
to a temple should always be odd in number, that the worshipper may 
mount the first step dextro pede, and also enter the temple right foot 
foremost, cf. Iambi, vit. Pyth. § 166 : [Eur. Bacch. 943—4 iv de^i^ xph 
Xcf/Aci Se^ty wohl I atpiiv vlv (the thyrsus) J. E. S.] ApuL Met. i 6 p. 27 

* having set out left foot foremost (sinistro pede profectum), I was, as 
usual, disappointed.' Cf. Ov. Ibis 101 ominibusqv^ m,alis, pedibusgu^ 
occurrite laevis. The gods are entreated to come pede secundo (i. e. 
Serv. Aen. viii 302 amine prospero) Aen. x 255. Aug. ep. 17=44 §2 

* What does Namphanio [a Punic word] mean but a man of good foot, 
i.e. one who brings luck with him; as we commonly say that he has 
entered secundo pede, whose entrance has been followed by some pros- 
perity?' Cf. Prop. iii = rv 1 6 quove pede ingressif Ov. fast, i 514 
/elici pede, heroid. xxi 69, 70. Plin. xxvm § 28 some spat into their 


light shoe before putting it on, others on crossing a place where they had 
enconntered danger. Augustas (Suet. 92) regarded it as of evil omen to 
put the left shoe on the right foot. concipis plan, ef . cone, 

fravdes. 6 peracti Ov. Ibis 97peragam rata vota sacerdos. 

Here * accomplished,* as Nep. 25 22 § 8 propositum... "p ere git. Stat. Th. 
ii^llspes longa peracta est. 7 seq. 111. 346 seq. From 

[Plat.] Ale. II 138 •••. 141* many call down ruin upon themselves, not wit- 
tingly, as Oedipus, but mistaking it for a blessing. 142*^. 143'* Ignorance 
makes us pray for what is worst for us. Any one would think himself 
able to pray for the best for himself, not the worst ; for that is more like a 
corse than a prayer. evertere domos 108. cf. YM. above 

p. 65. Cic. p. Cael. § 28 nulliwt vitam Idbefactent^ nullius do mum 
evert ant. *The gods have overthrown,' they have been known to do 
so; e.g. Midas, Semele, Phaethon, Theseus (Eur. Hipp. 44 seq.). 

OPTANTIBUS ipsis abl. Sen. ep. 22 § 12 rise to a better life 
by the favour of the gods, but not as they favour those, on whom with 
good and kind look they have bestowed 7nala magnifica^ ad hoc unum 
excuiatif quod Uta^ quae urunty quae exci-uciant, o'^io.iiiihxxs data sunt. 
cf. Fionto de nepote amisso ii p. 233 Naber. 8 faciles 

compliant, gracious. Ov. m. v 569. Mart, i 10^ 4 riserunt facile s et tri- 
buere dei. cf. the whole epigr. xii 6 10. Luc. i 505—6 o faciles dare 
tumma deos, eademque tueri | difficiles. nocitura Sen. ep. 

110 § 10 quidquid nobis bono fiiturum erat, dens et parens noster in proximo 
posnit. ..nocitura altissirne pressit. toga * by the arts of 

peace,' in the forum and the senate viii 240. Cic. in Pis. § 73 pads est 
insigne et otii toga; by the words cedant arma togae, he meant helium 
de tumultum pad atque otio concessurum. Plin. paneg. 56 § 7. DCass. xli 
17 §1 iaOrJTa rrjif elpriviKriv. 9 torrens dicendi copia 

1*28 n. m 74. QuintiL iii 8 § 60 torrens ... dicentis oratio. Henco 
Anson, prof, i 17 dicendi torrens tihi copia. The repetition iu 
torrens dicendi copia and facundia is characteristic of luv. Lupus (22, 
23) cites n 80. 102. m 26. 135—6. 287. iv 152. vi 25. 139. 200. 237. 
268. 286. 311. 359. 493. 658. vii 3. 48—9. 53—5. 84—5. viii 50. 71—2. 
80-1. IX 43. 71—2. 106. -x 112—3. 188. 348. xiii 28. 189—90. 240. 
iiY 16—7. 31. 42. 56. 188. 281—2. xv 26. 79. 129—30. xvi 35. Bibbeck 
(der unechte luv. 42) adds x 29-^0. 88—9. 104—5. etc. 
10 MOBTiFERA 114 — 132. iLLE 171 u. the Pythagorean (Iambi, 

▼it. I^h. §§ 104. 249. 267. Porph. vit. Pyth. § 56) Milo of Croton, 
'wedged in the timber which he strove to rend' (Roscommon, in Gifford), 
and there eaten by wolves schol. h. L VM. ix 12 E § 9. Gell. xv 16. Strab. 
n 1 § 12 p. 263. Pans, vi 14 2 § 8. He lived at the time of the Persian war 
(Herodot. in 137 § 4) and his Olympian victories first were celebrated by 
Simonides (Anth. Plan, in 24, ii p. 631 Jacobs). Testimonies to his 
prowess in Aristot. ap . schol. Theocr. iv 6. Cic. de fat. § 30. Cat. mai. § 33. 
Plin. vn § 83. xxxvii § 144. Pans. ib. §§ 5—7. Ael. v. h. ii 24. xii 22. 
Philoetr. ApoU. iv 28. anthol. Pal. ii 230—240. loann. Antioch. in 
Muller fragm. hist, iv 540. He led (a.d. 510) the army of Croton against 
thrice the number of Sybarites, wearing 'it is said, his Olympic crowns, 
and equipped in the fashion of Hercules with a lion's skin and club' 
pS. xn 9 §§ 5, 6). His voracity Athen. x 412— 413\ Ov. Ibis 609, 610 
utque Mil on, robur diducere fissile temptest \ nee possis captas inde re- 
fer re manut. 11 viribus confisus VM. 1. c. fret us 
▼iribus accessit ad earn [the oak which he saw in a field split with 
wedges] iruertisque vMmibui divelUre conatus est^ Paus. 1, c. (and thence 

5— a 


T^ «i ^^^^' ^f^a^f^) ^^^, (l>pwr,fULTot. Strab. 1. c. (who doubts the story) 

RAn*^'^?'''' '^^^ ^'^^^- Conjisus, though pert in form, is here pres. in 
pin * .-^^^ diffisxu, ratus, solitus, usus, veritus. 
I A^ ^^ ®*^^^ inscriptions we find redieit, venieit etc See Lachmann 
ana Munro on Lucr. iii 1042. corp. inscr. lat. i 601 coL 3. Corasen ub. 
ITt^v "• ^' ^- ^^ 608—9 and ind. ii 1064 col. 1 (where is the Oscan 
ana Umbrian perf. in -eit). Ritschl opusc. philoL ii 642. Heinsius on 
Uv. m. 1 114. Ovid esp. lengthens the final t. 

ADMiRANDisQUE LACERTis VM. l.c. euTTiqiie cum tot gymnicispalmig 
lacerandum feris praebuit, DS. 1. c. § 6 *he was admired among his 
lellow-citizens as the author of the victory.' lacebtis 

the arm from the shoulder to the elbow. Cic. Cat. mai. § 27 MUo in his 
old age, seeing athletes training, aspexisse lacertos suos dicitur, saying 
with tears : at hi quidem iam mortui sunt. Ov. m. xv 229 — 31 fietque 
Milon senior, cum spectat inanes \ illos^ qui fuerant solidorum 
mole tororum | Herculeis similes, ^t/i<2o« pendere lacertos. On 
lac, as the seat of strength see the lexx. For the thought cf. DS. iz 14 
§ 1 'not the possession, but the right use, of power is the great thing: 
for what profit had Milo of his bodily strength?' 

12 — 27 Still more numerous are the victims of money ; the fortune 
piled up with endless pains, towering among all other incomes, as a British 
whale among dolphins, chokes its master. In Nero's reign of terror it 
was the rich who were singled out for slaughter, the full sponge was 
squeezed : Longinus and the wide park of wealthy Seneca were invested 
by a whole cohort ; the sumptuous mansion of Lateranus was beset : sel- 
dom does a soldier come to ransack the -garret of the poor. Though yon 
carry but a few small pieces of plain silver plate, you will fear the sword 
and pike as you set out on your journey before dawn ; the shadow of a 
reed quivering in the moon will set you quaking. The wayfarer who has 
no such dangerous load will sing unconcerned before the footpad's face. 
The first prayer, most familiar to every temple, is for riches, that our 
funds may grow, our coffer be the best-filled in all the exchange. Tet no 
poison is drunk from earthen bowls ; then fear it, when you put a jewelled 
cup to your lips, costly Setine wine sparkling in a broad beaker of gold, 

12 seq. XIV 266 seq. 303 seq. Prop, iv = in 7. Lucian Saturn. 26. 
Maxim. Tyr. xi = xxx § 1 'Midas bemoans his wealth, and recants his prayer ;' 
an allegory, the fool's prayer turns to his own hurt, he prays that he may 
win, and when he has won repents. Palladas anth. Pal. ix 394 * gold, 
father of flatterers, sou of pain and care, to have thee, is fear, and to 
want thee, pain.' Hor. c. in 16 17. Sen. ep. 115 §§ 16. 17. 

13 STRANGULAT Shakcspcaro * choked with ambition.' Sen. de tranq. 
an. 2 § 10 m angusto inclusae cupiditates sine exitu se ipsae strangulant. 
cf. ep. 61 § 13 voluptates . . . latronum more . . . .in hoc nos amplectuntur, 
ut strangulent. Ov. tr. v 1 63 strangulat inclusus dolor. Lubin 
cites Diog. ep. ad Chrysen * like Midas, you starve amidst your wealth, 
strangled as it were with a rope of gold ' (in Theophyl. ep. 19). 

14 QUANTO without tanto (which occurs e. g. viii 140 — 1) cf, in 125. 
Plat. apol. 39* xaXeTrwrcpot 6<ry veiarepoi. 30». Burm. on Ov. m. rv 64. 
Schwarz on Plin. pan. 73 § 3. Liv. xxi 53 § 10 segnius ..., quant o 
Umgius. Tac. an. in 43 maior . . . , quanto . . . opulentior. 
DELPHiNis vrith the double form delphin, -iSj or -«s, -i Priscian (vi | 25) 
compares elephaSy elephantus^ Arabs, Arabus. Strange fables are re- 
ported of the dolphin by Aristot. Plin. 0pp. in Lenz Zoologie der Alten 


251—61. Add the amorons dolphin of Plln. ep. ix 33. Hofmann s.v. 
Bochart Hleroz. pt. i 7. pt. 11 v 12. ballaena f*r. haleine, 

^aKaum, Germ. Walljischj are all of the same root as our whale. Whales 
were said to equal monntalns in size and to swallow up entire vessels with 
their crews (Dionys. perieg. 696—604. Priscian. perieg. 598—602 Wemsd. 
kma, descr. orb. 780 — 93 Wemsd.). Flin. ix § 4 speaks of balaenae in 
the Indian sea of 4 iugera in extent, and pristes of 200 cubits in length. 
See Lenz 252 — 4. Bochart 11. cc. Hofmann. The contrast between the 
wealth of the few and the misery of the many was never more glaring than 
in imperial Rome Marquardt iii 2 47. britannica Drusus 

tnd Germanicus had opened the north sea to the Bomans, and the vic> 
tones of Suetonius Paulinus and Julius Agricola in Britain had drawn the 
attention of the Bomans (Tac. Agr. 10 multi rettulere. cf. the Germany of 
Plin. and Tac.)> with whom natural history and encyclopaedic learning 
were now in faishion^ to our island, which as lying at the verge of the 
blown world, was peopled with *gorgons and hydras and chimaeras dire.* 
Hor. c. IV 14 47 — 8 beluosus qui remotis \ obstrepit Oceanus Bri- 
tannia. Whales sometimes appeared in the Mediterranean Plin. ix § 12. 
Ambr. hexaem. v 11 § 32 says of the cete in the Atlantic, * you would 
think they were walking islands, or lofty mountains lifting their peaks to 
the flkies.* Hen. Hunt, in Petrie monum. hist, i 691*> (cited by Taylor) 
qnotes luv. and says that whales and dolphins are often taken on the 
coast. The whale like the sturgeon was a royal fish (Ducange balena .piscU 
Tfffius)y on which tithes were paid. Gotselin vit. Augustin. Cantuar. 2 
(Ducange) ' in the British sea are caught dolphins and seals, and also 
noHtuosae balaenae,* Olaf Magnus and Pontoppidan fill the same 
sea with strange monsters (Weber). See Bojardo xiii 58 (Diintzer). 
loT. XIV 283 n« 15 tempobibus diris iv 80 of Domitian's time. 

ttvrli, Nero's reign of terror began a.d. 62, after the death of Burrus, 
with the restoration of the lex maiestatiSy which had been in abeyance 
sinoe the accession of Claudius Tac, xiv 48. Dio lx 3 § 6. 
16 LONomuM C. Cassius Longinus, a famous jurist (Plin. ep. vii 24 
^8. 9 Cassianae scholae princeps et parens, the sect of the Cassiani 
[Dirksen manuale s. v.] )( Proculeiani. Tac. xii 12. Suet. Nero 37), cos. 
raff. a. d. 30 Clinton. Borghesi oeuvres v 83—4. 195 — 6. 252. legatus of 
Syria a.d. 45 — 49 Borghesi IL cc. Tac. ib. 11. cf. los. ant. xv 11 § 4. 
XX 1 § 1. Afterwards he lived at Bome as an acting member of the senate 
in high repute Tac. xiii 41. 48. xiv 42 — 5. xv 52. Pompon, dig. i 2 2 
f 51. ▲. D. 65 he was accused by Nero, nominally because he preserved 
uaong ihe imagines of his house that of the famous Cassius, inscribed 
J>TL PABTivH, really from jealousy of his wealth and character Tac. xvi 7 
nullo crimine, nisi quod Cassius opibus vetustis et gravitate morum,.. 
fraeeellehaU cf. ib. 8. Suet. 1. c. DCass. lxii 27 § 1. Cassius was ban- 
ished to Sardinia (Tac. 9. Pompon. 1. c), being then old (Tac. 9) and blind 
(Suet. I.e., who says that he was put to death ; so DCass.). He was recalled 
by Yespasian Pompon. 1. c. clausit, as applied to 

Longinns, denotes his apprehension, not his confinement (cf. x 170) in 
Sardinia. senecae v 109. viii 212. 

8SKECAE FBAEDiviTis HOBTOB Tac. XV 64 fin. (of Scneca) praedives et 
graepotens. Ahson. grat. act. § 31 dives Seneca, cf. n. on sat. 1 137 
init In his tract on happiness, addressed to his brother Gallio, Seneca 
i^presents his enemies as contrasting his frugal precepts with his sump> 
taous life vit. beat. 17 § 2 seq. * Why do you not dine by your own 
role? why have you handsome furniture? wine made before you were 


bom ? , . . why have you estates beyond sea, more than yon have ever 
Been ? . . . more slaves than yon can recollect ?* See the whole treatise 
and ep. 87 on the true riches. In his consolation addressed to his mother 
Helvia 14 § 3 he says that she always rejoiced in her sons' wealth, but 
never drew upon it. a. d. 55 some blamed Seneca and Burrus, viros gra- 
vitatem adseverantes, for dividing houses and country mansions among 
them as so much booty Tao. xiii 18. a. d. 58 P. Suillius asked (Tac. ziii 
42) 'by what philosophic rule Seneca had, in four years of imperial favour, 
amassed 300,000,000 sesterces ? [cf . DCass. lxi 10. The fortune of Pcdlas 
was the same ; Narcissus and Cn. Lentulus had each 400 millions Fried* 
lander 1' 192]. At Bome he swept up as in a drag-net bequests and orbit 
and drained Italy and the provinces [e. g. Britain DCass. lxii 2] by exor- 
bitant usury.' A.D. 62 Seneca was accused (Tac. xiv 52) of still adding to 
wealth already exceeding a private standard, of ambitious designs, and of 
outdoing the emperor himself in the splendour of his parks and country 
houses, hortorum amoenitate et villarum magnijicentia. Sen. to Nero 
(ib. 53) : * You have heaped upon me such an abundance of offices and 
wealth, that nothing is wanting to my good fortune but to moderate it. . . . 
You have surrounded me with boundless treasures, so that I often 
ask myself, Do I, a man of equestrian and provincial family, take rank 
loith the noblest of the realm? . . . wliere is that spirit satisfied with a 
modest fortune f docs it lay out su4;h parks as these, tales hortos extruit, 
and stalk through these suburban estates, and run riot in so vast territories, 
such boundless revenues ? The only excuse that presents itself is (cf . Sen. 
de ben. ii 18) that I was not free to reject gifts from your hand.* He 
begs (c. 54) to be relieved of the burden which oppresses him ; he would 
gladly devote to the improvement of his mind the time now set apart for 
the management of his property, quod temporis hortorum out villarum 
curae seponitur. Nero replies (c. 56) ' what you have done for me will 
abide with me till death; what you have received from me, horti, et 
fenus et villae, is all at the mercy of chance. ... I am ashamed to name 
freedmen, who are seen richer than you. I blush to think that you do not 
excel all the world in fortune, as you do in worth.* In short he refused 
to relieve Seneca of his wealth (c. 55. Suet. Nero 35); who however 
changed his course of life, holding no more levies, and keeping close 
within doors, a. d. 62 (Tac. xiv 65) he was suspected of treasonable cor- 
respondence with Piso. After the fire of Home, a. d. 64, he made over his 
richee to Nero, as a contribution to the expenses of rebuilding the city 
(DCass. LXII 25 § 3). 17 senecae hortos clausit 

TOTA coHORS A.D. 65 Autonius Natalis denounced Seneca as a confe- 
derate of Piso's (Tac. xv 56, 60) : a tribune invested, globis militum 
taepsit, his villa. His wife insisted on sharing his fate (Tac. 61 — 63). 
Seneca's nephew, Lucan, also the owner of horti marmarei (luv. vii 
79 — 80) engaged in the conspiracy from personal pique, Nero having 
disparaged his poems (Tac. xv 49); he denounced his own mother (ib. 
56), but did not thereby escape death (ib. 70). Mela, Lucan*s father, 
while endeavouring to secure his son's property, was accused on the 
strength of a forged correspondence, which Nero, opibus eius inhians 
(Tac. XVI 17), professed to receive as genuine. He too, like his brother 
and sister-in-law and son, bled himself to death. On horti see i 75 n. 
Valerius Asiaticus, another Naboth, was murdered by order of the Boman 
Jezebel Messalina for the sake of his horti DCass. lx 31 § 5. Tac. xi 1. 3. 


ranus (viii 147 n.), cos. des. joined in- Piso's conspiracy from patriotic 


motives (Tac. xv 49) ; he was beheaded in the place of exeoution for slaves 
(ib. 60) ; the first stroke not proving mortal, he laid down his neck on 
the block a second time (Arr. Epict. i 1 § 19 ; an instance of his courage 
§ 20). Like many palaces of the great (Mart, xii 18 3 — 5) his home stood 
on the Gaelian mount ; for M. Aurelius, who was bom on that mount, 
vras also educated there in the house of his grandfather Yerus lul. Capi- 
tolin. Ant phiL 1 iuxta aedes Later anu Hieron. ep. 77 Vail. =30 §4 
' in the sight of the whole city of Borne, before Easter day, in the basilica 
quondam Laterani^ qui Caesariano truncatus est gladio, in the 
rank of the penitents.' Septimius Severus gave houses, among otherf) 
that of Lateranusy to various friends, among whom was Lateranus cos. a.d. 
197 AY. epit. 20 § 6. Constantino adorned the palace and erected there 
a ehorch on the site of the present St John Lateran (Niceph. vii 49. 
Becker rom. Alterth. i 507 — 8. Gregorovius Gesch. d. St. Bom i 87—9. 
Bonsen in 1 505 — 556. Bum Bome and the Campagna 220. Tillemont 
emp.iv 141. Stanley adds Baronius iii 115). Frud. c. Symm. i 585—6 of 
the Boman populace coetibus out magnis Laterani eurrlt ad aedes, | 
wde sacrum referat regali .chrismate signum. 18 Wealth the 

deadliest sin in a reign of terror, e. g. in Sulla's proscription App. b. c. i 
96 (Stanley). Caesar in Sail. Cat. 51 § 33 of the same proscription uti 
quUque domum aut villam, postremo vas aut vestimentum concupiverat, 
dabat operant, ut is in proscriptorum nwmero esset. So in the proscription 
of the triumvirs Nep. 25 12 § 4. Suet. Tib. 49 gives exx. both of Bomans 
and provincials put to death by Tiberius for no other crime ; cf . the case 
o( Sex. Marius Tac. vi 19. At the beginning of his reign Tiberius sacri- 
ficed no man to his avarice (DCass. lvii 10 § 5. Tac. an. 11 48 but see iv 
20). Gains Caesar (CaUgula DCass lix 10 § 7. 14 §§ 1. 4. 18 §§ 1. 5 Junius 
Piiscus turned out *not worthy of death,' Gains complained: he cheated 
fne and died in vain; for he might have lived, 21 §§ 2. 4. Suet. 39. 41. los. 
ant. XIX 1 § 10), Commodus (Lamprid. 5 fin.), Maximinus (Capitolin. 13 
§ 5), replenished their coffers by the same means. By the execution of 
his freedman Pallas Nero won a fortune equal to Seneca's DCass. lxii 14 
§ 3. Tac. xrv 65. Suet. 35 fin. other exx. DCass. lxiii 17. esp. the plunder 
of Greece a.d. 67 ib. 11, while Polykleitos and Helios were despoiling 
JBome. See the general picture of Bome after Nero's fall Tac. h. i 2 
nobilitas opes omissi gestique honores pro crimine. cf. M. Sen. contr. 11 
9 § 14 p. 122 20 divitum incommoda, . . . multos divites accusatos, Flut. de 
snperst. 3 p. 165* * the poor man fears no informer.' Symm. pro patre § 6 
p. 44 Nieb. QuintU. decL 345 p. 729 Burm. DCass. lix 10 § 7. 14 § 4. 18 § 1. 
22 §§ 3—4. 25 § 1. LX 27 § 8. 32 § 3. lxi 5 § 5. lxii 27 § 2. lxiii 11 § 2. 

BARUS VIII 63. Phaedr. iv 1 6 rara mens intellegit, 
Hieron. comm. in Oseelib. 11 pr. rarumjwg invenias, qui .... So Ov. Plin. 
Qointil. Tac. In Engl, we use the plur. or the adv. * seldom.' cf. densis- 
sima lectiea 1 120 n. also vespertinus^ nocturnus^ etc. , where we use the 
adv. GENAOULA garrots, cocklofts iii 201 n. vii 118. Cic. 

de leg. agr. 11 § 96 i^omam.. .cenaculis sublatam atque suspensam. 
See Yarr. Paulus (Festus), Liv. xxxix 14 § 2, Macrob. Sat. i 6 § 15 in 
lexx. When Yitellius (Suet. 7) went to take the command of the army 
in lower Germany, he was fain to let his house, and stow away his 
family in a hired garret meritorio cenaculo. Horace, after describing 
the fugitive whims of the rich, ep. i 1 91 quid pauper? ride: mutat 
eenacnla. Frud. c. Symm. i 580 omnis qui celsa scandit cenacula 
Tulgus. Marquardt V 1 252— 3. 19 pauca 2 n. 

'only a few,* and those small vascula, and plain puri arg. cf. xiv 62 


live argentum ' smooth ' ){ vasa aspera * in relief.' 

▲boeuti YA8CULA PURI IX 141 — 2 argenti yascnla pQri, | $ed fitae 
Fabricius censor notet; i.e. thongh plain and small, yet beyond the 
limit allowed by Fabridas. el i 76 n. (esp. Plin. ep. ui 1 § 9). 77 n. 
Becker Gallns u' 320. Biart. it 39 Gharinus has plate chased by Myron, 
Praxiteles, Scopas, Phidias and other artists: argentum tamen inter 
omne miror, \ quare non habecu, C/uirt?t«, parum. Gl Gicero's pun 
Yerr. iv § 49 Yerres dined with Eapolemus: all the rest of the plate 
was plain purum, that he might not himself be left purus ('cleared 
out*); there were but two cups, not large, but still embossed. Yerres 
then and there ordered the raised work emblemata to be removed from 
the cups. cf. § 52. Plin. xxxyii § 28 artists conceal defects in crystals 
by carving, eaelatura; those which are without a flaw they prefer to 
leave plain, purcu. Dig. vi 1 § 6 qvamvis et in va sis occurrat diffieult€u, 
utrum lancem dumtaxat did oporteat, an etiam, . . . . pur a an caelata sit. 
So chartae purae are 'blank' paper )( written books Dig. xxxii 52 § 4: 
mantelia pura plain tablecloths )( coceo elavata with scarlet stripes Lam- 
prid. Alex. Sev. 87 ; ager purus (cf . xaBapSs) is * open ' ground, not built 
upon Orelli inscr. 4371. From vaseellum come Fr. vaisselle and vaisseau^ 
and our ' vessel ' which comprehends both. 

20 MOCTE on the practice of travelling by night see Gas. on Suet. Gaes. 
31. coNTXJif 'a pike,* sometimes thrown (Strab. x 

p. 448). See Bich companion s. v. and the lexx. eontarius, contificium. 
contus, KOPTos. First found as a Latin word in Liv. (e. g. xxxvii 11 § 13 
where it is * a pole') and Yerg. Hieron. in Amos ii 4 vi 266* YalL Tkeo- 
dosio 5d/>ara, quern nos secuti^ contos vel hastas interpretati sumus. 
Sex. Buf. breviar. c. 28 of Julian db hostium obvio equite con to per ilia 
ictus. A Sarmatian weapon Glaud. laud. StiL i 111. Gf. ind. Claud, for 
5 other exx Arr. Epict. iv 1 § 88, after speaking of the deliverance of the 
mind from its tyrants, and the destruction of the mind's BastiUe (cita- 
del, see luv. X 307 n.) : * if the tyrants are expelled thence, why do I yet 
demolish the citadel, why at least for my own ^ke? for, if it stands, 
what harm does it do me ? Why do I yet expel the Serjeants ? It is 
against others that they have their fasces, and their pikeSf koptoi^s, 
and their swords.' Kovrdparoi are classed with ro^orat in the anonym, 
comm. on Arist. rhet. f. 34 (ap. Brandis Philologus iv 35). 

21 MOTAE Luc. VII 6—6 pavet ille fragorem \ motorum ventis 
nemorum, Claud, in Eutr. ii 452 — 3 ecce Uvis frondes a tergo eoncutit 
aura^ \ credit tela Leo : valuit pro vulnere terror. So Nero in his last 
flight trembled at the bark of a dog or the twitter of a bird or the 
rustling of a branch DCass. lxiii 28 § 2. ad lunam 

'by moonlight.' Aen. iv 513 messae ad lunam (herbae). Petron. 103 
Burm. Ov. m. iv 99 ad lunae radios (vidit). Plut. de sollert. anim. 
12 § 3 p. 968 irpdi t^p a-eXTfiprjp. Phaedr. iv 10=sll 2 ipsumque com- 
pilavit ad lumen suum. cf. Ov. fast, ii 741. So ad lumina Suet. 
Gaes. 37 Buhnk. Ov. m. iv 220. Tert. ad nat. ii 11 ad candelae 
lumina. M. Sen. contr. 25 § 25 p. 259 8 ad lucernam. Hand Tursell. 
I 97 — 8. TBEPiDABis UMBRAU VIII 152. many intran- 

sitive verbs, which denote a state of the mind, or its expression, become 
transitive, especially in the poets, by taking an object in the ace. e. g. 
erubetcOffleOi gemo^ horreo, paveoy tremo Madvig§ 223 c. 
UMBBAM paroemiogr. gr. ii 88 r^p iavrou a-Kidy diSoiKep Leutsch. 

22 Hence Boeth. phil. cons, n pros. 5 p. 39 1. 95 Peiper 
tu igitur qui nunc contum gladiumque gollicitas pertimescis. 


ti vitae huius callem yaciiUB viator intrasses, coram latrone can- 
tares. Cf. Apnl. m. 1 15 p. 53 'Open the stable door; I wonld set out before 
dawn/ The porter lying on the ground behind the stable-door, and still 
half asleep, 'What' says he ^ignoras latronibus infestari vias, qui 
boe noctis iter incipist* I reply *dawn is at hand. And besides 
ftttdyiatori de summa pauperie latrones auferre possunt ? An ignoraSf 
inepte, nudum nee a decern palaestritis despoliari posse f* St. Chrys. 
hm. in Matt. 83 p. 794* * not even a hundred men together can strip the 
poor and naked.* Hieron. Tit. S. Hilar, erem. 12 Some brigands meeting 
Hilarion asked ' What would you do, if brigands came to you ? * He re- 
plied: nudus latrones non timet. Ivo. Camot. hynm. (cent, xi cited 
by Taylor, bibl. max. patr. Lugd. xviii SP) latrone coram | iner- 
miialte praecinit viator, cf. Higden i 412. Ov. nux 43 — 4 sic timet 
vttidias, qui scit se ferre viator | cui timeat: tutum carpit inanis 
iter. Phaedr. 11 7. Sen. ep. 14 § 9 ' let us have nothing which can be 
wrested from us to the great profit of the robber : carry as few spoils on your 
person as you can. No one draws human blood for its own sake, or very 
few; plures eomputant quam oderunJ^^ nudum latro transmittit^ 
even where the road is beset there is peace for the poor.* DChrys. vi 
ad fin. p. 218 R= 108 3 Dind. where Diogenes says *I walk by night 
whithersoever I will or by day, alone, and am not afraid to walk, if need be, 
thnmgh an army without a herald's staff, or among robbers.' id. tii 
p. 223 .= 110 27 * I readily followed; for I never feared an ambush, having 

nothing but a poor coat Poverty is indeed a thing holy and inviolable, 

and no one injures it ; sooner would they injure those who bear herald's 
staves.' Sen. de tranq. an. 8 § 4 regnum est inter avaros circumscriptores 
l^irone^ plagiarios unum esse cui noceri non potest. 

CANTABIT VII 55 n. Nacv. in Cic. de or. ii § 279 * "VMiy do 
yoaweep, father?' Mirum ni can tern, condemnatus sum. 

VACUUS CORAM LATRONE VIATOR Cic. dc fat. § 35 (citcd by 
Mitford), where he is warning against the inference post lioc^ ergo propter 
hoe; on this principle viator quoque bene vestitus causa grassa- 
tori fuisse dicetur cur ab eo spoliaretur. latrone 

on the insecurity of the roads see iii 302—9 n. xiii 145. Friedlander ii' 
29 — 32. Augustus suppressed the banditti App. b. c. v 132. A tra^ 
Teller surprised by robbers, viator a latronibus exceptus, supplied 
surgeons with an interesting case for study (Gels, i pr. p. 8 3 Daremb. he 
mi^t be so wounded ut eius interior aliqua pars vulneraretur). So 
Oalen (in Friedlander) recommends the study of the skeletons of robbers 
left unburied by the road-side. 23—25 xiv 107—331. 

Pers. n 9—16. 44—51. Lucian. navig. 13 seq. Petron. 88 'before they 
' touch Uie threshold of the Capitol, they promise, one a house, if he shall 
have buried his rich relation, another, if he shall have dug up a treasure, 
another, if he shall have made his way safe and sound to 30,000,000 ses- 
terces.' the very senate bribes luppiter, etc. fere with most 
men. . 24 divitiae opes several times found together in 
Cic opes is the more general term, including credit, following, and 
other means of advancement (Doderlein v 81). 

VT MAXIMA toto NOSTRA SIT ARCA FORO that WO may have a larger sum 
at interest in our banker's hands than any capitalist of them all. 
cf. IX 140 — 1 viginti milia fenus \ pigneribus positis. 
25 ^^BCA a strong-box, money chest, coffer i 90. xi 26 n. xiv 259. Becker 
Gallns n' 309 — 10. Bich companion s. v. To be the largest in Bome, the 
efaest most be large indeed, as some could afford shelter to a grown 


man. foro Sen. de tranq. an. 8 § 5 grande in f oro 

fenus. As early as Plant, and Ter. the fornm is named as the ahode of 
the bankers, menaariif argentarii. Their offices, tabemaey were on its N. E. 
and S. W. sides. Bam Bome and the Gampagna 89, 90. Hence luv. xi 
50 n. eedere foro^ or abire /., mergif., meant *to become bankrupt * Bein 
in Paoly i« 1513—8. Becker i 327. Marquardt |ii 2 55. 

25—27 Sen. Thyest. 451 — 3 'crimes do not enter huts, and the food 
taken at a narrow board is safe, venenum in auro bibitur.* id. 
Here. Oet. 653 — 9 the poor man holds his beechen cup with no trembling 
hand ; he eats his cheap repast, looks back on no sword of Damocles. 
ameBLmiscet pocula sanguis, aconita i 158 n. 

26 FicTiLiBUS in 168 n. fictilibus cenare pudet, 
in Bome where all live beyond their means. 

27 OEM MATA POCULA XiSoKoXKriTa. v37— 43 u. whcro the patrou diinks out 
of jewelled cups of gold, the poor client out of broken glass. Cic. Yerr. it 
§ 62 the young Antiochus rashly displayed to Yerres much silver plate, 
and not a few pocula ex auro, which, as is.the fashion with kings, esp. 
in Syria, gemmis erant distincta clariasimis, ib. §§ 64 — :68 we see the 
danger of such possessions. Plin. xxxvii § 17 ' we seem (by greater luxury 
in other things) to have lost the right of reproving gemmata potoria.'' 
vit. Gallien. 16 § 4 gemmata vasa fecit eademque aurea. vit. Claud. 
17 § 5 aureos gemmatos trilibres duos, Gypr. ad Donat. 12 p. 13 20 
seq. a close parallel to the text 'these quaking, trepidos, even amidst 
their riches, divitias, the anxiety of uncertain expectation tortures, ne 
praedo vastet, ne percussor infestet, lest the spiteful envy of every 
one who is wealthier than they should trouble them with c^umnious 
.suits, non cibus securo somnusve contingit, suspirat tile in convivio, 
bibat licet gemma, . . ,nec intellegit miser, speciosa sibi esse supplicia, 
auro se alligatum teneri et possideri magis qtuim possidere.^ The fashion 
of adorning cups v^ith jewels had long prevailed in the East; through 
Byzantium it passed to the middle ages, and ancient gems may be seen on 
many a chalice, Miiller Archaologie § 315 n. 4. Salm. Plin. exerc. i^ 170. 
On luxury in furniture and service cf. luv. xi 120 seq. 
SETINUM V 34 n. Wine of Setia, now Sezza, an ancient city of Latium, 
between Norba and Privernum, overlooking the Pomptine marshes Mart. 
X 74 10—11. XIII 112. It was famous and costly (Strab. v 234. 237), and 
preferred to all others by Augustus and most of his successors Plin. xiy 
§ 61. Mart, iv 69 you always put on the table Setine or Massic, Papilus, 
but scandal will have it that the wine is not so good after all. They say 
that that bowl of yours has made you four times a widower, I don't believe 
it, Papilus, but — I am not thirst3% id. vi 86. ix 2 5 incensura nives 
dominae Setina liquantur. Stat, ii 6 90. ed. Diocl. ii 5. SiLvni 378 Dr. 
ARDEBiT ' shall sparkle.' xi 155 ardens purpura. Schol. quia vinum 
splendescit in auro. In Mart, ix^ 5 'fiery' rumpis et ardenti ma- 
didus crystalla Falemo. 

28—53 Now then [knowing the vanity of human wishes] must you 
not praise Democritus for laughing, Heraclitus for weeping, when they 
had moved but one step from their sill ? But every man can play the 
censor with caustic flout; 'tis more marvel whence that store of brine 
held out for the eyes. Democritus used to shake his lungs with endless 
laughter, though Abdera had none of our Boman pomp, robes of state, 
lictors, fasces, sedans, praetor's court. How if he had seen the mock 
majesty of our circensian procession ? the praetor standing out from his 
Jiofty QQit, towering high amid the dusty circus, in tunic figured with paliu 


leaves, borrowed from the temple of lappiter, trailing from his shonlders 
the purple hangings of a starred toga, and on his head a crown, whose 
heavy hoop no neck can support : for a public slave sweats beneath 
the load, slave and consul riding in one car, that the consul may 
remember he is but man ? Add too the eagle, rising from the ivory wand, 
on that side comets, on this citizens in snow-white gowns at the horses* 
reins, a long train marching to grace the show before their patron, whose 
hoarded dole has bought their friendship. Even in days of yore every 
chance meeting with his kind furnished food for laughter to him, whose 
^sdom proves that greatest men, destined to leave high examples behind 
them, may arise in the native home of blockheads, under a gross, foggy 
sky. Democritus mocked the business of the crowd and its pleasures, 
sometimes its very tears ; while he himself bid frowning Fortune go hang, 
and snapt his fingers in her face. 

This contrast between Heraclitus and Democritus is very com- 
mon Lucian vit. auct. 13 — 4, where the pair are put up together in 
the sale of philosophers, de sacrif. 15. Sotion in Stob. floril. xx 53. 
Tzetz. chlL 11 720 — 1. luv. follows Sen. de tranq. an. 15 §§ 2—3 we 
most bring ourselves to regard all the faults of the vulgar as ridiculous, 
not as hateful, and imitate rather Democritus than Heraclitus, hie 
fninif quotiens in publicum processerat [luv. 29 — 30], flebat, ille 
ridebat. huic omnia, quae animus, miseriae, illi iiieptiae videhantur, 
id. de ira II 10 § 5 Heraclitus quotiens prodierat et tantum circa 
te male viventiumt immo male pereuntium viderat^ flebat, miserehatur om- 
nium qui iibi laeti felicesque occurrebant, miti animo^ sed nimis imbecillo: 
et ipse inter deplorandos erat, Democritum contra aiunt numquam 
sine risu in publico fuisse: adeo nihil illi videbatur serium eorum, 
quae serio gerebantur, anth. Pal. 11 148 ^ weep for life, Heraclitus^ far 
more than when thou wert alive; life is now more pitiable. Laugh at 
life, Democritus^ more now than of yore, life is now more laughable 
than ever. I myself, as I look at the two, am puzzled to choose between 
you, how ioweep with thee, how with thee to laugh.'' Lucian de morte 
Peregr. 7. Sidon. Apoll. ii 171 — 2 quidquid PythagoraSj Democritus, 
Heraclitus, | def levit, risit, tacuit^ where observe the chiasmus. The 
tears of Heraclitus and laughter of Democritus are apocryphal. See A. 
Chassang hist, du roman et de ses rapports avec Thistoire dans Tanti- 
qnit^ grecque et latine, Paris 1862, partie 11 ch. 2 *le roman philoso- 
phiqne.* No more happy example of grave mockery could ha*'e been 
found than the triumphal procession at the games. The praetor, whose 
chief function was now the management of shows, assumed the state 
proper to those who had enlarged the bounds of empire. The emperor 
alone, or his sons or nephews, were now permitted to triumph, but the 
decorations and solemn ritual and universal acclamations remained as 
before; or rather the shadow outdid the substance in parade. For the 
populace, to be kept in humour, must have its circenses as well as its 

28 lAM Hand Tursell. iii 147= cum hoc sit. *by this time,* after 
we have learnt so much of the blindness of mankind. iamne 

it is not only, as Zumpt § 352 says, when attached to the principal verb 
(e. g. Cic. d. n. iii § 69. Plm. ep. in 16 § 13 Schiifer. paneg. 74 § 1), that 
ne is used where nonne might stand (as dpa where ap oi> might stand Matth. 

§ 614. Madvig gr. synt. § 199 b) Plin. ep. in 21 § 6 meritone ? 

paneg. 88 § 4 iustisne de causis . . . . ? See Heind. on Hor. s. 11 7 61. 
Band Tursell. iv 74 — 5, de sapientibus alter i 34. 66 n. 137. 


m 269. Ti 385 quaedam de mlHi-ro I.ami'inim. Hand TutsbU. ii 197. On 
this indirect description alter, , , , coHlrariia auclor, d 171 n. Demo- 
oritua is named 34. 29 biuebit Cic. de or. iii g 236 quid 

lit ipat Tisus, .... m'tferilBemo-critua. He was nicbiBmeil TtXa-iiifoi 
Ael. V. h. IT 20. Suid. cf. antho]. Pal. vil 5S. 58. 59. Philostr. ApoU. 
Till 7 § 46. Clani Mall. Theod. cons. SO (luidquid Deraocritna riait. 
TKfitz. chil. II 979—83. 30 flebat contrarids ipcioa 

AbLt. h. Tin IB. DL. ii § 3. anth. Pal.Tii 47B.Tert. dean. 3 Heracliti 
niaeror. auctob &t>ctar, master, aathorit;. Hor. c. i S!) 

14 — 6 of Pythagoras auctor | naiurat veriqae. 31—32 

MarMand questions 'an noil hi duo versus aint ludibundi alicuius et 
imdentia hanc hiatoriam de lacriinis HeraoUti ut fabulam et rem stultam 
et impoEsibilem. certe bene omitti posaent hi duo Tersus.' Ltipns 31 oites 
manyeiK. of supposed doubtful verses introduced bj»;d, one only of which 
eeeiuB really spurioua iiv 117. 31 cichinni often implies 

derision Cic. Urut. g 31G GachimiDa iTridentimn. Pers. in 87. It was 
Ihs age of satire and epigrBin. Lucian was soon to appear. Mart, i 3 
3—8. 41 18. Kill 2. Plin. h. a. ii g 168 the cheeks which express mirth 
and laughter et allior hoinini r«nfum, qnem novi mores snbdojae 
irrisioni dicavere, casus. Xiucian fugitiv. 46 'What do ;on think 
Demoeritui nould jiave done, if he had seen this?' 'He would have 
laughed at the man, as he deserves.' lofroi riBtt tlx<t iKtlnt ToaaSior 
yiXura ; (BUttiger). 32 mibandum est, ONiiB nj-B ooouB 

SDfrsCERiT uuon Stanley cilea Plin. xi ^ 146 kiiic [r.v oentU] fletus e( 
rigantei ora rivi. qtiii ille tsl umor in dolore tarn fecnndm el para- 
tu5, aut vtii reliquo tempore.' 33 msu fulhoneu Aaium 

Pmd. perist. i 218—9 pulmonem movet | dcrisus ittas intaetu imp- 
tiai. 34—7 Hor. ep. ii 1 194 »t forel in lerrii, 

rideret Democritus, and tvoulil Gnd the audience in the theatre more 
entertaining than the play. Cf. Iut. ut 282—75. 34 

QTjAMQcAii HON ES8EKI in the BilreT age qmmquam often ia followed by 
the conj., and ji"initi« liy the ind. ZnmptS 574. Plin. ep. vii 1 g 1 qnam- 
quara . . . noTerim, verear tamen. cf. Cic. Tuso. y g 85. crbi- 

Bve iLLiB Abdcra and its neighbourhood 60 n. 35 fbaetgxta irr 

iiuBGAE FiscEs Plur. I 5 g 6 ftom the EtruEcans camo fasces trabeas ■ . . 
praetexta. pEAEtEiri 99, (030 jw. awhile 'gown bordered' 

with a pflrple Etripe, worn by kings, consuls, proconsuls, praetors, eomle 
sediles, dictators, censors and certain priests Bein in Fanly vi 3021. 
Seeker u 2 77— B. trabeab tiii 250 n. trabeam et diastema 

Quirini. The irabea was a toga bordered with purple, and ciosied by 
horizontal belts {trabes 'beams,' 'hors') of soarlet, worn by kings, by tn- 
gnrs, and on state occasions bv equites Marquardt t 2 119. Becker n 1 
260. 337. Symm. land, in Talcntin. sen. 11 § 2 trabeam conBalarem 
discolora aerta praetexant. tEcrici i 64 — 6 n. From the 

low Lat. lectaHa come Fr. litiire and our Utter. TBiBUSiL ol 

the praetor. 

36 — 4Q A lacui clatsicm on the procession, pnmpa, at the Circensian 
games 81 n. ; another on the games themselves xi 198 — 202. Fxiedliinder 
11' 180—215 and in Morquaidt iv 490—523 has nearly eihausted the 
subject. The ladi Ramani, 1. !lltgalente» (11 193 u.), I. niagni, and pro- 
bably the Cerealia and oil I. t'otivi (as well as (. lotlemnet m the 
oircita maximus) were opened by the procession, which, setting 
out from the Capitol, crossed the gaily decorated forum, the vicHS Taacuti 
and forum boarium, through the middle gate of tho circus and round tba 


furthest mtiat Becker 1 15 i. 491. Marquardt it 498 seq. DH. vii 72. The 
road nras strewn with flowers Ov. tr. iv 2 50. The presiding magistrate 
led the way, if he were a praetor or cousnl, standing on a lofty chariot 
drawn by white horses (Apul. mag. 22) crowned with laurel (Ov. tr. iv 2 
22. ex P. n 1 58. Mart, yii 8 8). He wore the garb of a triumphant general 
(u 194 — 5 similisqtte triumpho \ praeda caballorum praetor sedet), the 
broad folds of the gold-worked purple toga over the timic embroidered with 
pahn leaves, bearing in his hand the ivory sceptre with the eagle. A 
gold crown of oak leaves, set with jewels, was held over his head by a 
pnblie slave. His children sat, as in a triumph, in the chariot or on 
the horses (Tac. ann. zii 41 in games given by Claudius Britannicus 
appeared in the praetezta, Nero in triumphal costume). Before the 
praetor flutes and horns played, and clients in their white gowns escorted 
him. Images of the gods, accoutred with their exuviae or attributes, 
vere borne on biers, ferculaj thrones and cars, tensae, drawn by mules, 
horses and elephants, and escorted by companies of priests and religious 
orders: nor were images of emperors wanting. The procession was 
welcomed by the people standing, with shouts, invocation of the gods 
and clapping of hands Ov. amor, iii 2 43 — 62. Yet as it delayed the 
sports, it was viewed with impatience M. Sen. contr. i pr. fin. § 24 p. 
56 10 1 will detain you no longer: I know well quam odiosa res mihi sit 
circensibus pompa. 

36 PBAETOREM cf. 41 cousul. VIII 194 n. XIV 257. Becker ii 3 264. Kein 
in Pauly vi 275. The management of the games became at last the 
praetor's most important function, cf. DCass. liv 2 § 3. Plin. ep. vii 11 
§ 4. cuBBiBus ALTis with a pair of horses Plin. xxxiv 

§20 turn vetus et bigarum celebratio in iis qui praetura functi 
cnrru vecti essent per cireum. The tribunes in the ludi Augustales 
were allowed to wear the triumphal uniform in the circus but (Tac. an. i 
15) cnrru vehi haud peiTnissum. Dio lvi 46 § 5. See the cut in Bich 
companion s. v. currus 4. Marquardt iii 2 448. Plin. pan. 92 § 5 au- 
gastior solito currus. A gilt car in the form of a turret Zon. vii 21. 
Hor. epod. ix 41 — 2. Dempster on Rosin, x 29 p. 778 a. The tabula Hera- 
cleensis prohibits the passage of carts or carriages through Bome during 
the first ten hours of the day. Exceptions are made in favour of 1) vehi< 
cles employed in -public works. 2) Vestals, rex sacrorum^ Jlamines at 
public sacnfices, triumphing generals. 3) processions at the public 
games, esp. the circensian. 4) market and farm carts, which had entered 
the town by night Friedlander i* 44 — 8. cf. luv. iii 236 n. 
36 — 7 CUBBIBUS ALTIS ExsiANTEM viii 3 stautcs In curribus Aemilianos. 
Ov. ex P. in 4 35 ilia ducis fades in curru stantis ebumo, trist. iv 2 
47 — 8 Jios super in curru, Caesar, victore veheris | purpureus populi 
rite per ora tui. Spartian. Sev. 16 § 6 Severus refused a triumph, on the 
ground that he could not stand in the ear for the gout. 


tunica palmata and toga picta are often named together. DH. in 61 
the Etruscans brought to Tarquinius x'Tt^t'c^ ^e 'jrop<pvpovu xP^^^^^'tlf^" 
KoX vepi^Xouop irop^vpovv ttoikIXov, i. e. a purple tunic with gold stripe 
and an embroidered purple toga. Flor. i 5 § 6 Duker * from the Etrus- 
cans came the golden oar and four horses of our triumphs, the togae 
pietae tunieaeque palmataeJ Liv. xxx 15 §§ 11 — 12 Scipio presents 
Maainissa aurea corona (ver. 39 — 4il),...8cipione ebumo (ver. 43), 
toga picta et palmata tunica, saying that Bome knew no higher 
honoiir than a triumph, nor had triumphant generals any more gorgeous 



[ tMre. id. xxu 11 g 11. x7% 10. DH. t 35, Tac. an. w 36, The (unfoi 

patmala vas bu called from the pnloi- branches which, with. Yictoriea an<l 

other figures, nere worked upon it. There were two kinds of embroidei^ 

tmed ia Rome, the Phrygian in croBa-Btitoh, the work of phrygiar " 

the Babjloniiui in Batiii-atitoh <iri pliijiiaria, the Work of plMoarii : 

former cocreflponda to engraving 1^ dots, ■ Btippling,' the latter to 

engraving. The tunica palmiila was x^uroirDJiciXrH or xp"""'"'''^'"^' 

I (DS. xviii 2S §4. Atben. 196^;. a work of the art phnmria! the tog9 

I picla was spangled with stars, xp""'"'''^''^! '' '*'<»'k ol the pkryglonn, 

W App. Pun. CO Scipio ia bia triompb wore purple with gold staiB worked 

r on it. Nero entered fiome nftec bia Greoian vietorieB in the triomphd 

cor of AugDBtus, wearing (Saet. SS) a nhlamja diitiacta ilellii aureiM 

(DCoss. LXiit 20 § 3 eolls it ri\aupylSa -xpviiiriiirTiir, whioh is tha Tery 

isna applied by Pint. Aemil. Paul. 31 § 6 to the triumphal Tabs). Oa 

the Greek Tsses found in Etruria the embruider; consists of stara, 

crosses, dots and roaud omamenta surrounded with dots, which ware often 

formed of little spanglea and lea.TeB of gold ; these Bpauglea, the remains 

of the tnneral robea, have been found in graves both in Etrnria and in 

the Crimea Marquardt v 2 116_153. Becker ii 3 243. iii 3 448. fiein in 

Paolyvi 2249. TertuU. apol. SO sajs of martyrdom 'this is the attire . 

_ of our Tictorj, )uitc palmata vestia, tali currn triumphavuii.' > 

L TDMOi loTiB the soeptre, (unica palmata, and toga picta vera ] 

Rlaken from thetemple of luppiter CapitolinaB Serv.ed. X 37 IotIb iim'f- 

l iria. Liv. X 7 S 10 lovis opt. max. oriinta decoratus, currn aarato ptr 

r wbem veelia. Suet Ang. 94 OctiLvins dreamt that he saw bis son, of mors 

than human form, cum /ufmi'ii^ el Boeptro exnviisqae lovis opt. nuu. 

acradiata corona, siiper lauroatum eurrum, bia tcaii eq-uit eandori 

ezimia traluntibus. Vopisc. Prob. 7 gg7-8 Capitolina palmata. Alex- 

ander Severns (Lamprid. 40 § 7) never uBsumed the toga picia except aa 

consul, and then it was the same which other praetors and Eonaols HBBomed 

de lovia templo lumptam. GordiannB I {Capitol. 4^4) was the first 

I Boman who had a palmala tunica and toga picta of his own when ont of 

I office; whereas up to that time imptratorea vel de CapitoHo aceiperent 

' vil di Palalio. ptctae toiiae i. e. iuu pietae vi 481. 

Ot. axP. irl3I. m 4 101. Lnean is 176—7 pictaaqne togas, vela- 

mina jumnw I ter coiapecta lovi. cf. Btat. Th. x 69—60. Xl 401—3. 

DCasa. lx 6 § 9. sabhana of Tyrion purple I 27 n. 

TiipM ia only the gr. form of hebr. Tnur, Tzor, mohamm. S&r, B&r 

(Hitter's Erdkundc, Faliistina ind. p. 2l5i ; Movers Phonizier ii i 176 

makes the pboen. sor or ear] ' a rock,' the name originally of the island, 

then of the whole city. hex. gr. nom, hehr. Hieron. op. ii 88. Vail. 

Ziip, rirpa ^ Ivplon' irdXit. cf. ih. 81. 278. Theodoret in Ezeeh. t. xi 

0. 26 pr. gives Sop as the native name. Plautus, who was acquainted 

with Phoenician, tmool. ii 6 58 pnrpnram ex Sara iibi attuli. Enn, 

in Flob. ad Yerg. g. ii 506 Pomag Sarra oriundo*. Verg. 1. c. Sairano 

indormiat oalro. Sil. XT 205 (who very frequently uses the adj.) Sar- 

ranomurioe fulgent. Slflon.Apoll. c. nS — 7 ot aconaul nmeroequo tx 

more priorum \ includat Sacrana chlamyt, it piota togarnm | puryura 

pha capiat, id. ep. Tin 6 if Jam SarraniB ebriam titcii inter crepitantia 

tegmenta palraatam plui picts oralione, plvi aarea coiivemutavU, 

Gell. iiT 6 g 4 cites Tyros (foiraerly Sarra) among cities whioh had 

ohanged their name. Tyrian flutes {tibiae Sarranaf) and porple might 

well bring with them to Bome the name of their city. 

.V 263. properly haDgiiiga, ciirlains ; here of tha brood lolda 


of the stately toga^ stilt with gold and embroidery Oic. Catil. 11 § 22 velis 
arnktos non togis. maqnaeque cobonae tantum 

OBBEM of gold and jewels App. Pun. 66. Gell. v 5 §§ 6 — 7. Tert. de cor. 
13 Etmscan crowns are of jewels and gold, in the form of oak leaves, 
and are worn by magistrates with the togae palmatae {so the toga picta is 
often called Bein in Pauly yi 2249). Mart, viii 33 1 (thinness of the gold- 
leaf in the ^woetoricia corona ; hence luv. is speaking ironically, when 
be says that the slave sweated under the burden). Beside this crown, the 
general wore a crown of laurpl on his head Becker iii 2 442. 

40 QUANTO cEBvix NON suFFiciT ULLA Stanley cites 
Paul 8. V. donaticae coronae p. 69 M. postea magnijicentiae causa iHsti" 
tutae sunt super modum aptarum capitibus. 
BUFFiCTT a very common word in the silver age ; used 23 times by luv. 
41 SERVus PUBLicus those prisoners of war who were not 
Bold by the state were retained in its service as servi publici ; or they were 
boQght by the state or bequeathed to it. Their condition was better than 
that of private slaves (Wallon hist, de I'esclavage in 69. 96. 98. 99), they 
were able to save money, and had free quarters found them by the censors. 
^ey served the magistrates as assistants to the accensi and apparitores, 
Were employed in the census, in prisons, at executions, at sacrifices, in 
Qoairies, mines, waterworks etc. ; they bought and sold on behalf of the 
state Rein in Pauly vi 1102—4. Becker 11 2 383—4. 
TENET 8UDANS HANG PUBLicas Zou. VII 21 *a pubUo slavc rodo in 
the chariot itself^ holding over him the crown of jewels set in 
gold, and kept saying to him Look back, i.e. consider well thy 
past and future life, and be not elated by thy present state nor over- 
weening in pride. And there hung from the chariot a bell and scourge, 
to signify that he might even be unfortunate, so as even to be outraged 
or even condemned to death. For the custom is that convicts sentenced 
to death for any crime bear a bell, that no one may contract defilement 
I7 brushing against them as they walk.* Plin. xxxiii § 11 formerly in a 
triumph, cum corona ex auro Etnisca sustineretur a tergo, anulus 
toMen in digito ferreus erat aeque triumphantis et servi fortasse coro- 
nam sustinentis. On coins Victory generally supports the crown. 

^571. VII 76 5. IV 59 5 ne tibi regali place as, Cleopatra^ sepulcro, 
Ror. n 8=1 24 § 12 ne sibi placeant Athenae. Cypr. de domin. orat. 6 
Cttw sibi pharisaeus placeret. cf. ind. Several exx. in Bonsch das 
^eneTest. Tertullians Leipz. 1871 656 — 7, who cites sibiplacentia the 
translation of airapiffKeia in Iren. iii 2 § 2. consul 

called PBAETOB ver. 36 ; either magistrate might preside over the games, 
Iwit the contrast is more glaring between consul and servus. So the avia 
w mtertera of Per* ii 31 is nutrix in 39. 41 — 2 bibi 


§ 85 * like those who stand over triumphing generals from behind, and 
^tmind them that they are men.* Tert. apol. 33 hominem se esse 
(ikn triumphans intZiosublimissimo cUrru admonetur. suggeritur 
^meiatergo: respice post te; hominem memento te. * and he 
ciolts the more because his glory is so great as to require such an admo- 
nition.' Hieron. ep. 39 Vail. =25 ad Paullam super obitu Blaesillae § 2 
Jn. *to lower his' pride in revelations (2 Cor. 12 9) a certain monitor of 
hmnan frailty is assigned to him, in similitudinem triumphantiumt quibus 
^ curru retro comes adhaerebat per singulas acclamationea civium, 
^m hominem te esse memento.' -This is much better evidence 

8q jealousy of heaven. SCEPTBUM. LX42— H 

than that of Ael. v. h. vin 15 for the slave of Philip of Macedon, whose 
business it was three times in the morning to remind him that he was a 
man : this was after the victory of Chaeronea. Isidor. xviii 2 § 6 makes 
of the slave an executioner, but his interpretation is just, ut ad tantum 
fastigium evecti mediocritatis humanae commoner entur* As the triumph 
was the utmost goal of Boman ambition (ver. 133—140), he who attained 
it was in danger of overweening pride v/3/>ts, and might provoke the evil 
eye of envy and the jealousy of heaven Plut. Aenul. Paul. 34 § 6. 35. 
Tert. de virg. vel. 15 ' among the gentiles also there is something to be 
feared, which they call fascinum, the unhajj^py issue of excessive praise 
and glory,* infeliciorem laudis et gloriae enormioris eventum. As children 
wore amulets in the bullae (v 164 n.), so the general in the hour of his 
glory and danger was under their protection. Plin. h. n. xxviii § 39 illot 
[children] religione muta tutatur et fascinusj imperatorum quoque, noti 
solum infantium custoSf qui deus inter sa^ra Romuna a Vestalibus colitur 
ct currus triumphantium sub his pendens defendit medicus inviditie, 
iubetque eosdem respicere similis m^dicina linguae [Jahn confesses that 
he does not understand this : it seems to mean the voice of the slaye^ 
which resembled in its remedial effects the sight of the fa^cinus hanging 
behind the triumphant general, to which it called his attention], ut sit 
exorata a tergo Fortuna gloriae camifex. See 0. Jahn * on the supersti- 
tion of the evil eye amongst the ancients' Ber. d. sachs. Gesellsch. 17 
Febr. 1855 p. 73. luv. vii 112 n. Macr. i 6 § 8 says that the bulla was 
gestamen triumphantium and was filled with remedies supposed to be 
adversus invidiam valentissima. The same feeling dictated the use of the 
iron ring (see on 39), the jeering trochaics sung by the troops, and pro- 
bably the custom, which reminds us of the devotees of the Lateran 
chapel S. Salvatore delle Scale sante^ observed by Caesar and Claudius 
(DioxLiii 21 § 2. LX 23 § 1), who went up the steps of the Capitol on their 
knees, cf. Petron. 123 239 — 40 of Pompeius quem ter ovantem \ lup- 
piter horruerat. On the jealousy of the gods see Blomf. gloss. Aesch. 
Pers. 368. Agam. 921. Gesner opusc. in 836. Wess. ad Hdt. i 32 § 5. 
Valck. ib. iii 40 § 7. Nagelsb. homer. Theol.^ 33. 131. nachhomer. Theol. 
46 — 52. 478 n. 7. Lehrs ' Greek conception of the jealousy of the gods 
and human pride* in his populare Aufsatze, Leipz. 1856, 33 — 66. Lim- 
burg Brouwer hist, de la civilisation vii 102 — 7. viii 30 — 34. Lexx. imder 
paffKavla. fieyaipw. pifieffis. v^pis. ^douos. The fall of Troy avenged the 
v^pls of Paris, Salamis and Plataeae that of Xerxes. Compare the 
stories of Arachne, Kapaneus, Croesus, Marsyas, Midas, Niobe, Poly- 
krates. 43 i>^ nunc et volucrem cf. the use of 

adde (quod) in Qaintil. volucrem, sceptro quae 

SUROIT eburno DH. Ill 61 (who derives it from the Etruscans) ' a scep- 
tre with an eagle on the top.' id. v 47. App. Pun. 66 says that the 
general also carried laurel. In later times the consuls bore this sceptre 
Prud. c. Symm. i 349. perist. x 148 — 150 aquila ex eburna sumit 
arrogantiam \ gestator eius ac superbit beluae \ injlatus osse^ cui figura est 
alitis. Ammian. xxix 2 § 15 consulares post scipiones. Claud, cons. 
Probin. 205. laud. Stil. ii 362 — 3. Vopisc. Aurelian. 13 § 4. The sceptre 
appears on coins and diptychs Becker ii 3 243 ; see the cut in Bich s. v. 
sceptrum n. 4. The eagle is the symbol of apotheosis cf. Isid. xviii 2 § 5 
quod per victoriam quasi ad supernam magnitudinem accederent, 

44 cornicines III 34 not only hornblowers, but a chorus of 
harpers and pipers, marching in time, with song and dance App. Pun. 66. 
Plut Aemil. Paul. 33 § 1 speaks of trumpeters sounding the charge. 



QtmtiTES the train of clients in their best white togas i 46 n. iii 127 n. 
yn 142 — 3 n. togati ante pedes. Sen. de morte Claud. 8 § 4 Glotho says 
•I 'Will not send Claudius without an escort : for it is not fit that he, qui 
9iodo$e tot milia hominum sequentia videbat, tot praecedentia, tot cir- 
cumjtmi subito solum dettitui, 45 officia hi 129 n. 

Oj^civm is a compliment, a duty of ceremony and respect; here it is used, 
Abstract for concrete, for those who escort the great man to do him honour, 
A goard of honour, an escort, cf. i 34 n. where add civitas, vicinitas. 
'^in 104 n. X 100 n. custodiae, excuhiae^ matrimonia, ministerium, operae, 
^^Tnigiumi auxilium, dignitas, konestaSf vigiliae, servitia. Drak. and Gron. 
on liiv. m 16 § 9. Zimipt § 675. Kamshom pp. 956 — 6. Keisig-Haase 
131—2. So in QuintiL initia and profectus for the lower and upper forms 
in a school. VM. in 7 § 5 duobus acerrimis odiis latera sua cingere, 
^alLCatil. 14 § 1 omniu)n flagitiorum atque facinorum circa se tamquam 
9tip(Uorum catervas habebat. We have the sing, in Cic. Brut. § 220. 
luT.yi 203 lahente officio. Suet. Ner. 28 celeberrimo officio deduetum. 
Xiamprid. Comm. 11 %dpraef, praet. suum lulianum togatum praesente 
officio suo inpiscinam detrusit. The genitive agminis makes our pas- 
sage less harsh "^an these. Suet. Caes. 71 inter otiicia prosequentium 
faseesque lictorum, PI. ep. iii 12 § 2. niveos Calpum. vii 29 nivei 

tribuni. Mart, ii 29 4 et toga non tactas vincere iussa nives. viii 65 
^6 hie lauru redimita comas et Candida cultu | Boma salutavit voce 
ifuinuque ducem. i 56 14 vivat et urbanis albus in officiis. Plut. 
l^aoL Aem. 32 § 2. Lips, elect. 1 13. ad fbeka the praetor 

liimself held the reins VM. rv 4 § 5 ' those hands which had lately guided 
the yokes of ploughing oxen, now triumphalis cur r us habenas reti- 
nuerunt; nor did they blush to lay down the ivory sceptre and resume 
the plough handle.* Suet. Cal. 26 Gains (Caligula) allowed some sena- 
tors, who had filled the highest offices of state, ad essedum sibi currere 
togatos per aliquot passuum milia. Capitol. Anton, phil. 16 § 2 ipse 
i^^ator filio ad triumphalem currum in circo pedes cucurrit. 
Ani. z 253 biiugique ad frena leones means lions yoked to the car. 
quibites in 60 n. So the Bomans rescued from captivity 
escorted their deliverer's triumphal car with the pileum on their head 
(Plot, apophth. Scip. mai. 7. apophth. T. Quinctii 2. pp. 196 — 7. Liv. 
ni 45 § 6. xxxviii 55 § 2) and in the toga Tert. de res. earn. 57. Plant. 
Cm. n 8 10. 4^6 defossa * buried,* * stowed safe away.' Cypr. 

adDonat. 12 argenti et auri maximum pondu^s et pecuniarum ingentium vel 
fttnieti aggeres vel defossae strues. loculis cash-box 

of the clients i 89 n. spobtula the dole, 25 asses i 96 n. 

120 n. QUOS SPOBTULA FECIT AMICOS V 12 — 23. 161 — 178. 

to. IX 14 Do you think that he is a stedfast friend, whom you have 
^Qght with a dinner? Your boar he loves, your mullets, sow's paunch, 
oysters, not yonrself : if I dine as well, he will be my friend. 
47 TUM QuoQUB eveu in that age of primitive plainness b. c. 460 — 357. 
CariTi 5=16 § 17 incohie autem^ rituferarum virgulta subire solitif tum 
qnoqae intraverant saltum. matebiam bisus the same 

•onstr. Cic. de or. n § 262 dixi . . . gravium. . . et iocorum unam esse 
Q|ateriam. Elsewhere mat. ad ib. § 239 est etiam deformitatis et corporis 
^tiorum satis bella materies ad iocandum. or with dat. Mart, i 4 4 
>ii&teriam diet is [= jests] nee pudet esse ducem. 48 cuius 

^VDENTU see his remains in Mullach fragm. philos. gr. i 330 — 382 
Nhorities for his birthplace 330 n. 2). DL. ix §§ 46 to 49 enumerates 

Juv. n. a 

60 ol Lis works, moral, phjEicnl, mutben 
AriBtotla, a Mndred geniua, vho often names 
proWemfl from his -worka DL. v § 26. EpienmH boirowad his atomia 
theory Gio. d. n, i g 130. hmi. lu 371 = y 62a Democriti . , . tancia 
viri atntenlia. Gf. Orolli anomast. TiiUiuu. 49 auuHOB 

POiss TIB09 TERTECtTH IX pATHiA HABCi Alidera was bIbo tlis birthplace ol 
Protagoraa, of the pbilaaaphers Leakippos (? I)L. ii g SO) and Anazar- 
choB, the historians HeliBtBeoH a.nd DioklcidcB, tlie epie poet Nikaenetoa \ 
BoBoeotiitof Pindai, Epaminoudaf, Platarch eto. Apul. de mag. 34 Hild. 
apud soBordissijQos Scylhaa AnachnriU Bapiens natuB est, 
50 vEBVEcnu IN r^TBiA cBdESDacE BDB ABnK OH the effsot of ulimato OH 
character soe WesE. and Valet on Hdt. a 123. OataL oa Aiitonin, it 89. 
Eiganlt on Phaedr. iii prol. 52 seq. (n 221— S ed. Burm. 1718). Hippoar. 
airs, waters and plaoes 24 (ii 320—1 Adams) ' Such as inhabit a country 
■which JH Dioimtaiiious, tugged, ei*vatcd imd well-watered, , , . are likely . . , 
to fae naturally of an enterpriaing and waciiia disposition ; . . . . bn( such 
&B dwell in places which are low-lying, abounding in meadows and ill- 
yentilftied, . . . these are not likely to bo of largo stature nor well-propor- 
tioneil, but are of a broad make, fleshy; . . . course and laborious 
enterprise are not catuTally in them .... In general you will find tha 
forms and dispoBitions of mankind to correspond with the natnre ol the 
conntry; forwhereihe land is fertile, soft and well-watered, there thu 
men .... are not disposed to endure labour, and, for the most part, are 
base in spirit ; indolence and HlaggislmoES are visible in them, and to the 
arts they are doll and not clever nor aoulc.' Aristot, poL vii 7. Cart, yin 
B = 31g20. Ael. T. h. viii6{of Tftroce. of. Phaedr. 1. c). 

VBRVBCCa IN Pirmi vervex (Ital. berbice, Fr. bnbit, 
from the form berbexj also Fr. ierger) 'a wether;' here -a blockhead' 
<Ba Oerm. Schlipi, Engl. ' sheep,' ' aheepheaded']. Plant, mere, ut 3 6 
itatu rero, verTci. iniro eas/ id. Gasin, in 3 6. Sen. de const. Bap. IT 
% 1 Chrysippos says some one was angry, becaose a man had called him 
vervee<m marintna, Fetron. 57 quid rides, yeivexl Taubm. on Plant. 
Pers. II 2 3. Aristoph. Piut. 922 calls life without conTersation rpo^ariou 
^lot oL echol. Diogenes in DL. -vi % il calU a rich ignoramus a sh eep 
with a 'golden fleece.' Aristot. h. n. n 3 g 3 p. 610 b 22 'sheep are, aa 
Ihey are reputed, naturally simple and atupid.' pror. in Macar. t Sn. 
fiup6Tepoi Tpo^drov. cRAsso bub aebe Cic. de fat. % 7 AthenU 

tenue caelum, ex quo acuiiorei etiam pulanluT Atiici [Ear. Med. S39], 
eras sum TkebU, itaque pirtgues Thebani. Hor. ep. u 1 244 Sohmid Boe- 
Qtmn in crasso iurnrcs aere natura. crassui is of the same root aa pro«. 
The spnriona letters of Hippokrates and Democritus speak of the pro- 
verbial dnlneas of the men of Abdera, but there is no earUer evidenee of 
the reproach than Cic. d. n. i g 120 quae guidem omnia ixini patria 
Democriti guamDr7nom(o<i(s«iora. id. ad AM. rv IB g 6. vii 7 § 4 "Apaij- 
piTinir. Mart, s 25 4 Abderitnnae pectorn plebis habes. Galen, de 
onimi moribos ad fin. Tin 622 b. ' among the Seytbiona there nrosa one 
philosopher, at Athena many; as the other hand at AbdcTa there are 
many fooU, but few at Athena,' Tatian ad graee. 17 = 28 'aa legarda 
the sympathies and antipathies of Democritna, what can we say, eieept 
this, that, as the proverb has it, 'A^eSijpoXifvoi inTir 6 dir6 rUr 'AfiS^pi^ an- 
epi^m, Abderite by biith, Abiterile in speech!' Arnob. T 13 of Ag- 
destis, from whose blood a pomegranate was tabled to have spnmg, 'O 
Abdera, A bdera, what ocoasion for jeers wouldst thou give the itorld, 
ii such a fable, so imagined, were found in thee I All fathers tell it end 



iianghtypopnlatioiis read it through, and yet it is thou who art judged to be 

fatua et stoliditatis frigidissimaeJ* Tim. lex. Plat, al^wveveffdax, 

Theodul. in Boisson. anecd. 11 206. In the 0t\o7Aw$ of Hierokles and 

PMagrios, ed. Boisson. Par. 1848 pp. 289—292 are 18 jests at the expense 

of AMerites e. g. Ill An ass spilt all the oil in the gymnasium : the 

people brought all the asses in the town together, that they might take 

wuning by his punishment. 112 An Abderite would have hung Mmself ; 

"the cord breaking, he fell down and broke his head. He went to the 

surgeon, clapped a plaster on the wound and hung himself again. 120 

An Abderite, hearing that leeks and onions are * windy ' (flatulent), being 

on a voyage, in a dead calm, filled a bag with them and hung it at the 

Btem. 122 An Abderite sold a pot without ears. Being asked why he 

"took ofiE the ears, he replied : * that it might not run away, on hearing 

"tliat it was to be sold.' Gf. K. Fr. Hermann hist, of Abdera in his gesam- 

melte Abhandlungen, Gottingen 1849, 106—8. 370—1. The cases of 

deiiriam reported by Hippo^. epidem. iii and Lucian. quom. conscr. 

iiist. 1, have no connexion with our proverb. 

51 NECNON ET lu 204 u. Bamshom p. 818, who has exx. from Yerg. 
Calpum. Nemesian. Quintil. bidebat gaudia yulgi 

Stat. s. n 2 129 — 132 nos, yilis tnrba, caducU \ deservire bonis sem- 
perqae optare parati | spargimur in castus, celsa tu mentis ah arce \ 
^apicU errantes humanaque gaudia rides, cf. Lucr. ii 7 — 16. 
53 FOBTUNAE MANDABET LAQUEUM ' bid her go hang.' Apul. m. IX 36 
'maddened to the extremity of frenzy, shouting aloud that hehid &]l of 
them and the very laws go hang^ suspendium sese et totis illis et 
ip»it legibus mandare.' Plant. Pers. y 2 34 restim tu tibi cape crassum 
^tsaspende te. Lucian. Timon 45 op^^as rov ^poxov. cf. ol/j^^etv 
nXevo;. ^s icopa/cas. Bottiger cites Lucian gall. 19 ovk dTa7^6( ; 

HEDiuMQUE osTENDEBET UNOUEM Schol. iufami digito [Pcrs. 
n 33] ei turpiter insultabat. Mart, ii 28 1 — 2 rideto multum qui te^ 
SextilUy cinaedum | dixerit, et digitum porrigito medium, vi 
705—6 ostendit digitum, sed impudicum | Alconti Dasioque Sym- 
nwhoque, cf. Priap. 66 1 — 2 = Meyer anthol. 1671. Arrian Epict. 
ni 2 § 11 Diogenes exposed a sophist by stretching out the middle 
finger; and when he broke out into a fury, said: * There you seethe 
Bum ; I have shewn him to you.' It was a gesture worthy of a cynic : 
some strangers asking to see Demosthenes (DL. vi § 34) Diogenes he)d 
out his middle finger and said * There you have the famous orator 
of the Athenians.' Again (§ 35) he said that a finger mado all the differ- 
^ between madness and sanity with most men: hold out the middle 
fingery and they will think you mad ; but not if you hold out the index 
finger. DChrys. 33 ii 18 R. * what would a man think of a city, where all 
held out the middle finger in pointing, in shaking hands, in holding 
up the hands, in elections, in passing sentence ? . . . . these are the 
tluiigB which have given your enemies occasion to reproach yon.' To 
shootout the middle finger from the clenched fist, in shape of the phallus, 
<^t a man, was to taunt him in the most injuiious manner, as a pa- 
*^c. Hence the gr. name for this finger was Karairvywy Phot. s. v. Poll. 
^ 184 /caraxiryiys. In Lat. verpus, gloss, s. v. verpus and SptXoy (cf. 
"«bol. luv. II 95). Such an affront caused Chaerea to plot against Gams 
(Galigola Suet. 56). Like many obscene gestures, this was regarded as 
* defence against the evil eye, 0. Jahn in Ber. d. sachs. Gesellsch. 17 
*6br. 1855, 82, who cites Echtermeyer iiber Namen und symbolische 
"•deutung der Finger bei den Griechen u. Romern, Halle 1835, 21 seq. 



Joiio inimioa degli onticbl ISG bsq. A like insult still lemainB 
the iuBertioQ ot tbe tip ot the thumi) butweea the index and middle 
finger, while yon say 'A iig for you!' See Ducange Jkha. TommaBSO 
Jiea. IAiU6 Jiffiie. Har^ijico. fijf. Dante purgstorio 131 2. H9t. .rnfui- 
Xfjid. Aristopli. Fac. 5i% BchoL In Petroii. 1!<1 Eocoipius is leleased 
from a Epell by an applicatioa to hia forehead of day made by the 
middle JingtT with spittle and dust. On the middle fingcT alone 
DO ring was worn Plin. mm % 21 See Jalin on Pers, 1. 0. Orysar in 
Bhein. Uus. 1834, 44. Gesenius underBtands 'the putting forth of tbe 
flngcr,' la. 68 9, aa mrdiiim digitinn ponigere. 

54—5 For what tianmuat we pray? ['Sr^olieginB a new paragraph, 
OB it so often does with an interrogative, or an imperative; in Doming 
back from a digression. Invensl may have written : ergo suptrvaaia ani 
nt ftmicioia jwluntur, proyter quae fas est geiaua ineerare dtoram t (hat 
is, ergo, uC supeniaeua a-at pemi-ciosa iiteeratii genibiu deorum petvalvT, 
ita quaevere utilia tl pia hoc mado petanturf "Well then to oomebaolc^^ 
to oar subject, even as snperflnoas or hiirtlnl things are, as we have aaen, ■ 
asked for in prayer, what thinga may we with pcoprioty ask tor ?" Then 
he goes on to put casea: then 103 ergo qiiid optandiim^Seianuia, as If 
witE reference to our ergo. Then he goes on to other caasa; and thea 
Si6 Nil ergo opiabunt etc., as if again with reference to our ergo. The 
ut merely repeating tbe letters ci out ia a very easy emendatioii. The 
Diniision of ila in the apodoais ia Tery aommon in poetry, and even in 
prose. I had first thougbtofanotber emendation: haut I find from Jabn'a 
index ouiars eight times in Invenal: in three of tbe eight places Pliaa 
QUI. a blunder common of course in allMSS.: in seven of the eiditplaeei 
too 1 think luiul is joined with an adjective, as furor haul dubim. I thonght 
then of reading ergo supervaaua hant, haut pemiciosa pelunlur, | propter 
etc. with a qneation : ' ' Are then the things aaked for in prayer not saper- 
flaona, not pemicions, things lor which we may with propriety petition 
the godaf" E. A. J.M.J 54 stJPEKvioui adt paaNicioa* 

KUt iuinrlosnni. Suet. rhot. p. 2Q9 13 Both iumutilia et jieceBBaria, turn 
pernioioaa et aapervacaneo. 55 fab est 1 S8. vi 628. 

OENCA {NOBBtjiE VEOROU xit 88. Apul, de msg. 54 Totani 
in alicjiiu3 ataivjie temore n»ignaiti, Lncian pbilopa. 20 an imagewith 
ooina strewn at its feet, and some aitver pieces fattened with uus to 
iii thigh, and silver leaf also, ike vouti or fee of those who had been 
healed ot fever. Prudent, apoth. 456 — 7 luUan nsed to bow hia imperial 
head before the toot of a Minerva of pottery ware, to crouch at the toot ol 
Beroulea, genua iacerare Z'iaru]«.id.bamartig.40B— 4 inceratlaptdea 
fumoias idoMatrix \ rfrJif$— 1 the heathen infaut had 
lasted of tbe aacrificial <uike before he could apeak, saxa inlita Deris 
viderat. Ptuloatr. her. 3 g 3 an image worn by time and alao by those who 
- jmear it and seal their vows upon it. The kneea were clospad or 
kiaaed by suppliantB Cerda on Aen. x S2S. Dempster on Coripp. loatla. 
Ill 278. Alex ab Alex, ii 19 p. 42S Lugd. Bat. 167;i. Loaaulx Studien 
164. Flin. XI §250 kominit geaibus ttretligio quaedam \nest abterva' 
tiime genlium. haec supplicea attingunt, ad Iuibc manns tendnnt, 
haeo nt aras ailorant. Plaut. asm. in 3 80. Amob. vi 16 'these 
breathing statues, wbose feet and kneet you touch and handle in prayer.' 
The wax tablets, bang from or fsatened to the kneea of the goils, were 
sealed (Plin. ep. ad Trai, 36 = 44), aa a sort of contract; if the god f^led 
to perform his part, the worshipper was free from his vow; the tablet, 

55-113] FALL OF SEIANUS. 85 

eter in the eyes of the image, was a continual monitor. [Aesch. Suppl. 
4^ fioii xtva^i ppirca KOfffiiqaai rdde. H. B. B.] 

56—113 Some fall in headlong min through great power exposed to 
as great envy. The long and stately roll of their dignities wrecks them ; 
down go their statues, following the tugging rope, then the stroke of the 
axe shatters the yeiy chariot-wheels of their triumphal statues, and the 
iimocent horses, like malefactors on the cross, have their legs broken. 
How hiss the fires, now the bellows blow, and the head worshipped by 
theBoman people is a-glow in the forge, mighty Seianus crackles: then 
of the face second to one only in the wide world, are made ewers, wash- 
iwtg, frying pans, vessels for every meanest use. Festoon your homes 
^th bays, lead to the Capitol for sacrifice a tall and whited ox: for 'tis 
& general holiday; Seianus is drawn along the streets by the hangman's 
hook, a public show; not a man but rejoices over him. * What lips he 
liad, what a haughty face ! if you trust me, I never could abide the man : 
hi nnder what a charge was he cast ? who was the informer ? by what 
approvers, by what witness did he make good his case ?' * ' Nothing of this :^ 
a long and wordy despatch arrived from Capreae. ' ' * Good : if Caesar writes, '^ 
I ask no more.' But what does the throng of Eemus ? It sides with for- 
ione, as ever, and hates those on whom sentence has gone forth. The same 
people, if Nortia had smiled upon her Tuscan, if the emperor's age had been 
crashed off its guard, would this very hour proclaim Seianus Augustus. 
Long ago, since we ceased to have votes to sell, it shook ofi state cares: once 
it granted commands, fasces, legions, what it pleased ; now it narrows its 
ambitioji^ and dotes on two boons alone, bread and the shows. 'I am told 
thatmaSy will die.' "No doubt of it; a great furnace is heated; Brutidius 
met me at Mars' altar, and my friend was pale. How I fear, lest Aiax 
take vengeance on Brutidius for his defeat, as due to his sorry pleading. 
Ijet Qs run at full speed, and while yet he lies on the bank, trample on 
Caesar's foe. But let our slaves be there to see our loyal zeal, lest any de- 
nying it, collar his master and drag him quaking for fear to the bar." This 
was then the talk, these the whispers of the crowd respecting Seianus. 
Would you be courted as Seianus was? be master of his weklth, and 
bestow on one curule chairs of highest rank, on another the charge of 
annies? be counted guardian of an emperor perched with his wizard 
crew on Capreae's narrow cliff? you would at least wish to have pikes 
and troops at command, young nobles on your staff, a guard quartered 
in your house ? why should you not ? even they who lack the will to kill, 
would fain enjoy the poWer. Yet what glory or success can make you 
content with joy counterpoised by trouble ? Would you choose the robe 
of state of him whose corpse is now dragged in scorn, or be a country 
naayor of Gabii or Fidenae, passing sentence on falsa weights, an aedile in 
tattered tunic at deserted tFlubrae, breaking short measures ? You con- 
fess then that Seianus mistook the true objects of desire; for while covet- 
ing excessive dignities and grasping at excessive wealth, he was but rear- 
ing the numerous stages of a lofty tower, from which his fall might be 
from the greater height, and his crash once set in movement, might be from 
a more appalling steep. What overwhelmed the Crassi, what the Pompeii, 
and that Caesar who tamed the Quirites and brought them under the 
lash? Why, ambition that spared no means to secure the highest place, 
*nd aspiring prayers heard and granted by heaven's displeasure. Few 
^^ings go down to Pluto without a stab, few tyrants by a bloodless death. 

The Seianus of Ben Jonson embodies nearly all that history records of 
the mighty favorite; in partioiilar a very spirited and faithful version of 


theee lines of Inv. WDlaej-, chosen by JobuBoa as the modern Seinnna, re- 
Bemblee him in his power nad his fall ; otherwise the eomparlBon is far 
too flatteiiag to SeinnuB, wbo moie nearly resembled ThoB. Cromirell. 
CE. Shakspeare'B Henry YIII. osp. WoUey'B farewell to Mb greatness. 


29 = 45. Btat, e. t 1 137—8 quitnam inpaeala oonsang-uinitate Uga- 
Yit I fortunam invidiamque deait Lucr. v 1113—1130, Ov. rem. 
am. see Bnmma petit livor. Sen. Here. Oed. 604— 617. Even wis- 
dom beyond the measure ot man's natnra is hated by Zeus and the Fates 
Philostr. her. 11 1 1. 8tob, flor. skivii e.g. 34—36. 
S7 MKHOiT 3IT1 8. )( emergo. Lncr. v 1008 rornm eopia meraat. Ca- 
tnll. 68 13 mcraer furtunae fiiictib\ia. Aen. ti 611 — 2 Heyne me faUt 
mea .... I Ail mersere matU, ib. G15. Iiir. ix 18 § 1 Alexandm noiv- 
dUBi merao aeenndia rebua, guarum nemo iiitolerantior fuit. Lucan 
1 139, IGO publica belli 1 nemino, giwe populos temper merseca potenUs, 
viz. aTari«e, ambition, Inxniy. Flin. h. n. vn S ^^^ ^'■e day honoured 
with tbenhitepebblehaa been the originottronble. qimmmiiltat actiopta 
adtlixere imperial quam maltas bona perdidore et ultimis mer- 
sera anpplioiis. Sil. yiu 283. 63 pauika SchoL ■ a 

plate of bronae in front of their stqtnes, contaicing Bvery step of their 
advuioement. now called labulapatronatue.' ot Tin 60. Fallad. vi 11 gS 
noes it tor the flags of a pavement. Salrian. da gubem. Dei i 9 ineitat 
digitaDa [ittf?Mt, rapices paginaa, laxeum oohimen. 


erimen maiestatii facto vel Tiolatia statnia vet imaginibtiB maxime 
elcacrrbatuT in milites. DCaaa. lit 10 § B. Many eis. of deatrnetioii 
by the pcpnlace of Btatttea of emperoraandgrandeeB are collected by Lips, 
exc. ad Tac. an. ti 2. Pitiec. a. t. iiatva p. 840. Sir U. Savile Chiys. 
Tm SOS b (statues of Tbeodosias at Antioch, of Gonatantine in Egypt, 
of Oonstantius at EdesBa). Add (1) the stctuea of Ptolemy at Alex- 
andria Inatin. ixxnu 8 § 12; (2) that of L. Piao at Dyrraohiam Cio. in 
Pis. 8 93; (3) Oaeaar (Suet. 75, Pint 67 g 3) replaced the statnes ot Snlla 
and Pompeiua which bis party bad OTerthrown ; (4) a.d. 43 the brass coins 
of Gains (Caligula DCasa. lx 23 g 3) melted down ; hia statues had been 
removed >,.o. 41 ib. 4 § 6; (5) statues of Piao dragged to the aoalae Qe- 
moaiae Tao. an. in 14; (0) of Poppaea ib. xn 01. [Sen.] Oct. 808— 8U 
eTeiy statue of Poppaea inmaibla or bronze aj^fcf a vulgi manibui et latvo 
iatet I eversa ferro, membra per parto trakunt \ deduota laqueis, 
abnamt turpi div \ calcata cafno. their words are of a, piece with thait 
aaTage deeds; (7) of 0,11 hieronieae by Nero'a order, that no trace m 
memory of them might remain to nral his fame Snet. 24 mbverU tt 
uaeo trahi abicique in lalrinas [cf. Iut. Ter. 64] omnium liattuu et 
imaginet inperavit; (8) l.s. 68 of Kero, by theeoldiera of Vergtniua Bntna 
DCaaa. i^n 26 § 1; id. lxiv 8 § 3 a.d. 69 Otho ordered the atatnea 
'of the guil^7' to be restored; (9) of Vitellius DCass. lit 31 g 3 1 
(10) ot Domitian Suet. 23 the sanate 'tore him to tatters' after ^th 
with the bitterest jeers, ordered ladders to be bronght, his shields and 
portraits to be taken down before their eyes and duahed upon tha 
groond, all inscriptiatiB in his honour to be effaced, eradendos uMqiu 
tituloi [Inv. 68 pagina'\, and Lis memory to be abolished. DCass. 
Lxnti 1 the numerous gold and silver efSgiea were melted down [Iut. 61 — - 
4]. Plin. paneg, 62 ^ 4 — o those conntlesa gold statues fell iu ruin, an 
acceptable sacriBce, amid universal rejoicing. It was a delight to them 
to dash that moat tyrannioal face to the ground, ijiifiiri! /erro, iaevire 


B€caribna, as though hlood and pain followed every blow. No one was 
'too sober in his joy or too deliberate in gladness, but thought it a kind 
of revenge to behold mangled limbs, lopped members, and, lastly those 
fierce and terrible images cast out and melted down, excoctas flammis; 
Tdt ex illo terrore et minis in usum hominum, ac voluptates ignihus 
'vaiutarentur. Macrob. i 12 § 37; (11) of Favorinus at Athens Philostr. 
soph. 1 8 § 3 Hadrian's enemy; (12) of Commodus : see the wild cries of 
'the senate, with a burden as of a litany in Lamprid. 18 e. g. § 12 Jioitis 
liiikiViikB undiqae, parricidae statuast<n(2i^t^, gladiatoris statuas undi- 
^. gladiatoris et parricidae statuae detrahantur; (13) of Plau- 
"tianus by Severus Spartian. Sever. 14 § 6 ; (14) of Maximinus, which were 
Jttrnt Capitolin. 12 § 11. 23 § 7; (16) of Theodosius at Antioch a.d. 387, 
described by Chrysostom and Libanius TiUemont emp^r. iv 264 — 6. So on 
the 3 Sept. 1870 the Parisian crowd hooted the statue of the first Napo- 
l^ninthe Place Yenddme: on the 4th *the crowd is tearing down the 
imperial arms everywhere.' The same day (Daily News 6 Sept.) *in the 
neighbourhood of the Pont Neuf I saw people on the tops of ladders busily 
JfVilling down the emperor's bust, which the late loyalty of the 
people led them to stick about in all possible and impossible places. I saw 
the hosts carried in mock procession to the parapet of the Pont Neuf and 
thrown into the Seine, clapping of hands and hearty laughter greeting the 
Bphish which the graven image of the mighty monarch made in the water. 
Portraits of the emperor and empress, which many of your readers 
most have seen in the Hdtel de Yille ball-rooms, were thrown out of the 
^dows and the people trod and danced [ver. 86] upon the can- 
H$J The subsequent fate of the Yenddme column may be read in the 
liistory of the Commune. bestem the form restim is 

common in Plautns cf. Prise, vii 52. bestemque 

SBQuuNTUB I 164. Aou. IX 539 semineces ad terram, inmani mole secuta 
(»«iittnt). ib. VI 146. 59 bigabum vii 126 n. hist. Apollon. 

Tjr. SOstatua a nobis posita in biga. 60 ikmebitis 

Hor. c. I 17 28 inmeritamgug vestem, id. s. ii 3 7 culpantur frustra 
caiomi inmeritusgwfi laborat (paries). Prop, ii 4 S saepe inmeritos 
c&rrumpas dentibus ungues. Other exx. in Muhlmann. On the folly of 
l^reaking spite on inanimate things (e. g. throwing away a book written 
in small characters, tearing a dress that does not hit our fancy) see Sen. 
^ir. n 26. fbanouktub cbuba. the punishment of slaves. 

8en.ib. in 32 § 1 if we have sent a poor slave to the barracoons, ergastula^ 
▼hyneed we make haste to flog him, CTVLi&protinus frangere? Wetst. 
oil Jo. 19 31. Freund s. v. crus, caballis hi 118 a word of common 

^e, which has gained dignity in its passage into the Bomance languages, 
cft«roi, cavalry, chivalry; so tite from testa. 

61 CAMiNis xrv 118. hence (through low Lat. caminata) cheminie and 
(hinney, 62 adobatum populo caput Tac. an. in 72 a.d. 

22 Tiberius commends the activity and vigilance of Seianus, by whose 
exertions a fire had been confined to the theatre of Pompeius: the 
^filiate vote Seianns a statue in. the restored theatre, iv 2 a.d. 23 Tiberius 
^ Seianns in the senate and before the people, * the partner of his 
^bours,' and allows his images to be worshipped in theatres and 
market-places and at the headquarters of the legions, ib. 7 Drusus 
complains cerni effigiem eius in monumentis Cn. Pompeii, ib. 74 
^D. 28 the senate voted altars to Clemency and Friendship, with 
statnes of Tiberius and Seianus about them. Sen. cons, ad Marc. 22. §§ 
4—8 a striking passage on the * bloodhounds' or * wolves' of Seianus, 


fed with human blood, whom OremuiiuB Oordus escaped by Bnicide. Seia:^^^! 
gaye him as * a largess ' cyngiarium to his client Satrios Secondus. Cf*-^ 
free speech of Gordns was his ruin: tacitutferre rum potuerat SeiancaiD 
in cervices nostras ne inponi quidem^ sed escendere. A statue was deor^^ 
to him in the temple of Pompeios, which Tiberius was restoring. CordtiB 
exclaimed tunc vere theatrum perire. Quid ergo f non rumperetur supra 
cineres On. Pompeii constitui Seianumet in monumentis maximi impera' 
toris consecrari perfidnm militem? Gf. DCass. lyii 21 §3 yfho 
adds that after this many statues of Seianus were made by many, and 
panegyrics pronounced upon him among the senate and people, ib. 
Lviii 2 §§ 7 — 8 A. D. 29 it was decreed that the birthday of Seianus 
should be kept as a public feast; the number (if statues raised to 
him by the senate, the knights, the tribes and the grandees, was past 
counting; the senate and knights and people sent envoys to Seianus 
and Tiberius alike, prayed alike and offered sacrifices for both and 
swore by the Fortune of both, cl ib. 6 § 2. 8 § 4. ib. 4 § 4 a. d. 31 braz^ 
statues of Seianus and Tiberius were everywhere set up together, they 
were painted together, and gilt chairs were set up for both in the 
theatres: sacrifices were offered to the statues of both alike, ib. 7 §§ 1 — 2 
among other omens of the fall of Seianus : smoke issued from one of his 
statues; when the head was removed a great snake leapt forth: when 
a new head was placed upon the statue, and Seianus was about to sacrifice 
to himself (for such was his practice) on account of the omen, ekrope was 
found round the neck of the statue, ib. 11 § 2 * him, whom they used to 
adore and sacrifice to him as to a god, they now were leading forth to 
death.' The name of Seianus was erased from coins (Eckhel vi 196) and 
inscriptions Orelli 4033. Suet. Tib. 48 certain gifts granted by Tiberius 
to the legions of Syria, because they alone had worshipped no image of 
Seianus among the standards, ib. 65 Seianus, who was plotting a revolu- 
tion, he overthrew at last rather by guile and cunning than by imperial 
authority, although he saw both that his birthday was already kept as a 
state hoHday and that his golden statues were everywhere wor- 
shipped. 63 SEIANUS L. Aelius Seianus, son of the 

eques L. Seius Strabo of Volsinii (ver. 74 n. Borghesi oeuvres iv 436 — 444. 
v 86) and a lunia, adopted by L. Aelius Gallus third prefect of Egypt 
(Borghesi iv 444 seq.). In his youth he was in the suite of G. Gaesar 
who died Febr. 4 a. d. Shortly after the accession of Tiberius he was made 
colleague of his father, the praef. praet., and, when his father was en- 
trusted with the government of Egypt, he had the sole command of the 
praetorian guard, and gradually became the second personage in the 
state. His daughter was betrothed to a son of Claudius, afterwards 
emperor Tac. an. iii 29. iv 7. Suet. Claud. 27. DCass. lviii 11 § 5. In 
his way to the throne stood Drusus son of Tiberius and the children 
of Germanicus nephew of Tiberius. Having seduced Livia, wife of 
Drusus, he poisoned her husband a.d. 23 Tac. iv 3. 8. Suet. 62. 
DCass. LVii 22 § 2; and afterwards sued for her hand, but Tiberius 
discouraged the suit, as exposing Seianus to envy Tac. iv 39. 40. He 
fell 18 Oct. 31, when apparently at the summit of his greatness. See 
the character of him in Tac. iv 1 — 3. vi 8 (where he is called * son-in- 
law' of Tiberius- cf. Zon. xi 2 fin. DCass. lviii 7 § 6). Sen. de tranq. an. 
11 § 11 'You have filled the highest offices of state: have yon filled 
offices as great or unexpected or as universal as Seianus did? yet. on the 
very day on which the senate had escorted him, the people tore him to Of him, on whom gods and men had bestowed all gifts that 


ooold be brought together, of him, I say, nothing remained for the oxecu^ 

lioDer to drag away.' VeileioB Pateroulus, whose history ends a. d. 80, 

attributes (n 127 § 8. 128 § 3) to the favorite eyery excellence of body and 

mincL ex faoib toto obbe secunda for the expression 

cf. Stat. s. I 4 6 — 7 of the prael urb. proxima cervix poTwien* immenai, 

ib. V 2 47 ille secundus apex bellorum et proxima cassis, Symm. 

laud, in Yal. sen. i § 5 * most emperors soon feared as rivals qtios secun- 

do8 ereaveranV Nep. Pelop. 4 § 8 £remi haecfuit altera persona Thebis, 

itdtamen secnnda ita, ut proxima essct Epaminondae. AY. Caes. ix 

§ U Titus after his defeat of the Jews was made praef . praet. Thus 

/tones t<,ingens a principio, tumidior atque alter ab Augusto imperio On the praefectura praetoni as 'falling little short of imperial 

authority and power' (Herodian v 1) see Becker 11 3 289. Marcil. on Suet. 

Tit. i. add Eimap. p. 490 39 Didot * royalty without its purple.' On the 

power of Seianus as praef ectus see Tac. an. rv 2 he first made the office 

important by bringing the cohorts before dispersed through the city into 

one camp (cf. Burn Bome and the Campagna 61 — 2). ib. 7 Drusus, son 

of Tiberius, complained tTico^umt^Zto adiutorem imperii alium vocari 

tt qmntum super esse ut collega dicaturf ib. 40 Tiberius to Seianus *I 

^ only say, nihil esse tarn excelsmn^ quod non virtutes istae tuusque in 

me animus mereantur.^ Sen. ad Marc. 1 § 2 death the only escape from 

slavery inter Seianianos satellites, ib. § 3 suhactis iam ceruicibus omnium 

et ad Seianianum iugum adactis. Suet. Tib. 35 Seianus raised by Tiberius 

ad iummam potentiam not from good will, but as an accomplice of his 

plots against the family of Germanicus. DCass. lvii 19 § 7 Tiberius 

inade Seianus his counsellor and minister in all things, cf. lviii 5 § 1 

(cited on ver. 93). No wonder that portents (a ball of fire Sen. n. q. 1 1 

§ 3) were reported as announcing so great a fall. Macro enticed S. to the 

aenate-house by the bait of the tribunicia potesias DCass . lviii 9 § 4, and 

he was received with plaudits by the senators on that account 10 § 8. 


pan. and Suet. Ner. cited on 68. Tac. an. iii 70 a.d. 22 L. Ennius an 
eques was charged with treason quod ef f igiem principis promiscuum 
ttd usum argenti vertisset. Tiberius interposed his veto on the pro- 
Becution, though Ateius Capito with mock freedom complained that the 
senate ought not to be deprived of its right of passing sentence, nor ought 
60 great a crime to be unpunished. Prud. perist. x 299 — 300 from luv., 
Bpeaking of idols gtu)« trulla pelvis cantharus sartagines | fracta et 
li^uata contulerunt vascula. The noble protests against idolatry in Is. 
44andBaruch 6 suggested the patristic common place, * vessels for dis- 
honour ' made into gods, or from gods. See the collections of Gataker 
ady. ndsc. 11 19 p. 370, Oehler, Haverc. and Herald on Tert. apol. 12. 13. 
cf- Am. VI 14. URCEOLi III 203. jags or ewers, with one 

handle, to hold gelida or calda for drinking (Mart, xiv 105 u. ministra- 
}orii; ib. 106 an earthenware urceus. of. Petron. 74) ; of copper (Cat. r. r. 
J3 § 1) or earthenware (ib. § 3 in both places ureeus. Petron. 95) ; used 
'or preserving service-berries (Colum. xii 16 § 4), medlars (Pallad. iv 10 
§22), Q3id,melimela (ib. xiii 4 § 2) ; sometimes of silver (dig. xxxiv 2 21 
?'• 'decanters'); classed with paterae, calices, scyphi Paul, in 6 § 90 
^ § 86. Becker Gallus 11* 316. in 284. Many are preserved in the museo 
Borbonioo (Bein in Pauly s. v.). Lob. paralip. 34 and Curtius derive the 
word from ypxi?. pelves hi 277 schol. vi 441. afoot-pan, 

one of Corinthian bronze in Orelli inscr. 3838. one of silver, contain- 
ing ointment for the feet, in Petron. 70. Varr. 1. L v § 119 pelvis, 


pedelvis, a pedum lavatione* It was also nsed for washing np c 
Non. xy 4 sinus aquarius, in qua vcua perluuntur, sabt. 

a frying-pan, such as has been f onnd at Herculaneum, of the same si 
as those now in use (Rich s. y.) ; dig. xxxiy 2 19 § 12 of silyer; nsed 
melting rosin Plin. xvi § 55. Sidon. ep. yiii 14 compares the full 
of body reduced by mortification to com parched in quadam conscieni 
sartagine. matellab of. 1 131 n. Teuffel in Pauly 14 1=^ 

ly 1636. Plut. praec. ger. reip. 27 p. 820' * of the 300 statues of 
metrius Phalereus none suffered from rust or mould, but all were o^ 
thrown in his life-time ; the statues of Demades they melted down ^ 
a /j,Li as* What fate would haye befallen one who should haye done si^- '^ 
indignity to a likeness of S. but a few hours before, appears from Sen. ^< 
ben. Ill 26 PauUus, an expraetor, wore at dinner a ring bearing a head ^^ 
Tiberius. It happened that he sumpsisse matellam. Maro a blo(7^- 
hound, vestigator^ of the day, calling the company to witness admotO'^ 
esse imaginem ohsceniSy began to draw up an information. But a slav^/ 
watching the plot, had drawn off his master's ring, and displayed it on his 
own hand. 65 BCass. Lyiii 12 §§ 4 — 5 * as though they 

had been freed from some despotism, they voted that no one should mourn 
for him [Seianus] and that a statue of Liberty should be set up in the 
forum, and (a thing wholly without precedent) that a festival should be 
celebrated by all the magistrates and priests, and (which was no less xm- 
precedented) that the anniyersary of his death should be kept as a day of 
rejoicing both with horse races and baiting of beasts, by the members of 
the four colleges of priests and the flamens of Augustus.' ib. 13 §§ 2 — 3 
Tiberius refused to receive the deputation sent to congratulate hirn^ and 
even denied himself to the consul. Suet. Claud. 6 Claudius represented 
the equestrian order when it congratulated the consuls on Seianus' fall. 

PONE DOMi LAURUS as at a wedding vi 79 omentur 
posies et grandi ianua lauro. ib. 227 — 8. or on any occasion of rejoicing 
ib. 51—2 (cf. 47—8). ix 85. xii 91 n. Greg. Naz. or. 5 § 35 (i 170) * let us 
keep the feast, . . not festooning the streets with flowers, .... for so the 
gentiles keep holy day.' ib. 38 § 5 (i 665) *let us not crown our vestibules, 
nor decorate the streets.' Socr. h. e. iii 1 § 29 when lulian was entering 
a town, a crown (one of those with which they decorate streets), slung from 
pillars by ropes, alighted on his head. duo in capitolia 

MAGNUM CRETATUMQUE BovEM VI 47 (cL 61 — ^2). From Lucrct. [? Lucil.] 
ap. schol. cretatumque bovem duci ad Capitolia magna, Ov. ex 
P. IV 9 49 — 50 * now to decree thanksgivings to the gods for Caesar, alba- 
ve opimorum colla ferire boum.' Arr. Epict. 1 19 § 24 *Has a man been 
honoured with the tribunate? all who meet him congratulate him: 
one kisses his eyes, another his neck, the slaves his hands. He comes 
home, and finds lights burning; he goes up to the Capitol and offers 
victims.' cf. the rejoicings on Nero's fall DCass. lxiii 29 § 1. 
66 CRETATUM tauutlugly said; the napkin dropped by the praetor as a 
signal for starting in the circus was also cretata Mart, xii 29 9 : so too the 
toga of a candidate. Dark spots in the victim were rubbed over with creta 
[^creta seems to have been a kind of pipe-clay, as our chalk appears to be 
quite unknown in Italy, as well as our^int.' H. A. J. M.]. 
SEIANUS DUCiTUR UNCO ducltuT = dwdyerai Staveren on Nep. xix 4 § 3. 
Sen. ad Helv. 13 § 7 ducebatur Athenis ad supplicium Aristides. 
luv. xiii 245 nigri patietur carceris uncum. Aug. civ. D. iii. 27 
Behius et Numitorius unco tracti sparsis visceribus interirent. Uncus 
is the hook or drag, fastened under the chin, by which the corpses 



of convicts were drawn from the neighbouring career, where they had 
loeeD. straDgled, to the scalae Gemoniae, Prop, v = iv 1 141 bene cum 
^vum mento discusseris a no am. Suet. Tib. 61 every one executed 
imder Tiberius was cast out unco gtig tr actus; in one day twenty, in- 
cluding women and boys. ib. 75 some threatened the corpse of Tiberius 
"With the uncus and the Gemoniae ; some who had been left for execution 
on the day of his death, were strangled by their guards and exposed at the 
Gemoniae. Sen. de ira in 3 § 6 cadavera quoque trahens uncus, 
id. ep. 82 § 3 he who lies on perfumes is no less dead than he who rapitur 
unco. ib. 92 § 35 the sage fears no threats of outrage to his lifeless hmbs; 
wn conterretf inquit, me nee uncus nee proiecti ad contum^liam cada^ 
f «m laceratio foeda visuris. DCass. lviii 5 § 6 a. d. 31 when S. , after 
sacrificing in the Capitol, went down to the forum, his guard, not being 
able to follow him for the press, turned by the road leadmg to the career, 
and slipt and fell down the steps down which convicts were thrown; 
a bad omen for S. ib. 11 § 4 — 6 in the first instance, after the reading of 
the v«r&o«a epUtrda, S, was led to the career: the same day the senate 
met in the temple of Concord near the career, and seeing the temper of 
tbe people, and the quiescence of the praetorians, sentenced him to 

death; so he was executed and cast down the steps His children 

also were slain in accordance with a decree, the daughter, who was be- 
trothed to the son of Claudius, having first been violated by the execu- 
tioner, because a virgin could not without impiety be killed in the prison 
[cl Suet. Tib. 61. Tac an. vi 1 § 4]. His wife Apicata was not indeed 
condemned, but when she heard that her children were dead, and saw 
their carcases on the steps, went home, and put an end to her life. cf. 
Tac. 1. c. DCass. lx 35 § 3 a ghastly jest of L. Junius Gallio, Seneca's 
brother: *as the executioners used to drag those who were sentenced 
to death in the career with <}ertain great hooks to the forum, and thence 
hauled them to the river, he said that Claudius had been drawn up 
to heaven by a hook.* M. Sen. contr. 25 § 2 reliquiae praetoris unco 
trahebantur, YM. vi 3 § 3 M. Claudius [Glicia b. c. 237] was executed by 
order of the senate: spiritum extinxit, corpus contumelia carceris et detes- 
^an<ia Gemoniarum scalarum nota foedavit. ib. 9 § 13 of Q. Caepio ponti- 
fez max. corpusque eius funesti camificis manihus laceratum in scalis 
Gmoniis iacens magna cum horrore totius fori Romani conspectum est, 
M Obs. 116 B. c. 87 the people rifled the bier of Cn. Pompeius the father, 
corpus unco traxit. Tac. an. in. 14 a.d. 20 statues of Piso dragged to 
the Gemoniae, ib. vi 25 death of Agrippina, 18 Oct. 33, on which day two 
years before S. had died; the senate decreed a yearly offering to luppiter 
Capitolinus on the day, and Tiberius boasted that he had forborne to 
strangle her and cast her out on the Gemoniae cf. Suet. Tib. 53. Tac. ib. 
29 many suicides to avoid confiscation and to secure burial, which was 
teed to those who were executed. Suet. Tib. 54 Nero, son of Germani- 
cs, driven to commit suicide, when an executioner, professing to be sent 
hy the senate, dangled before him laqueos et uncos. DCass. lx 16 § 1 
^D. 42 men and women executed, and their bodies thrown down the 
steps; where were also exposed the heads of those who were executed out 
of Borne. Suet. Ner. 24 (quoted above 58). Tac. h. iii 74 a. d. 69 Flavius 
Sabinns was mutilated and beheaded, and his trunk thrown on the 
GevMniae, Plut. Galb. 28 a.d. 69 the headless corpses of Vinius, Piso 
and Galba, in consular attire, were left lying in the forum ; the head of 
Galba, after being paraded on a pike (27 § 1) was insulted by slaves and 
cast into the Sessorium, where the heads of those who were executed by 

^A TJNCUS. SBIASD3. [X 66-^ 

imperial order were tbrowu. cf. DCaas. liiv G§ 3. Lamprid. Comin. 
18 — y tiaulic litBn; cbaoted by the senate after the death at Gommodne 
SI Dob. I.D. m9 qui leiiaticm occidit, diicd trahatnr. ;ui innocenlfli 
occidit, tiDGO traliatnr. . . . qui langaini tuo non ptpercil, anflo trsi- 
hatQr. qui te occUiiyuB ftt!t, unco trahatar. caniifej: QDeo tiafaa- 

cadavtr tmoo trabatur. gtadiatorit cadaver uuoo tntllatur , , . . 
ferroffa, perraua- amiit! ciniemu^ unoo trahendnm. qui omtift ocHdit, 
nnco trahatur. qui omnem aetatfia oecidit, anco trnhatnr. qui 
vlrunuiut Mxnm aecidit, nuco trahatnr, etc. Henae the curee in Ov. 
I\i\»l<ii—icarHiJtcisquema>iupopnla plandeate traberiB | inficutgue 
tnU Doibiia uucna erit. A barbarous nickname was invented fat the 
e»eutioneTB Feat. p. 1U2 M. HA^OTBAHONES alii pitcalore4, alii, qni 
undo csdavera trabunt. The red-hot (7) hoak, used to torture the 
living (Am. n C fin. Prndeut. periat. v 73—* of Vinoentiua atridenlil^u \ 
laniatur oncisj, appeare to be different from that in the teit. C(. tbe 
anxiety of Nero that his eibola body sbonld be bunt to escape outrage 
(Snet. ii), tba throat of Goliath, the ends oF Abab and Jezebel eto. ; the 
treatment of Hector's corpse etc. ; the beads of traitors ou Temple Bar 
and London Bridge; corpses of English criminals himg in chains (Mot 
old oa t be cross, e.g. 
67 BPECTANDua DUass. LTiu 11 g 2 (eited on SB). Flin. pan. 33 g 8 eon- 
trasting Trajan's reign with Domitiau'a nemo e ipuctatore spectaoulum 
factas yiiiifras voljiplalet unco et igidbut fzptarit. DCaaa. lxv SO — X 
A.D. 69 the soldiers dragged VitaUina out of the dogs' kennel, where he 
was hidden, pinioned him, pat a rope about his neck, and dragged him to 
tbE forum of Augnstna, bufieting bun, plucking his beard, and mocMng 
him; as he bung down his head ibey pricked him under the force 
him to look np, he and bis statues were drawn to the prison; thence to 
the Gtmoiiia/, wboro he was hacked to pieces; Ills head was cut off and 
carried through the town, Tac. h. iii 84—5. Suet. Vit. 17 Casttub. 

oiUDBNT ouNsa cf, the scenes at the eseontioii of 
Bobespierre and other ohiefs oE the Terror. quae i,abu, quie 

iLLi vuLTug EKiT BentL on Fhaedr. iv 6 S seems rightly to imderstuid 
Zaira of the scom habitual to S. in his greatness (Inv. iiv 325). quis as in. 
quii fttTOT est etc. 68 kduquui AUtvi eunc HourHEK 

Bin. Tac. an. iv 71 t.n. S3 those whom S. condescended to notice were 
male alacrei, gm'itis in/austae amicitiae gravis eritus imminebat. Tl 1 §1 
A.n. 31 a friend ol S, , on the point of dying by his own hand, says: he 

Eiberins], who had taken H. bb his colleague and son-in-law, forgives 
nself ; celer't, gueiaper dcdieorafovere, eiim scelere iiisrctantur. miierivt 
lit ob amioitiamaocnsari, an amicam accusare, havd ditertvtrim. 
ib. 8 M. Terentiua in like manner confeaaed his friendship lor S. ea tn»- 
jiftfafcyunBeianiamlcitiamGeteri falso exuerant. ib. ID. 19 many 
executed for mourning friends or relations who had fallen. DCasa. Lvui 
10 S 4 when the vtrbosa epiitula waa read, some of those who sat near 8. 
rose up, not caring to share the same seat with him, whose friendship 
they had hut jnst before prized, g 7 after the whole was read (hey railed aj 
him, some froni fear and to cloke their fdendabip. ib. 12 %% 2 — S the 
EoldiflrH seeing tbemselTCB suspaeted in regard of their devotion to S.i 

tell to arson and pillage Nor was the senate calm; they viha had 

toarttd S, tcere sore troubled for /ear ofpuitiihmeiit: they who had accuaed 
or home witness against some, whose min they suspected was due not to 
T. but to a., were filled with dismay. Very few felt assured, ib. 11 hia 


68 69] FALL OP SEIANUS. 93 

relations aad friends and all others who had flattered him and moved the 
votes of honours for him. were put on their triaL Most of them were 
convicted for what had made them envied before, and the others sen- 
tenced them for measures which they themselves had before supported. 
Many who had been tried and acquitted, were accused again and con- 
demned, as having owed their former escape to his favour. In default 
of any other charge, it was enough to secure a man's punishment that he 
had been a friend of S.^ as though T. himself had not loved him and. 
so been the occasion of the devotion of the others to him. The very 
creatures of S. turned informers; for they had no difficulty, from their 
exact knowledge of those like themselves, in discovering and convicting 
them etc. lb. 16 § 6 after a while a kind of anmesty was proclaimed; T. 
declared that all were free to mourn S. or any one else who had suffered. 
cf. Suet. Tib. 61 interdictum ne capite damnatos propinqui lugerent. Con- 
trast the flattery of Yelleius a.d. 30 with the execrations of Valerius 
Maximus a.d. 32. Yell. 11 127 § 3 vii-um severitatis laetissimae, hilaritatis 
priscae, actu otiosis simillimumt nihil sibi vindicantem eoque adsequentem 
omniaj semperque infra aliorum aestimationes se metientem^ vultu vitaque 
tranquillum, animo exsomnem, ib. 128 § 3. YM. ix 11 § 4 Seeing all crimes 
outdone by the design of one single parricide, I hasten with affection 
more loyal than powerful ad id lacerandum. Who can execrate as he 
deserves one who essayed, abolishing every bond of friendship, to bury in 
bloody darkness the human race? More savage than Brennus and Han« 
nibal, S. aspired to seize the reins which our prince and father holds in 
his saving right hand. But the gods' eyes were awake, the stars main- 
tained their influence, altars and temples were fenced by a divine presence, 
nor did aught, that was bound to keep guard for that august head and 
the country, allow itself to slumber; above all the author and guardian 
of our safety by his divine wisdom provided that his most surpassing 
merits should not be overwhelmed in the general wreck of the world. So 
peace stands fast, the laws prevail, the even course of private and public 
duty is maintained unharmed. But he who, in violation of the covenants 
of friendship, plotted the overthrow of this happy state, omni cum stirpe 
sua obtritUfSf by the might of the Roman people, pays the penalty he has 
deserved in hell, if indeed he has found admittance even there. Sen. ep. 
55 § 8 Yatia, though rich and an ex-praetor, lived to old age, and was 
counted happy: Nam quotiens aliquos amicitia Asinii Galli, quotiens 
Seiani odium, deinde amor merserat, aeque enim offendisse ilium quam 
amasse periculosum /uit, exclamabant homines: *0 Vatia, solus scis 
vivereJ si quid mihi cbedis cf. 246. iv 63. found also in prose 

Plin. ep. ad Trai. 26=11 § 2. Fronto ep. ad Yer. 11 7 p. 135 Naber. 

69 SED QUO CECiDiT SUB CRiMiNE Suct. Tib. 61 Tibc- 
rius in his autobiography said that he punished S., quad comperisset 
furere adversus liberos Oermanici filii sui: though one son of G. was 
killed when S. was already suspected, and the other after his fall. Accord- 
ing to los. ant. XVIII 6 § 6 Antonia, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of 
Germanicus and Claudius, sent Pallas (luv. i 109 n.) to Capreae, with in- 
telligence of the plot, when S. had already won many senators and the army, 
cf. DCass. Lxvi 14 §§ 1 — 2, where observe the caution of Antonia. 
csciniT SUB CBiMiNE cadere often ■= to lose one's cause, be cast in a suit )( 
stare. ivl2 caderet sub iudice morum. Suet. 0th. 6 nihilque referre 
ah hoste in a^ie an inforo sub creditoribus caderet. Burm. on Quintil. 
deoL 379 pp. 11^—1 cites exx. of sub crimine with occidere, vincire, 
ktere poenam; reum sub hac culpa esse. For the phrase cadere causa 



[S 8J-71 ' 

Bee Dirligen miaartls and BrisiroD! in Cic. de or. i g; 
occurs three times, it is iutercLaiiged with Hltm pi^deri 
70 DEUioR IV 48 a. a word of the silver age. Uaaton Boissier revue dra 
deni mondes 15 Nov. 1B70 traces tha power of these infdrmers from 
Augastns to Domitian. Kein Criminalieclit 817^ — S2U cites BQthorities 
Irom Tilierius to lustinian. Geib GesclL d. rQiu. CriminaJprozesseB 521 
n. 73 coUetta the laws regulatinG the rewards of di^Iaiores, and dJBerimi- 
sates (pp. 3S0 — 2) those who came lorward to accnse in court from those 
who slmplj gave infuruiatiQa. The laci clattici for tlie time of Tiberius 
are Tao, an, i 73—1. ii 27—32. 50. in 25. 88. «. 19, iv 20—1. 9fl. 80. 
Sn, GG. 68- a. 71. VI 1 S9. 3. 1. 7. 18.30. Buet. Tib. IB. 53. 01. DCaaa. 
LVii 19. 21. Son. de ben. iii 2e § 1 accuwindi frtqMiu el paene publiea 
rabia, guae untni civiU bcllo graviia togatam civitatem ean/ceit : e:ce^e- 
batiiT ebrinniai lenao, limplicitai iocantium. niMl erat tutum. umnti 
Matviendi placebat occasio. nee iatn reoram exipirctabatur evenlia, mm 
etiel unui. Cf. Dirlisen mannale or Brieson. b. w. deferre, delalio, dela- 
tor, dtlaloriia. 70 QCibds indioibus, qdo tests 
rnouiviif VI 219 — SaO memit quo crimine eervui \ tuppUcimnt quit 
testis adesi; jutjdetulit? where foUowathe answer 222— 3ni[/«ieri[, 
ttto : \iie volo, tie inbeo : lii pro ratione volunlai; as lieie bene habei 
etc. The delator denounces, gives in the name of the accused often hf 
ononymona Ubdti ,- index is an approver or Mng'a evidence, one who 
betraya his aeoompUoeB; snch evidence was only received in the easa of 
lieinouB crimes, as conBpirncy, treason, argon, never in cases of repeltm- 
dae, ainbitua ete. ; generally indices were of the lower classes, esp. slaves; 
no senator conld be an index: rewards e.g. emancipation, and &ee pardon 
were often offered to any who would come forward as indieea Geib Crimi- 
nalprozess 101 — 6, Bein in Pauly index. [Aecon.] on Cia. divin. in 
Caee. § 31. Foi tbe ablative ind. teits cf. Caes. b. c. n 18 g 3 haee le oertis 
nnatiis, certis anctoribns c-amperisse. For the combination of ind. 
and tett. (a slave could not be a teilia] ef, Cic. p. Cluent % 38 nuflo teste, 
nvllo indice, Quintil. yii 2 g CI aduUeriuja obicit: qttia tustis? quit 
index? Tac. an. iii 10 niqas le accuiatorea, tM rernm indioes tt 
testes, ib. iv 28 index idtm el testis, ib. xv 65 adinngtre crimat, 
parlter indioem et testem faceret. Inatio. xxxi: 2 g9 art 

vel teste. In the case of S. 
ft 17 caniuratioidi indice) who' 
71 Kir. HonuM onereadmgUr-" 
■orttm, after a number ol qnes- 

xxvnSgliffuiR dixiiet line indio 
the index was Satrius Secuodus (Ts 
had been his creature. 
Cic. p. Cael. g 3t, where Orelli has 

I.TI11 y Tiberius wrote to Naecius Sertorius Macro appointing him pre- 
fect of the praetorians ; he prepared Memmius Reglilus one of the consuls 
(the other was a creature of S.) and Granicus Laco commander of tbe 
night police. Meeting 9. tronbled at not hearing from Tiberias, he privately 
assured him thnt the tribun'icia poteitrn was designed for him. When S. 
liad entered the senate-house (in the temple of Apollo Palatinns), Macro 
dismissed the praetorian guards of S. and the Beua,te to tbctr camp, shew- 
ing his commission and promising them a largess. He replaced them by 
vigilea, delivered the letter to the consuls, andproeeeded to the praetorian 
camp. ib. 10 Meanwhile the letter was read; it was Jong; no con. 
tinuons attack on S., but first some other topic, then a few words of cen- 
sure, then another indifferent matter, then further censure. At the olose 
it declared that two senators cunnected with S, ought to be punished, and 


lie himself kept in onstody. There was no downiight sentence of death 
on. S., T. fearing an outbreak. In order to secure himself on the way to 
Rome, T. summoned one of the consuls to his presence [ct Tao. an. vi 2. 
Suet Tib. 65]. Before the letter was read, S. was greeted with plaudits, 
and congratxilated on the prospect of the trihunicia potestas. As the 
Teading went on, perplexity and confusion seized the senators: praetors 
and tribunes surrounded S. Begulus called him, but he did not obey; 
not from contempt, for he was cowed, but from being unused to receive 
orders. When Begulus a third time, stretching out his hand cried, 
Stiamu, come hither; he meekly asked * Do you csill me ?' and rose from 
Ids seat. The senate with one mouth reviled him : yet because of his 
many adherents Begulus did not venture to put the question of his con- 
demnation to the general vote, but asked a single senator whether he 
should be cast into prison ; and so with Laco and the other magistrates 
led him to the career. Suet. Tib. 65 spe affinitatis ac tribuniciae potes- 
tatii deceptum inopinantem criminatus est pudenda miserandaque 
oratione. Drusus, son of Germanicus, then in prison at Bome, was to 
he raised to the throne ducem constitute if the emergency required it. 
The style of Tiberius was by nature or habit obscure and hesitating, and 
especially ambiguous when he desired to conceal his meaning Tac. an. 
1 11. IV 40. exx. of his despatches to the senate ib. in 35. 47. 52 — 4. 56. 
70 denouncing Sabinus; another thanking the senate for his punishment, 
and casting suspicion on Agrippina and Nero, v 3 — 5 against Agrippina 
and Nero, vi 2 — 3 against lunius GalHo and Sextius Paconianus. ib. 6. 7 
against Q. Servaeus and Minucius Thermus, the latter a friend of Seianus. 
ib. 9. 12. 15. 23 — 4. 25. 29. 47 where it is remarked as an exception 
it^lae in eos imperatoris litterae. Suet. Tib. 67. DCass. lviii 3 a.d. 
30 against Gallus, on the very day that he entertained him at the impe- 
nal table, ib. 6 a.d. 31 Seianus kept in alarm by letters against his 
Mends, ib. 8 § 4. 21 § 3 the denunciations sent to Tiberius, and evi- 
djBnce extracted by torture, were passed on to the senate, whose only func- 
tion was to condemn, ib. 24 § 2. 72 capreis 93 n. 
BENE HABET /coXcSs %x^i. Mlihlmann haheo col. 1055 cites Ter. Phorm. 
429 bene habent tiU principia, Cic. Liv. (4). Sen. (2). Add Prop. 
v=iv 11 97. VM. V 10 § 2 Aemilius Paulus, who lost two sons shortly 
after his triumph, had prayed that any misfortune provoked by his 
excessive prosperity might fall wholly upon his own house; accorcUngly 
he bore his bereavement calmly, saying, quapropter benehabet. M. Sen. 
contr. 34 § 10 p. 329 4 * strain the rack still tighter, tighter yet: that will 
^, hold there, bene habet, sic tene,' Stat. Th. xii 338. Lact. vii 1. 
So bene est. bene agitur. Hieron. adv. Bufiru 11 24 bene quod — . 
JfOi PLUS INTERROGO VI 223. Hor. s. II 3 188 • rex sum.^ nil ultra 
quaere plebeius. 73 turba remi The annalist Cassius 
Hemina in Diomed. i p. 384 3 K. * the shepherds gave Bomulus and Bemus 
an equal share in the government.' The poets, for the convenience of 
tbe metre, often name Bremus as founder. Catull. 58 6 magnanimos Bemi 
nepotes. Prop, ii 1 23. v=iv 1 9. 6 80. Pers. i 73. Sulpic. 19 Eemuli 
alumnos. Stat. s. ii 7 60. v 2 18. Mart, xii 3 6. Prud. c. Symm. ii 
946. Diodor. Sard, in anth. Pal. ix 219 3 darv "Pdfioio. cf. Unger anaL 
Propert. 62 seq. sequitur fortunam ut semper et odit 
DAMNATos the burden of Ovid's works written at Tomi e.g. ex P. i 5 
84—6. 9 15 — 6. 55. ii 3 5—94. 6 23—4 turpe sequi casum, fortunae 
cfdere amicum^ \ et nisi sit felix, esse negare suum. tr. i 5 25 — 38. 
Friedlauder i' 138»— 9 has exx. of the terrible consequences of disgrace at 



eonrt. See e.g. the entire desertion of Agrippina after she had lost favour 
with Nero DCass. lxi 8 § 6. The writings of M. Ahout in 1870 form i^ 
lively commentary on this verse. 74 nobtia. as at 

Borne, so at Yolsinii, in the temple of Nortia, an Etruscan goddess, 
nails were driven yearly into the wall (Cincius ap. Liv. vii 3 § 7), a 
national calendar, and a symbol of the inevitable march of time 0. Miiller 
Etrusker ii 329 — 331. On an Etmsoan patera Athrpa (i. e. Atropos, Gr. 
for Nortia, ie. ne-vortia Schwenck Bhein. Mas. 1842 p. 446) is seen 
driving a nail into a wall Miiller ib. 331. Several altars and votive 
stones of Nortia are extant ib. 54. Seianti, Seiantial, Saintial occnr as 
Etrascan names ib. i 418. inscr. by Festns Avienns cir. ▲.n. 450 in 
Fabretti p. 742. Wemsdorf-Lemaire p. L m. v 525 1. 3 Nortia, te vene* 
ror lare eretus Yulsiniensi. TertnU. apoL 24 and ad Nat. n 8 cites 
Volsiniensium Nortia among the gods who took rank in Italy by 
municipal consecration. Martian. CapeU. i § 88 identifies Sors, Nemesis, 
Tyche, Nortia. So the schol. makes Nortia =Fortuna. Seianos had in 
his house a statue of Fortune, said to have belonged to Servios Tullius, 
which turned its back on him just before his fall, as he was offering 
sacrifice to it DCass. lviii 7 § 2. PUn. viii § 197. Henzen suspects the 
inscr. in Orell. 1854 magrme deae Nortiae. tusco he 

was born at Vulsinii Tac. an. iv 1. ib. 3 municipali adultero, vi 8. 


Tao. an. iv 1 Seianus so bewitched Tiberius, ut obscurum adverstu alios 
sibi uni incautum intectumque efficeret. Suet. Tib. 65 et oppressa 
coniuratione Seiani nihilo securior aut constantior ; for the next nine 
months he did not leave his villa lovis. As early as a.d. 23 S. had 
plotted the death of Tiberius DCass. lvii 22 § 2 rbv yipovra pqi(rra 
fjL€Tax€(.pt.€T<T$ai. Tiberius, born 16 Nov. 42 b. c, wanted a month and two 
days of seventy- two years of age. For the expression * the age of the em< 
peror' = 'the aged emperor' cf. iv 81 venit et Grispi iucunda se- 
nee t us. Sulpic. 48 sententia dia Catonis. 76 hac ipsa 

the command of the praetorian guard which was devoted to him, and had 
won the senate by favours or promises or fear, so that he was regarded as 
supreme; a.d. 31 he with Tiberius was appointed consul for five years, and 
both alike, when they came to Bome, were to be received in state, cf. Tac. 
an. IV 2. Suet. CaL 12 S. had been suspected of aiming at the throne some 
time before his fall. Tac. an. in 29 a.d. 20 the daughter of S. is be- 
trothed to the son of Claudius ; by which Tiberius polluisse nobilitatem 
familiaevidebatury sn8^eGi\im.qne iam nimiae spei Seianum ultra 
extulisse, ib. iv 1 fin. a.d. 23 summa apiscendi libido;... par ando regrio, 
ib. 3 S. removes one by one those who stand between him and the throne, 
and invites Livia ad coniugii spem^ consortium regni. ib. iv 68 a.d. 
28 the hopes of S. ib. vi 1 § 3 after the fall of S. Yitellius was accused 
of having offered the keys of the treasury, of which he was keeper, and 
the military chest to the conspirators, ib. 8 novissimi consilii . . . . in- 
sidiae in rem publicaniy consilia caedis adversum imperatorem. 
On the instability of popular favour see DCass. lxv 1 §§ 1 — 2. 
77 EX QUO suFFRAGiA NULLi vENDiMus ou the bribery which corrupted 
elections in the later years of the republic see Nep. 25 6 § 2 Atticus ab- 
stained from seeking office because it could not be won without a breach 
of the laws in torn effusi ambitus largitionibus. Pint. Coriol. 14 § 3. Caes. 
28 § 2. Sen. ep. 115 § 10. 118 §§ 2—4. App. b. c. ii 19. 23. Luc. 1 178— 
180 hinc rapti pretio fasces sectorque favoris \ ipse sui populus 


kiaUsque ambitus urbi \ annua yen all refer ens certamina eampo, 
Petron. 119 39 — 50 n. nee minor in eampo furor est, emipiique Qui- 
rites I ad praedam strepitumque Uteri suffragia vertunt. \ venal is 
popalus, venalis euriapatrum. I est favor in pretio ete.. Suet. Gaes. 19 
Gas. even Cato consented to bribeiy as against Caesar. More than fifty 
trials for ambitus are on record. Cicero defended L. Licinius Marena, 
P. Vatinins, C. Plancius, L. Sempronius Atratinus, M. Cispius, T. Annius 
Mflo, P. Sestius, M. Aemilias Scaurus Eein in Pauly i* 840—6. id. 
rom. Criminabrecht 701 — 33. Sil. xv 734. 78 effudit curas Sen. de 
ir.n35 ^S^omnemque curam sui eff undent, id. ep. 11 § 3 quasi omnem 
verecundiam effuderint. Caesar (Drumann iii 655. 6S0 — 4. Hock 
1(1) 191 — 2. 199 — 201) assumed the right of recommending candidates for 
election Cic. Phil, vu § 16. ad Att. xrv 5. 6. Suet. 41 who gives one 
of his circulars, ib. 76. DCass. xlui 14 § 5. 45 § 1. 46 — 7. 51 he re- 
served to himself by a law the nomination of half the magistrates, but in 
effect chose all. Eutrop. vi 25 = 20. The form of election was still kept 
npB.c. 44 Cic. ep. fam. vii 30 § 1. Phil, n §§ 79—84. The triumvirs 
received from the comitia the power of nomination App. b. c. rv 2. v 73. 
DCass. XLVi 55 § 3. xlvii 2 § 1. 15. xlviii 35. 53. Augustus (Hock i (1) 
410—1) made a show of canvassing for his friends and voted as a citizen, 
Imt in fact appointed whom he would Suet. 40. 56. DCass. lii 20. 30 
§ 2. Lra 21 §§ 6—7. Lv 34 § 2. lvi 40 § 4. The first work of Tiberius 
(Hock I (3) 51 — 5) as emperor a..d. 14 was that ordinatio comitiorumy 
(ptam manu sua seriptam divus Augustus reliquerat (Veil. 11 124 § 3, who 
with his brother were praetors, candidati Gaesaris^ the last who were 
nominated by Augustus, and the first by Tiberius ib. § 4). Tao. an. i 15 
Lips. exc. E 'then first were the elections transferred from the Campus to 
the senate: for to that day, though matters of importance were done by 
the will of the princeps, yet something was left to the inclination of the 
tiihes. nor did the people complain of the loss of its rights except with 
an empty outcry, wMle the senate, released from the necessity of bribes 
ftnd degrading entreaties, willingly accepted the boon, Tiberius limiting 
himself to the recommendation of four candidates, sine repulsa et ambitu 
ietignandos/ ib. 81. u 36. iv 6. DCass. lviii 20 Fabric, the magis- 
trates were still for show presented to the people. DCass. lix 9 §§ 6—7 
i.D. 38 Gains (Caligula) restored the elections to the centuries and tribes, 
to the alarm of all men of sense, ib. 20 §§ 3 — 5 a. d. 39 owing to the 
lokewarmness of the voters, and lack of candidates, he revoked the boon. 
The people stUl however assembled, and the new magistrates, after the 
nsnal prayers and other ceremonies, were proclaimed by a magistrate 
and herald Suet. Dom. 19. Plin. ep. iii 20 a lively picture of contested 
elections in the senate, id. pan. 92 Trajan voted for Pliny in the senate 
and proclaimed him in the Campus. Capitolin. M. Ant. phil. 10 § 2 
M. Aurelius eomitiis ttsque ad noctem frequenter interfuit. Vopisc. Tac. 
7 g§ 2 — 3. In the third century the lex lulia de ambitu was dormant in 
the city dig. xlviii 14 pr. quia ad curam principis magistratuum creatio 
pertinet, non ad populi favorem. cf. Eein in Pauly 11 658 — 60. On 
candidati Cctesaris see H. F. Stobbe in Philologus xxvii 88. xxviii 648 — 
700. The courtiers of the empire exult in the loss of freedom Veil. 11 126 
§ 2 semota e foro seditio, ambitio campo. Symm., Francof. 1816, 
landes in patres 3 p. 40 let us compare our present state with antiquity. 
ilia trihus evoeet libertina ac plebeia faece pollutas, nos patricios favi- 
sores ; classes iUa, nos prineipes. The voters of our day are what the 
candidates were of old. intellegamus nostri saeculi bona: abest eera turpis^ 

juv. II. 7 

(ttriWHo eormpta elimlilamm oauii, Bttella yenaliB. inWr aemttumtC 
principa eotaitia trataigiaiUiT. Anson, grat. act. g 13 coniul ego, imfw' 
Tatar Augutte, mnnere tvjt, non jwuus latpta neque campion, non ju^roffiB, 

diribitore nil prpigi. Amm. ht G J 6 'the tribes have long enjoyed leianra 
and ihB centuries peace, there aie no contests of votes, bnt tbo EecLmtj 
of Nnma's age hasreCumeii.' Mameitin. giat. act. Inlian. 16 aeq. 

Claud, bell. Gild. 96—103 ille dia milti popalm, qui praefuit orbi, \ qui 
trabeaB at Bceptra dabat ■ ■ - | nunc inhanaruM, egens , ■ . | obieiH 
diierimtn habei . . | . . dixbitandaqat pauci | praescribuni alimenta dia, 
AMca being in the enemy's hand. 79 imfebihu fuosi 

dictataraliipB, conanlehips, praetoritbips, pTovincial govemoTsliipB. 
FikBCES 35. T 110. VJ1I 260. Hor. ep. i 6 63 ol an influential elector cai 
fiber hie fasoeB dabit. Luor. tii 99fi — 7 petere a popvlo fasoee . . .] 
petfTi imperinm. From the beginning of tbe tepnblio the oonaol osed 
to lower his fasees before the people, a eonteBsioii that bis majesty waa 
inferior to theirs Lit. u 7 § 7. VM. iv 1 S 1. leoionbb 

" ' ' ' " "; alflo military tribnnates, two thirdB of 

TO 6 §9. «30ga, OMNIA an 

emmtemtion of soveral particulars is often oloBed by alia, ceUra, omnia, 
reUqva, without H Madvig § 4S4 n. 1. Kritz on Sail. C. 30 § t So raUn. 
■KavTo. tA rixaura Heind. on Flat. Gorg. E07''. Our et eeUra il lan 
Phaedr. it 4 36 vaitetn imionei ptdiseqam at cetera. 


the importation of com from Sardinia, Sicily, provincial Africa and 
Egyp'. "ith the regulation ol tho market price and Uie free gifts of oom 
or money, to which the dangerons city population (containing more than 
half a nullion of panpers) waa accufitomed, caused a great drain on the 
state exchequer Hiick i (2) 138 — 111. In the monnmentum Anoyranum 
o. 16 Augustus records hie generoBity in this matter, as in that of games 
{of. HSck tb. 144 — 6) c. 33 see Mommsen ad locc Too. an. l 8 populum 
Bniiona...peiieiii. ib.3v36 a.d. 64 Nero abandoned tbe intention ol 
making a tonr through tbe East: haec .... plehi volerUia faete Tolnp- 
tatum cnpidine, tt quae praecipaa aura eat, rei frnmantarias 
anguttiai, li abelet, metaenli. id. oist, it 38 a.ii. 70 false rumours of an 
insnrreoUon iu Africa, when the com fleet was detained by atrees of 
weather, Eolsu! alimenta in die> ntercari aalitam, cni una es re pub- 
lioa annonao cura. Bee Lips, elect, i S. admirand- n 10. Marqusrdt 
nr 2 87—108. Mommsen die ram. Tribus 178— 20X, Bein in Psuly 
l» 1081—8 annona. tv 777—783 largitio frumcntaria. O. Hirsehleld in 
Fbilologus Eiii 1 — S6 on the administration of tbe com supply. 
Mommsen in Hermes it 364 — 370 on the praefecti frvmenti dandi. Ma 
combination paneia et circeneee was proverbiaJ. of. los. ant. in 1 B 16 
some tegretlad tbe death of Gains (Caligula), 'being captivated, as the 
manner of the vulgar is, with Rpeotacles, and exhibitions of gladiators 
and distribntiona of meat.' DChrye. or. 32 i 668 B ' it is reported Hiat 
some one once exclaimeiii What can one eay of tbe populace of Alexan- 
dria, who only need io have bread in good store provided for tbam, 
and a Bpeetacle of horaei, as caring for nothing else?' Fronto 
princ. hist, ad fin. p. 310 Naber 'It appears to be acoDBummate stroke cJ 
policy in the emperor not to neglect even actors and the other players of 
slBge or circus or amphitheatre, as knowing pop-alum Eomanum dua- 



ig C[aam seriii probari : maiore damno lerin, graviore inviii^ 1 
'Mglrgi: miraui acTibuii ilimTitii congiaria quam speetacula exptti: 
" framentariam vtodo plebem singtllatim plarari ac nominatini, 
» wiirerjum [popTt/iim]. 81 cibcknbeb »i 195 = 197 

. JtoiBe Simam cirmt capit. in 223. n 87, Tin 39 n. 117—8 parte 
nminvribia illU { 7m satnraiil nrbeni cireo ncmaeqTxe Tscnntem. 
n 141, XI 63. ziv 20s. On the large sums spent by AnguEtns in shows 
•n Saet. 43. DC&bd. lit 17 3 5 PykdeB, when Tebiiked hj Angnetu 
bis qQRirela with Bathj-lliiB, 'it is for your interest, Cuesar, that the peo^ I 
pis should dtrvote their leiBOTB to UB.' cf. Maor, bbI. 11 7 g 19. Tftc.tot ( 
J9 nils ths kiifrionalit favor it gladiatoram iqiiommq^ue etrtami'sa 
spedll Ticea of Bome, inbred from the womb ; athletics engrossed, the 
Dnid, leanng no room for higher pnranitE : few tallied of an; other lopio 
itliome or in the leotnre-roDm ; even protessors curried favour with their 
cliffi bj feii^in; an interest in sport. At Constantinople alsa the ciicen- 
nan games were the ' life ' of the many Greg. Naa. or. 30 g 12. After 
UvM had been repeatedly eaoked by the barbarians, amid famine u 
pestilenra, the first request ol the few remaining nobles was for circensi 
gtmsB Salvian. de gnbem. Dei vi 15. See Friedliinder 11^ 151 — 46B fnrafl J 
tthtiiBtive treatment of the anhjecl;. cf. Mait. ni 7 8 — 10. vni 11 6— & ' 
immian. ixnii 4 28 — 31 e. g. hi omne, qvod vh'unt,viT\o «( leiieria intpm- 
duHt tt tptcCaeuiii. eisqve iemplumet habitacuhim et contio et onpi- 

a Kui.Toa laa. an. it 74 a.i>. 28 of the conrtiers of S. qaidam male 
aheret, quibvi infmutae amiciliae gravis ixitui imminebat. ib. ti 1 
" ' -2 a bold friend of S, who anticipated his sentoDce by snicide, 
KieiQB. g 3 P. ViteUina vha stahbed himself with a penknife (ct Suet. 
TttelL 2); Pomponias Secimdns, who survived Tiberius; Aelins Qallna. 
a the children of 8. (cf. DCbbe. i.yiii 11 § 5). g 6 the one oonsnl. Trio, 
HtEsed his colleague Begulus of slnelmeEs in crushing the o^omplices of 
S. Regains accused Trio in return of being himself a conspirator [cf. 
DCoBS. LTiiT 9 g 3). ib. 7 Minncius, who was the more pitied, as baimg 
borne meekly the friendship of S. ; yet after condemnation he tamed 
informer, ib. 10 lolins Marinns, formerly a tool of B. ih. 14 Geminins, 
■ boon companion of S, ib. 19 a. n. 33 inritalvaqae evjipliciit cuncCot, 
fvi eareert attiTubanlnr acaaati locietatii cum Seiano, neeari ivbct. 
joeuit immensa strages, omnis eexta, omnii aelai, inluitrei ignnbiUg, 
£iptrti out aggeTati. neqne propinqaii out anaci» adtittsre, inlaeriman, 
j M tittn quidtja diatiw doiohir. led eiraimieeti aiitodea et in maerortm 
" ettiuMqHe inlenti corpora putre/acta adtectabantar, dnm in Tiberim 
trahBrantar, tibi JImlantia aiil rtpis adpiiha nnn creinare ijuwipiam, 
1UM ermtingere. ib. 3(}a.i>. 34 Lentulns Gaetnlicns, wbo bad promised 
Us daughter to the Bon of S., was accused, but escaped, being the only 
eomieiion of S. who was spared, ib. 38 a. 11. 35 Fuldniua Trio. Bnet. 
■Rb. 55 cum plurimorum clade AeliMia Sriamim {percuHt). ill. 81 in 
Dntne gerna cnidelilatit crupit, . . . cam .... Seiani familiaTes atque 
etiam nolos persequeretvT : pott cuius exitum vel taeniiinmiu txtitit. 
Gains (Calignla) professed to bum the private informations, libeUi, ogainBt 
the friends of 8. but afterwards brought them forward, defending fto 
severitT of Tiberias as necessary id. Cal. 30, cf. 12. DCbsb. lix 6 % S. 
Pint, de amicor. molt. 7 p. 96ii, DCass, tviit 13 S§ 1—3 the popnlaod 
slew u it met them the friends of 9. who had abased tbeir greutness; 
the praetorians, jealous of the confidence shewn to the rigili-t, set fire to. 
hooses and fell to pillage. Those who bad coiurted S., those who had 


P 81-85 

egro positam ait demi- 
n greal nnmberH into Ihb 

■ocnsed or borne icitnesa BguiaBt others to please Lim, were panic-stric^ecu 

" ' ' ' 's relations, fricDds, flatterers, and tlioae who had moved the 

vote hiin hononrg, were put oq their trial; some who hod been 

acquitted were again tried, on the ground tliat thaj owed their esoapa to 

his laTour ; the mere tact that one hod btien a friend of S. xtood in lien of 

all proof of gnilt; his own creatures enileavonred to eareen themselves hj 

aoouaing others, ib. 16 gg 1 — S most of (be accused committed snicide. 

Senators and knights and ladies were crowded into the cnccer, and either 

despatched there or thrown headlong Irom the Capitol, ib. 16 S§ S—7 

guilt; and innoi^ent Buffered alike. Once Tiherioa declared that any one 

was free to mourn fur S.; bat Eboitl; iLfterwarda the execntions were 

regnmed. ib. 19 aonie friends of S. were epared, as L. Seianns the praetor 

1 H. Terentins a knight, who boldl; avowed bis friendship for the 

lea favorite, and defended it by the example of Tiberina. ib. 25 Sg 2 — 

. D. 35 Fulciniuu Trio, who had served B, as an informer, anticipated 

condemnation b; snicide. 

82 uioNA Ksi Toasictn-t Qaintil. : fi g 43 telU ns that some regarded 
such a eoMTodielio in adieclo (the epithet 'great' with a diminative) aa a 
■olecism vitium, quod fit per quantitattm, ul " ' 

I ermit gut aoloscisnoini patent, quia pro noniiiu 

I Mulum. Apnl. mag. 7* calls a false accuBer tat. 

' The fonn/om. is aleo used by Vitrnvias and Froi 

\ to be affected in the silver age, and have passed ii 

e languages ver. 173 n. The metaphor lay very near cf ■ vi 
In snob a devouring fnmace perished the friends of Livia (Suet. Tib. 51), 
Agrippina ftac. an. iv g2) and Germaniona (ib. 68; see esp. 69 fin. for 
the universal temr). So Oaiofl (Caligula) prosecuted nmny uu the soue 
of friendship for his former victims (DCass. lix 28 § 8) ; the ease of Le- 
judns, his brother-in-law and intended successor ^b. 22 §g 6—9) ii an 
eiact parallel to this of S.; the soldiers received a donative as for a 
victory, and three swords were dedicated by the emperor to Mars Ultor. 
ui the only instance of this form in luv. 

83 BBUTimcs UBua Bratidius Ni^^r. a famous orator of the day, aodile 
X.D. 22, when he accused C. Bilauus Tac. an. tii 66 Brutidiutn artSxa 
himestii copioium et, >i rectum Her pergeret, ad ciaritiima quaeqat iEuram 
Jeatiaatio extimalabal, dwn aequalet, dtin laperioret, pnttremo tuarmet 
ip»e tpet anttire parat : qaod -multoa etiam bonoa peituia dedit, qui iprttit 
quae tarda cum aeeuritate, praemaiura vel cum eiilio properont, words 
which seem to imply that Bratidius incnxred some hazard by thus aerving 
the ends of S. IlCass. lviii 12 g 3 notes that many who had accused the 
victims of S. were themselves accused after his fall. He described the 
death of Cicero and the exposnre of his head M. Sen. snas. 6 gg 20 — I 
pp. 31—5 Bu. cf- id. contr. 9 g§ 35—6 pp. 130- 1 (he was a pnpU of 
Apollodorus). Cf. Biicheler in Khein. Mas. 3 Folge It 29o du the double 
form of the name Brutidius and Bruttedins. An 
1 14n. uiRTis iniu in the campus Morliua, near the 
portions reaching from the porta fontinalia on the Quirinal to the saepta 
and diribitorinm. Burn Borne and the Campagna 314 — B. Liv. uxv 10 g 
12. XL 45 g 8. 84—5 eciM UMBO vicma Mb 
FOEMis ExioAT i-iix UT HALE DEyGHSiTS-tbe contest betwceu A. and Ulixes 
for the arms of Achilles was a commonplace of rhetoric vu 115 comedtre 
dvcet : auryia Cu pallidjii Aiai. Greek declamations ol Antisthenea 
are extant on the subject. Forcius Latro also declaimed on it in hil 
school, from whom his pupil Ovid m, xiii burrowed (M. Sen. contr. 10 g 8 



p. 136 Bq.)- BrntiiUos must also bare enpoused tho sHe of A. in this ] 

emtroveraj: he passes alocg pale for fear of tbe miglity furnace wbinh I 

ie^oanA S. ; hut the speaker in the text feigns concern for kii dearfritiiM \ 

(neliB), threatened vith the vengeance of A., whem he has bd feeblT da- I 

landed in the schools (Modvig ; Hertzberg udds that Brntidiue ma; asn 1 

been one of those who limidlj raised their voice on behalf of S. iuthesenatei I 

S, i> the A. ill- defended, nho avenges bimBelf on hie lukewarm advocate, J 

^mdng ovec hie terror from the other world. Hertzberg gives the text to 1 

BrntMioB; bnt the transition would then be too abmpt). gQ 1 

im ucET IH Bipi ths body was thrown down the scalae Oemoniae. out- I 

raged far three days by the populace, and then cast into the liver DCasSi I 

"nillfS; BO SabinuB before ib. 1 g 3: so many of the friends of S: I 

tderwuds ibid. IS § 3. cf. \.% 35 g 3. the corpses of all the Friends of B. 1 

^ were exeented were cast oat in the forum and then thrown I 

into the river Tad. an. vi 19 (cited on ver. SI), id. hist. i 19 (outragi I 

dose Id Galba's corpse). Plin. h. n. viu g 145 a dog remained near it« 1 

mMter's body on the icalae, to whose month it carried food offered 

ijihe erowd; when the body was thrown into the river, the dog tried to 

Biimorl it. Baet. Tib. 71 cries of the people Tiberium in Tiberim.' Lam- 

ptid. Gomm. 17 § 1 the people demand that Commodna' corpse should 

lj« dragged with the uncus and cast into the Tiber. On Ang. 7 132S 

1b< bodies of Oermans and other adherents of Luais of Bavaria were 

diimterred, drag^d through Bome and then thrown into the Tiber. 

ciLOEatis IT 60. Blomf. ^oss. Aesch. Ag. 85S, 

ciEBJBis HOSTEM Sucl. Calig. 7 Neronem et Dnuwm 

malm Tibtrio cHiainante hostes iudi^avit, 87 vioEisi sbbvi, I 

HI ens nEGEt let oar elavea see ua kick tbe traitor's ooi^se, lest any of | 

tbea leimse us of slackness in giving proof of loyalty. On the charge ol I 

IrsMon dig. iLvm 4 7 g 2 eervi qaoqac drferenlet audiuntur, et quidem iti 1 

dominoB suds. Otherwise slaves were Heverel; punished for betraying I 

thflir fflasters cod. 1 11 ft— 8 g 2. Tac. an, ti 30 vetere lenatat eonsalto 

Jvarttio in caput domini prohibebaiar, a rule which Tiberius evaded hy 

Ofdering that the slaves should first be porchased by the actor pitblicua. 

ib. ni 36 libertiqtte etiam ae servi pairono vel domino, mm vocei, mm 

aiBDB intemptarent, ultra metuebantuT. ib. 67. iv 10. 11. 29. xui 10.- i 

Plin. pan. 43 slaves are now again dutiful: verentur et parent et dotainit d 

liahtttt. rum tnim iam lervi noitri principii oniict, led noa mmua, nee patmf M 

fatriae alienii in nianeipiia eariorem quam eivibta >iiii credit, evutet M 

loDDsatora domestico liberiiiti uno^u^ lalutit publicae ligno illud, itt I 

•ie dixeriiR, servile helium tmtulisti. in qua non mintu lervit qvam 1 

ijmiiijr pracsftliilj : nos eaim seeuros, ilUii bonoi fecMi, we remembar M 

Beaatixa priiKtpem ilium in capita dominorum aervoi eiibomantem tnon- m 

itMmUmque crimtna qnae tamqiiam delata puniret. el. Baet. Tib. 61 M 

OMtfni delalontm Jidei abrogata. DCass. lvii 19 % 2. Claudius punished ^ 

many alavea who had thus plotted against their masters under Tiberiiul I 

and QaiuB id. lx 13 g 2; yet shortly after Meesolina and Narulssna werft I 

allowed to revive the abuse ib. 15 g B- B8 S 1- lsvii 1 § 3. tiviii 1 3 S I 

BomitiBii and Nero pnniah each stave informers. See Oeib Oesch. d. I 

lom. Criminalpc. 142. 348—69. 616—7. 87—8 w I 

IBS cKRvicE OBStracTi coHiNDM iBAHjiT Plant. Poen. ni E 45 obtorto 1 

eollo ad prarlorem tcahor. VM. ii 1 S 5 in ius i-uranii mofroTumt I 

ctirpui fiut allmgere tion .permiserunt. Tac. an. iv 21 trabere in inl I 

Urgulaniam. ib. 70 trabebatur dainnalvi, qtiantam obducta veite et I 

Bitiictis faucibua ititi polerat, ciuiitiluiit. Bulp, Sev. ep. 3 g 1 si I 


ad praftorit trihuiial imlo dolore 
B. cf. Britaim. 88 one of 33 spondsii 

a luv. in 31 (if the numbei' the final word in a tilajllable or tetrasj-IlA- 
ile, and the 4tb foot is a doct;! : one ui 273 eudu nith a mouosylloljle, 
ue y 3S with three spondtea Lnpna G, 

ABf 81CDT HEUSC8 1 73 D, (on the UHB of tLo EccoQil per- 
il 130. Friedlander i" 315—9. Tac. ac. ly 41 a.d. 25 S. 
ended TiboriuB to retire from Rome, lest bj forbidding the crowd* 
which throDged hia honae, aisiduoi in domum coeUa arcendo, he might 
weaken Ms inflaenoe, or by permitting them, awake BUBpi<!ioii. Again, 
all approach to the emperor would be through him ; he would escape envy 
bjoeasing to hold morutng leviSes, adempta laltilantium tvrba, and 
would by aacrifi-oing the shadow of power seize the sabstaDce. ib. 74 
i.. s. 23 TiberiuH and S., at the ocgeut petition of the senatore, qnittad 
Capreae for the neighbouring coaxt. Senators, knights, commons, 
Soaked to the spot, and brikid the insolent slayes of S., ic}io jcom ■ 
harder of aeeeii than his maatcr, to procure them admission. The tool ' 
HpeoCacle of their elayerj pampered bis pride. Night and day they lay 
pell-meU on the fields or on the beach, Kaiting on tht eaprict of tumkiyt, 
until the; were ordered home, those on whom be bad not deigned to 
waste a word or a look, !□ great alarm, ib. vt 3 i. s. 32 H. Terentiiu, an 
eqnes, aoouHed as a friend of S., Said in the seoate: the aeqnaintcuioe k 
of bis very freedmen and porters was au objeiit of ambition pro magnifito 
accipitbatuT. DCass, Lyn 21 g 4 ^ o. 22 ' among other notables the very 
coQBuls naed of ten to pay him court in the iHornin^, and conanlted 
"him both on all private claims which tbey intended to urge upon Tiberias, 
and alao upon any urgeiit pnhlic bnsiaeBs; in a word, from this tinui 
nolinag of this kind was done withont him.' ib. lviii h%2 t.a. 31 'then 
were eager straggles about his door, as men were afrsid not only to absent 
themselves altogether, but even to appear among the last; for every word 
and nod was exactly noted, especially in the principal men,' g§ 3 — 4 
touchiness of upstarts, g 5 on a festival a couch in the audience cbamhei 
of S. was broken down by the multitude of visitors. 
SASEBE TANTUNDEU XIV 207 n. ns WO Say ' to have as much.' 
QX TAHTiTNCEH the Medicean Vergil always has iandudum, tundem, tandem. 
Orelli.Eenzen inacr. 6183pfr decen diet, ta-atunde-m acaas four times 
in the lei agcaria of b. o. Ill, and once in the lei Cornelia de xi quaes- 
tortbuB of B.C. SI. See Corp. inscr. Lat. t BUS. Gorseen Ausspraeha 
u. B. w. 1' 265—6. 

91—2 ii.Lr...iLLn«i 186—7. ii 93— S— 9. of. i 46—7 n. hlc-.Me. Ov. 
tr. I 10 50 ilia tuoi [venlas) Itabtat, nee mimu ilia >uii< (he had said 
47— B dlt^a . . . altera puppis). id. heroid. 2 148 Burm. ib. 3 28. Qnin- 
tiL II 8 § 11 Spold. and Bonnell lei. p. 398. Flin. ep. yi SO g 15 BehSfer. 
ILL! BDHHiB BONABE cnRtTLEB i.e. sellas, lyoryebairs 
without back or arms, reserved for dictators, oenBora, consuls, praetoi's 
and curula aediles Becker ii 2 77. Marqnardt v 2 317. 334. Sil. yin 487 
hate altaa eborii decoravit holtore curules. Stal. s. i 4 33 maior 
onrnlifl. ui 3 115— 7/ii»«< snmroamjue ourulem |/ra(fr.. . tuUl. 
Tao. an. iii flti Iiiuius Otho a sohoolmaeter, praetor a.u. 22, owed hi» 
adyaueement to S. iv 2 a.d. 23 3. won the praetorian goard by bia 
affability; himself choie the ceJitnriom and Iribuna ; and bribed tht 
icTiatort aith ojicei and provineial gevemme^U. ib. 68 i.e. 28 foiir as- 
pirants to the Bonsnlship, to ichich the only approach koi through S,, 
accuse a friend of Gennanious ; for the good will of S. was only to be wou 

ft-«1 TlBEBroa IK CAFRBAB. 103 

bTTillatty, ib. yi 6, DCubs. Lvni 19 L. Seianui 
pnKor. et Claud, in Ealr. i 192—2^1 esp. 1 
/enonB hoKomytt. 92 

luuDS Bkestis, Bs maternal nndsof Seianns. we 
TicliTiaas a.d. 21, recairod the triuinpbal ini 

gnior^ Baluted imperator by order of TiberiuB i. .... 

n TibeiiuB ilistinctly stated that he acted out of regard to S. dare id te 
iliiil honor! Seiani. 7i. rv26i.D.a4 Tiberius refused the triumplial 
inBgnia to Dolabella, wbo ended the war, Seiano fribuerti, lest the glorj 
(4 Ilia imde BlaeBua ebould be toniished. ib. ri 1 g 2 after the death of S. 
Lt. 31 TiberioH Leaped many icproaciies on Blaesus. ib. ti 40 «. ». SS 
pliesUiooda deeigned for twq Blaoid dnting the prosperity of their famiiy, 
•nd afterwards kept vacant, were QUed up by TiberiiiB; which they 
nsdentood an c sentence of death and eieonted it with their awn hands. 
IDTOR BABEB] FBiNCiFis 62 u. HS n. Ths guardian's 
nDDtion was required to giTO legal validity to the acta of the ward; if the 
nid were under eeien yeara of age, or absent, or Innatic, the guardian 
iai llie entire administration of bis estate ; be represented him in iaw- 
niili Eein Pri™tre(!ht= 534—9. Tac. an. i 24 already t.n. 14 S. was of 
Inot RBthority with Tiberiua, and eent with the imperial prince I>rusaB to 
the mntiDoas legions of Pannonia, rector iui-eni. ib, iv T Drnsus, eon of 
I., eontplained incolumi filio adiutorem imperii a>!vm rneari. et 
juantnm niperaie lit oallega voearetar! ib. 40a.d.2S the magistrates 
■nd principal persons in the state do nothini^ without asking counsel of B. 
ikiiaK.Tarentinsinthe Senate *.d. fli ' we courted not B. of Yulsinii, 
Intt t, branch of the Claadian and lalian bouse, which be had entered by 
lUnu^, tb? BDn-In>kv, Caesar, the partner of th; conenlghip. tua offU 
tia in re pvblica capeieenttm.' DCaBS. lyii 19 g 7 -1.e. 20 Tibenua 
ene S. the insignia of a praetor, and made him his eooiiBellor and 
milliner for all business, ib. cviii 4^1 a.d. 30 [lenators and others 
courted S. as supreme ruler, and made light of Tiberius. | 3 every word 
ud deed of Tiberius was betroyed to 8. by spies, while T. was kept in the 
d»rk respecting the intrigues of 8. g 3 a.d. 31 T. made S, bis coUeiigne 
in the consulship, and styled him in dispatches ' my B.' ib. G S 2 man 
nlUd S. coliesgue of T., not merely with reference to the oonsnlsbip, bnt 
tt the empire, ib. 7 g i the senate confotred on 8. proconsular power. 
Scet Tib. 56 T. adranoed S. ad iiunmoin pateiitiam. TelL it 127 of T. 
It»gltiarem jirincipalium ontnim adialarem in otania habuit atqae habtt 
[Srianioill. cf. 128 gas, impelled by native genins ad iiivanda onera 


ncMm John reads a»su»ta with P, bat the contrast is more effeotive 
between the emperor, lord at the world, and the tiarrov) crag on which be 
it mibbed. Idee F. Gregorovius die Insol Capri, mit Bildem a. Skizzen v. 
LindemBn-Frommel Leipz. 1868. fol. Hook i (3) 129—42. Cluver. Ital. 
IT 4 pp. use — 9. Qu Vit onomastlHin. MommEen inscr. regni Neap. IBl. 
P»nly II 137. E. Unger in Philologus iv 782. Strab, i p. 60. ■» 347 
Cipreae near the proDninluritim Mitifrvae. PHn. h. n. in | 83 an island 
eff the coast of Campania, 8 m. p. distant from Surrentum, llin circuit, 
Tihtri jirineipi! arct nobilei Capreae, now Capri. Augastus oh- 
Uined it bom the Neapolitans, in exchange for Aenaria, and boilt npon it 
Htlab. T p. 248. DCess. lii 43 g 2 B.C. 29. Snet. Aug. 93. ib. 72 his 
terraces and shrubberies there contained a geological museum, iRunaniun 
teluarum /eranim<]Ut mcmftrn pracproniiin, quae dicuiitur gigantum nun et 
arma httoatn. ib, 98 he spends foor days in the ifceiaiu of C., Temiiiii- 





^^^^^^ Mima aii oUam et ad amntm comitaUm animo: lie there amused himself 
I with watching the games uf /phrbi, and guve them a ieasi, when they^ 

I Borambled for upplex bdJ other proviEiona and jcEted without ocmtcoL 

L Tiberius bad betu aocuatonied to seclusion st Hhodes (Tbo. su. i L 

^^^^ IT 67). and tjevetul motives combined to iuduae btm, in ai^ccirdance with ^ 
^^^^^ project lung enl^'rtiiiiied (ib. iii SI. BT), to retire from Rome, never tO' 
^^^^H return (as the astialagers loretold) in the aaturan of l.d. Sti ib. it S7 — B. 
^^^^1 6*. 74. Suet. 3t>. DCasB. i,tiii 1^1. He deeired to escape from bis 
^^^H mother, the imperious Liti& UCaas. ltii 13 § 6. Tac L c. 67: be dialiked. 
^^^^V the crowd lib. i 4. rr 57) aod deepiaed its pleasures (ib. l 5i. 76): be waa 
^^^^H wear/ of the senate's sycophancy (ib. la 6a] : he smarted under the impu- 
^^^^H tatious agaiuat bim attributed by witnesses t9 afjcnsed persona (ib. it i2); 
^^^^H be di'aired lo wallow unobserved in the most unnatural excesses of lust 
^^^H it>. t 4. it ST. 67. yt 46. Snot. Tib. 42—5. Vit. 3, who retails incredibla 
^^^H BCBudal. DCasa. t.riti 22 £3 1-3 : finally Seianns lecommended him to tako 
^^^H his ease Tue. an. it 41. 67. He so lar transferred to 8. tbe cares of state, 
^^^^H that it might seem that S. was emperor, and be only an island chieftain 
^^^^P nieiapxoi UCass. ltiii 5 § 1. Suet. 40 (contradicted by tbemselvea and 
^^^B lij Tac.]. *.D. 27 he took up bla reeideuce there: tbe difiiculty of aoeess, 
I the Tiev (of which the etiil qniet YeanTius formed the centre) over the 

I eoait from Circeii lo Paestnra, over Falemnm to the Apennines of 8am- 

I ninm and the Lacanian bills, tben Euuthwiird to the Liparean islands,' 

r the climate cooled by sea breezes in sammer, sheltered from tbe cold winds 

I in winter, all combined tu make tbe place attractiTe Tac. an. it 67. Froia 

the land, separated by a channel 3 m.p. hroad (ib.), it looks like one moss 
of steep rock from 1000 to 2000 ft high, but the interior produces com, 
vines, olivEE, figs, oranges, almonds. Tiberius built twulve Tillasinit (ib.), 
I one named uilfa lovifl, which he did not quit for nine months after the f^ 

I of S. Suet. 66. The secnrity of tbe spot (ib. 40. 73 ex tuto) was one 

I great charm; hence the alarm ot Tiberius when a fishermau discoTered « 

I new approach over tbe crags (ib. 60) : a place was shewn where he tortured 

L ooQvicts lib. 62. cf. id, Cal. 11) ; one praetorian was killed for stealing ■ 

^^^_ peacock from his aviary (id. Tib. 60). His oompaniona here were Cocceius 
^^^^L Nerra a consular and learned lawyer, SeianuB,CnitiusAtticua,Teseularins 
^^^^V Flaccus, lulius Moriuus, all of whom were condemned to death (Tac. an. 
^^^P IT 58. Tl 10], eieept Nerva, who cammitted snicide (vi 26) ; also scholars, 
^^^1^ especially Greeks (iv 5S), whom be puzi^led with recondite qneations inmy- 
^^^^ thology(yuet. 70); bekeptand fed apet Eiuake (Suet. 72). Uaina (Calignla) 
was summoned to Capreae in bis 10th year and by conaumtnate dis- 
simulation escaped the fate of his family (Suet. CaL 10). Auson. de mort. 
Caes. roonoat. 3 fera lenrx CapreU exuut Ji'ero fata peregit. Plut. de 
exilio ti p. 602. Kemains of the villas and numerous antiquities hare been 
discDTered in modern times. asousti ih bufe BSbBNili 

'perched on his narrow island crag ' of limestone the emperor waa dtpor- 
iatm initaulani by his own decree 170 n. Suet. 40 the chief attxactioaol 
tbe island for Tiberius waa qvod uno pan:oi}ue lUore adirttvr, laepla 
undique praeruptie iniviemae allilvdimt rnpibus ft profimdo mari. 
Hero, ib. 65, after tbe despatch of his letter against S. he had ships in 
readiness for instant fiight, and speculabandia ex atiisaima rupe watched 
for the telegraphic signals which were to announce the success or failnie 
of bis coup d'ilat.. Claud, iv cons. Honor. 314 — 5 quern rnpes Caprea- 
rnm taelra latebit | inceilo pomesia tern I cf. in Entr. a 61. 
94 COM OBEOE cHiLDAEO v( 563—81. xiT 248 u. Tac. an. ii 27 A.*. 16 
Eicribonius Liho Druans charged with consnlUng Cbaldaeornm;iromu>a, 




M^nin laera, lomnliiTTim tliam interpretei. ib. 33 consequent decrees 1 
uftlieuDBte (or bajiishing Bstrulogeia anil irizards. cf. Suet. 3<). DGass: 
ua 15 Jl 7— H daily aonlerences o( TibBriua and ThrasjIluB (luv. yi 576). 
lu. III -23 i. D. 21} Lepiila sccuaed of GonsuUmg Cbaldaei against the im- 
ptrial boDEe. ib. it nS the aetrologera iuferred from the consteUatlons 
llnltrvMcL T. Jeft Borne, tbat he never would return; whicb led to the 
ims of many, who sprend rumonrs ot his approaching deceSiEie, TacitoB 
Rifflibera to fittaeh a certain importance to the art of. Suet. 39. Tac 
n!D — 32 1. D. 3'^ T. predicts that Galba would have ' a taste' ol empire 
(rf, DCaaa, lui 19 ^ a— i. lih- 1 g 1. 4 g 3. Snet. Galb. i, who aeoribea 
thii ptedietioii to Ao^stos; and eaje that T. cum coiaperias/t imptrO' 
ItniB evm, vfnini in >eneela, Tivat sane, ail, guando id ad noa nihil per- 1 
ticell): he had learnt the art from Thraajllus iu Bhodes, wham ha ^ 
nlBemed as an oracle, after he bad put him to a. aerere test [cl. DCasa. 
LT.Uifith Xiphil.). these nhaptera of Tao., who distinctly accepts man^ | 

jntdietioiis of astrologers as genuine, e. g. that of Nero's accession by the 

■on of TbraajUuB. and the tract of Farorinua against the Chaldeans [Gell. 

nr 1) are foci claasiei. Tac. vi 46 hia prediction tespectiug Gains (Caligula). 

<f.lOB.anL XTUi6 = 8 § 9 an important passage. DCass. lviii 23 gg 2— S. 

Swt. 11 early predictions which conlinued T. in hia faith in aatrology. 

Tliruylliu. ib. li'i Tbrasyllua induced him to postpone certain eseoutions, 

b^holdiogont hopes of a longer lite. cf. DCass. ltiii 27 §g 1— 3. 28 ^ 1. 

" '. CT he foresaw the infamy which would attach to him. ib. 69. Otho 
(e manner was surrounded by Chaldeans Plut. Ualb. 23 % 4. 
na CEBTE piLA conosTES at least if you do not desire to rule the 

Wurld, yon desire state and pomp, 'piliea and cohorts' of the guarj 

tilioh edcorted S. 95 EonEoioB eouites as the 

HineatriaD census was but a small aum for imperial timea, and the order 
comprised many men of mean origin, Ausnstua diatinguiahed those whose 
BnmdfslherB had been ingemii, and who posseaaed a aenatorial census, by 
Ue nune of cquitei illuiilrti (□(ten in Tac.), iplendidi (Orelli-Henzen ind. 
p> 8S ■}, tpecioti, imignti, primoree equilum |Tao. h. i 4). The youth ol 
ndl Iimilies oonuneneed their career on the staff of S. 
usrai DOVEETicA S. first brought the praetorians together into a stand- 
ing camp; before they had been quartered about the city Tao. an. it 2. 7.' 
Bare bis personal body guard ia cieant; so domeilici Vopisc. Xumer. 13 
1 1. Eutrop. X 17 of the household troops of the emperor. 
B6 ti qui RDLniiT ocoiDERE QUBUQUAU, FOSSE voLiTKT Grang. citeg 
^nLStich. 116—7 the good woman is she quoi male faciunditt poUtlai, 
(■on m id facial temperat. eona, ad LIt. 47 nee nocuime nlli et forbman 
habsiat Tiocendi. Add Ov. her. 13 75 perdere poase sat est, si- 
inein iarat ipsa poteetas. Publil. Syr. 397 nocere poase tl nolle 
tail ampliitima r^t, where Woelfflin cites Menand. monoet. S38. AnaoQ.Tn 
lap. aent. Bias 6, 7. Caecil. Balb. pp. 21, 38, who q^uotes from Plato 
'itis the triumph of iuuocence not to ain where you have the power.' 
Tic an. IT 34 A. n. 25 Cremntina Cordua waa acoused by the clients of S.; 
id parnioiabile rea, ti 8 a.d. 31 M. Terentius before the senate, 'we 
obwrre what ia open to view, who they are that receive from you [Ti- 
berina] wealtli aud oBicei guii plitrima iucandi nocendive potentia: 
— '-0 one can deny that all this fell to the lut of S.' 

essuBA UALDBUu the subject to tanfi eti is here and iii 64 the pri'i« 
I is a/ ao great worth, tliat one would pay such and auch a price, en- 
dure such and auch sufferings, in order to win it; xiii !)ti ix the subject 



U Iha prler which il i» icarik ichili to pay, in order to win sucli aud such 
a prize. ' What gtury or success in of so great value, that tlie meoaore of 
tuiBlorliinen Bboiild [i.e. that we «bon1d he conleat that it Bhoold] eqtul 
the proeperity f ' Svbnt gloiy or iiioueEB is not bought too dear, kt the 
ooat of a veight cit suSeriuit equal to the delight?' Uadvig opose. il 
187 — 196, where he discrimiuates the seDses ol the phrase, comparei 
Claud, iu But ii 219—250 non est victoria tanti | ul videar vieitu 
mihi, 'victory would he dearly bought, if I nere thought to have won it 
for mere eelfiah ends.' Cic. ad Att. xi 16 g 3 tgo non addiicor quaitqttan 
boHiiia ullam lalntfiii putare mihi tauti (uisse, u( earn pcttrcnt ab ilia, 
• 1 can't believe that on; honest mau thinks that I so highly Tolned any 
personal saf^j, as to beg it from Caesar.' Add Prop. iii = ij 16 55 — S fw 
Ubi sit tanti Sidonia vtitU, { ut timffu qMolUiu nubilui aiuttr erit, 
'do not barter peace of mind Jor a purple robe.' Plin. ep. vui 9 gS nuQa 
rsitn studia tonti sunt, ul ainieiliae ojfloiMiii <le«fratvT, • no plea ol study 
oao warrant uur neglect ol the oalle of friendship.' For the thought ef. 
Snet. Tib. E5 of twenty counaellora of Tiberius scarM two or three eseaped 
deatmclion. ut hkiiiib lAcria nn bit hensuka. nujaam 

siv 3l:i — 4 of Aloxonder qui tolum libi poec?rei orben, | pasiurus gee tia 
aequauda perioula tebua. Sen.ep. 4 g 7, after apsaking [cf. luv. 108] 
gi Pampeins and CrasBus, nemittfiit co futtuita provexit, vt non (antunt 
illi niinurelur, qtiantam ptnitiieral. The peaaimiat FUn. tit § 41 (cited 
by Britann.) exclauna: ' goods are not eqnol to evils, even when equal in 
namber: nee laetitia ulta minumo vuifrort prn»aada,' Qrang. mtes 
[Plant.] querolus 238 — S5U, where oace is represented as dogging wealth 
tnd pleasure, 99 htjidb qui TaiHirga 66. 

FMEiEXTiK 35 n. Plut. quociit. Bom. 61. DCoaa. ltiu 11 g§ 1— 2 ■wtaoni 
all in the morning escorted to the aenate house aa oven saperior to them- 
■elves, him they Uien dragged to prison aa no hatter than the meanest; 
whom before they judged worthy of man; crowns, on bim they then elapt 
chains ; whom they ased to serve as a body guard, him they guarded oi a 
tmiaway and bared bis head when he would have oovared it; whom they 
bad decorsited with the praetexta, rip Ttptvop^upif luarli/i, bim tbey 
buffeted; whom tbej used to adore and sacrifice to bim as to a god, him 
they led to death.' Macro, warned by the fate of S., refused to avail 
himself of the permission tu wear the praeteita. ib. 12 g§ 7 — B. 
100 FiDESiBca OABioBDHVK Ti 65-6. Aen. VI 773 (iabioa iirbeniquM 
S'idenant. Hoc. ep. i 11 T— 8 Gahiia deiertlor atqne \ Fideni« 
vieia. QaUi, Fidenae, Vlubrae, are eamplea of Uie desolated conntty 
towns of Italy iii 2 n. (cf. ou the decay of Samnium Btrnb. vi pp. 263-4). 
Fidenae, Caitel GiubeUo, 40 stadia or 5 miles N. E. of Borne (DH. u 53), 
near the confluence of the Tiber and Anio (ib. iii ES) on the Via Solaris 
In the early history ol Borne it played an important part, but ia not heard 
of as au independent city after B.C. 4S6, when its inhabitants vere sold 
u slaves Liv. iv 31. In the time of Aiigustoa Strabo v p. 230 ranks It 
with towns, TroMx'''^, which had dwindled down to villages, «u,uiu, and 
were in the hands each of one private owner. Plio. jji ^§ 69—70 ranks it 
with the once famous towns of Italy, which bad vaniahed away. See for 
Fid. and Gab. Bum Borne and the Campagna ind. E. II. Bonbuty in 
diet, geogr. Cluver. ItaL ii 8 pp, 654—7. in 4 pp. 954— 8. 
OABioEim !u 193. vii i. a town of Latium, now CaitisUime, about half- 
way from Borne to Praeneate, 100 stadia or 12Ji miles from lUone Strain 
V p. 238. DH. IV 53, who adds that only the po'rtions lying on the high- 
way were still inhabited. Cic. p. Plane. S 23 names it among towns which 



vfie almaBt too ilepopuUted to claim their share of meat at th 
on the AJbau moiuit. Prop. t:^it 1 M ei, qui nunc uulli, vuiicima lurhti, 
Gabi. cf. Lnc. vu a!)3. It waa lamous in tho history of the tiiig^ 
FOTESTis I 34 B. X 4u n. like ' governmeat ' imptritan (Rei- 
tng-Eoose 131 u. 145) ueed ftbEtract tot concnte (Staverea ou Kep. tr G 
S 4. Hftnd Lehrbuch IGl) = ' magiBtratB,' ['ipxh- maRialralUB, anthiirlliek 
lloin. p. 1954 ol dpxarrit followed immedintelv bj rp dpxS-' J-E. S. 'Po- 
ileNi or principal magiMnLte see Eustace's Itajj i US,' 3. Mitfomj.] Uie, 
de legg. Ill i 9. Tasc. i § 74 taHufuatu a ntagUlratv aiit ab atiqua potea- 
tate Ugitinui, lic a dto ivoeatui. Lac, i 9d — U omHiiqae patestas | im- 
patieiu eoiuorlii erit. iii 105—7 wou copuiiif lacrae \ /ulierunt itdti. nan 
yraxima lege poteBtaB [ praetor adeit. v 397 quondam venerandu potei- 
tSB (coiuuf). Flin.iiSae isiuTiae poCestatum . . . iimunfium. xxvin 
f 106 contra ducuni an potestaliim iniquilaUi. xitx % 66 lucctttut feti- 
tuNiuma potestatibQS rl a dU etiam pre.tam, j 67 mitet praetlare dinniitoi 
pote>tateBi;u« exorabilei. etc, Saet. Cobb. 17 Kahnken ^iwtuM gtuiti- 
Itorent, g-uad campellari aptid te maiorem poteBtutem pauat niiel. id. 
CbatA. 23 iuria dielionem defidei eommiiaii. giuit uHHia et laiitum in urbt 
deUgari magiilratihut lolitam, in prrpetuiim at<iue etiain per provinciim 
poleitatibus deniaadnvU. etc. For Qniatil. see Boanetl lex. imd 
Spilding CHI IT 1 £ 73- Ammian. mil 5 S 15 coroiiagus eeUanim circum- 
daUu poteBtalam, eL Dirksen majinaJe- Ducange. Serv. and BohoL Mni 
onAen. i IS. Bittareh. on Salvian, vol. ii pp. 21 — 3. UracebanuB luniUB 
nrota a trealiBe de putestatibat di);. i 13 pr. Span, pottitad ,- portng. 
podatat, poeilat. 101 ob uBNaitM tus dicebe an ardilU 
iuri dieundo at Caere Orell. iasor. 37BT; at Novaria Suet, rbet, 6. In 
seTeral Italian towns, as Fondi, Fonnio^, the chief magiatratei fusmUlf 
oaUed duumviri or gualtuorviri iuri dicuttda) vere named aediles lav. iii 
179 niHniit aedilibua. Thus Cicero's son and nephew and M. Cae^ius 
were aediles of his birthplace Arpinom B.C. l<j e\>. fam. XJII II § 3. el, 
ad Att. XV 15 S 1- Hadrian also, SparUan 19 § 1, was elected dictator, 
aedile, dunmiir by varioua Latin towns. Aediles in ooionies and Diaui- 
oipia, who were inferior to the ahove-nanied, oucnr more frequently. 
They regulated the games, the corumark«t, the pubUc sLreetB, bnildiuga, 
baths, temples, and the police Bein in Pauly i* 219 — 220, who citeii many 
iniBriptions. Becker n 2 313 on the juriEdictioit of aediles in Borne, cf. 
the Athenian iyopdroiigi K. F. Hermann Priyat-Alterth. S 60 n. 11. 8t.-A. 
i 160 n. 12. 101-2 vABi utHom pmooEJiE pansobch taccis 
uniLiB ui^DBSia from FeiB. i 129—130 M»t aliguem credrni. Halo quod 
bonore lapimii \ f regerit heminae Arreti aedilia iniqiiaa. Orelli- 
Henzen 7133 an inscription found at Calhatica between Fisautnin and 
Ariminum; standard balance and weights set up by the aediles in pui- 
SQance of a decree of the deciuiona [local senate], to correct the existing 
ineqnalitJes of weights and meaanres; just as each standards were liept in 
the Capito] at Rome. ei. Apui. met. i 21—5. Putron. 44, Plant, md. 
373—4. The aediles at Rome had the same focction Cio. ep. fom. mi 
Q { 5 a Jffic aiimeiitaria, committing the deasuring of com to the sediles. 
Bun Crimiualr. 761. 788. -vasa mindiu 'short' measnieiii 

plebiscitnm SiUanum ap. Fest. SIC M. 'if any msgistrate frandolently 
zaalLsa pondcra modiiiique vataque pubiica modica minora maioTavc.' 
102 fKiNOKHD dig. iix 2 13 S 8 'if any one shall have 
hired measures, Tueniurai, and the magistrate (afterwords called aedile) 
ahallliaTe ordered them to he broken, /r^ if they be faulty, iaiqitiu,' 
- - — 170 in country towns eiiffiduat 


aia aedilibQaarbaf. Chi tbe free and easy eoBtnme tbot 
Blloned, OS eoatraEted with the stiff Ituiuun toga, cF, ib. ITSn. Cie. aC. 
oum Bcuat. ktb-I. egit S 17 cleriBively calls PIbo consul of Capno. Hot. * 
I 5 34—6 Orelli flouts the praetsita and laticlttVB of the praetor of Fnnfi 
of. luv. viii 23Bn. munioipalia equea, Dealera in proTisionB, tfaonglt 
Ihoj might have been sooorged by the aediles, were not debarred from IM' 
ninipal offices dig. l2 12. vtccis ni.nBBis iii 2 n. CTlu&nu,! 

inu of Latium proverbial tor its desolation. Cic. ep. fam. m 19 g S ti> 
Trebatius, palTonua of the tonn; 'what will become of the stale of Dl»- 
brae, if yoa (aa an Epicnrean) hold it wrong to engage in publio aifajnt' 
ib. IB J 3 'this I am writing in the Pomptine TiUa of M. Aemilius Phil*-" 
moil, bom wbieh I bare already heard the voices uf my clients, thost,! 
mean, whom you secured for mo. For it is well known that at Ulnbisl 
a strong party ot/iogi hare bestirred themselvea to shew respect ta me.' 
Hor, ep. 1 1120—30 juorfysfia, hie ret, | fitUlnbria, aiiimHi si te mm 
dtfiett aequiu. Plin, iii % 64 names the Uluhrcmti in the first regioa. 
In Orell. 4042 we have aprarf. I'ur. dicundo at Ulubraf, ib. 122 and 19 
a local senate (as late as A. u. 133 n. 122); these laat inscriptii: 
found at CUlerna, 6m. from Vetletri and B5 from Borne. The tdosiTiit 
are said to hate constituted it a oolonia Gromntici p. 339 Lachm., whraf 
it is placed in Campania. 104—7 BCasg. jlvtii IS g B of Se- 

ianua 'they bad egged him on to destruction by tbe eKtravagance anj 
novelty of his distinotiona, and now they decreed against him strangf 
thanlisgivinga to the gods also.' Kiuios HOHoaES Baet. 

Caea. 7B nee enim honorea mada nimios recepit. 105 NOIO!- 

Boajl yii 151 n. in this our modem sense the word belongs to the silypf 

aga; in Uic. it moaDa ' ihythmical,' 'in tiine and meftsure' [Milton P. 1 

T 150 praaa or numerous vfrsj. J.E.8.J Add to leu. Culum. vii 2 j| X' 
'a dapibiii. VFl i 486 numeroaa phalaiu:. Ammiau. xn 4 | 

G Crasii et Aitl 

i. Eutr, 

71 Philippii Seat 
T d eiim annis nnmeroais rain popuio Jlnmina abedirei!, id. h zv. i b 
and 6. ib. 1 n cum amicia nuuerosioribus ettct epulandum. So 
namrosilas Macr. l 22 9 8. Fhilastr. haer. 3B. IQS tabo-- 

LiTi 111 1U9. USDB ALtlOB KSBET CiSOS Clatld. in Bof. t 

20 — 23 e. g. tolbmtuT in altum, \ ul lapm graviore ruant. Minuc, FeL Sf 
in hoc alliai loUuntuT, at decidant altins. hi enim uf viclimae ajl' 
inpplici«m saginantur, ut hosliae ad poenam eoronaniur. Wetat. on Im. !■ 
S3. Sen. Agam. 67—102. As early as a.i>. 21 it was observed 
oolleagues of Tiberius in the couaulship died a violent death DCaag. tTilf 

20 §§ 1—2. 107 IMPni*U! PiiEOEM MMANH BCTISAm i. a.' 

unde pr, imp. r. eiiet immane. Prarcrps subst. ct. i 149. Stat. a. t 4 Gl 
ruAtti praeeeps iuvmifejimoH. Apul. m. ly 5 ptmlulum a via retraeiitm 
per aWimimumpraeoeps invallfta . . , praecipilaM. cf. Beiaig-Hasse 39Gi -, 
Impello ia 'to shove,' 'to push;' imp. ruinom ' to sot tbe downfall goiiig,'- 
' to start it ; ' praeeepi ' a steep, ' ' prenipice ; ' ruiTiae ia gen. snbj. But- 
stir (imp.) the lofty tower with its many floora, and it would come toppling 
down from ita giddy height. lOB ciuBHoe poufeiob id. 

in the generic sense (i 109 n. viir 182), aa tbe combination with Caesar 
(Hor. 0. II 1 3 — i graveiqtie | princijmm maieiliai E. c. 60) shews. Elss 
we might have included the son of Craaaua, who fell with him in battle 1 
against tbe Parthiana 9 June 701 = 6 May S3 B.C. and tbe sons of Pom- | 
peiiiB, Gnaena, who was slain 12 Apr. 45 B.C., a few weeks after the battle 1 
of Munda, and Sestns who waa slain at Miletna B.C. 35. Cf. Lnc. i 81 — ' 
US. Son. ep. 101 § 29. ben. v 18 g 4. illdu C. luliam 


Csesarsin. 109 io Bni get domitos deeuht iugk* 

WiEiTBs V ITSn. Cioero dreamt, Suet. Aug. 94, tbat Inppiter presented 
DeUviaiiuB nith a, Jliigtllim, a symbol, says (JnBaubon, ot slavery, for a 
imui aitizen might not be Lcaton with rutta vUgat, much less vitb the 
figiUitla, a ' cat ' of Boverot chainfl, Avith knubs of metal at tliu ends Bidb 
•mpuiioa. M. Sen. suas. (i £ 13 p. 31 seuihi^b taiuus uI Cicoro qvod ad 
mlmtem attinet, non reaamhit; iam tritum coUam babet; et 
fompeius iUnm et Caesar BubiBoeinnt: Yeteiaaam manoi- 
fiam Tidetis. Luo. i 6H5 cum domino pax ilia veiiit. e!. 85. ii 265. 
173, Marcellus the coasnl scourged a seuator of Novum Cotnum, and bid 
limdiew tbemarliB to Caesar, bb an evidence that hewaa not a citizen ol 
Base Plat. Goes. 29 § 1. CI. the tonoc of the Plulippiau magiatrateB, 
riwD &ej learnt that St. Paul nhom they had scourged vtaa a citizen 
UU IS 37 Wetst. Canybeme and Honson i 832. onuiTos Markl. 

Mil dominos. 110 SDUinis keupe Locns bdlla kos 

UM wriinH=iJ«liiio tammi locL this use of the participle to suppljr the 
;1bm of a noun (ab urbe cnailita ' from the foundation of the city') is in 
Cio. chiefly conHued to the oblique cases, Quintil. m i ^ 117 Sgnra 
laittanti eomposilioiii variata saepe luccunil. For the thought cf. Sen. 
ep, 9i SJ 61 — a Fompeius was impelled to his foreign anil home itacs by 
imnut amor magnitiuliiiis faUae .... injinita cvpida crescendi. Caesar 
n> driven to hia own and the pnblia roia by gloria et ambiiio. Crassus 
ilBQ was atimulated by the ambition of carrying hia arms to tbe furthest 
eul, tod BO rivalling the western conquests of Caesar Pint. Crass, li % 3. 
IS, Hidae cum Crass, comp. S §§ 3. 5. 3 gS S. 6. 4 gS 1—4- 

MEUPE very frequent in replies, = onr colloquial 'why.' 
160.185. 326. viii 57 a 180. Quintil. x 2 g 4 qmi tnimSutvjvaietat?... 

unpe. Tao. h. u 13 quaa e-nim ex diversa legioneal nsmpe victat. Plin. 
*p, m la S 0, Bo Plant. Ter. Cic. Hor. Or. Hand Turaeil. iv 163. 
NOLLA BOB AHTB CaesaT often qnoted the verses of Enr. 
Fhocn. E21— 5 translated in Cic. off. m g 83 and Suet, Caes. 30 nam ri 
Tiataidiim eit ius, regnandi gratia { violandam est. The same verses are 
lUnded to by Plat, Niciae ciun Crass, camp. 4 g 4. 


n 167-8 nuHi exaadita deorum | vota. [Plat,] Ale. ti 141" many 
pny for their own barm, not wittingly, as Oedipus, hut thinking that 
■iiey are praying for blessing, ib.'' ' I could name many who before now 
biTtcoTeted absolnte power and done their utmost to gain it, as a great 
tdnntage, and aftemarda have lost their lives by conspiracies caused by 
tbt very power.' 112 ^n oenebuu ceuebis Ploto, whose 

qwen Proserpina was daughter of Cerea. Another allusion to the lower 
kingdom ni 265—7: it was derided even by children in the poet's time ii 


cinilWT BDOes Phanias of Eresoa wrote a treatise on tyrannicide Athen. 
ni 40 p. SO*. Harmodlos and Aristogeiton were celebrated in Atbeoian 
drinking- songs, and Attic laws (Mours. Them, att, ii lo. Petit, leg. att. pp. 
!>ll-6) encouraged the mnrder of tyrants, cf. Xen. Hier, 1 ^ 3S. 2 ^ 9 
-18.358. 4 Sg 2—11. 6 §S 8— 15, 7 SS 10— 13, Cic, off. il§23. Thaleaaaid, 
'tbe strangest thing be had ever eeen was an aged tijranf OL. i % 3Q 
Men. Pint, vn sap. eonv. 3 p, 147''. Sibylline verse on Vespasian in 
Plol. de ser. num. vind. 22 p. 696^ iaeXii iwy ninv TvpawlSa Xd^ci. 
DChtjB.or. 6 de tyrannide i 2I2B 'it is not easy tor a tyrant to grow old. 
uduld age is burdensome to bim.' Tyrannicide waa a favorite topic of 
tdwal declamations, Bmtua. Cato of Utica, Muciua Scauvold the idols of 


a desceoda except by a violent fall. 
EragF. h, e. iii 11 and Petr. Blea. ep. 4'3 (quoting lav. ) prove the pro- 
poBition by the liistory of the Roman emperora. So John of Salisburf 
poller, viit IS— 9. of. 17. ao— 3; in o. 20 be refecs to a troot of his owa 
canipOBition, de tyrannonim exiCu, and ia remurlcablQ for the veliemenM 
with which he jastiJieB taking tbeir life. fioci 2 n. 1 161 n 

113 """ 

114 — 132 The bo; who still vrooea a cheap Min«rvn with a singla 
mite [who is Ktill at hia spelling-book], at whose heela tbe young haaae- 
alave beara his little Katchel, begins already in hia day-dreams to pray foi 
Demosthenes' or Tully'a eloquenoe and renown, and prays through the 
whole March holiday of the goddess. Yet their oloqDenoe was the rain 
both, both were done to death hj the flush of a brimming spring of n 
Wit'a hand and neck were severed hy the headsman's sword, bat the 
rostra never reeked witb blajd of a pnny pleader. ■ fartunatam natam 
mr eamult Romam.' O Borne, new bom to fortune in my eonBolship!* 
Cicero might have slighted the swords of Antouins, as he did Catilioa's, il 
he had never spoken but in jingling, vainglorious doggrel like this, if 'all 
his malice had been to murder words.' Better for me hia verseB, mada 
only for a langhing-stock, than thou, inspired Philippic, of world-wide 
fame, who art rolled second on ihe list. A crnal end snatched »w^ the 
wonder of Athens olao, who bore the assenibly with him on the ctirrent 
of hia breath, cnrbing at will tha passions of the crowded theatre. Sure, 
be was bom under a boding horosoopc, while the gods scowled and fate 
was froward, whom his blacksmith father, blear-eyed from soot oC glow- 
ing iron, sent from aa,fe trade to glory, from coal and tongs and sword- 
lorging anvil and dingy Vulcan lo the sohooi of rhetoric. 

115 (jDiKQnATBiBcs triatms, quinqualrut, eexatrua, srptimatna, dfci- 
mntnu originally denoted the Srd, S th, 6th, 7th, lOth days after the ideaVarr. 
LLvigU. FeBt.p.254 Charia.p.9iaOK. Serv.g.iaT?. GeU.itaiJT. 
The J. maiorfi in March, and q, minora in June, fell accordingly on the 
19th of those months. In later times at ali eventa the greater lasted 6 
days, Mfroh 19—23. Pitisens and Panly s. v. Marqiiardt it 447—8, 
V [ 95. Preller rom. MythoL 360 — 2. Ovid and others derive the name 
from these five days f. ni 809—10. 815— fi. 829—830 fiunl sacT& Mi- 
nervae {, nsmina quae iunctii qninqne diebua hahenl. | . . Patlada 
nun£ pneri tfneraeqne orate pi^eUae. | ^t bf^ic placarit Pallada, doctiu 
eril. I neo voa tnrbiv fere oensn frandata, magistri, | tpemite, 
diicijnlloi attrahit ilia ttovos. He adds that spinners, weavarB, InllBra 
[of. Plin. mv g 143], dyers, ahoemakerB, physioiana [Varro's satire guin- 
quatrus apparently represented a company of phyaioiana keeping their 
holiday], aculptors, painterB, poets, all did honour to tbeir patroneis on 
this feast. So fortunetellers and soothsnyers looked for a gift at the ;. 
Plant, mil. 691 — 3. It was a general merrymaking Tac. an. ziv 4 at 
Baiae. 12; Snet. Ang. 71 spent by Angnstus in gambling. Domitian, who 
professed to be under the special protection of Minerva, established priien 
for orators and poets on ber dny, and alao a college charged with the 
exhibition of beaat-fighta and stage-playa Snet. 4. Dio lsvii 1 g 3 a. d. Si. 

ilflie all it wag a holiday in schools Hor. ep. u 3 197—8 pnar ul falit 
qsinqnatribos olim, \ eiigiw gralvqui fraarin tempore raptiia. Symm. 
ep.TSSoro iairt veniat, tt jrraesentia iua hanorem augeai feitomm dienim. 

tara lurma etiam procedenle aetatr. pueriliJin feriarvm. ad e»m ditm 
eaimviam txbi parannit. This scbool (east van io tba middlo age* 
dniBtened in hnuonr of pope Greg, i the great founder of bcIidoIb, Bt 
Gregory's day, and is Btill or was lately Lere and there observed, being 
Ibe only saint'B day ever kept in the germun uvangelical church, Lather 
blTing a pleasant recollection of the days when he went about as a, school- 
boy begging from door to door, and Melanehthon having written a ' Ore- 
guy-song.' See J. K. Schauec in Niedner's Zeitschr. E. d. hist. Theol. 
1952 116—62, where is an ncoount of the boy-blahop. the school comedies 
He In eoms places the 12th. in others the I9th of March, in otherg 
Whil-tnesday. in Weimar 19 Aug. was kept as the feast. Where it wan 
iboBdied, the teachers were sametimHS recompensed tor the loss of their 
UbiervaL 116 oniBQUis iinnuc cno parcah holit 

un WNEBVAii Tii S17 n. 242 n. a boy in a low fomi offering a very 
Utull present Qlosa. Mineri'ale SiSaicrpm: SliiterBalicium avaTatitii; 
'emnmce-iDoney.' Macr. i I'ig 7 'in March they paid to masters the tees 
which the year's end made dae,' March having been originally the 
bit month. TeitnU. de idol. 10 schoolmasters mast keep the feasta 
ol idols, as their income depends upon them. What master will attend 
Ibe ftiinf uotria without a picture of the seven idols [Sol, Luua, etc. the 
sods of the week-days]? The very first fee of the new papil he dedicates 
In the bononi and name of Minerva, so that thongb he may not be an 
idalMir, ha ma; beEUdin worila at least 'to eat of things offered to idols' 
...the ilinervalia of Minersa, and the Satamalia of Saturn. 
Bienm. in Eph. vt i (vii 66S" Vallaraij of bishops nod priests, who teach 
their MDB comedies, bo that the offerings mode to (iud by virgin or widow, 
the ptiper'a inite, are handed over to grammarians or rhetoricians ; hoc 
luUndaiiam Mrewim et Satamaliciam spartulam et MineFvale manus 
FWuhMcks et orator au( ill mmptai doJoeaticoK aal in UtapH stipei 
ttt iti lordida icorta coiaterlit. pahciM 'heworBhipea 

fnigii Minerva.' ' a penny-Pallas' (Stapylton), he has not yet alraneed to 
■U^ and costly sohool : from his ABC and hom>book he aspirea to the 
puiuele of fame. 117 oceu eeqch'oii ctrsTos ahoosta^ 

1MSDI.A CApa»B dig. %t, S IB eapsarins, id e»t qai pnrtat librat, where 
win Suet. Ner. 36 he is distingnished from the paedagogiu. [Lucion] 
iBier. U of the boy well brought np : 'he rises early, and sets out from 
hie faUier's house: attendants and tutors [iraiSa-fuynl) follow him, an 
wdetly chorus, hearing m their hands the grave inatmmentB of victae, 
■UtOOthed comb to smooth the hair, nor mirrors, nnpainted images of 
the fonuB presenlfid to them, bnt either tablets of many loaves follow 
in his tear, or books that guard the virtues of ancient exploits.' Philostr, 
Hph. u 1 J 21 when M. Aurellus attended in Borne the leaturea of the 
pIdlaBopber Seitos, one Lucius exclaimed ' luppiter ! the Boman emperor 
n bis old age, still goes to school with a tablet slung on his arm (SAriw 
jfn^'ni of. Hor. a. i 6 71—82 Teuffel), but my king Alexander died in 
hil !l2d year.' ib, 37 § 7 Hippodroraos seeing at Smyrna ' a temple and 
Inton sitting by it, and foot-boys carrying burdens of hooks slunt; in 
willets, onderatood that a famous teacher was giving lessons within,' 
Ulan. or. m 260 B. speaking of the saholars' prank of tossing in a 
it is played not on the slures, by whom the books aro carried 

I 112 


LC youag m 

behind (fxtre.) tl 
table tiUe (raiisT 
B. Aug, in pa. xb 
stvdentibu* no 
olotbea, or jewellers' goods. 

irB, liut agaiuet those viho tiear ,. 

I maatem uecil to Beeond their lubaat'^tj 
re iia, thej are our eaptarii na it wer* 
arlunt. Utliec eapsarii kept bather: 

[1 10 3 g2 capaaa /l armaria, li libroTi 
DUE vetaam auc amaineitiaruia gratia parala nmt. Inl. PiinIL sent, ii. -— 
76. Figures in Spon miaeGU, ecud. Bntiq. aiB. 229 aeq. They were oftera 
of wood, eepaciall; beech, ioc lightness, and of cyliDdrical form; the roLSl 
stood upright, with the titles projeoting Becker (^allua i' 383 — 4. CstnLX 
Liviii 33. 3G nam qiiod icriptorum non magna eft eopia apad nu, \ , . , }u** 
wu ex ntuUii cspsnla mc sequitar. Cio. divin. iu Caec. g 51 mihi gvar9*>' 
tnallit caatodibuB opai trit, ai te ecmfl oi meat OBpBflH admiiero 7 
118—131 QuintU, decl. 288 p. 609 Barm. ' Why ahould I tell yon 
how gieat aervice eloqneace bua rendered to the state? It has harmed. 
itaeU. Let us lookattbe orators of either nation, nonru DemoBthenam 

guibua totifi ptacuerat, roatria potnat suae ej:po»ituint' Demoatfaenaa 
took poison in the jalaad o( Kalaoria 13 PjnjiepaiDn e.g. 332, 7 day" j 
after the death of Hyperides, in order to escape Antipater. Cicero waa 
mnrdered 7 Deo. B.C. 48 at Ciiieta by order of the trinnfirs, whom he 
had irritated by hia Philippics. Cf. Plut. Bern. 3 % 3. comp. D 
t. Cic, 4. 5. PKsrt perfeet. iti 174. vi 128. 395. 559 mat 

eitiii obit et fonaidalus Olhoni. ib. 663 perit fui. L. MiiUer de w 
metr. 399. Lachmann aud Munro on Lncr. Iti 1042. Madvig opasc n: 
225—6. Mommsen iniwr. r. Meap. 3368. Hg lhto dedr 

lino. IX 730 dHtia omnia leto. Fhnedr. i 33 9. iii IG 18. VPl.TiSTa. 
See Munro on Lncr. v' 1007 and ind. s. v. do. Miihlmann i SOS^B. 
ross 128 n. 120 inqenio dat. of. for tha 

nse of the abstract term xt 44 — 5 non praematuri ciaeres nee /unui aeer- 
bum I lulariae. inoenio MANtts est et uebtix ousi 

Geninslost baud and head. M. Sen. anas. S. 'delifaerat Cicero an Ao- 
toniam depreoetur.' oontr. ui 17 ' PopiUiaa, the ranrderer of Cio., who 
had defended him, is accuaeil of ingratitude' (the most valuable parts of 
hia book) haa preserred a fragment of Livy, with other contempoiai; 
evidence; for no theme was more popnlnr for achool declamations (Qointll. 
m 8 g 46). The autboritiea are cited by Diomann Ti 377—9 and g^van 
at length by Buringar Cio. de vita sna 820—6. Add Sen. ep. 8B gS5 
drnnkenneaa ruined Antonina: it made bim cruel, euni capita prinel' 
pum civitatii cenanii rtferrentur, cum inter adparatiisimaii epulat ora 
ac manna proscriptorum Tccognoacerel. Sea esp. lAv. ap. M. Boi. 
BUBB. 6 3 17 prominfiili ex lectiea praebejitique immotam cervioaia acr- 
put praeoiBum est. ntc latu ttolidae crudeiitati mUitumfaii: mft- 
DuB qiioqut tcrip>isse aliqaid in Antouinm exprabantet praeoidernnt. 
ita relalum caput ud Aixtoaiam imfaqne Hiu inter duaa manus in 


a posihim, . 

rat: in Liv. perioch. cii on the other hand the right hanA 
aioru is said to have been exposed with the head. Sen. ib. % 18 Anfidins 
Baaaus makes Oic. give the word of command incide cervicem, Cre- 
mntias Oocdus ib. g 19 praepf ndenfi capiti oriqne eiui ifuper»o aanio, 
yet what moved most teara was visa ad capat eiai deligata manon 
dextera, divinae tloqiieiitiae minUira. Bruttediua Niger §§ 20—1 head 
between two hands. CorncUus Severus ih. g 26 (Meyer anthol. 124) 1—3. 

120121] HIS HEAD ON THE BOSTKA. 113 

16—20 oiekque magnanimum spirantia paene virorum \ in rostris ia- 
euere suis: sed enim abstulit omniSf \ tamquam sola foret^ rapti Cioe- 
ronis imago, | . . . . informes voltus sparsamque crnore nefando^] 
cmtiem saorasqne manus operumque ministras \ tantorum pedibus 
victor proiecta st^erbis \ procvlcavit ovans nee lubrica fata deosque \ re^ 
ipmt. nuUo luet hoc Antonius aevo. M. Sen. contr. 17 § 1 Poroius 
iatio speaking of PopUlios dbscidit caput, amputavit manum. §§ 2. 5. 
7. 9 fin. 10 fin. 14 fin. App. b. c. it 20 'then Laenas, though he had once 
ymm action through Cicero's advocacy, drew his head horn the litter, 
striking or rather sawing it three times ; so unhandy was he. He like- 
^ cut off the hand, wherewith Cicero wrote those orations against the 
tynumy of Antonius, which in imitation of Demosthenes he called Phi- 
lippics [the same point in Plut. Cic. 48 § 2 both hands, Anton^ 20 
§lthe right hand] ... . Laenas, finding Antonius seated in the forum, 
vayed the head and hand while yet a long way off, byway of display- 
ing them. Ant. overjoyed crowned the tribune, and gave him 250,000 
Attic drachms over and above the promised reward, as having despatched 
the greatest and most rancorous of his enemies. Cicero's head and 
hand long hung from the rostra, where he used to speak. ... It is 
ttid that Ant. set Cicero's head before the table at his meal, till he had 
glutted himself with the sight.' Fulvia, another Herodias [Hieron. in 
Bnfin. in 42] spat upon the head, took it on her knees and stabbed the 
tongae with her hair pin DCass. xlvu 8 §§ 3 — 4. mai^us 

IT CEBTix YM. V 3 §4 C. Popillius Laenas caput Romanae eloquentiae et 
pacis elarissimam dexter am per summum ac securum otium occupavit, 
'..neque enim scelestum portanti onus suecurrit illud se caput ferrey 
(ttod pro capite eius quondam peroraverat, Plut. Cic. 49 § 1. Sen. de 
tranq. an. 16§ IPompeivs et Cicero [coguntur] clientibus suis praebere cer- 
Tieem. Hands out oft M. Sen. contr. 27 p. 266 9 qui patrem pulsaverit, 
manus ei praecidantur. ib. §§ 2 — 4. 8. Sen. de ir. iii 18 § 1 Catilina 
earned out Sulla's orders for breaking the legs, plucking out the eyes, 
striking off the hands of the proscribed. 


cf.l8. Marius (DCass. pr. 102 §§ 8—9 pp.141— 2 Dind. Oros. v 19 p. 345) 
and Bulla (DCass. pr. 109 § 21 p. 153), the triumvirs of b.c. 43 (id. xlvii 3 
§ 2), Claudius A. D. 42 (id. lx 16 § 1), Domitian a.d. 91 (id. lxvii 11 § 3), 
all exposed on the rostra the heads of those whom they had executed, 
cf. Luc. vn 305 — 6 spectate catenae \ et caput hoc positum rostris. 
[Sen.] Oct. 522 — 5 exposita rostris capita caesorum patres \ videre 
^i^^tuflere nee licuit suos, \ nongemere dira tabe polluto foro \ stillante 
fonieper putres voltus gravi, Exx. (1) P. Sulpioius, tribune and dema- 
gj>gue, slain by Sulla b.c. 88 Veil. 11 19 § 1. (2—5) the orator M. Antonius, 
^' and L. luHus Caesar, and Q. Lutatius Catulus, victims of Marius, 
B.C. 87 Cic. de or. iii § 10 words which might seem prophetic of his own 
^M,Antonii in eis ipsis rostris, in quibv^s ille rempublicam constan- 
iiuime consul defenderat, . . . positum caput illud fuit, a quo erant mul- 
torum eivium capita servata. id. Tusc. v § 56. Liv. lxxx. VM. ix 2 § 2. 
App. b. c. I 73. (6 — 7) the consul Cn. Octavius (Cic. Tusc. v § 65. Liv. 
MIX. App. b. c. I 71. Flor. 11 9=in 21 § 14. Aug. civ. D. in 27) and 
Q. Ancharius, in the same persecution App. b. c. i 73. (8) C. Marius the 
yonnger in his consulship b. 0. 82, after committing suicide ib. i 94. For 
^e special risk run by orators in revolutions see Cic. Brut. § 307. 
121 CAUSIDICI VII 113 n. BOSTBA like Temple Bar and 

Ixiodon 3ridge Uie most public place in the city, being in the middle of 

JUV. U. S 



n Rome and tt^E 

one Bide of tte foram, betnseu it and tbo 

Carapagna 85—86. Rein in Pauly yi 552—3. li. c. 33a t 

C. Moeuius, alter a great naval victor; which ended tlia. Latin 

the beaks of the captured ships roond the oiators' platfonn Plin. ixx^n 

§2a Flor. II 16 = n 6 g 5 Romae capita caeaornm proponert *•" 

roatria laTii luilatam erat; veruia tic guoque cieitai lacrimat leneni 

palitit, cum leeiatiin Ciaeionia capat in illia snia rostria videret 

7i!'c atiUr ad videnduin enm, quam lolebat ad audieiidum, cancumrelur. 

Soilrum used by Addison and others Bs=rostrarlm»no ancient aathoritj. 

sxtraoted from a poem of Cieero'a on his oonBoisbip ». c 63, from which 
he quotes Calliopa'a addrcaa to himself in the third and last book ad AU. 

II 3 g 3 B. c. 60, ad lam. 1 9 § 23 (still Tmpublisbed n. c. 64) cf. Dnimann 
T 601 — 2. Suringar de Itomuiia antobiDgrBjiMa 25 scg. Baiter and 
Kftjaer'a Cic. xi laO— 5, where the evidence and frflflmaats, one of 78 
verses, are collected. The first book was approved b; Caesar B. c 61 
Cic. ad Qq. fr. ii 16 S S- cl. 1^ § 3. The verse was ouiversall; «m- 
denmed, parUy tor its conceit Qaintil. xi 1 gSl, where he is speaking d 
aelf-piaiae ia carminibu* uIiTiont peperdiiet, quae mm deaierunt carpen 
Moligiti, ' oedant arma tagae, ooncedat laorea landi,' et ' o f Drtanataill ' 
etc. Sen, brev. vit. 5 § I qaotierii iUum ipsum conmlatutn »ttum non rins 
causa, led sine fine landatam delealatur! partly and mainly for iti 
tasteless assomuice ib. n 4 J -11 ne most also avoid taking the last 
ejllables ot a precei^ng wrad as the first of the toUowiug word. The 
oaation might seem superQiioaa; yet Oieei'oni in epiatutia excidit 'leg 
mihi invisae visae sunt, Smte.' et in carmine ' o fortnnataiiL' eta. 
ei. Diomed. 16G 1 E. oIm blamed in [S^] deel. in Cic. £ g, and de~ 
fended in [Cic] in aalL coatr. g 7 [in Cio. ed. B, and K. si H8. 151]. 
On Cicero's poems see Cic. ed. B, and E, ii 89^138. Dramann t 
220—1. 602. YI 681—4. TenHel Gesoh. d. torn. Liter, g 176. Cic. PMU 
n § 20 a. (Ant. had taimted bim on this wiore)^ M. Ben. eie. eontr. 

III praef. § 8 Cioeroaent elagnentia fim in carminibui deitituit. Tao. 
dial. SI Caesar and Brutns wrote poetr;, not better than Oicero, tei 
feliciut, quia Uloi /eciiee paucioTei eciunt. Mart, u 89 3 — i camina 
quod aaribin Muiia et ApuUine nulla, | laudari dfbet: hoc Ciceronjfl 
habei. Plut. Cic. 2 § 2 at one time he was regarded as the beat of poets; 
but afterwards, while his oratorical fame snrvivod.he was entirely thrown 
into the shade as a poet. ib. 40 § 1 he would write 50 verses in a ni^t. 
BBhol. Babb. on Cio. p. Best. o. 68 p. 306 Or. Tbe Jesuit 4. SohoH 
'Cie. a calumn. yind.' c. 10, Tumebus adv. vii 19, and others (see De 
La Monnoye in MenagianBr ITlli, iii 188 — 9), alao A. W. Emesti in ■ 
feeble programme. Lips. 1786, have defended our verse. On the repetition 
of two syllables cL Broiikh. on Tibull. 1 1 3, esp. Niike Rhaiu. Mua. 1839 
339 seq. Cio. off. i |61 Beier filcniore ore. Brut, g 221 actr acerbuM. 
de or. I g 2 moU$ jnoiettiaram. Ter. enn. 236 patmis anniique. Cf. Monro 
Lnor. ind. allit^atian. Cic. Phil, ii g 25 L 13 n, add Plant. Trin. 297 
nil moror istoi faeeme morea. ib. 669 mores hdinitaau moroa et 
moTOSOB. Ter.Andr. 218 amentiamMudamantinm. Tarroin Qell. 
xni II g 3 a deGnition of a pleasant parly, ai belli homimcuti conleati 
iuKl,si eleotns Zocut, «i fempiu leotnm, li apparatiu non neglectUB, 
Aeu. I 733 farto. fortibua. Sep. y 1 § 2 non magia amora quam morew 
Bardili ib. xviii 13 g S. Spald. on Qnintil. ii 8 g 70 esx. ol frigid ]eat« 
'is warnings 'amari | iucundiim est, ti curelur, ne quid iiiiit amari ;' 

aviam ibilcedo ud avium duett;' et apad Ocidiam ludentem, 'cut ego 


Hm tHeanif Faria te f uriam?* id. rv i»r. § 2 honorem . . . oneris. Jam 
ati poet. 423. Herzog on Caes. b. G. viii 48 p. 657. Flin. ep. i 5 § 8 
ftau mane, Fabri on Liv. xxii 30 § 4. A single syllable often recnrs. 
Jot. m 92. v 68. vii 162. 168. x 1. xiv 30. xv 71. 74. Dryden imitates 
the assonance Fortune foretnn'd the dying notes of Rome, \ till I, thy 
eonsnl sole, consord thy doom. So Gifford How /ortunate a nata^ 
%«(» thine, \ in that proud consulate, Rome, of mine! Martignac 
Rome fortun^Q \ sous mon consulat n6e. For the thonght cf. Gic. p. 
flacc. §103 O nonae illae Decenibresj quae me con snl e /ui^tis/ quern 
fffo diem vere natalem huius urbis . . . appellate possum. lav. viii 


(d 125) Gic. Phil, n § 118 contempsi Catilinae gladios, non perti- 
mescam tnos. The first Philippic was delivered before the senate 2 Sept. 
fi.c. 44; 19 Sept., when Gic. was absent for fear of his life, Ant. replied in 
a Mtter invective; the fierce second Philippic, which sealed its author's 
^, was never spoken, but professes to be an answer delivered on the 
^t. I have collected the evidence in Cic. Phil. 11 intr. pp. lii — ^Ivi. 
cf. Dramann 1 193 — ^201. vi 344. Snringar 444 seq. 790 seq. Cic. in 
a letter to Gassins xn 2 § 1 (cf. Phil, iii § 33) anticipated that Ant. would 
begin the massacre with him. Two rhetoricians in M. Sen. suas. 6 
{§ 5. 7 cite passages from the 2nd Philippic huic tu saevienti putfis Cice- 
ronen posse subducif § 9 Albucius * the chief cause of the proscription 
was Cic.;' of all the declaimera he (Alb.) alone ventured to say non unum 
esseUU Antonium infestum, § 17 Livy 'Gic. knew that he could not be 
nsooed from Ant.» any more than Cassius and Brutus from Caesar.* 
el antiiol. lat. Biese 603. 607 — 613; and on Antonius' hatred of Cicero 
Nep. XXV 10 § 4. 123—4 potuit, si sic dixisset Madvig § 348 n. 

Ziimpt§ 518. Gemhard opusc. lips. 1836 i art. 2. Haase on Beisig518. 
Gic PMl. n § 99 n. 124 bidenda poemata Sen. de ir. iii 37 § 5 

Cteero, si derideres carmina eitu, immiciu esset. 
125 ooKSPicuAE DiviNA PHiLipPicA FAMAE in a speoch for Lamia Asinius 
Pollio wrote, but did not dare to repeat the calumny in his history, that 
de. was willing to abjure the Philippics, to answer them himself with the 
atmost pains and to recite the answers in full assembly M. Sen. suas. 6 
§15. It was a hackneyed topic, introduced into the schools by Pollio (ib. 
f 14. QuintiL in 8 § 46), which is discussed in suas. 7 * Deliberat Cicero, 
an Bcripta sua conburat, promittente Antonio incolumitatem, si fecisset.* 
f 1 Q. Haterins says to Cic. ne propter hoc quidem ingenium tuum amas^ 
quod illud Antoniua plus edit quam te? remittere ait se tibi nt 
vivaSf eommentus quemadmodum eripiat etiam quod vixeras. § 7 Argen- 
tariua ignoscentem ilium tibi putas qui ingenio tuo irasciturf § 10 
GestiuB 'tis a poor exchange: dari vitam, eripi ingenium. The 2nd 
Philippic is often quoted by Quintil. and the other rhetoricians. Yell. 11 64 
SI 3--4 haec sunt tempora, quibus M. Tullius continuis actionibus 
aetemas Antoni memoriae inussit notas; sed hie fulgentissimo 
et eaelesti ore, at tribunu^ Oannutius continua rabie lacerabat Anto- 
nium. utrique vindicta libertatis morte stetit ; sed tribuni sanguine com" 
vdssa proscriptio, Ciceronis velut satiato Antonio paene Jinita (i.e. 
ended, becanse on receiving Cicero's head. Ant. exclaimed that the pro- 
aeription had done its work Plut. Cic 49 § 1). Tac. dial. 37 not the 
d^enee of P. Quinctius or of Licinius Archias make Cic. a great orator: 
CatiUna et Milo et Verres et Antonius /lanc illi f amam circumdede- 
nmt mvxNA very common in this application Miihlmann. 

Boimdl lex. Quintil. 126 yolvebis in the scroll. 


Cio. oral, g 217 proiimns apoXremo. Ov. es Pont, n 8 
proxime Caetar. Quintll. i T g 16 pioiimaia sb iilUina Utteram. PlizXi 
ep. Yii 20 g 6 mihi pHmiu ^iti a U pioximue. Bee Euod Ttm. i 49 
(prope ab). 4^! — i (qaartug, aecundui, notiui, proxiimis, alter ab). 

■'enein. 138 tobhentkh Bn. 119. Hor- 

iDiL Lamb. Qoiutil. x 7 g 23. 

(TBI the aaBemblieB of tba people wurs held in theatres 
IS Wetst. on Acts eh 29. Conj-beure and Howaon St Paul n' 
77. Berneco. on luatin. xiii 3 § 10. Herald, adyera, n 16. Tao. h, u 89. 
D'Orville on GhatltoQ p. 874 Lips. SohBmann de oomit. 66—7. K. ¥i. 
Hermann Priy. Alt. § 18 14. Thno. yiii 93 § 1. Frontin. sttat. m 2 g S. K 
7 S 22. VM. 11 2 g 6 of ambassadorB sent to Tareutoin, in thealrnm, lit 
tit coniaetudo Oraeeiat, inlroducti, Itgaiionem . , . peregenml. D3. m U 
S 3—65 g 1 B.C. B38 in the alarm before the battle of Chaeioneft Um 
people harried to the theatre at day-break, without waiting for the 
usual Bummons. After tbe post had told the news, silence and fear 
seized on the audience ; none ventured to address the assemblj, in reply 
to repeated inyitntionH. Every eye waa faatBBed on DemoetJienes; he 
cheered the people, urging them to mahe bq alliance with the Boeotiiuis, 
whereby they doubled tbeir forces and recoyered from their despair. Atb. 
V 213' ' temples shut, gymnasia mossgrown, to Siarpnf drifiKXTiataaTor, tbe 
ooarti without suits.' Pint. Hon 43 g 1. Phoe. 81 g 2. Sidon. c xxui 
136 — 7 qid PaTidioniam movebat arte | orator cavaam tumultuomt. 

vm 88. very frequent in the metaphorical sense Miihhnann 561 — Sf. pu- 
dorU, f. ikentiae inkcre. voluptatei tenere lub freno. So Shaksp. 'to 
bridle passion.' ' the bridle of your will.' [Eur. Andr. ITS Sveir yvrmmia 
Mp ti ■iirla.t tx"'- Lucian amoreB37oil!ei'aiain-ou Tiji'SniBoioi' liffioX''' 
SvniUwev XovKT/ioiJ. B6ttioeb]. The familiarity of either metaphor 
((ofT. /r.) helped to disgniBe their incongruity when taken together. Ct. 
Dhaksp. take np arms againtt a sea oftroublei. fior. quanta laborahat 
Charybdi | dignejiyier meliore flamma. lUEirKi of Baochng 

Pollux Yiii 133. Aueon. Ind. yn sap. 6 — 7. 10—1. Atticis quoqat, \ quU 
bin theatriim curiae praebet vicem. | . . . vna est Athenis atque in 
omnt Qraecia \ ad conauUndum publici tides loci. 12S l>ia 

iLtK AnyBBSia obnitdb ?iioQnB sibibtko according to the general belief 
of antiquity that suffering was a special mark of heaven's displeaBure. ct 
Job's friends. Id, 9 2. Acta 38 4. Plant. mlL 314 (ui( magii disinimioia 
natusl qvam fu atque iratis? Liv. IX Ig 11 cam reram biinumanint ffloz-' 
ivtam moment'ttin tit, qnam propitiis rsm, guant adyersis aga/nt dia. 
Pers. IV 27 hunc die iratis gonioque Biniatro, Sen. de ben. irJJS 
qaii tarn duro fata et in poenam genitna? lud. de morte Claud. 11 g 
Sdiairatianatum. Hot. s. ii8 8Lambin. 7 14. Phaodr.iT 19=3015. 
Brisson. de fonuul. 1 184. The ' frown of heaven' implies all the difficnl- 
ties which beset D. , from his gnardians' injustice and the physical defeotB 
which he overcame, to his exile aad death VM. vin 7 B g 1 proeUMru ut 
cum reruTH natura et qjiidem victor abiit. 130 fatbb 

ABnEHTiB uABBU FULioiHEi LiFFnB as a blacksmith ; so tha elder Demos- 
thenes appears in YM. ni 4 B 2 (a retail cutler). Lnoian aomn. 12. 
rhet. praeo. 10. Sidon. carm. ii 187—8 fabro propenitus, spreto eiapatft 
poHta I eloquiii pbu lingua sxut 142—8. Martian. Capell. v g ^9. 
On the mythical coimptions of Greek literary Wography see n. on 28 — 53 
p. 75. The biographers Plut. Dein. 4 g 3 (eitmK Thoopompos !r. lOB in 


eridence that the father was a gentleman tuv koXuv Kcd dya0(3v)t Liban. 
p. SB (citing Aesohines adv. Ctes. § 171 p. 78 'his father was free; for 
one most not lie'), Zosimns (p. 146 B) testify that the father was called 
'the ontler/ but explain that the sword-factory was only one source of 
liifl wealth; of the 14 talents which he left behind him, not a fourth part 
was inyested in that business Am. Schafer Demosth. u. seine Zeit i 235 — 
44. In the speeches against his fraudulent guardians the son makes 
lumorable mention of him p. 833 26. 842 21 ; also de cor. 228 18. So the 
biographer of Sophokles contradicts the statements of Aristoxenos that 
he was a carpenter or smith, and of Istros, that he was a sword-cutler^ 
aUowiiig thai he may have had slaves of those occupations. So Isokrates 
WBS satirised by Aristophanes and Strattis as a flutemaker, because he 
had slayes who made flutes [Plut.] vit. x or. 836*. Philostr. soph, i 17 § 4. 
Sehafer p. 285 n. 2. 132 luteo vulcano * dingy Vul- 

eaD/ a humorous designation of a smith, cf. iy 138 n. ' Prometheus.' 
AD BHETOBA MisiT the orator was far too young (being only 7 years 
of age Dem. 814 9) to have entered the school of rhetoric at his father's 
death. He oomplsons (828 5) that his teachers were defrauded by Aphobos ; 
Hut. Dem. 4 § 2 adds that he thereby lost the opportunity of a good edu- 
cation, and that his mother kept him back on the score of his weak health; 
hot Aesohines (8 § 255 p. 90) ridicules his boyish indifference to hunting 
and games, in comparison with the art of rhetoric; and Dem. himself 
(312 21. 815 7) declares that he went in due course to school. His master 
in oratory was Isaeos (Plut. Dem. 5 § 8. Schafer 1. c. 252—8), whom he 
kept in his house for four years [Plut.Jj vit. x or. 844^, in order to prepare 
himself for the charge of embezzlement against his guardians ; a fee of 
10,000 drachms recompensed Isaeos, on leaving his school for a single pupil 
ib. 839*. Schafer treats at length, ib. 272—308, of the later studies of 
Demosthenes, and the traces of his model Isaeos in his earlier speeches. 
133 — 187 Spoils of wars, a corslet hung on stumps of trophies, a cheek- 
pieoe dangling &om the battered casque, a chariot yoke short of its pole, 
a flagstaff from a prize galley, and a pensive prisoner carved high on the 
trinmphal arch, these are ranked as more than human blessings. To this 
afioman, Greek and barbarian captain has raised his soaring thoughts; 
toys like these have been the mainsprings of his hazard and his toil. So 
mneh fiercer is the thirst of renown than of virtue ; for, bate her rewards, 
who wooes bare virtue for herself ? Yet their country was long ago sunk 
hy the pride of a few, by their itch of applause and of an epitaph that 
might cleave to the stones that guard their ashes ; stones to spring which 
there needs but the mischievous growth of the wild-fig tree, since tombs 
fhemselyes have their appointed hour of doom. Lay Hannibal in the 
aeale; how many pounds will you find in that greatest of commanders ? 
yet this is he for whom Africa has not room, — Africa lashed by the 
Atkntio main to the west, stretching eastward to lukewarm Nile, and 
again southward to the Ethiopians an|d the^ tall elephants. Spain is 
added to his rule, he scales the Pyrenees : Nature reared a barrier of Alp 
and snow, he rends the rock and blasts the mountain with the steam of 
vinegar. Now Italy is won, yet stiU he pushes onward : * Nothing,* he 
eriea, ' ia done, unless we storm the gates with our Carthaginian power, 
and I plant my colours in mid Subura.' what a visage, o for a painter's 
oanvas to do it justice, when the one-eyed general bestrode his Gaetulian 
elephant 1 What then is his end ? pride ! why, vanquished in his turn, 
he posts into banishment, and sits there a mighty retainer, the marvel 
of a gaping crowd, in the lobby of a court, till his Bithynian majesty may 


Aeign to wake. Hot bwotiIb, nor vollejs of etoiiea, nor dorte, Ehall qoecch ■ 
that eoqI, wLioh once embroiled the world, but thut avcuger of Caimuk I 
tha poisoned liug, umking amends for floods of Itoman blood- Go, mad- I 
man, Bconr tbe stormy Alpa, to booome the Rondei of schoDl-b<^^ to ■ 
lunuBh out a thome for a speeoh-dftj show. For Pella's youth one BtaglB ■ 
globe la all too small; ho cliaCee, poor hooJ, in the nurrow bounds of tha 1 
nniTerse, as though pentiuOjara and linj Seriphus; yet, let Mm omseaet % 
toot in Babylon that olCy of briolc, and n stone coffin will satis^ his j 
every want: death and death alone betrays the nDthinguesa oE men's 
pony frames, ^hat dwarfs oiu bodies are. Ships eoiling acrosa mount 
Alhoe, and other bold lies ol Oreek history, have long passed for truth, ' 
a paved hy the eoma navy, a firm roadway tornheols; we balieTa 
3ep rivers tailed and their streams were drained to the dregs as the 
Made broke his fast, and wbatOTer else Sustratus sings and straina 
himself to sing nitb reeking armpits. Yet in nbat plight did ti& 
1, alter the flight from Salamis,— he who in barbarian fashion was 
to storm with the losh against the North-West and South-EIast, 
winds that hod never brooked like ontcage in their Aeolian dimgeon, — 
be who had fettered earth-shaking Neptune's self — so far relenting, no 
daabt, that hs did not sentence bim to be branded to boot ! Would otij 
god oocept service ouder such a lord 1 — But in what pUght. I say, did 
horetamT nhy vcith one poor hark, while the waves ran blood and ths 
oumbored prow struggled through shoals of aorpses. Such forfeit did 
glory — glory sought with prayers — wring from him. 

A porsUel pasgoge, which Iqt. may have had in Rund, is HauiL n . , 
aeq. Hannibal 0. g. 37 (luv. 166. 165) quid refemm Cannaa admotaqne 
iDoenibna armaf «-3 (luv- 162. ie5)/urfiiiaBior(«. 63— 8 (In. 179. 
IBS— 0) Xeixem, niatiu et ipso ] naufragium pelaga. Croesus, Marius, 
Pompous, Priam are introduced later by Inv. 

133 seq. [Plat.] Ale. ii 142> generals exiled and put to death, iil___ 
Etroitly besieged by fulsB aoonsers tban they had ever been by an enemy, so 
that ibey regret their successful ambition, uars ivlous airrQn iBxtvSai 
iirrpHTTryiTavs cJtOi /ioWdi' ij iaTpaTiryv^'"- 

133 EXDViAEl from ixuo cf. ckSuu. itib-ti-imla. nuJiu i.e. ne-u-diu. iltdu- 
viae (Gurtiua gr- Etymoh ii' 205 — S) ' strippiugs,' used of the serpent'e 
slQUfpi, tha Namean lion's skin etc., very frequently, as here, of spoils 
token in war: <HlO\i (from aniXku to Gay) and upotia are exact parallels. 
Tac. an. iii 72 hostiUs exuviaa. see Milhlmonn. 

OCLA rKNUBHsTac. an. tt 18 in modum tropaeornm arma mbicriptit 
vietamra gfntium lumdmbut impoiatt. ib. 23 cortgericm armornnt 
itmxit iKperbo earn titulo. Gains (Caligula Suet. 4B) ordered a Hodden 
attack of the Germans to be reported to liim, on which ho and his friends 
with some horsemen hurried into the nearest forest, trnnoatisgu* or- 
haribus tt In laodaia tropaeornm adornath, returned to camp by torch- 
light, taunting with cowardice those who had not shared in his exploit. 
Trophies were borrowed by the Romans from Gieeoe, and often appear 
on coins, alwaj's in the shape of the trunk of a tree with a cross bar hnng 
with arms. See Aeu. xi S~ll. cassidb Diez has a warniog 

against the derivation of caique from cassis. 

rapnyniSU gloss, p. 20ti Yalpy; the cheekpioce of the helmet. In 1< 
Latins buckle. Baccula also ~ d^^aXdi tbe boss of a shield, whence 
bitckler. 135 cubtuu teuone inoiriu the ynke of a war chariot 

broken off at the pole, a pari of the trophy, 135—8 violiBonH 


TBOEMis APLUSTBE ou omament of boards, projecting above the stem 

ol Yesselfl, in the form of a bird's crest or wing, or a fish's tail. A staff 

with gay ribbons rose from it Sil. x 324 laceroque aplnstria velo\ which, 

floftting in the wind, served as a weathercock. It was carried in naval 

- tdnmphs, like modem flags, cf. Luc. iii 586. On the two forms aplustre 

and aplustrum see Q-. J« Yoss. de analog, n 13. There is a cut of an 

€fhutret which appears on the column of Trajan and on coins, in Bich 

companion. 136 summo tbistis captivos in abcu Luc. viii 818 

exttruetos fpoliU hostiUbns arcus. Frud. c. Symm. 11 556 — 61 frustra igitur 

cvmtf summo fiuramtcr in arcu | ,,,8ubpedibti8queducumoa,-ptiYOBpop' 

Utejlexo I ad toga depressot tnanitmsque in terga retortU | et suspensa gravi 

tekiumfragmina trunoo. There still exist in Bome 5 triumphal arches, 

(1) of I^us; (2) of Titus, highly valuable for the artistic merit and the 

sobjeot of its sculptures, which represent the golden candlestick, the 

table of show-bread etc. from the temple at Jerusalem; (3) of Sep- 

timios Severus; (4) of Gallienus; (5) of Constantino. See Bum 

Bome and the Oampagna ind. s. v. arch. Pauly i^ 1487 — ^9. J. P. 

BeUorii veteres arcus Augustorum triumphis insignes. Bom. 1690 fol. 

138 OKAius as Alexander 168 — 72. babbabus as Hannibal 

147—167, and Xerxes 173—187. indupebatob iv 29. 

An arohaie form, found in Lucr., and afterwards in Optatianus, Prudent. , 

Sidon., Porfirius (L. Miiller de re metr. 394. 469). Ennius has indupero, 

Luer. indupedio, carm. de fignris orat. 66 (in Halm rhet. Lat 66) indu- 

petro, Exx. of the pronoun endo [ivSw), indo, indu in Gorssen Aussprache 

u. B. w, n' 271—2* ct luv. xv 157 defendier. 

140 the only verse in luv. in which one anapaestic word is followed by 

three spondaic; two spondees follow an anapaest vi 458 (Bibbeck). With 

the thought of. Pliny's argument against the ballot ep. in 20 § 8 quoto 

cw^ eadem honeitatis cura secreto quae paUtm? Multi famam, con- 

scientiam pauoi verentur. inde from trophies and 

triamphal arches and * Westminster Abbey.' famae bitis 

IT 138 aliamque famem. cf . on the metaphor Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 18 23. 

Wetst. on 8. Matt. 5 6. 141 — 2 Quis enim vibtutem am- 

nacHTUB ipsAM, PBAEMiA 8i TOLLAs? Blomf. gloss. Aesch. P.Y. 327. 

Qaintil. xii 11 § 29 more ewum^ qui a se non virtutes, sed voluptai- 

tern, quae fit ex virtutibus, peti dicunt Ov. ex P. 11 3 11 — 14. 35 — 6 

yoa can scarce find one in a thousand virtutem pretium qui putet 

esse sui. | ipse decor, recte f acti si praemia desint, | non movet et 

gratis paenitet esse probum; | . . . . iudice te mercede caret per seque 

petenda est | externis virtus incomitata bonis, see more in Grang. and 

compare the arguments of philosophers on the summum bonum, whether 

virtue alone, or virtue accompanied by outward advantages. On the 

oonstr. amplectitur, si tollas cf . 205. 339 n. vii 50. xi 16. Ov. L 0. Ter. ad. 

761 — 2 si oupiat . . . , non potest. Madvig § 348b. 

142 ZAMEK yet the glory, which spurs men on to effort, is often the ruin 

of their country. There is an allusion to the civil wars of Bome. olim 

e?er and anon, again and again, ttot^i Germ, sonst, Serv. Aen. viii 391 

fere ut solet. Hor. s. 1 1 25 — 6 Heind. utpueris olim dant crustula blandi 

j doetores. Hand Tursell. iv 368. Lambm. and Obbar on Hor. ep. i 10 

^ 143 TiTULi epitaph, vi 230 titulo res digna sepulcii. 

Luc. Yin 815 ^6 of Pompeius' grave surgit miserabile bustum | non ullis 

plenum titulis. cf. lb. 805—14. Plin. 11 § 154 of the earth nullo 
magis sacra merito quam quo nos quoque sacros facit, etiam monwmenta 
ao titulos gerens nomenque prorogans nostrum et memoriam 




See the frmerBl iDBoriptions 
it. 20 i 1 (cited b; Silveatri) 
li per millt indignitata ent- 
pBos in titolnm Bepalori. 

niii JiguraU i 

X laUbrit 

Sen. de trev, 
nem dipiii 
jpjnenl, miifra (u6it cogitatio laborDiBsi 
Hor. 0. IT 8 13—5. b. n 3 84—99. 144 

cian Tu g 33, citing this T. boo cnstoH i 


this time (Sept. 1871) a wild fig-tree may he seen growine ont of i 
Trail of the Benate-hoose iKiurl, Cambridge. Hor. epod. S IT Bcliot. a ep; 
oris oapriGooB erutai. Prop. t = it 5 71—3 lit tmiialaB lenae ev 
vetoi amphora collo, \ urgeai hanc aipra vit, caprilice, l«a.Pere.i': 
Sen. n. q, II 6 g 5. Mart, i 2 9 marmora Meitallae JiTidit caprifiei 
laid. oiig. xni 7 g 18 baa an abeitrd etjmnlo^ aaprificnB apjieUata to 
qiiod parietal, quiinu intuuciiar, earpii : enimpit enim et prodil e ' -• ■ 
quibvi concepta t*t. 146 ^i°- sd fam. it 5 § 4 hem 

mnncnli indignantaT, li quit noitnim inlfriit aut accinii est, quorum 
vita brevioT eeie debet, cum uno loco tot oppidnm cadaTsra proiala 
iaeejUt Prop. it=iii 2 19—20. Mart, i 88 4—5. Anson, epigr. 3fi 9—10 
Monumentafatiicunl, j mors etiam Bails iwminibuiqae venit, Butil. Xa> 
mat. I 411 cemivnii eiemplit uppida posBS mori. 


with the wbolB pBBBHge comp. Sen. n. q. iii pr. % 6 quemadnodimt 
Hannibal Alpes BUperaveiit icribunt. quemadmadum cor^rmatat I 
HiBpaniae cladibiu beilum Italiae inopinatut iittuleril,frtKtiique rebut j 
tt pott CarChagintm pertinax regee pererraTerit daoem promitlau, 
exercitum petent. guemadmadmn nan de>i«n{ omnibui angulit beilum tma: 

gmertrt: adeo me patria pati poltrat, iin« hoatt iron polerat. d, InT. 

172—3. Ov. at. Ill 615-e lam einii eit et de tam magno rsBtat AehUU 
I neisia guid paivam quod non bene compleat ninam. HamlBt 
T 1 186—204. nooE sdumo cf. oomm. on Nep. cnn 1 

§1. _ 148 CiPiT SI 171 n.' has room for,' 'Ib large bdoi^ 

to Batistj.' Cia. p. imp. Cn. Pomp, % 66 quae civilai eat . . . qiiae um'iu 
tribani mitilutn . . . tpiritui oaperepoasiir id. p. Mil §87. exx. in Barth 
on Stat. Aoh. 1 151. Bnim. on Ot. tr. iii 4 30. Corte on Lne, i 111. Miit- 
IBllonCnrt. Iii4 = llgl2. Holm. Peerliamp Vei^. toI. up. 209. LiT. 
mn 16 g 8. Plor. it 2 9 14. Cland. in Rat. 11 156. In Gr, x^/iri WetBt. 
on lo. 21 26. DemoBth. 118 8. 579 S. m»dho cf. Maura 

undo in Hor. c, n 6 S — 1. I49 Markl. cunj. Niloque 

amota tepente riirrusete, 'AMcaefinCi describit i{ui1)ns non cuntontUB fnit 
Annibal; nempa, a Mauretania neqne ad Aetbiopiam : amata !filo trpeiiU, 
eat, quae pertingit a Nito ad Aetbiopae. mratii est tx alia parte' 
NiLO TEPENTi Prop. 111 = 11 33 3 Nilo . . . tspentB. 
ISO EunauB AD Manil. it 602 rnrenm neque ad Nilum directit fiactihvt 
exit. ELEPHANToa II 194—7. m 104. 161 additiib 

IMPER1I8 msPANiA Sil. I 190-343. Lit. iii 30 g 2. Tbe CarthagiiuanB 
had beld only a few faotories in Spain till tbe S. and W, ooaata of the 
penioBula were reduced by Hamilcar Baroas b. o. 236 — 228 and his son- 
in-law HaBdiubal 227— -220, who thtu opened out for Carthage a Bonroe 
of wealth, a school of anuB, and a recruiting gronnd(FloF. i 22i=ii 6 § 38). 
Ab a boy of thirteen Hiuinibal accompanied bis father Hamilcar to Spain 
B. 0. 236; in B.C. 330 be nuoceeded ths murdered Hasdrnbal as oom- 
mandet-in-ohief there, haTing before commanded the oavalry; in 218 ho 
oroBBed the Pjreneea with a combined army of Spaniards and AfrioauB; 
in 207 his own brother Haadrubal, who had brought a Spaniah army to 

151-155] ALPEM. ACETO. ACTUM NIHIL. 121 

liis aid, lost his Hfe in the hattle of Sena. Polyb. iii 39 the Cartha- 
giman dominion extended in Africa from the altars of Philaenos (the 
bonndary of Eyrene) to the pillars of Hercules ; and in Spain from thence 
to the Pyrenees. On the rapidity of Hannibal's march {tranailuit) cf . ib. 
40 § 2. 41 § 6. Sil. I 643 — 5. On his imperium Liv. xxxv 42 § 12 spe 
animoque complexum orbis terrarum imperinm. 152 oppo* 

SUIT NATXTRii AiiPEHQUB NiYEMQUE ButU. Namat. II 33 — 6 God set the 
Apennines as a vangaard of Latinm, a barrier scarce accessible by 
monntaiQ-paths : invidiam timuit natura parumque putavit \ Arctois 
Alpes opposnisse minis. Cic. prov. cons. § 34 Alpibns Italiam muni- 
erat antea natura non sine aliquo divino numine. cf. Mamertin. genethl. 
Maxim. 2 fin. Naturally Hercules was regarded as the first to open 
the road Nep. xxiii 3 § 4 Bos. DS. iv 19 §§ 3—4. Liv. v 34 § 6. App. Syr. 
10. Sil. ra 496—617. Amm. xv 10 § 9. The literature on the route of 
Hannibal is given in Pauly i' 796 — 7; Niebuhr and Mommsen hold 
that it was over the Little St Bernard : Mr Bob. Ellis has shewn reasons 
for believing that he crossed by the little mt. Cenis: much snow had 
already fallen Polyb. iii 54 § 1. 55 §§ 1 — 6 where is a lively picture 
of the obstacles overcome. Scipio ib. 61 § 5 could not believe that Han- 
nibal would have the hardihood to essay a passage. alpem the 
sing, also in Ov. Luo. Claud. Milton. . nivemque Sen. 
ep. 51 § 5 indojnitum ilium nivibus atque Alpibu s virum, 153 i>i- 
DUCiT scoFULOS ET MONTEM BUMPiT ACETO Pllu. zxxvi § 2 Hannlbal's 
passage of the Alps was regarded by our ancestors as a portent. Polyb. iii 
47 § 6—48 complains of the falsehoods current on the subject; claiming 
credit for his own account as derived from the evidence of contemporaries 
and from personal survey of the ground. He says nothing of the vine- 
gar. Idv. zxi 37 they set fire to a great pile of wood, and soften the 
roeks when red hot by pouring vinegar upon them ; they then cut a way 
through them. cf. Plin. zxni § 57 of vinegar saxarumpit infusum quae 
nan ruperit ignis antecedens, App. Hann. 4. Serv. on Aen. x 13 who 
quotes luv. Amm. xv 10 § 11. See Niebuhr*s lectures. 
154 lAX TENET iTAiiiAM after the battle of Cannae Polyb. iii 118 §§ 2 — 5. 
Liv. zxn 54 § 10. 155 actum nihil est agere * to effect' 
is often used with multumf pluSy plurimum, nonnihil. Elotz i^ 256 a. 
Freund. [Lncan ii657 of Caesar nil actum credensy dum quid superesset 
agendum. J. E. S. and H. B. B.]. Aen. xi 227 — 8 nil omnibus actum 
I tantorum impensis operum, Hor. s. i 9 15 nil agis. ii 3 103 nil agit. 
Ov. m. VI 685 ubi blanditiis agitur nihiL Liv. xxxiv 61 § 6 nihil 
act am esse . . . exsilio HannibaliSt si absens quoque novas moliri res ... » 
posset, Phaedr. n 5 3 multum agendo nil a gens. Plin. ep. i 9 § 8 a 
witticism of Atilius satius est otiosum esse quam nihil agere. YFl. v 
299. Stat. Th. xu 442. lustin. xxxvrn 1 § 1 nihil actum morte patris 
exiitimans, si adulescentes patemum regnum .... occupassent. See Buhn- 
ken on Butil. Lup. ii 11 and on Ter. ad. v 8 12. milite S. Aug. 
de gen. ad litt. v 26 dicitur miles et multi intelleguntur. so eques, 
POBTAS VI 290 — 1. VM. Ill 7 § 10 after the battle of Cannae, the site 
of the enemy's camp, tum maxime Capenam portam armis Hanni- 
bale pnlsante, was sold for its full value. Frontin. strat. in 18. At 
the same time both the Bomans and Carthaginians expected the speedy 
capture of Bome Polyb. ni 118 §§ 4 — 5. Maharbal undertook in five 
days to ^ne on the Capitol Liv. xxii 51 § 2. VM. ix 5 E § 3. Hannibal 
ad portas was long a word of terror in Bome Cic. de fin. iv § 22. cf. 
Ores. IV 17. Sen. de ir. xi 2 § 5 timor^ qui Hannibale post Cannas 



moenia diccnmBidente lectorii pemvrril aniiaot. Plin. sxsiv S 33 
three Btatues in Home of Haimiaal, the onl; enemy (!) nho iBimobed a 
Bpeu within ita walls. Hieroo. ep. 123 = 11 Hannibal, de Hispanias 
fiaibui orla iempeilaa, cum tiaitagset Italiam, vidit nrhem, nee auiaa 
«it obiidere .... toto orlie fugitivns, tandiia Bitlijoiue moitem, 
Tsnflno repperit. 156 fka-iqiucb et pono Eamahom 

p. 969 takea fTangiimis B3 = 'I break;' lor esi. of & Hie sudden chimga 
from pi. to dng. «ee Kuhnei gr. Ox- g 430 d. Hildebr. on ApuL i p. 11, 5T doctimaia nostra poetae. id.m. t 491 Bach Pisa mifaf . 
patria eit et db Elide dncimns ortui. Spald. on QnintiL iii G J 31, , 
Barm. ib. 1 1 g il p. 883. Bronkh. ^d Tiboll. in C 66. Here however thS" 
standard might be planted bj' the general in person, while the gates would 
be carcjed by a body of troops. For Hannibal's march on Rome, a direr- 
Bion intended to raise the siege of Capua, a. c, 211 see vii 102 n. Polyb. n 
* § 7—7 g 2. Liy. iini 7—11 (10 g 3 he advajioed himself to the templs 
of Herculea at the Colline gate und suivc;od the city. cf. Plin. tv g 76), 
Prad. c. Symm. ii 733— la anBusji y 106. ii 61 n. -Hie 

Cbeapside of Home, at the bach of the Aigilctum between the eonverging 
pointa of the Quiriuol and Esijuilino Bum Kome and the Campagna 79 — 

aO. 157 aUAUa FACIES et QTJALI EIQNi liEELLi theTfl 

were Hugarths in antiqaily, as many eitant remains prove Chantpflenn' 
hist, de la caricature antique. Paris 18G5, Hipponai was said by hu' 
lampoons to have driven the aoulptors Bupalua and Athenis to oonunit' 
loicide. Their ofEenoe WBH (Plin. xxxvi g 12) llippaaacti natabilil fog^ 
tat iioUtti erat, quamobrem inmgiiuin eius lasnivia imorum hi pTOpo~ 
tutrt Tidenlium circuUi (Calderinns). 158 con aixmut 

iiucBBi FOBTABBi BELci. LTJ8CCM xn 103— S of tliQ elephant bolua . . . 
Tgrio partre lolebaat \ Haonibali. In conaeqaeitce of the battle of the 
Trebia, Dee. 216, Hannibal lost all his remaining elephants esoept one, 
mounted on vhieb he dossed the Apennines and the flooded lowlands 
between the Serchio and the Amo in the spring of 217 ; four days and 
three nights the troops waded through the waters, sleeping on the bag- 
gage and on the carcases of the horses vihich fell Here Hannibal loet 
one eye Poljb. ui 7y. Liv. ixii2. SO- iv 749— 02. Oros. tv Ifi. 
OAEiuiA V 53 tbo Gaetuli dwelt S. of Manretania and Libya, N. of the 
negro tribes, belua see Fore luscum 223. 

Pera. i 128 Insco qui poiiit dicere, lusool So Philip, Antigacae and 
Sertoriua were all one-eyed Pint. Sert. 1^2. Tac. b. iv 13 ol InliuH 
CiviliB SertoTiiiia le aut Hannibalem ferem eivdli otU dehmettninentt). 
(jomm. on Nep. xxui 4 § S. lono in a dream tlireatened Hannibal with 
the loss of the other eye Coelins Antipater in Cic. de div. i g 48. 
159 TmoiniB B. c. 204 near Croton by the consol P. Sempronina Liv. 
xxis 3S; and o^ain n. c. 202 near Zama bj P. Cornelius Scipio AfrioanQS 
tbe elder Polyb. xvo— 19. Liv. us 29-35. 160 seote 110 n. 

IM BXIUCM PBiEOEPB JDOIT Cio. p. Sest. g 143. TM. V 
8 E § 1. Pint. Flamin. 9 § 7. Sen. n. q. m pr. g 6. Liv. xii 37 5 13 
a romouT tlmt Hannibal fled to Antioehua in ' the Qreat ' immediately 
alter Zama, and that the Carthaginian reply to Seipio'B demand for the 
surrender was, HaimibtiUiit in Africa non eau. Bat in fact he remained 
some years at Carthage, where he introduced constitational and finanoial 
reforms. His political enemies denounced to the Bomsus hia intrignes 
with Antiochus; and the Bomsns, in spite of Seipio's remonHtranoea 
(YM. IV 1 g 6 and Liv.) demanded that he should be given up; on which 
Jib escaped to Tyre, and then to Antioehua (Cio. de or. ii § 75. Liv. i-rim 


i&^T^d. zzziY 60 — 1 who dates his flight B.C. 195; but Nepos xxni 7 
B. c. 196). cf. Justin, xxxi 1 § 7 — c. 8. App. Syr. 4. 9. Zonar. ix 18 fin, 


UBBAT TiGiiiABE TYBA17N0 like the Boman clients, rising before dawn to 
danee attendance at the leyees of the great 1 128 n. cf. Sil. xiu 886. 888 
— 9 Astyrio famnlus regi .« .. Prusiacas delatus segniter oras \ altera 
Bsryitia iTiibelli patietur in aevo, bedet a suppliant's 

posture Stay, on Nep« ly 4 § 4. Stanl. on Aesch. Suppl. 232. Hermann 
gottesd. Alt. § 23 26. cf. Themistokles on the hearth of the Molossian 
king Admetofi Thuo. 1 136 § 3. pbaetoria i 75 n. 

Biois Ludan. diaL mort. 12 § 6. Prusias I, king of Bithynia b.c. 236— 
186, farother-in-law and ally of Philip of Macedon. After the defeat of 
Antiochas at Magnesia b. c. 190 he was required to surrender Hannibal 
(Polyb. xzi 14 § 7. xxii 26 1 11), which he would haye done, if Hannibal 
had not escaped to Crete <Nep. zxiii 9. lustin. xxxii 4 §§ 2 — 8) and thence 
to Pmsias (Nep. lust. U. oc. Strab. xn 563 firu Zonar. ix 20) ; a legend 
coined him first to Artaxas king of Armenia, for whom (like a mythical 
loimder) he designed the new capital Artaxata Plut. Luc. 31 §§ 5 — 6. 
Strab. XI 528 fin. Pirusias n the son, b. c. 186 — 148, employed Hannibal 
OgamstEumenes 11, and was rebuked by him for superstitious deference to 
omens when opposed to military experience Cic. de diy. 11 § 52. YM. iii 7 £ 
1 6 (Pint, de exU. p. 606 says that it was to Antiochus that the lesson was 
giyen). To Hannibal was ascribed the foundation of Prusa in Bithynia 
Plin. y § 148. 163 anibiae, quae bes humanas miscuit 

QUn 80 miscere rempublicam, civitatem, omniay plura. See Fore. Gesner. 
A dream of Hannibal's scouted by Polyb. iii 48 § 7, is related by Silenus 
and Coelius Antipater in Cic. de diy. i § 49. Liy. xxi 22 §§ 6—9. VM. i 7 
B § 1. Sil. Ill 170 — 213. Zon. yin 22. Mercury, or some god or hero, 
led him forth to war, forbidding to look back. Curiosity making him 
torn his head, he saw a gigantic monster, twined with snakes, crashing 
trees and buildings in its course, amid & destructiye storm; this was the 
'devastation of Italy ;' he was to march right onward, taking no thought 
to %bat he left belund hinL ct Hannibal to Antiochus in Liy. xxxy 19 
§ 4 whereeyer I shall learn that there is strength and arms, thither I will 
go, toto orbe terrarum quaerens aliquos Bomanis hostes. Hannibal 
is commonly compared to some mighty force of nature, a conflagration 
orhoiiicane Hor. c. ly 4 42 — 4. Many exx. of res humanae in Miihlmann 
humanus 1318 fln.=pl. hwmana ibid. 1319. The * world' then known 
was indeed troubled by Hannibal ; first the West and then the East were 
burled by him against Bome ; and he liyed to see both subjugated. 
164 HOif...N0N...NEC Hand Tursell. ly 123. jinem dabunt 

EnL in Scip. ap. Macr. yi 2 § 26 and Lucr. 11 119 pausam dare Miihl- 
mann /Siim col. 324 cites Att. 293 finem dare mUeriis and other exx. 
from Yerg, and Claud, and (s. y. do col. 513) exitum dare, from Yopiso. 
Hannibal*s death was dated b. 0. 188 by Valerius Antias (Liy. xxxix 56 § 7) 
and Atticiu (Nep. xxin 13 § 1) ; by Polybius b. 0. 182, and by Sulpidus 
Blithe B« o. 181 (ib.). In the same year died Philopoemen (also by poi- 
son) and P. Soipio (Fischer rom. Zeittafeln b. c. 183). 


m 168. XI 200« b. c. 216 after the battle of Cannae {Cannej Polyb. in 
107«-118) Hannibal sent home three modii (YM. yii 2 E § 16. Plin. xxxiii 
S 20, Aug. ciy. D, iii 19. Oros. ly 16. Eutr. in 11. Liy. xxin 12 § 1 
mentionB this report, but prefers another, reducing the amount to one 
modiut) 01 two modii ^lor. ii 6 S 18) of golden rings of equites slain in 


this great disaEler (Flor. ib. % 15 paene nltimum valimi imperii). LaeliB 
dial, inort. 12^3 doee not Bpeoify any uimibor. 

166 AMcLDS when Pmsi&s consented to deliver liim np, Hannibal took 
poison, which he had upon liim for the purpose Liv. xxxii 51 g 8 (a 'rvfiiiu 
moi' id. xxi 15 § 4}. Varro in his tatara on suicide ep. Nod. 845 21 
quaerii ibidem ab Hannibali, cur biberit nudtcammtum; 'qoia Itomanis,' 
inquit. 'mo Prusiades trodere Tolebat.' Nep. xitti 13§6. YM. n 2 £ 
i 2. Sil. nil 983—893. App. Syr. 11. Solin. 42 % 3. lustm. ttttii 4 J 8. 
Plut. Flamin. 20. DChrjB. 64 n 213 30 D. AuBon. idyl 12 Mat, 16. 
Zonar. B 31. Eutr. ly 2 = 5. Sidon. c. n 300—1. Otos. rv 30 p. f" 
The ring oocora only in AV. vir. ill 42 g 8. cL Plin. titih g 36 bo 
like Demosthenes, hide poitoni ander jeaeli, anulosifue moitu 
gratia habent. So VibnlBona Agrippa i. b. B3 swallowed in Uie senate 
poison -which ho wore in a ring DCass. tviri 21 § 4 Fabric. Kirohmann da 
annlis p. 25o. i deuens Sil. ii 96 i domens, j juo 

tendU. I EI coERE a formula of derision or remonstiance, 

used with or n-ithout et and nunc 310 n. vi 306. m 57. Jabn on Pers. 
IT 19. Miihlmaun to ool. 767. Schmid on Hor. ep. I 6 17. Wetat. on 
Junes 4 13. Savar. on 8idon. ep. 1 3 init. M. Aurel. ix g 29 BTayt vS» 
Kai 'A\i(ttrSpii...niK \i^e. lav. II 131 vade ergo et cede. ATiaa. fab. 

ya ISO — S n. itiveni, eui-ai mihi lexla \ qiuique die miienira dirtu caput 
Annihal impUt; | qaidouid id est, de q-ao deliberat, an pefat urfi«tn | 
aOannis. Scholastic theses from the plana and history of Hannibal in 
Oicdein-T. iglT. nSlTl. ef.defio. t g 70. ad Heren, m g 2. QnintU. 
in 8 S 17. Empor. in Halm rbet. Lat. 671 27—31. Pers. i 29—30 (en 
eifraiaram eintam dictata f niBse | pro iiihilo penilaa } Hor. epod. 11 
8 fabula quanta fni, where sea Lambin. p. 373 — 4. TibuU. I 4 B3 n« 
tarpii fabula fiam. Ov. amor, iii 1 21. Obhar on Hoi. ep. i 13 9. 
Mitford cites Stat. Ach. ii 273. nr pdsbis elaokih Schol. 

tUdete pneri etudentei dicant. i>ecla.uatio Scbol. 

deliberatifa, Baimibat 'atrum de Alpibut recederet. 


1GB. 702 U. epitaph of Alexander sntficit hnic tumnlas [luy. 
172], «it non suffeearat orbiB ; | rss brevii ampla /uil, cui fait 
omy(a bresig. Anth. 934 31—4 E. Plut. Ales. 6 5 2 PhiUp to Alexander, 
after he had broken Bukephalos, ' son, seek a kingdom equal to thee, fot 
Uacedonia has not room for thee WaKtSorla yip at oi x^P''-' On the 
boundleee ambition of Alexander see An. vii 1 g 4. VM. vm 11 E g 3 
Alexander's lament, when taught that there were many worlds hen me 
jniicrum, quod ju nno qtiidem adhuc $uin potitm, loan. Sarisb. polier. 
viu 6. Sen. ep. 119 §g 7 — 8 poit Dareian et Indus pauper eit Alexander. 
.... Mrnidi claiutra perrumpit . ., , inventus est, qui concvpiiceret aliqaid 

pott omnia ille modo ignobilii anguli [there la a Qke saroasm in 

Peltaeo} turn tine eontroverna dominu$ taoto fine torrarnm pet 
Bnum reditniuB orbem tiiBiis est. id. de ben. yii 2 g 5 — 3 g 1. 
of. Haaee's ind. Curt, ix 4^16 g 18 MUtzell. For text and speoimmB of 
ihetorioal esercisea on this theme ct. Qnintil. in B g 16. M. Sen. oontr. 
22 g 19. snas. 1 g 2 fohfeiub bilo idem sunt termini et regni tut et 
mundi... osone (empm eilAIeiandrum cum orbe ei cum sole detinere, 
.... § 3 ALBucioB aiLus Alexander orbi magnus est, Alexandra 
orbis angastuB eat . . . . g S cestids orbia illura uiiu non oapit. . . 
S 14 irnaccB ABELLins teitor ante orbem tibi tunm deosse quam mi- 
litem, cf. Hamlet v 1 332-239. When shortly beforo his death {Air. vit 


15 § 5) embassies arriTed from Spain, Gaul, Italy (perhaps Borne itself), 
Scythia, Aethiopia, he seemed to himself and others lord of earth and sea. 
He formed a port at Babylon and designed expeditions on the Caspian 
and the Persian gulf (ib. 16) esp. against the Arabs (19 — 20). He de- 
signed to make of the Euphrates, what he had made of the Nile, and what 
some Euphrates valley railway may yet make of it, a high road for the 
commerce of East and West ; Babylon was to be the capital of his univer- 
sal empire Bitter Erdkunde x 24 — 34. 37 — 43. His admirals' dis- 
coveries remained the chief source of geographical knowledge for those 
parts till very recent times (Bitter). pellaeo iuveni Claud, 

epist. 1 16 Pellaeum iuvenem regum fiexere ruinae. Symm. laud, in 
Gratiaa §6 Pellaeum ducem. Stat. s. iv 6 59 — 60 P. regnator. A com- 
mon epithet of Alexander, also of Philip, who were both natives of Pella 
(Strab. XVI 752. Mel. 11 3 § 1 with Tzschucke) and also = Alexandrian, 
see exx. in lexx. Pella in Bottiaea, on an eminence by a lake formed by 
the river Lydias, 120 stadia from its mouth (Strab. vii fr. 20 p. 330), is 
mentioned Herod, vn 124 and called by Xenophon Hellen. v 2 § 13 the 
largest city of Macedonia. From the time of Philip it was the royal resi- 
dence and so continued till the fall of the monarchy. See the description 
in liv. xLiv 46. The comparison of Alexander and Hannibal is a com- 
mon-place Liv. XXXV 14 §§ 6 — 11. App. Syr. 10. Lucian dial. mort. 12. 
ver. hist, n 9. Plut Flamin.. 21 § 3. iuveni Alexander's 

early death (in his 33rd year b.c. 323) is a constant theme of rhetoric Cic. 
PhiL V § 48. Tac. an. n 73. non sufficit obbis 32. vi 53 

nnus Hiberinae vir sufficit ? Luc. v 355 — 6 sperantes omnia dextras \ 
4xarmare datur, quibus hie non sufficit orbis. ib.x 455 — 6 of Caesar 
bie^ cui Bomani spatium non sufficit orbis, | parvaque regna putat 
Tyriis cum Gadibus Indos [cf. luv. x 1 n.]. VeU. 11 46 § 1 of 
Caesar alterum paene imperio nostra ac stu) quaerens orbem. 
169 AXSTTJAT IN7ELIX ANGUSTO LiMiTE MUNDi met. from the sea surging 
in a narrow channel Luc. vi 63 aestuat &ngVLBt& rabies civilis harena, 
Hitford cites the imitation of Oros. 11 23^ p. 209 of Seleucus and Lysima- 
chii8(*um orbem terrarum . . . soli possiderent, et angustissimos senec- 
tutis aevitae suae terminos non adspicientes angustos esse imperio sua 
totins mundi terminos arbitrabantur, 170 ut gyabi 

cuusus BC0PULI8 PABVAQUE SEBiPHO ou Gyarus and the banishment to 
islands see i 73 n. pp. 120—3 brevibus Gyaris. vi 663 — 4 of astrolo- 
gers sed qui pa^ne peril, cui vix in Cyclada mitti \ contigit et parva 
tandem earuisse Seripho. Ov. m. v 242 parvae . . . Seriphi. ib. 251 
—2. Seriphos, now Serpho, one of the Kyklades, between Kythnos and 
Siphnos, 12 m. p. in circuit Plin. iv § 66. Its insignificance appears from 
the retort of Themistokles to the Seriphian (Plat. rep. i 329°. Cic. Cat. 
mal § 8. Plut. Them. 18 § 5. apophth. 185°. cf. the Seriphian's 
rejoinder to the Athenian, who derided his birthplace, Stob. fl. 39 29 *my 
eonntry is a disgrace to me, you to your country ') ; its incommodity as a 
residence from Plut. de exil. 7 p. 602*^. Cic. d. n. i § 88. schol. Aristoph. 
Aoh. 541—2. Aristid. i 637. 811 Dind. Hither (Tac. an. 11 86) Vistilia, 
a highborn matron, was banished for shameless prostitution a. d. 19 ; 
hither also b.o. 24 Cassius Severus the orator, who had already been 
banished to Crete for the caustic criticisms on the great, which he had 
eontinued to publish in exile ib. iv 21 bonisque exutus, inter dicto igni 
Qtque aqua, saxo Seripho consenuit. scopulis Sen. epigr. 9 13---4 

to his natiye dty Corduba ille tuus quondam magnus, tua gloria , civis | 
infigar Boopnlo. cf. 6 11 qui iaceo saxis telluris adhaerens. 


171—2 Shitk^. Ban, it pt. 1 t 4 63—93 iil-vieaved ambition, hem 
art thou thriink .' | ichm that thU body did contain a ipirit, | a kingdont' 
lor it WBB too Biuall a bonnd; | but now two paces of the vilest 
earth | ia room enoagli. at. Pops o doath, all eloquent, you, onlf, 

5 rove { what daat ve dote on, nben 'tia mau ve Iotb, 
71 cuu TAUXH A riouLiB KiiHiTiil inhutebit ubheu Alexander . . 
toted Babylou b. c. 333, in spite of the WRiiilnga of Boothan,;era {Arr. rat 
i6 g 6— c. 18. 32 g 1. 34—38. Plut. 73—5. DS. iviu 1!2. 116 f 4) " 
there died in the same year, 11 Jmie (TMrlnaU c 55. Dioysen). M. I 
eaas. i deliberat Aleiander Magnus an Babyloniam iutret, 
denaniialuin etiet illi reiponto augurii periculam. Son. do const, gap. B 
g 8 non Babylonioa illi nturoi contuleria, qitoi Alexander intiavit. 
On the walla o( Babylon Bee Bitter u SfiB — 924. Layacd'e Ninereh ii* 
375—8. Hdt. 1 178—183 with the commentatorB ; a trench was dng. the 
alaylrom the trench formed into bricks and baked in kilns; then the ton 
of the ditch and the wall were built of the bricks, cemented with bitumen 
and reode. Aristopb. av. 652 with schol.n-cpiTFix'f*"' ftydytaa rXteSoil 
aVraii aswip Ba;9uXuifa. Ov. m. it 57 — S dicitar alXata \ coctilttai 
inuru citixiat Semtramii vxhtm, where eee the notes in Bonn. Pnnk 
iT=in 11 SI— 2. Luo. Ti 49—60 fragili txretanAata testa | moania 
vdrtaim Tffugi Babylonia Parlhi. Mai't. w 75 2—3. Strab. xvi 7*a, 
DB. II 7 § 4. Cnrt. v 1 = 4 § 25. Vitrnv. viu 3 g 8. lofitin. 1 2 g 7. 
Philo Byz. 5 § 1. All these authorities notioe that these walls, which havs 
served luaoy oentories and many towns as quarries, were built of biiclL 
Bee Q. ItawlioEon in Bible diet. a nanus utthitau nBBH 

this indirect designation of a parson or thing or place is cbaraoteri»- 
tie of luT. 10. a»-SS. 60. 108— S. 179. 326. m. 212. 276-81. 331. Sti. 
1 10. as. 33—6. 130. 11 23. in 79—80. 116. t 15. 46. yt 7—8. 337— U. 
615—7. 631—3. eai. vii 25. 64. 68. 205—6. Tin 337. 245. 263. S83. 3e6. 
116I-2. 1113.4.47.70—3. ml 43. 79. 80. 185— 7. 193. xiv 36. 43. 
81—2. 287. 31a. iTl 6. 172 h.ibcophaoo conientub 

147. anth. lat. 487 4 It. Mart, ix 4B 7— S. Ot. m. xn 615—6 iam eitiii 
tit, et detamniagnoreitai AMUe | nriciv quid, patTara quod non bene 
Bompleat nrnam. Plin. h. n. n § 175. Stat, s- h 7 93—6 >le m 
Natanwnii Toaantii [of Hammon] | post ortus obitasqua fulmina- 
toB I anguEto Babylon premit sepulcro. Menand. fr. ino. 176L 
Antonin. vi 24 Alexander and'his muleteer come to the same state ^tei 
death. saTCDjjftajui ' camivorona ' ' flesh-eating,' is an epithet of iapii, 
lapis Aisiui, a stone ehoaen for coffins as hastening decay; tomba eaok 
of one solid block of granite may still be seen at Aeaos (Conybears and 
Howson St Paul ii' 2t6); as snbst. -a stone coffin' Forcell Dirksen 
manuale. Panly. Salmas. exerc. Plin. 847. Boiseard in Gruter's Hiea. ed. 
Graer. Hence germ. Sarg (Dies) and Fr. ceneuil (Littrd preL to Braohet 
Grammaire biet. ni, it. cf. Salmas.). S. Aug. gIt. D. xtiii 5 area in gua 
mortaiu ponitur, qwid omnes iam aaroophagum vacant, sopit didttir 
ffraece. fatbids 11 17 qui vkUu Bwrbum iiiceeiugtu 

fatetur, 'betrays.' 173 Quantula eint nouiNnii cOBPCsranA 

Oron. an 8en. q. n. ti 3 g 2. Lud. Schwabs do deminuidTis, Gisaae 185&, 
19 hoiaulliu. Plant, rad. 156 huj, homuncnU quanti eatisl Lb. ot 
how little worth, of. capl. 51. Sobwabe 23 -allae {L e, unii^Hi], tanlalm, 
tontilliu, quanlillui, lingidi, Hnffttliu, and (mediaeTalJ quolultu, gviimilMiM. 
Inr. hasillfeKicuIo. 40uncial(i. 160 etc. fabrilum. m 38 hKiliun. 
9Bpalliolam. ST venCriculu). 103 i^mculus. liS lordidulus. 161 ete. 
aarcinula. 204 etc. parvuha, 219 foniliu. 326 kortiilus. 253 etc. itr- 

173— 1S4] ' XERXES DEFIES NATUEE. 1 27 

vuhu. 262/ocu2ti9. iy 99 fratercultu gigantU, y 75 inprohulus. 105 etc. 

vermda, 138 homtmcio, \i 8 etc. . ocellus. 36 munusculum, 57 etc. 

agellus. 105 Sergiolus, 151 etc. quantulum, 186 etc. Graecvlus. 241 

ete.yUtoZa. vetuhu. 334 etc, asellus, 390 etc. filiolus. 401 etc. mamilla. 

425 rtt&tciin<2ttZi». 469 asella, 479 etc. fiagellum. 551 catellus. yu 

46 ti^tUuoi. 119 petasuncultu, 148 nutricula. 174 summula. viii 5 

fettfkuUa. 110 o^dictiZa. ix 5 cnutuZttm. 127 floscalus angustae mi- 

seraeque breyissima vitae. 141 etc. vo^cutum. x 64 matella. 81 

fonuuula. pallididtu, 121 ^HMtZZiM. 334 flammeolum, 354 etc. «aceZ- 

itiiii. 355 condidu^. xx 66 Jki«(2uZtM, 79 holusculum, 110 lividtUus. 

132 tessella. 133 etc. culteUtu, 135 rancidulus^ 143 tirunculus. 144 

o/eZto. 153 etc. contZa. 157 etc, testiculus. 203 oaticula. xii 60 etC; 

retteu/um. 100 etc. libellus. xni 40 virguncula. 152 bratteola. 183 

quantuhucumqtie. 213 misellus. xiy 9 ficella. 138 sacculus. 166 ^Z«- 

dida. 196 castellum. xy 79 particuZa. See Boby's grammar i 319 — 330. 

The other diminntives in lav. are either proper names or such as have no 

pzimitiTe in nse, or have a special sense wholly different from that of 

their primitives, e. g* avunculus^ loculi : buccula, perguUif sportula : 

Oieulum ; pateUa, puMa, tabeUat umbella : anciUa^ scintilla, 

173—84. The engineers of Xeixes,. [Lys.] epitaph. §§ 27 — 9, setting at 

naught nature, and the laws ol heaven and the opinions of men, making 

a n»d through the sea, a sea voyage through the land, were a stock 

argument in the rhetorical schools from their infancy Isokr. paneg. § 89 

rdires BpvXovaiy, Arr. Epikt. ni 23^ § 38. Even Cicero did not cUsdain 

the well-worn antitheses fin. 11 § 112 Xerxes , cum ....Hellesponto 

iimoto,Aihoneperf ossos maria ambulavisset,terram navigasset. 

M. Sen. suas. 2 (the three hundred at Thermopylae, deliberating whether 

ihqr should hold their ground). § 3 tbiabius sed montes perforat, 

ourxa contegit. § 18 bekeoa qui classibtis suis maria subripuit, qui 

timu circumscripsit, dikUavit profwndum^ novam rerum naturae faciem 

itiqwat. ib. senianus terram armi» obsidetf caelum sagittiSt maria vin- 

ciilis : LaconeSj visi stucwrritis, mundus captus- est, cf . suas. 5 § 7 blandus. 

A l(Hig passage in the Panathenaikos (or. 13) of Aristid. pp. 207—12 

IHnd. contains- all the points insisted on by luv. Philo de somn. 11 17 

SQ important passage ; fAeraffroixeiovv * to change the elements ' is applied 

to Xerxes also in rhet. gr. i 628 2W. cl ib. 340 8—28 the impiety of 

Xerxes, pretending to create a new world; his defeat and flight. 604 28. 

log. b. lud. n 16 § 4 (v 182 26 B) Hhat vainglorious Xerxes, who sailed 

across land and marched over the mairiy whom seas could not contain, 

who led an army broader than Europe, was chased by the Athenians a 

fugitive in one single vesseV Parmenio in anth. ix 304 t6v yairji 

Kal rovTOV dfi€i<f>6€l<rat(ri KeXe^yOoLS \ vavrrjv t^rreipov, Te^ovopov 

reXdyovs. Ael. v.h. 11 14 Periz. DChrys. 3 i 44 9— 19D. Lucian dial. 

mort. 20 § 2. Philostr. soph. 11 6 a commonplace of Yarus^ addressed to 

Xerxes in a loud voiee : * you come to the HeUespont and call for a horse; 

to Athos, and would take ship. Don't you know the roads, man? do you 

eq)eGt a little earth to last, cast on the Hellespont,, when the mountains 

do not last?' Themist. or, 7 p. 96** *^Xerxes^ transformed fjL€T€fJt6p<pov land 

and sea.' Julian, or. 1 p. 28^ ignominious end of the march and voyage 

ol Xerxes, who dared to do violence' to nature Zosim. i 2 § 3. Yerg. cuL 

81—3. Luc. n 672—7. anth. Lat. R 239. 442. 461. Manil. iii 18—20. v 

49. Flor. I 24=11 8 § 2. Ampel. 13 § 4 contabulato Hellesponto et 

forato Athomonte. lustin. xi 10 §§ 23 — 4. 11 § 1. Amob. 1 5 ut ille 

imuMtviM Xerxes mar eterrisimmitteretetgressibus maria trans* 


t fffeelum nt caueaJ SiJon. o. n 37 — 46, whose neit 
example is AUxandnr. ib. u 507 — II. ct. thu epitheta applied to Xerxes : 
Gorgias in [Longin.] 3 g 3 d rue IlE,wur Zcu!. AUddamss in Axiatot. iheL 
III 3 TiXapoi. Themist. 11 p. 143* and 13 p. 166" di.atwr. PompeiuB nlek- 
med Lucnllas ' Xerxes togatus' Veil, u 33 § 4 ob ini^cfiu vwUt nuiri el 
Teceptiim lujossit moiuibui in terrai 'oare. Plui. ii g 170. of. Vair. t./. m 
17. Pint. Lac. 39 g 3 asDribeB tlie jeat to tbe Btoio Tubeio. Sail. C. IS g 3 
alludes to tlie same Baying quid ea memoTem, qvat niii iU, qui videre, 
Tiemini cTudibilia iuiii, aprivatit complunbus BabrorBog mo □ tie, marift 
conalrnctarv.l. conHtrata]««n^r DCbbb. lii 17 and IS i.v. 39 Guoa 
(Caligula) made a bridge, mth lavems and an aqueduct, between Fnteoli 
andBanli, adiEtance of 3ra. p. 600 ft,, ' wishing to ridoauross eea' (17 g I}; 
the niunber et veaseU taken from the oom tcadu for the porpoee -was so 
large as to cause a famine in Italy; tbe euperor harangued the soldiers 
(§ 7) on their great feat, ' they had marched on foot acroas the sea.' g 9 
'he made sea iaUi land.' g 11 'hs said that Neptune himself was afiaid 
of him, and seoBed at Darius and Xetsea, as baring bridged over a breadth 
ol aea many times greater than they had.' ib. 26 g G CaUgnIa called 
Neptune, ci. Suet. Cal. 32. ib. 19 most thought that Uie bridge was built 
to vie with Xerxes, who had won admiration by flooring the narrower 
Hellespont; bnt SuetomuH' grandfather heard bora courtiers the real 
motive: ThraayUua the antrologer had deolsred to Tibeiius that Gaiua 
would no more reign than he would ride on horsebiick over the baj of 
Boise. Sen. brer. rit. 18 g 5. So Nero, who deaigued a ship canal aaro«e 
the Corinthian Isthmus, had the examples of Barius and Xerzea t ' 

his mind [Lucian] Nero 2. 173 eebdttub olim ii 

long been believed iv 96n. 174 TELmciTOB athob H3t. 

TJt 21 1 3 preparations for the canal had been made for three years (be. 
canae of the shipwreck of 300 Persian veasela there in tbe autumn of B.C. 
J93 Hdt. Ti 44). yn 22—24. 73 S 1- 116—7. 122 g 1. Thuo. rv 109. Never 
waa sceptician, anoient and modem (Bellori, Belon, Cousin^, Wieland 
Luoian it 2GS dial mart. 20) more gratuitous than that which questiomi 
the existence of tMs canal. AeL n.a. xin 20 and [Skynmus] 647—9 speak 
of it as shewn in their days. Many other writcra were content to beheve 
Hdt. CatuU. 66 45—6 cum Midi peperere noTum. mare cuniqae aivm- 
(tis J per medium clasBifiarfwronavitAthon. PI. iv g 37. MeL na 
I 32. Claud. Buf. t 335—6 remig^ Medo | suUicitatas Athoi, where he 
imitates the rhythm of Iut. Amm. xxii 8 g 2. Martian. Capell. ti g 6S5. 
Demetrios of Skepsis in Strab. Til fr. 35 held that the canal could never 
have been completed, so as ta be navigable its whole length, owing to the 
difQcultics of a part of tbe ground. Sut travelleis, as Choiaeul-Oonffier, 
Walpole, Leake, have found Feroaina of it, and lieut. Wolfe, who aor- 
veyed it, aayB (penny cyclop. Athoi. olaea. ranB. i 81): 'The canal o{ 
Xenes is still most distinctly to be traced acroas the iBthmuB, from the 
golf of Monte Santo to the bay of Erso in Che gulf of Contesaa, with the 
exception of about 200 yda. in the middle, where the gromid bears no 
appearance of ever having been touched .... It is probable that the 
central part naa aftemards filled np, in order to allow a more lea^ 
passes into and out of the peuingola .... The distance acroas is 2G0O 
yds., which agrees very well with the breadth of 12 stadia assigned by 
Hdt. The width of the canal appears to have been about 18 or 20 ft.; 
the level of the earth nowhere exceeds IS ft. above the aea; the soil is a 
light clay.' cf. Orote, ed. 1S62, lu 373 — 9 and Leake northern Greaoe in 
14S there cited. In modem times Athoa or Holy Mount cCyui' 6pot, ia 


lemarkable ehiefly for haying preserved the MSS. of Babrios and Hip« 
polytos. ET QUiDQuiD ' and "whatever else * 178 n. 212. 


Oraedavera, xv 13—26. 117. of. vi 16—7. and sat. iii. Cic. de legg. i § 6 
*in Herodotus, the father of history, and in Theopompus, are innu- 
merable fables.* Liv. ix 18 § 6. YM. iv 7 § 3 gentis dd fingendum paratae 
monstro sixuilia mendacia. Strab. i p. 43. xi p. 507 — 8 ranks Hdt. 
with Ktesias and Hellanikos, as fabulous historians, and says he would 
rather trust Homer, Hesiod and the tragedians, cf. Grosskurd's ind. DS. 
1 37 §§3— 4 the early logographers. Hdt. etc. 69 § 7 and in 11 § 1 Hdt. 
and other writers of Egyptian history, x 24 § 1 the marvellous with Hdt. 
bean the bell from the true. los. c. Ap. i 3 Hellanikos differs from Akusi- 
lacs; Ephoros proves that Hellanikos lies in most points, Timaeos proves 
the same of Ephoros, his successors of Ephoros, all of Hdt. ib. 14 Hdt. 
blamed by Manetho as having told many falsehoods on Egyptian history 
from ignorance. Gell. ui 10 § 11 Herodotus, homo fabulator. cf. ib. 
vm 4. Luoian philops. 2 — 4 Hdt. and Etesias ; poets and states; if legends 
were exploded, what would become of the verger and the cicerone? ver. 
hist, n 31 Hdt and Etesias, with other liars, suffer the severest punish- 
ments in hell, cl quom. hist, conscr. 42. DChrys. 18 i 282 28 D. the 
work of Hdt. more legendary than historical, id. 11 i 178 19 the Greeks 
readily believe whatever entertains them, [anon.] ib. ii 298 8 Hdt. The 
history of Alexander was known to be tainted with fable Curt, ix 5 = 21 
1 15 CHtarchos [cf. Quintil. x 1 § 75] and Timagenes id. viii 10=35 § 12 
tndeGraeoimentienditraxerelicentiam. Lucianquom. hist, conscr. 
12 Aristobulos. Strab. x p. 70 writers of Indian history, Deimachos and 
Megasthenes. xi p. 508 historians of Alexander, ib. p. 505. xv pp. 685. 
688. 698. 702. xvii p. 813. Sen. n. q. iv 3 § 1 historians generally, vn 16 
§§ 1. 2 nee magna molUione detrahenda est auctorita^ Ephoro : historicus 
est ... . haec in commune de tota natione [the whole profession], quae 
(U^obari opus suum et fieri populare nonputet posse ^ nisi i^Zutfmendacio 
adsperserit. Flin. in §§ 42. 152. iv § 1 and xn 11 Graeciae fabulo- 
sitas. v§ 4 portentosa Graeciae mendacia. § 31. viii § 82 miruvi 
ettquoprocedatgra^ca credulitas/ nullum taminpudensmendacium 
est ut teste careat. xxix § 112. Quintil. ii 4 § 19 graecis historiis 
plerumque poeticae similis licentia est. Censorin. 17 § S poetae 
quidem mvlta incredihilia scripserunty nee minus historici graeci; 
he speoifies Hdt. and Ephorus. Macr. i 24 § 4 Graeci sua omnia in in- 
nensum tollunt, Mamertm. grat. act. in Julian. 8. Symm. in Valentin, sen. 
Aug. II 17 p. 25 Nieb. Fulgent, myth, ii 8 Graecia stupenda men- 
daeio. A treatise *on the malignity of Hdt.' is printed with Plutarch. 
Aelius Harpokration wrote a treatise on- the falsehoods of Hdt. Muller 
fragm. hist. gr. iv 412. See Chassang hist, du roman dans I'antiquitd, 
Paris 1862, 10, 24-38. 71—117. 129—143. 162—178 etc. Thuc. i 21—3. 
H. Ulrid Charakteristik d. ant. Historiographie, Berl. 1833, 34—36 Hdt. 
51 — 2 Theopompos and Ephoros. 60. On the legendary element in Roman 
history cf. G. C. Lewis credibility etc. and Schwegler, Vopisc. Aurelian 
3 charges liv. S^. Tac. and Trogus with falsehood. In the fragments 
of the gr. historians collected by Muller, and those of the lat. by Peter, 
everything known of the authors is collected. 175 constba- 

TUM CLA88IBUS ISDEM MABE Hdt. Vll 33—6. VIII 107 § 2. 108 § 2. 109 § 1. 
110 § 3. Ill § 1. Grote iii 870—7. Manil. i 772 Persidos et victor, qui 
Btrarat classibus aequor. Liv. xxxv 49 § 5 of Antiochus b. c. 192 con- 
Bternit maria classibus suis^ in a different sense, cf. Enn. an. 371 Y. 

JUY. XL 9 


tiqve HeUeipontopontnncoHlmdilinallo. StanloyonAesch.PeTB,?!. Lusr. 
Ill 1039—33. Prop, it 1 23. PUn. iv § 75. Solin. 12 g S. Pint. fort. Alex, i T 
p, 829'. SidOB. E. T*66— 61. MBrtiun. Cup. vi § fi61. Xerxes alao mado 
preparationB fur a caimeway from, the mainland to Salamis Hdt. TUr 97 
S 2. Xten, Pera. 26. Strub. ii p. 395. Flut. TliemUt. 16 g 1. Aristodem. 
1 g 2 m Milller Ic. hist. gr. v 1. 177 defecibsi: aunbs 

Hdt. IX 21 ^ 1 ' what water did not fail as a supply f iir liis arm;, except 
the great riTeTHf" 43 J 1 the Skanmndros was Uie first to fail. 53 § 3 Ibo 
Melfls. lOS § 2 the Liasoa. 196 § 3 tha Onochonoa in Thessaly 
■nd all the livers of Acbuia except tbe Upidaooa, wbiuh barely 
mmced. cf. 187 § 3. DS. xixvu 1 g 2. el. Tiissu xix 1^. auhks 

EPoTiacE FLuuMi 011. p. 67. TrebeU. Claud. G § 6 epotata nnmfna. 
laatin. it 10 § 19 ( lumina o6 exei-eila «iu sieeata. 
177—8 UEDOFBiNDEHTEBee the laie of tbe roysl boapitttlityot the Indian 
Pi'thioa to X. and hie troops Hdt. viiST— 9. Like the visit of a mediaeval 
btahop or archdeacon to a monastery, he brought mln on thoaevhom he ho- 
noored with his company; bo that the Abilorilea returned public thanta 
to heayen, beeaose it was not the long's fashion to take more thau one 
meal in the day ib. 118—120. 178 £r qnjiE 174. ■smd 

what else.' Heinr. on u 158 compares sii 103, Cic. ad Att, ii 19 g 3 thea- 
iro et sptctacidu. 3 Zfu koI fico!. 'publicans and sinnerB.' SchKter ind. 
Bos. ellips. g. V. lEXXoi and appar. Dem. tv 232. Add Hor. s. it 7 36 Heind. 
Often the general term comes first and ia joioBd by ' and ' to the parti- 
aolar as T/uictm Kei "Ectd^i Mark 1 5 Fritzsche and Orinfield. loatin. 
XXIX 3 § 7. uADiDis CABT/Ji Qvin sosTRiTna ALis a poBt who ds- J 

Edribed the Persian vix; madidis, beoanae the arm-pits {alia as xt 167. 
xiv 1!>S) nhen one recites (iti Qq.) nith frantic veliemenoe, are baihed in 
sweat. So the aohol. (citing Hor. s. i 9 10—11 cunt sudor ad imai ma- 
noTCt take) foUoived by Bigault, Stanley, Qeaner, Heinrioh. The aes- 
thetil] objeation, taken by Weber and translators generally, to this inter- 
pretatiou, contounda the ancient and modern Btandards ol taste, cf. Hor. 
«pod, IS 5 on gravii hinatU etibet hircua in alls. Petron. 128 ndnfuitl 
U (uculum meuiR ofiendit/ .... nanq-uid alarum neglHgena aadar? 
Arjatoph. Ach. 652 — 3 ofuJi" KoKir rUr ix.airxa\UF \ raipii Tpa-^aaalov- 
Jt madidii atii meant 'dank and drooping viugB,' the verb would hava 
been caial, previitiir, or enme equivaluut. not canlat, For the words, 
not the eecse, cf, Ov. m. i 2li4 madidis Natui e.vnlat alia. 179 iixB 

Xenea 171n. 180 cimnsi iiv 268u. Hdt. is not re- 

sponsible lor this. 181 BiasARUB Pint, de fort. Alex, i 7 

>o Xerxes, barbarian and besotted, whose much ado about the bridge 
over the Hellespont was all in vain; thus wisG kings link Asia to Surope, 
not by timbers, nor byrafta, nor by liteleas and unfeeline boniii, but by 
legitimate love and chaste marriage ' etc. Max. Tyr. 20 g H ' Mardoiiiafl 
flatters Xerxee, a barhurian a barbarian, a madman a madman, a craven 
slave a luxurious master. See the end of Ihis flattery : Asia is OTcrthrown, 
the lea tcourgfd, the Hellfipont yoked, Athot dag thraugh: and the end 
of all tbe zesJ is dffeat and flight and the death of the flatterer himself.' 
Alexander is next mimed. aequo in cuicsitn i 8n. T 

100 — 1 Auster, | dum . . , liccat madidai in careers pinitai. Aen. i 
52 — 63 vaito rex Aeolus antra \ luetantei venloa tempeitateique lononw | 
imperio premil ac viuclis et oar cere /renat. Horn. Od. a 21 with my n. 


the firet bridge over the Hellespont was broken down by a Etonn, Xerxes 
ordoreJ 300 lashee to be inflicted on the rebellious soli aud a pair cI 


letters to be thrown into it Hdt. vii 35. 54 § 3. viii 109 § 3. Arr. Vii 14 § 5. 
VM. lu 2 E § 3 gravem ilium et mari et terrae Xerxen, 7iec hominibiAs 
iantum terribilem sed Neptuno quoque conpedes et caelo tenehran 
xninitantem. Sen. de const. sap. 4 § 2 'do you think that, -when that 
doltish king darkened the day with a multitude of darts, any .arrow 
reached the sun? aut dimissis in pontum catenis Neptunum potuisse 
contingif* M. Sen. suas. 5 § 2 arellius fuscus hoc ille numero ferox et 
indeosarmatulerat. §4 cestius ' the trophies are the gods', the war 
was the gods', illos Xerxss vinculis . . . persequebatur.* Eumen. paneg. 
Constantio 7 Xerxes, ut audis, . . . pedicas iecit aureas in profun- 
dum, Neptunum se dictitans adligare, quia Jiuctibus ferociret: 
stulta ille iactantia et sacrilega vanitate. Plut. fort. Alex, ii 12 when 
Alexander crossed into Asia there were to be seen no fleets sailing 
throughmountainSf norscourgesy nor fetters, frantic and barbarian 
chastisements of the sea. Grote hist. gr. c. 38 in 372 — 3 gives ana- 
logous examples of impotent revenge, to justify his belief in the story, 
which Stanley on Aesch. Pcrs. 762, Valck. on Hdt. vii 35 § 1, Blomf. gloss. 
Peis. 728 and Curtius, all regard, apparently with justice, as a legend, 
expressing the Greek detestation of that blasphemous v^pis of X., which 
revolted against the bounds imposed on man by nature, non tangenda 
rates transiliunt vada* Gnut on the shore has been well contrasted with 
this anecdote of Xerxes; the didactic purpose in each case is patent, and 
the birth of the Greek story might, as Blomf. notes, have been aided by 
description of the bridge in the Persae745 — 51 where Darius says of his son, 
hurrying blindly to his doom' E XX ijtr IT oj'roj' Ipov dovXov us SeafKafiaa-tv 
I ijXtiire (Tx^JTCtv p^ovra, "Bocrvopou poop deou' | Kod vopov fiereppvOfu^c, Koi 
T^Jats <r^vprj\dTois \ vepi^aXtou ToW-nv K^Xevdov ijvva^v iroXXy {rrpary, ] 
BviiToz wv deuif d^ vdvTwv (p€T\ ovK eCftovXLg, \ Kal UotreLdcovos KparriacLv. 
DL. pr. § 9 they who wrote the history of the Magi Condemn Hdt. for 
stating that X. hurled darts against the sun [Hdt. says this of Darius] 
and cast fetters into the sea; for sun and sea are gods in the tradition of 
the Magi. Themist. or. 19 p. 226** * Xerxes, who was so frantic as to 
scourge the sea and clap chains on the Hellespont.' 
coMPEDiBus as a slave xi 80 n. ennosigaeubi ' earth- 

shaker,' a Homeric name for Poseidon = aeialxOojy. rivdKTwp yalrfi, 
KwrjTrjp T^s. ivofflx^ujy. ivyoaiddt. The opinion that earthquakes were 
caused by water forcing its way into hollows, was general in antiquity 
Welcker gr. Gotterlehre 1 627— 8. my n. on Horn. Od. ix 283. Grote i 
329 seq. Ukert 11 1 182, Aristot. meteor. 11 7 — 8. Sen. qu. n. vi 23 § 4. 
Oell. u 28 § 1. Amm. xvii 7 § 12. 183 sane in its 

proper concessive sense, *no doubt,' *I grant you.' The god might 
think himself lucky to have escaped a more degrading sentence. 
snaMATE DiGNUM XIV 24 n. as to a truant slave. Lightfoot and Wctst. 
<m Gal. 6 17. Hdt. vii 35 * I have heard that he also sent branders to 
Irand the Hellespont, giving them orders as they buffeted it, to utter 
barbarous and impious words: bitter water, thy master [Seo-iror?;? cf. 
luv. 184 servire] lays upon thee this punishment, because thou didst him 
ivrong, having suffered no wrong at his hands. And king Xerxes will 
cross thee, whether thou wilt or no.' cf. the branding of the Thebans ib. 
233. Plat, de coh. ira 5 p, 455 * Xerxes both branded and scourged 
the sea, and wrote a letter to the mountain : Divine Athos, toho sourest 
to heaven, "Adcj datfjLoyte ovpavofi-qKri, lay no large and impracticable stones 
in my works; else I will cut thee up and cast thee into the sea."* 
184 Huio QuisQUAM VELLET SEBviRE DEOBuij Schol. as Ncptuue was 


132 SED. FLIGHT OF XERXES. [X 185— 216 

fllaye to Laomedon, Apollo to Admetns. 

185 BED QUALiB BEDiiT ? takes up the question of 179, intermpted hy 
participial (180 — 1) and relative (182) clauses, and by the parenthesis 
(183 — 1). So ' but ' is used in resuming the thread of discourse Zumpt 
§ 739. Madvig § 480. lav. 318 n. nempe 110 n. 

UNA NAVE * a single ship ' 2 n. 1 161 n. Hdt. vni 113 
a few days after the battle of Salamis, X.^ returned to Boeotia by the road 
by which he had come, and thence to The'ssaly, where Mardonius selected 
800,000 of his best troops. 115 — 117 with the remainder of the army 
X. marched to the Hellespont, which he reached in 44 days, after the loss 
of almost the whole force by famine and hardships 115 § 1 drdywr ttjs 
arpaTiris ov6h fiipos m cItou. Arrived at the Hellespont they found the 
bridge broken down by the storm and sailed across 117 § 1 T-gvi prjval 
tU^riffdv, cf. Aesch. Fers. 470. 480. 510. Later rhetoric invented the 
' single ship,' and luv. speaks as if X. fled at once from Salamis, ham- 
pered in his flight by floating bodies. Justin, n 14 §§ 9. 10 Xerxes, finding 
his bridge broken down by winter storms, made the passage quaking for 
fear in a fishing boat. An instructive spectacle, and wonderful instance 
of the fickleness of fortune, in exiguo latentem videre navigiOt 
quern paulo ante vix aequor omne capiebat. Oros. 11 10 has nearly the 
same words, with more. Philostr. Apoll. iii 31 § 2 ^i^ fuqi vy\t fipvye. 
DChrys, 14 i 254 20 D. 17 i 276 24 • he who had mustered so many 
myriads, shamefully lost his whole force, fioXit di r6 adifia tcxvo'e diaciSaat, 
<f>€6y(av ai>Tos.' cf. Luc. viii 37 — 9 of Fompeius. 


[* Aesch. Fers. 419 — 20 $<iXa<r<ra 8' ovk4t rjv I8(uf \ vavayUav vX-qOovaa. Kal 
fpopov ^poTuv.* J. E. S.]. Luc. Ill 572 — 5 e. g. ohducti concreto san- 
guine fluctus; I . . . . prohibent iungi conserta cadavera puppes. 
Sen. de ira iji 16 § 4 after telling the story of the son for whom Pythius 
begged a discharge, whose body X. cut in two and led his army between 
the parts habuit itaque quern debuit exitum: victus et longe latequefusus 
acstratamubiqueruinamsuam cernens mediusinteT suorum cadavera 
incessit. 187 exeoit poenas 84. Muhlmann exigo 


188 — 288 ' Grant length of days, grant, great luppiter, years good 
store I' This prayer you offer with set, unflinching look, this alone even 
pale [with fear of refusal]. Yet mark, what an endless chain of troubles, 
and how sore troubles, fill long-lasting age. See first and foremost the 
face unsightly, foul and all unlike itself, in place of skin an unfeatured 
hide, sagging cheeks, and wrinkles such as, where Thabraca stretches its 
shady glades, a grandam ape scratches in her time-worn chaps. Youth 
from youth are distinguished by countless marks; that is fairer than this, 
and that again than another, this sturdier far than that : the old have 
one only aspect : palsy in limbs and voice, a scalp now smooth, a nose 
snivelling in second childhood, toothless gums wherewith, poor soul, to 
mump his bread: so loathsome to wife and sons and to his very self, as 
to strike qualms into the fortune-hunter Cossus. His palate numbed, 
wine and meat have no more the relish that they once had. The appetite 
of sex also is lost or powerless. Turn to another organ. Sing who may, 
the rarest of harpers, even Seleucus, and such as glitter amid the choir in 
a suit of gold, what charm has all their music for ears that are deaf ? 
What odds to him, where in the wide theatre he sits, who can scarce hear 
comets or the trumpets' blare? ' under an actor's nose he's never near.' 
His page must bawl to let him know who has come, or what's o'clock. 

217-283] MISEEY OF OLD AGE. 1 33 

Onee more, the little blood still left in his frozen frame is thawed by fever 
only: on ail hands ailments manifold master for the assault ; ask me 
their names, I will sooner dispatch the lists of matron Oppia's paramours, 
of patients murdered in a smgle autumn by Themison's drugs, of part- 
ners cosened by Basilus, orphan wards by Hirrus, of gallants received 
in a day by the tall strumpet Maura, of boys corrupted by the school- 
master Hirrus ; — sooner will I rehearse the mansions now owned by him, 
onder whose razor my strong beard rustled in my youth. One is feeble 
in the shoulder, one in loins, one in hip; another, blind of both eyes, 
envies those who still have one ; this man's bloodless lips take food with 
others' fingers; as for himself, long inured to stretch his jaws at sight of 
snpper, he ' gape& and gapes and that is all,' like the swallow's brood, to 
vhom their mother flies with full beak, herself fasting. But worse still 
than all decay of limbs is memory *s decay, which recalls neither his slaves' 
names nor the friend's features, with whom he supped but yesternight, 
nor those whom he begot and bred; for by an unnatural testament he 
disinherits his own flesh and blood ; all his estate is devised to Fhiale, in 
return for wanton services, learnt by many years' apprenticeship in the 

dongeon of the stews, Grant him still sound in mind, yet he must lead 

out his sons to burial, must gaze on his beloved wife's and his brother's 
pyre, on urns charged with sisters' dust. This forfeit is laid on all long 
livers ; stroke on stroke lighting upon their home, they grow old amid 
* griefs always green, a household still in tears,' in a standing livery of 
black. Nestor, if we put any faith in great Homer, was a pattern of long 
life second only to the crow; happy sure, who staved off death through 
three ages and already tells the sum of his years on the right hand, and 
ha broached the new wine of so many seasons. But soft, stand a while, 
and hear him repining at fate's decrees, at the thread of days too lavishly 
spon, when, watching his bold son Antilochus' beard blazing in the 
funeral flame, he asks every comrade about him, why he lasts to these 
years, what he ever did to deserve so lingering an age ? So Peleus mur- 
mured, while he mourned Achilles untimely snatched away, so Laertes, 
whom nature bids lament the storm- tost Ulixes. / While Troy was yet 
f^nre, Priam would have made his last progress to the shade of Assaracus 
m royal state, — Hector and his other sons shouldering the hearse amid 
weeping daughters of Ilium; so that Cassandra might lead their wailing 
^beaten breast and Polyxena with her robe rent, — if only he had died 
before Paris began to build his daring keels. What then did Priam win 
by the long respite? He saw a general wreck, all Asia crumbling under 
^ and sword. Then doffing his diadem, he took arms, a tottering 
soldier [* a soldier half, and half a sacri^ce '] and dropped down before the 
1^ of high luppiter, like some decrepit steer, which disdained long 
Bince by the thankless plough, tamely yields to his master's knife a 
neck lean and pitiable. Yet that was at least a human death ; his queen 
outlived him, but only to glare grifnly and snarl with a true cur's grin 
['survived a bitch and barked away her life']. I hasten now to Bome, 
Pusing Mithradates by, and Croesus, whom righteous Solon's eloquent 
voice charged to regard the ciosing evening of a long life. Banishment, 
jail, ICintumae's fens, the bread of beggary in vanquished Carthage, — all 
these lapse of days brought upon Marius. What would nature* ever have 
^gendered on earth, or what Bome, '^happier than that her citizen, if 
only he had straightway breathed out his victorious soul, after heading 
the procession o.f prisoners and* all the pageant of his wars, in the act of 
alighting from his Teutonic car ? Campania in her forethought had sent 

J 34 P^ CDTE PELLEM. THABRACA. [X 188— 1»! 

PompaiUB ferere lor whioh be bad done mBBly to pray; but many 
and theii state prajeiB preToiied to saTe bim; so bia foctiiiie and tba 
tiitj'fl struck off after Lis defeat the hsad tbna reprieved. This tartiuB 
LeDtolns eflcaped, this punishment Oethegne, and fell uninaiigled ; nay, 
Uatiline on tbe battle-field lay with corpse entire. 

On old age see Cic. Cat, mai, Stob, fl. ctvi ^iyoi ylipus. cx» Irm- 
HOI y-fipus. cxnt wisdom mokea age serene and venerable. Job. Laagii 
polysntheaLugd. 1669 coL 2529—11541. eep. Mimnenu. Noifw tl. 1— GB. 
Tbeodsktea in Stob. lxviii 26 age ia like marriage [Inv. g53], we are eagal 
to attain both, and having attained, repent, cf. Cio. Cat. mai. § 4 lenee- 
MUm qitamut adipincantur omne> oplant, candem aeousant aiUpttm- 
Uaase ind. Sen. lenectm. »fncx Hor. a. p. 169—71. Masimiani el. 1 
is Wemsdoif-Lemuire vn 1U5 — 228 ennmemtes at length tbe troubles 

188 m. . .t>*. Pors. n 45—5. Aan. iii Sj. 
189 BEoio vDi.rD yi 401 ceeta facie, with look neither downoast tuir 
turned aride, lint confroDtinS the god, and looking him toll in the face, 
pointblank. Bentl. on Hor. c. i a 18. of. Pexs. ii 8—33. Tert. de orat. 
17 Christians pray with all modesty and hnmihty Jic vnltn. gtlident in 
avdaciata eieeto [v. L reelo]. F/LLi,nitra with anidoua desire 

Eor. B. II 3 78 ambitione mala nut BTgenti pallet amare. Pars, ir 47 
riio >i pallea, inprobe, nummo. Prud. c. Uymm. i 207 pallere pte- 
cantem. opus on the prayer for old age, and tha 

repentance which follows when the prayer is granted, Dee Stob. fl. cxn 
S. 6. 8. 2S. 27. Sen. ep. 101 gg 10—15. 190 Andphanel 

ia Stab. 1. c. 14 calls age a workshop bannted by all human ills ; lb. 15 
■n altar, to which all ills Qy for refuge. 191 HEroBusx 

the same word 102, ct. '255— S litgtt latere. S5Q— SHI laborci. vi 20B— 
tl btnanli amantii. 504^—5 breve breviar. 

102 DiBsiMiLBMQiTE SCI CODS, ad Liv. 85. 87 vidinms attgnitum fratrrna 
Mortt Heroneia | . . . . diBsimilenrqae sui. pro cuts 

PELLEM gloss, cuffs Sfpiia iyBpiiiraa. In the transformation B in Ot. m. 
cvtii (our 'hide,' (lecni. 'Haut') denotes tbe honmn skin, pellU (our 
' fell,' ' pelt 'J the hide of beasts, but the words ore interchanged as ib. lu 
68 — 4 of B serpent equaiaii defcnsai et atrae \ duritia pailis validoi 
cnta reppulit ietas. Hor. epod. 17 21—2 fugit iuvenlas et veTecundut 
color I reliqtiil era pelle amicta lurida, id. c. IT 10. 

193 FENDBNTiagcE OENAB PHn. h. n. xiT S 142 of the effects ot dmnkea- 
nees hiiKpalloT et genae pendulae. Or. m. xv 231 fiMidot pendere 
laetrtoi. Sen. Hipp. S64 Gron. lapsae geutte. On tbe last day of his 
life Augustas (Suet. 99), calling for a mirror, ordered bia bail to be 
brushed ac malan labantea currigi. JkEPicE 209. ii 
166. V 80. Tl 261, 111 61. mi 76. xiv 2T5. on the sudden use of 
the imper. cf. i 73 n. Lupus 19 gireB ess, ot nrxipe, rcsjiicc, audi etc. 

194 iHABRtci on tbe coast of Niimidia, near tbe mouth 
of the rirer Tuaca, which divides Numidia from its eaHtero neighbour 
Zeugitana Plin. t g 22 nppidum Tnl>r«oa lii-iuin Romnnomm. Mela i 7 
Sl = ig33. Mart, Capell. Tig CRS, Hero Gildodied a.e, 3^8 Claud, land. 
BtiL 1 859. in Eutr. i 410, ii pr. 71. It was an episcopal sec Aug, c. Donat. 
Tl § 81, Still known bb Tabarca, a nam a also given to an island opposite. 
On the Phoenician trade in African apea see Movera iii 93 — i. Udt. it 

194 speaks of the coast as swarminf; with apes. Posidomns in Strah. tvii 
p, 827 on a voyage from Cadiz to Italy, obaerved in a wood reaching to 
the beach apee, some in trees, some on tbe ground, some suckling their 


yormg] and so he laughed fb see some with hanging breasts, some bald, 
some raptured, and snlfering from other like affections. DS. xx 58 §§ 4 — 5. 
Enninsin Gic. d. n. i §97 simia quam similis, turpissuma bestia, 
nobis ! 196 — 7 hJ-b ille 91 n, i 46 n. 197 multum 

BOBusnoB the abl. of difference multo is more usual with the compar. 
Zompt § 488 n. 2 has examples of multum^ qvuntum etc. so used. Add 
Qninta. x 1 § 94 multum tersior* Luc. n 225 — 6 multum . . maior& . . 
danrno, where, as here, multo is avoided because of the other abL Oud. 
and Burm. ib. cf . Burm. on Phaedr. iii 10 5. 

198—9 On the feebleness of age cf. Cic. Cat mai. §§ 27—38. Plin. vii 
.§§ 167 — 8 in telling up the years of life we must strike off the hours of 
sleep and infancy, and senectae in poenam vivacis . . . Nature has 
given no better boon to men than shortness of life. Iieheecunt sensus^ 
menibra torpenty praemxyritur visus auditus incessus, dentes etiam 
ac ciborum instrumenta. Plut. apophth. Cat. mai. 15 p. 199* ry 5i 
y^p^ ToXXwi' alffXP^v irapovTWV, ij^iov fi^ m-poffrtd^vai t^p dvb riji 
KOKki alffXiivTfv. Lucian dial. mort. 6 § 2 pictures the virepy/jpcjv as hav- 
ing three teeth in his head, dull of hearing, leaning on three slaves, with 
nose and eyes running^ a living sepulchre, id. galL 10. 

199 UADiDiQUE iNFANTiA NASI VI 143 — 8 if the wifc has three wrinkles 
etie cutis arida laxet, she is turned out of doors Ham gravis es nobis et 
saepe emungeris. exi | ocius et propera.* sicco venit altera 
naso. Hes. sc. 267 of Sorrow t^s 5' ix pu^v pLvGjv fxij^ai p^ov. 

200 oiNoivA iNEBMi a toothloss, coughiug, crone, and an orhus, courted 
for their decrepitude, are favourite butts of Mart. 1 10. 19. ii 26. iii 93 2. 
V 39. vni 57. 201 gravis uxori natisque Cic. Cat, mai. | 7. 
Caecilias ib. § 25 the saddest part of old age is sentire ea aetate esse se 
odioBum alteri. Mimnerm. fr. 3=4 the fairest of men, when his 
bloom is past, o{>di irar^p Traialv ripuoi oihe ^/Xois. 

siBi the i in ibi and ubi is only used long by luv, in ubique and ibidem; 

vimihi it is long 7 times, in tibi 12 times, in sibi vi 608. vii 21, 171. 

w 142 ; much oftener short (Lupus 15). 202 captatori 

▼ 98 n. XII 93 — 130 n, even the adventurer who preys on the dying, the 

culture who scents .carrion from afar, sometimes feels queazy at the sight 

of his quarry. Friedlander !» 326—332. Arrian. Epikt. iv 1 § 148 ' who 

Wn tolerate you, tQv ypa&p ipwyros Kal twu yepbvTwv^ and blowing 

^he noses of the old ladies, and tending them in their sickness like a 

slave, while at the same time you pray for their death, and consult the 

physicians, whether they are already at death's door?' Lucian dial. 

inort. 5—9. e. g. 9 § 2 * what, had you lovers at your time of life, with 

Karce four teeth in your headf "Yes, to bo sure, and the first men in 

*liecity: and aged as I am, and bald, as you see, and blear-eyed, and 

snivelling, it was their greatest delight to pay me court; he was a 

Iwppy man on whom I did but chance to look." Plin. ep. ix 30. Sen. 

«P. 95 §43 a man sits up by a friend's sick bed; we commend him. — But 

lie does it to win a legacy, vultur est, cadaver expectat. Mart, vi 62, 63. 

moveat fastidia Mart, xiii 17 1 ne tibi pallentes moveant 

fastidia caules, Hor. s. ii 4 78. Ov. Pont. 1 10 7. Quintil. ii 4 § 29 

(sing.). cosso unknown ; one of the name is courted, not 

conrtier, in iii 184. 203 seq. on the decay of bodily 

appetites see luncus in Stob. fl. cxvi 49 (iv 84 29 M.) of the old man ao-i- 

r6f re koI droros Koi dv4pa<rToi. Cic. Cat. mai. §§ 7. 39 — 66. Plat. rep. 

I p. 329. 203 viNi ATQUE ciBi Cic. ib. §§ 44—6. 

204 — 9 on sexual decay cf. ti 326 — 6^ Cic» ib. § 47. Mimnermus 


fr. 1. Hor. c. it IS. Menand. in Stob. 1. c. 9 nothing ean be mora 
pitiable thui a grej-lioiied lavor, tinleSB it be Ircpin yipuv ip£r. Eniip. 
ibid. 38. 204 K'" Cic3. Brut. § 4a QuintiL x 1 

'iS 13. £0 after BB^dng that compmisoDB, digreBsioDB etc, tie so nimtercHU 
□ Homer, that writers on rhetocie boiruw eiamples from his poems nam ~ 
tpilogn* qiii(Um qmi unquam puterit itlit Priami rogantit AchUUm^e- , 

„■!.... : . ii7u_^ something has been affirmed of BBveral partioalaiB, 

le thing holds tme still more evidentl;, alten totlowB 
•e, ' us for the epilogue, I need cot Bpeak of that, — 
said of that as a matter of caiuse, ~/ar— . ' ib. g B3. 
8 gg 31 Spiild. 27. Bertzberg on Prop. ir = in 11 27. Hand ToiBcll. 
17. 204—5 Bi cpKEBia, UCBI on the aoDstr. see 339 n. ■ 

_,5 OAHira Ti 326 Xestoris birneo. From Lncil. ii ap. Hon. ramieu 1 
p. 166 qnod deformi' len&r, aHhriticut an padagrotta \ tst, quod numci^ I 
laiteTque eiilia ramioe maguo. Varr, ibid, rapta a nf.tcio quo mvlUme M 
raptori rainioeH mpit, ramei is a diminutive form (Bobj g 777) from 1 
ramiu, and denotes (1) brushnood foe vattliag a feuoe ; (3) the brooahing ] 
air-vessels of the lungs {rumpere ramUti in Plant, eto.j; (3) Celans -m IB. 
23. 24. Fanlua Aegin. ti 63. 64. 66 with the commentaiy of Aduna = 
tifivoxp,!) or ;8gu3w/aK^Xij, varicose enlargement of veina of the lerotum, 
Ititieuli 01 irtautn. d iad. Plin,, who tiamea Beveral apecificB; parhupa 
oil the exz. cited lor meaning (2) ma; be referred to (3j. 

Sehol. ptnii. add to lexs, iz 34. Apol. m. n 16 Hild. Tert. 

Amob. T 18. Aug. de gen. ad litt. in § 37 (very singular phe- 

aa, resembling those of mesmerism). Mach information respoctiug 

the seiu^ disorders of Qrceks and Bomans is uontoiiiod in Uie work of u 

pbreician JoL Boaimbiium GeiichicJitd der LnBtseGobti im Alterthuiae, 

Leipz. 1845; e.g. p. 417 ntreits. Casanb. on Ath. i p: 5^ reOpiai. 

206 " 238. 335— 6. Mart, n 22, 1>9. 

. the obscene arts, known as imtntatio aai fellatw 

(Roaenbanm 219—250) were condemned by pabUc opinion ; the srajiti ol 
Pompeii shew that no impntation wdb more common ; we may qUBstion 
therefore the truth of mach of the scandal against Tiberius in Snet. 44. 
209 Mart, i 94. iii 75. 87. it 60. yi 26, xi 25, 4ft 
III 37. BINE uniBTiB Verg, g. iii 99. 

iSKCE 193 n. PAMis the ear. 211 

Tt 76. B78— 391. Tin 198. 330. 226. 230. 
musician. 212 et ODIbch L e. etqnibi 

plajeraon harp and flute.' Qumua adiuta 

lAcsBSi Snet. Ner, 25. ad Heren. it g 00 ' as a harper, wnen na ou 
come before the pablic in rich attire, palla inanrata iaduba, cum 
ehlamydt purpurea, eoloribta variii inUxia, et cum corona aarea, nagltit 
fulgentibua gemmii illuminata, eitharam ientni ciontatiiiimam, uuro tt 
ebore diatinctam, if his own person and stature oie ol a piece with "iaa 
attire, and then, when public expectation is aroused, and there is a dead 
silence, he ntters a harsh note accompanied with uugainlj gestures, tW 
Bcora with which he is luBBed off the stage is the greater in proportion to 
the great hopes which be had awakened.' cf. the tibicen Prinoepain 
Phaedr. t 7 all in white down to his shoes; ib. S3 — 3£ the separate seats 
for egutCei [Inv. ver. 213], of. Arion's costume Hdt. i 24 gg 4—5. Luciau 
adv. indoct. 8 — 10 a Tarentine Euongelos, who aspired to the Pj'thian 
oronn, sang to a golden andjewellediyre. ina robe embroidered with gold, 
and was flagged out of the theatre for his incapacity ; and the prize was 
«£signed to the Elian Enmelos, whose only ornament was liii; skill. Hor. 


IL p. 814 — 5 luxwriem addidit arti \ tibicen traxitque vagus per pulpita 
vatm, ef. Marqaardt y2 183. These artists were highly paid luv. ri 
380. Tnl76n. cf. the foppiE^i attire of pleaders yii 124 — 140; of au- 
tiiors ledting their works Pers. 1 15 — 18 Jahn. lacebna 


218 MioNi TBBATBi the nnuibers of seats in the three theatres of Fom- 
pdnsy Bftlbns, and Marcellus, are variously given, the highest number is 
40/)00 in the theatre of Pompeius (Phn.), the lowest 11,510 in that of 
Balbus, (cmiosmn, but the notit. gives 30,085) Friedlander i^ 297. 
QUA PABTE whether in the orchestra (iii 178) as a senator, 
or in the 14 rows behind the orchestra as an eques ib. 154. Hor. ep. 11 1 
185. 187. s. 1 10 76. Cic. Cat. mai. § 48 wt Turpione Amhivio magis delec- 
tafvr qui in prima cavea spectat, delectatur tamen etiam qui in nl- 
iiviKf sic adulescentia voluptates propter intuens magis forta^se laetatur^ sed 
delectatur etiam senectusprocul eas spectans tantum quantum sat est. ib. § 50 
after speaking of the intellectual pleasures of age qua^ sunt igitur epul arum 
ontlodorum aut soortorum voluptates cum his voluptatibus compar- 
wdaef Sen. de ben. vu 12 §§ 3 — 4 equestria omnium equitum Rom^no- 
ni» rant, in Ulis tamen locy>s mev^ Jit proprius, quem occupavif etc. 


8.1643 — 4 ma^na sonabit, \ cornua quod vincatque tubas at a funeral. 
Tmmpeters wore employed in the concerts Seh. ep. 84 § 10 in commissi' 
okHus nostris plus cantorum est quam in theatris olim spectatorum fuit, 
mmomnes vias ordo canentium inplevit et cavea aeneatoribus cincta est 
ttexpulpito omne tibiarum genus organorumque consonuit, Jit concentus 
» dissonis. exaudiet Lucr. in 467 — 8 of one 

in lethargy unde neque exaudit voces nee nosccre vultus \ illorum 
fotii est, 216 QUE^ niCAT venisse pueb it was the 

office of the eubicularius to announce callers Marquardt v 1 149. Cic. ad 
^ n 2 § 5. See the famous story id. de or. ii § 276 Nasica called on 
Sonios ; the maid replied that he was ' not at home.' Nasica detected 
the conventional fib. A few days after Ennius called on Nasica, cum ad 
^(uieam venisset Ennius et eum a ianua quaereret; Nasica cried out 
« domi non esse. Turn Ennivs, * quid, ego non cognosce,' inquitt ' vocem 
toun?' Hie Nasica *homo es impudens. ego cum te quaererem, ancillae 
toae credidi te domi non esse, tu mihi non credis ipsi?' Macr. i 7 § 1 
^"ou e famulitio, cui provincia erat admittere volentes dominum 
convenire, Evangelum adesse nuntiat. quot nuntiet 

B0BA8 sundials and waterclocks were found in private houses (Cic. ad fam. 
xn 18 § 8. dig. zxxiii 7 12 § 23), but more commonly slaves watched the 
pnbHe dials on temples or basilicae, and reported the time to their 
iiutttera, much as the watchmen of the* last generation cried the hours. 
Plant, in Gell. ni 3 § 5. Cic. Brut. § 200 a judge yawning, chatting, mitten- 
temadhoras. Plin. vii § 182 Cn. Bebius Pamphilus died cum a puero 
<lQaegisset horas. cf. ib. §§ 212 — 5 on clocks of various kinds. Sen. de 
^^^T. vit. 12 § 6 quos quundo lavari debeant, quando natare^ quando cenare^ 
<^iM admonetj et tuque eo nimio delicati animi languore solvuntur^ ut per 
^ tcire non possint, an esuriant, id. de morte Claud. 2 § 3 horam non 
pottitmcertam tibi dicere: facilitu inter philosophos quam inter horologia 
((noeniet: tamen inter sextam et septimam erat. Mart, viii 67 1 horas 
^Qinqne pner nondum tibi nuntiat. word sent toa guest that thedin- 
Qerhonr is come Ter.haut. 169 — 171. Sidon. ep. ii 9 nuntium per spatia 
^^^drae horarum incrementa servantem. Suet. Dom. 16 just before 
thenuuder of Domitian horas requirenti pro quintat qtiam metuebat, 



[S2ie— 3Ml 

itxta ea induitria Quutiata eil. Petron. 36 Triiuulchio bus hoTohgiun in 
triclinia, et bncinalorem habet subomatum. uf iwbinde sciat, quantum dr 
vita perdiderit, k letter from Theodortc to Boethiut;, leqnestiiig bim to 
aouHtiruct a aimdial and vater-clock for tlis king of tbe Bnrgnndians 
CaEBiod. «p. I 46. TitTUTitia ii 3 ingenioiia clocka lor measuring the vori- 
able horns. The gods also miiat be informed of the time of da? Hen. b. 
8S in Aug. oiT. D. vi 10 alius horaa lovi nuntiat. Mart, x 48 1 to IbIe. 
Apul. XI 20. Beoker GaUos n^ 351—63. Mnrqnardt v 1 262. 3 370—381. 
Boaoovich in gioni. di Hoidb 1716. Sullier in mfm. de I'lLcod. dea insci. 
IT 149. F. Woepke disqais. aichaeol. math, circa solaria Tetemm, Berol. 
1843. Plin. ep. m 1 § 8 n. 217 belido Aon. y 395—6. 218 ruBSR 

oAi^T SOLA Btanle; cites Mart, iii 93 ou a hag, toothless, wrinkled, croak- 
ing, blind, fetid, a rery oaroa&e 16 — 7 cum bruma mensem tit tibi per 
Avguitum \ re gel are neo te pestilentiea pea sit. aominb 

TAcro ul IBS. Verg. g. ly 167 of bees. Aen. i 83 of winds, viu 696. 
219 uoBBOBun OMNE OENua Ter. Fhorm. 675 senectns 
iptait morhns. Sen. ep. 108 g 38 the grammariui remarks tlut Terg. 
f^ways coaplea diaeases and ag«; and *tvith good reiLseii too; seneotns 
cnim itisanabilii morbaa ett. 219 — 20 bt qoibbu, 

KXPBDiiM on tbe oonstr, {exp. fnt. ind.) see 340 n. Oy. m. jcy 293— 4 si 
qnaeras. . . . iaveniti. 

220—6 B parody of pasBagea like Oy. Ir. ly 1 0.5— GO. Pont, ii 7 25— 
30. of. ArioBto xiy 99 (Dfintzer), in yihich the greatneaa of a nmnber i» 
Bipresoed bj compariBon : sooner can jon oount tbe thjine of Hjbla, the 
ears □£ African com, the birda of the sir, the fiabea of tbe aes, Uie fruits 
of aatuQiD, the flakes of -winter bdow. Cf. Jani art. poet, 499 — GUO. 
BoiUau IT 31—4 imitatea these Tersee. 220 pbomphoS 

an ady. of common uae in tbe sUyer age ; first nsed apparently by Hirt. 
and VM. cf. 335. xv 19, xvi 32 ciliui. expbdiam nnfold, 

drew out at length, detail. quoT ahatehit oppu uobobob ht 

i36 — B. AHAysBix commonly nsed of illicit intrigue n 16B. 

Ti S48. Hot. b i S u5 Heiod, amator. Sen fr, 84 — 6 in Hieron. adr. loyiniSTt. 
I SO Sextiiu in teatentiii 'adnlter est,' ing-ait, 'in suam uiorem amator 
ardentior.'. . . nihil tit /oediua gvam uxorem am a re quasi adult elant 
.... neo amatores uxoribus se txhibeant ted maritos. Ter. Andr, IBl 
trmiKi, pri amant, graviter tibi dari ttciT-em fenfnt. Hor. a. ii8 250. M, 
Sen. contr. 14 g 4 fapirius fabiastis mm est Ivxaria tiia qtialeia vidtrl 
velii. non lintulaa mint urn, sid facts, neo umantem sgia, sed amas, 
ntc potantem adambrai, ted bibU. oppu 322. 

221 THEMiso.t Sobol. archiater illha temporii, cui delrahit. Dr Green-. 
bill (diet, hiogr.) follows the scholiast in distingiiiabing onr Themison 
from the Laodicean physician a contemporary of Pompeins, tonndor of ths 
sect of tbe Mflthodid, said to have been the first to employ loeohes ; 8tm. 
op. 95 g 9 alia c't Jiippocratii lecta, alia Aaclepiadit, alia TbemisoiiiB. 
Plin. XXIX % 6 etc. He ia often cited as an au^ority, esp. byCaeL Auiel. 
It waa usual for artists of eycry kind to assume tbe name of former emi- 
nent profesBora Friedlltnder ii' 459 — G4 Pylades, Batbyllua, Paris, Hem- 
phis; of pbysiciana Aaclepiades, Antigenes, Alcon. So Apul. mag. S3 
Themiaon lenmi nofter, medicinao non iguarna. 
Bam Home nnd the Campagna 32-7. 

r Stob. 11. cii G* the pleader and phyEioian oJone are ohnriered 
o kill without being killed for their paina, AmiTiivtit liir, iroBtTiatcaf 

'. atanding joat in every age Mart, i 30. 47, yi 53 Andragoios, in 
;aaen in a dream 

rude health at supper, found dead in tbe morning, havini 


ilie physician Hermocrates. viii 74. Aupon. epigr. 73 — 5. Artemidor. 
i5L anth. Pal. xi 112 — 126. 131 4. Molidre le malade imaginaire, at 
the end; the candidate of medicine has three remedies, clysters, bleeding 
and purging, for all disorders; and swears to use none but those of the 
Realty, maladus dut-il crevare et mori de 8uo malo. He is then granted 
heence to bleed cut and kill all the -world oyer. The doctors wish their 
new brother a thousand years of life; manget et bibat, et seignet et tuatf 
222 BASILU8 one of the name, a pleader, in vii 145 — 7. 
Here a fraudulent socitis i. e. member of a partnership or trading com- 
pany, societaSf such as existed in Bome for buying and selling slaves or 
produce, bmlcUng, banking, education (Dig. xvii 2 71), farming the reve- 
nues etc. Because of the sacredness of the relation, a partner convicted 
of dolus (in an actio pro socio) incurred infamia Bein in Pauly vi 1232 — 3. 
IT 151 B 3. Privatr.a 164. 721—3. Cic. p. Quinct. §§ 11—26. 52. 74. 76. 
90. § 16 the tie of partnership is a brotherly tie, fratema necessitudo. 
§ 26 the breach of it is impious, p. Bosc. com. § 16 if there are three 
private actions which touch reputation and almost life itself, they are 
fidwiae^ tutelae, societatis. aeque enim perfidiosum et nefarium eat, 
pnpillum fraudare, qui in tutelam pervenit, et socium fallere, 
?iw se in negotio coniunxit. §§ 17. 22. 24 — 6. p. Caec. §§ 7. 8. ep. fam. 
a 25 § 3. d. n. in § 74 indicia . . . pro socio, p. Flacc. § 43 et furti et pro 
socio damnatiu, instlt. rv 16 § 2. dig. in 2 1. A guardian who had poi- 
soned his ward, to whom he was heir, crucified by Galba Suet. 9. 


papillum ad iura vocantem | circumscriptorem. Cic. off. iii § 61 
eircnmsoriptio adulescentium lege Plaetoria {erat vindicata). Sen. 
de hen. iv 27 § 6 dementissime testdbitur, qui tutorem Jilio reliquerit 
pnpillorum spoliatorem. 223 exorbeat cf. vi 126 consumes, 

Hsed like voro, of greedy passion. 224 maura who hisses 

the altar of Chastity in vi 307 — 8. discipulos on the danger 

to the modesty of youth in schools see vii 239 n. Pliny ep. iv 13 § 4 
hearing that the boys of his native town, Comum, went to school at 
Mediolanum, urged the fathers to set up a school in their own town (ubi 
nim aut iucundlus morarentur, quam in patria, aut pudicius con- 
tinerentur, quam sub oculis parentumf). He offered to contribute I of 
the expense, and asks Tacitus to recommend a master. Eunus, the 
lecherous Syrian, branded by Auson. epigr. 123—4. 126 — 8, was a 
tthoolmaster. anth. Pal. xii 222 a master of gymnastics is charged with 
the same breach of trust as Hamillus here. inclinet 

niirj n. IX 26. Mart, xi 43 5. hamillus the Amillus 

of lilart. vn 62 is in character like this, but not in condition, being the 
son of a man of wealth, living with his father. 225 citius 

220 n. QUOT VILLAS XIV 86 — 95 n. 226 the 

same verse i 25. cf. xrv 315 n. quo 171 n. iuveni 

lOBi BABBA CADEBAT VI 105. One Ciunamus, a barber emancipated by 
his mistress and become an eques, exchanged his name for the more dig- 
Jwfiod Cinna Mart, vi 17. vii 64. 227 hic hic i 46 n, 

Obbar n. or. on Hor. ep. i 6 63. coxa debilis Sen. ep. 101 § 11 

sererelyoensuresthe prayer of Maecenas debilem/acttoTTianu, | debilem 
f^de, C01L.&J I tuber adstrue gibberunif | lubricos quate dentes: | vita dum 
fvperest^ bene est. \ hane mihif vel acuta \ si sedeam cruce, sustine, 
227—8 AMBOS perdidit ille oculos et luscis invidet 158 n. 
tuning. GaUi dicunt *Au royaume des aveugles les borgnes sont rois.* 
WandS^r deatsches Sprichworter-lexikon i 779 *£s ist besser einaugig. 



dann gar blind' (also dan. fr. port. sp.). 'Ein Einangiger ist dem LandA 
dor Blinden eine Schonheit.* ' Ein Einliagiger kann leicht einen Blinden 
iibersehen.* 229 cibum accipiunt dioitis alievis 

Plin. ep. Ill 16 § 8 servulos aliquos^ quorum e manu cibum capiat. 
He has cheragra gout in the hand. 230 ad xiu 223 n. 

DiDUCERB RicTUM Hor. s. 1 10 7 vUu diducorc rictum. ringo is allied 
to rimaf rixor, and germ. Rachen Corssen Aussprache i* 639. 

231 PULLUs whence * pullet,' allied to foal, filly, xSKos, 


MATER lEiUNA Hom. XL IX 323 — 4 ws b'opyis dirrr}&i veoaaoTai Tpo^pep-gaiM 
I fjuiaTaK €irel Ke Xd^-gat, KaKtiSs 5* dpa ot riXei avr^. Eust. ib. cites 
Achaeus xda-KOPra XifiQ fi6<rxov w xc^<^<$f os. Lucian Timon 21 Plutos 
says of those who hope to be enriched 'they await me gaping (Sawep r^y 
XtXtSwa TpoaireTOfiivriP rerpiyoTes ol pcottU.* Plut. de audiendo 48» applies 
the simile to idle pupils, who expect as it were to be fed with a spoon, to 
have every difficulty smoothed, cf . id. 80» Wytt. 494<*. 233 de- 

mentia see the answer to this reproach in Cic. Cat. mai. §§ 21 — 6. 
36—8. 49. 50. 67. [Plat.] Axioch. 367^ after saying that Nature impawns 
old men's sight and hearing, T(p v^ 52s iratdef ol yipovres, M. Sen. contr. 12 
14 and [Quintil.] decl. 346. 367 fathers accused of dementia by their sons. 
Quintil. has dementiae catLsa, d» a^tiones, d. iudida, agit cum eo de* 
mentiae Bonnell lex. Quintil. vii 4 § 10. 234 Nomina sebvobux 

Stanley cites Plin. vii § 90 nothing in man so frail or so caprici- 
ous as memory: one man after a blow with a stone forgot thd 
letters only; another after a fall from a lofty wall matris et adjinium pro* 
pinqtLorumque cepit oblivionenif alius aegrotus servorum etiam, Messala 
Oorvinus the orator could not recollect his own name. Add the mark of 
dementia [Quintil.] decl. 368 non reddita salutantibva nomina, non dis- 
cretos ah inimicis amicos. 236 eduxit used in the sense of 

the cognate form educare (cf . dvcere, d/icare) in Plant. Ter. Cic. Verg. Prop. 
Liv. Tac. etc. Miihlmann has 36 exx. 236 — 7 codicb 

SAEvo HEREDES VETAT ESSE suoH the testatoT, who had Bui heredes (i.e. 
children, begotten or adopted, in potestate; a wife in manu; a daughter- 
in-law in manujiliif when the son is in pot estate; postumi who would be 
in manut if born during the testator's life; grandchildren after the father's 
death Gains ii 156 — 7. Ulp. xxii 14 — 5) must either make them his heirs, 
or disinherit them expressly (if a son or postumus, by name) ; if the son 
or postumus was not mentioned {was praeteritus)^ the will was wholly void; 
if daughters and grandchildren were passed over, they were entitled to 
share with the heirs named in the will. Sui heredes (and also parents 
and brothers and sisters), disinherited or passed over, might bring a 
querella inojiciosi (i.e. testamenti), to shew that the testator acted with- 
out sufficient cause, in error or in blind passion dig. xxviii 3 § 1. inst. ii 
18. Rein Privatrecht* 817. 823 — 7. Such an unnatural will is called 
impium, inhumanumj furiosum^ tabulae plenae furoris, t. iniquae ib. 824. 
Here the testator either expressly disinherits, or passes over, his children 
(for hered-es vetat esse suos may have either signification). Codicillus (our 
' codicil') is frequent in the sense of a less formal will JDirksen manuale; 
from it is derived * coucher,' a register. 237 — 8 bona 

TOTA FERUNTUR AD FHiALEN like rcwards for like services i 37—42. 65—7. 
As a persona turpis Phiale was not intitled to inherit (Bein 130. 142. 
825 n) ; but yet, if she were in possession, and the true heirs had no advocate 
to assert their rights, she might oust them in defiance of the law. 

238 PHiALEN fellatricem^ the name of a nymph in 


OT.m. m 172. 238—9 208 n. vi 61. 301. Hor. epod. 8 

19. Mart, i 83. Ambb. 11 42. Minuo. Fel. 28 § 2. Biinem. on Lact. vi 23 
1 11. comm. on Fetron. 9. 239 stetebat cf . iii 65 pro- 

ttare, frostituo. prostibtUum, xi 172 — 3 fitidum olido Btans | fornioe 
mancipivm» Hor. 8. i 2 31 olente in fornice stantem. Ov. 
imor. I 10 21. Sen. contr. 2 §§ 5. 7 (bis). 11. cab- 

ass of the ceUa, from its darkness and foulness (olens, olidus /.). 
I voBNicis III 156. Yi 121 — 32. Rosenbanm Lust- 

mche 97—116. 240 ut though yiii 272. VFL iv 705. 

fleveral ezx. of ut followed by twmen in Bonnell lex. Quintil. 926 /3 b. 

DUCENDA FUNERA. 1 146 u. [Ov.] cous. ad Liv. 27 funera 
frotacrU tihi aunt ducenda triuviphts, 241 funeba natobum 

Cic. Cat. mai. § 12. Aen. yi 308 inpositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum. 
It WH8 usual to pray that any one dearly beloYed might surviYe the peti- 
tioner (luv. YI 567 — 8. Hor. c. ni 9 11—2. 15—6. Henzen inscr. 7388. 
DCass. LzxY 15 § 2), but most of all a son or daughter Eur. suppl. 174—5 
Porg. Plant, asin. ill Taubm. Ter. haut 1030 Calp. Hor. epod. 5 101. 
0?. her. 1 101 Burm. Ruhnk. Verg. catal. 14 7—8. Veil. 1 11 § 6. Luc. in 
747. QointiL yi pr. §§ 4 — 13. Stat. s. in 3 26 — 6 felixy et nimiumfelix, 
plorataque nato | unibra. Mart, i 36 4. 93 2. 114 4. Plin. ep. i 12 § 11. 
Not only the natural sorrow OYor * fair flowers, no sooner blown but 
blasted,* and the natural dread of bereaYement, prompted such prayers, 
bat a feeling that the holy order of nature was reversed as by a curse, 
when the child went before his father. Cic. d. n. ii § 72 derives super- 
ttitio from superstes : * those who offered sacrifices and prayers that their 
children might outlive them, were named superstitious. ' id. Tusc. i § 85. 
M. Sen. contr. 27 § 5 mento *As I hope to live and die free, as I hope 
that my son's hands may close my eyes.' Sen. ad Marc. 1 § 2 you loved 
your Either not less than your children, excepting only quod non opt abas 
BQperBtitem: nee tcio an et optaveHs, permittit enim sibi quaedam 
contra bonum morem magna pietas. lb. 10 § 3 all our relations, et 
{liMBnperstites lege nascendi optamus et quos praecedere ius- 
tissimam ipsorum Yotum est. cf. ver. 259 n. and [Ov.] cons, adldviam. 
242 ubnae yii 208. 243 i>ata poena 146 n. 

dare here 'to assign,' but dare poenas^Sovvai dlKTjVy to pay a pe- 
ittlty Mtihlmann do 485 — 6. 244 — 5 <^^ the repetition cf. 

9 b. 245 NioBA YBSTB HI 213 u. Varr. de vit. pop. R. 

m in Non. p. 649 ^n«re ipso ut pullis pallis amictae (lugerent), ib. 560 
pfopinquae adulescentulae etiam anthracinis (coal-black attire) |>roxumo 
^nniettZo nigello, capillo dimisso sequerentur luctum. TibuU. in 2 18. Prop. 
▼=i? 7 28. DH. Yin 62. VM. i 1 § 15. Tac. an. in 2 atrata pUbes. 
^PoL met. n 23. Serv. Aen. in 64. Artemid. n 3 a dream of black sig- 
1^68 recovery; for not the dead but the mourners wear such clothes, 
cl Kirohm. de fun. ii 17. Lips. exc. M ad Tac. an. n 75. Marquardt v 1 361. 
2i6 BKX PTLiUB YI 326. xn 128. Cic. Cat. mai. § 31. in Hom. II. i 
247—252 Nestor has outlasted two yeveal, and is reigning over the third. 
^ Od. in 245. Reckoning three generations to the century (Hdt. n 142 
§3. BosaeeulumiahiY, ix 18 § 10), we obtain 70 or 80 as his age before 
^y. Laevios in Gell. xix 7 § 13 trisaeclisenex. Tibull. iv 1 48 — 51. 
Hygin. f. 10. [Lucian] macrob. 3. Ov. m. xii 187 — 8 takes saeculum 
^ * oentnry; for Nestor says vixi \ annos bis centum . nunc tertia 
^itvraetas. See Censor. 17. Fore, saeculum. Pitiscus seculum. 
IfaiqQAzdt XT 832—3. Muller Etrusker ii 331—7. Ideler Chronol. ii 82 



vastLe great authoritj, wbose testimony was iuvokerl bj historians, gfio- 
Krapliers, rliotoriciaas, grammarians Qniiitil. x 1 gS ^fi— 51 with mj n. 
i'ur the form oF the caveat cf. Thac. i 9 g 4 eC r^ Uai'it Tttfiiipiuirai. 
10 §3 etc. Beu. c. q. n 26 % 1 al Uoiaero fido at. priiip. 80 5 si quid 
ccedia Homero. >!iaNa homebo Hot. a, il0 62. 

Ot. tuaoi. 1 8 61. ram. 366, tr. ii 379. Pout, iti » 24. 
ei QDuxtOAu cBEDia 'if you put any trust in,' a coguata aac. Hadvjg 
§ 229. Zumpt £ 38S. Uemd. on Flat. Phaed. g 21. , 

247 A coBHicB HEcosDiE 128 n. Hof. 6. 11 3 103 Aiox, heros ah Aohille' 
fieoQudas, coiiNiCE=eoniicis vita iii li a. The 

I great antliority for Uie orov's longevity is Hes. in Pint. def. orae. 11 
I p. ilS'' iiWa Toi fiin 7eK!([ i.anipui'a Jio/j^ij | ofSpii;!! ^^litTWi"" EXo^ 
/ Bi* T« T(Tpn<opuKB. Ariatoph. av. 609 sehol. Cic. Tnac. t g 77. in 909. 
1 Hor. B. 1111713 annostt oorniiu it 13 26. Ov. amor, ii 6 SB. m. TH 
274 iioTem cornieis saecnla passae. Fhacdi. app. 24 7 give* ttie 
crow 1000 years of Ufa. priap. B7 1. 61 IX. Plin. li. u. vn § 153. Mart, 
z 67 6, Maerob. vii 6 g II. Anson, id, 11 11—2 whu also compares Um 
crow with Nestur. 18 3. 249 suoa uu mistiu coxrmu 

ANNOS luv. takes the ytyid or saeculiim aa J of a century; Nestor, who his 
lived three satcula, ia beginning liaia) to tell hia years on the right hand. 
74iDol. Smyrn. p. 477 Sobii. cnitB and tens were eounted on ths left hfinci, 
hundreds on the right. Bed. p. 143 for 100 place the noil of the iadiei 
finger on the middle joint of the thumb, Flaut, mil. 202 — 9 a. g. dex- 
teia digitii rationem co.iiputat, Ov, 1. iii 123 digiti, per qiwa uitma- 
lare lolemui. id. Pout, u 3 IS. Sen. ep. 88 g 10 arithmetia teacheams 
to count oaiavaTitiat eoiaiaodal digitoa. Plin. xsxrr g 83 the fli^ei* I 
of the lanus geminus dedicated by Kuma (?) indicated 366. Qointil. 1 1ft 
g 35, n 3 § 117 sestum . , . numernm qningeutorum tlexo pollioe 

efficieiitia ne in nulicU guidem vidi. S^et Gland. 91 the 

emperor cuimtod voce digitisqne the gold pieces giTon to viatod 
gladiators. Macroh. vu 13 g 10. Plut. apuphtJj. p. l?!!! as the fingera ot ; 
orithmetioiaDS stand now for units, now for myriads, so the friend of 
kings at one moment are oll-pow erfnl, at another powerless. Snid. 'it ~ 
^iDt. DCaaa. lxxi 32 S 1 Beim. anth. Pol. :i 72 tho gormloOB ci 
fli' ^B N^iTTup oitin B-pfo-^raroi, | t/ ^rfoj aBp-/iiras' iXdipoii r\iai, 4 
X'pi Xoi^ I f^pas ipt9p,ua9cu iiurfpof aplaiiAvT) ; the left hand, applied to 
different parts oE the body, eipresEed numbers from 10,000 to 90,000 
(Bhabanus). DC'hrys. 4 p. 169 lln. B. Tert. ape!. 19. S. kag. tract, ji 
lo. 123 g 7 in sumnia eontanarii nuaierus ad dosteroin transit. Sidon. 
IX B Sar. pp. 579- 587—8 from lur. your life has had a double luatES, ut 
quandoquidem taot annos iam dextra numeraverit, aaectdo praedi' 
raliit fun, desiAerandim alieno, litraqus laadahiU actions decedag. Hieron. 
adv. lovinian. t 3 i 240 ValL whera is much ollegarical trifling, sea 

Beaed. n. Cassian. collaL zxit26. lien. 1 13. Petr, Cbrysol. serm. , 

the loss of a unit hod broken np the round hundred, and brought the total 
from the right hand to the left .... 99 lies imprisoned in the left; acid 
one, moi i.ex.iiae tranait ad palmam, moj: centenarii nameriperoi 
ad coTonaia. Martian. Capell tii § 739 t^e goddess Arithmetia stlntes 
Inppiter with the number' 717. Eighteen positions of tho fingers of the 
left hand expressed the 9 unite aud 9 tens ; the same on the right hand 
the 9 huudroda and 9 lliousands ; 10,000 and higher numbers were bk- 
pressed by moving tha hand tu various parts of the body. Hcnoe the 
word digit and the denary scale of notation; on digitus as a meoanie 
3U1 68 u. Bee Hioolaoa Smytu. Is^ppams rtS ^a^■^u^^^o^; pirpoo (publ. wilU 


Bedft by Morell Par. 1614, a very rare book ; also, in part at least, in Scbnei« 
dereelog. phys. i 477 — 80, with the notes 11 316 — 9). Beda de compute 
Td loqnela digitorum (c. 1 of the treatise de temporum ratione yi 141 
Giles), printed in Graev. thes. xi 1699, and with cuts by Wustemann in 
Jahn's Jahrb. suppl. xv (1849). Bhabanus of Fulda de computo (in 
Baluz. misc. Par. 1678 1 10 — 12) c. 6 quomodo [numeri] digitis signi- 
jkenturf c. 76 pp. 70 — 1 is a method of calculating the epacts on the 
fingeis. The most exhaustive treatise, in which oriental authorities are 
dtocl, is by Bodiger in Jahresber. d. deutschen morgenl. Gesellseh. f ilr 
1845. Leipz. 1846, 118 seq. cf. E. H. Palmer journ. of philol. 11 247—52, 
where he explains misunderstood passages of Firdausl and Hariri. More in 
Ftbricius-Emesti biblioth. lat. iii 384 — 5. Colv. on Apul. apol. p . 679 Oud. 
Wouwer polymathia c. 7 (in Gronov. thes. gr. x). Counters were also used 
IaT.a40— 2. 251 attendas vi 66 of a spectator 

in a theatre. iiEaiBus fatobum Mart, v 37 15 pessiviorum lex 

amara fatornm. Lao* Tui 568 fatorum leges. 

252 8IAXINB ui 27. 253 antilochi barbasi arden^tebi 

SdioL lamenting Antilochus, slain at Troy by Memnon, when he was 
Ittstening to rescue his father; thence called ipiXowdTCjp Xen. cyn. 1 § 14. 
Kestor in Homer only alludes to his son's death Od. iii 111 there lies my 
dear ion, &fia Kparepds Kal dfivfi(ay,...'n-€pt. fih Oeeiv rax^^ ^5^ fiaxv"'^^ 
laerii], cf. IV 187—8. 199—202. Find. Pyth. vi 28—42 the lament of 
Nestor "Mcavcadou d^ yipopros | 8ovri0€L<ra ^prju /Sdacre waida 6v. The hlial 
nerifice and burial of A. were celebrated in the Aethiopis of Arktinos 
Md. chrestom. Welcker ep. Cyclus 11 173 seq. 521. Soph. PhiL 424—5 
Rrief of Nestor. Quint. Smyrn. 11 243—344 death of A. Tryphiod. 18. 
Tzetz. posthom. 260—5. Philostr. im. 11 7. Prop, in = 11 13c 45—50 
vhom luv. follows nam qua tarn dubiae servetur spiritus horae ? \ Nesto- 
ris ett visus post tria saecla cinis. | cui si tarn longae minuis- 
sent fata senectae | . . . Iliaeis miles in aggeribus^ \ non ille Anti- 
loehi vidisset corpus humari, | diceret aut, 'omors, cur mihi 
Bera venis?* Hor. c. 11 9 13 — 5. Auson. epitaph. 7 4 — 5 servato 
^fitUoehus Nestore patre abii. | non hie ordo fuit : sed iustius ille super- 
<tef. ib. 8 on Nestor. Diet. Cret. iv 6. babbam he had 

never shaved off his beard^ which was done in early manhood in 186 n. 
▼I 105. Marquardt v 2 199—201. Philostr. im. 11 7 § 4 of the dead A. 
^^Ka flip inr^ifijf irpoaw, KOfiq! 5' eV iiXnatxy ko/jli^. 
25ii— 4 AB oiCNi, QuisQuis ADEST Bocius the antecedent inserted in 
tile relative clause iii 91 n. Buddim. 11 18. 254 cuk 

HAM IN TEMPOBA DUBEi [Qv.] cons. ad Liv. 104 a^cus^atque annos, ut 
^twrtuiy 8UO8. ' 255 Serv. Aen. ix 497 quando aliter 

'•^ywo erudelem abrumpere vitam. * hinc traxit ilium colorem luv. quod 
/flcmitt* etc. ADMisEBiT 340. Ti 494. xiii 237. Stav. 

WiNep. xv6§3. 256 peleus xiv 214. That Achilles 

was doomed to an early death, was well known to himself and to his 
mother Thetis H i 352. 416. ix 410—6 he had the choice between 
• short and glorious, and a long, inglorious life, xviii 440 — 1.458. xix 
408—23 his horse Xanthos warns him, xxiv 634 — 42 he pities his father's 
•pproaching bereavement, cf. Od. xi 494 — 503. To escape this doom 
Achilles had been sent by Thetis to Skyros Stat. Ach. i 25—39. 256— 
271. Pmd, Pyth. in 100—3. Quint. Smyrn. iii 450—8 lament of Aiaa 
over A perhaps the tidings will be the death of Peleus, and better so than 
that he should yraste his days with mourning etc. 483 — 9. vii 249. 

257 ALIUS 171 n. ilO u. Horn. Od. 1 189—93. 

sv 353 — 5 Laertes still lives, bub ever prays 
TaiBsi oiufiirai oIxoMciwo. Mart, i 67 3 of a 

a of Priam, Burviyor of every t 
cavil.' TiLa -without e>f Miiblmann col. 131fiD.= 

ia fated ib. 122 e. g. Aen. i 206 itlic fa b regna retargert Troiae. 

T 387. 

lost ou the » 

years, and svinxming after shipwreck tn< 

(ib. Ml 420—450) nightB and iajH. Prop, it "= ui 13 33 totgue kimU 

node* totqae ualasee diet. 

258—71 Prism joined with Neatot aleo vj 321—6, Mart. (var. 257 m). 

priap. 57 4. The whole passa^s is from Cio. Tuso. i S 85 Metellus hnd 

foui sons, Priam 50, 17 of whom were by his lawful wife. Fortaae had 

the seme power in the oase of both, but uaod it on one only. Mtteliiua 

rnim mvlti fill 

,uta proger 


,lii diiceaaiiaett turn 
laet rm: lam ^bilittr 
, I Priamo vi yiiam 
',nie oeciiUtset, talen 

I proverbial to deuota 

oocidiaset, . ■ . utrum tandem a bonis an a 
pTofscto viderelar a bona, at aerte H miliiu eve 
iUa eanereTitur : 'haee omnia vidi inflainmi 
eritaii, lovii araia sanguine turpori.' qaod i 
evtntum oraiiino amisiaset : hoc aiilem tempore i 
Th^n follows the case of Pompfiui. Upia^xal ru _ 

a great reverse of fortnne Aristot. eth. N. i l6"g 14. of. 9 g 11. Attio. 
phll. in KuB. praep. ev. 796°. Plotin. ean. i 4 5 to! jroXuSpuXX^out . . . 
lip. T. Hence the epithets nAvrXiiros. TroXadaKfiUTot Papa-Bens^er Hpia- 
*ioj. Plut. Grya 6 S 6 P- 9S9 toG npidnou ^apviriniaTipBt. id. apophth. 
Ages, 37 p 211" when some one was envying the Persian king, then very 
yonng, A^ailaos replied, 'Priam too, at that age, was not imfortnnata,' 
the aajing of Kalliniaehoa ' Troilos wept lesa than Priam' is cited by Oio. 
1. c. 'g9S. Plat. cons. Apoll. 'H p 114". Bee the touching appeal of PriAm 
to HektoT II. mi 59 — 76, where he laments hiasons fsJlen, and forebodej 
that he may see his dao^ters TBvished. his infanta brained, and be him- 
aeU torn by dogs. iKir 493—508 ho appeals to Aohillaa by tho remem- 
brance of Peleus ; 543 — 50 AuhilleB ia overcome by Priam's present sorrow, 
contrasted with bis former glory. Suet, 02, oouGnaing Uie report that 
Tibertoa intended the deatruction ol all his grandoMidren, idtntideat 
Mieem FcJamnm uocoiat, quod superstei omnium suorum extititiet, 
DCaas. Lvni 23 J 4 othemise ; ' he deemed Priam happy, inoamnoh aa 
country and kingdom fell with him root and braoch.' ib, i,xii 16 E 1 the 
same words are put in Nero'a mouth, 258 vsnisset ad dubbu 

Btat. a. m 3 206 imraitea Unte doacendit ad ambrua. 
259 AHB&BAci Ass. Ilos and Gaayniedes were sons of Troa, Priam was 
BOD of Laomedon, sen of Ilos Apollod. iii 12, Heyae on Verg. g. iii 85. 
BOLLEUNinnB Teig. Aeu. v 605 variis tumulo nferunt 
Bollemnia ludii. vi 380 tnmulo soUemnia mittent. 
289—60 HBoroBK JTTNDS POKTjunB a III V 796 i^i^cpov Bpon'w 'Errapa 
Satpuxi's^ti. Cic. Tubo. 1. c. Pliu. vii g 143. VU. vii 1 § 1 Q. Metellus an 
example of unalloyed blise, such as heaven itself cannot boast; great 
domeetio happiness, great pubUc distiiiotions,?(ullum/uiius, nidZiu gaaitus; 
and then the worthy crown ol all: uiJJBwe lertectatis spatia defimctum 
ifnigus genere mortii inter oicctla canipUxiuque carixsiviorum pignonaa 

1, Yell, I 

15(K28ffl ' .' !PBIAM'S END. PLAHCTUS: 145 

kuhabet: niimquam mater lugiibria siimpsi: iTenit infixeqfnias iota 
eatery a me as. Nep. xxi 2 § 8 of Philip* of Maoedon annos sexaginta 
Mtef deeessit florente. regno; neque in tarn multis annis cuinsquam 
exsna atirpe fanns yidit. tunus 'corpse' Serv. 

ien. IX 491. Prop. 1 17 8 haecineparva meum fanns harena teget! Catnll. 
6183. Eatr. vii 23 of Domitian fanns eius cum ingenti dedeeore per ves- 
fiUone* export at nm et ignobiliter est sepultum. [Quintil.] decl. 12 § 26 
vtmuA fnneribns gravidum. YFl. yii 643 Burm. more in MUhlmann. 
260 FBATBUM 50 sons in all II. xxiy 495. Aen. 11 503. Heyne 
QB Apollod. ui 12 5. cjBBViciBus Lnc. viii 732 ut Romana suum 

gestent pia oolla parentem. 261 pbihos edebe pla.nctu8 

E uif 723. 747. 761 ijfixe {i^vpX^) 7^o(o, said of Andromache, Hekabe, 
Helene, lamenting Hektor: in each oase the lamentation is taken up by 
cfliMrs 746 ixl d^ ffrevdxovro ywouKes. 760 y6ov 8* d\ia<rTov opivcu. 776 ^ri 8* 
ItTtpe Bffiot dirdp<ajf, Eteyne ad 1. p. 744. So in Bome the professional 
iBtmrniBTS, praejicae. Feet. p. 223 M. dant ceteris modum plangendi. 
Oy. m. n ^0-— 3. Marquardt y 1 861 on the beating the breast and scratch- 
ing the cheek to draw Mood. Stanley on Aeseh. ch. 22. 26. 262 Cass. 
(Aesch. Ag.) and Pol. (Ear. Hec.) both sorviyed Priam; but they could 
not follow his corpse in solemn state. scissa palla. 

Xirehmann fun. u 17 fin. Faber semestr. 11 10 init. Stat. s. y 1 20 Jlere et 
uindere Or. m. 11 335 laniata sinus, xi 681 — 3. On the 
folia see Marquardt y 2 181—2. Ferrar. de re yest. i 8. 18.. 
26i AUDACES II. y 65. AEDiFicABE CARINAS Oy, her^ 

541—2. 16 105 — 110: aedificare, strictly 'to make a house' is used, like 
.9Mo/u!i0, for 'to build' generally. 265 longa dies in this 

Knae, 'period of time,' dies is fem. Plin. ep. yiii 5 § 3 dies longa et 
toUetas doloria. quid contuiiIT i 106 n. 265 — 6 omnia 


haeefirUs P r iam i, /atorum hie exitus ilium \ sorte tuUtf Troiam incen- 
Bamet -pTolsk-pask videntem \ Pergama^ tot quondam populis terris- 
qne superb um | regnatorem Asiae. iaeet ingens litore truncus \ aval- 
tvnque umeris caput et sine nomine corpus. Manil. ly 63 — 5 (aboye p.ll8). 
tverto is seyeral tunes used in the Aen. of the destruction of Troy Priami 
npmum eversor Achilles, eversae Troiae excidia, eversa Pergama. eversa 
tivrbe. 266 ASiAM Aen. in 1 — 3 postquam res Asiae 

Priamique eyertere gentem I inmeritam visum superiSy ceciditgue super- 
^ I I/mm et omnit humo lumat Neptunia Troia, From the time of 
Hdt 1 3. 4. the Troian war was regarded as one stage in the long lasting 
fend between Europe and Asia. 267 miles tbemulus posita 

^UT ABXA TiABA Acu. II 509 arma diu senior desueta trementibus 
«««> I cireumdat nequiquam umeris et inutile ferrum | cingitur. ib. 518 — 
21. 644—6. Cic. p. Rose. Am. § 90. 

nARA yi 616 Phrygia vestitur hucca tiara. Aen. yn 246 — 8 hoc 
Priami gestamen erat^cum iura vocatis ] more daret populis, sceptrumque 
focerque tiaras | Iliadumque labor vestes. The upright tiara or fez was 
lasenredfor kings Sen. ben. yi 31 § 12 rectam capite tiaram gerens . 
^ toUs datum regibus, DOass. xxxyi 52 = 35 § 3 makes it identical with 
WJ^Mo. cf. Rich companion. Forcell. Curt, in 3 = 8 § 19 eidarim Persae 
foeoiiant regium capitis insigne : hoc caerulea fascia albo distincta cir- 
emibat, Amm. xym 5 § 6. 8 § 5. 268 »uit ante 

ABiM 8UMMI loyis Aen. ii 501 — 2, 514—525. 550—3 alt aria ad ipsa 
tiementem | traxit. cf. Heyne exc. xi. Arktinos in his *I\lov wipa-is 
nade Priam take refuge at the altar of Ze^s ipKcios Welcker ep. Cyclus u 

JUV. IL 10 


G32. Leeches of Lesboa, anthor of the 'little Hind,' said that Priam vai 
not slain on tba hearth ot Ziis iprtiat, but at the doors of tho hoaae aftec 
lie had. been dragged from the altar Pans, e 27 f 2. Otlier authors follow 
ArktinoB Eui. Tr. IT. 483. Hec. 23 with Bchol. lb. 21. 21. Quint. Smrm. 
iiii 223 (Priim winhea, 231—3, that bo had died before Tioj waa in 
flames). IrTph. 400 prophecy of Eassandra. 635. Paus. u 24 I 5=3. 
IV IT § 4 = 3 Neoptolemos atooed for his Bocrilege, being himself slain ai 
Delphi. Or, lb. 282. On this altai Alexander aacrilieed, in order ti 
expiate the sacrilege of Neoptolemos Air. i 11 § 8; it vas shewa 1^ tha 
local ciceroae Iioc. a 0T9 Oad. Heioeas, nionilrator ait, non respioia 
araal DChrja. or. 11 adflu. Piiam VitiH uf Aiia, wounded ia eztreroe 
old age near the. altar of Zeiii, from vrhom he was deaoended [Verg. 
g. Ill aSJ, was ilain upon it. Diet. Cret. v 13. Markland ooaj. Hereei 
lovit. uuiT ANTE iBiu VM, T 6 E | 3 of ThemistooleB 

ante ipsam aram quasi quaedam piclatU clara rietima cojteidil. 
DT TETD1.DB B03 the mouosfllabia tall from Aan. 
-V i8l ilemilur exanimiique tremens procumbit Aumi bos. the simila 
from Od. iv B33 iSs rii re naUirare paSx Ivi firm. Ov. ni. t 122 pro- I 

269—70 coLLUM paiBBET 345 n. 270 *B used aven- J 

with names of lifeless things, irheu they are repreaented ea feeling oa ,1 
Bating Haud Tursell. i 27. Cic p. Clneut. 1 110 locwa ... a tribnniei^ll 
vooe deiertiim. Stat. a. tii 1 111 iniaenio nan vmquam exstut ftVl 

only in eiceptional cases that oxen (lom the plough were saorifioad K Ft. ^ 
Hsrmanu gottead. Alterth. § 26 20. Ael. T. h. T 14 Kiihn. Wetstein oil 
Mark 11 2. Macrab, iii S g S iniiist). Verg. g. iv 540. Aen. ti 38. Sen. 

Oed. 300. Lone. di>er6s. atiyiiit. iijiiTii. Talek. and Wesa. on Edt. u 6S. 
Yet Lucian aacriL 12 saja with Inv. ' they bring their saciifiaes, the huB- 
liandman his ploughing os.' Bo Ov. m. xt 120 — 14a. Lasank Stndiea , 
261) u, 242. In Israel also the compromise between religion and aTarica, 
the offering of blind, lame, torn, siek viatim^ was not unknowii MaL 1 7. 
8. 13. 271 UTCu:iignE 359 n. need, like quicumque 

and many other relatives, as imleSnitea iwithout a verb in the ailvei age. 
' at any rate;' 'however his end was, it was at leaat human.' Plin. ep. v 
6 g 2 aed hoc ntoamqne tolerdbile; graviiu Mud. ib. i 12 g 2. Tao. 
Agr. 39. Bonnell lex. QuintE lias 3 e£i. 


from Ov. m, iiii BIT — 32 where Hecnl« sajs quo me seivaii, aniioia ui 
tua! I giw, di crudeUi, nisi quo nova fiinera centain, \ vivaceui dijferJi* 
anumt qnis poase pntaret | lelioem Priamnm poat dirata Per- ' 
gama dieiT | felix morte sua est, neo te, mea nata [Pcdjxena], 
peremptam | aapioit, et vitam pariter regnnmque reliqnit. 
cf. 462— t. 481—676. 542 totToa sualoUit ad aetkera nuldw. 66B— TO 
rictligu« in verba paraio | latravit conata loqui . lociu aetat, et ex Te ) 
nonurn habet . 1 e. Sbab. xiii p. G9B Kvris atj/ta. Ov. m. xiu 620, ' 
Eoj. Hec. 12SE Pora. DChtys. or. II i 360 O. 33 ii 29. Qoint. Smym. 
nT343— 58. anth. Pal. u 212. Trjph. 401— 2. Plant. Men. 718—8 
do you know why Hecnba waa called a dogF 'No.' Beoaoae she did 
what yon are doing now . omnia mala iagerebat, gueiKjuem atpixerat: | 
ilaque adeo iure coepta appellariit Canie. anth. Lat. 105 B. Cic Tnaa. 
m g 63. Hygin. f. Ill Munokei. 243. Sext. Emp. adv. granun. i 13 
§ 2Hi. Aue. epit. 25. tdevi Mart, ii 41 13—4 ruZCui 

iiidtu: til uiagis spvoros | quam coniiinx I'riami. 

173 avss POST nusc visEiiiT tiioB Sen. Ep. 47 g 12 (and Macr. 1 11 §7) 
'■I ego,'" tn^uij, 'nnllum habeo dominum,' bona aetas eet : foriitan 
*«Wij. Tuicis, qua aetate Heonba tiniire coepsrLI, qaa OroeBUB? 
SeB.Agam, 705—9 tot ilia regum mattr et reginun Phrygum,] fecanda 
in^nii Hecuba tatorDm noeai \ txperta leges [lav. ver. 251] jniluft 
TgltaiferoB | cirenruiiuurabiiJalatraTit luiu, { TroisB Bnperstei 
Htetoti Priamo sibi. anth. Lat. 1246 11—2 H an fclix aegrae 
fsHiu mbdncta leneelat t | lie Hecuba fieiiit PenlheaiUa minut. [Liban.] 
^bt 16 p. 789'WIi6emwius quUque urgente fortuna ttmua fieri potett. 
univit Hecnba, lervivit CroeBiiB, 'The fate of Hekabe,' tA t^ 
'Bb^;i, proverbial Pint. comp. Thes, ot Bom. 6 § 9. Felop. 23 % i. 
iBltapp. 103 71. 273 BBOBa PONTi VI BBl. 

ITT iS3— G n. Tbeve ia a brilliant account of Mitbradates vi Enpator 
(rii, 1. c. 130 — +63, the year of Cicero's aonsulahip) lu Mommsen'a bia- 
iorj. If he Bfaiued nith Priam etc. the Eonotr of losing wife, brother, 
dBM, and children before bis death, the fault waa Ha own, for many of 
UiBmdied bjMa orders (App. Mithc. 112). Gigantio of stature, baidy 
ud fleet of foot, restless in enterprise, lie fought in tho thiokest of the 
fgbtia his old age. could speak all the 21 tongues spoken iij his sabjeotB, 
ud Taa the one formidable obstscls to Itoman power in the ea^^t before 
tkPlrtMan wars. To Fontna be added at difterent times Skythia, Eap. 
PidoiiB, Paphlagonia, Galatia, Bithjnisi, Ljkia, Pomphylia, Boaporoa, 
Ulehis, pushed his froutiera to Cancasus, and gained a footing in Qreeee 
pw)ier, where his forces held out at Athens against Sulln., s. c. BG, one of 
UiemaBt momomblo of sieges. In his three wars with the Itomana ha 
taDomitered Q. Oppiua, L. Casdus, W, Aquiliua, Sulla, Fimbria, Mnrena, 
Cotli, Fabiiu, Triarius, LncnllTU, Fompeins ; fmd formed on allunae 
<ith Sertorius. From his last battle with theBomans at Nikopolia B.C. 66 
in Dei with onlj three attendanta, and had a price set upon hia head bj 
Tisanes. Even after thia (Plat. Pomp. 41 g a. App. Mithr. 101. 109) ho 
liBnied a plan for the invaaion of Italy. His son Phamakea, whom he 
dnigiiBd for hia auccessor, formed a plot against his life ; being deserted 
t>r every one, he took potaon, but in vain (luv. xiy 252 n. ) ; and fell by 
tw hMiJ of a faithftd Gaul App. 111. Panly vi 100—13. DCasa. mri 
U he planned the invaaion of Italy, ohooaing rather to die with bia Mug- 
Ami than to survive inglorioaaly. Cie. aoad. ii § 3 Lueulias called H. 
Uu greatest king since Alexander; cf. p. Mnr. §32. App. 112 ' 67 years 
> ting, he wagfid vnr 40 years with Borne, was master of the sea from 
Kilikja to the Ionian gulph.' ib. 119. 274 choksdk 

Ix beautiful story of the interview of Croesus with Solon mas questioned 
on ehronQlogical groamia in antiqnily (Pint. Sol. 87 § 1); Granert, Orote 
'wk n 0. 11 fin., Cnrtins, have shewn that, as reported by Hdt., it cannot 
blVB taken place ; though the two may have met at another time ; the 
ImclB of Solon lasted from n. a. 693^S3 ; Croeaus came to the throne 
1.CG60; however DL. i gS SO. 62 and Suid. speakof later travels; Solon 
felia ^ypToa. Donckcr Gescb. d. Alterth. i' 596—7 acaepta the story 
itthsmahi, anddates the interview b. c. 560 or 559. M. Sen. conti. 
I7p.ll9 29 ille CroesuB, inter reges opulentiaiimni, memento, post terga 
tlnctUmanibatdedactiuest. Theatoryof Groesoa, like that of Polykrates, 
nn illustrates the Oreek belief in divine Nemeais (ver. 42 n.), iJter hii 
tawsnoD to the throne of Lydia, he added largely to his dominions by 
(nnqneal (Hdt. i 2G— S) : many Greeks famed far wisdom came to Sardia, 
tnd among them Solon (29). "Wlien Solon had seen all the royal trea* 
!ure9, CrueauB asked, ivho waa the happiest man that he knew. "" 





nplied Telia* of Athene, for he hod begotten good sous, who had ■ 
childrea; and tihonbe died fightiugfot his conn try, the; all eunrivtd (30)^ 
Next to TellDB Solon ranked Kleobis aud BitoD of ArgoB, who died the mgbt 
aJter they had drawn their mother, a priestesa, to the temple (31). Ccoe- 
BUS being angry nitb bia guest for nut naming him as the Wppioat of 
men, Solon reckong up the days in a life of TO years, each day exposed to 
ita own acdideuts ; aud shews that happiness does not increase in propor- 
tion to wealth : ' in eveiy thing we muRt have regard to the end, how it 
will fall oat at last : for God has shewn prosperity to many, whom after- 
wards he haa plucked up by the roots' (32). Croesus diamiasea Solon, 
thinking him very simple, blind to present prosperity, while ho inaigts on 
keeping the end in tiew (33). Vengeance begins to fall on CroesuB for 
bia pride; he dreams that his son Atys ia killed by the thrust of a speft 
(34. 3S — 9). Thu dream is fulfilled, and Crotisua spends two years IL 
mourning (3S — 46 g 1). Fearing the growing power of Persia, he eonaults 
the oraols, which declarea, that by croBain;; the Halys he will tnin a 
mighty empu-o (iS— SB g 1). He invades Kappadokia (69—71. 73, 76); 
after an indecisive odgagemeut returning to Sardis, iie is basieged bj 
PyruB, who takes him prisoner, aud orders bim to be burnt. On the pyre, 
remembering Solon's lesson, ha calls thrice, Solon, Solon, Solon. Cyroa 
enquiring the meaning ol the cry, hears the tale; fearing divine t 
geance, and remembering that bis own fortune is as uncertain ns 
captive's, he orders the Sro to be quenched ; which the bystanders iwnv 
do, when Apollo, moved by the prayers of Croesus, sends a heavy ahowet 
(76 — 87). On the proverbial vrenlth of Croesus see Pape-Benseler KpoTeos. 


AD Losoo; iDBsiT BPiiiA cLTiUi TiTiB this maiim (Hdt. i 86 § 3) ioiUm 

tbai TUf S;w6yrui' 6\^iiar (cf. C. 33 Soh>n St ti wapibrrii d-yaSi >iETeJt tV 
nXeur^f i-airi! xpii/mroi hpiv iKiktuc) ia very frequently cited, esp. in 
tragedy, of which it is the key-note DL. i g 50 rii 6pM\iiiiJ.ivo.. Soph. Tra«h. 
1—8, Oed.r.l628— SOErf.Eui. Andr.lOO— 2BameB.El.953— k; Tr 510 
lph.A.161^a. Aristot.eth.N.ilO = l], S3. Cio.fin. ii §87 Dav. m g78. 
Or. m. nt 135 — 7. Sen. de tnuiq. an. II § 13 tcx tt : non ad CroesQa. 
1b mittam, qui rogum Tuum et tacendit iuiaia et txUngiii vidit, faetna 
non regno tantum, sed etiam morti suae superstea. loa, b. I. ^ 
y 11=29 1 3 applies the saying to Antioehos Epiphanes of Commageae; 
who aided Titns at tho siege of Jerusalem; Ait. vii 1G g 7 to Alexander, 
who was Jelix opporlanitaie mortis. Hence tho proverbs paroatoiogr. i 
S15 n. TiMs Spa plcv. ii 187 Auddi iroSyiatet go^is iu^p, said ol 
Croesns. ib. 663 Tipim 6' 4pa» fiiimo, ii\ij» Upai! i, 'Afljjvaij. MeUM, . 
Solon d. 3Q. cf. ecclua. 11 28. Plin. tii g 132 alias dt alio iudieat diet, 
et tamen sapremus dc omnibus, ideoijiie nuUii crtdendum eil, Oharon 
in Iiucian contempL 10 takes Solon's maxim as a compliment to him and 
bis ferry-boat. cf. 'all's well that ends wclL' 'Ende gut, alles gut.,' 
'Finis Borooatopna.' and many other proverbs Wander b.t. Ende. 
276—282 from Veil, ii 13 b.c. 88 ' Sulla returned to Eome, ocenpiei ' 
it by force of nnua, and drove out from the city twelve ringleodeiB of- 
(evolution, among whom were Marias with his son aud P. Sulpicina, ' 
BC Uge lata esnlas/ecil; . . . Marius aiter Mb aisth consulship and hii ' 
70th year, naked and overwhelmed with mire, eyes onlj and nose rising 
ftbove the water, waa dragged forth from a bed of reeds hard by the saamp 
et Marioa, wherein be had concealed himself when flying from the pnrsait 
of Sulla's cavalry. A halter being thrown over Jiis neck, he was led to 
the priaoii of the Mintarnensians by order of the dnumvir. A public 

■Isve, a German b; nation, was tent with a pword to dispatch him; it 
chanced that this slave had been taken by him nhen imperator in the 
Cimliric tsar; no aooner did he recogniae Moiina, than ottering a lund 
■hnek expresalDg iDdlgnation at bo groat a man's calamity, he threw 
Miaj Mb BRoid and fled from the prison. Then hla conntrymcn, taught 
hTHnenGmj to Compassionate one who naa bnt lately the chief man in 
tie riate, famtahed him with proviaions and clothiog and put him on 
bokrd ■ Bhip; bat he, coming up with hia eon near Aeoaria, bent Ma 
conraeto Africa, and supported n life of dettiluiion in a hnt oftlie mint of 
OMiii^l: while Marius beholding Cartilage, Carthage on Marina, 
night each comfort the other.' Monil. iv 45 — 8 et Ciaibrum in Mario, 
Hidnmqae in caroere victum: | qui Donaul totiea exiiilqite tt in 
fault cDiuuI I Bdiacuit Libjcis oompar iaatnca minis. I tjiM 
eropfdinibus [Iut. t 8n.] «pi( Carthoginia orbtm. Fior. ii 9 = m 
II ( 6 initiunt f E caata belli ineiplebilis honorum Marii famei. 
i S Mariiaa aervilia faga exemiC. | 10 rediit ab Africa Marita cladt 
tniot: liqaidtia career catenae, fuga exilinm hon-yicaaerant dignitatem. 
Lm, u 69—138. e.g. 69—75 post Tentonicoa [luv. 282] viclcr Libyeos- 
futtiiumphoa [ eiullimosa Marina caput abdidit ulva. | ttagna 
nidi Utere toll laataeque paludsB | depoiiium, Fortunn, tuma; mox 
I'wula ferri | exrdere leneia longiaqae in carcete IIuv. 276]patdiir. | 
cmiiU et tvena felix moriturut in «rbe [ poenaaantodabat aoeleram. 
TStlieGftol (or G-erman) viderat immpiuam lenebioia in career o lueeiiL 
»-3 tluda iriumpAali iacuit per Tegni lug-urtliae J et PoonoB presBit 
einerea [luv, 877]: talacia fall \ Carthago Manusque lutit, pariter- 
)*( iaeente* | ignoeere deii. 130 — 3 eeptitniia hnec nqiiilitr repetitit 
/Wltu» aninu [B.C. 8G]: | iClefait vitae Mario modus, omnia paaao, | 
fOiB peior fortlma potest, atqae omnibus uao, { quae melior, 
Beasoqae homini quid fata pararent. The exile Ovid draws the 
Mail leaaon from the fate of Marius Pont, iv 3 45. 47 iUe lugarlhino 
ddnv Cimhroque triumpho, | ... in caeno latuil Marine canimqut 
lUnslci. ib, 37—8 the revecsea of Croeeitt [luv. 271—5], and 41—4 of 
PtKpeiui [luv. 283—8]. 276 on the flight of Marius 

»ePlut.Mor.35§6— 0. 40. 41 §4. 45 § 6. 43 gg 2— 3 on his return b.o. 87 
OoDl entered Borne, but Marina Ungered at the gates, feigning unwil- 
Uogneia to enter while still under the decreo of banishment (cf. 42 g S); 
if Ub preaenco were required, the decree must bo formally rescindedj 
■lien three or four tribes only had voted, he threw o9 the mask. ib. 41 g 
Ibotn hia flight to his return, a period of more than 70 days, he auHered 
liil beard to grow, and refusei the proconsular uniform sent him by 
I^lilia, passing through Italy in tatters and unkempt, of. App. h. c. i GO. 
ST. Plut. Sull. 10. 227exalibus Mariis. carceu he 

m ummitted to the house of Fannia in Miutuinao TM. i 5 g 6. it 10 1 0. 
'm2g3. Pint. 38. 3D the Gaul who was sent to kill him saw bis eyes 
eluing in the ilnrk cellar, and heard a loud voioe 'Man, darost thou kill 
Olina Hariusf on which he ran out crying: 'I oannot kill Gains Motiua.' 
«f,^p. b. c. I Gl. Lne. ii 73. 79 and Oroa, v 19 also speak ot acarcer. 
URTCBiJUiDUQDB pii,uDEg CicBFo Often spsoka ol Ms fellow- townsman Bn, 
u| 103. p. Sesl. J 50. p. Plane. § 2*1. in Pia. J 43 C. Marine, quem Italia 
itrvata ab illo demorsum in Minturnenainm paludibua, Africa 
iftkta ab eodeia eipulsum et naufragum lidit. p. red- ad Quir, 
.fills, 30. Oroa. v 19 p. 343 H Mariua fugient, cum penequentiam in- 
' '' "tLj^TCumaaeptiu eiiet, in Minturnennium paludibua iiete ab- 
t quibtu infelieiler luto ol>silua ignoiainiuei^qae protractui, turpi 

8 dediutiu eonlruiugqiie in carcetem, per- 

Uinturnas, To the malaria arising fram Hxe swamp Ovid allndsa m. 
X? Tlfl MintarDOequB groves. unrruasisuu iillo- 

jnaa colony of Latium on the via Appia, IjioR on the right bank of the 
Lirin Garigliatio, about 3im1eB from the sea Strab. v p. 933 ; thera sM 
still large remains of an amphitheatre and an aqnedact, BnbetructiDna ol 
a tamplo, valla and towora, Cluver. Itol. iii ID pp. 1071 — 9 gives the 
antlioTitieB in fall; see oIbo E. H. Banljury in diet, geogr. 

' c. Till 268 an Libycae 
:s? anth. hat. 415 36—8 
o tiiperi, q«is fuit ille dies, f quo Marinm vidit supra Carthago ia* 
oenteml { tertia par illis nulla ruina /uit; ib. 33^5 hope moved 
Marios to trust him self to the marsh, turpi te credrre limo, and to mike 
for the sboreB of conquered Libya. 3Q — 10 hope corned the exile Pom- 
jieins to the boy Mng [luv. 283^8]. 43 hope remained to Priam after 
Hector's loss [Inv, 258—72], Pint. Flam. 21 g 7 (§ G he speaks ol 
the raverBBB of MUUradatea [Inv. 273], and c. 20—1 of thoaa of Hannibal 
[luT. 147 — G7]) ' the BomauB, who mocked the fortnnes of Marint a voffii-' 
bond and a beggar, dAu^i^vou lal rruxEiSopi-oi, in Africa, presently adored 
him at Borne a'pa-rrS/ifyvi aid fiaoTiyoufUFrx.' g 8 Solon's TiinTim . id. Uar. 
*) g§ 5—7 Marine reached Africa, SeitiliUB the praetor warned him not 
to l^d; otherwiae he must carry ont the decree of the eenate and treat 
him as an enemy of the Bomans. Morins replied 'tell him that yon 
have seen C. Marius eltting art exile amid the TUin» of Citrihage' M. Hen. 
contr. 17 § B p. ISB capito MintniDenaia palus exulem Mariam 
non hamit; Cimi«r etiam in eapta vidit imperantem! praetor iter a con- 
tpletu einlis Jlexit; qui in crepidine [Inv. v Bn.] viderat dforfun, 
in iilla figuravit, ib. Ig 3p. S7 quii crtderet iaeentem supra CTepidia^m 
Marium fuiae comuUm aat Juturvm} § 5 p. ksessti\% qaid tefiTom 
Marium eexto cnruulatit Carthagini mendicanteia, leptimo Roatae 
imperantemi Stanley compares the legendary date oboltim Bclitarlo, 
278 ^o' the trochaic caesura in the third foot LnjniH 
oompsrea n 146. iv 120. ti 192. -viti IDO. 2S7. xi 133. xiv 137. 2-12. xv S4, 
lis. BiNc from long life 275. 278 — 9 QDiD BBiTiua 

more universal than quern beatuirem; so nihil than nemo, oiilr than 
Bultlt VI 4S9. Hor, s. i 3 16 — 9 nil /ait mnqiiaia ] tie impar Mibi, 
Buddim. II 103. EamBhom 956. Spartian. Bev. ai gj 5—6 quid Marto 
(elicius fuiiiet, si CommodumTton reliquisset heredeml quid Sescro S<p- 
tirniD, SI Eatnanum nee genuiiiett Cic, parod. 2 § IS C, vera Marina 
CtdiTmis, gut miAi itciindii rebat uitas ex /arl»nal£t hominibia, adveTtii 
uniu en tiaamii iini videbatar, quo beatiue ei»e morfaZi nihil pattiL 
For the thought of, VM. ly 9 g U ills Marius, .... cut po»t ex- 
ilium eonsul creari proacriptoque faeere proscriptionem eontijiJ. quid 
huiut condictone incnnatantiuf aut mittabiliiis t qucm ei inter miiero* 

r felio 

I fel 



Th \x 513—7 of Polynicea. Pint. Mar. 33 § 1 fortune, or the envy of the 
gods, or necessity, leaves no great snocess unalloyed, but diveraifiea ha- 
aian life with a mixture of good and ill. 

280 o" the triumphal proceBsion see 86— 46n.; those of Marius over In- 
gurtha (Plut. 12), and over the Cinibri and Teutones ib. 28 § 9. Hor. c. I 
87 80 — 2 laevis Libiirnii scilicet inoidens | privala deduci auperbo \ nrm 
humilii vmlier triimpho. Prop, ii 1 33 Vulp. Flor. i 38 = in 8 g 10 Teuto- 
bodua, king of the Teutoni, insigne spectaetitum triiimplii fuit, qiiippe vir 

280—2831 ' CIMBRr AKD TEUTONES. 1 5 1 

froeeritatis eximiae super trdpaed sud eminebaU 281 pompa 

AMDiAM of the 13 exx. of hiatas in Inv. 8 are in this place (Lnpus) iii 70. 
71 274. 468. Tui 106. xii 110 (?). xiv 49. xv 126. animam opi- 

XAX as we say pp. decus, gloria, triumphus. 282 cuu de 

TBUTONico YEiiLET DESCENDEBE cuBBU Yiii 249 — 53. The terror of Borne 
before these northern hordes, whose time was not yet fully come, was 
great Flor. i 38=ni 3 § 5 actum erat, ni Marius illi saeculo contigisset. 
On the very day of the victory at the Bandii campi it was announced at 
B(mie, as tradition told, hy Castor and Pollux §§ 19—21 hunc tarn laetum 
\amqvLe felicem liberatae Italiae adsertiqv^ imperii nuntium . . . populus 
Bomanus accepit . . . per ipsos, si credere fas est, deos, cf. Plut. 17 for 
many other portents. This first German immigration (for the women 
and children marched with the fighting men or rode in wagons)' of the 
Cimbri was at the outset entirely successful ; they defeated the consuls 
1) Carbo b.c. 113 at Noreia in Carinthia, 2) Silanus b.c. 109 in southern 
Gaol, 3) Maximus Oct. b. c. 105 with a legatus and proconsul, command- 
ing three armies, in a series of battles at Orange; in these days 80,000 
Boman soldiers were slain. Sail. lug. 114 § 1 quo m£tu Italia omnis con- 
iremuerat. § 4 at that time spes atque opes civitatis in illo [Mario] sitae. 
Plat. 11, § 4. 16 § 1 compares the invaders to a cloud and a tl»inder- 
bolt falling on Gaul and Italy; 11 § 10 to fire, for their speed 
and violence; 24 § 4 to giants, rending hills, uprooting trees; 26 
§3 to a surging sea. Marius, who had ended the lugurthine war 
B.C. 106, was consul 5 years in succession b.c. 104—100, during 
which he reformed the army, destroyed the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae 
Aix B.C. 102 (Plut. 11 — 24. Liv. perioch. lxviii) and the Cimbri on ihe 
campi Baudii, near Vercellae 30 July b.c. 101 (Plut. 24 — 7. Liv. ib.). He 
had put off the triumph for the victory at Aix (Plut. 24 § 1. Liv. ib.), and 
now accepted only one triumph, though two were offered Liv. ib. Plut. 
28 §§ 8 — ^9. After the battle of Aix he reserved the choicest arms and 
spoils for his triumph, offering all else as a burnt sacrifice ib. 22 § 1. cf. 
the inscription seen by Poggio on the basis of the statue of Marius at 
Arezzo Orell. 543. corp. inscr. Lat. i p. 290 he waged war as consul with 
logortha, took him prisoner ei • tbtvmphans • in • secvndo • consvlatv • 




TEVTON • AEDEM • HONORi • ET • viRTVTi • VICTOR • FECIT. In retum f or their 
great deliverance the people named Marius the third founder of the 
city, and poured libations to him as to their gods at feasts Plut. 27 § 8. 
From the history of Marius Aug. civ. D. ii 23 § 1 draws the inference 
posse homines, sicutfuit Marius, salute viribus opihus honorihus dignitate 
longaevitate cumulari etperfrui dis iratis. ibid. § 2 omittoquod'M.&rivLB 
a miserantibus Minturnensibus Maricae deae in luco eius commendatus 
est, ut ei omnia prosperaret; et ex summa desperatione reversus incolumis, 
in urbem duxit crudelem crudelis exercitum, 

283—8 froDi Cic, whom VeU. and Sen. also follow, Tusc. i § 86 [cf. 
§ 85, the source of luv. 258 — 72] Pompeius struck with a dangerous 
disease at Neapolis, recovered. The Neapolitans, aye and they of Puteoli 
too, put on crowns for joy: volgo ex oppidis publico gratulaban- 
tnr : ineptum sane negotium et graeculum, sed tamen fortunatum. 
Had he then died, would he have been taken from goods or ills ? certe a 


[X2B3-28S . 

taittri*. For he wonld m 
would not hiae token np 
It^, son eiorcitn amieao undue 
UUB inflidiiiHet, . , . noii Jortunoe mmui a vicloribai pmiideTentiir. 
qui, Bi mortpin lnin obiBset, in ampliaBimiH fortanis ooOJdiB- 
set, is propagatione vitae qaot, qnantus, qasm incredibiliB 
hauait foilnnas I Veil, ii 18 S 2 if Pompeius two jears befora the 
outbieah of war, when he hod Qmehed his theatre and the adjoining 
workfl, i/ravaiima temptaiiu valetudine deeiiiisMt in Campania, qua 
^idem tempore nniferfia Italia TOta pro aalnte biqb, primi om- 
uinm civinm, nueepit, defuiiiet fortunae deitnisnili fiiu lottat et qtiam 
apud »uperoi habaerat Tua^itiidinfm, inUbatata deluliisrt ad in/erw. 
Sen. oone, ad Mara. 20 gg i — 5 cngita qaantum boni opporCuna piori ha- 
beat, quam maltis dintina viiisee nocnerit Si Cn. Poinpeinin, 
dteui iitud firmamentumqia imperii, Keapoli Taletudo abstnliEHet, 
indubiiaiiu populi Jtomani pHncept ixeeuerat: at nunc exigai («inpari> 
adieetio fattigio tUun nw drpulit, . . . vidit Aeggptivin carnifieem et 
KacToianetiaa rictaribui citrptu talellili praeilitit ; next follows the fate of 
.C'icera (Inv. 120—6). Lit. ix 17 % 6 gidd niil longa vita ...HsgBam 
niodo Pompeinm vertenti praebnit fottnnae? App. b. c. n 38 
mentions the sickneHS of P. Pint. Fomp. 57 it was on the motion of Praxa' 
({oras that the Neapolitans voted Macrijicei for the recover!/ of P. Tbeii 
ueighbouTB followed the example, and ao the thing went the round of Italy, 
citiei great and finaU keeping a featiTal for man; days. Crowda B^'euned 
out to meet F., streets. Tillages, and harbours were thronged with revelleifi 
and sacrificea. Many received him with garlands on head and toroheB in 
hand, threw flowers upon him and escoried liim inproceBsian. The blind 
aelf -confidence engendered by this progress was one main canse of the 
«ar. To those who asked with what forces he could check Caeaar'a marah 
an Borne, F. replied : * Wherever I stamp m; foot in Italy, forces, horse 
and foot, will start up.' Flor. u 1S = IT 2 g6 raiaa tattlae calamitatit 
tadem quae omnium, nimia felicitas. of. § SO, SS fil — 2 falicem 
utcuiaque in malii Fompeinm, ai fodon ipimin ^nae eiercitnm 
eins foituna traiisset. snperstes dignitatis suae vfxit, ll 
cum maioto dedecore . . . imperia. rJItuimi regis, eoniiliit ipadamm 
tl, 7M qnid Toatia deeiiet, Seplimii detertorU lut gladio tracidati,^, mb 
o&ttlii tixori) euae liberorumqiie moieretur. Flin. h. u. t g 58 the 
Nile rose bnt five cabitB this year, the lowest recorded number, velvti 
iiecem Magiti prodigio qvadam Jtujaiae aversante. ib. yit gg SS— 99 is 
a Bummary of the eiploits of Pompeins, 'rivailing the lastre not of 
Alexander only, bat almost of Hercules and father Liber,' including the 
inscription on a shrine of Minerva, built from the spoils of his TictorisB, 
and the ' preface ' of his eastern triumph. Ot. f. y 1 IS5 — 90 has a like 
paBsoge about Manlins : how well had it been for bim if he had died in 
defenoeofluppiter's throne: rixit, nt occideret damnaSus crimiue regnt. \ 
hoc illi titalum longa seneota dabat. 

28i FOBLici TOTA state seirices, tows formally Toled by the local aenateB 
or assemblies. Cic. Att. Tiii 16 g 1 b. c. 49 the mnnieipia treat Caesar as 
agodj wc limnlanl, ul cum de illo aegroto Tota faciebant. ib.lxfi 
g 3 ilia valet-adine decreta Taiaticipiorwiu DCass. lU G gg 3—4 bH 
the cities ot Italy, ao to aay, vowed min-iipta ahaC iiiuoiitf Siaeur, a dls- 
tincldoa afterwardB accorded to the emperors (as to (iains Suet. Cal. 14 
TOWS Im his return from the islands near Campania), but to no oQier man. 
- ' - '. 285 wniD-Vi iPSicsLuc. vmai-2poena»IOn^ 


?orlniiii favorit \ txigit a 


27—31 longii 

a I affuit et celeci praevertit triBtialeto, ] dfdecori 
at fartuna prior. Tiia fortone of Ponipeiufl waa no less calebrated than 
Oat oj Snlla Cio, de imp. Cn. Pomp. §S 47— B. Petron. 123 239—244. 
low. vm 7aS — 9 nrm pretioin pftii cumalalo turn lepuhhra ] PompeinB, 
Psitnita, tuns, i 134 of P. nee reparart novai viret, nuUumgua , 
jriari \ credere fortncae,- atal nagni nominii uvUmi. ii 725 — 36 s.B>J 
ItUUa triamphot \ datltiiit Fortuna tuai. viii 700— 7,' e.g. fali&fl 
Mite turbante deortaii, | at nullo parcente miaBC; semel inipulivW 
IBatm I dilata Fortaaa tnanu, Tha ■ loiiime of Coesac ' was also pro m 
vAoL. Heinr. cites Dorrilte on Char, v 6 p, 484. 
nnuiu -CBBiB on coins Basclie iii 11G2 — 3 fob' 
ElklMl i: 453. m 141 TTXEE nOAEflS. Luc. viti G85. Lob. Agl. 5E 
3U «aBy*TDM yiCTo oiPtJt iBaTCLii Pacuv. in Saet. Caee. 84 mfii' e 

I ruent qui me p eider ant? After escaping from Ibe battle of I 
n [9 Ang. 706= 6 Jnne 48), Fompeius fled to Eg7pt, but waa pnt { 
Jt Ix^ore £e could land, on the day before his E9th birthday, being 
bversary of bia triumph (B. c. 61) over Ttlithradatee, 28 Sept. 70Gi= 
I^FiBcherrJiin. Zeittaf. The adviaera of Ptolemy Dionysos (Cleo- 
, . H brother, a boy of 18), the ennueh PothinoB, tha genaral-in-ohiBf 
MdUoB, and the Chian sopbist Theodotos, reeolred to kill P.; Pint. 
IHndp. 77 3 3 ' a dead man,' said the sophist with a smile, ' does not bile. ' 
fii.78 — 80 AchlUus, with the tcibuno Septimiusandtbo centorion Salvias, 
fot off in a small boat to recalTO P. ; who on passing from his vessel 
quoted Sopbokles, 'he who goes to a tjrrant, is his slave;' in the boat he 
conned over tha Greek speecb vfhich ho intended to address to the young 
king. Ab be rose to leaie the boat, be was stabbed, his head cut off and 
the body flung naked out of the boat, to feast the eyes of tha cnrions. 
When all had gazed their fill, a faithful fraedman Pbilippos (with Serviua 
CorvQB a former quaestor of P. Luc, Tin 714 seq. AV. vir, ill. 77) gathered 
ftagments of a fishing boat, enou^ at a pinoh to furnish a pjre for a 
eorpie naked and not entire (ntpif tu/i>v ">' •I'fl* i^V Inv- 288 oado- 
vere toto). The head was preaented to Caeaar when he arrived a few 
dAysl&ter(cf. Pliit.CaeB.4B§3). The 'remains' were sent to Cornelia and 
hnriedby herinhur husband's Alban estate. See on the head of F. Luo. vm 
662—690, who describes the embalming, ix 136—144. 1009—92. The 
tngioal end of ench nnpresodented greatness powerfally impressed tha 
Bonum imagination. Prop. m = ivll 34— Siod'ftw noitro Mentphi cnimta 
mmIo, I lre» utit Pompeio dttraxU hareTia friuiBpAos. Petron. 120 63 Li- 
hgeo iaeet aequore Magma. Sen de ir. n 2 § 3, where be also speaks of 
tbe and of Cicero (luv. 120—6). id. ep. 4^7. TeU. n 63 g 4 hie pott 
trtt eoiuulatai et toHdem triutaphoa domitUTiuiiie tfrranim arbent lan^ftf- 
M'mi ao praeitanliahai iiiri in id ececti, taper quod ascetiili nen petett, . 
.... vilae fait exitui, in tantum in ilia viro a se disoordHnttf J 
foitnoa, ut eni modo ad -viotorinm terra defuerat, desBaet aSm 
sepnltoTam. Lun. Tin 711— 82L. 833—71. the tomb was shewn to BigUl^ 
Hen by the local guides 821 moastTatiim, 869 monstrantibui, ix 1 — 4. S8 . 
— 4. App. b.c. Ti S4 Pothinos and his men sent the head of P. to Caesar, 
In hope of reward; the body 'some one' bnried on the sand, and erected 
a dieap tomb over it; Hadrian eslemporiaed an epitaph (cf. DCass. lxix 
II 8 1 A.n. 122. anth. Pal. a 402. Spartian Hadr. 14 g 4) ry ™«t fipl- 
9om irimt <rroB« (rXero riiiffou. Hadrian also brought to hght the 
tomb, then buried in sand, and leatoFed Ibe bra:^eu statires wbiek J 



the frienda ot P. Had erected. DCaae. xlii 5 wbece the conbitst 

between the grealneHa of P. and liis fall is drawn out at length,— vio- 

toriooB from a Btripling in Exirope, Asia, Africa, he had pacified tha 

whole Meditenanean, and now met bis death theie; tbe fomiec Bdmital 

of 1000 sail in a, little boat; on tbe rery day of bla triumph over Uithn- 

dat«s Bud the pirates, tbe day of his greateat glory, he BuScred tha taoat 

grievous shame. VU. t 1 S 10 qiiaia praeclarum Ijibutae kKmanitatit 

\tpecinun Ca. Pompciiui, gsuim taiierabile deeiiUratae idim fruit txan- 

Kglumf nam^Tii J'ii7r'aiu8 tempora imigni regio textrat, eiut oapnt tribu 

f Mronif tnumphalibta rpoliatum, in nia modo temmm orbe nnaqii»m 

Bepultnrae locum habait, sed abscianm a coipore inopg logi 

nyiiriuBi Atgyptiat perjidiiu munug partatum eil, rtiam iprt victari tnue- 

rabite. uE aiiia id Caciar aspexit, obliliu fiodis lociri vulitim indiiii, . . . 

capat autem plurimis pretioeisEimie odoribaa cramaadum 

onraTit. Alexander Sevems Lamprid. 63 g 3 oited the same exx. of 

great men dying a rioleut 01 early death ae luy. doea here, Alftaitider, 

V Pompeim, Ciiaar, Dcjaoitbtnti, TMiut. Sen. de tranq. Ifi § X Ptmtpeivt 

K'<t CieeTo [cogimtur] clientibm ruUpraibire cernicem. brev. vit. 13 g| 6— T. 

I TM. 1839. A very familiar commonplace on the tombs ot P. and biR 

l.two sons, inAfrica, Europe, Aaia {luv. 108 n.). onth. Lat. 400 — 1. 413 — i. 

1*64— 6Ee.g. 40a (borrowed from Mart, t 74. of. Sen. ep. 71 § 9) Pon- 

my«iiw totina victor hutraverat orbeia; \ at ruraui iota victor in orbe iaeet. | 

Eiuintra pater Lib^co potuit male tecta xepaloro; { filiut Hitpann tit 

^Vix adoptrOu Audio. | Sexte, Jaian lertite tenei, diviia ruina Mt: I WM 

man pataU lanta iaccre lolo. of. 406. 416 39—40. 438. 845. The sit« ol 

&e tomb was Ostracine Bolin. 34 g 1, neai mt. Casins and Pelneium PI 

T S S8. Strib. TGO. 7G9. Tbe flight of Poinpeiiu was a topic of axiumiu 

in the Bohoola Qointil. in 8 § 33 (ct Empor. io rhet. Lat. STl 4 H) Pora- 
peiw deUberabat, Farlhos an Africam an Aegyplvm petemt. ^ 65 — 7 on 
pro Catfttre frierit occidi Pompeinm? eto. tii 2 g 6 qxioviodo latnmi 
lit CaisaT, »i FtolemaeTui Fompeium oooiderit? 


iHTBaEH Till 231 — 244n. these oecomplicea of Catilitm, P. Leutulua Sunt 
(oonaul B.C. 71, ejeoted from the aeuate for immorality 70, praetor ogkin 
B) and C Cetbegoa undertook to murder the consul Cicero and tbe 
senate, and to set fire to Borne, while Catilina marched with an axmy 
from Etruria Sail. 32 § 2. Pint. Cic. 18. App. b. 0. 11 3. The backward- 
aeas of LentnluB destroyed the chances of the conepiiacy (Sail. 68 § 4 m- 
terdia atque ignavia Lentidi. Cia Brat, g 235. DCaaa. msvii 32 g 3); he 
was full of blind confidence, truEting to certain ao-ealled Sibylline versea and 
to fortune-tellers : It was fated that three Cornelii should be lords ot Borne,' 
i.e. as he auppoaed, Ciuna, Sulla and himself Cic. Catil. m ^ 9. 11. it 
a 2. 12. SaU. 47 § 2. App. 11 4. QuJnia t 10 § 30. Plut. 17 % i. Flor. 11 
12 = it1 g8. On tbe night of the famoua 6 Dec. 63 (Cic. p. Flace. J 103 
nono^ illae Decembrii. ad fam. 1 9 O^) IJentulus and Cetbegua were atrau- 
gled in the TuUianum, or underground dangeou beneath the Capitol (Bam 
Home and tbe Campngna ixiii. 81) by order of tbe aenate Sail. 66. VelL 
II 34 § 4. Plut. Cic. 32 S 2. App. 11 G fin. DCaaa. ximi 36 g 3. 39 § 2. 
This iUegal execution was coatinuaily cast in Cicero's teeth, as b.q. 43 hj 
Calenua ib. ilti 20 g 5, where is a play on TuUhig and Tulliannm. The 
mother of Antonius after his father's death married Lentnlus, a eon- 
naiion from which Plut. Ant. 2 3 1 derives the fend between Ant. and 
Cio. Ant. aasartad that the body of Lentnlas was not given up to hia 
bicnds (Cio, Phil, 11 § 17), or not until his wife begged it of TerenliB; 

retuaed loterniEct Pint. 1. c. Panly ii 
DnuDauu u 639—33. cecidit GebLard on Nep. iv 1 S 2. 

CETHEHDB II 27 «' . . . Clodiui accuift motchai, Catilina 
Cetliegnm. Tin 231 n. He was one of tbe yoQcg (SoU. 62 % BS) 
liikea, whu joined in the demociratio plot as a meauB of cancelling all 
dtbta. Having undertaketi to diepatuh Cicero and biovicg well the 
laliie ol time, he canBtantlj' complaictd o[ the slotli of Lentulus; foe 
<ven among conspiratorB the hierarchy o[ office was respected: if a oon- 
inlil joined the movement, he maet take precedence Sail. 43 §g 2 — 1 
e.g. nntura ftrax, vehemeia, manu pramptut trat; maxiamim boiiunt in 
aSlritaU pvlabal. Cie. Catil. m § 10. 16 I foreBaw remolo Catilina 

limBritatem pertimeicendam. iv g 11 tupeetttii Ctthegi et furor in 
WIN etude bacehantii, Lno. n 641 — 3 nfc tnagU hoc belliim ttt, qaam 
CUM Oatilina paravit \ ariMrBt in tecta facet, tacituque farorit | Len- 
InltiB mtrtiqut manns veaana Cetbegi. 288 inteoeh 

Apnl. Til 24 niorititTUi equiiUvi nihUominas, sed moritnrns integer. 
Here 'entire' )( 'beheaded ;' generally )(saucii« Mulilmaim eol. 1201—3, 
Hcorr ciTiLiNi OADATEBB TOTO itv 41. Com. Sfiv. ftp. Sfln. 
nuu. B j 26 Sl~-~6 (first compared by Baith) after speaMng of Cioero'B 
mDtilBlioa (Ini. 12Un.) hoc nee in EmulMo milt) vicloria Pfree, \ ntc te, 
iln SypAd^, nan fecit in boste Philippo. \ ingve trivniphoto Uidibria 
caaclatuffuriha \afwTvM,nottraeqwcadeiaferu»IIannibaliTae \ membra 
Wmen StygiaB talit inviolata anb nmbrftfl. The reatlesa energy 
lad great capacity of L. Sergiua Oatilina is attested by his enemy Cic. p. 
CaeL jg 12—1. Catil. iii gj 16—7. Having been one of the mOEt blood- 
Ihinity agentfl of Snlla (Sen. lie ir. lu IS gS 1—2) ha threw Limself into 
the democratie morement vith chnracteristia ardour, dedariiig that, 
there being two parties in the state, the one (the aristocracy) feeble, with 
a weak bead (Cicero), the other strong, but without a head; an long as he 
lived, it should never want a head Cic. p. Mur. g 51j and indeed, beside 
the plunder of the capitaUsts, the renewal of the days of C. Marius the 
democrBitic captain, and the exaltation of Marina' nephew Caesar againsu 
FoDipeiag, were the chief ainui of the conspiiators. Catilina joined batUe 
early in B.C. 63 with the troops of the proconsul C. Antoniua, led by the 
capable veteran M. PetreiuB, at Fistoria in Etniiia; during the engage- 
ment he discharged the doties of a brave Goldier and consummate com- 
Buuider, and when all was lost, charged into the thick of the enemy, and 
fell fighting Sail. 60— 1. DCasa. xxsvii 39—40, who contradicts luv. 40 § 2 
'Antonins sent tat head to the n'fiy, in order that, being assured of his 
de»tb, they might be relieved from fear.' Cic. p. Best. §g 8 — 12, Flor. 
□ lS=rT I g 12 Gatiliita was found far from his own lines, among 
oorpees of the enemy, pnlcherrima morie, it pro patria >ic concidiatet. 
Ben Jonson in Ms Catitine baa worked up the evidence with a master'a 
hand. ciDAVBBB TOTO Lqc. vm B97 — 9 Hlora Pantpeium feriunt, 

truacuiqae i-adoaii | hue illuc iactatur aquh; adeone laoleata | totam 
enra fuit incero lervare eadaver! 707^10 e. g. nallaqne manente 
fignra, ] ntui nota ett ilagno rapitis iacttira revulsi. 736 lacemm corpat. 
762 Itunmm. 773 Inirtci cineref. ix 63 tntneas. i 379—80 tuvnilumgue 
t palrere purio laiiapiff, Pompeii uon omnia membra tegentem. 

389 — 345 With low whisper, at sight of Venus' temple, the eager 
mother craves beauty for her boys, for her girls aloud, even to a very 
dainliness of desire. 'Yet why rebuke?' she asks; 'Latona's self takea 
pride in her fair Diana.' Yet Lucretia's fate forbids the wish for leatures 



liks Lneretis'i; Terginia woold fain take ItutiU's bamp, siving BntUa in I 
exdhange her ona fuitltlena abapc. Still greater daogeiB await the beaa: I 
a blooming eoa keeps bis paceatB oa the rack vith fear: bo seldam is 
beaaty mated nitb cbuatitj. [' chaste in no epithet to suit with fair']. 
Though the plain borne, takiiig after the ancient Sabinea, may have 
handed down from sire to son spotless nmunere, though boon Natare nuy 
have done her part, dealing with liberal hand chaste affections, and a 
luce BnahBd with modest biood (foe what mora can Nature bestow on a 
boj, Nftttire mightier than every keeper and every safeguard?) still the 
well-favoured jautb may never be man; fur the seducer's laviih baidi- 
bood is bold to biibe the very parent] to their children's Ein; suobtnut 
bare they in the power of gifts. Ko tyrant ever In his cruel fortress nn- 1 
manned a misshapen stripling, no Nero ever ravished a lad bandy-legged | 
or wen-throated, gorbellied at once and hmnp-bocked. do to now, and 1 
I'ejoioe in your spruce joath, whom greater perils await : ha wiU torn n 
adulterer general to the city and will fear vengeance, such aa a wrathful I 
husband may take, nor will be a luckier gallant than Mars that he shonid 
, never ba entrapped. Sometimes however tbat iadignation takes more 
Ucence than any law has aUowed to indignation; one stabs the paramour 
to death, another draws blood with the lash; some Jeebera also ore 
olyslered with tbe mugilia.^Bttt your Endyraion, I say, will prove the 
adulterer of a wedded dame whom be loves; presently,— when Servilia , 
comes, money in hand, — of one whom he loathes ; ho will atrip her of all 
her bravery; for what sacribce will not any matron, be she Oppia or 
mora profligate Catulla, make to her lusts? woman's whole obaracter has 
ita root there. But what harm does beauty to the chaste ? nay, what 
good bad Hippolytua ol bis temperate resolve, or what Bellerophonr 
For Stbenebo«a and Cretan Phaedra alike reddened aa scorned by this 
rebuff, both took fire, both shook for rage: when sbame goods hate, then 
it is that a woman is moat ratblesa. Choose what advice yon think 
beat for him whom Caeaar's wife is bent on wedding in her hnsband'a 
lifetime. The fairest at onoe and best of a patridian house ia harried ofl^ 
to be sbtin poor soul by Messaliua's eyes : long since she is seated in 
state, the flame-red wedding-veil is ready, the coverlet of Tyrian purple 
is spread on the marriage-bed for all to aee; tbe million, saaterces of 
dowry will ba made over in ancient form, witnasBea will come to set their j 
seal to tbe contract, the auspex to declare it blessed of heaven. You { 
Ibiiught this a secret, entrusted to a few; she will not marry bnt in dua 4 
form of law. Say, Silius, what is your choice. Itefuae. and you are a 1 
dead man before the lampa are Ut; commit tbe crime, and a little reapite 
will be granted, till tbe news, stale to tbe city and to all snbjeots, may 
reach the ears of Claudiue. He will be the last to learn tbe stain on hu 
home; meanwhile do you, if a few days' life ia worth the price, obey the 
behest of MessoUna : in either ease, whichever event yon think, better and 
easier, this fair wbita neck must be offered to the headsman's sword. 
289—97 on the fond prayers of parents see Sen. ep. 9i gS &3~1 
HaJla ad aarei nostras vox inpiini: pirfertur: nooent qni optant 
.... illorum amor mala ciocat bane optando. mittit enim 
et erraiiUa, cum pom 

iDH Urn 

ib. ai 

§ 1 ' 


ia umla leqjiuntur: inter 
3C. ep. J i 6—8 to Tibnllaa 
I dedenmt artemque fruendi. | qaid 

tatofuf mnrmiira of the Totaiy of OsiiiB. Sen. ep. 10 § 6 (nl. Macr. i 
7j6) verum at quod apud Ai)uiiodontBi inveni : 'tuna acito ease te omni' 
}m oupiditatibiifl aolutiim, oum eo pervenena, nt nihil deum roge», 
lifli quod rogare posaia pttlam.' nunc eniia quaitla deimntia eit 
isDuRUin.' tucpisaima vota dia inananrcant: si quia admoveril 

nacTiDt. vide rrso, n' I'oe praecipi lalabritfr postit: 'sia tjto cum 
luHDiDibUB, tamquADi deua videat: slo loquere oum deo, tamquam 
hominea nndiant.' id, ben. ii 1 § 4 vola homiiua parctui facmnt, 
ti palam facieoda eaaent: adiv (tiani deoi, quibns koiietliiiime aup- 
^iumu, tacite malumns et intia noametipsos pcecari. ib. ii 
13^2— Seap. quam multa aunt Tota, qaae etiam aibl fateii 
pndatl qnam panca, quae facere coram teste possimual Tlbnll. 
|[ ! B5 Broukh. Hor. ep. 1 16 fiS— 60 Obbar. Luo. v 104—5 hand illic 
licito mala Tota ansutro | concipiunl. Pera. u 3—75 Cfta. Mart, i 
195— Sliguu eril recli cugloi, miraCor koneaCi, | el niiiil arcaao qni 
Ta{el ore deoe. Gataker on Anton, iii i. Cf. the Pfthsgorean rule 
Oeo. AL ati. iv 20 g 1T3 ixfrd •fioa^! fBufietu ; so Instinian uovell. 137 (i 
Otdaig tbB prayers in the adnuniatratioii of the Bacrameuts to be uttered 
fri ^ur^t, ' with a loud Toice.' as oor rubrics enjoin, cf. Beveridge en 
Ht at 290 Asiii uiTEH Prop. iu=it 22 iS 

taiui a ffiminos trtnis. TaVktsi alit. 261 naonGAc 

uuous TOTOBDu IV 4. VI 47. S60. xui 110— 1 Un-o delicias— e^tra 
(ommania eeaiea poaeitduin t deliciag and delicacut connote aometMng 
bjqnali, laDCaatic, whimBLcal, capricious, vaiu, fiue, ei:quisite, fastidiooa, 
nige, choice, geziert; in etjle (Bomiell lex. Qnintii.) afFeoted and far- 
Wched; deliBiae • a pet,' fondled with a doting love. Here the fond mo- 
UiH doea not limit her pcayera to plain, eolid benefits to satisfy her 
ehildreD'a wants, but asks heaven for sooiethiiig out of the common way, 
to cooteDt her vanity, to indulge her to the top of her fancy; abe will 
prtj e. g. for any charm that happens to he in fashion Sen. ben. tv 6 
|1 ande ilia quoque luxiiriain imtraena capiat tieque eaim neccieitatibuK 
lanlaRunodo Mulris proeUam est; nsque in delicias ajnamur. Flin. u 
[U7 of the earth quos noii ad delioiaa qiiaique non ad contanteliai 
urvU hominit . . .aquis, firro, igne, lapide, fniffs, omnibiia mieiatur 
torU, taulCoqae plm nt delioiia quam uJ alimenlii famulefar noatrii. 
iain, de paenit. j%42 delicioans , , . et faetidii pleiius. cf. ind. Plin. 
Dtyden ' they must be finished pieces.' 292 pi'lchkh 

otmiRT uroHA DIANA Hom. Od. Ti 103 — 8 as Arteoiia strides down the 
lull T^iT^c Si re ipplta. Attu. she towers above all her nympha by the 
head aDd sliniildors, and ia conspicnous among all, though nil ore fair. 
Aen. I 498 — 6U3 aa on the banks of Eiuotos or ridges oi Cyuthns Diana 
leads the dance, encompassed by a thousand Oreads, but she outtops 
them all: Latonaa taoitnm pertemptant gaudia peot 
293 tocnETiA Liv. I 57 g 10 B.C. 510 Ses. Tarquinins was aeiaed with 
a guilty passion forLucretia: cum forma, tint tpectata coftilaa incitat. 
The story is admirably told ib. 57—8 and by Ov. f. u 721—852 : anthori- 
aaaia SchWBgler i 776 d. G. Tertnllian (eibort. caat. 13. monog. 1" -" 
^^^""l) opplauda her suicide; go Hieron. adv. lovin. 1 19 fin.; Aug. 




D. 1 19 eondemnH it (t fsTorite ti)pic in the sohools, for he givea spect- 

ifl of declanintioii^ ^jnirabile dxcftt; duo fnfruitt, el adutterium 
admtiC •« adtilt/rala, cur laudala I li pjtdica, cur occiaar). B 
the model of a Baman raatroa (M. See. eic. contr. ti S g 3 p. 401) 4 guoM 
vtique laudare vii nuptial, narra Lasretiiim); aud of homely ohogtitj 

- ~ a p.89 15 refer nunc Verginiam, Tt/er Luere' 
plum taitun Sabinae eunt. VM. vi 1 g 1 dux Romanae pudieitia. 
cretia. 394 vbroinii hor etary b. c. Mil is told byLiv. m44-Sl 

e. g. 44 g§ 1—3 an attempt on female honour the cause of the downfal of 
the deceroTirg as of ths kings. App. ClaudiUB was smitten with a pasBiou 
far the daughter of L. Yerginias, a man exemplary in peace and Max and 
in the govecnment of his home. He had betFothed bis danghtei 1 '' 
Icilias: haac virgintm adultam, forma eieellcntem Appini, a 
ameiu, prttio ac tpt pellitere adortai, poitjuam omnia pnaoro sai 
animadTerterat, ad cfudtUm euperbantqae viia animum convertit. 
J 7 after Verginiua had etabbed his dai^hter Iciliua Numitariiaqve 
extangue eorpui tublalum estentant popuioi Ktlii* Appii, poellae 
intelisem forman, titceiiitatan patrii deplorant, 50 3 8 Teigimoa 
sajs, pliant, quia not ullrapadiea vietura Juerit, 
tarn morUm oeeabuiae. DH xi 28—10 calls V. (28) ' fairest of all Boman 
maidens;' 36 V. hafore Appius in eordid attire mih dovncaet looks stUl 
'enchanted all men's eyes, bo snperhmnan a grace and charm we ~ ~*~ ' " * 
89 'pity (or the maiden who had snaered Semi aaX irtpi Stmi 
iruxi' KdWos.' Cf. 41. authorities tor Verginia's fate in BchweglM 
m 52 n. 2, Over and above its poetical and moral and bistoricol interast 
the etory is of importance as a case in the law of vindiciae in libertateta, 
and as ail eiample of the eatly betrothals (and mamages FriedloodeF fi 

407—7^1 customary in Borne Bchwegler 52 — 66. Oros. in 13 pivt pafr 
ricida. oibbum 30Q. vi 108—^9 mediiiqiie in naribia 

ingtju I gibbas: the word denotes any swelling or hump. 
295—7 nt'Dfl ooBPoma aoBiiaii iiisebos parknteb beupkb habi 
224 n. Tu 218 n. 238 n. Cio. p. Gael. % 6 quod obUHum fit da pudic 
tia, . . . id numquatH tam aeerbe ferel M. Cacliui, nt earn paenitei 
non deformem esse natum; sunt enim ista maledictu pervu 
gata in omnes, quorum in adnlesoentia forma el species tu 
Hbeialis. ^8. 9 quoad aetasM. Caelii dare potuit isti suapioioi 
locum, /uit jirtinuni ipaias pudore, deiade etiaia patris diligentia di 
ciplinaqae munita: qni uf kuic virilem togam dedil,.,.n^mo hune 1 
Catlima in illo aetatis floce vidit nisi ant cum patre ant meonm 
aut in M. Craasi castissima domo. gg 10. It Fihi. ep. i 
Jiliui dece»it eximia pnlchritudine, pari verecuudia. vi 
oonspicuns forma omnes sermones malignorum et j 
iuTenia evaait. [QuintU.] decl. 292. 297-8 B*Ki ' 


forma magna pndioitiae. Ot. amor, ni 4 41—3. f. n IGl. Petron. 91 . 
argnmentum est deformitatia pudieitia. 


SI 162—5. VelL II II g 1 C. Mari-ua . . . nolu* agreeU loca, hirtut atgut | 
horridus viiaqne aanctua. Flin. ep. iii 3 g 5 vir eit emendatia tt 1 
gravis, paulo etiam horridioi et duHor, ut in hoc Uetntia femporuDI. I 
More in Miihlmanu. 299 teieseb mnATA babinos I 

m 85. Ifig n. TI 163-^ i 
mente Babina. Ot. ami 


flasqne imitata Sabinas. lu 8 61. m. xiv 797. Cic. p. Ligar. § 32;. 
eomm. on Aen. Tin 638. Hor. c. in 6 38 — 44. epod. 2 39—41. ep. n 1 25. 
Golnm. I pr. § 19. Liv. i § 4 * the rugged and stem discipline of the 
ineient Sdbines, a race formerly surpassed in purity of manners by no 
other.' Strab. v p. 228. Sohwegler i 243 n. 1. As a hardy race they 
gave out that they were a colony of Sparta ib. 251 — 2; the resemblance 
of national character was often remarked. 


BNiu puEBo coNFEBBE POTEST PLUS? XI 154. DL. Yi § 54 Diogones the 

QpdOf seeing a boy blush, said, *take heart of grace : such is the colour of 

Tirtae.' Sen. ep. 11 § 1 verecundiami bonum in adulescente sifjnum. 

301 NATUBA II 139. XIV 321. XV 132. 303 cusTODE vn 218 n. 


758 noR U custodia caro \ arcet ab amplexut nee cauti cur a maritl, \ 
,. non vult natura potent ior omnibus istis, Cic. p. Bab. Post. 
§4 though he had never seen his father natura ipsa ducCy quae pluri- 
VMmvdletf . . . inpaterTiae vitae similitudinem deductus est. 304 vibo 
often used in a pregnant sense, of one who is a man indeed (Fabri on 
Li?, xxn 14 § 11), who has not forfeited or tarnished his mannood e. g. 
by mmatural compliances Bosenbaum Lustseuche 116 — 140. Meier in 
Eneh u. Gruber 3 sect, ix 149 — 189. Petron. 81 qu£m tamquam puellam 
conduxit etiam qui YiTTim. putavit. quid ille alter? qui. ..die togae vinlis 
tdgam sumpsit; qui ne vir esset, a matre persuasus est, qui opus 
maliebre in ergastulo fecit, Cic. in Clod. 1 § 6 p. 90 Beier was well con- 
tent with the verdict non videri virum venisse^ quo iste venisset, in the 
sense (schol.) that Clodius was no vir. Apul. physiogn. in Yal. Bose 
aneod. i 111 25 alijts stemutamento subito virum se non esse confesstis 
tit. M. Sen. contr. i pr. § 9 p. 49 quis aequdlium vestrorum, quid dicam 
^iHt ingeniosuSf satis studiosus, immo quis satis vir est? emolliti ener- 
vesque quod nati sunt inviti inanent, expugnatores alienae pudicitia^, 
negUgentes suae. Tac. xi 2. Suet. Vesp. 13. [Quintil.] decl. 3 § 3 nee 
pfidet accusatorem apud C. Marium .... obicere militi quod vir sit. 
DCass. Lxni 22 § 4 of Nero top dvdpa iKeivov, etye dvifp 6 Zir6pov 7eya- 
M^tb^, UuSayopif, yeyafirm^vos. See the lexx. 305 i^- 

ntoBiTAS efErontery iv 106 n. Munro on Lucr. in 1026 n. Caes. b. c. ii 31 
§4improbos ){ pudentes. Phaedr. i 22 9. iv 8 1. Luc. v 277 i. vota. 
Cort. V 130 (also vi 29. lustin. xxn 7 § 4) i. spes. VFl. vi 702 Burm. 
Preinsh. ind. Flor. Duker on Flor. in 10 § 17 i. classem. Sen. Med. 340 
of the Argo. Plin. ep. vn 30 § 5. temptabb Hor. c. in 

470 — 1 integrae | temptator Orion Dianae. 306 in mune- 

iiBUB FiDUCiA Stat. Th. V 167 of the doe in volucri tenuis fiducia eursu. 
Claud. belL Gild. 436 in solis longe fiducia telis (MUhlmann). 
307 8AEVA IN ABCE TYBANNUS a demagoguc, if allowed a body-guard, Thirl- 
waU i' 460 'with its aid made the first step to absolute power by seizing 
the citadel : an act which might be considered a formed assumption of 
the tyranny, and as declaring a resolution to maintain it by force.' 
Hence the familiar phrase arcem occupavit=^ assumed the tyranny ' For- 
tunatian. art. rhet. i 6 p. 86 4H. M. Sen. contr. 27 § 2 p. 267 1. Com- 
pare the enterprises of Eylon (Thuc. i 126 §§ 4—5 schol.), of Phalaris 
(Polyaen. v 1 § 1), of Peisistratos (Phaedr. i 2 5 arcem tyrannus 
occupat Pisi8tratus)j Dionysios the younger (Nep. 20 3 § 3 of Timoleon 
arcem Syracusis, quam munierat Dionysius ad urbem obsidendam, afun- 
damentis disiecit; cetera tyrannidis propugnacula devwlitus est, 
YM. VI 2 E § 2. lustin. xxi 2 §§ 9--10 velut iure regnareti&Taem occupat 



ageR principum ad Btaprni^ 
rapi laDsDBi, Tirgioea anie nupcias sMueebat atuprtit&aqnt 
procis reddebut. Polyaen. v S §§ S~l. Flut. Timol. 13 £g 3—1 e.g. 
Tqr ixp6ro\iv mil rd rvparnla. Vi |§ 1. 2), KlearcboB of HerokleU 
(luBtin, XVI 1 % 11). Hence ibe outer; Bgaiost Valerius Fublicula (Lit. 
u 7 §5 0—12. Serv. Aen. n ilO who eiplaiiiH regium enimfuit hafai. 
tara in aiclliuB propter lutelam. Schwegler ii 4y d. 4j, and Manlioa 
Capitoliuoa (b.c. 3B1 Lit. ti 19 S 1 the senate diecaasea <U lecftiam in 
domum privatani pUbU, forte ttiata in arcs poiitam, tt imtninentt nolc 
libertati. 20 g IS a law ncipiU patHciUf ia area nut Capitalio habitar^ 
Sobwegler m 258 n. 3. 360 □. 1. 387. 390. 299). Laci. t UOB— 9' cartderi 
coepenmt «rba araemotu tocare \ praesidium regea ipsi sibi per- 
luginmqne. Contrast LiT. iii 45 § 8 duos areas libertatia luendaf. 
VI 37 S IC. Pint. Cat. min. 33 § 3 (o[. Craaa. 14 g 2) when nijricnm an4 
Uaal, with lour legions, was assigned to Caeaar lor Ctb years, Cato 
warned hia coantryoieii that they were installing the tyrant in th« 
citadel by their own Totea. Geographers noted aueh strongholdB Plin. 
IT % 47 BUye an leftum Thrreiae. v g 50 Mempkii quondam arx ie. 
gypti rcgnm. lit § B3 Tibfri princtpii aroe nobilti Capreae. Plin. pam. 
47 g 4 maijtio quidem ani'mo parem turn [Necra] banc ante vo> principa 
arcemjiubJicarunt aedium nomine iiueripitrat, where the arx ia that at 
DomitiaQ. Iut. iv 145 n. cf. the definitiona of the grammeriona PalL ix 
% 40 rdx"' ^ 'T'i' (UpitaXir Kcd |9airI\Eiav or i-it ehm tei TOpanimr. Ascolu 
Uio. divin. in (Jaec. % 18 arx interdun ledei tyranni, I'ci rit regii, dieitur. 
In the rhetorical axercises on tyrannicide (Iut, 113 n.) the citadel con> 
tinuaUy oeeura QumtU. Tii4g 23. M. Sen. oontr. 27SS 1. 2. 17. [Qnintil.] ded. 
971 p. 629 Burm. homintm oMidert nan tieet, t;ratinnm lieet; e:^pugnart 
domamfaa non eit, arc em fxpagitabit optimal quaque. ib. SSBprtimu t;r 
rannna: . . . ocanpaTitfanumareem alter, ib. 267 pp. 503—4. 371p.S2a 
283tyraQnnaeumin ar Beta dvciiiueiiiet cuiuidamioTorem. 329 p. 869, 
846 p. 7-28. Calpom. decl. 13 fin. Laoian. tyrnnnic. 7 fin. B. 16. IB. et 
Stob. fl. XLii 8. 14. Luc, it 600 Cort. (and from him Freund b.t,). Sen. 
olem. 1 19 g 6. Tae. xti 31 Ern, £v 69, Prud, cath. 5 Sa arcis iuftttiUM 
ti-iite tyiannioao. Tcrtuli. apol. 4 Herald and Oehler fimpnyStemiiUa! 
iniqaam ei: arcs domiuatiouom, Folyb. in Snid. dKp6rti\is. geopon. xt 
2fiu, Strab. xyi p, 761 of the lewiah temple : 'they obserred a certeJJ) 
decorom with reapeet to their citadel, net detesting it as a slTongiijli 
of tyranny, dJ^ "' rvpawyiior pieXnTTOiiii'air, bnt esalting and reTBreo*. 
ring it as a aonctoary.' DChiys. 1 p, C5K a vcraiou of the 'Choice of 
Heraklea:' Hermee ehewa him a mountain with two peaks, Uie ona 
called 'tlie royal peaki' sacred to Mag Zons, the other Tvparyix^, "H""^ 
after Typhoa Themiat, 21 p. 256" Kaeaipirinr i^ draojriXtwi tJi. Tvpnmlla. 
Sopat. in Wa,]z ihet, t 160 1. 18. 161 a debate whether tyrannicide meuil 
1. 1 ' to expel £rom the eitadil' or !. G 'to mount the citadel, to fight with 
the guards, to slay a tyrant,' The word is often naed allegorically Phil, 
leg. alleg. ii 23 i p. 83 M if you do not mo^e war on the affectiona, 'gain- 
ing immunity and authority they will climb to tha titadti ofthttonl, 
and, in tyrant fashion, will atorm and ravage the aoul,' id. de agrio. 11 
I p. 307 'the tyrant and natural enemy of cities ia a man, of body and 
Eonl and of uU that eoncerns both, the most embrated mind, riir iupt' 
Tro\ir iriTtTfixiiiM ifi(nv-' ^^- Epict. it 1 J 86— 8 'how is the citadel 
OTerthrownT Not by aword, or by fire, bnt by rules of reaaon. For if W* 
have demolished that citadel whieh is in the city, shall we hare de- 
molished that of fever also? (hat of fair women? in a word, the citadel 


inthinus, and have we cast out our inward tyrants? , . . With this we 
mnst begin, hence we must demolish the citadel^ cast out the tyrants.^ 
ef. luY. 20 n, p. 72. castravit vi 366 — 378. Winer Real- 

wterb. Versehnittener. Rein Criminah.'' 422 — 4. Hdt. viii 106. Slaves 
(and a Nero regarded all mankind as his slaves) were treated as chattels, 
and mutilated with as little scruple as the inferior animals. Paulus Aegin. 
Ti 68 with Adams' n. ' the purpose of our art being to restore those parts 
Trhich are in a preternatural state to their natural, the operation of cas* 
tration professes just the reverse : but since we are sometimes compelled 
against our will [as Heliodorus was luv. vi 373] by persons of high rank 
to perform the operation^ we shall briefly describe the mode of doing it.' 
M. Sen. contr. 33 § 17 p. 322 28 principes . . . viri contra naturam 
divitias suae exercent; castratorum greges habent, exoletos 
8no8,ut ad longiorem patientiam inpudicitiae idonei sint, am- 
putant et, quiaipsos pudet viros esse, id agunt ut quam paucis- 
Bimi sint. his nemo succurrit delicatis et formosis debilihus. Fortuna- 
tian. art. rhet. i 15 p. 93 27 H the theme of a controversia Hyran- 
iddis tempore speciosum tilium pater amico commendavit.YOC&Yit ad 
86 patrem eius tyrannus et tormentis cxpressit, ubi esset 
filing: satellites misit ad amicum, amicus puerum occidit^ tyrannus 
fe cognita se necavit : amicum mater pueri caedis accusat; adest ei pater,* 
Wc enim dicit puerum maiore a se pudoris iniuria liberatum, a 
parallel to Verginia's death. Nep. 21 2 § 2 of the elder Dionysius id quod 
intyranno non facile reperitur, minime libidinosus. DCass. ux 
28 § 9 rd ye olK'^fiara [ = lupanaria] rd iv aircfi ry vaKaTiip diroSeix^^vTay 
jtolrAy yvPOUKas ras T(av wpdrup rovi re Tratdas roifs tQv ffefivoTdTUVf 
wj ii outA Kadl^tav v^pi^Vy iKKapirovfxcvo^ irr* avroii irdtfras AttXws ro^y 
phr ideXotfrdii roiJs Si Kal aKovras, 6ir(as firj koX Sutrxepa^^'ct" ri voixi(rd(2<n: 
Uli28§ 3 of Nero vaTda direXevdepov bv koI "Liropov Cjvofxa^ev^ iKrefiup, 
because of his likeness to Sabina. cf. lxiii 13 § 1. lxvii 2 § 3 Kaiirep Kcd 
moj 'Eap/i'oi; rivos evvovxov ipujVf o/xws, iTretdij Kal 6 T/roy l(rxvp(2s trepl 
"roiniKTOfilas icrirovddKei, dinfyopcvaev iirl iKeivov xJ^pcL /Ji7j8iva in iu ryrcSp 
'?ufudu)v dpxv ^KTifiveffSai. cf. Suet. Dom. 7. Stat. s. iv 3 13 — 5. 
Brisson. ant. iur. ii 21. Quintil. v 12 §§ 17 — 9. Protection was required 
eTenfrom the cradle Mart, ix 8 3. 6 — 8 iam cunae lenonis erant. . . 
I immatura dabant infandas corpora poenas. \ non tulit Ausonius talia 
monstra pater, \ idem qui teneris nuper succurrit ephebis, | ne faceret 
tteriles saeva libido viros. BCass. lxviii 2 § 4 Nerva repeats the prohibi- 
tion. Sen. fr. 34 in Aug. civ. D. vi 10 § 2 cruel self- mutilations of fana- 
tics, as the Galli; no tyrant ever so cruel, as false gods: taeterrimi et in 
fohulas traditae crudelitatis tyranni laceraverunt aliquorum membra^ 
neminem sua lacerare iussenmt. in regiae libidinis voluptatem cas- 
trati sunt quidam, sed nemo sibi^ ne vir esset, iubente domiiw manus 
intvUt. Philostr. soph, ii 4 § 3 a controversia of Antiochos of Aegae : a 
tyrant having abdicated on the score of weak health, a eunuch, made 
such by him, slew him and is accused of murder. The accusers rely 
on the compact under which the tyrant had abdicated; the assassin re- 
plies: * with whom did he make this agreement? with children, women, 
youths, old men, men; but I have no name in the treaty.' lo. Chrys. 
horn, 37=38 in Matth. p. 423^ rd ydp ywaiKas diacirdv Kal ^ratSas v^pi^civ 
^^ovt . , , Twy ras aKpoiroXeis KareLXtjipoTwu earl, 

308 PRABTEXTATUM I 78 n. RAPUIT 332. VII 168 u. 

hence our * rape,* * ravish. ' neko Suet. 28. 

LOBiPEDEM II 23 loripedem rectus derideat, Aethiopemalbus, 

juv. ih XI 

162 PEKILS OF BEAUTY. [X 308—314 

Plin. Y § 46 among the fabulous races of Africa himantopedes lori- 
pedes quidam quibut $erpendo ingredi natura est, 

309 8TBUM08UM Cic. in Yatin. § 4 Halm inflato collOf tttmidis cervicibus. 
ef. Gesner and ForceU. utebo used of mi^es, both 

man and beast, by Yerg. Lne. Plin. Cels. Therefore the ingenious oonj. 
of C. Yales. itero is needless. oibbo 294 n. 310 i nunc et 

166 n. Prop. iii=ii 29 22 i nunc et noctes disce manere domil Mart, 
spect. 23 6. I 42 6. VFl. m 169 *i nunc', ait, 'Herculis armisP Aen. rr 
631 i, verbis virtutem inlude superbisf Sidon. ep. i 3 pr. Sav. i nunc 
et . . . move, 310 — 1 iuvenis specie laetabe tui, queii 

Maioba exspectant niscBiMiNA 295 — 6 n. Capitolin. Maximin. 28 § 3 
infamabant eum ob nimiam pulchritudinem . . . maxime sena- 
tores, qui speciem illam velut diyinitus lapsam incorruptam 
esse noluerunt. Sen. cons, ad Marc. 24 § 3 adulescens rarissimae 
formae in tarn magna feminarum turba viros corrumpentium mUUus se 
spei praebuit, et cum quarumdam usque ad temptandum [Iuy. 305] perve- 
nisset inprobitas [luv. ib.], erubuit [luv. 301] quasi peccasset, quod 
placuerat. Tac. vi 49 Sex. Papinius committed suicide: causa ad ma- 
trem referebatur, quae pridem repudiata adsentationibus atque luxu per- 
pulisset iuTenem ad ea quorum effugium non nisi morte inveniret : the 
mother was banished for ten years, donee minor Jilius lubricum iuven- 
tae exiret. The adulterer in Lucian Peregr. 9, who, on entrance into 
manhood, is taken in the act of adultery, is beaten with many stripes, 
and at last escapes only by leaping from ihe roof ^a</>apUi r^v vvy^v ^e* 
fivcfievoiy is a paragon of beauty, nature's own handiwork, the ideal (jca- 
vihv) of Polykleitos. [Quintil.] decl. 18 argument * speciosum fdium, infa- 
mem, tamquam incestum cum matre committeret, pater in secreta parte 
domus torsit et occidit in tormentis.' §9 'speciosus,' inquit, *fuit.* 
non magis hoc f acinus in matre est, quam crimen in filio. 'speciosus 
fuit:* ut hoc obici possit, ut debeat, adice, et adulter, et raptor, in ilia 
matrona maritali dolore [Ivly, 315] paene percussus, in ilia virgine 
publica subclamatus invidia: quamquam haec quoque intra notes de< 
currunt iuventutis excursus. iuvenis xiv 23 n. 

311 maioba greater than those named 304 — 8; see 
816 — 7. 339 — 45. 311—2 adulteb publicus Hor. 

c. II 8 7 — 8 iuvenumque prodis \ publica cura. M. Sen. contr. 12 § 6 
p. 152 1 misitin domum nostram publicum puerum (i. e. not, as in the 
other exx. 'stale,' 'common to all bidders,' but 'everybody's and nobody's 
child'). Sen. ep. 88 § 37 among idle school questions, an Sappho pub- 
lica fuerit. cf. Lys. de caede Erat. § 16 p. 93 he has corrupted not only 
your wife, but many others, Ta&rriv ydp t^x^V^ ^X^** Anaxandrid. in 
Stob. fl. Lxviii 1 dXX' iXapep (hpalav tis' oihkv ylyuerai \ fiaWSv ri 
rov y/jixavTos ^ rCav ycirbvuv. 312 — 3 MABITI 

exigebe ibatist ['possibly the original reading: when the st, as so often 
happened, was omitted, then debet or debent would be a natural addition, 
and P would omit exigere for the metre.' H.A. J.M.] P has mariti irati 
debet, Eigault and Jahn maritis iratis d., many MSS. mariti exigere irati 
debent, which exhibits the progress of interpolation. The exigit autem 
of 314 refers to our exigere. ibati Paul. sent, ii 26 § 7 inventa 

in adulterio. uxore maritus ita demum adulterum iratus occidere 
potest, si eum domi suae deprehendat. 313— -4 nec 


eius astrum felicius etc. 247 n. 'nor will he be more fortunate than Mars, 
.whom Yulcftn ensnared in the arms of his wife Venus.' The story was 


snug by Demodokos the minstrel at the court of Alkiuoos Horn. Od. vui 
266--369; esp. the comments of the gods 329. 332 ovk i^p^rq. KaKoL (pya... 
rh Kol fioixdypi* dipiXKeu In Horn. U. y 363 Ares gives Aphrodite his cha- 
riot; complains to Zeus (ib. 883) on her behalf against Diomedes; she 
tftkea >iiTn by the hand (xxi 416), when he is wounded by Athene. In 
Hes. theog. 939 cl. 945 they are man and wife. cf. VFl. n 20.8 Mavortia 
eomux. Stat. s. i 2 63. schol. Aristoph. av. 835. Ov. a. a. 11 661 — 590 
fabrUa narratur toto notissima caelo, | Mulcibcris capti Marsque 
Yennsque dolis, etc. 578 disponit laqueos. 580 ivipliciti laqueis. 
id. amor, i 9 39—40. tr. 11 377—8. m. iv 171—189 adulterium Vene- 
ris cum Marte. cf. luv. vi 69. xvi 5. comm. on Hyg. f. 148. Fulgent, 
myth. II 10. VFl. 11 98—100. Verg. g. iv 345—6. Stat. s. i 2 59—60. 
Th. m 273—6. vii 62. Philostr. Ap. vn 26 § 6. Nonn. v 578-585. 
Wemsdorf-Lemaire p. 1. m. iii 324—343 (or anth. lat. 253 R) Reposiani 
concubitus Martis et Veneris e.g. 143 — 6 criminis exemplum si iam de 
namne habemus, \ quid speret mortalis amor ? quo vota ferenda ? \ quod 
numenposcatf quo $it securus adulter? I Cypris amat, nee tuta tamen. anth. 
ib. 202. 272. 749. Nikolaos in Walz rhet. gr. i 384 speech of Zeus on 
seeing Ares dca-fjuJ^Tris, In art Ares and Aphrodite are often grouped 
together, as on the chest of Kypselos Paus. v 18 § 5. cf. Xen. Ephes. i 8. 
The scene was represented on the stage Cypr. ad Donat. 8 p. 10 17 exprl- 
muntinpudicam Venerem, adulterum Martem. Arnob. iv 25 *who 
has related that Mars dnm genialibus insultat alienis, haesisse z» laqueis 
involutum ? non commentarii vestri, non seaenae V esp. Lucian de salt. 63 
where a dancer acts in dumb show each character in turn. Claud. Magnes 
22—39 a description of a Venus of loadstone attracting a Mars of iron. 
The comic and satirical writers did not overlook so obvious a subject of 
banter Lucian deor. dial. 12 § 2. 15 § 3. 17. 20 § 2. gallus 3. philopatr. 
6—7; see generally on the adulteries of the gods id. Prom. 16 — 7. 
necyom. 3. Philosophers from very early times took exception to the 
gross anthropomorphism of such teaching 0. g. Xenophanes fr. 7 
Homer and Hesiod ascribed to the gods all lawless deeds which arc 
among men a shame and reproach, KXiirretv fioix^^^'-^ '''^ '^'oi dXXrjXovi 
irareijety. Plat. Rep. iii 390° expressly condemns, as injurious to 
morals, the hearing "Apeds re Kal ^ k<f>poUTri% iirb 'Ufpalarov de<r/Ji6p. Ari- 
fitot. poL II 9 1269*^ 28 sees in the legend an allegory of the chivalrous 
gallantry of warlike races: cf. Plut. Pelopid. 19 § 2 Harmonia rightly 
called child of Ares and Aphrodite, for states live in concord when strength 
is wedded to sweetness. [Plut.] vit. Hom. 101—2 gives a physical inter- 
pretation: Aphrodite is the 4>iXla 'attraction,' Ares the veiKos 'repulsion,' 
of Empedokles; HeHos detects them, Hephaestos binds them, Poseidon 
looses them; i.e. the warm, dry element, and its opposite, the cold and 
moist, by turns combine and dissolve all things. Harmonia is their 
daughter, for a due combination of high and low notes produces harmony. 
Athen. i. p. 14° (cf. schol. and Eust. Hom. Od. viii 267) regards De- 
modokos as curing the voluptuous Phaeakians by a homoeopathic remedy. 
Many other attempts to escape the difficulty in Eust. and schol. ib. 266— 
369. The most tasteless of all makes of the loves of Ares and Aphro- 
dite a conjunction of their planets [Lucian] de astrol. 22. The Christian 
fathers follow in the steps of the philosophers, [lust, mart.] or. ad 
gent. 3 *Let Hephaestos put aioay jealousy ^ and not be envious because, 
elderly as he was and lame, he had been hated, and Ares^ as young and 
fair, loved. ^ id. de monarch. 6 calls Ares and Aphrodite roin riji 
fioix^lat dpxvyo^^- Tatian apol. 34. Athenag. 21 bids Holder 'bo 


1 64 


silent,* aO d4 fioi . . . rifv fioix^^o-^ airrov ^U^ei koI rd Hefffid. Clem. Al. 
protrept. 2 § 33. Firm. Matern. 9. 13. Minuc. Fel. Oct. 23 § 7. Amob. 
V 41. Lact. epit. 8. inst. i 10. Aug. de util. ieinn. § 9 Yulcanns 
et Mars inimici sunt, et iustam causam habet Vulcanus .... odit enim 
miser uxoris adulterium ; nee tamen audet cultores suos a Martis templo 
prohibere .... Eunt de templo Martis ad templum Vulcani : magna indig- 
nitas I nee tamen ne sibi irascatur maritus, quod ad eum venitur de templo 
Martis adulteri. hahent cor, sciuntlapidem sentire.non posse, id. civ. 
D. Ill 3. Greg. Naz. or. 4 116. 5 32. Athanas. or. c. Graec. 12 i p. 13 
Ben. Prud. perist. 10 183 — 5 of the pagan heaven incesta fervent; furta 
moeolwrum calent; \fallit maritus, odit uxor paelicem, | deos catenae 
conligant adulteros. cf. 212 — 3. ut in laqueos 

NUMQUAM iNCLDAT Yulcat. Avid. Cass. 2 ipse sponte . . . fatales laqneos 


dolor is technical in this use Aen. ix 137. Ov. m. i 736—7 luppiter to 
luno numquam tibi causa doloris | haec erit. Phaedr. in 10 16. 28. 
[Quintil.] decl. 277 p. 535 Burm. hoc ius scriptum est mariti dolori, i.e. 
p. 536 adultera dimissa non redit in manum mariti. nee hoe tantum 
in lege est, ut adulterae supplicium differri nonpossit: sed illud etiam, ut 
non tantum adulterae pereant. nam lex, cum occidere mihi adult e- 
rum cum adultera permittat, manifeste illud ostendit, non posse 
eos diversis temporibus occidi. ib. 279 p. 542 of a boy husband puto non- 
dum habebat mariti dolorem. ad vulnera adulteri et caedem et 
tristissimum occidendi hominis ministerium, magno quodam 
impetu et, ut sic dixerim, furore opus est. ib. 18 § 9 (ver. 310 n.). Paul, 
sent. II 26 § 5 maritum, qui uxorem deprehensam cum adultero 
occidit, quia hoc impatientia inati doloris admisit, lenius puniri plactiit. 
dig. XXIX 5 3 § 3 if the husband, having taken his wife in adultery, slay 
her, because he is forgiven, we must say that the slaves not of the hus- 
band only, but of the wife, must be set free, si iustum dolorem ex- 
sequenti domino non restitenmt. ib. xlviii 5 2 § 8 the husband to be pre- 
ferred to the father of the guilty wife as accuser: nam et propensiore 
ira et maiore dolore executurum eum accusationem credendum est. ib. 
39 = 38 § 8 bis. cod. ix 9 § 4 si legis auctoritate cessante inconsulto dolore 
adulterum interemit, quamvis homicidium perpetratum sit, tamen, quia et 
nox et dolor iustus factum eius relevat, potest in exilium dari. ib. 15 
vindictam . . ., quam maritali dolore percussus rcposcis. ib. 30=29 
verus dolor, anth. lat. 253 R 160 of Vulcan vix sufficit ira dolori. 
164 — 6 multum dolor addidit arti. \ quam cito cuncta gerunt ars numen 
Jlamma maritus \ ira dolor! 315 — 6 plus quam lex 

ULLA DOLORI CONCESSIT Hor. 8. II 7 46 — 71. In Athens (and according to 
Lys. de caede Eratosth. § 2 cl. Xen. Hier. 3 § 3 in other Greek states) 
the man who detected another in unlawful commerce with his wife, 
mother, sister, daughter, concubine, might avenge himself (Lys. ib. §§ 25 
—34. Dem. in Aristocr. §§ 53—6 p. 637. Polyb. ii 56 § 16. Plut. Sol. 23 
§ 2. Pans. IX 36 § 8) by slaying the offender. Sometimes the adulterer 
was fettered until he gave security for the payment of a fine ; he might 
bring an action for unjust detention, dSiKui clpxOrjvaL aJy ixoix^v, but if 
he lost it, his adversary was allowed to take vengeance upon him at his 
pleasure, only dv€v iyxeipiSiov (Dem. inNeaer. § 66 p. 1367). Such vengeance 
sometimes took the form of TapanXfidi and pa<pavLd(>}a is (correspond- 
ing to the Roman vengeance with the mugilis, and intended no doubt to 
brand the culprit as a pathic Aristoph. nub. 1083 cf. Ael. v. h. xii 12. 


Hor. 8. I 2 45, see schol. and comm. on Aristoph. Plut. 168. ran. 51C. 
Lysistr. 89. 151. eccles. 724. Lucian. Peregr. 9. Suid. fxoix^s ad fin. irapa- 
TlXXercu. <S AaKiddai. Kuster ib. ^a4>avis. comm. on Hesych. AaKiddat. 
iM^iduOijvai, ffTeiXiay. paroem. gr. i 467 L. Taylor lect. Lys. xi pp. 301 
—8. Meier ru Schomann att. Proc. 327—332. Becker Charikl. iii« 320—6. 
Fanly i' 194 — 5. The sanctity of Roman marriage was guarded in the 
earliest times by the patria potestas; the husband who surprised his 
wife in the act of adultery, might slay her on the spot (Cat. in Gell. x 23 
8 5), and kill (Calp. Flacc. decl. 11. schol. Cruq. Hor. s. i 7 61. Sen. de ira 
i21§''3 sub gladium mariti venit uxor morte contempta, ex. of libido 
mgiii animi)f flog or mutilate (Plant. Cure. 25 — 38. mil. 1395 — 1426. 
Poen. I? 2 40. Ter. eun. 957. Mart. 11 60. 83. in 85. 92. cf. Deiphobus in 
Aen. Ti 494 — 501. the threats of Progne in Ov. m. vi 612 — 8) the para- 
mour. If the father or husband killed one of the guilty parties, he was 
required to kill both schoL Cruq. Hor. s. 11 7 61. M. Sen. contr. 4 p. 83. 
24 p. 243. Quintil. v 10 § 104. vii 1 §§ 6—8. decl. 284. 291. 335. 347. 
379. In order to check the growing laxity of manners (Hor. c. iii 6 17 
--32) Augustus ordained the lex lulia de adulteriis coercendis b.c. 17 
Hor. c. IV 5 21—4. Ov. f. 11 139 : Plut. apophth. Aug. 9 p. 207. luv. n 37. 
Brisson ad leg. Jul. in op. min. ed. TrekeU 178 — 220. dig. xlviii 5. cod. 
Theod. IX 7. cod. ix 9. inst. iv 18. Paul. 11 26. coUat. iv. The guilty wife 
forfeited half her do8 and a third of her estate ; marriage with her was 
coonted lenocinium; the adulterer forfeited half his estate; the two were 
relegated to different islands Paul. ib. § 14. Tac. an. 11 85. Plin. ep. vi 31 
§§4—6. Private revenge was restricted: the father, adoptive or natu- 
ral, might kill the daughter still under patria potestas, or given by him 
inmanum viri, in his own or his son-in-law's house ; but he must be called 
in by the son-in-law, and kill at once (in continenti, prope uno ietu) both 
the criminals Quintil. in 11 § 7. v 10 § 104. oollat. iv 2 §§ 2—6. cc. 8. 9. 
12 §§1—2. Paul. ib. §§ 1—2. dig. ib. 21—24 ( = 20—23). 33 = 32. The 
hnsband was no longer allowed to kill the wife at all, nor the adulterer 
luiless he were a freedman, slave, gladiator or bestiarius, pandar, actor, 
stage-dancer or singer, who had been condemned in a public trial collat. 
IV 3. 10. 12. Paul. ib. §§ 4—7. dig. ib. 23 = 22 § 4. 25 = 24. 39 = 38 § 9. 
43=42. cod. rx 9 4. See Rein Criminalr. 835 — 856, who gives all the 
known exx. of trials for adultery, id. in Pauly i* 196 — 7. Rudorff rom. 
Kechtsgesch. i 87 — 9. Quintil. in 6 §§ 17. 27 case in which what may 
legally be done in one way is charged to have been in another: adulter 
loris G&eBxiBvel fame necatus. cf . § 52. v 10 § 39 occidisti adul- 
teram, quod lex permittit; sed quia in lupanarij caedes est, vn 1 §§ 7 
—8. Fortunatian. i 6 in rbet. lat. p. 85 24 H. ib. 9 p. 88 1. 11. 
316—7 BECAT iLLE CBUENTis YERBERiBus Hor. s. I 2 37 — 46 audirc est 
operae pretiuniy procedere recte \ fwi moechos non vultis, ut omni parte 
laborentj \ utque illis multo corrupta dolore voluntas \ atque haec rara 
cadatdvLiA inter saepe pericla. { hie se praecipitem tecto dedit: ille 
flagellis I ad mortem caesus: .... quin etiam illud \ accidit, ut 
cuidam te»tig caudamque sala^cm | demeterent ferro. iure omnes: 
Galba negabat. Ascon. vit. Sail. ap. i cron. ib. 41 says that Hor. alludes 
to Sallust, who, when detected by Milo in adultery with his wife Fausta, 
Sulla's daughter, was by him caesus fiagellis. cf. Varr. in Gell. xvii 18. 
VM. TI 1 § 13 tit eo8 quoquCf qui in vindicanda pudicitia dolore sua pro 
publica lege usi sunt^ strictim percurraniy Sempronius Musca C. Gellium 
deprehenaum in adulterio flagellis cecidit, C Memmiut L. Octavium 
timiliter deprehensum pernis contuditf Carbo Attienu* a Vibienot item 



e fcBndi : 

it. Qointi]. V 10 S 8 


dere. 317 otiosDui uoecbos et ucoilib intbat Bafaol.. 

' a fiBh vith largo bead, tapering ofF to tlie tail, giii in podleem, motckiy- 
rum dtprehemorum lalibat iiimitH.' Cittull.'lS 15 — 19. A seorpion vaa 
emplojed for the same purpoeo Hal, Bom, in Ath. p, 5^ Cas&nK 
The tmi^ilit (m. cepholus Liiiu. tcmpcis Bonitz ind. AriBtot, Athen, 30fi* 
—308^ -with Schweigh. n. iv 285. Cnyier hist, des poiasons, Par. 18S6, IT 
19 cited b; Siobald) was choBon from its ivcdge-liko fona (Ath, 3OT^0^i|vJa^. , 
Wlelftw allowed personal vengemice dig. iLVia 6 23^32 g 3 qui mmidtre 
potaC aduttenim, tnutlo magU toaiataeMe. poterit iitri arfi!crre. cE. Talol:* 
on Ear. Hipp, 415, Lips. exc. on lac. an. it 42. On the fona Kea 
Phocoa u 5 p. 414 20 £ kid pusil hia mngil; ted luvtnalii hlc niiigilLa' 
notninatioum dixit. 318 u^o "^^ Astn-tEH reenming tha 

I j!ef adiiUer of 311 : to igitur, vcrum, verumtatiien, are used Zumpt g 739. 

' Sot. a. il27Heind. sedtamcD. tuhb ehddkion 7011c 

blooming son cf. 1 Gin. v litO Acaeai. ApnI. m, i 12 his tit , . . eana 
Endjmion, kic calainitui dutus. Endjmion ia a patronymio from 
bSviiot, and that fiom ivSia; i.e. according to Eome, Endymion is % per- 
Eonifioation uf Bloep, and the name denotes the Btealth; apprwiehes oT 
■Inmber; according to Welckor Giitterl. i 557 — 9 it denotes the vitit of 
the goddess, her entrance into Endymion'a cavern; the lingering of hue 
rays on the grey rocks of Lntmoe, as it stauds Ont in sharp oatline against 
the blue sliy, become in tbe Icgcnil the pnrlinii Idsa vith vbich sbe i«- 

Inctantly tears herself fconj her Endjmion, The image of ihe setting 
moon, vhen Selene was changed into the soy Artemis, became a hand- 
some hnnteman Testuig in the cavern, or a ehephard of the hills. Bo 
%cho is Tiuddcd to a goddess cannat live, and ao Endymion sleeps in^ 
Lis adyton on mt, Latroos in Koria (Pans, y 1 f 4 = 5) a sleep tho^ 
knows no ivBiing (Welckcr), The Eleians also laid claim to Endymion- 
and ehewed his tomb (Faua. ih.), as did the Karinns in a eave near tbo. 
liver Letmoa Strab. p. 636. Hea. a. v. Sleep appears by his side in jnaDJ 
esrcophagi and pictures (described by 0. John archiioL Beitr. 61— 
73; e.g. the weU-inown bos.relief in the capitol). NiOfe on Valer. Cat» 
165 — Q has collected the jcBts to which the etory gave rise. Pint. Nsm. 4 
I 3 has Boms interesting remarks on legends like this, comparing that ol. 
Egeria etc. John Fletcher the faithfnl shepherdess 1 3 (11 SB — 9 Dyce) 
tells the 'tftle of love' well: 'how the pale Phoebe, hunting in a grove, 1 
first saw tbe boy Endjmion, from whose eyes | she took eternal fire that 
never dies ; | how she convey'd him softly in a sleep, { his temples bonnd 
with poppy, to the steep { head of old Latmos, where she atoopa each, 
night, I gilding the monntaiii with her brother's light, | to 1i1b» her sweet- 
est.' See Theokr. iii 49 Bohol. is 37. ApollBd, I 7 6. BohoL Apollon. IT 
67. Catnll, es 6-6. Prop. in = ii 16 15—6. Cic. Tnso. 1 g 92. Ov. tr. n 
299. a. a. m 83. her, 17 63 — 4. amor, i 13 43—4 anpice, giiot iomno» ia- 
veni donarit amato \ Luna, neque illins forma seonnda taae. Iincian 
deor. dial. si. Quint. Smym. k 128—187. Hyg f. 271- Serv, g. m 391, 
Nonn, ind. ed. KSchly. Claud, nupt. Hon. 114 — B. Eationaiistic eKjda- 
natlona in Flin. 11 § 43 of the moon's changes quae liiigula in ea di^f- 
hmdit Jiomimim prim-ut Endjmion, ub id araore eitu captiu fama tra- 
ditus. Fulgent, myth. 11 19, 319 com deoekit eatnLik 

:os VI 355— .165. 320 ilmcs Sorviline, 

321-326] mPPOLYTUS AND PHAEDRA, 167 

321—3 I^v. lashes tlie follies, vices and crimes of women i 22 — 3. 37 — 
a. 56—7. C9— 72. n 68—9. m 46. yi. yni 128—130. x 220. 223— i. 
n 186—9. XIII 191—2. xiv 26—30. 322 oppia 

220. CATULLA u 49. Mart, yiii 63. 

323 BETSBIOB Mart, n 34 6 o mater, qua nee Pontia deterior. 

TOTOS HABET iiiLic FEMiNA MOSES ad Keren. ly § 23 maioret 
noitrij si quam unius peccati mulierem damnabant, simplici iudicio 
multorum maleficiorum convictam putahant. 'quopactoV quoniam, 
qnam impndicam iudicarant, ea veneficii quoque damnata exUtima- 
iatur . . . viros ad unum quodque maleficium singulae cupiditates impel- 
hni: mulieres ad omnia maleficia cupiditas una ducit. DH. 
n25. Quintil. V 11 § 39. M. Sen. contr. 18 § 6 p. 206 12. Tac. an. iv 
3 Mquefemina amissa pudicitia alia abnuerit. Mart, xi 104 16. 

324 CASTO QUID FOBMA NOCET? Ov. m. II 672 forma mihi nocnit. 

QUID PBOFUiT ib. 689 qnid tamen hoc prodest? 

325 HIPPOLYTO . BELLEROPHONTi the Joscph, as Ph. and Sth. are the 
Potiphar's wife, of Greece, paroem. gr. i 267 Leutsch ^IititoXvtov fiifii^- 
coiuLif ivl T(av (TUippoveiy ^ovKofiivuiv, ib. 20 n. ii 76 n. and on £. ib. i 64. 
II 751. of. Tones (Bayle s. y. Muret. v. 1. 1 12). Serv. Aen. iii 209 Phineus 
... Cleobulam . . . habuit uxorem et ex ea duos filios, quibus snper- 
indnxit noYercam; qnos noYerca ad patrem tamquam stupri 
adfectatores detulit : ob quam rem eos Phineus caecaYit. Apul. 
X2--12. HIPPOLYTO Ov. f. V 309 — 310 Hippolyte infelix, velles 
coluisse Dionen, \ cum constematis dlripereris equis. Mart, viii 46 2. 
Auson. id. 15 24 — 6 pudicum [perdidit Hippolytum non felix 
cura pudoris. cf. Hofman lex. Pauly s. v. Virbius. In tragedy Sopho- 
kles treated the subject in his Phaedra (fr. 600 — 20 Dind.) wluch Welcker 
identifies with his Theseus fr. 333 a. 333 b. The Hipp, of Eurip., 
which won the prize B.C. 428, and is therefore called arctpavlas, )( tho 
lost 'I. KaXvTrrdfieyos (Poll, ix 60. schol. Theokr. ii 10) *the veiled H.', 
in which Phaedra had unblushingly declared her passion, and which 
failed to gain the prize; it is this first Phaedra (for so it is often called) 
that drew forth the wrath of Aristoph. thesm. 163. 497. 646—660. ran. 
W9— 60. 1043 — 52 where Ph. is coupled with Stheneboea, as corrupting 
the morals of the spectators, cf . Bode hell. Dichtk. iii 1 482 ; see the 
fragments 431 — 50 Dind. In the existing play the two goddesses, Arte- 
mis and Aphrodite, are as deeply interested as the human actors ; the 
choice of Hippolytos between the two is well compared by Welcker (kl. 
Schriften n 472 — 4) to the * Choice of Hercules' luv. 361 n. See on 
both plays Welcker gr. Trag. 736 — 49. Sen. Hippolytus (or Phaedra). 
Ot. m. XY 497 seq. Pans, i 22 § 1 his tomb was shewn at Athens ; a 
corse was said to have occasioned his death ; no barbarian who has but 
learnt the Greek language is ignorant of Phaedra's passion, and her 
nurse's bold attempt to gratify her. § 2 a tomb of H. is also at Troezcn; 
where is a myrtle, with the leaves perforated, not by nature,^ but by 
Phaedra with her hair-pin in an access of passion, ii 31 § 6=4 Pausa- 
nias saw at Troezen a temple of Artemis built by H. ib. 32 § 10 and also 
the tree in which the reins were entangled, when H. was thrown out of 
his car. ib. § 1 virgins before marriage offered their hair to H., whose 
tomb was known, but not exhibited ; the Troezenians would not admit 
that he had been torn asunder by horses, but identified him with the 
constellation auriga, § 3 stadium of H. and the temple of Aphrodite 
the watcher (xarao-icoir/a) above, on the spot where Ph. used to watch the 
athletic feats of Hipp. cf. ix 16 § 4. 


OBAVE pBOPosiTUU 866 Phoedra's threat Enr. Hipp. 730 — 1 rrjt voaw Zk 
TBffbi iioi I Kou^i itjETOffx^ Ciatf^povitp fULOrjaerai. 994 — 9. 1002 — 8 
(passages of an Orphic cast), ib. 102 &yp6i. 79—87. 102—113. U54. 

1354 ^9 69* 6 ffe/JiPot iyCi> Kcd Oeoa^Toip SS* 6 <na4>po<Tvpji trdirras inrep' 

^X^ I ■'POVJrroi' it 'AiSriP arelx^'i larA 7175 Skicat ^iorov, | /a 6x^01; f 5' cfX- 
>wf r^f tvffepias \ tit dvdpuTovs iw6pri<ra. Sen. Hipp. 229 — 32. 

286. 483 579. bellebophonti accused by 

Sth. (in Horn. Anteia) wife of his host Proetus II. vi 150 — 211. 
Soph, treated the subject in his lobates, Eur. in his Sth. Hor. c. 
in 7 13 ut Proetum mulier perfida credulum \ falsU impulerit criminibns 
nimis | casto Bellerophonti | matnrare necem refert. The 'la- 
bours' of Bellerophon (Chimaera, Solymi, Amazons) are nearly as 
famous as those of Hercules Pauly i' 2338. 

326 NEMPE 110 n. HAC Haupt conj. Jahn' 

haec P «. Hafc would grammatically refer to Sth., but ver. 327 requires 
that it should denote Phaedra. [Markland * haec ex hac voce videtur 
paiere excidisse aliquid, in quo nomen Phaedrae positum fuerit: alitor 
enim nemo scire potest vocem haec ad Phaedram referri, ut debet.*] hac 
repulia {BO us, Haupt. Jahn^. repulso VS) = castaeformae repulsa, the chaste 
beauty of H. and B. was a rebuff to Ph. and Sth. Stheneboea is subject 
to enibuit. Kiaer cites iv 60—1. vi 248—60. vii 20—1. 63—5. x 41—2. 
387 — 8. CEU not used (Eibbeck) for the explicative ut, 

but lightly (in comparison) as ti 573. tii 237. ix 2. x 231. tamquam 
really is often used as Hibbeck takes ceu here sat. ni 222 n. add Tac. xvi 8 pr. 
Silanum increpuit, tamquam disponeret imperii euros, Plin. ep. it 22 
1 2. Eutr. 1 13 (12). cf. Tursellinus c. 261. Drager synt. Tac. p. 69. So 
qwui Plin. ep. 1 16 § 5 and often in Gellius. Kiaer (who strangely takes 
repuUa as partic, and omits haec altogether) rightly interprets * as if she 
had been slighted/ which she had not been, though Bibbeck says * das 
erlittene /{Mtidiuwi ... ein sehr reelles ist.* It was not from disrespect 
that Hipp, turned a deaf ear to Phaedra's suit. She who had done the 
wrong, is indignant as if she had suffered wrong: he must sin to 

S lease her, or he affronts her. She treats incest as a compliment 
ue to her, its refusal as scorn and disdain. An exact parallel in 
III 278 — 301, where the drunken buck summons the man whom he 
has assaulted. 327 cbessa Phaedra, daughter of 

Hinos, king of Erete. See Racine. Sen. Hipp. 85 — 91. 113 — 128 
Phaedra traces in her passion the inheritance of her mother Pasiphae, 
e.g. 127 — 8 nulla Minois levi \ defuncta amore est.iungitur semper nef as. 
cf. 143 — 52. 170. 176 — 7 natura totiens legihus cedet suis, \ quotiens 
amabit Cressa? 688—93. Pasiphae is named Eur. Hipp. 358 cf. 716. 
Ov. her. iv 63. m. xv 600. excanduit excan- 

desco does not, as Bibbeck thinks, mean 'erblassen.' see lexx. 'Her 
pride, fired at the cold refusal — bums.' 

328 SE coNcussEBE Flor. I 35 = 111 1 pr. non leviter se Kumidia con- 
cussit. MULiEB etc. 321 n. 

329 Aen. V 5 6 duri magna sed amore dolores \ pollutOf notumque 
furens quid femina possit. stimulos Luc. ii 
234 irarum movit stimulos. Cic. p. Sest. § 12 quos stimulos admo- 
verit homini. id. Tusc. iii § 35. 

330 suADENDUM thcmc of a suasoria 1 16 n. 
cui ei, cui. nubebe 338. caesabis uxob 338. 

VI 115 — 136 respice rivales divorum, Claudius audi \ quae tulerit. dor- 
mire virum cum senserat uxor etc. The marriage of (Sen. ai)ocol. 13 § 4) 


ij, Silins consul designatusynih. Messalina and their deaths a.d. 47 in Tac. 

n 12 novo et furori proximo amove dUtinebatur. nam in C Silinm, iu- 
yentntisBomanae jpnloheTiimmn^ita exanerat, utjuniam Silanam, 
noibUem feminam matrimxynio eiiu exturbaret vacuoque adultero poteretur. 
neque Silius Jtagitii aut periculi nescius erat: sed certo, si abnueret 
exitio et nonnulla fallendi spe, simul magnis praemiis, opperiri futura et 
praaentibus frui pro solacio hahebat. ilia nonfurtim, sed multo comitatu 
verUitare domum, egressibus adhaerescere^ largiri opes, honores, postremo^ 
Telnt translata iam fortuna servi liberti paratus principis 
apud adulterum visebantur. ib. 26 a.d. 48 iam Messalina ... ad 
ineognitM libidines projluebat, cum abrumpi dissimulationem etiam Silius, 
five fatali vaecordia an imminentinm periculorum remedium 
ipsa pericula ratns, urguebat: quippe non eo ventum ut senectam 
T^neipis opperirentur ... segniter hac voces acceptae ... nomen tamen 
matrimonii concnpivit ob magnitudinem infamiae ... cuncta 
DQptiarum soUemnia celebrat. sat. xiv 329-~31. DCass. lx 31. 
Other paramours of Mess. Plautius Lateranus Tac. xiii 11 ; the handsome 
actor Mnester ib. 28. 36 (he protests aliis largitione aut spei magnitudine, 
sibi ex necessitate culpam. DCass. lx 22 §§ 3 — 5 Claudius, at her 
bidding, ordered Mnester to do whateyer she required of him ; this was 
her frequent practice. 28 §§ 3 4. 31 § 6), Polybius (ib. § 2). 

331 opTiMUS the one example in luv. of the 2nd foot contained in 
one dactylic word L. Miiller de re metr. 216. It is found in Catullus, 
Cato, Verg. Prop, and oftener in Hor. On the character of Silius DCass. 
U31 § 7 &»^p dyaSos ivofii^ero, fobmosissimus 

Tac. XI 28 iuvenem nobilem dignitate formae, vi mentis ac propinquo 
consulatu maiorem ad spem accingi. cf. ib. 36 Traulus Montanus, a knight, 
nodesta inventa, sed corpore insigni, accitus ultro noctemque intra 
ttnam a Messalina proturbatus erat, paribus lasciviis ad cupidinem et 

332 OENTis PATRiciAE Schwcgler III 104 n. 3 "Liv. x 8 § 9 semper ista 
a^ita iunt , , . , vos solos gentem habere, Heiice we find for *pa- 
tridan' not unfrequently vir patriciae gentis (iii 27 § 1. 33 § 9. vi 
11 § 2. Yii 39 § 12), a mode of expression never used of a plebeian. And 
for 'patrician order' jpafWciae gentes (x 15 § 9. Gell. x 20 § 5. xvii 21 
I ^1) J hut neYei plebeiae gentes," The father of S. was distinguished 
by victories over the Gauls and Belgae (Tac. iii 42 — 3. 45—6. iv 18), 
but the Silii were plebeians. 

BAPiTUR Heinsius on Ov. m. iv 694. 

333 HEssAiiiNAE but Messalla [Lachmann Lncr. i 313. J. E. S.] 

334 HaAmmeolo perhaps dwa^ Xtybixtvov 11 117 — 24 quadringenta dedit 
Gracchus sestertia dotem | . . . . segmenta et longos habitus et flam- 
^ea «MTOit. VI 225 schol. permutatque domos et flammea conterit, 
Tac. XV 33 of Nero a. d. 64 nihil Jlagitii reliquerat quo corruptior ageret, 
l^wi . . . . uni ex illo contaminatorum grege {nomen Pythagorae fuit) 
ia modum sollemnium coniugiorum denupsisset. inditum 
^^peratori flammeum, dos et genialis torus et faces nuptiales. 
Suet. Ner. 28. Plin. xxi § 46 lutei video honorem antiquissimum, in 
^'iptialibus flammeis totum feminis concessum, Luc. 11 360 — 1 
^^ timidum nuptae leviter tectura pudorem \ lute a demissos velarunt 
nam me a vultus. Mart, xi 78 3. xii 42 2 — 5 hac qua lege viro nubere 
^^fgo solet, [praeluxere faces, velarunt flammea vultus. \ ... dos etiam 
^^fta est, Petron. 26. Claud, cons. Hon. et Mar. 285. Tert. de yirg. 
"Vol 11 p. m. etiam apud ethnicos velatae ad virum ducuniur, Martian. 



Citp. i 114. BosBbaoh die Mm. Ehe (StnttR. 1853) BTG. Hoiquudt -r 
(1) 16 the veil reaches bulov the kuce^. Bich. cf. divntXtinrir^a Meiaeke.1 
on Menond. b. n. SS8. FierBon on Moeiis 288. Fhilostr. sc^. k 
as S 4. nBiuB I 27 n. Catoll. 64 47—9. Plin. 

a. § 137 trlcliniaria olpiupara TyHa dibapha. ' 

GESULiB VI 22. 22C. 268. Hot. ep. i 1 87 leclns genialiB is aula 
tit. Sen. exc. ooiitr. vi G p. 288 27 K venae mat in exteguita miptiae 
inufotiMjUfl genial ia leotna infu-aibrem. Cm. p. Cluent. §14 lectnm. 
ilium genialem, qaem . . .fiiiae inae mibaiU Btraverat, . . . eibi ornari 
et BtBTni . . . iuhct; nulnt genero locna Dullia auBpioibua. Aghod, 
in Gio. p. Mil. S 13. Sery. Aen. ti 603. Farbiger Itom i> 3G3. n. Sla 
Uarqnardt t (1) 6S—4. Bich. Atd. ii ti7 cunt in matrimonia eoncenilM, 
toga Bternitis lectulos et maritoram genios advocalit. Also obUbA 
adrmvi (Prop. v = it 11 S5) as frontiiig the eotranoe of the atriun> 
DOBTiB 1 76 D. the gardens of LncuUaa on th» 
Pincian or eoUh hoTlor'im Beoker i G31. Bom Bome and the Catnpagnm- 
369 — 60. Tac xt 1; vrhitber Messalina fled niter the disoovery al her 
crime (32), and where she iiriks eUin (37—6). DCass. li 31 g 3. 

335 EiKHNuuB Oy. m. ti 431 Ewnenidti EttaTor* 
tornm. bitd ANrigno iit 221. Lipaius (on Tao. 

ann. it 86) eeems mialaken in applying the worda to the nmaaat, thon^ 
decUa eenUna (1,000,000 Boetercee) waB tboueh a larRe, not an nnaauu 
idow[7 VI 137 his quingena dedit. Sen. coaa, ad Heir. 12 § 6 paml». 
laimae decies Bentertio nubunt. Uort. xi 23 3 4 deciea niibi dotil 

TouiBCB AUSFEi nl. 341 n. So in tho marriage of male with male ii IIB 
nigoatae talnlae, dictum 'feliciter.' On the marriage tablets of. a. 
76 — G tabulat qiioque rapetat. et iam | Bignabat. Bamsaj on Cio. p, 
Cluent. §9 15G— 7. Maiqnardt t (1) 46. Sust. Claud. 26 guam (Mess.) 
earn comperitseL C. Silio eiiait nnpsisea dote inter auspicea coa- 
signata lupplicio adftcit. ib. 29 illad oinncm Jidem excaierit qaoi 
nnptilB, quaa Messalina cum adultero 8ilio, tabellaB 
dotia et ipse conaignaverit, induetiii.qiuiside induiiria limularentur 
ad averlejtdum tiatuferenduinq'ie peTieiilum, qiwd inttniner^' ipai per qaae- 
dam ottenta partenderetaT. Tao. xi 27 haud turn ignana fabnloaam 
v'uuvi iTilantMm mIUi vujrtalium tectiritalU fitine in oiTitate omBinm 
gnara [Inr. 341] tt •aihil relietnte, nedam eonxitlejn detignatmn bids 
uzore prinoipia [lay.i3(i\,praedietadie,adhibiUtqai obBignuent 
velat lutcipiendoram libaroram cama conveaiiie, atqae illam auduis 
BtiBpieuia verba, sulniie, tacrificaase apwd deot; dUzubiiiaa tntaroonsi- 
vat, otcala coiaplexus, noclen deaique aetam Uceatia eoniuj7aIi. SQaBB. 
IS 31 § 2 Bhe would in duo form of cantra«t [tarb, ov^^Xiua) liaTB ^ 
wedded all her poramoiira, if she had not been detected and killed 6i> r$ ' 
vpilfTif. Quintil. V 11 g 32 nihil abttat, qiiominw itatum nuttrimoniun ta 
vveiiU coeunttian, etiaimi tabulae Eignatae vonfueHnt: nihil <ntm |>n>- 
derit aignasBe tabulae, si vientem vtalrimonii noii fuiaet conKabfC 
AusFEx 334 D. (Cio. p. Cluent.), Becker u (^ 
60. Maiqnardt t (1) 46—8. Cie. de div. i g 38 nihil fere gvandavt 
maiorii rfi, nin anspicato, ne privalint qvidem, gerebatuT, quod ^tiam 
nuM nuptiarnm anapicea drdaranl, qui re omUia nonun tanlw» 
Unent. ib. § 8. VM. n 1 g 1. Lue. ii 371 iaiiguntur taeiti eoatmSque 
auspice Cnito. Berr. Aen. i 346. it 45. 1G6. Plin. x § 21. Stat. a. 
1 2 229—30 Boeialia omiaa. 
337 Mstkl. ' Tel es loco stio motus, vel Bpmius Tidetnr hio TErsns.' If 


the Terse is genuine, tu must be Silins. 338 non nisi 

LKomjiE vuLT NUBEBE n 136 — 6 liceat modo vivere : fient^ \ fient ista 
palam, capient et in actareferre. Sen. Tbyest. 689—90 servatur 
onmis or(2o, ne tantnm nefas | non rite fiat. 695 nnlla pars sacri 
perit AY. Caes. iy§6 of Messalina quasi iure adulteris utebatur, 
QUID piiACEAT, PIC Sen. ben. ii 21 § 2 quid €7*^70 placeat 
dicam. 339 ni velis, pereundum erit 141 — 2 

D. 205. 840. 365. vn 60. xi 16. xii 115. Ov. amor, i 2 38. tr. 11 
33-4. V 12 51—2. Quintil. pr. § 25. Mart, i 68 4. Tac. an. iii 54 pr. 
Znmpt § 524 n. 1. Madvig § 348 e. Aristot. eth. N. vii 14 § 8 ef tou 
i ^<r« drX"^ etrj, del 17 adr^ wpd^is iidLaTtj iarai. ib. i 10 § 8 Zell. Xen. 
mem. I 5 § 2. Kiihner § 819 b. Matth. § 524 3. • Madvig gr. Synt. 
§ 136 1 b. pereundum erit Tac. xi 36 nee cui- 

quamalii ante perenndnm fuisse, ai Silius rerum poteretur. asVinicius 
hi been poisoned by Messalina DCass. lx 27 § 4 opyy 6ti ovx i^O^Xrfa^ 
d avYfOfiffOau. So C. Appius Silanus ib. 14 §§ 2 — 3. Tac. xi 12 (quoted 
on 330). AV. Caes. iv §§ 6 — 8 exstincti cum suis plerique ingenio 
sen metu abstinentes, dum pervagatU mulierum artihus peti se a 
peiitU eriminatur. dehinc atrocius incensa nobiliores quasque nuptas et 
virgines scortorum modo seeum prostititeratj coactique mares uti adessent, 
gwd si quis talia borruerat, adficto crimine in ipsum om- 
'nemqne familiam saeviebatur. ante 

LUOBENAS Hdt. VII 215 § 1 Tepl \vxv(j)v a0rfs. Mart, x 19 18. 


TAS 255. VI 494. So Plant. Ter. Cic. dabitur 

uosA Mtiblmann do coL 600 cites exx. of dare pausam^ tempusy moram. 

340 — 1 i>UM RES nota urbi et populo contingat prin- 
cipis AUBEM DCass. LX 31 §§ 3 4 Messalina gave a sumptuous marriage 
feast, and presented Silius witb an imperial mansion, into whicb she 
conveyed tbe most precious treasures of Claudius, and finally declared 
bim consnL All this, heard and seen before by all others^ was unknown 
at least to Claudius,* ib. 18 §§ 1 — 2 she made many ladies prostitute them- 
selves in her palace, before their husbands' eyes; the husbands 'who 
refused to be parties to their own dishonour she put to death ; yet all 
these scandals, so heinous and so notorious, rov K.\aTjdiov iirl vXeiaToi/ 
Oiadev. 22 §§ 3 — 5 she issued coinage bearing the head of the dancer 
Hnester, who resisted all her advances, until she requested Claudius to 
order him to obey her in all things ; to 5' avrb toOto koX irpos aWovs 
(fvxPtfds iwpaTTev' ws ydip clddros re toO KXavdiov rd yiyudfieva Kal avyx^' 
powrbt ci aKoXaffTalveip i/j.oixcvcTO, 28 §§ 3 4 a tumult arose when 
Messalina withdrew Mnester from the stage; Claudius expressed his 
wonder, and the people, * believing that he was really ignorant of what 
was going on, were grieved that he alone knew not what was being done in 
his palace^ news which had already found its way to our enemies.' cf. 
Tac. XI 36. ib. 13 after the open adultery of Messalina with Silius 
Claudius matrimonii sui ignarus. Narcissus (luv. xiv 329 — 331 
divitia£ Narcissi, | indulsit Caesar cui Claudius omnia, cuius \ paruit 
imperils nxorem occidere iussus) informed Claudius of the mar- 
riage by means of two of his mistresses (Tac. xi 29) : Calpurnia falling 
on Caesar's knees exclaims that Messalina has married Silius, and 
requests that Narcissus may be called; who says that he will not reproach 
BiUns with the adultery or reclaim the plate, slaves and other property 
tiiat Messalina had conveyed to him ; ho might enjoy them Tac. xi 30 
sed redderet uxorem rumpcretque tabulas nuptiales, *an discidium' 


■f iirbem marilua.' Oa tl 

[to ClaadiaB]yini 

—9 quod li flint vota deiiqut | audio' 
caniax. Son. fragm, 03 L. Sutlat, felicli, si mm habiii 
SleUlla palam erat impudica, et, qaia noviaaimi mala nc 
mas, id Atbenia cantabatnr et Bulla ignorabat, 
domaa anas primnm bostiam oonyiaio didicit. S( 
tligraiit excesses of lulin in the Tery forum and rostra came 
toiotrledge ol Augustus DCaas. lt 10 % IS ii^i totc ipijipist 

je Toe. IT as Uq\u 
fuit: hand multo 
Pompeina iu Li 

Jeotnted before tbnt bar life v 

lot aaaorud ot it; ol t 


Nep. i:t3M 


a Ttge TUtaphi: 

mti, neqneidtam 

ArtftiBTii, q 


, erat ap 


345 raiEBEN 

DA CEimi 368—370., 

xxy la § 19 p 


9 oorpor 




Sen. tiaoq 

0,11. 11 i 

oUitrabcrii tl eatifot 

ditris, qnia ne 


t ij£d« diutiu, et morieWi 

txpeditiUB, qu 


ta cervi 

p manibu. oppoHtU, 

,ed ani.™«= re 

ijit.. ib. 16 1 

1. id. Tit. 

beat. QT g 

3 SocratoH saja praebad 


liqua in 

adnio marf deitituta, quam Jbictiu 

Jion deeiiiwit. 


i. brer, vi 

t. 13 S 7. 


4 § 7 Gaiut Caaor 

imiil Lepidam Dextro tribmo praelj 

ipse Chaerrae pntt- 

,HtU. ii.8i ^12 Smtu,... 

u„i perils 



t quneTerel,...evoca- 

tut ad mortem 

imtmqai p 

aebera o 




SaTaro on Sidon. ep. 1 11 An. p. 60 has other exx. of pr. cnrj- 
cem. Plin. viii g 68 of a lion mbieh had a bona sticking in its throat, 
one Elpia evellit praebenti tt qua maxime opui met adcomviodanli. 
M. Sen. cootr. So g S p. 353 {iabeff nviierum liare ad praebendaa oer- 
rices tmmolum. Serv. Aen. z B67 eiplaizuug tekoo EicEPrca equo aa 
praebento luiceplwi. Frud. perist. i 55. Ct. her. 7 136 praebueHm 
tceUH btaoohia Tiottra tuo. Ot. m. xiti 475—6 ipit etiamjieni invitiu- 
qae lacerdoa \ piaebita coniicio rupit praecordia fcno. Sea. de ii. 
I 16 § 5 cerricem no2io imperabo praecidi. ct. Lips, on Tae. xr 67 
adiaoaitiuiq-ue fortiter protendere aerTieem. Passive, unraaiatjlig, 
tame subinissioQ ia comniDnly connoted hy praebeo (prackibeo = jrapixiii)i 
and in fact Siiioa when brongbt to the tribunal did not attempt 
a defence or ask for a delay; but only tbat bis death might be hastened 
Tao. XI 35. The kneeling gladiator, awaiting the mortal stab, is said 
praebert iitgnUim. An. Bpikt. i 1 § 19 Lateranus pur. 17 n.] atretchtd 
out Au neclc to the beadamau'a aword a second time, after one ' ' 
factual stroke. 

346— 36S Conclusion. Is nothing then to be sought bj our ' 
If ;on nish my counse!, leave the goda themselves to decide 'ithat ie 
for UB, what can promote onr welisje. Do they withhold what we 
They will bestow instead what is best. Dearer to them is mau than to 
himself. Tranapoited by passion and blind desire we ask for irifa ani 
child; what children they will be, and what mauuer of wifa, is knomi b 
hearen. Still, that you may also put up some petition and ofler somt 
^unbte meat.oHering, ask for a mind sound in a sound body; a spirit 
" ~ ' " 'fciearless of death, reokouing life's cloae one of kind Nature's boons. 


eqnal to any toil, ignorant of anger or of desire, esteeming the labours 
lod cniel pains of Hercules choicer than all Sardanapallus' dalliance 
ud feasts and couches of down. I point to nothing but what yourself 
My give to yourself. The only road to peace lies through virtue. For- 
tme, thou hast no divinity, if but wisdom be with us ; it is we that make 
of thee a goddess and set thee high in heaven. Upton (Spenser 11 650 — 1) 
eompares modem poets and some of our collects. 

346—353 Xen. mem. i 3 § 2 * Sokrates prayed to the gods for the gift 
of good things generally, dirXuf, considering that the gods know best what 
aiit of things are good.* [Plat.] Ale. 11 143' a prayer ZeO ^aaiXev, tA. 
^ iff$\d KoX €v^ap.4vois koX dvevKTon \ dfjifii dldou, to. 8^ deivd. Kal €v^afx4pois 
irtpuKov, ib. 148'' * the Lakedaemonians also, either as vying with this 
poet, or from their own judgement, both ofl&fcially and individually offer 
up on all occasions a prayer of tbis kind, rd jcaXd iirl rois dyadoTs roi^s 
Stoirs Sovpoi K€\€vovT€s av <T<f>l<FLv ovTOis. ouo will uever hear any of them 
praying for more than this.* So Pythagoras DS. x 9 § 7 declared that 
the wise ought to pray for good things from the gods on behalf of the 
foolish ; for the foolish do not know what is really good. § 8 in prayers 
we ought to pray for good things dirXwy, not naming any in particular, as 
mahmty [luv. 66—113], beauty [luv. 289-345], wealth [luv. 12—27], 
•nd the like ; for each of these often ruins those who obtain it at their 
desire; their prayers are a curse, cf. DL. viii § 9. ib. vi § 42 Diogenes 
blamed men for praying for reputed, not real, goods. Menand. monost. 
336 /tij iioi yii^oid* a povXofi aXX' a avfxipipeu Gataker on Antonin. v § 7. 
Max.Tyr. 11=30. Epiktet. enchir. 8 § 52. Euseb. in Stob. fl. i 85 (i 39 
10 M). Matt. 26 39. Wetstem on Matt. 6 10. 

346 NIL ERGO opTABUNT HOMINES? Lupus (19 20) cites othcr exx. of 
interruptions like tbis i 101. 160 seq. ii 70. 132—5. iv 130. v 74. 
135. 166. VI 136. 142. 161. 219. 286. 492. 042. vii 98. 158. 215. 
nn39. 183. 211. x 67. 71. 81—8. xiii 71. 174—5. xiv 60— 2. 


ttvilti hatucimus frustra ut simiiSf quom quid cupienter dart \ petimiis nobis : 
quasi quid in rem sit possimus noscere. | certa amittimus, dum incerta 
petimus. VM. vii 2 E § 1 Socrates, an earthly oracle as it were of human 
^sdom, thought that we ought to beseech the immortal gods only to 
give ns good things, because they alone knew quid cuique esset utile, nos 

dtUem plerumque id votis expeteremuSf quod non inpetrasse melius foret 

dmM igitur stulta \mortalium mens'\ futuris malor^im tuoruvi caiLsis quasi 
felieissimis rebus inhiure et te totum caelestium arbitrio permitte, 
quia qui tribuere bona ex faxiili solenty etiam eligere aptissime possunt. 
Plat legg. Ill 687* we must not pray that all things may follow our will, 
but rather that our will may follow wisdom, ib. viii 801. Plat. Kritou 
43* a saying of Sokrates: *if such be heaven's will, so be it.' Epikt. fr. 
16 in Stob. fl. rv 92. Herakleitos ib. in 83. Arr. Epikt. ii 16 §§ 28. 42. 
46—7. Nearly all of these passages are compared by Schneider christ- 
liche Klange, Gotha 1865, with the Christian rule Matt. 6 8 and 10. 
20 22. Lu. 22 42. Jo. 6 30. cf. Leighton's works ed. West v 248. 


Giang. cites the beautiful words of Sen. ben. ii 29 e.g. § 6 carissimos 
nog babuerunt di immortales habentque, et qui maximus tribui 
^*onos potuiti ab ipsis proximos conlocaverunt : magna a^cepimuSf maiora 
«>n eepimus, ib. iv 4—9. 351 — 2 caeca mao- 



'B prayed far the birth of't 

irn, have fallen into th^m 

wa' etc. Sen, ben, iii 11 § 1 in Jiierl»l 

licet! tola Tea voti at. id. ep. 69 g 2 wa I 

III WM ex nuptiis aitl ex pattlbfl 

It sunt gandia, ut taepe iuitia fntnrawl 
352—3 TLi.m HOTCic, get Foxql 
ad Mnro. 17 § 6 (Natmn epeaka) I 

tMUndia nihil iadieit tolUntiam 
commouty aa; magmim gaudi 
nKoris ptTcepiitt, quae odea ne 


tu li filial aailulfTis, potecia kabete lormosoa et defoi 

loctasHS muti naBcentnr. id. ben. r 

gods lae uiilulgeDt, as to Bome tot iheii pi 

to othera lor tlia Eoke of their poateritf. 

eui aeriea omiiumque illU rerum ivat ptr vumai iiararun icieiUia in 

aptrto temper 4st, iiabia ex abdita lubit et quae repentiiut putamiu, iUit ' 

provisa veaiuat ac familiaria. DL. vi § 63 Diogenea, when some were 

saorifieing to the goda for (lie gift ol a bod, asked: ripl 3f tdu roSa-rit 

it^i av eicre; DCaas. i^K 20 g 3 ri nh ycvi^^nr, oiwoi- at i6(y rif Soi/io. 1 

rlif, ■ylyrerai. Qnius tnim prov. 19 14. 354 it not 

lonl; Bubmit to what is appointed, but olio prefer a petition. «t=etian 

^.320. 1 67. nl43. uiS06. n27. u 177. Jar 4. 228(Kiaer).^^ 

355 EiTA e. g, InogB, liyer and Leurt, ctsati 

bvTjI dittna TOUACULt poBci Satirical exnggeration, Mart, xi 57 4. et. tta 
the tone I 84. On thooEfering iiii 117— 8 oliMt poroi I 01 
was BlttUghtereJ on the oocasioii o£ a marrittge Vaix. r. r. ii 4 g 9 nupti^ 
nrum initio antiqui regei ac lublimei viri in Hetrvria, i 
tione unptiali nova nupta et novna maritna primi 
Immolant, § 10 Prsici quoqile Laiini et eliant Graeci in Italia idtia 
faciiiaeie videiitur. In the reliefs on tba aafcopba^a preserved in 
S. LoroDno'a ohurch, between Borne and Tivoli, whii^ represent marritga 
ceremonies, we find a, popa readf to offer a sivina fiossbaoh Ucter- 
aachiingea Ufa. d. rtim. Efae 378— BI. In tbe time of lur. it was still ths 
prootiee for the bride, on entering ber nen home, to rnb the door-post 
with awine'a (or wolf's) fat. ib. 356—9. Plin. iinn § 135 proxima w ' 
coranamibua adipi lam est, iid mas:inio Enillo, apad antiqiioi eliitm 
TitigioHai. certe novae nuptae intiantes etiamuum BOllemne 
habent poEtis e» attingere, Atkeu. in 96* tlio Argivea aaori- 
fioad a pig to Aphrodite. nivrai a feast for goda. 

TOHiinit.i (from W/i»u) 'minoa-meat,' 
'sausages' Fetr. 31 served piping hot on a grid-iron tomaauitt nipfr 
eralicalam argenteiini fcrrenlia pmitu. ib. 49. Mart, i 41 9 — 10 hawked 
about tbe streets fuinaiitia qui tomaola rauciu | tircuiaferl tepidia 
coctu popinia. 366 oiunduu est dt hit hbnb , 

BAHA IM cohhibb sano Hor. o. t 31 17— 19/n(i paralis et valido mihi, | J 
Latoe, dones ac.preear, integra | cam mente. Petron. SB qaii, inqjuon, 1 
venit in temphim et volum fteit, li ad eloquentiam pervenitaetl quit, H I 
philoaopkiat fontem attigitaell ac ne bonam quidem menteui aat 1 
bonam valetndinem petunt, eed statim aiitequam limen Capitolii 
langant, aliua donma promittit, li pTupiiiipium divitem ext^lerit, aliitt, 
ij tliesaarum fffoderi!, aliia, li ad treeentiei seitertiutn aalvia ptr- 
venerit. ib. 61 omnea bonam mentem bonamqne TaletodineiB 
sibi optarunt. Sen. ep. 10 g 4 votorum taoram veCmim Heel 
deia gratiam faciaa, alia de integro eitscipe: roga bonam mentem, 
bonam valetudinom auimi, deinde tune oorporis. q\tidni In 
iata vola eaepe facias! DCass. hux SO £ 3 d/>7-i^E^$ gal ipTloovi; 



CABEJTEM Tin 83 — 4. Cic. Tusc. n § 48. Verg. g. n 490 — 2. Hor. s. 
Q7 84. ep. u 2 207. Sen. cons, ad M&ro. 20 e.g. § 1 o ignaros malorum 
twnmquibtu rum in or 8 ut optimum inventum naturae laudatuT 
tzspeotaturque. ep. 4 e.g. §§ 3 — 4 nullum magnum^ quod extremum est. 
mnad U venit: timenda erat, si tecum esse posset, necesse est 
Art ne perveniat aut transeat, * difficile est' inquis * animum perducere 

td corUemptionem animae.* § 5 plerique inter mortis metum et 

vUae tormenta miseri fluctuant : et viveve nolunt et mori nesciunt. See 
Buuiy other passages in Haase's ind. mors. The Stoics argued (1) that 
fiotiung natiural is evil; (2) that life as such is no good ; (3) that nothing 
glorious is eyil, but death may be glorious ; and elaborated a theory of 
EQicide, which was illustrated by many examples, esp. Catonis nohile 
letam, Baumhauer yet. philosoph. doctr. de morte voluntaria, Trai. ad 
Bh. 1842, 213—9. 320. Arr. Epikt. i 9 §§ 13 14. 24 §§ 4 6 Muson. ap. 
Btob. fl. XXIX 78 11 15 14 and 23 M. See the doctrine of Sokrates in 
Plat. apol. 40» seq. Phaed. 61« seq. 80*' seq. Plut. cons, ad Apoll. 12 — 3. 
pp. 107—8; that of the Epicureans in DL. x §§ 81. 124—7. Lucr. 
m 87—93. 830—977. Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. hyp. ni § 229 seq. Zeller iii« 
1387 — 8. The question * whether death is an evil* is fully discussed in 
Cic. Tusc. I §§ 9—119. See Lasaulx Studien 459 — 494 * de mortis domi- 
natu in veteres.' Nagelsbach hom. Theol.* 376 — 80. nachhom. Theol. 
392—9. Wetst. on Hebr. 2 15. The frequent occurrence of in pace, 
tpiritia in pace, and the olive branch in early Christian inscriptions, 
tells of the 'better hope ' which had lit up the grave. 


xiTUBAB no caesura in 3rd or 4th foot, so xiv 108 inviti qxioque avari* 
tiam exercere iubentur. cf. Lachmann on Lucr. vi 10G7. L. Muller de 
re metr. 369. With the thought cf. Cic. Cat. mai. § 5 it is not 
probable that Nature, like an idle poet, should slur over the last act of 
life. Plin. vn § 190 perdit profecto ista dulcedo credulitasque [the belief 
in immortality] praecipuum naturae bonum, mortem. Sen. cons. 
ad Marc. 19 §§ 4- — 5 cogita nullis defunctum malis adjici, ilia quae nobis 
inferos faciunt terrihiles, fahulam esse . . . luserunt ista poetae et vanis 
fUMo^tfaver^ terroribus. mors dolorum omnium exsolutio est 
et finis. In many passages Seneca approaches to tho Christian view of 
death and the life to come ep. 102 § 23 per has mortalis aevi moras illi 
tMliori vitae Umgiorique proluditttr. §26 dies iste, quern tamquam 
extremum reformidas, aeterni natalis est. Sil. xi 186 — 8 millo 
no8 invida tanto \ armavit natura hono^ quam ianua mortis \ quod patet, 
trf. Zeller iii 1 187—8. Lightfoot on PhU. pp. 286. 320—3. Wetst. on 
Phil. 1 21. 359 QUOSCUMQUE indefinite = quos- 

libet in 166. 230. xiii 66. 89. xiv 42. 117. 210. cf. x 271 utcumque. 

Observe the rime labores potiores labores 369 — 361. cf. L. Miiller de re 

metr. 467 — 8 and Cic. Tusc. i §§ 69. 85. Ei. Johnson against Bentley 

p. 87 cites Aen. iii 666—7. iv 256—7. v 385—6. vi 843—4. 

vni 620—1. cf. Hom. Od. ix 185—6 n. Aen. ii 124 — 5. Ov. m. 

Tin 360^1. 386—7. Hor. a. p. 99—100. On the repetition of labores 

see n. on 191—2. xrv 47 — 8. 

360 NESciAT iBASci Sen. de ir. ii 6 argues against the doctrine that 

virtue turpilrus irata esse debet, see on the Stoic 'apathy' Cic. fin. 

m § 35. Tusc. iv §§ 10 seq. 34 seq. acad. i § 38. DL. vn §§ 113—4. 

Zeller m 1 204 — 216. cupiat nihil 4 — 5 n. 

Chrysippus in Sen. ep. 9 § 14 sapientem nulla re egere, et tamen multis 


k J 76 HEBCXJLES XH£ UODEL Bkcm. IX80O30tJi 

jlli r«l>iu optu lilt. 361 RBBcmjB 11 19 — SO 

peiolfi, qui talia verbii \ Heroulia invadunt. tin 14 a. 

fiBHOULlB AEUDHNM Plsut. pBTB. I 1 S BBq. cf. tho lallOlltB Ol BcUs- 

rophon, Peneua, TLeaeue, Ulixca, snil of pBjche in Apuleiua (Fried- 
Jjinder l' 415 aeq.). (Jic fin. ii § 118 to bh Epicutean pereonlaTe ipie ti, 
ptrpeluiine malii votvptatibut perfraeni lit ea qvan laepe usarpabaii 

tranquillitatt drgere omn^ni aetatem iin« doJore, uii cunt de oianibu* 

gtntibiu oplhiu merercrc, vtl Heccnlis pati acrumnaH? exa, 

euim maiores nostri lab ore b non fugiendos tristiesimo tamen 

virtu* lit resqae mojnae et tamme laudabilts virlute geilae, ibi am 
miseTia et aeramua noKpassit, tamen labor poiHt, poiait molsBtiai,; 
A Stoic paradox \>iu that tirtue is EofficieDt for happmees Cio. pankli, 
n S 16 nee vera igo M. liegulum aerumnoBam nte in/elicem ncc mUcnu^; 
vKiqaam putavL id. fin. m § 12. v §§ 79—83 llcgulua bb happy ar. 
MetelluB. Quiotil. viii 3 g 26 aornniunB quid opiu eel [dieeTe]f lam- 
juaui parum lit H dieatiir quid korridum, ef. Porcell, Orig. d. Cels. 
Ill 6ti oitea oa ackuowledged examples of perfect life, among lieroea 
HeiakleB and Odjsseas. Sen. const, sap. 2 § 1 tbe gods have given to 
us in Gato a more certain model of a aage than thej gave to earlj ogeB in. . 
Uliies and Herculei. Ao« enin Sloici nostri BapienteBpronuHfiooerwit, J 
iavictoi laboribua, coiUemptorei I'oluptatii et victarei omntiim temrwut 
id. ban. 1 13 § 3 in oontiaBt irith Aimander, a brigand from childhood^.; 
HeTonlsB nihil libi vicil: orbem terrarum traaiivit non aononpls-^ 
oendo, scd eindicando, et. the lamoua myth of Piodioua (Xon. memu 1 
II 1 g 21, Cic. cif. 1 § IIS Beier). Herculea is distinctly called a pbi- ^ 
loaopher. Mai. Tyr. 21 g 6 Ueraklii was wiie: yet not for IiimseU ■ 
wise, bat liia wisdoni estendeil over every land ami aca. It was he that 
waa the estermiuator of beasta of prey, chastifier ol tyrants, liberator of , 
alBTea, legislator of the free, eBtablisber o( righteousnefis, inventor of 
la«B, trntMnl in words, reformer in deeds. Bat if Heraldos had chosen 
to retire and live at ease and in leisuri;, and to pursue an inactive 
wisdom, he nould have been instead of Heraklea a sophiat, and no one 
wonld have dared to call him son of Zeus. ib. 3 g 7. 5% H. 3! g 7. 38 g 7 on 
the pleasnre and reward which be derived from bis labours, chron, 
paach. I 76 Bonn ' iu the days of king Tboenix was Herokles the v}^"' 
aopher, sumamed the Tyrian, who iliBcovered the purple dye.' Txelz. 
chll. V I29_-33 Heraklea wrote an inscription (in beiometeia which are 
given 133—7), for be waa oniveraally aoeomplisbed, poet, astrologer, 
pbilaioplieT, magician, physician, and all else that Orpheus and other 
authors describe him to have been. Serv. Aen. i 711 constat enim Hei- 
onlem fuiase philosophum: et est ratio, nir omnia ilia motutra 
vicisie dicatur. More tbau one treatise of Antislbenes, founder of the 
cynic acbool, bore the name of Herakles DL. vi g| 16. 18. He shewed 
that labour was a good by tlie examples of Heraklea and Cyrus ib. g 3. 
Eus. praep. ev. sv 13 g 7 p. 816" 'Xi/m^Shij^, 'Upax\euTiit6s T« dHjp ri 
^/lipijfin. epist. Socrat. 9 Aiistippos to AotistbeneB in mockery: 'I will 
send JDU large white beans, that when you have exhibited Herakla to 
your pnpils, you may have eometbing to muuch.' cf. Aneon. epigr, 
■n. 28. Kteanthes waa called a second Heraklea UL. vir § 170. Apnl. Q. 
IT S2 of Crates, follower of Diogenes, qxiad Hercvlem cUm poetae memo- 
rant momtra ilia immania haminum acferarutn virtule mbegiste orbemqut 
lerrae purgasaf, limiliter adverivm iracujidiam it invidiam atgve iibidi- 
liem icteraque aiiimi kiiiuiiii monslra ct fagilia philoaophna iste 

Bennies fait, eai omnr^i jiato menlibta txegit, familiiu purgavit, 
tulitiam prrdonadt ; leminudun et ipie et tiava in*ignii. id. mag. 22 for 
the nseiublaiice in exterior betneeu the hero and the Cjmca, Thejr 
ku the club Aug. cJT.D. xiv 20 ive etill see Gjuio philoBopWs ; hi 
namtnt, qui nimiolani amiciMntUT pallia, veram etiam, oUTam fenmt.. 
ii 0. Asad. Ill £ IT □( the braggart Academic de ortatium icholit turn, 
Itrvlis, qwd eiaet dtformiK* q\iani moUstiia, led iUoram paltiatorum 
riivla et futtibiu proieietMr. run enivi magnuTH negolium erit contra 
riMiKsnen peiUmvelut Hercnlea qnnedam poetulare aoiilia C;ili- 
coism. Sidon. ep. iv 11> ix 9 p. 573 rum caeiariera paecere, mqae 
folUn out clava veliU tophUticia Jniiffnibus gloriari. Fmd, Lamait. 401 
hinc gcrit Hercaleani vilia sapienlia clavam. The Cjnio Allddn- 
nUBliDciaii oanviv. 10 to a bride ir^i-iVu crai, u KXfovdl, 'Hpax\4ovt 
i/Wfi^f- And when all laughed, ^nXarrarc, u KaSdp/uiTa, tl TJ ti/ufi^ 
TUfrum irl rou ^/lerioou S(oC toG 'HpanX^oui; ho then compares 
Unueli to his patron god in indomitable atrDngtb, in freedom of mind, 
in robust body, nkieh he eihibits in order to prove his point ; he raight 
luta done Eome mischief with his dub, if be had not chanced to eepy a 
lugecake. The Cj^io aske ib. Cjnlo. 13 'do jon thick that HerakUt,, 
ibe bcaveet of all meu, a man divine and juatlj' esteemed a god, roamed, 
oliroad because of his unhappiueas, with no attire but a skm, and with 
nam) of your wants ? nay, he was not unhappy, who relieved others 
«1gd from BOffering; nor yet poor, who waa master of earth and eea,' 
ela. id. viL aact. 8 Diogenea ia asked ■ Whom do you emulate ! " 
" UtTokltt." • Why then do yon not nlao doo the lioD'a akin? fur aa to 
the dub, in that you are like blm.' " Thia threadbare cloak ia my lion'u 
Hkjn, like liim I wago war upon pleasures, not by order, but of my own 
tree will, making it my vocation to purge life of them." id. Demon. 1 
Sulittos of Soeotia, a contemporary colled Heraklea by tlie Greeks, tor 
bii bodily strength and his labours in suppressing brigandage, making 
roods tnrongh tFaokless wilds and building bridges. CCbrys. or. i 
I ISl — 3 B 'mea of old called by the name of sons of Zens those who 
eujojed virtuous training, and were brave of seal, trained like the 
{smaoaHerakles.' lolian or. 6 p. 1S7 B 'the more generous Cynica aver 
tlut the great Herakles alBo,as he became the authorof our other blessings, 
so ilu left to mankind the obief pattern of thia [Cynic] life too.' Eus. 
pr, ev.i»1737'"thoseHera*ieiaTt and divine doctrinea, that virtue is 
1 thing strong and exqaiaitely fair, nsTer lacking anything for happi- 
uug, never parted from it, but though poverty, disease, diegiace, 
tormenta, burning pitch and the cross, and all snUeriugs of tragedy 
ilionid poor upon him at once, atill tbe just man ia happy and blessed.' 
Tiie Christian fathers have an eaay task in accepting the challenge Qaii 
titttptravit! [Inst, mart.] or. ad gent. 3. Theodoret, gr. afL cur. viii 
p. 113 27 diilpa ou iriiiittf.ota ouSi •fiiXana^iiaii ^arTiKOTo, oXV dxiAaelf koI 
Aayird, i^t^vKora. Clem. Al. protr. 3 § 33. Amob. iv 26. (Partljf 
tarn Bmcker. 1 have not seen U. C. Mezger de Hercole sapientia stoici 
oemplo. Aug. Vind. 18-29. 4to). 

362 PLDJiji 1 159 n. TibtOI. 1 2 77. Ben, de prov. 3 § 10 of Maecenas 
Ian trigilabit in pluma, quam ille [itej/uEiu] in cruet etc. Uart. n 93 
3 4 dat tibi ereuroi vilit tegeticitta lomnoe, \ pervigil in plama Oaiut 
iceeioeet. Cypr. adDonat. 12 ol the rich man cu?n epnlia maTcidian 
emput tona maUior alto >ina condidit, vigilat in plama tmc intellegit 
mucr, tpteioia libi eiit lupplicia, auro le alligatum teneri, el poeiidiri 
magit qvam poisidere. Cic. Att. i 8 g 7 niri forte me SsrdunapalU 
JCy. II. 12 


Tioem in lueo leclnlo mori Tnalle cenatierU quamia exitlio Themiitoelei. 
Mai. Tyr. 10 g 9. stttSAMU'iLLi BchoL S. rex 

AiiyrioTum luxuriotai, de quo Tulllva in tertio de republica lie ait : S. illi ' 
vitiifl mnlto qaam nomine ipso defurmior. Contrasted with Her- ' 
onles alBO by Kleomedes meteor, n g 81 it T« t4» 2. iriK^ireii wtpt xapn- 
piat T$ 'SpaxXei auytpiytirSat iTixt^poOrra, His eBetniaacj jiio- 
varbial pnroem. gr. ii 207 Leatsch SapS, iirl tSv a^poSmlTiii'. ib. 600 . 
riraSpas — . ^«i ruv Tpi/^:6i^ur KaJ ToXudX^ur. ib. i 449. Epiktet. diss. 
Ill 22 g 30 ' Happiness ia not in royalty. Else Nero wonld have been 
Lapp? and Sard.' See BShr's Ctaaiaa 424—430. DS. ii 31—28. Inst. 
13 8. the last kiug of Assyria, vir miiliere corniptiar. ArboctuB, general 
of the Medes, having with diffiaalty gained admiBuon to his preaeneo, 
found bifi infer aaortoram grtga purpurat colo nenttnt tt mnliebri 
babitn, oum mollitia oorporis ot oenlornm laaoivift omnef 
femiiirts anteiret, penaa iater virginei parttentcm. quibut titU indig: 
*atai taH leminae tanlum ii'rarum lubiectvm traetantetque femaa a 
arma laibentet ■parert, progreiua ad locioa quid videril Tffert: negat le «. 
parert posee. qui tt leniinam malit eiie quam vinim. The plot is snc- 
negsfii]; Sard, bums himself with his treaaurca. cf. Oros. i Iti. Plat, da 
Alex. fort. 1 3 p. 32G' Fortune placed the royal diadem on the head of 8. 
rtpipipar iatrarri. ib. 2 3 p. 33S anyone seeing the life or tomb (for tbey 
are the same thing) of 8. would aay that it was a trophy constraoted of 
Fortune's blessings, id. comm. notit. IS § 4 p. 106S. [Plat.] pro nobiL 
10 g 3 in Stob. fl. isKxnii IS Bokrates mora noble than 8. Lucian dial. 
mort. 2 g 1 S. in the lower world lamenta, remembering t^i itdXX^ 
T/iufiji. ib. 20 § 3 Menippoa wishea to euff, or to spit open 8, iripoydri^ 
ytivTi. cf. DBeyom. 18. rhot. praeo. 11 tivaffpin rm 2. Inpp. oont 
16 S, e^\M dr. Inpp. trag. 48 think of the poverty of Sokrates, Aii- 
Steides, Phokion, l<- Siths Si iyadah KoAMa; ^cd Mcidtas Kai £. lnrtprpv- 
^Hyrtt. DChrys. 1 i 1 13 D. not even Marsjaa or Olympos could hsTe 
loused B. tK ToC BaXiiioti rapi. tuv itnaiKijv. ib. 2 I 37 20 his jewels, ib. 
S I 61 37 proverbial for his softness, ib. 63 ii 203 full aoconnt of his 
efferoiuate dreaa, attitnde, completion, Sr ouk ^v Ainyiwai tiov iroXXarwr. 
ib. 64 II 207 2S. 78 it 3S0 8 ' thinking S. to be envied, who said that he 
Bpent hia life in feast ingoad wantonness with eunuchs and women.' Trai. 
de paUio 4 p. 938 Oehler. Mart, ii II E 6 tt potare decet gemma, qui 
Maitorafrangia [in icapkivm moBciiae, Sardanapalla, Juoc. Athen. 
294", 413*. 538'— 630". Aug. civ. Dei u 30 fin. DCass, lhviii 23 g 6. 
cxin 1 g 1. 2 S 4. 10 g 3. 11 g S. IS [in this book a nickmtme ot Avitus 
or Pseudantoninas). Clem. Al. str. i g 15'J. paed. iii % 70. Opposed to 
Cyrus Mas. Tjr. 31 § 8. ib. 1 g 5, B §3 S. 9. 13 § 7. The authorities 
for two epitaphs of S. are collected in Nlike's Ghoeriloa 196-256 ; the 
one in Aesj'rinn eharoctera at Anebiale Straba 673 (ot. Arr. anab. ii 6 g 4. 
Ath. 630'') ' S. son of Aiial^yndaTaies built Auchiale and Tareus in ono 
day : eat, drink, and be merry, laOti, xivr, iruijv, for all else ia not worth 
thii' (a snap ot the fingers, ct. I Cor. 15 33): the other a Choldeau 
insoription on the tomb of Sard, at Nineveh, translated by Choerilus 
(Ath. 629') mto Greek. DChrjs. 4 i 89 30 Dind. Ath. 335' aeq. 412''.- 
Oiem. Al, Btr. ii %_ 118. US. ii 23 tbSt' Ix^ iair f-payor tal i^ifip,,a tal 
HIT Ipwrat I Tipiry ImOoi', t4 Si iroXXi ical jXjSiB (erj^o X Aeiitt-ch, an epitaph, 
as Ajistotle {Cie. Toso. v g 101 Dav. finn. ii g 106. cf. Ath. 3S6') says, 
fitter for an oi than a kiug. On H. the conqueror, tho mighty hunter, 
his stately palacea, aud rich library ot bri(^k books, of ivhich fragments are 
preserved in the British Muaeum, )<ee lluwliuaou's five great monarchies 


e.9, Brandis 'Assyria' in Faaly i', and Georgii art. Sard, ib, with thei 
lothprities cited. Modem writers place him (or them, for some make ^ 
many as four of .the name) at dates yarying from the 10th to the 7th cent, 
B.a In classical antiqui^ he is the typical voluptuary, and the last king, 
of Assyria. Modems (0. Mtiller, Movers etc.) find in him the Asiatio 
Heicoles. W. G. Koopmans de Sard. Amst. 1819. 

363 HONSTBO XIV 256. Gronovius on Sen. de ben. iv 28 shews 
that the word is technically used of physicians' prescriptions. 

QUOD IPSE TiBi Fossis DABE Cic. u. d. Ill §§ 86 — 8 koe 
qvidem omnes mortales sic habent, extemas commoditates, vineta^ segetes, 
oUvetdi ubertatem fnigum etfructuum, omnem denique comTtwditatem pros'- 
ftntaXemqv>e vitae a dU se habere ; virtutem autem nemo umquam 
acceptam deo rettulit. nimirum recte; propter virtutem enim iure 
Imiiamur et in virtute recte gloriamur : quod non contingeret, si id donum 

a deo, non a nobis haberemus iudicium hoc omnium vwrtalium est, 

fortunam a deo petendam, a se ipso sumepdam esse sapie.n- 
tianu id. Gat.-mai. § 4^ Hor. ep. 1 18 1X1 — 2 sed satis est orare Jovem, 
fme ponit et aufert, \ det vitam, det opes; aeqnum mi animum ipse 
parabo. Obbar ib. cites many parallels, cf. the distinction in Epikt. 
num. X between the things which are and the things which are not iift 
iliup. It is the Stoic airr&pKeia. Sen. ep. 9 § 19. 27 § 3 aliquod potius 
homm mansurum circumspice. nullum autem est, nisi quod animus 

ex 86 sibi invenit. 31 § 3 unum bonum est sibi fidere. 41 § 1 

bonam mentem, -quam stultum est optare, cum possis a te 
inpetrare. 80 §§ 3-r5. Lasaulz Studien 146 adds Isokr. ad Demon. 
1 34. Liv. xzxvii 45 § 11 ; but also passages from Bias, Pindar, Simo- 
Hides, Eallimachos, which agree with Christian principle 1 Cor. 4 7. 
Markland cites in contrast 2 Cor. 3 5. Phil. 2 13. 

8SMIU properly a narrow track Phaedr. iii prol. 38 ego illius pro s emit a 
feci viam. Mart, vii 61 4 et m^do quae fuerat s em it a, facta via est^ 
Often used metaphorically Hor. ep. i .18 103 fallentis semita vitae. 
Obbar on Hor. ib. 17 26. Sil. xv 102. 

365 366 the same verses xiv 315 316 n. 
KCLLUM NUMEN HABES Ov. f. VI 241 Mens quoque numen habet. amor, 
m 9 18 sunt etiam, qui nos (poets) numen habere putent, [Sen.] Oct. 
933 nullum pietas nunc numen habet. Mart, viii 80 6 et casa tarn 
cuUo sub love numen habet. habes, si sit 339 n. 

PBUDENTiA Sen. ep. 85 e. g. § 2 prudent 
beatus est et prudentia ad beatam vitam satis est. §§ 36 — 8. 

366 xin 18 n. 20. Preller rom. Myth.^ 552—64. Philem. 
in Clem. Al. str. v § 129 ovk ianv ijfjup oidejda tijxv Beds, Sen. n. q. iil 

pr. §§ 11 — 15. ep. 74. 98 e. g. § 2 errant, qui aut boni aliquid nobis 

aut mall indicant tribuere fortunam, de pro v. 6 § 6. de const, sap. 15 
§ 3 vincit nos fortuna, nisi tota vincitur, cf. Haase's ind. s. v. fortuna, 

Plin. n § 22 invenit sibi ipsa mortalitas numen toto 

qnippe mundo et omnibus locis omnibusque horis omnium 

vocibus Fortuna sola invocatur ac nominatur, adeoque 

dbnoxiae tumus sortis, ut sors ipsa pro deo sit, qua deus probatur 
incertus, Lact. iii 29 § 1 fortuna ergo per se nihil est. § 7 is plane 
vulgi et imperitorum opinionibus credit, qui Fortunam putant esse, 
quae hominibus tribuat bona et mala, nam simulacrum eius cum 
copia et gubemaculo fingunt, tamquam haec et opes tribuat et humanarum 
rerum regimen obtineat, § 17 Fortunae vocabulum sibi inane 
linxerunt: qttod quam longe a sapientia sit remotum, declarat Iuvenali$ 


Greg. Nai. or. i 72 rir 'H/imXtlTDt. iraT7)>ciop. 
S four white horses Sorv. Aen. IV 543. cf. DH. ii 34. 

:l yip iTiXBoi ^iXoio^tfn rols tpioit. In 
the Bchools Odyiaeos snd Demokriloa n-ere the stook eianipleg of tha 
topic 'tbougli he came of a little birthpUae, he won renonn ' Theon 
prDgymn. in Speugel rbet. ii 111 23. 

55 OENUi Serv. Aea. iii 607 pkytici dicunt etie coiascratas numinibm 

mnffulo* corporii paries genua Miaerieardine: unde hacc tiingaut 


71 EriaTtOA Too. m 14 manybhuned Tiberius, beoanse in tanta rrniiit 
motu libellii accuKitorum iiaumeret operam. an SacTovirum joaieetatit 
crivtiM remn in tenalu foref exliliise iandtm virai, qui crueutaa 
18 eokibrrmt, 


271 272 ciNisD Riern Sbtt. Aea. ni G, I 

274 B. Schubert de Croeao et Solone fabola. Beg. 18118. 

377 Ov. Pont. IT 3 46 — 47 ille lagurlhino ctami CimbroiKi; tri- 

Mariua iaoait cannaqae palnstiL ib. S7 3S Crocsut (lav. 27i 
376). 41—13 Pimpeiiu (luv. 283— 6|. 

314 LiQDEOB Sen. Hippol. 124 125 renin ] per not catenas vindteat 
Martii mi. 

325 Brepoi.rro Wekler gr. Trag. 391—102. 

342 DEDECCB ILLE DOMCS BCIET ULTlMVa ffier. ep. 147 § 10 (logs') 

BolemuB mala domua nostras ECire noTiBsimi ao Hberoinm et 
coniugum vitia vicinis caaeotibus ignoiare. Bayle b. t. Hiloise < 
n. 8. I 

361 HEttCtJtiS lEECMKAB MlnQC. 36 § 8 omiifi adeo reslri viri foTtta, , 
(pirn in exemplum praedicatit, aerumniB siua inclijti Jianifrunt. Lact. 

T 17 g le. Maorob. i 11 § 45. Heraklea taught Evander Plut. a 278". ' 
Cf. the Bpeeeh of Virtue to Scipio Sil. ly 78 70. 

362 BABDiNAPALLi cf. B. NleBBe de SaidaDapalli epitaphio duplici 
(diaaert. with ind. leott. Marbuig 1880, 4to). 


U the time of the Uegalea. 
■'81 hia friend p ■ ■ • 

i (193), . 

irly i 

April, Inv. 

_ _ _ . „il dinner. 

Thi rich epicure in odmiied; tbe poor, derided: onr bnaBekeepiDg and 
out whole plitn of life sboiild be in jost proportion to our means (1 — 38). 
Kuj, it is tme, neglect tbis golden role; tbej riot for a wbile at Borne, 
ttd then retire to Baiae, to avoid their creditors (SB — 55). 

To-iB.j, my friend, yon may judge wliether I praetise tbe fmgaKty 
nhinh I preacb ; whether I live like the wortluea of those good old times 
wiien heaven itself guarded our city {S6 — llfl), or, like their pampered 
dMoendnnts, can relish no meal but such as is aerved on the ooetliest 
titles, by tbe most expert and elegant elavee (120 — 161). I«t richer 
man enliven their feasts by voluptuouB eonga and dances : here you may 
listen, if you Till, io Homer or his rival Virgil {162—132). 

Leave then all care behind you ; leave to younger men tbe dissipation 
of the Circus, and epend the festival with me in enjoymenta better enited 
to onj years (183-208), 

Whether Persicus is a real or fictitionn character docs not appear ; it is 
not certain that Invenal nould have hesitated to addresa a living friend 
in snoh verses as 186 seq. 

a. Hor. B. II 2, ep. i 5. Mart, v 78. 
luiariong famiture Clem, M. paed. ii c. 
old Bomans VM. ir i. 

1^23 the coat of onr table must be proportioned to □iti' means; what 
ia dne state in Atticns, is stark madness in Rotilns. Many men waste 
tbetr estate in dainty livio;;, till at last they are lain to enlist as aword- 
playera. and pnt np with the hodge-podge of the trainer's barrack, 

1 21 aa, 171—8. cf. vm 182 n. imcoa Ti. Claudins 

Attiena (father of Eerodes Atticus), who discovered an immense treaanre, 
th« entire enjoyment of which was allowed him by Merva (Philogtr. 
Eoph. u 1 g 3. Zonar. xi 20). He woa twice consul (Philoatr. g 1. Said. 
'HpiiSiTi), 'the firat time before 659 n,c, fur he must have been the 
Attioiu oonsnlar legate of Syria in the tenth year of Trajan (Eus, h.e. 
Ill 32 5J 3. 6).' BoBoaEBi ceuviea v 532—3. 
l^UTDB I 67 u. Varro in Gel!, am 11 § S, 2 ntiT:t.DB xiv 13 a 

ICHINNO HI 101). CACBINNO HI 152—3 n, 

3 n. Apion the grammarian wrote a m&no- 


in^ph on bis laxnrj Ath. 39'!''. 


foTO litigare. »i 
audilar. ilian 
bybliotheeat, the 

4 coNTicrcs I 145 □. j 

quotidiano li 

«, ;ui6u> attuereram, ijuafTO, tt vidtor tuihi in altmo 
aid est mini, quod in libellii mtii plaeeat, dieUtrit 
idicioTum ivbtilitatem, illud vtateriamtn ingenium, 
tro. couviotOB. in qaibui itudere tt voluptatei non 

' ' !, derideranu* 

iti'uni, ad lunimani omnia tlln, quat dilit-ali rfftji 
9iuii{ deacituti. cf. Friedliinder i> S33. 343—8. 

yn 333 n. Mart, y 20 8 — 10 of an easj lite of enjoTinent, sti geitatio, 
fabalae, Ubelli, | camjiui, porlicm, umbra, virgo, therm Be, | haeceitent 
loea temper, hi laborti, stuiones Plin. ep. 1 13 g 2 pUriqae 

in atationibiis icdent, lemputqiu auditndi fabnlis eonterunt. ib. ii9|5 
ambio dotaoi Etationeaque eircumeo. Gell. zm IS § 1 cum ex aiiffulU 
tecretitgue Ubrorura oc nu^iitroruni in Tiudium iam bomiaum et in bictm 
fori prodititm, quaesilum elte memini in pleriiqae Romae statianiblia 
im pablice docintium ant retpondentitim, an qaasitor populi liomani a 
praetore in itu voeari pouel, dig. ikv:i 10 15 S 7 ad Btationem eel 
tabtrnam.^ Tborlucii prolosiones et opuse. ncad. Copenh. ISOG □. S. 
■'wfrittii. \4sxiu- Special ttationci near the [onun for provincial toWna 
Suet. Ner. 87. Plin. iti % 236. 6 ee bdiilo aapply loquan- i 

tuT riir 181. «T 189. Modvig g 447 d. Niigelabacl. § 183. 

wortby qnalitiea, manly vigoar. Terg. Aen. y 476 }uu«/«mnt iavena- 
li in corpora virea. Or. am. i 5 28 qiiam iuvenale femarl 6o 
iuvtnaliter. See Mliblmann and Doilerlein Synon. t 49. 
g QALEAE Til 83patje7i9 caseidia. be migbt have won honour in the flel4 
of battle [Quintil] decL 9 g 9 facinat indignum, tllum animum, illwa 
ardorem nan conligitie tattrit, non billieii eertaminibui, vbi verae 
virtati miUa pugnandi lege praemiam praeieribitnr t Calpnm. deol. 50 
■iNFiifTg tJOK uiLiTET. Yir toitia in piratua incidit ; rescripsit patri 
de redemptione ; illo cesaanta, redemit enm lanista et mdem ei in 
hareua dedit. reTecso belli tempore denuntiat militiaili impeiator.' 
cf. luT. Yiii 199 n. FEBTHB '19 reported;' itia the/aftula of j 

erery loange. 7 cooente viii 193 n. The tribune (of. Tn i 

238 n.) has not indeed assigned over Kntilus'a estate to his ereditora, and 
BO driven him t» eng^e himaetf to tbe laniita for bis bread; (Bntilne is 
not djimnatiu adftmim dig. ixviii 1 B § 4. Gai. i IS. Ulp. 1 11); bnt yet 
he haa not inter|)osed to aave him from a degradation irorae thain ablvery 
(tut 199 It.). Prohibeo vraa the technical form of interceiiio on behalf j 
of a oitizea Oell. vi^vii 19 g 5, and the chief function of tbe tribonste . 
-was jealoasly to gaard tbe freedom of Boman citizens. Mommsen Btaats- 
recht i» 27 n. 2. 366 n. 2. 26G n. 7. bed nbc Ot. Pont. 

ill9 nee voahae vullii, eed nee pr oh ibeiojiof cilia. Mart, vi 76 4. x 1 
18 2 (cited III 97 n.) Hand, iv 117. uso pbohibkhtb Stat. ( 

a. I 2 193 nee me prohibente. g '^ 132 n. Sen, ep. 87 and 

99 (cited vi:i 199 n.}. Qointll. decl. 9. 302 'quiiiam nt patrem Bepeliret, ' 
anctoravit se: die mnnere pioduetus sub titulo caaaae rndem postn- | 
lante popalo accepit: postea patrimoninm etatutum per leges equitibna j 
acqnisivit, prohibetnr gradibae ' (the lav enacting 'gladiator in quattnor- I 
decim gradibaa ne aedeat') p. 586 Burmon ri creditor post datum j 
pecuniam optrat TemiiitieC, dicerea earn gladialorem/iiistet...illamergo I 
maioret prokihaerunt theatro, qui utitilaU, qni gnla se anctoraaaet. 
Freemen who engaged themselTes aa gladiators {se auctnrabanl), were 
Bworn to obediEnee Petron. 117 tn verba Euiaolpi eacranifnUim iuraHmut, 


( quiei/uid aliud Eumolpiu 

in. ep. 37 gg 1 2 illius tnr- 
piBiimi ftucloramenti yeroa a nut: 'nci, vinciri (erroqne 
ntcad.' ab his, qui manualiarBQaelocaiit et ednnt ao bibnnt, 
qaae per aangataem leddanl. cavetur, ut iatu vel inviti pati- 
iDtnr. cf. [Qointil.] decl. 9 g 23 venit in harenam bomo nee 
■Hlaiatna nea intelii. aoqnando, iudioes, boo audistiBf el. 
En. B. nT fiS Heladoir. The taiiiitae ars called daclorit (VM. 11 8 g 2 
tM Iwla C Aurtlii Scauri doctoribus gladiatoTDm arcetiilii vitandi 
atqiu iB/trindlictui lUbtilioTfm ralianem Ugioaibui ingetKravit. Q^til. 
dtiL 3W. FriedlSnder ii' S56 — 7 doctorei mynaillon'um frpni iaacrip- 
ti(mB)or niDjiilri (Cie. da or. 111 g 8Bm agister hie Samnitium...<]uotidie 
tunamtatur); ibeir lessons, dktata Snet. Caes. 20 Casanbon. Tert. od 
muL I nee tantiu /go lum, ut vos altoqvar; venimtamen et gladiatores 
prrfalitiiitutt tion tanlum magiatri et praepoaiii mi, ted etiam idialae et 
tapmaaa quique ad)uirtantur de longinquo, uC laepe de ipso populo 
diclita tuggnta profaerint. ecridtubub esse cf. publ. 

sob. Lit. BT. S 03 1 *?■ 34B. LiNiarm iii 158 n. Sen. ep. 

87 { IS qw)d contentptUiimo cuiqve contingere ac titrpUiimo poteit, boniim 
(WD tst; opts taUem tt lenoni et lauititae cantingwtt. Spartian. Hadr. 
18. Quintil. dec). Q S 22. 278. The fallen noble'a rex, from ^bom be 
reesiveB laict, is a ianitta! cf. v 170 — S n. on the voliintar7 Blaverj of 
Irenuber-knightB. [Qnintil] dec!. 9 g 7 teneitli serTilia arma el igrwmi- 
Hitiia morte peTittao. §22 ilhid vera exUtimo graviits, nomen gladia- 

in erllulam, ferret mgvnam, maBintrnm, permnain diniqut setUriil il). 
i 15 fin. piratiB laniatiaque. g 13 fin. calaiaitatant mearum gradus, 
piratam, lanistam. 10 Hor. b. i 2 9 omnia aonductis 

eoemem obionia tiummii. uicsttt 61 n. v 96 □. Ter. enn. 

2S5 — 8 ad macellam ubi adeenimiis, \ concurrunt laeti mi obviam cuppe- 
dinarii oranei, | etlarii, lanii, eaqui, fariorti, piicalorei, \ q-aibiitetre lalva 
et perdita. profueram. H qniBua is bolo vivendi cinsi TiZiTo 

■ST »n 60 SI. GcU. xn 3 S 7 (Itience Macr. 11 8 g 16, cf, Wjtt. on Pint. 
II 21') Socratei qiiidem dicebat viulloi kominet propterea Telle yivere nt 
edeient et blberest, le bibere atqw aie ut viveret. Aug. de mngistro 
9 I 36. Sil. m 330. tivendi cauba tiii 84 n. 12 EOBEains 

man; eu. of Bucb forms (e.g. lobrior, industrior) in Eiibner (IS7T) 1 970. 
Haaae on Eeiaigp. 172, Nene ii> 112—4. 089. cf. Madvig adv. i 117. 
Sen. de clem. 1 13 § 3 noxior. Piisiiimu, wbioh Cio, ridicules aa a bar- 
bariBiu in Antonins (Phil. 13 § 43), Ib fonnd in Toe. Sen. etc. 

13 ET ciTO CAaUBUs I 83 Simagni delator amici | et oito rap turns. 
On the rare nae of tbe part, see Eiaer 185. pi!iu.t:csNrE ii 78. Sen. 

Here- L 1001 perlucet omnii rrgia. Holiday 'he's aet | on riot most, 
that Btill 13 moBt in debt, [ and soon mnat fall ; you may aee through the 
lent.' 14 >HrEBEA 'while min threatena. ouBTUBhere (cf. cisiu) con- 
crete of the tbiiig tasted = loporei. Colmn. iii 2 g 5 a aite for a vineyard 
in qua gnataa nobilii pTetioiuique Jluil. Petron. 77 fin. prefer et tin^iun- 
lun etex ilia amphora guBtum (of wine), ex qua iubeo lavari oiia mea. 
£L£>1BNIA tbieneb air, earth, and watery 94 n. Luc I 166 — IG3 
e,g. infudere epultu aura, quod terra, quod aer, ] quod pelaguB, Niiiu- 
gue didit, quod luxui inaiti I ambilione furent toto qvaeiivit ill orbe, \ non 

-■- '— - QnintiL v 10 g 21. Gell. n=yii 16 § 6 peragrantia 

!0B inqnirentisiuduBtriam atque haa nndiqae 

riiww rinndt 

the chapter gireE front Ybito xtpl 

■ nda ingluviea veatigaTit 
irhole reign of Yitelliiia was 

le diahca retained thename 'VitelliaD'}. Hior. ep. 6'2 — 3 BdNepoiuu. 
I G (1 361° al. Vgc 1766) nani tt genera et nomiiia pueiuui, in quo litore 
eoneha lecta lit callta: laporihiti avium diicemo pnmiiuiat ; et oibornm 
pretiosocam me raritaa aa auviBBima damua ipsa deleotant. 
]b. 13 (306') quid prodeit moluatias qnaBdain dilfionltateBqDe 
cibornm quaerere. IS ijyrENDiB...iovAMT x 339 n. 

Iill 141. Madvig g 348 n. 3. pnbL sch. p. g 211. Bob? % 1571. 

lI*aiB ILLS. lUTiKT, QDAE PLUBIB KUDNTDK 11 D. 120—9, T 94 n. 

Hor. B. n 2 15— 52. Petron. 93 alea PhaBiaeia patita Colchis | 
atqas Afiae volacres place ntpalato, { quodnon sunt facileE; 
at alliia aaier | et piclit aniu renovala pianit \ pUbeiamtapit. altimie 
ractas scams ntqae aiata S;rtiB | si qnid uaufiagio 
dadit, p'roLatur. | mullus iam gravis est. ai ' ■" ' 

detur. ib. 119 7— S non vulgu uotu placabant I gaudia, nan ded 
plabeio trita voluptas. Son. ep. 122 S H omnia conoapiaoentl 
uilt oonteniDsnti, pruat magno aatparvo emptn aaat, fatHdio 
ent luiaca gratuititm. % 18 cauia tanien praecipila mihi videtur Autut morbi 
vitas CDininunia laatidium. id. qu. cat. iv 13 %S S i. id. eous. 
HelT. 10 § G o miierabiltt, quorum palatum nisi ad ptetioEoa 
uiboB noa eiaitatar! pritioio* autn/i nan eximiua tapBT.,.iied raritoi et 
iliffieultai parandifaeU...omiui rtgionii pfTvagantur, maria traieinnt it, 

cum famem exlguo possint tedare, magno irritant, ib. gS 2— 3. QuintiL , 
V 12 S 19 nujaquma tamen hoc conlinget malia moribut regnum, nt, siqna 
pratioBa fooit, (eoetit et bona. Plin. mi % 3. 

17 EKDt) theretore, sinos the; like expense for its onu eakc, tliey naake no 
lioiiseience of paivuine the fiunily plate. peiiixijb4ii i 18 n. 

Pliaedr. iii S 5. to be eqaandered on tbeii appetite. 18 orso^ 

n Catullus's pun 26 Ellia FuH, vUluia noitra non ad Auttri | 
Jfatui oppoBita tit neijue ad Favoni. | ...veium ad milia quindeoim 

it ducantoa. | o vcntuia horribiUia atque pestilentem! 

lATBiB ijiAoiNE TBiUti hs dsfacGB a silver medalliun of bis mother, and 
pawns it as old silver. Plio. hit g 4 imaginum qvidem pictura, qua 
rnaidme limilei inaeviim propagabanturjigurae, in totum exolevit. aerci 
ptmurUuT clipei, argent eae faciea, lurdo Jlgurarum diierimine staliiwiim 
capita permutantur, vttlgatia iam pridem lalibiu etiam eanaimaa. adto 
materiam compici jnalutU omnee qtiam le nosci. et inter Auec pinacolhecai 
veteribaa tabutii conmimit alienaiqae ejigies calimt, ipsi honorem non 
nlai in pretio dncentes, nt fraugat hares furisqne detrahat 
laqneuB. Silver statues ib. miii % 151, 

19 QtriDBisaBNTts 4UU eeatercea. condirb to load 

with dniuties. 19 20 Qitlosdm fictilc a con- 

tradictio in adiecto lil;e in IBS IS3 umbitiusa paupertate. Eier. ep. 107 

— 1 ad Laetam § 10 facianl hoc cuttores Isidu et Cybelei, qui gulosa 
obstinentia Fhasidii aves ae /unuiiites turturei norant, IM ici'iiMt 
Crrealia dma contamincnt. 20 fictii^ his plate 

is in pawn, bo that he must eat his delicacies oft earthenware. lu lli8n. 
fictilibns cenare pudet. eic achol, ' cnm nou 

Labeant, nude mauauceut, distraheut se ad ludum.' 


MisCELUNEA acbol. 'ctbns gladiatoium ideo iiiieceUanaa, 

gd amniu, qiute appoDiiDtur eis, miacent et sic mttuduouit.' (juintil. 
dwl. 9 3 6 alebat deTotam oorpaa gravior omni fame eagina et 

iotet deblta noise mancipia contev^titninat tiro gladiator <Im- 

eiban qnotidie teelut. ib. % 10 quid praeiliti t quod lanisla gla- 

diktori, exiguam xtipem et oibos semper petendoa. 

LDDi -nil 199 n. [QnintU.] deol. 9 § 21 in lado fni : qn» 
poena nollam nltetiorem aoelera noTsrnnt, cuiut ad nompara- 

liOBem ergaattilam Uve est morabar inter lacriUgoi, itu:endiarioi tt, 

jiKu fladiatoribus viia laiu cit, homicidal, incliuoi tarpiore cmtodia (t 
•wriidd ceUanan »itu. 21 £boo aiora so many 

ate ruined by Inziu;, men give it a bad name tu those ot nanow means ; 
while in tbe rich it is extolled aa gtiieruiiit]' or tastH 1. viii 182. 

BDTI1.0 S. Nil! not found in thii 

posilinn in pcose untbora. HaadTarBell. it 3. Beetle; on Hor. e. u fl 
Ifl. Oielli ib. 3 30. 22 tksticio divite. 

23 BUUIT tlie Enbject is haec eadem parart, wbiob ia 
«lio the sali|ect of ett. 

23 — 38 in bU things great and small ' know thyself,' attempt nothing 
beyond thy power ; Uius Sourates disregarded natural philosophy in 
compuiBon with Eolf-lmuwledge Plat. apol. ly^, I'haod, 9ti seq. rep. 
629. Xen. m. 1 1 § 11. iv 7 g 0. cf. Sen. ep. 88. Encyalupae^lia learning 
wu in fashion, even In poetry (in imitation of tha Alciaudriue schoal) cf. 
Lncan, the Aetna eln. 24 ""» Aen. iv 481 

maiimuB Atlas, ib. 246 seq. Probably the aaholiasts may have dis- 
pntod (Diintzcr) abont the absolnte or relative height of the mountain 
lliiij himaareil with a snperiative vii 284—6 n. 

2S BicHerm. in Halm on Cic. Vatin. § 24 gives other eTi. of relative 
lectancee, in the second alaose of which, instead of repeating the rel^ 
tin, the writer employs the demonstrative. The sentenoe is one, in 
trUch two conCrasted olauses are conneoted as coordinate, in snob a wi^ 
that nhile the two together soit the meaning of the context, one ot them, 
takai apart from tbe other, will not. Horn. * fi77— 8. Cio. Catil. 1 1, 
aiiirsnb. on Cic. p. Arch. p. lei. p. Mil. g 88. Phil. 2 § 110 1. 6 n. do fin. 

'il^Madvig. Liv. u 12 § 2 C Maci-un, etii indignum videbatnr, popn. 

lamEomannm servientam, cum anb regibus easet, nnllo hello 
aeo ab hoatibns nllia obsesanm ease, tibernm enndem popa- 
Inm ab isdem Etrnscia obsideri. Teoflel on Hor. a. ii 7 109. Plin. 
ff. 1 12 9 13. Iti § 8. Qnintil. n 7 g 8. x 3 § 29. Lact. de ira Dei 10 
lU. Eur. Andi. 2Qe seq. IT. 116— 7. Schmidt on Aesch. PV. 507. 
llie.TgS9. Antiph. inHarpocr, a. v.aTa(ru:in^ (Sauppeii 138). DChrys. 
ta-. 36 I 316 13 Dind. Cobet v. 1.' 569. Madvig adv. i 453. Hand Tiir. 
wll. 1 360. Herbat oa Quintil. x 2 § 6. Here it ia not for the stady of 
AErioon geography that the man is despicable, bnt for neglecting more 
netwiaary stndiee. Cic. Plane. § 41 Holden. 26 "nc^ x 25 d. xiv 36? 
960 aerate tiaiUaa in area | Jiscut. Catnll. 23 1 Furi, cui negue, itrrut 
tit jieqae area. Cio. porad. ti 1 g 44 ammut lioraitiis dinei, non area 
apfeltari tolet. Ptittedr. it 12 2. Groa. on San. ep. 81. Har, s. 1 1 67. 
briason or Dirksen (and inacr. iud.) under arcari\a. 

27 BACcci,us iiT 138. CatnU. 13 7 B nam fui Catulli \ plnuu 
saceuluH est aranearvm. Mart, complaining that he hod spent his little 
all on a wealthy orbtu v 39 7 txciasi loctiloaqtu saccnlumijur. id. si 
S U. Saccui and saeculia are Irec^uent in the jurists (see Birkaen's 
Diannalej. nctELO ii ib. Stat. s. 1 1 2 Hand 


rsnei 2BATT0S. 


Dftelone ptractum \JluxU opiul Qniutil. i 6 ^ 16 (cf. Parens ad I. p. 76 
Bunnan) nan evim, cum primum Jingercniiir hoininei, analogia demisaa 
cselo /ormam loquendi dedit. Tert. apol. 4 li lex laa erravit, puto, ab 
homi/ie cotucpta lit; neque enim de caelo ruit. Eeerwagen on Lit. 
iin 29 g 3. E ciEMi HEBOBNDiT yniOi asaiTir 

Xen, Kjrop. tii 2 g| 20—35 oraelB given by the Deiphio Apollo to 
KiDeaos. memor. if 2 g§ 2i — SO mscdption at Delphi witli commentary. 
Plat. Pbileb. 48° eeq. vheie, referring to the Delphio inscription, ha dia- 
linguiBbea three kicda of eelf-iguurance, relating to mind, body and 
eBtate. Protag. 343° Heindorf (tiie aeven sages met at Delphi and dedi- 
cated in Apollo's temple the fiTBt-fmits of their wisdom, yfdijiai^et ratrra 
a S)| rdrrii ipvikri, yrMffi cavrdr ml li^ir JLyar. cf. I'aos. x 24 g It. 
Fhaedr. 23Sr 230' (oL Tert. de an. 17 p.m.). Alkib. i 124'". 129». ISfl-. 
Charmid. 164"— 166". Ilidiculed by Aristopb. nub. 842 yoiinti Si crau- 
riv i/t i/iaSi)i et ta! raxfis. Philemon in 8ir>b, &. xxii 4 tb 7vuSi travrir 
o6 ii6.T7jr fS M' iri [ li ^rjiio, TouTo Siiay Ir AtK<ji»i Ix'i. Menand. ib. 
m (the book is headed npl toE: yr. a.) 2 and S. Fhilo de eoran. i 10 
([ 6^9 M), Stob. ib. 26 from the work ot Porphyry irepi tou ya. a. ascribed 
to Phemonoa the first priestess, to Fhanotiiea, Bias, Thales, Chilon ; 
KlearehoB said that it waa Apollo's response to Chilon when he asked 
vhat was man's highBsl good; Aristotle Ir Ta?t rtpl ^\aaartliii said that 
the inscription ^as there before Chilon's time. The i^nestiou of author- 
ship let UB leave unsettled : one thing at all events is indisputable, that 
it was spoken either by God or net nithout Uod. [Heraclit.] fr. lOS By. 
water iptfpwTronri irSo-i fi^Tcim yiytiinKeiv ^avroili lai tru^potfoi. Plut. 
11 116'' two ot the Delphic maxims most necessary for hfe tvuSi Biairrir 
and iiii5ir ayar, each of -whioh contains the other: he cites Ion ri yrQSi 
BavTir, toDt' Iitst /till o6 /itya \ tpyor B' Siror Zcil p,iyos trurmTai Stdli. 
ib.I61<>Wytt.385''. Plnt.Demostb. 3 g 1. DL. i§ 40 Menage, paroemiogr. 
1 391. II 19 Leutsch. anthol. Fal. ix 366 1 (transl. iu Hygin. Jab. 221 
and by Aua. Tii sap. sent, ad fin.) jirrd im^r ipia tar liros Tr6Xir, spKi/ia, 
^ar-iy. I 3 XIXuv S' ir KolX'g Aaceinifion, yrHBi irtauT6i', Boiss. ancod. 
I 127 n. 138. Iulian211°. Cic.legg.igC8. Tnsc. i g 62 Davies. de fln.T 
S 44 wc must study nature: al(t»' fni'm uosmet ipsoa nosse non poi' 
lumua. quod pruetjeptum quia maius erat, quam uf ab havtim vtiiercfur, 
idciTco BSfiignatum est deo. jubet igitur iwa Pythins Apollo nos- 
oereuosmet ipaofl. Varro's sat. Menippea 7™fi( tt. (13 fragmeuts after 
Biicheler's Petron. 1872 179 ISO). Ov. a. a. ii 493 500 lead yonr 
disciples, says Apollo, to my temple, eit ubi diveratira Jama celetirata per 
orJem I Jitoro, cognosci qnae sibi quemquo inbet. Ban. cons, ad 
MftTO. 11 fi 3 Aoo videlicet ilia Pythieis oracnlis aacripto, nosce ta. 
ep. 94 S 38. Flin. tu g 119. Uinno. Fel. S g S. Tert. apol. 18 tu homo, 
tantam w>men, ei intellegBH te vel de tittilo Pythiae discons. Aua. 
lud. VII sap. 'Indius' 1 — 3 Belphit Solonem icripse Jama ttt ^ttictim | 
yvSiBi tfavrbf quod latinnm est ' nosce te.' | multi lioe Xncontf eut 
Chiloni$ putant. ih. ' Chilon' 6— 15. Macr. Eat. i G § 6. coinm.i9§2 
{qaotea our text). Stdon. o. 3 163. 15 EO. anthol. 35B. 973 Meyer. 
Ambr. in pa. 118 serm. 2 g 13 Mases far older than the philosophera who 
ascribed the saying to Apollo. Bernard serm. de divers. 40 g 3. aatm. in 
cant. 86 gg 5 — 7. Special treatises by Abelard (fhis ethics or icilo tc 
ipmra, printed in Fez anccd. lii 2), Sir John Davies (bis fine poem noica 
te Ijxumj. A tract by John Haaon (tl7C3) 'setf-knowlcdge' has been 
often prmted (Oerm. by A. Wagner Leipz. 1822, modem Greek by 
Adaufit Corfu 1821). See F, A. Bohren de aeptem eapieutibuB Bonn 

1867, Karetea de aftatia delpliicia /i-iiin dynp et y. a. in symb. lit, BaUV, 
n$7seq. On tbe Helf-eiaminatian inculcBted by the ancieat moraliBti 
«e BeinhMd chrietl. Moral Wirtanb. IBIB t 128—32. of. Rothe theolog. 

ittn U iige qafrellai. 29 coNiooinu Aesoh. 

PV. B90=918 BlonifieU ri ryfifOiiat kiB' iavrov ipiartitt /iitipv. Kallim. 
(pigt. 1 IG oZtu «tl ei 7 iiW t*i» Kari. ffavrir l\a. Plut. ii 13' Wjtt 
DL 1 BO Menage, paroem. i 314. ii 674 Leulscb. Ov. her. 9 32 ti qua 
mlet aple ntihere, nabe pari. Aus. tii Bap. lent. 'Snlon' 2 par pari 
infalor eordax : q-uicquid impuT, diiaidet. Cliauoer the niillerea tale pr. 
'he knew not Caton, far bia wit was rude | that bade a man eliulde wed 
liis Bunilitude. | men Bbnlden wedden after bir estate.' 

8ENATC8 Sea. eontr. 9 ( = ii 1) g 17 censne Benatorium 
ertdnm ascend it. centui equittm Itotaanum a plebe diecernit, 
30 icEiLLia for tbe ooutest between Aiai and Uliies for tho aima of 
AbhillBE c(. TH IIS n. X 84 n. 31 tbebsites eontraated with Achilles 

m nu 369—71. Eplkt. diss, ir 23 g 32 the one the type of beauty, the 
nlbn of ugliness. Themiat. or. 7 p. S6' in Homer we bear not only 
Aehilbi claiming the prieonerB, but eren the ridiouloua Theriitei. Vopisc 
^nl. I Inniua TiberianuB to VopiscuB: ergo Theisiten . . ceteraqiie 
Ulaptodigia uetmtatii ft nos bene icimiu et poitcri frequentabant, and 
dwU Anrelian remain unknown f Spengel rhet. n 119 29. ThersiteB 
u ( candidate lor Acbillee' arms a Btock example of the Bcboola 
■Bokrates' in Stob. fl. it 119 offre t4 toI; 'Ax'^^^ut »»■>"' t^j 
Oe^fJrjj BUTt T* Tji T^xv ^yBi rip aippon Apiiirra. Luo, adv. ind. 7 
JiraWe often bought Homer, let Bonie one read to jou IL ii wbere is 
deserilied Sttnirrepiiy ira77AwDi if3piix<n, Sidm-^a^oi ri aH/ui Kal \c\<ii- 
fvUm. itfiyos roivuy i raiairo, ti Xd^oi Ti,v 'AxiXX^ias *<ii>oir\la», 
Mold that make him fair and etrong, would he leap the river and slay 
HllOorr Nay, iKKi. Kaiyi\ijTa Sp i*Xiff«t£roi X"^fl>«'' *"* TV '»"'»< 
■-r.X. Inv. like Soph. (Philokt. 145 echol.), anpposes Tbeisitea to buTS 
Wniyed Aebillea : otberwiee ArktinoB (in whoEe Aethiopia, Prokl. 
eiiMtom. ad cale. HepbaeeL 478 GaiEf, 'AxiXXtis eeetrlTij* dtntficl, XoiSo- 
fiMt r/iis bvtdS Kal ifniutStit tcv Irl TV IteyBeiiXtlf ^fyi^frtui tpura. 
Alimn lit. anc. Or. ii 282), Chaeremon (in bia tragedy 'Ax'^'^^ ^'pi't- 
n«ri»«, Welcker Griech. Trag. ni 1086), Quintua Calaber (Poatbora. 
I 7ia seq.), Tietzea (PoBtbom. 205. ad I^ykopbr. 99DI and Eustath, 
m. n 219). THiNSDiHiEBiT Till 17 n. Mart, vi 

774 G being poorer than Iros, younger than ParthenopaeQa, stronger 
^na Arlemidoma in the heyday of hia yiotories, why do you iuBiat on 
>i^ carried in a palanquin by eix Cappadociana t rideria mulloque 
^SU Iraduceris, A/er, \ qtiam nudut medio li tpatiere /on. Sen. b«n. 
'llT S5 Tnallgaii lusaribui propoiitvm est conltuorem tradncere. of. 
Ov. wet. nil 103 aeq. 32 SEU T 

wring been intemipled by the parenthesis (negjM. ..!/(.) a 
Itiilowa in the ind. lu Beutley on nor. c. i u id. 

>> n e 83 ille. Lne. ii G37— nee Fharnacit arma relinqaat { admonto 
fe tu populai ulraqiu vagantei | Armenia, eo ilte Aeu. i 3 Forbiger, 
=tthBHoroBrio87f Kiihuergr. Gr. ii> SG5. 735. 
33 IE coKBULE Fera. iv 52 tecum habila, et norii quala til tibi cuHn 

34 VBBIUESS 3(.v4l. 




c aliquando | et bent: ^'b ntutmm; die aliguanJo 
II 10 3 4(his eitravagoDt luBt). 90. viii J3. xt 68. 
"IS declaimer) Bctmeidovrin reads Uaron. 

■ojjpidabuocae. Mart, i It 
I 140 gula. 35 noscxndji Tae. it SS 

I panpertatin habft, Heir te 

= 73 ad Vigilant. § SprudentU homi- 
sui Zmnpt 
§ 434. RftiDshorii pp. 632 — 3. The possessiTe pron. Beldom Btonda for 
tlio oy«(ii'e geo, 37 iinj:iiif it 15 n. I 

QOBio i.o. tie price of n ijoiiD Plant, aain. S89 — 590 I 
rrrberarrm | aBJnoa si fortt ocetpfriiit elamare htnc ex crulnina. id, I 
Irnc. 646. Ferea 317 bovea bini hie aant in crnmina. ib. S64. j 
GadgeoQ (gobio jiuviatilU), Fr. gmgan, ia a deriTative (cf. Dibio Dijon). ' 
Mart, nil S8 tn VenelU ainl latita licet convitia ttrrit, { printipittm cenat 
RObina eeie tolet. Colmn. Tm 17 S 1^ eniguusqae gobio. Ana. idyll. 
10 133 gobio nan major geminii line polliee palmii, eta. Aristippos, 
vben taunted for bia taiine Bubmisaion to the inaolence of Dionyains 
DL. II § 67 'tlra of ixif <&««' lira ' iTro^TOitri fmlriffBai rf SaXdrTj,, In 
eripAauiiiiy iyii It fii Ariax'^)^'^' Kpd/iaTt fiardvjmi, &a p\fmr 
Aopu; '^i- ESt. Paul. Aegin. i 103 Aiiama. 3g loculis i 89 c Hart. 
[Bupja 37 n.). 

38—55 'When yon have Bold jonr all to fill jonr maw, and glattOQf 
groTa with want, what will your end be? Yon will pawn the ring from 
yonr finger, the badge of yonr birth, and beg. Not an ' nnripe' fnncMl, 
but a broken old age is the prodigaVB worst terror. Borrowing, bank- 
ruptcy, fiigbt, these are the stagea of rain. Hor are they ashamed of 
fajluie; but for the ganie«, not a tie binds them to their home. Modesty 
is laughed ont of town ; no drop of modest blood remains to flash ths 

p u prob. from Hor. cp. i 4 11 non detioiente crumena. 

138 n. 40 UBHBiB Ot. m. nii 813—4 iamquefant 

palriai altique Toragine ventria | atlenaarat opei. Hor. ep. 1 16 Bl 
Obbnr. Phaecir. it 6 9. Hence voTago, gurgei, barathrum, applied to 
gourmands. Macr. m 13 (:^ii 9} g Q vf tacfOTa Qurgitem n devorato 

patrimonio cogjiomijiatma, MeteltTis Piia in qaam fOTsam 

lazns tt ivperbiae luccetiuvm conlinvatioae pervenit? Apnl. mag. 75 
fin. luv. xiT 9. 41 ABOERn OBATiB plato Sen. trauq. 1 g 7 argentnm 
grave railici patri), sine itllo opere et nomine artijieig. 42 A 

souiMiB frnm the owner's house and estate, so exirt in Ter. with ab Thaide, 
B me, ais U, a palre. notibbimcs kxit same words in Ov. 

m. II lie. XI 296. soTissiuns vi 35,'>— 6 hari? tamnt argentl 

Baperest quodcumqae paterni | levibu) alhletie et vasn. noTisaims 
donat. In the time of Varro (1. 1. vi g 69) Aelins Stila and others 
branded the nae of mimisimiim = extTeiB«m as a neoterism. Oell. X 31 
Cie, also eschewed it, though used by M. Cato and Sail. Such ownera 
are utript of everything. but it passes ont of the 

family. Cic. Yerr. ii § 61 ad ittum itlot mivimoi, quiper limulationem ab 
iatoe.ierant, rfwriisM. It is a legal term dig. iin 77 g 11 ■! eharge 
my heirs not to alienate my Tnscnlnn estate, el jie defamilia nomiitii met 
eieat.' ib. g 28. 88 § 6, ixxii 38 g 1. 94. Gains defines deminutum 

3 21 quod usucaptan eitet tt ob id de heriditale eiiit, Orelli 
*386-7. 43 isnuiB laat of ell of their ring. 

ttie Bjinbtil of eqneatrian rank 129. i 28, vii 16 n. 89. cf. Suet " " 
eitm in adloqucndo fxhartandoque gaepitit digilum iofvite taanufi 
odfirmaTft, ic ad laiiifacitndani (ymnibta, pur quoi dignitalem eiiam di 

5T T e of one vha maalered in pniple aboat the aaepta with a crowd of 
ntainere and hntnii-Dew pBlanqaui oppigQeravit modo modo sd 

(. Apul, m^. 73 eum widique vermint tabalis fitgitaretar, negat 

foue dimalcire, annlos aureos el omaia ituignia dignilatii abiait; 
«IM triditoribaa depaciMilUT. Friedmnder i* 269— 2TS. 

43 poLuo II B — 8 TO171 erit }uic fade mUerahiliar CreperHiH | 
Follio, qai triplicem asaram praestare paratna | ciroumit et 
EktooBnon invcnit. 44 45 see the Bccoimt 

of J^ciufl IV 23 n. Kiaer 162—4 maliBB liizariaf gen. and places these 
KMs (44 45) 1*3 the reply to the qneation quit exitai t after 41, Bajing 
Bnlj (el. 1 144 Afnc xtibilae moHet] that rakes had reason (n fear an early 
iaOt, md that > mora vou metiTendu est, aed morte magis eenectna,' is 
npL But the gen. Beema harsh, and the trimsposition needless. ' Kot 
u Bulj fnneral (that etanding terror to Koman supentitio i 241 n.), hut 
dM age votae than death ia vhat luxury has to dread.' 

44 niNca acerb™ Plant, aain. 595 ftcerbum tnnaa Jillae facUt. 
ini.T[429fnnere mersil aoarbo. Serviuaadl. ' (K. inunatnro : tranaf 
luio $. pomis est.' id. ib. in 64. xi 143. Cic. Tusc. ni § 20 troiiBlateE 
lainmT iiipoi's, aul mortem acerbam. Nep. Cimon 4^4. Liv. vii 1 

Hmm qvam mattira, dm BBerba(Madi-ig'e qwmms tauuu ig 

ll(«diesB). Sen. ad Marc. 9 | 2 (it praeter domum mutram dueuntur txte- 
^•iat:dt moTle nan togitaima. tol aeerba funera: not logani jtoalrorutu 
Aibntium, vo) mililiani et pattrnae herediialii lucceieiimeja agttamus 
Wi'w. id. ep. 89 § 18. 132 % 10 guantulum eiiim a fnnere o6itin(, et 
pfJnaaeerbo, qui ad /(k^ etceremvitninlt Tac siii 17 p.m. Plin, op, 
^S|4 nihi autrm vidtlur acerba semper et immittara mora tomm, qvi 
fifartale aliquid parant. ib. 16 g 6 o tri»te plane acezbumqne 
'unBl o marts ipsa mortis tempua indigniusl (Jurt. ix 6 g 19 ■ 
^cam benam diutumam vitamexistiTaantes laepe acerhi taonoeciipat. J 
Qlintiluui had lost hia children ti pr. § 4 jihm utiqae intneriloi motl il 
iiatba damnavit, trepta mibi pritis matrt eorundem, quae tumdam txpUlo m 
vluti vndtriceiimo anno duos ttdxajilioa, quamvii aoerbiHHimia rapta \ 
'■lia, felix decesiit. Pablil. Syr. 396 nii nan aoerbnm pHoM qwim 
■nftinun Juit. 360 Toori infanti Mix, iuveni acerba, sera nimii teni. 
DwwoTd ia frequent in the epitaphs of children. Orelli 4836. anthol. 
Heja Sei 12. l:>36 7. 1248 2. 1254 2. 1258 5. 1268 II. Anson. 
fnl, 3 6. parental. 11 2. 14 1 and 12 indole malvrue, (unere 
<Kl.SD5. 23 6. Lno. calapl. 5 ifi^aulm MKpol. Ornili CU63. 
49 LtnoHiAf II 84 35 vitia uUima^toi \ eonttmmiRt Scauros et caaligaUt ] 
"■lontinf. X 120 ingenio nianui ett et cervix caeia. 
m CoxDDCTA Hor. s. I 2 9 condnotiE...nnmnii8. So Pknt. most. 62Q ] 
wiaiE, locarc argenti netaini numnuint queo. 47 ^ 

flieownera (lenders) of the money =/eBor£« aueloribiu. 
49 TraTBHB eoLuu schol. 'exsilium pati.' Cic. pro Caeo. § 100 ^f J 
^'luilt aliquam poenam subter/ugere aut calamitatem, eu aolum vertan' 
^ ett tedim ac locum mvtant, Petron. 81 contnrbsiiit et libidin 
mu aolam vertit. baiae hi 4 n. Sen. ep. 51 § 1 Baia^ 

ring, ^^^ 

d<# ^^ 



fUdi poetero dU quam adtigeram reliqui, locum oh hoc dfvitaiidum,.,,quia 

illiim sibi ofllebrftudara In ' ' ' 

Drum. § 3 illic libi plurimum 
lieenlia debeatur loco, nwiiii 
n a S S. p. Cftel. fig 27. 35. 

timuria. penltittit, iiUc, tamguam aliqua 

lolvitvr. ^ 11—13. 66 § 7. Cia. ep. lam. 

I cuiui in horloi, domum, Baiat iare ano 

LBttrant, 47, 49. Friedlander ii' 106— 9. 

Spnrtian. Hadr. 25, Stat, a. in 2 17. Elanaen AenenH i 651. Eonap. 

p. 469 ao— 23 Didot ' Gadara, 
Baiae, to whlob none 
I 3. 7. 8. 47. n 17, 26. t 93. ti 9. 22. 
{Bqja], tha Brighton ot Qoma, !a; tn 
on tha cooat of Campania. It wb 
springs, and its SBheries. Matt. Ii 
Balas, I Baiai laptrbae blanda don 
venibai Baiua, | laadabo digne noi 

OSTREA IV 141 n. 

baths in Sjria, second only i 
in the Boman empire.' Symm. ep. 
67. Yii 16. 24. 73. Sidon. o, 18. Baiae 
the Bonth-weBt of the linia Baianiu, 
I sought for its Bitoation, its warm 
»0 1^4 litaa bealae VenerU aureum 
1 naturae, \ itt miiU laudem, Ftacet, 
iati$ tamcn Baias, id. vt 43 7. 43. 
Mart. 1 87 31 12 r 

s I qune domitia pueri non prohibenie 
vorent. id. tiii 83. Three ^lasH ctipa have been found with inscriptions 
desoriptiye of the chief btuldinga on the ooaat of Puteoli; the name 
oitriaria oooora twice Joidau Topogr. d. St. Bom Berl. 1871 ii 146. Aob. 
epist. 7 1 ostrra Baiania certaiitia. 9 30 (the wbo]e ep. is on the habitat 
of oysters) vel ijuae Baianis pendent jluitaaiia pilia. As here the 
debtor, so the criminal {i 49) enjoys himself the more in exile. Yurr. fr. 
540. 50 CEDEsn Foiio X 25 n. Har. a. ii 3 18. schul. ' tantnm est iUia 

deaerere patriam auam vel famni [the bourse, the stuck-eicbange], quan- 
tum est qui a Subura, fiequentiaaima regione, ad Sioaletiauaa migret, 
nbi solitudo est.' dig. iti 3 7 § 2 quotio foro cedunt laimnmlarii. Sen. 
ban. IV 39 g 2 pecuniae eCiam male creditae exaclio eil, et appellare d<- 
bitorem ad diem possum, et, li foro cesserit, portionem feram. Cio. p. 
Eabir. Post, g 41 nisi C. Caetaria iTmredibilii iii h-unc liberalilai txiti- 
tittel, na> hane iaitipiidem in foro non babeiemns. Plant, epld. 1 3 
16ineraoB...foro, In foro vertari a aaid of one vho ia solveut Cic. 
p. Flaco. % 70. cf. de imp. Pomp, g 19 haec fidea (eredit) atqat haet 
ratio peeuntaTum, quae Momae, quae in foro vcriatur. Plaut. Persa 
4S5 438 (of argentarii) vbi quid credident, citiaa extemplo a foro \ 
fngiunt, guam ex porta ludii quom eviiasutt Upui. ib. 442 — 3. Tei. 
Fb. 921. ad. 277. lulian p. 340* ill juau rlis Iriroipoidm, iSavcp al xpi- 
fiara li^X^iirct tqs iyopat. Becker iii (2) 55. 

SI BSODitliB lu 71 n. Hor. a, i 8 14 nunc licet Esquilils habiCart 
ealabribus. hence Augnetua Suet. 72 atser in doiuo SlaeceTultit [on 
the Bsquil.J eubabat. id. Tiber. 15. fgbviinu bcbdiu 

the Subura (v 106 n. i 156 n.), ivns the buiieet part of ancient Borne 
(til 6 n. Mart. V 22), with many shops (Mart, vii 31 9 Beq. quieqaid 
vilicui Uinber aut Catenua, j aut Tusei tibi Ttiiculiee mittunt, { .,,id lota 
mihi nascitur Subara. id. x 94 6) and brothels (Pars, v 32. ptiap. 40. 
Matt. VI 66. SI 61 3. 78 11). 52 "iB both in Greek 

and Latin a neuter pronoun, when the subject of a sentenoe, takes (by 
attraction) the gender of the predicate; here for illvd lolam {caruitte sa.) 
we have ille by attiaction to dolor, and ilia by attraotioa to maeitiUa. 
Ov. Pont. Ill 3 3 4 ilunt tibi (fuoe vidi Tcferam; i«u corporis umbra, | teu veri 
■ ^tciei, atu fait ille ropor. Veil, ii 00 g 3 ftunc proliniu Antaniut cmaul 
ivptrbe excepit {tuque is erat contemptui, ecd raeliu). Quintil. x 1 1 112. 
8 1 17. Fabri on Liv, xsi 10 § 12. Juhrbb. xoi (ISCS) 723 aeq. Phrat. 
eapt. 750 vis haeo quidim hercleit. d, Caesar's cry when assailed byhia 


imnlBrErs Suet. 62 iata quidim rl< itL Cic. Phil. 2 § 64 1. 3 c. PUn. 
^ IV 3 S 4 nco dolor «rat ilU, sed uilenlaCio dolaril. 53 CIB- 

OMiBiiB X 81 a. PUn. ep. ii 6 amne hoc tempui inter jnigillarei ac libellot 
vi£}adi$iitna quifte traiunin, ^ qusiaadmodtaa' inquit 'in urbe potuiati f 
eirtenBes erani, quo genere ipectacuH ve UvUiime qnidtm tentor. 
luhil luiiuni, nihil variun, nihii quod non letnci ipiclaiae lujiciat. quo 
■ugji miror, tol milia vironiia tarn puerililtr idtntidam cupere carrtntci 
ftM^ intUtaitei curribai homirui videre, eta. cf. Inliiui (□□ ver. SO). 
UT. itiBS — 7 inmemor ilia domiti et coningls atqae iororia | nil patriae 
Wkhit, plorantaqae improba natag, \ nt que magis Btapeas, ludoB 
Piridemqnereliqiiit. 54 banodinih i 301. «u 

HI 55 RFFiraiENTEU Ti 19. Hea. op. et d. 199 dffat'd. 

nriuri, ^GXav tror TpoXirSm-' irffptiroin | AJSi^i nal Siititii. ['I should 
Ihiiikthe ^ugientemol PumorepictureBqiieaiidtocDible ihiax jiigieHttm : 
tile ^awL-caflBilTa, ef \ fugientem wonld bo like that in several verses o( 
Ucr. as It 1069; uid ot YirBil and Ear. as magnanimi Iovi$ in \graiinii 
llandere eubiU, non quivis videl in] modiilata etc. luT. himself xiv 
M<a\mert: i 358 is even harHlier.' H. A. J. M.]. 

66-63. cf. Hor, s. II a 89—93. 7 23—38. ep. i 7 35 nee tommim 

fM lavdo latur alliliam. To day, Fersicns, yon shall prove whether I 

pnelise the plain living that I ptEauh, or whether, after bawling 'make 

inel, ooolc,' I whisper ' aweet-meats bn;.' You nill find my board 

^tnirchol as Bvander'a when he eutertained HeFcules or Aeneas. 

57 PEBSICE the (untnown) friend whom Inv. invitea to dinner. 

58 siLigtJAa Hor. ep. ii 1 123 vivil siliquia ei pane teatado. 

ita, m 55. ruLTEa iiv 171 n. reaembling the Italian poltnla. 

59 IS AniE Hor. s. i 9 9 10 iii aurem | diem nescio 

K'dpneTo. Valck. on £iir. Hipp. 936. 
°il. in Prise i6U6 Hertz iueundatque piur qui lamberal ore pi 
Bu.B. ii6 24. Hart, iii 77 1—3 nte mallui, me te delectal. 
Iwiw, ] ncc lepua at wquam, iwc tibi graUit aper. | n^o W lit 

I. proi 

Cator.r. 76 = 77. 
am mihi promitte. Flin. ep. i 15 | 1 

.... , mntevenie. Ben. ben. iv 39 §3. ep. 83 

ill. S^. suas. 2 § 12 Sabinui Asiliat...cnm hanc senttmiam Leonidae 
"Bllltoel [a/iiiTTOi(i(ti(rflai ui in fSau Stiri'i}ioiUiKiin], ail: ego itli ftd 
PtiadintD proniaiaBeni, ad cenain renuntiaaiiem. 
R nuTDBoM Aen. vm 100 tnia rea inopea Evandrns habebat ib. 
Kt—flS ad tteta au&tiant I paaperis £vBlidii: ■ • ■ baeo intuit 
linina victor { Aloides anoiit; haec ilium regia cepit, j aude hospes 
eanlemnere opes, et te quoqne dignum | finge doo, rebneqae 
■oninon a a per e (fen is. The entertainment on a seat ot tort, Aeneas 
briag the post of hononr, a maple chair, ib. 180 — 3 iHicera tosia ftrunt 
'awonim onerantque caniatrii \ dona iaioraWe Cererii Sacckaviqiie minis- 
•nwl, I vetcitur Acnem aimul et Troiana, tuventui | perpeUii tergo bovi) et 
Ittitralibai extit. cf. Ov. m. kit 456. rojlhogr. Vat. i lab. 202. Sohwegler 
iSfl— 2. 357. 413. TENiES 65 veniel. 

TiBTNTnirs both as ad], (anth. Pal. ii 237 \«oiToirdXiji. 
Esllim. Bian. 146 wiim. Ov. T. kerns. Stai T. puben), and subat. 
jTwg. Or. Stat.) apphed to Hercules. Hia mother Alcmenn ia Tirynthia 
a Ov. (ef. Eur. Alk. 838). 62 cosi'isgkns 

liSODoiK ciELtni Tni 7. Sen. apoo. 9 § 5 Hercules says cum diimx 
Augustitia eauguine coiitingat, ncc miaua divam 

(in Stob. Lvn C) my 
l'b diet, beaiing ri 
ij', aliTi. raOra. Plin. 
a.ra,gii, ,, eet et alind 

x. Philem. fr. inc. 
a physician and e 
TCTpma raSr i'l'i.pi'i, itdirTo 
HI glifi omnium ' ' * 
gaaa iacidtiiu i 

naxcem. Celsns u '29. Apic. in 3. Maor. Hi 13 (=i[ 0) § 12. edict 
Dioclet. G Si hartalani. SS agretles. Ath. 62. It is the last item in th« 
dinner of herbs (aath. FoL u 4^13) from which the gnest bniried ir 
lest the next couree might be graaB ; a ]es% which recals that of Tibemi 1 
(Flin. L c.} her bam ibi (in upper Ueimimy] quandarnmiici simillimam I 
aBparago. Hehn Kultuipflonzen' (BerL 1874) ehewe that not only 1 
of fnlit trees ajid of the instnunents and vessels used in the pre- ' 
paration of fruits (especially grapes) for man'a nso, but names of flowers | 
and vegetables {e.g. beet, cale, cauMower, lettuce, lentil, mint, parsley) 
have oome irith the things themselves to modem Europe from tba 
69 viLicA Mart i\ GO 3 >£u Fraenestino 


U yilica legit in horto, id. 1 55 11 12 pinguU inaequdUs oherat tui 
vUiea mensan \ et sua rum emptus praeparat ova cinis. id. x 48 7. 

70 CALENTiA VASNO frosh eggs were carried about in 
by Mart, m 47 14 titta faeno cursor ova port<ibat, OUiers make 
fdmm the nest. 71 maibibus Mart, yii 31 1 raucae 

chortit aves et ova mat rum. sebyatab the various 

iDodes of keeping grapes, in an air-tight cask, in saw-dust etc. are 
described by PUn. xv §§ 62—7. Varro r. r. i 54. Hor. s. 11 2 121 122 
pensilis uva secimdaa \ et mix omahat mensas, ib. 4 71 72 VenuciUa 
eofwenit ollU, \ rectius Albanam fumo duraveris uvam. Aug. de 
fflor. Manich. § 44 uvas suapensas atque servatas fieri mitiores did' 
wm satubriiores, 72 pabte the abl. is seldom 

used to denote duration Cic n. d. 11 § 130 totaaestate INiltu Aegyptum] 
obrutam oppletamque tenmU Madvig § 235 3. 

73 noNDfUM Colum. y 10 § 18 curandum est aiUein, ut quam generosissimis 
piris pomaria conseramus. ea 8unt...Signina, Tarentina, quae 
Syria dicuntur. Plin. xv § 55 Signina, quae alii a colore testacea 
fffpeUarU, Macrob. u 15 ( = 111 19) § 6. Celsus (11 24 pira, quae repO' 
nwAwTf Tarentina atqv^ Signina) recommends them as wholesome. 
SigDia (now Segni, with ruins of Cyclopean walls), a town of Latium, east 
of the Yolscian hills, was founded by Tarquinius Superbug Liv. i 56. 

STBiuM Plin. XY § 53 tanta vis suci abundat — lacte 
Imvoeatur — in his [piris] quae alii colore nigro donant Syriae. Mart. 
^l^l^l^marcentestiMporrigenturxiYae, \ etnomen pira quae ferunt 
Syrornm. Yerg. g. 11 88 Servius. isdem the fruit 

is brought in baskets, and of them there are no more than is necessary. 

74 PicENis Hor. s. II 4 70 Picenis cedunt 
pomis Tiburtia suco. ib. 3 272. The pears of Picenum (iY40n.) 
^we also in repute Plin. xy § 55. 75 fbigobe schoL 

'hieme, nam sicca poma non incitant morbum umore uocIyo consumpto.' 
Holyday ' winter's cold has dried | their autumn ; their raw juice they've 
Itid aside.' Aug. de mor. Manich. § 43 multa enim carpta de arbo- 
'ibas, anteqtiam ad cibum nostrum veniantf interpositione aliqua 
temporis meliora redduntur; it£...UYae, mala,., et quaedam 
pifa: et muZta pra^terea, quae et colorantur melius, dum nonstatimut 
(Ueerpta fuerint ahsumuntur^ et corpore capiuntur salubrius et 
sapiant in ore conditius. 

77—89 lu the good old times such a dinner was a feast for the 
senate already grown less frugal. Curius Dentatus pluckt in his little 
Sarden and drest with his own hands pottage at which now a days 
^es that dig in chains, pampered in the cookshops of Bome, turn up 
their nose. For gala days a flitch of bacon on the rack, to which might 
^ added a chance joint from some sacrifice, was a treat to which retired 
Mosnls and dictators woiUd hasten, shouldering their mattocks before 
*he wonted time. 77 i^^ luxubiosa PUn. xviii 

flSlnxuriantis iam reipublicae fuit ista mensura. Such once were 
the repasts of our senators, already luxurious when compared with the 
*<rftti of Curius. With the following lines cl yi 286—91. xiv 160—72. 
I*rop. v=iv 1. Ov. f. 1 197—218. Hor. c. 11 15. iii 6 33—34. Mar- 
quardt Y (2) 4. 78 cubius etc. 11 3. 153. yiii 

4d. Manil. iy 148 149 Serranos Curios^ti^ tulit, f ascesque per arva I 
tradidit, eque suo dictator venit aratro. Plin. xix § 87 M. 
Curium imperatorem, quern ah hostium legatis aurum repudiaturo ad- 
ftrenUbus rapum torrentem in foco inYentvLm. annales nostripro* 

luv. II. 13 


lUdfTt. Id. inil S 19 a eajiiig of Curina pfrjiicifinim intelltgi eivan eiiE I 
Uftem iugera noii ceent lalii. Sen. eona. ad Hal?. 10 S 7 iciticet maiora ] 
nottri, quorum virtui etiam najic vitia noitra metentat, in/elicea enutl, 
qui Blbi maun parabant cibam, guibua terra oubile erat. %S 
tcitkit minus bmte vivebat dictator natter, qui Samnitiun ligatot audiit, 
~n foco ipse mana ana Teraaret, ifZa, gun 
Tai3seTal.„iiuam Apicius. Cio. paiad, i g 13 tenuitas 
vUim M'. Caril ill Cat. Mai. 3 65. Flat. Cat. Mai. 2. id. u IW 
Vijtt. VM. IT 3 § 5, Lnc.i 151 — 3 pone duett pritem tt nomina piatperit 
aevi I FabHcim CyxriosqHe gTaeet : hie Hie Tecumbat \ aordidns Btrns- 
oiB abductns conani aratiia. Pint. Atistid. c. Cat. camp. 1 g 8 Cato 
fiom a Bmall town and couutrf plimged into the publio lile of Soma 
'^1 Koupiair (ai t^a^piKlar...tpyBi', aBra* 
irfiliin->t, vvS' dr apiTpau nal ffia^ciou i^njro;! noi a^Tovpyoit 
aira^b'oirras M t6 ^^/la upoacifU'riv Spxarra^. The same eto^ ia told 
by Sen. (prov. 3 § G) ot f abricias. iT. Cqiins DcDtatns (Hor. a. i 
IS 41 incamptit Gnrinm capillit) as consul B.C. 290 triumphed met 
the Samnites and Sabines, Whan conaut a aecond time, b.o. 3TS, 
he trinmphed over Pyirhus, and when re-eleeted, B.a, 271, finally 
defeated the Lucaniana and Snmnites. 

~' iXTiii § 40 Jirquaai agricolam eaie, guiiguii 
emfrtt qnadpraestare ei fundna poanet. §111 i^oruni lune manibia 
iinperafomin calebantur agri, ut fai eil crtdere, gaudaite terra vomers 
lavreato tt triumphali aratare. id. us § 61 Ronuie quidem per at hortns 
ager panperia erat. § 52 ez horta plebei maoellnm, quanto 
innocentiore victui 79 ^oLuacnij. Hor. ep. i 

17 13— IS si pranderel holna patienler, Tegibui uU [ nolkt Aristippat. 
Ttgibw uli, I fastidiret bolDS qui me nnlat,' ib. 6 2. id. 
6 113. jr 1 71—7*. 2 I17— 22. e 61. 7 80. Hier. ep. 107 10. 
_. PisnniT Marqnardt y (1) 30G. comfkdb rosaoB tot 180 n. 

X 183 n. iiT 24 n, Ov. Poet, i 6 81 haecfaeil «i vivat vinotna quoque 
oompeda ioasor. id. trifit. it 1 B. Tib.n626, Mart.iia24. Plin. 
op. nt 28 g 4 poUicerii., /•atartim te fugitivum re: famiUarii itatimque 
ad noi eiolatiirum, qui iam libi compedea niclimut, guai pirfriageTt 
nulla modo poggia. id. la 19 g 7 ntc tpie wiquam vinctoB habeo. dig. 
II.TII 10 15 9 44 multum interest, qualii .tervia tit, bonae frugi, ordi- 

nariiu et quid li compeditua vet male notai velnotae ixtremae. 

ApnL mag. 44 gvitidecim Uberi fiominei populut eit, tolidem (frrt, favtilia, 
totidein Tincti, ergastalani. Becker- Heimanu Cbojikles in 86 87. 
■WaUOQ n 217 seq. 226. Marqaardt T (1) 187. DH. ii 26. woisott 

' ditcher' Pers. T 122. ti 40. Catull. 23 10. 81 OALOUI 

Mart. I 41 9 10 futrumtia qui tomacla rauciis { circumfert tepidis eoclu 
popinis. S1.PIAI QCiD Phaedr. iii 4 3 some one, 

aeeing an ape'a carcass hanging np at the bakdiei'B quaesivil, qaidnam 
aapBretf Cato r. r. 108 = 109. 

Hor. ep. 1 16 41 Obbar nil vnlTa pnlcbrina ampin. Mart. \a 
2011. X11166. A.iben.96' niTpii...iiriTpiro\ls t« Ji! B\ijfli3i oBaa (til 
/i'^TIP riar 'LriraKpiriiu! vlijir, dui els iiitiae KaiUfdoviiivom oJSa. 100° trip 
rdrpac ^v ira; Tt! iroSi^iTKta' B4\ti, \ bsip H /t-^Tpas KoXXl^Sur o 
Kdpn^as | f^eij! Turn iptuJiir at qXMlu iraeattiv. 101. Plin. Tin % 20B 
kine ctnioriarum legura paginae interdictaque aenis abdomina... 
Tnlvae. id. u g 210 tuItq electa partu vutior qaam ediio. eiectieia 
rocatw ilia, liriec porcaria. primiparae sitia optima, contra effetii. Plin. 
IS g 3. Luc. leiiph. 6 To.iriioi Wt to ip.ppaoibx'"' f'^tpcr. «d. 



Piocl. i i where *biilbae' are dearer than any other meat. Bottiger kL 
- Schriften ni 225. Marqnardt v (2) 39 (the encroachments of a meat 
diet). poPiNAE Yiii 172. Luoil. 1 16 MUller tur- 

pemgtt« odisse popinam. Gracoh. in Gell. xv 12 § 2 nulla apud me 
fuit popina. Tac. h. 11 76 fin. Hadrian in Spartian. 16 latitare per 
popinas. Hor. to his bcdliff ep. 1 14 21 22 Obbar fornix tibi et uncta 
popina I incutiunt urbU desiderium. id. s. 11 4 62 quaecunque im- 
mmdis fervent allata pop in is. Suet. Yit. 13 ut autem homo non 
profwidae modo, sed intempestivae quoqiie ac sordidae gulae, ne in sacri- 
Jicio quidem umquam aut itinere ullo temperavit, quin... circa... viarum 
popinas f umantia obsonia Imanderet]. They were chiefly frequented 
by slaves (viii 173 n. 174 n. 179 n. Cic. p. Mil. § 65. ColumeU. 
infra 151 n. Mart, v 70 3), gamblers (Mart, y 84 4), and the like (Sen. 
Tit. beat. 7 § 3 voluptas humilef servile, inbecillumf cadtLCum^ cuius 
ttatio ac* domicilium fomices et popinae sunt. Mart, vii 61 8 nigra 
popina). They were under the control of the aediles Suet. Tib. 34. 
Gl. 38. cf. Plin. xxxiii § 32. dig. iv 8 21 § 11 in aliquem locum in- 
h(me8tum,...puta in popinam vel in lupanarium. ib. xlvii 10 26 si 
guit servum meum vel filium ludibrio habeat licet consentientem, 
tmen ego iniuriam videor accipere : veluti si in popinam duxerit illumy 
w (dea luserit, noyell. 117 15 pr. cf. lexx. under popinalis. popina, 

82 sicci lEROA suis VII 119 n. cf. Hor. s. ii 
2117 fumosae cum pede pernae. Yerg. moret. 55 56 suspensa focum 
tanmia iuxta \ durati sale terga suis truncique vacabant. Ov. m. 
Tin 638 sordida terga suis nigro pendentia tigno. Swine were 
kept in great numbers Yarr. r. r. ii 4 § 3. Cic. Cat. mai. § 56. Ov. f. 
Til79 BUS erat in pretio; caesa sue festa colebant, Waddington on 
fid. Diocl. 4 1. CRATE the rack on which the 

flitch of bacon hung in the kitchen : Trimalchio served up Petron. 31 fin. 
^ofiiacula supra or AticvLlskin argenteamferventia, cf. ib. 70. Mart, xiv 
^^Iraratibi curva craticula sudet ofella; \ spumeus in lon^a cuspide 
fiinet aper. In these passages it seems to mean a gridiron. 

83 MOBis Madvig § 290 2. publ. sch. Lat. gr. p. 413. Plin. 

ep. 1 12 § 7 Boring. Caes. b. G. iv 5 § 2 est enim hoc GalUcae consuetu- 

dinis, uti...cogant, 84 natalicium as a birth- 

% treat. Pers. il6natalicia tandem cum sardonyche albus. On this 

feast in honour of one's genius cf. iv 66 n. v 37 n. ix 51. xii 1. 

^ker GaUus i 119. Pauly v 421. Censorin. 2 § 3 illud etiam in hoc 

Ufatali] die observandumt quod genio factum neminem oportet ante 

S^Uirey quam eum quifecerit. Marquardt v (1) 256. 

JABDUM short for laridum (cf. calda, soldum etc.) * bacon,' see Plant. 

Hor. Macrob. in lexx. Ov. f. vi 169 — 72 pinguia cur illis gustentur lard a 

^(dendis, \ mixtaque cum calido sit faba far re, rogas ? | prisca dea est, 

^/itarque cibis, quibus ante solebat, | nee petit ascitas luxu- 

JiOBa dapes (no oysters, no peacocks etc.). edict. Dioclet. 4 7. It 

Jormed part of a soldier's rations (Spartian. Hadr. 10, Yulcat. Avid. 

Cass. 6. vit. Gord. 28. cf. Trebell. Claud. 14. Yopisc. Prob. 4. cod. 

••^beod. VII 4 2 and 6. Yeg. iv 7). Mart, v 78 10 pallens faba cum 

p*bente lardo. 85 hostia a part of the victim was burnt, 

*fld the remainder eaten by the offerer, or sold (Hom. passim, Wetstein 

oiil Cor. 10 28. YM. ii 2 § 8. PUn. ep. x 96 § 10. Plut. quaest. Eom. 60 

P« 278). Of old every feast was in a sense a religious ceremony (Hermann 

Sottesd. Alterth. § 28 2). So soldiers now and then had fresh meat cod. 

*heod. VII 4 6 cum militibus... I SLiidiixn. vel recens forsitan carp 



lamiliea (Lentuli, CiueranBa, Fabii, Pieonea, Pilumnt) Darned from their 
deToCion to these pureuits. Grat. 321-_2. Sil. i Gl-l. 

90 — 119 When Cato and Fabiioins kept men in awe, and cen»osi 
vere a terror to their very colleai^eB, none cared to rifle the ocean lot 
tortoiseshell ; an ass'a head, rudely cut in brass, sole ontament of the 
couch, wan cronned for the feast, and about it the peasant children nsod 
to romp. lanocent of Greek art, the eoldier defaced ivDib of famona 

engTBTera, hLs aliore of booty, to adorn hia horse or helmet; the wolf that 
BUckled the Quirini, Mara with apear and shield, these were the deoora- 
tiona of his chaice. He dined oft earthen platters, saving auoh diver as 
he had to deck bis arms. Yet then was hesTen near to Eome ; a divine 
voice foretold the inroad of the (Jauls. Bo watchful wna Inppitor, aa jet 
of clay, UDBpoilt by gold. Tablea too were then of native timber, eome 
chanoe windfall of an old walnut tree. 

90 ?iBioa II 115 146 generoaior...Fabiia. vin U n. 191 n. The 
most famans censor of the Fahia gens was Q. Fabiua Majtimus BullianDB, 
coUeagoe of P. Deoina e.c. B04. Joined with Cato alao Sen. ep. 86 S 10 
di boTti, gtiam iuvat ilia balnea intrart obieura et gregali tectorio inducta, 
qwM Bcirei Catonem tibi aedil^m aul Pabium Maximnm aut ex 
Corneliii aliquem manu lua lent/perasse. subhii 

(UtoDEH II 10. Mart, xi 2 12 triats supereilium duriq^ne aieera 
Qatonisl/roni. Cato maior waa censor B.C. 181 <Liv. wynr 10-41. 
Plat. Oat. Mai. 15 seq. Sen. ep. g? SS 3 10. VM. ii 9 g 3). 

91 HGACRoa n 56. vi 601. Hoi. o. 1 12 37, where, aa 
in di. (p. Mur. gg 16. 36. p. Font. § 14^31. p. Seat, g 39. Brat. | 111. 
Dromann Gesch. Bomsi 28; and VM. (v 8 g 1 SoauTua, bttnen ae dtau 
patriae) tMa M. Aemilins Scanrus, oona. a.c IIS (when ha paased a 
aumptuaiy law Pltn. viu § 223 ylirei qtioa aensoriae legea priuoBpa- 
qne M. SoanruB in contulatu nun alio modo eenis ademere ao 
Gonchylia aut ex alio orba ooDTectas avea), censor b.o. 109, is' 
held up as a model of virtue. But sea Sallust lug. IS g 4 AemiliuH 
Scaurua, homo nobilis, inpiger faetionu avidus potentiae Jienorii 
diviliamm, eclcriun vitia sua eallide occultani. Quintil. vi 1 g 21 Oicero 
and Asinins, tlie one Rpeaking for the younger Seaurus, the other tor the 


fither^ urged in mitigation nobilit a.B et merita maiorum. On the generic 
phir. cf. I 109 n. p. UO. Drager hist. Synt. § 6 b. Neue i« 394-5. Cic. 
p. Gael. § 39 if there is a youth scorning delights and living laborions days, 
he is divinely endowed, ex hoc genere illos fuisse arbitror Gamillos, 
Fabricios, Cnrios omnUque eos, qui haec exminimis tanta fecerunt, § 40 
vmffli haec genera virtutum non solum in Trwribvs nostriSy sed vix iam in 
UhrU reperiuntur. Plin.pan. 13 Fabricios et Scipiones et Gamillos. 
55 vimntur eadem e materia Caesaris statuae, qua Brut o rum, qua 
Camillomm. The family was extinct Seu. suas. 2 § 22 Scaurum 
maimrcum in quo Scaurorum familia extineta est. Tac. vi 29 
Mamtrcus dein Scaurus rursum postulaturt insignia nobilitate et 
orandU catms, vita probrosus... Scaurus ^ ut dignum veteribus Aemi- 
liis, damnationem anteiit. Sen. ben. ly 31 §§3—5 on the infamy of 
this Scaurus. fabricios 

nl54.]Z 141 142 argenti vascula purit \ sed quae Fabricius censor 
notet. C. Fabricius Luscinus, cons. b.o. 282 and 278, in his censorship 
B.a 275 removed from the senate P. Cornelius Bufinus, for possessing 
ten pounds of silver plate (Liv. periocha 14. Plut. SuU. 1. Sen. vit. beat. 
21 § 3. S^vian. de gub. Bei i p. 10 Baluz. Sen. contr. 9 § 8 hoc scio 
mtros fugisse maiore8t...hoc Fabricium Samnitium non accipientem 
UKunera, hoc ceteros patres nostros, quos apud aratra ipsa minantes 
peeora sua circumsteterunt lictores. ib. §§ 17 18. Plin. ix § 118 
contrasts the jewels of Lollia Paulina, the spoils of provinces, with the 
old frugality: comparet nunc aliquis ex altera parte quantum Curius aut 
Fabricius in triumphis tulerint; imaginetur illorumfercula. xxxiii § 153 
Fabricius, qui bellicosos imperatores plus quam pateram et 
salinum habere ex argento vetabat, videret hinc dona fortium fieri 
««t in Jtaec frangi, heu mores^ Fabricii nos pudet ! Gell. iv 8 [the 
chapter treats of Fabricius]. xvii 21 § 39. VM. 11 9 § 4 [the chapter de 
censoria nota], Tert. apol. 6). Aug. c. lulian. rv § 17 who but a Pelagian 
'[iflgive the name of just to an infidel? sit licet ille Fabricius, sit 
Ucet Fabius, sit licet ScipiOy sit licet ReguluSy quorum me nominibus, 
^omquam in antiqua Romana curia loqueremuvt putasti esse terrendum. 

92 COLLEOA the censors M. Livius Salinator and 

O'Qaudiufl Nero B.C. 204 VM. 11 9 § 6 Nero et citari collegam et 

^uum vendere iussit... Salinator quoque eadem animadver- 

"ione Neronem persecutus est. cf. id. vii 2 § 6. Liv. xxix 37. 

Becker 11 (2) 216 — 8. Mommsen Staatsr. ii« 363—9. 94 oceano 

lucTTT IV 23 n. mare oceanum nom. in Ampel. i 7. Unger paradox. 

Theb. 396. Zumpt § 257 n. Freund s. v. Heins. on Claud, p. 249. 

Burman anth. 11 296. Neue i* 642 — 3. The tortoiseshell was brought 

from the mare Indicum Plin. ix § 35. testudo vi 80. xiv 308. 

Verg. g. II 463. Mart, ix 59 9 testvLdinenm... hexacUnon, id. xii 66 5 

gemmantes prima fulgent testudine lecti. id. xiv 87. Plin. ix § 39 

testudinum putamina secare in laminas lectoBqu£ et repositoria his 

vettire Carvilius PoUio in^tituit, prodigi ac sagacis ad luxuriae instru- 

menta ingenii, ib. xvi §§ 232 — 3 nee satis: coepere tingui animalium 

eomua, denies secari hgimmque chore distingui, mox operiri, placuit 

deinde materiam et in mari quaeri, testudo in hoc secta, nuperque 

portentosis ingeniis principatu Neranis inventum ut pigmentis perderet se 

phirisque veniret imitata lignum, sic lectis pretia quaeruntur... 

modo luxuria non fuerat contenta ligru), iam lignum et testudinem facit. 

id. zxxui § 146 triclinia of tortoiseshell came into fashion under Tiberius. 

Sra. ben. vn § 2. Lucian asin. 53 (translated by Apul. met. x 34) kUvtj 



5» luyi^V ^"^ X'^"""P 'IrSi'^ rcroiimimt, jfpvaip liT^iitaiiiryi. Clem. 
Alex, paei u 3 § 3S. Vftrro in Noa. s.y. cufcilo. Varro Lt ii g 47. dig. 
ziziilOOS 4 cui testudinea legata etient, ei lectoa testndiueos 
pedibtu inargtnlatii debtri. MarquRxdl; v (l) 31S. Luc. cited 133. 
95 TBoiDaE^jis I 100 n. Hdn. ii 3 g 4 Gkbiia traced bifl pedigree In 
Aeaeas. _ rntcana vi 32. Prop. iii=ii 13 21 when I 

die, let me not be buried in state nee miki turn fuleio etematur Uctia 
eburua. supports deoorated with spbloieB Bud other Ggiirea Beaker 
OalliiB II 249. 96 "ooo udbrb et fAnviE Or. m. i 

19 20 /r^iija jiuirnnbunt ealidia, iimeTitia siccia, \ mollia cum duria, sine 
ponders (=^t(ki oi-eu ^d^avi oSmv} kabeniia pandiu. Lncc. i 774 nan 
animans, non exauimo onm oorpote, ut arboi. Cie. orat. % i in 

poeHi nan Homiro lali loeiu eit, nut AtMIocIio out Sopkocli aul 

J^ndaro, nd hontm vel lecwadU vel eliam intra aeoandoa. Suet. Caea, 
43 ditpatitU circa Ttacellum cvstodibui, qui obsonia EOntra vetitum 
rtitnirent. Veap. 4 et indnatriae eipartae nee Toetuendiu. Hfigelab. 
Bt<^li9tik § 75 3. Nep. Iph. 3 §2 bonKi...i!ivia fidcqne magna. Heu- 
siager on Nep. Att. 8 g 2. Ov. m. ii 403 404 firma auiqne | roboria. 
Tac. IV 31 eompotitut aliat et velut eluctantium verborum. Capi- 
tolin. MnTJmin , 2 g 5 semibarbarus et vix adhuc Laticae linguae. 

fTM. n 10 S 3 lecti illiua frontem MacedonicU lriunipbu...aJo7wiCani) 
IB the head of the coach. The sidea were plain, not inlaid vith ivoiy or 
torCoiBeahell. Liv. issa. 6 § 6 h.c. 187 not onl; the outrages reported 
from the provmoes, ted ea etiam magis, qvae in ■aiilitib'as...quotictie ad- 
tpicicbantvT. § 7 hixuriae evita peregrinae origo ab exercitit Atiatieo 
iHvteta in wian at, ii primum leotQB seiBtos [Cic. Yatr. it | 601 
veiteja atragulam prelioia!n,..,et, quae Cu?n magnijicat! enpellectilit kabe- 
iarUur, monopodia et abacoi Jtomam advexerunt. § 8 epalac qaogut ipiae 
tt cara et aumptu maioTS apparari cotptae. 97 THiB 

of rude workmanaliip and small cost. coronati abbmx 

Or. f. Ti 811 ecce coronatis panU depcadet asellia. ib. 347. The 
head vbm crowned with vine-leaveB, the ass being nacred to Baochoa (and 
Testa, Ov. 1. 1., Lydus do mens, it B9. Prop, iv 1 21 Veila ooronatia 
pavper gandebat aaallia). Hjgin. fab. 274 antiqvi aatem noalri in 

habuerunt, signiecantea Buavitatem[f aainumyitemcoiiJ.Eeines.] 
invmiste. Fansan. ii 38 g 3 Bcnlpturo ol an seb at Nauplia, in gratitude 
for its iuTentioD (bj the example of itH broiVBiDg) of pruning. Brltaniiicas 
compares the Etruscan superstition Oolum. i 344 345 Mnc caput 
Arcadici nudum euie Jertur aselli | Tyrrheitui fixiaie Taget in limite 
ruris. Fallad. i S5 g 16. Markland 'vetus lulendarinm measis lunii: 
ri tduuni atinat caronatur.' 98 labcivi playful : cf. sir 

168 BBq. ncKia alumni the chiidron (slave perhaps 

as well as free iir IGS 100) romped while the warriors dined Suet. Claud. 
S2 Torrent, adhibebai omni cenae et Hberos luoi, qui more veteri ad 
fulcra loctorum aedentcB veeceientur. id. Aug. G4. Tsc. xiii 16. 
Becker Gallua ii' 141. Marquardt v (1) 183 n. 1126. The grave fathers 
of the state were men of Luther-like simplidt.v of character; their chil- 
dren grew up under their eyes, not under the care of a Graccula anciUiUii 
or a paedagogus: there was nothing in their life to be ashamed of, 
nothing dieta foedum viiuqne; no atifF etiquette to be maintained, cf. 
ApeBilaoa c^uitaTu in harandimi longa witi hia boy AeL v. h. xa 16, 
wheie ore like frisks of Hcrakles, Sokratea and Archytas, VM. vm 8, 

306» 99 Markland 'dubitari potest de hoc versa.' 


61 seq. n. Tin 100 — ^110 n. Liv. xxr 40 § 1 b.c. 212 Marcellus, ut non 
modo suam gloriam, sed etiam maiestatem populi JRomani augeret, oma- 
tnenta urbis, signa tabulasque, quibus ahundabant Syraciisae^ Romam 
devmt, § 2 indeprimum initium mirandi Graeoarum artium opera 
IkenXiaeque huic sacra profanaque omnia vulgo spoliandi factum est, qtuie 
portremo in Romanos deos...vertit, Oato ib. xxxiv 4 e.g. § 4 infesta, miki 
ereditef signa ah Syracusis illata sunt huic urbi. iam nimis multos 
audio Gorinthi et Athenarum ornamenta laudantes mirantes- 
qne, et antefixa fictilia deorum Bomanorum ridentes. § 5 ego 
hot malo propitios deos. Sail. Catil. 11 § 6 speaking of Sulla's Asiatic 
campaign ibi primum insuevit exercitus populi Bomani amare potare, 
signa tabulas pictas vasa caelata mirari, ea privatim et publice 
npere, delubra spoliare. Plin. xxxvii § 12. Boman magistrates anciently 
refused to reply even to Greeks except in Latin VM. u 2 § 2 Periz. Quintil. 
1 5 § 60. Suet. Claud. 16. Here contempt of the fine arts is meant 
Aen. Ti842 — 854. Yell. 1 13 §§4 5 Mummius tarn rudis fuit, ut capta 
Corintho [b.c. 146], cum maximorum artificum perfectas mani- 
bns tabulas ao statuas in Italiam portandas locaret^ iuberet praedici 
conduentibuSf si eas perdidissent, novas esse reddituros. non tamen puto 
ivhiiest Vinici, quin magis pro republica fuerit manere adkuc rudem 
Corinthiorum intellectum quam in tantum ea intellegii et quin hac pru' 
<^ta ilia imprudentia decori publico fuerit convenientior. Strabo 381 
Polybias was present and bewails the soldiers' contempt of works of art. 
Ae saw with his own eyes ippi/x/xiyovs irlyaKas iir ^dd^ovs, verre^oyras 5^ 
Toi^f ffrpaTuin-as ivl TO&r<ay, ib. Mummius being generous, but no con- 
noisseur, freely gave to such as asked. Flor. i 32 = 11 16 §§ 6 7. Cic. 
off. I § 85. II § 76 Beier. [DChrys.] 37 11 123 B dvdpwwos airai'5euro» 
[Um.mius'l koX firjdevds t(3v Ka\<ay Treveipafiiyos, Thirlwall yiii^ 453 454. 
Marquardt v (2) 209. 102 viii 102—110. 


^n. Liy. xxii 52 § 5 of the booty taken at Cannae si quid argenti, 
^uod plurimum in phaleris equorum erat; nam ad vescendum facto 
P^exiguo, utique militanteSy utebantur, phalebis 

6AUDEBET ECUS Plin. vni § 12 when Antiochus was trying a ford Aiax 
[an elephant], who otherwise always led the van, hung back, tum pro- 
^ntiatum eivx fore principatum qui transisset, ausumqu^ Patroclum 
ob id phaleris argenteis, quo maxime gaudent, et reliquo omni 
primatu donavit, 104 bomuleae 

8IXULACBA FEBAB Acn. VIII 630 — 4 from Ennius (Servius), descrip- 
tion of the shield made by Vulcan fecerat et viridi fetam Mavortis 
in antro \ procubuisse lupam; geminos huic ubera circum\ ludere 
pendentes pueros et lambere matrem | inpavidos, illam tereti cervice re- 
jlexa I maicere altemos et corpora fingere lingua, Ov. f. ii 413 — 420. 
Schwegler i 361. 397 n. 424 n. 20. B.C. 296 Liv. x 23 § 12 the aediles 
ad ficum ruminalem simulacra infantium conditorum urbis sub uberibus 
lupae posuerunt, DH. i 79 in his time the same group of ancient work 
was to be seen at the place. The wolf is still preserved in the Capitoline 
museum. Bum Borne and the Campagna 157. diet, geogr. ii 723 where 
it is figured. It is the subject of countless works of art, and Bome still 
keeps a live wolf on the Palatine and on the CapitoL Claud, cons. Prob. 
96— -99 of a shield wrought by Vulcan hinc patrius Mavortis amorfetuS' 
que notantur \ Momulei, pius amnis inest et belua nutrix. [ electro 


2O0 GKMIM03 QUnONOS. TUSCO CATrao. [XI 104^108 

Tiberit, pucri foTmantar in atiro ; \ Jinijant aera Inpam; MuTorB aia- 
mante corustat. Tbe wolf nug eacred to Mars (Sobvegler i 341 n. 3. 
415 D. 3), nbo bad a statae on tbe Appian way ad limulacra biporum lir. 
ixnJgl2. sn.vl4l— 5. iii5BirESci;REFBbiaBPiotoriaDH.i79 4 W 
Xiimva oi ^dXa cl7pislrovfra riiv itfipiinruv tf rfimriSifi, iW itrrtp Sr i 
affa Twr fipfipSr 'npena.,,d-r-^ii, xat ijr ydfi tu o6 v ' ' 

Am. n a quoa abiectis iufantibae pepeicit lapa noa mitia, 
Lvperca, inqtiit, dca cit mietore apptllata Famme. ex rrnim ergo pro- 
venta, rumtxvijiatvrae deaUta at pradita} etpoitijaam facoamorBnB 
immanis prohibnit belna, tt ipia esse occtpU et ipihif nemtvrtii tigvi- 
Jleantiam traxiti So Sroesoa was bbM to have been Buckled hy a biteb 
(Hdt. 1 132. Instill, xur i % 12), Habia b? bitchss aoil eawa (he was 
thrown to the creatures wh«n raveuooa from a long faat, bnt hurt by 
ncpne, ancklsd by aome ib, §5 5 6,) 105 i"PBBn 

rATO Flin. Tin g 61 qaae de infantibal ferarmn lacte mitriiis, cam eu<nl 
trpoiiti, produntar, sicat Ae coDditoribaa nostria a. liipa magnita- 
dtni fatoram acceplaferri atgiiiua quam feramm tiatarae arbitror, 

QuiitiijOB Bomaliis and Bemua aie callod getniTii 
Qnirini aa CaaCor and FoUni ore called Caitortt (Minuc. Oct. 32 g 7. 
Auaon. grat, act. fin. Sorr. g. iii 89. Bymm. ep. 1 06, where also Polluea 
gemitii) and geminia Pollux (Hot. o. hi 39 64) and bo poasiblj gctnimu 
Caitor (Ot. a. a. I 746), Foltucei {Sjnaa. ep. i B9j, a king and qneea 
fegei, a brother and aiateT fratrti, tathei- and motber-in-lav loctri (add 
to Nens Stat. Th. ii 317. sn 201). Bentley on Hor. s. 1 1 100. Bnimaa 
on QnintO. i 83E. n 808. OreUi insor. 4583. Apul. met. n 7. Bsda in 
MigDfl ic 134\ Nene i' 598. 603. So in 8p. hennnDOB, hijos. 

106 ^nuAU m 216 n. AiIdiBon remarks on Italy ; Borne 
[i 463 Bohn] ' the oM Bcnlptors generally drew their Sgnrea naiked, that 
they might have the advantage of the different Bwelling ol the moBoJeB, 
and tbe turna of the body,' clipio TENiEnTiB 

ai HASTA Yerg. eel. z 24 yenit it agreati capitii Silvanin honore. 
['coming with apcar and ahield': 113 OallU venientibua, Lncr. 
In 833 n. ad cimfligendiim venientibua undlqae Poenit, Venire 
BeemB almost a teohnical word for aoldiera coming in a hoatile 
way: Livy often baa tub lignii venieniet and the like.' fi. A. J. M.] 
Addiaon (p. 464) 'the Boulptor.,., to distinguish him from the reet of the i 
goda, gave bim wbat the medalUsta call hia proper attributea, a apear in ' 
one hand and a Bbield in the other.' Spear tba aymbol of Mars 
Marqnardt it 5. 107 tendentib Addiaon (fol- 

lowed by Spence Polymetia dial. 7 p, 77) with acbol. makes this a seeond 
group, Mars 'dcacending upon the priesteas Hia' (aee Addison's pl. 8 Mr. 
IT Bohn). Lessing (Laokoon o. 7 tbe long note) rctoita ; the text makes 
no allusion to the priesCeES. who imports a bysteron proteron into the 
paasaga. Teuffol (d. O. Milller'a Denkmaler i£iii d. 352—254 where 
Mare visita Bea Silvia naked, or with a mantle hanging behind bim, and 
bearing ahield and spear) makes only one gmnp : the twins enckled in a 
grotto by tba wolf, watched by tbeir father Mars, who bends over them. 
cf. Verg, prania pendens in vtrbiTa. 

108 Suet. Caea. 57 Caaaubon. iorxbaiit 

1 141 n. Phaedr. i 28 5. v 4 3. MSco ciiiNO 

30 n. in 168 n. Pers. il 69 60 aurnm vata Nuniae Satumiaqut 
imp-alit aera, \ Veataleigue tiraai et Tuacum fiotile mMlat, Mart. :tiT 
OS Arretina nimii ne ipemai Tasa monemui. \ lavtui erat Taaoia 


ins. id. I 53 6. Plin. ixiiii ^ 113 Caiam. helium, ««m 
Iq^li if tolorum in eimealata frandcnUm in fietilibiiB ad'nient, inina 
oi lit vaia argcnlea nun accepitie, neqae aliud habiiUie arginH ad mprt- 
nm sitae diem qitam duo poeula quae L. Paaliu loetr ei ob virtttttra 
ittich, Ptneo rcge donavistet. ill. jcctv S 160. Flor. i 13 = 16 § 22. Sea 
Knh hist ano. pottery. MBrqoardl t (2) 249, 

nsimin J7tD. Ov. t. ti 180 of Ihe good old Uniea lerra fabaa (oRtum 
ivaqne taira dabal. DH. ii 36. Pers. iv 30 31 lunicalum cunt tuU 
*ariiai\ca,tpeeltait&tapueTi)plaudentibit)alla. id. ti 40. Marqoitrdt 
T (SI 31. ProUer torn. MyUi.i 116. catino ti 343. Hor. e. 

itlU US damam me \ ad poni et cicerii refero ta^anigue catiuam. 
MarquKftt t (3) 250. ib. 288 28a ooaMng veaselB of aiiyBC, 

110 111 for the rhjthm of. iv 150 151 adfectia Flare... 
^^tim trShtre. Ill pBiESENTioa lu 13 n. 

inum 152. 245. Goosal. on Petroii 17 p. 104 Bnrm. 

TolLiv. T33g6E.o,3al M. Caediciw deplete mmtiavit 
■rihiDii le ill nova via, tibi nunc lacellum e»l lupra aedem Veatae, voeem 

did ivierei, Galloi adveatare. After the raoovery of the oitj ib. 60 g 6 
afiandae etian tooib Dootninae^ qvae nunlti cladii anle bellum 
QitiUinm audita negleciaque esiet, mtntio illaia, imnimque templum in 
Ksa via Aio Locutio Jieri. ib. 62 ^ 11. Cio. de divin. i § 101 eap. the con- 
Hrtilive comment haee igilur et a dis lignificaia et a nostria maioribu* 
niieaa contemnimut f ii 3 69 audita vox est maaentig esp. the 
loptiii taunt Aim itie Lequem, cum eum nemo Tioraf, el aiebat et loqae- 
'<ll>r.,.,ji(i(Ieii quam et ledem et aram et nomen invenit, obmiituii t Viuro 
bGdl,i(Yii7g 2, mt. CamUl. li. 3Q. d(i tort. IWm. e. Soliweglwr 
111 23(1 u. 1 Aias Itooutins like Bea Biva, Anna Periinoa., Fora Fortmia, 
Tiu Fota. Freller rom. Mj^b.* 66 compacng other divine vuioea, one 
■Iter Uu fall of Alba Longa, aooplaining of the negleot of the BnoieDl 
toibliip, anothei' demandijig a propitiataiy sacriSce after iin carthqiiaka 
i^K. da divin. i g 101); a tbieateniag voice in the temple of Matei 
"■tsta at the deHtraotioa of Satricum hj the Lntini (Llv. ti 3B § 6); 
^"g' g. I 476. Foe the perEouitioatioii of aptech Pieller compHrea 
rj^>uliuiiB and Farinae» H2 aijdit* est. 

113 uioKB in ocBAVl Liv. T 87 g 2 inoiiitato atque inaadita hoete 
'» Ooeano ienanimgue uHimii oria bellum cience. Floe. I 7 = 13 g 6. 
% ^, ies = 102 ab ultima Jliipania, id est ab Ooeani litore. 

114 aiB hao Tooe et huiusmodi siguts Madtto. 
ttlOT. nnv i (oited on 100). mondit Liv. t 32 

n WJM deorum modo monita iitgruentt faU> tpreta. 

116 nCTiLia 109 a. 136 n. in 168 n. Cio. de dJTm. i § 16 iufaitigio 
mis ppfint masdmi, qui lum erat fietilis. Ben. contr. 9 § 1 quieti- 
"itenfOTapauperei habuimiit: heWt. oiTilift aurato Capitolio gei- 
'ianiB, ib, % 18 jilid ioqiierii FabricioB, quid Corancanioal pompai 
'"lOMnnpiD, (iotilBB ubi fuenml dei. Varroin Non. p. 163 quod inter 
«« lovet intenit el hoi qui ex Taarmore ebore ftttro mino Jitint, potfi 
nino adOfTlere ei hnrum temporum divititu et iUnrum pavperttUo, Ti- 
m. 1 10 19—34. Prop. T=iT 1 S Beq. e.g. fiotilibus crmere deU baet 
iWfeo templa. Ov. f. i 197—208 esp. 202 inque lovis dexira fiotile 
Mien erat. DH, ji 23 saw feasts spread for the gods on old-fsBhioned 
~' ' a Utiloa on earthen plattera, barle; bread and apelt etc. and tha 
1 of crockery. Sen. ep. 31 g 11 ' te quoque digiaimjlniic 
tCTa nort aato, non argento; nan potest ex hac matei'ia 


imago dei exprimi limilis i cogita illoi, cum propitii ess 
fuUee. id. oohb. HcIt. 10 § 7 quorum Ucta nondum auro fttlgebani, 
qvoTWin Unvpia tumdam gemmis TiiUbant. itaque tunc per fiotilea dem 
religioM iurabaivr. id. ben. i 6 | S. Flm. sciir g 34 lignea potim aut 
tiotUia deontm limulacra in dtlubria dicata tuque ad devictaia Aiiam, 
«B<fc luxuria. ib. g 15. lil T i % 6. xxiv g 1S7 d( the Capitolina lappi- 
lar dedicated hy TarqainiuB Priaousliotilein eumfuiiie,,.)iae enim turn 
^giei d<omm erant laulissimae, nee paeniiet noa illoram qui tales ees 
coUtere, aurnm eaim et argmtiun ne dw quidem conjiBitbant. ib. g 168. 
IdTt, B.'goi. 25 frugi religio et pauperea Titus et nulla Capitolia eertantia 
ad eaehtm... nondum enim tuns inffenia Graecorum atque Tuccorumfiagen- 
dis simulacTii urbem inundaveraitt. Matquardt iv 5. 43, t (2) 236—7. 
SOS — 4. John's Feraius p. 136. Miillei Handb. g 72 1. Yioi^ioB HI 

20 n. liaa. ix 519 — 531 of Jnppiter Ammon pauper adkac deut fit, nuUif 
Tiolata per aevum [ dMHii delribra teneni, morumque priorum \ nwaen 
Bamano Cemplum def ertdit a b auro. PHn. xxxvii g 1 yiolara etiam 
ligTOi, quae causa gemmaruia est, quaidaia nefas ducentes. 

117 uoui si.tiR not the foreign citj-us 1 137 n. Mart xn 
66 6. nv 90. On imported lusury see ui 60—85 n. ti 38S— 305 eap. 
298— -300 yrimo pecegrinos oSscena petunia wares \ iatiilit, et tmpi 
frtgerunt meada luxu | divitiae molUi. viii 226. iiv 179—188 eap. 
187 188 peregiina ignotaqua nobia | ad ecolas atqna netas, 
quaeoamque est, purpura ducit. Sen. cons. Heli. 10 §g 2 3. Stat. b. 
HI 3 87 — 95 boasts of tlie vastne^s of the importations, natab properij 
applies to the trees, bat cf. Eor. □. i 27 1 natis in usum laetitiae icypMt. 
120 — 129 Luxury in furniture now-a-days. Venison and turbothaTe 
DO relish, ruses and perfumes atink, unless our broad tallies of citrus 
rest on a leopard of ivory; this, the cast-ofi burden of the monster of 
the tropica, alone can whet jaded appetite ; a silver pedeatal is as an 
iron ting on the finger. 120 Bcq. 16 n. V 93 seq. n. 


A Mart. I 49 23 (where it is classed with the hare and boar), m 58 38. 

□ 94. 


fi 297. 3 

[1 128. 

Hor. c. n 3 13 14. 7 8 and 23. in 14 17. Mart, x 19 19 20 
euiafurit Lyaeiii, | cuia regnat Tosa, cam madent capilll. Aih. 686° 
ij Si Ttiv are^ivui* kqI fi6puf Tp6r€po^ ttaoSoi fls rtk avjiir6ffia ijye?ro r^f 
Scirrfpas rpar/fTii. Lucr. y 1128. Forbiger i* 366. Boaui 

V 30. XT £0. Hor. c. i 36 15. 38 3. Mart, ui 68 5 hie iatn deposito pot 
Vina lOBiBque pudore, □ 11 14. ni293. VM., ii 6 § 1 priiaoique loiuu 
nnguenti coronarumgiu in aonvivio dandaruta et leeanda^ nunsae 
for^ndae eonsuetudinem haudparva liixuriae inritanunta repperiise. Plot. 
qa. conv. in 1 tit. il xfifrTior drffiecU aTt^dvmt rapi, riray. Plin. xii gj 
6 — 69 e.g. g 14 pavcissima nosiri genera eoronataentomm inter Jiorteiuia 
nooere, ae paene violas losaaqae tantum. Clem. Alex. paed. n o. 8 til. 
it /lipnt nal art^dmis jip^T^m: Becker Charikles i 495. Hence the 
proverb sub rosa, Marquardt v (1) 341. Parbiger l< 216. At a feast 
given to Kero the roses (no doubt m winter) cost more than four million 
Kesteroes Suet. 27. With the thought cf. Frouto ad M. Caes. i 7 pp. 18 
19 Maber nullum adeo vile aut vuigatum est holus aut pulpamentuia, q ' 
tlegantiut videatur vaiia aureii adpaiitam. idem i ■■ ■• ■ 
et ooronis: alta dignitate sunC, cum a coronariis veneunt, alia cum a 
sacerdolibut porrigunlur. oaaas 1 1S7 n. 138 n. 

123 BBOB Plaut. Stich. 377 lestos ebaratos, 
aumCof. YaiTO 1. 1, vm § 32 if we applied the principle of ' analog;' to 

1, gitin 




foniitEire, n 

a sbonlil not take more pleasure lupttUctiU dUUncta qtiat 
•e and oUier Enbstanwe and TOTTiug shapes tbEin in grabati, 
wbJoh geceially are of ace stufF aad make. At Caesar's faueial (Suet. 
U] leotaa eburueas aura ct parpara itratua. Mart, ii 43 S 10 (ii 
Li^cgi India tiapendU doDtibue orbea : \fuicitur testa /agina vierua 
ink id. XIV 91. Las. z 110—131 ebur atria veitit | et tu^ecta manu 
Jmbai tsstudinis Indae \ Urga ledent erehro maealat distincta 
aaraijdo. ib. 144 -E deutibas hie niveii secloa Atlantide tilva | 
iaptmri orbes. Flin. xa % 5 ut a dit nolo iure luxuriae eodem 
tUre noBiirium ara !peclant\ir et mensainm pedes. Lndan gallus 11 
ii who tiaed to go in rags and was fain to lick the caps, now drives out 
inpaiple, basliis servants, caps of gold, tablet jciih ivary feel. Ath. 19* 
ijsnjiu l}LtitiarTdTiiSts. Plat. Com. ib. 49'' iv icMvaii ^Xe^arrAiraffi. 
DGus. II 10 § 3 Seneca had 600 aach tables [ Tubero in dig. xixin 10 
7 Jl fuc mirion e»t moribta civilatii ei uiu rerum appellationaa eius 
[npetlectiiis] laaiatam eiec; nam liotili aut lignea aut vitrea nut 
teitA dtniqiie mpcllectUi alebanlur, nune ex ebore atque testndine et 
ugGQto, iam cz aaro etiamatque gemmia eupelleclUi uiuntur. ib. 7 
l!ji3mensae...eboreae. Clem. Ai. paed. n § 26 p. 188 xXiPT^pis 
It ipyvpvt,..irKeiht dpyvpi re koI j^fiiiiTd.„Kal i\i^ayros..^K\tvat re dpyv- 
fiiiSts Koi EXe^avTaxAXX^roi. Marquoidt T (1) 318. (2) 334. 

[' ET=id est ; like atgue in Lucr. iii ^$3 n. quem 
vHiiCTii Uuerant atqne exeit anxiae aiigor.' H. A. J. M.] 

134 DENTiBDS 123 u. FUn. cited on xn 36. 

pdnti Till Ibll n. syehes Assouan, 

I Iniil er fortreaa in Southern Egypt, held by three ooliorts Strnb. 797. 

Hi. ii; rt imas be the gate ol the town, through which all traffic frora 

ii 1 1 e K Nubian ivory, must pass. Others, sinoe the valley of the 

l,r tlv uariowed below Sjene, anderstaad byjwrla the pass thna 

n IliL livea of lur. (□. 1 and 2 John) ceem to imply that he wa^ 

^ I t thia town (taistusque ad praefectaram cokortii in ezirema 

I I le lendentu) Here were the quarries of Syenite marble, which 

I i Et^pt with ita statnes and obeUska. 125 uauho 

1 IM Ds V 1)3 nigri... Mauri. The two kinds of elephants were 

iiL Uii^uuiliDil by the ancients (cf. sat. x 160 n.) and the African was found 

anch turthir north than now Flin. vni g 32 elephantos/frl^/rica ultra 

ijnuai sohtudijua et m Mancetania, led vtaximoi India. Hence 

Induj dcR«, IniJinn ebur, etc. Catull. 64 48 Ellis. Ov. m. viii 388. Fetron. 
ysi. gtat. s. Ill 3 94—5 Indi | dentis honos. Mart, dted 123 n. id. 
IHt eitrnm VEfiuIndioosgutdentes, l72 4 emplaoaaibia Indieo- 
fteanat. Flin. ind. elepliat. oBscumnB indds Apnl. fl. i G 
Udotiimnon luque tniror eborla strfiei,...nee quad isdem India ibideai 
^IkaimueenWH diem tamen in cor pore eolor noctis est, Luo. rv 679 
■SD oonoalor Indo { Manrns. Mart, x Itj 5. 126 ceposdii' has 
liied. Tbe elephant has six e^'i^i^^^s on each tide of eacli jaw; thoae 
hywarde the front grow first and are norn, and then the others in turn 
anae into use. 'One tooth alone is used (on each aide of eoah jan) at 
uptime. This one may ba an entire one or the halves of two (ono 
■om, the other coming into use). The elephant does not eject as 
Dulesa BDf teeth or tooth-struotares' (I owe thia note to A. H. Uarrod, 
'Sin. of the Zoological Gardens), luv. in the tone of FUny (e. g. ku g 2) 
ur Seneca is lashing the deliciae at the age; instead of naing liomegrowii 
limbeT. men import at yiat cost ivory, the mere refuse oC a monster from 
■"'-!. Ti g 144 Nabataei oppidum 

I- jo-t SILVER TABLES. lEON RINGS. [XI 129—131 

Iveluiluiil Pelram nomine. As tliere sj-e no elephsnta in Arabia, domo 
ii»Te MiilKht ttiose Mabatiiei among the AEthiopes Troglodytoe, vhere a 
Wnuoh of th<3 people was aetUed, id. lu g 9S. But the nord is used hy 
Boot* loosely tor the East Lno. it 63. beluax IS8 

&«ft<ia...balQa. Ibki. Sil. cited m 110 n. PUn. sn g 3 /laM [of wood] 
fUtrt numiniHn Wmpfo, priacoipte rilu simplieia nira etian nunc dea 
pratetlUntem arborem dicant. nee magit aiiro fulgenlia atpie ebore 
ttmulacTa quern luciu et in iii lilentia ipaa adoramai. g 4 arbarea et 
niiaulacra nmainum fuere nonduni pretio eicogitato beluacnra 
(iftdftTeri. 127 mso bobqit obsiib the costly 

table gives an edge to the appetite 16 n. vi 428 raftidam faeturvt 
ocexin. Lnmprid. Heliog. 39 tin. amaliBt sibi pretia maiora dici 
earam rerant quae mejiaat parabajituT, oreiin oonviTio hone eite 
auerttu. cf. Fronto ad M. Caes. i 7 p. 18 Naber pUraque propria neita*- 
tatt cartntia gratiam tibinet alirnam. txtTinaecut viutaantur, quod 
evenit etiant in pltbrii Utw eduUhua: tailluTa adeo vile aul jntlgatttn 
at holm aut palpamttiiMm, gui'n elegantins Tideatur vaaia anreis 
nppOBitnio. 128 PES AEaEmBoa 

KJenrohoa in Ath. 255* spealta of a Paphiaii dnndj who lay ei-" 
apyufbTtoioi (Mfiic. dig. ixuij 10 3 § 3 beda aod tables BUvered and 
gilt. cf. ib. pr. Papiuian ib. U § 1 coaches and tables (dcI aT^enteat vcl 
argenta tnclutoi) ; ha cites the bed of Dlises with ita gold and Eilver 
ornatDentH I Fetion. TS meiiBaB lafm argenteas. Beliogabaloa (Lam- 
prid. 20) had bods and cnnohea of solid silver. Aug. aerm. 11 [^de tem- 
pore 110) g 6 lomniu faciliita accedebat ad diiram terram, qaainad la stum 
iiiargaatatum. serm. SOG (~de dlrems US) talde vcUet diver 
lectura urB^utonni cum paiipmi mvtarg eilieio, « poiut aegrituda 
migrare cum Uclo. AalwriuB homil. in aTar. (bibL mai, patr. v 816^) 
pauper ne panem quidem habet, ganTa in lignea meiua frangat; cam moIlM 
ac deticrttiu fulgore laluiimae ex arg/nto mengae, jiiant npere dvctili fieri 
eurmit, mtntem et oculos paieat, ilU iaanei dinititu i/Kiitani lecH /alga- 
ribia undeqaague corascat, cuiiu aint argenteae aphaerae ex eodemqKt 
raetaUo eattaae vicefunium. Slob, fl, 95 20. Clem. Al. pacd. it 1 77 f. 
129 ANDLUS rBBBEua Q table nith lega of silver ia as yalgor and ahably, 
in the opinion of our Toluptuariea (iltii, ie. divitibos 120), as a ling of 
iron. Flin. zixiii g 9 manua el prorma liniitrae maximant avcloritiaem 
coTiciliaveT* auro, imn quidem Jlomavae, gnarvm in mort f errei «ntnl el 
viTtatU bellicae iimgne. ib. J 11 (cited 1 42 n.). ib. 3 12 ii quoqm qui 
ob legationcm acccperant aurfoa in publico iantmn vlebantar iit, iatra 
fiomo) vera ferreiB, quo argamento etiatn nunc ipoutae muturii vJc« 
lerrens annlus mittitar, iiqiie line gemma, ib. g§ 21. 33 (worn 
hy slaTcs). 30. 33. Plia. ep. ytil 6 g 4 of the dintinotions conferred faj' 
tlie senate on. the freedmsji Pallas cemcTit rum exhortandum modo verma 
ttiam compctlendum ad ■asum Bareornm aDnloram ; erat etrim cofitni 
maieitatem senatiu, si ferreis pToetoriui uteretur. Stat. s. Iii 3 143 — 5 
iiSem, in caneoa populum cum daxit equettres \ mutaiiitquc getua laevae- 
qae ignobile farrum | exuit, et celie naionvn aeqvavit honorU 
in muiTo losnn. Barisb. polior. vi IS. 
129 — 135 ' Snch fine feedera are no guenta for me,' who have not an 
onnce of ivorj', not a die or ' piece' in dranghts ; the veiy handles o( my 
knivea are of bone; yet my chicken onts no whit the worse, the blade 
takaa no taint from the plainness of the haft. 

131 iDKO 111 8-1 so uttoiiy destitata am I of bo ranch as an ounce eto. 
NULLA ijscu Plaut. tud. 913 — i ncc paeian 


nllam unoiam liodie \ pondo cepi. Mart, ix 3 5 cited yii 129. 48 10 11 
nail a | de nostro nobis unci a venit apro. 132 tessellax 

dice (kO^oi) of six marked sides, not to be confounded witi^ tali (iurrpd- 
ToXw) of four Mart, xiv 15. Yarro in Gell. i 20 § 4. Ivory tesserae 
Prop. ns=iii 24 13. Ov. a. a. 11 203. Mart, xm 1 6. xiv 14. L. Becq de 
Foaqnitees los jeux des anoiens Par. 1869 ch. 15. Forbiger i^ 221 — 3. 
infr. 176 n. iiv 4 n. Bich s. y. tessera gives a figure of an ivory die 
{ottnd at Hefcolanenm. Marqnardt v (2) 335. 

CALCULUS a counter, used for playing the ludus latrunculorum a sort of 
dianghts, uid duodecim scriptorum backgammon. Fouquieres ch. 19 
and 17. calculi were commonly of glass (Mart, vn 72 8 n. vitreo latrone, 
Basd paneg. ad Pis. 181 182, where is the fullest account of the game 
mtreo peraguntur milite bella, \ ut niveus nigros^ nunc et niger alliget 
tdbot, Ov. a. a. 11 208). cf. ib. iii 357—60. id. tr. 11 477—82. Mart, xiv 
17. 20. VM. vra 8 § 2. Becker Gallus m 261 seq. Forbiger i« 223—4. 
Marqnardt y (2) 434—8 stone calculi, of semiglobular form, white, black 
and red, have been found in a tomb at Cumae. 133 manubbla. 

CULTELLOBUM v 122. Clem. Al. paed. n 3 § 37 t£ 7ip, eM fioi, rb fiaxal- 
piowrb iiriTpair4l^iOP,7Jy fiij dpyvpSriXov -g ^ i^ i\^<pavTos T€woiri/x4' 
pow Trjv Xap-fiv; oi) T4fiv€i; such a handle in archaeologia xxvii 143 
eited by Marqnardt v (2) 335. Plin. xxxiii § 152 quid haec attinet 
coUigere, cum capuli militum ebore etiam fastidito caelentur argento, 
vaginae catellis, haltea lamnis crepitant ? 135 bancidula 

cited in lexx. from Pers. and Mart, add in Migne lxxxvii 359*^ rancidu- 
Inm susiurres, 

136 — 141 No carver have I, worthy to be prizeman in Trypherus' 

Khool, where models of sow's paunch, hare, boar, * white-breech' deer, 

pheasants, the huge flamingo and Getulian oryx, feast right dainty, if in 

elm, dissected with blunt knives, clatter through the length and breadth 

of Subura. 136 stbuctob v 120 n. 121 n. vii 184. 

Forbiger i* 73. 137 pergula from pergo, like 

regula, tegula, a halconyt at the top of a house (gloss, p. 294 Valpy 

iwfp^, TpopoMl. Tert. adv. Valent. 7 etiam creatori nostra Enniana 

eenaeulain a^dicularum disposita sunt forma, aliis atque aliis pergulis 

tuperstructis. Plin. xxi § 8. Suet. Aug. infra) ; also a booth (Auson. 

epist. 4 6 vilis harundineis cohibet quern pergula tectis) in which wares 

were offered for sale (dig. v 1 19 § 2) ; esp. a painter's studio (cod. Theod. 

zm 4 ^picturae profes9ores...'peigvil&B et ojficinas in locis publicis sine 

pensione obtineant, si tamen in his usum propriae artis exerceant, dig. 

IX 3 5 § 12 cumpictor in pergula clipeum vel tabulam expositam habuis- 

set eaque exeidisset et transeunti damni quid dedisset, Plin. xxxv § 84. 

Lucil. XV 10 Mtiller in Lact. 1 22 § 13) or a school (Suet. Aug. 94 Theogenis 

mathematici pergulam comite Agrippa ascenderat, id. gr. 18 initio 

circa scenam versatus est, deinde i/i pergula docuit, Vopisc. Saturn. 10 

fin. Jtomae frequentaverat pergulas magistrales), Marqnardt v (i) 93. 

tbyphebi Tpv</)€p6t, delicatus, a suitable name (cl 
m 67 n.) for this professor of an outlandish craft ; some of the dainty 
meats also have foreign names or are ' Scythian,' ' Gaetulian.' 

138 SUMINB LuciL fr. inc. 49 Miiller ilium sumina 
dueehant atque altilium lanx, Pers. i 53. Plin. viii § 209 ut tamen 
Publi mimorum poetae cena, postquam servitutem exuerat, nulla m^moretur 
sine abednnine, etiam vocabulo suminis ab eo inposito. cf. si 
§ 211; but it was known to Plautus. Mart, ii 37 2. vii 78 3 sumen 
aprum, leporem, boletos, ostrea, mvXlos, m 14 3. xi 52 13. xii 17 4. 


48 9. »iri i4. tipcs t 167 n. apib v 115 n, I 

lis n. FTGARoDs sabDl. ' teia eet in specie cerri, ^nas J 

ratnores partes nlbas bnbet.' A species of capm Fliu. tiu § 211. I 

139 BcrrmciK yolockbs seboi. 'ph^imiiH dro tiji 1 
tijiSat.' Pheasants occnr in the fable of Solon DL. i g 51 KxoeBoe I 
bavuig arrtijed liimseU in Mngly state asked the sage whether lie had I 
ever soon a finer sigbt. ' cocks, pbeassjita, peacacks are adorned with ; 
a natural beauty in&nitelj fairer,' Enonn to Aristoph. and Alistot. 
Ptolemy Fhyskon in Atb. 65i' saja that hia predeeeasora imported tham 
from Madia and bred them with saeh success that Ibey are aaten; bat im- 
plies that he had not tasted tb em. Mmself ; on which the doipnoBOphist : 
' hod he seen ns, ench with a pheasant before Mm, beside those we hnya , 
already dispatched, he would have added a 25th hook to his historj'.' ef. J 
Ath. 386<— 3S7'. Pallad. 1 29 eives directiona for keeping them. Monil. I 
V S76 — 8 atque haec in Uixum. tarn veniri longiui ilur, | qwaa vudo I 
mililiae; Namidaram paicitaur orii | Fhasidos et lacit ; arcantw \ 
indi maeellum, | vnde aurata novo devecca eil atquore pellis, Coitaa. rat 
iam nunc Gangeticta et Acgyptiaa avea temidenUT erueiant. Plin. xu g 43 
hviju [oivij gratia praecipae avaritia expetit, huic luxuria eimdit, huie 
nHTigatar ad Fbasim, huie profaTidi vada exquirantur. xu | 62 
taergi enim, credo, in profunda tati-ai est el oitrearum genera Tiaufragio ex- \ 
qairi, aves nltra Phasim amnam peti nc fabidoso quidtm terrore 1 
tutat,i!m«o»lcpretiosioTts, aliatinTSxiiaHiti Aethiopimnie ina^ulehrit I 
Qucujiari. Petron. 93 (oited IG n.). 119 36. Mart, ill 58 IS. \in 45. 72. I 
Snet. Cal. 23 Aosriae erani phoenioopteri, iinoonej,,..phaaiBnBe, ' 
quae generalim per lingaloa dies immolaTentur. Stat. B. i 6 76 — 78 at I 
an entertainment in the amphitheatre clouds of birds were let loose qiuu 
Nilia lacer horriduique FhasiB, \ quai udoHaiaidaa legantiub Aaelro, 
Ltician. navig. 23 ipra i< idaiSoy Kal railit Ef IrSas Kal a\itrpviir i 
No/iaSmdi. Capitol Pert. IS p}i&aian\im. numquam privato eonvivio l 
comedU aul alicui misil. Lampr. Alex. Sev. 37 loeii ^ilo et Satumali- J 
biti tc hviusmodi feetis diebia phasianas. ed. Diocl. it 17 20. Inlion, I 
by advice of Constantina, forbad it to be servod Amm. xvi 6 § 3 faHiauam 1 
*( vnlvani et anmen exigi vetait tt inferri, muaifieU militU viU et I 
fortuito cibo contentvs. Ambr. hesaem. ti g 6 exquisitam illud et accttra- / 
(UTB opipare comiivium, in quo phasiani out turtarU tpeeiei apponitur, et 
intiu piUUu mandiicatur, aut pallua ia/ertur, et oitreii eat /artti* aul 
ipondylii. Hehn Knlturpflanzen imd Haustbiere' Berlin 1874 fll6 — 9. 
PHOEBicoPTEBUs Miirt. in 58 14. xm 71. Tha tongas 
(Plin. I § 133) and brain (Lampr. Hehog. 20) oi the fiatniitgo wera most 
esteemed. See Suet. Tit. 18. Forcellini. 

140 OBTx Flin. X % 201 ory gem perpeiuo riliatiia Afrieae generant ex 
natara loeipota carentem, etmirabili modo ad remedia lilitrUiiuit ; navique 
Oaetoli lalronei eo duranl auxilio, repertit in corpore eoram eaZtiAerrijni 
liguorU veiicis. a Mud of capra id. Tin % Q14 soli guiiaidam dicti con- 
trariopila vestiri et ad caput verso, id. ii § 255 unieome et btiuleuni 
orys. id. ii % 107. Oppian (ven. n 446 seq. of. Mart, iin 96) spoaks of 
its ferocity. lAOTissim, In. Mart, in 48 Slant a laimn 

cena esC- /aijor iBtttiBaima. 141 DiamA j 

wooden models of the various dishes to be carved; thejoiata were Blightlj 
fastened together, so that the pupil could sever them with a blunt toife. 
So blnntrasors were used byprentioo hands Petron. 94 fin.rudii...tioeaoiiio I 
el in hoc relusa, ut puerii diseeatibia aitdaciam tonioris daret, initnaerM > 

-141-146] CAPBEA,* AFRA AVIS. NOVIT C. INF. 207 

ikeeam, el 108. subxtba 51 n. 

142 — ^161 ^7 waiter, a raw novice, flesht on homely scraps, has 
no skill to filch a slice of yenison or wing of gaineafowL Coarsely, bat 
mumly clad, my boy will serve plain cups that cost; but a few halfpence. 
No Phiygian he or Lycian [bought in the slave-market and bought dear]: 
when you call for wine, call in Latin. All are drest alike, with straight 
bair eat short, combed to-day in special honour of the feast. The one 
is a shepherd's, the other a cowherd's son. A lad of modest look and a 
modest blush, that would become freebom wearers of the dazzling purple 
fraetexta : he pines for a holiday to see his mother and cottage home 
and old friends the kids. His sMn is still smooth without help of art ; 
his voice not yet broken. The wine he hands to you was bottled on his 
native hills ; he is the grape's own countryman. 

142 CAPREAB cf. dama {121) , pygargvs (138), oryx (140). Hor. s. 11 4 43 

vinea ntbmittit capreas non semper edules. subducebe 

to purloin Sen. ep. 1 § 1 qtuiedam tempora eripiuntur nobiSj quaedam sub- 

dnenntur, quaedam effiuunt, afbae avis 139 n. Yarro 

r. r. xn9 § 18 gallinae African a e sunt grandes^ variae, gibberae^ quas 

luleayplSas appellant Crraeci. hae novissimae in triclinium ganearium in- 

troieruiU e culina propter fastidium hominum. veneunt propter penuriam 

magno, Hor. epod. 2 53 non Afra avis descendat in ventrem m£um | iu- 

cundior. Mart, xiii 45. 73. iii 58 15 Numidicaeque guttatae, Colum. 

Tm2§2 Africana £«f, quafn pleriqu^ Numidicam dicunt, Meleagridi 

milis^ nisi qiLod rutilam galeam et cristam capite gerit, quae utraque 

twt in Meleagride caerulea, ib. 12. Petron. (cited 16 n.). Plin. xxxvii 

§ 40. Probably our guinea-fowl (Becker Gallus i 97), which are found in 

Arabia, and are (according to Speke) the commonest winged game in 

« East AJbrica Hehn 313 — 6. Beintroduced into Europe by the Portuguese 

^ they now tt^xi, yfild j g^ America. 143 novit with 

* inf. To Haupt's exz. (opusc. in 565) add Ambr. hexaem. v 6 terrena 

[mnstella] se novit vindicta foetoris ulcisci. ib. vi § 26 vix infantulo 

eoeperunt dentes prorumpere^ et iam novit sua arma temp tare. id. de 

Parad. § 40 no Yeia.t...hominem peccaturum? Symm. or. pro patre 

7 fin. noverant non licere. Sil. xi 169. tibunculus not 

like the footmen of great houses, an expert thief. 

144 OFELLAB from offa, as mamilla from mammae farina from farris, 
Monro on Lucr. in 504. Mart, x 48 15 et quae non egeantferro structori s 
ofellae. xii 48 17 me meus ad subitas invitet amicus o fell as (to pot- 
luck), xrv 221. 145 PLEBEios CALiCES V 38 — 48 n. not of gems 
or gold Mart, x 49. id. xiv 94 1 non sumus audacis plebeia toreumata 
vitri, PAUCis assibus emptos Mart, ix 59 22 asse duos 
calices emit. 146 xncultus pueb Sen. tranq. 1 § 1 placet 
minister incultus et rudis vernula. Mart, v 66 9 10 nee tener 
Argolica missus de gente minister, \ sed stetit inculti rustica turba 
f ocL A FBiGORE TUTUS I 93. IX 68 quid dicam scapulis puerorum 
aquilone Decembri f in 170 n. xiv 185 — 8. wearing warm and coarse 
clothing, not, like a favorite page in a great house (in 186 seq. v 56 seq. 
n. Mart, vn 80 9), rustling in silks, or naked. Sen. brev. vit. 12 § 5 
■ quam dilig enter exoletorum suorum tunicas suceingant. With these lines 
cf. the boast of G. Gracchus, rendering an account of his administration 
' of Sardinia Gell. xv 12 § 2 ncque pueri eximia facie stabant et in 
eonvivio liberi vestri modestius erant quam apud prindpia, § 3 I was two 
years in the province : si cuiusquam b erYuins propter me sollicitatus est^ 
think me the vilest of mankind. Clem. Al. paed. in § 26 oivox^<>iy 


Ti ti»\BS aEriirrui rap (niraTt taX ^iipaxtair lipalmr ttyiXat KaBiwtf 
OpiliHiTWP, rap' lir diUK-yarrai t4 niXXoi. 

147 PHaii iDT LYCius V 56 n. floii Asiao. Heimippas in Ath, 37* 
drSfiitaf ix tpvylas. Burip. Alk. 67S 676 ii TriT, rir a^fii, irdripa AuSir 
■i ^piya \ xat-oit l\a,arti» ipyvpiirtiTaf niHn'; Ariatopli. av. 1211. 
I'olyb. IV 38 g 4- St^b. 304, Ael. v. li. 1 14. paroemiosr. i 95 LealsoU 
tpi^ df^Ni »^iry<ll ifiil'UH' Hal SiaKiiv4irrepos. mffpoi -yap SeitoCffw dI 
^^piyti ottiToi, DL. 11 75 Siiuoa etQward of Dionyaiaa waa 4'fii>£ nsl 
tXtSpiH. Lue. dial, niort. 9^4. On the voriouB natioiiB froia whioh 
Blaves were brouglit, of. i 104 u. v 53 n. 66 d. yii 15 n. 16 n. Luo. s 
127—135. Maiiiuardt t (I) 165. Icdiaa alavea PLilontr. soph, i 8 S i. 

iiANOOBi: cf. 1 111 u. Sen. de couat. cap. ii 13 g 1. 
id. b«n. ly 13 S S mircatur urbibui prodeit, medicitt aegri), raaogo 
venalibui. ted omaet itti, quia ad iHieaam eommodata pro tuo iMniunt, 
nun obligant eoi guibia proiunt. id. ep. 80 § 9 maugaueB guicjuid at 
quod ditplieeat, aliquo lertoctnio abteondant : itaqut CTnentUiai ornaiMtlta 
ipia luipeeta luui; live enu adligalvm live bracchivm adtpietra, nudari 
iub<rea tt ipaiim tibi carpui ostmdL dig. h 16 207 mercia appeUationt 
homiiui non contintri Mela ait: et ob earn rem man gone a uon nurm- 
tora wd venalieiarioi appellari ait, et reete. ib. xxi 1 44 g 1. QuintiL 
deoL 840 cidftur jaayxgoaipatrpTeiiotai: tinatilne magno aeitimaretar 
...iadicetis, qwaa miUta facere poiiit adveraut puerum mango iratui: out 
ilUfortaiie prttiun exiecta virilitate prodacet, aut ob infelicii eonttaneUae 
aaaoi veaibit in oltguoiJ lupanar. rei eat nobi^ cum bomine, qui mm tnt- 
beaeit, nihil re>eniac, etiam. perieuloae avarua eat. of. Mart, ni 80 Q Mitg- 
Unaei Toaeue maugoalB ephebua. ix 69 3 — S. Marquardt v (1) 178 179. 
148 £1 luoKo V 5G □. sohol. ' qnalea Tsudant ran 
manciparii.' fosceb, fosce Cio. Yerr. i g 66 

poaonnt maiorlbut pocutie. cf. Hor. epod. 8 33 Lambin. b. u 8 35 et 
calicet posoit maiorea. Quiutil. xi3 g 117 iiesEuinpaaulum posceutis. 
i.iTiNB not in Greek in 61 n. -vi 185— IBB e.g. 
nam quid rancidiut, quam quod se noa putat uUa j /armoiain, nin muu dt 
Tuaca Uriiecula /oclu eelt | ...omnia graeos. Qnintil. i 12 g B iio~ 
vieiiBnoBtriflper guuiarmoi aermolatinna repngnat I 

149 inEU QABiica see the wardrobe of a dtlicatua ia 5tat. a. 
n 1 ieS-S5. TOMsi Hor. ep. 1 18 7 Obbar. Iilart. 

1x3011 libi ai dederit vultui coma tonaafiTilea. in 58 30 Slttpaeda- 
gogo non iubente latcivi | parere gaudejit vilico oapillati. Marquardt r 
(1) 163 on the fashionable glabri, eoraati, eriniti, criipuli, eineinaatuli. 
Sen. ep. 119 g 14 ai pertinere ad te iudieat, quam arinitua j>u«r et guam 
perlucidam tibi pocv,luin pomgat, turn eitia. Uicr. ep. 6(i 8. 79 S. 
nEcii not oorled Hor. B. ii 8 69 70 u( omnes \ praecineti rtele pueri Bonip- 
tique miniitrent. Sen. ep. 96 g 24 irameo agiaina exolctorum per natimut 
coloresque deacripta, ul eadem omnibus teviiaa eit, eadcm primae menaura 
lanuginia, eadem speciea capillorum, ne qvAa, cui rectior eat coma, erit' 
pulia miaceatur. Apnl. met. u 19 pueri calamiBtrati pulehre indtoiiitl 
gemma* Jormataa inpocalavini velatli frequenter offirre, Petron. 102 fin. 
150 f£u TI 26 27, PeiB. 1 16 John. lae. d. 
20 (metapk) impexam antiquitatem. Morquaidt v {2) 202. 

They camp oat in the moontaina and dress in ^eepsldna. Colnm. i S 
g 2 aocora et aowaiculoaum genua id [uzbanom] maimipiorum oiia etnnpD 
circo theafni aUae popinae lupanaribua coTUuetmn—eligendut tat rilHti- 
-'- "peribns ab infante duratns. Mart, i 98 addat euxt miii Caecit- 


turn minUUr | Idaeo resolutior Hnaedo, [ quo nee Ji 

tasmalfr taa nee toror recambif, [ vit ipeetem poti 

dtnat celiu Iiuftcui^tu; denUt t \ luipectui tibi n 

jraflBtft da gregB aordidaiiue villa | touBoe 

pasillos { hirooai mi hi filioa aubnloi. | ptrdel te dolor hie; habere, 

" "' ' ■ ' ' ' I mlaiitroe. IiQoian " ' " 

PiibU, I mores mm potei hot et hoe mlaiitroe. XaciRn ODaviT, 15 flu. the 
muter ol tho feaat sent away the onpbeorer Jbra liipator from EleodemoB, 
and Bent ia Ma place rHy iiiipur fji) K<d Kaprep^u, 6piaK6fi.or Tiri f 
IrwtiiiAor. 152 busfirat Frudenl. oath, n 43 44 

154 CioL on Ov. m. ly 329. ' 155 aedknh pubpcbi 

itin.iT 262 Tyriogue ardebai mnrioQ lasna. VFL i 427 423 ignea 
pnipnFB. HeiiiB. lb. ti 523. Pnid. peycliom. 39 ardentijiM iabet 
Mtlirier OHtto. CaligiHa atrnck Ftolem; at the shows, because he 
tttnoted the attention of the crowd Suet. 35 fulgore pUTpareae abotlae. 
FOBFUTu I 27 D. (where add Hertzberg GcieclierQ. in 72 
7B, tnd OD the ase d purple b; pilncea 1 Mace. 14 41. Ambr. hexaem. 
I JS6 tin. 33 fin. Hndbj courts loa. ant. xit3§ 2 fin. on the purple-fish 
u naed for food Lnc. oynJE. 11). 78 n. i 3Ud. iiv 187 188 the old- 
luhioned eaation of the Maman or Henuoon farmer peregrtna ignotaq^tt 
^■jtklBd saelus atqne uefae, ijaaecumqne est, purpura ducit. 

^^^^^Mg S. Be«ker lom. Alterih. n 2 T7}, woa bordered with purple 
^^^^HHoV 7 I 3 Uberi noitri praetextis purpura togU vtentur). Whea 
^^^^^pSna PriBcas trioiuphed over the Sahinee, he presented his Bon, 
^^nayoDth of 14, who had taken part in the victory, with a maetexta 
(Iborob. Sftt. 1 6 g 7 B§q.), wliioh thenceforth became the distinotiye 
mark of Iree-bom jouths. Cio. Yeir. i g 113 togam praetestam... 
wiwiii*nla non eolum foriunai, sed eliam iogenuitatis. ib. J 153 vet- 
l>, quem iUi moi et iu» iugenaitatlH dabat, Quintil. decl. 340 
bi. (the Leading ib mango noiitcium puerum per publieanoi traiecit 
praeteitatum. dieitur ille Hber) ipium illud saoram praetez-. 
■■ram, gtio tacerdotei velantvr, quo magieiratui, quo infirmitatem 
pietitiae aaoram facimuB ao veuerabilem. Hor. epod. S 7. Fera. 
rJO cum priiitam pavido cuttoa miki purpura ceiiit. Stat. e. n 1 13S 
of a page sola verecundo derat praeteita deeori, v 2 66 oilrura pueriUi 
ib. 3 117 — 9 te divite ritu | poitere pnrpureoa infantia adegit amktiu ] 
iHniU hottore dalot. Marqnardt T (1) 127. 

156 FCPiiJ.utEH aehol. > qnalea habent hi, qui patres non habest, BBUiaet 
tamantea in licentla pueritioe.' vi 366 — 376. Salviau. gnb. Dei vi 9 fin. 
emuqtie etiam piipillia prodigi) vel prodigioeii laleat s^JmemTe paapertat, 
rim^ue ut deatiterant etie divitei, deiintint quoque este vitiosi, not 
MMum noDuin genai pnpillorum ao perditorum lumui, in qvibw 
aptdeKtta ttse deiiit, aed nequitia ^eriiurat. ib. viii 1 papillts...t'i!l 
maaime pndieU. Sen. ir. ii 21 g 6. balneivi 372— 375. ix 34 aS. 

Mtrt. I Sa, 96 11—13. vit 36. \i 47 1 2. Patron. 27. Clem. AJ. paed. 
m 6 8 32 33. Cypr. de habitu virg. 19. Ammiau. ixvm 1 g 9. Lucian, 
HttpJn. a4. forbiger i' 96. 'Wahon hist, de Veeai. ii 340. Marqnardt v 
(1) 289. SAUcns Orangaeus ' nt qui non eoitui 

indnlgaat ; aio anim vox ranoeaoit : hino oantore? infibolati vl 73. 879. ' 
HBrt^>erg more simply : ' his voioe is not yet broken' ; iam (157) BUpporla 
this -new: he still speaks in boyish treble, hag not yet reaobed puberty: 
ef. Ang. couf. n g 6 of hia 16th year: ubi me Ute pater in balneis cidlt 
pubeacentem et i-nq«ieia inilutiim aduhscfjitia, qvasi iam er hot in 

rev. II. 14- 



tupotet geitiret, gaudeiu matri indieavU. 
157 TBLLEHSAs M^s viit IS D. Ill D. TliGopomp. in Ath. 260'. Menaiid. 
ipyll It. 1. PlAut. aul. 39S 399 tu iituia gallam, it eapw | glabrloiem 
udda tnfhi juaTH toIbus ludiiut. Son. ep. 17 f T alfiu vini minittir in 
mulUbrem modttn omat-as cuirtattaU lactatar. non potest effagere pueri- 
tiam: retrahitur, iantque injlitari babitu glabsr rstritis piiis aat 
penitaa BTulsia tota noctc pavigilat, guam inter dbrietatem dtimiru ac 
jiiidinem dividit tt in cuiiculo vir, in eonmvio jiuer eil. ib. 56 S 3 all- 
pilnm cogila leimtnt et itridulam voetm, qtio lit notabilior, nAindt a- 
primtntem lue umquara tacoMm, niri darn vellit alas et aiiwn pro u 
i/lamaTe cogit. ib. 114 § 11 alttr teplut iuito coHl, alter plai iiuto ntglegit. 
ilia Bt oriira,hio na hJbb qaidem vellit. id. bier, rit. 13 g Scon' 
vivia mektrcuUt horum rion poiitirim inter vacantia Mmpiira, cum vidtam, 
...quam mtpeiui tint,,,,qiut ctleritate ligno data glabii ad ntinuteria 
tfueurrant. Mart, iii 63 6 (aited infra 162). ix 37. Suet. Cass. 46 
{piaotised by Caesar). Qnintil. ii 6 3 12 Bpalding, DChijs. or. 33 fin. 
(nSlS2B). Cfpr.U'Btim.iii847Uinvellendam. Maiquardt t (1) 163. 
(2) 201 (the diiu). OudltiB on Fhaadr. iv 4 23. Foibigei i' 3B8. Hiai. 
ep. 79 9 pr. aub x 178 n. [Ibcoplir. cbar. 19 makes it a mark of tha 

iiiDCfpiii to baTa Bhaggy arm-pita ris liaaxi^' Byipiiiitii xal ia.atlat Ixtf 
i-XpL ivi iroXi) Twr vXELipur. Tiie Bncienta wore uo BleeTus. OatulL 69 S 
Gllia. Hor. op. i 5 29 Obbar. 1S8 a^^o "i 263 n 

159 niFFUBA T 30 n. home-made winea, no' 
Chian 01 FiUemian. Mart, v 66 8 Tina ruber fudit nonpersgrini 
eadus, 161 Marklanti '((uudnamupuBhoa veisi 

ei qui Iflgerit daos praeoedentes? ' 

162—182 No Spauisli girls mil sing and toBe a fiuidaogo to tha 
clapping o[ my guests; though wives at theii husbonda' aidea eiC 
to watoh what ona would blueb but to name in their hearing. Such 
Bporta are sins in the poor ; to tha rich they are nettles ol jaded 
appetite, condoned or admired (or ' such wild tricks as gentlemen 
ehould have.' At my board expect other entertainment; Homer and 
hie liTal Virgil ehall ha read ; what nead of trained voiea to gira 
efleot to verEe like theirsr 162 oADiriKA, 172 n. 

X 1 a. Mart, oiten speaks <A the Tolnptuoua daueea of hia coontiy* 
womea (the 'Lolaa and Pepitas' maintaining tha sucoession, Hertzbs^ 
1 41 13 de Oadibaa improbm magUttr. 61 9 iocaiae Qades. iri 63 E 6 
qui Qaditana lusarrat, J jut raovet in varim braeehia vnlsa ntodot. 
V 7S 26—28 (in an invitation to a frugal meal) nee de Qadibus impro- 
bia pnellae | vibrabunt sine fine prnrientaa { laEeivoa dooili 
tremora lum boa. xit 303. Qointil. i 3 g 3 complaining of the oormp- 
tion of children at home omne conTivium obscenis oautioiastzBpit, 
pudenda dletu spectantnr. cf. Sarar. on Sidon, ep. i 3 fin. p. 20. 
Plin. ep.i 15 SS 3 3 audiiaei comnedos vel leotorem oel Ipriiten vel, 
quae mea liberalitaa, omrKS. at ta apiid neacio qtem oitrea, miltiat, 
echtTKU, Gaditanaa Toaluilti. O. John in Sitzungsber. dez saohs. 
Akad. Leipz. 1S51 168 eeq. (For the quantity (i) L. Miiller de re metr. , 
3S7 compares Antipolitanna, Massilitanua, Taoromenitanua, lomitanns, 
TuditanuB). Forbiger i" 220. Marquardt t (1) 61. 157. Friedliinder 
m' 248. 250. Mucrob. Sat iii Il = ii 10 g 4 speaks of the praatiae aa 
obsolete: die etiiia, Hare gut antiquitateirt nabia obicia, ante etn'iu Ericli- 
niuin modo salCatrioem vil lallatorem te vidisae meminiatit Pint. qn. 
conv. TU S 4 g 4 speaking of the class of mimea called iralin>ui, which 
Nspsctable masters would Qot allow the boys that carry their shoes to 

iiiOTIt rapaxiaefiTTCpoy TOi •j/ux'^t iiarlS'gair. Tart. apol. 39 fin. 
(peaka of the pnrit; of ChciBtian feasts. Clem. Al. paed, 11 7 9 53 eights 
•nil soimds Bt feasts oorcupt the foimg. Clergy ucdered to vitbdiav 
train feasts before the performances began oona. Load. c. 51 rpi toC 
ilsifX^aSm Toin Bv/icKiKais. cone Trull. 21. paenitentiale Bom. y S. 
Uiwgn. e. Eelvid. 20 ubi tympana tanant, tibia elamitat, Ij/ra garrlt, 
cywifllum concrepat, quia ibi Dei timir)...ingTediuntur expontat tibidi- 
I mm vietimae et tetaiitate veatium nadae impudieii ocalii ingeraniur. hit 
I iv/ciix twwr ant laetatar et perit; aut offenditur tt maritm in ittrgia 
! aimtatuT. 164 Apul. met. u 7. Araob. 11 43 

aUdebrwid. Maorob. Sat. n 1 § 5. 195 ti 433 

433 of the wita bibit et vomit . ergo maritna | nauaeat alqae oculis bilem 
abitriagit opertia. 196 Varro Agatho tr. 6 

Bdnheler vnga de eonvioio abd-acalur idea good ntaiorca nottri virginU 
acirbae aiirii veneriia vocabulis imbui noluerunt. oomm. on Xep. praef. 
t 6 man; things are becoming in our code of manners which ore un- 
KanAy among the Qtseks ; quern cnim Romatwrum padet uxarem ducere in 
imvivium t 168 DiiTiciE 11 127 128 unde | katc 

UHgit, Gradive, luoa nrtioa nepottaj (mthol. Pal. iii 12i 66 iKKors 
fai<iw, iji B' oii ifiXos' Spa fii\ii7<i4iJt \ ea^ou xal kvISbi «ai rupit 

ihedivci vt 253 254. MatMand 'aentui (videndi) ilta (volnptae).' 

KiTENmiua vt 123. 170 Tl 64. 

31)9—319. PeiB, I 30 21. Lnoian Nigrin. 16 10. 

171 OAPii X 148 Q. Plin. Ill g 6i cauie in tantum sagiTialo, ut pauperio 

menaa non capiat. QointiL deal. S83 p. 780 n. nan est hutkiiia 
ptclarii libertateTa publicam oapere. 172 'iksta- 

itru CKEPITTIB caitancta Aristoph. ran. ISOB 1306 schol. iroS 'arur i} tdTi 
inTpdtOis I avTij KpcmSira. Scipio (Maor. In 14=a 10 g 7) complains 
Ihat he saw in a dancing Bchoal|iurruTn bullatam cum or talis salt are, 
quam laltationem inpudicaa ainiulut haneate aalcare noa poiset. cf . gj 4. 8. 
Cic. p. Mnr, g 13. Atb. 636^ Didjmos says eluBinu ra-it dvrl rip \ipia 
to7x^^'a t"' Sarpaxa aa-iKpoiorrat lppu0fi.oii ^Ki* t^'t ivaTtKvr rms 6p- 
X'l'liii'Ba. Mart, ti 71 1 3 edere laaoivos ad Baetica ornamata 
(jostuB I et Oaditania Indere doota modis. Her skill bewitched 
her lomeljme maater <J vendidii ancillam, nunc redimit doiidnam, Stat. 
e. I 6 23 iilic cymbala tinnulaeqno Oades. OiSord 'small oblong 
piooes of poUahed wood or hone, which the danceis held between their 
tiDgerB, and claahed in measure, with inconceivable agilitjand address.... 

I luiTe heard them often.' Hioli s. tv. craioiitnt. enumata. Vcrg. copa 2. 

SDiiDU n 122, Tac. st 37 Lipaiua. Potron, 7 Wouwar. 
DCbsb. Lira 13 § 8. oiono stabb foiisick vi 132. 

Hor. I 2 30 olente in fornice atantem. Sen. oontr. i 2 § 21 redo- 
let adhua fuliginem fornicig. Prnd. 0. Sfrnni. a «3B ipunam 
redolenti in f ornioe celtant. stiNa Cic. Verr. 

II i 154 Auiiu foiDix in foro Si/racu>i» eat, in quo nndns Jiliua stat. 
cf. IT 1 143. 173 FOttNiOH ni 156. i 2S9. Sen. 
nt. beat, 7 S 3 voluptaa humile, lervile, inbtdilani, eadiKUm, cuiua atatio 
ac damieiliHm fornioeB tt popinae aunt. 

175 LiCKDABMONHJM cf. nv 8Q n. Strabo 367. Varro ra^fj Mwirceu 

li. 18 XiSiarpura pavimmia etparietca incrustatoi, SimpUoitf of Au|ja»- 

^^^U. Sutit. 73 sine marmore ulla aut iJiaigni pavimento conclaoif^^— 




When Simoa Dionysioa' stewaid, a Plii7ginn, ebeired Aristippoa his 
m&Btei'B costly pakoe UL. □ g 73 vc\m-t\fU okaui icoi XieotrrpioTovs, iiisl. 
liiiaxpttiil'ittfria w/Hnriwruire rp j^i, and vbea be was nngiy said: *I had 
no more fitting place. ' Plin. ixxvi § 55 nan autctn omnia tit lapiciiltnu 
gignuntuT, led mulfa et lub terra iparia, jtretionMtiiii quidtm gentrit, 
liaU Laaedaemoniam yiride CTiaetisq\u hilarixit. Stat. s. i 3 148 
119 hie dara LacDDam | laxa virent. TheBtone of mount Taenanu was 
tDaeh valaed Prop. jT=ni2 9 quod nan Taes-Aiiia domv at mHii folia 
eoliamU. Strabo S67 tbere are old qiutiriea of eostlj atone ia Taenaros, 
und Home bave lately opened a large mine m Taygetoj, xoPTt^' 'X<*rn 
TJiv Twr '?ufuiluir itiiXi^Aeuu'. Plin. lb, % IS6 mwt el nigri \l»:fi3at\ 
quoTum aiKtorila* veitit in numnoro, aicut Taen urine. Menre. Tm««i«ll 
IiBcon. u IS. Frudent. a. Symm. ii 217. Lamprid. Heliog. 34 itnivtt 
et laxii LaoedaemoniiB ae porphyretieii plaUai in Palatio, guoi 
AntoKinianai vocavit. Buiaian tieogr. v. Oriecbenl. u 106. Heits- 
lierg Geaeh. OFieoheol. I 616. n 207, with Cortini Peloponn. then 
cited. Hiiller Aiohiiologie %% 268. 809. Mar^udt t (2) 221 a, 2002. 
Mart. I 56 5 TTTiBiurB Tei. baui 48 49 pytia- 

sando modo miki { quid vini abiumptit, where Oion. 'pytiaaaie leote 
explicatoi a vet. BchoL guetare et qnaai cam qnadam probations exspnere. 
dum Bapor Tini probatoi. qnod bodieque lacere aolent, qni yinnin 
piobant est a Oiaeoia, quibns oltoy nrijiir [eonneeted leith rruu el>/m, 
magn.] est vinunt ore reieere. Hinc ap. luv. pytitma, pro illo nsmpe 
Tino, quod ei ore reicitnr. qui Lae. ite. i,e. homo dives, qui Don Tnt 
garem orbcm, Bed ex marmore Loconico factum, Teiciendo iato rino, onm 
pytiasasset. lubricmn facit.' Soaliger on Uonil. pp. 464 455 first gave 
tnie expUnatioa: 'noatnim paTiaeutom plebeium est. itaqae noe pavi- 
meotiun plebeinm pityemate Inbricomos, non autem pavimentiim Lace- 
d[aemQDiiiln...AJeiiB [Ath. ia4') itiii rir lib i^iv olvrw rjiiin-ifo;™. 
Archediona (Atk 291'') iiaruTioia' o&o* 3* tikoStvi Xf^luU.' Vitrav. Tn 
49s ita conviviii eorum et quad poculu el pytismatiB ej'unditur, simal 
eadit licceacitqMe. Hor. e.ii 1426 27mero [ tingct pavi men turn luperbo, 
Cie. Phil. II ^ 105 natabant pavimeota vino, madebant parieleB. 
id. pro QalliD ap. Aqml. Bom. g 2 Bubu^eii hiintvs erat Intnlenta vino. 
Potcon. S8 Bnxin. Plin. nv g 146 of NoveltinB Torqaatoa optiJjta fide 
rum retpinaae in hauriendo nee eipnisse nihilqne ad elidendnm in 
pavimentis Bonnm ex vino rtliquisie, diUscWi leilo legum contra 
bibendi fallaeias. Salvian. adr. avai. G fin. nataot triclinioTwn redutt- 
daMiuta pavimenta vino, FaUrno nobili tvluni Jaciimt, lur. seeniE 
to repudiate the Greelt fashion (commonly spoken of as an excess) with 
its Qieek name, not leas than the Greek marbles. 

OHBEU the fl-our Eohol. ' qui cxspnit Bopra mannor Lftoedae- 
moninm, quo stratum est parimentum.' TibulL. 111 S 16 marmore- 
ninque solum. Luc. I 111 115 nee stimmis cruitala domai leetiiq^ 
nitebat | marmoribus. Sen. ep. 16 § 8 ea deliciariim opumqve [/orfuna] 
perdueat, ut terram marmoribua abscondas. iton tantum habere tibi 
llceat, ted caleare dicitiaa. ib. 66 g 6 pauper e&i videtur ae lardiAa, 
nisiparietei magnii et pretioiii orbibua refuUervnt; ni«i Alexandrina 
marmora Numidkii eraili) dUtincta lunt. ib. 90 g 26 ;uid loquar 
marmora, quibiu ttiapla, qaibui damat fulgent t ib. Ill g S u( parieta 
adueetii traiui maria marmoribua /ufi/eanf, ul tecta varientur auro, 
tit laeioiaribiu pavimentorum respondeat nitor. id. ben. iv 6 S 9. va 
20 a 2. de ira m 35 $ 5. Plin. xxxti gg 44— ea Marquardt y (3) 236. 
Galium II'' 247. 176 ''»' '" the house of the rich, pEved with 

!)iB-180! ALHA. HOM^ KECITED AT TABLE. 2 ] 3 

lunuaa marble. alba 132 n. i 8S— 92 □. 

mi 10. ht 4 5 n. Cie. Catil. 2 § 23 in his grrgibiu omnet alea- 
toiu, omna advlteri, omnet impuri im/mdicique, id. off. i g ISO Beier. 
PhiL II g 56 Abeam, Pnilil, Syr. 33 Spcngel alaator qaanto in arte eit 
fOiiiT, tanto ut neqvior. Hor. 0. iii 24 58 vetita legibus aleo. ep. i 
SI IB Obbor. Or. tr. n 471—1. Sen. etma. ad Poljh. 17 S 4 OaUgda 
m plying at dioe in his AUian Tilla dming hia aiater Dmsilla's funeral, 
il ben. th 16 8 3. Suat. Claud. 5 in the days of Tiberias ex contubemia 
ardidisiimoram hominjcm super veterem segnitiai notata ebrietatii gaoqut 
n ileae intamiam aubiit. ib. S3, id. Aug. 70 71. CaL 41. Dom. 
SL Mart, nr 1 3 nea timrt aediUm mota apidare frititlo. id. i» 14 7—9. 
T B( 3 aq. Lncian SatumaL 4. Chryeoat. horn. 12 in 1 Cor. p. 103*. 
Amto. xxnii 4 S 31 some aconliiig tLo name aleatorei, Trish to lie called 
UmraHii tbe difterenoe is like that between /urea and latnmei; yet it 
aiut be eonfeeaed tbat, while all other friendebipa are Inienaim at 
Borne, aUariae lolae, quasi gloriosii quaeiitae tndoribw, socialea mnl it 
t^ecfu nimio firmitats plena coaexae. See [Cjpr.] de aleatonb-ui (n 
is 104 Hartal), the title de aleatoribvt in the cUg. ±1 6 and cod. (in 43, 
when tbe bishops are chafed to enloroe the law). Friedlandsr 1* 404 
m. Forbiger i> 221—3. Marqoardt y (2) 426—33. 

177 maPB 1 n. n 63. Sen. ep. 87 § 23 (ocTtleinum./urtuiit, adnlterium 
nltr bona haberi proraia periaatimat. qtxan malli furto non embeecvnl, 
qnam multi adnlteiio gloiiantnr t nam saorilegia minuta 
pnninntur, magna in trinmphis feruntur. 

178 FiciDNT Monro cm Luor. in 736 reads faciant with P. 

179 cI. Plin. cited 162 n. viMW-c Miiblmann b. t. col. 
199 ditea ess. of dan eenam, prandium, epulum, mtiniu. Snet. Tib. 7, 
CapitoL Maximini 2, Topisc. Carin. 19 have dare ladog, 

180 coNDiTon ILIADOS Aiis. idjU. 4 46. A lector was emplojad 
to read during meals v 167 n. vi 434 — 7 ilia tamen gravioT, miar cum dis' 
aanbere coeipit, [ iaudat Fer^Hum, periturae ignoseit Elissae^ committit 
Tales et comparat, inde Maronem | atqne alia parte in trutina 
■ aependit Homeram. Cio. Att. i 12 g 3. lam. t 9 § 2 avagnottet, 
Orelii inscT. 2846 lectrix. Sen. ep. 64 § 2. Suet. Aug. 74 fin. ocroa- 
mata. Stat. a. 11 1 117~S a ^iicalui reciting D. and Od. VarroinOall. 
nil 11 g 5 in conviyio legi nan omnia dtient, ted ea fotieti-Boim, q»ae 
rimul HnC Siu^X^ el delccUnt. id. mil 6 an Emiianisla reading tbe 
inuals of Ennins in the theatre of Pnteoli. xiK 9 in a feast given b; a 
wealthy knight from Asia, tbe Spanish rbetoridan Antonins Inlianns 
iaideravil exhiberi, quos habere eum adule»centem iciebat, McitiaiTOOt 
tUriiaque teiiu qui oanerent voce el qui pBailerent. They Gang 
some pieces of Anacreon and Sappho and later poeta. Some Greeks 
challenged lulianvis to match these jjuenles corntinum deliriae from Latin 
authors. On 'wbiah he mice adviodtm quam svavi veraua cacinit 
Valeri Aeditui, vetiTii paetae, F<tn:ii Licitti et Q. Catali. Martial's 
TBTseH were read tv 82. Nop. Att. 14 5 1 nemo in conrii'io «*us aliud 
aemama oudiKil quam anagnoaten j quod noi quidem iueutidisiimum 
arlntramuT: neqae nmquam aine aliqna leotlone apnd enm 
oenatum eit, u( noii mtrais aiiima qvam ventre convivae delectarentar. 
Plin. ep. 1 15 § 2 (supra 162 n.). id, m 1 of Spurinna (77 years of age) ; 
he listened to reading while vmJldng and sitting ^46; while waiting 
tor dinner g 8 ; g 9 frequenter comoedii cena distinguitur, u( voli^tatet 
qtioque itudiiM condiaitluT. VI 31 § 13 a dinnot at Trajan'a plain, li prin- 
eipem cogitares, iaterdum aeroamala audiebiimus, v 19 § 3 of hia 


> 214 ■HOMEB AMD VIEGIL EECITBD. [3118018!? 

fiMdman ZtHunns an gttidem «itu et quaii imcriptio eomotd^a, in gva 
plurimum facil. nam pnmantiat aeriter, sapitnler, apU, deeenler etiam; ' 
uHtur tt cithara perite, ultra quam camoido neceue est. idem lam com- 
mede orationei tt hiitoHat et oarmina Ugit, tit hoe solum dididue 
vidtamr. id. Tin 1 g3 Enco!jriuj,..ieotar, iftaioria nottra, ille dtiieiai 
...quis libelloB maoB aio leget, tie amabitt qnem, aurei mean lie le- 
gucnmrl tii 1 g S. ii 17 S ^ guunt Jtadll, cum leotoi auf lyrista avt 
conw«duf JtuJufCiu at, caiceot poicant aut non minors cunt taedio recubant. 
quam tu itta (lie eaim i^ptliat) prodigia perpe»!ia a I ib. ep. 31 hearing 
Uiat he reads poeme ill, he has resolved to employ bi« treedmuD, and aska 
Suotonias whether he ehoald ut hj dejixu* el muCua et eimilia olioio, or 
rather (tta some did) accompany the leader murmuTV oaiiii manu. But 
alas puto me non mitiiu vuile laltare guam Ugere, ib. ep, 86 S 4 
cecHDti mihi, »i cum vxort vel poMcii, liber legitar. Sen. oodb. ad 
Poljb. 8 § a Beuda the empBror'a treedman to H. and V. to seek oomfort 
in the loaa of hia brother; (unc Hoineriia et Vergilius torn bmt de 
gentre taaaani mfrili. qaam tu et de ommbua et de tUu meruiati, quol 
pltaibiu TuiUia esse valuiati quam arripserant, multum (ecuni morentur. 
Bnrm. anthol. iv 200 11— l*n. epitaph onareadetof Homer r guondam ■ 
ego Pierio vatuia monumtnta cavore | domui cygneit enumerare modii, | 
dociul Maeonio Bpirantta carmina varBn | dieere, Caesareo ear- 
minaitolafoTo. ib. 344 6 on a boy of ton: lagi pia oatmina HomerL 
ib. 846 1 2 (Oralli inscr. 1200) grammalietn loctorjue /ui, eed lector 
corunt I more, incorrupto qui placuere sono. Calvisiua Sabinos hod a 
alava who knew Bomer by heart, another who knew Hesiod, nine others 
who knew each one of the lyiio poets: as such elavea were not to be 
bonght (Sea ep. 27 § 6) fodi^oi loeMit. anth. Pal. xt 141 a^ainfit the 
grammariona who talk Hamerio critieiam ('shop') nt dinner: a-iutpot 
ai SeiTva liiirit ocii« BiiL Luoiaa adf. ind. 7 from a book written on 
pniple vellum, with umAilicui of gold, the ignorant owner of a fine 
library reads and mnidera the author by his barbarlsma, so that the veiy 
paiositea who appland Tiim laugh at lij'g in their sleeves. Philostr. 
soph. II 10 §S I 3. QcIL II aa g§ 1 2 apiid memam Favorini in oonviTio 
lamiliari legi aoiitum erat ant vetns oarmen melioi poetae ant 
historia partim Graecae linguae alias Latinae. Ugebatur ergo ibi tune 
in earminx Latirw 'iapyx' nentfu qaaeHtianipie eil, qua hie venlnt. ih. 
m 19 g 1, Ziz 7 § 2. Ath. 696I' <it i^iorras if rslt avatirlois oat,iUpai fli 
TdK 'Epialar xoiam. Marquardt y (1) 166. 348. FriedlSnder i* 410 117. 
Einhordt Tita Caroli magni 24 p. 630 3bM6 inter caenandnra aid 
oZtiuod oin'oania aut loctorem Budiebat. legebaatnr ei hiatoriae 
et antiqaorum reageataa; also Aug. esp. the oiy. Dei. It was tha 
monastio rule and is enjoined in college etatnteB: it was the praotioe at 
the beard of Jamea I. and of lord keeper Williams. Card. Wibeman in 
the English college at Bome ohoas Walter Scott'a novels for the ptirpoae 
(lee two lives of N. Ferrar Cambr. 18GS 41. Bayle a.v. Berenger not^ A. 
Beoker Gallas ii' 135. in' 361). 181 vn 237 a. 

IJoFiop. lusii 33 65 eeeedite Romani aeriplorea, oedite Oral: { neaoio 
qaid maius nasoitnr Iliade. Macrob. v 12 g 1 (whioh book oontains 
a compariBon of V.'a translationa with the Driginals in H. see Jan's lad. 
Homerut p. 656) in quibiadamparpaene splendor amborum eil. QuintiL 
il §8S«t apudilloi HomoruB, ticapud nos Vergilius axiepieatiitimain 
dtd^rit emfdiuia, omniam eina generis poetainm, Oraeooram 
uoatroTnmqne, haad dnbie ei proiimua, Ov. a. a. in 337 838. 
or. ) 15 35. anthol. Lat. Meyer 25i^. 388, For moderu 

Qiu— 103] ifULUCiA. TSEan^mT. 215 

■ritsTB cf, Faol; n 2555 seq. 182 Qtns BEfniT, 

tiLEE vBBBus QUA TocE i/EGiNTOEr cf. tli6 qneEtiott ot Pliuj the elder 
Flin. ep. m 6 SS II 13 luper haiic [cenam] liber Ugebatur, adnotabatur, 
a ^I'lfctn eunim. Titemim gufiuiam ex amicii, cma lector gtiaedam per- 
fmm pronuntiaaeet, revocaiie et Tepeti coegitie, huic avunculum iiuum 
diiiae 'inttllexertu nempet' cian iUe adnuiaeet, 'cur ergo Tejiocabait 
diem ampliiu veriui hoc taa interpellatioTie perdidimui,' As Iqy. here, 
K FsTE. (i H6 Ee[|. cf. 30 eeq.) oontmsta pooma vhich need a Bkilfnl reader 
to m&ke tLem endnralile, witJi Virgil'a vHick liaie an iutmiaic merit 
nt their own (SEpra yii S2 n.). 

183 — 192 Give jouraelf a welcome holiday for once; put o3 at my 
door aJl tfaonght d! the moucj-raarket, ali pangs of jealousy; forget the 
fUring tokens of your disgrace, your ^mfe'a long absence and late 
i«tamB, her disordered hair, ruffled attire, and tingling ears; diBmiss 
Lome tronhlea, losses by waste or brealiage; last, net least, ingratitude ol 
frienda. 187 T^crro i 65—57. ti 20S seq. 433. 

Itauo on Lncr. t 1031. IBS snspEcna 1 208 n. 

MCLTiou II 6a. 76 soq. viii 101 n. Sen. ben. 
nSj 5, Tert.pall. 4 emfnnnjilu (iii 103 n.) «olDi;ein aliqiia mnltieia 
qnttMf txtrtait (i.e. has driven out the thick, coarse etidTomii by the 
b^ tmllieiU). MiUticia solt Coon robea. 

BDQig Uacr. ui 13 = 11 9 §S 4 5 of Hortensiua /uit... ucsfftu ad mundilUm 
etitioto et, uf bene aiaictiu iret,facicm in tpeeulo qnaerebat, tiii se iiUaeni 
Ugam eorpori tie applicabat, uf ragas non/0rC« ted isdutlria loaalai ar- 
tifex nodiit aitringeret... capital putavit, guod in titnero luo locum ruga 
nulaiset. Flin. hit % 56. Tert. poll. 5 pr. 


i 31 S3 si tibi forte oomaa vesavecit utilii ira, \poatmodo mercata 
foee premendiu eriC. Suet. Aug. CD Antonlua spread the scandal /emtnom 
ammlarevt e triclinia viro coram in cubicubaa abductam, rurnti in eon- 
ei'riuTnrnbentibna anricalis iaoompticre oapillo reductam. id. 
Cai. 36. Tbeotr. 11 140. 

193—202 Meanwhile the crowded benches pay their deTotiona to the 
Idaean festical of the Great Mother's 'towel'; the praetor, ruined by the 
horses, Eita in triumphal State, and (without oSeccB to the oountlosB and 
Drergrown popnlace bo it aaid) all Borne now finds plaoe ill the CireuB; 
harlt, B ahont atrilieB on my ear, from which I gather the victory of the 
green 'rag.' For il it loal, jou wonld see this city plunged in tronble and 
bewilderment, aa when Hannibal at Cannae defeated our consuls. Such 
Bighta are for youths whom noise, bold wagers and gay company befit. 
(^ the circus and the shows aee : til n. ^e exhanatire collectioua of 
Panvinins andBuIengems (Qraev. tbea. ix). Friedliinder in Marquardt 
IV 490 — 523. Sittengesch. ii^ 263—330. anthol. PaL ivi 335—387 (oa 
the etatnes of drivers in the hippcdiome at (Constantinople). 

193 KEaAi.i:BU0AB VI G9. Shoitl; after the Mater magna {/irydXti 
Stit) had been bronght to Home {b.o. SOj iu 137 n.), the Megaleiia were 
established in her honour (prid. Id. Apr. Liv. ttit 11 : prid. Non. Apr. 
Ov. L IT 179 seq.). Clo. barusp. resp. § 24. Spart. Caracall. 8. These 
games, originally acdilician, are spoken of aa praetorian under the 
empire also by DB. 11 19. Mart, z 41 you divorce your husband: wbyf 
dicani ego, praetor erat, | conilatura fait Megalensi) purpwa centum | 
nJUAtu, uC nimium manera parea dares. | et popaiare eacram bit nulin 
dena fulisset. ] dieeidium non eit hoe, iYoeuleui; lucnim etU Freller 
fa^ Ujtbi-. 448—451. They were the first gameE in the new year, and 


Iheretora the erowd would be greater. aPKOTionu.= I 

Bpootatorea. of. trf 34 n. curia, Iheatnint, ' gallery,' ' pit,' boies." 

BATPiE ef. 198 panni. Qniotll. i 6 § 57 mappara oiroo quoqiM | 
nBJtatnni nomeri, J'oeni aibi vindicant. Hence map, napkin, naperj/, r 
The ooaaol or praetor, b; dropping a napkin, gave the signal for atorting. > 
Bnet Nero 22 univertonim »e ocalia in circo maxiiao praebuit, aliquo 
libtTlo miUente mappam, unde magiatratai lole-nl. Mart. SM 29 9 ' 
erttatavi praetor cmnvcllel mitlere mappam. Tert. spect. 16 aipiet 
populum ad iptctacuiam iam aim furore vsnientem, iam (umiiiluojuni, torn 
caecum, xam dt aponaionibna concitatum. iardta est illi praetor, 
mnp«r oculi in ama nm cum eortibui volMantur, dehiTic Od rij/mim, 
ajKcii pmdent : uniiu demeTitiae una cox ul,..'miait,' dicunt, tt Ttuntiant 
invicem quod limul ab amnibua viaum eat. Unto leiliTiioniam cateitatiti 
nan vident quid lit; mappam minam palant; ted «at dirJiali ab alio 
praeeipitati figura. id. adv. Vol. 36 mappa, good aiunt, aiiBsa. 
wirell. ev 1. Liv. vm 40 | 2. tlt 1 §§ 6 7. DCaas. tax 7. Cedren. hist. 
oomp. I 397 Bonn. Friedllmder in Morquardt it 503. The ma^a 
(dropt from a balcony over the main ontraiice) may be eeen in Guhl and 
Eoner fig. 486 ii' 325. Bioli. The consulai diptych of Flafiua Theodoras 
FbilDienas (i.d. G2S in Oori tbea. Flor. 1759 tab. lo) has a mappa, 
Enniusin Cic. de divin. ig 107 exsptctaM veluti, aonanlquom mitteie 
flignnm { volt, amnea avidi tpeeUint ad carcerit oral, { quam max emictat 
pictU efaucibua samtt. Yarr. 1. 1. 1 g l-53> 191 iDisnu m 138. 

aiuiLiB TninKPHO piiiKroB s 86—48 n. ct. vit. Gallieni 8, 
There Oa!!. oelebratea Ms decennia. The Benate in toga, the knights, 
the Eoldicra clad in iihito, omni popalo praeeunte with almost all the 
slaves, and women bearing tapora and lamps, march to the Capitol ; 100 
white oian with gilt yokes and silk dormalia of many oolonra, 200 -whita 
lamba, ten elephanta, 1200 gladiators pompabiliter omati cum auratit 
veitibus malronanim, 200 maTUWIae ferm diverii generit omatu gaam 
nuztnia aj'ectai, oheeiB and clapping along the roate. ipae jaediuB 
onm piota toga et tnnica palmata inter patrea, ut dixinaa omnibui 
taaerdatibui praetextatU Gupitoliaia petil, GOO gilt spears on either aide, 
100 standards; standards of the collegia, of the temples and ol all the 
legions; gentei timalaCae, tit Qothi Sarmatae Franei Periae, DOaes. 
Mv 2 B.C. 22 the direotion of the games was made over to the praetors. 
Mommsen StaatsT. i> 397. n' 227. Seir. Aen. it G4S qui,,.tTvimphal, 
albU iqidi utitur guatluor et senata praeeimta in Chpitolio de tmma 
tacrificat. For the eipiession cf. Liv. it 33 g 3 dictator.. .praelima 
Ciena ipse in tiaininm eomu, qtiod, inoendio similing quam 
pioelio, territum ceiierai fltimmii. ib. uinii 9 § 15 ir^C alter connii 
rublimii anru ntultiitxgit, ei velUt, equie; quo e^uo per arbem 
Tornm trinmphnmvehL 195 psisni 

0ABA1.I.OBU!! iRAETOB 69 n. GroQ. obs. IT 21 'qui in comparandis et 
instrnendis ad mnuQfl eqnis, mmiere deniqne ipso sub Tana specie 
honoris censmn mergit. Theon progymu. 6 AioHijSiii Si Qpi^ tit Irro- 
TpafAar l(aya\a0ilt i\fx9ii iwi Tuy airau ririrui' iroXuXiraL at. Palaepb. 
4.' 8aet. Keio 5 his father Cd. DomitiuB was such a swindler ul...iii 
praetura mereede palmarum avrigarioi fraudaverit. Yopiso. Aoieliwi lo 
we have seen cbarioteeia receive not piizee {praejoia) but estates {^tri- 
monia], earn darentur tuidcae tubiericae lineae paragaudeae, darentvr 
eliam eqai ingemitcentibua frugi hominibia. factarn est enim, tU iam 
divitiaiam sit non homimim oonsulatos, quia vHque li ttVCulibiu 
ile/rrtur, editorBmtpDliarenoa debet. DCasft. lx 2? S 2. dig. th 8 



U S 1 (horses hired). The treasurps left by TiberiuB wasted on shows by 
CiliguJa in less than two j'eara DCasa. lh 2 §J 6 6. 5 §§ 2—6. Mart, it 
67. T 26 9 10. Phn. paDeg. 95 in praetura modes tiae. A lively 
[liiitiini of the formidabls coTrespondeDoe Teqoired to fnmieh the 
gimeB in Spimt. ep. a IS. IS. 18-~'25. Friedlitader in Maiqaardt 
IT 186 4S6. PBAEHA FiuETaii Arator 

I 1164 praedo renia, led praeds iaces. Maitiau. Cap. v g 232 
umana [l 123 n.] levU imnuilatio verbi aa nomiitU, id tit, cum 
._« oirt Uttera nattata divena eigni^eat, ut ri dicai ; praetor at vel 
mpiaedo. Diamed. u p. 441. Cio. Yerr. 1 g ISl papillot et pupillai 
Mimnn praedam eais praetaribna. ih.y%6inavainanea,q'uat 
ttadam praiitori, non qwte praedanibus metun adferrmt. 
un UCEX SI mcERB PLEBT9 Qolntii. 1 6 g S paae dicers kominii eradi- 
{iuoai lioeaE. Plin. xixrv g IDS haec omnia medici, qaod pace 
gnriiia dixUas liceat, i^orant. Tibnll. 11 5 106. Ov. am. 11 2 (iO 
paoa loi^aar Yeneiia, lu dea maior erii. FetroD. 2 paae vestra 
iiii*Kt diziaae, Jinmi mnniuin eloqientiam perdidiitii. Cic. Amt. 417. 

196 luuENBAE Stat. a. 12 232 et part iTamenaB,egaud^tcele- 
ttirina Eomae, Friedllinder i* 19. 64—63 at tbe begimiing ol tha 
Bipiie tha population amounted to a million, and grew tt> two million 
or more. loa. b. I. vii 5 § 8 at tbs trinmph of Titus none remained at 
)imt t9s iairpov rXiiSiBS ir ru v6\ci. Some suppose that 

■ TON haa here fallen out, bat iniiN«naa« ntmioeiiue ahew that the next 
ims might oEtend the orergrown populaoe : ' all Borne is here,' puts a 
laflnite limit to tbe unlimited, counts tbe coantleaa, Oongreve : ' if I 
Baj be allow'd, j without offence to ruch a num'roiu CTOvid, | to nay all 
Rmt.' GlajB, de Aniut »enn. i (it 730^} Srar rira ^ TdXii irpAi riv 

'TrbSpofLOP fLeToiTT^t Kol oUiai Kfil dycpal fli t^*' raadntfiai' 0ewpi<w KfPv 
>ita intit^r. A sermon de conanhstantiali 7 (i 5U1°} begina rdXiv Ivro- 
ipoidai tal rii\ii' 6 avWoyoi iiiuv ikarraii' y/yoi-c. id. in illad, vidi 
Doninum, horn. 3 S 2 (tt 113<^) 0^ apft to^i itn6xovj, oE t^s xAXcwt 

■ «ri|l ayiii taSijuiytit ft rait t Clf Iirioiv d/ll^^alt, airai tou htbBIou 
npaTfiixi>"tt Ti liipot, inri ^oveircSai ri run dmitd\<iili ipiMiia xara- 
crpiipto; lf6a is- Hun rir piuTi\/a roflii^o-ai. ; 197 OIBCDB 
53 B. Sen. ir. n 7 §6 sironm, in qua maxim am aui partem popnlus 
OBtendit. Ot. a. a. 1IS6 mulfa capai populi commada oircna habtt. 
Qiiatil. xn 1 g 6 dati tpeetaculit diei mullum Kudiii auferanl. Lnc. 
Nigr. 39 tbe jostling and tbe Oiiens and the pictnrea ol jockeys and the 
aanea of tbe borsoa and the disoussiona abont them in tbe streota : 
roUf) -fip i/s dXTjCuc 1^ Ir-woftaria and it has seized on man; men of good 
npnte. Too, %iu SiintrnBsre Pompeii theatrum, qno magnitudinem 
popuH Tiaerent. On the days of tbe gamea Augustus (Suet. 43) nu- 
Kia i« urbi diiposait, ne raritate remanentium jiras£alf>n(>u>obiuMn'a 
tncl. ntAOOBTUiSan, Sen. ep. 83 § 7 ecce ciroensium 
obstrepit clamor, anbita allqaa et uniTersa voce teriuntar 
tares meae. Anson, idyll 171011. l^ataaiiua. 1 201— ieaepiia attonitae 
reaonailt circensibus anrea, | nuntiataccennti plena tktatratav or. \ 
puUata notae reddunlur ab aethere vocei, \ vet quia perveniunt vel quia 
fingit amor, Epiktet. man, 33 g 3 'speak Betdom, and in tow words; 
when oooasion demands it, speak, but not on trivial matters, not oE 
nrord plays, nor of hone raeei, nor of athletes.' It naa a safe topio 
Uait. I 4S 31—24 tKnednnC sine felU ioci nen mane timenda \ liberlae et 
vU^wd taeaiae velii. | de prasino oonviTa mens venetoqua lo- 
" ' ' ui /aeiimt quemqvam pocula nostra reunt. Sil. svi 313 — iij 


DrakflEb. a very lively piotnre e.g. 320—325 toUiUir in eculuia Intiali 
laibine elamor, | prordque ac liiailts eirlanlibia ore stquuntur | qiiiiqne 
siui( curru* magaaque volanlibut idem | voce loqaurttur eqvU: quMiOir 
eertamint circui | eertantum et nulli meiUem non abstulit ardor, [inilaat 
praecipitei et eqaoa olamoTe guber?tant, Casaabon on Vopiso. Amel. 18. 
SjTmn. ep. i 29. Pradeut. hamaitig. S61 vasauia fervida oiToi. 
Terl. Bpect. 23 an Deo placebit anriga ills tot animamm inqnlB- 
talor, tot fariaiam niiniBiei...coloratui vt lenol Philo (de provid. 
11 g 103 fin.) had Been men in a frenz; thraw tliemsoliea ondei the 
whe«la of the chariots, tihiysost. in gen. ham. 5 (iv 39°). horn. 6 (11'} 
oi) /iiyor yip tinroui rpix"^" faT» Ufty, dUa rat Kpavywr xal p\<tsipilp*lir 
KoX fivplbjp Avalptjiv foTiif dicouffat \byi/iv KaX yuviuKat ijraipTjKi'iiis fit rb t^ffof 
waptodffai iSav jrol viovs rpos rwv yvvaiK^ dvaA6n7ra iaurobi iKitZbmt. 
ib. 42**'. id, de Lazaro 7 (i 700^), when I preaoli against the circus, I 
see men clap my weeds, and then again mu to the hippodrome, mil 
litl^mt Toiit Kpdrous iri tiii>i itnoxoBJ imSeuyviUpous Kai dtdScicrw r^ 
luwlaii, tal nird xoXXou tou rirov aurrpix^*'"^' *"' '"'pB' aXXjjXoi;s iroXXdni 
<)iDT\i)jcri{toft^Dui cai Xiyoyrat, 3n i iUp Tiar Ittttub o6 KoXut tdpaiitr, i St 
inroaa'Kuiidt KaTiTritfir, Koi d fiiv TOirrif t$ V"'X«' iamiv vpoag/fui, 6 Si 
Tlfiripip. It is a Satania Epectacle T9I°. 793*. ad pop. Antiooh. bom. IS 
(ii IST'J the spectacle of the borBe-rtices baa attea led to battles, revilings, 
blows, iusnlts, lasting fends, cf. GSl* the inaatiable passion, of tkow 
who sit Bgape for the horse-race. Friedl^der u> 266—274 (aoolaiiu. 
tions, petitions, hooting, political demonatrationa). B21. 329 S30. Tit. 
Gall. 6 Uallienas, vben Borne was murmuring at Us neglect of his 
father's memory, took no heed ohstuptfaxto volwplatibua corde, ird oft hii 
qui cirtwi trant, rtqiiirelat 'tcquid habemm inpraadio! ecqitae voli^ 
tola paratae lunt}' ct ' qimlii eras erit eena qaaUsque oiraenses?' ot 
luT. X 61, vhen the people, once rervni domini, care only for the 
stune 'two things' pantm et eircemet. 

108 I Bl n. [Cypr.] epeot. G qnam vana nin( ipia 
cerlanUna, litfi in coloiibus, eonientiojiei in carsibvi, favoret in Amo- 
ribue, gaudere quod equiM velocior fuerit, tnaerere quod pigrior. Four 
oliariots generally contended, the driTera being diatinBiusiiBd by fonr 
colours Sidon, o. S3 333 324 (nhere is a full description of the raoe) 
laicimt eoUirei, \ albttB Tel venetas virena rnlienaque. The fae- 
tionei (also partet, populi, /iipi, S^jUnc the members Sij/uirat or 6 Xaoi), 
not named by uny wiim of the lepablio. The eaiUest trace is a notice 
(Plin. vu 1 186) from the acta of Felix a driver of the red faction, on 
whose pyre one of hia partiaans throw himself {cr^ia odamm corrtiptum, 
said the rival faction) ; tbia waa sliortly after the death of M. Le[ddm 
(i.e. if the trinnivir's father, oir. b.o, 77). Cio. Verg. VM. etc. derive the 
games of the Circus from the raps of the Sabine women i nhenca 
Malalas, the cliron. Fasch. Godrenus elo, attribute the origin ot these 
factions to BomnlDS (Schwegler i 471). Tert. sped. 9 qiiadrigae prti- 

loUfiierunt, albuse truss 
aeilati ob tolU rttborem c 
luperstitiDne prouecta, ruas 

i.a idololatriae veilierunt, £[abinit£adtM ' 
is: albus Memi obnivocondidiu, fDBBeng 
£ trant. led poiiea Cam volvptate, quam 
im alii Marti, alii album Zephyrii eontt- 

vpdaop, leek, Lydua 

198-8001 "vntrDia pannxib. cannahum pultis. 

IS favonrcd bj Cnllgnla (DCbsb. lh 11), Nero 

, _ , , voc), Vema [CapitoL 4), Commodns (DCasa. 

um IT. Lixiii i). Eeliogabolaa (id. lxxix 14 g 1). Etusb party had its 
■opporters among ths spectators (id. lixvui 8), aad the coatcBts bstween 
Uie lactiDQE ofleQ ended in bloodshed (thus Apollonms of I^aaa rebnldnf; 
lie Alexandrians Philostr. t 28 § 2 ivip a' Iwrun iuTaCSa yvfira /liy iiiut 
(r'AA^Xoic {I«>i7, §<i\ai S froi^ioi -HSi^v. Again at Antiocll In CoUgola'a 
dajB between bines and greens Malal. p. 241 Bonn. The most memaiable 
tastince is the Ni™ riot at Conatantmople i.B. G33, well described by 
Gibbon, 0. 40 2). See Chiyaoat. de Lazaro conoio 7 (i 7B0 aoq.) against 
traqnenteraof theciicna. Orelli inSDr.2a93aeq. Snlenger de oirco 47 — 49. 
PtDvin. 1 10. 'WiUien fiber die Parthejen der Reanbo^ Berlin 1829 4to. 
(Abid.j Alfr. Bambaud de Byzontino Iiippoilioma et cimensibns loo. 
&imbuB. Paris Fruick 1S70. cii. n 4315. evehtuu ^mm , uy 6 g 3S 
nl odmodum mirum videre plebem innumeram meniibiu ardors giwdam 
ii^fvia eum dimieationvm curuHum eventa pendcntem. haec limiliaqut 
anuralnfe nihil vel teriuia agi Romae permittunt, Plin. z § 71 Caeoina, 

of some chariots, seut to Ms friends neiTB of hiaTiotoiyby swallona 

•ieloriae colore, yibidib O^giila was so 

... 1 to this colour that he dined in tho groon stable Suet. CoL 55. 
Nsto'b talk fcom his boyhood ran chiefly on the oiraensian games ; 
Itmsating among his sahoolfeUuws an accident to a green ohorioteer, who 
<r>s dragged on ths ground, he nas leproved by his ^edagogai; on 
wUeh (Suet. 22) de Hectare le loqiii ementitm eit. DCass. lxi 6 gg 1—3- 
Uirt also cheered the Greens u 33 taepivt ad palmam prasinns poit 
Jala HrrmU | ftTVdtit tt vitior prtKmtu piwa refert. \ i nunc, imr taax, 
iicfceemiie Weroni; | vioit nimiram Jum NeTa,ied praainns. cf. Tl 46, 
Prisdllinder n> 310. Galen 1 478 E. pahni Plin. ep. ii 6 (see n. on 

iS) titavten uTit velocilate equorum aat Aominum arte trahenrntw, esiet 
Mil) mn nulla ; nunc fftveut panno, pannum amant, et H in ipia 
aammediaqiii certaiaine hU> Color illuc, ille hue tTajuferalaT, itudium 
/awirjue transibit, et repente agitatorei illos, equoa itlai, giuw procui 
somlajit, gwmim c^niilajil junnino, TBlinqvent. tanta gratia, tanta 
aataritiu in una vilissima tnnioa. plin. iiiin g BO, 199 a« 

imcEBET Bchoi. 'si vinc«cetni prasinae.' Anun. xsriu 4 g 29 eiique 
taiflum et liabitacuhim et cotilio et cuyitorum ipes omnie circus eit 
tm^mtu, % 30 inter giuis hi, gui ad latielatem vixerunt, potioret aaetori- 
late Itingaeva, per eajwi et rvgal clamitaat laept, rem publicam stars 
son posse, si lutura concertatione, quom quisqne vindicat, 
diTceribns non exsilnerit prineepa. g SI on the morning ot the 
nee before daybreak effjuiia ornnei feitinant praecipitea ut velocitate 
eamu ipsol antreant cerlatuirat : luper guoram eventu diseiiii volonaa 
iludiii anxii pluHmi agunt pemigiUt iwstes. Caaaiod. vai. m 51 
traniit pcasinas, pars popnli maeret: praocedit Tenetns, si 
potior pare ciiitatia affligitnr. nihil proficientet ferventerinmltant, 
nihil patientes ffraviterrulneTaatiiT, et ad inanei eontenlionei lie deicendi-. 
Bit, tainq.uant de statu poriolitantis patriae laboretur. 

200 CANNisira IN rni.vEHB u 156. tii 103 n. 1 1G5 n. Liv,. 
m: 43 gg 10 11 Hannibal caitra ponieTat aversa a FuWurno vtnto, qai 
tampit torridii eiceitate nabei pnlveris vehit. id cum ipaii eaatrit per- 
emmedwn fait, tiaa lalulare praecipue erat, eaia aciem dirigerent, ipwl 
I •wtni, terga tantum ajlante cento, in oecaecatum puWere offtao hoilem 
-- ■ ■ ■ ib. 46 § fl ventas (KuKumum inaolae regioait DoconI) 

I •wtrn, terga 


a valjiendo 

it CuiDoe B( 

cumbam o 

u HoitKBii coortvi multo pulvare in ip» 
ademit SO. IX 491. cf. Sen. n. q. T 16 § J. F 
Fab. 16 S 1. App- v« 20. On the Roman loaa 
fiO gg 1 -Ipugna CanneiuU, AHejisi cUdi nnbiUti 
gravior foediorque. On the panio at Rome 
e nobles to deaett Italj). 54 g 8 numguam , 
tumvUuiqve intra ■ - 

aggrediar iiarTaTt,quae edieieTtando minora Pc; _ 

201 cosBCLtGua B.C. '216 L. Aemiliua Fanllns, yibo fell in tha 
battle ; C Terentina Vtrro, who received the tbanha of the senate for not 
having despaired of the Btftte. bpectent innniBB 

ChrjB. do Anna aerm. i (iv TSO*) duffpaiTBi yeyrfpaxirct '^uiip aK^iafArrw 
o^oSpirrpoB im! ip^owi, ri)r To\ii» iitaTaiff)[t)i'D»T(t, rip- ifKinlau rapaleirf 
laTlioms, Tb yijpas airi KarayiXaarai roiourrt!. cL 730"— TSS". 

202 BPONBio Mart, xi 1 16 16 cum a-^oaniofabvlaejua 
foMai! [ de Scarpa faerinl tt Incitalo. TertulL (aupm 193 n.). Or. s. a., 
1 167 16S : even in the n. (xxin 185) a wager ia laid on the iBBao ol a 
raoe. Plin. icEiii § 28 cojisuelndo vulgi ad sponaionea etiavmum amilo 
fidliejite. Trinialchio'a cook, being invited to take Ma plauB at taUa, 
I'elj. 70 6n. continuo Ephetam tragoedam cofpit aponaione prOTOoars, 

Sat. n 13=ui 17 S§ IB 18 Cleopatra uxor, quat vinci a Romanu na 
Inxuria dignaretur, sponaione proBocavit intumere le pmie in uTurn 
n emtiea. id minim Antonio oiium, n«: moral\u spon- 
sione contendit, digniu iculna Mimalia Planco gui tarn honeeti eerta. 
minii arbiter electut ttt. at. Plin. s g 120. 

otLTAB Tert, Epect, 2o padieitiavt ediicet aitonilut in mimos t inaa a 
omni tptciaeulo nullum magia leaHdalum oceamt, quam ipte Hit mnli- 
rafioronltQB. ipia eomtntio, iptainfavoribiuaM 
eoiapiratio aut ditiemio inter it de commerdo icintillai libidiniaa eonjla- 
iDBBDiBBB of. Hor. 0, IT 1 29 aeq. we 
opeB...n«c cert are tuuat. pceliae Ot. amor. 

HI 2 66— S2. a. a. i ISfi seq. esp. cuius equi vertiant, fadto ttn^oit 
requiriu; | nee mora; quiiquis frit, cut favel ilia, faee, tr. it iSS 3S4 
toUatur circus! non tufa licentia ci-m est: \ hie Bedot ignoto la D eta 
iro. cf. the precautious ot Augustua Suet. 44. Prooop, bell. 

203 — 8 1^^ "ar wrinlled akin drink In spring's worm ami, and fly tba 
[cnmbroua and formal] toga. Already, though it nanta a full hour of 
noon, yaa may go to the bath, nor blush fur the loss of a day. You 
oanld not lire thus fire days running, for even snch delights paU. 'Tis 
sparing indulgence must give pleaaures thdr zest. 

203 WBiT VEBNtru CDTICDW, 80LEM VII 105 n. 173 n. Mart. X la 7 i 
precoT et totot avida cute oombibe solea. Pers, iv 18 atiiduo carata 
outionUflole. ib. 33 iiuTwKiuwsseitt figas in outa aolem. Hot. 
ep. I SO 24 Obbar. The Romona, esp. the elderly (hcnve Pers. t 179 
aprici ieaes) and men of leisure (Sen. hrev. vit. 13 g 1 penequi liagtilot 
lengum eit, qiurum out latrunctdi aut pila ant esooquendi in sole 
oocporis cura coneiimpiere vilam) walked (Plin. cited 204 □.) or basked 
|id.ep.iii6S10n.n9uuIoIii, iaoebat in sole, vi 16 g g usug ilU sole, 
max frigida, guiiaverat iaeene ttudebatquc) in the Bun after rub- 
bing their bodies with oil. Cio. Att. iii 6 g 2 jiro ialo mso lole, quo 
tu abaiui et in nostra pratulo. a te nitidnm aolem unotumqae repe- 
trmui. The piocesa was called insotalio, apricatio, iiMuim, and lolaria 


9 quid (iaols allqnis torrers se 

c i t ft t em, . .CDiigueraliir /KjuenJii- 

il iuctmditatem iirenitatii abtatam f namquid idea dicmda ftiiti 

a obdaCtioM p^idere^ quia Ubidini non peTrailtitur otioee 

I flammiB et oaneaa potionibus praepaiare? Ast 

haedr. p. 362 seq. bibat Qniutil. u 3 § 23 

m bibenda. vebsdu the April 

IQHTIUCTA ahnmk, lav. being nboat 

ouncDi.* the i is long also in 

I, cUivicala, cratimla L. MiUler de re metr. 353. 

204 EFFnaiiTQDE rOQiM 111 173 n. luaata nuiquam pellis, et xiu- 

iiaga, Ibna Mart, (i 4D 31] reComineiidB the life in hia natire Spaia. 

toga. Bpalt Hadr. 22 eenatorfs et eqaitti 

tf temper in pTiili 

' , On ptthlio oeoafiiona, as in the cirena, the toga was full dresB 
J. 40 negoti'on aediUhui dedit, ne quern pasthac paterentur in 
'si poiitia Iticemii togatom conaiitere. Lampr. Couun. 
I ctrnftieludiTtem paeniUatoa iuaail tpectatores, non togatas ad 
tonvenire; this order (the paenula being dari and worn by 
) paseed for an omen of the emperor'a death. Friedlander 
tflTi BiMJBA, m 363 263. yt 419. Artemid. 

iUOraSii XaiSorrai jU^XXovrf! SEiTriicrcii" Kal Ian tuf to Pa^aycto' 
uifr BAa -ij iSif irl r/mtp^. Calo bathed and EUpped as uEual before 
liii labile letum App. b. c. n 98. Apnl. met. fiii 29. i 15. The naaal 
time of batliing waa the eighth hooc Mart, it 52 3. Flin. ep. in 1 g 8 
ttiboTB baliiei ntaitiata eat, est autem bieme noaa, aestate 
cietaTi, in eule, ei caret (ento, ambnlai nudaa, Spaitiau, Hodi. 
'" ■ ■ ■ in publieo neminem niii aegmm ].a,yarl paeaut 

as. The tentli hour is also named as late Mart, iii 36 6. x TO 13. ef. 
TnSt 11. Borne bathed at tlie sixth hour x. 48 1 — inuntiai octavani 
Phviae lua tarba iaveneae ] ...temperat baee thermal, nimiai prior horn 
Mpnw I kalttt et iniToodico seita Nerone caUt. Spattian. Peaaenn. 3 
iWter of BeTerua; tribuni meilio die lavant, pro tricliniit popinat 
UmE, pro cnlnculii Tneritoria. laltanl, bibani, eantant et memurat con- 
tfridWBimeont hoe line meiauTa potare. VitruT. vlOS 1 maxinit tam- 
pailtTandi a meridiano ad veiperJisa eit eoTHiiiutuvt. Tert apol. 
'" in lavor dilnoalo Baturnalihna, tie el noctemet diem pirdata, 
M lavor koneita hora et tabibri, quat mihi et calorem et eanguinem 
; rigere tt pallere prut lavacmm mortuiu posjum. Here lav. pro- 
. __ U lathe at onee, though it wanta a whole hour of noou luv. i 49 n. 
113 n. Lips. exD. on Tao. xit 2. Maninardt v (1) 2T7 278. Balm, on 
TopiM. Florian. 6 (ii 631—4). Becker Gallna ao. 7 eio. 1. 

"■■■ "era. T 103 104 exdamet Melicerla 


x34n. E1I25. 3111172. sv30: so generally 
m rao. soijdi uoai. Hot. g. i 1 2Qparlejit solido 

ienere de die. See the lesx. 206 QDutQuc 

nOBtrs Ear. s. i 3 16. 208 voLcrriTBa cou- 

KHIUT RiBioB usDB 'Eeuaons,' 'enhaaees,' 'sets ofi.' Pliaodr. n pr. 7 
ijest re commendatur, turn aaetorie rwmine. Plin. ep. i 2 § 6 led lant 
bUmdianlur, dam per hoc mendacium nobis itudia noitra commendent. 
niS g 3 teiapai est te reviiere moleitiat nostrat vel ob At>c (alum, nc yo- 

pauincialibvj multa Immanitatt oommendas. ib. 36 § 6 quorum mihi 


egnstti guerellae Htteraii mnlroJi el hats urbarm opera oommendBnt. 
id. pan. 5 marU eaclique temprriaa iufbiiiea tempeitateiique commen- 
dant. Bdhnken on Veil, ii 29 § 2. oomiu. on Petr. 110 p. 6d6. Stob. fl. 
17 38 J-u» -riiiar ri ffTrai-iiiiaTO ytyroium niT^iara ripra. Plin. XII g 81 adea 
nalia eit voiinptoi qvae lum adeiduitate fastiditim pariai. Plin. ep. ill 13 
gin. inpintara lunKn mm alia to magis quam umbra aommendat. 


10 Sen. ben. i 10 S 8 foeditiimnm patriimniorura exitivm cnlina. 
PMlo legal. 43 (n 696 M) the great men who thought that they were in 
highest faroui with Gains, were eompelled to inenr great espenaes, 
V^U'aXXl ^^i* fit tA: iipirovt sai droKroui icat ^fairilaiovi dsnJii^at 
inidaitBVTtt, riiiroWa ii cIt tqi iariaant. SXoi -,dp oialat 
iiari.\<itir eZi iohs iiirrou rapaoKtuiiy, wi <al iavclicuBa,.- 

18 uiTBis iiuaiHE FRACTA Amljr. de Tobia g 10 (the whole treatise 
is on nBur;) atubi usaranim faola fuerit mcniio aut pignarii, tune deUeto 
lupercilio /enerotor arrfdet et, quern ante libi eognitam denegabat, ewtdan 
tamqMOM patem/tm ajaieitiam reeordaiui oscala excipit, litriiilariat 
plgruu caritatU appellat, fiere jwoMftet. 'quatTemut' inquit 'domi ri 
qaid Tidbit peamiae est: frangam propter te argeatDm paternnm 
qaod (abtefaetum eat; plurivniin damni erit: quae u«*™« cowpm- 
labant pretia embUraatami' Mart, u 11 6 cited 1 362 n. 

31 Lnaian pro imag. 20 rir Bepirlr-or eipjjp^cpoe iro^roi Tst 
'AX'>. ?>*«'. 

33 IB coNBUtB Hen. n, q. rr praef . § 18 ipse teoooBnle, verane on 
faUa TiKmoraveris. Plin. cp, vii 16 g 6. 

[40 'Ov. ihidem 816 deaifiBO in vJacerft censn. Plant. trin. 
i^iniii forte iayenlreiajiliocorrepierit. The general character of the 
imogeif of the whole passage remmdB me ot Fers. u CO 51 doTuc dtceptia 
et «zip«i I nequiqTiavi fundo nifpiret mimnau in imo.' J. C] 

43 UENDioAT [Qnintll.) decL 9 g 33 duo egentei et circa mnniun, rel 
ignolomra, domoi stipcm rogablnaa paTiteT,...forlatie proderit mendioo. 
taro laitii, quod iptt aiiquando egentem pauptrem abli. 

[53 ' ANNO same abl. as 72 parte anni.' J. B. M.] 

[quam belli.' J. B. M.] 
ibentKT tiitcnies miniitri. 

[72 'PABTB good part, m 110 pi 

148 ET MAONO Ambr. de Tobia % 13 adhi 
magno empti prelio, i-ampla paicendi viaiori. 

149 TDHSi DL. Ti 31 the pupila ot Diogenes. 

150 PEU Lncian cited 1 117 fin. 

157 Sen. n. q. VM 31 § 2 adhuo fuiequid eit boni morii, extlingninat 
levitate etpolilvra corpomja. 

164 AlUphr. ep. i 3{). 

180 Hier. ep. 117 Q persamib it interim aliquis cantator ad menaatn 
H inter psalmoa dulci viodtilami/ie eurrentei, quoniam aliettaa noa oudcBil 
axorei, te, quae custndem Jion kabei, eaepiui respcctabit. 

180181 "AiioNia ALTisoNi Ausoa, id. iv fifi altisonumgiM iterum 

/a> eat didicisee Mai 


[Other BalireB in the fonn of letteta ti 21. " 

:il. : 

To-iUT, Corrinas, I keep holy to tlie gods, who have deliTered 
Cttnllns) Dor, vere m; mertua equal to my aSoction, woold I withhold 
Uu oostliest ofteriiiga (1 — 16). For, after CDcountering all the perila of a 
■lonii, and clieerfaU; sacrificing hie treasurea to lighttm the ship, iie has 
reicheJ in Bafetj onr new harboiir (17—1)2). Wonder not then at ray 
rqaioing, nor question its sincerity: he, for whom I raise so many altars, 
i« 00 orbm, that a fortnne -hunter should pay him court ; even those who 
tronld oBer their own children on tha altar to piopitiate the childlese 
rich, would think any the smallest attention thrown away npon the 
hther of three fions (93—130). With 1—92 of. CatuU. 9. Hor. c. i 36. 
11 7. 11/ 14. Stat. B, n 7. Mart, i 87. Gell. us 0. With 93—130 
Hor. 9. n 5. Lnc. dial. mort. S— 9. Obbar on Hor. ep. 1 1 78. 

1 — 15 To-day, Corvinus, is sweeter to me than a birthday. To-day 
I perform the promiged vow to the three goda of the Capitol, snow white 
lunbg to lono and MinErva, to Inppiter a calf just weaned; if my fortnna 
vere as my lave, a fat bull from tha Clitumnua should prove my 
patitude for my friend's dellTeiancc. 

1 BAI11.1 D 8t n. Hor. c. it 11 17 18 lure loUemnia mihi tanctiarqtie | 
pomenataliproprio. Mart, n 63. Ceasorin. 3 § 6. Aug. de beata vita 
SBfdiiia NovembrU miftinatalis dies ctqI; post tarn Unue praadium, 
' ' nihil iagenioruia impediretur etc. Beaker Oallus i' 137 128. Ssrv. 
It 7G laru cunt natalis apud maiores plenum fuerit, posteritat 
nttalis dies dicere coepit : nam earn Sor. dixerit natales (ep. ii 2 310), 
Im, ait uatali Corvine, die. Cie. however {see roroelL) naes nalaU* 


116. I 

3spite Jlat. 

. ir. t S 9 araqut gramineo viridii de 
Tert. apoL 25 prope fin. lemeraria de caeapite allaria. 
-II 8 4. Luc. II 9ae. Stat. a. 1 4 131. Laot. vi 23 g 27 God requires 
a oEFeiing not of the man and the life; for which ■nique verbenin aput 
at, ntqtt fibril, neque caeapitibus, quae sunt utique vaniisima, eed iu, 
di inlimo pKioTe proferaniar, Maiim. Taur. aarm. 98 p. 635 (ed. 
1781). Betthold de ara 6 (Gcaev. vr 273 274). Sil. iii 3. ivi 262. 
3 HiTiiB Aen. iv 61 (cited 8 u,). White victima were offered to the goda 

i 224 


ADFECTUS. [Xn 3—11 

of heaveo. Lif. uni 37 b.c. SOT tlie temple of lima Bcgiria on tliB 
Aventiae nas Htmck b; lightning; boveg feminat albae duae porta Car- 
mentali in urbtm dnctae. Topiso. Floriao. 6 fin. the senators were 
8<j oTerjojedf uc in domibiu iTiis omnea Albas hostias ciLederent...coa- 

BBQTHtE a tide under which luno was worsMpt among the Etmscans, at 
Ardea, Lonnviuni, Fisaumm etc. At Itome the Capitoline Iimo ii 
generally called Begtna in inscriptions (Ocelli ind.) and documeDte. 
Freller rom. Mj'tli.' 2S3. Temples were built in honour of Juno Regina 
bj Gamillns on the Aventine and by M. Aemilius Lepidns b.c 179 
(Liv. V 22 ^ 4. 7. 23 g 7. sim 2 S 11). Ov. l.yiST ckt igiturteeian 
vocort Van-. LLvgy7. Serv. Aen, i 8. tiii 84. Martian. Capella 1 
§ 40 Kapp. 1.UCT1IUB 112. X 60. 

4 aoEOONE abl. instr. As Pallas bore the Gorgon's head 
on her shield, Gorga ia used for the shield. Aen. u GIG of Fatlas limbo 
fulgent el Gargone laeva [' etlulgent with the border and terrible with 
the Gorgon'; i, e. wearing the aegis, with its golden fringes and border, 
and the Topydii ne^aMt Seivwo rOjipea in the centre'. H. A. J. M.J, 
Prop. T=iT 9 68 foTiia dam poaila Gorgone membra lavaC. Ov, m. y 
230 of PeieeoB in partem Phorcynida Iransfulii illam. Claad. gigan- I 
torn. 91 92 Tritotiia virgo \ proeilit oitendeas rulila cum Gorgoue peetui. 
id. in Bofin. 1 280 rigida cum Gorgoae Fenem. at. sat. m 130 rhi- . 
naeerote. In Ot. m. vii 151 two mes. have aiietU aurei for the golden 
fleeca. Claud, in Eutr. 11 387 non leptem vaelo quatieru vmbone in- 
vencos (hides). Haapt opaec. n 168 lti9. 5 Serv. Aen. 

n 134. luT. acknowledged the claims of b^ religion in 320 n. 

6 lAnrsiQ 71 47 i^- to Iuppit«r, Iohq and Mia«rra belonged 
separate cellae ia the Capitoline temple (Lir. vi S9 g S, Beaker rom. 1 
Aiterth. 1 307. Bum Eome aad Campagna 189 190. Sohwegler 1 696— , 
9}: benoe they are freqaently invoked together. Lis. Jil 17 g 3 Inppiter 
optimal maximua Innojuf regina et Minerva aliique ili deaeque obii- 
dentuT. TM.vlOg 2 lovcm optimum maximumlunonemgue Begiuam 
et Minervam preeatui mm. Sil. x 433 — 6 Drakenb. Liv. vi 18 § 3. nn 
l§gl71S. Serv. Aen. II 225. Lact. 1 11 g 39, Martian. Gap. i g 39 Eopp. 
Some supposed them to be the Feuates Am. in 40. Macroh, in 4 g 8. 
ct Serv. Aen. in 12. moMBHQCB oobcscat Rein a. and 

Buiman on Ov. m. ir 493 cite eii. of conuco ntuCTonfm, kaitam, telMm, 


vjtlcheTTima ZHdo 1 ci 
■■ -■-- Ov. K- ■ - 


? 2 64— 6a 
.turns bello. 
..ipia teneru dtxtra pattra* 
nttr comua fundil. 

mi Itig m 
ae Tueilia inter comiia fimdit.' n 244 

, relicta \ maire qui largis iaeeneictt 

64—66 me tener lolnet v 

Verg. g. m 232 233iraaciin cornna discit | arboris obnixua traneo^ 
id. ecL 3 87. Hor, c. 111 13 4—8. Galen, de nan partinin i 3 (m 6 K) 
had noticed a calf batting UvplT-raira) before his horns had grown. 

10 Hor. c u 17 30—32. ui 23 9-20, 
IDFEOHBDB a silver age use Flin, ep. n 1 g 8 of Verginins Rnfus iUe mi\i 
tutor relictut adfectnm parencfi exkihait. tv 19g 1 nee tantum amitat 
ei adfeotum v^rutn etiam patrii amitii Tepraetenlei. Tin 11 g 1 adfeo- 
tam luum erga fratrii Jiliam, ..etiam matema indutffentia motliorem. 


gpisaan Ansaptaohe n' 149). ._ .__ 

tumnns [Clitunno) faUs near Mevnnia in Umbria [Bevagjia) into tbe 
Knia (rimio), a. tributary of the Tiber Verg, g. ii 146—8 SBmus Ainu 
aUJ, Clitumne, grrgei et maxima tanruB | viotima saepe tuo 
petfUBi flamine saisro J Somanoi ad templa deam daxere iTinittphot. 
Crap. iii=ii 19 25 36. ColaiD. m 8 g 3 armenlU Bublimibns imignii 
Sicama «£. Luo. i 478. Stat. B. i 4 129. SiL iv 547—8. vr 617 648. 
Tm JG3 — 3. Flin. ep. Tm 8 highly eitola the beauty ol its banks and the 
clnmesa of its -waters, at Suet. Cal. 43. Cland. vi cods. Hqii. 5D(j 
U7. epigr. 4 3 4. Addison works i 410 Bohn. Chilile Harold it G6 — 6& 
PABcni 40. fliNQCis the blood 

ad ruck uoald go to the altar, i.e. the ox chosen for his fulness of blood 
(ct Terg. g. m 402) and thick neck. Ct infra 112 ebur. sir 10 gula. 
lUe 239 halitia Otis, \ guod tttterat multia in earcere fornicii atmii. 
14 i OEiBBi FEBiBNDA MiNiBTBO genmdivBB (in Gc, pert, pasE.) 
Eruilly take dat. of agent; they take abl. vith ab (ilirA ndth gen.) however 
BoiBBtimes for perspicni^ Cic leg. agr. 2 g 9S Tonerandos a nobis, 
dsimp. Pomp. % 6 Halm, esp, p. Caeoina ^ 33 Jordan, ep.fom. i 9 g 17. 
Oi. m. a 431. Boby n prof, lxiv, aiiiSDi vn 310(n. 

nKaxsithe technical term Muhlmann col. 131. Ov. f. iv 415 apla iiiga 
eertii non ;scferienda securi. vinibiho popa SneL Col. 

33 adfiMta altarlbua victima auccinctua poparma habita elato alte malUa 
mllrorium mactavit. 16 isucf CatolluB 29. 93. 

17 — 61 Gat oIloB bas escaped not only the risks of tbe wavcB bn t thnnder. 
bolts; darkness overcast Che heaven with ons cloud and a sadden fioah 
cangbt the yord-aima ; every man tbongbt himself etmck, and stunned 
(ilh the shock counted blading ahronda worse tbon any shipwreck. No 
tefTOT by whiah poets add awe to a storm was wanting there. Hear 
uother foTm of danger, and pity once more; though it is true what 
rcmaiiu, if terrible, is bat port and parcel of the same mischance, 
known to many, to which numerous temples by their votive tablets bear 
witnesB, Who knows not that painters look to Isis for their bread? 
Tbm liald now half filled, aa the billows rocked the ship, and the hoaiy 
nuutac'B skill found no help for the tottering tree, he compounded 
with the wind by lightening the vessel; as the beaver ransoms hia life 
bj biting ofl the drug for which he is hunted. ' Over with all that's mine ' 
Eiitd OstulluE, readily offering purple robes fit for lopa like Maecenas, 
^nijjsh woollens of native dye, chargers engraved by Parthenius, a 
bowl that holds a diaoght for Fholua or for Fuacus' vrifo, baskets, a thon- 
■tod pUitea, embossed goblets in which Philip ol Mocedon had caroused. 
Who else the wide world over would, to save life, cast away hie all) 
Iton ol the cargo is thrown out wiljiout relief; as a lost resort the 
mMter IclLi the most to eoee the vessel by crippling ber to a hulk. Go 
now, commit your life to the winds, trust a dicst plank, and live lour, or 
at most seven, fingers' breadth from death : and with breod-saok and 
wioe-flogons, be sure to pack up axes against stormB. 

17 — 19 ANTEUMAS dig. XIV 2 6 usbU adtersa tempest ate dfprttia 
icto fnlminis devstia armamfntia et arbore [luv. 32] et antemna. 


17 = 

vvh Cwte on Luo. 
u 37 3 3 of the thunder-clap hie proprie Jragor dicitar, tuMtaa 
nMf. quo edito eancidunt hominea et txanimantu/r, qiiidam vera 
tiafent cl in totum libi exeidunt, qvotvoeamva adtonitos, guorum nu 
' "(a eaelatii loeofitpalit, 23 i*i-ii i*m 

a. u. 15 



TBrted oomparisQO aa in Thue. it Gl § 1. ti 78 S 8. 

BiQDAKDot'iili things are such nnd aa bod in a poet's atotm (bnt nowhere 
else out dI poetrj).' H. A J. M.]. 23 24 metic* 

XBKFEBTis LuDiiui qaom. hist, conscr. 4S vaiiTinov tivos dvi/i-ov iraut 
puHToiToi -ra diiriit. Grang. cites Horn. OiL v 11 m. Aen. i. Ot. id. 
J, 178—5135, tr. I 2. Luo. t. Stat. Th. \. TFI 1. Badliam Tnc. 11 
23. 2i-29 K. F. Hermann and Lupus (24) 

cite eix. r>i like Terbositj in detail, nhich injures the Roneral tfFect e.g. 
I 40—44. 137 138. u 102—9. 14!1— 8. m 12—20. 172—9. n 48—66. 
95—103. Y 13—23. ¥11 189—202. Tm 54 B5. 100—124. n 79 80. 
X 96—98. XII 43 49. 67—01. Id— 79. 106—110. iiu 2—4. 42—52. 
130—4. 187—192. 190— 20s. iv 110—2. 25 Poets, 

tangnom nimis i^avlter mlgerere ilemta diierit, haeo, gnae additmniB est, 
de bononim iactura, dira ilia qnidem ait esse, eed tanien partem et quasi 
appendicem eiusdem aortia, nanfrseii et periculi Tn ft . -i t''n i | raiiltia notam. 
Miovia. guAugnAU bint 11 205 n. 27 votita 

TABEixi UT 302 n. Hor. c. i 6 13—16 me tabula lacer \ votlTS 
jiariss indicat tivida | tutpenditie poUnti | vealimeata maris dea. id, 
B. n 1 33 34 votiva pateat veluli dttcripta iabella | vita ienU. Cio. 
n. d. Ill § 89 Diagoras tlia atheist, when asked ta qui deos put<a Aumiuu 
negUgere, nrnme animadvertit tx tol tabulis pietis, quain mnlti votia 
vim tempestatia effugerint in portnmque salvi perTeaerint? 
replied jHi enim tattquam picti sunt, qui j/aufragia ficerunt in mariqve pt- 
Tienint. Others (BL. ti S 59) aeciibed the Eapng to Diogenes. Ambrose 
de exccasn Sat;fit 1 17 attributes his brother's escape from shipwreck to hiB 
vows apitd iannhim maTtyrem LaurmCiuni. Aen. xii 768 709. Plut. Mar. 
40 init, A llks tablet was oSeied iu otJier cases Apul, met, ti 29 Sildo- 
braad : to AeEctdapius Aiistid. It 541'' Jebb. Verg. catol. 6 6 6 ^eta tua 
Urapla tabelU J omaho. 28 ncrto&ES Sen. oouti. 31 g 1 n^nu, ut 

nauiragium pingeret, mernt homtjiem. leaia (with the fonn 

ot VI 270 and XT 163 Hgnde. Servios Aen. % 166. Neue i> 142—146). 
TI489. 626—534. is 33. xm 93. Preller riim. Myth.' 723— 733. Mar- 
qnardt it SS— 39. 94 95. When TiboUua went on a Toyage Delia mada a 
vow to Isis I 3 23. 27 28 Bronkh. quid lua nunc Isis mihi. Delial... \ 
nave, dea, nave eiKcarre mihi: nam poae mederi \ picta doeet templia 
multa tabella tuiB. Stat. s. iii 2 103. antb. Pal. ti 231 AlyOwrai 
licdievira iu}taiip6\BU, TitrimrXi | SoT/uir... | ttS" lit ix ir e\dyaos ippisao 
J^ufitVt dfaffffo, I nipc TnyiTji, Oiffn j^vadKeptim KffiaSa, Zeus commifisiona 
Eenaeg (Luciaa dial. deor. 3 fin.) to take lo lujioss seas into Egypt and 
make her into Isis 1 ' let liei ba a goddess of that countiy xal rote artiioiis 
in-riii-riTii) Ksi aa^iTta rait tX^opt-ot.' Apnl. met. xi E. Hygin. 
fab. 37. See ineciiptions to Isis (sometimes ealutane) ex voto Oielli 1871 
seq. 2494. Maigoaidt it 04— 96. Friedliiuder m 147 148. AtSaLtburg 
I have seen an altar huug with wax models of legs, aims etc. and insoiip- 
tiona hUf, Maria .' Maria Itat geholfen, ascribing cures to the Virgin. 

r^ci HI 141 n. tii 93. iz 136. 30 althiib 

Yerg. Flop. Ot. (in Porcellini). Amm. zxiv 4 g 8 arhoram cavatarum. 
XXXI 4 § 6 eavaiii arborum alTele. Bl UK in 

eth fool also Ti 674. ix 75. xiii 0. xr 62 — 64 ergo acrior impetia et 
iam I ioxa ijielinaiit per huiiaim quaesita lacerlia { iiicJm'unC torimert. 
oL T 47 guatluor ac iam. 32 1 

conjecture for ariorii, 'When now, the ship rolling from side ._ , 

the helmsman oould not save the tottering mast.' Lupns 7 objecta that 
such a hiatus is oneiampled in Iut. Ho reads arbarU and cum ferret. 


tiikinE the cMnatrnotion ' onm alvena foret plenna fluotu et ftrboiiB in- 
oaitee, fthnll oi tottering maEt,' gen.qnal. cf. PortBllioi. Sahellec. 0\: 
»ii,lll76. 551. Lvio. vm 179 detcendiC ab arbora auiama. Plin. ep. a 
SBjd- Sil. in 12:). 33 BEOiOBlB BOhol. ' gubernatoria.' Aan. 

ylil. Ot. a. XI 192 493 ipae pavtt mc ae, qui sit status, ipae fatetnr \ 
mil mlU reotoT, nee quid iubiatvi vttetve. Censor, de die oat. 12 §3. 
SKaisBiiE the technical term for a bankrupt's 
(wnpaaitton, as for other settlements: here, to compound foe life with 
lou al cargo, Mart, nt 3 5 6 cited xi 131 a. Ben. coua. Poljb. 13 l=3i) 
In.) i Ipro It/iTUTit omnimn lalutt hao tecum portiona fortana deoi- 
ilil. die. n li a tutor cam pUriique creditoribtii decidit, ut certam 
fMionaa occiperent, ib. n li6 traniegiatf, enim cnm ei> et deaidlBse 
tidtoT CO pretio, quod ipse cimitiluit. Qiiintil. decl. 12 g 23. ucio dig. 
utldt lege lilutdia de iaolu. acts 27 SB Wetstein. 

34 C1.ST0BA echol. 'castoiem behrum [Gbntm, Qerm, biber, onr 
lutcr] dicit, qui cum videiit se obsideri et nan possa eradere, teBtlonlos 
slloB moisn avulsoB proiait: intellegit enim oh bano rem posse oapi.' 
Ck p. Boaur. 2 3 7 (cf. Beiei's note) redimnnt se ea parte ooi- 
poris, propter quam maxime eipetuntur. [Ov.] na£ 161 — 6 
[ntlnam] poaim /ructui excKtere ipia neoe. | sio abi detraota est 
1 1« tibi causa perioli, | quod Bnpereat tutum, Pontice castor, 
llabea. Sil. xv 486^ — i'M tenuitque moTatai [praeda] \ a caede, ut Liby- 
(ut dnctor provideral, iras. | fiumiaei veluti dtprouui gurgitii •audit | 
kvnlea parte inguinibus oauaaque parioli] auatat intento 
praedae fibar ay ins hosti. Animian. ivu 5 g 7 letter of Sapor king 
elUDga to Constantios: resign Armenia and Mesopotamia, that you may 
USeij enjny the rest of jour empire, remembering that physioiana 
amputate liinba to aaTa the body ; Jiocgue baatiaa factttare: quae cum 
aibieTtant car maiimo opere capiantur, illud propria sponte amit- 
tunl nt TiTece deinda poaaiat inpayida BChol. Nikand. ther. 6fi6. 
»lex. S07. Tert. adr. biarc. i 1 quia eniia lam castrator cainia 
oaatoT quam qui nuptiiu ahitulit! [a passage which conutenancea 
Harleberg'B explanation; an atymological myth). Aeaop, fab. 226 (p. 93 
laps. leiO), Pbuedr. app. 28. Apul. mat. i 9. Ariosto ixvii 57. Barth 
on Gnl. Brito Philippia ii 183. The fable was believedby Plin. yoi % lOB, 
af, xnvQ S 83 call etiam ferae ' 

i relic 

Serr. geoig. i 68- Apol. met. i 9 ; rejected by Ueetius ap. Fliu. ami 
i a and DioEccrid. a 2G. Bee Alciat. emhL 153 with n. (Padua 1621 
pp. 661 — 1). Whitney's emblema p. 35. Sir T. Browne Tolgac errors 
b.iii a. 4. Z. Grey's n. on Endibraa 1 S Bj. lo. Jonston de quadrap. 
Tr»akt, 1G50 — 3. p. IIS. Fabrioias bibliotheca Giaeca ed. yet. iv 
KM. 341. H. E. Weber ISeilrSge zur dnatoraie u. Phyiiologie dei Biberx 
(in the Beriakte €b. d. Verkaiidl, d.-iiSii. tSche, GeeelUich. d. Wiiienteh. 
» Ldpiig 11 1B4B p. 185 aeq.) gives an account of his dissection oE 
■Bveral beavers. Cuvier (Pliue n 4AS) ' Le castoreum ne oousiste point 
danH les testicules du oastoi; o'eat una snbstance buileuse et &tide 
qui Halt dana une glaiide adhSrente au prepuce, Locsque lee con- 
doilB de cette elands aont gorges du caitoreu-nx, il est possible qae 
I'animal s'en debarraasB en se frottant contre des pierres ou des tionaa 
d'arbrea;' which may be the origin of the fable. The beaver seems not 
to haya been bunted for its fur, 35 dauho 

Phaadi. m 11 3 a eunuch had a dispute cum quodam improbo. who, among 
tHjat t annts, damnum imectatus eat amiaai roburu. Hart, ix T 5 viri- 


[Qnintil,] ded. 6 S 12 dainna corparam. I 
j6 TEBTicuu iOEO tbfl onlj aiample in ' 
L. Miiller de re metr. SIO rejects it 
^lin. Till g 7 of elephauts piaedaiu ipsi in se 
lolam esso in Buais biiIb, quae luba conaia op- 
lo antiquior tt eantuttado melivt denta. qnamob- 
lem uuaiuuui) cnBU aliiiuo Tsl seneota defodiaat. § 8 eireiun- 
t-mCi'TiM a venaniibui piituoa oonatituant qaibas aunt minimi, 
ne tuntt proelium pntetnr, postca fees! inpaotoB arborifran- 
BnntprBedaqusBei-ailimUQt. cf. nhat he Bays ol /eJet z g 203. AeL 
u. a. Ti 34 the beaver knaitB the hunterB' motive ml iritu^ai ko) Saiiar 
a.TlKO<iit Tail! iavraS S/^ct 'al ■rpcaippi'f'eii a^oTi, Hka aprudent vum fallen 
■mong lobbers, who redeetus bia lifu by a Tanaom. IE hunted a BGOood 
time, he rears tal ^mjEffat In T^t mirCir D-rouf^c siiic Ix't TJjr irwiBiaa, tiS 
TtpatTipia Ko/iiTou rapeXvat rnis Siipards. lu this way they often gull 
the hnnterB : hiding tA ffrovSa^fXtmv fUpoi Tci^f ro^Qs xal ravoCpyatt 
^fmrajTjoov, in urn fxirrft a Kpi'fnjms tlxor. This legend may hava 
iirieen from a peculiar property of the beavor : ' The animal has the 
jKnrar of retraflling its toatiolea into the abdomen, where they abide H 
a rule, except in the HenBOn of seiuul exoitomont. It never mutilates 
itBBlf' (A. H. Garrod). fr. Jacoba citefi M. (iljoaa ann. 65''. and " " 
coUeotions of Allatioa on Eaatath, hexo. p. 189. cf. Bolin. 2 % 38. 
inteUfSiTe Jof. intelUgem, 'a coanoiBaenr') oonnotefl taohuical knowledge, 
here a drnggiafH. see leja. cap. Miihlmaun 1221—2. Cic. Verr, iv g 33 
tgo antta, tavieUi hoc neicio quid nugatorium aciebam esie, Uta intsl- 
legere, tamen mirari tolebam titum in his ipiia rebiu aliqvem lentam 

haliert ila itudiomi £tf huius ^pTaeclarae exUtiTnatumii, ut putetvr in 

AixerfbiuiutelleganBesse. Ov.m.iui S95 anm. Plin. ep. 1 10 gj S 1 
nunc illai (the virtues of Enphiates) magii miror, quia magit intellego. 
^uantyuum rb nuni; qaldeia salts intellego. at enim de piclare jcutplori 
Jictare niti artitai iudicare, ita nisi lapiena mm potest penpieen 
tapientan. in 6 § 1 n. Phn. xin gj 88. 137. Veil, cited xi 100. 

38 testbb; ooIlectiYe Apo!. met. ii 28 veste ipsa : 
q-aavivis parvula distriKln euficientem corraei tummulain. 

lUECBHATiBaa I 66 D. Mart, z 73 2 — i he had received as a present 
Aiaimiae duna euperba togae, | qua non Fabricio), eed vtllet Apiciut 
uii, I vilUl Maeoenas Caesariaiiut tques. Sen. ep. 92 g 36 diierte Mae- 
oenBB off: nee tumalum euro: itpeiit natara raiietoi, alte ciTKtvm pulei 
dixiue. habait tnita ingenium et grande et virile, niii illud gecunda dia- 
flinxissent. oomment. on Ear. i. i 2 25. Fedo Aibin. in ob. Maec 
SI. 26 S6 (Wemad. p. 1. min . ti 213 Lem.J guod discinetaB trot, 
animo qwiqvc, carpitUT tamra: \ invide, quid tandem tanicaa noci 
BOlataeT \ auttibi ventoiiiaid tukiutc liautt 
H pscos ' other attire, dyed on the ebeep'a hack by the natars of the 
herbage.' Ipsam veitiam peeui the very sheep that yield the oloth. 
The pastnrea are the banks of the Baetia [Quadalqaivir). PUn. tiu 
% 191 qaai nativaa [ovet] appellani, aliquot modii Hiepania, ni^ri 
vtUerie praecipu/u hdbet Pollaitia...iam Asia nitiU...item Baetieii. 
Mart. I % 5 B baetieatuB...nativa laudet. xn 133 'laeeruae BaetieM' 
noneatiana mihi mendax, neamntoraenoi I licpiaeeant Tyriae: 
me mea tinxit otIb. id. v iJ7 T quae erine viait Baetioi gragis 
vellus. vni 2S fi G an Tarteiiiaeui ttabuli nulrilor Hibiri \ Baetis in 
e quoqna lavit ovef n 61 3 — 5 qua divtt placidum Cor- 



duba fiaetin amat, I vellera nativo pallent ubi f lava metallo, | ot 
linitHesperium orattea yiva pecus. xii 63 3 — 5 of Corduba aibi 
quae mperas oves Galaesi, \ nuUo murice neo cruore mendax, | 
sed tinctis gregibus colore viyo. ib. 65 5. 98 1 2. Tert. pall. 3 
Saomaise nee de ovibus dicOt...qui8 Tarentum vel Baetica duet natura 
colorante. Non. p. 549 &n,pullus color est quern nunc Spanum yel 
natiynm dicimus. cf, Verg. eel. 4 42 — 46. Marquardt v (2) 88, 

BED £T XIII 102 n. 

43 HiTTZBB Hor. c. m 24 47 — 50 vel nos in mare proximum \ gemmas 
et lapides, aurum et inutile \ ...mittamus. 

44 PABTHENio BchoL ^caelatorls nomen.' He must have been a silver- 
smith, as lancea and crater a are in apposition to argentum, Parthenio 
dat. Zompt § 419. Madyig § 250 a. 

UBNAE 24 sextariif nearly 3 gallons. 

45 CSATEBA DioNUH siTiENTE PHOLO Stat. Th. II 563 564 qualis in adver- 
tot Lapithas erexit inanem \ magnanimus cratera Pholus. YFl. i 337 
338 signiferum or at era minantem \ non leviore Pholum manus haec 
eompefcuit auro, Theokr. vi 149 150 schol. dpd y4 ir^ roidyde 4>6\a; /raTct 
Xdi^v dvrpoy J Kprjrijp 'H/>aicX^* yipcoy i<rTd<raTO Xelpcjy; Ath. 499*^* ^njai- 
X^pos [fr. 7 Bergk] r6 vapd ^6\<p r^ Kevra^ptfi jroTT^pioy <TKv<f>€Lo» i^iras 
K(Oiei..,aK6v<p€iop 5i Xa^iSjv d^iras iiipurpov ws rpCKdyvvoy \ irlty iTriax^M-^t'Oif 
t6 /&d ol TapidrfKc ^oXos Kepdaas, Lucian couyiv. 14 the cynic Alkidamas 
scorning small cups, Aristaenetos beckoned to the waiter to bring 
tiffieyiOri aic&^ov, Alkidamas took it and threw himself half -naked on the 
ground mj^aj rhv dyKiova 6pdhv, ^wi* djxa rov aK^Kpov iv ry 5e^tf , otof 6 
rapd r<p ^6\(fi 'H/)aicX$t vtto tCov ypa<p4(av delKvvrai. On the cask which 
Pholos opened for his guest (Luc. yi 391) Hercules cf. Apollod. ii 5 4. 
DS. ly 12; on the centaur himself Verg. g. ii 456 Philargyr. 

coNiuaE Fusci schol. 'ebriosa fuit.' yi 425 426 ilia venit rubicun- 
dula, totum \ oenophorum sitiens, plena quod tenditur urn a. cf. the 
drunken Saufeia yi 320. ix 116 117 subrepti potare Falemi \ pro papula 
faciens quantum Saufeia bibebat, A Fuscus ly 112 ; another xyi 46. 
46 BASCAUOAS Bohol. * yasa, ubi calices layabantur yel cacabus.' Bather 
our basket. Mart, xiy 99 barbara de pictis veni bascauda Britannis : \ 
ted me iam mavult dicere Boma suam, escaria dig. 

xxxiy 2 19 § 12 si cui escarium argentum legatum sit^ id solum debe- 
bitur, quod ad epulandum in ministerio habuit, id esty ad esum et potum, 
tsc, vata in Paul, sentent. iii 6 §§ 61. 67^ 86 etc. Dirksen manuale. 

47 CAELATi I 76 n. dig. xxxiy 2 19 § 11. Marquardt 
y (2) 276. BIBEBAT QUO II 95 yitreo bibat ille Priapo- 

X 25. Verg. g. ii 506 ut gemma bibat. PUn. yii § 12 Anthropophagot 
...ossibuB humanorum capitum bibere. CALUDns to Philip some 

ascribed the saying (AeL y. h. yii 12 Perizpnius) * boys must be tricked 
by dice, men by oaths.' Lucian dial. mort. 14 § 3. Justin, ix 8 § 7 seq. 
B^rmann Staats-Alt. § 172 14.^ emptob olynthi Philip 

of Macedon took Olynthus b.c. 348, by the aid of Lasthenes and Euthy- 
krates, two citizens of high station, whom he had corrupted A. Schafer 
Demosthenes u. s. Zeit ind. *01ynth.* DS. xyi 53 54. Dem. de Chers. 
p. 99. Phil. Ill pp. 125. 128. de cor. p. 241. de f. 1. pp. 425 seq. 451. 
See generally Sen. ep. 94 § 62 tot civitciivum strage^ quas aut vicerat 
Philippus aut emerat. Cic. Att. 1 16 § 12 Philippus omnia castella 
expugnari passe dicebat, in quae modo asellus onustus auro posset 
ascendere. Pint, ii 177*. 856^ id. Paul. Aem. 12 § 6. Hor. c. in 16 
13—15 diffidit urbium { portas vir Mauedo et subruit aemulas \ 



Tei;a maneribiiB. oracle giTen to Philip ipyvptaa \liyx<^(!t nixBii ibJ 
■wima ipar-^aiit (paroem. LeutBoh i S09 n. ii 99 n.). On the veoalll; 
□t pnblio Djea at tha time see Demosth. pasBim ; eap. de eoi. p. US rtpi 
yip ToTt'EXXijini', oi tibIb, dW airsirii' i/iolus, ipopig rpoSnTUP mU SapeSiKor 
(oi 8iori ^xP/iii- ii'Bpiltrai' mri^ii yni4v0ai...avs ffupuviuiPniTiij iciilI rvnfryait 
}iap6ir Kot TrpaTtpcu Kam^ toe)! "EXXJIi-a! ^x""""' "P"' ^'"■ffil! ""i ffTO^HW- 
THEfii t-n Xf'po' iit^TiKi. ib. pp. 210 fin. 324 (where & list of traitors il 
giyeni cf. Hermann Staats-Alt, § 73 8). The mines of Thraoe (ThirlwaU 
V p. 26S Beq. Inatin. vui 3 S 13 aurariu in Theiialia, arginti mrtalla in 
Thraoia, Dccupal. DS. XTi 8 §§ 6 7. Sen. n. q. t15 gg 1. 8. ot. Hor. ep. 
II 1 234 regale nomunta, Philippos) Enpplied famla lor these bribes, 
whiah even the Pjthia <lid not rcfase (Demosth. in Aesch. o. Ktes. p. TS 
9 130 ii nuflia ^<*iinrifiEi). The cup wonld not only have an Bntiqaarian 
valne— {I 76 a. yin 104 n. Berenice'a ring vi !5(i, Hor. Bpents jestingly 
of plate which had belonged to Evander and Bisjphue b. i it 91. n 3 21 
of. 64. Plin, sliTii § 4 the ring of Pulyoratea, si crediiavt, a. sardonyi 
in the temple of Concord, cf. g 8. DCass. lix 21 g 6 when Caligiila 
eold b; auction the imperial jewels, ha forced np tbe biddings b; com- 
ments; 'this mjr father bought, this my mother, this my giandfather, 
this m; great-grandfather ; this belonged to Antanius, this to Augnatos'j 
ib. r.-tiy ii 7 g 1 Carocalla nsed armonr and drinkiag-cupa which hod be- 
longed to Alexander the great ; Stat. s. it 6 59 — 68 felix dominarvm 
ttemmate signnm, a Hercules of Ljsippns had belonged to Alexander, 
Hannibal, Sullai Lucian Fhilopa. 19 a work of Daedalns: cl Fided- 
londer m' 214 21fi. on mythioal relies seen by Pans. Thirlwall Tm> 468 
and my first Gr. reader^ xvi. 221 : add TaDaquil'B distaff and spindle and 
B robe epnn by Ler for Serving Tnlliua Varro in Plin. riii g 19*. her 
miracnloiiE girdle Eestos s. t. praedia pp. 333. 241 M. Pelopg' ivory 
shoulder Plin. xxviii § 34. Becker — Hermann CbariUes i 99. Heitzberg 
OrieohenL ni 22. 25), — bnt be prized aa a memorial of a famons boon 
oompomon (Earjat. in Ath. 436<' STi,,,ittS6ctv ir(iD]i/ir!To tiXirvat, reSr 
IKtyf -xfiii Tirnr, 'AvTiiriiTpca yap Itaris im rfypuv. of. ib. 260. Instou 
II 8 g IS. Plin. xxxiii g 60 mm-ma apad exterot licenliae fuerat PhU 
lippnm legem pocnloanreopnlvinis snbdito dormire solitnm). 
48 49 pessimism cf. 1 147—150 n. 4S on doable 

interrogations see Matthia g 488 12 and obs. 2. 
48—51 Till S3 84 II 11 n. xi¥ 273— S83. 

60 51 Bentley on Hor. a. p. 837 ' video hie in mediani nairationem si 
tentiolas has intrudi, putide proraoa et perquam inBoite...quorsum en 
Mo jui'dom t com iam diierat, ne niinm quidem uUa mnndi parte viti 
patrimouio praeferre. quale antem illud, Jaciatit palrimoniat qnae 
scabies louutionia t qnam alienum et pannoanm illnd vitio cmcit quod 
eo tontum adsuitnr, ut versiculi cento Baraiatur.' Maiklaud 'stnltissimi 
dao versus ; iu qua sententia Giun gaudio video Hummum quoqne Bent- 
leinm.' cf. Lnpus 31. ficicnt piTiiiMOMii iiv 326, 

Hor. ep, 1 1 65 rem, so divitias, pecimiam Miihlmana £3. palritnania 
not neoesaarily inherited vu 113. 52 bebuu ctiuo 

vtemilia provisions and fnmiture Tas. aun. i 70 Gron. 
HBO not even these sacrifices give any relief. 64 nEccmii Ov. 

met. X 180 reocidit in lolidam longo pott tempore terrain. Corssen Ans- 
Bprauhe n' 468. 'At last, as difBcnlties thickened upon him, he (tbe 
reeloT 33) was driven to out down tbe mast, aud so makes room to turn 
abunt in.' FKBBO EUKurrTnitEi dig. xiv 2 5 J 1 arbore 

u liber: 

66 B 


>UCAT SB dig. IX 2 29 § 3 «t cum vi ventorum navis impuUa enet in 
Junes anchorarum alterius et nautae funes praecidissent, si nullo alio modo 
niri praecisis funibus explicare Bepotuit, ANausTUM=m acguBto 

eondasom. discriminis ultima Holyday * distress is 

desperate, when the help makes the ship less/ luy. xv 95 bellorumgti^ 
ultima. Luo. vm 665 666 nihil nltima mortis | ex habitu vultuque 
viri jnutasse. x 24. 

56 FACTURA luv. has a predilection for this partic. Lupus 39. Kiaer 185. 
17 60. V 32. 71 426 — 8 oenophorum.., \ quo sextaHus alter ( ducitur 
ante cibum, raMdam f acturus orexim. 605. x 8. 49. 144. 

57 I NUNC ET X 165 n. Mart, n 6 1. Prop. iv=in 
7 29 ite, rates curvas et leti texite causas, 

TEKTiB AMiMAM coMMiTTE etc. Sen. Med. 304 — 8 animam levibns 
credidit anris | dubioque seeans aequora cursu \ potuit tenui fidere 
ligno, I inter vitae mortisque vias | nimium gracili limite 
dncto. Hor. 0. i 3 10. dolato a smooth plank, 

a piece of joiner's work. 58 confisus nomin. as 

IT 23 24 tu I succinct us. too. in ti 276 277 tu tibi tunc, Uraca, places 
... I ...quae scripta et quot lecture tabellas, 

Diains etc. xiy 288. DL. 1 103 Anacharsis fiaO^v rirrapas SaKTvXovs 

etpatrd vdxos TTJi vctbs, rocovroy i<prj row davdrou roifs irX^ovraj 

irix^^"' Ben. contr. 16 § 10 scitis, nihil esse periculosiust quam etiam 

instructa navigia: parva materia seiungit fata. Arat. phaen. 298 

299 schoL ol $* In 7r6p<ru> \ KXv^opraif dXlyov dk 5id ^^Xov dl'd' ipvKctf 

as Longin. 10 § 6 remarks, from Hom. XL xv 628. cf. Alkipbr. i 3. 

DChrys. or. 64 n 331 » (Valcken. diatr. p. 239 seq.) ovdi y6,p wLtt-q 

r^p yfvxh^ ®^* oxotvfots iiriTp4TrovaiVf oUre rpiSdKTvXop avroiis crc&fet 

^vXop Tevmvop. Liban. progymn. (i 124« in Valck.) ol irXurnjpes vXri- 

olop ix^nrrcs rbp ddparop wX^ouct, XeTrrijp fx^J'T^^ ^^s abyntipioiP iXtrlda 

rd ^vXa. Sen. ep. 49 § 11 errasj si in navigatione tantum existimas 

minimum esse, quo a morte vita diducitur: in omni loco aeque 

tenue intervallum est. Or. am. 11 11 26 et prope tarn letum^ quam prope 

eemit aquam, cf. Aesch. Th. 762. Aen. ix 143. [Plat.] Axioch. 368'> 

Bias reckoned men at sea neither amongst the liying nor amongst the 

dead. 59 taeda the fir-plank. 

60 ^OT when on board. cum beticulis et pane Hor. 

s. 1 1 47 reticulum panis, borne by a slave in a journey. 

YBNTBB LAaoNAE lY 107 Moutaui Venter. lagonae 

V 29 n. vni 162. 61 aspkje viii 96 n. circiimspice. 

62 — 82 When the voyager's fate mightier than wind and sea proved 

prosperous, and the Parcae spun a white thread, the vessel ran under 

makeshift sails of clothes, and under the foresprit which alone remained. 

The Bun brings back hope of life. Presently the white summit of Alba 

Longa comes in view, and the master brings his ship to anchor in the 

lee, behind the vast mole of Ostia's new harbour. The sailors offer their 

hair in gratitude for deliverance, and spin a merry yaru of the dangers 

of the deep. 62 — 66 repeat the same thought, cf. vii 41 42. 

135 — 7. XVI 25 — 34. 62—64 postquam thrice iii 26 27 dum. 

vn 53 54 cut... qui... qui. 63 pbospeba common predicate 

to tempera and/, v. e. et p.\ vectoris also belongs to both. The conj. 

of Vales, vectori is probable. fatum xvi 1 n. 

64: PABCAE III 27. 65 PENSA 

MANU Stat. Ach. I 260 261 si Lydia dura |pensamanu mollesque tulit 
Tirynthius hastas, btaminis albi so at the 


nuptials ot Peleua Catnll. 63 305 seq. SIB 310 anta ptdes attttm oan- 
dentia moUia lanae \ vtllira. Seo. apocol. 1 J!— B at LaekuiM rtdanita 
eomia, ornala cajpillot, \ Fitria criii»m iauro frontcmqiu corrmanM, | Can- 
dida dt niveo subltmiita vellere tumit, { filici moderanda manu. Hart. 
n5B 7 anniViiUnifiaae ducuntnon pnlla lororfi | stamina, id. 
ir 73 3 4. Ot. Ibis ai4 ttamina patlu. id. Ir. tr 1 61. t 13 24. 

66 KOLTDB >\)ETKiB i: 197 n. Hand Tuisell, ju 669, Haue on 
JtoiBig 399. Iran. B 30 § 4. fin. 4 Eadr. 7 66 Banaly. Qciintil. X 1 £ 94 n. 
68 VKBTIEUH BiTEHTia Tao. ji 24 tandem relabrnte aeilv 
et lemndantt vejiio claadat mivti raro remigio out intanlis vestibus... 
Ttvenere. id. h. v 23. EUPEBiVKmt had re- 

mained. Bo Plant. CaeB. Gic. Lit. Yorg. (e.g. Aen. t £19 amiua lolua 
yaltna Bnperabat Aenlti). Hur. Tib. atavpron on Nep. Tliem. 7 § 2. 
Soil. b. t 41 1 11 Dietucli g;tiid ■altrat qvaeoe hamana superant out 
Jioina inpoiltua sunt f 69 \bim rnoiu aco sohoL 

' artemona Eolo veMcaTerout, ' laid, xix S 3 dolou minimum Telnm, 
et ad pteram defixam. cl HSt. ^obtbir 



70 I' 

gr, I. -witli n. i. p. L,; subl. apex is gnbjeot. 
Yisio LiT. 1 1 g 11 oppidumanidunl. Atneai 
I vxorii Lavininra appiUai. ib. 3 § iJ ABoaniaB...afru»iJanle 
vailiitudine, JUirentem iam, lit turn ret erant, alque opuUntam 
urorm matri t«u noyeFcae reliquit, nouani ipte aliam snb Albano 
monte aondidit ; quae ab aitupoiractaein dorso nrbia Longa 
Alba appellata. Aen. i 267—371. xn 193 194 moem'a Ttucri I cmt- 
ttituatt urbique daiit Layinia nomen. Yarr. L !. t g 144. Mart, zm 
109 of Albait wins vindemia | misit, Inleo ouae eibi monte platet. 
Tibull. nS SO Albaqne ab Aiscanio condita Longa duce. Schvegler 
bk. 6 esp. p. 337 and ind. Zlaosen Aeneas lOSO n. 

UTUiio on tiie rhythm of. n 82 comiUxla ett Eppia Indinm. L. Uijller 
de re meti, 267 leode Laeino, and in Aen. I 3 LaTiuagtif lilora {see 
Fozbigec). a also Aen. i 2uS. 270. Tib. it 5 49. Ov. f. ni 629. 633. 
at, Elausen Aeneaa 833 n. Laohmann Lncr. ii 716. I<'or the biatoiy 
ef. Sobweglei ind. 72 ijbx it 146 n. 

72 73 GDI CANDIBi SOMEN BCHOFA tenCB BOroflUa, eCUTTy. 71 177 

Boiofa Niobc feonndior alba. Varco 1. o. Prop. ir=T 1 35 et itetU 
Alba polem, albae bqIb omine nata. Aen. Tin 43 — IS piopheoy of 
TibsrinoB litoTcit inge7i» iuvenia >ub iUcibtu sub | tiiginta capitum 
fetaa enixa iaeebit, | alba lolo recubajis, albi circumubera nati : J i> loeut 
urbu erit, rtgaia ea certa iaboTWK, \ tx quo ter denii urbtnt Tedeimtibut 
onnifj Aacanins olari condet cognominis Albam. ib. sa 134 
136. Sshwegler i 235 2BS. 321—3. 340. Elansen 974 seq. Ljkophi. 1363 
Beq. Tatian apoL 34 ol a statue of Eulycliis (Flin. tii % 34) b; f eiiklj- 
menoa ii Si tai Sik riv ]ltpn\vtiaiar -/irator, hep iniiiei TpiAtana raXiat, 
ii^ BavfiaoTOB ijyilirdai Kal Karartjeii' rotijfia't irtiXA^r yip Ajepafftas drve^- 
Ko/iitjiTi iiipadu-ia pSM-n-MSai (aXoV^v, rf kutA 'Pu^alout iri/t iro^i- 
icajv^V2i, ^Tis iiai aurj) iSta ro ijUoiov nvCTltuTipas, iSs fiairir, ^f lu- 
Ttidipajrilas. He refers to (Non. p. 114) GmnduUa tarei...Somiu con- 
ttilutiobhonorem poicae quae triginta pepexerat. Ajn. 1 28. Oaai. 
Hemina fr. 11 p. 90 Peter (from Diom. I 384 k) momtnini Jit. bus parit 
poceos triginta, CU1U8 Tti faimm feeerunt laribas GnmdUibai. Com- 
pare the cuw nbiell guided Codmna to the site of Thebes Ot. m. n 
10-a£. 73 rflKioiBDa -vu S3C. 

74 lUMiLLia the bow was kept in pickle aa a relic Varro i.t.a 4 g 17 


parert tot oporttt porcoi, guot mammae Aabiaf .'...(f pluret pariat, tiie 
poTtntun. 3 18 in quo Hind antiqiiissimum fuisn icribitur, quod BtiB 
Aeiieae Layioii xxt porooa paper erit alboa. iiaque quod part/Tide- 
rit, faction HX imnt», u( LayiiiienBea oondiderint oppidum Alb am. 
huiu* *iii» ae poTCorum eliam nunc veBtigia apparent Latiinii: quod it 
■imulaera toTain ahenea etiam nunc in publico pasiia, it eorpai matris ab 
tacerdolibia, quod in aaixara fuerit, demmutratnT. id, in Setv, Aan, 
HI 392. 

75 TSCLVsi. FEB inqnoiu holes cf. 80 n. Bohol. 'portum Angneti diait 
bIts Traiani; ^uia Troianna portum Angoeti resCauravit in moliua et iii- 
tarins tntiorBm siii nomima [edit.' Trajan 'ailded on inner basin or 
dock, of Q keiagonsl form, annouodod mtb qunjii aud exteueive ranges 
of buildings [01 nu^azines' (Bnnburj). The original work does great 
faonaar to the emperor Cla.ndia9 DCass. i.x 11 § S ' be conaeived and 
carried out on aaliievemeiit worthy oE Uie enterprise (^^>^/taT«) and 
greatneea of Bgrae.' Ostia la; ou the left banlc of the left (i.e. tbe 
broader Bonthenil atin of the Tiber. Claudina dag a safer baain about 
two miles N. ol Ostia oommuniBating with (he river by a dgw enl {nfter- 
warda enlarged by Trajan, fossa Traiana, now Fiu/rticirw, the right 
aim). Tbe port protected bjtwo vast molea, right and left, with a break- 
water sonnoonted by a lighthouse between them, Avas known aa portm 
Jtomanusorpnrfiu .iuijutti (Apul. met. 11 26. coins of Necu in Eekbel vi 
are. DCbsb. uiv le S 5. cf. lx ll). The haiboiu and river's mouth 
being obaked with sand, there waa in Latium no safe port for the oorn- 
flMtl; themagazines wertist Puteoli(aDts2S13. Ben. ep. 77gl). Caesar 
^oeb eland. 30. Plat. SB S 3J projeeted a new channel lor the Tiber to 
Auzor, and dooks at Ostia. Birabo 231 232 calls Oatia * a oity wlthont a 

port, on Bcoonnt of the alluvial deposits continually brought down by the 
ISbar, which compelled tbe larger tbbhoIb to tide at anchor in tbe open 
Kodsteod at great riak, wiiiie their cargoes wore unloaded into barges, by 
«faich they were carried np the ri>er to Some. Other veaeela were them- 
m1*m towed up the Tiber, after they had been lightened by diacharging 
A part of theii oargoes.' cf. DH. tii 44. Suet. Claud. 20 portum Oiliae 
exitrttxit airoumdueto deitra sinistraque bracohio etad introituin 
profimdo iam aale mole abieeta; 
dmerift, qua taagmta obellieui e: 

pUit lupeTpoiuit altisaimam turrim in exempium Aiexanarini 
phari, ut ail nocfumos ignei curium navigia dirigerent. DUass. li II a 
new harbour was neeeseary beoanae of tbe dependence of Kome oa 
foreign com for sapport, aud tbe danger of entering Ostia in winter; 
Olandius imdeterred by bis engineers' estimatea of the cost, dug out a, 
large basin, faced it with mosomy and let in the sea ; again in the sea 
ils^ Xdi/'ara itaTiptiSm alrntu iiiya\a xi^ilai, BdXairam' itTaOea toXXiJf 
rtpUfiaKf KBt r^aoy ir' airrl ripyor re ir ixclvji ^pvnTUiplai' txprra 
crrrnmtffaro. ib. itl g 4 CI. goes to Ostia vpbs ivlUKt^tii airiv. Suet, 'ib 
he eslablisbed corps of Bremen at Oatia and Puteoii. cf. Flin. nc g 14. 
in § 302 tbe veaael in which Caliguia brought tbe obelisk from Egypt 
stretched nearly the whole length of tbe harbour of Ostia on the left; 
tor there it was aani in the reign of Claadiua cam tTibita molibua Inr- 
riam altitudint in ea exaedijicatU ob id ta Futcolano pulveTt advectiaque. 
XZEVI % TO the toners were built on it at Puteoii, it was then towed to 
Ostia and sunk ib. g 12S. Eensen inscr. 60U3. Prudent, perist. 11 
48. Coins of Hero bear Ang. Port. Oat, with a figure of the borbour with 
ships (Cobeo 1 N&-on 91—93. 215—213. suppl. Nriron n. 14). MEre 


were those mRgaainea ot oom, by seizing which Alario (i.D. 409) Oom- 
pelled Kome to surreuder (Gibbon, e. 31 n. SSseq. Tiilemont SimoTe art. 
36). PbiloBtorg. in 3 •iiB seizes Portna, the chiet nftTal Btation of 
Bome, encimled by three harbours and eitendiiig to the compasa ot a 
great eitj: here all the publio oom was Btored,' Giflord 'My oarioaity 
led me also to Oatia (17B9) and I walied betwaen tha piers, now liovsred 
with graas. The land has gained conaiderably on tha wast as well AS 
the east coaat of Italy ; tbe bottom ol the old Imrbour, on which we 
DOW walk, ia therefore mnch raised : yet the arms are still so high aboTa 
it, as to intercapt the view ol the adjainine country. The eitremitieB ol 
the old arms towards the eca maet have fallen in ; for, in their present 
state, they are but short, and a sandy coast stretches oat far beyond 
them.' Merirale cfa. 49. E. H. Cunbary in diet, geogr. who givea % 
plun. Visoonti escsTazioni di Ostia (aonnli d. inat. 1B5T 231—310), and i 
moniunenti del metroon oatieuae (ib. 1868 363 — 413). Laneiani rlMroha 
topogr. sulla oitta di Porto (ib. 1868 141—196 mth tar. 49 of the monu- 
menti). O. Hirschfeld rorn. Verwolttingageaeh. i 139-142. Mar- 
quaidt rBra. Staataverw. ii lau 131. Lehmann Claadiua Gotha 18S8 199 
(another great work of CL, the euiiBsary of the laoua Fucinua, waa origi- 
UaUy deaigaed to feed the new canal). 250 2S1. Schiller Neio 136 n. 4. 
483. 641. Marqnardt v (2) 16—18. Sil. rr 297 sq, moles 'moles carried 
ont ajnidst enclosed seas.' 76 TTBHiiEiiiir v 98, 

FEiHON VI S3, the Hghthonae. Suet. DCasa. Plin. cited 76. 
Plin. ssivi S 83, VPl. Tu 83 — 83 wm ita Tyrrhnita atupet toaitaque 

pharon. bubbcu breakwaters stretching far into the 

sea, and then bending again towards the land. 

7S HON BIO Hor. 0. IV 14 26. 79 uaoisteb dig. 

ziT 1 1 g 1 magistrum navis accipere debemia, cni totins nayia 

as those which ply about in the harbonr of Baine lii 4 n. zi 49 n. 
I Plin. xiT § 61/owu iieroaii qjiam a Baiano tacu Ostiam U3<ju« navigit- 
I bilem incohaverat. Prop, t 11 9 ID atqtie ulinam mage U remit eon^a 
' mtnutu I paniaia Lnorina cymba moretwr aqua. Mart, in SO 19 20 on 
BiatMimlei jam profectui ad Baiaajpi^^r Luerina naucnlatuT in 
ttagno. Hertzherg from this line infers that the harbour and moles 
gpokeo of are those of Baiae, joined with the Lnorine lagoon and Aver- 
nian lake by Augnatus, to form the portui luliai [Strab. 246. Suet Ang. 
16. DCaaa. xlvui 60. Plin. ixivi g 126 mare Tyrrkemm a Lverim 
xnoUbna secluaum, Verg. g. u 160 — i Seivina an memorem portna 
LucrinoqueaddUactanilra \ aiqueimtignatwiiJiuignisitTidoiibutaequor, \ 
lalia qim poato longe eonat unda Tefuao \ Tyrrhenuagw /rttu intmitlitur 
autjts Avemii ! Aen. jx 707—9. Hor, a. p. 63—65. Prop, nr=in 18 
1, cf. Veil, n 79 g 2). But the distance of Baiaa from Alba (the (ubit- 
mil apex of 72). the lighthoDBB, and the ahort-llTed fame of the porllu 
luliua (see Buubury diet, geogr, iMcrirtui) confirm the traditional inter- 
pretation. The intmora atagna are Trajan'a ionor basin, 

lESTU. in which pleasnre -boats ride safe, to whidi even they find 
their way, 81 oaddeni Sen, ep, 78 % 14 quod acerbum 

fait, Tetiulitse iiicundum est: naturale mtmalisuifini gander e. Maorob, 
th 3 § 9 sen- citing Eur. Andromeda fr. 16 Dind. ut ^Si) toi, auBirra 
luia^eai rbmt. Ariatot, rhet. X 11 g 8. Sen. Hi 660 BSl. 

vEnTiCB Eiso Lncian marc, cond. 1 many who 
had escaped the parasite's life oi slavery (sat. vj told me the tola of 


iheir adventures; I listened diligently as to the snrviyors of a shipwreck, 
saved by miracle, oTol eUriv ol irp^s rots lepois 4^vprjfi4poi rds K60aXds, 
cimdfta ToWol rds rpiKVfilas kclI ^Xas koI ^Kptariipioi, koX iKPoXdi Kcd 
IffToO KXdtrcis Kcd irrjdaXiajp diro/cauX/crets die^idtn-ei k.t,\ id. Hermotim. 
86. Petron. 103 notavit siM ad lunam tonsorem intempestivo inhaeren," 
tern ministerio, ezecratasque omen, quod imitaretar naufrago- 
ram nltimnm votum. Artemidor. i 22 to seafaring men to dream 
that the head is shaven is a plain prognostic of shipwreck; vavay^cav^ 
T €s fihf yd.p 1^ iK fx€yd\7]s awdivres v6aov ^vp(2ifT ai ol ApOpwiroi, Nonius 
p. 528 qui libeH Jiehanty ea causa calvi erantf quod tempestatem ser- 
vitutis videbantur effugere, ut naufragio liberati solent. 
anth. Pal. vi 164 FXai/^y koX NrjpTJ'C KctX 'Ivi^v McXiK^/wiy | koX pvOiifi 
KpovlS'S Kal Za/A6^/>{i^i Ocols ItrwOeli 4k TcXdyovs AovkIXXios fade K^Kap* 
/lai I rds Tplx<ii ^k K€<paXrjs' dXXo yap oiihhv ix^- Dempster on Bosin 
786 787 on the dedication of the hair. 

83 — 92 Gro then, boys ; in all religious stillness dress the shrines with 
garlands, sprinkle the sacrificial knives with meal, deck out the soft 
hearth of turf. I will presently follow, and after duly performing the 
main sacrifice will retmn home, where the little images waz-polished 
welcome their tribute of slighter chaplets. Here I will propitiate my 
guardian luppiter, give franlmicense to the Lares of my fathers and fling 
abroad all hues of violet. All is gay, the gate has raised long boughs on 
high, and keeps hoUday with morning lamps. 83 linguisqub 

AMIMI8QX7E FAVENTES €v<prjfiovvT€i Ov. f. I 71 72 prospcTa lux oritur: 
linguisque animisque favete, | nunc dicenda bono sunt bona verba 
die. id. m. xv 677 deus est! deus est! Unguis animisque favete. 
tr. V 6 6 6. Prop. v=iv 6 1. Tibull. ii 2 1 2 Broukh. Hor. o. m 1 2. 
Aen. v 71 Servius. Plin. xxviii § 11. Sen. vit. beat. 26 § 7 quoties 
mentio sacra litterarum intervenerit^ favete Unguis I hoc verbum non, 
ut plerique existimant, a favore [i.e. applause] trahitur: sed impera- 
tur silentium, ut rite peragi possit sacrum nulla voce mala 
obstrepente. Stat. s. ii 7 19. Brisson. de form. 1 11 seq. Marquardtiv 
465. 84 SEBTA 91. 'festoons.' Aen. ii 248 249 nos delubra 

deum,.,teBi€k velamus f ronde per urbem, ib. iv 457 — 9. Stat. s. in 3 
23. IT 8 9. cod. Theod. xvi 10 12 pr. nullus owniwo...Larem igne, 
mero genium, Penates odore veneratuSj accendat lumina, imponat tura, 
BetXtk suspendat, Bich. fabba inponite cultbis 

Luc. I 609 610 Corte iam f under e Bacchum | coeperat obliquoque 
molas inducere cultro. Serv. Aen. ii 133 sal et far qu^od dicitur 
molasalsat qua et frons victimae et foci aspergebantur et cultri. Sen. 
Thyest. 688 tangensve fusa victimam culter mola. cf. Hor. s. ii 3 200. 


BENTEM the three turf -altars 2. 94. Verg. eel. 8 64. Prop. v=iv 6 6. 
Ov. m. Ill 751 of Perseus dis tribus ille focos totidem de caespite j^onit. 
Here luv. to luppiter, luno, Minerva, cod. Theod. xvi 10 12 § 2 erecta 
effossis ara oaespitibus. 86 QUOd pbasstat the 

nobler offerings 3 — 9. 87 cobonas ix 137 138 o 

parvi nostrique Lares, quos ture minuto \ aut far re et tenui 
soleo exorare corona. Cato r. r. 143 kalendiSf idibus^ nonis^ festus 
dies cum erit, coronam in focum indat. per eosdem dies Lari 
familiari pro copia supplicet. Plant, aul. 3. 383— -iS on the marriage of 
a daughter, trin. 39 Larem corona nostrum decorari volo, at a 
house-warming, mere. 834 seq. on a departure. Stich. 534 on a re- 
turn. Hor. c. in 23 15 16. iv 11 7. Tibull. i 10 15—30, where the 



Lu«B ue the gTurdions of bomcljr virtneB. ii 1 69 GO. Or. tr. * fi 10 
tt vtUI ttpidoi nex^ aorooa foooB. ib. in 13 16. Fliu. xsc g 1]. 
Minae. Pel. 3 § 1. Freller rom. M;th.^ 48B— 92. Eenzen inaor. 6770* 
C Salmut Eutyehui Lfti(ilinB) (7iu(antcfi) ob Tedit(um) Retinae Htp. 
V. I. of. Orelli ISOO votivs ineor. to SilTonaa pro laluU et redita L. 
Tnneliii Maxlni. Tert. de aor. 7. 

88 rKAQiLi BiuuLicu HiTEHTU CEH^ Fmd. 0. SyiDm. I 303 SOI Baza 
iolita oeris | vidrrat aagnentojut Lares amesoere nigroi. Hoc ] 
epod. 3 G6 renldentss Laree. elm. man % 1S3 inliio [ninia] moUs 
alque lunae coitiaciui inimicia. Temedium, \it pariete lieeato eexft i 

trumqiie adtaotU galea carboaibui iimralur ad ludorcia laqut, pottea 
eandelii nibigatur ac deinde lintein purii, ticateC marniDraiiiteacuiit. 
VitniT, Tii 9 a 3. The wu then. Urns prepared, was used as a vamiHll. 
EchoL 'incerata aigna deariim.' Siliestri, because at fragili, iradsr- 
stanila by cera a wax figure of theXar; bat the hearth ia no safe pluw for 
BDch a 6gaie. ['Ciam.olfragili refer to the wai nhich firat cnunblM 
awa; and then melta witli the fire, before it ia fit to be applied in the 
vaj mentioned!' H. A. J. M.] Seo Welcker in MfiUer Arohiiologie 
g BIO 4, who cites ydyutii (Piut. ipi. Som. 9B) aa the technical term for 
furbiahing. 89 nobtbcm the Inppiler of my 

fumtt (SB Cicero had a household god, MiuerriL). 

PiiEKNia familiaribua. 90 TURi 87 u. Plant. 

auL 23—25 the Lar famHiaria efiys of the daughter of the hoose ea miki 
eotidie { nuC tnre nut vino nut aligui lanper evpplicat., | dal viihi 
coronaB. 'When Tenea 'conveyed Diana from Segesta, all the 
matrons and maiilenB oF ilie iavn came together Cic Terr, iv g 77 
umfHe unffjiaitii, coaiplesse eoronis et floribuB, tnre, odaHJmt 
"inctiaii tisc)ua ad agri fiites prottcitaa eaie. Am. vu 33 led sit ul imltU 
honor in vino, tit in tnre, inanolatiane et cacdibia haitiaTum irae numi- 
nitm o^emioiteigjie placentar. etianme di aertia, ooronis adJUiuMur 
elfloribaBf MoTera Phdnizier in 100 on the traffic. Maiqnu^t t (2) 
86*. Hier. ep. 14 % 5. tiolah Plin. xn § 27 violis honai proximut 

ftolilieB] earumqae pbira genera, pnrpurene luteae albae. vioiaiB a 
dimiimtiTe of tor, and includee the atock matlhiola ineaiut and mUMover 
cheiranthut clieiri Hehn Kultnrpfl.' 222. Ql shkxii iakua 

&iH0Hz66n. OT.m.iT760. Luc. ii 354 Corte. Stat. s. i 2 231 fronde 
Tirent poBtes, effnlgent oompita flammia. Namatian. i 423—6 
ftata dill pridtrnqtif meoi dignaia penatei \ poste corocatoDola lecanda 
colat. I exomenl viridea communia gaadia rami. Apnl. met. tr 26 
Hildebrand domTU lota laniia obsita, taedia laoida coiuitTepebal 
hj/minaeum. Tert. apol. 3S cur [i(£ laeto non laureia postea obam- 
tiramUB neo luoerniB diem infringimnB! id. idi>l. 12 'laeeaiU' 
inquit [Matt. S 16J 'opera veitra.' at nnne Incent tabemae ct ianaae 

et laureia qnara Christianomm 'ergo' inqaii ' honor Dei e»l, 

lucernae pro (otibtta et laurna in postibne? aooendant 

igitnr quotidie Incernaa, guibtu lux nvllaelt, aftigant poatibns 
lanros poilmodum arturoi, qtiibia ignes iinniinent.,M iemplii reniinti- 
aitt, ne fecirh templum ianaam tuam. miniudixi;n luparuiribut renun- 
timti, iw indiitTia domi taae faeiem. no-ci Zupnnarii. id. de oor. 13 fin. 
Ctand. nnpt. Hon. et Mar. 208. lapt. Proa, ir 320. Prndent. o. Symm. 
II 724—7. oorp, inr. can, deer, n 26 7 13 (from oono. ix B68 Labbe) mm 
licet iniqaai observulionei agcre kalendanim et oliii vacate geiitiUbua, ne- 


que lanro ant yiriditate arborum cingere domos: omnia enim 
haee observatio paganismi est. 92 oPERAxrR 

8^oL * sacrificat.' Yerg. g. i 339 laetis operatas in herbis. Aen. in 
136 conyibiis arvisque novis operata inventus^ where Seryius citing Iuy. 
perfeeit sacrijicia propter conubia et novas sedes, 

liUCEBNis Tert. supra, id. apol. 35 qtiam recentissimis et ramosissimis 
lanreis postes praestrnebaut, quam elatissimis et clarissimis lucer- 
nlB vestibula nebulaJbant, ib. 46 quis enim philosophum sacrijicare aut 
deierare aut luoernas meridie vanas prostituere compellit? Epikt 
diss, n 17 §§ 37 38 riicvouy S.v ataOys, d\f/u Xijx^ovs' ravr icrrl tA toO 
tfnKwrrbpyov, fiiya <rot dyaObv Iffrai (Twdivri' Toiovr(p koX Xvxfop cltttciv 
a^iw, ib. 1 19 § 24 'has he been made tribune? all wh3 meet him con- 
gratulate him; one kisses his eyes, another his neck, the slaves his 
hands; when he comes home, he finds an illumination \vxvovi dTrrofii' 
row.' Tao. m 9 Lipsius. Plut. Cic. 22 § 3. Mart, x 6 4. Stat. s. in 
5 62 tmd 70. Apul. met. xi 9. DCass. lxiii 4 § 1. 20 § 4. lxxiv 1 § 4. 
Pacat. 87 fin. Greg. Naz. or. 6=4 (2 in lul.) § 35 pr. Sozom. vi 2 § 15; 
Becker-Bein Gallus i 129 130. Marquardt y (1) 245. (2) 238 239. 
Fiiedlander n^ 283 — 5 on public illuminations. Forbiger i' 165. 

93 — ^130 1^0 ^ot set down my zeal as counterfeit, Gorvinus. Ca- 
tulluB, for whose safety I rear three altars, has three heirs. On so 
barren a friend a sickly hen, eyen a quail, would be a bait wasted. 
With your Gallitta and your Pacius, your childless rich, it is an- 
other matter. Let them but begin to feel the heat, tiieir whole 
patch, is lined with yotiye tablets ; men come forward to yow a heca- 
tomb, — aye, of elephants, if they were not Caesar's drove, from the 
days of Hannibal and of Pyrrhus reserved to uses of state or war; 
80 it is no fault of Hister's, if the 'ivory' is not led to the altars 
for Gallitta's health. — ^Another will offer his goodliest, his bondmen 
and bondwomen, even his own daughter in her prime, though no 
Diana will, as in the play, ransom his Iphigenia by a hind. My 
countiyman for ever, say 1 : what is the Greek fleet of a thousand 
sail to a will? For if Pacius recover, entangled in the angler's weel, he 
may in a line make Pacuvius universal heir; no bad investment, you see, 
a daughter slain. Long live Pacuvius, even to Nestor's years ; let him 
pile up plunder like Nero's, gold on gold, mountains high ; and loving 
none, let him by none be loved. 

93 BUSPECTA 98 n. 99 n. ui 129 n. v 98 n. x 202 n. xvi 56. Even 
Pliny oould urge, as a reason for refusing a request ep. v 1 § 3 non 
esse satis honestum dare et locupleti et orbo. ib. ix 30 § 1 
lauda9,..Nonium tuurrit quod sit liberalis in qitosdam: et ipse laudoj si 
tamennonin hos solos, volo enim eum, qui sit vere liberalis, tribuere... 
amieis, sedamieis dico pauperibtis. non ut isti, qui iis potissimum 
donant, qui donare maxime possunt. § 2 hos ego viscatis hama- 
tisqne muneribus non sua promere puto, sed aliena corripere, Tac. 
xiii 52 reus ilico defendi postulabat. valuitque pecuniosa orbitateet 
senecta, quam ultra vitam eorum prodiixit, quorum ambitu evaserat. 
Amm. zxx 4 § 9 viduarum postes et orborum limina deterentes. 
Marquardt y (1) 73 74. Friedlander i* 394-400. 

95 TBEB HABBT HEBEDES V 137 — 145 n. IX 82 — 90 esp. 87 — 90 iura 
parentis habes, propter me scriberis heres, \ legatum omne capis, nee 
turn et dulce caducum, | commoda praeterea iungeiitur multa caducis, | si 
namernm, si tres implevero. 
95 96 ASOBAM EX CLAUPSNTEM ocuLos Malachl 1 8. Meineke com. 

B38 CHEAP vicTImb. oallitta. [xngs— 99 ■ 

«110Q. fr. 41 tIs S5e u<Spot xal Ma- d^d^^™. | ffdrioTM i.3^u», Arru /Xx/fn I 

dux' Pf^atlia, I x^'/Kiv ar<ipj(ii?i «al 7^^111 i,axfi' Tiif, Luciaji Inpp. tng. 
IB wliiin ths skipper MneBitheDs sBciificed rdi tvT-qptn on bia ficope /nmi a 
ttomti Eapliareus, tnKnOtKn 61061 imiii' a\fKTpuara flaror KoriBMat, 
•fipurTo. KaKe'itQv Tfiij ual Kupvii^rra. Terl. apol. 11 pr. lujn diea 
gMalta tUU in lacrijicando, cunt anecta et tabidosa et anabioBa 
qaaeqne mac tot in, cum dc opimU et inlegru itiptTvacua guaeqae tnw- 
cutis, capUula ft vn^nlas, quae domi quoqut ptierU vel canibia dtitimu- 
letii, lb. 30 I oQeF to Uod opinuaa et maiorem hoiliam guam ipie nan- 
davit, oratiomm de came padica, de aidinainrtocmti, de ipirila tanttapn- 
fectam, non grana turia uniua aasia, Arabicae urbnria laerimju, nee 

Arnob. va IG. The piana Xett. ordered an old hoiae to be fa.tteiied up 
before it was aacriliced annb. iv 5 g 33. 98 air-usiu 

x:ii233LaribUHoriatampromittoregBUi. Torph. v. Pj-tk. 36. 
INPEMSjIT Tert. idol. C iinma tu colia, qui facii, nt coU poaiiiit. toUM 
autemnon spirituvili^^aimi nidoria alicuius, sed tuo propria, nee aDLma 
peoudia inpenaa, wd anima tua. 97 sibhili 

vit *9 11. 203 n. Mart, i 18 nee voeat ad cenam Mariw, nee miMMm 
vtittil, j nee epondet, ncc vult creders, sed nee habel. \ turba lainen nm dett, 
Bterilem quae caret amicum. { eheu, qaam fatuas aunt tibi, Boma, 
toijae I YEBUU a ben, did I aaj'? No, etc. 

coTunmi Vttcro r. r. tn B § 7 eotumieea immani nu- 
mcTO. Flin. x g 69 quaik are fond uf poiaaDous aeeds, guam ob cataam 
eas damtiKTers measae, alao Lecauae they alone, with mail, are sab- 
ject to cpilepey morbum dcspui eueCum (above tu 112 n.). On tbs qoaii- 
tity [a) Bee Laohm. and Muoro on Lncr. iv 6'11. Laclim. ib. i 360. 

93 piTEB Plin. op. Tin 18 S 1 cum DoiaUiui TuUm longt 
melior appamerit mo-rte quam vita. § 2 nam cum se captaudum prae- 
biautl, raliquit filiam heredam. %3 ergo varii tola cieitate ler- 
tmtili! aliijielum ingratam immeiaorem loquuntur leque ipsos, dum imee- 
tonlur iUtim, tarpittimii eon/eisimtibiu produnt, ut qui dt patre avo 
pToavo, quaii de oibo querantur. Stat. e. it 7 33— 40 orbitaa <mn> 
fUffienda nieu, | ijuam premit votia inimiona heres, | optimo 
poBoana (pudat heu) propinquum | funus amico, [ orbitaenallo 

nena ieti apoliia, at ipsa m | computat ignem, Lncian dial. moft. 
8^3. CADET 113. Mart, cited 100. Hra. c. in 18 G 

ai lener plena eadit hmdus anno. ciLoEEM Nonioa p. 46 

Jebria proprieiatem... Varro AndabatU aperiendam putat; idque alterma 
appeilamua a calendo calocem, aiteruni a fcnioie febrim. oL Lips, epist. 
qnaeBt ii 6, Tibnil. it 11 2. 99 cobph mug. 

verb and plural orii ; ao Caes. b. c. i 2 g 7 intareedit JU. ^ntoniui, Q. 
Catiiue, tribuni p(e6i«. [Plat.] Theag. 129". of. Oio. Verr. it g 92 
Zompt. Liv. nil 47 § 3 in direclum uirinque iiiteiiteH...oir vinim 
amplexna dfltrahabat cjuo. ixt 19 § 6.Hor, a. p. 401. oiLLiTii n 68 
FoUittaa. antb. Pal, tu 334 16 nuXiTTjji. CIG 3098 n^Mrrrit. O. Jaha 
Bpedm. epiijraph. 00. It ia a pet name. O. Jalm Bermea la 190 191 
giTea evidence for Bonitta, luUtta Livitta Follitta (and Polilttianus}, 
and Saivitto ; obafrviug that these names aeem not to have been need 
before the imperial times. Foe Gallitta ha cites Flin. ep. vi 31 g 4. 
gnida al mua. di Bologna p. 50 (Fabretii p 173 332) the danghter of 
Anr. Gallua. Grnter 7fi 5 Flavia balbta IH"C 348 Fandanin Galiitnlla. 


in. ill §3 ille accrpit,...ied 
cuius senaotaa eilibeia OTbitaa magna promittebat. mihipltu 
dedit, quamvia idem dtderil, quia line ipe reaipiendi dedit. Tbb. lu 22 
Lepida, cut tuptr Aemilionim decut L. 5uUa et Cn. Pompeiiu proavi 
<ran(i deftTlur limviavUte partum ex P. QuiHmo divite ulijiie oibo. 
ib. 23 abe enteced the theatre of tompeiilH her ancestor with other Dobla 
ladiea, and so moved the audience, that burstipg iato tears laeva et 
detalanda Qairinio ciaviilareitt, cuiiu Beneotae atqne orbitati et 
i^caTitsimae damui deaUnalaqaondamiixor L. CaesaH ac divo Auffuitu 
moTis dedtrttuT. ib. 25 proposal to mitigate the Eeverity of tba laws bj 
^*!ueti AaguBtua had sought to restrain celibacy, nee idea (beoaufle of 
the lavs) coniuiria et edacationet liifrum JVeifuenCabanlur, praevalida 
orbitate. Epikt. diss, iv 1 g3 145— a Lucian dial, inori 9. 
100 "Jna the fall of votive ofierings an evil omen Luc. r 557. Stat. Th. 
IV 338 333. LiBELLia 27. i 65. Suet. Cal. 1* 

Ouaabon ut vera in adversam valHvdinem incidit, pemoctantibiu cunctii 
area Palatium, lum defuerunt, qui paguataros se acini s pro aalnte 
ftegri, qni^Qs capita sua titnlo proposito voverent. Caligula 
ML liii Teeoveij enforced the Inlfilmect of these vowa 27. DCass. ui 3 
j 8 names F. Afranins Potitas bs swearing that he would die, if but 
Oaim might recover, and Atanins Secmidua a knight as engaging to 
light M gladiator, in hope of a reward from GfiiiiB, ilji tal d.crltf'iixal el 
iwaSarciir iSA^ayTH. Soet. CaX 16 Casaubon the common close of all 
oaths neque me liberosqiK meos cariores habeo quam Gaiam habcoet aorarei 
«{m. Kurt. UiSO pro seue, gedclare, votum Maro fecit amioo, | oui 
grATia ot terveoB hemitritaeus erat, | ai Stygiaa aeger non 
Cliet miBsns adnmbras, {at cadeietmagno vie tima grata Iovi.| 
co^eraiUinediciceTtaMapoTidere lalutem. \ ne voium lolvai, nune Maro vota 
fiietl. liocian dial. mort. S 1 Plato : > Yoa know the old man, the veiy 
verr old man I mean, the rich Eakrates, who ha> no ekildren, but 60,000 
wko Aunt/or hitfirtune!' Hermes: 'Yea, him of Bikyon you mean. What 
of lliio?* PL ' HermeB, if it can be managed, let him live, over and above 
the 90 years ha has lived already, aamaay more, oi even more than that: 
but bis flatterers, young Charinos and Damon and the rest, draw down 
to the grave one after another." H. ' That woald seem strange.' PL 
■ Hay, yoQ could not do a juater thing ; for what has come to them that 
they pray for his death, or claim his money though no way related to 
him? and the most detestable thing of all ia that thongh they pray 
thus !hu! fftpaTi6oviliy If 71 Tip ^'Ortp^' Kai tOErourT-oi i iiir fioiXarrai, 
rati rabhiXa, Svafiy ii B/tut iiriirx>'oii»Tiii fiip aata-o.' 

101 POBriCDS of GaUitta or Pacius. hbca- 

TOBBBS Ath. a* after his victory at Knidoa and forlifioation of the 
Piraeus, Eonon ofEeied Tip ivn nai oi ^Euiuvu'judi a hecatomb and feasted 
all the Athenians. Marias vowed a hecatomb to the gods, if the; would 
giant him victory over the Cimbri Pint. 2G g 3. B.C. 317 300 osen were 
Towed to lupptter Liv. zxn IV § 7. Philo legaL n 698 M when Isidore 
charged the Jews with not sacrificing for Gains, they replied that they 
offered hecatombs for him, and did not, as moat, merely pour the blood 
of the victim on the altar and eat the meat, but burnt the entire flesh. 
Stat. B. u 7 16—18 on Lncan'a birthday centnm Thfsptacia odora lueit \ 
Itatt attarin viotimaeque centum | quas Dirce lavat ant alii (7i(Aiu- 
rm. Philostr. soph, n 1 § 6 the father o! Herodea Attiona often offered 
* hwntomh of oxen to Athene. Capitolin. Mai:, et Balb. II Balhimu 


lo overjoyed, that he oSered a becatomb, as soon aa tba head of 
minus waa biouglit (a him. hi ' ' - • ■- • 

Cltttam arat uno in loco caeipHiciai: 

biouglit (a him. hccatombe aulcm tale lacrificivm tfl. J 

imptratorium tacrificiuni til, aeatnm 
leoDen centum a^nilae ef ctUra hahamodi aromaUa centena feri- 
un(ur. qaod quidtm etiam GraiH quotidaia Jeoitie dinuntw, cuin pelli- 
lentia laboraTini, et a nraltia imptraloribui id celebratilm eoiutal. 
at. id. Mff tjni ini 2i. Trob. Poll. GuUieu. 9 eonfeeto itincre celtbratitqiit 
heoatombis. Yopiso. Tao. 13 the Bsnatora were bo OTerjoyed on 
recoreriiig the right of eleftion to the throne uC tt lupplicationei deeenU' 
Ttntur et bodatomba promitteretnx. Forphfi. ep. od Morcell. 14 
(itnd in abnost the Bsme words Demopbil. aeot. P;tbsg. 44 in Oralil 
opoBC. Bent. I 4'2) ' the lover of pleaenre, tboagh be Blay heealamlbi, and 
adorn the temples with conntleEa oSfriiigs, is impiooB and godless and 
in intention Baerilegioas.' Jewish eix. 1 k. B Q and 63 seq. S ehl. 89 
82 seq. 80 24. 86 7 aeq. Greoian Hdt. Tii 43. Xeo. L. g. yi4§2U. 
ct Soph. Tf. 763. Strabo 362. Inlian 39lj'. 416". 102 QUiTBjnjB 

they TOW a hecatomb (not indeed of elephanla), lincc. Plin. ep. m 7 J 14 
qnatenuB nobis dinrgaluT din vivert, Miinjuamiu aliguid, qua not rtr- 
iiM teitemar. So Hor. B. 1 1 64 Heind. Ov, m. TUi 786. iiv 40, QnintiL 
Bnet. CL 36 Ond. Tao. Plin. ep. i 7 S 6. Flor. eto. in Hennas eim. 
T S=^(i3iJ. Amob. Tu 16 qtiodsi animantium cniare himoraH et adfici 
lupmram amnios exUtimatis, eur nun eu et mulas et elephantos macta- 
tit f PColemj' PMlopator having offered four elephants for his viotoiy 
over Aniioehus. alarming dreams threatened him with divine Tengeanee 
tor BO strange a Boaiifice ; he mitde amends b^ Betting up fonr elepbacti 
in bronze (luba in Flut, ii ^Ti' who has majiy wonderful st^riM vt 
elephants. Bee ind. ad. Didot), Phllo de animal. 27 elephants sent to 
OermonicuB, trained to aet a least, driuikemieBa etc. 28 one tsngbt to 
write ' I myself wrote this.' 89 that Aiax, an elephant at Antloclt, fell 
mad nhen deprived of the Bnprsme rank, is past belief : be may have 
been more daintily fed and go jealousy may have apning up. 

NEC.MEa portitivtdy used, after the general now Hand 
TuTB, IV 131. Zmnpt § 754, Cio. p. Mur. g 61. Liv. praef. § IL i 36 
i la. 86 % 3. II iV g 3, Aen. ii 426 427 nihil iite nee ausui | nes 
potuii. id. eel. 5 2S forbiger. Sen, const, sap. 9 g 2 of the sage ueaeit 
neo in ipem nee in nutam vivere. cons. Helv, 8 g 4 mundiu Ate qvo 
nihil neque nuiiiu neque omatiui renaa liatara gentiit. We shonll 
expect nee venules, nee concepti, but the construction is varied ct. Hdt. a. 
S 4» /'i' 1^' iytuiiaaii^t, ii/ia Bt TupimVi Sih v^w iditee ((or Sotsfen). 
id, 1 14 SI. ISKrdger, 86 g 1 oXXa re ini>palififwos nal Stj tal...lwf 
■wbiupte. Tm E4 Kriiger. HO dXeyiirayri! i...iy(rtTo. n g the Si 
SeieYiiiros...ttTe...iitla.i. 104. Matthiii J 631 i- Kifiger gE9. Kiihnfir 
Or. Gr. ii' 667. S«hiifer Dem. app. or. it 76. nucsnui-n 

on the form L. Miiller da re metrica 390. 103 BiHEaB 

Plin, pan, 13 eoipso ieinpore,„,eiim ferae gentemon telU inagii guannio 
caelo, SIM sidere ormanfur, 15 diveraam aguarum catliqile temperien 
III patriot Jantei patrimnque Bidus/crr« caaiuesti. 39. 

104 coNciPtiDH otherwise Colam. iii 8 § 3 India perhibetur 
noHbaiferaraiamiraliHu: pari tamen in hac terra vaitilate beluat prn- 
gerterari qaU negeU ciini intra moeula nostra natoa auimad- 
Tertamus elephantos, KlepbanU do not breed in oaptivily, as Inv. 
accurately Bays; that an elephant, taken pregnant, will hear for that 
time, is true, hut Colom. must have meant more. Plin. viii | 27 circa 


coitiu maxime efferantur et stahula Indorum dentibus atemunt, quaprop* 

ter areent eos ooitn femiTiarumque pecuaria separant. 
htbyaoxnts xi 124 125 elephant's teeth, quos mittit porta Syenes | ei 

Maori celeres ot Mauro obsourior Indus. Plin. vi § 10. Flor. 

izS4=iy 12 § 62 of embassies to Augustus Seres etiam habitantesque sub 
ipso sole Indif cum gemmis et margaritis elephantos quoque inter 
munera trahentes, nihil magis quam longinquitatem viae inputahant — 
qmdriennium inpleverant ; et iam ipse hominum color ab alio ye- 
niie ctkQlo fatehatur, Friedlander i^ 48. For the abL cf. Hor. epod. 11 
10 latere petitus imo spiritiu, see lexz. under promo (Yerg. fior, 


ciTUB AOBO 1 162. 71 637. Tumus was king of Ardea among the Eutuli. 

Here then were stables for the elephants which the emperors kept for 

exhibition in the theatre and amphitheatre. As the poets (Prop. Y=r7 

7 82. Mart, it 62. vn 13. vni 28 12. Sil. xii 229 230 quale micat 

temperque novum est, quod Tiburis aura | pascit ebur) state that faded 

iTOTj regained its whiteness by exposure to the air at Tibur, Vales. 

infers, perhaps hastily, that elephants were kept there also. 

106 CAESiiBis IV 135 Caesar. los. ant. yiii 6 § 2, who compares Pharaoh 

as a dynastic title with Ptolemy and Caesar. Clem, recogn. i 45. 

CASSABis ABMEKTUH IV 50 — 52 71071 duhitaturi fugitivum dicere piscem J 

depastumque diu vivaria Cae saris, inde \ elapsum, veterem ad domi- 

num debere referri. Orelli inscr. 2951 procurator ad helephantos. 

Hinchfeld rom. Yerwaltungsgesch. 1 178. anth. Pal. ix 285 oitKiri Trvp- 

yttdeli [infra 109 110] 6 <f>a\ayyo/jLdxas ivl drjpiv \ dtcx^ros opfialvei 

fMpil^ovs i\^<pas, I dWd, 06/?<^ crrefXas fiaOifv aifx^va irpbi ^uyod^crfiovs, | 

cu'TV7a dt<ppov\Kei Kal<rapos oipavlov. \ (yvo) 5' elpi^prjs Kal 6ijp x^Pf^* 

ipytufa ^^oj I "Apeoj, eifpofiirji dpravdycL iraripoj where the former and 

present employments of the animal are seriously, as here satirically, 

contrasted. L. Comificius, whenever he dined abroad, returned home 

on an elephant (DCass. xlix 7 § 6 where it is mentioned as exceptional). 

Saet. Claud. 11 aviae Liviae divinos honores et circensi pompa currum 

elephantorum Augustino similem decemenda curavit, Capitol. 

MftTiniiTii 26 principibus nostris Maximo Balhino et Gordiano statuas 

cttm elephant is decemimus, Gord. 27. Elephants are frequently seen 

on imperial coins. nulli sebvibe pabatum 

PBiTATo among omens of Aurelian's future greatness Yopisc. 5 fin. he 

feceiyed from the king of the Persians a state elephant, which he offered 

to the emperor, solusque omnium privatus Aurelianus ele- 

phanti dominus f uit. Ael. n. a. x 1 took out a licence {pvvaixiv) from 

the emperor to hunt them. 107 pbivato vi 114. xiii 41 n. 

TTBio Carthage being a colony of Tyre, the 
^ names PoenuSf Punicus mere corruptions of Phoenician. In Silius 
Hannibal and the Carthaginians are Tyriu^ (-i), Sidonius (-t), Agenoreus 
{-idae) etc. 108 hannibali x 158 n. thus he 

employed forty b.o. 218 against the Carpetani (Liv. xxi 5 §§ 10. 15), 
and at the Trebia (ib. 55 §§ 2. 7. 9—11), at Zama b.c. 202 he had 
^ in his van, the largest number that he ever led to battle (xxx 
^ § 4). cf . ind. Liv. and Polyb. 

lOBTBis BuciBUS BEoiQUE HOLosso Plin. viH § 16 the Bomans first met 
^th elephants in the war with Pyrrhus in Lucania b.c. 281, whence 
(from Plautus and Naevius to Claudianus Mamerti^s cent. 5 after Chr.) 
they were called Lucae boves Lucanian oxen (cf . Varro 1. 1. vn § 39. 
^Aer. T 1302 Munro). M.' Curius Dentatus exhibited some at his 

ITJV. XL 16 



trimnph B.C. 275 {Sen. Ijcev. vit 13 g 3. Eutr. ii I4=B). More than 
hiiadied were led in trtumpli b; L. GoQciliua MotellnB B.C. 260 {Plin. t 
g 139. Till S 16. iviii % 17. Ben. ib. § B. OroB. it 0). The Bamaiis 
flnt emplojed them in battle in tha vai egsinst PhUip b.o. 200 (Lit. 
XXXI 36 i i). B.u. 190 in the battle oE Magnesia L. ComeliaB Scipio conld 
oppose 16 AEriaon elephants to 54 Indian elephants of AntiocbiiB {Lit. 
ixxTii SD % 13). Tiie elepbants in the campaign of Q. Murcius PhilippOB 
against king PerEea B.C. 190, took Iright on a march (ib. tlit S § 3). 
Miey did good sarvica at Vindaliiini n.o. 121, when Cn. Domitins 
Alienobarbas defeated the AUobrogea (Dros. t 13). A team was fint 
yoted in Roma to the Ear of Pompeiua in hia African triumph b.o. 81 
(Plln. Tin % i). la Coeear'a Gallia trinmph B.C. iS elephants bearing 
toccbes vera led (Snet. 37). In his African campaign B.C. 10 the 
soldiecB ot the fifth legion demanded to be led against the elephants' in 
L. Sdpio'B armj-, which had at first caused great alarm : from their sue 
cets in the battle that legion afterwards bore the figure of on elephant on 
their standards (App. b. o. ii 96. of. Eirt. bell. Atric. 81— S4). In the 
imperial times they were employed cbietl; to draw the emperor's ohariot in 
triumphs and proceasiona Friedliinder ii* 372 — 6. 524 625. Niebuhr B. 
h. m 506. G30. 673. 590. 597 Beq. ind. to Siilig's Pliny. Lipaios ep. 
misD. 1 1. BBOl uoLOaso xtt 161 1G2 Punioa 

piuaii \pToeliavel Pyrrum invianem gladioiqtie Molossoa. The most 
iamoaa city ol the Molosai Dodona Plin. IT g 2. LiT. perioch, 13. rior. 
I 13 = 18 % 6. Veget. Ill 24 who ahews bow they may be OTercomo. 
Ael. n. a. 138. Batr. iill = 6. How Pyrrhos endeavoured to frightai 
FabcioiUB by auddenly exposing to his view an elephant, has often Iwen 
told (Pint. Pjrrh. 20). In the waia aleo «iUi AntioohuB and lugnrtha tha 
Romans hod to encounter many elepbonla. 

109 DOBSO fEBBE coHosTEB 1 Mocc. 1 6 and 85 where each elephant 
carries thirty-two soldiers in a tower, beside the Indian driver I sea 
Boohftrt hieroz. it o. 27. Philoatr. Apoll. ii 13 g 1 puta the number at 
13 or 15, Plin, Till g 22 'twenty tower-bearing (liiniti] elepbonta cum 
itxugenii propugnatoribni ware pitted against 500 horse and 600 foot,' 
must mean that eaoh elepbant bore three fighting men, aa AeL xni 9 
says. For Pliny uses diatributiTca for cardinals as freely as the poeta 
ct. lani ars poet. 275. 110 parteu AuanAu bei;li 

I 74 a aliqvid. m 330 n. Acn. x 426 437 Xatmu, J pars ingeia belli. 
ih. 737 pars belli hauC tenmenda,, viri, iacft altui Omdei. Plin; 

. . ^ 1 belli haut temnenda, 
cited below. Ot. m. ii 217. 

374 468. 

Laor. t 1303. LIt. I 

sstu 40 g ' 
nhoates f 

Plin. 1 

I % 27 dinnili i 



jeroB elephs 

muT-umeros. 8U, lit DOl vii elephant or am turrito evneita dorso. 
n 239—241 tnrritaa nioka ae propugnaeula dorso | belwa ni- 
granti gestans ceu mobilis agger, | taiOal et erectot aWoIiil ad 
a/thera miiTOi, cf. PoroeUini (wmjer. Ijirritm. Bochart 0.25 'of tha use 
of elephants in war' and o. 27. Ha quotea from Basil ' Uving towers 
and hilia of fleah." lH uoka kdi 

QUIK Ti 333. dig. xxiii 30 g 5 «iii aiitem par muiierem 
quo minua cam filio habitel, legata ei deberi. 
KOTitra HiBTRnM lottune-buntEra. Hiater u 53. 


cirviuv Bometiznes Pacvius L. Muller de re metr. 251 252. Laclimann 
Lncr. p. 306. ebub ie. the elephant ; cf. 4 vellus. 

U sanguis, ducatub ad abas x 66. Heins. on 

O7.1n.x7 114. 113 OALUTTAE to be taken with 

Lares. 114 i>eis Laribus. 

HOBUM Larimn, as representing the living family. 

115 ALTEB Paouvius 125. 115 seq. vi 388 — 392 

qnid faceret pins | aegrotante viro? medicis quid tristibus 
erga | filiolum? stetit ante aram, nee turpe putavit \ pro cithara velare 
caput, dictataque verba \ pertulit^ ut mos est, et aperta palluit agna, 
A week after the death of Marcus Aurelius the archigallus issued orders 
to his sect to bleed themselves for his recovery (Tert. apol. 25 who cannot 
refrain from sarcasm: nuntios tardos/ somniculosa diplomata! cf. 
AGnnc. 24 § 6). Cries of the people to the emperor Tert. apol. 35 de 
nostris anni« tibi luppiter augeat annos. id. ad nat. 11 9. 

SI coNCEDAS, vovEBiT X 339 n. 340 n. 116 on 

expiatory sacrifice see viii 257 n. vi 662 — 4 spectant [in the theatre, 
eixn 120 tragicae] subeuntem fata mariti | Alcestim et, similis 
si permutatio detur, | morte viri cupiant animam servare 
eatellae. ib. 551 552 pectora pullorum rimabitur, exta catelli, \ inter- 
dum et pueri. 118 vittas xiii 63 n. Verg. 

g. m 486 487 stans victima ad aras, \ lanea dum nivea circumdatur infula 
vitta. Aen. ii 136. 156. Ov. Ibis 103. Pont, in 2 76. 


17 133 n. xn 127 Mycenis. vi 566 Tanaquil tua. Aeneas for son y 
138 139 tiulltis tibiparvolus aula \ laser it Aeneas nee filia dulcior illo. 
Markland adds y 141 ttia nunc Mycale. vi 236 (cl. xiii 98. xiv 252) 
advocat Archigenen. 660 Atrides (for husband, but rv 65 for 
monarch). nubilis Iphigenia was led to the 

altar Lucr. i 98 nubendi tempore in ipso. Eur. lA. 100. 123. 

119 120 IPHIGENIA... CEBVAE Prokl. epit. of the cyclic 
poem Kypria p. 475 Gaisford (Mure bk. ii c. 19 § 9) * the fleet again 
assembles at AuHs. Agamemnon on a hunting party, elated by an 
sxpert shot at a deer, boasts that he surpasses Artemis herself in her 
own art. As a punishment for his impiety, the goddess detains the fleet 
vindbound. Kalchas declares that she can only be appeased by the 
sacrifice of Iph., who is accordingly brought from home, under pretext 
of betrothal to Achillea. Artemis snatches her from the altar, leaving a 
fawn in her stead, makes her immortal, and conveys her to Tauri.' 
Hegesias (or Stasinos) is followed by Eurip. lA. 1587. IT. 28 dXV ^^^- 
i(\€^l/€v i\a<f>0P dvTidov(rd fiov I'AprefUi 'Axatc^s. 783. Prop. iv=iii 
22 31 Ov. m. XII 34 Heins. tr. iv 4 67. Mart, in 91 11. Nonn. xiii 
104—119. Hygin. 98 Muncker. 261. Serv. Aen. ii 116. See other 
legends in Tzetzes on Lyk. 183. A hackneyed topic in the schools Sen. 
snas. 3 title 'deliberat Agamemnon an Iphigeniam immolet negante Cal- 
cliante aUter navigari fas esse.* Aug. civ. Dei xviii 18 § 3 where he dis- 
misses the possibility of lycanthropy and Circean metamorphoses, with 
^e saving clause * si tamen factum est ' explains the story of the Dio- 
iMdeae volucres, by this : men were not changed into birds, but by leger- 
demain birds were substituted for men; sicut cerva pro Iphigenia. 
% divine permission such praestigiae would not be difficult ; because 
*liat virgin was afterwards found alive, it was readily understood suppo- 
Positam pro ilia cervam esse. A like spiriting away of a victim at 
^^'^^esarea said by Eus. h. e. vii 17 to have been revealed in answer to a 


LmimTA. HASR4. [Sn 119—12 

Lncr. I 84—100. Hor. b. □ 3 199—201 tu cam pro viliila atatuia duleem 
Avlid^ nalaia | ante arai tpargieq-ae mala capal, inprobe, taiaa, \ rectim 
onjmi urvat f Mfthlmium col. 498 has many esi. of dare faeii tvra Wta 
eto. 120 ly lie— 9. zni 84 S5 of the peijutar, 

BWeoring by all the ocmoory of heaven <i vera et patei at, 'eomedam' 
ingtUt 'flebilaaati | aineipat eliii Phaiioqne madentiB aoeto.* 
121 i-ioDo HEUH ciYMu IT 18 19 cimtilium lando 

abatulit orbi. Holyday 'my citizen has 'bruin I what is a fleet, | to 
a riflb will?' Tert. apol. 14 'I do not speak of yooi cheating EennusB 
of more than two-thirds of his tithe : taadnbo magii tapienliam, giKid dl 
ptnlita aliqaid tripitii.' ib. 16 lando diiigeniiam. 
laS uiLLK Vano r. r. n 1 § 36 nnmeras nou eat, at sit ad amna- 
sim, ut Don est earn dioimas. mille naves isse ad TioUm. 
The number of ships in the Homeiic Catalogne (H. n) is 11B6, bnt the 
poets (Aesoh. Ag. 45 BlomE. Enc. Andr. 106 Barnes. Or. 352 Elots. 
Plant, Baooh. 928. Aen. n 19S H«yne. ii 148. Prop, m = n 26 33, 
gil. m 229 Drak. ef. Sen. oontr. 86 g 2. [Sen.] Again. 39. Stat. Ash. 
I 35. Duker on Thae, i 10 § 4. Ensl. II n 760 p. 338) general^ 
gpeak of a thousand only. Cio. Teir. i g 48 gives 1000 also as the nnmber 
of Xenes' fleet. ubiunui m 82 n. Hor. a. in 

30 S 7 rum omnit moriar, maUaqtu pars mei | vita bit Li bi tin am. id. s. 
n S 19 Hemd. Plat. Num. 12 g 1 some identified with Proserpina, the 
more learned with Venas, Lib, irls-i oiray tuv repl ralis Siija-icarrcLi oaLir 
9fir uBiraii. id qo. rom. 23. Servins Tnllina appointed that for eTeiy 
issXk a «iim ol moD«j shottld lie paid into the tietwory of Tenas Litn^ft 
in tie grove (Piao in DH. iv 15. Vftrro in Non. p. 64 lucui VeneriB, 
Lnbentiitae), from nliit^ biera and fuel tor fnutrBla nere bionghi 
Mart. X 97 1. id. viii 43 s/ert itsffrei Fabiia, ChTatilia Tnantoi. j jmu- 
Tcamque torie qaasaat vterqus /aeon. I victorea committe, Venus : quoi UU 
manebit j exiiat, una dam ul Libitina feral, Henoe the mentlDn of 
Libitina in pestilences (Liv. it.i 21 g 6. Suet. Nero. 39), the terms Libili- 
natnfaciri, exercere, the Libitinemii porta at the amphitiieatre. OreUi 
inscr. 3349 lucar Libitinae. Preller rom. Mytb.^ 387. Marquotdt T 
(1) 360 381. 123 DBi^Bii TiBDiJfl if the patient 

reooverB he will ascribe all to the vow of Paeuiius, and erase in Ids 
favour all other names from the waxen tablets of his will i 6S n. ti 68. 
IV 19. iiv 65 tabutaa mntare parabis. 

KAsau a woel Festns p. 169 a 19 &L 811. v 47—52 vitnai aolleu ^iiea, 
tor ad umJoi j are Ueeia patulo texens de vimine nasaam, | cautiia interior* 
ligat nudiamque per alram | lennim faitlgam compreua cncumirui ntctU, I 
ae/ratide arctali riTneare foraminu arcet { introita facilcm, q^em Cram 
ab aequore, piieem. met. also in Plant, mil. 679. Cio. Att. it 20 g S. 
BO KipTiH in Lacian Harmot. 69. oL Hor. s. n G 25. 44. ep. 1 1 TO 
Obbar. Mart, r/ 66. ti 63. Phn. ep. ii SO cited .93 n. Sen. oonst. 
aap. 9 %2 eil et ilia ininria frequent, ei lucrum alieuitu fxeusium eit 
autpraemium diu captatum, si magno labore adfectata hereditas 
aversB est et quaestnosae domus gratia erepta. hen. it SO 
§ 3 ingratum voca, qui aegro adaedit, quia teslameniam faeturui eet, < 
heredilate aut legato vaeat cogitate, facial licit ow/nia, quae facere 
atnicui et memor o_fficii debrl, n ammo eiue obveriaiar ipei, li laori 
tatoi est et hamum iaoit. Lnciui dial. mort. 8 a captator dead 
before hia viotim complains : ' As the proverb is, the fawn haa naught til* 


I ooorted the rich and childless Hennolaos and thought it a stroke 
of policy to deposit in a pnhlic place my will, in 'which I have be- 
queathed to him my all, that he might do ihe like by me... and now by a 
M of the roof I am dead on the sudden and Hermolaos has my estate, 
iisying like some sea- wolf swallowed bait and hook.' * Not only so, bnt 
you the fisherman too, so that your plan has recoiled npon yonrsell ' * So 
it seems; more's the pity.' ib. 6 § 4 Terpsion a man of 30 had sent 
many costly presents to Thnkritos, an old man past 90, with three teeth 
in his head, who seemed to have one foot already in his coffin. Terpsion 
eomplains to Pinto : ' after swallowing so large a bait of mine the day 
before yesterday he attended my funeral and crowed over me.' Pinto: 
'Bravo, Thnkritos I Long life and prosperity to you; may you live to 
bnry all yonr flatterers.' id. TiuL 22 cited 126. 

124 SOLI n 58 59 cur solo tabulas impleverit Hister \ liberto. vi 601. 
Her. 8. n 5 54 so Ins, multisne coheres. 125 bbeviteb 
1 68 n. exiguis taibuUs. 

125 126 suPBBBUS INCEDET Hor. epod. 15 17 18 et tu, quicumque es 
felicior atque meo nunc \ snperbns incedis malo, 

126 INCEDET 'stalk,' *stmt,' connotes a stately consequential movement 
Aen. I 146 divom incedo regina^ where Servius ^incedere proprie est 
nofailinm personarum ; hoc est, cum aliqua dignitate ambulare.' Sail. 
Ing. 31 § 10 incedunt per ora veatra magnifici, sacerdotia et consulatus, 
fan triumphos suos ostentantes. Liv. n 6 § 7. Sen. tranq. 1 § 9. ep. 76 
§ 31. 80 § 7. 115 § 9 omnium istorum, quos incedere altos vides, 
bratteata felicitas est, Amm. xxn 14 § 3 grandia^ii^ incedens tarn- 
qwm Oti frater et Ephialtis, cf . Mtihlmann. 

vicns BivALiBUS Luclau Tim. 22 the successful fortune-hunter, when the 
^ is open, ' carries me [Plutos] off, will and all, styles himself instead 
ofPyrrhias, Dromo or Tibios (his name to that moment) Megakles or 
Megabyzos or Protarohos, rods fidTrjv /cexi/i'Aras iKcLvovs is dX\i)Xous dvofiXi- 
Tonas KardKnrCijy dXrjOki dyovras rb vivOoi^ oTos avroi>s 6 Ovvpos ix fxvxoO Ttjs 
(foy^njs 8ii<pvy€v, o^k dXLyop rb diXeap Karavubv. 

127 you see then how well he is repaid for the sacrifice of his Iphigenia. 

lUouLATA MTCENis the Same use in principle as 
oi MTbe condita ' from the foundation of Borne.' When Bibbeck asks (x 
108 sammus nempe locus nulla non arte petitus) *wie kann der 
bochste Stand oder der Gipfel der Macht Jemanden zu Boden stilrzen ? 
Das Streben danach wohl,' he has yet to learn that summus locus petitua 
^^petitio summi loci, Nagelsbach § 30 2 cites e. g. Gic. fam. 17 13 § 2 
T'^iiM henevoUntiam nobis conciliarat per m>e quondam te socio def ensa 
res pablica. mycenis Agamemnon was king of Mycenae. 

Aen. n 266 ipse Mycenaeus magnorum ductor Achivom, Sil. i 27 
ant« Agamemnoniam ditissima tecta Mycenen. Ov. m. xii 34 sup- 
VontA fertur mutasse Myoenida cerva. Pacuvius's Mycenis is his 
daughter, whom he is ready to offer as Agamemnon did Iphigenia (119). 

128 — 130 may Pacuvius be curst (x 7 seq.) by 
the fulfilment of his desires : attain Nestor's age and mountains of gold, 
bat know nothing of that friendship which he counterfeits. 

vivAT NESTOBA 4 u. X 246 — 265. * May he Live a Nestor,' i.e. 
Nestor's age, compared by Wytt. on Pint, ii ISO** with Cyclopa moveri, 
8tc. Mart. X 24 9 — 11 vitae triJms areis peractis | lu^os Elysiae petam 
F^Uae.\post kunc Nestor a nee diem rogaho. (Ribbeck, * correcting' 
fittperti, strangely renders * after this day I will not ask Nestor for 
<^ day more'). The comparison of the attribute of one person (or 


thing) to anather person or thing (lie 74 n. add Sdiiifec oq Flin. 
ep. 1 16 g H. DO. Bchol. Ap. Bh. 11 ITT. Heimchen □. cr. on Eob. h. e. 
VI S § iS) is in principle the Bume. cf. Uentor (tiii 104 n.) = awoik 
of Meotor's. XJT S26 lume dnos e^aitee. Mart. 11 29 3 quaeque 
T71011 (Tjciao dye) tociena epolavere lacernae. Sen. apocol. i li 
vincunl IHthoni, vincanl et Seatoris annoi. It was a oommon prayer 
for a friend tliat lie might attain Nestor's ^eais. Stat. s. i 3 110 
Jinem NeHtoreae precor effrtdiare Beneotae. n 2 107 108 >ia felix, 
tdlia, doaiirtU ambobia in annos j Mygdonii PyliiquB senia. in 4 103 
104 eat, OT-o, per aniua | Iliaeoa PylioBjue simul. i» S 149 150 to his 
' god' Domitian aiatoi perpetua gerta iMvenla, \ qaol fertar planidas obittt 
Neetor. t 3 2S5 — T to hia father Pylias ami tranieendere meliu \ et 
Tmcroa aeqwtn genei, dignt wider* | me timileni Or. Pont. 11 8 41. 

129 QOUiTDM BAPUiT NESo Yiu 100—128 h. On Nero'B wlioleBBle rob- 
heries in Greece and eleewhere ci. Tae. xr 45 intcrea conjereadh peeuntu 
ptTvaUata Italia, provindae everaae joritjue populi et quae eivilatum 

in nilje templia e^eatoriue aaro, quod trinmphiB, qnod votis 
omnis popnii Bomani aetas prospero aot in metu saoraverat. 
enimvero per Aaiam atqne Achaiam non dona tantnm Bed 
eimnlacra naminum abripieliantiir, miisU in eai provinciaa AcraU 
ac Secundo Carrinate. ib. ivi 23. id. Agrio. G. Pliu. umiv g 94 worts 
of art restored by Veap. to tbe temple o[ Pol {Nero had ooUected them 
for his golden bonae). DCaaa. liiii 11. 13 § b. Suet. 26 (Me Bhoplift- 
ing in Borne). 33 (temples in Bome, e.g. of Uie PenateB ; Suet, ia silent 
as to hia robberies in Greece). DCbrja. or. 31 1 644 B. to tbe Bbodiant 
' the Bomons who often plondeied temples and palaces, have never Etiired 
any of yonra ; Nero himself, nbo did not spare evan tbe Etatnes of 
Otympia and Uelplii, and removsd most of tbose of Uie Athenian acro- 
polis and many from Fergamum, left yoars alone nndistnrbed. ' Pansan. 
V 26 § 8. 26 g D. IX 27 gg 3 4 (Nero's iaeests and ailnlteries were instigated 
hy an Eios, enraged at being removed from Theepiae I). 7 g 1 (Qve hun- 
dred statues were removed from Delphi alone). Siick rom. Gesoh. i (S) 
899. Thus he injured the Greeks by Ms taste for the fine arts more tlun 
Xenes had done by his oonftagrattons Philostr, Apoll. v 7 g 3 sq. Herti- 
beig Gesch. Grieehenl. ii 97—99. 110 111. Schiller (Nero 247-^KI] 
gives reasons for reducing the amount of tlieee depredstions. 

129 130 iioNTiBna iDEtiH EiAEuniiT Ter. Ph. 68 
modo non monies auri polUcena. Pets, iti 65 Jahn et quid opVM 
Oratero wajnos promittere montes? Hier. in Enfin. ni 39 montee 
Bureoa pollicitus, VH, n 9 pr. panarajn rerum uaelo uumului aeqna- 
tna, eedem atabilem non habebit. 

130 Ov. Ibis 117—123 e.g. sisqtie miser aempir, nee eis miBarabilis 
nlli. Hor. B. 1 1 80—91. e.g. 86 87 miVa™, cum tu argenlo poiC omnia 
ponoj, I ai nenw pracstet, guem reon mirearia, amorem J See Lasaolx dec 
ilnoh "bei Griecheu u. RBmem (Stndien Begensb. 1854 IBfi— 177). 

a 186. : 



I 302. 





A 'consolatio' {irapafiv0rfriK6s cf. Sen. cons, ad Polyb. ad Helv. ad 
Maro. Plut. cons, ad Apollon. ad uxor, a beautiful tribute to his daughter's 
memory) addressed to Calvinus, who had been cheated of ten sestertia. 

Guilt meets its due punishment, if not from corrupt judges, yet from 
the conscience of the sinner and the reprobation of honest men (1 — 6). 
But there are other considerations, Calvinus, which should mollify your 
wrath. True, the friend whom you trusted has defrauded you ; but your 
fortune can well support so trifling a loss. Look about you, and see how 
rife •such crimes are. In the golden days of Saturn's rule falsehood was 
unknown, but now it is honesty that is the prodigy (7 — 85). Never was 
perjury so universal: for, while many believe in no God, others hope for 
a long reprieve, if not a final pardon (86—119). To raise an outcry 
then, as though your case were hard and strange, is as unreasonable as 
to wonder at blue eyes in a German, the goitre among the Alps, dwarfs in 
the land of pygmies (120 — 173). Are you then to look for no redress ? 
Philosophy wiU teach you that none but little minds delight in revenge : 
but, in any case, you may be well content to leave the delinquent to his 
own remorse and to that law by which crime breeds crime. If such be 
your desire, you may yet see him condemned to exile or to death 

cf. Quintil. decl. 314. 

This satire was written in the year 127 a.d. 17 n. Its lofty 
Stoicism has made it a favorite with moralists ; many of the lines are 
as vigorous as any in luv. , but the effect is marred by verbosity. The 
aged poet forgets the caution : manum de tabula. Becitations had spoilt 
taste; the sense of proportion was lost; the whole was sacrificed to the 
parts. It is true, not only of Seneca, but of all silver age writers, that 
they * look best in quotations.' The epigrams of Martial are the most 
perfect works of silver age art, because in them point is in place, and 
there is no temptation to digress. In 1575 Muretus spent at Bome 
three lectures on this satire vol. ii or. 12 ' et iucunda autem et utilis 
illius evolutio futura est. continet enim multas graves et utiles senten- 



tias, optimis verbis et genere qnodam dicendi salso festivo hilari et, nt 
ita dicam, vivido, quod hoic poetae propriom ac perpetnmu est, expli- 
catas.' This is all : * die hoben Lobsprticbe/ of which DUntzer talks, do 
not exist. Verses 39 — 52, 64 — 70, 78—85, extracts from a common -place 
book on mythology and portents, remind one of Lncan's misplaced ency- 
clopaedic learning e.g. on Thessalian witchcraft (ti 630 — 829), on Antaens 
(IV 590—655), portents (v 540—556), the battle of the winds (v 598—612). 
cf. Stat. Th. VI 88—117 with his prototype Aen. vi 180—182. 

1 — 22 Sin stands condemned by the sinner: he may bribe the 
praetor's court, but he cannot silence the judge within. What says the 
world, Calvinus, to this breach of trust ? Your estate can bear it ; it will 
not sink you; 'tis a hackneyed, every day mishap, a 'stale trick of 
chance.* Play the man then, and stifle your sobs. Scorn to wince at a 
trifling wound. What, bom under Fonteius, with sixty years behind 
your back, and yet startled and fuming at perjuiy and fraud ? Wisdom, 
by her heavenly maxims, enables men to master fortune. Even expe- 
rience, that mistress of fools, might have enured your shoulders to the 

1 EXEMPLO MALO Pctr. 104 tUi qui sunty qui node ad lunam radebantur 
pessimo mediusfidius exemplo. Muhlmann coL 954. 

2 DisPLiCET AUCTOBi 192 u. IV 8. Sen. ep. 42 § 2 nee ulla 
maior poena nequitiae est, quam quod sibi ac suis displicet. ib. 97 
§ 11. Macrob. comm. 1 10 § 12. ultio Aus. vu sap. sent. 

' Thales ' turpe quid ausurua te sine teste time, 

2 3 SB iiTDicE NEMO NOCENS ABSOLviTUB not like the followiug passages 
from Plant. Cic. Nep. Plant, mil. 559 si ego mesciente paterer vicino 
meo inferri apud me iniuriam\ for here the construction is infertur 
vicino meo m£ sciente iniuria, Cic. in Pis. § 23 gv>ae omnia oma- 
menta etiam in Sex. Clodio te consule esse voluisti. p. Scaur. §"34 
Be consule neque repelli fratrem volebat. Nep. Pans. 2 § 4 Graeciamsub 
tuam potestatem se adiuvante te redacturum pollicetur. Compare 
rather Ov. amor, ii 12 13 me duce ad hunc votifinem, me milite veni. 
Quintil. VIII 2 § 2 ille, qui in actione • hihericas herbaSf* se solo nequi- 
quam intellegente, dicebat. Suet. Tib. 31 Burm. Oud. negante 
eo...impetravit. iterum oena ent e...optinere non potuit. Cal. 35 
edente se munt/«...animadvertit. Censorin. 17 § 11 sextos autem 
[ludos] fecit Ti. Claudius Caesar se IIII et Vitellio III coss..., septimos 
Domitianus se XIIII et L. Minu^io Rufo coss. Aus. id. 2 14 ipse mihi 
numquam iudice me placui. Symm. laud, in Val. sen. Aug. 1 13 nee 
quisquam se ipso iudice impune laedatur. id. in Gratian. 8 me 
ipso principe militavi. Scribon. 97 ne hie quidem ulli se vivo 
compositionem dedit. Many exx. in Sanctii Minerva ii 7. Duker 
on Florus iv 12 § 28. Haase on Beisig 760. Kuhner gr. Or. ii^ 666. 
se iudice = • at the bar of his own conscience,* and the abl. is necessary. 
Drager ii 779 780. 3 iv 8. 192—239. PubUl. Syr. 259 Sp illo 
nocens se damnat quo peccat die. Philo ii 635. 642. 649. Sen. de ira iii 26 
§ 2 *quid ergo* inquis * impune illi eritV puta te velle, tamen non erit, 
maxima est enim factae iniuriae poena fecisse, nee quisquam 
gravivs adjicitur quam qui ad supplieium paenitentiae traditur. ib. ii 30 
§ 2 iam sibi dedit [poenas], qui peceavit, id. Hippol. (or Phaedra) 
164 — 9 Peiper e.g. scelus aliqua tutum, nulla securum tulit. Ambr. in 
ps. I § 20 etiamsi hominem fefellity testem refugit, aeeusatorem evasit ; se 
tamen sui accusatorem vitare non poterit, qu^m maxijne debet 
timere; quia et accusatorem habebit et confitentem reum. 


4 FAIiLACI PBAETOBIS VICEBIT TJRNA Cio. fin. II § 54 of L. Tubtllus: 

90^1 cum praetor quaesiionem inter sicarios exercuUset, ita aperte cepit 
pecnnias ob rem iudioandam. The indices in criminal causes were 
generally appointed by sortitio: that is, the president of the qimestio 
drew out of an nm containing the names of all his indices (selecti) the 
snmber necessary for the trial: the parties were allowed to challenged 
certain proportion, in whose place other names were drawn {mbsortitio). 
In this ballot the praetor had opportunities for foul play (Geib Criminal- 
process 184 — 6). dig. XLYin 8 1 pr. lege Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis 

tenetuVf qui, cum magistratv^ esset publicove indicio praeesset, operam 

dedisset, quo quisfaUum indicium prqfiteretur, ut quia innocens conveni- 

retur conderrmaretur. The praetor's nma here may be that used for this 

purpose or rather that in which the tablets A (absolve), C (condemno), or 

N L {non liquet) were thrown. Geib 365 366. If the first, the praetor 

has packed the jury. cf. Aen. yi 431 — 3 (where Servius quotes luv.) nee 

vera hae sine sorte data>e, sine iudice sedes: \ quaesitor Minos urnam 

movet, ille silentnm \ concilinmque vocat vitasque et crimina discit. If 

the latter, he has in the course of the proceedings won their votes. 

cf. Cic. Att. 1 16. Apul. met. x 8 cum iam sententiae pares, cunctorum 

stills ad unum sermonem congruentiJms, ex more perp'etuo in urnam 

aeneam deberent conici, quo semsl conditis calculis iam cum rei fortuna 

transojcto nihil postea commvtari licebat. Cic. ad Qu. fr. ii 4 § 6 Baiter 

< = n 6 fin.). Prop. v=iv 11 19. 49. Ov. met. xv 44. Hor. c. ii 3 26. 

m 1 16. 8. n 1 47. Sil. ix 26 27 qui te \ legihus atque urnae dira 

eripttere minanti, 7 tenuis hi 163 n. 

Cic. inv. I § 35 pecuniosus an tenuis. 

8 MEBOAT X 57 n. Pers. in 34. Amm. xxxi 9 § 5. Yell. 
n 91 § 3 Heins. nec bara videmus 16. 126 — 173. 

Menand. fr. inc. 2 (in Plut. ii 103*) if, Trophimos, you alone of all man- 
kind had been bom to unbroken prosperity, dpduii ayavaKreh* icrri yap a 
itffev<r/Uvot \ droirSv re ve-n-oirjK, but if you drew the common air by 
the same laws with us, you must bear this loss better. <rv 8' oii0' virtp- 
pdWoPra, Tp6(/>ifi, diribXecras | ay add, ra pvpI S' icrri fiirpid ffoi /ca/fd. | 
fScrr dva fUcrov irov koX to Xoiirbv d^ </>ip€. Gataker on Antonin. vii § 68. 
Hflonlet I 2 72 — 106 * thou know'st 'tis common.' 

9 cooNiTus XII 26. 10 71 seq. medio 

i.e. drawn at random. Plin. ep. ix 13 § 13 omnes Gertum nondum a me 
ftominatum ut nominatum defendunt crim^nque quasi in medio relictum 
defensione suscipiunt. 11 ponamus xi 191 192. 

12 viBi Hor. epod. 10 17 ilia non virilis eiulatio. 

13 QUAMVis however light. minimam exiquam- 
QUE HALOBUM PABTicuLAM 189 190. Cic. fin. Y § 78 ea nos mala dicimus, 
sed exigua et pa^ne minima, acad. ii § 127 ut exigua et minima. 
LiUcr. V 591 = 595 exigua maioris parte brevique. 

14 SPUMANTiBUB Sen. Oed, 362 Peiper felle nigro tabi- 
dum spumat iecur, 15 sacrum 72 sacrilega. 

16 DEPOSITUM 60. cf. 71 seq. dig. xvi 3 
(*depositi vel contra') 1 pr. depositum est, quod custodiendum alicui 
datum est, cod. iy 34. Hor. s. i 3 94 95 quidfaciam, si [amicus] furtum 
feeerit aut si \ prodiderit commissa? Sen. ben. iy 26 § 3 the 
good man will not trust him with a deposit, depositum committet ei, 
qui iam pluribus aimegavit, yi 5 § 5. 6 § 1. The Christians in 
Bithynia, a few years before the date of this satire (Plin. ep. x 96=97 
I 7) took a mutual oath ne furta, ne latrocinia, ne adulteria committerent, 




m fallerettt, no depi 


HIUFET HAIEU IV 119 II. PUn. pOU. 31 fiU. Stupsfaftllt 

agricoUie plena hortaa, quae non ijn£ referiitieHt, 

17 MsrEio ooNsnLB HiTua 28 n. 157 n. Clinton (f. E. ann, 118) and 
Lipsiaa (quaeet. epiat. rr 20) nndsFstand C. Fonteina Capito cos. a.d. 59. 
Tao. nr 1. Plin. ii g 180. IRN 3mi. Ent this Capito stands second to 
hiB coUeagne C. YipBtanna ApionLanna, and therefore Borgheai (oenvres 
V 74 — 7U) undeTBtnnds the Fonteina Capito of a.d. 67, who is named 
liefore hia colleague luniua Bnfna. This ia the legatns of lower German;, 
who waa put to death e.g. 68 with the connivance of Galha (Tac. h. x 7. 
87. 52. 58. ni 62. it 13). When a single CDnanl is named to date 
a year, the first Is regnlarlj' named, except ivlien that firat is CaeBILr or 
emperor. Thus the date of thia satire, like that of the 15th (xr 27 n.) is 
127 *.D. 

18—25 13fi— 173. ST 106—9. 18 m iratrns 

Lno. »i 60 Corte. PUn. ep. iv 18 g 1 Corte in deleritis. ib, 28 g 8 loTigs 
diSiciilima est imitationU imitatio. a qua ropo ut armicem.,.Tte in 
melius quidem linai aberrare. iz 59 g 1 reficiendjt e»l mi)ii aedei Cererit 
inpratdiU in melins et in. maiae. z 70 = 75 § 1 quae tunt vetmtatt 
etiAlapsa Telaxeiitur in melias. Tac. it 20 in meliaB jlexit. Flor. it 
7 g 9 Doker. Hand Tais. m 3S1. saasian xthub 

[ ' experience helps on to Bomethiag better. ' H. A. J. M.] 

19 [' uAONA QuiDEU (Boutj pToeeiipta BgreoB more cloael; with 
Vila iidicere magietra of 22 than ma^mi (est) sapietitia,' U, A. J. M.] 

sAORiB Sen, ep. II g 11 numquam in tantitm oonaaUieet 
tuqaitia, taaaqaamiic contra virtatea coniiirabitur,iit non philoeophine 
iiomenTeneral)iiaetsB,ornmmanea(. 55 g 4. Oio. Tuao. i §§ 64 SS, 
20 TioTRn FoarnsAB siPiKNiii 1 52. 363—6 n. 
Hot. b, n 7 83-~S8. Sen. ep. 71 g 30 sapiens quidem Tinoit virtuU 
fortunam. 82 g 6 philosophia circujiidainda est; inaipugnabilifl 
at tnurui, juem foitnna maltia maohlnis laceasitnm non tran Bit- 
cans. HelT. 13 3 2. const sap. passim e.g. G g 4. 6 g 8 the mimimenta ol 
the sage el a fiamma et ab inearm, tuta stmt, nallum iniroHum ^ratbint, 
ticeeUa, inexpttgnabilia, die aeqaa. 8 g 3 fortune, qnotUt cum virtaU 
eoKffretta est, numquampar ricessit. 22 iaoiabb 

jnonM to (ret under )( ti 207 208 of the patient husband uimmiUe caput 
eerviee parata \ ftrre ingnm. Tiii 

HAOTBTSi. in the school of life ['viith reference to the special nae of 
Tnagister OB a trainer.' J. 0.] cf. experientia attillortim magislra. Cio. 
Tnso. T g 5 of philosophy magiatra momm et diaciplinae. Sil. it 121. 

23—37 No day too aacrod to diaoorer thienea, treachery, embezale- 
ment, gain gotten by the dagger or the howl. Good men are scarce, 
scarce as gatea of Thebes or mouths of Nile. 'lia Botne'a ninth can- 
taij, Eiink below the iron age; Maturo's self, baffled, has no metal to 
express the baaeness of the timea. We cry to men and Rods for mercy, 
mth a din deafening as the applause sold to Faeeidiua for a dole. 
Dotard, know yon not the charms of a neighbour's gold? know yoanot, 
how the world flouts your innocence, who bid any man eschew perjury foi 
feai oE Bome aveugei watching in templea and blood-atained altars T 

23 Beq. 1 112 sag. quiu tau resTA 

n Suet. Tib. 61 nullua a poena Aaminnm 

Tel/u>«la. non enim tarn leati babeudi annt dies in qnibas haeo soaleia 


24 25 OMNI EX cBiMnnB LUOBUM QTTAEBtTTjM Nagelsbach § 30 2 (Weid- 

Ber). 25 puxide i 70 n. 158 n. 11 41 pyxide 

medicine box. vni 17 n. Cio. p* Gael. § 65 veneni pyxidem. Corvus 

was ridiculed for a sentence (in a controversia Sen. suas. 2 § 21 ' de ea 

quae apad matronas disserebatliberos non esse tollendos ') tTit^r pyxides 

etredoleniis animae medicamina constitit mitrata contio. Sen. ep. 95 § 18. 

ben. y 13 § 3 qtuiedam, etiarrm vera non sunt, propter similitridinem eodem 

vocabulo comprensa sunt sic pyxidem [properly of 60a;] et argenteam et 

tatream dicimus, id. ap. Lact. iii 15 § 13 of some philosophers, who need 

to apply their own rebukes of vice to themselves quos non aliter intueri 

deeet quam medicos, quorum tituli remedia hdbent, pyxides yenena. 

Plin. zxix § 20 of the medical profession quid enim yenenorum ferti- 

Ufa aut unde plures testamentorum insidiae f Hermas vis. 3 § 9 nolite 

rimles fieri malefi^is et malefi^i quidem venena sua in pixides [sic] 

hcAviUint, vos autem venenum vestrum et medicamentum in corde continetis, 

26 rhythm as 35. 225. rari boni Porphyr. 

Tit. Pythag. 42 maxim of Pythagoras, 'avoid the beaten path,' rAs Xe«- 

4t6povs fi^ padLptv (cf. Bittersh. p. 229 Kiessling. Matt. 7 13 14 the 

broad way). Theogn. 150. Bias in DL. i § 87 Menage <f>i,\€ip ws fuffi/i- 

(Torrar roi>j 7A/) irXelffTovi cTvat KUKoiis. Xen. Kyrop. 11 2 § 24. DL. 

VI §§ 27. 32. 40 41 Menage the lantern of Diogenes, and his frequent 

complaints that he could not find * men.* Sen. yit. beat. 2 § 1 cum de 

hata vita agetur, non est quod mihi illvd discessionum more respondeas : 

^ hue pars maior esse videturJ ideo enim peior est, non tarn bene cum 

rehts humanis agituTj ut meliora pluribus placeant: argumentum 

pessimi turba est. id. ben. 1 10 § 3 idem semper de nobis pronuntiare 

debebinmSf malos esse nos, malos fuisse, invitus adiciam et futuros 

esse. id. n. q. iv praef. § 19 with citations from Verg. Ov. Menander. 

id. ep. 42 § 1 the vir bonus is a phoenix, bom once in 500 years. Plut. n 

413<*. Plin. ep. viii 22 § 3 maxim of Thrasea qui vitia odit, homines odit. 

Hor. s. I 3 68 69. Lucian Tim. 25 Plutos complains that Zeus has sent 

bim, blind as he is, to find an honest man, dvaeuperov ovru XPVM-^ '^^^ ^P^ 

roXKoO iKXeXoiirbs iK rod ^iovy which even Lynkeus could not easily find, 

ifULvpbu ovrta Kal fiiKphv 6v, As then the good are few, and crowds of bad 

fill all the streets in the cities, I more readily Ught upon these latter in my 

roammgs. Philo i 84. 255. 316 M. Chiys. hom. 10 = 9 in Eom. (ix 

517'') iroXXotj Twv di'0pd>ir(ap, Kardi ttjv Trapoi/jdaVj dpiffxei rd x^^P^* 

Kal ravra alpovvrai, tA dfieivu) iraparp4xovT€s. Nagelsbach nachhomer, 

Theol. 322— -4. Aus. id. 16 1 2 vir bonus ac sapiens^ quale m vix 

repperit unum | milibus e multis hominum consultus ApoUo.'psineg. 

11 19 (259 17 B). 27 THEBABUM PORTAE Thebcs in Boeotia, called 

irrdirvXoi by Hom. II. ly 406. Od. xi 263. Hes. op. 162. scut. 49. The 

seven heroes each assailed a separate gate (Aesch. Th. Eur. Ph. 287. 

Ov. tr. II 320 septem portas sub du^e quamque suo). Book 3 pp. 251 — 

346 of Unger's learned paradoxa Thebana is * de Thebarum portis.' 

DiviTis XV 123. cf. its epithets 7rv/)o06/)oj, TridraTos, 
ybvifios, pinguiSf fecundus etc. ostia nili reckoning 

from W. to E. Plin. v § 64 the Canopic, Bolbitine, Sebennytic, Phat- 
nitic, Mendesic, Tanitic, Pelusiac. cf. Hdt. 11 17. Strabo 801. Mel. i 
9 § 9 (see Tzschucke v 316). Hence the epithets iiTTdiropos (Mosch. 2 51). 
septemplex (Ov. m. v 187). septemfiuus (ib. xv 753). septemgeminus 
(Oatull. 11 7. Verg. Stat.), septeno gurgite (CI. in Buf. 1 186. Luc). 

28 degeneracy of the age 1 147 — 150 n. xii 48 49. 
NONA AETAS (so p (o) the ninth century of the city (Borghesi 

■ 552 NONA AETA8. APPLAUSE IN COURT. [Xni 28— 33 

r2). nunc (P. JBtn) ia Tapid. 1 248 n. 249 n. Tarro 1. 1. ti S 11 
Haaoulam spaliuni annorvim centum vocarunt. Serv. eel. 4 5. Can* 
Borin. 17 S ^^ '"b writing in the tenth latculum. On the Etrusoaa doo- 
trina ol the world's agea Snid. 2iiXXai (=DCaaa. b. 103 Beltkec). Plat, 
Bulla 7. Berr. eol. 9 47 on 'Dioaaei OoeBBiriB astmm' Vukatius hant- 
$pex in eontioiu! dixit conuten aie, qai ligniflearel exitvia noni Baeonli 
It higrtatum dedmi. Tarro'a work df laecalii {Serv. Aen. Tm 526) il 
unhappily loat. Prcller liim. Myth.' 4TS — S. [' Oreswell ocigtnoa ItalicM 
Q 633.' J. 0.] cf. ind. s. v. nana. aeias haeculj 

FORiBca I 9 n. 29 soki.ebi si; 

Halm un Cic. p. Sest. S B6. Nagelshacl] g 17 1 (Weidner). 

30 UETALLO TI 23 34 omnt atiud i^imen max f< 
protalit aetaa \\ vidtrunt priToot argenteSi saeonla : 
AuDDrding to Heaiad thsre wure Sve agea : the goldi 
the ailTer (127—142), Iha brazen (Hi— 156), heroefl 
(156— 17S), the iron (174-201). Aratua mentiona thrte : the gulden 
fphaen. 100—114), the HilveT (US— 128), the brazen (12S(— 134) ; Ovifl, 
firar: the golden [m. 1 89— Ua), the silver (113—124), the brazen (125— 
127), the iron (127-1601. Claud. Liud. StiL ii 44S— 50 hie habilmt 
vaiio fasiem distinoia met alio I saecnla cerlaloeit: iUic glotne- 
rantar aena, { hie teirata rigenl, tUic argentea eandait; | tximia 
rtgione domai, eoMingere terrii \ dijicilei, liabant TuHli, graa auten^ 
unni. Serr. ect. 4 4 ultima Camaei venil iam canainii aetai : ' Bibyllini, 
qnaa Onmana fuit, et saeoula per metalla divisit : dixit etiun qnls 
quo Baeoolo imperoret et soUa oltimnm, id est decimnm, Tolnit.' Biln^ < 
122—86 Gist raoe; 87—103 aecocd; 104— 108 third ; 109— 119 fourth; 
ISO — 283 flfth, the giants, who refaee to repi^iit at Noah'a pTeoeluiig; 

283—305 sistli, golden or heavenly ; 3(i6— 31U Titans, ii 15 IB Sij rbrt «st 
ytrcTi icKir-fi i^crd Taira ^oteiToi | irBpiinrut, wljen the Thnnderer, -who 
ehakes the earth, shall break idolatry. 17 — 19 ^oiw re ru-djer | 'PiSji^ 
irTa\b^fiLO^ fityat Si re TrXouroT 6\eirai \ Sat^MryDi rypl n-oW^ {nrb ^Xoyit 
'H^IffTMo. (Here however the ientlt generation a.d. ia meant). There 
shall be war^ plaguea and dearths 161 162 u /i^a iEiXol | inTarl^t 
ytn^t tpwTet, Karotpy^i^, atvnL Maorob. oonun, a 10 § 6 who oaa 
believe that the world has existed for ever, remembering the late disoO' 
yeiy ot many arSa, even o( agricultnre, £umque ita exordium rcrura tt 
ipiiia httmanae natioaiiopinevfuT, ut ani6a priinaia fnisBS saecula 
oredamua, et inde natura per metalla viliora degenerans ferro 
HaeealapoBtremafoadaverit? HaiowiQ apology iv 3 § 1. 

31 BoUESiru DivuHQDE rinBii dUmmortala., obiecrv 
veetram Jid/m, di veilram fidem. taiim Jidem, Venat. pro deum alque 
hominumjidem (BrisBon da formulie 1 132. Tin 20 21). Plaut. Men. v 8 
4. aul. 297 — 9 quia divom atquo hominnm elamat oontinno 

Jamiii si qua exit forai. ib. 684 Wagner. Joined with aitziltum, cfun- 
tela; infidemaecipereete. Mtihlmann 276 277. 

'" nil 14 I 7 taodo Saguntain oppagnari indtgiualdo non ho- 

32 QOAuro i.e. taotOj q.nanlo iii 225. s 14 n. 

SchoL 'nt ostoodat Foesidium condiiatos habnisse. qui e 
magna voce landarant.' see Plin. cited on vii 44. 
38 Obbar. ii 3 87—89. Mart, vi 48 quod tam Krai 
imat tibi turba togata, | Don tu, Pomponi, cena i 



68i anih. Pal. Xi 394 ircirjTrjs reofdpiffToi dKrjOCas i<mp iKeivos, \ Sffris 
hiTplj^ei Toifi ojcpoaoajjutvovi. \ rjif 8' cufayLyyiixrK'g Kcd vrjaruLi otxade 
riforTHf I ^^^ avrdv Tpevina r^v ihlait fiavirfv, Gell. cited on 220. 


TnLiil28n. x 46 n. As it is only for the sake of the dole that the 
elients applaud, the dole itself is caUed vociferous, cf. iii 20 silva, 
xiy 14 eulina. x 45 n. officia. senior 17 n. see 

lezz. and Stat. s. in 3 4^6 a enioi placidiasime. 208. Pers. i 22 vetule. 

BULLA Y 164 n. XIY 5. The buUa was dedicated to 
the Lares on the assumption of the toga virilis. Prop. y=iy 1 131 132 
mx ubi bulla mdi dimissa est aurea coUo, { matris et ante deos 
Uhera sumpta toga. Pers. y 31 bu Hague siLccinctis Laribus donatapepeu' 
dit, YM. m 1 § 1 to AemiUus Lepidus a statua bullata et incincta 
fraetexta was set up in the capitol, because when a boy he had slain an 
enemy, saYed a countryman, schol. Cruq. on Hor. s. i 5 65. Becker 
Callus II 55. SENioB bulla diqnissime schol. * ex 

proverbio Graeco Sii iratSej ol yipovresJ* 34 yeneres 

oharms Sen. ben. u 28 § 1 ille non est mihi par virtutihus nee officiiSf sed 
habuit suam Yenerem. The plur. also in Quintil. (of style). 
36 Xen. anab. ii 6 § 22 the Thessalian Menon thought perjury, lying, 
fraud, the shortest way to his ends ; simpHcity and truth he held to be 
all one with folly. § 25 perjurers he feared as men well armed. 

PUTBT91. 37 75—89. 11149—153. TibuU. 

i3 51 52 timidum non me periuria terrent, | non dicta in sanc- 
tosinpia Yerba deos. . abae bubenti Pollux i 27 

aindffffeiy roi)s pwfiovs. The blood was poured on the altar from a Ycssel 
(atjii'^/iw) Eust. Od. ui 445. 

38^59 ^ s^ch honest sort liYcd the first-born of earth before 
Inppiter had driYcn Saturn, resigning his crown for a sickle, to fly for 
his life, while Juno was a girl and luppiter still liYcd in the nursery of 
Ida's caYCs, when as yet were no feasts in heaYcn, no Ganymedes or Hebe 
to fill the cups, no Vulcan when the nectar is racked off scouring his 
amis dingy ^om the smithy of Lipara. Each god dined apart, and the 
crowd of gods was less. The stars satisfied with few diYinities weighed 
but slightly on poor Atlas. Not as yet had the gloomy realm of the deep 
been by partition-treaty made OYer to one brother; grim Pluto as yet had 
no Sicilian wife ; Ixion*s wheel was not, nor Furies, nor stone of Sisy- 
phus, nor Yulture preying on Tityus ; the ghosts made merry, for they 
owned no king or queen of hell. Dishonesty was a portent in that age, 
when it was counted a deadly sin not to rise before your elders, though 
you might boast more strawberries or larger hoards of acorns. Such 
reverence was accorded to four years' precedence. *And children, in the 
springing down, revered | the sacred promise of a hoary beard.' With the 
scoffing tone cf. 1 10 n. 84 n. 38 indigenae 

o^bxOovei Aen. yiii 314. On the golden age when Satmn ruled in 
heaven, cf. sat. yi 1 — 24. Verg. eel. 4 6. g. 1 125—8. ii 536—540. Aen. 
Tin 319— 325. Tibull. i 3 35— 50 Broukh. Prop. iii = ii 32 52 hie mot 
Saturno regna tenente/mt. Oy. her. 4 131 — 3 ista vettis pietas, aevo 
noritura futuro^ \ rustioa Saturno regna tenente fuit. \ luppiter 
em pium statuit, quodcumque iuvaret. Aetna 9 — 15. Preller rom. Myth. ^ 
408—418, who accepts Varro's deriYation from satio {Saetumi pocolom is 
found in an inscription ; thence Satumus). Marquardt iy 10. 15. Praises 
of earlier times sat. iii 67 n. 137 seq. 312. iy 103. y 57. 110. yi 1—20. 
is. 164. 287 — 91. 342 — 6 et quis tunc hominum oontemptor numi- 


nisTetc. vn 207— 12. vra 12. 98 99. x 79. xiv 160— 89. 239. er, 
of country life m 2. 190^2. 223—31. vi 65. x 299 n. xi 143—16 

39 BiADEMATE Yiu 259 11. Aetna 9 av/re^ 
securi quis nescit saecula regis? falcem Yerg. ^ 

n 406 curvo Saturni dente. Ov. t i 233 — 6 where falcifer, v 627'. 
Ibis 214. Mart, xi 6 1. Macrob. Sat. i 7 § 24 Jan ' Janus ordered that 
Saturn should be worshipt as the founder of a better life, of which the 
sickle, borne by his statue, is an emblem.' cl 8 § 9. The sickle fell to 
earth in Sicily ; hence its fertility (ib. § 12). cf. Ap. Bh. iv 984. Pausan. 

VII 23 § 4. Arn. iii 29 Hildebrand procreatorem deorum vitisatorem f al- 
cif erum. Aug. civ. Dei vii 19. de cons, evang. i § 34 of Saturn nonne 
ipsis ostendit agriculturamf quod fa Ice demonstrate Schwegler i 223 — 5. 
comm. on Fulgent, myth, i 2 p. 628 Staveren. The falx is also an attri- 
bute of Priapus Verg. Tib. Ov. 40 batubnus 
FUGiENS Aen. viii 319 %20 primus ah aetherio venit Saturn us Olympo, | 
arma lovis f ugiens et regnis exul ademptis. 

41 PBivATus 1 16 n. )( imperial, add to lexx. Tac. xi 31 where )( imperii 
potens. id. h. i 49 fin. of Galba maior privato visits, dum privatus 
fuit. Suet. Aug. 28. Phn. ep. ii 1 § 2. Eutr. i 9. 11. vii 16. 17. 19. 

VIII 1 saying of Trajan talem se imperatorem esse privatis, quales esse 
sibi imperatores privatus optasset 8. ix 13 fin. 27. 28. x 2. 6. 

PBIVATUS ADHUC lUPPiTER XII 107. VI 14 — 16 multa pudici' 
tiae veteris vestigia forsan | aut aliqua exstiterint vel sub love, sed love 
nondum | barbato. idaeis iuppiteb antbis Ap. Bh. 

Ill 132 — 4 the beautiful toy of Zeus, which his dear nurse Adrasteia made 
for him avrpip ev 'Idalcp in, vfiina Kovpi^ovra. Markland * expressum 
videtur ex Ap. Bh. i 508 509 6<t>pa Zej>s in ippeal vrivia eldibs \ Aiktuiop 
paLeffKev virb ffirios.^ Glaud. 4 cons. Hon. 197 ab Idaeis primaevits 
luppiter antris. idaeis the Cretan Ida (xiv 271. Aen. in 

104 105. Ov. met. viii 99 lovis incunabula Creten. id. amor, m 10 
20), not the Phrygian Prop. iv = iii 1 27 Idaeum Simoenta lovis. 
Jahn's Florus p. xlii 1. 15 Creten, patriam tonantis. schol. Ap. 
Bh. Ill 134. Steph. Byz. 2/c^^tj. 42 convivia 

46 n. 1 141 n. 43 pueb iliacus v 59 n. 

IX 47. X 171 n. From Ov. tr. n 405 406 hue Herculis uxor, | hue 
accedat Hylas Iliacusque puer. Cic. Tusc. i § 65 non enim ambrosia 
decs aut nectare awtluventa tepoculaministr ante ia6toriar6itror, 
nee Homerum audio, qui Ganymeden ab dis raptum ait propter 
formam, ut lovi bibere ministraret : non iusta causa cur La^m^- 
donti tanta fieret iniuria, fingebat haec Homerus et humana ad deos 
transferebat ; divina mallem ad nos, cf. n. d. i § 112. Mart, ii 43 13 14 
grex tuv^ Iliaco poterat certare cinaedo : \ at mihi succurrit pro Gany- 
mede maniw. Hom. II. XX 232 — 5 avW^eos Tavv/x'n 5ris, \ ds Si) KdWia- 
Tos y4v€T0 Ov7jt(ov dvdpiliTTwv I rbv KoX dvrjpeixJ/avTo Oeol Ad ohoxoeveiv J 
KdXXeos cttfCKa oh, Iv dQavdroiai. fiereirj. Serv. Aen. i 28. Lucian dial 
deor. 4 and 5. herculis uxob Hom. Od. xi 602 603 
of Herakles aOrbs dk fier* ddavdroiffi dediinv \ T^pireTai iv OaXiTjs Kal ixet 
KaWi<r<pvpov"E.^rjv. II. iv 2 3 /lerd 5i o-^tcrt Tr&rvia "TLprj \ viKTap icfi- 
voxoei. Ov. Pont. 1 10 11 12. , 44 ad cyathos 
Prop. v=iv 8 37 Lygdamus ad cyathos. Auson. idyll. 12 *de histor.* 
19 Stat lovis ad cyathum, generat quern Dardanius Tros. Hand 
(Turs. 1 120 seq.) compared Aen. ix 648 ad limina custos. Liv. xxxrv 
6 § 13 servos ad remum. et 55. xv 125 n. nee would 
be more regular, but it is not necessary. Ov. m. x 92 nee tiliae mollet 


^fagus et inniiba launu, ib. in 492 Barman. Obbar in Pbilologus 
^ 162. Aen. iv 236 Forbiger. Hand TurseU. 11 499. 636. 

lAH 8I0CAT0 NECTABE [** Comparing in Forcell. or Frennd tbe medical 
^ of sicco ; and exsiccatus in Cicero as explained by Forcell. and com- 
pared by bim with what precedes ; from which it seems that the word means 
'to do away with the bad humours in the blood and body/ and hence is 
metaphorically applied to other similar effects, I cannot help thinking 
the scholiast explains these words rightly * exsiccato faecolento, aut 
liqnefacto (nectare):' 'after he has first racked off/ 'cleared away the 
dregs of the nectar/ and prepared it for drinking, the Spanish * seco* 
and oar 'dry' applied to sherry is not less curious, though the force is 
different." H. A. J. M.]. 44 45 tergens bracchia 

in Homer when visited by Thetis H. xvni 414 cnrdYYV 5* dfJL</>l vpoa-ujira 
Kol dfi^ia xct/)* dirofjLopyvv. It was only by way of exception that he 
acted as cup-bearer (II. i 696 — 600) and provoked inextinguishable 
langhter in Olympus. 45 bbacchia lipabaea 

KiORA tabebna X 130 — 2. Stat. s. i 5 6 7 regemque corusci \ ignis adhuc 
fessum Siculaque incude rubentem. YFl. ii 96. Lucian deor. dial. 
5 § 4 Hera having cast Gan3rmedes in the teeth of Zeus, he retorts : 
' I suppose your son Hephaestos ought to pour out our wine, limping, 
still aU over sparJssfrom the forge, just after he has laid aside the tongs ; 
and from those his fingers we ought to take the cup, and draw him to us 
now and then for a kiss, whom even you his mother would not care to 
loss with his face all begrimed with the soot.' Hera replies § 6 ' now 
Zens, Hephaestos is lame, and his fingers unworthy of your cup, and he 
is covered with soot, and you sicken at the sight of him, since Ida bred up 
for us rbv KaXbv KOfir)Trjv tovtov. but you used not to see all this, nor did 
the ashes or the forge prevent you from drinking at his hand.' ib. 15 § 1, 
where Hermes asks Apollo how this limping smith has married the 
fairest of the fair. Aphrodite and Charis. ' It is luck, Hermes.' Claud, 
rapt. Pros, ii 174 176. lipabaea i 8 n. x 132. VFL ii 96. Kallim. 

Dian. 46 seq. Theokr. ii 133 134 Aiirapalu)..*UpalaToio. Strabo 276 cl. 
246. 46 pbandebat sibi quisque )( 42 convivia, 

Quintil. VI 3 § 16 sibi ludentium, turba deorum 

Cie. n. d. ii § 84 nwmgnts...d€orMm...innumerabilis. Plin. ii § 16 
maior caelitum populus etiam quam hominum intoUegi po- 
test, cum singuli qiwqne ex semetipsis totidem deos faciantj lunones genios- 
t^adoptando sihL Petron. 17 nostra regio tarn praesentibus plena esi 
nnminibus, ut facilius possis deum quam hominem invenire. 
Sen. ep. 110 § de superstitione fr. 33 Haase (in Aug. civ. Dei vi 10) quid 
tfgo tandem f veriora tibi videntur T. Tatii aut BomuH aut Tulli Hostilii 
fomniaf Cloacinam Tatius dedicavit deam, Picum Tiberinumque Romu- 
iw, Hostilius Pavorem atque Pallorem^ taeterrimos hominum adfectus, 
quorum alter mentis territae motus est, alter coiporis ne morbus quidem sed 
color: haec numinapotius credes et caelo recipies? fr. 39 omnem istam 
ignobilem deorum turbam, quam longo aevo longa superstitio 
eongessit, sic adorabimus, ut m>eminerimus cultum eiuA magis ad morem 
<pi(im ad rem pertinere, Aug. ib. ni 17 § 3 fin. tantae numinum tur- 
bae diu frustra fuerat supplicatum. iv 8 quaeramus, si placet, ga; tanta 
deorum turba, quam Rom^ni colebant, quem potissimum vel quos deos 
credant illud imperium dilatasse atque servasse. In this one ch. he names 
Cloacina, Yolupia, Lubentina, Yaticanus, Cunina, Busina, lugatinus, 
CoUatina, Vallonia, Segetia, Tutilina, Proserpina, Nodutus, Volutina, 
Patelana, Hostilina, Flora, Lactumus, Matuta, Buncina (here Aug. re- 

TDBBA DEOBtlM. BEGES. [Xm 46—53 


e ontnia eommemoro, qvia vw pig'l food illo! non pjidet), iSea 
plooe one portiir at the gate, tt quia homo riC, omniTio tiiJficU: tret dtot 
itti poMMmnt, Foreiduia fonbvt, Cardeaja cardini, LimetUiman livma. 
ita nun poterat Fornuhn eimal it cardinem limenque snrarc. lert HpoL 
10 nunc ergo p<r linguloa decurram. tot ao tantoa, aovoi, vetem, bar- 
baroi, GTOtBoi. Eomanoa, peregrinoi, capliroi, adopHvoi, proprioi, eota- 
munri, majundot, ftmiiuui, nutieo!, nrbanoi, nauticoa, siilitareit ib. 
Jim. Ill B8. IT eap. 3 qiiod mibU oatervltH ignoloram alias indue; 
deorum, exittimare nan posmimit, vtrwane w(ud lerio atqne ex r« eem- 
pertae faeiatit jide an fictionibiu judenfn ca»ta ingtmorum Uaeiviatii per 
luzum. Piud. 0. Sjmm. n S43— GT e.g. ted qvia Momanii laqmmar dt 
cattibtu, ipiuM | lanpuinii Htctorei populum prabo, tempore lemgo | non, 
mnltiiB colniflSB decs larisqae Baoellia [ oouteatam paasaa 
poBuisBB in dollibtia aras. Majqnardt ir 18. 38. 41, 82—93. BoiadeK 
la laligiiin lomaine d'Augnate am AntoiuDB {Paris 1874 3 vols) book ii 
a. 2 'lea religions etiimgeres' (i ST4— 460). Friedlander m' 444— S& 
Tliere may be a aarcastic allusion to the comteratio prtncipum, but chiefly 
to (Lunian Icoromen. 27) rsh lUTolKavt toutovs xal B/i^i^Xout Bcoii, the 
Kofybantes, Attis, Sabazioe, Isie, Osiiis, Anabia, Serapis etc. id. Inpp, 
ttag. 7- 13 {where Hermes proposes to make proclamation b^ aigne to tha 
gods, as be ia nut linguist enough to make himaelf uttdorBtood bj 
'Skjtbians and Fereiuna and Tbiakiaiii and £elts'). id. deomm oon- 
ulium e.g. 9 aeq. 14 15 speeoh of Momoa against the new oomeiB : Mitblaa 
whoknowe no Greek; the dog-faeaded Anubis; the eteer Apie; there ia 
already a scarcity of nectar and ambrosia ; he proposes a oonuniMioa of 
seven eitahlished gods to siamine the ciedimtiBiB of all the gods, cfi 
Sen. apocol 9. Lubeck AgL 636. 48 itTLUtxt viu 32. Aen. it 247 
Atlantis dari caelum qui vertide lulcit. Hes. th. 517. ^gin. 
(s,b. ISO. 49 rBoFcimi the sea echol. (vboHe view 

ia oonfirmed b; aliquh of. 1 171 n. and aiii) ; others ^ena probably, unless 
indeed with Hertzberg we omit aul, el. Hor. c. m 4 46 Tegnaque triatitt) 
'the abjBa' = bell. 50 aut the negatioii 

is Harried on cf. Verjt. g. iv 9 — 11 Tteque...neque.,,aut. B, Jahnaon 
(Bentley's enentj) additluDS to the grammatical conun. (Nottingham 
n. d.) praef. has man; en. from Goes. Hor. luatin. Hand i Sii seq. 
So in verse SI. eicrri,! ecu: coNinos Froaerpiuk 

(z 112), who having been carried ofl by rinto from the fields ol Henoa 
(Claud. iapt._Pros. Ov.J. iv 421 aeq.) ia named Mennaea (SU. Iv 34S) 
" ' " 51 Laoiaii 

paxv <'vn^p6- 
£OTi IxioniH. 

Son. ep. 24 § IS non sam lam inepiia, ut Epicurean canlileaam hoe loco 
perseqaiiT el dicam vaiuii ate injerorum melia neo Iiionem rota volvi 
nee eaxiim nmeriB Sisyphi trudi in adversum neo ulUna 

Cerberum timeat. fokub Lucr. in 1011 Munro. Aen, 

VI 570—2. BOB- 7. buuk oI Sisyphus or Tontolua lb. 

fi02 603 Heyne. wltobib iiBi of Tityua ib. E96— 600. 

Hor. 0. in 4 77—9 inconHnentis nee Tityi iteur | Tiliqiiit atea Bejwttta* 
addilue ] cuttoa. Sen. Thyest. 9 10 aut poena Tityi, qui ipeiM tiatto 
patem \ visceribiu atras paicit effoitil avei. 

62 BBoiBos Lncian de Inatu 6. king and queen zi 105 n. Drakenb- on 
Liv. 1 89 g 2 and u 2 fin. Liv. ravii 3 §§ 9 10. Sen. cons. Mare. 19 g 4 
cogita nvUii df/vnclum malis adjici, ilia quae noUa inferos faciant terri- 


biles, fahulam esse^ nulUu inminere mortuis tenebras nee carcerem nee 
Jlumina igne fiagrantia nee oblivionU amnem nee tribunalia et reos etin 
ilia libertate tarn laxa nllos iterum tyrannos. luserunt ista 
poetae et vanis nos agitavere terroribus, 

53 iNPROBiTAs ADMiBABiLis )( 62 prodigiosa fides, 
55 AssuRBEXERAT Levit. 19 82. Hdt. II 80. Aristoph. nub., 994. Xen. 
mem. ii 3 § 16. Cio. Cat. mai § 63 (and from him YM. iv 5 £ § 2). 
Cic. invent, i § 48 commune est, quod homines vulgo probarunt et secuti 
sunt, huius modi: litmaioribns natn assurgatur. Sen. de ira ii 21 
§ 8 longe itaque ab adsentatione pueritia removenda est. audiat verum et 
timeat interim, vereatur semper, maioribns adsargat. Sulla (Pint. 
II SOe*") used to rise before the young Pompeius and uncover. Tac. iii 
31 A.D. 21 JDomitius Corbulo praetura functus de L, Sulla nobili iuvene 
miestus est apud senatum, quod sibi inter spectacula gladiatorum loco non 
aecessisset. pro CorbuUme aetas, patrius mos, studia seniorum 
erant....memorabantur exempla maiorum, qui iuventutis irrever- 
ent i am gravibus decretis notavissent, Capitolin. Maximini 28 ( = Maxi- 
xnin. iun. 2) adulescens autem ipse Maodminus superbiae fuit insolentis- 
sinuie ita ut etiam, cum pater suu^ horrio crudelissimus plerisque honoratis 
adsurgeret, ille resideret. Ael. n. a. vi 61. Winer Bealworterb. Alter. 
Schwartz on Plln. pan. 54 § 2 p. 240. Lips, electa i 10. ii 3. lexx. 
assurgo. It was usual to rise at the approach of a magistrate (Becker 
rom. Alt. II (2) 74. 76. Liv. ix 46. Suet. Caes. 78). On the reverence 
for old age in early times, see vii 209 (teachers). Gell. ii 16. VM. ii 1 § 9. 
Ov. f. V 66 — 70. Plin, ep. Yiii 23 § 3 nam qu^tus quisque vet aetati 
alterius vel auctoritati ut minor cedit ? et si supply njon assur- 

rexerat. 56 cuicumque = cuilibet x 369 n. 57 money 

did not then make the man, as now iii 140. 207 — 212. In the Gt)lden Age 
Ov. m. 1 102 — 6 per se dabat omnia tellus : \ contentique cibis nullo cogente 
creatis | arbuteos fetus montanaque fraga legebant \ quae deciderant 
jpatula lovis arbore glandes. Plin. xxi § SQ fraga among the few herbae 
sponte nascentes used for food in Italy though verius oblectamenta quam 
cibos. cf. Sen. Hippol. 616. glandis vi 10. 

XIV 184 n. Lucr. v 1415. Verg. g. i 148. ['ib. rv 81 sing, as a noun 
of multitude.' J. C] culex 134—6. Ov. f. iv 399—402. Plin. vii § 191 
Ceres frum^nta [invenit], cum ante glande vescerentur. id. xvi § 15 
glande opes nunc quoque multarum gentium. ..constant, cf. 
Miihlmann. 59 adeo so entirely equal 183. 

60 — 70 As the world is now, if a friend does not forswear a trust, if 
he restores the old money-bag with all its rust, 'tis a portent of honesty, 
worthy of record in the Etruscan calendar, needing a lamb's blood to 
expiate it. Shew me a man pure and upright, and I stare as at some 
freak of nature, at a child half-man, half-brute, at fish found beneath 
the wondering plough, at a mule with foal ; startled as at a shower of 
stones, a swarm of bees clustered on a temple's roof, or at a river 
running with milk. Marquardt iv 361 — 9. As here virtue is a portent, 
80 vice II 121 — 3 o proceres, censor e opus est an haruspice nobis} \ 
scilicet horreres maioraque monstra putares, | si mulier vitu- 
lum vel si bos ederet agnum? 

60 SI DEPOSITUM NON iNFiTiETUR AMICUS Ter. Ph. 65 56 Davus repays 
Geta what he owes; Geta thanks him. Davus: praesertim ut nunc sunt 
mores: adeo res redit: \ siquis quid reddit, magna habendast 
gratia. Cio. de or. i § 168 infitiator. Mart. 1 103 11 in ius, o fallax 
af^tie'infitiator, earmis, Sibyll. ii 278 i^b* 6iro<roi Tlareis re dirfjpvj' 

lUV. I[. 17 

oXb^i^h. Sen. de ifB cited 135 n. 61 con tot* 

aiNK FOLLDU nist and all. Bohul. ' aeria Titinm aerngo diuitur, feni 

I Tubigo.' Erasmus comparGS Fluut, Tiuc pi. 19 gun cttiua rent ai eu 

flum-al oum pulvisauio. id. rud, 815. el. ind. urr. tolleb ht 281 n. 

I 52 FBODiaiosA a. pcudig;, forebodins Bome miefortaDO 

• and needing to ba expiated (prociiran). LiTy KpologiBsa for the iosertion 

of prodigiea in hia hiatoty i;liii 13 § I nan luin tuieitu, ab eadeia neg- 

Itgentia, qua nihil deoi portendtre valgo nunc eredani, neqne nuntiari 

admodam nulla prodigia in publimim neque in annaiei Teferii. and lav. 

(here and u 121 — 1S8| speakB Bcoffinglj' on the eubject. They were veiy 

freqitentl; observed in uie second Punic war (Liv. xm 1 SS ^ — ^< ntv 

10 gg 6—13. XXVI 33 gg 1 whiiiii ma? bo cumpoied with luvenara list}. 
, rtcBciB from the Tuscans the Bomana borrowed 

almost all ceremoniBOH of reUgi™ or state (t 164 n. i 35 n. 38 n. 

11 155 a. Sohwegler 1 1177 278) eap. ospiaUona Liv. 1 34 § 9 of Tamt- 
qaii (aat. vi 566) perita at Tulgo Etrnaoi, oaelaatiuin prodigi- 
OTum muiitr. ib. 56 g Scum adjiubiina prodigia Etrusol tanttan vatei 
adkiberentur. id. T 15 g 1 hotlibtu Etrutcii, ptr quo* ea [prodigia] pro- 
cwarent, haruspiea nan trant. xxvn S7 g B- VM. 1 1 the ancients were 
BO leligiouB ut Jlorentiiiima turn el opiiUnliteinia civitate dfccm priacipma 
filii itnatut comullo tingiilie Etrariae populis peTCipitlldat laero- 
rum diicipliitae gratia traderentur. Cio. de divin. i ^ 3. 3S. 92. n g 75. 

I n. d. II g 10 Davies. Catil. 3 g 19. de legg. ii g 31 prodigia, poi- 

I £truiiaequB pcincipee dieciplinam dooeto. gilibm divit eretX' 

L rinC, procitnaiio idemqne fulgara alaur, obitita piaiUo. harasp. Tesp. 

I gg la SO. 25. 37. Lacon i 584~S38~a tail aocouut of a luitralio. OeU. 

ir i. Claud, iu Eutr. 1 12 -SS. disni this 

general term ma; iuclnde : worth; to be recorded among the portenta in 

» annals (Scbwegler i 7 — 13) ; worth; of a special treatment, with Epecia] 

remediee, in teohnioal treatiecE ; reqairing the study of such traatiaea, 
for its interpretation and expiation. i.nmi.i.iii 

the Etnucoram icripla (Cic. harpap. resp. g 22), Etrmcoritm libri hanu- 
picini tt falgwales (de divin. t g 72], chartae Etrmcae (ib. §20): Elnacae 
ditcipUnae volvmina (Flin. u g 199. cf. g 1S8. x g 37 illaetrated woilis). 
Ln(7. Tl 86. 381 Munro. Sen. n. q. ii S2 § 2 T\acoa, quibut tutmaa tut 
fklguTwn peneqiiejidonim ecientia , All these worha ptofeaaed to contain 
the doctiinea of Tagei Cio. de divin. ii § 50 p. 378 seq. Crenzei. Ot- m. 
I XV SfiS— 9. Am. n 62. Ammiaa. xvii 10 g 2. Uacr. in 7 g 2 Ian liber 

L Targvitii Cranicriptiu ex oatentario Tusco. v 19 g 13. Festna 

I ritnalea p. 28S a 25 M. Serv. Aen. i 2. 42. in 537. viu 398. MftUer 

I Etiusker ii 22 esq. 280 acq. Marquoj^lt iv 363. Forbigcr u 128. Ood. 

' on Cic. ep. p. 143. 63 corohata aqma xii 118 o. 

' Eur. lA. 1477. 1513 both the aacrifcera and victims vcere crowned; 

[ Plin. xvig9. Aota 14 13 Wetstein. Ov. m.ivlSl. Tertoll. cor. 10 fin, 

I ipiae hoatiaa et arar, ipgi miniitri ac lacerdota eoruia corona 

Imaian eacrif. 12. Prudent, psych. 30. apoth. 463. periat. s 1022. 
TbbIz. L;k. 627. Winer KealwOrterb. Krdnzc. OpfiT (p. Idl) n. 3). Pas- 
I cualiuB de coronia L.B. 1681 p. 200 aeq. Minnc. 37 g «. 61 65 EnsE- 

I oiDii viBOH MOKBTBCM Cic. de divlu. II g 61 ri, guod raro fit, id por- 

I Ionium patandum tit, aapientem ease poitentum est. eatpiui emn 

I mulam peperiBse arliitror, q-naraaapir-Ktemfuiau. 

nuKHBiu Liv. XXVII 11 g 5 cnm clephanti capite puerum natum. 
ILI 21 g 12 bioepe puer. Cic. tie divin. i g !21. BimevthHc ia applied 

(II Oi liifomtQB humiiium partai. 
Very. g. u 82 of the grafted troa miratun 
apoBia. Aen. viii 91 93 mirantur ft uiufuf, | 
Knui. Ov. amor, ii 11 1 of the Argo mirantibua afquoria undii. 8iL 
1498 Dr. Aiuruo Lir, xlii 2 g 5 in Oallicu agro, jua induce- 

rrturaratruin, tvh txiitnOibiu glebii pieces emeraitie. Theophraatm 
iprake of certain kinds of &sh, wbich had 'been dug up in FapMu^nia 
nd elsewhere i 825 Schneider. Plin. ix §g ITS — 8. Atlatat. mir. e.ose. 
n saq. Beckmann. Sen. n. q. iii 16 % 5 — IT g 3 inde, u( Theophrattui 
effimat, pisoes quibusdam looia ernuntnr. ntuICa hoc loco libi in 
MmtnN Dcniunt, quat tirbant ut in re incredibili dieai ; non cum Tetiliiu 
RlifHftn avt cum hamit,!ed cam dolabra ire piieaiuni,..hi runt quifabulai 
pUanl, piscemvivere posse sub terra et effodi, non capir Ou 
the significance of these diseoveries see Lasanli die Geologic dec Gr. u. 
fiomer (Stadien Begenab. 1854) 1 6. Eudoios in SMabo 6112 oO'i. 

66 FETAE MuiJE Hdt. Ill 151 §? 3 4 ' yoQ will tttke oh, when 
mnleabeat jounn'i so said a Babj-loniaii o(5Stt>ii ^^Trlfiji" ov ii/tisvoe Ttxiii: 
ib. 163 g 1. vu 57 § 3. Liv. ixvi 23 § 5. ixitii 3 § 3. Plin. Tin g 173 
oise7Ta£uin...inalaa non parere. est in annalibas noatria pepar- 
isBBBaepo, rerum prodigii loco habit um. Arifit. mir. aasc. 70 p. 
143 Beokinann. Aal. u. a. ni 10 Jacobs. Snet. Oalba i avo...su7nmTBn 
ud itntm imperiuin poriendi familiae retjiDjiiKm e»t. et illc irrideru 
'fonc' intuit ' cnia mnla pepererit.' nihil aeq\ie pi^iiea Gaibam ietap- 
InUcm ro nocai confirmavit quani mnlae partus, celeriaijueTitobaeenum 
ottenfmn aiharrentibiu, loliu pro laetiaeimo acctpit. cf. DCoss. lxiv 1 £ 3. 
nut. ploc. phil. T 14 ' whf are mulea sterile J' Aug. de doetr. Christ, u 
i S6 fin. muUi mulHi humanit luapilionibm, ga<ai regulariter eoidfetata, 
litlerU mandaverant, ti forte iiaoliu acciderint, tamqwm si mula 
pATiat, ant faltaint aliqiiid persiitiatuT. 9 CTural modern natmalistB (in 
Beekmann and Jacobs) allow the credibility of theae accounts. Berg: 't 
remember the late famous Link saying in his lectures, tliat be had seen 
in Portngal a mule which liad foaled.' 

67 tuiFlDEB Anasagoraa piBdiotsd the day on which a stone fpll from the 
snu J soma such stones were worshipt PUn. ii §g 140 150. of. iiii § 2. 
IdT. »cvi 33 g S. xssn 45 g 8. inn H g 4. -axn 37 S 3. ixxvui ae g 4. 
xzQxaagS. xmSH' xiJVl8§6eto. Clnod, iaEutr. iC lapidum 
dims hiemes. Such a phenaoienoa was expiated. Iiy a noeenditiU 
racfi/icium. See any cyclopaedia s.r. aeroHle. 

68 iXAHEs APinx FUd. XI g 66 of bees ostanta faciunt privata ae piA- 
fico, ava dependmte tn domibus templis^ue, lacpe eirpiata magniii 
evtntibiu. Bees on the lips of the infant Plato were an omen of hie 
doqnence ; bees in the camp of Drasus, before a victory ; haudgjiaquam 
per^tlm hamtpicnm conieclura, qui dinim id osleitlan txiaiimant sevqier. 
id. Tni g 158 a ewarm on the mane of Dionjaina' horse. 8il. Tm 697 
Heins, Cic. haiasp. rrsp. % 25. de divin. i § 73 a swarm on a horse'a 
mane an omen of success to DionTsius. Aen. tu 64—70. Liv. zn 46 g 3 
Weisaenbom. iirr 10 g 11. hvu 23 g 2. iirv 9 g 4 (wasps). Tae. hi 
64 eiamen apinm. Luc. vn 161. VM. i 6 g 12. Flor. it 2 g 46 
Freinaheim. Pint. Dion 24. App. b. c. u 68 fin. DCaaa. lx 35 S 1. 
Capitol. Antonin. 3. Amm. mn 3 g 1. On the gen. apiujii cf. Serr. 
Aen.i430. Drak. oQ Liv. IV 33 §4. OT.m.x>3S3. Voss de arte g 
IT 4 14 p. 636 Eokat. Frennd. b.t. eap. Ueuo i' 269. 
XTTt. to ol bees Verg. g. rr 568 nvam demitUre ramii. Serving ', 

liTae, id est botrjouis, definere ; quod Oroeci ^arpuiiv [Horn, ] 


I 260 

tlVi. SHO'WXB OP MILE. PEBJUET. [Xffl 68—78: 

I] dionnt.' Colnra. a fl S 7 animadrrTliio, an tatiim examea in tpreUm 
u UTae deptitdeat. In Greg. Tnr. gbr. mart. 1 104 (837* Paris 169fl) 
ava ia the bmioh, gTaita tba grapes : de aente, quae erat proxinta UTam 
pendentem adiairalar, de guit grauia in m coufeisoris txpreaiia, pau- 
bdam teniar refociUalut erectits eat. 69 cni,iiran 

SELDBBi cf. Liv. ZLiv ID g H LanuvH in uede iniax Sofpitae luaonit 
torcot nidum fecisie. 70 uctib Plin. 11 g 147 

in inferiore eatla rclatiim in moniiiamla est laota H languine pluviiie. 
Lit. xxvn 11 § 6. sxnv 4S g 7 TomtiaUtm eslHaie s.mai lac fluxiesc. 
Heyns opnsc. ni SS5 2 66. 

71 — 66 "^1^ complain that yonr 10,000 Besleices have been em- 
bezzled by frand and perjaiy ; nhat if your nejghboai have last twtmtj 
times that smn confided nithant vitnees (arcana) ; another, a, yet largBF 
amount, for which the "ids cbest, paoked iu every comer, aearce had 
room ? So eas; is it to slight heaven's nitneaa, if no mortal eye is upon 
an. See, with what a set look sad hold tone he denies the tmst. By 
Sol'a beama he sweara and the bolts of Tarpeiao love, by Mara' javeliu, 
aod the shafta ol Cirra'a seer, by Diana's arrows and quiver, hy thj 
harpoon, Neptane aire of the Aegean ; be throws in the bow al Heronles 
and Minerva's lance, the whole artillery atored in the arsenal ol heaven. 
If he be a father, he invokes on himself the doom of Thvestea : ■ If I bod 

the money, be my mea 

my sen 

E head, boiled, sonsei 

with Enyptian 


71 FB 

ACHE without this an action would not 

lie against the di:potitari 

a Gains 

11 % SOT is. apud quern 

rei depoaita ett. 

euttodiam non 

praestat, t 


t, si quid ipse 



A IB. 


LE the chest (i 90 n. s 

1 Se n.) flllfld in. 

every ciaimy. 

™ EST 1X43 4* 

Jaoile et pr 

Stat. V 3 141 ait pr 

onum Ticis.a 

domi. Lno. vi6l9 620p 

QttoUera. see lexx. 

Sil. XIII 185. 

144^6 inres licet et Samothraeam | 

nlmina pauper! c 
Ti342— 6 e.g. sedoH 

oditnr atqne 

U tune homing 




Hor. ep. I 16 67-63 Obbar. Pen. 

nS— iO. Sen 

. ep, 10 g 5 cited x 2 

S9 n. id. ben. Ti 38 S 

5 Dmniiwn lami% 

iitanim tam n. 

ta sunt vat 

a qiMBt 1 

npnnita. deniqae ee 

quisqm oontnllU 


et inupkial, quid la. 

dim oplorml; 

qiuxm imilla 

unt vota, 

uae etia 

m «M fateri pudet! 

quam panoa, 

ate poa 

imus I Lueian Tiroon 2 a periniei 

would sooner 

iring wick than Hj^ toC toi-So 

^Xiya. Tert 

apol. 2S G 

tina de 

nique apud vos pe 


Minno. Fel. 29 g fi. 
Marquardt iv 80 complaints of the decay of religion from Catull. Prop. 
Lit. DH. Grangaeua 'nostratea esomplo peasiino, cam aliquod crimen 
Tolnnt patrate, iudicum metn cetenti : Sije n« craignait autre, que DUn.' 


35 § 4 lantum licentiae pravia ingeaiie adicil ilia fiducia, quia enitB 
Hoiet ? Ubbor 1. 1. p. 324. 77 ficti iionbUbtU 

Tai.TOB Ov. am. v 4 70 eras mi'ii conatanti voce dediste nfga, 

78—83 of. Ihe inveiitoriea in Ov. amor, iii 3 37—80 
nhere he complains that the gods mak at perjury in the fair; if meu 
forswear tbemselTee, their weapons are at once bnay nobis fali/ero 
Mayors accingitur enae: | nos ptUt invicia Palladia haata nuinu. { 
ir Apollinie arena: | fn nos alta lovia dexlim 

tiabfl. Lno, tn 145—160 non aliler FhUgra rabidns lolUnU 
lliffanlei [ Martias incahiit Siculu immdibut ensis [ Ft rubuit Jlammii 
ileram Neptania ouspis ] spiaulaguc txtnuo Paenn fi/thoiie 
Ticoxil, I Fallae GorgoTuot difudit in aegida cHntu, \ Pallenea lovi 
mutarie falmina Cgclopi. Tespne indioinm eoai (ODlbiil. I'J'J B) 11 
miminaper Ctrerit iaro, per ApolliniB aroas, 

78 on the iDOBt nsual adjiuatioiig see BrisBoa de 
foTm. Tin 11 Beq. TutPKii iii 6. Sil. svit 2G7, 

FCLUiHAin 145. Flin. iiS31aIif in Capitolio/aifunf airfulmiiiHBteiii 
[leierant lovem. Zfi>i Spnai bore tbaailerbalta in either band (Pan* 
am. T 21 a 9). cf. Aen. nn 200. 79 jRAMEiJi Tac 

ri. 6 hruCot, vrl ipionim vocahulo tram eaa gerunl, iHidnr. arig. zriii 6 
J 3 and Aug. ep. 110=120 J 41 make it a sword, bo gea. S 34 mlg. 
yen. vet. in Aug. de geo. o. Maoicb. n § BS seq. 

oiBHiEi T" 84 a. Tills Luc, rii 85 incitbuit^e 

adyto vateB ibifaetut Apollo. 80 ter cii.AaoB 

VEHATDictB PUELI.AE Tlbull. I 4 25 26 jMr^f aiini inptme linit Dio- 
tynoft BBililtaB I aflirmes erttiM jirt-gue Miuerva mot. Ov. f. ii 
157 1G8 oath of CaUiato by Dians'e bow iUa dene langtru STCus 'guon 
langitniie Areas, \ ate mtat Uales virginitalii ' ait. id. sinor. lu 3. Minue. 
Fel.23 § 5 Diana inttrim ett alte tueeineta Tenstrix. 'Aprt/tu dypBT/im, 
<\a#iB36Xo!, StipiiKTitm, Siipoiins Preller gr. Myth, i' 236. Ot. m. il 464. 
81 AaOiBt maris Aau. xii aflS 366 cum ipiTitui alto | inional AagaBO. 
ib. in 74 Noptuno Aegaeo. At Aegas in Euboea Neplnne dwalf 
beneath tie sea (Horn. li. iiii 21, whera huwever the Aohaeoji Aegaa 
may be meant), and between Imbros and TcDedoB he had a giotto (ill. 
S3). BarBian Geogr. t. Grieahenl. ii 411 412. 

TBmBNTBM Till 203 n. Fr. Wit-Beler comm. de Tsrio nau trideotiB apnd 
popnlos Teteres, imprimiB spud Grseooa el KomanoE, Giittingea 1872, 
4to. 82 ABODE the fatal bow without wbieh 

Troj could not be talien. Sea Soph. Fhilokt. 

83 QuiDguiD wbeo a list of particulars is closed by omnia, eittra, etfl,. 
theaa words are added without a conjunction x 79 ii. The name princi- 
ple applies to relative clauses (nil 27. 35. iv HD). Quidqaid hominum 
eral, qitod agri tral, and Bimilar oipreBaioQa (equimlenl to omnei 
hoiitinei, etc.), are TSry freq^uent. Cic. Tuaa. ii S 9. Hor. epod, 5 1 oi o 
deorum quieqnid in carlo rr^it. id. s. i 6 1 Heindorf . Iiiv, xxii 1 § 4, 
lzm9g3itiiaateHper quioqniddcorumeBt. Too, ii 38 qnantnm 
panperum eat. Quintil. decl. 11 § 10. 84 flbbii.e taken by acme 

with fnguf J a» Ti 64 65 sannif | longnm et miBerabile. Stat. Th. ill 
496 flebile gaviane. VFl. tii 2IQ flobile gaudeuB. Olaud. rapt. 
Proa. II 8 flebile. ..gemail. Hut qu. whether the paranthetio inquii 
ever haa such an »dj,f 84—85 "ati 

aiHCiPnT zii 120 n, fathers often awore by the head (at. ii 16. Aen, ik 
300 GosBrau. Hem. in Con. p. 1269 19 tari rdiy raliiir i^tntotrotl 
or Bataty ot their aona. Plin. ep. ii 20 S§ S 6 clamat morimi hominem 
nequam perfidum ao plus etinm quani perinrum, qui aibipsr 
aalntem filii perierasBet. facit line Eegitlui non minut tceUrate 
quam frtqiiejiler, qjiod iram deorum, quos ipae eotidie fallit, in 
cspnl infelicis pueri detest a tur. Quintil. t 6 g 1 for one of the 
parties to offer himself to be sworn sine ilia coadiciane, ut vel adver- 
tariiu lur<(, fere improbuvi eat. Here the father pledges Mmself (o eat 
(like Thyestes) hia sou'e head, if he breaka his faith. 
86 THiElo Bchol. 'Aegjplio, forti.' vi 83 ad Pharon ei Nilum. Ath. 



C7' ChijEippoi said thnt the beet vinei^ came from E^j^i and Enidos, 
CiO. Eorlena. in Nonius p. 240 alUriut ingenium, licut BOetnm Aegyp- 
tinin, acrf. Mart, uii 122 ampiiora Niliaci noa tit tibt vilU ftoeti. | 

gg — 119 &<»iie malie Qhauoe all id all, nod belienng in no ruler of 
tbe world, swear without a Bfauddei by any altar you please. Another 
believes that there are gods, ojid yet foieriLstB thus with himself, 'With 
my body let Isia deal aa she will, aud with angry mtile strike bliDdnees 
upon my eyes, ii only even sightleee 1 may clutch the loreswora coin. 
"tin north wliile to buy wealth by coDaumptioD, lotten Bores and u, crip- 
pled thigh. Let LadHB. if not atork-mad, (needing helleboie of Antioyra 
or pceEcriptianB of ArohigeueB) not hesitate iu his need to pray for the 
rich man's gout : for what is he the better for the fame of Qeetness and 
the hUDger-starved branch of Olympi&'s olive-wreathF Cnn he least on 
IKSiao? The wrath of the gods may be hoaiy, it is aasniedly tardy; it 
they are oonserncd to punish all tlie guilty, when will laj tarn coma 
ronnd? Besides 1 may perchance, aa some do, appease their wrath; if 
one man's crimes biing liim to a croas, another's win h crown.' Thus 
the perjurer steels hia heart agaiuat fear, nay draga you to the temple tu 
hear hia oalhs: acting a farce all the time, like the runaway butfoon in 
CatnllUB. You shout like Stentoi or Mare in Homer ; ' Inppiter, dost thai) 
hear and yet not move the lip, when thou Bhonld'sl speak even though 
of stone or braaa ? Else why do we drop incense and offer heifer's liv«r 
and hog's caul on thy altnr? For aught I see, choioe there is none 
between the images of you gods and the atatue of Vagelliu "" 

86 Beq. Luo. vi 44S~53 

LBU, I t 

nubii nulla pro/eclo j num 

tiHur regnare lovtm... I .. 

Enfin. 1 1—8 (cf. Barth. pp. 1077— M) 

■ rntHtan, \ curartnt luperi Unai, on 

fiaerent laarlalia oasa, etc. Sen. de 

■e, luqur 

nuUi I lunC earala deo. Claud. 

tatpa mihi dabiam traxit 

nnllus in«««f I ieotor<! 

provid. 1 8 3 oitaidere non 

lame tiderum cerium ditcurium fortuiti impetiii eiie, etc. Flin. n S 31 

aeq. (partly cited x 366 a.) Gieseler ch. Hat. introd. g 13. Mmnc. Fel. 

S g 7 eeq. Friedliinder iii> 489 490. bunt qdi etc. 

with oonj. IV 70. v 73. vi 73. 480. vi 

(pl«ri>aa sunt, quae), vi 259 (hae in 

gui). In these latter exx. the subject 

diBerenoe (Kiaer). 

of, toe duce Madvig g 277. On this E. 

see Qointil. v 6 g S the party who declines to ret 

oath et iniquam condicioium et a multia contei 

metum dJcet, cum etiam philoBophi qnidam 

with ind. V 130 

III 233 {hi lunt. 

hich makes the 


enial of Provideuee, 
a hia adversaiy's 

raperti, q«i 
aeoB sgere coram reinm nnmanarnm negareai. PUn. n § 19 
agtrt caram rirutn Auimmanun Hind qjiidquid eal sanaiwuitl amu tarn 
tritti atque muiiipliei niniatenQ nm poUui credanaii ! dubiUmmne f 

88 VICES ET LOWS EI ANNi Claod. in Ruf. 
I E 6 annijiM meatia | et lucis rwctiique vices. 

89 QUAAcnuguE^qnaelibet i 3^9 n. Some altois, e.g. the ara maxima 
Heroulis, were speeiolly eaered DH. i 40 fin. altibia. xiv 219 n. 

VU. Ill 9 E I 3 Hannibal's oath- cf. Nep. Hann. 3^34. Liv. ixi 
1^4. Mart. IX 43 9 hanc puer ad Libyan iaravecat Hannibal aras. 
Hence Prop. iv = iii 20 2S quipaetoi infoedcta ruperit araa. Argument; 
on the removal of tho altar of Victory from the curia: Symm. ep, 1 54=01 
nbi in.ietet.veil/9t ttvtrba iqtabimas? qua religione metis faUa ttr- 



rtbitar, n«{n testimoniU mentiatuT t...iUa ara Jldcm eoiweait lin^iilomm, 
ntjue oliud magii aucioriiaten faeit lenlentiU noitrit, quam quod omnia 
qitati inrtttaB ordo deeemil, Ambr. ep. 17 S 9 ^i>' ^^ n' ta curia 
•mjmciam dietrtt, ubi inrati ad mam simulsori in letitentiam eo- 
jermtuT : propterea mim interpretantur aram loeatam, at eiui BBora. 
mento, ut ipsi putant, uniiiqiiUqiie conventm amiuUret in mediuia,,.u 
ttjfo itxptratore Chriiliani in araia inrare eogentwt Greg, Tur. h.\%t. 
Fniw. m 14. iv 47 qaem ad alturinm dam addactum ivrare fecit ao 
HntTi 'per hane locum lanetum et reUi/juias martgi'iim beatamm. t 38. 
Las&uli der Eid bei den Griecben (Stadiea 1854) 18S. 195. Herm&nn 
Eottead. AJteitb. § 23 9. Cbarlema^e a.d. 766 regnired the Thnringiaa 
eoDBpiratoTB to go to Borne ot to varions soDctnaiiea in MeaetHa and 
Aqaitune, to swear upon the relios of raeh Baint (Sismondi hist, deg 
Pane. Brax. 1849 i 414). So in praysr Mncrob. Sat. m 3 gg 7—9. On 
the mediEeruI costom of svearlng by tbe altar and the rehm of saintn 
under it see Bucange a. vv. inrare in alliiri. iurare poiUia manibus 
taper altare. A famoiiB instance ia tbe ORth taken by Harold to William 
of Normandy, A.D. 1066. TiHounr xty21Dn. 

Hep. Liv. 11. ec. 91 futat ebsb deob Sen. contr. 9 g 8 

lu, c«ia tint iaiioeeni quam diei-1 virtrii, ilia pasia credia deoa esaef 
Ennins in Cic. de divin. ii § 104 efto deurn genus esse semper dixi el 
diaim caeliluiB, \ aed eos nan carare opinor, quid agat hiaaaaum gemu. 
Cic. da icT. i 3 46 probabie opinions ; impiit apttd inferoi poenal eiee 
praeparatat ; eoi, qui pkiioiophiae dent operam, non arbitrart deon 
esse. BT Yu 124 n, Tert. apol. 3 p.m. 

Chriatiamim homiti/m omnium iceltrum reum, deoram, (mperalomm, Ugmn, 
nuntm, naturae totiiu inimicam Mittimoi, et eogit ntgare, ib. 37 hatemi 
Btma* et vetlra omnia impteeimiu. NiigeUbaoh § 192 1 b. Cio. TnEo. i g It 
Kalmer. feierai Lit. ni 30 g S. Minuo. FeL 7 § 6 etiam per qtUeteai 
deal videmm. aadimut, agnoicimui, qaoi impie per diem negamu), noIuniUi 
peieramu^. Cio. de inv. i g 46 in eo gaierr, quad fere fieri lolet, proba- 
IiiU huiiamodi est... .'...'ei avarns eat, neglegit iuB iiiranduro.' 
92 cORPonK per lalutem meam, per capaC (Liv. 
xsn 4.9 g 12), per oeitloi, were usual forms of oatba. 

93 ISIS on the worship of this Egyptian goddess in Rome cf. xii 
S8 tt. Boisaier la religion romains bk. ii c. 2 'lea religions ^trangSres' 
(I 374—460). L. Georgii in Pauly iv 270-300. Piin. n g 21 extemit 
famutantiir eaeris, C. Beicbel de laidia BpndBomanoa enltu BeroL 1849. 
in Greece Hertzberg ii 267 — TQ. 485. ldhina on which 

B onrsB may baTS been invoked Prop, i 15 33 — 3S. Or. amor, in 3 
9—14. id. Font. 1 1 fil— 54 vidi ego linigerae numen violatte fatentem 
I laidoB Tnafot ante ledere focoi. \ alter ob huio similem priTatuK 
lamtne cnlpam [ elajnabal tnfdia le THeruiaae via. antbol. PaL xi US 
^11 tip' fxV ^^P^'i Amn'i'"! P*l dOTHpdojj | rJjv 'loin ra&rif, ^ifSi rir 
'ipweKpirijy, I /ttfl' el tii ru^Xoii roifT Bi6s, HermeB in Aug. ciT. Dei 
Tin 3H § B lam vera ttrorem Oairii quam mutia bona praeitars propiliam, 
qnantia obesse icimut irntam! Oeocgii 1. a. 2@5. Apol. met. Tin 25 
at te..,otatiipotem et omnipareiii dea Syria et Saiictua Sabaditu et 
.5eIIi>na...caeanm reddant. Compare the legends of Tireaias, Steal- 
chorus and Appius Claudius Caecua. aiSTBO 

(aiWT/»nrfiiu). Ov.ataor.iisV33Si qKidntinc Aegyptia proiunt [aistra? 
Fara. T 186 187 turn grandei gain et cum Bistro liaca tacerdot | 
inaatere deot inJIarUii corpora. Lno. viii 8B1 B33 noi in ieiapla (uam 
Ranuam aceepimju Ibid \ ... et BiBtTaiiibentia lactjit. id. I 63 of Cleopatra 

faciam) a 


10, n/(U. Capitolia.sistio;iil. Prop. it=iii1143. 
beat. 26 g 8 cum eibtruQi aliquis eoncutiem tj: impcri 
camaliguii ginibHS per viam repeni ulalat lauriaaque linteatui kimkI 
medio lucernam die praefereia conctamat iratum aliquftn deoram, concur- 
ritii el audilii el divinum etse eum, invicem mutuum aleitiet ttuporem od- 
Jirmatii, VFl. iv 418. anUioi Lat. 462 i B, Apul. met. ii 28. Flomi 
VergiliuB orator an poeta (in O. John's Florua p. ZLn 18 19) ul orn Nlli 
viderem et populiim lemper in templii otiotum peregrinae deae Bittnkpui- 

Plat. le. et Oair. 63 (of. Parthey pp. 256 257) to3 Si ircltTpoii 

_ )jjf SytjOtp J}»^(?t tr i^t r€pUx'^ ^ ffetifitpa T^rafitL, Aqhoq* 
epUt. 25 32 Isiaoos agitani Mareoliea siatra lumultiu. Serr. Aen. 
Mil 696 Iit> ttuiem est geniut Aegypti, qui per siatri motmn, quod 
icelit in dextta, Nili aceetsui reeeiswiqae aignijicat. Bee Forbiger n 
189. Bich. FoiceUini. HSt. Hildebrand. Ajial ic 644—31. aUo the fignrea 
on the walla of the temple of IsU (in Donuldson'a Pompeii i or Orerbeok 
or Dyer.) Several aie in the Britiah museam, at Kaples, and at Berlin 
(Wilkinson anc. Egyptians ii S2S— 5). 
94—95 VEL QAECUS...D1UID1UU citcB oontrost Matt. IB 

aia Soribon. 1B6 minutatinwue pi-r lixlieia quin 

, Gael. AuT. tard. ii 14. ind. Plin. 
TouicAE Foroellinj. Sen. ep. 

: X 97 n. ' et phthiain et oete 

anbire operas pretlom eet.' mao' 
QUE ■( readerit, nnt o aunt iwgia tanti 
recoso in hoc nausa.' Mart. 1 12 11 12 nun 

pericula laati : | itaniia nan polerant _ _ . 

dI elepbantB circumBentiqtu a venantibat priiaot consliluunt qailitu 
[deittei} sunt minimi, ne tanti proetiam putelur 'Le. nt venataree operae 
pratium ne patent tautilloe praedoe ape pioeliimi inire.' Add Sen, 
oontr. 9 § 11 an uf contiivia populit imtnmnlur et tecta ntiro fttlgeaat, 
parrioldium tanti full? Sen. ben. n 32 Sn. ia it worth while that 
the world shonld goto ruin, merely to refnte yoa ? est tanti. uC tucoargu- 
aril, istaoonciidfre; ep. 68gll. Bl| 2 eat tanti, tiC^ratuminuniifu, 
eiperiri et ingrfttoa. 101 § 12 eat tanti volnua auum premere et 
patibalo pendere diatrictnm, dum dij'erat id, quod eat in malii 
optimam, iiifplieii fiaemi eat tanti habere aaimam, uf agami YFL 
VIII 191 — 3 aint age tanti, | Aeaonide, quaeoumiine morae guam 
laeva inbire \ laxa itemm. Pronto ad M. Caes. u 14 p, 37 Naber tanti 
eat minns Incnbrare, ul le maluriui videam, Sulp. Ser. dial. ii=ni 
17 g B nan lanien tibi tanti sint vel tnagitaram morai-um vlla diapeiidia, 
guin iilic adeaa itlMatreni riruni. 

Pint. GGO Bcliol. Povert}' boasts that abe ttirns ont better men, mind 
and body, thun Platos: irspa rtf/iir yap raJay/iui'Tf s. Mart, iii 17 yon 
complain, Lnorinna, that ferer will not qait yon; it takes the air witli 
yon, bathes with yon, dines on oysters, truffiea, son's paunch, boar; is 
often dmnk on Setine and Falemian, and drinks anlj CaBcuban in ioed 
water; circumfaia roiii et nigra reciimbil aiiiomo, | liormij et in plunui 
purpureoque loro. | cam renabet pulchre, cam tam. bene vivat 
apnd te. I ad Damam potius Tis tna lebria eat? Lutian gaUna 23 
alter setting forth the nsea of poverty: it hardens yon against tha 
weather; none ol these severe diaeaaea approaches yon ; ii ever a slight 

ii phthis 

oa condiciona (nt lucmm 
a- comparing Ov. m. a 424 
'i.e. eabeantor inrgia, qoo. 
el daiaua iuoant, /uiil ipaa 
a probare deos. Plin. Tin g S 

ir fasti 

Being you drenched with cold ' 

and i 

takes to f 

laTpmait ripiiitiit. at li lir ixpaalni bBXioi r( tuv hiiiu-j oOk fjcoMn, xa- 
iay pat Kal fif^i (conaumptioiis) tal iripnTutu/ia-lai Koi uU;wvi (lijijpaies) T 
for these are the issue of those costlf leasts, id. Satomal. 38 coutc&Bts 
the efleets on health of plain diet (oresa, thyme aad onions) and dainties 
(pi^k and cakes) ; the self-indulgent fall into Donsumjition, inflammation 
ot the lungs, dcopey; they ore pale as acarpae; whenthej oometo old age, 
thay most be oatried ou men's shoulders, foe theii legs vill not support 
tb^. Yea poor ma; never taate fish, liui then you are tree from goul. id. 
eplgr. S6»4T (anthol. PaL Xl403j to goai fuadrrux' 9fa, iioitii r\o6Tiiv in- 

vaal xo^tptit, I TriKo'fiQpiir t oF5af Koi lAi/pa trai fti\tTBA, \ repwti icclI ffriipiwbi 
ffc Koi kiaoviou T6/ia BafX*^"' I Tsura TriRpa VTWXois -fiyrtTaL oAo^roTt. | 
ToSvtud truf ipt^rii iftflTjT T6r dx<f^Kfw oOBof, | riprti fi'dii rXa^Tov rp&t 
viSa.t ipxoii^rTI- i^- tragoedopod. 110 IIL Tav3' [Uoiiiypar] tiyXayHais itl 
/uiflxl I iBa\fl<it iapiftTO nXsurur. ib. 194 a\lfib^por llatiypa. 
97 i-uiAa there were two Oljmpie Tiotora of this name: one probably an 
Argive, victorinthe JdXixof (ueartheEiiTataaFaus.m219 I &Hii iu%u-i 
irra iHcdrirrt !nifB^a>\'h,ontmvriii^iyTiiit iifi aiiroi); the other an Achaean oF 
Aegiom, victor in the nriiioy (ib.), in the lafith 01. s.c. 281 (id. x 29 
S H). The more famoua Aigive hod a statue in the temple of the 
Lyldon Apollo at Argoa (id. □ 19 g 7). another by Myro is celebrated lu 
Uis anthoL {cited on S9}. lu Arkadin, near Fetrosaka, was shewn (Pans. 
Tin IS % 6) ApDa imlSuw, ^i o ^nutiro AjJai iu\iTiit Spi/ao. Benndort 
and Overbeek (Sohriftquellen zur Uesoh. der bildenden EUnite Leipz. 
1S6B 101) suppose that Myro'a statue vas in Ot.vmpia, but removed to 
Borne before the time ot Pana. which would account for his eilenee 
leepecting it and for the fnmiUarity of Boman writers with the name. 
His fleetuQss became provecbinL (Jatnll. 66 21 SS nun li Pegaito ferar 
valatit. I non Ladns ego pinnipttce Peraeui. anthol. Pal. ivi 63 AfSu 
To rrdSiav tt&' ^Aaro. « Tre ii^iTT?}, | Smt^nLor Tb rix"*! ^^ ^pdaat iuMLr6p- 
Flat. II 801*. ad Herenn. iv § 4. Mart, ii 86 8. i 100 6 6 babeiu 
licebit alttrum pecleta Ladae, { inepte, fmalTa crure ligneo carrci. 
Ben. ep. 85 g 4. Bolin. i 96 (p. 36 22 M). Friedliinder ii" 612 thinks that 
a oontemporsry of Martial's may have assumed the namu. Arioatu 
Tnui 28 (Diintzer). 

jlstictra a poor mau though fleet of foot aa Ladna, Tmleas he lie crazy 
(needing therefore the liellebore of Anticyra) will pray tor riches even 
with the Kout. Two towna ot this nune produced hellebore: one in 
PhokiB on a bay (ainiu Anticyruttiu] of tlie Corinthian gull {Strabo 418 
Antil^a, bearing the same aama with that ou the Maliao gulf and 
mount Oeta; here they sjiy riv iWipopoy ipiimeai. Tiyimam, itTaiea ti 
atmijtteai B^Xriiai, ml Sii roSro draiitntiy tiiipo waMmit, taSdpatiiit xal 
iipairciat xdc". cf. Pausan, x 36 § T : black hellebore Still grows in pio- 
fuaion on thu T'ill above the site Bursian Gesch. v. Qriecbenl. 1 182—3), 
the other on the Maliac gulf, near the mcuth of the Spelcheus (Hdt. tii 
108. Steph. Byz. Slrabo 418. 428). cf. Hor. a. it 3 83. 166. B. p. 300. 
I'ers. IV 16 Jalm. epiat. Soorat. 8 p. 16 Orelli. Ptol. Eepli. up. Phot. 
190 (p. 147* Herakles oured of modneae by aPhokian, who first discovered 
hellebore). Hellad. ib. 279 p. SiI4>31. Plut. de ooh. iral3 (end) Antiliyra 
taken neat airli Kaff aitiit, citrta taadneti, but when tuiEt with anger 
Tpayifltas roitZ xtl ruifau!. Iiucian dial. moit. 17 3. Suet. CaL 29 prtU' 
lorium viram ex lecaeu Anticyrae gitain valettidinit cauia pelieral, 
propagari eibi eoianteatvm safpias deiidrranlen cum mandautt inltrimi, 
adiecit ' Tieireasannm esse aangahdt miirionmi, cat lam dia nan proileaet 


hpllBborum.' On the mBdisttl osaa at helieliDrB cf. Plin. ny g§ 47—f.l 
end. SillJg'B iai. nuder litlltburum, ftratrnm, Benseler Eigenmuneo b.v. I 
'Amniipa. Be Vit onomssticou s. v. Anticyra. Gell. rvn 16. eap. PanL 
Aegin. Eng. tranel. m 107. AOl— 5ID. Spreogel-Itosenbamu Geseh. d. 
Aiznoikunde i* ind. Iteileborui. 98 AacmaRnE xiv SS3 n. 

ef. XII 119 u. fie oured his teacher AgathinoB of a, deliriouB fever by 
famuntatiotiB of n'aiui oil [Spreogel Uescb. d. Artzn, Otec Ahschn. e, U 
IS 65~6B from Aetiog). A work ot liis irept r^t ijnvi tdu i\Kep6peii is 
quoted by Oalen ; to which Oiibaaios, (he fullest and most aeonrate of 
the ancient anthoritien on the mode of aiiminislenDg hellebore, icaa mnelt 
indebted (Adams on PanL Aegln. ui p. 5UT). On the form of tha abl. 
8(. AeluOe (Aen. I 312 cited by Priaoian ra 2 8 fl). S-phiitt |<JiiiiitiI. m 
* 3 10). Atacide Neitorideque (Ov. Pont, u 4 23). Nene j' BS— 5. 

Pisa, which gOTe name to rUaiii, n district of EUh, lay to the east of the 
Olympian plain ; by the poets it is identified with Olympia. Pinil. 01. 
im 28 2a S^Jiu » cl uri^iyui/ iyK6i>.iDt TcByov, ri* d^fi *.«(«»;» n(iraj,| 
Tren-dflXy S.ia. ffTofli'ou VikSoi Sp6iiitr. (ao Pindar atlen. «f. Bookh'a iadaxj. 
anthol. Pal. Ivi 64 ofos fiji <p(rfui' rir u irij«Ejioi», l/iirm Ap3o, | QB/ar, ir 
aKpordrtfi pfifMLTi ffclt irux^ I roioi' ix''-^'^^'"'^'' ^' HvpUtr, iirl rairt 
Xapo£nt | ffiii^mri Jliaalou irpooionl^y tTftfidyav. Vcrg, g. ui 180. Sail, 
Thyest. 123. Agam. 996 = 938. Btal. s. i3 8, Th. t 421. n 6. Anaon. 
eologor. de loeia agonnio prima lovi mogno e^feiranfiir Olympia Piaav. 
BnrHian Geogr. v. Griecheol, ti 273 274. 2H6— 300. Tha eicaTationa 
now in progreas will throw mncb light on the Olympic games. 

OUViE Till 226 n. Pind. 01. ly 12 = 20 iXo/j irra^- 

fuffcli Uiainii. cf. Bookh iad. b.v. iXaia. schol. Piud. p, 103. 
Enrip. in Pint AlMb. 11. Aristot. mir. anec. S2 p. 106 Beckmattn. Tha 
iririmt OT wild olive is also spoken of as the Olympia prize Artemidor. 
tv 69 Zoilos talking hie own eona ae oombatanta to Olympia Huge tsTt^ta.- 
r&a0m ti atfnipa iXaif tal toTlyif irol aifiiSpa /il' ^f itSuiio! in iip&r 

san. T 7 § 4. Spanheim, Bergler etc. on Aristoph. Pint. 58B. Btat. Th. 
n 7. Plin. T? g 19. im g 240. Btark in Sitanngsber. d. eScha. Ges. d. 
Wiaa. 1S56 1 102—112. 100 dt thongh i 310 n. 

Ov. tr. I 2 73 74. maona, TiHsu LBirai itu, 

BEOBDM Plato legg. sas- seq. Soph. OC. 1636. Ear. Ion 1615. Theo- 
dektea tr. 8 Nauci. Lit. iii