(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Rare plant inventory and plant community descriptions of the Sweet Grass Hills, Proposed Area of Critical Environmental Concern (PACEC), Toole and Liberty Counties, Montana"

r 

s 

581.529 


^ 

Vestern TechnoLosv 
and Engineerinet 


mi''^'' 


inc 

Rare plant 




inventory and 
plant connuni ty 







■-.■I.- ..-'"^ i* 



''S^^^^^^^^^E 




MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 



^^^^fcr/o« MAR 1 2 2004 



RARE PLANT INVENTORY AND PLANT CQ^-UNITY DESCE^IPTIONS 
OF THE SVJEET GRASS HILLS 
PROPOSED AREA OF CRITICAL ENVIRON^-EOTAL CO^JCERN (PACEC), 
TOOLE AND LIBERTY COUNTIES, NDNTANA 



Prepared for: 

L'nited States Department of Interior 

Bureau of Land Managsrent 

812 14th Street North 

P.O. Box 2865 

Great Falls, Montana 59401 



Prepared by: 

Vfestem Technology and Engineering, Inc. 

P.O. Box 6045 

Helena, Montana 59604 



In Cooperation With: 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

Montana State Library Building 

1515 East 6th Avenue 

Helena, Montana 59620 



ORDER.^r®. Mir950 - PH9 - 366 
Decanber, 1989 



CaVTENTS 

Page 

1 . INTRODUCTION ' 1 

2 . METHODS 3 

3.0- RESULTS 5 

3.1 RARE PL^M" EVALUATION ' . 5 

3.1.1 Ranunculus cardiophyllus (Heart-leaved buttertrup) 5 " 

3.1.2 Claytcnia lanceolata variety (Springbeauty) 7 

3.1.3 Halimolobos virgata (?) (Tvri.ggy halimolobos) - 8 

3.2 SPECIES LIST 8 

• 3.3 VEGETATION TYPE DESCRIPTiaNS 11 

3.3.1 Literature Review 11 

3.3.2 Habitat/Ccmmunity Types of the 

Sweet Grass Hills 19 

4 . MANAGEKENT REOCM-ENDATIONS 31 

5 . LITERATURE CITED 34 

APPENDICES 

APPENDIX A. VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES BY CLASS, SWEET GRASS 
HILLS, TOOLE COUNTY AND LIBERTY COUNTY, 
tCNTANA, 1989 A-1 

APPENDIX B. PHOTOGRAPHS B-1 



TABLES 



Paqe 



TABLE 1. Subalpire and alpine plant taxa v;hich may represent 

range extensions in the Sv;eet Grass Hills PACEC 10 

TABLE 2. Habitat or ccjTTnunity types identified in or peripheral 

to the Sv;eet Grass Hills 20 

TABLE 3. Percent cxrnposition (by v/eight) of three near-pristine 

sites in foothills grassland of the Svjeet Grass ' Hills . . 24 

TABLE 4. Percent conposition (by v.'eight) of ijngrazed and grazed 
foothills prairie in the Sweet Grass Hills (Gold Butte 
cerretery) 25 



FIGURES 

FIGURE 1. Sv;eet Grass Hills ertphasis area - surface a-.';rership 

map 2 

FIGURE 2. Vegetation profiles along two north- south transects 

through the nxntane regions of East Butte 14 



11 



1.0 INTFDDUCTION' 

The Sv;eet Grass Hills proposed Area of Critical Environrrental Concern 
(PACEC) ccmprises about 3,220 hectares of Bureau of Land KanageiTent 
surface in Toole and Liberty counties of north-central Montana (Figure 
1). The Hills are the smallest and, in many respects, the most 
isolated of the intrusive "island" mountain ranges of the northern 
Great Plains (Thcrrpson and Kuijt 1976a). High peaks rise abruptly from 
the surrounding prairie, supporting montane to sutelpine plant 
ccrmrunities . Elevations within the PACEC range frcm about 1340 m to 
over 2100 m en tog of Vfest Butte. The geographic position, rugged 
topography and elevational range support a diversity of plant 
ccnrnunities more closely related to the Rocky Mountains than the 
Northern Great Plains. The presence of both floras results in a unique 
ass3Tiblage of plant ccrrmunities . 

The purpose of this inventory was to assess the status of any rare 
plants potentially occurring within the PACEC. Secondary objectives 
v.'ere to generate a cctrprehensive species list and briefly describe the 
major plant carrnunities of t2~e PACEC. 



2.0 METHODS 

Tasks ccnpleted prior to the field inventory included: 

1. Search of Montana Natural Heritage Program data base to 
determine rare plants previously identified in the area. 

2. Review of local and regional literature regarding rare plants 
and plant ccmmunities pertinent to the area. 

3. Cbtain USGS topographic iraps and outline PACEC boundaries. 

4. Ccxitact landc^,Ters and obtain acosss across private lands. 

Field work was ccrducted June 13-14, 1989 ard July 18-21, 1989. The 
range of vegetaticxi types en West, East and Middle (Gold) Buttes was 
surveyed by pedestrian reccxinaissance. Species lists v^ere made at 
selected locations; taxa not readily identified in the field were 
collected and pressed for verification in the office. Photograjiis were 
taken of representative plant ocnnmunities . 

The site previously recorded for Ranunculus cardic^yllus Hock. 
(Thcnpscn and Kuijt 1975b) was intensively surveyed, although it is 
located outside the PACEC boundary. Likely habitats for R. 
cardicphyllus within the PACEC were also inventoried. 

Plant specimens \-^£re identified in the office using a stereozocm 
dissecting microscope. Taxonomic manuals used for plant 
identification included Hitchcock and Crcnquist (1973), Hitchcock et 



al. (1955-59), Dom (1984), Great Plains Flora Associaticn (1986) and 
Scoggan (1978). 



3.0 RESULTS 

3.1 PJ^FE PLJ^KT EV?lLiATION 

Lesica et al. (1934) list 34 vascular plant species of limited 
distribution in the north-central region of Montana. Of those listed, 
only one, heart-leaved buttercup ( Ranunculus cardiophyllus ) vras listed 
by Thcrrpson and Kuijt (1975b) as occucring in the S\veet Grass HilJ,s. 
Because of the relative paucity of botanical information for the Hills, 
all species not readily identified in the field were collected to 
evaluate other potentially rare taxa, and to obtain as ccnplete a 
species list as possible. Three species have been identified as 
meriting additional investigation: heart-leaved buttercup, 
springbeauty ( Claytcma lanceolata Pursh var. flava (A. Nels.) C.L. 
Hitcho. ) and t\-7iggy halimolobos ( Halimolobos virgata ) (Nutt. ) Schulz. 

3.1.1 Ranunculus cardiophyllus (Heart-leaved buttercup) 
F?anunculus cardio^T/Uus has been recorded frcm only six locations in 
Montana: four staticns in Glacier County, one in Stveetgrass County, 
and one in Toole County (Montana Natural Heritage Progra-n database, 
Helena . ) The locaticn din Toole County is frcm the Vtest Butte in the 
S\-,eet Grass Hills, erd \s'as collected by Miller and Hassinger ( 4828 ) on 
West Butte on June 30, 1975. The collection site ;-;as described as a 
"flat, exposed, meaoa.sy area near Fred and George Creek" (University of 
Lethbridge herbarium label ) . 



Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) list heart-leaved buttencup as occurrirg 
in rrountain rreada.'.'S frcm British Columbia to Alberta and Sasl<atchev.cn, 
sporadically south to northeast VJashington, and in I'tycming, Utah, l^.-i 
hfexico and Arizona. The eastern limit of the species in the U.S. is 
apparently the Dakotas, \vhere it is found infrequently in v.et rreada/.'s 
and along streams in the Black Hills of South Dakota (Van Bruggen 1976; 
Dom 1977) and in MxcKenzie County, North Dakota (Great Plains Flora 
Association 1986). The ta>:on is apparently poorly understood (Welsh et 
al. 1987) and is similar to R^ inamoenus Greene and R^ pedatifidus 
Smith. It is considered by Scoggan (1978) to be a variety of R. 
pedatifidus . Heart- leaved buttercup has been reported for both the 
Saskatcha-ran and Alberta portions of the Cypress Hills, approximately 
112 km northeast of the Svjeet Grass Hills (Breitung 1954; de Vries and 
Bird 1968). To the rorthv?est, Kuijt (1982) lists the species as 
occurring on rather dry grassy meadot^ra at lcf,-7 elevations in Watertcn 
Lakes National Park. 

Moss (1959) lists heart-leaved buttercup as ccnmon in moist prairie and 
mountain rreadows of Alberta, ^vtdle Locman and Best (1979) report the 
species as unocrrmDn in v.^stem parklands of the Canadian prairie 
provinces. In the Cypress Hills, it is ccrrmon in grasslands of the 
plateau (Breitung 1954). 

Habitat affinity for heart-leaved buttercup changes frcm north to 
south. In the north it is characterized as occurring primarily in 
mountain iTeadCTv's at lav to mid-elevations (Hitchcock and Cronquist 



1973, Kuijt 1982, Vteber 1975, Van Bruggen 1976, Harrington 1964 and 
Dom 1988). In Arizona, ha-^ver, it is found in pine forests frcm 
7,CX)0 to 9,500 feet (Kearney and Peebles 1960). 

Vfest Butte v.-as revisited in an atterrpt to relocate hsart-leaved 
buttercup. Several Ranunculus specimens v.'ere collected, but R. 
cardiophyllus v.-as not found. Given the inprecise location reported on 
the herbarium label frcm the previous collection, a gereral site 
traverse was conducted in suitable habitats in and near the PACBC. 

The veracity of the previous collection is not questioned; failure to 
relocate the population may indicate that it is very small, or that it 
has been extirpated. Also, the previous collection may have been made 
on private land outside the Sv/eet Grass Hills PACEC. 

3.1.2 Claytcnia lanceolata variety (Springbeauty) 

Springbeauty ( Claytcsiia lanceolata var. flava ) is listed as critically 
imperiled in Montana because of extreme rarity; it is designated "C2" 
by t±>e U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (current information indicates 
that proposing to list as endangered or threatened is possibly 
appropriate but substantial biological infoxmation is not on file to 
support an iirrrediate ruling); and as sensitive by the U.S. Forest 
Service (Shelly 1989). Claytonia lanceolata is ccmrron in the Hills 
and several specirrens v;ere collected. Specirrens collected have v.Mte 
floisers and narrow leaves, and may represent either variety multiscapa 
or a v;hite form of variety flava (Shelly pers. ccrnn. ). Systematic 



studies of these ta>3, by J.S. Shelly and P. Lesica, ere not yet 
ccnpleted, and a positive identification cannot te irade at this tirre. 
Upon ccnpletion of these studies, the Montana Natural Heritage Rnogram 
v;ill update the Bureau of Land t>^anagement as to the identification of 
these plants. The taxon is ccmrron on East and Vfest Buttes in grassland 
habitats, and no imrediate threats are apparent. 

3.1.3 Hali'molobos virgata (?) ( Tv;iggy halimolobos ) 

Plant specimens tentatively identified as tv;iggy halimolobos 
\ l-\l^' "" ( Halimolobos virgata ) v/ere collected near a rock outcrop en foothills 
north of Mount Brcs-n in the East Butte area. The specimens depart from 



A^ 



the published species descriptions, in having pubescent siliques and 
shorter petals. Specimens are beirg sent to the New— York— Botanic 



:'xt^ i'i^>^^'.'Jv.w '\ 



1 ' V / 



Garden- for verification. Shelly (pers. ccnrn. , Etecenber, 1989) also \- ,,■ 



collected specimens tentatively identified as Halimolobos from the Bull _ \ 



River in northwestern Montana. If correctly identified, these 
collections represent new state records for Montana. Twiggy 
halimolcixs is previously documented frcm open prairies to la.',er 
mountains, ficm Yukon to Aiberta and Saskatche;-ran, south to eastern 
Idaho, Wycming, Utah and Colorado (Hitchcock and Cronquist 1973). 



3.2 SPECIES LIST 

Thcrpson and Kuijt (1976b) prepared a comprehensive species list for 

the S\seat Grass Hills during their investigations in 1972-1975. 



Hagener (1972) and Hagener and Hagener (1977) list common plants of 
north-central I-'ontana. 

^pendix A lists plant species encountered during the 1989 rare plant 
inventory. Appendix A also lists additional species recorded for the 
Sweet Grass Hills area by Thcnpson and Kuijt (1976b), but v.-hich v/ere 
not observed in the rare plant inventory conducted by VJESTECH. 

A total of 339 species v;ere recorded, of v±iich 71 were gramiroids, 228 
\'?er^ forbs, 27 v;erB Icf^i shrubs and subshrubs and 13 v.ere trees and tall 
shrubs. Seme of the taxa listed by Thcrtpson and Kuijt (1976b) may not 
occur vd-thin the PACEC boundaries surveyed by VESTECH; ha.'^ver they are 
at least proxirral and are included in Appendix A since many of these 
species are expected to occur in the PACEC. 

Although very few rare plant species have been listed for the Sv^eet 
Grass Hills and vicinity (Lesica et al. 1984), a number of taxa are of 
phytogeographical interest due to island biogeography considerations. 
Sore species within the PACEC which may represent range extensions of 
subalpine/alpine taxa are included in Table 1. Thcrrpson and Kuijt 
(1976a) listed cordilleran species of phytogeographic interest in the 
a-reet Grass Hills. 



Table 1. Subalpins and alpine plant ta:<a v.tach may represent range 
extensions in the Sv.-eet Grass Hills PACEC (see Appendix A), 



Graminoids 



Forbs 



Agrostis thurberiana* 
Carex albonigra* 
Carex phaeocephala* 
Luzula spicata 
Poa alpina* 
Poa rupicola 
Phleum alpinum 



Arenaria rubella 
Castilleja rhexifolia 
Epilcbium alpinum 
Erigeron sinplex* 
Hedysarum alpinum 
Ruirex acetosa 
Sibbaldia procumbens 



Trees 



Abies lasiocarpa 
Pinus albicaulis 



* identified by Thcnrpson and Kuijt (1976a) in the Sweet Grass Hills, 
but not observed during the 1989 VJESTECH inventory of the PACBC. 



10 



3.3 VEGETATION TYPE DESCRIFTICKS 

3.3.1 Literature Reviev; 

Vegetaticxi ccrmiunities of the Svveet Grass Hills have been mapped and 
described in very general terms during several statev/ide efforts. Ptoss 
and Hunter (1976) utilized the USDA Soil Qxservation Service range 
site irethodology to rrep climax vegetation of Kicntana based oi soils apd 
climate. In the &.-.eet Grass Hills, upper elevation sites v;ere irejped 
as a forest-grassland cocrplex in the. 15 to 19-inch precipitaticn zone 
en shallow to moderately deep soils with a frigid tenperature regime. 
Species occurring en forested sites include Douglas-fir, sncwberry, 
spixea, Oregcn grape and Idaho fescue. Grassland species listed were 
Idaho fescue, bluebunoh vrf-eatgrass, Columbia needlegrass, lupine and 
arrowleaf balsamroot. Foothills surrounding the forest grassland 
ccrrplex were mapped as a silty range site, also in the 15 to 19-inch 
precipitaticn zcre. Dominant species listed for this rrepping unit 
jLnclude rougi^ fescue, Idaho fescue and bluebunch wheatgrass. The 
prairie surrounding the Sweet Grass Hills vras mapped as a silty-clayey 
range site ccnplex in the 10 to 14-inch precipitaticxi zone of the 
Western Glaciated Plains Geograj^iical Area. This range site occurs 
across much of northHcentral Montana, frcm v.'sst of Shelby to near 
Havre. Dominant species en silty sites include needle-and- thread, 
western and thickspike wheatgrass, green needlegrass, bluebunch 
wheatgrass, prairie junegrass, blue grama and several forts. Similar 
species corpositicn is listed for the clayey range site, although 
relative abundance v.ould be expected to differ frcm silty sites. 

11 



Payre (1973) rrapped and descriJDed rangeland sites of yontana. Upper 
elevation forested sites in the Sv.'eet Grass Hills v;ere irapped as 
lodgepole pine/Couglas-fir forest. Foothills and grassy iTeada^;s vjere 
mapped as a Foothills Grassland type. Principal forage species listed 
include fescues, v.'heatgrasses and needle-and- thread. The 
distinguishing feature of this type is the nrbcture of montane and 
plains species. Vegetation of the plains surrounding the Sv.eet Gra^s 
Hills is descriJDed as Northern Grassland, including blue graira, v;estem 
v;heatgrass, needle-and-thread and dryland sedges (threadleaf and 
needleleaf ) . 

Pfister et al. (1977) have developed a ccnprehensive classification of 
Montana's forest habitat types; however, their study did not ir^clude 
stands frcm isolated, ncn-U.S. Forest Service-managed mountain ranges 
in central and eastern Kcntana. Mueggler and Stewart (1980) have 
classified grass and shrub ccrrmunities of the western cne-third of 
Montana. The Sv.'eet Grass Hills were not included in this 
classification, although sore similarities with their descriptions are 
apparent. Hansen et al. (1988) described riparian dominance types of 
Montana. Their ocrtpilation may be applicable to sore riparian types in 
the Sweet Grass Kills; ho-.'.ever, no sanpling or literature pertaining to 
the Hills was used in the classification. 

Qualitative, site-specific descriptions of rrajor vegetation ccmmunities 
of the a-.^et Grass Hills are presented by Thcnpson and Kuijt (1976a). 



12 



Trey divided plant ccrmunities elevationally intX) t;'« groups: plains 
ccmmunities occxirring primarily belcw 14CX) m, and nx^ntane ccmrnunities 
primarily above 1400 n. Figure 2 profiles vegetation ccmmunities 
across the montane regicn of East Butte. 

PLAI^S CaT-7JNITIE3 

Agricultural land . Vost of the flat, arid prairie surrounding the 
Hills has been altered by agriculture. Little native prairie, 
prcbably formerly dominated by western wheatgrass, needle-and- 
thread and blue grama, new rerrains. 

Foothills prairie . The higher grasslands surroundirg the Hills 
(about 1100 to 1500 m) are similar to the foothills prairie 
described by Kuchler (1964), normally supporting stands dcminated 
by wheatgrasses, fescues and needle- and- thread . 

Riparian shrubteiy . Edges of intermittent prairie streams are 
lined with shrub ccrrmunities generally dcminated by serviceberry, 
havrthom ard chrf^echerry. Scattered stands of boxelder are 
present alcng seme drainage bottcms. 

Riparian forest . A deciduous forest associaticn dcminated by 
black cottcnwood and plains cottonwood extends into the mcntane 
region of the Hills, reaching elevations up to 1500 m alo-g Breed 



13 




in-r-i 



n- 



CNJ' 



O-L-i 





M 


^^ 






O 


'-0 















O 


L_ 






r I 









i~ 




c 


CO 




O 

r- 

■5. 


a. 








Lu 











00 


a 




0) 





CL 


0) 


I— 


CO 


CJ 


c 


o 
li. 


■0 


CL 











CD 





_J 





c 


CtJ 


1 





n 


I— 





a 


ra 


a 







03 


XJ 


p 


v_ 


TD 


:3 





Q. 





U) 


h- 


00 


_l 



-aC3 



X 












OJ 










CO 










c 








^ 







M 



c 



n 







a 




u_ 


CI 















"a 00 


> 




v_ 




c 


V_ 


ii 





iS 









00 — 




to 





Gras 
Rubb 


c 


D. 
10- 


CD 

■3 





> 






>• 


< 


Q 




z 




< 


^ 


^ 




^ 




< 







[tJ9|»u;] uoijOAdig 



(fj9)»u;j uoiiOA^ig 



14 



Creek and SirnTDns Creek. Understory ccnsists largely of dense 
shrubbery including Rocky Mountain maple, serviceberxy, dcgvxDod, 
hav/thom, chokecherry and v;illcws. 

Potholes and reservoirs . Saiall glacial kettles, from a f&^ square 
meters to several hectares, are found as high as 1300 m and are 
abundant north and west of East Butte. Pcnds are shallow, and 
most are usually dry by late July. Scrre sutport cattail, rushes, 
bulxushes and sedges. Since no natural lakes or marshes are found 
within the Hills prcper, natural wetland ccrrmunities similar to 
marshes of the Cypress Hills (Breitung 1954) are absent from the 
Sweet Grass Hills. 

MKTANE COvNUNITIES 

Nfcntane grassland . Dry south- facing slopes and foothills between 
1500 and 2000 m, and many ncn-forested portions of north-faciiX[ 
slcpes, are dcminated by rough fescue, Idaho fescue and shrubby 
cinquef oil . 

Subalpine grassland . Small grassland areas above timberline on 
the sumnaits of Kjount Royal and Viest. Butte appear distinct frcrn the 
Ic^-^r-elevation mcntane grassland, and somewhat resemble alpire 
turdra. Caespitose vegetaticn is dcminated by stunted rough 
fescue and shrubby cinquef oil, with American bistort a irejor 



15 



ccmpo-ent. A more rroist grassland found on the ste^, shady north 
face of Mount Royal is dcminated by sedge species. 

Douglas-fir forest . Douglas-fir forest ccnprises the la,-«st 
coniferous forest of the Hills. Pcnderosa pine, more carmen in 
other isolated mountain rarges, is absent; apparently, base 
elevations of the Hills are above the cold limits of pcrderosa 
pine. The understory of Douglas-fir forest is the most developed 
of all coniferous forests found in the Hills. Shrubs are 
abundant, including serviceberry, Oregon grape, prince's pine, 
ocmmcn juniper, russet buffal(±eny and v^iite spirea. Ccnspicuous 
forbs include bluntleaf sandwort, orange arnica, clematis, spotted 
coralrodt, Virginia strawberry, northern bedstxaw, Richardscn's 
geranium, stcrecrop, starry Solcmcn's seal and rreadcwrue. A drier 
Douglas-fir savannah occurs on some south slcpes, while Douglas- 
fir and limber pine are found en the rocky, Icwer south slope of 
Vfest Butte. 

Limber pine woodland . Limber pine occurs alcrg forest edges 
throughout the montane region, forming pure stands en dry ridges 
east of KDunt Brown. 

Lodgepole pine forest . Dense, even-aged stands of lodgepole pire 
occur en steeper, north-facing slopes from 1500 to 2100 m. The 
understory is sparse and includes heart-leaved arnica, twinflcwer, 
white spirea, sidecells pyrola, ore-flas'ered wintergreen, green 

16 



wintergreen, dwarf huckleberry, blue huckleberry, myrtle 
huckleberry and grouse v;hortleberry. 

Spruce-lodgepole pire forest . This type is found en north-facing 
slopes ard alcxg streams from 1600 to 2100 m on East Butte cxily. 
Lodgepole pine ard spruce dcminate a sparse understory similar in 
ccmpositicn to the lodgepole pine forest. 

Temperate subalpire fir forest . Subalpine fir and spruce dcminate 
steep, shady north-facing slcpes from 1650 to 1800 m above Rittocn 
Gulch (west side of East Butte). This unusually low-elevation 
oocurrence of subalpine fir rray be due to cold air drainage down 
the canycn. Scattered lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir are found in 
the type. Tne understory includes Rocky fountain maple, harebell, 
fireweed, twinflower, one-flowered wintergreen, russet 
buffaloberry and grouse whorU-eberxy. 

Subalpine forest . V/hitebark pine is a major conpcrient of forests 
near the sunmits of Nfeunt Brcwn and Mount Royal. Lodgepole pine, 
limber pire, spruce, and, en the north face of Mount Brown, 
subalpine fir also occur. These stands are apparently above the 
cold limits of Dcxiglas-fir. VJhitebark pine and lodgepole pine 
dominate forest stands at timber line en the summit of Vtest Butte. 
On Vfest Butte, subalpine fir is found only en the dry, rocky ridge 
south of the summit, v^-^ere its stunted, wind-blo^sTi form resembles 



17 



kxummholz. Understory plants acre virtually absent frcm most 
subalpine forest stands. 

Aspen groveland . Groves of aspen surrouri^ed by grassland are 
found up to 1800 m. These stands support a dense understory of 
herbaceous and shruMDy species, and are similar to the aspen 
groveland described by Lynch (1955) on the east slcpe of tie 
Rockies. 

Aspen woodland . Clcnes of aspen occur within the Douglas-fir 
forest at elevations between about 1400 and 1600 m. These stands 
have understories similar to the Douglas- fir forest and prcbably 
represent a fire-caused serai stage. 

Mountain ravines . In the higher mcntane regions, between 1500 and 
2000 m, major streams flew through steep rocky ravines. These 
ravines are generally bordered by coniferous forest and support 
stands of aspen and Rocky Mountain maple. 

Rubble slopes . ' Higher montane steep slcpes v;ith loose, lichen- 
covered rocks (1 to 4-dm diameter) are sparsely vegetated, 
occasicnally supporting clunps of spruce or lodgepole pine. Other 
species found on these rul±)le slopes Include sulfur buckwheat, 
klnikinnick, matted saxifrage and raspberry. 



18 



Several vegetaticn inventories of other isolated mountain ranges in 
Montana ard Canada may be pertinent to the Sv;eet Grass Hills. The 
flora of the Cypress Kills has been described by Breitung (1954), 
deVries and Bird (1968) and Newscme and Dix (1968). Forest habitat 
types of the Bear's Pav; Mountains have been classified by Roberts and 
Sibibemsen (1979a) and Roberts (1980). Forest habitat types of the 
Little Rocky Kjountaip.s have also been classified by Rcterts and 
Sitbemsen (1979b) and Rtierts (1980). Culv;ell et al. (1989) have 
described vegetation types of a porticxi of the Little Rocky Mountains. 

Forest habitat types of tl^ Blackfeet Indian Reservation have been 
classified by Cooper (1981), and Lynch (1955) has inventoried aspen 
groveland in Glacier County, Montana. 

Table 2 lists habitat types and ccnrnunity types reported in pertinent 
vegetaticn inventories. 

3.3.2 Habitat/CoTTTiunity Types of the Sv.eet Grass Hills 
A preliminary assessrrent of habitat/oGrrmunity types of the PACEC is 
possible utilizing general descriptions provided by Thcmpscn and Kuijt 
(1976a), qualitative notes frcm the rare plant inventory, and 
extrapolaticn of reports from adjacent, isolated mountain ranges. This 
assessment of types —List be cansidered speculative given the lack of 
quantitative ecological data. Photographs of representative vegetaticn 
types are presented in Arpendix B. 



19 



i 
m 



4-' 


CO 





at 


u 


(C 


*M 




JC 


c 


u 


a 


a 


^ 


r-4 


•c 


C3 


c 




»-< 



O -t 

K a 



o o 
a 2: 



■Q 
O 

X 



3 X 


4-> 


_2 




CT 


I4 


3 




U *J 


<0 


u 




i-) 


CT 


^ 


J= 


a 1 


« 


f 


•a 


d 


U 


ja 




-H t> -a 


£ 


T3 


c 


u 


3 


^ 


a 


u «-^ c 


5 


C 


a 


X 


.H 





□ 


-< \ ej 




c 


.-) 


3 


J3 


D 


c 



-I « C U C 



U > O iJ O 3 



C £ J 01 -^ 



O « 3 W 



C 3 
-H O 

« e 
J} 
3 
« 



C 3 

cr 
'-I c 



3 















__;^ 











-o 




v< 


JZ 




iJ 


e 


*J 




X 




X 


ft) 






c 




J^ 


'J 




JZ 





j: 




u 




Ji 


U 




4 




3 


" 


iJ 




u 






u 




u 







U 


*J 


^ 


Si 




>, 


"V. 


>» 


•^ 


V 


'^ 


■^ 


\ 


iJ 


^ 




"N^ 


■^ 


X 


u 


u 


u 


u. 


n 


u 


c 


U 


• 


U 


X 


u 


■-* 




u 


.^ 


u 


.^ 





.H 


c 


—4 


X 


•-^ 




-H 


-< 


•3 


a 


4M 





1-) 


u 


1-1 


M 


H^ 




(M 


JJ 


Vl 


«-l 





J3 


1 


Si 


1 


_4 


1 


-i: 


1 


ft) 


1 





1 


1 


c 


J 


u 


3 


a 


> 


a 


*H 


ta 


c 


(0 


.-1 


e 


c 


3 











c 


ki 





c 


c 











c 


c 


r» 


c 




c 


^ 





^ 


•H 


w 


u 


•H 


-H 


—< 


^^ 





u> 


w 





01 


a 


CT 


ji: 


D> 


D» 


tn 


> 


Di 





•3 




3 





3 





3 





3 





3 





3 



3 






20 



a -I 

•H -a 



o c 

o -< 



AJ 

r 



u — . 

o. — 
u 



\ a \ u 



CO c c • c 



c 

3 ■ 
0. -^^ 







. 


iJ 




C 






X 


X 











u 




u 


e 






tl 


r-i 












J 


•H 


■H 


u 




jj 





a 


L. 


•X. 


c 




-H 


jj 


V 


u 





J= 


•-4 


o 


CT 


■^ 


E 




c 


a 




«H 



• JZ 



u « o u -* 







c 


u 




J3 


>• 


c 


>. 


u 




« 




H 


o 


u 


en 


ji: 


N 


U 




6 


u 


ti 


u 


_4 


V 


Q 


e 


V 


c 


« 


JT 


a 


Z 



O O 3 O e O C 
^avjzvoa:x 



C7^ CT 

a -o T 



D* U D> JJ 



V V C O V 

to U 3 u o 

3-^33 



[1. c a c 



a tr a 

--H 3 >-< 






o d c c c 



a c. -t 3 



3 



-< 3 a 



a 
o 



2 C O C O -< 

< W X -< CI J3 

M Q. -^ > "X J3 

3 



< < c e 



21 



•a 
a 

c 



O o» 
O -I 



a ~ -< 



•a 

3 



c 



C » I. J3 C 






0. ^ a a 

>• >i = 

w >• " a 

o c c 

^ e 0. €> 

J3 E O 



I a c a u 
u -H 4J q: 



3 E -1 
O O "O 

-H S S C 



X O O u 



r^ c o u r-* c 

O^ c o o 

^^ O « J3 rH c 

E XI -c — 



X z -o « o ■" s: 






-I « 



.-" c >i 



Id r-4 



o CO 



J3 

a 



j: u 0. -I 



flJ J >-. t) -» -H 

u CO u c3 J a 



tl ^ 

a a 

O J3 

O 3 

(J IS 



22 



GRASSLAND TfPES 

Prairie grassland . Several types potentially occur in the prairie 
surrouTiiing the Sv/eet Grass Hills; however, the PACEC is primarily 
above elevaticns characteristic of Northern Great Plains prairie 
associaticns . AJ^sence of fescue species differentiates the 
prairie grassland from foothills, montane and subalpine 
grasslands. Ecminant species include wheatgrasses (primarily 
western in association with thickspike and bluebunch), 
needlegrasses (primarily needle-and-thread with seme green 
needlegrass ) , blue grama and dryland sedges (threadleaf ard 
needleleaf ). 

Foothi 1 1 s grassland . This type is dominant in the Buttes 
iirmediately above prairie grassland. Fescues doninate most 
stands. Table 3 presents qualitative data en ccnpositicn of three 
... vicinity stands sanpled by Ross et al. (1973) in their assessnent 
of near-pristine sites in Mcntana. Each site is clearly 
dcminated by rough fescue. Idaho fescue is present in each stand, 
but ccnpositicn is lew. Perennial forbs contribute 4 to 10 
percent ccnpositicn by v.eight. The foothills grassland most 
closely fits the rough fescue/Idaho fescue habitat type of. 
Mueggler and Stewart (1980). It differs in the ftLlls by a paucity 
of Idaho fescue and perennial forbs, and a very high ccnpositicn 
of rough fescue. Table 4 presents a ccnpariscn of ungrazed and 
grazed stands at the Gold Butte Coretery (Ross et al. 1973). 
Needle-and-thread, not recorded in the ungrazed stand, increased 

23 



Table 3. Percent ccnposition (by v«ight) of three near-pristire 
sites in foothills grassland of the Sv.ieet Grass Hills 
(Ross et al. (1973)). 



Species 


Gold Butte 
CefTetery 


Rough fesov^. 


80 


Ifiaho fescue 


T 


VtestPtn & Thickspike 

wheatyi-ass 5 


Green needlegrass 


5 


Cusick bluegiciss 


T 


Threadleaf sedge 


T 


Perennial forbs 


10 


Annuals and 
hipnm'al.c? 


T 



Thcnpson Ranc±i 
SE of Whitlash 

92 

2 

T 
1 

T 
5 



Osvcod F?arch 
SE of VJhitlash 

93 

1 



Prairie rose 



1 
4 

T 

1 



24 



Table 4. Percent ccrposition (by weight) of ungrazed and grazed 
foothills prairie in the Sweet Grass Hills (Gold Butte 
Canetexy) (Ross et al. (1973)). 



Species Ungrazed Grazed 

Rough rescue 80 5 

Idaho fescue T 

Western wheatgrass 5 5 

Green needlegrass 5 

Threadleaf sedge T 5 

Needle-and-thread 50 

Prairie junegrass 15 

Cusick bluegrass T 

Perennial forbs 10 15 

Annuals T 3 

Brocm snakeweed 2 



25 



to 50 percent ccrrposition (by v^eight) vath grazing. Ptough fescue 
decreased dramatically with grazing frcm 80 to 5 percent 
cornposition, indicating a grazing-induced serai ccmmunity 
daninated by needle-and- thread. This grazing response also 
indicates a substantial deviation frcm I-lisggler and Stew-art's 
(1980) rough fescue/Idaho fescue habitat type, since their paired 
stands for the type do not shew needle- and- thread as a primary 
increaser. 

Grassland similar to the rough fescue/bluebunch wheatgrass habitat 
type was observed en slightly drier sites. 

It is likely that additicxial investigaticns will delineate several 
associations for foothills grassland, reflecting the range of site 
differences within this zone. 

Mcntane grassland . As in the foothills grassland zone, rough 
fescue is the dominant species over most of the montane grassland. 
Potential habitat types within this zore include: 

Rough fescue/ Idaho fescue 

Rough fescue/bluebunch wheatgrass 

Idaho fescue/bluebunch v^eatgrass 

These types were identified by Culwell et al. (1989) in the 
montane zone of the Little Rocky Fountains. Qualitative 

26 



observations indicate ccmpositional differences frcrr, :-l:eggler and 
Stewart's (1980) tj^pes. The rough fescue/bluebunch '.•.rsatgrass and 
Idaho fescue/bluebunch v;heatgrass types are much rore limited 
than the rough fescue/Idaho fescue type in the Sv;eet Grass Hills. 

Subalplne grassland . The subalpins grassland is limited to 
relatively small areas above timber line on the sumrits of Kount 
Royal and West Butte. Ftough fescue is dcminant in scrre stands, 
but ccrTTTiunity stature and associated species ccnpositicn indicate 
dissimilarities vdth mcntane grassland. Tvro tentative types based 
on Thompson and Kuijt's (1976a) description are rough 
fescue/ shrubby cinquefoil and sedge rveado^i. Idaho fescue and 
shruttoy cinquefoil are dcminant on the top of Mt. Royal, 
suggesting a third type (possibly a serai phase of the rough 
fescue type ) . Herbaceous species indicative of the subalpine zone 
are listed in Table 1. 

UPLAND SHRUB 

Shrubby cinquefoil grassland . Relative cover of shrubby 
cinquefoil in sctre areas warrants separation fran grassland 
types. Rough fescue, usually the dcminant grass, identifies the 
shrubby cinquefoil/rough fescue habitat type of Mieggler and 
Stewart (1980). Idaho fescue is dcminant in other stands, 
implying a shrul±y cinquef oil/Idaho fescue type. Since shrubby 
cinquefoil generally increases with grazing, additional 
investigations ^ould be required to determine ^-rf^ether the t^pe is 

27 



climax or a grazing-irduced serai cxxmunity in 1±e Sv^eet Grass 
Hills. 

Western sro'.-berTy/rose. Sv.'ales, upland drainages and other sna.v 
acxrijmulation areas support a la,'/ shrub type dominated by v^estem 
snc^±)erTY and rose. Understory species are similar to the 
adjacent grasslands v/ith higher abundance of rresic-site species. 
Kentucky bluegrass has generally invaded these stands. 

oo^^:FEROUs forest and savannah types 

Limber pine series . Limber pine is present as a codcminant or 
subdcminant in the Douglas-fir series, and forms pure stands on 
dry ridges east of Mt. Brc^•n. Limt)er pine stands are frequently 
open, appearing as a woodland or savannah. Idato fescue is the 
dcminant understory species, ijiplying the limber pine/Idaho fescue 
type of Pfister et al. (1977). 

Douglas-fir series . Douglas-fir occurs as dense forests on north- 
facing aspects at la^/er elevations and as a savannah on drier 
south- facing slopes. It is a serai ccrrponent of higher elevation 
forest in the spruce or subalpine fir series. Thcrpson and Kuijt 
(1976a) describe the understory as the most well-developed of 
coniferous types in the Hills. Etouglas-fir types described for 
the Bear's Paw r-'ountains and Little Rocky Fountains that may be 
present in the Si-.-eet Grass Hills include Douglas-fir/westem 



28 



snovjberry, Douglas-fir/sexviceberry, Douglas- fir/kinikinnick, 
Douglas-fir/Oregon grape, Douglas-fir/Canac3a violet, Douglas- 
fir/ t-v;infla.'.'er and Douglas- fir /burx^hterxy dogvxxx3. 

Lodgepple pine series . Lodgepole is extensive at mid to upper 
elevations on cool, mesic slopes. It is likely serai, related to 
fire history. Succession rrey be very slo,'/, hov^ver, reflecting 
possible soil loss follc^^ing extensive bums. Understory is 
depauperate, iraking classification difficult. Types that may be 
present include lodgepole pine/twinflo/,er, lodgepole pine/mixed 
shrub, lodgepole pine/huckleberry species, and lodgpole 
pine/ccnrron juniper. 

Spruce series . Spruce is found on East Butte (Figure 2) at mid 
to upper elevaticns. Potential types include spruce/tvrinflc^•.■er, 
spruce/ccmnxDn juniper and perhaps spruce/matted clematis on 
limestone substrates. 

Subalpine fir series . Subalpine fir/carmon juniper and subalpine 
fir/twinf lower are found in the Bear's Paw Mountains (Roberts, 
1980), and nay be present in the S\-.eet Grass Hills. Other 
possible subalpine fir types include subalpine fir/grouse 
whortleberry and subalpine fir-^siTitebark pine at the highest 
elevaticns. 



29 



DECIDUOUS FOREST 

^■spen series . Aspen cccurs as groves surrounded by grassland, and 
as voDdland in coniferous forest. Understory is dense and 
diverse. Possible types include aspen/si'ieetroot in the groves and 
aspen/ tv7infloi',er or aspen/westem srov-iDerry in the coniferous 
forest. 

i 

scree/t;^xus/rcck outcrop 

Most rocky slopes are poorly vegetated and can be designated 
technically as scree, talus or rock outcrop. Scattered trees 
occur en seme rocky slopes and may be designated as limber 
pine/ scree, spruce/scree or lodgepole pine/scree, depending on 
tree species dcminance. 



30 



4.0 KANAGEKENT RBCa-MENDATIONS 

Rare plants 

Field investigaticns should be ccntinued to determine the status of 
heart-leaved buttercup in the Sv-eet Grass Hills. Bureau of Lard 
Nfanagement or contract botanists should periodically ccnduct botanical 
investigations during spring or early summer to determine if heart- 
leaved buttercup is present in the PACBC. Investigaticns should be 
conducted prior to any changes in land management policies that might 
affect the taxcn. If no threats are posed to suitable habitat, the 
priority for additicnal investigaticns is considered lew. Because 
access is limited, and the Hills are rugged, a detailed field inventory 
to document the status of heart-leaved buttercup will require a 
substantial field effort. The status of springbeauty and twiggy 
halimolcfcos should be determined following verification of the voucher 
specirrens. 

Habitat type descriptions 

Habitat types of the Sv,eet Grass Hills have not been quantitatively 
described. Previous investigaticns by Thcnpscn and Kuijt (1976a) have 
been qualitative. Although plant ccmmunities in the ?iills resemble 
seme habitat types described for I-tntana by Pfister et al. (1977) and 
Mueggler and Stewart (1980), neither study specifically addressed or 
sampled types within the Hills. Sana similarities are apparent with 
other prairie mountain ranges in north-central ^tntana; hois'sver, each 
range ccntains unique types. A detailed quantitative evaluaticn of 

31 



habitat types of the Hills vould alla^ caorparison with otr»2r isolated 
mountain ranges (e.g. Bears Paw Mountains and Little Rocky .'-'ountains ) , 
and identify unique tyx^es that may merit protection or special 
management. 

Vegetation mapping 

Vegetatia-i mapping was beyond the scqpe of the rare plant inventory. 
Mapping of general vegetaticn types identified by Thcrrpscn ard Kuijt 
(1976) could be accctrplished using aerial ji^otographs and field 
verificaticn. Preparation of a habitat type map would be of more value 
to land management decisions. 

Noxious weeds 

Three state- listed noxious weeds were encountered en the PACEC during 
the rare plant inventory: leafy spurge ( Euphorbia esula ), spotted 
knap;';eed ( Centaurea maculosa ), and Canada thistle ( Cirsium arvense ). 
Identified populaticns included: 

Leafy Spurge - two locations on l-fest Butte: ere in the tottcm of 
Pratt Canyon bordering ccniferous forest (10m by 10m) and ere 
along a mining road en the west side of West Butte (Im x 5m); 
Spotted knapweed - A sizeable population on the edge of the quarry 
en the east side of East Butte - isolated plants were pulled; 
Canada thistle - A small population in a drainage north of Mount 
Brcxsn in a moderately to heavily grazed pasture. 

Reocmmsndations for noxious weed control include: 

32 



1) Conduct additional surveys to identify populations of noxious 
weeds. 

2) Mali tor knom populations. 

3) Selectively spray the quarry area for spotted knapweed. 

4) Mechanically control isolated populations of spotted knap;';eed 
by hand pullirg. 

5) Consider spot spraying of Canada thistle and/or modificaticns 
to the grazing plan. 



33 



5.0 LITERATURE CITED 



Breitung, A.J. 1954. A botanical survey of thie Cypress Hills. Can. 
Field-Natural. 68:55-92. 

Cooper, S.V. 1981. Forest habitat types of the Blackfeet Indian 
Reservation. In coop with Intermountain For. and Range Exp. Stn. 
Forest Sci. Lab, R.D. Pfister. Prep, for Bur. Ind. Affairs, Wind River 
Agency, Fort V/ashakie, t'^ycming. 87 p. + apperd. 

Culv^ell, L.D., K.L. Sco;-/ and L.A. Larsen. 1989. Vegetation resources 
of the Landusky and Zortman life-of-mine area. Little Rocky Mountains, 
Montana. Tech I^t. for Zortman Mining, Inc. by VESTBCH, Helena, 
Mcxitana. 40 p. + append. 

deVries, B. and CD. Bird. 1968. Additions to the vascular flora of 
the Cypress Hills, Albei-fca. Blue Jay 26:98-100. 

Dom, R.D. 1977. Flora of the Black Hills. Publ. by R.D. and J.L. 
Dom. 377 p. 

Dom, R.D. 1984. Vascular plants of Mcntana. Mtn. Vfest Publ., 
Cheyenne, VJycming. 175 p. 

Dom, R.D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoning. Mtn. West Publ., 
Cheyenne, V^ycming. 340 p. 

Great Plains Flora Associaticn. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. 
Univ. Press of Kansas, Lav/rence. 1392 p. 

Hagener, L.W. 1972. Wild flowers, shrubs and trees of north central 
Mcntana. Botany Dept., Northern Mcntana College. Ashtcn Printing, 
Butte, I-fcntana. 79 p. 

Hagener, L.V/. and A.R. Hagener. 1977. Free for all - edible and useful 
wild plants of north central Montana. Hill County Printing Co., Havre, 
Montana. 76 p. 

Hansen, P.L., S.W. Chadde and R.D. Pfister. 1988. Riparian dominance 
types of Nixitana. Misc. Publ. No 49. Montana Forest and Ccnserv. Exp. 
Station, School of Forestry, Univ. of Mcxitana, Missoula. 411 p. 

Harrington, H.D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. Auth. by the 
Colorado State Board of Agriculture and prepared with the cooperation 
of Colorado State Univ. The Swallow Press, Inc., Chicago. 666 p. 

Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist, M. CXvnbey and J.W. Thcrpson. 1955-1969. 
Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Vols. 1-5, Univ. of 
Washington Press, Seattle. 



34 



Hitchcxxi<, C.L. and A. Cronquist. ' 1973. Flora of the Pacific 
Northwest. Urav. of VJashington Press, Seattle, Washington. 730 p. 

Kearney, T.H. end R.H. Peebles (eds). 1960. Arizona flora. Univ. of 
California Press, Berkeley. 1085 p. 

Kuchler, A.W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the ccnterminous 
Untied States (rrap). An-erican Geograf^iic Society, special publication 
No. 36. 

Kuijt, J. 1982. A flora of Vfetertcn Lakes National Park. Univ. of 
Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 584 p. 

Lesica,, P., G. t-toore, K.M. Petersen and J.H. Rurrely. 1984. Vascular 
plants of limited distrihuticn in Montana. Koitana Academy of Science 
r-fcn. No. 2. 61 p. 

Locman, J. and K.F. Best. 1979. Budd's flora of the Canadian praixie 
provinces. Res. Branch Agriculture Canada, Publ. 1662, Ottawa. 863 p. 

Lynch, D. 1955. Ecology of the aspen groveland in Glacier County, 
Mcxitana. Ecological t'fcnographs 25:322-345. 

Moss, E.H. 1959. Flora of Alberta. Univ. of Toronto Press. Toronto. 
546 p. 

Mueggler, W.F. and W.L. Stewart. 1980. Grassland and shrubland 
habitat types of western Kcxitana. USDA Forest Service, Cgden, Utah. 
General Tech. Rept. I^)T-66. 154 pp. 

Newscme, R.D. and R.L. Dix. 1968. The forests of the Cypress Hills, 
Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. American Midland Naturalist 80:118- 
185. 

Payne, G.F. 1973. Vegetative rangeland types in Montana. Montana 
Agricultural Experirrent Station Bulletin 671. ^fcntana State Univ., 
Bozeman. 

Pfister, R.D., B.L. Kovalchick, S.F. Amo and R.C. Presby. 1977. 
Forest habitat types of Montana, USDA Forest Service. General Tech. 
Report INT-34. 

Roberts, D.W. 1980. Forest habitat types of the Bear's Paw Mountains 
and Little Rocky Mountains, Montana. Master's Thesis. University of 
M:xitana, Missoula. 116 p. 

Rci)erts, D.W. and J.I. Sibbemsen. 1979a. Forest habitat types of the 
Bear's Paw Mountains. Unpublished report on file at the Montana Forest 
and Conservation Experirrent Station, Univ. of Montana, Missoula. 
Unpaged. 



35 



Ftoberts, D.W. and J.I. SUbbemsen. 1979b. Forest and woodland habitat 
types of north-central Montana. Vol. 1. The Little Rod<y I-tountains. 
Unpublished report en file at the t-tontana Forest and Ccnservaticn 
Experiment Station, Univ. of Montana, Missoula. Unpaged. 

Ross, R.L. and H.E. Hunter. 1976. Cimax vegetation of I-fcntana based 
en soils and climate. USDA Soil Conservation Service, Bozeman, 
Montana. 64 p. 

Ross, R.L., E.P. r-lurray and J.G. Haigh. 1973. Soil and vegetaticn 
inventory of near-pristine sites in Montana. USDA Soil Ccnserv. 
Serv. , Bozeman, MT. 55 p. 

Scoggan, H.J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Four volumes. Nat. I-lus. Nat. 
Sci. Canada, Ottawa. 

Shelly, J.S. 1989. Plant species of special concern. Unpublished 
mimeo. Mcxitana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 

Thcnpscn, L.S. and J. Kuijt. 1976a. Montane and subalpine plants of 
the Sweet Grass Hills, Montana, and their relation to early postglacial 
envircriTents of the Northern Great Plains. Can. Field-Natural. 90:432- 
448. 

Thcmpscn, L.S. and J. Kuijt. 1976b. List of vascular plants collected 
in the Sweetgrass Hills. Unpub. mimeo- 14 p. 

Van Bruggen, T. 1976. The vascular plants of South Dakota. Iowa State 
Univ. Press, Ames. 538 p. 

Weber, W.A. 1976. Rocky Nfciuntain flora. Colorado Associated Univ. 
Press, Boulder. 479 p. 

Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich and L.C. Higgins, 1987. A Utah 
flora. Great Basin Naturalist t^-fenoirs No 9. Brigham Young University, 
Provo, ur. 894 p. 



36 



APPENDIX A. 



Vascular plant species by class. S"- 
Liberty County. Kontana. 1989. 



:t Grass Hills, Tool- Countj 



: i n o ra 1 a 1 



Code 



Coaraon TJame 



NATIVE PERENNIAL GSA>^INOIDS 



Agrcpyron caninum 

Agropyron dasystachyua 

Agropyron splcatum 

Agrostis scabra 

Agrostis thurberiana* 

Alopecurus aequalis 

Bouteloua gracilis 

BroBus carlnatus 

Broaus ciliatus* 

Calanagrostis canadensis 

Calamagrostis purpurascens 

Calamagrostis rubescens 

Carex albonigra* 

Carex aquatilis* 

Carex athrostachya 

Carex atrata* 

Carex aurea 

Carex caplllaris 

Carex eleocharls* 

Carex filifolla 

Carex hoodi i 

Carex hystricina £?)• 
Carex nicroptera 
Carex nebrascensis 
Carex obtusata 
Carex parryana* 
Carex pensylvanica 
Carex petasata 
Carex phaeocephala* 
Carex raynoldsii 
Carex ros s i i 
Carex s Icca t a 
Carex sprengelil 
Carex xerantica 
Catabrosa aquatica 
Danthonia californica 
Danthonia inte media 
Deschampsla cespitosa 
Festuca idahoensis 
Festuca ovina 
Festuca scabrella 
<Helictotrichon hooker! 
Kordeum brachyantherum 
Hordeum Jubatum 
Juncus baltlcus 
Juncus ensifollus 
Juncus nevadensis 
Juncus tenuis 
Koeleria cristata 
Luzula spicata 
Fhleum alplnum 
Pea alpina* 
Poa compressa 
Poa cusickii 
Poa fendleriana 
Poa interior 
?oa Junclfolla 
Poa ne rvosa 



Agr 


can 


Agr 


das 


Agr 


spi 


Agr 


sea 


Agr 


thu 


Alo 


aeq 


Sou 


gra 


3ro 


car 


Bro 


cil 


Cal 


can 


Cal 


pur 


Cal 


rub 


Car 


alb 


Car 


aqu 


Car 


ath 


Car 


atr 


Car 


aur 


Car 


cap 


Car 


ele 


Car 


fil 


Car 


hoo 


Car 


hys 


Car 


nic 


Car 


neb 


Car 


obt 


Car 


par 


Car 


pen 


Car 


pet 


Car 


pha 


Car 


ray 


Car 


ros 


Car 


sic 


Car 


spr 


Car 


xer 


Cat 


aqu 


Dan 


cal 


Dan 


Int 


Des 


ces 


Fes 


Ida 


Fes 


ovl 


Fes 


sea 


Hel 


hoo 


Kor 


bra 


Hor 


jub 


Jun 


bal 


Jun 


ens 


Jun 


nev 


Jun 


ten 


Xoe 


cri 


Lui 


spl 


Phi 


alp 


Poa 


alp 


Poa 


COD 


Poa 


cus 


Poa 


fen 


Poa 


int 


Poa 


Jun 


Poa 


ner 



Slender wheat grass 

Thickspike wheatgras s 

Eluebunch wheatgrass 

Kough bentgrass 

Thurber bentgrass 

Shortawn foxtail 

Blue grana 

California brome 

Fringed b rone 

Bluejoint reedgrass 

Purple reedgrass 

Pinegrass 

Black-and-white scaled sedge 

-a ter sedge 

Slende rbeaked sedge 

Blackened sedge 

Golden sedge 

Hair sedge 

Needleleaf sedge 

Threadleaf sedge 

Hood's sedge 

Porcupine sedge 

Saallwing sedge 

Nebraska sedge 

Blunt sedge 

Parry sedge 

Sun sedge 

Liddon sedge 

Dunhead sedge 

Raynold's sedge 

Ross' sedge 

Silvertop sedge 

Sprengel's sedge 

Dryland sedge 

Brookgrass 

California oatgrass 

Ticber oatgrass 

Tufted hairgrass 

Idaho fescue 

Sheep fescue 

Hough fescue 

Splke-oat 

Meadow barley 

Foxtal 1 barley 

Wire rush 

Dagger-leaf rush 

Sierra rush 

Si ender rush 

Prairie junegrass 

Spiked woodrush 

Alpine timothy 

Alpine bluegrass 

Canada bluegrass 

Cusick bluegrass 

Mutton-grass 

Inland bluegrass 

Big bluegrass 

Vh eeler's bluegrass 



ll 



Common N'ane 



? oa rup i co 1 a 
?oa sandbergil* 
S t Ipa coma t a 
Stipa occidentalls 
S t Ipa vl ri dula 
Trisetura car. escens* 



Poa rup 
Poa san 
Sti cos 
Stl occ 
Sti vir 
Trl can 



Tinberline bluegrass 
N'ative bluegrass 
N'eedle-and-thread 
Columbia needlegrass 
Green needlegrass 
Tall trise turn 



INTRODUCED PERENNIAL GRASSES 



Acropyron repens 
Bromus inernis 
Festuca pratensls* 
Phleum pratense 
Poa palustris 
Poa p ra t ens i s 



Agr rep 
Bro ine 
Fes pra 
Phi pra 
Poa pal 
Poa pra 



Quackg rass 
Ssooth brorae 
Keadow f e s cue 
Cocnon ticothy 
Fowl bluegrass 
Kentucky bluegrass 



INTRODUCED ANNUAL GRASSES 



Eromus tectorura 



Cheatgrass 



NATIVE PERENNIAL F0R3S 



Achillea nlllefoliua 

Actaea rubra 

Agoserls glauca 

Allium cernuum 

Allium textile 

Anemone multlflda 

Anemone patens 

Angelica arguta 

Antennarla anaphaloldes 

An tennarla microphylla 

Antennarla neglect a 

Antennarla parvifolia 

An tennarla racemosa 

Antennarla ucbrinella 

Arable lemmonll 

Arabls nuttallil 

Arceuthoblum amerlcanun 

Arenarla congesta 

Arena rl a lateriflora* 

Arenarla rubella 

Arnica cordl folia 

Arnica f ulgens 

Arnica sororia* 

Artemisia campestris 

Artemisia long! foil a* 

Artemisia ludoviciana 

Aster falcatus 

Aster foliaceus 

Aster occidentalls 

As t e r pansus 

Astragalus aboriglnuo* 

Astragalus adsurgens 

Astragalus agrestis 

Astragalus drummondli 

Astragalus vexilliflexus 

Balsaraorhiza sagittata* 

Besseya wyomingensis 

Callitriche verna 

Calypso bulbosa 

Campanula parryi (?)* 

Campanula rotundifolia 

Castilleja lutescens 

Castilleja rhexi folia (x ciniata?) 



Ach mil 
Act rub 
Ago gla 
All cer 
All tex 
Ane oul 
Ane pat 
Ang arg 
Ant ana 
Ant nic 
Ant neg 
Ant par 
Ant rac 
Ant ucb 
Ara lea 
Ara nut 
Arc erne 
Are con 
Are lat 
Are rub 
Arn cor 
Arn ful 
Arn sor 
Art cam 
Art Ion 
Art lud 
Ast fal 
Ast fol 
Ast occ 
Ast pan 
Ast abo 
Ast ads 
Ast agr 
Ast dru 
Ast vex 
Bal sag 
Bes wyo 
Cal ver 
Cal bul 
Can par 
Cam rot 
Cas lut 
Cas rhe 



Common yarrow 

Red baneberry 

Pale agoserls 

Nodding onion 

Textile onion 

Ball anemone 

Pasquef lowe r 

Sharp tooth angelica 

Tall pussy toes 

Rose pussytoes 

Field pussytoes 

Snail-leaf pussytoes 

Raceme pussytoes 

L'=:ber pussytoes 

Lemmon's rockcress 

Nut tall rockcress 

American dwarf mistletoe 

Ballhead sandwort 

Blunt leaf sandwort 

Reddish sandwort 

Keartleaf arnica 

Orange arnica 

Twin arnica 

Field sagewor t 

Long- leaved sagewort 

Cudweed sagewort 

Creeping white prairie aster 

Leafybract aster 

Western mountain aster 

Tufted white prairie aster 

Indian milkvetch 

Prairie milkvetch 

Purple milkvetch 

Druomond milkvetch 

Bent- flowered milkvetch 

Arrowleaf balsamroot 

Kittentall 

Spring water- s tarworc 

Fairy-slipper. 

Parry's harebell 

Roundleaf harebell 

Yel low paintbrush 

Khexia-leaved paintbrush 



Blnomi a 1 

Cerastlum arvense 
Chamaerhodos erecta 
Clcuta douglasli* 
Cirslura unc-jlatuna 
Claytonla la.iceolata var. 
Clematis colucbiar. a* 
Clematis tenuiloba 
Comandra usbellata 
Conlnitella viHiansii 
Corallorhiza aaculata* 
Corallorhiza trifida 
Corydallc aurea 
Crepis runcinata 
Cryptantha celosioides 
Cystopterls fragilis 
Delphinium bicolor 
Disporum trachycarpu= 
Dodecatheon conjugens 
Dodecatheon pulchellun* 
Draba au re a* 
Draba oligosperna* 
Epilobium alpinun 
Epilobium angustifolium 
Equisetum arvense 
Equisetum laevigatvia 
Erigeron acris* 
Erigeron caespitosus 
Erigeron coapositus 
Erigeron corynbosus 
Erigeron glabellus* 
Erigeron puailus* 
Erigeron sisplex* 
Erigeron speciosus 
Erlogonuo flavum 
Eriogonum u=bellacun 
Erysimum i neon spicu urn 
Fragaria Virginian a 
Fritlllaria pudica 
Gaillardia aristata 
Galium boreale 
Caura coccinea 
Gent i ana acarella* 
Geranium richardscnii 
Geranium viscosissicun 
Geum aleppicum 
Geum triflorun 
Habenaria hyperborea 
Hedysarum alpinum 
Hedysarua sulphurescens 
He li an thus rigidus 
Heracleum lanatura 
Heterotheca villosa 
Heuchera pa rvi folia 
Hieracium uzibel latum* 
Hymenoxys acaulis* 
Lathyrus ochroleucus 
Lesquerella alpina 
Linum perenne 
Lithophragna parviflora 
Lithospernua rude rale 
Loma t i um cous 
Lomatium dissectua 
Lomatiura cacrocarpum 
Lomatium triternatum 
Luplnus argenteus 



Code 



(?) 



Cer 


arv 


Cha 


ere 


Cic 


dou 


Cir 


und 


Cla 


Ian 


Cle 


col 


Cle 


ten 


Con 


umb 


Con 


wll 


Cor 


mac 


Cor 


trl 


Cor 


aur 


Cre 


run 


Cry 


eel 


Cys 


fra 


Del 


blc 


Dls 


tra 


Dod 


con 


Dod 


pul 


Dra 


aur 


Dra 


oil 


Epi 


alp 


Epl 


ang 


Equ 


arv 


Equ 


lae 


Erl 


acr 


Erl 


cae 


Erl 


COQ 


Erl 


cor 


Erl 


gla 


Erl 


pUffl 


Erl 


sla 


Erl 


spe 


Erl 


fla 


Erl 


umb 


Ery 


Inc 


Fra 


vlr 


Frl 


pud 


Gal 


arl 


Gal 


bor 


Gau 


COG 


Ccn 


aoa 


Ger 


rlc 


Cer 


vis 


Geu 


ale 


Geu 


trl 


Hab 


hyp 


Hed 


alp 


Hed 


sul 


Hel 


rig 


Her 


Ian 


Het 


vll 


Heu 


par 


Hie 


umb 


Hyn 


aca 


Let 


och 


Les 


alp 


Lin 


per 


Lit 


par 


Lit 


rud 


Lorn 


cou 


Lorn 


dls 


Lom 


cac 


Lorn 


trl 


Lup 


arg 



C:;-non Name 

rield chickweed 

Cr.acaerhodos 

Vestern water- he:=lock 

-'avyleaf thistle 

Sp ringbeau ty 

r.zc'< clematis 

Katted purple clematis 

rale bastard toadflax 

Coniml tel la 

Spotted coral -root 

Early coral-root 

Golden corydalis 

Dandelion hawksbeard 

Miner's candle 

Brittle bladderfern 

Low larkspur 

Sough-fruited fairy-bells 

Shooting star 

Few-flowered shooting star 

Golden draba 

Few -seeded draba 

Alpine willow-herb 

Fireweed 

Cocmon horsetail 

Smooth scouring- ru sh 

Bitter f leabane 

Tufted fleabane 

Fernleaf fleabane 

Purple daisy fleabane 

Snoo th da i sy 

Shaggy fleabane 

Alpine daisy 

Showy fleabane 
Yellow buckwheat 

Sulfur buckwheat 

S=all wallflower 

Virginia strawberry 

Yellowbells 

Cocmon gaillardia 

Northern bedstraw 

Scarlet gaura 

Northern gentian 

Richardson geranium 

Sticky geranium 

Yellow avens 

Prai riesmoke 

Green bog-orchid 

American sweetvetch 

Yellow sweetvetch 

Stiff sunflower 

Cow parsnip 

Hairy golden aster 

Lit tie leaf alumroot 

Narrow- leaved hawkweed 

Stenless hymenoxys 

Cream peavine 

Alpine bladderpod 

Blue flax 

Smal 1 f lowe r woodlands tar 

Vestern gromwell 

Cous biscuit-root 

Fern- leaved lomatium 

Large- frui ted lomatium 

Kineleaf lomatium 

Silvery lupine 



A - 3 



Lupin us lepidus 
Lychnis dru-r.ondii 
Kertensia viridis* 
Monarda fist-jlosa 
Musineon divaricatuz 
Oenothera cespitosa 
Orobanche fasciculata 
Osrcorhiza depauperate* 
Cxytropis lagopus (?}* 
Oxytropis sericea 
Oxytropis splendens 
Parnassia palustris 
Penstemon cor. fertus 
Penstemon nitidus 
Penstemon procerus 
Perlderidia gairdr.eri 
Phacella sericea* 
Phlox alyssifolia 
Phlox hoodi i 
Polenonium pulcherrisua 
Polemoniun viscosun 
Polygonum bistortoices 
Potentllla anserina* 
Potentilla arguta 
Potentllla diversi folia 
Potentilla glandulosa 
Potentilla gracilis 
Potentilla hippiana 
Potent! 11a pensylvanica 
Pyrola asarifolia* 
Pyrola secunda 
Pyrola uniflora* 
Pyrola vlrens 
Ranunculus acris 
Ranunculus aquatilis 
Ranunculus cardiophyllus* 
Ranunculus glaberri=.us 
Ranunculus uncinatus 
Runex salicifolius 
Saxifraga bronchial is 
Saxifraga cernua* 
Saxifraga occidental is 
Sedua lanceolatua 
Selaginella densa 
Senecio canus 
Senecio integerriaus 
Senecio strepCanthifolius 
Sibbaldla procunbens 
Silene parry i* 
Sisyrinchiua angustifoliua 
Srailaclna racemosa 
Snilacina stellata* 
Solidago gigantea* 
Solidago missouriensis 
Solidago roultiradiata* 
Solidago nenoralis* 
Solidago rigida 
Solidago spa thu lata* 
Stellaria longi folia* 
Thalictrura spp. 
Thernopsis rhonbifolia 
Town send la parry! 
Urtlca dloica 
Veronica areericana 



Lup 


lep 


Lye 


dru 


.'ler 


vi r 


Kon 


fis 


Hus 


div 


Oen 


ces 


Oro 


fas 


Osm 


de? 


Oxy 


lag 


Cxy 


ser 


Oxy 


spl 


Par 


pal 


Pen 


con 


Pen 


nit 


Pen 


pro 


Per 


gal 


Pha 


ser 


Phi 


aly 


Phi 


hoo 


Pol 


pul 


Pol 


vis 


Pol 


bis 


Pot 


ans 


Pot 


arg 


Pot 


div 


Pot 


gla 


Pot 


gra 


Pot 


hip 


Pot 


pen 


Pry 


asa 


?yr 


sec 


Pyr 


unl 


Pyr 


vir 


Ran 


acr 


San 


aqu 


Ran 


car 


Ran 


gla 


Ran 


unc 


Rum 


sal 


Sax 


bro 


Sax 


cer 


Sax 


occ 


Sed 


laa 


Sel 


den 


Sen 


can 


Sen 


int 


Sen 


str 


Sib 


pro 


Sil 


par 


Sis 


ang 


EDi 


rac 


Smi 


ste 


Sol 


gig 


sol 


mis 


Sol 


Qui 


Sol 


nem 


Sol 


rig 


Sol 


spa 


Ste 


Ion 


Tha 


spp. 


The 


rho 


Tow 


par 


Urt 


dlo 


Ver 


ame 



Coamon Nar.e 

Prairie lupine 

Dru.T.raond car^p ion 

Green bluebel 1 s 

Horsemint 

Leafy musineon 

Tufted evening prinrcse 

Clustered broorarape 

3lunt-fruited sweet- rsot 

Haresfoot loco 

Vhite point loco 

Showy crazyweed 

N'orthern grass-of-parr.assus 

Yellow penst e-Ti o n 

Uaxleaf pensteraon 

Littleleaf penstemon 

Yanipa 

Si Iky phacel i a 

Alyssura-leaved phlox 

Hood's phlox 

Showy polenoniuzi 

Sticky polemoniua 

Anerican bistort 

Comnon silverweed 

Tall cinquef oi 1 

Diverse-leaved cincuefoil 

Glandular cinque foil 

Northwest cinquefoil 

Horse cinquefoil 

Prairie cinque foil 

Cocaon pink wintergreen 

Sidebells pyrola 

W'oodnynph 

Green- flowered wintergreen 

Meadow buttercup 

Wa tercrowf oo t buttercup 

Heart- leaved buttercup 

Sagebrush buttercup 

Little buttercup 

Ulllowleaved dock 

Matted saxifrage 

Nodding saxifrage 

Western saxfrage 

Lance leaf stonecro? 

Cocpact clubmoss 

Woolly groundsel 

Lacbs tongue groundsel 

Rocky Mountain butte r^.' e e d 

Creeping sibbaldla 

Parry " s silene 

Blue-eyed grass 

Feather solcTion's seal 

Starry false soloaon's seal 

Saooth goldenrod 

Missouri goldenrod 

Northern goldenrod 

Field goldenrod 

Stiff goldenrod 

Dune goldenrod 

Long-leaved star wort 

Meadow rue 

Round-leaved theraopsis 

Parry's townsendia 

Stinging nettle 

American speedwell 



Lai 



Code 



Co::;r.on U&me 



Viria araericar.a 
Viola adunca 
Viola canadensis 
Viola nutrallii 
U'oodsia oreg = na 
Zigadenus elegans 
Zigadenus venenosus 
Zizia aptera* 



Vic a .T. e 
Vio adu 
Vio can 
Vio nut 
V c o ore 
Zig ele 
Zig ven 
Ziz apt 



Are r ican vetch 

Western violet 

Canada violet 

N'uttall violet 

W o c d s i a 

Glaucous zigadenus 

Meadow death caraas 

Heart-leaved Alexanders 



I.VTHODUCED rISENMAL ?CRBS 



Centaurea maculosa 
Cirsiun arver.se 
Euphorbia esula 
Rusex acetcsa 
Ru::.ex acetosella 
Taraxacum officinale 
Trifolium reoens 



C e n mac 
Cir arv 
Eup esu 
Rua ace 
Rua ace 
Tar off 
Tri rep 



Spotted knapweed 
Canada thistle 
Lea f y spu rge 
Garden sorrel 
Sheep sorrel 
CosDon dandelion 
White clover 



NATIVE ANNUAL/BIENNIAL FORBS 



And rosace septentrional is 
Arabia divaricarpa 
Arabis glabra 
Arabis hirsuta 
Arabis holboellii 
Barbarea orthoceras 
Chenopodlun leptophylluo 
Collinsia parviflora 
Collonia linearis 
Descurainia pinnata 
Descurainia richardsonii 
Ellisia nyctelea 
Epilobium paniculatun* 
Erigeron strigosus* 
Crindelia squarrosa 
Kackelia deflexa 
Halicolobos vircata Ji:^ 
Lepidiun dens iflo run 
Minulus guttatus 
Monolepis nuttalliana 
Oenothera villosa 
Orthocarpus luteus 
Phacelia linearis 
Plagiobothrys scouleri 
Polygonum douglasii 
Potentilla rivalis* 
Ranunculus abortivus 
Ranunculus sceleratus 
Veronica peregrina 



And sep 
Ara div 
Ara gla 
Ara hir 
Ara hoi 
Bar ort 
Che lep 
Col par 
Col lin 
Des pin 
Des ric 
Ell nyc 
Epi pan 
Eri str 
Gri squ 
Hac def 
Hal vir 
Lep den 
Mio gut 
Mon nut 
Oen vil 
Ort lut 
Pha lin 
Pla SCO 
Pol dou 
Pot riv 
Ran abo 
Ran see 
Ver per 



Northern rockjasoine 
Spread ing-pod rockcress 
Tower mustard 
Hairy rockcress 
Holboell's rockcress 
Aner ican wintercress 
Narrow goosefoot 
Blue-eyed Mary 
Narrow-leaved collonia 
Pinnate tansyaustard 
Mountain tansynustard 
Nyctelea 

Autuon willow herb 
Daisy f leabane 
Curlcup guiEweed 
Nodding stickseed 
Twiggy halimolobos 
Prairie pepperweed 
CocDon monkey flower 
Patata 

Rycberg's evening primrose 
Yellow owlclover 
Linearleaf phacelia 
Scouler* s plagiobothrys 
Douglas knot weed 
Brook cinquefoil 
Small flower buttercup 
Celery- leaved buttercup 
Purslane speedwell 



INTRODUCED ANNUAL/S I ENNI AL TORSS 



Alyssum alyssoides 
Berteroa incana 
Camel ina microcarpa 
Capsella bursa-pastoris 
Chenopodiuio album 
Cirsiura vulgare 
Draba nemorosa 
Erysimum cheiranthoides* 
Melilotus officinalis 
Sisymbrium altissimum 
Thlaspi arvense 
Tragopogon dubius 



Aly aly 
3er inc 
Cam mic 
Cap bur 
Che alb 
Cir vul 
D r a n e ra 
Ery che 
Mel off 
Sis alt 
Thl arv 
Tra dub 



Pale alyssum 

Berteroa 

Littlepod falseflax 

Shepherd' s-purse 

Lambsquarter goosefoot 

Bull thistle. 

Woods draba 

Treacle mustard 

Yel low sweetclover 

Tumblemus tard 

Fanveed 

Common salsify 



Binomial 



SUBSHRUBS 



Arctostaphylos uva-ursi 
Artemisia frigida 
Berberis repens* 
Chipaphila ucbellata* 
Cornus canadensis* 
Linnaea borealis 



Arc uva 
Art fri 
3 er rep 
Chi umb 
Cor can 
Lin b o r 



KinikinnicK 
Tringed sage wort 
Creeping Oregon- grape 
Prince's pine 
Bunchberry dogwood 
Ues-ern twinf lowe r 



Lev SHRUBS 



Aaelanchier alnifolia 
Ceanothus velutinus* 
Cornus stolon ifera* 
Juniperus coasunis 
Junlperus horizontalis 
Juniperus scopulorua* 
Potentllla fruticosa 
Prunus virginiana 
Ribes set05i:n 
Rosa acicularis (?) 
Rosa arkansana 
Rosa woodsi i 
Rubus Idaeus 
Shepherdla canadensis 
Spiraea betulifolia 
Symphoricarpos albus* 
Synphoricarpos occidental: 
Vacciniura caespitosua 
Vaccinium aecbranaceua* 
Vacclnium nyrtillus* 
Vaccinium scoparium* 



A =: e a 1 n 
C e a V e 1 
Co r s t o 
J u n com 
Jun hor 
J u n SCO 
Pot fru 
Pru vir 
Rib set 
Ros aci 
Ros ark 
Ros woo 
Rub ida 
She can 
Spi bet 
Sya alb 
Syn occ 
Vac cae 
Vac nem 
Vac myr 
Vac SCO 



Western serviceberry 
Snowbrush ce ano thus 
Red osier dogwood 
Cc==on juniper 
Creeping juniper 
Rocky Kountain juniper 
Shrubby cincuef oi 1 
CoE=on choke cherry 
Reds hoot gooseberry 
Prickly rose 
Prairie rose 
Wood ■ s rose 
Red raspberry 
Canada buffaloberry 
Uhi te spirea 
CocEon snowberry 
Western snowberry 
Dwarf huckleberry 
Thin leaf huckleberry 
Dwarf bilberry 
Grouse whortleberry 



TREES AND TALL SHRUBS 



Abies lasiocarpa 
Acer glabruQ 
Acer negundo* 
Crataegus douglasii* 
Picea engelmannii x glauca 
Pinus albicaulis 
Pinus contorta 
Pinus f lexilis 
Populus trenuloides 
Populus trichocarpa 
Pseudotsuga nenziesii 
Salix bebbiana 
Sallx exigua 



Abi las 
Ace gla 
Ace neg 
Cra dou 
Pic eng 
Pin alb 
Pin con 
Pin fie 
Pop tre 
Pop tri 
Pse nen 
Sal beb 
Sal exi 



Subalpine fir 

Rocky Mountain naple 

Box- elder 

3 1 ack hawthorn 

Engelnann spruce x White spruce 

Whitebark pine 

Lodcepole pine 

Licber pine 

Cuaking aspen 

Bl ack Cottonwood 

Douglas -fir 

Bebb willow 

Slender willow 



Scientific nomenclature follows Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) and Hitchcock 
et al. (1955-1969). Conion nanes were mostly taken from these sources. 



*Taxa listed by Thompson and Kuijt (1976b) for the Sweet Grass Hills, but which 
were not observed during 1989 WESTECH surveys: although some of these species are 
located on lands outside the PACEC, many are expected to occur within the PACEC. 



APPENDIX B. 


PH0T0C3RAPHS 


Photo No. 


Location 


EAST BJn'E 
1 


Locking W toiv-ard Middle 
and West Buttes 


2 


S side ^tt. Bxcwn 


3 


Tog of ^It. Royal looking SW 


4 


N side Mt. Bro.-7n 


5 


Little Joe Creek 



MIIX)I£ BUTTE 
8 



10 
11 

WEST BLTTTE 
12 

13 ■ 

14 

15 

16 



(Ntt. Royal on left) 



Locking down Little Joe 
Creek to Breed Creek 

NW ELM boundary 
(Mt. Brown en left) 



NW end Middle Butte 

E side of West Butte fron 
Middle Butte 

N side Middle Butte 

Looking N from Middle Butte 



SW end of l-fest Butte locking 
N f rem Coal Mine road 



Locking N to head of Fred 
and George Creek 

W side of West Butte 

Locking SW at Kicking Horse 
Canyon 

Saddle en W side Vtest Butte 



Ccmmunity Type 

Coniferous forest 

Scree/talus 

Subalpine grassland 

Foothills grassland 

Montane grassland vd.th 
lupine and shrutiy 
cinquefoil 

Shrubby cinquefoil 
grassland 

Foothills grassland 



Scree/ talus. Forested 
scree/talus. Foothills 
grassland 

Foothills grassland 



Cpen coiiferous forest 

Foothills grassland with 
shrubby cinquefoil 



Scree/ talus. Forested 
scree/ talus. Rock outcrcp. 
Foothills grassland 

Mcntane grassland. 
Coniferous forest 

Mosaic of types 

Mcntane grassland, 
Ccniferous forest 

Mcntane grassland. Shrubby 
cinquefoil 



B 



'1' 't' i'^- I 




pi'-^?i^.w..-- 








; i's.jii''^:: ■'- 




i iv.Si-- • - 








w? 




•S3> ,:••- 




■e^ «•-■ 




-«' aT;:--' 




V* e^? 




J, ».v- 






V"-^-^*t 


igj"':;,".- -'■ 


Wi 


.>^fr-.--.. ■ 


SjV'* 






^f(l 




'a;S^- ■ 



?* -5* 








i::;^'" 



I Q) 3 



<f o 

- in 








M JO 

-, in