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Full text of "Social Science (Std03 - English Medium)"


Government of Tamilnadu 

Social Science 

in - standard 






Untouchability 
Inhuman-Crime 






Depar 


tment of School Edu 


Lcation 






A Publication under 

Government of Tamilnadu 

Distribution of Free Textbook Programme 

(NOT FOR SALE) 











Government of Tamil Nadu 
First Edition - 2011 

[This book is published under Uniform System of School Education Scheme) 

AUTHORS 



Prof T MURUt^AVEt, 

Dept. of Humanities and Social Science, 
Sri Venkateswcra College of Eng,Sri Perunnpudur. 



Tmt. Meerpbal Gopt, 

Tl Matric Hr Sec School, 
Ambottur, Thiruvollur. 



Tmt S.Chftra, 

Panchayat Union Middle School, 

1 7,Asthinapuram,Kattangolothur, 

Kancheepuram. 

Tmt. A.kalaivani, 

Panchayat union Middle School, 
Zamin Kaliyapurann,Pollachi. 

Tmt. Manjit Srinlvas, 

The School (KFI), Adyar, 
Chennai. 



Tmt Srikala, 

Valliannmal Matric HrSec School 
Chennai. 

Tmt. Jeba Punitha, 

MCC Matric Hr Sec School, 
Chetpet, Chennai. 

Tmt. Prema, 

Leo Matric HrSec School 
Chennai. 



REVIEWER 



Thiru. V. EXPEDITH, 

Senior Consultant, SSA,DPL Chennai. 



Tmt. SUMITRA AA. GAUTAMA. 

Coordinator-Outreach ,The School [KFI),Chennai. 



AUTHOR CUM CHAIRPERSON 
Tmt. INDRA KOSALRAM, 

Govt.Hr.Sec.School Perangiyur, Viliupuram District. 



DTP 
Ttiiru Saroth chandran 



BOOK COVER DESIGN, LAYOUT, ART 

Tlilru R. BAUVSUBRAMANIAN, 

Govt.Hr.Sec.SchoolSurilipattiJheni District. 



ARTIST TEAM 

Ttifru M. JOHN RAJA, P.U.P.S Vengadesapurann,Cuddalore District 
Thiru S. MANOHARAN, Govt.Hr.Sec.School. Silannalai,Theni District. 



LAYOUT DESIGN 
Thiru N. SRINATH 



Textbook Printing 

Tamil Nadu Textbook Corporation, 

College Road, Chennai'600 006. 



This book has been printed on 80 G.S.M. Maphtho Paper 



Price: Rs. 

Printed by offset at: 




S.No 






1. The world I like 


1 


^H ^^^^^^^V^^^^^^^^^^^H 


2. My Neighbourhood 


8 


^^^^^^^^^^^^■^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


3. On my way to School 


14 


t^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B^^^^^P^^Hl 


4. Know your directions 


26 


■^■■■■^^■^^■■^■■^^^■H 


5. Are you safe on the road? 


35 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


6. Let us Travel 


45 


I^^^^^H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^tari 


7. Story of Food 


57 


^^■^^^■^^^r ^^ 


8. People who help us 


72 


k^^^^^^^^^^'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Hi 


9. Our District 


88 


10. Five Physiographical Divisions of Ancient Tamil Nadu 101 


■^■^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l^^^^^^^^^l 


^11. Our Feathered Friends 


^ 112 


i 


^M 





For our friends..- 

The aim of the new edition is to make children read and enjoy learning. There 
are activities that help them to work-individually and in small groups. It is important 
for the teacher to facilitate group learning, as it promotes cooperation and 
improves the quality of social interactions. The text is enriched by a variety of 
illustrations, photographs, diagrams, maps and tables. 

The chapters try to simulate real events that might contribute to learning in 
the classroom, and where possible, introduce characters drawn from every day life, 
in order to keep the children involved and interested in what they learn. Small 
narratives have been used as a tool for sensitizing the child to the links that history 
has with geography. Questions have been integrated into the learning frame, to 
achieve the desired competencies for Class III. While the book offers enough 
scope for precise and focused questioning, it is hoped that the child will not feel 
intimidated by the scope of evaluation. 

The book supports activity-based learning, and is 'learner centered'. The 
teacher has a vital role - and her presence in the textbook is both real and virtual. 
She stimulates the children's curiosity to learn further about 

►► the environment that they live in (surroundings - home, neighbourhood, school), 

^ the cardinal directions, road rules and the importance of safety, 

►► travel and means of transport, 

►> food and how it contributes to good health, 

►^ public services and how they support us, 

►► the districts of Tamilnadu, 

^ the five physiographical divisions of land in Ancient Tamil Nadu, and how 
they connect to our history and geography today, 

^ the colourful and rich world of birds 

^ an excursion to a historical site: Mamallapuram; and 

>¥ two Stories from history to read and enjoy. 

Finally, though the content of the book is child-centred, providing space 
to explore and to make children active participants in the process of learning, it 
is hoped that the teacher will enjoy and learn from transacting the book with 
children.. 



f^^ 



1. Where I Live 



®. 




lamMeena. V 



In my Home 

I like to... 



singsongs, 
eat tasty food, 
heap stories from my grandmother 
go out with my parents, 
play with my brother 




"^oT^X 



v- 



ij 



- * \lo 



--^'iiX 







.==^r 



' liJlL 



In my neighbourhood... 

I like to... 

play with my friends, 
go to the market with my mother, 
play on the swing in the park, 
ride a bicycle in the playground. 



.i:^'^ 






I 



At school 

I like to... 
grow plants. 

dance, sing, draw and make things, 
learn along with my friends . 
be appreciated by my teacher for good work 
play in the evening with my friends. 
What would you like to do? Write! 
At my 



M:Mi 




Home 



I like to... 



Neighbourhood 



I like to. 



School 



I like to... 




Latha, Jamal, John and Mary are studying In class III, 
They come from different neighbourhoods. 
Let us listen to what they are going to tell us: 




Where and with whom do 
you live? Draw and write. 



,"l,* 



g As you see, families are of different kinds. There are big 
families, small families and joint families. 

Do you live in a small family or a big family? 

Meena said 







I love my family. My mother hugs me when 
I return home from school. She listens patiently when I 
tell her all about my day. I get angry when my brother 
argues with me! At such times, my grandfather 






consoles me. My family takes care of me in so many ways. 



'I can share my thoughts with my family. When I am happy or sad or 
angry, I can talk to some one at home,' said Jamal. 

Will you share about yourself? Here are some questions for you. 



Do you have a pet name at home? What is it? 
What language[s] do you speak at home? 



Whom do you speak to, when you are sad? 



Whom do you speak to, when you are scared? 
Whom do you go to, when you have doubts 

in your lesson? . 

Whom do you go to, when you have made 
a mistake? . 



/ 




Meena made thumb 
impressions and turned 
them into pictures of her 
family. You can also do this! 



Collect information from your home. 
Your grandfather's native place... 

Your grandmother's native place... 

The names of their childhood friends... 

The games they played during their childhood. 



Which of those games exist even now? Do you play them? 





Among those games which game do you like the most? Why? 

Do you like to play alone or with your friends? 
With whom do you play? 



At School 



At Home 




•. • 




This is the home of Sumathi and Saran. They say, 

"In our home we have the freedom to speak what we think, and 
we always share the house work... there is a lot of love." 

Look at these pictures - they show you how Sumathi and Saran 
help at home... 




.m^j-s^ 



■<^ Vv'^'- - - 












? _ ^c- 




-==11^> ».'©*' 




Do you help at home? How? 



How do you spend your holidays with your family' 



Draw a picture of your home. 
Sketch it with trees and flowering plants that you like, 



I 





2. My neighbourhood 



A neighbourhood is an area where many families live together. In a 

neighbourhood, there may be roads, railway lines, bus stops, markets, 

ration shops, places of worship, different kinds of plants, animals, 

birds. Many people live in a neighbourhood. 

have met Latha, Jamol, John and Mary. Here, they tell 

you about their neighbourhood. 



I live in a separate house in a village called 
Kilapakkam. It has around 500 
houses. There are many streets connecting these 
houses. I live in Anna Street. There are 25 
houses on the street. We have one common tap from 
which we collect water and also one ration shop. We 
get our provisions from the ration shop. There is also a small shop, 
where my mother buys me sweets. My father, Nallathambi, works in a 
hotel in Chennai and comes home during the week ends. I play * paandi * 
with my friends Kala and Vanathi in the evenings. Their parents are 
farmers. We celebrate different festivals and share sweets. We go 
to school together. 



From where does the family get its provisions? 
What does Latha play with her friends? 
What do they all do together? 



0> 






I live with my grandparents, parents, brother, aunt, 
uncle and two cousins in Nagore. My house is near the 
seashore. My grandfather is a fisherman. There are many 
houses next to ours, may be 30 houses in the same row. 
Most of the men here are fishermen. My father and my 
uncle also go to fish in the sea. I have a lot of fun in th 
evenings, playing with my br other and cousins. 

t 

Where is Jamal's home? 
With whom does Jamal live? 
Draw Jamal's neighbourhood. 



JamaL 



We live with our aunt and uncle in Tambaram, a 
suburb of Chennai . We live in a flat. There are forty 
families living in our apartment complex. Our parents 
are working for a Non-Sovemmental Organization 
[NGO] near Tirunelveli and visit us often. Tambaram 
is a very crowded neighbourhood. All the children in 
the flats play together in the evenings. But we all go to different 
schools, Mary loves to visit Vandalur Zoo, that is 
because there are lush green plants and animals there. 



Where is John and Mary's home? 
Why do they live with their aunt? 
Why does Mary like to visit Vandalur Zoo? 

Write about your neighbourhood with 
the help of your teacher. 




^ 





/ 

Meena and her neighbourhood 



Look at this picture and 

write down what Meena shares 

with her neighbours. 




Ik 



> 



<9 




\:\\7 Whom do you like the most in your neighbourhood? Why? 





f 



\ 



Me, My Neighbourhood 

Some of us have lived in one place all our lives. 
Some others have moved to other places. 
What about you? 

Find out from the elders at home and from your neighbour and fill in. 




Questions 



For how many years 

has your family 
been staying here? 



At home 



From your 
neighbour 



'J 




Where did your 
family live before 
coming here? 



I 



I 



Two places which 
you like the most 
near your house. 




My school 

School is like a very big family, because it 
teaches you about life. It is a place where 
you spend a lot of time, building 
relationships with your classmates and 
teachers and learning many things. 




^ 



\ 







rj-q. jK^^ ^ 
<3^ ^C ,^ ^^. p 



^"■m- 




It is also like a neighbourhood because there are responsibilities to 
share. Our teacher teaches us to read and write. We also learn good 
manners and gain knowledge and skills. 

The school office staff keep all the school records. The Principal 
make sure that the school runs smoothly. The noon meal worker cooks 
our noon meals. When required there orz^ people who take cor^ of the 
plants the maintenance and the safety of the school. All of them 
make it possible for us to learn at school. 



Date: 
Day : 



STD 



Roll :20 + l8 

Present : i«*ie. 



We should 

• come to school on time. 

• keep our c\q&s room neat and clean. 

{ 

• throw the waste in the dustbin. 

• always follow the queue. 

• ask questions one at a time in the class room. 

• water the plants in our school everyday. 



Do you follow these instructions in your school? 

Among these, which one do you feel is the most important? Why? 






^_JCeep your surroundings clean aj[}d tidy 



I 



Read the instructions on the boards at the Zoological Park 
Why or^ they kept there? How are they helpful? 

What will happen if you do not follow these instructions? 
If we spit on the road, we spread disease. 

If we waste water, 

If we don't stand in a queue, 

If we tease animals, 



If we don't use the dust bin. 



If we don't keep our surroundings clean and tidy, 






■^^l^i. 



.. -^^r- 



*:Hn-ii&>> 




3. On my way to school... ^ ^^; 



Every day, on our way to school, we cross many different kinds of 
trees and vehicles, hear the chirping of birds, along with a variety of 
other sounds, pass many known and unknown people and see many 
diverse scenes and sights. 

Every day, through our 
experiences as we come to 
school, we learn many new things 




These are what Meena usually observes when she goes to school. 
Circle what you see on your way to school. 




In the spaces given, draw any interesting objects, sights and 
scenes that you have observed on your way to school. 



'sn 




Routes we travel by.... 
We choose a definite direction to reach a place, 

This is how other creatures too do it! 

Here is a bird. 

How does It find Its way to its nest? 

Are there any landmarks that help it 

find its way? 

V Here are two monkeys. 

How do they move In the forest 

in search of food? 

Do the trees In the forest 
look like pathways for the monkeys? 






Fish move In groups - in the sea, river, lake or pond. 

Are there paths in the water that they see and swim on? 

How can you find the way from your home to school? 

When people move from one place to another, they use different roads, 
There are single-walker footpaths, there are mud roads on which 
bullock carts move, and tar roads connect bigger places like towns . 
cities and villages. 
National Highways connect different states and cities in India. 






We cox\ remember any route by the different places we cross on our 




way there. 




Can you name a few places that you cross on your way to school? 




For Instance, you might say, 'I live near a level-crossing'. Is there 




a bakery or a park next to your house? Is there a place of worship? 


— 


On my way to school, I cross 



Everybody in a village town or city has ox\ address, or a way 
by which they tell every one exactly where they live. This address 
is also called a postal address because it helps the postman to 
bring the letters to your home. It is important to remember your 
postal address because it will help you to find your way back if 
you are lost. 




^ Warning 
It is important to be safe at all times on our way to school. Later on 

we will learn the road rules and how to follow them. Or\ your way to 

school, do not speak to strangers and take the gifts or sweets they give. 




It Is fun to think in what other ways we can write our address 
You could say, for instance, that you live in a green 




coloured house close to a huge neem tree. Or you 
might say that your neighbour's balcony has 
many fragrant rose plants or a bird's nest. Remember, your 
home is a place that you can touch, hear, see, and smell! 

Can you think of another way in which you can write your 
address? Do try. 

There is another easy way of telling your friend how to 

come to your home - by using your right and left hand. 

If you turn towards your right hand side, then you say, 

'I am turning to my right.' 

If you turn towards your left hand side, then you say,' 

"I am turning to my left. ' 

To make sure that you are giving the right directions to your home, 
here is another interesting game that you can play with 
your friend. It is called a Mirror Game. Stand facing 
each other. If you are A, then your friend is B. Imagine 
that your friend is a mirror image. Lift your right hand up 





<5C 



^hich hand will your friend lift up? 



. Touch your left eair. 




Which ear will your friend touch? 




You can 



now direct your friend by saying, "Turn right, then 
turn left after the level crossing, and walk straight 
my flat is in the third building on the right." 

h4 



The place you go to daily is your school 
Do you know your school address? 

Name of the School : 

Door Number 

■ 

Street or Road 

Area ' 



Town/City = State '■ PIncode ■ 

Like you Kalai also studies in Class III and she walks to 
school everyday with her friends, Mekala and Ayesha. Today it 
is Jdfjifihg; Kalai is carrying an umbrella. J^ As she and 
her friends walk along the'^^^ y pond, they hear the frogs 
croaking- KnuL &J^ t^ k..r...r..k k.r,.r..k. wfl^ They see an 

P egret. Kalai jumps like a frog. Mekala tries to fly like an egret. 
'I have seen this bird sitting on the cows back/ says Kalai. 
'Now it is not raining', says Ayesha. P^s " the sun comes 
out, they see their shadows in front of them. They all run. As 



? 




they run, they try to step on their shadows. But they cannot! 
Ayesha says, 'I can step on your shadow, but I can't step on 
mine!.' Can you say why? As I move, my shadow also moves. 

On your way to school have you seen your shadow? 





After crossing the poncl,there is a beautiful field and an 

Ayyanar statue on the way. 

They now cross an orchard. It is full of mango 



trees. 'I like to eat mangoes,' says Kalai. A small dog joins 
them for a while. They now come to the tar road. They see Q 
a bus. Sameer is in it. Along_the road, they see a 
; small shop. Near the shop. 






there is a zebra crossing. They 
carefully wait till the road is clear and then they cross the road. After 
that, they turn right into a small lane and they are in front of their 
school gate. As they enter, they hear their school bell ringing! 

See and answer: 

List what Kalai, Mekala and Ayesha saw on their way to school 





\ 



^% V""\i^ River .•^■^ " ^ M.-.bzfJ.- 



^ 4- J" '\..-ll 

,%*<Kabir's House V-tl ~J\ jP^Av^ \ 

"^^^f I ■Lint > A4^ 1 ft 




Kaini'S route map ' Kanl's house /'^^^ffi'Track 




v^^ Ho US©. 





House 







See the map and answer using different colour pencils. 
<^ Sketch the path that Kani takes to school, 
cr* Sketch two different routes that Ravi can take to go to school. 
cp- Tick what Kalai sees on her way to school. 
<^ Circle the shops that are in the map. 
^^ What do you find on the way to school from Kabir's house? 

<^ How many turnings does Kani have to take on her way to school? 
Count and write. 



Children may form groups and play a memory game with what 
they saw on their way to school. 

Is your best friend's house far from, or near your house? 

farQ near I I 

What do you see on your way to school? 
(^ On the right side, I see 




^ On the left side I see 



Who comes with you to school everyday? 



♦ 



♦ 





Are there schoolmates who live close to you? Write their names. 





Tick • 


the water bodies you have 


seen in your area. 


River 




Tank 




Sea 




Lake 




Stream 




None 





Pond 



□ 



Well 



□ 



KEEP A WE/^THER CHART 

bo you notice the weather, when you go out of your home? 
Note the dates/time when it is 



Date 



hot 



I / 






mildly 
warm 



c 





cloudy 




rainy 



.j^^? 



Cold 




i.A 



Yesterday 



Today 



What do you see people doing on your way to school? 







tik--.tT-^^l 






^'^ -^.ss-^^ 




'.f^l^^'^^SW^^ 



To sum up... jB^ 

List what you have observed on your way to school 
in the table given below - an example has been given to help you 




BUILDINSS 


TREES 


THINGS 


ANIAAALS 


Post Office 


Neem 


Waste Bin 


Dog 




























Let us have fun! Create your own symbols. 

What symbol would you give, for some of the places 
that you like? '■'• 

For example, How would you show that you like sitting 
under the rain tree m your school? 




D 




o 




You can draw your symbols here. 



#■ 



braw the path you take from home to school 



/ Home Nv 










D 
















School 












m 






4. Know your drrcctlon 



Kavita and her friend fAalar lived in opposite houses on the same 

road. They were studying in the same school in Class III. Both of them 

walked to school together every day and were good 

friends. They were learning about directions in their 

Social Science class. On the way to school that day, 

Kavitha and Malar had a heated argument about whether 

they had to turn to the left or to the right to go to their 

school. 'We have to turn to the left. I know it,' said 

Kavita. 'No,' said Malar. 'We have to turn right.' They 

kept arguing all the way to school. In school, they waited eagerly for 

their teacher. The moment she entered the class, they ran to her and 

told her of their confusion. 'You both are correct,' said the teacher, 

smil ing. Can you guess why? 
Can you indicate which Is Kavita 's and which is AAalar's house? 









In class, the teacher said, 

'Let us play a small game'. 

You play it, too! 



The teacher asked the children 

to stand up. She asked, "What do you see in front of 




you?' I see 



'Now, turn to your left. 
What do you see?' I see 





Turn to your left. What do you see?' 
I see . 

Turn to your left again. 
Now, what do you see?' 
I see _________ 



Turn to your left again'. 

7ou have made a full 
circle around yourself.' 





'Now let us play the same game by 
turning to the right', said the teacher 




When you get up In the morning, can you see where the 
sunlight comes from? That direction is the East. In the evening, 
look at where the sun light comes from. That direction is 
the West. This helps us to find out in which direction <-^B '^ 
we are moving. "^^m J^ 

There are four main directions. They are North, East, West, 
and South. The sun helps us to find the directions. 



Do this Exercise: 
Learn the Cardinal Directions 

stand facing the sun in the morning, 
we face east and behind us is west. 
Our right hand points towards the south 
and our left hand, towards the north. 



North 




"These directions don't change wherever we go on earth. 

Remember this and you will never be lost," said the teacher smiling. 

"Always check the time of day to be correct in telling the direction." 

The teacher then showed them two pictures. 

"The first picture shows Appu standing in front of his school 

at 8.30 in the morning. 

The second picture shows Appu facing his home 

at 4.30 in the evening. Can you teach him the cardinal directions?" 

asked the teacher. 




show the directions to Appu 

Morning 





East 






West 





Evening 




Kavlta now understood the four cardinal directions. * We both turn 
north to come to school', said Kavlta. 

If both Kavlta and Malar are to turn to the North to come to school 

Kavlta has to turn left and Malar has to turn to the right. Can you 

say in which direction their houses face?' 

Kavlta 's house faces , 

Molar's house faces . 




Directions tell us where specific places are located. 




Fill in the boxes with places given in bold letters: 




: 




C3cr3 




N 

A 



w 



V 
s 



*> From your home, walk towards the West and then turn towards the 
North. You will find the park. 

♦ From your home, walk towards the North. You will reach the 
market. 

•♦♦ From your home if you walk towards the East and then turn towards 
the south you will find the nursery. 

♦ If you go towards the South from your home, you will find the fancy 
store. 

*^ To the West of the fancy store you will find the school, and the 
police station to the east of the fancy store. 





Mariners Compass 

Directions are very important for sailors. 

His sense of direction guides the sailor to his 

destination even in fog or rain. 

Sailors use an instrument called a compass to find directions 

while sailing. The needle of the compass always points towards the 

North. 




1 

■^ 



Read and enjoy! Here is a story for you 



To the north of Mayanur village, there is a small forest. To the east 
of that forest, there is a small pond. Different kinds of birds live near 
the pond with their young ones. There are crows, cranes, kingfishers, 
pelicans and many more. 

During summer, the pond dried up gradually. 

All the birds gathered together 
and had a discussion about what they 
could do. 





m. 



fisx\ old kingfisher said, 'There is a tank to the south 
Mayanur. That tank x\eN^v dries up. We can all go there 
A crow said, 'Do not go there. It is crowded already* 
A crane said, 'I remember there is a beautiful river. With my 
jjtti friends, I will find out where it is and we can all go there/ 
The crQX\z and his friends flew to the West and saw the river 
from a distance. There were green fields and many trees. 
Thesbirds came back and gave the happy news to all the other 
birds. They all flew to the riverside and spent the summer 
eacefully. 



'^ 




.:*► 



- s 



1. 



^ 



\ 



^^^h \ ^ ^ 



-M 





1 



?! 



■4 



^ 
^ 



^ 




<^ 



■4 



,/7 



Can you draw a map that shows In which 
directions the birds went? 



A 



f 



rrmr 




^ ^ 



Mayonur 




T I 1 



A 



N 



W 




Look at the picture on Page 21. Find out and answer. 

^ What directions does KanI take, to go to school? 
^ What is to the west of the school? 

^ Kabir's house is located to the of the temple. 

^ Railway track is located to the of the church 




^^ 



^ 







5. Are vou safe on the road? 

It had rained in the morning. 




Many children came early to 



¥ 

m 



school. They were playing outside v -^ 
and drawing lines on the wet sand. v]p 
Some children were playing . 




' paandl ' (hop and skip) on the sand. 
Karthik was having fun. When he 
saw his teacher, he ran to her and 
said, 'Please look at these lines. Do these lines look like roads?' 

'Yes,' said the teacher. The teacher asked them all to clean up and 

come inside the class. 'It must have been fun to make so many roads in 

the wet sand/ said the teacher. 'Shall we talk about it? What kind of 

roads did you make?' asked the teacher 

*AII kind of roads - mud roads, tar roads, big roads, curved roads, 

straight roads, junctions, main 

roads and crossroads we 

even ran around the paandi track.' 
'Name the vehicles running on 
your roads,' asked the teacher. 

'Car, bus, and auto - there was 
atrafficjam, 'saidViji. 




I 

I 
I 





'Also, Isaac and Raju banged Into each other 
and fell down,' said Seetha. 

'I was trying to cross' , said Raju. 'I 
did not expect that he would stretch his 
hand suddenly.' 

'What happened to the people who 
were walking?' asked the teacher. 

'Well, they did not have any place at all to walk,' said Kannan. 
'Shall we speok about why all these things happened?' asked 
the teacher. 
'Nobody listens to anyone,' said Reshma. 
'Everyone follows their own rules,' said Arul. 
'This is happening everyday on the roods, too. Shall we create a 
few rules that will make sense to everybody? To be safe, you nee 
to' 'STOP, USTEN and only then START/ said the teacher. 

'Let us form some simple rules for pedestrians,' said Mumtaj 
'Here Is mine - walk on the footpaths. They are meant for us.' 
'But there are no pavements near my house,' said Meena. 

'Walk on the extreme side of the road if there are no pavements 

or platforms. It will be safe for you,' replied Mumtaj. 
We should not rush, run or play on the road,' said Raju. 
Dio not read books or look at hoardings while walking on the road,' 
said the teacher with a smile. 






dth. 



'When I go by bicycle to school with my brother, he waves his 
hands to greet his friends on the road/ said Natasha. 
'It is distracting and unsafe for both of you/ said the teacher. 
'Never walk along railway tracks and bridges. Be careful 
when you cross a railway track. We can also get the help of 
older people while crossing the railway track. You can use 
the over - bridge or subway if they are available,' ■' 



^ said the teacher 



I 

s 
i 



'So many rules!' said Kevin. 'How will we remember?' 





'Let us pretend that we are walking on the road. You must tell me 
whether what I say is right or wrong. Are you ready to do this?' 
asked the teacher. 






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en 01 £1 & a «f B srercir 



If it is right colour it with blue 
If it is wrong f J colour it with orange. 

©/o o ^ 



When there are no pavements, walk in /o o\ /o o\ 
the middle of the road. \>-V \0^ 



Do not rush or run on the road. 



Always play near or on the road 



Skip and play ball when you walk. It is fun! 



Do not read books as you walk. 



Don't look at hoardings or wall posters while walking 
on the road. 





© 







When you are riding a bicycle with your brother to school on 
the road, greet friends by waving your hands. / o o > /o o 

Never walk along a railway track, 

When you cross a railway track, do not^^^X /ooN 
bother about the signal. xZV Xili^ 

yiiiiiiilOiiiiHfiHiii iiiy pyiiy^ 








'Now, I know what is right, but sometimes I forget!' said Kevin 
The next day, the teacher decided to invite Mr.Arun 

from the Traffic Department to teach the children the 

traffic rules. He was very happy to talk to the children. 

He showed them a picture of prescribed road safety 

njles and explained these rules to the children. 

TRAFFIC SIGNS AND ROAD MARKINGS 

The most common sign is the traffic signal. Everywhere, there 
are signs to help us to be safe. You just have to look and follow. 

Traffic signals regulate the traffic, 
— ► Red — STOP 

_^ Yellow — GET READY 

— ^ Green — ^O 
Traffic signs guide the pedestrians. 



STOP— Red 
GO Green 



Road markings are painted on the road and they are also useful to 
guide and regulate the traffic. Follow the traffic signs and signals 
for your safety. 







Always try to cross the road at 
zebra crossings. Subways and 
footbridges are provided on wide 
roads. We must use subways and 
footbridges wherever they are provided. When you are at a pedestrian 
crossing, you must wait for the green signal and also wait until the 
vehicles come to a complete halt, before crossing. 

Wherever there is no zebra crossing, you should wait, look right, left 

and again right and then cross the road carefully. Before you cross the 

middle of the road, look again to your left to make sure that no vehicle is 

coming. We should not run while crossing a road. 

Here are a few signs to follow 





Guarded Roil Crossing 



Unguarded Rail Crossing 





School Zone 



Speed Breaker 



*^®^ 




Oangerous dip 




Left Turn 




Right Turn 




Bus Stop 




\ 



/ 



No Horn 



Why is the driver shouting? 





^4, 



Look at the given pictures , Use (v) for do's , (X) for don'ts in the boxes provided. 











^4. 



Match the numbers given In the picture with the words: 



Street Lamp ^ (^ 
Traffic Signal Q Q 
Zebra Crossing Q_) Q_) 



Name Board 
Footpath 

Traffic Police 



Colour the pedestrian boxes. 

should not cross - red colour 




can cross 



green colour 






Place the traffic signs 
in the right places. LJ 



A A 

A A 
A A 



.>i-- 




c^ 



Wf' 1'^ * ^'^ 





U^ 




6. Let us travel 





■^ Semblan was worried. His father had not come back after 
collecting firewood for the week. He lived in a small village. His 
father had a frame of sticks to carry the firewood. He usually / 
^, came back in a day or two, pulling a frame heavily 
loaded with fire wood. 

-» li' Sembian was waiting anxiously for his father. He knew his 
father was a careful man. He always took the safe path used by many 
others. Sometimes, his father came back with a story for Sembian. 
He spoke about strange or beautiful or savage animals found in the 
forest. Sembian longed to go with his father but he was too young. 

Soon, Sembian heard a rumbling noise. 
In the beginning, he was scared and he 
thought of running to his mother. 

But suddenly he saw his father pulling 
something behind him. It moved! 

This time, his father made very little 

effort to pull the frame. Sembian was 




, Jn^. T^ 



M 



excited.He ran to his father and askedjKj^^ \ 
him, 'Father, what is that round thing 



that moves the frame?' 



i><'-^ 

(^ 






S 








'I just made it. I had this idea when I was cutting a 
slice of the tree trunk/ said his father proudly 
*What do you think?' asked his father. 
'I think it looks super!' said Sembian. 




He was admiring his father. Really, 
he thought that there was nobody 
in the world like his father! 

Sembian lived thousands of years ago! 








Invention of Wheel 
made Travel Easy 



Today, we have many kinds of vehicles, using different kinds of 
wheels and we use these vehicles to travel anywhere on the earth. 
The invention of the wheel gave way for modern means of transport. 
We also use Vehicles for transportation of goods. 









(ft^^^ 









Which vehicle would you use to travel to these places? 





market 



"xir-af 



another village 



across a river 



jW^ 



grandma's house 



"-x^r^^ 




Find out the different ways in which your grandparents travelled 
to these places in earlier days. 




Vehicles used by people 50 years ago 





We like to travel to different places. We need different means of 
ransport to reach, different places, depending on the distance that 

we need to cover and the time at our disposal. 

> Vehicles that ply fast • . . . ' 

^ ' r Both have their 

^ Slow moving vehicles I advantages! 

^ In which vehicle would you like to travel? Why? 




"\ 




for fun 




for learning and work 






for visiting religious places 



Travel is 




to meet friends and relatives 



J 



We have four types of routes: 




/ 



2. Rail route 





4. Air route 





3. Sea route J 

Name the vehicles that ply on these routes, 

tt Type of route I- Type of transport ^ J E"i 

? Road route ; 5€)D 

Q .-^ ® __ 

« Rail route ; si 

« J:; y 

■ Sea route ^ !^ IS 

tt . . , . ^ ^^ -. ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S 

5 Air route "e^ ?|| 1 

■ ^ "A 




Railways 



^^^^ Road Transport 

Roads link many places all over the world. 

^^^ Vehicles are the means of 

transport used on the road. We use cars, buses, vans, jeeps, 

motorbikes, bicycles and bullock carts to move from one place to 

another. Trucks, tractors and lorries are used to 

transport goods. 

Trains run on rails. 
Train travel is more comfortable 
for long distances than travelling by road. 
We can look out and enjoy the scenery while we travel 
by train. India has a large network of railway lines. In Chennai, 
we have metro rail service. 

Water Transport 

There are passenger ships and cargo ships. We can see them in 

the sea and in big rivers. We use boats for ferry services to travel 
short distance. Fishing boats and catamarans are used for fishing in 
the sea, lakes and rivers. 







Air Transport 

The fastest means of transport is the aeroplane 
We can cover long distances in a very short period of time, using 
air transport. The helicopter is an aircraft without 
wings, but has large blades on top that go round and propel it 
forward. Do you know, when there is a flood or drought, or 
when someone needs to be rescued, the helicopter 
Jri is the vehicle that is used? 






Make travel eco friendly. 

Number the vehicles according to their speed. 
How many persons can travel in each vehicle ? 
How much fuel does each vehicle require? 

Shade the vehicles that can run without petrol 
or diesel, in a different colour. 




M ill] 





"? 
s 
s 

^ 

f 



Name the vehicles: 

that can carry more than 100 persons at a time. 

that you choose for short distances 

which do not cause pollution 

that carry many people 



that do not cost much, 



*f Vani and Rani went for a sports meet to Delhi. 

Vani reached Delhi in three hours and Rani took two days. 
Which means of transport did they take? 
Vani . Rani . 

If you are planning to go for an excursion from your school, 
to which place would you like to go? How many students? 
For how many days? 




For the teacher 

Children may be facilitated in small groups to discuss 
and find out how we can make travel eco friendly. 



^ 



Vehicles used in hilly regions 
Winch train 




Cable car (rope way) 



The vehicles used for emergency. 






Police car 



Fire engine 



Ambulance 



The vehicles used for essential purposes, 




During your holidays, have you travelled to visit 

your relatives or gone on a tour? 

What vehicles did you use? Share your experiences 




^ 



f if i 






Read and enjoy 

Meena was so excited! 

'Meena, why are you so excited today?' asked the teacher. 
My uncle Sekar is coming back. 'He has gone on a tour to visit 

places in India. He has taken many photographs/ said Meena. 
Can you bring him to school tomorrow? He can talk to 
all of us,' said the teacher. 
The next day, Meena's uncle Sekar came to school and spoke 
about his tour of India. 'I started my journey from Dhanushkodi. 
I travelled by jeep to Periyapcttinam. I saw many small fishing 

villages and palm trees. I enjoyed 
travelling on the Pamban bridge from 
Rameswaram, as 1 came by train 
to Chennoi, the capital city of Tamilnadu. 
across the sea. I went with my friend on a motorcycle to 
Mamallapuram from Chennai and saw many beautiful sculptures 






'^^^ 





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15^ 





ttf 



niniim 





After returning to Chennal I travelled by a tourist bus to 
Orissa and visited the sun temple at Koncrk. This temple 
to the sun god is both scientific and artistic in its construction. 
I flew by aeroplane from Orissa to^ Dispur, the capital of Assam. 

I visited the Koziranga National Park ^**^r near Guwahati, 
which is famous for the one - horned rhinoceros. Well, after that 
I flew by helicopter to Shillong. It is the capital of 
Meghciaya. There I saw very beautiful waterfalls called 
the Elephant falls. From there I went to Srinagar, the capital of 
Koshmir and took a ride in a ^m shikara in the bal loke. I visited 
a few lovely flower gardens, too! From there I went by bus to 
Jaiscimer in Rajcsthan and had a ride on the xUaflHp camel to 
the Khuri sand dunes to watch the sun set. I then went to Mumbai, 
the capital of Maharashtra and visited the Elephanta caves by boat. 
From Mumbai I travelled by a fm^SLZS KJ c^'' along the West coast 
to Kerala with a friend and reached Coimbatore through the Palakkad 
Pass. Then I came to your school by an auto, ^3 said Sekar uncle 




with a smile! 



I'yiitxj 






\:v 



■■■"■^' 



• ;« 



_^ 7- Story of Food 



i^ 



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rfa!" 





Food is one the basic needs of all living beings. 
Human beings cultivate the earth and make a variety 
of interesting and tasty foods. Look at this picture. 
Can you link the expression on the man's face 
to what he has tasted? 





Show the changes in your face if you were to taste 
the things shown above! 

The story of cultivation 




Early human beings were first hunters and 

food gatherers. Later they closely observed nature ai 

understood that plants grow out of seeds. Then they 

collected seeds and sowed them. To water them 
regularly they started to live on the banks of rivers and 
raised crops. Thus started the art of cultivation. 







-57-' 








X:^. 




Name the food you like. 




Name one food item that is 
hot: salty:. 

bitter: sweet: 

Name one food item that Is 

soft: crisp:. 



hard: oily: 



What kinds of food do you have when you are ill? 



biscuss with your friend and write how one food item 
at home. 



Much of the food we eat in Tamil Nadu is prepared out of rice. 
There are many traditional varieties of rice in India. 
Can you name a few? 





if^ Do you Know Who I am? 
I am the paddy seed. 

I give you the rice that you eat every day. I flourish in a hot 
and humid climate. I grow in places which have high rainfall or where 
my field may be flooded with water from a near by well or river. In 
Tamil Nadu I grow in coastal wetlands and in the fertile clayey soil 
along the river banks. Do you know, there are some kinds of paddy 
that can grow with very little water or even in salt water? 

''60'' 



Let us see the different stages of the cultivotion of rice 

IThe fields are prepared ^p[ 
by ploughing. 
2. The seeds are sown 
on the seedling beds. 




'^m'-'^^^^r' 



s 

•i*".~ 



■*'-- 



■■: ar'r r'^ 




3. After some days they 
are transplanted by hand 
in the fields, and flooded by 
rainor river water. 

4. Weeds are removed. 

5. The crops are irrigated 
till they grow. 

6. Grains are fully 
covered with brown husk. 

7. The paddy is ready 
for harvest. 

8The paddy is threshed to 
loosen the husk. 

9, It is taken to the mill 
and the husk is removed. 
lO.Finally it is taken to the 
market for sale. 







HOW bO we SET SUGAR? 

Look at this picture. With the help of your teacher discuss how 
we get sugar from the farm. 



Beverage 



Plant( Sugorcane) sugarcane cut into pieces 





Truck carrying sugarcane 




Sugarcane grows well in a 
hot and humid climate. It needs / 

clayey wet soil. It is mainly 
grown in areas where there is 
l^-^'W^ plenty of water available 



Sugar 

in different 

shapes and .,,.,7 

sizes 





residue 




extraction 



bagasse 









. Maize 

Millet 

ftagi has calcium that helps in the formation of bones and teeth. It 

is called 'finger millet' because of the finger like branches on the plant. 

Kambu is called pearl millet because the grains look like pearls. 

Our country is a big producer of kambu. Foxtail millet or thinai is 

another ancient grain of India. It is extremely good for health. 
Name the varieties of healthy food cooked from rice, wheat and millets, 

Wheat 




Whole grain gruel 
It is very important to have nutritious food everyday. 

The most nutritious breakfast is whole grain gruel. 

It is a mixture of many grains and cereals in 

semi-liquid form. It tastes good when jaggery is added to it 

What are the ingredients used in whole grain gruel 
(sathu maavu)? 





^■§3-^ 

^ 



Pulses 
What can you prepare from these pulses? 
Get help from your parents or grandparents to fill in the table, 

Black gram Moong del 

Here are some common pulses rich 

in protein. We include pulses in our 

daily food. 




6reen gram 




Bengal gram 




Tuvor dal 






Greens 

Include greens in your food! 

You might notice that all these greens have Tamil names. They are 

being used from ancient times. Minerals and vitamins are 
present in greens. They give strength and energy to our body. 



Murungai ' Thuthuvalai 1 Sirukeerai !.Manathakkali, Vallarai 





Agathi keera^ Vendoya keerai ,Pasalai keerai,, Mola keerai , Ponnankanni 





: Pi* 

64^ 



Spices 
We use them everyday in our cooking! 

Now let us look at the medicinal value of common spices. 
Perungayam (asafoetlda), Milogu (Pepper), Jeerakom (Cumin seeds), 
Kadugu (Mustard), and bhania (Coriander seeds) aid digestion. 
Poondu (6ar\ic) is good for respiratory problems. It kills intestinal worms. 
Karuveppilai (Curry leaves) are good for the hair and the eyes. 

Manjol (Turmeric) is a powerful antiseptic. It kills intestinal worms. 

Iryi (Fresh ginger) is good for treating nausea. 

Chillies are of various kinds, high in Vitamin C and minerals. 




FIND OUT 

Ask your grand mother to tell you all the medicinal uses of spices 

that she knows make a little book let of her remedies. 







Eat Healthy Food 

We work, we play, we think and we write. The internal organs 
of our body are continuously working. We need energy. We get 
energy from food. It also helps us to grow. It is very important 
to have nutritious food every day. 
^^^ It would be good for you to have at least one glass of milk 
jT jk every day. Cereals, like rice and wheat, millets like ragi and 
I M cholam, pulses like thuvarai (Red gram dhal) and pachai payaru 

» m (6reen gram dhal) and oilseeds like Ellu (sesame) and Nilakadalal 
^J^r (groundnut) are used daily in our kitchen to make healthy food. 
How do we get our food? 

The food that people ate traditionally depended on the crops that 

were cultivated in the place where they lived. The crops depended on 

the climate and soil. Today, with the growth of towns and cities many 

people don't grow their own crops. The flow chart given below shows 

how we get our food in towns and cities. 







m. 




Cattle 

farming or rearing 



|ih^ 


Fishfng 


\ 








Farming 




K/^ 


^ "•'" *' fe ' ''^v^3 




m 



Poultry 



* -A-/ 



66 





oii^ 



^>S: 







- "^r^-^-- 




Apart from farming, people have also reared cows, goats and sheep, 
poultry, and caught fish. Along with rice, pulses, vegetables and fruits, 
milk, meat, fish, eggs and farm produce are carried by trucks and lorries 
to the common market. From the bazaar it is taken to small shops for sale. 
We buy them from the common market and also from small traders. Using 
these products of the farm, different varieties of food are prepared 
and served. 



/jj 



67-^ 



Find the religious festivals. 




On this day, sweet pongal is prepared with rice, 
jaggery, ghee and cashew nut 




For nine days varieties of grams or da! are soaked in water 



and cooked. 



Cakes and pastries are made from wheat and milk products. 



1 



Biriyani is prepared with meat and eggs. 



Nome 3 kinds of foods that you con Identify from the smell that 
comes from the kitchen when they are cooked. 



Name 3 healthy food items that you love to eat 



Collect information from your elders. 

What kinds of food did you grandparents enjoy in their childhood? 





What kinds of vatthals, vadams, pickles and podls were / are 
made at home? 






Name the food that can be eaten raw. 



Name some food items which are steamed. 




Name some food items which are deep fried, 




Name your favourite food 



Match the food and the religious festival in which it is made 




•69^ 



Name any other festivals celebrated in your area and the 
foods prepared during these festivals. 




Shall we drink fruit juice? 




S"" 



i 



/ 



^ 



Take a lemon. Cut it into two pieces 

Squeeze out the juice. Add 2-3 cups 

of water. Mix well with 3-4 spoons of 

sugar. Add a pinch of salt. Lemon 

juice is ready. A healthy drink 

on a hot day! 
You can also prepare orange juice 
by the same method. 




"^ 



^ 



Prepare a recipe for a vegetable and fruit salad with your friends and 
teacher. Write down your method of preparation. 

Vegetable Salad 




* • - - * 




List of vegetables 




Method of preparation 










m. 




Fruit Salad 




List of fruits 


Method of preparation 


\ 






■^ 





District Central Co-Operative Bank LTD 
Head office 




Do you know the places given in the picture? 



72 



Panchayat Union Office 








Write the names of the places in the given space. 



Look at the previous page. Now, link the places by drawing lines 
from your home to the place you will go to 

f when you are sick. 

/ to learn. 

/ to buy sugar and rice at a fair price. 

/ when your valuables are stolen. 

/ to send letters to your friends. 

/ to save your money. 

/ to get water supply for your house. 

/ to get power supply for your house. 

All the places given in the picture orz very helpful for 
our daily lives. 

Have you gone to these places? Why? 

Tick ( ^ ) the places which are near your house, (walkable 
distance) or far from your house (Need to use a vehicle). 



Place 


Near your Far from ^ . ... 
, , Service provided 
house your house 


School 








Bank 








Hospital 








Police station 








Post office 








Bus stand 









We need the servrces and co operation of all people in society, 
to live in peace and happiness. 
In your neighbourhood, 

what services do the people who wear khaki uniforms, provide? 

what services do the people who wear white uniforms, provide ? 
What work does your father do? Where does he work? 
What work does your mother do? Where does she work? 
Who keeps the neighbourhood neat and clean? 
What do you want to become when you grow up? Why? 
Here are some services we are going to learn about. 

Post office Indian scientist and former President 

of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam 
replies to letters or greetings 
sent to him by school children. 















fTTTUi-l'h-l 



<B ■ ■WfW^r •^I'wi «JI^Ct4 



s 



TT^^ % irfsffw fHrt fff%T 



3RAil]l"RAJ'ATl ailAVMy, 

New Delhi- lIOOfH 



LOrifTff IG. 20CW 



nk,ij Qffoicffi jgs.TT«fIa(5. 



This is a reply from him to 
a Class 3 student K. Janani of 
Anichampalayam Panchayat 
Union Middle School. 






Seki K JJnani 
D/o D. Kiinrarr.n 

" rii ■ inir. n ' L 
V.:ip- ;: - C^f; J62 




6Dr FBaeo 



Have you received a letter? 

From where did you get it? 

From whom did you get it? 

How do we get letters from distant places? 



You will wonder how a letter reaches our friends and relatives. 
Now, let us observe the services of the postman. The post office is an 
important place in our neighbourhood. We buy stamps, envelope, post 
cards and Money Order forms from the post office. We send and 
receive letters and parcels through the post office. We can also send 
urgent messages through telegrams and parcels through Speed Post. 

The journey of a letter 
We post the letters in the letter box. The letter box Is 
red in colour. Letters are collected in a bag from ther^ 
letter box. They are sent to the main 
post office. The sorter separates the 
letters. Then the letters are sent to 
different places by air, land or sea. A postman 
or a post woman delivers the letters to the 
address written on the letter. 

What are these? Name them. Write the price 






89^^ 



.^^^ \ I I I I G 






j—- ™ — 


|L — : -^' 

1 

1 


'—1 1 1 1 1 n 







TRY THIS.... 

Collect different types of stamps and arrange them. 

Write a letter to your friend and ask him or her to reply. 
Discuss how the letters will reach you and your friend. 



Write your friend's 

address on this 

postcard 



fVTj-l,.T.,-V-.'-^' ■^ .'-.>-w^ 



,^ COLLECT ^ 

NearestftiiJateJicBufejij 



'^ 


















ft^PlN 















i ITT 3^ ^ # H ^ f^fS'sftT ^ fi ^ ^" Do not write or print bsiow Ihis line) 



Watch the post box near your house and note the timings 

of clearance. 

Name of the post man who brings letters to your house. 

Development of Information Technology has reduced the 
usage of letters and telegrams. Exchange of information 
and messages takes place mostly through E-mail using 
computers and cell phones. 






^>f^ 






m^ , 





^^ i 



VK^ 








c^r^ - 



w 




Bank 
Learn to sayfe money. 

Banks help us to save money and also get back money whenever 

we need it. It is safe to keep money in the bank. Banks also provide us 

with safety lockers to keep our valuable things. National banks and 

co-operative banks help us to save, borrow and repay the money. 

Name some of the banks that you know. 



Automatic Teller Machine 





This is the Automatic Teller Machine (ATM). We 

can use an ATM card to withdraw money from our 

bank account at any time! It functions 24/7 I 

Women in Self Help Groups [SHGs] get 

loans from the bank for many of their activities. 

Are there SHGs in your area? Find out how they 

function, and what they do. 
Find out how to use pay in slip, cheque and demand drafts. 







i» gxrrr 



■ -•«>4«>««t 



* 



Hta«k, it,H^.I*,M 



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e 



t^j^H^HM 



ajiait3i«5 



in^ c»<u.aiei w^ii 



Our Friends 




Look at this picture. What kind of work is being done by different 
people here? Fill in. 



People work to earn money for their needs and to contribute to their 
society.This we call as their profession or job. The people of the 
society in which we live are doing different types of work. But we 
live together in a society. All professions are inter-related and 
inter-dependant. 



Tailors stitch clothes. Masons construct houses and 
other buildings. A carpenter makes doors, windows and other 
fittings. A plumber fits and repairs the pipes for water supply and 
sanitation. A welder welds metal to make grills for windows and 
doors. 

Fill in: 
Who 

Constructs houses and buildings? 

Makes doors and windows? 





Fits pipes for water supplyZ. 




Stitches school uniforms! 



Teaches you to read and write? 
Washes and iron your clothes?_ 
Cleans your surroundings? 



Mention the names of some other essential workers, \ 
who help you. 





'Can you think of any other public services?' 

'We need someone to give us medicine when we are sick!* 
said the teacher. t'a 

'My mother is an Assistant Nursing Midwife [ANM]. She visits 
many villages once a week to give medicines to the sick people, 
said Arul. 
/^ /r;))j'Can nurses give medicines?' asked Meena. 
^^ / 'Well, they are trained to do so,' said the teacher. 
We find Government Hospitals in towns and cities. A small 
neighbourhood has a Primary Health Centre [PHC] which benefits the 
people of the village. Mobile dispensaries help the people 
who do not have hospitals or Primary Health Cerxtres in 
their villages. Nurses are also trained to visit villages. 
'Is the treatment free? 'asked Raju. 

'Yes all Government Hospitals and Primary Health Centres give free 
treatment. Doctors and nurses take care of patients in Government 
Hospitals and Primary Health Centres,' said the teacher.There are 
doctors to treat sick birds and animals, to they are called veterinarians 
Write down any five persons who are doing different jobs in 



M:^ 




your neighbourhood. 




Jobs they do 


Name of the Job 



















iMt^ 







Identify and fill in what these people do in the picture given, 

/ ( )r ) 



( )(^ ) 



( )( ) 



Who cleans your house every day? 



Have you seen people doing jobs that serve others in your area? 

Yes /No ^ J 

Who cleans your area? 

'How can we help them to help us better?' •/' 

'We cor\ separate the waste materials into biodegradable and 

non-degradable/said Natasha, 

'We must not throw the waste into gutters/ said Rani. 

'We must not spit or throw rubbish on the road', said Balu. 

'You are good citizens!' said the teacher with a smile. 'You help 

us all to think/ said Natasha with a smile. i 

How will you keep your surroundings neat and clean? 



Public sector undertakings belong to the government. 

Their functions and proceedings are common to all the people. 

Who maintains your surroundings and takes care of the street lights? 

Who gives connections for drinking water and sewage to your house? 

Water is supplied to houses in cities, towns and villages from different 

sources. Panchayats, Municipalities and Corporations take care of 

supplying good drinking water to our houses. 

Power supply is provided by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board [TNEB]. 

Cities, towns and villages are provided with electricity. 

It is also supplied to industries and factories. 



Panchayats 



Towns 



Cities 






Panchayat Union 



Municipalities 



Corporations 



All these facilities which are common to the public are made 
available to you. 
To which category does your place belong? 

Corporations 



Panchayat Union 



Municipalities 

One of the basic needs of man is water. The Executive Officer of the 
Panchayats or Municipalities takes the responsibility of providing water 
in common tanks wherever there is water shortage . 




Ration Shop (PliS) 
A Fair Price Shop is a Public Distribution System. 
^-— j^l^^It is also called a Ration shop. We can get food grain, 
pulses, oil and kerosene from the ration shop at a 
(^ price lower than the market price. One must have a ration 
card for buying these things from this shop. 
We go every month to the ration shop and buy our provisions. 
They are called fair price shops because they do not sell to make 
profit. 

Can you name some of the food items that you get from the 
ration shop? 






What do you see in this Picture? 

If you are in this place what will you do? 

Which number will you call first? 



^Ambulance 



The trained people of fire service will put out the fire and save 
people and property when there is a fire. 
When there are natural disasiers like cyclones, floods and 
earth quakes we get the help from the fire service. 




'Do you know who maintains law and order?' 



It is the 



Where will you find him? 
What is his work? 





The policemen maintain law and order. They look after our property. 

When we have lost any valuables we make a complaint 

at the police station. 

We feel safe because the policemen 

The policeman ^W are on duty round the clock. 

registers our complaints and ^ _ .... 

^ ^ There are "All Women", 

takes action. He takes ^^ 

care of public safety m. police stations too. 



Is there a police station in your place? 

People who protect our country. 

Do you know any person who is in the Armed forces? 





I I Army 



I I Navy 



I I Airforce 



^^^20^2x0^^^ 




9. Our District 




Mala was excited and busy in helping her parents 
at home and re-arrang'mg her room when she came 

to know that her uncle and aunt were coming to her house for the 

first time from abroad. 

To find Mala's house they should know 





Now let us know about our district. 
Put a tick (v/) on your district in the district map of Tamilnadu, 
Find out how many districts are there. 
Number the district on the map. 

Name your district. 



Is there any reason to call your district by this name? 



i88 



District map of Tamilnadu 




How many districts are there in Tamilnadu? 



Write the names of the seas to the East and the South of 



your state.. 



^9- 



u' 



/ 



My district is 

Name your neighbouring districts 



Is your district near the coastal region 
If yes, write the name of the sea 




My district has hills | mountains I 

plateau | plains | coastal regions I 

My district gets water supply from lakes | rivers | tanks | 

Climate in my district is warm | cool and dry | wet | 



Team work 



liner evei 

o 



August 2011 



July 2011 



Take a calendar of the year . Record the weather everyday 

Here are symbols to record the weather hot 

windy -=::::i:s' and cloudy ^ ^ At the end 

of the year find the months which have 

hot, windy and cloudy. With 

the help of this weather record, 

we can learn about the seasonal 

changes. 



'\^oi 



September 2011 



June 2011 



s 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 








1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 











Climate and season in your district 

The hottest month is . 

The coldest month is . 



Name the hills or mountain in your 
district 




da ^ 



Name the rivers that flow in your district 



Does your district have forests? Yes/No 

List the grains, vegetables and fruits grown in your district. 



Industries in your district: 


Name of the Industry 


Products 


Place 





















Collect pictures of factories and industries in your district 
and paste them m the scrap book. 
Transport facilities in your district: 

Bus stop I Harbour I 

Railway station I Airport I 




Identify the districts with the help of the shape and colour. 
Write the names of all the districts. 




<^ 




« 



Districts of 
Tamilnadu 



Karnataka 




Andhra Pradesh .5T> 



^-"uCThiruvallur 



N 
W E 

Is 



Chennai 



Kancheepuram 



Tiruvannamalai 



Dharmapuri 
Salem 



Villupuram / 



Nilgiris Erode 



CoiolDatore 



Kerala 





Namakkal Perambalur 

Ariyalur 

Karur Thirlchlrapalli 



i»""^==ie-5^ 



Arabian Sea 



Tirunelveli 



^anniya 
kumafi 



Indian Ocean 




Dindigul 



Then! f^^^urai Sivagangai 



Virudunagar 



Thoothukudi 



^ 7%, 





I Name the places of Importance in your district. 



1 

Pilgrim centres Sanctuaries 



Historical places Hill resorts 



In your District 
Languages spoken 



Festivals celebrated 
Local Festivals 



Cultural Activities 



With the help of your teacher collect information x ^ 

about the Taluks in your district. 



Number of Taluks in your district 



Name of the place in which you live 
Name of the Taluk where you live _ 



Each district is famous for what is produces 
for eg: 

Salem - Mangoes 

Dindigul - Lock 

Tanjore - Paddy 
What is your district famous for? 




r7 



Photo Album 




Gingee Fort 




Courtallam water falls 

Nagore Dargha 





Marina Beach 




Nilgiri Botanical Garden 




Velankanni Church 



'P 





Kanyakumari -Thiruvalluvar 
statue 



Pamban Bridge 





Kallanai bam 



Thoothukudi Harbour 

Here are some pictures of places of 
importance to visit in our state. 
Put a tick (v/) on the places that you 
recognise. With the help of your teacher 
get to know more about these places. 




Thanjai Periya Kovil 
(Brahadeeshwara Temple) 






Read and enjoy 

A visit to Mahabalipuram 

Kannagi and her classmates were excited 
when their teacher announced a visit to Mahabalipuram. She is 
studying in Class III in a school in North Chennai. Her mother packed 
chapattis and variety rice for her to eat at Mahabalipuram. It was a 
cloudy day and a pleasant breeze was blowing. 

A Tamil Nadu Tourism and bevelopment Corporation bus was arranged 
for the trip. A guide was also there in the bus. The bus started at 8 a.m. 
Children were very happy to occupy their seats in the bus. The guide 
introduced himself as Mr. Vasanth and welcomed the children. He 
wished them a pleasant journey. 

The bus went along the East Coast Road from Chennai. The guide 
told them that they were travelling along the Coast of the Bay of 
Bengal. Kannagi looked at the sea on her left. It was beautiful on 
that cloudy day. The guide showed them the picturesque backwaters 
of Muttukadu when they were crossing the bridge. Children 



v^v. 




were singing all the way and 

enjoying the journey. 

I 

^ They reached 

Mahabalipuram at 9.30 am. 





Now the guide started describing the historical place. 
'Mamallapuram, was once a port city of the Pallavas. The rockcut 
temples were built by Mahendravarman I. His son Mamallan or 
Narasimha Varman continued to build more rock cut temples and 
structured shrines at Mahabalipuram. The shore temples and rock 
carvings were built during the reign of Narasimha Varman. 

Mahabalipuram was once a flourishing port town of the Pallava rulers. 
Now it is a famous tourist spot. It is around 57kms South of Chennai. 

The guide took them to see the Shore Temple, the Five 
Rathas, the Old and New Light Houses, Trimurthi Caves, Varaha 
and Tiger Caves, Beach and the Sculpture Training Centre. The 
temple carved out of a single large rock makes Mahabalipuram 
special. There are also beautiful hill-side stone reliefs,' said the 
guide.They found some letters on the rock. *What are these 
scripts? asked Kannagi.'They are some of the oldest known 
Devnagari and Tamil Grantham scripts,' said the guide. 




it- 






j^r^jund^s^^enance 



5ij @ ^ #« 2_ ^ 

a a i I u Li 

Grantham script 



Single Granite 





'Does It mean that there were people here before 
the Pallavas?' asked Tanu. 'Of course,' said the 
guide. 
Every port of our lond has on oncient history. 
'Look at this panel, you can find a 
pious cat praying to fool the mice to come closer,' 
said the guide. People in those days had a sense of 





... humour too. 'Another relief inside a hall with pillars - 

ail carved out of a rock - showed Krishna holding up a 

hillock to protect his fellow villagers from 

heavy thunderstorms,' said the guide. 
The children saw a giant natural rock balanced 

on the slope of a hlllsidel 'It is quite amazing!' 

said kannagl's classmate Vetrivel, in excitement. 

Then, they went to see the Pancha Rathas 

I.e., the Five Chariots. 'These are five monolithic temples In the 

shape of chariots each made In a different style and named 

after a character from the AAahabharata' , said the guide. 







'I have read the story of the Mahabharata in comics'. 
*How creative ancient people wereP said Kannagi. 
'Now it is time for lunch. Let us have lunch/ said the teacher 
The children sat down forming a circle. They exchanged their 
food and had their lunch happily. ^^ 

The guide then took the children to the Wq^^ I^ous^ 
Lighthouse and the Sculpture Museum, 

The children climbed the old light house. 
^^-.^- «|^,^ '^"l" 'S breath-taking/ Kannagi said, as 
ir "^ ^ - r'.^ they had a view from the light house. 
'I do not mind being caretaker of a lighthouse/ said her friend 
Alisha, echoing her own feelings. The museum has many sculptures. 

Finally, they visited the Shore Temple. Many people had come to see 
this beautiful place - foreigners, students, parents and children. 

The teacher and the children spent sometime on the silvery 
sandy beaches. There \Nzre also shops selling ^ beautiful conches 



and shells. Kannagi and her friends bought 
their mothers. The teacher and the 
children thanked the guide, Mr.Vasanth. 
They all returned home in the evening 



one each for 



Is there any tourist spot in 
your district arrange the 
trip visit and enjoy. 



y-*r^'??'^T^- 



r ^^-. 



f T^ 



^liori^aiiiei^ 





V^ 


l^^j^2^ 


- 


[JU^IaSu^ 




BBSb^^'^ 




%* 






Animals, plants, birds and insects are co-travellers with us on 
this beautiful earth. Some animals live in water. Some animals live 
both on land and in water and some live only on land. There are both 
terrestrial and water plants. 

A landscape is an area of land which is unique because of its weather, 
nature of the land and soil, plants, trees and creepers that 
grow in that particular habitat. Animals and birds live and 
adapt themselves to the environment. 

Tamil Literature has classified our land into five ^^^ 
landscapes'. Each of these was named after a flower. 
The five landscapes are described as 

(Curiryi or the landscape of mountains V^>i^ ^ 

Mullai or the landscape of forests 

Marudham or the landscape of the agricultural fields 
Neidhal or the landscape of coastal regions and^ 
Palai or the landscape of^ry lani 



S£ 



M. 






Kurinji - Mountainous Region 




I am Solaiamma from the Kolli hills. Ours Is a hilly area, so 
mornings and evenings here are cool and misty. I would love to tell 
you about the animals, birds, trees, fruits, and flowers in our 
landscape. 

In our hills we have lakes waterfalls and streams. There are 
many old trees like Red Sanders (vengai). Flame of the Forest 
(purasai),Teak, Bamboo, Sandalwood, and Indian Rosewood (sissoo). 
Hill bananas, which taste good are still grown in the the Sirumalai 
Hills in Dindigul. 

The name of the region Kurinji, Is also the name of the 
famous Kurinji flower which blooms in the Nilagiri Hills of 
Tamil Nadu. These hills are also famous for the nimble Nilagiri 



m 



Tahr (mountaii3g|oat5?^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 5| 

The shrub whose brilliant blue and white flowers blossom for only 
a few days once every twelve years, blankets the slopes in radiant 
colour. We tnibals are ancierxt inhabitants of 
this land and have gathered leaves, roots, 
fruits and honey in the forests. 




m 



\ 



Flowers like Kandhal (glory Illy) the rose and the lotus thrive in \ 
the cool air.that is fragrant with many rare medicinal herbs. 
The great Hornbill calls from the thick forest and the peacock 
dances with the first rains. Hunting wild animals is prohibited in 
our forests. Many elephants roam there. One of them has come to 
talk to you. "I am the largest land mammal in our country. I travel 
ong distances to find water and food. Now a days people hav< 
started farming and building houses across my path, and I have 
^ lost my habitat. I am also poached for my tusks." 

\^ Your teacher has marked the hilly areas in Tamil Nadu on a map.^ 

^l'rf*tW* \Att i. l_ • i-_ 



sM? What words come into your ^^^^1^x1 - Landscape of the Mountains / V+ 
•■''" mind when you think of ^^^ r^^ i r^^^ 




you 
the hills? 

Write the names of the 
Districts which hove hilly 
areas. 

'he elephant is sad 
^i^cause 




Vellore 



-...Tn 






Thiruvanamalai ■' ^' 

Dharmapuri '-^ 

^^^ ■ Viflupuram «^udhuchQrt 

L^xr^'^'^^"^ - y^'^^^^^ Cuddalore\ 

/ ^,^ _ JAnialury . 

Karur ^ \ ^>-^^'^ <r^ r'--:^ Nagapattinam 

J j ,-^--:^"^^-^ ^ { ^ 

Dindukkal ^ ^- \,. > "\ ^ 

i^ ^udukkottai J ^ ' 

Madurai ^Sivagangab^ ^ 



■V, 



/■ '"-^ 



" Ramanathaputam 



mi 




>c^ 



7-^ 






*■ 




^ 




'0 ) 



Mullai - Forest region 



Hi! I'm Nandini and I live in Sathya Mangalam. We are shepherds and 
cowherds, and our wealth is our cattle. My father takes the cattle 

f to graze early in the morning, and returns at noon. My mother sells 
curd and buttermilk. The climate is mild and rainy, and there are 
many rivers and streams in our landscape. There are thick, old 
forest trees here, and also trees and plants that people have planted 
for their animals. The palmyra, the coconut, the areca and the 
banana share space with the jackf ruit, jamun, mango, neem and 
tamarind trees. Pearl millet (kambu), finger millet (ragi), and 
sorghum (cholam) are also cultivated here. There are many animals 

,^ and birds like the barbet, jungle fowl, flying squirrel, fox, wolf, 
cheetah and wild bees. But with the shrinking forests, most of the 
deer have gone. The spotted deer has come to talk to you. 
" As my name suggests, I have white spots on a fawn-red 

J coloured coat. Only the males have antlers. Most of 

1 
my grazing areas have gone. I have been killed for my 

antlers and eaten for my meat. Only a few of us survive today, 

at the forest's edge". Your teacher has marked the forested areas 

in Tamil Nadu on a map. 




V 



Jp 







^^■-^^^^- 





Look at the Mullai areas on the map of Tamil Nadu . Locate the 
districts where forests are found. 

/ 

^Forest . , y'N!?^^"f 

Krishnagiri f ^M^ 
•"^^Y , Dharm^uri ^i, 



M 



N 

t 



^ 



Thimvanamalai 



roimbtpin 



00 




SelanT '' -^LJ^' 
Nama 



Villupuram- - >" 



#"1 




erambalL^, 



^ Cuddalore 



'y'...y^--^r^'-;t.( ■ J '-— .^JAriyalUT./' ( 



\^ _Jhirichirapalli J / \' _..-jJ 

i ^ .— /7 ^ ^Tanjavur J i-^ \ 




'^«Rv?v 




^ 











- -'^ 




^ f ^ \ 


^ 


__ !? 




"^; 










•1 




1?^ ' 



■ I II ^« *l 



ff 




Marudham - Cropland [plains and river basins] 

/Ay name Is Devon. 

The Marudham landscape gets Its name from the flower of the 
myrtle or Arjuna (Marudham) tree. I am from Pathamadai. This 

is a beautiful place, with the river Tamiravaruni flowing through our 

fertile lands, and irrigating our fields. Our landscape is flat, and 

rivers flow slowly, depositing rich soil for our farms. A kind of 

grass called korai grass grows along the river banks, and when it is 

dry, people make mats out of it. 

Most of us are farmers. We have warm seasonal rains, that help us 

to cultivate almost any crop on our fields - many types of paddy, 

pulses, oil seeds, millets , cotton and where possible, even sugarcane! 

Do you know people in the Sangam period knew how to extract 

sugarcane juice? 

In our landscape people have found many ways of storing water and 

Marudham land is dotted with eris, ooranis and tanks people have 

used bulls to plough the land and also caught and eaten many kinds 

of fish from the rivers and ponds . Snakes like the cobra are found 

In this region - they control rats which are a pest in our fields . 
Here is one to talk to you. 

I am always alert in thick jungles and In the farms. I catch rats and 

save the crops. You rarely see me because I sense the vibrations 

of your steps through my body. I live In holes and termite mounds. 

It is in your hands to plant trees and make the crop lands more fertile! 




Your teacher has marked the fertile areas in Tamil Nadu on a map. 
What words come to your mind when you think of the former? 



Rivers flowing in this landscape bring 

Look ot the Marudhom oreas on the mop of Tomil Nadu . ^ 

Locate the districts and the rivers where fertile land is found 

Marudham areas in the map of Tamil Nadu 



Marutham Crop Lands 




B/% 





Symbols J 


1 


Crop 


1 


Mat making 


m 


Silks 


M 


Weaving 



10 



di_a 




N. 






^m^ - 









% Neidhal - Seashore [Coastal Regions] 

My name is Antony. I come from Nagapattinam. Tamil Nadu has 
a very large coastal area. The people who lived, and continue to live 

here are the fisher folk. This *thinai' or landscape gets its name 
from the water lily that used to grow in the back waters of rivers 
has they met the sea, Thazhampoo and Magizhampoo were also 
found in this region. The next and boats drawn up on the beach and 
the odour of drying fish attract many sea birds like the gull, tern 
and heron. Many different varieties of fish are caught and sold. 
Sharks, whales, kavalai and sea horses are some of the fish I know. 
There were many busy harbours in the ancient days where Indian 
pepper and cardamon were sent In ships across the sea, to be sold in 
foreign lands. Even today this area has many important ports. 
There are many marshes are wetlands along the coast where the 
great Indian Marsh Crocodile used to live. As you know, it is 
wetlands that provide us with fresh sweet water by recharging the 
ground water. Sea turtles, to this day, lay there eggs on the 
beaches, along the Tamil Nadu coastline. 

Here is a turtle that has come to talk to you 

I am an Olive Ridley turtle. I am also called Panguni Aamai' 
because I nest along the coast of Tamil Nadu during January 
February and march. I reptile and I live in the sea. Do keep the ^v 
beaches safe for me. 





■J \ 






Your teacher has marked the coastal areas in Tamil Nadu on a map 
What words come to your mind when you think of the fisherman? 

Neidhcl - areas in Tamil Nadu 



^'""t 



E What does the sea 





,_^ennai tUPtlc WOllt US tO do? 

Kancheepuram 

Sw^^ Locate the districts 

where coastal land 
is found. 



I Symbols 
Huts 
"^(ST Coconut Trees 



~ki%»*^ *< 




Catamaran 
Trawler 
"^Sb^^ Fishes 



The marshes or wetlands provide the coastal areas with 

Marshland: 

* * 

A low lying wetland with grassy vegetation: usually a transition zone 

between land and water. 
Backwaters: 






Areas of stagnant water ^(yr^d by backflow from a body of wSl^ei".' 4 






i' 



J LJ Paalai - Dry lands. Wastelands 

In Tamllnadu, there are no deserts. But there or^ dry lands. 
Dry land farming has been done in Tamil Nadu for a long time. People 
have learnt to live in hot and dry conditions and save every drop of 
water. Horses, some cattle, wolves, tigers and many kinds of lizards 
are some animals to be found in this landscape. Plants like the cactus, 
thorny bushes and palm trees and dry land crops like millets, (cholam 
and kambu) oilseeds like the sun flower, groundnut, sesame and pulses 
like green gram and black gram grew here. 

Fruits like dates, figs, guavas and pomegranates are available 
here. There are also dry land herbs like aloe vera, and hardy trees 
like Drumstick (AAurungaf) and the Karuvelam which grow well here. 
Birds of prey like vultures, hawks and kites are the natural birds 
of this landscape. 

Palai is o landscape where the wells have gone dry, the 
ground woter has become solty, the ponds hove become dirty and 
unusable, the soil is unfit for plonts, and humon beings find it 
very hord to live. Todoy, we need to be careful and 'protect our "k 



P- 



^P 



v*** 



environment. Let us toke core of our soil ond woter ond keep the J 



^^of 



air clean! Let us not fill our earth with waste! Let us toke core 



ifC 



-S? 



the other creotures thot shore this beoutifu! world with us. 
Let us plant trees and toke core of our forests! 



m. 



Your teacher has'fharked the coastal areas in Tamil Nadu on a map 



Palai - Dry Lands 



^P^jdukkottai 




f^C 



7\ 



'W 



-^F^' 



g^^^manathapuram 




How can wc protect 
our environment? 

Locate the districts 
where dry lands are 
found. 

symbols 
^ Millets 

J|i Red Chillies 
^0 WoodApple 

Karuvelam 



In what kind of land form do you live in? 

Look at these foot steps and name the animals that have conie here, 




vT 



'JiT 



v7> 



^ 






Dharani has spotted ten birds in the picture. How many can you find? 
Colour and write their names in the branch box given below. 





Name some domesticated birds. Have you noticed them? Their beaks 
are all different. Looking at the beaks and legs, find out the name of 
the bird and write. 




braw a beak of the bird you know and name it. 






Who are they? Name them 



I use my beak to make holes 
for nesting and locate 
insect larvae under the bark. 
Who am I? 





My call is koohu-koohu. 
Everybody likes my sweet 
voice which gives me fame. 
Who am I? 




Chur-chur-r-r-it-it-it-it" 
People love my call. You can 
see me in your backyard. 
Now our number is reduced, 
Who am I? 




I am a night bird having powerful eyesight. 
I can look around me by turning my head. You 
may have heard my hooting sound at night. 
Who am I? . 




I fly very high and have 
good eye sight. I swoop down 
upon the prey in water or 
on the ground from a great 
height. Who am I? 



I have colourful feathers. 

I am admired by all and I cry aloud 

before the rain. 

Who am I? 



I am bright coloured and 
attractive. I live in tree holes 
and in nests, dug In banks 
of water bodies. I like to eat 
fish and that is what gives me 
my name. 
Who am T? . 




Let us study some of our feathered friends ^^ 







The Common Babbler 

The Common Babblers are ancient Inhabitants of 
Tamil Nadu. They are called sewen sisters or seven 
brothers because they are usually seen in groups of 6 - 10 
They chatter and chirp. They live on insects, grain, nectar and 
berries. 

They are social birds and take care of each other. 

The Mynah 

The Mynah belongs to the starling family of 
birds. It Is dark brown with yellow markings on its 
head. Its beak is famous for Its bright yellow colour. 

This bird too is a native of this landscape and Is 
found everywhere In Tamllnadu. 
It Is also a good imitator of sounds and calls!. 

Indian Magpie Robin 

The Indian Magpie Robin Is a cheerful and 
friendly bird. It is a native of this landscape and 
Ives in dry scrub jungles, perching on the village 
roofs and entering verandahs and picking up Insects 
It nests in a tree trunk or hole or pad of grass and drinks 
the nectar of dry land flowers. When It sings, its tall bobs up 
and down! 
Let us make friends with birds. Keep water and food 
for the birds In your garden and observe the birds that 
come to drink water and feed themselves. 








^ 




The Crow Pheasant 

The Crow Pheasants Who...wooo....you 
would have heard their call! They are brown birds V 
with long tails and red eyes. They are weak flyers 
They eat insects and live in woodlands. w-*^ 





The Weaver Bird 

The Weaver Bird is a master builder. The nest 
faces downwards. It feeds on seeds and 
lives in colonies on trees. 






The Hornbill 

Perhaps no story of birds in our landscape is complete 
without the mention of the Hornbill. It lives mainly 
in the dense forests and is an ancient inhabitant 
of our land. 



Find out the different types of nests the different 
birds build. Where do they build them? Collect the 
empty nests and find out what materials they have 
used to build the nests. Take a walk in the morning] 
with your note book and draw the birds you see 
around you 





117 




F|**! 



Birds of prey are called 'raptors'. These birds are good 
hunters and they fly very high. They also have very good 
eyesight and they dive from a great height to catch 
their prey. They have very large and powerful wings, as well! 

' Here are a few. 




?r^Tf^ :T^ f >^ ^ipn^^^^/tTr: 



i'^t^ fW\ *^y ^n i jgr t^ '^jL ' 



4 



Birds protect trees by reducing the number of leaf- ii. 

eating insects and protect the forests too. Many birds are 
friends of mankind. Their droppings help in improving the 
fertility of the soil. The food and life of birds depend on 
the quality of natural environment. 



^ 






Think 

Can all birds fly? Name two birds that cannot fly, 







Collect the feathers which you find lying around 

In your scrap book draw a bird that you like 
and paste the right feather on it. 3p^ (| 
Write the name of the bird. 







-k 




Have you ever observed the birds while flying and 
walking in different ways? 

When you see birds, watch how they walk and nfove 
their neck and listen to the sounds made by them. 

Enact and ask your friend to guess the bird you 

have enacted. 

Discuss 

What will you do if you happen to get wings? 
Where will you go? Which bird do you like to be? Why? 
Which is your favourite bird. Why? 




♦ 



Circle the birds that cannot fly very high 




^V, W^ 



1 



I 





«* • *%• 




We will now learn about one of the oldest bird sanctuaries 
in India - the Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, a home for migratory 
birds. It is located in the Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu. 

It attracts a variety of birds because it has many small lakes 
and a number of trees. It acts as a feeding ground for the birds. 

The sanctuary was started in 1798 by the villagers who realized 
the importance of the birds that migrate and breed here. Their 
knowledge of the use of bird's droppings, helped them to increase 
their crop yield and motivated them to start the sanctuary. 




Darter 




A sanctuary is a safe place for birds and animals. 



Bar-tailed Godwit 



^^ 




Wmmmm 




?v< 



S ligianiiTik c K > 




V. 



AAigratory birds 

Migratory birds travel thousands of miles 
from different parts of the world to avoid 
the biting cold. The birds nest here mainly 
from the month of November to March. ,^^11' 1 
During this time birds are^ 
mostly building and ^^SR^ K. 
maintaining their nests. The number of birds 
arriving during the season is estimated to be 
around 50,000 

As summer sets in, the water in the tanks starts 
receding. By this time, the chicks become old and are 
strong enough to fly. The migratory birds start returning in 
batches to their native places. 




Heron 



In which region is Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary located? 



:^ 



When was the sanctuary started?. 



Name some of the birds that come there. 





Bharata 

BharatQ was a brave boy. 
He was the son of the ancient 
King Dushyanta. Bharata' s mother 
was Shakuntala. Bharata lived 
with his mother in the forest 

during his childhood. He grew up in the midst of wild animals. 
Bharata grew to be strong and fearless - for instance, he made 
a sport of opening the mouths of tigers and lions and counting 
their teeth! 

Bharata became a king at a very young age. Young Bharata 
conquered and ruled the entire subcontinent of India. 
His empire was named Bharatavarsha, the land of Bharata. 
He ruled virtuously and earned great fame. 




Bharatavarsha refers to the 
whole of modern India and many 
other countries of today which 
did not exist then. Our country 
is known as Bharat in memory 
of the great King Bharata . 




Manikarnika was born on 19th November 1828 
in Kashi (Varanasl). Her nick name was Manu. 
She was educated at home. She studied 
self defence, horsemanship, and archery. 
She formed her own army with her 




t'i. 



^^,. 



n 



female friends. 

She was married to Sangadhar Rao, the Raja 
of Jhansi, at the age of 14. After her marriage," 
she was given the name Lakshmi Bai. 
When her husband died, she became the 
ruler of Jhansi. 

Lakshmi Bai took part in the revolt of 1857. She went to the 
battlefield riding a horse and fought against the British bravely. 

She died in the battlefield in 1858. 

Rani Lakshmi Bai became a national hero and 
is remembered even today as a brave woman. 

The first Women's Unit of the Indian National 
Army was named after Rani Lakshmi Bai. 




M, 







Paper house 



Take a square paper and fold 
it into 16 parts. 



Shall we draw a 
Kingfisher? 

(D 



> Cut the edges of the fold 
as shown in the picture. 





Paste the centre leaves 

of the cut portion as Li^ 

shown in the picture. 









Then paste the corner 



edges as shown in the 
picture. 



Now the house 
is ready. 



Draw the doors, windows 
and colour them. 

You can make different types of houses 
using different kinds of colourful oil 
paper (Marble) with the help of 
your teacher. 



124