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^r. 377^ . cL JJ- 



/r-/ 



/ 



THE 



SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



VOLUME TIIE EIGHTEENTH. 



JANUARY to' JUNE. 



M.DCCC.XLI. 




LONDON: 
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. 



INDEX 



TO TBI 



NAMES AND SUBJECTS IN THE EIGHTEENTH VOLUME. 



ABAevs.MM andcnt, 11 
AdTantatM. balmDM of, In dUbrtnt 
coaditioot of life. 109 

of bodily Ubonr, SS8 

AdvenitT. 3 

nMsor.l9a 



Advfee to ill-aatarad people, 100 
Affections. enUlvatlon of the. 81 

the. beigliteaed by reUglon, 79 

Affliction, 3. 131 

Amicable Ceremonies, I.. ISft— II., 195 

Aoalogy of Tafetable and human life, 

144 
Ancient crypts, 9 
— — ^-» Egyptian enstom, 88 
 philoeiiphers,mazimsof the.93 

Anecdote of Sir Ralph Abererombie, 8 
Animal food. 91 

Animals, effects of mnsle npon, 99 
Aristippns. remark of, ISO 
Art of story.teUtnK. 938. 933 
Artificial flowers, maanfactore of, 944 
Aatomaton Fignres. I., 69—1!., 69 
Ariridanee of vieioos society. 91 

Balsnee of adranlases in different con- 
ditions of life. 109 

Bank-notes, Invention of» by the Chi- 
neee, 114 

Banks of the Thames, I., 901—11., 993 
— III.. 9a3-|V, 941 

Bejapoor. in Hludoitaa. 140 

Belief In supernatnral appcaranees, 38 

Benerolraee. 30 

spirit of, 60 ^ 

Birds, soDf of. 103 

Boat Unnch. the. 34 

Bodily laboar, its adTantiifet, 998 

Bones. Napier's, 11 

BriUsb Guyana. U 177—11,. 185-IIT., 
199-IV.,905-V.,917 

Breeade. 54 

Burnt pillar at ConstaathMple^ 19 

Csknlatlng Machines :— 

I. Napier's bones ; the Abacnt, 11 

II. Toe apparatus of Sandenon, 
OcTsten. and Pascal. 98 

III. Babbage'sealcnlating engine, 69 
Caddis, or Sprinc-fly. 993 

Caaora and nls Works. I., 18—11., 60, 

HI.. 66 
Ceiemootss. Amicable, I., 156— II., 196 
Chains of vice. 948 
Cbamomilc, 97 
Chess: — 
I.. II. Origin and aatiqalty of the 

rie. 7* M 
IV. Ancient chess-men dlseo- 
Wrad in the Isle of Lewis. 87, 60 
v.. VI , Orlfln of the names of 

caesa-men, 78. 101 
VII.. VlIU IX.. X., XI., Chess, 
writeis and players, 184, 148, 171, 
188.930 
XII. BiocrapUcal skotch of Phi- 
lidor, 937 
ChOd. the, 155 
— — an extraordinary, 68 
Children, proper eneonragoment ol^ 144 
China, use of tea in. 86 
Chinsse, the bnrmiton of bank-Holes, 

114 
— dinners. 104 

fimst of lanterns, 96 
119 



Chrisdsn eonsolatlon on the death of 

friends. 196 

-^ fear and felth, 68 

Christianity, pfcdsion and de6nita- 

ncasoi; 118 

mnsonablenees o^ 11 

Cbaehes in London, 149 

CliciuBstaiiees, 91 

Cieaalincea and moral feeling, eon* 

ntxion between, 147 
Coias. ancient and modem. Some Ac* 

eottBtaf>— 
Introduction. 81 
ISeet. I. Medals and Coins dbUn- 

gaish»>d— meuU of which tlies sre 

ma>ie pecnllaritirs of coinfnf— 

sises— mrts of a medal— subjects 
• of medal*— portmits^-rererses of 

medals— remarkable coinnMtttlcs 
" 89 



Sect. II. Coins and medals In a ca- 
binet—Greek medals— their cba. 
rseterlstles— dvil and monarchical 
— ^reek imperial coins— Roman 
medals— consular and imDerial— 
colonial erin s c o i ns of other na- 
tions •-braeteates. 84 

Sect. III. Modern coins— foreign 
coins— Anglo-Oalllc coins, 161 

8eet IV. Auglo-Saaon coins— eeole- 
slastlcsl coins — Norman coins- 
Peter's pence— coins used in Eng- 
land till the reign of Charles U.— 
coins once und for toxal fee s 
eoioage of Charles II —bad state 
of the coinage at the Rerolntion— 
Thomas Simon— introduction of 
the mill and screw— copper money 
^lloy of metali— Scoteh and 
Irish money, 168 

Sect. V. Modern medals— Papal 
medals— Spanish and French 
medals— <omparison of ancient sad 
modern medals— Buclish medals 
— coroimtlon medals, 166 

Sect. VI. Study of coins and medals 
— Pembroks collection— utility of 
medals • counterfeit medals— cabi- 
nets— medallions and m ed slet»- 
Itreserratlon of coins and medals^ 
67 
Conduct of life determined by slight 

circumstances, 157 
Conscience, 69 

— misapplleatlon of the teimi 
948 

Constantinople, burnt pillar at, 19 

Convallarla msjalis, 1*^ « 

Counters, origin and use of^ 939 

Cowries. 80 

Credulity, 89 

Crypts, ancient. 9 

Cuckoo, the. llfli 

Cultivation of tho albetloas, 91 

of plants and flowers, 179 

Custom of the ancient Egyptians, 88 

— of tho Maunday, 188 

Death of Driends, Christian consolation 

on the. 190 
Deity, considsrstlons on the, 160 
Development of truth, 64 
Diseaies. Imaginarr, 86 
Diieontented people, 96 
Do stones srow? 819 
Dog. the, 91 
Domestic remedies. 94 
Druidkal remains In England, 187 

Early rising, 64 

Effects of musie npon animals, 99 

Eloquence, advantages of, 999 

Encanstle painting. 930 

England, Diuidical remains In, 187 

— — overland Journey fhm India 

to, 41, 191, 801 
English and Indian landseapei^ 160 
Enjoyment, the true test of possession, 

Ettler, the mathnnatieian, 907 

Evening. 160 

Evil, sufllsring, 947 

Examination of the evidenees of Ram- 

latioo, 159 
Ezoelienee, foundation of, 63 
B&tBsordinary child, an, 68 

Faith and Hope, 79 

Fashion, 56 

Fetish, the, 96 

Flazman and his Works, I., 106—11., 

146-III., 176 
Flies, poisonous, 158 
Flowers, mannlhetnre of artlflcia],'944 
Fly, the Spring. 993 
Fonst. considerations on a, 131 
Forgetme*not, the. 994 
Fieth-water Fbh:— 

Introduction, 119 

I.. II. The Salmon, 137, 174 

III. The Trout, 191 

IV. Xhe Jack, or like, 199 

V. Tfie l*ereh, 947 
Fretrniness, 16 

Friends, Christian eoasolatton on the 
death of, 190 



Frugality the daughter of pmdenoe, 196 
Fruit, waxen. 997 
Fanerals in China, 119 

Gamester, the, 986 
Garden Herbs :— > 

I. Chamomile, 97 

II. Rue. 117 

III. Wormwood. 189 

IV. Savory— Horshound, 941 
Generosity and iustiee, 16 
Oingerbresd. 159 

Glass, soluble, 183 
Gloves, a brief history of, 151 
Glue, on the minufeeture of, 71 
Government of the universe, 7 
Grounds nntilled and wits unrestrained, 

196 
Guyana. British, I.. 177—11.. 186-1 1 1.. 

193— IV.. 905-V., 917 

Hsbit. 136 

Hanseatie League, brief Aeeonnt of the i 

I. Historical Introduction. 949 

II. Formation of the Hanseatie 
League, 950 

III Commercial advantages of the 
League. 931 

IV. Extent and Internal government 
of tlM Lesgtto, 969 

V. Monopolising spirit of the Hsuse 
merchants, and its ooniequenees, 
953 

VI. Decline and fall of the Hansea- 
tie League, 954 

Hsppiness, temporal or eternal, ohoioe 

of, 186 
— ^— and misery, 898 
Have hope, 156 
Home, love ol^ 7> 116 
Honey, pobonons, 106 
Hope, 139 
Horshound, 941 
Hombesm, the, 931 
Hot cross buns, 144' 
Human and vegetable life, analogy of, 

Hungary water. 8 
Hypochondriadsm, 131 

Icebergs. 75 
Ichneumon, the, 109 
Ill-natured people, advice to, 100 
lUasions. OpUcal, L. 903-11., 998— 

IIUKS 
Imaginary dhwases. 86 
ImiUtion from I. Kings, xix. II. 19—93 
India, overiand journey from, to Evg- 

Und. 41, 191, 901 
Indian and English landscapes, 150 * 
Infentile poem, 56 
Infldel speculations, 60 
Isehil, salt mountains ol^ 35 

Jerboa, the 

Joannina, Psehalie of. 6 
Journey, overland, (him India to Eng- 
land, 41. 191, 901* 
Justice and generosity, 16 

Knole,inKent,96 

Knowledge and vbtne, 97 , 

Landicapes. English and Indian, 150 

Lsntems, Chinese feast of, 96 

League, Hanseatie, account of thsb 949 

Leibnits, life oC 97 

Lily of the valley. 173 

Uttleeoates, In Wlluhlrs. 199 

London, churches in, 149 

Love, a mother's, 110 

— of God the troe foundation of 

philsnthropy, 60 
— — of home, 7 
— — ^^— In the poor, 115 
L>nn. town oC 95 

Machinet , calculating, 11, 98, 59 
Maffpio, the. 31 
Malicious « it. 183 
Maoaious. Old Eiidish:-* 

I. Wroxtoa Abbey, 9, 

II. Knole, 90 

III. Littlecuates. 199 
Mannlketure of artificial flowonii 944 
— ofglne,71 



Mannday, on the custom of the, 138 
Maxims of the sncients, 93 
Memory, 181 

Mind tk man. perverseness of the. 78 
Misapplication of the term " Con- 

scleucc,** 948 
Mississippi achsme, the, 13 
Moderation in argument. 40 
Moldavia and the Moldavians. 153 
Months. Rural Sporto for tho :— 

I. January. 38 

II. February, 76 

III. March.' 116 

IV. April. 153 

V. May, 197 
VL June. 943 

Morsl feeling and eleanliness, eon- 

nexion between. 147 
Mother's love, 110 
Mount Ossa. description of. 73 
Mouse-ear seorpton-grais, 894 
M. Remousat and his children, 21 
Mushrooms, 53 
Musie. effects of. npon animals, 99 

Obstinate man. the. 939 
Old English Mansions:— 

I. Wroxtou Abbey. 9 

II. Knole. 90 

III. Liitleeoatcfl, 130 

Opticsl Illations. I.. 903-11., 928— 

HI. 835 
Overland Journey from India to Bor- 
land .— * 

Jlrrt Jloafs.— By way of the Persian 
Gulf, throogh Persia and Ratsia. 
to St Peteimbnrgh. 41 

Steaki Aoate.— Hy way of the Per- 
sian. Gulf. Penia. Armenia, Asia 
Minor, and Coutantlnople. to 
Europe. l91 '^ 

Third Aonto.- By way of Lahore, 
Caubul. Bokhars, Toorkmania. 
Khorasan, and Persis, to the Black 

Owyhee, volcano of, 4 

Pachalie of Joannina, 5 

FainUng, encaustic. 930 

Parental tenderness, 948 

Pedantii, various kinds of, 198 

Persian amusements, 104 

Perverseness of the mind of man. 78 

Pett. Spring feir st. 30 

P*»"ojophy not oppoaed to RevelaUon, 

Physic, 87 

Physical powers, necessity for their 
cultivation. 110 

'^ and moral life, 76 

Plants and flowers, caltivation ot 179 
Pleasures, 808 
Poisonous Artteles of Food :— 

I- Mushrooms. 65 

II. Animal food, 91 

III. Poisonous honey, poisonous 
grain, spurred rye, 10(8 

PDlsoaoos fltea. 159 

Poreopine, the. 68 

Possession, enjoyment the trna test of, 

86 
Power of truth, 141 
Prayer, 86 
Prejudiee. 30 

Present and the futare. 198 
Preservation of timber. 891' 
ProdueUou of designs by stamping. 59 
Proud man. the, 184 
Prudence the mother of frugality. 196 
Prudent advice. 3 

Rainbow, the. 115 

Real kuowledge. 8 

Reasonableness of Christianity, U 

Religion. 79. 196 

Resolution, 98 

Resurrection, the. 150 

Revenge, pleasure of forbearing. 835 

uuJustiflableueM of, 150 

Rome under the emucTors. 19 

Hue. 117 

Rural Sports for the Months :— 

1. January. 38^ 

II February. 76 

IIL Mnrch. 116i 

IV. April, 155 






INDEX TO THE EIGHTEENTH VOLUME. 



Rural Sport* for the Moniht ^— * 

V. Muv. 197 

VI. Juue. 843 

SalTnon, the, 137. 174 ^ 
Srilt mouiiuuiis uf laciiil. 35 
Savory. 24 L 
Sflf-guveriimcnt. 23 
 intpnivement, 60 

kiM»*ledm% 17*3 

Syvt-ii wotul«r» of the world, the, 94 
Shark, cluiracier of a. 340 
8htfU-IUh. Bilk from. 135 
HtuHi buckles. 141 
Silk from fthell- ash. 135 
— — from «pider». 99 
Sil phi lira. lu*i 

Small-iNjx, History of. and of the 
for iu Piev«utioii :— 

I. Oriirin and pro^rt^ss; IntroductioD 
of iiKiciuatiou, 15 

II. DiicoTory of vacdnaUon; Ita 
proi^ress on the Contineat; re* 
vaccioation. 91 



Soluble glasi. 183 

Sdmnambuliim. iingnUr eaaet of* 61 

Song ot birds, 103 

Sorrow. 8 

Spiileis. silk from, 99 

Spirit of b«fneToleae«, 60 

Sprinf^ fair at Fesi. 30 

Spriuj^.ily, th«, 2*23 

StampiDK, prudacliou of designa by, 

59 
Stones, their asserted growth. 919 
Story tflliDir, the art uf, 93i, S35 
Sturgeon. the. 93 
Suffering evil. 347 
Suliot hills, the. 33 
Suliuts and All Pacha, 5? 
Supernatural ^appoaranceif belief in, 

38 

Tattooing. 107 
Tea, use of. in China, 35 
 — in various eonntriea, lift 

Temporal or eternal Jutupioeia^ ehoiM 
of. 186 



Thames. Banks of the. I., 901^11., 995 

—III.. 233— I v.. 941 
Thank-offering, 99 
This eariji not our rest, 99 
Timber, preservation of, 991 
Trifles. 109 
Truut. the. 191 
True devotion, 34 

patriotism. 131 

— > philosophy not oppotad to Berela- 

tlon, 136 
Truth, development of. 64 

immoruUtty of, 97 

— — power of. 141 

Turkey nod the Turkish provlneM^** 

I. Fafihalic of Juaoulna, 5 

II. The Sulioi hills, Albania. 33 

III. AU Paeba and the SnlioU. 67 

IV. Mount Osaa, fce., in the proviaec 
of Trikhala, 73 

V. MoldavU a d Um Moldavians, 
157 

Universe^ foverom«Bt of the, 7 



Unklndneas. 64 

Use of tea in China, 3S 

 in various countries, 110 

VacnioatloD, 149 

Valley, lily of the. 173 

VegetaUle ktnKdum, principle of repro- 
duction in the, 160 

and human life, analogy of, 

144 

Velvet. 94 

Vice, chains of, 948 

Volciinus uf Owyhee, 4 

Woxeu fhiit. 997 

Wire drawing, I., 14»-II., 180 

Wit, malicious, 183 

Wits unrestrained and grounds nn* 

tilled. 196 
Woman, lis 

Wonders of the world, the itt«a, 94 
Wormwood. 189 
Wroxton Abbey, 9 



INDEX TO THE ENGRAVINGS. 



AroH4W national dance, 913 
Alired. coin of. 11.9 
Altiir* oil Kutnaii coins. 84 
ARi)thipoli!i. ••oin of, Sb ^ 
Ant'i'Mil cliesj*-men, 37,60 
AiitiiM-li, com of. 84 

III PiKiiiui. c«)<n of, 86 

Antiochus V , coin of, 8i 
VI.. c«iiuof. 83 



— Vn .cm of. 85 



Apamenii nVMlul, 167 

Apollo, \\'-Ail of, on 'foio of Ampbi- 

|K)lis. 85 
Asia Miuor, Tokat, in. 191 
Atanilpii. rouuutuins of. 185 
Ait^ii^ivu, ii^ud of. uu cuiu of Antioeh, 

8k 

Bablmi;-''" calculating engine, portion 

.,f. 51 
Itank iiii". ''hiue-'e. 113 
l>:i|)ii-<[n of (:i>ii«t/iiitiii« the Great, 

nifcl.ii • oranifmor.iiinsr, 88 
Hj moor, ill ilrndu4taii, UO 

1. - .. [iifAl u*iii ul, 141 

B»'iii'li.-f:jf-. Iiom I'.iiiova, 17 
Bi>ho|», cii'ss, as designed by Flas- 

maii, MA 
Ilniv. vil.Kijeof, 933 
Brt-Hkrast. a Pe<-sian, 195 
Biiiisli coin«, 88 
Gnvaua. views in. 177* 188^ 198» 

203.21*7 

Caddis or Sprint; fly. thp. 934 
CalciilaiiuK michiiie. UahbaKe*s, 53 

Piofesaor Saundor- 

sons, 2i 
Cami>. Toorkman. 216 
CanoTa, groups hy, 17. 49, 65 
Ciiiiutt*. coin uf. 169 
(Ml irity, by Canova, €5 
Ciiess.m*'!!. ancient, 37t 60 

des ijiicd by Plazman, Idi^ 

US, 173, 188. 920, 237 
Chess-rooks, in heraldry, 101 
Chinese bank«nute, 113 
Coins:— 

Alfred. 169 

AmphiiMlis. 85 

Ancieut British, 88 

Auglo-.*^iixon, earliest, ,169 

Autioch, 84 

of Pisidia. 86 

Autiochus V , 85 

« VI. 83 

VII., 85 

Cautiie. 163 

Comraoowe.ilth. 165 

Cnuol)eline, 88 

Kdwiird the Confessor,. .169 

Gilbert, 162 

Bliz:il}eth, 163, 164 

EphfsiiJi, 85 

Ethelbett, 169 

Ethelred of Kent. 169 

' of Nortbumberland, 169 

Ethelstan, 169 

Gadara. 87 



Coins :-4 

Ht.rold,169 

Henry 1 , 163 

II., KJ3 

Jewish, 83, 87 

Bdaceiloniau, 84 

UfTa, kin^' of Mercia, 169 

Persian, 87 

Phoenician. 88 

Human, 84, 86 

Simon's Trial piece, 161 

William 11,163 
*/ollege, Eton, 941 
Columbus, mfdal in honour of, 167 
''Comlnrt ye the fatherless and the 

widow." group by Fiaxmaa, 160 
Common iox, the, /6 
Commonwealth, coin of the, 165 
Consuiitine the (>reat, medal com* 

mcmorating the iMptism of, 88 
Constantinople, burut pillar at, 13 
Cow ies. 80 

Cr>pt in Lasiingham church, 9 
Cuuoiteliue. cuius of. 88 

Dance, national, of thn Afghans, 913 
Dane, a Persian coin. 87 
|>eer. red. 156 

Draught players, from an Egyptian 
paiuUng. 90 

eastern dormitory on the house-top, 
48 

Edward the Confessor, coin ttt, 163 

Bvliert. coin of. 169 

Kliubeth,coiuof, 163, 164 

Bphesus, coiu of, 85 

Kssequibo river. William IV.'s Ca- 
taract. 205 

Ethelbert, coiu of. 162 

Ethelred of Kent, coin of. 169 

of Northumberland, styea of, 

169 

Bthrlstan. coin of, 162 

Btou college. 341 

Flazmau. sculptures by, 105, 145. 169, 

— chess-men designed by, J38, 

148, 173. 188. 220. 237 

Oadara, coin of, 67 

Gallery over the hnll at Knole. 89 

Glue, diagram illustrating the manufiio- 

ture of, 72 
Gold angel of Elisabeth, 163 

spur royal of Klisaljeth, 164 

— — ten-shilling piece of the Common- 
wealth. 165 
Great gun at Hejapuor, 141 
Group of Suliots, o7 
Guyana, British, views in, 177, 185, 193, 
205. 217 

Hadrian, medal commemorating hit 

victory over the Jews, 88 
Hall at Knole. gallery over the. 89 

at LittlecoatM, interior of tlie, 199 

Hanover, Leibuits's house in, 97 
Honseatic rath-house, Labeok, 949 



Hare, the, 1 L6 

iu her form. 117 

Harold, eoin uf. 16i 

Harpies, vicloiy of Hercules over the, 
medalliuu eummemorating the, 81 

Henry I., coin of, 163 

1 1 . coiu of, 163 

Hercules* victory over the Harpies, rae- 
rtallioii commemoratiuK the 81, 

Hornlteam, leaf aud catkins of the, 
931 

House-top. Eastern dormiioryonthe,48 

Hut and cauues, of the natives of Bri- 
tish Guyana, 917 

Cchneumon, the, 109 

Illusions, ojitical. Illustrations of, 903, 

228. 235. 236 
lostructiou, from Canova, 49 

Jaasy, public promenade at, 153 
Jerbon, the. 64 

Jewish coins and medals, 83, 87 
Jj.>nnlna, 6 

Ring, chess, designed by FluKman, 139 
King William the Fourth's Cataract, 

Bssequilw, 905 
Knight f, chess, designed by Flamnon, 

188 . 
Knole. gallery over the hall at. 89 
Koords exercising. 128 

Lastingham church, erypt in. 9 
lA^ibuttz's house iu Hanover, 97 
LHllecoates, iuterior of the hail at, 199 
Lubeck, view of, 256 

Hanseatic rath*housi>. 949 

Lynn, .St. Nicholas chapel, 95 

Macedonian coins. 84 
Machiuerv for wir»>drawing, 180 
ftlagpie, the. 39 
Mallard, the. ^'' 
Massaroony, view on the, 193 
Medals : — 

Apamean, 168 

Baptism of Constantino the Giftt* 
88 

Co' umbos. 167 

Krench. issued by Ndpoleon, 167 

Hadrian. 88 

Hercules and the Hnrpiefl, 61 

Jewiah, 87 

Nero. 83 

Vespucci. 167 
Mercia, coin of Offa. king of, 169 
Months, rural sports of the, illnstra* 

tions of. 40. 76. 116, 117. 156, 197 
Mount Ararat, 45 
Mountains of Ataralpu, 185 
— . — — — Kbaina, 177 

Napier's rods, or bones^ 11 
Napoleon, medal issued bv, 167 
National d.ince uf the Afghans, 913 
Nero, medal of, 83 

Offa, king of Mtfrela, etrfn of, 7 



Old English mansions. 1, 89, 199 
Optica) illusions, illustrations of, 903. 

228. 235 236 
Otter, the, 197 

Pawns, chess, designed by FlaSBian. 

820, 237 
Pen y (imitf. ^almou-leap at, 137 
Perch, the. 248 
Persian breakfast, 125 
■• coins, 8/ 

Pheeniciao coiu, 88 
Pike, the. 200 
Porcupine, the. 68 
Public promenade at Jassy. 153 

Queen, eheso, designed by Flouiiu^ 

Itajah and his vas<als, 909 

itaih-hous*-, Hauseatic. at Lulieck. SMO 

Ked deer, 156 

Uesijriiaiioti, by Klaxman. 105 

Kouiua monii'Hius. r>ii>gtf!4 ut ilie, 177 

Koniau coms^ aitarsou, 84 

— aud medals, 81, 33^ 64, 

cK> 
Books, chess, 101 
Eural sporU of tite months, illnstra- 

tions o( 40. 76, 116. 117, 166, 19? 

St Nicholas ehapel, Lynn, 95 

Salmgn, the. 176 

Salmon leap at Pen y Graig, 137 

.Sauiideraou's calculating machine, 98 

SecUou exhibiting the aiructute of vel- 
vet. 24 

Shekel, the Jewish. 87 

8imtiu*s trial piece. 161 

Source of the Thames. 901 

Sports, rural, of the months, illoslim- 
tioos ot. 49. 76. 116, U7. 156, 197 

Spting.ay, the. 994 

Sturgeon. the, 92 

Styea ot Ethelred of Northttmberlaad* 

Suliot hills, the. 33 

Suliots, group ol. 57 

Snltooieb, in Northern Persia, 41 

Thames, soureo of the, 901 
'  views on the banks of the. 9(^1. 
925. 933 -» *. 

Tokat. in Asia Minor, 191 
Toorkman camp, 916 
Trout, the, 199 

Velvet, section exhibiting the ttmetiir* 

of. 94 
Vespucci, medal in honour of. 167 
Victory of Hercnles over the Harpl«a, 

medallion commemorating tba, 81 
View on the Massaroony, 199 

William It., coin of, 168 

William the Fourth's oataraet, Esse* 

quibo. 206 
Wire*drawing machinery, 189 
WroxtoB Abbey, 1 



N? 646. JANUARY 2':?. 1841. {o.^'^SU. 



.1 



5 I 



Vol. xvm. 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[January 2, 



WROXTON ABBEY, OXFORDSHIRE- 



The stately hones of EDgIan4, 

How beantiful they stand ! 
Amidst their tall ancestral trees, 

O'er all the pleasant land. 
The deer acrosK their greensward bound 

Tlwough shade and sunny gleav, 
And the swan glides past tliem witli the sonnd 

Of some rtgoicing stream. Hkmass. 



We have, on one or two occasions, presented the reader 
with copies of some of the admirable engravings Con- 
tained in Mr. Nash's Mannons of England in the 
Olden Time. The appearance of a second series of 
that work, and the permission of the publisher to pre- 
sent a view from it in our present Number, offers an 
opportunity for our again expressing the bpinion which 
we have formed of it. 

The idea of presenting views of the mansions of the 
nobility and gentry in various parts of England, is by no 
means a new one ; for many of our artists and eng^vers 
have, at diilbrent times, and to different extent, followed 
up such a plan. We may particularly allude to Mr. 
Neale's elegant work, entitled Views of Seats, which 
extends to ten or twelve volumes, and contains repre- 
sentations and descriptions of a very large number of 
mansions. But still something else was wanted; some 
other feature was looked for, which might carry the 
imagination back to old times, when, from the peculiar 
usages and customs of the age, the English gentry were 
wont to dwell more in the midst of their tenantry and 
dependents than they are enabled to do at the present 
day. This is not the place to discuss why it is that such 
changes occur, daring the lapse of time; but oertun it 
is, that the home of an English country gentleman, in 
the reign of ** good Queen Bess," of tlie Jameses, and 
the Charleses, presented marked and characteristic fea- 
tures : our authors may describe these characteristic fea- 
tures, and do all that the pen can effect in presenting 
them to the mind ; but the aid of the painter is wanting 
to produce the full effect. 

Now this brings us to the nature and object of Mr. 
Nash's work, m does not merely represent cold exte- 
riors of large mansions ; he carries the spectator within 
doors, and peoples the halls, the saloons, the libraries, 
with inmates, habited as they were wont to be in the 
times of which we have spoken. His plan has been, to 
visit such old mansions as present the most striking ex- 
amples of the " Elixabethan" style of architecture, and 
as have suffered the smallest degree of change by repair ; 
to select some portion of each building, of &e most pic- 
turesque kind; to furnish it (if, as is usual, it be an in- 
terior) with such decorations, furniture, and implementa, 
as were likely to be found in it in times long gone by; 
to give vividness to the scene by introducing imaginary 
figures, habited strictly in accordance with the era 
chosen ; and to represent those figures as being employed 
in such avocations as will illustrate the domestic arrange- 
ments and the domestic sports of *' merry England," two 
or three centuries ago. Such was the plan proposed; 
and the mode of execution is so admirable, that a seeond 
series of similar views was speedily called for. This 
second series is now before us ; and from it we select a 
view of Wroxton Abbey, Oxfordshire, respecting which, 
we will give a few descriptive and historical details. 

Wroxton Abbey is situated in the parish of Wroxton, 
near Banbury, in Oxfordshire. We will say a few words 
respecting Banbury, before we visit the Abbey itself. 

If we look at a map of Oxfordshire, we find that the 
northern portion is very narrow, not above eight or ten 
miles in breadth. At the eastern border of this narrow 
district, is the town of Banbury, on the river Charwell; 
and proceeding westward from Banbury, we come to 
Wroxton Abbey, at a distance of about two miles. 

Banbury is a considerable market town, twenty-two 



miles from Oxford, and seventy-thiee.from London, nnd 
contains between five and six thousand inhabit;^ U. 
This place is supposed to have been occupied by t! c 
Romans, from the discovery of some Roman coins and 
a Roman altar there. About the year 1 1 53, a castle \\ as 
built here by Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, wliich con- 
tinued an episcopal residence till the first year of tlic 
reign of Edward the Sixth; and is said to have contained 
a dreary dungeon for convicts. During the wars of the 
Roses, the neighbourhood of Banbury was the scene of 
frequent conflicts, of which the most disastrous was the 
battle of Banbury, fought in 1469, on a plain called 
Danesmore, near Edgecote, a village about three miles 
distant, between the Earl of Warwick on the one side, 
and the Earls of Pembroke and Stafford on the other; 
which ended in the defeat of the Yorkists. The town 
was again the seat, of contention, during the civil wars of 
the Commonwealth. The inhabitants espoused the 
cause of the Parliament; but the town was taken by the 
Royalists after the battle of Edgehill, and defended by 
Sir William Compton, against Colonel Fiennes, for thir- 
teen weeks, till the garrison was relieved by the Earl of 
Northampton. It was afterwards besieged for several 
weeks by Colonel Whalley, and surrendered on honour- 
able terms. 

The town of Banbury is pleasantly situated in a fertile 
valley, on the banks of the small river Charwell. The 
houses are well built, and the streets are lighted with 
gas. The chief manufactures of the town are cheese, of 
which a \aTge quantity of superior quality is made, and 
the celebrated *^ Banbury eakes ;** formerly there was 
an extensive manufacture of plush, shag, and girth web- 
bing ; but this has greatly declined. Ilie church, dedi- 
cated to St Mary, is a spacious structure, erected under 
the authority of an act or Parliament, obtained in 1790. 
The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry 
and diocese of Oxford, rated in the king's books at 
22/« Q«. 2d*f endowed with 200/. private benefaction, 
400^ royal bounty, and 600^ parliamentary grant. 
Among the places for education are a blue-coat school, 
established by subscription in 1705, and endowed with 
property to the amount of 60/. per annum: thia school 
was, in 1807, incorporated with a national school, to 
which a Sunday-school has been sinee attached. For- 
merly, there was a firee grammar-school here^ which was 
held in such high estimation, that the statutes of Saint 
Piaiil's School* London, are said to have been drawn up 
on the model of those of Banbury SdiooL Cke of the 
masters, Mr. Stanbridge, was tutor to Uie celebrated Sir 
Thomas Pope; and so great was the reputation which 
this institution had acquired, that the statutes of the free 
grammar-school at Manchester, dated 1524, ordain that 
the grammar be there taught *< after the manner of the 
school at Banbunr* in Ox&dshire, which is caUed Stan- 
bridge grammar.' 

In proceeding from Banbury to Wroxton Abbey, 
which is about two miles westward of it, we pass through 
the small parish of Drayton, possessed by the noble 
houses of Guilford and Dorset. It onee contained a 
mansion occupied by the Greville family, but this has 
been long in an uninhabitable state as a mansion, though 
we believe a portion of it has been repaired and fitted 
up as a poor-house. The church of Drayton is a simple 
unimposing structure, principally remarkable for the 
tombs and relics of the noble personages who once 
resided in the neighbourhood. 

The parish of Wroxton, in which the abbey is situated, 
contains only about eight hundred inhabitants. The livin^r 
is a vicarage in the archdeaconry and diocese of Oxford, 
and m toe patronage of ihe Marquis of Bute. 1 he 
church is dedieated to All Saints, and contains monu- 
ments totwo er three of the Earls of Guilford, to several 
other m e tnb erw of that family, to the first Earl of Donne, 
and to other distinguished personages. 

Wroxton Abbey would seem, from its name, to Le 



1841.] 



THE SATUKDAY MAGAZINE. 



3 



rather an ecclesiastical structure than a private mansion ; 
but the truth is that an abbey formerly occupied the spot, 
and a portion of it has bfi^n built into or included in 
the present mansion, which retains the old name. A 
priory of canons regular of St. Augustin was founded 
here in the reign of Henry the Third, and valued at 
78/. 13j. 4d. The buildings of this priory were destroyed 
by fire, and the present mansion was built on its site. 

The estate came into the family of the Norths by the 
marriage of Francis, Lord Keeper Guilford, with Lady 
Frances Pope, sister of fourth and last Earl of Donne. 
The greater part of the present structure was erected 
by Sir William Pope, afterwards Earl of Donne, in the 
year 1618. The building is of an ornamental and inte- 
resting iJiaracter, though it was not completed according 
to the original desigrn, as an intended wing on the south 
side was never commenced. The Lord Keeper made 
some additions, and the late Earl of Guilford erected an 
elegant library, after a plan by Smirke. llie chapel is 
a fine room, beautified by the first Earl of Guilford. 
Among the pictures deposited in this mansion are many 
ancient portraits of the families of North and Pope. 
Among the latter is an original of Sir Thomas Pope, 
founder of Trinity College, Oxford, and uncle of the 
first Earl of Donue. Of the Norths there is a complete 
series of portraits, from Edward, the first lord, created 
in the reign of Philip and Mary, to the present Earl of 
Guilford. " The whole of Wroxton Priory," says Mr. 
Brewer, "is creditable to the taste of the noble owner. 
Every improvement introduced (and many have been 
effected) is rendered subservient to the ancient baronial 
character of the edifice. The gardens and pleasure- 
grounds will be viewed with particular interest, as no 
innovating hand has robbed them of their monastic fea- 
tures.** 

The only remains of the original abbey (or priory, as 
it would seem to be more correctly called) are an arch, 
which was probably a door of entrance, and a small por- 
tion of the passages, communicating with offices in the 
lower division of the building. 

Mr. Nash has, in one picture, represented the porch 
of Wroxton Abbey, which is an elegant specimen of the 
Italian decorated entrances, so frequenUy attached to 
buildings of this date. Another plate is devoted to the 
hall. This hall is handsome, though plain, and is re- 
markable for the screen, which is richly carved and sup- 
ported on columns, leaving the space beneath the music- 
gallery open. The pendant in tne centre of the ceiling 
is likewise a curious feature, and has a light and elegant 
effect. The stags' heads introduced into the wall are also 
peculiar and striking ornaments. 



HUNGARY WATER. 



Jbopabd not the loss of many things for the gain of one 
thing; neither adventure the loss of one thing certain for 
many things doubtful.— Sin Thomas Smith. 



The heart may be sad, without the eye being wet. — Lovke. 



ADv£B8nT is like the period of the former and of the latter 
nkiuy— cold, comfortless, unfriendly to man and to animal ; 
yet from that season have their birth, the flower, and the 
fruit, the date, the rose, and the pomegranate, — Sir Walter 
Scott. 

Affuction appears to be the guide to reflection ; the teacher 
of humility ; tne parent of repentance ; the nuxse of faith ; 
the strengthener of patience, and the promoter of charitv : 
while of Uioee upon whom affliction is thus sanctified to the 
purifying of the soul, and its improvement in Christian 
graces ; of thoee, who study to convert it with the blessing of 
their merciful Father, to their spiritual and eternal welfare, 
that they *' may become partakers of his holiness ;" of those 
who welcome it as the means whereby they may ^' learn 
the statutes" of the Lord : of such persons it may be truly 
affirmed, as the royal Psalmist acknowledged of himself, that 
'* it is good for Uiem to be afilicted."— Bishop Mant. 



Docton or Teachen ihey of Ph^ck ore, 
(Whether by pen they do it, or in choir 
"With hxeij TOTce,) that teach the way to know 
Man'a nature, health, and sickuesa, and do show 
Diseaaoa, cauae, and cure : but they who spend 
Their lile in Yisits. and whose labour) end 
In taking fees and giving paper scrowla, 
Faclort of phyaick are, and none but owla 
1*0 court Kuch doctors, th^t no Latin know, 
Irom whence that name did to our language flow. 

Thus wrote William Rowland, the coadjutor of Culpe- 
per in some of his numerous works on medical subjects ; 
and from the tone of satire in whicli Uie hues are written, 
the reader would naturally suppose that this Rowknd 
was a genuine "doctor," and not a mere "factor of phy- 
sick." Yet we are tempted to smile when we see what 
were the ideas of such men respecting the effects of 
medicines on the human body, and how strangely they 
mixed up astrology with the medical art. If we select 
almost any simple herb, — rosenimy for instance, — ^we 
shall find that they attribute to it virtues which would 
very much gladden the hearts of invalids, could we only 
believe them to be true. Rosemary, Culpeper tells us; 
will cure, or at least "help*' cold diseases, rheum, 
swimming of the head, drowsiness, stupidity, dumb 
palsy, lel^bargy, falling sickness, tooth-ache, bad breath, 
weak memory, dim sight, yellow jaundice, pestilence, 
cough, ptisick) consumption, benumbed joints, and a 
host of other personal evils, both internal and external. 
He also informs us that "the sun claims privilege to it, 
and it is under the celestial Ram." 

These whimsicalities would be calculated merely to 
amuse, were it not that uneducated persons arc often 
disposed, by the perusal of the works, or the popular 
dissemination of the opinions, of such men as Culpeper 
and Rowland, to form a very erroneous estimate of the 
tomparative state of medical knowledge in past and 
present times. The reputed properties of any particular 
herb or medicament, however astounding they may be, 
are laid down by our old herbalists in such positive and 
undoubted terms, that many readers fear it would be a 
kind of presumption to doubt the truth of what is 
asserted. This is an evil, since it is difficult, and often 
impossible, to bring the mind into a fit state for the re- 
ception of truths riecently discovered, if it is pre-occupicd 
by doctrines which partake of the marvellous, and 
which are, principally on that account, eagerly caught up 
by the multitude. 

We could easily collect numerous examples of medi- 
cinal herbs, which are now used for the most simple pur- 
poses only, but which were once lauded for curative 
properties almost innumerable. Some preparations, 
formerly much vaunted, are now utterly unknown, while 
others, although still admitted into the healing art, 
occupy a far humbler station than that which they once 
filled. There is a curious history respecting the subject 
of Hungary Water, a preparation from Rosemary, 
which will illustrate some of the remarks offered above, 
and will show that persons moving even in the highest 
circles were once not exempt from the belief in medicines 
and remedies of a marvellous character. 

Hungary tvatet is spirit of wine distilled upon rose- 
mary, and therefore imbued with its oily and strongly - 
scented essence. It used to be brought principally fr m 
France, particularly from Beaucaire, Montpellier, a nd 
other places in Languedoc, where rosemary grew in 
great abundance. The name by which it is known , — 
FEau de la reine tTHonsrrie'jSeems to imply that it was 
first kaoym or used in Hungary, and such appears on 
investigation to have been the case. Several books ave 
been written on the subject, in which it is stated that 
the receipt for making this medicine was given to : 
queen of Hungary by a hermit, (some say by an an el - 
who appeared to ber in a garden, all entrance to w hich 
was shut. One writer says that this queen was Q ueen 

546—2 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[ Januabt 2, 



St. Isaber.a, but anotaer states it to nave been Elizabeth, 
wife of Charles Robert, king of Hungary, daughter of 
Uladislaus II., king of Poland, and he goes on to say, 
that by often washing with this spirit of rosemary, she 
was cured of gout and lameness, at the age of seventy 
years ; that she lived to the age of eighty, and became 
again so renovated in youth and beauty, through the 
effects of this wonderful preparation, that she was ad- 
mired by the king of Pokuid at that time, who was then 
a widower, and who wished to make her his second wife. 
Many indistinct allusions were made by different 
writers to a book, or breviary, containing a receipt, 
written by the queen of Hungary, in letters of gold, for 
the preparation of this famous medicine. But the first 
dear account of it was given by John Prevot, in a medi- 
cal work published about two centuries ago. The sub- 
stance of his information on this point was as follows : — 
In the year 1606, Prevot happened to see, among the 
books of Francis Podacather, — a man of noble family 
with whom he was intimate, — a very old breviary, which 
Podacather held in high veneration. This breviary had 
been griven by Elizabeth, queen of Hungary, to one of 
the ancestors of Podacather, as a testimony of the friend- 
ship that existed between them ; and at the beginning 
of it is the following entry, in the queen's own hand : — 

I, Elizabeth, queen of Him^ary, being veiy infirm, and 
much troubled with the ^out, m the seventy-second year of 
my age, used for a year this receipt, given to me by an ancient 
liermit, whom I never saw before nor since, and was not only 
onied, but recovered my strength, and appeared to all 
80 remarkably beautiful, that the king of Poland asked 
me In marriage, he beinG" a widower and I a widow. I, 
however, refused him for uie love of my Lord Jesus Christ, 
from one of whose angels I believe I received the remedy. 
The receipt is as follows :•— 

Take of aqtui Tite, four times distilled, three parts, and of 
the tops and flowers of rosemary two parts: put these toge« 
ther in a close vessel: let them stand in a gentle. heat fifty 
hoars, and then distil them. Take one dnun of this in the 
morning, either in your food or drink, and let yoor free and 
the disMsed limh he washed with it every morning. . 

It renovates the strength, brightens the spirits, purifies the 
maiTOW and nerves^ restores and preserves the sight, and 
prolongs life. 

If we were to judge of this strange document, taking 
the tone of modem opinion as a standard, we should be 
inclined to doubt its authenticity ; but when we consider 
the character of the times (about the year 1380), and 
the allusions made to it by so many writers, we may 
admit its truth, by supposing the queen to have been 
a woman of a vain and rather weak mind. 

An account of the mode of preparing Hungary water 
was published by Zapata, in 1586, in his Mirabdiaf sen 
Seer eta Medic O" Chirurgica *. The writer commences 
by alluding to the wonderful cures performed on one 
Anaxagoras by the use of this Hungary water, and then 
describes the mode in which it was prepared .by Arnold 
of Villa Nova: — << Take some good must, such as yields 
a ley of his own accord, before the grapes are bruised. 
Put it into a vessel, and add the sprouts and leaves of 
rosemary, of each ten parts; and when it has steeped 
in spirit, let it be shut up in a perforated vessel, in order 
that it may effervesce, and extract the virtues of the 
rosemary. When the process has been thus far con- 
ducted, let some more must and rosemary be put into a 
glass cucurbit, and distilled five times: when it boils let 
the result of the fifth distillation be drawn out; and after 
\t shall have been distilled in the other vessel of must 
and rosemary, (in which fermentation has been going on,) 
both are to be added together. Then add a small quan- 
tity of the fifth distillation, or quintessence, so that the 
must may be developed from it more frequently and effi- 
caciously ** It must be confessed that a modem 

practitioner would be somewhat perplexed to have to pro- 
duce Hungary water by such a description as this. 

* This was a hook which treated of '* the wo&dfln or secrato of the 
BMdical and sorgical profession,'* 



The time has now gone by when Hungary water was 
deemed a specific against severe diseases; and it has 
taken its rank among the simpler preparations from vege- 
table bodies. In preparing this liquid, the leaves and 
tops of the rosemary yield their fragrance, in a g^reat 
degrree, to the ardent spirit, leaving behind the greatest 
share both of their flavour and pungency. The mode 
of preparing it usually adopted is, by distilling one gal- 
lon of proof spirit of wme, in which a pound and a half 
of fresh rosemary-tops have been placed. In order to 
make it in perfection, the spirit must be very pure, and 
the leaves at their full growth, gathered without bruising. 
If the flowers are suspended in the retort, and a gentle 
heat applied, just sufficient to raise the spirit in the form 
of vapour, this vapour, by lightly percolating through 
them, is said thereby to increase ihe fragrance. The 
custom used to be, in order to produce Hungary water 
of the finest kind, to distil the spirit several times with 
the rosemary ; but the commoner sorts were often nothing 
more than cheap brandy,, with a little of the essence or 
the oil of rosemary added to it. 

Hungary water is now regarded as nothing more than 
an agreeable perfume, possessing nearly the same quali- 
ties as the simple herb from which it is produced. The 
wondrous properties attributed to this liquid by the 
queen of Hungary, as well as the equally marvellous 
virtues attributed to rosemary itself by the herbalists, 
are now known to have had their chief foundation in the 
operation of the human mind. The gradual develope- 
ment of truth makes sad havoc in glowing and highly- 
coloured descriptions, whether of medicinal cures or of 
any other subject in which the public is deeply interested. 



An article has appeared in some of the daily journals, in which the toI- 
cano of Kiraueh, (there called Kireca,) in the island of Hawaii, or 
Owhyhee, is qmken of as a newly formed crater. It was, howerer, 
riaitoi many years since hy Mr. EUia; and the foUowing account 
given by Mr. Douglas, corresponds so closely with its present state, 
as recently laid before the Geographical Society, that it may not be 
uninteresting to our readers. 

THE VOLCANO OF OWHTHEB. 

The late Mr. Douglas, who visited Kiraueh in 1833, has 
described the scene presented by the interior of its crater as 
singularly awfiil and magnificent. He descended to a 
ledge at the depth of 1062 feet in this fearful pit; where a 

re about five miles in diameter, was covered with lava, 
whole of which had apparently been recently in a state 
of fusion, though some portion was at that period hardened. 
This igneous mass appeared, in the process of ooolinff, to 
have hdea rent into pieces of every form and size, firom 
gigantic roUs, like enormous cables, to the finest threads. 
Over this part of the pit were dispersed numerous small 
cones, or chimneys, which continually emitted smoke ; and 
besides these little cones there were tnree remarkable pyra- 
midal masses, measuring about 900 feet at the base, and 
bein^ from 20 to 25 fbet m height. These cones had lateral 
openmes, like the doors of a baker's oven, to which they 
altogether bore a close resemblance. By kneeling down on 
the ledge it was posable to peep into these openings, and to 
witness "a terrific vacuity, a red-hot atmosphere," varied 
only by the occasional ejection of volcanic matter through 
a lateral opening. The remaining portion of this pit con* 
sisted of two lakes of liquid lava : one about 900 feet in 
diameter, and the other above 3000 feet in length, and 
nearly 2000 feet in widUi. Both these lakes of fire flowed 
in a continued stream towards the south end of the pit, at 
which point vras exhibited one of the most appalling and 
magnificent spectacles in nature, — a vast cauldron of laya, 
in furious ebullition, rolling and tumbling in fiery waves, 
sometimes spouting up to tne height of 00 or 70 feet, and 
rapidly hurrying along:, until it precipitated itself through 
an arch about 400 feet in width, and 40 feet in height, into 
a yawning chasm of unknown depth. From this tr«-> 
mendous, but unseen, laboratory of nature, immense masses 
were thrown back with great violence, and literally spun 
into minute p;lass-like filaments, which were carried Dy the 
wind in all directions. The sound issuing from this arch- 




IMl.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 
TURKEY AND THE TURKISH PROVINCES 



The Tnrkigh government has many pecuUaritieE that 
distinguish it from European states, and foremost of 
these is the admiuiatration of its provinces by means of 
Pachas. This institution, though in its principle perhaps 
not very different from that of the suzerainties of the 
feudal system, presents such a systematic course of ex- 
tortion, bribery, and rebellion, and is, as a whole, so little 
like Mjthin)! that the history of Christendom offers to 
oar notice, that it is of itself sufficient to impress upon 
the country a distinct character, and without some ac- 
quaintance with the system, any account of Turkey must 
be but imperfectly comprehended. We accordingly Air- 
nish a sketch of the career of a Turkish pacha, the 
substance of which we borrow from Colonel Napier. 

The Sultan, seldom removing from Constantinople, is 
there surrounded by a cabinet, termed the Divan, which 
■ppoints ss the governor of a distant province, that one 
among the numerous class of the Sultan's personal attend- 
ants, who either bribes, or promises to bribe, them most 
largely. The government b sometiineB not even vacant 
when the post is sold, but should the pacha have become 
obnoiious to the sultan or his government, a messenger a 
despatched to bowstring him and bring his head to 
Constantinople ; this, if the governor be weak or taken 
by surprise, is often accomphshed without cUfficulty : but 
in other cases, the messenger is waylaid and murdered, 
and the event oi^ serves to wring a bribe from the in- 
tended victim. Tne purchaser then has to wwt an indefi- 
nite time till further steps are taken, which he very 
patiently does, well-knowing that the bowstring would be 
the reward of any other conduct. 

When he at length gains possession, his first measure 
is to solve what is said to be the grand problem of Turk- 
iafa government, namely, how far he may plunder his sub- 
jects without occasioning a rebellion too formidable for 
tim to put down. This point settled, his tribute remitted, 
and his promised bribes to the Divan punctually pud, 
with a handsome additional sum as a retaining fee, the 
new pacha is generally allowed to go on peaceably, as 
in u regards the Porte, for a few years. Then similar 



r JOAXKIKA. 

means to those toat procured his riw are employed to 
work his downfall. His subjects have fmta the fir^t 
preferred complaints against nim, and now that he is 
presumed to be rich, these are regarded. His government 
IS in the market, and he, aware of the fact, endeavours 
to meet the danger by bribing more largely than before. 
At length, having reached the point of endurance, he 
atttempts to condliate bis people by relaxing somewhat 
of his eitortious; and these, knowing that the arrival of 
a new govemoris invariably followed by greater oppres- 
sion than ever, are sometimes induced to make common 
cause with hmi. His bribes now become less than before; 
his government is sold, and a messenger despatched for 
his head, who, however, not unfrequently loses his own. 
Next comes the new pacha, with an army, if he can 
raise one ; and then follows a war, which usually ends by 
one party outwitting the other, and putting him to death, 
with drcumstances of treachery and cruelty of which 
European readers can form no adequate conception. 

This matter premised, we may now proceed to the 
description of Joannina, once the capital of Ali Pacha, 
whose eventful life, of which we may one dw give a 
sketch, well exhibits the blood-stained and checkered 
career of a Turkish governor. 

THE PA8HALIC OF JOANNINA. 
Joannina is the chief town in a paahalic of the same 
name, situated in Albania, a province near the north- 
west boundary of European Turkey. It owes nearly all 
the celebrity which it has attuned, to the power and in- 
fluence of Ali Pacha, who made it bis residence. The 
town is not far from the eastern shore of the Adriatic, 
and is in the immediate vianity of some of the Ionian 
Islands. 

At a distance of about sixty miles north-west of the 
Moreo, a small gulf branches out from the Adriatic, 
called the Gulf of Arta; at the entrance of which is a 
commercial town of some importance, called Prevesa. 
Forty miles northward of Prevesa stands the town 
of Joannina, the approach to which, from the south, is 



6 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE* 



[January 2, 



described by travellers as beiug very beautiful. Dr. Hoi - 
land thus describes the scene which presents itself, when 
the traveller has approached within two miles of the city. 

A large lake spreads its waters along the base of a lofly 
and precipitous moimtainy which forms the first ridge of 
Pindus, on this side, and which, as I had afterwards rea^n 
to believe, attains an elevation of more than 2500 feet above 
the level of the plain. Opposed to the highest summit of 
this mountain, and to a small island which lies at its base, 
a peninsula sti-etches forward into the lake from its western 
shore, terminated by a pei-pendicular face of rock. This 
peninsula forms the fortress of Joannina ; a lofty wall is its 
barrier on the land side ; the waters which lie around its 
outer clifis, reflect from their surface the irregular, yet 
splendid outline of a Turkish seraglio, and tlie domes and 
minarets of two Turkish mosques, environed by ancient 
cypresses. The eye, receding backwards from the fortress 
of the peninsula, reposes upon the whole extent of the city, 
as it stretches along the western borders of the lake : — ^re- 
pose, indeed, it may be called, since both the reality and 
the fancy combine, m giving to the scenery the character of 
a vast and beautiful picture, spread out beiore the sight. 

The length of the lake, on the borders of which the 
town of Joannina is situated, is about six miles, and its 
greatest breadth two ; but at the point where the penin* 
sula juts out into the lake, the breadth of the latter is 
very small. The city extends along the greater part of 
the western shore of the lake, and stretches, in width, 
from the lake to a row of low eminences, about a mile 
and a half distant from it. The interior aspect of the 
town is said to be rather gloomy, except at some parti- 
cular spots. The streets are very tortuous, so as to 
give a stranger a great deal of embarrassment in rea Ling 
any destined part of the town; and those in which the 
lowest classes of the inhabitants dwell, contain little but 
wretched mud-built cottages, and are in the outskirts of 
the city. The habitations of the middle ranks make a 
nearer approach to comfort, being constructed of wood) 
with a small open gallery under the projecting roof; 
altogether dissimilar to the cottages of Switzerland. 
The dwellings of the higher classes, both Greeks and 
Turks, partake more of an Oriental character, being 
quadrangular structures surrounding an open court, and 
having wide galleries running round the sides : the con- 
struction of these houses is such as to be extremely con- 
venient in a warm climate; but, externally, they have 
more the appearance of prisons than of houses, for they 
present little more to the eye than lofty walls, with mas- 
sive double gates, and wmdows (if any*) at the top of the 
building. 

The bazaars form, in Joannina, as well as in other 
Turkish towns, the most bustling and attractive feature 
in the place. They consist of ten or twelve streets, in- 
tersecting each other at irregular angles : they are narrow, 
and are rendered rather dark by the low projecting roofs, 
and by the large wooden bootns in which the goods are 
exposed for szue. Each bazaar is appropriated to the 
sale of one particular class of goods ; for instance, there 
is one occupied by those who deal in jewellery, and other 
ornamental articles ; a second, by the dealers in pelisses, 
Turkish shawls, and other articles of dress ; a third, by 
the retailers of common cotton goods ; a fourth, by the 
dealers in grocery, tobacco, dried fruits, &c. ; a fifth, by 
those who sell hookah and Meerschaum pipes, wooden 
trinkets, &c.; a sixth, by the dealers in coloured leather, 
and Turkish slippers ; and one or two others. Some of 
these bazaars, especially those in which jewellery and arti- 
cles of dress are sold, are richly and abundantly furnished. 

Joannina contains sixteen mosques, each standing on 
an open space of ground, and generally surrounded by 
large cypresses. There arc also about seven or eight 
Greek churches, Joannina being the seat of a Greek 
archbishop. 

The seraglios, or palaces of the pacha, are very large 
and important buildings. The chief one is lofty in itself, 
and situated on the most lof^y spot in the city: it is 



principally built of wood, but b supported and sur- 
rounded by high and massive stone walls, on dififerent 
parts of which cannon are mounted. The palace itself 
is built entirely in the Turkish style, with roofs project- 
ing far beyond the face of the building; windows dis- 
posed in long rows underneath; and walls richly deco- 
rated with paintings, occasionally landscape, but more 
generally what is merely ornamental, and without any 
uniform design. The entrai\oe to the seraglio is very 
mean, being under a broad wooden gateway, within 
which is a large irregular area, two sides of which are 
formed by the buildings of the seraglio. On crossing 
this area, a dark stone staircase leads to an outer hall, 
from which an entrance leads into a long and loity 
apartment, contiguous to the audience chamber of the 
pacha. This last mentioned apartment is decorated 
in a somewhat gaudy style, the nrcvailing colours, as 
well of the walls and ceiling as of the furniture, being 
crimson, blue, and yellow. Tlie ceiling is divided into 
squares by woodwork very curiously and delicately carved, 
the interior of each square being decorated in crimson 
and gold. Pilasters are arranged at equal distances round 
the walls, and on these are hung sabres, daggers, nistols, 
&c., all profusely ornamented with gold and jewels. A 
carpet covers the floor; and round three sides of the 
room are ranged dwans^ or platforms, about fifteen 
inches high, and covered with cushions of crimson satin. 
A hearth, for burning wood fiiel, is situated at one side 
of the room, and over it is a projecting chimney, rising 
in the form of a conical canopy, superbly ornamented 
with gilding. This description of the style of decoration 
in the audience chamber, will serve to convey a general 
idea of all the state apartments, in which a strange mix- 
ture of gaudiness and barbarity is observable, but very 
little real taste. 

Perhaps the most beautiful structure in the town is 
the pavibon of the pacha, situiited in the northern suburb. 
This pavilion is in the middle of a garden, and consists 
of a great saloon^ two hundi^ and forty feet in circum- 
ference; its outline is not a perfect circle, but is formed 
by the curves of four separate areas or recesses, which are 
all open to the great circular area that occupies the centre 
of the building. The curve of each recess contains nine 
windows ; and there are two also at the entrance hato the 
pavilion. The pavement is of marble, with a large and 
deep marble baisin in its centre: in the midst of this 
basin stands the model of a pyramidal fortress, mounted 
with numerous cannon, from each of which a jei d'eau 
issues, meeting the other jets from cannon on the outer 
circumference of the basin. Attached to one of the pil- 
lars of the pavilion is a sinall organ, which plays while 
the water is flowing* 

The peninsula, of which we have before spoken, 
widens as it advances into the hike, and is terminated by 
two distinct promontories of rock; on one of which 
stands a large Turkish mosque^ its lofty minaret^ and 
extensive piazzas, shaded by the cypresses surrounding 
it. On the other promontory is situated the old seraglio 
of the pachas of Joannina, inhabited by them previous 
to the erection of the one which we have described, but 
now chiefly inhabited by officers and soldiers of the 
pacha's guard The whole of the peninsula is fortified, 
so as to form a little town in itself, insulated from the 
rest of the city by A lofty stone wall, and a broad moat 
which admits the waters of the lake. 

The banks of the lake are studded with numerous ob- 
jects of a picturesque nature, such as the Great Seraglio, 
which seems to rise directly from the shore ; a painted 
kiosk, projecting over the water, below the rocks of the 
old seraglio; a convent of dervishes, shaded by trees, to- 
wards the north. But the most attractive object is one 
which owes nothing to the hand of man, viz., the moun- 
tain ridge which backs the city, and which rises to ^ 
height of nearly three thousand feet: this range forms 
a continuous boundary to the valley ia which the lake ia 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



situatcdi rising from the water's edge, in the part oppo- 
site to Joannina, with an abruptness and majesty of outline 
which has much of the sublime in it: its precipitous 
front is intersected by the ravines of mountain torrents, 
the borders of which, expanding as they approach the 
lake, are covered with wood, and form the shelter to 
many small villages. 

The lake is rather inconsiderable in depth, and is ter- 
minated at each extremity by low marshy land; there is 
an outlet towards the north, by which the water of the 
lake flows to another small lake about six miles distant 
from the city. The water which thus flows from one 
lake to the other, after having passed through the second 
lake, suddenly enters a subterranean passage underneath 
some limestone hills, and appears again at a considerable 
distance. The supply of water to both lakes, is derived 
from springs, and from the various mountain torrents 
which descend into them. 

There is a considerable amount of trade carried on at 
Joannina. The chief article of importation, is cloth of 
French and German manufacture : this reaches them by 
way of Leipsic, and the demand for it is very consider- 
able, since all the rich Greeks and Turks, not only in 
Albania, but also in parts of Roumelia, and the Morea, 
purchase at Joannina the cloth for their loose robes and 
winter pelisses. \^thin the last few years, English 
cloths nave also found a maricet at this place. The 
articles of exportation are, oil, wool, com, and tobacco, 
for the Italian ports ; and for inland circulation, through 
Albania and Roumelia, spun cottons, stocks of guns and 
pistols mounted in chased silver, embroidered velvets, 
stuffs, and cloths. Large flocks of sheep and goats, and 
droves of cattle and horses, are collected from the Alba- 
nian hills, and sold at an annual fair held near the town : 
the horses are generally sold again to inhabitants of 
Albania; but the cattle, sheep, and goats, usually go to 
the Ionian Islands. 

In concluding this slight description of Joannina, we 
must remark that the town was the scene of many des- 

Serate conflicts between the Turks and the Albanians, 
uring the latter part of the life of Ali Pacha, and that 
these contests have probably made some alterations 
in the buildings and arrangement of the town; but as 
there have been very few recent travellers to that part of 
Turkey, we are not exactly in a position to state what 
these changes or alterations may have been. Every- 
thing relating to the natural beauties of the spot, must, 
however, be nearly or quite the same as they were before, 
whatever be the turmoils and strifes of ambitious men : 
the palaces and houses made by meUi may be destroyed 
by them; but the mountains and valleys remain, enduring 
witnesses of the power of the Ghreat Creator who formed 
them. 



LovB OF Home. — ^Whiitever strengthens our attachments 
is favourable both to individual and national character. 
Out home,— our birth-place, — our native land ! Think for 
a while what the virtues are which arise out of the feelings 
connected with these words ; and if thou hadst any intellec- 
tual eyes, ihou wilt then perceive the connection between 
topography and patriotism. Show me a man who cares no 
more for one place than another, and I will ^ow vou in the 
same person one who loves nothing but himself!. Beware 
of those who are homeless by choice ! Yon have no hold 
on a human being whose affections are without a tap-root. 
Vagabond and rogue are convertible terms ; and witn how 
much propriety, any one may understand who knows what 
are .the habits of the wanaering classes, such as gipsies, 
tinkersy and potters^ — The Doctor, 



Thz history oi creation is, itself, the history of God's 
government ; and nothing short of absolute idiotism, rather 
than mere ignorance, could believe it possible that this 
hu«leulably complicated, multi&rious, and inconceivably 
extended unirerse^ could preserve its order without a 
government.— Hacculloch. ^ 



ON CHESS. 

I. Origin and Antiquity of the Game. 

The origin of the game of Chess has been the subject of 
very laborious research and warm argument; and, al- 
though the results are by no means satisfactory, yet the 
inqiiiry has afforded a good deal of valuable and amusing 
information ; a selection from which will probably be in- 
teresting to the general reader, as well as to the amateurs 
of this noble and scientific game. 

Some historians have referred the invention of chess 
to the philosopher Xerxes; others to the Grecian prince 
Palamedes; some to the brothers Lydo and Tyrrhene; 
and others, again, to the Egyptians. The Chinese, the 
Hindoos, and the Persians, also prefer their claims to be 
considered as the originators of chess, but the testimonies 
of writers, in general, prove nothing except the very 
remote antiquity of the game. 

In examining the testimonies of various writers, on a 
subject so obscure, wo must always make considerable 
allowance for that prejudice in favour of certain opinions 
which habit and locid circumstances apart from sound 
reasoning have tended to confirm. Thus, a historian 
who has passed much of his time in India, studying the 
manners and customs of the tiative tribes, tracing out 
their history, translating their legends, and copying their 
monuments, would almost unconsciously support against 
any other, the claims of such a people t« any remarkable 
invention. The same remark applies to the historian of 
the Chinese, of the Egyptians, of the Greeks, and other 
ancient nations ; and, accordingly, we find that each of 
these nations has its advocate in English literature. 

The first writer that we shall mention, is Mr. James 
Christie, who has written a quarto volume, entitled. An 
Inquiry into the Ancient Greek Game, eupposed to 
have been invented by Palamedes^ antecedent to the 
Siege o/* TVoy. It is, however, generally agreed that 
the clauns of the ancient Greeks to the invention are 
unfounded. Palamedes lived during the Trojan war, 
and was so renowned for his sagacity, that almost every 
early discovery was ascribed to him. The whole of the 
claim of Palamedes rests upon the definition of tlie 
game of pebbles, irrrpcia, as played by the Greeks. 
This game was played with white and black pebbles, and 
was invented by Palamedes, as appears by a line in the 
first book of Homer s Odyssey. 

The claim of the Romans is equally unfounded: a 
game, something like dice, is spoken of by their writers, 
which has been mistaken for chess. 

Mr. Irwin, in a letter to the Earl of Charlemont, pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy y 
supports the claims of the Chinese, in whose Concunif or 
Annals, appears the following passage: 

Three hundred and seventy-nine years after the time of 
Confucius, or 1966 years ago, Hung-cochu, king: of Kiang- 
nan, sent an expedition into the Shen-si country, under the 
command of a mandarin, called Uan-sing, to conquer it. 
After one successi'ul campaign, the soldiers were put into 
winter quarters; where, findmg the weather much colder 
than what they had been accustomed to, and being also de- 
prived of their wives and families, the army, in general, 
became impatient of their situation, and clnmorous to return 
home. Ilan-sing, upon this, revolved in his mind the bad 
consequences of complying with their wishes. The neces- 
sity of soothing his troops, and reconciling them to their 
position, appeared urgent, in oi*der to finisli his operations 
m the ensumg year. He was a man of genius, as well as a 
good soldier; and, havmg contemplated some time on the 
subject, he invented the c^ame of chess, as woll for an 
amusement to his men, in their vacant houw, ns to inflame 
their military ardour, — ^the game being wholly founded on 
the principles of war. The sti-ataj^em succeeded to his wish. 
The soldiery were delighted with the game ; and forgot, in 
their daily contests for victory, the inconveniences of their 
post. In the spring, the general took the field again ; and 
in a few months, added the rich country of Shcn-si to tlio 
kingdom of Kiang-non. Hung-coohu assumed the title of 
emperor^ and Chou-payuen put an end^ his life in despair. 



8 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[January 2, 1841. 



In the Chinese game of chess, (which is called Chong- 
key or the Royal Game,) the board is. divided by a river 
in the middle, to separate the contending parties. The 
powers of the king are very limited: he is intrenched in a 
fort, and moves only in that space in every direction. 
There are also two pieces whose movements are distinct 
from any in the European game: viz., the Mandarin, 
which answers to our bishop in his station and sidelong 
course, but cannot, through age, cross the river: and a 
Rocket-boy stationed between the lines of each party, 
who acts with the motion of a rocket, by vaulting over a 
man, and taking his adversary at the other end of the 
board. Except that the king has two sons to support 
him instead of a queen, the game is like ours. 

From these considerations, Mr. Irwin infers that the 
game of chess is probably of Chinese orig^in ; that the 
confined situation and powers of the king, resembling 
those of a monarch in the earlier periods of the world, 
favour the supposition, and that the agency of the prin- 
ces, in lieu of the queen, bespeaks forcibly the nature of 
the Chinese customs, which exclude females from all 
power. The princes, in the passage of the game through 
Persia, were changed into a single vizier, or minister of 
state, with the enlarged portion of delegated authority 
that exists there ; instead of whom, the European nations, 
with their usual gallantry, adopted a queen on their board. 
Mr. Irwin further infers, that the river between the par- 
ties is expressive of the general face of China, where a 
battle could scarcely be fought without encountering an 
interruption of this kind, which the soldier was here 
taught t<^ overcome; but that^ on the introduction of the 
game into Persia, the board changed with the nature 
of the region, and the contest was decided on land. 

Sir William Jones, Dr. Hyde, and others, . favour the 
claim of the Brahmins of India, and adduce, the testi- 
mony, of the Persians (who acknowledge that they re- 
ceived the game from India in the sixth century,) as well 
as of certain ancient treatises on chess in .the Sanscrit. 
The Brahmins relate, that one of their body contrived 
chess in the beginning of the fifth century of the Chris- 
tian era to divert the melancholy of a love-sick princess ; 
but the more popular story is as follows : 

At the commencement of the fifth century of the 
Christian eraj there lived in the Indies a very powerful 
prince, whose kingdom was situated towards where the 
Ganges discharges itself into the sea. He took to him- 
self the proud title of King of the Indies ; his father had 
forced a great number of sovereign princes to pay tribute 
to him, and submit themselves under his empire. The 
young monarch soon forgot that the love of the subjects 
for their king is the only solid support of his throne: he 
oppressed the people by his tyranny ; and the tributary 
princes were preparing to throw off the yoke. A Brahmin 
named Sissa, touched with the misfortunes of his country, 
and resolved to make the prince open his eyes to the fatal 
tendency of his. conduct, invented the game of chess, 
wherein the king, although the most considerable of all 
the pieces, is both impotent either to attack or to defend 
himself against his enemies, without^the assistance of his 
subjects. 

The new game soon became so famous, that the king 
wished to learn it. The Brahmin Sissa was selected to 
teach it him, and under the pretext of explaining the rules 
of the game, and showing him the skill required to make 
use of the other pieces for the king's defence, soon made 
him perceive and relish important truths, which he had 
hitherto refused to hear. The king rigidly applied the 
Brahmin's lessons to his o^ circumstances, and feeling 
that his real strength must consist in his people's confi- 
dence and love, averted, by a timely alteration of his con- 
duct, those misfortunes which seemed to be coming upon 
liim. 

Out of gratitude to the Brahmin, the prince left him to 
choose his own reward. The Brahmin requested that a 
number of grains of com, equal to the number of the 



squares of the chess board, might be given iiim, one for 
the first, two for the second, four for the third, and so on, 
doubling always to the sixty-fourth. TLe king, astoni- 
shed at the seeming modesty and reasonableness of the 
demand, granted it immediately; but when his officers 
had made a calculation, they found that the king's grant 
exceeded the value of all his treasures. The Brahmin 
availed himself of this opportunity, to show how neces- 
sary it was for kings to be upon their guard. 

The game of chess has b^n known from the time of 
its invention or introduction in Hindustan, by the name 
of Chaturangay or the four members of an army, viz., 
elephants, horses, chariots, and foot-soldiers. 

Sir William Jones informs us, that by a natural corrup- 
tion of the pure Sanscrit word, it was changed by the old 
Persians into Chairang; but the Arabs, who soon after 
took possession of their country, had neither the initial 
or final letter of that word in their alphabet, and conse- 
quently altered it further into Shatranj, which soon found 
its way into modem Persian, and at length into the dialects 
of India, where the true derivation of the name is known 
only to the learned ; and thus has a very significant word 
in Uie sacred language of the Brahmins been transformed 
by successive changes, into Axedrez, Scacchiy Echecsy 
Chess, Our learned author thinks that the simpler 
game, as now played in Europe and Asia, was invented 
by a single effort of some great genius, and not com- 
pleted by gradual improvements. He informs us that 
no account of the game has hitherto been discovered in 
the classical writings of the Brahmins, though it is con- 
fidently asserted, that Sanscrit books on chess exist. 
He describes a very ancient Indian game of the same 
kind, but more complex, and, in his opinion, more modem 
than the simple chess of the Persians. 



Anbcdote 01? Sir Ralph Abxrcrombie. — ^When ^ Ralph 
Abercrombie was commander-in-chief of Ireland, he visited 
Kilkenny, and stopped a few days there. In early life. Sir 
Ralph had been quartered there, then a subaltern officer. 
He was in the habit of goine down the river to fish ; there 
was a young man and his wife, of the name of Dunfy, who 
invariably invited him into their cabin, near the river, and 
were so partial to him, they gave him, on many occasions, 
the best fare they had, such as potatoes, eggs, and milk, 
which he, with pleasure, partook of with them. His regi- 
ment left Kilkenny, and he never had an opportunity of 
visiting it after, until this period. The day after Sir Ralph 
arrived, he walked down, unaccompanied by any one, to 
his old haunt, and stopping at the door of his once kind 
friend, Dunfy, found him and his wife living, then an old 
couple, with a family grown up. Sir Ralph asked them if 
their names were Dunfy : they replied in the affirmative • 
he then said, ''Do you recollect an officer of the name of 
Abercrombie, that frequently visited your cottage when 
fishing in the river some years ago?" "Recollect/^ said the 
old man, " we do, indeed, sir, and often inquired for him ; 
at last, we heard he was dead, and heartify sorry for him 
we were, for he was a good creature, and had no pride : he 
used to sit down with us in our poor cabin, and sometimes 
taste our humble fere." "In troth," said the old woman 
"we would share with him now, was he alive" — at the 
same time giving an expressive look at her husband, as if 
in sorrow for him. To tneir great surprise and joy, he told 
them that he was the same Abercombie that they had 
known. He then put a one hundred pound note into the 
old man's hand, and wishing him, his wife, and familv, all 
happiness, expressed his grateful sense of lus former kind- 
ness to him. Judge their suiprise, on going into the to\%-n 
of Kilkenny, to hear that their kind benefactor was then 
commander-in-chief of Ireland. — The Veteran, 

What is unknown admits of an interminable phraseology 

while real knowledge can be condensed in a few words. 1 

Maoculloch. 



LONDON: 
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. 
Pdbusbsd nf WiexKLT NuMBBM, micB Ohm Vmnvr, Ays tn Hoktiix,y 

Parts, prics Sixpxnck. 
JSold by ftU BooknUon ud Newivendai In the Kingdom* 



£alttrlrd|f im^^im^ 



N9. 547. 



JANUARY 



9T?, 1841.; 



ON ANCIENT CRYPTS 



r L^tTIXSBAM CBVKCR, TOKKSMIBX, 



Th detaili reiatmg to architecture, we meet vith fre- 
qticDt mention of a portion of an eccleaiastical edifice 
called the Cr^i. This name appears to hare raried 
somewhat in its application; for several of the places 
which we now call crypts, differ m some respects from 
those which in former times bore that name. Generallv 
tpeaUng, however, we may say that a crypt (the Greek 
word signifies a place of eoncfalment) is a subterraneous 
vault, or chapel, constructed beneath the high altar, or 
eastern end of many cathedral, abbey, and collegiate 
churches, for nreserving the bodies of martyrs and holy 
persons, and for the peHbrmance of Divine Worship, 

Catacombs, or subterraneous places, used among the 
andents for the burial of their dead, were resorted to by 
the primitive Christians as places of security from their 
persecutors, and this, doubtless, from the knowledge that 
aiich receptacles were deemed sacred and inviolable, and 
might therefore be expected to afford them a sure retreat. 
Some authors have maintained the strange idea that the 
Christians themselves were the excavators of the cata- 
combs ; but the vast extent of these subterranean gal- 
leries, as they exist at Rome, Naples, Syracuse, Ac, and 
the insbihty of the persecuted flock to carry on such 
nadertskuigs, have only to be considered, to make this 
opinion appear very extravagant and absurd. 

Doubtless, the Christiana took these catacombs, as 
they natorallv presented themselves at places of retreat : 



they became their places of abode, their churches, and 
tbeir burial-places; and aromid the tombs of the earlier 
saints and martyrs, there deposited, they met together, , 
to encourage each other in their holy iaith, and to per- 
form the rites of their religion. When the persecution 
ceased, and they were no longer obliged to hide them- 
selves from the malice of enemies, hut were at hbertv to 
raise public edifices for the performance of Divine Wor- 
ship, they naturally chose out such situatioas for thia 
purpose as should mark the remains of their mar^rred 
relatives or friends which lay beneath ; and gradually aa 
these remains came to be considered as endowed with 
peculiar sanctity, it became the rule never to consecrate 
an altar till the remains of some saint were placed 
within its bosom, or under its base. When churches 
were required at places distant from the catacombs, simi- 
lar excavations, but smaller in extent, were made beneath 
the altars, and relics transferred to them. The exca- 
vation just alluded to was the crypt, or vault, which waa 
partly raised above the level of the floor, and partly 
sunk beneath iL The descent to the crypt was by a 
number of steps in the nave, or transept, and other steps 
ascended from it to that part of the sanctuary immedi- 
ately over the crypt. The contents of the crypt were 
seen from above, through grated apertures; and over 
the tomb of the saint was placed the altar. These crypts 
were likewise furnished with all the requisites for wor- 
1147 



10 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[January 9, 



ship; and ia flko writiag^ q| W^^^bi ^lipim ^e wvfb 
of Canterbury, mention i» made rf ^ particular 9alteot 
to be said in the service performed in crypts. T^i\8 the 
crypt, as well as being the depository of the bqdiea or 
limbs of departed saints (for where the whole body coul^ 
not h^ obtained, a limb was regarded by the devotes, 
with almost equal reverence), was also a sort of sub^r- 
raneous church or chapel, and, according to the reputa- 
tiou far sanctity borne bjr the person whose reroaiwa it 
enclosed, was thronged with worshippers, and honoured 
with exterior embellishments in the grandeur of the 
edifice raised above it. The church of San Martino, at 
Rome, was raised in the year 500, by Pope Syii(im^chi^s, 
over a subterraneous chjipeV qt cryptji whi^^ cont^ine^ 
the body of Pope Syly^ter; a^d m. P€W»» *^ Rom^p, 
was built above the cryp^ 9I ^he qup^iy ^a tliat ia.ffiBred Va 
the circus of Nero^. 

Crypts are s^Uo fbund ui^pcxi^n^cted ^ith ^y r^lig^ou^ 
edifice; but fon[uing ^ t)\emselves both temple andl 
tomb. Abpnt a quar^ej^ otf ^ mile narii\\Y^T4 ^ Laodi- 
cea, in Syria, are ^ev^r^) s^ch crypts, pr sey^khr^ 
chambers, hollowed in the roct^y gro\indi 4^d V^^yiujf 
from ten to thirty ^\ sqvia^r^. |n mpist of thea^ cryp^ta 
there is a range of narrow G^\a, each V^^ g^ ^no^gh Ux 
receive one col^n ia widthi *nd twoi or three in lei\gthn 
In one crypt, named after S|. T<^^U, is a fountx^n, to 
which the Greek Christians vised to bring diseased per- 
sons, for the anticipated recovery oX their heaUhi hy 
ablution m the fountain. Jerusalem ^nd its neighbouTr 
hood contains many crypts, in which are stone benches, 
instead of cells, for the rweption of ^ffins. How far 
sepulchres of this kind were in use ii\ Syria, before the 
Christian era, is uncertain ; but the sepulchre in which 
our Saviour was laid is described by tne Evangelists ^8i 
being hewn out of a solid rock; and, from the circum- 
stance that Mary and John had to stoop down, in order 
to look into the sepulchre, we may infer that the sepul- 
chre was below the level of the ground. There aye 
many sepulchres in and around the Mount of Olives^ 
which appear to have been used as burial-places for holy 
persons. 

This custom of placing the ks^ earthy remains of 
inspired or holy men apart from thpse of other persons, 
was adopted by the Church of Rome ; but with many of 
those debasing and irreligious infringemeii^ta which that 
church made in the iniddle ages, and by which ^he 
Romish Calendar became crowded with saints of human 
creation. When the Gothic cathedrala of Europe wer€ 
built, the construction of a crypt, probably for some such 
purpose as we have indicated, was very common; and 
among them are the crypts beneath Canterbury, York, 
and Winchester Cathedrals, and those beneath the 
churches of Grimbald^ Christ Church, Wimbum, Dor- 
chester, Grantham, Peterborough, Waverley, Wells, Ac. 

In Protestant countries the crypts are seldom now 
used, either for sepulchres or for chapels ; indeed so long 
have most of them been disused, that many writers are 
in doubt whether they were originally designed for se- 
pulchres or for chapels. In Buildwas Abbey Church, 
Shropshire, there is a crypt, beneath the north transept, 
extending the whole length of the transept from east to 
west, and about half its width from north to south. The 
principal entrance to this crypt was at the west end, by 
a flight of steps out of the cloister t and there seems to 
have been also a doorway in the northern wall of the 
crypt. This subterranean vault, whatever may have 
been its original destination, has long been used as a 
cellar. 

Canterbury Cathedral contains a vast vault, or rather 
series of vaults, which is called the crypt, or undercroft, 
and which is supported by numerous piers and massive 
columns. This crypt, if such be its real nature, appears 
to be much larger than the generality of such vaults. 

Other crypts, as we have said, are to be found be- 
neath many cathedrals i^nd ancient churches ; but it will 



he 8a€Scien( f^r wi httP9 W^y*tcv*n^ce ^t Vh^^h is 
represented i^ the wo^-cut at the head of this f^rticle, 
ai^d which is the erypt beneath the ancient church of 
(.astingham, in the north riding of Yorkshire. 

Ls^tingham Church is situated about five miles from 
Kirhy Moorside, in the mountainous part of the fiorth 
riding, and i^ 99 aQcieQi that great diversity of opinioa 
^ists as to many points connected with its history. 
According to. Sedei a small monastery was founded on 
this spot by Bishop Cedd, during the time of the Hep- 
t^chy, bo.th 4s ^ place of worship and as a sepulchre. 
When the bishop died, he was buried on the outside of 
Ae inon^teji'y ; but in proK^eas of ^e* % atone church 
was built ill the pAonastery, and the h^Ay of ih? prelate 
Yi9ft huried at the right-h^4 ^4^ ^ the altair* 

Durh^ the two centuries which ipimediat^ preceded 
the Nonnan co][iquest of Englaiids Y^ little ia IpiiqwQ of 
Lastingham Monastery \ hnt it ia 8^p|lJ0Jied t^ hi^Ye been 
ruined i^nd deatroyeq duruig the pani&h ^^X^ 9^ ^ose 
t^nea^ We find th^t i^ ^Q78 !(4^lti^gha^( ^^i^ hl^cluded 
^ th? Toyal demesne, wd thfti Steyhe^ ?^hhqt «f Whitby, 
solicited penni^io*. \o e«^taW.i8h i *W wo^w^t^y it 
<^aaU?f feaw> o^i a90Q^nt 9^ *W wpa^^e. irf Whitby 
Abbey tp pwt^a s^^d robheri. Frcw^ th^^i ^« scarcely 
j^^iy tl^ng ia toown of t-aatwgha?ft ftlenaa^y w Chur^h^ 
Xhft latter h^caiPK^^ f^ paroc^jaj church 9,\ ^/m» avihse- 
quenl perio4a Wt at wha^ tipiie la xiot ^ow tepw9* 

The Vry^»t wdf»r^««^th ^hia church hi^ hj wwy pr- 
sona been auppo^4 to h^ of Saxon ooi^a^ifviction, the 
ren^^i^it of the ii[ipni^tic church built before the Con- 
q\ieat) hut Mr. ^itto^ oooaiolera H te he ft ape^imen 
of the car)y >Jprinan atyl^i ftf\d ^o Wvc for^^^d par^ of 
the moii^stery Wilt hj the ahhc\t of Whithy* 9mT his 
removal to iJ^atinffham, since \^ c^r^iqigt^^ with other 
knowi^ crypta of the Nonii(iai;i m^ in the piaaaiv^ cha- 
racter, forina and or^apnenta ^ {tie oolwQinat 1^4 the 
simplicity ef the groinipg an4 flTches. X^e crypt is 
ahout fprtytoi^e ^t in lengthy ^n^ eaiat V* wwtj mi 
twenty-two in widths from north to aoutht t%^ present 
entrance deacenda hy ^ trap^Qor aii^d figh^ gi steps 
iron^ the west end of the nay^ ^f ^ ohui^ \ h\^i iWre 
was formerly another entrance i^im^ % Yi^ul^ I^M^age 
on the north aide, which waa traditkmaUy r^port^ io 
have extended to a distance of tvo 9.r thrfe V^Hs^ ftom 
the churchj \^idergrexuid^ 0^ Wte^^ ttie «yp.ti how- 
ever, by the present ^trance, at the we^t end, we come 
to a square Tauh, measuring about twenty-one feet each 
way, the roof being supported by four massive columns, 
nearly equidistant. On the eastern side of th^s squar^ 
portion^ and close to the north and south walls, are two 
loop-holes, which serve for windows. Between thes^ 
loop-holes is an opening leading to another portion of 
the vault, nearly semi-circular, and measurmg ehput 
eighteen feet by thirteen. At the eastern extremity pf 
this portion, and of the whole vault, is another loop-hole, 
serving to admit a dim light to the crypt. 

The sight of this and similar stnustures may well 
serve to recal to our minds the period and the sufferings 
which first made it necessary for those who boje the 
name of Christ tp seek for subterraneous places of 
worship ; nor can we do this without remembering our 
own superior privileges, and the reason we have grate- 
fully to follow the faith of those who witnessed 9 good 
confession in the midst of so many difficulties, and at a 
time when, to use the language of our homilies, '' They 
had but low poore conventicles, and simple oratories, 
yea, caves under the groiUK^ called crypta, where they 
for feare of persecution assembled secretly together.** 



CnaisTXANiTV recommends itself to na at first s^ht by this 
peculiar presumption of its beii\g the true religion, tnat it 
makes application to men as reasonable creatures, and 
claims our assent on account of (h^ proofs which it offers. — 
AncHBisHOf Shckkr. 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



11 



CALCULATmO MACHINEfl 
I. Napibr's Bone8» — The Ancient Abactts. 

A LARGE portion of Ihose labours lo which the human 
mind is directed, have tor their object the more speedy 
attainment of someihinjg^ which can already be attained 
by slow means: what wb tenn a new invention, a 
new process, or a new Art, is not always a means of 
doing something which could not be effected before, or 
without it, but is oftentimes only an improvement by 
which a giv^tt nbjfect 6sx\ be altaiiied better and tAofe 
speedily; Thfe ikmt, to a certain extoeht, may be sAid of 
the processes of arithmetic: multipUeation is not a 
tbtally differ^ht process from addition, — ^It is Aot, there- 
fore, a tneand of eflfectlng that which could not be 
effected without it, but it is a speeditr means of effect- 
ing that which is within thfe scope of additioii. Wheh 
we multiply Ti by 8, we ih efifect add Up 12 eight times ; 
but, by tue aid of the multiplication tablte, ^-e lose sight 
of the process bf Addition, and at once conclude that l2 
multiplied by 8 equals 96. So, likewise, division is but 
& speedier kind of subtraction; Ibr, if Vire have to divide 
24 by 6, we in cfiect subtract 6 four times over, by 
whi<ih W6 separate 24 into four parcels of 6 each. 

To on6 who has the multiplication table committed to 
memory, the performance uf this process ife as easy as 
that bf Addition; but, where this is not the case, the 
process of multiplication becomes rather tedious, as bUr 
for^f Alhers 200 yeArs ago very generally felt it to be : they 
were not then taught frotm in&ncy the multiplication 
table, up to 12 times 12, any t^ote thau we now 
commonly learn it beybnd that step. 

It was, therefore, to afford them sdd that the celebrated 
Naplef, the inventor of Logarithms, devised the little 
instrument, or series bf instruments, known as •* NApier'b 
rods,*' or " Napier's boned ;** the mode of constructing 
which is as follows: — Provide several slips of card, 
wood, or metal, about nine times as long as they are 
broad; And divide each bf them into 9 equal squared. 
Inscribe at the top squAre of each slip one of the num- 
bers of the natural Series, 1, 2, 3, 4, &c., to 9 inclusive. 
Then divide each of the remaining squares into two parts 
by a diagonal line drawn from the upper right hand 
comer to the lower left hand comer; and inscribe in 
each of these triangukr divisions, proceeding downwards, 
the double, triple, quadmple, &c., of the number in- 
scribed at the top ; takihg care, when the multiple con- 
sists of only one ngure, to place it in the lower triangle, 
And wheU it cortslsts of two, to place the units' figure in 
the lower tru^gle, and the ten's itt the Upper one. It 
Will be necessArV to have one of these slips or rods, the 
Squares bf whicn are hot divided by A diagonal, but in- 
scribed with the Uatural liumbers from 1 to 9 : this oUe 
is called the index-roA. It will be proper also^to have 
Several slips bf each kind, so thAt there may be one for 
each particular figure. 

The n>ds being prepared, let us trace the process of 
multiplying, for instance, the number 6785399. Arrange 
ieven of tne rods or slips inscribed at the top with the 
figures dose to each other, and apply tb them on the left 
hand the index-rod. The arrangement will then be 
as in the anUeked figure, A Uttle inspection of which will 
show thAt we have a tAble of all the multiples of each 
figure in the multiplicAnd; and scarcely anything more 
will be necessary than to transcribe them. Thus, for 
example, to multiply the above number by 6: looking for 
6 on the ixiciex-rod, and opposite to it in the drst square 
on the right hand, we iSnd 54 : write down the 4 found 
in the lower triangle, and add the 5 in the upper one to 
the 4 in the lower triangle of the next square on the 
left, which makes 9: write down the 9, and then 
add the 5 in the upper triangle of that square to 
^he 8 in the lower triiuigle of the next one to the left. 
Proceed in this manneri taking care to carry as in com- 



mon addition; and We shall find the result to. be 
40712394, or the product of 6785399 multiplied by 6. 




lfAP»E*S BOM OB BoNtt. 

A little reflection will show that the same instrumeUC 
would be available for a larger multiplier. Suppose 
that the same multiplicand is to be multiplied by 
839938. Write down the multiplicand and the multi- 
plier below it, in the usual manner; and as the first 
figure of the multiplier is 8, look for it in the indet-rod, 
and by adding the different figures in the triangles of 
the horizontal column opposite to it, the result will 
be 54283192, or the product of the above number by 
8. Then find the result of the figures in the horizontal 
column opposite to 3. and write the sum down as before, 
but carrying it one place farther to the left. Continue 
in this manner, until all the figures of the multiplier 
have been used; and if the sevend partial products be 
then added as usual, the total product, 5699314465262, 
will be the same as that resulting from common multi- 
plication. 

Thus it will be seen that the process of multiplica- 
tion, as performed by Napier's rods, is nothing more 
than a series of additions ; so that a person totally igno- 
rant of multiplication may perform processes coming 
under that rule. The rods may also be made occasion- 
ally serviceable in shortening the process of division, 
especially when large sums are to be oft;en divided by 
the same division. Thus: if the number 1492992 is to 
be divided by 432, and if the same division were fre- 
quently to occur, construct, in the manner before dA- 
scribed, a table of the multiples of 432 by all the uiiits. 

432)1492!)92(3456 
1290 

19C9 
1728 

2419 
216D 



I times 432 


= 432 


« „ 


» 


« 864 


3 „ 


$» 


•«1296 


4 « 


99 


«rl728 


5 H 


»> 


»21G0 


6 » 


99 


=2502 


7 „ 


n 


=3024 


8 » 


91 


=3466 


9 „ 


99 


»38aB 



2692 
2692 

. • * 



^ Since 432 is not containedl iU the first three figures of 
the (Hvidend, some multiple of it must be contained in 
the first four figures, viz., 1492; To find this multiple, 
look at the table, where it will be seen that the next less 
multiple of 432 is 129G, which stands opposite to 8. 
Write down 3 in the quotient, and 1296 under 1492; 
thcti subtract the former from the latter, and there will 
remain 196, to which if the next figure of the dividend 
be brouffht down, the result will be 1969. Again re- 
ferring to the table, we find that 1728, which sUnds 

547—2 



12 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[[January &» 



opposite to 4, is the greatest multiple of 43S contained 
in 1969: write down 4 therefore in the quotient, and 
subtract as before. By continuing the operation in .this 
manner, it will be found that the other figures of the 
quotient are 5 and 6, and that there is no remainder. — 
We will here again remind the reader, that he must not 
test the excellence of such an expedient as this by the 
present state of knowledge on arithmetical subjects, but 
by the wants of society at the time when Napier Uved, 
more than two hundred years ago. 

A mechanical contrivance for facilitating the processes 
of arithmetic to uneducated persons, under the name of 
the Abacus, has been known in various countries for a 
long period. The principle of the instrument is, to ex- 
press numbers by the relative position of beads sliding 
upon wires, or of counters placed between lines. The 
Chinese abacus, called ihwan-pan, consists of several 
series of beads strung on brass wires, stretched from 
the top to the l»ottom of the instrument, and divided in 
the middle by a cross-piece from side to side. In the 
upper space every string Has two beads, which are each 
counted for 5, and in the lower space every string has 
five beads, of different values, the first being counted as 
1, the second as 10, the third as 100, &c This appara- 
tus is commonly used in the shops of China, and the 
natives are very expert in the working of it. The 
Grecian abacus was nearly the same as that of the 
Chinese, except that little ivory balls were used instead 
of beads. The Roman abacus differed a little from the 
Grecian, in having pins sliding in grooves, instead of beads 
or balls sliding on wires. The abacus used at the present 
day in some European countries is made as follows: 
— small counters are provided^ and a sheet of paper is 
ruled with parallel lines, each two being at such a dis- 
tance as may be at least eaual to twice the diameter of 
the counter. Then the value of the lines thus drawn, 
and of the spaces between them, increases from the 
lowest to the highest in a tenfold proportion: thus: — 
counters placed upon the first line signify so many units 
or ones ; on the second line, tens ; on the third line, hun- 
dreds ; on the fourth line, thousands ; and so on. In like 
manner, a counter placed in the first space, between the 
first and second lines, denotes 5 ; on the space next above 
it, 50 ; on the third space, 500, on the fourth space, 5000; 
and so on. So that there are never more than four count- 
ers placed on any line, nor more than one in any space; 
this being of the same value as five counters on the next 
line below. Thus, 47382 is indicated in this manner: — 
two counters on the lower line implying units 2 ; three on 
the second line, and one in the space above it, indicating 
conjointly 80; 3 on the third line, for 300; 2 on the 
fourth line, and 1 in the space above it, for 7000; and 
4 on the fifth line for 40,000. 

Numerous contrivances have been from time to time in- 
troduced, bearing resemblance more or less to the abacus, 
or to Napier's rods. Mr. Gamaliel Smethurst, in the 
forty-sixtn volume of the Philosaphieal Transactions^ 
described a variation of the Chinese shwan-pan, which 
appeared to him to increase its usefulness; for besides 
teaching arithmetic to persons ignorant of it, he deemed 
it useful " to examine accounts by ; for, as the person will, 
by the shwan-pan, work it in quite a different way, it 
wiU serve as if another person had gone through the 
account; if it proves right with the written one, they 
may rest assured the work is true." Many other indi- 
viduals have likewise directed their attention to this sub- 
ject Sir Samuel Moreland published, in 1 673, an account 
of two arithmetical machines, the construction of which 
however, he did not explain. Leibnitx, Poleni, Perrault, 
Lespine, Boistissandeau, and others devised machines, 
having a similar object in view. As there is a good 
deal of similarity between many of these contrivances, 
we will not stav to describe them, but will, in another 
article, speak of the ingenious means by which Dr. Saun- 
derson, uie blind madematidani estid^lished a kind of 



palpable arithmetic ; and also of a calculating machine 
mvented by Pascal. 

The reader should know that the words <* calculate*' 
and *' calculation" are derived from the Latin word ccd- 
eulust a counter, or pebble : hence, among the Romans, 
accoimtants were called calculatores. 



THE BURNT PILLAR AT CONSTAN- 
TINOPLE. 

Various writers have described a remarkable column 
standing in the city of Constantinople, but I have not 
found two that give the same account of it. In order to 
describe it as I found it, I must differ from them all. It 
is situated in one of the principal streets of Stamboul, 
(Constantinople,) near the Chatladi gate, and is said to 
have derived its modem name from having been burnt 
by fire. There is a story current, both among the 
Franks and Turks, that some Jews burnt it, and melted 
the gold plates with which it is said to have been covered; 
but the story, though universally believed, is not worthy 
of the slightest credit, as nothing like authority or date 
can be given for it. Hobhouse says it is called the 
Burnt Pillar from its burnt appearance, and certainly to 
a casual observer it does appear as if it had been burnt by 
fire ; yet, on a close and careful examination, I could not 
find one vestige of fire ever having touched it ; in fact 
it owes its black and burnt appearance to time and the 
elements. The first time I visited it, there were houses 
built on two sides of it; the other two were open, and 
dug round for the purpose of building: and on my second 
visit, a few months after, I found a new and elegant white 
stone gUard-house, giving to its base the appearance in 
the engraving. In consequence of the ground being dug 
all around it, I had an opportunity of observing the nature 
of the foundation as well as the pedestal, which I found 
of the most solid structure. 

The pillar consists of six blocks of red granite or por- 
phyry, each about ten feet high, and six in diameter. The 
capital consists of twelve rows of masonry, and the 
whole is crowned by a square row of stones about 
eighteen inches high. 

Hobhouse calls it ninety feet high, but I think that an 
actual measurement with instruments would bring it very 
close upon one hundred and five, as I was very careful in 
comparing one point with another, and measuring it. It 
is encircled with fourteen iron hoops, of a much more 
modem date than the pillar itself, and these have evi- 
dently been put on to prevent the stone coining off in 
large scales, as it appears prone to do: in fact, at the 
time I saw it, there were various loose fragments which 
were only held to the body of the column by these hoops» 
and many places from wnich other pieces had fallen. 

Hobhouse says that these hoops conceal the joints of 
the pillSr, but in that he is mistaken, as the joints are 
marked by the wreath of laurel, about twelve ineliea 
deep, round the bottom of each block of stone. He is 
correct, however, in saying that the hoops are of irony 
and it is difficult to imagine how Wheler made such a 
mistake as to call them brass. 

Toumefort, who visited Constantinople in 1700, aays 
that it is composed of "porphyry stones, the junctures 
hid by copper rings." If such were the case in his day the 
rings must have been taken away, as, with the exception 
of the iron hoops, there is no metal about it Pococke says 
that it originally consisted of ten blocks, and that seven of 
these now remain; and he describes the masonry on 
the top so accurately, that there is no doubt it remains 
now as in his day ; yet there are only six blocks. The 
inscription upon the top is in Greek, much dilapidated, 
and too high to be read from the street 

When there is so much discrepancy in the accounts of 
those who say they have seen this pillar, we can hardly 
expect a very correct historical account of it. The 
column is said to have been originally 120 feet high, and 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE 



THK XVUfI PILLAB *T CD>»TAXTlXOri.K. 



to haYe npported a bronze statue of the Trojan Apollo, 
nippoMd to h&ve been the work of Phidias, (b.c. 450)i 
it was of colosaal height, bore a. aceptre in its right 
hand, a plobe in its left, and a crown of glittering rays 
upon it« head. Although originally modelled for Apollo, 
Constantine called it after his own name. 

Glycas aivB that, towards the close of the reign of 
NicephoruB Botoniatea, (a.d. 1080,) the pillar waa struck 
by lightning, and the statue thrown down — and, accord- 
ing to the inscription upon it, which is given by Wbeler, 
it appear* to have been repaired by the Emperor Manuel 
Conmenus (a.d. 1180.) 

Whalever the pillar once was, it is now an ugly un- 
ihapelv mass ; and however grand the object niay have 
been for which it waa raised, it is unregarded by its 
present possesaon, who seemed to consider that the time I 
*as engaged in eumining it would have been much 
Wtter employed in smoking a pipe at the neighbouring 
cife, and I waa asked more than once if I was going to 
t>ie it away, as those around me could not understand 
the motive for what appeared to them so much useless 
libour. There was, however, one middle-aged Turk 
vho asked me to smoke a pipe with him, and when we 
lud got fairly sealed, he patronisingly recommended me 
Hot to employ my tame on such old ugly pillara as the 
one beside us, but said, if I wished lometning good to 
paint, that then were some very fine new ones, prettily 



gilded ana painted, on the top of the new palace on fh« 
Bosphorua; — the tasteful Turk was describing to me, 
as works of high art, the chimnev-tops of the Sultan't 
kitchen ! ' W. 



THE MISSI8IPP1 SCHEME. 

The pages of the Sattirday 3fagasine are, for obvious 

reasons, kept clear of thoae exciting topics which engage 
the attention of politicians ; still, there have been events 
in the past history of nations which are now viewed 
pretty nearly in the same light by all thinking persons, 
and which are capable of affording instructive lessons. 
One such event was the mania — the national insanity, 
we may almost term it — which seized on the French 
people, at the early part of the last century, in favour 
of a speculation known as the Miaaisippi Scheme, the 
professed object of which was to insure lai^ fortunes 
in a very little time; a plan which b nearly always 
attended with ruinous consequences. 

The author of this delusive scheme waa one John 
Law, who was bom at Edinburgh, in the year 1671, of 
wealthy parents; and, after receiving a good education, 
during which he was known to pay much attention to 
matters connected with political economy, ran into pro- 
fligacy and dissipatJOB. He was sentenced to death for 



14 



THE SATURDAY MAGAEINE. 



[January 9, 



having killed in a duel a gentleman whose domestic 
peace he had destroyed, hut was respited, and afterwards 
made his escape from prison, and fled to Holland, 
where he became secretaiy to the British resident. He 
found means to return to his own country about the 
year 1700, without molestation, and began to promul- 
gate a scheme for relieving Scotland from some financial 
diflBculties, by the issue of paper money on landed 
security. .This plan was rejected by the parliament, and 
Law returned to the Continent. 

He then became a gambler, and such was his skill 
and address that, by the year 1714, he was master of 
1 10,000/., and had managed to gain the good opinion of 
the King of Sardinia, the Duke of Orleans, the Prince, 
of Conti, the Duke de Vendome, and other foreigners of 
distinction. France at this time was in a desperate 
state : the expensive wars in which Louis the Fourteenth 
had been engaged, and the extravagaiit proceedings 
of the court, had so reduced the national finances, that 
it was proposed to sponge out the whole of the national 
debt. The disgraceful expedient was however rejected 
by the regent Orleans, and a committee was appointed to 
inquire what course could be adopted. This was just the 
8tat« of aifairs to suit Law, and he was not slow in taking 
advantage of it. He proposed to liquidate the nationsu 
debt by issuing notes secured upon landed property and 
the roval revenues This plan being rejected. Law pro- 
cccdcdi to establish a bank of his own, assisted by those 
who chose to join him; but after two years, the regetit 
seeing that the new plan promised success, took it into 
his own hands, and formed a royal bank, of which he 
made Law the director-general. 

The time was now ripe for the famous Missisippi 
scheme, a scheme as stupendous as it was extravagant. 
France possessed the extensive country of Loiiisiana, iti 
North America, which is watered throughout its whole 
extent by the river Missisippi ; but as comtnerce, navi- 
gation, and manufactures, were at a stand fbr waiit of 
funds, this colony was of very little use. Law proposed 
to remedy all these evils at once, by vesting the whole 
of the privileges, ellects, and possessions of all the 
foreign trading companies, the great farttis^ the miiit, 
the royal revenues, and the property of the bank, in otie 
great company, who, having thus in their hands all the 
trade, taxes, and royal revenues, might multiply the 
notes of the bank to any extent they pleased, doubling 
or even tripling at will the circulating medium of the 
kingdom, and, by the immensity of their funds, carry 
the foreign trade and the improvement of the colonies 
to a height unattainable by other means. The principles 
of national wealth were but little understood at that 
time ; and, however wild and chimerical such a scheme 
may how appear, it was received with avidity by persons 
of all classes in France, as a sovereign panacea for the 
distresses of the nation. Letters-patent were granted 
to the company, under the title of the "Company of 
the West," and they were authorized to raise a capital 
of 100,000,000 livres. The company first had a grant 
of the whole province of Louisiana; then the fanning 
of the revenues on tobacco was made over to them, on 
the payment of a large sum into the national treasury. 
Afterwards they became in succession the proprietors of 
the Senegal Company, the East India Company, the 
China Company, the South Sea Company, and others, 
and the company changed its name to the " Compatiy of 
the Indies." In July, 1718, the mint was made over to 
them, on the payment of 50,000,000 livres within fifteeti 
months ; and afterwards the whole receipt of the revenue 
was placed in their hands, for a lurther advance. 

The company had thus actually obtained, in the course 
of a few months, all that Law had promised ; for they 
concentrated in themselves nearly all the public and 
joint-stock wealth of France. The reader may naturally 
inquire what effect this extraordinary movement pro- 
duced. The 100,000,000 livres, which constituted the 



original capital, was raised by 200,000 shares, of 500 
livres each ; and after some of the extraordinary grants 
had been mdde to the company, the expectation of enor- 
mous pi*ofitB was do geni^ral, that people were desirous of 
becoming sKdreholders on any terms. The competition 
for shares spelwiily raised their price from five hundred 
to a thousand livres^ so that those who had purchased 
the original shares were now enabled to get cent, per 
cent* bh)fit btt them. But when the royal revenues were 
placed in the hands of the company, the competition for 
shares amounted almost to fVenzy, insomuch that the 
price speedily h)8e to 6000 livres per share. All classes, 
peers, princes, statesmen, magistrates, clergymen, me- 
chanicdj all sct'aped together what ready money they 
possessed, And the competition for shares was so great, 
that the price at last rose to 10,000 livres per share. 
The effect of this state of things may in some degree be 
imagined. If a purchaser of the original shares, at 500 
livres each, sold them a few months afterwards for 
10,000, he had a clear profit of 2000 per cent But this 
was not all* When the company was about to be formed, 
shareholders were permittea to pay for their shares in a 
depreciated paper currency, called billets d'itaiy which 
were not then worth above one-third of their nominal 
value, but the subsequent price of 10,000 livres was 
payable in metallic^ currency ; so that in less than twelve 
months, shared were sold at sixty times the sum they 
originally cost. 

The consequences of thlfi hipid transmission of money 
f^om hand to hand, were tliost startling, and ludicrous 
stories are related of the effects of the sudden fortimes 
made by humble individuals. Cook-maids and waiting- 
women appedred at the onerft bedizened in jewels ; and 
a baker's son purchased the whole contents of a jewel- 
ler's shop. As to Law himself, he became in many re- 
spects the first matt in trance \ he was made comptroller 
general of the financed, he possessed the confidence of 
the regent^ and WdS courted by princes, peers, and mar- 
shals, who waited at his levees as If he had been a sovc- 
reigUi He ainassed such immense property, that he w^as 
enabled to purchase no less tbah fourteen estates with 
titles annexed tb thettt. 

But such iari Unnatural state of things could not last 
long; no «i?w wealth had been produced by this scheme, 
which was nothing hut a change of money from one 
hand to another, by artificial means. The first circum- 
stance which indicated the rottenness of the scheme was 
the continual demand on the bank for gold and silver 
specie: the original purchasers of the shares converted 
their newly acquired property intb goldj and siPrtt it out 
of the kingdom, as a security against the approaching 
storm ; it was estimated that not less than 500,000,000 
livres in specie were conveyed out of France. This 
alarmed the government, and it was ordered that small 
payments only should be made in specie, "and soon after- 
wards that no person should keep more than 500 livres in 
their possession, the bulk of their money being in notes. 

But the finishing stroke was brou|:ht on by thb follow- 
ing circumstanced The bank, acting ih concert with 
this all-engrossing company^ had issued papet* money 
with such rapidity, that by the month of May it 
amounted to 2,600,000,000 livres, while the whole of 
the metallic specie of the eUipire amounted to ohlv about 
half that sum. It was proposed) therefore, either that 
the value of a paper livre should be diminished one-half, 
or that the value of a livre in specie should be doubled, 
in order to equalize the ^dper fcurreUcy with the metallic. 
This proposal Law opposed, but it was carried against 
him; and the people were thunderstruck at hearing that 
the value of the notes was reduced one half. The efiect cf 
this breach of national faith was instantaneous; the 
notes became mere waste pap^r ; those ^'ho had gold, 
feeling that tha government which had reduced the 
value of the notes to one htdf, might proceed still fur- 
ther, refosed to Exchange theur gold for notes on any 



1841.3 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



15 



terms; and tbe holders of tlM notes (amounting to 
90,000,000/. sterling English) were reduced to beggary. 

John Law at once fell from the height of power and 
became an object of esecration» and his life was in 
danger from the rage of the unfortunate note-holders. 
He escaped from France, and his immense possessions 
were confiscated to the crown aa having been acquired 
through unfair ipueans. He wandered firom country to 
country, and experienced a truth which more worthy 
men have often bitterly felt, — ^that friends in time of 
prosperity become strangers with cold hands and hearts, 
when adversity oyertakes those whom they formerly 
flattered. Law was persecuted nowhere out of France, 
but he was neglected everywhere, and died a poor man, 
in the year 1729, before he had passed the middle period 
of life. 

Thus ended the Missisippi Scheme ; and France had 
for many years to lament the short-sighted policy which 
bad subjected her to such severe distress. 



HISTORY OF THE SMALL-POX, AND OF 
THE MEANS FOR ITS PREVENTION. 

I. 

^ORIGIN AND PROGRESS pF THE SMALL-POX. 
INTRODUCTION OF INOCULATION. 

Although the details of subjects connected with the 
practice of medicine can seldom be laid with advantage 
before the general reader, yet all persons aspiring to a 
liberal education should make themselves acquainted 
with the historical and literary portions of these, fur- 
nishing, as they frequently do, matter of an interesting 
and instructive character. Of all subjects of this kind 
the Smcdl-pox is that igrhioh should interest an English- 
man most, as it is from the exertions of his countrymen 
that all the attempts at removing or alleviating this 
scourge of the huinan race have emanated, lliis is 
literally the case, whether we consider the improved 
modes of treating the disease, introduced by Sydenham 
and Culleii, the introduction of inoculation into Europe 
by Lady Montagu, or the discovery of vaccination by 
Dr. Jenner. 

The origin of small-pox is involved in much obscurity, 
and has given rise to many discussions. While some 
believe it to be identical with the plague of boils and 
blains inflicted upon the Egyptians, and with many of 
the diseases described by the Qreek and Roman authors, 
others consider these analogies to be £uiciful. Accord- 
ing to the reports of Du Halde and others, this disease 
has been known in China for 1300 years prior to the 
Christian era, under the name of Tai-toVy or " Venom 
from the mother*8 breast.'* In Hindostan, also, the 
Brahmins declare that the disease has been recognised 
from the remotest antiquity, and that the k^edas contains 
a form for the adoration of a tutelar dqity of the small- 
pox. Wherever the disease may have originated^ the 
flrst distinct account we possess of its existence is of its 
breaking out among the Arabians, at thecdmmencem.nt 
of the seventh century. This epoch (622) was most 
favourable for its dissemination, being that in which 
Mahomet led forth his followers, animated with fana- 
tical zeal, to the conquest of various countries. In 
thirty years he and his successors had conquered Syria, 
Egypt, and Persia, and diffused the disease over all these 
countries. So freely did this diffusion of the malady 
take place over the Mohammedan empire, that the Sara- 
cen physicians founded their treatment on the theory 
that it arose from a natural change in the human consti- 
tution. It spread into Europe during the eighth cen- 
tury, after the conquest of Spain and Sioily ; and in 731 
the' Saracens crossed the Pyrenees, and invaded France 
They were repulsed before the walls of Tours, by 
Charles Martel, yet they left the inffection of the small- 



pox and measles behind them. Mead and others nave* 
attributed the introduction of small-pox into Europe to 
the returned crusaders; but, although these may have 
brought fresh irruptions of the disease, it was known 
two centuries prior to that epoch. The examination of 
some old Irish MSS„ in the Bodleian Library, has led 
Dr. O'Connor to believe that the ravages of small-pox 
were known in Ireland as early as 679 and 742. How- 
ever this may be. Great Britain could not escape for 
long a contagion which had overspread Europe ; but the 
earliest accounts antiquarians can discover of its exist- 
ence here refer to the commencement of the tenth cen- 
tury. In the Harleian and Cotton MSS., at the British 
Museum, are preserved prayers and exorcisms employed 
against the small-pox, showing the great terror that ^en 
prevailed upon the subject. Amulets, consecrated to 
St. Nicaise, (who had himself suffered from the disease, 
when Bishop of Rheims,) were worn as protectives by 
the nuns. Holinshed is the first English historian who 
expressly mentions the disease: speaking of the year 
1 1366, he says, " Also manie died of the Small Pocks, 
both men, women, and children." The disease was 
transported to the continent of America by the followers 
of Columbus. 

Considerable difSculty exists in judging of the extent 
of the rav^es of small-pox in former times. The ob- 
scurity of early medical records, and their admixture 
with nionkish fkbles and miracles, prevent our deriving 
much information from these sources. Again, as Dr. 
Moore has observed, the term " plague" or " pestilence" 
was formerly of much more vague and general applica- 
tion than in our own day, and almost every considerable 
epidemic was so designated: thus, in translating the 
Arabic writers upon this subject, the w^ord plague was 
long used to express the term small-pox, and two very 
different diseases were confounded under the same title. 
There is little doubt that some of the pestilences. of fire, 
so frequently raging in France, were attacks of small- 
pox, and there is reason to believe that the disease was 
frequent in its recurrence, and terrible in its mortality. In 
more modem times our accounts, of course, are more 
authentic. Dr. Jurin has calculated that one out of 
every fourteen bom died of small-pox, and that one out of 
every five or six affected with the disease perished. Dr. 
Lettsom proved, from the Bills of Mortality, that the 
average number of deaths from 166? to 1722 was to 
the whole numbe^^ as 72 is to 1000, and from 1731 to 
1772 as 89 to 1000. 

But in its epidenuc visitations this disease is more 
destructiTe of human life than the plague itself; and if, 
as Condamine sts^t^s, it decimates in civilized life, it 
almost depopulates when carried among comparatively 
uncivilized races. Thus the capital of Thibet was after 
an epidemic deserted for three years, and Dr. Robertson 
and subsequent writers have described whole nations 
exterminated by this disease in America. In Russia 
two millions are said to have died of small-pox in one 
year, and one half of the persons atti^cked at Const/ui- 
tinople perished. Dr. Lettsom has calculated that not 
less than 210,000 fell annually victims to it in Europe, 
and Beraouilli estimates that not less than 15,000,000 
of human beings thus perished in a quarter of a 
century. The dSscase seems to have been as fatal at the 
North Pole as under the Une, for in 1707 about 16,000 
persons were carried off in Iceland, and in 1733 Green- 
land was nearly depopulated by it. 

It may readily be supposed that so severe a disease as 
small-pox has called forth numerous proposals for it? 
treatment. It is not our purpose to allude to these. 
We will only observe that most of the plans put into 
force originated with the Arabic physicians, or were the 
offspring of the dominant theory of the day, until the 
seventeenth century, when Sydenham, after describing 
the disease with an exactitude which has never been 
surpassed, and distinguishing it from the measles, with 



16 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[Jamttart 9> 184L 



which it had been confounded, laid down principles of 
trealaieiit, wfaieb/'were founded- In oommoa sense and 
exact obienratk)n« We wOl pass on at 'once to the in- 
troduction of the practice of inoculation. The principle 
upon which this practice is founded is this, — ^that small- 
pox rarely occurs twice in the same individual, and if 
the disease be communicated purposely to persons, by 
inserting some of the matter of the disease into their 
skin, they become subjected to a much milder disease, 
which is nearly equally as efficacious in protecting them 
from a second attack as when it occurs spontaneously in 
its severer form. It would seem that for some centuries 
the custom of what is called '< sowing the small-pox" 
has been known in China, and the Brahmins are said 
long to have been in the habit of following this practice, 
accompanying the operation with solemn prayers, ad- 
dressed to the deity of the small-pox. The Circassians 
and Greorgians, again, call it *< buying the small-pox," 
and are accustomed to make, a small nominal present of 
fruit to the person from whom the matter is received. 
It is, however, from Constantinople . that we directly 
received our information. • Notices of the practice of 
''engprafting the small-pox," as it was then called, as per- 
formed in that city, were published in London and 
Venice, in 1 703, by persons who had witnessed its suc- 
cess; but it obtained little or no notice until 1717, when 
the celebrated Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who had 
accompanied her husband, then ambassador to the Otto- 
man Court, attracted general attention to it in one of 
her letters. In this she informed the public that a num- 
ber of old women were in the habit of conducting the 
operation at Constantinople, with Uttle inconvenience 
and the happiest results. Her own children were inocu- 
lated, as also were, shortly after, those of the Princess of 
Wales. The practice, now become fashionable, extended 
among persons of high rank. It was, however, soon 
discovered that the reports from Constantinople had been 
exaggerated, and it was foimd that the inoculated small- 
pox was occasionally a severe, and sometimes a fatal, 
disease. Some deaths occurring after inoculation, though 
in a very much less proportion than after the natural 
disease, a most determined opposition was organized 
against the practice. Many memcal men opposed it, as 
an unjustifiable experiment, and several divines as an 
immoral proceeding, in attempting thus to arrest the 
decrees of Providence, and consenting to the aelf- 
infliction of a disease, which in its course might carry 
the individual prematurely before his Maker. The most 
eminent of the faculty of physic, however, approved of 
the practice, and several celebrated divines, among whom 
were Bishop Maddox and Dr. Doddridge, having con- 
vinced themselves of the efficiency of inoculation, pro- 
claimed it as a Christian duty to endeavour by its means 
to diminish the fatality of small-pox. So slow at first, 
however, was the progress of inoculation, that only 897 
persons were inoculated in eight years; and after a some- 
what further trial, the practice seemed to be about to be 
relinquished, when news arrived of the wonderful success 
which had followed its adoption among the Indians of 
South America and the inhabitants of South Carolina. 

These successes determined public opinion much in 
favour of inoculation, and, in 1746, the small-pox hos- 
pital was established for conferring the benefit upon the 
poorer classes, which had hitherto been confined to the 
wealthy. The operations in S. Carolina were performed 
by the planters themselves, and it has been remarked that 
these were frequently more successful when conducted 
by non-professional persons. This is supposed to have 
arisen from the costom which then prevailed among the 
profession of encumbering the practice with a number of 
needless precautions and restrictions, and the administer- 
ing an unnecessary quantity of drugs. This opinion 
would seem to be confirmed by the success which at- 
tended the practice of the Suttons, two empirics, who, 
by simplifying the treatment adopted, met with few fatal 



cases, and were the means of rendering inocnktion ex* 
tremely popmar in this country. 
. On the Contneatjtlie practice of inocnlatioii met with 
great opposition. In France, after a vigorous resistance 
on the part of the clergy and of the faculty of medicine, 
it was partially introdnoed in 1755, and the families of 
the Duke of Orleans and several of the nobility were 
inoculated. An extraordinarily fatal epidemic of small- 
pox, however, appearing in Paris in 1 763, the government, 
believing the number of inoculations had caused the 
spreading of the disease, prohibited the practice* In 
Hanover, Sweden, and Denmark, the populace long resisted 
its introduction, and it made slow progress in Prussia 
and Germany. Catherine of Russia, desiring to set her 
subjects an example, had her own child inoculated, and 
the practice soon spread in that country ; but, owing to 
a due want of caution in separating the inoculated from 
the rest of the community, the small-pox was thereby 
increased, and Sir A. Crichton states, that prior to the 
introduction of vaccination, one child in seven died from 
this terrible disease. 

The flattering hopes entertained at the introduction o« 
inoculation were not destined then to be realized. It is 
quite- true that the inoculated disease was found to be 
infinitely less fatal than the natural, for while in this 
latter, one in six died, in the former, one in fifty, and 
after the improvements introduced by the Suttons, only 
one in two hundred died. It is also quite true that the 
natural small-pox very seldom attacks those who have 
been inoculated. But the fact which was lost sight of 
is, that the inoculated small-pox is just as contagious as 
the natural, and can impart to another as virulent a 
diseasje; so that, by thus diffusing inoculation, the num- 
ber of centres orjoci of infection were increased, and 
the disease spread over a wider surface; and, although 
iAdividuals received security from inoculation, the com- 
munity at large suffered. Thus, at the commencement 
of the eighteenth century, one-fourteenth of the mortality 
arose from the small-pox, while during the last thirty 
years of that century, when inoculation was in full vogue, 
that proportion arose to one-tenth. In the epideioic of 
1796, 3549 persons lost their lives in London; and just 
before the introduction of vaccination, the total number 
of deaths in England from this disease was estimated at 
45,000 annually. In Sweden and Spain, into which 
kingdom inoculation was scarcely admitted, the deaths 
fron^ small-pox were fewer than in those countries into 
which it had been more freely introduced. This result 
could never have been prevented but by the adoption of 
two systems, both of which were impracticable, vis., 
universal inoculation, or where this was partial, the 
entire seclusion of those subjected to the operation. 



Though Justice has been called an ^'hobbling old dame, 
who cannot keep pace with Generosity," yet it is the hob- 
bling old dame who creates confidence, ana confidence lathe 
firmest root of love, respect, and gratitude. Grenerosity may- 
come with holiday gifts, but iustioe fills our cup with every- 
day comfort. ^We cannot uve upon^ts; if we do vre 
are degraded. * Justice offers nothing but what may be 
accepted with honour ; and lays claim to nothing in return, 
but what we ou^ht not even to wish to withold. — Wanum's 
Rights and Duhes. 

Thb rubbing of the eves doth not fetch out the mote, bat 
makes them more red and angry; no more doth tiie dis- 
traction and fretting of the mind discharge it of any ill- 
humours, but rather makes them more abound to' vex ua. 
—Bishop Patrick. 



LONDON;: 

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. 

Pmunno nr Wbsklt Nombbm, prjob Omb Vflmrr, Airo in MoirTKi.T 

Pabts, pRiea Bizpsircs. 
Sold by sll Boolmntw and Ngwiyendew in tfc» Kingiton. 



N? 548. JANUARY 16™, 1841 {o».'"?S.r. 



BENEFICBNCB, BY CAKOVA 



IS 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[Jakuart 16, 



CANOVA AND HIS WORKg. 

Architecture s^nd Sculpture, in consequeBc^ pf t)^ 
intimate relations which subsist between them, have bepQ 
represented as twin sisters; though i^ point of antiquity 
architecture must take the precedence of aU the other 
fine arts. The period at which sculpture (in the ordi- 
nary sense of the wprd, as referring to representations 
of animated existence) began to be first practised, is 
unknown. But there has existed throughout its known 
history, a remarkable degree of harmony with the state 
of its sister art. The sculptured figures of Egypt and 
of India exhibit the same qualities of simple originality 
and ponderous dignity with the architectural monuments 
of those countries; the remain^ of Grecian art harmo- 
nize together in grace and beauty; and the boldness of 
Roman edifices expresses the 99me character with the 
gladiatorial figures and equ^ftpi^n statues. The grand 
style of architecture of t}i0 mi^le ages met with its cor- 
responding degree of excpll^ppe in statuary; and the 
yaned beauties of the mof)^f )[^ f^yle of architecture have 
been kept pace witb> (^FR^gl^ f^e revival in sculpture 
which has taken place aluE^pst in our own times. 

I^rom the days of Michael 4^gelo, to the latter part 
of the last century, sculpture gradually declined until 
it feacl^ed what may be cfi|)ed its second childhood; 
but here the advances of dec^y were cl^ecked, and new 
vigour communicated to the aiPt by the uipearance of the 
sculptor whose life and work^ are tq ferfn the fubject 
of this and two subsequent articles. 

Amid the recesses of those l^ills w)iic}i form the last 
undulations of the Venetjan Alps, as |bey subside into 
the plains of Treviso, lie} (he i^seufa }f}\\fige pf Pos- 
aagm, shut in by nature %{{| general pbs^j^H^pn, and 
too insignificant in itself tq vpiffii m^ f^^^f^ fH( having 
been the birth-place of Apton^ Canqva. 

(n this obscure situatiop wa^ the fiiture 8Ci}}p|f^f born 
on the 1st of November, 1^67. |Iis fathiif, Pietro 
Canova, was by occupatioi| ^ stoi^^-cutter, ^fi4 his 
mother was in nowise distinguished from the s^i^^pl^ 
females of the hamlet. Antj^nio was (he only chii4 9f 
this marriage, and when but three yeas^ of age, h^ Iq^ 
his father, who is described as having been a lyum of 
melancholy habits, and weaklv constitu^on. His mptbof 
soon formed a second marfiage, §p4> r^oc^oving tp ^ 
neighbouring village, left 4P^M<^ ^ ^ <^^"^ of Ms 
granofo'^her, Pasipo Ganova. also a ^tone-cutter, wfao, 
wit^ (lis wifie Catterina, watched ovef his in£uicy apd 
amply supplied the loss of hi| re§l parents. The afleo; 
tionate tplicitude of Catten^^ was gratefully remem- 
bered by Canova tbrougli li&; (N}^, in after vears, he 
proved his sens? pf former ))pneto, by t|ldng her, then 
a widow, to reside with hm ^ 4ome, a^^ Raying her 
that fespect and attention, which, |rhile it ^ia boiiqi^ (p 
his pwp icielings, pp¥|tri))ttted to t|ie )^piness and 
soothed the dectipp of his a^d r^l^^ve. 

The romantic pbaractpr of the scenery n^ Possagno, 
and the fine §ir ffom tlie inountains wMpH refreshed ^hP 
neighbouring country, Ipd to the choicp pf spveral spots 
in that viciiuty for the sumpf^pf residei^pps of the Vene- 
tian nobility. In t^ i^irs apd minoir pmbelUsbipents 
of these yillas> tl^p granqiathpr fff Cappva W^ occasion- 
ally employed, ai^d ne soon recommended himself among 
his patrons for bis 4Uig^^ce and ingenuity. Canpva 
often accompanipp Pa^ii^P on t)iese occasions, and exhi- 
bited, at a vpry early age, a dpcided taste for modelling, 
and for tbp more prnameptal parts of the work on whicn 
his grandfather was epgaged. The workshop became, 
even during iu^ncy, his place of amusement; and so 
little interest did he take in the sports usual to childhood, 
that he became known among the youthful villagers as 
the sullen Tonin*. Gentleness, rather than sullenness, 
however, was the characteristic of Canova, and it was 
« Tonin is th« prorincial diminutive of Antomo. 



more congenial to his te^aper to 8eek.recreatioi| apd in- 
struction iv^ the tales find ballads feftitefi to hiip by his 
grandmpth^f , thap tp jpin t)ip noisy circle of his young 
compeers. Accordingly he was ever to be found in the 
workshop of his grandfather, or hanging at the side and 
Ustenipg to tl^e legendary lore of his grandmother, who 
was sometimes sorely annoyed to find proofs of bis 
attachment left in the shape of tiny hand-marks im- 
pressed in modelling-clay on various parts of her dress. 

The grrandfather of Canova was a self-teught artist, 
and considering the situation in which he was placed, 
his talento appear to have been far from despicable. 
He possessed some knowledge of architecture; designed 
with neatness and facility; and showed considerable 
taste in the execution of ornamental works in stucco and 
even in marble. At nine years of age» Canova was 
taken as his regular assistant, and before that time he 
had shown marked indications of skill in the execution 
of models in clay, and in fashioning the larger fragments 
of marble-cuttings into omamento of various kinds. 
Two small shripes of Carrera marble, inlaid with 
coloured stones, are still preserved as specimens of his 
primitive labours in sculpture. Until lus twelfth year 
Canova appears to have laboured at his humble occupa- 
tion in complete obscurity, and to have made ose of his 
momente of Ipisure ip cultivating his taste for drawing* 
But the time had now arrived wbPII bis taints were to 
become known to those who werp bt^tter able tQ appreci- 
ate them, than the inhabitants pf his native vilWe. 

S|fff}^r Giovanni Falier» the proprietor of t^ villa 
d^A^^fq^ ]3^ar Possagno, was ope of t^sp Qoblp Vene- 
tians ^ fv^m we have already sppken. He sppi^ f few 
month^ ^ ^h year among the Alps, and was cpptent 
tP avail ^fmself of the assistancp pf Pasmo's sl^ill ii) the 
rppair of his villa, instead of sending for artists froip the 
capitalf T^o old man's gpod qualities had rendere4 him 
pn pspepial fayourite at the villa, and no seaspii passed 
irithput his being inyited |p spend a few days liiere, 
even when tbef« was ]ittle t^ require his labours* The 
young Canqva now accompif^jed his grandfather ou 
these visits, and soon l)pc|j[np a universal &vp|irite. 
*' Few indeed,'* says \\^ biogmher, ^* cpuld at {^ia time 
((pqw the i^p^iable ai)4 nnas^Uipag boy, without filing 
an affectipfi for hii^, (lis IjffJAt and gracefol Agip*c — 
^is finely ^rmed and expres^^vp couptenance, bpaming 
at once w||b sensibility and fiippi interested at first aight; 
while tl^e unaffected simplipi^ of his ad4l^8a| the 
modest 4i|pdence but not awkwani timidity of his man- 
npTi hit liipdness of heart, 93^ ingenuous dispoaition, 
could not ^1 to improve these favpurablp impfpsaions.*' 

Sigpor jp'alier thought he p^ceived in this y^^uthful 
artist, talents that prgfoiat 4 glUf ^ > ^^^ bpUpvipg that a 
(ittle encpuragement, and inore eitensivp tuition, ^^ould 
pljcit the§^, or* at all eventSi better qualify )iim tp ei^cel in 
^|p )}usi{^$is of his grandfiither, he gpnerpus|y tpp^ him 
fnader hii ^mpiediate protection, and sought X6 obtain for 
hin^ suitable tuition. An incidpnt occurred a^ this 
juncture frh^ch tended still further to impress t)ie patron 
pf panpvf with an idea of his talents, though it is not 
true, as generally related, that it was the means of his 
first intrqduction to the Falier tafniiy, 

At a fostival which was celebrated at the villa, and 
attended by a numerous assemblage of the Venetian 
npbility, tiia domestics had neglected tp prpvi4^ an orna- 
ment for the dessert, and did not discover their omission 
till the moment it was requirpd to be supplied* Terrified 
at the thought of their master's displeasure, they applied 
to Pasino, who happened to be in the house, accompanied 
by his grandson. The old man was unable to sug-gest 
any remedy, but our yoimg artist, seemg the necessity 
of the case, ordered some butter to be brought to bim, 
and from that material presently carved a lion of such 
admirable proportions, and effective appearance, that it 
excited the attention and applause of all the company. 
An inquiry was made; the whole affair oop&saed, 



IS410 



THB SATURDAY MAOAKiKE 



19 



and Tonm Canava declared the ooDiri^er of the oma* 
ment. Tonin was then called for, and was ushered into 
the brilliant assembly covered with blushes, and expect- 
ing a rebuke, instead of the warm approbation and kind 
Caresses he met with. 

It happened about this time that a Venetian sculptor 
of some eminence took up his abode in the neighbour- 
hood of I^ossagno. This was Giutitppe Bernard^ 
sumamed TorettOf who withdrew to this retirement for 
a time in order to complete various works of embellish- 
ment on which he was engaged. Bemardi having been 
employed bv the trailer family, was well known to them 
as a skilful artist, and was accounted worthy of the 
charge of instructing Canova; who was soon settled 
imder his tuition, and recommended to the especial 
notice of his new master by the benevolent senator 
Falier. ^mardi, or as he is mote generally called^ 
Toretto, quickly discovered that his pupil possessed no 
ordinary talents; and while paying every attention to his 
charge, united the affection and esteem of a friendy with 
the discipline of a tutor. 

Canova, from his early years to the latest period of his 
life, was remarkable for his unceasing industry : he did 
not trust to the native talent which )ie must have felt 
conscious of possessing, but applied himself earnestly 
and perseveringly to study. Many drawings and models 
are preserved by the Falier family, which exhibit his 
gradual improveitient under Tofetto. Two drawings in 
chalk, one representing a Venns, and the other a Bac- 
chus, are much valued^ as they were executed onhr a few 
days after their author had been placed with Toretto, 
and therefore show the degree of perfection which he 
had been able to attain under his grandfather's care. 
As the performances of a boy, not exceeding twelve years 
of agev these are said to discover considerable talent; 
being sketched ui a bold style and with great correctness 
of outline. 

The works, howeyer, which at this period most de-> 
lighted the friends of young Antonio, and which excited 
the utmost surprise m hi? master, were the models in 
clay of two angeis, executed during a short absence from 
Toretto, and without assistance from any similar figures.- 
These therefore, were the first really original perform- 
ances of our. artist. They were finished in secresy and 
haste, and then placed in a conspicuous situation in the 
workshop, against the ei^pected return of Toretto. Off 
bis arrfvalf Canova watched the direction of his master's 
eyes with mingled hope and fear: at length they rested 
on these new creations of the trembling ^y ; and stand- 
ing for a moment fixed in astonishment, he exclaimed^ 
JBcco un ia0or vern^Mnte maravigUoso! ^This is in 
truth ft mpst astonishing work I); and scarcely could he 
persuade himself that so perfect a work had been 
executed by his pupil; 

Caaovs appears to have made his first essays in the 
representation of the human form in marble, when. he 
had nearly attained his fourteenth year;. but these per- 
formances were of a diminutive sise, and merely under- 
taken as presents to his friends. Two o^ these statues, 
about a foot high, are still in the villa Falier. These 
attempts coofstitnted his amusement and recreation from 
the more mechanical labours of his profession. Thus 
diligently employed^ the time passed rapidly with our 
young artiit^ and through life he was accustomed to 
speak of this period as one of peculiar happmess. The 
family of his patron spent the winter in Venice; but the 
younger son^ betWeeA whom and Canova a sincere 
friendship existed, was left alt Pofisagao with a clergy- 
man who conducted his education. In the company of 
the young Falier, and in visiting his grandmother snd 
the good old Pasino, were spent every hotiday, and eyery 
interval not devoted to stnay. The outlines of his cha- 
racter, such aai with very little change it existed through 
life, were folly marked at this early period, and are thuti 
(described. *' Open^ sincere, ingenuoiisy he was himself 



unconscious of dissimtxlationt and could hardly conceiye 
deceit to exist in others. Full of vivacity in the socie^ 
of his friends, he delighted them, at once by the origi- 
nality of his observations, and by the native elegance 
of a delicate, though still untutored mind. Among 
strangers, from a natural timidity, which subsequent in- 
tercourse with mankind never entirely oyercamOi he was 
reserved, yet seldom failed to strike observers as pos- 
sessing a mind of no ordinary stamp, or to ^x, those im- 
pressions, even on a casual interview, which commoa 
minds never leave." 

Canova was shicerely anxious to excel in his profes* 
sion, though as yet there was no definite intention hat 
he should do more than follow the employment of hil 
grandfather. But a period was now at hand, which 
wa9 to decide his future prospects. 

Toretto, who had now completed the engagements 
which for a period of nearly three years had detained 
him in the neighbourhood of Possagno, determ ned oA 
fe-establishing his residence at Venice : in a few months 
after returning thither he died, through th^ pressure of 
infirmities rather than of old age. Toretio evinced a 
sincere regard for Canova, in proof of which he declared 
him his son by adoption, with permission to bear the 
name; a privilege which ^as never made use of, and 
which, except as a pleasing mark of apprebation,* was 
productive of no advantage. 

At the death of Toretto, Canova fotmd hhnself once 
more on the point of being established in the Workshop 
of Pasino, and to all appearance doomed to irksome toil, 
and io the obscurity of his natiye village. The Falier 
family were at that time absent from Asola^ and Canova 
had no other firiends capable of atdvancing his interests* 
But the dejection which naturally clouded his youAg and 
ardent mind at such a prospect, was suddenly changed 
into transports of joy, m consequence of ftn invitation 
from his benevolent patron to repair immediately to 
Venice, to consider the Falier palace as his home, and 
£o' trust to his friends there for everything which con- 
cerned his education and maintenance. 

The frontispiece which adorns our article represents 
a group in the monument of the Archduchess Maria 
Christina, wife of Prince Albert of Saxony. The mo- 
nument was executed in 1805, when Canova was at the 
height of his fame. It was justly considered as one of 
the finest conceptions of his mind, and, as such, will be 
particularly described in a future article. The group 
in question represents Benificence supporting an aged 
and infirm old man, and ascending the steps leading to 
the tomb. A funeral wreath unites this group with the 
rest of the procession. 



Thrre is not a more gloomy study than the histoiy of the 
concluding scenes of Ifoman greatness. Nearly all ages and 
sexes appeared to contend with each other in the rapidity 
of their descent down the steeps of vice. Under the empe- 
rors, tyranny and crime, in all their fla^tious and appalhog 
aspects ; every suspicion that could embitter existence, and 
loosen the bonds of society ; every hateful sentiment, and 
every baneful passion, had pervaded the unwieldy empire. 
The history oppresses our mind like a frightful oream : it 
is hard not to associate the notion of external ^loom with 
the moral ruin, and clothe the fiu» of nature with the dis- 
mal hue, the sullen stillness of a gathering storm ; we seem 
to behold the coming ^planetary plague,'* 

"When Jove 
Shall o*er some high-viced oity hang his poison 
In the si^k air. 

In the descriptions" of thefar gorgeous splendc^, a»^ thefer 
baleful revolutions, their joys appear like demoniac wild^ 
neas ; theur sobriety, the broodmgs of oonspiracy or ftar. 
To pursue inquiry through such ages would he useless; the 
manners of a people sinking into ruin from their o^vn cor- 
ruption, will never be app^ed to, either for evidence of 
what is natural, or authority far what id useful. — WomaifM 
BigkU and Dutisi. 



THE SATDHDAY MAGAZINE. 



CJanuahi 16, 



ON CHESS. 
Obigin and Antiqditt qf 



acqnauited irith chess, or at least with  game bearinff 
•ome doae affinity therewith. VvTy slight inquiry, 
-hoiraTer, is mtScient to show that the game represented 
oD tlte Egyptian moDuments is nothing more than a 
Bpecies of dnughts. The players are represented sitting 
on the ground, or on chairs, and the pieces, or men, 
being ranged in rank, at either end of the table, were 
probal.ly moved on a. cheqiiered board; but, the game 
beang Mways represented in profile, the exact appear- 
ancie, or the number of the squares, cannot be given. 

The pieces were all of the same size and form, tliough 
tlMy varied on differoit boards, some l>eing small, others 
laiga, with round summits: many were of a lighter and 
neater shape, like small nine-pins, — probably the most 
bshionable kind, since they were used in the palace of Kinc 
Bemeaes. Tliese last seem to have been about one inch 
and a half high, standing on a circular baae of half an iiich 
in diameter; and one in my posaes^n, wllich I broQsht 
from Thebes, of a nearly simifor taste, is one inch and a 
qiuBter in height, and litUe more than half an inch broad 
M the lower end. It is i^ hard wood, and was doubtless 
painted of some colour, like those occurring on the Egyptian 



They were all of equal size upon tlie same board, one 
set black, the other white or red, standing on oppoute ndee ; 
and each player, raising it with the finger and thumb, 
advanced tnis piece towards those of his op^nent; but 
thongti we aic unable to say if this was done m a direct or 
dia>wial line, there is reaaoa to believe tbey could not take 
baoKwards, as in the PoUsh game of draughts, the men 
being mixed together on the b^rd. 

It was an amnaement common in the houses of the 
lower classes, and in the mansions of the rich; and King 
Kemcses ia himself pourtrayed on the walls of lus palace 
at Thebes engaged in the game of ilranghts" 



cerptt 



We copy the following figure from Bubton's Ste 
rpta Iiieroglyphica. 



The modem Egyptians have a game of draughtt very 
ainular, in the appearance of the men, to that of their 
aflcestora, which they call ddmeh, and play much in the 

The most impartial authorities are strongly inclined to 
&TOur the assumption that chess was originally invented 
in India, and thence transmitted to the nations of 
Europe, by means of the Persians and Aralu. The 



imtfumenU <k its introduction to the western world are 
generally supposed to have been the crusaders; but u 
this supposition necessarily excludes aU knowledge of 
the game previous to the year 1100, it is liable to very 
formidable objecdoDs, 

An eastern historian iDformi na that the game wu 
known at Constantinople in the year of our Lord 802. 
At that period the Emperor Niccphorus began bis reign, 
and made a pointed allusion to the game of chess in 
an epistle to the Caliph Ilaronn al Raachid. " The 
queen," said he, speaking of Irene, the mother of Coo- 
itantine, "to whom I have succeeded, considered you as 
a rook, and herself as a pawn. That pusillanimoos 
female submitted therefore to pay to thee a tribute, the 
double of which she ought to have exacted from thyself." 
The game being thus familiar at Constantinople at that 
early period, it is extremely probable that the knowledge 
of it was speedily transmitted to other parts of Europe; 
and the intercourse maintained between the c 



Constantinople and France renders it extremely probable 
that the tatter kingdom was <me of the first, if not the very 
first,in Western Europe, to become acquainted with chess. 
It is singularly confirmative of this supposition that a set 
of ivory chess-men, of great antiquity, are still pre- 
served m the Cabinet of Antiquities, in the Bibliotli^ue 
du Koi, at Paris, and that m the history o! the Abbe; 
of ijt. Denis, where they were formerly deposited, there 
should be found the following notice: — "L'Empereur & 
Roy de France, Sainct Charlemagile, a donne au Tbre- 
sor de Sainct Dteys un jeu d'eschets, avec le tablier, te 
tout d'yvoire; iceui cachets hauts d'une pauline, fort 
estimez; le dit tablier et une partie des eschets out csl£ 
perdus par succession de temps, ct est bien vray sembkble 
qu'ils out eflt£ apportea de I'Orient, et sous lea groa 
eschets 11 y a des caract^res AraiKsques." The dresses 
and omamenta of the two principal figures in this set are 
declared by Sir F. Madden to be in strict keeping with 
the costume of the Greeks in the ninth century, so that, 
having examined the engravings given of the king and 
queen, he is persuaded that these chess-men really belong 
to the period assigned to them by tradition, and believes 
them to have been executed at Constantinople, by an 
Asiatic Greek, and sent as a present to Charlemagne, 
either by the Empress Irene, or by her successor ^ice- 
phorus. Embassies were frequently despatched by the 
rrankiidi monarch to the court of Constantinople, and 
that sort of friendly intercourse was maintained which 
increases the probability of the above supposition. The 
size and workmanship of the chess-men prove them to 
have been designed for the use of some noble personage, 
and from the decided style of Greek art visible in the 
figures, it is inferred that they came to Charlemagne 
from a sovereign of the Lower Empire, and were not 
the gift of the Moorish princes of Spain, or evcu from 
the Caliph Ilaroua al Raschid, whose costly gifts to the 
Emperor of the West are particularly described by 
German historians. 

The old French romances abound with references to 
the game of chess, in the time of Charlemagne. In one 
of these, called Guerin de MontgUxut, the whole story 
turns upon a game of chess, at which Charlemagne lost 
his kingdom to Guerin, tlie latter having proposed a 
game at which the stake waa to be the kingdom of France. 
Another romance, describing the arrest c^Dnke Richard 
of Normandy, says that he was playing at chess vith 
fvonoet, son of R^naut, and the officers came up to 
him, saying, — " Aryae up, Duke Rycliarde; forindispite 
of Charlemayne, that loveth you ao muche, ye shall be 
hanged now. ' " When Duke Rycharde saw that these 
sei^a^eauntee had him thus by tbe arm, and helde iu his 
hande a tady {liame) of ivery, where w> he would have 
g^ven a mate to Yonnet, he withdrew his arme, and gave 
to one of the sergeauntes such a stroke with it into the 
forehead that he made him tumble over and over at his 
feet; and then he took a rooke, (roe,') and smote another 



841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



ft 



v^ all upon his head, that he all to broat it to libe 

brayne." 

Instances may be multiplied to dispTore the common 
opinion that chess was not introduced into Europe until 
after the first crusade. We will quote one more exam- 
ple, and this is from the Epistles of Damiano, Cardinal 
Bishop of Ostia, who died in 1080. In a letter to 
Pope Alexander the Second, (1061-1073,) he mentions 
an incident which occurred between himself and a bishop 
of Florence. 

Whilst we were dwelling together, haTina^ arriTed in the 
•▼ening at a resting-place, I withdrew myself to the neigh- 
bouring cell of a priest ; but he remainea with a crowd^ of 
people m a lam house of entertainment.^ In the morning 
my servant in&rmed me that the bishop had been pkyinff 
at the s^me of chess ; which thing when I heard, it pierced 
to my neart like an arrow. At a convenient hour I sent 
for him, and said, in a tone of severe reproof, "The hand is 
stretched out ; tiie rod is ready for the back of the offender." 
''Let the fiinlt be proved," said he, "and penance shall not 
be reiuaed." "Was it well," rejoined I, "was it worthy of 
the character you bear, to sp^id the evening in the vanity 
of cheas-play, and defile the hands and tomrue which ought 
to be the mediators between man and the Deity? Are you 
not aware that, by the canonical law, bishops who are mcc- 
players are ordered to be suroendedl" He however, seeking 
an excuse from the name oi the same, and sheltering him- 
self under this shield, suggested that dice were one thm^and 
ehess another ; consequently that dice alone were forbidden 
by the canon, but chess tacitly allowed. To which I replied 
thus, — ^" Chess is not named in the text, but is compre- 
hended under the gener^ term of dice. Wherefore, smce 
dice are prohibited, and chess is not expressly mentioned, it 
follows without doubt that both kinds of play are included 
undei' one term, and equally condemned." To this the poor 
prelate could make no reply, and was ordered by his supe- 
rior, by way of penance fi>r his o£fence, to repeat the Psalter 
over thrice, and to waah the feet of, and give alms to, twelve 
poor persons. 



GmcuiisTAKCES are the rulers of the weak; thev are but 
the instruments of the wise. — Loveb. 



Tbe cultivation of the affections comes next to the develop- 
ment of the bodily senses ; or rather they may be said to 
begin together, so early does the infant heart receive im- 
pressions. — Mrs. Child. 

A oaNTLKMAN of Marseilles, named Remonsat, shortly before 
his death, desired that his numerous family might be 
assembled about his bc^l. He acknowledged the delight 
which his children had afforded him by their affection and 
attachment, and especially for the tender love which they 
bore to one another. " But," continued he, " I have a secret 
to disclose, which will remove one of vou from this circle. 
iM> lone as I had any hopes of living 1 kept it from you, 
bat I dure not violate your rights in the division ot the 
property which I leave you. One of you is only an 
adopted child — ^the child of the nurse at whose breast my 
own chUd died. Shall I name that child?" "No, no,^* 
said they with one accord, "let us all continue to be brothers 
and sisters." 

The Almighty, who gave the dog to be companion of our 
pleflsures and our toib, hath invested him with a nature 
noble and incapable of deceit. He forgets neither friend 
nor foe— remembers, and with accuracy, both benefit and 
iiy oiy. He hath a share of man's intelligence, but no share 
or man's fSalsehood. You may bribe a soldier to slay a man 
^ith his sword, or a witness to take life by fidse accusation, 
hat you cannot make a hound tear his bene&ctor. He is 
the friend of man, save when man justly incurs his enmity. 
— Waltcb Scott. 



RsjBCT the society of the vicious ; shun the agreeable infidel 
and the accomplished profligate. Lay it down as a fixed 
rule, that no brilliancy of connexion, no allurement of rank 
or feshion, no agreeableness, no wit or flattery, shall tempt 
von to associate with profligate or openlj^ irreligious men. 
Make this an absolute rule. It is impossible not to suffer 
by its neglect. If you do not fall into their vices, still your 
heart wiu be estranged fi^m the love of God. — Greslbt. 



HISTORY or THE SMALL-POX. 

U. 

Discovery of Vaccination — Its Progress on 
THE Continent — Re-vaccination. 

The same century which witnessed the introduction of < he 
practice of small-pox inoculation, also witnessed its utter 
abandonment ; for it was in the year 1 798 that Edward Jen- 
ner announced to the world his discovery of vaccination 
— ^the fruits of twenty years' experiment and deliber^icm. 
A short biographical sketch of this great and good man 
has appeared already in the pages of the Saturday 
Magazim/*; we have no intention of repeating what has 
already been said, and will therefore confine our notice 
to some particulars of his life which have relation to his 
discovery. Jenner was hardly dealt with by his cotem- 
poraries, and he adds another nanoe to the rather nume- 
rous list of wise men who have been more honoured in 
foreign countries than in their own. The posterity of 
entire Europe, nay, of the entire world, wiU yet, however, 
do him ample justice. If the philosophical and perse- 
vering pursuit of a laborious and intricate train 4)f 
inquiry; if a consummate sagacity which explained difli- 
culties with deamess, and anticipated wi& exactness 
conclusions which subsequent experience has verified; 
if the being actuated to this by the most philanthropic 
disinterestedness, which manifested itself in fervent 
thanksgiving to Almighty God for having rendered 
him an instrument of conferring good upon his fellow- 
men; if these qualities may d^Ienge the admiration 
and grratitude of the world, then has the diseoverer of 
vaccination an entire right to do so. We aay advisedly 
and emphatically diacoeerer, because it has been foolishly 
argued that Jenner was not the discoverer of the practice 
in the proper sense of the word — An exposure of the 
fallacy of this objection will at once bring us to the 
history of the subject. 

It has been observed, that in dificrcnt parts of the 
world, when large numbers of cows had been congregated 
together, an epidemic disease has appeared among them 
at irreg^ular and rare intervals. This disease manifests 
itself by the appearance of pustules, (pimples containing 
matter,) and especially on the udders of these animals. 
The disease, from the resemblance it bears to the small- 
pox in the human subject, has been called the cow'pojt; 
indeed, recent experiments have proved that it and 
small-pox are, as anticipated by Jenner, merely mild 
and malignant varieties of the same disease. It had long 
been observed that this disease from the cow was com- 
municable to the hands of the milkers, producing in them 
a mild and local eruption. Moreover, it had long been 
popularly observed, in the dairy counties, that persons 
who had contracted this disease from the cow, were in a 
remarkable manner exempt from attacks of pmall-pox. 
It is therefore true, in the limited acceptation of the 
term, that Jenner did not discover the protective power 
of vaccination. But the mere fact, which was passed by 
unheeded and unimproved by the other medical prac- 
titioners in the county where he resided, (Gloucester,) 
struck his observant mind even in his youth ; and, for 
^ears and years after, the developement of this fact, and 
its conversion into a means of practical utility, were the 
grand objects of his life« He devoted some years to the 
minute observance of the disease in the cows, and 
among the milkers, and satisfied himself of its true< 
nature, and of the means of distinguishing it from other 
spurious affections which resembled it. He made no 
secret of his investigations, and in 1 780 he visited Lon- 
don, with the hope of being able to excite the attention 
of some of the learned men of the metropolis. He there 
met with little or no encouragement, and was thrown 
upon his own intelligent perseverance; indeed, at a sub- 
sequent period, when he proposed presenting a memoir 
upon the subject to the Royal Society, he was cautioned 

• Sea Vol. VI. p. 60. 



I 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[January .6, 



not to riik losing Aid i^piitation he Ead acquired in that 
body on account of his researches in natural history. 
He persevered, and in 1 796 he vaccinated a child with 
some matter taken from the hands of a milker ; this child 
was afterwards inoculated for the small-pox, and re- 
sisted that disease successfully : he continued his experi- 
ments, and in 1798 announced his grand discovery to 
the ^orld, detailing twenty*three cases of its successful 
application. 

His state of mind, after the first success of his experi- 
ments, is thus depicted In his Journal. — He was in the 
habit of meditatmg much upon the subject among the 
meadows adjoining Berkeley Castle. 

While the vaccine discovery was prcMiressing, the jov I 
felt at the prospect before me of being the instrument de»- 
tined to take away from the world one of its greatest calami- 
ties, blended with the fond hope of enjoying independence 
and domestic peace and happiness, was often so excessive, 
that in pursuing my favourite subject among the meadows, 
I have sometimes round myself in a kind of reverie. It is 
pleasant to me to recollect that these reflections always 
ended in devout acknowledgments to thai Being from whom 
this and all other mezcies now. 

His announcement was received with so much Scepti- 
cism at first, that no subject could be obtained in London 
for some months, whereon to demonstrate the experi- 
ment. This having at last been satisfactorily accom- 
plished, the practice was soon followed with avidity alid 
precipitation. Mr Cline and other friends urged Jenner 
to settle in London, assuring him that a large fortune 
would await him. Attached to the charms of a rural life, 
and of the most limited desires in pdint of fortune, he re- 
fiised. But peace and quiet were no longer to be hid 
portion ; from this period all his energies were requir d, 
not only to defend vaccihation from the attacks of in- 
terested opponents, but, in a far greater degree, from the 
exaggerated and indiscriminate view of it taken by many 
of its supporters. Forgetting the laborious investiga- 
tions Jenner had gone through, and the rules he had laid 
down for the adoption of the practice, numbers, believing 
the operation to be much simpler than it is, by neglect- 
ing the requisite precautions, propagated an affection 
resembling, but less protective than, the true One. A 
calamitous event of this kind occurred at the Small-pox 
Hospital, where, by inadvertency, the true vaccine virus 
became contaminated with small-pox matter, and in this 
state was distributed over the country and abroad, giving 
rise to inefficient protection and much disappointment. 
Dr. Jenner was unceasing in endeavouring to correct these 
errors, and in spreading correct ideas upon the subject; 
but in many of his professional rivals he found much evil 
spirit and bstinacy that disheartened him, and he ob- 
tained much more efficient assistance from non-profes- 
sional persons, especially ladies, who were not too self- 
sufficient to listen to and follow the instructions of a 
man who had devoted his life to the inquiry. The re- 
peated blunders which occurred, and the conduct of some 
who wished to divert all the honour and emolument of 
the practice to themselves, at last obliged him to repair 
to the metropolis. 

Vaccination extended most rapidly, in that forming a 
remarkable contrast to the history of inoculation. As 
early as 1799 the Duke of York, seeing the great im- 
portance of the practice, caused its general adoption in 
• the army, and both he and his brother, our late king, 
were always warm patrons of the practice. By 1801 
6000 persons had been vaccinated in England, and most 
of them tested with the small-pox. 

It is remarkable that the practice was received with 
much more avidity, and much more abundantly employed 
on the Continent than in the country of its oirth. Dr. 
De Carro most extensively introduced it throughout 
Germany, and Dr. Sacco, in Italy, in eight years vacci- 
nated himself 600,000 patients, and by deputy 700,000 
others. Vaccination was introduced into Russia by the 



empresd-^mother, whd prefteiii«d Jenner with a handsome 
diamond, and wrote an excellent letter to him. The 
first child vaccinated was called Vaccinoff, and was pen- 
sioned for life. In Sweden and Denmark it was soon 
adopted, and rendered compulsory, with the happiest 
effect. Owing to our unfortunate differences with France, 
the vaccine matter was not introduced into that country 
until 1800, when it was adopted with enthusiasm. After 
the practice was introduced into Spain, Dr. Balmis 
obtained from the queen a commission to extend the 
blessing to all the Spanish colonies in Asia and America; 
and a well-appointed expedition^ having on board a hum* 
bef of young children, in order to keep up the supply of 
matter^ circumnavigated the globe, not foi* the purpose of 
effecting bloody conquests, or Introducing among unci- 
vilized nations corrupt Manners, but for diffusing the 
antidote to the greatest bane of those portions of the 
human race. . It was conveyed to the United States hi 
1 799, and thence gradiially to the native Indians. Jenner 
was most anxious to transmit the vims to the Fast, 
wherein the Small-pox raged with virulence ; but failure 
after failure occurred, until, by the inffcnuity of De 
Carro, it was enclosed in wa* balls, and conveyed to 
Bombay, by way of Constantinople, and quickly diffused 
over India. The Marquis of Wellesley exerted himself 
actively in its propagation^ and in removing the preju- 
dices which many of the Hindoos felt against it, from its 
originating with the cow. We will not pursue farther 
the detail of the progress of vaccination ; suffice it to 
say, that in little more than six years it became diffused 
over the habitable globe. 

The effects of this extensive diffusion were striking 
and satisfactory. In many countnes small-pox was infi« 
nitely diminished in frequency and mortality, and in 
others seemed to be exterminated. Ceylon resembled 
formerly a deserted place, after an epidemic of small- 
pox, and Dr. Christie states, that on tne most moderate 
calculation, the small-pox swept off one sixth of the 
population. After the introduction of the vaccine by 
the English, in 1800, the mortality from this source 
became trifling. In SwedeQ and Denmark, by 1805, it 
seemed entirely subdued. In the district of Anspach, 
in Bavaria, out of a population of 300,000, only six 
deaths from small-pox occurred in 1809, and from thence 
to 1818 only one; while in the contiguous state of Wur- 
temburgh, in which the precautions were more lax, the 
disease raged epidemically in 1814-17. In the epidemic 
at Berlin^ in 1823, only nve persons died, while in one 
prior to the introduction m vaccine, 1600 persons 
perished. 

In "concluding this article it may be desirable to pre- 
sent a slight sketch of the presetit state of taccination. 
For several years after its introduction it was believed to 
be a complete preventive of the small-pox, and Jenner 
fondly hoped that the disease would by its means become 
exterminated. Further experience has, however, shown 
that small-pox does occasionally occur after yaccrnationi 
and, although the disease so produced is usually ren- 
dered much milder, yet has death even sometimes re- 
sulted. The small-pox, too, which for the first ten or 
twelve years after the introduction of vaccination was 
much subdued, has of late years broken out again with 
violence, and although its ravages have been much less 
extensive than heretofore, and chiefly fallen upon the 
unprotected, yet has much alarm been thereby excited. 
It is true that where vaccination has least extended, the 
disease has raged most ; thus, Ireland has suflered from 
this cause less than England, and portions of this latter 
country, in which vaccination has been well attended to, 
have received an entire immunity. Sb, too, in the army 
and navy the prevalence of the disease has been very 
ihuch diminished. Still, in countries, as Sweden, Russia, 
Italy, Ceylon, in which vaccination had been mtfst effect- 
ually practised, and in which the small-pox for a While 
ceased to appear, that ditease hatf of late recun^ and 



J841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAQAZIKX. 



M 



attacked many of the vaadnated, and luofa cases are on 
the increase. 

The reason of, and remedy for, this diminiflhed pro- 
tective power of the vaccine virus have occupied much 
attention of late years, hoth at home and abroad. Its 
failure has been attributed by some to the deterioration 
arising from the matter having passed through so many 
individuals; but the experience of the Vaccine Board 
and Small-pox Hospital leads to the opinion that the 
same virus which has passed from person to person to 
the number of 1500 or 1600, still produces as active 
and as protective a disease as at first. This would seem 
to prevent the necessity of again having recourse to the 
cpw, wluch however has in some instances of late beep 
done with success. Another reason has been sought in 
the imperfect manner in which the proeess of vaccina- 
tion has often been conducted, and the spurious and 
only partially protective virus thus diffused. This, as 
anticipated by Jenner, has led to many evils, and it is 
even said, that no person vaccinated by him has been 
known thus to suffer; still its influence has been ex- 
aggerated, and the small-pox has imdoubtedly frequently 
occurred in persons who have been vaccinated with the 
greatest care and with the purest virus. The most 
generally entertained opinion upon the subject is, that 
the influence of vaccination is only temporary, and that 
it requires renewal. Many facts are in support of this 
opinion, and it has been most extensively acted upon on 
the Continent. It has been attempted, but with little 
success, to fix the exact period when the influence thus 
wears out, in order to determine when re-vaccination 
should be instituted. It would seem, however, that 
those who h^ve been vaccinated in infancy often re-ac- 
quire the susceptibility to small-pox as they approach the 
period of manhood, and especially when they change 
the climate to which they have been habituated. The 
proportion of those in whom vaccination thuq loses its 
influence is not known, but is still very inconsiderable, 
although on the increase. 

In epidemics the small-pox has been found to be re- 
sisted by the vaccinated u\ proportion as they were 
young, while they became more liable to it as they re- 
ceded &om the period when the operation was performed. 
So, too, re-vaccination (the i^uccess of which has been 
regarded as evidence of the susceptibility to small-pox 
being renewed,) has been found to succeed on the aault 
but not on the child. )n the Prussian army 47,000 
soldiers were re-vaccinated in 1837, and a i^U effect 
resulted in 24,000; not one of these took the small- 
pox, although it was extensively preyalent. In Wurtem- 
berg 44,24o w^re re-vaccinated, and only one became 
affected with the small-pox. In the Qrand Duchy of 
Baden, the small-pqx attacked niany who ha4 been yac- 
cinatedy a decree for universal re>va(M^ination ws^ issued, 
and the disease disappeared. Of 216 children re-vacci- 
nated at the Foundling Hospital, only eleven succeeded. 
At all events, ^he practice of re-vaccination should be 
put in force ; it is, at least, harmless, and either sup- 
plies the valuable information that the protective power 
of the origin^ vapcination is not worn put, or where this 
b the case, it renews it. 

Even with the qualification that experience has placed 
upon the degree of benefit to be derived from vaccina- 
tion, yet it continuesL one of the greatest boons ever pre- 
sented to the human race. It must be recollected that 
the small-pox itself sometimes occurs a second time, as 
it does also after inoculation ; and although, perhaps, it 
occurs more frequently after even properly performed 
vaccination, yet pe difference is not so great as supposed. 
But the important fact must be noticed, that while the mor- 
tality from the natural small-pox was about twenty-five in 
the hiindiedf thi^t where the disease occurs after vaccina- 
tion, it is hul pine. Of the advantages conferred by the 
practieey the diminished amount of mortality and in- 
creased dantion of humanlife testify : thus, while in 1780 



the annual mortality was' one in forty, m 1821 it was 
about one in fifty-eight. This is more striking still when 
applied to children, — ^the frequent victims heretofore of 
smaU-pox. Mr. Edwards states, that prior to the intro- 
duction of vaccination, gii^ty per cent, in Londop, and 
forty per cent, in all England died, while, during the 
twenty years ending with 1 830, these numbers have been 
reduced respectively to thirty and t^venty per cent. Jt 
is true that the whole improvement cannot be attributed 
to the diminution of small-pox, but H may be fairly 
stated, that a large portion of it paay, especially as that 
dreadful disease, even where it did not terminate fatally, 
laid the seeds fpr purny future maladies. It is a jninor, 
but yet an important consideration, that the amount ot 
personal disfigureifient, the loss of eye-sight, &c„ froni 
small-pox have immensely diminished. In Great Britain 
and Ireland, between 40,000 and 50,00Q persons were 
formerly supposed ^o perish of small-po?, a^d, in pror 
portion to the increase of population, that number, but 
for vaccination, would probably now amount to 80,000. 
In London, wherein the mortality- was usually 200Q or 
3000 annually, only 277 died in 1827. Through the 
neglect of v^cination, small-pox has prevailed severely 
in Great Britain this last year, the number of death? fof' 
six months amounting to 60PO. 

There is no probability that the disease will be eradi- 
cated, but its yi^Hlence may be diminished, and its 
sphere conty^cted- This will be best brought 'aboi^t by 
an extensive system of vaccination. No one who ha^ 
qot ex4pined into the subject can imagine the numbe;' 
of unprotected persons yet in this country. Vaccination, 
adopted ahnpst ttuiversally by the wealthy and educated 
cesses, has been opposed by the ignorance, carelessness^ 
indolence, and prejudices of their poorer brethren. I^ 
is not until the scourge arrives aniong them that it is 
discovered to how great a degree precautions i^ainst i^ 
have been neglected. Cpn^pnlsory vacpinatipn would h§ 
contrary to the genius and habits pf this cpuntry, but 
fapilities should be offered with unbounded liberahty ; and 
it is with that view that the Vaccination Qill was intror 
duced into parliament last session by Lord EUenborpugh, 
and is now part of the law of the land. By it gratuitous 
vaccination is everywhere offered to the poorer classes of 
the community; but, for its successful carrying put, the 
advice and persuasions of their more fortunate neigh- 
bours will be required, and will, we are persuaded, not 
be found wanting. Another provision of this bill is 
the punishinent, as a misdemeanour, of the inoculation for 
the smai}-pox. The persistence in this injurious prac- 
tipe has tended much to maintain the disease among us, 
i^pd its prohibitipn cannot hut be of the greatest service. 

J.C. 

▲N nilTATlON FBQM I. KXN6S XIX., U, 18. 

He passed, and hii^ terrors before him were sent. 
Beneath tbe strpng tempest^ the mountains were rent; 
It crumbled to pieces the rocks as it passed 
In its strength ; but Jehovah was not in the blast. 

By internal convulsions her terror expressed, 

The earth the approach of her Maker confeieed, 

In the power of the servant, the Master adored. 

For the might of the earthquake contained not the Lord. 

The fire of the Lord from his presence has gone. 
With the light of his coming the firmament shone. 
As the smoke of a furnace, the mountain became. 
But the Lord, but Jehovah was not in the flame. 

Where then was Thy presence ? The earth is all stUl, 
The elements hushed are subdued to Thy will. 
One still small voice only was heard in that hour. 
When thy prophet adored thee, and worshipped thy power. 

F. W. M. 

Nothing can overcome him that is not first overcome by his 
own isM^giqaUoxui and psssioas,— Bishop Pahuck. 



34 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[jANUiIRT 16, 1841. 



VELVET. 

VEbvpT^k on#.of thd«i08t bfiauttiulproduclions of the 
silk-loom. It haa been known in Europe for sercral 
centuries; but the secrets of its manufacture were for a 
long time confined to some of the chief cities of Italy. 
From this country the French learned the art, and suc- 
ceeded in improving it. The revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes ••brought numerous French refugees to England, 
about the year 1685, who settled in Spitalfields, and 
practised the art of weaving velvet. 

The reader is probably aware of the process of plain 
weaving with the common loom. A large number of 
threads, forming the lengthy or warp, of the intended 
cloth, are wound upon a cylindrical beam or roller, and 
pass from thence through a harness^ composed of move- 
able parts, called heddles. Each of these heddles re- 
ceives its portion oi the threads of the warp, and is 
alternately moved up and down, so that the threads of 
the warp are alternately raised and lowered. Each time 
the warp is opened by the separation of its alternate 
threads, a shuttle, containing the woqff or transverse 
thread, is thrown across it, and this thread, being driven 
into its place by a frame called a /ay, gradually forms 
by its repeated crossing the material to be woven. In 
the weaving of velvet, however, in addition to the warp 
and woof, there is a soft sha^ or pile, produced by 
inserting^ short pieces of silk-thread, doubled, under the 
woof, and these stand up in so large a number, and so 
dompactly, as to conceal the interlacings of the warp and 
woof which are seen in plain weaving. This silky pile 
imparts to velvet its peculiar softness to the touch, as 
well as beauty to the eye ; but the production of these 
results depends in great measure upon the uniform 
evenness of the pile. To insure this latter quality, it is 
necessary to have all the threads of the pile of equal 
length, which requires some skill, and much patient 
attention on the part of the weaver 

In weaving vdivet, the loom is first prepared as in the 
ordinary process of plain weaving: another set of threads 
is then prepared to go in the direction of the threads of 
the warp, which set . is kept distin^ from the warp by 
being stretched diagonally as shown in the figure, wliicn 




•BCTXON, BXaiBITXKO tBB STBOCTUXB OF VILVBT. 

represents the structure of velvet, and the plan adopted 
to combine the threads of the woof with the pile. At 
a a, 'are the threads of the warp, and the dots placed in 
the loops show the section of the woof threads : at 6 are 
the threads intended for the pile, and these threads 
meet those of the warp in the angle c. The weaver 
places in this angle a brass w^ire of the same length as 
the breadth of thp piece of woven stuff, so that fdl the 
pile threads are above the wire, and those of the warp 
below it. Bv the action of the treadles the alternate 
threads of tne warp are raised, the shuttle is thrown, 
and passes over the pile threads, and the alternate threads 
of the warp, which are depressed; the batten is then 
made to strike up against the woof, the interlacing of the 
warp and woof is effected, and a loop of the pile 
thread is formed over the wire as at da. It is neces- 
sary to pass the shuttle* thrice between each insertion of 
the wire: the thread for the first woof is coarser than 
that employed for the other two, and the action of the 
batten forces the wire into its proper position. The 
upper part of this wire has a groove running along it : 
by means, therefore, of a sharp-edged tool, called a 
trencUf passed along the groove, the loops dd are divided, 
the wire is liberated, the pile is formed as at ee, and 
thus the process of weaving velvet is completed. 

The weaver, however, finds it necessary to employ 



two wires, one of which remains in the texture, while 

the other is put ouj^: tbt i^as^ for tlui isj^hat llite.pile 
thread! mufivSt Wlibiralea «|)(f the vvbob piAws de- 
ranged; bttfos otte wire is seimred >y the thu <!■ of the 
woof, the pile threads are prevented from being set at 
liberty while the loops are being cut. As soon as the 
wire IS liberated from the first loop d, it is agiun inserted 
in the angle c; and when it has been secured aa befof^ 
the wire forming the second loop d in the figure, bat 
now the first loop, is cut out, and so on alternately. At 
one time the richest velvets were formed of thirty-eight 
loops to the inch, but this beautiful substance, velvet, 
has been so much in demand, and persons are willing to 
pay such high prices for the richest productions, that 
now as manyas fifty-five loops are woven into an inch 
of velvet. This circiunstance will enable the reader to 
form some idea of the extremely tedious process of 
velvet-weaving. The wire requires to be inserted and 
cut out again fifty-five times in the space of an inch, 
that is, a strip of velvet one inch broad, and whose 
length is equal to that of the breadth of the piece. And 
when we consider that the threads of the woof are of 
differept decrees of fineness, rendering two shuttles 
necessary; which roust be exchanged atlfroquent but un- 
equal intervals, we can form ah estimate of the incessant 
care and vigilance necessnry on the part of the w^eaver 
in conducting thele yarious operations. Much caution 
and dexterity^ Uks ate requir^ in cutting the loops: for 
however simple thp operation of pAssing a knife along a 
straight edge msnj appear, yet tins part of the process 
can only be ocqutiiea oy long practki^ ; for the smallest 
deviation from the straight line would injure the appear- 
ance, of the velvets The weaver being thus occupied in 
so many distinct operations in rapid succession, finds his 
work to increase very slowly, and he has been very in- 
dustrious if at the end of a long day*s work he has woven 
a yajrd of phin vel^t. 

k will be seen from what we have stated that the 
richness of velvet depends upon the number of threads 
forming the pile: the degrees of richness are accordingly 
indited in this way, and the manufacturer speaks of 
velvet of two, four, or six threads, according to the num- 
ber of the pile thnBads inserted. The striped velvet, with 
which waistcoats are sometimes made, is produced by 
leaving uncut a number of the pile loops. 

The peculiarly rich effect of velvet results from the 
absorption of the light which falls upon its surface, and 
hence too arises the sombre effect when much of this 
substance meets the eye. 

A ro<mi hung ronnd with black cloth or velvet, and a 
cofiin, on which is shed the light of wax-tapers, is an im- 
pressive spectacle. The light falling upon the cloth or 
velvet, is absorbed ; and the feeling of ffloom aanaes from the 
circumstance that nothing seems to renect light. Whereas, 
in a room, whose sides are covered with mirrors, reflecting 
the various lights ; where music and merry voices mingle In 
concert, how diffu'ent is the scene ! Even in tlie absence of 
human beings and especially happy and innocent ones, 
whose presence hieeses and enlivens almost every scene, the 
room yet appears cheerful, in conse<[uence of the abundance 
of refiected light, the absence or absorption of which, is, in 
general, attended by a gloomy profl|»ect. — ^Tohuksok's 
Students Manual of Jvatural Philosophy. 



* 9mS9lvrdap 



', ToL xtI!^ p. 9$. 



It should be impressed on the minds of persons in genend 
that those nlants which afford the most efficacious medicine 
in the hands of the skilful practitioner, are the most dan- 
gerous in those of the ignorant, and should therefore nev^r 
be used aa a domestic remedy. — Phillips. 

Endeavour yourself to do good to all men, and . nerer 
speak evil of them that be absent. — Sir Thomas Smith. 



• LONDON: 
JOHN WILLIAM PARKEK, WEST 8TBAKX>. 

PuliU*U» D IN WkkKLY N VMBVRf, Pmtrc OKK PSNItV« AH» IM UoWtBUX VjLKTm, 

pRlfTV BtXPVKCK 

-JSO&4 by ftn BookeoUvra h»U ^tf«rsT«lldcn ioiht Kiof4o«« 



£a4iir^d|l Mns^int, 



NS549. 



23^?, 1841. 



THE TOWN OF LYNN, NORFOLK. 



UINT nCHOLU CUPBI, LTNN. 



Ih iHe flontishinc town of Lvnn, Norfolk, stands the 
Ch^l of St. Nicbolu, (sud to be ttie lirgeit parochial 
elupel in the kingdom,) of the architcctonJ embellish' 
ntoiti of which we pre our readers a specimen n the 
»b»™ Tiew of the Hnithera porch. 

Lynn u sitnated chiefly on the east' m bank of the 
iTer Onw, abont twelve miles from the sea, where that 
iiTer, having ^adually widened its channel, becomes 
Vry eonriderable, and nearly equal to the Thames above 
Lndon Bridge. This important stream is sometimes 
aUed tlw Great Oute, to distin^ish it from the Letter 
Oiut, which ia one of ita tiibutaries. It is also called 

Vol, XYin. 



the 'Etutem Oust, to distingush it from the 2VorlJiern 
or Yorkshire river of that name. To this river tho 
town of Lynii owes its chief importance, for by it com- 
mercial intercourse is carried on with the interior of the 
country to a great extent, and a communication wiih 
the sea is formed. It would be interesting to trace the 
course of this river from the place of its rise on the 
borders of Northamptonshire and Oxfordshire, throiig'h 
the midland counlies, of which it traverses a coiisldori- 
ble part, to its junction viith the sea. Many nncient 
halls and noble edifices grace its banks and tliose of its 
tributary streams, and the fsnny and marshy districts 



26 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE, 



[ Januabt 23, 



through which it flows have also their own peculiar 
interest. But we are now to speak of the town of Lynn 
itself, and of the edifice we have selected for description. 

Lynn is situated on the eastern side of Marshland, 
and of the Great Level or Fen Country, and has been 
called the great metropolis of the Fens. It was an- 
ciently called Bishop's Lynn, having been imder . the 
jurisdiction, both temporal and spiritiml, of the Bishops 
of Norwich, who had a palace where Gaywood Hall 
now stands. The episcopal authority was surrendered 
in the reign of Henry the Eighth, and from that time 
the tQ,wn was called fcng's Lynn. During the contest 
between John and the barons, Lynn was remarkable for 
its constant adherence to the king, who remained there 
for some time, and at the prayer of the bishop made 
the town a free borough; he presented to the inhabitants 
a silver cup, weighing seventy-three ounces, richly gilt, 
and enamelled, which is still preserved by the corpora- 
tion. 

The trade of Lynn appears to have been considerable 
as far back as the time of Edward the Confessor, and at 
the beginning of the thirteenth century the town had 
risen to such a height of commercial importance, that 
the revenue paid to the crown was two-thirds of that 
arising from the trade of the port of London. The 
harbour is extensive, and can accommodate three hundred 
sail, but th  entrance is somewhat dangerous from the 
shifting of the sands which accumulate there, and the 
anchorage is rendered difficult by the nature of the soil 
and by the rapidity of the tide, which rises to the height 
of twenty feet. The situation of the port of Lvnn ren- 
ders it a place of much foreign and coasting trade : it im- 
ports wine from Spain and Portugal ; timber, deals, hemp, 
and tallow from the Baltic ; corn from the northern parts 
of Europe ; oil-cake from Holland ; and timber from 
America. It supplies the neighbouring districts with 
these imported articles, as well as with agricultural pro- 
duce, by means of its extensive coasting trade. White 
sand of a particular sort is sent to the glass manufacto- 
ries of Newcastle and Leith; and lai^ quantities of 
shrimps are conveyed from this coast to the iLondon mar- 
kets. Not less thui one hundred and fifty thousand chal- 
drons of coal are annually brought into this port, for the 
distribution of which in the neighbouring counties, the 
Ouse and its tributaries, with the various canals com- 
municating with them, afford great advantages. That 
the reader may Judge of the extent of traffic connected 
with this port, we may mention, that in the year 1626, 
sixty British and one hmidred and twenty foreign ships 
entered inwards from foreig^n parts, and, twenty-one Brit- 
ish, and one hundred and ten foreign vessels cleared out- 
wards. Several ships used to be fitted out annuallv for 
the Greenland whale fishery, but this branch of the ousi- 
ness has of late years greatly declined. Ship-building 
has been carried on at Lynn from an early period, but 
is not at present of very considerable note. 

King's Lynn comprises the parishes of All Saints, 
St Margaret's, and St. Edmund. Of ths churches of 
Lynn, St. Margaret's being undoubtedly the most im- 
portant edifice, first demands our attention. This church 
was founded about the close of the eleventh, or com- 
mencement of the twelfth century, by Herbert de Lo- 
zinga, bishop of Norwich. According to an old record, 
lie commenced building it at the request of the men of 
the town of Lynn, but the contributions proving in- 
adequate to the magnitude of the work, he had recourse 
to the unworthy expedient of offering indulgences, or 
pardon of crimes for forty (Ws, to all who would con- 
tribute to the undertaking. This plan proved eminently 
successful in raising money sufficient for the comple- 
tion of the edifice; "the work," says the historian of 
Lynn, "went on prosperously, was soon finished in a 
magnificent style, and the indulgence effected what an 
appeal to the most pious considerations would probably 
have failed to accomplish.'* 



The church, in its original state, was of larger dimen- 
sions, and more magnificent than at present; but it still 
presents a noble appearance. The western tower dis- 
play different styles of architecture, and the lower part 
of them is evidently very ancient The interior consists 
of a nave with aisles, a chancel, or choir, with aisles, and a 
transept. A tall spire once adorned one of the western 
towers, but this spire fell in 1741, and did much damage 
to the body of the church. Soon after that event, the 
lofty tower, or lanthom, which rose above the intersec- 
tion of the cross aisles, was taken down through fear of 
a mmilar misfortune. 

The chapel of ease to St, Margaret's is St. Nicholas, 
an elegant chapel, built upon the site of one much more 
ancient, and elaborately decorated in many of its parts. 
The south porch may be seen by our engraving to be 
covered with a variety of minute ornaments. The roof of 
the porch is handsomely groined with stone, and at the 
intersection of the ribs are some heads and figures in bold 
relief, but much obscured by whitening. The interior of 
the chapel of St. Nicholas consists of a lofty nave, with 
two side aisles : its architecture is thus described by the 
Rev. Edward Edwards. 

The distinguishing characters of this structure, as seen 
from within, are lightness, simplicity, and perfect uniformity 
of style, the tower alone being of earlier date than the rest 
of the &bric. The piUars are slender, having the horizontal 
section of the shaft nearly in the form of a truncated 
lozenge, relieved by shallow flutings, and raised about four 
feet from the ground by corresponding bases. They have 
no capitals, but small brackets, which support the inner 
ribs ot the arches. Opposite the arches, in the side aisles, 
are an equ^ number of windows: between the windows 
are niches or canopies. The east and west windows are 
very large, with a pleasing mixture of curved and rectilinear 
tmcery, and embattled ornaments upon the transoms. More 
ornament has been bestowed on the doors than on any other 
part of the buildine. The western door- way, in particular, 
IS divided by a muTlion, which supports an el^ant niche, 
and is adorned with other sculpture in stone. The small 
south door>way is in the same style, as is also the larger 
door- way towards the north. The &t>nt of the Scniih Porch 
is stm more elaborate. 

The original chapel is said by Parkin to have been 
founded by William Turbus, or De Turbe, bishop of 
Norwich, who was consecrated in 1 146, and died in 1 174. 
He gave it to the monks of the Priory of Norwich, but 
forbade the rights of baptism and marriage to be per- 
formed in it, in order to mark its dependency on the 
church of St. Margaret's. Attempts were made, at 
various times, to raise it to the dignity of a parochial 
church, but it has ever remained annexed to St. Marga- 
ret's as a chapel of ease. 

The edifice appears to have been rebuilt in its present 
state during the reign of Edward the Third, and until 
lately a figure closely resembling the usual portraits of 
that monarch, with three crowns on his sceptre, embel- 
lished the centre of the west window. The ornaments 
above the canopied niches at the west door are also said 
to appear very much like the crest of the same king, as 
represented on his first gold coin, the quarter florin. 

The churches of All Saints and of West Lynn have 
nothing remarkable in them to require description, and 
the church of North Lynn, or Lynn St. Edmund's, was 
swept away by an irruption of the tide, or by the inun- 
dation of fresh waters, caused by the addition of the 
Grant, the Ouse, and the Nene, to the other rivers which 
had their passage to the sea near this town. 

At a small distance from the town of Lynn stands a 
very singular little building, called the Chapel of Our 
Lady on the Mount. ^' If other buildings attract notice 
by uieir magnitude," says the author before qiioted, 
<Hhis deserves it from its peculiar smallness. It is so 
well proportioned, yet so extremely diminutive, that it 
seems like a beautiful model for a much larger edifice, 
or it may not improperly be denominated a cathedral for 
Lilliputians." The history of this chapel is involved in 



1841.] 



IHE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



37 



much obscurity. There are records extant of offerings 
made by devotees at the chapel of the Virgin Mary at 
the Mount, but the uses to which the building has been 
applied at various periods, subsequent to the date of 
these records, have been of a very opposite character. 
In 1638 we find it to have been used as a store-house for 
gunpowder: in 1643 it became a place of arms, and 
bad a regular bastion thrown up in front of it, and it is 
supposed that a cistern, visible until a few years since, 
in the lower apartment, was used as a reservoir for 
water* In 1665 it was used as a pest-house, and in 
1 783 the use of the chapel was granted to a teacher of 
Davigation for an observatory. 

There are still existing the remains of several other 
ecclesiastical edifices at Lynn. A tower, ninety feet 
high, remains of the monastery of the Grey or Fran- 
ciscan Friars, and serves as a landmark to vessels 
entering the harbour. Several other signs of former 
monastic institutions are also to be met with in the 
town. Lynn has four alms-houses, and many charitable 
institutions, an endowed grammar-school, national and 
Lancasterian schools, a mechanics' institution, a paro- 
chial and a subscription library. The population of the 
borough was, in 1831, 13,370. 



Thx name of a countnr may be obliterated from a map, the 
deeds of heroes be emiced from the annals of the world ; 
the pursuit of truth can only cease when man is no more : 
its light may be veiled by iterance, craft, or cupidity, but 
it cannot be extinguished. The cities that gave burth to the 
illustrious philosophers of old have long ceased to exist, yet 
the immoi-tal worKs of those sages that have escaped the 
ravages of time, are still as fresh and luxuriant as when 
their glorious oratory enchanted and captivated their disci- 
ples' ears. — Millinoem's OuriasUiea qf medical Experience, 



Great mental capacity alone, will never raise either indi- 
viduals or nations to ereatness or happiness. It is not mere 
mental power, but tne right aopHcation of it, that brings 
our species to perfection. We Know how possible it is ^r 
men to possess powerful abilities and extensive knowledge, 
and yet live a curse to their own country and to themselves. 
But what then, it may be said, is become of the boasted 
alliance between knowledge and virtue? The alliance 
is indeed strong, but it is not because there is a necessary 
connexion between the bare knowledge of facts and moral 
emotions. It is because, moral sensibility being a part of 
our nature, we cannot dwell long upon any subject^ nor 
investigate all its relations, without discerning in it some 
circumstances that touch on moral' nature, and awaken a 
sentiment. No one is destitute of all moral feeling, but 
some people have very little by nature, or it may have been 
destroyed by the strength and Indulgence of their passions ; 
and in such cases the most thorough knowledge of the facta 
that move others to admiration and love, will have no 
effect upon them. It is not the philosopher's laborious 
analyns, nor the fulness of his demonstration of the times 
and motions of the heavenly bodies, that have a moral 
effect. It is the perception of order and contrivance of 
beauty, and of infinity teeming with existence, which 
kindles within him feelings of admiration inherent in his 
nature. In like manner, when we study the sciences 
that relate to human life, it is not the logical proof, that 
certain means will produce certain results, that causes our 
emotions, but that sympathy with the good of mankind is 
implanted within us ; and pictures of their Rood, laid 
sti-onely befoi-e us, move that affection. The cold and the 
sordid w^ill not feel it, however perfectly they leain the 
s.-ience. 

The tendency of knowledge and study, therefore, cer- 
t^iinly is to promote right feeling and conduct in. general, 
by occupying tlie mind always about the true and the 
useful ; but a tendency is not a certainty, for it may be 
overruled by opposine circumstances; and the mass of 
mankind are made selfish and stolid by their gross habits of 
life. 



Physic, for the most party is nothing else but the subititute 
for exercise or temperance.— Addibov. 



GARDEN HERBS. 
CHAMOMILE. 

The generic name of this herb is Anthemii, derived, as 
ancient story tells us, from a virgin shepherdess, named 
AthemiSf who kept her fiock near Cuma, and not far 
from the cave where one of the Sibyls delivered her 
oracles. Athemis was frequently required to assist in 
the mystic ceremonies, and on one of these occasions 
was so overcome with terror that she died on the spot, 
and was immediately transformed into a plant bearing 
flowers, which received her name. 

This herb was also called Leucanthemis, or Ijeucan' 
themtUf from the whiteness of the double blossom; 
Eranthemon, because it flourished in the spring; and 
ChanuBmelon (from which the English name is derived), 
because its savour was said to resemble that of an apple. 

The genus of plants to which chamomile belongs is of 
the compound-flowered order. It is distinguished by 
having the scales that surround its flower-heads mem- 
branous at the border, like those of a chrysanthemum, 
from which genus it differs chiefly in the receptacle of 
the flowers being provided with little chaffy projections. 

The wild chamomile is found more efficacious for the 
purposes to which the herb is applied than the culti- 
vated sorts. It is frequent on many of the commons 
of England, and its finely cut leaves, scarcely elevating 
themselves above the level of the earth, and rich-looking 
flowers, of which the ray is white, but the disk deep 
yellow, have a pleasing effect amidst the scanty herbage 
of such situations. The whole plant is intensely bitter, 
especially the yellow flowers composing the disk. In 
the cultivated sort the white flowers of the ray almost 
supersede the yellow ones : the disk becomes extremely 
small, and thus the flowers possess the bitter principle 
in a less powerful degree. Besides the principle for 
which chamomile is chiefly celebrated, it has been found 
by chemists to contain tannin, camphor, and a volatile 
oil, of a beautiful blue colour. The description of this 
herb, given by Gerarde, is exceedingly accurate, and 
gives a better idea of it than anything we could say. 

The common cammomile hath many weak and feeble 
branches trailing upon the ground, taking hold of the top 
of the earth as it runneth, whereby it greatly increaseth. 
The leaves are very fine, and much jagged, and deeply cut, 
of a strong sweet smell; among which come forth the 
flowers like unto the field daisy, bordered about the edge 
with a pale of white leaves: the middle part is yellow, com- 
posed of such thrums close thrust together as is that of the 
iWsy. The root is very small, and thready. 

The may-weed (^Anthemis cotula) greatly resembles 
cLvnomile, but is erect of growth, of a branching habit, 
anc\ exceedingly disagreeable in its odour. 

l*He most ancient recommendation of chamomile, as a 
medical herb, was made by Asclepiades, the Bithynian, 
who was renowned for his great skill in physic, and 
lived to a very advanced age, without ever having expe- 
rienced a day s illness. Pliny tells us that he pledged 
himself to cease to act as a physician if he should be 
ever known to be sick. This celebrated man was en- 
treated by Mithridates, king of Pontus, to reside at his 
court, and was even visited by ambassadors on the part 
of the king, with offers of reward if he would comply 
with the request; but Asclepiades had determined to 
exercise his skill in Rome; and there accordingly he 
went, and became the founder of a sect in physic, which 
was called after his name. 

Recommended by such high authority, it is no wonder 
that the herb chamomile was highly esteemed among 
the Romans. An extract from the flowers and leaves 
was made into lozenges, for the relief of spasmodic 
disorders, as weU as for the jaundice, and liver com- 
plaints; the powder of the dried flowers was administered 
in intermitting fevers; the leaves were given as a 
dijgestive, emollient, and diuretic medicine; and the 
whole plant was pounded, as a remedy against the sting 

549—2 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE 



CJamdaht as, 



of nerpents and other reptiles. The plant was also used 
ia garlands, and even auring winter a plentiful supply 
was to be hod in ita dried stale for this purpose, as well 

Gerards quotes from Galen concerning the virtuea 
of chamomib, and adds his own testimony that it 
is of force to digest, skcken, and rarify; that it is a 
special help against wearisomeneas, caaeth and miti- 
gatctb ptuD, moUifieth and suppleth ; is good against the 
colic, and various other diseases, and is mixed with good 
success with all those things that are applied to mitigate 
pain; "and all these operations," saitn he, "are in our 
vulgar canunomile, as common experience teacheth, for 
it heateth moderately, and drieth Utile " 

Culpeper says — 

A deooction made of camomile, and drank, tsketii away 
all p^n* and stitches in the side ; the flowers of camomile, 
beaten, and mode up into bails with gil, drive away all 
sorts of aeoes, if the part grieved be anointed with ttiat 
oil, takenfrtun the flowers, from the crown of tho head to 
the sole of the foot, and afterwards laid to sweat in bed, 
and that he sweats well : this is Nechessor, an Egyptian's 
medlsine. It is profitable for all sorts of agues that come 
either of phlegm, or melancholy, or from an inSammation 
of the bowels ; and there is nothing more profitable for the 
sides and r^on of the livor and ^leen toon it. It com- 
fbrteth the aioews that be overstrained, mollifleth oil swel- 
lings: it moderately con^ortelh all parts that have need of 
warmth, and digesteth and disaolveth whatsoever hath need 
thereof by a wonderful speedy property. Sji'mp made of 
the juice of camomile, with the flowers, m white wine, is a 
remedy against the jaundice and dropey ; the juice of the 
iloweis is good to wash the head, and comfort both it and 
the brain: the oil made of the floweia of cnmomile is much 
used against nil hard swellings, pains or aches, shrinking of 
the sinews, cramps or peuns m the joints, or any other port 
of the body. Nicheasor aaith, the Egyptians dedicated it 
to the sun, because it cured tmea, and they were like 
enough to do it, for they are the arrantest apes in their 
religion I ever read of. 

In more modem times Dr. James speaks of chamo- 
mile as a plant of many virtues, being stomachic, hepatic, 
nervine, emollient, and carminative, and as affording a 
useful fomentation in cases of inSammation and tumour. 

In later medical books we find these uses of the herb 
slightly mentioned. The external use of it ia said to be 
little preferable to a simple fomentation with hot or 
warm water, and the powder of ciiamomile is scarcely 
used, on account of the inconvenient bulk of a roquisite 
dose. As a. domestic remedy, the well-known stomachic 
virtues of a cup of cold chamomile tea, taken fkating, are 
alluded to, and the extract of chamomile isrect^ized as 
a good simple hitter, and a useful vehicle for other tonics, 
when given in pilis. Forty-eight pounds of this extract 
are obtained from a hundred -weight of good flowers. 

We have mentioned this herb as producing an oil of 
a beautiful sky-blue colour. This colour is not perma- 
nent, and is only seen in the recently- distilled product. 
The oil of chamomile, which we obtain at the shops, is 
generally foreign, and haa become yellow, or brownish 
yellow, and grows viscid by age. Antispasmodic pro- 
perties have been attributed to this oil, and hence it is 
occasionally added to cathartic pills and powders. In 
Germany this oil rubbed up with powdered sugar is a 
favourite stomachic remedy, but a very unpalatable one. 

The cultivators of herbs in the vicinity of London 
produce the chief supply for the market. There are 
upwards of twenty varieties known to English gardeners, 
one-fourth of which are native plants. They differ 
considerably iu their qualities, but those are the most 
esteemed which strongly exhale their peculiar fragrancy 
when rubbed. The large double flowers are sometimes 
preferred, but, as wc liave already said, the bitter prin- 
ciple is most powerful in the disk, or ytdlow centre; and 
the single flowers arc therefore the best. 

Chamomile is a hardy perennial, and sprcada rapidly. 
It is easily propagated by parting the roots iu spring. 



CALCULATING MACHINES. 

2. The- ArrAKATDB of Saundekbon, Gbkitsh, 

AND Pascal. 

In our last article on this subject, we promised to 
describe an ingenious contrivance of Dr. Saunderson, for 
performing arithmetical processes in darkness. This 
remarkable individual, who woa bom in 1682, furnished 
an instructive example of the extent to which energy 
and perseverance may be made to overcome evils of a 
formidable and distressing nature. When only a year 
old, he lost his eyesight by an attack of small-pox ; and 
being thus deprived of the blessing of light while yet 
an infant, hia ignorance of its nature and properties was 
afterwards nearly as great as if he had been oom blind. 
Yet such was the natural strength and intelligence of 
hia mind, that he mastered all the usual branchea <€ 
school learning, and became eventually Professor of 
Mathematics in the Universitv of Cambridge, one of the 
most distinguished intellectual offices in England. 

In the course of his mathemati(»l duties, he had ta 
perform many elaborate calculations ; and still more was 
this necessary, before he could complete a treatise which, 
considering the circumstances under which it was pro- 
duced, must be ranked among the most singular works 
publiahed, viz., his Treatae on Algebra, in two large 
volumes. As the usual modes of writing with pen or pen- 
cil must obviously have been valueless to him, he hM to 
devise a method hy which he could feel the flgurea which 
he was arranging, or to establish a palpable arithmetic. 
We proceed to describe the plan which he adopted. 

His calculating table was a smooth thin board, about 
a foot square, raised on a small frame, so as to lie 
hollow. The board was marked with a great number of 
parallel lines, which were crossed at right angles br 
another series of parallel lines, by which each square 
inch of the surface of the board was divided into 100 
Uttle squares, each square subdivided into four. At every 
point of intersection a perforation was made, capable of 
receiving a pin; and he always kept at hand two boxes 
filled with pins of two different sixes, or at least having 
heads of two different aizea ; since it was by feeling; the 
heads of the pins that he was enabled to perfoim cal- 
culations. 



Flf. I 



Fi(.l 



21,186 
41,793 
M,3M 
03,968 
71,880 
7S,668 



The particular portion of a pin, or of two pins with 
regard to each other, indicated a particular figure; and 
for this purpose four little squares were appropriated to 
each figure, in the mauuer shown in fig. 1. A large pin 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



29 



was placed in the centre, for every figure or digit, except 
1, when its place was occupied by a small one. For the 
digits and 1, no pins surrounded the central one; but 
for all the digits from 2 to 9 inclusive, a small pin was 
placed near the central one, and the position of this 
second pin determined the digit indicated by it; when 
over, under, or at the side, of the central pin, the even 
numbers 2,4,6,8, were indicated; but when placed 
diagonally, the odd numbers 3, 5, 7, 9, were expressed. 
All this can be seen at a glance by inspecting fig. 1. 

The symbol for each dig^t being thus established, it 
is easy to conceive that every quantity, large or small, 
might be expressed by an assemblage of such symbols. 
This tablet was large enough to contain a great many such 
symbols ; for the space devoted to each was one-fifth of an 
inch square, a narrow vacant line separating it on every 
side fix)m adjacent symbols. The great pins which usually 
occupied the centres, and which were most frequently 
equidistant, were a guide to direct him in keeping the 
line, to ascertain the limits of every figure, and to pre- 
vent any ambiguity that might otherwise arise. As 
three of the vertical parallels were sufficient for a single 
digit, so three of the horizontal ones sufficed for a line 
of figures; and the next three for another line, and so on. 
If one symbolical arrangement on the right signified the 
unit's digit, that immediately adjoining it on the left was 
the ten's digit, and so on ; and when the figures or digits 
were thus expressed, it is obvious that any of the usual 
computations could be performed, in the same order as 
with pencil or pen, provided the sense of touch were 
sufficiently delicate to detect at once the relative positions 
of the pins, and whether the central one were large or 
small. In this respect the blind are often remarkably 
expert ; for having one medium with the external world 
quite shut out, their attention is directed with greater 
intensity to those which remain. Saunderson could 
place and displace the pins with incredible quickness and 
facility ; he could also break off in the middle of a cal- 
cuIatioQ, and resume it when he pleased, — ^recalling to 
mind the condition of the computation by merely draw- 
ing his fingers gently over the table. 

Fig. 2 represents a portion of a table which was left 
by Dr. Saunderson, and which he appears to have 
arranged for his own use. The surface of the tablet is 
seen to be divided into minute squares, of which one 
hundred areieontained in a square inch; and if we sepa- 
rate these lines into parcels of three in width and three 
in height, each parcel will be devoted to one symbol or 
figure. We then have eight lines of figures, one under 
another, each line containing five figures, or expressing 
tens of thousands. So long as the arrangement of 
the pins was undisturbed, it is obvious that such a table 
would be a permanent one, which could be referred to 
at any time, and it appears to have been for such pur- 
poses that this method was peculiarly valuable to Saun- 
derson. After Saunderson's death there were found 
four t blets, eleven inches long, five and a half broad, 
and half an inch thick, divided by lines in the manner 
before described, and perforated at the points of inter- 
section of the lines. On these tablets pins were arranged, 
so as to form small tables, having apparently a con- 
nexion with the sines, tangents, and secants of angles. 
He also made use of his tablets for geometrical dia- 
grams, by sticking pins in at certain points, and winding 
a piece of fine thread or silk from one pin to another: 
thr: pins indicated angles or comers, and the thread 
indicated right lines: a. rough approximation to curved 
lines could also be produced, by placing the pins very 
dose together. 

Such is a slight outline of the means by which 
the professor sought to effect that which might be 
thought almost unattainable by a bUnd man. It will be 
readily seen that many other kinds of palpable or tangi- 
ble arithmetic might be devised, beanng resemblance, 
i&ore or less, to that of Saunderson. We shall there- 



fore not enlarge on this subject, but shall proceed to 
speak of methods in which machinery is brought in aid 
of calculation. What we have hitherto described are 
merely instrumentSf but there have been other con- 
trivances deserving the name of machines^ by which 
calculation was sought to be fiacilitated. Several ma- 
chines of such a kind were contrived during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, but the only two of them 
which have been clearly described were that of Profes- 
sor Gersten, of which he himself gave a description in 
an early volume oi t\ie Philosophicnl Transactions, and 
that of Pascal, which Diderot described in the Enci/clo^ 
pidie Mithodique, 

It would be scarcely possible to give a detailed descrip- 
tion of the mechanism by which Uie process of compu- 
tation was performed in tnese machines: even engraved 
representations of the several parts, elucidative as they 
often are of written description, woidd in these instances 
be embarrassing to a general reader. We will therefore 
endeavour briefly to indicate the kind of movements 
which it is necessary to produce, instead of detailing the 
various positions of wheels, pinions, levers, screws, &c. 

If we notice the manner in which quantities are, as 
it were, buili up in the common system of numeration, 
we find each figrure is worth ten times as much as it • 
would be worth, if occupying a position one place to the 
right of it. Thus : 1 728. Although 8 is greater than 
2, yet the 2 in this position stands for a larger sum 
than the 8, because it occupies a position to the left of 
it. The quantities really expressed then by the fig^ures 

flOOO) 
7001 
nQ?t but in common practice we leave out 

the cyphers, and place the significant figures side by 
side, taking care to keep them in the proper position 
from the right hand. 

Now, if we have a wheel on whose axis is a pinion, 
with leaves or teeth, — -if these teeth work into another 
set of teeth on the periphery of another wheel, and if 
the teeth on the latter are just ten times as numerous as 
those on the pinion, the pinioned wheel will revolve just 
ten times as fast as the other*. Here we have a certain 
sort of analogy between the decimal notation and the 
working of the wheels : it takes ten imits to make up one 
figure or unit in the second place in common numera-* 
tion, and it requires ten revolutions of the pinioned 
wheel to impart one revolution to the other wheel. Now 
this analogy applies to the niiachines to which we 
allude. There are generally several dial-faces, each 
marked with figures from 1 to 10. These dial-faces 
are fixed upon wheels, the teeth of which work into 
the pinions of other wheels, on which are similarly 
divided faces or disks. Then, while one face indicates 
units, another will indicate tens, another hundreds, and 
so on. The mode in which these wheels are made avail- 
able in computations depends on the particular construc- 
tion of the machine ; but the principle to which we have 
just alluded is observable in all. In M. Grersten's instru- 
ment, for instance, if 32 were to be added to 59, two 
disks, or dial-faces, had to be turned by hand, until two 
index-points pointed to the two figures 5 and 9, one on 
each plate: tnen two slides were adjusted, until two 
indices pointed to the figures 3 and 2, one on each slide. 
Both the disks and both the glides were connected with 
toothed rack-work, which, interlocking one with another, 
turned another dial-plate in such a direction as to show 
91 on its face, which is the sum of 32 and 59. If, on 
the contrary, it were required to subtract 59 from 91, 
indices would be pointed to 9 and 1, on two separate 
disks, and to 5 and 9, on two separate slides, and the 
movement, in an opposite direction to the former, of 
these disks and slides, would turn another wheel, so as 

• See ao ntide on ttte "Wheel and Aale/ in Vols XV., p. 181, of thie 
work* 



3o 



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[Januabt 25, 



to show 32 on its face, tne difference between 59 and 91. 
The process of multiplication was effected by a kind of 
reiteration of additions, and that of division by a succes- 
flion of subtractions. 

In the machine constructed by Paacal, the arrange- 
ment of the parts was to facilitate performance of 
certain numerical calculations connected with the duties 
of an office held in Upper Normandy by Pascal's father. 
These calculations had reference to pecuniary matters, 
which were reckoned in the currency of France, as ex- 
isting at that time: the denier wheel had twelve teeth, 
representing the number of deniers in a soL The sol 
wheel had twcntv teeth, equal to the number of sols in 
a livre, above which each wheel had ten teeth, indicating 
10, 100, 1000, &c. livres. Each wheel in the series 
carried a cylindrical barrel, on which were engraved the 
ten arithmetical characters. The wheel which expressed 
each order of figures or units was so connected with 
the wheel which expressed a superior order, that when 
the former passed from 9 to 0, the latter was advanced 
one figure. 

Although this mechanism seems to have been adapted 
to one particular purpose, there is no evidence that it was 
ever brought into practical use. It was intended for the 
performance only of particular arithmetical operations, 
and it is doubtful whether even those could be performed 
by it so readily as by the pen of a ready computer. It 
is however important to remark that the principle of con- 
struction observable in those instruments was the fore- 
runner of a modern instrument, which not only eclipsed 
all the calculating instruments or machines before con- 
structed, but is deemed to be one of the most splendid 
pieces of mechanism that any age or country has pro- 
duced : we allude to Mr. Babbage's calculating machine. 
We shall give a brief account of this machine in our 
next paper, but wish, in the mean time, to draw attention 
to the fact, that it is by the action of one toothed wheel 
upon another, making it revolve slower or faster^ that 
the process of computation is conducted. 



THE SPRING FAIR AT PEST, 
Hungary. 

As I happened to be at Pest, durinc; the great Spring Fair, 
I was not only provided with ample materials for amuse- 
ment, but an opportunity of seeing the motley population 
of nartives and strangers, which are usually attracted on 
this occasion ; for though the Magyars, who have pven their 
name to Hungarv, are the greatest landed proprietors, and 
hold the reins oi* government, yet they are inferior in nu- 
merical force to the Sclavonians, (or "totoks,) the original 
inliabitants. These are divided into at least half a dozen 
separate tribes, each speaking a different patois ; and if to 
them we add the colonies of Gennans, Wallachians, Greeks, 
Armenians, French, Italians, Jews, and Gipsies, speaking 
their own languages, and retaining their national manners, 
customs, and religions, we may term Hungary a miniature 
picture of Europe. 

My first lounge was through the fair, which afforded as 
many groups for the painter as for the observer of life and 
manners ; the Babel-liKe confusion of tongues was endless, 
and the costume and appearance of the motley tribes could 
not have been equalled m variety by any other fair in Europe, 
or even by the most entertaining maskers that ever trod the 
Piazza San Marco, or the Corsoat Rome ;. because here each 
performed his natural character. The most prominent 
figures in the group were ever the proud Magyai-s, particu- 
Liffly those just arrived from the provinces. The dress of 
some of these noblemen was indeed singular, consisting of a 
tight sheep-skin coat, or mantle, the woollv side inwards ; 
while the other was gaudily embroidered all over with the 
gayest flowers of the parterre, in coloured silk, among 
which the tulip was ever the most prominent. Those 
whose wealth permitted it, were to be seen habited in their 
half-military, naif-civil costume; and you might in truth 
&ncy from their haughty demeanour, that you were behold- 
ing a feudal lord of our own country of the middle ages, as, 
mounted on their fiery steeds and armed with sword and 
pistols, they ^Edloped through the parting multitude, upon 



whom, when the slightest interraption oocuiied, they glanced 
with scorn and contempt. 

Among crowds of Jews, Turks, Greeks, ArmeniaiUy 
Tyrolians, Germans, Sclavonians, Italians, and Hungarian 
peasants, were groups of Gipsies, their black matted locks 
bhading their wild sun-burnt countenances, exhibiting their 
dancing-dogs, bears, and monkeys, or playing a lively 
time for the amusement of the surrounding multitude, these 
itinerants being the popular musicians of Hungary. In 
another part of the fair, mountebanks on elevated platforms 
were relating the exploits of the famous robber, Schrubar, 
in the gi*eat forest of Bakony ; or the ravages committed by 
the dreadful monster, half serpent, half flying dragon, that 
lately rose out of the Balaton lake, together with the most 
veritable history of the reappearance of the renowned 
Alerman, who had inhabited, for the last two years, his o^vn 
extensive domain, the Hansag marshes. All these astonish- 
ing marvels, besides hundi'eds of others, were listened to by 
the peasants, not only with attentive ears, but open mouths, 
and were ilhistrated oy paintings as large as life, depicting 
the extraordinary wonders, executed in a style which set 
all imitation at defiance. 

Bread, cakes, cheeses, vegetables, &c., were heaped on 
high in the streets, with the owners of each separate pile 
squatted in the midst. The savoury odour of frying 
sausages attracted some gourmands ; whilst others feasted 
on the lighter refireshments of pastry, which the accom- 
plished cuisiniers were preparing for their gratification. 

But the popular viana was evidently the cray-fish, which 
all ranks, however otherwise engaged, were incessan^y con- 
suming; nor did they in this manifest any deficiency in 
ffoHUy as the flavour of the little dainties was really excellent, 
and I have rarely sc-en them exceeded in size. Indeed, to 
thread the mazes of this great Hungarian fair, so as to obtain 
a view of its rarities, was an undertaking of no little diffi- 
culty, on account of the immense pyramids of wool, hides, 
tobacco, and other raw materials, wnich ever stood in the 
way ; and as these articles were most tempting baits to the 
cupidity of the Jewish traders^ they mi^t constantly be 
seen making use of all their cajoling eloquence, while pre- 
vailing upon the artless peasant to dispose of his w(u^ at 
a price tittle more than nominal. When, however, the 
case was reversed, and the gaudy merchandise of the Jew^ 
and Armenian traders induced the peasant to become a pur- 
chaser, the balance of trade was considerably gainst him. 

But, perhaps, of all the groups over whicn my eye wan- 
dered, none more strongly arrested my attention than the 
Saxon colonists : these were attired in the same costume in 
which their ancestors, some centuries gone by, hod emi- 
grated firom their father-land, their blue eyea and hea>y 
quiet coimtenances forming a striking contrast to the vivid 
glances of the half- Asiatic people around them. Nor were 
their moral traits less distmctly defined ; for the prudent 
Grerman, well knowing he was in the society of some of the 
most accomplished pickpockets on the Continent, wisely 
determined that they should not prey upon him, for he did 
not once remove his hand from his pocket, while his good 
woman never fiedled to keep watch behind, attended by her 
little ones, who, on the approach of the half- wild Gipsy, 
timidly covered their flaxen heads in the many folds of 
mama s cumbrous petticoat. 

I would above all things recommend every traveller who 
may visit Pest during the Spring Fair not to leave it with- 
out taking a mornings ramble through the town. lie will 
then see thousands of men, women, and children lying 
about the streets, beneath the piazzas, or in the numerous 
barks on the river, with no other covering save the canopy 
of heaven and their own sheep-skin mantles: he will also, 
still more to his surprise, behold them anointing their per- 
sons with lard, in order to protect themselves during the 
day from the effect of heat, and the bites of yermln and 
insects. — Spencer's JVavels in Circassia, S^, 



Benevolence, animated by Christian motives and directed 
to Christian ends, shall in no wise go unrewarded ; here, by 
the testimony of an approving conscience ; hereafter, by the 
benediction of our blessed Redeemer, and a brighter inherit- 
ance in His Father's house. — Bishop Majht. 

As it is in all cases necessary, on the one hand, to guard 
against the intrusion of empirics ; so, on the other, it is expe- 
dient that we attach not ourselves, by undue prejudice, to 
any system of things, merely on account of a long acquaint- 
ance with it. — Maund, 



IS41.1 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



ai 



THE MAGPIE, (Conms pica, Linn.) 

This shy and distrostful, but very beautiful bird, is 
generally found at no great distance from human dwell- 
ings. To judge of the beauty of the magpie we must 
not be contented with a view of the bird in confinement, 
for under such circumstances it is seen to great dis- 
advantage; the plumage is soon deprived of its brilliancy, 
and has a dull and dirty appearance; the bird loses much 
of its lively and restless character, and has not the 
same arch and animated expression of the eye, for 
which, in its natural state, it is so remarkable. At the 
same time it becomes familiar and attached to its owner 
when tamed, and its natural disposition to chatter, rather 
increases than diminishes; so that when taken young, it 
may be taught to pronounce words and even sentences, 
and will readily imitate any singular noise. 

The body of the magpie is rather short and round, 
but with the addition of tbe tail measures about eighteen 
inches in length : the stretch of the wings is nearly two 
feet; the weight of the bird nine ounces. The wings 
are not calculated for long flights, but are better adapted 
for ascending and descending. They are broad and 
rounded, and the flight of the magpie appears to be 
accomplished with some difficulty. To a superficial 
observer, the colour of the plnmage of this bird appears 
simply black and white. On a more careful inspec- 
tion, however, it will be found that various beautiful 
hues and reflections, green, blue, purple, violet, &c., 
adorn the wing-feathers and tail, enlivenmg the sombre 
plumage, and giving it a rich and glossy appearance. 
Tbe white on the breast, belly, and inside of the wing- 
feathers, is remarkably pure. Occasional varieties in 
colour have sometimes been observed, as in the case of 
the allied species ; the more remarkable are pure white 
plumage, or white streaked with black, and also pale buff, 
or cream colour. The female magpie differs from the 
male in being smaller, and having a shorter tail. 

The magpie is common in England, France, Germany, 
and most other countries of Europe. It has been seen 
in China, in Kamschatka, in Hudson's Bay, and on the 
banks of the Missisippi. The fact of its being thus 
widely dispersed, proclaims the hardy nature of the bird, 
and the capability which it has of accommodating itself to 
varieties of climate. In whatever part of the world it is 
found, the character of the bird is the same. Like the 
jackdaw, it is renowned for its prying, pilfering disposi- 
tion, and is the subject of many an anecdote illustrative 
of thievish propensities. It is also regarded as a bird of 
good or evil omen, according to the situation or circum- 
stances in which it is observed. The tree in which it 
nestles is seldom uprooted by the most violent gale of 
^ind, and this circumstance, which arises from the care- 
M choice made by the bird of a thick-branched and 
firmly-rooted tree, is looked upon as a sign of the mys- 
terious influence of the nu^ie. The house on which a 
magpie perches is said to be safe from falling, and this 
superstition is evidently -derived from the former one, 
though without the same common-sense reason being 
applicable to it. We have read of a man who was 
accustomed to go to a particular spring or well for water 
erery day, and was always followed thither by a tame 
magpie ; but it happened that one sultry day in summer, 
the fountain was almost dried up, and yielded a very 
scanty supply. The ignorant and superstitious water- 
carrier, having observed that on this occasion the mag- 
pie had hopped on before him instead of following in his 
asiul manner, and that the bird had perched himself near 
the well, and was looking down into it, and then looking 
up at his master in a very sagacious manner, immediately 
conceived the idea that it was through the agency of the 
magpie, that the water had disappeared, and that the 
conning bird was enjoying his trouble and annoyance. 
Possessed with this idea, he pelted poor Madge with 
stones, and though he contrived to elude his vengeance 



at the time, yet he never forgave the bird for this sup- 
posed injury, or ceased to regard him with superstitious 
fear and dislike. It is common to hear the appearance 
of magpies spoken of as lucky or unlucky, according as 
their number is an even or an odd one. If they perch on 
a beast, it is a sign of evil to the animal, and for this, 
there is occasionally some reason. Like the raven and 
the crow, the magpie is very discerning, and quickly 
ascertains the symptoms of disease and death. Before 
the fact may have been observed by man, these birds 
are able to discover signs of decay, and watchfully notice 
the sickly among the flock. Lambs, and even sheep, arc 
attacked by them, when in a weakly state ; and they in- 
variably commence the assault by aiming at the eyes of 
the animal. But their prey more frequently consists of 
smaller animals, such as young birds, field-mice, leverets, 
young poultry, fish, insects, &c. Fruit of all descriptions 
appears agreeable to them, and when nothing else is 
within reach, they content themselves with grain. They 
are loud and clamorous birds, and it is said that they 
frequently deprive the fowler of his sport, by givmg the 
alarm to all the other birds with their noisy chatter ings« 
Though not a bird adapted for high and powerful flights, 
the magpie is of so restless a character, that it seldom 
remains still for any length of time, but flies from tree 
to tree, or skips from one branch to another, shaking its 
long tail almost incessantly. 

No birds display greater industry in the formation of 
their nests than magpies : they generally select a tree 
with thick branches, as being best calculated for the pro* 
tection and concealment of their large nest; and they 
are often found to choose one which is in the immediate 
vicinity of a farm-house. The situation chosen by these 
birds, however, is not always of this description. The 
tall tangled hedge-row, the fir-grove, or the old well- 
wooded inclosure, are spoken of by Mr. Knapp in the 
Journal of a NaturaUsty as being the places in which it 
delights to build : a lofty elm or thorn-bush or apple-tree, 
at some distance from dwellings, are mentioned in the Or- 
nithologia as the places most likely to contain its solitary 
nest: other writers describe the magpie's nesting-place 
as being the tall hedge, or thick tree, near the cottage, 
and Rennie tells us from his own observations, that *' in 
the north, almost every farm has its denizen pair of 
magpies, which incubate in their hereditary nest on the 
old ash tree, year after year, precisely like an hereditary 
colony of rooks." In the business of building their nest, 
the male and female both take their part. They begin 
this work together in February, placing the nest in such 
a position that it shall be completely enveloped and sur- 
rounded with branches, and, when the leaves appear, 
quite concealed from sight. In this respect they differ 
greatly from the rooks, who seem at no pains to hide 
their progeny, but place their nests in situations where 
they can be plainly observed from beneath, and where 
the bickerings constantly going on among the different 
members of the community in the vicinity of the nests, 
often afford amusement to those who watch their pro- 
ceedings. 

The magpie's nest is very large; for although the 
diameter of the mside of the nest does not exceed six 
inches, it is upwards of two feet on the outside. It is 
made of small branches, interlaced together, and having 
at the bottom a matting of soft flexible roots. The 
twigs are continued over the top of the nest as a sort of 
dome, but this dome seems rather a protection from 
enemies, than a defence against the weather. The only 
opening is at the side, and the distance from this opening 
to the central hollow of the nest where the eggs are de- 
posited is considerable, so that the female in the process 
of incubation has room for her long tail. The order hi 
which the construction of the nest is carried on, is said 
to be this: first the hawthorn branches which are to 
compose the body of the nest are arranged in their 
proper order ; then a lining of fibrous roots and long 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[Jahuaht 23, 164. 



grass is kid in, and afterwards a smooth plAstering of 
mud and clay. After the nest is so far completed, and 
mode firm and commodious, the canopy which is to de- 
fend it above, is added. The sharpest thorns are chosen 
for this purpose and woven tog'ether in such a manner 
as to deny all entrance except at the door. So carefully 
and patieutly do these birds proTide all that is in their 
power for the safety and well-being of their young I 

The Reverend John Hall gives a remarkable instance 
of a low situation chosen by magpies for the construction 
of thdr neat. 

On the road between Huntly and Portsoy, he says, I 
obserred two magpiea hopping ronnd a gooseberry bush, in 
a smaU garden, near a poor-lookine house, in » peculiar 
manner, and flying oat and into the bush. I stepped saide 
to see what they were doing, and found, from the poor man 
■nd his wife, that these magpiea, several succeeding years, 
had built their nest and brought up tlieir young in this 
bush, and that foxes, cats, hawks, &c., might not interrupt 
them, tliey had barricaded, not only their nest, bat had en- 
circled the bush with briars and thorns, in a formidable 
manner, nay, so completely, that it would have cost a hx, 
cunning as he ia, aame days' labonr to get into the nest. 
The maieriala in the inside of the neat were soft and warm, 
bat' all on the outside so rou^h, so strong, and firmly en- 
twined with the bush, that without a hedge-knife, hatch- 
bill, or something of the kind, even a man could not, with- 
out much pain and trouble, get at theii young, for fiom the 
outside to the insidaof the nest extended as long as my arm. 
The magpies had been faithfiil to one another for several 
■anuners, and drove off their young aa well as every one 
else that attempted to take poBaesuon of the nest. This 
they carefiilly repaired' and fortified in the ^ring, with 
Strong rough prickly sticks, that they sometimes brought 
to it by uniting their force, one. at each end, pulling it 
along when they were not able to'lift it from the ground. 

Tbfi indastrioas and sagacious Jiabits of the magpie are 
well illustrated by the above aiiecdote, and we may hire 
observe^ that if the birds be'disturbed during the building 
of a nest, or if the nest be destroyed' immediately on its 
completion, they do not enter upon the construction of 
anollier, (which, indeed, would be a wearisome under- 
taking, if we are to betiere the account which says, that 
they are occupied two months in forming their neat,) 
but easily content themselves with an old nest of. their 
own species, or the vacated nest of a crow, which they 
repair, and render available for their purpose. 

Magpies have in general only one brood in the year, 
but, if their young.be destroyed, they sometimes have a 
second, or even a third brood. The number of eggs is 
usually six or seven, of ayeUowiah-white colour, spotted 
with brown and grey. The male and female sit alter- 
nately for about fourteen days, when the young ones are 
hatched, and become the objects of their parents' unceasing 
care and attention for a considerable time. When firat 
hatched they are blind, and continue so for several days. 
In supplying the wants of their young, magpies are very 
much addicted to plundering the nests of other birds of 
their eggi. 

Advantage is sometimea taken of this circumstance to 
worry the poor magpie, espeually when her nest is near 
a dwelling, and bos attracted tAe attention of school- 
boys. An egg is emptied of its contents by blowing, 
and bird-lime is introduced to fill the vacancy; the ef^ 
ia then laid in some place where it is sure to attract the 
notice of the bird ; and poor " Madge" soon approaches, 
cantionsly bopping in various directions to see that all is 
safe. She then advances to the egg, and dashes her bill 
into it, in her usual manner, to convey it away to her 
brood; but as the shell ia already broken, the bill pene- 
trates very deep, and the shell ia forced up towards the 
eyes, where adhering, by reason of the bird-lime, it 
forms a complete blind, and prevents the bird from 
seeing her way. She takes flight however, and knocks 
herself against the twigs and branches of trees, in a 
ridiculoua manner, before she can disengage herself from 
the egg-shell. This foolish sport must h« the occasion 



of much pain and inconvenience to the poor bird, aa well 
as to her young, who are deprived of her care while she 
is labouring with her annoyance. 

The connctia which magpiea appear to hold together, 
at particular seasons, commonly called "fotkmotes," are 
associated in the minds of many with superstitious and 
ominous notions. The innocent objects of terror, while 
meeting tt^ther most probably for the purpose of 
choosing mates, ara supposed to be conspiring and club- 
bing their wits, for the weal or woe of the inhabitants of 
the neighbouring village. If they are of an even num- 
ber and carry on tbeir cheerful, noisy chatter, it is 
supposed to betoken good to old and young — butif there 
is an odd magpie perched apart from the rest, silent, 
and disconsolate, the reverse of this is apprehendied, and 
mischievous consequenoes are inevitably expected. The 
sudden silence which sometimes pervaxies a folkmote, or 
assemblage of magpies, is owing to their perc^tion of 
the approach of a hawk or falcon. All their lively hop- 
pings and chatteringa are immediately at an end, and 
they remain motionless on the ground, as if all their 
faculties were absorbed in apprehension of their danger. 
When bushes are im'mediately at hand they creep into 
them for shelter from their enemy; and where large 
hawks are frequently seen, it has been observed tliat the 
magpies uniformly select some spot for their place at 
rendesvous, which is closely surrounded by broom, or 
furze, or low shrubs of fonte description, to wbiob they 
may betake themselves. 



CniDtTUTy b afar greater source of error tlian superstition, 
for the latter must Be always more limited in it« influence, 
and can exist only, to any considerable extent, iu the moat 
ignorant portions of society, whereas the former dlEFosM 
itaelf through the minds of all classes, by which rank 
and dignity are degraded, its valuable labours confoundMl 
with the rain pretensions of empiricism, and iniorance is 
enabled to claim for itself the prescriptive right of delivering 
oracles, amidst all the triumphs of truth and the proereas 
of philosophy. Credulity tas been justly defined, fa/i^ 
tnUoitf muim, while seeptidsm, its opposite, is rwuim wUh- 
out hdi^, and the natuial and invuiable consequence of 
credulity ; for it may bo observed that men who believe 
wilhont reason are succeeded by others whom no rcasoniog 



LONDON: 
JOHN WILLIAM PARKEK, WEST STRAIfT>. 



N? 550. JANUABY 



30^.?, 1841. {ok^^. 



TURKEY AND THE TURKISH PROVINCE& 



THB SVUOT 1 



THE SULIOT HILLS, 
Albania. 

Is « former article we gave a brief illuitrafion of 
the wretched lystem which prer^ls in the govcrnmeDt 
of TurVey, in regard to the appointment and subse- 
quent conduct of the Pachas ; and fbllowed up our 
resarka by.ka account of the. Pachalic of Joaiuuna, io 
it* tc^>ographical and commercial features. Ai it is our 
intentioQ, to present, from time to time, nich sketches 
as wiH illastrate Turkey and the Turks in their most 
inl«rektiDg point of view, we will avail ourselves of the 

E resent 'opportunity to give an account of the Suliolt, a 
rare but persecuted bwid of men, who, living under the 
Pachi of Joannina, may bedeemed subjects of the Turk- 
ish EmiHre. A description of the small disLriut known 
as the Snliot HiUa will be neceasary to a due apprecia- 
tion of the history of the tribe. 

At a distance of a few miles south-west from the city 
of Joannina are the Suliot Hills, among which four 
Tillages, named Suli, Avarico, Ki:tffa, and Samoniva,are 
.he chic-f seats of this tribe; but as circumstances, which 
wc eball. detail in the nest paper, have made sad changes 
in the condition of the Suliota; we will describe their 
home and tbeir costons as ther existed a few years ago. 
The four vjllagea were situated on a plain elevated 2000 

Vol.. xvm. 



feet above the neighbouring river, Acheron ; frith a per- 
pendicular cliff descending to the ttvgt on one side, and a 
chain of lofty mountains on the other. From the banks 
of the river, a -winding and intricate path led up to tho 
villages ; and this path was st intervals commanded by 
strong forts, so that the Suliot plain formed one of tlw 
most inaccessible spots in Europe. Here the Buliota 
^elt, and cherishea that love of liberty which so often 
distinguishes mountaineers. Among these men wero 
seen some of the finest of human forms; and their 
continual exposure to sun and wind had given to thmr 
complexion a swarthy tint, not unsuited to our idea* of 
a brave and vigorous people. When they left thdr 
vills^B on warlike expeditions, they took no tents with 
them : they slept on their own capotes, or cloaks, and had 
the sky for a canopy. The greater part of them were 
almost bom soldiers, for they wore arms from a very 
eariy age ; and ^eir bravery was so well known and ap- 
preoated, that a real Suliot was regarded by his nrigh- 
bonrs in somewhat the same light as the ancient Spartan* 
were by the rest of the Greeks. 

The Suliots were Christians belonging to the Gredt 
chureh, the same fiiith to which the Russians belong ; 
and this drcumstance has led to much correspondence 
and treaty between the Greeks and the Russians, during 
the stnunrle of the former to shake off the Turkish 
550 



S4 



THE BATURDAY magazine. 



[Jakuaat SQi 



yoke. The Suliots, when their little republic was still 
entire, had do written laws; but nmny eustotns, handed 
down from time immemorial, served to regulate their 
conduct. T)ie date of their establi^hmenjb among these 
hills is placed by fradition in- the 17th century, when 
some goat and swine herds, having led their animals to 
feed upon the heights of Kiaffa, were struck with the 
eli^^ibility of the situation, and occupied it with their 
families. It is, however, the opinion of Mr. Hughes, 
that the mountains afforded refuge to some of those 
Albanians who fled from Turkish despotism after the 
death of Scanderbeg. 

By whatever mode the district became peopled, the 
villages themselves were exceedingly simple: the houses 
were low, and rudely built, and no attempts were any- 
where made at display. The life which the men led, 
when not actually engaged at war, was simple and hardy; 
and to aid in forming the character of the men to 
bravery and fearlessness, the women had precedence at 
the wells and fountains according to the character which 
their husbands bore for bravery; and if a woman 
happened to be married to a man of a weak and 
cowardly mind, she was obliged to stand at the well's 
side till the rest of the women had filled their pitchers. 
The effect of this custom was, that the men could more 
easily brave the enemy than the reproaches which were 
poured on them by their wives, if the latter had been sub- 
ject to this ignominious treatment. The females were 
held in the highest esteem ; and a curious law is men- 
tioned bv travellers, that no man was allowed, under 
the severest penalties, to interfere in the women's 
quarrels, lest by accident a woman mighl be killed ; and 
that whoever committed murder on a woman was put to 
death with the execrations of his fellow men, not only 
as a murderer, but as a patricide. 

Although the chief seat of this tribe was in the four 
villages which we have mentioned, vet there were nu- 
merous others gradually incorporated with one another. 
A century or two back, the tribe had attained sufficient 
importance to draw the attention of the neighbouring 
chiefs, and to carry on war with the Beys of l^ramithia 
and Margariti, and with the Pachas of Joannina and 
Arta. The almost inaccessible and impregnable nature 
of their position effectually shielded them from attack 
from without, while the boldness and bravery of the 
mountaineers enabled them to take numerous posses- 
sions from the hands of their opponents, and gradually 
to extend thpir little republic. At one time it consisted 
of sixty-six villages, containing several thousand inha- 
bitants. These inhabitants were divided into sections 
called^roff, each fara containing a certain number of 
families, commanded by a chief or captain :^-thus, just 
previous to Ali Pacha's war with the Suliots, the village 
of Siili, (from which they derived their appellation,) 
contained nineteen faras, and four hui^dred and twenty- 
five families.: Kiaffa, four faras, and sixty families; Ava- 
rico, three faras, and fifty -five families; and Samoniva^ 
three faras, and thirty families. The sixty-six villages 
of which we have spoken were considered as tributary 
or conquered possessions, and the inhabitants were not 
admitted to the righto of citizenship. Of the subordi- 
nation in which they were held by the Suliots of the 
four federal villages, an example was given in the follow- 
ing incident: — on one occasion, the inhabitanto of the 
four towns having increased beyond the means of sub- 
sistence, a certain number of them was quartered or colo- 
nized in seven of the tributary villages, where they were 
exempted from paying either forced contributions, or 
the regular tribute which the other inhabitants of those 
villages paid, and which amounted to one tenth of all 
produce. 

In the few and simple judicial matters which had to 
engage their attention, the judge was either the captain 
of the fara in which die matter in dispute occurred; or 
in more important affairs^ a council of chiefs assembled 



from all the four towns at Suli, and decided the matter. 
But warlike deed* were the chief etaiplojpnent of the 
tribe, as they are of most infant states. The Suliots 
had a band of one thousand chosen troops, oalled^a/tArari, 
all citizens of the four towns; as well as fifteen hundred 
troops levied from the dependent villages. Their mode 
of warfare was such as is customary among a people but 
little advanced in the arts of civilized Me; that is, it 
consisted more in skirmishes than in pitched battles — -in 
daring expeditions, sudden attacks, and quick retreats. 
It is said, that they had a rather extraordinary custom in 
their wars, of sending out a small body of troops 
against a superior force ; and, on the contrary, a large 
body against a small one: in the first instance, they in- 
timidated their foes, who knew they were prepared- to 
conquer or to perish on the field of battle ; in the latter, 
they were able to secure more prisoners, and gain a 
larger ransom for the purchase of arms and ammunition. 

Martial exercises formed the chief education of this 
rude but vigorous people. Their amusements, the dance 
and the song, were calculated, the one to contribute to 
the increase of their bodily strength, and the latter to 
warm their national enthusiasm, which was one of the 
chief traits in their character. The Suliot women con- 
tributed very powerfully to the maintenance of a martial 
spirit among the men, not only by the custom at the 
wells and fountains, to which we before alluded, but also 
by their readiness to share all the hardships and perils of 
war with their husbands : troops of women attended upon 
the soldiers, to carry provisions and ammunition, to 
assist the wounded, and even in some cases to engage in 
the battles : — ^these characteristics strongly remind us of 
the state of manners and customs among the anciitnt 
SpartanSk 

This description of the Suliot villages,-^the institu- 
tions which bound the inhabitants into a fraternity, 
and the manners and customs of the two sexes, — must be 
considered as applying to a period forty or fifty years 
ago. Since then sad reverses have occurred: families 
have been rooted out after a desperate resistance ; vil- 
lages have been burned to the ground ; and the Suliots 
have been for forty years a scattered people. The cir- 
cumstances which led to these resultl will be brieflj de- 
tailed in the next article on this subject* 



THE BOAT LAUNCH. 



The bark that is launched on the bosom of Ocean^ 
Holds gloriously onward her queenly career; 

She dreads not the billow nor tempest's commotion. 
The storm, though it lash her, brings with it no fear. 

But soon — soon she finds that her vaunted defiance. 

Her pride and her might alike are but vain. 
That her strength in the trial affords no reliance, 
« Her efforts are nought when opposed to the main. 

And thus 'tis in life, when youth and its gladness 
Spread visions of happiness full in our view ; 

We fear not, we think not, that sorrow and sadness 
Must tinge all these pleasures a different hue. 

That the storm of afiliction and tbe dark hour of angnisb 
Shall come and these phantoms must vanish away; 

That the brightest and best must speedily languish. 
The fidrest of all can but boast of tthday! 

How fondly the heart then should look for the morrow. 
And wait for that time, when its troubles shall cease; 

When tho* shattered and tossed it shall end all its sonx>w, 
And find in the Heavens its haven of peace. 

Youghal, Ireland. 8. H. 

If you are often imquiet, and too nearly touched by the crosa 
accidents of life, vour devotion is not of the right standard ; 
there is too much alloy in it. That which is right and un- 
mixed taketh away the sting of everything that would tron* 
Me you. It is like a healing balm, tliat e^tlnguifiheth the 
sharpmas of the blood. So this aofteneth qxm diasolvith 
theaiitiiiikgfttotaujidi — Tk^ Lw(/$ Nm Y0m's 0i/k \ 



1641.] 



THE SATURDAY MAQAXINB 



85 



USE OF TEA IN CHINA. 
Wx possess abundant information upon the culture and 
preparation of the tea-plant, and upon the period when 
it was first employed in Europe, but very little as to 
when it came into general use in China itself. M. Klap- 
roth has contributed some interesting particulars upon 
this point to the Journal Asiatigue. He says that the 
Chinese works convey but little information upon the 
subject. The practice of taking tea as a beverage, how- 
ever, would seem to have commenced during tne Tsin 
dynasty, and Wang-mung, a minister of public works, 
at the latter part of the fourth century, brought it much 
into vogue, being himself a g^reat consumer, and treating 
all his visitors liberally wiUi it. The historian of the 
Say dynasty states that the Emperor Wass-te, in the 
latter part of his reign, was much tormented by severe 

Suns in the head, for which he was recommended by a 
uddhist priest to drink an infbsion of the leaves of 
the plant termed mm^ or eha, (tea,) which effected a 
cure. The character was so written as to be pronounced 
anciently either as cha or too, and it is oonjectured that 
the European word tea is the Malay ImA, which is pro- 
bably dsrived from the old Chinese too. The Japanese 
have a tradition which ascribes a miraculous origin to 
the tea-plant. This states that a most pious prince, 
named Darma, came from India to China, in the begin- 
ning of the sixth century, and endeavoured to excite a 
higher d^^ree of religious feeling among the inhabitants 
than then existed. He exposed himself, as an example, 
t(» severe privations and mortifications, living in the open 
air, and spending the whole night in prayer and exhor- 
taion. After contii^uing this course of discipline for 
sone years, he happened one night, overcome by fatigue, 
to fall asleep. Horror-struck at this accidental violation 
of a vow, by which he had bound himself to refrain 
fn m such indulgence, he cut off, as a means of expiating 
th) offence, and preventing its repetition, his eyelids, 
a:.d buried them. Next cbiLy he found sprouting, from 
the spot where he had interred them, a plant hitherto 
anknown. He tasted some of the leaves, which en- 
livened him wonderftilly, and restored to him the vigour 
he had long lost. He invited his followers to partake 
of so Excellent an herb, and its reputation soon spread all 
over China. Ksempfer has presented to the world a 
copy of the portrait of this saint, who enjoys a great 
celebrity, both in Japan and China. 

In 780, during the Tang dynasty, a duty of ten per 
cent, was levied upon all tea brought from beyond the 
mountains where it grew. In the reign of Moor-tsang, 
(a. d. 824,) the government being short of money, this 
duty was raised to the enormous sum of fifty per cent. 
When it was proposed to Ta-tsoo, the founder of the 
Sung dynasty, to raise the price of tea, as a means of 
supplying his exchequer, he replied benevolently, " Tea 
is an excellent article, which must not be rendered 
dearer, or the poor will be oppressed." In the reign of 
Jin-tsung, (1023-1063,) large factories were established, 
and at that period two separate kinds were prepared, viz., 
pe^a-chay in which the leaves were dried by the fire, and 
formed . into a solid mass ; and Man-chat wherein they 
were dried and powdered. In the reign of Shin-tsung, 
(1068-86,) Le-Khe proceeded to the country of the 
ohoo, to procure tea, and then bartered it in various 
cities for horses. Extensive transactions of the same 
kind were carried on under the Sungs with the Tibetan 
nations on the frontiers. Under the Ming dynasty, 
horses, &c^ were also exchanged for the commodity with 
the Mongols. 

The use of tea was introduced into Tibet in the ninth 
oentury, when Chang-loo was sent there as ambassador. 
The Tibetans, observing the preparation of this beverage 
in his tent, inquired concerning its nature. " It is," 
said Chang-loo, " a drink which relieves thirst and dis- 
sipates sorrow.** The Tibetan^ paturfi41y desiring tp 
hecome pcNwessed of so valuable a plant, he distributed 



several packets among them. Although the use of tea 
was known in Japan in 810, the phint itself was not 
introduced until 8]«»i, when two Buddhist priests, from 
the monastery of Toga-no-o, brought seme young shoots 
from China. These thrived, and the use of tea soon 
became general in Japan. 

Tea is the common beverage of the Chinese, of inhich 
they are passionately fond, believing that it unites to its 
agreeable qualities valuable medicinal properties. They 
always present it to their guesU. Every one takes it 
three times, but some even ton times, daily. It is said 
by most authors to have proved a peculiarly beneficial 
gift to China, as tending to correct, in some measure, 
the nature of the water of that country, which is both 
unwholesome and nauseous. The herb is usually kept a 
year before employing it, as when used too fresh it pro- 
duces a narcotic or stupifying effect. The Chinese pour 
boiling water over the tea, and leave it to ** stand/' or 
infuse, as we do, but they drink it without any admixture 
of sugar or milk, some of them, however, holding a 
small-piece of sugar-candy in the mouth the while. The 
common people use a very coarse tea, and as its virtues 
are not very volatile, or easily extracted by inAjsion, 
they boil it for some time. A vessel filled with water is 
hung over the fire betimes, in the morning, into which 
the tea, enclosed in a bag, or small basket, is placed. 
When sufficiently boiled, they draw it off*, as their com- 
mon and frequent beverage during the day. The impe- 
rial, or best tea, is preserved in porcelain vases, or in 
leaden or tin canisters, covered with bamboo mats. The 
commoner tea is kept in narrow-mouthed earthen pots, 
and the coarsest kind, (the flavour of which is not 
easilv injured,) is packed up in baskets of straw. 

TKc Japanese use powdered tea, diluted with water to 
the consistence of thin soup. The box containing the 
powder is produced, and the cups are filled with hot 
water: a quantity of powder is taken upon the point of 
a knife, and thrown into the cup, and stirred briskly 
round. It is sipped while warm. Du < Halde says the 
same mode is followed in some of the Chinese provinces. 

J. C. 

THE SALT MOUNTAINS OF ISCHIL^ 

IK U|>P£R AUSTBIA. 

We landed at Ebens-see, a small village at the southern 
end of the Gmunden Lake, and in reply to our inquiries, 
they informed us that the salt was manufactured at this 
place, but that the salt-mmes were several miles in the 
mterlor. I had supposed that the salt was dug in a solid 
state from the roountam, and was therefore surprised 
when they took us to a large building, in which was a 
sheet-iron pan, about sixty feet in diameter, and two in 
depth, with a brisk fire kept up beneath. Water was 
flowing into it from two large cocks, and workmen were 
employed in shovelling salt out from the bottom on to a 
draining board, from which it was afterwards removed to 
small cone-shaped vessels, with holes at the bottom for 
further draining. In these it was suffered to remain 
until it became solid, when it was turned out, and the 
moist end of ihe cone being cut off", it was ready for 
transportation. Each lump contained about thirty-three 
pounds. 

From Ebens-see we followed the windings of a deep 
valley for nine miles, when we arrived at Ischil, a pretty 
little village, frequented by valetudinarians for the benefit 
of its salt baths. These are in a new and very hand- 
some edifice, with a Grecian colonnade in front, and an in- 
scription. In Male et sele omnia exUtvnL The salt moun- 
tains are about three miles to the southward of Ischil. 
Tliey form part of a high and broken rarge extending 
eastward and westward, and in the exterior are not to he 
distinguished from other parts of the range, the vegeta- 
tion on every part being equally luxuriant. About 
half-way to the summit, we arrived at the residence of 



36 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE- 



UARY 30 



the superintendent, and having here obtained permission 
to enter the mines, were conducted to a house a few 
hundred yards below, and provided with suitable dresses. 
Here is one of the entrances, of which there are twelve 
in all: they informed us that salt is found in an^ part 
of the mountain when they take the trouble of digging 
for it Our course, after entering, was along a narrow 
horizontal gallery, openings occurring at intervals, along 
which we heard the dashing of water: at our feet 
also were wooden pipes for water, with branches 
running off into the various lateral galleries. Having 
proceeded a quarter of a mile, we came to a halt just 
where some bare logs rose in a slanting direction, from 
a cavity whose depth we could not ascertain. A guide 
straddled this log, and directing me to do the same, and 
hold on by him, he raised his feet, and away we went, 
sliding, or rather darting down, on the smooth log, and, 
excepting the glinunering light from our lantern, en- 
veloped in total darkness. The guide kept himself 
upright, and, holding fast to him, I presently found 
myself deposited in safety on a heap of soft earth, and 
turned to enjoy the eqiuil astonishment and fright of my 
companions. 

We were now at the bottom of a chamber of irreg^ar 
shape, but averaging about one hundred and fifty feet in 
diameter, and from four to ten feet in height ; the ceiling 
in some parts being supported by blocks of sulphate of 
.lime, piled up in the form of rude columns. The 
gangue of the salt, if the word may be used, is composed 
chiefly of a clayey earth, mixed up with irregular blocks 
of sulphate of lime: the salt is mingled with these, 
usually in strata of from six inches to two feet in thick- 
ness, forming, however, every variety, shape, and di- 
rection. It was generally of a reddish colour, and 
though mixed with impurities, very strong. The strata 
were very distinct on the ceiling of the chamber, which 
looked not unlike marbled paper, the salt itself presenting 
a gpreat variety of colours, and its g^gue scarcely a 
smaller number. The surface of the salt presented to 
us was rough and honey-combed. 

We now for the ^rst time learnt the mining process, 
which certainly is very simple, and sufficiently econo- 
mical. In the first place, a small chamber is formed by 
the pick-axe and shovel, and arrangements having been 
made, by means of pipes, for conducting water to and 
from it, the outlet is stopped up, and tiie chamber is 
filled with fresh, water, of which the mountain-streams 
furnish them with abundance. In a few weeks the water 
in the chamber is saturated with salt: it is then let out, 
and conducted by aqueducts to Ebens-see, a distance of 
twelve miles, where the water is evaporated artificially, 
and the salt is shipped for the store-house at Gmunden, 
When the chamber has become sufficiently dry, the work- 
men descend into it, clear it from the stones and dirt 
which have been loosened by the water, and fallen from 
the ceiling, and the chamber is then ready for another 
flooding. The large chamber we were in, as the guides 
informed us, requires one month for the process of filling, 
and fifteen days more for completing the saturation. 
It holds 80,000 German emers; is filled four times a 
year, and has been in use thirty years: one hundred 
pounds of water furnish twenty-six and three-fourths 
pounds of salt. .There are thirty-four chambers in all, 
in which two hundred men are employed, working night 
and day, six hours at a time. They work four days in 
a week, and get forty-eight cents per week. When the 
chambers are approachmg, so as to threaten a breach 
from one into the other, the further encroachment of the 
water in that direction is prevented by a compound 
formed by the clay and pulverized rock, which is beaten 
against the wall, so as to form an effectual barrier. At 
intervals, in the descent of the mountain, are three 
reservoirs, into which the water is successively dis- 
charged, I believe for the purpose of breaking the vio- 
lence of the descent. 



There is a chain of six or seven very beautiful lakes 
in this neighbourhood, two of which we visited, after 
leaving Ischil, and on the 29th August stopped for a 
short rest at Salzburg. Our consul at Vienna had 
described, in glowing terms, the beauUful scenery at 
Berchtsgaden, a short day's journey to the south of 
Salzburg ; and as it had also a salt mountain, I deter- 
mined to pay it a visit There are also salt-mines at 
Hallein, south from Salzburg, which I did not examine, 
but which I was informed are worked, and are about ai 
productive as those of IschiL 

Berchtsgaden is now comprehended in the kingdom 
of Bavaria. The royal family were there on a visit at 
this time: they had just been inspecting the mines, and 
I found many parts of the interior ornamented in a fan- 
ciful manner, the richest crystals of the salt and gypsum 
having been collected and disposed so as to form grot- 
toes, devices, &c. Some of the former were large and 
perfectly, transparent, but a deep red or brown is the 
prevailing colour. This mine appeared to me to be 
richer than that of Ischil. In some parts the salt forms 
r^rular solid strata, several feet in thickness, and so free 
from foreign matter as to be fit for use without any puri- 
fying process. In these places it is mixed by the. aid of 
gunpowder; and the guides, after placing. us in secure 
pku^, allowed us to witness two or three explosions. 
Generally, however, the mine differs very little from 
that of Ischil. We entered by a horizontal gallery, a 
quarter of a mile in leng^, and then came to brancluDg 
galleries, along which pipes were conducted, for filling 
the chambers with water, or emptying them. One hunr 
dred and ninety men are employed, and the yearly 
product, I was told, is 8134 tons. — Silliman's JoumaL 



PRAYER. 



Go when the rooming shineth, 

Go when the moon is bright ; 
Go when the eve decliueth, * 

Go in the hush of night. 
Go with pure mind and feeling. 

Fling earthly thoughts away ; 
And in thy chamber kneeling. 

Do thou in secret pray. 

Remember all who love thee. 
All who are loved by thee; 

Pray too for those who hate thee. 
If any such there be. 

Then for thyself in meekness 

A blessing humbly claim; 
For strength to aid thy wedmess, 

In thy Redeemer's name. 
Through Him thy secret breathing. 

Shall reach the realms above, 
As sacred incense wreathing 

Where all is Truth and love. 



Ikvums&ablv are the diseases that arise from our busy ftncy. 
We are all subject to the tyrannic sway of imagination's 
empire. Under this mighty influence man displays energies 
which lead him boldl v to dare danger and compucated suf- 
ferings, or he is reduced to the most degraded state of 
miserable despondency. These diseases are the more fearful 
since they rarely ^eld to physical aid, and it is seldom that 
moral influence is suflicienUy persuasive to combat their 
inveteracy. It is idle to tell the timid hypochondriac that 
he LB not ill. The mere circumstance of his believing him- 
self sick constitutes a serious disorder. His constant appre- 
hensions derange his functions, until an organic affection 
arises. The patient who fancies that he laoours under an 
affection of the heart disturbs the circulation, which is ever 
influenced by our moral emotions, till at last this disturb- 
ance occasions the very malady which he dreaded. These 
aberrations of the mind arise from various causes, — ^mental 
enactions, constitution, climate, diet, hereditary disposition, 
education. Tertullian called Philosophy and Medicine twin 
sisters : both may become powerful i^nts in controlling 
our iinagination. — ^Mxllikoek. 



1814.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 
ON CHESS, m. 



As'ciENT Che88-mbk discovebed in the Isle or 

Lewis. 
Is the year 1831 an announcement made in the Scottish 
newspapers excited the attention of antiquaries to « 

curious discovery made in Scotland in the Isle of Lewis 
on the sea-shore, in the parish of Uig, of a considerable 
number of chess-men of excellent workman ship. ITiey 
vcre discovered by a peasant of the isiand, whilst digging 
an « sand-baiik, noar to a ruin of some note, and having 
been purchased by tho Trustees of the British Museum, 
these figures now form part of our national collection of 
antiquities, together with a bone or ivory fibula, and 
fourteen table-men, or draught-men, which were found 
with them. The chess-men are sixty-seven in number, 
forming the materials of six or more sets, but the pieces 
are of such various sizes, that it is difficult to select 
two sets which correspond exactly. Of the total number, 
six are king^, five queens, thirteen bishops, fourteen 
knights, ten warders, and nineteen pawns. The largest 
king is 4^ inches high, and 6j inches in circumference; 
the largest queen 3} inches in height, and 5|^ in circum- 
ference; the largest bishop, knight and warder, (the 
latter holding the place of the rook or castle,) are 
respectively 5 inches in height; and the largest pawn if 
belies. For the sake of distinction, part of these pieces 
were originally stained of a dark red or bcetrroot colour, 
bat from the action of salt-water for many centuries, the 
colour is in most cases nearly discharged. 

There is little variation in the form or attitude of the 
KiXGS. They are nil represented as old men with large 
■pade-shaped beards, moustaches, and hair tailing in 
plaits over their shoulders. They have on their heads 
low quatrefoil crowns, either plain or ornamented with a 
border, and sit on square-formed chains, having high 
bicka richly carved with various scrolls, figures of ani- 
mals, intersecting arches, and tracery-work in the best 
style of art of the twelfth century, as seen on monuments, 
anrl in manuscripts. Their dress consists of an upper 
and an under robe, the former of which, that is, the 
inaatle or clamys, b thrown in folds over each arm, 
and left open on the right side as high as the shoulder, 
(where it ia fastened by a cksp,) for the purpose of 
leaving the arm free. Each of the figures holds a 
swnrd, with both hands across his knees, as though 
in the act of drawing it, according to the old mode 
assigned to royal personages. The swords are broad 
and short; the scabbards are marked either with a simple 
longitudinal line, or with lines placed diagonally. In the 
different figures, there are some slight variations, 
in one the hair is not plaited, but spreads over the back 
in six loag wreaths : too ornaments of the chains 
alio diversifed; one of them exhibits an intersection of 



micircular arches, as seen in some of our early Nor- 
m churches. 

The QuEKNS, who are also crowned, are represented 
sitting iu chairs, ornamented in a style similar to those 
of l.he kings. From the back of the head of each hangs 
a species of hood, which spreads over the shoulders, and 
accords with what was luiiversally worn by ladies of rank 
he middle ages; as is proved by manuscripts and 
monuments of various nations. From the shoulders to 
the feet hangs a long mantle, which shows in front on 
under garment or gown. The sleeves of this, like those 
of the Saxons and Norman-French, are short, with a 
worked border ; and from the elbows to the wrists are a 
series of plaits, resembling bands, which probably were 
I round the arm. Most of these figures are repre- 
•A in a contemplative posture, the head resting upon 
■ight arm, which is supported by the left. One of 
I (represented in the cut) holds a curiously-shaped 
drinking-horn in the left hand. In the different figure* 
there are some variations in the forms of the crowns 
and hoods : and in one a striped petticoat and the feet ara 
visible, which are covered in ottwr instances: the chur- 
back of the latter piece furnishes also another example 
of round and intersecting arches. 

The Bishops. Five of these pieces are represented in 
ornamented chairs, and the remaining eight ii a standing 
position. All the sitting figures, and four of the stand- 
ing ones, wear the chasuble, dalmatic, stole, and ttmic, 
of the form anciently prescribed, and corren ponding with 
representations of much greater antiquity; the remainder 
have a cope instead of a chasuble, but the stole and dal- 
matic are omitted. The mitres are very low, and in 
some instances quite plain, but have the double band, 
or tn/u/(P, attached behind. The hair is cut short 
round the head. They hold a crosier with one, or with 
both hands: and in the former instances the other hand 
holds a book, or is raised in the attitude of benediction; 
On the hacks of the chasuble . and stole are various 
crosses or ornaments. In the details both of the habits 
and other work, there are numerous minute variations. 

The Knights are full-length figures moimted on 
horseback, and are probably the most interesting portion 
of the whole. They are habited in long coaU or 
gambesons, which descend in folds to the feet; the 
sleeves have a cuff or border at the wrist. The leg has 
apparently a covering of some sort down to the ankle, 
where it is met with a species of half-boot without spur.  
Their helmets, with a few exceptions, are of a conical 
shape, and mostly with nasals and round flaps to protect 
the nose, ears, and neck. All the figures have mou- 
staches and lai^ round beards, except one, which hati 
the beard separated into three forks. A long kite-formed 



?« 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINp;. 



[ jAOTiAf 19, 



ghield, suspended from the neck, hangs on the left side 
of each, ornamented with various devices, approa<;hing 
in some instances very closely to heraldic distinctions. 
Beneath the shield appears the sword, which is fastened 
round the waist by a belt, and in the right hand each 
knight carries a massive spear. The horses are capari- 
soned in high saddles, plain or ornamented; saddle-cloths 
curiously bordered ; stirnips and bridles ; the mane is cut 
short, and tfie hair suffered to grow down on the fore- 
head. On one side of the shield^ is a cross, bearing a 
lozenge, plain; on another is an ornamented lozenge; 
and the remainder are variously indented with crosses and 
other ornaments. 



It is, I think, conclusive that mankind, from a very early 
period, have their minds prepared for supernatural occur- 
ences by the consciousness of the existence of a spiritual 
world. But imagination is apt to intrude its explanations 
and inferences, founded on inadequate evidence, sometimes 
our violent and inordinate passions, originating in sorrow 
for our friends, remorse for our crimes, our eagerness of 
patriotism, or our deep sense of devotion ; — these or other 
violent excitements of a moral character, in the visions of 
the night, or the rapt ecstasv of the day, persuade us that 
we witness with our eyes anci ears an actual instance of that 
Bupernatuml communication, the possibility of which can- 
not be denied. At other times the coi-poreal organs impose 
upon the mind, while the eye and the ear, diseased, deran^d, 
or misled, convey false impressions to the patient. Very 
often both the mental delusion and the physical deception 
exist at the same time ; and men's belief of the phenomena 
presented to them, however erroneously, by the senses, is 
the firmer and more readilv granted, that the physical im- 
pressions corresponded witn we mental excitement. — Sir 
YfjLhtsK Scott. 



There existed among the ancient Epyptians a singular custom 
oi introducing, during or after their teasts, either a skeleton 
or a wooden imiige in the form of a human being, sometimes 
erect, and sometimes extended on a bier, as a solemn warn- 
ing of the brevity of life, and the vanity of all sublunary 
enjoyments. The discovery of a skeleton-figure in the ban- 

2uet-room after the close of a brilliant entertainment is thus 
escribed by one who is supposed to have been a stranger- 
guest at one of those olden leasts. 

There was a female who paiiicularly attracted my at- 
tention, on whose head was a chaplet of dark-coloured 
flowers, and who sat veiled and silent during the whole of 
the banquet. She took no share, I observea, in what was 
passing around ; the viands and the wine went bv her un- 
touched ; nor did a word that was spoken seem addressed to 
her ear. This abstraction from a scene so sparkling with 
gaictv, though apparently unnoticed by any one but myself, 
BtrucTk me as mysterious and strange. I inquired of my 
fair neighbour the cause of it, but she looked grave and was 

•ilent I returned to the banquet-room, which 

was now dim and solitary, except that there, to my astonish- 
ment, still sat that silent figure, which had awakened my 
curiosity so strangely during the night. A vogue feeling of 
awe came over me as I now slowly approached it. Here 
was no motion, no sound of breathing in that form, not a 
leaf of the dark chaplet on its brow stirred. By the light 
of a dying lamp which stood before the figure, I raised, with 
a hesitating hand, the veil, and saw^what my fancy had 
already anticipated^that the shape beneath was lifeless, 

was a skeleton I 

This custom among the Egyptians, of placing a mummy, 
or skeleton, at the banquet-teble, had been for some time 
disused, except at particular ceremonies ; and even on such 
occa^ons, it had been the practice of the luxurious Alexan- 
drians to disguise this memorial of mortelity in the manner 
just described. But to me, who was wholly unprepared for 
such a spectacle, it j^ave a shock from which my imagina- 
tion did not speedily recover. This silent and ghastly 
witness of mirth seemed to embody, as it were, the shadow 
in my own heart. The features of the grave were now 
stamped on the idea that haunted me, and this picture of 
what Twos to be mingled itself with the sunniest aspect of 
what / was, Funt, 



A GIPSY VILLAGE. 



After advancing some little way through the defile^ oni 
attention was attracted by a tremendous uproar, and on 
turning a c^rve of the roan, we came at onoe upon a ^psy 
village, presenting a scene not easily paralleled. Bern 
were bellowing, monkeys and chilmn screaming, dogs 
barking, drums beating, pipers playing, women scolding, 
men fighting, and smiths and tmken hammering, — alto- 
gether formmg a charivari, which| fortunately for men's 
ears, does not often assail them, ^or was the appearance 
of these people less remarkable thim their noise. The ma* 
jority of the children were entirely naked, and their parents 
nearly so, having no covering but a pair of wide trousers, 
those of the women differing btit little in form and colour 
from those of the men. The whole, whether baskine in 
the sun, or at work, were incefsantlv smoking from little 
short pipes made of box-wood. lu shorty they exhibited a 
picture of human degradation a|id misery, such as I havd 
not often witnessed, even among the most savage trib^ 
Their dwellines consisted merely of scattered tents^ and 
holes burrowed into the mdes or the soft limestone rocks 
that towered above them. Thehr habits appeared filthy in 
the extreme, for besides the stench arising mm the nume- 
rous animals with whom they lived in common^ the im- 
mense volumes of tobacco-smoKe, and the smell of onions 
and garlic, formed an odour altogether so unsavoury, thst 
we heartily wished ouiselves out of ito vicinity. 

On hearing the sound of our horse& tlie whole motley 
multitude started on their legs and rushed towards us ; when 
pipers, drummers, fiddlers, dancing don and boon, tumbling 
monkeys and naked' children, young fortune-tellers and old 
witchps, — all performed before us in their respective charac- 
ters. A few nandfub of kopecks, for which they most 
reverently kissed the hem of our garments, and wished us 
a happy journey, delivered us from their importunities. 

In the midst of all this wretehedness, I could not help 
remarking the well-formed proportions of the men, — their 
fiery eyes and animated countenances. Nor were the fine 
features of the women — ^the huge, full, dark eye, and jet 
black hair, hanging down in natural curls on weir shoul- 
ders — less admirable ; and although, from continual exposure 
to the weather, they were near^ as dark as Indians, yet 
those still young were really beautiful. But this distinction 
does not lon^ characterise the women of the East, particu- 
larly this migratory people, for those mors advanced m 
life were the veriest personifications of what you might 



imagine witehes to be, — ^ha^^garc^ withered, and wrinkled. 
^'s Travek in Ckreoista, JTHsi T^rtaryt S^e, 



  u ' 

SfBliCEB* 



9 

To think too meanly of .mankindis dangerous to our reve- 
rence of virtue, 



RURAL SPORTS FOR THE MONTHS. 

JANUARY. 

The most ancient of all bodily exercises were probably 
field sports. In the early ages of the world, man was 
compelled, as a necessary matter of self-defence, to main- 
tain a continual warfare with such of the animals as were 
in a state of hostility to him ; nor could he preserve the 
fhiits of his industry, the crops he had planted, the 
flocks and herds he had reared, without such continued 
warfare. 

This practice, at first urged on him by imperious 
necessity, was soon found to have ite advantages. The 
flesh of many wild animals was found to supply whole- 
some food, and the skins of nearly all were valued as 
clothing, so that self-interest would not fail to prompt 
him to the pursuit of such animals as best supplied his 
wants. His reason and ingenuity were now employed 
to devise the most successful methods of entrapping his 
prey. The rude pit-fall, the trap of simple form, the 
noose or snare, the club, the javelin, and the spear, the 
simple sling, the various kinds of bow, gradually suc- 
ceeded each other, until the comparatively recent period 
when the invention of fire-arms threw all other weapons 
into the shade, and presented a more certain and death- 
insuring method of procuring game. 

It is worthy of remark that the destruction of animals, 
during the early age of the world, does not appear to 
have been followed as a pastime. It was a matter of 
necessity, and in so fkr as it supplied mankind with 
food, was in accordance with the Divine command. 



184L] 



THE SArORDAY MAGAZINE. 



d9 



After the deluge, man was encouraged to take and eat 
of the animals around him : " Every moving thing that 
liveth shall he meat for you, even as the green herb have 
I given you all things." (Gen, ix. 3.) 

On Noahy and in hub on all mankind, 
The charter was oonferred, by which ve hold 
The flesh of animals in fee, and claim 
O'er all we feed on power of life and death. 
But read the instrument, and mark it well t 
The oppression of a tyrannous control 
Can find no warrant Uiere. 

Among the andeni Greeks and Romans very different 
opinions prevailed at different times as to the utility of 
field sports. Xenophon wrote a treatise, enlarging upon 
the advantages of these exercises, as inuring the body 
to hardships and privations, and promoting courage, 
strength, and swiftness. In ibA time of Sdllust, hunting 
was held in sovereign contempt) and abandoned to slaves. 
Solon forbade the Athenians to hunt, because it enticed 
them from more useful pursuits. When the Goths and 
Vandals over-ran and subjugated the Roman empire, 
they appropriated the privilege of hunting to their own 
chiefs and nobles, and ceased to acknowle<%e the natural 
right which all men were previously considered to have, 
of participating in field sports. 

It seems likely that tiie earliest animals subjugated 
to the use pt man were sheep and kine, and that their 
skins formed his olothing'; while the milk derived from 
them proved an abundant source of nutriment Yet 
these highly valuable animals were of no assistance to 
him in the conquest of other and more ferocious crea- 
tures. The exquisite powers of scent and vision, with 
other remarkable qualities possessed by the dog, seem to 
have pointed him out at a very early period as man's 
assistant in the pursuit of wild animals. 

It is not our purpose to proceed with the history of 
the successive appropriation of different animals by man 
to the objects of the chase ; or of the modes by which 
the capture of animals was facilitated from time to time ; 
far less shall we attempt to show, that, in an age of 
refinement like ours, when the necessity imposed upon 
barbarians no lonffer exists, the enthusiam with which 
field sports are followed, and inoffensive creatures pre- 
ierved for the express nurpose of being hunted to death, 
IS worthy the national character for intellectual supe- 
riority and generous feeling. Yet, taking advantage of 
the very general interest which such subjects are wont 
to excite, we propose to give, in this and the followmg 
articles, notices of the sports prevalent during the 
month, with an especial reference to the natural history 
of the animals forming the objects of pursuit. It cannot 
he expected that we should select on all occasions the 
sport which is the most universally followed at the time 
we write, for many favourite pastimes of this nature, 
prevail for several months in succession, and we should, 
in consequence, be bound to keep to one subject for a 
corresponding length of time : we shall therefore take 
such particular sports for description as our attention 
niay be directed to at the time, and as are more or less 
followed during the month-. 

In the present cold and bleak season of the year, 
when some of our field sports are necessarily suspended, 
there ia yet an occupation for the gunner, which is con- 
sidered to possess peculiar attractions, and which has 
drawn noany a sportsman from his home for weeks 
together. This is the shooting of wild-fowl of various 
kinds ; an occupation fraught with much difficulty, and 
even danger, and in the pursuit of which, the miseries 
of cold and hunger, the necessity of traversing half- 
frozen marahes and ditches, the pelting of storms of hail 
or snow, are all cheerfully endured by the zealous lover 
«f the sport. 

The capture of wild ducks is that of which we shall 
»t present speak, as being the chief branch of the sport. 
Many of the rivers of our southern shores present, at 



thdr junction with the sea, extensive deposits of soil 
and of animal matter which are alternately covered and 
left dry by the tide. The autumnal rains sweep a vast 
quantity of little animals and animal remains from the 
upper country, while numerous aquatic animals of a 
minute kind also resort to the brackish waters of such 
situations, on account of the warmer temperature which 
those waters possess over both the sea water, and fresh 
running streams. Where the soil of the surrounding 
country is rich, and the descent of the river gradual, 
these deposits present to the whole race of dabbling birds 
the grandest attractions. Where the stream comes 
dashing from a rocky soil, or is very limited in its 
course, its termination is never found to be an estuary 
favourable to the birds in question. On looking at the 
map of England, we shall see that several of our southern 
rivers are, as it respects the length of their course, 
and the nature of the country and of the soil they 
traverse, especially calculated for the resort of wild-fowl. 
In consequence, the capture of these birds is carried on 
to a great extent, and in a systematic manner, and the 
quantity taken is very considerable. The most successful 
method of catching is Hby the decoy, which is a pond 
sheltered by reeds, and containing a permanent net in 
which the birds are entrapped. Tame birds arc trained 
to entice the wild ones, and are called decoy-ducks. 
Into the details of this mode of bird-catching we cannot 
now enter. A more hazardous method is pursued by 
men who partly depend on wild-duck shooting for their 
subsistence, and also by sportsmen who consider the 
pleasure rather enhanced than lessened by the difficulties 
and risks they incur. These pursue their occupation 
principally in small punts or boats, and are called punt- 
shooters, or punt-gunners. Sea-fowl usually come down 
to feed by night in the oozy ground before described. 
Towards evening, therefore, the fowler runs up his boat 
into a creek, and lies in patient expectation of his prey. 
Gilpin, describing the coast of .Hampshire and the 
fowler's employment there, says that the fiight of wild 
ducks as they approach the feeding-place, may be com- 
pared to a pack of hounds in full cry, so noisy are they 
m their language. The gunner listens attentively to 
ascertain which way they bend their flight, and has 
perhaps the mortification to find that they have alighted 
at too great a distance to allow of his getting a shot at 
them; but if he happens to be more fortunate, and finds 
them alighting on the plain, to the edge of which he has 
moored his little boat, he primes both his pieces, — ^for he 
generally carries two,->and again endeavours to find out 
the situation of the birds by listening, the nights favour- 
able to the fowler's sport being exceedingly dark. The 
birds are silent while feeding, but the motion of such a 
number as generally feed together is sufficient to produce 
certain indistinct sounds, by which the fowler is guided 
where to take aim. He fires at a venture, and imme- 
diately takes up the other gun and discharges it where 
he supposes the affrighted flock to be rising on the 
wing. This concludes his chances of success for that 
night, and he has now nothing more to do than to tie 
to his feet flat pieces of board, called mud-pattens, and, 
thus protected from sinking in the ooze, to grope about 
in the dark in quest of his booty, which may consist of 
many birds, or may be almost nothing. The danger 
attending this employment is, lest the fowler should get 
fixed in the mud so as to be unable to extricate himself, 
and thus get overtaken by the returning tide. Tlie cold 
is also so severe as to expose the less inured follower 
of the pursuit, to. ill consequences to his health. 
Even in the day-time, the risk of such expeditions is 
considerable, as the following anecdote will be sufficient 
to show : — 

Mounted on his mud-pattens, a fowler was once tra- 
versing one of these oozy plains in search of ducks, andj 
being intent only on his game, suddenly found the water; 
whim had been accelerated by some peculiar circumstance 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



In till 



aflectinK Uia tide, bad made an alarmin); |)rofrr<' 
htm, and he found himselt oompletelv eutircU'd. 
desperate dtuation an idea struck lum as .the biuj iiu>i° 
of safety. Ue Tetired to thut part wbidi . Ecemed tlie 
highest, from it« being yet uncovered liy water, and strikuig 
the barrel of bis long g\m deep into the ooze, he resolved to 
hold fust by it, as well for a support as a tircurity' agaiuKt 
tlie waves, and to wait the ebbing of the tidf. lit had 
reason to believe a common tide would not have flowed 
above bis middle ; Imt ui the midst of his reoEoning on the 
subject, the water had now reached him. It rippled oyer 
his feet, it gained hia knees, his wabt, button after button 
was swallowed up, until at lengtli it advaneed over his 
shoulders. With a palpitating heart he cave himself up for 
lost. Still, however, ne held faat bj- his anchor ; hia eye 
was eagerly in search of some boat which might accidentally 
he pasaing, but none appeared. A hejid upon the surface 
ofthBn   -^  



r, and that sometimes ci 






object to be descried from the land, at the distance of half 
a league; nor could he exert any sounds of didtress that 
could be heard so fiir. While, as tne exigence would allow, 
he was thus making up hU mind to ccrtnin destruction, his 
attention was caught by a new object. Ue thought he saw 
the uppermost button of his coat begin to appear. No 
mariner floating on a wreck could behold approaching 
luccour with greater transport than he felt at tlus transient 
view of the button ; but the fluctuation of the water was 
such, and the turn of the tide so alow, that it was yet some 
lime ere he durst venture to assure lumsetf tiiat the button 
was &irly above the level of the flood. At length a second 
button appearing at intervals, liis sensations may rather bo 
conceived than described, and his joy guve him spirit and 
Btrength to support his situation four or five hours longer, 
until tlie waters had fully retired. 

It might have been imagined that dangers such as 
these, would cause excursions of this nature to be under- 
taken by those alone, who get their liveUbood by selhng' 
wild-ducks ; but this is so far from bcinp;- the case, that 
we find a practiced sportsman referring witli enthusiasm 
to what he calls his "wild-fowl shooting mania," when 
he used, after spending many hours ef the day on 
Lewes Levels, and pursuing his spOrt with an ardour 
which he confesses himself unable to defend, inasmuch 
as it risked the health and life of both liim and hia 
servant, to return again in. the evening to watch the 
niglit-flights, and still to carry on his sport. . Nay, so 
fascinating is the pursuit of these birds, that he assures 
us from his own knowledge, that some persons, in order 
to enjoy the sport in greater perfection, have fitted up 
a small sailing smack with sleeping berths, cookings con- 
veniences, suitable attendants,, a row boat for. creeks, a 
puQt for oozes, two or three water-dogs, &c^ and thus 
equipped have made a coasting voyage half round our 
island. When we remember the season of the year 
during which this sport is chiefly practised, viz, from 
about the middle of October to the end of February, we 
■hall b6 able to appreciate the extraordinary degree of 
enthusiasm necessary to carry a man through such an 
expedition. By a recent Act of Parliament, it is made 
illegal to kill wild-fowl, either young or old, from the 
last day of March to the flrst day of October. 

The common wild-duck is the largest in size of the 
species that frequent this country. The general name 
duck is takei^ from the female, the male being the 
mallard, at drake, and the young birds, flappers. The 
length of a full-grown mallard is nearly two feet, the 
stretch of the wings three feet, and the weight about 
two pounds and a half. The head and neck are of a 
fine dark glossy green colour ; a white collar encircles 
the throat ; and below it, the neck, breast, and shoulders 
are of a purplish brown. The scapular feathers are a 
mixture of silver-white and rust colour, streaked with 
brown. The wing-coverts are ash-coloured with black 
and white tips. The wing-spot is rich purple, with 
reflections of blue and green. The lower part of the 
back is black, and the four middle tail-feathers are curled 
up in the mallard. The under part of the body is 
whitish grcyi with slight mottlings of brown. The duck 
ia considerably smaller than the mallard, and has not the 



green and white on the head and neck. She is auo 
witliout the curled feathers on the tail. 

Wild-ducks are not inferior to many other hires in a 
remarkable instinct for the preservation of their younp, 
or of their mates. Captain Back relates, in his Arctk 
Land Tijrpedilion, that one of his companions havine 
killed a female duck, fired agun, and as he thought 
disabled its companion, a fine drake. Accordinglv, 
leaving the dead bird, which he had the mortification of 
seeing, in a few minutes afterwards, carried off by one of 
the white beaded eagles, he waded after the drake, which, 
far from being alarmed, remained motionless, as if wait- 
bg to be taken up. As he drew nearer, it glided easily 
away, through innumerable little oooki and wint^gs. 
Several times he extended his arm to catch it; and 
having at last with great patience managed to coop it up 
in a comer, from whence there' appeared to be ho escape, 
he was triumphantly bending down to take it, whea to 
his utter astonishment, after two or three flounders, it 
looked round, cried "quack," and flew off so atronglj 
that he was convinced he had never hit it At alL The 
object of the bird had evidently been to draw away hii 
attention from its companion, of whose ' fate it was 
ignorant. 

, The nest of the wild-duck is ia general artfuJlv con- 
cealed among herbage, in the' vicinity of .water. "It bia 
been known, however, to. build in trees, and. in bushei. 
The ducklings are nuinMOua ; often as many as -sixteen 
are hatched at once, and unlMs some .caauity happeai 

the nest, there is only one brood during the season. 

There are about twenty-eight species of ducks which 

3 seen more or less frequently in different parts of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and principally diii'ing the 
winter season. Many of these visiUnis are, evidenllj 
natives of northern countries, andappear.in great num- 
bers on our northern coasts ; but of the fli^bts 'which 
appear stiil more abundantly in the fenny districts; such 
as those of Lincolnshire, Cambridge, and Martin Mere I 
in Lancasliire, on the borders of many rivers in Wales, I 
and on the southern flat shores and estuaries of England, | 
we a»e not well informed as to their retrcata when thev | 
quit our shores. 

 In this family of birds there are many species besidei i 
the wild -duck commonly so tailed, which deserve to In 
spoken of particularly.' . These we must leave for a ' 
future occasion, together with several other notices, j 
relating to wild-fowl in general. 



>, Mnoi Batrkoi, LlKK) 



Ths force of an argument ia not increased by the excite- 
ment of the feelings or theidisplsy of temper.— }iIiccL'Li/>C!ti 



Iba^tur^dif im^^im. 



NS 551. SUPPLEMENT, 



JANUARY, 184i; " {(J^SU 



OVERLAND JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ENGLAND. 



nuAHnB, HI xosibbbh muu. 



JPISST^SOUTE. 



Bt *4.r • 



Otrx of Uie moat extnordinuy featoRS in the political 
K«ognpbj[ of the present t^ it the poweeeion by Gre«t 
Britain'of  vut empire situated manj thontaad tnilea 
from tbe parent country', and separated from it by cenntriea, 
•ome of which are monntainous and inhoroitftble,— others 
porehed and tandyi — and others inhabited bv oations and 
tribes hostiie to Briti«h interest. Such is India, or the 
Eatt Indies. The British empire in India b iocomparabiv 
lai^et aiid more popitloos thiu the. whole of the British 
Isles; and it may^AeU be BUpposed that the eetablishmcnt 
of a rapid mode «f communj cation froin India to England, 
ie TCf^arded as a matter of high importance by tbe govern- 
ment.' This Communication, so &r as r^ards the transport 
of troops, of military stolea, of OTticles of commerco, &C., 
must obrioQsly be mode by sea ; rince snch ' conveyance 
cannot be made thrpoith the teiritoiiee of othw nations. 
The eetubliahment of steam navigation round the cooat of 
Africa ; — the project for coooecting the Persian Gnlf with 



of a more speedy wat«-«miTeTance from India to England. 

But it has often h^^iaiea in the past history of our 
Indian at&in, that Bntuh officers hare been despatched 
overland from India ta inland, tUhtsr for the sake of 
greater expedition, or for diplomatic servicee at the conrt of 
eomcone of the Oriental prmcea whose dominuHia larin the 
line of route. These overland travels are among tne nuat 

Vol. XVni. . 



likewise went by 



iatereBtine narrativas which we have of the ■,, 

the Asiatic towm and cities, and of the monnen and 
customs of the inhabitanta ; and we have long thonght that 
the readers of our Magazine would welcome a Inief ind 
popnho' aceonnt of saeh routes. The modes in whidl 
varietu efGcen have proceeded from India vaiy gnatly. 
Sir Alexander Bunee proceeded fiwn the norUt-west of 
India to Bokhara, and from thence to the sonthero Aon of 
the Caspian Sea : — Sir James Alexander- went by sea from 
Bombay to the Penian Gulf, and from thence through 
Feina and Ana Minor to Constantinople : — Cqitain Eeppel 
from Bombay t* the Penian Gnu; 
^ through Persia, GeergiOf and tba 

^nseian empire to St. Peteniburg : — Lieutenant Lnmadoi, 
ftCter landing on the ahore of the Fernan Gulf, proceeded 
through Persia and Armenia, round the northern shore of 
the lusck Se^ and through Austria and fiance to ^ig- 
land :— Ctdenel ntzdanace (now Earl of Hunstar) went 
by sea from Bombay to the Red Sea, landed at Coeseir, and 
travelled through Egypt to the Hedittrranean ; a rimilar 
route to that pursued a Mw years aftcrworda by His. Charles 
Luihingion. Other travellers and officers have gone west- 
ward from India to Perwa, through the imperfectl v-known 
r^iouB which separate them. From this it will be seen 
that the term "overland journey to England" ia cqiabla 

of many ■igniflffinnrL 

We propoee to select some one particular route, and 
conduct the reader through it, deacribing the most in> 
objects which occur by the wur. By this 
nt, each Supplement will be-complets in itoelf ; 
and we may devote as many Supplements to the topognphy 
of Ceatiol and Western Asia fibr such in reality is tb* 
nature of this subject) as tbe intowst of tbe details will 



4i 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



warrant. On the present occaaion we wiU select the route 
by sea fi-om Bombay to the Penion Gulf; and thence over^- 
land through Persia, Georgia, and Russia, to St. Peters- 
bui-g; from whence a ship conveys the traveller to 
England by way of the Baltic Sea. 

It will be necessary for the reader to liave a tolerably 
clear idea of tlie situation of India with regard to the 
western parts of Asia ; and the inspection of a map will 

g'eatly aid him in forming this idea. Aft-ica is separated 
om the south-eastern point of Asia by the Indian Ocean ; 
and into tlie northeni part of this ocean juts the peninsula 
of India, or Hindostan, which extends northward to the 
Himalaya mountains. Westward of India are the countries 
of Beloocliistiui, Caubul, Bokhara, &c., forming the 
western boundary of India, and separating it ii'om the 
Peraian empire. Fn)m tlie north-western part of the 
Indian Ocean, issue two seas, the Persian Gulf and tlie 
Red Seii, each pi-ocee<ling nearly in a north-westerly direc- 
tion, and including between them a large peninsula which 
constitutes Arabia. Northward of the Persian Gulf is 
Persia, which extends upwards as far as the Caspian Sea. 
Northward of Arabia is Turkey in Asia, which brings us 
to the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Between the Caspian 
and Black Se<i8, is a mountainous district occupied by 
Georgians, Armenians, Circassians, and other tribes, and 
fonning a general though ill-defined boundary between the 
Pei*sLan and Russian empires. The river Euphrates, whidl 
empties iti^elf into the Persian Gulf, is navigable to a point 
so near the Mediterrane^m, in the neighbourhood of Aleppo, 
th.it propo<i.ils have l>een made to cut a canal of commu- 
nication fi-om one to the other. From the Caspian Sea to 
the n&irest point of India, in a sti*aight line, is about one 
thous^uid miles ; fi-om the northern part of the Persian 
Gulf, about twelve or thirteen hundred ; from the eastern- 
most point of the Black Sea, about two thousand miles. 
To tr<ivel from India to Turkey, therefbro, by land, is a 
long and wearying journey, even if the political situation of 
the interjacent countries offers no obstacle. It is for this 
reAson that the greater numl)er of "overland" travellers 
pi-oceed by ship either to the Persian Gulf or to the Red 
Sea; and from thence reach Europe by land. 

Where the pas&ige fi*om India to Persia is made by 
water, the point of eml)ai*kation is generally Bombay. The 
British empire in India, being too extensive to be governed 
by one officer, is divided hi to three presidencies, of which 
tfie chief cities ai*e Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. Each 
presidency is under one governor or chief officer, but the 
governor of Calcutta is superior in authority to the other 
two, and pt)SSL'8ses the title of Governor-general of India. 
Of the tlirce principal cities just named, Calcutta is at the 
noi-th -eastern extremity of the peninsula of Ilindostan; 
Mi-ylras is on the eastern shore of the peninsula, opposite 
the Burman empire ; and Ik>mbay is on the western shores 
mid consec|ucntly nearer to Europe than either of the other 
two presidencies. Shipping is found in considerable extent 
At l3oinbay ; and this is tiie port from whence the "over- 
land" tmvellers proceed to the Persian Gulf or to the Red 
Sea. 

. From Bombay to the mouth of the Persian GuJf is a 
distance of a1)out thirteen hundred miles in a straight line ; 
and probably fourteen or fifteen hundred in the direction 
whicn a ship would take. We will therefore imagine 
Ourselves to oe embarked on board a ship at Bombay, and 
to have traversed the Indian Ocean which separates India 
from the Persian Gulf. 

The first land at which we arrive is Arabia, which forms 
tlic wostLi'n mancin of the entrance to the gulf. This 
mai«gin proceetls in a tolerably straight line for about four 
hundrecl miles in a nortli-wcsteiii direction, when it brings 
us to the narrow strait which forms the immediate 
opening into the gulf, having Persia on the right hand, and 
Anibia on the left. About midway on this north-western 
cotMt is the Arabian port of Musiaty one of the most im-, 
portant l)elonging to ttiat country. Muskat is the capital 
of the Arabian pn>vinoc of Oman, which, if not the most 
celebrated, is tlie most flourishing and prosperous part of 
the countjy. Muskat was taken by Albuquerque in 1607, 
and remained subject to Portugal till 1648, when the 
natives drove out the Portuguese. The province is now 
governed by an Imaum, or spiritual chief, who seems to 
exercise his power in a very judicious manner ; and the 
port of Muskat is »iid o be the best managed of any in 
Amhia or Persia ; for the merchandize of the East may be 
leil undisturbed, or its wharfs and quays without molesta- 
tion,— « degree of security due to the easeeUeatpolioe of the ^ 



flace. All the ports upon this coast are trilmtai^ to the 
maum of Mnskat ; and he has also establiihed • conaidenble 
trade with the biterior by means of earavans. High rocks 
on one side, and the island of Muskat on the other, form a 
spacious and securo harbour. The town is surrounded by 
a strong wall, within whose precincts none but Arabs and 
Banians are allowed to reside ; all stnuoAers being obliged to 
remain in houses outside the wall. The town contains a 
bazaar or market, covered in at the top to protect the 
wares, which are exposed for sale on open platforms in front 
of the shops. A large colony of Indians, principall v from 
the banks of the Indus, carry on the whoienle ana retail 
trade. The houses aro flat-roofed, and built of unhewn 
stone. The streets are extremely filthv, and so narrow, 
that by extending Uie arms across, both sides may frequently 
be touched. The inhabitants are affected witn a neculitf 
inflimAmation of the eyes, arisinff, it is said, frt>m tne Hght 
particles of sand blown from um Bea>shore. Mr. Buck- 
ingham estimated the population at 10,000 ; while Captain 
Keppel some years afterwards reduoed the number to 
2000 ; — such is the uncertainty which often exists xeapectuig 
the population of Oriental towns. 

On embarking again at Moakat, we proceed north- 
westerly tiU we arrive at Cape Musssldom, the entrance to 
the Persian Gulf. Nearly opposite this ci^ is Ormuz, 
once the seat of a very extensive eommeroe^ and, in the 
time of Albuquerque, one of the meet splendid cities of the 
East. Subsequent conquests completely ruined it; and 
when it came into the nands of the preaent poaseawrs, it 
did not contain twenty houses. 

Entering the Persian Gulf, we pass by the celebrated 
peari banks of Bahrein, near the coast of Arabia; and 
opposite to Hiis, on the Persian coast, la the town ot 
Bushire, where travellers often land who wish to proceed 
to the eastern parts of Persia. As our route, however, 
carries us to the regions of the Tigris and the iBuphrstes, 
we will leave Bushire, and proceed up the gulf which leads 
to them. These two rivers, of wnich we hate aariier 
records than of almost any other rivers in the world, empty 
themselves into the Persian Gulf by mouths common to 
both rivers, and thereby form a delUi similar to those at 
the mouths of the Ganges, Uie Niloi and the Miiaisippi. 
Proceeding a little way up the lar^^est of these, we come to 
Basaora, a town of mucti commercial in^rtancOy where ws 
will land. 

Bassora absorbs nearly all the foreign eommerce of 
Persia and the Euphrates. It b seven miles in circum- 
ference, a great part of which space Is laid out in gardens 
and plantations ; and is Intersected by canals navigable for 
smaA vessels. Its most important trade, being that with 
India, is carried on partly by British, but chiefly by 
Arabian vessels, of which those of five hundred tons burden 
can ascend the river to this pomt. The inhabitants are 
estimated at 60,000 ; a heterogeneous mixture of Arabs, 
Turks, Indiana, Persians, and all the people of the East. 
They have not expended much of their wealth in the 
embellishment of ttie city ; for travellers describe it as 
having, generally speaking, a mean and dirty ^pearance. 

In order to give an idea of the appearance, the coetume, 
&C., of the inhabitants, we will describe the public entrance 
of a Pacha, which took place while CapUun Keppel was in 
Bassora. A body of armed men, forming an advanced 
guard, announced their approach by a contmued discharge 
of muskets, and passed at a slow trot. Then came another 
party, who occasionally halted, and danced in a circle; 




I 



etty chiefs, on horseback : each of them had carried before 
lim a laige red and green ffaff. The Zobeir Arabs are 
meroenai'y troops, and acknowledge a kind of subjection to 
the governor. They are small mean-looking men, with an 
Indian cast of features ; they carried either fire-arms, or 
swords and shields; and wero habited in various ways 
— some having on robes bound at the waist vrith a girdle, 
others a loose shirt. After these Arabs came the Toofun^ees, 
or personal troops of the Pacha, distinguishable by fiir ci^ 
nearly a yaid in diameter. Then the Pacha's led horses, 
richly comparisoncd ; and after these a troop of mounted 
Tschousses, or messengers, beating small drums placed at 
the saddle-bow. These were followed by the native ofiicers 
of the English factory, mounted* Then came the Cnpitan 
Pacha, the Cadi, and the Mufti: and lastly, the Pacha 
himself, who^ with his hand on Jiis breast^ acknowledged 
(ha shOtttB of the hy-ataatest A troop ef Janisaaiiea 



STJPPLBMENT FOR JANUARY, 1841. 



49 



brohirlit up the re«r, amid the ftrinff of nraBkets, the beating 
of touitomsy the rude ringing of tne soldiery, the music of 
the JanisBaries, and the dmeking of groups of women. 

From BasBora we proceed along the Tigris to the far- 
fiuned citj of Bagdad, the scene of so much legendary interest. 
The usuiu mode of proceeding from one town to the other, 
is on board one of a fleet of boats which go in company, in 
order to protect the passengers finom the attacks of the 
tribes of wandering' Arabs who infest the banks. Some- 
times, howeyer, a party of travellers hire a Bughalow, 
which is a Tessel sixty feet long, fourteen wide at the 
broadest part, and having a low cabin about ten feet square. 

Proceeding up the river by either one of these modes of 
eonveyance, we come to the point of confluence of the 
Tigris and the Euphrates, the former being the easternmost 
of the two. The banks of the river, between Bassora and 
Baffdad, a distance of between three and four hundred 
miles, are occulted by tribes of Arabs, in the same stattvof 
primitive simplicity as these remarkable people have ever 
diown ; living in mat huts, capable of being moved at a 
short notice ; dressed in a brown sliirt with open sleeves, 
and bound round the loins with a leathern ffirale ; almost 
as nnacQuainted with Europeans as the inhabitants of 
Central Africa :-HBUch are the Arabs on the banks of the 
Tigris. 

Farther up the river we come to a tract of country which^ 
though now a desert, was once beautified by laige and 
populous cities. Among these we find the ruins of Seleucia 
and Ctesiphon. The former of these fi>unded its grandeur 
an the ruin of the more ancient city of Babylon, and 
contained at one time 600,000 inhabitants. Seleucia was, 
in its turn, superseded by Ctesiphon ; but both have been 
sinev so utterly destroyed, that nothing but ruins attest what 
they once were. These ruins, together with sandy deserts, 
and occa^onally a jungle tenanted by wild beasts, fill np the 
interval from Bassora to Bagdad : we will therefore suppose 
imnielves now to have arrived at the last-named city. 

The ttact of land wliich separates the Tigris from the 
Euphrates, during the lower portion of their course, is 
rather narrow, ana verv flat and level ; so that in the rainy 
season the two rivers nequently overflow, and irrigate the 
land, whereby it becomes very luxuriant. It is probably 
this circumstance whidi gave to this strip of lana so high 
importance in ancient times. Under the names of Babyto- 
ttii^ Chaldea, and Mesopotamia, it was a region covered 
With fiunous cities^ which were celebrated both in sacred 
and profime history. Of these large cities, the only one 
wiiicn is at present a place of much importance is Bagdad, 
a spot whicn is not connected with the times mentioned in 
tile Sacred Records, but which some centuries afterwards 
became the seat of the Caliphs. 

The city of Bagdad stands on both flides of the Tigris, 
tile western or ancient part being now r^;arded as a kind of 
suburb to the more modem part, which stands on the 
eastern bank of the river. The fonn of the new city Is an 
irregular oblong, about 1600 paces in length, and 800 in 
breadth ; and a brick wall, nve miles in circumference, 
encloses the two towns, which have a wretched bridge of 
eommunication between them, formed of pontoons. At the 
principal angles of the wall are round towers, with smaller 
tower* intervening at short distances : and on these towers 
batteries ofcannons are placed. There are three entrance-gates 
through this wall to tlie town ; one on the south-east, one on 
the north-east, and a third on the north-west. Intricate as 
are the streets in most Oriental towiisj^ they are still more so 
b Bagdad ; for, with the exception or the oazaars and some 
open sf^nares, the interior is bttle else than a labyrinth of 
aUeys and passages. The streets are unpaved, and in manv 
places BO narrow that two horsemen can scarcely pass each 
other ; and as it is seldom that tlie houses have windows 
towarda the street, and as the doors are small and meai^ 
they present on both sides the gloomy anptsoranoe of dead 
wafis. All the buildings, both public and private, are con- 
structed of fumace-bumed bricks, of a yellowish red colour, 
taken chiefly frt)m the ruins of tlie neighbouring ancient 
cities. A house is generally laid out in ranges of apartments 
opening into a square interior court, and furnished with 
Bubtenmiean rooms, into which the inhabitants retreat 
during Uie day for shelter from tlie intense heats of summer. 
The tops of the houses have terraced roofs, on which the 
mmates take their evening meal^ and often sleep in the open 
air. As the houses are out thinly scattered over tlie area 
enclosed by Uie city wall, there is a lai^ extent of garden 
cround, which produces pomegranates, grapes, figs^ olives, 
wtes^ aiid other Oriental nmitB in great penection* As in 



all Mohammedan cities the mosques are conspicuous,' so ana 
they in Bagdad, where the number in tbiul to amount to as 
many as one hundi*ed. Tlieae moucjiies ai*e, in their ex- 
ternal and internal fetitures, mucli like thosi* of Turkey 
generally ; but a deficiency of S])!endour is observable in 
most of them. The khans or caravanserais amount to 
about thirty in number ; the baths or hummums to about 
fiflv ; and there are several bazaars. 

The manners and customs of the inhabitants closely 
resemble what we are accustomed to meet with in Oriental 
cities. An English officer and his friends having solicited 
the honour of an interview with the Pacha, the Pacha's 
secretary sent some of his sei-vtmts to accompiuiy the 
visitors. On entering the gates pf the ))alace, they cnnie 
into a spacious court, where the Pacha's troops were dntun 
up, to present arms to the English visitors. On arrivin^r at 
the gates of the inner court, they dismounted ; the prineiijol 
officei's of the palace then ushered them through a dounle 
row of Janissaries, into the presence of the Pucha. The 
hall of audience was fitted up in the usual Oriental style, 
and decorated with numerous small looking-glasses. In 
one comer of the room was seated the Pucha, supjioi-ted by 
cushions. Chairs were placed for the visito» ; who wei-e 
likewise favoured by being allowed to keep on tlieir huts 
and shoes. With reganl to this latter custom we may 
remark, that tlie removal of shoes from the feet on entering 
an Eastern apartment is not so wholly ridiculous as Euit)- 
peans are sometimes apt to suppose ; for as the meals ara 
served up on trays laid on the floor, there is obviously a 
reason for keeping the floor as dean and unsoiled oa 

Sossible. The visitors were then regaled with the usual 
elicacies of an Eastern city ; and took their leave after a 
couilcous reception from the Pacha. 

We must now leave Bagdad for the north, and will take 
the same route as Captain Reppel, who went eome dist^mce 
eastward of the direct course, in order to visit the royal city 
of Teheran, near the southern coast of the Casj>iun Sea. 
The manner in which Captain Kcppel and his friends 
travelled, was to fomi a kind of cai-Jivan among themselves. 
They purchased three tents, hired twenty-four mules to 
carry tiieir servants and baggage, and provided then isel vet 
with two saddle-horses eacli. They then proieeded on 
their journey, having received a flrman fi-oni the Pacha, 
exempting them from all tolls and exactions till they 
reached the fit)ntiers of the Persian empiitj. 

After leaving Bagdad, we arrive at the ruins of the 
ancient city of Artemita, the favourite city of Chosit)e8^ 
king of Persia, in the time of lleraclius. The first ruin 
seen, is a square mound of bricks, facing the cardinal points^ 
which was probably the site of some temple in the suburbs 
of the city. A mile beyond this mound are nuniei'ous 
others, arranged with such regularity as to seem to indicate 
a succession of streets at some foi-mer period. At the 
western extremity of these ruins is a mound larger than 
the rest, supposed to have formed the foundation for the 
royal residence. Before and about this mound are several 
large grassy plats, which appear not to have been built 
upon, and which were nrobatly gardens belonging to the 
palace. The whole of tne mounds are surrounded by what 
appear to be the vestiges of a wall, with circular bastions; 
and here and there vacancies which were probably occupied 
by gates. This place is now called by the Arabs Kumstur. 

]^x)ceeding northwaid ft-om Kumstur, we come to 
Shelireban, a town situated in such an unprotected plain, 
tliat it is liable to repeated attacks from the marauding 
Arabs and Koords living in the neighbourhood. The citv, 
therefore, which had been some time previously one of the 
mpst flourishing in the Poslitdic of Biigdad, contained only 
three families at the time Captain Keppel and his friends 
visited it. Near Kui-ustur is a singular-looking building, 
formed of bricks about fouileen inches 8(|uare, and connected 
together by a hard and beautiful cement. The eustem 
sioe of this building presents sixteen well-foi-med liastions, 
twelve of which are yet entire ; and the eastem fiice shows 
a flat wall, with a regular ascent up to each bastion. Each 
bastion is about thirty feet high ; and the spaces between 
the bastions are fifty-eight feet. What was the original 
purpose of this building we cannot now letim : the Arabs, 
witn their usual love of the supernatural, stite thnt it is 
inliabited by peniu ^vho cut off the henrls of all who 
pi'esume to enter within terUiin loop-holes which are visible 

m the walls. * 

Shortly after passing this place, we anive at tJie boundary 
between the Turkish and Pereian empires, and winch was 
likewise the boundary between the celebrated empires of 

55 1—2 



44 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



Afltyria and Media, upwards of 2000 yean ago. Here aa 
incident ooeuned to tne partj of C^tain Kenpe!, which, 
as it illturtrates the predatonr habits of the inhabitants of 
those districts, and tne nefiinous agreements often entered 
into between Uiem and the governors of Turkish or Persian 
provinces, we will relate in that centleman's own words :— 
''Soon after daybreak, as Mr. Lamb and I were riding 
together, some nandred yuds in advance of our forty, 
three men on horseback came suddenly into the road from 
amonff the rocks, at one of the narrow passes of the moun- 
tain, fifty paces in advance of us, and seemed to regard us 
with no small degree of attention. He who appeared to be 
the chief of the party, was mounted on a black horse. 
They continued to march a short distance before va for 
several mUes, frequently slackening their pace till we came 
up, and then moving on more briskly. 

** When we axrt v^ near the end of our stage, they turned 
back, and allowed us to pass, giving the usual traveller's 
salutation of 'Peace I'— a phrase little in consonance with 
their hostile intentions. After we had passed them some 
distance, they struck into the mountainig, and were soon 
out of sight. 

"Our conjectures respecting them, aa it afterwards ap- 
peared, were not without foundation. On our airival at Ker- 
manshah, a younff Arab chieftain informed us, that twenty 
Koords of the (Mor tribe, one of the most numerous and 
poweriul of Koordistan, had followed us from Khanaki, 
for the express purpose of plundering our party, and of 
murdering us if we made any resistance ; of this party 
twelve were on horseback, and eight on foot, armed with 
matchlocks. The chie^ who he told us rode a black horse, 
exactly coincided in, description with the person we had 
seen. The Arab said they had been watching night and 
day for a fevourable opportunity to put their plan into exe- 
cution ; but always finoing us so much on our guard, had 
never thought fit to make the attempt, and had been ulti- 
mately obliged to abandon their purpose, on arriving at the 
mountain pass of Pac-Tackht^ where a military force was 
stationed. 

"Their chief inducement to attack us, was the intelli- 
gence they had received from Bagdad, that our party con- 
sisted of an ambassador and his suite, travelling; with a 
large treasure ; the danger we were led into by this honour 
is another of the obligations we owe to Aga Sakeis. They 
were deterred from attempting their purpose, by the dread 
of the European officers at Kermanahah revenging our 
deaths, and tneir extravagant notions of European prowess 
and skill in arms; which (notwithstanding their numbers) 
made them consider the roult of an attack too doubtftil to 
hazard, even for the abundant harvest they expected to 
reap." On Questioning the informant fiurther, it was found 
that he was nimsetf an intimate friend of the leader of the 
band, but had divulged their secret from a sense of grati- 
tude to the English for services received from Mr. Rich, 
British resident at Kermanahah ; and also that the band 
was under the protection of one of the principal courtiers 
at Kermanshah, who shared in its booty, ana ahielded it, 
through his influence in that corrupt government. 

We now approach the city which we have lately fre- 
quently mentioned, and proceied to give a description of it, 
chiefly from the observation of Mr. Jbuckingham. 

Kermanshah is situated on three or four gentle hills, at 
the foot of a range which is passed on i^proaching it fiK>m 
the west; so that it contains within its waUs some shght 
and some steep ascents, with eminences of different heights^ 
and their corresponding valleys. To the north and east 
it is bounded by a beautiful and extensive plain; and 
on the other side it is enclosed by a range of mountains. 
The form of the town is irr^rnlar, approaching to a circle 
of about a mile in diameter. The wall which surrounds it is 
flanked with circular bastions, with turrets^ loop-holes, 
ports, &c.; and this wall is pierced with five Rates. One of 
these gates has the name of Durwaz^ Nedjef Asheref, mean- 
ing the ''gate at which a saint dried up the sea." The 
legend connected with this name, and behoved by the igno- 
rant inhabitants of the town, is this: — ^Ih the time of 
Imaum All, there was a lai^ lake here, l^ the side of 
which a poor man was sitting, shaving the hair from 
his 1^ and body, when his razor and stone fell into the 
water. The Imaum cominff by at the time, and witnessing 
his distress, inquired into tne cause of it ; and finding that 
the Fa^ueer was a holy man, ordered the lake to be dried 
1^, whi(4i it instantly became at his word, and has remained , 
dry land ever smce. 

Sixty years ago, Kermanahah was nothing ^ora than a 



lar^ village, the inhabitants of which subsisted chiefly 
their agricultural labours in th^ own plain, and by the 
feeding of their oattle on the neighbouring pastures. As a 
frontier town in the west was wantinj^, however, as a safe- 
guard in case of a war between Persia and Turkey, Ker- 
manahah waa fixed upon as the residence of one of the 
Shah of Persia's sons. Since that period the town has gra- 
dually increased in size, in population, and in affluence. 
During the visit of M. Rosseau, French consul at Ker- 
manshah, in 1807, he estimated the inhabitants at sixteen or 
eighteen thousand. Twenty years afterwards BCr. Buck- 
ingham estimated them at more than thirty thousand. 

The prince holda aovereign sway over the neighbouring 
territory ; and is said to be as powerfril a governor aa the 
Shah himself. Being in a maimer the founder of the town 
in its present state of opulence, he takes a pride in em- 
belliahmg it with public works. A large palace, near 
the centre of the city, for himself a country-house sur- 
rounded by gardens, for his harem, and a q>aoious mosque 
near his own palace for the public use, have been built 
from his own funds, without any extraordinaiy contri- 
butions. The whole range of. streets, bazaars, caravanse- 
rais, batha^ &c, recently erected, are, however, built from 
fimds advanced by their future occupiers, in loans to the 
prince, on the feith of his promise that the sums shall be 
aooonnted for in their annual rents. The prince is there- 
fore the great owner of the land and buildings; and, aa Ids 
will is law, there is littie doubt, as Mr. Buckingham re* 
mario^ that the rents will be so regulated aa to return him 
an enormous profit; in which case, instead of a munificent 
adomer of a oity of his own founding, he csn only be 
regarded aa a monied speculator, in possession of an unre- 
ftrained monopoly. 

The prince s palace is atuatod on one side of a large 
maidan, or open square, the other three sides of which are 
occupied by slu^ stalls^ and entrances to bazaars. The 
palace front ia about a thousand feet in length, and the 
ascent to its centre is by an inclined plane. jLeading off 
from the top of this ascent are two long causeways or galle- 
ries, going ful along the front of the building, at tiie height 
of fifteen or twenty feet from the level of the aquare below. 
The whole of the front is a plain brick wal^ excepting 
only the centre, where two or tnree stories rise over the door 
of entrance. Above this entrance is the public divan, 
which has an open balcony, looking out on the square, and 
from which the view of tne town and the countiy ia com- 
manding and agreeable. Here the prince sits for an hour 
or two early in the day, to transact public business and 
receive visita ; but as the sun shines strongly on it at that 
period, it u then always covered by a perpendicular awning 
or curtain. 

The interior fittings of the palace ; the baths, with the 
process (so long and complicated to an European) of 
bathing ; the mosques ; the bazaars, &c., at Kermananah, 
so nearly resemble what we are accustomed to read of 
Oriental towns generally, that we pass over those details, 
^uit the town, and conduct the reader onvrard in his 
journey. ^ 

The direct route from Kermanshah northward would 
leave Teheran on the right ; but as that city is the residence 
of the Persian Shah, wo will accompany Captain Keppel in 
the route to Russia vid Teheran. At aoout five dayr jour- 
ney from Kermanshah, we arrive at Hamadan, another 
conaiderable town, the inhabitants of which may be charac- 
terized by a brief description of the chief visitors who came 
to welcome Captain Keppel's party, on the morning after 
their arrivaL The first was the Prince of Hamadan's 
physician, an elderly man of very amiable manners, and 
possessing a dmee of liberality of opinion and general 
information rarely to be met with in an Oriental physician ; 
he frankly acknowledged the superior skill of the Euro- 
pean phyincians, and begged a medical genUeman forming 
one of tne party to prescribe for him. A Jewish Rabbi 
then paid them a visit, and gave an affecting detail of the 
persecutions which the Jews sufiered from the Mohimune- 
dans: his bitter complaints were directed, not so much 
against the sovereign authority of the place, as against the 
petty and incessant iU-usage ot the mass of the Mohammedan 
people. Then came the cliief of the Armenians resident in 
the town : the Armenians, as the reader b probably awarc^ 
are Christians belonging originally to the districts at the 
south-east of the Black Sea ; and this visitor gave a detail 
of ill-usage and cruelty similar to that of the poor Jewish 
Rabbi, — ^for the '^ unbelieving Jew," and the ** Christian 
dog/' are equal objects of hati«4 among the Mohammedan% 



SUPPLEMENT FOR JANUARY, IMI. 



tzc^ that tha tompotsl power and inflTMnce ponened by 
(Jm EoTopeui Cluutuiw make them objects of fear to the 
Mohmtmedana. The next vintor was a diatinjouhed 
FeiMaa, who had been bnaily eunged in a eesrch for the 
"philoaophar'a atone ;" and who ^mcicd that the Bnglish 
tnTalleiB wen eDsag^ in « umilar pursuit ; aince lie 
heart that they had been exploring old mine, and bad by 
them certain acida and chemical teata with which thev 
dctormlDed the geological character of ftagments of rock 
which they frcnn time to time collected. They soon nn- 
deeeired him ; and endeavoured to convince fiini of the 
Dttcr wotthhaaneaa of the pursuit in which he was engaged. 
The laat TUtor we shall name was a money-lender, whom 
we shall introduce to show the estimation in which the 
Eaglidi diaraeUr is held in Persia for probity and honour 
b commercial dealinn. One of the party widiing to draw 
a bill on Bagdad, and to get it cashed at Hamadon, sent to 
inqqire liow that mifht be done. A miaerable-Iooking 
man bood ^ipeared, who from beneath his tattered garmenta 
drew &ith a bag containing the requisite quantity of gold 
coin. Thia he readily ^ve, and received in exchan^ 
nothiiw moi* than a piece of paper with an order (m 
Dogliah) for payment at Bagdad. The party wondered at 
■ach a proof of unlimited confidence, for the man could not 
read a word of the order ; and were not a little gratified to 
btar him aay in explanation: — "The Ingreea (Enslish) 
have never been known to deceive." Sir John Malcolni 
had been aome time resident in Persia, and had, by his high 
penonal character, contributed greatly to ibis lavourable 
unpreanon concerning the honour of an Englishman. We 
Dwyiay in connexion with this subject, that British officers 
nsdent in Penia, recommend English travellers in that 
toontry to wear English costnme, as it generally meeta 
with remect. 

From Hajnadan a pleasant district conducts the traveller 
to Ttieran, the usual residence of the court of the Shnh of 
PfisiQ. This city occupiee a Doaitioa once forming part of 
the ancient empire of tbe-Ueae«, near the southern shores 
dT the Caspian Sea. Ita political importance as the seat of 
KTenunent is more striking than the beauty of its situation ; 
loT the nnmetooa spring torrents, which pour from the 
•djaccDt heights at the twginning of the warm season, satu- 
isle the low ground about the town, sink into ita vaults, 
and send up such vapours and dampness as to render the 
fpot very ioaalubrious during that season of the year, 

Teheran ia aumniuded by a deep ditch, towers, and a 
nod wall, embracing a circuit of about eight thousand 
Jtnjs. There are four entrance gates, lesdins respectively 
(a Iniahan, Tabriz, and two monntoinous districta : they 
m pbin in atructure, with the exception of a few oma- 
nwDtal blua and green tiles. The streets of the city are 
extremely narrow, and full either of dost or mnd, accord- 
iaglo the aaaaou; the limited width, too, is rendered more 
ii»«Qveoient by the prevalent custom of the nobles to ride 
thnogfa them attended by thirty or forty servanta on horse- 



back ; and by the frequent passa^ of loaded camels, mules, 
aeaea, and sometimes the royal elephants. The imperial palac* 
splendid as it is within, presents a similar want of external 
elegance to most other Persian dwellings; it is situated in 
the citadel, a distinct quarter of the city, occupying a square 
of twelve hundred yaids, and surrounded by its own bul- 
warks, which adjoin the north wall of the town. At one 
particular part of the city is a targe open space or square, 
full of wide and deep excavations, or rather pits, sunk in 
the ground. Within the abaft of these well-like places, 
and round ils steep sides, are numerous apertures, leading to 
subterraneous apartments ; some the sojoum of poor bouBc- 
less human beings, and others, a temporary stabling for 
beasts of burden. 

After illustrating the extremely narrow and confined 
arrangement of the streets. Sir Robert Ker Porter obst rves : 
" Where any place does present a Mttle more room than 
ordinary, or under the covered wavs attached to the shop^ 
wegenerallyfindone of the national ston'-tellerB, surrounded 
by groups of people, some well clad, otners in ra^ and not 
a few nearly naked, attending with the most lively interest 
to tales they must nave heard a thousand times before. Ha 
recounts them with a change of gesticulation, and a varied 
tone of voice, according to his subject ; wheUier it t>e the 
loves of KhosToo and Shireene, the exploits of Rustum thi^ 
favourite herOp or any number of historic couplets from 
Terdousi, the Homer of their land. From the humblest 
peasant, to the head that wears the diadem, all have the 
aame pasdon for this kind of entertainment." 

On leaving Teheran, the route conducts us along a con- 
siderable portion of the western shore of the Caspian Sea, 
through a district of a very mountainous character, ima 
inhabited by rude mountaineers, who have cost Russia more 
trouble and campaigning than any other of her suhjcc a. 

There is no particular town after leaving Teheran till we 
^rrive at Cesbin, about a hundred miles distant. This town 
u the residence of a Priuce Govetnor, and was once the 
capital of the kingdom ; it has undergone a great diange of 
fortune, but is saSiciently populous to carry ou a tolerably 
extensive trade. We have taken a few opportunities of 
illustrating the manners and customs of the Persiana as we 
proceeded ; and the following account of the viut of an 
Engliih officer to the Prince of Casbin will illustrate the 
fondness of the Eastern courtiers for fiattery and adulation. 
" I did not stipulate for my privilege, as an Englishman, to 
be seated in the prince's presence, fearing tha^ if I did, I 
should not obtain an interview ; eo I was obliged to stand 
before him. I was presented by his mebmandar, whose 
motions of reverence I imitated. His highness's manner 
WBB haughty, but it seemed habitual and not assumed. He 
asked me several questions, mostly respecting himself. To 
these I always tried to give a reasooable auswer ; but tlie 
mebmandar, preteadioK to attribute my plainness of lan- 
guage to ignorance of idiom, turned everything 1 aaid into 
extiavagant compliment to the prince, and then aaked me i/ 



46 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



that was not what I intended to say. To dissent was im- 
possible ; so 1 let him have his own way, and thus all 
parties were pleased." 

Proceeding onwards in the road from Teheran to Tabriz, 
we arrive at the ruins of Sultomeh. This was once a 
considerable and beautiful city ; but nothing now remains 
of it but ruinous vestiges, of which tbe chief is the palace 
of tbe Sultan Khodabundab, by whom the city was built 
600 yejirs ago. A little firtbor northward is Zinjaim, a 
lar^re and populous town, forming tbe capital of tlic district 
of Khumseh, and governed by one of the king's sons. This 
to^^'n is provided with bazmirs equal to those of almost any 
town in the Persian empu*e ; one of them extends from 
the eastern to the western gate, and is covered throughout 
the whole length ; the shops and stalls being provided with 
all the usual articles of consumption. From this bazaar 
another branches out, and terminates at the other end in 
the maidan, or great square. 

We now approach that mountainous .region which sepa- 
rates the Caspian from the Black Sea. A few miles beyond 
Suit imeh a orick bridge crosses the river Kizil Oozan, 
which separates the provinces of Irak Ajemi and Azerbijan. 
The scenery in the neighbourhood of this bridge is ex- 
ceedingly wild and rugged ; immediately below the bridge, 
the river passes by a narrow channel between lofty preci- 
pitous mountains, which rise almost perpendicularly in rude 
rugged niiisses. At a little distance below the bridge are 
the remains of an ancient fort, standing on a detached rock 
of an irregular form. 

In this immediate neighbourhood is Mount Ararat, 
Certiinly the most celebrated mountain in the world, since 
it is that on which the Sacred Record informs us the Ark 
of Noah rested when the waters of the Delua^e had partly 
subsided. In the present day, this mountain is remai-kabfe 
as being a point where three of the most extensive empires 
in the world meet each other : — the Russian empire, which 
threads to the frozen regions on the north ; — the Persian 
empire, which extends almost to the frontiers of India ; — 
ana the Turkish empire, which brings us to the central 
states of Europe ; all meet at Mount Ararat, the onl^ 

Soint where tnis confluence occurs. Mount Ararat is 
escribed as being most difficult of access. A Pacha of 
B iy«izid, some years ago, tried to make the ascent to the 
higliest summit. He departed from Bayazid with a large 
party of horsemen, at tne most fovourable season ; and 
ascended the mountain on the Bayazid side, as high as he 
could on horseback. He caused three stations to be marked 
out on the ascent, where he built huts and collected pro- 
visions, lie Iiad no difficulty in crossing the region of 
snow near the upper part of the mountain ; but when he 
came to the gi'eat cap of ice that covers the top of the cone, 
he could proceed no farther, because several of his men 
wei-e there seized with violent oppressions of the chest, 
from the great rai*efdction of the air. He had before 
offered large rewards to any one who should reach the top ; 
but thougli many Koords who live at its base have 
attempted it, all have been equally unsuccessful. Besides 
the gi-eat rarefaction of the air, his men had to contend 
with dangers arising from falling ice, large pieces of which 
were constantly detaching themselves from the main body 
and rolling down. An immense chasm extends nearly half 
way down the mountain, in the deep recesses of which are 
vast masses of ice. 

We have gone somewhat out of the route, for the sake 
of mentioning a spot so celebrated as Mount Ararat. We 
must now transport oui-selves somewhat eastward, where 
the to^vn of Tabriz lies in our line of route. Tabriz is 
about three miles and a half in circumfei-ence, and is 
sun-ounded by walls built of sun-burnt brick, with 
towera of kiln-burnt brick, placed at in-egular distances 
along the walls. There ai-e seven gates, at eiwh of which 
guards are stationed ; and they are closed an hour or two 
after sunset, and not opened again till the morning. 
Tabriz was formerly the second city of Persia, in size and 
importance ; but it is now greatly diminished in wealtli 
and population. The Ark All Shah (citi\del of AH Shah) 
is a structure, which was originally intended for a palace ; but 
the prince afterwards convei*ted it into a citadel. It contains 
within its limits, the remains of a mosque about eighty 
feet high, at the top of which are three small chambers, 
from wh -nee a panoramic view of the surrounding country 
is obtained. When Mr. Morier was at Tabriz, a number of 
Kui'opean workmen were fitting up the Ark Ali Shall as an 
arsenal. In the front ^ard was a range of euns and all the 
accompaniments of artillery. A numerous pody of carpen- 



ters and wheelwrights were at work with European tools, 
superintended by an European mechanic. Partner on wns 
a blacksmitli*8 foiye, worked with charcoal for want of 
coal. Then in another yard were piles of shot, with men 
filling cartridges, &c. Next succeeded a range of apartments, 
in which were saddlers, and workers of leather ; and store- 
rooms for articles of various kinds. 

To undei*stand the motives for such an establishment, we 
must bear in mind that we are now near the frontiers of 
Russia, between which country and Persia frequent hosti- 
lities have taken place within the last twenty or thirty 
years ; insomuch, that the effeminate habits and proceedings 
witnessed in Southern Persia would be utterly unable to 
compete with such a vigorous nation as Russia. 

As we shall soon take leave of Peraia, we will give Mr. 
Morier's description of one or two features characteristic of 
most Peraian towns :— " There are noises peculiar yy every 
city and country ; and none are more distinct ana charac- 
teristic than those of Persia. First, at the dawn of day, 
the mueszins are heard in a great yai'iety of tones, calling 
the people to prayers from tne tops of the mosques. ; these 
are mixed with the sounds of cow-boms, blown by the 
keepers of the hummumSf to inform the women, who l>athe 
before the men, tliat the hatha are heated, and ready for 
their reception. The cow-horns set all the dogs in the 
city howling in a fiightfy manner. The asses of the town, 
generally thinning to hiay about the same time, art 
answered by all the asses in the neighbourhood ; a thou* 
sand cocks then intrude their shrill voices ; which, vn\h 
the other subsidiary noises of persons calling to each other, 
knocking at doors, cries of children, complete a din very 
unusual to tlie ears of an European. In the summer season, 
as the operations of domestic life are mostly performed in 
the open air, every noise is heard. At night, all sleep on 
the tops of their houses, their beds being spread upon their 
terraces, without any other covering over their heads than 
the vault of heaven. The poor seldom have a screen to 
keep them from the gaze of passengers; and as we 
generally rode out on horseback at a very early hour, we 
perceived, on " the tops of the houses, people either still in 
oed, or just getting up ; and certainly no sight was ever 
stranger. The women appeared to be always up the first, 
while the men were frequently seen lounging in bed long 
after the sun had risen. We may remark that there are 
many passages in Scripture which seem to indicate that the 
custom of sleeping on Uie housetop prevailed in the Jewish 
nation, and in other parts of Western Asia. 

When Captain Keppel was at Tabriz, he once dined at 
the house of the Russian Charge d' Affaires ; and mentions 
it as a singular instance of the way in which natives of 
different countries find their way into foreign lands, that 
although all the party were Christians, and did not exceed 
twenty, there were present natives of France, Spain, Italy, 
Germany, Holland, Russia, England, Greece, Sclavonia, 
Armenia, Georgia, Arabia, and Persia; and among the 
servanta in attendance were a Russian, a Persian, an Indian, 
a Turk, and a Kalmuk Tartar. 

From Tabriz, different routes may be, and frequently are, 
taken to Europe ; but that which we shall follow ap- 
proaches pretty near to the Caspian Sea, and touches it at 
two points, Baku and Astraklian. 

Tne river Araxes foims the boundary between the 
Russian and Persian empires, at that part where Captain 
Keppel and his party crossed it. The nver is here about a 
hundred yards in width ; over which the party crossed in a 
boat made of the hollow trunk of a tree, the fiores of which 
formed a rope to secure it to the bank. In this frail bark 
the men ana the baggage were transported over the river, 
while the horses were made to swim over. . On crossing the 
river the party entered a tent, before which a number, of 
women were busily engaged, some in manufacturing carpets^ 
others in milking cattle, and others in making bread. 

About half-way between Tabriz and Baku, is the town of 
Sheesha, contaimng about two thousand houses, of which 
three-fourtlis are inhabited by Tartars, and the remaind^ 
by Armenians. The present town was built about a century 
ago by a Tartar prince, but the remains of an older town 
ai-e visible at the foot of an opposite hill. The lower parta 
of the houses are built of stone, and have shelving roofs of 
sliingle. The town and fort are sun*ounded by a wall ; 
but the natural advantages of the situation, on the top of 
an almost inaccessible rock, liave left little occasion for 
artificial defence. The language spoken is a kind of Turk* 
ish dialect ; but the inhabitants re«d and write in Pei-sian ; 
the costume also bears a nearer resemblance to the Pez^ian. 



SUPPLEMENT FOR JANUARY, 1841. 



» 



Bftkti is situfttod on a «maU promontory which juts out 
into the Ca^ian Sea. It ia a neat, though small sea-port 
town, built entirely of stone ; and suirounded by a deep ditch 
and double wall of stone. The roois of the houses arc flat, 
and covered with a thick coating of naphtha. The town 
contains ono Armenian church, and twenty mosques, with 
only one Russian church. The bazaar is small, but neat, 
and is much more cleanly than the generality of Asiatic 
bazaars. The population is computed at about four thousand 
persona, of whom nearly all are Tartars. The principal 
articles of commerce are common silk and various small 
wares of Russian manu&cture. On the site of this town 
once stood a city, celebrated in the time of the Persian iire- 
worshippers for its sacred temples, on the altars of which 
blazed periM*tuai flames of fire, produced by ignited naphtha. 
Thousands of pilgrims used to pay an annual visit to this 

Siace, before the rapid spread of Mohammedanism had re- 
uced to insignificance the religion of ancient Persia. Cap- 
tain Keppel found at this spot the remains of a temple of 
this kind, attended by tribes who presented a singular mix- 
ture of Tartar and Indian habits. Enclosed within a penta- 
gonal wall, and standing nearly in the centre of a court, was 
a fire temple, — a small, square building, with three steps lead- 
ing up to it from each &ce. Three l^lls of different sizes 
were suspended from the roof. At each comer was a 
hollow column, higher than the surrounding buildings, 
firom the top of which issued a bright fiame ; and in the 
middle of the court was a large fire of ignited naphtha. The 
pentagon, which on the outside forms the wall, comprises 
m the interior nineteen small cells, each inhabited by a devo- 
tee. These devotees were Hindoos ; but their language and 
manners had such a strong tinge of the Tartar race, that 
their Hindoo origin was lumost concealed. A Brahmin 
was found engaged at his devotion in one of the cells ; in 
another cell was an ofiiciating priest of a particular sect of 
the Hindoos. These devotees were pilgrims who came from 
different parts of India, and who were accustomed to relieve 
each other every two or three years years in watching the 
sacred fire, as they deem it. We may remark that every 
part of the soil in the neighbourhood is strongly impr^- 
nated with naphtha. 

The next town of any note is Kuba, once the residence 
of a Tartar khan, but now garrisoned by the Russians. It 
eontaina about fkve thousand inhabitants, one third of 
whom are said to be Jews. Still fiurther to the north is the 
town of Durbund, the capital of one of the Russian pro- 
vinces. The walls, which are very ancient, divide the town 
into three portions, of which the higher comprises the 
citadel, the middle constitutes the town ; and the lowest is 
principally occupied by gardens. Here is shown the found- 
ation of a house built by Peter the Great, who visited the 
to%m soon after it had come into the hands of Russia. The 
walls of the city are buijt of a compact stone of a dark 
colour; and sixty bastions protrude at regulai* intervals. 
One of tlie gates has an inscription in Russian ; another has 
an inscription in Persian : ono among many proofis of the 
mixed cnaracter of the place. Durbund has been succes- 
aively in the hands of Turks, Tartars, Arabs, Persians, and 
Russians, and manifests the heterogeneous effects resulting 
from this circumstance. Hero one of our English travellers 
paid a visit to the Russian commandant and nis lady ; and 
nys : — *^ On my return to the room, the company, consist- 
ing of the officers of the regiment and the staf^omcers of the 
garrison, were thronging in. I here saw, for the first time, 
the Russian salutation. Every officer, on entering, took 
the right hand of the hostess and pressed it to his lips; 
while she at the same moment kissed his cheek. Dinner 
was pre&ced by a glass of brandy and a piece of salt fish. 
Tiie ladiefly of whom there were several, seated themselves 
together ; the poet of honour next our fair hostess was 
assigned to me as the stranger. The band played during 
dinner ; adfter which the company (with the exception of 
mvself, who took a siesta) sat down to cards.'* 

Ipartlier northward we come to Kizliar, standing on the 
banks of the river Terek, at about forty miles' distance 
from the Caspian. This town and the dependant villages 
contain about twenty thousand inhabitants ; of whom the 
greater numbers are Tartars, and nearly all t^e remainder 
Aimeniansy (for we have now pretty well lost all traces of 
the Persian race.) Tliis town is a kind of limit between 
two different districts, as respects the mode of travelling ; 
for the routes just describea have been performed almost 
wholly on horseback, whereas the joumev northward from 
Kizliar to St. Petersburgh, by way of Astrakhan, is per- 
Somned by cotriage. These caxTiages— at least those em- 



ployed between Kizliar and Astrakhan,— are four-wheeled 
open carriages, without springs, about five feet and a half 
lonp:, three feet broad, and three deep ; and drawn by three 
horses abreast, general ly in as rude and inelegant a condi- 
tion as the carriage itseff. 

The district froni Kizliar to Astraklum is, for the most 
port, di*eary and sterile; over which the Taiiar driven 
conduct tlieir vehicle in a fearless and vigilant manner. 
Arrived at Astraklmn, the English party whohi wc have 
hitherto accompanied, and whom we shall now leave, were 
ushered to the residence of a Scotch missionary, the Rev. 
Mr. Glen, whose pious and benevolent demeanour made a 
deep impression on Capt^vin Keppel, who remarks : — ^'*At 
no period of my life do I I'omcniber to have been impressed 
with so strong a feeling of devotion as on this evening. Few 
persons of the same genenU habits will understand my par- 
ticular feelings. Few have ever been placed in the same 
situation under similar circumstances. Quitting countries 
once the most rich and populous, now tlie most desolate and 
lone, fulfilling in their calamities the decrees of Divine Pro- 
vidence ; safe from the dangers of the desert, and ii-om the 
barbarian tribes with whom every crime was common, I 
found myself in a religious sanctuary among my own 
countrymen, in whose countemmces, whatever were the 
trivial errors of their belief^ might be traced the purity of 
their lives, and that enthusiasm in the cause of religion, 
whicli has caused them to become voluntary exiles : whoso 
kindness promised me every comfort, and whose voices 
were gratefully mised to Heaven in my behalf." 

The city of Astrakhan is the most celebrated in the 
southern part of the Russian empii'e, being so situated as to 
command the commerce of tlie Caspian Sea. It is situ- 
ated near the mouth of the great river Volga, at a distance 
of about eiglit hundred miles south-east of Moscow ; and 
from it there is an uninterrupted water conveyance to St* 
Petersburgh, twelve hundred miles distant. It ranks as 
the eighth city in the Russian empire, liaving a population 
of forty thousand persons. The town is irrettulai-ly built, 
and the houses present a singuhir medley of European and 
Asiatic taste ; they are constructed principally of wood, and 
are between four and five thousand in number. There are 
four Armenian churches, twenty-five Greek churches (the 
national church of Russia), nineteen Mohammedan mosqutfs^ 
besides places of worsliip for various sects, botli European 
and Asiatic. There is an academy for marine cadets; a 
Greek seminary for ecclesiastics; a high school; a dis« 
trlct grammar school; and four inferior schools. The 
Kremlin, or citadel, is a large and beautiful building, con- 
taining the cathedral and the barracks; the fomier of 
which, like most ecclesiastical edifices in Russia, consists of 
a massive parallelogram with four small cupolas on the roof, 
and a large one in the centrc, from which the building re- 
ceives its light : the interior is splendidly decorated ; and is 
prized among the Russians for containing a costly effigy of 
the Viigin, — six mitres inlaid with pearls and precious 
stones of large size, — a baptismal font of massive silver, 
ninety-eight pounds in weight, — ^and other costly articles. 
One of the mest remarkable buildings is a mosque rccently 
erected by a private wealthy Mohammedan, but shaped 
like the Cnristian churches of the East. 

No city of Asia presents more striking features of Europe 
and Asia combined, than Astmkhan. The Russians form a 
considerable amount of tlie population, mid are engaged in 
trade. The Tartars, belonging to thrce different classes or 
races, amount to about 10,000, and take up their abode in 
distinct suburbs of the city. The Anncnians are among 
the most wealtliy of the poj)ulation, and have now nearly 
abandoned their peculiar national mode of drcss, and have 
adopted the costume of Europe. The women, however, 
still -i^^alk abroad, covered from head to foot witii an enor- 
mous white veil, which conceals the whole person, except a 
small part of the face. The Georgians ot Astraklum are 
mostly mechanics, or persons filling humble stations in life. 
The Hindoos and Chinese to be found at Astrakhan are 
only occasional visitors, with the exception of three or four 
hundred of the fonner, whose occunation is to lend out 
money at usurious interest ; and as tneir accumulations are 
seconded by the utmost simplicity and parsimony in their 
mode of living, these Hindoos nse quickly into affluence. 
Although the regular population of Astrakhan is estimated 
at 40^000, j^et it is supposed that at one particular season of 
the year, i.e., the fishing season, there are no less than 
80,000 additional visitors at Astrakhan, dra%vn thither prin- 
cipally on commercial pursuits. At this season the city 
pteisents a highly interestii^g scene of/ gaiety and budtle* 



48 



THE SATUBDAY MAGAZINE. 



Having thus bHn^iIit our fbllow-tnTellen to AstnkhAn, 
ire muy nuike a few mnarka on the exttsordioaiy district 
which MparateB it from the ccntnl parts of Feraia. If we 
draw a Btraieht line from Astrakhan to the sonth-weet cor- 
ner of the Caspian Sea, another straif ht line &om this Idst 
point to ibo eastemmost point of the Btack Sea, and a third 
aom the Black S«ft to Astrakhan, we shall endose  trian- 
g[ular district, whose longest side (along the Caspian) is 
about 700 miles, and the other two about COO e«ch. This 
district is, in a political sense, one of the most Rmaikable 
in Asia. It contains the bonndaiy-Unes between the ttd«n- 
sire empires of Russia, Tnrkeir, and Peroa, and contains a 
population who care but little for the sapreme anthority of 
either of thoee countries. Georgians, Mingtelians, Circa*- 
sians, Armenians, Tartars, Koords,— all are to be met with 
in this district, forming a kind of bonndary between the 
more effeminate Perwans on the south, and the rude Cos- 
sacks and Tartars on the north. Their religion raiiea as 
much nstlieir origin and habits; Mohammedaiis, Armenian 
Christians, Russian Christians, Fire Worshippers, Worship- 
pers of the Great Idma of Thibet, — all are to be found 

These circnmstancee gire a strangely mixed character to 
the towns. situatod In this district. Gradually they «re 
lodng their Pernan or Turkish character, and are becoming 
erery year more and more Russian, occasioned bv the steady 
progress of this power in that direction. Still, howerer, 
the old institutions and habits are not done away with. A 
mosque maV be found next to a Rusuau guanl-honse, or a 
flat-roofed Persian house maybe near a Russian church ; 
while both Russians and Persians are required to be con- 
stantly on the alert, to repel the bold mountaineers who 
repeatedly attack them, and . who, deeming themselves the 
rightful owners of the country, look upon both the others 
as enemies. The persevering energy of the Rusuan govem- 
ment has, however, overcome so many difficulties and obsta- 
cles in this quarter,' tlut the bounduy between Russia snd 
Persia does not differ widely from the line which we have 



supposed to be drawn from the east end of the Black Sea 
to tJie south-west extremity of the Cai^ian. Whether or 
not this boundary will be driven still wther southward, is 



a question whicn the future history of Central Asia can 
alone determine. 

From Astrakhan to St Petersbnrgh is, as we have sud, a 
distance of about twelve hundred miles. There are two 
rcMons why it will not be neceeesry for ns to follow our 
tnrellers ^ong this road: Ist. We have made a point, in 



our details hitherto, to unli mtetiiiff on nhjeeto frhiA 
hare already been described in the SatHrdmi Magd*m»: saj 
re&ain nom entering it 



a pursuance of this plan, we will r 



number of articles were devoted to t) .. ._.^ 

volumes. 2nd. There is no country in Eortnie or A^ 
presenting fewer points of interest than the flat eonntiT 
from Astrakhan to St. Pet«reburgh. No grcat dty, exc^ 
Moscow, is met with in this immense distance ; and the u- 
habitants an so extremely scanty that nothiiwean be tnm 
drearv than many parts <n this lonte. Naanv all Enriidi 
travellen who take this route try to got uuon^ it m 
rapidly as possible, koowing that tnere is little to intsMt 
them on tne way. Colonel Conolly, a few yean ago, b 
mnlriTig the overland journey, hired a cairia^ for tin 
Russian route, which he fitted np for dav or night trsrel- 
ling ; stored it with provisions ; provided nimself with ftui 
and warm clothing, and lived, boarded, and slept in his car- 
riage during the greater portion of a yvtj nftid journey bom 
St. Petersbnrgh to the Persian frontier. Inns are so feir 
the road, and provisions so bad, that some such pliuM 



this is necessary to keep the demon of hanger aw^. dot 

V 1 J — ! — 1 good portion of his joninmr, adopted a ^ 

many occasions to be tnankfol f ' 



Keppel, during a good pbrtion of his joni 

which he had many occasions to be 

&stened a (M^hMb to the saddle of his horse; and triunent 
he could not obtain warm beverage any other way, bi 
would put a little tea and sugar into his kettle, obtsin mat 
milk if possible, add a requisite quantity of water, snd 
managvto boil a cup of tea in a very few minutes: quit* 
willing to di^«nse with the numerous conreniBices of s 
tea-service. Overland travellers must, indeed, reckon m 
being deprived of many of the comforts found on ship-bosfd ; 
but the excitement attending scenes of travel frequoitlynioN 
than compensates for this deprivation. 

We thus end our first overland route ; which may be Ihiu 
summed up. From Bombay across the Indian Ocean, to 
the Persian Gulf is about thirteen hundred miles : — £rein the 
south to the north of the Persian Gul^ six or seven luD- 
dred ; — from the Persian Gulf to Mount Ararat, seven hun- 
dred ; — &om thence to Attraldtan, probably five hondrcd ;— 
from Astrakhan to Moscow, eight hundred ; — and fion 
thence to St. Petersbnrgh, four hundred : — making sbant 
four thousand five hundred miles. These distances m 
estimated very roughly ; and do not take in the tunungiwl 
windings of the roads necessarily taken ; but they may Mm 
to convey something like an idea of the real diataDOS pal 



KASTBAH DounroBT OR IHK Boms-Toh 



tONIlON I'ubluhtJbjJOHN W PARKED, Wi:*T S 



>, ndHld lij sn Bo^nlliai. 



N° 552. FEBHUAEY 6T?, 1841. {(ta^rSxr. 



Vol. X^TII. 



50 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE 



u<« 



[February 6, 



.CANOYA AND HIS WORKS* 

11. 

We left our young artist at that period of his history 
when his eager aspirings after distinction in his profeilion 
were encouraged by the invitation of his benevolent 
patron, the senator Falier, to repair immediately to 
Venice. The reception he met with at the Falier palace 
was most kind and hospitable, and he thus found him- 
self, at the age of fifteen, in a situation which opened a 
new and ample field for observation and improvement. 
The love of independence, which had ever strongly 
marked the character of Canova, would not, however, 
permit him to be entirely dependent on the bounty of 
others. He justly considered himself sufficiently ad- 
vanced in the mechanical department of his profession 
to entitle him to some recompense in labouring for 
another; he therefore resolved to engage himself as 
assistant to some eminent master, and was not long in 
entering into an agreement with Giuteppe Ferrari^ 
the nephew, or grand-nephew, of his former friend 
Toretto, and sometimes kno¥m by that surname. 
Canova engaged, for a very slender consideration, to 
work during the latter half of each day for Ferrari. 
•• 1 laboured," says Canova, in a letter to a friend, " for 
a mere pittance, — ^but it was sufficient. It was the fruit 
of my own resolution; and, as I then flattered myself, 
the foretaste of more honourable rewards, for I never 
thought of wealth." It is evident, therefore, that, young 
and inexperienced as Canova then was, his own exertions 
did in part minister to his necessities on his first arrival 
at Venice. 

Canova remained under the direction of Giuseppe 
Ferrari nearly a year, and then left his employment, and 
became his own master.. But we must not pass over h s 
space of time without noticing his deportment amidst 
the novelties and allurements which presented them- 
selves in a great city. Whatever might have been the 
fears of his friends for a youth of lively sensibility and 
little experience, they were quickly dispelled by the strict 
propriety of conduct maintained by Antonio. ' From 
his first arrival in Venice, he made an exact distribution 
of his time, and allotted to each division its proper 
employment* The mornings were devoted to the stu- 
dies of the Academy, or to those of the Fan^iti gal- 
lery ; the latter part of the day was passed in the labours 
of the workshop; and after these were concluded, the 
remainder of the evening was allotted to intellectual 
pursuits, and improvement in those branches of educa- 
tion in which he felt himself particularly deficient. 

The Academy of Fine Arts at Venice, though far 
inferior to what it has since become, possessed at this 
time some good casts from the antique, and a larger 
number from the most celebrated modem productions. 
The students in this Academy were directed in their 
studies by professors of some eminence. The Farsetti 
gallery, in which, as we have said, Canova also studied, 
was in the Farsetti palace, and was thrown open to 
students in the fine arts, and abundantly supplied with 
every requisite for their use. The constant attendance 
and assiduity of Canova at this place were such as to 
attract the attention of the noble owiier, and from thence 
the young artist received his earliest commission, which 
led to the first performance for which money was paid. 
This earliest of Canova*s public labours consisted of 
two baskets filled with different fruits and flowers, sculp- 
tured in white marble. They are still to be seen on the 
balustrade of the grand stair, but they present no 
striking marks of proficiency, or indications of future 
talent. 

An undertaking of greater importance had for some 
jtime occupied his leisure hours. This was commenced 
at the instigation of Falier, and was to comprise a group 
on the subject of Orpheus and Eurydice. The model 
for the statue of Eurydice was first executed, and as 



the Falier family w^r^ aUut to }eave^town, for their 
usual summer retreat at Asok, Canova accompanied 
them, carrying with him eveijthing necessary for 
the completion of < that part of his work. At the 
Villa Falier, therefore, was Canova's first statue com- 
pleted, when he was in his sixteenth year. It was 
executed in pUtiXL tU CoitHf a species of soft stone, \ 
found near Vicenza. Canova is said to have been but 
little satisfied with this first effort; but his Eurydice 
was generally applauded as a work of great merit, and 
gave so mucn satisfaction to his patron that the young 
sculptor was declared sufficiently instructed in his pro- 
fession to present himself, without fear, on the public 
stage of life. We may here relate a pleasing aneicdote, 
illustrative of the kindness of Canova's disposition. 
During the time he was labouring at the statue of Eury- 
dice, a domestic of the Falier family had waited on 
him, and rendered occasional assistance, in connexion 
with the object of study, thus becoming for the time a 
friend and companion of the young artist. Nearly forty 
years afterwards, when Canova, loaded with honours, 
and bearing the title of Marquis of Ischla, visited the 
Villa Falier, he recognized the same domestic, now aged 
and infirm, as he entered the apartment, in attendance 
upon the company. Canova immediately rose from his 
seat, and going up to the old man, in p)resence of the 
assembly, most cordially embraced him, recalling with 
delight every little incident of their early acquaintance, 
and suggesting many endearing recollections. True 
nobility of mind, united with the gentle virtues was 
remarkably displayed in Canova, and made him as much 
beloved as his talents caused him to be admired* 

But we must return to the completion of his Eury- 
dice, and the commencement of hit professional career 
on his own account. Canova's first workshop was a 
vacant cell in the monastery of the Augustine Friars, 
attached to the church of St. Stefano, which through the 
kindness of the monks was gratuitously assigned for his 
use. There, in an indifferently lighted apartment, on 
the ground-floor of the inner cloister, Canova worked 
industriously for the space of four years. An apartment 
was still appropriated to his use in the dwelling of his 
patron, so that he did not remain in his cell after the 
nours of labour. During the . first three years of this 
period he was employed, in addition to his ordinary 
studies, on the statue of Orpheus, and in executing a 
bust of the Doge Renter, He was regular in his 
attendance on the studies of the Academy, but his pro- 
gress appears to have been chiefly promoted by bis 
assiduous study and faithful imitation of nature. At 
this period the simplicity of nature was generally con- 
sidered as poverty, — devoid of elegance or grace : 
instead, therefore, of a faithftil imitation of the object 
of study, the artists of that period drew, or modelled, 
the figure before, them, with such additions or corrections 
of nature as their own capricious fancies su^ested. 
These departures from simpUcity and truth were turned 
from with disgust by the better taste of Canova, and he 
determined to take nature — ^simple nature only — for his 
model. 

The science of anatomy now occupied a large portion 
of the attention of our young sculptor, and though he 
was at first obliged to rest satisfied with the information 
to be derived from books and puUic lectures, it was after- 
wards his constant practice to study from the human 
subject, dissecting with his own hands, and making 
sketches or models of every important part. He justly 
regarded a knowledge of this science as of the greatest 
importance to his art, and therefore continued to study 
it to a late period of his life. His profession so con- 
stantly engaged his thoughts that even when walking 
in the streets, where that exercise could be enjoyed in 
Venice, he was always ready to mark whatever he saw 
that was interesting in expression, or striking in attitude. 
'< He would often stop before the workshop of some 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



tl 



LTtisan, to remtrk the forcefiit yet easy position into 
nrhich the body was thrown in different occupations." 
His steps were frequently arrested, as he traversed the 
long succession of wliarfs which formed a favourite 
place of exercise to him, to observe with admiration the 
well-formed trunk or sinewy limbs of a porter in power- 
ful exertion. Yet so much did he love simplicity, that, 
on being observed by those who had been the objects of 
his contemplation, he immediately passed on, knowing 
that his attentive regard would produce constraint in 
their actions. Appearances, thus hastily caught, were 
so cleverly retained, and fixed by the sculptor in his 
mind, that when his subject required it he could make 
use of them in a way seldom perceived in the artificial 
and studied positions of academical figures. His appli- 
cation was at this period unremitting ; and none could 
witness such unwearied exertions, united with so much 
talent, without anticipating for our artist a high degree 
of future excellence and eminence. Nor did he, while 
closely engaged in studies immediately connected with 
his profession, pass by in disregard those collateral 
branches of knowledge which might give correctness to 
the subordinate embellishments of sculpture. To use 
the words of his friend, the younger Falier, — '*He 
knew how to instruct himself in every kind of informa- 
tion connected with literature and the arts, at the veir 
moment when his heart and hand were occupied with 
such exquisite address in giving to marble life and move- 
ment." He studied ancient and modem history, espe- 
cially the former. Through the medium of translations, 
he became acquainted with most of the classic writers 
of Greece and Italy ; he was well read in works of anti- 
quity, taste, and the philosophy of the arts, and is said 
to have been well acquainted with the Spanish and 
French languages. Respecting the former there appears 
some doubt, but the latter he studied with assiduity, and 
spoke with fluency and elegance. 

This general plan of professional study was followed 
by Canova during nearly seven years, tnree of which 
had now elapsed since the production of his statue of 
Eurydice. As might have been expected, the progress 
in knowledge and experience of the artist, was strongly 
marked in the completion of the group. His Orpheus 
which now appeared, was evidently superior to its com- 
panion, and exhibited wonderful correctness, with the 
utmost simplicity and closest imitation of nature. It 
was wrought in soft stone, but the execution was such 
that it might easily have been taken for marble tinted 
by age. There was a custom at Venice for such artists 
as had recently finished any meritorious performance, to 
exhibit it publicly in the square of St. Marks, at the 
annual festival of the Ascension. Induced and encou- 
raged by his friends, Canova so far overcame his 
natural diffidence as to present here his statue of 
Orpheus. As this was his first attempt to bring him- 
self into public notice, his feelings were proportionably 
agitated ; but his apprehensions as to the result of this 
step, were soon dissipated. Though the style of his 
production was altogether different from that which was 
generally followed at that period, yet the simplicity and 
truth conspicuous in it, called forth the approbation of 
every person of genuine taste and feeling, while the 
obscurity of the author shielded him from the envy of 
rivals. 

From this period, 1776, must be dated the commence- 
ment of Canova's success and reputation. The approba- 
tion bestowed on the Orpheus, bv the Venetian public, 
was ever gratefully remembered by Canova, as that 
which made him a sculptor. After an interval of 
many years, on reading a letter which had been written 
at this period and in which his success was recorded, he 
appeared greatly affected, and exclaimed, ** O cari amici! 
grati tempi! quindi aono divenuto scutlore.** (O 
dear friends I O delightful times ! by these have I been 
rcnderei a iculptor.) Nearly half a century after this 



period, and when his fame stood so high that we might 
almost expect him to forget the circumstances reiatii>g 
to his first group, he shewed his gratitude to his early 
patron by adopting, when Marquis of Ischia, the armo- 
rial bearings of the serpent and (yr«, the mythological 
symbols of Orpheus and Eurydice. " In my armorial 
bearings," 'he writes to the younger Falier, '* I have 
adopted the emblems of Orpheus and Eurydice in 
memory of these my first two statues, ordered of me by 
your most estimable father, from which statues I ought 
to acknowledge the commencement of my own civil 
existence.'* 

After the exhibition of the Orpheus, Canova found 
his professional employment rapidly increase. The 
senator, Grimani, ordered a copy of that statue, in 
smaller dimensions, which was completed about a year 
after the former, in Carrara marble. The accommodation 
afforded to our artist by the kind monks of St. Stefano 
was now found insufficient, and he therefore removed to 
a better lighted studio in the street or lane San Mauii" 
zio, where he continued till his departure from Venice. 
The following year he produced his statue of Esculapiue 
in proportions larger than life. This work was comm »i- 
sioned by the MarchianeM Spinolaf but from a change 
of circumstances, the lady was obliged to relinquish the 
contract; thereby causing serious inconvenience to the 
artist, who was long in finding another purchaser. 
Canova on seeing this statue in after years is said to 
have been greatly surprised at the taste and mechanical 
skill displayed in it, and to have regretted that, during 
half a vi ntury, his progress had not more nearly corre- 
sponded with these early indications of excellence. 

The most important and celebrated production that 
had yet appeared, was completed in Canova's twenty- 
second year. This was the group of Daedalus and 
Icarus, executed in Carrara marble, at the request of the 
senator, Pisani, who designed it for a niche between the 
double entrance doors of the palace fronting the grand 
canal. Such was the beauty of the production, however, 
that it was deemed too valuable to be thus exposed, and 
was placed, with some chefi d^auvres of the sister art, in 
an inner gallery of the palace. This group was the last 
work of importance executed by Canova, at Venice. 
Highly as his merits were now estimated in that city, he 
felt that it did not present a field for the exercise of his 
abilities, nor afford the means of more extensive and 
refined acquirements. He therefore resolved to repair 
to Rome and to attempt an establishment there. To aid 
this enterprise, his friends petitioned the Venetian state 
for a pension, that he might be thus enabled to prosecute 
his studies without embarrassment. Canova did not 
wait the result of their endeavours in his behalf, but 
leaving this affair in their hands, set out for the banks of 
the Tiber. 

Among the numerous productions of our artist, th* 
specimens of his skill in basso-relievo must not be over- 
looked. Our frontispiece represents one of these, being 
a pleasing group illustrative of the benevolent offices of 
Instruction. 

The bassi-relievi of Canova frequently represent the 
figures of the natural size, and though exhibiting great 
beauty of form, delicacy of finish, and precision of out- 
line, are said to be often deficient in strength, from the 
degree of relief being disproportionate to their dimen- 
sions. They have been compared to a fine picture, where 
the light is too equally diffused over the whole surface 
without the just equivalent of shade. " In lines of such 
extent,** says Memes, " it would have been well if the 
contours, instead of losing themselves in the plain of the 
tablet, had been rounded off to a certain altitude ; then 
cut square, as in many of the most admired relievos of 
antiquity : a bolder, firmer, and deeper shadow is thus 
cast, and a more vigorous effect produced." 



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CALCULATING MACHINE& 
IIL Babbagb*0 Calculating Engine. 

In the present paper we ihall ilnwh our notice of calcu- 
lating machines, hy referring to Mr. Bahbage*8 engine, 
and in doing so we shall consider, first, the necessity for 
such a machine, — secondly, the mathematical principle 
on which it is constructed,— and, thirdly^ the sort of 
mechanism hy which it performs its office. 

1. Persons whose avocations require the constant aid 
of arithmetical or other tables are liable to be led into 
fluent and increasing error, unless those tables be 
rigorously correct. In the nayigation of a shin, or in 
the preparation of an almanac, for instance, tables are 
employed to an extent inconceivable by those to whom 
such employments are foreign ; and in the higher branches 
of astronomy the extent of the use of tables is still 
greater. Now these tables, being the work of human 
heads and hands, are liable to all the defects incident to 
inch productions ; and it is accordingly found that every 
table which has been yet published has been disfigured 
by error of more or less magnitude. Tables of multi- 
pucation, of powers and roots, of trigonometrical ele- 
ments, of logarithms, of the solar, lunar, and planetary 
motions, &C., have been computed and published in 
various oouiltries, to the extent of many hundred 
volumes; and, notwithstanding the extraordinary care 
which has often been bestowed on their preparation, 
there is scarcely one of them free from error, more or 
less. In a multiplication table, (as far as 100 times 
1000,) constructed by Dr. Hutton for the Board of 
Longitude, forty errors were discovered on one single 
page, taken at random. In the solar and lunar tables 
from whence the computations were formerly made for 
the Nautical Almanac, more than five hun^ured errors 
were found by one nerson. In the "Tables requisite to 
be used with tiie Nautical Almanac" more than one 
thousand errors were detected by a single individual. 
In certain tables, published by the Board of Longitude, 
a table of errata, containing eleven hundred errors, was 
affixed I It was afterwards found necessary to have an 
errata^ the errata 1 1 and one instance has been known 
of an erratum of the errata of the errata 1 1 1 

Now such a mass of error seriously affects the com- 
putations into which these tables enter, and it is of 
course desirable to devise the means of diminishing the 
amount of such error. But the sources of error are so 
numerous that it is difficult to counteract or remedy 
them all ; for instance, some result from falsely computing, 
and others from falsely transcribing; some from the 
compositor taking wrong types, and others from a dis- 
placement of the types, by the inking-ball used by the 
printers, and then by a faul^ replacement of such 
types by the pressman. Mr. Babbage himself published 
a set of logarithmic tables, in which, notwithstanding a 
degrree of care which had perhaps never before been 
bestowed on such a subject, errors were detected* even 
after the tables were stereotjrped. 

2. These circumstances, amounting almost to an im- 
possibililT of producing correct tables by the common 
method, led Mr. Babbage, about twenty years ago, to 
devise a mode of computing and printing off matiiema- 
tical tables by a machine; for it was found that, however 
correct the computation might have been, errors of the 
press would always exist under the common method. 
Nearly all tables, such as logarithms, squares, cubes, 
square roots, cube roots, sines, tangents^ Ac, consist of 
numbers which either increase or decrease, according to 
some general law, and it is therefore for the most part 
found that, whatever be the nature of the table, it can 
be computed by a continued series of additions, so as 
to come within the scope of mechanical action. The 
formation of tables by a constant sucoessioti of additions 
depends on a mathematical property, called the method 
of differenceSf which we must endeavour briefly to 
explain. 



Let us take a series 'of square numbers, that is, the 
squares of the natural numbers, beginning from 1. 



Km. 


Bqutfct. 


utDur. 


SBd.I>iff. 


1 
2 


1 
4 


3 
6 

7 

9 

11 


2 


S 


9 


3 


4 


16 


3 


6 


2ft 


3 


6 


36 







Thete results the series of squares 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 3$. 
Subtract each number from the one next below it, that 
is, 1 from 4, 4 from 9, &c and there results the series 
3, 5, 7, 9, 11, called Ut differences. Again, subtract 
each one of these last obtained numbers from the one 
next below it, land we shall obtain the constant number 2, 
called 2nd differences. Now it is found that in almost 
every table, consisting of numbers increasing or de- 
creasing according to some general law, we can arrive &i 
a constant difference, bv continual subtraction. Here is 
another example, which is a short table of the cubes, or 
Zrd powers of numbers : — 



NOfL 


Cubes. ' D^ 

1 


D« 


D» 


1 

2 
3 

4 
6 
6 

7 

8 
9 


1 
8 

27 
64 

125 

216 
♦343' 

612 

729 


7 

19 

37 

61 

91 
127 
1 9 

217 

\ 

1 


12 
18 
24 
30 
36 
♦42 
48 

 


6 
6 
6 
6 

6 
•6 



Bv subtracting the cubes successively one from 
another, we get a series of numbers forming the 1st 
order of differences. By subtracting similarly the 
terms of this series, we obtain another series, fonnin^ 
the ihid order of differences, and, by proceeding in like 
manner a third time, we come at length to a 3rd order 
of differences, in which the terms are all equal, and 
which is the constant difference. Something more or 
less analogous to this will occur in almost all tables 
increasing or decreasing according to a certain lav, and 
we can now show how these differences enable us to 
arrive at the successive terms of a table, by mere addi- 
tion. For instance, having ascertained in the preceding 
table that the constant difference is 6, that there are 
three orders of differences, and that their first terms are 
6, 12, and 7 respectively, we can construct the 2nd 
differences by adding 6 to 12, and then 6 to this sum, 
time after time. Then the 1st differences may be 
obtained by adding the terms in the 2nd differences to 7, 
term by term, and so on until we at length arrive at 
the required numbers, nothing being necessary through- 
out but a continual process of addition. In some tables 
it is found that we arrive at a column of differences 
which remains constant for a certain number of terms, 
and then acquires a slight increase or decrease ; but even 
in such a case, a periodical change of the constant dif- 
ference will be all that is necessary. 

Mr. Babbage, after carefullv considering the various 
properties of numbers, selected this one, viz., the method 
of differences, as the basis of his machine; since, after 
having g^iyen the few early terms of a series, and the 
first term of each of the several orders of differences, 
the subsequent construction of the table depends wholly 
on a continued succession of additions, a process which 
is more readily within the power of machinery than any 
other. In fiact, as exemplifying the necessity for such a 
machine, in order to insure accuracy in the unceasing 
and monotonous operations of addition, we will relate a 
curious but weU-known ftjti. 
^ During the time of the French republic, it was decided 



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upon by the goyernment of tliat country, to eonitraeta 
vast system of logarithmic and trigonometric tables, such 
as did not then exist, and which might serve as a store 
of calculation for ever. M . Prony, who was appointed to 
preside over. this undertaking, adopted with success the 
useful principle of the division of labour. He distri- 
buted the persons engaged in this undertaking into three 
sections : die first consisted of half-a-dozen of the most 
eminent analysts, whose duty it was to investigate the 
most convenient mathematical formulas, which should 
enable the computers to proceed with the greatest expe- 
dition and accuracy by the method of differences. These 
formulae, when decided upon by the first section, were 
handed over to the second, which consisted of about ten 
properly qualified mathematicians. It was the duty of 
this second section to convert into numbers certain 
general or algebraical expressions which occurred in the 
formulae, so as to prepare them for the computers. They 
were then given to the third section, who formed a body 
of nearly a hundred computers, whose office it was to 
make up the numbers, finally intended for the tables, 
and those, who in this case committed fewest errors, 
were those who understood nothing but. mere addition! 
This shows that, as such persons were little better than 
machines, so a regular machine would achieve its work 
one degree better, that is, by ensuring perfect accuracy. 

The body of tables thus calculated, contained in manu- 
script seventeen folio volumes, but were never published. 
The printing of them was commenced, and a small por- 
tion was actually stereotyped: but soon after the com- 
mencement of this undertaking, the sudden fall of 
the assignats, rendered it impossible for the printer 
to fulfil his contract with the government. The British 
government offered 5000/. towards the completion of this 
work, but political circumstances perhaps prevented its 
re-ad(mtion, and it has never been resumed. 

3. The fact, therefore, stands clear, that persons who 
knew only addition, worked throughout nearly correct ; 
and that a machine, which acts only by performing 
addition, is throughout guiie correct. We therefore now 
proceed to take a cursory glance of the mechanism of Mr. 
Babbage's machine. 

He provided as many dial-faces as tnere were orders 
of differences, plus the origial series, in the particular 
table which he desired to construct, multiplied by the 
number of figures, to which each term would extend: for 
instance, if, as we have supposed in the annexed figure, 
each term should extend to four places of figures, and if 
the series of terms had three orders of differences be- 
sides the original series itself, there would be sixteen dial- 
faces arranged in a square. Each dial is marked with 
the ten digits arranged round in a circle, and above each 
disc is a mark which serves as an index. Each dial is 
also fixed on the face of a wheel, whose circumference 
is cither toothed, or provided with projecting pins which 
can be inserted into an adjoining wheel. The object to 
he attained then is to make the dials above any particu- 
lar order of differences revolve, in proportion to the 
number contained in the order of differences next 
below it. 

For the sake of illustration, we shall therefore sup- 
pose that the table to be calculated shall co:*.sist of num- 
bers not exceeding two or three places of figures, and 
that the difference of the third order is the constant 
difference, as in the last preceding table. When the 
dials revolve, the numbers passu as they increase, under 
the index over each dial, that is, from left to right. 

Now we will suppose that the line dMs to be added to 
the line T. To effect this, the dials on the line d^ re- 
main still, while those on the line t are so moved, that 
as many divisions on each dial shall pass under its index, 
as there are units in the number at the index just below 
it If o be at any index on d\ the dial above it does 
not more. In like manner, the d' is added to the lin« 
n*. When two figures added together make more than 



9, a carrying of 1 has to be madd; and the dial to the 
left is accordingly advanced one division : Hence, in 
order to prevent the machine from being burthened with 
more mechanism than is necessary, the additions are per- 
formed in two successive periods of time, and the carry- 
ings in two other periods of time, thus : — If one com- 
plete revolution of the axis, which moves the machinery, 
makes one complete set of additions and carryings, the 
Jir»t quarter of a turn of the axis will add the second 
and fourth rows to the first and third, without carrying, 
which will be effected by the second quarter of a turn. 
The third quarter of a turn will add the second and 
third rows together, and the Jburth will carry if neces- 
sary. 

In the miniature representation which accompanies this 
slight description, we will suppose a computation to have 
proceeded as fiur as the cube of 7 which is 343, This 
number appears therefore in the highest row, and the 
several differences, as far as the third, which is constant, 
are shown in the successive rows of dials beneath. In the 
last preceding table, which concurs with these dials, the 
differences alluded to, are noarked; and by comparing the 
table with the dials it will be seen how the process goes 
on, and that, at the completion of one revolution of the 
axis of the machine, the row t will giue 0512, d' 0217» 
D* 0048, D» 0007. 




The machine occupies a space about ten feet broad, 
ten feet high, and five feet deep. In the foregoing 
description we have, for the sake of clearness, somewhat 
varied from the actual mechanism. There are, in fact, 
seven vertical axes in front of the machine, each con- 
taining eighteen wheels, with their edges presented to 
the eye ; and round the edge of every wheel the liumbera 
from to 9 are written. The eighteen wheels are for 
the purpose of carrying a computation as far as eighteen 
places of figures ; and the seven wheels in width are for 
constructing tables which have as many as six orders of 
differences. Seven other axes are placed behind the 
front ones, and are mounted with wheels connected with 
the moving parts of the machinery. The dials are 
placed vertically one below the other, and read from top 
to bottom: their axes are vertical, and their planes 
horizontal. This arrangement saves space, and lessens 
the amount of friction. The wheels of the last column, 
which g^ves the constant difference, always remain still, 
and are of course adjusted by the hand, when the cal- 
culation of a new table is about to commence. When 



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anything goes wrong, or any new adjustment has to be 
made, the machinery rings a bell 1 

The reader would perhaps desire to learn, and we 
should be happy to describe, were it possible, the actual 
movements by which all these axes and wheels effect the 

Srocess of computation; but, when we state that the 
rawings of the various parts, constructed by, or under, 
Mr. Babbage, cover one thousand square feet of surface, 
and that the machine is one of the most complicated 
assemblage of parts that the hand of man has ever de- 
visedt it is obvious that we must not attempt such a 
task. Suffice it to say, that every kind of mechanical 
agent is brought more or less into effect: cog-wheels, 
ratchet-wheels, bolts, teeth, claws, racks, levers, wedges, 
screws, — all are employed; and in such vast number, 
that none but persons accustomed to inspect machinery 
can avoid being bewildered by their enumeration. 

Perhaps the most extraordinary part of the machine 
is, that it prints the tables as fast as it calculates them. 
When one of the dial-wheels is in such a position as to 
indicate any particular figure of the table, some mechan- 
ism at the back raises a curved arm, containing several 
figure-punches. A plate of copper is brought near the 
bent arm, and, by a sudden blow, an impression of the 
required figure is punched in the copper; and the figure 
80 punched always corresponds witn that indicated on 
the dial. The plate is shifted from place to place, until 
it is punched all over with figures arranged in a tabular 
form. The plate thus stamped may be either used as 
*an engraved copper-plate, and printed from in that form ; 
or may be used as a mould, from whence stereotyped 
plates may be produced. 

When Mr. Babbage had advanced some way in the 
construction of a model-machine, and had ascertained 
that the principle on which he was proceeding was capa- 
ble of effecting the desired object, the subject was taken 
up by government, and made a national concern, on the 
ground that no private individual could reap from such 
an invention a return adequate to the necessary outlay ; 
and on the ground, also, that government were desirous 
of affording to the navy all possible means of obtaining 
correct tables for the computation of latitude, longitude, 
&c. The government applied to the Royal Society to 
report on the degree of progress which Mr. Babbage 
had made, and on the probability of the machine, when 
completed, effecting all that had been anticipated from 
it. The report was very favourable, conveying the 
opinion of the scientific men composing the committee of 
inquiry, that the proposed end was desirable ; that it was 
attainable on the plan adopted by Mr. Babbage; and 
that that gentleman was fully equal to the task of carry- 
ing it out. 

We have spoken of the machine as if it were com- 
pleted, or, at least, as it is intended to be completed. 
But, in fact, it is not yet in operation, nor even near 
completion. More than twenty years have elapsed since 
the first commencement of the model, during the whole 
of which time new difficulties have occurred, and have 
been conquered one by one. Still, however, the machine 
is not completed, and we are not exactly aware what are 
the causes of the long delay ; — whether it results wholly 
from the unprecedented difficulties of the undertaking, 
or whether pecuniary difficulties have retarded the pro- 
gress; but every lover of astronomy, of navigation, or of 
general science, must ardently desire the completion of 
so noble a specimen of genius and perseverance. We 
believe that the machine, so far as it is yet constructed, 
is national property; and that Mr. Babbage has neither 
received, nor desires to receive, any pecuniary benefit 
from the invention. If this be really the case, it is diffi- 
cult to conceive a more honourable position than that 
which the inventor must occupy in the estimation of all 
to whom the well-being of society, and its advancement 
in knowledge, is a desirable object. 



BROCADE. 



Some o'er hec lap their careful plumes dUplaj'd, 
Trembling, and conscious of (he rich brocade. 

In the early part of the last century a favourite but 
costly stuff for dresses was formed of gold, silver and 
silken threads, enriched with flowered ornaments of the 
same materials : this was called brocade. At the present 
day, however, all stuffs, grograms, satins, taffetas, and 
lustrings are called brocades, if they are adorned with 
flowers or other figures. 

In the preparation of gold brocade many ingtnious 
devices have been resorted to for diminishing the costli- 
ness of the article, by employing as small a quantity as 
possible of the precious metals. In the preparation of 
the threads for the brocade, a flattened silver-gilt wire or 
riband was spun on silk which had been previously dyed 
as near as possible of a gold colour ; and the chief merit 
in preparing gold threads was so to regulate the convo- 
lutions of the metallic covering of the silk, that its 
edges should be in close contact and form a continuous 
casing without any overlapping or interstices. 

In all manufactures a great demand for an article 
is a sufficient stimulus to ingenious persons to contrire 
the very best possible methods for its production ; and 
accordingly, we find that at the time when gold brocade 
was much in request, the manufacture of the thread, 
upon which branch much of the brocade depended, was 
in a state of great excellence, and some manufacturers 
were so jealous of their skill as to keep their pro- 
• cesses strictly secret. Among others, there existed at 
Milan a large manufactory, where by a secret process, 
flattened wire, gilt on one side only, was made. Nurem- 
burg, the great toy -shop of Europe, furnished an infe- 
rior description of thread, made by spinning gilt copper 
wire on flaxen or hempen threads. The economical 
Chinese employed slips of gilt-paper twisted upon silk: 
— sometimes they even twisted the paper without any 
internal support, into long spiral rolls and introduced it 
into their dresses. But as these golden tissues were by 
no means permanent when worn about the person, the 
Chinese confined their use chiefly to the tapestries and 
internal decorations of their houses. 

About the thirteenth century a very flourishing manu- 
facture of brocades existed at Lucca ; but in the year 
1310 the artisans being oppressed by the government, 
fled to Venice, where they were encouraged to resume 
their trade, and for a long period they continued to 
carry it on with considerable success. 

The Venetians invented a new form of brocade which 
they named damatquitte. Although it contained no 
more than half the quantity of gold and silver usually 
employed in making brocade, yet its appearance was far 
more costly and beautiful. The flattened wires were 
not placed so closely together on the silk threads, and 
the number of these threads in weaving was diminished. 
But the great secret of the economy seems to consist in 
passing the manufactured stuffs in a peculiar manner 
between rollers with great pressure, so as to partially 
crush the wire threads; by this means the ornamental 
pattern appeared like one entire brilliant surface of gold 
or silver. 

This process was long kept a secret ; but about (he 
middle of the last century the spirit of commercial 
rivalry prompted the French Government to attempt a 
similar manufacture. In this attempt they were as- 
sisted by M. Vaucanson, so celelebrated for his automalie 
achievements, who erected machinery at Lyons, and pre- 
sented an account of his proceedings to the French 
Academy in the year 1757. 

The rollers employed by M* Vaucanson wore, the 
upper one of wo(k1, and the lower one of copper, the 
latter being made hollow, for the insertion of iron heaters. 
In the early attempts it was found that the united force 



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of ten men was acarce«y sufficient so to work the rollers 
as to extend the pkting of the wire threads; and the 
great amount of force so deranged the machinery in 
which the rollers were placed, that the effects of pressure 
on the cloth were always varying. Among many other 
inconveniences, the wooden rollers were constantly 
splitting or warping, in consequence of the mode of 
forcing the rollers together. M. Vaucanson, therefore, 
contrived a method whereby the pressure should always 
adjust itself to any inequalities in the stuff, or in the 
bearings of the machine. The axis of the copper roller 
he made to turn between anti-friction rollers, while the 
wooden roller was forced upwards by levers at the ends. 
Each lever had its short arm supported on the frame of 
the machine, and the long arm was drawn up by an iron 
rod communicating with the short arm of a horizontal 
lever, to which at its long arm was hung a weight; and 
these levers were so proportioned that thirty pounds only 
would produce a pressure between the rollers equal to 
17,000 or 18,000 pounds. This force was found suffi- 
cient, and it was so effectual that the efforts of four men 
in turning the rollers answered the purpose better than 
ten men in the former case. 

The copper roller was heated by the insertion of four 
red-hot iron bars. After two or three pieces of cloth 
had been rolled, a fresh wooden roller was employed, 
since the heat, if long continued, was sure to split it. 
The heated wooden roller was wrapped, as soon as it 
was removed, in cloths, and placed in an atmosphere 
from which it might acquire moisture. The heat and 
pressure thus employed to extend the gilding were found 
greatly to improve the brilliancy of white and yellow 
silks, but to impair that of crimson, green, and other 
colours. 

It will be seen, from what we have already stated, 
that brocade was a very costly article of dress ; not only 
from the amount of precious metal employed, and the 
tedious and expensive mode of manufacture, but also 
from its evanescent nature. A brocade dress was very 
liable to become tarnished; when such was the case, the 
mode of washing was also costly. A soft brush, dipped 
in warm spirits of wine, is said to be the only method of 
restoring tarnished brocade. Brocade powders were in 
vogue at the time this sumptuous dress was in fashion, 
but they were ineffectual, because, from the extreme 
thinness of the metal, it was easily scratched or worn 
away by the friction even of the most impalpable powder. 

Brocade continued to be used in ornamenting drawing- 
room furniture, long after it had ceased to adorn the 
persons of beaux and belles. In 1798 some brocade 
chair-bottoms, for Carlton House, were produced at 
Spitalfields, and are said to be still in existence. There 
IS no doubt that should the vane of that wecithercock. 
Fashion, again point out gold and silver brocade as a 
desirable article of attire, our modem manufactures 
would soon equal, if not surpass, the costliest productions 
of former days. To those who are anxious for such a 
result let us recommend the remarks of the Spectator, 
which, though written a hundred and thirty years ago, 
are still applicable, because they refer to one of the 
weaknesses of human nature. 

A furbelow of precious stones, a hat buttoned with a dia- 
mond, a brocade waistcoat or gown, are standing topics of 
conversiition. In short, they only consider the drapery of 
the species, and never cast away a thought on those orna- 
ments of the mind, that make pemons illustrious in them- 
selves and usefttl to others. When persons are thus per- 
petually dazzling one another's imaginations, and filling 
their heads with nothing but colours^ it is no wonder that 
thoy are more attentive to the superncial parts of life than 
the solid and substantial blessings of it. 



The love of novelty often leads us firom old established 
fiivourites to less interesting objects; and when Fashion 
poinU the way, we follow as if this tyiaat directress were 
mcnpable of error. — ^Philups. 



POISONOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD. 

I. 

MUSHROOMS. 

Maky hundred species of the Agarieusy or mushroomt 
are enumerated by botanists, as being distributed over 
nearly the whole of Europe, and g^reat part of Asia* 
Africa, and America. Of these, the people of thii 
country esteem but three as eatable, but the inhabitants 
of various parts of the Continent make use of a much 
greater number, and it is said that in the Tuscan markets 
not less than three hundred different species are offered 
for sale. Almost all writers agree in considering mush* 
rooms as very difficult of digestion,^ and hence an 
improper article of diet, and it is certain that the most 
wholesome kinds will sometimes produce, in those not 
accustomed to them, symptoms of indigestion, of a most 
distressing, and often alarming kind. 

Dr. Christison and others believe that they may be 
rendered less unwholesome by more attention being paid 
to the cookery than is usual, but, as every medical 
opinion must have its opposite. Dr. Schwcegnochen, of 
Leipzig, declares they are only innocent when eaten raw, 
and states, as a proof thereof, that during his botanical 
excursions he has always been accustomed to diet him- 
self like the peasants, viz., upon crude mushrooms and 
bread, and, so far from finding them disagree with hun, 
he has always on these occasions gained flesh. Pallas 
states also that the inhabitants of many districts of 
Asiatic Russia live almost exclusively during Lent on 
bread and fungi, which they eat almost indiscriminately, 
and without evil consequences. Mushrooms formed a 
favourite dish among the ancient epicures, and frequent 
mention is made of them by Horace, Juvenal, and 
Martial. 

Dr. Greville enumerates twenty-six species, growing 
abundantly in various parts of Great Britain, most of 
which are considered as eatable abroad. We, however, 
reject all but three, as dangerous or poisonous: these 
are, 1, Agaricus campestrisy the common mushroom, 
so well known by its fragrant odour, and button-like 
form, when young; 2, Agaricus Georgiiy which some- 
times reaches an immense size ; 3, AgaHcut pratensis, or 
Scotch bonnet, occurring in the patches termed fairy 
rings. It is very possible by this limitation we may reject 
several kinds which might be safely eaten, yet is such 
an error much safer than the too indiscriminate use of 
this vegetable on the Continent, for the French medical 
journals record no less than one hundrnd deaths from 
eating mushrooms, as occurring in the vicinity of Paris, 
during the space of thirty years, viz., between 1 749 and 
1783. Severe epidemics have been also sometimes 
traced to the same source. It has been sometimes 
attempted to explain the deaths arising from eating mush- 
rooms, as depending upon some peculiarity, or idiosyn- 
cracy, as it is termed, in the individuals affected, which 
disposes them to be injuriously affected by articles of 
diet, which in their general operations are harmless, or 
even beneficial, to others ; or again, it has been supposed 
that the mushrooms may have become minglea with 
some poisonous matter, by being cooked in copper ves- 
sels. Undoubtedly, both tnese causes may have produced 
injurious, or even fatal effects, in some cases, but an 
immense number of experiments and observations have 
proved beyond doubt, that a truly poisonous substance, 
(the nature of which is however not known,) is con- 
tained in several species of mushrooms. As a proof, 
however, either that some constitutional peculiarities 
sometimes influence the operation of this vegetable 
upon the system, or that climate and situation modify 
its properties, we may mention that the Agaricus piper- 
iliSf or pepper mushroom, which is thought by us to be 
very hurtful, is largely consumed in Russia. The Agari- 
cus muscariuSf the red, or bug (so called from its 
destroying this animal) mushroom, which is deemed 



M 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[FxBRUART 6; iMa 



rankly poisonous in Britain, is used by the Russians and 
Kamschadales for the pumoses of intoxication. Dr. 
Lang^orff says the Asiatic .Russians, who call it mucho" 
morgef use it dry in the form of pills, and that one 
large, or two small mushrooms are enough for a day's 
debauch. In an hour or two the same symptoms which 
with us follow taking wine manifest themselves, and a 
surprising degree of muscular activity and energy is 
developed for a while. The Konacks use it as a tonic 
for invalids, much as we do wine. 

That mushrooms were occasionally poisonous, was well 
known in ancient times, and the writings of the Greek, 
Roman, and Arabian physicians, contain many cautions 
and precepts upon the subject. They have even been 
criminally given in order to produce this effect, and thus 
Agrippina, the mother of Nero, is said to have poisoned 
Claudius by their means, to accelerate the succession of 
her son, who called them *'food for the gods," and 
frequently had recourse to them for similar purposes, 
during his iniquitous reign. The instances of accidental 
poisoning in modem times are unfortunately but too 
frequent. The symptoms are often five or six hours 
before they maniiest themselves, even fifteen or twenty- 
four have sometimes elapsed: the fatal substance having 
undergone the process of digestion, and mingled with 
and corrupted all the juices of the body, before exhibiting 
any external signs of its presence: these even are often 
obscure and unintelligible at first; an irrepressible pro- 
pensity to laughter and general exhiliration, usually 
herald in the vomiting, griping, and diarrhoea; then follow 
sooner or later, fainting, stupefaction, and death. The 
effects of the poison are as slow in their progpress as in 
their onset, and the patient may linger days before the 
fatal moment. arrives. The musician, Schobert, and his 
family, together with a friend and a physician, having 
partook of a dish of mushrooms, gathered near Paris, 
were all poisoned. Mr. Brande has related the case of a 
man who gathered some small mushrooms in the Green 
Park, the Agaricus semi-'globcUtu of Withering, and 
Agaricui glutinonu of Curtis. Himself, wife, and four 
children, were all severely affected, but by the use of 
appropriate measures recovered. Mr. Parrot relates 
also the case of a family of six, who supped on stewed 
mushrooms : the father and mother eventually recovered 
after a severe illness, but three of the children were 
carried off after lingering a few days. The noxious 
species of mushrooms are equally huitful to man as to 
animals, and no kind of culinary treatment seems to 
deprive them' of their dangerous properties. A very 
small admixture of a bad with a good species suffices to 
produce ill effects. 

In regard to the treatment of persons poisoned by 
inushrooms, or indeed by any other description of dele- 
terious food, it cannot be too generally known thai the 
prompt administration of an emetic is the best remedy. 
This may consist of a spoonful or two of mustard, or a 
scruple of sulphate of zinc, mixed with water. As the 
poison of the mushroom is so slow in its operations, the 
use of the emetic will often be attended witn the happiest 
results. The subsequent treatment of the case will 
depend upon many circumstances, of which we need 
g^ve no account, as it should only be undertaken under 
the superintendence of a professional man. 

An important and difficult point has properly occupied 
the attention of many observers, viz., the sig^s by which 
we can distinguish the dangerous from the innocent 
species of mushroom. The botanical definitions are very 
minute, yet not sufficiently directed to this point, while 
the sensible differences between the esculent and the 
noxious kinds depend sometimes upon such shades of 
distinction, as to be quite inappreciable by those little 
accustomed to such investigations. Nevertheless, some 
facts, gathered from practical observation, have been 
accumulatedi which render considerable assistance to the 
en<|uirer. 



Miller thus describes 'the common mushroom >« 
"When young it appears of a roundish form, smooth 
like a button, which with its stalk is white, especially thi 
fleshy part of the button : the gills within, when broken, 
are livid. As it grows larger, it expands its head by d^ 
gprees into a flat form : the gills aro at first of a pale flesk 
colour, but become blackish by standing." 
• Professor Orfila says, — " All those growing in moist 
and marshy grounds, in the shade, as in forests, must be 
rejected as bad; they are always found too soft, porous, 
and moist, and have a dirty disagreeable appearance. 
Those which change colour when cut, have a strong 
pungent odour, or are of a shining or varied colour, are 
dangerous ; so are those which insects have bitten and 
left, or which have bulbous or soft stems, or fragments 
of skin glued to their surface. Those of very rapid 
growth and decay are bad. Although many are said to 
lose their poisonous properties when dried, this obserra- 
tion will apply only to some species." 

A recent writer upon the subject states, that all mush- 
rooms having the following characters are poisonous: 
1st, when the cap is very thin in proportion to the gilb; 
2nd, when the stalk grows from one side of the cap; 
3rd, when the gills are of equal length; 4th, when a 
milky juice is present; 5th, those which soon run into a 
dark watery liquid; 6th, when the collar surrounding 
the stalk is thrc»idy, or resembling a spider s web. 

De CandoUe declares that all kinds may be eaten, 
with the exception of the following: — 1st, coriaceous or 
ligneous kinds; 2nd, those which have collars in their 
stems; 3rd, those which have an &crid taste; 4th, those 
which turn blue on being cut* . 

Dr. Greville recommends collectors to taste all thej 
gather, and to reject those which produce an acrid or 
astringent sensation, as also those which have a pungent 
or disagreeable smeU. The importance and difficulty of 
this point may be judged of by the ciroumstance of some 
of the continental nations having found itpecessary to 
pass formal decrees upon. the subject. - Thus it has been 
ordered in Austria, that the inspector of the market must 
produce proof of haying attended lectures upon the sub- 
ject, and familiarized himself with the botanical distinc- 
tions of the various species of mushrooms, while works 
upon the same topic, must be in the possession of the 
magistrate. Similar decrees were issued in France in 
the time of Napoleon. 

' INFANTILE POEM, 

WRITTEV rOK LORD HASTIWGS' CHILDREtf 
BT Z.A.DT VLOIU. HAflTXKOS. 

6xT up, little sister, the morning is bright, 
And the birds are all singing to welcome tiie light; 
The buds are all opening — the dew's on the flower f 
If yon shake bat a branch, see there &Us quite a shower. 

By the side of their mothers, look, under the trees, 
How the young fawns are skipping about as they please t 
And by oil those rings on the water, I know 
The fisbes are merrily swimming below. 

The bee, I dare say, has been long on the wing. 
To get honey from every flower of the spring > 
For the bee never idles, but labours all day. 
And thinks, wise little insect, work better than play^ 

The ]ark*s singing gaily ; it loves the bright sun, 
\nd rejoices that now the gay spring is begun ; 
For the spring is so cheerful, I think 'twoi^d be wreng 
If we did not feel happy to hear the lark's song. 

6 t up, for when all things are merry and gh&d, 
6 od children should never be lazy and sad ; 
For God gives us dayhght, dear sister, that'we 
May rejoice like the lark, and may work like the bee. 



LONDON : 
JOHN WILLIAM PABKEB, WEST STRAND. 

PUBLIMID Ul WbIXLT N VMBSIM. PbIOI On FW«r» AITD Ur UcU-iBLW PAMT9, 

Pkios Sixrmok 
Bold bj aU BookMlIm And Vwmt^nA&a la tht Kiafdmn, 



^dturlTdif im^u^im. 



N9..553. 



FEBBUABY 



f PWOT 

XOm FBon 



TURKEY AND THE TURKISH PROVINCES 



ALI PACHA, AND THE SULIOTS. 
Havino, in a former article, brieSy described the 
titoatioD ajid nature of the aiaall tract of country forming 
Hk native habitAtion of the Suliots, aa also the character 
and mode of life of the inhabitants ; we shall now take a 
cursory glance at the changes which hare occurred in 
the political position of this little republic within the 
last fifty years. 

With the exception of Mehemet All, the present 
Pacha of Kgypt, few Turkish governors of recent times 
have eiiualled in vigour and successful cunning Ali 
Pacha of Joannina, a man who raised himself from a 
very humble situation to that important post. Ali wa« 
bom in the small town of Tepeleni, in Albania, in the 
year 1750. His father, Vely Bey, at the head of a 
band of robbers, had gained possession of Tepeleni by 
force, and gradually acquired a kind of sovereignty over 
the surrounding district. Vely had two wives, of whom 
Khamco, the mother of Ali, was a woman of uncommon 
talent, undaunted resolution, and great cruelty; the 
Ittter quality she displayed, hy poisoning her rival, and 
the son of the latter, soon idler her husband's death, 
thus iBcuring the governing power to her own son Ali. 

Under sach a mother, young Ali did not fail to make 
npid progress in those manly acts which are so much 
Meemed in a rude state of society : he became the best 
horseman, the swiftest runner, and the most expert 
muksm&n of the district which he governed. By the 
raited efforts of his mother and himself, he gradually 

Vol. XVJII. 



extended the sphere of his power, and became an object 
of fear and distrust to the beys and agaa of the neigh- 
bouring territories. He was, in fact, nothing more than 
what, in other Eurt^ean countries, would have been 
termed a Captun of Banditti; but the state of govern- 
ment in Turkey is such, that pashas, beys, and agas, are 
often but little removed from that character. In battle, 
Aii possessed undaunted courage and great ability; and 
in intrigues, a sagacious and wily keenness; and these 
combined, enabled him by degrees to lifl himself into the 
high office of Pasha of Joaunina, about the year 1785. 
He now looked forward to the establishment of an inde- 
pendent sovereignty for himself in Albania and Epirua. 

The means which he resolved to take for the completion 
of this plan, (»yf the Rev. Mr. Unghes in his interesting 
Travels in Albania, ) were to amass treBsures, to keep agents 
in pay at the Ottoman court, to infuse suspicion of other 
powers into- the minds of the divan, to render himself useful 
to whatever European state was moat able to return his 
services, and finally to seize upon the property of his neigh- 
bours whenever and by whatevermelhods he could. In the 
execution of these measures, his rapacity was boundless, his 
penetration deep, his aggTeaBions innnmerablc, his perfidy 
more than Pnnic, and his success for a time complete. 

We are not here writing an account of Ali'a life, but 
only so much of it as is necessary to show the en use of 
the ruin of the little republic of the Suliots. Passing on 
then to the year 1792, we find the Suliots attacking and 
harassing Ali in the southern part of his territorv. from 
a deep hatred of the tyranny which he was ^i-'adually 
introuuciiig. To root out the Suliots became therefore 
U3 



58 



THE SATU^I^^.^ MAGAZINE. 



[February IS, 



one of his plans. He collected an army of 10,000 men, 
and while his ^p reparations were making, he sent letters 
to the two chief captains of the Suliots, endeavouring to 
eptrap them into a treacherous compact. The treachery 
was half suspected; the seizure of seventy unarmed Suhots 
soon afterwards confirmed it ; and the SuLots then deter- 
mined on a firm resistance. 

The Pasha advanced with his army towards the 
Suliot villages, when a proof was given how stout a 
defence might be made at the passes of the rock leading 
from the river side : the defiles and narrow inlets speedily 
became choked with the dead bodies of the Turks; and 
it was not until the ammunition of the Suliots failed, 
that they receded to their villages. An act of female 
heroism now occurred, which has seldom had a parallel 
in any age or country. The Suliots were retreating to 
Suli, when Mosco, the wife of Captain Tzavella, rushed 
out of the town sword in hand, accompanied by many 
other women similarly armed, and persuaded the troops 
once more to oppose the advancing Turks, This act 
roused the enthusiasm of the Suliots to such a degree, 
that they fell on the Turks with irresistible fury. Mosco 
soon found the dead body of a favourite nephew ; when, 
kissing his cold lips, she crie4, " Since I have not arrived 
in time to save thy life, I wilj yet avenge thy death," 
these words were followed by another attack so over- 
whelming, that Ali was forced to retreat after having 
lost nearly all his troops, and the whole of his baggage, 
ammunition, and arms. A peace, very advantageous to 
the Suliots, terminated this event. 

For about eight years after this period, Ali was en- 
gaged in a busy scene of war and irltrigue, mixing him- 
self up in the various political riegociations between 
Russia, Turkey, J^Vance, and Venice ; and endeavouring to 
advance his own interests by cheating all of them in turn. 
•At length! about the year 1800, he resojved on a second 
attack of thfe Suliots: he contrived to make Botzari, their 
captain, a traitor to his companions ; and gained over the 
neighbouring agas and beys by causing a sheick to give 
such a translation of certain passages in the Koran as 
should give a sort of religious air to the contest. The 
treacherous Botzari did infinite mischief to the Suliots, 
and then deserted them just * at' the moment of attack, 
leaving only 3000 Suliots to defend themselves against 
18,000 Turks. The attack was commenced at different 
points, but resolutely met. at all ; the infamous Botzari 
himself headed one of the attacks, but was repulsed so 
tgnominiously that he died soon after of disappointment. 
For two days the contest between the Suliots and Al 
continued, and ended, as before, in the complete defeat 
bf the latter. On one occasion, owing to the pecu- 
liar nature of the rocky defiles as a natui'al defence, 200 
Suliots completely defeated 3000 Turks, with the loss of 
only twenty men." 

Ali now determined to blockade the Suliots, by placing 
five strong bodies of troops in the principal defiles leading 
up to the villages. These five bodies were promptly 
confi'onted by an equal number of Suliot bands, to each 
of which was attached a troop of females, to provide the 
food, to relieve the sentinels occasionally when on duty, 
to supply ammunition, and even to engage in the con- 
tests. The defence, in short, was so energetic, that Ali 
found the siege hopeless. He then turned it into a 
blockade, with the hope of starving out the Suliots ; but 
they were acquainted with paths unknown to his troops, 
and were enabled to bring in supplies of food. Foiled 
at all points, he attempted to make a treacherous truce ; 
and having got seventeen Suliots into his hands, 
threatened to torture them to death if the place was not 
surrendered ; but such a people was not likely to be 
moved by fear of death, and his threat was repelled with 
scorn. He then resolved to try bribery ; and sent an 
offer of a large sum of money to Captain Zerva, one of 
the most taliant of the Suliots, if he would betray the 
Bepublic. The answer of Zerva is worthy of record: — 



" I thank you, vizier, for the kind regard vou express 
towards me; but )L beseech you not to send the purses, 
for I should not know how to count thera : and i/ 1 did, 
believe me that one single peW)I,e belopging to pay coun- 
try, much less that country itself, would, in my ey^'s, 
appear too great a return for them. Equally vain are 
the honours you offer to bestow on me. TJie honours 
of a Suliot lie in his arms. With these I hope to 
immortalize my name and preserve my country.** 

Every stratagem on the part of All failed ; but as the 
blockade was still continued, the Suliots began to feel 
the fearful effects of hunger ; they were obliged to live 
upon acorns, herbs, and roots, and to grind and mix up 
the bark of trees with a small proportion of meal. This 
distress, however, did not lead them to forget the nature 
of the struggle in which they were engaged : they knew 
that if once Ali gaified possession of their territorj', 
their position would pQ jaumiliating in the extreme. 

For more than tVeJve months did this Jblockade con- 
tinue; Ali, in the mean time^ employing al) the arts of 
cunning and persuabion to induce some of tlie Suliot 
chiefs to come over to his cause. These reiteratid 
attempts were generally unsuccessful; but at.lergth he 
wearied out the iSuliots with the length of the blockade 
and with his unceasing stratagems; and, on December 
J 2, 1603, they capitulated, and obtained leave to emigrate 
to other lands. But the basest treachery was here 
shown: the Suliots were divided into two bodies, one of 
which was to go to the neighbouring town of Par^a,and 
the other to Santa Maiira, one of the Ionian Jslands; 
but Ali's troops, in defiance of t)ie compact agreed on, 
fell on them, "and massacred large niiinljers of the women 
and children ; and only a portion oj* 't)ie guliots reached 
their destination.' Even these 'wore further persecuted 
by Ali and his emissaries, an4 hecamcat length mere 
wanderers in Corfu, Santa Maiira, and Farga. 

After the Suliots became extinct as a nation, we find 
that for many years they made feeble "struggles, — now aid- 
ing the French, — and now some of the "beys and pashas 
who were hostile to All— hut always Vithout regaining 
their ancient homel fhus they continued until nearly 
fwenty years afterwar4s, when, ' through tlie complex 
nature of the politics ofsouth -eastern ]pur6pe*, they found 
themselves fighting by the side of their old enemy Ali. 
The Greeks of the Morea, were struggling to throw off 
the Turkish yoke, — ^the Turks were determined to resist 
them to the last, — the Suliots were anxious to get back 
to their native hills, — and Ali was grasping for power 
and wealth wherever they were to be obtained. It is 
therefore not easy to trace, in a brief space, the circum- 
stances which led to a compact between the Suliots and 
their deadly enemy; but it must suffice to say, that in 
the year 1822, the Greeks, the Suliots, and Ah, were all 
leagued together against the Turks. This league ter- 
minated by the death of Ali ; and s6on afterwards the 
brave but unfortunate Suliots were rgain compelled to 
leave their mountain home, and seek for refuge, under 
the English flag, in the Ionian Islands: 3C0O Suliots 
accepted this refiige, and the rest dispersed themselves 
among the neighbouring tribes. 

During the subsequent contests between the Turks 
and the Greeks, the Suliots were frequently found^erving 
as volunteers in the ranks of the latter ; and at the siege 
of Missolonghi, and the other engagements ^hich tock 
place during that war, the Suliots were highly dis- 
tinguished for their skill and bravery. The corps of 
500 hundred men, raised and equipj)ed by Lord Byron 
at his own expense, was composed of Suliots, for whom 
he had a great admiration. Since the termination bf 
these contests, the Suliots have been restored, in a 
partial degree, to their former liberty; but their numbers 
have become so wasted, that they no longer constitute the 
once formidable band of mountdn heroes : — they must 
be spoken of as an heroic race whose deeds have out- 
lived their perpetrators. 



1841.J 



tat 8ATU&0AT MAGAZINE. 



5d 



ON THE PRODUCTION OF DESIGNS 
BY STAMPING. 

The general use of stamps among civilised nations, 
and especially in our own country at the present day, 
renders any detail as to the mode of their production in 
metal, peculiarly interesting; and the more so, because 
it is generally supposed that these stamps are produced 
by secret processes, which, if revealed,* would tend to 
encourage forgery, and s6 occasion loss to the revenue. 
This, however, is so far from being the case, that the 
modes of producing the stamps are well known to artists, 
and may be almost equally well ifnderstood by the 
general reader. The 6liief security against forgery con- 
sists in the talent aild ability of the artists, employed to 
produce these stamps ; and that it should be so, seems 
pretty evident, when we inflect that it is now next to 
impossible long to maintahi secrecy in mechanical pro- 
cesses. Hence, attempts at forgery seem to be precluded 
by consMerations of tikc inability to command the requi- 
site talent, as well ds of th^ danger and worthlessness of 
a far-off imitation. 

In the ' malnufacture of dies for stamping, the most 
careful attention is necessary to be given to the kind of 
metal best adapted to the purpose: — ^steel is generally 
preferred to all other metals ; and this must be not only 
of the very b^st quality, but of a peculiar kind, altogether 
different from that employed in cutlery. It should be 
rather finely grained, and of a perfectly even and uniform 
texture. The choice of the steel, however, depends so 
much on the experience of the die-forger, which is ac- 
q aired only by practice, that no general rules can be 
offered. 

The Sest description of steel having been selected, it 
is formed into the rough die by forging. It is then 
softened ty being carefully annealed; that is, the die is 
embedded in a crucible, full of animal charcoal in coarse 
powder, anc[ so brought to a red heat; it is then allowed 
Xo cool very gradually, the effect of which process is, to 
make the metal very soft^ so that it easily yields to the 
tools of the engraver. The die is then smoothed exter- 
ually, and a flat table worked on it at the turning-lathe. 
The engraver, being furnished with the design, com- 
mences by working out the device with small steel tools ; 
and, as tbe work proceeds, he frequently takes impres- 
sions in clay or casts of type-metal, until he is satisfied 
with the general effect and correctness of his work, as 
compared with the original design, fiimished to him by 
the artist. A first-rate engraver will frequently devote 
many weelts, and even mouths, to the preparation of an 
important die: we may easily conceive, therefore, how 
valuable it becomes, and what care is necessary to con- 
duct it safely through the subsequent operatioUs. Un- 
fortunately, the next process, that of hardening, is as 
difficult as it is important; and it should be entrusted to 
those only, who have acquired considerable experience 
in the art. 

One of the most valuable properties of steel, is its 
cjp«ibih'ty of being made hard or soft, according as it 
is rapidly or slowly cooled after being heated. At the 
first view, nothing appears so easy as to make a piece of 
soft, malleable, and ductile steel red hot, and then sud- 
denly cool it in cold water i whereby it becomes hard, 
fragile, x^id brittle. But as a die is a mass of steel 
necessarily of somewhat large dimensions, the process of 
hardening is attended with peculiar difficulties, not the 
least of which is, the preservation of all the delicate 
touches of the engraver's skill. To meet this object, 
the engraved face of the die is protected with a covering 
*of oil, thickened ^Hth powdered charcoal; sometimes 
pipe -clay is added to this: some employ a pulp of garlic: 
but pure lamp-black, mixed with linseed oil, is the best 
protecting composition. A thin layer of it is spread on 
the engraved part of the die, which may also be further 
guarded by a projecting iron ring. The die is next placed 



with its ftice downwards m a crucible filled with powdered 
charcoal, and then heated to redness : it is afterwards by 
means of a pair of tongs taken out, and plunged into a 
large volume of cold water, and rapidly moved about so 
long as a bubbling hissing noise continues: it is left in 
the water till it becomes quite cold : if a singing noise 
should continue after the bubbling and hissing have 
ceased, the operator is tolerably well assured that the 
work of the engraver is thrown away; for the die has 
cracked. 

The action of this process upon the die is rather to 
case-harden it, than to harden it tht'oughouL The in- 
terior parts of the die seemed to be held in a forced state 
of dilation, while the external parts are permanently 
dilated. The theory of the process of hardening steel \s 
intricate; but it is well illustrated by an experiment 
recorded ill Tomlinson's Manual of Natural Philosd- 
phtf, A cylindrical steel die, such as is used for medals, 
was made to fit exactly a hollow cylinder of its owh dia- 
meter: the die was then hardened: and it was thu< 
found impossible to make it enter the cylinder. But 
when the cylirtder and the die contained within it had 
been both subjected to the process of hardening, the sub- 
stance of the cylinder being such as not to display the 
usual effects of hardening, this latter, upon being cooled, 
merely returned to its former dimensions, while the die, 
in dilating and remaining permanently dilated, became 
distorted in a manner, as if it had been violently driven 
infb a space much smaller than itself: a ridge of metal 
was, in fact, raised around the two end-wise circum- 
ferences of the die, and it was thus kept fixed within the 
cylinder by an enormous force. This remarkable fact 
has been thus explamed by M. Biot: — ft is supposed, 
that the instant when the steel, being strongly heated, 
is suddenly cooTed, the cooling effect is first experienced 
by the exterior layers of the metal, which become 
moulded, as it were, and fixed upon a centre, still strongly 
heated and dilated; by which means the die is made to 
occupy larger dimensions than it would have done, if it 
had been allowed to cool gradually. The molecules 
near the centre of the mass, cool at a later part of the 
process; but the eiterior layers, having already acquired 
a fixed state, retain the interior particles in a condition 
of great expansion, and thus determine the volume which 
they occupy, and prevent thexii from approaching so near 
to each other, as they would have done, had the whole 
n&ass been allowed to cool gradually. 

When the process of hardening the die has been sue- 
cess^lly performed, other protective measures are 
adopted: sometimes a mild description of tempering is 
employed, which consists in placing the die in cold water^ 
heating it to the botHng point, and then allowing it to 
cool very slowly. This process makes the die less liable 
to crack in very cold weather. Sometimes the die is 
protected by being thrust into an iron ring, which exactly 
fits it when red-hot, and in cooling binds the die wid^ 
very considerable force ; thereby preventing the spreading 
of external cracks and fissures, and allowing a greater 
and more effectual power to be exerted upon it in the 
subsequent process for obtaining punches. 

Supposing now that the die has been properh' hardened 
and that the protecting composition has fulfilled its 
object in preserving the design from injury and fronu 
the action of the fire; it is then cleaned ard polished^ 
and constitutes what is technically called a Matrix. 
This is used as the parent t of numerous punches, or 
steel impressions for producing stamps in relief. For 
this purpose a block of steel is chosen of the same qua- 
lity, and with the same precautions, as in foiniing the 
original die; and this steel, being carefully softened, is 
turned, like the matrix, with a perfectly fiat table at the 
bottom, being left broad and conical at the top. By 
means of powerful machinery, a strong pressing force is 
applied at the conical surface of the punch, and the matrix 
being very hard, soon causes the soft steel table of the 

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THE SATUHDAY MAGAZINE. 



[FZUKCAKY 13i 



punch to receive the first ferros of a perfect impretsion : 
but in this proceBS of compresBion, the Bteel itself 
becomes hard, and requires to be repeatedly annealed, 
or softened, during the operation ; otherwise, its surface 
would split into small cracks, or be likely to injure the 
Diatrii. By repeated blows, therefore, in the die-press, 
and by frequent annealing, the punch is at length com- 
pleted; and after being examined by the eDgraver, it is 
turned, hardened, and furnished with an iron collar, like 
the matrix, of which it is a perfect copy in all respects, 
except that the design is lunft, instead of being raited) 
— that is, the punch is an intaglio, while the matrix is a 
cameo; and consequently, the copies &om the punch on 
paper will, like the original matrix, be cameos also. 

The original matrix is in general too valuable to be 
used in making further punches: these are multiplied 
by tneans of another matrix, formed from the first per- 
fect punch, and all of them being fac-umiles of the 
original matrix, may be used in the production of stamps 
to any amount. For this purpose, a screw-press is 
usually employed, in which the punch is made to descend 
with great force upon a die which it accurately fits, and 
the paper being placed between, receives the impression. 

Such then is a general account of the various processes 
for producing stamped designs t» reUefi. upon paper. 
We do not of course pretend to have described anything 
more than the general practice of this branch of art : 
there may be many vanations in practice, which we do 
not undertake to develop ; the common principles of the 
processes in use being enough for the information of the 
general reader. 

"WnssB there ia most love of God, there will there be the 
truest and moat enlarged philanthmphy. No other tbunda- 
tion is secure. There is no other means whereby notions 
can be reformed, than that by which alone individuals can 
be regenerated. In the laws of God, conscience is made the 
basis of policy ; and in proportion as human laws depart 
from the groundwork, error and evil are the sure result. — ' 

SODTHBT. 



Be sure to mend that in thyself which thou observeet doth 
exceedingly displease thee m othera. — Bibbof Patkick. 



EvsBT nieculation which tends to suppress a consideration 
of the Supreme Power and Plrst Cause, has a pernicious 
moral eSeot, while the evil is aiibalsnced by any philt>- 
aopbical good, rather indeed tending to chedc the pursuits 
of ecieiice.^H>ooin>LocB . 



own minda to -some fixed and determinate principles of 
action. The world is a vast labyrintb, in which almost 
every one is running a different way, and almost every one 
manifesting hatred to those who do not mn the same way. 
A few indeed stand motionless, and not seeking to lead 
themselves or others out of the maze, laugh at Uie feilures 
of their brethren, yet with little reason ; for more grosdy 
does he err, who never aims to n> right. It is more honour- 
able to the bead, as well as to&e heart, to be misled by our 
eagerness in the pursuit of tmth, than to be safe from 
blnnderiuK bv contempt of it. The hqininees of mankind 
is the end of virtue, and truth is the knowledge of the 
inean* ; which he will never seriously attempt to discover, 
who has not habitually interested himself in the welfart of 
othert. The Boarcher after troth must love and be beloved j 
for general benevolence is a necessary motive to constancy 
of pursuit ; and this general benevolence is begotten and 
rendered permanent by social and domratic affections. Let 
■as beware of that proud philosophy, which affects to incul- 
cnte philanthrophy, while it denounces every home-bom 
feelinff by which it is produced and nurtured. The paternal 
and hlial duties discipline the heart, and prepare it for the 
love of all mankind. The intensity of private attachments 
encourages, not prev«nt«, univ^ed nenevolence. The 
nearer we approach tbe sun, the more intense his heat, yet 
what comer of the system doea he not cheer and vivify. * 



ON CHESS. 

IV. AKCIXNT CflKSa-MBK DiacOTEBED IK THE IlLI 

OF Lewi*. (Comclused.') 




The Warders are armed warriors (ffrdkr in Ice- 
bmdic), which here take the place of the rook, or castle, 
and are represented in a standing attitude, wearing 
helmeU, of various shapes, but chiefly conical, some with, 
and others without, flaps ; but all wanting the nasal-piece. 
The coat, or gambeson, which most of them wear, 
descends to the feet; yet, in lieu of this, others have a 
coat of mail, .with a hood which covers the head. They 
aU hold a sword in one hand, and a shield in the other; 
but the position is varied; the shields in some instances 
being borne in front, and in others at the side. The 
shields all bear distinctive marks, Uke those of the 
knights ; but some of them are of a broader shape, and 
less elongated. In general the warders ore more varied 
from each other than the similar figures of the other 
pieces. One peculiarity in the figures of three of the 
warders tends to strengthen the belief of their being of 
Norwegian or Icelandic workmanship, and that is the 
singular manner in which they are represented* (iftW 
their shields. 

Now this was a characteristic of the Scandinavian 
Bersbrkar, who were unarmed warriors, subject to fits 
of madness on the eve of battle, under the influence of 
which they performed the most extraordinary feata. 
They are thus described by Snorre ; — " The soldiers of 
Odin went forth to the combat without armour, raging 
like dogs or wolves, biting their shields, and in strength 
equal to furious bears or wolves. Their enemies they 
laid prostrate at their feet; neither fire nor weapon 
harmed them : this frenzy was called Berserksgangr. 

The Pawns are of various shapes and sizes, but 
chiefly octagonal, with conical termina^ons: on one is a 
fret-like ornament, and on another some scroll-like 
adornment : the others are plain. 

The shields of the knights and warders are highly 
curious, as presenting a series of devices, — the inunediale 
precursors of hereditary armorial bearings, — in greater 
variety than is to be tbund on any other existing monu- 
ments of such an early period. The Gothic nations, 
however, from the 'earliest times, were accustomed to 
pamt their shields of various colours ; and from the Ro- 
mans they might easily have learned to adopt difierent 
insignia. From some passages in the Voluspoy Saxo, 
and Egir» Saga, it has been assumed by many of the 
northern antiquaries, that the ancient Scandinavians 
adorned their shields with represenUtions of their ex- 
ploits; but Sperlingius, in his "Collections" on the 
subject, argues strongly against it, and affirms that 
before the twelfth century no traces of any devices on 
shields are to be fonnd among them. The only device 
on shields noticed by Snorre is that of a cross, which 
Sperbngm* conjectures wu first introdnced by King 



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THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



61 



Olaf the Saint, at the commencement of the eleventh 
century. Most of the shields depicted in the Bayeux 
tapestry, hear crosses of different shapes; and this is 
likewise the case with those of the chess figures : some 
of the former also exhibit a species of dragon. 

The ancient chess-men discovered in the Isle of Lewis 
have been made the suhject of an extremely beautiful 
and learned essay on the introduction of chess into 
Europe, by F. Madden, Esq., F.R.S., published in the 
twenty-f>u:fh volume of the ArcluBologicu Mr. Mad- 
den supp3<;es these chess-men to have been executed 
about the m'.ddle of the twelfth century, by the same 
extraordinary race of people who, at an earlier period of 
time, undi^r the general name of Northmeny overran the 
greater part of Europe, and whose language and man- 
ners are still preserved among their genuine descendants 
in Iceland. For the confirmation of his opinion, he 
refers to the material of which they are composed, to the 
general costume of the figures, and the peculiar forms of 
some of them, to the locality in which they were found, 
and to the testimonies of numerous writers in ancient 
and modem times, touching the existence of the game 
of' chess in Scandinavia, and the skill of the natives in 
carving similar figures. 

And first, with regard to their material, Mr. Madden 
assumes on good evidence, that they are formed out of 
the tusks of the animal called in Icelandic Rostungr, 
or Rosmar, and in other parts of Europe by the names 
of morse, walrus, or sea-horse. The peculiarities of 
structure in the tusk of this animal are shown in a 
remarkable manner throughout the entire series of the 
chess-men, and most unequivocally so in the draught- 
men, which were necessarily cut transversely through 
the tusk. The economy of the artist is likewise visible 
in fashioning his figures according to the portions of the 
teeth best calculated to serve his purpose. 

The estimation wherein the tusks of the walrys, from 
which these chess-men were unquestionably carved, were 
held by the northern nations, rendered them a present 
worthy of royalty; and this circumstance is confirmed by 
a tradition preserved in the curious Saga of Kroka 
Ref; or Kroka the Crafty. It is there related, that 
Gunner, prefect of Greenland, wishing to conciliate the 
favour of Harald Hardraad, king of . Norway, (a'.d. 
1046 — 1067,) by the advice of Harder, a Norwegian 
merchant, sent to the king three of the most precious 
gifts the island could produce : these were, Jirst^ a full- 
grown white tame bear; second^ a chess-table, or set of 
chess-men, exquisitely carved; thirdy a skull of the 
ros-tungr, with the teeth fastened in it, wonderfully 
sculptured, and ornamented with gold. 

The ancient Norwegians, and more particularly the 
natives of Iceland, seem to have been at a very early 
period famous for their skill in carving implements and 
figures in bone ; and this talent was exerted chiefly in 
sculpturing chess-men from the tusks of the rosmar. 
The archbishop of Upsala, in his Antiquarian History 
of the Norij^em Nationsy informs us that it was usual 
amongst them to cut the teeth of the morse in the most 
artificial manner for the purpose of making chess-men. 
Olaus Wormius, writing about a century later, states 
that the Icelanders were accustomed, during the long 
nights of winter by their fireside, to cut out various 
articles from " whales' teeth." " This," he continues, 
'' is more particularly the case with chess-men (at which 
game they excel); anld I possess some specimens of 
these, distinguished by being of two colours, white and 
green, which are scydptured so exquisitely, that each 
piece expresses in feature, dress, and attitude, the per- 
sonage it is designed to represent." Thus, also, in the 
figures discovered in the Isle of Lewis, the costume, &c., 
of every piece has been especially attended to, and, so 
iar as that mode of proof can be admitted, evince them 
to have been executed in the twelfth century. 
The spot, on which these figures were found, favours 



in eveiy respect the hypothesia adopted by Mr. Mad- 
den. The Hebrides, or Southern Isles, were subject to 
the invasion of the Vikingr.. or Sea-kings, from the end 
of the eighth century, and during the reign of Harald 
Harfager, about the year 875, were rendered tributary 
to the throne of Norway. The outer range of the He- 
brides, in which that of Lewis is comprehended, was 
chiefly peopled by Scandinavians ; and they continued to 
have princes of their own, until the period of King 
Magnus Barefoot's expedition, in 1096, who ravaged the 
Isle of Lewis with fire and sword, and added the He- 
brides to his own dominions, thenc^orth to be governed 
by a dependant lord. These islands remained under the 
seignory of the kings of Norway, until the year 1266, 
when they were formally ceded to King Alexander the 
Third, of Scotland, by Magnus the Fourth, in consider- 
ation of the yearly pajrment of one hundred marks^ and' 
the additional sum of four thousand marks, payable 
within four years. 

Between those islands and the northern, as well as 
the western, coast of Scotland and Iceland, the closest 
intercourse existed for many ages. As the communi- 
cation was kept up in small vessels ^called *< Byrdinga" 
by the Icelanders), the chances of shipwreck, in case of 
a storm, were great; and accordingly, many instances 
are on record of the destruction of ships coming from 
Norway to the isles. 

It would appear, therefore, most probable that the 
chess-men and draught-men discovered in the Isle of 
Lewis, formed part of the stock of an Icelandic kaup^ 
manny or merchant, who carried these articles to the 
Hebrides, or tp Ireland, for the sake of traflSc, and that 
the ship, in which they were conveyed, being wrecked, 
these figures were swept by the waves on shore, and 
buried beneath the sand-bank, which, for the space of 
nearly seven centuries, contrived to accumulate before 
the fortunate discovery took place which restored them 
to light. 

SINGULAR CASE OF SOUNAMBULTSX. 

In one of my rftmbles, I met witli a very singular instance 
of somnambulism, in the daughter of a Ciicassian noble, 
Noahai Selim Guarrai, near the river Ubin. The girl was, 

Erohably, about twelve years of age, and had been suffering 
rom the disease for the last two years. During the prevalence 
of the fit, which generally lasted from one to three weeks, 
she was accustomed to employ herself at embroidery, suig to 
her lute, or deliver extempore poetry in a singine tone, always 
prophetic of some event that was to occur, of unportance to 
the country ; but, except on these occasions, she never utteied 
a word, nor answered a <^uestion, and seemed to address her 
warnings rather to some mvisible spirit, than to the peisons 
around her ; she also prescribed for the sick, whom she 
mentioned by name, gave counsel to the warrior, reproved 
the wicked, and assured her countrymen, that in their 
contest with Russia they would be ultimately successful ; 
not one word of which remained- in her recollection when 
she awoke from her magnetic sleep. While this aberration 
of her fiusulties continued, her features wore an unnatunJiy 
serious expression for so young a girl : her smell, also, was 
so acute, that she could discover the approach of any person 
she knew at a considerable distance, to whom she evinced 
the most capricious dislike or partiality : her health ap- 
peared to suffer materially from these attacks, as she 
mvariably awoke from her trance pale and evidently much 
fiatigued. 

These somnambulists, or as the French call them, clair- 
wyantesy so peculiar to mountainous countries, seem to form 
a phenomenon in animal magnetism not yet perfectly un- 
derstood. I met with a similar case some years since, 
during a fishing excui*8ion in the neighbourhood of Lindau, 
on the banks oi the lake of Constance, in the person of the 
daughter of the Baron von Rader : she was about the same 
age as our Circassian Cassandra, and, like her, gifted with 
prophecy. The duration of the fit, and the symptoms of 
the patient, were also similar, except that the young Grer- 
man lady frequently remained cataleptic for severalliourB, 
which I did not observe in the other.-^SpBNCBs's Tfxmh in 
OirvasHa, . 



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THB SATURDAY MAG AZINfe. 



[Februaet 18, 



ON AUTOMATON FIGURES. 

I. 

Among the various ways in which human ingenuity has 
displayed itself, one of the most remarkable is the con- 
struction of machines which shall, to a considerable 
extent, imitate the motions and actions of a living being. 
We are sometimes led to regret that such extraordinary 
powers of invention should be expended on the produc- 
tion of a machine possessing no real utility to society : 
but still it is so far useful, that it keeps alive a spirit of 
mechanical invention, which, at an after period, may be 
of incalculable benefit. Most of the great specimens of 
automatic mechanism, to which the general name of 
autoinata is applied, were produced at a time when there 
were no railroads, — few canals, — few tunnels, — still 
fewer steam-engines, — no locomotive carriages, — no 
power-looms, — no spinning-jennies, — and what is of more 
importance, when there was not diffused among society 
in general that thirst for manufacturing improvements 
which so greatly distinguishes the present age. A really 
ingenious mechanical inventor at the present day has 
many ways of bringing his ingenuity to a profitable 
market, by applying it to manufacturing machinery, and 
we do not consequently hear so much at the present day, 
as in bygone times, of the production of elaborate play- 
things, requirino: years for their producflon, and possess- 
ing no commercial value. We can therefore admire the 
results of ingenuity shown by the older mechanists, 
without judging them too harshly for not doing that 
which the spirit of their times scarcely afforded them a 
field for doing. 

We propose to present here a brief description of such 
automata, or self-moving figures, as have gained for 
themselves a reputation among ingenious men. 

In the Saturday Magazine, vol. iii., p. 156, is a 
description of the very remarkable automatic figures ia 
the great clock of Strasburg cathedral. We will now 
present some details of other clocks remarkable for the 
ingenuity of the figures connected tvith them. In the 
fourteenth century, James Dondi constructed for the city 
of Padua a clock which was long considered the wonder 
of the age. Besides indicating the hours, it represented 
the motion of the sun, moon, and planets, as well as 
pointed out the different festivals of the year. 

The clock at the cathedral at Lyons was long cele- 
brated as being one of the most ingenious ever con- 
structed. We do not know whether it still exists, but 
in its most perfect form the following was the nature of 
its construction. It exhibited, on different dial-plates, 
the annual and diurnal progress of the sun and moon, 
the days of the year, their length, and the whole calen- 
dar, civil as well as ecclesiastical. The days of the week 
were indicated by sjrmbols, fitted to the purpose, and the 
hours were announced by- the crowing of the cock, thrice 
repeated, after it had flapped its wings, and made other 
movements. When the cock had ceased crowing, angels 
were made to appear, who, by striking various bells, 
performed the air of a hymn. The annunciation of the 
Virgin was also represented by moving figures, and by 
the descent of a dove. When all this ceremony was 
concluded, the clock struck the hour. On one of the 
sides of the clock was an oval dial -plate, where the hours 
and minutes were indicated by means of an index, which 
possessed the peculiar power of lengthening or shorten- 
ing itself, so as to adapt its length to the various diame- 
ters of the oval plate. This clock was made by Lippius 
de Basle, and was repaired in the seventeenth century 
by NourisBon. 

The royal apartments at Versailles once contained a 
singular clock, constructed by Martinot. Before it struck 
the hour, two cocks, on the comers of a small edifice, 
crowed alternately, clapping their wings. Shortly after 
this, two lateral doors of the edifice opened, at which 
appeared two figures, bearing cymbals, beat uj^on with 



clubs by two sentinels. When th^se fibres had retired 
the centre door was thrown open, and a pedestal, sup- 
porting an equestrian statue of Louis the Fourteenth 
issued from it, while a group of clouds, separating, gave 
a passage to a figure of Fame, which came and hovered 
over the statue. A tune was then performed by bells; 
after which the two figures re-entered ; the two sentinels 
raised up their clubs, which they had lowered, as if from 
respect for the presence of the king; and the hour was 
then struck. 

Many other specimens of ingeniously-constructed 
clocks have been recorded; but these will be suflScient 
here : we will therefore proceed to other automata. 

it is difficult properly to estimate the statements of 
ancient writers on this subject. Mention is made, that, 
so long ago as 400 years B.C., Archytus of Tarentum, a 
Pythagorean philosopher, made a wooden pigeon that 
could fly. The writers who have recorded tnis seem to 
have known but little respecting its truth. One said 
that if the pigeon fell, it could not rise again by itself: 
another says that it flew by mechanical means, being 
suspended by balancing, and animated by a secretly- 
enclosed spring. 

The imitations of various animals have been very 
numerous, and we have records of several, the authen- 
ticity of which is undoubted. One mechanist constructed 
the figiire of a swan, as large as life, which gracefully 
curved its neck, or turned it round, as if to dress the 
plumage of its wings or body : having done this, it bent 
down its head, and, taking a metal fish in its bill, swal- 
lowed it. Another person constructed a peacock, which 
could erect or depress its crest, and unfold its tail : it 
could likewise lift a piece of money iii its bill, and per- 
form many of the movements peculiar to a peacocL 
But Maillardet, a Frenchman, surpassed these efforts, 
by producing machines in which complicated actions were 
to be concentrated in a small space. He constructed an 
oval box, about three inches in length. The Kd sud- 
denly flying open, a bird of beautiful pluniagc, not 
larger than a humming-bird, started up from it^ nest 
within the box. The wings began to flutter, and its bill 
opening, with the tremulous motion peculiar to singing- 
birds it began to warble. After producing a succession 
of notes, whose sound well filled a large apartment, 
it darted down into its nest, and the lid closed again. 
The time that i 'ccupied to perform its routine of 
actions was about tour minutes, and it produced four 
distinct kinds of warbling. Maillardet ftlso constructed 
an automatic spider, a catei'pillar, a mouse, and a ser- 
pent, all of which exhibited the peculiar movements of 
the living originals. The spider was made of steel, and 
the legs were levers which were successively advanced 
by springs within the body of the animal. ' It rati on the 
surface of a table for three minutes, and its coarse was 
so devised as to tend inwards tdwards the middle of the 
table. The serpent constructed by the same artist 
crawled about in ev6ry directioti, opened its mouth, 
hissed, and darted out his tongue. 

John Midler, of Nuremburg, is said to have con- 
structed a wooden eagle, which flew frottf the city of 
Nuremburg, aloft in the air, met the Emperor Maximi- 
lian a good way off, saluted him, and preceded him back 
to the city gates; and to have also c6nstructed an iron 
fly, which in the midst of a party of friends, flew from 
Midler's hand, and passed round from guest to guest. 
But from some contradictions in the accounts left by 
Baptista Porta, Kircher, &C., we may justly be allowed 
to doubt these narrations. 

About a century and a half ago Truchet constructed, 
for the amusement of Louis the Fourteenth, an automa- 
ton, which the king called his little o^pera. It was about 
sixteen inches long, thirteen inches high, and one inch 
and a quarter deep. It represented dn opera, in five acts, 
changing the decorations at the commencement of each. 
. The actors performed their parte ifi paatomiiner and the 



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THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE 



63 



representation could be stopped at pleasure, and made 
to recommence. Another contrivance, made for the 
amusement of the same monarch — who had a strange mix- 
ture of the great and the small in his character — ^must 
have been worked by very elaborate mechanism. There 
was a small coach drawn by two horses: a lady sat in the 
coach, and a servant and a page stood behind it. This 
coach being placed oh a t^lc at which the king was seated, 
the coachman smacked h'lsVhip, and the horses immedi- 
ately began to move, l^eir legs advancing in the proper 
succession. \Vhen the cavalcade reached the edge of the 
table, it turned at a rigbt angle, iarid proceeded along that 
edge. When it arrived opposite to tAe place where the king 
was seated, it stopped and the page got down and opened 
the do€r, upon which ' the l^ily afighted, and, with a 
curtsey, presented a petition fo tne'king. After waiting 
some time, she again curtseyed, and re-entered her car- 
riage: the page then resumed* his place, the coachman 
whipped his horses, which begun \p move, and the foot- 
man, running after the carriage, jumped up behind. This 
was made by M. Camus, who wrote a description of the 
general nature of the mechanism employed: but his de- 
tails wer^ nol sufficiently minute to account for the 
almost inconceivable movements of the figures. We have 
frequently seen in the public streets of London an exhi- 
bition in which a carriage rolled rapidly round a circular 
table, the horses' feet moved, and the coachman smacked 
his whip : ^ut tliere was no dismounting,— no curtseying, 
— no presentatipn of a petition, — ^no footman running 
after the carriage, &c. * 

Perhaps one of the most beautiful specimens of auto- 
matic mechariism ever constructed' was the duck of Vau- 
cansoii. This machine in external form exactly resembled 
a real duckV the wings bein^ anatomically correct in every 
part- But not onjy was^e exterior an exact copy of the 
original; tjie resemblance was also carried to internal 
pans : every bone in the real duck had its representative in 
the automaton ; cavities, curvatures, protuberances, were 
all imitated. This duck imitated the actions of a real one 
to an extent that surpasses all we have yet detailed. It 
exhibited those quick motions of the ^ead and throat so 
peculiar to the living duck: it produced the quacking 
sound; it drank water in that manner peculiar to billed 
animals: it swallowed food with avi4ity, and jfctually 
digested the food in t}ie stomacbi This latter remark is 
so astonishing that we must make one additional observ- 
ation concerning it, in order that it may be believed at 
all. The stottmch contained some chemical substance, 
whichaCted oil the food'UiWoduceci into it, so that' the 
foodlefttfie%od^'of the'ai'fifirtal'duckin a fomi'very 
differeni ft^om 't^ fn ^Jiich ij enteretj. TJie authenticity 
of this narration is uiidisputiBd. 'fhe automaton was 
seen in action by ]\|ontuc{a, the eminent French mathe- 
matician, who wrote an' account of' it. 

There are inany other Instances of similar ingenuity 
on record; ^ch a^ a sheep wfiich'imitated the bleating" of 
a natural one,' iCnd a 'dog wktching a basket of fruit : 
when any one attempted ' to purloin the fruit, the dog 
gnashed his teeth andbarked; and if the fruit were ac- 
hiaHy taken away, }ie did not cease parking till it was 
restored. But we have stated sufficient to give some 
idea of the mannner in whidi ingenuitv has been di- 
rected to this subject in the imitation of 'fcirds, Ac. In 
another article we' fehajl dfeiscribe sbine'of the principal 
androidesy or niach'lnes'reseniblin^ the human figure, 
and so contrived as to imitate certain movements of a 
living being. Py referring to the Saturday U^agaziney 
vol. viii., p. 151, the reader will find an account of a 
Tery ingenious automaton ship and sea. 

It is not either fineness of wit, or abundance of wealth, or 
any such like inward or outward ornament, that makes the 
difference between men, and renders the one better than the 
other ; but tH* firmness of good principles, the scttledness of 
the ^iiity an4i)^o l^iet ofinmd.— — ^bisaop f atjkick. 



THE JERBOA, 



This pretty little animal belongs to a genus which 
approximates considerably to the rats, proj)erlY so 
called, but is suflficiently distinguished by the shortness 
of the fore-legs, and the length of the hinder cxtrcnii-. 
ties. Owing to an error long prevalent among natu- 
ralists, who imagined that these animals marie use of 
their hind feet only in walking, and never employed tlie 
fore feet for that purpose, the genus was namecl dipns^ 
or two-legged. A more attentive consideration of the 
structure of these animals has proved that the Jerboa is 
incapable of sustaining itself for any length of time on 
its hind-feet, though commonly seen in that posture. 
When alarmed, or wishing to proceed at a rapid rate, it 
takes prodigious leaps and falls upon its fore-feet, but 
elevates itself again with so much rapidity, that it almost 
appears as if it constantly maintained the erect posture. 
The fore-feet are, however, chiefly employed as the 
means of rest, and* of conveying food to the mouth. 

There is much in the appearance of the Jerboa to re- 
mind us of the kangaroo. The form of the body bears 
a general resemblance; the hinder limbs are much 
strouger than the fore-part; the tail is very long; the 
ears are pointed and elongated; and the eyes are large 
and round. Still there are important differences between 
these animals, which sufficiently prove that it would be 
incorrect to follow Erxleben in classing kangaroos with 
Jerboas, under the name Jaculus giganteus. 

The body of the Jerboa is covered with soft silken 
hairs ; the tail also is usually covered with smooth hairs 
to its extremity, which is terminated by a tuft. The 
general colour of the animal is a clear fawn on the upper 
part, and white on the under parts of the body ; in the 
males the tints are less deep than in the females; the 
size of the former is also smaller than that of the latter. 
The tail is indispensable to the Jerboa for the per- 
formance of those extraordinary leaps for which the ani- 
mal is so remarkable : it is likewise necessary for them in 
raising themselves on their hind- legs ; and when for the 
sake of experiment, they have been either wholly or 
partially deprived of their tails, they have had their 
powers diminished proportionably, being in the one case 
unable to run or leap at all, and in the other, very much 
limited in their motions. 

The species which has been the best observed is the 
Gcrbo, or Egyptian Jerboa, living in troops and digging 
burrows in Egypt. In the hot and sandy regions, 
and amid the ruins which surround modern Alexandria, 
these animals arc commonly seen. Without being 
exactly wild or ferocious in their character, they are ex- 
tremely unquiet and wary. They come abroad in search 
of food, wluch consists of com, nuts, roots, &c., but at 
the least noise re-enter their holes with precipitation. 
Their burrows consist of several galleries, and the Arabs 
have a mode of taking these animals alive, by closing up 
the issues of the different galleries, with the exception of 
one through which they must go out. They hunt them 
for their flesh, which, although not the best of meat, is 
in considerable request among the Egyptians. Their 
skins, likewise, are employed in the manufacture of ordi- 
nary fur. 

Another species is the Alactaga, under which name 
some naturalists describe Jerboas, having ^f^ toes on 
the hind- feet, as a genus distinct from that of the Jer- 
boas having but three. The Alactaga is about the size of 
a common squirrel. The fur is very soft and pliant, of 
a yellowish fawn colour over the body, varying with a 
grayish brown. The under part of the body, and the 
interior of the limbs are white. The tail is longer than 
the body, covered with similar hair for two-thirds of its 
length, and terminating in a tuft, half white and half 
black. This species is found in the deserts of Tartary, 
on the sand-hills which border the Tanais, the Volga, 
and the Irtisch. Gmelin says that these animals collect 



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Lt^EBRnABT 13, 1S41. 



herbs and roots during Mitnmer, form them into separate 
heaps, and transport tnnn by degrees to their burrows, 
when they are suffioiently dried by exposure to the air. 
They seek their provisions by night, and besides herbs, 
succulent plants, fruits, and roots, they feed on insects 
and small birds. They are said also to devour one an- 
other, always commencing with the eyes and brain. To 
the west of Tartary lie eitensive deserts, where the 
bulbs of tulips and of various other plants growing 
abundantly in that arid soil, afford nourishment for the 
Alactaga. In preparing its burrow, this animal scrapes 
away the earth with great activity, excavating with its 
fore-paws, and tearing away the roots with its teeth. It is 
able to foresee the approach of the cold or rainy season, 
and closes its burrow with surprising punctuality. It is 
remarkably seositive of cold, and a very slight change of 
temperature will reduce it to its lethargic state. A great 
desree of heat likewise produces a similar effect. 

The swiftness of these animals when pursued is so 
great that they scarcely appear to touch the earth, and it 
is said, that even a man on horseback cannot overtake 
them. It is very difficult to preserve them in captivity, 
unless they are provided vrith a sufficient quantity of 
They may be fed with carrots. 



earth or sand to dig 
fruit, cabbage, bread, &c. 
The Jerboas of India e 
wicke OS being very 
particularly destructi' 
burrows of this 



13 species ai 



e described by General Hard- 

rous on oiltivatcd lands, and 
wheat and barley crops. The 
e very spacious, and the animals 
Jay up considerable hoards of ripening com, which tbey 
cut just beneath the ears, and convey entire to their 
common subterraneous repository, which when filled is 
carefully closed, and not opened again till supplies abroad 
become distant and scarce. Their favourite food raay b' 
considered the different sorts of grain, bnt when tnesi 
foil they have recourse to roots, &c. 

Abont the close of the day, (says Hardwicke,) thev 
Issae from their burrows, and traverse the plains in all 
directions to a consideralile distance ; they run fast, but 
oftener leap, making bounds of four or five yards at a time, 
carrying the toil extended in a horizontal direction. When 
eating; they mt on their hind legs like a squirrel, holding 
the &od between their fore-feet. They never appsK ' 
day, neither do they commit depredations within doon 
have observed their manners by night, in moonlight nights, 
taking my station on a plain, and Temaining for soma time 
with as httlo motion as postdbla I was soon surrounded by 
hundreds, at the distance of a few yards ; but on risins from 
my seat, the whole disappeared in an instant, nor did they 
venture forth again for ten minutes after, and then witli 
much caution and circumspection. A tribe of low Hindoos, 
called Kunjers, whose occupation is hunting, go in quest of 
these animals at proper seasons, to plunder their hoards of 
grain ; and often, within the space of twenty yards square, 
find as much com in the ear as could be crammed into a 
common bushel. They inhabit dry situations, and are often 
found at the distance of some miles out of the reach of 
water. In confinement, this animal soon becomes recon- 
ciled to its situation and docile, sleeps mnch in the day, 
but when awake feeds as A'eely as by night. The Hindoos 
above meAioned, esteem them good and nutritious food. 



It is probable that as the country becomes better 
known, Australia will not be fmrad deficient in animals 
which though numerous in other piirts of tiie world, 
have not yet been discovered there, and are said not to 
exist in that extensive continent. 






It was for a long ti 
Jerboa is, on extensive si 
new continent, yet that ii 



i believed that common as the 
indy plains of both the old and 
1 similar tracts in Australia no 
) be found. It has now, however, 
been satisfactorily ascertained that these animals do exist 
in Australia. Sir Thomas Mitchell in his "Three 
Veai-i Expeditions into the Interior of Auttralia," 
describes an animal found in the reedy plains near the 
junction of the Murray and the Murrumbidgee, on the 
northern boun<l,-iries of Australia Felix. Its fore and 
hind legs resembed those of a kangaroo, and it usEd 
the latter liy leaping on its hind quarters in the same 
manner. It was not much larger than a field-mouse, 
but the tail was longer in proportion than even that of 
a kangaroo, and terminated in a hairy brush about two 
inches long. i 



BlIILr KISIKO. 



It is related tliat King George the Hiird, who made the 
cause of longevity a suliitct of invest igoti on, procured two 
persons, eacli considerabry above a hundred years of age, to 
dance in his presence. lU then. requested them to relate t» 
him their modes of livine, that he might draw from them, 
if possible, some clue to the causes of their vigorous old m. 
The one had been a shepherd, remarkably temperate oad 
circumspect in his diet and regimen; tlie other, a hed-fr, 
had U'tii noted for his irregularity, exposure, and intempt- 
rance. The monarch could draw no inference, to guide nis 
inquiries, from such different modes of life tenninatine in 
the snme result; but, on further inquiry, he learned that 
both men were alike distinguished by a tranquU eamness of 
temper, active bflbita, and eablt nisi.vo. 



What is there of an exciting nature in the common events 
of hfe, and the usual course and uniformity of nature? 
Very little. However wonderous the works of the crMlion 
may be, habit has so accustomed us to behold Uiero, thst 
they ore familiar to our eyes ; they become matter of fiid, 
and science has taught us to comprehend the nature of many 
phenomena, which mightothcrwiso have appeared incredible. 
But when we seek for an unattainable ohject, however falU- 
cioua its attraction may bi', the mind is roused to ener^ie 
action. In our vain pursuits of ideal perfection, the mind 
may be compared to a focus in which our burning thoughls 
are concentrated until wo are consumed by digappoinlin'ent. 

False doctrines and fallacious opinions, need all the aid nf 
imagination's vivid colours to disguise tbeir real form with 
agoodly outaide. We may in general conclude that enthu- 
siasts are at first deceived themselves, to become in turn 
deceivers. Seldom does man dispky sufficient humility to 
admit that he lias erred in his favourite doctrines, and how 
much less will he be disposed to confess bis deviation from 
rectitude, when imposture becomes the source of wealtli, 
and power and hypocrisy a trade. 

It is, however, fortunate that errors generally assist the 
devclopcment of truth. The progreas of 5ie Christian faith, 
was mnteriallj^ forwarded by the absurdities and fallndes of 
all other religions; and HeJvetius has truly olwicr\-ed, that 
if we could for a moment doubt the truth of Cbristianilv, i 
its divine origin would bf proved by its having survived tlie 
horrors of popciy. False theories "led Coiumbus to correct ' 
geographic conclusions, and Galileo's discoveries overthrew 
his own former theories. — Millikoxm. 



LONDON: 
_ JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STHAND. 
Prnmaii is ^Tieut Nin»»a. nic* Om PimT, ^kd m Mo«mu.» 



N? 354. FEBRUARY 20^?, 1841. {cfS,,. 



Vol. XMII, W 



66 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[Februabt 20, 



CANOVA AND HIS WORKS- 

At the period of Canova's arrival at Rome, painting 
and sculpture were at a very low ebb. The spirit <rf 
improvement which had begun to distingruish the age, in 
other respects, had not yet extended its influence to these 
arts. Canova was received in the most gracious man- 
ner by the Venetian ambassador, and entertained in his 
palace. This statement is supported by the letters of 
Canova himself and by those of the younger Falier ; so 
that the accounts which have appeared of his distress, 
and of the neglect which he suffered on his first arrival at 
Rome, are not to be received as correct. The ambassador 
at that time was the Cavaliere Zuliani, an enlightened and 
generous protector of the arts. Wishing to judge for him- 
self of the merits of the sculptor, he sent for the model of 
Daedalus and Icarus; and invited the most celebrated 
artists and connoisseurs to inspect a new work of art. 
Canova accompanied these individuals into the apart- 
ment where stood his last performance; and previously 
to its examination, was introduced to them as the author 
of the work. The company stood around the group 
surveying it with strict scrutiny; and for some time 
maintained a profound silence. The style was so differ- 
ent from that of existing art, that each seemed reluctant 
to venture an opinion on its merits. At length Hamil- 
ton the painter advanced, and cordially embraced the 
trembling artist, congratulating him on his work, and 
advising him to prosecute the course he had so evidently 
pursued of constantly referring to nature, and in addi- 
tion, to pay assiduous attention to the works of anti- 
quity. 

The merits of the young sculptor were now fully 
acknowledged, and his patron Zuliani soon g^ve him an 
opportunity of commencing what he had long desired, 
a group on some heroic subject. The material was 
ordered by the ambassador, and the subject was left to the 
judgment of the artist. Canova selected that of The- 
seus vanquishing the Minotaur, and a mass of statuary 
marble, value 300 crowns (about 63/. sterling), soon 
arrived, and filled Canova with delight. His letters of 
this period are full of the praises of the ambassador and 
admiration of the beautiful marble on which he was 
about to work. Canova laboured with great diligence 
but with secrecy at this important task, in an apartment 
of the Venetian palace to which no one was permitted 
to have access. His ostensible employment was a 
statue of Apollo, about half the natural size, which on 
its completion was exposed to public inspection at the 
same time with one of the best works of Angelini, who 
was then ranked among the best sculptors of Italy. 
Notwithstanding this circumstance, which might have 
been expected to operate imfavourably for our young 
sculptor, his performance was very much admired and 
even compared with the Minerva of Angelini in a man- 
ner unfavourable to the latter. Meanwhile the secret 
labours of Canova approached their termination, and 
his Theseus in all its beauty was to surprise the 
people of Rome. The ambassador gave a grand enter- 
tainment to the most distinguished characters in that 
city, and while they were engaged in disputes concerning 
a model of the head of Theseus, whicn had been pur- 
posely left in the reception room, — some maintaining 
that it represented one personage, some another, but all 
agreeing that the cast must have been taken from a 
work of Grecian sculpture — Zuliana exclaimed, " Come, 
let us tenninate these disputes by going to see the origi- 
nal." All were astonished, and eagerly followed to the 
spot where Canova's Theseus, victorious over his cruel 
foe, was placed in the most advantageous light. Pleasure 
and stonishment pervaded the whole assembly, and the 
wor'< was unanimously pronounced to be the most perfect 
which Rome had beheld for ages. Canova was after- 
wards heard to say that death itself could scarcely be 



more terrible than th« cental safferings he mdared, 
while the Earlier of these occurences was passiiig. 

We must not omit to stele that the applieation of 
Canova's early patron to the Venetian government was 
successful in procuring for him a pension of 300 ducats, 
Hmited to a term of three years, that he might in Rome 
perfect himself in his pro&ssion and reflect honour on 
the republic. This pension, though of great importance 
to the sculptor, did not much exceed 60^ sterling per 
annum. 

Canova was now selected to erect a monumoit io 
honour of Clement XIV., but hesitated to undertake the 
work on account of this pension, which he c<«tidered as 
placing his time and occupations under the disposal of 
the republic He therefore repaired to Venice and laid 
the subject before his patrotis, who generously left him 
to direct his application to whatever subjects he deemed 
most conducive to his future improvement and welfare. 
Canova now permanently established himself at Rome; 
but the ambassador Zuliani, having been recalled by the 
senate, in order to become Plenipotentiary to the Otto- 
man Porte, the Venetian palace was no longer open to 
our artist, and he therefore opened a studio in the Sirada 
Bahbuino* 

Canova was in his twenty-fifth year when he thus 
took up his abode in Rome; and was decidedly the most 
accomplished artist of the day. He now began to be 
exposed to the hostility and misrepresentations of envious 
rivals; — some were envious of the applause bestowed on 
his Theseus, — others were jealous at his good fortune in 
obtaining the monument on which he was now employed, 
— ^while both classes feared the effect his rising fame 
might have on their fortunes. Though these circum- 
stances could not fedl to wound the feelings of one 
endued with Canova's sensibility, yet his modesty of 
deportment, and dislike of retaiation carried him 
through the trial. Praise or blame fiiiled to injure the 
tone of his mind. "To praise," he used to say, *<what 
can I answer; to the censures of wdl-wishers, I must 
listen in silence; for, if wrong, their feelings would be 
hurt by telling them so, — if correct, I endeavour to 
profit by their remarks." When urged to refute some 
injurious remarks which had been made on his worb, 
in some of the literary joumab, he replied, "My worb 
are before the public, and that public has every right to 
judge them ; but, for my own part, my resolution is not 
to reply to any critical observation whatsoever, otherwise, 
than by exerting every effort to do better." Two years 
were passed by Canova in arranging the design and 
composing the models for the tomb of GanganeSi 
(Clement XIV.), and two years more in the exeoution« 
His labours were most exhausting, for at that time he 
could not afford to avail himself of the services of others* 
This long expected work ' was exposed to the public 
in 1787, and was found sufficient, of itself, to establish 
the fame of Canova, as the greatest artist of modem 
times. 

Canova's prcffessional engagements now multiplied 
rapidly. Numerous productions of minor importsnce 
employed his leisure, while his principal attention was 
bestowed on another monument, which he was com- 
missioned to execute, to the memory of Rezsonico, 
Clement XII., to be placed in St. Peter's. This beauti- 
ful production occupied five years of diligent study, 
and it is worth while to mention, as a proof of Canova*s 
careful method of working, that the two lions repre- 
sented in the moniunent were not finished without long 
and repeated observation of the forms and habits of 
the living animals. Wherever lions were to be seen, 
Canova constantly visited them at all hours, to ascertain 
their- natural expresssion in different states of action and 
repose, of ferocity or gentleness ; and one of the keepers 
was even paid to bring information, lest any favourable 
occasion should pass unimproved. One of the most 
faultless and classical of Canova's works was a statue 



1841.] 



THE SATOliDAY MAGAZINE. 



6» 



of Psyche, et^cuted about thit time, and designed as a 
present to the Ambassador Zuliani, who died while the 
statue was on its way to Venice. This celebrated figure 
afterwards became the property of Napoleon, by whom 
it was presented to the queen of Bavaria. 

Two different groups of Cupid and Psyche also occu- 
pied the talents of our artist» and by these and other 
proofs of genius his ntiM and reputation became widely 
extended. He receitied a flattering invitation from the 
Russian court, pressing his removd to St. Petersbui^h, 
which oflbr he mteAiUy decUned* A mcmument to 
Admiral Emo, of Venice, was the next important work 
in which Canova wia engaged, and afterwaraa the much 
admired group of the (Murtiiig of Venus and Adonis. 
The revolution thraugliottl iSirope now checked tof a 
time the progren of Im ixtt arts, and compelled Cuiova 
to seek a retreat from scenes which so much excited his 
abhorrence, in the quiet of his own native village of 
Possagno. There he remained a year, and occupied him- 
self chieflr in painting. 

Soon aner his return to Rome, i4>peared the PerssuB 
of Canova. It was a grand and clawdcal production, and 
was called **Il Consolatore" (the consoler), beeause it ap- 
peared at a ^me when Rome was mourning the plunder of 
her galleries and museums. lu 1 803 Canova presented to 
Italy the celebrated group of Creugcu and Damaxenus^ 
which was, like the Perseus, purchased by the papal 
government and plaeed in the Vatican. Among Canova's 
heroic compositions, we must likewise mention his statues 
of Paris; of Palamede; the combat of Theseus with Uie 
Centaur; the Hector and Ajax; and the Hercules and 
Lychas; which last was considered the most terrible 
ooncepticHi of Cimova's mind. The varied exerilenoe of 
these performances eannot be here dwelt upon, though 
each deserves particular notice. Yet, highly as we may 
esteem Canova's attempts at the grand and terrible, it 
appean evidait thai hia chief excellence consisted in the 
feithfid repres^italkm of graoefol and el^^ant subjects* 
Hence, his favourite eubjects were those of youth and 
beauty : and henoe the ftine which resulted from his pro- 
duction ef the Ckupid tmd Ptffcke^ the Heke^ the Dancing 
N^mpht, and above all, the Ghrtusea, When Italy was 
stripped of its moat valuable sculptures, Florence was 
deprived of its celebrated '^ Venus de Medicis," and 
Canova waa engaged to aupj^y a auccessor. Having 
stipulated that the atatne to be produced riiould not oe- 
OBpy the vaeast pedest^ ef the absent goddess, or be 
considered as a presumptuous attempt to copy tfauit sub- 
Ume production, he undertook tlie work. The Venus 
of Oaxtova is elegantly conceived, and has a noble ex- 
pressicM; but lepresents liie woman rather than tiie 
goddess. His rimfef Vioiaruna afforded him greater 
satiafiuHiott. This was a statue, the head of which was a 
portrait ef Pnlina Buonaparte^ Princess Borghese, whose 
fine style of eoaatenattce harmonized admirabl v with the 
ideal iigwe. The Awakened Nymph was of a some- 
what sasfiar character, and was purchased by his late 
majesty, Greorge the Fourth. 

We have not been able to arrange tSiese performances 
of our artist precisely according to chronological order, 
hut we mut ncrw return to the year 1802 when Canova, 
at the request of the First Consul, repaired to Paris, and 
earefuily modetted from life the bust of Napoleon. On 
thia oceaaioii he was entertained ^th munificence, and 
varioofl honours were conferred upon him. Indncements 
were also held tnt to tempt him to take up his residence 
in Parian Imt the prospect of the most flattering distinc- 
tions ootdd nei wean him from his beloved Italy. 
He also disliked F^!ench taste: " They are not inspired," 
he would say) ^irith genuine love of art: it is merely a 
love of diajilay." Highly interesting conversa^ons 
passed between Napoleon and Canova, during the stay 
ot the latter in Paris. Hie humanity of Canova*s dis- 
position made him a decided lover of peace, and he 
took every epportomty of declaring his true sentiments. 



Buonaparte, who delighted in the conversation of men 
of genius, often listened with calmness and attention to 
his views, but when these went near to implicate his own 
actions, he would exclaim, " Come, citizen Canova, par- 
late senza tema," (How! citizen Canova, you speak 
without fear.) « Parlo da nom sincero," (I speak without 
flattery,) was the laconic reply. By the particuLu* desire 
of Napoleon, he examined the Mus^ of the Louvre 
that he might suggest any improvements in the arrange- 
ment of those treasures of which other collections had 
been despoiled. Being then asked by the consul if he 
did not think them judiciously arranged, he answered, 
« They were certainly better placed in Italy." The bust 
of Napoleon was a noble performance, and faithfully 
represented the features of that remarkable man, though 
as years passed, the increasing obesity of the emperor 
diminished the likeness. It is now in the possession of 
the Duke of Wellington. 

Of the funeral monuments executed by Canova, one of 
the grandest, most solemn and imposing, was the monu- 
ment of the Arch-Duchess Maria Christina, daughter 
of Maria Theresa, and wife of Prince Albert of Saxony. 
It is placed in the church of the Augustines at Vienna, 
and consists of nine figures, a lion, and medallion, all of 
the natural size. The groundwork is a pyramid of 
grayish marble on a plain square basement, from which 
two steps lead to a doorway in the centre of the tomb. 
A train of mourners is approaching this doorway. Ftr- 
tuey a young female of afflicted, yet dignified mien, 
accompanied by two young vimns, is carrying in an urn 
the ashes of the deceased. Then follows Beneficence 
supporting an aged and infirm old man, behind whom is 
a child in the attitude of prayer. Opposite to these is 
the genius of Saxony, resting on a couchant lion, and 
mournfully regarding the train. Above, FeUcity with 
an attendant <3ierub is transporting to heaven the por- 
trait of the princess. 

In the more simple class of sepulchral marbles, one 
of the most pathetic is the grand relievo on the tomb 
for the daughter of the Marchese di Santa Croce. 
This voung lady was cut off by sudden illness on the 
very day appointed for her marriage. The way in which 
Canova treated the death scene, and the unutterable woe 
expressed in the countenance of the afflicted mother, was 
so touching that numbers were surprised into tears at 
the sight, and a lady who had suffered a similar loss 
actually fainted away on beholding it. 

In 1813, when it pleased the Allied Powers to restore 
to Italy the treasures of art of which she had been 
despoiled, Canova was entrusted with the superintend- 
ence of their removal, and as soon as this important 
commission was completed, he set out on a visit to the 
British metropolis. Here he received the most brilliant 
welcome from the Prince Regent, and from the nobility 
and men of talent. Canova always spoke with great 
satisi^Lction of this visit, and his friends considered his 
reception in England as the highest in ius long list of 
honours. 

On his return to Rome the title of Marquis of Ischia 
was conferred on him, with a pension of 3Q00 crowns 
per annum. This elevation in rank was received by 
Canova with his accustomed simplicity and modesty. He 
attributed every vicissitude in his own lot, as weu as in 
that of others, solely to the dispensations of an all-wise 
and good Providence. His mind appeared to become 
more and more susceptible of serious impressions, and 
he now proposed gratuitously to exercise his skill on a 
colossal statue of Religion. The model filled Italy with 
admiration, but owing to a <£sagreement among cardi- 
nals and princes as to the site it was to occupy, the 
obstacles opposed to it caused him to relinquish the 
Work. Canova's income arising from his new dignity 
was appropriated by him entirely to benevolent purposes. 
He patronized poor artists, relieved distress, and dealt 
his bounty liberally among the peasants of his native 

554—2 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE 



village, Possigno. In 1619 he repaired to that spot, 
and fflve the necestitry directioni for ths erectiau of a 
beautiful church at his own expense, and everr succeed- 
ing autnmn repeated his visit. In the intervala between 
these visits he still continued bis labours, and by over- 
exertion at this period is supposed to have hastened his 
end. The wiater of 1821-23 witnessed a more than 
ordinary amount of labour. Visiting Naples in con- 
nexion with his equestKan statue of Ferdinand, the 
reigning sovepeign, that climate which hadalways proved 
uncongenial to Urn, iocrcased a slight illness from which 
he was suffering. He partially recovered on his return 
to Rome, and on the succeeding autumn set out for 
Possagno. This journey appeared to increase his malady; 
and on leaving that viSLige to return to Rome, he was 
miable to proceed farther than Venice, where, at the 
house of his friend Franceseoni, he breathed his last 
His perfect calmness and resignation prevented his 
friends from seeing his real danger. He appeared ab- 
■orbed in meditation, and spoke little. Thus when his 
friends were admiring the radiant and sublime expression 
of his countenance, lie died on the morning of Sunday, 
the 13th of October, 1S22. He was buried at Possagno 
witli great solemnity, and the news of his decease was 
received throughout Europe with demonstrations of 



Dn. Malkik, formerly master of tlie Grammar Scliool at 
Bury, in Suffolk, lias, in a Faiher't MemoirM of hit Child, 
rclatcJ facts ao astonishing of his son, that, though some 
allowance must be made for the partiality of a parent, they 
fktmish abuniiant evidence of extraordinaty and precocious 
talent. 

Thomas Williams Malkin was two years old before he 
bitffan to talk, but he was familiar with the alphabet almost 
bnlf a joat sooner. Before he could articulate, when s 
lettw was named, he immediately pointed to it with his 
finger. From the lime that he was two yean old, when the 
aeqaisition of speech seemed to pnt him in possession of all 
the instruments necessary to the attainment of knowledge, 
he immediately began to read, spell, and write, with a 
rapidity that would scarcely be credited by any but thoee 
who were witnesses of its reality. Before he was three 

!-mta old he hitd tnnght himself to make letters, first in 
mitotion of ^rint,Bnd sfterwurda of handwriting, and that 
without any in3tmcti()n, for he was left to follow his own 
course in pursuits of this nature. On his birth-day, when 
he hod attained the agenf three years, he wrote a letter to 
his mother in pencil, and a few montlu afterwards addressed 
others to some of his relatives. At four, he had learned the 
Greek alphabet, and made such piogren in Latin as to 
write an exereise evenf day, with a considerable degree of 
accuracy. Befiire he had reached his fifth year he not only 
r«od &igl[sh with perfect flnency, "bnt," says his father, 
"understood it with critical precision." He hod acqnireil a 
happy art of copying maps with neatness and accuracy: he 
had a\Ma made copies from some of Raphael's heads, so mnch 
in unison with the stylo and sentiment of the originals, as 
to induce good judges to predict that if he were to parsne 
the arts as a profession, ho would one day rank among the 
most distinguished of their votaries. 

In his seventh year he wrote fablw, and made one or two 
respectable attempts at poetical composition : hut the most 
ringular instance of a fertile imagination, united with the 

Kwer of mating all he met with in books or conversation 
> own, is yet to be noticed. This was the idea of on 
imaginary country, called Allcatone, which was so strongly 
impressed on his mind as to enable him to fiimish an intel- 
ligible and lively description. Of this deUghtfhl country 
he considered himself as king. He had formed the plan of 
writing its history, detached parts of which he had actually 
executed. He drew a map of this country, giving names 
of his own invention to the principal mountains, rivers, 
fiities, sea-ports, villain and trading towns. Tliis whs one 
of the last efforts of his eenius, for this youthful prodigy of 
learning died before he nad completed the seventh year of 
blai^. 



THE PORCUPINE, 
Hyslrix eris/ala. 



Variously modified as are the substances which form 
the covering of animals, yet they may in general be 
referred to three primitive types, t,*^ hur, feathers, and 
acales. We are therefore somewhat surprised to find s 
covering of a perfectly distinct nature, possessed by a 
tribe of animals, small in number, and unimportant ia 
their position and character. The Porcupine, hedge- 
hog, and a few other animals, though not partieularly 
exposed beyond others to hostile attacks, or of a nature 
to make aggressions on the animals around them, an 
yet provided with formidable weapons, in the thick 
and bristling spines with which they are covered, and 
which present an impregnable barrier to their enemies. 
The Porcupine belongs to the o'der rodenfia, or 
gnawers, of which we have lately given several example^ 
in the squirrel, dormouse, A-e. Ithaslongbeennatnraliied 
to the south of Europe, whither, aa Agrieola informs as, 
it was brought either from Africa or India. It differs, 
from ^e Porcupine now seen in Africa, only in having- 
the spines rather shorter and less powerful. The Euro- 
pean variety is found chiefly in the kingdom of Kaple«, 
and in the southern part of the Roman states. It is oar 
of the largest animals of the Roman atates. It is one of 
the largest animals of the rodentia order, meaanring from 
to the tail nearly three feet. 



It has a dull, heavy, and somewhat nnpleusnt apprai 
; the eyes are extremrfy small, the nostrils thid 



lid:, 



and the muizle obtuse. Beside the spines, the body ii 
provided with two sorts of hair, one long and bristly, 
the other curly and woolly. The head and neck are 
furnished with the long and bristly kind of hair, and the 
animal has the power of erecting it, in the same way aa 
the spines. These latter eonsUtnte most fomittable 
we&pons ; they are the largest and strongest on the sides 
of the animal ; and have the structure of the shafts of 
feathers, covered with enamel, and tapering to a sharp, 
hard, and fine point The belief that Porcupines lave 
the power of darting their apinea against those who 
attack them, is altogether unfounded. 

The habits of the Porcupine are peaceable and retired. 
It avoids populous parts, and chooses some solitary spot, 
where the soil is dry and stony, and expoaed to tbe 
south-east or south, for the formation of ita barrow. 
The short muscular limbs, and powerful claws of the 
porcupine, are well adapted for making the necessary 
excavation. This is generally very deep, and has two or 
three outlets. In this retreat it nybemotea during the 
colder months, but does not fall into so deep a lethargy 
as some of the other genera. On the first fine day of 
spring, it mav be found awake again, and in searcn of 
food, Its extreme timidity causes it to remain in its 
burrow during the day-time, and the time for procurii^ 
its food is, therefore, from evening twilight till sunrise. 
As darkness approaches, it cautiously draws near to the 
principal entrance of the burrow, and looks around to 
see that all ia safe; nor will it venture itself entirely out- 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



69 



side while there is any reason to apprehend danger. 
When, in the search after food, it meets with an un- 
expected attack, it always endeavours to regain its bur- 
row ; but if this is impossible, it turns away its head, and 
presents its side, where, as we have said, the spines are 
strongfest. It has likewise the power of rolling itself up into 
a ball, in the manner of the hedge-hog, and thus present- 
ing to its adversary an uninterrupted surface of spears. 
Notwithstanding the anxiety which it always evinces to 
Keep its head from injury, uiere are few animals that can 
bite harder, or inflict more deep and dangerous wounds. 
The power of its teeth may be observed in its efforts to 
escape when kept in confinement. The thickest and 
hardest boards soon yield to its constant gnawing, and 
even strong iron wire is insufficient to keep it; the cage, 
therefore, is generally lined with sheet-iron. 

The senses of the Porcupine appear to be, with the 
exception of smell, extremely obtuse: the ears are but 
little developed, the eyes small, and the tongue but little 
extensible. The food of this animal consists of roots, 
fruits, and tender leaves. Thunberg states, that its 
usual food, near the Cape, is the root of a beautiful 
plant called Calla ^thiopiea^ which grows even in the 
ditches, about the gardens; but he adds that it will fre- 
quently deign to put up with cabbages and other 
vegetables, and sometimes c-ommits great depredations 
in those gardens. 

The oi^dinary powers of inferior animals, are in general 
wholly insufficient to avail against the spines of the 
Ponmpine: it has, therefore, in fact, few enemies to fear 
but man, who esteeming the flesh of this animal as good 
and agreeable to the palate, frequently hunts, or seeks 
it out for the gratification of his appetite. Porcupines 
are commonly brought to the markets at Rome and sold 
for food, lliey are eaten roasted by the Brazilians, the 
Brazil rariety being generally fat, and its flesh white. 
The negroes of Guinea make gpreat use of them, and they 
are also used as food at the Cape. The method of 
taking them is often as follows. The breach by which 
this depredator enters gardens is first discovered; a 
musket is then loaded, cocked, and placed opposite to 
the breach. To the trigger of this musket a string is 
tied, and led along the barrel to the muzzle, where a 
carrot or turnip is fixed. The porcupine, by taking this 
bait, pulls the trigger and is shot. 

Porcupines, properly so called, are distributed through 
India, Southern Tartary, Persia, Palestine, the south of 
Europe, and dl parts of Africa. They are called Hys' 
trixy by the Greeks and the ancient Italians ; Istriccy by 
the modem Italians; PorcSpiCf by the French; and 
StacheUehwein, Domschwein^ and Porcopicky by the 
Germans; all these names arising from their harsh 
bristly hairs, like those of the hog. The specific name 
criiUUoy (ti^d, crested, Lat.,) was given by Linnaeus, 
on account of a sort of mane on the neck and back of 
this species. 

The Canada Porcupine, (^Hystrix dorsata of Linnseus, 
and Urson of Bufibn,) is a very sluggish animal, with 
remarkably long hair, and short spines ; the latter are 
scarcely discoverable through the hair, except on the 
head, crupper, and tail. They are, however, strong and 
sharp, and are said to be so formed, as to appear when 
magnified as if barbed at the tip with numerous reversed 
pomts or prickles. Like the spines of the common por- 
CQpine they are but slightly attached to the skin, and 
can be loosened with gpreat ease: the animal is so far 
aware' of this circumstance, that when annoyed or dis- 
turbed it will sometimes brush . against the legs of the 
offending party, and leave severd of the spines sticking 
in the skin. Tliese spines often prove fatal to .woIvcsl 
and dogs in the countries where this animal abounds. 

Their points, (says Dr. Richardson,) which are pretty 
sharp, have no sooner insinuated themsdves into the skin of ' 
an assailant, than thev gradually bury themselves and 
tiavel onwaids until iney cause death by wounding some 



vital organ. These spines, which are detached from the 
porcupine by the slightest touch, and probably by the will 
of the animal, soon nil the mouths of the dogs who worry 
it, and unless the Indian women carefiilly pick them out, 
seldom fail to kill them. 

The larger kinds of snake are great enemies to the 
porcupines; but at the same time destroy themselves by 
this prickly kind of food. The snake seizes the porcu- 
pine by the head, and sucks it in ; the quills which were 
flattened down while the body was going in, afterwards 
become erect and kill it. An enormous snake has been 
found dead with the quills of the porcupine sticking 
through his body. 

The haunts of the Canada Porcupine are easily dis- 
coverable by the appearance of the trees in the vicinity, 
the bark of which is its favourite food. It feeds on the 
bark of several of the fir tribe, and on the buds of 
various kinds of willow; it is said also to be fond of 
sweet apples and young maize, which it eats in a sitting 
posture, holding the food to its mouth with the fore-paws. 
It makes its retreat under the roots of trees, and sleeps a 
great deal. It has been observed to dislike being wetted ; 
but the vicinity of water is requisite to it, since it drinks 
freely in summer, and when streams are no longer acces- 
sible it swallows the snow. 

The flesh of this animal is said to taste like that of 
the pig; it is relished by the American Indians, but soon 
becomes exceedingly distasteful to Europeans. The fur 
is likewise used; being first deprived of the spines, which 
are employed by the women as pins. They are also 
dyed of various bright colours, and worked into belts, 
shoes, shot-pouches, &c. 




well as the whole of the body, is covered with spines. 
It is a native of many parts of South America, and is 
formed for living in trees. It is a sluggish animal^ and 
appears to bear a close resemblance to the Canada Por- 
cupine, living in woods, sleeping by day, and feeding on 
fruits and bark by night. It climbs trees by means of 
its prehensile tail and of its claws, but is observed to use 
the former chiefly in descending. When on the ground 
the motions of this animal are awkward, and it appears 
quite out of its element, but when hunger rouses it to 
action it seeks for sustenance in trees, and climbs with 
some degree of activity. The cry of the Prehensile 
Porcupme is said to resemble that of a sow; and in 
defenc&ng itself from its enemies, it uses its spiny 
covering in the same manner, and with similar efiect to 
that of the species before described. 



Thb practice of a bad man is contradicted by the voice of 
his own heart. When he has committed a fiiult it declares 
to him that he might have chosen a contrary part : when he 
has done a virtuous action it inspires emotions of joy which 
render him conscious that he is a fi^$e agent. This voice 
within is anterior to aU reasoning, and as incapable of being 
invalidated as any other consciousness. — ^F. 



ON AUTOMATON FIGURES. 

.2. 

In a former article, we have described several singular 
machines which the ingenuity of mechanists had devised, 
by which the actions of living creatures were more or 
less imitated. We proceed to speak of others, in which 
the human figure and movements were the object of 
imitation. 

Whether or not it be true, as is stated, that Dadalus 
made a statue, which, if not detained, would run away, is 
not easy now to determine; we will therefore proceed to 
later dates. More than one Androides has been con- 
structed, in which the figure wrote and drew. The 
figure was placed at a table, with a pen or pencil in its 



70 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[February 20, 



hand, and paper before it. The spectator was desired to 
dictate any word at pleasure, which was instantly written 
down by the androides in a fair and legible hand. But 
in such a case, there is a certain degree of cheating 
employed ; for there is an assistant behind a partition 
near the figure: the assistant can hear the question 
asked, and puts in action some machinery of levers, 8lc^ 
connected with the hand of the figure, by which the 
words are written down. Still, there is something much 
more elaborate in this, than in the deception called the 
Invisible Girl, the nature of which was described in the 
Saturday Magajsiney vol. 1., p. 61. 
Some years afo, Mr. CoUinson, in a letter which ho 
 wrote to Dr. Hutton, after describing some very in- 
genious automata constructed by M. Droz, of Neufcnatel* 
says: — 

Permit me to speak of another automat<»i of DroE's^ whioh 
several years since he exhibited in England, and which, 
from my personal acquaintance, I had a commodious oppor- 
tunity of particularly examining. It was the figute of a 
man, I think the size of life. It held in Its hand a metal 
style r pencil), a card of Dutch vellum being laid under it. 
A sprmg was touched, which rrieased the internal eloek- 
worK from its etop, when the figure immedialeijr began to 
draw. M. Droz, nappening onoe to be sent fi>r in a great 
hurry to wait upon some fx>niiideiBble personage at the west 
end of the town, left me in possession of the keys which 
opened the recesses of all his machinery, fie opened the 
drawing-master himself, wound it m^, explained its leading 
parts, and taught me how to make it obey my requirines, 
as it had obeyed his own : Dioz then went away. After the 
first card was finished, ^f.e., after the fint drawing was 
finished,) the figure restoa. I put a second, and so on, to 
five separate caras, all different subjects ; but five or six was 
the extent of its delineating powers. The first card con- 
tained, I mav truly say, elegant portraite and likenesses of 
the king ana queen, facinjg; each other ; and it was curious 
to observe with wliat precision the figure lifted up his pencil, 
in the transition of it from one point of the draft to another, 
without making the least slur wnatever ; for Instance, in pass- 
ing from the forehead to the eye, nose, and chin, or from the 
waving curls of the hair to the ear, &«• I have the cards 
now by me. > 

It is evident from this description, that the drawings 
Were made by a strictly automatic figure^ without the 
aid of a concealed associate. 

A still better figure, of a somewhat similalr kind, was 
afterwards constructed by Maillardet. This was the 
figure of a boy, kneeling on one knee, and holding a 
pencil in his hand, with which he executed not only 
writings, but also drawings of great excellence. When 
the figure began to work, an attendant dipped the pencil 
in ink, and laid the paper on a brass tablet, which was 
adjusted to a proper position. On touching a spring, the 
figure began to write, and when the line was finished, the 
1*8 were crossed and the Ts dotted by distinct movements 
of its penciL In this way it executed four beautiful 
specimens of writing, in iFrench and English, each con- 
sisting of several lines, tt also drew three laodscapeis 
which, with the writing, occupied about an hour. 

The same mechanist constructed an aatomatie eooth- 
sayer, which gave answers to questions asked. He held 
a wand in one hand, and a book in the other. The 
questions were engraved on oval medallions. When a 
spectator put one of these into an open drawer, situated 
near the figure, it instantly closed with a spring. The 
figure then rose, bowed, drew circles with his wand, and 
consulted his book. Having spent some time in iq)pa- 
rent study, he lifted his wand, and striking with it the 
wall above his head, two folding doors flew open, and dis- 
played an inscription denoting the answer to the ques- 
tion. Should the drawer be empty when shut, the 
soothsayer rose, consulted his book, shook his head, and 
sat down again: the doors did not fiy open. If two 
medallions were put in together, an answer was given 
to the lower one. It was, we believe, undoubted, that 
this exhibiUon was strictly automatic,— 4hat no concealed 
confederate was at work. 



Some beautiful imitataona of musical performers hare 
been constructed. The most celebrated was Vaucan- 
son's flute player. This was exhibited at Paris jost 
about a century ago. It consisted of a figure capable 
of playing several ain on the German flute, with a pre- 
cision and delicacy nearlv equal to that displayed by i 
living performer. The ngure was about five feet and a 
half high, and was situated on a ft«gment of rock fiied 
upon a souare pedestal, four feet and a half high, by 
three and & half broad. Vaucanaon, with a candour 
that does not ctften distinguish inventon of this kind, 
published a work in which every part of the machinery 
was minutely described. The machinery consisted 
of a series of bellows, pipes, levers, cranks, wheeh) 
springs) &e., of such extreme complication, that anj 
attempt to describe it here would be tedious and uie« 
less. We will merely say that the flute was a bond/Ui 
one, that wind was propelled into the embouchure or 
mouth hole from the lips of the figure, and that the 
finger holes of the flute were covered by the fingers of 
the figure in exact accordance with the changes in the 
notes desired to be produced. The machine, altogether 
was so scientific, that it excited the admiration of philo- 
sophers, even more than of mere loven of the manel- 
lous. 

The same individual afterwards oonstructed a pipe snd 
tabor player. This was a figure mounted on a pedesUl, snd 
dressed like a shepherd, and was capable of playing tbout 
twenty minuets, country dances and other tunes, on a pipe 
and tabor. These were instruments better known among 
the pastoral tribes of bygone days, than by the present age. 
The tabor was a kind dT tambourine, 6tm<^ not wi^ the 
hand, but with a stick. The pipe was a kind of flageolet 
with only three finger-holes, so that one hand only is 
required to play it. Its simplicity, however, is accompa- 
nied by a circumstance which renders the aut4>ttifttic per- 
formance of it a matter of extreme difficulty ; for as there 
are only three finger holes, a large share of the diversi^ 
of tones produced is effected by varying the intensity ^ 
the breath or air blown into the instrument. This is 
difficult to effect by machineiT» consequently Vaucanson's 
pipe and tabor player gained almost as much admiration 
as his flute-player. 

About thirty years ago, Maillardet exhilHted an auto- 
maton piano-forte player. Tliis was an elegant female 
figure, seated at a piano-forte, on which she played 
eighteen tunes. Besides the execution of the music^ 
which was produced by the actual pressure of her fingers 
on the keys, all her movements were elegant, graceful, and 
almost lifb-like. Before beginning a tune, ahe made a 
gentle inclination with her head to the auditors: her 
bosom heaved ; and her eyes followed the motion of her 
fingers over the finger-board. The hands played Ae 
natural notes, and the feet played the flats and sharps by 
means of pedals, lliis machine was strictly automatic, 
for when once wound up, it would continue playing for 
an hour; and the principal part of the machinery 
employed was freely laid open for inspection. 

The latest automatic musician with which we are 
acquainted, is one constructed by Maelzel, the inventor 
of the metronome, or time-beating instrument. This 
automaton> as described in the Journal des Modes, was 
as follows: — From a tent M. Maelzel led out a fine 
manly-looking martial figure, in the unifbrm of a trum- 
peter of the Austrian dragoons. After the figure had 
been pressed on the left shoulder, it played not only the 
Austrian cavalry march, and all the signals for the 
manosuvres of the army, but also a march, and an 
allegro by Weigl. After this, the dress of the figure 
was completely changed into that of a French trum- 
peter of the guard. It then began to play the French 
cavalry march, also all the sigrals ci the French cavalry 
manoeuvres, as well as a mardi by Duss^ and an alle- 
gro by Pleyelv The sound of the trumpet was said to be 
pure, and more agreeable than eren me ablest nauBioiaii 



mh2 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



^71 



eould produee from ihat ingtmment, 'because %ae breath 
of a man gives the inside of the trumpet a moisture 
which is prejudicial to the purity of the tone. 

This same Maelsel ^as the inventor of several instru- 
ments, of which inferior imitations are seen in the 
London streets at the presept day; that is, a machine in 
which imitations of a great number of musical instru- 
ments aro combined. In one which Maelael exhibited 
at Vienna, pieces of Turkish music were produced, as if 
played by a band of flutes, pipes, cymbals, triangle, 
double drum, and four trumpets. The trumpet sound 
was admirable. It was produced fW>m real trumpets, 
blown by a blast of air within the machine. A double 
bellows fumiahed the wind, and a wheel, acted on by a 
weight, set the whole in motion. The modem instru- 
ment to which we have alluded is a kind of hand organ, 
with a feeble imitation of two or three other instru- 
ments. 

The most difficult automata destined to produce sound. 
nc those which imitate speech. A thorough anatomical 
examination of the organs of voice is necessary to suc- 
ceed in these attempts. M. Kempelen, of Hungary, and 
ui our own day Mr. Willis, of Cambridge, have shown 
th&t it is possible to produce instruments capable of 
imitating the sounds of the human voice. But we are 
not aware how far a strictly automatic speaking figure 
has been produced; yet it is said that a machine con- 
structed by Kempelen was able to utter these words and 
sentences : — opera, — astronomy, •— Constantinople,'^^ 
Vous ites mon ami, — Je vous aims de tout mon c<eur, — 
Leopoldus Secundus,''^Romanum mperator semper 
Auguttta, In our own day the subject has been ti^en 
up by Professor Wheatstone, who exhibited a speaking 
automaton at the Dublin meeting of the British Associa- 
tion for the advancement of science. In consequence of 
the recent and important discoveries respecting the 
mechanism of the human voice, it will not be hazarding 
too much to say with Sir David Brewster, that <* before 
another oenturv is completed, a talking and a singing 
miichine wiU De numbered among the conquests of 
science." 

The last automaton which we can find room to 
describe, is a rope-dancer, exhibited iu London some 
years ago. This was a little figure, a few inches high, 
seated on a slender steel rod, which he grasped with both 
hands. When a spring was touchei, the figure descended, 
but still hung suspended by the hands. After several 
oscillations, the tumbling begai, which consisted in 
aii.^uming a great variety of attitudes,— sometimes closing 
the feet and hands together, and swinging with great 
velocity around the rod. During the tumbling, a musical 
instrument played by means of other parts of the machi- 
nery. After going through all the evolutions, the figure 
rose up, seated itself on the rod, and bowed to the spec- 
tators. An elegant and beautiful automaton of this de- 
scription is now shown at the Gallery of Practical 
Science. 

We hope the reader will not entertain the idea that 
many of these details are too magical to be true. The 
magic employed is a very extensive knowledge of mecha- 
nical details, an intimate examination of the manner in 
which sounds are produced by air passing through pipes, 
and very likely, the attractive force of magnetism. All 
these are, in one way or other, employed in the production 
of the startling effects here detailed. 



ON THE MANUFACTURE OF GLUE. 

The preparation of this useful article forms a curious 
and important branch of national industry. The chief 
Q^ of glue is for binding or cementing pieces of wood 
together, as practised by Uie carpenter and cabinet-maker, 
in which trades very Jarge quantitieB are constantly 
employed. 
Glue (which is nothing more thaa gelatine in a dry 



state) is obtained from the hides, hoofs, and horns of ani 
mals ; the refuse of the leather-dresser, and the offal of 
the slaughter-house ; ears of oxen, calves, sheep ; parings 
of parchment, old gloves; and, in short, animal skin aui 
(by a late improvement) bones, are all employed for 
making glue. 

The first process in this manufacture is to free the 
materials from dirt, blood, and other matters which do 
not afford glue. For this purpose they are steeped in 
lime and water, and then placed in baskets, and rinsed by 
the action of a stream of water. They are then re-i 
moved to a sloping surface, and allowed to drain, and 
whatever lime remains is deprived of its caustic property 
by the re-absorption of carbonic acid from the atmo- 
sphere, since the presence of lime would prove injurious 
in the subsequent processes. 

The gelatine is removed from the animal matter by 
boiling. This process is effected in a somewhat shallow 
boiler, which is provided with a false bottom, pierced 
with holes, and elevated a ffew inches, thus serving as a 
support to the animal matter, and preventing it from 
burning by the heated bottom of the boiler. TTie boiler 
is filled about two-thirds with soft water, and then the 
animal substances are added: these are piled up above 
the brim of the boiler, because soon after boiling dbm- 
mences, they sink down below the level of the liquid. 
The contents of the boiler are occasionally stirred up 
and pressed down, while a steady boihng is maintainea 
throughout this part of the process. 

As the boiling proceeds, small portions of the gelatine 
are drawn off into egg-shells, when, in the course of a 
few minutes, if the liquid gelatine becomes, by exposure 
to the cool air, a clear mass of jelly, the boiling process 
is complete, — ^the fire is smothered up, and the contents 
of the boiler left to settle for ten or twenty minutes. 
The stop-cock is then turned, and the gelatine flows into 
a deep vessel, kept hot by being surrounded with hot 
water, and thus it remains for several hours, during 
which time it deposits any solid impurities. It is then 
drawn off into congealing boxes, and prepared as we shall 
soon explain. 

The undissolved matter in the boiler is treated with 
boiling water a second, and even a third time, and the 
above process continued until nothing more can be ex« 
tracted. The subsequent solutions are often too weak 
to be made into glue, but they are economically used 
with fVesh portions of animal matter. 

A clear idea may be formed of this part of the manufac- 
ture by the annexed illustration (fig. 1 .), which represents 
a section of three vessels, on different levels. The upper- 
xnost vessel, which is heated by the waste heat of the 
chimney, supplies the animal matter contained in the 
second vessel with warm water : the third vessel receives 
the liouid gelatine, and retains it in a fluid state, while 
the solid impurities are being deposited. 

The gelatine is drawn off from this third vessel into 
buckets, and conveyed to the congealing boxes. These 
boxes are of deal, of a square form, but somewhat nar- 
rower at bottom than at top. The liquid glue is poured 
through fimnels, provided with filter-cloths, into the 
boxes until they are entirely filled. This process is 
conducted in a very cool and dry apartment, paved with 
stone, and kept very clean, so that any glue which may 
be spilt may be recovered; In twelve or eighteen hours 
the liquid glue becomes sufliciently firm for the next pro- 
cess, which is performed in an upper story, furnished 
witb venti ating windows, so as to admit air on all sides, 
llie boxes are inverted on a moistened table, so that the 
cake of jelly may not adhere to it : this cake is cut into 
horizontal layers, by means of a brass wire, stretched in 
a frame, and is guided by rulers, so disposed as to regu- 
late the thickness of the cake of glue. The slices thus 
formed are care^lly lifted off, and placed on nets 
stretched in wooden frames. As these frames are filled 
they are placed over each other> with an interyal of about 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[FEBHDAaT 20, I84t- 



three inclies between every two framea, so that the air 
may have free access. Each frame is so arranged as to 
slide in and out like a drawer, to allow the cakes to be 
turned, which is done two or three times every day. 

An experienced writer on manufactures thus observea, 
concerning this part of the process; — 

me drying of the glne is the most precarious part of the 
monnfoctuie. The least disturbance of the weather may 
injure the glue during the two or three first d*ys of its ex- 
posure. Should the temperature of the all rifle considerably, 
the gelatine may turn bo soft as to become unshsMly, and 
even to run through the meshes upon the pieces below, or it 
may get attached to the strings and surround them, bo as 
not to be separable without plunging the net into boiling 
water. If frost supervene, the water may frrese, and form 
numerous cracks in the cakea. Such pieces must immedi- 
ately be re-melted and re-formed. A slight fog even produces 
upon glue newly exposed a serious deterioration, the damp 
condensed upon its surbce occasioning a general mouldiness. 
A thunderstorm sometimes destroys the coagulating power 
in the whole UmirE at once, or causes the glue to turn on 
the nets, in the language of the mannfitctuier. A wind too 
dry or too hot may cause it to dry so quickly as to prevent 
it irom contracting to its proper size, without numerous 
cracks and fissures. In this predicament the dosing of all 
the flaps of the windows is the only means of abating the 
mischief. On these accounts it is of imporfance to select 
the most temperate season of the year, such as spring and 
antmnn, for tne glue mannfactnre. 

When the glue is properly dried a gloss is imparted to 
each cake, by dipping it in hot water, and passing over it 
a brush, also wetted with hot water, fhe cakes are 
then placed on a bardie, dried in the stove-room, or in 



the open air, if the weather be snlEciently dry and wans 
It is then packed in casks for sale. 

A few years ago Mr. Yardley, of Camberwell, obtained 
a patent for manufacturing glue from bones, of which 
nearly one-half the weight consists of solid gelatine. 
' In this patent process the bones are thoraugfaljr 
cleansed by being washed in water and lime for Utree v 
four days : they are then placed in the globolar veesel, called 
an txtractor, of which the annexed cut (fig. 2) is a lectioiL 
The aperture through which the bones pass into the vei. 
gel is at a, which aperture is closed by screwing up lo 
internal plate tighdy against the interior snrftee of tbt 
vessel. The extractor turns upon a horiiontal axis, coo* 
sisting of a strong tube, which at the centre of the 
vessel proceeda downwards, and conveys steam belo* 
the grating upon which the bones rest. Steam, of the 
pressure of about fifteen pounds on the square inch, ii 
admitted from a boiler, by turning the cock ft, and passing 
along the tube, which is furnished with a safety-valve il 
r, it passes to the bottom of the extractor, then rises ii|i 
through the grating and amongst the bones, and expeU 
all the air from the vessel, through a stop-cotk it i, 
which being closed the extractor soon becomea charged 
with steam. The extractor is moved slowly round by 
means of the wheel-work at w, to shift the position a 
the bones, and allow the steam to act more perfectly. 
When at rest, a quantity of the fluid glue coUecte at the 
bottom of the vessel, and is drawn off at the cock c. 
The steam continues to act upon the bones for about id 
hour before the liquid gelatine is drawn off. After eveiy 
drawing off the steam is admitted, and the process cos- 
tinued as before. The gelatine is collected in an en- 
porating vessel, and heated until sufficiently thick Id 
solidify when cold: it is then prepared in tbe moil 
manner. 

It has been found bjr eiperiment that when two cylin- 
ders of dry ash, one mch and a half in diameter, ven 
glued together, and after twentyrfour hours torn asundef, 
a force of 1260 poundo was required to produce tbe 
separation, thus making the force of. adhesion equal n 
715 pounds per square inch. Another experiment mide 
the force of adhesion to equal 4000 pounds on the square 
inch. 

A delicate kind of glue is prepared by gently buling 
shreds of parchment in water, in the proportion of ooe 
pound of parchment to six quarts of water, until it be | 
reduced to one quart. It is then strained and boiled tc 
the consistence of glue. Isinglass glue is best prepand 
by gently heating uiat substance in ' stnrit. 



I.DKDOK t riiblDicd b;^ iOHH W, FAKKEB, \Vf ar 6t|«S'i^ «4«ld by iS 



Sdtnrlrd^ imt^^^im. 



m 655. 



FEBRUABY 



27™, 1841. 



TURKEY AND THE TURKISH PROVINCES. 



KOUKT OnA. 



iMOUNT OSSA, &c, IN THE PROVINCE OF 
TRIKHALA. 

Thb foregoing sketcli represents a. view of Mount Ossa, 
in Greece, widi the villa^ of Baba, leading to the town 
of Ainpelachia, and sUoding on the river Salynipria, in 
the vale of Tempe. All these are in the province of 
Trikhala, in European Turkey. As the present aspect 
and condition of these spota, so celebrated in ancient 
hbtory and poetry, must be generally interesting to the 
lover of literature, we propose to say a few words about 
the mountain, — the town, — the river, — and the vale. 

Mount Ossa is in that part of Greece which has all 
along I ome tbe name of Tlieasaly, though now included 
in one of the Turkish provinces. This mountain was 
once tbe mideiice of the Centanrs, of whom we have 

S'len an account in the 511th number of this work, 
aunt Ossa was formerly joined to Mount Olympus, 
but Hercules, according to ancient story, separated them, 
and made between them the celebrated valley of Temp6. 
This separation of the two mounbuns was probably 
effected by an earthquake, which happened about 1 900 
Kara before the Christian era. Ossa and Olympus, 
Pelion and Pindus, are famed in ancient &ble, as being 
tbe mountuns which the giants, in their wars against 
Ihe goda, heaped up, one on the other, to scale tbe 
heavens with niore facility. Mount Ossa is said to con* 
tain a coarse bluiih-graj marble, with veins of a finer 
(piaiity. The mountain-ranges of this country are 
represented aa oflbrding to the traveller the appeenutce 
rf walls, aepanting one diatrict from the other. 



The town of Ampelachia, which is described as hang- 
ing upon the sides of Mount Ossa, is supposed to he the 
ancient Atracla, which was built by Atrax, an early king 
of Theasaly. This town was once so famous in all the 
country round, that " Atracian" and "Tbessalian" were 
synonymous terms. The town now contains about four 
hundred houses; and Dr. Holland says of it:— 

Nothing can be more picturesque than the various gTonpa 
of buildings which compose it. Biring out of the thi& 
foliage of woods, overhanging the deep mvines of the moun- 
tain, their open galleries and projecting rooft render the 
effect of situation still more sin^lar and imposing to the 
eye. The oak, olive, and eyprem spread over the broken 
surfiuw on which the town stands, and. intermix with the 
foliage of vineyards; while the loftier ridges of the moun- 
tain, receding towards tbe south, are covered with long rowf 
of pines. A few of the honses are built and furnished in 
the European manner. 

The town of Ampehcbia, which is south-west of the 
Turkish village of Baba, is arrived at from this latter 
place by an irregular cork-screw road, in some places 
cut in the rock, and in others carried along the channel 
of mountain -torrents. Mount Ossa, with tbe fore- 
named town and village, is south of the river, which flowa 
eastward, while Mount Olympus is northward of the 
stream. Thn same respectable authority which we 
have before quoted informs us that Ampelachia is in- 
teresting, not only for the scenery which surrounds it, 
but for the kind manners of its inhabitants. They are 
nearly all Greeks, and though the seat of their habitation 
is in a spot comparatively secluded and remote, they have 
been n<Aed for many years for the ettent of tbeir com* 
fiSS 



74 



THE SATUfelDAV UAGAZHHL 



tl^EBRVAllT ilj 



mercial undertakings, and for a character of active intel- 
ligence and enterprise, which has procured them a high 
repute among the different communities of modem 
Greece. Most oi the merchants of Ampelachia have 
visited or resided in the principal commercial cities Of the 
Continent, and established connexions there^ the extent 
and success of which are manifested in the w^th liianj 
of them have acquired. They are chiefly connected 
with Germany, but they also trade with Constantinople, 
Smyrna, and other mercantile places of the Levant. 

The commerce of Ampelacma is founded in manuiac- 
ture, and the population of the place is actively engaged 
in the various processes of making and dyeing cotton 
thread, the staple commodity of the country. This is like- 
wise the general employment pursued in the other towns 
and villages of this district. Most of the cotton rrown on 
the plains of Thessaly is brought hither for the use of 
the manufacturers. It is calculated that the town of 
Ampelachia furnishes annually about three thousand 
bales of dyed cotton thread, each bale being reckoned at 
250 lbs. Of this quantity nearly the whole is trans- 
mitted by land-carriage to Germany, — a traffic which is 
well regulated, and carried on with much activity by the 
Ampelachian merchants. The inhabitants of this town 
have likewise acquired much respect by their general 
cultivation df mind, and by the aids they have s^orded 
to the literatul*e of their country. There is also a con- 
siderable Oreek school here, which is said to be in a 
flourishing state. 

The river now called Salympritt^ but in ancient times 
the Pgneui, is formed by the confluence of two streams, 
which flow down from the mountains of t^ndus, and 
unite at the Khan of Malakossij near the ftite of the 
ancient ^ginium. The course of tliis river is eastwaJrd, 
and it falls into the Gulf of Saloniki*. tt Is said that 
the Peneus anciently inundated the plains of I'hes&aly, 
till the earthauake separated the mountains Ossa tod 
Olympus, imd fbtmed the beautiful vale df T^lnpf, 
where the waters formerly stagnated. The laurel wa6 
once abundant on the banks of this rirtor. The valley 
of the Peneus, throughout its whole course, is extremely 
picturesque and interesting, but some of the most extra- 
ordinary scenery which it presents is that of the rocks 
of Meteora, already described, No. 530. 

The valley of Temp6 was, with the poets of old times, 
the beau idial of a rural and voluptuous retirement. It 
is described by them as the most delightful spot on the 
face of the earth. Here were to be found-*- 

Cool grots, and living lakes, the floweiy ]^de 
Of meads, and streams that through the vallegr glifl% 
And shady groves, that easy sleep invite^ 
And, after toilsome days, a soft repose at night 

Here were verdant walks, which the warbling of birds 
rendered more pleasant and romantic, and which the 
gods often honoured with their presence. If this were 
happiness, well might the poet continue his aspirationsi 
and wish to be transported to this land of ^'Drowdr- 
head." 

My next desire is, void of care and strife^ 

To lead a soft, secnre, inglorions Ufe — 

A country cottage, near a crystal flood, 

A winding valley, and a lofty wood. 

Some god conduct me to the sacred shades, 

Where bacchanals are sung by Spartan niaid% 

Or lift me high to Hemos* hilly crown, 

Or in the plahis of Temp^ lay me down» 

Or lead me to some solitary pUioe, 

And coyer my retreat from human race f. ^ 

With the race of the poets it came to pass, in process 
of time, that all valleys, plains, and woody glens, that 
were pleasant, either for their situation or the mildness 
of their climate, were called by the name Of Temp6. It 

• Rce Ko. S30 of tUs work. At p. 130, col. 1, Um 10, te <* tnonmttsd/' 
iMd f* tranaimited.** * 

f Virga, dnd QtorfU. 



is, however, probable that the vale 6f Temp6 was cele- 
brated by poets who hiUl never seen it, and the imagina- 
tion, therefore, amplified its etcellenci^s. Temp§, pro- 
perly 80 clilled, consists of a celebrated pass or defile 
between Mounts Ossa and Olympus. This pass is fiye 
or sii milM iti length, and is biest described in the wordi 
of l)r. Clarke:— 

The Peneus occupies the whole of the valley firom side to 
side, with the exception only of the narrow pass afforded br 
the old paved causeway of the military way, which ext«n({3 
along the right bank of the river. Fragments of the Atn- 
cian marble f^peared in different parts of this pavement: 
to afford space fbr it, even the solid rocks were cut awar 
from the side of the Peneus. Here the scenery nosaessu 
the utmost grandeur. The precipices consist of najced per- 
pendicular rocks, rising to a prodigious heiipht, so that the 
soectator can scarcely behold them from below without gid- 
oiness. Li^s descriotion, therefore, in addition to its in- 
trinsic grancteur, has all the majestv of truth. The variom 
colours which adorn the surfaces of these rocks can only be 
expressed by painting ; and how beautiful would the eflfect 
be if these masses were fiuthfiilly delineated in all their difr- 
tinct or blended hues, of ashen Rrav, and green, and white, 
and ochreous red, and brown, and black, and yellow I Such 
description by the pen suggests no distinct image to the 
mind. Upon their utmost peaks, both to the rieht and left, 
we saw the ruins of an ancient fortress, once the bnlviirk 
of the defile^ whose walls were made to traverse the preci- 
pices in a surprising manner, ouite doWn to the road. The 
clifls are so perpendicular, ana the goige is so nanow, thflt 
it would he absolutely impossible fbr an ahny to paM while 
the strait was gtiarded by these totifieationd. 

Clarke deseribes this defile as reMmbling the pass of 
tCiilicrankie, ill Bootlahd) and that <^ bovedale, in Der- 
byshire, but Upon a much fffftnder scale. MThen Heptane, 
ac<;ording to one of the fuilet, opened this outlet for the 
rivef) by striking the mountains iHth his trident,— 4)r 
When the Oarthquake or othet coovulsion of nature 
oeeufrMl)— ^Olyllipus and Ossa w«l<o separated firom each 
others and bo fbrtbed this tast ddt, at the bottom of 
Which tho t^etis obtldiis its lrtl^et< That a sea, once 
covering the whole of lllossfcl^, Was drained by the 
opening of this chasm, is not otily evident from the posi- 
tion of the strata on either side, but the fact has been 
regularly handed down by tradition, thus forming a tlieme 
of poetical allusion, if not an authentic piece of history. 

in the opinion of Dr. Holland, the scenery of Tempe 
is correctly represented^ on a smaller scale, by St Vin- 
cent's Rocks, near Bristol. The Peneus, as it Hows 
through the defile, is not much wider than the Aroo. 
and the channel between the cliffk is of similar contracted 
dimensions ; but the cliffy of the Thessalian mountaiiL< 
are loftier and more precipitous, towering in some places 
to sit or eight hunared feet above the river, and pro- 
jecting their vast masses with the greatest abniptness 
Over the hollow below. 

Where the surface renders it possible, the summits and 
ledges of the rocks are for the most part covered with small 
wood, chiefly oak, with the arbutus and other shrubs. On 
the banks of the river, wherever there is a small inten'sl 
betwee|i the water and the difl^ it is covered with the rich 
and widely-spreading foliage of the plane, the oak, and other 
fbrest trees, which in these situations have attained a le- 
markable sise, and in various places ejttend their shade Car 
over the channel of the stream. The ivv, windinff ronn^ 
many of them, may bring to the mind of the trav^er the 
beautiM and accurate description of :£lian2 who has done 
more justice to the scenery of Temp6 than any other writer 
of antiquity. 

The village of 6aba stands at the western extremitr 
of the defile, which would therefore be at the left band 
of the picture. In conclusion, we must remark that the 
topogpraphy of these ancient Greek n^ons is not erea 
now well understood, and is often laid down with littl6 
certainty of correctness. 



n 



1841.] 



I THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



75 



ICEBERGS. 



The term Iceberg, writteu Tiberg by tbe Dutch, signi- 
fies ice-mountain. It is commonly applied to the 
glaciers of Greenland, Spitzbergen, and other Arctic 
countries; but is as often extended to tbe large peaks, 
mountains, oc islets of ice, that are fbund floating in 
the sea. Tlie first, or fixed bergs, are prodigious 
lodgments of ice, wbich occur in yalleys adjoining the 
coast of the Polar seas. The largest ieeberg of this 
description, seen by Captain Scoresby, is that a little to 
the northward of Horn Sound, which occupies eleven 
miles in length of the sea coast It rises precipitously 
from the sea 402feet high, and extends backwards towards 
the summit of the mountain, to about four times that 
elevation. Its surface forms a noble inclined plane 
of smooth snow, and has a beautiful appearance; but 
the lower parts^ in the latter end of ^very summer, 
present a bare surfsu^ of ice. The front sni^ioe of ice- 
bergs, generally, is glistening and unevw. IVb^fover 
a part has been recently broken off, the fresh fhuctore is 
of a beautiful greenish-blue colour, approaching to 
emerald green; but such parts as bay0 b(^ long 
exposed to tbe atmosphere, are of a greepjsh-gr^ 
colour, and fh>m a distance have the appearance of clifra 
of whitish marble. These icebergs are wholly produced 
from rain or snow, the period of their founoation, or 
first stratum, being frozen, being nearly* coeval with 
the land on which they are lodged: the subsequent 
increase is produced by the congelation of tbe sleet of 
summer or autumn, and of the snow aecumulated in 
winter, whicb> being partly dissolved by tbe summer 
sun, becomes oonsoUdatedy and, on tbe decline of tbe 
summer b^^ froxen into a new layer of ice. This 
yearly ioerease continues until the mi^ beeomes oumn- 
teittous, an4 ri^M to the elevation of the surrounding eliffs. 
The mfillipg ^ the snowy which is afterwards depodted 
QQ these enormous blod^s, liH^wise contributes to tbair 
growths ^d l|y fiffii^ up ti^ crevices renders the 
whole solid. Where such a pass has risen to the 
height of 1000 or 3000 feet, the lUseuinulatMl weif^t, 
agisted by the action of the ocean i^ its baso) plunges it 
into the sea* and it is .driven southward bv the winds and 
currents, and known to mariners under tW name of ice- 
berg; and from its canities the whalevs fill theif esydu 
with pure fresh water. 

Icebergs occur in many pUises in ihe Aretic and 
Antarctic r^onsi in Hudson's StmH, Dmis's Strait» 
sod Baffin's Bay, they are frequently of astonishing 
msgaitttdeb Ellis describes them as smetimes occurring 
of 500 <M* 600 yards thickness. Frobisher saw one ice- 
berg which he judged to be ^^ near fourscore fathoms 
above wat«^*' Captain Middleton saw bergs three or 
four miles in curcnmference) 100 fethoms under water, 
and a fifih or sixth part above. Captain Ross observed 
multitudes of icebergs in Davis's Strati and Baffin's 
Bay: at one time, near Waygate, or Hare Island, he s w 
700 icebergs, some of them of prodig^ns sine and ex- 
traimiinnry form* One berg is described by Captain 
Ross as being 40 feet high, and 1000 feet long; anothnr 
85 feet high, and 1200 feet in circumference; another 
325 feet high, and 1900 feet long: another aground m 
150 fathoms water, and several together aground in 250 
fathoms ; one berg, of which the dimensions were given in 
bj Captain Parry, had nine unequal sides, was aground 
in 60 fathoms, and measured 4169 yards long, 3689 
yards broad, and 61 feet high. The weight of tMa iee- 
lerg, taken at somewhat smaller dimam<»8, was esti- 
mated at 1,292»897»673 tons. One of the largest bergs 
represented in Captain Ross's Jourmaly is perforated in 
an arched form, beneath which some of the crew cUsem- 
barked on the ioe. 

Floating icebergs are seen in greater number in 
Baffin's Bay than elsewhere in the Arctic regions. 
Thence they constantly make their way southward, down 
Davis's Sicaity and are seattersd abroad in the Atlantic. 



They also occasionally crowd the banks of Newfound- 
land, " btyond which," says Captain Scoresby, " they 
are sometimes conveyed, by the operation of the 
southerly under-current, as low as latitude 40® north, 
and even lower, a distance of at least 2000 miles from 
the place of their origin." 

Icebergs are fre<]^uentlv of fantastic shapes, but their 
most general form is with one high perpendicular side, 
the opposite side very low, and the intermediate surface 
sloping gradually. Some have regular flat surfaces, but 
they have most commonlv different acute summits. 
Some, as that figured by Captain Ross, are perforatedi 
or contain caverns, or clefts and cracks in the most 
elevated parts, so as to resemble distinct spires 'On 
some bergs there are hollows, or pools, in which snow 
or water accimiulates ; others are smooth and naked; 
their sides being sometimes filled with smaJl holes as 
regrular as if formed by art. The base of floating ice- 
bergs is commonly larger in extent than their uppe^ 
surftce. 

Hence, (says Scoresby,) the proportion of ice i^>pefiriiw 
above wat^, is seldom less in elevation than one-sevenS 
of the whole thickness; and^ i^hen the summit is conicaL 
or of the steeple form, the elevation above water is fre- 
quently one-fourth of the whole depth of the bergs, llie 
waves break against them in a high sea, and in a swell 
they make a tiemendous noise in rising and fiilling; and 
they rip up and divide fields of ioe of great thickness. 
The breaking up of icebergs is usually caused by the heat 
of the sun, or a temperate atmosphere : they then become 
hollow and fragile ; large pieces break ofi^ and fall into the 
sea with an astounding crash. Hiis is technically termed 
calving : the iceberg loses its equilibrium, sometimes turns 
on one side, and occasionally is inverted. The sea is thereby 
put into commotion ; fields of ice in the vicinity are broken 
\ky) the waves extend, and the noise is heard to the 
distance of several miles ; and sometimes the rolling motion 
of the berg not ceasing, other pieces eet loosened and^ 
detached^ until the whole mass feus asunder, like a wreck. 

The general colour of icebergs has been referred tO| 
but their appearance varies with their solidity and dis* 
tance, and their mixture with earth, gravel, or sand. 
The state of the atmosphere also affects their appear- 
^ce: they glisten in the SHn*s rays, and even et nigh^ 
are dbcemible at a distance, by their natural efiulgence; 
and, in foggy weather, by a peculiar blackness in tbe 
atmosnhere. Captain Ross tells us that it is hardly 
possible to imagine anything more exquisite than the 
variety of tints which icebergs display: by night, as well 
as by day, they glitter with a vividness or colour beyond 
the power of art to represent. While the white por- 
tions have the brilliancy of silver, their colours are as 
various and splendid as those of the rainbow. By these 
means the danger of icebergs to the navigator is much 
diminished; but it is still requisite to be on the watcb 
fbr them. They sometimes occur in extensive diains, 
in which vessels get involved in the night, during^ 
storms, when fatal accidents occur. Ships are not un- 
firequently moored to bergs ; but if the latter be over- 
turned, or, while fioating in a tide-way, their base be 
arrested by the ground, they fall with the noise of thun- 
der, and crush whatever objects they encounter in their 
descent. " Thus have vessels been often staved by the 
fsSL of their icy moorings; while smaller objects, such 
as boats, have been repeatedly overwhelmed, even at a 
considerable distance, by the vast waves occasioned by 
such events.'' Again, in the temperate season, when 
the bergs become fragile, and are struck for the mooring 
anchor, they split asunder, and the masses bury boats 
and men. ^ The awful effect produced by a solid mass, 
many thousands, or even miUions, of tons in weight, 
changing its situation with the velocity of a falling 
body, whereby its aspiring summit is in a moment buried 
in the ocean, can oe more easily imagined than de- 
scribed." 

Captain Scoresby concludes that most of the ice- 
monntains^ or ietbergs, that eocur in the Arctic region^f 

555—2 



7« 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



are clerived from the land icebergs, or glaciers, and 
are consequently the product of snow or rain-water. The 
same writer also allows that some iceberfrs may be 
formed in coves and bays in the polar countries; and 
these, having their bed in the ocean, must be partly the 
product of sea-water, and partly that of snow and rain- 
water. From the evidence of a Russian voyager of the 
last century, there is reason to infer that some icebergs 
have their origin in the wide expanse of the ocean; and 
he describes a continent, so to speidc, of monntainotu 
ice existing, and probably increasing in the ocean, at a 
distance of between 300 and 400 lules from any known 
land. 

The buoyancy of icebergs is referable to the consi- 
derable increase of bulk which water undergoes in con- 
flation; ice being, bulk for bulk, lighter than water. 
TTiis buoyancy produces remarkable effects, not only 
Soata the icebergs, but with lliem heavy bodies, as 
ttrata of earth and stene, and beds of rock of great 
thickness, wAich are thus transported from the moun- 
tainous shores of high latitudes to the bottom of distant 
teas, where the ice is dissolved. Such ice-islands, before 
they are melted, have been known to drift from Baffin's 
Bay to the Azores, and from the South Pole to the 
neighbourhood of the Cape. 

Icebergs not unfrequently ground on reefs or shal- 
lows, and thus remun stationary for some years. Fs^ 
bricius and Crauti mention two immense icebergs having 
grounded and remained in South-eaat Bay for sevenJ 
years. From their vast size they were named by the 
Dutch. Amsterdam and Haarlem. 



To prolong lay days I will neither ask the elixir of life from 



the alchemist. 



lultiplied prescriptions from the phjr. 
regimen tends to abridge life, and multi- 



od privationB give a sadnese to the spirit, more noxious 
thaa the prescribed remedies are salutary. Besides, what is 
physical, without moral life ; that is to'say, without improve- 
ment and etgoymenti — Fuit. 



a STO&T-TKLLBBS Of NAPUtS. 

The streets of Naplee are chaiBeterized by extraordinary 
stir and bustle. One of the most inCerestins features of this 
scene is the great number of very young ciiildren.who are 
already of use to their parents. lousee little boys andrirls 
as busily employed as tbeir elders ; one is the bearer of his 
&ther's br.-aMast te the fields: another carries a pick-axe 
orspade, which you woald hardly think him strong enough 
to lift. Another drives an ass, with vegetable^ to market ; 
and you may oft«n see a little creature standing on a chair, 
griuaing a knife, while another, still younger, turns the 



n of both sexes, where tiiey are educated, fed, and taught 
Buuie handicraft. Some are in the nature of workhouscH, 
and employ a multitude of indigent persona, while others 
are devoted entirely to children, educated principally for 
music The latter institutious have produced many of the 
great performers and masters of the art, who have figured 
m the churches or on the stages of the different capitals of 
Europe for the last century. 

An amusement almost peculiar to Naples is that afforded 
by story-tellers, or, as they are called, the improntatori. M. 
SosB, a recent traveller, savs; — "These men are seen Bur- 
rounded by audiences of tne lower classes. They have a 
square place railed in, with a few planks for seats. Some 
ait, — outers stand, — and numbers Le on the ground ; but all 
evince profound attention. One man relates stories of his 
own invention, at tines convulsing his hearers with laugh- 
ter, and at others drawing the teare of sensibility from their 
eyes. Farther on is one who recites from Anoato, Taaso, 
or other Italian poets; and often, after reading a paaeaoe, 
he puts the book under his arm, and proceeds to an expLi- 
nation, with very appropriate action and gesture. The voice 
and manner of the improvisatore, — the interest excited in 
the audience, — every one appearing fearful of breathing. 



RURAL SPORTS FOR THE MONTHS. 
FEBRUARY, 



lo Tifai tadh sutli hg bill, Iba daon ue iwnd 
ImpngbibU, 'Ow !■ tbecorert icfe; 
HapAub ftv punrur. Hiirk! vb«t iood ihmli 
Ka-ww thmi^ thA ativab! habnaki nnj; 
ShriU honu procUim oil fliMhL Rmrh itrinliiig hotu 
8miBfl<i'a Uia lawn to nub tb« dutunt pua : 
'Xii biiunph >U ■a' '— " 



THi CUHHOV lox, {Vitlpa eulgani.) 

TiTRouoHOUT the habitable regions of the earth, we fiad 
that, as the empire of civilized man gradually extends, 
predatory animals are proportionablr induced in number, 
until in particular countries or districts the most formid- 
able species become completely extincL Thus, thit 
andent marauder the wolf, formerly so much the object 
of dread and superstition throughout our land, has been 
extirpated from it, though he is still roaminz at large on ' 
many parts of the Continent. But while thu is the com 
with such animals as have proved themselves inimical ta 
the safety of the human race, it is not so with the Foi, 
whose propensities, however rapacious, are exercised odIt 
on creatures lower in the scale of existence than itaelt 
This animal is permitted to remain amongst us for tbe 
sake of the sport which it affords; its depred^ons are 
tolerated, ana pains are even taken to keep up the 
supply tit the species. 

In no other country of the world is the hunting of tht 
fox pursued with the same ceal and success as is 
England. It is a favourite diversion with all ranks of 
people, and is greatiy lauded by its advocates as a meua 
of keeping up the hardihood of the English character, u 
well as of promoting a kindly feeling between the sere- 
ral classes meeting together on such occasions. The 
breed of horses, it is aiso said, would soon degencratfi 
were the stimulus removed which now induces persons 
to go to the expense, trouble, and risk of rearing hortM 
for tbe chase. Whether this he the case or not, the 
enthusiasm with which this sport is followed is Tery re- 
markable, and is by no means confined to tlie actual mem- 
bers of the hunt. It is amusing to wibiess the excite- 
ment which pervades a village in the hunting districU 
when the inhabitants become aware of the approach of 
the hounds. Old people seem to regain a portion of 
their juvenile feelings, and may be seen hastening with 
unwonted activity to view the sport; labouring men for- 
get their usual measured pace, and appear as if impelled 
towards the scene of action by some irresistible impulse; 
others necessarily confined to their tasks, show by their 
eager looks that they would willingly throw aside the 
implements of husbandry and join the chase; light and 
active persons frequently follow the hounds on foot, and 
traverse the country for miles with a degree of speed 
and ardour unknown to them at other times; all indeed 
is buttle and excitement, and ill fares the work, domestic 
or of the Geld, when reynard chooses to lead the huotSi 
men aqd tbe hounds in the ricinity of a village. 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



77 



The pleasurable excitement connected with this diver- 
sion is doubtless greatly enhanced by the sagacity and 
and wiliness of the aninial pursued, and by the innumer- 
able stratagems which it employs to elude the menaced 
ruin. The history of the fox is full of interest, and 
will repay us for the attention we may be disposed to give 
to the subject. 

The family to which our common fox belongs is gene- 
rally considered as only a variety of the extensive genus 
CaniSf which comprises dog^, wolves, and jackals. Nor 
is the organisation of the fox Very different from that of 
the dog. The number of toes on the fore and hind-feet, 
and the number and position of the incisor, canine, and 
cheek teeth correspond in each, though the teeth of 
the fox are sharper and better fitted to inflict a mortal 
wound at a single bite, without mangling its prey, than 
those of the dog. There are, however, some remarkable 
differences between the animals, as there are also between 
the fox, and all other members of the same family. The 
pupil of the eye in the fox, if observed during the day, 
or under the influence of a strong light, is seen to close 
in a vertical direction, instead of contracting equally in 
the form of a circle, and, therefore, as in the case ox the 
cat, the ftculty of vision can be exercised with a very 
small proportion of light. Yet is the animal by no 
means deficient in sight, even when exposed to the noon- 
tide glare ; as those who have followed in his track can 
abundantly testify. Another point of difference is in the 
shape of the muzsle, which in the fox is much more 
elongated and pointed than in others of the same family. 
The tail is also longer, more bushy, and more thickly 
covered with fur ; tiie skin is altogether covered with 
closer and finer fur, and is in some varieties of great 
beauty and high value. 

The habits of the fox are more distinct than its 
organisation from those of other animals of the canine 
species. The form of the eye enables it to see prey 
when above it, and thus the perches of pheasants and 
other g^allinaceous birds are assailed by the nocturnal 
marauder. Its predacious habits know no bounds, and 
its stealthy and cautious manner of approaching and of 
securing^ its prey enables it to commit the most destruc- 
tive havoc in the farm-yard, and to carry off its booty 
with impunity. It is peculiar to foxes to be quite 
fiolitary in their operations, never joining in numbers to 
make common cause against their enemies, and so to 
compensate for the want of individual strength ; but en- 
countering alone whatever dangers assail it, and op- 
posing tbem at first with all the cunning of its sagacious 
nature, and when this fails, with the most desperate and 
unyjelding courage, fighting to the last extremity. 

Foxes are common in various parts of the globe, but 
most numerous in temperate and cold climates. There 
is not much difference in their general aspect, except 
such as arises from variety in colour and markings. 
Their means of subsistence vary with the localities in 
which they are found. In some places they are known 
to subsist chiefly on fish, in others they fatten on the 
fruit of the vine ; the lesser beasts and birds are, however, 
their principal prey, especially rabbits, game, and domes- 
tic poultry. They perform an essentiad service in Scot- 
land by destroying the moor mice, which sometimes in- 
crease to such an extent as to destroy the vegetation of 
the moors, to the great loss of the shepherd. At the 
season of the vintage in France and Italy, these animals 
do much damage, and feed on the grapes till they be- 
come faty and, as it is said, good for eating. Foxes are 
not migratory animals in any country, nor do they often 
shift Uieir quarters with the seasons : they are hardy and 
healthy creatures, and it is a rare occurrence to find one 
of their number that has died a natural death. 

The common fox is about a foot high, and from the 
muzzle to the other extremity of the body it averages 
about two feet and a half. Shaw describes it as having 
1^ broad head, sharp snout, ^at forehead; and a straight 



and bushy tail. The colour is a yellowish red or brown, 
mixed with white or ash-colour on the forehead, shoidders, 
hind-part of the back, and outside of the hind-legs ; the 
lips, cheeks, and throat are white, and a stripe of the 
same colour runs along the under side of the legs ; the' 
breast and belly are whitish gray; the tips of the' 
ears and the feet black; the tail externally reddish- 
yellow, with a black tinge; internally yellowish-white, 
with the same; the tip of the tail perfectly white. 
According to circumstances the fox kennels either above 
or below the surface of the earth. Where the soil is 
wet and clayey, he finds a retreat in thick bushes or in 
hollows at the roots of trees ; in drier situations he makes 
an excavation to a convenient depth in the earth, often 
beneath the protection of a high bank where roots of trees, 
&C. prevent the soil from falling in, and also form a 
shelter to his dwelling. He does not always take the 
trouble to make a hole for himself, but gets accommodation 
by dispossessing the badger. Wherever he takes up his 
abode ne always provides a number of outlets to give 
means of escape from danger. The young of the fox 
are from three to eight in number, and are produced only 
once in the year, Le. about the latter end of March. The 
female prepares a bed for them of leaves and hay, and 
manifests the most tender solicitude in their behalf. 
The cautious, prudent character which belongs to her by 
nature, seems entirely lost when she has young ones to 
nurse and protect If she perceives the place of her re- 
treat to be disoovered, she will carry off her cubs one by 
one, till she has put them all in a situation which pro- 
mises greater security. She has even been known to bear 
away a cub when the hounds were out, and thus risk her 
own life in attempting to save that of her offspring. 
The cubs are bom like dogs, covered with hair, and 
having their eyes shut. Their growth is completed at 
eighteen months, and the period of their natural lives is 
probably thirteen or fourteen years. 

In the days of his inexperience (says a modem writer) 
a favourite lure will ensnare the fox, but when apprised of 
its nature, the same expedient becomes unavailmg. He 
smells the very iron of the trap, and careAiUy sliuns it. If 
he perceives that the means of ambush are multiplying 
around him, he quits his ulace of residence and retires into 
more secure quarters. Man with all his reasonings and 
machines, requires himself much experience not to be over- 
reached by this wily quadruped. If all the issues of the 
kennel are beset with snares, the occupant scents and recog- 
nises them, and ratlier than fisdl into them, exposes himself 
to the most cruel and protracted privation of food. He is 
comparativel V ignorant and careless of his conduct when no 
war is waged against him ; but when the apprehension of 
pain or death, exhibited under various forms, has produced 
multiplied sensations, which become fixed in his memory, 
and give rise to comparisons, judgments, and indications, 
he acquires skill, penetration, and cunning. If the impru- 
dence and thoughtlessness of youth frequently make nim 
deviate from the riffht path, the experience of age corrects 
his wanderings, ana teaches him to discriminate true from 
false appearances. 

The skin of the fox we have already spoken of as fu/- 
nishing a soft and warm fur. ' This is much used in 
various parts of Europe, for muffs and for the lining of 
clothes. In the Valais, and the Alpine districts of Swit- 
zerland, great numbers of foxes are taken on this account. 
Vast numbers of skins are likewise imported from New- 
foundland and Hudson's Bay. 

In order to keep up the supply of foxes in this coun- 
try, they are sometimes imported from the Continent, 
but these are said not to show equal sport with our own. 
The waste of foxes is not attributed altogether to the 
hunting which is carried on, but to the prepossession 
against reynard which exists among the owners of exten- 
sive domains, where the preservation of winged game is 
an object of importance. It is affirmed, however, that 
if coverts were provided in ground favourable to the bur- 
rowing of rabbits, the foxes, who prefer rabbits to any 
other foody would supply themselves from this source^ 



78 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[FsBBUAXiy 37| 



without molesting either pheasants, partridges, or bares; 
and this statement is confirmed by facts, for in some 
manors, thus provided with the favourite food of the fox, 
this anixnal is found with hares and pheasants in equal 
plenty. 

In the night which precedes a fox-hunt the well-known 
business of earth-stopping is performed by perions con- 
nected with the huntmg establishment. This consists in 
stopping up the earthsy as they are called, while tbe foxes 
are absent in search of their prey, so that when they re- 
turn to their lodging, they find themselves shut ou^ 
Thorn or furze-bushes, intermixed with earth, are used 
to close the entrances to these subterranean dwellingSi 
and when the chase is over, the earths are unstoppedi 
that the foxes may not be deprived of their UAtural ken- 
nel, and driven to seek others elsewhere. 

The season of fox-hunting is, or ought to be^ now 
nearly at an end. It has been reoommendedi M & means 
of repairing the scarcity of foxes, that no country be 
hunted later than February. As a further means of sup- 
plying the requirements of the chasey the 4omc»tip 
rearing of foxes is frequently resorted to. Some littera 
are procured, carefully removed, and placed in a coave« 
nient apartment, where they are fed, and nourished up 
with milk, wheat, and water, until they are old enough tQ 
try their strengUi against weasels, polecats, &c. A kan- 
nii is then prepared for these young foxes, and they ar« 
forced into it, one by one, and kept there by wA^ching 
and supplying them with sufScient food within the 
entrance. Where rabbits are plentiful the cuba soon 
learn to catch the young ones in the neighbourhoods 
they likewise find plenty of beetles, chaffers, and wormsi 
and if properly managed there is very littls doubt of 
their taking to the kennel and remaining there. 

The habits of the fox afford sul^ect for a niuch longer 
notice than we can give, but they have been so frequently 
illustrated by anecdotes, or brought under actual Qbaer- 
vation, that to a large proportion of our readers they 
are doubtless su^ciently familiar. While this animal is 
reared and prized by the huntsman, he is unjustly h^ted 
and despised by many persons, in consequance of the 
natural tendencies which belong to him. We cannot 
join, for instance, in such language as the following, 
where the animal is represented as a thief, conscious of 
the wrong and robberv he is committing, and expecting 
the just vcn^ance of his pursuers. 

As stmggling aimles at the trnmpefa voioe 
Press to their Blandard, hither all r^Mur, 
And hunry through the woods, with hasty sWp, 
Bustling, and full of h(^ ; now driven on iMajj^ 
They push, they strive ; while from the kennel sneakB 
The conseious villain.' See I he skulks along. 
Sleek at the shepherd's cost, and plump with meals 
Purloined : so thrive the wioked here below I 
ThiM^h Ijiiffh his brush he bear ; though tipt with white 
It gaily shue, yel e*er the sua deolined 
Reoal the ■hades of night, the pampeped regae 
Shall rue his fate reversed, and at his heeb 
Behold the just avenger, swift to seize 
His forfeit head, and thirsting for his blood. 

Somebvillk's Ch«i9$^ 



ON CHESa 
V. 



Iv there were no other sign of the perverseness of the mind 
of man, this woidd be a sufficient one, that about spiritual 
things almost every one is satisfied with himself, and thinks 
himself as wise and as holy as need is, whereaa about tem- 
poral things nobody is contented with his state and condi- 
tion, but would &in be greater and richer every day. If we 
were really wise we should not be so greedy of temporal 
tbings, considering wo have as much as nature requires. 
What is beyond the need of nature b a clog to gmce. But 
in spiritual things the greatest share we have is the least of 
what an In&iitemingis able and willing to giira.-^Lvx>OLX. 



•^ 



ORIOIN OF THE KAME8 OF CHESS-MEK. 

Av inquiry into the various muttons which the game 
of chess has undergone in ita passage through dijRerent 
nations, afibrds much curious information* Althougk 
the nature of the game itself never seems to luive been 
essentially changed, jet ii\e names and powers of ih^ 
pieces have b^n subject to much variation: the military 
character of the game has often been lost sigbt of; sad 
it may, in ita present state, be typical not so much of 
a miUtary commnnity ^ of a waU-pegulatad society, i« 
which we ^nd kings, queens, bishop«i knigbts, and 
peasants. 

The king> the principal piece in Ijm gamey has always 
preserved his title; but his consort, the queen, bas beea 
raised to her nresent digwty by a series o^ m^ftrkftblt 
changes, whicn can be traced with tolerable ^zactnesSi 
The original name for this piece se^ns tp have been the 
Eastern word PhtrMf that is, a counsellor, or general of 
an i^rmy. It has been supposed that the similarity of 
sound between the words Ph4r» and Vwrge^ oQcasioaed 
the introduction of the latter term ainong the Europeans; 
but th^t the extravagant YenenitiQn of .uie timea towards 
the Holy Virgin, caused the term Vierge to be ohangsd 
into Fisrp0 or Fer^, the old Norman and English term 
for the queen, and thus the military character of the 
game became at once Ipst sight of, la anoUlLatiB 
poem the queen is called VirgQ* 

M. Freret, after remarkmg that among Eastern 
nations the move of this piece is only from square to 
square, observes, that the romantic epirit of the tiaies 
disdained this very contracted motion a* too much 
resembling the slavery of the Asiatic fonalos, and con- 
trary to the priTileges o^oyed by those in Europe, on 
which account they rendered it aa free as pussihJe, by 
making it the most important of all the pieces. But 
this remark does not agree with Mn Bannngton's ioge* 
nious observations. He says:— <• 

In moat df these (the Esstefn) govenunenta, the kmgs 
are rather iadolant mooerohsy and oMwequeBtlr this mece 
soaroely moves at all, but is mmty to ba defended m>m 
attacks. The f»mperoir himself being thus indokiit^ neces- 
sarily requires a minister or ^and» who can F«tect 
his mastjBr by vigorous and extensive motions egainat distant 
insults, in the most remote parts of the boar£ Tbepiieca 
therefore of the greatest importance, was by the Jrersians 
styled Pharz ox wnerai, Obeas hath universally b^en con- 
stdered as an engagement between two armie^ and if the 
piece of the greatest in^Mrtanee is termed the Gfmrn^ this 
allusion is properiy oBxried en* 

Mr» Douce remarks s-^ 

Although the title of 9iMm cannot be traced so fkr hack 
as that of jfirw, it is oi oonsiderable antiquity, as it is to 
be met with in French manusoripts of the thirteenth mo- 
tnry I and in the Gufm Bomamrum, a colkcttoa of stories 
compiled t^bout the beginning of the thirteenth teaiwy, 
this piece is called re^ua. 

About the year 1408, John Lydgate, the monk of 
St. Edmonsbury, wrote a poem which he dedicated to 
the admirers of the game royal at ehess, from which the 
foUowing extract is preserved by Dr. Hydes-.-. 

To all foUcys vertuouae 
That gentU bene, and ameronae, 
Which love tbe &ir pley notahla^ 
Of the cheese, most delytable, 
Whith all her hoole full entente, 
To them this boke y wUl preaente ; 
Where they ehaU fynde and aon aneone 
How that I nat yore agoone, 
Waa of a Fers ao fortunat, 
Into a eorner drive and Meat. 

The last two lines become intclligrible if we read them 
thus, " The king was by a fortunate queen (of the ad- 
versary,) driven into a corner of the chess-board and 
chedc-mated.'* We introduce the quotation however to 



1841.3 



trtfi SATURDAY MAGA21Mfi. 



7d 



show tbat Mr. Douce is not correct in supposinff it *'not 
possible to trace the term^ri in the English language 
beyond the time of Chaucer*.*' But the term queen 
seems to have come into general use by the year 1474, 
when Caxton printed the second edition of his Book on 
ChesSf for he describes the queen in the following 
terms : — " Thus ought the queue be maad. She ought 
to be a fayr lady, sittyng in a chayer, and crowned with 
a corone on her head, and cladde with a cloth of gold, 
and above furrid with ermynes." We also find the same 
term continued in the reign of Henry the Seventh, as 
appears from a passage in the Vulmria of W. Herman, 
printed at London^ 1519. **We shoulde have II 
kpgis, and II quyens, llll alfyns, IIII knyghtis, lUI 
rokis, and XVI paunys." 

Mr. Madden thinks that from the pieces found in the 
Isle of Lewis f, and also by the set of chess-men belong- 
ing to Charlemagne, of the eighth, of beginning of the 
ninth, century, the very early appearance of the queen 
on the European chess-boards is proved, and conse- 
quently we must reject the theory which ascribes thid 
introduction to the French, from the fmcied similarity 
between Ecrce, or Fers, and the Persian Phetz. That 
it is io the Greeks we should rather '^ ascribe the merit 
or blame of metamorphosing the minister into the queen, 
and* by that means, of introducing so strange aii ano- 
maly as the promotion of a foot-8ol£er to be a lady.*' Mr. 
Bamngton also observes, '' Another impropriety arises 
from me pttwn^s becoming a queen, when he hath 
reached the last square of the adversary's camp ; as it is 
a suitable reward to the pawn (or foot-soldier) to make 
him a general, if he penetrates so far through the ene- 
my's troops; but certainly no prowess on his part can 
entitle him to be transformed into a queen." 

Dr. Hyde states, that in Poland and Russia the chess- 
queen is sometimes called the old wotnan, or nurse. 

The Bishop. Among the Persians and Arabs, the 
original name of this piece was PU, or Phil, an ele- 
phant; under which form it was represented on the 
eastern chess-board. It appears that the Spaniards 
borrowed the term from the Moors, and with the addi- 
tion of the article al^ converted it into alfil, whence it 
became varied by Italian, French, end English writers 
into arfil^ ay^Brez^ aJphUuSf cdftno, cUpkino, al/lere, 
ou/inf iUfynf owfyn^ and alph^n. It is quite uncertain 
at what period the bishop first took the place of the 
elephant. Mr. Madden brings together a number of 
authorities to show that the term bishop was in use so 
early as the eleventh or twelfth century. It waa in 
common nse in the time of Elisabeth, as appears from 
Rowbotham's Pleaeanni and wiUie PUofe of the 
Cheaste renewed, I2mo, London^ 1562. He says of it, 
" The Bishoppes some name Alphins, some fooles, and 
some name tnem princes: other some call them Archers, 
and thei are fashioned accordinge to the wyll of the 
workemen:" and again. Of the biehopf or archer: "In 
the aundent t3rme of the Frenchmen named him Foole, 
which seemeth vnto me an improper name. The Span- 
iardes named him Prince, witn some reason; and some 
uame him Archer;" and, of its form among the English, 
he tells UB, " The Bishoppe is made with a sharpe toppe, 
and cloven in the middest, not muche vnlyke to a 
bishop's mytcn'* 

The French, at a very early period, called this piece 
Foi, an evident corruption of jFiL Hence, also, the 
French name Ibr the piece Fou, or the fool, a natural 
perversion of the original, when we eenaider that, at the 
time it was inede, the court fool was a nsual attendimt 
on the king and Queen : or, as Mr. Barrington observes, 
"This piece, standing on the sides of the king and 

*' Chancer tfani introduce th« piece in questkm: 
8h« fttale on me and tolie my ken, 
And when I Mwe mj fbetn vwvj, 
Alas, I wttttie no Mferplay! 

^ 8m Seimiajf iiagojrine, toI. zriiL, p. a9^, M. 



queen, some wag of the times, from this circumstance, 
styled it llie Fool, because anciently royal personages 
were conmionly thus attended, from want of other means 
of amusing themselves." 

It is difficult to say why this piece should have been 
named the archer, unless, as Mr. Douce remarks, 
" Archefs were formerly the body-guards of monarchs, 
and tnight have beeti thought, by some, more proper 
persbnages in the game of chess than fools, especially if 
they Were inclined to give it a military turn." This piece 
has also been called the Secretary. The Russians and 
Swedes fetaiu the orighial appellation of Elephant; the 
Germans call it LMufbr, or the Leaper, from the ancient 
modd ef taking over an intervening piece; and the Poles 
call it Pdp, Papa, or PHest. The Icelanders and Danes 
appear always to have called it Biskup, or Bishop. 

The Knight. This piece has been subject to little 
or no variation. It is likely that in early times the 
knight was represented on horseback, and hence the 
pieee has often been called the Horse. On the Eu- 
ropean board this piece denoted the nobility; but Dr. 
Myde states, that among Charlemagne's chess-men it is 
represented under the form of a centaur. From the 
pecidiar leap df this piece the Germans call it the 
Springer: the Russians continue to call it the Horse. 

_ • 

Kbugion b the key-stone of the arch of the moral univevse. 
On religion are founded those sublime relations which exist 
between the visible and the invisible world, — those who still 
sojourn here, and those who have become citizens of the 
eoontry beyond us. It is the poesy of existence, — ^the.basis 
of all nigh thought and virtuous feeling, of charities and 
moxalfl^— «nd the veiy tie of social existence. — F. 

Axx the generous and tender affections acquire a new chann 
in alliance with religious ideas. In the same maimer as 
objects, beautiful in themselves, receive a new lustre when 
a pnre light is thrown u^n them. Filial piety beo<«nes 
more touching in those children who pray with iervour for 
the preservation of the life of a mother ; and let a pious 
courage but guide the visitor of the sick, and he becomes 
the angel of^consolation, as he visits the abodes of misery. 
Even virtue itself does not receive its celestial impresi^ 
except in alliance with religions sentiments. — F. 



FAITH AND HOPE. 



O Thou I who for oar fieillen laoe 

Didst lay thy crown of glory by. 
And quit Uiy heavenly dwelling-plaoe. 

To clothe Thee in mortality; 
By whom our vesture of decay. 

Its frailty and its pains were worn ; 
Who, sinless, of our sinful clay 

The burdens and the griefii hast borne ; 
Who, stainHesB, bore onr guilty doom, 

Upon the cross to save us bled. 
And who, ^triumphant from the tomb^ 

Captivity hast captive ledy— 
Oh I teach thy ransomed ones to know 

Thy love who diedst to set them free; 
And bid their torpid spirit glow 

With love, which centres all in Thee ; 
And come, triumphant Victim ! come, 

V the brightness of thy holy love, 
And make this earth our purchased home^ 

The image of thy courts above. 
Dimly, O Lord ! our feeble eyes 

The dawning rays of glory see; 
But brightly shall the morning rise 

Which bids creation bend to Thee. 
Rise, Sun of Righteousness 1 and shed 

Thy beams oi scorching light abroad; 
That earth may know (her darkness fled) 

Her King in Thee, Incarnate Godl 
And oh ! while yet thy mercy speaks, 

So may the words of love prevail, 
That when the mom of Judgment breaks, 

Manif may thine appearing hail. 

liADT FtOBA HjSTXXas. 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[Febbcart 27, 1841. 



figure do 



I Uiej Ibnn,- 



s mviniUrruI lima in liaw nttam in mil hariTTegului. 
ritiy of Bballi; such a dilTemicA of 'colour aad 
coiiravfj longf luDAt«d, drmwn roimd' in h cirelfl, 

■onH wnolilBd, toolbvd, itriatfd, Ui4 poiDt TanouslT inlorlAl, the moolh 
|K»nU(llikt ftdflgKpr, roldeJ bark, bmt luwards ! All Ume crefttur«, sod 
mvxj mare, fUrnuh Ht ODC« novelty, elegance, uid ipecuUlioD. Wliilel 
thus coDtempUted timluK ibe vrought in ma kpenuHuon Ibst 1 ihonld look 
upon nuthii^M Incredible ibatnUlud la her. — FLtMY. 

The greHt abundance of these very bcantiiiil shells 
has rendered them less esteemed than they deserve to be, 
and has led ub to pass them by for the more rare, but 
not less rentarkable, specimens of our cabinets. The 
family of molluscs, to which cowries, belong is calledby 
concnologists Cyprteida, and is well known in commerce 
from one of the species being used in many parts of the 
East instead of money. Cowries abound in several parts 
of the Old and New World, but are most numerous, 
and attain the greatest size, in hot climates. They are 
especially abundant in the islands of the Indian Archi- 
pelago, and are fished for by a curious process of which 
we shall presently speak. 

Situated directly in the route of shipa coming firom 
Europe and hound for Ceylon, is an extensive coral chain 
of inntunerable isles and reefs, extending from north to 
.south for a distance of 466 geographical miles, though 
in breadth it is notithought to exceed, in any part, 4tj 
miles. This remaAable barrier of isles, whidi spreads 
out over 90 lai^e an extent of the western face of India 
and Ceylon, was one of the earliest discoveries of the 
Portuguese in the Eastern seas, and considering the 
situation it occupies, and the dangers to which it exposes 
those who navigate in its vicinity, has been singularly 
little known and explored until within a short period. 

Theseislanda arecalledtheilfaUtt'iu, or JfWi/tVM, the 
word mat in the Malabar language signifying a thousand, 
or on uncountable number, and divii, on island. John 
de Barros tells us, that although there are openings in this 
group, from five to twenty leagues wide, yet in other 
places it is so crowded . as to give the idea of a half- 
drowned orchard, the depth of the water in the intervals 
being, however, sufficient for the largest vessel, while the 
space in them is not sufficient for her yards and sails. 

The productions of the Maldive Islands are minutely 
enumerated by the above anthor, and among them he 
mentions cowry shells as being very abundant and beau- 
tiful. Indeed, the particular kind of shells used as 
money are chiefly found among these islands, and con- 
stitute their principal article of export. They are also 
found in the Philippine Islands, and on the coast of 
Congo. The method of fishing for cowry shells is as 
follows. The branches and leaves of the cocoa-nut (also 
abundant in these islands), are lashed together in bundles 
about the size of a wheat-sheaf, two of which constitute 
what is called a baUa, or float. On these balsas the 
natives take a number of trot lines, with short threads 
attached to them at every five or six inches, to each of 
which a bit of meat is firmly tied as a bait. The shell- 
fish, both cowries and other valuable sea species, swallow 
these baits, knot uid alt, and are hauled up by the trot- 



line till the balsas have a sufficient load, when ihey are 
paddled on Acre, and the shells buried in the earth till 
the decomposition of the fish within them .is completrd. 
They are then thoroughly washed, and are fit for export- 
ation. Another method is spoken of by some authors, 
as that by which cowries are obloined. The fishing for 
them is said to be the occupation of womeu, after the 
periodof the high tides,who take them in baskets, together 
with a quantity of sand, which is washed out, and the 
shells heaped together on the shores until the fish dir. 
Both methods ore probably pursued as occasion offers. 

The value of cowries as currency varies in different 
countries. On the coast of Africa, and along the banb 
of the Niger, they are worth from fifty to sixty pounds a 
ton, and in the vicini^ of the river just named they form 
the only currency. In England the value of cowries ii 
about twenty pounds the ton. 

The natural history of the cowry is rendered inte- 
resting by the manner in which the shell is formed, 
and the power possessed by the fish of quitting its 
habitation ' whenever it becomes inconvenient, and of 
forming a new dwelling of more capacious dimen- 
sions. Besides the organs belonging to other animali 
with univalve shells, the cowry has two wide, mem- 
braneous appendages at the sides of the body, with 
which it can completely cover itself, and which contri- 
bute greatly towards tne formation of the shell. The 
very thin and brittle substance which constitutes the 
inferior part of the shell, is, like other shells, the result of 
a secretion from the body of the animal ; but there is a 
distinct operation by which the exterior layers of 
enamel are formed, and this is by the use of the append- 
ages or wings. In the first stages of their growth 
cowries- are . thin and transparent, but they giraduallj 
acquire solidity by means of the extemu ia.yers it 
enamel which the animal successively applies. These 
layers appear to be a translation from the wings, and 
have such markings as clearly to show, on the convei 
surface of the shell, the manner . in which thej are 
formed. The longitudinal line, which divides the shpll 
into two unequal parts, is made by the junction of nhat 
we have called, for want of a better term, the wings of 
the animal, and plainly indicates, by the feintness of (he 
tint, that the colouring juice was deficient in that part. 

The most singular part of this animal's history, how- 
ever, is its ability to quit the shell. at any time when it is 
found desirable to do so, and to form another better 
suited to its increasing size. Even while the animal is 
forming its shell for the first time, its own growth maha 
the labour almost a vain one, for by the time the shell in 
finished, as it admits of no subsequent enlargement, it is 
scarcely fitted for the bulk of its occifpant, and is there- 
fore soon deserted. As the body of the animal is of a 
consistence between the tendinous and the mucilaginou^ 
it is probably no difiScult operation to disengage itself 
from the shell. This being effected, the tender creature 
is immediately exposed naked and defenceless to the 
action of the saline element by which it is surrounded. 
But the hinder parts of the body soon begin again to 
furnish their testaceous matter, which concretes upon the 
surface, and at length the shell appears of the con- 
sistence of paper, and the mouth, which at that time is 
very wide, soon contracts to its proper shape. The 
teeUi which are seen at the edge of the mouth, t<>gether 
with the beautiful enamel forming the opaque and 
highly polished surface, are alike produced from and 
by the action of the wing-like appendages; the spots 
which adorn this enamel in the full-grown specimens, 
make the different species of cowry the more easily dis- 
tinguishable, from each other. 



LONDON ; 
JOHN WIHIAM PAHKEB, WEST STRAND. 

BiddbT*llBooknUtnndt^*«miideniBllwXlirkm. . 



N? 556. SUPPLEMENT, 



PEBBUAEY, 1841.  {o^^S^.- 



SOME ACCOCNT OF COINS, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 



It THB HAKPIBS, 



TlinHgli clinKt ud igB, b«ra c«ch fbtm utd nBiiie ; 
Oodi, En p wCT t , UaroH, Sagi*, Btulis Us. — Popi. 

hrntoDTJcnos. 
A pKOLOR'aED attention t« the etudy of antiqiuriui objects 
gnwnlly aflbrds a theme for laughter and derision, to thoM 
who expect palpably beneficial results from every intellectual 
exertion. A lonff-oontinued study of one object or eet of ob- 
jects prejndicM the ntind in favour of it, causes the student to 
^eak with enthusiam on his ferourite subject, and disp<wes 
faun to undervaloe othei' mental employments. Hence, the 
pcfiular eatimate of the ralue of a pursuit being often 
nmudedon theexhibitionofescesson thepart of its votaries, 
is natnialljr mixed up with ridicule ; and no subject perhaps 
is so open t« the attacks of the satiiist as antiquities : — their 
real value can only be ^preciated by considerable study ; 
and as they do not appear to oSer any immediate relation to 
the happinen or convenience of mankind, they are disre- 
garded: bat the historian, the architect, the artist, the 
man of litaratnre, and the man of tjwte, all derive ineatlmo,- 
ble advsutagea fiwn the records of past ageejandi-byabith- 
fal interpretation of them, these aavantages are given to the 
world : M that our conduct for the future may be to Acertun 
extent guided by the experience of the pest. 

We nave thought it necessary to preface our account 
of AiicmfT 'and Moduui Coins with this apology, in 
Order to piodi^oee the Reader- in favour of a really useful 
subject. In our motto, the Poet exprcmes, in his usual 
roncise langu^ie, some' of the usee of coins; we shall en- 
deavour to avoid the abuse of tbeio which called forth the 
censure from the 'same satiric pai : — 

Willi (b«TpsB*d (iglit Htfl uHiqiuriB pan, 
TbeinKripdouiiFuc.W'tbo luit idorc: 
IhJM, the blue T^jimh, ihax, iLa grMn vndMin, 
Tha HcrnL rmt of twtcs ten buadr«il jfArs- 

Ooe gmn * Cecropa in HstAlic irfmna ; 

Vnr VtdHu, long wilh kamt'd iploea dn-ourpd, 

Cu UiU DO pltMun NDca hli ■hiald win ■esond. 

When k peraeu is looking over a collection of coins, he 
fayentl^Bx^ w — M surprise at theii comparative Tnlues, 



m^neutly bto c — m i 



n-lkich, judging from his every day use of money, appear 
often to have no sort of relation to the modem system of 
exchanges : — a silver coin is often of more value than one 
of Eold ; and a brass coin fetches perhaps a higher price thau 
either. The difficulty, however, disappears as soon as wo 
begin to look upon a cabinet of medals, not as a treasure of 
money, but one of knowledge; and not for charms in the 
gold, but in the figures and inscriptions which adorn it. 
Thus, Addison well remarks: — "The intrinsic value of an 
old coin does not consist in its metal, but in its erudition ; it 
is the device that has raised the species; so that at present 



or a drachma : and a 

penny fifteen hundred years ago, may be now rated at fifty 

crowns, or perhaps a hundred guineas." 

So anxious have many antiquarian writers been, to state 
in the fullest possible terms the usefulness of the study of 
ancient coins, that it becomes a matter of some difficulty to 
select those more obvious uds to history and art, which this 
study has supplied. Addison, however, in bia pleasant 
dialogue on the subject makes one of his characters expreaa 
himself in terms sufficiently concise for quotation ; so that 
we select the pasasKe. The uses of old coins are inquired 
after ; when Philander ssys : — " The first and nujst obvious 
one^ is the showing us the faces of all the great persona of 
antu^uity. A cabinet of medals is a collection of pictures 
in nuniature. Juvenal calls them very humoionsly 

Coacuiun Br^BatDai in titalofl, ficiAqun minutu*- 
" You here see the Alexanders, Ciesars, Pompeys, Trajans, 
and the whole catalogue of heroes ; who have many of Uke^ 
BO distinguished themselves firom the rest of mankind, that we 
almost look upon them as another species. It is an agreeable 
amusement to compare in our own thoughts the &ce of a 

Ct roan with the character tliat authors have given us of 
, and to try if vre can find out in his looks and features 
either the haughty, cruel, or merciful temper, that discovers 
itself in the history of his actions. We find, too, on medals 
the representations of ladies that have given occasion to 
whole volumes, on account only of a fiice. We have here 
the pleasure to examine their looks and dreews, and survey 

* SUrar •Uiiip«il with UiIn ud nlolatDTt portnils. 

656 



82 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINB. 



at leisure those beauties that have sometimes bees the 
happiness, or the misery, of whole kingdoms. Nor do you 
only meet the frees of such as aie &moua in hisloiy, but of 
Jeveial whoee names are nol to be Ibund anywhere excc^ 
6n medals. Some of the emperors, for example, have had 
wives, and some of them children, that no authom have 
mentioned. We are, therefore^ obliged to the study of ooine 
for having made new discoveries to the learned, and 
given them information of such persons as are to be met 
with on no other kind of records. • • • ^ You have 
on medals a long list of heathen deities, distinguished from 
each other by tneir proper titles and omamentsu You tee 
the copies oi the sevex^ statues, that have had the politest 
nations of the world &11 down before them. You have here, 
too, several persons of a more thin and shadowy nature, as 
Hope, Constancy, Fidelity, Abundance, Honour, Yfartue^ 
Eternity, Justice, Moderation, Happiness^ — and in shorty a 
whole creation of the like imaginaiy substances. To theee 
you may add the genies of nations, provinces, cities^ high- 
ways, and the like aUegorical beings. In devices of Una 
nature one sees a pretty poetical invention, and may often 
find as much thought on the reverse of a medal, aa in a 
canto of Spenser." 

Another author* has well observed, — ^'^From the same 
source we derive a knowledge of many customs of a more 
private nature : of the ceremonies which accompanied their 
marriages and funerals: of the various sacrifices which they 
performed in privacv and retirement : a sort of information 
which deserves all tne attention the antiquarian can bestow 
upon it : for while the greater and more public customs give 
the general outline of a people, these pomt out many nicer 
features in their character, represent their particular incli- 
nations aiid fiivourite pursuits^ and transport ua into the 
most delightful scenes of domestic life. 

" There cannot, perhaps, be a more certun test of the real 
state of pnerfection, to wluch the fine arts in oeneral have 
advanced in any country, than the beauty of weir medals. 
The unrivalled el^^ance of the Greek medals, the pronriety 
of their design, and the spirit of their execution, are sufficient 
to convince us that, amongst a people who could produce such 
perfect models in a partic\iiar flort, every other ornamental art 
must have flourished in the highest splendour : nor shall we 
hesitate to pronounce, upon comparing the medals of Rome 
with tiiose of her provinces that the arts of the ciq;>ital had 
not extended their influence to every part of that vast 
empire. 

''The medals of the Greek cities preserve some iaint 
iraces of Grecian jurisprudence as well m the public decrees 
and conventions, as in the private ordinances which thev 
record. To the civU institutes of the Romans their medau 
are the most certain gmdes : for every law which the interest 
of private families procured for the people, for every decree 
of an emperor, which was calculatea to promote the wel&re 
of the empire, the senate adopted this as the best mode of 
expressing their gmtitude, and delivering the remembrance 
of *it to future ages.- The study of the civil law, therefore, 
has always been found to have a great connection witii the 
study of medals, and to receive illustration from them in 
many of its most abstruse parts.'* 

SECTION L 

lOEDiLia AKD COINS DISTIKOinSBED— MSTALS OV WHICH THEr 
ARK HADB — FECULIABITIES OF OOIKTKO— SUBS— PAHTB OF 
▲ MEDAL — SUBJECTS OF MEDALS — PORTBAITS — nEVERSXS 
OF MEDALS — ^REMARKABLE COINS— TITLBS OX COINS AND 
MEDALS. 

Bt the term medai we are to understand a pieee of metal 
in form of a eoin^ designed to preserve to posterity the por^ 
< trait of some great man, or the memory oi some lUustnous 
action. Ck>ins, in the ordinary intercourse of life^ serve the 
purposes of exchange, and are the representatives of value. 
When they cease to serve this oflice, and are still treasured 
up, they come under the denomination of msdais; so that, 
in this paper, the two terms. Coins and Medalb, will be 
treated of synonymously, unless otherwise specified. 

The metals of which medals and coins have been in all 
times ordinarily made, are gold, silver, and copper: under 
this last head, are included all the brau coins which have 
. come down to our times, as well as those of copper. Other 
substances have been used by different nations, for money ; 
such as leather, wood, sheila, beads^ &c., but with these we 
have nothing to do. 

In order to eaUmate the fineness and purity of gold, the 
• HaI'I'} Oxford Prise Euay on MeioU, 



pound Tror is considered to be divided nito hrmlji fum 
parts, called murm, mA eaeh eaMt into four /tyiAm. 

The meet ndent gold coins, whkh are those of Lydis, 
and other states in Asia BfiBor, are net oip the pnraat gold. 
SoMie of tile very ancient coins are formed of a compound 
of gold and silver, called eteOrum; one part aold, and four 
silvnr. But "very fine aold eoins began to be formed b.c. 
960, by Philip, Sing of Macedon; from the gold obtained 
from the mines of Philippi, in Thiace. The coins of Alex- 
ander and of succeeding prinees an also beautiful jmeGimens 
of ancient coining ; thoee of the Ptolemies of £^3rpt are 
twenty-three can^ three giains fine ; or only ,*, part alloy! 
The Roman gold coina^ is veiv pure from tne earliest 
times^ and continued so till the reign of Severus, a«d. 211. 
The proportion of alloy, that is, an inferior metal, such as cop- 
per, mixed with the gold, in order to harden it, was varioiu 
m diferent eountrici^ and lias varied much in diifeient 
wee: but in MneraLthe aneieni goM coins had not moie 
^ than ft part alloy. The Romans, however, in the later ages 
first began to eonsiderably debase the precious metals. 

The most ancient silver was also leas pure than that of 
inoceedinff limes, and particularly so with the Greeks. The 
Roman silver was likewise inferior to ours; and very bad 
silver began to be put out in the reign of Sevems. It is 
thought that the Mlver coins of .£gina, having on one side 
a turtle, or tortoise, and showing the ^de marks of the 
eoiner^s blows oil the other, are the most ancient known. 

The brass of the ancients, when rood, which is rather 
uncommon, consisted of two sorts; tiie red, or what they 
ealled Op>n<m brass, — f.e. copper; and the yellow, or brass. 
With the Romans^ brass was double the value of copper; 
and the Greeks probably followed the same rule. 

The ancients nad also numerous coins made of mixed 
metals. The first sort was tiiat of the dectruMy just moi- 
tioned. The next were those of Carinihian brass, which 
depended upon certain qualities or proportions in which the 
copper and ainc were mingled to produce the brass. Of 
Egyptian coins struck under the Roman emperors, some 
were at first of good silver ; but by degrees they d^enerated 
into a metal called by the French poHny—e^ mixture of 
wpper and tin with a little silver. Some coins were made 
or what is now called poC-^neUiiy or bell-metal, A comage 
of brass mixed with silver was authorised by the Roman 
state about a.d. 260. The coins spoken of by some writers^ 
of lead or copper, plated with gola or silver, are supposed to 
have resulted from Roman foigeiy; but leaden coins have 
been found of undoubted antiquity. An ancient writer in- 
forms us that tin money was issuea by Dionysius, one of the 
Sicilian tyrants; but no such coins have oeen discovered) 
though medals of lead have been found of the unperial sort; 
but these are chiefly trial-pieces^ to enable the artist to ju(^ 
of the progress of the die. Lastly, some medals were com- 
posed of two different metals, not by meltina them togetbei^ 
but either by plating over brass or iron with silvei^ or by 
laying a rim of^ a difrerent metal round the edge of a medal: 
the former was a sort of fiilse money, which had its onpA 
during the triumvirate of Augustus. 

None of the ancient money was cast in moulds^ excq»t 
the most ancient and very large Roman brass, commonly 
called ueights; neither did the ancients impress legends on 
the edees of their money, as often done on modem eobu^ 
particularly on the orown and half-crown piecea of the lait 
century; but some of their pieces are found ctrsfMrt^^ i.«. 
notched round the edges. This is the case with some ef th# 
Syrian coins, with some of the Roman consular, and a few 
other early ones: the chief object of it was to prevent fo^ 

Medals may likewise be disUnguished by their tieea. The 
sizes of ancient medals are from three incnes to a quarter of 
an inch in diameter. Those of the largest size are commonly 
called medallums. The others are usually ranked into larpe^ 
middle, and small; and the class is determined not so much 
bpr the breadth and thickness of the medal iteelf, as by the 
size of the head that is stamped upon it. The shape of 
medals is rather elliptical, or not perfectly round. The fiist 
regular Greek coins were small pieces of silver, while the 
Roman were lai^ masses of copper : the former were struck, 
the latter cast in moulds. The frontispiece shows a medal- 
lion belonging to the heavy bmss species. It cannot be 
later than the time of Servius Tullius, who governed Rome 
about 650 b.c. Tills kins coined nothing but brass. The 
piece in question is of the actual size represented in our 
cut, and weighs nineteen ounces and three quarters. It was 
probably cast in a mould. 

The subject of it is Huoulbs aud «hb Habpt. Thb 



SUPM-EMENT FOR FEBRUARY, 1841. 



hero w liiU ont bj Ae aietKita  ft tni« paUam nt Tirtiw 
knd piety; *iid u ]tu whoia life waa einploy«d for Um miq- 
mon benefit of mookind, we need not be Burpiised that his 
etfigy should be found upon coins and medali. He seemi to 
havK nourished about 1230 years a-c. The twelve labours of 
Btrcule* are well known in FrofiuM Uuitoiy. His sixth 
Ittbour aeems to bare ooiuicteil in ridding the nrigbbourhood 
ol the lake Stymphalu*, in Arottdia, where wm a town of 
the same name, of a number of Toneioua birda, like cnuies or 
storks, which I«d upon hnman flcah. The poeta ^equently 
represent them m winged monstan, hsriBg tha face of a 
-woman, with tlia body of a vulture, ana their feet an4 
fingers anned with shairp dawi. 

The luedullioa at the head of ooj paper is evidently 
intended to commemorate the rictury ofUwcules overthese 
beings. On the one side is Hercules clotlied (as ubuaI ) with 
the skin of the NemKan lion, — the result of his tint labour- 
On the other side is a Harpy. It has been well remarked 
that Uaipies are &)r the ntoat ^rt badly represented by the 
nmilitade of cherubs, with a ml and young human Uee.^ 
According to Collina's Zhetioaary, "they are feinted to be 
fowls with a riigin'i fiice, and bear's eara, their oodles like 
rultores, aad their hands like theti crooked talons." Our 
medallion marki the han<y as a/mol; — itgivn the beak of 
the mAur^~the JItWMin we — the ears of ute tear— and on 
the bnait, the ihsgey /ealieriof of the large bird. The 
picked poinia u>on the nape of tiie neck seem Ut denote 
■omewhat of a uw-aeated crest*. 

The pattt of a medal are the two ^es, <^ which one is 
called the fitee, htad, or oherie; the other ia termed the 
mtrM. (m each side is the ana, or JUld, which is the 
middle of a medal; the rtfs, or border; and the exergue, 
which is baneatb the ground whereon the flsure* reraa- 
•ent«d are placod. On each of ibe two sides are oiatiiiguished 
the ^pe, and the legend or tnwf^tMw. The type. 



this writing is frequently in the area, and it called Um 
nueripti'm. 

That which ii in the exargoe is oflen no nut* than mmi» 
initial lett«f^ the meaning of which is not always very 
plain : but it moat uiaally contains either the dale <d tlu 
coin, ix^ m wliat coDsnlsliip of the empeior it was atrucic, 
if a Soman coin, and eotaetunes it Kgnifiea the place when 
it ivas struck, and to which the ema properiy belonged] at 
other times, perhaps the name of a provinoe ia impteased, 
the reduction of which the madal is deeiBned to eelebiata. 

On the bees of nudals ne oommoiuy th« porbaita of 
" ■, but   



; usually, I 



t not always i« 



iAiSsB. Three heads are ooearionaUy found on one ^doj 
but all sueh coins are very rare and Taloable. 

The chief ornament of'^medallie portraits is the diadem, 
called in Latin titUt. This was a riiwud worn abont tha 
haad, and tied in a flowing knot behind; in ancient timea 
the simple but e^reeeive badge of regal power. It appeaia 
Mt the Greek medals of kings, from the earliest to the UtMt 



The Romans having for ages an utter abhorrence of taj 
thing which savoured of kingly distinction, their emperoia 
venhired not for two centuries to assume the diadem, though 
they wore the mdiated crown peculiar to the gods. But, 
in the time of Constuktine, about a.d. 310, tha diadem 
began to be worn, ornamented on either side with a row of 
ptaria and various oUier decorations. The radiated oowa 




was first used as a token of deification in the posthmnoui 
coins of an emperor ; but was soon put upon the emperor^ 
heads, on their medals, during their life-time. The crown 
of laurel, the honourable distinction of conquerors, was 
afterwards worn, at least on the medals, by all the Roman 
emperors from Julio* Cesar. In later times, the laurel is 
held by a hand above the head, as a mark of piety. Be^dea 
the diadem, the Greek {Minces sometimes mpear with the 
laurel crown. The Aisacide, or kinga of Parihia, wear a 
kind of sash round the head, with their hair in rows of curia 
like a wig. Tigianes, and the kings of Armenia, wtsr the 
tiara. The successois of Alexander the Great assumed dif- 
ferent symbols of daty on the busts of their medals. Tha 
helmet also appears on coins, as on those of Uacedon under 
the Romans, whidi have Alexander'a h«d sometimes 
oovered with a helmet. It occurs also mi aome of the eoiot 
of Probus and Constantine; as also oa a coin of Herod, 
kii^ of Judca, which cireumstaaoe was «onHd«red as a mark 
of Eia pride and ambition. 



s are found: 

._ _. .,!» the eorUest 

monarch whose medals have bean discovsted. Then follow 
the kings and queens who mgned in Cypnu, Sicily, 6(0.; 
then the aeries of the kings oif Egypt, ^yno, &c.> which 
extends from the time of Alszander ths Great to the birth 
af Christ, including a period of about 330 yean. The' last 
seri^ of ancient kmgs descends to the fourth centnry of 
the Christian era. The portraits on all tb^ series of medals 
ate accompanied with Greek writing. 

Tlien IS a very perfect series of medals of tha Roman 
emperon from Julius Ciesar, the first, to the destruction of 
Borne by the Gioths ; or even to a much later period, if the 
coins after this were sot so rude as to destroy the beauty of 
the series, though they enhance its complet^iees. Till the 
third omtury after Christ, the faces on Roman medals vrere 
represented in profile. After this, for some time, we se« 
Gothic front faces filling the whole Add of medals. 

The kinga upon Greek coins have generally the diadem 
without any other ornament. The sloe face u alwa^ pre- 
Kuted ; thoQgb upon very andent Greek coins of cities, and 
Roman CMisuUr coins, full fiuM are found of amaitng relief 
and expression. Sometimea several heads are found on the 
same coin, either impnaed on both sidea, or only upon one. 
Sometimes two or more heeds are found npon one side, 
»^iile the other hews a reverse in the usual wav : snch 
fafads ore either advene, that is, opposite to each otner, &ce 
to face; or jotited, both looking one way; of this latter sort 
sre some of the &iest Greek corns. Real portraits are some- 
times found joined with ideal ones : such as, Carausius and 
A^Uo, Posthnmus and Hercules; CamuslusondPosthumus 
being names of living character^ the others of fobulous 

* W( Bi fadriitad ftr Oi* M^aDsMai to On Ber. B. Sdn, of laks 

Hdoh, B«u Sslkbnrr, as M ' 




Ths diadem also adonta the heads of the Greek qneeni. 
The queens of Egypt usnally have the sceptre. The Roman 
smpreeses never appear with the diadem, tne variety of their 
heod-dresees compensating for the want of it ; the minuted 

Cof which are often remarkable en their coins. Tha 
of an empress is sometimes supported by a crescent, 
which probably denoted that ^e was the moon as her hu»< 
band was.the sun, of the state. There are other symbolic 
ornaments of the head to be seen on some Roman coins ; tha 
principal of which is the twV used in the oouaeciation of an 
emperortor emprese ; anch coins are valuable for theix rwity. 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



Tlui " sloTT," or oircttlar line, in later timM nsnolly pat 
lipon the headE of a^ta, was in old timet wplied to e 
Tan, snd i^ipears on some of their coins. The biut 
figure is the only part usually mren on ancient coina; but 
soiaetimeB lialf, or the whole, of the body; in which caaee, 
the hands appear with some ensi^ of majesty in them : 
such as the globe, said to hare been introduced by Augustus 
as exprosaing possession of the world ; the sc^tre, some- 
times oonfounded with the consular staff; the roll of parch- 
ment, indicating l^islative power; and the handkerchief, 
with which the emperor gave the signal at the pnblic game*. 
',Some princes hold the thunderbolt, shewing that their 
power on earth was equal to that of Jupiter in heavet^ 
others hold an image of Victory. 

The rcTSTsee of medals contain figures of deities, at whole 
length, with their attributea and symbols ; pnblic buildings 
anddlTeraiona ; allegorical representations ; civil and relivioua 
ceiwnoniee; important events; figures of statues; piants, 




anintii]*^ (md other nilijeetA 
with their inagnia: and, b 
nature and art. Some reversee l>ear the portrait of thi 
<]tleen, the son, or the daughter of the prince who appcan 
on the obverse : such coins are particularly yalnable, becansc 
they^ identify the perannu^ on the reverBe to have been th< 
wife, son, or daughter, ofa particular prince, and thus help 
to adjust a series. Some medal* have a portrait on each side. 
The ancient Athoiian coins are remarkable for the 



ancient coins no reverse is fonnd, exc^ a rude nurk struck 
into the metal, as of an iostrunmit with fi)ur blunt pointi, 
on which the coin was struck. Soon after, by dwreeo, 
then anpeara some little form of a dolphin, or other ammal, 
inserted, within the rude mark, or in a nollow squai«. Next 
follows, perhaps^ a perfect rereno of a horse, or the like, 
and all the mde marics gradually disappear. Some of tlie 
Greek reverses are in intaglio, tHat is, sunk ; not in conuo, 
that' is, raised, or in relief. When complete reverses appear 
on the GrtMk coins, about 600 B.C., thej are of exquurite 
relief, minnte finish, and beauty. The vcrymusclea of men 
and animals are seen, and n^ bnr inspection with the 
lanest raa^ifying glass. 

The subject of Uie reverses of Roman coins till about the 
vear 100 b.c. was the prow of a ship, a car, or such like ; 
but about this time various devices appear on their con- 
sular coins in all metals. The variety and beauty of the 
Imperial Roman reverses are well known. Such as have a 
large number of figures within the area of the reverse, are 
much valued : there is a small gold coin, no larger than a 
sixpence, containing on the reverse the " Daughters of 
Faustina," — twelve figures ! There are othefB of a similar 
Bort. Some also have small figures on both sides. 

The figures of gods and goddessps on Roman coins, usually 
have their names, as well as their peculiar attributes ; the 
names serving as a l^end, when coupled with some exprea- 
aire adjective, declaring the office or quality of the deity 
represented : but in the Greek cobs, the name of the deity 
is not expressed, but left to the easy interpretation of fixed 
symbols. This remarkable difference is observable in the 
earliest coins of the two countries, on which ouly the bust 
of the deity is ifiven. The Romans have almort always the 
name; while the Greeks are satisfied with afibrdingto each 
deity its distinguishing Hyml>ol. 

We now proceed to give an account of the symbtila fbund 
on two remarkable coins, which are not Immediately illus- 
trated by a l^nd. 

In the reign of Archelans, King of Uacedon, 8.0. S40, 
there occurs on the reverw of s coin of that king, the head 



of a ^oot, having only one hom. Wa hare' gtYen two 
vaiiettea of this coin. Thla sort of ooimi, having the squm 



qwkco of before, ia ancient ; and ecmtaining the one-homed 

goat referred to in the Sacred Book of DuiM, which. gMl 

— .. 1 1 . i,!_j -c 1 pf ^ijg Grecian kin^ 



> have been a kind of e 



The titles that are fonnd on the /ooss of medius tit 
usually titlea of honour ; aa ImptnOor (Emperor), Gov 
Amgtattu, givcm to all the Romaii ■mperors anw Jmins tnl 



AngnstuB. The title of Dom i t n u, Lord, was firat assmned 
by Aurelian, A.n. 270. Various other titlea, epithets, lad 
terms of diniity were assumed by the pride and ambitica of 
the chief rulora of Uie Roman empire, until at Ia5t tjie lernii 
BAXIAErz King, and &E2nOTHS Despot, are Ibund m 
Iwends npon their coins. Other titles are the names of 
officers ; as COS. for eonttd, with a number annexed to il, 
signifying how many times the person had been tliui 
elected. TRIB. POT. the year of his tribmiititd owWitr. 
the number l)einEr added to the preceding words. P.M. de- 
notes the office of Poiilt^ Mamimui, or high priest: thii 
title was taken by the emperors, and expressed among their 
other titles, from Angustns to ConstanUne. 

On the reBcrtet of the laive early copper coina tiien u 
only the word ROUA. Afterwards, on the reverMs of 
what are called "consular coins," occur the pecoliar dmig. 
nations of public officers ; white the obverse bearB the heal 
of a deity, generallv vrithout a l^nd. In time, the maea- 
tntea put ute head of some illustrious ancestor on thecoma 
with bis name. Ciesar, when made Perpetual Dictator, wu 
the first Roman who put his own head on his coins, with 
the legend of names and titles on the obverse, and not on tht 
reverse, as before. Before this time the portrait of no liring 
personage appears on a Roman medal ; and even the plan of 
engraving on coins the names of great men and magistrstts 
was only introduced about the year 80 B.C. 

" In the earliest and more simple days of Rome," [«f3 
Akcrman in his Numimatie Manual,) " the portruts of m 
living personage appeared on the public money ; the heada 
were those of their deities, or some peisonage who had 
received divine honours. Julius Cesar was Uie first who 
obtained the express permiseion of the senate to place his 
portrait on the coins ; and the example was soon followed by 
others. The heads of Lepidus, and of Antony, appear on 
their denarii, and even the money of &utus with uie two 
ap of liberty, bears on the obveree the head of 
Icilled his friend because he had assumed the 
r^;al power and authority. We have no evidence, however, 
thiat this money, which is of great rarity, was struck with 
the knowledge and sanction of Brutus ; and it is possible 
that it is a posthumous coin." 

Medals are sometimes dug up singly, or in amoll numben, 
'here they seem to have been thrown by accident, or rather 
> have Iwen buried; hut the principal stores of ancient 
line are found in tombs, or in places where fear, avarice, cr 
superstition had depouted them tot the sake of security. 
SECTION U. 

nr A CtBIKET — QRXBK VBDAU — TBBm 
I MOKAaCEICAL— GKUK IlirE- 

RIAL OOIirS — BOHAN HXSAIS CXHAULAH AltD nCERIAL — 

COLONIAL OOIUfr— OOIHS OP OTMKR MATIOira — BRACTRAirES. 

Vr mutt now take a cunory view of Heuau, as ai- 



SOPPtEMENT FOR FEBRUARY, 1841. 



86 



xtagtd in Uie odluiMt of the antiquary, noticing, as we pro- 
ceed, the principlcB and ruke wlucb direct him in making 

suirh on armngemant. 

Gbebk Mbsau claim the first place in a cabinet, by 
reason of their antiquity and their workmanship. Coiuaffe 
began, perhaps, about 1000 B.c.~for before that time, loeigkt 
was the only principle of estimating money, as we leam 
from the Scriptures and other ancient writings. The fol- 
lowing are the stages of the proaresB of coinage: 1. Ckiina, 
or mere pieces of metal withont any impresaion. 
Those which have a hollow indented mark or marks on 
side, and an impression in relief on the other ; this sort of 
coinage was used from about 900 to 700 b.c. a Such as 
have an indented square divided into segments, with a 
■nail Bt(BM in one of tlie aeftments, the rest being vacant ; 
and imprenions on the obveise as usual. This sort of coin- 
age lasted till about 600 b.c. 4. Those which are struck 
hollow on the reTerse, while the ohverse is in relief, usuallv 
with the same figure ; whicli coins are perhaps corral witn 
those of the last class. B. Coins in which a square dye is 
used, cither on one or both ddes : these lasted till alwut 
420 B.C. fi. Comiilete coins, both as to obTerse and re- 
Tcrse : such occur in Sicily, where the art was carried to 
gTFnt perfection as early as ^0 B.C. 

The best informed sntiquariea consider that the moat 
ancient coins, as well of Greece as of other countries, are 
distinguishable by the following marks: — 1. They have a 
sort of oval, sweUing circumference :—2. Their letters are 
of an antique character: — 3. Part of the legend is in the 
common style, while the next is retrograde : — 1. They have 
the indented square : — B. The process of their comaee is of a 
simple character : — 6. Many of them are hollowea on the 
reverse, and have the imago impressed on the front: — 7. 
The dress, symbols, &c., are often of the nidest design and 
execution. Among other coins which bear marks of great 
antiquity, are some Persian pieces, with the archer upon 
one side, and the hollow square upon the other. At one 
thne, indeed, many of the coins and medala of Athens were 
■qoare ; and all over Aaia and Africa there once circulated 
not only square, but octagon money. A kind of square 
money of red copper, was used in France, in the time oTthe 
Fjnperor Honoiius, A.D. 420, Though the Athenians pos- 
sessed mines of copper, yet they were so onwilling to employ 
this metalas^ecia^ that they preferred grati^ing their taste 
or vanity hy cQtting diver Into such small pieces, that they 
were oometimes mist^en for scales of fianes. Gold was 
also very scarce at this time, when a copper coinage had not 
fet been adopted. 

In the course of time, the Greeks acquired _ great 
el^ance ; evincing strength, beauty, and relief in their im- 
piCTBioBu. The modem medallist distinguishes the early 
Greek medals into civic and monarchiaU; or eitiei and ti^t : 
those otf cities being generally the most ancient. The civic 
medala are usually stamped on the obverse, with the head 
ot the genius of tne dty, or of some fevourite deity ; while 




the reveiae often presents some symbol used by the city, at 
the time when the niece was struck. The Ifvend contains 
the initials, monogram, or whole characters of the name of 
the dty. The civic coins interest by their variety, and are 
puticiQarly useful in elucidating ancient geography. They 
present ns with a view of the customs, law^ and religion 
of ancient cities; and likewise shew the wealth and power 



of each city and c( 



ntry. 



a spirit and boldness both in deaign and execu^on, with 
irtiLch many of the more elaborate productions of modern 
times will not bear comparison. Hie rude and often mis- 
shapen Inmp of niver, upon which these types are impressed, 
contraata moat singular^ with the wonderful freedom and 
qarit of the deMgn. Armour, weapons, animals, plants, 
utcnnl^ asd the inost graceful representations of the nnman 
fignn appev in in&uta and astonishing variety within a 



^ace K circomscribed, that the artists of antiquity wtnild 
seem to have sometimes vied with each other in the produi^. 
tion of the most striking representation within the smalleat 
possible limits." — Akebhah. 

The monarchical coins of Greece are ofl«n c' '~ ame 
construction with the civic ; oiUy that they bear the name 
of the prince .on the roTerse. They usually have die bust 
of some deity in front ; and seldom the image of the prince. 
These coins chiefly interest by tlieir portraits, and are im- 
portant in clearing up ancient History. The most ancient 
series ts that of Sucedon, commencina; about SOO B.C. By 
the time Philip II. became king, the Macedonian coina 
bt^au to be beautilHil : those of Alexander the Great, about 
350 a.c, are wonderfiil; for in his time the art seema to 
have attained ita highest perfection. It is to the Greek coins 
that were struck before the dties and sovereignties of the 
Greeks were included in the Roman empire, that th* 
highest praise of the best judges has be«i award«l. 



The Grecian imperial coins are those which were struck 
when Greece formed part of the Roman empire ; but it Is 
usual to condder thoae Greek coins of cities, which have 
the head of an emperor or empreaa, as Imperial Greek coins ; 
while those which have' no such imprcsdons, are da^d 
with Grecian civic coins, though struck nuder the Roman 
power. Of imperial Greek coins none occur in gold ; but 
there are in silver, those of Antioch, Tyre, Sidon, and other 
trading citiee in Uie then opulent and commercial cities of 
Western Ada : of thia sort are the coins of Epbesus, many 
of which bear a representation of the celebnrted temple of 
Biano, referred to in the nlnetMUth chq>ter of the Acts of 
the Apoatlee. 




The Greek imperial brass coins are Tvy abundant. Thoaa 
of Antioch, which commonly have a Latin legend on the 
obverse, and Greek on the reverse, are so numerous as to 
fiimiah a series of almost all the emperors ; being apparently 
struck for the purpose of paying the Roman forces in the 
East. 

We shall not attempt to specify the precise values of coins, 
whether Greek or Roman ; first, because it would be some- 
what tedious and uninteresting ; and secondly, becanae sui^ 
values, in English moiiey,are evennowopentodispute. We 
must, therefore, content oureelvea with observing, that as 

aht originally served for the principle of eatimating money ; 
in settling very large sums weight continued to be token 
as the standard, long mer coined money came to be used. 
Hence the Mina and TbZentton, the former containing 100 
nlver Attic drachms ; and the latter 60 mine. The minn 
and talent were therefore estimated by weight : but of the 
eoiiud money, there were three chief sorts; — the obolns 
(brass) worth nearly 1 ^d. English; the drachm (sUrer) 9<2.; 
and the Philip C^'d) nearly 17«. 
The tenn "FUlip" beoime in the course of time a general 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



DsiM af gold moiur in Greece, Ibr vaaay jeu* afUr 
Fltilip, Ki^ of HAcedoD, in whose reign nicb gold piecce 
■wen coined. But the raiuea of the obolns, the dnchm, 
and the Philip, were varioas in different itstMOf Greece [ 
■fid4bereweie likewise manjr multipke end diTiauwe of the 

RoMiH Hsptu d«im the next place in the MluiMt ef the 
jmtiqnBrv. The fint Bomen coin* were large pieov of 
knee niaelj impnaeed, and only on one aide, with tne figure 
of an ox, 8 Tsm, or eome other animal ; whence monej wae 
termed paeutua, from the lAtin word jienu, cattle. In pro- 
een of time tlue impreaaion waa changed to that of a biut 
of Jannt upon the front, and the prow of a ahip iqton tbe 
rererae ; ana for more g^uml nae, piecee <rf in&nor weight 
and value were coined. 

The grand distinction which marka tha BomMi coin^ 
•onsidered a* medala in a cabinet. Ilea between tha Cbw fa r 
and fmptri/tl, 'tha Roman consular coins seldom or nerer 
bore the namea or titles of consuls till towards the close of 
that Bort^f government; but they'are neTeriheleas properly 
called ronju/ar, because they were struck in the consnlar 
times of Rome. Those of the later at are also often called 
(oint itf/amiliet, from the circumstance that the namea of 
many of the principal familiesof Rome were placed upon the 
fields of the coins, — and they are always arranged alphabeti- 
cally in families, according- to the namea which appear on 
them. The braet cansuiar coins are not very interesting ; as 
y pieces, with types of in- 
■e any imagery or symbol. 



they consist chiefly of large unwieldy p 
mpid similarity. Few of them have ar 



however, 



; the Romans at fint coined in lead, and 



afterwarda, in the reign of Num^ in copper, before neing 
s about 26e 



i brata, b^. fi&O. 



brass. Servina Tulli 
The tilrf coinage began at Ro 
denarius wo* the first and last form which it asinmed, 
for the otlier sisea are so scarce, that »eiy few seem to have 
been struck. On the later consular meilals is seen mach of 
that fine personification afterwards displayed on the impe- 
rial coins. About 62 years after the coining of nlver, ffold 
began to be coined at Rome. Of the consular cnina and 
medals in copper and brass, there may be nearly fiOO ; about 
aOOOhi silver; and about 160 in gold. Host of the gold 
coRSular coins are of gnat beauty and high value. 

The Roman imperuil ooins claim our attention more par- 
tieularly, owing to the extent of the Roman empire and 
onr own connexion with it; interesting us therefore as much, 
or more than those of our own country. Theae coins are 



•nded A.D. 800; the lower empire lasted from thence to tha 
taking of Constantinople by the Turks, i.o. 14S3. All the 
Imperial medals up to this dste are usuallv nekoned among 
the antique; and yet there are none oi any consideMbla 
beauty later than the age of Heraclius, who died a.B, Ml, 
After the time* of Heiuclius, Italy became a pray to the 
barbarians ; to that the coins and medals which apMored op 
to his time, seem to finish the set or seriea ot imperii 
nledala. To theae, however, are added the coins and medab 
of 'the Greek emperors who reigned at CoaatautinMile, to a 
later date. The Gothic medals are likewise oonaidered to 
make part of the imperial iHiet ; thev are so called, as having 
been struck in the times «f the Gotha, and in thedeclenuon 
of the empire, and savouring of the ignoianceand barbarity 
of the afe. 

The imperial series of bran ooins begins of course, with 
Julius CEsar ; but some elegance and variety were exhibited 
In this coinage fifty years Mfore Cesar's time. It is of three 
lat^ middle, and small. The laryt broaa ooins 
- -2riee of surprising beauty and vast expense. In 

B the various colonn of the potwia, or oxidation, 

have the finest effect ; and the great size of the portraits and 
figure* conspiree to render it the moat important of all the 
Roman coinage : so that it erui exceeds the gold in value, 
though the intrinsic value of each piece is only about two- 

Snce English. The series of the tniddU bras* coins exceeds 
at of the lar^ brsss, but has not such elegance of work, 
or of types. Many corns are common in this series, which 
are rare in the other ; and but very few examples occur to 
the contrary ; heuce this series is not so valuable as the first. 
There are, uowever, some rare and curious ooins amons 
them, particularly such as relate to the ancient hist4»y ^ 
this island, among which are some tiiat personify the country 
Srilmmia, in a manner similar to what we have it on the 
G<^iper coins of the present day. The smoS brass Mriea has 






many curious corns, and pirtieukrly of the ORupan in tla 
latter days of the Roman empire. 




. The brass coins are distinguished by the letter* S.C. 
Staat&t CotMtiAo,— by a Decree of the Senate ; becauM th 
senate alone had the power of striking brass, while the em- 
peror himself had that of gold and silver. If, tberefiM 
the S.C. be found wanting on any brass coin, it is suppoM 
that such coin was once plated for the purpose of forjjwy. 
The law: brass coins are at the size of^our crown-pisoa; 
the middle brass ore of the nze of our half-crowns ; and thi 
small brass coins are not bin^r than our shillings, sod on 
also smaller. The small brass series extends frem the 
beginning to the close of the It<Hnan EmpirCL <v to sbait 
670A.D. 

The *ihmr in^wriol eouis ore very numeroiia and vniou. 
This series is as complete as any, and of fiu- cheaper purthsn, 
as very few of the emperors are acaice in silver. HMt tyiM 
of even the lar^ brass and the gold are fbund in the •ilTO', 
which thus unites the advanti^ee of all the metals- Seo*- 
times the silver and gold corns, as bong of one ue, m 
struck from the some dye. But the imperi&l gold bimi ( 
series of wonderful beauty and perfection, attaioabls oolf 
by men of princely fortunes, ta tbeee the worknunihf 
is carried to the greatest height ; and the richncM of tk 
metal is surpassed by that of the tvpee. As gold does not 
suffer from nut, the coins are for tne most part in the msi 
state as they came from the romt. Mr. Pijikertoii iafa* 
that the number of Roman gold imperial coins may amoust 
to fiOOO ; the silver to 10,000; and the brau to 30,000; uJ 
that all the ancimt coins together may re«ch to the auuW 
of 80,000: but this calculation, he says, cannot be Ttry 
accurate. 

We coma now to the Coi/>Nial coins of Rome, ii 
Roman coloniea were settled in various parte of the euoiirt, 
their coin* hava sometimes Greek, and aometimea even Risk 
legends ; though generally, the legend on we aide of twi 
coma ia I«tin : but those with Latin leyanl* only h* 



fax more numerous. The colonial coin* are only in bivs: 
some of them are elegant; though most of them are rude anJ 
unintereeting. They begin with Julius Cesar and Anthony. 
The only foitisb Roman colony which had ite own coin^ 
was tliat of Camalodunum, supposed to be Maldon or Col- 
chester, in Essex. This species of coin is one of Claudia), 
about i.D. 60 ; on the reverse i* a team of oxen, with COL 
CAMALODON. AUG. 

On tha reverie* of Roman colonial coinL easily distio* 
niished by their rude fabric, and the name of the colony cs 
them, commonly beginning with COL, where an ensigli 
Stands alone, and without any perstm^ it ahews a ooion; 
drawn Irom one legion ; but whantheeusigns or bannen stand 
together, they avmce the colony to have bean drawn froB 
aamany I^ous as there are ensigns. 

Tha subjoined is a representetion of a a*!a Mea^ng 1« 
Gadora, one of the towns of the Deo^rali*^ of which we read 
intheGospelsof St. Uatthewaud St.Mark. TheDec^Mlii 
wafieastward of the I^keof Tiberias, and Gadai&wat the chief 
city of the BotDon province of Perea. The iniub^tt, beU« 



fiUFFLEHENT FOR FEBRDARY, 1841. 



87 



Hdi, ient 

Yenataan, wlwn 

WBuut Jnimti, and gsre np 

tnii itranf city te him. The 

dtip, which ooonn m fn- 

I^nentl}' upon aueienteoiiu, u 
mdicstiye of eMnmom ;■■■{>- 
pesn likewiM <n the Fhce- 
niotan coin M p. B8. 

The Roman eohuhaT* ba«n 
ma*t a^tsoaiiwl V iprMd : eoiDe 
of tbam h»Te Seni fonnd In 

the Orkney l8laikb;u)d they 

■»iiA«i ''*" liktwiee been dieoovered 

' In great nambers in the moat 

tonot* put* of Evope, A«a, ud Africa, at that tine 
loMwii. 

The Rmmvs, at the MiBmeno«»enl of tiwiv cItU polity, 
NckuBcd money by w dg kl, m we obeerred belbre. Their 
chief ctuned money waa the m ht brHW, the imttrim In 
eilTer,and the aamu in gold. The aa waa worth nthn 
mora thfoi threa ftwthingt of our money, the denAiins 
almtat 8A, and tlie saieaa rather move tlion 30*. 

-It haa been wella b ewyed that the mUHarygenhMBf the 
Bomana ta DaT» mon iftpaNnt than In tholr medide ; in the 
wBiiika eabteiiia wfaiob are constantly to be fbnnd opMi 
them : m the 6«qnent repreaentatiouB of h>nBffnee to their 
aoldion ; and of rewards Rurmiljtaiywn'ieM. Weaiceon- 
Ttneed by the aama meani of (heir axtmivgant aopentition, 
frmn Ihefraqneat prooftof thedeificstienof thriFemperon^ 
MMuIa, and numtratea, of the sitperb tamplea which were 
■rroted to their nononr, and the eaarifieM which wen regu- 
larly paid to their nemoiy."— -Hall. 

We pa« on now to make a few brief obeerrmtiotu on the 
coinaand medala of other natiana, uanally termed tnrtenii)!, 
premiainjtthatjby oMcJait coins, all before the ninth century, 
or a;^ of Charlemagne, ar« meant; all after that {teriod 
bei)^ deemed mtodtm. Ko coina are fonnd of Babylonian or 
Aa^man kii^; the oMeat fonnd in those carta being 
P«iiiian, and aunilarto the Greek, The Greeks seem to 



tridin^ cities of Tyre and Sidon weighed their money; and 
caiuage waa long nnknown in £<^pt ; for the thin, tirowl 
pieces of sold fonnd in the mouths of mnmmiea, and put 
there for the purpose of paying thp passage of the souls into 
the hifernal s^one, hare no mark upon them. India and 
China hare no early coinage. The Lydlan coins, therefore, 
seem to be the most ancient in Asia, 

©Next to these are the Persian, well 
known by the ram, under which 
figure that atute is alluded to in 
Scripture, in the book of Daniel; aa 
also by the archer, Xoue of these 
coina can be older than fi70 B,CjjWhen 
the Persian empire began. The fa- 
mous Danes were issued by DhtIus 
'•■">■" Hyataspes, who began to reign 621 



W. They m 

hlsnce to t c . 

Darica^ from their extreme scarcity, a 



ir both in^ld and rilver, t_ 
hlsnce to the coins of .£gina, before mentioned. 



The 




bcenmcltad down by Alesandar the Gnat for Ua awn 
fioinage> when he oonqnend Peiaia. The gold Oadoa were 
worth rather more uan the English gninea, and wwa 
preferred throughout the East for Uie fiuoiMS of th^ gold. 
There la a second series of the Penian coina ; that w the 
SaaaanidM, which bmns about a.d. 220, whu Aita»rxea 
OTertunied the Parthian monarchv. Th« Paittuan ooina 
have all Greek legenda, but the later Persiaii bear only 
Penlan oharacteni Uiey are large and thin; with the 
king's bust DO one side, and the altar of Mithias an the 
othar, ganerally with a human fignce on eaoh aide. The 



letten en Persian soina seem to pwtake of tha an^ot 
Greek, Gothic, and Alanlc. The later Persian eoins eztand 
to the year a.d. 63d, when Penia was conquered by the 
Ambian caliphs. 

The Hebrew shekels are of sUver. Thay were originally 
didrachms (li. 3d.y, but after the time of the Hadeabaee, 
about B.C. 140, viien'the liebrew nation first struck men^ 
for itaelt they were coined of the value of the Greek tetn- 
drachm, (it. M.) The braes corns with the Samaritan aha- 
mcters, are many of them earlier than the Cliristian era, but 



were not eorreiK nnQl ^ler the retnm from~tEe~Bab]4onlBh 
Captirity, B.C. fi36. Host of the Jewish coina have the 

Sng on one side, and the vase on the other, as on the 
ekel ; the aprlg bearing reference to Aaron's rod that 
bndded, and the vase to the oeoser of incense'. 

The coina of the heathens were usually atamped with the 
symbols of their idolatruua worahip, to use which was a 
source of continual affliction to the Jews. In the time of 
Simon i^ey were released from this grievance ; and we find 
that on their own national coins, there is no representation 
of man or other creature upon it ;— no portrait of any per- 
son, prince, or deity. In the annexed coin the ears of 
wheat are emblematic of the fertility of Canaan, and the 
tent refen to the Feast of Tabernacles. 



There is also a cmioua old medal, which atteata the tmth 
of History, by referring to certain privileses which the Jewa 
received trom the Syrian monarcu in the time of Simon, 




THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



140 II.O. On the front, u 

' " At/onrtA year," and on 
«nM.of Jenualem." 

The FhoenicisD coina, which begin to 
appMJ aboDt 400 B.C., and of which we 
inv« one referring by the legend to the 
Sidonian ^oddeea, XitArte, aa alao the 
CarUuginiao, are randerad intoieating by 
the ancient civilization and great powar 
of tboae nationa: their dphabeta are 
nearly allied to the Syriac, Chaldai&and 
Hebrew. Coina of Palmyra, the " Tad- 
mor in the wildemesa" — or " City of tlie 
Palme," have likewise been found with a »iiTiil»y mixed 
alphabet. The Tuacau coins are inscribed with a character 
connected with the old Greek and Latin. The ancient 
Spaniah coins httva a diameter belonging to old Qreek, 
Punic: they are ancient, and not alfetrnck by the Punic 
colonies ; for the lesenda are in different chancters. The 
ancient coins of Gaiu are alao nnnteioni, and many of theni 
in base gold; but, unhappily, the most ancient hare no 
lemnda at all. 

It seems that our ancient British anceetora used branL 
^tparently coined, aa a saperiM metal, aa more advanoed 
nations oaed gold ; and alao iron. rings for money, examined 
and Rdaced to a ceriun weight. Rnde coina of copper, 
mneh minsled with tin, are frequently found in England, 
and are pe^we the copper coins used by our fore&thera in 
the days of old. We bave many coins of Cunobeline who 
waa king of the Trinobantee, and wae educated at BWe, at 

-the court of Aoguetua. . Theae coins of Cunobeline ore the 
only ones apparently ancient &itiah. Hoat at them have 




at least, CVNO on one ride, with an ear of wheat, a hone, 
a kind of head of Janus, or some such symbol ; and oflMi- 
timea CAMV, thought to be the initials of Canudoluiiun, 
the chief city of his kingdom, on the other side, with a 
boar and tret, and a variety of other badges. 

It seems that, after the arrival of the Romans in this 
island, the BHtons imitated them, coining both gold and 
tdlver, with the imwes of their kings stamped on them ; but 
when the Romans had subdued the kings of the Britons, 
they also suppressed their coin^ and bronght in their own, 
wiiidi were current here from tne time of Claudius to that 
of Valentiman the Younger, about 400 aji. There are 
some coins of Antoninus Plus, about i.D, 160, the reverses 
of which present, as we before observed, almost the same 
type aa that which we have on our present copper coin^«. 

AH the kings of France down to Cliarlemagne range in 
this division. Liuva I., who beMn his reign ^.n. C67, and 
the other kings of the Western Goths in Spain, appear upon 
their coins, encircled with Roman characters. Other GoUiia 
kings, who reigned in Italy sod oth«r countries, after the 



&I1 of the Roman emi^ in the West, likewise use tlw 
Roman language in their coinage. They most commonly 
occur in the sise of madal^ termed SMofl bran. Miay 
coins also occur with l^nds, which though meont icr 
I^tin characters, and in imitation of Idtin coins, are m 
to be ill<^le : such are, in general, tennej 



perverted ai 

\ AfUrthe 

coins tennec _ _ , . _. 

EuiopMn states. Thtte were, aa tl 
coins, and belong properiy to the m 



Before quittii^ the mbjeot of andent *MifoI^ we nuut 
notice some of a remarkable character, which hsTc been 
introduced into this pqier. One of these waa struck b; 
the Senate in honour of Hadrian, the Roman cmperat, 
about 130 A.n., in commemoration of the great ben^t^ 
which he had conferred on the empire. This medal ii gira 
at p. 86, and haa for ita l^end— ^To the Restorer a Om 

Constantine the Great was the first Roman E 



the coins struck apon thia oocamon, is given below 

presents on the obverae tha emperor in his robe^ dovud 
vrith a wreath of laoral, with, the legmd, " The Emperat 
Constantine, I^ous, Hamy, Auguat." On the reverse is  
fiill length figure of him, cloaked, holding in his ri^ 
hand a globe, and in his left B rod or wand, with the Iqi^ 
"To Constantine, the Kons, Anguat, bofn in Pfytitr * 
The lett«n in the exergue are sa^ to imply that thcxiedal 
waa oeitttd at Londoifi but this is objeotM to. 



uDu. TO coBimcoaiva tbb urd 

Another medal struck in honour of Hadrian is given si 
the conclusion of this paper. Under this emperor, a tebellion 
against the Roman authority broke oat in Judco, hesdot 
by the famous impostor, Barchochab (Son of the Star), who 
set himself upfor the Messiah. This war lasted threeyean 
and a half. The Jews were completely subdued, sad for 
bidden to even enter the City of Jerusalem. They pur- 
chased with money the liberty, not of enteaing the nolf 
city, but only of looking at a distance on it, and going to 
mourn its fall and desolation. On the reverse of ttus medal 
is represented Jiukaa, kneeling in submisrion to the empeni^ 
and three children imploring mercy of him. 

In another Supplement, we shall enter npon Uoraw 
Coins and Medals, and continue the anbject down to tb 
present time. 



MBDit OP HADRUK, COJIMKliOnXTIBO BIB TICTOBT OTKE IHB tWm. 



LONDON: PabUJ«dbr JOHN W. PABKEB,.Wait St»a»=, SDd«>ld br»ll BoetasU.* 



90 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[March 6, 



^ KNOLE IN KENT. 

Sm vith BMJntie toride, the work «f jrttn, 
IM r%1^e]«nd ftipnt m« tutftly tnttttum tMrsi 
Within whoM lunple spaea dw eye surreys 
The labour 'd excellence of former da js ; 
The model whose perfections art supplies, 
Sculpture's light touch and Painting's deathless djes. 

BoKBOoan's J5wJir. 

Trg stately mansion of Knolef or KnowU^ in Kent, 
possesses much intrinsic interest, and by its great extent 
and the magnificence of its internal decorations attracts 
numerous visitors; it accordingly holds a distinguished 
place in the second volume of Mr. Nash's beautiful and 
instructiTs work» the MwMwn9 ^ fh^ Qid NhMii^. 
Througk the kindness and libsralHy of its potaenor^ 
the publie curiosity is gratified With a view of the house 
and groundB> and as this mansion stands at no great 
distance finom the metropolis, it forms a most attractivo 
object of interest to numbers. The house is erected 
principally in the Elisabethan style of architectural and 
has an advantage over many of the other seats of the 
nobility, owing to the situation it occupies on a com- 
manding and healthy eminenoa, near Uie town of 
SevenodU* The building itself covers a space of ground 
said to be nearly three acres and a quarter, and the 
park is very extensive and beautifuUy varied in its fea- 
tures. There is a luxuriant growth of timber, especially 
of oak and beech trees, fbr which the soil is naturally 
adapted ( the girth of one of these venerable oaks is no 
less than thirty feet. Much assiduity and taste have 
been displayed in the arrangement or the plantations; 
the trees are not diepoeed in solitary clumps, but in broad 
and undulating nyoses, which rise and fail with the 
varying nature of the surface. 

Two points of view in this noble park are particularly 
recommended to the attention of the visitor: the one 
from the wnd of a valley which lies in a south-west 
direction from the house ; the other from a rising ground 
in the satttt valley* The first view prasents a grove of 
majestic trees rising on each side; many of them beeches 
of the laif^est sise^and feathered to the bottom; the 
mansion, with its towers and battlements, and a bsck- 
ground of hills covered with wood, terminating the vista. 
— The oUier view is of a verv diiewnt description: on 
gaining the summit of the hill, a prospect of great extent 
bursts at onoe upon the i%ht; woods, iiettths» towns, 
villages, and hamlets, at« all dis|^yod m bright con- 
fusion. The eye commands the greater part of west 
Kent, a considerable portion of Sussex, and a distant 
view of the hills of HampshirSb lb foreground is 
woody, ^ whitened steeple nsing everywhere among 
the trees» with fSttUemett*s seats sesfelored rsund in 
great abundance. 

The beauty c^lln l«ech trees in Kmib Paric, is so 
remarkable as to attract Um notice dT all who have a 
taste for richly-wooded acsBetr* Among the cdebrated 
persons who have admired nd appreciated this feature 
of the scenes Mrs. RaiddiA may be quoted as an un- 
doubted jsfdfii^. 

In the park, abounding with noble beech geerei^ (says 
this giasd Isdjr). is o«^ on ^ lea of the toad leading to 
the hous^ which ibr amss and ovetteppmg pemp, exoels 
even any In Windsor perk, when viewM as you descend 
from the p«rk gate^ whence shade rises abovo shade with 
amazing m maguifieeat grandeur. In tibia msm of wood 
is one beach, that slifetches upwards its my limbs^ among 
the light fe«th«y feline, to a height and with a majesty 
that is sublime. Over a 6Sttt» ^aeed round its bole, it 
spreads eut a liflht« yet umbrageous fan, most gracefol and 
beautifid. With sil its grmdeur and luxuriance, there if 
nothing in this beech heavy or fbrmal, it is airy, thou£:h 
vast and mi^jestN^ and suggests an idea at once of uie 
strength and fire of a hero! I should call a beech-tree — 
and thisbeedhaboveevery other— the hero of the ferest, as' 
the oak is osDed the ' ' 



The principal portions of the mansion of Knole form 
a spacious quadrangle, built in the castellated style, with 
several square towers. The front of the building is not 



distinguished by ornamental details, but has an air of 
great plainness and simplicitf • The admirer of archi- 
tectural grandeur will probably bo disappointed at the 
first view of Knole, ana will look with curiosity rather 
than pleasure on the incongruous mass of buildings which 
make up the extensive pile. Still more will he be sur- 
prised on entering the building to observe the extraDrdi- 
nary number of rooms, galleries, staircases, &C., which 
surpass all modem conceptions of utility or convenience. 
Yet all these things are invested with peculiar interest, 
when we view them in connection with the times and 
modes of life for which they were adapted, so different to 
tha mMUwra and eusloms of our own day. The number 
of visttaaU hospitably entertained at the old baronial resi- 
dences, and the extent of the retinue aoeompanying such 
guests, must be taken into consideration^ ere we leeakof 
Uiese ancient edifices, as displaying a mare love of osten- 
tatious grandeur on the part of those who reared them. 

The manor and mansion of Knole were in possession 
of tho Archbishops of Canterbury, during the reigns of 
Henry the 6ixth« Seventh, and Eighth, but in the last 
of thoae reigns, Uiey were voluntaril v surrendered to the 
crown bv Archbishop Cranmer. Aner passing through 
the hands of several possessors it was finally bMtowed in 
the reign of EUxaheth, on Thomas Sadcvills, £sq^ 
afterwards Baron Buckhurst and Earl of Dorset* The 
estate has continued almost uninterruptedly in this noble 
family of Sackville up to the present time; and in the 
reign of George the First, Lionel Cranfield, the aeventh 
Earl of Dorset, was advanced to the dignity ^ duke. 
By the meUmcholy death of the late duke, a young 
nobleman of gentle disposition and promising talents, 
who was killed in hunting, when he had only just attained 
his majoritVi the manor devolved on liia sisters and co- 
heiresses, the Countesses of Plymouth and De Lawarr. 
His grace is succeeded in his titles by Charles Sackville 
Germaine, Viscount Sackville, and Baron Bolebroke. 

It would be in vain to attempt to deacribe the interior 
of this noble mansion of Knole, so as to give our readers 
any just idea of its extent and magnificence. We there- 
fore confine ourselves to one of Mr. Nash's admirable 
views of this mansion, and select on the present occasion 
the gallery over the hall, at the same time directing 
those who would desire to see a faithful representation 
of other portions of this interesting building, to Plates 
17, 18, 19, 20, 22, and 23, of the second series of 
Nash's Matuiam in ih€ Olden Time. These represent 
the rich and picturesque Stairtaee which adjoins the 
Hall, being a fine example of the style of the early part 
of the reign of James the First; the characteristic a.part- 
ment called the Broom GuHery^ with its ceiling of intri- 
cate design; the i?ooin leading to ike Chapek supposed 
to be of the date of Henry the Sixth (ur Seventh; the 
Spemgled Bedroom^ with its antique furniture; the 
CaHocn GaUeryy a splendid and stately apartment with 
rich carved and painted pilasters and panels, an elegant 
cefling and gorgeous himgings, pictures, and furniture; 
the SeMt of nome dimensions, with its fine old screen, a 
specimen (^ the wood-carving of the reign of James the 
Firsa; and the Gallery ^ from which we have taken the 
frontispieoe to our present Number. 

l%e purposes to which this gallery waa formerly appli^ 
cannot now be ascertained, but from its enriched ceiling 
smd tapestry-hangings, there is reason to suppose it was 
a room of some importance. 



X jiave, in T.ne aosence oi any prooaoie conjecture, supi'vicx^^ 
it to be a place of exercise for the family. The boy pulling 
the io|}e is playing at the ancient dumb-bells ; a contrivance 
consisting of a roller resting on two supports in the roof 
above, and having ei^ht bars projecting at right angles, armed 
with heavy balls of lead: being set in motion by pulling the 
rope it revolves with great velocity, and constitutes a pretty 
strong exerdse. One of these " dumb-bells" is actually in 
existence at Knolci and la occaaonally used to this di^« 



.8410 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



Bl 



POISO]!fOVS ARTICLES OF FOOD. 

II. 
Animal Food. 
Animal food may become poisonous, either by some 
diseased state of its system having existed in the animal 
prior to death, or by its having advanced to a state of 
putrefaction before being made use of as an article of food. 
The mere over-driving of animals before they are 
slaughtered produces important changes in their condi- 
tion, for, although it is not proved Uiat any diageirous 
symptoms have resulted from partaking A them, yet 
when any of their blood or raw flesh oomes into oontact 
with a scratch or wound a dangerous or even fatal inflam- 
mation reiults, and bv becoming inoculated thus by the 
juices of the diseasea animals the persons engaged in 
slaughterhouses have frequently lost their lives. In Ger- 
many an epidemic disease, termed Mitibrand, frequently 
affects the cattle, producing extensive destruction among 
them, and the flesh of those Which die while under its 
influence acts as a virulent poison upon persons who 
swallow it, while the mere handling the sKin, entrails, &c., 
produces the same eflect. It has been a point of discus- 
sion whether the putrefaetion of animal food renders it 
poisonous to man, but it has been pretty generally 
answered in the afflrmative. It is true that the epicure 
preftrs his game, venison, &c., **higfa," or in other words, 
in an incipient state of putrefaction, and that many 
savage nations will consume rancid oil and puttid meat 
with avidity. But much must be allowed to the force of 
habit, for it is well known that those who are un- 
accustomed to ** high food" loathe it, and often suflbr 
severely if they partake of it, while persons who have 
been driven by hunger to feed upon rotten fish, eggs, or 
meat, have frequently perished in consequence, as the 
histories c^ several famines and sieges prove. A species 
of poison is generated in some articles of diet in Ger- 
many. Thus the smoked iatuages so much consumed 
in Wirtemburg are often the cause of fatal poisoning; so 
that, from 1793 to 1827, 234 persons were affected, of 
whom 110 died, — the symptoms coming on from twelve 
to twenty-four hours after eating the sausage.^ The 
same has occurred in a less degree in Paris, and 
neither the investigations of the police nor of able che- 
mists could detect the nature of the poisonous ingredient. 
Those parts of sausages which did the most harm were 
made of liver; and it has often been observed that the 
iatemal organs of animals produced serious mischief, 
while the ordinary flesh might be consumed with safety. 
Seoresby says that the flesh of the bear is wholesome 
and delicious, but its liver produces dangerous symptoms. 
The sausages were always boiled before they were cured, 
and the bsbd svmptoms produced by eating them did not 
oecur until slight putrefaction had commenced. The 
German ebemists suppose this poison to reside in a fkt 
acid which is then generated. Cheese and hacon are 
other articles which in Germany also often produce 
poisonous effects, and there being no difference in their 
smell or taste perceptible, fatal mischief sometimes en- 
snes befbre the corrupted articles are suspected. Poison- 
ous effects are said to be produced in some of the farms in 
Cheshire, when the curds are retained too long before 
tbev are made into cheese. In France and Switzerland, 
miMr, especially that of goats and sheep, has produced 
at various periods symptoms resembling cholera, or even 
death itself- 

Poisonous Fish. Fish, of all species of animal food, 
firnishes us with the most frequent and marked examples 
of poisoning. Exaggeration and difference of opinion, 
u upon most other subjects, have prevailed upon this; 
for while, on the one hand, sailors and other persons have 
oftpn conceived an unreasonable and undiscriminating 
prejudice against various innocent speciiss of fish, other 
persons deny that the instances of death from eating 
tlieso animals result from any poisonous principle they con- 
tain, but are rather produced by some peculiarity of consti- 



tution in the persons affected. Abundant proof, however, 
exists that the eating of certain fish acts as a poison 
both on man and animals, at certain seasons ; these fish, 
however, are usually innocent at other times, while in 
some constitutions the most harmless species will, even 
in small quantities, always produce deleterious effects. 
It is in the tropical regions, and almost exclusively in the 
Caribbean Sea, that poisonous fish abound: these are 
especially the barracuda, the snapper, the dolphin, the 
king-fish, the conger eel, and the yellow-billed sprat : all 
these, with the exception of the last, are only poisonous 
at certain periods of the year, namely, the hottest months. 
The yellow-billed sprat is virulent almost beyond belief, 
for Dr. Chisholm relates that both the whites and 
the negroes of the Leeward Islands have been known 
to expire with the fish yet unswallowed in their mouths. 
In our own country several species of fish, when 
eaten out of season, are very indigestible, and some- 
times even produce alarming symptoms; the flavour 
and odour distinctive of the particular fish, depending 
upon the presence of an aromatic oil, are then very 
deficient. This applies to the salmon, mackerel, herring, 
and shell-fish in general ; but muscles and oysters are 
the species most remarkable for occasionally producing 
ill effects. There would seem to be good foundation for 
the saying, that neither of these are wholesome during 
the months which do not contain an r; these being the 
hottest, during which fish-poison has always been found 
most virulent. Instances of poisoning by muscles are 
numerous ; but we need allude only to that related by 
Dr. Combe as occurring at Leith in 1827, and which 
produced such consternation there that the inhabitants 
of Leith and Edinburgh have since almost refrained 
from eating this fish. There were thirty people of the 
lower ranks of society seriously and alarmingly affected 
by eatmg muscles, wmch had been scraped from off the 
bar of the dock-yard: two €i these died, but the others 
recovered by judicious treatment. Neither in taste nor 
smell did these muscles differ from their ordinary state. 
Salting or cooking fish has not been found preventative 
of the mischief; but M . de Rondeau asserts, that if 
muscles be boiled in vinegar and water containing a 
small portion of cayenne pepper, evil never results from 
eating them : this is denied by others. 

The symptoms from eating poisonous fish are very 
varied, according to the species employed. In some, 
they cause violent oppression of breathing, awelkd 
face, insatiable thirst, convulsions, and inaeaaibility; in 
others, symptoms very like those of cholera. A very 
common effect is to produce a degree of palsy, while the 
shell-fish are especially liable to cause the troublesome 
disease of the skin called nettle-rash, which, owing tp 
the sympathy existing between the alimentary canal and 
the akin, very often occurs from various other iajiuioua 
articles of diet. The late Dr. Clarke remarked that 
women after childbirth who indulged in eating oysters, 
were very liable to convulsions and apoplexy. The 
manifestation of these symptoms is both more severe and 
more rapid in the tropical regions, and wiUi us sometimes 
several hours elapse before anything serious is suspected. 
An emetic and brisk aperient should be at once given, 
and in this climate will usually succeed in preventing 
fatal mischiefs, although severe symptoms may stiU 
ensue, as it is surprising how small a portion of a bad 
fish will cause them. 

The nature of the poison thus contained in these fish 
has given rise to numerous conjectures. Thus, a very 
popular opinion has been, that the fish were poisoned by 
feeding near copper banks, or the bottoms of ships ; but 
inquiry has discovered the fish where copper did not 
exist, and no traces of such impregnation have been found 
on the examination of the bad fish by chemical tests. 
Again, various articles of food of the fish -tribe, as holo- 
thurisB, medusae, and manchineol apple, have each been 
charired with producing the change in them, but without 
/ 557—2 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



any good evidence. M. de Beume siipposes the EpBwn 
of tne Sletla marina wHict lod^s in the muscle, is tlie 
cause of the miscliief. The opinion generally enter* 
tained is, that a poison, tui generiw, is generated in the 
Bystem of the fish at particular seasons, one marked 
effect of which is to produce the early putrefaction of 
the animal, upon which much of its deleterious nature 
depends; for persons who have eaten of a fish with im- 
punity on one day, have been poisoned by it the next) 
although it has been salted in the mean time. Autenrieth, 
tracing the analwy between this poison and that ton* 
tained in the old cheese and rancid sausages before-men- 
tioned, believes he has det«cted it in a bitter principle 
faaai in combination with a rancid fatty matter. 



THAMK-UFFERIKG. 

Iv erery place, in ever; hour, 

WImU'er raj wajwsird lot may be, 
In jojr or gnef, in sun or shower, 

Faiher, and Lonl I I turn to thee. 
Thee, when the iacense-brealhing flowers 

Pour forth the worship of the Bpring, 
With the Rlad tenants of the bowers. 

My treinbliag accents slrive to sing. 
Thee, when upon the frozen strand. 

Winter, begirt with storms, descends ; 
Thee, Lord ! I hail, whoso gracious hand 

O'er all a guardian core extends. 
Thee, when the golden harvests yield 

Thee, when through ether's gloomy field 

The lightnings flash, the tbtitider* roar. 
Thee, when athwart the azure sky. 

Thy starry hosts their mazes l^d. 
And when thou aheddest from on liigh 

Thy dew-drops on the llowety mead. ' 
Thse, when my cap of bliss o'erflows — 

Thee, when inj heart's beet joys ore fled ; 
Thee, when my lieart exulting glows — 

Thee, while I bend beaide the dead. 
Alike in joy and in distrees. 

Oh ! let me trace thy hand divine, 
Rigliteoiis in chastening, prompt to bless, 

StUl, Father, may Thp will be muie. 

Lady Floba Eaitih 



assoLcnoN. 
TsH, of all the qnalifications of a great man, is perhaps the 
most efficient and important. A retentive memory, a lively 
imagination, an acute judgment, and strong passions, may 
be all useful as tjuolities of a great man ; but they all need 
reiolution to brmg them to a point. As in the case of a 
hnming-glass, the ray would not hum without the glass, 
nor the glass transmit heat unless it had the property 
of collecting the rays into a focus, so it is molution which 
combines and powerfully wplies the other taJenta, Some 
an prolific in scnemea of itsemlness, but are miserably poor in 
eatciMoa. Like some trees, they n>end themselves in 
blosiom, and never yield fruit. A gentleman, last summer, 
showed me a fine tree in his grounds, which he said he 
bad resolved to cut down ; for, although for years it bad 
produced a finer blossom than any other tree in his orchard, 
or garden, yet it never bore fruit. He mentioned this to a 
friend, who said, — " The fact is, the tree tpendt itttlf in 
blottoau. I advise you to cut the rind otf it, nearly hal^av 
Tonnd, and it will probably have less blossom, but it will 
bear fruit." He did so, and the result was, that it after- 
wards produced more and better fruit than any other tree 
in the garden. Let me, therefore, advise you to cut some of 
the rind from your schemes, that they may not spend 
themselves in hloaaoms, hut may work out into ihe fruitsof 
usefulness. Sir Isaac Newton is said to have declared, that 
he did not consider himself to possess any advantage over 
other men, except, that whatsoever he considered of suHi- 
cient importance to begin, he had sufficient resolution to 
continue till he hod accomplished his object. Dr. Johnson, 
on the other hand, confessed and lamented, that he was as 
deficient in this necessary qualification, ttiat he could never 
do anything till he was farced to it, either by his appetite 
or his creditors. 7'ry, Uierefore, to acquire the habit of 
reeol ution. — Griffi m. 



THE STURGEON, 
(Aeeipenter ttvrto.J 



Thk Sturgeon* belongs to that order of cutilBgiiKiii 
fishes, at the head of which stand the sharks and np, 
and which includes the largest and most fimnidable of 
the whole class. In consequence of the peculiv ttmfr 
ture of the skeleton of these fishes, theyeontdonetogro* 
as long as they live, so that, inhabiting the wide oeeu. 
and meeting but few enemies, they attain •ach m a""- 
mous siie, that their weight and dimensions sppf 
almost incredible. 

Sturgeons (^Stttrionidte,") of whicli only one genm >> 
known, are distinguished by being defended, u it were, 
by armour, the body being covered by hard bony taba- 
cles in longitudinal rows, sometimes bearing a considR- 
able resemblance to the shells of limpets, and st othK 
times keeled or produced into spines, lie bead ii sIk 
armed with bony plates: the mouth is small, and initcsd 
of teeth, it is furnished with a homy prolongation of im 
jaws. The mouth is so formed, as to be protruded uo 
retracted at the pleasure of the animal. The gil!-««M 
is an oval radiated plate ; but the aperture is small, ui 
iU cover, by being edged with a membranaceous bmiBi 
closes the aperture so accurately, as to exclude the w- 

The common Sturgeon grows to a very large n«: 
specimens have been taken, that measured more vJi 
twenty feet long. Its form is lengthened and slender; 
the snout very long in some species ; and the moutki ■< 
in most of the cartilaginous fishes, placed beMstn. 
Several cirri, or worm-like appendages, are seated be- 
neath the mouth, and near the muxile : this latter orgu 
consists of a transverse oval orifice without teeth, ui<l 
containing a thick strong tongue; it is bordered sbon 
and below by a strong cartilaginous edge or lipi «■'" 
can be retracted and closed at the vrill of the animsl- 

Sturgeons inhabit the seas of Northern Europe wi 
America: they inigrate during early summer, bto tH 
tai^r rivers and lakes, and after depositing their sps'i'i 
return again to the sea. In North America, stm^M" 
may almost be called fresh-water fishes, since ihef u* 
seldom caught at any great distance from the shore- 
Pennant slates, that in some of the rivers of Virguut 
thejr are so plentiful, that six hundred have been tswo 
within two days, merely by putting a pole into the watMi 
with a stout hook at the end, and drawing it up »gw 
on perceiving that it rubbed against a fish. B'g"'*' 
sturgeon fisheries are carried on durii^ snimner W 
Pillau, and in the river Garonne on the coast of Fraw- 
In the Canary Islands, Sturgeons are so common, u w* 
to be valued. In our own countrv, the rivers Eske wa 
Eden are noted for Sturgeon; and from the former <" 
taken one which weighed 4G0 pound«. 

the London market commonly n~ ~ 



eight feet, and sometimes weigh nearly '• 



Those brought 
from four te 



_ _ pound". 

Notwithstanding ite formidable^ppearMce, the »tnig«" 

gni!t,i».ii«T»i«".'r; 

.1. : IL..I li.r.nW lH"" 



' ThAfl^iDologToTlhs wi 
tliu the otmnatiin Gih ii 
tluhr tignifjiiig ^mf. 0th 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



99 



is said to be mild, and ey^n cowardly in its disposition. I 
Its food is small fish and worms. 

As an article of commerce the sturgeon is peculiarly 
valuable. It was in high repute among the ancient 
Greeks and Romans. iHiny states, that it was brought 
to table with much pomp and ornamented with flowers ; 
the slaves who carried it being also adorned with gar- 
lands, and accompanied by music. The flesh of the 
animal, pickled, is sent all over Europe, and is a great 
delicacy. Caviar is prepared from the roe: this is 
£reed from its membranes, then washed in vinegar or 
white wine, and dried by being spread on a board in the 
air. It is afterwards well salted ; the salt being rubbed 
in with the hand ; it is then put into a bag, and the 
liquor pressed out ; it is finally packed in kegs, and is 
then ready for sale. This is the method of preparing 
caviar at the mouths of the Volga, Danube, Dnieper, 
and Don. In 1833, the quantity of caviar shipped from 
the ports of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azof alone, 
exceeded a million and a half English pounds weight, 
and this was but a very small part of the annual supply, 
because in consequence of the three annual seasons of 
fasting in Russia the consumption is very great. The 
principal exports are to Italy ; the demand for caviar in 
England being small. The best caviar is dry and of a 
brown colour : it is eaten on bread with oil and lemon- 
juice, or vinegar. 

Mr. Long, in his Travels in North Americay speaks 
highly in favour of sturgeon broth, and suggests that 
fish-broths in general have not met with the attention 
they deserve. He states that at Albany, the sturgeon is 
so common, that it is sold at a penny per pound, and is 
called Albany beef. Many persons have noticed the 
resemblance of some parts of the Sturgeon to beef; but 
the resemblance of the white parts to veal is striking, 
and generally admitted. Mr. Donovan in his Domestic 
Economy f says: — 

Slices of sturgeon, nicely dressed in the manner of a veal- 
cutlet, are only to be distmrmshed from the latter by the 
superiority of the meat, and a certain superadded flavour, 
which iuipears to me most to resemble tnat of the scallop 
shell-fish, and which exists barely in a recognizable degree. 
This resemblance to veal is equidly observable in the appear- 
ance of the flesh, both raw and fried, as well as in the taste. 
It is usual to make Sturgeon pies, and these are scarcely 
distinguishable from meat-pies. Were animals to be classed 
accorSng to their qualities as food, the Sturgeon would 
certunlv be removed from the fishes, and placed amongst the 
land animals: even the back-hone, if such it may be called, 
it being mere cartilage, has the appearance and taste of the 
harder csartilages in veal. I believe the Stuigeon is the only 
fifth which is roasted on a spit like meat. 

The Sturgeon is in season during the winter quarter 
and part of spring. It sells in London at Is. or 1#. 9d, per 
pound, but does not often a]ppear in the market. It should 
be firm ; if flabby, ito value is greatly lessened. The xoe in 
the recent state is little sought after' in this cotmtry. 

A smaller species of Sturg^eon, called the sterUty 
found in Russia, is in much higher esteem for the table, 
than the common species. The soup of this fish formed 
one of the frivourite luxuries of that gigantic epicure, 
prince Potemkin of Russia, who, as Dr. Shaw relates, in 
seasons when this fish happened to be unusually dear, 
was content to purchase it at a price so extravagant that 
a single tureen, forming the mere prelude to his repast, 
cost him the sum of three hundred rubles : " a sum," says 
Swunson, " which, had it been expended in promoting 
the happiness of his miserable serfs, might have called 
down blessings on the head of this worthless sensualist." 

The best isinglass is furnished by the Sturgeon. 
It is extensively prepared in Russia by the follovring 
method. Tlie membranes of the fish, especially its air- 
bladder and sounds, which are remarkably large, are 
taken from the fish while fresh, slit open, washed in cold 
water, and exposed for a short time to the air in order 
to stiffen ; the outer skin is then taken off and rejected. 
The other portions arc formed into rolls about the thick- 



ness of a finger, and in length according to the intended 
size of the staple ; a thin membrane is usually selected from 
the centre of the roll, round which the rest are folded 
alternately, and about half an inch of each extremity of 
the roll is turned inwards. The proper dimensions being 
thus obtained, the two ends of what is called, ''short 
stople" are fastened together by means of a small 
wooden p^; the middle of the roll is then pressed 
downwards, which gives it the form of a heart, and thus 
it is hung up to dry. The sounds which form the ''long 
steple" are of a longer size, but the workman can add 
to the length by interfolding the ends of several pieces 
of the sounds. The ends are fastened with a peg as 
before, but the middle part of the roU is more consider- 
ably bent, and in order to preserve the shape of the 
three angles thus formed, a piece of stick is fastened in 
each angle: when sufiicientJy dry, the pegs and sticks 
are removed and the drying completed ; lastly, the pieces 
of isinglass are collected in rows by passing a thread 
through the peg-holes for convemence of package 
and exportation. The '' long steple" is the best isin- 
glass, and is used in confectionary and at the teble. The 
common sorte of isinglass, called ''book" and "ordinary 
steple," are composed) of membranes which do not 
admit of being formed into rolls ; the pieces, therefore, 
after their sides are folded inwardly, are bent in the 
centre in such a manner, that the opposite sides resemble 
the cover of a book, whence its name. 

Isinglass is one of the purest and finest of the animal 
glues and has no particular smell or teste. Beaten into 
threads, it dissolves in boiling water or milk, and yields a 
mild nutriment. Isinglass is gelatine nearly pure. 
Four parte of it convert one hundred parte of water into 
a tremulous jelly, and it is thus employed to enrich many 
soups and sauces. It is also used with gum to give 
lustre to ribbons and other silk articles: dissolved in 
alcohol with gum ammoniac, it forms the celebratea^ 
diamond cement, so called because the Turks employ it 
in setting tiieir precious stones or jewellery, and if well 
made, the cement preserves ite transparency after the 
setting. Diamond cement is much used in our own 
country for the humbler purpose of joining broken pieces 
of glass and china. 

Isinglass is also used for "fining" various liquors: 
the brewer uses it extensively for making his beer trans- 
parent, for which purpose crude isinglass is dissolved in 
sour beer and thus poured into the cask, where, as it is 
commonly supposed, the floating particles are entangled 
by the fining stuff added; and the whole is carried down, 
as if by a net, straining the liquor from the top to the 
bottom. 

Court plaster is made by covering taffety or thin 
silk with a coat of isinglass. Post office stamps are 
also made to adhere by means of a similar coating. 
Isinglass has also been made to perform the office of 
window glass. Sheets of wire gauze set in window or 
lamp frames, and plunged into a limpid solution of 
isinglass, when cold have the appearance of glass. If 
one dip be not sufficient to make a proper transparent 
plate, several may be given, taking care to allow one 
film to dry before another dip is made* The outer 
surface should be varnished to protect it from damp air. 
In the maritime arsenals of France, these panes of gela- 
tine are usefully employed for lamps instead of horn; 
they possess the advantage of being almost as trans- 
parent as glass ¥rithout being so brittle. 

Thb ancient philosophers comprised their wisdom in short 
maxims. To have made a wise maxim was to acquire re- 
nown. Thus in discoursing on prudence, one of ^em shows 
his wisdom in uttering these precepte: ** Begin nothing of 
which you have not loeU considered the end** " Take care of 
irrecoverable deeds** Crito, one of the seven wise men of 
Greece, declared, that the highest human wisdom was that 
sagacity which discerned in the present that which the future 
would disclose. — S, 



04 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE- 



[March ( 



THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD. 

AncieKt <writeir9 relate the existence of certidti master- 
pieces of art, which, for their vastness or beauty, have 
been denominated wonders. Every age has, doubtless, 
contributed its own wonders to these records of human 
ingenuity; and, to this day, every country of the world 
has its own class of wonders. But, the earliest authors 
have conferred a celebrity upon certain monuments of 
astounding labour, which the productions of subsequent 
ages have not exceeded in vastness or magnificence of 
character. These are distinctively termed the Sbvsk 
WoNDfiRS OF THE WORLD; and though, different 
writers raise different productions to such pre-eminence, 
the following may be received as the most accredited 
enumeration of these wonders: 

1. The Great Pyramid of Egypt. 

2. The Walls of Babylon. 

3. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 

4. The Pharos of Alexandria. 

5. The Temple of Diana, at Ephesus. 
6* The Colossus of Rhodes. 

7. The Tomb of Mausolus. 

It must not, however, be concealed, that the desorip- 
tions of these worths are so interspersed with ftibulous 
history, that it is difficult to distinguish fact from fiction, 
especially as vastness is uniformly the characteristic of 
the objects described. Their proportions may have 
become more gigantic by that love or exaggeration which 
may be too frequently detected in the records of the 
works of man, by early writers. Contemporaries, who 
first chronicled tnese wonders, may have been accurate 
in their details, and their successors may have imposed 
upon the credulity of mankind ; and, in most instances, 
the truth would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, 
t to determine. However their monuments of art may 
have ministered tu human vanity, it must be allowed, 
that the imperfections of their history, and, more than 
all, their disappearance, or present ruinous condition, 
furnishes an eloquent rebuke to the vain glory of their 
founders, and leads man from the admiration of these 
crumbling prodigies of art to the contemplation of the 
nobler works of him whose omnipotence reigneth for 
ever. 

The Great Pyramid op Egypt usually ranks 
as the first wonder. This gigantic structure is named 
after its founder Cheops, King of Egypt, whose tomb it is 
supposed to be. Its building is stated by Pliny and Dio- 
dorus Siculus, to have occupied 360,000 men for tw nty 
years. It is 700 feet in the side of its base, and 500 in per- 
pendicular height, and stands on eleven acres of ground. 
A better idea to all acquainted with London is the fact, 
that the base of this Pyramid is the size of Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, and its beiffht 127 feet greater than the cross 
of St. Paul's Cathedralf or e^ual to the spire of Salis- 
bury Cathedral. 

The Walls of Babylon, (for ages the most famous 
city in the whole world,) rather resemble the bulwarks of 
nature than the workmanship of man. Their extent is 
computed by Major Rennell at 34 miles, or 8i on eadi 
side. They were so broad, that, as ancient historians 
relate, six chariots could be driven on them abreast ; or, 
a chariot and four horses might pass and turn. Their 
height was 50 cubits, or 75 feet, having been reduced 
to their dimensions from the prodigious height of 350 
feet. Yet these walls are so " utterly broken, that it can- 
not be determined with certainty that even the slightest 
vestige of them exists. Mr. Buckingham, a few years 
since, discovered on the eastern boundary of the ruins of 
Babylon, on the summit of an oval mound from 70 to 
80 feet in height, and from 300 to 400 feet in circum- 
ference, " a mass of solid wall, about 30 feet in length, 
by 12 or 15 feet in thickness, yet evidently once of 
much greater dimensions each way;" and this heap, Mr. 
Buckingham conjectured to be a part — ^the only part, 



if such it be, that can be dlieovtred of the walls ef 

Babylon. 

The Hakgivo GAnDEKs or Babtloh were dis- 
f tngulshed by their romantic gituation and vaat extent 
Their form was square^ and, according to Diodorus 
and Strabo, each side was 400 feet in length, so that 
the area of the base was nearly four acres. They were 
made to rise with terraces, curiously constructed in the 
form of steps, and supported by stone pillars to the height 
of more than 800 feet, gradually diminishing upwards. 
This building was constructed by vast stone beams placed 
on pillars of stone, (arches not being then invented,) which 
were again covered with reeds, cemented with bitumen, 
and next was laid a double row of bricks, united bj 
cement. Over these were laid plates of lead, which 
effectually prevented the moisture from penetrating down- 
wards. Aoove all was laid a coat of earth, sufficiently 
deep for plants to grow in it, and the trees here plantei 
were ranged in rows on the side of the ascent, as well 
as on the top, so that, at a distance, it appeared as an 
immense p3rram id covered with wood; and being situated 
upon the banks of the river Euphrates, water was sup- 
plied from thence by machinery, for the fountains and 
other sources for cooling the air and waterings the 
garden. The different groves and terraces also con- 
tained parterres, seats, and banquetting rooms, and pre- 
sented retirement in the midst of civic mirth and din; 
thus combining the splendour and luxury of eastern 
magnificence ki art, with the simple pleasures of ver- 
dant and beautiful nature, the prospect from these ele- 
vated gardens was grand and delightful. From the 
upper area was obtained not only a view of the whole 
city of Babylon, and the windings of the Euphrates, 
which washed the base of the superstructure 30O feel 
below, but of the cultivated environs of the city and 
surrounding desert, as far as the eye could reach. 

This surprising and laborious experinient, (Mr. J. ICason 
observe^) was a strain of complaisance in King Nebuehad- 
nez2ar to his Median queen, who could never be reconciled 
to the flat and naked appearance of the province of Babvlon, 
but ireauently regretted each rising hill and scattered forest 
she had formerly delighted in. The king, who thought 
nothing impossible for nis power to execute, nothing- to be 
unattempted for the gratification of his beloved consort, 
determined to raise woods and terraces even within the pre- 
cincts of tlie city, equal to thoso by which her native land 
was diversified. 

Yet, many writers doubt the existence of these gar- 
dens: Quintus Curtius refers to their deseription as 
** fabulous wonders;'* and Herodotus, who describes 
Babylon minutely, does not mention the Hanging Gar- 
dens; and the only author who speaks of tlipm on bis 
own testimony, is Berosus. The most reasonable cob- 
clusxon at which the moderns have arrived, tt^m these 
and other eonfiicting testaments, is, that ^y were a vast 
hill cut into terraces, and phmted; and some late travel- 
lers have fancied that they could discover traces oi such 
a woric. The immense height of the&e gardens, and 
their projecting ia terraces, probably suggested the 
epithet of hanging* 

The supposed remains of theae gaidens strt detaded por- 
tions of a wall, wiiich probably composed the piers or 
buttresses of the terraces. In the ruins^ lines of long 
passages and square chambers may be easily traced, which 
commanded a view of the city. Amongst these rains stands 
a solitary tree, of a species altogether strange to this country. 
It bears every mark of high antiquity, its originally enor- 
mous trunk "being worn away, and sliattered by time, 
while its spreading and evergreen branches are |>articuJarIy 
beautiful, and adorned with long tress-like tendrils ; proba- 
bly the hut descendant of those hanging gardens, which 
were numbered among the wonders of the world*. 

The Pharos of Alexandria was aoelebrated watch- 
tower, built upon the islet of Pharos f. It was finished 

• Hbbbkm's Mithrical SeseareheM. — Miatic NaOont, toI. n. 
f See Saturday Magasine, toI. z3., pp. 40, 908. 



1841-] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



95 



in the first year of the Te\gn . of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; 
it having been begun several years before by order of 
Ptolemy Soter. The tower was a large square structure 
of white marble, and is stated to have been visible a 
hundred miles distant. It consisted of several stories 
and galleriesy with a lantern at top, in which a light was 
continually burning, for the direction of sailors. 

Ptolemy Evergetea, the aucceasor of Ptolemy Philadel- 
phus, is stated by several ancient writers to have placed ia 
this Pharos, a mirror which represented aceurately every* 
thing which was transacted throughout Egypt; and 
some writers affirm, that with this mirror an enemy's 
fleet could be seen at the distance of 100 leagues. It is 
Scarcely necessary to observe the powers of this mirror 
must be strangely exaggerated; on which account the 
existence of the mirror has been disbelieved. Abulfeda, 
however, describes the mirror to have been of Chinese iron, 
and adds, that soon after Mohammedanism prevailed, the 
Chinese destroyed it by stratagem. Buffon thinks, that 
by Chinese iron, Abulfeda meant polished steel; but 
there seems more plausibility in the conjecture of an 
acute writer in the PhilosophiceU Magaxinef 1805, who 
supposes the metal to have been what is known to us by 
the name of iutanag, a Chinese metallic compoimd, 
which might be valued then, as it now is, for the high 
polish it receives. A French writer. Father Abbat, 
attempts to explain the exaggeration of the powers of 
this mirror, by observing that^^ 

If it existed, it is probable that ft was the only one of 
its kind, and that no other means had been then round of 
viewing distant objects distinctly. It must, therefore, have 
been considered as a great wonder in those times, and must 
have filled vnth astonishment all who saw its effects, which, 
had they not been greater than those of a small telescope, 
could not fail to be regarded as a prodigy. Hence it is 
natoial to think, that these effects were exaggerated beyond 
all probability, and even possibility. If we abstract these 
from the accounts of the mirror of Ptolemy, the evident 
exi^ggerations of ignorance, nothing will remain but, that 
at some distance, provided nothing was interposed between 
the objects and the mirror, those objects were seen more 
distinctly than with the naked eye; and that with the 
mirror many objects were seen, which, because of their 
diatancey were imperceptible without it*. 

Of the once splendid Pharos, not a vestige remains at 
this day ; the traveller only finding, instead, an irregularly 
built castle, from the middle of which rises a tower whico 
serves as a lighthouse, but not to remind the spectator, 
except by contrast^ of the beauty and grandeur of the 
ancient structure. 

The Temple of Diana, at Ephesus, the capital of 
loni^, la Asia Minor, is, by many olden writers, con- 
sidered to have been the most surprising of these won- 
ders. It was the great boast of the Ephesians, the 
principal ornament of their city, and the depository of 
the imag« of their tutelary goddess, Diana. ' 

This superb structure was situated between the town 
and harbour of Ephesus. It seems to have been several 
times (Pliny says seven times,) ruined and rebuilt, a 
circumstance which occurs in ancient writers as to the 
dates and descriptions of these sucoessive erections. One 
of them is expressly affirmed by Li vy to have been com- 
pleted in the reign of Servius Tuilius, who flourished, at 
the latest, 500 years before Christ. Another is described, 
which was originally designed by Ctesiphon, a Cuossian 
artist, 541 years before the Christian era, whose plan 
was continued by Demetrius, a priest of Diana, and at 
length completed by Daphnis of Miletus, and a citizen 
of Ephesus. One of its destroyers was the notorious 
Erostratus, 356 B.C., who set fire to the building on the 
night of the birth of Alexander the Great, his only 
object in burning the temple being to perpetuate his 
iiame. The temple, however, was rebuilt with greater 
magnificence than ever, by the Ephesians, whose women 

* TnatbM Drom Lei Amu$men$ FhilotophifHet, M«iBeiU«. 1763. 



contributed their trinkets towards the general funds 
raised for this purpose. The architect was the celebrated 
Dinocrates, who also built the city of Alexandria. 

The dimensions of the temple were 420 feet long, by 
220 feet broad. It had 127 columns, each 60 feet high, 
which were donations from kings. Thirty-six were 
carved; the order Ionic. It had eight columns in front. 
The folding doors were of cypress wood, which had been 
treasured up, highly polished, for four generations ; and 
they were found as fresh and beautiful 400 years after, 
us when new. The ceiling was of cedar; arid the steps 
for asoending the roof, of a single stem of a vine. 
The whole altar was full of the works of Praxiteles. 
The offerings were inestiknable ; and, among them was a 
picture by Apelles, representing Alexander armed with 
thunder; for which the painter was paid twenty talents 
in gold, about 38,650/. 

This last temple was plundered by Nero, who carried 
off an immense quantity of gold and silver ; afterwards, ia 
the time of Gallieous, by Goths from beyond the Danube^ 
who obtained a prodigious booty ; but the particulars of 
its final distribution are not on record. Its ruins are 
now the residence of cowherds and their cattle: from 
their minute examination by recent -travellers, they ap- 
pear to have been cased and encrusted with rich marbles. 
The once splendid city of Ephesus is a poor village, 
called Aiaioleik. 

Although -we find the frequent destruction of the 
temple of Diana narrated in history, it is difficult to con- 
ceive that an edifice of stone could have been entirely 
destroyed by fire, or if destroyed, that it could have been 
replaced by the Ephesians, when we find that all the 
cities of Asia Minor contributed towards the original 
building, which occupied 220 years in its erection. The 
narratives of its destruction may, however, possibly relate 
to the burning of the roof, certain roomS; sacred utensils, 
and the injury of the costly embellishments. It was, at 
length, sacked of its valuables, many of which arc stated 
to adorn the mosques of Constantinople to this day. 

The Colossus of Rhodes, was a gigantic brasen 
image of Apollo, whom the Rhodians considered their 
tutelar deity. Muratori reckons its history among the 
fables of antiquity, and it so abounds with contradictions, 
that it would be a more tedious than useful task to 
attempt to reconcile the conflicting statements. 

The first artisan employed upon this prodigious statue 
is said to have been Chares, the disciple of Lysippus, 
300 years b.c. He had scarcely half finished the work, 
when, finding that he had expended all the money he had 
received for the whole, he was overwhelmed with despair, 
and hanged himself. Laches, his fellow countryman, 
finished the work in the space of three Olympiads, or 
twelve years. The statue was placed with its feet upon 
the two moles which formed the entrance of the harbour 
of Rhodes ; and ships passed in full sail between its 
legs. Its height was 70 cubits, or 105 feet. 

A winding staircase ran to the top, whence could 
easily be discerned the shores of Syria, and the ships 
that sailed on the coast of Egypt; some accounts state 
that in the right hand was a large lantern, from which 
circumstance the statue is supposed to have served as a 
light-house. It had stood scarcely 60 years, when the 
figure was thrown from its place by an earthquake, and 
broken off at the knees. Thus it remained for the space 
of 894 years, although the Rhodians received large con- 
tributions to repair it; but they divided the money 
amongst themselves, and cunningly frustrated the expect- 
ations of the donors, by saying that the oracle of Delphi 
forbade them to raise the statue up again from its ruins. 
At length, a.d. 684, it was sold by the Saracens, who 
then became masters of Rhodes, to a Jewish merchant 
of Edessa, the value of the brass being estimated at 
36,000 pounds English money. 

Some antiquarians have thought that the fine head of 
the sun, which is stamped upon the Rhodian medals, is 



96 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[March 6, 1841. 



a representation of that of tlie Colossus ; and the con- 
jecture is reasonable. 

The- seventh wonder was the Tomb of Mausolus, 
king of Caria, which was built by his queen, Artemisia, 
in Halicamassus, 351 b.c.; and whence a superb tomb 
is to this day called a Mausoleum. The principal archi- 
tects of Greece laboured on this magnificent structure. 
It was an oblong square, 411 feet in compass, and 1 30 feet 
high. The principal side was adorned with 36 columns, 
and 24 steps led to the entrance. The top was conical, 
and surmounted with a chariot drawn by 4 horses, 
sculptured by Pythes. Bryaxes, Scopas, Leochares, and 
Timotheus made the decorations on the four sides; and 
Vitruvius thought that it was enriched by the sculptures 
of Praxiteles. Artemisia died before the completion of 
the monument, but the artists finished it without com- 
pensation, that they might not be deprived of the honour 
of their labour. The expenses of the building were so 
immense, as to have occasioned the philosopher Anaxa- 
goras to exclaim, when he saw it, "How much money 
changed into stonea 1 " 



THE CHINESE FEAST OF THE LANTERNS. 

Tkk commencement of the year in China is observed as the 
greatest festival in the empire, and l^e lyhole of the first 
month is a season of continued rejoicings. Of these the most 
splendid is. the Feast of the Lanterns, which is held on the 
mteenth day,' when there is such a profusion of lanterns 
hung out of the houses that, to a stranger, the whole empire 
has the appearance of fiury land. All ranks contribute to 
this national festival. The grandees reti<ench daily, and 
reduce ^e expenses of their table, equipage, and dress, in 
order that thev may expend more on their lanterns, some of 
which are said to cost two thousand crowns. The niiddle 
classes wiU expend fifty or sixty crowns on the occasion,- and 
even the poor^ will exert themselves to join the illumina- 
tion. In short, in city and countiy,'--^n the coast and on 
the rivers, every person lights up his painted lanterns. 

These lanterns are of various forms and sizes. Some of 
them are so capacious as to resemble mansions, whereui 
the Chinese eat, lodge, receive visits, have baHs,* and act 
plays. Those which are hung firom the houses are framed 
of wood, richly gilt, lapaimea, and carved and decorated 
with streamers of silk or satin. Over these frames is 
stretched fine transparent silk, on which are painted rarious 
devices, as human figures, quadrupeds, birds, trees, flowers, 
&c,j the colours of which are very brilliant, when the lan- 
tern is lit by lamps or wax candles. The largest lanterns 
frequently exhibit figures which are set in motion by hidden 
threads. In this manner the spectators outside the lanterns 
are often amused by the epectacle of horses galloping, ships 
sailing, and armies in full march. Some lanterns are lit by 
serpents, illun\inated within from the head to the tail^ and 
contrived to writhe about' as if they were aliyc. ' 



Many persons pass much of their time in a state of inqui- 
etude and constant irritation, although they are in heidth, 
and have the means of satisfying the common wants of life, 
and even abundantly. As to the present, they Imve some 
unreasonable desire, which cannot be satisfied,' or which 
cannot be, without causing a sufiering more intolerable than 
the unsatisfied desire. As to the past, they dwell on the 
memory of some good which they tnink nught have been 
obtained, or on some wrong or blunder by which some 
good was lost. As to the future, they dread some possible 
evil, and the more because of the uncertainty of its nature, 
and of the time and maimer of its coming, and which may 
never come. Tliere are many persons who are habitually 
discontented. They find everything goes wrong. The 
weather is bad ; their food is not as they would have it ; 
no one does anything in the right time, or in the right 
manner; or that is done which should not be, or tliat is 
omitted which should be done. Such persons are alwjU's 
groaning, sighing, or grumbling. They dislike everybody, 
and everybody dislikes them ; and particularly, their abun- 
dant adcice is disliked, and their manner of giving it.— S. 



THE FETISH. 

Thb term FeHsh is derived either from the, word feUuey a 
block adored as an idol ; ov from fsticzeiraj an enchautres. 
The Portuguese first gave this name to the idols of the 
negroes on the Senegal ; and afterwards the word received 
a more extensive meaning. The general application of 
^fetish now seems to be to an object worshipped, not represent- 
iBg a Uvixig figure. Such a figure is more nroperly ^>eakint, 
an idol. Hence, stones, arms, vessels, plants, &c., wluoi 
are objects of worship, aiefaisheg. 

Among the natives of the Gold Coast of Africa, tlie so- 
perstition of the fetish prevails to a baneful extent. The 
fetishmen, so cidled from their being supposed to possess 
supernatural powers, infuse into the minds of the people 
the belief of its influence, with the view of being consulted 
on every occasion of trouble. An individual who has Ixren 
robbed,*or has experienced some other calamity, immedi- 
ately consults a fetishman to discover the thief, or cause of 
the evil ; who, i^ter making use of some pretended magic 
art, and- havli^ obtained answers to questions put by him to 
ibe applicant, unhesitatingly denounces some unlortmiatd 
being as the robber or witch. The fetishmen are without 
difficulty bribed,' and they accept thfe bribe under the 
cloak of having first consulted the deity, who had agreed to 
receive a certain sum. They w^ill afterwards demand more 
money in the name. of> the, fetish, whom they will state as 
not being satisfied. So ^g^reat is the dread of the natives to 
oflend the fetish, that tbey even pawn their own children 
to raise tlie means of appeasing his wrath. When a person 
is afflicted with any 'alarming disease, application fbr relief 
is made to the fetisnman,' who, perhaos, wiU order an egg 
near hatch^g,or a chioken,- to be laid on a certain spot in 
some highway, .in order to transfer the complaint to the 
person who mieht unthinkingly tread upon it. Fasseogen 
noticing any of these chaiims lying in their way, carefully 
avoid them, and no one will dare to remove them out of 
their path. 

At Capo Coast, the wom^n, who are generally employed 
in celebrating the yam harvest, make public ofieiings in a 
body to the great, letish; which is a large rock lying close 
to tne walls of the castle. It breaks the great waves of the 
sea that incessantly d^ against it,' and thus preserves the 
fortification firom injury by the euige. Another grent fetish 
which they have is a salt pond, in which laxge and delicious 
mullets are taken. 

" Previous to the ofFerine; to the fetish, consisting, generally, 
of yams, eggs, palm ou, and tlio blood of some animiJ, 
being made, the women with their faces and Ihnbs chiUked, 
parade the town in a body, each carrying her own portion 
m a calabash, or earthen Vessel.. They men visit Uie rock, 
on which they deposit their oblations; and, no sooner do 
they depart than the turkey buzzards, apparently aware 
of what is going on, aipproach iLnd devomr the offer- 
ings; and it is considered a great ofiPeade to the fetish to 
destroy any of these birds. 

' All families of consequence have also their own private 
fetish, . which they keep concealed in their houses, but 
denote its presence there by signs hung outside on the doors. 
This has. a great eflFect in deterring thieves from the 
premises*. ' 

Captain Tuckey describes a fetish which he saw at m- 
booma, on the River Congo. It was about the sixeoU 
large doll, and the most grotesque figure im^inable. 1 li^se 
fetishes are indifferentiy carved out of wood, or made oi 
xags, the eyes and teeth are of sliells, and the whole apF^ 
ance as hideous as the workmansliip is clumsy. They are 
such things as children would contrive in sport. ^^^'^ t 
less, they are unceasingly worshipped and pra3'ed to, thong 
with no great ceremony or devotion. When a gl«ss o 
brandy is given to an African, he puts it to his lips, tiw» 
raises his fetish, into whose face he puffis his breath onw or 
twice, with a blovring whistling noise ; and then he swaltow 
the dram. A similar action, or a whisper in the ear, takw 
place whenever the fetish is consulted. 

• Communicated by M^jor Ricketts to the Littrary Gatette. 



.LONDON : 
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAXD- ^ 

PUBUWSD IN WKKKI.Y KUMMM, VKtCM OsR TjeNNV, ^NP ••"« MOSTltt 

Parts, prick Sispsmcm. 
Bold by aU BookMUon and Kewftvendors Is tba Kiaydom. 



^ 



Sdlurlra^ll Mu^mnt. 



m. 558. 



MABCH 



13™. 1841. {„„»^^_ 



THE PHILOSOPHER LEIBNITZ. 



The above cut represents a house, which, however 
remarkAble for its form and appearance, derives its chief 
interest from having been the residence of Godfrey 
\Villiam Leibnitz, an eminent natural philosopher and 
mathematician of the seventeenth century. 

Leibnitz was bom at I^cipsic, in the year 1646. His 
father, secretary of the University, dyinr whep Godfrey 
was only six years old, the latter was pUced at school, 
where he distinguished hinuelf by the ardour with which 
he studied the classical writers; and he performed his 
task with sucb ease and quickness that he used to have 
time to assist his less precocious school-fellows in the 
prepvation of their lessons. At the age of fifteen he 

"Voi- XVIIL 



went to the University of Leipsic, afterwards to that 
of Jena, and agun to Leipsic. Here he studied philo- 
sophy and mathematics, and also became' so familiar 
with the writings of Plato, Aristotle, and other Greek 
philosophers, that be used to ramble about the woods for 
a whole day at a Urae, pondering on what he had read, 
and endeavouring to reconcile the discordant doctrines 
of his favourite writers. 

' His advancement in the study of law was as raj^d'as' 
that in classical learning, insomuch that at the sfc of 
twenty he was made Doctor of Laws in the University 
of Altorf, and was offered the Professorship of Law in 
the same university. I<eibnit2 declined the laiter offifXt 



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[Mahch la. 



aud went to- Nureinburg, where he became secretary to 
a society of alchemists. The reader is awj^re that the 
chemistry of those days consisted principally in attempts 
to discbvdr Che jjxchni oC capverting Haser metals into 
gold, and of effecting other wonders which are now 
known to be unattainable. Leibnitz, however, did not' 
remain long in this capacity; fbr having gained the 
favour of an. influential man at Mayerice, he was advised 
to apply himself to the study of history and jurispru- 
dence, with a view to qualify himself for some creditable 
office at Frankfort. Here he soon gave another instance 
of the versatility of his talents, by writing an admirable 
treatise on the best method of teaching and learning 
jurisprudence. This work, and another, written about 
the same time, caused him to be appointed Councillor of 
the Chamber of Revision, in the cnancery of the electo- 
rate of Mayence. 

While he filled this last-mentioned office, his compre- 
hensive mind was employed on subjects so very diverse 
that none but such a genius as his could have had any 
success in them all. He wrote a treatise on the doctrine 
of the Trinity, against a Polish writer who had im- 
pugned that doctrine. He wrote two treatises on mecha- 
nics, which astonished the philosophers of that age, by 
the boldness and tMig^nality of the ideas developed in 
them; and he also planned a new Encyclopaedia of 
General Knowieige. 

At diis time the military successes of Louis the 
Fourteenth had ttmde his capital the centre to which 
distinguished men firom various countries resorted ; and 
Leibnitz, "who had a strong desire to visit Paris, was 
enabled to do so as a companion to the son of his 
patron. Here his genius took a new turn, by being 
applied to the study of mathematics, a science to which 
he had hitherto paid but a small share of attention. 
Huyghens, wlto had written a valuable treatise on the 
oscillation of pendtdums* was then at Paris, and an 
intimacy arose )»etween him and Leibnitz, which led the 
latter to attend to numerous questions in natural philo- 
sophy. At this time also he gave an honourable proof 
of the steadiness with which he adhered to protestant 
religious principles; for the Academy of Sciences at 
Paris, appreciating his distinguished talents, offered him 
a seat in their body, provided he would profess the 
Roman Catholic religion : this he declined to do. 

His patron dying in 1673, Leibnitz came to England, ' 
where he was received with much distinction by the 
philosophers, who corresponded and conversed with him 
on many subjects of science. But his prospects re- 
ceived a sudden check by the death of the elector of 
Mayenoe, ttnd the consequent discontinnanoe of the pen- 
sion which Leibnitz had received. The Duke of Bruns- 
wick now testified lus respect for the phfloaopher, by 
granting him an oftce and a pension, with liberty to 
devote as ismt^ of his time as he pleased to study. 
Leibnitz then devoted upwards 9i a }^Bar to the unre- 
mitting study of mathematics, and then proceeded to 
take his residence at Hanover, the capital of the Duke 
of Brunswick's territory, where he wrote a treatise on 
the national law of the Germanic empire. When the 
duke died, his successor (afterwards King George the 
First of England) continued to Leibnitz the favours 
which had already been awarded him, and ako directed 
bim to write a history of the house of Brunswick. This 
work he commenced on such an immense scale that the 
main body of the history has never been published : he 
spent three years in traversing Germany and Italy, for 
the collection of materials, and the published portions 
throw great light on the early history of the Germanic 
tribes in general, though circumstances prevented him 
from completing that portion which related to Bruns- 
wick. 

Leibnitz was a man of am'able mind; and being dis- 
tressed at the sufferings whidi the Huguenots, or 
French protestants, experienoedy h^ 9aA Bossuet, a 



learned French Catholic prelate, entered into a corres- 
pondence, with a view of trying whether the differences 
between the two fojrmt^c^ £|^th pighf no^ l^ ^econdled. 
In this correspondence Leibnitz displayed as extensive 
a knowledge of theology as he had previously shovvn of 
other subjects : but the attempt failed in its object 

Leibnitz having been chosen a felloe of. the Ro^-al 
Society of London, and seeing how much such a society 
tended to the advancement of science, he recommended 
the king of Prussia to found a similar society at Berlin, 
which was accordingly done in 1701, Leibnitz himself 
being appointed president, with liberty to reside either 
there or elsewhere. The Czar of Russia and the Em- 
peror of Germany also consulted him on subjects which 
related to the progress of science, and he became looked 
upon as one of the most distinguished men in Europe. 
In his correspondence and literary productions he em- 
ployed either the Latin or the French language, because 
those were the two which were most likely to be under- 
stood by the learned men to whom his writings were 
addressed: the consequence was that his mother tongue, 
the German, became so much neglected by him, that the 
few pieces which he wrote therein were in very inferior 
style. 

A very profound and diffoult braadi of the mathe- 
matics, called the differential calciilitt» tke nature of which 
can hardly be explained tx) general readerS) was invented 
both by Sir Isaac Newton and by Ldbnitz, each one pro- 
ceeding in a path different firom tlie other. Long con- 
troversies were carried on between the plnlosophers of 
England and France, as to which of the inventors 
deserved most honour ; but in modern times the acrimony 
which distinguished this controversy has died away, and 
men now know how to do honour tcr both those great 
mathematicians, without striving to place one on a higher 
level than the other. 

The personal or devnestic eharaeter of Leibnitz does 
not yield those points of interest which so fi^uentljr 
arise from the contemplation of a distinguished man in 
the bosom of his family. Leibnitz was never married. 
One of his biographers says : — ** At the i^ of fifty he 
had some thoughts of forming a matrimonial coimexion; 
but as the lady he wished to espouse desired time to 
t^onsider his proposal, Leibnitz also made his own re- 
flections on the subject, and nnlnckiiy came to the 
conclusion that, though marriage is a good thing, a 
wise man ought to consider of it all his me^ Leibnitz, 
ilthough of a strong constitution, gradually sank under 
ihe immense mental -exertions to which he subjected 
himself. He died on the 14th of November, 1716> 
the age of seventy, In person he was of a middle sta- 
ture, and had a sweet expression of countenance, blended 
with a studious air. tie was short-sighted, bat his 
vision continued excellent, even to his last moments, 
enabling him to read the smallest print, and to write in 
a small fine character. He was of a thin habit, but of 
a vigorous temperament ; drank little, supped plentifiJlV) 
and retired to rest immediately afterwards, — a plan whicbi 
in most cases, would be evidently detrimental to health. 
He remained in bed only a few hours, and sometimes he 
would even sleep in his chair, and on awaking would 
proceed to his studies, whatever hour it might be. MTien 
deeply immersed in study, he was known to have scarcely 
left his chair for days together. 

There have been few men who have approached so 
near as Leibnitz to the rank of a universal genius 
Theology, classical learning, jurisprudence, history, w*" 
thematics, natural philosophy, — all occupied his atten- 
tion in turn, and all received the stamp of has powcrftd 
mind, and made him the wonder of his age. But the 
reader must not infer that the possession of universal 
genius is necessary to advance a man to an eminent 
position among his fellow-men. A clear and steady mind, 
devoted assiduously to one subject, will often prodnce re- 
sults more valuable to^ soeiety than if it were dii*ected to . 



W 



1841.1 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE 



99 



several ; and the reason wliy sncli is the case will readily 
be understood. An attention to one subject concentrates 
and systemizes the knowledge which we possess on that 
subject, and renders it more available and valuable. It 
has been observed of Leibnitz, that though it is difficult 
to name any department of human knowledge which has 
not profited by his labours, or received fresh illustration 
from his genms, yet his reputation would perhaps have 
been more solid and permanent had he less ambitiously 
grasped the whole circle of human science. He has 
been excelled in theology, in classical learning, in juris- 
prudence, in history, in mathematics, and in natural 
philosophy, by others who have devoted their whole at- 
tention to one or other of these subjects ; whereas he 
might probably have placed himself on a pre-eminent 
position in some one of them, had he more especially 
devoted himself to it. While, therefore, we admire the 
wonderful range of his genius, and respect his memory 
for the large accession which he made to the sum of 
human knowledge, we must not think any the more 
meanly of those members of society, — ^wheUier in past 
or present ages, — ^in our own or any other country, — 
^ho, with a less gigantic grasp of intellect, ha^ e devoted 
their powers to one particular department of study, 
making others subordinate to it 



Ths world amnmd ns, with all its ehaiige»-<-4he shariness of 
oar stay here — ^the uncertaintj^ of all things with which we 
are conversant in this transitory life, from the seed that 
folleth into the ground to die and burst into new life with 
the return of spring, to the varied scenes of that busy theatre 
on which man himself, lord of created nature, acts his little 
day — all these things teach us plainly that tlds is but a life 
of tmly— thai this vain earth is not our rest. DAnsvirsr. 



CuBions aneodotea an related of the effect of music upon 
animals. Thorville has given the following amusing aocoixnt 
of his experiments. ** While a man was pbying on a trump- 
marine, 1 made my observations on a cat, a dog, a horse, an 
ass, a hind, some cows, small birds, and a cock and hens, who 
were in a yard under the window. The cat was not the least 
affected ; the horse stopped short from time to time, raising 
his head up now and tlien, as if he were feeding on mss ; 
the dog continued for above an hour seated on his hind-legs, 
looking stedfastly at the player; the ass did not discover 
the le^ indication of his oeing touched, eating his thistles 
peaceably; the hind lifted up her hu^e wide ears, and 
seemed very attentive ; the cows stopt a little, and, after 
gazing at us, went forward ; some little birds that were in 
an ayiaryy and others on trcKes and bushes, almost tore their 
little throats with singine ; but the cock who minded only 
his hma, and the hens who were soldy employed in scraping 
a neighbouring dunghill, did not show in any manner, that 
the frump-marine aSforded them pleasure." 

That dogs have an ear for music cannot be doubted: 
Steibelt had one which evidently knew one piece of music 
from the other; and a modem composer had a pug dog 
that frisked merrily about the room, when a lively piece 
was played; but when a slow melody was performed, 
particulajrly Dussek's Opera, 15, he would seat himself 
down by the piano and prick up his ears with intense 
attention, until the player came to the fprty-eighth bar ; 
but as the discord was struck he would yell most piteously, 
and with drooping tail seek refuge from the unpleaaaitt 
sound under Uie chairs or tables. 

Eastcot relates that a hare left her retreat to listen to 
some choristers, who were nngiuf on the banks of the 
Mersey, retiring when they ceased singiof , and reappear* 
in<; as tliey recommenced their strains. 6ossuet asserts» 
lliat an officer, confined in the Bastille, drew forth mice and 
spiders to begoile his solitade with his flute; and a moun- 
tebank in Paris, had taught rats to dance on the rope in 
perfect tinoe. Chateaubriand states as a positive fiict,.that 
he lias seen the xsaltle-snake, in Upper Canada, appeased by 
a mnacian ; and the concert given m Paris to two elephants 
in the Jardin des Plantes, leaves no doubt in regard to the 
effect of harmony on the brute creation. Every instrument 
seemed to operate distinctly as the several modes of pieces 
were alow or lively, until the excitement of these int^gent 
<^reatuTes had been carried to such an extent thai farther 
experiments were deemed dangerous^— Milldi oxn. 



SILK FROM SPIDERS. 

The extensive use which is made of silk goods, and the 
value they have acquired in all civilized countries, have 
led to various experiments amongst ingenious persons, 
for the purpose of ascertaining whether a subst&ce or 
substances might not be obtained from other sources, 
which should answer the same purpose as that to which 
the production of the silk caterpillar is at present so 
widely applied. 

At the beginning of the last century a method was 
discovered in France of obtaining silk from the nests of 
some species of spiders. It is well known that besides 
the ordinary web of spiders, there is a small silky bag 
spun by particular species, for the protection of their 
eggs. These bags may often be found in the comers of 
windows, under the eaves of houses,, in cellars and 
vaults, in hollow trees, and in similar protected situ* 
ations, where neither wind nor rain can reach them* 
They are much stronger and more durable in their tex- 
ture than the webs formed to entrap the spider *s prey, 
And in shape they resemble the silkworm's cocoon when 
it is prepared for the distaff. When £rst formed, these 
spiders' bags arc of a gray coloui*, but by exposure to 
the air and dust they soon acquire a blackish hue. 

It was from the bags thus formed by spiders around 
their eggs that silk was procured, at the time above 
stated, by a M. Bon, whose dissertation on the naode of 
obtaining and preparing the silk is extremely interesting. 
An abstract from this dissertation, together with the 
observation.^ made by M. Reaumur, and other celebrated 
naturalists, on the means which the spider possesses of 
furnishing the material in question, noay not be unac- 
ceptable to our readers. 

The method of classing spiders is usually according 
to their different colours, whether black, brown, yellow, 
&c., or sometimes' by the number and arrangement of 
their eyes, some sliders possessing as many as ten of 
these organs, — others eight, — and others again six. M. 
Bon notices only t^ro kinds as silk-producing spiders, 
and distinguishes then% from each other, as having either 
long or short legs, the latter producing the finest qua- 
lity of raw silk. 

The spider is prorid'td wiUi fine papillae, or small 
nipples, placed in the hi'«ider part of its body, which 
are like so many wire-dra\fing irons, to form and mould 
a glutinous liquor, with wiUch the insect is provided, 
and which, on being drawn out through these papillas, 
and exposed to the air, im. mediately dries, and forma 
silk. Each of these papillsB consists of a number of 
smaller ones, so minute as n ot to be discernible, and 
only made evident by the effects produced. Several dis- 
tinct threads issue from each, th e number of whioh, on 
account of their extreme finenei^s, cannot be counted 
with any accuracy. The prindptU papillae are ^vq in 
number; but these being made up of innumerable 
smaller ones, and each of these smi wer ones emitting a 
beautiAilly fine thread, the total n'umber of threads 
uniting to form the filament used by the spider is asto- 
nishingly great* By this beautiful arrangement the 
tfareack can be applied in a greater or less number, 
according to the strength required in th^ spider's work; 
and when all these threads unite md form '. one, as they do 
at the distance of about the tenth of an incl \ from the body 
of the insect, the tenacity of the principai^ thread is in- 
creased, and its strength is g^reater than h^ it were not 
thus composed of many individual filaments • 

In proceeding to notice M. Bon's attei npt, and in 
giving his opinions on the subject, it is neces: ^ary to pre- 
mise that that gentleman, deUghted with his -discovery, 
and determined to pursue it under all difSci dties, was 
unconsciously led to exaggerate the advantages c onnected 
with it, and to make comparisons between the s ilkworm 
and the spider, as nlk-producing animals, whii ^h were 
not wholly founded on fhct. 

A quantity of the spiders' bags were first coi looted 

558—2 



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[Mauch 13. 



by M. Bon, and then treated in the following manner. 
Twelve or thirtc^eu ounces of the bags were beaten with 
the hand or by a stick, until they were entirely freed 
fi'OTn dust. They were next washed in warm water, 
which was continually changed, until it no longer 
became clouded or discoloured by the bags under pro- 
cess. After this they were steeped in a large quantity 
of water, wherein soap, salt-petre, and gum-arabic had 
been dissolved. The whole was then set to boil over a 
gentle fire, during three hours, after which the bags were 
rinsed in clear warm water, to discharge the soap. They 
were then set out to dry, during several days, and the 
carding operation was then performed, with cards differ- 
ing from the usual sort only in being much finer. Thus 
was a peculiar ash-coloured silk obtained, which was spun 
without difficulty, which took readily all kinds of dyes, 
and might have been wrought into any kind of silken 
fabric. M. Bon had stockings and gloves made from it, 
some of which he presented to the Royal Academy of 
Paris, and others to the Royal Society of London. 

The silk was affirmed by M. Bon to be stronger and 
finer than the common sort, and according to his state- 
ment, spiders were much more productive than silk- 
worms, and there were besides the following advantages 
relating to them : spiders hatch spontaneously, without 
any care, in the months of August and September, the 
old spiders dying soon after they have laid their eggs : 
the young ones live for ten or twelve months without 
food, and continue in their bags without growing, until 
the hot weather, by putting their viscid juices in motion, 
induces them to come forth, spin, and nin about in 
search of food. 

The only obstacle, therefore, to establishing a consider- 
able manufacture from these spider bags, that is, the diffi- 
culty of obtaining them in sufficient abundance, was 
attempted to be obviated by breeding young spiders in 
convenient apartments on a large scale. M. Bon com- 
missioned a number of persons to collect and bring to him 
all the short-legged spiders they could possibly obtain, 
lliese, as he received them, he inclosed in paper coffins, 
or in pots covered with papers, which papers, as well as 
the coffins, were pricked over fheir surface with pin- 
lioles, to admit air to the prisoners. The spiders were 
duly fed with flies, and after s^me time it was found on 
inspection that the greater part of them had formed 
their nests. It was contended that these nests afforded 
much more silk in proportion to their weight than those 
of the silkworm, in proof of which it was asserted that 
thirteen ounces yielded nearly four ounces of pure silk, 
two ounces of which were sufficient to make a pair of 
stockings; whereas, stockings made of common silk 
weighed seven or eight ounces. It had been objected 
by some persons that the spider was venomous, and 
tliai this evil quality extended to the silk obtained from 
it. M. Bon, in aniwer to this prejudice, affirmed that 
he had several times been bitten by spiders, when no 
injury had followed; and that the silk, so far from 
being pernicious,' had been found useful in stanching 
and healing woimds, its natural gluten acting as a 
kind of balsam. Willing to extract every possible good 
from his favourite pursuit, he subjected the spider- 
silk to chemicAl analysis, and obtained from it a volatile 
salt, preparing which in the same manner used for the 
once celebra^d Guttm Anglicaruit, he produced drops, 
which, as he believed, possessed vet greater efficacy: 
he called this preparation MontpeUer dropSy and pre- 
scribed its use in all lethai^ic diseases. 

M. Bon's establishment for the rearing of spiders, at 
length engrossed a considerable share of public attention, 
and the subject being considered worthy a serious inves- 
tigation, M. Reaumur was deputed by the Royal Aca- 
demy of Paris to inquire into the merits of this new 
silken material. From the patient examinations of this 
eminant naturalist, it appeared that there were many 
seric/us objections to this plan; and such as were likelv 



to prove quite insurmountable* In the first place, the 
natural fierceness of spiders renders them unfit to U 
bred together. On distributing four or five thousand 
of these insects into cells or companies of from fifty to 
one or two hundred, it was found that the larger spiders 
quickly killed and ate the smaller, so that in a short 
space of time, the cells were depopulated, scarcely more 
than one or two being found in each cell. In the next 
place, the silk of the spider is inferior to that of the silk* 
worm both in lustre and strength; and produces less 
material in proportion, than can be made available for 
the purposes of the manufacture. The filament of the 
8ptder*s-bag can only support a weight of thirty-six 
grains, while that of the silkworm will sustain a weight 
of one hundred and fifty grains. Thus four or five 
threads of the spider must be brought together to equal 
one thread of the silkworm, and as it is impossible that 
these should be applied so accurately over each other as 
not to leave little vacant spaces between them, the light 
is not equally reflected, and the lustre of the material 
is consequently inferior to that in which a solid thread 
is used. A third great disadvantage of the spider's silk 
is, that it cannot be wound off the ball like that of the 
silkworm, but must necessarily be carded. By this 
latter prcicess, its evenness, which contributes so mate- 
rially to its lustre, is destroyed. That the silk articles 
produced from this material are really deficient in that 
glossy appearance which constitutes the principal beautr 
of silk^ is fully confirmed by the testimony of M. 
le Hire, who, when the stockings of M. Bon were pre- 
sented to the Royal Academy, immediately noticed tlieir 
want of lustre. The last objection we shall notice 
against the raising of spiders, was one containing a cal- 
culation considered to be an exaggerated one, and it has 
been regretted that M. Reaumur should have taken ex- 
trefme cases, if not actually improbable ones, to confute 
a system so little likely to advance itself as that of M. 
Bon. The advantages of the culture of silk from silk- 
worms when compared with its production from spiders, 
must be too apparent to every reflecting person to render 
it necessary to dwell long on them, or in any way to 
exaggerate them. M. Reaumur's comparison is to this 
effect. The largest cocoons weigh four, and the 
smaller three grains each ; spider-bags do- not weigh 
above one grain each ; And, after being cleared of their 
dust, have lost two-thirds of this weight ; therefore the 
work of twelve spiders only equals that of one silkworm; 
and a pound of spider-silk would require for its produc- 
tion 27,648 insects. But as the bag^s are wholly the 
work of the females, who spin them as a deposit for 
their eggs, it follows that 55,296 spiders must be reared 
to yield one pound of silk: yet this will only be obtained 
from the best spiders ; those large ones, ordinarily seen 
in gardens, &c., yielding not more than a twelfth part of 
the silk of the others. The work of 280 of these would 
therefore not yield more silk than the produce of one 
industrious silkworm, and 663,552 of them would only 
furnish one pound of silk ! 



An'oM philosophical ^ntleman had grown, from experience, 
very cautious in avoiding ill-natured people. To endea- 
vour to ascertain their disposition he made use of his legs 
one of which was remarlkabl v handsome, the other, by 
some accident, crooked and deformed. If a stranger at the 
first interview r^arded his ugly leg more than his hand- 
some one, he doubted him, but if he spoke of it, and took 
no notice of his huidsome leg, that was sufficient to deter- 
mine the philosopher to have no further acquaintance with 
him. Every boay has not this two-legged instrument ; but 
everv one. with a little fttteiiHon. mAv nfMwrve richs of tins 




avoiding the acquaintance w* ».<>,»» . . 

I therefore advise those querulous, discontented, unhappy 
people, ifiithey wish to be re^>ected and beloved by others, 
and happy in themselves, to ieave ^ looking iU th vgfy l^g-" 
Dr. Franklin, 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE, 



101 



ON CHESS. 

VI. Origin of the Names op the Chess-men, 

concluded. 

The Rook. The most ancient form of this piece after 
the introduction of the game into Europe is uncertain : 
but it was probably that of an elephant, as appears by 
Charlemagne's chess-men : and this form, with or without 
a tower, has been retained by the modem Germans, 
Russians, and Danes. 

The ^aniards, Italians, French and English (as Mr. 
Madden remarks), in more recent times adopted a tower or 
castle as an epitome of the figure (in the same manner as 
they took a norse's head for the knight), and hence arises 
the strange anomaly of a castle representing the swiftest 
piece on the chess-board. 

The earliest form of the chess rook is preserved on 
toe ancient seals of those fiunilies both in England and 
Germany, who bear chess rooks for their arms, on which 
subject there is much curious information. 

Before the general introduction of cards the game of 
chess was a great fayourite with our ancestors, and we 
gain some idea of the high esteem in which it was held 
from the fact that no fewer than twenty-six English 
families have emblazoned chess-boards and chess-rooks 
in their arms : it must therefore have been considered a 
most valuable accomplishment. Gwillim in his Display 
of Heraldry endeavours to show that the arms borne 
by distinguished persons contain representations of im- 
plements or instruments which generally have some re- 
ktion to the occupation or talents of the first owner of 
those arms. After speaking of the peculiar implements 
represented in various arms, he proceeds :— - 

All these have sundry instruments, which may be (and 
doubtless have been) borne in coat-armour ; but because they 
are not usual I will refer them to each man's own observa- 
tion, and will rive some instances in the last kind of arts of 
delight, which we call Phyin^^ which comprehendeth 
either theatrical recreation or other games whatsoever. 

And forasmuch as their first institution was good, and 
timt they are in themselves the commendable exercises^ 
either of the body or of wit and invention (and if 
there be in them any evil, it is not in them jer m, 
but per eucidens^ because they are abused by those that 
do practise and exercise them), I have thought good to 
annex them unto the same : such are table playing, chess^ 
dice, racket, balloon, &c. The things wherewith these games 
are practised, are borne in coat-armour, as by these examples 
following may appear. 

After describing the arms of a family whose shield 
contains three backgammon boards, he proceeds to speak 
of the arms of the Bodhenam family. 

It beareth azure^ a fess between three chess rooks w^ by 
the name of Bodenhamy and was borne by that great lover 
and promoter of heraldry, Sir Winfield ^odenham, Knt. It 
teemeth these were first called rooks, for being the defence 
of all the rest; and therefore they stand in the uttermost 
comers of the chess-board, as frontier castles. This is a 
game of noble exercise for the mind, as requiring much 
forecast and understanding. King William the Conqueror 
w» much addicted to this deligh^ and lost great lordships 
St this play. And indeed, were it not too serious a recrea- 
tion, and going beyond tlie nature of games, it might well 
Wcm a King, because therein are comprised all the strata- 
gems of war or plots of civil states. 





It beareth ardent on a chevron engrailed between three 
chess rooks eahhy as many crescents or^ by the ntnnc of 
Walter, and was granted to Sir Robert Walter, Lord Mayor 
of York, 1st of October, 1603, in the first year of the reign 
of King James the First. The said Sir llobert, upon re- 
ceiving the king when he came out of Scotland, received the 
dignity of knighthood. 

Azure^ a fess argent^ between three chess rooks or, is 
borne by the name of rooks, and was attested (under an es- 
cutcheon of the same painted on vellum) to belong to 
George Rooks of London, by Sir John Burrough, Garter, 
18th of liay, 1640. 

Arms of the fiunily of Orrook. Argent^ a chevron guUs^ 
between three chess rooks sable; — ^But now he gives sahle 
or a chevron or^ between three mullets argent, as many 
chess rooks on the field. 







It beareth \argetUy six chess rooks, three, two, and one 
sabley by the name Rokwood^ and is borne by Nicholas 
Rockwood of Kirby, in Suffolk, Esq. 

Smith of Methuen : azure, a burning cup between two 
chess rooks in fess w. 

Many other families have chess rooks and chess boards 
engprafted on their arms ; such as the Rookewoods of Nor- 
folk, the Rooks of Kent; the Rockwoods, Rokewoods, 
Rokeles, Rocklifies, Rokes, Rockes and Rocolds ; but these 
examples will suffice to show the high esteem in which 
chess was held until it was to a certain extent superseded 
by cards. It was never pretended that cards were superior 
to chess, but they were preferred because unskilful 
players had a better chance of winning. Before the in- 
troduction of cards, chess was in such vogue that both 
the kings of Spain and Portugal pensioned the great 
players, whilst they also staked considerable sums on the 
event of a game. Silvio speaks of three Italians who 
set out from Naples for the court of Philip the Second, 
where there was a famous player, and by concealing their 
strength won very large sums of money. Circumstances 
of this kind threw discredit on chess, and as it was then 
the fashion to degrade this noble game by playing for 
money, persons became afraid to play when they did 
not know the precise strength of their antagonist, and 
thus the game went into disuse. Hyde also states that 
chess was much played both in Wales and Ireland, 
especially in the latter, where estates often depended on 
the event of a game. 

Augrustus, Duke of Brunswick Lunenburg, was an 
ardent admirer of chess. He published a work on tl e 
game at Leipsic, in 1617, under the fictitious name of 
Gustavus Selenus. He also named one of his towns 
Rokcstet with a chess rook for its arms. This town 
was also obligated to give to every. new bishop a silver 
chess-board with silver men, one set of which was gilt. 

The forked head of the rook shown in the preceding 
figures was supposed by Dr. Hyde to represent the two 
hunches of the rwcA or dromedary, under which figure this 
piece occurs on the Eastern chess-board. In Iceland the 
piece is called Hrokr, a brave warrior or hero, which seems 
to have been the meaning of the ancient Persian term ap- 
plied to this piece, viz., rokh^ a valiant hero seeking after 
military adventures, in which character, says D'Herbelot, 
it was mtroduced into the game. Some have attempted 
to derive the term rook from i*uch or roey the fabulous 
bird of the Eastern tale : while Sir William Jones states 
thiit the rook is to be deduced from roth' of the old 



102 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[March 13, 



Hindoo game of chess, wtiich was an armed chariot; 
this, he says, the Persians changed into rokht the etymo- 
logy of which latter word has given rise to so much 
discussion. 

The modem French term for this piece is la iour^ and 
tho English sometimes call it the eo-ftie. In the earir 
Italian treatises it is represented as a castle, although 
called il roccho. This term having been confomided 
with roccOf a fortress, has given rise to much conjecture. 

The Pawn. The pawns appear always to have been 
so called by the English. In the middle ages the French 
used a multiplicity of terms, such aBpaoTt^paonnetfpaon- 
nez, paonniers, p^onsy poonnes, and pionnew. In aa 
old French romance they are called "gardens." Dr. 
Hyde derives our pawn from the Spanish peon or French 
pion, which he thinks a contraction of egpiofiy a spy, or 
petouy a footman. Mr. Douce thinks all the foregoing 
terms derivable from pecUmes, a barbarous Latin term 
for foot-soldiers, which in this game were represented by 
the pawns. By the Italians they were called pedone, 
by the Spaniards peones. The Russians and Poles 
make them also foot-soldiers: but the Germans, Danes, 
and Swedes have converted them into peasants (Bauem). 



Bbattttfttllt is it said in the Bible, that ** God has set one 
thing over against another ;" — has balanced the real advan- 
tages of different human conditions. Were I called npoa 
to select the condition which I should deem most eongoiial 
to happiness, I should find myself in doubt and diffienlty. 
I should have to balance abundance of food on the one hand^ 
against abundance of appetite on the other; the habit super- 
induced by the necessity of being satisfied with a little, with 
the habit of being disgusted with the trial of much. There 
are joys, numerous and vivid, peculiar to the rich; and 
others, in which none but those m the humbler conditioiia 
of life can participate. 

In the whole range of the enjoyment of the senses^ if 
there be any advantage, it belongs to the poon The laws 
of our being have surrounded human enjoyment with 
limits, which one condition can no more overleap than 
another. It is wonderful te see this admirable adjustment, 
like the universal laws of nature, acting everywhere and upon 
everything. Even in the physical world, what is granted 
to one country, is denied to another; and the wanderer who 
has seen many strange lands and cities, in different climes, 
only returns to announce, as the sum of his experience and 
the' teaching of years, that lifl'ht and shadow, comfort and 
discomfort, pleasure and pain. Tike air and water, are difFiiBed 
in nearly equal measure over the whole earth. — ^F. 



Triples. — Tliere are a fifreat many trifles in this life, when 
considered as a whole ; it is a common failing to magni^ 
them into serious matters. They may relate to dress, food, 
visitings, insignificant purchases, management of children, 
treatment of, and remarks upon, domestics, and a multitude 
of little matters on which difference of opinion arises. 
Now, it may not be of the least possible consequence in the 
long run, whether the matter dc disposed of in one way 
or another, provided no moral duty be broken; yet a 
sudden observation, in an ungentle voice, will produce an 
irritating reply, and this a severe rejoinder, and presently 
the affair 

Hesembles Ocean into tempest wrought, 
To waft a feather, or to drown a fly. 

This ungentleness, when exhibited in parents, ha3 a mourn- 
ful effect on the character of children. It is wholly useless, 
and worse than useless, in asserting authority ; it can only 
be clnssed among those sad mistakes which tend to make 
this a misemble world. How can any two rational beings, 
who must live in familiar intercourse, whUe they do Uve, so 
misapprehend the purposes of life, as habitually to torment 
CM oh other on insignificant trifles! If any one should be 
unliappily betrayed into an unbecoming expression, silenoe 
best becomes those who hear it. 



It is with our judgments as our watehes : none go just 
alike, yet each believes his own. — ^Popb. 



THE SiLPmUM. 
A North Africak Plant. 



The SSphium appears to have been a plant beMH 
much repute by tne andents, from the accounts of it 
which have been handed down by Pliny and otherg. 
When Captain Beechy was travelling in Northern Africa, 
he met with the plaa^ or at least <Hie which he suppoHii 
to be the Silphium, and takes the opportunity of collect- 
ing together much useful information respecting it. To 
his valuable narrative we shall be principally indebted for 
our account of this plant. 

Captain Beechy introduces his remarks concerniB; 
8ilpmum in thefdlowing manner:— 

It may here be proper to. mention that, on the third dajr 
after our departure from Meige, we obsorved a plsnt about 
three iMt m height rtarj VMch resembling hemlock, or, 
mors properlj speaking, perhaps, the dallcal^ or wild ami 
We were told that it was usually fkial to the camels wiu 
ato of it, and that its juice, if applied to the flesh, would 
fester any nart where there was the slightest excomtion 
This phmt had much more resemblance to the Silphium of 
ancient times (as it is expresed on the coins of Gyrene) th^ 
any which we had hitherto seen-: although its stem is much 
more sloider than thai which is there represented^ and the 
blossoms (for it has several,) more open. In some paits of 
the routo from Merge to Gyrene we loet sight of this plsnt 
altogether ; while at others we found it in oossidersble qunn- 
titles, growing chiefly wherever there was pasturage. Im- 
mediately about (>rene we observed it in great abundance; 
and soon ceased, from its frequent occurrence, to pay anr 
attontion to it. It is extremely probable that the pbint here 
mentioned is the laserpiHum or sUphium in such repute 
among the ancients. 

It appears that the silphium was described by Theo- 
phrastus as a plant with a large and thick root; and the 
stem he tells us, resembled that of tlie,/»ni/a, and wa»of 
about the same thicbiess. The leaf resembled that of 
Parsley I the seed was broad and ftoliaceous ; and the 
stem annual, like that of the ferula. Hiny says, tliat 
the first appearance of the silphium in Cyrenacia (a dis- 
trict in Northern Africa) was occasioned by a sudden ar.d 
heavy fall of rain, which completely drenched the ground, 
and that the silphium which grew on the spot extended 
itself over a space of 4000sUdia, and that its nature 
was wild, and unadapted to cultivation, retiring towards 
the desert whenever it was too much attended to. Ho« 
much of this is true is now not easy to decide. 

Silphium appears to have been eaten in various ways. 
The stem and the root were eaten much in the same way 
that we eat celery. It was so much esteemed, that it 
constituted a material part of the commerce of Gyrene' 
In the time of Pliny, Silphium had become so scarce in 
the market, that a single stalk of it was presented to the 
Emperor Nero as a present of extraordinary value; and 
Strabo tells us, that the barbarous tribes who frequented 
the country about Cyrene had nearly exterminated tk 
plant altogether (in an irruption which they made on 
f ome hostile occasion), by pulling it up designedly by tbe 
roote; as this was evidently done to injure the inhabit- 
ante, it proves that silphium waa regarded as valuable. 

Alexander the Great discovered a « bill of fare," ^* 
graved on a brass column in the royal palace of the 
kings of Persia; and among the good things that fornied 
the daily provision of the monarch's table, was a talent 
weight, (about sixty-five pounds, according to Captain 
Beechy,) of the silphium plant, and two pounds of the 
extract or juice of the silphium, termed by Pliny ^<^^' 
This laser seems also to have been used as a drug) ^ 
to have commanded a high price. 

The silphium appears to have sprung up in the pss- 
ture lands ; and the sheep are reported to have been so 
fond of it that whenever they smelt it they would run 
to the place, and after eating the flower, would scratch 
up the root and devour it with the same avidity; on thw 
account, as Arrian statoa, some of the Cyreneaiis usea 
to drive their sheep away from the parts in which tfls 



1841.] 



JHE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



109 



silphium was produced; and otkerg surrounded their 
land with hedges, through which the sheep were not ahle 
to pass, when they chanced to approach near the plants. 
As to the effect which the plant produced on them, it 
appears to have been somewhat contradictory. According 
to Pliny, a sign that a sheep had eaten silpnium was that 
he fell asleep, while a goat, under similar circumstances, 
began sneezing. It appears, generally speaking, to have 
acted first medicinally upon animals, and afterwards to 
have fattened them; giving at the same time an excel- 
lent fiavour to the flesh. Whenever they were ill, it 
either speedily restored them or else destroyed them 
altogether; but the first of these effects was most usuaL 

It is probable, however, (says Captain Beechy,) that it 
only agreed with those animals which were accustomed to it ; 
at least the plant now observable in the Cyrenaica, which 
answers to the description of the silphium, is vetr frequently 
productive of fatal effects to the ammah (particularly the 
camels) who [ate of it, not beino; accustomed to the soiL 
One of the reasons advanced by the son of Shekh Hadood, 
AboU'Buckra, for putting a hi^ price upon his camels at 
Merge was, that they were eomg into tne countiy where 
the slphium was found, whicn, he said, was very dangerous 
for them to eat ; and the camels which were sent to us from 
B^igazie, when we were about -to leave Grennay were kept 
oiazzled during the whole time of their stay in those parts 
where the plant was known to be produced. 

As for the effects of silphium upon the human frame, 
if we are to judge from Hollands' translation of Pliny, 
made about tiie year 1600, they were truly marvellous; 
indeed, at this time, when the' qualities of plants were 
made, by the false science of Astrology, to depend upon 
planetary influence, it is no wonder that those qua- 
lities should be so exaggerated as to appear to us ex- 
tremely ridiculous. 

Of the Uuer^ a syrup of silphiuniy we aw told that, 

It redaceih Hioee to their natural health who are starven 
aod benumbed with extreme eold. Taken in drinke it 
allaieth the accidents and grief of the nerves. * A gieat res- 
torative it is with meat, and qui<^ly setteth them on foot 
vlio have lien long, and been brought low by sick- 
nesse. Taken in dnnke it doth extix^ish the venome 
left in the bodie, either by poieened dart or seipent's sting, 
fieing laid, too, wilh rue or honey, it is exoeuent for the 
carbuncle and the biting of dogs. Being ineorponte with 
sal-nitra, luid weU-wrooght wiwall beforehand, and se ap- 
plied, it tak«th away the hajrd horns and dead corns arising 
in the feet. It is an excdlent drawer to the outward parts 
f<»r to fill up the skin and make a bodie fat. 

If any one have a hoarseness, let him (if he can,) get 
itrnie silphium syrup, for it 

Presentlv scowretn the pipes, clearethe the voiice agune, 
and maketn it audible. 

But this is not all : — 

Taken in a broth or thin supping, it is good for the 
pleurisy, especially if the patient purpose to drinke wine 
after it. It is given with leekes and vmegre to thoee that 
▼heeze in their chesty and be short-winded, and have an old 
oongh sticking long by them ; likewise with vinesie alone, 
to sach as have supped off and dmnke quailed milke which 
is cluttered within their stomacke. 

Let us he cautious how we u^e silphium when we are 
afflicted with the tooth-ache :-^ 

I would not give counselle (as many writers doe prescribe), 
fur to put it in the concavitie or hole of a decayed tooth, 
^d BO to stop up the place close with wax, for fear of that 
which might ensue thereupon : for I have seen the fearful 
^{uele of that experiment, in a man, who upon the takiiip 
"f tlut medicine, tlirew himself headlong from an hi^h loft 
• nd broke hiB necke ; such intolerable pains he sustamed of 
the toothach : and no marvell ; for doe but anoint the mnssle 
^ noj^e of a bull therewith^ it will set him on a fire and 
uuke him home nud. 

Lastly, we may state, for the consolation of those 
^ho may be so unfortunate as to have had a flogging, 

tliut, 

A liniment thereof made with wine and oile is a most 
^^inULir and agreeable medicine for the Uack and blue marks 
R&udning afto: stripes. 



SONG OF BIRDS. 



Wb rose one morning early, while Hesperus was yet in 
heaven, and the dew lay heavy on the grass, while a few 
constellations c-Kttered towards the south, and ^ay twilight 
gave unspeakable serenity to the face of nature. The cattle 
were reposing on the meadows^ and as yet no curling smoke 
i^peared among the trees. 

We station^ ourselves beside an aged tree, whose 
branches waved over the dark and troubled wat^^ that 
gushed beneath them ; but as the morning began to break, 
we went down into the valley, and again ascended a woody 
path that led to the summit of a neighbouring hill, listening 
to the song of the wakeful nightin^es whose sweet melli- 
fluous notes resounded through the woods. He occupied 
an acacia, that sprung from out a rugged bank, surmounted 
with i^d beech-trees, which in other days kept off the cold 
east wind from a stately mansion, of which only broken walls 
and roofless chambers remained. There he concealed him- 
self where all, beside the gray old ruiny seemed bursting into 
life and beauty, and there he seemed to warble an imknown 
drama, intermingled occasionally with the most extravagant 
bursts of joy, and plaintive notes of recollection. Strange^ 
that such a powerful voice can reside in so small a bii'd, 
such perseverance in so minute a creature. At one moment 
he drew out his note with a long breath, now diverging into 
a different cadence; now interrupted by an unexpected 
transition. Sometimes he seemed to murmur within him- 
self, and now again his note was full, deep, and clear. 

At length all was still ; the rushing of a torrent came 
from a distance on the ear, and the wood-lark, which also 
loves the silence of the night, poured fourth her music 
These sounds had scarcely been neard before, so entirely is 
the ear entranced, when listening to the fiill deep melody of 
the unrivalled nightin^e* 

But now the morning began to dawn. Tlie stem old 
ruin was brightened bv the first beams of the sun, and 
threw its long gray shadows over the young ^en foliage of 
the beautiful acacia. The lark rose high m air, bearing 
his song towards the gates of heaven, raising his note 
as he ascended, till lost in the immensity of space ; vet still 
his warblings came remotely upon the ear, though the little 
musician was himself unseen. Presently he descended 
with a swell frx>m the clouds^ still sinking by degrees as 
he ai^roached his nest, the spot where «ul his affections 
were centered, and which had pi'ompted all his joy. 

How delightful are the feelings which the song of the 
lark calls forth, whether we include under this genei^ 
appellation thoee birds of this species which soar tnrough 
tne clouds, or delight in the shelter of 'the woods ; ox 
as the titlark, in mossy lanes and hedges^ though dis- 
tinyiiflhed, rather by the variety, than the sweetness of 
their notes. The aocomoaniments of the landscape, the 
golden break of day, the fluttering from branch to branch,, 
the quiverinff in the air, and the answering of their young, 
associate with the song of these wakeful bird% an indescri- 
bable feelinff of hilarity, which tends to elevate the mind to 
a state of tne hifhest^ and yet most harmless exultation. 
How often on we breezy common that rises from my 
native villagei have I listened to the cheerful notes of the 
common liffl^ when, as Walton well observes, he cheers 
himself and those that hear him, and then quitting iJie 
earth, and singing, he ascends higher in the air, till luivinff 
ended his heavenly employment, he grows mute, and 
concerned to think, that he must descend to the duU earth, 
which he would not touch but from necessitv. And now 
the blackbird and the throstle with their melodious voices 
bade welcome to the early morning, and bodied forth such 
enchanting notes, as no instrument, nor sweet sound of 
warbling voice could imitate. Other wakeful birds were 
heard in all directions : the laverock, the titlark, the little 
linnet, and honest robin, who loves mankind both alive 
and dead. The note of ^e contented cuckoo was also heard, 
monotonous, yet cheerful. It is a note, which more than 
any other of the feathered race calls up the recollections of 
early youth. Something of melancholy is occasionally 
blended w^th it, but it is a melancholy that may lead to a 
review of our past lives, and the lives of those with whom 
we have been acquainted. While endeavouring to recall 
the changes, whicn a gradual progress from childhood to 
youth, and from youth to manhood, has occasioned in our 
firiends, we are taught to place less confidence in ourselves, 
and in those connections wnich are rapidly being dissolv^ed* 

[.From the Progr^u c/ Creation, by Maky Eose&ts. 



104 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[March 13, 1841. 



PERSIAN AMUSEMENTS. 

Thb every-day life of the King of Persia has many interest- 
ins peculiarities for the. European reader. ' Of these. Sir 
Joim Malcolm presents an entertaining picture, in his 
Sketches of Persia, 

The religious duties of the King of Persia require him to 
rise early. On leaving the interior apartments of the 
palace, he is met by officers in waiting, and proceeds to one 
of his private hidk, where all the young princee of the blood 
attend his morning levee. After tliis is over, he calls for 
breakfast. The preparing his meals is superintended bv 
tlie nauzir, or chief steward of the household. The vianos 
are put into dishes of fine china, with silver covers, and 
placed in a close tray, which is locked and sealed by the 
steward. This tray is covered with a rich shawl and carried 
to the king, when the steward breaks the seal, and places 
the dishesoefore him. The chief physician is invariably in 
attendance at every meal. ' His presence is deemed neces- 
sary, the courtiers say,' tliat he may prescribe an instant 
remedy, if anything should disa^e with the monarch ; but 
this precaution, no doubt, owes its origin to other suspicions. 
When his public duties are performed, the kinff usually 
retires to the harem, where he sometimes indulges in a 
short repose. Before sunset, he x^ppears in the outer 
apartments, and either again attends to public business, or 
takes a ride. His dinner is brought between eight and nine, 
with the same precautions and ceremonies as at breakfast. 
He eats, like his subjects, seated upon a carpet,' and the 
dishes are placed upon a richly embroidered cloth. Some 
of the former kings used to indulge openly in drinkinz 
wine; but none of the reigning' family nave yet outraged 
the religious feelings of their subjects, by so flagrant a 
violation of the laws of Mahomed. ' Bowls filled with sher- 
bet, made of every species^ of- fruit, furnish the beverage 
of the royal m^als^ axid there are few coimtries where more 
pains are bestowed to'. ^tify the palate with the niost 
delicate viandb.' ' After dinner, the king retires to the interior 
apartment, where it is said,.Uiat he is often amused till a 
late hour,' by .'the' singers and dancers of his harem. 

The roy^ family not only attend, personally to public 
business, out aro'continually practising manly exercises, 
and ardently eng^ in field ^brts. The present king is an* 
expert msErlcsman and excellent horseman ; 'fidw. webks |ku»; 
without his par£akin^ of the pleasur^s'of the chase. The king 
has always, a. histonographcr, ' and a chi^f poet. The oiie 
writes the annals of Ills reign ; the other,, who has a high' 
rank at court, composes odes inprais^'of the. royal munifi- 
cence. A giant, and 'a. dwarf were at .one' period . of the 
present reign part of the royal establidiment;-'and. it.is 
never without a jester,. at whose witticisms' it.'is 'courtly to- 
langh, even- when they are. most severe.' There - is" little 
difference between the office of jester at Uie ^modern court 
of Persia, and- that which, some centuries ;agoy'existed at 
every court. in Europe. - » ' . * ^ 

In the. court, th^re is jul ways a person who bears the name 
of " story-teller to.his majesty;*' and the'duties of his office.' 
call for a man of no n^ean ac<}uiremehts. .* Though passion-' 
ately fond of jpubUc exliibitions,"the Persians have none 
that deserve the name .of theatrical eiitertainments; but, 
though strangers to tl^e regular drama, their stories are often 
dramatic; and those whose. pccup^ti6n'it-is,to tell them,' 
sometimes display so extraordinary a'skill,'andjBuph varied 
powers, that we' can hardly. belieye,"wliile.we look on their' 
altered countenances 'and Usten to theirchanfed tones,' that 
it is the same ' person, who 'at 'one moment tdls a plain nar- 
rative in his* natural voice, then' speaks' in Uhe hoarse and 
angry tone ^ of :'6ffended authority, ' and \ next subdu^' the 
passions he has excited by the softest so^ds of feminine 
tenderness. The/ art of relating stdrfes is attended both 
with profit and reputlttion.^ Great numbers attempt it, but 
few succeed*; .•-..'• •.. ; 

The story-teller is'always in^aitendance upon his majesty. 
It is oqualjyhis duty to beguile the fatigue of a long march, 
and to sooth the mind wh^n disturbed by the toils of public- 
affairs ; and his tales are artfully made to suit the disposition 
and momentary humour of' the monarch.' Sometimes he 
recites a story- of the genii ; at others, he recounts the war-' 
like deeds of former sovereigns^'or the love of some wander-, 
ing prince. .*'..'..•' 

Air. Buckingham relates that he saw in the streets of 
Ispahan a little boy who was sincinnf, witli the notes pi the 
Lu'k, in the clearest and most delightful strain. iHis voice 
was one of the most melodious that the fastidious ear could 
desi e ; but the thrill of. it, which charmed at a distance, 
was produced by quick and violent tbmsts of the ^nd of the 



fore-fincer against the windpipe; while, from the leiuth of 
time which some of these notes were held, the bo^ bee 
was swollen to redness; everv vein of his throat seemed 
ready to burst ; and his fine black eyes^ which were sw-im- 
ming in lustre, appeared as if about to start fi^)m their 
blood-stained sockets. Yet, with all this, no one could wisk 
to interrupt such charming music. 



CHINESE DINNERS. 

A FESTIVAL given at Canton by one of the Hong merchants, 
or, as he is more generally termed, ''the squire," to a select 
party of English, b thus described by one of the party. 

We sat down in number about fifteen. First, was handed 
to us bird's-nest soup in small china-ware cups. ' Then 
were about twenty courses, and dishes innumerable. I 
counted sixty on the table at one tinie: they consisted 
chiefly of small bauns, or cups, of the most beautiful chiDA- 
ware, and were arranged in three rows down the centre of 
the table. . We were told we had the bi^piness to partake 
of stewed pigeon's eggs, wild cat, fricassied frogs, diied 
worms, (particularly recommended as a iofifM^^Mfc^ for 
wine at dessert,) sea slugs, sliark's fins, and otheir delicacies, 
which, whatever they may really have been, were rendered 
extremely palatable by the ap|>licatiou of a Utile Japan si>y. 
All the meat, pheasants, partridge, and venison were minced, 
and Served to us in small cups, which^ considering that we 
had no, knives or forks, but simply a brace lof roUnd smooth 
and slippery chopsticks, made of ivory, tipped with silver, was 
extremely embarrassing. All their dishes are remarkably 
rich ; so much' so, that it is requisite, to drink with them 
salebdng, a' kind of wine, or raUier spirit of wl^ite colour, 
and not unpleasant taste ; the little cup out of which it ii 
drunk,* is about the size of ^one^ belonging to a doll's tea- 
service; the ceretnony of drinking healtn'is to take up the 
cup with' both- hands,^ bow, and- shake heads at each other 
for some tune, drink off the wine, and show your friend the 
bottom of the ciip to o6nvin.ce liiin that it% empty. 
. Another giilnd. dinner; with a.sing-aong, or pii\|r, is thus 
d<sQribed'iby:the same writer. The ^plAoe.'in wmch it was 
giyen; was an immense hall, one endof .wiiich was occnpi^ 
by the ^tage^'and the other with the dinner t^blss. i The sing- 
song .commenced directly ^we sat down, andr.ooptinued till 
we came away.' The plav opened with tiie music of cymhsls. 

gongs, bells, trumpets,' &c. The p^r£>imiUice. waft a kind of 
istorical pantomime: for the first, hour it was ome continued 
battle of various suooeas. The warriors were very^l^^^b' 
apparelled, and some were decorated withhttle flags; they 
were armed with shields, bovrs, battle-axes, ' &c. The^ 
heroes ' rushed to the combat with a rotatory moj^on, like 
our modem rockets, and went whizzing roimd and round 
with great velocity, brandishing their, weapojos in everY 
direction, and yet contriving to pass without touching each 
othor. .The subject of the. pantomime appejared to be the 
setting up, crowning, and pulling down, and .killing of em- 
perors. The next eudbition was a kind of comedy, or farce, 
m which the characters and scenes were more modem sod 
in^lligible." Between the acts,' tumbling was iiitroduceji' 
There twaa one very singular feat: they placed a table io 
the middle of the stage, and the whole tioop, to the num- 
ber, of ^.between twenty, and thirty, threw themsclyw orerit 
• head ' foremost, one after . another as fiist as possible, and 
^soioietimes three and four. plunging over at the sjame timfl' 
^Another feat was the foimation of a human pyramid, the 
n^en standing upon one pother's shoulders ; which when 

complete, whirled round with.wdnHerfiil r^idity* 
'Tea-drinking in China" materially "differs . from the 

custom "of this country. Green tea is thought very highlj 
of by the Chinese, and is but rarely .'drankl* ** Indeed, 
says the writer just quoted, "diiring' the ^hole time I ^ 
m China, I never once tasted green tea, black b6ing the wuy 
kind drunk by the Europeans as Well as the Chinese. Ths 
latter are eternally driuKlng tea : in e^ftiy shop there are 
always some small tea-cups on the counter ;'tliey put tns 
tea-leaves at the bottom of the cup, pourhot water on them, 
put acover over, and let it stand till ready; they never add 
milk, and seldom sugar." 

- ^ LONDON: 

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STBAXD. 
PDBLnuBo IN Wksklt Numbbm, prics Orb PBinrr, axs w MovtuI'T 

Partb, pi ^b Bixpsivcb. 
Sold b7 bU Doc<&aeUetB an4 KcwBrendetB la the XlngdoBb 



106 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE 



[March 20 



JOHN FLAXMAN AND HIS WORKS. 

I. 

First, elder Sculpture tangbt her tUntet art 

Correct desiga where great ideas shone, 

And in the secret trace expression spoke: 

Tuiii^lit her the graceful attitude; tito turn. 

And bou'itecuLs airs of head; the naliro act, 

Or bold, or easy; and, cast free behind, 

The swelling niantleB well-adjusted flow.^— Thomsojc 

We arc told that the father of John Flaxman waa a 
sculptor, or rather a "moulder of figures," and that, 
when he was pursuing his vocation in the city of York, 
the subject of this narrative was born on the 6th of 
July, 1755. When only six months old, the younger 
John, who was named after his father, was removed to 
London, together with his brother William, who was 
afterwards eminent for his skill in carving wood. The 
elder Flaxman was skilful and industrious in his busi- 
ness : he worked for sculptors who employed him, and 
likewise kept a shop in the Strand, for the sale of plaster 
figures. 

The younger Flaxman was slightly deformed from 
his birth, and ih his earliest years of a weak and ailing 
constitution ; but his temper was quiet, and his mind i n- 
thusiastic. Hence he felt a propensity to shun the society 
of boys of his own age, and to seek amusements for him- 
self. These amusements were naturally of a m ntal de- 
scription. At the counter of his fathers shop, he usually 
sat, during the day, sometimes engaged in reading; at 
other times in drawing in black chalk. By his grave, but 
cheerful deportment ; by his desire for knowledge, and 
his love of drawing, he attracted the notice of people 
who frequented his father's shop. They saw that he 
was no common child ; — ^that, in these tender years, he 
took delight in poets, sculptors, and heroes; — ^that he 
not only copied figures around him, but that he also 
referred at once for the antique to Homer, tnd attempted 
to think and design for himself. 

At the age of from ^vt to seven years he seems to 
have shown a decided predilection for everything which, 
in any way, exhibited a sculptured device. He was fond 
of examining the seals of every watch he saw, and en- 
deavoured to obtain an impression of any one which 
pleased him. When he was reminded of this, after he 
had become eminent in his art, he gravely observed that 
" we are never too young to learn what is useful, or too 
old to grow wise and good.'* 

In boyhood he waa very much noticed and befriended 
by the Rev. Mr. Mathew, who found in him a natural 
courtesy and deference to others, such as he evinced to- 
wards mankind at large, when, in after days, his fame 
had spread finr and wide. His hours were given to his 
books and models ; and he produced a great number of 
such models in plaster of IHiris, wax, and clay; some of 
these specimens of inborn talent are still preserved, and 
have considerable merit. They were, certainly, promises 
of that genius which he displayed in after years. 

By the tihie he had arrived at the age of ten yearS) 
a great change for the better took place in his con- 
stitution. He had been hitherto weak and sickly i long 
fits of illness had repeatedly interrupted bis studies, and 
he had enjoyed little of the air, and exercise, and active 
sports, which are so common and so salutary to boys of 
his age. But now health seemed to come upon him all 
at once: he grew strong, lively, and active, and the 
crutches were thrown aside, never to be resumed. 

We are told by one of his biographers, that the In- 
vigorating excitement of health seemed to fill him with a 
new spirit, and that for a while he could think of nothing 
but adventures, such as happened to heroes of romance ; 
and he longed for opportunities of showing his gene- 
rosity and courag-e. This feeling was produced oy the 
perusal of Do]i Quixote. — 

He was so much delighted with the aniiable> though 
eccentric hero, (writes one of his biographers,^ and his 
account of the duties and honourable perils of knight- 



errantry, that he thought he could not do better than sallv 
forth to right wrongs, and redress grievances. AccordiMly, 
one mommg early, unknown to any one, armed with a 
little French awon^ ^® ^ ^^U without a squire, in search 
of adventures which he could not find. .Alter wanderimr 
about ;Hyde Park the whole day, without meeting enchanter 
or distressed damsel, he returned home rather ashamed of 
his romantic flight, and never asrain sought to emulate the 
exploits of him of La Mancha, mough he always retained a 
great admiration of his character. 

We are told by Allan Cunningham, the clear spirited 
writer of the lives of the British artists, that, when 
health and strength came upon him, Flaxman made up 
his mind to follow sculpture as a profession. He mo- 
delled and drew very assiduously : his father's shop wis 
his only academy, and the antique statues which stood 
there, imparted to him form and proportion : the sero- 
nity of sentiment which they presented, accorded with 
the emotions of his own mind. Hence, it was particu- 
larly painful and mortifying to him to have to eRcountpr 
the snot of ridicule. In a moment of confidence he 
showed a drawing of a human eye to a friend : — ** U it 
an oyster ?" inquired the other. This joke made a deep 
impression upon him, and he resolved to exhibit in future 
with more care and caution his attempts with the model- 
ling tool and the pencil. His confidence in his ovn 
natural abilities was not be dashed by a few light words, 
and accordingly he had already resolved to attempt some- 
thing by which his name might be honourably continued 
to the world. 

When he was about teti years old, his mother died, 
and upon his father's second marriage, he seems to have 
been fortunate in a step-mother, who showed herself 
prudent and kind, consulted her husband's interests, and 
treated his sons with great tenderness. Mr. Mathew. 
his friend, now introduced him to his wife, a gifted aoJ 
agreeable woman, and the companion of Mrs. Montague, 
Mrs. Chapone, and Mrs. Barbauld. In the company ot i 
these distinguished ladies he frequently passed his even- i 
ings. He was always a welcome visitor, and heard Mrs. 
Mathew read Homer and Virgil, and discourse upon j 
sculpture and verse. Here he was encouraged in his 
study of the dead languages, so necessary to him in his ^ 
profession : thus he learned to think with the authors. 
and to embody the ideas of the old Greek poets in such a 
manner as no modem artist has ever yet exceeded. His 
mode of education ,was, consequently, of a desultory I 
character ; he gathered his knowledge from many sources; J 
and mastered what he was deficient in by some of thos^' 
ready methods, which seem to form part of the inspira- 
tion of genius. 

The talent of the sculptor— that which was inlai<l m 
the mind of Flaxman — consisted in the ready ability to 
personify or embody the characters and descriptions ot 
poetic fancy. Such of his j uvenile productions of Hom<J 
as still exist, are marked with the quiet loveliness and 
serene vigour manifested long afterwards in his to°?* 
illustrations of the same poet- He now began tc obtzu 
praise, and friends arose to foretell .his future eminj^f* 

Flaxman became a student in the Royal AcadejDy 
when he reached his fifteenth year. His artistical dis 
tinction hitherto had been greater with the pencil (wi 
with the modelling-tool : he was, at first, a better painty 
than sculptor. In 1770, he exhibited a wax ^^J^y 
Nentune; and by the time he was twenty 7^^?^ 
he had sent only ten pieces to the Academy. His su 
cess in pictures was so great during these early ye^rii 
and before the spirit of sculpture completely />^^. 
shadowed him, — ^that one of Kis productions, i^^ 
colours,— (Edipus and Antigone,— was lately sold o 
auction for a Belisarius of Dominichino. It seenuj.^ 
many instances, to have been Flaxman's wish to see 
his designs looked in colour, before he modelled 
It is the opinion of Wilkie and other distinguisnp 
painters, that such was the practice of the old c ^ 
artists they began first to learn to paint, and then 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



work in marble; as painters of the present day frequently 
model figures before they paint them. 

He was now known at the Academy, as an industri- 
ous and enthusiastic student, and he began to be spoken 
of as one from whom much waa to be expected. In bis 
fifteenth year he gained the silver medal, and he becamQ, 
in due "time, a eandidate for the gold one, the reward of 
the highest merit. The name of tiie student who was 
opposed to him was Englehoart. A subject for model- 
ling was given by the council: the students delivered 
each his specimen ; and the prise— the gold medal — was 
awarded by the President^ Sir Joshua Reynolds, to 
Englehoart. 

By the concurrent testimony of his biographers, the 
subject of this contest is the only unpleasant, inauspicious 
part of a narrative of the life of Flaxman: << in n ^ o h -r 
story," says Cunningham, ^'has conceit ever been coup- 
led with his name." This seems to be true: for he is 
reported to have felt ever after great humility in regard 
to his own merits, and to have looked on his disappoint- 
ment as a fortunate humbling of a spirit pufied up with 
pride. But still, we feel bound to consider this subject 
a little further, with reference both to the competitors, 
and to the adjudicator of the prize. 

WTien Flaxman gave in his model, (we use his own 
words,) he believed the medal was his own. He had 
made up his mind that he was to win, and had even in- 
vited some friends to cheer themselves at his table till he 
should return from the Academy with the prize J He 
determined, he says afterwards, to redouble his exertions, 
and to put it, if possible, beyond the power of any one, 
io make mistakes for the future. This alludes to Sir 
Joshua's decision. His biographers tell us that he 
thought himself injuriously treated, and that he was 
incensed at the decision. They then go on to reflect 
upon the conduct of the president of the Academy, and 
to accuse him, if not of positive partiality, at least of 
want of penetration and judgment. ^ 

It is tLe opinion of persons best informed on the subject 
of education in all its branches, an opinion borne out by 
the general experience of the world, that a prize, or other 
scholastic honour, gained in the days of vouth, is not ne- 
cessarily to be taken as the passport of excellence in a 
man. Such stimulants are useful, as they foster a spirit 
of industrious excellence. Thus, no one would have known 
Engleheart, the gainer of the prize, but for the publica- 
tion of the biography of Flaxman; and all of us have 
come to know Flaxman, who lost the prize. It might 
have been, in spite of the biographers, that, at the time, 
Engleheart surpassed Flaxman ; though the latter, by his 
natural genius and untiring industry, eventually outshone 
the former. It is only agreeable to human nature, and 
accordant with self-love, that the adjudication of a prize 
should leave the unsuccessful discontented, and expose 
the judge to charges affecting either his head or his 
heart. There was, perhaps, never a prize awarded in 
any age or country, where the competitors appeared in 
the plural number, without raising, and perhaps prolong- 
ing, the feelings we have alluded to. All this occurred 
to our artist between his fifteenth and twentieth year, — 
^ time of life when self-sufficiency is not likely to be 
corrected by experience. 

Soon after this, Flaxman was profitably and agreeably 
employed in making sketches and models for the pottery 
of the Wedgcwoods. Before this time the porcelain of 
England had little external beauty to recommend it. 
1 he Tuscan vases and the architectural ornaments of 
^Jreece, supplied him with the finest shapes: these he 
fiibellished with his own inventions; and a taste for 
t^^le^ant forms began to spread over the land. Rude and 
uuicpmly shapes were no longer tolerated; the eye 
?^ew accustomed to elegance, and desired to have it at 
the table. 

Though be continued at this time to model and sketch 
for all who employed him, he was by no means ai; yet 



107 

distinguished as a worker in marble : so that, when com- 
missioned, about this time, to make a statue of Alexan- 
der the Great in marble, he employed another hand to 
complete tjie work. 

During the ten years preceding his marriage in 1 782. 
he had exhibited about thirteen works at the Royal Aca- 
demy, including five portraits in wax or in terra-cotta. The 
others were models of ancient historical subjects : some 
were terra-cottas and in relief; others were in plaster 
of Pans ; and one m cay. These seem to show, at 
least, his early pecuniary difficulties; for, if patronage 
had smiled upon him, the plaster model would have been 
converted into marble, and his proficiency herein the 
sooner attained. 

While labouring for Wedgewoods, during these years, 
he produced his celebrated chess models. Occasionally 
when his daily task was over, he would work at the bust 
of a friend; but it was his chief delight to make designa 
from the poets, from the Bible, and from the PilgrinCM 
Progrese. 

We have thus passed through the days of the youth 
of our artist: we will, in our next paper, enter upon the 
scenes and productions of his manhood. 

TATTOOING. 

Few of the practices of semi-barbarous tribes are more 
strikinfi^ than the mode of ornamenting their skins. It cor- 
rwonds with the love of finely and extraneous ornament, 
which is indulged by polished nations: while the ingenuity 
of the aboriginal decoration, and the elaborate beauty of iU 
figures, are scarcely reconcileable with the crude notions of 
savage life. 

The process of tattooing merits description. It is generally 
practised in the Pacific Islands ; but none are bdieved to 
have carried the art of tattooing to so high a degree of per- 
fection as the natives of the Washington Islands. The 
operation is performed by certain persons who gain their 
liveliliood by its practice; and those who perform it with 
the greatest dexterity, and evince the best taste in the 
choice of ornaments, are as much sought after and encour- 
aged as the best tailors are in civilized countries. 

The principal strokes or patterns of the figures to be tat- 
tooed are first sketched upon the body, with the same dye 
that is afterwards rubbed into the punctures or piercings, 
and to make the latter, they use the wing-bone of a ti*opical 
bird, which is jagged and pointed at the end like a comb, 
and of various foims, according to the required figure. 
This instrument is fixed into a Damboo handle, about the 
thickness of the fin^r, with which the punctui-er, by means 
of another cane, strikes so dexterously, that it only pierces 
through the skin, to allow the blood and lymph to ooze 
through the orifices, over which is rubbed a thick dye, 
composed of ashes from the kernel of the burning nut 
mixed with water. This, at first, occasions slight smarting 
and inflammation ; It then heals, and after a few days the 
figure appears in bluish-black lines. 

In the Washin^n Islands, many of the natives seek as 
much to obtain distinction by the symmetry and regularity 
witb which they are tattooed, as the people of more refined 
nations do by the elegance of dress ; and, although no real 
elevation of rank is designated by the superiority of these 
decorations, yet, as only persons of rank can afford expen- 
sive or elaborate ornaments, it becomes, in fact, a badge of 
distinction. As soon as a youth of these islands approaclteg 
manhood, the operation is commenced, and this is considered 
a memorable period of his life. In the first year, only the 
outlines of the principal figures upon the breast, arms, back, 
and thighs, are laid : some addition is constantly made to- 
ihem at intervals of from three to six montlis, and this 
is sometimes continued for thirty or forty years before the 
whole tattooing is completed. 

The women of the Washington Islands are very little 
tattooed, differing in this respect from the inliabitants of the 
other South Sea Islands. The hands are punctured from 
the ends of the fingera to the vnrists, which produces an 
appearance like that of gloves; on the feet ana ancles the 
tattooing resembles hiffhly-omamented half boots ; and the 
arms are decorated witn long stripes, and with circlets which 
have the appearance of bracelets worn by Eurooean ladies. 
The patterns for the tattooer are selected witn great care. 
They consist of sketches of men, birds, dogs, and varioua 

559—2 



103 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE 



[March 20, 



aninials; squares, circles, crescents, &^^9 diamonds, and, 
in short, of every variety of form. The head of a man is 
nsuaUy tattooed m every part The common ornament for 
the breast is a shield-like ngore, and that for the back is a 
large cross, beginning at the neck : on each side of the calf of 
the leg is an oval figure. We may add, that the observer 
can scarcely &il to be struck with the similarity of effect 
which exists between the tattooed decorations of the South 
Sea Islanders, and the armour of the warriors of antiquity. 
The tattooing of persons in middle life is performed m 
houses erectedfor the purpose, and the expense varies with 
the number and intricacy of the chosen decorations. A 
common mode of payment is by hc«8 ; but the poor islanders, 
who have not a superabundance of swine thus to dispose of 
luxuriously, but tnemselves live chiefly upon bread-fruit, 
are tattooed by novices, who take them at a very low price, 
as subjects for practice; but their works are easily distin- 
guishable from those of an experienced artist. Amoi^ the 
rich isl^ders, the addition of ear-ornaments to a fenude, or 
a bracelet tattooed about her arms, is often the occasion of a 

joyous feast. 

in New Zealand the art of tattooing has been brought to 
great perfection, and is as much admired as superb clothing. 
When a chief throws off his mats, he seems as proud of 
diq>laying the beautiful ornaments figured on nis skin, 
as any civilized votary of fashion is in displaying himself 
in his last modish attire. Tattooing is likewise as essential 
a part of warlike preparations in ^w Zealand as are the 
accoutrements of an European soldier. Mr. Earle describes 
a whole district thus preparing, and an inffenious artist en- 
gaged to tattoo the warriors. He was considered by his coun- 
trymen a perfect master of his art, and men of the highest rank 
and importance were accustomed to make loiijg journeys to 
put their skin under his hands. Aliighly finished fiice of a 
chie^ tattooed by this artist, is as greatly prized in New 
Zealand as a head finom the hands of a celebrated nainter is 
among us ; and a wamor, having killed a chief wnom this 
artist had tattooed, appreciated me work so highly, that he 
skinned the cMefifun s thighs, and covered his cartouch-box 
with it. 

POISONOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD. 

m 

Poisonous Honxt. 

HoNET would seem to vary much in its nature and 
the effects it produces on the animal economy, accord- 
ing to the description of flowers whence it is procured. 
Delicious in its taste, and usually harmless in its effects, 
it has been found iii various parts of the world to 
possess poisonous qualities. Mr. Abbot, writing to 
the Zoological Society from Trebizond, says, that he 
has there seen the identical symptoms produced by eating 
the honey, procured by the bees from the odorous 
Azalea ponticay which were described by Xenophon and 
Diodorus Siculus as affecting those of the army of the 
Ten Thousand, who ate the honey in the fields during 
the siege of Trebizond. The persons so affected act just 
like men inebriated by strong drink. Dr. Barton states, 
that after the removal of several hives from Pennsylvania 
to the savannahs of New Jersey, where the kalmia was 
the principal flowering shrub, the bees themselves throve 
exceedingly well, but that every one who partook of their 
honey became as if intoxicated, and seized with dim 
vision, vertigo, and delirium, followed in a few cases by 
death. Aristotle, Pliny, and Dioscorides, mention that 
at certain times of the year, the honey in the neighbour- 
hood of the Caucasus becomes poisonous. Toumefort 
says, that a constant tradition has prevailed along the 
coasts of the Black Sea, that the honey collected from 
the azalea is dangerous; and Guldenstaedt, the com- 
panion of Pallas, says the honey thence derived is dark 
and bitterish, and produces insensibility. Roulox Borro, 
in his voyage to the Brazils, mentions that the Tapuies 
make an intoxicating beverage, called ^ram?^, from wild 
honey. Seringe relates, that Swiss herds naving eaten 
of honey procured from the wolfsbar », were convulsed 
and delirious. M. Augustus de St.-Hilaire gives an in- 
teresting account of the escape of himself and com- 



panions from the effects of the honey of the Lcchcgum 
wasp, of which they had eaten in the Brazils : he saya, 
there are two species of honey produced by it, one white 
and harmless, another dark and frequently deleterious. 

Poisonous Grain. 
Wheat is sometmies rendered black by disease of the 
ears, when it is said to cause cholic and other diseases, if 
made into bread; and the same effects are said to result 
in various parts of France, when unpropitious weaiber 
compels the fanner to cut his wheat before it is entirely 
ripe: the wheat which is cut in this country before 
ripening, does not however produce similar effects. Com 
has more frequently been rendered hurtful by the acd- 
dental admixture with it of some of the seeds of the 
darnel grass {Lohum tremuUntum)^ the only poisouous 
species of the natural order of the gprasses. Several 
years ago, eighty persons were seized with alarming 
symptoms in the Sheffield work-house, from bavii^ 
breaidasted upon oatmeal porridge, contaminated by this 
herb. A similar accident took place at the house of 
correction at Freyburg 

Spurred Rye. 
Rye has produced the most unquestionable and highly 
poisonous effects. Triflingly as it enters into the articles 
of consumption of the people of this country, little is 
known here practically about the diseases it engenders, 
but the accounts we have of the various severe epide- 
mics which have prevailed in France and Germany from 
its use, supply us with abundant ' information. In its 
natural state rye furnishes an useful article of food, 
though of a very inferior nourishing power compared to 
wheat, but it becomes by disease converted into a black- 
ened substance termed ergot, or spur of rye, which, 
when used in small quantities, forms a valuable medidne, 
but wnen entering into the composition of bread proves 
a dangerous poison. The production of the ergot or 
spur of rye {Secdle corttuturn)^ has been referred to 
various causes : some suppose it to consist in a diseased 
state of the juices of the plant; De Candolle belieTes it 
caused bv the growth of a parasitic mushroom of the 
genus Scleroticum^ while the majority of obacrrers 
assert, that it is the production of an insect. This last 
opinion has been confirmed by the observations of 
General Field, of Vermont, who has seen small flies 
puncturing the ear of the rye, while in a milky state: he 
imitated the process himsebT in other instances with a 
needle, and the black spur was grradually formed. 

Epidemics arising from the admixture of this spurred 
with good rye, have occurred at various periods m 
Europe, and although some of these have been attributed 
rather to the famines caused by poverty and misery, yet 
there is ample evidence to show that the rye, on many 
occasions, has been instrumental in producing them; 
while direct experiments have at the same time shown 
its poisonous effects upon the lower animals. From the 
symptoms which the imperfect records of the time de- 
tail, it is very probable that many of the epidemic visita- 
tions of the tenth and eleventh centunes, known ffi 
France under the names of St. Anthony's Fire, the Sacred 
Fire, and the « Mai des Ardens," were produced by this 
grain; but the earliest positive accounts we have, relate 
to an epidemic which occurred in 1596, in Saxony. 
There are numerous records of similar occurrences from 
time to time, during and after the seventeenth century, 
in France, Siberia, Denmark, Sweden, and Lombar^> 
and in 1661 the disease appeared in England. Towards 
the end of last century, in consequence of the investiga- 
tions which the various states instituted into the subject, 
and of the improved conditions of the lower orders, tw 
epidemic attacks of Ergotisme (as it is called by the 
French) became much less frequent and less severe, ye| 
have several visitations occurred even during the ?J®^ 
century in France and Germany. The rye chiefly ^ 
comes spurred in wet seasons* and in moist cUycy soiw? 



IMI.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



and thus the diBtrict of Sologne, aitnated betneen the 
riven Loire and Cher, is found to be the portion of 
Fnnce by far the most frequently affected. The Abb6 
Tessier, who in 1777 nude a careful investiffation of the 
subject, found that a forty-eighth part of tae thrashed 
com was ergutiied, and that in bad seasons the propor- 
tion mounted up to one-third or one-fourth of the whole 
quantity. Similar observations as to the localities 
&voumble to its production have been made in Germany, 
and Wildenow says, this diseased state of the rye may at 
any time be induced by sowing the com in rich damp 
soil, and watering the plants profiisely in warm weather. 
It 19 not our intention to describe minutely the symp- 
toms which result from the use of spurred rye, but we 
may notice the curious fact that they vary so much in 
different epidemics, that the French writers denote th^m 
under two distinctive appellations, namely, Convulsive 
Erotism, and Gangrenous Ergotism, — in the first, a 
great disposition to convulaive and spasmodic diseases 
manifests itself; in the latter, various parts of the bodies 
of those who eat the bread containing the damaged rye, 
are destroyed by gangrene or mortifik^ation, from which 
cause these unnappy victims frequently lose a band, a 
fiMt, or the nose. In Germany, the disease is popularly 

1 be liable to a siniilar 
disease in Columbia, and while in that state, produces a 
loss of hair and teeth of those who partake of it. — J. C. 



THE ICHNEUMON. 



TiiB bttle animal we ara about to describe' was well 
known to the ancients, and much celebrated in their 
fables. It was held in such high estimation by the 
Egyptians that funds were set apart for its support; it 
vas tended with great solicitude, and fish, bread, and 
milk were supplied to it as food. It was also a forbidden 
thing to lull it; and, on its death, honours were paid to 
it, as to an object of worship. Elian, and other ancient 
writers, celebrate the combats of the ichneumon and the 
aspis: Pliny describes its stratagems against the croco- 
dile, and it is on account of the reputation it has for 
diminishing the numbers of these formidable creatures, 
that the ichneumon has gained so much celebrity. 
According to the statements of the above writers, the 
ichneumon had the sagacity to arm itself, previous to 
the battle, with a coating of mud. If mud were not at 
hand, it bathed itself in water, and then rolled itself in 
the sand, and as the nostrils were the most vulnerable 
part, it took care to cover them by the sinuosities of its' 
tuL Aristotle still further vaunts the wisdom of the 
ichneumon by stating that it never goes to battle without 
first summoning its friends and allies. Pliny relates the 
itratagem it employs against the aspis as we give it from 
Hdhnd:— 

Now when he is lulled as it were font asleepe with this 
phunre and cwtentment of his, the rat of India, or ichqen- 



mon, spieth his advantage, and seeing him lie tbns broad 

Sping, whippeth into nia mouth, and shooteth himself 
wne bis throat as quicke as an arrow, and tlien gnaweth 
his bowels, eateth a hole through liia body and so killeth 

It is difficult to account for the above extravagant 
notions of this animal, for there is nothing in its charac- 
ter or habits, as at present described by naturalists, that 
can warrant them. The ichneumon is diminutive in size, 
timid in disposition, jind has neither the courage nor the 
r to attack serpents or crocodiles, whether they be 
asleep or awake. It is fond of mice, rats, small birds, 
&<:., and is particularly destructive to eggs. In this way 
it is of great service ; for bv feeding on the eggs of cro- 
codiles, serpents, and the larger kind of lizards, it re- 
duces the numbers of these formidable creatures. At 
the close of day, it glides through the ridges and incqtu- 
lities of the soil, and shows much prudence in searching 
after its prey, and in endeavouring at the same time to 
evade danger. It possesses great perseverance, and will 
remain for hours in the same place, attentively watching 
for the animal it has marked out as its prey. When it 
has made its way into some unknown spot it immediately 
explores every hole end comer, and its chief power of 
research seems to lie in its sense of smell, which is un- 
commonly powerful and acute; the other senses appear 
comparatively feeble, Cuvier thus notices the animal, 
which he places with the civets, and the genets, interme- 
diate between foxes and hyienas in the system. 

The man^outte of Egypt, so celebrated under the name 
ichneumon, ( Viverra icinewnon, Linn.) 

Grey, with a long tail terminated by a black tnft, larger 
than our cats, as slender as our martens. It searches nccn- 
liarly for the e«gs of crocodiles, but also aubaista on all kinds 
of small anim^. Domesticated in houses, it hunts mice, 
reptiles, &c. The Europeans at Cairo call it PAarooA'iraf; 
the people of the country, Xemt. What the ancients re- 
lated of its jumping down the throat of the crocodile to put 
it to death is &bulou8. 

Hasselquist, speaking of the ichneumon of the Nile, 
says that it is met with in Upper and Lower Egypt 
living during the inundations of the Nile in gardens 
and near the villages, but in the dry season dwell- 
ing in the fields and near the banks of the river. 
It creeps slowly along, as if ready to seize its prey, and , 
feeds on plants, eggs, and fowls, killing the latter in the 
night, when it frequents the villages. He mentions 
likewise its services in Upper ^:ypt in searching out 
the crocoililes' e^s that lie hid in the sand, and devour- 
ing them. 

The execution committed by the ichneumon among 
young animals may be judged of by the fact, that when 
a dozen full-grown rats were turned into a room in the 
Tower of Loudon, sixteen feet square, with one of these 
animals, the ichneumon killed them all in less than a 
mtuute and a half. 

The haunts and habits of the members of this sub- 
genus are nearly all alike. Wherever they abound, the 
country is subject to periodical overflowings of water, 
and a consequent abundance of aauatic animals; so that 
the office of the ichneumon in the economy of nature 
seems to be the keeping of such animals within due 
bounds by preying on their eggs. From M. F. Cuvier 
we have a description of an ichneumon, brought from 
the peninsula of Malacca, and from Dr. Horslield an 
account of the ichneumon of Java, Of these two species, 
therefore, we proceed to give a brief notice. 

The mangouste, or ichneumon of IMalacca, is rather 
more than a foot in length, the tail about a foot, and the 
height at the most elevated point of the back five 
inches and a half. Owing to a peculiar faculty which it 
possesses of elongating or shortening the body by some 
inches, it is a difficult matter to measure it correctly. 
The colour of this animal is a dirty grey, resulting from 
a succession of black and whitish yellow rings which 
cover the hairs ; the circumference of the eye, the ear 



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THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE- 



[March SO, 



and the extremity of the muzxle are naked, and of ft 
violet colour; the tail is the same colour as the body, 
very thick at the root, aud terminating in a point with 
yellowish hairs. This ichneumon, though extremely 
tame, permitting itself to be handled, and taking pleasure 
in caresses, grew extremely ferocious at sight of those 
little animals which constitute its prey. It was particu- 
larly fond of birds, and when they were put into a large 
cage, it v7ould spring forward with a rapidity that the 
eye could not follow, seize them, break their heads, and 
then devour them with the utmost voracity ; as soon as 
its appetite was satisfied, it would lie down in the 
most obscure comer of its retreat. When irritated the 
hairs of its tail would bristle up. Its cleanliness was 
remarkable. 

These little animals are said to inhabit holes in the 
walls, or burrows in the vicinity of habitations, and to 
perform much the same part in India that weasels and 
polecats do among ourselves, destroying great numbers 
of young animals and committing much devastation. 

The mangouste, or ichneumon of Java, differs but 
slightly from that of Malacca. It is somewhat larger, 
and its fur is a mixture of black and brown instead of 
black and white. It is known in Java by the name of 
garangan, and is found there most abundantly in the 
large teak forests; its agility is greatly admired by the 
natives ; it is reported among them tbat it will attack and 
kill serpents, and that when the snake involves it in its 
folds the ichneumon inflates its body to a considerable 
degree, and when the reptile is about to bite, again con- 
tracts, slips from between the folds, and seizes the snake 
by the neck. 

It is very expert in burrowing in the ground, which 
process it employs ingeniously in the pursuit of rats : it 
possesses great natural sagacity, and from the peculiari- 
ties of its character willingly seeks the protection of man : 
it is easily tamed, and in a domestic state is docile, 
becomes attached to its master, and follows him like a 
dog; it frequently places itself erect on its hind legs, 
regarding every thing which passes with the greatest 
attention ; it is of a very restless disposition, and always 
carries its food to a very retired place in order to consume 
it, and if it is disturbed there, it exhibits great anger. 
One of the principal articles of food among the Java- 
nese is the common fowl ; and as the ichneumon is very 
artful in surprising and catching young chickens, it is 
not to the interest of the people to keep it in the doipes- 
tic state. They are likewise very fond of cats, and 
are unwilling in most cases to be deprived of their 
society for the sake of introducing the ichneumon 



A mother's love. 

The bird may leave its nestled young, 
The sun may cease to shine above, 

Man may forget his native tongue. 
But who can change a mother's love 1 

The flowerets may withhold their bloom, 
And gentleness forsake the dove ; 

Man may forget the blighting tomb, 
But cliangcleas is a mother's love. 



Every one admits that the mind, and moral faculties, are 
to be developed and strengthened, and made to do the best, 
by exercise. This is equally trae of physical power. Every 
action which it can be proi)er to do at all, ought to be done 
in the best way ; oUierwisc the end of being is not answered. 
In the vegetable and animal departments, all proper care 
and cultivation tend to use and beauty. Is there any reason 
why the physical powers of man should not have care and 
cultivation to the same ends? Those who prefer a stooping, 
iQunging, awkward, graceless, figure and motion, may be on 
one side of the question ; those who think that it was in- 
tended that man should be an upright, easy, fi^ank, comely, 
and convenient being to himself, and pleasant to all within 
whose obsenratioii he may oome, will be on the other, — S, 



i USE OF TEA IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES. 

The plants employed as tea in different countries do not 
resemble each other so much as their general deDomi. 
nation might lead the reader to imagine. Their external 
varieties are, however, exceeded by the modes of making 
beverage from them : for, it is curious to observe, that 
in scarcely any two countries where tea is drunk, is it 
prepared precisely in the same manner. That of China 
approaches nearest to the fashion of our own country. 

The Emperor Kien-long, the royal poet of China, 
composed an ode eulogising tea. He first describes the 
mode of drawing tea, which, when divested of his pecu- 
liar and methodical phraseology, is nearly the same as 
our own. ** On a slow fire," he says, '< set a tripod, whose 
colour and texture show its long use. Fill it with clear 
snow water. Boil it as long as would be sufficient to 
turn fish white and crayfish red. Throw it upon the 
delicate leaves of choice tea. Let it remain as long as 
the vapour rises in a cloud, and leaves only a thin mist 
floating on the surface. At your ease drink this precious 
liquor, which will chase away the five causes of sorrow. 
We can taste and feel, but not describe the state of r^ 
pose produced by a liquor thus prepared." The Chinese, 
however, drink their tea simply, without the addition of 
sugfar or milk. The common people, who have a coarser 
tea, boil it for some time in water, and make use of the 
liquor for usual drink. Early in the morning the kettle, 
filled with water, is regpilarly hung over the fire for this 
purpose, and the tea is either put into the kettle, inclosed 
in a bag, or by means of a basket pressed to the bottom 
of the vessel, that there may not be any hindrance in 
drawing off the water. The Bantsjaa tea only is used 
in this manner; its virtues, being moje fixed, would not 
be so fully extracted by infusion. 

One mode of using tea, among the higher ranks in 
China, is by grating into the cup, balls made of the 
most valuable leaves, cemented together by some kind of 
tasteless gum. 

Neither the Chinese, nor natives of Japan, eTer use 
tea before it has been kept at least a year; because, when 
fresh, it is said to prove narcotici and to disorder the 
senses. The Japanese reduce the tea into a fine powder, 
by grinding the leaves inahandmill; they then mix them 
with hot water into a thin pulp, in which fbrm it is 
sipped, especially by the nobility and wealthy persons. 
It is made and served up to compluay in the following 
manner: — the tea-table furniture, with the powdered tea 
inclosed in a box, are set before the company; the cups 
are then filled with hot water, and a smdl quantity of 
the powder is taken out of the box, put into each cup, 
and then stirred together with a curious notched instru- 
ment till the liquor foams, in which state it is handed to 
the company, and sipped while warm. Du Halde states 
this method to be used in some provinces of China, as 
well as in Japan. To make tea, and to serve it in a 
genteel and graceful manner, is an accomplishment^ in 
which persons of both sexes in Japan are instructed by 
masters, in the .same manner as Europeans are in 
dancing, and other branches of polite education^ 

Tea is also the common beverage of all the lahouring 
people in China, one scarcely ever sees them represented 
at work of any kind, but the tea-pot and tea-cup app^^ 
as their accompaniments. Reapers, threshers, and all 
who work out of, as well as within, doors, have their 
attendants. In public roads, and in all places of much 
resort in Japan, and even in the midst of fields and 
frequented woods, tea-booths are erected; as most tra- 
vellers drink scarcely any other beverage on the roadi 

The tea drunk by the working people in China, how- 
ever, must not only be of an inferior class, but VC17' 
weak; as the native attendants on Lord Macartney's 
embassy were continually begging the refuse leaves, 
which had been already used by the English, bo tluit 
they night pour fresh water over them, and thus obtaiP 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



ill 



a bettor beverage tban they usually enjoyed. On the 
other hand, some tea presented by the Emperor Kien 
Long to Lord Macartney, was found to want somewhat 
of the astringency which the British tea-drinker values 
in the infusion. 

Thrice at least in the day, every Chinese dnnks tea, 
but all who possess' the means enjoy the refreshing 
beverage oftener: it is a constant ofifering to a g^est, 
and forms a portion of every sacrifice to their idols. 

Mr. Ellis, in an account of one of Lord Amherst's visits 
of ceremony to Kwang, a mandarin of high rank, says, 
" The tea served round was that only used on occasions 
of ceremony, called Yu-tien: it was a small leafed 
highly-flavoured green tea. In Lord Amherst's and 
Kwang s cups there was a thin perforated silver plate, 
to keep the leaves down, and let the infusion pass through. 
The cups used by the mandarins of rank, in form, re- 
semble coffee cups, and are placed in a wooden or metal 
eaucer, shaped like the Chinese boats." 

Tea has long been conmion in South America, and 
is grown in large quantities in Paraguay, the tree called 
Yerva Mate, being nearly peculiar to that district. We 
find, in the beginning of the seventeenth century, that this 
plant was in general use ; and there can be no doubt but 
the Indians taught it to the Ptotguayans. The quantity 
used by a person who is fond of this tea is an ounce. 
In Paraguay, La Plata, Peru, and Quito, it is made at 
all hours of the day, by putting a handful into a tea-pot, 
from the spout of which, the hot liquid is drunk ; some 
mix sugar with it, and others add a few drops of lemon- 
juice. Five millions of pounds are annually obtained 
from Paraguay, half of which is sent to Chili, whence 
Lima and Quito are supplied : the rest is consumed in 
the viccroyalty of Buenos A vres. The people of South 
America attribute innumerable virtues to this plant: it 
is certainly aperient and diuretic; but the other qualities 
a«crihed to it are doubtful. Like opium, it produces 
some singular and opposite effects; it g^iyes sleep to the 
restless, and spirit to the torpid. Those who have once 
contracted the habit of drinking it, do not find it easy to 
discontinue its use, or even to drink it in moderation ; 
though when taken to excess, it brings on similar dis- 
orders to those which are produced by the inunoderate 
use of strong liquor. 

Dr. Walsh, in his Noticei ofBrazif^ describes what 
i^ by some considered another plant, named the conhonga, 
^hich Is used universally as tea. It grows in marshy 
places, and resembles an orange tree: the leaves are 
dried, or rather, roasted on twigs before the fire, where 
they crackle like cannel, and are then reduced nearly to 
powder, and kept in pots. Dr. Walsh drank this tea 
prepared in three different ways: either an infusion of 
fresh leaves, or made with the dried leaves like China 
tea, or boiled with sugar, and then drained off. The clear 
mfusion resembles that of common green-tea, but has 
neither its flavour, odour, ^or refreshing qualities. 

Brick tea is much used by the Mongols, and most 
of the people of Middle Asia: it serves them both for 
food and drink. The Chinese carry on a great trade in 
this kind of tea, but never drink it themselves. It con- 
sists of the dry, dirty, and rejected leaves and stalks of 
the tea, which are mixed with a glutinous substance, 
pressed into moulds, and dried in ovens: these blocks 
being called, on account of their shape, brick tea. The 
mode of using it is, to pound a piece in a mortar made 
for the purpose, and throw the powder into a cast-iron 
vessel full of boiling water, which is suffered to stand a 
long time over the fire, during which salt and milk, and 
sometimes flour fried in oil, are added. This tea, or 
broth, is called Satouran, and is believed to be very 
nourishing. 

Throughout the continent of Europe, tea is compara- 
tively but little used, coffee being the almost universal 
beverage as a luxury, or necessary of life. In Germany; 
tea is so seldom drank, that it acts like a medicine when 



taken by a native; and, in that country, persons have 
been known to decline a cup of good bohea, with the 
excuse, " No, I thank you; I am quite well at present." 
In Bavaria, it is the practice to flavour the tea with a 
few slices of lemon, so that it resembles bad lemonade. 
Even in France, the making of tea is but ill understood 
or managed; and in Great Britain only, in Europe, can 
this beverage be drunk in perfection. Nevertheless the 
tea purchased on the Continent is, generally speaking, 
both good and cheap. The Russians are fastidious in 
tea-making and tea-drinking, and understand both arts 
fully as well as, if not better than, the English. Their 
tea-urn is quite a piece of machinery. The perfume and 
stimulant quaUties of their best sort of tea is said to 
have a distressing effect upon the nerves. The teas 
used in St. Petersburgh, reach that market direct from 
from China overland ; and it is presumed that from the 
circiunstance of its not travelling by sea, the Russian 
tea retains all its bloom and strength, which the English 
tea loses during a long sea-voyage; but this does npt 
appear probable. 

The mode of making tea in England is too well known 
to need description ; but a few, notices of its introduction 
may be more acceptable. From a single sheet found in 
Sir Hans Sloane's Library, in the British Museum, it 
appears that tea was known in England, in the year 
1657, though not then in general use. The writer of 
this paper says, ''that the vertues and excellencies of 
this leaf and drink are many and great, is evident and 
manifest by the high esteem and use of it, (especially 
of late years,) among the physicians and knowing men 
in France, Italy, Holland, and other parts of Christen- 
dom; and, in England, it hath been sold in the leaf for 
six pounds, and sometimes for ten pounds the pound 
weignt; and in respect of its former scarceness and dear- 
ness, it hath been only used as a regalia in high treat- 
ments and entertainments, and presents made thereof to 
princes and grandees, till the year 1657." 

Mr Samuel Pepys, Secretary to the Admiralty, in his 
Diary, makes the following entry: "Sept 25, 1660. 
I did send for a cup of tea (a China drink,) of which I 
never had drunk before, and went away ;*' but the writer 
does not say where he had his drink. In 1662, tea 
appears in an advertisement of a coffee house, in 
Exchange Alley; which refutes the commonly received 
statement that it was first brought into this country from 
Holland, by Lord Arlington, in the year 1666. In a 
letter from Mr. Henry Savill, from Paris, dated August 
12, 1678, the writer refers to " friends who call for tea, 
instead of pipes and bottles after dinner; abase unworthy 
Indian practice, (adds he,) the truth is, all nations have 
grown so wicked as to have some of their filthy cus- 
toms." 

In 1678, the year in which the above letter is dated, 
the East India Company began the importation of tea 
as a branch of trade, the quantity received at that time 
amounting to 47 1 3 pounds. The trade did not, however, 
considerably increase during the early part of the 
eighteenth century, for the importation between the years 
1700 and 1710, amounted to less than 800,000 pounds. 
It was still a scarce luxury, confined to the wealthy: it 
was made in small pots of the most costly China, hold- 
ing not more than half a pint, and drunk out of cups, 
which held little more than a table-spoon. In the 
century between 1710 and 1810, the teas imported into 
this country, amounted to upwards of 750,000,000 
pounds; between 1810 and 1828, the total importation 
exceeded 427,000,000 pounds, averaging 23,000,000 
and 24,000,000 a year; and, in 1831, the quantity 
imported was 26,043,223 pounds. 

The uses of tea, as a beverage, were at first so little 
understood in England, that instances are related of the 
herb having been served at table as a vegetable, with a 
sauce of melted butter, the water in which it was boiled 
being thrown away aa useless. 



112 



TriE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[Mahca 20, mi 



Tlie beneficial results of the introduction of tea and 
coffee, have been strangely overlooked or underrated. 
It has been, however, well described as leading '^ to the 
most wonderful change that ever took place in the diet 
of modern civilized nations, — a change highly important 
both in a moral and physical point of view. These 
beverages have the admirable advantage of affording 
stimulus without producing intoxication, or any of its 
evil consequences. Lovers of tea and coffee are, in fact, 
rarely drinkers ; and hence the use of these beverages 
has benefited both manners and morals *." 

* Maccdllocii, in Did. Commerce, 



CHINESE FUNERALS. 

Thb funeral ceremonies of the Chinese have many interest- 
ing peculiarities, wliich are highly descriptive of the man- 
ners and customs of this extraoi*dinaxy people. They keep 
dead bodies above ground for a very long time : the ricn 
delay the funeral even for a year, or longer, the time de- 
noting their degree of resp.ect and reverence for the deceased. 
When the body lies in state, it is placed in the largest room 
of the house, entirely hung round with white, which is the 
Chinese colour for moui-nins. The coffin is ornamented 
with painting and gilding, and is made during the life-time 
of the deceased : indeed it b the practice of the poorest 
Chinese to reserve a sufficient sum tp secure a reputable 
shelter for their lifeless bodies. 

On the d<iy of the funeral the relations walk in procession 
to the crave. The corpse is preened by musicians, playing 
melancholy airs upon various instruments, and by persons 
bearing painted scrolls and silken banners, on which are in- 
scriptions indicative of the rank and character of the 
deceased. Incense-bearers foUow these ; and then, under a 
white canopy, the coffin, covei^d with a white pall, is borne 
by men. '. Upon each side of it are persons employed in 
burning pieces of paper and pastebosurd, with inscriptions 
upon them : some are circular, and some ai'e cut into fantastic 
iignres, all which, it is believed, are wafted upwards with the 
soul, and accompany it in its next state of existence, either 
as coin,' bread, or whatever else the inscription denotes. 
After the corpse come the relatives of the deceased, in white 
clothes, whicn are soiled, dirty, and unomamented ; or, the 
eldest son, wearing a canvass frock, having his body bent, 
and leaning on a staff, follows near the comn ; behind him 
are his brothers,' in couples, leaning on crutches, as if unable 
to support themselves. In some funerals, every mourner 
has a friend, or supporter, on each side, and a servant bearine 
over him a huge umbrella with a deep white fringe, which 
nearly screens the mourner from the public gaze. If women 
follow, they, are borne in small coaches similar to our 
sedans. The procession is closed by the friends of the de- . 
ceased. The mourners often howfand shriek most vehe- 
mently, and fill the air with their loud lamentations. 

The burial-places are erected in the usual sliape 'of grot- 
toes, without the towns. > They are divided into small cells, 
in each of which a coffin is laid, and as soon as the cells are 
filled, the sepulchre is closed. No religious service takes 
place; the coffin is deposited in its receptacle with great 
solemnity, and the procession returns. At a short distance 
from the tomb are halls, where tables are spread with provi- 
sions for the mourners and attendants. If the deceased | 
were a grandee of the empire, his relations do not leave the | 
tomb for a month or two, but reside in apartments prepared 
for thein, and renew their respects to Uie dead daily. The 
maffuificence of these funerals, of course, varies with the 
rank of the deceased. That of one of the emperor's bro- 
thers was attended hy upwards of sixteen thousand persons. 

Distinguished persons ai'e generally buried in mountains 
and solitary places ; and if the tomb be erected in a valley 
or ))lain, a large heap of earth is raised over it and covert 
with white plaister. In the vault, an altar is built, whereon 
are placed meats, incense, ' lighted tapers, and figures of 
slaves and animals, wliich are believea to be of service to 
the dead in another . world. 

If the deceased held any important office, his most vir- 
tuous actions are sculptured on marble and fixed up in 
front of the tomb, about which also are ranged figures of 
officers, eunuchs, horses, stags, camels, lions, and elephants. 
About the tomb are planted cypress-trees, which add to the 
solemnity and gloom of the scene. 

Other means, beside the erection of tombs, are taken to 



perpetuate the viriues of the great. Each &inily of res- 
pectability lias erected on its estate a laige building calk-d 
the Hall of AneestotBy against the wall of which is placed a 
table which bears the figures of the most distinguisncd an- 
cestors ; or the names of the &mily, with their ages and 
dignities, are merely inscribed on tablets. 

The Chinese have likewise periodical ceremonies to che- 
rish the memory of the dead. In spring, the relations 
assemble at the nmily hall, where the we^thiest of ihm 
prepare a banquet ; bat none of the viands are touched till 
an offerinff has been made with due solemnity. The poorer 
classes, who have no hall wherein to honour their ancestor, 
place the names of the deceased in the most frequented part 
of their houses. 

The Chinese likewise consider it an imperious duty to 
visit the tombs of- thekr ancsstdn onoe or twice aryear, when 
they pluck away the weeds from about the grave, and place 
wine and provisions upon the tomb, whilst oUiers freshen, 
with paints of different colours, the charaeters of the epi- 
taphs. 

rfo corpse is allowed to enter the gates of Pekin without 
an impeiial order, because it is said a rebel entered in i 
coffin m the reign of Kienlung. However, even at Canton, 
and in all other cities of the empire, no corpse is permitted 
to enter the southern sate, because the emperor of Chini 
ascends his throne with nis fiice towards the south. 



THE SMOKE-JACK AND THE SMOKE, 

A Fabub. 

There was a nobleman who had much money and built i 
fine house, and, being fond of company, he made a laige 
kitchen, which was fitted up with a spacious fire-place, an 
excellent smoke-jack, and every thing else that could tend to 
make the department perfect. Dinner parties followed in 
<^uick succession, and the feasting gave universal satisfiu:- 
tion. Each day as the spits were taken from the fire, the 
praises and mutual congratulations of the cooks, at the 
admirable roasting of the points, ascended in grateful accents 
to the ears of the smoke-jack ; and as it so hsjrpened that 
the kitchen chimney passed up the wall of the dming-room, 
the pleasing strain was continued by the approbation ove^ 
heani from the guests as each haunch of venison, or sirloin of 
beef, or Norfolk turkey, graced the table. Pnuses often re- 
peated will make the best of us giddy, and the heads of smoke 
jacks have proverbially a tendency to turn round ! so was the 
nsult with the jack, the hero of this fable. Elated bv the 
applauses which greeted him, he exclaimed with impssaoned 
energy, "How great is my influence and how extensive my 
powers of pleasing 1 not only do I excite the admiration of th« 
menials below,'but I enable my noble master to exercise his 
hospitality and call forth the lavish commendations of the 
illustrious friends who throng his table I mine would be a 
great and enviable position were it not for this filthy smoke^ 
.which is constantly puffin? in v^y face and covering in« 
with blacks and soot I I will allow it no longer; therefore, 
smoke ! I warn you off my premises immediately." 
' The poor smoke, checked by this repulse, meekly changed 
his current and curling up the opposite side of the chimney 
was soon lost, among the clouds and vapours of the sky. 
For the neact day a laige dinner party was invited, but who 
can describe the consternation oi the poor cooks when pre^ 
paring for the feast, they found the smoke-jnck irarooveaWe. 
lerkiiig, poking, shaking, oiling, proved alike in vain. My 
lord was complained to, a smith was summoned, and the 
jack, beinff pronounced useless, was quickly taken down and 
sold for old iron. 

But even u*on, old and rusty though it be, may yield « 
moral for pur use ; it may teach the ncti and great, that their 
power, however vast, is not independent of the ^^'J ^^ 
beings by whom they are surrounded. They m^Y ,y^ 
contamination and renounce their fellowship, but ii tw 
working current of the poor be withdrawn^the power of tw 
rich, must, like the smoke-jack, stop, and lacking ^eans to 
call it into action, its influence, must cease. This W"^"^ 
may excite a sense of pride in the poor man's mind, ^wt i« 
him hot forget, that when the smoke had quitted iw 
alliance and the guidance of the jack, he was left to follow^ 
course through which impurity marked his progress to 
unprofitable end. *— — 

LONDON : ^ . ^„ 

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STBANl'. 

POUIMBDIM WUELT NUMBKRH. PbiCK OXK l»f|l«r. AJI» »" MoXTUtT 

pBlOt SlXFRKCIC. . , ^ 

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114 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE- 



[March 27, 



THE CHINESE INVENTORS OF 
PANK'KOTJje. 

It 18 weir understood, that Aa Chinese discovered the 
properties of the magnet; that they not only invented 
writing materials, hut the art of vrin^g; and were the 
first to manufacture silk, porcelain, and gunpowder. 
But it is not so well known that they were Uie original 
contrivers of a paper purrency. 

The most striking trait in the general charaeter gf 
the Chinese is their aversion to every scHrt of improve- 
ment or progress* They helieve that their social, 
moral, and political institutions, are perfect; and their 
laws absolutely forbid the least alteration. Thus it is 
that, though toe Chinese were the first to use a ma- 
riner's compass, they are ignorant of navigation: though 
they invented gunpowder, they prefer bows and arrows 
to guns ; and lastly, although the invention of paper- 
money has been traced to them, their commercial deal- 
ings possess none of tliose facilities which a paper 
currency affords. 

Most authorities, when consulted as to who were the 
inventors of paper-money ? answer the Mongols. This 
is a mist|ike, (insiiig from a passage of the celebrated 
Venetian traveller, Mateo Polo, who first made known 
to Europe the existence of credit-papers, which were 
used in his time by the Mongols, the then masters of 
China. These people afterwards introduced a repre- 
sentative currency into Persia, where it was extensively 
employed In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 

The error of attributing to the Mongols what really 
belong^ to the Chinese is one of those misapprehensions 
which an advanced knowledge of the Chinese lang^uage, 
and the industry of M. Klaproth, have effectually re- 
moved. That learned orientalist, in a paper addressed 
to the Asiatic Society of Paris*, has mrnished — from 
several of the elaborate native historical works with 
which China abounds — some very interesting particulars 
concerning the origin of paper-money, which fixes the 
invention of it upon the Chinese. 

It appears that ibr Jbnr cmturies and a half before 
the time at which modem historians usually date the 
invention of paper-money, a species of nominal currency 
was in use among the Chinese, namely, in the year 
119 B.C. The native annals of thai date contain the 
most ancient record of a financial speculation ever yet 
discovered. During the reign of Ou-^i, nn emperor 
of the Han dynasty, the expenses of the state outran the 
imperial revenues; to make up this deficiency, the mi- 
nister of Ou-ti caused the skins of certain white stage 
that were fed in the imperial park to be cut up into pieces 
a foot square, ornamented with paintings and inscrip- 
tions, and issued as a currency: each slnn passing for 
40,000 deniers, or about 12^ lOf. They were called 
phi-pij or " value in skins;" ,but only circulated among 
the courtiers and grandees of the empire. Whoever was 
invited to the repasts and ceremonies at the palace was 
obliged to cover the tablet they held before the face, in 
presence of the emperor, with one of these phi-pi. 

But the first instance of a regular paper-currency 
occurs in the history of the reign of Hian-tsoung, of the 
Thang dynasty of Chinese monarchs, towards a.d. 
807. The preceding reigns had been marked by the 
utmost anarchy and confusion, so that the regular cur- 
rency was so much neglected that all sorts of things 
were used for money ; such as small round pieces of 
iron, clothes cut up, and even pasteboard. Copper 
coins having become exceedingly scarce, Hian*tsoung 
forbad anv kind of utensil to be made of that metal, and 
obliged all merchants visiting the capital, and certain 
rich native families, to contribute to the public coffers. 
For these contributions, bills were exchanged called 

"thsian, or " voluntary money." In the year 960 a.d.. 



ft new kin4 of x^t^ ppE| i98i)ed| ^riv^ ften the 
privilege grtint^d to mprehants ^ deposit their goods 
m the variouff puhlio ^a^riet ; , piecisely, it would 
appei^, upon Ike principle of pawnbroking as at pre- 
sent practised. In acknowledgment of the deposit of 
their wares, the merchants received a paper answering 
to the ** duplicate," which was cailed pian-thsian, or ''ac- 
commodation money," and negociable; being received 
everywhere with eagerness. 

Tne two last-mentioned notes were manufactured of 
such paper as was in general use among the Chinese at 
the period; namely, that derived from the bark of a 
species of mulberry-tree, known to the natives as the 
tchu, and to naturahsts as the Moms paptfrifera. The 
notes were of a large size, being, like the phi-pi^ a foot 
square; their current value was legibly printed on them, 
and an official seal was also attached. 

These securities can hardly be called a nominal cur- 
rency, because an intrinsic value equal to the sum tliej 
represented was deposited in the public treasuries; and 
it was not till between the years 99*1 and IP22 Uiata 
true system of artificially representing wealth was intro- 
duced. At that time, China proper was divided into 
several separate states: the large province now known 
as Saru'tchuen was one of these, and called the Kingdom 
of Chon. Here a certain Tchang-^oung introduced a 
credit-paper called tchi-Ui, or *' cheques, to feplace the 
iron-money then in use, which was heavy and inconve- 
nient. Out of these a new system of credit-currencj 
arose, and to which may be traced the origin of bills of 
exchange; for the "cheques" were succeeded by Aruwh 
tsu or " changes," which bore a date and were payable 
every three vears : thus in sixty -five years there necessa- 
rily occurred twenty-two " changes" or terms of payment. 
A regular banking systexQ may now be sfiid to have 
commenced. The monarch deputed sixteen of the most 
opulent merchants to superintend the new currency, and 
these actually became bankers. This company lailed, 
and the sovereign, Tchang-yang^ was obliged ^ ^^ 
the whole affair into his own luindsi which he did by 
establishing a bank of issue at Y-tch6oa. The kiao- 
tsu was equivalent in value to 1000 deniers,Q|: an ounce 
of pure silver. We subjoin a 
drawing of a Chinese " ci^h|" 
the modem denier. Theinao-isu 
were of the same manufacture 
and appearance as the former 
notes; only their dates of issue 
and expiration were in ^ pro- 
bability printed in additiep to 
the amount they represented. 

Forgeries first make their ap- 
pearance in Chinese history in 1068, for spurious Awo- 
tsu were then found to be in circulation. Though this 
was a new offence not contemplated by the unalterahle 
Chinese statutes, the innovation of a new law was not 
attempted to provide against it; but the punishment de- 
nounced against those who counterfeited the imperial 
seal was also made the reward of forging bank-notes* ^f 
the conmienc«nent of the twelfth century, a banking 
system had spread itself all over China, and there ^ 
scarcely a province without its bank and its pap«r 
« changes;" but the notes of one district weie not cur- 
rent in another. The terms of payment and modes 
of circulation were frequently changed. 

Under the Emperor Kao-isoung, (of the Soun? 
dynastv,) the Hon-pon, or minister of the treasuryi hit 
upon the expedient of paying some of the public creditors 
in a new security; but this not succeeding, another was 
tried in 1160, called hoei-tsu or " contracU," of 1000 
deniers value; and, in 1163, under Btao-tsoungt others 
were issued for the several sums of 400, 300, and 200 
deniers; so that in 1166 the existing issue amounted to 
28,000,000 ounces of silver ! Besides these, particular 
provinces had tfaeb particular issues, and the country w^ 




18410 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



lis 



inundated with paper«mdney. The Tdiie of each note 
deteriorated from day to oaj ; and, despite a new secu- 
rity was made, called yu-kouan or " money-bonds," and 
many expedients to lessen the national embarrassments 
occasioned by the glut of paper-money, the Mongols, 
who put an end to the Soung native dynasty in the 
latter half of the thirteenth century, foimd the monetary 
affairs of their new subjects in the utmost confusion* 

By these statements, the Chiaese historians prorfe thai 
the Mongols were not the inrentors of paper-money. 
On the contrary they found in the country innumerable 
bank-notes and banks : the Chinese had had their mone- 
tary crises, and their bankrupts, and their forg^ers: in 
short, OTory good and evil attendant upon paper-issues. 
The conquerors increased leather than rectified the em- 
barrassments of the Chinese. 

In 1^84, JToudfot-Ar^n, the first ef the new dynasty, 
ordered the mandarin Lou-eM-joung to prepare a plan 
for the establishment of a new paper-circulation. This 
appeared in (and indeed was confined to) the year 1287 ; 
for the new plan was a fidlure, and the emperor was 
simply obliged to increase the quantity of those bills 
called pao^chhao^y or '^preeious paper-money," calling 
in as many as possible of the old notes of tne Souang 
dynasty. These notes, though similar to former ones, 
were most elaborately ornamented. In 1S51 the entire 
8j8tem had become so rotten that A^sh changes were 
iDade, but without nosing the funds; and when the Mon- 
gols were driren fnnn. Chinai they had entirely ruined 
it by their paper-money* 

The Ming (natiTe dynasty), which sucoeeded that of 
the Yooan or Mongols, caused a total reyision of the 
teAAao, and issued six different sorts of notes, respectiTely 
for « strings'' of 1000, 500, 400, 800, 20Q, and 100 
deniers. But though every expedient was ^ed to keep 
up their ralue, sucn as forbidding the people to traffic 
in gold, silrer, and precious articles^ the Tahie of 
lerenteen ** strings" in paper was soon only eqnal to 
thirteen in copper^ At length, in 1448» only ihr%B 
deniers could be obtained for a note for en« thouiond/ 
This seems to hare brought about the final crisis. But 
the goremnMnt was unwilling to giye up the point with- 
out the most strenuous efforts; metal coin was forbidden 
to be passed, and, in 1465, the public taxes were 
decreed to be paid in iehhaof which had now become 
a << substitute for metal-mooey." All wae^ however, 
of no avail; paper gradually disappeared from the 
ciicnlation, and nothing more is mentioned about it 
in the minute Chinese histories aflev the last-named 
yesr. 

We prefix to this article an engraving ef abank-note^ 
or tchhaoy issued by the Mings, 

The upper division may be called the obverse, and the 
lower one the reverse, of the note; fof, hke the kftv^s 
which fom Chinese books, it is doubled back and pasted 
together, so as to have the appearance of having beeti 
printed on both sides. The writing at the top deifies 
that it is a (Pao-tchhao) note of the Emperor Zong- 
King, of uie Ming dynasty; that within the bdr<kr 
states the amonnt for which it is to pass, namely, a 
string of 1000 deniers. The following hr a translatiofi 
of tfae writing in the lower half or reverb of the note : 
At the petUhn of the treeunty boards U U ordamed 
^ the paper^maneff thue marked with the eeal of the 
imperial dynaaty of the Minge^ ehall have currency, and 
^ u$ed til nU reepeett as if it were copper 'iMmey, 
f^hoeeer diwhey will ha»e their heade cut off! It is 
Qot recorded whether this terrible penalty was ever en- 
forced; bttt in spite e^ it, as we hikve already seen, these 
notes became as waste-paper. 

At the present timoy it would appear that a system 
of paper-currency, upon a better foundation than any 
^therto tried, is sl<rwly gaining ground. This system 



is still in its infancy, and the bad state of pnblie and 
private credit in China interposes many obstacles to its 
ever coming to maturity. In lai^e trading cities there 
are numerous banks both of deposit and issue. They 
are not controlled by government, but conducted by 
private indiridnals, Who issue notes in the nature of 
checks or couponSf like the pian'theian before-men- 
tioned ; for the document is cut in half, one portion being 
presented to the depositor for circulation, and the other 
retained as a check by the bankers. Bills of exchange 
have been, in few instances, found convenient by the 
Chinese ; but bad faith has hitherto hindered their ex- 
tensive employmentf . 

^ China Ofened, by the Ret. CnAmLis Omtmn, tdI. ii., p. dl. 



* The word iekhao eignifles, " tabstatate for metal" or moaey.and is the 
§» mf tnt ot^epst-vaoaey ifi (He Ch&eie kngoage. 



If ever household affections and loves flfli gMjefoi ihinn 
thev are graceftil in the poor. The ties that bind the weidwj 
and the ^mmd to home may be f^ifged on earthy but those 
which Imk the poor man to his humble hearth are of Uie 
tme metal and mar the stamp of heaven. The man of high 
descent may love the halls and lands of his inheritance as a 
part of himself, as thiphies of his birth and power ; the poor 
man's attachment to tne tenement he holds, which strangers 
have held before, and may to-morrow occupy a«un, has a 
worthier rooty struck deep mto a purer soil. Mis oousehold 
gods are of fiesh and blood, with no alloy of silver, gold, or 

Erteious stones ; he has no property but in the affections o« 
is own heart ; and when they endear bare floors and walls, 
despite of rags, and toil, and scanty meals, that man has his 
love of home irom Grod, and his rude hut becomes a solemn 
place.— DiGKBRS. 

 fall I 

ThIckb is one In the world who feels tor him who Is sad, a 
keener nang than he feels for himself; there is one to whom 
nnSeeted joy is better than that which comes direct ; there 
is one who rejoices in another's hoviour, more than in any 
which is one's own ; there is one on whom another's trans- 
cendent ^dknce sheds no bean but ihtt of deliaht ; liiere 
is one who hides another's infinniUes^ mom fiuthndly than 
one's own; there is one who loses all sense of ee^m the 
sentiment of kindness, tenderness, and devotion to another. 
That one is Woman. — S. 



In lelerenee to the periods which merit tiie varione stages 
of the i»egxeas of Oie enckoo through the ssaseni I hire 
somewhere met with the following eosyletft-" 

In April, 

Gemehe will. 

In May, 

He sings all day. 

In June^ 

He altera his ttme. 

In July, 

He prepares to fly. 

Come Angnst, 

Ge he masi-^-^TAliliiai* 



THE RAINBOW. 



0OVT fl^owhig In tfMertaia hkHhg 

'Twixt Natofe's smiles an4 tean^ 
The bow, O LordI which tbou halt beut^ 

Bright in the cloud appean. 
The portal of thy dwelUng-placei 

That pure arch seems to be^ 
And, as I bless its inystio light. 

My spirit turns to Thee. 

Thus gleaming o'er a guilty world. 

We hail the ray of love; — 
Thtis dawns upon the contrite sonl 

Thy mercy f3pom nbove ; 
And as thy fatthfnl promise speaks, 

Kepentant sin forgiven, 
la homble hope we bless fhe beam 

That points the way to heaven. 

Ladt Floba HASTiirei, 



560—2 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



Mabcu 37. 



RURAL SPORTS FOR THE MONTHS. 
MARCH. 



The MghM boa lam* bi 



That branch of hunting in which the dogg employed 
pnnue their game by sight, and not by Kent, is denomi' 
nated " coursing," and is a practice of nigh antiquity and 
considerable celebrity. There is reason to belleTB that 
a dog, quick of sight, and somewhat swift of foot, was 
known to the ancienta nearly 4000 yean ago ; and in the 
time of Arrian, who flourished A.D. 150, the practice of 
coursing had been reduced to a systematie form. Yet 
the early representations of d(^ employed in coursing 
the hare, present little conformity with the elegant make, 
and limbs so especially adapted for fleetoess, which dis- 
tinguish our modem grevhound. 

Of the latter animal, nowever, it has been truly said 
that, "Admire him as much as we will, when we examine 
him on anatomical, physiological, and true philosophical 
principles, we must be constrained to consider him aa 
wholly an artificial auimaL" The coursing of the an- 
cients was of a bolder and more masculine character 
than that of our own times, for the stag, wolf, wild goat, 
fox, and other swift animals, were thus pursued; and 
heiides the employment of fleet dogs of rarioua kinds, 
the huntsmen were provided with suitable weapons, such 
as hows, spears, darts, &c The modem practice of 
courung is confined to the pursuit of the bore only, and 
is followed either in its simple form, or with the addi- 
tional stimulus of matching the dogs of different individu- 
als against each other, audadjudging priies to the victors. 

Simple, or unmatched courting, though originally 
considered a sufficiently interesting employment, and 
still possessing many advocates, is too monotonous in 
its character to please the lealous admirer of more en- 
livening sports. An old writer calls " hunting of the 
hare with greyhoundes a ryght good solace for men that 
be studiouse, or tbeim to whom nature hath not geven 
personage or courage apte for the warxes ; and also for 
gentilwomen which feare nether sonne, nor wynde, for 
appayyring their beautie ; and peradventure, (adds he,) 
they shall be therat lesse idelV than they shold be at 
home in their chambers." Arrian's panegyric of this 
sport is OS follows: — "Concerning coursing with grey- 
houndes — the which is doubtlesse a noble pastime, and 
as meet for nobility and gentlemen, as any of the others 
before declared, especially the course of the hare, which 
is a sport continually in sight, and mode without any 
great travoile ; so that recreation is therein to he found 
without immeasurable toyle and payne: whereas, in 
hunting with hounds, although (he pastime be great, yet 
many tiroes the toyle and payne is also exceeding great; 
and then it may well be culed eyther a piJniiill pastime, 
or a pleaunt payne." 



The practice of eonrsing has been decried even more 
perhaps than that of hunting, on account of its in- 
humanity; the chances of escape for the hare being 
fewer, and the speed to which she is nushed far greater. 
But it is by no means considered in tois light fay sports- 
men themselves. They hold it unfair and unsportsman- 
like to pursue thor game at a great disadvantage, and 
therefore make it a nile that a brace of greyhounds onlj 
shall be nted in the purtuit of a nngle hare, and tkit 
when a hare is [found on her form, it is disgraceful to 
put her up without withdrawing the dogs to a fair di). 
tance, so that the pursners snd the purvaed may be 
nearly on a par. Three greyhounds to one hare «u 
even in olden time considered against the laws of eonr- 
sing, seeing that " a brace of dogges is enow for such a 
poor beaste." 

Match conning is a much more exdting puranit thin 
the one we have jnst alluded to, inasmuch as it inchidn 
something of the competition and anxiety which attodi 
in a still greater degree to horse-racing. The chase of 
the hare is in this case entered on principally as a trial 
of speed in greyhounds matched against each other; snd 
these animals, by the exertion of that fleetness for which 
they are so remarkable, earn a sporting celebrity for 



various places, for the promotion of this sport. 

But we must turn onr attention from the punnun 
to the pursued, and examine the history of the timid snd 
inoffensive ■nJTnal, tiius made the object of interest tad 
eager contention. The genus Leput, to which the hsre 



lalia. Hares, properly so called, or a 
allied sub-genera agreeing well with them in their main 
characters, are distribnted over most countries on the 
face of the earth ; being found alike in warm regions, on 
tbemai^insof deserts, in wild and hilly countries,in culti- 
vated lands, and on the verge of perpetual snow. All 
the species are perfectly defenceless, and find their onlr 
chance of safety in the fleetness of their movemenli; 
they are all alike under the influence of an almoat per- 
petual fear, and their quick perception of sonnds, wMch 
would be inMidible to many other animals, renders than 
watchfiil and alive to danger. This excessive timidilT 
and apprehension caimot be regarded as otherwise thin 
painful to the animal, and it has been remarked by one 
of our naturalists that " all but sportsmen must pity 
creatures which exist constantly under the excitement <d 
acute fear." 

Tlie common hare is sufficientiy known as to its general 
figure, which is fivned for extraordinary powen of loco- 
motion. The fore-legs are much shorter and more slender 
than the hind-legs, and by this peculiarity greatly assist the 
saltatory motion of the animal. It is a singularity of thii 
spedes to have the palms of the feet covered with hair, 
which protects them from the injury they would be likely 
to receive tnxm the rough, dry soil they prefer, and in 
some measure compensates for the want of that elastic 
padding, which in the dog and other animals affords so 
good a security to its possessors. The eyes of the hue 
are admirably adapted to its habits and necessities. 
They are vetr prominent, and the pupil is elongated m 
a horiiontal direction. Thus the field of vision is suffi- 
ciently large to allow the animal to keep its pursuers in 
view, without altering the position of the head. As it 
is impossible, however, that the hare can look in two 
directions at the same time, it bos been known to run 
into the very danger it was seeking to avoid. The 
upper lip of the hare is cleft. The nostrils are circular, 
and almost hidden in a fold, by which means they are 
capable of being CiOsed. The tonrne is thick and loll- 
The great kngdi of the ears, and ueir mobility in every 



1M1.3 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



117 



direction, are very faronnble to t]ie reception of Mund, 
and the anatomy of these organs shows that they are 
particularly calculated to receive such sounds as come 
from behind. Like the nostrila, they are capable of 
being' closed, and tbos, in a state of safety and repose, 
the animal has the power of lessening that acute percep- 
tion of sounds which would be unnecessary, as well as 
irksome at such a time. 

Besides these characters which are common to all the 
genus, the hare has certain peculiarities as a species, the 
most prominent of which is colour. This, in the natural 
state of the animal, is always grayish-brown, with the 
exception of some of the Ah)ine species, whose colours 
change with the seasons. Tiie tail is invariably white 
on the under side, and blackish on the upper part. 
There is a spot over or around the eye, in many cases 
white, and always Ughter coloured than the surrounding 
fur, and this spot is, in a state of nature, never want- 
ing. The under part of the body is white, and the tips 
of the ean are black ; the body, especially the upper part, 
is covered with two aorts of hair, the one long and 
silky, the other short, fine, and woolly : — the latter is 
extensively used in the manufacture of oats as a substi- 
tute for the hair of the beaver, to which, however, it is 
greatly inferior in durability and in retention of the 
colour given by dyeing. Id those countries of Middle 
and Southern Europe, which, compared with our own 
country, are but thinlv peopled, and indifferently culti- 
vated, the number of hares taken annually is immense, 
■0 that their skins form an important article of commerce, 
being exported for the use of the hat manufacturer, as 
well as employed locally as warm articles of clothing. 
It is understood that the small kingdom of Bohemia 
alone furnishes nearly half a million skins in the course 
of the year, Austria Proper nearly doable that number, 
and Russia and Western Siberia a still larger proportion. 
Hares multiply rapidly, and if undisturbed, it is sup- 
posed their increase would prove greater than that of 
most other quadrupeds. A tuft of grass, or heather, or 
a mere hollow formed on the bare ground, is often the 
birth-place and dwelling of the young leverets, until they 
■re old enough to provide for the supply of their own 
«ants. The young are suckled by the dam for little 
more than thi«e weeks, and then begin to separate and 
make their own forms. They arrive at maturity in one 
year, and the term of their natural lives is supposed to 
be eight or nine years. 

Hajres do not burrow like rabbits beneath the earth; 
tbey merely look for a convenient hollow place in a fur- 
row, where, by their similarity in colour with the soil 
around them, they escape the notice of all but esperienoed 
eyes. Hiis is called wAr seat, and here they pass the 
greater part of the day, till the approach of evening gives 
them cwurage to go abroad in search of sustenance. 
They have been observed by shepherds and those who 
are in the habit of watching their proceedings, to change 
their seat, according to tint weather, generally seeking 
the more ^vated ground when rain prevails. In severe 
neather they repair to the woods, where they will prey 
OB the bark of almost every tree, and are often very 
injurious to young plantation*. Their food consists of 
vegetables, and tbey show the greatest relish for milky 
and succulent plants. 

The hare is commonly considered to possess no great 
degree of intelligence, yet the way in wnich it doubles 
to avoid its pursuers seems to evince much sagacity. 
Fearful as these animals are in their natural state, they 
have yet been soothed by gentle treatment into a degree 
afconfidence and boldness quite unexpected in creatures 
of such acknowledged timidity. A French naturaUst 
describes one of these animals as having become entirely 
domesticated in his house, and having lost its natural 
wlldness, with respect to all the inmates; but showing 
tokens of fear on the approach of strangers. In winter, 
it sat before the fire between two large Angora cats, and 



a sporting dog, with whom it lived on the best of terms ; 
at table it was generally close to its master looking for 
food, and if thwarted lu its expectation would beat with 
its fore-paws on the hand and arm of the person so treat- 
ing it. 

The age of the hare is, as we have said, reckoned to 
extend to eightornineyears; but one of Cowper's favour- 
ites lived eleven years and eleven months. Of this ani- 
mal he speaks in the following lines. 

' One sheltered liars' 

Has never heard the Banguinaty yell 
Of cruel man exulting in her woes- 
Innocent partner of my peaceful home. 
Whom ten long jeiav experience of ray care 
Has made at lost &miliar; she has loet 
Much of her vigilsnt, instinctive dread, 
Nor needful here beneath a roof like mine. 
Yea, thou may'st eat thy bread, and lick die hand 
That feeds thee ; thou may'st frolic on the floor 
At evening, and at night retire secure 
To thy straw couch, and slumber unalarnied ; 
For I have gained thy confidence, have pledged 
All that is human in me to protect 
Thy imiBuspeoting gnttltude and love. 
If I sorrive thee, 1 will dig thy grave ; 
And, when I place thee in it, sighing say, 
I knew at least one hare that h^ a friend. 



GARDEN HERBS. 



Hon did lb* drop a tettr^ben, in IhiipUcVi 

m Kt  tank of rue, nor iierb ot gna; 

Boa «« (in Tiitb. han ihonlj ili^ be eeen, 

In tba temembimDOg of  ««ipiit( queen. — SBiuraiaa. 

Thx name herb of grace, given to this plant in the 
above lines, was in common use in Gerard's time, and is 
supposed to have arisen from the custom of the Romish 
clei^ of sprinkling holy water from bundles of bitter 

Rue belongs to an extensive natural order of plants 
called Rvtactee, inhabiting widely different situations 
from each other, and forming, as they are thus united, 
an interesting, but somewhat heterogeneous group. 
This order contains thirty-seven genera, or families, 
most of which are strong-scented plants. Some of them 
are shrubby in their habit, some arborescent ! many of 
them possess medicinal qualities, as the Guaxacwnt, 
(one species of which yields also the lignum vita of 
commerce) : others are favourite plants in greenhouses, 
as the Diotmai, and are very easy of cultivation. Com- 
mon garden rue is the type of the order. It is a native 
of the South of Europe, and is said to have been first 
cultivated in this country in 1562, but writers of that 
period, and of a still earlier date, make mention of it as 
of a common and well-known plant. Thus we find 
Tusser, who wrote before that time, saying,— 

What savour is belter. 

For places infected, than wormwood and rue I 

The plant is accurately described in the quaint lan- 
guage <k Gerard. 

Gaidcn Tue, or planted me, is a shrub fall of branches, 
now and then a yud high, or higher ; the Malkei whereof 



118 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[March S7» 



be green: the leAvee liereof eonslst of dlyen parte, and 
are covered with a whitish harke, the branchee are more 
divided into wings, about which are certaine little ones, of 
an odd number, something broad, more long than round, 
smooth, and somewhat fat, of a gray colour, or greenish 
blew : the floures in the tops of the branches are of a oale 
yellow, consisting of four little leares, somethhig hollow, 
in the middle of which standeth up a little head or button, 
four^uare, seldom five-square, containing as many coffen 
as it hath comers, being compassed about with divere little 
yellow threds, out of which hanff pretie fine tips, of one 
colour. The seed gToweth In the little coffers : the root is 
woody, and fiutened with many strings. This rUe hath a 
very strong and rank smell, and a biting taste : it joyeth m 
sunnie and open places: it prospereth in rough and brickie 
ground. 

Among the ancient Greeks and Romans this herb was 
held in great esteem. The Greeks used it) together with 
parsley, for the bordering of their garden^, and as the 
gardens could not be entered without passing this border, 
it became a proverb among them, when any persons were 
about to enter on an undertaking, but had not yet taken 
any steps towards it, " You are not yet arrived at the 
parsley and rue.'* The uses to which the ancients 
applied this plant were many of them very superstitious, 
and it was generally believed that the efficacy of the 
plant was enhanced by stealing it ft'om a neighbour's 
garden. In Aristotle's time rue was worn about the 
neck as a charm against witchcraft. 

That rue was planted to a considerable extent among 
the Romans appears from the directions of Pliny to rue 
gatherers, — ^that they keep their hands well gloved, to 
avoid the blisters which the pungency of this herb is 
apt to produce. The same author notices the poisonous 
nature of the juice of rue, when taken in too great 
quantity, especially that drawn from the rue which grew 
in Macedonia, about the river Aliacmon, and in Galatia, 
and states that juice of hemlock destroys this poisonous 
quality. The juice of rue was kept in boxes made of 
brass or copper, and was used against the sting of ser- 
pents, scorpions, bees, hornets, &c^ and for the bite of 
mad dogs. It was employed to foment the limbs of 
persons benumbed with cold : it was drunk with wine to 
cure the head-ache : it was taken likewise to prevent the 
consequences of excess in drinking. The leaves were 
eaten by engravers, carvers, and painters, as a preserva- 
tive to the eye-sight : others just touched the comers of 
their eyes with the juice, to cure weakness of vision. 
A drink was made from it for the cure of all complaints 
incident to four-footed animals : its reputed virtues are, 
in fact, too numerous And too contradictory to be re- 
counted here. 

Besides the medicinal uses for which this herb was 
valued among the Romans, it was also esteemed on 
account of the fiavour it imparted to theii^ winea. Colu- 
mella, in speaking of it, says, — 

And me, which the Palladian berries' taste excels ; 

and Pliny informs us that ^hen Cornelius Cethegua was 
chosen consul with Quintius Flaminiua, he gave to the 
people, after the election, a largess of new wine, aroma- 
tized with rue. This would probably be very repugnant 
to modern taste, for this herb is intolerably bitter. 

The leaves of rue are said to have formed a principal 
ingredient in the famous antidote to poison, used by 
Mithridates, king of Pontus* This antidote^ with slight 
alterations, has been in use for nearly nineteen centuries, 
and is still employed on the Continent. It has been ex- 
ploded in Britain, and laughed at as an absurd farrago, 
ever since Dr. Heberden published his AntUheriaca* 

Pliny tells us that the weasel is so well acquainted 
with the virtues and powers of rue, that before he 
attacks the serpent he eats the herb to prevent the poison 
from taking effect. Macer, who wrote his Latin poem 
about twenty years before the Christian era, notices the 
same thing, and an old naturalist haa giren the Avowing 
translation of th* lines s— • 



And weezela teach, it can withstand strong poywn^s spite. 
Which, when they are about with serpenu bhick to fight. 
In wondrous sort do first of all rue nibble, eat, and bite. 

If we look into the writings of the old medical prac- 
titioners and herbaliats of our own country, we shall find 
the qualities of this plant described in much the same 
exaggerated strain that we have noticed in the ancient 
authors of Greece and Rome. One tella us that the 
very smell of me has been known to preberve from 
infection during pestilence, and therefore we are to wear 
a nosegay of it whenever we visit a person ill of any 
contagious disease; and that if we would be still farther 
secured from danger^ we must chew some of the leaves, 
or eat of a conserve of rue. Another affirms that by 
eating the leaves of rue, persons may enre themselves ii 
the king's evil. A third tella ua that the juice of rue. 
made hot in the rind of a pc«iegranate» and dropped 
into the ears, ia a oure for the ear-ache, and is also a 
remedy fbr shingles, St* Anthony's fire, and ether dis- 
orders; that the herb itaelfi a little boiled or scalded* 
kept in pickle, and eaten, is good for dimness of the 
e]rea» and, boiled in vinegar, relieves shortness of breath 
and pain in the chest} side* or joints* A fourth ascribei 
to it the virtue ^ curing gout and dropsy, and of re- 
moving ritigworm, Wirts, and all diseases of the ^io. 
A fifth pronounces it to be excell^it in all illnesses of 
the stomach which proceed from a cold cause» and only 
datigerous in the too frequent use of it; and a sixth is w 
full of its praiaes) that %X the dose of hia remarks he 
declares that the greatest eommendation he Can bestow 
upon it falla abort of its merita* 

But we would not have our feadefs misled by these 
extravagant eulogiums, Or induced, by this alight mention 
of them, to employ the herb in the way^ or for the pur- 
poses above niimed. Let them rather attend to the 
opinions of modetti and better-skilled persons, who 
assure us that its tiaefiilneaa is uncertain and unimpor- 
tant, and who At the same time acquaint Us that large 
and liepeated doses produce parching thirsty burning 
pain of the stomaeh and bowels, head-ache, deUriura, aod 
death. 

Wild rue is much more energetic in its action than 
the cultivated sort, and therefore more caution is rs« 
quired in using it Gerard declares it to be virulent and 
pernicious, and aays that it sometimes '* fiuneth out s 
vapour or air, to hurtful that it acorcketh the face of 
him that looketh upon it, raising up blisters^ whealee, snd 
other acddentss it ve n otoe th thenr hands that touch it, 
and will infiM^ tli« face alsO) if it be touched with them 
before they bo clean washed, wherefore it ia not to be 
admitted into moat or medicine." 

Rue is a hardjr shrubs and ia easily cultivated bj 
planting the loeda, or slips, or cuttinga, teriy in tbs 
spring months. It blosaoma in July and August, or, if 
it be in A warm dcmntry) or in a skeltered situation, still 
cwriier. According to PUny, theiv ia such friendship 
between it and the ig^tiee that it prospers nowhere so 
well as Undet a fig-tree. I^utarch notes the aame dr- 
cumstanoe in hia first booke of the Sympotiacka or Feasts, 
and savB it becomes more vweet and mild in such situa- 
tions, DOfMUse it tokes away tome of the sweetness of 
the fig-treo, and (Mtfta with eome <if ita own bitttf 
flavour. 



rflMta 



CHRistiAKiTlf Is not a latituditiarian religion, 'pfoposing a 
variety of independent doctrines, and leaving to the choios 
of its pni fe seoi ' s, which they will embrace, and which they 
will tejeet: but ft ia a religion predas and defiaite; it pro- 
poses a system of tmtiia^ mntually connected with and de- 
pendent on each other; it repreaanta thoaa trutha aa the fit 
objects of a Christian's, fiuth ; and to a sincere and oonsoiett- 
tious belief and profesuon of them it promises happiness; on 
a wilful disbelief and rejection of them it deneunees woe. 
—Bishop Mazvt. 



■ate 



1841 J 



THE SATURDAY^MAGAZINR 



lift 



Introduction. 



EMk miiig flham Um bounteow ttrtiin baitowi. 
The gran that Uiickeaa, and the flower that blowf. 
And while the vale the humid wealth imhihes. 
The tetorii^ wave •astains the ftnny tribea: 
The carp, with foldeo acaUiB, in wanton play , 
The trout in crimsoD-speckled glory gay ; 
Ithe red-finned roach, the ailTer-coated eel'; 
Tha Dike, whoaa haunt the twirted sooli oonoeali 
The haalii^i teach, the ipidgeon, perch, and hreva; 
And all the sportiTe natives of the stieain.^ 



When we consider that water occupies more than two* 
thirds of the globe, we shall have no difficulty in admit- 
ting the statement made by naturalists, that fishes 
constitute by far the most numerous class of vertebrated 
animah, botn as respects the number of individuals and 
the variety of their forms. Indeed, the constant acces- 
sions which are being made to our knowledge of fishes, 
and other considerations, lead us to suppose that pot 
more than half the existing species are known and 
described. The natural history of fishes is more imper- 
fect than that of quadrupeds, birds, and insects, because 
their native abode is of vast dimensions, and can to a 
very limited extent only be explored by man, from whose 
cunous eye fishes can easily withdraw themselves into 
haunts inaccessible to the inhabitants of the land; thus 
the study of Ichthyology, interesting and beautiful as it 
is, presents more difficulties than any other department 
of natural history. 

Fishes were arranged by Linneus in six principal 
orders, and subdivided into several tribes, rour of 
these were marked by the position of their ventral or 
belly fins, and two by their gills» But the most ap- 
proved arrangepient is that of Cuvier, who places fishes 

the fourth class of organic beings, the first three 



m 

comprising beasts, birds, and reptiles. The class of 
fishes he divides into %wq sub-classes, vis., Ist, cartila- 
ginous, and 2nd, osseous fishes, hi the former the 
bones are gristly, and in the latter firm, although fiur less 
compact than in the higher orders of animals. 

The general form of fishes is cylindrical, pointed more 
or less at each end, and slightly compressed at the 
sides ; but this form is subject to many extraordinary 
variations, adapted to the economy of the ^nimal; some 
fish are short and round — others ar^ elopgated ; — some 
are compressed — others depressed: the most common 
form, however, is that first given, a familiar example of 
which is presented by the maekerel, which exhibits, as 
Mr. Yarrell remarks, '' );he highest degree of elegance 
in shape, and when recently takei) from the water, is so 
rich and so varied in its colour, as to be fairly entitled 
te be considered one of the most beautiful among 
British fishes." 

It is almost superfiuous to remark that the forms of 
fishes are admirably adapted to their general habits and 
economy, because we know how much gpracious provision 
is made by the Almighty for all His creatures. This 
hst is so constantly witnessed by the naturalist, and he 
sees it illustrated in so many thousand ways, almost at 
every advancing step which his improving knowledge 
leads him, that while it constitutes a principal charm in 
the study of natural 'history, it often brings up to his 
mind the gentle monition of the Saviour, that God, who 
ibrgetteth not the sparrows, who feedeth the ravens and 
\ clotheth the grass of the field, will not discontinue 
His watchful care over those whom He has declared to 
be far better than they. 

The external form of fishes tends to celerity and ease 
of motion : man has imitated this modelling in the 
build of those ships in which the quickest despatch is 
needful ; but human competition against the perfection 
of nature's works always fails, for all the lai^^ fishes 

I can not only overtake the fastest-sailing vessel, but play 
vound it, ^parently without any nnusual effort. 



Most fishes, 'm addition to the great fin on the tail» 
are furnished with two pairs of fins upon the sides, two 
single fins upon the back, and one upon the belly, or 
between the belly and the tail. These fins are highly 
important as organs of motion, and they enable the 
naturalist, by their structure, position, and number, to 
distinguish orders, families, and genera. But the chief 
instrument of velocity is the tail, aided by the strengtJi 
and pliancy of the l>ack-bone: by the impulse of thia 
organ alone the animal darts through the water with the 
swiftness of an arrow, the wedge-shaped head enabling 
it to divide the water with ease. But whether in pursuit 
of prey or avoiding an enemy, the smaller fins are all 
laid close to its body : these fins are too minute and 
flexible, compared with the animal's weight, to impel 
it so quickly; their peculiar office is to adjust and 
modify the motion imparted by the energy of the tail. 
The ventral and dorsal fins keep the fish in its proper 
position, and by means of the former fin the fish is pro- 
bably assisted in raising or depressing its body in the 
water. The pectoral fins assist and regulate progp'essive 
motion : by extending them, the progress is stopped when 
swimming rapidly; and by folding either, while the other 
continues to play, the turn to the left or right is accom- 
plished. The balancing use of the fins has been shown 
by experiments on several large-headed fish, 

Fisnes are fUmished with certain protecting organs, 
which have been divided into the three distinct processes 
of skin, scales, and spines. The skin consists of the 
dermis, or true skin, a mucous tissue, and an epidermis, 
or cuticle. The mucous tissue, which in all animals is 
the seat of colour, is remarkable in fishes for its brilliant 
tints and iridescent refiections. The cuticle is generally 
covered with a mucous secretion, which also extends to 
the scales. The scales when viewed by the microscope 
present a wonderful and beautiful construction: they 
serve many important purposes in the general economy 
of fishes. The sharp spinous appendages, which are 
placed in different parts of the body in different fishes, 
seem intended as weapons either of defence or of offence. 
The inhabitants of the waters as well as those of the land 
depend upon the oxygen of the atmosphere for respira- 
tion : the quantity of air necessary to sustain the life of 
a fish is smaller than that required by warm-blooded 
animals ; but a greater or less supply of air is essential to 
every living being. The death of fish in a severe frost is 
in consequence of the congelation of the surface of the 
water, whereby the external air is excluded: the poor 
animals below the sheet of ice must perish unless an 
opening be made to admit the air : we see the fishes 
themselves bear witness to the fact that they cannot live 
without air, in the eagremess with which the suffocating 
creatures crowd round any opening made in the ice* 
The inconvenience they suffer is so great as to deprive 
them on these occasions of their natural timidity, for 
they can be caught by the hand without difficulty. The 
peculiar motion of the fish's mouth and gill-lids as if in 
the constant act of drinking, (whence the vulgar saying, 
" as thirsty as a fish,") is nothing more than the act of 
respiration. The gills, which act the part of lungs, are 
placed externally : they may be described as consisting, 
in the bony fishes, of four arched bones placed in suc- 
cession close behind the mouth on each side, and covered 
by an operculum or gill-lid. On these arched bones are 
spread out several fine laminae, or thin membranous 
folds, in which the artery bringing the blood from the 
heart, spreads itself out into very numerous and minute 
ramifications. The operculum is moveable by means of 
muscles attached to it. The fish in respiring takes a 
mouthful of water, and passing it to the back of its mouth 
allows it to remain there a moment in contact with the 
gills, through which at the same time the blood is pass- 
ing freely. Water, exposed to the air, always contains 
a portion of that fluid, and the air thus dissolved by the 
water acts upon the fish's blood; the fish then lifts its 



120 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[March 27, 1841. 



operculum and causes tbe water to be dischargred back- 
wards. The blood being thus aerated is again collected 
from vary fine braaohes into trunks, which, running 
from each of the branchial ribs, finally unite and form 
tbe aorta for conveying tbe blood to the whole body- 
From this, the blood is returned by the veins to a simple 
auricle, thence it passes into a single ventricle, which, in 
turn, drives it into the branchial artery, and so back to 
the gills again. '* From what we have said of the mode 
of respiration, it is clear that a trout, before it attempts 
to breathe, must turn its head up against the stream. 
Were it to attempt this operation facing down tbe stream 
it would in vain try to let out the water from its gills, 
for as soon as it had lifted its operculum, the current 
would pour in water from behind, in place of suffering 
it to discharge what was there. It therefore becomes 
part of the angler's art, to keep the head of the trout he has 
hooked down the stream, in which situation it cannot 
attempt to breathe, and is therefore the sooner ex- 
hausted." (Lord's Popular Physiology.) 

Many fishes are furnished with a bladder filled, with 
air, and placed in the upper part of the abdomen close 
against the spine; this has been thought to. assist the 
function of respiration. It. is however more probable, 
that the air-bladder is destined to assist the animal's 
movements; for we find it largest in such fishes as move 
with great velocity. This organ is wanting in flat-fish, 
where, however, the large lateral fins supply its place; 
also in the lamprey, which, in consequence, moves but 
slowly along the bottom of the water. There seems 
however but little doubt that this organ enables fishes to 
maintain and adapt their specific gravity to the various 
depths of the element in which they move. 

In whatever way then we regard fishes, we see that by 
their internal structure and outward shape they seem 
equa.lly well furnished with the means of enjoying life as 
birds or quadrupeds. When the senses of fishes, and other 
faculties pertaining to their organization are examined, we 
find that nature having intended them for less perfect 
beings has been proportionably sparing in her endow- 
ments. The brain is very small. The organs of smell 
and the nerves supplying them, are perceptible in most 
fishes; but as air is the only medium for the difiusion of 
odours, we can scarcely suppose that residing in the 
water they are affected oy them; but it has been sup- 
posed that the olfactory membrane serves them instead of 
a distinguishing palate, in the same way as we distinguish 
by our taste. 

The taste of fishes must be imperfect, if its delicacy 
arises from the softness of the organ; since the whole 
mouth of most fishes is covered with a hard bony sub- 
stance, by which they cannot discriminate bodies by 
the palate. Salt-water fishes have been known to swallow 
the fisherman's plummet instead of the bait: indeed, the 
greediness of the inhabitants of salt-water is prodigious : 
the lines of the fishermen are coarse and clumsy ; the 
baits are seldom more than a piece of fish or the flesh 
of some quadruped, stuck on the hook in a rude manner. 
On the banks of Newfoundland, the hook, which is only 
hidden by the entrails of the animal last taken, is dropped 
into the water, the cod seizes it at once, and the fisher- 
men have but to pull up as fast as they can throw in : 
but it is otherwise in fresh water, for, as Mr. Daniel 
observes, ^' The lines must be drawn to a hair-like fine- 
ness, be tinctured of the peculiar colour of the stream, 
the bait must be selected with care, or formed with the 
nicest art, and still the fishes approach with diffidence, 
and often swim round it with disdain, while hours are 
wasted in fruitless expectation, and the patience of an 
angler passes into a proverb." 

The eyes of fishes are peculiarly adapted to vision in 
so dense and highly refractive a medium as water. The 
outer surface of this organ is flat, and the internal one 
spherical : the flat cornea sustains less injury than a pro- 
jecting one, especially in the absence of eyelids and other 



projecting coverlids: this flatness, howeyer, is compen- 
sated by the greater signifying power of th» crystal- 
line lens. But the particular form and situation of the 
eyes of fishes toary in diffei«nt special wecm^m^ to their 
position in the waters, their general habits, and the mode 
in which they pursue their prey. When we look upon 
the surface of the waters, .and our eye seeks in vaio to 
penetrate the depth, we must not suppose that their 
inhabitants are similarly' circumstanced with respect to 
us. When we are on the outside of a room, we know how 
difficult it is to distinguish objects within, especially 
when the solar light falls obliquely upon the glass : but 
those within the room have no such difficulty : they can 
see clearly all that passes without; and this we may fairly 
presume to be the case with fishes — ^they can see clearly 
objects out of the water, while we cannot often see them 
in the water. Much light is absorbed below certain 
depths from the surface, and we find that those fishes 
which dive deep have very large organs of sight. 

It 18 a very common error to suppose that fishes are 
deslitute of hearing: those which have the gills free 
have no external openings for the ears, but two such 
openings are discovered in fishes which have fixed gills. 
In both cases, however, internal provision is made for 
this very important function : indeed, the custom is as 
old as the ancient Romans to keep pet fish in ponds, and 
train them to swim to a certain spot, at the sound of a 
bell, to be fed. Mr. Swainson tells us, as "a well-authen- 
ticated fact, that the Chinese, who breed great numbers 
of gold-fish, call them together, at the time of feeding, 
by a whistle ; and the same mode of summoning other 
species by a noise, in aquatic preserves, is upon record." 

The teeth of fishes are so constant and permanent in 
their characters as to be second only to the fins in deter- 
mining character. The fobd of most fishes is of an 
aninuil' nature, and they seem as if impelled by urgent 
and constant necessity to pursue their prey. 'This appe- 
tite surpasses both in strength and activity those bounds 
which in other orders of the animal kingdom Nature 
seems to have prescribed. Every aquatic animal falls a 
victim to the indiscriminate voracity of fishes. Insects, 
worms, or the spawn of other tenants of the waters, 
sustain the smaller tribes, which, in their turn, are pur- 
sued by larger and more rapacious enemies. 

From their extraordinary voracity, (sa^ Yarrell,) their 
rapid digestion^ and the war of exterminatiqn they carry on 
among themselves^ the greater and more powerful fishes 
consuming the smaller and weaker, &om the* hugest to the 
most dimmutive : add to this, the constant and extensire 
destruction effected by the numerous sweeping nets of ruth- 
less man, and it is probable that comparatively but fe^ 
fishes die a natural death. 

The same talented naturalist remarks that ''the 
wounds of fish heal rapidly; and they appear to have 
but few diseases, probably owing to Uie uniformity of 
the temperature in the medium in which they reside." 

We have thus far given a brief and general view of 
the structure and habits of fishes. We are about to 
invite the reader's attention to the principal individuals 
which inhabit fresh water; and, in a course of illustrated 
articles, we propose to state the natural history of each 
fish, so far as it is well authenticated by the united 
observations of credible naturalists: at the same time, 
we shall avail ourselves of such curious antiquarian and 
anecdotal information which will tend to illustrate the 
state of knowledge as it existed in former days. 

He who looks not beyond this world, cannot feel pleastrre 
in anything which tends to disturb his comforts, or thvrart 
his will. — H. W. B. Daubenet. 



LONDON: 

JOHN WILLIAM PAEKER, WEST STRAND. 
FoBLiBiuto m W]aBu.T Kombsm, prics OMfl Pnnnr» A»n ijc llo^fruvt 

TAVn, PBICB 8lSPJUR». 

Bold b7 »U BookMUio* and M«wpT««d«sla tiM XiBg4Ba« 



N? 561. SUPPLEMENT, 



MARCH. 1841. {oiK.. 



OVERLAND JOURNEY FROM INDIA TO ENGLAND. 



TOKAT, IH ASIA K 



SECOND ROUTE. 



In inTittng. our readen to accompany na in a second orer- 
land joimiej from India to England, wa deem it neceasaiy 
to rec^ att«ntioii to the different routes itmially taken, in 
order t« axtilunitheaTrangement nlilch ne sliall adopt. 
Some troTellen embark, at Calcutta, Madraa, or Bombay; 
•oil acroee tbe Indian Ocean to tbe Red Sea ; ascend that sea 
to a port on the western shore ; travel acroea a sandy desert 
to the Nile ; and follow this river to its exit in the Mediter- 
nnean. Another rotite, is, toascend the Persian Gulf in~ 
•lead of the Red Sea, and to travel overland to the northern 
part of Peina; from whence three distinct routes conduct 
the traveller, to Europe:. 1st. northward through Russia; — 
Sod. along the south shore of the Black Sea to Constsnti- 
Dople; — :M..BlQugthenortl) shore of tbe same sea to Russia, 
Aostna, &c. tflstlr, the route which is most correctly 
termed " orerland,'' is that wherein the traveller sets out 
bom the north-west frontier of India ; traverses the domi- 
uoiu of the Sikhs, the Afghans, the Bokhariana, the Uzbeks, 
and other semi-civilized tribes; and finally arrives at the 
diores of the Ca^ian, from whence he lakes one of the 
homeward routes already mentioned. With regard to the 
route bj way of the Red Sea and Eeypt, we do not deem it 
iK«essary U> devote a Supplement thereto, since the only 

"overland" P '" "" " — ' "~ "" ' ' '' 

Vou XVlfl 



Red Sea, to Dendera, on the banks of Uio Nile, o distance 
of less than 100 miles. The otherroutes may be bo arranged 
as to give a tolerably complete notion of the subject in three 
Supplementa. We have already traced the coorse from 
Bombay t« Basaora by sea, touching at Itluscat; then 
tbrougfi Persia, by way of Bagdad, Kermanshah, Teheian, 
and Tabriz; and thence over Mount Caucaaus to Europe, 
Captain Keppel being our chief travelling companion. On 
the present occasion we propose to land at Bushire instead 
of BasBOra ; to proceed by way of Shiraz and Is|iahan to 
Northern Persia ; and thence westward through Asia Minor 
to Constantinople; availino; ourselves chieflv of the dea- 
criptions by Sir James Alexander and Mr. Bailie Fraser. 
Another Supplement, treating of the route by way of the 
Afghan country, will complete the subject. 

Ships proceeding from Bombay to the Persian Gulf put 
in very frequently at Bushire, and the passengers proceed 
thence by land through Persia. Tliis sca-pott ia situated on 
a sandy beach, in a dead, flat counlry; eastward are a few 
date trees,and at the distance of forty milesrisca a lofly range 
of dork blue mountains. The town has been said to present 
the appearance of a half-built city, from tlie incomplete 
state in which many of the hou!*a arc left. A curious 
practice prevails in the constniciion of the houKs, for alle- 
viating the excessive heat of the air in summer: on tho 
flat roofs of the honses are square tn'nd towera, sometimes 
riung to the height of »3cty or a hundred feet, and piercrf 
on each side with three or foux longitudinal openings, lluougb 



122 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



which every breath of wind is conre^td to the sitting apart- 
mente beneath. Those who ore aQCUStomed to the domestio 
comforts of an Ei^lish city will be surprised to hear that 
BO water fit for drinkUig can he pfOOirQd witliin three miles 
of Bushire, and that Arab w<»Qen fetch the whole of the 
water required by the inhabitants, carrying it on their backa 
in sheep-skin bags or pouches. 

The mode of travelling throughout Persia is almost ex- 
clusively by horse or mule, for the want of roads, and the 
attacks of predatory tribes, render vehicles ill-fitted for 
such a country. Accordingly, travellers, on leaving Bushire, 
bargain with the hone and mule dealers for the hire of these 
animals at so much per diem. Sir James Alexander's party, 
when he made the overland journey in 1825, consisted of 
about twenty persons, including servants. The gentlemen 
purcluised hoi-ses for themselves, and hired mules for their 
servants and baggage ; and the mode of travelling which 
they arranged was as follows : — To leave the halting places 
every evenm? an hour and a half before sunset, strike the 
tent, and pack up all the utensils ; march on with one ser- 
vant and a horse-keeper ; completing a march, generally of 
sixteen or eighteen miles, by ten o'clock; sleep on the 
ground till sunrise, by which time the baggage mules would 
have ai'rived, the tent pitched, and arrangements made for 
visiting the surrounding country during the day. By this 
arrangement the time of travelling was oon&ied to the 
cool hours of evening. 

On leaving Bushire for Shiraz and PersepoUs, the traveUer 
passes through a country presenting few pomts of attraction. 
The sandy sod is in many parts covered with salt marshes ; 
here and there are to be seen fields of beuded wheat, and 
wells for the refreshment of the traveller ; but the districts 
between the villages are generaUy rather sterile. At one 
spot several naph&a and sulphureous streams issue from 
the hills, round the bases of wnich the road winds» and croas 
the path : this impregnated water is lukewarm at the foun- 
tain-head, and leaves a sediment of whiUsh-gray earth, 
which is of an acid and saltish taste^ and ia 0004 by the 
Persians for acidulating shnrbet. 

Alonff this road are several mall towna.aad viUegei, most 
of whicn are provided with caravaBsmii. Most of our 
readers are prooably aware that these are hovses of accom- 
modation H>r man and horse» in Oriental oountries. In 
general, the^ have the form of a hollow squaie, the interior 
&ces of which consist of rooms fur tiaveUert; and ia the 
comers are passages leadiaa: to Msra of staUbif behixid tha 
apartments of tiie travelbfe. Ilie entraiMa gateway » 
always in the side feeing the rafed; and kk SMaa eases there 
is an underground aDajtBUttl in the ceatia of the square 
court, to which travellers may leiiie whsn tlM weather is 
oppressively hot. It is a eoomea pnetlce to sleep en the 
roof of the caranuiseiai, with no ather eovering thaa a 
light curtain to keep away the »eeqni to es»"- t he vmml a^ 
tenddnts of an Oriental tisavellerw 

The sterile and sandy district of which we have lately 
spoken, is succeeded by a mountainous country, in which 
are the ruins of a once celebrated city named Shahpoor. 
These ruins are distant about 100 miles from Bushire, and 
at one part is a cave noted for its sculptured rocks. The 
sculptures are supposed to commemorate the triumph of the 
Persian king Shaiipoor over the Roman emperor valerian. 
The king is on horseback, with a crown surmounted by a 
globe on his head ; a Roman, extended on his hack, bunder 
the horse's feet ; and the emperor, kneeling on one knee in 
an attitude of submission, with a helmet on his head, and 
dressed in the Roman costume, is immediately in front. 
Many Persian cavalry and infantry are introduced in close 
order, above and to the richt and left of these principal 
figures ; and Victory is di^J^ying the scroll of Fame over 
the king. The rock on whose*^ face this device is sculptured, 
is of coarse jaspar, but bears a high polish. Numerous 
other remains of antiquity are found near the same spot, but 
all are now most desolate and dreary, giving the same indi- 
cations, as so many other parts of Persia afford^ of the fallen 
state of that once great empire. 

At intervals, along the route which we are here follow- 
ing, and which proceeds north-east from Bushire, are several 
Tillages, of which about a dozen intervene between that 
town and Shiraz, a distance of 150 miles. These villages 
bear a considerable resemblance to each other, and are mostly 
of a poor and humble character. We shall, therefore, pass 
them over, and proceed to Shiraz, one of the most important 
places in the southern part of Persia. 
, • Shifwg, or SMrauz^ tnongh neither veiy ancient nor ray 
•xtensiTey haa long been one of the hoaate of Peni% from 



the beauty of its environa and the polished gaietv el its in- 
babititnts. It haa besii th# Isvouike Mai ef t&e Persian 
muses^ and near it are buried Hc^mA ^^^mkI^ the diief of 
the national poeta^ Its wines are celebrated as the most ▼»- 
luaMe in the East ; and it is the seat of a considerable and 
increasing trade ; but since it ceased to be the residence of 
Kurr^em Khm^ the inhabitants have lost their character fbr 
taste and refinement. 

Shiraz lies in a valley, and is surrounded bv a brick will 
havinff laige baations at the gateways, of whidi &ere m 
six. Few Oriental cities possess such a fine street as the 
bazaar Vakeel of Shiraz. This b a very long vaulted avenue, 
about sixteen feet wide, with good shops on both sides, holes 
in tlie centre of the arch for the emission of smoke, and win- 
dows in the sides for the admission of light In the centre is 
a sort of rotundiH with bazaars branching off to the right and 
left. Among the publio buildings of the dtv is the tomb 
of the poet Hafiz, which b a single block of Tabriz marble, 
inscribed with verses from the works of the poet and from 
the Koran ; the tomb b in a garden^ and b surrounded bj 
beautiful cypress trees, but b now environed by commoo 
eraves, and b no longer adorned aa formerly with a copj of 
Hafiz's poems. 

One of the governors of Shiras, some yesrs ago, erected 
two buildings to the memory of pious and diitineiiished 
men, called the Huft Tun, and the Chehel Tun. Tbeseaie 
a kind of pleasure^houses belonging to the governor, and aie 
decorated with paintines of ver^ mediocre character, in- 
tended as memoriab of distinguished deceased men. The 
other points of mterest in Shiraz are similar to those which 
are found in most Eastern cities, such aa the palaces, gardeo^ 
baths ; and there b also a similar want of cleanliness and 
comfort in the streets^ for the traveller frequently finds the 
accumulation of dry mud and dust so great that the lerel 
of the court-yards of the houses b aeT«ral feet below that 
of the streets. 

(Quitting Shiraz (which has more than once sai!ered from 
earUiquakes) we bend our way towards the far-femed niuu 
of Persepolia, distant about thirty miles. In the cow « 
thb journey we oiosa the Bend, or Bund Emir, thusalluded 
i^ in. LaUa Rookk. 

Thaw's « bowOT of kim hj 'Bnukmittit'% •traam, 
And tfta iBghtiii|EBl« nnn round it all Um dij iMg 
In lh» Ham of mj childbood 'tmn Uka a wsel ~ 



w 



T» sit fai Om roMfit, and bMT IM Wip4*« 
That \tmm mmI iti wmm I mmm btmit 
nm aft vtwa sImm la ais UoMa «r lie y 
I Ifefak. b ^ iWHtopin ibriag tfiew yat» 
▲w th* soMi fMdl M|^ %j tti eshu B«DdHasw7 

Fneepolk wm a city of oonsiteable impertaBce in an- 
eieDt itiMa : a^d althoagh the date of He erection is now 
nnknowB, theia seema evidence that it was taken and if* 
diwed to ruins by Alexander the Grest These rainscoii- 
ibi eUefly of nillaie and doorways, aa if forming paijfo^ 
■ena noble buiidiagSb They are surrounded bv a pW 
when viewed from which they present a very noble ap?^' 
ance, being situated on a platform fifty feet m height. Tbe 
length of thb pbtform is about 1500 feet, and it is ap- 
proached from the north by a double flight of easy steps ot 
blue marble veined with quartz. At the top of *^®.*^ 
are four walls^ surmounted by colossal figures of yroi^ 
bulls, with remnants of four pillars between the walls, tne 
whole seeming to have formed a gateway. Near thb is a stow 
cistern for water; and frirther southward b another double 
flight of steps, on the front of which are sculptured an im- 
mense number of figures in procession. On seceding toss* 
steps^ we come to an. aasemblage of pillan, the vestiges ot 
which numt)er about forty. The pillars which still wnwij 
are veiy elc^^ant and lofty, with fluted shafts, and are forniea 
of a beauti&l gray marble. Tradition states these pillan ^ 
have once sustained a roof, and to have formed part of * 
temple. Southward of these pillars are seen the remains <n 
apartments consisting of square endosuree with sculpture 
doors, and formed of bhick marble. Through different ^ 
of the pktform run narrow subterranean passages, originaiij 
perhaps aqueducts ; and near the platform is an i™*"^^ 
stone enclosure, which seems to nave been the P'^PJ 
residence. The whole platform must have been a ^^^ 
immense labour, for it is built up of large blocks of cwrse 
black marble, extremely well cut and fitted to each othf 
The steps leading to tne platform are more than W m 
number, and are so shallow in proportion to their widtn, 
that a man can make the ascent on horseback. Th^ sciaip- 
tures and inscriptions on various parts of these rnins have 
•ngaged the attention of many travellen, but we hsTs noi 
space to enter forttisir Ato the snhijeet iitt6« 



SUPPLEMENT FOR MARCH, 1841 



123 



From Penepolk to Tsptibisaf tlw lonn«r capital of Perriay 
is a distance or about two hundred miles ; but presenting so 
few points of attraction, tliat most trayellers hasten orer 
the journey as quickly as possible. Sir James Alexander 
pursued this route in the month of July, when the tempe- 
rature of the air was so ezceasiTelj high as to throw manj 
of the part^ into a fever ; and he ^ves the following de- 
scription of the mode in which the mTalids were conveyed : 
— ** In the evening I was so ill with a slow fever, that I 
could not sit on horseback^ and was obliged to proceed in a 
ca^fava* These are nanniers made of wood, with plank 
bottoms, and covered with doth: a mule carries two of 
them. The 7 are four feet in length ; therefore the person 
carried is forced to remain in an upright sitting jxisturs 
during the whole jouniey, with the constant risk of getting 
his head broken against the sides of the conveyance^ than 
which a more disagreeable one I never tmvelled in. The 
kdU-i^rawan is comparatively a pleasant vehicle ; it oonsiBts 
of a frame similar to that of the ocff^oeo, with a round top, 
and is covered with doth ; it is carried by two mules on a 
couple of poles. Spare mules accompany it to change as 
occasion reauires; on one of these the dnver rides ; and a 
man walks oy the side of the vehider to steady it where Uie 
xoad is rough." 

It was while passing through this district that Lieut. 
Lnmaden, a few years before, met a procesnon which illus- 
trates one of the usages pertaining to the Mohammedan 
iaiUi. He espied an extensive oompanr or caravan, at the 
rear of whicn were several mulee lacTen with coffins, the 
odour frwn which indicated the presence of dead bodies. 
This was a party of pil^prima proceeding from Central 
Persia to Mecca and Medina. When a wealthy Persian 
Mohammedan dies, his relations frequently inter him in 
some neighbouring burying-place, until the usual time for 
the departure of a pilgrim caravan ; at which time the body 
is removed from the grave and transported to a reputed holy 
place near Mecca, whore it is finally deposited. 

The city of Ispahan, the former capital of Persia, has been 
very frilly described in No. 149 of our Magazine. We shall 
therefore dispense with any account of it here ; and shall 
merely give an outline of the mode in which a Persian 
noble entertained a party of English officers, since this wiU 
illustrate the nature of the diet to which wealthy Persians 
are accustomed. At six in the evening the party went to 
the FerBian's house, and spent about an hour in smoking, 
ttid eating fruit, — the usual prepamtive for a mote substan- 
tial meal. The party then seatea themselves eroas-lmed on 
the ground, by the side of a long coloured table-cloth, 
wBshed their hands in water served to them by attendants, 
and began their meal. This consisted of pillau, rice, kababs^ 
fslioea cf roasted meat kept warm between two cakes,) 
fowls over-roasted, in order that they might more easily be 
pulled to pieoea, and other solids; wnile Mtween every two 
gaesta were pla^ veflsels containing iced sherbeL rose-water, 
milk, and oUier liquids, laded up Dy means of large pear- 
tiee spoons. Each gnesl had two cakes of bread placed 
before him, one ki^ge and soft, to serve as a plate, bsm the 
other bard-baked, to eat. When the repast was over, hot 
water was introduced for washing hands,— a process pecu- 
liarly •CMptable to Etigliahmen, accustomed to the use of 
knivea and forks :— smoking was again Introduced, and 
lasted till half-past eight, when the. visitors took fhefa* 
leave. 

Nothing oan seem more strange to a reader accustomed to 
the re|^;uLar and systematic mode of government adopted in 
our own country, than the utter lawlessness which prevails 
80 extensively in Persia. Sir James Alexander, in the ex- 
pedition to which we have frequently alluded, accompanied 
Colonel Maodonald, who was sent as envoy from the 
Governor-Greneral of India to the court of Teneran. The 
embassy consisted of a considerable number of pereons, 
among whom were the envoy's lady and her servants. 
During the progress northwtffd fr^m Ispahan, repeated 
instances occurred of the unsettled state of the country. 
Some of the khans or lords of the districts through which 
they passed, vinted the travellers on their route, and con- 
versed with them. One of them, Asud Oohlah Khan, in 
answer to some questions from Colonel Macdonald respecting 
the revenue and resources of the country, unblushingly 
answered; — ^*^0f what use is it to tell lies to Europeans? 
myself and a neighbouring khan contrive every year to cheat 
hiji majesty out of a great portion of the revenue, tdlumdtdlilah 
(thanka to Heaven I )'* But recollecting himself, he begged 
the colond not to say anything about it at court. 

On anoth« occosion the townspeople of Kordahoor at- 



tacked the servants who had diaige of the treasury of the 
envoy, and a severe encounter ensued, which did not termi- 
nate till the townspeople had had one man killed and many 
wounded, and the embassy twelve men wounded and several 
horses killed. An incident occunred on this occasion which 
was a subject of some merriment to the party. Mrs. 
Macdonald's maid, and a Hindoo tailor, occupied two et^fawu 
or panniers on the back of a mule, and were somewhat 
seimrated from the rest of the party. Three of the towns- 
people came up to them, thrust their hands into the cajava 
which contained the young woman, and attempted to pull 
her out. The valiant tailor slunk back into a comer of his 
pannier, and though cdled upon by his companion to fire a 
pistol which he had for their mutual defonoe, he endeavoured 
to conceal himself. The distressed damsel thereupon de- 
fonded herself with a tin kettle, until tiie appearance of 
some of the muleteers caused the insurgents to decamp. 
The tailor, upon being afterwards reproached with hie 
cowardice, stoutly asserted that he courageously jumped 
fit>m his cajava, and cocked his pistol, upon seeing which the 
insuigents instantly fled. After he had nnished his oration, a 
muleteer came up and contradicted every word he had 
uttered. 

We shall now pass over a considerable eactent of country 
without entering into any minute description, for two 
reasons : 1st, that Persian towns and villages, and the sandy 
tracts which frequently separate them, beu* rach a similarity 
(me to another, that an idea of the whole may be obtained from 
a description of a few; — 2nd, that in our former Supplement 
we earned the reader through a considerable extent of Pei^ 
sian territory, in the route from Bassora to Teheran. We 
shall therefore traverse this route nearly at right angles, and 
suppose our feUow travellers to have performed the journey 
from Ispahan to Tabriz, a distance of about five hundred 
miles. Tabriz is in the midst of a mountainous country, 
inhabited by Koords, a semi-barbarous nation ; and from 
thence the course is nearly westward to Constantinople^ 
along the northern part of Asia Minor; the distance between 
the two cities beinr probably about twelve or thirteen 
hundred miles. A short description of Tabriz was given in 
the last Supplement ; and we snail now take our departuiB 
from thence in the way to Constantinople. 

Mr. Fraser, who travelled from Tabriz to Constantinople 
in the midst of a severe winter, performed the first hundred 
miles of the journey in two days, through a rocky and 
mountainous country, which everywhere snowed indications 
of the unsettled state arising from the contiguity of three 
great empires, Russia^ Persia, end Turkey. The termina- 
tion of this stage is iUioe, a fortified town of considerable 
sizi, with an extensive bazaar, and a number of good 
houses. The town is environed by pleasant gardens, and Is 
dtuated in a cultivated plain at tne foot of a chain of 
mountains. 

Khoe is near the frontiers of Persia and Turkey, having 
the Penian province of Azerbijan on the east, and the 
Turkish province of Armenia on the west. All around this 
district, however, the inhabitants are such as are little dis- 
posed to respect either Persian or Turkish authority : they 
are Koords, possessing much of the independent spirit so 
often observable in mountaineers. The nLoords, or Kurds^ 
are the same people known under the ancient name of Oar^ 
duehif through whom Xenophon so hardly fought his way, 
when conductinff the fomous retreat of the Ten Thousand. 
They have stOl the same name, and are the same people ; the 
bolcfest and the rudest in all Asia. Those pastoral pursuits 
which, on the high table plains of Tartary and Penia, vary 
and soften the habits of war and plunder, are impracticable 
in a region which presents little else than ragged steeps^ 
frightiFh! ravines, and narrow vaUeys. The Koords, thoug:h 
much addicted to plunder, have, however, the characteristic 
virtue of barbarians, a frank hospitality, and also a pride of 
pCKJigree founded on a national existence which may be 
tnu^ to a high antiquity. Through this region the 
traveller finds nis way as well as he can, passing through 
rocky defiles, over mountain passes, along the banks of 
streams, and through thinly scattered villages, hiring horses 
or mules from one station to another, and taking his chance 
for a cottage or bam to sleep in at night. In part of this 
district, almost within view of Mount Ararat, is a singular 
mountain strong-hold or fortress called Makoo, situated on 
the brink of a ravine through which a stream flows. On 
the left bank of the stream tne rock rises perpendicularly 
to a height of five hundred feet ; and from a point about 
fifty feet below the summit of the rock is a cavern or 
recess, formed by an inward sloping of the rock, measuring 

661—2 



1-24 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



six hundred feet by one himdred. Across this recess has 
been built a wall of stone, enclosing a portion of ground 
which constitutes a fDrt. A garrison can thus be placed at 
a height of three or four hundred feet above the level of the 
stream below. There is besides this a second recess in the 
pei-pendicular fiwe of the rock, leading to apartments and 
granaries, where a large reserve of soldiers and of provisions 
can be kept concealed. It is supposed that this strong-hold 
was the work of the Armenians m past ages, when they had 
to defend themselves from persecution. 

Leaving Mount Ararat on the north-east, we come to the 
town of Bayazid. This is a singular-looking place ; being 
built among the clefts on either side of a nigh rugged 
mountain, while a projecting rock is crowned by the castle. 
Mr. Fraser remarks concerning its singular position : — " You 
do not Sf^ half of it until you climb up and get into it as 
into a bird*8 nest. One wonders what tempted men to choose 
a spot so unpromising for a city, even in regard to security ; 
for not only is it commanded on all sides, but the inhabit- 
ants themselves have a most difficult ascent to surmount 
every time they leave and return to their homes, with the 
thousand other inconveniences that must attach . to. so lofty 
a dwelling. Except in India, I never saw so sharp and 
Tile an ascent to a fort ; and the pathways being covered 
with ice, it was a miracle how our smooth-shod horses got 
up, and that we escaped fietlls." 

Bayazid being almost close to the frontiers, had been' re- 
cently visited by a Russian force, which had gjeatly devas- 
tated it. Mr. Fraser found scarcely one house in a hundred 
inhabited : of these few were in renair ; and the neat maga- 
zine of fuel for the people of the place was the oeams and 
wood-work of the abandoned dwelling It is necessary to 
give a brief explanation of the political condition of thia 
town, to estimate the cause of such disasters. All the 
regions in the neighbourhood of Mount Ararat are in- 
haoited by Koords, rude mountaineers, who have but few 
ties of sympathy either with Turkey, Persia, or Russia. 
But it so happens, that in consequence of the mutations 
which those empires have undeigcme, all three now meet 
at or near Mount Ararat ; and the dwellers in the immediate 
vicinity feel the effects of this most sorely. Bayazid is 
properly a Koordish city, although nominally within the 
Turkian dominions; but about twenty-five yean affo, the 
troops of the neighbouring pacha of Erzeroum attacked the 
city and carried off many of its treasures. When the 
town had somtwhat recovered from the effects of this inroad, 
it had a similar visit from the Persiana who took away most 
of what the Turks had left. Still the population remained 
in the city, howev^ much injured and robbed ; but a third 
visit from the third neighbouring empire — ^the Ruasians^- 
was incalculably more calamitous thim the other two, and 
occurred about ten or twelve years ago. More than ten 
thousand Armenians and Koords were driven frt)m the city 
and carried to the Russian provinces, where many of them 
perished. Mr. Fraser remarks: — ''The finishing blow was 
reserved for Russia, who, by utterly depopulating both town 
and country, and pillaging the little that nad been collected 
since past misfortunes, deprived both of the means of reno- 
vation, while they wantonly destroyed what they could not 
carry off. It is scarcely possible that the place can be re- 
peopled." 

As the reader never now hears of an Armenian king 
and government, it may be well to state what are the events 
whicu have rendered tnis people distinct from Turks, Per- 
aians^ and Russians. Armenia once formed a considerable 
kiogdom, including, but principally to the south-west of, 
Mount Ararat ; and comprising districts now divided 
between the three empires. The Armenians trace their 
origin back to a remote period in history; indeed they 
have a tradition that the nrst ruler of that coun^ was 
the great grandson of Japhet, the son of Noah. "Be this 
as it may, Uie Armenians appear to have been for some 
centuries governed by their own kings, who were occasion- 
ally conquered by the powerful monarchs in their neigh- 
bourhood. It then became a Grecian province, afterwards 
a Roman one ; then became divided between the Romans 
and the Persians ; and the inliabitants suffered bitter perse- 
cutions for having embraced Christianity, which was hateful 
to tlie Persian worshippers of 2k>roaster. At length the 
decline of the Persian power and the rise of the &racens 
transferred tlie contest to new parties; and Armenia 
suffered repeatedly from attacks on all sides ; its native 
princes being supported or deposed, as best suited the in- 
terests of the contending parties. When the Turks sallied 
ftoiA Central Asia towards Constantinople, Armenia was in 



their direct line of route; and the attaeka of the Toika 
became so fearful, that about the year 1400, the persecuted 
Armenians resolved to abandon their country altogether. 
Since that time they have never.been known as a c<Mlected 
nation; but, sometmng like the Jews, have become wander- 
ers and traders in other countries. They have retained an 
imperfect form of Christian faith throughout all their 
troubles, and are generally respected in private life. Aa mer- 
chants they are found in eveiy part of Aaa, and in almost 
every part of Europe; a genml spirit of toleration bemg 
shown towards them^ - although they have no longer a 
distinct countiy. When the roader therefore hears of Ar- 
menians, he must not conclude that they are inhabitants 
of Armenia ; but Asiatic Christians, descended from thoee 
who once inhabited the kingdom of Armenia, now a Turk- 
ish province. 

It may likewise be desirable to state, in explanation of 
the situation of the district we have now reached, that the 
Koords are in general the inhabitants of the mountainous 
district near the frx>ntiers in Turkey and Persia. Part of 
the Koordish territory, or Koordistan, is included in Persia, 
and the other part in Turkey : but the hardy mountaineers 
view all the three neighbounng empires very much in tiie 
light of hostile states, and follow few laws but the law of 
the strongest. Bayajdd has been more properly a Koordidi 
city than a Turkish one ; but the disasters which it has 
experienced show in how precarious a position the Koords 
are placed. There are not wanting indications that this 
part of Armenia will one day belong to Russia, whose giant 
empire is almost yearly increanng in extent. For our pre- 
sent purpose, however, we may inake thia summary for the 
reader*s guidance: — ^that the counUy at which we have 
arrived is nominally Turkish ; that it is properly a portion 
of Armenia ; and that the principal inhabitanta are and 
have long been the rude hardy Koords. 

We now leave Bayazid, and proceed westward on our 
jouiTiey. Mr. Baillie Fraser visited Asia Minor and Persia, 
during the winter of 1834, on political business connected 
with the English government ; and the necessity for tra- 
velling as rapidly as possible, in spite of unfavourable 
weaUier, frequently led him into very dreanr scenes ; for 
although the latitude of Armenia and tne neignbouring dis- 
tricts is as far south as the warmest parts of Italy, yet the 
elevated position of the country causes the temperature to 
be very cold, especially in the winter. It is thus that we 
read^ in that gentleman's narrative, of piercing winds^ over- 
wh^ming && of snow, icy paths, and inclement tempera- 
ture. We shall therefore avail ourselves likewise of the 
assistance of those travellers who have performed the jour- 
ney in more coxi^nial weather. 

A few miles from Bayazid, Mr. Fraser sought shelter in 
a Koordish cabin, almost buried beneath the ground. After 
descending through a sort of irr^;ular passage, he says: — 
«Our peregrinations terminated m a s^rt of little hole^ 
scantily lighted by a small orifice in the roof, with a chim- 
ney, in wnich was smothering a fire of wet dun^^-cakea. 
It seemed to be the domicile of a fiivourite horse and a pet 
ewe: the latter we ousted; the former^ still retained ita 
berth behind a sort of bar, so contrived as to prevent further 
intrusion on its part, and mark the boundaiy of our domain, 
where it chewed its hay, — a veiy unoffending neighbour. 
After my eyes had become somewhat accustomed to the 
dark and smoky atmosphere, I left our den, to peer about a 
little. In one neighbouring cavern were stabled a number 
of horses; in another were congrmted a collection of most 
unlovely women, children, and sheep ; from a tliird there 
was pouring forth a multitude of cows and year-olds that 
nearly upset me. There was not much pleasure inall this, 
so I returned to our room, where mumeos had been ^read ; 
but scarcely was I seated when in rushed a ^reat he-eoat, 
with a boimd and a ^baa-a-a!' followed by his two wives, 
probably the rightful occupants of some comer usurped by 
us, who stopped short when he saw us, and seemed disposed 
to do battle tor his privileges." Mr. Fraser found, on many 
such occasions as this, that he could purchase the good ser- 
vices of the inmates by a cup of tea, a beverage to which 
they were but little accustomed. He carried a stock of tea 
ana sugar with him ; and after having refreshed himself 
with the beverage, he boiled and re-boiled the leaves, adding 
an extra dose of sugar to compensate for the want ox 
strength. , 

From Bayazid to Erzeroum the traveller meets with little 
but Koordish villages, scattered at wide intervals through a 
mountainous district, Uio cold of which, in winter, is far 
greater than is any where experienced in Britain. On 



iSUPPLEMENTFOR MAHCH, 184J. 



A FEBGIjIH BBEAXFASr. 



mching Erzeroum, the traTeller enters the first fanportAnt 
TnrkisE town in this part of Asia Minor, Sir Robert Ker 
Porter describes this town as containing a population of 
sbont siity thousand, of whom fifty thousand are MohMn- 
mcdsns. It contains forty-fire moaquee and two charches. 
Two of the most ancient mosques are fancifnJly ornamented 
with bricks and coloured tiles. The lofty domes of these 
Bioeqnes, together with the glittering minarets of others, 
rising above the fortified walls of the governor's palace, give 
adelnave splendour to the appearance of the town when 
teen from b little distance. Tfie whole town is defended by 
h^ double walls, mil built, and additionally strengthened 
With lofty towers; the outer wall being supported by a 
dem ditch. 

The dresses of the inhabitants are often exceedingly gay, 
and indeed the rank of the wearer is scarcely discernible 
tiirongh the showy texture of his dress. Sir Robert Ker 
Porter observes: "The well-known flowing garment and 
li^ turban of the Turk, are common alike to the trades- 
people and highest classes ; the chief difference lying in the 
oiloiire and materials ; but the gaiety, and even splendour, 
of them all often exceed imagination, and so completely 
tonfuse ranks to the eye, that an inexperienced foreigner, 
gsiing at a procession of these stately personages, moving 
wilemnly along in their motley attire, could not possibly 
Jistingnish the degree of one from another. I remember, 
on entering the town of ICars, (a little eastward of Erxe- 
nnim,) meeting a most gorgeously apparelled gentleman, 
whiL from his gravity, and majest^calJy-slippeTed walk, 1 
mkht have mistaken for the pacha's viirier, nad not a string 
of little tallow candles in one hand, and a plate of sour 
ntani in the other, procliumed his title to some humbler 
calling." 

Bnl since the last-mentioned traveller visited these c«nn- 
Irws, Erzeronm has been doomed to suffer the misery atten- 
Jwt on hostile attacks. It wna a flourishing place of trade 
until 1829, when the Russian Count Pascovitch overran the 
eonntry, and partly by petsuaaion, partly by force, caused 
wariy one hundred thousand Turks, Armenians, and 
Koords, to leave their native oountrj', nnd pass into the 
ntusian territory. Of tliis number seven thousand were 
™n Erieroum; and the misery and cruelty which they 
*sp«ienced from ttie Rusaiuns have given rise to a deadly 



hatred on the part of the natlTea. Indeed it ia lamenUUa 
to see the state of feeling existinr in and around this dittrict : 
let the reader look at a map of that part of Aelm utnsted 
near the south-east margin of the Black Se*, and he will, 
find a region where Turks, Eoords, Pernaus, and RnsajmS 
mutually detest each other, and only join intereela occasion- 
ally, when two of Uiem are attacked by a third more power- 
ful than themselves. 

As we depart westward from Erzeronm, we Icare by de- 
grees the region inhabited by the Armenian Koords, whosa 
villages are tbrened of honses built under gnmnd, the earth 
that IS excavated being heaped about the walls to aid in the 
exclusion of wintry cold. As darkness closes in, a plentiful 
supply of wood enables the inmates to keep np » blazing 
fire ; but when they require light for other purpoeec, they 
make use of the same sort of candle-fir, or splint«ra of fiit 
turpentine pine, which are nsed in the highlands of Seo^ 
land. These portions of the wood are produced by »di«a»B 
in the common fir, which produces a congestion of its re- 
sinous juices to the part afiected ; and the tree is cut down 
for the sake of this done, or the part is cnt out, leaving the 
rest to decay of itself. The domestic economy of then 
wretehed hovels may be estimsted &i>m the pangi^h 
quoted from Mr, Eraser, respecting his night's sojoam ia 
one of them. 

Travellers inthispsrt of the Turkish territory frequently 
perform their journey by TatSr, that is, accompanied by c 
government courier or guide, called a TatSr, and ttaveUmg 
on horseback with ns few stoppages as possible. Theae 
TatSrs are to be hired at the chief cities, and an men «t 
wonderftil enewy and hardiness. On the occasion of the 
escape of Napoleon Bonaparte from Elba, the British Con- 
sul at Constantinople hired a TatSr to convey the infunna- 
tion to the British Consul at Demavnnd, a place about siit^ 
miles beyond Teheran in Perwa. The man mounted hia 
horse, and _performed the whole journey, over mountains, 
and through valleys and plains, in seventeen days, the di«> 
tance being about 2000 miles. It was with such a guide, 
and on suchaplanas this, that Mr. Eraser madehis journey; 
and it is thus that the term "TatSr ionmey" is given to 
his narrative. There are, besideB, other guides, not con- 
nected with the military or government departments, but 
attached to the Tnritish post-houses, and hired by tiavellen. 



18# 



THE SATURDAY MAGA8mE. 



Trained from childhood tmOAg th« aninuds of whidi they 
have the care, ihey are good grooms and admirable lidcn: 
and, accustomed to brave the road and its dangen hi all 
weathers, they become bold, intrepid^ and akilfdl afaides ia 
this part of the country. These men, who are called JSho* 
rajeeSf are as remarkable in appearance as in character. 
They wear large shulwar^ or riaing-breeches^ often highly 
embroidered ; a abort Turkish or Munlnc jacktty fireqnently 
of coloured velvet, and decked with ftbded finely; a striped 
silk or cotton ves^ the skirts of which are stated into the 
trousers; huge pistols, or a yatagan, or both, protnidlnff 
from their bioad leathern girdle and sash. On the heaa 
they wear a turban, wound rather loosely ; and they wiw 
their legs and feet in pieces of nuf, cotton, or woollen, wina- 
Ing them over and over again, like soi^ical bandages on A 
fractured Umb. Over these bandages are laige boots^ or 
laced sandals made of raw hide. 

With such guides, then, we proceed on onr Jonmey, and 
a few miles after leaving Erzeroum, we cross the western* 
most branch of the upper Euphrates, that noble river which 
flows into the Pentan Gulf by the same mouth as the 
Tigris. Here we come to the boundary of what is genenlly 
deemed Armenia, and enter on the Turkish province of 
Pontus, a country of much notoriety in ancient time^ hav- 
ing lieen the seat of a flourishing kinvdom, under Mithri- 
dates the Great. The kingdom of Pontus was conquered 
by Julius Cttsar, and made a Roman province, but it was 
often governed by monarchs who were tribntaiy to the 
power of Rome. 

At about thirty-eix miles from Eneroom la Ashkala, a 
pretty villsee Inhabited by a small number of Ikmilies ; and 
further on tt a similar viUage called Kara Kookk, the scene 
of many conflicto Iwtween the asBil-barbarous tribes of the 
neighbourhood. At another villagi^ named Mama Khatonn, 
are some remarkable buildings^ which Mr. Morier was told 
were built as a love-token by a wealthy Turk to htsaua ir eas. 
These buildings an sttnated doae to tne rilla§e» and eonaSet 
of a caravanserai, a mosque, a bailL and • tomb^ aU ooih 
structed of fine white free-etone, and finished in a ireiy «« 
cellent manner. The caravanserai is a hollow square, with 
a gate on the eastern face ; round the court are built small 
rooms arched in a very solid and symmetrical style ; and 
there ara also two vaulted chamben^ each' fifty yards knff 
by forty broad, for the accommodation <^ w noraes and 
mules of tmvdlera. In the middle of the square is an 
arched chamb«v erected probably as * cod retreat in sum- 
mer. The mosque is situated on the right of the caravan- 
serai, and is entered by a small court yard, from which a 
vaulted peristyle leads under the dome into the principal 
chamber, where is a stone pulpit. ' The fine materials imd 
admirable masonry of this dome are said to contrast strik- 
ingly with the general character of Turkish building in 
this part of the country. Close to the caravanserai is the 
bath ; and on the ether side ara the remains of another 
building. Nearly fiicing the caravanserai is a small round 
templci supposed to be a tomb, enclosed by a circular wall, 
which is entered by a gateway of Saracenic architecture. 
The interior of the round temple is arched, and carved with 
a variety of ornaments. 

In various parts of Ada Minor ara towns bearing Uie 
name of Kara Hiaaar. Thia implies *' black castle,'' and ia 
generally applied to a fortress bmlt on a hill. One of theos 
IS found on the road which we ara now traveraing. The 
position of the fortress seems inaccesETible, the rock on which 
it stands resembling that of the Castle of Edinburgh, but 
nearly twice as high. It spreads entirely over the summit 
of the hill ; but the most formidable of its towera appear on 
the northern point. Beneath the western brow, and just 
on the slope of the rock where the declivity is leak abrupt, 
the greatest part of the town is built. The houses are mostly 
of two stories, and stand in ranges one over the other, aa 
seen from a distance ; two mosques and one minaret rise 
from among them. Sir Robert Ker Porter describes the 
mountain scenery in the vicinity of this hill fortress as 
being among the most sublime which he had met with in 
the East ; as a country ** of the wildest character ; the whole 
consisting of endless ranges of dark, stupendous mountains^ 
hurled together in the most nigged fi>rm8 of chaotic con- 
trasts. But this august assembly of Nature's vastest ma- 
terials expanded to even a terrible sublimity as we approached 
a higher region, where some tremendous convulsion of the 
earth seemed to have rent its mountain piles with more than 
ordinary rase. Heights and depths, and yawning daricnesa, 
affrighted the eye in our advance, though I thought it not 
improbable that tiie closing gloma of the evening, added to 



the natural bkekneta of tha moo^tainL mighty by confi^ 
tiie outlinea of objects, and mingling anadowa with reality, 
exaggerate the awnd appeannoe befora flM.** 

At the varioiia villafas which we have named, and it 
othen of a atanUar kind, aie post-hovasa^ which aie liktvin 
the only inns in the pboe; and the IbUowiag dMcription 
will convey an idea oi the sort ef eatertainnent for tnrd- 
len at these poet-hooses. Travellen and awants hin to 
sqoat down to the aame board with the peepleof the house, 
mm the keeper to the meanest traachcr^kaMr; andmiiiglt 
UmIt ftagen in the mat fsneral dish. This bugs mce 
stands in the middle of a tray, on a low eovukr table osoaIIj 
laid oat with aa many pieces of bread aa tbsra an goati 
The other ineredients cdf the meal (bteaktel) an eommonlj 
thickened muk« with two platea of curdy aoat's eheeie, i 
little honey, and aoBM grape synip. AtmiMay,bnidaDd 
dried or npe frolt ara given. At snwert, a kind of loup, 
and a alewof muttoi^ or goat's flash, mixed with swMtcoeii 
gravy or oniona, and a pillau of wheat. TIm didm » 
served in rotation, and pUMed in the middle ef the tnj; 
ra«nd which the eaten ait en their heel^ fea4y with their 
ilngen or i^oona to dip into the dish. Such is post-hoiue 

The town of Nlzar ia wproaehed by a road desoeiidiiig 
the declivity of a menntam. Mr. Moiisr aays that no de- 
scription b adequate to paint the briUiaiaciy and laxnrianoe 
of vegetation, and the picturesque forma of this rofioo. 
Trees of every denomination grow here in the wildest pn- 
fnsion, whilst their roots an embaiflaed by the edour of 
mrriada of flowers. Sir R. K. Porter likewUt apeaki of tiie 







** The whole seene gave laa an idaa ef aome ef the finest 
parts of Switaerland; a remembrance whkh had Mver been 
awakened in me before, by any landaBajia of the East; ind 
it may iMt be irrrievant to recollect hsN^ that it was 6tna 
Cerasunt, on this sfaora of the Enzlne (Ittaok 8aa), tbit 
LncuUus tranroknted eheny-traec tete Italy; sad thenoe, 
in little more than a century after, they mat embellished 
the gardens of Great Britain.^' 

A little beyond this, and at about one-third of the dis* 
tance from Eraeronm to Constantinople is a laige sad opea 
town called Tokat, (supposed to be the ancient Co^ 
PontietifJ situated at the foot of a lofty mouataio, or 
rather pair of mountain^ with a cleft between thiiB> 
Numerous houses appear crowded together at the haws <h 
the twin raountaina, varied here and there by moeqaei aad 
minareta. The town Waa aaid thirty yeanago, to hs^^,^ 
tained one hundred thouaand inhabitanta; but thia ia in lu 
probability a gross exaogeration. The basaara were ho«^ 
ever very numerous, anas verything common to Turkey and 
its wanta aeemed to be found there in plenty. Blr. FrmJi 
many yean afterwards, proceeded on this route with tarn 
rapidity, frequently performing one hundred and tweet/ 
miles in a day, that he had not time to pay much *^^^ 
to the objects and scenery among which he paaaed ; but im 
^eaks of Tokat aa a noble old place, which, with lis w 
castellated rock and picturesque mountains behind, IM^ 
extrunely grand in the moonUsht, and <^>Deared to be fO 
extensive phoe^ situated on a wA-culUvated countiy* f*^ 
city is seated on the banks of tiie Jekil-ermak, the ascieia 
Iris. It is the centre of an extensive inland trade to aw 
from all parts of Asia. Here are manu&ctoraes of blue Mo- 
rocco, silk stufis, and copper vessels of all kinds. M ^ 
town the exemplary and lamented missionary, oe^rf 
Martyn, died on Lis way to Constantinople, October 6^ loih 
in the thirty-second year of his age. 

The next important place at which we airiye is ^^ 
the ancient capital of Cappadocia, and the birth-pi^.'^ 
Strabo. The city stands m the nanowest part oftM 
valley of Amasia, and in the midst of bdd, wild, and ro- 
mantic scenery. Alons the bottom of this ralley ^^TTIhl 
river Yekil-Irmak ; and the town flfNreads over both vm» 
On one side of the river rises a magniiioent pile of row* .** 
the nearly pyramidal summit of which lie the »<»^^ 
towera of the ancient citadel, surmounting the ^T^ 
openings into the royal tombs, which are exoaTated ^ 
&ce of the hilL On entering the city, an £o^^>^^T^ 
is struck with the appearance of the ruins of •j^^JTj, 
chureh, part of which are mouldering to dust, ^,^^j 
mainder used as a Mohammedan mosque^— a ^"^t^JL 
transformation from good to evil. The streets «(J'**JJ ^J 
are narrow and disn^^reeable, 9S is frequentl^tbe eais 
Turkey ; and the houses wen eetiinated by Sir B. J^ ^^^^ 



SUPPLEMENT FOR MABCH, 1541. 



127 



at a1>otit SIX ihoiifland. Bat the most interesting object to 
a visiter is the rocky fortress, mentioned by Strabo nearly 
two thousand years ago. Passing over a bridge at one ex« 
tremity of the city, we begin to ascend a steep paved road 
leading np to the fortress^ and soon arrive at some monlder- 
ing mms, once a range of battlements and towers. Ascend- 
in? twenty or thirty paces higher, we pass through apQ^n^ 
hollowed into the solid rock, to the lenfifth of six or eignt 
yards ; the entrance of which bears the marks of some 
former grated defence. This dark avenue leads to a ledge 
of rock, about six ftet in width, and hewn out of the side of 
the cliffy, up which it leads like a kind of ladder. After a 
farther ascent of about twenty yards, we come to the first 
sepulchral excavation, hewn m the rock to a depth of seven- 
teen feet, forming a passage four feet wide by thirty-five 
high. Beyond this is a small, vaulted chamber, with suffi- 
cient space to contain a laige coffin or sarcophagus. Nume- 
rous other tombs are fi>und sepulchre in the solid rock ; 
and it is supposed that they were excavated during the 
period when Cappadocia, of which Aroaaia was the capital, 
Vras a province or Persia under Darius Hydaspes. 

We cannot stop longer at these ruins, but must proceed 
westward to the pass of Drekler^Daugh, in the direct route 
to Constantinople. A spur of the rocx terminates In a bold 
perpendicular cliff twelve hundred feet high, at the foot of 
which a rapid stream runs ; and midway in air, across the 
&ce of this rock, and at a height of about five hundred feet 
above the torrent, a pathway has been cut. This path is 
about ten Ibet broad, with a veiy low and precarious para- 
pet at the outer edge. This path is about a quarter of a 
mile lon^, with a steep declivity at each end. Along such 
a path did filr. Fraser travel in the depth of winter, when 
every spot of rock was covered with slippery ice, and the 
cold so intense as almost to benumb the fiiculties. Hum- 
boldt passed over much higher and narrower mountain 
passes ; but he had not, except in some few cases, to conduct 
Lis mules over a solid icy path. Immediately after passing 
tiiia rock, Mr. Fraser traversed another still more awful, as 
may be judged fiiom the following vivid description : — ^"Our 
approach to it seemed to be through the very oowels of the 
mountain, in the bed of a furious torrent,*where no man 
could have imagined a path to have existed; and from 
which, turning up a narrow fissure, we scrambled on in tiie 
darkness, (it was nine o'clock on a winter's night!) leav- 
ing all to the instinct of our horses, till we emerged far 
above, upon the very brink of a black abyss, along which 
we still continued ascending by a narrow rocky zig-zag path, 
paved here and there, but witnout any parapets, mr a height 
of, I suppose, six or seven hundred feet. It was a frightful 
tag. You must know that the Turks do not /ftMf, or 
sharpen their horsei^ shoes, as we do, to keep them fit)m 
slipping on the ice, and here all was ice and melting snow ; 
and the track was on the very verge of the Inrecipice; there 
was no getting off to lead the horses, or walk : we did not 
even dare to stop. It was neck or nothing ; a breathless 
scramble ^ip-up ; often holding on by the mane to keep from 
slipping off beAmd. Nothing but the conviction of this and 
of my own belDlesmess, embarrassed with great boots glued 
to the stirrups Vf ^» ^^^ <>^ur heavy cloaks frozen as rigid 
as a boud in their folds, could have kept me in the sadcUe. 
The descent was not so long, but fully as dangerous, and 
even more horrible ; for there you were constantly looking 
down into the black yawning gulf, from whence the fiff-off 
sound of the winter torrent came roaring up in fits as the 
wind sighed down the glen. 

How different are our impressions of scenery according to 
the season when we view it! That which is all lovely and 
attractive when clothed in sraing garments, beeooMS cheer* 
less and dull in winter. W estwnd of the mountain pass 
which we have just described are the valley and town of 
To*na, which Mr. Frazer traversed twice dving his Tatar 
journey, going and retunng. On. one oeoasion, all was 
ioe-bouiid, eoul, and diMsy, aad his ibevghts were only 
directed to his onward pw y w i i. On the other oooaskxii 
he was cnraptuied witk t£» haaaty of th# vAUeyv ^ 
q>lendid enkivatioii, ka green pSetttMma Wi» and Hi 
multitude of wateit. The — i gh bony faaoa of tlw town waa 
laid out into little fields and paddocks, intowpef S D d with 
<yrcliards and gardens, divided by walls and hedges; the first 
built of mud and thatched, and partly overgrown with herb- 
age ; the latter, formed of barbary bushes and other thorns^ 
with pollard elms, oaks, and willows. In the town too, all 
looked attractive ; the mosques and many of the houses con- 
atnieted of stone, and lisinff one above another in irregular 
groups and terrocee, ahowM to mnch adTanlage. 



Near about this part of the country the traveller frequently 
meeta with Angora goats, so well known in Europe for 
their white and silvery coats. The town from which they 
take their name is situated about fifty miles southward of 
the direct path which we are folio wii^ ; but many of the 
valleys ana villages all around Angora display larse numbei:s 
of these goats, the sides of the mountains affording a rich 
pasture for them, and the viUa^pers being employed in dress- 
ing and weaving hair. Around this district, too, are many 
kinds of manuficicture, carried on, it is true, in a very pri- 
mitive manner, and to a small extent; but still it is plea- 
sant to have a req»ite from the details of oriental turbulence, 
and to hear of industry and its effect. At a pretty little 
town called Chirkiss, the inhabitants are celebrated for the 
bread and the honey which they produce, and which are 
regarded as great luxuries by the travellers who pass that 
way. At another small town called Garidi, are manufac- 
tories of copper ut^isils, and others for tanning and stain^ 
ing a stout and durable kind of leather. Great quantities 
of this leather are sent to Constantinople to be made up 
into boots and saddle-bags. 

While travelling over the open country in the neigbour- 
hood of the town of Boll, Sir B. K. Porter witnessed a 
scene which illustrates the wasteful and thoughtless con- 
duct of Asiatics. The wood-cutters are accustomed to 
kindle a few dried branches to form a fire for their nightly 
bivouac ; and this object once served, they are heedless as to 
the consequence of leavine.the wood unextinguished, parti- 
cularly if the wind be blowing. Sir Robert found the 
forest on fire, the flames bursting up with the iqipearance « 
of volcanic eruptions, and producing a scene of horrid 
sublimity by tnrowing a red light over distant objects. 
The wind was roaring amongst the adjoining woods with a 
noise like the sea in a storm, and increased the impressive 
effect on the senses of the spectator* 

Boll is the iancient HadnanopoUs, The modem town is 
a poor place, consisting of about a thousand houses, chiefly 
innabited by Turks. There are a few Armenians, but no 
Greeks, altnough the villages in the vicinity are filled with 
them. It is the residence of a pasha of two tails. The 
plain, at the extremity of which it stands, is rich and fertile. 
About four miles to tne south-east of the town, at a viliaffo 
called Valajah, are some mineral baths, to which the Turks 
resort in Jfreat numb«*s. There is nothing else remarkable 
in the neighbourhood. 

We are now approachins^ rapidly towards Constantinople, 
and find the towns and villages losing much of their rude 
character. Ismit, or Is Nickmid, is the ancient town of 
Nicomedia, and has always been a place of some importance. 
It was an early residence of the kings of Bithynia ; but its 
highest ereatness began under Diocletian, who made it the 
metropolis of the Roman empire ; the wealth of which he 
lavished in raising it at once to a rivalry with Rome. In 
this character it was soon supplanted by Constantinc^le, 
and many of its ornaments were probalJly canied off to 
embellish this new residence. The ruins of the ancient city 
are still visible ; but very few Europeans have visited them for 
tho purposes of study. The present appearance of the town 
is highly picturesque; with its curious old tenements, rising 
high as they do from the very shore of the gulf, up to the 
side of a steep mountain, in terraces, ridges, and ravines, all 
surrounded by vineyards and orchards, and interspersed here 
and there by picturesque burial-grounds, planted as usual 
with C3rpress trees. 

At length we reach Scutari, the sea-port town immedi- 
ately opposite Constantinople. In any other situation Scu- 
tari would rank as an important city, out standii^ as it does 
in the vicinity of Constantinople, it is considerea merely a 
suburb to that great city. It stands on the Asiatic side, in 
a beautiful and cuHivated plain, and presents a picturesque 
eppeanmce from the mixture of trees and minarets. It car- 
ries on a very cbnsidetable csaravan trade with the interior 
of Asia* A great forest near it contains the moat splendid 
oswetvy of the empire, as an the grandees of Constantinople 
flsek to depomt tiieir remains in Asia, which they consider 
as a BjBly Land, m tha pownssion of true believers, while 
Europe is alvM*! entirely ^ prey of *Hhe infidel." In this 
yicimty is siinatod the castle of the seven towers, used by 
government as a state-prison. And here we must beg the 
reader to consider for a moment the remarkable position of 
Constantinople. It is at the very extremity of Euro]^ ; 
but it is essentially an Asiatic city ; and its position, in a 
commercial point of view, is one of the finest in the world. 
North-east of Constantinople is the Black Sea, south-west 
u the Smi of Ifamova; and the two are connected only by 



iSd 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



a nuTOw neclc of wb called the Stndts of Conatantinople, 
or the BoniliorouB. The sea of Hannoia aMin, is connected 
with the Mediterranean, still fiirther to the south-weEt,— 
only W the nanttw strait called the Dardanellea, anciently 
the Hellespont. Hence Constantinople commands the 
whole intercourse between the Heditemuean and the Block 
Sea, with the noble riven flowiug- into the latter, Buch as the 
Danube, the Dniester, the Dnieper, and the Don ; hence the 
importaiice of Constantinople as the capital of the East«ni 
empire and afterwards of the Ottoman empire; and hence 
the anxiety of tlie cabinets of Europe at the present mo- 
ment rnmecting the future fate and poweBaorship of that 
city. To the east and south of Constantinople is the 
laige and beautiM country of A^a Minor, through which 
we hare jnst condncted the reader, and the whole of which 
is possessed bv Turkey ; north-weat is the lat^ country of 
£hiropean Turkey ; and south-west, after passmg through 
the sea of Hormora, is the Levant or Archipelago, a lai^ 
bay stretching northward from the Mediterranean, and sep». 
tating Greece from Asia Minor, studded, too, with nameroiis 
islands. Whenever our readers meet in the public journals 
with a notice of political or diplomatic occurrences between 
the Tariona European powers at Constantinople, it may be 
uaeful to remember tnat this Archipelago, or cluster of 
small islands, aa well as the Dardanelles and the Sea of 
Uarmora, must be traversed before communication of a 
maritime nature can be held with Constantinople. He will 
also be able to form some idea, especially with a m^ before 
him, of the reason why so great unportance is attached by 
-these pawera to the Dardanelles. Tliis narrow strait ia, in 
fact, the key to Constantinople and the Black Sea. 

It will be remembered that in our First Route we con- 
ducted the reader to Astrakhan in the Caq>ian Sea, and there 
dismissed in a few words the remaining port of the journey 
through Snaaia. We shall foUow a somewhat similar plan 
on the preaeht ocea^on, for the following reasons. We hope 
ihorUy to accompany our readers in a steam voyage down 
the Innnbe, through the Austrian and Turkish Empires ; 
and have also in hand a course of p^>era on Turkey and the 
Turkish provinoea. These will collectively afford a tolera- 
bly clear mmght into Turkish topogr^hy, and thus save the 
necessity of treading that ground on the present occauon. 
With r^ard to Constantinople itself; Its mosques and 
baxaais; its seraglio ; its oriental castoms and peculiarities ; 
here are abundant materials for two or three of our num- 
bers, and must therefore be passed over here. A ft w gene- 
nl remarks, then, will conclude our present route. 

English travellers proceeding from Persia to England, by 
way of Constantinople, pursue different routes after leaving 



that city. Lieut Lnnuden, in 1820, retained }>y wtj ol | 
Odessa on tho Black Sea, Lemberg, Ctacow, Vienna, Hunid, 
Switzerland, end France, to England. Sir Jamea Alexm- 
iler, in 1B2C, passed through ConBtantinople, Shuniia, But- 
hareat, Viemiv, Frankfurt, and so through Belgium to In- 
land. Mr. Fraser, in 183J, after leaving Con9taiitiiio|ik, 
come by way of Adriaiiople, through Bulgaria and Senii 
into Austria, and thence through Belgium to EngUnd. 

Let us endeavour to determine the number of miles am 
which our journey has carried us. When a tiaveller is pn- 
ceeding with great rapidityon horseback, through countnti 
where lie knows not how soon he may be attacked b/dtpn- 
dators, where he lias to traverse mountain and valley, fortil 
and plmn, where he meets with few inns, and thiceft* 
badly provisioned, where scientific inatrnments sod Uoti 
must be dispensed with, and where nothing analogoni to u 
English coach-road exists, — we cannot look for a veiy vai- 
rate measurement of road gone over, and must not bt mr- 
priaed if the eetimataa of different tiavellen are Eomnliil 
at variance. In such a case we may take a mean betveei 
the estimates aa the nearest approach we can make to cur- 



Lieutenant Lumadea eatimates the journey by aes fram 
Bombay to Muskat, at the entrance of the Pamn Gulf, 
1Z80 nules ; from Muakat to Bushiro 400 ; from Boshire to 



estimates the last four distances, respectively, at about 130, 
280, 6e0, and 160. As Sir James took a somewhat cimuiQu 
route in some parte, we may perhaps estimate Uie disUna 
from Bnshire to Mount Ararat at about eleven huDdred 
miles, or from Bombay two thousand eight hundred. Frum 
this point to Constantinople, along the northern port of 
Asia Minor, is estimated by Sir J. Alexaitder at aboot tbi^ 
teen hundred miles, and by Sir R. Porter at about (weUe 
hundred ; taking the latter, we have fbur thooeand nilet 
from Constantinople to Bombay. Neither Porter, Alei- 
onder, nor Fraser, gives an itinerary from Constantinople 
to London, but Lieutenant Lumsden estinuites the dlMuiix 
from Odessa on the Black Sea, through Russia, Auslria, 
Bavaria, and Ftaace, to London, at about seventcm hun- 
dred miles. The route here taken is probably two hunind 
miles longer than the usual route fi-om Constantinople tw 
Vienna and the Netherlands, to London. 

We may therefore perliaps estimate the distance bom 
Bombay to Loudon, by our present overland route, by w.i)' 
of Buahire, Sliiraz, I^ahan, Tabriz, Mount Ararat, T-nf- 
roum, Constantinople, and Vienna, at somen here aliuul !;■ 
thousand five hundred miles. 



PAnrr of koobm 'fixEBcniHo, 



LOSDOW ; FMiOM bj JOHN W. PARKER, Wasi Sia^B, aad»U by .11 BooImJI^. 



THE SATtJRDAt MAGAZINE. 



[Apbh t, 



tiTII-ECOATESi wfLtS. 

We £ave again tfi« pleasure of presenting to ^r readers 
a cut from one df the tieautilul prints in Mr., I^sah't 
Matuiona of England tn tht Olden Timi, representing 
one of those ricn interiors which form such sttiKing 

features In thnt work 

The Mall represented in our frontispiece forms psjt of 
the mansion of LiUtecnl, or Litt/ecoaitt, the residence 
of General Popham; and is situated partly in the pariah 
of Chilton- Foliot, and partly in that of 'ftanubury, 
Wiltshire. The house was erected in the early part of 
the Bixtafnlh century, by the family of the DuTelatand 
was iome years afternards, sold to Sir John PQpham, 
Chirf Justice if the Coirt of King's Bench in the 
reign; of Queen fiU^aheth tiii King Jaines the First. 
The, family of tlie Pophams was very arident, and of 
grea^. note.., They were first raised to the rank of 
nobiliU' (>y ss Matilda and her sou Henry the 

Second. , C in was styledi on account of the 

office^ he Gl imceUr of Normandy, Capitaine of 

Vernb^le, ol of Susan, and Bayon, Tresoror of 

the jK^ing's L" - His body wu buried in the 

Chvter-Hcus^Churchi London; aiid his effigy was fixed 
over the 3ooj; jf bC Scjiulchre's Church, he having con- 
tributed '^gjjBuroft towards |its erection, He^is said by 
Leiand to have len '' a yerj great treasure^ in strange 
coynes." Sif John Popliain, the chief Justice to whose 
hinds Littlecoates passed, was among the most eminent 
branches of the famSy, having adorned his high station 
equally by his ability and hfa integrity. The descendants 
Qf this gentleman, in tl^ male line, inherited the 
mansion till the beginning of the Present century, when 
it passed by^ will to General Edward Leyboume, who 
thereupon assumed itte name of Popham. In the family 
of this gentleman,We believe the estate still remains. 

The mansion of Littlecpaj^s was built, as has been 
remarked, " about the time of the termination of feudal 
war&re, ,when defence carne no longer to be an object in 
s country ^^a^9i^Ml,'' I'he pari in which it is situated 
comprises ah area of aboyt four acres in extent, and Is 
adorned mth groups of heautijUl trees. On one side of 
it rises a lofty hill, crowned witli wood, and forming a 
fine contrast with the luxuriant and level meadows spread 
along the banks of th^ river Kennet; a branch of which 
river runf through the garden, and there constitutes a 
preserve for fi^h. 

Considerable al^r^^n^have been made in the exterior 
of tba^iqansion, i^ modern tiroes; but the interior pre- 
sents many of the features which it, exhibited two or 
three centuries agol tin the first floor of the building is 
a noble picture gallery, one hundred and ten feet long, 
and hung with many curious portraits, painted in the 
sixteenth and seyenteeritb centuries; among which ia 
one of Ch^ef justice Ppphajn, and one of Nell Gwynne, 
bjr Vewiist. There is also preserved here a curious 
piece of Deedlew^rl(| r^resenting a large Roman tessa- 
lated pgvement, which wa^ discovered m the adjoining 
park by Mr. Gegrge,^ steward to the estate, in 1728. 
The Society of Antiq^uaries caused a plate of it to be 
enftraved by Vertue, aiid a description to be vrritten by 
FrofesBor Ward. This pavement measured about fbcty 
feet by t^rty-three, and ^ seems to have formed the floor 
of a temple, ti consiste'd of two divisions,, (he templum 
and sacrafjutQi antiwermg to the nave a!nd chaiicet of 
our churches. The, templum, or outer pfrt, which 
was nearltr square^ was ornamented with a comput; 
ment of figures inlaid, in tBe centre of which was 
a large tw,o bandied cup, supported by two sea-monsters 
with fishes tails, and behind each a dolphin uid two 
conchte, or shell-fiah, probably in allusion ia_ Neptune,' 
Opposite was a border, with a similar cup, supported by 
two tigers. The floor of the sacrarinm was a square, 
enclosing a circle. Within this circle was a smaller one, 
in which was a figure of Apollo playing on the harp; 



and in four inrrotindSg compaitoentsi; four fptuie 
figure rept^senUng the Seasoi^, riding k\ m syecd 
One was exhibiled bolting a flower In Ket hand, and 
seated on a deer, to represent Spring; the sncnd 
appeared seated on  panther, and holding a iwan, at u 
emblem of Summer; the third, who rested her um odi 
branch of a Tine, rode on a bull, and personified Autunm; 
and the fbarth, seated on a goat, without anythbg bhet 
band, denoted the barrenness of Winter. Exterior to ihi 
circle enclosing these figures were three compartio»nl«i 
each displaying a foce of the sun, emitting bright aad 
extended rays in the form of a semicircle ; many am- 
jectures have been offered respecting the nature and pur- 
port of this remarkable specimen of ancient art; but w* 
need not dwell on them bere. 

We hare said that the piece of tapestry, or needle»oil, 

3 resenting this pavement, is preserved in thp 1dt>; 
lery ou Die first story. On tne ground fioor is in 
apartment still inore attractive as a relic or menoriil of 
Id times; we mean the Great Hall, represented in odf 
frontispiece. This ball is very spacious, paved nidi 
■tone, and lighte<l by large and very Ioi\y windoni. It 
measures forty-six feet in length, twentv-four in nidib, 
and twentj^-five ui height ; and its wallj are hung nitli | 
numerous relics of ancient armour, such as coati of 
mail, helmets, cross-bows, old-fashioned pialols, csrbiiKii 
leather jerkins, and other defensive and offensive 3ccouIn> 
ments. Here b also a pair of elk's horns, raeasuri'ig 
seven feet six inches ftom tip to tip. "the old furDilure 
of the room is preserved nearly ia the s^e.Btale as il 
was in by-gone days, and Mr. Nash has nrbscnted tlfa 
with his accustomed fidelity. Amon^ tnese articles rf 
furniture is an old arm-chair, said to have been used 
by Chief Justice Popbam ; it is constructed of "ood, 
curiously turned, and has a very lofty back, and i iri' 
angular seat. The centre of the hall is occupied bv i 
large oai table, reaching nearly from one eilremitvUi 
the other. This table probably formed the bospiiable 
board on which in days of yore, the vassals wereftisltd 
by their lord. Mr. Nash, however, has represented ibit 
table as b«ing the scene oif the game of " shovel-to^Td,'' 
a favourite pastime among the higher classes in tb« tiix 
of Charles the Second; and it appears not unlikely tbi> 
the same table might serve both purposes. 

As the game here alluded to is now quite osbolete, lb 
reader may not deem a few remarks concerning it •"P*'" 
fiuouB. Shovel-bnard was an inferior kjnd of billiards. 
in which a small object was struck or thrown, so as »  
pass to a particular part of the table. Strutt remarks, 
that the residences of the nobility, or the mansions of 
the opulent were not thought to be complete wiltoui a 
shovel-board table ; and this ftsbionable piece of furaiii";' 
was usually statianed in the great hall. Dr. Flott, id bi' 
History of" Slajvrdihire, says: — 

Itis remarkable that in the hall at Chartley.tiieiix/^ 
board table, [it appears to have been spelt both wajSiJ 
thpugh ten yards one foot and an inch long, is nuule Dp <'' 
awtut two hundred and Axty pieces, which are P"*™'! 
about eighteen inches long, soine few only excepted, ''"' 
are scarce a foot ; which, being laid on longer boaids ii* 
mpport midemeath, are so accurately jbyned and gle"*^ 
together, that no ahuffla-board whatever ts freer from "'• 
or castings. Tbere is a icynt also in the shufBe-boud u 
Made!/ Manor exquisitew wdl donel 

The general width rf theae tables is about three feA 
and the sur&ce is as level and smooth as it can be made- 
The player stands at one end of the table, and near IM 
other end is a maii which determines the success of lb* 
player. This marlt or line is drawn across the table at ' 
Sstanco of three or four inches from the end, wbicb e"* 
is, unprovided with any ledge or stay, and at about i"^ 
&t i&'taiioe frwn ^s mark or line anoflier is i""J; 
parallel to iL The toys with which the game ii pl>.^ 
are flat metal weights, of which each player has w"' 
Each one in turn impels a weight from tbe^iesr to "^ 
remote end (rf the table; and hu object Sio vat luco 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



m 



degree of force at sball lodge the weight in the narrow 
space betwe^' the farthest mark uid t«e remote (Md of 
the table. If the force is too weik to oaitv the weight 
beyond the nearest line, or if it is sopoMrnil as to drive 
the weight off the table at the other end » it counts for 
nothing; if the weight rMts on the farthest line, or in 
any part of the space between the two lines, the player 
counts one: if it rests in the space between the farthest 
line and the edge of the iable, he reckons twtf; and 
finally, if it peaches the edge So exlietly as to indine 
a little over without falling, it is deemedihe fi&est kind 
of plav, and ooants as threob Each person plays in'tnm ; 
and when two ontt are'playin|f, eleven is *'game;" but 
when four play, the number to form game is higher. 

Such was a feyourite indoor amusement tVo or three 
centuries ago; and though far inferior to Billiifrdt, it 
required some skill to attain success at it. In one of the 
Harleian IV^anuscripts is a passage which introduces us to 
Prince Henry, son of King James' the First, playing at 
this game:— ^ 

Once when the prince wasphmng at shoffle-board, and in 
his pTay changed sundry pieces, his tutor being desirous thift 
eren in ti-lfles he should hot 'be new-fangled, said to him, 
that he did ill to change so oft; and' therewith took 8 piece 
In his hand, and saving that -he would play ^elT enough 
therewith without changeing, threw tiii piece oik' tiie bbard j 
yet not see wdl, but the prince, smiieiiig thereat, 8iid,'^Weli 
throwne, sir* Wh^retpon, Master Nevrton telHnghiiar tfaoit 
he would not strive with a prince at shoffleboard, he ansW^e^, 
You gownsmen should be best at such exercises, being not 
nieete for those that are more stirrings Yes, qiioth l&ster 
Newton, I am meete for whipping of ooyes. And hereupon 
the prince answered. You need not vaunt of that wtifc-h a 
plou^man or cart*driver can doe better tihan you. Yet 
QUI I doe more, said Master Newton, fbr I cim ^veme 
foolish children. The prince respectinff him, even tn jestinff, 
came from the further end of tne table^ and sBijHng said, 
while he passe^y hira, Hee had need be a wise man him* 
self that cbulcf dice that. * ' 



AFTUOT^q^ 

As a traveller, who harinff Just escaped the fury of a Uon, 
eucmmteTS hnmediateW^ afterwards an angiy bear. 

And who, ddtvered from his new peril, and thankfully reach- 
ing^ his own gate, ' 

Should no sooner rest his hand npon the wall, than a serpent 
shonid dart forth from it, and bite him, 

80 does one affliction after another tie in wait for me ; 

And the'Mcst tbit I ftU into alws^ seems t^ most griavcns 
to endure. ' 

St. Oacooar; Book of ihs Fathtrt. 



Tai; most Imposing object in the vegetable kingdom is the 
solemn foresL Single trees on a plain, or a sufficient number 
to form a grove, are objects of beauty, and consequently of 
pleasure. The dark, close forest carries the mind back 
through an indefinite lapse of time, and conveys to it a 
eenttment of the actual presence of tne work of the Creator, 
as it came from his hand nnchanged by any act of man. 

With this seeming stamp of originality on it, yet tiie 
long-endoring forest which apnears ever the same, is silently 
and houriy submitting to the laws of Nature, ever varyiii 
and changing ; and though iijfe among its membon^ like lite 
among the members of the humaii mmily, has its limits, 
and within some definite term not one of all that are seen 
will remain, yet it is still the same forest to the human eye. 
From the most deep-rooted and long-enduring of this YBBi 
asetemhly, down to the many perfect vegetables which are 
iarisible to the naked eye, tnere are general laws of begin- 
ninir, continuing, and ending the term of life. 

Yet, between these extremes there are manv genera, or 
kinds, capable of precise and well-understood classification. 
Aniong these classes each has its own order of bein^ ; and 
th(sc are again subdivided, and known by distinctions of 
form, internal structure, and in folifu^, in m>wer8.1n'frul^ 
ill jnices, and fragrance. Each of -tfiem tfe4m% toTiu "''* 



HYPOpHQNpjlIACISM. 



Of the miseries the hypochondriac expepenfes, the fol- 
lowing extract of a lettei: to a 'physician, wul afford a 
specimen: — "My popr borf^ is a burning furnace, my 
nerves red-hot coals, Ay blooJf is boiling oil; all sleep 
has fled, and I am suffentfg iEiluiyrdom. I am in agony 
when I lie on my back; TcApiSpt lie on either side; and 
I endure excruciating tPTttirfe Vhen I seek relief by 
lying on my stomachy and, to add to my misery, I can 
neither sit, stand, nor walk." Tlie fancies of hjrpochou- 
driacs are frequently of the most extraordinary nature; 
one patient ima^nes that'he is in such a state of obesity 
as to prevent his passing through the door of his chamber 
or his house; anotiier impressed with the idea that he is 
made of glass, will'iiot sit dbwn for V(^ar of cracking; a 
third seems convinced that his head is empty; and an 
intelligent American, holding a Wh judicial seat in our 
West Indian colonies, could not divest himself of the 
occasional conviction of his being transformed into a 
turtle. 

The most melancholy record of the miseries of hvpo- 
chondriadsm is to be found in the di^ of Dr. Wafder- 
stein of Gottingen. ' He was a ndah knuch deformed in 
person, and his mind seemed as dist&rted as his body. 
Although of deep learning and research, and con- 
vinced of the absnrdi^ of ms impressions, yet he was 
unable to resist their mne&d rnft^ence. 

My misftrttme; f says the d(«Btor,) is that I never exist in 
this world, but-iatlierin'possible combinations created by 
my imagination to my conscience. Tl^qy. occupy a laige 
portion of my time, and my reason has not the power to 
iMmish them. The malady, in fact, is the faculty of extrsct- 
ing poison flKmyeverV cimimstaneetnUfi^^ so much so that 
I often felt the'inost' wfeiched^'bMng, becai^ 1 nad not been 
able to sneecQ ^hree times together. Qne night when I was 
in bed I'falt a sudden fear of fire, and gtsudSaXfy beoune as 
much opprteed by innnnnary heat as tmnfffa njy room wers 
in flamos. While fb wis sttuatidh, a fire^ell[ m the neigh- 
boui'hood'souxided, and added to my Intense sUfieringat I 
do not blush at what misfit* he c^led superstition, any 
more tjian I should bhish m ^knowledgiiigtbi^ mj senses 
inform me that the earth does not move. Hy crrqr forms 
the io€^6f niy judgment, and I thank God Uiat he liiis 
given it k soul capable of correcting 'it. When 1 have been 
perfectly free from' pain, as i^ i^ot unfreijuentfy the case 
wiien I am'in bed, my tense of this happiness has broughf 
tean of gntitudeinmyeyes.' I once dreamt, (adidB^nd; 
dersteia,) that I was Condemned to* be burnt alive. I wa 
very calm, and reasoned coolly durina the exertion of my 
Sentence. ' Now ' I s^d to myself, * 1 am buming, but not 
yet burnt ; and by-and-bv 1 shall be reduced to a cinaer? 
this was all I thought, and I did nothiiu; but think. When, 
upon awakinff^ T reflected npon my^ oream, I was by no 
metfis pleased with it, for I was afraid I should become a^ 
thmghty and nofuUng. 

It is strange that this fear of thought, assuming a 
corporeal form in deep affliction, had occurred to our poet 
Rowe, when he exclaims, In the Foir Penitent^ 

Turn not to Thought my brain. 




that Uie whole world is a mere machine, expressly formed 
to make me feel my sufferings in every possible manner. 

What a fearfiil srvowal from a reflecting and intelligent 
man. Does it not illnstrals Honsseaus definition of 
i^ason — ike Icnowledg'e of ourfolfy. 

rMiLLXKOBif*s CurioiUiei of Medical Experiefut.l 

"• ill ,ii'iTn'i-'»'!«|'.i 

n" '^* '\^» 4.V<*i«'«^ Irilfi,') 
^JW/ fi'HU-.ll'nl kljI'J* .'irilMj 'ijlj 'it, 






THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[Aprii, t, 



ON CHES§. 

TIL CHUt-WBITZKI AMD FLATUI. 



And B'<r a* nH Ibiir pauir ■nr'™ **■" 
ODBMteBm iHp, m^MJealfy (loir, 
Thn gnnlir nnai md dnn tlw dmg'niB ft* 
ir •■r ter odl; te wauUidtiMtcmmri^i— 
And di* irilh i^on if Ih^ wn Ifarir li^ 
On Um Ilia ^tacT of lb* dif dipoA : 



Thi knowledge of the game of chess hu been ezten- 
nvelr diffoted for nuny eenturiea put, u tna^ be seen 
1)y i£q numerous manuscripts and printed treatises which 
luTe appeued on the subject. The hitter have been 
mitten in, or transla,ted into, nearly all the European 
bnguages, and several of the Oriental ones ; and it tattj 
perltiaps prove interesting to such of our readers as hare 
not met vith any notice of these woAs, to take a cursory 
slaaca at them, and at the playen >iid modes of play 
uiey c(jebrale. 

As early as the commencement of the ninth century, 
the game of chess was in such high repute in the East, 
that Al Amin, Khalif of Bagdad, is said to have com- 
manded the different provinces of his empire to send to 
his court all such persons as were the most expert at 
chess, to whom he allowed pen8tons> and passed the 
most considerable part of his time among them. On 
one occasion, when he was playing at ^ess with his 
freed-man Euthar, without the least i^prehension of im- 
pending danger, Al Mamun's forces pushed the si^« of 
Bagdad with so much vigour, that the city was upon the 
point of being carried by assault. On being warned of 
his danger, Al Amin cried out " Let me alone I for I see 
cneck-mate against Kuthar." This anecdote is quoted 
by Dr. Hyde from an Arabic history of the Saracens. 
At this period (about the year 608), chess was not un- 
known to the monarchs of the West. Charlemagne is 
represented, in the curious and ancient French romance 
called GiMTin </e Sfonlglave, as being exceedingly fond 
of the game. This romance was sJluded to in our 
Bittory oftht Origin of Chen, and the anecdote there 
Ijo^'^^''^'^^'" — " ^ ^''" **'^ ^'^ emperor to 

some very J^b stake?' "Done," repliedjSttWJi^J'.XislraJ 
play, proqdeit'Mily you bet against me Your kingdom of 



France." " Very good, let us see," said Chsrlemagiu, 
who fancied himself to be strong at chess. They plav 
forthwith, Charlenuigne loses his kingdom, but Ungb 
the matter off as a joke. Goerin, however, is notdispcMed 
to view it in this light, and swears by St. Martin and ill 
the Saints of Aquitaine that he must reoeive awne con- 
Tbe emperor. then gives him. permission to 



conquer MontgUye f Lyon^ &om the Sancens, aod >ar> 
renders to Guerin all Ins right in that city. . 

Other romances of that period contain notices of th« 
game of chest, and it is in fahuloos histories that m 
get the first mention among western authors of thii 
celebrated amusement. There is nothing to induce the 
supposition that at this time, the European players hid 
attuned any great degree of skill at chess; but we fisd 
mention made of a ^yer at TripoU, in Syria, who in 
the year 970 was famed for going througa the game 
blind-fold. This man, Jusuph Tchelebi by name, vu 
accustomed to use very large chess-men, and to pUynot 
by naming the moves, but by feeling the men, and 
placing them in the squares or removing them from tha 
board as occasion required. At the period we are now 
speaking of, the chess-table seems often to have been 
the scene of fierce dispute, and violent anger. Two ot 
three fistal a&ays are represented by the French ro- 
mancers to have taken place, in consequence of the ter- 
mination of a game of chess, and though we are pie- 
pored for highly.coloured pictures in works of thJi 
description, there is no doubt but that some measure of 
truth is to be found in such recitals, and that they had 
their foundation in the customs of the times. In a 
book published at Stockholm in the Icelandic language, 
King Canute, so celebrated for his wisdom, is described 
as resenting very deeply a provocation received at chea«. 
The passage runs thus : — 

As King Canute and Eaii Ulf were playing at cbcM, Iha 
Idiu mode • Use move^ in consequence of which the esil 
took one of his knights; but the kin^ would not allow thi% 
and nplacing the piece, inusted on hu playing differcntlj. 
The earl waxed angiy, overturned the cheae-board, and wm 
Ming away, when the king called after him, sayinr "Dl^ 
thoa coward, dost thon fleet" The earl ntnmed to ttie docs', 
and said, " You would hare token a lougar flight in the rini 
Helga, bod I not ran to your oasstonce when the SwedM 
beat yon like a doa; you did not then call me Ulf ths 
cowara." The eerl then retired, and the next moming tbe 
king ordered him to be killed. 

Of the fondness of the Danei fbr cheoe and dice we 
have an instance in the &ct that when Bishop Etfaerie 
came to Canute the Great on important business, and 
entered the royal presence at midnight, he found the 
king and his courtiers busily o^aged at tbese gamei, 
even at an hour which in those early times must have 
been considered a most unseasonable <aie for the puiposet 



In on old book, called the Anatomy tf MetatuAolg, 
where chess is recommended as "a good and wittie 
exercise of the mtnde for some kinde of men ; but too 
troublesome, too fVill of anxiety," and "all but as bad as 
study" to others, it is given as an iUustration of its ten- 
deuCT to promote a testy choleric feeling in him thit 
losetii the mate, that " William the Conqueror in hi> 
younger years while playing at chess with uie prince of 
France, lost a mate, and was so provoked thereat, that 
he knocked the chess-board about his adversary's psic, 
which was a cause afterwards of much enmity between 
them." The chess contest seems to have been afterwards 
carried on in much the same spirit between their soos, 
for we find that towards the close of William's reigo 
(1087), he appointed his two sons, Robert and Henry, 
joint governors of Normandy, and these going t<^tlii:t' 
to visit the French king were entertained with a variety 
f>i^,fW^t,, Henry clayed with the Dauphin (LouJ9 le 
f«e»>,ififil!f»%fm.S9?r*ifiWBidfiWtIf Wft of .money 
of him, which so much trritiWilMbjibatAietlkcemwt 
chess-men at Henry's head, uung at the same time 



1841.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



183 



offensiye language towards lum. Henry retaliated mth 
blows ; and ti^e quarrel, it is said, reached such a height, 
that but for the interference of the Prince Robert it 
might have terminated fktally.' John of Salisbury relates 
that in a batde between the French and English in 1 1 1 7, 
an English knight seising the bridle of Louis le Gros, 
and crying out, "The king's tacen.'' Loms strucc nnn to 
the ground with his sword, saying "Ne scais tu pas 
qu'aux 6checs on ne prend pas le roy?^ ** Dost thou not 
know that at chess the king is neyer taken?" -j^ - 

We now approach the period when the first regular 
treatise on chess made its ' appearance. This was the 
work of Jacobus de CossoUis, or Cesolis, presumed to 
have been written before the year 1200. Verci says 
that Ute original wo A was written either in Latin or in 
French, and that the Latin manuscript is still preserved 
in the University of Pladua. Two manuscript copies of 
this work are preserved in the British Museum. Ine first 
is entitled lAb^r tnortdis de Ludor SeaccoTf and it is a 
quarto of fifty leaves of parchment, twenty-nine lines on 
a page. The first page has a miniature border, in gold and 
colours, representing fiowers, a peacock, and other birds, 
with two angels. The first letter, which is a Gothic M of 
about an inch square, is ornamented with a king plajdng 
at chess with a monk. The colours are vivid and the 
drawing is good; eleven more capitals are embellished 
with flourishes in gold, and the writing is neat and well- 
preserved. The other copy is written on paper, and un- 
ornamented. The work at Cesolis was translated into 
English by William Caxton, in 1474, but previous to 
that time there had appeared a curious manuscript of 
which we must first take account. It was called A 
Maralihf on Chess^ and was ascribed to Pope Innocent 
ni., but seems to have been written by an English monk 
named Innocent, about the year 1400. As it is not with- 
out its merits, and boldly points out the abuses which 
creep into the highest offices^ we give it at full length ; 
observing, however, that the description of the moves of 
the king and queen does not agree with that in the 
modem, game, while the bishop's move is restricted to 
three squares, as in the "courier" game^ which we shall 
have to notice hereafter. 

This whole world is nearly like a chess-board, of which 
the noints are alternately ^Hhite and Mack, figuring the 
doable state of life and death* grace and rfn. 

The families of this chess-o^ird axe like the men of this 
woild ; they aU come out of one bog, and are placed in 
difierent stations in life. They have different appellations : 
one is called king, another queen, the third rook, the fourth 
kiufht, the fifth alphin (bishop), the sixth, pawn. 

The condition ofthe same is, that one piece takes another ; 
snd when the game u finished, they are all deposited 
toeether, like man in the same place. "Neither is there any 
dmerenoe between the king and the poor pawn : for it often 
hspoens that when the pieces are thrown pronuscuously into 
the oagy the kins; lies at the bottom; as some of the great 
will find themselves after their transit from this worM to 
thenext. 

In this game the king ^s into all the circumjacent 
places and iakes everything m a direct line, which is a sign 
that the king must never omit doing justice to all uprightly, 
for in whatever manner a king acts it is reputed just» and 
what pleases the sovereign has the force of law. 

The queen, whom we call Fen^ goes and takes in an oblique 
line; because women being of an avaricious nature, take 
whateyer they can ; and often, being without merit or grace, 
veguilty of rapine and injustice. 

xhe rook is a judge who perambulates the whole land in 
& straight line, and snoYild not t^e anything in an oblique 
nuEmer, bjr bribery or corruption, nor spare any one ; else 
they rerify the saving of Amos, " Ye have turned justice 
ioto gaU, and the fruit of righteousness into hemlock." 

Bat the knight in taking, goes one point directly, and then 
takes an oblique circuit, m sign that knights and lords of 
the land may justly take the rents due to them, and their 
just fines firom those who have forfeited them, according 
to the eadgetooe oC the ease. Their third point beiqg oblique 
^M tt^Uigipa^lintflois^cwdieivtheyTiDip^^ v.i 

The poor pawn goes directly forward m his simplicity; 



but whenever he will take he does so obliquely. Thus 
man, while he is poor and contented, keeps within compasa 
and lives honestl v ; but in search of temporal honours he 
&wns, cringes, and forswears himsdf, and thus goes obliquely 
till he gains a superior ' degree on the chess-board of the 
world, when the nawn attains the utmost in his power, he 
dianges to Fers^ and in like manner humble poverty becomes 
rich and insolent. 

The alphins are the Various prelates of the church, pope^ 
archbishop, and their subordinate bii^ps, who rise to their 
sees not so much by divine insipiration as by royal power, 
interest, entreaties, add read^ money. These alphins move 
and take obliquely three pomts, for the minds of too many 
prelates are perverted by love, hatred, or> bribery, not to 
reprehend the guilty or bark against the vicious, but rather 
to absolve them from their sins: so that those who should 
have extirpated vice, are, in consequence of their own 
covetousness, become promoters of vice and advocates of the 
devil. 

In this chess game the devil says '' check" whenever he 
insults and strikes one with his dart of sin ; and if he that 
is thus struck cannot immediately deliver himself, the 
devil resuming the move says to him ** mate," carrying his 
soul along with him to prison, from which neither love nor 
money can deliver him, for from hell there is no redemption. 
And as huntsmen have various hoimds for taking various 
beasts^ so the devil and the world have different vices, which 
differently entangle mankind, for aU that is in this world is 
lust of the flesh, lust of the eyes, or proud living." 



ON THE CUSTOM OF THE MAUNDY. 

The reader may probably have noticed, in . Almanacs, 
that the day immediately preceding Good Friday in 
every year is called Maundy Thursday. The old 
customs connected with this day, and still partially ob- 
served, are very curious, and well .worthy of general 
attention at this seiason- of the year. But, before we 
proceed to detail them, it will be proper to state the 
opinions given as to the origin of the term maundy. 

Oiir old writers, about the time of the Reformation, 
apply this word to the commands^ then written <* com" 
maundf,'* of Christ,- which He delivered to his disciples 
on the day before his crucifixion. These commands of our 
Blessed Lord related to the faith and practice of the future 
apostles while upon earth, and of the Christian church 
throughout all ages. - He ordained the Holy Communion 
of His body and blood, to be observed by them and all 
faithful Christians till His second. coming. He washed 
the feet of the disciples, (a common and necessary service 
in the East, which the climate renders desirable to be 
done,) in token of that humility .which it behoved them 
to imitate; and He laid His affectionate injunctions upon 
them, that they should love one another as he had loved 
them. Christ was put to death on the Fridav: the day 
before is thus tenhed " Maundy Thursday, ' as being 
the day of the last commands of our Lord, before the 
fulfilment of those suffeiingrs in His own person, which 
should cleanse us from all sin. 

Following the other authority, we find that Maundy 
Thursday is so named from the maunds, wherein 
were formerly contained gifts, which the king was wont 
to distribute on that day, to a certain number of poor 
persons at Whitehall. The Saxon word '< maud," which 
afterwards became maundy is the name for a haskety 
(French manne^) and by consequence for any gift, or 
offering, contained in the basket. The sort of basket 
just referred to, is an open one with handles. 

The day of which we speak was likewise once called 
Shere Thursday, (and by corruption Chare Thursday,) 
because as we are told, in ancient times, " people would 
that day shere theyr hedes and clypp theyr berdes, and so 
make tnem honest agenst Easter-day." In the miracu- 
lous legend of St. Brandon, it is related that he sailed 
with his monks to the Island of Sheep, about the year 
565 A.D. This island, which abounded in sheep, was 
'a«;.491?A>,ip,J*^i «AP^ef^ |m|4^,,;jii^^.^he.,p^ddle,,qf ,thp 
Atlantic Ocean^ near the Equator. Here on "shere' 



134 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[April 3, 



ihumdaye, after souper, he wesshe theyr feet, and kyssed 
them lyke as" our lorde dyd to hi^ dyscyples," 

We propose now to notice several celebrations of the 
Manndy, beginning With the practice of it in the reign 
of h«;r present Majesty, Queen Victoria, and going back 
into previous reigns, as far as our means will allow; 
concluding with notices of foreign observances of this 

day. 

In the Times newspaper of April 16th, 1838, we 
observe the following account of her Majesty's Mailndy 
donations : — 

The Queen's royal alms were distributed on Saturday 
by Mr. Hanbv, at the almonry office, to the Maundy inftft 
and women placed on the supernumerary lists, owing lo the 
difference of the ages between the late king and her present 
Majesty. Both men and women receive 2/. I0»., ana nine- 
teen silver pennies, (being the age of the queen.) Td the 
men, woollen and linen clothing, shoes, and stockings wer^ 
nven ; and to the women, in lieu of clothing, \l, 15^., each. 
The Maundy men and women also received 1/. idtf.,— « 
coram utatioUy instead of the provisions heretofore dis- 
tributed. 

As the foregoing comprises a substantial account of 
the present celebration of the Maundy, we tieed not 
dwell further upon it, except to make a few remarks on 
the silver penny, which is now coined expressly for this 
occasion. 

Before the year 1 672 there was no legitimate copper 
coinage in England: on which account the pecuniary 
donations of the sovereigns of England on Maundy 
Thursday were usually made in silver ; — the silver pen- 
nies then in common use ; — as many silver pennies being 
given to each individual as the years of tne monarch's 
age; besides clothes and food, as will be presently 
related. Mr. Till, an experienced numismatist, passes a 
high eulogium on the beauty and production of the 
small pieces termed Maundy money. He considers 
them as finely executed, and well struck up ; in some 
instances being like proofs ; jndgring from the specixiien 
now before us, they certainly merit this eulogium. 
The Maundy pennies are x'l ^^ &n ii^ch in diameter. 
They are by order of Government declared current 
coins of the realm ; so that they could not be refiised, if 
tendered in payment: still, they are not in reality in- 
tended for that purpose. Besides the pennies, fonr- 
penny pieces, three-penny pieces, and two-penny pieces 
are struck as Maundy money, and also used as presents 
for various officers attached to the crown, as well as to 
others. 

We have seen that the practices of the Maundy are 
now considerably pared off 1 but, in order to give the 
reader some idea of the ancient customs of tMs day, w^ 
will select a few instances of the observances of by-goh^ 
years. 

On Maundy Thursday, 1814, the royal donations 
were distributed at the Chapel Hoyal, Whitehall, accord- 
ing to annual custom. In the morning, Dr. Carey, the 
sub-almorier, and Mr. Hanbv, secretary to the lord high 
almoner, together with otfiers belonging to the lord 
chamberlain's office, and a party of the yeomen of the 
guard, distributed to seventy-five poor men, and the likfe 
number of women, (heing as many as the king Was years 
old,) a quantity of salt-fish, consisting of salmon, cod, 
and herrings, pieces of very fine .beef, five loaves of 
bread, and some ale to drink the king's health. At three 
o'clock they assembled again, the men on one side of the 
chapel, and the women on the other. A procession 
entered of those engaged in the ceremony, consisting of 
a party of yeomen of the guard, one of them carrying a 
large gold dish on his head, containing one hundred and 
fifty bags, with seventy-five silver pennies in each, for 
the poor people, which was placed in the royal closei. 
They were followed by the sub-almoner in his rbbeS, 




secretary, and another gentleman, with Bimilar sashes, 
aiid ail carrying large oonegays. The churdi eveningr 
service was then peHbrmedr at the conclusion of whici 
the silvei' pennies were distributed, together with wooUea 
cloth, linen, shoes, and Etoekings; and a cup of wine wu 
given to each to dripk the king's health. 

The provisions were given away in }arge woodn 
bowls; tile drinking-cup was made of maple. The begi 
containing the Maundy money were made of white kid: 
when gold was given away, it was put into a small rd 
bag. 

The ceremonial of the Manndy, aa practised in 1731, 
consisted, hoi distributing at the Banquetting Housq 
^^Ikitehall, to forty-eight poor men, and forty-^ight poor 
women^ (the king^s age being forty-eight,) boiled beef 
and shoulders of mutton, with small bowls of ale, which 
is called dkmer : after that, large wooden platters offish 
and bread; viz., one larg« old ling, and one large dri^d 
ood; .twelve red-herribgs, and twelve white-herrings, all 
nndres^ed; and four half-quartern loaves. Each person 
had one platter of this provision; after whiefa they re* 
ceived shoes, stockings, linen and woollen cloth, and 
leathern bags, with one penny, tWo-penny, three-pennyi 
and four-penny pieces of silver, and shUlings; to eadi 
about four pounds in value. His grace, the Lord Arch* 
bishop of York, lord high almoner, performed the annual 
ceremony of Washing the feet of a certain number ol 
poor in &e royal chiipel, Whitehall, which was formerly 
done by the kings ^emselves, in imitation of our Blessed 
Saviour's pattern of humility. James II. is said to 
have been the last of our monarchs, who performed this 
eeremony in person. 

In the ^r 1572, which was the thirty-ninth year of 
Queen Elisabeth's age, besides bestowing her maundy, 
her Majesty, as the kin s and queens of England had 
done bdEbre her, washed and kissed the feet df as many 
poof men and women as she herself was years old. 
This was done at Greenwich, on which occasion the feet 
of the poor persons were first washed by the yeomen of 
the laundiy with warm water and sweet herbs ; afler^ 
wards by the almoner and snb-ahnoner; and lastly, in a 
silver iSasin by the queen herself; — ^the person who 
washed, making each time a cross on the pauper's foot 
above the toes, and kissing it. This ceremony was per- 
formed by the queen, kneeling, being attended by thirty- 
nine ladies and gentlewomen: the queen's part of tbe 
business took |)laoe after singing and prayers, and the 
reading of the Gospel, which describes the fact thai 
imitated. Her Majesty theti distributed clothes, victuals, 
and money ; the rest m the proceedings being similar to 
those in the cases mentioned before. 

It appears that the money given to the maundy 
people, in addition to the pennies, was meant fibr the re* 
demption of the sovereign's garments, which,' according 
to the ancient order, it was tisual to give away. Queeii 
Elizabeth redeemed her gown by ^ving twenty shillings 
in a leathern purse to each person. 

The ceremony of the archbishop washins the feet of 
the apostles, is performed in great style at Moscow, n 
Russia, on the Thursday before Easter. The priests 
appear in their most gorgeous apparel. Twelve monks 
designed to represent the twelve apostles, are placed in 
a semicircle before the archbishop. The ceremony 
takes place in the cathedral, which is crowded with spec- 
tators. The prelate, who performs all, and much more 
than is related of our Saviour in the 13th chapter of Stl 
John's gospel, takes off his robes, girds up his loins with 
a towel, and proceeds to wash the feet of them all, until 
he comes.to the monk Who represents St. Peter, wbo rises 
up, and holds the same discourse with the archbishop 
which is recorded as having taken place between our 
Blessed Lord and that apostle. 

Dr. Bright tells us that, in Austria, this singular 
'Of^fono^' is !(5e^lv*Aei.iaA'rV^9fl|^,i\)y,.tih^',;ff)^^tl!1 JJ 
is kiiowii; ill 'Q«riiuiily^>«fnoBg}«tfh^ hyitti^ 



1841] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



135 



epithet of the '' wasliing of the feet." After soitoble 
preparations ore made, twelve men and twelve women 
are selected £rom the oldest and most deserving paupers* 
After attending mass, the emperor and enqnress, with 
the whole court, enter to the sound of solemn music, and 
approach the tables where the paupers are sitting, whom 
they serve with different courses of meats,. and with 
wine. The tablea ate then removed, and silver howls 
are placed beneath the feet of the men and women; the 
emperor washing the feet of the former, and the empress 
the feet of the latter, while the grand chambwiain, in a 
humble posture, pours water upon the feet of each one 
in sacoeflsiett from, a golden urn. This rite concludes 
amidst the sounds of sacred music. 

In Spain, one of the pdblic sights of the town of 
Seville on Maundy Thursday^ is a -splendid cold dinner 
which the ardibishop gives to twelve paupers, in com- 
memoration of the apostles. The dinner is to be seen 
hid out on tables filling up two larffe rooms in the 
palace. Having partaken of a more homely dinner in 
ihe kitchen, these guests are furnished with large baskets 
to take awav the splendid commons allotted to eadi in 
separate dishes, which they sell to the gourmands of the 
town. Each, besides, is allowed to dispose of his napkin, 
curiously made up into the figure of some bird or qua* 
draped, which people buy as ornaments to their china 
capboards, and as specimens of the perfection to which 
some of the poorer nuns have carried the art of plaiting. 

At two o'clock in the afternoon, the archbishop, at- 
tended by his chapter, repairs to Uie cathedral, where he 
performs the ceremony oi washing the feet of the twelve 
paupers in a large silver basin: they are seated on a 
]4atform erected before the high altar, and the prelate, 
stripped of his silk robes, and kneeling successively be- 
fore each, goes through a pompous and ostentatious imi- 
tation of our blessed Lord s real humiUty. 

In Rome, the Pope commemorates the washing of 
the disciples' feet by officiating in person. In this 
case, there are thirteen^ inatead of twelve, representatives 
of the apostles, the additional one representing the angel 
that once came to the table of twelve that St. Gregory 
was serving. The twelve are old priests, but he who 
represents the angel is very young. They are all dressed 
in loose white gowns, and white caps on their heads, and 
clean woollen stockings, and seat themselves in a row 
aloQg^ the wall, under a canopy. When the Pope enters 
and takes . his seat at the top of the room, the whole 
company kneel in their places and turn towards him ; and, 
on his hand being extended in benediction, they all rise 
and reseat themselves. The splendid garments of the 
Pope are then taken off; and, clad in a white linen robe 
which he wears under the others, and wearing the bishop's 
mitre instead of the tiara, he approaches these pilgrims, 
as they are called; then, taking from an attendant cardi- 
nal a silver bucket of water, he kneels before each of 
them successivelv, wets each foot, and touches it with a 
square fringed cloth ; he then kisses the leg, and gives 
the cloth, together with a sort of white flower or feather, 
to the pilgrim. This ceremony is done so quickly, that 
it consumes scarcely two minutes. . The Pope then 
returns to his throne, puts on his robes of white and 
lilver again, and proceeds to the dining- hall; the thirteen 
priests are then seated in a row at Uie table, which is 
spread with a varietyof dishes, and adorned with a pro- 
fusion of flowers. The Pope gives the blessing; and 
walking along the aide of the table opposite to them, 
hands each of them bread, plates, and cups of wine. 
They regularly rise up to receive what he presents ; the 
Pope then goes through the forms of service, gives them 
his parting benediction, and leaves them to finish their 
dinner. Thev' cairry away what they cannot eat, and 
receive a small present in money besides. 

The custom of the Maundy is supposed to have been 
of great antiquity, as it is first referred to Augustine, 
who lived about the year 400 A. n. It has been ordi- 



narily confined to royalty, but in the E^rl of Northum- 
berland's Househoid Book, which belongs to the early 
part of the sixteenth century, we find mention made of 
" Al maner of thyngs yerly yeven by my lorde of his 
maundy, ande my laidis, ande his lordshippe's childeren." 



SILK FROM SHELL-FISH. 

We have lately noticed an attempt made to procure 
silk, adapted for the purposes of the manufacturer, from 
spiders' nests. We have now to speak of a similar, and 
rather more successful, attempt with respect to shell- 
fish. 

It is well known that the common edible muscle has 
the power of affixing itself to rocks, or to the shells of 
other muscles, with great firmness; and it haa been 
ascertained that* if the animal is accidentally torn from 
its hold, it has the power of replacing the threads of 
viscous matter, by which it thus attaches itself to 
different objects. The threads issue from the part of the 
shell where it naturally opens, and though each in itself 
is too delicate to possess much strength, yet the almost 
infinite number which are put forth, acting as so many 
small cables, keep the fish steady in its position, amidst 
all the power of the waves. 

It is not to the muscle, however, that we refer as a 
silk-producing animal, but to a fish belongring to the 
same order, and in many respects resembling it. This 
is the pmnay a much larger fish than the muscle, its 
shell being sometimes found two feet long. The shell 
is bivalve, fragile, and furnished with a beard; the valves 
hinge without a tooth. The pinna like the muscle 
attaches itself to rocks; it is also .found with the sharp 
end of its shell embedded in mud or sand, while the rest 
of the shell is left free to open in the water. Like the 
muscle, it has the power of spinning a viscid matter from 
its body; but the threads of the pinna are of great 
delicacy and beauty, being scarcely inferior to the single 
filament of the silkworm. Both the pinna and the muscle 
are furnished with an organ, which is sometimes called a 
tongue, sometimes a foot, from its performing the offices 
of both those members. The latter of these offices is 
denied to it by some naturalists, who affirm' that the 
pinna always remains in the same place; but though its- 
powers of locomotion are very limited, yet it appears 
that an occasioiial change of situation is effected by 
means of the organ we have alluded to. The extremity 
of the foot (as we may then call it,) is fixed to some 
solid body, and being contracted in its length, the whole 
fish is necessarily drawn tow.ards the spot where it has 
fixed itself; and by a repetition of these movements the 
animal arrives at its destination. The principal use of 
this organ, however, appears to be that of forming the 

SssuSf which is the name given to the collection of 
reads by which the animal attaches itself at various 
points to some fixed spot. The formation of these threads 
is exceedingly curious and remarkable. * They are not 
spun, like those of the spider and of the silkworm, by 
being drawn out of the body, but they are cast in a 
mould, where thev remain until they have acquired a 
certain degree of hardness and consistency. This mould 
is contained in the tongue of the animal, and forms a deep 
longitudinal furrow extending from the root to the cir- 
cumference, having its sides so constructed as to fold 
over it, thereby making it into a canal. On the outside, 
this canal appears like a crack, being almost covered by 
the flesh on either side, but internally it is wider, and 
surrounded with circular fibres. The tongue is fur- 
nished with glands for the secretion of the peculiar 
liquor which forms the byssus, and from these it is puured 
into the canal, where it dries into a solid thread. When 
it has acquired sufficient tenacity the animal protrudes 
its foot, and applies and fixes the end of the thread to 
the surface of some object in its vicinity : the whole length 
of the canal is then suddenly opened, and the thread. 



186 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE 



[April 3, 1841. 



which is fixed by one end to the tendon at the base of the 
foot, and by the other to the solid surfiee in questiftn, is 
disengaged from its mould. The canal is now ready to 
ree^ve another portion of the Tiscid secretkm, (which 
secretion exists in great abundance in this animal as well 
as in muscles,) and the process is gone through as befot«. 
Thread after thread is thus formed, and anplied in 
different directions round the shell, and it nas been 
observed that the animal puts each thread in succession 
to the test, by swinging itself round and stretching it. 

Thus, as Keaumur has observed, the workmanship of 
the land and sea animals, in forming the same pro- 
duction, is very different. Spiders, caterpillars, &&, 
form threads of any required length, by making the 
viscous liquor of which the filament is formed pass 
through fine perforations in the organ appointed foir 
spinning. But the pinna and muscle form their threads 
in a mould situated within the organ, and which determines 
the length of each filament. The work of. the land 
animals therefore* may be likened to that of the wire- 
drawer, while the labours of the sea-animals may be com- 
pared to those of the foimder who casts metals in a 
mould. 

It was at first supposed that the pinna, as well as the 
muscle, had the power pf transferring the threads thus 
formed from one spot to another ; but subsequent obser- 
vation has proved that wherever the animal takes up its 
position, there it must remain, unless by any accident 
the threads become severed, when it immediately begins 
to form others, and every fibre employed in fixing itself 
in a fresh situation is newly formed at the time it is 
required. ' The old threads appear quite useless, and 
have', by way of experiment,' been cut .' away from the 
body as close as was considered safe to the animal, when 
they were replaced by .others, in as short a space of time 
as that employed by others not so mutilated. We learn 
from Poli, that the byssus in silk-producing fish Is of the 
same structure, as hair, and that at the extremity it is 
furnished with little cups, or suckers, by which it adheres 
firmly. In the pinna, the liquid matter is produced 
slowly, not more than four or five threads being formed 
in the course of a day and night. It is so exceedingly 
glutinous in its nature, that it will.take a firm hold on the 
smoothest bodies. When the animal is disturbed in its 
operations, the threads are more hastily formed, and in 
consequence possess less strength than those which are 
produced at the ordinary rate. 

The pinna is found on the coasts of Italy and Pro- 
vence, and in the Indian Ocean. The largest and most 
remarkable species inhabits, the Mediterranean Sea. It 
is exposed to the attacks of many enemies, especially of 
the cuttle-fish, which is its deadly foe. It is said, (and 
the alleged fact has been celebrated in poetry,) that the 
pinna is warned of approaching enemies by a faidiful 
ally, which is ever at hand to afford its . important ser- 
vices. This ally is a small animal of the crab kind, 
which takes reiage in the shell of the pinna, and com- 
pensates by its quickness of sight for the deficiency 
which the pinna, in c(Hnmon with the rest of its species, 
experiences in that respect. There is so much that ap- 
pears fabulous in this reputed friendship of the pinna and 
the crab, that we willingly omit the several details, and 
proceed to notice the method employed to procure the 
byssus, and the uses to which that substance has been 
applied. 

Although the fineness and beauty of this remarkable 
production is almost equal to that of the silkworm's 
thread, and has procured for the animal that forms it 
the common name of '' the silkworm of the sea," yet, 
when attached in filaments of almost innumerable extent 
to the rocks below the surface of the sea, it require? con- 
siderable force to disengage the tuft of threads. At 
Toulon, an instrument called a cramp is employed by 
the fisherman for this purpose. This is an iron fork, 
with prongs eight feet in lengthy and six inches apart; 



the prongs are placed at right angles with the handle, 
the length of which is fegulated by .the deptJi of the 
water, and varies from fifteen to tfaiirty feet The pimue 
are seiied, separated fram the rock, and brougiit to the 
suiface by means of this instrument. 

. It is uncertain whether the term byssus, as used hj 
ithe anoients, is always applicable to this psrtilailar sub- 
stance. Aristotle speaks of byssus as bemg made from 
the beard of the pinna, and it is certain that this kind of 
silk was employed in ike manufacture of owtain fabrics 
in very ancient times. But it is also said that by ti^ 
name of byssus, the ancients meant indiscriminately any 
material that was spun, the quality of which was &m 
and more valuable than woollen threads. Sometimes the 
produce of the pinna is distinctly mentioned as being 
wrought into articles of dress; thus Procopius speaks of 
a robe composed of byssus of the pinna, as having been 
-presented by the Roman emperor to the satraps of Ar- 
menia. This substance, is .evidently referred to bv a 
writer of the year 1782, who says :— *^ The andenta had 
a manufacture of silk, and which about forty years ago 
was ' revived at Tarento and Regie in the kingdom of 
Naples. ' It consists of a strong brown silk, belonging to 
some', sort of shell, of which they make caps, gloves, 
stockings, waistcoats,i8(c., warmer than the woollen stuffs, 
and brighter than .common silk. I have seen such kind 
of shells myself; I think it was of the pecten kind, but 
cannot be sure." , ; 

. On the shores where the larger kind of pinnis aboond, 
the manufacture above alluded to is still carried on. At 
Palermo the silk is wrought into various articles of dress 
of a beautiful description. The stockings maiiufactared 
from this material are so fine, that a pair !of .them can be 
easily enclosed in a snuff-box of the ordinary size, and 
yet their warmth is such,' that they are 'said, to be more 
useful in gouty and rheumatic cases, than appropriate 
for common wear. This material will probably remain 
a rarity, except, in the countries where it is produced, 
for it cannot be obtained in sufficient abundance' to ren- 
der it a commodity for exportation. In England it 
merely forms, a curious addition to some of our cabinets, 
while its .existence as an article of manufacture is un- 
known. 

To the objection that philosophy and the study of natare 
are proved by experience to lead to disbelief in revelation, 
the answer is easy. They are not ifnends to &]ae views of 
religion; and this b the point of soreness. They are con- 
versant with truths, and eenemte a discernment for truth: 
they detect falsehood, and are oondenmed because fiilsehood 
fears them. If ever they have led to so fhlse a conclusion 
as religious disbelief, the reason is not that they have been 
pursued, but that they have not been pursued ha enoujrh. 
Partial studies may be injurious: tiiey have led to doubt 
and error; but the real cause is then no other than that it 
has been under superficial inquiries into xevelation; it is 
ignorance united to vanity. In each case alike the cure 
must be sought in more knowledge, as this is ever the 
remedy for the evils which follow from a little.— M^ccuLLocti. 



Habit is the kindest friend or crudest foe to human wel- 
fare. When it assumes the latter character, it comes ever 
in the most delusive and seductive forms. It soon substi- 
tutes its own irresistible wiU, for that of its victim; and 
triumphantly points to the gulf to which it been him. The 
fly, caueht in the epider's web, is a faint illustration of the 
power of habit. The flv knows, from the first moment, 
his destiny, and struggles to escape. The gambler, the 
drunkard, die felon, where and how do they learn that they 
have been caught in the web of nabiti— S. 



ILONDON: 

JOHN WILLIAM PABKEB, WEST ffTRAKD. 
pDiuuiBo » "Wmwmt VvMmum, rtaea Omu.fmmint, jun a MoKtrnx 

Pastc, FMoa Baramtmm 
Md bar all Beokniltnaaa 



1641.] 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



189 



very lean, showing an immense head, spotted all over 
^ith black and brown spots, and the belly almost black ; 
tne other bright and silvery, without spots, and the head 
small. Their flesh was compared at table, and while 
that of the one was white, flabby, and bad, without curd, 
that of the other was of the brightest pink, and fuU of 
dense curd. 

The process of depositing the spawn occupies eight 
or twelve days, and the ova- is then carefully oovered 
with gravel and stones. The fish then leaye their nume- 
rous eggs or spawn, (estimated at fit>m 17,000 to 20,000,) 
and retire to some neighbouring part of the stream, 
where the water is deeper, and more refreshing to them. 
In a fortnight or three weeks after this, the male fish 
sets out on his return to the sea, leaving the female 
behind to watch the spawning ground, which she conti- 
nues to do till towards the time of the ova being hatched. 
The females are the first to leave the sea, and the last 
to return to it. For some time both before and after 
the spawning season, salmon are unfit for food; and thus 
being leas sought for, the continuation of the species is 
insured. 

The period during which salmon are oat of season 
is indicated by a dificurence in their appearance, the males 
being at that time a reddish-brown on the back, and the 
females of a dusky gray. The fish descend to the sea 
by short stages, and wim much less vigour and anima* 
tioD than tbev display at the time of ascending. The 
coldness of tne weather at the time of their return, in- 
duces them to keep in the middle of the stream, at a 
considerable depth, which, owing to the water being 
wanner than the air, is the situation best suited to their 
feelings. In their ascent tliey are frequently seen in 
the shallows, or near the surface, from the very same 
sensibility to the weather which makes them, in winter, 
choose the opposite situation. Thus they reach the 
estuaries, and there lingering again in the brackish 
water, an^l finding an abwudant supply of food, they 
quickly regain their sise and strength, and proceed to 
&eir unknown abode in the reoesses of the ocean. We 
most now return to the young fry m the spawningw-bed, 
and state their progress from the time of their learing- 
tbe egg to that ^ their joining the rest of their nee in 
the vicinity of the ocean. 

At whatever period of the autumn ike spawn may have 
been deposited, the time of its being katehed is always 
the »me is the same river. Thus, supposing one pair 
of salmon to have arrived long before the rest, and that 
many weeks occur between the spawning of the female, 
and that of the others frequenting the same stream, yet 
on the arrival of the more genial season, the eggs kuit 
<leposited are hatched at the same time with the first : 
hence, it is impossible to specify the exact time which 
intervenes between the spawning* season, and the vivifies^ 
tion of the eggs, the influence of the season being the 
aole cause of the latter circumstance* According to the 
state of the weather, therefore, the young fry eomeforl^ 
at an earlier or later period. The months of March and 
April are the usual period of their appearance, and thev 
Itave the ova in succession, for the manner in which 
the spawn is deposited prevents the under part of the 
TB3SS from experiencing the eflfects of the wanner 
weather, until those at the upper part have burst the 
eg^s. The young sahnon remam for a few days in the 
sand and gravel, the egg still adhering to them, and 
affording them nourishment, but they soon begin to force 
their way upwards, and appear through Utt sand, shoot- 
injr up lie young plants. They are now about half an 
inch in length, and remain for some time in the shallow 
parts of the stream. Their earliest food is not very well 
known, but the abundance of small living creatures with 
which the waters begin to be filled at that season of the 
J«ir, must prevent any chance of want in this respect. 
Thev grow very rapimy, and in the course of a week or 
ten oayS) they nave more than doubled tiieirformer siae. 



As their strength increases, they resort to the deeper 
parts of the stream, and move towards the sea. Spring 
floods frequently carry them rapidly onwards, and by the 
month of June, the rivers are pretty well cleared of 
tmeliy as the young fish are called. On their arrival at 
the sea, or rather at the brackish water, (for during the 
first season they seldom leave the estuaries and offings,) 
their growth is exceedingly rapid. Isaac Walton says, 
<* the age of a salmon exceeds not ten years; and let me 
next tell you that his growth is very sudden ; it is said 
that after he is got into the sea, he becomes from a sam- 
let, not so big as a gudgeon, to be a salmon, in so short 
a time as a gosling becomes a goose." This, our author 
informs us, has been ascertained by tying a riband, or tape, 
in the tail of some young salmons which had been taken 
in weirs as they were swimming towards the salt water ; 
and then by taking part of them again, having this known 
mark, at their return from the sea some months after. 

The young salmon are the first to ascend the rivers ; 
and towards autumn they are frequently found of the 
weight of six pounds. These are termed grilse, while 
those under two pounds weight are called '* salmon-peal." 
They breed during the first seas<m, and are said gene- 
rally to ascend £he same rivers in which they were 
spawned. 

Salmon are supposed to go farther out to sea as they 
get older, but they cannot seek their food, as many sea- 
fishes do, in the depths of the ocean. They are formed 
for straightforward motion, and not for ascent or descent. 
The situation of the fins, and the upward direction of 
the eyes, in what are called ** bottom fishes,** are pecu- 
liarly fitted for the purpose of plunging to, and ascending 
from, the bottom of the ocean, but in the salmon the 
lateral direction of the eyes, and the arrangement of the 
fins, is equally fitted for uniform progression. 

In a future article we shall mention the most cele- 
brated salmon rivers, the different methods employed in 
taking kne fish, and various other particulars relative to 
this interesting subjeot* 



HOPE. 

What is hope ? The beaalecns win, 
Which oolonn aU it shines upon 
'^ ThebeneoBof Ufe%drettiy«e% 
The star of immortaKty I 
Fountahi of feeling, young and warm ; 
A day-beam bursting through the storm ; 
A tone of melody, whose birth 
Is, obi too sweet, too pare, for esoih r 
A blossom of that radiant tree, 
Whose fruit the angels only see I 
A beanty and a ehiuin, whose power 
Is seen nijtrrtnl mrrV-^ eadii hour I 
A portion of that world to coney 
When earth and ocean meet the last o'erwhalmug aoom. 



To those who perform the duty of the day '^ff^V^}^. 

institution, SunV is a day <>f,«^«*^'*ft^ 
is rest to the poor, ndaxation to the nch, comfort to the 
Sfl^edTaid ^nitionto.theproeperoi^ ^J Ttr^d 
in our calling, onr duty is thapksgivmg ; if distressed, 
Sa^a; ^ wSlthv. Eiafitude; if poor, resignation. An 
^M^Sinitv for J5 these duties U afforded in public wor- 
^rtd^tfc worship is best suited to the weakness of 
T^n^nJ. for all stanf in need either o^ ^f ^P^"/, 
IhelT fervency, or «horUtion to advance th^r P^^^^ 

mutual confomity to V^^^^^'I ^ZT^'mTiSd^ 
tendance upon the P-Wj^,^^;;^ 

^^^^^a^'di^^Sr^t without indolence re- 
S^SShSSl^rutene^and conversation without 
^i^^ 4Tday a day of blessing to all who feel th«^ 
P^ S, and sTrious condud, aflfo^^ P^^^^^^ 

Sie vicious ever experience in the mdnlganoe oi uowiw 
ness or tumuHnous loys.— Dn^Vwcmir. 

" ' 563—2 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



BEJAPOOR, IN HINDOSTAN, 



Bkjapoor is the lume of a Urge prorince in India, of 
one of the diniions of that proTince, and alio of it* 
principal dtj. The province of Bcjapoor is aitnated in 
the touth-weatem part of Hindostan, and if about 330 
milei long and 200 broad: it is, however, to the eify of 
Bejapoor that we propose to direct oar attendon in this 

The dtf of Bejapoor was formerly of great note. 
When the Emperor Aorungiebe captured it, in 1 689, the 
fortifications, according to the detcription tranimitted to 
US, appear to have been of immense extent; for between 
the wall of the fort and the outer wall of the old city there 
was said to hav6 been room for 15,000 cavalrr to encamp. 
Wthin the citadel or inner fort were the king's palace, 
the houses of the nobility, and large magaiinea, besides 
extensive (tardens, and round the whole a deep ditch, 
always filliid with water. " It is still asserted by the 
nadvea," saya Hr. Hamilton, " with their usual proneness 
to exaggeration, that Bejapoor, while flourithing, con- 
tained 984,000 inhaUted houses, and 1600 mosques." 

Bejapoor now has the appearance of a record of other 
days, for by inteeUne conmotions and revolutions, it is 
now little ebe than a heap of ruins, studded with splen- 
did bat unoccupied bvildings. From a distance even of 
fourteen mites, numerous domes, apirei, cupolas, and 
minarets present themselves to the eye ; but a nearer 
^proach dispels the illusion which they are calculated to 
raise, for it is very little better than a vast expanse of 

About five miles from the city is a village called 
Toorvee, where are to be seen the remains of a royal 
palace, a mosque, and other buildings. To the eaat of 
this stands a Mohammedan mosque, still the resort of 
devotees ; and near it are the remains of an ele^nt 
mausoleum and mosque, belonging to the minister of 
one of the bygone sovereigns of Bejapoor. Numerous 
other Qtausolea and mosques are met withfVom hence to 
the present city, among which the most celebrated are 
the maoaoleum and mcisque of Ibrahim Adil Shab: these 
were built about the year 1620, and are said to have cost 



700,000/., and to have occupied 6533 workmen fbr ibirt^- 
■ix years. They are built tq>on a basement one bundm 
and thirty yards in length, and fifty-two in breadth, ai 
raised fifteen feet. The mausoleum is a room fifty-wvoi 
feet square, enclosed by two verandahs, thirteen fM 
broad, and twenty.two feet high. The central chimber 
of the latter is qiute plain, as is also the interior of tbe 
mosque, but in other respects these buildings excel jn 
elaborate architectnral elegance. The fretwork of lie 
ceilings of the verandahs, their panels covered with pw- 
sagea of the Koran, in ba«-re^, and atone trmix^ 
pierced with a meshwork of Arabic characters, are ul 
m tbe highest style of Oriental Bou^>ture. 

BejiUKioT itself may be considered as two dties idju*- 
ing eacn other, that which is called Mneforf Iving to tbe 
east, and the old city to the west. Ae old city «"■ 
tained the buildinrs which we have just described. Tbe 
fort waa surnmnoBd by a wall, eight miles in circum- 
ference, and though decayed in many parts, there is not 
yet a complete breach throi^h any part of it. 0^'^ 
were mounted on it, and sentinels pUoed at the gates, M 
late as 1819. There are seven gatea, one of which '■ 
now shut up, and the others are open, vis., the H^* 
Shahpoor, Bhaminy, Padshapoor, Allahpoor, and Fnttffl 
gates. There were formerly a ditch, a covered way, »« 
a glacis, on the eastern face, but scarcely any vestiga « 
them are now to be seen. , 

_ within the fort, (or present existing city,) « 
Bejapoor, a scene of mingled splendour and ruin preseiiti 
itself. There is still one entire and very regular st^rt^ 
three miles in length, and fifty feet wide, paved thronghoul, 
contuning many stone buildings, both private °"\ 
ings and mosques. Another street, nearly equal in leog''' 
 this, also exists, but its buildings are rather in a ruin'™' 
-_ite. The most remarkable edificei still remaining W 
the tombs of Abdul Resa and Shah Newani, the Jum" 
Mtujeed, or great mosque, the mausoleum of ""'^ 
Mahmood Shah, the bowlee of the Nao Bagb, b^idn 



innumerable mosque 

low Hindoo temple, supported by 



There is «1» » 



I84I0 



THE SATURDAY- MAGAZINE. 



141 



nng-le Btones, in tile euUeat and rndmt style of Brah- 
miaica! architecture, supposed to have been the vork of 
the Pandoos ; and this ia almoat the onljr Hindoo stracture 
extant in or about Bejapoor; for the country, though in 
the he&rt of HindoBtan, long belonged to the Mahnttas, 
who were Mohammedana. 

The inhabited part of the fort ia chiefly in the vicinity 
of the great moiqne. There are alio groups of bousea 
8(»ttered over its immense area, while mud hovels are 
interspersed among its splendid ruins. There are some 
enc1a»ed and cultivated Gelds; but generally speaking, 
the neighbouring district ia a ruinoua wilderness, inter- 
spersed with trees and shrubs. There is a well frequented 
bazaar, neatly built of atone, without the western gate ; 
this forma nearly the only part of what is called the old 
city that is still inhabited. On the aouthem side of the 
fort there are no traces of any ancient buildings, or of 
the city walls, the walls of the fort being the ultimate 
boundary of Bejapoor in that direction. Most of the 
large edifices, (the palaces in the citadel excepted,} 
^pear to have little or uo wood used in their construc- 
tion, the prevailing diaracter of their ardiitecture being 
massive solidity, rather than elaborate workmansbip or 
elegant design. 

The cause of the ruinous state in which this once 
nugnificent city now exists is to be found in the repeated 
contests fur soveteignty which have taken place in that 
part of Hindostan. The district or country which con- 
tains Bejapoor was under the dominion of Hindoo sove- 
reigns until 1579, when the Mohammedan princes of 
Southern India captured it. Tbey retained it until 1 689, 
when the Emperor Auruugiebe conquered it. After 
this the powerful tribe or nation of the Mahrattas got 
possession of the country, and retained it almost without 
intennission until modem times. But by about the 
year 1604, the province of Bejapoor exhibited an extra- 
ordinary scene of anarchy. Although the country was 
nomioally under the chief of the Mahrattas, his autho- 
rity scarcely eitended beyond the city of Poonah, and 
was resistea by every petty head of a village : the dif- 
ferent cbiefa and leaders of banditti by whom the coun- 
try was occupied were almost innumerable. At length, 
in IS18, Bejapoor was finally conquered by the British, 
and it is now probable that it will, under British protec- 
tion, gradually improve in many respects. 

Mr. Hamilton (to whose work we have been chiefly 
indebted for these detaiU) says: — 

There are some enonnons guns still remuninx here, 
eonvsponding with the Cvclopeau magnitude of the fort. 
Fomerly there were twelve, but tn 1820 only the ^reat 
brass gnn, (cast in 1540,) and the long iron one renuuned. 
For the calibre of the first, an iron bullet, weighing 2846 
piiunda, would be required. In 1823 the Bombay govern- 
ment was extremely desirons of sending It to Englaiid, as a 
present to the king, but until the roods are improved, it 
would be almost impossible to transport such a ponderous 



TncTH b the most powerful thin^ In the world, dnce even 
fiction itafllf must be governed by it, and can only please by 
ita naembknce.— HiLUMOBir. 



SHOE-BUCKLES. _ 
If we were to inquire into the influence of fashion 
and taste^ in manu&ctures, it would be found that the 
link which connects them is very close, and that the 
well-being of the working classes is aingularly dependent 
thereon. Persona who view these matters only on the 
surface, are apt to imagine that changes of fashion are 
no further important than as means of gratifying the eye ; 
but, so far from this being the case, every change of 
&8hion brings some kind of mechanical labour or skill 
into exertion, and throws out others. 

A singular example of this is shown in the rise, pro- 
gress, and decline of that apparently very simple article 
of dress, the ihoe-bvefcU, a deeorwon which, however 
much out of use at the present day, was indiapenaable 
to the appearance of a gentleman two or three gene- 
rations ago. ' 

The buckle waa preceded, and haa been superseded, 
by other forms of shoe-fastening. " I^haps the shoe, 
in one form or other," says Mr. Hntton,' of Birming- 
ham, " ia nearly as ancient aa the foot. Jt originally 
appeared under the name of 'sandal'; thia waa no other 
than a sole without an upper leather. That fashion has 
since been inverted, and we now, eometimeft, see an upper 
leather nearly without a sole. But, whatever waa the 
cut of the shoe, it always demanded a fastening." Under 
the house of Ptantagenet, the shoe ahot forward bori- 
lontallf from the foot to an enormous length, so as to 
require the extremity to be fastened to the knee, some- 
times with a silver cWn, at other times with a silk lace, 
and even with a piece of common packthread. This 
enormous .beak to the shoe became the subject of legis- 
lative enactment; forwe find that, in 1465, an order of 
council waa issued, prohibiting the wearing of shoes 
whoae beaks projected more than two inchea in front of 
the foot, on pain of a fine to the king, and even of ex> 
communication. 

When thia fashion changed, the rose shoe-toe sprang 
up, in compliment to the houses of Lancaster and Tudor. 
This rose in its turn gave way to shoe laces and strings, 
which were often made of silk, tagged and fringed with 
silver. At length, in the reign of William and Mary, 
the shoe-buckle made its appearance ; or as Mr. Hutton 
quaintly expresses it, " the Revolution wis remariiable for 
the introduction of William, of liberty, and the minute 
buckle." This mode of fastening the shoe became very 
generally adopted, in foreign countries aa well as our 
own; and the town of Birmingham became celebrated 
for the large number as well aa the excellence of the 
buckles made there. 

Seventy years ago, the kind of buckle most in demand 
was made of Pinchbeck — an alloy of copper and brass, so 
called from the name of the person who so employed it. 
Another variety was the plated buckle: this was cast in 
pinchbeck, with the pattern on its sniface, and a silver 
coating was laid on by means of a flux of turpentine and 
resin; and the auiface was finally chased or stamped. 
A third andmorevaluable quality was the "close-plated" 
buckle. A form of buckle extensively made for foreign 
sale, waa produced ftaai a compound metal known among 
the workmen as Tutannia, and cast in moulds. It is 
-said that in Germany, this article was manufactured in 
the open streets, so Uut a passenger might choose his 
pattern, aeethe process of making, and march off equipped 
with shoe-buckles, in the course of five or ten minutes. 
Each form of buckle hsd at that tdme some fanciful name, 
by which it was known in the trade ; such as " Bull's eye," 
the "Marquis of Granby." the " Whim-wham," "Job's 
fancy," the "Crow's foot," and others. 

About the year 1778, an impulacr was ^ven to the 
buckle trade at Birmingham, Walsall, end Wolverhamp- 
ton, by the invention of plating upon tin or composition 
foundations. The buckles were cast singly by hand, in 
tin or copper moulds, the silver being first pressed into 
the moiud, and the comporition then ponred over it. 



142 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[Aphil 10^ 



The intimate union of the metals was aided hy the ose 
of corrosive sublimate. Different metals were employed, 
such as copper, steel, spelter, and others, to give hard* 
ness to the tin. This plan g^ave birth to many elegant 
devices in the shoe-buckle, as the union of the sUver 
with the metal beneath was so complete as to admit of a 
varied range of patterns and arrangement of ornaments; 
particularly that of inlaying yellow chased ornaments on 
the surface of the silver. 

A peculiar arrangement of the chapet a part of the 
buckle which fastened the shoe, enabled the manufacturer 
to give almost any size to the buckle, and to adopt a 
▼arietyof shapes, such as round, octagonal, oval, oblong, 
&C. The competition among the makers now became 
very active; and a consequence resulted which too fre- 
quently deteriorates the credit of those employed: the 
materials and mode of workmanship became worse in 
qualitv, in order that the selling price might be low. It 
is said, that for many years the consumption of buckles 
in the metropolis was so enormous, that half the luggage 
of the coaches going from Birmingham to London was 
Bttpposed to consist of buckles. 

Soon after this period, a further change took place in 
the mode of manufacture, by* making the shell or foun- 
dation of one metal, placing a layer of tin on that, and 
plating the exterior surface with silver. Another kind 
was the silvered buckle, in which the exterior layer of 
silver was excessively thin. The buckle being past in 
some cheap metal, fine silver was dissolved in aqua*fortis, 
and precipitated in a powder ; a few chemical ingredients 
were added, and the whole brought into a liquid state, 
and spread over the buckle with a brush, llie buckle 
was then placed on a gentle fire till the ingrecfients were 
fused, and after a few other processes, the buckle acquired 
a silvery whiteness. This silvery surface would bear 
burnishing, and had a good appearance ; but it was soon 
rubbed off 'by wear. So large was the demand for buckles 
coated with silver, that one Birmingham maker produced 
for one foreign house four thousand pounds worth in the 
space of six months. 

Mr. Luckcock of Birmingham, who wrote on this 
subject, says that many a princely fortune was acquired 
during the efforts and fluctuations in the buckle-trade, and 
not a few as profusely squandered. No anticipation was 
contemplated, of any fallmg off in the demand. But the 
time was approaching when the buckle was to be super* 
seded by another form of shoe-tie. ^* Abont the year 
1790, the foe commenced an insidious attack; and how- 
ever insigrnificant the agent might at first appear, the 
ihoe-string was destined to accomplish the mignly revo- 
lution. For a long time the advances were inconsiderabley 
and hope was sanguine that the whim would be but of 
short continuance. Every manufacturer gradually felt 
the ground falling from beneath his feet, but suU sup- 
posed that his competitors were doing better than him- 
self; till confidence itself at length g^ve way to the general 
panic, and, if one may so express it, those were best off 
at last who got out first." The manufacturers, as gene- 
rally happens in such cases, thought themselves aggrieved ; 
but by whom was not an easy question to answer. They 
first tried ridicule, in a way which, it must be confessed, 
was sufficiently weak and foolish ; via., to parade an ass 
through the streets of Birmingham, with shoe-bows at- 
tached to his fetlocks. A more rational course adopted, 
was to send a deputation of master manufacturers up to 
London, to wait on the Prince of Wales (afterwards 
George the Fourth; at Carlton House, and solicit the aid 
of his countenance and support. The Prince received the 
deputation courteously, and promised to do all which his 
personal influence could effect, to discourage the use of 
the shoe-tie. But all to no effect; taste, fashion, opinion, 
call it what we will, had taken such a decided turn, that 
from that time (1791) the use of the shoe-bu^e declined 
every year more and more. 

Mr. Luokeock, who had himself been in the buokle 



trade, estimated the number of persons engaged thereb 
in and about Birmingham, at upwards of four thousand, 
when the manufacture was in the zenith of its proeperitj; 
and he made the followmg calculations to show the in- 
portance of this trade. Suppose the weekly earnings of 
these persons, young and old, to have averaged ten shil* 
lings each:-^ 

This would produce £2000 

Materials, say 2000 

Profit of manitflMturer, retailer^ &c . . 2000 



Weeks IB the year 



6000 
62 



£312,000 



And Bupposmg the buekles to sell, on the avenge, at 
Hi. 6tL per pair, (this may now<«-days seem a higii 
average ; but a guinea or upwards -was not an nnnsual 
price for gentlemen's buckles at the period of which ve 
are speaking,) this would show 2,496,000 pairs as the 
quantity annually made. Taking the populatioa of 
Great Britain at that time to be twelve millions, and 
suppose half of them to wear buckles, this would allov 
each wearer a new pair every three years, and ahout 
half a million of pairs for exportation, which is deemed 
no improbable supposition. On this calculation, every 
workman would make 625 pairs during the year, about 
two pairs per day, excluding Sundays. These calculations 
are of course only approximative ; but they furnish cu- 
rious evidence oi the fluctuations to which manufacturw 
are liable, and they are valuable as showing how neces- 
sary provident habits are to the workman, since he can 
never tell how soon a change may occur which will 
compel him to turn his talents into some new depart- 
ment of labour. 

We will conclude by quoting a remark from Mr. 
Luckcock, who wrote in 1824:— «« Of all the mutotions 
and revolutions which this town has experienced within 
the last fifty years, none appear to be so remarkahle or 
extraordinary as those connected with its ancient and 
apparentlv invaluable shoe-buckle trade. To those of 
the inhabitants who remember its vast extent and im- 
portance, it seems almost to mock at recollection; and 
as to the present generation, if the fact was not authw- 
ticated while some few of the surviving witnesses rcmainj 
it must soon have appeared incredible, that at one penod 
there were not fewer than four thousand persons em- 
ployed in the town and neighbourhood in this article, aj 
that time so much admired, though now neglected and 
almost unknown. The universality of the deniand 
seemed to bid defiance to the future caprice of fashion: 
and our daily bread appeared quite as likely to fail in its 
supply, as that orders should totally cease for this ele- 
gant and imagined necessary ornament.** 



WIRE-DRAWING. 
I. Historical Notice. 

Among the various modes by which metallic substances 
are brought into a form fitted for manufacturing purposesi 
few are more remarkable than the process of wire-iii'^^' 
ingy whereby the metal is made to assume an equahlei 
smooth, and cylindrical form, and a diameter varying 
through extensive limits. It seems highly probable, that 
in early periods metals were beaten with a hammer ^sX^ 
thin plates or leaves, which were afterwards divided into 
narrow slips by means of some instrument resembliQ? 
scissors ; and that these slips were by a hammer and nl^ 
rounded so as \o form threads or wire. 

All the anient writings, so far as they relate to this 
subject, seem to support this opinion. In describing tw 
holy garments of Aaron (Exodus xxxix. 3,) the inspired 
historian uses these words : — *' And they did boat tne 
gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires to work it ^ 



1841.] 



THE JSATURDAY MAGAZINE, 



143 



the blue, aiid in the purple, and in the scarlet, and in the 
fine linen, with cunning work*" 

The profane writers speak similarly of slips, cut and 
beaten, as forming wires. Homer makes Vulcan repair 
to his forge, and form on his anvil, by means of hammers 
and files, a net as delicate as a spider's web* Beckmann 
supposes that the first employment of metals, in a form 
at lil analogous to this, was by aewing slips of gold upon 
the clothes, and particularly on the seaiaai but that 
people afterwards began to weave or knit drcsaes entirely 
of^ld threads, without the addition of any other mate- 
rial. Of such a kind are supposed to have been the 
maotle taken from the statue of Jupiter by Dionysius,a$ 
mentioned by Cicero and Valerius Maximus ; and also 
the tunic of Heliogabalus, described by Lampridius. 
This appears to have been drap (Tor in the proper sense 
of the term, for the more modem tissue known by that 
name was a species of cloth, the threads of which were of 
siik, wound round with gilt silver wire* 

Pliny ascribes the weaving of such gold threads into 
cloth, as the invention of King Attains; but later writers 
trace it to an earlier date, and it is supposed that Attains 
merely applied gold threads to the surface of cloth in the 
manner of embroidery. The employment of silver for a 
similar purpose seems to be of much later date. Vopis* 
cus states that the Emperor Aurelian was desirous of 
abolishing the use of gold for gilding and weaving, be- 
cause, though there was more gold than silver, the 
former had become scarce by its frequent use for these 
purposes. Saumaise has proved that sQver threads were 
interwoven in cloth in the time of the last Greek em- 
perors ; but it is not known how long this custom had 
then existed. 

At what time the mode of making threads or wires of 
metal assumed a form analogous to that at present 
adopted, has been matter of dispnte. It is extremely 
probable that the first experiments in wire-drawing were 
made upon the most ductile metals ; and that the drawing 
of brass and iron to the form of wire is of later date. 
As long as the work was performed by the hammer, the 
artists at Niimbere were called " wire^miths;*' but after 
the invention of me modem process, they were called 
"w'ure-drawers" and "wire-millers.'' As both these ap- 
pellations ocXswt in the histories of Augsburg and Niim- 
berg about the middle of the fourteenth century, it is 
deemed probable that the invention of wire-drawing may 
be placed in the early part of that century. 

VVhen gold lace, — ^that is, silk thread enveloped in a 
golden covering, — was first brought into use, it appears 
that the gold wire, used as the envelop, was round, or 
cylindrical, and that the flattening was introduced from 
motives of ecc uomy, since flat wire will go three times 
as far as cylindrical wire, when used merely as a cover- 
ing. Of the wire-work of the ancients, few remains are 
known. In the museum at Portici, which contains a 
variety of articles discovered at Herculaneum, are three 
metallic heads, with locks in imitation of hair: one of 
them has fifty locks made of wire as thick as a quill, bent 
into the form of a curl ; and on the other the locks are 
flat, like small slips of paper which have been rolled to- 
gether with the fingers, and afterwards entangled. A 
figure of Venus has on the arms and legs golden brace* 
leta, formed of wire. Among the insignia of the Ger- 
man empire is the sword of Sabt Maurice, the handle of 
which is wood, bound round with strong silver wire. 
Such are a few instances of ancient workmanship at pre- 
sent remaining. 

llie present mode of making wire, as we shall here- 
after explain, is by drawing small slips of wire through 
circular holes in a hardened steel plate; and it is sup- 
posed that this method was first constructed, if not in- 
v»^nted, by Rudolph, a native of Niimberg, in the four- 
teenth century. Conrad Celtes states that the son of 
the inventor, cajoled by avaricious people, discovered 
to them the whole secret of the macmnery; which 



so incensed the father that he would have put the incau- 
tious son to death, had he not precipitately escaped. 
Whether or not this was really the mode of promulga^ 
tion, it appears certain that the an of wire^drawing soon 
attained a high degree of excellence at Niimberg. 8eve«- 
ral improvements were from time to time made by diffe- 
rent persons, who received exclusive patents for using 
them, somethnes fit^m the emperor, and sometimes from 
the councti, and which gave rise to many tedious law*' 
suits. 

Dr. Hirsching has collected many cnrious details re- 
speeting the ear^ progress of this art. In the year 1570, 
a Frenchman, named Anthony Foumier, first brought 
to Niimberg the art of drawing wire exceedingly fine, and 
made considerable improvements in the apparatus em- 
ployed for that purpose. In 1592, Frederick Hagelshei- 
mer, a citisen of Niimberg, began to prepare fine gold and 
silver wire, such as could be used for spinning round 
silk and for weaving, and which before that period had 
been manufactured only in Italy and France. He re- 
ceived from the Kiirnberg magistrates an exclusive 
patent, by the terms of which no other person was 
allowed to make or imitate the fine works which he 
manufactured, for the term of fifteen years ; and this term 
was afterwards further extended for a similar period, on the 
ground of the large capital expended in the manufactory. 
He afterwards obtained a patent for the production <^ 
copper wire coated with gold or silver; and he seepus to 
have received high marks of favour from the Emperot 
Rodolphus the Second, and the Emperor Matthias. 
When the patents finally expired, in 1621, the family of 
Hagelsheimer entered into an agreement, in regard to 
wages and other regulations, with the master wire-^^wers 
and piece-woticers of Niimberg. 

Augsburg was also celebrated for thet. production of 
wire, the finer sorts of which were made by men in** 
vited from Italy, particularly Gabriel and Vmcent Mar- 
teningi. In France, iron wire is called Jil d*Archal, 
and the artists there have an idea that this appellation 
took its rise from one Richard Archal, who either in- 
vented or first established the art of drawing iron wire in 
that country. The expression y?/ de Richard is also used 
among the French wire-drawers. Menage, however, 
thinks thatjil d'ArcMh compounded of the Latin words 
filufn and ourichalcum. 

But little is known respecting the introduction of wire- 
drawing into England. It has however been stated that 
all the English wire was manufactured with the hammer, 
until certain foreigners introduced the improved method, 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Christopher Schults, 
a native of Annaberg, in Saxony, came to this country 
under the permission given by that sovereign to strangers, 
to dig for metallic ores ; and it is to him that the intro- 
duction of iron wire-drawing is attributed in the year 
1565. In a book published by John Houghton, however, 
in 172Z« it is intimated that the art was brought to 
England at a later period ; and that the first wire-drawing 
establishment was opened at Esher, in Surrey, By two 
foreigners, named Jacob Momma and Daniel Demetrius. 
Before the period here indicated, the English iron wire 
is said to have had so little reputation, that the greater 
part of what was used in the kingdom, as well as the in- 
struments employed by the wool-combers, were brought 
from other countries. By the time of Charles the First, 
however, the manufiicture had risen to some importance ; 
and we meet with a proclamation by that monarch, in 1 630, 
to the following effect: — 

That Iron-wire is a manufacture long practised in the 
realm, whereby many thousands of our suDJects have long 
been employed ; and that English wire is made of the tough- 
est and best Orsmund iron, a native commodity of this king- 
dom, and is much better than what comes from foreign parts, 
especially for making wool-cards, without which no good 
cloths can be made. And whereas complaints have been 
made by the wir»>drawers of this kingdom, that by reason 
of the great quantities of foreign iron wire lately imported. 



144 



THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE. 



[April 10, ,1841. 



our said subjects csanot be set at work ; therefore we pro- 
hibit the importation of foreim iron wire, and wool-cards 
made thereof as dso hooks and eye& and other inannfaotnres 
9iiade of f<»eign wire, Neither shall anytranaiate and trim 
up any old woolssardsy nor seli the same at home or abroad. 

It may appear to a modem reader, that the mention of 
'< hooka and eyes" in the above proclamation was a very 
trivial affair; but such was not tlie case, for these small 
articles were used in such quantities at the time in 
question, as to render the consumption of wire in their 
manufacture yery large. 

In the seventeenth century the occupation of wire- 
drawing became firmly established in the neighbourhood 
of Bamsley in Yorkshire; partly on account of the 
proximity of the woollen manufacture (the cards for 
which are made of wire), and partly on account of the 
presence of coal and iron-stone in the neighbourhood. 
Since that period, great improvements have taken place, 
and the manufacture is now established in different parts 
of the North of England. 

Having thus briefly traced the history of the. art of 
wire-drawing, we shall in a second paper describe the 
processes by which various kinds of wire are produced. 



HOT CROSS-BUNS. 



The popular cry of Hot Cross-Buns on Good Friday, 
IS 80«fkmiliar to all who have lived in a town, whether 
large or small, that the reader might incline to wonder, 
upon the first view ' of the case^ why so apparently 
trifling a subject should be brought before his notice ; 
but it is our duty to suggest two considerations on this 
head; first, that ages upon ages have rolled away, and 
cross-buns have^been regiilarly made at the Paschal season 
of the year ; and that which is ancient in its origin, will 
naturally, if only on account of its antiquity, attract our 
curiosity as it passes down the long extended river 9f 
time. * 

In the second place, though cross-buns^ will be found 
to be heathenish in their origin, popish in their progress, 
and common in their continuance; they nevertheless 
bear reference to the Cross of Christ, — ^the fountain of 
salvation to all who look to it, in reliance on the merits 
of their Redeemer 

Cecrops, one of the kings of Greece, about sixteen 
centuries before the Christian era, is said to have first 
offered up to the Divinity the sacred cross-bread, called 
a bun, (Greek /Sowy) which was made of fine flour and 
honey. The prophet Jeremiah, who flourished about 
600 years b.c., notices this kind of offering, when he 
speaks of the Jewish women at Pathros in Egypt, and 
of their base idolatry, — ^the cakesy which they offered 
up to the moon, the queen of heaven. 

This cake or bun, which the Greeks called /Sovr, from 
the representation upon it of the two horns of an ojt, is 
therefore a species of bread, which originally used to be 
offered to the gods, and it was usually. purchased by the 
worshippers at the entrance of the temple, and taken in 
by them, and eaten at the feast of thie remaining parts 
of the sacrifice ; to which St. Paul alludes in 1 Cor. x. 28. 

It is a remarkable fact, that at Herculaneum were 
found two small loaves of about five inches in diameter, 
marked with a cross, within which were four other lines ; 
and so, we are told, the bread of the Greeks, was marked 
from the earliest periods. Sometimes it had only four 
lines altogether, and then it was called qtuidra. This 
bread had rarely any other mark than a cross, which was 
on purpose to divide and break it more easily. Similar 
loaves were discovered in a bake-house at Pompeii. 
These towns were overwhelmed and destroyed by the 
volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius, a.d. 79. 

In the course of time we find the Christian Church 
using cakes or buns, such as we have already referred 
to, and consecrating them: these were bestowed in the 
chu/^h as alms; and likewise to those who, from any im- 



pediment, could not receive the ho$if or conaecnted 
wafer, at the usual time of the celebration of the Lord's 
supper. These buns were made from the dough, from 
which the host Itself was taken, and they were given bj 
the priest to the people after mass, just before the con- 
gregation was dismissed ; and they were kissed before 
they were eaten. They were also marked with the cross, 
just as our present Good Friday buns are. This bim is 
the most popular symbol of the Roman Catholic reUgion 
in England that the Reformation has left to us. 

Hot cross-buns have the usual form of buns; but 
they are inwardly distinguished from other buns bj 
having a sweeter taste, and the flavour of allspice; tad 
outwi^dly they are known by the mark of tne cross, 
which, as our readers know, has been greatly insisted 
on in Papal worship and devotion, from the days of 
Constantino the Greint, in the early part of the fourth 
century, to the present hour. 

We see, therefore, that the bun of the ancient Greeks, 
crossed, to represent the horns of the ox which was 
sacrificed, and also for the purpose of more readily 
breaking it, was adopted by the Christians and used 
as the only food on the day of the Crucifixion, because 
it possessed, ready at hand, a symbol of that solenrn 
event. 

Many superstxttons are connected with this species of 
bun. In some . counties of England, great care is 
taken to preserve some of these cakes or buns, whicb 
being grated after they are dry, are esteemed by the 
credulous as infallible cures for many diseases. They 
have, however, been often found beneficial in bowd 
complaints. 

In the houses of some ignorant people, a Good Friday 
bun is still kept '^for luck;" and sometimes there hangs 
from the ceiling a hard biscuit, like cake of open cross- 
work, baked' on a Good Friday, to remain there till dis- 
placed on the n^xt Good Friday by one of similar 
make: — ^this is also supposed to preserve the house from 
fire. 

Thus then the cakes or buns of Good Friday are 
marked with the sign of the Cross, in remembrance of 
the Crucifixion of our Saviour, who, haying taken upoo 
him the nature of man, suffered on this day for our re- 
demption. The appellatran of **Good," wluch has been 
conferred upon this day, is peculiar to the Church of 
England, and is accounted for, by referring to the 
blessed effects purchased for us by our Lord's sufferings. 
The ancient title of the day was *'Jffo^ Friday;" and 
the week in which it happens, is still deinominated **Ilofy " 
or ^* Passion week!' 



Thbre is a beautiful analogy between vegetable and hnmaii 
life in early stages. , No enduring and valuaUe fruit Uee 
springs at once from the earth to maturity. It must go 
tnrough a period of time, when it yields no fruit, and when it 
is an object of continual care and attention. Its nature must 
be considered, the earth around it must be kept in a fit state to 
promote its growth ; its useless shoots must be cut off; its dis- 
eases, whether generated in itself, or caused by some invading 
foe, must be met and overcome. It may be let abne, and live^ 
an incumbrance to the land, producing nothkig worUi gaUier- 
ing; or it mav be an object on which the eye rests with 
pleasure, which its owner may be thankful for, and ration- 
ally proud to show. There is as much difference in the 
cares, anxieties, and duties, of raising a fruit tree, and bring- 
ing a human being to manhood, as the llfi^ of man is mon 
precious than that of a tree.— S. 



Nothing stren^hens a child in goodness, or enables him to 
overcome a fiftult, so much as seemg his efforts excite a sud- 
den and earnest expression of love and joy. — Mbs. Chilix 

LONDON : 

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. 
PoBUtaiD ur WsBXL V N VMBsiit, Pbio K On PsHMT. Avn III MoMi uLx r^ *^ . 

PUOB SlZPKVOK. ^ 

Sold hj all BoQkveUera rad NewtTvndon ia.tiM Klsf dom..t 



^^nrtian ^ M^U^^int^ 



N?. 564. 



17T.», 1841. {o 



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