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ARY, 35,000 WORDS. Seventh Edition, Revised. 
1008 Pages. Full Flexible Leather, Gilt Edges, Round 
Corners, $1.00. Thumb Indexed, Si. 25, Postpaid. 

with additions and corrections, and a Supplement 
including 38,000 additional words. Numerous Illus- 
trations. Large Square Octavo. 2204 Pages. 
Double-Columned. Half Morocco, S14.00, Postpaid. 






BY R. J. E. SCOTT, M.A., B.C.L., M.D. 








c o'lfu Z 

Copyright 1916 by P. Blakiston's r 







MAR 2b 1916 


The chief feature of this revision is the large number of new words included, prob- 
ibly 20,000. Another point of importance is that the volume is compact and easy to 
landle, while still sufficiently comprehensive to serve present-day demands. This 
jreat increase in the number of words with a corresponding decrease in the size of the 
)ook has been achieved by the omission of nearly all the illustrations now familiar in 
the usual text-books and works of reference. 

A dictionary is for casual use and brief consultation; therefore, the size of the type 
need not be larger than legibility demands: that selected is similar to what has been 
used in Gould's Pocket Dictionary' (of which thousands are sold yearly) and is a little 
larger than in the present edition of the unabridged Webster. The result is a volume 
of about three-fourths the bulk of the previous edition, or of any of the medical dic- 
tionaries of its class with about 71,000 definitions. 

The eponymic terms have been placed in their proper alphabetical order, so that one 
need no longer be in doubt whether to look under " test " or " reaction " , ' ' phenomenon ' ' 
or "syndrome", "sign", or "symptom", for the desired information; this moreover 
permits the insertion of the nationality and the dates of birth and death of those re- 
ferred to. The proper name is constant; generic terms vary. 

The definitions are based upon the standard literature and authoritative text- 
books of the day, and are not copied from the older vocabularies. 

As to pronunciation : The alphabetical sound of the letter has been the key. This 
avoids the use of a confusing number of diacritics. Only when there may be any doubt 
has the proper pronunciation been indicated by a diacritic mark. Over a letter "~~" 
means that that letter has its usual alphabetical sound. 

Proper names and their derivatives only have been capitalized in the title-words; 
this is in accord with present usage which is a revival of the custom of some of the 
lexicographers of the last century. 

With the exception of a few signs which have no letter-equivalents, all of the matter 
that preceded the regular pages in the former edition has been placed in alphabetical 
order in the body of the book, where it will more readily be found. 

The critical reader scarcely needs to be reminded that the principal duty of the 
lexicographer is similar to that of a census-taker; it is his duty to make an inventory 
of the words and their pronunciation as he finds them among the well-informed; it 
is not his province to reform or to invent substitutes for the terms held to be unde- 
siable. If words exist and are used, they should be recorded, whether they are well- 
born, vulgar, hybrid, obsolete, or anomalous. Unfortunately many of our medical 
terms were coined by men who knew "little Latin and less Greek"; but when once 
these terms gain currency, usage sanctions them, although philologically incorrect. 

We have striven for the fortunate medio tutissimus ibis, and if the aim has been 
successfully carried out, then this Middle-of-the-Road Medical Dictionary contains 
neither too much, nor too little, and should carry further the popularity of Gould's 
series of Medical Dictionaries, of which more than one-third of a million volumes are 
in the hands of the English-speaking practitioners of the world. 

Among many, one illustration of the unexpected reach of far-off influence may be 
permitted: — In the English-Chinese Lexicon of Medical Terms, compiled by Philip B. 
Cousland, M.B., C.M. (Edin.), the valorous, philanthropic, and learned Editor, in his 
Preface says: It is largely based on Gould's Medical Dictionary, and the Nomenclature 
of the Royal College of Physicians of England, etc. 

In its new form, it is believed that this well-known dictionary will be even more 
useful than before. 

George M. Gould, 
R. J. E. Scott. 


Nomina si nescis peril cognitio rerum, said Coke with the acumen of the legal mind, 
and it is generally true that the knowledge of things depends upon the knowledge of 
their names. Discoveries of new facts, or new standpoints for viewing old facts, de- 
mand new tags or " nicking " symbols whereby their status may be fixed and their recog- 
nition insured and made more clear for distant or future students. Few philosophic 
and scientific minds may exhibit an aloofness and a freedom from the tyranny of words 
to enable them to study things without the aid of words and namings. But nothing, 
it is admitted, is more blundering in a personal sense, and more harmful to the progress 
of science, than the exhaustion of interest so soon as a classification and nomenclature 
have been made. The ridiculous is only needed to end in the absurd, and this is 
generally supplied by their wrong pigeon-holing and false ticketing. A diagnosis once 
made, a mere word, long, mysterious, and meaningless, pinned upon the bunched 
symptoms, and further study of etiology, prophylaxis, or therapeutics is with too 
many at an end. Over 200 years ago Dr. South tried to check this "fatal imposture 
and force of words" by showing how "the generality of mankind is governed by words 
and names," not by things as they are, but as they are called — in a word, by "verbal 

And yet in a groping science like medicine, one that inductively, slowly, and tenta- 
tively is feeling its way toward the truth, this need of naming every step forward is pe- 
culiarly necessary. It is the condition of securing the step in itself, and of guiding the 
aftercomers. It is the blazing of trails into the wilderness of the unknown. Of course 
no one can tell what lines of research may finally prove the best and true, and none, 
therefore, what blazes will be useful or useless. New trails, shorter, easier, and better, 
may indeed be discovered, and when the wilderness country is settled, all trails will 
either be abandoned or become well-known roads. But even then good sign-posts and 
pointing index-fingers will be helpful for strangers, and some of the old names will never 
be discarded. None can surely foretell what words may die and what ones become a 
part of the language. Hence the lexicographer may not too recklessly exclude. 

The history of lexicography finds its first data about 700 or 800 A. D., in glosses, or 
the more common explanatory words annexed or superposed over "hard" terms, and 
made either in Latin or in the glossator's own vernacular. A list of such glosses was 
called a glossarium, or as we say, a glossary. It soon became the custom for children 
and students to learn by heart the classified lists of the names of things, such as those 
of the parts of the body, of animals, trades, tools, virtues and vices, diseases, etc. 
Such a list constituted a vocabularium or vocabulary. These glosses and vocabularies 
were in time thrown together in bundles, at first without any order, and as lists, with- 
out losing their individuality. Then came the "first letter order," in which all words 
and terms beginning with the letter A were bundled together, still without discrimina- 
tion, so that the entire list of words beginning with A, or B, had to be scanned in order 
to find a special word. The classification proceeded to an arrangement of the items also 
according to the second letter, then the third, etc., until after hundreds of years com- 
plete alphabetization came into use. At first the aim had been to explain difficult 
Latin words by easier Latin ones; then by English ones, and in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries the English equivalents were the rule, and the glossaries were Latin-English. 
The first book of this kind to be called a dictionarium, that is a repertory of dictiones 
or sayings, was that of Sir Thomas Elyot in 1538, and from that time the word dic- 
tionary has supplanted all others ; so much so that it is now the title of any alphabetic 
gathering not only of words but of any kind of knowledge whatsoever. 

* From the preface to Gould's "A Dictionary of New Medical Terms." 


Our modern language of medicine is unique in that it is made up of the unchanged 
and undigested materials and relics used or contributed during its entire history. The 
persisting substratum is Latin, upon which has been placed a mass of pseudogreek 
words not physiologicly created nor grown by natural philologic methods, but springing 
Minervalike from the brains of thousands of modern Jupiters. These largely bear the 
marks of their parentage in characteristics that do not, or should not, beget a spon- 
taneous pride of lineage. From a highly variegated medievalism that has, indeed, 
never ended, we have taken over another unassimilable conglomerate, and superadded 
are thousands of dissimilar terms derived from modern chemistry, biology, bacteriology, 
and many other sciences. Each single group of contemporaneous nationalities con- 
tributes to the others its share of names, and is itself hard at work endeavoring to fuse 
the whole heritage into homogeneity and unity with the amalgam of the spirit of the 
general language dominant among its people. The result is a strange hodge-podge of 
the medical language of two or more thousand years and of many special national 
tongues, in mechanic, not chemic mixture, with modern sounds and symbols, the whole 
amazingly heterogeneous and cacophonous. The thirtieth century medical student 
will probably be compelled to memorize iter a tertio ad quartum ventriculum, etc., and 
to write his orders for drugs in a sad mixture of sorry Latin so far as his knowledge will 
carry, and then to end it in despair in the vulgar manner of speech of his contempo- 
raries. In general biology the law holds that the ontogeny epitomizes and repeats 
the phylogeny; but only at the different successive stages of its individual develop- 
ment. In medical language the phylum is always present, and there are no successive 
stages; there has been no rebirth or inheritance; the ontogeny goes on preserving all 
the old origins and accretions, and simply adding the new to them. For this sort of 
evolution there is no name (unless Weissmann's immortality theory is applicable), and 
its study may be commended to the Darwins and Spencers of the future as a note- 
worthy exception to hitherto formulated laws. The result is before us: a huge and 
unassimilated philologic mass, many times greater than it should be, the despair of 
medical students and of the makers of dictionaries. These word-books, of course, 
reproduce the phylogenetic history in the same way, and there is no escape from the 
republication of all the methods and most all the words gathered and found useful in 
the course of ages. Here with some modifications of detail must be repeated the glosses 
and vocabularies of a thousand years ago, the foiled attempts together with the partial 
successes at alphabetic arrangement, and lastly the addition of the modern encyclo- 

The functions of the dictionary-maker have thus become multiplied and varied. 
As the gloss-lists and vocable-lists grew into dictionariums and as alphabetization be- 
came thoroughgoing, as one after another subject was added to the word-gatherer's 
work so our technical dictionary has at last become in part encyclopedic and expository, 
its plan and outworking still somewhat subject to the personality, scholarship, and 
judgment of the author. It will always remain an open question how far the author 
should or may go in giving individual color to his dictionary. Johnson's famous 
definitions of excise, lexicographer, oats, pension, pensioner, tory, whig, etc.; Webster's 
"Americanism " in spelling; the Century's seconding in various ways the obvious trend- 
ing of philologic progress, — these, and many such illustrate the lexicographer's belief 
in his own, at least, "limited" free-will. 

"Johnson's great work," says Dr. Murray, "raised English lexicography alto- 
gether to a higher level. In his hands it became a department of literature." The 
technical dictionary of to-day may indeed claim a higher office than that, because no 
monograph or text-book comes near the far-reaching and lasting influence of modern 
encyclopedic dictionaries. They help more than teacher or text-book to bring order 
into the student's forming mind, and to systematize and make definite his knowledge. 
In postgraduate life and practice there is no book that is so frequently consulted, and 
the teachings of which are so clearly kept in memory. This is because of the validity 
of the maxim of Coke. 

Solely upon condition, however, that the author has put heart, intellect, and labor 
into his work! If he has been content to repeat, copy, and adopt, it will not be so. 
And even then only if other repeaters, copiers, and adopters " do not break through and 
steal." As has often happened since, dictionary- theft is an ancient story. As long as 



250 years ago Phillips plagiarized the glossographia of Blount. The robbed author 
indignantly exposed the shamelessness of the cribber, even of misprints and errors. 
But he was not ashamed ! More suo the thief, having no defense, made none, and in- 
stead proceeded to correct all the errors pointed out by Blount, and, in many subse- 
quent editions, the quack-lexicographer reaped the reward given by a too careless 

The ancient injustice would be much manifolded in modern times, with an intensely 
progressing science which demands that, if to be of the best service, new editions 
of its word-books shall be made every few years. The system must become systematic 
and the professing truly professional. No spasmodic, incidental, or amateur methods 
will nowadays avail. Revisions are required, and continuous labor, not only of one 
but of many, so that helpers, a large corps of them, must be organized, and paid. Over 
300 years ago a great worker in this field, one who "contrived and wrought not onelie 
for our owne private use, but for the common profet of others," even with the patronage 
of great men "who encouraged in this wearie worke" was grieved that "the charges 
were so great and the losse of time" so much that he came near having "never bene 
able alone to have wrestled against so manie troubles." Finding that "his spiritual 
substance had vanished," old Simon Browne "took to an employment which did not 
require a soul, and so became a dictionary-maker," piously adding that we should 
"thank God for everything and therefore for dictionary makers." 


Wt Weight. 

nj> Minimum Minim. 

3 Drachma Dram. 

9 Scrupulum Scruple. 

§ Uncia Ounce. 

. Equal to. 

. Infinity, 20 ft. distance. \ 0n t,v<? 

. Combined with. J u P tlcs - 

2 Applied to Zygoma. 

00 Heard, but not Understood. 

H Intensity of Magnetic Force. 

I Intensity of Magnetism. 

Z Contraction (Zuckung). 

Z. Z.' Z." Increasing strengths of contraction. 

k Magnetic Susceptibility. 

ft Magnetic Permeability. 

Micron Unit of Microscopic Measurement. 

u Ohm. 

p Specific Resistance. 

£2 Megohm (one-millionth part of an 


—1 |h- Battery. 

+ Plus. Anode or Positive Pole. 

— Minus. Kathode or Negative Pole. 

> Greater than, as K > A. 

< Less than. 


' Inches. 

.Foot. Lines; each one-twelfth of 
an inch or about two millimeters. 

. A mark of affirmation or authenti- 

. A mark of doubt. 

Figures or words separated by a 
short dash indicate the extremes 
of variation, as 5-10" long, few- 
many flowered; i. e., varying 
from s to 10 lines in length, and 
with few to many flowers. 

X Used to express magnification, thus 

X 1000 indicates a magnification 
of i -° T 0Q diameters. The im- 
proper fraction lo T oa indicates the 
same thing, but is rarely used. 

® An annual Herb. 

© A biennial Herb. 

21 A perennial Herb. 

t> An Undershrub, deciduous. 

b . . An Undershrub, evergreen. 

6 A Shrub, deciduous. 

5 A Shrub, evergreen. 

S A Tree, deciduous. 

t> A Tree, evergreen. 

t> An herbaceous Vine, annual or 


1> A woody Vine, deciduous. 

■7 A woody Vine, evergreen. 

C A trailing Herb, annual or biennial. 

lj A trailing Herb, perennial. 

*» An aquatic plant. 

g Flowers perfect. 

0* A male animal, or a plant or flower 

bearing only stamens or anther- 

9 . . A female animal or a plant or flower 

bearing only pistils or archegonia. 

O A young animal of undetermined 

sex, thus o" o, young male, or 9 yg 
for young female, but O juv (ju- 
venis, young). 

A monocarpic plant. 

O = Cotyledons accumbent. 

O II Cotyledons incumbent. 

§ A plant introduced and naturalized. 

f A plant cultivated for ornament. 

J A plant cultivated for use. 

8 M^onecious. 

0" 9 Diecious. 

0* S 9 Polygamus. 

o Wanting or none. 

oo Numerous or indefinite; more than 

twenty when applied to stamens. 

a The microsecond represents .001 

second or the unit of time in 
experiments or psychophysical re- 


A. Chemical symbol of argon. 

a [&, kv, or d/z, without], i. The Greek letter 
alpha, called alpha privative, equivalent to the pre- 
fix un- or in-. It denotes absence or want of the 
thing or quality expressed by the root of the word. 
2. Abbreviation for accommodation, ampere, anode, 
anterior, aqua, arteria, total acidity. 

aa [&.va., of each]. An abbreviation, written aa, 
used in prescriptions to denote repetition of the same 
quantity for each item. 

aaa. Abbreviation for amalgam. 

Aaron's sign (ar'-un) [Charles D. Aaron, Ameri- 
can physician, 1866- ] In appendicitis, pressure 
over McBurney's point causes distress in the region 
of the stomach or heart. 

aasmus (a-as'-mus) [aaanos, a breathing out]. 

A.B. Abbreviation of Ariium Baccalaureus, Bach- 
elor of Arts. 

ab [ab, from]. A Latin preposition signifying from. 

abaca (ab'-ak-ah; sp. pron., ah-vah-kah') . Manila 
hemp; also Musa textilis, the plant which produces it. 
See hemp. 

abactio (ab-ak'-she-o) [abigere, to drive away]. 
An abortion, or labor, artificially induced. 

abactus venter {ab-ak'-tus-ven'-ter) [abigere, to drive 
out; venter, the belly]. An abortion procured by 
artificial means. 

Abadie's sign (ab-ad-e') [J. M. Abadie, French 
ophthalmologist, 1842- ]. Spasm of the levator 
palpebral superioris in exophthalmic goiter. 

abaissement (ah-bds'-mon(g)) [Fr.]. 1. Depres- 
sion, falling. 2. Couching. 

abalienatio mentis (ab-al-yen-a'-she-o) [see abalie- 
nation]. Insanity. 

abalienation (ab-al-yen-a'-shun) [ab, away; alienare, 
to transfer]. Decay, especially mental decay, in- 

abalienated (ab-al '-yen-a-ted) [abalienatus, alien- 
ated, estranged]. 1. Deranged, or insane. 2. Gang- 
renous, or so severely injured as to require ampu- 
tation or extirpation. 

abanet. See abnet. 

abaptiston (ah-bap-tis'-ton) [&, priv.; /3d7i-ru7Tos, im- 
mersed]. A trephine so shaped that penetration of 
the brain is impossible. 

abarthrosis (ab-ar-tkro'-sis) [ab, from; arthrosis, a 
joint]. Same as diarthrosis or abarticulation. 

abarticular (ab-ar-tik'-u-lar) [ab, from; articulus, 
joint]. Not connected with or not situated near a 

abarticulation (ab-ar-tik-u-la'-shun) [ab, from; 
articulatio, joint]. 1. Same as diarthrosis; sometimes 
also a synonym of synarthrosis. 2. A dislocation. 

abasia (ah-ba'-ze-ah) [d, priv.; /Sd<m, a step]. 
Motor incoordination in walking. See astasia. 
a. astasia, inability to walk or stand in a normal 
manner, a. atactica, a form marked by awkwardness 
and uncertainty of movement, a., choreic, that due 
to choreic cramps in the legs, a., paralytic, that 
form in which the legs give way under the weight of 
the body and walking is impossible, a., paroxysmal 
trepidant, a form of astasia-abasia (q. v.) in which 
trepidation similar to that of spastic paraplegia 
stiffens the legs and prevents walking, a., trembling, 

incapacity to walk on account of trembling of the 

abasic (ah-ba'-sik) [see abasia]. Pertaining to, or 
affected with, abasia. 

abatage (ah-bah-tazj') [Fr.]. 1. The slaughter of 
an animal to prevent the infection of others. 2. The 
art of "casting" an animal preparatory to an opera- 

abatardissement (ah-bah-tar-dees'-mon(g)) [Fr.]. 
The gradual degeneration or deterioration of a breed 
or race. 

abatement {a-bdt'-ment). Mitigation or decrease 
in severity of pain, or of any untoward symptom or 

abattoir (ah-bat-war') [Fr.]. A slaughter-house or 
establishment for the killing and dressing of animals. 

abaxial (ab-ak'-se-al) [ab, from; axis, an axle]. 
Not situated in the line of the axis. 

Abbe's catgut rings (ab'-e) [Robert Abbe, New 
York surgeon, 1851- ]. Rings composed of 8 or 
10 turns of heavy catgut in the shape of an oval, 
with inside diameter of two inches, for use in intestinal 
anastomosis. A.'s operation, lateral anastomosis of 
intestine with catgut rings. A.'s string-method, 
cutting through an esophageal stricture by the 
sawing action of a string one end of which passes 
through the mouth and the other end through an 
opening in the stomach. 

Abbe's condenser, A.'s illuminator (ab'-ba) [Ernst 
Abbe, German physicist, 1845-1905]. A system of 
lenses attached to a microscope for condensing the 
light upon an object. A.'s, lenses, apochromatic, 
see apochromatic lens. A.'s test-plate, an instrument 
for testing microscopic objectives for spherical and 
chromatic aberration, composed of a microscopic 
slide with 6 cover-glasses ranging from 0.09 to 0.024 
mm. thick, silvered on one side. Delicate, parallel, 
ruled lines are cut through the silver film, thus 
making a kind of micrometer with transparent rulings. 

Abbott's method (ab'-ot) [Edville G. Abbott, 
American orthopedist, 1872- ]. For treatment of 
scoliosis: — overcorrection by means of plaster jackets 
and bandages. 

A.B.C. liniment. Compound liniment of aconite. 
It contains liniment of aconite 40, liniment of bella- 
donna 40, and chloroform 20. 

A.B.C. process. A process for the deodorization 
of sewage by the addition of a mixture of alum, blood, 
and charcoal. 

Abderhalden's test for pregnancy (ab'-der-hahl- 
den) [Emil Abderhalden, Swiss physiologist and 
chemist, 1877- ]. During pregnancy microscopic 
portions of the chorionic villi enter the maternal 
blood and cause the production of protective ferments 
which may be detected in the serum by an optical 
method and a dialyzation method. The ferments 
disappear within a short time after delivery or 

abdomen {ab-do'-men) [abdere, to hide]. The 
large inferior cavity of the trunk, extending from 
the brim of the pelvis to the diaphragm, and bounded 
in front and at the sides by the lower ribs and ab- 
dominal muscles, and behind by the vertebral column, 
the psoas and the quadratus lumborum muscles. It 
is artificially divided into 9 regions by two circular 



lines, the upper parallel with the cartilages of the 
.ninth ribs, the lower with the iliac crests, and by 
two lines drawn vertically upwards from the center 
of Poupart's ligament. These lines are differently 
situated by different writers. The regions thus 
formed are, above, the right hypochondriac, the 
epigastric, and the left hypochondriac; in the middle, 
the right lumbar, umbilical, and left lumbar; and 
below, the right inguinal, the hypogastric, and the 
left inguinal, a., accordion, Kaplan's term for a 
swelling of the abdomen attended with flattening of 
the arch of the diaphragm and increased respiration. 
It is not due to the presence of gas or to tumor, and 
disappears under anesthesia; nervous pseudotympany. 
a., acute, any acute abdominal condition requiring 
prompt operation, a., boat-shaped, a., carinate, see 
under scaphoid, a. obstipum, congenital shortening 
of the rectus abdominis muscle, a., pendulous, a 
relaxed condition of the abdominal walls in which 
the latter hang down over the pubis, a., scaphoid, 
see under scaphoid, a., uncinate, one in which the 
terminal segments and those next to them are turned 
under the others. 

abdominal (ab-dom'-in-al) [abdomen]. Pertaining 
to or connected with the abdomen, a. aneurysm, 
see aneurysm, sl. aorta, the part of the aorta below, 
the diaphragm, a. aponeurosis, see aponeurosis. 
a. bandage, see a. binder, a. binder, a broad bandage 
of muslin or flannel applied to the abdomen for 
making pressure after delivery or after an operation. 
Sometimes a many-tailed bandage is used. a. brain, 
the solar plexus, a. breathing, see a. respiration. 
a. cavity, the cavity within the peritoneum, a. com- 
press, a form of local pack, made by forming folds 
of a coarse linen towel of sufficient breadth to reach 
from the ensiform cartilage to the pubis; one of the 
folds is then wrung out of cold water, applied, and 
the remainder is rolled around the body so as to 
retain it in position, a. dropsy, ascites. a. 
ganglia, the semilunar ganglia, a. gestation, see 
pregnancy, extrauterine, a. hysteria, a hysteric 
condition simulating peritonitis, in which the ab- 
domen becomes extremely painful to the touch, 
swollen, and distended with gas. a. line, the linea 
alba. a. lines, muscle tracings on the abdominal 
walls, a. muscles, the internal and external ob- 
liques, the transversalis, rectus, pyramidalis, and 
quadratus lumborum. a. phthisis, tuberculous 
disease of the intestines or peritoneum, a. press, 
see prelum abdominale. a. reflex, see reflexes, a. 
regions, see abdomen, a. respiration, respiration 

m wm 

Abdominal Regions. 

carried on chiefly by the diaphragm and abdominal 
muscles, a. ring, external, a triangular opening in 
the fibers of the aponeurosis of the external oblique 
muscle, transmitting the spermatic cord of the male 
and the round ligament of the female, a. ring, 
internal, an oval aperture in the fascia transversalis 
that transmits the spermatic cord of the male and 
the round ligament of the female, a. section, see 
celiotomy, a. surgery, the branch of surgery that 
deals with the lesions of the abdominal viscera and 
the operations performed upon them through inci- 
sions in the abdominal walls, a. typhus, enteric 
fever, a. viscera, the organs contained in the 
abdominal cavity. 

abdominoanterior (ab-dom-in-o-an-te'-re-or). Hav- 
ing the belly forward (used of the fetus in the womb) . 

abdominocystic (ab-dom-in-o-sis'-tik) [abdomen; 

wans, bladder]. Relating to the abdomen and 

abdominogenital (ab-dom-in-o-jen'-il-al). Relating 
to the abdomen and the genitalia, a. nerve, inferior, 
the ilioinguinal nerve, a. nerve, superior, the 
iliohypogastric nerve. 

abdominohysterectomy (ab-dom-in-o-his-ter-ek' '-to- 
me). Removal of the uterus through an abdominal 

abdominohysterotomy (ab-dom-in-o-his-ter-ot'-o- 
me). Hysterotomy through an abdominal incision. 

abdominoposterior (ab-dom-in-o-pos-te' '-re-or) . 

Having the belly toward the mother's back (used 
of the fetus in the womb). 

abdominoscopy (ab-dom-in-os'-ko-pe) [abdomen; 
GKoireiv, to examine]. Examination of the abdomen 
for diagnostic purposes, by inspection, palpation, 
measurement, percussion, etc. 

abdominoscrotal (ab-dom-in-o-skro'-tal). Relating 
to the abdomen and the scrotum, a. muscle, the 
cremaster muscle. 

abdominothoracic (ab-dom-in-o-tho-ras'-ik). Re- 
lating to the abdomen and thorax. 

abdominous (ab-dom'-in-us). Having a large ab- 

abdominouterotomy (ab-dom-in-o-u-ter-ot'-o-me) . 
See abdominohysterotomy. 

abdominovaginal iab-dom-in-o-vaj' -in-al) . Relat- 
ing to the abdomen and the vagina. 

abdominovesical (ab-dom-in-o-ves'-ik-al). Relating 
to the abdomen and the urinary bladder, a. pouch, 
a fold of the peritoneum in which are comprised the 
urachal fossae. 

abduce (ab-diis') [ab, away; ducere, to lead]. To 
draw away, as by an abductor muscle. 

abducens (ab-dii'-senz) [L., "leading away"]. 
A term applied to certain muscles, or their nerves, 
that draw the related part from the median line of 
the body. Also, the sixth pair of nerves supplying 
the external recti of the eyes. a. labiorum, same as 
a. oris. sl. oculi, the external rectus muscle of the 
eye. a. oris, the levator anguli oris muscle. 

abduct (ab-dukf) [abducere, to lead away]. To 
draw away from the median line. 

abduction (ab-duk'-shun) [ab, from; ducere, to 
lead], i. The withdrawal of a part from the axis 
of the body. 2. The recession or separation from 
each other of the parts of a fractured bone or the 
sides of a wound. 

abductor (ab-duk'-tor). See abducens. a. auris, 
the abductor muscle of the ear. a. digiti (dij'-it-i) 
quin'ti, hallu'cis, in'dicis, min'imi digiti, pol'licis, 
see muscles, table of. 

abenteric (ab-en-ter'-ik) [ab, from; ivrkpov, intes- 
tine]. Outside the intestine; involving or pertaining 
to organs or parts other than intestinal, a. typhoid, 
see under typhoid. 

abepithymia (ab-ep-e-thi'-me-ah) [ab, from; iin6vfj.La 
longing]. 1. A perverted longing, or desire. 2. 
Paralysis of the solar plexus (the diaphragm formerly 
was regarded as the seat of the soul [dv/ios], and of 
the desires). 

Abernethy's fascia [John Abernethy, English 
surgeon, 1764-1831]. The subperitoneal areolar 
tissue that separates the external iliac artery from 
the iliac fascia overlying the psoas. A.'s operation, 
for ligation of the external iliac artery. In the earlier 
operation an incision was made in the line of the 
artery for about three inches, commencing nearly 
four inches above Poupart's ligament. Later the 
incision was less nearly vertical and more curved, 
with the convexity downward and outward, extending 
from about one inch within and one inch above the 
anterior superior spine to one and one-half inches 
above, and external to, the center of Poupart's liga- 
ment. A.'s sarcoma, a circumscribed fatty tumor 
found chiefly on the trunk. 

aberrant (ab-er'-anf) [ab, from; err are, to wander]. 
Deviating from the normal or regular type in appear- 
ance, structure, course, etc., as the aberrant duct of 
the testis or liver, aberrant arteries, etc. a. arteries, 
long, slender vessels connected with the brachial or 
axillary artery. 

aberratio humorum {ab-er-a'-she-o) [see aberrant]. 
An abnormal tendency or direction of blood or other 
fluid to a part; as in vicarious menstruation, a. lac- 
tis, milk metastasis; see galactoplania. a. mensium, 
a. menstruorum, see menstruation, vicarious. 

aberration {ab-er-a'-shun) [see aberrant]. Devi- 
ation from the normal; mental derangement; fetal 



malformation; vicarious menstruation; escape of the 
fluids of the body by an unnatural channel. In 
optics, any imperfection of focalization or refraction 
of a lens, a., chromatic, the dispersion arising from 
unequal refraction of light of different parts of the 
spectrum. The violet rays, being more refrangible 
than the red rays, are brought to a focus nearer the 
lens, and the image is surrounded by a halo of colors. 
a., dioptric, see a., spherical, a., distantial, indistinct 
vision due to distance, a., lateral, a deviation of a 
ray in any direction from the axis measured in the 
focal plane perpendicularly to the axis, a., longi- 
tudinal, a deviation of a ray from the focus, measured 
along the axis above or below the focal plane, a., 
mental, a degree of paranoia that may or may not 
amount to insanity, a., Newtonian, same as a., 
chromatic, a., spherical, the excess of refraction of 
the peripheral part of a convex lens over the central 
part, producing an imperfect focus and a blurred 

abevacuation (ab-e-vak-u-a'-shun) [ab, from; evacu- 
ation], i. A morbid evacuation; an excessive or 
deficient discharge. 2. The passage of matter from 
one organ or cavity into another; metastasis. 

abeyance (ab-a'-ans) [O. Fr., for "open-mouthed 
expectation"]. A suspension of activity, or of 
function; a state of suspended animation, or action. 

Abies (a'-be-ez) [L.]. A genus of coniferous plants 
including the fir, hemlock, and spruce. A. balsamea, 
silver fir, balsam-fir, or balm of Gilead, a tree of the 
nat. ord. Coniferce, from which is derived Canada 
balsam. A. canadensis, hemlock-spruce; bark of 
the Canadian fir-tree. It is used as an astringent in 
various local and internal conditions. It yields 
Canada pitch. A. excelsa, Norway spruce. It 
yields Burgundy pitch. A. pectinata, the European 
silver fir. Its buds are resinous, balsamic, and sud- 

abietene (ab-i'-et-en), C7H16. A hydrocarbon 
obtained from Pinus sabiniana, a California nut- 
pine. It is an aromatic, volatile liquid, agreeing in 
composition with normal heptane. Syn., erasene. 

abietic, abietinic (ab-i-et'-ik, ab-i-et-in'-ik) [Abies]. 
Pertaining to the genus Abies, as abietic acid, C44H64- 
O5 or C20H30O2, occurring in the resin of Abies excelsa 
and Larix europcea. 

abietin (ab-i'-et-in) [Abies]. A resinous principle 
obtained from the turpentine of various species of 
pine and fir. a. anhydride, C44H62O4, the main 
constituent of resin. 

abietite (ab-i'-et-it), CeHgOs. A sugar resembling 
mannite, found in the needles of the European silver 
fir, Abies pectinata. 

abiogenesis (ab-i-o-jen'-es-is) [&, priv.; /Si'os, life; 
genesis]. The (theoretic) production of living by 
nonliving matter. The older term was spontaneous 

abiogenetic, abiogenous (ab-i-o-jen-et'-ik, ab-i-oj'- 
en-us). Pertaining to abiogenesis; characterized by 
spontaneous generation. 

abiogeny (ab-i-oj'-en-e). See abiogenesis. 

abiological (ah-bi-o-loj'-ik-al) [a, priv.; /3ios, life; 
\6yos, treatise]. Not pertaining to biology. 

abiosis (ab-i-o'-sis) [a, priv.; /3tos, life]. The 
absence of life. 

abiotic (ab-i-ot'-ik). Opposed to, or incapable of, 
or incompatible with life. 

abiotrophy (ab-i-of -ro-fe) [&, priv.; QLos, life; 
Tp6<f>r}, nourishment]. Degeneration or decay due to 
defective vital endurance. 

abirritant (ab-ir' -it-ant) [ab, from; irrilare, to 
irritate]. 1. Tending to diminish irritation ; soothing. 
2. Relating to diminished sensitiveness. 3. A rem- 
edy or agent that allays irritation. 

abirritation (ab-ir-it-a' -shun) [see abirritant]. Di- 
minished tissue-irritability; atony or asthenia. 

abjoint (ab-joint') [abjungere, to separate]. To 
separate by means of a joint or septum. 

abjunction (ab-jungk'-shun) [see abjoint]. The 
separation by means of a joint or septum, as of spores 
from a growing hypha in some fungi. 

ablactation (ab-lak-ta'-shun) [ab, from; lactare, to 
give suck]. The weaning of a child. The end of the 
suckling period. 

ablastemic (ah-blas-tem'-ik) [d, priv.; pXatrrrina, a 
shoot]. Non-germinal; in no way related to germina- 

ablastous (ah-blas'-tus) [o/3\a<rros, not budding, 
sterile]. In biology, producing no germs or buds. 

ablate (ab-lat') [ab, from; latum, from ferre, to 
carry]. To remove; to cut off. 

ablation (ab-la'-shun) [see ablate]. Removal of a 
part, as a tumor, by amputation, excision, etc. 

ablatio retinae (ab-la'-she-o ret'-in-e). Detachment 
of the retina. 

ablepharia, ablepharon (ah-blef-a'-re-ah, ah-blef- 
ar-on) [&, priv.; fi\k<j>a.pov , the eyelid]. A congenital 
condition in which there is a total absence either of 
eyelids or of the interpalpebral fissure, a., partial, 
a congenital defect in one or more of the eyelids. 
a., total, a congenital condition in which there is 
either a total absence of eyelids or the interpalpebral 

ablepharous (ah-blef'-ar-us) [see ablepharia]. With- 
out eyelids. 

ablepharus (ah-blef'-ar-us). An individual affected 
with ablepharia. 

ablepsia, ablepsy (ah-blep'-se-ah, ah-blep'-se) 
[d/3Xei/aa, without sight]. 1. Blindness. 2. Dulness 
of perception. 

abluent (ab'-lu-ent) [abluere, to wash away]. 
Detergent. That which cleanses or washes away. 

ablution (ab-lu'-shun) [see abluent]. Washing or 
cleansing the body. Separation of chemical im- 
purities by washing. 

abmortal (ab-mor'-tat) [ab, from; mors, death]. 
Passing from dead or dying to living muscular fiber 
(used of electric currents). 

abnerval (ab-ner'-val) [ab, from; nervus, a sinew]. 
Passing from a nerve (used of electric currents in 
muscular fiber). 

abnet (ab'-nel) [Hebr., a girdle]. A girdle, or 
girdleshaped bandage. 

abneural (ab-nu'-ral) [ab, from; vevpov, nerve]. 
Pertaining to a part remote from the neural or 
dorsal aspect; ventral. ^ 

abnormal (ab-nor'-mal) [ab, away from; norma, 
a rule]. Not normal; not conformable with nature 
or with the general rule. 

abnormalism (ab-nor' -mal-izm) [abnormal]. 1. Ab- 
normality. 2. An abnormal thing or structure. 

abnormality, abnormity (ab-nor-mal'-it-e, ab-nor'- 
mit-e). The quality of being abnormal; a deformity 
or malformation. 

aboiement (ah-bwah-mon' (g)) [Fr.]. Barking; the 
involuntary utterance of barking sounds. 

abolition (ab-o-lish'-un) [abolitio]. Destruction; 
cessation; suspension, as of a physiological function. 

abolitionism (ab-o-lish' -un-izm) [abolitio, an abol- 
ishing]. A movement originating in England to 
abolish the regulation and control of prostitution by 
the health-officers. Also applied to the movement 
to abolish vivisection. 

abomasum, abomasus (ab-o-ma'-sum, ab-o-ma'-sus) 
[ab, away; omasum, paunch]. The reed or proper 
digestive stomach of ruminating mammals; also 
called "fourth," or "true," stomach. 

aborad (ab-o'-rad) [ab, away from; os, mouth]. 
Away from the mouth; in an aboral situation or 

aboral (ab-o'-ral) [ab, away from; os, the mouth]. 
Opposite to, or remote from, the mouth. 

aborigines (ab-or-ij'-in-ez) [ab, from; origo, origin, 
beginning]. Primitive, autochthonous, native, in- 

abort (ab-orf) [ab, from; ortus, from oriri, to grow]. 

1. To miscarry; to expel the fetus before it is viable. 

2. To prevent full development, as of a disease. 

3. To come short of full_ development. 

aborticide (ab-or' -tis-id) [abortus; ccedere, to kill]. 
1. The killing of the unborn fetus. 2. The means of 
killing the fetus. 3. Causing the destruction of a 

abortient (ab-or' -sheni) [see abort]. Abortive; 

abortifacient (ab-or-te-fa'-shent) [abortus; facere, 
to make]. 1. Causing abortion. 2. A drug or 
agent inducing the expulsion of the fetus. 

abortion (ab-or' -shun) [abortus, a miscarriage]. 
The expulsion of the ovum before the child is viable; 
that is, any time before the end of the sixth month. 
By some authors expulsion of the ovum during the 
first 3 months is termed abortion; from this time to 
viability it is termed immature delivery, or mis- 
carriage, and from the period of viability to that of 
maturity, premature delivery, a., accidental, see 
a., spontaneous, a., artificial, that produced in- 
tentionally, a., criminal, that not demanded for 
therapeutic reasons, a., embryonic, abortion up to 



the fourth month, a., epidemic, the occurrence of 
many cases at about the same time, due to wide- 
spread distress, excitement, or privation, or to some 
form of poisoning, such as ergotism, a., fetal, abor- 
tion after the fourth month, a., habitual, repeated 
abortion in successive pregnancies, usually due to 
syphilis, a., incomplete, when the membranes or 
the placenta is retained, a., induced, see a., arti- 
ficial, a., inevitable, when the embryo or fetus is 
dead, or when there is an extensive detachment or 
rupture of the ovum, a., justifiable, same as a., 
therapeutic, a., missed, the death of the fetus and 
not followed within two weeks by its expulsion. 
a., ovular, abortion within three weeks after con- 
ception, a., partial, the premature loss of one fetus 
in a case of multiple gestation, a., spontaneous, 
that not induced by artificial means, a., therapeu'tic, 
induced abortion to save the mother's life, a., tubal, 
the escape of a fertilized ovum through the abdominal 
opening of the oviduct into the peritoneal cavity. 

abortionist (ab-or'-shun-ist) [see abortion]. One 
who criminally produces abortions; especially one 
who follows the business of producing abortions. 

abortive {ab-or'-tiv) [see abortion]. Prematurely 
born; coming to an untimely end; incompletely 
developed; cutting short the course of a disease; 

abortus (ab-or'-tus) [L.]. An aborted fetus; 

abouchement (ab-oosh'-mon(g)) [Fr.]. The ter- 
mination of a small vessel in a larger one. 

aboulia (ah-boo'-le-ah). See abulia. 

aboulomania (ah-boo-lo-ma'-ne'ah). See abulo- 

ab ovo (ab o'-vo) [L.]. In biology, from the egg; 
from the beginning. 

abrachia (ah-bra'-ke-ah) [&, priv.; Ppaxlow, arm]. 
The condition of an armless monster. 

abrachiocephalia (ah-bra-ke-o-sef-a'-le-ah) [abra- 
chia; «e0aXi7 head]. Headless and armless. 

abrachiocephalus (ab-rdk-e-o-sef -al-us) [abrachia; 
Ke<j>a\r), head]. A headless and armless monster. 

abrachius (ah-bra'-ke-us). See abrachia. 

abrade (a-brad') [abradere, to rub off]. To remove 
by friction or chafing; to roughen by friction. 

abraham (a' -bra-ham). To sham; to feign sickness 
or lunacy. A.-man, i. A mendicant lunatic from 
the Abraham Ward of Bethlehem Hospital, London; 
they bore a distinctive badge. 2. An impostor who 
feigned to be a lunatic and begged in the guise of an 
Abraham man. 

abrasio (ab-ra'-ze-o) [L.]. An abrasion, a. cor- 
neal, a scraping off of the superficial epithelium of 
the cornea, a. dentium, wearing away of teeth. 

abrasion (ab-ra'-zhun) [ab, priv.; radere, to rub]. 
Excoriation of the cutaneous or mucous surface by 
mechanical means. In dentistry, the wearing away 
of the dentine and enamel, or the cutting edges of 
the teeth, whether by mechanical or chemical means. 

abrasor (ab-ra'-zor) [L., "abrader"]. A surgeon's 
rasp or xyster; any file or instrument used in the 
surgical or dental abrasion of a surface; also, a rasp 
used in pharmacy. 

abrastol (ab-rast'-ol). See asaprol. 

abrin (ab'-rin). A phytotoxin obtained from the 
Abrus precatorius; its action is similar to that of ricin, 
but is less poisonous. 

abrosia (ab-ro'-ze-ah) [aPpuala, fasting]. Want of 
food; fasting. 

abrotanum (ab-rot'-an-um) [hfipoTovov, an aromatic 
plant]. The plant called southern-wood, Artemisia 

abruptio [L.]. Abruption; a tearing away. a. 
placentae, premature detachment of the placenta. 

abruption (ab-rup'-shun) [ab, away from; and 
rumpere, to break]. 1. A rupture or tearing asunder. 
2. A transverse fracture. 

Abrus (a'-brus) [afipos, pretty]. Jequirity; Indian 
licorice. The seeds of A. precatorius, or wild licorice. 
Its properties are thought to be due to the presence 
of certain ferments. See abrin. Infusions applied 
to the conjunctiva or to any mucous surface induce 
violent purulent inflammation with growth of false 
membrane. It is used in producing artificial con- 

abscess, abscessus (ab'-ses, ab-ses'-us) [abscessus, 
a departure or separation]. A localized collection of 
pus surrounded by a wall of lymph. Syn., ecpyema; 
gathering. According to location, abscesses are 
named dorsal, mammary, ischiorectal, perityphlitic, 

retropharyngeal, etc. a., acute, one resulting from an 
acute inflammation of the part in which it is formed. 
Syn., abscessus per fluxum. a.; alveolar, abscess in 
the gum or alveolus, a. amebic, a variety of abscess 
found in the liver and lung and containing amebae. 
a., anorectal, one of the celluloadipose tissue near 
the anus, a., arthrifluent, a wandering abscess 
having its origin in a diseased joint, abscessus 
arthriticus, Musgrave's term for intestinal abscesses 
due to "gouty dysentery." a., atheromatous, an 
area of softening in the wall of a vessel the result of 
sclerotic endarteritis, a., bicameral, one with two 
pockets, a., biliary, one connected with the gall- 
bladder or a bile-duct, a., bursal, abscess in a 
bursa, a., canalicular, mammary abscess that com- 
municates with a milk-duct, abscessus carniformis, 
Severinus' name for a hard sarcoma of the joints. 
a., chronic, a., cold, one of slow and apparently non- 
inflammatory development, generally about a bone, 
joint, or gland. It is usually tuberculous and con- 
tains cheesy material, a., circumscribed, one that is 
limited by an exudation of lymph, a., cold, see a., 
chronic, a., congestive, one in which the pus appears 
at a point distant from where it is formed, a., em- 
bolic, one formed at the seat of a septic embolus. 
a., fecal, one in the rectum or large intestine, a., 
fixation, an abscess produced by the subcutaneous 
injection of an irritant as a treatment of grave septi- 
cemia, a., glandular, one formed about a lymph- 
gland, a., gravitation, one in which pus formed in one 
part of the body tends to migrate, usually to portions 
deeper or lower down, in the direction gravity would 
take it. a., hematic, one due to an extravasated 
blood-clot, a., hemorrhagic, one containing blood. 
a., idiopathic, one not attributable to any disease. 
a., iliac, a wandering abscess of the iliac region. 
a., infecting mitral, one due to a lymph embolus 
caused by endocarditis, a., intramastoid, one of the 
mastoid process of the temporal bone, a., ischio- 
rectal, one in the ischiorectal fossa, a., lacunar, one 
in the urethral lacuna?, a., lumbar, a wandering 
abscess of the lumbar region, a., lymphatic. 1. The 
suppuration of a lymphatic gland. 2. An enlarged 
bursa mucosa, a., mammary, one in the female 
breast, a., marginal, one located near the anal 
orifice, a., mastoid, suppuration occurring in the 
cells of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone, 
a., metastatic, an abscess secondary to pyemia and 
ulcerative endocarditis, but not occurring through 
septicemia. It is usually of embolic origin and gen- 
erally located in the lungs and liver, a., miliary, a 
small embolic abscess, a., milk, a mammary abscess 
occurring during lactation. a., otic cerebral, a., 
otitic cerebral, an abscess of the brain following a 
purulent disease of the inner ear. a., parametric, 
a., parametritic, a form occurring frequently between 
the folds of the broad ligament of the uterus or in 
the neighboring cellular tissue, a., paranephric, 
a., paranephritic, one occurring in the tissues about 
the kidney, a., perimetric, a., perimetritic, pus 
within the peritoneum originating from inflammation 
of the peritoneal covering of the uterus, a., peri- 
nephric, a., perinephritic, one occurring in the region 
immediately surrounding the kidney, a., peri- 
pleuritic, one that occurs beneath the parietal pleura 
as the result of pleurisy, a diseased rib, or an injury. 
a., periproctitic, one in the loose areolar tissue sur- 
rounding the lower part of the rectum, a., peritoneal, 
a collection of softened exudate which has become 
encysted in cases of peritonitis, a., peritonsillar, 
one that forms in acute tonsillitis around one or 
both tonsils, a., phlegmonous, an acute abscess. 
abscessus pneumococcalis, one due to infection by 
pneumococci. a., postcecal, one located back of the 
cecum, a., posttyphoid, chronic abscess following 
typhoid, a., prelacrimal, an abscess due to caries of 
the lacrimal or the ethmoid bone, producing a swell- 
ing at the inner canthus immediately below the 
upper margin of the orbit, a., primary, one formed at 
the seat of pyogenic infection, a., psoas, one arising 
from disease of the lumbar or lower dorsal vertebra?, 
the pus descending in the sheath of the muscle, and 
usually pointing beneath Poupart's ligament, a., 
pyemic, see pyemia, a., residual, one formed in or 
about the residues of former inflammation. A.-root, 
the root of Polemonium replans; alterative, astringent, 
and expectorant, a., scrofulous, one due to tuber- 
culous degeneration of bone or lymph-glands, a., 
secondary, same as a., embolic, a., septicemic, one 
resulting from septic infection or accompanying 



septicemia, a., shirtstud, two abscesses communi- 
cating by means of a sinus, a., spermatic, one 
involving the seminiferous tubules, a., spinal, one 
due to necrosis or disease of a vertebra, a., spirillar, 
Verneuil's name for an abscess containing spirilla 
from the saliva, a., stitch, one formed about a 
stitch or suture, a., subaponeurotic, one beneath an 
aponeurosis or fascia, a., subareolar, one beneath 
the alveolar epithelium of the nipple, a., subfascial, 
one beneath a fascia; postfascial abscess, a., sub- 
mammary, one lying between the mammary gland 
and the chest-wall. Syn., postmammary abscess; 
retromammary abscess, a., subpectoral, one beneath 
the chest muscles, a., subperitoneal, one arising 
between the parietal peritoneum and the abdominal 
wall. Syn., preperitoneal abscess, a., subphrenic, 
one located beneath the diaphragm, a., sudori- 
parous, an abscess due to inflammation of obstructed 
sweat-glands, a., sympathetic, a secondary or 
metastatic abscess at a distance from the part at 
which the exciting cause has acted (e. g., a bubo). 
a., thecal, one in the sheath of a tendon, a., tuber- 
culous, see a., chronic, a., tympanitic, one containing 
gas generated by putrefaction. Syn., abscessus 
flatuosus; gas abscess, a., urethral, i. Suppuration 
of a urethral lacuna; a lacunar abscess. 2. One 
involving the circumurethral tissue, a., urinary, one 
resulting from extravasation of urine, a., urinous, 
one containing urine mingled with the pus. a., 
verminous, a., worm, one containing intestinal 
worms, from communication with the intestine. 
a., wandering, one in which the pus has traveled 
along the connective tissue spaces and points at some 
locality distant from its origin. Syn., hypostatic 
abscess; abscessus per congestum; abscessus per 

abscessed (ab'sesd). Affected with or caused by 
an abscess, as "abscessed teeth." 

abscession (absesh'-un) [abscessio, departure]. 
I. An abscess; a critical discharge. 2. Metastasis. 

abscissae (absis'se) [ab, away; scindere, to cut]. 
The transverse lines cutting vertical ones at right 
angles, to show by a diagram the relations of two 
series of facts, as, e. g., the number of pulse-beats or 
the temperature record in given periods of time. 

abscission (absish'-un) [see abscissa). Removal 
of a part by cutting; or the suppression of a physio- 
logical function. 

absconsio (abskon'se-o) [abscondere, to hide]. 
A sinus or cavity whether normal or pathological. 

absence (of mind) (ab'sens) [absentia, absence]. 
Inattention to surroundings; in marked instances it 
may be a result of central lesions. It is often seen 
in epileptics and melancholiacs. 

absentia epileptica (ab-sen'-she-ah ep-il-ep' -tik-ah) . 
Brief losses of consciousness occurring in the mild 
form of epilepsy. 

abs. feb. Abbreviation of absente febre [L.]. In 
the absence of fever. 

absinthe (ab'sinth). See under absinthium. 

absinthiate (absin'-the-at). A salt of absinthic 

absintbiated (ab-sin'-the-a-ted). 1. Mixed with 
absinthe. 2. Containing wormwood. 

absintbin (absinth' -in) [absinthium]. A bitter 
crystalline principle obtainable from wormwood. 
See absinthium. 

absinthism (ab-sinth'-izm). A disease similar to 
alcoholism, the result of the excessive use of absinthe. 
It is characterized by general muscular debility and 
mental disturbances, that may proceed to convulsions, 
acute mania, or general paralysis. 

absinthium (ab-sinth'-e-um) [L.]. Wormwood. 
The leaves and tops of Artemisia absinthium. Absin- 
thium contains a volatile oil and an intensely bitter 
principle, absinthin, C20H28O4, which is a narcotic 
poison. Absinthium increases cardiac action and 
produces tremor and epileptiform convulsions. 
Dose 20-40 gr. (1.3-2.6 Gm.) in infusion. It is used 
as a stomachic tonic. Absinthe, a French liqueur, 
is an alcoholic solution of the oil exhibited with oils 
of anise, marjoram, and other aromatic oils. 

absinthol (ab-sinth'-ol), CioHieO. The principal 
constituent of oil of wormwood; it is isomeric with 
ordinary camphor. 

absolute (ab'so-lut) [absolvere, to complete]. Per- 
fect, entire, unconditional, a. alcohol, see alcohol. 
a. temperature, see temperature, a. zero, see zero. 

absorb (absorb') [absorbere, to suck up]. To suck 
up or imbibe; to take within one's self. 

absorbefacient (absorb-e-fa'shent) [absorptio, ab- 
sorption; facer e, to make]. Favoring or tending to 
produce absorption. 

absorbent (absor'-bent) [see absorb]. 1. Absorb- 
ing; capable of absorbing. 2. An organ or part that 
absorbs. 3. A term applied to the lacteals and 
lymphatics. 4. In materia medica, a drug or medi- 
cine that produces absorption of diseased tissue. 
a. cotton, see cotton, a. glands, see lymphatics. 
a. system, the lacteals and lymphatics with their 
associated glands. 

absorptio (absorp'she-o) [see absorb], a. mor- 
bosa, see absorption, excrementitial (2). a. pulmon- 
alis, see absorption, pulmonary, a. sana, see absorp- 
tion, physiological. 

absorptiometer (absorpshe-om'-et-er) [absorption; 
fikrpov, a measure]. A device for measuring the 
thickness of the layer of liquid that is taken up 
between two glass plates by capillary attraction. 
Used in conjunction with a spectrophotometer, it 
serves as a hematoscope. 

absorption (absorp'shun) [see absorb]. The 
permeation or imbibition of one body by another. 
a., chylous, the act or process of the entrance of the 
oil-globules of the chyle into the central canals of 
the intestinal villi, a., coefficient of, that number 
which represents the volume of a gas absorbed by a 
unit volume of water at o° C. and at a barometric 
pressure of 760 mm. a., cutaneous, absorption by 
the skin, a., disjunctive, the removal of living tissue 
around a necrosed mass, and its consequent sepa- 
ration from its surroundings. a., excrementitial. 

1. The absorption of fluid excretions by the mucosa. 

2. The absorption of excretions or morbid products 
(bile, pus) by the blood. Syn., pathological absorption; 
absorptio morbosa. a., external, the taking up by 
the skin or mucous surfaces of pabulum or medication 
applied to the exterior of the body or of an organ. 
a., internal. 1. The absorption of waste-products 
by the tissues; absorption of decomposition of dis- 
assimilation. 2. The taking up of pabulum by the 
tissues; absorption of nutrition; molecular, nutritive, 
organic absorption, a., interstitial, the removal by 
the absorbent system of effete matters, a. lines, 
a. bands, dark lines of the spectrum, called Fraun- 
hofer's lines, caused by the arrest or absorption of 
the ethereal waves of certain lengths and rapidities, 
mainly by vapors of the sun's atmosphere, a., 
lymphatic, that which occurs in lymphatic vessels. 
a. method, to determine whether or not hematuria 
is due to lesion of the bladder. It is based on the 
fact that the undenuded surface of the bladder will 
not absorb foreign substances. Fifteen grains of 
potassium iodide are injected into the bladder, and 
fifteen minutes later the saliva is examined for iodine. 
If found, it is an indication of an Unhealthy state of 
the bladder, a., molecular, a., nutritive, a., organic, 
see a., internal (2). a., pathological, see a., excre- 
mentitial (2). a., physiological, a phenomenon forming 
an important part of the digestive process, caused 
in part by the vital activity of the epithelial cells 
and in part by the physical laws of imbibition, 
diffusion, and osmosis. Syn., absorptio sana. a., 
progressive, atrophy of a part due to pressure. 
a., pulmonary, the taking up of oxygen, or of vapors 
(as of ether), by the lungs, a., purulent, 1. a., 
excrementitial (2). 2. pyemia, a., recrementitial, 
the absorption of surplus secretions, a., respiratory, 
see a., pulmonary, a. spectrum, a spectrum showing 
black lines where colors have been absorbed by the 
transmitting medium, a. tube, see under tube. 
a., ulcerative, that by which an ulcer forms or 
extends its area, a., venous, absorption bv the veins. 

absorptive (absorp'-tiv) [see absorb]. Having the 
power or function of absorbing. 

abstergent (abster'-jent) [abs, from; tergere, to 
cleanse]. 1. Cleansing; detergent. 2. A cleansing 
agent. See detergent. 

abstersive (abster'siv) [abslersivus]. Abstergent. 

abstinence (ab'stin-ens) [abs, from; tenere, to hold 
or keep]. Privation or self-denial in regard to food, 
liquors, etc. See fasting. 

abstract (ab'strakt) [abstrahere, to draw away]. 
In pharmacy, a solid preparation containing the 
soluble principles of a drug evaporated and mixed 
with sugar of milk. 

abstraction (abslrak'shun) [abstr actio, a drawing 
away]. 1. Blood-letting. 2. Attention to one idea 
to the exclusion of others. 3. In pharmacy, the 
process of distillation. 



abstractum (ab-strak'-tum) [pi., abstracta]. An 
abstract. See abstract. 

abterminal (ab-ter' -min-al) [ab, from; terminus, 
end]. Passing from tendinous into muscular tissue 
(used of electric currents). 

abulia (ah-boo'-le-ah) [d, priv.; (lovXri, will]. Loss 
or defect of will-power. 

abulic (ah-boo'-lik) [see abulia]. Characterized by 
or affected with abulia. 

abulomania (ah-boo'-lo-ma'-ne-ah) [abulia; fiavia, 
madness]. A disease of the mind characterized by 
imperfect or lost will-power. 

abuse (ab-us') [abusus, a using up], i. Misuse or 
overuse. 2. Rape, a., self-, masturbation. 

abvacuation (ab-vak-u-a'-shun). Same as abe- 
vacuation, g. v. 

a.c. Abbreviation of the Latin ante cibum, before 
meals.- Also abbreviation of air-conduction. 

acacanthrax (ak-ah-kan'-thraks) [a, priv.; kclkos, 
bad; dv0pa£, a carbuncle: pi., acacanthraces]. Non- 
malignant anthrax. 

Acacia (ah-ka'-she-ah) [L.]. 1. A large genus of 
leguminous trees, shrubs, and herbs, many of them 
Australian or African. A number of the species are 
medicinal, and some are poisonous. The bark is 
usually very astringent. 2. Gum-arabic, which is 
produced by various species — A. lebbek, A. nilotica, 
A. vera, and A. verek. A. Senegal also furnishes 
gum-arabic, a nearly white, transparent gum, 
soluble in water. It is used in the manufacture of 
mucilage, and contains arabin, C12H22O11, identical 
in composition with cane-sugar, a. anthelmintica, 
see mussanin. a. catechu, see catechu, a., mucilage 
of (mucilago acacia, U. S. P.), acacia, 34; water, to 
make 100 parts; incompatible with alcoholic tinc- 
tures, a., syrup of (syrupus acacia, U. S. P.), 
mucilage, 25; simple syrup, 75. It is used in various 
mixtures as a demulcent and to suspend insoluble 

Acalypha (ah-kal'-if-ah) [d/caXD^s, unveiled]. A 
genus of euphorbiaceous plants. A. fruticosa, of 
India, is useful in dyspepsia and diarrhea, and is 
tonic and alterant. A. hispida has similar uses. 
A. indica is a plant common in India. The leaves 
are expectorant, emetic, laxative. A. virginica, of 
North America, is diuretic and expectorant. Dose 
of the fluid-extract 10 min.-i dr. (0.6-4.0 Co); of the 
juice (succus acalypha), for an infant, 1 dr. (4 Cc). 

acampsia (ah-kamp'-se-ah) [d, priv.; K&nwreiv, to 
bend]. Inflexibility of a limb. 

acantha (ak-an'-thah) [aicavda, a thorn]. 1. A 
vertebral process. 2. The spinal column. 3. Spina 

acanthesthesia, acanthsesthesia (ak-anth-es-the' - 
ze-ah) [bicavOa, a prickle; alo-9ri<Tis, sensation]. A 
sensation as of pricking with needles. 

Acanthia lectularia (ak-an'-the-ah lek-chu-la'-re-ah) 
[L.]. The common bedbug. 

acanthial (ak-an'-the-al) [see acanthion]. Per- 
taining to the acanthion. 

acanthion (ak-an'-the-on) [&ko.p9lov, a little thorn]. 
A point at the base of the nasal spine. 

Acanthocephala {ak-an-tho-sef'-al-ah) [anavda, spine; 
Ke<j>akr], head]. An order of parasitic worms, 
characterized by a thorny armature of the head and 
proboscis. They are generally grouped in one genus, 
Echinorrhynchys. They infest pigs, birds, and fishes, 
and in their larval stage live in crustaceans. 

acanthoid (ak-an'-thoid) [&Kav$a, a spine]. Re- 
sembling a spine, or spicula; spinous. 

acantholysis (ak-an-thol'-is-is) [&Kav9a, prickle; 
Xdo-ts, a loosening, a wasting]. Any skin disease in 
which there is an atrophy of the prickle-layer. 
a. bullosa, see epidermolysis. 

acanthoma (ak-an-tho'-mah) [aicav6a, a spine]. 
A neoplasm, or localized excessive growth in any 
part of the prickle-cell layer of the skin. 

acanthopelvis {dk-anth-o-peV -vis) [anavBa, thorn; 
Pelvis]. Same as acanthopelys. 

acanthopelys (ak-anth-op' -el-is) [&Kav9a, thorn; 
ttcXuj, pelvis]. A pelvis that is encroached upon by 

acanthosis (ak-an-tho'-sis) [&.Kav9a, a spine]. Any 
skin disease marked by abnormities in the prickle- 
cell layer, a. nigricans, a general pigmentation of 
the skin, with papillary, mole-like growths. 

acanthulus {ak-an'-thu-lus). An instrument for 
removing thorns from wounds. 

acapnia (ah-kap'-ne-ah). A condition of dimin- 
ished carbon dioxide in the blood. 

acapsular (ah-kap'-su-lar) [&., priv.; capsula, a 
small box or capsule]. In biology, destitute of a 

acardia (ah-kar'-de-ah) [A, priv.; KapSla, heart]. 
Congenital absence of the heart. 

acardiac (ah-kar'-de-ak). 1. Having no heart. 
2. A fetus with no heart. 

acardiacus (ah-kar'-di-ak-us) [see acardia], A 
synonym employed by German writers for ompha- 
losite, a. acephalus, one in which the head is wanting, 
the thorax rudimentary, the pelvis and contiguous 
parts perfectly formed, a. amorphus, a shapeless 
lump with only rudiments of organs. 

acardiohemia, or acardiohsemia (ah-kar-de-o-he'- 
me-ah) [d, priv.; Kapbla, heart; alfia, blood]. Lack of 
blood in the heart. 

acardionervia {ah-kar-de-o-ner'-ve-ah) [d, priv. 
KapSLa, heart; nervus, a sinew]. Diminished nervous 
action or nerve-stimulus in the heart. 

acardiotrophia (ah-kar-de-o-tro'-fe-ah) [d, priv.; 
KapSla, heart; Tpo<pri, nutrition]. Atrophy of the 

acardius (ah-kar'-de-us). Congenital absence of 
the heart. An acardiac monster. 

acarian (ah-ka'-re-an). Of or pertaining to the 
acarids or mites. 

acariasis (ah-kar-i'-as-is). A disease due to mites. 
See mange. 

acaricide (ak-ar'-is-td) [acarus; cadere, to kill]. 
An agent that destroys acarids. 

acarid, acaridan {ak'-ar-id, ak-ar'-id-an) [d/capijs, 
small; tiny]. Pertaining to acarus. 

Acarina (ak-ar-i'-na). An order of Arachnida, 
which includes the ticks and mites. They may 
cause severe symptoms from their bites, apart from 
the introduction of any parasite such as Spirochata. 

acarinosis (ak-ar-in-o'-sis) [acarus, a mite]. Any 
disease, as the itch, produced by a mite or acarid. 

acarodermatitis (ak-ar-o-der-mat-i'-lis) [acarus, a 
mite; dermatitis]. Dermatitis caused by acari, or 

acaroid ?■ {ak'-ar-oid) [acarus; elSos, like]. Mite- 
like, a. gum, Botany Bay gum; resina lutea. An 
aromatic resin used in Australia as a remedy for 
gastric troubles, intestinal catarrhs, diarrheas, etc. 
Dose 8-16 gr. (0.5-1.0 Gm.) in alcoholic solution. 
Benzoic acid is prepared from it, and it is said to 
have the properties of storax and balsam of Peru. 
a. resin. See a. gum. 

acarophobia (ak-ar-o-fo'-be-ah) [acarus; tpofios, fear]. 
Morbid fear of the itch. 

acarotoxic (ak-ar-o-toks'-ik) [acarus, a mite; 
to^ikov, a poison]. Poisonous, or destructive, to 

acarpae (ah-kar'-pe) [&, priv.; Kapiros, fruit]. A 
name proposed for a group of skin diseases in which 
there are no papules, tubercles, or elevated points. 

acarpia (ah-karp'-e-ah) [anapirla]. Sterility; bar- 
renness; unfruitfulness. 

acarpous (ah-kar'-pus) [&, priv.; Kapiros, fruit]. 
1. Having no elevations; not nodular. 2. Producing 
no fruit; sterile, barren. 

Acarus (ak'-ar-us) [&, priv.; Keipeiv, to cut (because 
so small)]. The mite, or tick, a parasite of man 
and animals. A. scabiei, Sarcoptes scabiei, the itch- 
mite, a small parasite with numerous sharp tubercles, 
spines, and hairs on the dorsal surface. See scabies. 

acatalepsia, acatalepsy {ah-kat-al-ep'-se-ah, ah-kat'- 
al-ep-se) [a, priv.; Karahap-fiaveLv, to understand]. 
1. Uncertainty in diagnosis. 2. Mental impair- 
ment; dementia. 

acataleptic (ah-kat-al-ep'-tik) [&, priv.; Kara\ap- 
fiavelv, to understand]. 1. Uncertain; doubtful (used 
of a prognosis or a diagnosis of a disease). 2. A 
person affected with acatalepsy. 

acatamathesia {ah-kat-am-ath-e' -ze-ah) [&, priv.; 
KaTap.a9t\a is, understanding]. 1. Inability to under- 
stand conversation, due to mental disorder. 2. A 
morbid blunting of the perceptions; as in psychical 
deafness, or psychical blindness. 

acataphasia (ah-kat-af-a'-ze-ah) [&, priv.; /card, 
after; <£d<n's, utterance]. A disorder in the syntac- 
tical arrangement of uttered speech, due to some 
central lesion. 

acataposis (ah-kat-ap-o'-sis) [&, priv.; Kara, down; 
voals, a drinking, a swallowing]. A difficulty in 
swallowing; dysphagia. 

acatastasia {ah-kat-as-ta' -ze-ah) [aKaravTavia]. 
Absence of regularity, or of fixed character, in the 
course of a disease, or in the nature of an excretion. 



acatastatic (ah-kat-as-tat'-ik). Marked or char- 
acterized by acatastasia; irregular; not of definite 

acatharsia (ah-kath-ar'-se-ah) [iucadapcrla, un- 
cleansed state]. Impurity; foulness; need of purga- 
tion, or cleansing. 

acathectic {ah-kath-ek'-tik) [iicaBeKTucos, ungov- 
ernable]. Not able to retain, a. jaundice, see 

acaudal, acaudate (ah-kaw'-dal, ah-kaw'-dat) [&, 
priv.; cauda, a tail]. Tailless. 

ACC. Abbreviation for anodal closure contraction. 

accelerans nerve (ak-sel'-er-ans) [L.]. A nerve 
that increases the rate and force of the heart's action. 

acceleration (ak-sel-er-a'-shuri) [accelerare, to 
hasten]. Quickening, as of the rate of the pulse or 
of the respiration. 

accelerator (ak-sel'-e-ra-tor) [see acceleration]. 
I. That which accelerates. 2. A muscle which 
hastens a physiological discharge, a. nerves, nerves 
passing from the medulla to the heart and conducting 
stimuli that cause acceleration of the heart's action. 
a. partus, an abortifacient or ecbolic agent, a. 
urinas, a muscle of the penis the function of which is 
to expel the last drops in urination, to expel the 
semen, and to assist erection. The sphincter vagina? 
is its analogue in the female. 

accentuated {ak-sent'-u-a-ted). Abnormally or 
unusually distinct, as respiratory or heart sounds. 

accentuation (ak-sen-tu-a' -shun) [accentuare]. In- 
creased loudness or distinctness. 

access (ak'-ses) [accessus, an approach], i. An 
attack of a disease. 2. The return of a fit, or 
paroxysm. 3. Cohabitation. And see non-access. 

accession {ak-sesh'-un) [ad, to; cedere, to go]. The 
assault, beginning, or onset of a disease, or of a stage 
of the same; applied especially to a recurrence of 
periodical disease. 

accessorius (ak-ses-o'-re-us) [pi., accessorii], 

1. Contributory in a secondary degree; accessory. 

2. An accessory, a. ad iliocostalem, see muscles, 
table of. a. Willisii, the spinal accessory nerve. 

accessory {ak'-ses-o-re or ak-ses'-o-re) [accessorius]. 
Auxiliary; assisting. A term applied to certain 
glands, muscles, ducts, nerves, arteries, etc., that are 
auxiliary in function, course, etc., to the principal. 
Certain small muscles, as the lumbricales, are re- 
garded as accessory to more important muscles. 
a. nu'cleus, the origin of the spinal accessory nerve. 
a. of the parot'id, the socia parotidis, a small gland. 

accident {ak'-se-dent) [accedere, to occur]. 1. In 
legal medicine, an event occurring to an individual 
without his expectation, and without the possibility 
of his preventing it at the moment of its occurrence. 
2. An intercurrent or complicating symptom or 
event, not to be looked for in the regular progression 
of an attack of disease. 

accidental (ak-se-dent'-al) [accidentalis]. 1. Due 
to, or caused by, an accident. 2. Intercurrent; 
having no essential connection with other conditions 
or symptoms, a. images, after-images, a. murmur, 
a murmur due to anemia. 

-accipiter (ak-sip'-it-er) [L., "a hawk"]. A facial 
bandage with tails radiating like the claws of a 
hawk. a. quinqueceps, a five-headed accipiter 
bandage, a. triceps, a three-headed accipiter ban- 

acclimatation, acclimation, acclimatization (ak-li- 
mat-a' -shun, ak-lim-a'-shun, ak-li-mat-iz-a' -shun) [ad, 
to; clima, climate]. The process of becoming accus- 
tomed to the climate, soil, water, etc., of a country 
to which a plant, animal, person, or a people has 

accommodation (ak-om-o-da' '-shun) [accommodare, 
to adjust]. Adaptation or adjustment, particularly 
the adjustment of the eye for different distances. 
a., absolute, the accommodation of either eye 
separately, a., asthenopia of, subnormal power of 
the function of accommodation, or the pain or dis- 
comfort from accommodative effort, a., binocular, 
the combined accommodation of the two eyes. 
a., histological, the occurrence of changes in the 
morphology and function of cells following changed 
conditions, a., negative, the opposite of positive 
accommodation, the refractive power of the eye 
being lessened, a. of the eye, that function of the 
ciliary muscle and lens whereby objects at different 
distances are clearly seen. It depends upon the 
inherent elasticity of the lens, which when the ciliary 
muscle of an emmetropic eye is at rest, is adapted to 

the proper focalization of theoretically parallel 
rays of light. Objects nearer, to be clearly seen, 
require a greater refracting power on the part of the 
eye because the rays from such objects are more 
divergent. This additional refracting power is 
gained by an increased anteroposterior diameter of 
the lens, brought about by the contraction of the 
ciliary muscle, which occasions a loosening of the 
suspensory ligament and a thickening of the lens by 
its own elasticity, a. phosphenes, the peripheral 
light-streak seen in the dark after the act of accom- 
modation, a., positive, that when the eye being 
focused for a more distant object is required for 
fixation upon a nearer point, a., range of relative, 
the range of accommodation at the command of the 
eye for any particular degree of convergence, a., 
reflex, Argyll Robertson pupil, a., region of, the 
extent controlled by the eye within which it dis- 
tinguishes objects clearly from the state of rest to 
that of maximum accommodation, a., spasm of, a 
term used to express excessive or persistent con- 
traction of the ciliary muscle, following the attempt 
to overcome error of refraction. It stimulates 
myopia, a., subnormal, deficient power of accom- 
modation, a., supernormal, excessive power of 
accommodation, a., theory of, Helmholtz's, that 
the increased convexity, of the lens is produced by a 
relaxation of the suspensory ligament, thus removing 
the influence which tends to flatten the lens and per- 
mitting the latter by its elasticity to become more 
convex, a., theory of, Schoen's, that the contraction 
of the ciliary muscle produces the same effect on the 
lens as is produced upon a rubber ball when held in 
both hands and compressed with the fingers, a., 
theory of, Tscherning's, by the contraction of the 
anterior part of both the radiating and circular 
fibers of the ciliary muscle the ciliary processes are 
drawn backward, and the suspensory ligament 
pulled backward and outward; pressure of the 
anterior portion of the muscle causes increased 
convexity of the lens. 

accommodative (ak-om' '-o-da-tiv) [accommodare, to 
adjust]. Pertaining to the function of accommo- 
dation, or resulting from it. a. iridoplegia, inability 
of the iris to respond to accommodative effort. 

accouche e (ak-koo-shay) [Fr., a, to; couche, a bed]. 
A woman delivered of a child. 

accouchement (a-koosh-mon(g)) [Fr.]. The French 
term for childbirth, a. force, rapid and forcible 
delivery with the hand. 

accoucheur (a-koo-shur) [Fr.]. A professional 
male assistant at childbirth. 

accoucheuse {a-koo-shuz) [Fr.]. A midwife. 

accrementitial (ak-re-men-tish'-al) [accrescere, to 
increase]. In biology, of or pertaining to the process 
of accrementition. 

accrementition (ak-re-men-tish'-uri) [ad, to; crescere, 
to grow]. A growth in which increase takes place 
by interstitial development from blastema, and 
also by reproduction of cells by fission. The pro- 
duction or development of a new individual by the 
separation of a part of the parent; gemmation. 

accrete {ak-ret'). In biology, grown together. 

accretion (ak-re'-shun) [ad, to; crescere, to increase]. 
1. A term denoting the manner by which crystalline 
and certain organic forms increase their material 
substance. 2. The adherence of parts normally 
separate. 3. An accumulation of foreign matter in 
any cavity. 

accubation (ak-u-ba'-jhun) [accubare, to recline]. 

1. A reclining posture; the taking to one's bed. 

2. The act of lying in bed with another person. 
accumulation {ak-u-mu-W -shun) [accumulare, to 

heap up]. An amassing or collecting together. 
a., fecal, an excessive aggregation of feces in the 
large intestine; coprostasis. 

accumulator (ak-u' -mu-la-tor) [accumulare, to heap 
up]. An apparatus to store electricity. 

-acea?. A suffix used in botany to designate a 
family, the name chosen being one of the principal 
genera. Ex., Rosa, Rosacea, Ranunculus, Ranuncu- 

acedia (ah-se'-de-ah) [iK-qSia]. A certain form of 

acelia, acoelia (ah-se'-le-ah) [&, priv.; koCKlo., a 
cavity]. The absence of a natural cavity. Syn., 

acelious (ah-se'-le-us) [&, priv.; koiXml, the belly]. 
Without a belly; applied to those extremely emaci- 




acelosis, acoelosis (ah-sel-o'-sis). See acelia. 

acelous (ah-se'-lus) [&, priv.; koiXos, hollow]. 
Without intestines; anenterous. 

A. C. E. mixture. An anesthetic mixture com- 
posed of alcohol, i part; chloroform, 2 parts; ether, 
3 parts. See anesthetic. 

acenaphthene (as-en-af -then) [aceticus; naph- 
thalene], C12H10. A hydrocarbon that occurs in coal 
tar, and separates on cooling from the fraction 
boiling at 260-280 C. It crystallizes from hot 
alcohol in long needles melting at 95° C. and boiling 
at 277 C. 

acentric (ah-sen'-trik) [&, priv.; nevrpov, center]. 
Not eccentric; not originating in, or pertaining to, 
a nerve-center; peripheric. 

aceognosia (as-e-og-no'-se-ah) [okos, a remedy; 
ypuais, knowledge]. A knowledge of remedies. 

aceology (as-e-ol'-o-je) [a/cos a remedy; X6705, a 
discourse]. Therapeutics; medical and surgical 
treatment of disease; acology. 

acephalemia, acephalsemia or acephalhemia, 
acephalhsemia (ah-sef -al-e'-me-ah) [d priv.; Ke4>a\ij, 
head; dlna, blood]. Deficiency of blood in the head. 

acephalia (ah-sef-a '-le-ah) [d, priv.; K€<paXi?, head]. 
Absence of the head. 

acephalism (ah-sef '-al-izm) . See acephalia. 

acephalobrachia (ah-sef -al-o-bra' -ke-ah) [d, priv.; 
Kt<f>a\r), head; fipaxluv, arm]. Absence of the head 
and arms. 

acephalobrachius (ah-sef-al-o-bra'-ke-us). A mon- 
ster with neither head nor arms. 

acephalocardia {ah-sef -al-o-kar'-de-ah) [d, priv.; 
Kt<pa\ri, head; /capSta, heart]. Absence of the head 
and heart. 

acephalocardius (ah-sef -al-o-kar' -de-us) . A mon- 
ster with neither head nor heart. 

acephalocheiria, acephalochiria (ah-sef -al-o-ki' - 
re-ah) [d, priv.; Ke<paMi, head; x«P. hand]. Absence 
of the head and hands. 

acephalocheirus, acephalochirus (ah-sef-al-o-kV 
rus) [see acephalocheiria}. A monster with neither 
head nor hands. 

acephalocyst, acephalocystis (ah-sef -al-o-sist, ah- 
sef -al-o-sist' -is) [d, priv.; Ke<j>aKii, head; averts, a 
bladder]. The bladderworm. A headless, sterile 
hydatid, found in the liver and other organs, aceph- 
alocystis plana, Laennec's name for certain con- 
cretions found in the sheaths of tendons and in 
muscles, acephalocystis racemosa, the hydatid 
mole of the uterus. 

acephalogaster (ah-sef -al-o-gas'-ter) [dice^aXos, head- 
less; ya<TT7)p, belly]. A monster with neither head 
' nor belly. 

acephalogasteria (ah-sef -al-o-gas-te' -re-ah) [see 
acephalogaster]. Absence of the head and belly. 

acephalophorous (ah-sef -al-of'-or-us) [d, priv.; 
Ke<pa\r), head; <pkpeiv, to bear]. Destitute of a dis- 
tinct head. 

acephalopodia (ah-sef -al-o-po' -de-ah) [d, priv.; 
Ke<pa\r), head; vovs, foot]. Absence of the head and 

acephalopodius (ah-sef -al-o-po' -de-us) [see aceph- 
alopodia). A monster with neither head nor feet. 

acephalorrhachia, acephalorachia (ah-sef -al-or-a' - 
ke-ah) [d, priv.; Ke<f>a\r), head; pdx«, spine]. Absence 
of the head and vertebral column. 

acephalorrhachus (ah-sef -al-or-a' -kus) [a, priv.; 
Ke<t>a\r), head; pdx«, spine]. A monster destitute of 
head and vertebral column. 

acephalostomia (ah-sef -al-o-sto' -me-ah) [d, priv.; 
Kt4>aKr), head; ar6p.a, mouth]. Absence of the head, 
with a mouth-like opening on the superior aspect. 

acephalostomus (ah-sef -al-os'-to-mus) [see aceph- 
alostomia]. A monster without a head, but with a 
mouth-like aperture. 

acephalothoracia (ah-sef -al-o-tho-r a 1 '-se-ah) [&, priv. ; 
Ke<pa\ri, head; 0a>pa£, chest]. Absence of the head 
and thorax. 

acephalothorax (ah-sef-al-o-tho'-raks). A monster 
destitute of head and thorax. Syn., acephalothorus. 

acephalothorus (ah-sef -al-o-tho' -rus). A monster 
without head or thorax. See acephalothoracia. 

acephalous (ah-sef -al-us) [a.nk<pahos, headless]. 

acephalus (ah-sef -al-us) [see acephalia]. A species 
of omphalositic monsters characterized by complete 
absence of the head and usually of the upper extremi- 
ties. It is the commonest condition among the 
omphalosites. a. dibrachius, an acephalus with two 
upper limbs in a more or less rudimentary state. 

a. dipus, an acephalus with two more or less developed 
lower extremities, a. monobrachius, one with one 
upper extremity, a cervical vertebra, and one or two 
more or less developed lower extremities, a. mon- 
opus, one with only one lower extremity, more or less 
developed. See acephalopodius. a. sympus, one in 
which the trunk ends in a long conic point at the 
end of which are attached one or two feet. 

acerate (as'-er-at) [acer, sharp]. 1. A salt of 
aceric acid. 2. Sharp-pointed, acicular. 

aceratosis (ah-ser-at-o'-sis) [d, priv.; /cepas, horn]. 
Deficiency or imperfection of corneous tissue. 

acerbity (a-serb'-it-e) [acerbitas, sharpness, sour- 
ness]. Acidity combined with astringency. 

acercus (ah-ser'-kus) [anepicos, without a tail]. 
A monstrosity without a tail or the coccygeal vertebrae. 

acerdol (as'-er-dol), Mn02K2KOH. An oxidation- 
product- of potassium and manganese. It is used as 
an oxidizer and disinfectant. 

aceric (as-er'-ik) [acer, a maple tree]. Pertaining 
to, or found in the maple; as aceric acid. 

aceride (as'-er-id) [d, priv.; cera, wax]. An oint- 
ment or plaster containing no wax. 

acerotous (ah-ser'-o-tus) [d, priv.; Hypos, wax]. 
Containing no wax; said of ointments and plasters. 

acervuline (as-er'-vu-lin) [acervulus, a heap]. 
Agminated, or aggregated; as certain mucous glands. 

acervuloma (ah-ser-vu-lo'-mah) [acervulus, little 
heap; pi., acervulomata}. See psammoma. 

acervulus, a. cerebri (as-er'-vu-lus ser'-e-bri). 
Concretionary matter near the base of the pineal 
gland, consisting of alkaline phosphates and carbon- 
ates, with amyloid matter. Syn., brain-sand. 

acescence (as-es'-ens) [acescere, to grow sour]. 
1. The process of becoming sour; the quality of 
being somewhat sour. 2. A disease of wines, whereby 
they become sour, owing to the agency of Mycoderma 

acescent (as-es'-ent). Somewhat acid or tart; 

acesodyne, acesodynous (ah-ses'-o-dln, ah-ses-od'- 
in-us) [&Ke<r&dwos]. Allaying pain; anodyne. 

acestoma (as-es'-to-mah) [d«effr6s, curable]. The 
mass of young granulation tissue which later forms 
the cicatrix. 

aceta (as-e'-tah). Plural of aceium, q. v. 

acetabular (as-et-ab'-u-lar) [acetabulum, a vinegar 
cup]. Pertaining to the acetabulum. 

acetabulum (as-et-ab'-u-lum) [see acetabular]. A 
cup-shaped depression on the outer aspect of the 
innominate bone for the reception of the head of the 
femur, a. cotyle, the articular cavity of the innomi- 
nate bone. a. humeri, the glenoid cavity. 

acetal (as'-et-al) [acetum, vinegar]. 1. C6H14O2. 
Ethidene diethylate, a colorless liquid with an 
ethereal odor, produced by the imperfect oxidation 
of alcohol under the influence of platinum black. 
It is sparingly soluble in water; boils at 104 C; 
sp. gr. at 20 is 0.8304. Its action is that of a sopori- 
fic. Dose 1 dr. (4 Gm.). 2. A mixture said to 
consist of acetic ether and oils of cloves, bergamot, 
lavender, lemon, menthol, orange, rosemary, thyme, 
and absolute alcohol, a., dimethyl, see methylal. 

acetaldehyde (as-et-aV -de-hid). The normal alde- 
hyde; ethaldehyde. See aldehyde. 

acetals (as'-et-alz) [acetum, vinegar]. Products of 
the combination of aldehydes with alcohols at ioo° C. 

acetamide, acetamid (as-et'-am-id), CH3. CO.NH2. 
A white, crystalline solid produced by distilling am- 
monium acetate, or by heating ethyl acetate with 
strong aqueous ammonia. It combines with both 
acids and metals to form unstable compounds. 

acetamidoantipyrine (as-et-am-id-o-an-ti-pi'-rin). A 
crystalline compound used as antipyrine. 

acetamidophenol (as-et-am-id-o-fen'-ol). C6H4OH.- 
NH.C2H3O. An oxidation-product of acetanilide; 

acetaminol (as-et-am'-in-ol), C18H23NO4. A reac- 
tion-product of paranitrobenzoyl chloride with 
eugenol-sodium, followed by reduction and acetyliza- 
tion. It occurs as white scales or crystalline powder, 
soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water, and melting 
at 160 C. It is used in pulmonary tuberculosis. 
Syn., para-acetamido-benzoyleugenol; acetamido-ben- 

acetanilide (as-et-an'-il-id), CsHgNO. Phenyl- 
acetamide. A white, crystalline solid, produced by 
boiling anilin and glacial acetic acid together for 
several hours, the crystalline mass being then dis- 



tilled. It melts at 114 and boils at 259°. It is 
soluble in hot water, alcohol, and ether. Under the 
name antifebrin it is prescribed as an antipyretic. 
Dose 2-10 gr. (0.13-0.65 Gm.), not exceeding 30 gr. 
(2 Gm.) in the 24 hours; of the compound powder 
(pulvis acetanilidi compositus, U. S. P.) 7 1 gr. (0.5 
Gm.). a., ammoniated, a mixture of acetanilide, 
25 parts; ammonium carbonate, 10 parts; sodium 
bicarbonate, 5 parts; sugar of milk, 60 parts. It is 
recommended as causing less depression than ace- 
tanilide alone, a., monobromated, see antisepsin. 

acetas (as'-et-as). An acetate or salt of acetic 

acetate (as'-el-dt) [see acetic]. Any salt of acetic 
acid. a. of lead, plumbi acetas; see plumbum. 

acetated (as'-et-a-ted). Treated with or containing 
an acetate, acetic acid, or vinegar. 

acetic (as-e'-tik) [acetum, vinegar]. Pertaining to 
acetum or vinegar; sour. See acid, acetic, a. acid 
amide, see acetamide. a. acid esters, see methyl 
acetate and ether, acetic, a. acid salts. 1. Readily 
soluble crystalline salts formed from the bases. 
2. Basic salts formed from iron, aluminum, lead, 
and copper; sparingly soluble in water. 3. Alkali 
salts, which have the property of combining with a 
molecule of acetic acid to produce acid salts, a. 
aldehyde, see under aldehyde, a. anhydride, C4H6O3, 
a colorless, mobile liquid, highly refractive, and 
with an odor of acetic acid. Sp. gr. 1.080 at 15 C.; 
boils at I36°-I38° C. Syn., acetyl oxide; acetic 
oxide; socalled anhydrous acetic acid. a. ether, see 
under ether, a. fermentation, the development of 
acetic acid by the activity of the Mycoderma aceti. 
a. fungus, any one of several minute fungoid organ- 
isms capable of inciting and maintaining acetic 
fermentation, as first proved by Pasteur in 1864. 

acetification (as-et-e-fi-ka'-shun) [acetum, vinegar; 
facere, to make]. The production of vinegar by 
acetic fermentation. 

acetimeter, acetimetric, acetimetry. See aceto- 
meter; acetometry ; acetometric. 

acetin (as'-et-in) [acetum, vinegar], C3Hsj(C2H302)3. 
A chemical compound formed by the union of glycerol 
and acetic acid. 

acetoacetate (as-et-o-as'-et-at). A salt of aceto- 
acetic acid. 

acetoacetic acid (as-et-o-as-e'-tik). A monobasic 
acid formed from acetic acid by replacing one of the 
hydrogen atoms of the acid radical with the acetic- 
acid radical, acetyl. See Gerhardt. a. esters, CH3. 
CO . CH2 . CO2R, liquids possessing an ethereal 
odor, produced by the action of metallic sodium 
upon acetic esters; they dissolve with difficulty in 
water and can be distilled without decomposition. 

acetoarsenite (as-et-o-ar' -sen-it). A salt composed 
of an acetate and an arsenite of the same base. 

acetobromide (as-et-o-bro'-mid). An acetic-acid 
salt in which part of the hydrogen of the acid radicle 
has been replaced by bromine. 

acetochloride (as-et-o-klor'-id). A salt composed 
of an acetate and a chloride of the same base. 

acetoglycocoll (as-et-o-gli'-ko-kol) , 
^„ ^ NH . C3H2O. 
CH2 < CO2H. 
A substance resembling a monobasic acid, obtained 
from the action of acetyl chloride on glycocoll silver 
and of acetamide on monochloracetic acid ; it is soluble 
in alcohol; melts at 206 C. Syn., acetamidoacetic 
acid; aceturic acid. 

acetoiodide (as-et-o-i'-o-did). A double salt con- 
taining the acetate and iodide of the same radical. 

acetol (as'-et-ol). 1. See acetyl carbinol. 2. A 
remedy for toothache, said to consist of acetic acid, 
8.46%; alum, 3.07%; water, 88.5%; with a small 
proportion of essential oils of sage, clove, and pepper- 

acetoluid (as-e-tol'-u-id), C-HtNH . C2H3O. Aceto- 
orthotoluid. An antipyretic resembling acetanilid. 
The dose is not accurately determined. 

acetomel (as-et'-o-mel). See oxymel. 

acetometer (as-et-om' -et-er) [acetum, vinegar; 
tikrpov, a measure]. An instrument used in the 
quantitative determination of acetic acid. 

acetometric (as-et-o-met'-rick). Pertaining to 

acetometry (as-et-om' -et-re) [acetum, vinegar; 
\xkrpov, measure]. The quantitative estimation of 
the amount of acetic acid in vinegar. Usually made 
by an acetometer. 

aceton. 1. See acetone. 2. A proprietary remedy 
for headache and influenza. 

acetonasthma (as-et-on-az'-mah) [acetone; asthma]. 
Attacks of dyspnea similar to uremic asthma, accom- 
panied, with restlessness, headache, nausea, vomiting, 
transient amaurosis, and acetonuria. 

acetone, aceton (as'-et-on) [acetum, vinegar], 
CH3 . CO . CH3. Dimethylketone. A colorless, 
mobile liquid, of peculiar odor and burning taste, 
present in crude wood-spirit; it occurs in small 
quantities in the blood and in normal urine, and in 
considerable quantities at times in the urine of 
diabetic patients. It is miscible with ether, alcohol, 
and water. It is used as an anesthetic and anthel- 
mintic. Dose 15--20 min. (0.9-1.2 Cc). Syn., 
mesitic alcohol; mesilyl alcohol; methyl acetyl; acetyl 
methyl. See Chautard, Gunning, Legal, Lieben, 
Malerba, le Nobel, Penzoldt, Reynolds, a. chloro- 
form, HO . C(CH 3 )2CCl3, a compound formed by 
the addition of potash to equal weights of acetone 
and chloroform. It occurs as white crystals, spar- 
ingly soluble in water, more freely in alcohol and 
glycerol. Its 1 % aqueous solution is called aneson. 
It is used as a hypnotic and anesthetic. Dose 15-20 
gr. (1. 0-1.3 Gm.). Syn., chloretone; trichlortertiary 
butyl alcohol; trichlorpseudobutyl alcohol, a. diethyl- 
sulphone, see sulphonal. a., monochlorated, C3H5CIO, 
a colorless liquid having a pungent odor, obtained by 
chlorinating acetone, a. phenylhydrazone, (CHshC :- 
N2HC6H5, one of the nitrogen derivatives of ketone. 
a. resorcinol, C15H16O4 + H2O, a combination of 
resorcinol with acetone and fuming hydrochloric 
acid added hot. It occurs in small anhydrous prisms, 
soluble in alkaline solutions, insoluble in water, 
alcohol, ether, and chloroform. It melts at 212 - 
2 13 C. It is used in the same manner as resorcinol. 

acetonemia, acetonaemia (as-et-on-e'-me-ah) [ace- 
tone; alua, blood]. The presence of acetone in the 

acetones (as'-et-onz). A class of compounds that 
may be regarded as consisting of two alcoholic radi- 
cals united by the group CO, or as aldehydes in which 
hydrogen of the group COH has been replaced by an 
alcoholic radical. 

acetonin (as-et'-on-in). 1. A body produced by 
the action of ammonia on acetone. 2. Dihydrotri- 

acetonitrate (as-et-o-ni'-trat). A double salt, the 
acetate and nitrate of the same radical. 

acetonitril (as-et-on-i'-tril), CH3CN or C2H3N. 
Methyl cyanide. It is a colorless liquid, having an 
agreeable odor, and is prepared by distilling acetamide 
with P2O5. It may also be produced from prussic 
acid and diazomethane. It melts at— 41 C, boils 
at 81.6 C, and has a sp. gr. of 0.789 at 15 C. 
Syn., carbamine. 

acetonoresorcinol. See acetone resorcinol. 

acetonuria (as-et-o-nu'-re-ah) [acetone; ovpov, urine]. 
The presence of acetone in the urine. 

acetonyl (as-et'-on-il), CH2 — CO — CH3. A uni- 
valent radical obtained from acetone by taking away 
one atom of hydrogen. 

acetophenetidine (as-et-o-fen-et' -id-en) . See phen- 

acetophenone (as-et-o-fe'-non), C6H 5 (CO)(CH 3 ). 
Phenyl methyl ketone; also called hypnone; a hyp- 
notic and antiseptic. It results from the action of 
zinc methyl upon benzoyl chloride and crystallizes 
in large plates, melts at 20. 5 and boils at 202 . It 
is without satisfactory action. Dose 4-15 min. 
(0.26-1.0 Cc). 

acetophenoneorthooxyquinolin (as-et-o-fe-non-or- 
tho-oks-e-kwin'-ol-in), C 2 H 6 NO . CH2 . CO . CeH 5 . 

A base obtained by interaction between a halogen 
compound of acetophenone and orthoquinolin in 
the presence of solvents and an alkali. It forms 
well-defined salts, is soluble in volatile solvents, and 
melts at 130 ° C. It is said to have hypnotic and 
antineuralgic properties; is odorless, tasteless, and 

acetophenonephenetidine (as-et-o-fe-ndn-fen-ef- 
id-in). A condensation-product of acetophenone 
and paraphenetidine. a. citrate, 

r „ .OC2H5 
( - 6il4 <N=C(CH 3 )(C6Ho) . HsC. 

lemon-yellow needles, soluble in ether and hot 
alcohol, insoluble in water. It melts at 88° C; is 
antipyretic and antineuralgic. Dose 8-15 gr. 
(0.5-1.0 Gm.). Syn., malarin. 




acetopyrine, acetopyrin {as-et-o-pi'-ren, -tin). A 
mixture of antipyrine and acetyl salicylic acid, occur- 
ring as a whitish, crystalline powder, soluble with 
difficulty in cold water, ether, and petroleum ether, 
readily soluble in warm water, alcohol, chloroform, 
and warm toluol. It is antipyretic. Dose 7 gr. 
(0.4 Gm.) 6 times daily. Syn., antipyrine acetyl- 
salicylate, a. acetosalicylate, antipyretic, analgesic, 
sedative; employed in influenza, bronchitis, rheu- 
matic headache, sciatica, hemicrania, and acute 
articular rheumatism. 

acetous {as-e'-tus) [acetum, vinegar]. Resembling 
vinegar; pertaining to or charged with vinegar or 
acetic acid. 

acetozone {as-et'-o-zon). See benzoylacetylperoxide. 

acetparaphenetidine {as-et-par-a-fe-nef -id-en) . 

Same as phenacetine. 

acetparatoluid (as-et-par-ah-tol'-u-id), C3HN11O. 
Antipyretic, colorless crystals, slightly soluble in 
water, moderately soluble in alcohol; it melts at 
149 C. Dose 15-30 gr. (1-2 Gm.). Syn., acet- 
paramidotoluql ; paratolylacetamide. 

acetphenetidin {as-et-fe-net'-id-in) [acetum; phenol]. 
A compound derived from phenol, having antipyretic 
and antineuralgic properties. It is crystalline, 
tasteless, and almost insoluble in water. Dose 4-30 
gr. (0.26-2.0 Gm.). Syn., phenacetine. 

acetum {as-e'-tum) [L.; gen., aceti; pi., aceta]. 
Vinegar. An impure, dilute acetic acid produced by 
acetous fermentation of wine, cider, or other fruit- 
juice. In pharmacy, a solution of the active prin- 
ciples of certain drugs in dilute acetic acid. See 
vinegar, a. aromaticum (N. F.) ["aromatic vine- 
gar"], a mixture of alcohol, water, and acetic acid, 
aromatized with the oils of rosemary, lavender, 
juniper, peppermint, cassia, lemon, and cloves. 
a. britannicum, an aromatic vinegar consisting of 
glacial acetic acid, 600; camphor, 60; oil of cloves, 2; 
oil of cinnamon, 1; oil of lavender, 0.5. 

acetyl {as'-et-il) [acetum, vinegar], C2H3O. A uni- 
valent radical supposed to exist in acetic acid and 
its derivatives. Aldehyde may be regarded as the 
hydride, and acetic acid as the hydrate, of acetyl. 
Syn., acetosyl; acetoyl; acetoxyl; othyl. a.-anhydride, 
see acetic anhydride, a.-atoxyl, an atoxyl substitu- 
tion product, better known as arsacetin, q. v. a. 
benzene, see acetophenone. a. bioxydamide, see 
acetamide. a. bromide, C2H3BrO, a reaction-product 
of acetic acid with phosphorus pentabromide; it is a 
fuming liquid which turns yellow in the air; it boils 
at 81 ° C. It is used as a reagent, a. carbinol, 
CH3 . CO . CH2OH, a saturated ketol produced by 
the action of water and barium carbonate upon 
chloracetone, also by fusing cane-sugar and grape- 
sugar with caustic potash. It is a colorless oil 
with a feeble, peculiar odor; boils at i45°-iso° C. 
Syn., pyroracemic alcohol; acetone alcohol; oxy acetone; 
methyl ketol; acetol. a. chloride, C2H3CIO, a reaction- 
product of acetic acid with phosphorus trichloride; 
it is a colorless, highly refracting, fuming liquid; 
sp. gr. 1. 1305 at o° C.; boils at 55° C. It is used as 
a reagent. a. ethylphenylhydrazin, C14H22N4O2, 
colorless needles obtained by heating a solution of 
ethylenephenylhydrazin with an excess of acetic 
anhydrid. It is recommended as an antipyretic. 
Syn., phenylhydrazinacetylethyl. a. formyl, see alde- 
hyde, pyroracemic. a. hydrate, acetic acid. a. 
hydride, same as acetic aldehyde. See under aldehyde. 
a. iodide, C2H3OI, a reaction-product of acetic acid 
with iodine and phosphorus; it is a brown, fuming 
liquid; sp. gr. 1.98 at 17 C.; boils at i05°-io8° C. 
a. isocyanide, (C2H3O) — N = C, a liquid in its simple 
form, but capable of polymerization as a crystalline 
solid. It boils at 93 C. Syn., acetic isocyanide; 
cyanacetyl. a. isoeugenol, the direct antecedent of 
vanillin in the manufacture of the synthetic product, 
and is used as a substitute for vanillin, a. leuko- 
methylene-blue, a colorless form of methylene-blue 
for internal use. a. methyl, see acetone, a. oxide, 
same as acetic anhydride, a.-paraamidophenyl- 
salicylate, see salophen. a. peroxide, (C2H30)2C»2, 
a thick liquid, insoluble in water, but readily dis- 
solved by ether and alcohol. It is a powerful 
oxidizing agent. It is decomposed in sunlight and 
explodes violently when heated, a. phenylhydrazid, 
a. phenylhydrazin, same as hydracetin and pyrodin. 
a. tannin, a grayish-yellow, slightly hygroscopic, 
odorless, tasteless powder, soluble in alcohol, dilute 
sodium phosphate, sodium carbonate, or sodium 
borate; slightly soluble in hot water and ether; 

insoluble in cold water; melting at 190 C. It is an 
astringent and is used internally in chronic diarrhea. 
Externally, it is used in chronic pharyngitis. Dose 
3-75 gr. (0.2-0.5 Gm.). Application, 3 % solution 
in 5 % sodium phosphate. Maximum dose 60 gr. 
(4 Gm.) daily. Syn., tannigen. a. thymol, C12H16O2, 
a colorless antiseptic liquid with a pungent taste 
having a specific gravity of 1.009 at o° C. and boiling 
at 244.4 C. Syn., thymol acetate, a. tribromsalol, 
fine, white acicular crystals which melt at 108. 5 ; 
insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol. Syn., cordyl. 
a. urethane, see urethane. 

acetylene {as-et'-il-en) [acetum, vinegar], C2H2. 
A colorless gas, with a characteristic, unpleasant 
odor, burning with a luminous, smoky flame. It is 
formed by the imperfect combustion of illuminating 
gas and other hydrocarbons. The acetylene series of 
hydrocarbons has the general formula CnH2n-2. 

acetylization (as-et-il-i-za'-shun). The act of 
combining with or producing compounds of acetic 
acid or acetyl. 

Achalme's bacillus (ak-al'-ma). An anaerobic 
bacillus, probably identical with Welch's Bacillus 
aerogenes capsulatus; it has been regarded as the 
cause of acute articular rheumatism. 

ache (ak) [AS., acan, to ache]. Any continuous or 
throbbing pain. 

acheilia {ah-ki' -le-ah) [A, priv.; x«*°s. a lip]. 
The congenital absence of lips. 

acheilous (ah-ki'-lus) [see acheilia]. Lipless. 

acheilus (ah-ki'-lus) [A, priv.; x^os, a lip]. 
A person affected with acheilia. 

acheir {ah'-kir) [A, priv.; x«t/?. the hand]. 1. 
Acheirous. 2. Said of fishes lacking pectoral fins. 

acheiria {ah-ki'-re-ah) [A, priv.; xelp, a hand]. 
The congenital absence of hands. 

acheirous {ah-ki'-rus) [see acheiria]. Affected 
with acheiria. 

acheirus {ah-ki'-rus). An acheirous person, or 
fetus; one who was born without hands. 

achene {a-ken'). Same as achenium. 

achenium {ah-ke'-ne-um) [A, priv.; xaiveiv, 'gape; 
pi., achenia]. In biology, a small, dry, one-seeded, 
indehiscent fruit. 

achilia {ah-ki' -le-ah). See acheilia. 

Achillea (ak-il-e'-ah) [Achilles, its reputed dis- 
coverer]. Milfoil; yarrow. The herb A. mille- 
folium. Its properties are due to a bitter, aromatic, 
astringent, tonic extractive, achillein, and a volatile 
oil. It has long been used as a vulnerary, and has 
been highly recommended for intermittent and low 
exanthematous fevers. Dose 1 oz.-i pint infusion 
ad lib.; of the extractive, 1-3 dr. (4-12 Gm.); of the 
volatile oil, 5-15 rnin. (0.3-1.0 Cc). To the genus 
Achillea belong various other unofficial medicinal 
plants, as A. moschata, of the Alps, used in pre- 
paring cordials and a diaphoretic medicine, and 
A. ptarmica, or sneezewort, a strong sialagogue. 

achillein, achilleinum {ak-il-e'-in, -i'-num), C20H38- 
N2O15. A glucoside obtained from Achillea mille- 
folium and A. moschata. Occurs as a brownish-red, 
amorphous mass, of a strongly bitter taste, soluble 
in water, less soluble in alcohol, insoluble in ether. 
It is stated that divided doses up to 30-75 gr. (2-5 
Gm.) cause marked irregularity of the pulse. 

Achilles tendon {ak-il'-ez ten'-don). The tendon 
of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, inserted 
into the back of the heel. A. t. reflex, contraction 
of the calf of the leg on tapping the tendo Achillis. 

achillobursitis (ak-il-o-bur-si'-tis) [Achilles tendon; 
bursitis]. Inflammation of the bursa? lying approxi- 
mate to the Achilles tendon. 

achillodynia {ak-il-o-din' -e-ah) [Achilles \tendon; 
bbbvi), pain]. Pain referred to the insertion of the 
Achilles tendon. 

achillorrhaphy {ak-il-or' -af-e) [Achilles tendon; 
t>att>ii, suture]. Suture of the Achilles tendon; prac- 
tised by C. Bayer instead of achillotomy for the 
sake of lengthening the tendon. This is exposed, the 
length divided in half, the upper end of one side, 
the lower end of the other, cut across, and both the 
cut surfaces united by a suture. 

achillotomy {ak-il-of -o-me) [Achilles tendon; tout), 
a cutting]. The subcutaneous division of the 
Achilles tendon. 

achillotenotomy {ak-il-o-ten-ot'-o-me). Same as 

achilous {ah-ki'-lus). See acheilous. 

achiria {ah-ki'-re-ah). See acheiria. 

achirous {ah-ki'-rus). See acheirous. 




achirus (ah-ki'-rus). See acheirus. 

achlorhydria (ah-klor-hi' -dre-ah) [d, priv.; chlor- 
hydric {acid)]. Absence of free hydrochloric acid 
from the gastric juice. 

achloropsia (ah-klor-op'-se-ah) [d, priv.; x^«P°s. 
green; 5i/<«, vision]. Green-blindness. 

acholia (ah-ko'-le-ah) [&, priv.; x°^v> bile], i. Ab- 
sence of biliary secretion. 2. Any condition ob- 
structing the escape of the bile into the small intes- 
tine. 3. Asiatic cholera. 4. A mild temperament. 
a., pigmentary, that in which there are deficiency of 
bile and lack of color in the feces, but no jaundice. 

acholic (ah-kol'-ik). 1. Affected with acholia. 
2. Able to cure jaundice. 3. Due to acholia. 

acholous (ah'-ko-lus). Pertaining to or affected 
with acholia. 

acholuria (ah-kol-u'-re-ah) [d, priv.; x°M» bile; 
olpov, urine]. The absence of bile-pigment in the 

achondroplasia (ah-kon-dro-pla'-ze-ah) [d, priv.; 
Xovbpos, cartilage; irX&aaeiv, to form]. Lack of 
development in a cartilaginous structure; the ab- 
sorption of cartilage during its transformation into 
bone. 2. Parrot's term for a form of fetal rickets 
in which the limbs are short, the curves of the bones 
exaggerated, and there is an absence of the pro- 
liferating zone of cartilage at the junction of the 
epiphyses. The children are generally still-born. 
This condition is very much like a fetal cretinism. 
Also known as chondrodystrophia fetalis. 

achondroplastic (ah-kon-dro-plas'-tik) . Pertaining 
to achondroplasia. 

achor (a'-kor) [dx«p. chaff, scurf, or dandruff: pl. f 
achores (a-kor'-ez)]. Crusta lactea, ^ small pustule, 
followed by a scab, upon the heads of infants; milk- 
crust, a. barbatus, barber's itch. 

achor dal (ah-kor' '-dal) [&, priv.; xopSrj, cord]. 
Not derived from the notochord. 

achoresis (ah-kor-e'-sis) [a, priv.; x^peiv, to make 
room; pi., achoreses). Grossi's term for the dimin- 
ished capacity of a hollow organ, as of the bladder. 
Syn., achoria. Cf. stenochoria. 

Achorion (a-ko'-re-on) [dim. of &xwp> chaff], A 
genus of fungous organisms, including several species 
(possibly modified forms of Penicillium glaucum) 
found in the skin, especially the hair-follicles. A. 
keratophagus, the form causing onychomycosis. 
A. lebertii, the parasite of Tinea tonsurans. A. schoen- 
leinii, the species occurring in ringworm, or Tinea 

Achras (ak'-ras) [dxpds, the wild pear]. A genus 
of arboraceous plants of the order Sapotacece. A. 
sapota [cochitzapotl, Mex.], the sapodilla plum; a 
species indigenous to South America. The fruit is 
edible, sweet, cloying; said to be beneficial in strang- 
ury. The seeds are laxative and diuretic; they are 
exhibited in emulsion in cases of gravel and renal 
colic. The bitter astringent bark (cortex jamaicensis) 
has been used as a substitute for cinchona bark. 
The bark and seeds yield the glucoside sapotin. The 
sap yields chicle-gum. 

achreocythemia (ah-kre-o-si-the' -me-ah) [axpoios, 
colorless; kvtos, cell; alp.a, blood]. Lack of coloring 
matter in the blood. 

achroa, achroia (ah-kro'-ah, ah-kroi'-ah). Same as 
achroma, q. v. 

achroacyte (ah-kro' -as-it) [dxpoios, colorless; kvtos, 
cell]. A colorless cell, or lymphocyte. 

achroacytosis (ah-kro-ah-si-to'-sis) [axpoios, color- 
less; kvtos, cell]. Abnormal development of lymph- 

achroiqcythemia (ah-kroi-o-si-the'-me-ah) , or achroe- 
ocythaemia (ah-kre-o-si-the' -me-ah) [axpoios, colorless; 
kvtos, cell; olp,a blood]. A deficiency of hemoglobin 
in the red corpuscles; also, the diseased state that is 
associated with such deficiency. 

achroiocytosis (ah-kroi-o-si-to'-sis). Same as 

achroma (ah-kro' -mah) [d, priv.; xp«mo. color]. 
Absence of color; albinism. Syn., achromasia; 
achromatia; achromatosis ; achromodermia; vitiligo. 
a., congenital, see albinism, a. cutis, see leukoderma. 

achromacyte (ah-kro' '-mas-it) [d, priv.; xp«pa. color; 
kvtos, cell]. A degenerated, decolorized erythrocyte; 
a "phantom" or shadow corpuscle. Syn., Ponfick's 
shadow corpuscle; Bizzozero's blood-platelet; Hayem's 
corpuscle or hematoblast. 

achromasia (ah-kro-ma'-ze-ah) [&, priv.; xp&pa. 
color]. (1) An absence of color in the body; cachec- 
tic pallor. (2) Loss of stain from a cell, a phe- 

nomenon occurring in the in vitro method of staining 
living cell. See achroma. 

achromatia (ah-kro-ma'-she-ah). See achroma. 

achromatic (ah-kro-mat'-ik) [d, priv.; xp&A"*. color]. 
1. Without color. 2. Colorblind. 3. Relating to 
achromatin. a. lens, one the dispersing power of 
which is exactly neutralized by another lens with 
the same curvature, but having a different refrac- 
tive index, a. spindle, see nuclear spindle. 

achromatin (ah-kro' -mat-in) [d, priv.; xp"M«» color]. 
The groundwork of the nucleus of a cell; it is so 
called because it is not readily stained by coloring 

achromatism (ah-kro' -mat-izm) [d, priv.; xp&na-, 
color]. 1. Absence of chromatic aberration. 2. Ab- 
sence of color. 

achromatophil (ah-kro-mat'-o-fil) [d, priv.; xp«a»*. 
color; 4>Chtlv, to love]. 1. Showing no affinity for 
stains. 2. A microbe or histologic element which 
does not stain readily. 

achromatophilia (ah-kro-mat-o-fil'-e-ah) [achro- 
matophil]. The condition of being refractory to 

achromatopsia (ah-kro-mat-op'-se-ah) [d, priv.; 
xpu>p.a, color; bxj/is, sight]. Color-blindness; dalton- 
ism, a., partial, a form in which only one pair of 
colors, which to the normal eye are complementary, 
appear gray or white, a., total, that in which all 
the colors appear as white or gray. 

achromatosis (ah-kro-mat-o'-sis) [d, priv.; xp&M-a-, 
color]. Any disease characterized by deficiency of 
pigmentation in the integumentary tissues. 

achromatous (ah-kro' -mat-us) [&, priv.; xpwm<*. 
color]. Deficient in color. 

achromaturia (ah-kro-ma-tu'-re-ah) [a, priv.; xp«pa> 
color; ovpop, urine]. A colorless state of the urine. 

achromia (ah-kro' -me-ah). See achroma. 

achromodermia (ah-kro-mo-der' -me-ah) [d, priv.; 
XP&p-a, color; Sepp.0., skin]. An albino tic or colorless 
state of the skin. 

achromophilous (ah-kro-mof -il-us) [d, priv.; xpw/xa. 
color; <t>i\eip, to love]. Not readily stained; not 

achromotrichia (ah-kro-mo-trik'-e-ah) [d, priv.; 
XP«pa. color; 0pi'£, hair]. Absence of pigment from 
the hair. 

achromous (ah-kro' -mus) [&, priv.; xp^mo. color]. 
Pale, colorless; having no color. 

achronizoic (ah-kron-e-zo'-ik) [d, priv.; xpovi$eiv, 
to hold out]. A term applied to drugs which are 
incapable of remaining unchanged for any length of 

achronychous (ak-ron'-ik-us). See acronychous. 

achroodextrin (ah-kro-o-deks'-trin) [axpoos, color- 
less; dexter, right]. A reducing dextrin formed by 
the action of the diastatic ferment of saliva upon 
starch. It is a modification of dextrin and may be 
precipitated by alcohol; it is not converted into sugar 
by ptyalin, nor colored by iodine. 

achylia (ah-ki'-le-ah) [a, priv.; xv^os, juice]. Ab- 
sence of chyle. Syn., achylosis. a. gastrica, Ein- 
horn's term for a condition of the stomach marked 
by destruction of the glandular structures with 
resulting absence of chyme ferment, and even mucus ; 
called anadenia gastrica by Ewald. 

achylosis (ah-ki-lo'-sis) [d, priv.; xv^6s, juice]. 
Deficient chylification. See achylia. 

achylous (ah-ki'-lus) [see achylia]. Deficient in 
chyle or in one of the digestive juices. 

achymia, achymosis (ah-kV -me-ah, ah-ki-mo' -sis) 
[d, priv.; x^MoSi chyme]. Deficient formation of 

achymous (ah-ki'-mus). Deficient in chyme. 

acicular (as-ik'-u-lar) [acus, a needle]. Needle- 

acid, acidum (as'-id, -um) [acere, to be sour]. 
1. A name applied to any substance having a sour 
taste. 2. A compound of an electronegative element 
with one or more atoms of hydrogen which can be 
replaced by electropositive atoms, when a salt is 
formed. The majority of acids contain oxygen, 
and are known as oxy acids; those not containing 
oxygen are termed hydrogen acids or hydracids. 
Acids vary in their terminations according to the 
quantity of oxygen or other electronegative consti- 
tuent. Those having the maximum of oxygen end 
in -ic; those of a lower degree, in -ous. When there 
are more than two combinations, the prefix per- is 
joined to the highest, and hypo- to the lowest. 
Acids that end in -ic, as sulphuric acid, form salts 




terminating in -ate; those ending in -ous form salts 
terminating in -ite. a., abietic, abietinic, see abietic. 
a., abric, O2H24N3O, a crystallizable acid, said to 
exist in jequirity. a., absinthic, an acid obtained 
from wormwood; said to be identical with succinic 
acid, a., acetic, an acid solution composed of 36 
parts of absolute acetic acid, C2H4O2, and 64 parts 
of water. It has strongly acid properties, a., acetic, 
dilute, contains 6 % of absolute acid. Dose 1-2 dr. 
(4-8 Cc). An impure form, obtained by the de- 
structive distillation of wood, is known as wood- 
vinegar, or pyroligneous acid, a., acetic, glacial, 
the absolute acid occurring in crystals melting at 
22.5° C. It is an escharotic. a., acetoacetic, same as 
a., diacetic. a., achilleic, same as a., aconitic. a., 
aconitic, CeHeOe, occurs in different plants, as 
Aconitum napellus, sugar-cane, and beet-root. It 
crystallizes in small plates that dissolve readily in 
alcohol, ether, and water, and melt at i86°-i87°. 
a., acrylic. 1. CH 2 = CH . CO . OH =C 3 H40 2 . A 
monobasic acid which may be considered as the 
oxide of acrolein, a colorless liquid. 2. A general 
term for organic acids of the group CnH2n— 2O2, com- 
prising two groups, the normal acrylic and the 
isoacrylic acids. Normal acrylic acids occur in 
vegetable or animal organisms or are derived from 
natural products. Isoacrylic acids are formed 
synthetically by the abstraction 6f the elements of 
water from certain acid ethers, which in turn are 
derived from oxalic acid by substituting 2 molecules 
of an alcohol radical of the series CnHm+i for an atom 
of hydrogen, a., adipic, C6H10O4, obtained by 
oxidizing fats with nitric acid. It crystallizes in 
shining leaflets or prisms; is soluble in 13 parts of 
cold water; melts at 148 . It is dibasic, a., agaric, 
a., agaricic, C16H30 . O5+H2O, a resin acid obtained 
from the fungus Polyporus officinalis, growing on 
larch trees. The acid has been recommended for 
checking night-sweats. It also checks the other 
excretions and diminishes thirst. It is mildly cathar- 


tic. a.s, alcohol, CnH2n<QQjj, monobasic acids 

having the properties of the monohydric alcohols. 
They are distinguished as primary, secondary, and 
tertiary, according as they contain, in addition to 
the carboxyl group, the group — CH2OH, the radical 
= CHOH, or the group =C . OH. Syn., oxyacids; 
hydroxy-fatty acids. Cf. c, glycollic. a.s, aldehyde, 
bodies which combine the properties of a carboxylic 
acid and of an aldehyde, a., aldepalmitic, Ci6H3oO,2 
the chief component of the butter of the cow. a., 
alginic, an organic substance from algae that com- 
bines with bases to form soluble and insoluble com- 
pounds, a., aliphatic, same as a., fatty, a., allan- 
turic, C7H10N6O6, from allantoin, by the action of 
dilute nitric acid, a., alloxanic, C4H2N2O4, a crystal- 
line acid obtained by treating alloxan with alkalies. 
a., alloxypro'teic, a neutral sulphur compound found 
in the urine, a., amidoacetic, see glycin. a., ami- 
dobenzoic, C7H7NO2, occasionally found in the 
urine, a., amidosuccinamic, same as asparagin. 
a. s., amino, a large group of nitrogen-holding 
substances derived from the decomposition of pro- 
teins, a., aminoacetic, same as glycocoll, q. v. 
a., anacardic, C22H32O3, a tetratomic acid obtained 
by Stadler from the cashew-nut. It is used as an 
anthelmintic in the form of ammonium anacardate. 
a., angelic, C5H8O2, a crystalline monobasic acid. 
It exists free along with valeric and acetic acids in 
the roots of Angelica archangelica, and as butyl and 
amyl esters in Roman oil of cumin. It crystallizes 
in shining prisms, melts at 45°, and boils at 185°. 
It has a peculiar odor and taste, a., anisic, CsIIsOs, 
obtained by oxidizing anisol and anethol with HNO3, 
and from aniseed by the action of oxidizing sub- 
stances. It is antiseptic and antipyretic, and is 
used in the treatment of wounds and acute articular 
rheumatism. Dose of the sodium salt 15 gr. (1 Gra.). 
Syn., methylparaoxybenzoic acid, a., anisuric, C10H11- 
NO2, an acid formed by the action of anisyl chloride 
on the silver compound of glycocoll; it also occurs in 
the urine after the ingestion of anise, a., anticyclic, a 
white fragrant powder with pleasant, acid taste, 
readily soluble in water, alcohol, and glycerol; it is 
used as an antipyretic. Dose T £ w gr. (0.0006 Gra.). 
a., antirrhinic, an acid from the leaves of digitalis. 
a., apiolic, decomposition product of apiol. a., 
apocrenic, Berzelius' term for a brown, amorphous 
substance obtained from the sediment of chalybeate 
waters, a., arabic, see arabin. a., arachic, a., 

arachidic, a., arachinic, C2oH4o02=CwH39 . COOH, 
a monobasic fatty acid obtained from oil of peanut, 
Arachis hypogcea. a., argentic, silver monoxide. 
a., aromatic, a name applied to certain organic acids 
occurring in the balsams, resins, and other odorif- 
erous principles. Also, in pharmacy, a dilute 
mineral acid reinforced by aromatic substances in 
order to modify its flavor, a., arsenic, a., arsenous, 
see arsenic trioxide. a., arsinic, any one of a class 
of acids formed by the oxidation of arsins or arsonium 
compounds, a., aseptic, an antiseptic solution con- 
sisting of an aqueous solution of 5 Gm. of boric 
acid in 1000 Gm. of hydrogen dioxide (1.5%); 
3 Gm. of salicylic acid may be added, a., asparagic, 
a., asparaginic, a., asparamic, same as c, aspartic. 
a., aspartic, C4H7NO4, occurs in the vinasse obtained 
from the beet-root, and is procured from albuminous 
bodies in various reactions. It is prepared by 
boiling asparagin with alkalies and acids; crystallizes 
in rhombic dibasic prisms or leaflets, and dissolves 
with difficulty in water, a., aspartic, inactive, 
NH 2 C2H3(C02H)2, formed by heating aspartic acid 
with water or with alcoholic ammonia to I40°-I50° 
C, or with HC1 to I70°-i8o° C. Syn., asparacemic 
acid, a., atrolactic, C9H10O3, a monobasic acid 
obtained from acetophenone by means of prussic 
acid and H2SO4 or dilute HC1. a., auric, Au(OH) 3 , 
gold trihydroxide. a., azelaic, a., azelainic, C9H16O4, 
an oxidation-product of oleic acid, Chinese wax, 
castor oil, or cocoanut oil; soluble in water, alcohol, 
and ether, melts at io6°-i07° C, and boils at 360 C. 
Syn., anchoic acid; lepargylic acid; azelic acid; 
azeloinic acid, a., azotic, nitric acid, a., benzamic, 
see a., amidobenzoic. a., benzoic, C7H602, occurs free 
in some resins, chiefly in gum benzoin and in coal- 
tar. It crystallizes in white, shining needles or leaf- 
lets, melts at 120 , and distils at 250°. It volatilizes 
readily, its vapor possessing a peculiar odor, a., 
blattic, see antihydropin. a., boric, a., boracic, see 
boron, a. of borax, orthoboric acid, a., borocitric, 
a combination of boric and citric acid forming a white 
powder which is used as a solvent for urates and 
phosphates in urinary calculi, gout, etc. Dose 
S-20 gr. (0.3-1.3 Gm.). a., borophenylic, C6H7BO2, 
obtained by the action of phosphorus oxychloride 
upon a mixture of boric acid and phenol. It is an 
antiseptic white powder with a mild aromatic taste, 
not easily soluble in water, melting at 204 C. It is 
fatal to lower forms of life, but does not affect the 
higher forms. Syn., phenylboric acid, a., borasali- 
cylic, B(OH)(OCeH4 . CO2HK a combination of boric 
and salicylic acids in molecular proportion. It is 
used externally instead of salicylic acid, a., brom-, 
one in which bromine has replaced one or more atoms 
of hydrogen in the acid radical, a., bromacetic, see 
a., monobromacetic. a., bromhydric, hydrobromic 
acid, a., bromic, HBrOs, a colorless, acid liquid. 
a., bursic, a., bursinic, a yellow, hygroscopic mass 
obtained from an aqueous extract of Capsella bursa- 
pastoris by the action of lead acetate and ammonia 
and evaporating. Its aqueous solution is used in the 
same manner as ergotin, hypodermatically and also 
internally, a., butic, a., butinic, see a., arachic. 
a., butyric, C4H8O2, an acid having a viscid appearance 
and rancid smell. It is obtained commercially by 
the fermentation of a mixture of sugar and butter or 
cheese in the presence of an alkaline carbonate, 
but occurs in various plants, in codliver oil, in the 
juice of meats, and in the perspiration. Combined 
with glycerol as glyceryl butyrate, it is essentially 
butter, a., cacodylic, see c, dimethylarsenic. a., 
caffeic, C9H8O4, obtained when the tannin of coffee 
is boiled with potassium hydroxide, a., cahincic or 
caincic, see cahincin. a., camphoric, C10H16O4, a 
dibasic acid, obtained by boiling camphor with 
HNO3; it crystallizes from hot water in colorless 
leaflets; melts at 178 , and decomposes into water 
and its anhydride, CsHi4(CO)20. It is used in night- 
sweats of phthisis. Dose 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). 
a., capric or caprinic, C9H19CO.OH, occurs in small 
quantity as a glycerid in cow's butter. It crystallizes 
in fine needles, melting at 30 C, and is very insoluble 
in boiling water, a., caproic, C6H12O2, the sixth in 
the series of fatty acids; a clear, mobile oil, colorless, 
inflammable, and with a very acid and penetrating 
taste, a., caprylic or caprillic, C7H15CO . OH, an 
acid combined with glycerol, forming a glycerid 
existing in various animal fats ; it is liquid at ordinary 
temperatures, a., carbamic, H2N . CO . OH, car- 
bonic acid in which NH2 replaces OH ; it is not known 




in the free state; its ammonium salt is contained 
in commercial ammonium carbonate. The esters of 
carbamic acid are called urethanes. a., car baz otic, 
see a., picric, a., carbolic, C6H5OH, phenol, — the 
official designation of this substance, — is procured 
from coal-tar by fractional distillation. It has a 
very peculiar and characteristic odor, a burning taste, 
is poisonous, and has antiseptic properties. The 
sp. gr. at the melting-point is 1. 060-1. 066; it crystal- 
lizes in colorless rhombic needles that melt at about 
40° C, boiling at about 180 , and it is not decom- 
posed upon distillation. At ordinary temperatures it 
dissolves in water with difficulty (1 : 19.6 at 25 C), 
but is soluble in alcohol, ether, glacial acetic acid, 
and glycerol in all proportions. It unites with bases 
to form salts, known as carbolates. Upon exposure to 
light and air it deliquesces and acquires a pinkish 
color. It is used in the manufacture of many of the 
artificial coloring-matters, e. g., picric acid. It is a 
powerful antiseptic and germicide. Internally it is 
useful in vomiting, fermentation in the stomach, and 
as an intestinal antiseptic; locally, as a caustic. 
Dose, internally, §-2 gr. (0.03-0.13 Gm.). a., car- 
bolic, camphorated, a mixture of phenol 1 part and 
camphor 3 parts, a., carbolic, chlorinated, see 
trichlor phenol, a., carbolic, iodized, a solution of 20 
parts of iodine in 76 parts of phenol with the addition 
of 4 parts of glycerol. It is used as an antiseptic and 
escharotic. a. carbolic, liquefactum (B. P.). Dose 
1-2 min. (0.06-0.13 Cc). a., carbolsulphuric, a 
mixture of equal parts of phenol and concentrated 
sulphuric acid. It is used as a disinfectant in 2 to 
3 % solution, a., carbonaceous, see carbon dioxide. 
a., carbonaphtholic, see a., oxynaphthoic. a., car- 
bonic, CO2, carbon dioxide; an ultimate product of 
the combustion of carbon compounds; a colorless, 
odorless gas, heavier than air, incapable of sustaining 
respiration, a., carminic, Ci-HisOio, a coloring- 
matter found in the buds of certain plants, and 
especially in cochineal, an insect inhabiting different 
varieties of cactus. It is an amorphous, purple-red 
mass, readily soluble in water and alcohol, and yields 
red salts with the alkalis, a., carthamic, see car- 
thamin. a., caseic, lactic acid (q. v.). a., cate- 
chinic, or catechuic, same as catechin. a., cathartic, 
a., cathartinic, an active principle from several 
species of cassia, a., cerebric, or cerebrinic, C59H113- 
NO3, from brain tissue, a., cerotic, or cerotinic, 
C27H34O2, a fatty acid existing in beeswax and in 
Chinese wax. a.-characteristic, the replaceable 
hydrogen and the elements immediately bound to it 
in the molecule of an acid, as the CO . OH of organic 
acids, a., chloracetic [chlorine and acetic], an acid, 
called also monochlor acetic acid produced by the 
substitution of chlorine for the hydrogen of the 
radical in acetic acid. It is sometimes used as a 
caustic, a., chloric, HCIO3, an acid known only 
in its compounds (chlorates) and its aqueous solution. 
a., cholalic, see a., cholic. a., choleic, C24H40O4, from 
ox-bile, a., cholesteric, C12H10O7, an acid obtained 
by Tappeiner from the oxidation of cholic acid with 
potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid. This 
must not be confounded with cholesterinic acid. 
a., cholesterinic, CsHioOs, a dibasic acid obtained 
from cholesterin and from cholic acid by action of 
nitric acid; it occurs as a gum-like, yellow, hygro- 
scopic body with an acrid taste, a., cholic, a., 
cholalic, C24H42O5, from glycocholic and taurocholic 
acids; it crystallizes from out of a hot solution in 
small anhydrous prisms, sparingly soluble in water, 
and melting at 195 °. a., choloidic, derived from 
cholalic acid, a., chondroitic, C1SH27SNO17, from 
cartilage, a., chromic (chromii trioxidum, U. S. P.), 
strictly, the compound H2Cr04; it forms salts called 
chromates. It is a crystalline solid; escharotic. 
a., chrysophanic, C15H10O4, exists in the lichen, 
Parmelia parietina, in senna leaves, and in the 
rhubarb root. It crystallizes in golden-yellow 
needles or prisms, melting at 162 °. Syn., rheinic 
acid. See chrysarobin. a., cinchotannic, see cincho- 
tannin. a., cinnamic, a., cinnamylic, C9H8O2, occurs 
in peru and tolu balsams, in storax, and in some 
benzoin resins. It has been used in tuberculosis, 
both internally and externally. Dose 1-10 min. 
(0.06-0.65 Cc.) hypodermatically. a., citric, CsHsO-, 
occurs free in lemons, black currants, bilberries, 
beets, and in various other acid fruits. It crystallizes 
with one molecule of water in large rhombic prisms 
that melt at ioo°, are colorless, inodorous, and ex- 
tremely sharp in taste. It is refrigerant, antiseptic, 

and diuretic, a., colopholic, a., colophonic, an acid 
obtained from turpentine; it is used in plasters. 
a., copahuvic, a., copaivic, C20H30O2, an almost 
colorless, coarsely crystalline powder, obtained from 
copaiba; it is soluble in alcohol, ether, and benzene. 
Sometimes written copaibic A. a., cresolsulphuric, 
C7H7O . SO2 . OH, exists in the urine in small traces. 
a., cresotic, a., cresotinic, C8H&O3, an aromatic 
acid of which 3 isomeric compounds may be 
formed by the action of sodium and carbonic 
anhydride on the 3 modifications of cresol. They 
all occur in acicular crystals. The para compound, 
melting at 151° C. is used as an antipyretic in the 
form of sodium cresolate. Dose 2-20 gr. (0.13-1.3 
Gm.); maximum dose 60 gr. (4 Gm.). Syn., oxy- 
toluic acid; homosalicylic acid, a., cresylic, see 
cresol. a., cryptophanic, C10H18N2O10, said to exist 
in small quantities in human urine, a., cubebic, 
Ci3Hh07(?), a white, waxy mass, turning brown on 
exposure, obtained from cubeb berries, the unripe 
fruit of Piper cubeba, soluble in alcohol, ether, and 
alkaline solutions, and used as a diuretic. Dose 
5-10 gr. (0.3-0.6 Gm.) in pills several times daily. 
a., cumic, C10H12O2, produced by the oxidation of 
cuminic alcohol with dilute HNO3. Very soluble in 
water and alcohol; crystallizes in colorless needles or 
leaflets; melts at 116 and boils at about 290 . 
a., cyanic, CONH, obtained by heating polymeric 
cyanuric acid, a., cyanuric, see a., tricyanic. a., 
cynureinic, C20H14N2O6, decomposition product of 
proteids found in dogs' urine, a., damaluric, C7H12O2, 
found in urine, a., dextrotartaric, tartaric acid. 
a., diacetic, C4H6O3, an acid present in the urine in 
certain stages of diabetes and other diseased con- 
ditions, a., dichloracetic, CHCI2 . CO2H, produced 
when hydrated chloral is heated with CNK or 
potassium ferrocyanide and water. At ordinary 
temperature it occurs as a caustic, colorless liquid, 
but crystallizes at a low temperature. Sp. gr., 
1.522 at 15 C; boils at i89°-i9i° C; soluble in 
water and alcohol. It is used as an escharotic in 
skin diseases, a., diiodosalicylic, C7H4I2O3, a white, 
crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol and ether, 
slightly soluble in water, and melting at 220°-230° C. 
It is antipyretic,, analgesic, and antiseptic, and is 
used in rheumatism and gout. Dose 8-20 gr. (0.5- 
1.3 Gm.) 3 or 4 times daily in wafers; maximum dose 
30 gr. (2 Gm.). a., dimethylarsenic, As(CH3)200H, 
a substance formed by the oxidation of cacodyl, 
occurring in large, permanent prisms, odorless and 
slightly sour. It is soluble in water and alcohol 
and melts at 200 C. It is considered not to be 
toxic, and because of its solubility is easily absorbed. 
Syn., cacodylic acid, a., dithiochlorsalicylic, SCeH .- 
CI . OH . COOH, a reddish-yellow powder obtained 
by heating a mixture of salicylic acid and sulphur 
chloride to 140 C. It is recommended as an anti- 
septic, a., dithiosalicylic, C14H10S2O6, obtained from 
salicylic acid and sulphur chloride heated to 150 C, 
and existing in two modifications differing in the 
solubility of their salts. It is an antiseptic, analgesic, 
antipyretic, yellowish-gray powder, partly soluble 
in water. Its lithium and sodium salts only are used 
in medicine as substitutes for salicylic acid, a., 
doeglic, C19H36O2, a crystalline monobasic acid 
obtained from the oil of the doegling, or bottle-nosed 
whale, a., dracic, a., draconic, a., draconylic, see 
a., anisic, a., ethylenelactic, CH2 (OH) . CH2 . - 
C02H=C3H603, an acid isomeric with ethidene 
lactic acid or the lactic acid of fermentation; is 
obtained from acrylic acid by heating with aqueous 
sodium hydroxide to ioo° C. and in various other 
ways. It is a thick, uncrystallizable syrup; on 
heating it loses water and is converted into acrylic 
acid. Syn., hydracrylic acid; fi-oxypropionic acid; 
P-hydroxypropionic acid, a., ethylenephenylhydra- 
zinsuccinic, C20H22N4O6, an acid obtained from an 
alcoholic solution of ethylenephenylhydrazin and 
succinic anhydride by boiling. It occurs in acicular 
crystals, soluble in water. It is used as an anti- 
pyretic, a., ethylidenelactic, lactic acid, a., ex- 
cretolic, fatty acid from feces, a., fatty, a monobasic 
acid formed by the oxidation of a primary alcohol. 
The fatty acids have a general formula of CnH2n02. 
Syn., aliphatic acid, a., fellic, C23H40O4, a crystalline 
cholic acid obtained by Schotten from human bile; 
it is due to admixture with this acid that cholic acid 
from human bile differs in appearance from that 
obtained from other sources, a., filicic, ChHisOo, 
from rhizome of Dryopteris filix-mas. a., fluoric, 




hydrofluoric acid in aqueous solution; a strong 
escharotic. a., formic, CH2O2, an acid obtained 
from a fluid emitted by ants when irritated; it is 
also found in stinging nettles, in shoots of the pine, 
and in various animal secretions. It is prepared by 
heating oxalic acid and glycerol. It is a colorless, 
mobile fluid, with a pungent odor; it is a vesicant. 
a., gallic, C7H6O6, occurs free in nutgalls, in tea, and 
in the fruit of various other plants. It is obtained 
from ordinary tannic acid by boiling it with dilute 
acids. It crystallizes in fine, silky needles containing 
one molecule of water. It dissolves slowly in water 
and readily in alcohol and ether; has a faintly acid, 
astringent taste; melts at near 220 . It is astringent 
and disinfectant; useful in night-sweats, diabetes, 
and chronic diarrhea, a., gallotannic, the tannin of 
nut-galls, a., gaultheric, see methyl salicylate. 
a., gentianic, gentisin, q. v. a., gluconic, C6H12O7, 
formed by the oxidation of dextrose, cane-sugar, 
dextrin, starch, and maltose with chlorine or bromine 
water. Most readily obtained from glucose. It is 
dextrorotatory, but does not reduce Fehling's solu- 
tion. Melts at 200 . a., glutamic, a., glutaminic, 
C5H9NO4, decomposition product of proteids. a., 
glutaric, C5H8O4, found in decomposing pus. a., 
glycerinophosphoric, a., glycerinphosphoric, C3H9PO6, 
a dibasic acid in combination with the fatty acids 
and cholin as lecithin in the yolk of eggs, in bile, in 
the brain, and in the nervous tissue. It is formed 
by mixing glycerol with metaphosphoric acid. It is 
a pale yellow, oily liquid, without odor, having a 
sour taste; soluble in water and alcohol; is used in 
the treatment of neurasthenia, tabes, etc. Dose 
1 1-S gr. (0.1-0.3 Gm.) 3 times daily, a., glycerin- 
sulphuric, C3H8SO6, a monobasic body forming a 
series of salts called glycerosulphates. Syn., sulpho- 
glyceric acid, a., glycerophosphoric, a decomposition 
product of lecithin, a., glycerosulphuric, see a., 
glycerinsulphuric. a., glycocholic, C26H43NO6, a 
monobasic acid found in bile; sparingly soluble in 
water t and crystallizing in minute needles, a., 
glycollic, C2H4O3, oxy acetic acid, produced by the 
action of nascent hydrogen upon oxalic acid. It is a 
thick syrup that gradually crystallizes on standing 
over sulphuric acid; the crystals melt at 8^° and 
deliquesce in the air. It dissolves readily in alcohol, 
water, or ether, a., glycosuric, an acid sometimes 
occurring in urine, a., glycuronic, CeHioO. This 
acid has been found in urine; it probably does not 
exist there normally, but appears after taking certain 
drugs, as benzol, indol, nitrobenzol, and the quinine 
derivatives, a., guaiacolcarbonic, a., guaiacolcar- 
boxylic, C8H8O4, a monobasic crystalline acid, melting 
at 150° C. It is antiseptic and antipyretic, a., 
gummic, see arabin. a., gymnemic, C32H55O12, a 
greenish-white, amorphous powder with a harsh 
acid taste, soluble in alcohol and chloroform and 
slightly soluble in water and ether. It is obtained 
from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and obtunds 
the taste for bitter or sweet things, but not for sour, 
pungent, or astringent ones. It is used as a mouth- 
wash in 12 % hydroalcoholic solution before taking 
nauseous medicines, a., helvellaic, an acid which 
destroys red blood-corpuscles, obtained by Bohm 
from juice of the mushrooms belonging to the genus 
Helvella. sl., helvellic, C12H20O7, an acid obtained 
from fresh belladonna, occurring as a yellow, trans- 
parent, syrupy liquid of strong acid reaction, a., 
hippuric, C9H9NO3, occurs in considerable amount 
in the urine of herbivorous animals, sometimes in 
that of man. It crystallizes in rhombic prisms, and 
dissolves readily in hot water and alcohol. Syn., 
benzoyl glycocoll. a., homogentisic, CsHsO^, same as 
a., oxymandel, an acid separated by Baumann from 
highly-colored urine, believed to be formed by the 
action of bacteria on the tyrosin normally found in 
pancreatic digestion, a., hydra-, see hydrogen acids 
under acid, a., hydracrylic, C3H6O3, an acid isomeric 
with lactic acid. See a., eihylenelactic. a., hydriodic, 
HI, a gaseous acid. Its solution (acidum hydri- 
odicum dilutum, U. S. P.) and a syrup prepared from 
it, syrupus acidi hydriodici (U. S. P.), are used as 
alteratives, with the general effects of iodine. Dose 
of the syrup 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc). a., hydriodic, dilute, 
a 10 % solution of hydriodic acid in 90 % of water; 
an alterative of especial value in scrofulosis of 
children, a., hydrobromic, HBr; the dilute acid, 
which is the chief form used, consists of 10 parts 
acid and 90 parts water. It is a solvent for quinine, 
is useful in hysteria, congestive headaches, and 

neuralgia, and is recommended as a substitute for 
potassium and sodium bromides. Dose 20 min.- 
2 dr. (1.3-8.0 Cc). a., hydrochloric, HC1, a liquid 
consisting of 31 -9 % by weight of HC1 gas in 68.1 % 
of water. It is colorless, pungent and intensely acid. 
Syn., muriatic acid, a., hydrochloric, dilute, a 10 % 
solution of absolute acid in water. Valuable as an 
aid to digestion. Dose 3-10 min. (0.19-0.65 Cc). 
a., hydrocyanic, aqueous, the hydrocyanic acid 
obtained by distillation, which contains a certain 
percentage of water before removal by fractional 
distillation and desiccation, a., hydrocyanic, dilute, 
HCN, a liquid consisting of 2 % of the acid with 
98 % of water and alcohol. It possesses an odor like 
that of bitter almonds. Prussic acid is found in 
the bitter almond, the leaves of the peach, and in the 
cherry-laurel, from the leaves of which it is distilled. 
It is one of the most active poisons known, death 
from complete asphyxia being almost instantaneous. 
It is valuable for its sedative effects in vomiting, 
whooping-cough, and spasmodic affections. Dose 
1-3 min. (0.06-0.2 Cc). Syn., prussic acid, a., 
hydrocyanic, vapor, 1 part of dilute acid in 4-6 parts 
of water, warmed, and the vapor inhaled to relieve 
irritable coughs, a., hydrofluoric, HF, a compound 
of hydrogen and fluorine; powerfully corrosive, used 
for etching on glass, a., hydroparacumaric, C9H10O3, 
occurs in urine in minute quantities, a., hydro- 
sulphuric, H2S, a gas formed during the putrefaction 
of albuminous substances ; it occurs in sulphur mineral 
waters, and is produced by the action of mineral acids 
on metallic sulphides. It has the odor of rotten 
eggs. Syn., hydrogen sulphide; sulphureted hydrogen; 
sulphhydric acid, a., hypochlorous, HCIO, an 
unstable compound, important as a disinfecting and 
bleaching agent, a., hypogeic, a., hypogaeic, C18H30O2, 
a monobasic acid found in peanut (Arachis hypogcea) 
oil, occurring as fine, colorless, stellate groups of 
needles which melt at 33 C. and solidify again at 
28°-30° C; soluble in alcohol and ether; insoluble 
in water, a., hyponitrous, HNO, forms hyponitrites. 
a., hypophosphorous, H3PO2; its salts (hypophos- 
phites), also the dilute acid, and a syrup prepared 
from it, are used as remedial agents, a., ichthyol- 
sul phonic, C28H28S3O6, an acid produced from Tyro- 
lean bituminous mineral by the action of sulphuric 
acid; it is strongly acid and contains about 16.4 % 
of sulphur. It is antiphlogistic and astringent, and 
is used in the form of its salts, chiefly "ichthyol," 
the ammonium salt, a., igasuric, from seeds and 
surrounding pulp of nux vomica, a., indigosulphuric, 
C16H10S2N2O8, from indigo by the action of sulphuric 
acid, a., indoxylsulphonic, C8H7NSO4, found in 
urine, a., indoxylsulphuric, an acid that, combined 
with potassium, occurs in the urine as indican. 
a., inorganic, a mineral acid or one in which the 
carboxyl group CO . OH is absent, a., inosic, a., 
inosinic, C10H14N4O11, found in muscle tissue, a., 
iodic, HIO3, a monobasic acid. Its solution (2 %) 
has been recommended as an alterative by sub- 
cutaneous injection, a., iodosobenzoic, CsH4 . 01 .- 
COOH2, a compound analogous in action to iodo- 
form, a., isobutylcarbonic, a., isobutylcarboxyHc, 
see a., valeric, normal, a., isobutylformic, a., iso- 
propylacetic, see a., isovaleric, a., isovaleric, (CH3)2 .- 
CH . CH2 . CO2H, an isomer of valeric acid, obtained 
from oil of valerian or from oxidation of amyl-alcohol ; 
occurs as a transparent, colorless, oily liquid with odor 
of valerian and old cheese; melts at 51 ° C; boils at 
174 C. Sp. gr., 0.9470 at o° C. Used in nervous 
affections. Maximum dose 10 drops; a day, 40 
drops. Syn., monohydrated valeric acid; valeric 
acid; primary pentoic acid; isobutyl carboxyl; iso- 
propylacetic acid, a., jecoleic, an acid forming one 
of the essential constituents of cod-liver oil and 
isomeric with doeglic acid, a., kombic, a compound 
obtained by Fraser in the lead precipitate from an 
aqueous solution of alcoholic extract of strophanthin. 
It is freely soluble in water and of strongly acid 
reaction, a., kynureic, see a., cynureic. a., lactic, 
HC3H5O3, a liquid containing 75 % of absolute acid 
in 25 % of water, produced in the fermentation of 
milk. It is useful in aiding digestion, in diabetes, in 
tuberculosis of the larynx, and as a solvent of false 
membrane in diphtheria. Dose f dr.-| oz. (2-16 
Cc.) in the 24 hours, a., lactic, diluted (B. P.), 
lactic acid, 3 oz., distilled water, sufficient to make 
one pint. Dose §-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). a., lactolactic, 
a., lactylolactic, C6H10O5, a monobasic acid obtained 
from a solution of lactic acid heated to 130 to 




140 C. Syn., lactyl lactate; lactic anhydride; lactyl 
anhydride, a., lanoceric, C30H60O4, an acid resulting 
from the saponification of lanolin; it melts at 104 C. 
a., lanopalmitic, C16H32O3, resulting from the saponi- 
fication of lanolin. It melts at 87 °. a., leucamic, 
see leucin. a., levulinic, CeHgOs, obtained from 
levulose, cellulose, cane-sugar, etc.; a very hygro- 
scopic crystalline substance, soluble in water, ether, 
or alcohol, and melting at 33-5° C. a., linoleic, 
C16H28O2, occurs as a glycerid in drying oils, such as 
linseed oil, hemp oil, poppy oil, and nut oil. a., 
lupamaric, the bitter acid of hops, a., lysuric, 
C6Hi2(COC6H5)2N202, a substance obtained by 
Drechsel from lysin by action of benzoyl chloride. 
a., maleic, a., maleinic, C4H4O4, obtained from malic 
acid by distillation; it occurs in prisms, soluble in 
water, alcohol, and ether, melting at 130 ° C, boiling 
at 160° C. a., malic, C4H6O5, a bibasic acid, occurring 
free or in the form of salts in many plant-juices, in 
unripe apples, in grapes, and in mountain-ash 
berries. It forms deliquescent crystals that dissolve 
readily in alcohol, slightly in ether, and melt at ioo°; 
it has a pleasant acid taste, a., malonic, C3H4O4, 
occurs in the deposit found in the vacuum pans 
employed in beet-sugar manufacture; it may be 
obtained by the oxidation of malic acid with chro- 
mium trioxide. a., mandelic, CeHs . CH(OH) . CO2- 
H, formed from benzaldehyd by the action of prussic 
acid and HC1. a., mannitic, C6H12O7, from sugars 
by oxidation, a., margaric, a., margarinic, C11H34O2, 
a monobasic acid existing in nearly all animal fats 
and occurring as a solid substance melting at about 
6o° C. It is believed by some to be a mere mixture 
of palmitic and stearic acids, a., marine, hydro- 
chloric acid, a., meconic, C7H4O7, a tribasic acid, 
occurring in opium in union with morphine. It 
crystallizes with 3H2O in white laminae, a., mephi- 
tic, carbon dioxide, a., mesotartaric, inactive 
tartaric acid obtained by heating 30 parts of tartaric 
acid with 4 parts of water for 2 hours to 165 ° C. 
a., metaphosphoric, HPO3, a glassy solid, freely solu- 
ble in cold water, and converted by boiling into 
orthophosphoric acid. It is used as a test for albumin 
in the urine, a., mineral, see a., inorganic, a., 
monobromacetic, C2H3Br02, produced by heating 
acetic acid with bromine; it is escharotic and anti- 
septic. Syn., bromacetic acid, a., monochloracetic, 
C2H3CIO2, from chlorine by action of boiling acetic 
acid containing sulphur and iodine; used in xanthoma. 
a., monoiodosalicylic, C7H5IO3, produced by boiling 
salicylic acid with iodine and alcohol. It is used in 
acute articular rheumatism. Dose 15-45 gr. (1-3 
Gm.) a day. a., mononitrosalicylic, CeH3(N02)OH .- 
CO2H, an acid obtained by action of nitric acid on 
indigo or on salicylic acid. Syn., indigotic acid; 
nitrospiroylic acid; nitroanilic acid; anilic acid, a., 
morphoxylacetic, C17H28NO3 . C . H2CO2H, a narcotic 
similar to morphine but weaker, a., mucic, CeHioOs, 
from gums and sugars, a., muriatic, see a., hydro- 
chloric, a., muriatic, dephlogisticated, a., muriatic, 
oxygenated, chlorine, a., muriatic, superoxygenated, 
chloric acid, a., myoctonic, an acid obtained from 
Palicourea marcgrafii, occurring as a yellowish, oily, 
narcotic, and extremely poisonous liquid, a., 
myristic, C14H28O2, from nutmegs, a., myronic, 
C10H19NS2O10, an acid that occurs as a potassium 
salt in the seeds of black mustard, a., /3-naph- 
thalinsulphonic, C10H7 . SO3H, an acid occurring in 
white, opalescent scales with generally a tinge of 
red; freely soluble in water and alcohol, slightly in 
ether. It is a sensitive reagent for albumin, a., 
naphthionic, CioH 6 (NH 2 ) . SO3H, an acid obtained 
from naphthylamine by action of ammonium sulphite. 
It is recommended as an antidote for nitrite poison- 
ing; also in the treatment of acute iodism and in 
troubles of the bladder originating in the alkalescence 
of the urine. Dose 40-60 gr. (2.5-4.0 Gm.) daily. 
Syn., a-naphthylaminsulphonic acid, a., naphthoic, 
C11H8O2, a crystalline substance of which 2 isomeric 
compounds may be formed by saponification of the 
2 modifications of naphthonitril. a., narcotic, see 
narcotin. a., neurostearic, C18H36O2, from brain- 
tissue, a., nicotinic, C6H5NO3, from tobacco, 
a., nitric, HNO3, a liquid consisting of 68 % absolute 
acid in 32 % of water. The pure acid is colorless, 
fuming, and highly caustic. It is used in cauteriza- 
tion of chancres and phagedenic ulcers and as a 
reagent, a., nitric, anhydrous, nitrogen pentoxide. 
a., nitric, dilute, contains 10 % absolute acid. It is 
used internally to aid digestion, to stimulate the 

hepatic function, etc. Dose 3-15 min. (0.2-1.0 Cc), 
well diluted, a., nitric, monohydrated, pure nitric 
acid, a., nitro-, an acid produced from another 
acid by replacing the hydrogen with nitryl (NO2). 
a., nitroanilic, same as a., mononitrosalicylic. a., 
nitrohydrochloric, a., nitromuriatic, a golden-yellow, 
fuming mixture of 4 parts of nitric and 15 of hydro- 
chloric acid. It is a solvent of gold; it is valuable 
in affections of the liver. Dose 1-7 min. (0.06-0.45 
Cc), very dilute. Syn., aqua regia. a., nitro- 
hydrochloric, dilute, consists of 4 parts nitric acid, 
18 parts hydrochloric acid, and 78 parts water. 
Dose 5-20 min. (0.3-1.3 Cc), well diluted, a., 
nitrosonitric, fuming nitric acid, a., nitrospiroylic, 
see a., mononitrosalicylic. a., nitrous, HNO2, from 
decomposing nitrites, a., Nordhausen, brown, 
fuming sulphuric acid, first manufactured at Nord- 
hausen. a., nucleic, a., nucleinic, any one of a 
group of organic acids containing C, H, O, N, and 
a large proportion of P. The nucleic bases are present 
in the nucleic acid radicals as organic compounds. 
The nucleic acids occur in nature, free or in combina- 
tion with albumins, when they are called primary 
acids. On decomposition they yield nucleic bases, 
and according to their origin are termed sperma- 
nucleic acid, thymono-nucleic acid, yeast-rmcleic acid, 
etc According to Kossel, there are in reality only 
4 true nucleic acids, viz., adenylic acid, guanylic 
acid, sarcylic (hypoxanthylic) acid, and xanthylic 
acid. On decomposition the primary acids give rise 
to secondary acids which contain more phosphorus 
than the primary acids, and may or may not give 
rise to xanthin bases on further decomposition; 
according to Simon, they may be divided into acids 
of the type of plasminic acid and of thyminic acid 
respectively, a., oleic, a., oleinic, C18H34O2, an acid 
present in many fats and oils. It is a colorless oil, 
crystallizing on cooling, soluble in alcohol, benzol, 
and the essential oils; insoluble in water. It saponi- 
fies when heated with alkaline bases. It is used in 
making the oleates. a., organic, an acid char- 
acterized by the presence of the carboxyl group, 
CO. OH. a., orthoamidosalicylic, C 6 H 3 (NH 2 )(OH)- 
COOH, a gray, amorphous, slightly sweet, inodorous 
powder obtained by reduction of orthonitrosalicylic 
acid and insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It is 
employed in chronic rheumatism. Dose 3-7 gr. 
(0.25-0.5 Gm.). a., orthoboric, see boron, a., 
orthophosphoric, H3PO4, ordinary phosphoric acid, 
as distinguished from metaphosphoric and pyro- 
phosphoric acids, a., osmic, Os04, the oxide of 
osmium, one of the rarer elements; it occurs as yellow, 
acrid, burning crystals, yielding an intensely irri- 
tating vapor; has been recommended for hypo- 
dermatic use in sciatica, strumous glands, and 
cancer; is used in histology as a fixing agent and stain 
for fat. a., otoic, same as a., caprylic. a., oxalic, 
C2H2O4, a colorless, crystalline solid, obtained by 
treating sawdust with caustic soda and potash. 
Occurs in many plants, chiefly as potassium oxalate; 
with 2 parts of water it crystallizes in fine, trans- 
parent monoclinic prisms. Is soluble in 9 parts of 
water at moderate temperature and quite easily in 
alcohol. Has been recommended in amenorrhea. 
In large doses it is a violent poison, a., oxaluric, 
C3H4N2O4, oxidation product of uric acid, a., oxuric r 
Vauquelin's name for impure alloxanic acid, a., 
oxybutyric, see oxybutyric. a., oxygen, an acid 
containing more oxygen than is requisite for satura- 
tion, a., oxymandelic, CsH804, occurs in urine in 
acute yellow atrophy of the liver, a., oxymuriatic. 
1. Hydrochloric acid. 2. Chloric acid. 3. Chlorine. 
a., /3-oxynaphthoic, C11H8O3, obtained from sodium 
betanaphthol by the action of carbon dioxide with 
heat. It is a surgical antiseptic Syn., P-naphthol- 
carboxylic acid; 0-carbonaphthoic acid, a., oxypro- 
pionic, lactic acid, a., oxypro'teic, a neutral sulphur 
compound found in the urine, a., palmitic, C16H32O2, 
an acid existing as a glycerol ether in palm-oil and 
in most solid fats, a., paracresotic, C6H8O3, an 
intestinal antiseptic, a., parafumaric, see a., maleic. 
a., paralac'tic, see sarcolactic. a., paraoxyphenyl- 
acetic, CsHsOs, found in small quantities in the urine. 
a. of pearls, acid phosphate of sodium, a., pectic, 
C16H22O15, from pectin, a., perchloric, HCIO4, a 
volatile liquid; it forms perchlorates. a., periodic, 
HI04-f-2H20, an acid obtained from iodine by the 
action of concentrated perchloric acid; is soluble in 
water and alcohol, slightly in ether, and melts at 
i30°-i33° C. Is a powerful oxidizer. Syn., hepta- 




iodic acid, a., permanganic, HMnGi, a monobasic 
acid, a., perosmic, see a., osmic. a., phenacetu'ric, 
found in the urine of herbivorous animals, sometimes 
in human urine, a., phenic, carbolic acid, a., 
phenolsulphonic, see a., sulpho carbolic, a., phenylic, 
phenol, a., phenylsalicylic, C13H10O4, a white, anti- 
septic powder, soluble in alcohol, ether, and glycerol, 
but very slowly in water; is used as a surgical dressing 
like iodoform. Syn., orthooxydiphenylcarbolic acid; 
phenylorthooxybenzoic acid, a., phenylsulphuric, see 
a., sulphocarbolic. a., phocenic, see a., valeric. 
a., phosphoantimonic, a yellowish, very acid sub- 
stance, obtained from antimonium pentachloride by 
the action of concentrated aqueous solution of sodium 
phosphate. Used as an alkaloid reagent, a., phos- 
phocarn'ic, O0H17N3O5, a nitrogenous extraction of 
muscle, a., phosphoric, H3PO4, contains so % each 
of acid and of water; is obtained from bones or by 
oxidation of phosphorus. Syn., orthophosphoric acid. 
a., phosphoric, anhydrous, P2O5, obtained from 
phosphorus by complete combustion, occurring as a 
bulky, light, white, deliquescent powder, soluble in 
water. Is used as a chemical agent, a., phosphoric, 
dilute, contains 10 % of absolute acid. Employed 
in digestive disturbances, in strumous diseases, and 
to dissolve phosphatic deposits. Dose 5-30 min. 
(0.32-2.0 Cc). a., phosphoric, glacial, a., phos- 
phoric, monobasic, see a., metaphosphoric. a., phos- 
phorous, H3PO3, a dibasic oxyacid of phosphorus, 
containing one atom of oxygen less than phosphoric 
acid, a., phosphotungstic, H3PO4 . 12WO3, an acid 
used as an alkaloid and peptone test, a., picric, 
C6H2(N02)30H, obtained by the nitration of phenol. 
Forms pale yellow, shining, prismatic, laminar, or 
columnar crystals, which possess a very bitter taste. 
Is readily soluble in hot water; its solution dyes silk 
and wool a beautiful yellow color. It is recom- 
mended as an antiperiodic and anthelmintic. Used 
as a test for albumin and sugar. Dose 5-15 gr. 
(0.32-1.0 Gm.) a day. Syn., carbazotic acid; trini- 
trophenol. a., pimentic, see eugenol. a., pipitzahoic, 
a., pipitzahoinic, C15H20O3, a purgative principle 
discovered by Rio de la Loza in species of Perezia, 
and also obtained from Trixis radiale. Used as a 
mild # drastic. Dose 3-5 gr. (0.2-0.3 Gm.). a., 
pivalic, see a., valeric, tertiary, a., plasminic, a 
secondary nucleic acid obtainable from yeast. Is 
soluble in water and precipitates albumins in acid 
solution. Its phosphoric acid radical is capable of 
forming a true organic iron compound containing 
1 % of iron. On decomposition with mineral acids 
by boiling it yields nucleic bases and phosphoric 
acid, a., plumbic, Pb02, lead dioxide, a., polybasic, 
acids containing several carboxyl groups, a., poly- 
chromic, see a., aloetic. a., propionic, C3H6O2, an 
oxidation-product of propylic alcohol; it is a clear, 
colorless liquid, with an odor like butyric and acetic 
acids, and a specific gravity of 1.013 at o° C.; is 
miscible with water and boils at 141 ° C. a., pro- 
pionylsalicylic, a compound obtained from salicylic 
acid by action of anhydrous propionic acid. Used 
in gout and rheumatism, a., prussic, see a., hydro- 
cyanic, a., pyridintricarboxylic, a., pyridintricar- 
bonic, CsHsNOe, an oxidation-product of cinchona 
alkaloids; it is a white, crystalline powder, soluble 
in water and alcohol, and melting at 250 C. Is 
antipyretic, antiseptic, and antiperiodic; used in 
whooping-cough, typhoid and intermittent fevers, 
etc., and externally as an injection in urethral in- 
flammation. Dose 10 gr. (0.6 Gm.) 5 times daily. 
Syn., carbocinchomeronic acid, a., pyro-, an acid 
formed from another acid by action of heat, a., 
pyroboric, H2B4O7, from boric acid by heat, a., pyro- 
gallic, CeHeOa, pyrogallol, formed by heating gallic 
acid with water to 210 . It forms white leaflets or 
needles, is readily soluble in water, less so in alcohol 
and ether. Useful in the treatment of certain 
skin diseases; is poisonous and must be used with 
caution, a., pyroligneous, crude acid obtained in 
the destructive distillation of wood. It is a clear 
liquid, of reddish-brown color and strong acid taste, 
with a peculiar penetrating odor described as em- 
pyreumatic, due largely to the furfurol it contains. 
It contains from 4 to 7 % of real acetic acid, a., 
pyrophosphoric, the dihydric phosphate, 2H2O . P2O5, 
one of the forms of phosphoric acid. It is poisonous. 
Its iron salt is used in medicine. The pure acid is a 
soft glassy mass, a., pyrosorbic, see a., maleic. 
a., quinic, C7H12O6, from cinchona bark, a., rheinic, 
see a., chrysophanic. a., ricinoleic, C18H34O3, the 

active principle of castor oil. a., rosolic, C20H16O3, 
from rosanilin by action of nitric acid used as a dye 
and test for acids, a., rutic, same as c, capric. 
a., rutinic, C25H28O15, the coloring principle of rue. 
a., salicylacetic, a., salicyloacetic, C9H8O5, a reaction- 
product of sodium salicylate in a soda solution with 
sodium monochloracetate; soluble in boiling water 
and alcohol, slightly in cold water, ether, chloroform, 
and benzene. It is antiseptic and used in the same 
manner as salicylic acid. Syn., acetosalicylic acid;' 
salicyloxy acetic acid; salicylhydroxyacetic acid, a., 
salicylic, C7H6O3, occurs in the buds of Spircea ulmaria, 
in the oil of wintergreen, and in other varieties of 
gaultheria. It forms either a white crystalline 
powder, or white prismatic and acicular prisms with- 
out odor or taste. It is soluble in water and in 
chloroform, and is antiseptic; it is used in the treat- 
ment of acute articular rheumatism and myalgia. 
Dose s-20 gr. (0.3-1.3 Gm.), not exceeding 1 dr. 
(4 Gm.) daily. Syn., orthooxybenzoic acid, a., 
salicylsulphonic, a., salicylsulphuric, see a., sul- 
phosalicylic. a., salicyluric, C9H 8 (OH)N03, a com- 
pound found in urine after taking salicylic acid. 
a. of salts, hydrochloric acid, a., sarcolactic, C3H6O3, 
occurs in blood and in muscles, to which it gives their 
acid reaction, especially after the muscles have been 
in a state of activity. It is also found in urine in 
phosphorus-poisoning, a., sclerotic, a., sclerotinic, 
an acid found in ergot, of which it is one of the 
active principles, a., scoparic, see scoparin. a. of 
sea-salt, hydrochloric acid, a., septic, nitric acid. 
a., sphacelinic, an acid, regarded as the constituent 
of ergot, which causes gangrene and develops the 
cachexia of that disease, a., stearic, a., stearinic, 
C18H36O2, associated with palmitic and oleic acids 
as a mixed ether, in solid animal fats, the tallows. 
a., stibious, SbCh, a colorless, transparent mass, 
soluble in alcohol and carbon disulphate, and melting 
at 73.2 C. It is a caustic. Syn., antimonious oxide 
of antimony; antimony trichloride, a., stibous, 
C15H12O3 (Gmelin), a crystalline substance obtained 
from oil of bitter almonds by action of fuming 
sulphuric acid, a., succinic, C4H6O4, an acid ob- 
tained in the distillation of amber, and also prepared 
artificially, a., sulphanilic, CeH4(NH 2 ) . SO3H, ob- 
tained by heating anilin (1 part) with fuming H2SO4 
(2 parts) to 180 until SO2 appears. It crystallizes 
in rhombic plates which effloresce in the air. It is 
used as a reagent, a., sulphazotized, a class of acids 
formed from potassium nitrite by action of sulphurous 
acid, a., sulphocarbolic, C6H5HSO4, phenyl bisul- 
phate, formed by the union of phenol and sulphuric 
acid. Its salts, the sulphocarbolates, are used in 
medicine as intestinal antiseptics, etc. a., sul- 
phoindigotic, a., sulphoindylic, see a., indigosulphuric. 
a.s, sulphonic, a class of acids of the general formula 
Rn . (SO2 . OH) TO when Rn is a radical whose quanti- 
valence is N. Such acids are derived from sulphuric 
acid by the substitution of a radical for hydroxyl; or 
they may be regarded as acid sulphites derived from 
sulphurous acid, H2SO3, by the replacement of half 
of its hydrogen by a basic radical, a., sulphonilic, 
see a., sulphanilic. a., sulphophenic, see c, sul- 
phocarbolic. a., sulphophenolic, same as phenol- 
sulphonic acid, a., sulphosalicylic, C7H6SO6, an acid 
obtained from salicylic acid by the action of sulphuric 
anhydride, occurring as white crystals, soluble in 
water and alcohol, melting at 120 C, and colored 
an intense violet-red by ferric chloride. It is used as a 
test for albumin in urine. Syn., salicylsulphonic 
acid, a., sulphothiocarbonic, see a., xanthogenic. 
a., sulphuric, H2SO4, a heavy, oily, corrosive acid, 
consisting of not less than 92.5 % sulphuric anhydride 
and 7-5 % of water. It is used as a reagent and as a 
caustic. Syn., oil of vitriol, a., sulphuric aromatic, 
contains 20 % acid, diluted with alcohol and flavored 
with cinnamon and ginger. It is used as an astringent 
in diarrhea and in night-sweats; also in hemoptysis. 
Dose 5-15 min. (0.32-1.0 Cc). a., sulphuric, dilute, 
contains 10 % strong acid to 90 % of water. It is 
used as an astringent. Dose 10-15 min. (0.65-1.0 
Cc.) , well diluted, a., sulphuric, fuming, H2SO4 . SO3, 
an oily liquid, fuming in the air, obtained by roasting 
ferrous sulphate. Syn., Nordhausen oil of vitriol; 
Nordhausen acid, a., sulphurous, H2SO3, a colorless 
acid containing about 6.4 % of sulphurous anhydride 
in 93.6 % of water. The gas, SO2, is a valuable 
disinfectant. The acid is used as a spray or lotion 
in diphtheria, stomatitis, and as a wash for indolent 
and syphilitic ulcers. The various hyposulphites 




are mainly valuable in that they decompose and give 
off sulphur dioxide. Dose 5 min.-i dr. (0.32-4.0 
Cc). a., sulphydric, see c, hydrosulphuric. a., 
sumbulic, a., sumbulolic, see a., angelic, a., sylvic, 
C20H30O2, from resin, a., tannic, O4H10O9, an astrin- 
gent acid obtained from nutgalls, and occurring in 
yellowish, scaly crystals. It is soluble in water and 
alcohol. It is an antidote in poisoning by alkaloids 
and tartar emetic, and is used as an astringent in 
catarrh of mucous membranes, and externally in 
many skin diseases. Dose 1-20 gr. (0.065-1.3 Gm.). 
Syn., tannin. (For preparations of tannic acid see 
respective headings.) a., tanningenic, a., tanningic, 
see catechin. a., tartaric, H2C4H4O6, an astringent 
acid widely distributed in the vegetable world, 
occurring principally in the juice of the grape, from 
which it deposits after fermentation in the form of 
acid potassium tartrate (argol). It is chiefly em- 
ployed in refrigerant drinks and in baking-powders; 
20 grains neutralize 27 of potassium bicarbonate, 
22 of sodium bicarbonate, and 155 of ammonium 
carbonate. Dose 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). a., tar- 
taric, inactive, see a., mesotartaric. a., taurocholic, 
C26H45NSO7, occurs in bile; it is very soluble in water 
and alcohol and crystallizes in fine needles, a., 
telluric, H2TeCU+2H20, the dibasic acid of tellurium. 
a., tetraboric, H2B4O7, boric acid heated to 160 C, 
forming a glassy mass. Syn., pyroboric acid, a., 
tetrathiodichlorsalicylic, (& : C 6 HCl[OH]COOH) 2 , 
obtained from salicylic acid by the action of sul- 
phuryl chloride, and heat; it occurs as a reddish-yellow 
powder, soluble in aqueous alkalies. It is antiseptic 
and used as a dusting-powder, a., thiacetylenic, see 
a., thioacetic. a., thio-, an acid in which sulphur 
is substituted for oxygen, a., thioacetic, C2H4OS, 
a clear, pungent, sour liquid with a sulphureted 
hydrogen odor, obtained from glacial acetic acid and 
phosphorus pentasulphide. It is used as a substitute 
for sulphureted hydrogen in analysis. Syn., ethane- 
thiolic acid; thiacetylenic acid; thiacetic acid; aceto- 
sulphuric acid, a., thiolinic, a dark mass, consisting 
of linseed oil and sulphur dioxide, used in skin diseases. 
Syn., sulphurated linseed oil; thiolin. a., thioncar- 
bonthiol, see a., xanthogenic. a., thiosalicylic, 
C7H6SO2, a brownish-yellow mass obtained from ami- 
dobenzoic acid by the successive action of nitrous 
acid and sulphureted hydrogen; a surgical antiseptic. 
a., trichloracetic, HC2CI3O2, an acid formed from ace- 
tic acid, 3 atoms of the hydrogen of which are, in 
the new acid, replaced by chlorine. It is used as a 
reagent for the detection of albumin in the urine 
and as a caustic, a., trichlorcarbolic, a., trichlor- 
phenic, see trichlor phenol, a., tricyanic, H3C3N3O3, 
obtained from tricyanogen chloride by boiling it 
with water and alkalies. It crystallizes from aqueous 
solution with two molecules of water in large rhombic 
prisms; soluble in 40 parts of cold water; easily 
soluble in hot water and in alcohol. Syn., cyanuric 
acid, a., trimethacetic, a., trimethylacetic, a., 
trimethylcarbincarbonic, see a., valeric, tertiary. 
a., tropic, C9H10O3, from atropine, a., tumenol- 
sulphonic, a substance obtained from tumenol by 
action of fuming sulphuric acid; used as a dusting- 
powder, a.s, uramic, a series of carbamide — CONH — 
compounds occurring in the urine after the ingestion 
of amido-acids. They comprise methylhydantoic 
acid, taurocarbamic acid, uramidobenzoic acid, and 
tyrosinhydantoinic acid or hydantoin hydropara- 
cumaric acid. They are found after the ingestion of 
sarcosin or methylglycocoll, of taurin, amidobenzoic 
acid, and tyrosin respectively, a., ureous, see 
xanthin. a., uric, C5H4N4O3, an acid found in the 
urine of all animals, especially man and the carni- 
vora, — rarely in the herbivora, — abundantly in the 
excrement of birds, reptiles, and mollusks. It 
exists usually in combination with the metals of the 
alkaline group. It is separated from urine by 
adding hydrochloric acid and allowing the crystals 
to settle, a. of urine. 1. Phosphoric acid. 2. Uric 
acid, a., urobenzoic, see a., hippuric. a., urocanic, 
a., urocaninic, C6H6N2O2+2H2O, from degs' urine. 
a., uroproteic, C66H116N20SO54 +nH20, from dogs' 
urine, a., valeric, a., valerianic, C5H10O2, is formed 
by oxidizing normal amyl-alcohol. It is a mobile 
liquid with caustic acid taste and the pungent smell 
of old cheese, a., valeric, active, see a., melhyl- 
ethylacelic. a., valeric, normal, CH3(CH2)3C02H, an 
isomer of valeric acid, first prepared by Lieben and 
Rossi from pentonitril (C4H3CN); it is a liquid with 
odor of normal butyric acid, boiling at 186 C, 

melting at 59° C. Sp. gr., 0.9568 at o° C.; Syn., 
pentoic acid; normal propylacetic acid; isobutyl car- 
bonic acid, a., valeric, tertiary, (CH3)3C . CO2H, a 
fatty crystalline acid containing a tertiary alcohol 
radical, discovered by Butlerow, who obtained it 
synthetically from tertiary butyl alcohol; melts at 
35° C; boils at 163° C. Syn., pivalic acid; trimethyl- 
acetic acid; pseudovaleric acid; trimethacetic acid; 
pinalic acid; trimethylcarbincarbonic acid, a., ver- 
atric, C9H10O4, occurs with veratrine in sabadilla 
seeds; soluble in water and alcohol, a., viburnic, 
ordinary valeric acid discovered in Viburnum opulus. 
a.s, vinic, acids obtained from alcohol by action of 
acids, a., vitriolic, sulphuric acid, a., xanthogenic, 
HO . CS . SH, an acid not existing in the free state; 
the xanthates are obtained from it. Syn., sulpho- 
thiocarbonic acid; thioncarbonthiol acid, a.s, xantho- 
proteic, nitrogenous substances obtained from solu- 
tions of proteids by action of nitric acid, a., xan- 
thylic, a primary nucleic acid yielding xanthin on 
decomposition, a., yeast-nucleic, C40H59N16O22 .- 
2P2O5, a primary nucleic acid occurring in yeast; it 
contains a carbohydrate group, as Kossel was able 
to obtain from it a hexose and a pentose. 

acida (as'-id-ah) [L.]. Plural of acidum, q. v. 

acidalbumin (as-id-al-bu'-min). A proteid acted 
upon or dissolved in the stronger acids, and yielding 
an acid reaction. 

acidemia (as-id-e'-me-ah). A condition of de- 
creased alkalinity of the blood. 

acid-fast (as' -id-fast). Not easily decolorized by 
acids when stained. 

acidifiable (as-id-i-fi'-a-bl) [acidum, acid; fieri, to 
become]. Capable of becoming sour. 

acidifiant (as-id-if -i-ant) . See acidifiable. 

acidification (as-id'-if-ik-a-shun) [acidum, acid; 
facer e, to make]. Conversion into an acid; the 
process of becoming sour. 

acidify (as-id'-if-i). 1. To convert into an acid. 
2. To render sour, to acidulate. 

acidimeter {as-id-im' -et-er) [acidum, acid; ukrpov, 
a measure]. An instrument for performing acidi- 

acidimetric (as-id-e-met'-rik). Pertaining to acidi- 

acidimetry (as-id-im' -et-re) [see acidimeter]. De- 
termination of the free acid in a solution by an 
acidimeter or by chemical reactions. 

acidism (as'-id-izm) . Same as acidosis, q. v. 

acidity (as-id'-it-e) [acidum, acid]. The quality of 
being acid; sourness; excess of acid. 

acidity of the stomach, sourness of the stomach 
due to oversecretion of acid or to fermentation of the 

acidol (as'-id-ol). Trade name of betaine hydro- 
chloride, C5H12NO2CI. 

acidology (as-id-ol'-o-je) [&*«, a bandage, a point; 
Xo-yos, a treatise]. The science of surgical appliances. 

acidometer (as-id-om'-et-ur). See acidimeter. 

acidometric (as-id-o-met'-rik). See acidimetric. 

acidometry (as-id-om'-et-re). See acidimetry. 

acidophil, acidophile (as-id'-o-fil) [acidum, acid; 
<f>[\os, loving]. 1. Susceptible of imbibing acid stains. 
2. A substance having an affinity for acid stains. 

acidosis (as-id-o'-sis) [acidum, acid]. Acid intoxi- 
cation caused by an abnormal production of acids in 
the body and their faulty elimination. 

acidosteophyte (as-id-os'-te-o-fit) [d»cis, a point; 
osteophyte], A sharp, or needle-shaped, osteophyte. 

acidoxyl (as-id-oks'-il). A compound of an acidyl 
or acid radical with oxygen. 

acid-proof (as'-id-pruf). Same as acid-fast, q. v. 

acidulate (as-id'-u-lat) [acidulare, to make sour]. 
To render acid or sour. 

acidulated (as-id'-u-la-ted). Somewhat sour or 

acidulous (as-id'-u-lus) [see acidulated]. Mod- 
erately sour. 

acidulum (as-id'-u-lum) [L. dim. of acidum]. An 
acid salt. 

acidum (as'-id-um) [L.]. See acid. 

acidyl (as'-id-il). The radical of an organic acid, 
particularly those hydrocarbons of the formula 
C n H n _i. 

acidylated (as-id'-il-a-led). Combined with the 
residue of a fatty acid (acidyl). 

acinesia (as-in-e'-ze-ah). See akinesia. 

acinesic, acinetic. See akinetic. 

acinetatrophia (as-in-et-at-ro'-fe-ah) [acinesis; at- 
rophia]. Atrophy due to lack of exercise. 




acini (as'-in-i) [L.]. Plural of acinus, q. v. 

aciniform (as-in'-if-orm) [acinus, a grape]. Grape- 

acinose (as'-in-oz). See acinous. 

acinotubular (as-in-o-tu'-bu-lar) [acinus, a grape; 
tubulus, a tube]. Applied to a gland or other struc- 
ture having tubular acini or secreting sacs. 

acinous (as'-in-us) [acinus, a grape], i. Relating 
to an acinus or having acini. 2. Resembling a grape 
or a cluster of grapes; composed of granular con- 

acinus (as'-in-us) [acinus, a grape; pi., acini]. 
Any one of the smallest lobules of a compound gland, 
as an acinus of the liver. 

aciurgia (as-e-er'-je-ah), or aciurgy (as'-e-er-je) 
td/ct's, point; ipyeiv, to work]. Operative surgery. 

aclastic (ak-las'-tik). Not refracting. 

acleidian (ah-kli'-de-an) [&, priv.; ic\eis, the collar- 
bone]. ^ Without clavicles. 

acleitocardia (ah-kli-to-kar'-de-ah) [&, priv.; n\eUiv, 
to close; napSia, the heart]. Imperfect closure of 
the foramen ovale. 

acmastic (ak-mas'-tik) [acme]. Pertaining to dis- 
ease with regular increase and decrease. (Epac- 
mastic; first period. Paracmastic; period of decline.) 

acme (ak'-me) [&«*"?. a point]. 1. The highest 
point. 2. The crisis or critical stage of disease. 
3. Acne; an acne papule; a wart. 

acmon (ak'-mon) [&kiio)i>, an anvil]. The incus. 

acne (ak'-ne) [6ucn-h, a point]. A common, usually 
chronic, inflammatory disease of the sebaceous 
glands, occurring mostly about the face, chest, and 
back. The lesions may be papular, pustular, or 
tubercular. It occurs usually between the ages of 
puberty and 24 years, is generally worse in winter, 
and is associated with menstrual and gastrointestinal 
troubles. The individual lesions consist of minute 
pink, acuminate papules or pimples, in the center of 
which is a black-topped comedo (a. punctata, a. 
papulosa). Syn., acne varus; acne vulgaris; whelk; 
stone pock; acne boutonneuse; acne" Sruptive. a., 
adenoid, see lupus, disseminated follicular, a. 
adolescentium, synonym of a. vulgaris, a. albida, 
synonym of milium, a., arthritic, a form common 
in adults, especially in women at the climacteric, 
and thought to be connected with the arthritic 
•diathesis, a. artificialis, that form that disappears 
when the cause is removed, a. atrophica, synonym 
of a. varioliformis, a., bromine, see a. coagminata. 
a. cachecticorum, a form occurring in debilitated, 
cachectic persons after prolonged wasting diseases, 
as phthisis. The eruption occurs usually on the 
trunk or legs, and is characterized by fiat, dull -red 
papules and pustules of the size of a pin-head to 
that of a lentil, a. cheloidienne, see dermatitis 
papillaris capillitii. a., chlorine, a form occurring 
among men engaged in manufacturing hydrochloric 
acid. The skin of the face is pigmented, comedones 
and pustules of varying size are thickly scattered 
over the face, brow, scalp, neck, back, upper thorax, 
genitals, and inner surface of the thighs. Atheromata 
and curious cornifications resembling those of Darier's 
disease are present on the scalp, a. ciliaris, acne 
at the edges of the eyelids, a. coagminata, a form 
in which the lesions occur in clusters. The name is 
generally applied to the acne due to the internal use 
of bromine or its compounds; the groups of closely 
aggregated pustules form thick patches covered with 
scabs of dried pus, presenting beneath a dusky red 
and often moist surface, a., concrete, see seborrhea 
sicca, a., congestive, see a. rosacea, a. contagiosa, 
an inoculable pustular disease of horses, said to differ 
from horse-pox. a. cornea, conic, discolored out- 
growths, grouped or solitary, consisting of hard 
plugs of sebaceous matter projecting from the 
follicles. Syn., ichthyosis follicularis. a. decalvans, 
an inflammatory disease of hair-follicles with destruc- 
tion of the hairs and atrophy or cicatrization of the 
skin. a. disseminata, synonym of a. vulgaris, a., 
elephantiasic, see a., hypertrophica. a. erythematosa, 
see a. rosacea, a., fluent, see seborrhea oleosa. 
a. frontalis, see a. varioliformis, a. generalis, acne 
that has become general over the surface of the 
body. a. granulosa, see a. cachecticorum. a. horde- 
olans, a. hordeolaris, a form with the pustules 
arranged in linear groups, a. hypertrophica, a stage 
of acne rosacea in which there is a permanent, in- 
tensely red, non-inflammatory, nodulated thickening 
of the tips and sides of the nose, expanding it both 
laterally and longitudinally, a. indurata, a variety 

of acne vulgaris characterized by chronic, livid indur- 
ations, the result of extensive perifollicular infiltra- 
tion. It is especially seen in strumous subjects. 
a., iodine, acne due to the prolonged use of an iodide. 
a. keratosa, a rare form in which a horny plug takes 
the place of the comedo, and by its presence excites 
inflammation, a. luposa, see a. telangiectodes. 
a. medicamentosa, acne due to the internal adminis- 
tration of certain drugs — as iodine, bromine, etc. 
a. mentagra, see sycosis, a. miliaris. 1. Milium. 
2. A pustular variety of acne rosacea, a., miliary 
arthritic, see a. cachecticorum. a., miliary scrofulous, 
a variety of the disease usually occurring on the 
forehead; the pustules are small, discrete, or confluent, 
and often arranged in geometric figures, a. mollus- 
coidea, a. molluscum, see molluscum. contagiosum 
a. necrotica, see a. varioliformis, a. pancreat'ica, 
small cysts in the pancreas due to obstructions of 
the smaller ducts, a. papulosa, see acne, a., peni- 
cilliform, see tinea asbestina. a. picealis, a form of 
dermatitis common in fiber-dressers who work with 
paraffin and in persons otherwise brought in contact 
with tar or its vapor. It involves chiefly the extensor 
surfaces of the limbs. Syn., tar acne, a., pilous, 
a variety in which the pustules involve the hair- 
bulbs, a., pilous, umbilicated, a variety in which 
each pustule is umbilicated and pierced by a hair. . 
a. punctata, a variety of acne vulgaris, a. punctata 
albida, see milium, a. pustulosa, a variety of acne 
vulgaris characterized by abscesses, a. rhinophyma, 
same as a. hypertrophica. a. rodens, synonym of 
a. varioliformis, a. rosacea, a chronic hyperemic or 
inflammatory affection of the skin, situated usually 
upon the face, especially the nose, cheeks, forehead, 
and chin. Syn., rosacea; telangiectasis faciei; ncevus 
araneus; brandy nose; whisky nose; spider nevus; 
spider cancer, a. rosacea congestiva, see a. hyper- 
trophica. a., scorbutica, acne associated with 
scurvy, a. scrofulosa, a variety of acne cachecti- 
corum, occurring in strumous children, a. sebacea, 
synonym of seborrhea, a. sebacea cornea, see 
Darier's disease, a. sebacea molluscum, see atheroma. 
a., sebaceous, crusty, see seborrhea sicca, a., seba- 
ceous, dry, a. sebacea exsiccata, see xeroderma. 
a., sebaceous, fluent, see seborrhea oleosa, a. sim- 
plex, a variety of acne vulgaris, a. Solaris, a form 
due to exposure to the sun, marked by red papules 
that seldom suppurate, occurring on the nose, lower 
eyelids, and cheeks, a. sycosiformis, same as sycosis 
non-parasitica. a., syphilitic, a. syphilitica, a form 
with inflammation in the follicles, appearing in 
scattered, pointed pustules with copper-colored base. 
Syn., acneiform syphiloderm. a. tarsi, an inflamma- 
tory affection of the large sebaceous glands of the 
eyelashes (Meibomian glands), a. telangiectodes, 
a. teleangeiectodes, Kaposi's name for a nonpustular 
disease having its origin in the hair-follicles and pre- 
senting smooth, shining, circumscribed, hemispheric 
nodules, pale-pink to brownish-red in color, from a 
pinhead to a cherry-stone in size. Epithelial cyst 
formation and degeneration of the hair-follicle attend 
it. Syn., disseminated follicular lupus simulating 
acne; acne luposa; lupus miliaris; lupus follicularis 
acneiformis; acute disseminated nodular tuberculous 
lupus, a. tuberata, a. tuberculosa, see a. indurata. 
a., tuberculoid, a., tuberculous, umbilicated, a. 
umbilicata, see molluscum contagiosum. a., varicose, 
a form characterized by dilated superficial capillaries. 
a. varioliformis, a somewhat rare disease, situated 
chiefly about the forehead, at the junction with the 
hairy scalp, and extending into the hair. The 
pustules appear in groups. Its etiology is unknown. 
a. vulgaris, see acne. 

acneform, acneiform (ak'-ne-form, ak-ne' -e-form) . 
Resembling acne. 

acnemia (ak-ne' -me-ah) [&, priv.; whur), leg]. 
I. Deficiency in the calf of the leg. 2. A condition 
marked by total absence of legs. 

acnemous (ak'-ne-mus) [&, priv.; kj^juij, leg]. 
Having imperfect calves; having no legs. 

acnitis (ak-ni'-tis) [&/cjt«7. a point; ms, inflamma- 
tion]. See hydrosadenitis phlegmonosa. 

Acocanthera (ak-o-kan-the'-ra) [okwkt), a point; 
&vdt)p6s, blooming]. A genus of plants of the order 
Apocynacece. A. abyssinica yields an African arrow- 
poison, mshangu, secured from a decoction of the 
branches, the toxic property being due to a crystalline 
glucosid, C29H46O3. A. defter sii and A. schimperi are 
used as arrow-poisons in Africa. The poisonous 
principles are crystalline glucosides. A. venenata 




is a species indigenous to southern Africa; a decoction 
of the bark is used by the natives to poison arrows. 
The poisonous principle is a glucoside, acocantherin, 
similar to or identical with ouabain. 

acoelius (ah-se' -le-us) . See acelius. 

acoesis (ak-o-e'-sis). See audition. 

acognosia (ah-kog-no'-ze-ah). See aceognosia. 

acography (ak-og'-raf-e) [a/cos, a remedy; ypd<petv, 
to write]. A description of remedies. 

acoin (ak'-o-in). Hydrochloride of diparaany- 
silmonoparaphenetylguanidin, a white powder, used 
in infiltration anesthesia by Schleich's method in a 
i : iooo solution of 0.8 % solution of sodium chloride; 
also in 1 % aqueous solution in ophthalmology. 

acolasia (ak-o-la'-ze-ah) [iucoXaaia, intemperance]. 
Unrestrained self-indulgence; lust; intemperance. 

acolastic (ak-o-las'-tik) [d/co\ao-ia, intemperance]. 
Due to, or characterized by, acolasia. 

acology (ak-ol'-o-je) [clkos, remedy; X670S, a dis- 
course]. Aceology, q. v. 

acolous (ah-ko'-lus) [&, priv.; k&\ov, limb]. Having 
no limbs. 

acomia (ah-ko'-me-ah) [a, priv.; Kop-q, hair]. 
Baldness. A deficiency of hair arising from any 

acomous (ah-ko'-mus) [&, priv.; Kop-q, hair]. 
Hairless, blad. 

aconine (ak'-o-nin). C26H39NO11. A decomposi- 
tion product of aconitine. 

aconite (ak'-on-it). See aconitum. 

aconitia (ak-o-nish'-e-ah). Aconitine or aconitina. 

aconitic acid (ak-on-it'-ik). See acid, aconitic. 

aconitin (ak-on'-it-in). See aconitine. 

aconitina (ak-on-it-i'-nah. 1. See aconitine. 2. An 
impure aconitine or combination of principles ob- 
tained from the root of Aconitum napelhcs, as pre- 
pared by Morson. Its salts do not crystallize, but 
form gum-like masses. 

aconitine (ak-on'-it-en), C33H45NO12, aconitina 
(U. S. P.). An intensely poisonous alkaloid from 
Aconitum napellus and other species; it occurs as 
white, fiat crystals of slightly bitter taste. Dose 
j&xj gr. (0.0003 Gm.). Syn., aconiticum; aconitinum. 
a., amorphous, a mixture of several bases found in 
the bulbs of Aconitum napellus. Its principal con- 
stituents are aconitine and picroaconitine. It is 
15 or 20 times less poisonous than pure crystallized 
aconitine. a., British, C36H49NO12 (Wright), the 
alkaloid prepared by Morson from Aconitum ferox. 
It is a yellowish-white, crystalline powder. Dose 
stm gr. (0.0002 Gm.). Also called English aconitine; 
acr aconitine; Morson's napelline or pure aconitine; 
Hubschmann's pseudaconitine; Fliickiger's nepaline. 
a., Duquesnel's, see a. nitrate, a. hydrobromide, 
C33H«NOi2HBr-|-2!H20 (Jurgens), from crystalline 
aconitine, occurring as small white tablets, soluble 
in water and alcohol. Dose the same as the crystal- 
line alkaloid, a. hydrochloride, C33H43NO12HCI + 
3H2O (Jurgens), a white, crystalline powder from 
crystalline aconitine, soluble in water and alcohol. 
Dose about the same as the alkaloid. Syn., aconitine 
chlorhydrate; aconitine hydrochlorite. a. nitrate, 
C33H43NO12HNO3, fine white prisms or rhombic 
crystals; it is highly poisonous and is used in neuralgia 
and rheumatism. Dose about the same as the 
alkaloid. Syn., Duquesnel's aconitine. a. phosphate, 
a salt of aconitine. It occurs as a white, crystalline 
powder or as a yellowish-white, amorphous powder, 
a. salicylate, a salt of aconitine occurring as a white, 
crystalline powder or as a yellowish- white, amorphous 
powder, a. sulphate, (C 3 3H43NOi2)2H 2 S04, a salt of 
aconitine occurring as a crystalline powder, in glass- 
like lumps, or as a yellowish-white, amorphous 

aconitum (ak-on-i' -turn) [L.]. The root of A conitum 
napellus. It possesses a bitter, pungent taste, and 
produces numbness and persistent tingling in the 
tongue and lips. Is very poisonous. It depresses 
the heart, respiration, circulation, and paralyzes the 
sensory nerves. Is antipyretic, diaphoretic, and 
diuretic. The active principle is aconitine. As a 
diaphoretic and depressant to the circulation it is 
highly beneficial in fevers, acute throat affections, 
and inflammation of the respiratory organs. Dose 
\-2 gr. (0.03-0.13 Gm.). aconiti, abstractum, has 
double the strength of the powdered drug or its 
fluid extract. Dose J-i gr. (0.016-0.065 Gm.). 
a., extractum. Dose ^-\ gr. (0.0 1 1-0.02 2 Gm.). 
a., fluidextractum (U. S. P.), has a strength of 1 drop 
to the grain of the powdered drug. Dose 5-2 min. 

0.03-0.13 Cc). a., linimentum (B. P.), aconite 
root, camphor, and rectified spirit, a., oleatum, a 
2 % solution of aconite in oleic acid, a., tinctura 
(U. S. P.), contains aconite 10, alcohol and water 
each sufficient to make 100 parts. Dose 10 min. 
(0.6 Cc). a., unguentum (B. P.), 8 grains to thejounce. 

aconuresis (ah-kon-u-re'-sis) [a, priv.; conari, to 
strive; oupij<ris, urination]. Involuntary discharge of 

acoprosis (ah-kop-ro'-sis) [&, priv.; icoirpos, excre- 
ment]. Deficient formation of feces. 

acoprous (ah-kop'-rus). Characterized by the 
absence of excrement in the bowels. 

acopyrine (ak-o-pi'-rin). A combination of aspirin 
and antipyrine; it is used in rheumatism. Dose, 
o.s gm. 5 or 6 times daily. 

acor (a'-kor) [L.]. Acrimony: acidity, as of the 

acorea (ah-ko-re'-ah) [a, priv.; Kopjj, pupil]. Ab- 
sence of the pupil. 

acoria (ah-ko'-re-ah) [&, priv.; Kopos. satisfaction]. 
1. A greedy or insatiable appetite. 2. Temperance 
in eating. 3. A nervous stomach affection charac- 
terized by a sense of fulness. 

acorin (ak'-o-rin). A bitter glucoside obtained 
from Acorus calamus, or sweet flag. 

acormus (ah-kor'-mus) [a, priv.; Koppds, the trunk]. 
A monster without a trunk or body. 

acorus (ak'-o-rus). See calamus. 

acosmia (ah-koz'-me-ah) [a, priv.; Koapos, order]. 

1. Poor health. 2. Irregularity in the course of a 
disease. 3. Ataxia. 4. Baldness. 5- Any deform- 
ity causing irregularity of the features. Syn., 

acoulalion (ah-koo-la' -le-on) . An instrument used 
in teaching speech to deaf-mutes. 

acoumeter, acouometer (ah-koo'-me-ter, ah-koo- 
om'-e-ter) [aKoveiv, to hear; pkrpov, a measure]. 1. An 
instrument for measuring the acuteness of hearing. 

2. An instrument arranged to give a typical sound of 
a vowel, which may be used as a standard to which 
other sounds may be referred. 

acoumetric, acoumometric (ah-koo-met'-rik, ah-koo- 
mo-met'-rik). Pertaining to the auditory sense or 
to the power of estimating the relative distance of 
sounds. Syn., acusmetricus ; acusmometricus. 

acoumetry (ah-koo'-met-re) [duioveiv, to hear; pkrpov, 
a measure]. The measurement or testing of the 
acuteness of the hearing. 

acouophony (ah-koo-of'-on-e) [bicoveiv, to hear; 
4>uvq, sound]. Same as auscultatory percussion. 

acouoxylon (ah-koo-oks'-il-on) [atcoveiv, to hear; 
£v\ov, wood]. A wooden (pine) stethoscope. 

acouphone (ah-koo-'fon) [tacoveiv, to hear; <pwvii, 
sound]. A mechanism to aid defective hearing. 

acousia (ah-koo'-se-ah) [iicovala, constraint]. 1. In- 
voluntary action. 2. The faculty of hearing; audi- 

acousma (ah-koos- or kowz'-mah) [iucovo-pa, thing 
heard; pi., acousmata]. An auditory hallucination; 
a condition in which imaginary sounds are noticed 
by the patient, are believed by him to be real. 

acousmatagnosis (ah-koos-mat-ag-no'-sis). Inabil- 
ity to memorize sounds. 

acousmatamnesia (ah-koos-mat-am-ne'-ze-ah). In- 
ability to remember sounds. 

acousmetric (ah-koos-met'-rik). See acoumetric. 

acoustic {ah-koos' -tik or a-kows'-tik) [aKovartKos]. 
Relating to the ear or science of sound, a. duct, 
the external meatus of the ear. a. nerve, the eighth 
cranial nerve, a. tetanus, the rapidity of the in- 
duction shocks in a frog's nerve-muscle preparation, 
as measured by the pitch of a vibrating rod. a. 
tubercle, a rounded elevation on either side of the 
floor of the fourth ventricle. 

acousticon (ah-koos' -tik-on). An ear-trumpet. 

acoustics (ah-koos' -tiks or a-kows' -tiks) . The sci- 
ence of sound. 

acquired movements (ak-wi'-erd moov'-mentz). 
Those brought under the influence of the will only 
after conscious and attentive effort and practice, in 
distinction from reacquired movements, those rein- 
stated in their former proficiency after injury to the 
motor regions of the brain. 

acracholia (ak-ra-ko'-le-ah) [&Kpaxo\ia]. A fit of 
passion; passionateness. 

acraconitine. See pseudaconitine. 

acrania, acranial (ah-kra'-ne-ah, ah-kra'-ne-al) [A, 
priv.; Kpavlov, skull]. The condition of a monster 
with partial or complete absence of the cranium. 




acranius (ah-kra'-ne-us) [a, priv.: xpaviov, cranium]. 
A monster wholly or partly destitute of cranium. 

acrasia (ah-kra'-ze-ah) [a, priv.; xpao-is, modera- 
tion], i. Intemperance; lack of self-control. 2. 

acratia (ah-kra'-she-ah) [axpareiv. d, priv.; xparos, 
force]. Impotence, loss of power. 

acraturesis (ah-krat-u-re'-sis) [axpareia, lack of 
strength; ovpyo-is, micturition]. Inability to mic- 
turate from atony of the bladder. 

Acree-Rosenheim formaldehyde reaction in testing 
for proteins. Put a few drops of a solution of 
formaldehyde (1 : 5000) in a solution of protein and 
mix well. After 2-3 minutes allow a little concen- 
trated sulphuric acid to flow into the test-tube 
slowly, so that the two solutions do not mix. A 
violet color appears at the line of contact. 

acribometer (ak-re-bom'-et-ur) [axpifHjs, accurate; 
fiirpov, a measure]. A device for measuring minute 

acrid (ak'-rid) [acer, sharp]. Pungent; irritating. 

acridine (ak'-rid-in) [acrid], C13H9N. A substance 
produced by heating anilin and salicylic aldehyde to 
260 with ZnCh. It dissolves in dilute acids with a 
beautiful green fluorescence, and has a very pungent 
odor. p 

acrimony (ak'-rim-o-ne) [acrimonia]. Irritating 
quality, pungency, corrosiveness: an acrid quality 
or state. 

acrinia (ah-krin'-e-ah) [&, priv.; xplveiv, to separ- 
ate]. Diminution or suppression of a secretion or 

acrinyl sulphocyanate (ak'-rin-il). An acrid and 
vesicating substance found in white mustard. 

acrisia (ah-kris'-e-ah) [&, priv.; crisis]. The 
absence of a crisis from a disease; an unfavorable 
crisis or turn in the course of an attack of disease. 

acritical (ah-krit'-ik-al) [&, priv.; xpiais, a crisis]. 
Without a crisis; not relating to a crisis. 

acritochromacy (ah-krit-o-kro'-mas-e) [axpiros, un- 
distinguished; xp«m«. color]. Color-blindness, achro- 

acroaesthesia. See acroesthesia. 

acroanesthesia (ak-ro-an-es-the'-ze-ah) [axpov, ex- 
tremity; Apaiadrjaia, want of feeling]. Anesthesia 
of the extremities. 

acroarthritis (ak-ro-ar-thri'-tis). Arthritis of the 

acroasphyxia (ak-ro-as-fiks'-e-ah) [axpov, extremity; 
d, priv.; er#6£«, pulse]. Asphyxia of the extremities. 
Phenomenon of Raynaud. 

acroblast (ak'-ro-blast) [axpov, extremity; /SXao-rds, a 
germ]. Kollmann's term for that part of the ger- 
minal membrane of the embryo which gives rise to 
blood-vessels filled with blood and probably con- 
nective tissue. 

acrobystia (ak-ro-bis'-te-ah) [axpoffvo-rla, the fore- 
skin]. 1. The prepuce. 2. Circumcision. 

acrobystiolith (ak-ro-bis'-te-o-lith) [axpofivarla, the 
prepuce; \L9os, a stone]. A preputial calculus. 

acrobystitis {ak-ro-bis-ti'-tis). Inflammation of the 

acrocarpous (ak-ro-kar'-pus) [axpov, extremity; 
Kapirfc, fruit]. In biology, fruiting at the tips, as 

acrocephalia (ak-ro-sef-a'-le-ah) [axpov, the sum- 
mit; KtQahii, the head]. Deformity of the head, the 
top of which is more or less pointed. 

acrocephalic, acrocephalous (ak-ro-sef'-al-ik, ak-ro- 
sef'-al-us). Characterized by or affected with acro- 

acrocephaly (ak-ro-sef-al-e) [axpov, a point; /ce<£aXij, 
the head]. Same as acrocephalia. 

acrocheir (ak'-ro-kir) [axpov, point; x**P. hand]. 
The ends of the fingers considered together; the 
forearm and hand. 

acrochordon (ak-ro-kor'-dori) [axpoxopS&v, literally, 
the end of a catgut cord]. A pedunculated or pensile 
wart. Synonym of molluscum fibrosum. 

acrocinesis, acrocinetic. See akrokinesis, akrokinetic. 

acrocyanosis (ak-ro-si-an-o'-sis) [axpov, extremity; 
Kvavos, blue]. Blueness of the extremities due to 
vasomotor disturbance. 

acrodermatitis {ak-ro-der-mat-i'-tis) [axpov, ex- 
tremity; bkpixa, skin; it«, inflammation]. Inflamma- 
tion of the skin of an extremity, a., perstans, acro- 
dermatitis which constantly recurs. 

acrodigitalins (ak-ro-dij'-it-al-ins). Digitalis sub- 
stances which do not possess the general character- 
istics of glucosides. 

acrodynia, acrodyny (ak-ro-din'-e-ah, ak' -ro-din-e) 
[axpov, extremity; dduvrj, pain]. 1. Epidemic ery- 
thema; a disease closely allied to pellagra. Char- 
acterized mainly by pricking pains in the palm and 
soles, hyperesthesia followed by anesthesia of these 
parts, and an erythematous eruption, preceded by 
bullae, chiefly on hands and feet. Followed by 
exfoliation and dark-brown or black pigmentation. 
Syn., pedionalgia epidemica; erythema epidemicum. 
2. Clarus' term for a rheumatic disorder of the 

acroesthesia (ak-ro-es-the'-ze-ah) [axpos, extreme; 
axpov, extremity; alad-qo'is, sensation]. 1. Exag- 
gerated sensitiveness or sensibility. 2. Pain in the 
extremities. < 

acrokinesis (ak-ro-kin-e'-sis) [axpos, extreme; 
xivrjo-Ls, movement]. Abnormal freedom of action, 
as in certain cases of hysteria. 

acrokinetic (ak-ro-kin-et'-ik). Characterized by 

acrolein (ak-ro'-le-iri) [acer, sharp; oleum, oil], 
C3H4O. Acrylic aldehyde. A colorless, mobile 
liquid, of pungent odor, derived from the decom- 
position of glycerol. 

acromania (ak-ro-ma'-ne-ah) [axpos, extreme; 
navia, madness]. Incurable insanity. 

acromastitis (ak-ro-mas-ti'-tis) [axpov, extremity; 
fiaa-rds, breast; ins, inflammation]. Inflammation 
of the nipple. 

acromastium (ak-ro-mas'-te-um) [axpov, extremity; 
naaros, breast]. The nipple. 

acromegalia (ak-ro-meg-a'-le-ah). See acromegaly. 

acromegaly (ak-ro-meg'-al-e). Abnormal develop- 
ment of the extremities associated with disease of 
the pituitary body or thyroid gland. Also known as 
Marie's disease. 

acromelalgia (ak-ro-mel-al'-je-ah). See erythro- 

acromial (ak-ro'-me-al) [axpov, the summit, w/zos, 
the shoulder]. Relating to the acromion, a. process, 
the acromion. 

acromicria (ak-ro-mik'-re-ah) [axpov, extremity; 
Hixpos, small]. Abnormal smallness of the extremi- 
ties. A condition in which there is a reduction in 
the size of the nose, ears, and face, as well as hands 
and feet. 

acromioclavicular (ak-ro-me-o-kla-vik'-u-lar) [acro- 
mion; clavicle]. Relating to the acromion and the 

acromiocoracoid (ak-ro-me-o-kor'-ak-oid). Pertain- 
ing to the acromion and the coracoid process. 

acromiohumeral (ak-ro-me-o-hu'-mer-al) [acromion; 
humerus]. Relating to the acromion and the hum- 
erus, a. muscle, the deltoid. 

acromion (ak-ro'-me-on) [axpov, the summit; 2>nos, 
the shoulder]. The triangular-shaped process at 
the summit of the scapula. 

acromiothoracic {ak-ro-me-o-tho-ras'-ik) [acromion; 
6u>pa£, thorax]. Relating to the shoulder and thorax. 

acromphalus (ak-rom'-fal-us) [axpov, point; 6/x<l>a\6s, 
the navel]. 1. The center of the umbilicus, to which 
the cord is attached. 2. The first stage of umbilical 
hernia, marked by a pouting of the navel. 3- The 
remains of the umbilical cord attached to the child. 

acromyle (ak-rom' -il-e) [axfov, point; niihn, patella]. 
The patella. _ 

acronarcotic (ak-ro-nar-kot'-ik) [acer, sharp; nar- 
cotic]. 1. Both acrid and narcotic. 2. An agent 
which combines an irritating and obtunding effect; 
acting directly upon the peripheral nerves when 
applied externally, or upon the brain and spinal cord, 
producing paralysis, convulsions, and narcosis. 

acroneurosis (ak-ro-nu-ro'-sis) [axpov, extremity; 
vevpov, a nerve]. Any neurosis manifesting itself 
in the extremities. 

acronychous (ak-ron'-ik-us) [6.Kp6w\os]. Having 
claws, nails, or hoofs; achronychous. 

acronyx (ak'-ro-niks) [axpov, extremity; 6™£, a 
nail]. Ingrowing of the nail. 

acroparalysis {ak-ro-par-al'-is-is) [axpov, extremity; 
■xapakvois, palsy]. Paralysis of the extremities. 

acroparesthesia (ak-ro-par-es-the'-ze-ah) [axpov, 
extremity; 7rapd, around; alo-e-qavs, sensation]. 1. Ab- 
normal or perverted sensation in the extremities. 
2. Extreme or confirmed paresthesia. 

acropathology (ak-ro-path-ol'-o-je) [axpov, ex- 
tremity; irados, disease; \6yos, treatise]. The path- 
ology of the extremities. 

acropathy (ak-rop'-a-the) [axpov, extremity; iraQos, 
disease]. Any disease of the extremities. 




acrophobia {ak-ro-fo'-be-ah) [aicpov, a height; <£6/Sos, 
fear]. Morbid dread of being at a great height. 

acroposthia (ak-ro-pos'-the-ah) [d/cpos, extreme; 
■n-oadr]. foreskin]. The distal part of the prepuce. 

acroposthitis (ak-ro-pos-thi'-tis) [d/cpos, extreme; 
iroo-Or), foreskin]. Inflammation of the prepuce. 

acrorrheuma (ak-ro-ru'-mah) [aicpov, an extremity; 
pevfia, a flux]. Rheumatism of the extremities. 

acroscleriasis (ak-ro-skle-ri'-as-is) [aicpov, extremity; 
o-kXtjpos, hard]. Sclerotic changes in the extremities. 

acroscleroderma (ak-ro-skler-o-der'-mah). See 

acrose (ak'-roz). A substance isolated from con- 
densation-products of glycerose (an oxidation- 
product of glycerol) and formaldehyde, forming the 
starting-point for the synthesis of fruit-sugar, grape- 
sugar, and mannose. 

acrosome (ak'-ro-som) [aicpov, extremity: o-&p.a, 
body]. A small body at the front part of the head 
of the spermatozoon. 

acrosphacelus {ak-ro-sfas'-el-us). Gangrene of the 

Acrostichum (ak-ros'-tik-um) [aicpov, a. point; cn-i'xos, 
a line of writing]. A genus of ferns of the order 
Polypodiacece. A. aureum, a tropical species; the 
rhizome is used in decoction for dysentery and 
disease of the spleen. A salt prepared from the 
leaves is applied to ulcers. A. dichotomum, an 
Arabian species [medjabese or mejahoese]; the leaves 
are applied to burns. A. flavens, a South American 
species, used as a laxative. A. furcatum, an Austra- 
lian species having edible rhizomes. A. huacsaro, 
a Peruvian species. It is said to be sudorific and 
anthelmintic. A.sorbifolium, a West Indian species. 
The juice is mixed with oil, ginger, and pepper, and 
used as a cataplasm in sick headache. 

acrotarsium {ak-ro-tar'-se-um) [axpov, the summit; 
Taptros, the tarsus]. The instep. 

acroteria (ak-ro-te'-re-ah) [d/cpwn7pta]. The ex- 

acroteriasis (ak-ro-te-ri'-a-sis) [d/cpwr^pidXeij/, to 
cut off the extremities]. Mutilation by the loss of an 
extremity, especially a hand or foot. In teratology, 
the absence of such a part. 

acroteriasmus {ak-ro-te-ri-az' -mus) . Same as 

acroteric (ak-ro-ter'-ik) [aKpcorhpia, the extremities]. 
Relating to the extremities; applied to conditions in 
which the extremities are most affected. 

acrothymion, or acrothymum (ak-ro-thi'-me-on, 
ak-ro-thi'-mum) [aicpov, summit; thyme], A rugose 
wart with a broad top. 

acrotic (ah-krot'-ik) [a, priv.; kpotos, a striking]. 
i. Any defective beating of the pulse; failure of the 
pulse. 2. [d/v-pos, extreme, outmost]. Relating to 
the glands of the skin; affecting the surface. 

acrotizm {ah' -krot-izm) . See acrotic (i). 

acrotrophoneurosis {ak-ro-trof-o-nu-ro'-sis) [aicpov, 
an extremity; rpocpr], nourishment; vevpov, nerve]. A 
trophic disturbance of the extremities of central 

acrylaldehyde (ak-ril-al' -de-hid). See acrolein. 

act (akt) [agere, to put in motion]. The fulfilment 
of a purpose or function, a., imperative, the act of 
an insane person in response to an imperative morbid 
impulse, a., sexual, see coitus. 

Actaea (ak-te'-ah) [cucttj, the elder]. A genus of 
ranunculaceous plants having active medicinal 
qualities. A. alba, the white cohosh, has much the 
same qualities as A. spicata. A. cimicifuga and A. 
racemosa are more important. See cimicifuga. A. 
rubra, red cohosh, and A. spicata are purgative and 

actinic {ak-tin'-ik) [&ktls, a ray]. Those rays of 
the spectrum capable of producing chemical changes; 
found in the violet and ultraviolet parts. 

actinism (ak'-tin-izm) [AktIs, a ray]. i. The 
chemical quality of light, or of the sun's rays. 2. The 
radiation of heat or light, or that branch of science 
which treats of it. 

actinium (ak-tin'-e-um) [see actinic]. A radio- 
active substance, thought to be an element, found 
in pitchblende. 

actinobacillosis (ak-lin-o-bas-il-o'-sis) [6lktLs, ray; 
bacillus]. A disease of cattle and other domestic 
animals due to a bacillus which produces radiate 
structures in the affected tissues. 

actinobolia (ak-tin-o-bo'-le-ah) [d*cTii'o/3oXiu', to 
radiate]. 1. A term formerly used to express the 

process by which the impulses of the will are con- 
veyed to the different parts of the body. 2. Von 
Helmont's term for the phenomena now included 
under hypnotism. 

actinobolism, actinobolismus {ac-tin-ob'-o-lizm, 
ak-tin-ob-o-liz' -mus) . See actinobolia. 

actinocerate, actinocerous (ak-tin-os'-er-at, -us) 
[clktLs, a ray; /cepas, a horn]. Having horn-like 
processes radiately arranged. 

actinochemistry {ak-tin-o-kem' -is-tre) [oktU, a ray; 
xr?p.«a, chemistry]. Chemistry dealing with decom- 
position of substances by light. 

actinocongestin {ak-tin-o-kon-jes'-tin) . A sub- 
stance derived from the tentacles of Actinia; it con- 
sists of a toxin and a proteid and when injected into 
animals causes congestion of the viscera. 

actinodermatitis (ak-tin-o-der-mat-i'-tis) [d/crts, a 
ray; dermatitis]. Cutaneous lesions produced by 
application of the rontgen-rays. Syn., radioder- 

actinogram (ak-tin'-o-gram) [cucrls, a ray; ypafaiv, to 
write]. The record made by the actinograph. 

actinograph {ak-tin'-o-graf). An apparatus to 
measure the actinism of sunlight. Skiagraph. 

actinography. See actinology. 

actinology {ak-iin-oV -o-je) [olktIs, a ray; \6yos, a 
discourse]. 1. In biology, that kind of homological 
relation that exists between the successive segments, 
regions, or divisions of a part or organ, in that they 
radiate or spring from it. 2. The science of the 
chemical action of radiant light: actinography. 3. The 
part of zoology which treats of the radiata. 

actinolyte (ak-lin'-o-lit) [cucrls, a ray; \veiv, to 
loose]. An apparatus designed for use in actino- 

actinometer (ak-tin-om'-et-er) [cucrls, a ray; p.krpov, 
measure]. An apparatus for determining the in- 
tensity of actinic rays. 

actinomyces (ak-tin-om'-i-sez) [cucrls, a ray; hvktis, 
a fungus; pi., actinomycetes], A vegetable parasite, 
the cause of the disease actinomycosis. It is also 
called the ray-fungus. It probably belongs to the 
cladothrix group of schizomycetes. As seen in 
tissues it presents itself in the form of a roset of fine 
filaments clubbed at their outer ends; in the center 
are numerous coccus-like bodies, the spores of the 

actinomycoma (ak-tin-o-mi-ko'-mah) [clktIs, a ray; 
plvks, a fungus; pi., actinomycomata], A tumor such 
as is characteristic of actinomycosis. 

actinomycosis (ak-tin-o-mi-ko'-sis) [d/cns, a ray; 
P-VKTJS, a fungus]. A parasitic, infectious, inoculable 
disease, first observed in cattle, and also occurring 
in man, and characterized by the manifestations of 
chronic inflammation, with or without suppuration, 
often resulting in the formation of granulation tumors, 
especially about the jaws. The disease is due to 
the presence of a parasite, the ray-fungus, or acti- 
nomyces. Syn., lumpy-jaw; holdfast; wooden tongue. 

actinomycotic (ak-tin-o-mi-kot'-ik). Pertaining to 

actinotherapy (ak-tin-o-lher'-ap-e) [cucrls, a ray; 
depaireia, therapy]. The therapeutic use of actinic 

action (ak'-shun) [agere, to do or perform]. A 
doing; a working; especially the performance of a 
function, a., after-, the brief persistence of negative 
variation of the electric current in a tetanized muscle. 
a.s, animal, voluntary movements, a. of arrest, 
see inhibition, a., automatic, see a., reflex, a., 
capillary, see attraction, capillary, a., catalytic, a., 
contact, see catalysis. a., chemical, see reaction. 
a., diastaltic, see a., reflex, a., electro-capillary, 
electric phenomena resulting from chemical reaction 
between dissimilar fluids connected by a capillary 
medium, a., inhibitory, see inhibition, a., local, the 
production of currents between different parts of the 
same cell of a galvanic battery, a.s, natural, the 
vegetative functions, a.s, pseudomotor, Heiden- 
hain's term for phenomena resulting from stimulation 
of the chorda tympani after section of the hypo- 
glossal nerve; movements due to vascular or lym- 
phatic engorgement, a., reflex, an involuntary 
movement of part of the body resulting from an 
impression carried by a sensory of afferent nerve to 
a center, and then sent back by an efferent nerve to 
the part, usually at or near the source of irritation. 
a., safety-valve, the incomplete closure of the. tri- 
cuspid valve, especially in cases of resistance in the 




pulmonary circulation, a., sexual, functioning of 
the generative apparatus, a.s, vital, those essential 
to the continuance of vitality, as of the heart and 

activate (ak'-liv-at). To render active. 

activation (ak-tiv-a'-shun). The process of acti- 

activator (ak'-tiv-a-lor). I. An agent which 
renders active some other chemical agent such as 
an enzyme. Also known as kinase, or coenzyme in 
the case of ferments. The term is generally applied 
to biochemical reactions. 2. The internal secretion 
of the pancreas. 

active (ak'-tiv) [see action]. 1. Energetic; decisive; 
as active treatment. 2. Due to an intrinsic force as 
distinguished from passive — e. g., active hyperemia. 
a., optically, possessing optic rotatory power. 

activity (ak-tiv'-it-e) [agere, to do or perform]. 
Capacity for acting; sensibility; vitality; potency; 
energy, a., optic, the property of certain chemical 
molecules to rotate the plane of polarization, due 
to the presence of one or several asymmetric carbon 
atoms in the molecule of every optically active body. 
Cf. rotatory power, a., sense of muscular, see muscu- 
lar sense, under muscular. 

actol (ak'-iol). Trade name for silver lactate. 

actual (ak'-chu-al) [agere, to do or perform]. Real; 
effective, a. cautery, see cautery. 

actuation (ak-chu-a'-shun). The mental function 
that is exercised between the impulse of volition and 
its performance. 

acuclosure (ak-u-klo'-zhur) [acus, a needle ; claudere, 
to close]. A method of arresting hemorrhage by the 
aid of a needle which holds the artery closed for a 
day. It embraces acupressure and acutorsion. 

acuductor (ak-u-duk'-tor) [acus, a needle; ducere, 
to lead]. A needle carrier. 

acufilopressure (ak-u-fi'-lo-pres-ur) [acus, needle; 
filum, a thread; pressure]. A combination of acu- 
pressure and ligation. 

acuition (ak-u-ish'-un) [acuere, to sharpen]. 
Increased effect of a drug's action by the addition 
of another drug. 

acuity (ak-u'-it-e) [see acuition]. Acuteness or 
clearness, as acuity of vision. 

aculeate (ak-u'-le-at) [aculeus, a sting, prickle]. 
In botany, armed with prickles, i. e., aculei; as the 
rose and brier. In biology, having a sting. 

acumeter (ak-u'-me-ier). An instrument for testing 
hearing. See acoumeter. 

acuminate (ak-u'-min-at) [acuminatus, pointed; 
acute] . Sharp-pointed . 

acupression, acupressure (ak-u-presh'-un, ak'-u- 
presh-ur) [acus, a needle; pressura, pressure]. The 
operation to stop hemorrhage by compressing the 
artery with a needle inserted into the tissues upon 
either side. 

acupuncture (ak'-u-punk-chur) [acus, a needle; 
pungere, to prick]. Puncture of the skin or tissue 
by one or more needles for the relief of pain, the exit 
of fluid, the coagulation of blood in an aneurysm, etc. 

acus (a'-kus) [L.]. A (surgical) needle. 

acusia (ah-koo'-ze-ah). See acousia (2). 

acusimeter, acusiometer (ah-koo-sim'-et-er, ah-koo- 
se-om'-et-er). Same as acoumeter. 

acustica (ah-koos'-tik-ah). See acoustics. 

acusticus (ah-koo'-stik-us) [L.]. The auditory, or 
eighth cranial, nerve. 

acute (ak-uf) [acutus, sharp]. Having a rapid 
onset, a short course, and pronounced symptoms 
and termination. Sharp, severe. 

acute naculum (ak-u-ten-ak'-u-lum) [acus, a needle; 
tenaculum pi., acutenacula]. A needle-holder. 

acuteness {ak-uf -nes) [acutus, sharp]. The quality 
of being acute, rapid or sharp. Referring to vision, 
used as a synonym of keenness or acuity. 

acuticostal (ak-ut-i-kos'-tal) [acutus, sharp; costa, 
a rib]. Having projecting ribs. 

acutorsion (ak-u-tor'-shun) [acus, a needle; torsion]. 
The twisting of an artery with a needle as a means 
of controlling hemorrhage. 

acyanoblepsia (ah-si-an-o-blep'-se-ah) [&, priv.; 
Kbavos, blue; (SKkireiv, to look. Same as acy anopsia. 

acyanobleptic (ah-si-an-o-blep'-tik). Affected with 
or pertaining to acyanoblepsia. 

acyanopsia (ah-si-an-op' -se-ah) [&, priv.; nvavos, 
blue; 6\pis, sight]. Inability to distinguish blue 

acyclia (ah-sik'-le-ah) [6., priv.; icvicXeZv, to circu- 
late]. Arrested circulation of body-fluids. 

acyclic (ah-sik'-lik) [&, priv.; kvk\i.k6s, circular]. 
1. In botany, not whorled. 2. Not characterized by 
a self-limited course. Cf. Cyclic. 3. In chemistry, 
aliphatic, having the structure of the open chain 

acyesis (ah-si-e' -sis) [a, priv.; kvt)<tk, pregnancy]. 
1. Sterility of the female. 2. Non-pregnancy. 3. 
Incapacity for natural delivery. Syn., aciesis. 

acyeterion (ah-si-et-e' -re-on) [see acyesis]. An 
agent to prevent conception. 

acyetic {ah-si-et'-ik) [&, priv.; [icvri<ns, pregnancy]. 
Relating to acyesis. 

acyl (as'-il). An acid organic radical derived 
from an organic acid by the removal of a hydroxyl 
group (OH). 

acyoblepsia (as-i-o-blep'-se-ah). Same as acyano- 

acystia {ah-sis'-te-ah) [a, priv.; kwttis, bladder]. 
Absence of the bladder. 

acystinervia (ah-sis-tin-er' -ve-ah) [&, priv.; kwttis, 
bladder; nervus, a nerve]. Paralysis or lack of nerve 
stimulus in the bladder. 

acystonervia, acystoneuria (ah-sis-to-nur' -ve-ah, 
-nu'-re-ah). See acystinervia. 

a.d. Abbreviation for Latin auris dextra, right ear. 

ad [ad, to]. A Latin preposition signifying to, 
toward, at, etc. ; as, ad libitum, at pleasure or according 
to discretion. 

ad., or add. A contraction of adde, or additur, 
meaning, add, or let there be added; used in pre- 
scription writing. 

adacrya {ah-dak'-re-ah) [6., priv.; SSucpvov, tear]. 
Absence or deficiency of the secretion of tears. 

adactyl (ah-dak'-til) [A, priv.; 8oktv\os, digit]. 
1. Without fingers or without toes. 2. A mon- 
strosity that has an absence of digits. 

adactylia (ah-dak-til'-e-ah) [&, priv.; S&ktvXos, a 
finger]. Absence of the digits. 

adactylism (ah-dak'-til-izm) [&, priv.; 8&ktv\os, a 
finger]. The absence of the digits. 

adactylous (ah-dak'-til-us), see adactylism. 

adalin (ad'-al-in). A proprietary preparation 
used as a sedative and hypnotic. It is said to be 
bromodiethylacetyl urea. 

adamantin {ad-am-an' -tin) [&8&.fias, adamant]. 
Pertaining to adamant, a. cement, a substance 
used for filling teeth, consisting of finely powdered 
silex or pumice stone mixed with an amalgam of 
mercury and silver. See amalgam, a. substance, 
the enamel of the teeth. 

adamantinoma (ad-am-an-tin-o' '-mah) [&§apas, ad- 
amant; 6/ia, tumor]. An epithelial tumor re- 
sembling in structure the enamel organ of a developing 

adamantoblast (ad-am-an'-to-blasf). An enamel- 
cell; a columnar epithelial cell from which the enamel 
of the teeth is developed. Ameloblast. 

Adamkiewicz, demilune cells of (ad-ahm'-ke-a-vils) 
[Albert Adamkiewicz, Austrian pathologist, 1850- 
]. A peculiar form of nerve-corpuscle lying 
below the neurilemma of medullated nerve-fibers; 
it is stained yellow by safranin. A.'s reaction for 
proteins. To a mixture of one volume concentrated 
sulphuric acid and two volumes glacial acetic acid 
add the protein. At the ordinary temperature a 
reddish-violet color is obtained slowly but more 
quickly on heating. The liquid has also a feeble 
fluorescence, and gives an absorption band between 
the lines B and F in the solar spectrum. 

adamon (ad'-am-on). A preparation used as a 
substitute for valerian; it is a sedative. 

Adams's operation (Sir William Adams, English 
surgeon, 1760-1829: William Adams, English surgeon, 
1820- ]. Osteotomy for ankylosis of the hip-joint, 
the neck of the femur being divided subcutaneously, 
within the capsule. 2. Corectopy; the iris is drawn 
into a small, corneal incision, in order to change the 
position to the natural pupil. 3. For deviated nasal 
septum; the bent cartilaginous septum is forcibly 
straightened by means of special flat, parallel-bladed 
forceps. 4. For Dupuytren's contraction, when the 
bands extend far down the sides of the finger. It 
consists in multiple subcutaneous section of the pal- 
mar fascia from without inward. 5. For ectropion; 
a triangular wedge is removed from the whole 
thickness of the lower lid, and the edges are united 
by sutures. 6. Iliac colotomy; a modification of 
Cripps' operation, in which a vertical incision is 
made external to the epigastric artery. 7. For 
prolapsus uteri, see Alexander's operation. 




Adam's apple. See Potnum adami. 

Adams-Stokes syndrome or disease [Robert 
Adams, Scotch physician, 1794-1861; William Stokes, 
Irish physician, 1804-1878]. A symptom-complex 
consisting of bradycardia in association with epilepti- 
form or apoplectiform seizures. Heart-block is often 

Adams's disease. See Adams-Stokes' disease. 

Adansonia digitata {ad-an-so' -ne-ah dij-it-a'-tah) 
[Michel Adanson, French naturalist, 1727-1806]. 
The baobab-tree, a native of Africa. The bark is 
used in the form of an infusion, 1 oz. to I pint, as a 
remedy for intermittent fever. 

adansonine {ad-an'-so-nin). A febrifugal alkaloid 
from the leaves and bark of Adansonia digitato. 

adanto blaka. A malady common among the 
negroes of the Gold Coast and of frequent preva- 
lence in the tropic zone; it is due to an animal 

adaptation {ad-ap-ia'-shon) [adaptor e, to adjust]. 
In biology, favorable organic modifications suiting a 
plant or animal to its environment, a. of the retina, 
the faculty possessed by the retina of accommodating 
the power of vision to a diminished amount of light, 
as in a darkened room. 

adapter {ad-ap'-ter) [adaptare, to adjust]. 1. Any- 
thing which serves the purpose of fitting one thing to 
another. An instrument by means of which the 
direct electric current may be adapted to the various 
forms of electrotherapeutic treatment. 2. A piece 
of tubing used to connect the neck of a retort with 
a receiver. 3. A microscope attachment for center- 
ing or decentering the illuminating apparatus. 
4. A collar used to fit an objective to a different nose- 
piece than that for which it was made. 

adarticulation {ad-ar-tik-u-W -shun) [ad, to; articu- 
latio, a jointing]. See arthrodia. 

adde {ad'-e) [imperative sing- of addere, to add]. 
Add; a direction used in prescription writing. 

ad deliq. Abbreviation of ad deliquium [L.]. To 
the point of fainting. 

addephagia (ad-e-fa'-je-ah) [L.]. See bulimia. 

addiment {ad'-im-ent) \addere, to add]. Ehrlich's 
and Morgenroth's term (1899) for an active thermola- 
bile substance (destroyed by a temperature of 56 C.) 
contained in normal serum and capable of rendering 
active the immune body of Ehrlich and setting up 
bacteriolysis and hemolysis. See complement. 

addimentary (ad-im-ent'-ar-e). Pertaining to addi- 

Addison's anemia [Thomas Addison, English 
physician, 1793-1860]. Pernicious anemia. A.'s 
disease, a disease of the suprarenal capsules, first 
described by Addison, and characterized by tuber- 
culous infiltration of the capsules, discoloration of 
the skin, progressive anemia, and asthenia, ending in 
death from exhaustion. Bronzed skin may occur 
without disease of the suprarenal capsules, and the 
latter have been the seat of morbid processes without 
an accompanying change in the skin. Syn., melasma 
suprarenale; dermatomelasma suprarenale; cutis area; 
bronzed skin. A.'s keloid, morphea. A.'s pill, 
Guy's pill. 

additamentum {ad-it-am-en' -turn) [L.]. Any appen- 
dix, as an epiphysis, a. ad sacrolumbalem, see 
muscles, a. coli, the appendix vermiformis. a. 
necatum, the olecranon, a. suturae lambdoidalis, 
the occipitomastoid suture, a. ulnae, the radius. 
a. uncatum ulnae, the olecranon. 

addition {ad-ish'-un) [addere, to add]. The 
formation of a molecule by the direct union of two 
or more different molecules without decomposition. 
a. compound, see under compound, a. product, see 
under product, a. reaction, see under reaction. 

adducens {ad-du'-senz) [adducere, to bring toward]. 
An adductor, a term applied to certain muscles. 
a. oculi, the internal rectus muscle of the eye. 

adducent {ad-du' -sent) [see adducens]. Performing 

adduct {ad-ukt') [adducere, to bring forward]. To 
draw toward the median line of a body. 

adduction {ad-uk'-shun) [see adducens]. Any 
movement whereby a part is brought toward another 
or toward the median line of the body. 

adductor (ad-duk'-tor) [adducere, to bring forward]. 
Any muscle effecting adduction, a. brevis, hallucis, 
longus, magnus, minimus, obliquus hallucis, obliquus 
pollicis, transversus hallucis, transversus pollicis; 
see muscles, table of. 

adelodermatous, adelodermous (ad-el-o-der'-mat- 

us, ad-el-o-der'-mus) [0577X05, not seen; &kpp.a, skin]. 
Having concealed integument, as invaginated tracts. 

adelomorphous {ad-el-o-mor'-fus) [aSrjXos, not seen; 
fioptjjrj, form]. Not clearly defined; applied to certain 
cells in the gastric glands. 

adelphia {ad-el'-fe-ah). A form of monstrosity 
characterized by the union of two organisms above, 
the lower portions being separated. 

adelphotaxy (ad-el-fo-taks'-e) [a8e\<f>6s, brother- 
hood; Taxraeiv, to arrange]. The tendency of motile 
cells to arrange themselves into definite positions. 

ademonia (ad-e-mo'-ne-ah) [a, priv.; 8r)noi>la, 
trouble, distress]. Mental distress. 

ademosyne (ad-e-mos'-in-e) [aSruxoavvr], trouble, 
distress]. Depression of spirits; home-sickness. 

aden {a' -den) [adfy, an acorn, a gland]. A gland; 
a bubo. 

adenalgia {ad-en-aV -je-ah) [aden; aXyos, pain]. 
Glandular pain. 

adenase (ad'-en-as). An enzyme which converts 
adenin to hypoxanthin. 

adenasthenia {ad-en-as-the' -ne-ah) [aden; a.<rQkvtia, 
weakness]. 1. Functional weakness of a gland. 
2. A disorder of the stomach characterized by 
diminished and enfeebled secretion without anatomic 
lesion, a. gastrica, see adenasthenia (2). 

adendric {ah-den'-drik) [a, priv.; devdpov, tree]. 
Unprovided with dendrons. 

adendritic (ah-den-drit'-ik) [a, priv.; bkvdpov, tree]. 
Without dendrites. 

adenectomy (ad-en-ek'-to-me) [aden; inTop.ii, ex- 
cision]. The excision of a gland. 

adenectopia (ad-en-ek-to'-pe-ah) [aden; €ktottos, 
away from a place]. A condition in which the 
gland does not occupy its proper position. 

adenectopic (ad-en-ek-top'-ik). Pertaining to 

adenemphratic {ad-en-em-frat'-ik). Pertaining to 
adenemphraxis. _ 

adenemphraxis {ad-en-em-fraks'-is) [aden; epuppaZio; 
a stoppage]. . Glandular obstruction. 

Aden fever. See dengue. A. ulcer. See phagedena 

adenia {ad-e' -ne-ah) [aden]. A hyperplasia of the 
tissue of lymphatic glands leading to the formation 
of tumors. See lymphadenoma. a.s, angibromic, 
Piorry's term for diseases of the glandular adnexa of 
the digestive tract, a., leukemic, adenia associated 
with a leukemic condition of the blood, a., simple, 
that form which is unaccompanied by any increase 
in the number of the white blood-corpuscles. A 
synonym of Hodgkin's disease. 

adenic {ad-en' -ik) [aden]. Relating to or of the 
nature of a gland. 

adeniform {ad-en' -e-f or m) [aden; forma, resem- 
blance]. Shaped like a gland. 

adenin {ad'-en-in). See adenine. 

adenine {ad' -en-en) [aden], C5H5N5. 6 amino- 
purin. The simplest member of the uric-acid group 
of leukomaines, apparently formed by polymerization 
of hydrocyanic acid, first discovered in the pancreas. 
It occurs, with other bases, as a decomposition- 
product of nuclein, and may be obtained from all 
animal and vegetable tissues rich in nucleated cells. 
It crystallizes in leaflets with pearly luster. It exists 
abundantly in the liver and urine of leukocythemic 
patients. Adenine is not poisonous. 

adeninehy poxanthine {ad-en-en-hi-po-zanth '-en) . 
C5H5N5+C5H4N4O. A compound of adenine and 
hypoxanthine first observed by Kossel and isolated 
by Bruhns, occurring in thick, starch-like, semi- 
transparent masses, becoming white and chalky. 

adenitis {ad-en-i'-tis) [aden; vrts, inflammation]. 
Inflammation of a gland. Syn., phlegmasia adenosa; 
phlegmasia glandulosa. a. cervicalis syphilitica, an 
engorgement of the cervical lymphatic glands; a 
sign of syphilitic infection, a. cubitalis, Griinfeld's 
term for inflammation of the epitrochlear lymphatic 
gland, a. hyperplastica, Griinfeld's term for a bubo 
in which plastic exudation predominates, a. pubica, 
bubo of the public region, often accompanied by 
suppurative lymphangitis of the dorsum of the penis. 
a., syphilitic, primitive, see bubo, syphilitic, a. 
universalis, a widespread induration of the lymphatic 
glands accompanying primary syphilis. 

adenization {ad-en-i-za' -shun) [aden]. 1. The 
assuming of a glandular appearance. 2. Adenoid 

adeno- [aSr/v, a gland]. A prefix denoting relation 
to glands. 




adenoblast (ad'-en-o-blasf) [adeno-; /SXao-ros, a 
germ], i. Any functionally active gland-cell; a 
cell that assists in the glandular action. 2. Haeckel's 
name for an embryonic cell which forms a gland. 

adenocarcinoma (ad-en-o-kar-sin-o'-mah) [adeno-; 
carcinoma]. Adenoma blended with carcinoma. 

adenocele (ad'-en-o-sel [adeno-; k^Xtj, a tumor]. 
A cystic tumor containing adenomatous elements. 
See adenoma. 

adenocellulitis {ad-en-o-sel-u-W -lis) [adeno-; cellu- 
litis]. Inflammation of a gland and the surrounding 
cellular tissue. 

adenochirapsology (ad-en-o-ki-rap-sol'-o-je) [aden; 
X«'p. hand; a-wTeiv, to touch; X670S, treatise]. The 
obsolete doctrine of the healing of scrofula by the 
touch of a king's hand. 

adenochondroma (ad-en-o-kon-dro'-mah) [aden; 
xbvbpos, cartilage: pi., adenochondromata]. A tumor 
consisting of both glandular and cartilaginous tissue. 

adenocyst (ad'-en-o-sist) [adeno-; kxxttis, a cyst]. 
A cystic lymphatic gland; a glandular cyst. Cf. 

adenocystoma (ad-en-o-sis-to'-mah) [adeno-; kxxttis, 
a cyst; opa, a tumor]. A cystic adenoma. 

adenodermia (ad-en-o-dur' -me-ah) [aden; 5epp.a, 
skin]. Disease of the glands of the skin. 

adenodiastasis (ad-en-o-di-as'-tas-is) [aden; 8ia<r- 
Tcuris, separation]. 1. Displacement of a gland. 
2. Abnormal separation of a gland into distinct 

adenodynia (ad-en-o-din'-e-ah) [aden; oSvvrj, pain]. 
See adenalgia. 

adenofibroma (ad-en-o-fi-bro'-mah) [adeno-; fibroma]. 
A combination of adenoma and fibroma. 

adenofibrosis (ad-en-o-fi-bro'-sis) [adeno-; fibrosis]. 
Fibroid degeneration of a gland, particularly the 
inflammatory neoplasms involving sudoriparous 
glands, due to infection with Botryomyces. Cf. 
botryomycosis. _ 

adenogenesis (ad-en-o-jen'-es-is) [adeno-; ykvtais, 
a creation]. The development of a gland. 

adenographer (ad-en-og'-ra-fur). A writer on 

adenography (ad-en-og'-ra-fe) [adeno-; ypafciv, to 
write]. 1. That part of descriptive anatomy which 
treats of the glandular system. 2. A treatise on 
glands and the glandular system. 

adenohypersthenia (ad-en-o-hi-per-sthe'-ne-ah) [ad- 
eno-; v-wkp, over; adkvos, strength]. Excessive activity 
of the glands, a. gastrica, a condition characterized 
by the secretion of gastric juice abnormally rich 
in hydrochloric acid or excessive in quantity. 

adenoid (ad'-en-oid) [adeno-; elSos, resemblance]. 

1. Resembling a gland. 2. In the plural, the same 
as adenoid vegetations, a. acne, see lupus, dissemi- 
nated follicular, a. body. 1. The prostate gland. 

2. A melanotic tumor, a. disease, synonym of 
Hodgkin's disease, a. muscle, see thyroadenoideus 
under muscle, a. tissue, lymphadenoid tissue. 
a. tumor, see adenoma, a. vegetations, a term applied 
to a hypertrophy of the adenoid tissue that normally 
exists in the nasopharynx. 

adenoidectomy (ad-en-oi-dek'-to-me) [adenoid; 
enronri, excision]. An operation for the removal of 

adenoids. See adenoid vegetations. 

adenolipoma (ad-en-o-lip-o'-mah) [adeno-; lipoma]. 
A combination of adenoma and lipoma. 

adenolipomatosis (ad-en-o-lip-o-mat-o'-sis) [adenoli- 
poma]. A diseased condition of the lymphatic system 
characterized by fatty deposits in the neighborhood 
of the neck, axilla?, and groins. It is generally 
unattended with pain. Syn., multiple lipomata. 

adenologaditis (ad-en-o-log-ad-i'-tis) [adeno-; Xo- 
yades, whites of the eyes; ms, inflammation]. 
1. Ophthalmia neonatorum. 2. Inflammation of 
the glands and conjunctiva of the eyes. 

adenology (ad-en-ol'-o-je) [adeno-; X670S, a dis- 
course]. The science of or a treatise on the glandular 

adenolymphocele (ad-en-o-limf -o-sel) [adeno-; 
lymph; ich\ri, tumor]. Dilatation of the lymph- 
vessels and enlargement of the lymphatic glands. 

adenolymphoma (ad-en-o-lim-fo'-mah) [adeno-; lym- 
phoma]. A combined adenoma and lymphoma. 
See lymphadenoma. 

adenom (ad'-en-om). A preparation used as a 
genitourinary sedative and anaphrodisiac. 

adenoma (ad-en-o'-mah) [adeno-; 6pa, a tumor: pi., 
adenomata]. 1. An epithelial tumor constructed after 

the type of a secreting gland. 2. Any tumor which 
has as its characteristic feature tubes or spaces lined 
with epithelium, whether or not it arises from or is 
connected with a gland, a. carcinomatodes renis, a 
renal neoplasm probably derived from aberrant 
adrenal tissue in the kidney, a. destruens, a de- 
structive form of adenoma, a. diffusum, hyper- 
plasia of the mucous membrane with predominance 
of glandular elements, a. fibrosum, a fibrous growth 
in the stroma of a gland, a., heteropodous, one 
arising from the metastasis of normal glandular 
tissue, a., lupiform, see lupus erythematosus, a., 
malignant, an adenomatous carcinoma, a., papil- 
lary, a. papilliferum, a form arising from either the 
alveolar or the tubular adenoma through stronger 
growth of the epithelium and the formation of 
papilla? of connective tissue, a., racemose, an 
adenoma after the type of a racemose gland, a., 
renal, glandular carcinoma of the kidney, a. seba- 
ceum, a fatty tumor of the face composed of sebaceous 
glands, a. simplex, a tumor-like hyperplasia of a 
gland, a. sudoriparum, a cutaneous tumor involving 
hyperplasia of the sweat-glands. Cf. hidrosadenitis. 
a., tubular, an adenoma after the type of a tubular 
gland, a., umbilical, a tumor at the navel originating 
through the coalescence of Meckel's diverticulum 
with the umbilical ring, through which the intestinal 
mucosa appears in the navel. Syn., intestinal 

adenomalacia (ad-en-o-mal-a'-she-ah) [adeno-; fia- 
\ada, softening]. Abnormal softening of a gland. 

adenomatome (ad-en-o'-mat-om) [adenoma; Top.ii, 
a cutting]. Cutting forceps or scissors for use in the 
removal of adenomatous growths. 

adenomatosis (ad-en-o-mat-o'-sis). A condition 
characterized by diffuse overgrowth of glandular 

adenomatous (ad-en-o'-mat-us). Pertaining to an 
adenoma; characteristic of glandular hyperplasia. 

adenomeningeal (ad-en-o-men-in'-je-al) [adeno-; 
Mfi-y^ a membrane]. Pertaining to or affecting the 
glands of a membrane. 

adenomesenteritis (ad-en-o-mes-en-ter-i'-tis) [ade- 
no-; mesentery; trts, inflammation]. Inflammation 
of the mesenteric glands. 

adenomyoma (ad-en-o-mi-o'-mah) [adeno-; p.vs, a 
muscle; 6p.a, a tumor: pi., adenomyomata], A tumor 
composed of glandular and muscular tissues, a., 
branchiogenic, cyst-formation in consequence of in- 
flammation of the mucous bursa in the median line 
of the neck. 

adenomyxoma (ad-en-o-miks-o'-mah) [adeno-; pv%a, 
mucus; 6p.a, a tumor]. A growth having the char- 
acters of adenoma and myxoma. 

adenomyxosarcoma (ad-en-o-miks'-o-sar-ko-mah) . 
A rare combination of malignant tumor forms 
(observed in the cervix uteri); a primary adenoma 
with secondary sarcoma and finally myxomatous 
degeneration of the stromas. 

adenoncosis {ad-en-on-ko'-sis) [adeno-; 67/0001$, 
swelling]. The enlargement of a gland. 

adenoncus (ad-en-ong'-kus) [adeno-; ojkos, a mass]. 
A glandular tumor. 

adenopathy, adenopathia (ad-en-op' '-a-the, ad-en-o- 
pa'-the-ah) [adeno-; iraBos, disease]. Any disease of a 
gland, a., angiobromic, see adenias, angibromic. 
a., primary, the lymphadenitis resulting from primary 
syphilitic infection, a., syphilitic, the enlarged and 
indurated cervical, inguinal, and cubital glands 
symptomatic of syphilitic infection, a., tracheo- 
bronchial, a., tracheobronchic, hypertrophy of the 
peribronchial lymphatic glands observed in the 
course of various diseases, causing spasmodic cough. 
a., tracheolaryngeal, inflammation and hypertrophy 
of the tracheolaryngeal lymphatic glands. 

adenopharyngeal (ad-en-o-far-in'-je-al) [adeno-; 
4>a.pvy£, pharynx]. Pertaining to the thyroid gland 
and the pharynx. # 

adenopharyngitis (ad-en-o-far-in-ji'-tis) [adeno-; 
<t>&pvyi-, pharynx; itis, inflammation]. Inflammation 
of the tonsils and pharynx. 

adenophlegmon (ad-en-o-fleg'-mon) [adeno-; <j>\ky- 
p.oi>T), inflammation]. Suppurative inflammation of a 
gland. Phlegmonous lymphadenitis. 

adenophthalrnia (ad-en-of -thai' -me-ah) [adeno-; 
6<t>6a\p.6s, the eye]. Inflammation of the Meibomian 

adenophyma (ad-e-no-fi'-ma) [adeno-; <f>vpa, a tumor 
or growth]. A soft swelling of a gland. 
, adenosarcoma (ad-en-o-sar-ko'-mah) [adeno-; sar- 




coma]. A tumor with the characters of adenoma 
and sarcoma combined. 

adenosarcorhabdomyoma (ad-en-o-sar-ko-rab-do- 
mi-o'-mah). A neoplasm composed of the elements 
of sarcoma, adenoma, and rhabdomyoma. 

adenoscirrhus (ad-en-o-skir' -us) [adeno-; scirrhus]. 
Adenoma with scirrhous or carcinomatous elements. 

adenosclerosis (ad-en-o-skle-ro'-sis) [adeno-; o-kXtj- 
p6s, hard]. A hardening of a gland, with or without 

adenose (ad'-en-os) [aSrjv, gland]. Glandular; 
abounding in glands; gland-like. 

adenosis {ad-en-o' -sis) [adijv, a gland]. i. Any 
glandular disease. 2. Any chronic glandular dis- 
order, a. scrofulosa, see scrofula. 

adenosynchitoniris (ad-en-o-sin-ki-ton-i'-tis) [ade- 
no-; abv, with; xltoiv, a covering; ins, inflammation], 
i. Inflammation of the Meibomian glands. 2. Oph- 
thalmia neonatorum. 

adenotome (ad'-en-o-tom) [adeno-; roy.ii, a cutting]. 
An instrument for incising a gland or for removing 

adenotomy (ad-en-ot'-o-me) [adeno-; rop-h, a cut- 
ting]. The anatomy of the glands; dissection or 
incision or removal of a gland. 

adenous (ad'-en-us) [aoijv, gland]. See adenose. 

adenyl (ad'-en-il). The radical, C5H4N4, contained 
in adenin. 

adephagia (ad-e-fa'-je-ah) [aSr)<payos, eating one's 
fill; gluttonous]. Voracious appetite; bulimia. 

adeps (ad'-eps) [L.; gen., adipis]. 1. Lard. The 
fat obtained from the abdomen of the hog, composed 
of 38 % stearin and margarin and 62 % olein. It 
forms 70 % of ceratum and 80 % of unguentum. 
2. Fatness. 3. Animal fat. a. anserinus, a. anseris, 
goose-grease, a. benzoinatus (U. S. P.), benzoinated 
lard; contains 2 % of benzoin, a. curatus, a prepara- 
tion of lard, 48 parts, and 1 part of Peruvian balsam. 
a. ex fele, cat's grease, a. lana? (U. S. P.), lanolin. 
a. lanae hydrosus (U. S. P.), hydrous wool-fat, the 
purified fat of the wool of the sheep, a. ovillus, 
a. ovis, mutton suet. A fixed oil (oleum adipis) is 
expressed from lard. a. praeparatus (B. P.), purified 
fat of the hog. a. suillus, hog's lard; adeps. 

adepsin (ad-ep'-sin) [adeps, lard]. A petrolatum 
much like vaselin. 

adermia (ah-der'-me-ah) [a, priv.; Sepua, skin]. 
Absence or defect of the skin. 

adermogenesis (ah-der-mo-jen'-es-is) [a, priv.; 
Skpfia, skin; yb>cais, generation]. Deficient cutaneous 

adermotrophia (ah-der-mo-tro'-fe-ah) [a, priv.; 
Sepfia, skin; Tpo<pi], nutrition]. Atrophy of the skin. 

adesmosis (ah-des-mo'-sis) [a, priv.; Seo-p^s, a 
band]. Atrophy of the cutaneous connective tissue. 

adgenic, adgenicus (ad-jen'-ik, ad-jen'-ik-us) [ad, 
to; gena, the chin]. Attached to the genial tubercles 
or apophyses. 

Adhatoda (ad-ha-to'-da) [from the Tamil name]. 
A genus of plants of the order Acanthacea. A. hys- 
sopifolia, a species native of South Africa; the willow- 
leaved Malabar nut; bitter, aromatic. A. vasica, a 
species native of tropical Asia; the Malabar nut. 
The juice of the leaves is used as an expectorant. 
The leaves, flowers, and root are considered antispas- 
modic and are given in asthma, intermittent fever, 
and rheumatism. The fresh flowers are bound over 
the eyes in cases of ophthalmia. In decoction the 
leaves with other remedies are used as an anthel- 
mintic. The nut is emmenagogue and used to expel 
the dead fetus. 

adhesion (ad-he'-zhun) [adhcerere, to stick to]. 
1. The attractive force between two dissimilar bodies 
that are in contact. 2. Abnormal union of two 
surfaces as a result of inflammation, etc. a., primary, 
called also healing by first intention and by immediate 
union, a method of healing of wounds by the pro- 
duction of lymph, followed by the vascularization and 
cicatrization of the exudate, a., secondary, or 
healing by second intention, or by granulation, is that 
mode of healing attended by the production of pus 
and the formation of granulations. 

adhesive (ad-he'-siv) [see adhesion}. 1. Sticky; 
tenacious. 2. Resulting in or attended with ad- 
hesion, a. inflammation, inflammation accom- 
panied by plastic exudation, and tending to the 
union of apposed surfaces, a. plaster, resin plaster, 
see resin and emplastrum. 

adhesol (ad-he' -sol). A surgical dressing said to 
contain copal resin, 350 parts; benzoin, 30 parts; 

oil of thyme, 20 parts; alphanaphthol, 3 parts; tolu 
balsam, 30 parts; ether, 1000 parts. 

adhyoid (ad-hi'-oid). Adherent to the hyoid bone. 

adiadochokinesis (ah-di-ad-o-ko-kin-e'-sis) [a, priv. ; 
SiaSoxos, succeeding]. '.Inability to perform rapidly 
alternating movements, such as pronation and 

Adiantum (ad-e-an' -turn) [a, priv.; Siavros, capable 
of being wetted]. A genus of ferns: the maiden-hair. 
A. capillus-veneris and A. pedatum, of North America, 
are serviceable in coughs and as demulcents. 

adiaphoresis (ah-di-af-o-re'-sis) [a, priv.; oiatpo- 
pevew, to perspire]. Deficient sweat. 

adiaphoretic (ah-di-af-o-ret'-ik) [a, priv.; 5ia<j>o- 
peveiv, to perspire]. Reducing the sweat; anidrotic. 

adiaphorous (ad-i-af'-or-us) [aSia<popos, indifferent]. 
Neutral; inert; doing neither harm nor good. 

adiapneustia (ah-di-ap-nus' -te-ah) [a, priv.; 5iox- 
vevo-Tkeiv, to perspire]. A stoppage of perspiration. 

adiarthrotos (ah-di-ar-thro'-tos) [dSiapOpuros, not 
jointed]. 1. Without joints; unjointed. 2. Inar- 
ticulate (applied to speech). 

adiathermancy (ah-di-ath-er'-man-se) [a, priv.; 5id, 
through ; depprj, heat]. Impermeability to radiant heat. 

adiathermic (ah-di-a-thur'-mik) [d, priv.; 5id, 
through; depp-f], heat]. Impervious to radiant heat. 

adiathesia (ah-di-ath-e'-se-ah) [d, priv.; diaBeais, 
condition]. _ A condition or particular disease that is 
not congenital. 

adiathesic (ah-di-alh-e'-sik) [a, priv.; Siadea-is, con- 
dition]. Not connected with any diathesis. 

adiathetic (ah-di-ath-et'-ik) [a, priv.; diaBeais, con- 
dition]. Adiathesic. 

adiemorrysis, adiaemorrhysis (ah-di-e-mor'-e-sis) 
[d, priv.; 81a, through; alpa, blood; pvais, flowing]. 
Failure of the circulation of the blood through the 
veins, due to some obstruction. 

adietetic (ah-di-et-et'-ik). 1. Unwholesome for 
food. 2. Unmindful of dietetic requirements. 

adigan (ad'-ig-an). A digitalis preparation which 
has been freed from digitonin and other saponin-like 
constituents; it is said to be effective and nontoxic. 

adipatum (ad-ip'-a-tum). An ointment-base said 
to consist of lanolin, vaselin, paraffin, and water. 

adipic (ad-ip'-ik) [adeps, lard]. Of or belonging 
to fat. a. acid, see acid, adipic. 

adipocele (ad'-ip-o-sel) [adeps; K-rfKv, hernia]. A 
true hernia with hernia sac, containing only fatty 

adipocellular (ad-ip-o-sel'-u-lar). Made up of fat 
and connective tissue. 

adipoceration (ad-ip-os-er-a' -shun) [adeps, fat; 
cera, wax]. The formation of adipocere. 

adipocere (ad'-ip-o-ser) [adeps; cera, wax]. A 
wax-like substance formed by the exposure of fleshy 
tissue to moisture, with the exclusion of air; *. e., 
in the earth or under water. It consists of the 
fatty acids in combination with the alkaline earths 
and ammonium. Human bodies in moist burial 
places often undergo this change. 

adipofibroma (ad-ip-o-fi-bro'-mah) [adeps; fibroma]. 
A combined fatty and fibrous tumor. 

adipogenous (ad-ip-oj'-en-us) [adeps, fat; gignere, 
to produce]. Producing fat and adipose tissue. 

adipol (ad'-ip-ol). Trade name of a mineral sub- 
stance used as a base for ointments. 
. adipolysis (ad-ip-ol'-is-is) [adeps; \vo-is, disso- 
lution]. The cleavage or hydrolysis of fats in the 
process of digestion by the action of a fat-splitting 

adipolytic (ad-ip-o-lit'-ik). r. Efficacious in the 
digestion or cleavage of fats. 2. An agent efficient 
in fat-digestion. Cf. steapsin. 

adipoma (ad-ip-o'-mah) [adeps; bpa, a tumor]. A 
fatty tumor ; lipoma. 

adipometer (ad-ip-om'-et-ur) [adeps, fat; pkrpov, a 
measure]. An instrument for the estimation of fat. 

adipose (ad'-ip-6s) [adeps]. Fatty, a. tissue, 
fatty tissue distributed extensively through the body. 
Consists of areolar connective tissue, the cells of 
which contain fat-globules. 

adiposis (ad-ip-o'-sis) [adeps]. Corpulence; fatty 
infiltration, a. dolorosa, Dercum's disease, charac- 
terized by the formation of soft nodules throughout 
the connective tissue of the body, accompanied by 
neuralgic pains, a. hepatica, fatty degeneration or 
infiltration of the liver. 

adipositas (ad-ip-os'-it-as) [L.]. Fatness; corpul- 
ency, a. cordis, a fatty condition of the heart. 
a. universalis, obesity. 




adiposity (ad-ip-os'-it-e). Fatness; corpulency. 

adiposuria (ad-ip-o-su'-re-ah). The presence of 
fat in the urine. Lipuria. 

adipsa (ad-ip'-sah) [neut. pi. of adipsus, without 
thirst], i. Remedies to allay thirst. 2. Foods 
which do not produce thirst. 

adipsia (ah-dip'-se-ah) [&, priv. ; 8L\pa, thirst]. 
Absence of thirst. 

adipsous (ah-dip'-sus) [&, priv.; 8tya, thirst]. 
Quenching thirst. 

aditus (ad'-it-us) [adire, to go to]. In anatomy, 
an entrance, a. ad antrum, the outer side of the 
attic, opening upward, backward, and outward 
into the mastoid antrum. It gives lodgment to the 
head of the malleus and the greater part of the incus. 
a. ad aquaeductum Sylvii, the entrance to the ventri- 
cular aqueduct situated at the lower posterior angle 
of the third ventricle of the brain, a. ad infundi- 
bulum, a smaller canal extending from the third 
ventricle into the infundibulum; it is also called 
vulva, a. ad laryngem, a. laryngis, the entrance to 
the larynx, a. glottidis, one of the openings (superior 
or inferior) of the glottis. 

adjuster (ad-jus' -ter) [Ft., adjuster, to adjust]. 
I. A device formerly used for forcible reduction of 
dislocations. 2. One for holding together the two 
ends of a silver wire suture, to secure approximation 
of the parts without strain on the tissues. 

adjustment, coarse. Commonly, the rack and 
pinion for raising or lowering the tube of a microscope 
a considerable distance without lateral deviation. 
a., fine, the micrometer screw generally at the top 
of the column of a microscope for raising or lowering 
the tube slowly through a short distance. 

adjuvant (ad'-ju-vant) [adjuvare, to assist]. _ A 
medicine that assists the action of another to which 
it is added. 

Adler's benzidine reaction for blood. Mix equal 
parts of a saturated solution of benzidine in alcohol 
or. glacial acetic acid and of hydrogen dioxide (3 %)• 
Add to this 1 Cc. of an aqueous solution of blood: 
a green or blue color develops. The blood solution 
should be acid in reaction. 

ad lib. Abbreviation of ad libitum [L.]. At 
pleasure; as much as you please. 

admaxillary (ad-maks'-il-a-re). Pertaining to 
maxillary structures. Cf. gland, admaxillary. 

adminic'ulum lin'eae al'bae. See Cooper's ligament. 

admortal (ad-mor'-tal) [ad, to; mors, mortis, death]. 
Moving from living muscular tissue toward that 
which is dead or dying, as electric currents. 

admove, admoveatur (ad'-mo-ve, ad-mo-ve-a'-tur) 
[imper. sing, and 3d pers. sing., subj., pass., of 
admovere, to apply]. Apply; let there be applied; 
directions used in prescription-writing. 

adnasal (ad-na'-sal) [ad, near to; nasus, the nose]. 
Pertaining to the nose. 

adnata (ad-na'-tah) [ad, to; nasci, to be born, to 
grow]. 1. The tunica adnata; the conjunctiva; more 
correctly, a tendinous expansion of the muscles of 
the eye; it lies between the sclerotic and the con- 
junctiva. 2. One of the coats of the testicle. 

adnate (ad'-nat) [adnatus, grown to]. Congenitally 
attached or united. 

adnephrin (ad-nef-rin). Trade name of a prepara- 
tion similar to epinephrin. 

adnerval (ad-ner'-val) [ad, to; nervus, a nerve]. 
Moving toward a nerve; said of electric currents in 
muscular fiber. 

adneural (ad-nu'-ral) [ad, to; vevpov', a nerve]. 
1. A term used to describe a nervous affection in 
which the disease is at the very point where the 
symptoms appear. 2. Adnerval. 

adnexa (ad-neks' -ah) [ad, to; nectere, to join]. 
Adjunct parts, as the adnexa of the uterus, a. bulbi, 
the appendages of the bulb of the eye. a. oculi, 
the appendages of the eye, as the lids and lacrimal 
apparatus, a. uteri, the Fallopian tubes and the 

adnexitis (ad-nek-si' -lis) . Inflammation of the 
adnexa uteri. 

adnexopexy (ad-neks' -o-pek-se). The operation of 
raising and fixing the uterine adnexa to the abdominal 

adolescence (ad-o-les'-ens) [adolescere, to grow]. 
The period between puberty and maturity, in males 
from about 14 to 25 years; in females, from 12 to 21 

adonidin (ad-on'-id-in) [Adonis]. A glucoside 
derived from Adonis vernalis, a plant indigenous in 

Europe and Asia. It is recommended in cardiac 
dropsy. Dose \-\ gr. (0.008-0.016 Gm.). a. tan- 
nate, a yellowish-brown powder, soluble in alcohol, 
slightly soluble in water; it is used in the same 
manneras the glucoside. 

Adonis (ad-o'-nis). A genus of European herbs 
belonging to the order Ranunculacece. A. aestivalis, 
a plant much used in Italy as a cardiac tonic. Dose 
of fluidextract 1-2 min. (0.06-0.12 Cc); of the 
tincture 10-30 min. (0.6-2.0 Cc). A. vernalis, is 
used as a cardiac stimulant, antipyretic, and diuretic. 
Dose of the tincture 3-20 min. (0.2-1.3 Cc). 

adoral (ad-o'-ral) [ad, near to; os, the mouth]. 
Situated near the mouth. 

adorbital (ad-orb' -it-al) [ad, near to; orbita, orbit]. 
Pertaining to the orbit, a. bone, see lacrimal bone. 

adosculation (ad-os-ku-la'-shun) [ad, to; osculari, 
to kiss]. 1. Impregnation by external contact with- 
out intromission. 2. An articulation in which one 
part is inserted into the cavity of another. 

adrenal (ad-re' -nal) [ad, near to; ren, the kidney]. 
1. Adjacent to the kidney. 2. The suprarenal 

adrenalin (ad-ren'-al-in), O0H15NO3. Trade name 
for a preparation containing the active principle of 
the suprarenal gland, a. chloride, used in solution 
of 1 : 10,000 to 1 : 1000 in surgical operations on 
the eye, ear, nose, urethra, etc.; it is a powerful 
astringent, hemostatic, and heart tonic. 

adrenalinemia (ad-ren-al-in-e'-me-ah) [adrenalin; 
alpa, blood]. Presence of adrenalin in the blood. 

adrenalitis (ad-ren-al-i'-tis). Inflammation of the 
suprarenal glands. 

adrenals (ad-re'-nalz) [ad, near to; ren, the kidney]. 
The suprarenal capsules. 

adrenine (ad-ren'-en). A preparation 6i the 
medulla of the suprarenal gland. 

adrenitis (ad-ren-i'-tis). Inflammation of the 

adrenol (ad-re' -nol) . An oily solution of adrenalin . 

adrenoxidase (ad-ren-ok'-sid-as). Oxygenized ad- 
renal secretion, said to be present in blood plasma. 

adrenoxin (ad-ren-oks'-in) [adrenal; oxygen]. An 
organic compound or oxidizing substance formed in 
the lungs by the internal secretion of the adrenals 
combined with the atmospheric oxygen. This 
substance endows the blood- plasm with its oxidizing 
properties (Sajous). 

Adrian's mixture. A hemostatic mixture con- 
taining chloride of iron 25 parts, chloride of sodium 
15 parts, and water 60 parts. 

adrin (ad'-rin). Epinephrin hydrate, an active 
principle of the suprarenal gland; used as a local 
hemostatic and vasomotor stimulant. 

adrue (ad-ru'-e). Antiemetic root. The root of 
Cyperus articulatus; it is anthelmintic, aromatic, 
stomachic. Dose of the fluidextract 20-30 min. 
(1.3-2.0 Cc). 

adscititious (ad-si-tish'-us). Additional; added 
from without. 

adsorption (ad-sorp'-shun). 1. The power pos- 
sessed by certain substances of taking up fluids (apart 
from capillary attraction). 2. The process whereby 
a substance becomes a part of another and remains 
in a state midway between mechanical mixture and 
chemical combination. 

adsternal (ad-stern' -al) [ad, near to; sternum]. 
Pertaining to or situated near the sternum. 

adstrictio (ad-strik'-she-o) [adstringere, to draw 
together; pi., adstrictiones]. 1. The retention of any 
natural excretion. 2. The action of an astringent. 
3. The ligation of a blood-vessel, a. alvei, consti- 

ADTe. Abbreviation of anodal duration tetanus; 
symbol for tetanic contraction, produced by an 
application of the positive pole with the circuit 

adterminal (ad-ter'-min-al) [ad, near to; terminus, 
the end]. Moving toward the insertion of a muscle; 
said of electric currents in muscular fiber. 

adult (ad'-ult) [adultus from adolescere, to grow]. 
Mature; of full legal age. One of mature age. 
a. sporadic cretinism, see myxedema. 

adulterant (ad-ul'-tur-ant). 1. The substance used 
in the process of sophistication. 2. One who 

adulteration (ad-ul-ter-a'-shun) [adulterare, to 
corrupt or falsify]. The admixture of inferior, 
impure, inert, or less valuable ingredients to an 
article for gain, deception, or concealment. 




adustion (ad-us'-chun) [adustus, burned up], 
i. The quality of being scorched or parched. 2. 

advancement (ai-vans'-ment) [Fr., avancer, to 
advance]. An operation to remedy strabismus, 
generally in conjunction with tenotomy, whereby 
the opposite tendon from the overacting one, having 
been cut, is brought forward, so that, growing fast 
in a more advanced position, it shall have more 
power to act upon the globe of the eye. a., capsular, 
an operation similar to that on the tendon upon 
Tenon's capsule. It differs from advancement in 
that the tendon itself is not divided, a. of the round 
ligaments, an operation for replacement of the 
uterus by taking up "the slack of the round liga- 
ments." See Alexander's Operation, a. of Tenon's 
capsule, see a., capsular. 

adventitia (ad-ven-tish' -e-ah) [adventitius, foreign]. 
The external coat of a blood-vessel. 

adventitious {ad-ven-tish' -us) [adventitius, foreign]. 
Accidental, foreign, acquired, as opposed to natural 
or hereditary; occurring out of the ordinary or 
normal place or abode. 

adynamia, adynamy (ah-din-a'-me-ah, ah-din'-a- 
me) [a, priv.; Svvanis, power]. Loss of vital or muscu- 
lar power; prostration. 

adynamic (ah-din-am' -ik) . See adynamia. 

adynamicoataxic (ad-in-am-ik-o-at-aks'-ik). Per- 
taining to adynamia and ataxia. 

adynatus (ad-in' -at-us) . Weakly, sickly. 

ae-. See e for English words beginning with ae. 

Aeby, plane of. In craniometry, one passing 
through the nasion and basion perpendicular to the 
median plane. 

Aedes (ah-e'-dez) [a-qd-qs, annoying]. A genus 
of mosquitoes. A. calopus, the mosquito of yellow 
fever, also called Stegomyia calopus. 

aedoeagra (e-de-a'-grah). See edeagra. 

aedoeitis (e-de-i'-tis). See edeitis. 

aedoeodynia (e-de-o-din'-e-ah). See edeodynia. 

aedoeology (e-de-ol'-o-je). See edeology. 

aedoeomania {e-de-o-ma' -ne-ah) . See edeomania. 

asdoeoscopy (e-de-os'-ko-pe). See edeoscopy. 

aedoeotomy (e-de-ot'-o-me). See edeotomy. 

aegagropilus (e-gag-rop'-il-us) [alyaypos, a wild 
goat; 7rt\os, felt]. An intestinal concretion formed 
of hair, found in animals and occasionally in man. 
A bezoar. 

aegilops (e'-jil-ops). See egilops. 

aegobronchophony (e-go-brong-koff'-o-ne). See ego- 

aegonia (e-go' -ne-ah) [L.]. A minor or slight 

aegophony (e-goff'-o-ne). See egophony. 

aeluropsis (el-u-rop'-sis) [aLXvpos, cat; o\pls, appear- 
ance]. Obliquity of the eye or of the palpebral 

aequabiliter justo major, or minor pelvis (e-kwa- 
bil'-it-er). See pelvis. 

aer (a'-er). 1. See atmos. 2. See air. a. de- 
phlogisticus, oxygen, a. fixus, carbon dioxide. 

aerate (a'-er -at). To supply with air; to charge 
with gas; to oxygenate, carbonate, etc. ; to arterialize. 

aerated (a'-er-a-ted) [a-qp, atmosphere]. Charged 
with gas or air; arterialized. a. waters, waters 
charged with a greater amount of carbon dioxide 
than they will absorb under ordinary conditions. 

aeration (a-er-a'-shun) [a-qp, air]. Charging with 
air or gas, such as carbon dioxide; the state of being 
supplied with air or gas. 

aerator (a'-er-a-tor). A machine for forcing gas 
or air into liquids. 

aerendocardia (a-er-en-do-kar'-de-ah) [a-qp, air; 
hihov, within; KapSia, heart]. The existence of air 
within the heart. 

aerenterasic (a-er-en-tur-a'-sik) [a-qp, air; ivTepov, 
the intestine]. Flatulent, tympanitic. 

aerenter ectasia (a-er-en-ter-ek-ta'-se-ah) [a-qp. air; 
h-repov, intestine; e/crao-is, distention]. Flatulence; 
distention of the abdomen by gas within the intes- 

aerial (a-e'-re-al). Pertaining to the air. a. con- 
duction, hearing through air-vibrations. 

aerhemoctonia (a-er-hem-ok-to' -ne-ah) [a-qp, air; 
atp.a, blood; ktovos, killing]. Death L by the entrance 
of air into the veins. 

aericolous (a-er-ik' -ol-us) [aer, air; colere, to in- 
habit]. Inhabiting the air. Living in the open air. 

aeriferous (a-er-if -er-us) [a-qp, air; ferre, to bear]. 
Conveying air, as the trachea and its branches. 

aerification (a-er-if-ik-a'-shun) [a-qp, air; facer e, to 
make]. 1. The process of charging with air; the 
state of being charged with air. 2. Emphysema. 

aerifluxus (a-er-if-luks' -us) [a-qp, air; fiuxus, flow]. 
Any abnormal escape of air, as by belching, flatulence, 

aeriform {a-e' -re-form) [a-qp, air; forma, form]. 
Resembling air or gas. 

aerify (a-er'-e-fi) [a-qp, air; facere, to make]. 1. To 
fill with air; to combine with air. 2. To change to 
a gaseous state. 

aeroanaerobic (a-er-o-an-a-er-o'-bik). Applied to 
organisms which are both aerobic and anaerobic. 

aerobe (a'-er-ob) [a-qp, air; /3tos, life]. One of the 
aerobia. See aerobic. 

aerobia (a-er-o' -be-ah) [a-qp, air; /Stos, life]. Plural 
or aerobion. Organisms that require air or free 
oxygen for the maintenance of life, a., facultative, 
organisms normally or usually anaerobic, but under 
certain circumstances acquiring aerobic power. 
a., obligate, organisms dependent upon free oxygen 
at all times; never anaerobic. 

aerobic (a-er-o' -bik) [a-qp, air; pios, life]. Requiring 
oxygen (air) in order to live. A term applied to 
bacteria requiring free oxygen. Those which do not 
grow in oxygen are called anaerobic. There are forms 
that are able to grow without oxygen under favorable 
conditions, though they make use of it when present; 
others that may grow in its presence, but flourish 
best without; these are called respectively facultative 
aerobic or facultative anaerobic, while those first 
mentioned are called obligatory aerobic or obligatory 

aerobion (a-er-o' -be-on) [a-qp, air; /Sios, life]. An 
aerobe. See aerobia, and aerobic. 

aerobioscope (a-er-o-bi'-o-skop) [a-qp, air; /3i'os, life; 
a-Kowiiv, to examine]. An apparatus for collecting 
and filtering bacteria from the air. 

aerobiosis (a-er-o-bi-o'-sis) [a-qp, air; /3tos, life]. 
Life that requires the presence of air, or free oxygen. 

aerobiotic (a-er-o-bi-ot'-ik) [a-qp, air; fiiwriKos, per- 
taining to life]. Thriving only in the presence of 

aerocele (a-er'-o-sel) [a-qp, air; K17X77, tumor]. A 
tumor varying with respiration, found in the thyroid 
region, usually unilateral, with walls resembling 
mucosa and containing mucous or mucopurulent 
matter. Sometimes congenital, but oftener the 
result of violent coughing or straining. When 
acquired, it may disappear spontaneously. Syn., 
aerial bronchocele; aerial goiter; pneumatocele; trache- 
ocele; hernia of the trachea. 

aerocolpos (a-er-o-kol'-pos). Distention of the 
vagina with air or gas. 

aerocystoscope (a-er-o-sist'-o-skop). Same as 

aerocystoscopy (a-er-o-sist-os'-ko-pe). Examina- 
tion of the bladder with the aerourethroscope, the 
bladder being distended with air. 

aerodermectasia (a-er-o-der-mek-ta'-ze-ah) [a-qp, air; 
8epfj.a, skin; e/cratrts, distention]. Surgical emphy- 
sema; distention of the subcutaneous connective 
tissue by air. 

aeroductor (a-er-o-duk' -tor) [a-qp, air; ducere, to 
lead]. An apparatus to prevent asphyxia of the fetus 
if the after-coming head is retained. 

aerodynamics (a-er-o-di-nam'-iks) [a-qp, air; Swa/xis, 
power]. The branch of physics that deals with gases 
in motion. 

_ aeroenterectasia (a-er-o-en-ter-ek-ta'-ze-ah) [a-qp, 
air; ivrepov, intestine; acraais, dilatation]. Dis- 
tention of the bowels with gas. 

aerogen (a'-er-o-jen) [a-qp, air; ytwav, to produce]. 
Any gas-producing microorganism. 

aerography (a-er-og'-ra-fe) [a-qp, air; ypa.<f>r), a 
writing]. Description of air and its qualities. 

aerohydropathy (a-er-o-hi-drop' -a-the) [a-qp, air; 
vScop, water; ira&os, disease]. Pneumatic treatment 
of disease, combined with hydropathy. 

aerohydrotherapy. See aerohydropathy. 

aerology (a-er-ol'-o-je) [a-qp, air; \6yos, treatise]. 
The science of the air and its qualities. 

aerometer (a-er-om'-et-er) [a-qp, air; p.krpov, a 
measure]. An instrument for ascertaining the density 
of gases. _ 

aeromicrobe, aeromicrobion (a-er-o-mi'-krob, -kro'- 
be-on). See aerobe. 

aeropathy (a-er-op' -ath-e) . Caisson disease, q. v. 

aeroperitonia (a-er-o-per-it-o' -ne-ah) [a-qp, air; peri- 
toneum]. Air or gas in the peritoneal cavity. 




aerophagia, aerophagy (a-er-o-fa'-je-ah, a-er-of- 
a-je) [6.7JP, air; <j>ayelv, to eat]. The imbibing and 
swallowing of air, especially observed in hysterical 
patients, a., rectal, aspiration of air by the rectum. 

aerophil (a-er'-o-fil) [&rip, air; <pikelv, to love]. 
i. An open-air-loving person or creature. 2. Aero- 

aerophobia (a-er-o-fo'-be-ah) [&ijp, air; <£6/3os, fear]. 
Dread of a current of air. 

aerophone (a'-er-o-fon) [ar)p, air; <j>wvf), sound]. 
An instrument for increasing the amplitude of sound- 

aerophore (a'-er-o-for) [dijp, air; <pepeu>, to carry]. 
I. A device for inflating the lungs of a still-born 
child with air. 2. A breathing apparatus, used by 
firemen and others, to prevent the inhalation of 
noxious gases. 

aerophysic (a-er-o-fiz'-ik) [difa, air; <t>voav, to inflate]. 
Inflated; distended with air; flatulent. 

aerophyte (a-er-o-flt) [dijp, air; <j>vtov, plant]. A 
plant living exclusively in the air. 

aeroplethysmograph (a-er-o-pleth-iz'-mo-graf) [h-qp, 
air; ir\r)dvo-p.6s, an enlargement; ypafaiv, to write]. 
An apparatus for registering graphically the expired 
air; the latter raises a very light and carefully equi- 
poised box placed over water, and this moves a 

aeroporotomy (a-er-o-por-ot'-o-me) [6.rjp, air; wopos, 
a pore; rop-r), a cutting]. The operation of admitting 
air to the lungs, as by intubation or tracheotomy. 

aeroscope (a'-er-o-skop) [ar/p, air; anoiriiv, to ob- 
serve]. An instrument for estimating the purity of 
the air; also an instrument for the examination of 

aeroscopy (a-er-os'-ko-pe) [see aeroscope}. The 
investigation of atmospheric conditions. 

aerostatics (a-er-o-stat'-iks) [a.-qp, air; <ttoltlk6s, 
standing]. The branch of physics that treats of the 
properties of gases at rest. 

aerotaxis (a-er-o-taks'-is) [a,-qp, air; rdfis, order]. 
A form of taxis in which living organisms are attracted 
or repelled by oxygen. 

aerotherapeutics, aerotherapy (a-er-o-ther-a-pu'- 
tiks, a-er-o-ther' -ap-e) [a-ftp, air; depaireveiv, to heal]. 
A mode of treating disease by varying the pressure 
or the composition of the air breathed. 

aerothermotherapy (a-er-o-ther-mo-ther'-ap-e) [arjp, 
air; depur), heat; depaxela, therapy]. Treatment 
with hot air. 

aerothorax {a-er-o-tho'-raks). See pneumothorax. 

aerotonometer (a-er-o-ton-om'-et-er) [ar/p, air; twos, 
tension; iierpov, a measure]. An instrument for 
estimating the tension of gases in the blood. 

aerotonometry (a-er-o-ton-om'-et-re). Measure- 
ment of the tension or pressure of gases in the blood. 

aerotropism (a-er-of '-ro-pizm) [hyp, air; rpk-wew, to 
turn]. 1. In biology, the deflection of roots from 
the normal direction of growth by the action of 
gases. 2. The tendency of certain protozoa to 
mass around a bubble of air. 

aerotympanal (a-er-o-tim' -pan-al) [hyp, air; rvp-iravov, 
a drum]. Pertaining to the air and the tympanum. 
Cf. air, innate. 

aerourethroscope (a-er-o-u-reth'-ro-skop) [ar)p, air; 
ovprjdpa, urethra; o-noirelv, to examine]. An instru- 
ment modified from the endoscope used in aero- 
urethroscopy. Syn., aerocystoscope. 

aerourethroscopy (a-er-o-u-re-thros'-ko-pe) [&tip, air; 
ovp-qOpa, urethra; aicoireZv, to examine]. Urethros- 
copy conjoined with inflation of the urethra with air. 

aerozol {a'-er-o-zol) [hyp, air; 6few, to smell]. A 
mixture of essential oils said to contain 75 % of 
ozone; it is used by inhalation in catarrhal affections. 

aerteriversion (a-er-ter-iv-er'-shun). See arterio- 

aerteriverter (a-er-ter-iv-er'-ter). See arterioverter. 

aerugo (e-ru'-go) [L., gen., ceruginis]. 1. Rust of a 
metal. 2. Copper rust; verdigris. ae. ferri, the 
subcarbonate of iron. ae. plumbi, lead carbonate or 

aerumna (e-rum'-nah) [L.]. Mental distress, or 
mental and physical distress combined. 

Aerva (a-er'-vah) [Ar.]. A genus of plants of the 
order Amarantacece. A. lanata, a species native of 
tropical Asia and Arabia. It furnishes chaya-root, 
which contains a mucilaginous principle and has 
been used as a diuretic, in strangury, and as a de- 

aes (ez) [L.]. Copper or brass. See copper. 

aesculetin. See esculetin. 

aesculin {es'-ku-lin). See esculin. 

^sculus (es'-ku-lus) [L.]. A genus of sapinda- 
ceous shrubs and trees; buckeye. M. glabra, Ohio 
buckeye. The bark is tonic, astringent, and anti- 
periodic. Dose of fluid-extract 10-20 min. (0.6-1.2 
Cc). M. hippocastanum, horse-chestnut. The bark 
is tonic, astringent, antiperiodic. Dose of fluid- 
extract 20-60 min. (1.2-3.7 Cc). M. pavia, red 
buckeye. The bark has been used as a febrifuge. 
The fruit is said to be an active convulsant. 

aestates (es-ta'-tez) [L., pi.]. Freckles or sunburn. 

aesthema (es-the'-mah) [aladrma; pi. cesthemates]. 
A perception, sensation, sense. 

aesthematology (es-the-mat-ol'-o-je). See esthe- 

aesthesia (es-the'-ze-ah). See esthesia. 

aesthesin (es'-the-sin). See esthesin. 

assthesiogen (es-the'-se-o-jen). See esthesiogen. 

aesthesiography (es-the-se-og'-ra-fe). See esthesiog- 

eesthesiology (es-the-se-ol'-o-je) . See esthesiology. 

aesthesiomania (es-the-se-o-ma'-ne-ah). Seeesthesio- 

aesthesiometer {es-ihe-se-om' -et-er) . See esthesiom- 

aesthesiometry {es-ihe-se-om' -et-re). See eslhesiom- 

aesthesioneurosis (es-the-se-o-nu-ro'-sis). See es- 

aesthesis (es-the'-sis). See esthesis. 

aesthetica (es-thet'-ik-ah) [alo-d-qais, perception by 
the senses]. Diseases characterized by impairment 
or abolition of any of the senses. 

aesthophysiology (es-tho-fiz-e-ol'-o-je). See estho- 

aestivaJ {es'-tiv-al). See estival. 

aestivation {es-tiv-a'-shun). See estivation. 

aestuarium (es-tu-a'-re-um). See estuarium. 

aestuation (es-tu-a'-shun). See estuation. 

aestus (es'-tus) [L.]. Heat; especially a flushing, 
or sudden glow of heat. ae. volaticus, wildfire rash; 

aetas (e'-tas) [L.]. Age; a period of life. See age. 

aether (e'-ther). See ether. 

aetherism {e'-ther-izm). See etherism. 

aethiopification {e-the-op-if-ik-a'-shun). See ethiopi- 

aethiopiosis {e-the-op-e-o' -sis) . See ethiopification. 

aethiops {e'-the-ops) [AidLoif/, Ethiopian]. An old 
term for any black mineral powder used in medicine. 
ae. antimonialis, a black triturate of mercury, anti- 
mony, and sulphur, made after several distinct 
formula?, ae. martialis, black oxide of iron. ae. min- 
eralis, black amorphous triturate of mercury with 
sulphur, in various proportions. 

aethomma (eth-om'-ah) [al96s, of a burnt color; 
bpp.a, the eye]. 1. Pare's term for a pigmented con- 
dition of the humors and tunics of the eye. 2. Kiihn's 
term for a morbid condition marked by flashes of 
light and flame appearing before the eye. 

aetiology (e-te-ol'-o-je). See etiology. 

afebrile (ah-feb'-ril) [&, priv.; febrilis, feverish]. 
Without fever. 

afetal (ah-fe'-tal) [&, priv.; fetus, an offspring]. 
Without a fetus. 

affection (af-ek'-shun) [ajflcere, to affect]. Disease. 
a., parainfectious, one in which the symptoms or 
conditions are only indirectly related to the disease 
named; a by-condition or accessory infection of 
certain diseases characterized by the appearance of 
symptoms attributable to an intercurrent or second- 
ary infection, as in the case of noma occurring in 
cases of measles and due to infection with diphtheria. 
a., pneumogastropituitous, see pertussis, a., poly- 
uric, see lithuria. a., primary, one independent of 
any preceding disease, a., secondary, one that is a 
complication or sequel of a preexisting disease. 
a., vaporous, see vapors. 

affective (af-ek'-tiv) [see affection]. Exciting 
emotion, a. faculties, the emotions and propensities, 
especially those peculiar to man. a. insanity, emo- 
tional or impulsive insanity. 

affenspalte (af-fen-spal-ter) [German for ape's 
split]. The parietooccipital fissure; ape-fissure. 

afferent (af-er-ent) [afferens, carrying to]. Carry- 
ing toward the center. Of nerves: conveying im- 
pulses toward the central nervous system; sensory; 
centripetal. Of blood-vessels: those, as the arteries, 
conveying blood to the tissues. Of lymphatics. 
those conveying lymph to a lymphatic gland. 




afferentia (af-er-en' -she-ah) . See vasa. 

affiliation (af-il-e-a' -shun) [ad, to; filius, son]. 
In medical jurisprudence, the act of imputing or 
affixing the paternity of a child in order to provide 
for its maintenance. 

affinity (af-in'-it-e) [affinis, akin to], i. Relation- 
ship. 2. Attraction. 3. In biology, morphologic, 
physiologic, and phylogenetic relationship between 
organisms, a. of aggregation, cohesive attraction; 
the mechanical affinity of similar molecules tending 
to the formation of masses. Syn., quiescent affinity; 
affinitas quiescens. a., chemical, the force, exerted 
at inappreciable distances, that unites atoms. 
a. of composition, the tendency of substances to 
unite directly without previous decomposition. 
Syn., affinitas compositionis ; simple affinity; single 
affinity; compound affinity; mixing affinity, a., 
developed, that exhibited by compounds, but which 
is not possessed by the constituents separately. 
Syn., affinitas producta; resulting affinity; secondary 
affinity, a., divellent, the tendency to form new 
compounds at the expense of decomposition of those 
previously existing. Syn., affinitas divellens; separ- 
ating affinity, a., elective, the preference of one 
substance for another over a second or third, a., 
elementary. 1. That which exists between the 
elements of two or more compounds. 2. Physico- 
chemical relationship of elementary substances. 
a., mediating, that by virtue of which a substance 
lacking the power of combination with a certain 
substance secures it by preliminary combination with 
another. Syn., appropriate affinity; imparted affinity; 
intermediate affinity; inducing affinity; inductive 
affinity; affinity of an intermedium; affinitas adjuta; 
affinitas appropriata; affinitas approximata. a., 
morbid, the tendency of certain affections to exist 
synchronously or as sequels, a., reciprocal, chemical 
attraction between the elements of a secondary 
compound, tending, under altered conditions, to the 
reformation of the primary compound. Syn., 
alternating elective affinity; affinitas reciproca. a., 
simple elective, that exhibited by a simple body for a 
single element of a compound. Syn., single elective 
affinity, a. of solution, that existing between a dis- 
solved substance and its solvent, a., vital, the 
selective action or chemiotaxis exhibited by the 
several tissues of an organism for their peculiar 

affion, affioni [Turkish]. Crude opium; it contains 
regularly 10 % of morphine. Syn., offium. 

affixion (af-ik'-shun) [affigere, to fasten]. Ad- 

afflatus (af-la'-tus) [L., "a blowing upon"]. 1. A 
draft or blast of air. 2. A sudden attack. 3. A sup- 
posed inspiration or divine influence. 

affluence (af-lu-ens) [affluentia, from affluere, to 
flow to]. A determination or influx, as of blood to a 

affluent (af-lu-ent) [affluens, flowing to]. Pro- 
ducing a congestion; determinant; flowing in or upon. 

afflux, affluxion (af-luks, af-fluk' -shun) [affluere, to 
flow toward]. The flow of the blood or other liquid 
to a part. 

affuse (af-uz') [af "under e, to pour upon]. To 
sprinkle or pour upon from a height: to shower. 

affusio (af-u'-se-o) [L.; pi., affusiones]. 1. An 
affusion. 2. Suffusion. 3. Infusion. 4. Cataract. 

affusion (af-u'-zhun) [affundere, to pour upon]. 
The pouring of water upon an object, as upon the 
body in fever, to reduce temperature and calm nervous 
symptoms, a., cold. Currie's method of treating 
fevers by pouring cold water over the patient. 
Syn., affusio frigida. 

afibroma (ah-fi-bro'-mah) [&, priv.; fibroma]. A 
mass of fibrous tissue which is not arranged so as to 
form a tendon or fascia. 

African arrow-poison. See strophanthus. A. fever, 
synonym of dengue. A. gum, gum-arabic. A. 
lethargy, a "sleeping-sickness" affecting west African 
coast negroes. Increasing somnolence is the char- 
acteristic symptom. It is very fatal — death from 
exhaustion follows in from 3 to 6 months. Syn., 

afridol (af-rid-ol). An antiseptic, said to be an 
orthotoluate of mercury and sodium. 

afrodyn (af-ro-din) [a<t>po8L<ria, veneryl. An aphro- 
disiac, the principal ingredient of which is said to be 
the tincture of myorapuama. 

af tannin (af -tan-in). An infusion of herbs with 
formaldehyde and glycerin used in veterinary practice. 

after (af-ter) [AS., after, back]. 1. The anus; 
the buttocks. 2. Next in succession. 

after-action, the negative variation in an elec- 
trical current continuing for a short time in a tetan- 
ized muscle, a., inner, that involving the whole 
muscle or muscular fiber, a., terminal, that affecting 
only the ends of the muscular fibers. 

after-birth, the popular designation of the placenta, 
cord, and membranes, sometimes called the secun- 

after-brain. See hindbrain and metencephalon. 

after-care, the care or nursing of convalescents; 
specifically, the treatment of patients discharged as 
cured from lunatic asylums. 

after-cataract, cataracta secundaria; an opacity of 
the media of the eye after operation for cataract due 
to opacification of the capsule or to non-absorption 
of the remains of the lens-substance. 

after-current (af-ter-kur'-ent). See under current. 

after-damp, a poisonous mixture of gases, such as 
carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, found in coal 
mines after an explosion of inflammable gases. 

after-gilding (af-ter-gild'-ing). A term introduced 
by Apathy to designate the process of treating nerve- 
tissues with salts of gold after fixation and hardening. 
Cf . foregilding. 

after-hearing, a neurotic condition in which sounds 
are heard after the wave-motion that produces them 
has ceased. 

after-images, continued retinal impressions after 
the stimulus of the light or image has ceased to act. 
A positive after-image is a simple prolongation of the 
sensation; a negative after-image is the appearance of 
the image in complementary colors. After sensations 
may be also experienced with other senses. 

afterings (af -ter-ingz) . See after-milk. 

after-milk, the strippings; the last milk taken 
from the teat at any one milking. It is peculiarly 
rich in butter, as compared with the fore-milk. 

after-pains. See pains. 

after-perception, the perception of a sensation 
after the stimulus has passed away. 

after-production (af-ter-pro-duk'-shun). A new 
growth; neoplasm. 

after-sensation, a sensation lasting longer than 
the stimulus producing it. 

after-taste, a gustatory sensation produced some 
time after the stimulus has been removed. 

after-treatment. See after-care. 

after-vision (af-ter-vish'-on). The perception of an 

Ag. Abbreviation for argentum, Latin for silver. 

agalactia (ah-gal-ak'-te-ah) [&, priv.; -ydXa, milk]. 
Xon-secretion or imperfect secretion of milk after 

agalactous (ah-gal-ak'-tus) [a, priv.; yaka, milk]. 
1. Without milk. 2. Xot suckled; not nourished 
with milk. 3. Capable of diminishing the secretion 
of milk. 

agal-aga! (ah'-gal-ah'-gal). See agar-agar. 

agalasia (ah-gal-a'-ze-ah). See agalactia, a. con- 
tagiosa, an epidemic, contagious disease of sheep and 
goats, marked by drying-up of the milk. 

agalorrhea, or agalorrhcea (ah-gal-o-re'-ah) [d, priv. ; 
yaKa, milk; \peeiv, to flow]. A cessation of the flow 
of milk. 

agamic (ah-gam'-ik) [d, priv.; ydfxos, marriage]. 
In biology, not sexual; not pertaining to the sexual 
relation; asexual reproduction; parthenogenesis. 

agamogenesis (ah-gam-o-jen'-es-is) [a, priv.; ydp.os, 
marriage; yeve<ns, generation]. Reproduction with- 
out fecundation, as, e. g., by gemmation. See 

agamogenetic (ah-gam-o-jen-et'-ik) [d, priv.; yd/Ms, 
marriage; ykveavt, generation]. Pertaining to 

agamospore (ah-gam'-o-spor) [a, priv.; ydnos, marri- 
age; airopa, offspring]. In biology, an asexually 
produced spore. 

aganactesis (ag-an-ak-te' -sis) [£7 avaxT-na is, physical 
pain]. Irritation; physical pain or uneasy sensation. 

aganoblepharon (ag-an-o-blef -ar-on) [ay avo&\Wopos, 
mild-eyed]. Adhesion of the eyelids to each 

agar-agar (ag'-ar-ag'-ar) [Ceylon]. A kind of glue 
made from certain sea-weeds, such as Gracilaria 
lichenoides and Gigarlina speciosa, used in medicine 
to make suppositories, and in bacteriological studies 
to make a solution in which microorganisms are bred 
or kept. See gelose. 




agar hanging block (ag'-ar). In bacteriology a 
small block of nutrient agar cut from a poured plate, 
and placed on a cover-glass, the surface next the 
glass having been first touched with a loop from a 
young fluid culture or with a dilution from the same. 
It is examined upside down, the same as a hanging 

agaric (ag-ar'-ik). Touchwood; spunk; tinder; 
the product of different species of Boletus, a genus of 
mushrooms. Boletus laricis, Polyporus officinalis — 
is the white or purging agaric. Agaric or agaricinic 
acid, in doses of T %— I S r - (0.004-0.02 Gm.), is also 
useful in night-sweats. Dose of the extract 3-6 gr. 
(0.19-0.38 Gm.); of the tincture 3-20 min. (0.18-1.2 
Cc). Agaricus chirurgorum, Boletus chirurgorum, 
surgeon's agaric, a parasitic fungus formerly used 
for moxa. Soaked in solution of potassium nitrate 
it forms spunk. Agaricus muscarius, fly agaric, 
poisonous mushroom, contains an alkaloid, muscarine. 
Dose of the alkaloid \— 2 gr. (0.008-0.13 Gm.). 
Muscarine nitrate is used hypodermatically. Dose 
hi— f gr. (0.006-0.048 Gm.). 

agaricin (ag-ar'-is-in) [see agaricus]. 1. C16H30O5 
+H2O. A white, crystalline substance, the active 
principle of Agaricus albus. It has proved useful 
in the night-sweats of pulmonary tuberculosis. 
Dose ^y — ^j gr. (0.003-0.006 Gm.). Unof. 2. An 
impure alcoholic extract of the agaric, Polyporus 
officinalis; used as an anhidrotic. 

Agaricus (ag-ar'-ik-us) [ayapiKov, of Dioscorides, 
from Agaria, a former district of Poland or Sarmatia, 
whence the Greeks derived the larch agaric]. A large 
genus of hymenomycetous fungi; mushrooms and 
toadstools. Cf. Polyporus amanita. A. chirurgorum, 
see under' agaric. A. rubra, A. sanguinea, these 
species, indigenous to France, were formerly included 
under A. rubra. They yield the alkaloid agarythrine 
and the rose-red coloring-matter ruberin. 

agarythrine (ag-ar' -ith-rin) . A yellowish-white 
alkaloid extracted by ether from Agaricus rubra and 
A. sanguinea. It has a bitter taste and leaves a 
burning sensation in the mouth. 

agaster (ah-gas'-ter) [a, priv.; yaarrip, the stomach]. 
One without a stomach. 

agastric (ah-gas'-trik) [see agaster]. Without an 
intestinal canal, as the tape-worms. 

agastronervia (ah-gas-tro-ner' -ve-ah)[a, priv.; yaarrip, 
the stomach; nervus, a nerve or sinew]. See agastro- 

agastroneuria (ah-gas-tro-nu' -re-ah)[a, priv.; yaarrip, 
the stomach; vevpov, a nerve]. Deficiency in the 
nerve-stimulus sent to the stomach. 

agathin (ag'-ath-in) [aya96s, good], CeH4(OH) .- 
CH . N . N . (CH 3 ) . CeHa. A greenish-white, crystal- 
line substance, obtained by the interaction of salicylic 
aldehyde and a-methylphenylhydrazine. It is used 
as an antineuralgic in doses of 8 gr. (0.52 Gm.) 2 or 3 
times daily. Its action is cumulative. 

Agave (a-ga'-ve) [ayavf), noble]. A large genus of 
amaryllidaceous plants, natives of North America. 
A. americana, American aloe, the leaves of a plant 
growing in North America. It is diuretic and anti- 
syphilitic. Dose of the fluidextract |-i dr. (2-4 Cc). 
The fresh juice is also similarly employed. The 
fermented juice, called pulque, is a moderately stimu- 
lant drink, very popular in Mexico. 

age (aj). The length of time a being has existed; 
also, a certain stage in life. a. of consent, in medical 
jurisprudence the age at which a minor is considered 
capable of consenting to sexual intercourse; it is 
usually placed at 16 years, a. critique, the climac- 
teric, a., marriageable, a., nubile, see nubility. 
a. of puberty, see puberty. 

agenesia, agenesis (ah-jen-e'-se-ah, ah-jen'-es-is) 
[a, priv.; ykveais, generation]. 1. Incomplete and 
imperfect development. 2. Impotence, barrenness. 

agenosomia (ah-^en-o-so'-me-ah) [a, priv.; 7€wa>, 
to beget; au>p.a, body]. Defective development of the 

agenosomus (ah-jen-o-so'-mus) [&, priv.; yewav, to 
beget; awp.a, body]. A variety of single autositic 
monsters, of the species Celosoma, in which there is a 
lateral or median eventration occupying principally 
the lower portion of the abdomen, while the genital 
and urinary organs are either absent or very rudi- 

agent (a'-jent) [agere, to act, to do]. A substance 
or force that by its action effects changes in the 
human body. 

agerasia (aj-er-a'-ze-ah) [ay-qpaala, eternal youth]. 

Vigorous old age; age without its wonted feebleness 
and decay. 

ageusia, ageustia (ah-gu'-se-ah, ah-goost'-e-ah) [a, 
priv.; yevais, taste]. Abolition of the sense of taste. 
a., central, that due to lesion of the cerebral centers 
of the gustatory nerves, a., conduction, that due 
to lesion in the nerves between their origin and 
distribution, a., peripheral, that due to disorder 
of the ends of the nerves of taste. 

agger (aj'-er) [L.]. In anatomy, a pile or mound. 
a. nasi, an oblique ridge on the inner surface of the 
nasal process of the maxilla; also called crista eth- 
moidalis. a. valvulae venae [pi., agger es valvular urn 
venarum], the eminence of a venous valve; a projec- 
tion within the lumen of a vein at the junction of a 

agglomerate (ag-lom'-er-at) [agglomerare, to wind 
into a ball]. Grouped or clustered. 

agglutinant (ag-lu' -tin-ant). See agglutinative 

agglutinate (ag-lu' -tin-at) [see agglutination]. To 
glue together; to unite by adhesion. 

agglutinatio (ag-lu-tin-a'-she-o). Agglutination. 
a. maxilla; inferioris, trismus. 

agglutination (ag-lu-tin-a'-shun) [agglutinate, to 
paste to]. 1. A joining together. 2. A copulative 
phenomenon accompanying hemolysis or bacteri- 
olysis, thought by Gruber to be due to some de- 
leterious effect on the membrane of the bacteria or 
blood-corpuscles which makes it sticky, a. test, see 
Widal's test. 

agglutinative (ag-lu' -tin-a-tiv) [see agglutination], 
1. Favoring agglutination; adhesive. 2. Any sub- 
stance with adhesive properties, fitted to retain the 
edges of wounds in apposition. 3. A remedy pro- 
moting the repair of wounds by favoring nutrition. 

agglutinin (ag-lu' -tin-in) [see agglutination]. A 
specific principle occurring in the blood-serum of an 
animal affected with a disease of microbic origin and 
capable of causing the clumping of the bacteria 
peculiar to that disease, as exemplified in the Widal 

agglutinogen (ag-lu-tin'-o-jen). A substance which 
when introduced into the body is capable of causing 
the formation of an agglutinin. 

agglutinoid (ag-lu' -tin-oid) . An agglutinin with 
the xy mo toxic group deficient or absent. 

agglutinophore (ag-glu-tin'-o-for). Same as zymo- 
phore, q. v. 

agglutitio (ag-lu-tish'-e-o) [ad, against; glutire, to 
swallow]. Difficult deglutition; an obstruction to 

agglutogen (ag-lu' -to- j en). See agglutinogen. 

agglutogenic (ag-lu-to-jen'-ik) [agglutinin; gener- 
are, to produce]. Relating to substances from which 
agglutinins originate. 

agglutometer (ag-lu-tom' -et-er) . An apparatus 
used in performing the agglutination or Widal test. 

aggregate (ag' -re-gat) [ad, to; gregare, to collect 
into a flock]. Grouped into a mass. a. glands, 
Peyer's patches. 

aggregation (ag-re-ga'-shun) [ad, to; gregare, to 
collect- into a flock]. 1. The massing of materials 
together. 2. A congeries or collection of bodies, 
mostly of such as are similar to each other. 

aggressin (ag-res'-in) [aggressio, an attack]. A 
substance produced in the body by bacteria, having 
the property of weakening the normal protective 
substances of the body. By some it is held that this 
substance increases the virulence of the bacteria. 

aggressinogen (ag-res-in'-o-jen). An antigen 
which gives rise to aggressins. 

aggressivity (ag-res-iv'-it-e). The degree of ac- 
tivity displayed by an invading microorganism 
against the protective forces of the host. 

agitation (aj-it-a'-shun) [agitare, to excite, arouse]. 
1. Fatiguing restlessness with violent motion; mental 
disturbance. 2. A stirring or shaking, as in phar- 

agitator (aj-it-a'-tor) [agitare, to excite]. Any 
apparatus for stirring or shaking substances; a glass 
rod used for stirring. 

aglandular (ah-glan' -du-lar) [a, priv.; glandula, a 
gland]. Having no glands; without glands. 

aglaukopsia (ag-law-kop'-se-ah) [a, priv.; y\avK6s, 
green; 6\pt.s, vision]. Green-blindness. 

aglia (ag'-le-ah) [L.]. A speck or spot upon the 
cornea or on the white of the eye. 

aglobulia (ah-glo-bu'-le-ah) [a, priv.; globulus, a 
globule]. A decrease in the quantity of red blood- 




aglobulism (ah-glob'-u-lizm) [a, priv.; globulus, a 
globule]. Aglobulia; oligocythemia. 

aglossia (ah-glos'-e-ah) [a, priv.; yXaxraa, the 
tongue], i. Absence of the tongue. 2. Dumbness; 
senile impairment of speech. 

aglossostomia (ah-glos-o-slo'-me-ah) [a, priv.; 
yXcbaaa, the tongue; a-ropa, mouth]. The condition 
of a mouth without a tongue. 

aglossus (ah-glos'-us) [see aglossia]. A person 
without a tongue. 

aglutition (ah-glu-tish'-un) [d, priv.; glutire. to 
swallow]. Difficulty in swallowing; inability to 

agmatoiogy (ag-mat-ol'-o-je) [aynos, a fracture; 
X6-, os, a discourse]. The science or study of fractures. 

agminate, agminated (ag'-min-at, ag' -min-a-ted) 
[agmen, a multitude]. Aggregated; clustered, a. 
glands, see gland, Peyer's. 

agnail (ag'-nal). 1. Hangnail. 2. A whitlow. 
3. A corn. 

agnathia ( ah-gna' -the-ah) [d, priv.; yvaOos, a jaw]. 
Absence or defective development of the jaws. 

agnathus {ag'-na-thus) [&, priv.; yvados, a jaw]. 
A monster with no lower jaw. 

agnea, or agncea (ag-ne'-ah) [ayvoia, want of per- 
ception]. A condition in which the patient does not 
recognize things or persons. 

Agnew's splint (ag'-nii) [David Hayes Agnew, 
American surgeon, 1818-1802]. For hip-joint disease; 
a long splint with a perineal band (fitted closely 
against the tuber ischii) and a foot-piece; used after 
the disappearance of acute symptoms and designed 
to support the weight of the trunk. 

agnin (ag'-nin) [agnus, a lamb]. A fatty sub- 
stance derived from sheep's wool. 

agnina membrana {ag-ni'-nah mem-bra' -naK) [L.]. 
"The lamb-like, or woolly, membrane," — the am- 

agnolin (ag'-no-lin). Purified wool fat; adeps 

agnosia (ah-gno'-se-ah) [a, priv.; yvwais, a recog- 
nizing]. Loss of the perceptive faculty which gives 
recognition of persons and things. 

-agoga, -agogue [0705765, one who leads]. A suffix, 
denoting agents that drive out other substances, as 
emmenagqgues, lithagogues, etc. 

agomphiasis (ah-gom-fi'-as-is) [&, priv.; yon<j>ios, a 
tooth]. Same as agomphosis. 

agomphious (ah-gom'-fe-us) [a, priv.; yofupios, a 
tooth]. Without teeth. 

agomphosis (ah-gom-fo'-sis) [see agomphious]. 
1. Absence of the teeth. 2. A loosening of the 

agonal (ag'-on-al) [aywvla, a struggle]. Struggling; 
relating to the death-struggle. 

agonia (ag-o' -ne-ah) [ayoivia, a contest or struggle]. 
1. Distress of mind; extreme anguish. 2. The 
death struggle. [ayovos, barren]. Barrenness; ster- 
ility; impotence, a. bark, see agoriada. 

agoniadin (ag-on-i' -ad-in), C10H14O6. A glucoside 
found in Agonia bark, and used as an antiperiodic. 

agonous (ag'-o-nus) [ayovos, unfruitful]. Barren; 

agony (ag'-o-ne) [see agonal]. Violent pain; ex- 
treme anguish; the death-struggle. 

agopyrine (ag-o-pi'-rin). An influenza remedy 
said to contain salicin, 4 gr. ; ammonium chloride 
I gr. ; cinchonine sulphate, i gr. 

agoraphobia (ag-o-ra-fo'-be-ah) [ay opa, a market- 
place, assembly; <£6/3os, fear]. A morbid fear of 
open places or spaces. 

agoriadin (ag-o-ri' -ad-in) [Sp.l. C10H14O6. A glu- 
coside, probably the active principle of agoriada. 

Agostini's reaction for glucose. To 5 drops of 
the urine add 5 drops of 0.5 % solution of gold 
chloride and 3 drops of 20 % potash solution, and 
heat gently. In the presence of glucose a red color 
will be produced. 

-agra (aypa, a seizure]. A Greek word added as a 
suffix to various roots to denote seizure, severe pain; 
as podagra, etc. 

agraffe (ag-raf) [Fr. agrafe, a hook, clasp]. An 
instrument to keep the edges of a wound together. 

agrammatism (ah-gram'-at-izm) [a, priv.; ypapiia, a 
word]. A phenomenon of aphasia, consisting in the 
inability to form words grammatically, or the sup- 
pression of certain words of a phrase; a form of 

agraphia (ah-graf'-e-ah) [a, priv.; ypa<peiv, to write]. 
Inability to express ideas by writing, a., absolute, 

a variety in which no letters can be formed. Syn., 
literal agraphia, a., acoustic, loss of capacity to 
write from dictation, a. amnemonica, a form in 
which letters can be written, but without conveying 
any meaning, a. atactica, that form in which letters 
cannot be formed from lack of muscular coordination, 
a., literal, a. literalis, see a., absolute, a., motor, 
inability to recall the movements of the hand neces- 
sary in writing, a., musical, pathological loss of the 
ability to write musical notes, a., optic, inability 
to copy writing, but ability to write from dictation. 
a., verbal, a variety in which a number of words 
without meaning can be written. Cf. paragraphia. 

agrapbic (ah-graf'-ik) [see agraphia]. Affected 
with or pertaining to agraphia. 

agremia (ag-re'-me-ah) [aypa, seizure; atfj.a, blood]. 
The condition of the blood in gout; the gouty dia- 

agria (ag'-re-ah) [aypios, wild]. A pustular erup- 
tion; malignant pustule; herpes. 

agridinium (ag-rid-in'-e-um). A dye-stuff used 
with arsenophenylglycin, for its trypanocidal 

agrielcosis (ag-re-el-ko'-sis) [aypios, wild; IXkojo-is, 
ulceration]. A malignant or uncontrollable ulcera- 

agrimony {ag' -rim-o-ne) [d7p6s, a field; fiovos, 
alone]. The root of Agrimonia eupatoria, a mild 
astringent. Dose of fluidextract \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). 

agriopsoria (ag-re-op-so'-re-ah) [aypios, wild; l/'wpa, 
itch]. An incurable or severe attack, or variety, 
of itch. 

agriothymia (ag-re-o-thi'-me-ah) [aypios, wild; 
dvfids, mind; will]. Maniacal fury. 

agrippa (ag-rip'-ah) [L.]. One born with the feet 

agromania (ag-ro-ma'-ne-ah) [d7pds, a field; navla, 
madness]. A mania for living in the country. 

agron [East Indian]. A disease which occurs in 
India, marked by roughening of the tongue, with 

agrypnetic (ah-grip-net'-ik) [a, priv.; virvos, sleep]. 
1. Sleepless; wakeful. 2. Preventing sleep; agryp- 

agrypnia (ah-grip'-ne-ah) [a, priv.; virvos, sleep]. 
Loss of sleep; insomnia. 

agrypnocoma (ah-grip-no-ko r -mah) [aypvirvos, sleep- 
less; K&na, coma]. Coma vigil; wakeful lethargy, 
with low-muttering delirium. 

agrypnotic {ah-grip-not'-ik) [d, priv.; virvos, sleep]. 
1. Preventing sleep; causing wakefulness. 2. A 
medicine that prevents sleep. 

aguamiel (ah-goo-ah-me-el') [Sp.]. The sap of the 
pulque magueys, Agave atrovirens, and A. Mexicana. 
From it is made the fermented drink pulque. It is 
said to have diuretic, laxative, galactagogue, and 
nutrient properties. 

ague (a'-gii) [acutus, sharp; acute; Fr., aigu], 
1. Malarial or intermittent fever; characterized by 
paroxysms consisting of chill, fever, and sweating, 
at regularly recurring times, and followed by an 
interval or intermission the length of which deter- 
mines the epithets quotidian, tertian, etc. In some 
cases there is a double paroxysm, and hence these 
are called double quotidian, double tertian, etc. 
The duration of each paroxysm varies from 2 to 12 
hours. Syn., fever and ague; intermittent fever; pe- 
riodic fever; malarial fever ; marsh fever; paludal fever; 
miasmatic fever. 2. A chill, a., Aden, see dengue. 
a., brass-founders', a disease common among brass- 
founders, characterized by symptoms somewhat 
resembling an imperfect attack of intermittent fever, 
the recurrence of the paroxysms, however, being 
irregular. The direct cause is generally thought to 
be the inhalation of the fumes of deflagrating zinc 
or "spelter." a., brow-, intermittent neuralgia of 
the brow, a.-cake, chronic enlargement of the 
spleen in diseases of malarial origin, a., catenating, 
ague associated with other diseases, a.-drop, see 
Fowler's solution, a., dumb, ague without well- 
marked chill, and with at most only partial or slight 
periodicity. Syn., dead ague; irregular ague; latent 
ague; masked ague, a., face, tic douloureux, a., 
partial, ague attended with pain which is limited to 
some part or organ, a.-tree, common sassafras. 
a.-weed. 1. See Gentiana. 2. Eupatorium perfoli- 
atum, or thoroughwort. 

aguish (a'-gu-ish). Resembling or relating to 
ague; affected with ague. 

agurin (ag'-u-rin). A compound of sodium theo- 




bromate and sodium acetate; it is recommended 
as a diuretic in doses of 24 gr. (1.5 Gm.). 

Ah. Abbreviation of hypermetropic astigmatism. 

Ahlf eld's sign (ahl'-felt) [Johann Friedrich Ahl- 
feld, German obstetrician, 1843- ]. Irregular 
tetanic contractions affecting localized areas of the 
uterus, observed after the third month of pregnancy. 

ahypnia (ah-hip'-ne-ah) [a, priv.; virvos, sleep]. 

ahypnosis (ah-hip-no'-sis) [abirvLa, sleeplessness]. 
Entire absence of the capacity to sleep, most marked 
in insanity. 

aichmophobia {ak-mo-fo'-be-ah) [dixjui?. a spear 
point; 4>ofieiv, to fear]. An extravagant dread of 
sharp or pointed instruments. 

aidoio- (a-doi'-o). See edeo-. 

aidoiomania (a-doi-o-ma'-ne-ah). See edeomania. 

ail (al) [ME., eyle]. 1. To be out of health. 2. A 
slight indisposition. 3. Garlic, a., Wetherbee, a 
popular name for progressive muscular atrophy, 
from the fact that several successive generations of a 
Massachusetts family of that name were affected 
with the disease. 

Ailanthus (a-el-an'-thus). See Ailantus. 

ailantus (a-el-an'-tus) [Malacca, ailanto, "tree of 
heaven"]. The bark of A. glandulosa, commonly 
known as "tree of heaven." Its properties are due 
to an oleoresin and a volatile oil. It is a nauseant 
and drastic purgative and an excellent anthelmintic 
against tape-worm. Dose of fluidextract 10 min.-i dr. 
(0.6-4.0 Cc); of tincture 10 min.-2 dr. (0.6-8.0 Cc). 

ailing (jZl'-ing). Indisposed; out of health; not 

ailment (al'-menf) [ME., eyle]. A disease; sick- 
ness; complaint. 

ailurophobia (a-lu-ro-fo'-be-ah) [cuhovpos, a cat; 
<f>6Pos, fear]._ A morbid fear of cats. 

ainhum (in'-hoom) [negro word, meaning to saw]. 
A disease of Guinea and Hindustan, peculiar to 
negroes, in which the little toes are slowly and spon- 
taneously amputated at about the digitoplantar fold. 
The process is very slow, is unaccompanied by any 
constitutional symptoms, and its cause is unknown. 
It sometimes attacks the great toe. 

aiodine (ah-i'-o-diri). A preparation of the 
thyroid gland and tannin. It is a tasteless powder, 
of which each gram is said to represent 10 Gm. of 
the fresh glands and to contain 0.4 % of iodine. It is 
used in myxedema. 

air [&rip, the lower, dense air as distinguished from 
alB-hp, the upper and purer air]. The atmosphere. 
Atmospheric air consists of a mixture of 77 parts 
by weight, or 79.19 by volume, of nitrogen, and 23 
parts by weight, or 20.81 by volume, of oxygen, 
with 0.03 to 0.06 parts by volume of CO2. It 
also contains traces of ammonia, argon, nitrites, 
and organic matter. By virtue of its oxygen it is 
able to sustain respiration. One hundred cubic 
inches weigh 30,935 grains. The pressure of the air 
at sea-level is about 14! pounds upon the square inch. 
a., alkaline, free or volatile ammonia, a., azotic, 
nitrogen, a.-bag, see a.-cushion. a.-bath, thera- 
peutic exposure to air, which may be heated, con- 
densed, or variously medicated, a.-bed, an air- 
tight rubber mattress, inflated with air, employed 
in conditions requiring prolonged confinement to bed. 
a.-bladder, see a.-vesicles. a.-cell, an air-sac; an 
air-vesicle of the lung, a., complemental, the 
amount of air that can still be inhaled after an 
ordinary inspiration, a. conduction, a method of 
testing the hearing-power by means of a watch held 
at varying distances from the ear, or by the employ- 
ment of a number of tuning-forks of varying pitch. 
a.-cure, the therapeutic employment of air. a.- 
cushion, a cushion filled with air, and usually made 
of soft india-rubber, a., dephlogisticated, an old 
name for oxygen, a.-douche, the inflation of the 
middle ear through the nose, a.-embolism, the 
entrance of free air into the blood-vessels during life. 
a., expired, that driven from the lungs in expiration. 
a., factitious, carbon dioxide, a., fixed, an old 
name for carbon dioxide, a., hepatic, hydrogen 
sulphide, a.-hunger, dyspnea on both inspiration 
and expiration, a., inspired, that taken into the 
lungs on inspiration, a., liquid, air which has been 
liquefied by intense pressure; an extreme cold is 
produced by its evaporation, a., mephitic, carbon 
dioxide, a.-passages, the nares, mouth, larynx, 
trachea, and bronchial tubes, a., phlogisticated, an 
old name for nitrogen, a.-pump, an apparatus for 

exhausting or compressing air. a., reserve, a., sup- 
plemental, the air that can still be exhaled after an 
ordinary expiration, a., residual, that remaining 
in the lungs after the most complete expiration 
possible, a.-sac, see a.-vesicles. a., solid, of Hales, 
carbon dioxide; so called because of its property of 
forming solid carbonates with metallic oxides, 
a.-space, a space in tissues filled with air or other 
gases, a., stationary, that remaining in the lungs 
during normal respiration, a., supplemental, see 
a., reserve, a.-tester, an instrument for testing the 
purity of the air. a., tidal, that taken in and given 
out at each respiration, a.-trap, a trap to prevent 
the escape of sewer gas. a.-vesicles, the alveoli of 
the lung, the ultimate division of the air-passages. 
a., vital, an old name for oxygen. 

air-break wheel, air-breaking wheel. An arrange- 
ment by means of which the sparks may be promptly 
extinguished when using a no-volt continuous 
current to excite a coil; the spark formed at the 
contact-brushes when the coil is energized is blown 
out instantaneously by the air-blast. 

airoform (ar'-o-form). Same as airol. 

airogen (ar'-o-jen). See airol. 

airol (ar'-ol). Trade name for bismuth iodosub- 
gallate. q. v. 

akamathesia, akamathesis. See akatamathesia. 

akamushi disease (ah-kah-mu'-she) [Jap. aka, red; 
mushi, bug, or insect]. Japanese river fever. 

akanthesthesia (a-kan-thes-the'-ze-ah) [aicavda, a 
thorn; aladrjais, sensation]. A form of paresthesia or 
perverted sensation in which there is a feeling as of a 
sharp point. 

akanthion (a-kan'-the-on). See acanthion. 

akaralgia (ak-ar-al'-je-ah). A proprietary "head- 
ache cure." It contains sodium salicylate, sodium 
sulphate, magnesium sulphate, lithium benzoate, 
and nux vomica. 

akarkine (ak-ar'-kin). Trade name for arsenic 
albuminate; it is used as a cancer cure. 

akatamah (ak-ah-tah'-mah). The native West 
Central African name for an endemic peripheral 
neuritis of obscure origin marked by numbness and 
intense prickling and burning in the presence of cold 
or damp. 

akatamathesia (ah-kat-am-ath-e'-ze-ah) [&, priv.; 
Karap.aBri<Tis, understanding]. Inability to understand. 

akathisia (ah-kath-e'-ze-ah) [d, priv.; Kadlfav, to be 
seated]. A name given by Lad Haskovec to a form 
of rhythmic chorea in which the patient is unable 
to remain seated; the affection resembles astasia- 

akidopeirastic (ak-id-o-pi-ras'-tik) [6/07, &kLs, needle; 
Tretpao-Ti/cos, proving]. Relating to the exploratory 
puncture of a diseased area by means of a stout 

akidopeirastica (ak-id-o-pi-ras'-tik-ah) [axis, a 
point; ireipafiiv, to make a trial of]. Exploratory 
incision or puncture. 

akinesia, akinesis {ah-kin-e'-se-ah, ah-kin-e' -sis) 
[A, priv.; Klv-qcns, motion]. Lack of or imperfect 
motion; motor paralysis, a. algera, an affection 
characterized by abstinence from voluntary move- 
ment on account of pain, which any active muscular 
effort causes. The condition is probably a form of 
neurasthenia, a., crossed, a motor paralysis on the 
side opposite that in which the lesion exists, a., 
reflex, impairment or loss of reflex action. 

akinesis, cerebral, that in which the lesion is in 
the cerebrum, a. iridis, rigidity or immobility of 
the iris, a., spinal, motor impairment due to a 
lesion of the cord. 

akinetic (ah-ki-net'-ik) [akinesia]. I. Relating to 
or affected with akinesia. 2. An agent lessening 
muscular action. 

akoulalion {ah-koo-la'-le-on) [&kov€lv, to hear; XAXos, 
speech]. A mechanical contrivance to aid defective 
audition, used in training the deaf and dumb to 

akouphone (ah'-koo-fori) [iucoveiv, to hear; <f>o>vri, 
sound], A mechanism to aid defective hearing. 

akromegaly, akromegalia (ak-ro-meg'-a-le, ak-ro- 
me-ga'-le-ah) [anpov, extremity; p,eya\t], large]. A 
disease characterized by an overgrowth of the 
extremities and of the face, including the bony as 
well as the soft parts. The etiology is unknown. 
In a number of cases the pituitary body has been 
enlarged; disease of the thyroid gland has also been 
found in some instances. 

Al. Chemical symbol of aluminum. 




al. i. The Arabic definite article the, prefixed to 
many words to designate preeminence, etc., as alkali, 
alcohol. 2. A chemical suffix denoting similarity to 
or derivation from an aldehyde, as chloraZ, butyraJ, 

ala (a'-lah) [L., "a wing": pi., alee], i. A wing. 
2. Any wing-like process. 3- The arm .or shoulder; 
in animals, the shoulder-blade, a. alba lateralis, 
the nucleus of the glossopharyngeal nerve, a. alba 
medialis, the hypoglossal nucleus, a. auris, the 
pinna of the ear. a. cinerea, a triangular space 
of gray matter in the fourth ventricle of the brain, 
probably giving origin to the pneumogastric nerves. 
a. descendens, the pterygoid process of the sphenoid 
bone. a. ethmoidalis, the alar process of the eth- 
moid, alse laterales. i. The great wings of the 
sphenoid bone. 2. Wing-like processes on each 
side of the nasal spine of the frontal bone. a. lob'uli 
antra'lis, the lateral part of the median cerebellar 
lobe. a. mag'na, the great wing of the sphenoid. 
a. par'va, the small wing of the sphenoid, a. pon'tis, 
the posterior part of the roof of the fourth ventricle. 
alae majores. i. The greater wings of the sphenoid. 
2. The external labia pudendi. alae minores. 

1. The lesser wings of the sphenoid. 2. The labia 
minora pudendi. a. nasi, the lateral cartilage of 
the nose, alae parvae, the lesser wings of the sphenoid. 
alae pulmonum, the lobes of the lung, a., of sacrum, 
the flat, triangular surface of bone extending out- 
ward from the base of the sacrum, supporting the 
psoas magnus muscle, a. uvulae, a medullary layer 
running from the posterior part of the uvula of the 
cerebellum to the amygdala?, a. vespertilionis, the 
broad ligament of the uterus, alae vulvae, the labia 
of the pudendum. 

alabaster (al-a-bas'-ter). i. Hydrous calcium sul- 
phate. 2. Calcium carbonate. 

alabastrine (al-a-bas'-tren). i. Relating to or 
resembling alabaster. 2. Naphthalene. 

alalia (al-a'-le-ah) [d, priv.; XaXtd, talk], i. Im- 
pairment of articulation from paralysis of the muscles 
of speech or from local laryngeal disease. 2. Aphasia 
due to a psychic disorder, a., mental, a form 
observed in children, which consists in inability to 
speak through excessive stammering. Cf. dyslalia, 
lalophobia, mogilalia, paralalia, a., relative, same 
as a., mental. 

alalic (al-a'-lik) [a, priv.; XaXtd, talk]. Charac- 
terized by or pertaining to alalia. 

alangine, alanginum (al-an'-jin, -um). An alkaloid 
obtained from Alangium lamarkii, soluble in alcohol, 
in ether, and in chloroform; it is used as a febrifuge 
and emetic. 

alanin (al'-an-in), C3H7NO2. Lactamic acid. 
An organic base obtained by heating aldehyde 
ammonia with hydrocyanic acid in the presence of 
an excess of HC1. It occurs in aggregated hard 
nodules with a sweetish taste. It is soluble in 5 
parts of cold water; less soluble in alcohol; insoluble 
in ether, a., mercury, mercury amidopropionate. 

alant camphor. A camphor from elecampane. 
See helenin. 

alantic (al-an'-tik) [Ger., alant, elecampane]. 
Pertaining to or derived from elecampane, a. an- 
hydride, C15H20O2, a crystalline substance derived 
from the root of elecampane, melting at 66° C. 

alantin (al-an'-tin). Same as inulin. 

alantol (al-an'-tol), C20H22O. Inulol. An aro- 
matic liquid obtained from elecampane; used in the 
same manner as creosote in pulmonary tuberculosis. 

alar (a'-lar) [ala, a wing]. 1. Wing-like. 2. Re- 
lating to the shoulder, or axilla, a. ligaments, 
lateral synovial folds of the ligament of the knee- 
joint, a. ligaments, odontoid, lateral ligaments of 
the odontoid process. 

alares [pi. of alaris]. 1. The pterygoid muscles. 

2. The wings of the sphenoid. 

alaris (al-a'-ris) [ala, a wing]. Wing-shaped. 
See alar. 

alate (a'-lat) [ala]. Winged. 

alatus (al-a'-tus). 1. Winged. 2. An individual 
in whom there is a marked backward projection of 
the shoulder blades. 

alaxa (al-ak'-ser). Trade name of an aperient pre- 
paration, the chief constituent of which is cascara 

alba (al'-bah) [L., "white"]. The white fibrous 
tissue of the brain and nerves, a., reticular, the 
reticulated layer of alba on the anterior half of the 
uncinate gyrus. Syn., substantia reticularis alba. 

albaras, albarras [Ar.]. A skin disease charac- 
terized by the formation of white, shining patches. 
Syn., white leprosy; baras; barras. 

albargin {al-bar'-jin) [album, white; argentum, 
silver]. A compound of silver (15 %) and gelatose 
(a transformation-product of glue). A yellow 
powder, freely soluble in water, used in treatment 
of gonorrhea in injections of 0.2 % solution 4 or s 
times daily. 

albedo (al-be'-do) [L., "whiteness"]. Whiteness. 
a. retinae, retinal edema, a. unguis, or unguium, 
the lunula of the nail. 

albefaction (al-be-fak'-shun) [albus, white; facer e, 
to make]. The act or process of blanching or ren- 
dering white. 

Albert's disease [Eduard Albert, Austrian surgeon, 
1841-1900]. Achillodynia; inflammation of the 
retrocalcanean bursa, generally secondary to osteitis 
of the os calcis. 

albescent (al-bes'-ent) [albescere, to become white]. 

albicans (al'-be-kanz) [albicare, to grow white]. 
1. One of the corpora albican tia of the brain. 2. 
White; whitish. 

albicantia {al-be-kan'-she-ah) [L.]. Plural of albi- 
cans (1). _ 

albiduria (al-bid-u'-re-ah) [albidus, white; ovpov, 
urine]. White urine. Chyluria. 

Albini's nodules (ahl-be'-ne) [Giuseppe Albini, 
Italian physiologist, 1830- ]. Small nodules 
found on the free edge of the auriculoventricular 
valves in some infants. 

albinism, albinismus (al'-bin-izm, al-bin-iz' -mus) 
[albus, white]. That condition of the skin in which 
there is a congenital absence of pigment involving 
its entire surface, including the hair and the choroid 
coats and irises of the eyes. It is usually associated 
with nystagmus, photophobia, and astigmatism. 
Syn., alphosis; congenital achroma; congenital leuko- 
derma; leukcethiopia; achromatosis ; leukopathia; 
albitudo. a., acquired, a. acquisita, see vitiligo, a., 
partial, congenital absence of pigmentation in certain 
parts of the skin, appearing in irregular, white, 
sharply defined spots. Especially characteristic 
are the changes of color in the hair, often observed in 
negroes. The hairs are white and grow upon skin 
devoid of pigment, or normally colored. Syn., 
poliosis circumscripta. 

albino (al-be'-no) [Sp.]. A person affected with 

albinotic (al-bin-ot'-ik). Affected with albinism. 

albinuria (al-bin-u'-re-ah) [albus, white; ovpeov, 
urine]. 1. Chyluria; whiteness of the urine. 2. 

albocinereous (al-bo-sin-e'-re-us) [albus, white; 
cinereus, gray]. Having both white and gray 

alboferrin (al-bo-fer'-in). An odorless, light-brown 
powder, readily soluble in cold water. It is said to 
consist of albumin, 90.14 %; iron, 0.68 %; phos- 
phorus, 0.324%; amidonitrogen, 0.13%; and min- 
eral substances, 9.5 %. It is indicated in chlorosis, 
anemia, etc. Dose 15-45 gr. (1-3 Gm.) for children; 
45-75 gr. (3-5 Gm.) for adults, a day. 

albolene (aV-bo-len) [albus, white; oleum, oil], 
A hydrocarbon oil, colorless, tasteless, odorless, 
used as an application to inflamed surfaces. 

albor (al'-bor) [albus]. 1. A whiteness. 2. Egg- 
albumen. 3. [Ar., al bill.] Urine, a. cutis, a. 
nativus, albinism, a. ovi, white of egg. 

albuginea {al-bu-jin' -e-ah) [albus]. 1. White or 
whitish. 2. A layer of white fibrous tissue investing 
an organ or part. Syn., tunica albuginea. a. oculi, 
the sclerotic coat of the eye. a. ovarii, the tunica 
albuginea of the ovary, a. testis, the tunica al- 
buginea of the testicle. 

albugineotomy {al-bil-jin-e-ot'-o-me) [albuginea; 
tout], cutting]. Incision of any tunica albuginea 
(q. v.). 

albugineous (al-bu-jin'-e-us). 1. Whitish. 2. Be- 
longing to a tunica albuginea. 

albuginitis (al-bu-jin-i'-tis) [albuginea; wis, in- 
flammation]. Inflammation of a tunica albuginea. 

albugo (al-bic'-go) [L.]. 1. A white spot, as upon 
the cornea. 2. A whitish, scaly eruption. 3. The 
white of an egg. 

albukalin (al-bu'-kal-in), C8H17N2O6. A substance 
found in leukemic blood. 

albulactin (al-bu-lak'-tin). See lactalbumin. 

album {al'-bum) [albus, white]. A substance 




characterized by whiteness, a. candiense, bismuth 
subnitrate. a. cards, see a. gr cecum, a. ceti, sper- 
maceti, a. graecum, the feces of dogs fed upon 
bones, and whitened by exposure. It was formerly 
used in medicine, a. hispaniae, . a. hispanicum, 
blanc d'Espagne, bismuth subnitrate. a. nigrum, 
the feces of rats and mice, formerly used as a diuretic 
and purgative, a. ovi, white of egg. 

albumen (al-bu' -men) [albus]. The white of an 
egg. See albumin. 

albumimeter (al-bu-mim' -et-er) [albumin; fikrpov, a 
measure]. See albuminimeter . 

albumin (al-bu'-min) [albus, white]. A proteid 
substance, the chief constituent of the animal tissues. 
Its molecule is highly complex. It is soluble in 
water and coagulable by heat. It contains the 
following elements: Carbon, 51.5 to 54-5; hydrogen, 
6.9 to 7-3; nitrogen, 15.2 to 17.0; oxygen, 20.9 to 
23.5; sulphur, 0.3 to 2.0. Albumen, white of egg, 
often called albumin, is largely composed of it. 
Other varieties are called after their sources or char- 
acteristic reactions, as acid-albumin, alkali-albumin, 
muscle-albumin, serum-albumin, ovum-albumin, veg- 
etable-albumin, etc. Syn., coagulable animal lymph; 
coagulable lymph of the serum. See Axenfeld, Barral, 
Boedeker, Cohen, Furbringer, Heller, Heynsius, 
Hindenlang, Johnson, MacWilliam, Mehu, Millon, 
Oliver, Oxyphenylsulphonic Acid, Parnum, Raabe, 
Rees, Roberts, Spiegler, Tanret, Zouchlos. a., acid, 
that changed by the action of acid, a., blood-, see 
serum-albumin, a., caseiform, that variety not 
coagulated by heat, but precipitated by acids. 
a., circulating, that found in the fluids of the body. 
a., derived, a modification of albumin resulting from 
the action of certain chemicals upon native albumin. 
a., egg, albumin of which white of egg is the type. 
a., floating, same as a., circulating, a., imperfect, 
one which fails to give all the ordinary reactions. 
a., lacto-, see lactalbumin. a., milk, see eiweiss milch. 
a., muscle-, a variety found n muscle-juice, a., 
native, any albumin occurring normally in the tissues. 
a., organic, that forming an integral part of the 
tissue, a., serum-, see serum-albumin, a., vege- 
table, that found in various vegetable juices. 

albuminate (al-bu' -min-at). A compound of 
albumin and certain bases, as albuminate of iron. 

albuminaturia (al-bu-min-at-u'-re-ah) [albuminate; 
ovpov, urine]. The abnormal presence of albuminates 
in the urine. 

albuminid (al-bu' -min-id). Acidalbumin; syntonin. 

albuminiferous (al-bu-min-if -er-us) [albumin; f err e, 
to bear]. Yielding albumin. 

albuminimeter (al-bu-min-im' -et-er) [albumin; 
fikrpov, a measure]. An instrument for the quanti- 
tative estimation of albumin in urine. 

albuminimetry (al-bu-min-im' -et-re). The quanti- 
tative estimation of the albumin in a liquid. 

albuminiparous (al-bu-min-ip'-ar-us) [albumin; 
parere, to produce]. Yielding albumin. 

albuminofibrin (al-bu' -min-o-fi' -brin) . A compound 
of albumin and fibrin. 

albuminogenous (al-bu-min-oj'-en-us) [albumin; 
yewav, to produce]. _ Producing albumin. 

albuminoid (al-bu' -min-oid) [albumin; elSos, like- 
ness]. 1. Resembling albumin. Applied to certain 
compounds having many of the characteristics of 
albumin. 2. Any nitrogenous principle of the 
class of which normal albumin may be regarded as 
the type. a. degeneration, or disease, see amyloid 

albuminolysin (al-bu-min-oV -is-in) . A lysin which 
causes destruction of albumins. 

albuminometer (al-bu-min-om' -et-er). See albu- 

albuminometry. See albuminimetry. 

albuminone (al-bu' -min-on) [albumin]. A prin- 
ciple derived from certain albuminoids; it is soluble 
in alcohol and is not coagulable by heat. 

albuminorrhea (al-bu-min-or-e' -ah) [albumin; pola, 
a flow]. _ Excessive discharge of albumins. 

albuminose (al-bu'-min- os) [albumin]. 1. A product 
of the digestion of fibrin or of any albuminoid in 
very dilute hydrochloric acid; acidalbumin. 2. Al- 
bumose, or one of the products of the digestion of 
albumin by the gastric juice. 

albuminosis (al-bu-min-o' -sis) [albumin]. Abnor- 
mal increase of the albuminous elements in the blood, 
or the condition that results from such increase. 

albuminous (al-bu' -min-us) [albumin]. Containing, 
or of the nature of, albumin. 

albuminuria (al-bu-min-u'-re-ah) [albumin; ovpov, 
urine]. The presence in the urine of albumin, usually 
serum-albumin. Albumin in the urine may result 
from disease of the kidneys or from the admixture 
of blood or pus with the urine. Its presence is some- 
times not accounted for by either of these causes. 
See a., cyclic, a. acetonica, albuminuria due to 
asphyxia. Syn., anoxemic albuminuria, a. of adoles- 
cence, see a., cyclic, a., adventitious, see a., pseudo-. 
a., cardiac, that due to chronic valvular disease. 
a., cicatricial, a form in which epithelial desquama- 
tion is assumed to be replaced by tissue incapable 
of restraining the transudation of albumin from the 
blood, a., colliquative, that due to great disassim- 
ilation of the blood-corpuscles or adipose tissue. 
a., consumptive, see a., colliquative, a., cyclic, a 
condition, also known as physiological, simple, func- 
tional, or transient albuminuria, or the albuminuria 
of adolescence, in which a small quantity of albu- 
min appears in the urine, especially of the young, 
at stated times of the day; hence the term, "cyclic." 
a., dietetic, that due to the ingestion of certain 
forms of food., a., dystrophic, that dependent upon 
imperfect formation of the blood-corpuscles, a., 
emulsion, that in which the urine has a milky tur- 
bidity due to minute corpuscular elements, a., 
exudative, Gubler's name for albuminuria partially 
due to the filtration of albumin through the mem- 
branes of the kidney and also to the presence in the 
urine of products of inflammation, as in cases of 
nephritis, a., false, a mixture of albumin with the 
urine during its transit through the urinary passages, 
where it may be derived from blood, pus, or special 
secretions that contain albumin, a., febrile, that 
due to fever, or associated with acute infectious 
diseases, slight changes occurring in the glomerules 
without organic lesion, a., functional, see a., cyclic. 
a., globular, that due to destruction of blood-cor- 
puscles or dependent upon the presence of blood in 
the urine, a., gouty, albumin in the urine of elderly 
persons, who secrete a rather dense urine containing 
an excess of urea, a., intrinsic, see a., true, a., 
mixed, the presence of a true with a pseudo-albu- 
minuria. a., nephrogenous, that due to renal 
disease, a., orthostatic, a form dependent upon an 
upright posture, a., paroxysmal, same as a., cyclic. 
a., partial, a form in which it is assumed that only 
certain tubules are affected. Syn., albuminuria 
parcellaire. a., physiological, the presence of albumin 
in normal urine, without appreciable coexisting 
renal lesion or diseased condition of the system. 
a., pretuberculous, a condition observed in young 
persons as a premonitory stage of tuberculosis, 
believed to be due to the congestive action of the 
tuberculous virus upon the renal structure, a.: 
pseudo-, albuminuria dependent upon the presence 
of such fluids as blood, pus, lymph, spermatic fluid, 
or the "contents of an abscess cavity, in the urine. 
Syn., adventitious albuminuria, a., residual, a form 
in which a small amount of albumin may persist 
following an attack of nephritis, a., true, that due 
to the excretion of a portion of the albuminous 
constituents of the blood with the water and salts of 
the urine. Syn., intrinsic albuminuria. 

albuminuretic (al-bii-min-u-ret'-ik). 1. Causing 
albuminuria. 2. A drug which causes albuminuria. 

albuminuric (al-bil-min-u'-rik) [see -albuminuria]. 
Associated with, of the nature of, or affected by, 

albumoid (al'-bu-moid). A protein found in 
cartilage and in the crystalline lens; it is but slightly 
soluble in acid and alkaline solutions, and insoluble 
in neutral solutions. 

albumone (al-bu'-mon). A protein found in the 
blood; it cannot be coagulated by heat. 

albumoscope (al-bu' -mo-skop) [albumin; o-Ko-n-elv, to 
examine]. An appliance for determining the presence 
and amount of albumin in urine. 

albumose (al'-bu-m6s) [albumin]. Any albu- 
minoid substance ranking among the first products 
of the splitting-up of proteins by enzyms, and 
intermediate between the food-albumins and the 
typical peptones. According to Kuhne, there are at 
least two albumoses, antialbumose and hemialbumose. 
Hemialbumose yields the following: Protalbumose, 
deuteroalbumose, heteroalbumose, and dysalbumose. 

albumosuria (al-bu-mos-u' -re-ah) [albumose; ovpov, 
urine]. The presence of albumose in the urine. 
a., Bence- Jones', see a., myelopathic, a., myelo- 
pathic, a condition marked by persistent occurrence 




of albumose in the urine, accompanied by softening 
of the bones, owing to sarcomatous disease. 

alburnum (al-ber'-num) [L., "sap-wood"]. In bi- 
ology, young wood, sap-wood. 

albus (al'-bus) [L.]. White. 

alcali (al'-ka-li). See alkali. 

alcaptonuria (al-kap-ton-u'-re-ah). See alkapto- 

alcarnose (al-kar'-noz). A nutrient preparation 
containing maltose combined with albumoses. 

alchemy (al'-kem-e) [At., of doubtful derivation]. 
The supposed art of the transmutation of metals 
(into gold) and of finding a remedy for all diseases. 

Alcock's canal [Thomas Alcock, English anatomist, 
1784-1833]. A canal formed by the separation of 
the layers of the obturator fascia for the transmission 
of the pudic nerve and vessels. 

alcogel (al'-ko-jel). A jelly-like combination of 
alcohol and silicic acid. 

alcohol (al'-ko-hol) [Ar., al-koh'l, the fine powder 
for staining eyelids]. 1. Any compound of an 
organic hydrocarbon radical with hydroxyl. Alco- 
hols are classed as monacid (monatomic), diacid 
(diatomic), and triacid (triatomic), according to the 
number of hydroxyl radicals present in the molecules. 
2. Ethyl-alcohol, C2H5OH: A liquid obtained by 
the distillation of fermented grain or starchy sub- 
stance. It is inflammable, colorless, and possesses a 
pungent odor and burning taste. Internally, it is a 
cerebral excitant and cardiac stimulant; in large 
doses a depressant, narcotic poison, producing mus- 
cular incoordination, delirium, and coma. It exists 
in wine, whisky, brandy, beer, etc., and gives to them 
their stimulant properties. Commercial alcohol 
contains 92.3 % of absolute alcohol with 7.7 % of 
water. It is valuable as a cardiac stimulant in acute 
failure of the heart's action and in adynamic con- 
ditions, a., absolute (alcohol absolutum, U. S. P.), 
ethyl-alcohol deprived of water, a., benzyl, CtHsO, 
obtained from benzaldehyde by the action of sodium 
amalgam, a., caustic, sodium ethylate. a., chlor- 
ethyl, C2H5OCI, a substitution-product of ethyl- 
alcohol in which one atom of hydrogen is replaced 
by one atom of chlorine, a., cinnamic, a., cin- 
namyl, a., cinnamylic, C9H10O, yellowish needles or 
crystalline masses obtained from the distillation of 
styracin. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, water, 
glycerol, and benzine; melts at 30°-33° C; boils at 
250 C. It is antiseptic and is a deodorizer in a 12.5% 
glycerol solution. Syn., styrilic alcohol; crystallized 
styrone. a., denatured, alcohol into which some 
other substance has been introduced, rendering it 
unfit for drinking but still useful for other purposes. 
a. deodoratum, ethyl-alcohol from which odorous 
and coloring-matters have been removed by filtration 
through charcoal, a., dilute (alcohol dilutum, U. 
S. P.) contains 41.5 %, by weight, of alcohol, a., 
ethyl-, see alcohol (2). a., fatty, one obtained from a 
hydrocarbon of the fatty series, a., iso-, an alcohol 
derived from a hydrocarbon containing carbon atoms 
which unite directly with more than two other carbon 
atoms, a., methyl-, CH4O, commonly known as 
"wood spirit." a., phenic, same as phenol, a., 
primary, a., secondary, a., tertiary, an alcohol pro- 
duced by the replacement of 1, 2, or 3 hydrogen 
atoms in carbinol by alkyls. a., unsaturated, that 
derived from the unsaturated alkylens in the same 
manner as the normal alcohols are obtained from 
their hydrocarbons. In addition to the general 
character of alcohols, they are also capable of directly 
binding two additional affinities, a., wood-, see 
a., methyl-. 

alcoholase (al'-ko-hol-as). A ferment which con- 
verts lactic acid into alcohol. 

alcoholate (al'-ko-hol-at). 1. A chemical com- 
pound, as a salt, into which an alcohol enters as a 
definite constituent. 2. A preparation made with 

alcoholature (al-ko-hoV -at-chur) [Fr., alcoolature]. 
An alcoholic tincture. 

alcoholic (al-ko-hol'-ik) [Arabic: al, the; koh'l, 
finely powdered antimony]. 1. Pertaining to, con- 
taining, or producing alcohol. 2. One addicted to 
the use of spirituous drinks, a. radicals, the name 
applied to the univalent hydrocarbon radicals which 
unite with OH to form alcohols. 

alcoholica (al-ko-hoV -ik-ah) . In pharmacy, alco- 
holic preparations. 

alcoholimeter (al-ko-hol-im' -et-er) . See alcoholom- 

alcoholism (aV -ko-hol-izm) . The morbid results of 
excessive or prolonged use of alcoholic liquors. The 
term acute alcoholism has been used as a synonym 
for inebriety. The chronic form is associated with se- 
vere disturbances of the digestive and nervous systems. 

alcoholist (al-ko-hol'-ist). An individual affected 
with alcoholism. 

alcoholization (al-ko-hol-iz-a' -shun) . The art or 
process of alcoholizing; the state of being alcoholized; 
the product of the process of alcoholizing. 

alcoholize (al'-ko-hol-tz). _ 1. To impregnate with 
alcohol. 2. To convert into an alcohol. 3. To 
reduce to a very subtle powder. 

alcoholomania (al-ko-hol-o-ma' -ne-ah) . Morbid 
craving for intoxicating beverages. 

alcoholometer (al-ko-hol-om' -et-er) [alcohol; ukrpov, 
a measure]. A hydrometer or other instrument 
used in determining the percentage of alcohol in 
any liquid. 

alcoholometry (al-ko-hol-om' -et-re) [alcohol; ukrpov, 
a measure]. The determination 'of the proportion of 
alcohol present in any liquid. 

alcoholophilia (al-ko-hol-o-fiV -e-ah) [alcohol; 4>iXeZv, 
to love]. The appetite for strong drink; a craving 
for intoxicants. 

alcolene (aV -ko-len) . A mixture of ethyl and 
methyl alcohols. 

alcometrical (al-ko-met' -rik-al) , Relating to the 
estimation of the amount of alcohol in a liquid. 

aldehydase (al-de-hi'-das). An oxydase, capable 
of oxidizing certain aldehydes to the corresponding 

aldehyde (al'-de-hid) [al, the first syllable of 
alcohol; dehyde, from dehydrogenatum]. 1. A class 
of compounds intermediate between alcohols and 
acids, derived from their corresponding primary 
alcohols by the oxidation and removal of 2 atoms of 
hydrogen, and converted into acids by the addition 
of an atom of oxygen. They contain the group 
COH. 2. C2H4O. Alcohol deprived of 2 atoms of 
hydrogen, or acetic aldehyde. It is a colorless, limpid 
liquid with a characteristic odor, a.-alcoholate, 
C4H10O2, an addition compound of acetic acid and 
ethyl-alcohol, a.-ammonia, C2H4ONH3, obtained 
from aldehyde by action of dry ammonia; soluble 
in water, slightly soluble in ether. Syn., ammoniated 
ethylic aldehyde; acetylammonium ; ammonium alde- 
hydate; ethidene hydramine. a., anisic, C8H8O2, 
results on oxidizing various essential oils (anise, 
fennel, etc.) with dilute HNO3. a., aromatic, an 
aldehyde obtained as an oxidation-product of a 
primary aromatic alcohol and in turn giving rise by 
oxidation to a monobasic aromatic acid, a., benzoic, 
C7H6O, the oil of bitter almonds. Syn., benzalde- 
hyde. a. characteristic, the univalent radical, 
C(H)=0, common to the aldehydes, a., cinnamic, 
CgHsO, the chief ingredient of_ the essential oil of 
cinnamon and cassia, a., collidin, a., collinic, an 
oxidation-product of albuminoids and gelatin; a 
colorless, viscid oil with odor like oil of cinnamon. 
a., formic, CH2O or HCHO is microbicidal and anti- 
septic. Syn., formaldehyde, a., glycolyl, CH2(OH) .- 
CHO, an oxidation-product of tartaric acid when di- 
gested with water at 50°-6o° C. a., isobutylic, a., 
isobutyryl, C4H8O, a transparent, colorless, highly 
refractive, pungent liquid; sp. gr., 0.797 at 15 C; 
soluble in alcohol; boils at 6i° C. a., isovaleral, a., 
isovaleric, C5H10O, a pungent, oily liquid, with an 
odor of apples, obtained from oxidation of amyl- 
alcohol; sp. gr., 0.804 at 15 C; miscible in alcohol 
and ether; boils at 92. 5° C. a., pyroracemic, CH3 .- 
CO . CHO, a yellow volatile oil obtained by boiling 
isonitrosoacetone with dilute sulphuric acid. Syn., 
acetylformyl; methylglyoxal ; propanalon. a., thio-, 
an aldehyde in which the oxygen in the aldehyde 
characteristic is replaced by sulphur, a., toluic, 
a., toluylic, CsHsO, a substance occurring in 3 iso- 
meric forms, all of which are liquids. 

alder (al'-der). See alnus. 

aldin (al'-din) [see aldehyds]. An amorphous 
basic chemical substance, formed from an ammonia 
compound of aldehyde. Several aldins are known. 

aldol (al'-dol) [see aldehyde], C4H8O2. A colorless, 
odorless liquid, obtained by the action of dilute 
HO on crotonaldehyde and acetaldehyde. It is 
miscible with water, and at o° has a sp. gr. of 1.120; 
upon standing, it changes to a sticky mass that can- 
not be poured. 

y. Aldor's method of testing for proteose in 
urine. Use 10 Cc. of urine; acidify with hydro- 




chloric acid, and add phosphotungstic acid until no 
more precipitate occurs. Centrifugate the solution; 
wash the precipitate with absolute alcohol until the 
latter is free from color. Dissolve the precipitate in 
water to which^is added a little potassium hydroxide. 
If the solution turns blue, heat gently until colorless. 
When cool apply the biuret test; if positive, proteoses 
are present. 

aldoses (al'-do-sez) [see aldehyde]. Carbohydrates 
which contain the aldehyde group, CHO. The 
aldehyde alcohols, containing the atomic group 
CH(OH) . CHO. 

aldoxim, or aldoxime (al-doks'-im) [see aldehyde}. 
Products derived from aldehydes by the substitution 
of the oxim group N . OH for oxygen. 

ale (al) IAS., ealu]. An alcoholic beverage brewed 
from malt and hops. It contains from 3 to 7 % of 

alecrthal (ah-les'-ith-al) [a, priv.; XeicLdos, yolk]. 
A term applied to certain ova having the food- 
yolk absent, or present only in very small quantity. 

alegar (a'-le-gar). Vinegar made of ale. 

aleipsis (al-lp'-sis) [aXeupis, an anointing]. Steato- 
sis; fatty degeneration. 

alembic (al-em'-bik) [Ar., al, the; a/*/3i£, a cup]. 
A vessel used for distillation. 

alembroth (al-em' -broth) [origin unknown]. An 
old name for a compound of the chlorides of am- 
monium and mercury. Its solution has been used 
as an antiseptic. 

Aleppo "boil, A. button, A. evil, A. pustule, A. ulcer. 
See furunculus orientalis. 

alepton P (al-ep' -ton) . Colloidal ferromanganese 

alepton S. Colloidal ferromanganese saccharate. 

aletocyte (al-e'-to-sit) [dX^rijs, wanderer; kvtIs, a 
small box, a cell]. A wandering cell. 

aletrin (al'-et-rin). See aletris. 

aletris (al'-et-ris). Star-grass; unicorn-root; star- 
wort; colic root. The root of A. farinosa. It is 
tonic, diuretic, and anthelmintic, and was formerly a 
popular domestic remedy in colic, dropsy, and chronic 
rheumatism. Dose of fluidextract 10-30 min. (0.65- 
2.0 Cc); of tincture (1 in 8 proof spirit) 1-2 dr. 
(4-8 Cc); of aletrin, the extractive, J-4 gr. (0.016- 
0.26 Gm.). 

aleudrin (a-lu'-drin). A white crystalline sub- 
stance, used as a hypnotic and sedative. It is spar- 
ingly soluble in water, but dissolves readily in alcohol, 
chloroform, ether, and fatty oils. 

aleukemia (ah-lu-ke'-me-ah) [d, priv.; Xeu/cos, white; 
alua, blood].' Deficiency in the proportion of white 
cells in the blood. 

aleukocytic (ah-lu-ko-sit'-ik) [a, priv.; leukocyte]. 
Absence of leucytosis : 

aleukocytosis (ah-lu-ko-si-to'-sis) [d, priv.; Xewcos, 
white; kvtos, cell]. A diminished or insufficient 
formation of leukocytes. 

aleurometer (al-u-rom'-et-er) [aleuron; y.krpov, a 
measure]. An instrument used for the examination 
of crude gluten as to its power of distending under 
the influence of heat, as a means of judging of the 
value of a flour for bread-making. 

aleuron (al-u'-ron) [aXevpov, flour]. 1. Wheat flour. 
2. Small, round proteid particles found in seeds. 

aleuronat (al-u' -ro-nat) [aleuron], A vegetable 
albumin used as a substitute for bread in cases of 

aleuroscope (al-u' -ro-skop) . See aleurometer. 

Alexander's operation or Alexander-Adams's oper- 
ation [William Alexander, English surgeon; James 
A. Adams, Scotch surgeon]. A shortening of the 
uterine round ligaments through an inguinal incision, 
to cure retrodisplacement. 

alexanderism (al-eks-an' -der-izm) [Alexander the 
Great], The insanity of conquest; agriothymia 

alexeteric (al-eks-e-ter' -ik) [aXefyrrip, defender]. 
Good against poison, venom, or infection. 

alexeterium (al-eks-e-te'-re-um) [&Xe£riTr)p, a de- 
fender]. An external defensive remedy against 
poison or infection, as distinguished from alexi- 
pharmac, an internal remedy. The plural alexeteria 
was formerly used to designate remedies in general, 
but applied later to those used against the poisonous 
bites of animals. 

alexia (ah-leks'-e-ah) [&, priv.; Xe£«, word]. Word- 
blindness. A form of aphasia in which the patient 
is unable to recognize written or printed characters. 
a., cortical, a variety of Wernicke's sensory aphasia 

produced by lesions of the left gyrus angularis. 
a., motor, inability to read aloud what is written or 
printed, although it is comprehended, a., musical, 
loss of the ability to read music, a., optic, inability 
to comprehend written or printed words, a., sub- 
cortical, that due to interruption of the direct con- 
nection between the optic center and the gyrus 

alexin (al-eks'-in) [&Xe£is, help]. 1. A defensive 
proteid existing normally in the blood; any phylaxin 
or sozin. 2. Any antibacterial substance, found in 
the blood of certain animals and giving immunity 
to certain toxins. See immunity. 

alexipharmac, alexipharmic (al-eks-e-far'-mak,, 
-mik) [&Xe!-eiv, to repel; <j>ix.pna.Kov, a poison]. 1. A 
medicine neutralizing a poison. 2. Acting as an 
internal antidote. See alexiterium. 

alexipharmacon (al-eks-e-far'-mak-on) [see alexi- 
pharmac]. Any alexipharmic medicine. 

alexipyretic (al-eks-e-pi'-ret-ik) [dXe£ew, to ward 
off; irvperos, a fever]. 1. A febrifuge. 2. Acting as a 
febrifuge. _ 

alexiterium (al-eks-it-e'-re-um). See alexeterium. 

alexocyte (al-eks'-o-sit) [dXe£ew, to ward off; /euros, 
a cell]. 1. Hankin's name for an amphophile 
leukocyte. 2. A protective cell of the body which 
is said to secrete alexins. 

aleze (ah-lez) [Fr., ale,ze}. A cloth to protect the 
bed from becoming soiled by excreta, etc. 

alga (al'-ga) [alga, a seaweed; pi., algce]. A sea- 
weed; one of a group of acotyledonous plants living 
mostly in the water. 

algae (al'-je) [alga, a seaweed]. Plural of alga, q. v. 

algaroth (al'-gar-oth) [Victor Algarotus, Veronese 
physician]. Oxy chloride of antimony. 

algefacient (al-je-fa'-shent) [algor, cold; facer e, to 
make], _ Cooling, refrigerant. 

algesia (al-je'-ze-ah) [&X70S, pain]^ 1. Pain; suffer- 
ing. ' 2. Hyperesthesia as regards the sensation of 
pain; also neuralgia. 

algesichronometer (al-je-ze-kro-nom'-et-er) [a\yos, 
pain; xp°"os, time; nerpov, a measure]. An instru- 
ment used to note the lapse of time before a nerve 
center responds to a painful stimulus. 

algesimeter (al-jes-im'-et-er) [dX7os, pain; ukrpov, 
a measure]. An instrument for determining the 
acuteness of the sense of pain, a., Bjornstrom's, 
one to test the sensibility of the skin, a., Boas', an 
instrument consisting of a pad and spring, used to 
determine the relative sensitiveness over the epigas- 
trium. The normal tolerance is 9 to 10 kilograms; 
in cases of gastric ulcer, 1 to 2 kilograms. 

algesthesis (al-jes-the'-sis) [6X705, pain; atadt]<ns, 
feeling]. The perception of pain; painful disease. 

algetic (al-jet'-ik) [ahyelv, to have pain]. Per- 
taining to, or producing, pain. 

-algia (al'-je-ah) [6X705, pain]. A suffix denoting 
pain, as odontalgia, neuralgia, etc. 

algid (al'-jid) [algidus, cold]. Cold; chilly. 
a. cholera, the cold stage of Asiatic cholera, a. 
fever, a pernicious intermittent fever, with great 
coldness of the surface of the body. a. state, the 
cold stage of a disease. 

algidism, algidity (al'-jid-izm, al-jid'-it-e) [see 
algid]. A marked sense of coldness; chilliness. 
a., progressive, see sclerema neonatorum. 

algiomotor (al-je-o-mo'-tor) [6X70$, pain; mover e, to 
move]. Causing movements attended with pain. 

algiomuscular (al-je-o-mus'-ku-lar) [dX-yos, pain; 
musculus, a muscle]. Causing pain in the muscles. 

algogenic (al-go-jen'-ik) [&X70S, pain; yewav, to 
produce]. 1. Causing neuralgic pain. 2. [algidus, 
cold; yewav, to produce.] Lowering the body- 
temperature below the normal. 

algolagnia (al-go-lag' -ne-ah) [algos; Xayveia, venery]. 
Sexual perversion in which pain enjoined or endured 
plays a part. 

algometer (al-gom'-et-er) [algos; fierpov, a measure]. 
An instrument for testing the sensibility of a part to 

algometry (al-gom'-et-re) [6x70s, pain; fierpov, a 
measure]. The testing of pain, a., electric, a com- 
parative estimation of the pain produced by an 
induced electric current. 

algophobia (al-go-fo'-be-ah) [6X705, pain; <£6j8os, 
dread]. Unreasonable or morbid dread of pain. 

algopsychalia (al-go-si-ka'-le-ah). See psychoal- 

algor (al'-gor) [L.]. A sense of chilliness or cold- 




algos (al'-gos) [aXyos, pain]. Pain; a painful 
disease, or attack. 

algoscopy (al-gos'-ko-pe) [algor, cold; o-nowelv, to 
see]. Same as cryoscopy. 

algospasm (al'-go-spazm) [4X705, pain; awaanos, 
spasm]. Painful spasm or cramp. 

algospastic, algospasticus (al-go-spast'-ik, -us) 
[a\yos, pain; o-irao-Tucos, a pulling]. Resembling or 
of the nature of painful cramps. 

Alibert's disease (al-e-bdr') [Jean Louis Alibert, 
French physician, 1766-1837]. Mycosis fungoides. 
A.'s keloid, true keloid. 

alible (al'-e-bl) [alibilis, nutritive]. Nutritive; ab- 
sorbable and assimilable. 

alices (al'-is-ez) [L.]. Red spots preceding the 
pustulation in smallpox. 

alicyclic (al-i-si'-klik) [aXei^ap, fat; kwcXos, a 
circle]. Having the properties of both aliphatic 
(open-chain) and cyclic (closed-chain) compounds. 

alienatio (al-yen-a'-she-o). See alienation, a. 
partis, gangrene. 

alienation (al-yen-a'-shun) [alienus, strange]. Men- 
tal derangement. 

alienism (aV -yen-izm) [alienare, to deprive of 
reason]. The study and treatment of mental dis- 

alienist (al'-yen-ist) [see alienation]. One who 
treats mental diseases; a specialist in the treatment 
of insanity. 

aliform (al'-if-orm) [ala, wing; forma, shape]. 
Wing-shaped, a. process, the wing of the sphenoid. 

alima (al-i'-mah) [aXltios, without hunger]. Ali- 
mentary substances. 

aliment (al'-im-ent) [alimentum, from alimentare, 
to nourish]. Nourishment; food, a., accessory, a., 
adjective, a condiment, a., substantive, a food with 
nutritive value as distinguished from a condiment. 

alimentary (al-im-en'-ta-re) [see aliment]. Nourish- 
ing, a. bolus, the food after mastication and just 
prior to swallowing, a. canal, a. system, a. tract, 
a. tube, the digestive tube, from the lips to the anus, 
with its accessory glands, a. duct, the thoracic duct. 

alimentation (al-im-en-ta'-shun) [alimentare, to 
nourish]. The act of supplying with food. The 
process of nourishment, a., artificial. See feeding, 
artificial, a., artificial-, forced, see feeding, forced. 
a., iodic-, the administration of iodine with the 
food, a., rectal, the nourishing of a patient by the 
administration of small quantities of concentrated 
food through the rectum, a., voluntary-, the nour- 
ishment of those who are willing to be fed, but are 

alimentotherapy (al-im-ent-o-ther'-ap-e) . The treat- 
ment of disease by systematic feeding. 

alinasal (al-i-na'-sal) [ala, a wing; nasus, the 
nose]. Pertaining to the ala nasi, or wing of the 

alinjection (al-in-jek'-shun) [alcohol; inicere, to 
inject]. A process of preserving anatomical specimens 
by repeated injections of alcohol. 

aliphatic (al-e-fat'-ik) [aXeufyap, fat]. 1. Pertaining 
to a fat. 2. Belonging to the open-chain series of 
organic compounds, a. acid, see acid, fatty, a.- 
cyclic. See alicyclic. 

aliptic (al-ip'-tik). 1. Relating to inunction. 
2. Gymnastic; pertaining to physical culture. 

aliquot (al'-e-kwot) [alius, some; quot, how many]. 
A part of a number or quantity which will measure 
it without a remainder, as 4 is an aliquot of 12. 

alisphenoid (al-is-fe'-noid) [ala, a wing; sphenoid]. 
1. Pertaining to the greater wing of the sphenoid 
bone. 2. The bone that in adult life forms the main 
portion of the greater wing of the sphenoid. 

f OH 

alizaramid (al-iz-ar'-am-id), C14H6O2 < -^ H . A 

brown, crystalline substance obtained from boiling 
a dilute solution of alizarin in ammonia. Syn., 

alizarimid (al-iz-ar'-im-id), O4H7NO2. A violet- 
red substance obtained from fiocculent precipitated 
alizarin by action of ammonia with heat; it becomes 
nearly black on drying. 

alizarin (al-iz'-ar-in) [Ar., al, the; 'acarah, to 
extract], C14H8O4; dihydroxyanthraquinone. The red 
coloring principle occurring in Rubia tinctorum and 
in anthracene. It occurs in red, prismatic crystals, 
readily soluble in ether and alcohol. The alizarins 
form a group of the anthracene colors, a.-blue, a 
crystalline blue coloring-matter formed by heating 
nitroalizarin in combination with H2SO4 and glycerol. 

alkadermic (al-ka-der'-mik) [alkali; Sepua, skin]. 
Pertaining to or containing an alkaloid used in 
subcutaneous injection. 

alkalescence (al-ka-les'-ens) [Ar., al-qaliy, soda- 
ash]. Slight or commencing alkalinity. 

alkalescent {al-ka-les'-ent) [see alkalescence]. Some- 
what alkaline. 

alkali (al'-ka-li) [see alkalescence]. The term 
includes the hydroxides of the alkali metals; these 
are electropositive, are strong bases, uniting with 
acids to form salts, turn red litmus blue, and saponify 
fats, a.-albumin, a derived albumin; a proteid 
that has been acted upon by dilute alkalies and 
yields an alkaline reaction, a.-albuminate, a soluble 
powder used as a culture-medium in bacteriology. 
a., caustic, the solid hydroxide of potassium or sodi- 
um, a., fixed, potassium or sodium hydroxide. 
a. metals, sodium, potassium, lithium, cesium, and 
rubidium, a., organic, one forming an essential 
constituent of an organism, a., vegetable, potash or 
potassium carbonate; also applied to the alkaloids. 
a., volatile, ammonium hydroxide, which is decom- 
posed by heat with the evolution of ammonia; also 
ammonium carbonate. 

alkaligenous (al-ka-lig'-en-us) [alkali; yevrp, pro- 
ducing]. Affording or producing an alkali. 

alkalimeter (al-ka-lim'-et-er) [alkali; fierpov, a 
measure]. An instrument for estimating the alkali 
in a substance. 

alkalimetry (al-ka-lim'-et-re) [see alkalimeter]. 
The measurement of the amount of an alkali in a 

alkaline (al'-ka-lin) [alkali]. Having the qualities 
of or pertaining to an alkali, a. air, ammonia. 
a. earths, the oxides of calcium, barium, strontium, 
and magnesium, a. metals, those whose hydroxides 
are alkalies, a. reaction, one in which red litmus 
paper is turned blue. 

alkalinity (al-ka-lin'-i-te) [alkali]. The quality of 
being alkaline. 

alkalinuria (al-ka-lin-u'-re-ah) [alkali; ovpov, urine]. 
Alkalinity of the urine. 

alkalithia (al-ka-lith'-e-ah). A proprietary effer- 
vescent preparation used in rheumatism, said to 
contain 1 gr. (0.065 Gm.) caffeine, 5 gr. (0.32 Gm.) 
lithium bicarbonate, 10 gr. (0.65 Gm.) sodium bi- 
carbonate, in each heaping teaspoonful. Dose 1 
heaped teaspoonful 3 times daily in a large glass of 

alkalization (al-ka-li-za'-shun) [alkali]. The act 
of rendering a thing alkaline; the state or quality of 
being rendered alkaline. 

alkaloid (al'-ka-loid) [alkali; r el5os, likeness]. 
Any one of the nitrogenous compounds occurring in 
plants, and resembling ammonia in being basic and 
in their method of forming salts with acids. Alka- 
loids are believed to be substituted ammonias. 
Alkaloids are, as a rule, the most active parts of 
plants; many are used in medicine, a. s, animal,. 
substances chemically like alkaloids, formed in the 
decomposition of animal tissues. See leukomaine. 
a., artificial, one produced synthetically, a., cada- 
veric, a., putrefactive, see ptomaine, a., fixed, the 
solid alkaloids; they contain carbon, hydrogen, 
nitrogen and oxygen, a., glucoside, a substance 
which exhibits the characteristics of an alkaloid, but 
is capable of decomposition into sugar and another 
substance when acted upon by dilute acid, a., 
volatile, the liquid alkaloids; they contain no oxygen. 

alkaloidal (al-ka-loid'-al) [alkali; eldos, likeness]. 
Having the qualities of an alkaloid. 

alkalometry (al-kal-om'-e-tre). Administering alka- 
loids. See dosimetry. 

alkaluretic (al-ka-lu-ret'-ik) [alkali; ovpov, urine]. 
1. Causing or tending to cause a flow of alkaline 
urine. 2. A drug rendering the urine alkaline. 

alkamin (al'-kam-in). See alkine. 

alkane (al'-kan). See paraffin (2). 

alkanet (al'-kan-et) [Sp., dim. of alcana, henna]. 
The root of the herb, Alkanna (Anchusa) tinctoria, 
yielding a red dye that is used in staining wood, 
coloring adulterated wines, and in pharmacy to 
give a red color to salves, etc. 

alkanin (al'-kan-in). See alkannin. 

alkanna-red. See alkannin. 

alkannin (al'-kan-in) [see alkanet]. Alkanna-red; 
a valuable coloring-matter obtained from alkanet. 

alkapton (al-kap'-ton). A yellowish, resinous, 
nitrogenous body occasionally found in urine. 

alkaptonuria (al-kap-ton-'-u'-re-ah) [alkapton; ovpov. 




urine]. The presence of alkapton in the urine. It 
has been found in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis 
and in other instances in which there were no local 
lesions or general disease. Urine containing alkapton 
turns dark on standing or on the addition of an alkali. 

alkargen (al-kar'-jen) [alkarsin; yevvav, to produce]. 
Dimethylarsenic acid, obtained from alkarsin by 
the action of water. 

alkarhein (al-kar-e'-in). A proprietary alkaline 
preparation of rhubarb and pancreatin. 

alkarsin (al-kar'-sin) [alcohol; arsenic]. _ "Cadet's 
fuming liquid"; an extremely poisonous liquid con- 
taining cacodyl. It is of a brown color, and on 
exposure to the air ignites spontaneously. 

alkasal {aV -ka-sal) . See aluminum-potassium 

alkatrit (al'-ka-trit) [alkali; triturare, to rub to- 
gether]. A triturate made from an alkaloid. 

alkeins (al'-ke-inz). A collective name for the 
ethers formed from the alkines. 

alkermes (al'-kur-mez). See kermes. 

alkine (al'-kin). Any member of the acetylene 
series of hydrocarbons. Syn., alkomin. 

alkyl (al'-kil) [alkali]. The name applied to any 
of the univalent alcohol radicals, CnH 2 n+i; methyl, 
ethyl, etc., are alkyls. a.-sulphides, thioethers; 
sulphur analogues of the ethers. They are colorless 
liquids, generally insoluble in water, and possessing 
a disagreeable odor resembling that of garlic. 

alkylamine (al-kil'-am-in). A body having the 
constitution of ammonia in which an alkyl replaces 
hydrogen; i, 2, or 3 hydrogen atoms of the ammonia 
molecule may suffer this replacement, thus yielding 
primary or monalkylamines, having the general 
formula NH2(CnH2n+i); secondary or dialkylamines, 
having the general formula NH(CnH 2 n+i) (CpH 2 p+i) ; 
and tertiary or trialkylamines , of the general formula 
N(CnH 2 »+i) (CpH 2 +pi) (CgH 2g+ i). 

alkylate (al'-kil-at). A compound derived from a 
montaomic alcohol by replacement of the hydroxyl 
hydrogen by a metal. 

alkylation (al-kil-a'-shun). The exchange of 
hydroxylic hydrogen atoms for alkyls. 

alkylene (al'-ki-len). See olefin. 

alkylogen (al-kil'-o-jen). A haloid salt of an alco- 
hol radical. 

allachesthesia, allachsesthesia (al-ah-kes-the'-ze-ah) 
[dXXax^, in another place; ataOrjais, sensation]. 
Erroneous localization of tactile impressions, differing 
from allocheiria in the respect that the sensation is felt 
on the same side of the body, but in a different place 
from that in which the irritation occurs. 

allantiasis (al-an-ti'-as-is) [dXXas, a sausage]. 
Sausage-poisoning, due to the ingestion of sausages 
in which putrefactive changes have taken place. 

allantoic (al-an-to'-ik) [dXXas, a sausage; eldos, 
resemblance]. Pertaining to the allantois. a. cir- 
culation, the fetal circulation through the cord and 
the umbilical vessels, a. vesicle, the hollow allan- 
tois of certain animals. 

allantoid {al-an' -toid) [see allantoic], 1. Resembling 
a sausage. 2. Relating to the allantois. a. liquid, 
see liquor amnii spurius. 

allantoides (al-an-to'-id-ez). 1. Allantoid. 2. A 
sausage. 3. The great toe. 4. The allantois. 

allantoin (al-an' -to-in) [see allantoic], C4H6N4O3. 
A crystalline substance occurring in traces in normal 
urine, and prepared from uric acid by oxidation. 
Also the characteristic constituent of the allantoic 
fluid, and likewise found in fetal urine and amniotic 

allantois {al-an' -to-is) [see allantoic]. One of the 
fetal membranes derived from the mesoblastic and 
hypoblastic layers. Its function is to convey the 
blood-vessels to the chorion. The lower part finally 
becomes the bladder, the upper, the urachus. 

allantotoxicon (al-an-to-toks'-ik-on) [dXXSs, a saus- 
age; to£lk6v, a poison]. A poisonous substance, 
probably a ptomaine, that develops during the 
putrefactive fermentation of sausage. 

allaxis (al-aks'-is) [aXaaaeiv, to vary]. Meta- 
morphosis, transformation; the act or process of 
conversion into some other condition or thing. Syn., 

allelomorph (al-e'-lo-morf) [aXhriXov, of one another; 
fj.op<t>-h, form]. In Mendelian inheritance one of a 
pair of contracted characters which become segre- 
gated in the formation of germ cells. 

allelomorphic (al-e-lo-mor'-fik). Pertaining to, or 
characteristic of an allelomorph, q. v. 

allelomorphism (al-e-lo-mor'-fizm). The presence, 
in Mendelian inheritance, of allelomorphic characters. 

allelotaxis (al-e-lo-tak'-sis) [aXhriXw, of one another; 
Td|is, arrangement]. The development of a part 
from different embryonic structures. 

Allen's iodine test [Charles Warrenne Allen, 
American physician, 1854-1906]. See under tinea 

Allen's reaction for phenol. Add to one or two 
drops of the liquid to be tested a few drops of hydro- 
chloric acid and then one drop of nitric acid. A 
cherry-red coloration is produced. 

allene (al-en'), CH 2 = C=CH 2 . An isomere of 
allylene. Syn., P-allylene; isoallylene. 

allenthesis {al-en' -thesis) [aXXoj, other; e?0e<m, 
insertion]. The presence in or the introduction of 
foreign bodies into the organism. 

alleosis, or alloeosis (al-e-o'-sis) [dXXoiWis, change]. 

1. Change; alterative effect; recovery from illness. 

2. Mental disorder. 

alleotic, or allceotic (al-e-ot'-ik) [dXXoiWis, change]. 
1. Alterative. 2. A remedy or agent having an 
alterative action. 

allergen (al'-er-jen) [allergy; yewav, to produce]. 
A hypothetical substance of a toxic nature, sup- 
posed to produce allergy. 

allergy, allergia (al'-er-je, al-er'-je-a) [dXXos, other; 
ipkpyeia, energy (from epyov, work)]. A form of 
acquired immunity, in which a person reinfected 
reacts differently from the way in which he reacted 
after the primary infection. It is associated with 

allesthesia (al-es-the'-ze-ah) [dXXos, other; ala9j]ais, 
feeling]. Synonym of allocheiria. 

allevation (al-e-va' -shun) [ad, to; levare, to lift up]. 
1. The relief or palliation of pain. 2. The raising 
or lifting of a patient from the bed or from the 
reclining posture. 

alleviator (al-e'-ve-a-tor) [allevare, to lighten]. A 
device for raising orl iftinga sick person from the bed. 

allex (al'-eks) [L.]. Same as hallux. 

alliaceous (al-e-a'-shus) [allium, garlic]. Re- 
sembling garlic, or pertaining to the same. 

alligator-forceps (al'-e-ga-tor-for'-seps). A sur- 
geons' toothed forceps, one of the jaws of which 
works with a double lever. 

Allingham's operation [William Allingham, English 
surgeon, 1830-1908]. 1. For excision of the rectum; 
the patient in the lithotomy position, an oval incision 
is made into both ischio-rectal fossa?, around the 
bowel, and prolonged backward to the coccyx; the 
bowel is isolated, and separated with the ecraseur, 
scissors, or Paquelin cautery. 2. For hemorrhoids; 
the pile is dissected off from the muscular tissue with 
scissors, the pedicle ligated, and the mass cut off. 

3. For inguinal colotomy; the incision is from one 
and one-half to three inches long, and is made parallel 
with the outer third of Poupart's ligament, and about 
one-half inch above. A.'s painful ulcer, anal fissure. 
A.'s rectal plug, an appliance for controlling hemor- 
rhage from the rectum. 

Allis' sign [Oscar H. Allis, American surgeon]. 
Relaxation of the fascia lata between the iliac crest 
and the trochanter major is indicative of fracture of 
the neck of the femur. 

alliteration (al-it-er-a' -shun) [ad, to; liter a, letter]. 
A form of dysphrasia in which the patient arranges 
his words according to the sound. 

allium (al'-e-um) [L.]. Garlic. The undried bulb 
of A. sativum. It contains a pungent, volatile oil 
that is found also in the leek and the onion. In 
small amounts garlic acts as a condiment and aids 
in the digestion and absorption of food. In chronic 
bronchitis garlic applied as a poultice to the chest 
and internally in boiled milk is beneficial. Poultices 
of garlic applied to the spine are recommended in 
infantile convulsions and may be applied over the 
abdomen in gastrointestinal catarrh. A. cepa, the 
common onion, and A. porrum, the leek, have 
similar qualities. A., syrup of (syrupus allii), con- 
tains fresh garlic, 20 Gm.; sugar, 80 Gm.; dilute 
acetic acid, a sufficient quantity to make 100 Cc. 
Dose 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc). 

alio-. A prefix used in chemistry to designate a 
body which has been rendered more stable by heat; 
also used to represent isomerism when there is 
"relative asymmetry." 

allocheiria. See allochiria. 

alloaesthesia (al-ok-es-the'-ze-ah). Same as alla- 




allochezia, allochetia (al-o-ke'-ze-ah, al-o-ke'-she-ah) 
[dXXos, other; x«f«". to desire to go to stool]. I. The 
passage of feces from the body through an abnormal 
opening. 2. The passing of non-fecal matter from 
the bowels. 

allochiria (al-o-ki'-re-ah) [dXXos, other; x«P> hand]. 
An infrequent tabetic symptom, in which, if one 
extremity be pricked, the patient locates the sensa- 
tion in the corresponding member of the other side. 

allochroic (al-lo-kro'-ik) [dXXos, another; xp^pa. 
color]. Of changeable or diversified color. 

allochroism (al-ok'-ro-izm) [dXXos, other; xp&p-a. 
color]. 1. Variation in color. 2. A change of color. 

allochromasia (al-o-kro-ma' -ze-ah) [dXXos, other; 
XP&pa. color]. 1. Change of color in a part or tissue. 
2. Color-blindness. 

allocinetic (al-o-sin-et'-ik) . See allokinetic. 

allogamy (al-og' -am-e) [dXXos, other; yap.os, 
marriage]. In biology, cross fertilization. 

allogotrophia (al-o-go-tro' -fe-ah) [alios; rpefaiv, to 
nourish]. The nourishment of one part of the body 
at the expense of some other part. 

alloisomerism (al-o-i-som'-er-izm) [dXXos, other; 
iaofiep-fis, having equal parts]. The application of 
the same structural formula to many different com- 
pounds; a variety of isomerism. 

allokinetic (al-o-kin-ef -ik) [dXXos, other; kIvt]<tis, 
motion]. Moved or set in motion by external 
impressions or forces; not auto kinetic. 

allolalia (al-o-la' -le-ah) [alios; \a\elv, to speak]. 
Any perversion of the faculty of speech. See alalia. 

allolalic (al-o-lal'-ik) [dXXos, other; XaKelv, to 
speak]. Affected with allolalia. 

allomerism (al-om'-er-izm) [dXXos, other; /ikpos, 
shape]. In chemistry, the property of retaining a 
constant crystalline form while -the chemical con- 
stituents present, or their proportions, vary. 

allomorphic, allomorphous, allomorphus (al-o-mor' '• 
fie, -us). Affected with allomorphism. 

allomorphism (al-o-mor f'-izm) [dXXos, other; nop<prj, 
shape]. The property possessed by certain sub- 
stances of assuming a different form while remaining 
unchanged in constitution. 

allopath, allopathist (al'-o-path, al-op' -ath-ist) 
[dXXos, other; iraBos, affection]. One who practises 
allopathy. A common, but incorrect designation 
for a regular practitioner. 

allopathy (al-op' -a-the)]a\\os, other; waBos, affection]. 
According to Hahnemann, the inventor of the 
term, that method of the treatment of disease con- 
sisting in the use of medicines the action of which 
upon the body in health produces morbid phenomena 
different from those of the disease treated; errone- 
ously used of the regular medical profession; opposed 
to homeopathy. 

allophasis (al-off' -as-is) [AXXos, other; </>&<ris, 
speech]. Incoherency of speech; delirium. 

allophemy (al-off' -e-me) [dXXos, other; <pijtit, to 
speak]. v See heterophemy. 

alloplast (al'-o-plast) [dXXos, other; -n-Xaaros, form, 
mold]. In biology, a plastid composed of several 
tissues; the opposite of homoplast. 

allorrhythmia (al-or-rith'-me-ah) [alios; pvdubs, 
rhythm]. Variation in intervals of the pulse. 

allosan (al'-o-san). The allophanic acid ester of 
santalol. It is a white, crystalline powder, used as 

allosteatodes (al-o-ste-at-o'-dez) [dXXos, other; 
o-Tearudris, fat-like]. Marked by perversion or mor- 
bidity of the sebaceous secretion. 

allotherm (al'-o-therm) [dXXos, other; Bkpp.i\, heat]. 
An organismfwhose temperature is directly dependent 
on its culture-medium. 

allotoxin (al-o-toks'-in) [dXXos, other; to^lkov, poison]. 
Any substance, produced by tissue-metamorphosis 
within the organism, that tends to shield the body 
by destroying microorganisms or toxins that are 
inimical to it. 

allotriodontia (al-ot-re-o-don'-she-ah) [dXXorpios, 
strange; 65ovs, tooth]. 1. The transplanting of 
teeth from one person to another. 2. The existence 
of teeth in abnormal situations, as in tumors. 

allotriogeustia (al-ot-re-o-gus'-te-ah) [dXXorpioj, 
strange; yevovs, taste]. Perversion of the sense of 
taste; abnormity of the appetite. 

allotriolith (al-ot'-re-o-lith) [dXXorpios, strange; 
Xiflos, stone]. A calculus composed of unusual 
material or formed in an abnormal situation. 

allotriolithiasis (al-ot-re-o-lith-i' -as-is) [dXXorpios, 
strange; X#os, a stone]. The formation or existence 

of a calculus of unusual material, or composed 
entirelyor in part of a foreign body. 

allotriophagy (al-ot-re-off'-a-je) [dXXorpios, strange ; 
_4>ayelv, to eat]. Depraved or unnatural appetite. 

allotriotexis (al-ot-re-o-teks'-is) [&\\6tp<.os, strange; 
re£is, birth]. 1. Abnormality in delivery. 2. The 
birth or delivery of a monstrosity. 

allotriuria (al-ot-re-u'-re-ah) [dXXorptos, strange; 
ovpov, urine]. Abnormality of the urine. 

allotrope (al'-o-trop) [see allotropic}. One of the 
forms in which an element capable of assuming dif- 
ferent forms may appear. 

allotrophic (al-o-trof'-ik) [dXXos, other; rpo<pij, 
nourishment]. Having perverted or modified char- 
acters as a nutrient. 

allotropic (al-o-trop'-ik) [dXXos, other; rpoiros, 
manner], r. Characterized by allotropism. 2. Re- 
lating to or marked by isomerism. 

allotropism (al-ot' -rop-izm) [see allotropic]. 1. The 
term expresses the fact of certain elements existing 
in two or more conditions with differences of physical 
properties; thus, carbon illustrates allotropism by 
existing in the forms of charcoal, plumbago, and the 
diamond. . 2. Appearance in an unusual or ab- 
normal form. 

allotropy (al-ot'-ro-pe). Allotropism. 

allotrylic (al-o-tril'-ik) [dXXorpios, foreign; 6X17, 
matter]. Due to the presence of a foreign prin- 
ciple or material; enthetic. a. affections, morbid 
states caused by the lodgment of foreign substances 
in the organism. The foreign substance may be 
animate or inanimate, organic or inorganic. 

alloxamide (al-oks'-am-id) [alloxan; amide], A 
substance, C8H4N4O1, obtained from alloxan by the 
action of ammonia. 

alloxan (al-oks'-an) [allantoin; oxalic], C4H2N2O4. 
A crystalline substance produced by the oxidation of 
uric acid. 

alloxantin (al-oks-an' -tin) [alloxan], C8H4N4O7 
+3H2O. A substance obtained by reducing alloxan 
with SnCb, zinc, and HC1, or H2S in the cold. It 
occurs in small, hard, colorless prisms that turn red 
when treated with ammonia. 

alloxin (al-oks'-in) [allantoin]. Any of a series of 
xanthin bases, the result of the splitting-up of 
chromatin, and which on oxidation produce uric 

alloxur, alloxuric (al-oks'-ur, al-oks-u'-rik) [dXXos, 
other; o£us, sharp]. A term applied by Kossel and 
Kriiger to the xanthin bases, from the fact that 
these, like uric acid, contain alloxan and urea groups. 
a. bases, a. bodies, xanthin, hypoxanthin, guanin, 
paraxanthin, adenin. 

alloxuremia (al-oks-u-re'-me-ah) [alloxur; uremia]. 
Toxemia due to the resorption of the xanthin or 
alloxur bases. 

alloxuria (al-oks-u'-re-ah) [alloxur; ovpov, urine]. 
The pathological secretion of alloxur bodies (uric acid, 
xanthin, hypoxanthin, paraxanthin, adenin, carnin, 
etc.) in the urine. 

alloy (al-oi') [Fr. aloyer, from L. alligare, to com- 
bine]. 1. A compound of two or more metals by 
fusion. 2. The least valuable of two or mor£ metals 
that are fused together. 

allspice (awl' -spls). The fruit of Eugenia pimenta. 
a., Carolina, the leaves of Calycanthus fioridus, 
having the properties of an aromatic stimulant. 
See pimenta. 

alius (al'-us) [L.]. The great toe. a. pollex, the 

allyl (al'-il) [allium, garlic], C3H5. A univalent 
alcohol radical. Syn., allylum; acryl. a. acetate. 
1. C3H5 . C2H3O, an aromatic liquid with sharp 
taste, boiling at I03°-I04° C. 2. A salt of allylacetic 
acid. a. alcohol, C3H5HO. A colorless, inflammable 
liquid, with pungent odor, boiling at 97° C. a. 
aldehyde, C3H4O. A synonym of acrolein, a. 
borate, (CsHs^BOs, a liquid giving off pungent, 
irritating vapors which cause a flow of tears; it boils 
at i68°-i75° C. a. bromide, C 3 H 5 Br, a liquid with 
pungent odor; sp. gr., 1.436 at 15° C; soluble in 
alcohol and ether; boils at 70°-7i° C. Syn., bromo- 
propylene. a. carbamine, CN . C3H5, a liquid ob- 
tained by heating allyl iodide with silver cyanide; 
it has an extremely foul and penetrating odor; boils 
at q6°-io6° C. Syn., allyl cyanide; allyl isocyanide. 
a. carbimide, CO . NC3H5, a foul liquid causing flow 
of tears, formed by the action of potassium pseudo- 
cyanate upon allyl iodide. Syn., allyl isocyanate; 
allyl carboxylamine ; allyl pseudocyanate. a. chloride, 




C3H5CI, a pungent liquid; sp. gr., 0.937 at 20 C; 
boils at 45 C. Syn., chlorotritylen. a. cyanamide. 
See sinamine. a. dioxide, C6H16O3, a colorless liquid 
obtained from allyl alcohol by action of glycerol and 
oxalic acid; sp. gr., 1.16 at 16 C; boils at I7i°-i72° * 
C.; soluble in water, alcohol, and chloroform. Syn., 
diallyl oxide, a. iodide, C3H5I, a pungent liquid; 
sp. gr., 1.848 at 12 C; soluble in alcohol; boils at 
ioo°-i02° C. It is a reaction-product of phos- 
phorus, iodine, and allyl alcohol, a. mustard oil, 
CS . N . C3H6. The principal constituent of ordinary 
mustard oil. Syn., allyl pseudosulphocyanate ; allyl 
pseudothiocyanate ; allyl isothiocyanate ; allyl isosul- 
phocyanate; allyl thiocarbimide. a. nitrate, C3H5 .- 
NO3, a mobile liquid of pungent odor, boiling at 
106 C, formed from silver nitrate by action of allyl 
bromide, a. phenol, C9H10O, a body obtained from 
anisic aldehyde by action of potash ; it forms laminar 
crystals, a. sulphate, C3H5HSO4, a substance 
acting as a monobasic acid and forming salts called 
allyl sulphates. Syn., allyl-sulphuric acid; allyl 
and hydrogen sulphate, a. sulphide, (CsHs^S, the 
essential oil of garlic. It is stomachic and sedative. 
a. thiocyanate, NC . SC3H6, a colorless, . strongly 
refracting, oily liquid, with odor of garlic and hydro- 
cyanic acid, isomeric with allyl mustard oil and 
producing headache, nervous excitement, and nausea 
when inhaled. Syn., artificial oil of mustard; allyl 
sulphocyanide. a. tribromide, C3HsBr3, a colorless 
liquid used as an antispasmodic. Dose 5 drops. 

allylamine (al-W -am-in) [allium; amide], NH2- 
(C3H5]. Ammonia in which a hydrogen atom is 
replaced by allyl. It is a caustic liquid. 

almatein (al-mat'-e-in). A compound of hema- 
toxylin and formaldehyde: it has no odor, and has 
been recommended az a substitute for iodoform. 

Almen's reagent for blood [August Almen, Swedish 
physiologist, 1833- ]. A liquid containing blood 
or blood-coloring matters, if well shaken with a 
mixture of equal parts of tincture of guaiacum and 
oil of turpentine, becomes blue. A.'s test for glucose, 
heat the liquid with a solution of bismuth subnitrate 
dissolved in caustic soda and Rochelle salts; if it 
contains glucose, the liquid becomes cloudy, dark 
brown, or nearly black in color, and finally a black 
deposit appears. 

almond (ah'-mond) [ME., almonde]. See amyg- 
dala, a.-bran, a cosmetic powder consisting of 
perfumed powdered almonds and borax, a.-bread, 
a variety of bread made from almond flour, for use 
in diabetes as a substitute for ordinary bread. 
a.-eyed, applied to the Mongolian race on account of 
the peculiar elliptical form and slanting appearance of 
the eyelids, a. of the ear, a. of the throat, the 
tonsil, a. mixture, see under amygdala, a. oil, 
oleum amygdalae. See amygdala, a. oil, bitter, 
oleum amygdalae amaras. See under amygdala. 
a.-paste, a magma of bitter almonds, alcohol, white 
of egg, and rose-water, used to soften the skin and 
prevent the hands and lips from chapping. 

alnuin (al'-nu-in) [Celtic, al, near; Ian, a river- 
bank]. A precipitate from the tincture of Alnus 
rubra. Said to be alterative and resolvent. Dose 
gr. ii-x. 

Alnus (al'-nus) [L.]. 1. Alder-bark. 2. A genus 
of shrubs and trees of the order Cupuliferce. A. 
glutinosa, common European alder, has astringent 
bark and leaves, which are used in intermittent fever 
and as an application in wounds and ulcers. A. 
serrulata contains tannic acid. The decoction of 
bark and leaves is astringent and used as a gargle 
and as a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Dose of 
powdered bark 10 gr. (0.65 Gm.); of the fluidextract 
30-60 min. (2-4 Cc). A. incana has qualities 
similar to A. serrulata. It is recommended as a 

alochia (ah-lo' -ke-ah) [&, priv.; Xoxta, the lochia]. 
Absence of the lochia. 

Aloe (al'-o). _ A genus of liliaceous plants. See 
aloes, a. americana, see agave, a.-resin, an amor- 
phous resinous constituent of aloes obtained as a de- 
posit from a hot aqueous solution of aloes on cooling. 

aloedary (al'-o-ed-a-re). A compound aloetic 
purgative medicine. 

aloeretin (al-o-e-re'-tin). See aloe-resin. 

aloes (al'-oz) [&\6rj, the aloe]. The inspissated 
juice of several species of aloe, of which Aloe socotrina, 
A. barbadensis, and A. capensis are most commonly 
used. Its properties are due to a glucoside, aloin, 
C17H18O7. It is a tonic astringent, useful in amenor- 

rhea, chronic constipation, and atonic dyspepsia. 
It is also an emmenagogue and anthelmintic. Dose 
2-5 gr. (0.13-0.32 Gm.). a.-bitter, a bitter principle 
obtained from aloes by evaporation of the aqueous 
extract from which the aloe-resin has been extracted, 
a.-bitter, artificial, a body obtained from aloes by 
action of nitric acid, a., decoctum, compositum 
(B. P.), Socotrine aloes, myrrh, and saffron, of each, 
2 parts; potassium carbonate, 4 parts; licorice-juice, 
24 parts; water, 768 parts; reduce by boiling to 642 
parts and add 192 parts of compound tincture of 
cardamom. Dose \-2 gr. (0.032-0.13 Gm.). a., 
enema (B. P.), aloes, potassium carbonate, and 
mucilage of starch, a. et asafcetidae, pilulae (B. P.), 
aloes and asafetida, of each, i\ gr. (0.1 Gm.). a. et 
ferri, pilulae (U. S. P., B. P.), contain 1 gr. (0.065 
Gm.) each of aloes, ferrous sulphate, and aromatic 
powder, incorporated with confection of roses, a. et 
mastiches, pilulae (U. S. P., B. P.), "Lady Webster's 
pills," contain aloes, 2 gr. (0.13 Gm.); mastic and 
red rose, § gr. (0.032 Gm.). a. et myrrhae, pilulae 
(U. S. P., B. P.), each contains aloes, 2 gr. (0.13 Gm.); 
myrrh, 1 gr. (0.065 Gm.); aromatic powder, \ gr. 
(0.032 Gm.), mixed with syrup, a. et myrrhae, 
tinctura (U. S. P., B. P.), aloes, 10; myrrh, 10; 
alcohol, 100 parts. Dose \-z dr. (2-8 Cc). a., 
extractum (U. S. P.). Dose 2 gr. (0.12 Gm.). 
a., extractum, aquosum, prepared by mixing aloes 
1 part with 10 parts boiling water, straining and 
evaporating. Dose §-5 gr. (0.032-0.32 Gm.). 
a., hepatic, dark, liver-colored aloes, mostly Bar- 
badian, a., pilulae (U. S. P., B. P.), aloes and soap, 
of each, 2 gr. (0.13 Gm.). a. purificata (U. S. P.), 
the common drug purified by solution in alcohol 
and evaporation. Dose 1-5 gr. (0.065-0.32 Gm.). 
a. socotrinae, pilula (B. P.), contains Socotrine aloes, 
hard soap, oil of nutmeg, and confection of roses. 
Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). a., tinctura (U. S. P., 
B. P.), consists of aloes, 10; licorice, 10; dilute 
alcohol, 100 parts. Dose \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). a., 
yinum (B. P.), has aloes, 6; cardamom, 1; ginger, 1; 
white wine, 100 parts. Dose 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc). 

aloetic (al-o-et'-ik) [aloes]. Containing or per- 
taining to aloes. 

aloetin {al-o-e' -tin) . 1. Aloe-resin. 2. A yellow, 
crystalline principle obtainable from aloes. 

alogia (ah-lo' -je-ah) [&, priv.; X670S, word, reason]. 

1. Inability to speak, due to some psychical defect. 

2. Stupid or senseless behavior. 

alogotrophy (al-o-got'-rofe) [aAo-yos, strange, absurd; 
rpo4>i), nutrition]. Irregular and perverted nutrition, 
leading to deformity. 

aloin (al'-c-in) [aloes]. A bitter principle found 
in aloes. It forms fine needles, possesses a very bitter 
taste, and acts as a strong purgative. Several 
glucosides of this name are described, as, barbaloin, 
nataloin, zanaloin, socaloin. Dose §-2 gr. (0.032- 
0.13 Gm.). 

aloisol (al-o-is-oV) . An oily liquid obtained from 
the distillation of aloes with quicklime. 

alopecia (al-o-pe'-she-ah) [iXwireda, a disease of 
foxes resembling mange]. Deficient hair; baldness. 
It may be universal or partial, congenital or acquired. 
It follows a large number of systemic affections. 
Syn., lapsus capillorum; defluxio capillorum; vulpis 
morbus, a. adnata, see a., congenital, a. areata, 
that condition in which, suddenly or slowly, one or 
several, usually asymmetrically distributed, patches 
of baldness appear upon the hairy regions of the 
body, more often upon the scalp and parts covered 
by the beard. Syn., area Celsi; tinea decalvans; 
porrigo decalvans; alopecia circumscripta, a., ca- 
chectic, that due to general malnutrition, a. cir- 
cumscripta, see a. areata, a., congenital, a rare form, 
seldom complete, due to absence of hair-bulbs. 
a. furfuracea, a form of baldness associated with 
a disorder of the scalp, marked by hyperemia, itching, 
and exfoliation of dry or fatty scales from its surface. 
It may be acute or chronic, and produce a dryness, 
brittleness, and lack of luster in the hair. Syn., 
alopecia pityroides capillitii; pityriasis capitis; 
seborrhea capillitii; pityriasis simplex, a. localis, 
that form occurring in one or more patches at the site 
of an injury or in the course of a nerve. Syn., 
alopecia neuritica. a. neurotica, a name given to 
baldness of trophoneurotic origin, a. orbicularis, 
same as a. circumscripta, a. pityroides capillitii, 
see a. furfuracea. a. pityroides universalis, a rapid 
and general denudation of hair occurring in debilitated 
states, preceded by abundant desquamation of fatty 




scales, a. senilis, that occurring in old age. a. sim- 
plex, the idiopathic premature baldness of young 
adults. It is most common in males, and is often 
associated with premature grayness. a. syphilitica, 
that due to syphilis, a. unguis, a. unguium, the 
falling-off of the nails. Syn., onychoptosis, a. uni- 
versalis, that in which there is a general falling-out 
of the hairs of the body. 

aloxanthin (al-oks-an'-thin), C15H10O6. A yellow 
substance obtained from barbaloin and socaloin by 
the action of potassium bichromate. 

alpenstich (alp' -en-stik) [Ger.]. A form of severe 
pleurisy or pleuropneumonia with typhoid symptoms 
peculiar to mountainous regions. 

alpha (al'-fah) [d\0a, the first letter of the Greek 
alphabet]. The Greek letter o, used in combination 
with many chemical terms to indicate the first of a 
series of isomeric bodies, as alphanaphthol. a.-eigon, 
a compound of iodine and albumin containing 15 % 
of iodine and soluble in water, a.-leukocyte, one 
disintegrating during blood-coagulation. 

alphanaphthol (al-fah-naf'-thol). A variety of 

alphasol {aV -fa-sol) . Trade name of a preparation 
used as an antiseptic in rhinology and laryngology. 

alphenols (al'-fe-nolz). A class of compounds 
having the characteristics of both alcohols and 

alphodeopsoriasis (al-fo-de-o-so-ri'-a-sis) [dX0w5ijs, 
leprous; xj/uplaais, psoriasis]. A form of psoriasis re- 
sembling leprosy. 

alphodermia (al-fo-der' -me-ali) [a\<j>6s, white; &kpy.a, 
the skin]. Achromatosis; any disease marked by 
lack of pigmentation. 

alphol (al'-fol), C17H12O3. The salicylic ether of 
alphanaphthol, a white, crystalline powder, soluble 
in alcohol, in ether, and in fatty oils, and insoluble 
in water; melts at 83 C. It is an internal anti- 
septic. Dose 8-15 gr. (0.52-1.0 Gm.) 3 times daily. 

alphos (al'-fos) [ak<t>6s, vitiligo]. 1. An old name 
for leprosy. 2. Psoriasis. 

alphosis (al-fo'-sis) [see alphos]. Albinism; leuko- 

alphozone (al'-fo-zon). Succinic dioxide. A white 
crystalline powder derived from hydrogen dioxide 
by. action of succinic acid. It is used as a germicide 
in dilute aqueous solutions. 

alphus (al'-fus). 1. See alphos. 2. A scrofulous 
pustular disease of the skin attended with the forma- 
tion of white cruses, a. confertus, a scrofulous form 
of impetigo with clustered lesions attended with 
formation of white crusts, a. leuce, Plenck's name 
for a skin disease marked by white spots, which 
penetrate the skin deeply and involve the hairs, and 
if pricked, a milky fluid exudes. Syn., vitiligo leuce; 
leuce. a. simplex, Plenck's name for a skin disease 
marked by white patches not involving the hairs 
and wandering from one part to the other, with 
roughening of the skin. a. sparsus, a scrofulous 
disseminated ecthyma attended with formation of 
white crusts. 

Alpinia (al-pin'-e-a)i) [Prosper Alpinus, Italian 
botanist, 1553-1617]. A genus of zingiberaceous 
tropical plants. A. chinensis, A. officinarum, and 
other species furnish galangal. 

Alquie's operation (al-ke-a') [Alexis Jacques 
Alquie, French surgeon, 1812-1865]. Alexander's 

Alsace gum (al-sds'). See dextrin. 

alsol (al'-sol). A preparation of aluminum acetate 
and tartaric acid; used as an astringent and dis- 

Alstonia (al-sto' '-ne-ah) [Charles Alston, Scotch 
physician, 1683-1760]. A genus of apocynaceous 
trees and shrubs. A. constricta, the Australian fever- 
tree, yields the alkaloid alstonine. The bark is tonic, 
antiperiodic, and antipyretic, and is used in inter- 
mittent fevers. Dose of fiuidextract 30-60 min. 
(2-4 Co). A. scholaris, the devil-tree, a native of 
the East Indies, furnishes dita-bark; it is tonic, 
astringent, antiperiodic, and anthelmintic. 

alstonidin (al-ston'-id-in). An amorphous sub- 
stance contained in a variety of dita-bark. 

alstonin (al-sto' -nin). An amorphous substance 
contained in a variety of dita-bark. 

alstoninine. A crystalline alkaloid, C21H20N2O4, 
obtained from Alstonia constricta. 

alt. dieb. Abbreviation for the Latin altemis 
diebus, every other day. 

alter (awl'-ter). To castrate or spay. 

alterant (awl'-ter -anf). Same as alterative. 

alterative (awl'-ter -a-tiv) [alterativus]. 1. A medi- 
cine that alters the processes of nutrition, re- 
storing, in some unknown way, the normal func- 
tions of an organ or of the system. The most im- 
portant alteratives are arsenic, iodine, the iodides, 
mercury, and gold. 2. Changing; alterant; re- 
establishing healthy nutritive processes. 

alternate (awl' -ter-nat) [alternare, to do by turns]. 
Occurring successively in space or time. a. hemi- 
plegia, see hemiplegia. 

alternating (awl' -ter-na-iing) [see alternate}. Oc- 
curring successively, a. currents, electric currents 
the direction of which is constantly changing, a. 
insanity, a form of insanity in which there are regular 
cycles of exaltation and depression. 

alternation (awl-ter-na' -shun) [see alternate]. Re- 
peated transition from one state to another, a., of 
generations. 1. In biology, a generative cycle in 
which the young do not resemble the parent, but 
like forms are separated by one or more unlike 
generations. 2. That form of reproduction in which 
some of the members of the cycle can produce new 
beings non-sexually, while in the final stage repro- 
duction is always sexual. Tenia or tapeworm, is 
an example. 

alternator (awlt-'er-na-tor). An apparatus for 
converting the direct dynamo current into an alter- 
nating current. 

Althaus' oil. An oil made as follows: Metallic 
mercury, 1 part; pure lanolin, 4 parts; 2 % phenol, 
5 parts. It is used in the treatment of syphilis in 
injections of 5 min. (0.3 Co) at a dose. 

Althea, Althaea (al-the'-ah) [L.l. Marshmallow. 
The peeled root of Althaea officinalis, a plant of the 
mallow family. It consists of about one-third of 
vegetable mucus and starch, together with the 
alkaloids asparagine and altheine (latterly regarded as 
identical). Its decoction is employed as a muci- 
laginous drink, a., ointment of (unguentum althaea), 
an ointment composed of marshmallow root, 2 parts; 
turmeric, flaxseed, and fenugreek, each, 1 part; 
water, 70 parts; lard, 44 parts; yellow wax, 6 parts. 
a., syrup of (syrupus althaeas), contains 4 % althea. 
Dose indefinite. Asparagine possesses sedative and 
diuretic properties, and is useful in ascites and gout. 
Dose 2-3 gr. (0.13-0.19 Gm.). 

alt. hor. Abbreviation for the Latin altemis 
horis, every other hour. 

althose (al'-thos). Trade name of a preparation 
containing senega, squill, and codeine; used as an 

altitude (al'-te-tud) [altitudo, height]. The height, 
as of an individual. In climatology, the elevation 
of a place above the sea-level, a.-staff, a device 
employed for measuring the exact height of recruits. 
It consists of a rigid upright with a vertex-bar 
moving without play at right angles to the upright. 

Altmann's granules. Round bodies staining 
readily with carbolfuchsin, and regarded as cell- 
derivatives which have grown through the assimila- 
tion of fat. Their absence is supposed to indicate 
cancer. They are probably allied to Russell's 
bodies. According to Ross, the substance which 
forms chromosomes. 

altricious (al-trish'-us) [altrix, a nurse]. Requiring 
a long nursing; hence, slow of development (the 
reverse of precocious). 

alum (al'-um) [alumen, alum]. Any one of a class 
of double sulphates formed by the union of one of the 
sulphates of certain non-alkaline metals with a 
sulphate of some alkaline metal. The standard (or 
common commercial) alum, the official alumen (U. S. 
P.), is the aluminum-and-potassium sulphate, 
A1K(S04)2+I2H20. It is a powerful astringent and 
styptic, and is also extensively used in the arts. 
a., alumina-, a mixture of alum and aluminum sul- 
phate, a., aluminum-, an alum composed of a 
double sulphate of aluminum and another radical. 
a., ammonia, the same as the standard, except that 
the potassium is replaced by ammonium. It is 
official in Great Britain, and is extensively used on 
account of its cheapness. What is known as con- 
centrated or patent alum is the normal aluminum 
sulphate (alumini sulphas, U. S. P.), which is not a 
true alum, a., ammonioferric (Jerri et ammonii 
sulphas, U. S. P.), is strongly styptic, and is useful 
in leukorrhea. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). 
a., burnt, alum dried by heat; a spongy, pulverizable 
substance. It is used as an astringent and on 




fungous growths. Dose 5-30 gr. (0.333-2.0 Gm.). 
Syn., calcined alum; alumen exsiccatum; alutnen 
ustum. a., feather, a., feathered. 1. Alum occurring 
in a fibrous form. 2. Asbestos, a.-hematoxylin, a 
purple stain for tissues, obtained from an alcoholic 
solution of hematoxylin by addition of an aqueous 
solution of potash alum, a., potash, a., potassa, 
a., potassic, a., potassium, an alum containing 
potassium, particularly ordinary alum, or aluminum- 
and-potassium sulphate, a., potassioferric, is similar 
to ammonioferric alum, a., soda, double sulphate of 
sodium and aluminum; it is too soluble for ordinary 
uses, a.-whey, a preparation obtained by boiling 
2 dr. of alum in a pint of milk and straining. It is 
used as an astringent and internal hemostatic in 
wineglassful doses. 

alumen (al-u'-men) [L., gen., aluminis]. See alum. 
a. exsiccatum (U. S. P.), burnt or dehydrated alum. 
See alum, burnt. 

alumil (al'-u-mil). Alumina in combination with 

alumina (al-u'-min-ah) [L.], AI2O3. Aluminum 
oxide: the principal ingredient of clay and of many 
stones, earths, and minerals. 

aluminated (al-u'-min-a-ted). Combined with 
alum, alumina, or aluminum. 

aluminated copper. See lapis divinus. 

aluminic, aluminicus (al-u-min'-ik, -us). Relating 
to or having the nature of alum. 

aluminiferous (al-u-min-if -er-us) [alum; ferre, to 
bear]. Yielding alum. 

aluminium. See aluminum. 

aluminol, alumnol (al-u'-min-ol, al-um'-nol) [alum- 
inum]. The aluminum salt of betanaphthol sul- 
phonic acid. It is an astringent and antiseptic; 
and is used in gonorrhea, endometritis, and diseases 
of the ear, nose, skin, etc. 

aluminosis (al-u-min-o'-sus) [alum; vbaos, disease]. 
A chronic catarrhal inflammation of the lungs found 
in pottery workers. 

aluminous (al-u'-min-us). Relating to or con- 
taining alum, alumina, or aluminum, a. chalybeate, 
a term applied to mineral waters containing alum 
and iron. 

aluminum, aluminium (a-lu'-min-um, a-lii-min'- 
e-um) [L.], A\= 27. Quantivalence II, IV. A silver- 
white metal distinguished by its low sp. gr. — about 
2.6. It is largely used in the arts and for certain 
surgical instruments, a. acetate, AI2O . 4C2H3O2 
+4H2O. Used as an internal and external dis- 
infectant. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.3-0.6 Gm.) 3 times 
daily, a. acetoborate, antiseptic and disinfectant. 
a. acetoglycerinate, glycerite of aluminum acetate. 
It has one-fifth the strength of aluminum acetotar- 
trate; used in 50 % solution in diseases of the nose, 
throat, and ear. a. acetotartrate, an energetic 
nontoxic disinfectant and astringent. It is applied 
in 0.5 to 2 % solutions in diseases of the air-passages; 
for chilblains, in 50 % solution, a. boroformate, 
prepared from freshly precipitated aluminium hy- 
droxide dissolved in 2 parts of formic acid, 1 part of 
boric acid, and 7 parts of water. It is used as an 
astringent and antiseptic, a. borotannate, a reaction- 
product from tannic acid with borax and aluminum 
sulphate, containing 76 % tannin, 13.23 % alumina, 
10.71 % boric acid; used as a disinfectant and 
astringent in skin diseases, applied pure or attenuated 
in ointment or dusting-powder. Syn., cutal; cutol. 
a. borotannotartrate, a compound of aluminum 
borotannate and tartaric acid; is used externally in 
skin diseases and in gonorrhea in 0.5 to 10 % solution. 
Syn., soluble cutal or cutol. a. borotartrate, an 
energetic, astringent, nonirritant antiseptic, used 
externally in inflammatory diseases of the throat 
and nose, and applied in substance or in solution 
with the addition of glycerol. Syn., boral. a. 
bromide, AhBr6. In combination with aluminum 
chloride it is used as a gargle in diphtheria or taken 
internally, a. caseinate, an intestinal astringent. 
Dose 4-5 gr. (0.25-0.3 Gm.). a. chloride, AhCU, 
colorless hexagonal plates which fume in moist air. 
It is astringent and antiseptic, and is also used in 
bleaching teeth, a. gallate, basic, a brown, anti- 
septic dusting-powder made by precipitating a solu- 
tion of aluminum sulphate with a solution of gallic 
acid to which sodium hydroxide has been added. 
a. hydroxide (alumini hydroxidum, U. S. P.), Al2(HO)6, 
a tasteless white powder, feebly astringent. Dose 
3-20 gr. (0.2-1.3 Gm.). Syn., aluminum hydrate. 
a. oleate, Al(OsH33C>2)2, a yellowish mass, soluble in 

alcohol, in ether, in benzene, and in oleic acid. It 
is used as an antiseptic in skin diseases, a.-and- 
potassium sulphate, AlK(S04)2 + i2H 2 0, a valuable 
astringent, used in catarrh, leukorrhea, gonorrhea. 
Dose 10-20 gr. (0.65-1.3 Gm.). In teaspoonful 
doses it is an emetic. Syn., alum, a.-and-potassium 
sulphocarbolate, AbK^Cel^HSO-Os, an antiseptic, 
astringent, and styptic; it is used externally in a 
5 to 20 % aqueous solution in cases of cancer and 
putrid ulcerations, and as a mouth-wash. a. sali- 
cylate, A1(C7H 5 03)3, a reddish-white antiseptic 
powder used in nasal catarrh and ozena. Syn., 
salumin. a. salicylate, ammoniated, a yellowish- 
white powder used as an antiseptic and astringent in 
inflammation of the nose and throat by dry insuffla- 
tions or painting with a 20 % solution in 50 % of 
glycerol and 30 % of water. Syn., soluble salumin. 
a.-and-sodium silicate, Na2Si03AU(Si04)3, obtained 
by adding aluminum hydroxide to a boiling solution 
of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. It is 
used in surgical dressings, a. sozoiodolate, is used 
as an antiseptic wash in 2 to 3 % solution, a. sul- 
phate (alumini sulphas, U. S. P.), Al2(S04)3, an anti- 
septic and astringent used as a lotion in 5 % solution. 
a. sulphocarbolate, Al2(CeH4HS04)6, white crystals, 
soluble in water, in glycerol, and in alcohol. It is 
recommended as an antiseptic in cystitis and suppur- 
ating sores. Syn., sozal. a. tannate, a compound of 
aluminum and tannic acid. a. tanno tartrate, 
yellowish-white plates or powder, soluble in water; 
used as an astringent and antiseptic insufflation or 
gargle in laryngeal or catarrhal troubles. Syn., 
soluble tannal. a.-and-zinc sulphate, Al2(S04)3ZnS04, 
a white, crystalline powder, soluble in water. It is 
used as a caustic. 

alumroot. The root of Heuchera americana. Its 
properties are due to gallic and tannic acids. It is 
very astringent. Dose of the fluidextract 10-20 min. 
(0.65-1.3 Co). Also the root of Geranium macu- 
latum, a mild astringent. 

alundum (al-un'-dum). A preparation of alumina 
used for making appliances which are to be sub- 
jected to severe heat in the laboratory. 

alusia (al-u'-se-ah) ^HKveiv, to wander]. Halluci- 
nation; morbid state of mind. 

alv. deject. Abbreviation for the Latin alvi 
dejectiones, the intestinal evacuations. 

alv. adstrict. Abbreviation for the Latin alvo 
adstricta, the bowels being confined. 

alvearium (al-ve-a'-re-um) [L.]. The external 
auditory canal or meatus. 

alveated (al'-ve-a-ted) [alveatus, hollowed out like a 
trough]. Honeycombed; channeled; vaulted like a 

Alvegniat's pump (al-van'-yah). A mercurial air- 
pump used in estimating the gaseous constituents of 
the blood. 

alveloz (al-vel-oth') [Sp.]. An extractive from 
Euphorbia icterodoxa, having diuretic properties. 
It is highly recommended as a topical application in 

alveola (al-ve'-o-la) [alveolus, a small hollow]. 
A little depression. 

alveolar (al-ve'-o-lar) [see alveola]. Pertaining to an 
alveolus, a. abscess, a gum-boil. a. arch, the 
alveolar surface of the jaw. a. artery, a branch of 
the internal maxillary artery, a. border, the margin 
of the jaws. a. index, in craniometry, the gnathic 
index; the ratio of the distance between the basion 
and alveolar point, to the distance between the basion 
and the nasal point, multiplied by 100. (Sometimes 
the basilar index is called the alveolar index.) a. 
passages, the ultimate division of the bronchi, 
emptying into the infundibula. a. points, see 
craniometric points, a. process, the border of the 
superior maxilla, in which the alveoli are placed, 
a. sarcoma, see sarcoma, a. structure, having small, 
superficial cavities, as in the mucous membrane of 
the stomach. 

alveolarium (al-ve-o-la'-re-um) [alveus, a t>ee-hive]. 
A name sometimes applied to the external meatus of 
the ear. It is so called because the wax of the ear 
gathers in that place. 

alveolate (al-ve' '-o-ldt, or al' -ve-o-lat) [alveolatus, 
hollowed out like a little tray]. In biology, pitted, 

alveoli (al-ve' -o-li) . Genitive and plural of alveolus. 

alveolin (al-ve' -o-lin). A chemical substance 
obtained from the alveolar network in the deuto- 
merites of gregarines. 




alveolitis (al-ve-o-li'-tis) [alveolus; ins, inflamma- 
tion]. Inflammation of the alveolus of a tooth. 

alveolocondylean (al-ve' -o-lo-kon-dil' -e-an) [alve- 
olus, a hollow; k6v8v\os, a knuckle]. In craniometry, 
pertaining to the alveolus and condyle, a. plane. 
See plane. 

alveolodental (al-ve' -o-lo-den'-tal) [alveoliis; dens, a 
tooth]. Pertaining to the teeth and their sockets. 

alveololabial (al-ve' -o-lo-la'-be-al). Pertaining to 
the alveolar processes and the lips. 

alveololabialis (al-ve-o-lo-lab-e-a'-lis) [alveolus, a 
hollow; labium, the lip]. The buccinator muscle. 

alveolomaxdllary (al-ve' -o-lo-maks-il'-a-re). The 
buccinator muscle. 

alveolosubnasal (al-ve' -o-lo-sub-na' -sal) [alveolus, 
a hollow; sub, under; nasus, nose]. In biology, 
pertaining to the alveolar and subnasal points of 
the skull, a. prognathism, see prognathism. 

alveolus (al-ve' -o-lus) [L.]. i. The bony socket of 
a tooth. Syn., phatne; phatnia; phatnion. 2. A cell. 
3. An air-cell of the lung. 4. A cavity, depression, 
pit, cell, or recess, a. of a gland, the terminal 
lobule of a racemose gland, a. laryngeus, see pouch, 
laryngeal, a. of the stomach, one of the honey- 
comb-like depressions found in the stomach. 

alveus (al'-ve-us) [alveus, a trough]. 1. A trough, 
tube, or canal; applied to ducts and vessels of the 
body. 2. A cavity or excavation, a. ampullascens, 
a. ampullescens, a. ampullosus, see receptaculum 
chyli. a. communis, the utricle of the ear. a. cornu 
ammonis, see a. hippocampi, a. hippocampi, a 
certain structure in the cerebral hemisphere investing 
the convexity of the hippocampus major, a. uro- 
genitalis, see uterus masculinus. 

alvine (al'-vin or al'-vin) [alvus, belly]. Pertaining 
to the belly, a. concretion, an intestinal calculus. 
a. dejections, a. discharges, the feces, a. obstruc- 
tion, constipation. 

alvus (al'-vus) [L., pi. and gen., alvi]. 1. The belly 
or its contained viscera. 2. Diarrhea, a. adstricta, 
a. astricta, an extreme degree of constipation. 
a. dura, constipation, a. renis, the pelvis of the 

alymphia (ah-limf'-e-ah) [d, priv.; lympha, lymph]. 
A deficiency of lymph. 

alypin (al'-e-pin). The hydrochloride of tetra- 
methyl-dlamino-dimethyl-ethyl-carbinol-benzoate. It 
is a synthetic preparation, similar to cocaine and 
stovaine, and is. used as a local anesthetic. It is 
less toxic than cocaine. For the eye and urethra, 
a 2 per cent stolution is used; elsewhere, a stronger 

alyssus (al-is'-us) [a, priv.; Xvaaa, madness]. 
Preventing or curing rabies. 

Alzheimer's disease (alz'-hi-mer). A mental dis- 
order generally occurring in middle life; it is charac- 
terized by insidious onset, a rapidly progressive 
course, and final dementia. 

Am. Abbreviation for ametropia, and for mixed 

am-. A prefix indicating the group NH2. 

A. M. Abbreviation of Artium Magister, Master 
of Arts. 

ama -(ah' -ma) [a/«7. a water-pail]. An enlarge- 
ment at the end opposite the ampulla of a bony canal 
of the labyrinth of the internal ear. 

A. M. A. Abbreviation for American Medical 

amaas (ah'-mahs) [Kaffir, soured milk]. A mild 
form of small-pox prevalent in South Africa and 
elsewhere; milk-pox. 

amacrine (am'-ak-rin) [a, priv.; nanpos, long; is, a 
fiber]. Applied to nerve-cells entirely devoid of axis- 
cylinder processes. 

amadou (am'-a-doo) [Fr., amadouer, to coax]. 
German tinder or touchwood; Boletus igniarius, a 
fungus found on old tree-trunks, used to stanch local 
hemorrhage and as a dressing for wounds, etc. 
a. de Panama, a hemostatic prepared from the leaf- 
hairs of Micronia mucronata. 

amalgam (am-al'-gam) [jia\ayp.a, a soft mass]. 

1. A combination of mercury with any other metal. 

2. Any soft alloy, a.-carrier and -plugger, an instru- 
ment designed for carrying and introducing amalgam 
into the cavity of a tooth, a., dental, compounds of 
a basal alloy of silver and tin with mercury, used 
for filling teeth. Gold, platinum, copper, zinc, or 
bismuth is frequently added as a third metal to the 
basal alloy, a.-manipulator, an instrument used by 
dentists for preparing amalgam fillings. 

amalgamate (am-aV -gam-at) . To unite a metal 
in an alloy with mercury. To unite two dissimilar 
substances. To cover the zinc elements of a gal- 
vanic battery with mercury. 

amalgamation (am-al-gam-a'-shun) [see amalgam]. 
In metallurgy, the process of combining mercury 
with some other metal, as practised in separating 
silver and gold from ores. 

amandin (am-an'-din) [Fr., amande, almond]. A 
proteid contained in sweet almonds. 

amanitin (am-an'-it-in) [ap.avlrai, a kind of fungi]. 

1. A principle identical with cholin, obtained from 
the fly-agaric. 2. A poisonous glucoside obtainable 
from various species of agaric. 

amara (am-a'-ra) [amarus, bitter]. 1. Bitters. 

2. The bitter alkaloids. 3- [ap.apa, a trench.] A 
sewer, drain, or stream. In the plural, amara, the 
hollows of the outer ear. 

amaril (am'-ar-il) [Sp., amarillo, yellow]. The 
poison induced by Bacillus icteroides. 

amarillic (am-ar-il'-ik). Pertaining to yellow 
fever. Cf. amarylism. 

amarin (am'-ar-in) [see amara], C21H18N2, triphenyl- 
dihydroglyoxalin. It results from boiling hydro- 
benzamide with caustic potash. It has a poisonous 
effect on animals. 

amaroids (am'-ah-roids). All distinctly bitter 
vegetable extractives of definite chemical compo- 
sition other than alkaloids and glucosides. Their 
names end in -in or -inum. Also called "bitter 

amarthritis (am-ar-thri'-tis) [ana, together; apdpov, 
a joint; itis, inflammation]. Arthritis affecting 
many, or several joints at once. 

amarum (am-a'-rum) [see amara]. 1. A bitter. 
2. Magnesium sulphate, a., genuine, magnesium 
sulphate, a. purum, any simple bitter. 

amarylism (am'-ar-il-izm) [see amaril]. Yellow 

amasesis (ah-mas-e'-sis) [a, priv.; fxaaritns, chew- 
ing]. Inability to chew. 

amasthenic (am-as-then'-ik) [ap.a, together; adkvos, 
strength]. Uniting the chemical rays of light in a 
focus, as a lens. 

amastia (ah-mas'-li-ah) [a, priv.; (ia<rr6s, breast]. 
Congenital absence of the mammae or nipples. 

amativeness (am'-at-iv-nes) [amare, to love]. The 
sexual passion. 

amatory (am'-at-o-re) [amator, a lover]. Pertaining 
to love. a. fever, love-sickness; chlorosis, a. 
muscles, the oblique muscles of the eye, used in 

amaurosis (am-au-ro'-sis) [anavpoeiv, to darken]. 
Partial or total blindness, especially that occurring 
without demonstrable lesion of the eye. Syn., 
paropsis amaurosis; gutta serena; cataracta nigra. 
a., albuminuric, that due to renal disease, a. arthri- 
tica, that due to gout. a. atonica, that due to 
physical debility, a. centralis, that due to disorder 
of the central nervous system, a., cerebral, that 
due to disease of the brain, a. compressionis, 
cerebral amaurosis caused by pressure upon the 
optic nerve, a., congenital, that existing from birth. 
•a. congestiva, that due to cerebral congestion. 
a., diabetic, that associated with diabetes, a. dimi- 
diate, that occurring in only one half of the visual 
field, a., epileptiform, a., epileptoid, sudden blind- 
ness not confined to epileptics, but considered by 
some to be epileptic in its nature. Dilatation of the 
retinal veins has been noted, but no "changes in the 
retinal arteries have been observed. Syn., retinal 
epilepsy; ophthalmemicrania. a. ex haemorrhagia, 
a. ex hyperopsia, an incurable, inexplicable blindness 
occurring suddenly after hemorrhages, especially of 
the stomach. a., hysterical, that accompanying 
hysteria, a. intermittens larvata, a blindness, often 
unilateral, occurring with mild intermittent fever, 
which is frequently followed by atrophy of the optic 
nerve, a., intermittent, bilateral amaurosis occur- 
ring as a complication of intermittent fever. It 
usually begins with the chill and continues until the 
sweating stage, a., progressive, the progressive 
atrophy of the intraocular optic nerve-endings. 
a., reflex, that resulting from a reflex action upon the 
optic nerve from some remote source of irritation. 
a., saburral, sudden temporary blindness occurring 
in an attack of acute gastritis, a., spasmodic, 
blindness due to convulsions, a., spinal, that caused 
by atrophy of the optic nerve, due to lateral or 
multiple sclerosis. Syn., rachialgic amaurosis, a. 




sympathica, a., sympathetic, functional disorder of 
one eye from reflex transmission of disease of the 
other eye. a., uremic, that due to uremia. 

amaurotic (am-au-rot'-ik) [see amaurosis]. Re- 
lating to or affected with amaurosis, a. cat's-eye, 
a light-reflex through the pupil in suppurative 

amaxophobia (am-aks-o-fo'-be-ah) [6.tia£a, a car; 
<£6/3os, fear]. Morbid dread of being in, or riding 
upon, a car or wagon. 

amazia (ah-ma'-ze-ah) [&, priv.; fj.a£6s, the breast]. 
Congenital absence of the mammary gland. 

Ambard's coefficient (ohm-bar') [Leo Ambard, 
French physician]. For estimating renal activity: it 
shows the relation between the amount of urea in 
the blood and that excreted by the kidneys. 

K = 



Ur =the quantity of urea in a liter of blood; D =the 
total urea excreted in 24 hours; C =the amount of 
urea in the urine; P=the weight of the patient in 

amber (am'-ber). See succinum. 

ambergris (am'-ber-gris) [amber; Fr., gris, gray]. 
A biliary or intestinal concretion of the sperm-whale, 
Physeter macrocephalus. It exhales a fragrant, 
musky odor when warmed, and is used in adynamic 
fevers, chronic catarrh, and nervous diseases. Dose 
1-3 gr- (0.065-0.2 Gm.). 

ambidexter (am-be-deks'-ter) [ambo, both; dexter, 
the right hand]. An ambidextrous person. 

ambidexterity (am-be-deks-ier'-it-e). Ability to 
use both hands equally well; ambidextrousness. 

ambidextrous (am-be-deks'-trus) [see ambidexter]. 
Able to use both hands equally well. 

ambilateral (am-be-lat'-er-al) [ambo, both; latus, 
side]. Relating to or affecting both sides. 

ambilevous (am-be-le'-vus) [ambo, both; Icevus, on 
the left side]. Unskilful in the use of both hands. 

ambiopia (am-bi-o'-pe-ah). See diplopia. 

ambitus (am'-bit-us) [ambire, to surround]. A 
circumference, a. cerebelli, Burdach's term for the 
cerebellum, pons, and oblongata taken together. 

ambloma (am-blo'-mah) [\ufia, an abortion: 
pi., amblomata]. An amblosis or abortion; an 
aborted fetus. 

amblosis (am-blo'-sis) [afi@\o)<ns, an abortion]. 
An abortion. 

amblotic (am-blot'-ik) [&hP\wti.k6s]. Abortifacient. 

amblyaphia (am-ble-a'-fe-ah) [&nfi\vs, dull; &4>rj, 
touch]. Dulness of the sense of touch. 

amblygeustia (am-ble-jus'-te-ah) [&m/SXus, dull; 
7e0<7«, taste]. A diminution or blunting of the 
sense of taste. 

amblyope (am'-ble-op). A person affected with 

amblyopia (am-ble-o'-pe-ah) [&nfl\vs, dulled; &\p, 
eye]. Dimness of vision, especially that not due to 
refractive errors or organic disease of the eye. It 
may be congenital or acquired, the acquired being . 
due to the use of tobacco (amblyopia nicotinica), 
alcohol, or other toxic influences; to traumatism; or it 
may be hysterical. Nyctalopia and hemeralopia are 
other forms; it may arise from entoptic phenomena, 
such as muscce volitantes, micropsia, megalopsia, 
metamorphopsia, etc. It may take the form of 
contracted fields of vision, of color-blindness, or anes- 
thesia of the retina. Syn., obfuscatio; offuscatio. 
a., crossed, a. cruciata, amblyopia occurring through 
lesion of the brain, in which a dimness of vision 
with contraction of the field of vision exists in the 
eye on the side opposite to the lesion, a. ex anopsia, 
amblyopia from disuse or from nonuse. a., post- 
marital, that due to sexual excess, called also Burn's 

amblyopiatrics (am-ble-o-pe-at'-riks) [amblyopia; 
larpiKos, belonging to medicine]. The therapeutics 
of amblyopia. 

amblyoscope (am'-ble-os-kop) [amblyopia; aKoirelv, 
to look]. An instrument by means of which an 
amblyopic eye is trained to take its share in vision. 

ambo (am' -bo). See ambon. 

amboceptoid (am-bo-sep'-toid). A degenerated 
amboceptor which has lost its binding group (hapto- 
phore) on the one hand for the cell, or, on the other 
hand, for the complement. 

amboceptor (am-bo-sep'-tor) [ambo, both; caper e r 
to receive]. A hypothetical thermostabile substance 
found in blood-serum after inoculation. It possesses- 
two haptophore groups, viz., a cytophile and a com- 
plementophile. Synonyms: immune body, repara- 
tive, sensitizer, desmon, fixative^ fixator, philocytase, 
receptor of the third order, a. unit, the smallest quan- 
tity of amboceptor in the presence of which a given 
quantity of red blood corpuscles will be dissolved 
by an excess of complement. 

amboceptorgen (am-bo-sep'-tor-jen). An antigen 
giving rise to amboceptors. 

ambon (am'-bon) [anfiuv, the lip of a cup]. The 
fibrocartilaginous ring that surrounds a socket in 
which the head of a large bone is received, such as the 
acetabulum, or the glenoid cavity. 

ambos (am'-bos) [Ger.]. The incus, or anvil bone. 

Amboyna button (am-boi'-nah but'-un). See fram- 

ambra (am'-bra) [L.]. 1. Amber. 2. Ambergris. 
3. Spermaceti, a. alba. 1. Spermaceti. 2. A light- 
colored amber obtained in Brazil, a. atra, see o. 
nigra, a. cineracea, a. cineria, a. cineritia, see 
ambergris, a. flava, a. fulva, see succinum. a. 
grisea, see ambergris, a. nigra, general name, for any 
dark-colored amber or ambergris or dark, resinous 
substance; also lignite and jet. 

ambrein (am'-bre-in) [Fr., ambre], A substance 
much resembling cholesterin; it is obtained from 
ambergrisby digestion in hot alcohol. 

ambrosia (am-bro'-zhe-ah) [dpi/3poaia, the food of 
the gods]. A genus of composite-flowered herbs. 
A. artemisicefolia, common hog-weed of North 
America; stimulant, tonic, antiperiodic, and astrin- 
gent. A. trifida has properties similar to A. artemi- 
sicefolia. The pollen of these plants is by some 
regarded as a cause of hay-fever. 

ambulance (am'-bu-lans) [ambulare, to walk about]. 
1. In Europe the term is applied to the surgical 
staff and arrangements of an army in service. 2. In 
the United States the word is restricted to a vehicle 
for the transference of the sick or wounded from one 
place to another. 3. In Europe a portable military 
hospital and its. equipments accompanying the army 
in its movements, a. chaser, a "shyster" lawyer 
who drums up accident damage cases against firms 
and corporations. 

ambulant, ambulating, ambulatory (am'-bu-lant r 
am' -bu-la-ting, am'-bu-la-to-re). Relating to walking 
or changing location; not conned to bed. a. blister, 
a blister that changes its location, a. clinic, a clinic 
for patients that can walk; a dispensary, a. ery- 
sipelas, erysipelas that shifts from place to place. 
a. tumor, a pseudotumor, a. typhoid, walking 
typhoid; enteric fever in which the patient does not,, 
or will not, take to his bed. 

ambulatorium (am-bu-la-to'-re-um) [L.]. A dis- 

ambustial (am-bust'-she-al) [amburere, to scorch]. 
Caused by a burn. 

ambustion (am-bus'-chun) [ambustio, a burn]. 
A burn or scald. 

ameba, amoeba (am-e'-bah) [ktioifiii, a change]. 
A colorless, single-celled, jelly-like, protoplasmic 
organism found in sea and fresh waters, constantly 
undergoing changes of form and nourishing itself 
by englobing surrounding objects, a. bucca'lis, 
found in dental caries, a. coli, the ameba of dysen- 
tery. This is a protoplasmic mass, resembling the 
water ameba, 20 to 30 m in diameter, and composed 
of a nucleus and a highly granular protoplasm con- 
taining vacuoles. It is found in large numbers in 
the stools of certain forms of dysentery, in the 
intestinal mucous membrane, and at times in the 
socalled dysenteric abscess of the liver. Whether 
it is the real cause of the disease is not definitely 
established, a. dysenter'iae, the organism responsible 
for amebic dysentery, a.-enteritis, chronic enteritis 
due to invasion of amceba coli. a. gingivals, one 
species found about the gums. a. histolyt'ica, same 
as the a. dysenteries. 

amebaphobia (am-e-bah-fo'-be-ah) [ameba; <f>6f}os t 
fear]. A morbid fear of becoming infected with 

amebiasis (am-e-bi'-as-is). The state or condition 
of being_ infected with amebae. 

amebic (am-e'-bik) [see ameba]. Pertaining to or 
characterized by amebae. a. dysentery, dysentery 
associated with the presence in the bowel of amceba 




amebicide (am-e'-bis-td) [ameba; cadere, to kill], 
i. Destructive of amebae. 2. A remedy that 
•destroys ameba?. 

amebiform (am-e'-be-form). See ameboid. 

amebism, amcebism, amebaism, amoebaism (am r - 
e-bizm, atn-e' -ba-izm) . A pathological condition due 
to the invasion of the system by amebae. 

amebocyte (am-e'-bo-slt). A leukocyte. 

ameboid (am-e'-boid) [ameba; elSos, resemblance]. 
1. Resembling an ameba in form or in movement, 
as the white blood-cells. 2. In bacteriology, of 
•cultures which assume various shapes. 

amebula, amoebula (am-e'-bu-lah). A merozoite 
having the power of ameboid movement. 

ameburia (am-e-bu'-re-ah). The occurrence of 
amebae in the urine. 

ameleia (am-el-i'-ah) [dpeXeia, indifference]. Mor- 
bid apathy; indifference. 

amelia (ah-me'-le-ah) [&, priv.; p.e\os, limb]. 
Congenital absence of the limbs. 

amelification (am-el-if-ik-a'-shun). The formation 
of the enamel of the teeth by means of the enamel 
cells — ameloblast3. 

amelioration (am-el-yo-ra'-shun) [ad, to; melior, 
better]. Improvement. 

ameloblast (am-el' -o-blast) [Anglo-French, amel, 
enamel; /3Xao-r6s, a germ]. An enamel-cell, one of 
the cylindrical cells covering the papilla of the enamel 
organ of the teeth, and forming a beautifully regular 
epithelial layer that produces the enamel. 

amelus (am'-el-us) [&, priv.; jueXos, limb]. A 
monstrosity without limbs. 

amenia (ah-me' -ne-ah). See amenorrhea. 

amenomania {am-en-o-ma' -ne-ah) [amaznus, agree- 
able; tiavia., madness]. A mild form of mania in 
which the symptoms are manifested under the form 
of gaiety, fondness of dress, exaggeration of social 
condition, etc.; a cheerful, or joyous delirium; a 
morbid elevation of the spirits. 

amenorrhea, amenorrhcea (ah-men-or-e' -ah) [a, 
priv.; firiv, month; peiv, to flow]. Abnormal absence 
of menstruation. Syn., paramenia obstructionist 
amenia. a., ovarian, a., radical, that due to nono- 
vulation. a., physiologic, absence of menstruation 
during pregnancy, a., primitive, a term applied 
to those cases in which the catamenia have not 
appeared at the proper time, a., secondary, that 
in which the discharge has been arrested after it 
has existed during the reproductive period. 

amenorrhea! {ah-men-or-e' -al) [see amenorrhea}. 
Pertaining to amenorrhea. 

ament (am'-ent) [ab, from; mens, mentis, the mind]. 
A person affected with amentia; an idiot. 

amentia (ah-men'-she-ah) [&, priv.; mens, mind]. 
Defective intellect; idiocy. 

amenyl (am'-en-il). Methylhydrastimide. It is a 
vasodilator and is used as an emmenagogue. Dose 
gr. I (0.05 gm.) twice daily. 

amerism (am'-er-izm) [d, priv.; pkpos, a part]. 
The quality or condition of not dividing into seg- 
ments or fragments. 

ameristic (ah-mer-is'-tik) [a, priv.; ptepos, a part]. 
Not segmented. 

amesiality (ah-me-ze-al'-it-e). The throwing of a 
part, as the pelvis, to one side of the mesial line of 
the figure. 

ametabolic (ah-met-ab-ol'-ik) [L, priv.; p.era^6\os, 
changeable]. Not due to, or causing, or undergoing, 

ametamorphosis (ah-met-ah-mor' -jo-sis) [a, priv.; 
fierafiop^aiais, change]. The absence of metamor- 

ametria (ah-met'-re-ah) [&, priv.; Mrpa, womb]. 
1. Congenital absence of the uterus. 2. [&, priv.; 
likrpov, a measure.] Immoderation; asymmetry. 

ametrohemia, ametroheemia (ah-met-ro-he' -me-ah) 
[a, priv.; tirirpa, womb; alp.a, blood]. A defective 
uterine blood-supply. 

ametrometer (ah-met-rom'-et-er) [&, priv.; \ikrpov, 
a measure]. An instrument for measuring ametropia. 

ametrope (ah'-met-rop) [a, priv.; p.krpov, a measure; 
6\pts, sight]. An individual affected with ametropia. 

ametropia (ah-met-ro'-pe-ah) [a, priv.; ukrpov, a 
measure; o\pis, sight]. The condition when an 
imperfect image is formed upon the retina, due to 
defective refractive power of the media or to ab- 
normities of form of the eye. In myopia the antero- 
posterior diameter is too great or the power of the 
refractive media is too great; hyperopia (or hyper- 
metropia) is the exact reverse; astigmatism is due to 

imperfect curvature of the cornea or of the retina, 
or to inequality of refracting power in different parts 
of the lens; presbyopia is due to inelasticity of the 
lens, producing insufficient accommodation; aphakia, 
or absence of the lens, produces both insufficient 
refracting power and loss of accommodation. 

ametropic (ah-met-rop'-ik) [see ametropia]. Af- 
fected with or pertaining to ametropia. 

ametrous (ah-met'-rus) [&, priv.; p-vrpa, womb]. 
Lacking a uterus. 

arnianthinopsy (am-e-an-thin-op'-se) [&, priv.; 
lavdivos, violet-colored; fyis, sight]. Violet-blind- 
ness; incapacity to distinguish violet rays. 

amic (am'-ik) [ammonia]. Pertaining to or having 
the nature of ammonia, or of an amine. 

Amici's disc, A.'s stria. See Krause's disc. 

amicrobic (ah-mi-kro'-bik) [&, priv.; microbion, 
microbe]. Not due to, or associated with, microbes. 

amicron (ah-mik'-ron) [&, priv.; p.Upov, small]. 
A particle which is too small to be observed with the 

amicroscopic (ah-mi-kro-skop'-ik). Too small to 
be observed by the ultramicroscope. 

amide (am' -id) [ammonia]. A chemical compound 
produced by the substitution of an acid radical for 
one or more of the hydrogen atoms of ammonia. 
The amides are primary, secondary, or tertiary, 
according as 1, 2, or 3 hydrogen atoms have been so 
replaced. They are white, crystalline solids, often 
capable of combining with both acids and bases, 
a., acid. 1. An amido-acid. 2. An amide as dis- 
tinguished from amine or alkamide. a., allophanic, 
see biuret, a. bases, see amine, primary. 

amidine (am'-id-in) [Fr., amidon, starch]. 1. 
Starch altered by heat into a horny, transparent 
mass; soluble starch; the part of starch that is 
soluble in water. 2. [ammonia.] One of a class of 
monacid bases produced from the nitrites by heating 
with ammonium chloride. In the free condition 
they are quite unstable. They contain the group 
C . NH . NH 2 . 

amido- (am'-id-o). A prefix denoting a chemical 
compound containing the univalent radical NH2. 

amidoacetic acid (am-id-o-as-e'-tik). See glycocoll 
and glycin. 

amidoacetophenetidin (am-id-o-as-et-o-fe-net'-id-in) 
See phenocoll. 

amidoacid (am-id-o-as'-id) [ammonia; acetum, 
vinegar]. An acid containing the amido-group NH2. 

amidoazotoluol (am-id-o-az-o-toV -u-ol) . A reddish- 
brown powder, allied to scarlet-red; it is soluble in 
alcohol, ether, and fatty oils, but is insoluble in 
water. It is used as an ointment to promote the 
growth of epithelium on granulating surfaces. 

amidobenzene, amidobenzol (am-i-do-ben'-zen, 
-zol). See aniline. 

amidocaffeine (am-id-o-kaf'-e-in) , CsH9(NH2)N40. 
Fine acicular crystals obtained by heating brom- 
caffeine with alcoholic ammonia. 

amidocaproic acid. Same as leucin. 

amidogen (am-id'-o-jen) [amide; yewav, to pro- 
duce]. The hypothetical univalent radical, NH2, 
replacing one atom of H in amido-compounds. See 

amidoguaiacol (am-id-o-gwi'-ak-ol). A product of 
acetoanisidin by nitration and reduction. It melts 
at 184 C. The salts are employed in the preparation 
of colors and medicines. 

amidosuccinamic acid (am-id-o-suk-sin-am'-ik). 
Same as asparagin. 

amidosulphonal (am-id-o-suV -fon-al) . Amidoace- 
tone ethyldisulphone, a sedative. 

amidoxim, or amidoxime (am-id-oks'-im). A sub- 
stance derived from an amidine (2) by the substi- 
tution of an OH group for an atom of hydrogen. 

arnidulin (am-id' -u-lin) [see amidine]. Soluble 
starch; prepared by the action of H2SO4 on starch, 
thus removing the starch-cellulose. 

amimia (ah-mim'-i-ah) [&, priv.; p.Tfios, a mimic]. 
Loss of the power of imitation or of making gestures. 

amine, amin (am' -in) [ammonia]. The amines are 
chemical compounds produced by the substitution 
of a basic atom or radical for one or more of the 
hydrogen atoms of ammonia, or basic derivatives of 
carbon, containing nitrogen and viewed as ammonia 
derivatives. They are called monamines, diamines, 
triamines, etc., according to the number of amidogen 
molecules, NH2, substituted for H. a., primary, 
an amine in which one hydrogen atom is replaced by 
a univalent alkyl. a., secondary, an amine in which 




two hydrogen atoms are replaced by univalent 
alkyls. a., tertiary, an amine in which three hydrogen 
atoms are replaced by univalent alkyls. 

amino-. A prefix denoting a chemical compound 
containing the univalent radical NH2. a.-acid, an 
organic acid in which one of the hydrogen atoms is 
replaced by NH2. 

aminoform (am-in'-o-farm). See urotropin. 

aminol (am'-in-ol) [amine]. A gaseous substance 
derived from the methylamine of herring-brine 
mixed with milk of lime. It is disinfectant, and has 
been used in the purification of sewage. 

aminopurin (am-in-o-pu'-rin). Any compound 
derived from purin by substitution of one of the 
hydrogen atoms by the amino group, NH2; adenin. 

aminosuria (am-in-o-su'-re-ah) [amine; ovpov, urine]. 
The presence of amines in the urine when voided. 

amitosis (ah-mit-o'-sis) [&, priv.; /uros, a thread]. 
Cell-multiplication by direct division or simple 

amitotic (ah-mit-ot'-ik) [see amitosis]. Of the 
nature of, or characterized by, amitosis. a. cell- 
division, direct cell-division, as distinguished from 

amma (am' -ah) [a/xna, a tie: pi., ammata]. A 
truss or girdle for hernia. 

ammeter (am'-et-er) [ampere; iierpov, a measure]. 
A form of galvanometer in which the value of the 
current is measured directly in amperes. 

ammic (am'-ik). See ammoniacum. 

ammism (am'-izm) [ap-p-os, sand]. Ammotheraphy ; 

ammonemia (am-o-ne'-me-ah). The supposed 
presence of ammonium carbonate in the blood. 

ammonia (am-o'-ne-ah) [from the name of Jupiter 
Ammon, from the neighburhood of whose temple in 
Libya ammonium chloride was obtained]. A color- 
less, pungent gas, NH3, very soluble in water. The 
preparations of ammonia are used as antacids and as 
gastric and cardiac stimulants, in headache, hysteria, 
etc. It is a stimulant to the heart, and, in its elimi- 
nation through the lungs, stimulates and liquefies 
the bronchial secretion, ammoniae, aqua (U. S. P.), 
water of ammonia, a solution containing 10 % of 
the gas in water. Dose 5 min.-§ dr. (0.3-2.0 Cc), 
well diluted, ammonias, aqua, fortior (U. S. P.), 
contains 28 % of the gas in solution, ammoniae, 
linimentum (U. S. P.), ammonia-water, 35; cotton- 
seed oil, 60; alcohol, 5 %• ammoniae, spiritus (U. 
S. P.), a 10 % solution of ammonia-water in alcohol. 
Dose 10 min.-i dr. (0.65-4.0 Cc), diluted, am- 
moniae, spiritus, aromaticus (U. S. P.), aromatic 
spirit of ammonia, an alcoholic solution of ammonium 
carbonate flavored with lemon, lavender, and pi- 
menta. Dose 5-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). 

ammoniac (am-o'-ne-ak). 1. See ammoniacum. 
2. Relating to ammonia. 3. Relating to ammoni- 

ammoniacal (am-o-ni' -ak-al) [ammonia]. Con- 
taining or relating to ammonia. 

ammoniacum (am-o-ni'-ak-um) [ammonia]. Am- 
moniac. A gum obtained from a Persian plant, 
Dorema ammoniacum. It is a stimulating expec- 
torant and laxative, resembling asafetida, employed 
in chronic bronchial affections. Dose 10-30 gr. 
(0.65-2.0 Gm.). ammoniaci cum hydrargyro, 
emplastrum, ammoniac, 72; mercury, 18 %, with 
sulphur, acetic acid, and oil, q. s. ammoniaci, 
emplastrum, 100 parts of ammoniac digested with 
140 parts of acetic acid, diluted, strained, and 
evaporated, ammoniaci, emulsum, a 4 % emulsion 
in water. Dose ?-i oz. (15-30 Cc). 

ammoniameter (am-o-ne-am' -et-er) [ammonia; 
fikrpov, a measure]. An instrument for testing the 
strength of ammonia solutions. 

ammoniated (am-o' -ne-a-ted) [ammonia]. Com- 
bined with ammonia. 

ammoniemia, or ammoniaemia (am-o-ne-e' -me-ah) 
[ammonia; alpa, blood]. The theoretical decom- 
position of urea in the blood, yielding ammonium 
compounds. , 

ammonin (am'-o-nin). A soda deposit used in the 
making of soap. 

ammonionitrometry (am-o-ne-o-ni-trom'-et-re) [am- 
monium; nitrogen; perpov, a measure]. An analytic 
method of estimating separately the amount of 
ammonia, nitrogen, and nitric acid contained in a 

ammonium (am-o'-ne-um) [ammonia]. A hypo- 
thetic univalent alkaline base, having the compo- 

sition NH4. It exists only in combination, a. 
acetate, solution of (liquor ammonii acetatis, U. S. P.), 
spirit of Mindererus, dilute acetic acid neutralized 
with ammonia. Dose 1 dr.-i oz. (3.75-30.0 Cc). 
a. anacardate, an ammonium compound of the 
resinous acids of cashew-nut. It is a doughy mass, 
soluble in alcohol, and used as a hair-dye. a. arse- 
nate, (NH4)2HAs04. It is used as an alterative in 
skin diseases. Dose \ gr. (0.03 Gm.), gradually 
increased, 3 times daily, a. benzoate (ammonii 
benzoas, U. S. P.), NH4C7H5O2. Dose 5-15 gr. 
(0.32-1.0 Gm.). a. bisulphate, NH4HSO4. Dose 
10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). a. bisulphite, NH4HSO3. 
It is antiseptic and used internally in fermentative 
dyspepsia, externally in skin diseases. Dose 10-30 
gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). a. bitartrate, NEUHC4H4O6, a 
white, crystalline acid powder. It is used in the 
manufacture of baking-powder, a. borate, 2(NH4- 
HB2O4) +3H2O, used in renal colic; in combination 
with codeine it is used in tuberculosis of the lungs. 
Dose 10-20 gr. (0.65-1.3 Gm.) every hour in water 
with licorice, a. borobenzoate, an intestinal anti- 
septic, a. bromide (ammonii bromidum, U. S. P.), 
NIHUBr, used in epilepsy, cough, and rheumatism. 
Dose 10 gr.-§ dr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). a. carbamate, 
NH4NH2CO2, a white, crystalline, volatile powder, 
stimulant, a reaction-product of carbon dioxide and 
ammonia gas. Syn., ammonium carbonate anhydrine. 
a. carbazotate, see a. picrate. a. carbolate, C6H5O .- 
NH4, antiseptic and antipyretic. Dose 2-6 gr. (0.13- 
0.4 Gm.). Syn., ammonium phenate; ammonium 
phenylate. a. carbonate (ammonii carbonas, U. S. P.), 
C2H11N3O5, a compound of ammonium and carbonic 
acid. It is a stimulant expectorant and cardiac 
stimulant. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). a. 
chloride (ammonii chloridum, U. S. P.), NH4CI, sal 
ammoniac, is used in bronchitis, rheumatism, and 
liver disease. Dose 1-20 gr. (0.065-1.3 Gm.). 
a. chloride, troches of (trochisci ammonii chloridi, 
U. S. P.), each lozenge contains 2 gr. (0.13 Gm.) of 
the salt. a. embelate, the ammonium salt of em- 
bellic acid, NH4C9H13O2. It is a teniacide. Dose 
for children 3 gr. (0.2 Gm.); for adults 6 gr. (0.4 
Gm.). a. fluoride, used in enlargement of the 
spleen. Dose & — \ gr. (0.003-0.032 Gm.). It is 
recommended in dyspeptic flatulence, 16 gr. (1 Gm.) 
dissolved in 10 oz. (300 Cc.) of distilled water; 
1 tablespoonful after each meal. a. formate, NH4- 
CHO2, used in chronic paralysis. Dose 5 gr. (0.32 
Gm.). a. glycerinophosphate, (NH4)2P04CsHb(OH) ? , 
soluble in water. It is used in neurasthenia, Addi- 
son's disease, etc. Dose 3-4 gr. (0.2-0.26 Gm.) 
several times daily, a. glycyrrhizate, an expectorant. 
a. hypophosphite, NH4PH2O2+H2O, white, laminate 
crystals, soluble in water. Dose 10-30 gr. (0.65- 
2.0 Gm.) 3 times daily, a. iodide (ammonii iodidum, 
U. S. P.), NH4I. Dose 2-10 gr. (0.13-0.65 Gm.). 
a. nitrate, NH4NO3, used in preparing nitrous oxide. 
a. persulphate, (NH4)2S20s, colorless crystals, soluble 
in water with turbidity. It is a disinfectant and 
deodorizer. Application, 0.5 to 2 % solution. 
a. phosphate, (NH 4 )2HP04. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.32- 
1.3 Gm.). a. phosphate, dibasic, (NHU^HPCu. 
Used in rheumatism and gout. Dose 5-20 gr. 
(0.32-1.3 Gm.) 3 or 4 times daily in § oz. water. 
a. picrate, CsHsCNKUXNCfeJsO, a salt in yellow 
needles, of bitter taste; like other picrates, it is 
explosive, and must be handled with care. It is 
antipyretic and antiperiodic, and tends to correct 
gastric disturbances. Dose 5 gr- (0.32 Gm.)_in 24 
hours. Syn., Ammonium carbazotate. a. salicylate 
(ammonii salicylas, U. S. P./, NH4C7II5O3, an anti- 
rheumatic, antipyretic germicide and expectorant. 
Dose 2-10 gr. (0.13-0.65 Gm.). a. silicofluoride, 
2NH4F. SiF4, an energetic antiseptic and recon- 
stituent. It is used by inhalation in diseases of the 
nose and throat. a. succinate, (NBU^BUOm; 
recommended, 1 part in 120 parts of water, as a 
specific in colic. Dose 1 tablespoonful every 15 
minutes, a. sulphate, (NH.4)2S04, used in the 
preparation of other ammonium salts, a. sulphite, 
(NH4)2SG3, an antiseptic used in fermentative dyspep- 
sia. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.3-1.3 Gm.). Applied ex- 
ternally in skin diseases, 1 part in 10 parts of water. 
a. sulphocarbolate, NH4C6H4HSO4, antiseptic. Dose 
i-5 gr. (0.06-0.3 Gm.). a. sulphoricinate, brown, 
ointment-like masses, soluble in alcohol and water. 
It is antiseptic and deodorant, and applied in 20 % 
solution in skin diseases or on ulcerated mucous mem- 
branes, a. tartrate, (NH4)2C4H40e, clear crystals, 




soluble in water. It is an expectorant. Dose 5-30 
gr. (0.3-2.0 Gm.). a. thiosulphate, (NH4)2S 2 03, 
soluble in water; antiseptic. Dose 5-30 gr. (0.3- 
2.0 Gm.) in water, a. tungstate, fine white crystal- 
line powder or needles, soluble in water, a. urate, 
(XH4)CoH3N403, white crystalline powder, slightly 
soluble in water. It is antiseptic and used in 4 % 
ointment in chronic eczema. Ammonium urate 
occurs in alkaline urine and at times in urinary 
calculi, a. valerate, NH4C5H9O2, is used as a sedative 
in hysteria. _ Dose 1-5 gr. (0.065-0.32 Gm.). 

ammoniuria (am-o-ne-u' -re-ah) [ammonia; ovpov, 
urine]. A condition marked by excess of ammonia 
in the urine. 

Amnion's fissure (am'-on) [Friedrich Agust von 
Ammon, German ophthalmologist. 1 799-1 861]. 
A pyriform fissure, occurring during the early fetal 
period in the lower portion of the sclerotic coat of 
the eye. A.'s operation. 1. Blepharoplasty ; re- 
moval of all cicatricial tissue and freeing of the 
remains of the lid, followed by transplantation of a 
flap from the cheek. 2. For destruction of the 
lacrimal sac; incision into, and excision of, a portion 
of the anterior wall of the sac; closure by adhesive 
inflammation. 3. For ectropion (from caries) ; an 
incision is made around the cicatrix, the tissues are 
dissected free, and after closing the lid the wound is 
closed over the cicatrix. 4. For symblepharon; the 
lid is divided by two converging incisions, into 
three portions — two lateral and a central wedge- 
shaped portion; the former are united by sutures, 
and after union the central, wedge-shaped part is 
dissected out. A.'s posterior scleral protuberance, 
a variety of posterior ectasia of the sclera of the eye. 

Amnion's horn (am'-on) [Ammon, an Egyptian 
deity, represented with a ram's head]. The hippo- 
campus major of the brain. 

ammonol (am'-on-ol), C6H5NH2. A proprietary 
remedy said to be ammoniated phenylacetamide; 
pale-yellow crystals, said to be analgesic and anti- 
pyretic. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.3-1.3 Gm.). a. sali- 
cylate, a remedy for headache. Dose 8 gr. (0.5 Gm.). 

ammotherapy (am-o-ther'-a-pe) [ap.p.os, sand; 0ep- 
aireveiv, to heal]. The use of sand-baths in the 
treatment of disease. 

amnemonic (am-ne-mon'-ik) [a, priv.; fivrniovucfc, 
relating to the memory]. Accompanied by or 
resulting in impairment of the memory. 

amnesia (am-ne' -se-ah) [anv-no-la, forge tfulness] . 
Loss of memory, especially of the ideas represented 
by words, a., auditory, word-deafness, a., retro- 
anterograde, a perversion of memory in which recent 
events are referred to a far-removed past, while the 
occurrences of the remote past seem recent, a., 
retrograde, loss of memory for incidents and events 
which occurred a shorter or longer time before the 
attack of the disease. Besides that which may 
result from severe infectious disease or from epilepsy, 
it may be due to trauma or to hysteria, a., visual, 
word-blindness, or inability to recognize printed or 
written words. 

amnesic (am-ne'-sik). Relating to amnesia, a. 
aphasia, see amnesia. 

amnestia (am-nes'-te-ah) [a/xpqoreia, forge tfulness]. 
Amnesia. _ 

amnestic (am-nes'-tik) [anv^arda, forgetfulness]. 
1. Amnesic. 2. Causing amnestia. 

amnia (am'-ne-ah) [anvlov, a young lamb]. Plural 
of amnion, q. v. 

amnial (am'-ne-al). See amniotic. 

amniochorial (am-ne-o-ko'-re-al) [amnion; xopiov, 
a membrane]. Pertaining to both amnion and 

amnioclepsis (am-ne-o-klep'-sis) [anvlov, amnion; 
KXeirrelv, to steal away]. The slow and unnoticed 
escape of the liquor amnii. 

amniocleptic, amnioclepticous (am-ne-o-klep'-tik, 
-us) [amnion; K\eirrelv, to steal away]. Relating to 
the unmarked escape of the liquor amnii. 

amnion (am'-ne-on) [anvlov, a young lamb]. The 
innermost of the fetal membranes; it is continuous 
with the fetal epidermis at the umbilicus, forming a 
complete sheath for the umbilical cord and a sac or 
bag in which the fetus is inclosed. It contains one or 
two pints of liquor amnii. It is a double, non- 
vascular membrane, the inner layer or sac derived 
from the epiblast, the outer from the mesoblast. 
The cavity of the inner folds is called the true amnion, 
that of the outer, the false. Syn., agnina membrana; 
agnina pellicula; membrana agnina; agnina tunica; 

abgas; abghas. a., dropsy of, excessive secretion of 
liquor amnii. 

amnionic (am-ne-on'-ik) [amnion]. Relating to 
the amnion. 

amniorrhea (am-ne-o-re'-ah) [amnion; pola, a flow]. 
The discharge of the liquor amnii. 

amnios (am'-ne-os). 1. The liquor amnii. 2. The 

amniota (am-ne-o'-tah) [anvlov, a young lamb]. 
Animals with an amnion and allantois, comprising 
mammals, birds, and reptiles. Those without an 
amnion are called anamnia. 

amniotic (am-ne-of -ik) [amnion]. Relating to the 
amnion, a. cavity, the sac of the amnion, a. fluid, 
the liquor amnii. See amnion. 

amniotitis (am-ne-o-W -tis) [ap.vlov, a young 
lamb; ins, inflammation]. Inflammation of the 

amniotome (am' -ne.-o-tom) [ap.vlov, a young lamb; 
tout), a cut]. An instrument for puncturing the fetal 

amnitis (am-ni'-tis). Same as amniotitis. 

amoeba (am-e'-bah). See ameba. 

amcebiasis (am-e-bi'-as-is). See amebiasis. 

amcebiform. Same as ameboid. 

amcebism, amceboism. See amebism. 

amoeboid (am-e'-boid). See ameboid. 

amcebula. See amebula. 

amok, amuck (am-ok f , a-muk') [A Malay word 
denoting "an impulse to murder."]. In a 
state of murderous frenzy; in Oriental regions 
persons, mostly hashish eaters, often attack and kill 
those whom they meet while in a state of wild fury. 
In some cases the infuriated persons take this method 
of seeking death, for they are shot down at 

Amomum (am-o'-mum) [afiunov, an Eastern spice 
plant]. A genus of scitaminaceous plants to which 
the cardamom (A. cardamomum) and "grains of 
paradise" (A. granum paradisi) belong. 

amor (am'-or) |L.]. Love. a. insanus, see 
erotomania, a. sui, love of self; vanity, a. veneris, 
Columbus' term for the clitoris. 

amorpha (ah-morf'-ah) [a, priv.; m°p<M. shape]. 

1. A cutaneous eruption having no definite form. 

2. A macula. 3- Apparent diseases in which no 
lesions can be discovered. 4. Intertrigo, a. in- 
fantilis, a. lactantium, infantile intertrigo, a. vul- 
garis, intertrigo. 

amorphia (ah-mor'-fe-ah) [see amorpha]. Shape- 
less condition. 

amorphinism (ah-mor'-fin-izm) [&, priv.; morphine]. 
The condition resulting from the withdrawal of 
morphine from one habituated to the drug. 

amorphism (ah-mor'-fizm) [see amorpha]. The 
state of being amorphous or without shape; want of 
crystalline structure. 

amorphous (ah-mor'-fus) L see amorpha]. Form- 
less; shapeless; not crystalline. 

amorphus (ah-mor'-fus) [a, priv.; nop<f>v< a form]. 
An acardiacus without head or extremities. See 
also anideus. a. globulus, see anideus. 

amotio (am-o'-she-o) [L.]. A detachment, a. 
retina?. See ablatio retina. 

amp. Abbreviation for ampere. 

ampelopsin (am-pel-op'-sin). A tonic extract 
made from Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Virginia creeper. 

ampelotherapy (am-pel-o-ther'-a-pe) [ap.ire\os, a 
grape-vine; depaireveiv, to heal]. The grape-cure 
(q. v.). 

amperage (am-par'-ahj) [Andre Marie Ampere, 
French physicist, 1775-1836]. The number of am- 
peres passing in a given circuit. 

ampere (am'-par) [see amperage]. A unit of 
measurement of an electric current. It is the 
electromotive force of one volt produced in a circuit 
having one ohm of resistance. A.'s law, same as 
Avogadro's law, q. v. 

amperemeter (am-par'-me-ter) [ampere; p.krpov, a 
measure]. An instrument for estimating the strength 
of the current of an electric circuit in amperes. 

amphamphoterodiplopia (am-fam-fo-ter-o-dip-lo '-pe- 
ak). See amphodiplopia. 

ampharkyochrome (am-far-ke'-o-krom). Same as 

amphauxesis, amphauxis (am-fawks-e'-sis, am- 
fawks'-is) [ap.<t>l, around; avfacris, increase]. Growth 
or increase by concentric circles. Syn., amphiphya. 

amphemeros, amphemerus (am-fem'-er-os, -us). 
1. Quotidian. 2. A quotidian fever. 




amphi- (am'-fe) [&p.4>L, around]. A prefix signi- 
fying about, on both sides, around, etc., as amphi- 
arthrosis, amphibia, etc. 

amphiarkyochrome (am-fe-ar'-ke-o-krom) [&n<f>l, 
both; apuvs, net; xp&jua. color]. A term applied by 
Nissl to a nerve-cell the stainable portion of whose 
cell-body is in the form of a pale network, the nodal 
points of which are joined by an intensely staining 

amphiarthrodial (am-fe-ar-thro'-de-al). Relating, 
to amphiarthrosis. 

amphiarthrosis (am-fe-ar-thro'-sis) [amphi; apdpov 
a joint]. A form of mixed articulation in which the 
surfaces of the bones are connected by broad discs 
of fibrocartilage or else are covered with fibro- 
cartilage and connected by external ligaments. It 
is distinguished by limited motion, as, e. g., between 
the vertebrae. 

amphiaster (am'-fe-as-ter) [amphi-; b.<rri\p, a star]. 
The figure formed in indirect cell-division by the 
achromatin threads and chromatin granules united • 
to form the socalled nuclear spindle, together with 
the threads of cell-protoplasm radiating from a 
rounded clear space at each end of the spindle, known 
as the stars or suns. 

amphibia (am-fib'-e-ah) [amphi-; /3tos, life]. A 
class of the Vertebrata, living both in the water and 
upon the land, as the frog, newt, etc. 

amphibious (am-fib'-e-us) [see amphibia]. Living 
both on land and in water. 

amphiblastic (am-fe-blas'-tik) [amphi-; /SXcurros, 
a germ]. Pertaining to that form of complete 
segmentation that gives rise to an amphiblastula. 

amphiblastula (am-fe-blas'-tu-lah) [amphi-; blastula, 
dim. of /SAaaros, a germ]. The mulberry-mass or 
morula-stage in the development of a holoblastic egg. 
It follows the stage known as amphimorula. 

amphiblestritis (am-fe-bles-tri'-tis) [ap.cpiP\ri<rTpov, 
a net; ir«, inflammation]. Inflammation of the 

amphiblestroid (am-fe-bles'-troid) [&p.<pL^\ri<TTpov, 
a net; eldos, form]. Net-like. a. apoplexia, Apo- 
plexy of the retina, a. membrane, the retina. 

amphibolia (am-fe-bo'-le-ah) [&jt#i/3oXia, uncer- 
tainty]. The vacillating period of a fever or disease. 

amphibolic (am-fe-bol'-ik) [see amphibolia]. Un- 
certain; doubtful. Applied to a period in the febrile 
process occurring between the fastigium and the 
defervescence, and marked by exacerbations and re- 

amphicelous (am-fe-se'-lus) [ancpi, at both ends; 
koZXos, hollow]. In biology, biconcave, as the 
center of the vertebrae of fishes. 

amphicentric (am-fi-sen'-trik) [&.p.<f>L, both; nkvrpov, 
a point]. Originating and ending in the same 

amphicrania (am-fe-krd'-ne-ah) [amphi-; Kpavlov, 
the skull]. Headache affecting both sides of the 

amphicreatine {am-fe-kre'-at-in) [amphi-; Kpkaa, 
flesh], C7H19N7O4. One of the muscle-leukomaines. 
It crystallizes in brilliant oblique prisms of a yel- 
lowish-white color, and is faintly basic. 

amphicreatinine (am-fe-kre-at'-in-in) [see amphi- 
creatin], C9H10N7O4. A member of the creatinin 
group of leukomaines derived from muscle. 

amphicroic (am-fe-kro'-ik) [amphi-; Kpoveiv, to 
test]. Having the power to turn blue litmus-paper 
red and red litmus-paper blue. 

amphicytula (am-fe-sit'-u-lah) [hp.<pi, on both sides; 
kvtos, cell]. The parent cell of an amphiblastic 

amphidesmic, amphidesmous (am-fe-des'-mik, 
-mus) ]a.p.<pL, on both sides; 5e<rp.6s, a bond, a fetter]. 
Furnished with a double ligament. 

amphidiarthrosis (am-fe-di-ar-thro'-sis) [amphi-; 
SiapOpuxris, articulation]. A mixed articulation such 
as that of the lower jaw, which partakes of the 
nature both of amphiarthrosis and diarthrosis. 

amphigastrula {am-je-gas'-tru-lah) [b.p.<pl, on both 
sides; yao-rrtp, belly]. The gastrula of an amphi- 
blastic ovum. 

amphigony (am-fig'-o-ne) [amphi-; yovos, offspring]. 
The sexual process in its broadest sense; gamogenesis. 

amphimicrobian (am-fe-mi-kro'-be-an) [amphi-; 
p-Lnpos, small; (ilos, life]. Both aerobian and anaero- 

amphimixis (am-fi-miks'-is) [amphi-; pl£is, mixing]. 
The mingling of two individuals or their germs; 
sexual reproduction. 

amphimorula (am-fe-mor'-u-lah) [amphi-; morula, 
a mulberry]. The morula, or globular mass of 
cleavage cells resulting from unequal segmentation, 
the cells of the hemispheres being unlike in size. 

Ampbioxus (am-fe-oks'-us) [a/x<pl, both; 6£vs, 
sharp]. A genus of fishes tapering at both ends, 
the lancelet. 

amphipyrenin (am-fe-pi'-ren-in) [6.p.<f>i, around; 
Trvp-qv, mass]. The nuclear membrane of a cell. 

amphismela (am-fis-me'-lah) [ap.<pl, both; nv\i], a 
probe]. A double-edged surgical knife. 

Amphistoma (am-fis'-to-mah) [amphi-; <rr6p.a, 
mouth]. A genus of trematode worms, named from 
the mouth-like apparatus at either end, also called 
amphistomum. One species, A. hominis, has been 
found in the large intestine of man. 

amphistomiasis (am-fis-to-mi'-as-is). The condi- 
tion of being infested with Amphistoma. 

amphitrichous (am-fit'-rik-us) [amphi-; 6pi£, a 
hair]. Applied to the type of flagellation in certain 
bacteria having a flagellum or flagella single at each 

amphodiplopia (am-fo-dip-lo'-pe-ah) [ap.<pa, both; 
SnrXoos, double; &\p, eye]. Double vision affecting 
each of the eyes. 

amphogenous (am-foj'-en-us). See amphoteric. 

amphopeptone (am-fo-pep'-ton). A mixture of 
hemipeptone and antipeptone. 

amphophil, amphophilous (am'-fo-fil, am-fof -il-us) 
[ap.<pa), both; (piKeiv, to love]. Readily stainable 
alike with acid and with basic dyes. 

amphoric (am-for'-ik) [amphora, a vase with two 
handles]. Resembling the sound produced by 
blowing across the mouth of a bottle, a. breathing, 
breath-sounds with musical quality heard in diseased 
conditions of the lung, especially in pulmonary 
tuberculosis with cavity-formation, a. resonance, 
in auscultation, a metallic sound like that of blowing 
into a bottle, caused by the reverberation of sound 
in a cavity of the lung. a. respiration, see a. breath' 

amphoricity (am-for-is'-i-te) [amphoric]. The qual- 
ity of being amphoric; the giving forth of amphoric 

amphoriloquy (am-for-il'-o-kwe) [amphoric, loqui, to 
speak]. The production of amphoric sounds in 

amphorophony (am-for-of'-o-ne) [amphoric; <puvr\, 
a sound]. An amphoric resonance or sound. 

amphoteric, amphoterous (am-fo-ter'-ik, am-fot'- 
er-us) [&p.<p6repoL, both of two]. Double-sided; 
having the power of altering the color of both red 
and blue litmus test-paper; a condition sometimes 
presented by the urine, a. elements, elements 
whose oxides unite with water, some to form acids, 
others to form bases. 

amphoterodiplopia (am-fot-er-o-dip-lo'-pe-ah) [L.]. 

amphotropin (am-fo-tro'-pin). Hexamethylene- 
tetramine camphorate ((CH 2 )6N4) 2 . C 8 Hh(COOH)2. 
It acts as a urinary antiseptic, is said to promote 
the regeneration of sloughing epithelium, and to 
increase diuresis and the elimination of uric acid in 
pathological conditions. 

amplexation (am-pleks-a'-shun) [amplexatio, an 
embrace]. The treatment of a fractured clavicle 
by an apparatus that fixes the shoulder and covers a 
part of the chest and neck. 

amplexus (am-pleks'-us) [L., an embrace]. 1. An 
embracing; coitus. 2. Embraced, surrounded. 

ampliation (am-ple-a'-shun) [ampliare, to increase]. 
Dilatation or distention of a part or cavity. 

amplification (am-plif-ik-a'-shun) [amplificare, to 
enlarge]. 1. In microscopy, increase of the visual 
area. 2. Enlargement, as of a diseased organ. 

amplifier (am'-ple-fi-er) [see amplification]. An 
apparatus used in microscopy for increasing the 
magnification. It consists of a diverging lens or 
combination placed between the objective and the 
ocular, and gives to the image-forming rays from the 
objective an increased divergence. 

amplitude (am'-ple-tud) [amplus, broad]. The 
range or extent, as of vibrations and undulations, 
the pulse-wave, etc. 

ampoule (am-pool') [see ampulla], A small, 
sealed, glass capsule, usually holding one dose of a 
hypodermic solution, sterile and ready for use. 

ampul {am-pool'). See ampoule. 

ampulla (am-pul'-ah) [L., "a Roman wine-jug": 
pi., ampulla:]. 1. The trumpet-mouthed or dilated 




extremity of a canal, as of the lacrimal canal, the 
receptaculum chyli, the Fallopian tubes, mammary 
ducts, semicircular canals, vas deferens, etc. 2. A 
bulla or blister, a. chyli, the receptaculum chyli. 
a. of rectum, the portion above the perineal flexure. 
a. vitrea, a glass bottle. 

ampullaceous (am-pul-a'-shus). 1. Flask-shaped; 
big-bellied; gibbous. 2. Relating to an ampulla. 
3. Attended with the formation of bullae or blebs. 

ampullar, ampullate (am-pul'-ar, am'-pul-at). 
Relating to an ampulla; shaped like an ampulla. 

ampullitis (am-pul-i'-tis). Inflammation of an 
ampulla, more especially that of the vas deferens. 

ampullula (am-puV -u-lah) [dim. of ampulla]. 
A small ampulla, as in the lymphatic or lacteal 

amputation (am-pu-ta'-shun) [amputare, to cut 
away]. The removal of a limb or any projecting 
part of the body. Amputation may be by the 
knife, ligature, or other means, or it may be the 
result of pathological processes, as gangrene, constric- 
tion (e. g., of the cord in the fetus), a., accidental, 
the separation of a limb by some form of accident. 
a./aperiosteal, one in which the periosteum is com- 
pletely removed from the end of the cut bone or bones. 
a., bloodless, one in which there is but slight loss 
of blood, on account of the circulation being con- 
trolled by mechanical means, a., central, one in 
which the scar is situated at or near the center of 
the stump, a., circular, that performed by making a 
single flap, by circular sweeps of a long knife, through 
skin and muscles, in a direction vertical to the long 
axis of the limb, a., circular skin-flap, a modification 
of the circular, in which the skin-flap is dissected up, 
and the muscles divided at a higher level, a., coat- 
sleeve, a modification of the circular, in which the 
cutaneous flap is made very long, the end being 
closed by being gathered together by means of a tape. 
a., congenital, amputation of fetal portions, due to 
constriction by amniotic bands, a., consecutive, 
an amputation during the period of suppuration or 
later, a. in contiguity, amputation at a joint. 
a. in continuity, amputation of a limb elsewhere 
than at a joint, a., cutaneous, one in which the flaps 
are composed exclusively of the integuments, a., 
diclastic, one in which the bone is broken with an 
osteoclast and the soft tissues divided by means of an 
ecraseur. Its object is to avoid hemorrhage and 
purulent infection, a., double flap, one in which 
two flaps are formed from the soft tissues, a., dry, 
see a., bloodless, a., eccentric, one in which the 
scar is situated away from the center of the stump. 
a., elliptic, one that may be performed by a single 
sweep, as in the circular method; the wound, how- 
ever, having an elliptic outline, on account of the 
oblique direction of the incision, a. of expediency, 
one performed for cosmetic effect, a., flap, one in 
which one or more flaps are made from the soft 
tissues, the division being made obliquely, a., flap- 
less, one in which, on account of destruction of the 
soft parts, flaps cannot be formed, the wound healing 
by granulation, a., galvanocaustic, one in which 
the soft parts are divided with the galvanocautery, 
followed by division of the bone by the saw. a., 
immediate, one done within 12 hours after the injury, 
during the period of shock, a., intermediary, a., 
intermediate, a., intrapyretic, one performed during 
the period _ of reaction and before suppuration. 
a., intrauterine, see a., congenital, a., major, ampu- 
tation of an extremity above the wrist- or ankle-joint. 
a., mediate, see a., intermediary, a., mediotarsal. 

1. Chopart's amputation. 2. An amputation through 
the tarsus, preserving the scaphoid bone, a., minor, 
amputation of a small part, as a finger, a., mixed, a 
combination of the circular and flap methods, a., 
multiple, amputation of two or more members at the 
same time, a., musculocutaneous, one in which 
the flaps consist of skin and muscle, a., muscu- 
lotegumentary, see a., musculocutaneous, a., natural, 
see a., congenital, a., oblique, see a., oval, a., 
osteoplastic, one in which there are section and 
apposition of portions of bone in addition to the 
amputation, a., oval, a modification of the elliptic, 
in which the incision consists of two reversed spirals 
instead of the one oblique, a., partial. 1. One in 
which but a portion of the extremity is removed. 

2. An incomplete congenital amputation, a., patho- 
logical, one done for tumor or other diseased condition. 
a., primary, one done after the period of shock and 
before the occurrence of inflammation, a., racket, 

a variety of the oval amputation in which there is a 
single longitudinal incision continuous below with 
a spiral incision on either side of the limb, a., 
secondary, one performed during the period of 
suppuration, a., spontaneous, see a., congenital; 
it also occurs in the disease, ainhum. a., sub- 
astragalar, a partial amputation of the foot, leaving 
only the astragalus, a., subperiosteal, one in the 
continuity, the cut end of the bone being covered by 
periosteal flaps, a., supracondylar, see Gritti's 
operation, a., synchronous, see a., multiple, a., 
tertiary, that performed after the inflammatory 
reaction stage has passed, a. by transfixion, one 
done by thrusting a long knife completely through a 
limb and cutting the flaps from within out. 

amuck. See amok. 

amusia (ah-mu'-se-ah) [A, priv.; ftovaa, muse]. 
Loss of the ability to produce or comprehend music 
or musical sounds; an abnormity as regards music 
analogous to aphasia as regards the faculty of speech. 
a., motor, that in which music is understood, but 
the power of singing or otherwise reproducing music 
is lost, a., sensory, musical deafness, or the loss of 
the power of comprehension of musical sounds. 

Amussat's operation (am-oo-sah') [Jean Zulema 
A mussat, French surgeon. 1796-1856]. 1. A meth- 
od of arresting hemorrhage by torsion of the arteries 
by means of two forceps. 2. For atresia vagina; 
dilatation by the use of the finger or a dull instru- 
ment, without cutting. 3. For castration; by in- 
cision upon the posterior surface of the scrotum. 
4. For enterorrhaphy ; in cases of completely divided 
intestine, each end is invaginated and passed over a 
cork, with a groove at either end, and the intestine 
is tied in the grooves. 5. For imperforated rectum; 
the formation of an artificial anus in the perineum, f 
with or without excision of the coccyx. 6. For 
lumbar colotomy; a transverse incision is made, 
crossing the outer border of the quadratus lumborum 
muscle. A.'s valves, see Heister's valves. 

amussis (am-us'-is) [L., "a carpenter's rule or 
level"; pi., amusses]. One of two portions into 
which a median fissure divides the posterior com- 
missure of the brain. 

amyasthenia (am-i-as-the'-ne-ah). Same as amyos- 

amyctic (am-ik'-tik) [A/xvktik6s, mangling]. 1. 
Caustic; irritating. 2. A caustic or corrosive drug. 

amydriasis (ah-mid-rV -ah-sis) . See mydriasis. 

amyelencephalia (ah-mi-el-en-sef-a'-le-ah) [A, priv.; 
fiveXos, marrow; Ke<f>a\ri, the head]. Absence of 
both brain and spinal cord. 

amyelencephalus (ah-mi-el-en-sef'-al-us) [A, priv.; 
iive\6s, marrow; Ke<f>a\ii, the head]. A fetal monster 
having neither brain nor spinal cord. 

amyelia (ah-mi-e'-le-ah) [A, priv.; nve\6s, marrow]. 
Congenital absence of the spinal cord. 

amyelic (ah-mi-e'-lik) [see amyelia]. Relating to 

amyelinic (ah-mi-el-in'-ik). Without myelin. 

amyelonervia (ah-mi-el-o-ner' -ve-ah) . See amy- 

amyeloneuria (ah-mi-el-o-nu'-re-ah) [A, priv.; 
HveKos, marrow; vevpov, a nerve]. Paresis of the 
spinal cord. 

amyelonic (ah-mi-el-on'-ik). 1. Amyelic. 2. With- 
out marrow. 

amyelotrophy (ah-mi-el-ot'-ro-fe) [A, priv.; nveXSs, 
marrow; rpo(j>rj, nourishment]. Atrophy of the 
spinal cord. 

amyelous (ah-mi'-el-us). See amyelic. 

amyelus (ah-mi'-el-us) [A, priv.; /iveKSs, marrow]. 
A fetal monstrosity with partial or complete absence 
of the spinal cord. 

amyencephalus (ah-mi-en-sef'-al-us). See amy- 

amygdala (am-ig'-dal-ah) [&nvySaKr], almond], 
1. The tonsil. 2. A small lobule on the lower surface 
of each cerebellar hemisphere, projecting into the 
fourth ventricle. 3. Almond. The seeds of A. 
amara and A. dulcis, containing the principle emulsin. 
The former contains amygdalin. The expressed oil 
of the sweet almond is a demulcent and is useful in 
skin affections; in doses of 1-2 dr. (4-8 Gm.), a mild 
laxative; that of A. amara is used in cosmetics. 
a. amara (U. S. P.), the bitter almond, a. dulcis 
(U. S. P.), the svyeet almond, amygdalae amarae, 
aqua (U. S. P.), a 1 : 1000 solution of the oil of 
bitter almonds in water. Dose 1 dr. (4 Cc). amyg- 
dalae amarae, oleum (U. S. P.), contains 3-14 % of 




hydrocyanic acid and has similar uses. Dose J-i 
min. (0.016-0.065 Cc). amygdalae amarae, spiritus 
(U. S. P.), the spirit of bitter almonds, amygdalae, 
emulsum (U. S. P.), oil of sweet almonds 6 %; sugar, 
water, and acacia q. s. amygdalae expressum, oleum 
(U. S. P.), expressed oil of almonds. Dose 1 oz. 
(30 Cc). amygdalae, syrupus (U. S. P.), syrup of 
almond; demulcent and slightly sedative. Dose 1-2 
dr. (4-8 Cc). 

amygdalae (am-ig'-dal-e) [L., pi. of amydala]. 
The tonsils. 

amygdalectomy (am-ig-dal-ek'-to-me) [amygdala; 
tKTo\xi\, a cutting-out]. Excision of a tonsil. 

amygdalin (am-ig'-dal-in) [see amygdala], C20H27- 
NOn +3H2O. A glucoside formed in bitter almonds, 
in various plants, and in the leaves of the cherry- 
laurel. Under the influence of emulsin, contained 
in the almond, it splits up into glucose and hydro- 
cyanic acid. 

amygdaline (am-ig'-dal-en) [see amygdala]. 1. Al- 
mond-like. 2. Pertaining to the tonsil. 

amygdalitis (am-ig-dal-i'-tis) [amygdala; ins, in- 
flammation]. Tonsillitis. 

amygdaloid (am-ig'-dal-oid) [amygdala; el8os, 
form]. Resembling an almond, a. fossa, the 
depressionfor the lodgment of the tonsil, a. tuber- 
cle, a projection of gray matter at the end of the 
descending cornu of the lateral ventricle of the brain. 
It is attached to the temporal lobe, and appears to 
be nearly isolated by white substance. 

amygdalolith (am-ig-dal'-o-lith) [amygdala; Xi0os, 
a stone]. A concretion or calculus found in the tonsil. 

amygdaloncus (am-ig-dal-ong'-kus) [amygdala; 
07/cos, a mass]. Any tumor or swelling of the 

amygdalopathy (am-ig-dal-op'-ath-e) [amygdala; 
iraBos, a disease]. Any disease of the tonsils. 

amygdalotome (am-ig'-dal-o-tom) [amygdala; rkp.- 
veiv, to cut]. An instrument used in cutting the 

amygdalotomy (am-ig-dal-ot'-o-me) [see amygdalo- 
tome]. Tonsillotomy. Partial or complete abscission 
of a tonsil. 

amygodophenin 1 (am-ig-dof-en-in) , C6H4(OC2Hs)- 
NH . OC . CH(OH)C 6 H 5 . A grayish-white, crystal- 
line powder, derived from paramidophenol. It is 
antirheumatic Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.) from 1 to 6 
times daily in powder. Syn., phenylglycolphenetidin. 

amygmus (am-ig'-mus) [&(ivyn6s]. Scarification. 

amykos (ah-mi'-kos) [&, priv.; juOkos, a fungus]. 
An antiseptic fluid composed of boric acid, glycerin 
and infusion of cloves. Of reputed service in gonor- 
rhea, dental caries, and catarrhs. 

amyl (am'-il) [&nv\ov, starch]. The radical, 
C5H11, of amy lie alcohol, the fifth member of the 
series of alcohol radicals, CnH2n+i. a.-alcohol, see 
amylic alcohol, a. bromide, CsHnBr, a transparent, 
colorless liquid, soluble in alcohol. It is antiseptic 
and germicidal, a. colloid, a fluid preparation con- 
sisting of amyl hydride, 480 parts; aconitine, 1 part; 
veratrine, 6 parts; collodion, to 960 parts. It is 
painted on the skin in neuralgia, sciatica, etc Syn., 
anodyne colloid, a. hydrate, see amylic alcohol. 
a. hydride, a fractional product of petroleum ether; 
it is an antiseptic Syn., hydramyl; pentylene; 
pentylhydride. a. iodide, CsHnI, the reaction- 
product of isoamylic alcohol, iodine, and phosphorus. 
It is sedative and antiseptic, and is used as an in- 
halation in dyspnea, a. nitrite, C5H11NO2, a clear, 
yellowish, volatile liquid, of a penetrating odor. It 
produces vascular dilation and stimulates the heart's 
action, and is useful in angina pectoris, respiratory, 
neuroses, etc. Dose, internally, \-i min. (0.016- 
0.065 Cc) dissolved in alcohol; by inhalation, 2-5 
min. (0.12-0.3 Cc). a. nitrite, carbureted, amyl 
nitrite saturated with carbon monoxide. It is 
suggested as a substitute for pure amyl nitrite, to 
obviate pressure in the head and other secondary 
objectionable properties, a. salicylate, a compound 
obtained from the action of chlorine on a saturated 
solution of salicylic acid in amylic alcohol. It is 
said to have the sedative properties of the amylic 
derivatives as well as antirheumatic qualities. Dose 
in acute rheumatism 10 capsules of 3 gr- (0.2 Gm.) 
each, daily, a. valerate, a. valerianate, O0H20O2. 
It is a cholesterin solvent and is used as a sedative 
in gall-stone colic. Dose 2-3 gr. (0.13-0.2 Gm.). 
Syn., apple oil. 

amylaceous (am-il-a' -se-us) [see amyl]. Con- 
taining starch; starch-like. See corpora amylacea. 

amylamine (am-il'-am-in). See isoamylamine. 
a. hydrochlorate, C5H14NCI, a reaction-product of 
amyl cyanate, potassium hydrate, and hydrochloric 
acid, occurring as deliquescent scales or crystals. 
It is an antipyretic. Dose 7-1 5 gr- (0.45-1.0 Gm.). 

amylase {am'-il-as) [anv\ov, starch; -ase]. Any 
amylolytic enzyme, causing hydrolytic cleavage of 
the molecules of starch. 

amylate (am'-il-at). 1. A combination formed by 
the replacement of the hydrogen of the hydroxyl 
molecule in amylic alcohol with a metal or basic radi- 
cal. 2. A compound of starch with a radical. 

amylene (am'-il-en) [see amyl], C5H10. A liquid 
hydrocarbon having dangerous anesthetic properties. 
a.-chloral, CCI3 . CH . OH . O . C . (CHs^Hs, di- 
methyl-ethyl-carbinol-chloral. It is hypnotic. Syn., 
dormiol. a. hydrate, C5H12O, a tertiary alcohol 
used as a hypnotic. Dose 30 min.-i dr. (2-4 

amylenization (am-il-en-iz-a'-shun). The pro- 
duction of anesthesia by means of amylene. 

amylenol {am-iV -en-oV) . Amyl salicylate; used 
externally in rheumatism. 

amylic (am-il'-ik) [see amyl]. Pertaining to amyl. 
a. alcohol, fusel oil; potato-starch alcohol; amyl 
hydrate. Ah alcohol having the composition C5H12O, 
produced in the continued distillation of fermented 
grain. It was formerly used to adulterate whisky. 
It is a solvent and reagent. 

amylin (am'-il-in) [see amyl]. The insoluble wall 
of the starch-grain. 

amylism (am'-il-izm). The toxic condition pro- 
duced by amyl alcohol. 

amylobacter (am-il-o-bak'-tur) [anvXov, starch; 
fSaKTrjpiov, a little rod]. A genus of schizomycetes 
characterized by a period of development in which it 
contains starch in its interior. 

amylodextrin {am-il-o-deks' -trin) . Same as ery- 
throdextrin. See soluble starch. 

amyloform (am-il'-o-form). An odorless white 
powder produced by the chemical combination of 
starch with formaldehyde. It is non-toxic, quite 
insoluble, and is not decomposed under 180 C. 
It is recommended as a surgical antiseptic. 

amylogen (am-il'-o-jen) [anv\ov, starch; yev-hs, 
produce]. Soluble starch. 

amylogenic (am-il-o-jen'-ik) [afivhov, starch; yewav, 
to produce]. Starch-producing. 

amylohydrolysis (am-il-o-hi-drol'-is-is) [anv\ov, 
starch; vSwp, water; Xuo-is, solution]. The hydro- 
lysis of starch. 

amylohydrolytic (am-il-o-hi-dro-lit'-ik) . Relating 
to the hydrolysis of starch. 

amyloid (am'-il-oid) [anv\oi>, starch ;eI5o$, form]. 1. 
Starch-like. 2. A starchy substance. 3- Glycogen. 
4. Virchow's name for a waxy body found in animal 
tissue as a result of disease and resembling starch 
only in the one particular that it is stained by 
iodine. Cf. amyloid degeneration, a. bodies, bodies 
resembling starch-grains, found in the nervous sys- 
tem, the prostate, etc They are the result of a 
localized amyloid degeneration, a. degeneration, 
waxy or lardaceous degeneration. A degeneration 
characterized by the formation of an albuminous 
substance, resembling starch in its chemical reactions. 
The process affects primarily the connective tissue 
of the blood-vessels of various organs, and is con- 
nected with or due to chronic suppuration in the 
body. Amyloid substance gives a brown color with 
iodine, a red color with gentian-violet, and turns 
blue on being treated with iodine and sulphuric acid. 
a. kidney, see Bright 's disease. 

amyloidosis (am-il-oid-o'-sis). See amyloid degen- 

amylolysis (am-il-oV -is-is) [anvXov, starch; Awm, 
solution]. The digestion of starch, or its conversion 
into sugar. 

amylolytic {am-il-o-liV -ik) [see amylolysis]. Per- 
taining to or effecting the digestion of starch, as the 
ferments in the saliva and pancreatic juice that 
convert starch into sugar. 

amylon (am'-il-on) [&ijlv\op, starch]. 1. Starch. 
2. Glycogen. 3. A principle found in grape-juice. 

amyloplast (am'-il-o-plast) [anvKov, starch; Tr\a<r<reiv, 
to form]. A leukoplast; a starch-forming proto- 
plasmic granule. 

amylopsin (am-il-op'-sin) [afivKov, starch; 6\pis, 
appearance]. A ferment found in the pancreatic 
juice which changes starch into sugar. 

amylose (am'-il-os) [anv\ov, starch]. Any one of 




the group of carbohydrates, comprising starch, gly- 
cogen, dextrin, inulin, gum, cellulose, and tunicin. 

amylum (am'-il-um) [L.], CeHioOs. Starch, 
amyli, glyceritum (U. S. P.). contains starch, 10; 
water, 10; glycerol, 80 %; used for external appli- 
cation, a. iodatum, contains starch, 95 %; iodine, 
5 %, triturated with distilled water and dried. Dose 
1 dr.-| oz. (4-16 Gm.). amyli, mucilago (B. P.), 
used in making enemas. 

amyluria (am-il-u'-re-ah) [a/ivXov, starch; ovpov, 
urine]. Presence of starch in the urine. 

amyocardia (am-i-o-kar'-de-ah) [a, priv. ; fivs, 
muscle; KapSia, the heart]. Lack of muscular power 
In the heart's contractions. 

amyostasia (am-i-os-ta' -ze-ah) [a, priv.; fivs, 
muscle; <rrd<m, standing]. An abnormal trembling 
of the muscles while in use, often seen in locomotor 

amyosthenia {am-i-os-the' -ne-ah) [a, priv.; fivs, 
muscle; adkvos, force]. Deficient muscular power. 

amyosthenic (am-i-o-sthen'-ik) [d, priv.; pis, 
muscle; adivos, force]. Pertaining to amyosthenia. 
Also, a medicine or agent depressing muscular action. 

amyotaxia (ah-mi-o-taks'-e-ah) [&, priv.; fivs, 
muscle; rd£is, arrangement]. Motor disturbance of 
the muscles, of spinal or cerebral origin. Muscular 

amyotonia {am-i-o-to' -ne-ah) [d, priv.; fivs, muscle; 
t6i>os, tone]. Lack of muscular tone; myatonia. 

amyotrophia (am-i-o-tro'-fe-ah) [d, priv.; fivs, 
muscle; rpo4>fi, nourishment]. Atrophy of a muscle. 

amyotrophic (am-i-o-tro' -fik) [see amytrophia]. 
Characterized by muscular atrophy, a. lateral 
sclerosis, lateral sclerosis combined with muscular 
atrophy. The lesion is in the pyramidal tracts and 
in the ganglion-cells of the anterior gray horns of the 
spinal cord. The disease has a marked tendency to 
involve the medulla, a. paralysis, that due to 
muscular atrophy. 

amyotrophy (am-i-ot'-ro-fe). See amyotrophia. 

amyous (am'-i-us) [d, priv.; fivs, muscle]. Weak; 
deficient in muscle or muscular strength. 

amyrin (am'-e-rin) [amyris], C4oH«0. A resinous 
principle derived from Mexican Elemi. 

Amyris (am'-e-ris) [L.]. A genus of tropical 
trees and shrubs producing fragrant resins and gums, 
such as Elemi, etc. 

amyxia (am-iks'-i-ah) [d, priv.; tii'£a, mucus]. 
Absence or deficiency of mucous secretion. 

amyxis (ah-miks'-is) [afivo-o-eiv , to scarify]. Scari- 

amyxodes (ah-miks-o'-dez) . 1. Deficient in mucus; 
relating to amyxia. 2. Scarified; relating to amyxis. 

amyxorrhea (am-iks-o-re'-ah) [d, priv.; fiv£a, mucus ; 
poia, flow]. Absence of the normal mucous secretion. 

-an, a suffix applied to a class of bodies related to 
the starch and sugar group. • 

ana (an'-ah) [ava, so much each]. A Greek pre- 
position signifying through, up, again, etc. In pre- 
scriptions contracted to aa, meaning of each. 

-ana. A termination preferably used as a suffix to 
the name of a species around which others naturally 
cluster, in the naming of subsections or groups of 
species; e. g., the group of species of Helix related 
to H. pomatia may be indicated by the term 

anabasis (an-ab' -as-is) [avafialveiv, to go up]. 
The increasing stage of acute disease. 

anabatic (an-ab-at'-ik) [see anabasis]. Increasing; 
growing more intense ; as the anabatic stage of a fever. 

anabiosis (an-ab-i-o'-sis) [avafiioeiv, to come to 
life again]. The reappearance of vitality in an 
apparently lifeless organism. Resuscitation; reani- 

anabiotic (an-ab-i-ot'-ik) [&va, again; /3i6s, life]. 
1. Relating to anabiosis. 2. Restoring the strength 
or activity. 

anabole (an-ab'-o-le) [avafiaWeiv, to throw up]. 
A throwing up; what is thrown up; vomit; vomiting; 
expectoration; regurgitation. 

anabolergy (an-ab-ol'-er-je) [avafiaWeiv, to throw 
up; epyov, work]. The force expended or work per- 
formed in anabolism or in anabolic processes. 

anabolic (an-ab-ol'-ik) [ava(3aX\eiv, to throw up]. 
Pertaining to or characterized by anabolism. 

anabolin (an-ab' -o-lin) [see anabolic]. Any sub- 
stance formed during the anabolic process. 

anabolism (an-ab' -o-lizm) [see anabolic]. Syn- 
thetic or constructive metabolism. Activity and 
repair of function; opposed to katabolism. 

anabrosis (an-ab-ro'-sis) [avafSpucns, an eating up]. 
Corrosion, or superficial ulceration. 

anabrotic (an-ab-rot'-ik) [avafipwo-is, an eating up]. 
Pertaining to anabrosis; corrosive. 

anacampsis (an-ah-kamp'-sis) [avaKafivreiv, to bend 
back]. A flexure. 

anacamptic (an-ah-kamp'-tik) [see anacampsis]. 
Reflected, as sound or light; pertaining to or causing 
a reflection. 

anacamptometer (an-ah-kamp-tom' -et-er) [avo.Ka.fnr- 
reiv, to bend back; fikrpov, a measure]. An appar- 
atus for measuring reflexes. 

Anacardium (an-ah-kar' -de-um) [ava, up; Kapdia, 
the heart, from its heart-shaped seeds]. 1. A genus 
of tropical trees. A. occidentale yields cashew-gum 
and the cashew-nut. 2. The oil of the pericarp of 
the cashew-nut, known as cardol, and used as an 
escharotic. It is said to be of value in leprosy. 
a., ointment of, 1 part of the tar to 8 of lard or 
vaselin, used as a blistering ointment, a., tincture 
of, 1 to 10 of rectified spirit. Dose 2-10 min. 
(0.12-0.6 Cc). 

anacatadidymous (an-ak-at-ad-id' -im-us) [ava, up; 
Kara, down; SISvfios, a twin]. Divided above and 
below, but jointed centrally into one; said of certain 
twin monsters. 

anacatadidymus (an-ak-at-ad-id' -im-us) [ava, up; 
Kara, down; didvfios, a twin]. An anacatadidymous 

anacatharsis (an-ak-ath-ar'-sis) [di'd, up; Kadapo-is, 
purgation]. Expectoration; vomiting. 

anacathartic (an-ak-ath-ar'-tik) [ava, up; Kaffaptns, 
purgation]. 1. Causing anacatharsis. 2. An ex- 
pectorant, emetic, or sternutatory drug or agent. 

anachlorhydria (an-ah-klor-hid'-re-ah). The lack 
of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice. 

anacid (an-as'-id) [av, priv.; acidum, acid]. Slight- 
ly acid; subacid; not having the normal amount of 

anacidity (an-as-id'-it-e). The lack of normal 
acidity; subacidity; inacidity. 

anaclasimeter (an-ak-las-im' -et-er) [anaclasis; 
fikrpov, measure]. An instrument for measuring 
the refraction of the eye. 

anaclasis (an-ak' -las-is) [avoKkacns, a breaking-off 
or back]. 1. Reflection or refraction of light or 
sound. 2. A fracture. 3. Forcible flexion of a stiff 

anaclastic (an-ak-las'-tik) [avaxhao-is, a breaking- 
off, or back]. Pertaining to refraction, or to ana- 

anaclisis (an-ak' -lis-is) [avaicXio-is, reclining].' 
Decubitus; the reclining attitude. 

anacroasia (an-ak-ro-a'-ze-ah) [av, priv.; aicpoao-is, 
hearing]. Inability to understand words that are 
heard, while the same words if read by the patient 
are understood. 

anacrotic (an-ak-rot'-ik) [ava, up; upbros, a stroke]. 
Relating to. or characterized by anacrotism. 

anacrotisin (an-ak' -ro-tizm) [see anacrotic]. The 
condition in which there is one or more notches on 
the ascending limb of the pulse-curve. 

anacusia, anacusis (an-ak-oo' -se-ah, an-ak-oo'-sis) 
[av, priv.; aKoveiv, to hear]. Complete deafness. 

anadenia (an-ad-e' -ne-ah) [av, priv.; ad-hv, gland]. 
Insufficiency of glandular function. Chronic want 
of gastric secretion, a. gastrica, Ewald's name for 
achylia gastrica. a. ventriculi, see achylia gastrica. 

anadesma (an-ah-dez'-mah) [avadkafiri, a fillet]. 
A band or fascia. 

anadicrotic (an-ah-di-krot'-ik) [ava, up; Sis, twice; 
Kporos, a stroke]. Characterized by anadicrotism. 

anadicrotism (an-ah-di' -krot-izm) [see anadicrotic]. 
Dicrotism of the pulse-wave occurring in the upward 

anadidymous (an-ad-id' -im-us) [ava, up; Sldv/ios, a 
twin]. Cleft upward into two, while single below — 
said of certain joined twins. 

anadidymus (an-ad-id' -im-us) [see anadidymous]. 
An anadidymous monster. 

anadiplosis (an-ah-dip-lo'-sis) [ava, up, back; 
dnr\6eiv, to double]. The reduplication or redoub- 
ling of a fever paroxysm. 

anadiplotic (an-ah-dip-lof -ik) [ava, up; 8nr\6eiv, to 
double]. Characterized by anadiplosis. 

anadipsia (an-ah-dip' -se-ah) [ava, intensive; 8i\pa, 
thirst]. Intense thirst. 

anadrome (an-ad'-ro-me) [avaSpofi-q, a running up]. 
1. An upward determination of the blood. 2. A 
pain ascending from the lower to the higher portion 




of the body. 3. The ascent of sap in plants. 4. See 
globus hystericus. 

anaematopoiesis (an-e-mat-o-poi-e'-sis). See ane- 

anaematosis (an-e-mal-o'-sis). See anematosis. 

anaemia (an-e'-me-ah). See anemia. 

anaemic (an-e'-mik). See anemic. 

anaerobe (an-a'-er-ob). See anaerobion. 

anaerobia (an-a-er-o'-be-ah) [&v, priv.; k-qp, air; 
/3t'os, life]. Plural of anaerobion. Microorganisms 
having the power of living without air or free oxygen. 
a., facultative, applied to organisms normally or 
usually living in the presence of oxygen, but capable 
of becoming anaerobic. 

anaerobic (an-a-er-o'-bik) [see anaerobia]. Living 
in the absence of the oxygen or air. See aerobic. 

anaerobion (an-a-er-o' -be-on). See anaerobia. 

anaerobiosis (an-a-er-o-bi-o'-sis) [see anaerobia]. 
Life sustained in the absence of free oxygen; the 
power of living where there is no free oxygen. 

anaerobiotic, anaerobious (an-a-er-o-bi-ot'-ik, an-a- 
er-o'-be-us) [see anaerobia]. Capable of existing 
without free oxygen. 

anaerophyte (an-a'-e-ro-fit) [b.v, priv.; irjp, air; 
4>vt6v, a plant]. In biology, a plant capable of 
living without a direct supply of oxygen. 

anaeroplastic (an-a-er-o-plas'-tik) [&i>, priv.; ir/p, 
air; irX&aaav, to shape]. Pertaining to anaeroplasty. 

anaeroplasty (an-a'-er-o-plas-te) [&i>, priv.; &rjp, air; 
irkaaaeiv, to shape]. The treatment of wounds by 
immersion in warm water, so as to exclude the air. 

anaesthesia (an-es-the'-ze-ah). See anesthesia. 

anaesthesin (an-es' -thes-in) . Same as anesthesin. 

anaesthetic (an-es-thet'-ik). See anesthetic. 

anagenesis (an-aj-en'-e-sis) [av ay kwrja is, regen- 
eration]. Reparation or reproduction of tissues. 

anagnosasthenia {an-ag-nos-as-the' -ne-ah) [ava.- 
yvwaris, reading; asthenia]. Neurasthenia in which 
any attempt to read is accompanied by distressing 

anagoge, anagogia (an-a-go'-je, an-a-go'-je-ah) 
[Lvayuyi), a bringing up]. Vomiting, a. haematis, 
a. sanguinis, a rush of blood to the head. 

anagraph (an'-a-graf) [avaypa<j>rj, a writing out]. 
A physician's prescription or recipe. 

anagyrine (an-aj-i'-rin) [ava, backward; yvpos, a 
circle], CHN2O2. An alkaloid from the seeds of 
Anagyris fcetida, a leguminous shrub of Southern 
Europe. Its hydrochloride is poisonous, slowing the 
respiration, and interfering with the heart's action. 
a. hydrobromide, CuHis^C^HBr. Small, white, 
shining scales, soluble in water and alcohol, melting 
at 265° C. It is used as a heart stimulant. 

anakhre (an-ak'-er). Synonym of goundou (q. v.). 

anakroasia (an-ak-ro-a'-ze-ah). See anacroasia. 

anakusis (an-ak-oo'-sis). See anacusia. 

anal (a'-nal) [anus, the fundament]. Pertaining 
to the anus. 

analdia. (an-al'-de-ah). See marasmus. . 

analepsia (an-al-ep'-se-ah). See analepsis. 

analepsis (an-al-ep'-sis) [see analeptic]. 1. Re- 
covery of strength after disease. 2. Suspension, as 
in a swing. 3. Epilepsy with gastric aura. 

analeptic (an-al-ep'-tik) [avdKriTTiKos, restorative]. 
1. Restorative. 2. Any agent restoring health after 

analeptol (an-al-ep' '-tol) . A tonic preparation 
said to contain phosphorus, T £o 8 r -i nux vomica 
extract, £ gr.; cinchona, 2 gr.; coca leaves, 1 gr., 
and the addition of aromatics. 

analgen (an-al'-jen) [&v, priv.; aXyos, pain], 
C26H14N2O4. A white, tasteless, crystalline powder, 
almost insoluble in water, soluble with difficulty in 
cold alcohol, but more readily in hot alcohol and 
dilute acids. It melts at 406.4 F. It is employed 
as an analgesic, antineuralgic, and antipyretic. 
Dose 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). 

analgesia (an-al-je'-ze-ah) [see analgen]. Insensi- 
bility to or absence of pain. a. algera, a. dolorosa, 
severe pain in a part with loss of general sensibility. 
a. panaris, synonym of Morvan's disease. 

analgesic (an-al-je '-sik) [see analgen]. 1. Anodyne; 
relieving pain. 2. Affected with analgesia. 3- A 
remedy that relieves pain. 

analgesia (an-al'-je-siri). See antipyrine. 
analgetic (an-al-je' -tik). See analgesic. 
analgia {an-al'-je-ah) [av t priv.; ahyos, pain]. 
Absence of pain. 

analgic (an-al'-jik) [see analgen]. Analgesic, 
analgin (an-al'-jin). Synonym of creolin. 

analogue analog, (an'-al-og) [av&Xoyos, conform- 
able]. A part or organ having the same function 
as another, but with a difference of structure. The 
correlative term, homologue, denotes identity of 
structure with difference of function. The wing of 
the butterfly and that of the bird are analogous, but 
the wing of a bird and the arm of a man are homo- 

analogous (an-al'-o-gus) [see analogue]. Con- 
forming to, proportionate, answering to. 

analogy (an-al'-o-je) [avaXoyos, conformable]. 
Similarity in function or origin between parts or 
organs, without identity. 

analosis (an-al-o'-sis) [avaXwais, expenditure]. 
A wasting away; atrophy. 

analysis (an-al'-is-is) [avaXveiv, to unloose]. The 
resolution of a compound body into its constituent 
parts, a., absorptiometric, the determination of 
the composition of gaseous bodies by observation 
of the amount of absorption which occurs on exposure 
to a liquid in which the coefficient of absorption of 
different gases is already known, a., clinical, a 
thorough examination of symptoms, lesions, and 
history to determine the nature of a disease and its 
cause, a., densimetric, analysis of a subject by 
means of determining the specific gravity of the 
solution and thus estimating the amount of dis- 
solved matter, a., dry, that by means of blowpipe, 
etc.; also spectral analysis, a., eudiometric, see 
a., gasometric. a., gasometric, the determination'of 
the constituents of gaseous compounds, especially 
the determination of the amount of oxygen in speci- 
mens of atmospheric air. a., gravimetric, the 
quantitative determination, by weight, of the ele- 
ments of a body, a., immediate, see a., proximate. 
a., indirect, a quantitative estimation of the elements 
of a compound obtained not by isolating them, but 
by causing them to form new combinations and 
observing the relation of the molecular weight of 
these to that of the original body, a., inorganic, 
that of inorganic matter, a., microchemical, chemi- 
cal analysis with the aid of a microscope, a., 
organic, the determination of the elements of matter 
formed under, the influence of life. The analysis of 
animal and vegetable tissues, a., polariscopic, 
analysis conducted with the polariscope. a., pris- 
matic, spectral analysis, a., proximate, the deter- 
mination of the simpler compound into which a 
substance may be resolved, a., qualitative, the 
determination of the nature of the elements that 
compose a body, a., quantitative, the determination 
of the proportionate parts of the various elements of a 
compound, a., radiation, a method of analysis 
based upon discoveries of Becquerel and taking 
advantage of the comparative radioactivity of various 
metals, a., spectral, ^the determination of the 
composition of a body by means of the spectroscope. 
a., thermometric, analysis by means of observation 
of the varying temperature produced by the inter- 
action of substances mixed or combined together. 
a., ultimate, the resolution of a compound into its 
ultimate elements, a., volumetric, the quantitative 
determination of a constituent by volume, a., wet, 
analysis conducted by means of solutions and precipi- 

analyst (an'-al-ist). The person who makes an 
analysis; analyzer. 

analyzer (an'-al-i-zer) [see analysis]. 1. An analyst. 
2. In a polariscope, the Nicol prism, which exhibits 
the properties of light after polarization. 3. An 
apparatus for recording the excursions of tremor 

Anam ulcer. A form of phagedena, common in 
hot countries. 

Anamirta (an-am-er'-ta). A genus of Menis- 
permacea. A. paniculata, or Menispermum coc- 
culus, is the source of cocculus indicus. 

anamirtin (an-am-er' -tin) [Anamirta, a genus of 
plants], C19H36O2. A glycerid derived from coc- 
culus indicus, the berry-like fruit of Anamirta 

anamnesia (an-am-ne' -ze-ah) . See anamnesis. 

anamnesis (an-am-ne' -sis) [avap.vri<Tis, a recalling 
to mind]. 1. The faculty of memory; recollection. 
2. That which is remembered; information gained 
from the patient and others regarding the past his- 
tory of a case. 

anamnestic (an-am-nes'-tik) [see anamnesis]. 

1. Pertaining to the anamnesis, or history of a case. 

2. Remembering. 3. Restorative of the memory. 




ionic (an-am-ne-on'-ik). Same as anam~ 

anamniotic (an-am-ne-ot'-ik) [av, priv.; ap.vlov, 
amnion]. Without an amnion. 

anamorphosis (an-am-orf-o'-sis) [&va, again; pop<f>o- 
eiv, to form], i. Distortion or anomaly of develop- 
ment. In biology, gradual change of form in suc- 
cessive members of a group. 2. In optics, that 
process by which a distorted image is corrected by 
means of a curved mirror, a., catoptric, correction 
of a distorted image by means of a conic or cylindric 
mirror, a., dioptric, correction of a distorted image 
by means of a pyramidal glass. 

ananabasia (an-an-ab-a'-ze-ah) [av, priv.; avafiaa-cs, 
an ascending]. A form of abulia manifested by 
incapacity to ascend heights. 

ananaphylaxis (an-an-ah-fil-ak'-sis). A condition 
which neutralizes anaphylaxis; it is wrongly termed 

ananastasia {an-an-as-ta' -ze-ah) [av, priv.; hvaar- 
tolols, a rising up]. An abulistic inability to rise 
from a sitting posture. 

anandria (an-an'-dre-ah) [&v, priv.; av-qp, man]. 
Lack of virility; impotence. 

anangioplasia (an-an-je-o-pla'-se-ah) [av, priv.; 
ayyelov, a vessel; ir\acr<reiv, to form]. Congenital 
narrowing of the caliber of the blood vessels. 

anangioplasm (an-an'-je-o-plazm) [av, priv. ; ayyelov, 
a vessel; -n-\ao-p.a, something formed]. Imperfect 
vascular development. 

anapeiratic (an-ap-i-rat'-ik) [avaireipaadai, to do 
again]. A condition due to excessive exercise, as in 
writers' cramp. 

anaphalantiasis (an-af-al-an-ti'-as-is) [Aj'd, up; 
4>ahados, bald in front]. The falling out of the 

anaphase (an'-af-dz) [&va, up; <j>a.<ns, a phase]. 
The phenomenon of karyokinesis immediately pre- 
ceding the formation of the daughter-stars, and up 
to the formation of the resting daughter-nuclei. 

anaphia (an-a'-fe-ah) [av, priv.; a4>rj, touch]. 
I. Defective sense of touch. 2. A state of abnormal 
sensitiveness to touch. 3. A state in which nothing 
is learned by palpation. 

anaphora (an-af-or-ah) [ava<j>opa, a bringing up]. 
1. A bringing up, as by coughing. 2. Recovery 
from illness. 3. Rush of blood to the head. 4. A 
violent inspiration or respiration. 

anaphoresis (an-af-or-e'-sis) [&v, priv.; <f>epeiv, to 
carry]. A diminution in the activity of the sweat- 

anaphoretic (an-ah-for-et'-ik). 1. Checking per- 
spiration. 2. An agent that checks the secretion of 

anaphoria (an-af-o'-re-ah). An upward tendency 
of the eyes and of the visual axes. 

anaphrodisia (an-af-ro-diz'-e-ah) [av, priv.; 'A<f>po- 
8iT7j, Venus]. Absence or impairment of sexual 

anaphrodisiac (an-af-ro-diz'-e-ak). 1. Relating to, 
affected by, or causing anaphrodisia. 2. An agent 
that allays the sexual desire. 

anaphrodite ian-af-ro-dit). An individual affected 
with anaphrodisia. 

anaphylactic (an-ah-fil-ak'-tik) [av, priv.; <f>v\a£, 
a guardian]. 1. Having the property of diminishing 
immunity instead of reinforcing it. 2. A serum which 
diminishes immunity, a. shock, the general con- 
dition produced by the repeated injections of foreign 

anaphylactin (an-ah-fil-ak'-tin). A substance sup- 
posed to produce anaphylaxis; "a toxic, or irritating 
nonassimilable substance, assumed to be part of the 
proteid introduced on first injection, which renders 
the tissue cells abnormally susceptible to reinjections 
of the same substance." 

anaphylatoxin (an-ah-fil-ah-tok'-sin). The poison- 
ous substance which produces the symptoms in 
anaphylaxis; it is non-specific, and is supposed to be 
formed by anaphylactin and the newly injected pro- 

anaphylaxis (an-ah-fil-ak'-sis). Induction of di- 
sease; specifically, an intoxication due to the union 
of a foreign substance with antibodies produced by 
previous introduction of the same substance ; opposed 
to prophylaxis. 

anaphylaxy (an-ah-fil-aks'-e). See anaphylaxis. 
anaplase (an'-ap-laz) [ava, up; irXdaaeiv, to build]. 
The stage of growth and development; the period 
before full maturity. 

anaplasia (an-ah-pla'-ze-ah). 1. The tendency of 
certain* tissues toward reversion to an earlier or 
embryonal type. 2. A similar tendency in cells 
to revert to a less differentiated condition, prior to 
cell division. 

anaplasis {an-ah-pla' -sis) . See anaplasty. 

anaplasm (an'-ah-plazm). See anaplasty. 

anaplast (an'-ap-last) [avaifKaaatw, to shape]. 
See leukoplast. 

anaplastic (an-ap-las'-tik) [avaifKaoaeLv, to build 
up]. 1. Relating to anaplasty; restoring a lost or 
defective part. 2. Agent that facilitates repair. 
a. surgery, anaplasty. 

anaplasty (an'-ap-las-te). An operation for the 
restoration of lost parts; plastic surgery. 

anaplerosis {an-ap-le-ro' -sis) [, up; vkupbtw, to 
fill]. The restoration or repair of a wound, sore, or 
lesion in which there has been a loss of substance. 

anaplerotic (an-ap-le-rot'-ik) [ava, up; irX-npoeiv, to 
fill]. 1. Promotive of repair, favoring granulation. 
2. A remedy or application that promotes repair. 

anapnograph (an-ap'-no-graf) [avairvo-q, respiration; 
ypa<f>eiv, to write]. An apparatus registering the 
movements of (1) inspiration and expiration, (2) the 
quantity of air inhaled. 

anapnoic (an-ap-no'-ik) [ava, against; airvoia, 
want of breath]. 1. Relieving dyspnea. 2. Favor- 
ing respiration. 

anapnometer, anapneometer {an-ap-nom'-et-er, 
an-ap-ne-om' -et-er) [avairvo-q, respiration; p.krpov, a 
measure]. . An anapnograph. 

anapophysis (an-ap-of-is-is) [ava, back; air6<fiv<ris, 
an offshoot]. An accessory process of a lumbar or 
dorsal vertebra, curresponding to the inferior tubercle 
of the transverse process of a typical dorsal vertebra. 

anaptic (an-ap'-tik) [av, priv.; acp-h, touch]. Per- 
taining to or marked by anaphia: loss of the tactile 

anarcotine (ah-nar'-ko-tin) [a, priv.; narcotic]. 
Narcotine, which from its lack of narcotic power is 

anarithmia (an-ar-ith'-me-ah). An inability to 

anarrhea, or anarrhcea (an-ar-e'-ah) [ava, up; 
poia, flow]. Afflux to an upper part, as of blood 
to the head. 

anarrhexis {an-ar-eks'-is) [ava, up; prints, fracture]. 
Surgical refracture of a bone. 

anarthria (an-ar'-thre-ah) [av, priv.; apdpov, articu- 
lation]. 1. Defective articulation. 2. Absence of 
vigor. 3. Without joints, a. _ centralis, partial 
aphasia duet o central lesion, a. literalis, stammering. 

anarthrous (an-ar'-thrus) [av, priv. ; apdpov, a 
joint]. Jointless. So corpulent that no joints are 
visible. 2. Lacking vigor. 3. Inarticulate. 

anasarca (an-ah-sar'-kah) [ava, through; <rdp£, the 
flesh]. An accumulation of serum in the subcu- 
taneous areolar tissues of the body. Syn., catasarca; 
episarcidium; hydrodermus; intercus; hydrops cellu- 
laris. a., acute, a form in which the flesh preserves 
its normal color and the depression made by the 
finger disappears quickly, a. a fluxu, that due to 
loss of body-fluids, as in diarrhea or diabetes, a. 
americana, South American disease marked by sleepi- 
ness, headache, debility, and swelling of the abdomen, 
said to be due to the ingestion of sea-crabs, a., 
essential, that due to malnutrition, a. exanthe- 
matica, that attributed to the suppression of an 
exanthem, especially erysipelas, a. urinosa, that 
due to suppression of urine. Syn., urinary leuko- 

anasarcin (an-ah-sar'-sin) . A remedy for dropsy, 
said to consist of the active principles of Oxydendron 
arboreum, Sambucus nigra, and Urginea scilla. 
Trade name of a remedy claiming to be a heart 
tonic and diuretic. 

anasarcous {an-ah-sar'-kus) [see anasarca]. Af- 
fected with anasarca. 

anasomia (an-ah-so'-me-ah) [ava, up; o-Cipa, 
body]. A deformed condition in which the limbs 
are abnormally adherent to the body. 

anaspadiac (an-ah-spa'-di-ak)]. A person affected 
with anaspadias. 

anaspadias (an-as-pa'-de-as) [ava, up; cnraeiv, to 
draw]. A urethral opening upon the upper surface 
of the penis. 

anaspasis (an-ah-spa' '-sis) [see anaspadias]. 1. A 
contraction. 2. Revulsion. 

anastalsis (an-as-taV -sis) . A term suggested by 
Cannon for the upward moving wave of contraction 




occurring in the first part of the colon during diges- 
tion. There is no preceding wave of inhibition. 

anastaltic (an-as-ial'-tik) [avaaraXTLKos, checking; 
putting back], i. Strongly astringent. 2. Centri- 
petal; afferent. 

anastasis (an-as' -tas-is) [avaaraais, a setting up]. 
1. Recovery; convalescence. 2. An- upward afflux 
of the body humors. 3. Resuscitation of one 
apparently dead. 

anastate (an' -as-tat) [avaffraros, caused to rise]. 
Any substance that appears in or is characteristic 
of an anabolic process. 

anastatic (an-asrtat' -ik) [see anastasis]. Tending 
to recovery; restorative. 

anastigmatic (an-ah-stig-mat'-ik) . Free from astig- 
matism; said especially of photographic objectives 
which are corrected for astigmatism as well as for 
spheric and chromatic aberration. 

anastole (an-as' -to-le) [avaaroKi], retracted I. Re- 
traction; shrinking away, as of the lips of a wound. 

anastomose (an-as' -to-moz) [see anastomosis]. 
To produce anastomosis; to communicate by anas- 

anastomosis (an-as-to-mo' -sis) [avaaronoeiv, to 
bring to a mouth]. 1. The intercommunication of 
blood-vessels. 2. The establishment of a communi- 
cation between two hollow parts or between two 
distinct portions of the same organ. See a., intestinal. 
3. A whetting of the appetite, a., crucial, an 
arterial anastomosis in the upper part of the thigh, 
formed by the anastomotic branch of the .sciatic, the 
first perforating, the internal circumflex, and the 
transverse branch of the external circumflex arteries. 
a., entero-. See enter oanastomosis. a., intestinal, 
an operation consisting in establishing a communi- 
cation between two parts of the intestine. 

anastomotic (an-as-to-mot'-ik) [see anastomosis], 
1. Pertaining to anastomosis. 2. Sharpening the 
appetite. 3. Aperient. 4. Causing dilation of the 
peripheral blood-vessels. 5- A communicating ar- 
tery or vein. See under artery and under vein. 

anastomotica (an-as-to-mot'-ik-ah). 1. A communi- 
cating artery or vein. 2. Tonic, aperient, or deob- 
struent medicines, a. magna, see under artery. 

anastomotris (an-as-to-mo' -tris) [L.; pi., anasto- 
motrides]. Any kind of a dilating instrument. 

anastrophe (an-as' -tro-fe) [ava<rTpk<j>eiv, to turn 
upside down]. Inversion, particularly of the viscera. 

anatherapeusis (an-ath-er-ap-u'-sis) [ava, up; 
Bepaircvffis, medical treatment]. Treatment by in- 
creasing doses. 

anathrepsis (an-ath-rep'-sis) [avadp&{/is, a fresh 
growth]. A renewal of lost flesh after recovery. 

anathreptic (an-ath-rep'-tik) [avadpop is, a fresh 
growth]. Restorative of lost flesh; nutritive. 

anatomical, anatomic (an-at-om'-ik-al, an-at-om'-ik) 
[anatomy]. Pertaining to anatomy, a. tubercle, 
see verruca necrogenica. 

anatomicochirurgical (an-a-tom-ik-o-ki-rur'-jik-al) . 
Relating to anatomy and surgery. 

anatomicomedical (an-at-om-ik-o-med' -ik-al) . Re- 
lating to medicine and anatomy or to medical 

anatomicopathological (an-at-om-ik-o-path-o-loj '- 
ik-al). Pertaining to anatomy and pathology. 

anatomicophysiological (an-at-om-ik-o-fiz-e-o-loj'- 
ik-al). Relating to anatomy and physiology. 

anatomic surgical (an-at-om-ik-o-sur'-je-kal). Re- 
lating to anatomy and surgery. 

anatomist (an-at'-om-ist) [see anatomy]. One who 
is expert in anatomy, a.'s snuff-box, the triangular 
space between the tendons of the extensor of the 
metacarpal bone of the thumb and the extensor of 
the first phalanx on the back of the hand. 

anatomize (an-at'-om-iz). To dissect. 

anatomy (an-at'-o-me) [hva, up; rkfiveiv, to cut]. 
The science of the structure of organs or of organic 
bodies, a., applied, anatomy as concerned in the 
diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions. 
a., artistic, that branch of anatomy treating of the 
external form of men and animals, their osseous and 
muscular systems, and the relative size of different 
parts and members of their bodies, a., comparative, 
the investigation and comparison of the anatomy of 
different orders of animals or of plants, one with 
another, a., descriptive, a study of the separate 
and individual portions of the body, apart from 
their relationship to surrounding parts, a., general, 
that branch of descriptive anatomy treating of the 
structure and physiological properties of the tissues 

and their arrangement into systems without regard 
to the disposition of the organs of which they form 
a part, a., gross, anatomy dealing with the naked- 
eye appearance of tissues, a., homological, the 
study of the correlations of the several parts of the 
body, a., medical, the application of anatomy to a 
study of the causation and symptomatology of 
nonsurgical diseases, a., microscopical, a., minute, 
that studied under the microscope, a., morbid, 
a., pathological, a study of diseased structures. 
a., physiognomonical, the study of expressions 
depicted upon the exterior of the body, especially 
upon the face, a., physiological, an anatomical 
study of tissues in respect to their functions, a., 
practical, dissection, a., regional, a study of limited 
parts or regions of the body, the divisions of which 
are collectively or peculiarly affected by disease, 
injury, operations, etc. a., surgical, the application 
of anatomy to surgery, a., topographical, the ana- 
tomy of a part in its relation to other parts, a., 
transcendental, the study of the general design of 
the body, and of the particular design of the organs. 
Anatomy as related to theories of type, and evolu- 
tion, a., vegetable, the branch of botany which 
treats of the relative position, form, and structure 
of the organs of plants, a., veterinary, the anatomy 
of domestic animals. 

anatresis (an-at-re'-sis) [avaTtrpav, to bore 
through]. Perforation; trephining. 

anatricrotic pulse (an-ah-tri-krot'-ik). A pulse 
wave with three breaks on the ascending curve. 

anatripsis (an-at-rip'-sis) [avdrpi^is, a rubbing]. 
1. Rubbing; the removal of a part or growth by 
scraping or rubbing; inunction. 2. An upward or 
centripetal movement in massage. 3. A crushing, 
as of calculi. 4. Itching; scratching to allay 

anatriptic (an-at-rip'-tik) [see anatripsis]. A medi- 
cine to be applied by rubbing. 

anaxon, anaxone (an-aks'-on) [av, priv.: axis]. 
A neuron devoid of axis-cylinder processes. Syn., 
amacrine cell. 

anazotic (an-az-ot'-ik) [av, priv.; azotum, nitrogen]. 
Without azote or nitrogen. 

anazoturia (an-az-ot-u'-re-ah) [av, priv.; azotum, 
nhrogen; ovpov, urine]. A condition of deficient 
excretion of nitrogen in the urine, the urea being 
chiefly diminished. 

anazyme (an'-a-zim). The commercial name for a 
combination of carbolic and boric acids; it is a sub- 
stitute for iodoform. 

AnCC. Abbreviation for anodal closure contrac- 

anchilops (ang'-kil-ops). See anckylops. 

anchone (ang'-ko-ne) [a.7x«»'. to strangle]. A 
spasmodic constriction of the throat observed in 

anchorage (ang'-kor-aj). 1. The fixation of a 
floating or displaced viscus, whether by a natural 
process or by surgical means. 2. In dentistry, the 
means adopted for the retention of a dental filling, 
particularly its initial portion. 

anchoraiis (an-ko-ra'-lis) [ancora, an anchor]. The 
coronoid process of the ulna. 

anchusin (ang'-ku-sin) [ayxovaa, alkanet], C35H40O8. 
The red coloring-matter found in alkanet-root. See 

ankyloblepharon (ang-kil-o-blef-ar-on). See an- 

anchyloglossia (ang-kil-o-glos'-e-ah). See ankylo- 

anchylops (ang'-kil-ops) [ayxi, near; <&^, the eye]. 
Abscess at inner angle of eye, prior to rupture. 

anchylosis (ang-kil-o'-sis). See ankylosis. 

ankylostomiasis (ang-kil-o-sto-mi'-as-is). See an- 

anchylostomum (ang-kil-os' -to-mum). See ankylo- 

ancipital (an-sip'-it-al) [anceps, double]. Two- 

ancistrum (an-sis'-trum) [aynurrpov, a fish-hook]. 
A surgical hook. 

ancon (ang'-kon) [aynbv, the elbow]. Originally 
the olecranon process; applied to the elbow generally.. 

anconad (ang'-ko-nad) [ayn&v, the elbow]. Toward 
the olecranon, or elbow. 

anconagra (ang-kon-a'-grah) [ayK&v, the elbow. 
ay pa, a seizure]. Arthritic pain at the elbow. 

anconal, anconeal (ang'-kon-al, ang-ko' -ne-al) 
[ay Kiev, the elbow]. Pertaining' to the elbow. 




anconen (ang' -kon-en) [ayKuv, the elbow]. Be- 
longing to the ancon in itself. 

anconeus (ang-ko-ne'-us). See under muscle. 

anconoid (ang'-ko7t-oid) [ay kup, the elbow]. Re- 
sembling the elbow. 

ancyloglossum (an-sil-o-glos'-um). See tongue-tie. 

ancylomele (an-sil-o-me'-le). See ankylomele. 

Ancylostoma. See Ankylostoma. 

ancyra (an'-si-rah) [aynvpa, an anchor]. A hook. 

ancyroid (an'-sir-oid) [aynvpa, anchor; eWos, 
form]. Shaped like an anchor. 

Andernach's ossicles. See Wormian bones. 

Andersen's ganglion [Carl Samuel Andersch, 
German anatomist]. The petrosal ganglion. A.'s 
nerve, see Jacobson's nerve. 

Anderson's pill. The compound gamboge pill. 
A.'s reaction for distinguishing between quinoline and 
pyridine salts, the chloroplatinates of the latter, when 
boiled with water, are changed into insoluble double 
salts with the elimination of hydrogen chloride, 
whereas the former remain in solution. 

andolin (an'-do-lin). Trade name for a mixture of 
anesthetics for spinal analgesia. It is said to contain 
eucaine, stovaine, adrenalin hydrochloride and saline 

Andral's decubitus [Gabriel Andral, French 
physician, 1 797-1 876]. The position usually assumed 
in the early stage of pleurisy by the patient, who 
seeks to alleviate the pain by lying on the sound side. 

andranatomy (an-dran-at'-o-me) [avrjp, a man; 
avaTouLa, anatomy]. Human anatomy; the anatomy 
or dissection of the male human subject. 

Andreasch's reaction for cystein. To the hydro- 
chloric acid solution add a few drops of dilute ferric 
chloride solution and then ammonia. The liquid 
will become a dark purplish red. 

androgalactozemia (an-dro-gal-ak-to-ze'-me-ah) 

[avrjp, man; -ydXo, milk; ^rjnia, loss]. The oozing of 
milk from the male mamma. 

androgenous (an-droj'-en-us) [av-qp, a man; yewav, 
to bear]. Giving birth to males. 

androgyna (an-droj'-in-ah) [aviip, a man; ywri, 
woman]. A hermaphrodite; a female in whom the 
genital organs are similar to those of the male. 

androgyneity (an-droj' -in-e-it-e) [see androgyna]. 

androgynism (an-droj' -in-izm) [avrjp, man; yvvq, 
woman]. Hermaphroditism. 

androgynous (an-droj'-in-us) [avrip, man; ywf), 
woman]. Hermaphrodite. Having the character- 
istics of both sexes. 

androgynus {an-droj'-in-us) [see androgyna]. A 
hermaphrodite. A male with genital organs similar 
to those of the female. 

androlepsia (an-dro-lep'-si-ah) [av8po\j}\pia, a seizure 
of men]. The process of fecundation in the female. 

andrology (an-drol'-o-je) [av-qp, man; \6yos, sci- 
ence]. 1. The science of man, especially of the 
male sex. 2. The science of the diseases of the male 
genitourinary organs. 

andromania (an-dro-ma'-ne-ah) [avrjp, a man; pavla, 
madness]. Nymphomania. 

andrometoxin (an-drom-et-oks'-in) [Andromeda; 
to^ikov, poison]. A poisonous anodyne principle 
found in Andromeda japonica, occurring in Kalmia 
lalifolia and some other ericaceous plants and found 
in poisonous honey from Trebizond. 

andromorphous (an-dro-mor'-fus) [&vf}p, man; 
y.op4>fj, form]. Shaped like a man. 

androphobia (an-dro-fo'-be-ah) [dv-qp, a man; <£6/Sos, 
fear]. Fear or dislike of the male sex. 

androphonomania (an-dro-fo-no-ma' -ne-ah) [avSpo- 
4>6vos, man-killing; ixavia, madness]. Homicidal 

androsymphysia, androsymphysis (an-dro-sim-ftz' '- 
e-ah, an-dro-sim'-fiz-is) [avrjp, a man; aw, together; 
4>bei.v, to grow]. 1. A monstrosity formed by the 
fusion of two male fetuses. 2. The growing together 
of the male genitalia. 

-ane. A suffix indicating a saturated hydrocarbon. 
anebous (an-e'-bus) [av-qffos]. Not come to man's 
estate; not having reached puberty; immature. 

anecpyetous (an-ek-pi-e'-tus) [aveKwvrjTos]. 1. Not 
suppurating. 2. Preventing suppuration; insuppur- 

anectasia (an-ek-ta' -se-ah) . See anectasis. 
anectasin (an-ek' -ta-sin) [Lv, priv.; e/c, out of; 
relveiv, to stretch]. A product of bacterial action 
with an influence on the vasomotor nerves contrary 
to ectasin (q. v.). 

anectasis (an-ek' -las-is) [6.v, priv.; wraavs, ex- 
tension]. Deficient size of an organ or part. 

anedemin (an-e-de'-min) . Trade name of a dropsy 
remedy. It is said to contain squill, strophanthus, 
apocynum, and sambucus. 

anedeus (an-e'-de-us) [a, priv.; alSoia, the genitals]. 
Lacking genital organs. 

aneilema (an-i-le'-mah) [&va, up; dXeelp, to roll]. 
Flatulence; air or wind in the bowels; colic. 

aneilesis (an-i-le'-sis) [aveikeelv , to roll together]. 
1. See aneilema. 2. Twisting of the body in ath- 
letics. 3- Evolution. 

Anel's operation for aneurysm [Dominique Anel, 
French surgeon, 1628-1725]. Ligation on the cardiac 
side close to the aneurysm. A.'s probe, A.'s sound, 
a fine probe used for exploring or dilating the lac- 
rimal puncta and lacrimal canals. A.'s syringe, a 
yringes used in injecting fluids into the lacrimal 

anelectric (an-el-ek'-trik) [&v, priv.; r)\eKTpov, 
amber]. 1. Readily giving up electricity. 2. A 
good conductor; a substance which readily parts 
with electricity. 

anelectrode (an-el-ek'-trod) [&va„ upward; electrode]. 
The positive pole of a galvanic battery; anode. 

anelectrotonic (an-el-ek-tro-ton'-ik) [av, priv.; 
fiKeKTpov, electricity; tovos, tension]. Relating to 

anelectrotonus (an-el-ek-trot'-o-nus) [see anelectro- 
tonic]. The decreased irritability that is present in a 
nerve in the neighborhood of the anode. 

anematosis, ana?matosis (an-e-ma-lo'-sis). 1. Gen- 
eral anemia. 2. Idiopathic anemia. 

anemia (an-e'-me-ah) [6.v, priv.; alp.a, blood]. 
Deficiency of blood as a whole, or deficiency of the 
number of the red corpuscles or of the hemoglobin. 
It may be general or local. Local anemia, or ischemia, 
is the result of mechanical interference with the circu- 
lation of the affected part. General anemia is either 
idiopathic or symptomatic, a., aplastic, anemia in 
which the formative processes in the bone marrow 
do not take place, a., cytogenic, synonym of a., 
idiopathic, a., essential, synonym of a., idiopathic. 
■ a., idiopathic, a form in which the lesion is in the 
blood or in the blood-making organs, a., infantum 
pseudoleukemia, a form of primary anemia de- 
scribed by von Jaksch as peculiar to the young child. 
Morse holds that chlorosis is a condition wholly 
foreign to infantile life and that von Jaksch's disease 
does not represent a distinct clinical entity, a., 
lymphatic, synonym of Hodgkin's disease; see lym- 
phadenoma. a., malignant, see pernicious anemia. 
a., miners, see uncinariasis, a., myelogenous, 
anemia attended with hyperplasia of myelogenous 
tissue, a., paludal, anemia associated with or caused 
by malaria, a., pernicious, see pernicious anemia. 
a., primary, see a., idiopathic, a., secondary, that 
due to a distinct cause, as hemorrhage, cancer, 
wasting discharges, poisons, etc. Syn., symptomatic 
anemia, a., septic, one which is septic to secondary 
conditions, usually about the mouth, a., splenic, 
chronic anemia with enlarged spleen, blood-changes, 
chloranemia, leukopenia, hemorrhages from the 
stomach, and pigmentation of the skin, a., sympto- 
matic, see a., secondary. a., tunnel, see uncinariasis. 

anemic (an-em'-ik) [see anemia]. Pertaining to 
anemia, a. infarct, a wedge-shaped area of coagu- 
lation-necrosis occurring in organs possessing terminal 
arteries. It is the result of the sudden stopping of 
such an artery by a thrombus or an embolus, a. 
murmur, a murmur heard in anemic conditions, soft 
and blowing in character, and disappearing with the 
anemia. It is generally heard over the base of the 
heart, a. necrosis, the coagulation-necrosis of 
tissues resulting from the sudden stoppage of the 
supplying artery. 

anemometer (an-e-mom'-et-er) [avepos, wind; 
fikrpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring 
the velocity of the wind. 

Anemone (an-em' -o-ne) [avepZivrj, the wind-flower]. 
A genus of ranunculaceous herbs, most of which have 
active medicinal and poisonous qualities. See 

anemonin (an-em' -o-nin) [see anemone], C15H12O6. 
The active principle of the anemone. It is given 
in bronchitis, asthma, and spasmodic cough. Dose 
4-f gr- (0.016-0.048 Gm.) twice daily. 

anemonol (an-em' -on-ol) [aveixoivq , wind-flower ; 
oleum, oil]. The volatile oil extracted from anemone; 
it is a powerful vesicant. 




anemopathy (an-em-op'-ath-e) [avefios, wind; irados, 
disease]. Therapeutic treatment by inhalation. 

anemophobia (an-e-mo-fo'-be-ah) [avep-os, wind; 
4>bfios, fear]. Morbid dread of draughts or of winds. 

anemotrophy, or anaemotrophy (an-em-ot'-ro-fe) 
[av, priv.; alfia, blood; rpo<t>i), nourishment]. A de- 
ficiency of blood nourishment; an impoverished 
state of the blood. 

anemydria, ana?mydria (an-em-id'-re-ah) [a, priv.; 
alfia, blood; vSop, water]. Insufficiency of the 
watery element in blood. 

anencephalia (an-en-sef-a'-le-ah) [av, priv.; £yK.e<f>a- 
Xoj, brain]. Congenital absence of the brain. 

anencephalic (an-en-sef-al'-ik) [av, priv.; £yKk<f>a\os, 
brain]. Pertaining to or characterized by anen- 

anencephalohemia {an-en-sef-al-o-he'-me-ah) [av, 
priv.; £yKe<f>a\os, brain; alp.a, blood]. Insufficiency 
of blood in the brain. 

anencephaloid (an-en-sef'-al-oid) [av, priv.; £yice<p- 
aXos, brain]. Pertaining to anencephalia. 

anencephaloneuria (an-en-sef-al-on-u'-re-ah) [av, 
priv.; iyKe<t>a\os, brain; vevpov, a nerve]. Imperfect 
nerve-action of the brain. 

anencepbalotrophia, or anencephalotrophy (an-en- 
sef-al-o-tro' -je-ah or -lot'-ro-fe) [av, priv.; eyicecfraXos, 
brain; rpo4>i\, nutrition]. Atrophy, or lack of nutri- 
tion of the brain. / 

anencephalus (an-en-sef'-al-us) [see anencephalia]. 
A species of single autositic monsters in which there 
is no trace of the brain. 

anenergia (an-en-er'-je-ah) [av, priv.; evkpyeia, 
energy]. Lack of vigor or power. 

anenteremia (an-en-ter-e'-me-ah) [av, priv.; evrepov, 
an intestine; dt/ia, blood]. Bloodless condition of the 

anenteroneuria (an-en-ter-o-nu'-re-ah) [av, priv.; 
IvTtpov an intestine; vevpov, a nerve]. Intestinal 

anenterotrophia (an-en-ter-o-tro'-fe-ah) [&v, priv.; 
ivrepov, an intestine; Tpo<pri, nourishment]. Defec- 
tive intestinal nutrition. 

anenterous (an-en'-ter-us) [av, priv.; evrepov, 
intestine]. In biology, having no intestine, as a 
tapeworm or a fluke. 

anepia (an-ep'-e-ah) [aveirqs, speechless]. In- 
ability to speak. 

anepiploic (an-ep-ip-lo'-ik) [av, priv.; iirlirXoov, 
the caul]. Having no epiploon or omentum. 

anepithymia (an-ep-e-thim'-e-ah) [av, priv.; kwldv- 
p.ia, desire). Loss of any natural appetite. 

anerethisia (an-er-eth-iz'-e-ah) [av, priv.; epedtfeiv, 
to excite]. Imperfect irritability, as of a muscle or 

anergasis (an-er'-ga-sis) [see anergia], 'Absence of 
functional activity. 

anergia (an-er' -je-ah) [av, priv.; epyov, work]. 
Sluggishness; inactivity. 

anergic (an-er'-jik) [see anergia]. Characterized 
by sluggishness; as, anergic dementia. 

aneroid (an'-er-oid) [&, priv.; vrjpos, wet; e!5os, 
form]. Working without a fluid, a. barometer, see 

anerythroblepsia (an-er-ith-ro-blep'-se-ah). Same 
as anerythropsia. 

anerythropsia (an-er-ith-rop'-se-ah) [av, priv.; 
ipvdpos, red; oi/as, sight]. Impaired color-perception 
of red. 

anesin, aneson (an'-es-in, an'-es-on). A proprietary 
aqueous solution of acetone-chloroform; used as a 
hypnotic and local anesthetic. 

anesis (an'-es-is) [aveats, remission]. An abate- 
ment or relaxation in the severity of symptoms. 

anesthecinesis, anaesthecinesis (an-es-the-sin-e'-sis) 
[a, priv.; aiadrja-is, feeling; kIvt)o-is, movement], A 
condition marked by loss of sensibility and motor 

anesthesia, anaesthesia (an-es-the'-ze-ah) [avaio-drjo-la, 
want of feeling]. A condition of total or partial 
insensibility, particularly to touch, a. angiospas'- 
tica, loss of sensibility due to spasm of blood-vessels. 
a., bul'bar, that due to a lesion in the medulla 
oblongata, a., central, due to disease in the nerve- 
centers, a., cerebral, that due to disease of the 
cerebrum, a., crossed, anesthesia on one side of the 
body, due to a central lesion of the other side, a., 
disso'ciated, loss of pain and temperature sensations, 
the tactile sense being still present, a. dolorosa, 
severe pain experienced after the occurrence of 
complete motor and sensory paralysis, a symptom 

observed in certain diseases of the spinal cord. 
a., dolorous (of Liebreich), the transient but painful 
anesthesia produced by the injection of water in 
sufficient quantity to edematize the papillary layer 
of the derma and subjacent layers. The pain is due 
to the inhibitory swelling of the cells, a., efferent, 
that due to disorder of the nerve-terminations, 
disturbing their conductivity, a., electric, anes- 
thesia caused by the passage of an electric current 
through a part, a., facial, anesthesia of those parts 
to which the sensory branches of the fifth cranial 
nerve are distributed, a., general, anesthesia of the 
entire body, including the abolition of all perceptive 
power with consequent loss of consciousness, a., 
girdle, a zone of anesthesia encircling the body, due 
to circumscribed disease of the spinal cord, a., 
infiltration-, local anesthesia effected by subcutaneous 
injections, a., intraneural, local anesthesia effected 
by injection into a nerve trunk, a., Javanese, that 
produced by pressure upon the carotids, a., local, 
that limited to a part of the body, a., mixed, that 
partially produced and prolonged by the administra- 
tion of morphine or other cerebral anodyne before the 
anesthetic is given, a., muscular, loss of the muscu- 
lar sense, a., olfactory, anosmia, a., optic, amauro- 
sis, a., partial, anesthesia in which some degree of 
sensibility is still present, a., peripheral, that 
depending upon changes in the peripheral nerves. 
a., primary, a temporary insensibility to slight pain 
occurring in the beginning of anesthesia and during 
which minor operations can be performed, a., 
rectal, that produced by the injection of an anes- 
thetic agent into the rectum, a., regional, that 
limited to a part of body supplied by an afferent 
nerve which has been cocainized, a., sexual, ana- 
phrodisia. a., spinal, (i) that due to a lesion of 
the spinal cord; (2) that produced by the injection 
of an anesthetic into the spinal subarachnoid space. 
a., surgical, that induced by the surgeon by means 
of anesthetics for the purpose of preventing pain, 
producing relaxation of muscles, or for diagnostic 
purposes, a., tactile, loss of sense of touch, a., 
thermic, loss of temperature sense, a., unilateral, 

anesthesimeter (an-es-lhes-im'-et-er) [anesthesia; 
nerpov, a measure]. An instrument to measure the 
amount of an anesthetic administered in a given time. 

anesthesin {an-es'-thes-in). Paramidobenzoic acid 
ester; it is used as a local anesthetic, also, internally, 
for gastralgia. 

anesthesiology (an-es-the-ze-ol'-O'je) [anesthesia; 
X670S, science]. The science of anesthesia and 

anesthetic (an-es-thet'-ik) [see anesthesia]. 1. With- 
out feeling; insensible to touch or pain. 2. A 
substance that produces insensibility to touch or to 
pain, diminished muscular action, and other phe- 
nomena. Anesthetics may be general, local, partial, 
and complete, a., general, one used for securing 
general anesthesia, a. (general) mixtures, contain 
combinations of substances for producing anesthesia. 
a., local, an anesthetic that, locally applied, produces 
absence of sensation in the organ or tissue so treated. 

anestheticism {an-es-iheV -is-izm) [anesthetic]. The 
quality of being anesthetic. 

anesthetization (an-es-thet-iz-a'-shuri) [avaia-B^Tos, 
insensible]. The act of placing under the influence 
of an anesthetic. 

anesthetize (an-es'-thel-iz) [see anesthetization]. 
To put under the influence of an anesthetic. 

anesthetist, anesthetizer (an-es'-thet-ist, an-es'- 
thet-i-zer) [see anesthetization]. One who administers 
an anesthetic. 

anesthol (an-es'-thol). A trade name for a mixture 
of ether, chloroform and ethyl chloride. The pro- 
portions of ether and chloroform vary; the ethyl 
chloride is 17 per cent. It is used as a general anes- 

anesthyl (an-es'-thil). A local anesthetic said to 
consist of ethyl chloride, 5 parts; methyl chloride, 
1 part. 

anethol (an'-elh-ol) [anethum; oleum, oil], C10H12O. 
The chief constituent of the essential oils of anise 
and fennel. It is employed in preparing the elixir 
anethi (N. F.), being more fragrant and agreeable 
than the anise oil. a., liquid, an isomeric modifica- 
tion of anethol; it is an antiseptic, oil-like liquid. 
Syn., isanethol. 

anethum (an-e'-thum) [av&, up; aWeiv, to burn, 
from the pungency of the seeds]. Dill; the dried 




fruit of Peucedanum graveolens, indigenous to southern 
Europe. It is aromatic, carminative, and stimulant. 
Dose of the oil (oleum anelhi, B. P.) 1-4 min. (0.06- 
0.24 Cc); of the water (aqua anethi, B. P.) 1-2 oz. 
(30-60 Cc). 

anetic (an-et'-ik) [Avert/cos, relaxing]. Soothing; 
calmative; anodyne. 

anetiological (an-e-te-o-loj'-ik-al) [av, priv.; alrla, 
cause; \6yos, word]. Having no known cause; 

anetodermia (an-et-o-der'-me-ah) [averos, relaxed; 
Sep/xa, skin]. Relaxation of the skin. 

anetus (an'-et-us) [averos, loosened]. Any inter- 
mittent fever. 

aneuria (ah-nu'-re-ah) [&, priv.; vevpov, a nerve]. 
Lack of nervous power. 

aneuric (ah-nu'-rik) [see aneuria]. Characterized 
by aneuria. 

aneurism (an'-u-rizm). See aneurysm. 

aneuros (ah-nu'-ros) [avevpos, without sinews]. 
Feeble, inelastic, relaxed. 

aneurosis (ah-nil-ro' -sis) [a, priv.; vevpov, a nerve]. 
A lack of nerves. 

aneurysm (an'-u-rizm) [avevpvo-p.a, a widening]. 
A circumscribed dilatation of the walls of an artery. 
Syn., Abscessus spirituosus. a., abdominal, an 
aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, a., active, 
cardiac dilation with hypertrophy, a., acute, an 
ulceration of the heart-wall which, by communicating 
with one of the chambers of the heart, forms an 
aneurysmal pouch, a., ampullary, a small saccular 
aneurysm; it is most common in the arteries of the 
brain, a. by anastomosis, a dilatation of a large 
number of vessels, — small arteries, veins, and capil- 
laries, — the whole forming a pulsating tumor under 
the skin. This form of aneurysm is especially seen 
upon the scalp, a., arteriovenous, the simultaneous 
rupture of an artery and a vein, the blood from both 
being poured out into the cellular tissue and forming 
a false aneurysm. A varicose aneurysm is produced 
by the rupture of an aneurysm into a vein. An 
aneurysmal varix results from the establishment of 
a communication between an artery and a vein, the 
latter becoming dilated and pulsating, a., cardiac, 
an aneurysm of the heart, a., circumscribed, an 
aneurysm, either true or false, in which the contents 
are still within the artery though there may be 
rupture of one or two of its coats, a., cirsoid, a 
tortuous lengthening and dilatation of a part of an 
artery, a., compound, one in which one or several of 
the coats of the artery are ruptured and the others 
merely dilated, a., consecutive, a., diffused, follows 
rupture of all the arterial coats, with infiltration of 
surrounding tissues with blood, a., dissecting, one 
in which the blood forces its way between the coats 
of an artery, a., ectatic, an expansion of a portion 
of an artery due to yielding of all the coats, a., 
endogenous, one formed by disease of the vessel- 
walls, a., exogenous, one due to traumatism. 
a., external. 1. One remote from the great body- 
cavities. 2. One in which the cavity of the tumor is 
entirely or chiefly outside of the inner coat of the 
artery, a., false, a., spurious, one due to a rupture 
of all the coats of an artery, the effused blood being 
retained by the surrounding tissues, a., fusiform, a 
spindle-shaped dilatation of an artery, a., hernial, 
one in which the internal coat of the artery, with or 
without the middle coat, forms the aneurysmal sac 
which has forced its way through an opening in the 
outer coat. a.» lateral, an aneurysm projecting on 
one side of a vessel, the rest of the circumference 
being intact, a., miliary, a sac-like dilatation of an 
arteriole, often the size of a pin's head, a., mycotic, 
one due to the growth of bacteria in the vessel-wall. 
a., osteoid, a pulsating tumor of a bone, a., partial. 
1. See a., lateral. 2. An aneurysmal dilatation of a 
portion of the heart, a., passive, a., passive cardiac, 
cardiac dilatation with thinning of the heart-wall. 
a., peripheral, a., peripheric, one involving the whole 
circumference of an artery, a., racemose, see c, 
cirsoid, a., sacculated, a sac-like dilatation of an 
artery communicating with the main arterial trunk 
by an opening that is relatively small, a., spurious, 
see a., false, a., subclavicular, an aneurysm of the 
axillary artery at a point too high to admit of liga- 
tion below the clavicle, a., surgical, see a., external. 
a., true, one in which the sac is formed of one, two, 
or all of the arterial coats, a., varicose, see under 
a., arteriovenous. 

aneurysmal (an-u-riz'-mal) [see aneurysm]. Of the 

nature of or pertaining to an aneurysm, a. diathesis, 
a body-condition favoring the development of 
aneurysms, a. varix, see under aneurysm, arterio- 

aneurysmatic (an-u-riz-mat'-ik) [avevpvap.a, a 
widening]. Affected with or of the nature of aneu- 

aneurysmectomy (an-u-riz-mek' -to-me) [avebpvopa, 
aneurysm; enron-h, excision]. Excision of the sac of 
an aneurysm. 

aneurysmoplasty (an-u-riz'-mo-plas-te). Restora- 
tion of the artery in aneurysm; reconstructive endo- 

aneurysmorrhaphy (an-u-riz-mor'-af-e). The sutur- 
ing of an aneurysm. 

aneurysmotomy (an-u-riz-mof -o-me) . Incision 
into the sac of an aneurysm. 

aneurysmus (an-u-riz' -mus) . 1. Dilatation; for 
formation of an aneurysm. 2. Aneurysm. 

aneuthanasia (an-u-than-a' -se-ah) [a, priv.; eWa- 
vaaia, an easy death]. A painful or difficult death. 

an. ex. (an'-eks). An abbreviation of anode excita- 

anfract (an'-frakt) [anfractus, a winding]. An an- 
fractuosity or sinuosity; an anfractuous organ or 

anfractuosity (an-frak-lu-os'-it-e) [anfractus, a 
bending round]. 1. Any one of the furrows or sulci 
between the cerebral convolutions. 2. Any spiral 
turn or winding; an interruption; a detour, a., 
ethmoidal, an ethmoidal cell. 

anfractuous (an-frak'-tu-us) [anfractus, a bending 
round]. Characterized by windings and turnings; 

angeial (an-je'-al) [ayyeiov, a vessel]. Vascular. 

angeio- (an-je-o-). See angio-. 

Angelica (an-jel'-ik-ah) [L.]. The seeds and root 
of Angelica archangelica. It is an aromatic stimu- 
lant and emmenagogue. Dose of the seeds or roots 
30 gr.-i dr. (2-4 Gm.). 

angel's wing (an'-jelz wing). A deformity of the 
scapula in which it turns forward and then backward, 
giving the shoulder a peculiar dorsal bulge. 

angi (an'-je). Inguinal buboes. 

angiectasis (an-je-ek'-tas-is) [ayyeiov, a vessel; 
l/crao-ts, dilation]. Abnormal dilatation of a vessel; 
enlargement of capillaries. 

angiectopia (an-je-ek-to'-pe-ah) [ayyeiov, a vessel; 
£kt6ttos, displaced]. Displacement or abnormal 
position of a vessel. 

angielcosis (an-je-el-ko'-sis). See angielcus. 

angielcus, or angeielcus (an-je-el'-kus) [ayyeiov, a 
vessel; eXros, an ulcer]. An ulcer in the walls of a 

angiemphraxis (an-je-em-fraks'-is) [d-y^eld', a 
vessel; ep.<t>pa£is, obstruction]. Obstruction of a 
vessel or of vessels. 

angiitis, angeitis (an-je-i'-tis) [ayyeiov, a vessel; 
ins, inflammation]. Inflammation of a lymph- 
vessel or of a blood-vessel. 

angileucitis (an-je-lu-si'-tis). Same as angio- 

angina (an'-jin-ah or (incorrectly) an-ji'-nah) 
[angere, to strangle]. Any disease attended by a 
sense of choking or suffocation, particularly an 
affection of the fauces or pharynx presenting such 
symptoms, a. abdominis, a condition due to 
aneurysm or arteriosclerosis of the celiac plexus, and 
accompanied by severe paroxysms of abdominal 
pain. a. acuta, simple sore throat. Syn., angina 
simplex, a. aphthosa, a., aphaethous, a form attended 
with the formation of aphthae in some part of the 
throat, a. canina, croup, a., cardiac, angina 
pectoris, a. cruris, intermittent lameness, a. exsu- 
dativa, croup, a. externa, synonym of mumps. 
a., fibrinous, a noninfectious disease of the throat 
simulating diphtheria, marked by the formation of a 
layer of fibrinous exudation which is chiefly confined 
to the tonsils. > The constitutional symptoms are 
slight, a., follicular, clergyman's sore throat; see 
pharyngitis, granular, a., herpetic, angina observed 
in connection with smallpox and herpes, marked by 
formation of vesicles in the throat which may be 
attended with patches of exudation, a. laryngea, 
synonym of laryngitis, a. lingualis, same as glossitis. 
a. Ludovici, a., Ludwig's, see Ludwig's angina. 
a. maligna, diphtheria, a. maxillaris, mumps, a. 
membranacea, synonym of diphtheria, a. parotidea, 
the mumps, or parotitis a. pectoris, a paroxysmal 
neurosis with intense pian and oppression about the 




heart. It usually occurs in the male after 40 years 
of age, and is generally associated with diseased 
conditions of the heart and aorta. There is a sense 
of impending death, and frequently there is a fatal 
termination, a. pectoris vasomotoria, a term given 
by Nothnagel and Landois to an angina associated 
with vasomotor disturbances, coldness of the surface, 
etc. a., phlegmonous. 1. An inflammation of the 
mucous and submucous tissues of the throat, with a 
tendency to extend more deeply, attended by edema- 
tous swelling. 2. Acute inflammation of the deep- 
seated structures of the throat, with a tendency to 
pus-formation, a., pseudo-, a neurosis occurring 
in anemic females, simulating angina pectoris, but 
characterized by a less grave set of symptoms and 
never resulting fatally, a., pultaceous, an affection 
of the throat marked by the presence of whitish or 
grayish patches which are easily detached, as they 
are not true exudations, a., rheumatic, a form of 
catarrhal angina in rheumatic persons, marked by 
sudden onset of intense pain on swallowing, a. 
serosa, a., serous. 1. Catarrhal angina. 2. Edema 
of the glottis, a. simplex, see a., acuta, a. suffoca- 
tiva, diphtheria, a., thymic. 1. Laryngismus strid- 
ulus. 2. Bronchial asthma, a. tonsillans, quinsy. 
a. trachealis, croup, a., ulceromembranous, see 
tonsillitis, herpetic, a. varicosa, dyspnea due to 
enlarged tonsillar vessels, a. vera, a. vera et legitima, 

anginal (an'-jin-al). Relating to angina. 

anginoid (an'-jin-oid) [see angina]. Resembling 

anginophobia (an-ji-no-fo'-be-ah) [angina; <j>b(ios, 
fear]. Morbid fear of angina pectoris. 

anginose (an'-jin-os) [see angina]. Pertaining to 
angina; characterized by symptoms of suffocation. 

angio- (an-je-o-). A prefix signifying relating to a 

angioasthenia (an-je-o-as-the'-ne-ah) [angio-; a<rde- 
yeta, weakness]. Atony of Ihe blood-vessels. 

angioataxia (an-je-o-at-aks'-e-ah) [angio-; &ra£ia, 
want of order]. An irregularity in the tension of the 

angioblast (an'-je-o-blast) [angio-; jSXcuttos, a germ]. 
An embryonic cell developing into vascular tissue. 

angiocardiokinetic (an-je-o-kar-de-o-kin-et'-ik) [an- 
gio-; KapSia, heart; Kivtlv, to move]. 1. Stimulating 
or affecting the action of movements of the heart 
and blood-vessels. 2. A drug which stimulates or 
affects the movements of the heart and blood- 

angiocarditis (an-je-o-kar-di'-tis) [angio-; KapSia, 
the heart; ins, inflammation]. An inflammation of 
the heart and blood-vessels (hypothetical). 

angiocavernous (an-je-o-kav'-er-nus). Relating to 
cavernous angioma. 

angioceratodeitis. See angiokeratoditis. 

angiochalasis, or angeiochalasis (an-je-o-kal'-as-is) 
[angio-; x<*Xao-is, relaxation]. Dilatation or relaxa- 
tion of the blood-vessels. 

angiocheiloscope (an-je-o-ki'-lo-skop) [angio-; x«t- 
Xos, a lip; aKo-rrelv, to look]. An instrument by 
means of which the blood-circulation in the capil- 
laries of the mucosa of the lips is magnified for 

angiocholitis (an-je-o-ko-li'-tis) [angio-; x°Xi?, bile; 
wis, inflammation]. Inflammation of the biliary 

angioderma pigmentosum (an-je-o-der'-mah pig- 
men-to' -sum) . See atrophoderma. 

angiodermatitis (an-je-o-der-mat-i'-tis). Inflamma- 
tion of the vessels of the skin. 

angiodiastasis (an-je-o-di-as'-tas-is) [angio-; Siaa- 
rao-is, a separation]. 1. Displacement or dilatation 
of a vessel. 2. Retraction of the severed ends of a 

angiodystrophia, angiodystrophy (an-je-o-dis-tro'- 
fe-ah, -dis'-tro-fe) [angio-; Svs, bad; rpo(j>r}, nourish- 
ment]. Defective nutrition of the vessels. 

angioelephantiasis {an-je-o-el-e-fan-ti'-as-is). See 
elephantiasis telangiectodes. 

angiofibroma (an-je-o-fi-bro'-mah). A fibrous de- 
generating angioma. 

angiogenesis, angiogeny (an-je-o-jen'-es-is, an-je- 
og'-en-e) [angio-; ytwav, to produce]. The develop- 
ment of the vessels. 

angioglioma (an-je-o-gli-o'-mah) [angio-; glioma], 
A glioma rich in blood-vessels. 

angiograph (an'-je-o-graf) [angio-; ypa<j>etv, to 
write]. A variety of sphygmograph. 

angiography (an-je-og'-ra-fe) [see angiograph]. 
A description of the vessels; angiology. 

angiokeratoditis (an-je-o-ker-at-o-di'-tis) [angio-; 
Kepas, cornea; ms, inflammation]. Vascular kera- 

angiokeratoma (an-je-o-ker-at-o'-mah) [angio-; 
Kepas, horn; op.a, tumor]. Lymphangiectasis ; telan- 
giectatic wart; a very rare disease of the extremities, 
characterized by warty-looking growths that develop 
on dilated vessels in persons with chilblains, etc. 
Dark vascular spots the size of pin-points or pin- 
heads develop as an attack of chilblains is sub- 
siding. The disease is peculiar to childhood. 

angiokinesis (an-je-o-kin-e'-sis) [angio-; nweiv, to 
move]. Excitation or action of the blood-vessels. 

angioleucitis (an-je-o-lu-si'-tis) [angio-; Xewcos, 
white; ins, inflammation]. Inflammation of the 
lymphatic vessels. 

angioleukasia (an-je-o-lii-ka'-zhe-ah) [angio-; Xewcos, 
white; e/crcuris, dilation]. Dilation of the lym- 

angiolith (an'-je-o-lith) [angio-; Xi'0os, stone]. A 
venous calculus, phlebolith. 

angiolithic (an-je-o-lith'-ik) [angio-; Xi0os, a stone]. 
A "term applied to neoplasms in which crystalline or 
mineral deposits take place, with hyaline degeneration 
of the coats of the vessels. 

angiology {an-je-ol'-o-je) [angio-; \6yos, science]. 
The science of the blood-vessels and lymphatics. 

angiolymphitis (an-je-o-limf-i'-tis). Same as angio- 

angiolymphoma (an-je-o-limf-o'-mah) [angio-; lym- 
pha, lymph; 6p.a, tumor]. A tumor formed of lym- 
phatic vessels. 

angioma (an-je-o' -mah) [angio-; 6p.a, a tumor]. 
A tumor formed of blood-vessels, a., cavernous, an 
angioma with communicating blood-spaces, like the 
cavernous tissue of the penis, originating chiefly 
from the distended veins. Syn., angioma cavernosum; 
angioma circumscriptum, a., fissural, Virchow's 
name for a nevus which he judged, from its location, 
corresponding to that of a fetal fissure, might be due 
to a disposition to form anomalies on the part of the 
region adjacent to the fissures, a., plexlform, one 
consisting of enlarged, tortuous capillaries forming a 
patch varying in color from claret to steel-blue; if 
there is great increase of blood-vessels, the growth 
has the character of a tumor, and large examples 
of this variety are lobular in structure, a. serpi- 
ginosum, infective angioma; nevus, lupus, a., 
telangiectatic, an angioma composed of dilated 
blood-vessels, a., tuberose, a., tuberous, one 
occurring in subcutaneous tissue and presenting the 
appearance of a lipoma as it gradually replaces the 
adipose tissue, or it may be accompanied by a true 
fatty growth. 

angiomalacia (an-je-o-mal-a' -she-ah) [angio-; p.a\a- 
ula, a softening]. Softening of the blood-vessels. 

angiomatosis (an-je-o-mat-o'-sis). A condition 
favoring the production of angiomata. 

angiometer (an-je-om'-et-er). See sphygmograph. 

angiomyces (an-je-o-mi'-sez) [angio-; fivK-qs, a 
fungus; an excrescence]. A fungoid or spongy dila- 
tion of the capillaries. 

angiomyocardiac (an-je-o-mi-o-kar'-de-ak) [angio-; 
nvs, muscle; KapSia, the heart]. Pertaining to the 
blood-vessels and the muscle of the heart. 

angiomyoma (an-je-o-mi-o'-mah) [angio-; /xOs, a 
muscle; ojua, a tumor: pi., angiomyomata]. A vascu- 
lar and erectile muscular tumor. 

angiomyopathy (an-je-o-mi-op'-a-the) [angio-; juDs, 
muscle; iraBos, disease]. Any affection of the vessels 
involving the musculature. 

angiomyosarcoma (an-je-o-mi-o-sar-ko'-mah). A 
tumor containing elements of angioma, myoma, and 

angioneoplasma (an-je-o-ne-o-plaz'-mah) [angio-; 
veos, new; ir\aa-p.a, moulded substance; pi., angioneo- 
plasmata]. A neoplasm made up of blood-vessels or 

angioneurectomy (an-je-o-nu-rek' '-to-me) [angio-; 
veupov, nerve; tKTop.i), excision]. Resection of all 
the cord-elements of the prostate except the vas, 
with its artery and vein. 

angioneuredema (an-je-o-nu-red-e'-mah). Same as 

angioneuroedema (an-je-o-nu-ro-e-de'-mah). See 
angioneurotic edema. 

angioneurosis (an-je-o-nu-ro'-sis) [angio-; neurosis]. 
A neurosis of the blood-vessels; a disturbance of the 




vasomotor system, either of the nature of a spasm of 
the blood-vessels (angiospasm) or of paralysis (angio- 
paralysis) . 

angioneurotic (an-je-o-nu-rot'-ik) [see angioneuro- 
sis]. Pertaining to angioneurosis. a. edema, an 
acute circumscribed swelling of the subcutaneous or 
submucous tissues, probably due to vasomotor 
lesion. The disease often runs in families. It is at 
times periodic, and is associated with colic and 
gastric disturbances. 

angioneurotomy (an-je-o-nu-rof -o-rtie) [angio-; vev- 
pov, nerve; ropy, a cutting]. Division of the 
nerves and vessels of a part. 

angionoma (an-je-on-o'-mah) [angio-; vopi], ulcer]. 
Ulceration of a vessel. 

angionosis (an-je-o-no'-sis) [angio-; vooos, a 
disease]. See angiopathy. 

angiopancreatitis (an-je-o-pan-kre-at-i'-tis). In- 
flammation of the vascular tissue of the pancreas. 

angioparalysis (an-je-o-par-al'-is-is) [angio-; irapa- 
XiKTis, paralysis]. Vasomotor paralysis. 

angioparalytic (an-je-o-par-al-it'-ik) [see angio- 
paralysis]. Relating to or characterized by angio- 

angioparesis (an-je-o-par'-es-is) [angio-; irapeois, 
paresis]. Partial paralysis of the vasomotor appar- 

angiopathy (an-je-op'-a-the) [angio-; irados, disease]. 
Any disease of the vascular system. 

angiophorous (an-je-of'-or-us) [angio-; <f>epelv, to 
bear]. Applied to tissue which accompanies and 
supports vessels. 

angioplania (an-je-o-pla'-ne-ah) [angio-; irXavri, a 
wandering]. Irregularity or abnormality in the 
course of a vessel. 

angioplasty (an'-je-o-plas-te) [angio-; ir\6.ootiv, to 
form]. Plastic surgery upon blood-vessels. 

angioplerosis (an-je-o-pler-o'-sis) [angio-; wXripwois, 
a filling-up]. v Engorgement of the vessels. 

angiopressure (an-je-o-presh'-ur) . The production 
of hemostasis by means of angiotribe and forceps 
without ligation. 

angiorhigosis (an-je-o-ri-go'-sis) [angio-; piyos, 
cold]. Rigidity of the vessels. 

angiorrhagia, or angeiorrhagia (an-je-or-a'-je-ah) 
[angio-; prjyvwai, to break]. Bleeding from a 

angiorrhaphy (an-je-or'-af-e) [angio-; pa<pv, suture]. 
Suture of a vessel or vessels, a., arteriovenous, the 
suturing of an artery to a vein, so as to turn the 
arterial blood into the vein. 

angiorrhea (an-je-or-e'-ah) [angio-; peiv, to flow]. 
An oozing of blood. 

angiorrhexis (an-je-or-eks'-is) [angio-; p^is. a 
bursting]. Rupture of a blood-vessel. 

angiosarcoma (an-je-o-sar-ko'-mah) [angio-; <rap£, 
flesh; 6pa, a tumor]. A vascular sarcoma. 

angiosclerosis (an-je-o-skle-ro'-sis) [angio-; oi<\rjp6s, 
hard]. The induration and thickening of the walls 
of the blood-vessels. 

angioscope (an'-je-o-skop) [angio-; anoirelv, to 
inspect]. An instrument for examining the capillary 

angiosialitis (an-je-o-si-al-i'-tis) [angio-; oLaKov, 
saliva; ins, inflammation]. Inflammation of the 
duct of a salivary gland. 

angiosis (an-je-o'-sis) [6.yyeTov, a vessel]. Any 
disease of blood-vessels or of lymphatics. 

angiospasm (an'-je-o-spazm) [angio-; o-n-a.o-p.6s, a 
spasm]. A vasomotor spasm. 

angiospastic (an-je-o-spas'-tik) [see angiospasm]. 
Characterized by or of the nature of angiospasm. 

angiosperm (an'-je-o-sperm) [angio-; oireppa, seed]. 
In biology, a plant the seeds of which are produced 
within a closed vessel. 

angiostegnosis (an-je-o-steg-no'-sis) [angio-; arky- 
vuo-is, stoppage]. Stoppage or constriction of a 

angiostenosis (an-je-o-sten-o'-sis) [angio-; arkvaois, 
a narrowing]. Narrowing of a vessel. 

angiosteogenic, angiosteogenous (an-je-o-ste-oj'- 
en-ik, -us) [angio-; barkov, a bone; yevvav, to pro- 
duce]. Relating to, producing, or produced by 
calcification of the vessels. 

angiostrophe, angiostrophy (an-je-os'-tro-fe) [angio-; 
o-Tpo<j>o, a twist]. Torsion of a vessel for the arrest 
of hemorrhage. 

angiosymphysis (an-je-o-sim'-fiz-is) [angio-; ovp- 
<pvois, a growing together]. The growing together of 

angiosynizesis (an-je-o-sin-e-ze'-sis) [angio-; avpi- 
Xavtiv, to collapse]. The collapse of the walls of a 
vessel and subsequent growing together. 

angiotasis (an-je-ot'-as-is) [angio-; rao-is, tension]. 
The tension of the vessels. 

angiotatic (an-je-ot-al'-ik) [angio-; roots, tension]. 
Relating to angiotasis. 

angiotelectasia, angiotelectasis (an-je-o-tel-ek-ta'- 
ze-ah, an-je-o-tel-ek'-ta-sis). See telangiectasis. 

angiotenic (an-je-o-ten'-ik) [angio-; rdvtiv, to 
stretch]. Due to or marked by distention of the 

angioteria (an-je-o-te'-re-ah) [angio-; rkpas, a 
wonder]. An abnormal development of the vascular 

angio thlipsis (an-je-o-thlip'-sis) [angio-; flXi/Sew, to 
rub; to gall]. The abrasion of a vessel. 

angiotitis (an-je-o-ti'-tis) [angio-; otitis]. Inflam- 
mation of the blood-vessels of the ear. 

angiotome (an'-je-o-tom) [angio-; rop-q, a cutting] 
The vascular tissue of an embryonic metamere. 

angiotomy (an-je-ot'-o-me) [see angiotome]. i. In- 
cision into a vessel. 2. That branch of anatomy 
relating to the vascular system. 

angiotribe (an'-je-o-trib) [angio-; rplfieiv, to grind 
or bruise]. A clamp furnished with powerful jaws 
used by Turner to occlude arteries in vaginal hyster- 

angiotripsy (an-je-o-trip'-se) [see angiotribe]. Vas- 
cular torsion and compression by means of the 

angitis (an-ji'-tis). See angiitis. 

angle, angulus (ang'-gl, ang'-gu-lus) [angulus, an 
angle]. 1. A corner. 2. The degree of divergence 
of two lines or planes that meet each other; the space 
between two such lines, a. of aberration, see a. of 
deviation, a., acromial, that formed between the 
head of the humerus and the clavicle, a., alpha, in 
optics, that formed by the intersection of the visual 
line and optic axis, a., alveolar, that formed between 
a line passing through a spot beneath the nasal spine 
and the most prominent point of the lower edge of 
the alveolar process of the superior maxilla and the 
cephalic horizontal line. a. of aperture, in optics, 
that included between two lines joining the opposite 
points of the periphery of a lens and the focus, a., 
biorbital, in optics, that formed by the intersection 
of the axes of the orbits, a., cardio-hepatic, the 
angle formed by the junction of the upper limit of 
hepatic dullness with the right lateral line of cardiac 
dullness, a., carrying, angle between the longi- 
tudinal axis of the forearm and that of the arm, when 
the forearm is extended, a., costal, the angle formed 
by the meeting of ribs at the ensiform cartilage. 
a., critical, that made by a beam of light passing 
from a rarer to a denser medium, with the perpen- 
dicular, without being entirely reflected, a. of 
deviation. 1. In magnetism, the angle traversed by 
the needle when disturbed by some magnetic force. 
2. In optics, that formed by a refracted ray and the 
prolongation of the incident ray. a.s, distal, the 
angles formed by the union of the other surfaces of 
the tooth crown with the distal surface, a. of ele- 
vation, in optics, that made by the visual plane 
with its primary position when moved upward or 
downward, a., epigastric, same as a., costal, a., 
great, of the eye, the inner angle of the eye. a. of 
incidence, in optics, the angle at which a ray of light 
strikes a denser medium and undergoes reflection or 
refraction, a.s, incisal, in dentistry, the angles of 
the various lateral surfaces of the tooth crowns at 
their junction with the incisal surface, a. of inclina- 
tion (of pelvic canal), in obstetrics, that formed by 
the anterior wall of the pelvis with the conjugate 
diameter, a. of inclination (of pelvis), in obstetrics, 
that formed by the pelvis with the general line of 
the trunk, or that formed by the plane of the inferior 
strait with the horizon, a. of jaw, the junction of 
the lower border of the ramus of the mandible with 
its posterior border, a.s, labial. 1. See a.s of the 
lips. 2. In dentistry, the angles of the labial surface 
of the tooth crown which join the other surfaces. 
a., limiting, see a., critical, a. of the lips, that formed 
by the union of the lips at each extremity of the 
mouth, a., Louis', that between the manubrium 
and gladiolus of the sternum, a., Ludwig's, see a., 
Louis', a., mesial, the angles formed at the junction 
of the mesial surfaces of a tooth crown with the 
other surfaces, a., meter-, in optics, the degree of 
convergence of the eyes when centered on an object 




one meter distant from each, a., nasal (of the eye), 
the inner angle of the eye. a., optic, that included 
between lines joining the extremities of an object 
and the nodal point. The smallest is about 30 
seconds, a., pelvivertebral, same as a. of inclination 
(of pelvis), a. of polarization, in optics, the angle of 
reflection at which light is most completely polarized. 
a., principal, the angle formed by that side of a 
prism receiving the incident ray with the side from 
which the refracted ray escapes, a. of pubes, that 
formed by the junction of the pubic bones at the 
symphysis, a. of reflection, in optics, that which a 
reflected ray of light makes with a line drawn per- 
pendicular to the point of incidence, a. of refrac- 
tion, in optics, that which exists between a refracted 
ray of light and a line drawn perpendicular to the 
point of incidence, a., Rolandic, the acute angle 
formed by the fissure of Rolando with the superior 
border of the cerebral hemisphere, a., sacroverte- 
bral, that which the sacrum forms with the last 
lumbar vertebra, a., sigma, one between the 
radius fixus and a line from the hormion to the 
staphylion. a., sternoclavicular, that existing be- 
tween the clavicle and the sternum, a., subcostal, 
see a., costal, a., subpubic, that formed at the 
pubic arch. a. of supination of the hand, a. of 
supination of the radius, the extent to which the 
hand is_ capable of being supinated; about 180 . 
a., Sylvian, the angle formed by the posterior limb 
of the Sylvian fissure with a line perpendicular to 
the superior border of the hemisphere, a., temporal 
(of the eye), the outer canthus of the eye. a., visual, 
see a., optic, a., xiphoid, that formed by the sides 
of the xiphoid notch. 

Anglesey leg (an'-gl-se) [Marquis of Anglesey, 
1768-1854]. An artificial limb formed from a solid 
piece of wood hollowed out to receive the stump and 
provided with a steel joint at the knee. The ankle- 
joint was made of wood, to which motion was com- 
municated by strong catgut strings posteriorly and 
a spiral spring anteriorly. 

anglicus sudor {ang'-lik-us su'-dor) [L.]. English 
sweating fever. A contagious malignant fever, also 
known as ephemera maligna, characterized by black 
or dark-colored sweat. 

angophrasia (an-go-fra'-ze-ah) [ayx^v, to choke; 
4>pa<ns, utterance].' A speech-defect consisting of a 
choking, drawling utterance, occurring in paralytic 

angor (an'-gor) [angor, a strangling]. Syn., angina. 
a. animi, a sense of imminent dissolution, a. pec- 
toris, angina pectoris. 

angostura (an-gos-tu'-rah) [Sp., Angostura, a S. A. 
town]. Cusparia bark. The bark of Valipea cus- 
paria. It is a stimulant tonic and febrifuge, used 
in malignant bilious fever, intermittent fever, and 
dysentery. In large doses it is emetic. Dose of 
fluidextract 10-30 min. (0.6-2.0 Cc); of the bark 
10-40 gr. (0.6-2.5 Gm.); of the infusion (infusum 
/cusparia, B. P.) 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc). 
Angstroem's unit (awng'-strem) [Anders Jonas 
Angstroem, Swedish physicist, 1814-1874]- A unit 
<of length equal to one one-hundred-millionth of a 
.centimeter or one ten-thousandth of a micron: used 
for measuring wave lengths. 

Anguillula (an-gwil'-u-lah) [dim. of anguilla, an 
eel: pi., anguillulce]. A genus of very small nematode 
worms. A. aceti, the common vinegar eel. A. 
intestinalis et stercoralis, Strongyloides intestinalis, 
a worm found in the intestines and feces of persons 
in tropical and subtropical countries. 

angular (an'-gu-lar) [angulus, an angle]. Pertain- 
ing to an angle, a. artery, the terminal branch of 
the facial artery, a. gyrus, a. convolution, a con- 
volution of the brain; see convolution, a. movement, 
the movement between two bones that may take 
place forward and backward or inward and outward. 
a. processes, the external and internal extremities of 
the orbital arch of the frontal bone. 

angulation (an-gu-la'-shun). The formation of 
angular loops in the intestine. 

angulus (an'-gu-lus) [L.]. See angle. 

angustura. See angostura. 

anhalonine (an-hal-o'-nen) [Anhalonium, a genus 
of cacti], C12H15NO3. A poisonous alkaloid from 
Anhalonium lewinii. It forms salts with the ordinary 
acids, a. hydrochloride, C12H15NO3HCI, is a cardiac 
and respiratory stimulant and is used as is strychnine 
in angina pectoris, asthma, and pneumothorax. 

anhaphia (an-ha'-fe-ah). See anaphia. 

anhedonia (an-hed-o' -ne-ah) . Complete loss of the 
sensation of pleasure. 

anhelation (an-hel-a'-shun) [anhelare, to pant]. 
Shortness of breath; dyspnea. 

anhelitus (an-heV -it-us) [L.]. 1. Respiration. 
2. Difficult respiration; asthma. 

anhelose, anhelous (an'-hel-os, -us). Panting, out 
of breath. 

anhematosis {an-hem-at-o'-sis) [t\v, priv.; at/zaroew, 
to make bloody]. Defective formation of the blood. 

anhepatogenic (an-hep-at-o-jen'-ik) [i.v, priv.; 
rJTrap, liver; yewav, to produce]. Not originating in 
or produced by the liver. 

anhidrosis (an-hid-ro'-sis) [&v, priv.; lopus, sweat]. 
Partial or complete absence of sweat secretion. 

anhidrotic (an-hid-rot'-ik) [see anhidrosis], 1. 
Tending to check sweating. 2. An agent that 
checks sweating. 

anhistic, anhistous (an-his'-tik, an-his'-lus) [dv.priv.; 
lottos, aweb]. Structureless; not organized ;plasmic. 

anhydration (an-hi-dra'-shun) [&v, priv.; vScop, 
water]. 1. See dehydration. 2. The state or condition 
of not being hydrated. 

anhydremia (an-hi-dre'-me-ah) [t\v, priv.; Uwp, 
water; alua, blood]. The opposite of hydremia. 
A diminution of the watery constituents of the blood. 

anhydric (an-hi'-drik). See anhydrous. 

anhydride (an-hi'-drid) [t\v, priv.; vdcop, water]. 
A chemical compound, derived from an acid by the 
withdrawal of a molecule of water; or an oxide, 
which on combination with water forms an acid. 
Carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide are examples. 

anhydrite (an-hi'-drit). Anhydrous calcium sul- 

anhydromyelia (an-hi-dro-mi-e' -le-ah) [hv, priv.; 
vdcop, water; p.veK6i>, marrow]. A deficiency of the 
fluid thac normally fills the spinal cavity. 

anhydrous (an-hi'-drus) [see anhydride]. In 
chemistry, a term used to denote the absence of 
water, especially of water of crystallization. 

anhypnia (an-hip' '-ne-ah) [t\v, priv.; virvos, sleep 1 ,. 
Sleeplessness, insomnia. 

anhypnosis (an-hip-no'-sis) [d.v, priv.; virvos, sleep]. 

anhysteria ian-his-te' -re-ah) [kv, priv.; varepa, the 
uterus]. Absence of the uterus. 

anianthinopsy (an-e-an-thin-op'-se) [&v, priv.; 
lavdivos, violet-colored; oxj/ts, sight]. An inability 
to recognize violet tints. 

anideus (an-id'-e-us) [av, priv.; eiSos, form]. The 
lowest form of omphalosite, in which the parasitic 
fetus is reduced to a shapeless mass of flesh covered 
with skin. 

anidous (an-i'-dus) [c\v, priy.; elSos, form]. Form- 
less, from general arrest of development; used of fetal 

anidros, anidrus (an-id'-ros, -rus). Marked by the 
absence of perspiration. 

anidrosis (an-id-ro'-sis). See anhidrosis. 

anidrotic (an-id-rot'-ik). See anhidrotic. 

anile (an'-il) [anus, an old woman]. Imbecile; 
like an old woman. 

anilide anilid, (an'-il-id) [Ar., al, the; nil, dark 
blue]. A compound formed by the action of acid 
chloride or acid anhydride upon aniline. The 
anilides are very stable derivatives. 

anilidmetarsenite {an-il-id-met-ar' -sen-it) , CeHs- 
NO2ASC6H5NHASO2. A white, odorless powder 
containing 37-69% of arsenic, about half as much as 
arsenic trioxide. It dissolves in water up to 20 %, 
and is used by subcutaneous injection in skin di- 
seases. Dose I-3 gr. (0.05-0.2 Gm.) of 20 % solution 
a day. Syn., atoxyl. 

anilin, aniline {an'-il-in) [see anilide], C6H7N. 
Amidobenzene ; phenylamine; formed in the dry distil- 
lation of bituminous coal, bones, indigo, isatin, and 
other nitrogenous substances. It is made by re- 
ducing nitrobenzene. It is a colorless liquid with a 
faint, peculiar odor, boiling at 183 ; its sp. gr. at o° 
is 1.036. When perfectly pure, it solidifies on cooling, 
and melts at —8°. It is slightly soluble in water, 
but dissolves readily in alcohol and ether. Com- 
bined with chlorine, the chlorates, and hypochlorites, 
it yields the various aniline dyes known by the names 
of a. purple, a. green, a. black, a. blue, etc. It is 
used in chorea and epilepsy in § gr. (0.03 Gm.) 
doses. Syn., phenylamine; crystallin; cyanol. 

anilinophile (an-il-in'-o-fil) [anilin; 4>i\eZi>, to love]. 
1. Readily stained with anilin. 2. A tissue or ele- 
ment staining readily with anilin. 




anilipyrine (an-il-i-pi'-rin). A feebly toxic white 
powder, consisting of acetanilide, i part; antipyrine, 
2 parts, melted together. It is more soluble in water 
than either of its constituents. Dose, 8-16 gr. 

anilism (an'-il-izm) [anilin]. An acute or chronic 
disease produced in workmen in aniline factories by 
the poisonous fumes. The symptoms are debility, 
vertigo, gastrointestinal disturbance, and cyanosis. 

anility (an-il'-it-e) [anilis, an old woman]. The 
state of being imbecile or childish. 

anima (an'-im-ah) [L.; spirit]. I. The soul; the 
vital principle. 2. Formerly, the active principle 
of a drug or medicine. 3. A current of air; the 
breath; the mind; consciousness. In the plural, 
anima, the swimming-bladders of herring, used as a 
diuretic, a. aloes, refined aloes, a. brutalis, the 
blood, animae deliquium, syncope, animae gravi- 
tas, an offensive breath, a. hepatis, iron sulphate, 
from its supposed efficacy in liver disease, animae 
pathemata, mental affections, a. stahliana, a., 
Stahl's, the vital principle of plants or animals. 

animal (an'-i-mal) [anima, the spirit, breath, or 
life]. An organism capable of ingesting and digesting 
food. No sharp line of distinction exists between the 
lowest animals and certain vegetables. The higher 
animals are distinguished by the power of locomotion 
and the possession of a nervous system, a., char- 
coal, bone-black, ivory-black, etc., is the product of 
the calcining of bones in closed vessels, a. chemistry, 
that concerned with the composition of animal 
bodies, a. electricity, electricity generated in the 
body, a.-gum, C12H20O10+2H2O. A substance pre- 
pared from mucin by Landwehr, and so named on 
account of its resemblance to the gum of commerce. 
It occurs in many tissues of the body, is soluble in 
water, and in alkaline solution readily dissolves cupric 
oxide, the solution not being reduced on boiling. 
It yields no coloration with iodine, and is very 
feebly dextrorotatory, a. heat, the normal tempera- 
ture of the body in man — about 98. 5 F. (37 C). 
a. magnetism, mesmerism; hypnotism, a. starch, 
see glycogen, a. tissue, the textures of the body. 

animalcule (an-im-al'-kul) [animalculum, a minute 
animal]. An animal organism so small as to require 
the microscope for its examination. 

animality (an-im-al'-it-e). The state of having an 
animal nature. 

animalization (an-im-al-iz-a'-shun) [animalis, ani- 
mate]. The process of assimilating food to the 
tissues ofthe body. 

animation (an-im-a'-shun) [animare, to have life 
or existence]. To be possessed of life. Formerly 
used to denote the effect of the vital principle by 
which the fetus acquires the power of continuing its 
existence, a., suspended, a condition marked by 
interrupted respiration and consciousness; caused 
by strangulation, the inhalation of carbon dioxide or 
other gases, etc. 

anime (an'-im-e) [Fr., anime, origin doubtful]. 
A name of various resins, especially that of Hymencea 
courbaril, a tree of tropical America; sometimes used 
in plaster, etc. 

animism {an'-im-izm) [anima, soul]. Stahl's 
theory of life and disease, namely, that the soul is 
the source of both normal and pathological activities. 

aniodol (an-i'-o-dol). A glycerol solution of trioxyr 
methylene, useful as an antiseptic in 1 % solution. 

anion (an'-i-on) [ava, up; M>v, going]. In elec- 
trolysis, an electronegative element or ion. 

aniridia (an-i-rid'-e-ah) [&v, priv.; Ipis, the rain- 
bow]. Absence or defect of the iris. 

aniridism, aniridismus (an-ir'-id-izm, -iz'-mus). 
See aniridia. 

anisalol (an-is'-al-ol), CeH^OCHOCO^CsHs. The 
phenyl ester of anisic acid, forming colorless crystals. 
It is antirheumatic and analgesic. Dose 8-15 gr. 
(0.52-1.0 Gm.). 

anisalyl (an-is'-al-il) [anise; alcohol], C8H9O. 
The univalent radical of anisic alcohol, a. hydrate, 
anisic alcohol. 

anisamide (an-is'-am-id), C8H9NO2. The amide of 
anisic acid; anisyl amide. 

anisate (an'-is-at) [anisum, anise]. A salt of anisic 

anisated (an'-is-a-ted) [anisum, anise]. Containing 

anischuria (an-is-kii'-re-ah) [&i>, priv.; laxovpLa, 
retention of urine]. Enuresis or incontinence of 

anise {an' -is). See anisum. 

aniseed (an'-is-ed). Anise-seed. The seed of 
Pimpinella anisum. See anisum. 

anisette (an'-is-et) [anisum, anise]. A liqueur 
prepared by the distillation of the seeds of star anise, 
fennel, and coriander with water and alcohol and the 
addition of sugar. 

anisic acid. See acid, anisic. 

anisidin (an-is'-id-in), N(C7HtO)H2. A base 
obtained from nitranisol by action of ammonium 
sulphide in alcoholic solution; with acids it forms 
crystalline compounds. Syn., Methylphenidin; Meth- 
ylamidophenol. a. citrate, an analgesic similar to 
phenetidin citrate. 

anisine (an'-is-in) [anisum, anise], C22H24N2O3. 
A crystalline alkaloid, a derivative of anise. 

aniso- (an'-is-o) [avuros, unequal]. In combina- 
tion, unequal, unsymmetrical. 

anisochromatic {an-is-o-kro-mat'-ik) [aniso-; xpwM«» 
color]. Not having the same color throughout; said 
of solutions containing two pigments used in testing 
for color-blindness. 

anisocoria (an-is-o-ko'-re-ah) [aniso-; Koprj, pupil]. 
Inequality of the diameter of the pupils. 

anisocytosis (an-i-so-si-to'-sis) [aniso-; kvtos, cell]. 
Abnormal inequality in the size of the red blood- 

anisodactylus (an-is-o-dak'-til-us) [aniso-; SclktvXos, 
a finger]. With unequal digits. 

anisodont {an-i'-so-dont) [aniso-; 65ovs, tooth]. 
Having irregular teeth of unequal length. 

anisognathous (an-is-og'-na-thus) [aniso-; yvoBos, 
jaw]. Having the two jaws unlike as to the molar 

anisol (an'-is-ol) [see anisine], C7H8O. Methyl- 
phenyl ether, produced by heating phenol with 
potassium and methyl iodide or potassium methyl 
sulphate in alcoholic solution. It is an ethereal- 
smelling liquid, boiling at 152 ; its sp. gr. at 15 is 

anisomelia (an-is-o-me'-le-ah) [aniso-; p.e\os, limb]. 
An inequality between corresponding limbs. 

anisomelous (an-is-om'-el-us) [aniso-; p.e\os, a 
limb]. Having limbs of unequal length. 

anisomeria (an-is-o-me'-re-ah) [aniso-; nepos, 
part]. The condition of having unequal organs or 
parts in successive series. 

anisometrope (an-is'-o-me-trdp). A person with 
dissimilar refractive power of the two eyes. 

anisometropia (an-is-o-met-ro'-pe-ah) [aniso-; ukr- 
pov, a measure; &\p, [the eye]. A difference in the 
refraction of the two eyes. 

anisometropic (an-is-o-met-rop'-ik) [see aniso- 
metropia]. Affected with anisometropia. 

anisonormocytosis {an-is-o-nor-mo-si-to'-sis) 

[aniso; norma a rule; kvtos, cell]. The presence in 
the blood of the normal number of leukocytes, but 
with an abnormal proportion of the various kinds of 
leukocytes among themselves. 

anisopia {an-is-o' -pe-ah) [aniso-; &\(/, eye]. In- 
equality of visual power in the two eyes. 

anisosthenic (an-is-o-sthen'-ik) [aniso-; adevds, 
strength]. Not of equal power; used of pairs of 

anisotachys (an-is-ot'-a-kis) [aniso-; raxis, quick]. 
Applied to an accelerated pulse of varying rapidity. 

anisotropal, anisotropic, anisotropous (an-is-o- 
trop'-al, an-is-o-trop'-ik, an-is-ot' -ro-pus) [aniso-; 
t pottos, turning]. Not possessing the same light- 
refracting properties in all directions; a term applied 
to doubly refracting bodies. In biology, varying in 
irritability in different parts or organs. 

anisotrophy (an-is-ot'-ro-fe) [see anisotropal]. The 
quality of being doubly refractive or unequally 
refractive in different directions ; or of being unequally 
responsive to external influences. 

anisum (an'-is-um) [L.]. Anise. The fruit of 
Pimpinella anisum. Its properties are due to a 
volatile oil. It is slightly stimulant to the heart 
action. It liquefies bronchial secretions, and is 
therefore a favorite ingredient in cough-mixtures. 
Dose 10-20 gr. (0.65-1.3 Gm.). anisi, aqua (U. S. 
P.), oil of anise, 1; water, 500 parts. Dose indefinite. 
anisi, essentia (B. P.). Dose 10-20 min. (0.6-1.2 
Cc). anisi, oleum (U. S. P.), an ingredient in 
tinctura opii camphorata. Dose 1-5 min. (0.06-0.3 
Gm.). anisi, spiritus (U. S. P.), a 10 % solution 
of the oil in alcohol. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). 

anisuria (an-is-il'-re-ah) [aniso-; urine]. A con- 
dition characterized by alternate polyuria and 




anisyl (an'-is-il) [anisum], CsthCte. A hypothetic 
radical supposed to be found in anise and its deriva- 

anitin (an'-it-in). A brownish powder obtained 
from ichthyol. In 33 % aqueous solution it com- 
bines with phenols, etc., to form anitols. Syn., 
ichthyosulphonic acid. 

anitol (an'-it-ol). Any one of the soluble com- 
pounds formed by anitin with phenols, cresols, etc.; 
they possess germicidal properties. 

anitrogenous (ah-ni-troj'-en-us) [&, priv.; nitrogen]. 

ankle (ang'-kl) [ME., ancle]. The joint between 
the leg and the foot. It is a ginglymus joint, with four 
ligaments, the anterior, posterior, internal, and ex- 
ternal, a.-bone, the astragalus, a.-clonus, the suc- 
cession of a number of rhythmic muscular contractions 
in the calf of the leg when the foot is suddenly flexed 
by pressure upon the sole. It is a symptom of 
various diseases of the spinal cord, especially those 
involving the lateral pyramidal tracts, a.-jerk, see 
a.-clonus. a.-joint, see ankle, a. reflex, see a.- 
clonus. a., tailors', a ganglion or synovial sac over 
the external malleolus in tailors, due to their con- 
strained posture when at work. a. valgus, a debili- 
tated condition of the ankle-joint due to laxity of the 
internal lateral ligament, permitting the foot to act 
as in talipes valgus. 

ankola (an-ko'-lah) [Hind.]. The bitter, emetic 
root-bark of Alangium lamarkii, a tree of tropical 
Asia and Africa. It is used in India in skin diseases 
and leprosy. 

ankyla, ankyle (ang'-kil-ah, -e) [aynvXr], anything 
bent]. 1. An angular part, particularly the elbow. 
2. Ankylosis of a joint with flexion. 3. Abnormal 
adhesion of parts. 

ankylenteron (ang-kil-en'-ter-on) [Ay/ciAri, a coil; 
evrepov, an intestine]. An adhesion between intes- 
tinal coils. 

ankyloblepharon (ang-kil-o-blef'-ar-on) [ankyle; 
f}\e<papop, the eyelid]. The adhesion of the ciliary 
edges of the eyelids. 

ankylocheilia, ankylochilia (ang-kil-o-ki'-le-ah) [an- 
kyle; xeiXos, lip]. Adhesion of the lips. 

ankylocolpos (ang-kil-o-kol'-pos) [ankyle; ko\itos, 
the vagina]. Atresia of the vagina or vulva. 

ankylodactylia {ang-kil-o-dak-tiV -e-ah) [ankyle; 
doKTv\os, finger]. Adhesion of fingers or toes to one 

ankylodeire, ankylodere, ankyloderis (ang-kil-o- 
di'-re, -de'-re, ang-kil-od' -er-is) [ankyle; Seiprj, the 
neck]. Wry-neck; torticollis. 

ankylodontia (ang-kil-o-don'-she-ah) [ankyle; 686vs, 
a tooth]. Irregularity in the position of the teeth. 

ankyloglossia, ankyloglossum {ang-kil-o-glos'-e-ah, 
ang-kil-o-glos' -um) [ankyle; yX&craa, the tongue]. 

ankylomele (ang-kil-om'-el-e) [ankyle; /xeXos, a 
limb]. 1. The abnormal growing together of limbs 
(as of the fingers or toes). 2. [n^v, a probe] A 
curved probe. 

ankylomerism (ang-kil-om'-er-izm) [ankyle; nepos, a 
part]. Abnormal adherence of parts to each other. 

ankylopodia (ang-kil-o-po'-de-ah) [ankyle; irovs, a 
foot.]. Ankylosis of the ankle-joint. 

ankyloproctia [ang-kil-o-prok -te-ah) [ankyle; ttpwk- 
t6s, the anus]. Atresia of the anus. 

ankylorrhinia iang-kil-o-rin' -e-ah) [ankyle; pis, the 
nose]. Marked adhesion between the walls of a 

ankylose (ang'-kil-oz) [ankyle]. To be, or to 
become, consolidated or firmly united. 

ankylosed (ang'-kil-ozd). Fixed by ankylosis. 

ankylosis (ang-kil-o' -sis) [see ankylose]. Union 
of the bones forming an articulation, resulting in a 
stiff joint, a., capsular, that due to cicatricial shrink- 
ing of the joint-capsule, a., cartilaginous, a form 
observed as a sequel of subacute coxitis in the young, 
marked with great muscle tension and absence of 
suppuration; the cartilages may remain intact for a 
long time, although the shrunken synovial membrane 
has ceased to secrete, a., central, that due to causes 
present within the joint, a., extracapsular, that due 
to rigidity of the parts external to the joint, a., false, 
a., spurious, that due to the rigidity of surrounding 
parts, a., generalized, ankylosis affecting many 
joints, or a tendency toward it. a., intracapsular, 
that due to rigidity of the structures within a joint. 
a., ligamentous, when the medium is fibrous, a., 
muscular, that due to muscular contraction, a., true, 

a., bony, that in which the connecting material is 

Ankylostoma, Ankylostomum (ang-kil-os'-to-mah, 
-mum) [dX/c6Xos, crooked; <n-6jua, a mouth]. A genus 
of nematode worms, one species of which, A. duode- 
nale (hook-worm), is sometimes found in the human 
intestine. It produces a condition analogous to 
pernicious anemia. See uncinariasis. 

ankylostomiasis (ang-kil-os-to-mi'-as-is) [see Ankyl- 
ostoma]. The morbid condition produced by the 
presence of the parasite Ankylostoma duodenale in the 
human intestine. It is especially prevalent among 
brickmakers and other workmen in Europe. Syn., 
dochmiasis; brickmakers' anemia; tunnel anemia; 
miners' cachexia; Egyptian chlorosis; uncinariasis; 
hookworm _ disease. 

ankylotia {ang-kil-o' -she-ah) [ankyle; ofs, ear]. 
Union of the walls of the meatus auditorius. 

ankylotome (ang-kil' -o-tom) [ankyle; to\u\, a cut]. 

1. A knife for operating on tongue-tie. 2. Any 
curved knife. 

ankylotomy (ang-kil-ot'-o-me) [ankyle; row, cut]. 
A cutting operation for the relief of tongue-tie. 

ankylourethria (ang-kil-o-u-re'-thre-ah). See an- 

ankylurethra, ankylurethria (ang-kil-u-re'-thrah, 
-re'-thre-ah) [ankyle; urethra]. Urethral stricture 
or atresia. 

ankyrism (ang'-kir-izm) [iyKvpiana, a hooking]. 
Articulation or suture by one bone hooking upon 

ankyroid (ang'-kir-oid) [ayKvpa, a hook]. Hook- 
shaped, a. cavity, in the brain, the posterior or 
descending cornu of the lateral ventricle, a. process, 
the coracoid process. 

anlage (ahn-lahg-eh) [German]. PL anlagen or 
anlages. 1. The primitive undifferentiated mass of 
cells or rudiment of a part in a developing embryo. 

2. The place in the embryo where differentiation 
first appears. 

Annandale's operation (an'-an-dal) [Thomas Ann- 
andale, Scotch surgeon, 1838-1907]. 1. For dislocated 
cartilages; incision into the knee-joint and stitching 
of the dislocated cartilages into their proper position. 
2. For genu valgum; partial excision of both condyles 
of the femur. 3. For nasopharyngeal polypus; divi- 
sion of the alveolar margin and palatal portions of 
the upper jaw along their center, from before back- 
ward, and perforation of the bony septum of the 
nose, thus permitting separation of the two portions 
of the bone and exposure of the polypus. 4. For 
varicocele; a modification of Lee's operation, the veins 
only being excised, the scrotum being left intact. 
5. For webbed-fingers; the longitudinal incisions are 
made along the sides of each finger. A.'s triangle, 
the space bounded in front by the patella, above by 
the articular surface of the femur, and below by the 
margin of the tibia. 

annatto (an-at'-o). See annotto. 

anneal (an-eV) [Saxon, annelan, to heat]. To heat 
and cool slowly, as gold or other metals. 

annectant (an-ek'-tant) [ad, to; nectere, to bind]. 
Linking or binding together, a. convolutions, see 

annelism (an'-el-izm) [anellus, dim. of annulus, a 
ring]. Possessing a ringed structure. 

annexa (an-neks'-ah). See adnexa. 

annexopexy (an-neks'-o-peks-e). See adnexopexy. 

annidalin (an-id'-al-in). Dithymoltriiodide. A 
substitute for iodoform and aristol, q. v. 

annotto (an-ot'-o) [native American]. A coloring- 
matter obtained from the pellicles of the seeds of 
Bixa orellana. It is used to color plasters and 
butter. Syn., annatto; arnotto. 

annuens (an'-u-enz) [annuere, to nod]. The rectus 
capitis anticus minor muscle. 

annular (an'-u-lar) [annulus, a ring]. Ring-like. 
a. cartilage, the cricoid cartilage, a. finger, the ring- 
finger, a. ligament, the ligament surrounding the 
wrist and the ankle, a. muscle of Mueller, the 
circular fibers of the ciliary muscle, a. process, 
a. protuberance, the pons Varolii, a. reflex, a ring- 
like reflection sometimes seen with the ophthalmo- 
scope around the macula. 

annulate (an'-u-ldt). Characterized by, made up 
of, or surrounded by rings. 

annulorrhaphy (an-u-lor'-af-e) [annulus, ring; pa<prj, 
suture]. Closure of a hernial ring or sac by suture. 

annulose \an'-u-los) [annulus, a ring]. Possessing 




annulus (an'-u-lus) [see annular].^ A ring-shaped 
or circular opening, a. abdominalis, the external 
or internal abdominal ring. a. abdominis, the 
inguinal ring. a. ciliaris, the boundary between the 
iris and the choroid, a., femoralis, femoral ring 
(O. T. crural ring), a., fibrocartilaginous, fibro- 
cartilaginous ring. a. fibrosus. i. The external 
part of the intervertebral discs. 2. Firm connective 
tissue containing elastic fibers surrounding the 
auriculoventricular openings of the heart. Syn., 
annulus fibrosus atrioventricular is. 3. The circular 
fibrous attachment of the tympanic membrane to 
the tympanic plate, a., haemorrhoidalis, hemor- 
rhoidal ring, a., inguinalis abdominalis, abdominal 
inguinal ring (O. T. internal abdominal ring), a. 
inguinalis cutaneus, the external abdominal ring. 
a., inguinalis subcutaneus, subcutaneous inguinal 
ring (O. T. external abdominal ring), a., iridis major, 
greater ring of iris, a., iridis minor, lesser ring of 
iris. a. membranae tympani, an incomplete bony ring 
that forms the fetal auditory process of the temporal 
bone. a. migrans, a disease of the tongue marked by 
crescentic bands of a light-colored rash which spread 
over its dorsal surface and sometimes over the sides 
and under surface. Syn., annulus errans. a. osseus, 
the tympanic plate, a. ovalis, the rounded or 
oval margin of the foramen ovale, a., tendineus 
communis (Zinni), common tendinous ring of Zinn. 
a. tracheae, a tracheal ring, a., tympanicus, tym- 
panic ring. a. umbilicus, the umbilical ring, a., 
urethralis, urethral ring. a. ventriculi, the pylorus. 

AnOC. Abbreviation for anodal opening contrac- 

anocathartic (an-o-kath-ar'-tik) [avu, upward; 
KodapriKos, purging]. Emetic. 

anocavernosus (an-o-kav-ur-no'-sus). See bulbo- 

anocelia, anocoelia (an-o-se'-le-ah) [avoi, upward; 
KoCKla, a cavity]. The thorax. 

anoceliadelphous (an-o-se-le-ah-del'-fus) [avw, up- 
ward; KoiXia, a cavity; aSe\<pos, a brother]. United 
by the thorax or upper part of the abdomen. 

anochilon, anocheilon, anochilos (an-o-ki'-lon, -los) 
[avw, upward; xelXos, a lip]. 1. The upper Up. 
2. An individual having a large upper lip. 

anochiloschisis, anocheiloschisis (an-o-ki-los'-kis-is) 
[avu, upward; x«X°s» a lip; ax^eiv, to split]. An 
operation of splitting the upper lip for reducing its size. 

anoci-association (ah-no'-se-as-o-se-a'-shun). The 
condition in which pain, fear, shock, and neuroses 
are blocked, and so excluded, in surgical cases. 
See noci-association. 

anococcygeal (an-o-kok-sij'-e-al) [anus, the funda- 
ment; k6kkv£, the coccyx]. Pertaining to the anus 
and the coccyx, a. ligament, a ligament that con- 
nects the tip of the coccyx with the external sphincter 
ani muscle. 

anodal (an'-o-dal) [ava, up; 656s, a way]. Relating 
to the anode; electropositive, a. closure, the closure 
of an electric circuit with the anode placed in relation 
to the muscle or nerve which is to be affected, a. 
closure clonus, a. closure contraction, see contraction, 
anodal closure, a. diffusion, same as cataphoresis. 
a. duration, the duration of an anodal closure con- 
traction, a. opening contraction, see contraction. 

anode (an'-od) [see anodal]. The positive pole of a 
galvanic battery, a., soluble, Sprague's term for an 
anode formed of the metal which is deposited. 

anodermous (an-o-der'-mus) [A, priv.; Sep/ia, the 
skin]. Without the appearance of an epidermis. 

anodic (an-od'-ik) [avu, upward; 680s, way]. 
1. In biology, applied to the upper edges of leaves 
arranged in ascending spirals. 2. Ascending. 3. 

anodinia (an-o-din' -e-ah) [a, priv.; udis, the pain 
of childbirth]. Absence of labor-pains. 

anodinous (an-od'-in-us). Without labor pains. 

anodmia (an-od'-me-ah) [av, priv.; bbfi-q, smell]. 
Absence of the sense of smell. 

anodont, anodontous, anodous (an'-o-dont, an-o- 
dont'-us, an'-od-us) [av, priv.; 68ovs, a tooth]. Tooth- 

anodontia (an-o-don' -she-ah) [av, priv.; 68ovs, 
tooth]. Absence of the teeth. 

anodyne (an'-o-din) [av, priv.; odvvjj, pain]. 1. A 
medicine that gives relief from pain. 2. Relieving 
pain, a., Hoffmann's, compound spirit of ether. 

anodynia {an-o-din' -e-ah) [see anodyne]. 1. Free- 
dom from pain. 2. Loss of sensation. Cf. anodinia. 

ancedochium (an-e-o-do'-ke-um) [avoos, without 

understanding; 80x6s, a receptacle], A lunatic 

anoesia (an-o-e' -ze-ah) [avo-naia, a want of sense]. 
Want of understanding. 

anogon (an'-o-gon). The mercurous salt of di- 
iodoparaphenolsulphonic acid. It is said to contain 
nearly 50 per cent, of mercury and 30 per cent, of 
iodine. It is insoluble in the ordinary solvents, and 
is used in the treatment of syphilis. 

anoia (an-oi'-ah) [avoia, idiocy]. Synonym 01 

anomalism (an-om' '-al-izm) [avw/iaXos, strange]. 
Deviation from the normal order or standard. 

anomalology (an-om-al-ol'-o-je) [avwna\os, strange; 
X670S, science]. The science of anomalies. 

anomalonomy (an-om-al-on'-o-me) [avwna\La, ir- 
regularity; vbnos, a law]. The science of the laws 
governing anomalism. 

anomalotrophy (an-om-al-ot' -ro-fe) . An anomaly 
of nutrition. 

anomalous (an-om' -al-us) [see anomaly]. Irregular; 
characterized by deviation from the common or 
normal order. 

anomalus (an-om' -al-us) [av&naXos, not ordinary]. 
A muscle or muscular slip sometimes occurring 
beneath the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi. 

anomaly (an-om' -al-e) [avwuaXia, irregularity]. A 
marked deviation from the normal; an abnormal 
thing or occurrence. 

anomia (an-o'-me-ah). 1. See anomaly. 2. [d, priv.; 
ovofia, name]. Loss of ability to name objects or to 
recognize names. 

anomous (an-o'-mus) [a, priv.; iLfios, the shoulder]. 
Without shoulders. 

Anona (an-o'-nah) [Malay, menona]. A genus of 
shrubs and trees of the order Anonacece, native of 
tropical America. A. ambotay is a native of French 
Guiana. The bark is applied to malignant ulcers. 
A. glabra is a West Indian species. The juice of the 
unripe fruit is applied to ulcers. A. muricata, sour- 
sop, rough anona, is an American tree, but cultivated 
in all tropical countries, where the ripe fruit is a 
favorite food and used in a cooling drink for fevers. 
The astringent unripe fruit is used in intestinal 
atony. The bark is astringent tand irritant; the 
root-bark is used in cases of disease resulting from 
ingestion of poisonous fish; the leaf is anthelmintic 
and externally a suppurant. The edible fruit of A. 
obtusifolia is used in South America and in the 
West Indies by the natives as a narcotic. A. reticu- 
lata, custard-apple, is a West Indian tree, but culti- 
vated throughout the tropics. The unripe dried 
fruit and seeds are used as an intestinal ajtringent; 
the kernels of the seeds are very poisonous ; the leaves 
are anthelmintic. A. spinescens, of Brazil; the 
seeds are used to poison vermin; the fruit as a poul- 
tice. A. squamosa, sweet-sop, bullock's-heart, is an 
American tree cultivated throughout the tropics for 
its fruit, which is used medicinally as is A. muricata. 
The seeds are used to destroy insects; the bark is 
employed by the Malays and Chinese as a tonic. 

anonychia (an-o-nik'-e-ah) [av, priv.; owj, nail]. 
Absence of the nails. 

anonyma (an-on'-im-ah) [av, priv.; ovona, name]. 
The innominate artery. 

anonymos (an-on'-im-us) [see anonyma]. The 
cricoid cartilage. 

anonymous (an-on'-im-us) [see anonyma]. Name- 
less, a. bone, see innominatum. 

anoopsia (an-o-op' -se-dh) [avu, upward; 5\j/is, 
vision]. Strabismus in which the eye is turned 

anoperineal (a-no-per-in-e'-al). Relating to the 
anus and the perineum. 

Anopheles (an-of-el-ez) [avu<pe\ris, harmful]. A 
genus of dipterous insects (mosquitoes), belonging 
to the family Culicidce. A. christopherse, of India, 
harbors sporozoits, and in districts where present 
the endemic index of malaria varies from 40 to 72 %. 
A. maculipennis, is the common form of northern 
and central Europe and America, and the common 
agent in the transmission of the malaria parasite. 
Syn., Anopheles quadrimaculatus. A. rossii, the 
most widely distributed species in India, breeding 
in foul water; does not carry the parasite of benign 
nor of malignant tertian fever, and in Calcutta, where 
this is the prevalent species, the endemic index of 
malaria is zero. 

anophelicide (an-of-eV -is-id) [anopheles; ccedere to 
kill]. An agent which is destructive to anopheles. 




anophelifuge (an-of-el'-if-uj) [anopheles; fugare, to 
put to flight]. An agent which prevents the bite or 
attack of anopheles. 

anophelism (an-of -el-izm) . Infestation of any 
region, with anopheles. 

anophoria (an-o-fo'-re-ah) [av6>, upward; <pkpeiv, 
to bear]. See anotropia. 

anophthalmia (an-of-thal'-me-ah) [av, priv.; 6<pda\- 
fios, eye]. Congenital absence of the eyes. a. 
cyclopica, a congenital malformation in which the 
eye-socket is very ill-developed and the orbit rudi- 
mentary or altogether absent. 

anophthalmos (an-off-thal'-mus) [av, priv.; 6<j>dd\- 
fios, eye]. i. Congenital absence of the eyes. 
2. A person born without eyes. 

anophthalmus (an-of-thal'-mus). See anophthalmos. 

anopia (an-o'-pe-ah) [av, priv.; w^, the eye]. 
Absence of sight, especially that due to defect of 
the eyes : 

anopsia (an-op'-se-ah) [av, priv.; 6\pis, vision]. 
See amblyopia. 

anopubic (a-no-pu'-bik). Relating to the anus 
and the pubes. 

anorchia (an-or'-ke-ah). See anarchism. 

anorchism (an'-or-kizm) [av, priv.; opxts, the 
testicle]. Absence of the testicles. 

anorchous (an-or'-kus) [av, priv.; 6px<s, the 
testicle]. Without testicles. 

anorchus (an-or'-kus) [av, priv.; 6px<s, the testicle]. 
A person in whom the testicles are absent or not 

anorectal (a-no-rek'-tal). Pertaining to the anus 
and the rectum. 

anoretic, anorectous (an-o-rek'-tik, an-o-rek'-tus) 
[av, priv.j 6pef ts, appetite]. Without an appetite. 

anorexia (an-or-ek' -se-ah) [av, priv.; 8pe£is, appe- 
tite]. Absence of appetite, a. nervosa, an hysterical 
affection occurring chiefly in young neurotic females, 
and characterized by a great aversion to food. 

anoria (an-or'-e-ah) [avcopia, untimeliness]. Im- 

anormal (ah-nor'-mal) [av, priv.; norma, a rule]. 

anorrhorrhea (an-or-or-e'-ak) [av, priv.; 6pp6s, 
serum; pola, a flow]. A diminished or defective 
secretion of serous substance. 

anorthography (an-or-thog'-ra-fe) [av, priv.; 6p96s, 
straight; ypa<f>eiv, to write]. Incapacity to write 
correctly; motor agraphia. 

anorthopia (an-or-tho'-pe-ah) [av, priv.; 6p66s, 
straight; 6\pis, vision]. I. A defect in vision in which 
straight lines do not seem straight, and parallelism 
or symmetry is not properly perceived. 2. Squinting; 
obliquity of vision. 

anorthoscope (an-or' -tho-skop) [av, priv.; bp66s, 
straight; o-icoireZv, to look]. An apparatus for con- 
necting in one perfect visual image disconnected and 
incomplete pictures. 

anorthosis (an-or-tho'-sis) [av, priv.; 6p9w<ns, a 
making straight]. Absence or defect of erectility. 

anoscope (a'-no-skop) [anus; aicoirelv, to look]. 
An instrument for examining the rectum. 

anoscopy (an-os'-kop-e). Inspection of the anus 
by means of the anoscope. 

anosia (an-o' -se-ah) [a, priv.; voaos, disease]. 
Without disease; normal health. 

anosmabic (an-oz-mab'-ik). See anosmatic. 

anosmatic (an-oz-mal'-ik) [av, priv.; 607*17, smell]. 
i. With small olfactory lobes. 2. Not having a 
keen sense of smell. 

anosmia (an-oz' -me-ah) [av, priv.; 607*17, smell]. 
Absence of the sense of smell, a., afferent, that due 
to the loss of the conductivity of the olfactory nerves. 
a., central, that due to cerebral disease, a., organic, 
that due to disease of the nasal pituitary membrane. 
a., peripheral, that due to disease of the peripheral 
ends of the olfactory nerves. 

anosmic, anosmous (an-oz' -mik, -mus). 1. With- 
out odor. 2. Having no sense of smell. 

anosphrasia (an-os-fra'-ze-ah). Defect or absence 
of the sense of smell. 

anosphresis (an-os-fre'-sis) [av, priv.; 6o-<j>pr)o-is, 
odor]. Same as anosphrasia. 

anospinal (a-no-spi' -nal) [anus; spine]. Relating 
to the anus and the spinal cord. a. center, a center 
that controls the anal sphincters. It is situated in 
the lumbar portion of the spinal cord. 

anostomosis (an-os-tom-o'-sis). See anastomosis. 

anostosis \(an-os-to'-sis) [av, priv.; 6are6v, bone]. 
Defective development of bone. 

anotia (an-o' -she-ah) [see anotous]. Congenital 
absence of the ears. 

anotous (an-o'-tus) [a, priv.; ovs, ear]. Devoid of 
ears: earless. 

anotropia (an-o-tro'-pe-ah) [avu, upward; rpkweiv, 
to turn]. A condition in which the visual axes have 
a tendency to rise above the object looked at. 

anotus (an-o'-tus) [av, priv.; ovs, the ear]. Desti- 
tute of ears. 

anovarthyroid serum (an-o-var-thi'-royd) [av, priv.; 
ovum; thyroid]. A serum from sheep whose ovaries 
and thyroid gland have been removed. It has been 
used in osteomalacia. 

anovesical (a-no-ves'-ik-al) [anus; vesica, the 
bladder]. Pertaining conjointly to the anus and 
urinary bladder. 

anoxemia anoxaemia, anoxyemia (an-oks-e' -me-ah, 
an-oks-e-e' -me-ah) [av, priv.; oxygen; alpa, blood]. 
1. A lack of oxygen in the blood. 2. An abnormal con- 
dition due to the breathing of an insufficient amount 
of oxygen; mountain sickness; balloon sickness. 

anoxoluin, anoxolyin (an-oks-ol'-u-in, -i-in) [&v, 
priv.; 6£vs, sharp; \veiv, to dissolve]. The substance 
opposed to oxolyin, which, according to Le Conte, 
exists with it in fibrin, albumin, globulin, and casein, 
and which is not soluble in glacial acetic acid. 

anoxycausis (an-oks-e-kaw'-sis) [av, priv.; 6£us, 
sharp; navais, a burning]. Combustion without the 
presence of oxygen. 

anozol (an'-o-zol). A combination of iodoform and 
thymol; deodorous iodoform. 

ansa (an'-sah) [L., "a handle"]. A loop. a. at- 
lantis, the uppermost cervical ansa. a. capitis, the 
zygomatic arch, a., cervical, one of the intercom- 
municating branches of the anterior cervical nerves. 
a., coccygeal. See A. sacralis. a., galvanocaustic, 
the wire loop of a galvanic cautery. Syn., liga- 
lura candens. a., Haller's, the loop formed by the 
nerve joining the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves. 
a., Henle's, a part of the uriniferous tubule, a. 
hypoglossi, a loop formed at the side of the neck by 
the junction of the descendens noni nerve, with 
branches of the second and third cervical nerves. 
a., intergenicularis, fibers connecting the geniculate 
bodies, a., intestinalis, any loop of the small intes- 
tine, a. lenticularis, a bundle of fibers proceeding 
from the neural laminae between the divisions of 
the lenticular nucleus. Syn., ansa lentiformis; 
lenticular loop. a. lumbalis, a. lumbaris, one of the 
connecting ramifications between the branches of 
the lumbar nerves, a., peduncularis, the ventral 
stalk of the thalamus, a. sacralis, a loop joining the 
ganglion impar with the sympathetic trunks of the 
two sides. # a., sternal, the interclavicular notch. 
a. subclavialis, a., subclavian, see a. of Vieussens. 
a. supramaxillaris, one of communication between 
the ventral and dorsal superior dental nerves, a. of 
Vieussens, a loop extending from the third cervical 
ganglion and surrounding the subclavian artery. 
a. of Wrisberg, the nerve joining the right great 
splanchnic and right pneumogastric nerves. 

Anschuetz's chloroform. See chloroform. 

anserine (an'-ser-en) [anser, a goose]. Resembling 
a goose, a. disease, a wasting of the muscles of the 
hands, rendering the tendons unduly prominent, and 
suggesting the appearance of a goose's foot. a. skin, 

ansiform (an' -si-form) [ansa, a handle; forma, 
shape]. Loop-shaped. 

Anstie's rule (an'-sle) [Francis Edmund Anstie, 
English physician, 1833-1874]. No healthy man can 
take without injury more than the equivalent of 
1 § ounces of absolute alcohol per diem. A.'s test 
for alcohol in urine, a mixture of potassium bichro- 
mate 1, and strong sulphuric acid 300 is added drop 
by drop to the urine; an emerald green color denotes 
the presence of a toxic amount of alcohol. 

ant-, anti- (ant-, or an'-te) [avH, against]. Pre- 
fixes to compound words signifying opposed to, 
against, counteracting, etc. 

antacid (ant-as'-id) [anti, against; acidus, acid]. 
1. Neutralizing acidity. 2. A substance counter- 
acting or neutralizing acidity. An alkali. 

antacidin (ant-as'-id-in). Saccharate of lime. 

antacrid (ani-ak'-rid) [anti-; acer, sharp]. Cor- 
recting acridity in the secretions, a. tincture, see 
guaiac mixture, Fenner's. 

antagonism (an-tag' -on-izm) [see antagonist]. Op- 
position; opposed action, as of two sets of muscles 
or of two remedial agents. 




antagonist (an-tag'-o-nist) [avrayo:viaTf)s, counter- 
acting]. A term applied to a drug that neutralizes 
the therapeutic effects of another. In anatomy, a 
muscle that acts in opposition to another, a., 
associated, a name given to that muscle of a healthy 
eye that turns the globe in the same direction as the 
affected muscle of the opposite eye would, if normal, 
turn the eye to which it belongs. 

antagonistic (an-tag-o-nis'-tik) [see antagonist]. 

antalgesic (ant-al-je'-sik) [see antalgic]. Antalgic. 

antalgic (ant-al'-jik) [anti-; ahyos, pain], i. Re- 
lieving pain. 2. A remedy that relieves pain. 

antalkaline (ant-al'-kal-tn) [anti-; alkali], i. Neu- 
tralizing alkalies. 2. An agent neutralizing alkalies, 
as acids. 

antanacathartic (ant-an-ah-kath-ar'-tik) [anti-; &vd, 
up; KaBapcris, purgation]. 1. Checking expectoration. 
2. An agent which checks expectoration. 

antanemic (ant-an-e'-mik) [anti-; anemic]. 1. Cor- 
recting anemia. 2. A remedy efficient in anemia. 

antaphrodisiac (ant-af-ro-diz'-e-ak) [ant-; a<j>po5L<na, 
sexual desire]. 1. Lessening the venereal desires. 
2. An agent that lessens the venereal impulse; an 

antaphroditic (anl-af-ro-dit'-ik). See antaphro- 

antapoplectic (ant-ap-o-plek'-tik) [anti-; &iroir}.ri£la, 
apoplexy]. Efficient in preventing or treating apo- 

antarthritic (ant-ar-thrit'-ik) [anti-; dpOpiTiKos, 
gouty]. 1. Relieving gout. 2. A medicine for the 
relief of gout. 

antasphyctic (ant-as-fik'-tik) [anti-; &<r<j>vKTos, 
pulseless]. 1. Efficient in preventing asphyxia. 
2. An agent efficacious in preventing asphyxia. 

antasthenic (ant-as-then' -ik) [anti-; acrdeveia, weak- 
ness]. Tending to correct debility and restore the 

antasthmatic (ant-az-mat'-ik) [anti-; aa-d/xa, short- 
drawn breath]. 1. Relieving asthma. 2. A medicine 
serving for the relief of asthma. 

antatrophic (ant-at-rof'-ik) [ant-; arpo<pla, wasting]. 
1. Preventing atrophy. 2. A drug that will prevent 
wasting or atrophy. 

antebrachial (an-te-bra'-ke-al). Pertaining to the 

antebrachium (an-te-bra'-ke-um). See antibra- 

antecardium (an-te-kar'-de-um) [anti-; icapSla, the 
heart]. The scrobiculus cordis, or pit of the stomach; 
the infrasternal depression; the precordium. 

ante cibum (ante si' -bum). Latin for "before a 

antecornu (an-te-kor'-nu). See precornu. 

antecubital (an-te-ku'-bit-al) [ante, before; cubitum, 
the elbow]. Situated in front of the elbow. 

antecurvature (an-te-kur'-va-tiir) [ante, forward; 
curvatus, bent]. A forward curvature. 

antedisplacement (an-te-dis-plas'-ment) [ante, for- 
ward; O. F., des placer, to put out of place]. Forward 
displacement of a part or organ. 

antefebrile (an-te-feb'-ril) [ante, before; febris, 
fever]. The period before a fever. 

antefixatio uteri (an-te-fiks-a'-she-o u'-ter-i). The 
operative suturing of the uterus in retroflexion. 

anteflexion (an-te-ftek'-shun) [ante, before; fiectere, 
to bend]. A bending forward, a. of uterus, a con- 
dition in which the fundus of the uterus is bent 

antehelix (an-te-he' -liks) . See anthelix. 

antelocation (an-te-lo-ka'-shun) [ante, before; locus, 
a place]. The forward displacement of an organ or 

antemetic (ant-em-et'-ik). See antiemetic. 

antemortem (an'-te-mor'-tem) [L.]. Before death. 

antenarial (an-te-na' -re-al) [ante, before; nares, the 
nostrils]. Situated in front of the nostrils. 

antenatal (an-te-na' -taV) [ante, before; natus, born]. 
Occurring or existing before birth. 

anteneasmum, anteneasmus (an-ten-e-az'-mum, 
-mus). P. Zacchias' term for a form of dementia 
marked by restlessness and a suicidal tendency. 

ante partum (an'-te par' -turn) [L.]. Before de- 

antepileptic (ant-ep-il-ep'-tik) [anti-; iirl\ri^is, epi- 
lepsy]. Relieving epilepsy. 

anteprostatic (an-le-pros-tat'-ik) [ante, before; 
7r poa-r arris, one who stands before]. Situated before 
the prostate, a. glands. 1. Cowper's glands. 

2. Certain small accessory glands sometimes found 
between Cowper's gland and the prostate. 

antepyretic (an-te-pi-ret'-ik) [ante; irvperos, fever]. 
Prior to the development of fever. 

antereisis (ant-er-i'-sis) [avrepeio-Ls, resistance]. 
The resistance opposed by a dislocation during its 

anterethic (an-ter-eth'-ik) [anti-; epeOianos, irri- 
tation]. Soothing; allaying irritation. 

anterior (an-te'-re-or) • [L., "before"]. Situated 
before or in front of; pertaining to the part or organ 
situated toward the ventral aspect of the body. a. 
poliomyelitis, inflammation of the anterior horns of 
the spinal cord, giving rise to a characteristic paraly- 
sis, common in children, a. rotation, the forward 
turning of the presenting part in labor. 

antero- (an'-te-ro-) [anterior, before]. A prefix 
signifying position in front. 

anterodorsal (an-te-ro-dor'-sal) [antero-; dorsum, 
the back]. Pertaining to the ventral aspect of the 

anterograde (an'-te-ro-grad) [antero-; gredi, to go]. 
Proceeding forwards. 

anteroinferior (an-te-ro-in-fe'-re-or) [antero-; in- 
ferior, lower]. Situated in front and below. 

anteroinferior (an-te-ro-in-te'-re-or). Located ven- 
trally and internally. 

anterointernal (an-te-ro-in-tur'-nal). Situated in 
front to the inner side. 

anterolateral (an-te-ro-laf -er-al) [antero-; latus, a 
side]. In front and to or on one side; from the 
front to one side. 

anteromedian (an-te-ro-me'-de-an) [antero-; medius, 
the middle]. In front and toward the middle. 

anteroparietal (an-te-ro-par-i'-et-al) [antero-; pari- 
etal]. Anterior and also parietal, a. area, the 
anterior part of the parietal area of the cranium. 

anteroposterior (an-te-ro-pos-te'-re-or) [antero-; pos- 
terior, backward]. Extending from before backward. 

anterosuperior (an-te-ro-su-pe'-re-or) [antero-; su- 
perior, upper]. Situated in front and above. 

anterotic (ant-e-rot'-ik) [anti-; ipurucos, pertaining 
to love]. Anaphrodisiac. 

anteversion (an-te-ver' -shun) [ante, forward; vertere, 
to turn]. A turning forward, a. of uterus, a tilting 
forward of the uterus. 

anthectic (an-thek'-tik) [anti-; Iktikos, hectic]. 
1. Efficacious against tuberculosis. 2. An agent or 
remedy efficient against tuberculosis. 

anthelicine (an-theV -is-in) [avdeKiZ, the inner 
curvature of the ear]. Pertaining to the anthelix. 

anthelix (an'-the-liks) [a.vdk\i£, the inner curvature 
of the ear]. The ridge surrounding the concha of 
the external ear posteriorly. 

anthelmintic (an-thel-min'-tik) [anti-; eXfiivs, a 
worm]. 1. Efficacious against worms. 2. Avermicide. 

anthema (an'-the-mah) [dvdelv, to bloom]. An 
exanthemj a skin eruption. 

anthemis (an'-them-is) [, a flower]. Camo- 
mile. The flower-heads of A. nobilis, the properties 
of which are due to a volatile oil, a camphor, and a 
bitter principle. It is useful in coughs and spas- 
modic infantile complaints, and is an excellent 
stomachic tome. Infusion of 4 dr. to 1 pint, given 
in doses of 1-2 oz. (30-60 Co), anthemidis, extrac- 
tum (B. P.). Dose 2-10 gr. (0.13-0.65 Gm.). 
anthemidis, infusum (B. P.). Dose 1-4 oz. (30-120 
Co), anthemidis, oleum, the volatile oil of camo- 
mile. Dose 2-10 min. (0.12-0.6 Co). 

anthemorrhagic (ant-hem-or-aj'-ik) [anti-; alpa, 
blood; pay la, a bursting]. Checking or preventing 

anther (an'-ther) [avdripos, in full bloom]. In 
biology, the male sexual organ in plants; the summit 
and essential part of the stamen. It contains the 
pollen or fecundating substance of the flower. 

antherpetic (ant-her-pet'-ik) [anti-; herpes]. 1. Ef- 
ficient against herpes. 2. An efficacious remedy for 

anthocephalous, anthocephalus (an-tho-sef -al-us) 
[avdos, a flower; /ce^aXi?, a head]. Having a flower- 
shaped head; e. g., tcenia anthocephala. 

Anthony's fire, St. See erysipelas. 

anthorism, anthorisma (an'-thor-izm, an-thor-iz'- 
mah) [anti-; 6pi<rp.a, a boundary]. A diffuse swelling. 

anthracemia (an-thras-e' -me-ah) [anthrax; al/xa, 
blood]. 1. Woolsorter's disease; splenic fever of 
animals; a disease due to the presence in the blood of 
Bacillus anthracis. 2. Asphyxia due to carbon 
monoxide poisoning. 




anthracene (an'-thra-sen) [anthrax], C14H10. A 
hydrocarbon formed from many carbon compounds 
when they are exposed to a high heat; also from 
coal-tar. It crystallizes in colorless, monoclinic 
tables, showing a beautiful blue fluorescence; dis- 
solves with difficulty in alcohol and ether, but easily 
in hot benzene; melts at 213 . It is the base from 
which artificial alizarin is prepared. 

anthracia (an-thra'-se-ah) [anthrax]. A name for 
diseases characterized by the formation of carbuncles. 
a. pestis, the plague, a. rubula, synonym of fram- 

anthracic (an'-thras-ik) [anthrax]. Pertaining to 
or of the nature of anthrax. 

anthracin (an'-lhras-in) [anthrax], A toxic pto- 
maine derived from pure cultures of the bacillus of 

anthracina (an-thras-e'-nah). Melanotic car- 

anthracion (an-thras'-e-on) [anthrax]. Contagious 

anthracite (an'-thras-lt) [av9pa%, a coal]. A vari- 
ety of mineral coal containing but little hydrogen, 
and therefore burning almost without flame. 

anthracnosis (an-thrak-no'-sis) [avdpa£, a coal; 
vdaos, disease]. Black rot, a fungus disease of vines, 
caused by the Phoma uvicola, or Sphaceloma ampelium. 
anthracoid (an'-thrak-oid). [anthrax; eldos, like- 
ness]. Resembling carbon, anthrax, or the gem 

anthracolemus, anthracoloemus (an-thra-kol-e'- 
mus) [anthrax; Xot/ios, a plague]. Contagious 

anthracoma (an-thrak-o'-mah) [anthrax], A car- 

anthracometer (an-thrak-om'-el-er) [anthrax; 
pov, a measure]. An instrument for estimating 
the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. 

anthracometry (an-thrak-om'-et-re) [a.vdpa%, carbon; 
p.krpov, a measure]. The determination of the 
amount of carbon dioxide in air. 

anthraconecrosis (an-thrak-o-ne-kro'-sis) [anthrax; 
vkupoxTvs, death]. The necrotic transformation of a 
tissue into a black mass, as in dry gangrene. 

anthracopestis (an-thrak-o-pes'-tis) [anthrax, pestis, 
a plague]. Malignant anthrax. 

anthracophlyctis (an-thrak-o-fiik'-tis) [anthrax; 
<j>\vktIs, a pustule]. The same as anthracopestis. 

anthracosis (an-thrak-o'-sis) [anthrax; poaos, dis- 
ease]. 1. "Miners' lung." A diseased condition of 
the lung pnjduced by the inhalation of coal-dust. 
It is a form of pneumokoniosis. 2. A malignant or 
corroding ulcer; a carbuncle. 

anthraflavon (an-thra-flav'-on) [anthracene? flavus, 
yellow], CnHsCu. A substance acting as a dibasic 
acid, forming yellow needles subliming without fusion 
at temperatures above 300 C. 

anthragallol (an-thrargal'-ol), CuH&Os. A reaction- 
product of benzoic, gallic, and sulphuric acids. It 
occurs as a dark-brown paste or orange-red acicular 
crystals, soluble in alcohol; melts at 310 C. Sub- 
limes at 200° C. It is used in dyeing. Syn., trioxy- 

anthrapurpurin (an-thra-pur'-pu-rin) [anthracene; 
purpurin], CuHsOs. A derivative of anthraflavic 
acid and an isomer of purpurin and of flavopurpurin, 
almost identical with the latter; it forms orange- 
colored needles, a. acetate, a. diacetate, a fine 
yellow, tasteless powder, freely soluble in glacial 
acetic acid and xylol, sparingly so in alcohol; insoluble 
in water. It is used as an aperient and laxative 
(it colors the urine red). Dose 7 1 gr. (0.5 Gm.). 
Syn., purgatin; purgatol. 

anthraquinolin (an-thra-kwin'-ol-in) [anthracene; 
quina, bark], C17H11N. A crystalline substance 
melting at 170 C., boiling at 446 C; its solutions 
exhibit an intensely blue fluorescence. 

anthraquinone (an-thra-kwin'-on) [anthracene; 
quinone], C14H8O2. A substance produced by oxi- 
dizing anthracene with HNO3. It sublimes in yellow 
needles, melting at 277 C, and is soluble in hot 
benzene and HNO3. 

anthrarobin (an-thra-ro'-bin) , C14H10O3. A deriva- 
tive of alizarin, similar to chrysarobin. It is a 
yellowish-white powder, insoluble in water, but 
soluble in alcohol and dilute alkaline solutions. It is 
useful in psoriasis, herpes, pityriasis versicolor. 

anthrasol (an'-thra-sol). A proprietary coal-tar 
preparation; used in the form of an ointment for 
pruritus and for skin affections. 

anthrax (an'-lhraks) [av6pa£, a coal or a carbuncle]. 

1. A carbuncle. 2. An acute infectious disease due 
to Bacillus anthracis. Syn., milzbrand; charbon; 
woolsorter' s disease; splenic fever; splenic apoplexy; 
Siberian cattle plague; plaga ignis; acacanthrax; mal 
de Chabert; abscessus gangrcenescens ; abscessus 
gangrcznosus. a., apoplectic, a very acute and 
virulent form of malignant anthrax coming on 
without premonitory symptoms and chiefly affecting 
horses and cattle, a., contagious, malignant anthrax. 
a., hemorrhoidal, a contagious form affecting the 
rectum of animals and marked by evacuations of 
dark-colored blood, a., malignant, see anthrax (2). 
a., pulmonary, gangrene of the lungs, a., sympto- 
matic, see black-leg. 

anthropo- (an-thro-po-) [avdpuiros, a man; a human 
being]. A prefix signifying relating to man or to 
the human race. 

anthropogenesis (an-thro-po-jen'-es-is) [anthropo-; 
ykveais, generation]. The development of man, 
as a race (phylogenesis) and as an individual (onto- 

anthropogeny (an-thro-poj'-en-e) [anthropo-; yewav, 
to produce]. The study or science of the descent of 

anthropoglot (an'-thro-po-glot) [anthropo-; y\waaa, 
the tongue]. Human-tongued, as a parrot. 

anthropography (an-thro-pog' -ra-fe) [anthropo-; 
ypa<j>eiv, to write]. A treatise upon the human 
structure or organism. 

anthropoid (an'-thro-poid) [anthropo-; elSos, like]. 

anthropology (an-thro-pol'-o-je) [anthropo-; X670S, 
discourse]. The science of the nature, physical and 
psychological, of man and of mankind. 

anthropometallism (an-thro-po-mef -al-izm) [an- 
thropo-; metal]. Hypnotism or the like condition, 
induced by looking at a metallic disc. 

anthropometer (an-thro-pom'-et-er) [anthropo-; 
\ikrpov, a measure]. An instrument used in anthro- 

anthropometry (an-thro-pom'-et-re) [anthropo-; 
p.krpov, a measure]. The determination of the 
measurement, weight, strength, and proportions of 
the parts of the human body. 

anthropomorphic (an-thro-po-mor'-fik) [anthropo-; 
p.op4>r\, form]. Man-like. 

anthropomorphism (an-thro-po-mor'-fizm) [anthro- 
po-; p.op<j>ij, form]. 1. Anthropomorphosis (q. v.). 

2. The theory which ascribes human attributes to 
the Deity. 

anthropomorphosis (an-thro-po-mor-fo'-sis) [an- 
thropo-; p.op<f>n, form]. The development of the 
human figure; a change into the shape of a man. 

anthropomorphous (an-thro-po-mor'-fus) [anthropo-; 
p.op<f>rj, form]. Resembling a man in shape or 

anthroponomy (an-thro-pon'-om-e) [anthropo-; man; 
vonos, a law]. The sum of what is known concerning 
the laws which control the formation and functions 
of the human body. 

anthropophagy (an-thro-pof'-a-je) [anthropo-; 
<t>ayelv, to devour]. 1. Cannibalism. 2. Sexual 
perversion leading to rape, mutilation, and canni- 

anthropophobia (an-thro-po-fo'-be-ah) I [anthropo-; 
4>6Pos, fear]. A symptom of mental disease consisting 
in fear of society. 

anthroposomatology (an-thro-po-so-mat-ol'-o-je) [an- 
thropo-; <rG>p.a, body; X670S, science]. The sum of 
what is known regarding the human body. 

anthropotomy (an-thro-pot'-o-me) [anthropo-; row, 
section]. Human anatomy, or dissection of the 
human body. 

anthropotoxin (an-thro-po-toks'-in) [anthropo-; 
Totucop, poison]. The toxic substance supposed to 
be excreted by the lungs of human beings. 

anthydropic (ant-hi-drop'-ik) [anti-; vSpwip, dropsy]. 
Effective against dropsy. 

anthypnotic (ant-hip-not' -ik) [anti-; vttvos, sleep]. 
1. Preventive of sleep. 2. An agent that tends to 
induce wakefulness. 

anthypochondriac (ant-hip-o-kon'-dre-ak) [anti-; 
hypochondriac]. Efficient in overcoming hypochon- 

anthysteric (ant-his-ter'-ik) [anti-; varepa, the 
uterus]. 1. Overcoming hysteria. 2. A remedy 
against hysteria. 

anti- (an-ti-) [tori, against]. A prefix meaning 




antiabrin {an-ti-a' -brin) [anti-; abrin]. Ehrlich's 
term for a hypothetic alexin in the blood of animals 
rendered immune against abrin. 

antiacid (an-te-as'-id). Antacid. 

antiades {an-tV -ad-ez) [pi. of <Wtds, tonsil]. The 

antiaditis (an-ti-ad-i'-tis) [<Wids, tonsil; iris, inflam- 
mation]. Tonsillitis. 

antiadoncus (an-ti-ad-ong'-kus) [Lvrias, a swollen 
tonsil; 67/cos, a heap]. Any tumor or swelling of the 

antiagglutinin {an-te-ag-lu' -tin-in). A substance 
having the power of neutralizing the corresponding 
agglutinin, q. v. 

antiaggressin (an-te-ah-gres'-in) [anti-; aggressin]. 
A substance having the power of neutralizing the 
corresponding aggressin. 

antialbumate, antialbuminate {an-te-aV -bit-mat, 
an-te-al-bu' -min-at) [anti-; albumen, white of egg]. 
Parapeptone; a product of the imperfect digestion 
of albumin. It is changed by the pancreatic ferment 
into antipeptone. 

antialbumid {an-te-aV -bu-mid) . See antialbumate. 

antialbumin {an-te-aV -bu-min) [see antialbumate]. 
One of the products of the action of the digestion of 
albumin; it is probably one of the preformed sub- 
stances existing in the proteid molecule. 

antialbumose {an-te-aV -bu-mos) [see antialbumate]. 
One of the albumoses produced by the action of 
pancreatic juice on albumin. It resembles syntonin 
or acidalbumin, and is convertible into antipeptone. 

antialexin {an-te-al-ek' -sin) . A substance which 
has the power of neutralizing the corresponding 

antiamboceptor {an-te-am-bo-sep' -tor) . A sub- 
stance which inhibits the action of an amboceptor. 

antianaphylactin {an-te-an-ah-fi-lak' -tin) . A sub- 
stance which inhibits the action of an anaphylactin. 

antianaphylaxis {an-te-an-ah-fi-lak' -sis). A con- 
dition neutralizing anaphylaxis: a state of absolute 
insusceptibility ; see ananaphylaxis. 

antiantibody {an-te-an' -te-bod-e) . An antibody to 
an antibody. 

antiantitoxin (an-te-an-te-toks'-in). An antibody 
which is formed in immunization with an antitoxin 
and which inhibits its action. 

antiaphrodisiac {an-te-af-ro-diz'-e-ak). See ana- 

antiapoplectic {an-te-ap-op-lek'-tik). An agent 
which affords relief in, or prevents apoplexy. 

antiar (an'-te-ar). See antiarin. 

antiarin (an-te'-ar-in) [Javanese, antiar or ant jar], 
C14H20O5+2H2O. The active principle of Antiaris 
toxicaria or Upas antiar, Javanese poison-tree. 
Intensely poisonous and used as an arrow-poison. 
Is a cardiac depressant. Dose xhs gr. (0.00065 

antiarsenin {an-te-ar' -sen-in) . An antitoxin pro- 
duced as the result of the administration of arsenic. 

antiarthrin {an-te-ar' -thrin) . The commercial 
name for a preparation said to consist chiefly of the 
extractives of horse chestnut, with salicin, saligenin, 
dextrose, and hydrochloric acid. It is said to be a 
specific for gout. Dose, 1 gm. 

antiarthritic {an-te-ar-thrit'-ik) [anti-; arthritis]. 
A remedy against gout. 

antiasthmatic {an-te-az-mat'-ik). See antasthmatic. 

antiautolysin {an-te-aw-toV -is-in) [anti-; avrds, 
self; Xiio-ts, solution]. A substance developed in the 
blood having the power to restrain the solvent action 
of autolysin. 

antibacterial {an-te-bdk-te' -re-al) [anti-; bacterial]. 
1. Opposed to the germ theory of disease. 2. Op- 
posed to or restraining bacterial action. 

antibacterin {an-te-bak' -ter-in) . 1. A pale yellow 
fluid said to consist of boric acid, 6.25 parts; iron 
chloride solution, 1.5 parts; chloric ether, to make 
100 parts. It is used by inhalation in tuberculosis, 
beginning with 150 gr. (10 Gm.) daily, and increasing 
to 10 times that quantity. 2. Crude aluminum 
sulphate mixed with soot. 

antibechic {an-te-bek'-ik) [anti-; (Jfe, a cough]. 
1. Alleviating or curing cough. 2. A remedy for 
cough or hoarseness. 

antibilious {an-te-biV -yus) [anti-; bilious]. Effec- 
tive against bilious disorders. 

antibiosis {an-te-bi-o' -sis) [anti-; /3ios, life]. An 
association between two or more organisms which 
is harmful to one of them. It is the opposite of 

antibiotic {an-te-bi-ot'-ik) [anti-; 0los, life]. 1. Per- 
taining to antibiosis. 2. Tending to destroy life. 

antiblennorrhagic {an-te-blen-or-aj'-ik) [anti-; &\kv- 
va, mucus; piyvvvai, to burst]. Efficient in pre- 
venting or curing gonorrhea. 

antibodies {an-te-bod'-ez). Characteristic consti- 
tuents of the blood and fluids of the immune animal; 
antagonistic to the harmful action of bacteria; e. g., 
antitoxins, agglutinins, precipitins, etc. Cf. anti- 

antebrachial {an-te-bra'-ke-al) [anti-; /3paxu>»\ the 
arm]. Pertaining to the forearm. 

antibrachium {an-te-bra' -ke-um) . The forearm. 

antibromic {an-te-bro'-mik) [anti-; Ppu>p.os, a 
stench]. 1. Deodorant. 2. A drug that destroys 
offensive smells. A deodorizer. 

antibrule {an'-ti-brul). A proprietary analgesic, 
antiseptic, and keratoplastic. 

anticachectic {an-te-kak-ek' -tik) [anti-; Ka»c6s, bad; 
e£«, habit]. Effective in destroying cachexia. 
2. A remedial agent against cachexia. 

anticacochymic {an-te-kak-o-kim'-ik) [anti-; Kaicfo, 
bad; xuauSs, juice]. Anticachectic. 

anticalculous {an-te-kaV -ku-lus) [anti-; calculus]. 
Good against calculus; antilithic. 

anticancrin {an-te-kang'-krin). See cancroin. 

anticarcinomatous {an-te-kar-sin-o' -mat-us) [anti-; 
Kapnivuna, cancer]. Preventing carcincoma. 

anticardium {an-te-kar' -de-um) [anti-; napdia., the 
heart]. The scrobiculus cordis, or pit of the stomach; 
the infrasternal depression. 

anticarious {an-te-ka' -re-us) [anti-; caries, decay]. 
Preventing decay, as of the teeth. 

anticatarrhal {an-te-kat-ar'-al) [anti-; catarrh]. 
Counteracting catarrh. 

anticathode {an-te-kath'-od). The part of a 
Crookes' tube opposite the cathode; it is that part 
on which the cathode rays impinge. 

anticaustic {an-te-kaws'-tik). Arresting the action 
of a caustic agent. 

anticausticon {an-te-kaws'-tik-on) [anti-; /cawm/cos, 
burning]. A preparation of soluble water glass. 

antichirotonus, anticheirotonus {an-te-ki-rof -o-nus) 
[anti-; x«'p. hand; tovos, tension]. Forcible and 
steady inflection of the thumb, seen at times in or 
before attacks of epilepsy. 

antichlor {an'-te-klor). 1. Sodium thiosulphate. 
2. Potassium sulphate. 

antichlorin {an-te-klor'-in). A preparation used 
in anemia and said to consist of glucose, basic bis- 
muth formate, and sodium bicarbonate. 

antichlorotic {an-te-klo-rot'-ik) [anti-; xKuporris, 
greenness]. Counteracting chlorosis. 

anticholerin {an-te-kol'-er-in) [anti-; xo^epa, choL- 
era]. A product isolated from cultures of cholera 
bacilli, and used in the treatment of cholera. 

anticipating {an-tis' -ip-a-ting) [anticipare, to take 
before]. Occurring before the regular or expected 
time, as an anticipating intermittent fever, one in 
which the paroxysms occur earlier on successive days. 

anticlinal {an-te-kli'-nal) [anti-; tiklveiv, to slope]. 
Sloping in opposite directions, a. vertebra, in man, 
the tenth thoracic vertebra, where the thoracic 
vertebrae begin to assume the characters of the 

anticloudine {an-te-klow'-din). Trade name of a 
paste for preventing moisture from precipitating on 
eyeglasses, mirrors, or glass or nickel instruments. 

anticnemion {an-tik-ne' -me-on) [anti-; nv-qn-q, leg]. 
The shin or front of the leg. 

anticnesmatic {an-tik-ne s-mat' -ik) [anti-; Kvr\, 
itching]. 1. Efficient against itching. 2. A remedy 
for itching. 

anticoagulant {an-te-ko-ag' -u-lant) [anti-; coagu- 
lum]. 1. Opposed to or preventive of coagulation. 
2. A substance preventing coagulation. 

anticoagulin {an-te-ko-ag' -u-lin). A substance 
formed in the body antagonistic in its action to that 
of a coagulin {q. v.) . 

anticomplement {an-te-kom' -ple-ment) [anti-; com- 
plement]. A substance held by Ehrlich in his lateral- 
chain theory to enter into the composition of an 
antihemolysin (g. v.). It is capable of neutralizing 
the action of a complement. Cf. antiimmune body 
under body. 

anticomplementary {an-te-kom-ple-men' -tar-e) . Cap- 
able of lessening of abolishing the action of a com- 

anticontagious {an-te-kon-ta'-jus). Counteracting 




anticonvulsive (an-te-kon-vuV-siv). Effective 
against convulsions. 

anticope (an-tik'-op-e) [avriKoirr), a beating back]. 
Resonance; reaction; repercussion; counterstroke. 

anticornutin (an-te-kor-nu'-iin) . i. Topasol G. II, 
an antiseptic combination of zinc and copper ferro- 
sulphates. 2. Topasol G. IV, a combination of 
iron, zinc, and calcium sulphate. 

anticoroin (an-le-ko'-ro-in). Topasol G. V, an 
antiseptic combination of zinc, and magnesium sul- 

anticreatinine {an-te-kre-at'-in-in). A leukomaine 
derived from creatinine. 

anticrisis (an-te-kri'-sis) [anti-; crisis]. An agent 
or phenomenon preventing a crisis. 

anticritical (an-te-krit'-ik-al) [anti-; uplais, a crisis]. 
Preventing the crisis of a disease. 

anticteric (ant-ik'-tur-ik) [anti-; icterus], i. Efficient 
against jaundice. 2. An efficient agent against 
j aundice. 

anticus (an-ti'-kus) [anticus, that in front]. An- 
terior; in front of. 

anticyclic acid. See acid, anticyclic. 

anticytolysin (an-te-si-tol'-is-in). A substance 
opposing a cytolysin. 

anticytotoxin (an-te-si-to-toks'-in). A substance 
antagonistic in its action to a cytotoxin. 

antidiabetic (an-te-di-ab-et'-ik) [anti; diabetes]. 
1. Efficient against diabetes. 2. A remedy for 

antidiabeticum (an-te-di-a-bet'-ik-um). A prepara- 
tion recommended for diabetes, said to consist of 
wheat starch, sugar of milk, sulphur, powdered senna 
leaves, and fennel. Syn., glycosolveol; glycosolvol. 

antidiabetin (an-te-di-ab-e'-tin). A mixture of 
saccharin and mannite, used instead of sugar by 

antidiarrheal (an-te-di-ar-e'-al) [anti-; diarrhea]. 
Preventing or overcoming diarrhea. 

antidiastase (an-te-di'-as-tas). An antibody to 

antidiastole (an-te-di-as'-to-le) [eWiSiao-roXij, dis- 
tinction]. Differential diagnosis. 

antidigestive (an-te-di-jes'-tiv) [anti-; digestion]. 
Preventing the proper digestion of the food. 

antidinic (an-te-din' -ik) [anti-; Slvos, a whirl]. 
Relieving or preventing vertigo. 

antidiphtherin (an-te-dif-ther-in). A solution con- 
taining cultures of Bacillus diphtheria, used against 
diphtheria, a., Klebs', a preparation obtained by 
precipitation with alcohol from the culture-fluid of 
Bacillus diphtherias after removal of the bacilli. 

antidolorin (an-te-do'-lor-in) [anti-; dolor, pain]. 
A proprietary preparation of ethyl chloride, used 
for the relief of superficial pain. 

antidotal (an-te-do'-tal) [anti-; doros, given]. 
Having the nature of an antidote. 

antidote (an'-te-dot) [see antidotal]. An agent 
preventing or counteracting the action of a poison. 
a., arsenical, is prepared by dissolving 100 parts of 
the hydrated sulphate of iron in 250 parts of water, 
to which 15 parts of burnt magnesia and 250 parts 
of water are added, a., chemical, one that changes 
the chemical nature of the poison so that it becomes 
insoluble or harmless, a., mechanical, one that 
prevents absorption by holding the poison in mechani- 
cal suspension or by coating the stomach, a., 
physiological, one that counteracts the physiological 
effects of a poison, a., universal, a mixture of 1 part 
of dissolved iron sulphate in 2 parts of magnesia water. 

antidotism {an' -te-do-tizm) [see antidotal]. Thera- 
peutic or physiologic antagonism; the possession of 
antidotal properties; the act of giving antidotes. 

antidromic nerve impulses (an-te-drom'-ik) [anti-; 
Spd/xos, a running]. Nerve impulses passing in the 
opposite direction to the normal, such as occurs 
when vasodilatation follows peripheral stimulation 
of an afferent nerve. 

antidynamic (an-le-di-nam'-ik) [anti-; dvpa/us, 
force]. Weakening, depressing. 

antidyne, antidynous (an'-te-dln, an-tid'-in-us) 
[anti-; bSvvi), pain]. Anodyne. 

antidyscratic (an-te-dis-krat'-ik) [anti-; Svatcpaaia, 
bad temperament]. Tending to overcome, as a 

antidysenteric (an-te-dis-en-ter'-ik) [anti-; dysen- 
tery]. 1. Serviceable against dysentery. 2. A remedy 
for dysentery. 

antidysentericum (an-te-dis-en-ter'-ik-um). A pro- 
prietary remedy for dysentery and chronic diarrhea, 

said to consist of myrobalans, pelletierine, extract of 
rose and gum arabic. 

antidysuric (an-te-dis-u'-rik) [anti-; dvaovpia, diffi- 
cult micturition]. Relieving dysuria. 

antiemetic (an-te-em-et'-ik) [anti-; emetic]. Pre- 
venting emesis; relieving nausea. 

antiendotoxic (an-te-en-do-toks'-ik) . Preventing or 
counteracting the effect of endotoxins. 

antiendotoxin (an-te-en-do-toks'-in). An antibody 
which counteracts a bacterial endotoxin. 

antienzyme ian-te-en' '-zim) [anti-; enzyme]. An 
agent which neutralizes the action of an enzyme. 

antiephialtic (an-ti-ef-e-al'-tik) . See antephialtic. 

antiepilectic (an-te-ep-il-ek'-tik). See antepilectic. 

antifebrile (an-te-feb'-ril) [anti-; febris, a fever]. 
An agent reducing a fever; a febrifuge. 

antifebrin (an-te-feb'-rin) [anti-; febris, a fever], 
C6H5 . C2H3O . NH. The proprietary name of ace- 
tanilide or phenylacetamide. A white, crystalline 
powder, insoluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, 
ether, and chloroform. It is antipyretic and anal- 
gesic. The drug's official name is acetanilidum. 
Dose 5-10 gr. (0.3-0.6 Gm.). 

antiferment (an-te-fer'-ment) [anti-; fermentum, 
leaven]. An agent that prevents fermentation. 

antifermentative (an-te-fer-men'-ta-tiv) [antifer- 
ment]. Preventing fermentation. 

antiflatulent (an-te-flat' -u-lent) . 1. Efficient against 
flatulence. 2. A remedy for flatulence. 

antiformin (an-te-for'-min). Trade name of a 
disinfectant preparation containing solution of 
potassium or sodium hypochlorite and of sodium 
hydrate. It has a powerful solvent action on certain 
organic substances; and is used in the laboratory for 
the separation of tubercle bacilli from sputum, urine, 
and other pathological products which contain these 

antifungin (an-te-fun'-jiri). Magnesium borate, 
used as a gargle. 

antigalactagogue (an-te-gal-ak'-ta-gog) [anti-; ya\a, 
milk; dyayds, leading]. Same as antigalactic. 

antigalactic (an-te-gal-ak'-tik) [anti-; ya\a, milk]. 
1. Lessening the secretion of milk. 2. A drug that 
lessens the flow of milk. 

antigen (an'-te-jen) [anti-; yewav, to produce]. 
Any bacterium or substance which, when injected 
into an organism, is capable of causing the formation 
of an antibody. 

antigermin (an-te-jer'-min). A compound of copper 
and an acid, forming a yellowish-green, tenacious 
mass, soluble in 200 parts of water. It is said to be 
disinfectant, deodorant, and bactericidal. 

antigerminal (an-te-jer'-min-al) [anti-; germ]. 
Relating to the pole of the ovum opposed to the 
germinal pole. 

antigonorrheic (an-te-gon-o-re'-ik). A substance 
which is capable of aiding in the cure of gonorrhea. 

antihelix (an-te-he'-liks). See anthelix. 

antihemagglutinin (an-te-hem-ag-glu' -tin-in). A 
substance opposed in action to the hemagglutinins 

antihemolysin {an-te-he-moV -is-in) [anti-; alpa, 
blood; Xvais, solution]. A complex substance in the 
blood-serum developed by inoculations with hemoly- 
sins. It is an antibody to hemolysin; and is com- 
posed of anticomplements and antiimmune bodies. 

antihemolytic {an-te-hem-o-lit'-ik). Relating to an 
antihemolysin; not capable of dissolving blood- 
corpuscles. Preventing hemolysis. 

antihemorrhoidal (an-te-hem-or-oid'-al). 1. Effec- 
tive against hemorrhoids. 2. A remedy for hemor- 

antiherpetic (an-te-her-pet'-ik) [anti-; herpes]. 
Preventing herpes. 

antihidrotic (an-te-hi-drot'-ik) [anti-; idpus, sweat]. 
1. Diminishing the secretion of sweat. 2. An agent 
that lessens perspiration. 

antihormone (an-te-hor'-mon) [anti-; hormone], 
A hormone which counteracts another hormone; an 
antagonistic hormone; a chalone. 

antihydropic (an-te-hi-drop'-ik). See anthydropic. 

antihydropin {an-te-hi' -dro-pin) [anti-; i>8up, water]. 
A crystalline principle obtainable from the common 
cockroach, Blatta {P eriplaneta) orientalis, and said 
to be diuretic. Dose 10-20 gr. (0.6-1.3 Gm.). 

antihysterical (an-te-his-ter'-ik-al). Relieving or 
inhibiting hysteria. 

antiicteric {an-te-ik-ter'-ik) [anti-; icteric]. Service- 
able against jaundice. 

antiimmune bodies. See under body. 




antiisolysin (an-te-i-sol'-is-in). A substance which 
is capable of counteracting the action of an isolysin. 

antikamnia (an-te-kam' -ne-ah) [anti-; naixveiv, to 
suffer pain]. A proprietary remedy said to be com- 
posed of sodium bicarbonate, acetanilide, and 
caffeine. It is used as an analgesic in doses of 5-10 
gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). 

antikathode (an-te-kath'-od) [anti-; kathode]. A 
piece of platinum foil so placed in a Crookes tube 
as to intercept the kathode rays; being thus rendered 
fluorescent, it becomes a source of roentgen-rays. 

antiketogen (an-te-ke'-to-jen) [anti-; ketogen]. A 
substance which produces antiketogenesis. 

antiketogenesis (an-te-ke-to-jen'-es-is) [anti-; ketone 
(acetone); genesis]. The dimination of acidosis by 
the oxidation of sugar and allied substances in the 

antiketogenic (an-te-ke-to-jen'-ik) [anti-; ketone 
(acetone); yewav, to produce]. 1. Pertaining to 
antiketogenesis. 2. Preventing the formation of 

antikinase (an-te-ki' -nas) . An antibody to kinase. 

antikol (an'-tik-ol). A proprietary antipyretic 
mixture said to contain acetanilide, sodium bicar- 
bonate, and tartaric acid. 

antilabium (an-te-la'-be-um). See antelabium. 

antilactase (an-te-lak'-tas). Antibody which coun- 
teracts lactase. 

antilactic (an-te-lak'-tik). See antigalactic. 

antilactoserum (an-te-lak-to-se'-rum). A substance 
antagonistic in its action to lactoserum (q. v.). 

antilemic, antiloemic, antiloimic (an-te-le'-mik, 
an-te-loi' -mik) [anti-; Xot/xos, the plague]. Efficacious 
against the plague or other pestilence. 

antileprol (an-te-lep'-rol). The ethyl ester of 
chaulmoogra acid, recommended in place of chaul- 
moogra oil in treatment of leprosy. 

antilepsis (an-til-ep'-sis) [avTikrjipis, a receiving in 
return]. 1. The treatment of disease by the appli- 
cation of the remedy to a healthy part; revulsive 
treatment. 2. A taking root. 3. A taking effect. 
4. A seizure; an attack. 5. The support of a band- 

antileptic (an-til-ep'-tik) [6lvtI\t)\Pis, a receiving 
in return]. 1. Revulsive. 2. Supporting, assisting. 

antilethargic (an-te-leth-ar'-jik). 1. Anesting 
lethargy; hindering sleep. 2. An agent efficacious 
against lethargy. 

antileukocidin {an-te-lu-ko' -si-din). The antibody 
for the leukocytic poison of the streptococcus. 

antileukotoxin (an-te-lu-ko-tok'-sin). The antibody 
to a leukotoxin. 

antilipase (an-te-lip'-as). A substance inhibiting 
or counteracting a lipase. 

antilithemic (an-te-lith-e'-mik) [anti; lithemia]. 
Correcting lithemia. 

antilithic (an-te-lith'-ik) [anti-; >.L6os, a stone]. 
1. Efficacious against calculus. 2. An agent pre- 
venting the deposit of urinary sediment. 

antilobium (an-te-lo'-be-um) [anti-; Xo/Scs, the lobe 
of the ear]. The tragus or part of the ear opposite 
the lobe. 

antiloemic (an-ti-le' -mik) . See antilemic. 

antiluetic (an-te-lu-et'-ik) [anti-; lues, the plague; 
syphilis]. Efficacious against syphilis. 

antilypyrin {an-te-le-pV -rin) . An antipyretic and 
analgesic substance obtained by heating acetanilide, 
1 part, with antipyrine, 2 parts. Dose 7-8 gr. (0.45- 
0.52 Gm.). 

antilysin (an-til'-is-in) [anti-; Aixm, a loosing]. 
A substance opposed to the activity of a lysin. 

antilysis (an-til'-is-is). The condition due to the 
activity of antilysins. 

antilyssic (an-te-lis'-ik) [anti-; \vaaa, rabies]. 
1. Tending to cure rabies. 2. A remedy for rabies. 

antilytic. Relating to the action of an antilysin. 

antimalarial (an-te-mal-a'-re-al). Preventing or 
curing malaria. 

antimaniacal (an-te-ma-ni' -ak-al) [anti-; navLa, 
madness]. Overcoming insanity. 

antimellin (an-te-meV -in) . A remedy employed 
in diabetes purporting to be a glucoside separated 
from the fruit of Eugenia jambolana. 

antimephitic (an-te-mef-if '-ik) [anti-; mephitis, a 
pestilential exhalation]. Efficacious against foul 
exhalations or their effects. 

antimere (an'-te-mer) [anti-; nkpos, a part]. 
1. Any one of the segments of the body that are 
bounded by planes typically at right* angles to the 
long axis of the body. 2. A homotype. 

antimerology (an-te-mer-ol'-o-je) [anti-; fiepos, a 
part; \6yos, science]. The science of homoty pic parts. 

antimetropia (an-te-met-ro' -pe-ah) [anti-; melropia]. 
A condition characterized by opposing states of 
refraction in the two eyes, as, for example, the exist- 
ence of myopia in one eye and of hyperopia in the 

antimiasmatic (an-te-mi-as-mat'-ik) [anti-; fiiaa-fia, 
exhalation]. Preventive of malaria. 

antimicrobic (an-te-mi-kro'-bik) [anti-; microbe]. 
Arresting the development of microbes; antibacterial. 

antimicrophyte (an-te-mik'-ro-fit) [avH, against; 
Mucpos, small; <j>vt6v, plant]. A germicide. 

antimigraine (an-te-mig'-ran). A proprietary 
preparation said to consist of caffeine, antipyrine 
and sugar. Dose, 1.5 gm. Syn., antihemicranin. 

antimonial (an-te-mo' -ne-aV) [antimonium, anti- 
mony]. Containing antimony. 

antimonic (an-te-mon'-ik) [see antimonial]. A 
term applied to those compounds of antimony that 
correspond to its higher oxide. 

antimonide (an'-te-mo-nid). Any binary combi- 
nation of antimony. 

antimonious (an-te-mo'-ne-us) [see antimonial]. 
A term denoting those compounds of antimony that 
correspond to its lower oxide. 

antimonium (an-te-mo'-ne-um). See antimony. 

antimony (an'-te-mo-ne) [L., antimonium]. Sb = 
120.2; quantivalence III and V. A metallic, crystal- 
line element possessing a bluish-white luster. The 
symbol Sb is derived from the old name, stibium. 
Antimony is found native, as the sulphide, Sb2S3, as 
the oxide, and is a constituent of many minerals. 
It is used commercially chiefly for making alloys. 
Type-metal, Britannia metal, and Babbitt antifric- 
tion metal are alloys of antimony. In medicine 
salts of antimony are used less frequently than 
formerly. The salts are cardiac and arterial de- 
pressants, diaphoretic and emetic, and in large doses 
powerful gastrointestinal irritants, producing symp- 
toms resembling those of Asiatic cholera. Antimony 
has been used as an antiphlogistic in sthenic inflam- 
mation, as a diaphoretic and expectorant, and as an 
emetic, a. arsenate, a heavy white powder; it is 
used in syphilitic affections of the skin. Dose & gr. 
(0.001 Gm.) 4 times daily, a. arsenite, a fine white 
powder; it is used in skin diseases, a. chloride, SbCb, 
the "butter" of antimony; a strong caustic, a. 
iodide, Sbb, red crystals, decomposed by water, 
soluble in carbon disulphide; melts at 167 ° C. It is 
alterative. _ Dose |-i gr. (0.016-0.065 Gm.) in pills. 
a. oxychloride, the "powder of algaroth"; now little 
used. a. pentoxide, St^Os, antimonic acid, combines 
with bases to form antimoniates. a., pills of, com- 
pound (pilules antimonii composite, B. P.), Plum- 
mer's pills, contain calomel and sulphureted anti- 
mony, of each, \ gr. (0.032 Gm.). a. and potassium 
tartrate (antimonii et potassii tartras, U. S. P.; 
antimonium tartaratum, B. P.), 2KSbOC4H40e . H2O,. 
"tartar emetic." Dose ^-^ gr. (0.004-0.016 Gm.). 
a., powder of (pulvis antimonialis, B. P.), antimonial- 
powder, James' powder, consists of antimonious 
oxide 33, and calcium phosphate 67 parts, and is- 
diaphoretic; in large doses, emetic and cathartic 
Dose 3-8 gr. (0.2-0.5 Gm.). a. sulphide, Sb2S», 
black sulphide of antimony. Dose \-i gr. (0.016- 
0.065 Gm.). a. sulphide, golden, Sb2So, a fine, 
odorless, orange-yellow powder, soluble in alkaline 
solutions. It is alterative, diaphoretic, emetic, and 
expectorant. Dose £-ii gr. (0.01-0.1 Gm.) several 
times daily, a., sulphureted (antimonium sulphur- 
atum, B. P.), the sulphide with a small but indefinite 
amount of the oxide. Dose 1-5 gr. (0.065-0.32 Gm.). 
a. tartrate, (SbO^QHUOe+I^O, a white, crystalline 
powder. Used internally as a substitute for arsenic 
in affections of the skin. Dose ^ gr. (0.0065 Gm.) 
3 to 5 times daily, a. trioxide, antimonious acid, 
Sb2C>3; soluble in hydrochloric and tartaric acids. 
Dose 1-2 gr. (0.065-0.13 Gm.). It is an ingredient 
of James' powder, a., vegetable, boneset. a., wine 
of (vinum antimonii, U. S. P.), boiling water, 60; 
tartar emetic, 4; stronger white wine, 1000 parts. 
It contains about 2 gr. of tartar emetic to the ounce. 
Dose 5-15 min. (0.3-1.6 Cc). 

antimonyl (an'-tim-on-il). SbO. The univalent 
radical of antimonous compounds. 

antimucorin (an-te-mu' -kor-in) . Topasol G. Ill, 
an antiseptic preparation of iron and zinc sulphate. 

antimycetic (an-le-mi-se'-tik) [anti-; ^vK-qs, fungus]. 
1. See actinomycotic. 2. A fungicide. 


antimycotic (an-te-mi-kot'-ik) [anti-; tivK-qs, a 
fungus]. Destructive to microorganisms. 

antimydriatic {an-te-mid-re-at'-ik) [anti-; p.vSplacris, 
mydriasis], i. Opposed to or arresting dilatation of 
the pupils. 2. A drug efficacious against mydriasis. 

antinarcotic (an-te-nar-kot'-ik) [anti-; vapKuo-is, 
a benumbing]. Preventing narcosis. 

antinausea (an-te-naw' -se-aK) . A remedy for 
seasickness, said to consist of cocaine and antipyrine. 

antinephritic (an-te-nef-rit'-ik) [anti-; ve<f>p6s, the 
kidney; irw, inflammation]. Preventing or curative 
of renal disease. 

antinervin (an-te-ner'-vin) [anti-; nervus, a tendon 
or nerve]. Salbromalide, a mixture of bromacetani- 
lide and salicylanilide; used for the relief of neuralgia. 

antineuralgic (an-te-nu-ral'-jik) [anti-; vevpov, a 
nerve; aXyos, pain]. Overcoming neuralgia. 

antineuritic {an-te-nu-riV '-ik) . i. Efficient in 
neuritis. 2. A remedy against neuritis. 

antineuropathic (an-te-nu-ro-path'-ik) [anti-; vevpov, 
nerve; iraBos, a disease]. 1. Efficient against nervous 
disorders. 2. A remedy efficient in nervous diseases. 

antineurotic (an-te-nii-rot'-ik) [anti-; vevpov, a 
nerve]. A remedy of service in nervous diseases. 

antineurotoxin (an-te-nu-ro-tok'-siri). A substance 
which inhibits or counteracts a neurotoxin. 

antiniad (an-tin'-e-ad) [anti-; IvLov, the nape of the 
neck]. Toward the antinion; glabellad. 

antinial (an-tin'-e-al) [anti-; ivlov, the nape of the 
neck]._ Pertaining to the antinion. 

antinien (an-tin'-e-en) [anti-; ivlov, the nape of the 
neck]. Belonging to the antinion in itself. 

antinion (an-tin'-e-on) [anti-; ivlov, the nape of 
the neck]. See craniometrical points. 

antinonnin (an-te-non'-in), CeH2 . (N02)2 . CH3OK, 
potassium orthodinitrocresylate. See dinitrocresol. 

antinosin (an-te-no'-sin) [anti-; voo-os, disease]. 
Tetraiodophenolphthalein, the soluble sodium salt of 
nosophen; it is a greenish-blue antiseptic powder, 
used in powder or in solutions of 1 : 1000, for 
irrigations or gargle. 

antiobesic (an-te-o-be'-sik) [anti-; obesity], 1. Ef- 
ficient against corpulence. 2. A remedy for cor- 

antiodontalgic (an-te-o-don-taV-jik) [anti-; 65ovs, 
tooth; a\7os, pain]. Curative of toothache. 

antiopsonin (an-te-op'-son-in). A substance re- 
tarding or destroying the action of an opsonin. 

antiorgastic (an-te-or-gas'-tik) [anti-; 6pya.o-p.6s, 
swelling, excitement]. Anaphrodisiac. 

antiotomia, antiotomy (an-te-o-to'-me-ah, an-te- 
ot'-om-e) [hvTLas, a tonsil; rkp.vtw, to cut]. Excision 
of the tonsils. 

antipaludean (an-te-pal-u'-de-an) [anti-; palus, 
a marsh]. Efficient against malarial diseases. 

antiparalytic (an-te-par-al-it'-ik) [anti-; paralysis]. 
1. Efficient against paralysis. An agent or remedy 
efficacious in paralysis. 

antiparasitic (an-te-par-as-it'-ik) [anti-; irapaocros, 
a parasite]. 1. Destroying parasites. 2. An agent 
destroying parasites. 

antiparastata (an-te-par-as'-tat-ah) [anti-; irapao-- 
t arris, testicle]. Cowper's glands. 

antiparastatitis (an-te-par-as-tat-i'-tis) [anti-; rapaa- 
■7-dTTjs, a testicle]. Inflammation of Cowper's glands. 

antipathic {an-te-path'-ik) [anti-; iraBos, disease]. 

1. A synonym of allopathic, both terms alike being 
rejected by the advocates of rational medicine. 

2. Producing contrary symptoms. 3. Antagonistic. 
4. Anodyne. 

antipathy (an-tip'-a-the) [anti-; iraBos, affection]. 
1. Aversion; an opposing property or quality. 2. 
Morbid disgust or repugnance for particular objects. 

3. Allopathy (q. v.). 4. An object exciting morbid 
dislike or aversion. 5. Chemical incompatibility. 
a., insensile, morbid repugnance excited by the 
presence of some object which was not perceived by 
any of the senses, a., sensile, morbid aversion 
aroused by some appreciable quality of the exciting 

{an-te-pep' -ton) [anti-; irkirreiv, to 
A variety of peptone not acted upon 

cook; digest], 
by trypsin. 

going round] 

(an-te-pe-ri-od'-ik) [anti-; irtplobos, a 
1. Preventing periodic attacks of a 
disease. 2. A remedy against periodic disease, a. 
tincture, see Warburg's tincture. 

antiperistalsis (an-te-per-is-tal'-sis) [anti-; irepl, 
around; otoXo-Is, compression]. Reversed peristalsis; 
inverted or upward peristaltic action. 


antiperistaltic (an-te-per-is-tal'-tik) [see antiperi- 
stalsis]. Relating to antiperistalsis. 

antiperonosporin {an-te-per-o-nos' -por-in) . Topasol 
G. I, an antiseptic preparation of zinc and copper 

antiphagin (an-lif'-a-jin) [anti-; phagocyte]. A 
substance formed in virulent bacteria which protects 
them against phagocytosis. 

antiphagocytic (an-te-fag-o-sit'-ik). Protecting 
against or preventing phagocytosis. 

antiphialtic {ant-if-e-aV -tik) [anti-; i<pidXrris, night- 
mare]. Preventive of nightmare. 

antiphlogistic (an-te-flo-jis'-tik) [anti-; <pX6yo>o-Ls, 
inflammatory heat]. 1. Counteracting fever. 2. An 
agent subduing or reducing inflammation or fever. 
3. Applied to the pneumatic theory of Lavoisier as 
having supplanted Stahl's phlogistic theory, a. 
treatment, bloodletting, the application of cold, the 
administration of antipyretics, etc. 

antiphlogistine (an-te-flo-jis'-tin) [see antiphlogistic]. 
Trade name of a paste said to consist of kaolin or 
purified clay, glycerol, and antiseptics; it is a sub- 
stitute for poultices. 

antiphlogosis {an-te-fio-go'-sis) [see antiphlogistic]. 

1. The reduction of inflammation. 2. Inflammation 
purposely excited to counteract other inflammation. 

antiphone (an'-te-fon) [anti-; <puvr), sound]. An 
appliance worn in the auditory meatus, and in- 
tended to protect the wearer from noises. 

antiphthiriac, antiphtheiriac (an-te-thi'-re-ak) [anti-; 
4>0eip, a louse]. 1. Efficient against lice or the con- 
dition caused by them. 2. An agent effective against 

antiphthisic (an-le-liz'-ik) [anti-; <pdi<ris, a wasting]. 
Efficient against phthisis. An agent checking in 

antiphthisin (an-te-ti'-sin). A modified tuberculin, 
made from the slight residue after precipitation with 
sodium bismuth iodide. 

antiphymin (an-te-fi'-min) [anti-; 4>vp.a, a tubercle]. 
Trade name of a preparation used in tuberculosis. 
It is said to consist of formaldehyde, ozone, sulphur 
dioxide. Used by inhalation in tuberculosis. 

antiphytosin (an-te-fi-to'-sin). A preparation re- 
sembling tuberculin. 

antipilus (an-te-pi'-lus) [anti-; pilus, a hair]. 
Trade name of a preparation for removing hair. 

antiplasis (an-te-pla'-sis). See antiplasm. 

antiplasm (an'-te-plazm) [anti-; irXao-fia, a thing 
molded]. 1. Formation according to a pattern. 

2. Remolding into the normal form, 
antiplastic (an-te-plas'-tik) [anti-; irXacro-eiv, to 

form]. 1. Unfavorable to granulation or to the 
healing process. 2. An agent impoverishing the 
blood : 3. Preventing or checking plastic exudation. 

antipruritic (an-te-plu-rit'-ik) [anti-; irXevplrrjs, 
pleurisy]. Overcoming pleurisy. 

antipneumonic (an-te-nii-mon'-ik) [anti-; pneu- 
monia]. Of value in treating pneumonia. 

antipneumotoxin (an-te-nu-mo-toks'-in). An anti- 
toxin opposing pneumotoxin. 

antipodagric (an-te-po-dag'-rik) [anti-; irodaypa, 
gout]. Efficacious against gout. 

antipodal (an-tip'-od-al) [anti-; irovs, a foot]. 
Situated directly opposite, a. cells, a term applied 
to a group of four cells formed in the lower end of 
the embryo-sac opposite to the cells constituting the 
egg-apparatus, a. cone, the cone of astral rays 
opposite to the spindle-fibers. 

antipraxia (an-te-praks'-e-ah) [anti-; irpao-ativ, to 
do]. Antagonism of functions or of symptoms. 

antiprecipitin (an-te-pre-sip'-it-in). A substance 
antagonistic. to a precipitin (q. v.). 

antiprostate (an-le-pros'-tat). See anteprostate. 

antipruritic (an-te-pru-rit'-ik) [anti-; pruritus, 
itching]. 1. Relieving the sensation of itching. 
2. A drug that relieves the sensation of itching. 

antipsoric (an-tip-so'-rik) [anti-; 4>6>pa, the itch]. 
Effective against itching or the itch. 

antiputrefactive (an-te-pu-tre-fak'-liv). See anti- 

antipyic (an-te-pi'-ik) [anti-; irvov, pus]. Checking 
or restraining suppuration. 

antipyogenic (an-te-pi-o-jen'-ik) [anti-; irvov, pus; 
yewav, to form]. Preventing or counteracting sup- 

antipyonin (an-te-pi'-on-in). Sodium tetraborate. 

antipyresis (an-te-pi-re'-sis) [anti-; irvperos, fever]. 
The reduction of fever by means of antipyretics. 

antipyretic (an-te-pi-ret'-ik) [see antipyresis]. 




i. Cooling; lowering the temperature. 2. An agent 
reducing temperature. The most important anti- 
pyretic agents are cold, diaphoretics, and the newer 
remedies, many of which are coal-tar products, such 
as antipyrine, acetanilide, phenacetin, etc. 

antipyrine, antipyrin (an-te-pi'-rin) [anti-; trvp, 
fever heat], C11H12N2O. Phenazone. The scientific 
name is dimethyloxychinicin-phenyldimethylpyra- 
zolon, or dihydrodimethylphenylpyrazine. An alka- 
loidal product of the destructive distillation of coal- 
tar. It may be produced by heating acetoacetic 
ester with methylphenylhydrazine. It is a grayish 
or reddish-white, crystalline powder, slightly bitter, 
soluble in water, alcohol, and chloroform, and crystal- 
lizes from an ethereal solution in shining leaflets 
melting at 113 . It reduces temperature, causes 
sweating, at times vomiting, peculiar eruptions, 
pruritus, coryza, etc. Not rarely a cyanotic con- 
dition of the face and hands is produced. Antipyrine 
is incompatible with nitrous compounds. It is a 
powerful antipyretic and analgesic. Dose 5-15 gr. 
(0.3-1.0 Gm.). a. bichloral, a trituration-product 
of 94 parts of antipyrine with 165.5 parts of chloral 
hydrate; it is hypnotic and analgesic. Maximum 
dose 45 gr. (3 Gm.). Syn., dichloralantipyrine. a. 
mandelate, a crystalline compound of antipyrine 
and amygdalic acid, used as a remedy for whooping- 
cough. Dose f-8 gr. (0.05-0.5 Gm.). Syn., tussol; 
phenylgly collate, a. salicylate, a. salol, a brown 
liquid obtained by fusing together equal parts of 
phenyl salicylate and antipyrine. It is recom- 
mended as an antiseptic, and as a hemostatic in 
uterine hemorrhage, applied by means of cotton 
tampons. Syn., salipyrine. a., test for, see Fieux. 

antipyrinomania (an-te-pi-rin-o-ma'-ne-ah) [anti-; 
irvperos, fever; fiavla, madness]. A condition similar 
to morphinism, due to excessive use of antipyrine. 
It is marked by nervous excitement. 

antipyrotic (an-te- pi-rot' -ik) [anti-; 7ri>pw<m, a 
burning]. 1. Efficacious against burns. 2. An 
agent curative of burns. 

antirabic (an-te-ra'-bik) [anti-; rabies, madness]. 
Preventing or curing rabies. 

antirennene (an-te-ren'-en). Morgenroth's name 
for the principle which appears in the blood of an 
animal following the introduction of rennet. It has 
the power of impeding the action of rennet on milk. 

antirheumatic (an-te-ru-mat'-ik) [anti-; rheuma- 
tism). Preventing or curing rheumatism. 

antirheumaticum (an-te-ru-maf -ik-um) . A com- 
pound of sodium salicylate and methylene-blue. 
It occurs in blue, prismatic crystals, soluble in water 
and alcohol. Dose i-if gr. (0.06-0.09 Gm.). 

antirheumatin (an-te-ru' -mat-in) . An ointment 
used in treatment of rheumatism, and said to contain 
fluorphenetol, 1 part; difluordiphenyl, 4 parts; 
vaselin, 10 parts; wool-fat, 85 parts. 

antirheumol (an-te-ru'-mol). A solution of the 
glycerin ester of salicylic acid in glycerin and alcohol. 
It is used as a liniment in rheumatism. 

antiricin (an-te-ris'-in). The antibody to ricin. 
Its action is inhibited by cold and accelerated by 

antirrhachitic (an-te-rak-it'-ik) [anti-; pdx«, the 
spinel. Serviceable against rickets. 

antirrheoscope (an-te-re'-o-skop) [avrlppoia, a 
flowing back; (ricoireiv, to view]. J. J. Oppel's device 
for observing the manifestations of visual vertigo. 

Antirrhinum (an-te-ri'-num) [L.]. A genus of 
scrophulariaceous plants. A. linaria, called also 
Linaria vulgaris, toadflax, ramsted, "butter-and- 
eggs," is a herbaceous plant of Europe and North 
America; diuretic, cathartic, and irritant; used as a 
poultice and fomentation. 

antiscabin (an-te-ska'-bin). A preparation said 
to consist of beta-naphthol, balsam of Peru, soap, 
glycerin, boric acid, and alcohol. It is used in the 
treatment of scabies. 

antiscabious (an-te-ska'-be-us) [anti, against; sca- 
bies]. _ Effective against the itch. 

antiscarlatinal (an-te-skar-lat'-in-al) [anti, against; 
scarlatina]. Efficient against scarlet fever. 

antiscirrhous (an-te-skir'-us). Efficient against 

antisclerosin (an-te-skle-ro'-sin). Trade name of a 
preparation of various inorganic salts, similar to 
Trunecek's serum, used in arteriosclerosis to lessen 
the intra-arterial pressure. 

antiscolic (an-te-skol'-ik) [&.vri, against; c/cwXtj^, a 
worm]. Vermifuge. See anthelmintic. 

antiscorbutic (an-te-skor-bic'-tik) [anti-; scorbutus, 
scurvy]. 1. Effective against scurvy. 2. A remedy 
useful in scurvy. 

antisecosis (an-te-sek-o'-sis) [anti-; aijKoeiv, to 
weigh, balance]. 1. A restoration of health, strength, 
etc. 2. Regulation of the food. 

antisensibilisin (an-te-sen-sib-iV -is-in) . One of 
the substances in an antigen. 

antisensitizer (an-te-sen'-sit-i-zer). In Ehrlich's 
side-chain theory, a substance antagonistic in its 
action to that of the intermediary body or sensitizer. 

antisepsin (an-te-sep'-sin) [anti-; o-f)4/is, putre- 
faction], Ce^BrNHGzHsO. Asepsin; bromated 
acetanilide; soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble 
in water. It is antipyretic, analgesic, and antiseptic. 
Dose 6-7 gr. (0.39-0.45 Gm.). 

antisepsis (an-te-sep'-sis) [see antisepsin]. Ex- 
clusion of the germs that cause putrefaction. 

antiseptic (an-te-sep' -tik) [see antisepsin]. 1. Hav- 
ing power to prevent the growth of the bacteria 
upon which putrefaction depends. 2. An agent 
that prevents development of bacteria. Among the 
principal antiseptics are mercuric chloride, creolin, 
phenol, iodoform, thymol, salicylic acid, boric acid, 
formaldehyde, and potassium permanganate, a. 
gauze, open cotton cloth charged with an antiseptic. 
a. ligature, catgut or other material rendered aseptic 
by soaking in antiseptic solutions, a. treatment of 
wounds, this looks to thorough antisepsis as regards 
the wound, the instruments, the operator's hands, 
ths dressings, etc. 

antisepticin (an-te-sep'-tis-in). Trade name of an 
antiseptic mixture containing benzoic and boric 
acids, thymol and eucalyptol. 

antisepticism (an-te-sep' -tis-izm) [see antisepsin]. 
The theory or systematic employment of antiseptic 

antisepticize (an-te-sep' -tis-lz) [see antisepsin]. 
To render antiseptic; to treat with antiseptics. 

antisepticol (an-te-sep' -tik-ol). Trade name of a 
liquid antiseptic said to contain boric acid, sodium 
borate, benzoic acid, thymol, eucalyptol, menthol 
and oil wintergreen. 

antiseptin (an-te-sep' -tin) [see antisepsin]. 1. Zinc 
borothymoliodide. It consists of 85 parts zinc 
sulphate, 2.5 parts each of zinc iodide and thymol, 
and 10 parts boric acid. It is an antiseptic. 2. A 
proprietary preparation said to consist of sodium or 
potassium silicate, 2 parts, and a 0.1 % solution of 
mercuric chloride, 1 part. 

antiseptol (an-te-sep' -tol) [see antisepsin], Cin- 
chonine iodosulphate, an odorless and fairly effective 
substitute for iodoform. 

antiserum (ante-se'-rum). A serum having the 
power of agglutinating and precipitating another 
serum, a. method, a method of differentiating 
human from other blood; modified Uhlenhuth's 
antiserum method. Human blood-serum is injected 
into the peritoneal cavity of rabbits in doses of 10 Cc. 
every 8 or 10 days. After 6 injections their blood is 
collected and preserved on ice; the serum is pipeted 
off after 24 hours. Some rabbits, as control-animals, 
are not injected. The blood to be tested is, if dried, 
first dissolved, and then, as is fluid blood, diluted 
with ordinary water and salt solution. Several 
drops of the test-serum are added and the tubes 
placed at a temperature of 35 . If the blood to be 
tested is human, a turbidity appears invariably; if 
not human, it remains clear. 

antisialagogue, antisialagog (an-le-si-al'-a-gog) [an- 
ti-; alaKov, saliva; ayuyos, leading]. 1. Preventing 
or checking salivation. 2. A remedy that is effective 
against salivation. 

antisialic (an-te-si-al'-ik) [anti-; a-LaXov, saliva], 
1. Checking the flow of saliva. 2. An agent that 
checks the secretion of saliva. 

antisideric (an-te-sid-er'-ik) [anti-; aldepos, iron]. 
1. Incompatible with iron and counteracting its 
effects; impoverishing the blood. 2. An agent or 
drug opposed to the action of iron; one which im- 
poverishes the blood. 

antispasmin (an-le-spaz'-min) , C23H26NOsNa + 
3NaC?H603. A compound of 1 molecule of narceine 
sodium united with 3 molecules of sodium sali- 
cylate, occurring as a white, slightly hygroscopic 
powder containing about 50 % of narceine. It is 
sedative and hypnotic. Dose i-i 5 gr. (0.01-9.1 

antispasmodic (an-le-spaz-mod'-ik) [anti-; <, 
a spasm]. 1. Tending to relieve spasm. 2. An agent 




relieving convulsions or spasmodic pains, as the 
narcotics, the nitrites, etc. 

antispastic (an-te-spas'-tik) [anti-; airaaTiicos, draw- 
ing], i. Revulsive; counter irritant. 2. Antispas- 
modic. 3- A revulsive agent. 4. An antispasmodic. 

antispermotoxin (an-ie-spur-mo-toks'-in). A sub- 
stance opposed in its action to spermotoxin. 

antispirochetic (an-te-spi-ro-ke'-tik) [anti-; spiro- 
chete, a genus of bacteria]. 1. Arresting the action 
of spirochetes. 2. An agent having this power. 

antisplenetic (an-te-splen-et'-ik) [anti-; splen, the 
spleen]. Remedial in diseases of the spleen. 

antistapbylolysin (an-te-staf-il-oV -is-in) [anti-; sta- 
phylococci, a genus of bacteria; Xu<ris, a loosing]. 
A substance antagonistic to the toxic products of 
staphylococci, contained in healthy blood-serum. 

antistasis (an-tis'-tas-is) [anti-; <rrdo-«, a standing]. 
Opposition; opposing effect. 

antistatic (an-tis-tat'-ik). Antagonistic. 

antisternum (an-le-stur'-num). The part of the 
back opposite the breast. 

antistreptococcic {an-te-strep-to-kok'-sik) [anti-; 
streptococci, a genus of bacteria]. Antagonistic to or 
preventing the action of streptococci. 

antistreptococcin {an-te-strep-to-kok'-sin). 1. The 
streptococcus-antitoxin. 2. A serum used in ery- 

antistrumous (an-te-stru'-mus) [anti-; struma, a 
scrofulous tumor]. Effective against struma or 

antisudoral (an-te-su'-dor-al) [anti-; sudor, sweat]. 
Checking the secretion of sweat. 

antisudorific (an-te-su-dor-if'-ik) [anti-; against; 
sudor, sweat; facer e, to make]. Checking the excre- 
tion of sweat. 

antisudorin (an-te-su'-dor-in) [anti-; sudor, sweat]. 
A proprietary mixture said to consist of boric, citric, 
and salicylic acids, borax, glycerin, alcohol, distilled 
water, and several ethers; it is used to diminish 
sweating of the feet. 

antisyphilitic (an-te-sif-il-it'-ik) [anti-; syphilis]. 
1. Effective against syphilis. 2. A remedy used 
in the treatment of syphilis. 

antitabetic. An agent used to mitigate or aid in 
the cure of tabes dorsalis. 

antitetanic (an-te-tet-an'-ik). Noting an agent 
used to mitigate or aid in the cure of tetanus. 

antithenar (an-te-the'-nar) [anti-; dkvap, the flat 
of the hand or the sole of the foot]. 1. Opposite to 
thenar. 2. A muscle that extends the thumb or 
opposes it to the hand; an antithenar muscle, a. 
eminence, the border of the palm of the hand from 
the base of the little finger to the wrist, a. muscles, 
of the toe and of the thumb; the abductor pollicis 
pedis and the flexor brevis pollicis manus; also, the 
first dorsal interosseous muscle. 

antithermic (an-te-ther'-mik) [anti-; depp.11, heat]. 
Cooling; antipyretic. 

antithermin (an-te-ther'-min) [see antithermic], 
C11H14O2N2. Phenylhydrazinlevulinic acid, a coal- 
tar derivative used as an antipyretic, analgesic, and 
antiseptic. Dose 5 gr. (0.3 Gm.). 

antithermolin (an-te-ther' -mo-lin) . Trade name of 
clay preparation used as an anodyne and antiphlo- 

antithrombin (an-te-throm' -bin) . A substance of 
the nature of a ferment, having the power of retarding 
or preventing coagulation. 

antithyroidin (an-te-thi-roid'-in). See serum, thy- 

antitonic (an-te-ton' -ik) . 1. Counteracting the 
effects of a tonic. 2. A drug having opposite effects 
to those of a tonic. 3- Diminishing tone or tonicity. 

antitoxic (an-te-toks'-ik) [anti-; to^ikov, poison]. 
Antidotal; counteracting poisons. 

antitoxigen (an-te-tok' -sij-en) [antitoxin; yewav, to 
produce]. Any substance which induces the pro- 
duction or increase of antitoxin in the blood. 

antitoxin (an-te-toks' -in) [see antitoxic]. 1. A 
counterpoison or antidote elaborated by the body to 
counteract the toxins of bacteria. According to 
some authorities, antitoxins are, like the toxins, 
bacterial products. Antitoxins are used in the 
treatment of certain infectious diseases and also to 
confer immunity against these diseases. 2. The com- 
mercial name for a fine white powder said to be a 
coal-tar product and used as an analgesic and anti- 
pyretic. Dose 10-15 gr. (0.65-1.0 Gm.) in from 
1 to 4 hours, a., artificial, an antitoxin prepared by 
passing an electric current through a toxic bouillon. 

a., diphtheria, one prepared from the blood-serum 
of an animal inoculated with Bacillus diphtheria. 
a., tetanus, one prepared from the blood-serum of an 
animal inoculated with Bacillus tetani. a. unit, 10 
times the amount of serum requisite to neutralize 
completely 10 times the minimum fatal dose of 
diphtheria toxin in a half-grown guinea-pig; or the 
amount of antitoxin which, when inoculated into a 
guinea-pig of 250 Gm. weight, will neutralize 100 
times the minimum fatal dose of toxin of standard 

antitragic (an-te-lraj'-ik) [anti-; rpayos, the tragus]. 
Pertaining to the antitragus. a. muscle, a mere 
rudiment in man; it arises from the antitragus, and 
extends to the cauda of the helix. 

antitragus (an-te-tra'-gus). An eminence of the 
external ear opposite the tragus. 

antitrismus (an-te-tris'-mus) [anti-; rpttr/xos. a 
creaking]. A condition of tonic spasm in which the 
open mouth cannot be closed. 

antitrope (an'-te-trop) [anti-; rpkireiv, to turn]. 
Organs arranged to form a symmetrical pair. Thus 
the right eye is an antitrope to the left. 2. An 

antitropin (an-te-tro'-pin). An antibody. 

antitrypsin (an-te-trip'-sin). An antibody in- 
hibiting the action of trypsin. 

antitryptic (an-te-trip'-tik). 1. A ferment inimical 
to bacteria. 2. Antagonistic to proteolysis. 

antitryptic index. The power of any given serum 
to inhibit tryptic digestion as compared with that 
possessed by a normal standard serum. It is said to 
be raised in cancerous conditions, and it is used to 
differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. 

antituberculin (an-te-tu-ber'-ku-lin). Antibodies 
found in the sera of individuals who have been 
treated with tuberculin. 

antituberculotic (an-te-tu-ber*ku-lot' -ik) [anti-; 
tuberculum, a tubercle]. Good against tuberculosis. 

antitulase {an-te-tu'-las). An immunizing serum 
for tuberculosis obtained from animals which have 
been injected with tulase. 

antituman {an-te-tu'-man). Trade name of a 
cancer remedy containing sodium chondroitin sul- 
phate. Dose 1 to 2 grains. 

antitussin (an-t'e-tus' -in) [anti ; tussis, cough]. 
An ointment consisting of difluordiphenyl 5 parts; 
vaselin, 10 parts, and lanolin, 85 parts; used as an 
application in catarrh. 

antitussive (an-te-tus'-iv) [anti-; tussis, cough], 
i. Relieving or preventing cough. 2. A remedy for 

antityphoid (an-te-ti'-foid). Opposed to typhoid. 
a. extract, a preparation obtained by injecting re- 
peatedly cultures of typhoid bacilli of increasing 
virulence into the peritoneal cavity of rabbits. The 
animals are killed as soon as they do not react to 
poisonous doses, and extracts are made of the thymus, 
spleen, bone-marrow, brain, and spinal cord, by 
soaking these organs in a solution of salt, glycerol, 
and alcohol, with the addition of some pepsin. The 
filtrate is injected in typhoid cases. 

antitypic (an-te-tip'-ik) [anti-; tvwos, a type]. 
1. Efficient against the periodic recurrence of a 
paroxysm or fever. 2. Irregular; not conformable to 
a type. 3. An antiperiodic. 

antiuratic (an-te-u-rat'-ik). 1. Efficacious against 
the deposition of urates. 2. An agent that prevents 
the deposit of urates. 

antiurease (an-li-u'-re-as). An antibody to urease. 

antivenene, antivenin {an-te-ven'-en, -in) [anti-; 
venenum, poison]. A serum perfected by Calmette 
by injecting cobra venom mixed with solutions of 
calcium hypochlorite into horses. It is used in 
doses of 2-i~5 dr. (10-20 Cc.) in bites of venomous 

antivenereal {an-te-ven-e'-re-al) [anti-; venereus, 
pertaining to Venus, or to sexual intercourse]. 
Antisyphilitic; anaphrodisiac. 

antivenomous (an-te-ven'-om-us). Antagonistic to 
venom; a term applied to immunized animals, to 
certain serums, and to antitoxins. 

antivermicular (an-te-vur-mik'-u-lar) [anti-; vermis, 
a worm]. Anthelmintic. 

antiverminous (an-te-vur' -min-us) . See antivermi- 

antivirulent (an-le-vir'-u-lent) [anti-; virus, a 
poison]. Effective against viruses. 

antivivisection (an-te-viv-is-ek'-shun). Opposition 
to vivisection or animal experimentation. 




antivivisectionist (an-te-viv-is-ek'-shun-ist) [anti-; 
vivus, living; sectio, a cutting]. One who opposes 
the practice of vivisection. 

antizymotic (an-le-zi-mot'-ik) [anti-; fuyuwo-is, fer- 
mentation], i. Preventing or checking fermentation. 
2. An agent preventing the process of fermentation; 
an antiferment. 

antlia (ant'-le-ah) [ava, up; rXaeiv, to lift]. A 
syringe or pump. a. gastrica, a stomach pump. 
a. lactea, a pump for drawing milk from the breast. 
a. mammaria, same as a. lactea. 

antocular (ant-ok' -u-lar) [ante, before; oculus, the 
eye]. Situated in front of the eye. 

antodontalgic (an-lo-don-tal'-jik). See antiodontal- 

antodyne (an'-to-dln). Trade name of an analgesic 
and sedative, derived from phenol. Dose 7% grains 
(0.5 gr.). 

antophthalmic (ant-off-thal'~mik) [anti-; 6<f>9a\fiia. 
ophthalmia]. Preventive or curative of ophthalmia, 

antorbital (ant-orb' -il-al) [ante, before; orbita, the 
orbit]. Lbcated in front of the orbit. 

antorgastic (ant-or-gas'-tik). See antiorgastic. 

antozenic (ant-o-ze'-nik) [anti-; &£eiv, to smell]. 
Curative of ozena. 

antozone (ant-o-zon) [anti-; 6few, to smell]. An 
imaginary allotropic modification of oxygen, now 
known to be only hydrogen dioxide. 

antozostomatic (ant-o-zos-to-mat'-ik) [and-; 6£6a- 
touos, having a foul breath]. Corrective of a foul 

antra (an'-trah). Plural of antrum, q. v. 

antracele (an'-tra-sel) [antrum; 107X77, a tumor]. 
Dropsy of the antrum; an accumulation of fluid in 
the maxillary sinus. 

antral (an'-tral) [antrum]. Relating to an antrum. 

antrectomy (an-trek'-to-me) [antrum; e/cro^i?, ex- 
cision]. Surgical removal of the walls of an antrum, 
especially the mastoid antrum. 

antritis (an-tri'-tis) [antrum; ins, inflammation]. 
Inflammation of an antrum, especially the antrum of 

antroatticotomy (an-tro-at-ik-ot'-o-me). The opera- 
tion of opening the mastoid antrum and the attic of 
the tympanum. 

antrocele (an'-tro-sel). See antracele. 

antronalgia (an-tron-al'-je-ah) [antrum; aXyos, 
pain]. Pain in the antrum. 

antronasal (an-tro' '-na-zal) . Pertaining to the 
antrum of Highmore and the nasal fossa. 

antrophore (an'-tro-for). Cacao-butter bougies, 
containing tannin, 5 %; r'esorcinol, 5 %; thallin sul- 
phate, 2 to 5 %; zinc sulphate, 0.5 %. 

antrophose (an'-tro-foz) [avrpov, a cavity; <j>&s, 
light]. A phose having its origin in the central 
ocular mechanism. 

antrorse (an-trors') [ante, before; versus, turned]. 
In biology, directed upward or forward. 

antroscope (an'-lro-skop) [antrum; oKoirelv, to 
look]. An instrument for examining the maxillary 

antroscopy (an-tros'-ko-pe). Inspection of the 
antrum by means of an antroscope. 

antroto'me (an'-tro-tom) [antrum; rkuvew, to cut]. 
An instrument for the performance of mastoid 

antrotomy (an-lrot'-o-me). Incision of an antrum. 

antrotympanic (an-tro-tim-pan'-ik) [antrum; rvp.- 
■Kavov, a drum]. Relating to the cavity of the tym- 
panum and to the tympanic antrum. 

antrotympanitis (an-tro-tim-pan-i'-tis) [avrpov, a 
cave; rvfiwavov, a drum]. Chronic purulent otitis 

antrum (an'-tru?n) [L.]. 1. A cavity or hollow 
space, especially in a bone. 2. The antrum of 
Highmore. a., cardiac, Luschka's name for a 
dilatation sometimes found in the esophagus imme- 
diately above its passage through the diaphragm. 
a., dental, pulp-cavity of a tooth, a., duodenal, 
the normal dilatation presented by the duodenum 
near its origin, a. ethmoidal, the ethmoid sinus, a. 
of Highmore, a cavity in the superior maxillary 
bone. Syn., antrum gencz. a. Highmori testis, see 
mediastinum testis. a., mastoid, the hollow space 
beneath the roof of the mastoid process, a., maxil- 
lary, see a. of Highmore. a. pyloricum Willisii, the 
cavity of the pylorus, a. tubae, a sac-like dilatation of 
the Fallopian tube about an inch from the fimbriated 
extremity, regarded by some as occurring only in 
pregnancy, a. tympanicum, the mastoid antrum. 

Antyllus' method for aneurysm [Antyllus, a Greek 
physician of the third century A. D.]. It consists in 
ligation above and below the sac, followed by opening 
of the aneurysm and evacuation of its contents. 

anuresis (an-u-re'-sis) [av, priv.; ovpov, urine]. 

anuretic (an-u-ret'-ik) [see anuresis]. Pertaining 
to or affected with anuria. 

anuria (an-u'-re~aK) [see anuresis]. Suppression 
of the urine. 

anuric (an-u'-rik) [see anuresis]. Pertaining to 

anurous (an-u'-rus) [av, /priv.; ovpd, a tail]. With- 
out a tail. 

anus (a'-nus) [L., "the fundament"]. The ex- 
tremity of the rectum; the lower opening of the 
alimentary canal, a., artificial, an opening estab- 
lished from the bowel to the exterior at a point above 
the normal anus, most commonly from the colon, 
either in the lumbar or in the iliac region, a., fissure 
of, a slight tear in the mucous membrane at the anus, 
usually due to passage of hardened feces. It is very 
painful, a., fistula of, fistula in ano, a sinus opening 
from the rectum into the connective tissue about the 
rectum or discharging externally, a., imperforate, 
absence of the anus, the natural opening being closed 
by a membranous septum, a., infundibuliform, a 
relaxed condition of the anus with destruction of 
the natural folds, a., preternatural, an abnormal 
aperture serving as an anus, whether congenital, 
made by operation, or due to disease or injury. Syn., 
fecal fistula; anus prceternaturalis. a., preternatural 
ileovaginal, a., preternatural vaginal, a. praeter- 
naturalis vestibularis, the rare abnormity of the 
rectum opening through the vulva, a., Rusconi's, 
the blastopore, a., umbilical, a preternatural anus 
located in the umbilical region, a. vulvovaginalis, 
an anal opening communicating with the vulva. 

anusol (an'-us-ol). Trade name for suppositories 
of bismuth iodoresorcinsulphonate; used in rectal 

anvil (an'-vil). See incus. 

anxietas (ang-zi'-et-as). See anxiety, a. tibiae, 
a. tibiarum. 1. An annoying sensation of restlessness 
in the muscles of the legs noted in neurasthenia. 
2. An_ irregular movement of the legs. Syn., fidgets. 

anxiety (ang-zi'-et-e) [anxius, anxious], Restless- 
ness, agitation and general malaise, or distress, 
often attended with precordial pain, and a notice- 
able appearance of apprehension or worry visible in 
the features. 

anydremia, anydraemia (an-id-re'-me-ah). See 

anypnia (an-ip'-ne-ah) [av, priv.; vtrvos, sleep], 

anytin (an'-it-in). See anitin. 

anytol. See anitol. 

AOC. Abbreviation of anodic opening contrac- 

aochlesia (ah-ok-le'-ze-ah) [a., priv.; oxXjya-is, dis- 
turbance]. Rest; tranquillity; catalepsy. 

aol (a'-ol). Trade name of a derivative of san- 
talum album. 

A. O. M. Abbreviation for Master of Obstetric 

aorta (a-ort'-ah) [aoprri, aorta]. The large vessel 
arising from the left ventricle and distributing, by 
its branches, arterial blood to every part of the body. 
It ends by bifurcating into the common iliacs at the 
fourth lumbar vertebra. The arch, that extending 
from the heart to the third dorsal vertebra, is divided 
into an ascending, a transverse, and a descending part. 
The thoracic portion extends to the diaphragm; the 
abdominal, to the bifurcation, a., cardiac, that part 
of the embryonic vascular system giving rise to the 
aortic arches, a. chlorotica, a narrowing of the aorta, 
sometimes found in chlorotic patients, a., dorsad. 
1. The embryonic vessel formed by the junction of 
the two primitive aortas. Syn., primordial aorta; 
subyertebral aorta. 2. The thoracic aorta, a., in- 
ferior, the abdominal aorta, a., left, the embryonic 
division of the vascular system which finally becomes 
the aorta, a., main, the embryonic vessel formed 
by the junction of the two primitive aortas, a., 
pectoral, the thoracic aorta, a., pelvic, the middle 
sacral artery, a., pericardiac, the part of the aorta 
within the pericardial cavity, a., primitive. 1. That 
part of the aorta extending from its origin to the 
point where it first branches. 2. Two embryonic 
branches of the cardiac aorta extending through the 




first visceral arch and uniting to form the dorsal 
aorta, a., right, the embryonic division of the 
aortic bulb which finally forms the pulmonary artery. 
a., root of, the origin of the aorta at the heart. Syn., 
radix aorta, a., superior, the thoracic aorta, a., 
systemic, see a., left, a., thoracic, see under aorta. 

aortal (a-or.t'-al) [see aorta]. Relating to the aorta. 

aortarctia (a-ort-ark'-she-ah) [aoprij, aorta; arctare. 
to constrict]. A constriction or stenosis of the aorta, 

aortectasia (a-ort-ek-ta'-ze-ah) [aoprri, aorta; e*c, 
out; tAo-is, a stretching]. Aortic dilatation. 

aorteurysma (a-ori-u-riz'-mah) [aoprri, aorta; 
evpvap.a, a widening: pi., aorteurysmata]. Aortic 
aneurysm or dilatation. 

aortic {a-ort'-ik) [see aorta]. Pertaining to the 
aorta, a. arch, see aorta and arch. a. area, the 
part of the thorax about the second right costal 
cartilage, where the aortic murmurs and sounds are 
best heard, a. foramen, see a. opening of diaphragm. 
a. murmur, a murmur produced by disease of the 
aortic valves, a. opening of diaphragm, the aperture 
in, or really behind, the diaphragm, through which 
the aorta passes, a. opening of heart, the opening 
between the heart and the aorta, a. plexus, the 
plexus of sympathetic nerves, situated on the front 
and sides of the aorta, between the origins of the 
superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, a. sinus, 
a deep depression between the leaflets of the aortic 
valve and the aortic wall. a. valve, the three semi- 
lunar valves closing the aortic opening during the 
cardiac diastole. 

aortism (a-or'-tizm). A liability to disease of the 

aortitis (a-ort-i'-tis) [aorta; tr«, inflammation]. 
Inflammation of the aorta, a., nummular, that 
characterized by white, circular patches in the inner 

aortoclasia, aortoclasis (a-or-to-kla' -ze-ah, -sis) 
[aorta; kAcwis, a breaking]. Rupture of the aorta. 

aortolith, aortolite (a-or'-to-lith, -lit) [aorta; Xi0os, 
a stone]. A calculus formed in the aorta. 

aortolithia (a-or-to-lith'-e-ah). A calcareous depo- 
sition in the aorta. 

aortomalacia, aortomalaxia (a-ort-o-mal-a'-se-ah, 
-aks'-e-ah) [aorta; p.a\aKia, softening]. Softening of 
the aorta. 

aortopathy (a-ort-op'-ath-e) [aorta; iraSos, disease]. 
Any disease of the aorta. 

aortoptosis, aortoptosia (a-or-top-to'-sis, -to'-ze-ah) 
[aorta; nrr&o-Ls, a falling]. A drooping of the abdominal 
aorta associated with visceroptosis. 

aortosclerosis (a-orl-o-skle-ro'-sis) [aorta; aicXr/pos, 
hard]. Induration of the aorta. 

aortostenosis {a-ort-o-sten-o'-sis) [aorta; <rrev6s, 
narrow]. Stenosis or narrowing of the aorta. 

aosmic (a-oz'-mik) [a, priv.; bo-p.ii, smell]. Having 
no odor. 

apaconitine (ap-ak-on'-it-in) . See apoaconitine. 

apagma (ap-ag'-mah) [and, from; ayvvpai, to 
break; pi., apagmata]. i. Separation, as of a fractured 
bone. 2. The part separated. 

apallagin (ap-aV -aj-in) [airaWayr), deliverance]. 
An antiseptic mercury salt of nosophen (q. v.). 

apandria (ap-an'-dre-ah) [&ir6, from; avr)p, a man]. 
Morbid dislike of the male sex. 

apanthropia {ap-an-thro'-pe-ah). See apanthropy. 

apanthropy (ap-an' -thro-pe) [airo, from; avdpuiros, 
man]. Aversion to society; morbid desire for solitude. 

aparthrosis (ap-ar-thro'-sis) [airo, from; apdpov, a 
joint], i. Dislocation; luxation of a joint. 2. In 
anatomy, diarthrosis. 

apastia (ap-as'-te-ah) [dirao-rla, fasting]. Abstinence 
from food, as a symptom of mental disorder. 

apathetic (ap-ath-et'-ik) [&, priv.; irados, feeling]. 
Affected with apathy; listless; without emotion. 

apathy (ap'-ath-e) [a, priv.; ir&Bos, feeling]. In- 
sensibility; want of passion or feeling. 

apatropine {ap-af -ro-pen) [airo, from; atropine], 
C17H21NO2. A compound derived from atropine by 
the action of nitric acid. It is said to produce 
peculiar convulsions. 

ape (jap) [ME.]. A man-like monkey, a. fissures, 
those fissures of the human brain that are also found 
in apes, a.-hand, a peculiar shape of the hand 
produced by the wasting of the thumb-muscles; it is 
seen in some cases of progressive muscular atrophy. 

apella (ap-el'-lah) [a, priv.; ireXXa, skin]. A cir- 
cumcised person; one with a short prepuce. 

apellous (ah-pel'-us) [d, priv.; 71-eXXa, skin]. 1. Skin- 
less. 2. Without a prepuce; circumcised. 

apenta {ah-pen' 'Adh) . A Hungarian aperient water. 

apepsia (ah-pep' -se-ah) [d, priv.; irkirreiv, to digest]. 
Cessation or absence of the digestive function, a., 
hysterical, apepsia due to hysteria. Syn., hysterical 
anorexia. . a. nervosa, see anorexia nervosa. 

apepsinia (ah-pep-sin'-e-ah). [a, priv.; pepsin]. 
Absence of pepsin or pepsinogen from the gastric 

apeptic (ah-pep'-tik) [see apepsia]. Affected with 

apeptous {ah-pep' -tus) [d, priv.; irkirreiv, to digest]. 
1. Crude, indigestible, uncooked. 2. Apeptic. 

aperception {ap-ur-sep' -shun) . See apperception. 

apergol (ap-er'-gol). A preparation containing 
apiol, ergotin, oil of savine, and aloin. 

aperient (ap-e'-ri-ent) [aperire, to open]. 1. Laxa- 
tive; mildly purgative. 2. A mild purgative; a 

aperiodic (ah-pe-re-od'-ik) [&, priv.; irepwdos, a 
circuit]. Not periodic. 

aperistalsis {ah-per-is-taV-sis) [d, priv.; irepi, 
around; <rrdX<ns, constriction]. Cessation of the 
peristaltic movements of the intestine. 

aperitive (ap-er'-it-iv) [aperire, to open]. 1. Aperi- 
ent. 2. Deobstruent. p 3. Stimulating the appetite; 
an appetizer, a., hygienic, hygienic measures for 
stimulating the appetite. 

aperitol (ap-er'-it-ol). A proprietary purgative 
consisting of the acetate and valerate of phenolphtha- 
lein. Dose 6 gr. (0.4 gm.). 

apertometer (ap-ur-tom'-et-er) [aperture; p.krpov, a 
measure]. An optic device for determining the angle 
of aperture of microscopic objectives. 

apertor (ap-er'-tor) [L., an opener or beginner]. 
In anatomy, anything that opens, a. oculi, the 
levator palpebral muscle. 

apertura (ap-er-tu'-rah). An opening, a. anterior 
ventriculi tertii cerebri, the vulva cerebri, a. aquae- 
ductus cochleae, opening of aqueduct of cochlea on 
the petrous bone. a. chordae, the internal opening 
of the canal for the chorda tympani nerve, a. 
canalis inguinalis, the inguinal ring. a. declivis, 
the anus. a. externa aquaeductus vestibuli, external 
opening of the aqueduct of the vestibule, a. externa 
canaliculi cochleae, external opening of the canaliculus 
of the cochlea, a. inferior canaliculi tympanici, 
inferior opening of tympanic canaliculus, a. lateralis 
ventriculi quarti, the foramen of Key and Retzius. 
a. medialis ventriculi quarti, the foramen of Magen- 
die. a. narium, same as nares. a. pelvis (minoris) 
inferior, lower opening of lesser pelvis (O. T. pelvic 
outlet), a. pelvis (minoris) superior, upper opening 
of lesser pelvis (O. T. pelvic inlet), a. pelvis superior, 
the superior strait of the pelvis, a. piriformis, piri- 
form opening (O. T. anterior nares). a. scalae 
vestibuli cochleae, an opening between the vestibule 
and the scala vestibuli of the cochlea, a. sinus 
sphenoidalis, opening of sphenoidal sinus, a. 
spinalis, the vertebral foramen, a. superior canali- 
culi tympanici, opening for the smaller petrosal 
nerve, a. thoracis inferior, lower thoracic opening. 
a. thoracis superior, upper thoracic opening, a. 
tympanica canaliculi chordae, opening of the iter 
chordae posterius into the tympanum, a. uterina, 
opening of the Fallopian tube into the uterus. 

aperture {ap'-er-chilr) [apertura, an opening]. 
An opening, a., angular, in the microscope, the 
angle formed between a luminous point placed in 
focus and the most divergent rays that are capable 
of pasng through the entire system of an objective. 
a., numerical, the capacity of an objective for ad- 
mitting rays from the object and transmitting them 
to the image. 

apex (a'-peks) [L., "the extreme end of a thing"; 
pi., apices]. The summit or top of anything; the 
point or extremity of a cone. a. auriculae (Darwini), 
tip of the auricle of the ear. a.-beat, the impulse 
of the heart felt in the fifth intercostal space, about 
3 1 inches from the middle of the sternum, a. capituli 
fibulae, apex of the head of the fibula; the styloid 
process of the fibula, a. cartilaginis arytaenoideae, 
tip of the artenoid cartilage, a. columnae posterioris, 
apex of the posterior column, a. cordis, the apex 
of the heart, a. linguae, up of the tongue, a. of 
the lung, the upper extremity of the lung behind the 
border of the first rib. a. murmur, a murmur heard 
over the apex of the heart, a. nasi, the tip of the 
nose. a. radicis dentis, apex of the root of a tooth. 

aphacia (ah-fa'-se-ah). See aphakia. 

aphacic (ah-fa'-sik). See aphakic. 




aphagia (ah-fa'-je-ah) [&, priv.; 4>a.y(:Zv, to eat]. 
Inability to eat or to swallow. 

aphakia (ah-fa'-ke-ah) [&, priv.; <t>ai<6s, a lentil; 
the crystalline lens]. The condition of an eye 
without the lens. 

aphakic (ah-fa'-kik) [see aphakia]. Not possessing 
a crystalline lens. 

aphalangiasis {ah-fa-lan-ji'-as-is) [a, priv.; <t>a\ay£, 
phalanx]. The loss or absence of fingers and toes, 
as in leprosy. Cf. ainhum. . 

aphasia (ah-fa'-ze-ah) [&, priv.; <f>aais, speech]. 
Partial or complete loss of the power of expressing 
ideas by means of speech or writing. Aphasia may 
be either motor or sensory. Motor or ataxic aphasia 
consists in a loss of speech owing to inability to 
execute the various movements of the mouth neces- 
sary to speech, the muscles not being properly co- 
ordinated, owing to disease of the cortical center. 
It is usually associated with agraphia, . "aphasia of 
the hand," inability to write, and right-sided hemi- 
plegia. Some aphasiacs can write, but are unable 
to articulate words or sentences; this variety is 
variously named aphemia, alalia, or anarthria, 
according as the impairment of speech is more or 
less marked. Charcot supposes the center for 
articulate language divided into 4 subcenters — 
a visual center for words, an auditory center for 
words, a motor center of articulate language, and a 
motor center of written language. Lesions of one 
or more of these centers produce the characteristic 
forms of aphasia, all of which have clinical exempli- 
fications. Sensory aphasia, or amnesia, is the loss 
of memory for words, and may exist alone or in 
association with motor aphasia. Amnesia appears 
clinically in 3 distinct forms: 1. Simple loss of memory 
of words. 2. Word-deafness, or inability to under- 
stand spoken words (there is usually some paraphasia 
connected with this form). 3. Word-blindness, or 
inability to understand written or printed words. 
a., Broca's, motor aphasia, a., conduction, such as 
is due to defect in some commissural connection 
between centers, a., cortical, a., pictorial, a., true, 
descruction of the iunction of the auditory speech- 
center, a., functional, that in which there is no 
manifest lesion, but it occurs as a result of excitement 
in hysteria or in severe constitutional disorders. 
a., gibberish, a form of transcortical aphasia in 
which the speech is confused, words or syllables 
being transposed or jumbled together, due to dis- 
ruption of the tracts associating cortical speech- 
centers. Syn., jargon aphasia, a., Kussmaul's, see 
Kussmaul. a., mixed, combined motor and sensory 
aphasia, a., optic, inability to give the names for 
objects seen, due to interrupted connection between 
the centers for vision and speech, a., pure, a., iso- 
lated, a., subcortical, a., subpictorial, aphasia arising 
from a lesion interrupting impulses toward the 
afferent tracts proceeding to the auditory speech- 
center, a., supracortical, a., suprapictorial, that 
form of lesion completely severing the connection of 
the auditory center with the cortical center, but not 
destroying the auditory speech-center, the afferent 
tracts proceeding to it or the efferent tracts passing 
from it to the motor speech-center, a., tactile, 
inability to recognize objects by the sense of touch, 
due to lesion in the central parietal lobule, a., total, 
a., universalis, inability to utter a single word, a., 
Wernicke's, cortical sensory aphasia. 

aphasiac (ah-fa'-ze-ak) [see aphasia]. One who is 

aphasic (ah-fa'-zik) [see aphasia]. Relating to or 
affected with aphasia. 

aphelexia (af-el-eks'-e-ah). An incorrect form of 
the word aphelxia, q. v. 

aphelotic (af-el-oi'-ik) [d<£eXKeu>, to draw away]. 
Absent-minded; lost in reverie. 

aphelxia (af -elks' -e-ah) [a<j>k\Ktiv, to draw away]. 
Absence of mind; inattention to external impressions. 

aphemesthesia (ah-fem-es-the'-ze-ah) [a, priv.; 
<£i7AM?, voice; aiad-qcns, sensation]. Word -blindness; 

aphemia (ah-fe'-me-ah) [a, priv.; <i>vny, voice]. 
Mocor aphasia; inability to articulate words or 
sentences from centric and not from peripheral disease 
See aphasia. 

aphemic (ah-fe'-mik) [see aphemia]. Relating to or 
affected with aphemia. 

aphephobia {af-e-fo' -be-ah) [£#17, touch; 06/9os, fear]. 
Hyperesthetic dread of contact with other persons. 

apheter (af'-et-er) [&<j>eTr)p, one who lets go or 

sends away]. A supposed impulse-carrying, or 
trigger-material, probably a cata?tate, which com- 
municates to the inogen the nerve impulse that 
causes its destruction, and the consequent muscular 
contraction. In a larger sense, any trigger-material 
that takes part in any functional process may be 
called an apheter. 

aphilanthropy (ah-fil-an f -thro-pe) [&, priv.; <pCKeiv, 
to love; &vdp6)iros, man]. Absence of social feeling; 
a frequent sign of approaching melancholia. 

aphlogistic (ah-flo-jist'-ik) [a, priv.; <j>\6£, a flame]. 
1. Noninflammable. 2. Burning without flame. 

aphonia (ah-fo'-ne-ah) [a, priv.; <j>o>vq, voice], 

1. Loss of speech, due to some peripheral lesion. 

2. Hysterical, or paralytic absence of the power of 
speech. 3. Voicelessness. a. clericorum, clergyman's 
sore-throat, a., paralytic, see 'paralysis, phonetic. 
a. paranoica, stubborn silence in the insane, a., 
spastic, see dysphonia spastica. 

aphonic (ah-fon'-ik) [see aphonia]. Speechless; 

aphorama, aphorema (af-o-ra'-mah, -re'-mah) 
[acpopav, to have in full view]. The state of having 
projecting eyes, enabling one to see at a distance on 
each side without moving the head. 

aphoresis {ah-for-e' -sis) [a, priv.; 4>6prjcns, bearing]. 
1. Separation or ablation of a part, either by excision 
or amputation. 2. Lack of the power of endurance, 
as of pain. 

aphoria (ah-fo'-re-ak) [&, priv.; (pkpeiv, to bear]. 
Sterility of the female; unfruitfulness. a. impercita, 
that attributed to aversion, a. impotens, that due 
to impairment of conceptive power, a. incongrua, 
that attributed to nonresponsive condition of the 
conceptive power to the seminal fluid, a. para- 
menica, that due to menstrual disorder, a. polyposa, 
that attributed to the existence of a uterine polyp. 

aphoric, aphorous (af'-or-ik, af-or-us) [a'<i>opos, 
sterile]. 1. Relating to, causing, caused by, or 
affected with sterility. 2. Unbearable, insufferable. 

aphose (ah'-foz) [&, priv.; <f>ws, fight]. A sub- 
jective sensation of shadow or darkness. Cf. phose. 

aphrasia (ah-fra'-ze-ah) [d, priv.; <j>pa£eiv, to utter]. 
Absence of the power to utter connected phrases. 
a., paralytic, that due to paralysis of the ideation 
faculty, a., superstitious, the voluntary avoidance 
of certain words from scruples of nicety or religion. 

aphrenic, aphrenous, aphraenous {ah-fren'-ik, 
ah'-fren-us, ah-fre'-nus) [&, priv.; <t>prjv, the mind]. 

aphrodescin, aphrodaescin (af-ro-des' -in) [a<f>poo8ris, 
foamy], C52H82O23. A glucoside constituent of the 
cotyledons of horse-chestnut. It is a* colorless, 
amorphous powder, soluble in alcohol and water, its 
watery solution frothing like soap. 

aphrodisia (af-ro-diz'-e-ah) ['A<f>po8lrr], Venus]. 
Sexual desire, especially when morbid or immoderate; 
sexual congress. 

aphrodisiac (af-ro-diz'-e-ak) [see aphrodisia]. 1. 
Stimulating the sexual appetite; erotic. 2. An agent 
stimulating the sexual passion. 

aphronesis (ah-fro-ne'-sis) [a, priv.; <j>p6vrj(ns, 
good sense]. Foolishness, silliness, madness. 

aphronia (ah-fro'-ne-ah) [a, priv.; <f>prji>, the mind]. 

aphtha (af'-tha) [a4>0a, an eruption; pi., aphlhcs]. 
A form of stomatitis characterized by the presence 
of small white vesicles in the mouth, occurring chiefly 
in children under 3 years, and supposed to be due 
to a special microorganism. Syn., acacos; acatui; 
ophlyctis; morbus aphthosus; thrush; sprue; angina 
aphthosa; aphthous stomatitis, a. anginosa, a form 
of sore throat attended by slight fever, redness, 
and enlargement of the fauces, with the formation 
of small whitish specks on the tongue and mucosa 
of the throat. It usually occurs in cold, damp 
weather and in women and children, aphthae, 
Bednar's, two symmetrically placed ulcers seen at 
times on the hard palate of cachectic infants, one on 
each side of the mesial line, aphthae, cachectic, 
those appearing beneath the tongue, and associated 
with grave constitutional symptoms; Riga's disease. 
Syn., Cardarelli's aphthae, sl. epizootica, see foot- 
and-mouth disease, a. febrilis, ulceration of the 
mouth, extending to the esophagus and stomach, 
and accompanied by fever, a. serpens, aphthae 
serpentes, see cancrum oris, aphthae tropicae, a 
disease of the tropics marked by epigastric fulness, 
pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and redness of the tongue, 
with the formation of small, white, painful spots on it. 




Syn., tropical sprue; psilosis; gastroenteritis aphthosa 
indica; phlegmasia membranes mucosa gastropul- 
monalis. aphthae, Valleix's, see aphtha, Bednar's. 

aphtha? (af'-the). Plural of aphtha, q. v. 

aphthenxia (af-ihengks'-e-ah) [A, priv.; <fi6ey£t.s, 
utterance]. A form of aphasia with impaired ex- 
pression of articulate sounds. 

aphthoid (af'-lhoid) [see aphtha]. Resembling 

aphthongia (af-thon'-ge-ah) [d, priv.; <£06yyos, a 
sound]. A peculiar form of aphasia due to spasm 
of the muscles supplied by the hypoglossal nerve. 

aphthous {a f -thus) [see aphtha}, i. Percaining to 
or affected with aphtha?. 2. Presenting the appear- 
ance of a surface covered with little ulcers. 

apical {a'-pik-al\ [apex, the top]. Pertaining to 
the apex. 

apices (a'-pis-ez) [L.]. Plural of apex. Summits. 

apicifixed (a-pis'-e-fikt). Attached by the apex. 

apiciform (a-pis'-e-form) [apex, the top; forma, 
form]. Sharp-pointed. 

apicilar (a-pis'-il-ar) [apex, the top]. Attached to 
or located upon an apex. 

apiin (ap'-e-in) [apium, parsley], C27H32O16. A 
glucoside obtained from the leaves, stems, and seeds 
of parsley, Apium petroselinum. It is a yellowish- 
white, crystalline powder, soluble in hot water and 
alcohol, slightly soluble in cold water, insoluble in 

apinoid (ah'-pin-oid) [&, priv.; wivos, dirt; elSos, 
form]. Clean; not foul. a. cancer, scirrhus; so 
called from its cleanly section. 

apiol (ap'-e-ol) [apium, parsley; oleum, oil], C12H14- 
O4. A principle occurring in parsley-seeds; it crystal- 
lizes in long white needles, with a slight odor of 
parsley; melts at 30 C. (86° F.), and boils at 204 C. 
(572 F.). It is used in dysmenorrhea and in 
malaria. In large doses it produces ringing in the 
ears and frontal headache. Syn., parsley-camphor. 
Dose 10-15 gr. (0.65-1.0 Gm.). a., green, crude 
ethereal oil from seeds of parsley, Apium petroselinum. 
It is used as an emmenagogue and antiperiodic. Dose, 
in dysmenorrhea, 5-10 min. (0.3-0.6 Cc.) 2 or 3 
times daily; in malaria, 15-30 min. (1-2 Cc). a., 
liquid, an alcoholic extract of parsley-seeds. 

apiolin (ap'-e-ol-in). Rectified essential oil of 
parsley, a yellow neutral liquid boiling at about 
300 C., soluble in alcohol. It is used as an emmena- 
gogue. Dose, 0.2 gm. 2 or 3 times daily. 

apion (ap'-e-on) [apium, parsley]. A substance 
obtained from apiolic acid by heating with dilute 
sulphuric acid; melts at 69 C. 

apiosoma (ap-e-o-so' -rnali) . A protozoon said to 
be found in the blood of patients suffering from 
typhus fever; it is related to Piroplasma bigonicum. 

apiphobia (ap-e-fo'-be-ah) \.apis, a bee; <t>6fios, fear]. 
Morbid terror of bees and of being stung by them. 

Apis {a' -pis) [L., a bee]. A genus of hymenop- 
terous insects. A. mellifica, the honey-bee; in home- 
opathy the poison of the honey-bee's sting, or a 
preparation thereof. 

apisin (ap'-is-in) [apis, a bee]. Bee-poison. 

apisination (ap-is-in-a'-shun). Poisoning from the 
stings of bees. 

apituitarism (ah-pit-u'-it-ar-izm). The condition 
of absence of the function of the pituitary body, 
owing to removal of that body. 

Apium (a'-pe-um) [L.]. A genus of umbelliferous 
plants. A. graveolens, see celery. A. petroselinum, 
is the common garden parsley; aperient, diuretic, 
somewhat antiperiodic; useful in dysmenorrhea. 
Dose of the fluidextract (of the root) git. xv-3J. 

aplacental (ah-plas-en'-tal) [&, priv.; placenta]. 
Destitute of placenta. 

aplanasia (ah-plan-a'-ze-ah) [d, priv.; irkavav, to 
wander]. Entire or nearly entire absence of spherical 

aplanatic (ah-plan-at'-ik) [see aplanasia]. Not 
wandering; rectilinear, a. focus, that focus of a lens 
the rays from which do not undergo spherical 
aberration in their passage through the lens. a. 
lens, a lens corrected for aberration of light and 
color; a rectilinear lens. 

aplanatism (ah-plan'-at-izm). See aplanasia. 

aplasia (ah-pla'-ze-ah) [d, priv.; irkhaaeLv, to form]. 
Incomplete or defective development. Syn., agenesis. 

aplastic (ah-plas'-lik) [see aplasia]. 1. Structure- 
less; formless. 2. Incapable of forming new tissue. 
3. Relating to aplasia. 4. Defective in fibrin. 5- Ap- 
plied to inflammations unattended with organizable 

exudation, a. lymph, a nonfibrinous material inca- 
pable of coagulation or organization. 

aplestia (ah-ples'-te-ah) [airX-qvTia, insatiate desire]. 
Insatiable hunger; acoria. 

apleuria (ah-plu'-re-ah) jd, priv.; irXevpd, a rib]. 
Congenital absence of the ribs. 

apnea, apncea (ap-ne'-ah) [a, priv.; wvelv, to 
breathe]. 1. A transient cessation of respiration from 
an overabundance of oxygen, as, e. g., after forcible 
respiration. 2. Asphyxia, a., cardiac, the period 
of apnea in Cheyne-Stokes respiration, a., nervous, 
that due to disorders of the centers of respiration. 
a., placental, placental tuberculosis, a., uterine, a 
form of dyspnea observed in hysterical patients, due 
to no manifest disease. Syn., uterine asthma. 

apneumatic (ap-nu-mat'-ik) [&, priv.; irvev/ta, 
breath]. 1. Collapsed; uninflated, not inflatable; 
said of parts of the lung. 2. Carried on with the 
exclusion of air, as an apneumatic operation or 

apneumatosis (ah-nu-mat-o'-sis) [&, priv.; irvevna- 
rwo-is, inflation]. Collapse or non-inflation of the 

apneumia (ap-nu'-me-ah) [d, priv.; irvevnuv, lung]. 
Congenital absence of the lungs. 

apncea {ap-ne'-ah). See apnea. 

apo- (ap'-o) [d-n-o, from]. A prefix denoting from, 
away, separation. 

apoaconitine (ap-o-ak-on' -it-en) [dn-6, from; aconi- 
tum, aconite], C33H41NO11. An alkaloid prepared 
from aconitine by dehydration. 

apoatropine (ap-o-af -ro-pen) [bird, from; atropine], 
C17H21NO2. An alkaloid obtained by the action of 
HNO3 on atropine. 

apobiosis (ap-o-bi-o'-sis) [airo, from; /3£os, life]. 
Local death of a part. 

apoblema (ap-o-ble'-mah) [a.Tr6fi\t)fia; d-n-6, away; 
jSdXXeti', to throw]. The product of abortion. 

apobole (ap-ob'-o-le) [d7ro/36Xij, a throwing away]. 
Expulsion; abortion. 

apocamnosis (ap-o-kam-no'-sis) [hironanveiv, to 
grow utterly weary]. Intense and readily induced 

apocatastasis (ap-o-kat-as'-tas-is) [airoKarao-Taais, 
restoration]. 1. Return to a previous condition. 
2. The subsidence of an abscess or tumor. 

apocatharsis (ap-o-kath-ar'-sis) [airo, away; KaBap- 
ais, purgation]. Purgation; abevacuation. 

apocathartic (ap-o-kath-ar'-tik). Same as cathartic. 

apocenosis (ap-o-sen-o'-sis) [hivoKevbeiv, to drain]. 
1. An increased flow or evacuation of blood or other 
humors. 2. A partial evacuation. In the plural, 
apocenoses, Cullen and Swediaur's term for diseases 
marked by fluxes and unattended by fever. 

apochromatic (ap-o-kro-mat'-ik) [and, away; xP^M a . 
color]. Without color, a. lens, a lens of a special 
variety of glass, corrected for spherical and chromatic 

apocodeine (ap-o-ko'-de-in) [&w6, from; codeine], 
C18H19NO2. An alkaloid prepared from codeine by 
dehydration. It is emetic and expectorant, with 
other qualities much like those of codeine, and is 
recommended in chronic bronchitis. The hydro- 
chloride is generally used. Dose 3-4 gr. (0.2-0.25 

apocope (ap-ok'-o-pe) [diro, from; kottt], a cutting]. 
Amputation or abscission; an operation or a wound 
that results in loss of substance. 

apocopous (ap-ok'-o-pus) [diro/coiros, cut off]. 

apocoptic (ap-o-kop'-tik) [airoKoirTeiv, to cut off]. 
Affected by or occurring from the removal of a part. 

apocrustic (ap-o-krus'-tik) [iiroKpoveiv, to beat off]. 
Repellent; defensive; astringent. 

apocynein (ap-o-sin'-e-in). A glucoside from 
Apocynum_cannabinum, similar in character to digi- 

apocynin (ap-os'-in-in) [see apocynum]. The 
precipitate from a tincture of Apocynum cannabinum; 
tonic, alterative, and cathartic. Dose |-i gr. (0.016- 
0.065 Gm.). 

apocynum (ap-os'-in-um) [apocynon, dogbane]. 
Canadian hemp. The root of A. cannabinum, the 
properties of which are due to apocynin. It is a 
good expectorant; in full doses it is emetic and 
cathartic. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.3-1.2 Gm.); of tincture 
5-40 min. (0.3-2.5 Cc). Another American species, 
A., androsamifolium, has similar properties. a., 
fluidextract of (fiuidextr actum apocyni, U. S. P.). 
Dose 5-20 min. (0.3-1.2 Cc). 




apodal (ap'-od-al). See apodous. 

apodemialgia (ap-o-de-me-al'-je-ah) [a.Tro8i]fiLa, jour- 
ney: aKyeiv, to grieve]. A morbid dislike of home- 
life with a desire for wandering. 

apodia (ah-po'-de-ah) [a, priv. ; iroi/s, a foot]. 
Congenital absence of feet. 

apodous (ap'-o-dus) [a, priv.; 7roiis, a foot]. Foot- 
less; characterized by apodia. 

apogamy (ap-og' '-am-e) [&w6, away from; yafios, 
marriage]. In biology, i. Asexual reproduction where 
the opposite usually occurs. 2. The total and 
normal absence of sexual reproductive power. 

apokenosis (ap-o-ken-o'-sis). See apocenosis. 

apolar (ah-po'-lar) [d, priv.; iroXos, the end of an 
axis]. Not possessing a pole. a. cells, nerve-cells 
without processes. 

apolepsis (ap-o-lep'-sis) [diroXryi/'is, a leaving off]. 
Suppression or retention of a secretion or excretion; 
cessation of a function. 

apolexis (ap-o-leks'-is) [awo\r]%is, a declining]. 
The decline of life; the stage of catabolism or decay. 

Apollinaris water (ap-ol-in-a'-ris). A German 
alkaline mineral water, highly charged with carbonic 
acid, and largely used as a diluent in gout, rheuma- 
tism, etc. 

apolysin (ap-ol'-is-in), CeH^OOal^NHsCeOe. A 
compound of citric acid and phenetidin. It is anti- 
pyretic and analgesic. Dose 8-90 gr. (0.5-5.0 Gm.) 
daily. Syn., monophenetidin citric acid. 

apomorphine (ap-o-mor'-fen) [dird, from; morphine], 
C17H18NO2. An artificial alkaloid, derived from mor- 
phine by the abstraction of a molecule of water. 
a. hydrochloride (apomorphince hydrochloridum, U. S. 
P.), is the salt used, and is a grayish, crystalline 
powder. It acts as a centric emetic. Dose vtttu 
gr. (0.003-0.0065 Gm.), hypodermatically, or T V-$ 
gr. (0.0065-0.01 Gm.) by the mouth. It is expec- 
torant in small doses. 

apomorphosis (ap-o-mor-fo'-sis) [dironop^ow, to 
change the form]. A chemical change by which one 
substance acting upon another takes something away 
from it. 

apomyelin (ap-o-mi'-el-in) [bird, from;\6s, 
marrow]. A peculiar phosphatized principle reported 
to exist in the brain tissue and containing no glycerol. 

apomyttosis (ap-o-mit-o'-sis) [airoiivo-o-tiv , to blow 
the nose]. Any disease marked by stertor; a sneezing. 

aponal (ap'-o-nal). The carbamic acid ester of 
tertiary amyl alcohol; it is used as a hypnotic in 
doses of 15 to_30 grains (1-2 grammes). 

apone (ap-on') [Fr.: d, priv.; ttovos, pain]. An 
anodyne; especially the concentrated tincture of 
capsicum; used externally for the relief of pain, and 
internally in small doses, diluted, for hemorrhoids, 
dyspepsia, and mania. Dose gtt. iij-x. 

aponeurography (ap-o-nu-rog'-ra-fe) [airovevpcoais, 
aponeurosis; ypd<pr), a writing]. A description of the 
fasciae, or aponeuroses. 

aponeurology (ap-o-nii-rol'-o-je) [&iropevpw<ris, apo- 
neurosis; X670J, an account]. The science of the 
fasciae or aponeuroses. 

aponeurosis (ap-o-nii-ro'-sis) [airo, from; vevpov, a 
tendon]. A fibrous, membranous expansion of a 
tendon giving attachment to muscles or serving to 
inclose and bind down muscles, a. of occipitofron- 
talis muscle, the aponeurosis that separates the 
two slips of the occipitofrontalis muscle, a. of soft 
palate, a thin, firm, fibrous layer, attached above 
to the hard palate, and becoming thinner toward the 
free margin of the velum, a., subscapular, a thin 
membrane attached to the entire circumference of 
the subscapular fossa, and affording attachment by 
its inner surface to some of the fibers of the sub- 
scapularis muscle, a., supraspinous, a thick and 
dense membranous layer that completes the osseo- 
fibrous case in which the supraspinatus muscle is 
contained, affording auachment by its inner surface 
to some of the fibers of the muscle, a., vertebral, 
a thin aponeurotic lamina extending along the whole 
length of the back part of the thoracic region, serving 
to bind down the erector spinae, and separating it 
from those muscles that unite the spine to the upper 

aponeurositis (ap-on-u-ro-si'-tis) [aponeurosis, ins, 
inflammation]. Inflammation of an aponeurosis. 

aponeurotic (ap-on-u-roV '-ik) [aponeurosis]. Per- 
taining to an aponeurosis, a. fascia, a deep fascia. 

aponeurotome {ap-on-u' -ro-tom) [airovtvpwo-is, apo- 
neurosis; tow, cutting]. An instrument for dividing 

aponeurotomy (ap-on-u-rot'-o-me) [airovevpwo-is, 
aponeurosis; t6/«7, cutting]. The incision, dissection, 
or anatomy of the fasciae; fasciotomy. 

apophlegmatic (ap-o-fieg-mat'-ik) [&ir6, away; 
<t>\kyp.a, phlegm]. Promoting the expulsion of 
mucus from the air passages. 

apophysary {ap-off ' -is-a-re) [L-wo^veiv , to put 
.forth]. Pertaining to or of the nature of an apo- 

apophysate {ap-off' -is-at) [6.tt6, from; <f>v<ris, 
growth]. Furnished with an apophysis. 

apophyseal, apophysial (ap-o-fiz'-e-al). Same as 

apophysis (ap-of-is-is) [&tt6, from; <t>v<ris, growth; 
pi. apophyses]. A process, outgrowth, or swelling of 
some part or organ, as of a bone, a., basilar, the 
basilar process of the occipital bone, a., cerebral, 
the pineal body, apophyses, false, see epiphyses. 
a. lenticularis, the orbicular process of the temporal 
bone. a. raviana, the processus gracilis of the 
malleus, apophyses, true, those which have never 
been epiphyses. 

apophysitis {ap-of-is-i'-tis) [see apophysis; itvs, 
inflammation]. 1. Inflammation of an apophysis. 
2. Appendicitis. 

apoplasmia {ap-o-plaz'-me-ah) [airo, away; ir\aap.a, 
plasm]. Deficiency of the blood-plasm. 

apoplectic (ap-o-plek'-tik) [apoplexy]. Pertaining 
to or affected with .apoplexy, a. equivalents, a name 
given to the premonitory symptoms of apoplexy, 
indicating that the brain is subject to alterations in 

apoplectiform {ap-o-plek' -tif-orm) [apoplexy; forma, 
form]. Resembling apoplexy. 

apoplectigenous (ap-o-plek-tij' -en-us) [apoplexy; 
yewav, to produce]. Producing apoplexy or cerebral 

apoplectoid {ap-o-plek' -toid) . Same as apoplecti- 

apoplexy (ap' '-o-pleks-e) [hirowhrio-creiv , to strike 
down, to stun]. The symptom-complex resulting 
from hemorrhage or the plugging of a vessel in the 
brain or spinal cord. The term is sometimes also 
applied to the bursting of a vessel in the lungs, 
liver, etc. a., asthenic, that due to vital depression. 
a., atonic, that which comes on gradually and does 
not attain a high degree of development. Syn., 
imperfect apoplexy, a., atrabilious, deep melancholy 
attributed to resorption of bile, a., bulbar, that 
due to hemorrhage into the substance of the oblon- 
gata, causing paralysis of one or both sides of the 
body, inability to swallow, difficulty in protruding 
the tongue, dyspnea, gastric disorders, and tumul- 
tuous action of the heart, a., capillary, one resulting 
from rupture of capillaries, a., consecutive, that 
due to the arrest of some habitual discharge or 
eruption, a., cutaneous. 1. See purpura hemor- 
rhagica. 2. A sudden effusion of bloody to the skin 
and subcutaneous tissue, a., dysarthritic, a form 
accompanying arthritic diseases, in which the pain 
disappears from the joints, and vertigo, pain in the 
head, etc., appear, a., epileptic, coma with epilep- 
toid symptoms, sometimes observed in cerebral and 
acute inflammatory diseases, a., febrile, paroxysmal 
fever attended with deep sleep and stertor. Syn., 
apoplexia febricosa. a., fulminant, a sudden and 
fatal apoplexy, a., ingravescent, a term applied to a 
form of apoplexy in which there is a slowly pro- 
gressive loss of consciousness, due to a gradual leakage 
of blood from a ruptured vessel, a., muscular, an 
escape of blood into the muscular tissue, a., nervous. 
1. Acute anemia of the brain. 2. A condition marked 
by symptoms of cerebral congestion and hemorrhage 
which are due to functional disturbance of the 
nervous system, a. of the ovary, a., ovarian, hemor- 
rhage into the stroma of the ovary, through the rup- 
ture of a follicle, converting the organ into a cyst or 
hematoma. The blood is gradually absorbed, though 
it gives rise to great pain; the cause is unknown. 
a., phlegmonous, a condition attributed to inflam- 
mation of the brain and its membranes; it is marked 
by delirium, fever, severe headache, conjunctival 
injection, lacrimation, and a hard pulse, a., pituit- 
ous, serous apoplexy, a., placental, a., placentary, 
escape of blood into the placental substance, a., 
pontile, apoplexy due to a rupture of a blood-vessel 
in the pons Varolii, a., progressive, that in which 
there is a very gradual increase of the paralysis and 
other symptoms, a., pulmonary, escape of blood 
into the pulmonary parenchyma, a., pulmonary, 




vascular, very acute and extensive congestion of th2 
lungs, leading to apoplectic symptoms and a fatal 
termination, a., sanguineous, hemorrhage' into or 
upon the brain, a., serous, that due to an effusion 
of serious matter into or upon the brain, a., simple, 
the name given to those cases of death from coma in 
which no cerebral lesion is found, a., spinal, rupture 
of a blood-vessel of tha spinal cord, a., splenic,. 
(x) flow of blood into the splenic substance; (2) con- 
tagious anthrax, a., suppurative, that due to 
purulent processes and fever, a., symptomatic, 
that attributed to another disease or to the arrest 
of some habitual evacuation, a., uterine, escape of 
blood into the muscular tissue of the uterus, a., 
venous, that due to congestion of the veins. 

apopsychia {ap-op-sik'-e-ah) [&v6, away; 1^x17, 
spirit]. Syncope; fainting; a faint, 

apoptosis (ap-op-to'-sis) [&ir6, away; wtuxtls, a 
falling]. A falling off, as of a crust, or of the hair; 
loosening of a scab or crust. 

apoquinamine (ap-o-kwin'-am-en), C19H22N2O. An 
artificial alkaloid occurring as a white, amorphous 
substance derived from quinamine, conquinamine, 
or quinamidine by action of hydrochloric acid. 

aporetin (ap-o-re'-tin) [&71-6, from; pi\rlvt\, a resin]. 
A purgative resin derived from rhubarb. 

aporocephalous (ap-o-ro-sef'-al-us) [airopos, diffi- 
cult to distinguish; Ke<pa\ri, the head]. Having a 
head scarcely distinguishable. 

aporrhegma (ap-o-reg'-mah) [apo-; priyvwai, to 
break in pieces]. A substance split off from another 
substance by biological action. 

aporrhinosis (ap-or-in-o'-sts) [&tt6, from; pis, nose], 
A discharge from the nostril. 

aporrhipsis (ap-or-ip'-sis) [&ir6, away from; 
pl-KTtw, to throw]. The throwing off of the clothes 
or the bed clothes; a symptom seen in some cases of 
insanity and in delirium. 

aposepsis (ap-o-sep'-sis) [airoariip is, putrefaction; 
sea sepsis]. Complete putrefaction. 

aposia (ah-po'-ze-ah) [d, priv.; irbcns, drinking]. 
Absence of thirst; adipsia. 

apositia (ap-o-sit'-e-ah) [a-n-6, from; <tZtos, food]. 
Aversion to or loathing of food. 

apositic (ap-o-sit'-ik) [&iro, from; alros, iood]. 
Impairing the appetite; affected with apositia. 

apostasis (ap-os'-tas-is) [LiroffTacns, a standing 
away from]. 1. An abscess. 2. The end or the 
crisis of an attack of disease; termination by crisis. 
3. An exfoliation. 

apostatic (ap-os-tat'-ik) [diroo-Taa-is, a standing 
away from]. Relating to or of the nature of an 

apostaxis (ap-o-staks'-is) [&tt6, from; o-rd£is, a 
dropping]. A discharge of fluid by drops; epistaxis. 

apostem (ap'-o-stem), or apostema (ap-o-ste'-mah) 
i.-n-6(TTTtp.a, an abscess]. An abscess. 

apostematic (ap-os-tem-at'-ik) [&ir6<TTrip.a, an ab- 
scess]. Relating to or of the nature of an abscess. 

apostemation (ap-os-tem-a'-shuri) [apostematio, ab- 
scess formation]. The formation of an apostem- or 

aposthia (ah-pos'-the-ah) [d, priv.; irSo-Or), prepuce; 
penis]. Congenital absence of the prepuce or penis. 

Apostolus method [Georges Apostoli, French 
physician, 1847-1900]. The use of strong electrolytic 
or chemical galvanocaustic currents in the treatment 
of diseases of the female generative organs, especially 
uterine fibroids. 

apostrophe (ap-os'-tro-fe) [&ir6, away; orpkfaiv, to 
turn]. The arrangement of chlorophyll bodies along 
the side walls of the cells as a result of excess or 
deficiency of light. Cf. epislrophe and dystrophe. 

apothecaries' weight. A system of weights and 
measures used in compounding medicines. The 
troy pound of 5760 grains is the standard. It is 
subdivided into 12 ounces. The ounce is subdivided 
into 8 drams, the dram into 3 scruples, and the 
scruple into 20 grains. For fluid measure the quart 
of 32 fluidounces is subdivided into 2 pints, the pint 
into 16 fluidounces, the ounce into 8 fluidrams, and 
the fluidram into 60 minims. The following symbol.; 
and abbreviations are used: 
ne, minim. 5. uncia, an ounce (480 

3, scrupulus, a scruple lb, libra, a pound. 

(20 grains). O., octarius, a pint. 

5, drachma, a dram (60 gr., granum, a grain. 

grains). ss., semissis, one-half. 

See Weights and Measures. 

apothecary (ap-oth'-e-ka-re) [SnrodriKr), a storehouse]. 

1. A druggist or pharmaceutical chemist, one who 
prepares and sells drugs, fills prescriptions, etc. 

2. In Great Britain a physician filling his own pre- 
scriptions ; especially one licensed by the Society of 
Apothecaries of London, or by the Apothecaries' 
Hall of Ireland. 

apothem, apothema (ap'-o-them, ap-olh'-em-ah) 
[euro, from; 6kp.a, a deposit]. A brown powder 
deposited from vegetable infusions or decoctions 
exposed to the air. 

apothesis (ap-oth'-es-is) [airoOea-is, a putting 
back]. The reduction of a fracture or luxation. 
a. funiculi umbilicalis, the reposition of an abnormally 
protruded umbilical cord. 

apotheter (ap-oth'-et-er). A navel-string repositor 
devised by Braun, consisting of a staff with a sling 
attached in which the prolapsed funis is placed and 
carried up into the uterine cavity. 

apous (ah' -pus). See apodous. 

apozem, apozema (ap'-o-zem, ap-oz'-em-ah) [&ird, 
away; $eiv, to boil]. A decoction, especially one to 
which medicines are added. 

apparatotherapy (ap-ar-at-o-ther'-ap-e). Treat- 
ment by mechanical apparatus. 

apparatus (ap-ar-a'-tus) [apparatus, preparation]. 
1. A collection of instruments or devices used for a 
special purpose. 2. Anatomically the word is used 
to designate collectively the organs performing a 
certain function. 3. A collection of pathological 
phenomena. 4. Cystotomy, a., absorbent, the 
blood-vess°ls and lymphatics. a., acoustic, a., 
auditory, the external and internal ear, the auditory 
canal, the tympanum, and the Eustachian tube. 
a., chirurgicus, surgical apparatus, a., digestorius, 
digestive apparatus, a., lacrimalis, lacrimal appar- 
atus, a. ligamentosus colli, the occipitoaxoid liga- 
ment, a broad band at the front surface of the 
spinal canal that covers the odontoid process, a. 
magnus, a. major, median cystotomy, a. minor, 
lateral lithotomy, a. respiratorius, respiratory 
system, a., segmental, see nephridia. a., sound- 
conducting, a collective term for the auricle, external 
auditory canal, tympanum, Eustachian tube, and 
mastoid cells, a., sound-perceiving, that part of 
the organism concerned in the perception of sound 
consisting Of the auditory nerve, and its center of 
origin and peripheral distribution, or the organs of 
the labyrinth, a., urinary, the kidneys, ureters, 
bladder, and urethra, a. urogenitalis, urogenital 
system, a., uropoietic, the kidneys. 

apparent (ap-a'-rent) [apparere, to appear]. Seem- 
ing; appearing to be like. a. death, see death. 

apparition (ap-ar-ish'-un) [apparitio, an appear- 
ance]. 1. A visual delusion or hallucination. 2. The 
sudden aggregation of scattered principles into an 
element or corpuscle. 

appendage (ap-en'-daj) [appendere, to weigh; 
hang]. Anything appended, usually of minor im- 
portance, a., auricular. 1. The projecting part of 
the cardiac auricle. 2. Virchow's name for a round 
or elongated cartilaginous prominence in front of 
the tragus, a. cecal, the appendix vermiformis. 
a.s, cutaneous; a.s, dermal, the nails, hair, sebaceous 
glands, and sweat-glands, a.s, epiploic, see appen- 
dices epiploicce under appendix, a.s of the eye, the 
eye-lashes, eyebrows, lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac 
and ducts, and conjunctiva, a.s, fetal, the placenta, 
amnion, chorion, and umbilical cord, a.s, moss- 
like, short processes seen on some nerve fibres in the 
granular layers of the cerebellum, a., ovarian, the 
parovarium, a., pineal, the epiphysis, a., pituitary, 
the hypophysis, a.s, uterine, the ovaries and ovi- 

appendalgia (ap-end-al'-je-ah) [appendix; akyos, 
pain]. Pain in the appendicular region. 

appendectomy (ap-en-dek'-to-me). See appen- 

appendiceal, appendical {ap-en-di-se'-al, ap-en'- 
di-kal). See appendicular. 

appendicectomy {ap-en-dis-ek'-to-me). [appendix; 
€Krofi7i, excision]. Excision of the vermiform 

appendices epiploicse {ap-en'-dis-ez ep-ip-lo'-is-e). 
See appendix. 

appendicitis (ap-en-dis-i'-tis) [appendix; ms, 
inflammation]. Inflammation of the vermiform 
appendix. Syn., paratyphlitis; epilyphlitis; abscess 
of iliac form, a., gangrenous, that in which the 
vermiform appendix is found gangrenous and slough- 




ing, usually with one or more perforation 1 ? and free 
leakage, a large section of the right groin full of 
lemon-colored, septic fluid, a puddle of filth under- 
neath the cecum and ileum, the omentum fixed with a 
cluster of bowel adhesions beneath. Syn., green 
groin, a. larvata, an incipient or latent form of 
appendicitis, a. obliterans, an inflammation char- 
acterized by the progressive obliteration of the lumen 
of the appendix, by the disappearance of the epi- 
thelial lining and glandular structure. The symp- 
toms are acute attacks of brief duration, moderate 
swelling at the seat of disease, and persistent tender- 
ness in the region of the appendix during the inter- 

appendicostomy (ap-en-dik-os' '-to-me) . The opera- 
tion of opening the vermiform appendix, previously 
anchored in an incision in the anterior abdominal 
wall, for the purpose of irrigating the cecum and 
colon; employed in amebic dysentery and consti- 
pation. Syn., Weir's operation. 

appendicular (ap-en-dik'-u-lar) [appendicula, a 
small appendix], i. Pertaining to the vermiform 
appendix. 2. Pertaining to the limbs, a. colic, a 
spasmodic colicky pain originating in the appendix. 

appendiculate (ap-en-dik'-u-lat). Having appen- 
dages or protruding accessory parts. 

appendix (ap-en'-diks) [pi., appendices; appendere, 
to hang upon or to]. An appendage, a. auricularis, 
see appendage, auricular (1). a. cerebri, the pituitary 
body, a., ensiform, see xiphoid, a. epididymidis, 
the vas aberrans. appendices epiploicae, fatty 
projections of the serous coat of the large intestine. 
a. lobularis, the flocculus, a., suprasphenoid, a. 
ventriculi, the hypophysis, a., vermiform, a. vermi- 
formis, the small, blind gut projecting from the 
cecum, a., xiphoid, see xiphoid. 

apperception (ap-er-sep'-shun) [appercipere, to 
perceive]. The conscious reception of a sensory 
impression; the power of receiving and appreciating 
sensory impressions. 

appetence, appetency (ap'-e-tens, ap'-e-ten-se) 
[appetentia, appetite]. An appetite or desire; the 
attraction of a living tissue for those materials that 
nourish it. 

appetite (ap'-e-til) [appetere, to desire]. The desire 
for food; also any natural desire; lust, a.-breakfast, 
more tasty and desirable than the ordinary test meal, 
and calculated to excite a more natural flow of gastric 
juice, a.-juice, flow of gastric juice provoked by 
the mere sight and taste of food (without swallowing 
it), a., perverted, that for unnatural and indi- 
gestible things, frequent in disease and in pregnancy. 

appetizer (ap-e-ti'-zer) [appetere, to desire]. A 
medicine, or dose, taken to stimulate the appetite. 

applanate (ap'-lan-at) [ad, to; planus, flat]. Hori- 
zontally flattened. 

applanatio, applanation (ap-lan-a'-she-o, ap-lan-a'- 
shun) [L.]. A flattening, a. corneae, flattening of 
the entire surface of the cornea from disease. 

apple (ap'-l) [AS., ceppel, an apple]. The fruit of 
the tree, Pyrus malus. a., Adam's, see pomum 
Adami. a.-brandy, an alcoholic spirit distilled from 
cider; cider-brandy, a. extract, see extr actum ferri 
pomatum under extract, a. eye, synonym of exoph- 
thalmos, a. head, a term for the broad thick skull 
of dwarfs, a. oil, amyl valerate. 

applicator (ap'-lik-a-tor) [L,]. An instrument 
used in making applications. 

Appolito's operation (ap-ol-e'-to). Enterorrhaphy 
by means of a form of right-angle continuous suture. 

apposition (ap-o-zish'-un) [apponere, to apply to]. 
1. The act of fitting together; the state of being 
fitted together. 2. An addition of parts. 3. Develop- 
ment by accretion. 

approximal (ap-roks'-im-al) [ad, to; proximus, 
next]. That which is next to; contiguous. In 
dentistry, pertaining to contiguous surfaces, as 
approximal fillings. 

apraxia (ah-praks'-e-ah) [a, priv.; vpaoaeiv, to do]. 
Soul-blindness; mind -blindness; object-blindness; an 
affection in which the memory for the uses of things 
is lost, as well as the understanding of the signs by 
which the things are expressed. 

aprication (ap-re-ka'-shun) [apricatio, a basking 
in the sun]. The sun-bath; sun-stroke. 

aproctia (ah-prok'-she-ah) [&, priv.; irpw/cros, anus]. 
Absence or imperforation of the anus. 

aproctous (ah-prok'-tus) [&, priv.; irpwuTos, the 
anus]. Having imperforation of the anus. 

apron (a'-pron) [O. F., naperon], 1. A cloth or 

rubber covering to prevent the clothing from becom- 
ing soiled. 2. The omentum, a., Hottentot, arti- 
ficially or abnormally elongated labia minora. Syn., 
pudendal apron, a., masonic, a name sometimes 
given to a support, attached to the waist, for the 
penis and testicles in gonorrheal cases, a. of succor, 
a canvas stretcher for carrying the wounded. 

aprosexia (ah-pro-seks'-e-ah) [Lirpoa^ia, want of 
attention]. A mental disturbance consisting in 
inability to fix the attention upon a subject. An 
inability to think clearly and to comprehend readily 
what is read or heard; a condition sometimes observed 
in the course of chronic catarrh of the nose or of the 
nose and pharynx. 

aprosopia (ah-pro-so'-pe-ah) [&, priv.: -Kpoauntov, 
the face]. A form of fetal monstrosity with absence 
of part or all of the face. 

aprosopous (ap-ros'-o-pus) [&, priv.; irpbauirov, the 
face]. Exhibiting aprosopia. 

aprosopus {ap-ros'-o-pus) [&, priv.; irpovuirov, the 
face]. An aprosopous fetus. 

apselaphesia (ap-sel-af-e'-ze-ah) [a, priv.^Xd^cm, 
touch]. Loss of the tactile sense. 

apsithyria, apsithurea (ah-psith-i'-re-ah, -u'-re-ah) 
[&, priv.; xpidvpl£eit>, to whisper]. Hysterical aphonia, 
in which the patient loses the voice and is also 
unable to whisper. 

apsychia (ah-si'-ke-ah) [&, priv.; ^XV, spirit]. 
Unconsciousness; a faint or swoon. 

aptyalia, aptyalism (ap-ti-a'-le-ah, ap-ti'-al-izm) 
[&, priv.; irrvaki^eiv, to spit], I. Deficiency or 
absence of saliva. 2. Psychic salivation; debility 
and general disorder from loss of oxydases due to 
excessive expectoration. 

apulosis (ap-u-lo' -sis) [ovXeiv, to cicatrize]. Cica- 
trization, or a cicatrix. 

apulotic (ap-u-lot'-ik) [oiiXetv, to cicatrize]. Pro- 
moting cicatrization, or apulosis. 

apus (a'-pus) [&, priv.; irovs, foot]. 1. A mon- 
strosity consisting in absence of the lower limbs, or 
feet. 2. An apodous fetus. 

apyknomorphous (ah-pik-no-morf -us) [a, priv.; 
■kvkvos, compact; nop<j>rj, form]. Applied by Nissl 
to feebly staining cells, or those in which the stainable 
portions are not arranged in close proximity. 

apyonin (ah-pi'-on-in) [&, priv.; wvov, pus]. A 
remedy introduced as a substitute for pyoktanin in 
ophthalmic practice. It is said to be identical with 
yellow pyoktanin. 

apyous (ah-pi'-us). Having no pus. 

apyretic (ah-pi-ret'-ik) [a, priv.; irvperos, fever]. 
Without fever. 

apyrexia (ah-pi-reks'-e-ah) [&, priv.; irvperos, 
fever]. The non-febrile stage of an intermittent 
fever; intermission or absence of fever. 

apyrexial (ah-pi-rek'-sc-al) [see apyrexia]. Per- 
taining to, or the nature of, or characterized by 

aq. Abbreviation for aqua [L.], water; also for 
water of crystallization. 

aqua (ak'-wah) [L., gen., and pi., aqua]. Water. 
An oxide of hydrogen, having the composition H2O. 
It is a solid below 32 , a liquid between 32 ° and 
212 , vaporizes at 212 at the sea-level (bar. 760 
mm.), giving off vapor of tension equal to that of 
the air. Water is an essential constituent of all 
animal and vegetable tissues. In the human body 
it forms 2 % of the enamel of the teeth, 77 % of 
the tissues, 78 % of the blood, and 93 % of the 
urine. Water is a valuable antipyretic; internally, 
it is diuretic. It is the most useful of all the solvents. 
Aqua, in pharmacy, designates various medicated 
waters, a. ammoniae (U. S. P.), ammonia-water. 
Dose 10-30 min. (0.6-2.0 Cc). a. ammoniae fortior 
(U. S. P.), stronger ammonia-water, used externally. 
a. amygdalae amaras (U. S. P.), bitter almond water. 
Dose 2 dr. (8 Cc). a. anethi (B. P.), dill-water. 
Dose \-2 oz. (15-60 Cc). a. anisi (U. S. P.), anise 
water. Dose §-2 oz. (15-60 Cc). a. aurantii 
florum (U. S. P.), orange-flower water. Dose §-2 
oz. (15-60 Cc). a. aurantii florum fortior (U. S. P.), 
triple orange-flower water, a. bulliens, boiling water. 
a. calcis, lime water, a. camphorae (U. S. P.), 
camphor-water. Dose \-\ oz. (15-30 Cc). a. car- 
bolisata, 22 parts of liquefied phenol in 978 parts of 
distilled water. Dose 1 dr.-£ oz. (4-16 Cc). a. 
chlori (liquor chlori compositus, U. S. P.), chlorine 
water. Dose 1-4 dr. (3.7-15.0 Cc). a. chloroformi 
(U. S. P.), chloroform-water. Dose \-2 oz. (15-60 
Cc). a. cinnamomi (U. S. P.), cinnamon-water. 




Dose |-2 oz. (15-60 Cc). a. communis, common 
water, a. creosoti (U. S. P.), creosote-water. Dose 
1-4 dr. (3.7-15.0 Cc). a. destillata (U. S. P.), 
distilled water, a. ferrata, a chalybeate water. 
a. fervens, hot water, a. fluvialis, river-water. 
a. foeniculi (U. S. P.), fennel-water. Dose 1-2 oz. 
(30-60 Cc). a. fontana, well- or spring-water. 
a. fortis, see acid, nitric, a. hamamelidis (U. S. P.), 
hamamelis water. Dose 2 dr. (8 Cc). a. hydro- 
genii dioxidi (U. S. P.), solution of hydrogen dioxide 
used chiefly locally, a. labyrinthi, the clear fluid 
existing in the labyrinth of the ear. a. laurocerasi 
(B. P.), cherry-laurel water. Dose 5-30 min. 
(0.3-2.0 Cc). a. Levico, water from springs at 
Levico in the Tyrol, containing arsenic, iron, and 
copper, a. marina, sea water, a. menthae piperita? 
(U. S. P.), peppermint-water. Dose 1-2 oz. (30-60 
Cc). a. menthae viridis (U. S. P.), spearmint water. 
Dose 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc). a. oculi, the aqueous 
humor, a. omnium fiorum, a liquid distillation- 
product of cow-dung collected during the month of 
May; formerly used in pulmonary tuberculosis, a. 
pimentae (B. P.), allspice water. Dose \-2 oz. (15- 
60 Cc). a. pluvialis, rain-water, a. putealis, a. 
puteana, well-water, a. regia, see acid, nitrohydro- 
chloric. a. rosae (U. S. P.), rose-water. Dose 1-2 
oz. (30-60 Cc). a. rosae fortior (U. S. P.), used for 
making rose-water, a. vita?, brandy or spirit. 

aquacapsulitis (ak'-wah-kap-sii-li' -lis) [aqua; cap- 
sula; ltls, inflammation]. Inflammation of the 
membrane of Descemet; serous iritis. 

aqua? (ak'-we) [pi. of aqua]. Waters; medicated 

aquaeductus (ak-we-duk'-tus), see aqueduct. 

aquapuncture (ak'-wah-pungk'-chur) [aqua; punc- 
tura, a puncture]. 1. Counterirritation by means of a 
very fine jet of water impinging upon the skin; it is 
useful in neuralgic disorders. 2. The hypodermatic 
injection of water as a placebo. 

aquatic (a-kwat'-ik) [aqua]. Pertaining to water. 
a. cancer, synonym of cancrum oris. 

aqueduct, aquaeductus (ak'-we-dukt, ak-we-duk'- 
tus) [aqua; ductus, a leading]. A canal for the 
passage of fluid; any canal, aquaeductus cerebri, 
see a. Sylvii. aquaeductus cochleae, aqueduct of 
the cochlea, a., communicating, aquaeductus com- 
municationis, a small canal sometimes found at 
the junction of the mastoid part of the temporal 
bone with the petrosa, which transmits a venous 
branch to the end of the transverse sinus, a. of 
Cotunnius, the aqueduct of the vestibule, extending 
from the utricle to the posterior wall of the pyramid 
in the brain, aquaeductus Fallopii, see under Fal- 
lopian, aquaeductus Sylvii, the aqueduct of Sylvius, 
the passageway from the third to the fourth ventricle, 
the iter a tertio ad quartum ventriculum. Syn., 
ventricular aqueduct, a., temporal, an inconstant 
canal at the dorsal part of the superior angle of the 
petrosa, for passage of the squamosopetrosal sinus. 
aquaeductus vestibuli, the aqueduct of the vestibule 
of the ear. 

aqueous (a'-kwe-us) [aqua]. Watery, a. chamber 
of the eye, the space between the cornea and the 
lens; the iris divides it into an anterior and a posterior 
chamber, a. extract, a solid preparation of a drug 
made by evaporation of its aqueous solution, a. 
humor, the fluid filling the anterior chamber of the eye. 

aquiducous (a-kwe-du'-kus) [aquiducus; aqua, 
water; ducere, to lead]. Hydragogue. 

aquiferous (ak-wif -ur-us) [aqua, water; ferre, to 
bear]. Carrying water or lymph. 

aquocapsulitis (ak-wo-kap-su-li'-tis). See aqua- 

aquosity (a-kwos'-it-e) [aquositas, watery]. The 
state or condition of being watery; moisture. 

aquozon (ak'-wo-zon). Ozonized, distilled, and 
sterilized water, containing 3 % by volume of ozone. 

arabate (ar'-ab-dt). A salt of arabic acid. 

arabic acid (ar'-ab-ik). See arabin. a., gum-, 
see acacia. 

arabin (ar'-ab-in) [arabic], (CeHioOs^ +H2O. Ara- 
bic acid. A transparent, glassy, amorphous mass, 
an exudate from many plants. It is soluble in water, 
and is the principal constituent of gum-arabic. 

arabinose (ar'-ab-in- os) [arabic], C6H12O6. One of 
the glucoses made from gum-arabic on boiling with 
dilute H2SO4. It crystallizes in shining prisms that 
melt at ioo°; is slightly soluble in cold water, has a 
sweet taste, and reduces Fehling's solution, but is 
not fermented by yeast. 

arabite (ar'-ab-it) [arabinose], C5H12O5. A sub- 
stance formed from arabinose by the action of sodium 
amalgam. It crystallizes from hot alcohol in shining 
needles, melting at 102 . It has a sweet taste, but 
does not reduce Fehling's solution. 

Arachis (ar'-ak-is) [apaxos, a leguminous plant]. 
A genus of leguminous plants. A. hypogaea, see 
ground nut. a. oil, peanut oil. 

arachnida (ar-ak'-nid-ah) [hpaxv-qs, a spider]. 
A class of arthropods to which belong ticks (acari), 
mites (linguaiulidce), spiders (araneida) , and scorpions 

arachnitis (ar-ak-ni'-tis) [arachnoid; ins, inflam- 
mation]. Inflammation of the arachnoid membrane 
of the brain. Syn., leptomeningitis externa; arach- 
nodeitis; arachnoiditis; arachnoideitis ; arachnoitis. 
a., rhachidian, a., spinal, spinal meningitis. 

arachnoid (ar-ak' -noid) [6.pax"v> a spider's web; 
elSos, form]. 1. Resembling a web. 2. The arach- 
noid membrane. Syn., membrana media cerebri; 
meningion; meningium; meninx arachnoidea; meninx 
media; meninx serosa. 3. Pertaining to a membrane. 
4. Thready; feeble; said of the pulse, a. cavity, 
the space between the arachnoid and dura mater. 
a. membrane, the delicate membrane of the brain 
and cord between the dura and pia mater. It is 
separated from the pia by the subarachnoid space, 
and passes over the convolutions without dipping 
down into the fissures between them. 

arachnoidal (ar-ak-noid'-al) [see arachnoid]. Per- 
taining to the arachnoid membrane. 

arachnoidea (ar-ak-noid'-e-ah) [see arachnoid). 
The arachnoid membrane; see arachnoid, a. en- 
cephali, arachnoid of brain, a. oculi, outer layer of 
choroid, a. spinalis, arachnoid of spine. 

arachnoiditis (ar-ak-noi-di'-tis). See arachnitis. 

arachnoidism (ar-ak' -noi-dizm) [hpaxvris, spider] 
The condition produced by the bite of poisonous 

arachnoiditis (ar-ak-noid-i'-tis). Same as arach- 

arachnolysin (ar-ak-noV -is-in) [apaxvys, a spider; 
Xiio-is, a loosing]. A very active hemolytic substance 
extracted from spiders. 

arachnopia (ar-ak' -no-pi' -ah) [arachnoid; pia]. 
The arachnoid and the pia considered together. 

arachnorrhinitis (ar-ak-no-rin-i'-tis) [apkxvns, spider; 
pis, nose; ms, inflammation]. A disease of the 
nasal passages supposed to be due to the presence 
of a spider. 

arachnotitis (ar-ak-no-ti'-tis) [apaxvn, spider; 6i>s, 
ear; ins, inflammation]. Inflammation said to be 
caused by a spider in the auditory canal. 

arack (ar'-ak). See arrack. 

araeometer (ar-e-om'-et-er). See areometer. 

araiocardia (ar-i-o-kar'-de-ah) [apaios, thin; KapSia, 
heart]. Brachycardia. 

Aralia (ar-a'-le-ah) [L.]. A genus of plants, order 
Araliacece, embracing several species, having aro- 
matic, diaphoretic, and resolvent properties. Gin- 
seng, wild sarsaparilla, petty-morrel, and other plants 
esteemed in popular medicine belong here; few have 
active qualities of high value in any disease. 

Aran's green cancer (ar-ahn') [Frangois Amilcar 
Aran, French physician, 1817-1861]. Chloroma; 
malignant lymphoma of the orbital cavity associated 
with grave leukemia, and tending to form metastases 
through the lymphatic system. Syn., cancer vert 
d "Aran. A.'s law, fractures of the base of the skull 
are the result of injury to the vault, the extension 
taking place by irradiation along the line of the 
shortest circle. The fractures of the base which 
occur by contre-coup are exceptions to this law. 

Aran-Duchenne's disease (ar-ahn' -doo-shen') [see 
Aran; Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne de 
Boulogne, French physician, 1806-1875]. Pro- 
gressive muscular atrophy. 

araneous (ar-a'-ne-us) [aranea, a spider's web]. 
1. Full of webs; resembling a cobweb. 2. Applied 
to a thready, feeble pulse. 3- Consisting of separate 
filaments, a. membrane, the arachnoid membrane. 

Arantius, bodies of (ar-an'-she-us) [Julius Caesar 
Arantius (Arantio, or Aranzio), Italian anatomist, 
1530-1589]. The fibrous tubercles in the center of 
each segment of the semilunar valves. A., canal of, 
A., duct of, the ductus venosus. The smaller of the 
two branches into which the umbilical vein divides 
after entering the abdomen; it empties into the 
ascending vena cava and becomes obliterated after 
birth. A., ligament of, the obliterated ductus venosus 




of Arantius. A., ventricle of, a small culdesac in 
the medulla oblongata, forming the lower termina- 
tion of the fourth ventricle. 

araroba (ar-ar-o'-bah) [Brazil]. Goa powder. 
An oxidation-product of the resin found deposited 
in the wood of the trunk of A. andira, of Brazil. 
Its active principle is chrysarobin or chrysophanic 
acid. It is largely used in skin affections. 

arbor (ar'-bor) [L.]. A tree. A name for the 
arbor vita? of the cerebellum, a. vita? [tree of life]. 
i. A term applied to the arborescent appearance of a 
section of the cerebellum, and also to a similar appear- 
ance of the folds of the interior of the cervix uteri. 
2. The Thuja occidentalis. 

arborescent (ar-bor-es'-ent) [arbor]. Branching 
like a tree. 

arborization (ar-bor-iz-a'-shun) [arbor], i. A form 
of nerve-termination in which nerve-fiber is brought 
into contact with muscle-fiber by means of an ex- 
pansion. 2. A group of crystals shoving a tree-like 
appearance, a., terminal, i. A branched end of a 
sensory nerve. 2. A motor end-plate, a., vascular, 
a tree-like branching of blood-vessels. 

arbulith (ar'-bu-lith). Trade name of a mixture of 
lithium benzoate and arbutin; it is used as a urinary 
antiseptic and antilithemic. 

arbutin (ar'-bu-tin) [arbutus], C12H15O7. A bitter 
glucoside obtained from Arciostaphylos uva-ursi, or 
bearberry. It is neutral, crystalline, and resolvable 
into glucose and hydroquinone. It is diuretic. 
Dose 15-30 gr. (1-2 Gm.). See Uva ursi. 

Arbutus, (ar-bii'-tus) [L.]. A genus of ericaceous 
shrubs and trees. A. menziesii, the madrono of 
California, has an astringent bark, useful in diarrhea. 
A. unedo, the European arbutus, is astringent and 
narcotic. A., trailing, see Epigcea. 

arc {ark) [arcus, a bow]. A part of the circum- 
ference of a circle; a more or less curved passageway. 
a., bigonial (of lower jaw), a measurement around 
the anterior margin of the jaw. a., binauricular, a 
measurement from the center of one auditory meatus 
to the other, directly upward across the top of the 
head, a., bregmatolambdoid, a measurement along 
the sagittal suture, a., diastaltic nervous, Marshall 
Hall's term for the nerves concerned in a reflex action. 
a., frontal, the measurement from the nasion to the 
bregma, a., maximum transverse, the measurement 
across the face from a point on each side just anterior to 
the external auditory meatus, a., nasobregmatic, a 
line measured from the root of the nose to the bregma. 
a., nahomaiar, measurement between the outer 
margins of the orbits over the nasion. a., naso- 
occipital, measurement from the root of the nose to 
the lowest occipital protuberance, a., occipital, 
measurement from the lambda to the opisthion. 
a., parietal, measurement from the bregma to the 
lambda, a., reflex, the pathway for a reflex act," 
comprising the center, the afferent and efferent 
nerve, a., voltaic, the band of light formed by the 
passage of a strong electric current between two 
adjacent carbon points. 

arcade (ar-kad') [see arc]. 1. A series of arches; 
an arch. 2. The bow of a pair of spectacles, a., 
crural, Poupart's ligament, a.. Flint's, the arterio- 
venous arch about the base of the renal pyramids. 
a., temporal, a., temporal, inferior, the zygoma. 
a., temporal, superior, the orbital arch. 

arcanum (ar-ka'-num) [L., "a secret"]. A secret 

arcate (ar'-kat) [arcatus, bow-shaped]. Bow- 
shaped; curved; arcuate. 

arcatura (ar-ka-lu'-rah) [arcus, a bow]. A condi- 
tion of horses marked by the undue outward curva- 
ture of the forelegs. 

arcein (ar'-se-in). Arecolin hydrobromide ; it is an 
active miotic. 

arch (arch) [arcus, a bow]. 1. A structure having 
a curved outline resembling that of an arc or a bow. 
2. A part of a circle, a., abdominothoracic, the 
lower boundary of the front of the thorax, a., alve- 
olar, that marking the outlines of the alveolar pro- 
cesses of the jaw. a., anastomotic, one uniting two 
vein, or arteries, a., anterior hyoid, a general term 
which includes the tympanohyal, epihyal, stylohyal, 
and ceratohyal arches, a., aortic, see aorta, a.s, 
aortic, five pairs of vascular arches existing in the 
fetus, a.s, axillary, twigs of the latissimus dorsi, 
sometimes passing over the vessels and nerves 
to the anterior part of the axilla, where they disap- 
pear in the tissues, a.s, branchial, the cartilaginous 

arches that support the gills of fishes. They are 
also present in the human fetus, a.s, cervical, the 
fourth and fifth postoral arches, a., cortical, that 
portion of the renal substance which stretches from 
one column to another and surrounds the base of 
the pyramids, a., costal, the arch of the ribs, 
a., cotylosacral, one formed by the sacrum and the 
osseous structures extending to the coxofemoral 
joints. Syn., standing arch, a., crural, Poupart's 
ligament, a., dental. 1. The parabolic curve 
formed by the cutting-edges and masticating surfaces 
of the teeth. 2. The alveolar arch, a., epen- 
cephalic, the bones lying over the epencephalon, 
uniting in man to form the occipital bone. Syn., 
neurooccipital arch, a., facial, the first postoral 
arch, a., femoral, same as a., crural, a., femoral, 
deep, a band of fibers originating apparently in the 
transverse fascia, arching across the crural sheath 
and attached to the middle of Poupart's ligament 
and the pectineal line. Syn., deep crural arch. 
a.s of the foot, certain arches formed by the bones of 
the foot; the most distinct is the transverse in the 
line of the tarsometatarsal articulations. The inner 
longitudinal is composed of the os calcis, the astra- 
galus, the navicular, the 3 cuneiforms, and the first 
3 toes, and the outer longitudinal is made up of the 
os calcis, the cuboid, and the fourth and fifth toes 
a., gluteal, an opening in the gluteal fascia trans- 
mitting the gluteal vessels and nerves, a., hemal, 
Owen's term for the inferior loop of the typical 
vertebra. It is so called because it surrounds the 
essential portion of the vascular system. It is 
formed dorsally by the centrum, laterally by the 
pleurapophyses and hemapophyses, and inferiorly 
by the hemal spine. Syn., infravertebral arch; 
subcentral arch; vertebral ventral arch, a., hyoid, the 
second branchial arch of vertebrates. Syn., lingual 
arch; arch of tongue; parietohemal arch, a., inguinal, 
Poupart's ligament, a., ischiopubic, that formed by 
the pubis and the ischiopubic branches, a., ischio- 
sacral, one formed by the sacrum, the descending 
branches of the ischia, and the ilia lying be- 
tween. Syn., sitting arch, a., laryngeal, Callender's 
term for one in the embryo composed of a mem- 
branous plate extending from the lower portion of 
the skull and developing into the inferior constrictor 
muscle, the cartilages of the larynx, the superior 
portion of the trachea, and the thyroid body, a.s, 
lateral inferior (of the skull), the bones encircling 
the mouth, nose, and larynx, a.s, lateral superior, 
the bones encircling the cerebrum, the cerebellum, 
and the oblongata, a., mandibular, the first branch- 
ial arch, developing into the lower jaw. Syn., 
maxillary arch, a., maxillary. 1. See a., mandi- 
bular. 2. See c, palatomaxillary, a., mesence- 
phalic, one formed by the basisphenoid, alisphenoid. 
parietal, and mastoid bones. Syn., neuroparietal 
arch, a., nasal, one uniting the two frontal veins. 
a., neural, the superior loop of the typical vertebra 
inclosing the neural canal. Syn., dorsal vertebral 
arch; supravertebral arch, a., occipitohemal. See 
girdle, shoulder-. Syn., pectoral arch; scapular arch; 
scapuloclavicular arch; scapulocoracoid arch, a., 
osteoblastic, those formed imperfectly or completely 
by the osteoblasts, arising from the bony trabeculae, 
already developed and finally becoming bony, a., 
palatal, the concavity of the hard palate when seen 
in transverse section, a. of the palate, posterior, 
that formed by the posterior pillars of the fauces. 
Syn., palatopharyngeal arch, a., palatine, that 
formed by the anterior pillars of the fauces. Syn., 
anterior arch of the palate, a., palatomaxillary, one 
formed by the palatine, maxillary, and premaxillary 
bones or their analogue; it is looked upon as the 
hemal arch of the nasal vertebra. Syn., maxillary 
arch, a., palmar, the arch formed by the radial 
artery and ulnar arteries in the palm of the hand; 
there are two — a superficial and a deep. Syn., 
radial arch, a., palmar, superficial, the continuation 
of the ulnar artery across the palm, a., pelvic, the 
bones of the pelvis considered as the hemal arches 
of the sacral vertebrae, a., pharyngeal, the fifth 
pair of branchial arches, a., plantar, the arch made 
by the external plantar artery, a.s, postoral, arches 
in the fetus, five in number, that develop into the 
lower jaw and throat. See a., branchial. Syn., 
cephalic, poststernal, skeletal, subaxial, vascular, 
visceral arches, a., prosencephaly one considered as 
the neural arch of the frontomandibular vertebra; 
it is formed by the frontal, presphenoid, and orbito- 




sphenoid bones. Syn., neurofrontal arch. a. of 
pubes, that part of the pelvis formed by the con- 
vergence of the rami of the ischium and pubis on 
each side. Syn., subpubic arch, a., radial. See a., 
palmar, a., rhinencephalic, the neural arch of the 
nasal vertebra, formed by the vomer and the pre- 
frontal and nasal bones. Syn., neuronasal arch. 
a., Riolan's, the arch of the mesentery which is 
attached to the transverse mesocolon, a., stylohy- 
oid, the hemal arch of the parietal vertebra formed 
by the stylohyal, epihyal, ceratohyal, basihyal, 
glossohyal, and urohyal bones, a., supraorbital, 
the curved and prominent margin of the frontal 
bone that forms the upper boundary of the orbit. 
a.s, tarsal, the arches of the palpebral arteries. 
a., thyrocartilaginous, a communicating branch 
between the superior thyroid arteries of the two 
sides, lying at about the level of the angle of the 
thyroid cartilage, a., thyrohyal, a., thyrohyoid, the 
third of the postoral arches ; it develops into the hyoid 
body and the greater cornua of the hyoid bone. 
a., tonsillar. See isthmus of the fauces, a., trabe- 
cular, one formed by the junction of the middle 
trabeculae of the skull, containing the hypophysis 
and the infundibulum. a. of a vertebra, the part of a 
vertebra, formed of two pedicles and two laminae, 
inclosing the spinal foramen, a., vertebral, i. A 
neural arch. 2. A hemal arch, a., zygomatic, the 
arch formed by the malar and temporal bones. Syn., 
subocular arch; suborbital arch; temporal arch. 

arch-, archi [dpxi7, primitive]. Prefixes denoting 
first, chief, or principal. 

archaeocyte (ar-ke'-o-slt) [dpxalos, ancient; kvtos, 
a cell]. A wandering or free ameboid cell. 

archasus (ar-ke'-us) [dpxalos, ancient]. In spagiric 
medicine, the invisible counterpart of the visible 
body; solar heat as a source of life. 2. v. Helmont's 
name for the vital principle of an organism. 

archameba (ark-am-e'-bah) [arch-; djuoi/Si?, change]. 
Haeckel's hypothetic progenitor of all amebas and 
of all higher forms of life. 

archamphiaster, archiamphiaster (ark-am-fe-as'- 
ter, ar-ke-am-fe-as' -ter) [arch-; ap.cpi, around; hari\p, 
star]. In biology; those amphiasters concerned in 
the production of the polar globules. 

Archangelica (ark-an-jel'-ik-ah) [apxayyeKos, arch- 
angel]. A genus of umbelliferous plants. See 

archebiosis (ark-e-bi-o'-sis) [arch-; /Sios, life]. 
Spontaneous generation. 

archegenesis (ark-e-jen'-es-is). The same as 

archegonium (ark-e-go'-ne-um) [&pxv< beginning; 
ybvos, race]. The female reproductive organ of the 
higher cryptogams. 

archegony (ar-keg'-o-ne) [apxeyovos, first of a race]. 
The doctrine of spontaneous generation. 

archelogy (ar-kel-o'-je) [apxv, a beginning; \6yos, 
science]. The study of the foundation principles of 

archenteric (ark-en-ter'-ik). Relating to the 

archenteron (ark-en' -ter-on) [arch-; ivrepov, in- 
testine]. The embryonic alimentary cavity. 

archeocyte (ar'-ke-o-sit). Same as archaeocyte. 

archepyon (ar-ke-pi' -on) [dpxn. a beginning; tvvov, 
pus]. Pus that has become caseated, or so thick that 
it does not flow. 

archespore, archesporium (ar'-ke-spor, -e-um) 
[apxVy a beginning; o-iropa, a seed]. In biology, the 
cells that give rise to the lining of the anther-cell and 
to the mother-cells of the pollen. 

archetype (ar'-ke-ttp) [arch-; tvttos, a type]. In 
comparative anatomy, an ideal type or form with 
which the individuals or classes may be compared. 
A standard type; original type; prototype. 

archi-. See arch-. 

archiater (ar-ke-a'-ler) [6.px<-arp6s, a chief physi- 
cian]. 1. The head physician in a court. 2. The 
chief physician of an institution. 

archiblast (ar'-ke-blast) [archi-; fiXaaros, germ]. 
In embryology, the granular areola surrounding the 
germinal vesicle. In pathology, the important 
tissues of the body as contrasted with the parablast, 
or connective tissues. 

archiblastic (ar-ke-blas'-tik) [see archiblast]. De- 
rived from the archiblast. The parenchymatous 
tissues are regarded as archiblastic. 

archiblastoma (ar-ke-blas-to'-mah) [archiblast; 5pa, 
a tumor]. A tumor composed of archiblastic tissue, 

such as myoma, neuroma, papilloma, adenoma, 
carcinoma, etc. 

archiblastula (ar-ke-blas' -tu-lah) [see archiblast}. 
In embryology, a ciliated, vesicular morula, resulting 
from complete and regular yelk-division and by 
invagination forming the archigastrula. 

archicytula (ar-ke-sit'-u-lah) [archi-; kvtos, a cell]. 
A fertilized egg-cell in which the nucleus is discernible. 

archigaster (ar-ke-gas'-ter) t archi-; yaarrip, belly]. 
The primitive, perfectly simple intestine; archenteron. 

archigastrula (ar-ke-gas'-tru-lah) [see archigaster]. 
The gastrula as it is observed in the most primitive 
types of animal development; called also bell- 
gastrula, from its shape. 

archigenesis (ar-ke-jen'-es-is). See archebiosis. 

archil (ar'-kil) [ME., orchell]. A violet coloring- 
matter similar to litmus, chiefly obtained from the 
lichen, Roccella tinctoria; used for staining animal 

archirnonerula (ar-ke-mon-er'-u-lah) [archi-; fiovfi- 
pys, single; solitary]. In embryology, a special name 
given by Haeckel to the monerula stage of an egg 
undergoing primitive and total cleavage. 

archimorula (ar-ke-mor'-u-lah) [archi-; nopov, a 
mulberry]. In embryology, the solid mass of cleavage 
cells, or mulberry mass, arising from the segmentation 
of an archicytula, and preceding the archiblastula 
and archigastrula. 

archinephric (ar-ke-nef'-rik) [&pxv, first; ve<pp6s, 
the kidney]. Pertaining to the archinephron. 

archinephron (ar-ke-nef'-ron) [archi-; ve<f>p6s, 
kidney]. The primitive or embryonic stage of the 
kidney or renal apparatus. The Wolffian body. 

archineuron (ar-ke-nii'-ron) [archi-; vevpov, a 
nerve]. 1. A primitive neuron. 2. The neuron at 
which the impulse starts in any physiological act 
involving the nervous system. 

archipallium (ar-ke-pal'-e-um) [archi-; pallium, a 
cloak]. The olfactory pallium, the rhinencephalon. 

archistome (ar'-kis-tom). See blastopore. 

architis (ar-ki'-tis) [dpxos, anus; ltls, inflamma- 
tion]. Proctitis; inflammation of the anus. 

archocele (ar'-ko-sel) [dpxos, anus; Kr)\r], hernia]. 
Rectal hernia. 

archocystocolposyrinx, or archocolpocystosyrinx 
(ar-ko-sis-to-kol-po-sir'-ingks, or ar-ko-kol-po-sis-to- . 
sir'-ingks) [Apxos, anus; kxxttis, bladder; koXitos, 
vagina; o-vpiyi-, fistula]. Recto-vesico-vaginal fistula. 

archocystosyrinx (ar-ko-sist-o-sir'-inks) [&pxos, 
anus; kvvtis, bladder; o-vpiy%, fistula]. A recto- 
vesical fistula. 

archometrum (ar-ko-mel'-rum) [apxos, anus; p.krpov, 
measure]. A device for ascertaining the cahber of 
the anus, or for dilating its sphincters. 

archoplasm, archoplasma (ar'-ko-plazm, ar-ko- 
plaz'-mah) [apxcov, a ruler; 7rXd<rpa, a thing formed]. 
Boveri's term for the substance from which the 
attraction-sphere, the astral rays, and the spindle- 
fibers of mitosis are derived and of which they 
consist. Syn., kinoplasm. 

archoptoma (.ar-kop-to'-mah) [dpxos, anus; irTwpa, 
a fall]. A prolapse of the rectum. 

archoptosis (ar-kop-to'-sis) [dpxos, anus; ■ktuvis, 
a falling]. Rectal prolapse. 

archoptotic (ar-kop-tot'-ik) [dpxos, anus; tttwo-is, 
a falling]. Relating to archoptoma or archoptosis. 

archorrhagia (ar-ko-ra'-je-ah) [dpxos, anus; p-nyvv- 
vaL, to break out]. Rectal hemorrhage. 

archorrhea (ar-ko-re'-ah) [&pxoj, anus; pelv, to 
flow]. A discharge of blood or of any pathological 
fluid from the anus. 

archos (ar'-kos) [dpxos, the anus]. The anus. 

archostegnoma (ar-ko-steg-no'-mah) [dpxos. anus; 
areyvoeiv, to consolidate]. Archostenosis; a rectal 

archostegnosis (ar-ko-steg-no'-sis) [&px6s, anus; 
areyvwa-Ls, a stopping]. A rectal stricture. 

archostegnotic (ar-ko-steg-not'-ik) [dpxos, anus; 
o-reyvuio-is, a stopping]. Relating to a rectal stricture. 

archostenosis (ar-ko-sten-o'-sis) [dpxos, anus; 
arevos, narrow]. Stricture of the rectum. 

archostenotic (ar-ko-slen-ol'-ik) [dpxos, anus; 
o-revos, narrow]. Relating to rectal stricture. 

archosyrinx (ar-ko-sir'-ingks) [dpxos, anus; <rvpiy£, 
a pipe]. 1. A syringe for the rectum. 2. Fistula in 

archyle (ar-ki'-le) [apxv, a beginning; 8Xij, matter]. 
See protyle. 

arciform (ar'-se-form) [arcus, bow; arch; forma, 
form]. Arcuate, bowshaped; especially used to 




designate certain sets of fibers in the medulla ob- 

arctation {ark-la' -shun) [arctatio, to draw close 
together]. Contraction of an opening or canal. 

Arctium (ark'-te-um) [L.]. Burdock. See Lappa. 

arctostaphylos (ark-to-staf'-il-os). See Uva ursi 
and Manzanita. 

arcual (ar'-ku-al) [arcualis, arched]. Arched; bent 
or curved. 

arcuate (ar'-ku-at) [arcuatio, a bowing]. Arched; 
curved; bow-shaped, a. fibers of the cerebellum, 
associating fibers connecting one lamina with another. 
a. fibers of the cerebrum, associating fibers con- 
necting adjacent convolutions. 

arcuation (ar-ku-a' -shun) [arcuatio, a bowing]. 
Curvature, especially of a bone. 

arcula (ark'-u-lah) [arcula, a casket]. The orbit. 
a. cordis, the pericardium. 

ar cuius (ar'-ku-lus) [dim. of arcus, a bow]. An 
arching support for bed-clothes. 

arcus (ar'-kus) [L., "a bow"]. A bow or arch. 
a. aortae, the arch of the aorta, or transverse aorta. 
a. arteriarum, the arterial arciformes of the kidney. 
a. arteriosus manus, the palmar arch. a. arteriosus 
palpebral, an arterial arch along the edge of the 
eye-lid. a. arteriosus pedis, the plantar arch. 
a. atlantis, the arch of the atlas, a. axillaris, arch 
formed by the axillary artery, a. carpidorsalis, the 
posterior carpal arch. a. cartilaginis cricoideae, arch 
of the cricoid cartilage, a. coli intestini, the trans- 
verse colon, a. corneas, see a. senilis, a. costarum, 
arch of the ribs, a., cruralis, Poupart's ligament, a. 
cruralis profundus, the deep crural arch. a. dentalis, 
the dental arch. a. faucium, the palatine arch. a. 
glossopalatinus, the anterior pillar of the fauces. 
a. jugalis, the zygomatic arch. a. juvenalis, a white 
ring around the cornea occurring in young individuals 
and resembling the arcus senilis, a. lumbocostalis 
lateralis (Halleri), ligamentum arcuatum externum. 
a. lumbocostalis medialis (Halleri), ligamentum 
arcuatum internum, a. major ventriculi, the great 
curvature of the stomach, a. medullaris, the fornix. 
a. minor ventriculi, the lesser curvature of the 
stomach, a. occipitoparietalis, an annectant gyrus 
between the superior parietal lobule and the occipital 
lobe. a. palatini, the pillars of the fauces, a. 
palatoglossus. Same as a. glossopalatinus. a. pala- 
topharyngeus, the posterior pillar of the fauces. 
a. palmaris, the palmar arch. a. pharyngoepiglot- 
ticus, folds of mucous membrane passing from the 
pharynx to the epiglottis, a. pharyngopalatinus, 
posterior pillar of fauces, a. plantaris, the plantar 
arch. a. popliteus, the arcuate popliteal ligament. 
a. senilis, a ring of opacity at the edge of the cornea 
seen in the aged. a. senilis lentis, an opaque ring 
in the equator of the crystalline lens; it sometimes 
occurs in the aged. a. spiralis, the zona arcuata in 
the organ of Corti. a. subpubicus, the pubic arch. 
a. superficialis volae, the superficial palmar arch. 
a. supraorbital, the supraorbital arch. a. tarseus, 
the tarsal arch. a. tarsi oculi. Same as a. arteriosus 
palpebrce. a. thyrocartilagineus, the arch formed by 
the superior thyroid arteries and the thyroid cartilage. 
a. trachealis anterior, the arch formed by the inferior 
thyroid arteries in passing over the trachea, a. 
unguium. See lunula, a. vasculosi, arches formed 
by branches of the renal artery in the kidney, a. 
vasculosi renales, arches at the bases of the Mal- 
pighian pyramids, formed by anastomoses of tiny 
ramifications of the renal artery. They give off 
vessels supplying the cortex of the kidneys, the Mal- 
pighian corpuscles, and the capillary plexuses about 
the uriniferous tubules. Syn., fornices vasculosi 
renum. a. venosus, (i) an arch joining the anterior 
jugular veins; (2) the venous arch in the palm of the 
hand; (3) a venous arch on the back of the fingers. 
a. vertebralis, a vertebral arch. a. volaris, the 
palmar arch. a. zygomaticus, the zygomatic arch. 

ardent (ar'-dent) [ardere, ardens, to burn]. Burn- 
ing; fiery; glowing; accompanied by a sensation of 
burning, a. fever, heat fever or thermal fever. 
a. spirits, alcoholic liquors. 

ardor (ar'-dor) [L., "heat"]. Violent heat; burning. 
a. urinas, burning pain in the inflamed urethra 
during micturition, a. venereus, sexual desire. 
a. ventricoli, pyrosis, heart-burn. . 

are (ar). French metric unit of square measure; 
it is a square whose side is 10 metres. 

area (a'-re-ah) [L., ",an open space"]. A limited 
extent of surface, a. acustica, or a., auditory, 

(1) the receptive center for audition in the superior 
temporal gyrus; (2) an area in the lateral angle of 
the floor of the fourth ventricle, a., Broca's. Same 
as c. parolfactoria. a. Celsi, alopecia areata, a., 
cord, that part of the cortex in which lesions would 
produce degeneration of the spinal cord. a. cribrosa, 
small perforated space in the internal auditory 
meatus through which pass filaments of the auditory 
nerve, a., crural, a space at the base of the brain 
included between the pons and chiasm, a. diffiuens, 
alopecia areata, a., diffraction, a clear area seen in 
the microscopic image around all bodies of greater 
or less refractive power, a. embryonalis. Same as 
a. germinativa. a. germinativa, or embryonic spot, 
the oval germinating spot of the embryo, a. hypo- 
glossi. Same as Trigonum hypoglossi. a. inter- 
cruralis, or interpeduncularis, an area at the base of 
the brain between the crura cerebri, a.s, motor, 
the convolutions in front of the Rolandic fissure, 
containing the centers for voluntary motion, a., 
non-nucleated, one of the clear spaces found at times 
between the endothelial cells of blood-vessels; they 
have no nuclei, are smaller than endothelial cells, 
and are considered to be due to the removal of parts 
of the surrounding endothelium, a., occipital, 
(1) that part of the occipital bone above the superior 
curved line; (2) the portion of the brain beneath the 
occipital bone. a. opaca, the opaque circle about the 
a. pellucida. a. paraterminalis, a space on the mesial 
aspect of the embryonic cerebral hemisphere, a. 
parolfactoria (Brocae), a small vertical gyrus beneath 
the corpus callosum and continuous with the gyrus 
cinguli. a. pellucida, the light central portion of 
the a. germinativa. a., postpontile, that of the 
metencephalon comprising the olivary bodies and 
the lower lateral portion of the cerebellum, a. 
postrema, on the floor of the fourth ventricle between 
the ala cinerea and the taenia ventriculi quarti. 
a., Rolandic, the excitomotor area of the cerebral 
hemispheres, comprising the ascending frontal and 
ascending parietal convolutions, a., sensor, sensory, 
or sensorial, the general area of the cerebral cortex 
in which sensation is perceived, a., septal, the 
inner surface of each of the laminae which make up 
the septum lucidum. a., somesthetic, the area for 
body feelings or tactile sensation in the postcentral 
convolution; the entire receptive and psychic sensory 
area. a. vagi, the trigonum vagi or ala cinerea. 
a. vasculosa, the space in the area opaca where 
blood-vessels first develop, a.s, viscerocutaneous, 
areas of skin and viscera corresponding to different 
spinal segments, a., visual, the area of the cortex 
cerebri, viz., the cuneus and superior occipital gyrus, 
where vision is perceived, a. vitellina, 3 T olk-area 
outside the area vasculosa in mesoblastic eggs. 
a., vocal, the portion of the glottis lying between the 
vocal bands. 

Areca (ar-e'-kah). A genus of East Indian palms. 
A. catechu is extensively distributed throughout 
the tropics of Asia, where it has been cultivated 
from the earliest times. It furnishes the betel-nut 
(q. v.) ; the powdered nut is used as a vermifuge. 

arecaidin (ar-e-ka'-id-in), C7H11NO2. An acid 
contained in areca-nut, of which arecoline is its 
methyl ether. 

arecaine (ar-e'-ka-en), C-H11NO2 +H2O. A poison- 
ous teniacidal alkaloid obtained from areca-nut, 
forming colorless crystals soluble in water, insoluble 
in alcohol, in ether, and in benzol. 

arecane, arekane (ar'-ek-an). An oily and volatile 
basic substance obtainable from areca-nut; said to 
be a purgative and sialagogue, and to slow the pulse. 

areca-nut (a-re'-kah-nut). See betel. 

arecin (ar'-es-in) [Sp., areca], C23H26N2O. 1. An 
organic base isomeric with brucine, derived from 
cinchona-bark. 2. A brown-red coloring-matter ob- 
tained from areca-'nuts. Syn., areca red. 

arecoline (ar-e'-ko-len) [areca], C8H13NO2. A 
liquid alkaloid isolated from the seeds of areca 
catechu. It is a powerful poison, affecting the heart 
similarly to muscarine. It has anthelmintic proper- 
ties. Dose i^— ^ gr. (0.004-0.006 Gm.). a. hydro- 
bromide, is used as a miotic, applied in 1 % solution, 
and in the treatment of glaucoma. In veterinary 
practice it is used as a cathartic and anthelmintic. 
Injection for horse, f-I gr. (0.032-0.065 Gm.). 

arefaction (ar-e-fak'-shun) [arefactio; arefacere, to 
make dry]. 1. Exsiccation or desiccation. The 
removal of the structural or constitutional water 
from a substance. 2. The drying of drugs before 




powdering them. 3. Dryness, as of the skin. 
4. Withering, as of a paralyzed limb. 

areflexia (ar-e-fleks' -e-ah) [&, priv.; reflectere, to 
bend back]. The failure of a reflex; areflexion. 

arefiexion. See areflexia. 

arena (ar-e'-nah) [arena, sand]. 1. Brick-dust 
deposit from urine; gravel. 2. Sabulous matter; 

arenaceous (ar-e-na'-se-us) [arenaceus; arena, 
sand]. Of the nature of sand or gravel; sabulous. 

arenation {ar-e-na'-shun) [arena, sand]. A sand- 
bath. The application of hot sand to a limb or part 
of the body. See ammotherapy. 

areocardia (ar-e-o-kar'-de-ah) [apalos, thin, rare; 
Kap8la, heart]. Bradycardia. 

areola (ar-e'-o-lah) [dim. of area, an open space]. 
1. The brownish space surrounding the nipple 
of the breast. This is sometimes called areola 
papillaris. A second areola, surrounding this, occurs 
during pregnancy. The pigmentation about the 
umbilicus is called the umbilical areola. 2. Any 
interstice or minute space in a tissue, a., primary, 
cell-spaces still containing cartilage-cells in the 
matrix of ossifying cartilage-bone. Syn., primary 
marrow cavities; medullary spaces. 

areolar (ar-e'-o-lar) [see areola]. Relating to or 
characterized by areolae, a. tissue, cellular tissue; 
loose connective tissue. 

areolate, or areolated (ar-e'-o-lat, or ar-e'-o-la-ted) 
[areola, dim. of area, an open space]. Marked or 
characterized by areola?. 

areometer (ar-e-om'-et-er) [&paios, rare, thin; 
pkrpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring 
the specific gravity of liquids. 

areosis, arseosis (ar-e-o'-sis). The process of 
becoming less compact; dilution. 

arevareva (ar-a-var-a'-vah) [Tahitian]. A scaly 
skin-disease said to be caused by the habitual use 
of the drug Kava, q. v. It is accompanied by eye- 
disease, with dimness of vision. 

argal (ar'-gal). See argol. 

argamblyopia (ar-gam-ble-o'-pe-ah) [&py6s, idle, 
disused; amblyopia]. Amblyopia due to disuse of 
the eye. 

Argand burner (ar'-gand) [Ami Argand]. A 
burner that uses gas or oil, and contains an inner 
tube for supplying the flame with air. 

argas (ar'-gas). The dove-tick. Found in dove- 
cots and pigeon roosts; it may give rise to edema or 
urticaria in man. 

Argasidas (ar-gas'-e-de). A family of ticks, prac- 
tically all members of which are pathogenic to man. 

argema (ar'-jem-ah) [apye/xa, an ulcer; pi., arge- 
mata]. A white ulcer of the margin of the cornea, 
following phlyctenula. 

argentamid (ar-jen'-tam-id). An antiseptic liquid 
preparation of silver. 

argentamine (ar-jen'-tam-en). A colorless alkaline 
liquid consisting of an 8 % solution of silver phos- 
phate in a 15 % aqueous solution of ethylenediamide. 
It is applied in gonorrhea and conjunctivitis in 
1 : 4000 solution. Syn., ethylenediamide silver phos- 

argentation (ar-jen-ta'-shun) [argentum]. 1. Stain- 
ing with a preparation of silver. 2. The act of 
silvering. 3. The process of injecting mercury into 
the vessels of an anatomic specimen. 4. Argyria. 

argentic (ar-jen'-tik). Containing silver. 

argentine (ar'-j en-ten). Containing or resembling 

argentol (ar'-jen-tol), C9H5N . OH . S04Ag. Silver 
quinaseptol, a yellow powder, sparingly soluble in 
water; used as a surgical antiseptic and astringent in 
ointment 1 : 100 or 2 : 100, in solution 1 : 1000 to 
3 : 1000. 

argentous (ar jen'-tus). Containing silver; applied 
to a compound containing a relatively larger amount 
of silver than an ordinary silver compound (argentic 

argentum (ar-jen'-tum) [L.]. Silver. Ag = 107.88; 
quantivalence, 1; specific gravity, 10.4 to 10.5. 
A malleable and ductile metal of brilliant white 
luster. It tarnishes only in the presence of free 
sulphur, sulphur gases, and phosphorus, argenti 
cyanidum (U. S. P.), AgCN, silver cyanide, is used 
in the preparation of diluted hydrocyanic acid. 
argenti nitras (U. S. P.), AgN03, silver nitrate, 
argentic nitrate, "lunar caustic," a powerful astrin- 
gent and an escharotic of moderate strength. It 
stains skin and other tissues black. If too long 

administered, it leaves a slate-colored, insoluble 
deposit of silver under the skin (argyria). It is used 
in gastric catarrh, in gastric ulcer, in intestinal 
ulceration, and as an alterative in scleroses of the 
nervous system. Dose £-| gr. (0.01-0.032 Gm.). 
argenti nitras ' fusus (U. S. P.), "stick caustic," 
contains 4 % of silver chloride. It is used locally. 
argenti nitras mitigatus (U. S. P.), the mitigated 
caustic, or diluted stick, is fused with an equal 
amount of potassium nitrate, argenti oxidum (U. S. 
P.), Ag20, explosive when treated with ammonia. 
Used internally for the same conditions in which the 
nitrate is used. Dose \-2 gr. (0.032-0.13 Gm.). 
argentum vivum, an old name for mercury or quick- 

argiamblyopia (ar-je-am-ble-o'-pe-ah) [kpyia, dis- 
use; amblyopia]. See argamblyopia. 

argilla (ar-jil'-ah) [apyiWos, potter's clay]. White 
or potter's clay; alumina. 

argillaceous (ar-jil-a'-shus) [apyiWos, white clay]. 
Clay-like; composed of clay. 

arginase (ar'-jin-as). A ferment which has the 
power of splitting arginin into urea and ornithin. 

arginin (ar'-j in- in), C6H14N4O2. Guanidin di- 
amino-valeric acid, a substance formed in the cleavage 
of the protein molecule. It is hydrolyzed to urea 
and ornithin. 

argol (ar'-gol) [apyos, white]. The impure tartar 
derived from wine; crude potassium bitartrate. See 

argon (ar'-gon) [apyos, idle; inactive]. An inert 
gaseous element present in the atmosphere. Its 
symbol is A; atomic weight, 39-88. Argon may be 
obtained by freeing air, which has been deprived of 
its carbon dioxide and water, from oxygen by means 
of red-hot copper, and then absorbing the nitrogen 
by means of metallic magnesium. The residual gas, 
the passage of the gases being repeated a number of 
times, is argon. Chemically, it is the most inert 
element known. 

argonin (ar'-go-nin). Silver casein; a soluble, anti- 
septic silver salt. 

Argyll Robertson pupil (ar'-gil) [Douglas Argyll 
Robertson, Scotch physician, 1837-1909]. A pupil 
that acts to accommodation but not to light; it is seen 
in tabes dorsalis, paretic dementia, in some cases of 
•encephalomalacia, senile brain atrophy, syphilis, 
hydrocephalus, etc. 

argyria (ar-ji'-re-ah) [argentum]. A form of dis- 
coloration of the skin and mucous membranes pro- 
duced by the prolonged administration of silver, the 
granules of silver being deposited in much the same 
position as those of the natural pigment of the skin. 

argyriasis (ar-jir-i'-as-is). See argyria. 

argyrism (ar'-jir-izm). Argyria. 

argyritis (ar-jir-i'-tis). Yellow or silver litharge; 
lead monoxide of a yellow color. 

argyrol (ar'-jir-ol). A soluble silver salt obtained 
by combining a proteid of wheat with 30 % of silver. 
It is used in gonorrhea. Syn., silver vitelline. 

argyrosis (ar-ji-ro'-sis). Same as argyria (q. v.). 

arhinencephalia. See arrhinencephalia. 

arhinia (ah-rin'-e-ah) [a, priv.; pis, nose]. Con- 
genital absence of the nose. 

arhovin (ar'-o-vin). Addition-product of diphenyl- 
amine and thymylbenzoic acid ester, used in the 
treatment of gonorrhea. 

arhythmia (ar-ith'-me-ah). See arrhythmia. 

Arica bark. Calisaya bark exported from Arica, 
Chili. It contains the alkaloid, aricine. 

aricine (ar'-is-en) [Arica], C23H26N2O4. An alka- 
loid obtained from several varieties of cinchona- 

aridura (ar-id-u'-rah) [L.]. Dryness; a drying up, 
withering, or wasting of a part, or of the organism 
as a whole. _ 2. Hectic fever. 

aristocardia (ar-is-to-kar'-de-ah) [i-piarepos, left; 
KapSla, heart]. Deviation of the heart to the left side. 

aristochin (ar-is' '-to-kin). The ester of diquinine 
carbonic acid; it is a white, tasteless powder con- 
taining 96 per cent, of quinine. 

aristol (ar'-is-tol) [apiaros, best], (C6H2CH3OI .- 
C3H7)2. Dithymoliodide. It is also called annidalin, 
although this is dithymoltriiodide. An iodine com- 
pound used as a substitute for iodoform as an anti- 
septic dressing. It has the advantage of being odor- 
less, and is used either in the powder form or as a 
5 to 10 % ointment with vaselin or lanolin. 

Aristolochia (ar-is-to-lo'-ke-ah) [apiaros, best; 
Xox«'a, the lochia]. A genus of exogenous herbs, 




many species of which have active medicinal qualities. 
A. clematitis, of Europe, has been used as a tonic, 
stimulant, and diaphoretic. A. cymbifera, of South 
America, furnishes a part of the drug called guaco, 
and is a good tonic and stimulant, A. rotunda, a 
species of southern Europe, with offensive odor and 
bitter taste, is employed as an emmenagogue and in 
gout. A. serpentaria, Virginia snakeroot, is at 
present more used in medicine than any other species. 
See serpentaria. 

aristolochic {ar-is-to-lo'-kik) [apiaros, best; Xoxeia, 
the lochia], i. Having the property of expelling the 
placenta, or of exciting or promoting the lochial 
discharge. 2. A medicine used for expelling the 
secundines or for exciting the lochial flow. 

aristolochin (ar-is-to-lo'-kin) [see Aristolochia]. 
A bitter principle found in Virginia snakeroot. 
See serpentaria. 

aristoquin (ar-is' -to-kwin) . Same as aristochin. 

Aristotle's experiment [Aristotle, Greek philoso- 
pher, 384-322 B. C.]. The eyes being closed, when 
a small spherical object is placed between two crossed 
fingers of one hand so that it touches the radial side 
of one and the ulnar side of the other, the sensation 
produced is that of two objects. 

arithmomania (ar-ith-mo-ma' -ne-ah) [api6p.6s, a 
number; iiavla, madness]. An insane anxiety with 
regard to the number of things that fall under the 
observation. Sometimes it consists in constant or 
uncalled-for counting of objects, sometimes in the 
mere repeating of consecutive numbers. 

arkyochrome (ar'-ke-o-krom) [apKvs, a net; xpwm«. 
a color]. A somatochrome nerve-cell in which the 
stainable portion of the cell-body appears in the 
form of network. 

arkyostichochrome (ar-ke-o-stik'-o-krom) [apKvs, a 
net; arlxos, a row or rank; xp^M -. a color]. Applied 
by Nissl to a nerve-cell in which the chromophilic 
particles of its cell-body present a combination of 
both the striated (stichochrome) and network 
(arkyochrome) arrangements, so that it is difficult 
to decide which dominates; e. g., the Purkinje cells 
of the cerebral cortex. 

arlco-urease (arl'-ko-u'-re-as). A preparation of 
the urealytic enzyme obtained from the soy bean, 
Soja hispida. It decomposes urea into ammonia and 
carbon dioxide; and is used to determine the amount 
of urea in the urine, blood and other body fluids. 

Arlt's ointment [Carl Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt, 
Austrian physician, 1812-1887]. An ointment con- 
taining 7| gr. (0.5 Gm.) of belladonna to i{ dr. (5 
Gm.) of blue ointment. A.'s recess, A.'s sinus, a 
small depression, directed forward and outward, in 
the lower portion of the lacrimal sac; it is not con- 
stant. A.'s trachoma, granular conjunctivitis; tra- 

Arlt- Jaesche's operation [see Arlt's ointment.] For 
distichiasis; the edge of the lid and the contained 
ciliary bulbs are dissected from the tarsus, a crescent- 
shaped piece of skin is removed from the lid above the 
flap, and the edges of the wound are united, thus 
transplanting the ciliary bulbs farther away from 
the edge of the lids. 

arm. 1. The upper extremity from the shoulder 
to the elbow. 2. The upper extremity from the 
shoulder to the wrist. 3. That portion of the stand 
connecting the body or tube of a microscope with the 
pillar, a. center, the cortical center for the move- 
ment of the arm; it is situated in the middle third of 
the ascending frontal and ascending parietal con- 
volutions, a., milk, phlegmasia alba dohns in the 

armamentarium (ar-ma-men-ta'-re-um) [L., an 
arsenal]. The outfit of medicines or instruments of 
the physician or surgeon, a. chirurgicum, surgical 
instruments and appliances, a. lucinae, an outfit of 
obstetrical instruments. 

Armanni-Ehrlich's degeneration. Hyaline degen- 
eration of the epithelial cells of Henle's looped tubes 
in diabetes. 

armarium (ar-ma'-re-um) [L.]. 1. Same as arma- 
mentarium. 2. The literary* outfit of a physician or 
surgeon, his library. 

armature (ar'-mat-chur) [armatura, equipment]. 
1. A mass of soft iron at the extremity of a magnet. 
Also, the core of iron around which coils of insulated 
wire are wound. 2. Any protective investment of 
an organism. 3. A condenser. 

Armenian (ar-me' -ne-an) [Armenia]. Of or be- 
longing to Armenia. A. blue. Same as ultramarine. 

A. bole, a reddish, unctuous earth or clay formerly 
much used in medicine, now used in tooth-powders 
and in veterinary practice. It is absorbent and 

armilla (ar-mil'-dh) [armilla, a bracelet, ring]. 
1. The annular ligament of the wrist. 2. The Gas- 
serian ganglion. 

armpit (arm' -pit) [armus, shoulder; puteus, a well]. 
The axilla. 

army itch. A distressing, chronic form of itch 
prevalent in the United States at the close of the 
civil war. The itching was intense. The eruption 
was seen especially on the arms, forearms, chest, 
abdomen, and lower extremities, particularly on the 
ulnar side of the forearm and inner aspect of the thigh. 
It resembled prurigo associated with vesicles, pus- 
tules, and eczema. 

Arneth's classification of neutrophiles (ar'-ndt) 
[Joseph Arneth, German physician, 1873- ]. The 
polynuclear neutrophiles are classified according to 
the number of nuclear lobes which they contain. 
The normal is said to be: 1 lobe, 5 per cent.; 2 lobes, 
35 per cent.; 3 lobes, 41 per cent.; 4 lobes, 17 per 
cent. ; and 5 lobes, 2 per cent. 

Arnica (ar'-nik-ah) [L.]. A genus of composite- 
flowered plants. The arnica of the U- S. P. is the 
dried flower-heads of the plant commonly known as 
"leopardsbane," A. montana. The root (arnica, 
radix) is official in the B. P. Its properties are 
probably due to an alkaloid, trimethylamine, C3H9X. 
In small doses it is a cardiac stimulant; in larger 
doses, a depressant. It is a popular remedy, when 
locally applied, for sprains, bruises, and surface 
wounds. Dose 15 gr- (1 Gm.). a., infusion of (20 
parts flowers, 100 parts water), superior to the 
tincture for local use. a. plaster, contains extract of 
root, 33; lead-plaster, 67 parts, a. root, extract of. 
Dose 3-5 gr. (0.2-0.3 Gm.). a. root, fluidextract of. 
Dose 5-10 min. (0.3-0.065 Cc). a. root, tincture of, 
10 %. Dose 5-30 min. (0.3-2.0 Cc). a., tincture of 
(tinctura arnica, U. S. P.), 20 %. Dose 15-30 min. 
(1-2 Cc). 

arnicin (ar'-nis-in) [arnica], C20H30O4. A brownish, 
bitter neutral principle extracted from the root of 
Arnica montana. 

Arnold's bundle [Friedrich Arnold, German anato- 
mist, 1803-1890]. The fibers which form the inner 
third of the crusta of the cerebral peduncles. A.'s 
canal, a small canal in the petrous portion of the 
temporal bone, transmitting Arnold's nerve. A.'s 
fold. See Beraud's valve. A.'s ganglion, the otic 
ganglion. A.'s ground plexus, a plexus formed by 
the axis-cylinders of nonmedullated nerve-fibers in 
smooth muscular tissue. A.'s innominate canal, a 
nonconstant canal in the base of the skull, internally 
to the foramen rotundum; it transmits the super- 
ficial and deep petrosal branches that have become 
fused into one nerve. A.'s ligament, the ligament 
connecting the body of the incus with the roof of 
the tympanic cavity. A.'s membrane, the pig- 
mentary layer of the iris. A.'s nerve, the auricular 
branch of the pneumogastric nerve. A.'s oper- 
culum, the operculum of the island of Reil. A.'s 
recurrent nerve, a sensory branch of the ophthalmic 
division of the trigeminus that anastomoses with the 
trochlear nerve and is distributed to the tentorium 
cerebelli and the posterior part of the falx cerebri. 
A.'s stratum reticulatum, the network formed by 
the fibers connecting the occipital lobe with the 
optic thalamus before they enter the latter. 

Arnott's bed (ar'-not) [Neil Arnott, Scotch physi- 
cian, 1788-1874]. A rubber mattress filled with 
water, designed to prevent bedsores. 

Arnoux's sign (ar-noo'). In case of twins, a stethe- 
scope applied over the mother's abdomen at a point 
about midway between the two fetal hearts will 
sometimes enable the physician to hear an apparent 
unison, and at other times a distinct rhythm of four 
beats; the double and quadruple rhythm alternate 
with great regularity. 

aroma (ar-o'-mah) [apufia, spice]. The fragrance 
or odor emanating from certain vegetable substances, 
especially those used for food and drink. 

aromatic (ar-o-mat'-ik) [see aroma], 1. Having a 
spicy odor. 2. A substance characterized by a fra- 
grant, spicy taste and odor, as cinnamon, ginger, the 
essential oils, etc. 3. A qualification applied to any 
carbon compound originating from benzene, CeHe. 
Their stability is relatively great as compared with 
that of the fatty bodies, a. acids, those derived 




from the benzene group of hydrocarbons, a. com- 
pound, any benzyl derivative, a. fluidextract, aro- 
matic powder, ioo; alcohol, sufficient to make ioo Cc. 
a. powder. See cinnamomum. a. sulphuric acid. 
See acid, sulphuric, a. tincture, an alcoholic solu- 
tion of aromatic powder, a. vinegar, any mixture of 
aromatic oils in vinegar, a. wine, a wine containing 
in each ioo parts i part each of lavender, origanum, 
peppermint, rosemary, sage, and wormwood. 

aromatin (ar-o'-mal-in). A succedaneum for hops. 

aromatize (ar-o'-mat-tz) [apu>p.a, spice]. To make 
aromatic; to spice. 

aromin (ar-o'-min) [see aroma]. A substance 
derived from urine. When heated, it emits a fragrant 

Aronson's serum (ar'-on-suri) [Hans Aronson, 
German bacteriologist, 1865- ]. An antistrep- 
tococcus serum obtained from horses that have been 
treated with highly virulent cultures. 

arophene (ar'-o-fen). A proprietary dental anes- 

arphoaline (ar-fo'-al-en). A preparation con- 
taining arsenic, phosphorus and albumin; it is used 
as a local application for cancers and ulcers. 

arrachement (ar-ash-mon(g)') [Ft., a tearing out]. 
Tearing out; extraction. 

arrack (ar'-ak) [Ind.]. A liquor distilled from 
malted rice. Any alcoholic liquor is called arrack 
in the East. 

arrector (ar-ek'-lor) [L., "an erector"]. An erector. 
a. pili, a fan-like arrangement of a layer of smooth 
muscular fibers surrounding the hair-follicle, the 
contraction of which erects the follicle and produces 
cutis anserina, or "goose-skin." 

arrectores pilorum (ar-ek-to'-rez pi-lo'-rum) [L.]. 
Plural of arrector pili, q. v. 

arrest (ar-esf) [ad, to; restore, to withstand]. 
1. Stoppage, detention. 2. A disease of a mangy 
character affecting the hind leg of horses between the 
ham and postern, a., action of, inhibition (q. v.). 
arrested development, is when an organ or organism 
fails in its normal evolution, stopping at the initial 
or intermediate stages of the process, arrested head, 
when in parturition the child's head is hindered but 
not impacted in the pelvic cavity. 

arrhea (ah-re'-ah) [a, priv.; pola, a flow]. The 
cessation or suppression of any discharge. 

arrhenal (ar'-en-al). A monomethyl sodium 
arsenate, recommended in treatment of tuberculosis. 
Dose f gr. (0.05 Gm.) daily. 

Arrhenius' law (ah-ra'-ne-oos) [Svante August 
Arrhenius, Swedish chemist, 1859- ]. A solu- 
tion must have a high osmotic pressure in order to 
be electrically conductive. .. 

arrhinencephalia (ar-in-en-sef-al'-e-ah) [&, priv.; 
pis, nose; lyKktj>a\ov, the brain]. A form of partial 
anencephalia in which there is malformation of the 

arrhinia (ah-rin'-e-ah). Congenital absence of the 

arrhythmia (ah-rith'-me-ah) [&, priv.; pvdp.6s, 
rhythm]. Absence of rhythm. 

arrhythmic (ah-rith'-mik) [see arrhythmia]. With- 
out rhythm; irregular. 

arrosion (ar-o'-zhun) [arrodere, to gnaw]. The 
gnawing or destruction of vessel-walls by ulcerous 

arrow-poison (ar-o-poi'-zun). See curara. 

arrowroot (ar'-o-root) [ME., arow; roote). A 
variety of starch derived from Maranta arundinacea 
of the West Indies, southern United States, etc. 
It is a popular remedy for diarrhea, and is widely 
used as a food. Many other starchy preparations 
are sold as arrow-root. 

arsacetin (ars-as'-et-in). Sodium acetyl arsanilate; 
acetyl atoxyl. It is an organic arsenic compound 
used in sleeping-sickness, syphilis, and skin diseases. 

arsamine (ars'-am-en). Same as atoxyl. 

arsan (ar'-san). An organic arsenic preparation 
consisting of vegetable protein with about 4 per cent, 
of arsenic. 

arsanilate (ar-san'-il-at). A salt of arsanilic acid. 

arsenate, arseniate (ar'-sen-at, ar-se'-ne-at) [ar- 
senic]. Any salt of arsenic acid, a., acid, a mono- 
hydric or dihydric arsenate, a., basic, an arsenate 
combined with the oxide or hydrate of a base, a., 
dihydric. 1. An acid arsenate containing two atoms 
of hydrogen. 2. See pyroarsenic acid, a., mono- 
hydric. 1. An acid arsenate containing one atom of 
hydrogen. 2. Metarsenic acid, HAs03, a crystalline 

substance obtained from arsenic trioxide by heating 
above 200 C. a., neutral. 1. A normal arsenate. 
2. A pyroarsenate. 

arsenauro (ar-sen-aw'-ro). A double bromide of 
gold and arsenic; 10 min. contain 3 V gr. each of gold 
and arsenic bromides. It is an alterative and a tonic. 
Dose 5-15 min. (0.3-1.0 Cc.) in water three times 

arsenglidin (ar-sen-gli'-din). Same as arsan. 

arsenhemol (ar -sen-hem' -ol). A compound of 
hemol and 1 % of arsenic trioxide, forming a brown 
powder. It is used as a substitute for arsenic as an 
alterative and hematinic. Dose 2 gr. (0.1 Gm.) 3. 
times daily. 

arseniasis (ar-sen-i'-as-is). Same as arsenism. 

arsenic, arsenicum, arsenum (ar'-sen-ik, ar-sen'-i- 
kum, ar-se'-num). 1. As = 74.96 ; quanti valence III, V. 
A brittle, crystalline metal, of a steel-gray color, 
tarnishing on exposure to the air. Sp. gr. 5.73. It 
sublimes at 180 C, and gives off a garlicky odor. 
In medicine arsenic is used as an alterative in anemia,, 
chronic malaria, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, 
as a gastric sedative, and in chorea. 2. Arsenic 
trioxide. 3. Pertaining to arsenic, a. bromide, 
AsBn, is used in diabetes. Dose 6 V gr. (0.001 Gm.). 
a. bromide, solution of {liquor arseni bromidi), 
Clemens' solution, a 1 % solution of arsenic bromide. 
Dose 1-4 min. (0.06-0.24 Cc). a., butter of. See 
a. chloride, a. caseinate, a soluble arsenic com- 
pound for internal administration, a. chloride, 
AsCl3, a colorless, oily liquid decomposed by water. 
Dose ws—Tsgr. (0.001-0.004 Gm.). Syn., butter of 
arsenic; chloride of caustic arsenic, a. disulphide, 
AS2S2, occurs native as realgar. Syn., sandaraca; 
red sulphide of arsenic; red arsenic. An artificial 
disulphide of arsenic is prepared in the arsenic works 
and contains about 15 % of arsenic and 27 % of 
sulphur. Syn., red arsenic glass; ruby sulphur; red 
orpiment. a., flowers of, a fine white powder, formed 
by the sublimation of arsenic trioxide. a. glass, a 
term applied to the vitreous mass obtained either by 
heating arsenic pyrites with sulphurous ores, or by 
the resublimation of the "flowers of arsenic" ob- 
tained by subliming arsenic pyrites. Syn., white 
arsenic glass, a. iodide (arseni iodidum, U. S. P.), 
arsenous iodide, Asl3. Dose ■£$ — | gr. (0.003-0.008 
Gm.). a. iodide, solution of mercuric and of (liquor 
arseni et hydrargyri iodidi, U. S. P.) , Donovan's solu- 
tion; contains arsenous iodide, 10 Gm.; red mercuric 
iodide, 10 Gm.; distilled water, q. s. to make 1000 
Gm. a., test for. See Bettendorf, Marsh, Reinsch. 
a. trioxide (arseni trioxidum, U. S. P.), AS2O3, arsenous 
acid; "ratsbane." Dose 5 V — $ gr. (0.002-0.006 Gm.). 
Syn., white arsenic, a. trioxide, solution of (liquor 
acidi arsenosi, U. S. P.; liquor arsenici hydrochloricus, 
B. P.), a 1 % solution of the trioxide in hydrochloric 
acid and distilled water. Dose 2-5 min. (0.12-0.3 
Cc). a. trisulphide, AS2S3, translucent, lemon- 
colored, rhombic prisms, occurring in nature; sp. gr. 
3.46; a corrosive and depilating agent recommended 
for removal of warts. Syn., orpiment; yellow sulphide 
of arsenic; arsenicum (Pliny) ;_ arsenii sulphidum 
citrinum; King's yellow, a., white. See a. trioxide. 

arsenical (ar-sen'-ik-al) [arsenum, arsenic]. Per- 
taining to arsenic. 

arsenicalism, (ar-sen'-ik-al-izm,) [arsenic]. Chronic 
arsenic poisoning. 

arsenicate (ar-sen'-ik-at). To impregnate with 
arsenic. _ 

arsenicophagy (ar-sen-ik-off'-a-je) [arsenum, ar- 
senic; <f>aytiv, to eat]. The habitual eating of arsenic. 

arsenide (ar' -sen-id). A compound of arsenic with 
another element. 

arsenionization (ar-sen-i-on-i-za'-shun). The elec- 
trical administration of arsenic ions into the tissues. 

arseniophosphate (ar-sen-e-o-fos'-fat). A com- 
pound of a base with both arsenic and phosphoric 

arsenism (ar'-sen-izm) [arsenum, arsenic]. Chronic 
arsenical poisoning; arsenicalism. 

arsenite (ar' -sen-it) [arsenic]. Any salt of arsenous 

arseniureted (ar-sen'-yu-ret-ed). Combined with 
arsenic so as to form an arsenide, a. hydrogen, 
arsine, AsH3- 

arsenization (ar-sen-iz-a'-shun) [arsenum, arsenic]. 
Treatment with arsenical remedies. 

arseno-. (ar'-se-no). Arsenic combined in the form 
— As=As— . Thus arsenobenzol is C6H5— As=As 
-CeH 5 . 




arsenobenzol (ar-sen-o-ben'-zol). i. See arseno-. 
2. See salvarsan. 

arsenoblast {ar-sen'-o-blast) [ap<jr)v, male; /SXao-ros, 
germ]. In biology, the male element of the sexual 
cell, capable of multiplication by division; the 
opposite of the thelyblast or female element. 

arsenocerebrin (ar-sen-o-ser'-e-brin). A propri- 
etary preparation said to contain cerebrin and 
sodium cacodylate; it is suggested for use in epilepsy. 

arsenophenylglycin {ar-sen-o-fen-il-gli'-sin). A 
synthetic arsenic compound, a substitution-product 
of atoxyl, used in syphilis, trypanosomiasis and 
protozoan diseases in general. 

arsenous (ar-se'-nus) [arsenic]. Containing arsenic. 
a. acid. See arsenic trioxide. 

arsine (ar'-sin). Arseniureted hydrogen, AsH3. 

arsins (ar'-sinz) [arsenic]. Peculiar volatile 
arsenic bases found by Selmi to be produced by the 
contact of arsenic trioxide and albuminous sub- 

arsinyl (ar'-sin-il). The proprietary name for 
disodium-methylarsenate, a nontoxic substance allied 
to cacodyl and free from its garlicky odor. It is 
said to be a powerful tonic. Dose § gr. (0.03 Gm.) 
twice daily. 

arsonate (ar'-so-nat). A salt of arsonic acid. 

arsonic acid {arson' -ik). An acid derived from 
arsenic acid by the substitution of an organic radical 
for one of the hydroxyl groups. 

arsonium (ar-so'-ne-um) [arsenic; ammonium], 
AsH4. A univalent radical in which arsenic replaces 
the nitrogen of ammonium. 

Arsonvalization {ar-son-val-iz-a' -shun) [d'Arsonval, 
French physiologist and physicist, 1851- ]. The 
therapeutic application of Tesla currents. 

arsycodile (ar-sik'-od-il). 1. A chemically pure 
cacodylate of sodium, a nontoxic salt used in emaci- 
ation. Doae I gr. (0.03 Gm.) 4 times daily. 2. The 
trade name of a number of preparations containing 
sodium cacodylate. 

artarine (ar' '-tar-en). An alkaloid, C20H17NO4, 
from artar root; it is a cardiac stimulant, with action 
similar to veratrine. 

artar root (ar'-tar root) . A drug from West Africa, 
probably the root of Xanthoxylum senegalense. 

artefact (ar'-te-fakt) [arte, by art: factum, made]. 
In microscopy and histology, a structure that has 
been produced by mechanical, chemical, or other arti- 
ficial means; a structure or tissue that has been 
changed from its natural state. 

Artemisia (ar-tem-iz'-e-ah) ["Apre/xis, the goddess 
Diana]. A genus of plants of the order Composites. 
A. abrotanum, southern- wood, is stimulant, tonic, 
and vermifuge, and is popularly used as a vulnerary. 
It is similar in properties to wormwood. Dose of 
fluidexlract 10-20 min. (0.6-1.2 Cc). A. absinth- 
ium. See absinthium. A. abyssinica, an African 
species yielding the drug zerechtit, applied to relieve 
cramps in the final stages of malaria. A. arbores- 
cens, of southern Europe, is stomachic and tonic, 
and is used as is A. absinthium. A. chinensis, 
of Asia, is employed by the Chinese as a tonic 
and emmenagogue, and the down covering the 
leaf-surface in the preparation of moxa. A. frigida, 
wild sage, mountain sage, sierra salvia. An herb of 
western United States, introduced as a substitute for 
quinine in the treatment of periodic fevers. Also of 
service in diphtheria, rheumatism, and scarlatina. 
Dose of the fluidextract 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). A. mari- 
tima, affords pure wormseed. A. mexicana, an 
American species, is said to be a stimulant, emmena- 
gogue, and anthelmintic. A. pontica, Roman worm- 
wood; it grows in Europe and Asia, has a pleasant 
odor and taste, and is used as a tonic and stimulant; 
it is burned in Egypt during the plague to ward off 
contagion. A. santonica, a species of Persia and 
Tartary, a variety of wormseed sometimes imported 
from Russia. A. spicata, an Alpine species with 
strong aromatic properties. A. tridentata, sage- 
brush, a shrub of the elevated portion of western 
North America, containing a pungent volatile oil. 
It is diaphoretic and stimulant. The Indians use 
an infusion of the plant as remedial for colds and 
headache and as a vermifuge. A. trifida, is found 
in the valleys of Utah and Wyoming, and has proper- 
ties similar to .4. tridentata. A. vulgaris, mugwort, 
a popular remedy in various diseases. 

arterenol (ar-te-re'-nol). A proprietary drug, said 
to have an action similar to suprarenal preparations. 

arteria (ar-te'-re-ah) [aprepia' trachea; artery.] 

A hollow tube. See artery, a. acetabuli, artery of 
the acetabulum, a. alveolaris inferior, inferior 
dental artery, a. alveolaris superior anterior, 
anterior superior dental artery, a. alveolaris 
superior posterior, posterior dental artery, a. angu- 
laris, angular artery, a. anonyma, innominate 
artery, a. appendicularis, appendicular artery. 
a. arcuata, arcuate or metatarsal artery, a. auditiva 
interna, auditory artery, a. auricularis posterior, 
posterior auricular artery, a. auricularis profunda, 
deep auricular artery, a. axillaris, axillary artery. 
a. basilaris, basilar artery, a. brachialis, brachial 
artery, a. bronchialis, bronchial artery, a. bucci- 
natoria, buccal artery, a. bulbi urethras, artery of 
the bulb of the urethra, a. bulbi vestibuli (vagina;), 
artery of the vestibular bulb of the vagina, a. canalis 
pterygoidei (Vidii), Vidian artery, a. carotis com- 
munis, common carotid artery, a. carotis externa, 
external carotid artery, a. carotis interna, internal 
carotid artery, a. centralis retinae, central artery of 
the retina, a. cerebelli inferior anterior, anterior 
inferior cerebellar artery, a. cerebelli inferior pos- 
terior, posterior inferior cerebellar artery, a. cere- 
belli superior, superior cerebellar artery, a. cerebri 
anterior, anterior cerebral artery, a. cerebri media, 
middle cerebral artery, a. cerebri posterior, pos- 
terior cerebral artery. a. cervicalis ascendens, 
ascending cervical artery, a. cervicalis profunda, 
deep cervical artery, a. cervicalis superficialis, 
superficial cervical artery, a. chorioidea, anterior 
choroidal artery, a. ciliaris anterior, anterior ciliary 
artery, a. ciliaris posterior brevis, short posterior 
ciliary artery, a. ciliaris posterior longa, long pos- 
terior ciliary artery, a. circumfiexa femoris lateralis, 
external circumflex artery, a. circumfiexa femoris 
medialis, internal circumflex artery, a. circumfiexa 
humeri anterior, anterior circumflex artery, a. cir- 
cumfiexa humeri posterior, posterior circumflex 
artery, a. circumfiexa ilium profunda, deep circum- 
flex iliac artery, a. circumfiexa ilium superficialis, 
superficial circumflex iliac artery, a. circumfiexa 
scapulae, dorsalis scapulae artery. a. clitoridis, 
artery of the clitoris, a. cceliaca, celiac artery or axis. 
a. colica dextra, right colic artery- a- colica media, 
middle colic artery, a. colica sinistra, left colic 
artery. a. collateralis media, middle collateral 
artery, a. collateralis radialis, articular branch of 
superior profunda artery, a. collateralis ulnaris 
inferior, anastomotica magna artery, a. collateralis 
ulnaris superior, inferior profunda artery, a. comi- 
tans nervi ischiadici, comes nervi ischiadici, or com- 
panion artery of the sciatic artery, a. communicans 
anterior, anterior communicating artery, a. com- 
municans posterior, posterior communicating artery. 
a. conjunctivalis anterior, anterior conjunctival 
artery, a. conjunctivalis posterior, posterior con- 
junctival artery, a. coronaria (cordis) dextra, right 
coronary artery, a. coronaria (cordis) sinistra, left 
coronary artery, a. cystica, cystic artery, a. defer- 
entialis, deferential artery, a. digitalis dorsalis, 
dorsal digital artery, a. digitalis plantaris, collateral 
digital branch artery, a. digitalis volaris communis, 
palmar digital artery, or collateral digital artery. 
a. dorsalis clitoridis, dorsal artery of the clitoris. 
a. dorsalis nasi, dorsal artery of the nose. a. dorsalis 
pedis, dorsal artery of the foot. a. dorsalis penis, 
dorsal artery of the penis, a. epigastrica inferior, 
deep epigastric artery, a. epigastrica superficialis, 
superficial epigastric artery, a. epigastrica superior, 
superior epigastric artery, a. episcleralis, episcleral 
artery, a. ethmoidalis anterior, anterior ethmoidal 
artery, a. ethmoidalis posterior, posterior ethmoidal 
artery, a. femoralis, femoral artery, a. frontalis, 
frontal artery, a. gastrica dextra, pyloric artery. 
a. gastrica sinistra, gastric or coronary artery. 
a. gastroduodenalis, gastroduodenal artery- a. 
gastroepiploica dextra, right gastro-epiploic artery. 
a. gastroepiploica sinistra, left gastro-epiploic artery. 
a. genu inferior lateralis, inferior external articular 
artery, a. genu inferior medialis, inferior internal 
articular artery, a. genu media, azygos articular 
artery, a. genu superior lateralis, superior external 
articular artery, a. genu superior medialis, superior 
internal articular artery, a. genu suprema, anasto- 
motica magna (of knee), a. glutaea inferior, sciatic 
artery, a. glutaea superior, (superior) gluteal artery. 
a. haemorrhoidalis inferior, inferior hemorrhoidal 
artery, a. haemorrhoidalis media, middle hemor- 
rhoidal artery, a. haemorrhoidalis superior, superior 
hemorrhoidal artery, a. helicina, a spiral artery, a. 



hepatica, hepatic artery, a. hyaloidea, hyaloid artery. 
a. hypogastrica, internal iliac artery, a. ilea, ileal 
artery, one of the rami intestini tenuis arteries, a. ileo- 
colica, ileocolic artery, a. iliaca communis, common 
iliac artery, a. iliaca externa, external iliac artery, a. 
iliolumbalis, iliolumbar artery, a. infraorbitalis, 
infraorbital artery. _ a. intercostalis, intercostal 
artery, a. intercostalis suprema, superior intercostal 
artery, a. interlobaris renis, interlobar artery of 
kidney, a. interossea communis, common interos- 
seous artery. a. interossea dorsalis, posterior 
interosseous artery, a. interossea recurrens, pos- 
terior interosseous recurrent artery, a. interossea 
volaris, anterior interosseous artery, a. jejunalis, 
jejunal artery, a. labialis anterior, anterior scrotal 
or labial artery, a. labialis inferior, inferior labial or 
coronary artery. a. labialis posterior, posterior 
labial artery, a. labialis superior, superior labial or 
coronary artery. a. lacrimalis, lacrimal artery. 
a. laryngea inferior, inferior laryngeal artery, a. 
laryngea superior, superior laryngeal artery. a. 
lienalis, splenic artery, a. ligamenti teretis uteri, 
artery of the round ligament of the uterus, a. lingu- 
alis, lingual artery, a. lumbalis, lumbar artery. 
a. lumbalia ima, lowest lumbar artery, a. malleo- 
laris anterior lateralis, external malleolar artery. 
a. malleolaris anterior medialis, internal malleolar 
artery, a. malleolaris posterior lateralis, posterior 
peroneal artery, a. malleolaris posterior medialis, 
internal malleolar artery, a. mammaria interna, 
internal mammary artery, a. masseterica, masseteric 
artery, a. maxillaris externa, facial artery, a. maxil- 
laris interna, internal maxillary artery, a. mediana, 
median artery, a. mediastinalis anterior, anterior 
mediastinal artery, a. meningea anterior, anterior 
meningeal artery. a. meningea media, middle 
meningeal artery, a. meningea posterior, posterior 
meningeal artery. a. mentalis, mental artery. 
a. mesenterica inferior, inferior mesenteric artery. 
a. mesenterica superior, superior mesenteric artery. 
a. musculophrenica, musculophrenic artery. a. 
nutritia femoris inferior, inferior nutrient artery of 
femur, a. nutritia femoris superior, superior nutrient 
artery of femur, a. nutritia fibulae, nutrient artery 
of fibula, a. nutritia humeri, nutrient artery of the 
humerus, a. nutritia pelvis renalis, nutrient artery 
of renal pelvis, a. nutritia tibia?, nutrient artery of 
tibia, a. obturatoria, obturator artery, a. occipi- 
talis, occipital artery, a. cesophagea, esophageal 
arlery. a. ophthalmica, ophthalmic artery, a. ovarica, 
ovarian artery, a. palatina ascendens, ascending 
palatine artery, a. palatina descendens, descending 
palatine artery, a. palatina major, greater palatine 
arcery. a. palatina minor, lesser palatine artery. 
a. palpebralis lateralis, lateral palpebral artery, a. 
palpebralis medialis, middle or internal palpebral 
artery, a. pancreaticoduodenalis inferior, inferior 
pancreaticoduodenal artery, a. pancreaticoduoden- 
alis superior, superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. 
a. penis, artery of penis, a. perforans prima, first 
perforating artery, a. perforans secunda, second 
perforating artery, a. perforans tertia, third per- 
forating artery, a. pericardiacophrenica, the comes 
nervi phrenici. a. perinei, superficial perineal artery. 
a. peronaea, peroneal artery, a. phrenica inferior, 
inferior phrenic artery, a. phrenica superior, superior 
phrenic artery, a. plantaris lateralis, external plantar 
artery, a. plantaris medialis, internal plantar artery. 
a. poplitea, popliteal artery, a. princeps pollicis, 
principal artery of thumb, a. profunda brachii, 
superior profunda artery, a. profunda clitoridis, 
deep artery of clitoris, a. profunda femoris, deep 
femoral artery, a. profunda linguae, ranine artery. 
a. profunda penis, artery to the corpus cavernosum. 
a. pudenda externa, external pudic artery- a. 
pudenda interna, internal pudic artery, a. pulmo- 
nalis, pulmonary artery, a. radialis, radial artery. 
a. recurrens radialis, radial recurrent artery, a. 
recurrens tibialis posterior, posterior recurrent tibial 
artery, a. renalis, renal artery, a. recurrens ulnaris, 
recurrent ulnar artery, a. sacralis lateralis, lateral 
sacral artery, a. sacralis media, middle sacral 
artery- a. scrotalis anterior, anterior scrotal artery. 
a. sigmoidea, sigmoid artery, a. spermatica externa, 
cremasteric artery, a. spermatica interna, (internal) 
spermatic artery, a. sphenopalatina, sphenopalatine 
or nasopalatine artery, a. spinalis anterior, anterior 
or ventral spinal artery, a. spinalis posterior, pos- 
terior or dorsal spinal artery, a. sternocleidomas- 
toidea, sternomastoid artery, a. stylomastoidea, 

stylomastoid artery. a. subclavia, subclavian 
artery, a. sublingualis, sublingual artery, a. sub- 
mentalis, submental artery, a. subscapularis, sub- 
scapular artery. a. supraorbitals, supraorbital 
artery, a. suprarenalis inferior, inferior suprarenal 
artery, a. suprarenalis media, middle capsular 
artery, a. tarsea lateralis, lateral tarsal artery. 
a. tarsea medialis, medial tarsal artery, a. tem- 
poralis media, middle temporal artery, a. temporalis 
profunda anterior, anterior deep temporal artery. 
a. temporalis profunda posterior, posterior deep 
temporal artery, a. temporalis superficialis, super- 
ficial temporal artery, a. testicularis, testicular 
artery, a. thoracalis lateralis, long thoracic artery. 
a. thoracalis suprema, superior thoracic artery. 
a. thoracoacromialis, acromiothoracic artery or 
thoracic axis. a. thoracodorsalis, thoracodorsal 
artery, a. thymica, thymic artery, a. thyreoidea 
ima, lowest thyroid artery, a. thyreoidea inferior, 
inferior thyroid artery, a. thyreoidea superior, 
superior thyroid artery, a. tibialis anterior, anterior 
tibial artery, a. tibialis posterior, posterior tibial 
artery, a. transversa colli, transversalis colli, a. 
transversa faciei, transverse artery of face. a. trans- 
versa scapulas, suprascapular artery, a. tympanica 
anterior, anterior tympanic artery, a. tympanica 
inferior, inferior tympanic artery, a. tympanica 
posterior, posterior tympanic artery, a. tympanica 
superior, superior tympanic artery, a. ulnaris, ulnar 
artery, a. umbilicalis, umbilical artery, a. ureth- 
ralis, urethral artery, a. uterina, uterine artery. 
a. vaginalis, vaginal artery, a. vertebralis, vertebral 
artery, a. vesicalis inferior, inferior vesical artery. 
a. vesicalis superior, superior vesical artery, a. 
volaris indicis radialis, radialis indicis artery, a. 
zygomaticoorbitalis, zygomatico-orbital artery. 

arteriac (ar-te'-re-ak) [arteria]. i. Pertaining to 
the trachea, or to the arteries. 2. A remedy used 
in diseases of the trachea or of the arteries. 

arteriae (ar-te'-re-e) [L.. plural of arteria]. 
Arteries, a. arciformes, arciform arteries of renal 
arches, a. gastricas breves, the vasa brevia. a. inter- 
lobulares, interlobular arteries. a. intestinales, 
intestinal arteries or vasa intestini tenuis, a. meta- 
carpeae dorsales, dorsal interosseous arteries, a. 
renis, renal arteries, a. metacarpeae volares, volar 
or palmar interosseous arteries. a. metatarseae 
dorsales, dorsal interosseous arteries, a. metatarseae 
plantares, digital branches of the plantar arch. 
a. scrotales posteriores, superficial perineal arteries. 
a. surales, inferior muscular arteries. 

arteriagra (ar-ler-e-a'-grah) [arteria; ay pa, a 
seizure]. Neuralgia of an artery. 

arterial [see arteria]. Pertaining to an artery. 

arterialization (ar-te-re-al-iz-a'-shun) [see arteria]. 
1. The process of making or becoming arterial; the 
change from venous blood into arterial. 2. Vascu- 

arteriarctia (ar-te-re-ark'-te-ah) [arteria; arctus, 
bound]. Constriction or stenosis of an artery. 

arteriasis (ar-te-ri'-as-is) [see arteria]. Degenera- 
tion of an artery; it may be either calcareous or 

arteriectasis, arteriectasia (ar-te-re-ek'-tas-is, ar-te- 
re-ek-ta'-ze-ah) [arteria; enraais, a stretching out]. 
Arterial dilatation. 

arteriectopia (ar-te-re-ek-to'-pe-ah) [arteria; ^ktotvos, 
out of place]. Displacement or abnormality in the 
course of an artery. 

arteriitis (ar-te-re-i'-tis). See arteritis. 

arterin (ar'-ter-in) [see arteria], Hoppe-Seyler's 
term for the arterial blood-pigment contained in the 
red corpuscles. 

arterioarctia (ar-te-re-o-ark'-le-ah). See arteri- 

arteriocapillary {ar-te-re-o-kap' -il-a-re) [arteria; 
capillary]. Pertaining to arteries and capillaries, a. 
fibrosis, a chronic inflammatory process character- 
ized by an overgrowth of connective tissue in the 
walls of the blood-vessels. It is known also as 
arteriocapillary fibrosis of Gull and Sutton. 

arteriochalasis (ar-te-re-o-kal'-as-is) [arteria; xa\- 
oo-ts, a slackening]. Arterial atony. 

arteriococcygeal gland (ar-te-re-o-kok-sij'-e-al). 
Luschka's gland. 

arteriodialysis (ar-te-re-o-di-al'-is-is) [arteria; Sia\- 
v<tls, dissolution]. Attenuation of the arterial walls 
with or without rupture. 

arteriodiastasis (ar-te-re-o-di-as'-tas-is) [arteria; 
Sia<TTa<ns, separation]. 1. The retraction of the two 




ends of a divided artery. 2. See arterioectopia. 
3. The divergence of two arteries that lie near each 
other normally. 

arteriodiplopiesmus (ar-te-re-o-dip-lo-pi-ez'-mus) 
[arleria; 8ur\o6s, twofold; irieo>i6s, pressure]. D'Eti- 
olles' procedure for obtaining rapid coagulation of 
the blood in that part of an artery lying between 
two points upon which simultaneous pressure is 

arteriofibrosis (ar-te-re-o-fi-bro'-sis). See arterio- 
capillary fibrosis. 

arteriogram (ar-te'-re-o-gram). See sphygmogram. 

arteriograph (ar-te'-re-o-graf) [arteria; ypd<petv, to 
record]. A form of sphygmograph. 

arteriography (ar-le-re-og'-ra-fe) [arteria; ypd<f>-n. a 
writing]. 1. A description of the arteries. 2. The 
graphic representation of the pulse-waves. 

arteriola (ar-te-re-o'-lah) [L.: pi., arteriole?]. An 
arteriole, a. recta, one of the arterioles going to 
the pyramids in the cortex of the kidney. 

arteriolae (ar-te-re o'-le) [L.]. Arterioles, a. auri- 
cularis cordis, coronary arteries of the heart, a. 
rectse, vasa recta of the kidney. 

arteriole (ar-te'-re-ol) [arteriola]. A very small 
artery, a., straight, one of the small blood-vessels 
supplying the medullary pyramids of the kidneys. 

arteriolith (ar-te'-re-o-lilh) [arteria; \L60s, a stone]. 
A calculus in an artery from calcification of a throm- 

arteriology (ar-te-re-ol'-o-je) [arteria; X670S, science]. 
The science of the arteries; the anatomy, physiology, 
and pathology of the arteries. 

arteriomalacia (ar-le-re-o-mal-a'-se-ah) [arleria; 
na\aKla, softness]. Softening of the wall of an artery. 

arteriomalacosis (ar-te-re-o-mal-ak-o'-sis) . See ar- 

' arteriometer (ar-te-re-om'-et-er) [arteria; ukrpov, 
measure]. An instrument for measuring the changes 
in the caliber of a pulsating artery. 

arterionecrosis (ar-te-re-o-ne-kro'-sis) [arteria; nec- 
rosis]. Necrosis of an artery or arteries. 

arteriopalmus (ar-te-re-o-pal'-mus) [arteria; ird\p.6s, 
palpitation]. Throbbing of the arteries. 

arteriopathy (ar-te-re-op'-a-the) [arteria; irados, 
illness]. Any disease of an artery or of arteries. 

arterioperissia, arterioperittia {ar-te-re-o-per-is'- 
e-ah, -it'-e-ah) [arteria; -wepiaaos, excessive]. Ab- 
normal or excessive arterial development. Syn., 
perittarteria; perissoarteria. 

arteriophlebotomy (ar-te-re-o-fie-bot'-o-me) [arteria; 
4>\&l/, a vein; rkuvtiv, to cut]. Local bloodletting. 

arteriopituitous (ar-te-re-o-pit-u'-it-us) [arteria; 
pituita, mucus]. Applied to the blood-vessels of the 
nasal passages. 

arterioplania (ar-te-re-o-pla'-ne-ah) [arteria; ir'Kav- 
aadai, to wander]. Deviation or tortuousness in the 
course of an artery. 

arterioplasty {ar-te' -re-o-plas-te) [arteria; irXaaaeiv, 
to form]. Matas' operation for aneurysm. 

arterioplegmus (ar-te-re-o-pleg'-mus) [arteria; 
ir\eyp.a, anything twined or plaited]. Perplication. 
Syn., arterioploce. 

arteriorenal (ar-te-re-o-re'-nal) [arteria; ren, the 
kidney]. Pertaining to the renal blood-vessels. 

arteriorrhagia (ar-te-re-or-a'-je-ah) [arteria; p-qyw- 
vai, to break forth]. Arterial hemorrhage. 

arteriorrhaphy (ar-te-re-or'-af-e) [arteria; pa<pr], 
suture]^ Suture of an artery. 

arteriorrhexis (ar-te-re-or-eks'-is) [arteria; py%t.s, 
a bursting]. Rupture of an artery. 

arteriosclerosis (ar-te-re-o-skle-ro'-sis) [arteria; 
<tk\tjp6s, hard]. A chronic inflammation of the ar- 
terial walls, especially of the intima. 

arteriosclerotic (ar-te-re-o-skle-rot'-ik) [see arterio- 
sclerosis]. Pertaining to arteriosclerosis, a. kidney, 
a kidney the seat of chronic interstitial inflammation 
affecting primarily the blood-vessels. 

arteriosity (ar-ie-re-os'-it-e) [arteria]. The quality 
of being arterial. 

arteriostenosis (ar-le-re-o-sle-no'-sis) [arleria; art- 
vbs, narrow]. The narrowing of the caliber of an 
artery in any part. 

arteriosteogenesis (ar-le-re-os-le-o-jen'-e-sis) [ar- 
teria; 6<tt€ov, a bone; ykveoii, production]. Calci- 
fication of an artery. 

arteriosteosis, arteriostosis (ar-te-re-os-te-o'-sis, 
ar-te-re-os-to'-sis) . See arteriosteogenesis. 

arteriostrepsis (ar-le-re-o-slrep'-sis) [arteria; 
<jTpbl/is, a twisting]. The twisting of an artery for 
the purpose of staying a hemorrhage. 

arteriotome {ar-te' -re-o-tom) [arteria; rkp-veiv, to 
cut]. A knife for use in ar tenotomy. 

arteriotomy (ar-le-re-ot'-o-me) [arteria; rkp.vtw, to 
cut]. 1. The cutting or opening of an artery for the 
purpose of bloodletting. 2. Dissection or anatomy 
of the arteries. 

arteriotrepsis (ar-te-re-o-lrep'-sis) [arteria; <rrpk\pis, 
torsion]. See arteriostrepsis. 

arterious (ar-te' -re-us) [arleria]. Relating to the 
arteries; arterial. 

arteriovenous (ar-te-re-o-ve'-nus) [arteria; vena, 
vein]. Both arterial and venous; involving an 
artery and a vein, as an arteriovenous aneurysm. 

arterioversion (ar-le-re-o-ver' -shun) [arteria; verier e, 
to turn]. Weber's method of arresting hemorrhage 
by turning vessels inside out by means of an instru- 
ment called the arterioverter. 

arterioverter (ar-te-re-o-ver'-ler). An instrument 
for performing arterioversion. 

arteritis (ar-te-ri'-tis) [arteria; ins, inflammation]. 
1. Inflammation of an artery. 2. Inflammation of 
the external coat of an artery, a. deformans. See 
endarteritis, chronic, a. obliterans. See endarteritis 
obliterans. a., syphilitica, endarteritis deformans 
caused by syphilis, a. umbilicalis, septic inflamma- 
tion of the umbilical arteries in the newborn. 

artery (ar'-ter-e) [see arleria]. One of the tube- 
like vessels through which the blood is propelled by 
the heart to all parts of the body. Arteries end in 
arterioles and capillaries. They are composed of 3 
coats: the outer, or tunica adventitia; the middle, or 
tunica media, the muscular coat; the internal, or 
intima, composed of endothelial cells, fibrous and 
elastic tissue, a., abdominal. See a., circumflex 
iliac, deep, a., abdominal, external or subcutaneous. 
See a., epigastric, superficial; a., pudic, external 
superior, a., abdominal, posterior. See a., epigastric, 
deep, a., acetabular, a branch of the internal circum- 
flex artery distributed^ to the hip-joint, a., acromio- 
thoracic (thoracic axis), origin, second branch of 
first part of axillary; distribution, shoulder, arm, 
upper anterior part of chest, and mammary gland; 
branches, acromial, humeral, pectoral, clavicular. 
a., alar thoracic, origin, second part of axillary; 
distribution, lymphatic glands in axilla, a.s, anasto- 
motic, those which connect other arteries more or 
less remote from each other, a., anastomotic (of 
external plantar), origin, external plantar; distri- 
bution, outer border of foot; it anastomoses with the 
tarsal and metatarsal branches of the dorsalis pedis. 
a., anastomotic (of internal plantar), origin, internal 
plantar; distribution, inner side of foot; it anasto- 
moses with internal tarsal branch of the dorsalis 
pedis, a., anastomotica magna (of brachial), origin, 
brachial; distribution, elbow; branches, posterior and 
anterior, a., anastomotica magna (of superficial 
femoral), origin, superficial femoral (in Hunter's 
canal); distribution, knee; branches, superficial and 
deep, a., angular, origin, the termination of the 
facial; distribution, lacrimal sac and lower part of 
orbicularis palpebrarum; it anastomoses with infra- 
orbital, aorta, abdominal, origin, thoracic aorta; 
termination, two common iliacs; branches, phrenic 
(right and left), celiac axis, suprarenal or capsular 
(right and left), superior mesenteric, lumbar (4 pairs), 
renal (right and left), spermatic (right and left), 
inferior mesenteric, right and left common iliac, 
middle sacral, aorta, arch, origin left ventricle of 
heart; distribution, thoracic aorta; branches, two 
coronary, innominate, left common carotid, left 
subclavian, aorta, primitive, that portion from the 
origin to the point at which the first branch is given 
off. aorta, thoracic, origin, arch of aorta; termi- 
nation, abdominal aorta; branches, 2 or 3 pericardiac, 
3 bronchial, 4 or 5 esophageal, 20 intercostal, sub- 
costal (or twelfth dorsal), diaphragmatic, aberrans. 
a., articular, middle (of knee), origin, popliteal; 
distribution, crucial ligaments and joint, a., arti- 
cular, superior external (of knee), origin, popliteal; 
distribution, crureus and knee, a., articular, superior 
internal, origin, popliteal; distribution, knee, a., 
auditory, external, a division of the first part of the 
internal maxillary artery; it enters the tympanum 
by the glaserian fissure and is distributed to the 
tympanum, a., auricular, posterior, origin, fifth 
branch of external carotid; distribution, back of 
auricle, scalp, and part of neck; branches, parotid, 
muscular, stylomastoid, anterior terminal or auri- 
cular, and posterior terminal or mastoid, a., axillary, 
origin, subclavian; distribution, brachial and seven 




branches; branches, superior thoracic, acromio- 
thoracic, long thoracic, alar thoracic, subscapular, 
anterior and posterior circumflex, a., azygos (of the 
tongue), a small artery formed by the junction of 
branches of the dorsal arteries of the tongue; it 
extends along the median line of the dorsum of the 
tongue, a., basilar, origin, by confluence of right and 
left vertebral; distribution, brain; branches, trans- 
verse (or pontile), internal auditory, anterior cere- 
bellar, superior cerebellar, two posterior cerebral. 
a., brachial, origin, axillary; distribution, arm and 
forearm; branches, superior and inferior profunda, 
anastomotica magna, nutrient, muscular, radial, 
and ulnar, a., cardiac, origin, gastric; distribution, 
cardiac end of stomach, a., carotid, common, origin, 
right side, innominate; left side, arch of aorta; distri- 
bution, external and internal carotid; branches, 
external and internal carotid, a., carotid, external, 
origin, common carotid; distribution, anterior part 
of neck, face, side of head, integuments, and dura 
mater; branches, ascending pharyngeal, superior 
thyroid, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, 
temporal, internal maxillary, a., carotid, internal, 
origin, common carotid; distribution, greater part 
of brain, the orbit, internal ear, forehead, and nose; 
branches, tympanic, vidian, arteria receptaculi, 
pituitary, gasserian, meningeal, ophthalmic, posterior 
communicating, anterior choroid, anterior cerebral, 
middle cerebral, a., carotid, primitive. See a., 
carotid, common, a., celiac, origin, abdominal aorta; 
distribution, stomach, duodenum, spleen, pancreas, 
liver, and gall-bladder; branches, gastric, hepatic, 
splenic, a., central (of retina), origin, ophthalmic; 
distribution, retina, a.s, central system of, Heub- 
ner's and Duret's term for the primary or secondary 
branches of the circle of Willis; they are distributed 
to the central ganglia of the brain, a., cerebellar, 
anterior, origin, basilar; distribution, anterior inferior 
surface of cerebellum, a., cerebellar, inferior, origin, 
vertebral; distribution, vermiform process and 
cortex of cerebellum; branches, inferior vermiform 
and the hemispheral. a., cerebellar, superior, origin, 
basilar; distribution, superior vermiform process 
and circumference of cerebellum; branches, superior 
vermiform and hemispheral. a., cerebral, anterior, 
origin, internal carotid; distribution, anterior portion 
of cerebrum; branches, anterior communicating, 
ganglionic (or central), commissural, hemispheral (or 
cortical). a., cerebral, middle, origin, internal 
carotid; distribution, middle portion of cerebrum; 
branches, ganglionic (or central, hemispheral (or 
cortical), a., cerebral, posterior, origin, basilar; 
distribution, temporosphenoid and occipital lobes; 
branches, ganglionic (or central) and hemispheral 
(or cortical), a., cervical, origin, uterine; distribu- 
tion, cervix uteri, a., cervical, ascending, origin, 
inferior thyroid; distribution, deep muscles of neck 
and spinal canal; branches, muscular, spinal, and 
phrenic, a., cervical, deep, origin, superior inter- 
costal; distribution, deep muscles of neck and spinal 
canal; branches, muscular, anastomotic, vertebral 
(or spinal), a., cervical, superficial, origin, transverse 
cervical; distribution, trapezius, levator anguli 
scapula?, splenius muscles, and posterior chain of 
lymphatic glands, a., cervical, transverse (trans- 
versalis colli), origin, thyroid axis; distribution, 
posterior cervical and scapular regions; branches, 
posterior scapular and superficial cervical, a., cir- 
cumflex, anterior (of axillary), origin, axillary; dis- 
tribution, pectoralis major, biceps, and shoulder- 
joint; branches, bicipital and pectoral, a., circumflex 
iliac, deep, origin, external iliac; distribution, upper 
part of thigh and lower part of abdomen; branches, 
muscular and cutaneous, a., circumflex, posterior 
(of axillary), origin, axillary; distribution, deltoid, 
teres minor, triceps, and shoulder-joint; branches, 
nutrient, articular, acromial, muscular, a., colic, 
left, origin, inferior mesenteric; distribution, de- 
scending colon, a., colic, middle, origin, superior 
mesenteric; distribution, transverse colon, a., colic, 
right, origin, superior mesenteric; distribution, 
ascending colon, a., colic, transverse, origin, colic, 
middle; distribution, transverse colon, a., comes 
nervi phrenici. See a., phrenic, superior, a., com- 
municating, i. One establishing communication 
between two arteries. 2. An artery having as origin 
the dorsalis pedis; it enters into the formation of the 
plantar arch and has two digital branches, a., com- 
municating (or perforating), origin, deep palmar arch; 
distribution, joins proximal ends of metacarpal and 

second and third dorsal interosseous arteries, a., 
communicating, anterior, origin, anterior cerebral; it 
assists in formation of anterior boundary of the circle 
of Willis; sendvS branches to caudate nucleus. Syn., 
communicans willisii. a., communicating, posterior, 
origin, posterior cerebral; it enters into formation of 
circle of Willis; sends branches to uncinate con- 
volution and optic thalamus; branches, uncinate, 
middle thalamic, a. compressor, a. constrictor, an 
instrument for occluding an artery for the purpose 
of arresting or preventing hemorrhage, a., coronary, 
inferior, origin, facial; distribution, lower lip. 
a., coronary, left, origin, left anterior sinus of Val- 
salva; distribution, heart; branches, left auricular, 
anterior interventricular, left marginal, terminal. 
a., coronary, right, origin, right anterior sinus of 
Valsalva; distribution, heart; branches, right auri- 
cular, preventricular, right marginal, posterior inter- 
ventricular, transverse, a., coronary, superior, origin , 
facial; distribution, upper lip. a.s, cortical system of, 
Heubner and Duret's term for the arteries distri- 
buted to the cerebral cortex and the parts immedi- 
ately beneath it. a., diaphragmatic, origin, thoracic 
aorta; distribution, diaphragm, a., digital, origin, 
external plantar; distribution, outer side of the second 
and third, fourth, and fifth toes, a., digital, palmar, 
origin, superficial palmar arch; distribution, both 
sides of little, ring, and middle finger and ulnar 
side of index-finger, a., dorsal (of penis), origin, 
pudic; distribution, penis, a., dorsalis hillucis, a 
continuation of dorsalis pedis; distribution, great 
and second toes, a., dorsalis pedis, origin, continua- 
tion of anterior tibial; distribution, assists to form 
plantar arch; branches, tarsal, metatarsal, dorsalis 
hallucis, communicating, a., end, a., terminal, an 
artery that does not anastomose with other arteries 
by means of large branches; there is usually a capil- 
lary anastomosis, a., epigastric, deep (or inferior), 
origin, external iliac; distribution, abdominal wall; 
branches, cremasteric, pubic, muscular, cutaneous, 
terminal, a., epigastric, superficial, origin, common 
femoral; distribution, inguinal glands, skin, super- 
ficial fascia, and abdominal wall, a., epigastric, 
superior, origin, internal mammary; distribution, 
abdominal wall and diaphragm, liver, and peritoneum, 
branches, phrenic, xiphoid, cutaneous, muscular, 
hepatic, and peritoneal, a., epiploic, origin, right and 
left gastroepiploic; distribution, omentum. a., 
esophageal. 1. Origin, gastric; distribution, eso- 
phagus. 2. Origin, inferior thyroid; distribution, 
esophagus. 3. Origin, left phrenic; distribution, 
esophagus. 4. (4 or 5). Origin, thoracic aorta; 
distribution, esophagus, a., esophageal, inferior, 
origin, coronary (of stomach); distribution, eso- 
phagus, a., facial, origin, third branch of external 
carotid; distribution, pharynx and face; branches, 
ascending, or inferior palatine, tonsillar, glandular, 
muscular, submental, masseteric, buccal, inferior 
labial, inferior and superior coronary, lateralis nasi, 
angular, a., femoral, common, origin, continuation 
of external iliac; distribution, lower part of abdominal 
wall, upper part of thigh and genitalia; branches, 
superficial epigastric, superficial circumflex iliac, 
superficial external pudic, deep external pudic, 
profunda, a., femoral, deep, see a., femoral, profunda. 
a., femoral, profunda, origin, common femoral; 
distribution, muscles of thigh; branches, external 
circumflex, internal circumflex, and three perforating. 
a., femoral, superficial, origin, continuation of 
common femoral; distribution, muscles of thigh and 
knee-joint; branches, muscular, saphenous, anasto- 
motica magna, a. forceps, a forceps for catching or 
twisting an artery; a hemostat. a., frontal, a branch 
of the ophthalmic artery; it ascends the inner part 
of the orbital arch and supplies the periosteum, 
muscles, and integument of the middle forehead. 
a., gastric (or coronary), origin, celiac axis; distri- 
bution, stomach, liver, and esophagus; branches, 
esophageal, cardiac, gastric, and hepatic, a., gastro- 
duodenal, a branch of the hepatic artery given off 
near the pyloric orifice of the stomach; branches, 
right gastroepiploic and superior pancreaticoduo- 
denal, a., gluteal, a branch of the internal iliac 
which runs backward between the lumbosacral 
cord and the first sacral nerve, turns around the 
upper margin of the great sacrosciatic foramen, and 
divides opposite the interval between the gluteus 
medius and pyriformis muscles, into the deep and 
superficial gluteal arteries, a., gluteal, deep, origin, 
gluteal; distribution, deep muscles of posterior gluteal 




region, a., gluteal, inferior, origin, sciatic; distribu- 
tion, gluteus maximus. a., gluteal, superficial, 
origin, gluteal; distribution, gluteus maximus and 
integument over sacrum. a., gluteal, superior, 
origin, deep gluteal; distribution, muscles adjacent. 
a.s, helicine, the arteries found in cavernous tissue, 
as in the testicle, uterus, ovary, etc. a., hemor- 
rhoidal, inferior (or external), origin, pudic; distri- 
bution, sphincter muscle, levator ani. a., hemor- 
rhoidal, middle, origin, internal iliac, anterior 
division; distribution, middle part of rectum, a., 
hemorrhoidal, superior, origin, inferior mesenteric; 
distribution, upper part of rectum, a., hepatic, 
origin, celiac axis; distribution, liver, pancreas, part 
of duodenum, and stomach; branches, pancreatic, 
subpyloric, gastroduodenal, right and left terminal. 
a., iliac, common, origin, terminal branch of ab- 
dominal aorta; distribution, peritoneum, subperi- 
toneal fat, ureter, and terminates in external and 
internal iliac; branches, peritoneal, subperitoneal, 
ureteric, external and internal iliac, a., iliac, ex- 
ternal, origin, common iliac; distribution, lower 
limb; branches, deep epigastric, deep circumflex 
iliac, muscular, and continues as femoral, a., iliac, 
internal, origin, common iliac; distribution, pelvic 
and generative organs and inner side of thigh; 
branches, anterior and posterior trunk, a., iliac, 
internal (anterior trunk), origin, internal iliac; 
distribution, pelvic and generative organs and 
thigh; branches, hypogastric, superior, middle, and 
inferior vesical, middle hemorrhoidal, uterine, vaginal, 
obturator, sciatic, internal pudic. a., iliac, internal 
(posterior trunk), origin, internal iliac; distribution, 
muscles of hip and sacrum; branches, iliolumbar, 
lateral sacral and gluteal, a., innominate, origin, 
arch of aorta; distribution, right side of head and 
right arm; branches, right common carotid, right 
subclavian, occasionally thyroidea ima. a., inter- 
costal, anterior, origin, internal mammary; distri- 
bution, intercostal muscles, ribs (upper five or six), 
and pectoralis major, a., intercostal, anterior, origin, 
musculophrenic; distribution, lower five or six 
intercostal spaces, a., intercostal, superior, origin, 
subclavian; distribution, neck and upper part of 
thorax; branches, deep cervical, first intercostal, 
arteria aberrans. a., interosseous, anterior, origin, 
interosseous (common); distribution, muscles of 
forearm, a., interosseous, common, origin, ulnar; 
distribution, interosseous membrane and deep 
muscles of the forearm; branches, anterior and 
posterior interosseous, a., interosseous, posterior, 
origin, _ ulnar; distribution, muscles of forearm. 
a., labial, superior. See a., coronary, superior. 
a., laryngeal, superior, origin, superior thyroid; 
distribution, intrinsic muscles and mucous membrane 
of larynx, a., lenticulostriate, origin, middle cerebral; 
distribution, lenticular and caudate nuclei. a., 
lingual, origin, external carotid; distribution, tongue; 
branches, hyoid, dorsalis linguae, sublingual, ranine. 
a., mammary, external. See a., thoracic, long. 
a., mammary, internal, origin, subclavian; distri- 
bution, structures of thorax; branches, superior 
phrenic, mediastinal (or thymic), pericardiac, 
sternal, anterior intercostal, perforating, lateral 
intercostal, superior epigastric, internal mammary. 
a., maxillary, external. See a., facial, a., maxillary, 
internal (maxillary group), origin, external carotid; 
distribution, structures indicated by names of 
branches; branches, deep auricular, tympanic, middle 
meningeal, mandibular, small meningeal, a., maxil- 
lary, internal (pterygoid group), origin, external 
carotid; distribution, structures indicated by names 
of branches; branches, masseteric, posterior deep 
temporal, internal and external pterygoid, buccal, 
anterior deep temporal. a., maxillary, internal 
(sphenomaxillary group, origin, external carotid; 
distribution, structures indicated by names of 
branches; branches, posterior dental (or alveolar), 
infraorbital, posterior (or descending) palatine, Vidian, 
pterygopalatine, nasal, or sphenopalatine, a., median 
(arteria comes nervi mediani), origin, anterior inter- 
osseous; distribution, median nerve and superficial 
palmar arch, a., mediastinal, anterior (or thymic), 
origin, internal mammary; discribution, connective 
tissue, fat, and lymphatics in superior and anterior 
mediastinums, thymus gland. a.s, medullary, 
i. Those supplying the medullary substance of the 
brain. 2. The nutrient arteries, a., meningeal. 
1. Origin, ascending pharyngeal; distribution, mem- 
branes of brain. 2. Origin, posterior ethmoid; 

distribution, dura mater, a., meningeal, anterior, 
origin, internal carotid; distribution, dura mater. 
a., meningeal, middle or great, origin, internal 
maxillary; distribution, cranium and dura mater; 
branches, anterior and posterior, a., meningeal, 
posterior. 1. Origin, occipital; distribution, dura 
mater. 2. Origin, vertebral; distribution, dura 
mater, a., meningeal, small, origin, internal maxil- 
lary; distribution, Gasserian ganglion, walls of 
cavernous sinus, and dura mater, a., mesenteric, 
inferior, origin, abdominal aorta; distribution, lower 
half of large intestine; branches, left colic, sigmoid, 
superior hemorrhoidal, a., mesenteric, superior, 
origin, abdominal aorta; distribution, whole of small 
intestine and upper half of large; branches, inferior 
pancreaticoduodenal, colica media, colica dextra, 
ileocolic, vasa intestini tenuis, a., musculophrenic, 
origin, internal mammary; distribution, 'diaphragm, 
fifth and sixth lower intercostal spaces, oblique 
muscles of abdomen; branches, phrenic, anterior 
intercostals, muscular, a., nasal, origin, ophthalmic; 
distribution, lacrimal sac and integuments of nose; 
branches, lacrimal and transverse nasal, a., naso- 
palatine. See c, sphenopalatine, a., obturator, 
origin, anterior division, internal iliac; distribution, 
pelvis and thigh; branches, iliac (or nutrient), vesical, 
pubic, external and internal pelvic, a., obturator, 
external, origin, obturator; distribution, muscles 
about obturator foramen, a., occipital. 1. Origin, 
fourth branch of external carotid; distribution, 
muscles of neck and scalp; branches, sternomastoid, 
posterior meningeal, auricular, mastoid, princeps 
cervicis, communicating, muscular, terminal. 2. A 
branch of the posterior cerebral artery distributed 
to the occipital gyri and surrounding parts, a., 
omphalomesenteric, origin, primitive aorta; distri- 
bution, subsequently becomes the umbilical, a., 
ophthalmic, origin, internal carotid; distribution, the 
eye, adjacent structures, portion of face; branches, 
lacrimal, supraorbital, central artery of retina, 
muscular, ciliary, posterior and anterior ethmoid, 
palpebral, frontal, nasal, a., ovarian, origin, ab- 
dominal aorta; distribution, ovary, ureter, Fallopian 
tube, uterus; branches, ureteral, Fallopian, uterine, 
ligamentous, a., palatine, origin, ascending pharyn- 
geal; distribution, soft palate and its muscles, a., 
palatine, ascending (or inferior), origin, first branch 
of facial; distribution, upper part of pharynx, palate, 
and tonsils; branches, palatine, tonsillar, a., pala- 
tine, descending, origin, internal maxillary; distri- 
bution, to soft and hard palate; branches, anterior 
and posterior, a., palmar arch, deep, origin, radial 
and communicating of ulna; distribution, palm and 
fingers; branches, princeps pollicis, radialis indicis, 
palmar interosseous (3), recurrent carpal, posterior 
perforating. a., palmar arch, superficial, origin, 
ulnar and superficialis vols; distribution, palm and 
fingers; branches, digital (4), muscular, cutaneous. 
a., pancreatic. 1. Origin, hepatic; distribution, 
pancreas. 2. Origin, splenic; distribution, pancreas. 
a., pancreaticoduodenal, inferior, origin, superior 
mesenteric; distribution, pancreas and duodenum. 
a., pancreaticoduodenal, superior, origin, gastro- 
duodenal; distribution, duodenum and pancreas. 
a., perforating (or posterior communicating) (3), 
origin, deep palmar arch; distribution, interosseous 
spaces. a.s, pericardiacophrenic, the pericardiac 
divisions of the internal mammary artery connecting 
with sternal ramifications of the same artery and 
with branches of the superior phrenic, bronchial, 
and intercostal arteries to form the subpleural medi- 
astinal plexus, a., pharyngeal. 1. Origin, pterygo- 
palatine; distribution, roof of pharynx. 2. Origin, 
sphenopalatine; distribution, roof and contiguous 
portions of pharynx, a., pharyngeal, ascending, 
origin, first branch external carotid; distribution, 
pharynx, soft palate, tympanum, posterior part of 
neck, and membranes of brain; branches, preverte- 
bral, pharyngeal, palatine, tympanic, meningeal. 
a., phrenic, origin, ascending cervical; distribution, 
phrenic nerve, a., phrenic, superior (comes nervi 
phrenici), origin, internal mammary; distribution, 
pleura, pericardium, and diaphragm, a., plantar 
arch, origin, external plantar artery; distribution, 
anterior part of foot and toes; branches, articular 
and plantar digital, a., plantar, deep, origin, meta- 
tarsal; distribution, assists in formation of plantar 
arch, a., plantar, external, origin, posterior tibial; 
distribution, sole and toes; branches, muscular, 
calcaneal, cutaneous, anastomotic, posterior per- 




forating, plantar arch, a., plantar, internal, origin, 
posterior tibial; distribution, inner side of foot; 
branches, muscular, cutaneous, articular, anasto- 
motic, superficial digital, a., popliteal, origin, con- 
tinuation of femoral; distribution, knee and leg; 
branches, cutaneous, muscular (superior and inferior) 
or sural, articular, superior and inferior external, 
superior and inferior internal and azygos, terminal 
(anterior and posterior tibial, a., profunda (deep 
femoral), origin, femoral; distribution, thigh; 
branches, external and internal circumflex, three 
perforating, a., profunda, inferior, origin, brachial; 
distribution, triceps, elbow-joint. a., profunda, 
superior, origin, brachial; distribution, humerus, 
muscles and skin of arm; branches, ascending, 
cutaneous, articular, nutrient, muscular, a., pterygo- 
palatine (pterygopharyngeal), origin, internal maxil- 
lary; distribution, pharynx, Eustachian tubes, and 
sphenoid cells; branches, pharyngeal, Eustachian, 
sphenoid, a., pudic, external, deep (inferior), origin, 
femoral, common; distribution, skin of scrotum (or 
labium in female), a., pudic, external, superficial 
(superior), origin, common femoral; distribution, 
integument above pubes and external genitalia. 
a., pudic, internal, origin, internal iliac, anterior 
division; distribution, generative organs; branches, 
external (or inferior) hemorrhoidal, superficial 
perineal, muscular, arteries of bulb, crus, and dorsal 
of penis, a., pulmonary, origin, right ventricle; 
distribution, lungs; branches, right and left, a., 
pyloric, inferior, origin, gastroduodenal or right 
gastroepiploic; distribution, pyloric end of stomach. 
a., pyloric, superior, origin, hepatic; distribution, 
pyloric end of stomach, a., radial, origin, brachial; 
distribution, forearm, wrist, hand; branches, radial 
recurrent, muscular, anterior and posterior carpal, 
superficial volar, metacarpal, dorsalis pollicis, 
dorsalis indicis. deep palmar arch, a., ranine, origin, 
lingual; distribution, tongue and mucous membrane 
of mouth, a., renal, origin, abdominal aorta; distri- 
bution, kidney; branches, inferior suprarenal, 
capsular, ureteral, a.s, retinal, the central artery of 
the retina and the upper and lower arteries on the 
nasal side and on the temporal side of the optic 
nerve, a., sacra media. See a., sacral, middle. 
a., sacral, middle, origin, continuation of aorta; 
distribution, sacrum and coccyx, a., scapular, dorsal, 
origin, subscapular; distribution, muscles of infra - 
spinous fossa; branches, infrascapular. a., scapular, 
posterior, origin, continuation of transverse cervical; 
distribution, muscles of scapular region; branches, 
supraspinous and infraspinous, subscapular, muscu- 
lar, a., sciatic, origin, internal iliac, anterior division; 
distribution, pelvic muscles and viscera, and branches; 
branches, coccygeal, inferior gluteal, muscular, anas- 
tomotic, articular cutaneous, comes nervi ischiadici, 
vesical, rectal, prostatic, etc. a., spermatic, origin, 
abdominal aorta; distribution, scrotum and testis; 
branches, ureteral, cremasteric, epididymal, testicu- 
lar, a., sphenopalatine (nasopalatine), origin, in- 
ternal maxillary; distribution, pharynx, nose, and 
sphenoid cells; branches, pharyngeal, sphenoid, 
nasal, ascending septal. a., spinal. i. Origin, 
ascending cervical; distribution, spinal canal. 2. 
Origin, intercostals ; distribution, spinal canal and 
spine. 3. Origin, lateral sacral; distribution, spinal 
membranes and muscles and skin over sacrum. 
a., spinal* anterior, origin, vertebral; distribution, 
spinal cord, a., spinal, lateral, origin, vertebral; 
distribution, vertebra and spinal canal, a., spinal, 
posterior, origin, vertebral; distribution, spine, 
a., splenic. 1. Origin, celiac axis; distribution, 
spleen, pancreas, part of stomach, omentum; 
branches, small and large pancreatic, left gastro- 
epiploic, vasa brevia, terminal. 2. Origin, left 
phrenic; distribution, spleen, a., subclavian, origin, 
right, innominate; left, arch of aorta; distribution, 
neck, thorax, arms, brain, meninges, etc.; branches, 
vertebral, thyroid axis, internal mammary, superior 
intercostal, a., subscapular, origin, axillary; distri- 
bution, subscapularis, teres major, latissimus dorsi, 
serratus magnus, axillary glands; branches, dorsal 
and infrascapular. a., suprascapular (transversalis 
humeri), origin, thyroid axis; distribution, muscles 
of shoulder; branches, inferior sternomastoid, sub- 
clavian, nutrient, suprasternal, acromial, articular, 
subscapular, supraspinous, and infraspinous. a., 
Sylvian, the middle cerebral artery, a., temporal, 
origin, external carotid; distribution, forehead, 
parotid gland, masseter muscle, ear; branches, 

parotid, articular, masseteric, anterior auricular, 
transverse facial, middle, anterior and posterior 
temporal. a., temporal, deep, anterior, origin, 
internal maxillary; distribution, anterior part of 
temporal fossa, a., termatic, origin, anterior com- 
municating; distribution, lamina cinerea and corpus 
callosum. a., thoracic, acromial, origin, axillary; 
distribution, muscles of shoulder, arm, and chest; 
branches, acromial, humeral, pectoral, clavicular. 
a., thoracic, alar, origin, axillary; distribution, axillary 
glands, a., thoracic, external. See a., thoracic, long. 
a., thoracic, internal. See a., mammary, internal. 
a., thoracic, long (external mammary), origin, axil- 
lary; distribution, pectoral muscles, serratus magnus, 
mammary and axillary glands, a., thymic, origin, 
internal mammary; distribution, connective tissue, 
fat, and lymphatics of mediastinum and thymus. 
a. of the thyroid axis, origin, subclavian; distribution, 
shoulder, neck, thorax, spine, cord; branches, inferior 
thyroid, suprascapular, and transverse cervical, 
a., thyroid, inferior, origin, thyroid axis; distribution, 
larynx, esophagus, and muscles of neck; branches, 
muscular, ascending cervical, esophageal, tracheal, 
and inferior laryngeal, a., thyroid, superior, origin, 
external carotid; distribution, omohyoid, sterno- 
hyoid, sternothyroid, thyroid gland; branches, hyoid, 
sternomastoid, superior laryngeal, cricothyroid. 
a., thyroidea ima, origin, innominate (usually); 
distribution, thyroid body, a., tibial, anterior, origin, 
popliteal; distribution, leg; branches, posterior and 
anterior tibial recurrent, muscular, internal and 
external malleolar. a., tibial, posterior, origin, 
popliteal; distribution, leg, heel, and foot; branches, 
peroneal, muscular, medullary, cutaneous, communi- 
cating, malleolar, calcanean, internal and external 
plantar, a., tonsillar. 1. Origin, ascending palatine; 
distribution, tonsil and Eustachian tube. 2. Origin, 
facial; distribution, tonsil and root of tongue, a., 
transversalis colli. See a., cervical, transverse. 
a., ulnar, origin, brachial; distribution, forearm, 
wrist, and hand; branches, anterior and posterior 
ulnar, recurrent, common interosseous, muscular, 
nutrient, anterior and posterior ulnar, carpal, palmar 
arch, a., uterine. 1. Origin, internal iliac, anterior 
branch; distribution, uterus; branches, cervical, 
vaginal, azygos. 2. Origin, ovarian; distribution, 
uterus, a., vasa brevia, origin, splenic; distribution, 
stomach, a., vertebral, origin, subclavian; distri- 
bution, neck and cerebrum; branches, lateral spinal, 
muscular, anastomotic, posterior meningeal, posterior 
and anterior spinal, posterior cerebellar, a., vesical, 
inferior, origin, internal iliac, anterior division; dis- 
tribution, bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and 
vagina (in female), a., vesical, middle, origin, 
superior vesical; distribution, bladder, a., vesical, 
superior, origin, internal iliac, anterior division; 
distribution, bladder; branches, deferential, ureteric, 
middle vesical (occasionally). a., Vidian, origin, 
internal maxillary; distribution, roof of pharynx, 
Eustachian tube, and tympanum ; branches, pharyn- 
geal, Eustachian, tympanic, a., vitelline. See a., 

arthragra (ar-thra'-grah) [arthron; aypa, seizure]. 

arthragrosis (ar-lhrag-ro'-sis) [arthron; aypa, seizure 
(pi., arlhragroses)]. Gout. In the plural, gouty 
disorders affecting the skin. 

arthral (ar'-thral) [arthron]. Articular; relating to 
an arthron. 

arthralgia (ar-thral'-je-ah) [arthron; &.\yos, pain]. 
Neuralgic pain in a joint. Syn., arlhroneuralgia; 
articular neuralgia, a. saturnina. pain in the joints 
and rigidity and cramps in the approximate muscles; 
it is symptomatic of lead-poisoning. 

arthralgic {ar-thral'-jik) [see arthralgia]. Relating 
to arthralgia. 

arthrectasia, arthrectasis (ar-threk-ta'-ze-ah, ar- 
threk'-ta-sis) [arthron; ecreuns, dilation]. Dilation 
of a joint-cavity. 

arthrectomy (ar-threk'-to-me) [arthron; iKTop.ri, a 
cutting-out]. Excision of a joint. 

arthredema, arthrcedema (ar-lhred-e'-mah) [ar- 
thron; olSrjua, a swelling, tumor]. Edema affecting 
a joint. 

arthrelcosis (ar-threl-ko'-sis) [arthron; ^X/cw<ns, 
ulceration]. Ulceration of a joint. 

arthremia (ar-thre'-me-ah) [arthron; aJua, blood]. 
A congested condition of a joint. 

arthrempyema {ar-thr em-pi' -e-mah) [arthron-; ip.- 
irvrjua, suppuration]. Suppuration or abscess of a joint. 




arthrempyesis (ar-threm-pi-e'-sis). Suppuration 
in a joint. 

arthrentasis (ar-thren'-ta-sis) [arthron; Ivratris, 
distortion]. Distortion of the limbs due to gout. 

arthric (ar'-thrik). See arthritic (2). 

arthrifluent (ar-thrif'-lu-ent) [arthron; finer e, to 
flow]. Applied to abscesses proceeding from a 
diseased joint. 

arthrifuge (ar'-thrif-uj) [arthron; fugare to put to 
flight]. A remedy for gout. 

arthritic (ar-thrit'-ik) [arthritis]. Relating — 1. To 
arthritis or to gcut. 2. To a joint. 

arthritis (ar-thri'-tis) [arthron; ms, inflammation]. 
Inflammation of a joint, a., acute, acute joint- 
inflammation, particularly that due to gout. Syn., 
arthritis vera, a., acute serous, acute synovitis. 
a. arthrodynia, gout. a. asthmatica, a form observed 
in elderly persons subject to asthma, and mitigated 
by an attack of the latter, a., atrophic. Synonym 
of Charcot's joint disease, a., blennorrhagic, gonor- 
rheal rheumatism, a., chronic, a form in which 
the joints are not so much affected as are other parts 
of the body. a. deformans, chronic inflammation of a 
joint with deformity; rheumatoid arthritis. a., 
diaphragmatic, angina pectoris, a., erratic, retro- 
cedent or metastatic gout. a. fungosa, tuberculous 
disease of the joints; white swelling, a., gonorrheal, 
gonorrheal synovitis, a., gouty, that due to gout. 
a. hiemalis, winter gout, a form occurring less 
frequently in summer than in other seasons, a., 
internal. See a., visceral, a., intervertebral. See 
spondylarthritis, a. ischias, gout in the hip. a. 
larvata, a., latent, a masked form not manifested by 
the usual symptoms. a. maxillaris, rheumatoid 
arthritis of the temporomaxillary joint, a. nodosa. 
See osteoarthritis, a. pauperum. Synonym of a., 
rheumatoid, a. podagra, gout in the feet, a., pro- 
liferating. See a. deformans, a., retrograde, sup- 
pressed gout, a., rheumatoid, a chronic joint affec- 
tion characterized by inflammatory overgrowth of 
the articular cartilages and synovial membranes, 
with destruction of those parts of the cartilages 
subject to intraarticular pressure; there is progressive 
deformity. Syn., chronic rheumatoid arthritis; 
osteoarthritis; rheumatic gout; nodular rheumatism; 
arthritis deformans, a. sicca, rheumatoid arthritis. 
a., strumous. See a. fungosa. a., subdiarthrodial, 
a form of fungous arthritis in which fleshy granu- 
lations occur between the bone and the cartilage of 
the joint, a. syphilitica, gonorrheal rheumatism; 
also the nocturnal pains of syphilis, a. typica, acute 
arthritis. a., urethral, gonorrheal rheumatism. 
a. urica, gout attributed to excessive formation of 
uric acid. Syn., arthritis uratica; panarthritis urica; 
uarthritis. a. vertebralis, a breakdown of the inter- 
vertebral discs. a., visceral, gout affecting an 
internal organ, with alternating attacks in the joints. 

arthritism {ar'-thrit-izm) [arthron]. Gout or the 
gouty diathesis. 

arthritolith (ar-thrW -o-lith) [arthron; XWos, a 
stone]. Gouty calcareous deposit or concretion in or 
around a joint. 

arthro- (ar-thro-) [arthron]. A prefix denoting 
relating to the joints. 

arthrobacterium (ar-thro-bak-te'-re-um) [arthro-; 
bacterium]. A bacterium forming arthrospores. 

arthrocace (dr-throk'-as-e) [artho-; ko.k6s, ill]. 
Fungous, strumous, or tuberculous arthritis; caries 
of a joint, a. coxarum, see coxalgia. a., senile, 
changes in the joints occurring in the aged. 

arthrocarcinoma (ar-thro-kar-sin-o'-mah) [arthro-; 
carcinoma]. Carcinoma affecting a joint. 

arthrocele (ar'-thro-sel) [arthro-; K17X77, a tumor]. 
Swelling of a joint. 

arthrocenchriasis (ar-thro-sen-kri'-as-is) [arthro-; 
tceyxpt-as, like a grain of millet]. A miliary eruption 
occurring about a joint. 

arthrochondritis (ar-thro-kon-dri'-tis) [arthro-; xbv- 
8pos, a cartilage; ins, inflammation]. Inflamma- 
tion of the cartilaginous parts of a joint. 

arthroclasia ( ar-thro-kla' -se-ah) [arthro-; k\6.€lv, to 
break]. The breaking-down of ankyloses in order 
to produce free movement of a joint. 

arthrocleisis (ar-thro-kti'-sis) [arthro-; KXheiv, to 
shut]. See arthrodesis. 

arthrodesis (ar-throd'-es-is) [arthro-; 5e<m, a 
binding]. Surgical fixation of paralyzed joints. 

arthrodia {ar-thro' -de- ah) [apdpudLa, a kind of 
articulation]. A form of joint admitting of a gliding 

arthrodial (ar-thro' -de-al) [arthrodia]. Pertaining 
to or of the nature of arthrodia. 

arthrodynia (ar-thro-din'-e-ah) [arthro-; bbvvt), 
pain]. Pain in a joint; arthralgia. 

arthrodynic (ar-thro-din'-ik) [arthro-; bSwrj, pain]. 
Relating to or affected by arthrodynia. 

arthroempyesis (ar-thro-em-pi-e'-sis) [arthro-; in- 
irvrjais, suppuration]. Suppuration in a joint. 

arthrogenous (ar-throj'-en-us) [arthro-; yewav, to 
produce]. Forming an articulation, a. spore, an 

arthrography (ar-throg'-ra-fe) [arthro-; ypafaiv, to 
write]. A description of the joints. 

arthrogryposis (ar-thro-grip-o'-sis) [arthro-; ypvwco- 
ais, flexure]. 1. Permanent flexure of a joint; 
ankylosis. 2. Persistent idiopathic contracture of a 
joint. 3. Tetany or tetanilla. 

arthrokleisis. See arthrocleisis. 

arthrolith (ar'-thro-lith) [arthro-; Xi'0os, a stone]. 
One of the free bodies which occur in joints, arising 
from the segmentation of warty outgrowths of joint 
cartilage or of synovial membrane. Syn., arthrophyte; 
arthremphyte; joint-bodies; joint-mice; mures articu- 
lar es; corpora mobilia articulorum; corpora libera 
articulorum; tophus arthriticus ; arthrotophus. 

arthrolitbiasis (ar-thro-lith-i'-as-is) [see arthrolith]. 

arthrology (ar-throl'-o-je) [arthro-; \6yos, science]. 
The science of joints. 

arthrolysis (ar-throl'-is-is) [arthro-; Xvo-is, a solu- 
tion]. The division or removal of adhesions and 
bone from an ankylosed joint. 

arthromeningitis (ar-thro-men-in-ji'-tis) [arthro-; 
mviyl-, membrane; ins, inflammation]. Synovitis. 

arthron (ar'-thron) [apdpov, a joint]. A joint or an 

arthronalgia (ar-lhron-al'-je-ah). See arthralgia. 

arthroncus (ar-throng'-kus) [arthro-; oyicos, a 
swelling]. 1. A cartilaginous body such as occasion- 
ally forms within the knee-joint. 2. Swelling of a 

arthroneuralgia (ar-thro-nil-ral'-je-ah) [arthro-; 
vevpov, nerve; &X70S, pain]. Neuralgic pain in'ajoint. 

arthropathology (ar-thro-path-ol'-o-je) [arthro-; ira- 
dos, disease; X670S, science]. The branch of pathol- 
ogy dealing with joint-diseases. 

arthropathy (ar-ihrop' -a-the) [arthro-; itaBos, dis- 
ease]. 1. Any joint disease. 2. A peculiar trophic 
disease of the joints, sometimes occurring in loco- 
motor ataxia and syringomyelia; rarely in general 
paralysis of the insane and in disseminated sclerosis. 
Syn., Charcot's joint, a., Charcot's, see arthropathy 
(2). a. osteopulmonary, Marie's disease, an enlarge- 
ment of the ends of long bones in long standing 
pulmonary disease. a., vertebral, arthropathy with 
depressions and rugosities of the vertebrae. 

arthrophlogosis (ar-thro-flo-go'-sis) [arthro-; <j>\iyeiv, 
to burn]. Inflammation of a joint. 

arthrophlysis (ar-throf -lis-is) [arthro-; 0\u<rts, an 
eruption]. Gout accompanied with a cutaneous 
eruption^ a. cardiaca. See miliaria arthritica. 
a. vulgaris. See eczema arthrilicum. 

arthrophyma (ar-lhro-fi'-mah) [arthro-; 4>vp.a, a 
swelling]. Swelling of a joint. 

arthrophyte (ar' -thro-fit) [arthro-; (pvrov, a growth]. 
A growth in a joint. 

arthroplasty (ar'-thro-plas-te) [arthro-; irXdaativ, 
to form]. The making of an artificial joint. 

Arthropod (ar'-thro-pod) [arthro-; irovs, foot]. 
A member of the phylum arthropoda which embraces 
crustaceans, insects and spiders. 

arthropodous (ar-throp'-o-dus) [arthro-; irovs, a 
ioot]. In biology, having jointed legs. 

arthropyosis (ar-thro-pi-o'-sis) [arthro-; irvwcns, 
suppuration]. Pus-formation in a joint. 

arthrorheumatism (ar-thro-ru' -mat-izm) [arthro-; 
rheumatism]. Articular rheumatism. 

arthrorrhagia (ar-ihro-ra' -je-ah) [arthro-; prjyvwai, 
to burst forth]. Hemorrhage into a joint. 

arthrosia (ar-thro' -ze-ah) \arthron]. Painful in- 
flammatory or other affection of a joint. 

arthrosis (ar-thro' -sis) [kpBpbeiv, to fasten by a 
joint]. Articulation or jointing; a suture. 

arthrospore (ar'-thro-spor) [arthro-; airbpos, a seed]. 
A spore formed by fission, as opposed to an endospore. 

arthrosteitis (ar-thro-ste-i'-tis) [arthro-; bo-rkov, 
bone; ins, inflammation]. Inflammation of the 
bony parts of a joint. 

arthrostenosis (ar-thro-sten-o'-sis) [arthro-; ork- 
vw<ns, a narrowing]. Contraction of a joint. 




arthrosteophyma (ar-thro-ste-o-fi'-mah) [arthro-; 
barkov, bone; <t>v/j.a, tumor]. A tumor of the bone 
in a joint. 

arthrosyrinx (ar-thro-sir'-ingks) [arthro-; avpiy%, 
a pipel. A fistulous opening into a joint. 

arthrotome (ar'-lhro-tdm) [arthro-; rb\n), a cutting]. 
A stout knife used in the surgery of the joints. 

arthrotomy (ar-throt'-o-me) yarthro-; renveiv, to 
cut]. Incision of a joint. 

arthrotrauma (ar-thro-traw'-mah) [arthro-; rpavna, 
an injury]. An injury to a joint. 

arthrotropia (ar-lhro-tro'-pe-ah) yarthro-; rpoirri, a 
turning]. Torsion of a limb. 

arthrotyphoid (ar-thro-ti'-foid). Typhoid fever 
with articular involvement. 

arthrous (ar'-thrus) [arthron]. Pertaining to a 
joint or joints; jointed. 

arthroxerosis (ar-thro-zer-o' -sis) [arthro-; £kpu<ns, 
a dry state]. Chronic osteoarthritis. 

arthroxesis (ar-throks'-es-is) [arthro-; few, a 
scraping]. The surgical treatment of an articular 
surface by scraping. 

Arthus phenomenon (ar'-toos) [Maurice Arthus, 
French bacteriologist]. A rabbit treated with 
horse's serum at intervals of six days shows a soft 
infiltrate after the fourth injection, a hard infiltrate 
after the fifth injection, and gangrene after the 
sixth or seventh injection; this last is followed by 

artiad (ar'-te-ad) [aprtoj, even]. In chemistry, a 
term designating an element or radical having an 
even quanti valence. 

article (art'-ikl) [articulus, a little joint]. A joint; 
a segment of a jointed series. 

articular (ar-tik'-u-lar) [articularis, of the joints]. 
Pertaining to an articulation or joint. 

articularis (ar-tik-u-la'-ris). Articular, a. genu. 
See subcrureas, in table of muscles. 

articulate (ar tik'-u-lat) [articulare, to divide in 
joints], i. Divided into joints. 2. Distinct, clear. 
a. speech, the communication of ideas by spoken 

articulatio (ar-tik-u-la'-she-o) [L., a joint]. A 
joint; see articulation, a. acromioclavicularis, acro- 
mioclavicular joint, a. atlantoepistrophica, joint 
between atlas and epistropheus or axis. a. atlanto- 
occipitalis, joint between atlas and occipital bone. 
a. carpometacarpea pollicis, carpometacarpal joint of 
the thumb, a. calcaneocuboidea, calcaneocuboid 
joint, a. cochlearis, spiral joint, a. composita, 
compound joinc. a. coxae, hip-joint, a. cricoary- 
taenoidea, arycorniculate synchondrosis. a. crico- 
thyreoidea, cricothyreoid articulation, a. cubiti, 
elbow-joint. a. cuneonavicularis, cuneonavicular 
joint, a. ellipsoidea, elliptical joint, a. genu, knee 
joint, a. humeri, shoulder-joint, a. humeroradialis, 
humeroradial articulation, a. humeroulnaris, hu- 
mero-ulnar articulation, a. incudomalleolaris, joint 
between anvil and hammer, a. incudostapedia, joint 
between anvil and stirrup, a. intercarpea, inter- 
carpal articulation, carpal joints, a. mandibularis, 
jaw-joint, a. manus, joint of the hand. a. ossis 
pisoformis, joint of the pisiform bone. a. radioul- 
naris distalis, inferior radio-ulnar joint, a. radioul- 
naris proximalis, superior radio-ulnar joint. a. 
sacroiliaca, sacro-iliac joint, a. sellaris, saddle joint. 
a. simplex, simple joint, a. sphaeroidea, spherical 
joint, a. sternoclavicularis, sternoclavicular joint. 
a. talocalcanea, talocalcanean joint, a. talocal- 
caneonavicularis, talocalcaneonavicular joint. a. 
talocruralis, ankle-joint. a. talonavicularis, talo- 
navicular joint. a. tarsi transversa (Choparti), 
Chopart's transverse articulation of the tarsus. 
a. tibiofibularis, superior tibiofibular articulation. 
a. trochoidea, trochoid or pivot joint. 
* articulation (ar-tik-u-la'-shun )[articulus, a joint]. 
I. A joint; a connection between two or more bones, 
whether or not allowing movement between them. 
The articulations are divided into: (1) Synarthroses, 
immovable, subdivided into schindyleses, or grooved 
joints; gomphoses, in sockets, as the teeth; and 
suturce, as in the bones of the skull; (2) diarthroses, 
or movable joints, subdivided into the arthrodia, or 
gliding joints; the ginglymus, or hinge-like; the 
enarthroses, or ball-and-socket joints; (3) amphi- 
arthroses, or those of a mixed type. 2. The enuncia- 
tion of spoken speech. 3. The articulating contact 
of the cusps in the positions of mastication, a., 
false, one formed between the end of a dislocated 
bone and the contiguous parts or between the parts 

of a broken bone. Syn., pseudarthrosis. a., supple- 
mentary, a false articulation in which the ends of 
the fragments become rounded and covered with a 
fibrous capsule. 

articulationes (ar-tik-u-la-she-o'-nez) [L. pi., of 
articulatio}. Joints, a. capitulorum, capitular joints 
or articulations between the heads of the ribs and 
the vertebra?, a. carpometacarpeae, carpometacarpal 
joints, a. costotransversariae, costotransverse joints. 
a. costovertebrales, joints between ribs and vertebrae. 
a. digitorum manus, joints of the fingers, a. digi- 
torum pedis, joints of the toes. a. interchondrales, 
interchondral joints, a. intermetacarpeaa, intermeta- 
carpal joints, a. intermetatarseae, intermetav.arsal 
joints, a. intertarseas, intertarsal joints, a. meta- 
carpophalangeal, metacarpophalangeal joints. a. 
metatarsophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal joints. 
a. ossiculorum auditus, joints of the auditory ossicles. 
a. manus, joints of the hand. a. pedis, joints of the 
foot. a. sternocostales, sternocostal joints. 

articulator (ar-tik'-u-la-tor) [articulus, a joint]. 
An instrument used in mechanical dentistry for 
holding the models in position while the artificial 
teeth are being arranged and antagonized upon the 

articulatory {ar-tik'-u-la-tor-e). Relating to articu- 

articulo mortis, in (ar-tik'-u-lo mor f -tis) [L.]. At 
the moment of death. In the act of dying. 

articulus (ar-tik'-u-ius) [dim. of artus, a. joint; pi. 
and gen., articuli}. 1. A joint; a knuckle. 2. A seg- 
ment; a part; a limb. 3. A moment of time. 

artifact (ar'-te-fakt). See artefact. 

artificial (ar-te-fish'-al) [artificialis]. Made or 
imitated by art. a. anus, an opening in the abdomen 
or loin to give exit to the feces, a. eye, a film of 
glass, celluloid, rubber, etc., made in imitation of the 
front part of the globe of the eye, and worn in the 
socket or over a blind eye for cosmetic reasons, 
a. feeding, the feeding of an infant by other means 
than mother's milk. a. leech. See leech, artificial. 
a. palate. See palate, artificial, a. pupil, the result 
of removal of a piece of the iris (iridectomy, iridodi- 
alysis, etc.) to allow the light to pass through the 
opening, a. respiration, the aeration of the blood by 
artificial means — a method of inducing the normal 
function of respiration, as in asphyxia neonatorum, 
drowning, etc. The chief methods are: — Bain's, 
Byrd's, Calliano's, Dew's, Forest's, Hall's, Howard's, 
Laborde's, Pacini's, Rosenthal's, S alter thwaite's, 
Schafer's, Schroeder's, Schullze's, and Sylvester's, q. v. 

artistomia (ar-le-sto' -me-ah) [apn, exactly; arona, 
a mouth]. 1. Distinctness in utterance. 2. The 
condition of an aperture, especially in surgicai 
incisions, in which the size is perfectly adapted to 
the purpose. 

artiyls (ar'-te-ils) [apnos, complete]. Loewig's 
name for hydrocarbons of the general formula Cnll2n. 

Artocarpus (ar-to-kar'-pus) [apros, bread; Kapirbs, 
a fruit]. A genus of trees of the order Urticacece, 
including the breadfruit-tree, A. incisa. A. blumei 
is an East Indian species with an edible fruit, the 
oil of which is used in diarrhea; an ointment from 
the buds and leaves is applied to buboes. A. inte- 
grifolia, native in India, is prized for its wood; the 
root is used in diarrhea and as an external appli- 
cation in leprosy ; the root-bark is used as a vermifuge. 

artus (ar'-tus) [L.: pi., artus], A joint; a limb; the 
joints collectively. 

aryepiglottic (ar-e-ep-e-glot'-ik). Same as ary- 

aryl (ar'-il). A chemical prefix denoting an organic 
radical belonging to the aromatic series. 

arylarsonates (ar-il-ar'-so-nals). Aromatic organic 
salts of arsenic, such as atoxyl, soamin and six hundred 
and six. 

arytenectomy (ar-e-len-ek'-to-me). See arytenoid- 

arytenoepiglottic (ar-it-en-o-ep-e-glol'-ik) [bpiiraiva, 
a pitcher; udos likeness; iiri, upon; yXwrris, glottis]. 
Eclating to an arytenoid cartilage and to the epi- 
glottis; as the arytenoepiglGltic fold (or folds), con- 
sisting of a fold of mucous membrane that extends 
from each arytenoid cartilage to the epiglottis. 

arytenoid (ar-if -en-oid) [6,pvraiva, a pitcher; eldos, 
likeness]. 1. Resembling the mouth of a pitcher. 
2. Pertaining to the arytenoid cartilages, a. car- 
tilages, two cartilages of the larynx regulating, by 
means of the attached muscles, the tension of the 
vocal bands, a. glands, muciparous glands, found 




in large numbers along the posterior margin of the 
arytenoepiglottic fold in front of the arytenoid 
cartilages, a. muscle, a muscle arising from the 
posterior surface of one arytenoid cartilage and 
inserted into the corresponding parts of the other. 
It is composed of three planes of fibers, two oblique 
and one transverse. It draws the arytenoid cartilages 

arytenoidectomy (ar-e-ten-oid-ek'-to-me) [arytenoid; 
eKTOfiri, a cutting-out]. Removal of an arytenoid 

arytenoiditis (ar-e-ten-oid-i'-tis). Inflammation of 
the arytenoid cartilage or muscles. 

arythmia (ar-ith'-me-ah). See arrhythmia. 

arythmic (ar-ith'-mik). See arrhythmic. 

A. S. Abbreviation for Latin auris sinistra, the 
left ear. 

As. i. Chemical symbol for arsenic. 2. Abbrevi- 
ation for astigmatism. 

asa (a'-sah) [Pers., aza, mastic]. A gum. a. dul- 
cis, benzoin; also the drug called laser. 

asab [Ar.]. An African venereal disease said to 
differ from syphilis. 

asafetida, asafcetida (as-a-fet'-id-ah) [asa, gum; 
fcetida, stinking]. A gum-resin obtained from the 
root of Ferula fcstida. It is slightly soluble in alcohol 
and forms an emulsion with water. Its properties 
are due to a light volatile oil. It is antispasmodic, 
stimulating, expectorant, and is used in hysteria and 
in bronchial affections. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.32-1.3 
Gm.). a., emulsion of (emulsum asafcetidce, U. S. P.), 
a 4 % emulsion of asafetida. Dose \-2 oz. (15-60 
Cc). Syn., milk of asafetida. a., pills of (pilulcz 
asafcetida, U. S. P.), composed of asafetida, soap, 
and water. Dose 1-3. a., tincture of (tinctura 
asafcetidce, U. S. P.), strength, 20 %. Dose 10-30 
min. (0.6-2.0 Cc). Dewees' carminative (mistura 
magnesice et asafcetidce) is an unofficial preparation 
composed of magnesium carbonate, 5; tincture of 
asafetida, 7; tincture of opium, 1; sugar, 10; distilled 
water, sufficient to make 100 parts. Dose i dr.-| oz. 
(1-15 Cc). 

asaphia (as-a'-fe-ah) [a, priv.; <ra<j>r)s, clear]. Indis- 
tinctness of utterance, especially that due to cleft 

asaprol (as'-ap-rol), CaC 2 oHi4S 2 08 +3H2O. Cal- 
cium betanaphthol-a-monosulphonate, a substance 
readily soluble in water and alcohol, and recom- 
mended in asthma, tonsillitis, and acute articular 
rheumatism, in doses of from 15-60 gr. (1-4 Gm.). 

asarcia (ah-sar'-se-ah) [&, priv.; ffdp£, flesh]. 
Emaciation; leanness. 

asarin (as'-ar-in). Same as asarone. 

asarol (as f -ar-ol) [asarum; oleum, oil], CioHisO. 
A camphor-like body derived from asarum. 

asarone (as'-ar-on) [aaapov, asarabacca], C20H26O5. 
Asarin. The solid component of the oil from Asarum 
europceum. It forms monoclinic prisms, has an 
aromatic taste, and smells like camphor. 

Asarum (as'-ar-um) [aaapov, asarabacca]. A genus 
of aristolochiaceous plants. A. canadense, called 
wild ginger, Canada snakeroot, with other North 
American species, is used chiefly in domestic practice. 
It is a fragrant, aromatic stimulant. Dose of fluid- 
extract 15 min.-| dr. (1-2 Cc). A. europceum has 
diaphoretic, emetic, purgative, and diuretic qualities, 
but is now little used except in veterinary practice. 

asbestiform (as-best' -e-form) [asbestos]. Fibrous in 

asbestos (as-bes'-tos) [a<r(ie<rTos, unquenchable], 
A soft fibrous mineral made up of flexible or elastic 
filaments, and the best nonconductor of heat known. 
Mixed with plast tx it is used in mechanical dentistry 
as a substitute for sand to form the investment 
preparatory to soldering. It has also a limited use 
in surgery. 

asbolic, asbolicous, asbolicus (as-bol'-ik, ' -us) 
[aafldXos, sooc]. Sooty; due to soot; e. g., carcinoma 
scroti asbolicum. 

asbolin (as'-bol-in) [see asbolic]. A bitter, acrid, yel- 
low oil extracted from soot; it is used in tuberculosis. 

ascariasis (as-kar-i'-as-is) [ascaris]. The symptoms 
produced by the presence of ascarides in the gastro- 
intestinal canal. 

ascaricide (as-kar'-is-id) ascaris; ccedere, to kill]. 
A medicine that kills ascarides. 

Ascaridas (as-kar'-ede) [ascaris]. A family of 
nematode worms, to which belongs the round-worm 
(Ascaris lumbricoides) and the threadworm (Oxyuris 

ascarides (as-kar'-id-ez). Plural of ascaris. 

ascaridiasis (as-kar-id-i'-as-is). The presence ot 
ascarides in the intestine. 

Ascaris (as'-kar-is) [iaKapls, a species of intestinal 
worm; pi. ascarides]. A genus of parasitic worms 
inhabiting the intestine of most animals. A. alata, 
a variety that has rarely been found in man. A. 
lumbricoides, a variety found in the ox, hog, and man. 
It inhabits the small intestine, especially of children. 
A. mystax, the roundworm of the cat, rarely found in 
man. A. trichiuris, the whip-worm. A. vermicularis. 
Synonym of Oxyuris vermicularis. 

ascending (as-end'-ing) v ascendere, to rise]. Taking 
an upward course; rising (as parts of the aorta and 
colon, and as one of the venae cava;), a. aorta, the 
first part of the aorta, a. colon, the first part of the 
colon, a. current, in electricity, one going from 
the periphery to a nerve-center, a. degeneration, a 
degeneration of the nerve-fibers extending from the 
periphery' to the center, or, in the spinal cord, from 
below upward toward the brain, a. metamorphosis, 
same as anabolism. a. paralysis. See paralysis, 
ascending, a. tracts, the centripetal tracts of the 
spinal cord, carrying afferent impulses. 

Asch's operation [ash) [Morris J. Asch, American 
physician]. For deviation of nasal septum; it 
consists in a crucial incision over the deflection, 
taking up the segments, reduction of the deflection, 
and insertion of a tube to hold the segments in 

Ascherson's vesicles (ash'-er-sun) [Ferdinand 
Moricz Ascherson, German physician, 1798-1879]. 
The peculiar small globules formed when oil and an 
albuminous fluid are agitated together; formerly 
thought to be cells. 

ascheturesis (as-ket-u-re'-sis) [ao-xeros, resistless; 
avprtais, urination]. An uncontrollable desire to 
urinate; irrepressible urination. 

aschistodactylism (as-kis-lo-dak'-til-izm) [d<rxto"ros, 
uncloven; S&ktvKos, finger]. A synonym of syndac- 

aschistodactylous (as-kis-to-dak'-til-us). Affected 
with syndactylism. 

Aschoff bodies (ah'-shoff) [Ludwig Aschoff, German 
pathologist, 1886- ]. Nodular bodies found in 
the myocardium in patients who have suffered from 

ascia (ah'-se-ah or as'-ke-ah) [a, priv.; axid, 
shadow]. A spiral bandage applied without reverses, 
each turn of which overlaps the preceding for about 
one-third of its width. Dolabra repens is the same 
as the preceding, but the spirals are formed more 
obliquely and do not overlap each other, but are 
separated by a greater or less interval. Syn., dolabra 
currens; fascia spiralis. 

ascites (as-i'-tez) [&<77ar»js, a kind of dropsy; from 
&<ric6s, a bag]. An abnormal collection of serous 
fluid in the peritoneal cavity; dropsy of the peri- 
toneum. It is either local in origin or part of a 
general dropsy. The ascitic fluid is usually clear, 
yellow, and coagulates on standing. It may be 
turbid, blood-stained, and contain lymph-particles 
or shreds. There are uniform enlargement of the 
abdomen, fluctuation, percussion-dulness. Its usual 
cause is cirrhosis of the liver. Syn., abdominal 
dropsy; hydroperitoneum ; hydrops peritoncei. See 
Duparque's method for detecting ascites, a., active, 
a., acute, that in which there is a sudden large effusion 
due to exposure or cold. a. adiposus, ascites char- 
acterized by a fluid, milky appearance, due to the 
presence in it of numerous cells that have undergone 
fatty degeneration and solution. It is seen in certain 
cases of carcinoma, tuberculosis, and other chronic 
inflammations of the peritoneum. Syn., ascites 
oleosus. a. chylosus, the presence of chyle in the 
peritoneal cavity. It follows rupture of a chyle-duct. 
a. intercus, an effusion occurring between the skin 
and the peritoneum, a. intermuscularis, edema of 
the adbominal muscles, a., mechanical, a., passive, 
that due to diseases which retard the blood-current in 
the portal vein. a. saccatus. 1. A form in which 
the effusion is prevented by adhesions or inflamma- 
tory exudate from entering the general peritoneal 
cavity. Syn., encysted dropsy of the peritoneum. 
2. An ovarian cystoma, a., sanguineous, a bloody 
form affecting sheep and lambs. Syn., diarrhemia. 
a. vaginalis, a collection of liquid within the sheath 
of the rectus abdominis muscle, a. vulgatior, a form 
apparently due to diseased kidneys, and preceded by 
scanty, highly colored urine. 




ascitic (as-it'-ik) [see ascites]. Pertaining to or 
affected with ascites. 

asclepiadin (as-kle-pi'-ad-in) [asclepias]. A bitter 
glucoside obtainable from various species of Asclepias. 
It is poisonous, and has emetic, purgative, and 
sudorific properties. 

Asclepias (as-kle'-pe-as) [dox\ij7n.ds]. I. Pleurisy- 
root. The root of Asclepias tuberosa. A popular 
remedy in the Southern States for pleurisy. It is 
diaphoretic, emetic, and cathartic. The infusion 
recommended has a strength of i oz. of the powdered 
root to 32 oz. of water. Dose a teacupful every 
3 or 4 hours. 2. A genus of plants of the order 
Asclepiadacece. A. curassavica, blood-flower, is an 
herb common to tropical America; astringent, styptic, 
and anthelmintic against the tape-worm. Dose of 
fluidextract 20 min.-i dr. (1.3-4.0 Cc). A. longifolia, 
of the western United States, is diaphoretic. 

asclepin (as'-kle-pin) [asclepias]. 1. A poisonous 
principle obtainable from asclepiadin by the separa- 
tion of glucose from the latter. 2. The precipitate 
from a tincture of Asclepias tuberosa; alterative, 
evacuant, tonic, sedative. Dose 2-4 gr. (0.13-0.26 

asclepion (as-kle'-pe-on). A resinous substance, 
C20H34O3, obtained from Asclepias syriaca. 

Ascococcus (as-ko-kok'-us) [ascus; kokkos, a kernel]. 
A genus of the family of Schizomycetes. The Asco- 
cocci are microorganisms made up of round or ovoid 
cells, united in massive colonies, and surrounded by 
tough, thick, gelatinous envelopes, a. Billrothii, a 
form found in putrid meat; its natural habitat is 
the air; it is probably not pathogenic. 

Ascoidium (as-ko-id' -e-um) [ascus; elSos, likeness]. 
A genus of Infusoria found in the urine and feces of 
typhoid fever patients, in sewage, in the excrement 
of cattle, and in the cecum of swine. 

Ascomycetes (as-ko-mi-se'-tez). A group of fungi, 
including aspergillus and oidium. 

ascospore (as'-ko-spor) [ascus; airbpos, spore]. 
A spore produced by or in an ascus. 

ascus (as'-kus) [&<tk6s, a bag or bladder]. - The 
characteristic spore-case of some fungi and lichens, 
usually consisting of a single terminal cell containing 
eight spores. 

-ase (as). A termination denoting an enzyme; 
thus lipase, a fat -splitting enzyme. 

asecretory (ah-se'-kret-o-re) [a, priv.; secretus, 
separate]. Dry; without secretion. 

Aselli's glands or pancrease [Gaspar Aselli, Italian 
anatomist, 1581-1626]. A group of lymphatic 
glands situated at the root of the mesentery. 

aselline (as-el'-en). A poisonous ieukomaine found 
in cod-liver oil. 

asemasia (ah-sem-a' -ze-ah) [a, priv.; arj/xaaia, a 
signaling]. Absence of the power to communicate 
either by signs or by language. 

asemia (ah-se'-me-ah) [&, priv.; <jrjp.a, sign]. In- 
ability to form, express, or understand any sign, 
token, or symbol of thought or feeling, whether 
speech,_ writing or gesture, a. mimica. See amimia. 
a. spuria. See parasemia. 

asepsin (ah-sep'-sin). See antisepsin. 

asepsis (ah-sep'-sis) [d, priv.; a^vs, putrefaction]. 
Absence of pathogenic microorganisms. 

aseptic (ah-sep' -tik) [a, priv.; ^xros, septic]. 
Free from pathogenic bacteria, as aseptic wounds. 
a. surgery, the mode of surgical practice in which 
everything that is used, as well as the wound, is in a 
germ-free condition. 

asepticism (ah-sep' -tis-izm) [see aseptic]. The 
doctrine or principles of aseptic surgery. 

asepticize (ah-sep' -tis-iz) [see aseptic]. To render 

aseptin (ah-sep' -tin) [see aseptic]. A proprietary 
preparation containing boric acid, used for pre- 
serving articles of food. 

aseptol (ah-sep' -tol) [see aseptic], C6H6SO4. A 
reddish liquid, with an odor of phenol, recom- 
mended as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It is used 
externally (i to 10 % solution) and internally in 
about the same dose as phenol. Syn., sozolic acid; 
phenolsulphonic acid. 

aseptolin (ah-sep' -tol-in) . A preparation of pilo- 
carpine (0.018 %) in an aqueous solution of phenol 
(2.74%); it is used in tuberculosis and in malaria. 
Dose 50-70 min. (3-4 Cc.) daily, injected subcu- 

asexual (ah-seks'-u-al) [d, priv.; sexus, sex]. With- 
out sex; nonsexual. 

asexualization (ah-seks-u-al-iz-a'-shun). Removal 
of the testicles in the male, or of the ovaries in the 

As. H. Abbreviation for hyperoptic astigmatism. 

ash [ME., asch]. 1. The incombustible mineral 
residue that remains when a substance is incinerated. 
2. See manna, a. manna. See manna, a., prickly. 
See xanthoxylum. 

asialia (as-e-a'-le-ah) [&, priv.; <ria\ov, spittle]. 
Deficiency or failure of the secretion of saliva. 

Asiatic (a-zhe-at'-ik) [Asia]. Pertaining or belong- 
ing to Asia. A. cholera. See cholera, Asiatic. A. 
pill, a pill composed of arsenic trioxide, black pepper, 
powdered licorice, and mucilage. 

Asimina (as-im-e'-nah) [L.]. A genus of trees. 
A. triloba is the papaw tree of North America. 

asitia (ah-sW -e-ah) [d, priv.; alros, food]. The 
want of food; also a loathing for food. 

askelia (ah-skel' -e-ah) [d, priv.; ovceXos, leg]. Non- 
development of the legs. 

As. M. Abbreviation for myopic astigmatism. 

asoma (ah-so'-mah) [&, priv.; acbp.a, body]. A 
species of omphalositic monster characterized by an 
absence of the trunk. The head is never well 
formed, and the vessels run from it to the placenta 
in the membranes. Beneath the head is a sac in 
which rudiments of body-organs may be found. 
This is the rarest form of omphalosites. 

asomus (ah-so'-mus) [d, priv.; <ru>ij.a, body]. A 
monster with only a rudimentary body. 

asonia (ah-so'-ne-ah) [a, priv.; sonus, a sound]. 

aspalasoma (as-pal-as-o'-mah) [do-xdXa?, mole; 
<rw/za, body]. A variety of single autositic monsters 
of the species Celosoma, in which there is a lateral or 
median eventration occupying principally the lower 
portion of the abdomen, with the urinary apparatus, 
the genital apparatus, and the rectum opening 
externally by three distinct orifices. 

asparagine (as-par'-aj-en) [asparagus], C4H8N2O3. 
An alkaloid found in the seeds of many plants, in 
asparagus, beet-root, peas, and beans. It forms 
shining, four-sided, rhombic prisms, readily soluble 
in hot water, but not in alcohol or ether. It is an 
amid of aspartic acid, and forms compounds with 
both acids and bases. It is diuretic. Asparagine 
hydrargyrate has been used as an antisyphilitic, in 
doses of £ gr. (0.01 Gm.) hypodermatically. 

asparaginic acid. See acid, asparaginic. 

Asparagus (as-par'-ag-us) [6.0-rrapayos, asparagus]. 
1. The green root of Asparagus officinalis, a mild 
diuretic. Dose of fluidextract |-i dr. (2-4 Cc). 
Unof. 2. A genus of plants belonging to the order 
Liliacecc. A. acutifolius, a species of southern 
Europe, is said to be more efficient medicinally than 
A. officinalis. A. racemosus and A. sarmenlosus, of 
the old world tropics, are employed in the same 
manner as salep; an infusion of the root of A. sar- 
mentosus is used to prevent the confluence of small- 
pox pustules. 

asparamide (as-par'-am-id). See asparagine. 

asparolin (as-par'-ol-in). A brown liquid said to 
consist of guaiac, asparagus, parsley, black haw, 
and henbane. It is used as an antispasmodic 
uterine tonic. Dose, 2-4 drams in hot water. 
• aspartic acid (as-par'-tik). See acid, aspartic. 

aspastic (ah-spas'-tik). Not spastic. 

aspergillin (as-per-jil'-in) [aspergillus]. A pig- 
ment obtained from the spores of Aspergillus niger. 
Syn., vegetable hematin. 

aspergillosis (as-per-jil-o'-sis). Pseudotubercu- 
losis; morbid lesions due to some species of Asper- 

Aspergillus (as-per-jil'-us) [aspergere, to sprinkle]. 
A genus of fungi. A. auricularis, a fungus found in 
the wax of the ear. A. fumigatus, found in the ear, 
nose, and lungs. A. glaucus, the bluish mold found 
,upon dried fruit. A.-keratitis, corneal inflammation 
due to invasion by a fungus belonging to the genus 
Aspergillus. Syn., Keratomycosis aspergillina. A. 
mucoroides, a species found in tuberculous or 
gangrenous lung tissue. A.-mycosis. See otomycosis. 

aspermatic (ah-sper-mat'-ik) [d, priv.; cnrkpua, 
seed]. Affected with or relating to aspermatism. 

aspermatism (ah-sper'-mat-izm) [d, priv.; airepua, 
seed]. 1. Non-emission of semen, whether owing to 
non-secretion or non-ejaculation. 2. Defective 
secretion of semen or lack of formation of sper- 

aspermia (ah-sper'-me-ah). Same as aspermatism. 




aspermous {ah-sper' -mus) [see aspermalic]. With- 
out seed. 

asperous {as'-per-us) [asper, rough]. Uneven; 
having a surface with distinct minute elevations. 

aspersion (as-per'-shun) [asper gere, to sprinkle]. 
Treatment of disease by sprinkling the body or the 
affected part with a medicinal agent. 

aspersus {as-per'-sus) [see aspersion]. Covered 
with scattered dots or punctures. 

asphalgesia {as-fal-je'-ze-ah) [aa-cj>i, their own; 
aXyrjcns, pain]. Pitres' term for a condition observed 
in hypnotism, in which intense pain follows the 
touching of certain articles, and prolonged contact 
produces convulsions. 

asphyctic, asphyctous {as-fik'-tik, -tus) [asphyxia]. 
I. Affected with asphyxia. 2. Pulseless. 

asphyxia {as-fiks'-e-ah) [a, priv.; cr<£i>£is, the pulse]. 
Suffocation; the suspension of vital phenomena 
resulting when the lungs are deprived of oxygen. 
The excess of carbon dioxide in the blood at first 
stimulates, then paralyzes, the respiratory center of 
the medulla. Artificial respiration is therefore 
required in cases of asphyxia, a. cataphora, that 
with brief incomplete remissions, a., lethargic, deep 
sleep accompanying mental and physical torpor. 
a., local, that stage of Raynaud's disease in which 
the affected parts are dusky red from intense con- 
gestion, a. neonatorum, the asphyxia of the new- 
born from any cause, a. sideratorum, loss of con- 
sciousness from lightning-stroke, a., solar, a. Solaris, 
sunstroke, a., syncopal, a form of asphyxia in which 
the heart-cavities are found vacant, a. valsalviana, 
syncope due to disturbance of cardiac functions. 

asphyxial {as-fik' -se-al) . Relating to or charac- 
terized by asphyxia. 

asphyxiant (as-fiks'-e-anf) [see asphyctic]. 1. Pro- 
ducing asphyxia. 2. An agent capable of producing 

asphyxiate {as-fiks'-e-at) [see asphyctic]. To pro- 
duce or cause asphyxia. 

aspic {as'-pik) [a and spic, lavender spike]. The 
great lavender, or spike lavender, Lavandula spica. 
Its oil is at present used in veterinary practice and 
occasionally in liniments. 

aspidin (as'-pid-in) [Aspidium, a genus of ferns]. 
C23H27O7. An active principle obtained from male- 

aspidiopsoriasis (as-pid-e-o-so-ri'-as-is) [a<TirL8iov, 
a little shield; psoriasis]. A form of psoriasis marked 
by the formation of scutiform scales. 

Aspidium (as-pid'-e-um) (L.; gen., aspidii]. 1. A 
genus of ferns known as shield-ferns. 2. The rhizome 
of Aspidium filix-mas and of A. marginale, or mala- 
fern. Its propesfcies are due to a resin containing 
filicic acid. It is valuable chiefly against tape-worm. 
Dose I dr.-| oz. (2-15 Cc). a., liquid extract of 
{extr actum filicis liquidum, B. P.). Dose 15 min- 
1 dr. (1-4 Cc). a., oleoresin of {oleoresina aspidii, 
U. S. P.), an ethereal extract. Dose |-i dr. (2-4 Cc). 

aspidol (as'-pid-ol) [Aspidium, a genus of ferns]. 
C20H34O. A substance isolated from malefern. 

aspidosamin {as-pid-os'-am-in), C22H28N2O2. A 
basic principle from quebracho bark. It is emetic. 

Aspidosperma {as-pid-o-sper' -mah) [&<nris, a shield; 
airepua, a seed]. A genus of apocynaceous trees, of 
which the quebracho is the most important. 

aspidospermatin (as-pid-o-sper' -mat-in) [do-xts, 
a shield; cnrepua, seed]. A basic substance, from 
quebracho bark, said to be isomeric with aspidosa- 
mine and to depress the temperature when admin- 

aspidospermine {as-pid-o-sper' -men) [see aspido- 
sperma], C22H30N2O2. An alkaloid extracted from 
quebracho {Aspidosperma quebracho). It is a respira- 
tory stimulant and antispasmodic. Dose 1-2 gr. 
(0.065-0.13 Gm.). 

aspiration {as-pir-a' -shun) [ad, to; spirare, to 
breathe]. 1. The act of sucking up or sucking in; 
inspiration; imbibition. 2. The act of using the 
aspirator. 3. A method of withdrawing the fluids 
and gases from a cavity, a. pneumonia. See pneu- 
monia, aspiration. 

aspirator {as' -pir-a-tor) [see aspiration]. An ap- 
paratus for withdrawing liquids from cavities by 
means of suction. 

aspirin {as'-pir-in). The acetic-acid ester of 
salicylic acid; small needles without color or taste, 
used as an antipyretic and analgesic, as is sodium 
salicylate. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.). Syn., acetyl 
salicylic acid. 

aspirolithin {as-pir-o-lith'-in). A proprietary 
combination of aspirin and lithium. 

aspirophen {as-pi' -ro-f en). A mixture containing 
salicylic acid and monacetyl phenocoll; it is said to 
be antirheumatic and antipyratic Dose 10-15 gr. 
(0.6-1.0 gm.). 

Asplenium {as-ple'-ne-um). A genus of ferns called 
spleen-worts, or miltwastes. 

asporogenic {ah-spor-o-jen'-ik) [&, priv.; airopos, 
seed; yev-qs, producing]. Not reproducing by means 
of spores; not producing spores. 

asporogenous {as-por-oj'-en-us). Same as asporo- 

asporous {ah-spo ; -rus) [&, priv.; awopos, seed]. 
Without spores. 

assafetida {as-a-fet'-id-ah). See asafelida. 

assanation {as-an-a'-shun) [ad, to; sanare, to make 
sound]. The improvement of sanitary conditions. 

assault {as-awlt') [assalire, to assail]. An attack. 
a., criminal, in medical jurisprudence, the touching 
or attempting to touch, on the part of a male, any 
of the sexual organs (the breasts included) of a female 
against her will, even though they be covered by 

assay {as-a') [Fr., assayer], 1. The testing or 
analysis of a metal or drug to determine the relative 
proportion of its constituents. 2. The substance 
thus tested. 3. The process of assaying. 

Assegat, triangle of. See under Assezat. 

asselline {as-el'-en). A poisonous leukomaine 
obtained from cod-liver-oil. 

Assezat, triangle of, {ah-sa-zah') [Jules Assezat, 
French anthropologist, 1832- ]. A triangle formed 
by lines uniting the projection of the nasion on the 
alveolo-condylar plane and the alveolar and nasal 
points and one uniting the two latter. 

assident {as'-id-ent) [assidere, to sit by]. Usually, 
but not always, accompanying a disease; as, assident 
symptoms. Opposed to pathognomonic. 

assideration {as-id-er-a'-shun) [ad, intensive; 
sideratio, an evil influence]. In forensic medicine, 
infanticide by immersing in ice-cold water. 

assimilable {as-im'-il-a-bl) [assimulare, to make 
like]. Capable of being assimilated; nutritious. 

assimilation {as-im-il-a' -shun) [see assimilable]. 
The process of transforming food into so nutrient a 
condition that it is taken up by the circulatory 
system, to form an integral part of the economy; 
synthetic or constructive metabolism; anabolism. 
a.-limit, the amount of starchy or saccharine food 
which a person can ingest without the appearance of 
glycosuria, a., mental, the mental reception of 
impressions and their assignment by the conscious- 
ness to their proper place, a., primary, that con- 
cerned in the conversion of food into chyle and blood. 
a., secondary, that relating to the formation of the 
organized tissues of the body. 

associated {as-o'-se-a-ied) [associatus, united]. 
Joined, a. movements, coincident or consensual 
movements of muscles other than the leading one, 
and which, by habit or unity of purpose, are invol- 
untarily connected with its action: both eyeballs 
move alike in reading, though one be a blind eye. 
Movement of the normal arm will sometimes produce 
slight motion of the opposite paralyzed arm. Uni- 
formity of innervation is usually the cause of these 
movements, a. paralysis, a. spasm, a common 
paralysis or spasm of associated muscles. 

association center {as-so-se-a'-shun). The center 
controlling associated movements, a. c, anterior, 
that part of the frontal cortex anterior to the motor 
area. a. c, middle, the island of Reil. a. c, pos- 
terior, that part of the cortex situated between the 
sensory area at the equator and the area for vision 
in the occipital lobe. 

association test. A word is mentioned to the 
patient, and the physician observes what other 
words the patient will give as the ones suggested to 
him by the first word. The time consumed in this 
process is also noted. 

assonance {as'-o-nans) [assonare, to respond to]. 
A morbid tendency to employ alliteration. 

assuetude {as'-su-e-tud). Habituation to disturbing 
influences; the condition of the organism in which it 
has acquired such tolerance for a drug or poison that 
the effect it once had is lost. 

assurin {as'-u-rin), C46H97N2P2O9. A name given 
by Thudichum to a complex substance occurring in 
brain tissue. 

astasia {ah-sia'-se-ah) [a, priv.; ardcns, standing]. 




Motor incoordination for standing, a.-abasia, a 
symptom consisting in inability to stand or walk 
in a normal manner. The person affected seems to 
collapse when attempting to walk. 

astatic (ah-stat'-ik). Having no directive tendency. 
a. needle, an apparatus consisting of two needles of 
equal magnetic moments and exactly reversed in 

asteatosis (as-te-at-o'-sis) [&, priv.; trrkap, tallow; 
d)5r}s, fulness]. i. A deficiency or absence of the 
sebaceous secretion. 2. Any skin disease (as xero- 
derma) characterized by scantiness or lack of the 
sebaceous secretion.- a. cutis, a condition of dimin- 
ished sebaceous secretion, as the result of which the 
skin becomes dry, scaly, and often fissured. 

aster (as'-ier) [&<rrrip, a star]. 1. The stellate 
structure surrounding the centrosome. 2. The stellar 
group of chromosomes during karyokinesis. 

astereognosis (ah-ste-re-og-no'-sis) [&, priv. ; arepeos, 
solid; ypwas, knowledge]. Inability to recognize 
objects by the sense of touch, due to lesion in the 
central parietal lobule. Syn., stereoagnosis. Cf., 
aphasia, tactile. 

asterion (as-te'-re-on) [aster]. A point on the 
skull corresponding to the junction of the occipital, 
parietal, and temporal bones. 

asternal (ah-ster'-nal) [&, priv.; arkpvov, the 
breast-bone]. 1. Without a sternum. 2. Not con- 
nected with the sternum, a. ribs, the five lower 
pairs, because not joined directly to the sternum. 

asternia (ah-ster'-ne-ah) [see asternal]. Absence of 
the sternum. 

asteroid (as'-ter-oid) [aster; eldos, likeness]. 
1. Stellate. 2. See astrocyte. 

asterol (as'-ler-ol). Trade name of a preparation 
of paraphenolsulphonate of mercury and ammonium 
tartrate; it is used as a surgical antiseptic and 

asthenia (ah-sthe'-ne-ah) [&, priv.; aOkvos, strength]. 
Absence of strength ; adynamia. Syn., lipopsychia. 

asthenic (ah-sthen'-ik) [see asthenia]. Charac- 
terized by asthenia. 

asthenogenia, asthenogenesis (ah-slhen-o-je'-ne-ah, 
ah-sthen-o-jen'-es-is) [asthenia; yewav, to produce]. 
* The production of asthenia. 

asthenometer (ah-sthen-om'-et-er) [asthenia; \ikrpov, 
a measure]. An instrument for detecting and measur- 
ing asthenia; especially, a device for measuring mus- 
cular asthenopia. 

asthenope {as' -then-op). A person suffering from 

asthenopia (ah-sthen-o'-pe-ah) [asthenia; &[» eye]. 
Weakness of the ocular muscles or of visual power, 
due to errors of refraction, heterophoria, overuse, 
anemia, etc. a., accommodative, that due to hyper- 
opia, astigmatism, or a combination of the two, 
producing strain of the ciliary muscle, a., muscular, 
that due to weakness, incoordination (heterophoria), 
or strain of the external ocular muscles, a., nervous, 
a., retinal, a rare variety, caused by retinal hyperes- 
thesia, anesthesia, or other abnormity, or by general 
nervous affections, a. tarsal, that due to pressure 
of the eyelids on the cornea. 

asthenopic (ah-sthen-op'-ik) [see asthenopia]. Char- 
acterized by asthenopia. 

asthenoxia {as-then-ok'-se-ah) [asthenia; oxygen]. 
Insufficient oxidation of the waste products of 

asthma (az'-mah) [aadp.a, panting]. A paroxysmal 
affection of the bronchial tubes characterized by 
dyspnea, cough, and a feeling of constriction and 
suffocation. The disease is probably a neurosis, and 
is due to hyperemia and swelling of the bronchial 
mucous membrane, with a peculiar secretion of a 
mucin-like substance. The attacks may be caused 
by direct irritation of the bronchial mucous mem- 
brane or by indirect or reflex irritation, as from the 
nose, the stomach, the uterus. When dependent 
upon disease of the heart, the kidneys, stomach, 
thymus, etc., it has been designated cardiac, renal, 
peptic, thymic, etc. a., arthritic. 1. That due to 
gout. 2. Angina pectoris, a., bronchial. Same as 
asthma, a., cardiac, paroxysmal dyspnea due to 
heart disease, a. convulsivum. Synonym of asthma. 
a. crystals, acicular crystals (Charcot-Leyden crys- 
tals) contained in the sputum of asthmatic patients. 
They are generally associated with eosinophil cells. 
a. cultrariorum. See fibroid phthisis, a. dyspepti- 
cum, asthma due to nervous reflexes through the 
vagus, a., fuller's, a. fullorum, a pulmonary affec- 

tion due to inhaling particles of wool and dust in the 
manufacture of cloth, a., grinders'. See fibroid 
phthisis, a., hay-. See hay-fever, a., intrinsic, 
that due to direct irritation of the lungs, a., marine. 
See beriberi, a., miller's. See laryngismus stridulus. 
a., miner's. See anthracosis. a. nervosum. Syn- 
onym of asthma, a., organic, asthma of cardiac 
origin, a.-paper, niter-paper, a., paralytic bron- 
chial, a rare form attributed to a relaxed condition of 
the bronchioles, a., pneumobulbar, See's term for a 
form attributed to pulmonary irritation transmitted 
to the bronchioles by reflexes through the vagus. 
a. purulentum, that due to an abscess in the respira- 
tory passages, a., renal, a paroxysmal dyspnea 
sometimes occurring in the course of Bright 's disease. 
a., spasmodic. See asthma, a., thymic. Synonym 
of laryngismus stridulus. 

asthmatic (az-mat'-ik) [see asthma]. Relating to 
or affected with asthma. 

asthmaticoscorbutic (az-mat-ik-o-skor-bu'-tik). Re- 
lating to asthma and scurvy. 

asthmatophthisis (as-mat-o-tis'-is). Pulmonary 
tuberculosis attended with asthma. Syn., asth- 
matic phthisis. 

asthmatorthopnea, asthmorthopnea (az-mat-or- 
thop'-ne-ah, az-mor-thop' -ne-ah) [asthma; orthopnea]. 
Orthopnea due to asthma or respiratory obstruction 
located in the chest. 

asthma-weed. Lobelia inflata. 

asthmogenic (az-mo-jen'-ik) [asthma; yevvav, to 
produce]. Causing asthma. 

asthmolysin (az-mol'-is-in). A mixture of the 
extracts of the suprarenal glands and of the hypo- 
physis with some preservative; said to be serviceable 
in asthma. It is administered by hypodermic 

astigmagraph (as-tig'-ma-graf) [&, priv.; arlypia., 
a point; ypa<peiv, to write]. An instrument for 
illustrating the phenomena of astigmatism. 

astigmatic (ah-stig-mat'-ik) [astigmatism]. Per- 
taining to or affected with astigmatism. 

astigmatism {ah-siig'-mat-izm) [&, priv." <rriyp.a, a 
point, because rays of light from a point are not 
brought to a point by the refractive media of the 
eye]. That condition of the eye in which rays of 
light from a point do not converge to a point on the 
retina. It is usually due to inequality of curvature 
of the different meridians of the cornea (corneal 
astigmatism), but may be caused by imperfections 
of the lens (lenticular astigmatism), unequal con- 
traction of the ciliary muscle, or may perhaps be due 
to retinal imperfection. It may be acquired or 
congenital, and may complicate hyperopia or myopia, 
producing either simple hyperopia, astigmatism., in 
which one principal meridian is emmetropic, the 
other hyperopic, or compound hyperopic astigmatism, 
in which both meridians are hyperopic. but one 
more so than the other. Complicating myopia we 
may in the same way have simple myopic or com- 
pound myopic astigmatism. In mixed astigmatism 
one principai meridian is myopic, the other hyperopic. 
Regular astigmatism is when the two principal 
meridians are at right angles to each other; irregular 
astigmatism when different parts of a meridian have 
different refracting powers. 

astigmatometer (ah-stig-mat-om'-et-er) [astigmat- 
ism; ukrpov, a measure]. An instrument for measur- 
ing the degree of astigmatism. 

astigmia (ah-stig'-me-ah). See astigmatism. 

astigmic (ah-stig'-mik). See astigmatic. 

astigmometer (ah-stig-mom'-el-er). See astigmato- 

astigmometry (ah-stig-mom'-et-re). The measure- 
ment of astigmatism. 

astigmoscope (ah-stig'-mo-skop). An instrument 
for measuring astigmatism. 

astigmoscopy (ah-slig-mos'-kop-e). The measure- 
ment of astigmatism by the astigmoscope; the use 
of the astigmoscope. 

astomatous (ah-sto' -mat-us) [&, priv.; ar6p.a, 
mouth]. In biology, without a mouth or aperture. 

astomia (ah-sto' -me-ah) [a, priv.; ar6p.a, a mouth]. 
The condition of having no mouth. 

astomous (ah-sto' -mus). See astomatous. 

astragalar (as-trag'-al-ar). Relating to the astra- 

astragalectomy (as-trag-al-ek'-lo-me) [astragalus; 
iKT6p.ri, excision]. Excision of the astragalus. 

astragalocalcanean (as-trag-al-o-kal-ka'-ne-an) . Re- 
lating to the astragalus and calcaneum. 




astragaloscaphoid (as-trag-al-o-skaf'-oid) . Relating 
to the astragalus and the scaphoid bone. 

astragalotibial (as-trag-al-o-tib'-e-al). Relating to 
the astragalus and the tibia. 

astragalus (as-irag'-al-us) [aa-rpayaXos, a die; the 
analogous bones of the sheep were used by the ancients 
as dice]. The ankle-bone, upon which the tibia rests. 

Astragalus. A genus of leguminous plants from 
some varieties of which gum tragacanth is derived. 
A. mollissimus is the loco-plant. The active prin- 
ciple of this plant has mydriatic properties. 

astral (as'-tral). Pertaining to an aster. 

astraphobia, astrapaphobia (as-trah-fo'-be-ah, as- 
trap-af-o'-be-ah) [harpa-irq, lightning; <£6/3os, fear]. 
Morbid fear of lightning. 

astriction (as-trik'-shun) [asctrictio; ad, to; stringer e, 
to bind]. Constipation or any condition resulting 
from the use of astringents. 

astringency (as-trin'-jen-se) [ad, to; stringer e, to 
bind]. The quality of being astringent. 

astringent (as-trin'-jent) [ad, to; stringer e, to bind]. 
i. Causing contraction; binding. 2. An agent pro- 
ducing contraction of organic tissues, or that arrests 
hemorrhages, diarrhea, etc. 

astro- (as-tro-) [aarpov, a star]. A prefix meaning 
star or star-shaped. 

astroblast (as'-tro-blast) [astro-; /SXaoros, a germ]. 
A variety of glia-cell less differentiated than the endy- 
mal cell and astrocytes. 

astrocyte (as'-tro-sit) [astro-; kvtos, cell]. 1. One 
of the cells derived from the endyma of the embryonic 
cerebrospinal canal that, in the course of develop- 
ment, wander toward the periphery, undergo modi- 
fication, and form one of the two chief divisions of 
glia-cells, the other divisions being the original 
endymal cells. Syn., Deiiers' cells. 2. A stellate 

astroid (as'-iroid) [aarpov, a star; elSos, resem- 
blance]. 1. Star-shaped. 2. An astrocyte. 

astrokinetic (as-tro-kin-et'-ik) [astro-; Kiveiv, to 
move]. Applied to the phenomena of motion as 
exhibited by the centrosomes of cells. 

astrophobia (as-tro-fo'-be-ah) [aarpov, a star; <£6/Sos, 
fear]. Fear of the stars and celestial space. 

astrophorous (as-trof'-or-us) [aarpov, a star; <pepeiv, 
to bear]. Having stellate processes. 

astrosphere (as'-tro-sfer) [astro-; a-^alpa, sphere]. 

1. The radially arranged protoplasmic filaments 
surrounding the centrosome in a dividing cell. 

2. The central mass of the aster, exclusive of the 
filaments or rays, in which the centrosome lies. 

3. The entire aster exclusive of the centrosome. See 
cenirosphere and sphere of attraction. 

astrostatic (as-lro-stat'-ik) [astro-; loTavai, to 
stand]. Applied to the resting condition of the 
centrosomes of cells. 

Asturian (as-tu'-re-an). Relating to Asturia, an 
old province of Spain. A. rose. 1. Pellagra. Syn., 
rosa asturica; rosa asturiensis. 2. Leprosy. 

astyclinic (as-ti-klin'-ik) [acrrv, city; clinic]. Same 
as policlinic. 

astysia (ah-stiz'-e-ah) [a, priv.; arveiv, to make 
erect]. Incomplete power to erect the penis. 

asurol (as'-u-rol). A preparation containing 
mercury and sodium amido-oxybutyrate- it is used 
in syphilis. 

asyllabia (ah-sil-a'-be-ah) [&, priv.; <rv\\a(lri, a 
syllable], A condition in which individual letters 
are recognized, but the formation of syllables and 
words is impossible. 

asylum (as-i'-lum) [L., "a place of refuge"]. An 
institution for the support, safe-keeping, cure, or 
education of those incapable of caring for themselves, 
such as the insane, the blind, etc. a. ear. See 
hcematoma auris under hematoma. 

asymbolia (ah-sim-bo' -le-ah) [&, priv.; <rvp.(3o\ov, 
symbol]. The loss of all power of communication, 
even by signs or symbols. 

asymmetric carbon atom (as-im-et'-rik). In stereo- 
chemistry, a carbon atom to which four different 
univalents are attached. 

asymmetry (ah-sim' -el-re) [&, priv.; avp-nerpLa, 
symmetry]. 1. Unlikeness of corresponding organs 
or parts of opposite sides of the body that are nor- 
mally of the same size, etc., e. g., asymmetry of the 
two halves of the skull or brain. 2. The linking of 
carbon atoms to four different groups; the combina- 
tion of carbon atoms with different atoms or atomic 
groups, a., meridional. See under astigmatism. 
a., unilateral. See hemihy per trophy. 

asymphytous (ah-sim' -fit-us). Distinct; not grown 

asynclitism (ah-sin '-klil-izm) [&, priv.; avv, to- 
gether; /cXiffts, an inclination]. The condition of 
obliquity of two or more objects to each other; 
e. g., an oblique presentation of the fetal head at 
the superior strait of the pelvis. 

asynechia (ah-si-ne'-ke-ah) [&, priv.; o-vvkxew, to 
hold together]. Absence of continuity in structure. 

asynergia (ah-sin-er' -je-ah) . Same as asynergy. 

asynergic (ah-sin-ur'-jik). Not acting simul- 
taneously or in harmony. 

asynergy (ah-sin' -er-je) [a, priv.; avvepyia, co- 
operation]. Faulty coordination of the different 
organs or muscles normally acting in unison, a., 
progressive locomotor, a., motorial. See ataxia, 
locomotor. a., verbal, defective coordination of 
speech, as in aphasia, a., vocal, faulty coordination 
of the muscles of the larynx due to chorea. 

asynesia (ah-sin-e' -ze-ah) [aaweaia, stupidity]. 
Stupidity; loss or disorder of mental power. 

asynetic, asynetous (ah-sin-et'-ik, ah-sin' -et-jis). 
Affected with asynesia. 

asynodia (ah-sin-o'-de-ah) [a, priv.; avvoUa, a 
traveling together]. Sexual impotence. 

asynovia (ah-sin-o'-ve-ah) [a, priv.; synovia]. 
A deficiency of the synovial fluid. 

asynthesis (ah-sin' -thesis) [&, priv.; <rw0e<ns, a 
putting together]. A faulty connection of parts. 

asyntrophy (ah-sin' -tro-fe) [i, priv.; <rvvTpo<pla, a 
growing up together]. Absence of symmetry in 
growth and development. 

asystematic (ah-sis-lem-at'-ik) [&, priv.; ownfata. 
system]. Diffuse; not restricted to any one or 
several systems of nerve fibers; applied to nervous 
diseases that are general. 

asystole, asystolia (ah-sis'-to-le, ah-sis-to' -le-ah) 
[&, priv.; ava-ToX-n. a shortening]. Imperfect con- 
traction of the ventricles of the heart, a., cardia- 
taxic, transitory asystole due to accelerated heart- 
action, a., cardioplegic. See amyocardia. 

asystolic (ah-sis-tol'-ik) [see asystole]. Charac- 
terized by asystole. 

asystolism (ah-sis'-lol-itm) [&, priv.; a-varoXri, a 
shortening]. Inability of the right ventricle of the 
heart to empty itself of its contents, a condition 
encountered in the last stages of mitral incompetence. 
See asystole. 

atactic (at-ak'-lik) [oltclktos, irregular]. Irregular; 
incoordinate. Pertaining to muscular incoordination, 
especially in aphasia. 

atactilia (ah-tak-til' -e-ah) . Inability to recognize 
tactile impressions. 

atavic (at'-av-ik) [atavas, a forefather]. Relating 
to or characterized by atavism. 

atavism (al'-av-izm) [see atavic]. The reappearance 
of a peculiarity in an individual whose more or less 
remote progenitors possessed the same peculiarity 
but whose immediate ancestors did not present it. 

atavistic (at-av-is'-lik). Same as atavic. 

ataxaphasia (at-aks-u-fa'-ze-ah). Inability to 
arrange words synthetically into sentences. 

ataxia (al-aks'-e-ah) [ara^ia, want of order]. 
Incoordination of muscular action, a., bulbar, tabes 
due to a lesion in the pons or oblongata, a., cere- 
bellar, a., cerebral, a., spinal, that due to disease of 
the cerebellum of the brain or of the spinal cord. 
a. cordis. See delirium cordis, a., diphtheritic, a 
sequel of diphtheria preceding diphtheritic paralysis, 
and in which the chief phenomena of locomotor 
ataxia are present, a., family, a., Friedreich's, 
a., hereditary. See Friedreich's disease, a., heredi- 
tary cerebellar (of Marie), a form of ataxia that 
resembles Friedreich's disease in being hereditary, 
occurring in families; the gait, however, is not the 
staggering gait of tabes, but the reeling gait of cere- 
bellar disease; the knee-jerk is increased instead of 
being diminished, and there are no deformities. 
a., locomotor, a disease of the posterior columns of 
the spinal cord, characterized by static and motor 
ataxia, by fulgurant pains, girdle-sensation, Argyll 
Robertson pupil, disturbances of sensation and of 
the sphincters, and loss of the patellar reflex. Syn., 
posterior spinal sclerosis; tabes dorsalis. a., moral, 
the inconstancy of ideas and will, attended with 
convulsions and pain, observed in hysterical subjects. 
a., motor, inability to coordinate the muscles in 
walking, a., paralytic, of the heart, a condition 
marked by dyspnea, weakness of cardiac sounds, 
palpitation, edema, and dropsy, without any organic 




heart disease, a., sensory, a form regarded as due 
to disturbance of the nerve-tracts lying between the 
periphery and the centers of coordination; its existence 
is denied by some authorities, a., spinal. See a., 
cerebellar, a., static, the failure of muscular coordi- 
nation in standing still, or in fixed positions of the 
limbs, a., thermal, peculiar large and irregular 
fluctuations of the body-temperature, due to a con- 
dition of incoordination or a disordered or weakened 
thermotaxic mechanism. This may give rise to the 
socalled -paradoxic or hysterical temperatures, rising 
occasionally to 108 or no° F., without grave or 
permanent injury, a., vasomotor. See vasomotor 

ataxiagram (at-aks' -e-a-gram) [ataxia; yp&nna, a 
marking], i. A line drawn by a patient suffering with 
an ataxial disease. The patient's eyes are open or 
closed and he attempts to make a straight line. 
The character of the deviations from a straight line 
that result are conceived to have a certain diagnostic 
value. 2. The record made by an ataxiagraph. 

ataxiagraph (at-aks'-e-a-graf) [ataxia; ypa<peiv, to 
write]. An instrument for recording the swaying in 

ataxiamnesia (at-aks-e-am-ne'-ze-ah) [ataxia; am- 
nesia]. Muscular ataxia with loss of or impairment 
of memory. 

ataxiamnesic (at-aks-e-am-ne'-zik). Affected with 
ataxia and amnesia. 

ataxic (at-aks'-ik) [see ataxia], i. Pertaining to or 
affected with ataxia. 2. A person affected with 
ataxia, a. aphasia. See under aphasia, a. fever. 
See typhus. 

ataxoadynamia (at-aks-o-ah-di-nam'-e-ah). Ady- 
namia combined with ataxia. 

ataxodynamy (at-aks-o-din'-am-e) [ataxia; Swapis, 
power]. Abnormity in the movements of a part or 

ataxophemia (at-aks-o-fe'-me-ah) [ataxia; <?%u, to 
speak]. Lack of coordination in speech. 

ataxophobia (at-aks-o-fo'-be-ah) [dra|ta, want of 
order; <j>6fios, fear]. 1. Excessive dread of disorder. 
2. Morbid dread of suffering from locomotor ataxia. 

ataxospasmodic (at-aks-o-spas-mod'-ik). Affected 
with choreic ataxia or relating to it. 

ataxy (at-aks'-e). See ataxia. 

-ate. A suffix to nouns in chemistry signifying 
any salt of an oxyacid having the termination -ic; 
as, sulphate, phosphate. 

atelectasis (at-el-ek'-tas-is) [areX-qs, imperfect; 
e/crao-ts, expansion]. Imperfect expansion or collapse 
of the air-vesicles of the lung. It may be present at 
birth, or may be acquired from diseases of the bronchi 
or lungs, a., absorption, acquired atelectasis in 
which the air has been removed by absorption from 
within, resulting from the plugging of the bronchial 
tubes, a., compression, acquired atelectasis due to 
pressure, a., obstructive, that due to obstruction 
of a bronchial tube. See a., absorption. 

atelectatic (at-el-ek-tat'-ik) [see atelectasis]. Relat- 
ing to or characterized by atelectasis. 

ateleiosis {at-el-i-o'-sis) [dreXeiWis, not arriving 
at perfection]. A disease characterized by abrupt 
onset, the absence of any perceptible cause, con- 
spicuous infantilism with retention of unimpaired 
intelligence, and marked tardiness in development of 
the sexual system. Cf. progeria. 

atelencephaly (at-el-en-sef -al-e) [AreXifa, incom- 
plete; eyKe<f>akos, brain]. Imperfect development of 
the brain. 

atelia, ateleiosis (at-e'-le-ah, at-e-li-o' -sis) [dreXeia, 
imperfection]. Persistence of the child's character- 
istics in the adult. Imperfect development. The 
word is compounded with others to designate the 
part affected, as atelocardia, etc., imperfect develop- 
ment of the heart, etc. a., asexual, that type in 
which the sexual organs are implicated, a., sexual, 
that type in which the sexual organs develop 

atelic (al'-el-ik) [areXris, incomplete]. Functionless. 

atelo- (at-el-o-). A prefix signifying imperfect 

atelocardia (at-el-o-kar'-de-ah) [atelo-; napdia, 
heart]. An imperfect or undeveloped state of the 

atelocephalous (at-el-o-sef-al-us) [atelo-; K«0aXi7, 
head]. Having the skull or head more or less incom- 

atelocheilia (at-el-o-ki' -le-ah) [atelo-; x«iXos, lip]. 
Defective development of a lip. 

atelocheiria {at-el-o-ki' '-re-ah) [atelo-; x^P, hand]. 
Defective development of the hand. 

ateloencephalia (at-el-o-en-sef-a'-le-ah) [atelo-; ly- 
K€<f>aKos, brain]. Incomplete development of the 

ateloglossia (at-el-o-glos'-e-ah) [atelo-; yXuxraa, 
tongue]. Congenital defect in the tongue. 

atelognathia (at-el-og-na'-lhe-ah) [atelo-; yvaBos, 
jaw]. Imperfect development of a jaw, especially 
of the lower jaw. 

atelomyelia (at-el-o-mi-e' -le-ah) [atelo-;\6s, 
marrow]. Congenital defect of the spinal cord. 

atelopodia (at-el-o-po'-de-ah) [atelo-; irovs, foot]. 
Defective development of the foot. 

ateloprosopia (at-el-o-pro-so'-pe-ah) [atelo-; irpb- 
acoirov, face]. Incomplete facial development. 

atelorrhachidia (at-el-o-rak-id'-e-ah) [atelo-; pax<-s, 
spine]. Imperfect development of the spinal column, 
as in spina bifida. 

atelostomia (al-el-o-sto'-me-ah) [atelo-; o-ro/xa, 
mouth]. Incomplete development of the mouth. 

athelasmus (ah-thel-az'-mus) [&, priv.; 077X00716$, a 
suckling]. Inability to suckle, from defect or want 
of the nipples. 

athelia (ah-the' -le-ah) [a, priv.; #17X57, a nipple]. 
Absence of a nipple. 

athermal (ah-thur'-mal) [&, priv.; dkpfiri, heat]. 
Cool; applied to spring-water of a temperature 
below 15° C. 

athermancy (ah-thur' -man-se) [iuBeptiavros, not 
heated]. The state of being impervious to radiant 

athermanous (ah-ther' -man-us). Impervious to 
radiant heat. 

athermic, athermous {ah-ther '-mik, -mus). 1. 
Without fever. 2. See athermanous. 

athermosystaltic (ah-ther -mo-sist-al'-tik) [&, priv.; 
Oepprj, heat; o-uo-TaXn/cos, drawing together]. Applied 
to muscles which do not contract under the influence 
of heat. 

atheroma (ath-er-o'-mah) [&dripv, gruel; o/ia, tumor^. 

1. A sebaceous cyst containing a cheesy material. 
Syn., acne sebacea molluscum; sebaceous cyst; steatoma. 

2. The fatty degeneration of the walls of the arteries 
in arteriosclerosis ; by common usage the word is 
also applied to the whole process of arteriosclerosis. 
Arterial atheroma is also termed atherosis. a., 
capillary, the formation of fatty granules in the walls 
of the capillaries. 

atheromasia (ath-er-o-ma'-ze-ah) [see atheroma]. 
Atheromatous degeneration; the condition of ather- 

atheromatosis. A more or less generalized athero- 
matous condition of the arteries. 

atheromatous (aih-er-o'-mal-us) [see atheroma]. 
Characterized by or affected with atheroma, a. 
abscess. See abscess, atheromatous, a. ulcer, an 
ulcer formed by the abscess breaking through the 

atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skle-ro'-sis) [atheroma; 
sclerosis]. A form of arteriosclerosis in which there 
is hyperplasia of the outer layers of the involved 
arteries and degeneration of the elastic layer. 

atherosis (ath-er-o'-sis) [i£vpt], gruel]. A synonym 
of atheroma (2). 

athetoid (ath'-et-oid) [athetosis]. Pertaining to or 
affected with athetosis, a. spasm, a spasm in which 
the affected member performs athetoid movements. 

athetosis (ath-et-o'-sis) [aderos, unfixed; change- 
able]. A condition most frequently occurring in 
children, and characterized by continual slow change 
of position of the fingers and toes. It is usually due 
to a lesion of the brain. It is also called "posthemi- 
plegic chorea," from its occurrence after hemiplegia. 
a., double congenital. See paraplegia, infantile 

athlete's heart [ad'Kelv, to contend with]. A slight 
incompetency of the aortic valves, a condition some- 
times found in athletes. 

athrepsia (ah-threps'-e-ah) [&, priv.; rpkfeiv, to 
nourish]. Malnutrition. 

athreptic (ah-threp'-tik). Relating to or affected 
with athrepsia. 

athymia (ah-tnV -me-ah) [&, priv.; 6vp.6s, spirit]. 
1. Despondency. 2. Loss of consciousness. 3- In- 
sanity. 4. Absence of the thymus gland. 

athymic (ah-thi'-mik) [&, priv.; dvnos, mind]. 
Affected with athymia. 

athyrea, athyria (ah-thi' -re-ah) [&, priv.; thyroid]. 
The condition arising from absence of the thyroid 




gland or suppression of its function. Syn., myxedema. 
Cf. (hyreoprivus. 

athyreosis (ah-thi-re-o'-sis). Atrophy or absence 
of the thyroid gland and the pathological condition 
consequent upon elimination of its function. 

athyria. Same as athyrea. 

athyroidea (ah-thi-roid'-e-ah). Absence of the 
thyroid gland. 

athyroidation. Same as athyrea, q. v. 

athyroidea. Same as athyrea, q. v. 

athyroidemia (ah-ihi-roid-e' -me-ah) . Davel's name 
for myxedema. 

athyroidism (ah-thi'-roy-dizm). Same as athyreosis 
or athyrea. 

athyrosis (ah-thi-ro'-sis). See athyreosis. 

atlantad (at-lan'-tad) [See atlas]. Toward the 
atlas in situation or direction. 

atlantal (at-lan'-lal) [See atlas]. Relating to the 

atlanten {at-lan' -ten) [See atlas]. Belonging to the 
atlas in itself. 

atlanto- {at-lan' -to) [See atlas]. A prefix signify- 
ing relation to the atlas; seen in the words atlanto- 
axial (relating to the atlas and the axis), atlanto- 
occipital, atlanto-odontoid, etc. 

atlantoaxial (at-lant-o-aks'-e-al) . See atloaxoid. 

atlas (at'-las) [''ArXas, a mythological Greek hero 
who was supposed to carry the earth on his 
shoulders]. The first of the cervical vertebrae. It 
articulates with the occipital bone of the skull and 
with the axis. 

atloaxoid {at-lo-aks'-oid). Relating to the bones 
termed the atlas and the axis. 

atlodidymus (at-lo-did'-im-us). Same as atlo- 

atlodymus (at-lod'-im-us) [See atlas; 5L8vp.os, 
double]. A monstrosity with two heads on one 
neck and a single body. 

atloido- (al-loi'-do). In composition, the same as 
atlanto; seen in such examples as atloido-axoid, 
atloido-odontoid, etc. 

atmiatria, atmiatrics. See atmiatry. 

atmiatry (at-mi'-at-re) [ar/us, vapor; larpeia, 
medical treatment]. Treatment of diseases of the 
lungs or mucous membranes by inhalation, fumiga- 
tion, or by directing a current of vapor or gas upon 
the part. 

atmic (al'-mik) [dr/us, vapor]. Relating to, due 
to, or consisting of vapor. 

atmidalbumin {at-mid-aV -bu-min) . A substance 
standing between the albuminates and the albumoses, 
obtained by Neumeister at the same time with 

atmidalbumose (at-mid-al'-bu-mos). Neumeister's 
name for a body obtained by the action of super- 
heated steam on fibrin. 

atmidiatrics (at-mid-re-at'-riks). Treatment of 
disease by vapor. 

atmidometer (at-mid-om'-et-er). See atmometer. 

atmidometrograph (at-mid-o-met'-ro-graf) [arp-os, 
vapor; ukrpov, a measure; ypa<j>eiv, to write]. A 
self-registering atmidometer. 

atmidoscope (at-mid'-o-skop) [arp-os, vapor; anowelv, 
to view]. See atmometer. 

atmiometer (at-mi-om'-et-er). A closed cabinet 
with apparatus for treating diseases by means of 

atmismometer (at-mis-mom'-et-ur). See atmo- 

atmisterion {at-mis-le'-re-on). See vaporarium. 

atmo- (at-mo-) [arp.6s, vapor; breath]. A prefix 
meaning vapor or breath. 

atmocausia, atmocausis (at-mo-kaw'-se-ah, -sis) 
[atmo-; navois, a burning]. Therapeutic cauterization 
with steam by means of an atmocautery. 

atmocautery (at-mo-kaw'-ter-e). An apparatus 
used in practising atmocausis. 

atmograph (at'-mo-graf) [atmo-; ypa<peu>, to record]. 
A form of self-registering respirometer. 

atmography (at-mog'-raf e) [irpos, vapor; ypafaiv, 
to write]. A description of vapors and evaporation. 

atmokausis (at-mo-kaw'-sis). See atmocausis. 

atmology (at-mol'-oj-e) [arpos, vapor; X670S, 
science]. The science of vapors and evaporation. 

atmolysis (at-mol'-is-is) [atmo-; Xuo-ts, loosing]. 
A method of separating the ingredients of mixed 
gases or vapors by means of their different diffusi- 
bility through a porous substance. 

atmolyzer (ai-mol-i'-zur). An apparatus for 
separating gases by diffusion. 

atmometer, atmidometer (at-mom'-et-er, at-mid- 
om'-et-er) [atmo-; pkrpov, a measure]. An instru- 
ment for measuring the amount of water exhaled by 
evaporation from a given surface in a given time, 
in order to determine the humidity of the atmosphere. 

atmos (at'-mos) [abbreviation of atmosphere]. A 
proposed unit of air pressure, being the pressure of 
one dyne on one square centimeter. 

atmosphere (at'-mos-fer) [atmo-; a<f>alpa, a sphere]. 

1. The mixture of gases surrounding the earth to 
the height of about 200 miles. 2. The pressure 
exerted by the atmosphere at the level of the sea; 
it is about 15 pounds to the square inch, or 1 kilogram 
to the square centimeter. 3. In chemistry, any 
special gaseous medium encircling a body. 4. The 
climatic state of a locality. 

atmospheric (at-mos-fer'-ik) [see atmosphere] 
Pertaining to the atmosphere, a. moisture, the 
vapor of water mingled with the atmosphere. It 
varies in quantity according to the temperature. 
a. tension, the pressure of the air per square inch on 
the surface of a body. Normally, at the sea-level, 
it is about 15 pounds per square inch, or equal to 
that of a column of mercury about 30 inches in 
height. It decreases about tV inch or ^ pound per 
square inch for every 90 feet of altitude. Above 
10,000 feet the rarity of the atmosphere is usually 
noticeable in quickened breathing and pulse-rate. 

atmospherization (at-mos-fer-iz-a' -shun) . The con- 
version of venous into arterial blood by the absorption 
of oxygen. Cf. dearterialization. 

atmotherapy (at-mo-ther'-ap-e) [atmo-; depa-n-da, 
therapy]. 1. A name given by Pitres to the treatment 
of certain tics by methodic reduction of respiration. 

2. The treatment of disease by vapor. 

atocia (at-o'-se-ah) [cltokos, barren]. Sterility of 
the female. 

atom (at'-om) [a, priv. ; repveiv, to cut]. The ulti- 
mate unit of an element; that part of an element 
incapable of further division, or the smallest part 
capable of entering into the formation of a chemical 
compound, or uniting with another to form a mole- 
cule — which last is the smallest quantity of a sub- 
stance that can exist free or uncombined. 

atomic (at-om'-ik) [see atom]. Pertaining to atoms. 
a. heat, the specific heat of an atom of an element 
multiplied by its atomic weight, a. theory, the 
theory of Dalton that all matter is composed of 
atoms, the weight of each atom differing for the 
different elements, a. valence, the saturating power 
of the atom of an element as compared with an 
atom of hydrogen. Syn., equivalence, a. volume, 
the atomic weight of an element divided by the 
density, a. weight, the weight of an atom of an 
element as compared with the weight of an atom of 

atomicity (at-om-is'-it-e) [see atom]. 1. Chemical 
valence; quantivalence. 2. The number of OH. 
groups is an alcohol or a base. 

atomism (at'-om-izm) [&, priv.; rkpvuv, to cut]- 
1. The science of atoms. 2. The theory that the 
universe is composed of atoms. 

atomist (at'-om-ist). One who believes in atomism- 
atomistic (at-om-is'-lik). 1. Relating to or con- 
sisting of an atom. 2. Relating to atomism. 

atomization (at-om-iz-a' -shun) [see atom]. The* 
mechanical process of breaking up a liquid into fine 

atomizer (at'-om-i-zer) [see atom]. An instrument 
for transforming a liquid into a spray. 

atomology {at-om-ol'-o-je) [atom; \6yos, science]. 
The science of atoms; atomism. 

atonia (al-o'-ne-ah) [arovla, want of tone]. Atony. 

atonic (at-on'-ik) [atony]. Relating to or charac- 
terized by atony. 

atonicity (at-on-is'-it-e). Lack of tone, atony. 

atony (at'-o-ne) [a, priv.; rbvos, tone]. Want of 
tone. Debility. Loss of diminution of muscular or 
vital energy. 

atophan (at'-o-fan). Phenylcinchoninic acid, or 
phenylchinolin carbonic acid. It is said to increase 
the elimination of uric acid in cases of gout and 

atopomenorrhea (at-o-po-men-or-e'-ah) [aroiros, 
out of plate; pfjp, month; peetv, to flow]. Vicarious 

atopic (ah-top'-ik) [&, priv.; tottos, place]. Out of 

atoxic (ah-toks'-ik) [&, priv.; to&kov, poison]. 
Not venomous; not poisonous. 




atoxogen (ah-toks'-o-jen) [d, priv.; to^ikov, poison; 
y&>vav, to produce]. A defensive substance re- 
sembling the enzymes and chemically allied to 
toxins and antitoxins prepared from the adrenals 
and spleen of the horse. 

atoxyl (at-oks'-il), CsH4 . NH 2 . AsO(OH) 2 , a com- 
pound of arsenic acid and aniline, used in skin- 
diseases and in sleeping-sickness. 

atrabiliary (at-rah-bil'-e-a-re) [atra, black; bilis, 
bile]. Pertaining to black bile, gloomy, melancholic. 
a. capsules, an old name for the suprarenal capsules. 

atrabilin {at-rah-bil'-in). A preparation of supra- 
renal capsule; it has a hemostatic and vasoconstrictor 

atrachelia (ah-lrak-e'-le-ah) [d, priv.; Tpdx*?Xos, the 
neck]. Absence or exceeding shortness of the neck. 

atrachelocephalus (ah-lrak-el-o-sef'-al-us) [drpd- 
X^Xos, without a neck; /ce0aXi7, the head], i. Affected 
with atrachelia. 2. A monster with no neck or an 
abnormally short one. 

atrachelous (ah-trak'-el-us). Having no neck or 
only a very short one; also, beheaded. 

atractenchyma (ah-lrakt-en'-ki-mah) [arpaKros, a 
spindle; eyxzlv, to pour in]. A tissue consisting of 

atractoid (ah-trakt'-oid). Spindle-shaped. 

atramental (at-ram-en'-lal) [atramenlum, ink]. 
Of an inky-black color. 

atremia (ah-tre'-me-ah) [a, priv.;, to 
tremble]. 1. An absence of tremor. 2. Hysterical 
inability to walk, stand, or sit without general 
discomfort and paresthesia of the head and back, 
all movements being readily executed in the recum- 
bent posture. Syn., Neftel's disease. 

atrepsy (ah'-trep-se) [d, priv.; rpkQeiv, to nourish]. 
Ehrlich's term for immunity to tumor cells produced 
by the absence of the particular nourishment needed 
for the growth of tumors. 

atresia (ah-lre'-^e-ah) L d, priv.; rprjais, perforation]. 
Imperforation or closure of a normal opening or 
canal, as of the anus, vagina, meatus auditorius, 
pupil, etc. 

atresic (ah-tre'-zik) [see atresia]. Characterized by 

atretic (ah-tret'-ik). Same as atresic. 

atreto- (ah-tre-to-) [drpijros, imperforate]. A prefix 
meaning imperforate. 

atretoblepharia {at-ret-o-blef-a'-re-ah) [atreto-; /SXe<£- 
apov, eye-lid]. Symblepharon, q. v. 

atretocephalus (ah-tret o-sef-al-us) [atreto-; nefakii, 
the head]. A monster with imperforate nostrils or 

atretocormus (ah-tret-o-Icorm'-us) [atreto-; Kopufc, 
the trunk]. A monster having one or more imper- 
forate openings on the trunk. 

atretocystia (at-ret-o-sis'-te-ah) [atreto-; averts, 
bladder]. Atresia of the bladder. 

atretogastria (ah-lret-o-gas'-tre-ah) [atreto-; yaa-rrip, 
stomach]. Imperforation of the cardiac or pyloric 
orifice of the. stomach. 

atretolemia (ah-lret-o-le'-me-ah) [atreto-; Xat/xos, the 
gullet]. Imperforation of the esophagus or pharynx. 

atretometria (at-ret-o-me' -ire-ah) [atreto-; mrpa, 
womb]. Atresia of the uterus. 

atietopsia (al-ret-op'-se-ah) [drp^T-os, imperforate; 
&\p, eye]. Imperforation of the pupil. 

atretorrhinia (ah-tret-or-rin'-e-ah) [atreto-; pis, the 
nose]. Nasal atresia. 

atretostomia (ah-tret-o-sto'-me-ah) [atreto-; aropa, 
the mouth]. Imperforation of the mouth. 

atreturethria (ah-lret-u-re' '-thre-ah) [atreto-; ovprjdpa, 
the urethra]. Imperforation of the urethra. 

atria. Plural of atrium, a. mortis, the halls of 
death (t. c, the heart, lungs, and brain). 

atrial (a'-ire-al) [atrium, the fore-court, or hall]. 
Relating to an atrium. 

a.tricha.(ah'-trik-ah) [d, priv.; 6pU-, hair]. A group 
of bacteria having no flagella. 

atrichia, atrichlasis (ah-trik'-e-ah, ah-trik-i'-as-is) 
[d, priv.; 0pi£, hair]. Absence of the hair. 

atrichosis {ah-trik-o'-sis) [see atrichia]. A con- 
dition characterized by absence of hair. 

atrioventricular (a-tre-o-ven-trik'-u-lar) [atrium, 
hall; ventriculus, ventricle]. Relating both to the 
atrium (or auricle) and to the ventricle of the heart. 
atriplicism (at-rip'-lis-izm) [Atriplex, a genus of 
plants]. A form of poisoning from eating uncooked 
spinach, Atriplex littoralis. It is characterized by 
painful infiltration of the backs of the hands and 
forearms and a sensitiveness to light. 

atrium (a'-lre-um) [L., "the forecourt or hall"]. 
1. The auricle of the heart. 2. The part of the 
tympanic cavity of the ear below the head of the 
malleus, a. anterius, the right auricle of the heart. 
a. cordis, the auricle of the heart, a. cordis dextrum, 
the right auricle of the heart, a. cordis posterius, 
the left auricle of the heart, a., infection-, the point 
of entrance of the bacteria in an infectious disease. 
a. vaginae, the vestibule of the vulva. 

atrolactyl (at-ro-lak'-til), C9H9O2. The radical of 
atrolactic acid, a.-tropein. See aconitine, British. 

Atropa {at'-ro-pah) ["Arpoiros, "she who turns 
not"; undeviating; one of the three Fates who cut 
the thread of life — in allusion to the poisonous effects 
of the plant]. A genus of the natural order Solan- 
acea. A. belladonna is the deadly nightshade, from 
which atropine is obtained. See belladonna. 

atrophia (at-ro'-fe-ah). See atrophy. 

atrophic (at-ro'-fik) [atrophy]. Pertaining to or 
affected with atrophy. 

atrophied (at'*ro-fid) [d, priv.; Tpo<j>rj, nourishment]. 
Wasted; affected with atrophy. 

atrophoderma (al-ro-fo-der'-mah). See atrophy of 
the skin. sl. pigmentosum. See xeroderma pig- 

atrophodermatosis {at-ro-fo-der-mat-o'-sis) [atrophy; 
Skpua, the skin]. A class of skin diseases, including 
atrophoderma, ulodermitis, and scleroderma, char- 
acterized by atrophy of the cutis. 

atrophodermia. Atrophoderma. 

atropholysis (at-ro-fol'-is-is) [atrophy; \v<ris, a 
loosing]. A flabby, weak, or ulcerated condition due 
to insufficient nutrition. 

atrophy, atrophia (at'-ro-fe, at-ro'-fe-ah) [brpocpla, 
atrophy]. 1. Diminution in the size of a tissue, organ, 
or part, the result of degeneration of the cells or a 
decrease in the size of the cells. 2. To become 
atrophied, a., accidental, that of a part from com- 
pression or cutting off its blood-supply, a., acute 
yellow. See icterus gravis, a., angibromic, decrease 
in the size of the lumen of the alimentary canal. 
a., brown, a form of atrophy in which the normal 
pigment of the organ is retained, and in which there 
is also frequently the addition of new pigment. It 
occurs most frequently in the heart, muscles, and 
liver, and is caused by chronic congestion. Syn., 
pigmented atrophy, atrophia cachochymica, that due 
to indigestible food, a., cardiac, atrophy of the 
heart following senile changes, or occurring in ca- 
chectic conditions, or as a result of pressure exerted 
by mediastinal tumors, etc. Syn., atrophia cordis. 
a., chronic spinal muscular. See a., progressive 
muscular, a. compression, atrophy of a part from 
constant compression, a., concentric, that proceed- 
ing from without inward and tending to lessen the 
capacity of a hollow organ, a., correlated, an atrophy 
of certain portions of the body following the removal 
or destruction of other portions. Thus, amputation 
of an arm will be followed by an atrophy of the 
scapula; of a leg, by atrophy of the corresponding os 
innominatum. a., cyanotic (of the liver), atrophy 
of the parenchyma of the hepatic lobules due to 
stasis in the venous circulation, causing dilatation and 
congestion of the central veins and adjacent capil- 
laries, a., degenerative, that due to degeneration of 
the cells, a., eccentric, that proceeding from within 
toward the periphery, a., granular, a form observed 
in the liver and kidneys, causing diminution in size 
and attended with excess in formation of connective 
tissue, with copious supply of granular matter. 
a., granuloproteic, that due to replacement of proper 
cell-structure with fine granular masses, a., gray, 
a degenerative change in the optic disc in which the 
latter assumes a grayish color, a., halisteretic, 
atrophy of bone manifested only by gradual thinning 
of the lamellae of the spongy tissue, a., idiopathic 
muscular, muscular wasting, beginning in various 
groups of muscles, usually progressive in character, 
and dependent on primary changes in the muscles 
themselves. There is a strong hereditary predispo- 
sition to the disease, a., inanition, emaciation from 
diarrhea, a., individual, Charcot's name for atrophy of 
individual muscles in different parts, the proximate 
muscles not being affected, a., infantile, tabes mesen- 
terica (q. v.). Syn., atrophia infantum; atrophia mesen- 
terica. a., muscular, atrophy affecting muscles; it may 
be hereditary or acquired, idiopathic, myelopathic, 
myopathic, neuropathic, primary, secondary, simple, 
or progressive, a. of the nails, onychatrophia. 
Syn., atrophia unguis, a., necrobiotic, a., numerical, 




atrophy of a part with destruction of some of its 
elements, atrophia nervea, atrophy of the nerves. 
atrophia nervosa, gradual emaciation, with loss of 
appetite, due to unwholesome and depressing en- 
vironment, a., pigmentary, a., pigmented, a form 
of atrophy so called from a deposit of pigment 
(yellow or yellowish-brown), in the atrophied cells. 
atrophia pilorum propria, atrophy of the hair, either 
symptomatic or idiopathic in origin, a., progressive 
facial, a condition characterized by progressive 
wasting of the skin of the face. Syn., atrophia nova 
facialis, a., progressive muscular, a chronic disease 
characterized by progressive wasting of individual 
muscles or physiological groups of muscles, and by an 
associated and proportional amount of paralysis. 
It is due to a degeneration and atrophy of the multi- 
polar cells in the anterior gray horns of the cord, with 
consecutive degeneration of the anterior nerve-roots 
and muscles. The right hand is usually the part 
first attacked, and takes on a peculiar claw-like form 
(main-en-griff e) . The disease is most frequent in 
males of adult life, and follows excessive muscular 
exertion. Syn., chronic anterior poliomyelitis; wasting 
palsy, a., progressive nervous, Jaccoud's name for 
atrophy of the spinal nerve-roots due to pressure 
from a deposit of fibrous substance on the spinal 
arachnoid, a., progressive unilateral facial, a disease 
characterized by progressive wasting of the skin, 
connective tissue, fat, bone, and more rarely the 
muscles of one side of the face. It is most common 
in females; its course is slow and generally pro- 
gressive, a., qualitative, degeneration, a., quanti- 
tative. See a., simple, a., red, a form of atrophy 
due to chronic congestion, as seen in the liver in 
mitral and tricuspid valvular lesions, a., sclerotic, 
a name for connective tissue found at times deposited 
in the heart-substance after myocarditis, a., senile, 
the physiological atrophy of advanced life. It affects 
the lungs, the sexual and other organs, a., senile, 
of the skin, an atrophy of the skin usually associated 
with general signs of senile degeneration. Syn., 
atrophia cutis senilis; senile atrophoderma, a., serous, 
atrophy associated with an infiltration of fluid into 
the atrophic tissues, a., simple, that due to a 
decrease in the size of individual cells, a., simple 
brown, a condition of the heart in which the muscle- 
fibers retain their striated appearance, but the muscle- 
cells are small and contain yellow granules of pig- 
ment, a. of the skin, atrophy characterized by 
diminution or disappearance of certain of the ele- 
ments of the skin: especially seen in advanced age. 
The skin becomes thin, loose, wrinkled, and dis- 
colored. Syn., atrophia cutis; atrophoderma, a., 
sympathetic, atrophy of the second member of a pair 
of organs, following that of the first, a., tropho- 
neurotic, that dependent upon abnormality of the 
nervous supply of an organ or tissue, best illustrated 
in muscular atrophy from disease of the anterior 
horns of the spinal cord, atrophia verminosa, 
emaciation due to intestinal worms, a., white, nerve 
atrophy, leaving only white connective tissue. 

atropia (at-ro'-pe-ah). See atropine. 

atropic (at-rop'-ik). Relating to the genus Atropa 
or to atropine. 

atropine, atrophia (at'-ro-pen, at-ro-pi'-nah) 
["At powos, one of the Fates who cut the thread of 
life], C17H23NO3. The atropina of the U. S. P. is a 
crystalline alkaloid derived from Atropa belladonna. 
It is a mydriatic, antispasmodic, and anodyne; in 
small doses a cardiac, respiratory, and spinal stimu- 
lant; in large doses a paralyzant of the cardiac and 
respiratory centers, the spinal cord, motor nerves, 
and involuntary and voluntary muscles. It lessens 
all the secretions except the urine. In full doses 
it produces dryness of the throat, flushing of the 
face, dilatation of the pupils, a rise of temperature, 
and sometimes an erythematous rash. It is ex- 
tensively used in ophthalmic practice to dilate the 
pupil, to paralyze accommodation, and also in various 
corneal, iritic, and other ocular diseases. Its thera- 
peutic use in general medicine is also manifold; e. g., 
in inflammatory affections and the pain of cerebral 
and spinal hyperemia, atonic constipation, cardiac 
failure, hypersecretions, especially of the sweat, to 
relieve local spasms, as in intestinal and biliary 
colic, in asthma, whooping-cough, etc., and as a 
physiological antagonist in opium-poisoning. a. 
borate, (C17H23N 03)26407, is used in ophthalmic 
practice, a. hydrobromide, CnHtaNOsHBr, white 
crystals, soluble in water and in alcohol. It is used 

as is atropine, a. hydrochloride, Q7H23NO3HCI , 
white crystals, soluble in water and alcohol, slightly 
in ether. Used in the same manner as atropine. 
Dose ifas— -£$ gr. (0.0006-0.001 Gm.). a., lamellae of 
(lamella atropines, B. P.), each contains STJ Vff gr. 
(0.000013 Gm.) atropine, a. oleate {pleatum atro- 
pina, U. S. P.), a 2 % solution of atropine in oleic 
acid; it is a mydriatic, sedative, and anodyne, and is 
used as an inunction in cases in which remedies 
cannot be administered by the mouth, a. salicylate, 
Q7H23NO3C7H6O2, a colloidal mass, used as is atro- 
pine, a. santonate, a compound of atropine and 
santonic acid, recommended as a mydriatic, a. 
santoninate, C17H23O3C15H20O4, is used in ophthalmic 
practice, a. stearate, C17H23NO3C17H35CO . OH, fine 
white needles, greasy to the touch, melting at 120 C., 
beginning to decompose at 170 C., and containing 
50.43 % of atropine. It is soluble in ether and in 
alcohol. Applied in 1 : 500 oily solution as a sub- 
stitute for oil of belladonna or oil of hyoscyamus. 
a. sulphate (atropina sulphas, U. S. P.), the most 
frequently used preparation of atropine, is a white 
powder, of bitter taste and neutral reaction, and is 
soluble in water. Dose T ^r — 5 x o gr. (0.00036-0.008 
Gm.). a. sulphate, solution of (liquor atropines 
sulphatis, B. P.). Dose 1-6 min. (0.065-0.4 Cc). 
a. tartrate, (Ci7ll23N03)2C4H606, is used as is atropine. 

atropinism (at'-ro-pin-izm). See atropism. 

atropinization (at-ro-pin-i-za'-shune). The produc- 
tion of the physiological effect of belladonna. 

atropinize (af -ro-pin-iz) [atropine]. To bring under 
the influence of, or to treat with, atropine. 

atropism (at'-ro-pizm). Poisoning with, or the 
morbid condition induced by, atropine. 

atroscine (at'-ros-en), C17H21NO4. An alkaloid 
isomeric with hyoscine, obtained from Scopolia 
carniolica. It has a higher rotatory power than 
hyoscine, and is from 2 to 4 times stronger in mydri- 
atic action. Syn., atrosia. 

attaint (at-aint') [attingere, to touch by striking]. 
An injury to a horse's leg caused by overreaching. 

attar (at'-ar) [Ar., 'itr, perfume]. A general name 
for any of the volatile oils. a. of rose, oil of rose. 
The volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowers of the 
Damascene rose. It comes mainly from eastern 
Rumelia, and is generally adulterated with other 
volatile oils. It is used as a perfume. 

attendant (at-en'-dant) [aliendere, to wait upon]. 
A nonprofessional attache of an asylum or hospital. 

attention (at-ten'-shun). The direction of the will 
or thought upon an object or to a particular sensation. 
a., central, the "imagination" or mental remaking 
of the image by the mind when the peripheral visual 
attention is abrogated, a., compound synchronous, 
in this the consciousness recognizes and correlates 
or combines multiple streams of synchronous and 
diverse stimuli, visual, auditory, etc. a., multiple 
synchronous auditory, two or more synchronous 
tones or sounds or lines of such tones or sounds are 
recognized by consciousness, a., multiple synchro- 
nous central visual, the imagining or mental repro- 
duction of multiple synchronous visual trains with- 
out the objectively formed images, a., multiple 
synchronous visual, that when the attention recog- 
nizes two or more discrete sets of retinal images at 
the same time, a., single-stream auditory, that 
when a monotone, a sound, or series of single notes 
or sounds, is listened to, exclusive of others, a., 
single-stream central, that when the central visual 
attention, without objectively forming images, 
follows the passing of imagined single or unitary 
images in single file, a., single-stream central audi- 
tory, that without the objective audition, a., single- 
stream visual, that form of visual attention existing 
when the eyes follow a linear concatenation of single 
or unitary macular images to the exclusion of all 
others, a., visual, that existing when the eyes, 
consciously, observe a fixed or moving object. 

attenuant (at-en'-u-ant) [attenuare, to make thin]. 
1. A medicine or agent increasing the fluidity or 
thinness of the blood or other secretion. 2. A dilu- 
ent. 3. Lessening the effect of an agent. 

# attenuated (at-en'-u-a-ted). Wasted; thinned, a. 
virus, a weakened virus. 

attenuating (at-en' -u-a-ting) [see attenuant]. Mak- 
ing thin. 

attenuation (ai-en-u-a'-shun) [see attenuant]. The 
act of making thin; a thinning, narrowing, or reduc- 
tion of the strength or size of a substance, especially 
the weakening of the pathogenic virulence of micro- 




organisms by successive cultivation, by exposure to 
light, air, heat, or other agency, or by passing through 
certain animals, so that they may be used as a 
vaccine to confer immunity from future attacks of 
the disease, a., Sanderson's method of, the passing 
of virus through the system of another animal (e. g., 
the guinea-pig, in anthrax) so that it becomes modi- 
fied in virulency. 

attic (at'-ik). Part of the tympanic cavity situ- 
ated above the atrium, a. disease, chronic suppu- 
rative inflammation of the attic, of the tympanum. 

atticoantrotomy (ai-ik-o-an-lroi'-o-me) [attic; an- 
trum; Tkuveiv, to cut]. The opening of the attic and 
mastoid process. 

atticomastoid (at-ik-o-mas'-ioid). Relating to the 
attic and the mastoid. 

atticotomy (at-ik-ot'-om-e) [aitic; re/iveiv, to cut]. 
Surgical incision of the attic. 

attitude (at'-e-tud). See posture, a., crucifixion, 
in hysteroepilepsy, a rigid state of the body, the arms 
stretched out. at right angles, a. of fetus, the rela- 
tion of its parts to one another, a., frozen, a peculiar 
stiffness of the gait characteristic of disease of the 
spinal cord, especially of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 
a., passionate, the assumption of a dramatic or 
theatrical expression, a position assumed by some 
hysterical patients. 

attollens (at-ol'-enz) [altollere, to rise up]. Raising. 
a. aurem, a muscle raising the external ear. 

attraction {at-rak'-shun) [atlrakere, to draw to]. 
The tendency of one particle of matter to approach 
another; affinity. As existing between masses, it is 
termed gravitation, while molecular attraction or 
cohesion expresses the force aggregating molecules. 
a., capillary, the force that causes liquids to rise in 
fine tubes or between two closely approximated sur- 
faces, or on the sides of the containing vessel, a., 
chemical, the attraction of affinity, relates to the 
attraction of atoms of one element to those of others, 
resulting in chemical compounds, a., electric, the 
tendency of bodies toward each other when charged 
with opposite electricities, a., magnetic, the influence 
of a magnet upon certain metallic substances, chiefly 
iron. a. sphere, the central mass of the aster in 

attrahens (at'-ra-henz) [L., "drawing"]. Drawing 
forward, as attrahens aurem, a muscle drawing the 
ear forward and upward. 

attrahent (al'-ra-hent) [attrahens, drawing]. i. 
Drawing to; adducent. 2. A drawing application; 
an epispastic or rubefacient. 

attrition {al-rish'-un) [alter ere, to rub against]. 
1. An abrasion or chafing of the skin. 2. Any 
rubbing or friction that breaks or wears the surface. 

at. wt. Abbreviation of atomic weight. 

atypical, (ah-tip'-ik-al) [a, priv.; tvttos, a type] 
Irregular; not conformable to the type. a. fever, an 
intermittent fever with irregularity of the paroxysm. 

A. u. Abbreviation of Angstrom's unit. 

Au. Chemical symbol of the element gold. See 

auante {aw-an'-te) [avalvuv, to dry]. A wasting 
or atrophy. 

auantic (aw-an'-tik) [avavriKos, wasted]. Charac- 
terized by wasting; atrophic. 

Aubert's phenomenon (o-bair'). An optical 
illusion by which, when the head is inclined to one 
side, a vertical line is made to appear oblique toward 
the opposite side. 

auchen (aw'-ken) [avxhv, the neck]. The neck or 
throat, or the constricted part of any organ. 

aucheniatria (aw-ken-e-al'-re-ah) [ai>xw, the throat; 
i&Tpela, a healing]. The therapy of throat diseases. 

audiclave (aw'-dik-lav). An instrument for aiding 

audiometer (aw-de-om'-et-er) [audire, to hear; 
nerpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring 
the acuteness of hearing. 

audiometry (aw-de-om'-et-re) [audire, to hear; 
\s.krpov, a measure]. The measurement, or testing, 
of the sense of hearing. 

audiphone (aw'-dif-on) [audire, to hear; <t>uvi), a 
sound]. An instrument for improving the power of 
hearing by conveying sounds through the bones of 
the head to the labyrinth. 

audition (aw-dish'-un) [audire, to hear]. The act 
of hearing. Syn., acoesis; acousia; acusis. a. coloree, 
color-hearing, a peculiar association between the 
auditory and optic nerves, by which a certain sound 
or musical note will give rise to a subjective sensation 

of color, the same note in the same person being 
always associated with the same color. Syn., 
chromatic audition, a. contre, the perception by one 
ear of the vibrations of a tuning-fork placed on the 
mastoid process on the other side. 

auditory {aw' -dit-o-re) [see audition]. Pertaining 
to the act or the organs of hearing, a. after-sensa- 
tions, the sensations of sounds continuing or occurring 
after the cessation of the stimulus, a. amnesia. 
See mind-deafness, a. area, the cerebral center for 
hearing, probably located in the temporosphenoidal 
lobe. a. aura, an auditory sensation preceding an 
attack of epilepsy, a. capsule, the primitive auditory 
organ, formed by the invagination of the nervous 
stratum of the epiblast. a. center. Same as a. area. 
a. dysesthesia. Same as dysacusis, q. v. a. emi- 
nence, the prominent part of the floor of the fourth 
ventricle, lying between the inferior and superior 
fovea, a. field, the area within which a sound may 
be heard, a. hairs, the processes of the crista 
acustica. a. meatus (external and internal), the 
external and internal canals or openings of the ear. 
a. nerve, the eighth cranial nerve, supplying the 
internal ear; formerly the portio mollis of the seventh 
pair of cranial nerves, a. nuclei, the nuclei in the 
oblongata giving rise to the auditory nerves, a. 
ossicles, the chain of small bones of the middle ear. 
a. pit, the depression in the epiblast on both sides 
of the embryonic after-brain, destined to form the 
labyrinth of the ear. a. teeth, tooth-like tubercles 
in the cochlea of the ear. a. vertigo, dizziness due 
to pathological conditions of the ear. See Meniere's 
disease, a. vesicle, the ectodermal sac from which 
is developed the membranous labyrinth. 

auditus (aw-di'-tus) [L.]. Hearing; the sense or 
power of hearing. 

Auenbrugger's sign (ow'-en-broog-er) [Leopold 
Auenbrugger, Austrian physician, 1722-1809]. Bulg- 
ing of the epigastric region in cases of extensive 
pericardial effusion. 

Auer's bodies (pw'-er) [John Auer, American 
physician, 1875- ]. Rod-like bodies seen in the 
lymphocytes in leukemia. 

Auerbach's ganglia (ow'-er-bakh) [Leopold Auer- 
bach, German anatomist, 1828-1897]. The ganglionic 
nodes in Auerbach's plexus. A.'s plexus, plexus 
myentericus, a nerve-plexus found between the 
circular and longitudinal muscular coats of the 
stomach and intestine, and consisting of a network 
of pale nerve-fibers, at the nodal points of which 
minute ganglia exist. 

Aufrecht's sign (ow'-frekht) [Emanuel Aufrecht, 
German physician, 1844- ]. Short and feeble 
breathing heard just above the jugular fossa on 
placing the stethoscope over the trachea; it is noted 
in tracheal stenosis. 

augment (awg'-ment) [augmentum, increase]. The 
increasing stage of a fever or other acute disease. 

augmentation (awg-men-ta' -shun) [augmentatio, an 
increasing]. 1. Same as augment. 2. Increase in the 
violence of symptoms. 

augmentor {awg-men' -tor) . An agent which 
increases or accelerates the action of auxetics; by 
itself it is unable to produce cell division. See 

augnathus {awg-na'-thus) [&D, besides; yvaBos, the 
jaw]. A monster with two lower jaws. 

aula {aw'-lah) [av\r], a hall or open court]. The 
common mesal cavity of the cerebrum, it being also 
the anterior portion of the third ventricle. 

aulatela (aw-lat-e'-lah) [aula, a hall; tela, a web]. 
The roof or covering membrane of the aula. 

aulic (aw'-lik) [aula, a hall]. Belonging or per- 
taining to the aula. a. recess, a triangular de- 
pression between the precommissure and the two 
fornicolumns of the brain. 

auliplexus (aw-le-pleks'-us) [aula, hall; plexus, a 
network]. The choroid plexus of the aula. 

aulix (aw'-liks) [aulix, a furrow]. The sulcus of 
Monro, a groove on the mesal surface of the thalamus 
just ventrad of the medicommissure. 

aulophyte (aw'-lo-fit) [av\6s, pipe or tube; $vt6v, 
a plant]. A symbiotic plant; one that lives within 
another, but not as a parasite. 

aura (aw'-rah) [avpa, a breath]. A breath of 
wind; a soft vapor. The phenomenon preceding an 
attack of epilepsy. It may be motor, sensory, 
vasomotor, secretory, or psychic. It is also applied 
to the symptom preceding an attack of any disease 
or paroxysm, as the aura hysterica, aura vertiginosa, 




etc. a., electric, the current of air that attends the 
discharge of electricity from a point, a., epigastric, 
a localized epileptic aura. 

aurade, auradin (aw'-rdd, aw'-rad-in). A fatty 
body obtained from oil of orange-flowers. It crystal- 
lizes in tasteless, pearly, odorless scales, melting at 
13 1 ° F.; soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol. Syn., 
Neroli camphor. 

aural (aw'-ral) [auris, the ear]. 1. Relating to the 
ear or to hearing. 2. [aura.] Relating to the air or 
to an aura. a. vertigo. See Meniere's disease. 

auramine (aw' -ram-en) [aurum, gold; amine]. 
Yellow pyoktanin, a yellow aniline color used to 
some extent as an antiseptic. 

aurantia (aw-ran'-she-ah) [aurantium], 1. An 
orange coal-tar dye; an ammonium salt of hexa- 
nitrodiphenylamine. 2. An orange or oranges. 

aurantiamarin (aw-ran-te-am'-ar-in). A bitter 
glucoside obtained from orange peel. 

aurantin (aw-ran'-tin). See heptane. 

aurantium (aw-ran'-she-um) [L.; gen., aurantii]. 
Orange. The fruit of Citrus vulgaris and C. auran- 
tium. Both the flowers and the rind of the fruit 
are employed in medicine, aurantii amari cortex 
(U. S. P.), bitter orange-peel, aurantii amari, fluid- 
extractum (U. S. P.), bitter orange-peel, alcohol, 
and water. It is used as a flavor. Dose §— 1 dr. 
(2-4 Cc). aurantii amari, tinctura (U. S. P.), bitter 
orange-peel, 20; dilute alcohol, q. s. ad 100. Dose 
1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). aurantii corticis, oleum (U. S. P.), 
the volatile oil expressed from the rind of the orange ; 
it is aromatic and a mild tonic, but is used mainly 
as a flavor. Dose 1-5 drops, aurantii dulcis cortex 
(U. S. P.), sweet orange-peel, aurantii dulcis, tinc- 
tura (U. S. P.), sweet orange-peel, 20; dilute alcohol, 
q. s. ad 100. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). aurantii, 
elixir, oil of orange-peel, 1; sugar, 100; alcohol and 
water, q. s. ad 300. aurantii florum, aqua (U. S. P.), 
stronger orange-flower water and distilled water, of 
each, 1 volume, aurantii florum fortior, aqua 
(U. S. P.), water saturated with the volatile oil of 
fresh orange-flowers, aurantii florum, oleum, oil of 
neroli, a volatile oil distilled from fresh orange- 
flowers. Dose 1-5 drops, aurantii florum, syrupus 
(U. S. P.), sugar, 85; orange-flower water, sufficient 
to make 100 parts. A common flavoring agent. 
aurantii, infusum (B. P.). Dose 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc). 
aurantii, infusum, compositum (B. P.). Dose 1-2 
oz. (30-60 Cc). aurantii, spiritus, oil of orange-peel, 
5; deodorized alcohol, 95. Dose according to quan- 
tity of alcohol desired, aurantii, spiritus, compositus 
(U. S. P.), oil of orange-peel, 20; oil of lemon, 5; 
oil of coriander, 2 ; oil of anise, 5 ; deodorized alcohol, 
sufficient to make 100 parts, aurantii, syrupus 
(U. S. P.), tincture of sweet orange-peel, 5; citric 
acid, 0.5; magnesium carbonate, 1; sugar, 82; water 
sufficient to make 100 parts, aurantii, tinctura (B. 
P.). Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). aurantii, tinctura, 
recentis (B. P.), tincture of fresh orange-peel. Dose 
1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). aurantii, vinum (B. P.), contains 
12 % of alcohol. 

aureol (aw-re'-ol). The commercial name of a 
hair-dye said to contain menthol, 1 % ; amidophenol- 
chlorhydrate, 0.3 %; monoamido-diphenylamine, 
0.6 % ; dissolved in 50 % alcohol which contains 
0.5 % sodium sulphite. 

aureola (aw-re'-o-lah). See areola (1). 

aureolin (aw-re'-o-lin) [aurum, gold]. A yellow 
pigment obtained by heating paratoluidin with 
sulphur and treating with turning sulphuric acid. 
Syn., carnotine; polychromin; primulin yellow; 
sulphine; thiochromogen. 

auric (aw'-rik) [aurum, gold]. 1. Pertaining to 
aurum or gold. 2. Referring to gold in chemical 
combination as a triad, a. acid. See acid, auric. 

auricle (aw'-rik-l) [auricula, the ear]. 1. The 
expanded portion or pinna of the ear. 2. One of 
the upper chambers of the heart receiving the blood 
from the lungs (left auricle) or from the general 
circulation (right auricle). 3- An ear-shaped appen- 
dage. 4. A kind of ear-trumpet, a., cervical, con- 
genital cartilaginous remains of the neck, arising 
about the middle of the sternomastoid as symmetrical 
bodies, occurring in man occasionally and almost 
constantly present in the goat. 

auricoammonic (aw-rik-o-am-on'-ik). Containing 
gold and ammonium. 

auricobarytic (aw-rik-o-bar-it'-ik). Containing gold 
and barium. 

auricula (aw-rik' -u-lah) [dim. of auris, ear]. 

1. Auricle, q. v. 2. The auricular appendix, a 
pouch-like appendage to the auricles of the heart. 

auricular (aw-rik' -u-lar) [see auricle]. 1. Relating 
to the auricle of the ear. 2. Pertaining to the 
auricles of the heart, as auricular appendix. 3. Re- 
lating to the auricular nerve, arteries, veins, etc. 
a. appendix, the anterior prolongation of the cardiac 
auricle, a. finger, the little finger, a. point, the 
central point of the external auricular meatus. 

auriculare (aw-rik-u-la'-re) [auricularis , pertaining 
to the ear]. The auricular point, q. v. 

auricularis (aw-rik-u-la'-ris) [see auricle]. 1. Auri- 
cular. 2. The extensor minimi digiti. See under 
muscle, a. magnus, a branch of the cervical plexus 
of nerves. 

auriculate, auriculated (aw-rik' -u-lat, -ed). Fur- 
nished with ears or ear-like appendages; auricled. 

auriculocranial (aw-rik-u-lo-kra'-ne-al). Pertaining 
to both the auricle and the cranium. 

auriculooccipital (aw-rik-u-lo-ok-sip' -it-al) [auri- 
cula, the ear; occiput, the back of the head]. Per- 
taining both to the ear and the back of the head. 
a., triangle. See triangle. 

auriculotemporal (aw-rik-u-lo-tem' -po-ral) [auricle; 
tempus, the temple]. Relating to the auricle and 
to the temporal region, a. nerve, a branch of the 
inferior maxillary, supplying superficial parts about 
the auricle and temple. 

auriculoventricular (aw-rik-u-lo-ven-trik' -u-lar) [au- 
ricle; ventriculus, the ventricle]. Relating to an 
auricle and a ventricle of the heart, a. bundle, the 
bundle of His. a. opening, the opening between the 
auricles and the ventricles of the heart. 

auriform (aw'-rif-orm) [auris, the ear; forma, 
shape]. Ear-shaped. 

auriginous (aw-rij'-in-us). 1. Having the color 
of gold. 2. Relating to jaundice. 

aurilave (aw'-ril-av) [auris, the ear; lavare, to wash]. 
An appliance for cleansing the ears. An ear-brush 
or ear-sponge mounted upon a handle. 

aurinasal (aw-re-na'-sal) [auris; nasus, nose]. 
Pertaining to the ear and the nose. 

auripuncture (aw'-re-punk-chur) [auris; puncture]. 
Puncture of the membrana tympani. 

auris (aw' -ris) [L.]. The ear. a. externa, the 
outer ear, auricle, pinna, a. interna, a. intima, the 
internal ear, labyrinth, a. media, the middle ear, 

auriscalp (aw'-ris-kalp) [auris, the ear; scalpare, 
to scrape]. An instrument for cleansing the ear. 
An ear-pick, or probe for the ear. 

auriscope (aw'-ris-kop) [auris ;l<rKoirtiv, to examine]. 
An instrument for examining the ear, and especially 
the Eustachian passage: an otoscope. 

aurist (aw'-rist) [auris]. A specialist in diseases 
of the ear. 

aurobromide (aw-ro-bro'-mid). Gold and potas- 
sium bromide. 

aurous (aw'-rus) [aurum, gold], 1. Pertaining to 
gold and its compounds. 2. Referring to gold in 
chemical combination as a monad. 

aurum (aw' -rum) [L.; gen., auri]. Gold. Au 
= 197.2; quantivalence III. A brilliant yellow 
metal, having a specific gravity of 19.3. It is soluble 
in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, auri 
bromidum, AuBr3, used in epilepsy and migraine. 
Dose tjV - i gr- (0.003-0.01 Gm.). auri chloridum, 
gold chloride. Dose 50— 35 gr. (0.001-0.002 Gm.). 
Also used as a stain for nerve tissue, auri et sodii 
chloridum (U. S. P.), the double chloride of gold 
and sodium. It is used as an alterative in chronic 
inflammations, diabetes, in the treatment of the 
alcohol habit, etc. Dose 3V — rts S r - (0.002-0.006 
Gm.). a. vegetabile, saffron. 

auscult, auscultate (aws-kuW, aws'-kul-tat) [auscul- 
tare, to listen to]. To perform or practise auscul- 
tation; to examine by auscultation. 

auscultation (aws-kul-ta' -shun) [see auscult]. A 
method of investigation of the functions and con- 
ditions of the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, and 
other organs by the sounds they themselves give out 
or that are elicited by percussion. It is called 
immediate, when the ear is directly applied to the 
part, and mediate, if practised by the aid of the 
stethoscope. Obstetric auscultation is practised in 
pregnancy to detect or study the fetal heart-sounds 
or the placental murmur, a.-tube, in otology, an 
instrument for listening to the forced passage of air 
through the ear of another. 

auscultatory (aws-kul'-ta-to-re) [see auscult]. Re- 




lating to auscultation, a. percussion, the practice 
of listening with the stethoscope to the sounds pro- 
duced by percussing a part. 

auscultoscope (aws-kult'-o-skop). Stethoscope, or 

autacoid (aw'-tak-oid) [auto-; &kos, remedy]. 
A general term for all internal secretions, it includes 
hormones and chalones, g. v. 

autan (aw'-tan). Trade name of a preparation 
said to be a mixture of paraformaldehyde and 
barium dioxide. It is used to disinfect rooms. 

autechoscope (aw-tek'-o-skop) [avros, self; vx°s< 
sound; o-noirtiv, to inspect]. A device for enabling a 
person to listen to sounds produced within his own 

autecic, autcecic (aw-te'-sik). See autecious. 

autecious, autoecious (aw-te'-shus) [avros, self; 
oIkos, dwelling]. Applied to parasitic fungi that 
pass through all the stages of their existence in the 
same host._ 

autemesia (aw-tem-e'-zhe-ah) [avros, self; ifielv, to 
vomit]. Vomiting without manifest cause. 

auto- (aw-to-) [avros, self]. A prefix meaning self, 
of itself. 

autoactivation (aw-to-ak-tiv-a'-shun) [auto-; acti- 
vate]. The activation of a gland by an enzyme or 
hormone derived from itself. 

autoanticomplement (aw-to-an-te-kom'-ple-ment) . 
An anticomplent, formed within the body, which 
is capable of neutralizing its own complements. 

autoaudible (aw-to-awd'-i-bl) [auto-; audire, to 
hear]. Applied to cardiac sounds audible to the 

autoblast (aw'-to-blast) [auto-; /3Xa<n-6s, a germ]. 
An independent bioblast. 

autocatheterism (aw-to-kath' -et-er-izm) [auto-; 
catheter]. The passage of a catheter by a person 
upon himself. 

autochthon (aw-tok' -thon) [avroxBuv, sprung from 
the land]. An aboriginal inhabitant. 

autochthonous (aw-tok' -thon-us) [see autochthon]. 
Aboriginal; formed (as, e. g., a clot) in the place 
where it is found. 

autocinesis (aw-to-sin-e'-sis). See autokinesis. 

autocinetic (aw-to-sin-et'-ik). See autokinetic. 

autoclasis (aw-tok' -la-sis) [auto-; ic\a<ns, breaking]. 
A breaking up of a part due to causes developed 
within itself. 

autoclave (aw'-to-klav) [auto-; clavis, a key], 
i. Self -fastening; closing itself. 2. An apparatus for 
sterilizing objects by steam-heat at high pressure. 
3. To sterilize in an autoclave. 

autoconduction (aw-to-kon-duk'-shun) [auto-; con- 
duction]. A term used in electrotherapy for a 
method of using high-frequency currents. The 
patient or part to be acted upon is placed inside of 
the solenoid, without any direct connection with 
any part of the circuit. 

autocystoplasty (aw-to-sis' -to-plas-te) [auto-; Kvo-ris, 
bladder; irXaeraeiv, to form]. Plastic surgery of the 
bladder with grafts from the patient's body. 

autocytolysin (aw 7 to-si-tol'-is-in). Same as auto- 

autocytotoxins (aw-to-si-to-toks'-ins) [auto-; cyto- 
toxin]. Cytotoxins produced in the body of the 
individual by abnormal retention and absorption 
of the products of degenerated and dead cells. 

autodidact (aw'-to-di-dakt) [auto-; Sidaicros, taught]. 
One who is self-taught. 

autodigestion (aw-to-di-jes'-chun) [auto-; digerere, to 
digest]. Digestion of the walls of the stomach by 
the gastric juice, from disease of the stomach. 

autofundoscope (aw-to-fun' -do-skop) [auto-; fundus, 
the bottom; a-Kowelv, to look]. An instrument for 
self-examination of the vessels about the macular 
region of the eye. 

autogamous (aw-tog'-am-us) [auto-; yapios, mar- 
riage]. In botany, a name applied to flowers that 
are habitually self-fertilizing. 

autogamy (aw-tog'-am-e). [See autogamous.] Self- 

autogenesis (aw-to-jen'-es-is) [auto-; ykvzavs, pro- 
duction]. Spontaneous generation; self-production. 

autogenetic (aw-to-jen-et'-ik) [see autogenesis]. 
Produced within the organism. 

autogenous (aw-toj'-en-us) [see autogenesis]. 1. 
Pertaining to diseases or conditions self-produced 
within the body and not derived from external 
sources; applied to poisons generated in the body by 
its inherent processes. 2. Having a distinct center 

of development, as parts of bones, a. hemorrhage, 
hemorrhage due to causes residing within the body; 
not traumatic, a. vaccine, one derived from the 
microorganism infecting the person to be immunized, 
as opposed to stock vaccines which are made from 
standard cultures. 

autognosis (aw-tog-no'-sis) [auto-; yvaxris, know- 
ledge]. Knowledge obtained by self -observation. 

autogony (aw-tog'-o-ne) [avrbyovos, self -produced]. 
The rise of the simplest protoplasmic substance in a 
formative fluid. 

autographic (aw-to-graf'-ik) [auto-; ypafciv, to 
write]. Self -registering, a. skin, a condition of 
vasomotor paralysis, usually in hysterical patients, 
in which markings made upon the skin form quite 
persistent and intensely red traces, a. woman, one 
with an autographic skin. 

autographism (aw-tog' '-raf-izm) [auto-; ypafaiv, to 
write]. The condition observed in the so-called auto- 
graphic skin; dermographism. See urticaria factitia. 

autohypnotic (aw-to-hip-not'-ik). 1. Relating to 
autohypnotism. 2. An individual who can put him- 
self into a hypnotic state. 

autohypnotism (aw-to-hip'-not-izm) [auto-; vwvos, 
sleep]. Mental stupor induced by dwelling intensely 
upon some all-absorbing thought. 

autoimmunization (aw-to-im-u-ni-za' -shun) [auto-; 
immunization]. Immunization obtained by natural 
processes at work within the body. 

autoinfection (aw-to-in-fek' -shun) [auto-; infection]. 
Infection by virus originating within the body or 
transferred from one part of the body to another. 

autoinfusion (aw-to-in-fu'-shun) [auto-; infundere, 
to pour in]. Compulsion of the blood to the heart 
by bandaging the extremities, compression of the 
abdominal aorta, etc. 

autoinoculable (aw-to-in-ok'-u-la-bl) [auto-; inocu- 
lare, to implant]. Capable of being inoculated upon 
the person already infected. Chancroid is auto- 

autoinoculation (aw-to-in-ok-u-la' -shun) [see auto- 
inoculable]. Inoculation in one part of the body 
by virus present in another part; self -inoculation. 

autointoxication (aw-to-in-toks-ik-a'-shun) [auto-; 
ro£uc6v, a poison]. Poisoning by faulty metabolic 
products elaborated within the body; autoinfection. 
a., endogenous, that due to the action of excessive 
unneutralized or modified discharges from the cells 
of any tissue acting upon the other tissues without 
previous discharge from the body; or that due to the 
action of products of decomposition and necrosis of 
any tissue acting in a similar manner; or that due 
to microendoparasites or macroendoparasites. a., 
exogenous, that due to the action of poisons entering 
the system from without, through the skin, the 
digestive, the respiratory or genitourinary tract, as 
by the absorption of retained excreta, or of decom- 
position- and fermentation-products developed in 
the external secretions through the action of those 
secretions, a., indirect, that caused by the absorp- 
tion of retained excrements. 

autoisolysin (aw-to-is-ol'-is-in) [auto-; laos, equal; 
Xixris, a loosing]. A serum which dissolves the 
corpuscles of the individual from which it was 
obtained and also those of another individual of the 
same species. 

autokinesis (aw-to-kin-e'-sis) [auto-; Kivqo-is, 
movement]. Voluntary movement. 

autokinetic (aw-to-kin-et'-ik) [see autokinesis]. 
Pertaining to, or of the nature of, autokinesis. 

autolaryngoscopy (aw-to-lar-ing-gos'-ko-pe) [auto-; 
\apvy£, the larynx; oko-kHv, to examine]. The 
examination of one's own larynx. 

autolavage (aw-to-lav'-ahj) [auto-; lavage]. The 
washing out of one's own stomach. 

autolysate (aw-tol'-is-at) [see autolysin]. That 
which results from or is produced by autolysis. 

autolysin (aw-toV -is-in) [auto-; \v<ris, a loosing]. 
A lysin capable of dissolving the red blood-corpuscles 
of the animal in the serum of which it circulates. 

autolysis (aw-tol'-is-is) [see autolysin]. 1. Self- 
digestion of tissues within the living body. 2. The 
chemical splitting-up of the tissue of an organ by the 
action of an enzyme peculiar to it. 3. The hemolytic 
action of the blood-serum of an animal upon its own 

autolytic (aw-to-lit'-ik). Relating to autolysis. 

automatic (aw-to-mat'-ik) [avrop-ari^eiv, to act 
spontaneously]. Performed without the influence of 
the will. 




automatism (aw-lom'-at-izm) [see automatic]. The 
performance of acts without apparent volition, as 
seen in certain somnambulists and in some hysterical 
and epileptic patients, a., epileptic. See auto- 

automatograph (aw-to-mat'-o-graf) [avropari^eiv, 
to act spontaneously; ypa<fieZv, to record]. An instru- 
ment for registering involuntary movements. 

automaton (aw-tom'-at-on) [avrbp-aros, spontane- 
ous]. One who acts in an involuntary or mechanical 

automixis (aw-to-miks'-is) [auto-; /u'£«, mixture]. 
Same as autogamy. 

automysophobia (aw-to-mis-o-fo'-be-ah) [auto-; 
nv<ros, filth; <£6/3os, fear]. Insane dread of personal 

autonephrectomy (aw-to-nef-rek'-to-me) [auto; 
ve<t>pos, kidney; Uropi], excision]. Complete stricture 
of the ureter so that no urine flows from the kidney 
to the bladder. 

autonomic, autonomous {aw-ton-om'-ik, -ion'-om- 
us) [auto-; vopos, law]. Independent in origin, action, 
or function; self-governing, a. nervous system, the 
sympathetic nervous system supplying involuntary 
muscle fibers, secreting glands, and arterioles. 

autonomy (aw-ton'-o-me) [see autonomous]. Inde- 

autoophthalmoscope (aw-to-of-thal'-mo-skop). See 

autopathic (aw-to-path'-ik) [auto-; ir6£os, suffering]. 
The same as endopathic or idiopathic. 

autopepsia (aw-to-pep'-se-ah) [auto-; ireirreiv, to 
digest]. Autodigestion. 

autophagia (aw-to-fa'-je-ah) [auto-; <payeiv, to 
eat]. i. Self -consumption; emaciation. 2. The 
biting of one's own flesh. 

autophagy (aw-tof.-a-je). See autophagia. 
autophilia (aw-to-fil'-e-ah) [auto-; 4>i\elv, to love]. 
Morbid self-esteem. 

autophobia (aw-to-fo' -be-ah) [auto-; <p6(3os, fear]. 
A morbid dread of one's self or of solitude. 

autophonia (aw-to-fo'-ne-ah). 1. See autophony. 
2. [auto-; 06ws, murder]. Suicide. 

autophonomania (aw-to-fo-no-ma'-ne-ah) [avTo<povia, 
suicide; p.avla, madness]. Suicidal mania. 

autophonous (aw-tof'-on-us) [auto-; (puvri, voice]. 
Having the character of autophony. 

autophony (aw-tof'-o-ne) [see autophonous], 1. The 
auscultation of the physician's own voice through 
the patient's chest. 2. The condition in which one's 
own voice appears changed. It may be due to 
chronic inflammation of the ear or to other causes. 

autophthalmoscope (aw-toff-thal'-mo-skop). An 
ophthalmoscope for examining one's own eye. 

autophthalmoscopy (aw-tof-thal-mos' -ko-pe) [auto-; 
6<j>da\p6s, the eye; o-Koireiv, to see]. Examination of 
one's own eye with the ophthalmoscope. 

autoplasty (aw'-to-plas-te) [auto-; ir\a<r<T(iv, to 
form]. A method of repairing the effects of a wound 
or lesion involving loss of tissue by grafting or 
implanting fresh parts taken from other portions 
of the patient's body. 

autopsy (aw'-top-se) [auto-; o^is, a seeing]. The 
postmortem examination. 

autopsychorrhythmia (aw-to-si-kor-rith' -me-ah) 

[auto-; \pvxh, mind; frvdpos, rhythm], A morbid 
rhythmic activity of the brain; it is a symptom of 
grave insanity. 

autoscope (aw'-to-skop) [auto-; oko-kHv, to see]. 
An instrument arranged for the examination of one's 
own organs by one's self. 

autoscopy (aw-tos' '-ko-pe) [see autoscope]. The 
examination of one's own organs by means of an 

autoserotherapy (aw-to-se-ro-ther'-ap-e) [auto-; ser- 
um; therapy]. Treatment of a disease (such as 
pleurisy) by means of a serum obtained from the 
patient himself. 

autoserum (aw-to-se'-rum) [auto-; serum], A 
therapeutic serum which is obtained from the 
patient on whom it is used. 

autosite (aw'-to-sit) [auto-; <t~itos, food]. 1. A 
monster capable of an independent existence after 
birth. 2. That member of a double fetal mon- 
strosity that nourishes itself by its own organs and 
also the other member, which is called the parasite. 
autositic (aw-to-sit'-ik) [see autosite]. Of the nature 
of an autosite. 

autospermotoxin (aw-to-spurm-o-toks'-in) [auto-; 
virepua, seed; to^lkov, poison]. A specific substance 

produced in the blood-serum of an animal by intra- 
venous injection of spermatozoa of another animal, 
and which renders the serum of the treated animal 
toxic for the spermatozoa of both. 

autosterilization (aw-to-ster-il-iz-a'-shun) [auto-; 
sterilization]. Sterilization effected by the normal 
fluids of the body. 

autostethoscope (aw-to-steth' -o-skop) [auto-; arfjOos, 
the chest; aKoirelv, to examine]. A stethoscope so 
arranged that by it one may listen to his own chest- 

autosuggestibility (aw-to-suj-es-tib-il'-it-e). That 
mental state with loss of will, in which auto sug- 
gestion easily occurs. 

autosuggestion (aw-to-suj-es'-chun) [auto-; sug- 
gestio, an intimation]. A peculiar mental condition, 
often developing after accidents, especially railway 
accidents; it is intimately associated with the hyp- 
notic state. In both of these conditions the mental 
spontaneity, the will, or the judgment is more or 
less suppressed or obscured, and suggestions become 
easy. Thus the slightest traumatic action directed 
to any member may become the occasion of a paraly- 
sis, of a contracture, or of an arthralgia. Syn., trau- 
matic suggestion. 

autotemnous (aw-to-tem'-nus) [auto-; self; repveiv, 
to cut]. Capable of spontaneous division. 

autotherapy (aw-to-ther'-a-pe) [auto-; depaweia, 
treatment]. The spontaneous or self-cure of a 

autotomy (aw-tot'-o-me) [auto-; roprj, a cutting]. 
1. Self-division; fission. 2. The performance of a 
surgical operation upon one's own body. 

autotoxemia (aw-to-toks-e'-me-ah) [auto-; to^ikov, 
a poison; alp.a, blood]. Toxemia from poisons 
derived from the organism itself. 

autotoxicosis (aw-to-toks-ik-o'-sis) [auto-; to£ik6v, 
poison]. The symptoms due to autotoxemia. 

autotoxin (aw-to-toks' -in) [auto-; to^kov, a poison]. 
Any poisonous product of tissue-metamorphosis. 

autotoxis (aw-to-toks f -is) [auto-; to£ik6v, poison]. 
Self -poisoning through the absorption of noxious prod- 
ucts of katabolism, as in uremia. Cf . autointoxication. 
autotransfusion (aw-to-lrans-fu'-zhun) [auto-; trans- 
fusio, a pouring-out or forth]. The transfer of the 
blood to the brain and other central organs by 
elevating the hips and legs and by the use of elastic 
bandages compressing the limbs. 

autotransplantation (aw-to-trans-plan-ta'-shun) 
[auto-: transplantation]. The operation of trans- 
planting to a part of the body tissue taken from 
another part of the same body. 

autotrophic (aw-to-trof'-ik) [avros, self; rpo<pr\, 
nutrition]. Self-nourishing. A term applied to 
those forms of bacteria which do not require organic 
carbon and nitrogen, but are able to form carbo- 
hydrates and protein out of carbon dioxide and 
inorganic salts. 

autotuberculin (au-to-tu-ber' -ku-lin) . Tuberculin 
prepared from a patient's own sputum. 

autotyphization (aw-to-ti-fiz-a'-shun) [auto-; ty- 
phoid]. The production of a condition resembling 
typhoid fever from faulty elimination of waste- 

autovaccination (aw-to-vaks-in-a'-shun) [auto-; vac- 
cinare, to vaccinate]. The reinsertion of fresh 
vaccine lymph upon the same person from whom it 
is taken. 

autumn catarrh. Synonym of hay-fever, since it is 
apt to occur in the autumn or the fall of the year. 

autumnal (aw-tum'-nal) [autumn]. Pertaining to 
the fall of the year. a. fever. Synonym of typhoid 

auxanogram (awks-an'-o-gram) [av^aveiv, to grow; 
ypa<t>eiv, to write]. A pure plate culture of microbes 
which has been prepared by Beyerinck's auxano- 
graphic method in which the colonies indicate which 
one of several nutrient media is best suited to their 

auxanographic (awks-an-o-graf'-ik). Pertaining to 

auxanography (awks-an-og'-ra-fe). A method 
devised by Beyerinck for ascertaining the nutrient- 
mediums suitable for a growing microbe. Plate 
cultures of poor mediums (e. g., 10 % gelatin or 2 % 
agar in distilled water) are stippled with drops of 
solutions the nutrient properties of which are to be 
tested. The species of microbe under examination 
will then develop strong colonies only on those spots 
where the requisite pabulum is present. 




auxanology (awks-an-ol'-o-je) [av£aveiv, to grow; 
\6yos, science]. The study of growth. 

auxanometer (awks-an-om' -et-er) [av^aveiv, to 
grow; nerpop, a measure]. An instrument used in 
biological study for measuring the growth of young 
organisms. *> 

auxe (awks'-e) [av^rj, increase]. Enlargement in 
bulk or volume. 

auxesis (awks-e'-sis) [avfyais, enlargement]. In- 
crease in size or bulk. Hypertrophy is a word often 
incorrectly used where auxesis is meant. 

auxetic (awks-et'-ik) [See auxesis]. i. Char- 
acterized by auxesis. 2. Increase in size or bulk. 
3. An exciter of reproduction; an agent which causes 
proliferation of human cells, especially leukocytes. 
See in vitro. 

auxiliary (awks-il'-e-a-re) [auxilium]. 1. Aiding. 

2. An adjuvant, auxiliaries of respiration, those 
muscles brought into action in difficult respiration. 

auxilium (awks-il'-e-um) [L., "help"]. A wheeled 
vehicle or ambulance with couch and mattresses, 
for use in the service of field military hospitals. 

auxocardia (awks-o-kar'-de-ah) [avfr, an increase; 
napUa, the heart]. The normal increase of the 
volume of the heart during diastole, in distinction 
from meiocardia, the diminution during systole. 

auxochrome (awks'-o-krom) [avfav, increase; 
XpwM«. color]. 1. That which increases color. 2. A 
term applied to a chemical group which, if added to 
a chromophore group will produce a dye. 

auxocyte (awks'-o-sit) [av^eiv, to increase; kvtos, 
a cell]. A cell which is concerned in growth or 

auxometer (awks-om' -et-er) [avfav, to grow; 
fierpov, a measure]. 1. A device for estimating the 
magnifying power of lenses. 2. See auxanometer. 

3. A dynamometer. Syn., auxemeter; auxenometer ; 
auxesimeter ; auxiometer; auzometer. 

auxospore (awks'-o-spor) [avfav, to grow; airopos, 
seed, offspring]. A large spore produced, either 
asexually, or by conjugation, in the Diatomacece. 

auxotonic (awks-o-ton'-ik) [av&iv, to grow; tow, 
tension]. Determined by growth, a.' movements, 
movements due to growth rather than to stimulation. 

auzometer {aw-zom' -et-ur) . See auxometer. 

Av. Abbreviation for avoirdupois weight; see 
weights and measures. 

ava, ava-kava (ah'-vah, ah-vah-kah'-vah). See 

avaism (ah'-vah-izm). A malady from abuse of 
kava, resembling absinthism. 

avalanche theory. Pfliiger's theory that nerve- 
energy gathers intensity as it passes toward the 

avalent (ah-va'-lent) [&, priv.; valence]. Without 

avalvular (ah-val '-vu-lar) [a, priv.; valvula, a valve]. 
Lacking valves. 

avascular (ah-vas'-ku-lar) [&, priv.; vas, a vessel]. 
Without blood; not possessing blood-vessels. 

avascularization {ah-vas-ku-lar-iz-a'-shun). The 
ace of rendering a part bloodless, as by compression 
or bandaging. 

avascularize (ah-vas'-ku-lar-iz) . To render blood- 

Avellis' symptom-complex (ah-vel'-lis) [Georg 
Avellis, German laryngologist, 1864- ]• Paralysis 
of one-half of the soft palate, associated with a 
recurrent paralysis on the same side. 

Avena (av-e'-nah) [L.J. A genus of plants. Oats. 
Avena farina, oatmeal. A. sativa, the embryo of the 
seed of the common oat-plant. It contains starch, 
gluten, a ferment called diastase, and a small amount 
of alkaline phosphates, and is a nutritious food. 
Dose of the concentrated tincture or fluidextract 10 
min.-2 dr. (0.65-8.0 Cc). The pericarp contains an 
alkaloid possessed of slight narcotic powers. 

avenin (av-e'-nin) [avena]. 1. A precipitate made 
from a tincture of Avena sativa, or the oat. It is a 
nerve-stimulant and tonic. 2. A nitrogenous prin- 
ciple obtained from the oat, and nearly identical 
with legumin; the gluten-casein of oats. 

avenious, avenous (ah-ve'-ne-us, ah-ve'-nus) [&, 
priv.; vena, vein]. Lacking veins. 

avenolith (av-en'-o-lith) [avena; Xt0os, stone]. An 
intestinal calculus formed around a grain of oats. 

aversion (av-ur'-shun) [avertere, to turn aside], 
1. A turning aside, as in the displacement of an 
organ or in metastasis. 2. Nausea. 

avidity (av-id'-it-e) [avidus, greedy]. In chemistry, 

the tendency of certain weak acids, in suitable con- 
ditions, to dispossess even the strongest acids and to 
unite with their bases. 

avirulent {ah-vir' -it-lent) [&, priv.; virus, a poison]. 
Without virulence. 

avitaminosis (ah-vi-lam-in-o'-sis) [&, priv.; vita- 
mine]. A disease resulting from deficiency of vita- 
mines in the diet. 

Avogadro's law [Amadeo Avogadro, Italian physi- 
cist, 1 7 76-1 856]. Equal volumes of all gases and 
vapors, at like temperature and pressure, contain 
an equal number of molecules. 

avoirdupois weight {av-or-du-pois'). See weights 
and measures. 

avulsio, avulsion (av-ul'-se-o, -shun) [avellere, to 
tear away]. A tearing or wrenching away of a part, 
as a polyp, a limb, etc. a. bulbi, avulsion of the 
bulb, separation of the pupil from its attachments in 
consequence of complete or almost complete rupture 
of the tendons of the optic muscles and nerves. 

axanthopsia {ah-zan-thop' -se-ah) [&, priv.; £avdos, 
yellow; oipis, vision]. Yellow-blindness. 

Axenf eld's test for albumin in urine {ahks' -en-felt) 
[David Axenfeld, German physiologist]. Acidulate 
with formic acid and add, drop by drop, a 0.1 % 
solution of gold chloride, and warm. If albumin is 
present, the solution becomes red, then purplish, 
and on the addition of more gold chloride, blue. 
The blue color is also produced by glucose, starch, 
tyrosin, uric acid, urea, leucin, etc., but the red 
color is characteristic of albumin. 

axial (aks'-e-al) [axis]. Pertaining to or situated 
in an axis. a. current, the column of red corpuscles 
which, by reason of the weight of the cells, occupies 
the center or axis of the blood-stream, a. hyperopia. 
See hyperopia, axial, a. neuritis, inflammation of a 
nerve axis. a. stream. See a. current. 

axifugal {aks-if -u-gal) [axis; fugere, to flee]. 

axilemma (aks-il-em'-ah) [axis; \kpp.a, husk; skin]. 
An elastic sheath composed of neurokeratin, inclosing 
the axis-cylinder of medullated nerve-fibers. 

axilla (aks-il'-ah) [L.]. 1. The armpit. 2. The 
prominence of the shoulder. 

axillary (aks'-il-a-re) [axilla]. Pertaining to the 
axilla, a. artery, the continuation of the subclavian 
artery, extending from the lower border of the first 
rib to the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle, 
where it becomes the brachial. See under artery. 
a. glands, the lymphatic glands in the axilla, a. 
plexus, the brachial plexus, formed by the last three 
cervical and the first dorsal nerves, a. region, a. 
space, the irregular conical space of the axilla. 
a. vein, a continuation of the brachial vein, corre- 
sponding with the artery and terminating in the 
subclavian vein. 

axin (aks'-in) [axinus], A fatty and varnish-like 
substance produced in Mexico by an insect, Coccus 
axinus. It is used in the arts and locally in medicine, 
being regarded as a good vulnerary and resolvent. 

axioplasm {aks'-e-o-plazm). See axoplasm. 

axipetal (aks-ip'-et-al) [axis; petere, to seek]. 
Centripetal; applied to the transmission of impulses 
toward an axone. 

axis (aks'-is) [L., "axletree"]. 1. An imaginary 
line passing through the center of a body. 2. The 
second cervical vertebra. 3- A short artery which 
breaks up into several branches, e. g., thyroid axis, 
celiac axis. See under artery, a., basicranial, in 
cramometry, a line drawn from the basion to the 
middle of the ante'rior border of the cerebral surface 
of the sphenoid bone, a., basifacial, in craniometry, 
a line drawn from the anterior border of the cerebral 
surface of the sphenoid to the alveolar point, a., 
binauricular, in craniometry, the imaginary line 
joining the two auricular points, a., brain,, the 
isthmus, a. celiac, same as celiac artery; see table of 
arteries. &., cerebrospinal, the central nervous 
system, a.-cord. See primitive streak, a.-corpus- 
cle. See corpuscle, axile. a., craniofacial, in com- 
parative anatomy the bones making the floor of 
the cranial cavity, a.-cylindef, the conducting or 
essential part of a nerve. Syn., axis-cylinder of 
Purkinje. a.-cylinder process, that one of the 
protoplasmic processes of a nerve-cell which becomes 
an axis-cylinder, a., electric, a. line connecting the 
two poles of an electric body, a., frontal (of the 
eye), an imaginary line running through the eyeball 
from right to left, and corresponding with the move- 
ments of elevation and depression of the eyeball. 




a., hemal, the aorta, a., magnetic, a line connecting 
the two poles of a magnet, a. neural, the cerebro- 
spinal axis, a., optic, i. The line from the center 
of the cornea to the macula lutea. 2. An imaginary 
line passing from the center of the eye-piece of a 
microscope through the body, objective, stage, and 
substage, to the mirror, a., pelvic, an imaginary 
line passing through all the median anteroposterior 
diameters of the pelvic canal at their centers, a., 
sagittal (of the eye), an imaginary line running 
through the eyeball from before backward, and 
coinciding with the line of vision, a.-traction, 
traction on the fetus in the axis of the pelvis, a.- 
traction forceps, a forceps for performing axis- 
traction, a. uteri. 1. The long diameter of the 
uterus. 2. A line imagined to pass transversely 
through the uterus near its junction with the cervix, 
on which it is said to turn in retroversion, a., visual, 
the line from the object through the nodal point to 
the macula. 

axite (aks'-it) [axis]. Gowers' name for the 
terminal filaments of the axis-cylinder. 

axle teeth (aks'-l teth). See azzle teeth. 

axo- (aks-o-) [axis]. A prefix meaning axis. 

axodendrite (aks-o-den'-drit) [axo-; bkvbpov, a tree]. 
Lenhossek's term for a nonmedullated, axopetally 
conducting side fibril" on the axons, as distinguished 
from a cytodendrite or one of the true medullated, 
cellulifugal collaterals. 

axofugal (ak-so-fu'-gal) [axo-; fugere, to flee from]. 
Directed away from an axis cylinder process. 

axoid (aks'-oid) [axo-; eI5oj, likeness]. 1. Shaped 
like a pivot. 2. Relating to the second cervical 

axolemma. Jfee axilemma. 

axolysis {aks-ol'-is-is) [axon; Xixus, solution]. 
Destruction of an axis cylinder. 

axometer (aks-om'-et-ur) [axo-; p.krpov, measure]. 
An instrument used to adjust properly the axes of 
spectacles to the eyes. 

axon, axone (aks'-on) [axis]. 1. The body -axis. 
2. An unbranched nerve-cell process of the second 
order. See dendrite. 3. The cerebrospinal axis. 
4. Kolliker's term for neurite. a. degeneration, dis- 
integration and loss of function of the axis-cylinder. 
a. hillock, the pyramidal projection of the nerve-cell 
protoplasm from which the axon issues. 

axoneuron (aks-o-nu'-ron) [axo-; vevpov, nerve]. 
A neuron the cell-body (nerve-cell) of which lies in 
the interior of the brain or the spinal cord. The axo- 
neurons are classified as rhizoneurons and the endaxo- 

axonometer (aks-o-nom' -et-er) [axo-; pkrpov, a 
measure]. 1. An instrument used for locating the 
axis of astigmatism. 2. An apparatus for determining 
the axis of a cylinder. 

axopetal (aks-op'-et-al). See axipetal. 

axoplasm (aks'-o-plazm) [axis; ir\a<rp.a, a thing 
molded]. Waldeyer's term for the delicate stroma 
of reticular substance holding together the fine 
fibrillae of the axis-cylinders. Syn., neuroplasm. 

axospongium (aks-o-spun'-je-um) [axo-; avoyyos, a 
sponge]. Held's term for the reticular structure of 
the axis-cylinder. 

axungia (aks-un'-je-ah) [L.]. Fat; lard; adeps. 
axungise lunae, a variety of calcium carbonate, 
axungiae vitri, salt of glass; a scum forming on the 
surface of molten glass. It is applied as a desiccative 
and detergent. 

ayapana, ayapano. The South American name for 
the leaves of the herb Eupatorium triplinerve, of 
tropical America. It is stimulant, diaphoretic, and 
tonic, and is used in infusion externally for wounds 
and abscesses, internally for gastric disorders, and is 
recommended as a substitute for tea, coffee, and 

azalein (az-a'-le-in). See fuchsin. 

azedarach (az-ed'-ar-ak) [Pers., azad, free; dirakht, 
a tree]. Pride of China, the bark of Melia azedarach, 
an Asiatic tree naturalized in the southern United 
States. It occurs in curved pieces or quills, having a 
sweetish taste. A decoction, \ oz. to 1 pint, is used 

as an anthelmintic against the roundworm. Dose 
\-i oz. (15-30 Cc). Dose of the fluidextract 1 dr. 
(4 Gin.); of the tincture, 1 to 8, \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). 

azerin (az'-er-in) [a, priv.; Zvpos, dry]. A ferment 
analogous to ptyalin and found in the digestive 
secretions of Drosera, Nepenthes, and probably all 
other insectivorous plants. 

azoamyly (ah-zo-am'-il-e) [a, priv.; £u>ov, animal; 
ap.v\oi>, starch]. The inability of the cell (hepatic) 
to store up the normal amount of glycogen. 

azobenzene (az-o-ben'-zen) [azote, nicrogen; ben- 
zene], C12H10N2. A compound formed by the action 
of sodium amalgam upon the alcoholic solution of 
nitrobenzene. It forms orange-red, rhombic crystals, 
readily soluble in alcohol and ether, but sparingly 
soluble in water. It melts at 68° and distils at 293 . 

azobenzoid (az-o-ben'-zo-id). An amorphous white 
powder derived from oil of bitter almonds by action 
of ammonia. 

azo-compound. In chemistry, a compound con- 
taining the group — N =N — united to two hydro- 
carbon groups; a compound intermediate between the 
nitro-compounds and the amido-compounds, and 
made from the former by partial reduction, or from 
the latter by partial oxidation. 

azoic (ah-zo'-ik) [a, priv.; fo>i7, life]. 1. Destitute 
of living organisms. 2. Relating to nitrogen; azotic; 

azolitmin (az-o-lit'-min) [a, priv.; £0017, life; litmus], 
C-H7NO4. A deep blood-red coloring-matter ob- 
tained from litmus. 

azomethane (az-o-meth-an') . Hydrocyanic acid. 

azoospermia (ah-zo-o-sper' -me-ah) [a, priv.: f^, 
life; awkppa, seed]. Absence of, or deficient vitality 
of, the spermatozoa. 

azoresorcin {az-o-rez-or'-sin) [a, priv.; £017, life; 
resorcinol], C12H9NO4. A derivative of resorcinol, 
occurring as dark-red and greenish crystals. 

azotation (az-o-ta'-shun). The assimilation of 
nitrogen from the air by organisms. 

azote iaz'-ol) [&, priv.; fu^, life]. A synonym of 

azotemia {az-o-ie' -me-ah) [azote; alpa, blood]. 
The presence of nitrogenous compounds in the 
blood; uremia. 

azotenesis {az-o-ten-e'-sis) [azote]. Any one of a 
class of diseases said to be due to a superabundance 
of nitrogen in the system, such as scurvy. 

azotic acid. Nitric acid. 

azotiodic (az-ot-i-o'-dik). Containing nitrogen and 

azotized (az'-ot-lzd) [azote]. Xitrogenized; con- 
taining nitrogen. 

azotobacter (az-o'-to-bak-ter). A class of large 
aerobic bacteria, capable of fixing free nitrogen from 
the air. They are found in the soil. 

azotometer (az-o-tom'-et-er) [azote; pkrpov, a meas- 
ure]. A device for the measurement of nitrogen. 

azotorrhea {az-o-to-re'-ah) [azote; pola, flow]. Ex- 
cess of nitrogenous matter in the urine or feces. 

azoturia (az-o-tu'-re-ah) [azote; ovpov, urine]. An 
increase of the urea and urates in the urine. 

azoxybenzene {az-oks-e-ben' -zen) [azote; 6££>s, sharp; 
benzene], C12H10N2O. A compound obtained by the 
reduction of nitrobenzene. It forms long 3-ellow 
needles, easily soluble in alcohol and ether, but not 
in water. 

azulene {az'-u-len). Same as cerulein. 

azyges (az'-ij-es) [dfiryifr, unwedded]. The 
sphenoid bone. 

azygos (az'-ig-os) [a, priv.; $vy6v, a yoke]. Applied 
to parts that are single, not in pairs, a. uvulae, a 
small muscle of the uvula, a. veins. See veins. 

azygous (az'-ig-us) [see azygos]. Not paired. 

azymia (ah-zi' -me-ah) [a, priv.; Ju/«?. a ferment]. 
Absence of ferment. 

azymic (ah-zi'-mik) [a, priv.; fiv«7,.a ferment]. 
Not giving rise to fermentation. 

azymous (az'-i-mus) [a, priv.; ^vprj, a ferment]. 

• azzle teeth (az'-l) [E. dial., assal teeth]. A name 
given to the molar teeth. 


B. i. The chemical symbo 1 of boron. 2. Abbrevi- 
ation for Beaume's hydrometer; also of Bacillus, and 

Ba. The chemical symbol of barium. 

B.A. Abbreviation of Bachelor of Arts. 

Babbit metal (bab'-it). An antifriction alloy com- 
posed of 8 parts of tin, 2 of antimony, and 1 of 
copper. Also used occasionally in dentistry. 

Babes-Ernst's bodies [Victor Babes, Roumanian 
bacteriologist, 1854- '■> Paul Ernst, German 
pathologist, 1859- ]. Bodies found in bacteria, 
especially those derived from animal bodies or 
secretions; they stain more deeply than the rest of 
the cytoplasm. 

Babesia (ba-be'-ze-ah) [Victor Babes, Roumanian 
bacteriologist, 1854- ]• Same as Piroplasma. 

babesiosis (Jba-be-se-o'-sis). Infection with babesia. 
Same as piroplasmosis. 

Babinski's phenomenon, B.'s reflex (ba-bin'-ske) 
[Jules Babinski, French neurologist, 1857- ]. Ex- 
tension, instead of flexion, of the toes on exciting the 
sole of the foot; it is connected with a lesion of the 
pyramidal tract, and is found in organic, but not in 
hysterical, hemiplegia. Syn., phinomene des orteils. 
B.'s sign, diminution or absence of the Achilles 
tendon reflex in true sciatica as distinguished from 
hysterical sciatica. 

bablabs, bablah (bab'-labz, -lah). The pods of 
Acacia arabica and several other species; they are 
used in coughs; the seeds contain 20 % of tannin. 

babool, babul bark (ba-bool'). The astringent, 
tonic bark of the babul tree, A cacia arabica, of India. 

baby (Jba'-be). An infant, a newborn child, b.- 
farm. An institution for raising orphan and pauper 
infants, b.-farming, the business of receiving and 
caring for the infants of those who, for any reason, 
may be unable or unwilling to bring up their own 

bacca (bak'-ka) [L.]. A berry. 

Baccefli's method (Jbat-chel'-le) [Guido Baccelli, 
Italian physician, 1832- ]. 1. In echinococcus 
cysts of the liver: aspiration is done on several 
consecutive days, and washings made with a 1 : 1000 
solution of mercury bichloride and a 1 : 100 salt 
solution. 2. In tetanus: hypodermatic injection of a 
solution of phenol. B.'s sign, aphonic pectoriloquy. 
The whispered voice is transmitted through a serous, 
but not through a purulent, pleuritic exudate. 

baccharine (bak'-ar-in). A poisonous alkaloid ob- 
tained from Baccharis coridifolia. 

Baccharis (Jbak'-ar-is) [fiaxKapis, a fragrant herb]. 
A genus of composite trees. B. halimifolia, the 
groundsel-tree, is a shrub of North America. A 
decoction of the leaves and bark is a popular demul- 
cent and pectoral medicine. B. pilularis, kidney 
plant, a native of the Pacific coast of the United 
States, is used in cystitis. 

bacchia (bak'-e-ah, or bak-i'-ah) [Bacchus, the god 
of wine]. A synonym of acne rosacea, a condition 
often found in drunkards, b. rosacea. Synonym of 
acne rosacea. 

bacciform (bak' -si-form) [bacca; forma, form]. 
Berry -shaped. 

Bach's reagent for hydrogen dioxide. This 
consists of two solutions: (a) 0.03 potassium dichro- 
mate and 5 drops of aniline in 1 liter of water; (6) 5 % 
oxalic acid solution. Shake 5 Cc. of the solution to 
be tested with 5 Cc. of solution a and 1 drop of 
solution b; in the presence of hydrogen dioxide a 
violet-red color results. 

bacillac (bas'-il-ak). Trade name of a preparation 
of milk which has been soured by the lactobacillus. 

bacillar, or bacillary (bas'-il-ar; bas'-il-a-re) 
[bacillus]. I. Relating to bacilli or to a bacillus. 2. 
Consisting of or containing rods. 

bacillemia, bacillaemia (bas-il-e'-me-ah) [bacillus; 
dlfia, blood]. The presence of bacilli in the blood. 

bacilli (bas-il'-i) [bacillus]. 1. Plural of bacillus, 

q. v. 2. In pharmacy, cylindrical lozenges made by 
cutting the lozenge mass, and rolling it into a soft 
cylinder, on a pill-machine. 

bacilli-carrier. A person who is apparently in good 
health but who has pathogenic bacteria (such as 
typhoid) in his tissues or secretions and so is able 
to spread the disease. 

bacillicidal (bas-il-is-id 1 '-al) [bacillus, a rod; 
ccedere, to kill]. Destructive to bacilli. 

bacillicide (Jbas-il'-is-id) [bacillus, a rod; ccedere, 
to kill]. 1. Destructive to bacilli. 2. An agent that 
destroys bacilli. 

baciiliculture (bas-il-e-kul'-chur) [bacillus, a rod; 
cultura, cultivation]. 1. The, artificial culture of 
bacilli for the purpose of studying their nature and 
life. 2. A culture containing bacilli. 

bacilliform (bas-il'-if-orm) [bacillus; forma, form]. 
Having the shape or appearance of a bacillus. 

bacilliparous (Jbas-il-Hp'-ar-us) [bacillus; parere, 
to produce]. Producing bacilli. 

bacillogenous (bas-il-oj'-en-us) [bacillus; generare, 
to beget]. Due to bacilli; producing bacilli. 

bacillol {bas'-il-ol). A coal-tar distillation-product 
resembling lysol, its active property being due to 
cresols, of which it contains 52 %. It is an oily 
fluid, of faint alkaline reaction, dark-brown color, 
and odor of pitch, readily soluble in water, with sp. 
gr. of 1. 100, and bactericidal in dilute solution. 
In veterinary practice it is used in 2 % solution. 

bacillophobia (bas-il-o-fo'-be-ah) [bacillus; <j>6fios, 
fear]. Morbid fear of microbes. 

bacillosis (bas-il-o' '-sis) [bacillus]. The condition 
caused by infection with bacilli. 

bacilluria (Jbas-il-u'-re-ah) [bacillus; ovpov, urine]. 
The discharge of urine containing bacilli. 

bacillus (Jbas-il'-us) [dim. of baculus, a rod; pi., 
bacilli]. 1. A genus of the Schizomycetes comprising 
the rod-shaped forms of bacteria. 2. An individual 
of the genus Bacillus. 3. A medicated rod or bougie. 
4. Any rod-like body, or, specifically, one of the 
retinal rods. See Bacilli table of, page in. 

bacillus carrier. See bacilli-carrier. 

back (bak) [ME., bak]. Dorsum; posterior aspect.- 
b.-airing, a term used in hygiene to designate the 
admission of fresh air to traps by means of a separate 
ventilating pipe of small diameter, b.-rest, a cloth- 
covered frame adjusted to any height by means of 
braces and ratchets, designed to relieve bedridden 

backache (bak'-ak). Pain in the back. 

backbone (bak'-bon). The vertebral column. 

backset. A relapse of a disease. 

bacony infiltration (ba'-kon-e in-fil-tra'-shun). 
Same as amyloid degeneration. 

bacteria (bak-te'-re-ah). Plural of bacterium 
(<Z- v.). 

Bacteriaceae (bak-te-re-a'-se-e) [bacteria]. The 

bacterial (bak-te'-re-al). Resembling, of the nature 
of, or derived from bacteria, b. vaccine. See 

bactericidal (bak-te-ris-id'-al) [bacteria; ccedere, to 
kill]. Destructive to bacteria. 

bactericide (Jbak-te'-ris-id) [bacteria; ccedere, to 
kill], 1. Destructive to bacteria. 2. An agent 
that destroys bacteria. 

bacteridium (bak-ter-id'-e-um) [paKT-hpiov, a little 
stick]. A genus of Bacteriacece characterized by 
immobility of the elements at all periods of their 
existence (Davaine). The distinction does not now 

bacteriemia (bak-te-re-e'-me-ah). The presence of 
bacteria in the blood. 

bacteriform (bak-te' -re-form) [bacterium; forma, 
form]. Shaped like a bacterium. 

bacterination (Jbak-ler-in-a'-shun). Inoculation 
with bacterial vaccines. 

bacterine (bak'-ter-en). Any vaccine prepared 






B. abortus 

B. aceti or aceticus 

B. of Achalme 

B. acidi lactici (Hueppe) 

B. acidi laevolactici (Schardinger) .... 
B. acidificans longissimus (Lafar) .... 

B. acidiformans (Sternberg) 

B. adhaesioformans 

B. aerogenes, I, II, III (Miller) 

B. aerogenes capsulatus (Welch and 

B. aerogenes meningitidis (Cantini) . . 

B. aerophilus (Liborius) . .• 

B. albicans pateriformis 

B. albuminis (Bienstock) 

B. albus (Eisenberg) 

B. albus anaerobiescens (Vaughan) . . 
B. albus cadaveris (Strassmann and 


B. albus putidus (Maschek) 

B. alkaligenes 

B. of Allantiasis (Miiller) 

B. allantoides (Klein) 

B. allii (Griffiths) 

B. of Alopecia Areata (Kasauli and 


B. alvei (Cheshire and Cheyne) 

B. amylobacter (Grueber) 

B. amylobacter (Van Senus) 

B. amylobacter (Van Tieghem) 

B. amylovorus (Burrill) 

B. "amylozyme" (Perdrix) 

B. anaerobicus liquefaciens (Sternberg) 

B. antenniformis (Ravenel) 

B. anthracis (Rayer and Davaine) 

B. anthracis claviformis (Chauveau 
and Phisalix). 

B. aquaticus liquefaciens (Podrowsky) 

B. aquatilis (Lustig) 

B. aquatilis (P. and G. C. Frankland) . 

B. aquatilis fluorescens (Lustig) 

B. aquatilis graveolens (Tataroff) .... 

B. aquatilis radiatus (Zimmermann) . 

B. aquatilis solidus (Lustig) 

B. aquatilis sulcatus (Weichselbaum) . 

B. arborescens (P. and G. C. Frank- 

B. arborescens nonliquefaciens (Rav- 
enel) . 

B. argenteo-phosphorescens (Katz) . . . 

B. argenteo-phosphorescens liquefa- 
ciens (Katz). 

B. aromaticus (Pammel) 

B. aurantiacus (P. and G. C. Frank- 

B. aurescens (Ravennel) 

B. aureus (Adametz) 

B. avisepticus 

B. "B" (Hoffmann) 

B. baccarinii (Machiati) 

B. of Bang 

B. beri-bericus (Lacerda) 

B. berolinensis indicus (Claessen) 

B. bienstockii (Bienstock) 

B. bifidus 

B. boocopricus (Emmerling) 

B. botulinus 

B. of Bovet 

B. brassicae (Pommer) 

B. brevis (Mori) 

B. bronchicanis 

B. bronchitidis putridae (Lumnitzer) . . 
B. brunneus (Adametz and Wich- 

B. buccalis (Vignal) 

B. buccalis maximus (Miller) 

B. bulgaricus 

B. butylicus (Fitz) 

B. butyri fluorescens (Lafar) 

Where Found. 


Uterus of cow 

Air, vinegar 

Blood in acute rheumatic fever. . 


Well water 

Distillery yeast-mash 

Liver, yellow-fever cadaver 


Healthy alimentary tract 

Blood and viscera in cases of infec- 
tious emphysema. 


Air and water 

Skin in seborrhea 




Blood of cadaver 



Poisonous sausage, "Blunzen" . . . 


Decaying onions 

Hair and scalp 

Bee larvae, foul brood 


Fermenting cellulose 

Arable soil, manure 

Pear blight 

Water (Paris) 

Intestines, yellow-fever cadaver. . 


Blood in cases of anthrax, water, 

Anthrax, soil, etc 


Water (Aosta) 
Well water (Kent) , 


Water (Dorpat) . . . 



Water (Vienna) . . . 
Water (Thames) . . 


Sea-water, decaying fish . 

On cabbage leaves . 
Well water 


Air and water 

Blood of chickens 

Diseased larvae of Liparis mon- 

"Mai nero," or gummosis of 

Same as B. abortus. 

Blood in cases of beri-beri 

Water (Spree) 

Human feces 

Feces of nurselings 

Cow dung 

Pork, sausage, and other meat . . . 

Intestine in case of enteritis 

Infusions of cabbage 

Sewage (Berlin) 

In cases of canine distemper 

Cases of putrid bronchitis 


Pathogenic for mammals. 


Specificity disputed. 





Causes pericolonic adhesions. 



Zymogenic, pathogenic. 

Chromogenic (greenish-yellow). 








Pathogenic, zymogenic. 


Zymogenic, chromogenic (green) 

Pathogenic, chromogenic (brick 


Zymogenic, phyto-pathogenic. 

Pathogenesis undetermined. 
Pathogenic, zymogenic. 

Pathogenic, zymogenic. 





Chromogenic (yellowish). 




Zymogenic, chromogenic 


: Photogenic. 
! Photogenic. 


Chromoparous (red-orange). 


Chromogenic (golden-yellow). 
Pathogenic for birds, rabbits. 



Chromoparous (indigo-blue). 


Pathogenic through its toxin. 




Normal human saliva . . . 
Mouth of man, common . 


On cereals, common. . . . 
Milk, butter 


Chromogenic (golden-yellow). 

Chromoparous (green). 




TABLE OF BACILLI.— {Continued.) 


B. butyricus (Prazmowski) 

B. "C" (Foutin) 

B. cadaver is (Sternberg) 

B. canalis capsulatus (Mori) 

B. canalis parvus (Mori) 

B. candicans (Frankland) 

B. of Canestrini 

B. capsulatus (Mori) 

B. capsulatus mucosus (Fasching) 

B. capsulatus smithii (Theobald Smith) 

B. carabiformis (Kaczynsky) 

B. carnicolor (Tils) 

B. carotarum (A. Koch) 

B. caucasicus (Kern) (Syn. B. Kephir, 
Sorokin) . 

B. caulivorus (Galloway) 

B. caviar fortuitus (Sternberg) 

B. cavicidus havaniensis (Sternberg) . . 

B. cavicidus (Brieger) 

B. of Cazal and Vaillard 

B. of Chancroid (Ducrey) 

B. chauvsei (Bollinger and Feser) 

B. of Cholera in Ducks (Cornil and 

B. choleroides (Bujwid) 

B. chromo-aromaticus (Galtier) 

B. of Chyluria (Wilson) 

B. cinctus (Ravenel) 

B. circulans (Jordan) 

B. cloacae (Jordan) 

B. coeruleus (A. J. Smith) 

B. coeruleus (Voges) 

B. coli communior 

B. coli communis (Escherich) 

B. coli concentricus (Fitzpatrick) 

B. coli icteroides (Fitzpatrick) 

B. coli similis (Sternberg) 

B. of Colomiatti 

B. of Conjunctival Catarrh (Koch) . . . 

B. constrictus (Zimmermann) 

B. coprogenes fcetidus (Schottelius) . . . 
B. coprogenes parvus (Eisenberg) .... 

B. corallinus (Slater) 

B. corticallis (Haenlein) 

B. crassus aromaticus (Tataroff) 

B. crassus sputigenus (Kreibohm) 

B. cuneatus (Rivolta) 

B. cuniculicidus (Koch and Gaffky) . . 

B. cuticularis (Tils) 

B. cuticularis albus (Tataroff) 

B. cyaneo-fiuorescens (Zangemeister) . . 

B. cyaneo-fuscus (Beyerinck) 

B. cyaneo-phosphorescens (Katz) 

B. cyanogenus (Ehrenburg-Hueppe) . . . 

-B. cyanogenus (Jordan) 

B. cystiformis (Clado) 

B. "D" (Foutin) 

B. of Dantec 

B. delicatulus (Jordan) 

B. of Demme 

B. dendriticus (Bordoni-Uffreduzzi) . . . 
B. denitrificans (Giltray and Aberson) 

B. dentalis viridans (Miller) 

B. devorans (Zimmermann) 

B. dianthi (Arthur and Bolley) 

B. diatrypeticus casei (Baumann) 

B. diffusus (P. and G. C. Frankland) . . 

Where Found. 

Ropy milk, water, soil 


Yellow-fever cadaver 

Sewage (Berlin) 

Sewage (Berlin) 


Diseased bees 

Sewage (Berlin) 

Nasal secretions, influenza (man) . 

Intestines of swine 

Stomach of dog 

Water (Freiburg) 

Carrots and beets 

Kephir granules 

Potatoes and pelargoniums ...... 

Guinea-pigs, exudates after inocu- 
lation with liver of yellow-fever 

Intestine of yellow-fever cadaver. 

Human feces 

Cheesy nodules of peritoneum 
and pancreas. 

Soft chancres 

Tissues of animals with "quarter 

Blood of ducks 


Diseased pig 

Chylous urine 



Water and in corn affected with 
"Burrill's disease." 

Water (Schuylkill) 


A form of B. coli communis, but 
with different cultural proper- 

Intestines of men and animals 
(common) . 

Alimentary tract in yellow-fever 

Yellow-fever cadaver 

Human liver 

Conjunctivitis and xerotic masses 
in eye. 

Cases of "pink eye" 

Water (Chemnitz) 

Earth and intestines of hogs 

Human feces 

Atmospheric dust 

Sour pine-bark liquor 

Water (Dorpat) 

Human sputum 

Carcasses of domestic animals . . . 

Water (Panke) 

Water (Freiburg) 

Water (Dorpat) 

Blue milk 

Blue cheese ; glue 


Blue milk 


Urine in case of cystitis 


Salt codfish which has turned red. 

Water (Lawrence) 

Blood in cases of erythema nodo- 

Water (Turin) 

Soil and air 

Carious dentine 


Bacteriosis of carnations 


Soil and water 



Chromoparous (reddish-yellow). 





Pathogenic, chromogenic (pink). 





Chromogenic (flesh-color) . 


Symbiotic-cymogenic with Sac- 

charomyces kefir. 


No growth in artificial cultures. 
Pathogenic, symbiotic-zymogenic 

with Micrococcus acidi para- 


Pathogenic, methyl mercaptan 


Pathogenesis undetermined. 
Zymogenic, chromogenic (bright 

yellow) . 

Chromogenic (blue). 
Chromoparous (blue). 







Chromogenic (cadmium-yellow) 

Pathogenic, zymogenic. 


Chromoparous (coral-red). 


Zymogenic, fruit-like odor. 




Chromoparous (yellow). 


Chromoparous (blue). 

Chromoparous (blue). 

Photogenic, chromoparous 

Chromoparous (blue). 
Chromoparous (blue). 
Pathogenesis undetermined. 
Chromogenic (red). 
Zymogenic, thermophilous. 







Chromogenic (greenish-yellow). 




TABLE OF BACILLI.— (Continued.) 


Where Found. 


B. diphtheriae (Klebs and Loeffler) . . . 
B. diphtheriae columbarum (Loeffler) . . 
B. diphtheriae vitulorum (Loeffler) 
B. dysenteriae (Chantemesse and 


B. dysodes (Zopf) 

B. Eberth's. See B. typhi abdominalis. 
B. endocarditidis capsulatus (Weich- 


B. enteritidis (Gaertner) 

B. entomotoxicon (Duggar) 

B. epidermidis (Bizzozero) 

B. erodens (Ravenel) 

B. erysipelatos leporis (Koch) 

B. erysipelatos suis (Koch) | 

B. erythrosporus (Eidam) j 

B. ethaceticus (P. Frankland, Fox, | 

and Macgregor). 
B. ethaceto-succinicus (P. Frankland 

and Frew). 
B. expneumo-enteritide suis (Klein) . . . 
B. facultatus (Sadebach and Fraenkel) 

B. figurans (Vaughan) 

B. filiformis (Tils) 

B. filiformis havaniensis (Sternberg) . 

B. of Fiocca 

B. fissuratus (Ravenel) 

B. fitzianus (Zopf) 

B. flavescens (Pohl) 

B. flavocoriaceus (Adametz and Wich- 
mann) . 

B. flavus (Mace) 

B. fluorescens albus 

B. fluorescens aureus (Zimmermann) . 
B. fluorescens liquefaciens (Fluegge) . 

B. fluorescens longus (Zimmermann) . 
B. fluorescens minutissimus 

B. fluorescens nivalis (Schmolck) .... 
B. fluorescens nonliquefaciens (Eisen- 
berg and Krueger). 

B. fluorescens ovalis (Ravenel) 

B. fluorescens putidus (Fluegge) 

B. fluorescens tenuis (Zimmermann) 
B. fluorescens undulatus (Ravenel) . 

B. foetkius (Passet) 

B. foetidus lactis (Jensen) 

B. foetidus ozaenae (Hajek) 

B. formosus (Ravenel) 

B. of Fulles 

B. fulvus (Zimmermann) 

B. fuscus (Schroetter) 

Diphtheric membranes 

Diphtheric exudates in pigeons. . . 
Diphtheric exudates in calves. . . . 
Intestines in dysentery cadavers . . 


Viscera in cases of endocarditis . . . 

Intestines in allantiasis 

Diseased squash-bugs (Anasatris- 

Epidermis between toes 


Erysipelas in rabbit 

Erysipelas in hogs 

Putrefying egg-albumen, water . . . 

In a solution of ammonio-ferric 

Swine with hog cholera 

In nonmalignant pharyngeal my- 


Water (Freiburg) 

Liver of yellow-fever cadaver 

Saliva of cats and dogs 


Hay-dust, manure, soil 

Marsh water 





Air and water 


Water, decomposing infusions . 

Glacier ice and water. 
Water and in butter . 

B. fuscus (Zimmermann) 

B. fuscus limbatus (Scheibenzuber) . . 
B. gangliformis (Ravenel) 

B. gasoformans (Eisenberg) Water 

B. gaytoni (Cheshire) 

B. geminus major (Ravenel) 

B. geminus minor (Ravenel) 

B. ginglymus (Ravenel) 

B. glaucus (Maschek) 

B. "Golden-yellow Water" (Adametz 
and Wichmann). 

B. gossypinus (Stedman) 

B. gracilis (Zimmermann) 

B. gracilis anaerobiescens (Vaughan) . . 

B. gracilis cadaveris (Sternberg) 

B. granulatus (Babes) 

B. granulosus (Russell) 

B. graveolens (Bordoni-Uffreduzzi) . . . 

B. of Grouse Disease (Klein) 

B. of Guillebeau (Freudenreich) 






Milk in Jutland dairies. . 
Nasal secretions in ozena . 



Air and water 

Putrid infusions of maize. 

Air and water 

Rotten eggs, water 


Diseased honey-bees . 






B. gummosus (Happ) 

B. guttatus (Zimmermann) 
B. "h" (Rosenberg) 

Bacteriosis of cotton plant 


I Water 

Human liver 



Epidermis between toes 

; Viscera of diseased grouse 

. Ropy milk and inflamed udders of 

Ropy infusions of digitalis 


Water (Main) 




Zymogenic, pathogenic. 





Chromoparous (red). 




Pathogenesis undetermined. 





Chromoparous (yellow) . 


Chromogenic (yellow). 

Chromogenic (sulphur-yellow). 

Chromogenic (golden-yellow) . 

Chromoparous (yellow). 

Chromoparous (pale yellow). 

Zymogenic, chromoparous (fluor- 
escent green). 

Chromoparous (yellowish-green). 

Zymogenic, chromogenic (blue- 
green) . 

Chromoparous (green). 

Zymogenic, chromoparous (fluor- 
escent-green) . 


Zj'mogenic, chromoparous (yel- 

Chromoparous (greenish-yellow). 







Chromogenic (gamboge-yellow). 

Zymogenic, chromogenic (yel- 

Chromogenic (chrome-yellow). 

Chromogenic (brown). 


Zymogenic, chromogenic (dark- 
yellow) . 





Chromogenic (gray). 

Chromogenic (shining yellow). 









Zymogenic, pathogenic. 

Chromoparous (violet). 




TABLE OF BACILLI.— (Continued.) 


Where Found. 


B. halophilus (Russell) 

B. hansenii (Raspmussen) 

B. havaniensis (Sternberg) 

B. havaniensis liquefaciens (Sternberg) 

B. of Havelburg 

B. helvolus (Zimmermann) 

B. heminecrobiophilus (Arloing) 

B. hepaticus fortuitus (Sternberg) . . . . 

B. hominis capsulatus (Bordoni- 

B. of Horse-pox (Dieckerhoff and 

Grawitz) . 
B. hyacinthi septicus (Heinz) 

B. hyalinus (Jordan) . . . . 

B. hydrophilus fuscus (Sanarelli) 

B. of Ice-cream Poisoning (Vaughan 

and Perkins). 
B. icteroides (Sanarelli) 

B. of Icterus (Karlinsky and Ducamp) . 
B. ilidzensis capsulatus (Karlinsky) . . . 

B. implexus (Zimmermann) 

B. incanus (Pohl) 

B. indicus (Koch) 

B. indigoferus (Claessen) 

B. indigoferus (Voges) 

B. indigogenes (Alparez) 

B. inflatus (A. Koch) 

B. influenza? (Pfeiffer) 

B. of Intestinal Diphtheria of Rabbits 

B. intestinus motilis (Sternberg) 

B. inunctus (Pohl) 

B. invisibilis (Vaughan) 

B. iridescens (Tataroff) 

B. janthinus (Zopf) 

B. of Jefferies . . 

B. of Jequirity Ophthalmia (de Wecker 

and Sattler). 
B. of Kartulis 

B. "Kiel." See B. ruber kielensis. 

B. of Kitasato. See B. pestis bubonicce 

B. of Koubasoff 

B. lacmus (Schroeter) 

B. lactis acidi (Marpmann) 

B. lactis aerogenes (Abelous) 

B. lactis albus (Loeffler) 

B. lactis cyanogenus (Hueppe) 

B. lactis erythrogenes (Hueppe and 

B. lactis peptonans (Sterling) 

B. lactis pituitosi (Loeffler) 

B. lactis saponacei (Weigmann and 

B. lactis viscosus (Adametz) 

B. of Laser 

B. latericeus (Adametz and Wich- 
mann) . 

B. Lemon-yellow (Maschek) 

B. leporis lethalis (Gibier and Stern- 

B. leprae (Armauer and Hansen) 

B. leptosporus (L. Klein) 

B. of Lesage 

B. lethalis (Babes) 

B. of Letzerich 

B. of Lichen ruber (Laser) 

B. limbatus acidi lactici (Marpmann) , 

B. limosus (Russell) , 

B. liodermos (Loeffler) 

B. liquefaciens (Eisenberg) , 


Air and water 



Stomach of yellow-fever cadaver . 


Callous lymphatic glands hi 

Exudate of guinea-pig after in- 
oculation with liver of yellow- 
fever cadaver. 

Cadaver of a rag-picker 

Pustules of horses having acne 

White rust of hyacinth bulbs and 


Water, sewage 

Well water (Sienna) 

Ice cream and cheese . . . 

Alimentary tract, yellow-fever 

Blood in case of infectious icterus . 

Hot sulphur springs (Ilidze, Bos- 



Stomach, E. Indian ape 



Infusion of indigo-plant leaves . . . 


Air; nasal secretions in influenza . 

Intestine, yellow-fever cadaver . . . 




Water (Panke) . . . , 

Alvine discharges in summer diar- 

Infusions of jequirity seed and in 
jequirity ophthalmia. 

Conjunctiva in Egyptian catarrhal 

Carcinoma of stomach 



Alimentary tract in healthy 


Blue milk 

Red milk 

Pasteurized milk 

Slimy milk 

Soapy milk 

Water and ropy milk 

Diseased mice 



Intestines of yellow-fever cadaver 

Leprous tubercles 


Green alvine discharges in infants 
Tissues in case of septicemia .... 

Urine in nephritis 

Lymph in Lichen ruber 


Sea-water and mud 

Water and milk 

Water, frequent 


Chromogenic (yellow). 

Chromogenic (blood-red). 

Chromogenic (blood-red) . 


Chromogenic (Naples-yellow) 





Phy topathogenic . 




Pathogenic, zymogenic, produces 

Pathogenesis undetermined. 


Chromoparous (red-yellow) . 
Chromogenic (indigo-blue). 
Chromoparous (blue). 
Pathogenic, zymogenic, chromo- 
parous (indigo-blue). 




Chromogenic (greenish-yellow) . 

Zymogenic, chromoparous (vio 



Pathogenesis undetermined. 

Chromoparous (blue). 


Chromoparous (blue, triphenyl- 

rosanilin) . 
Chromoparous (red). 


Chromogenic (brick-red). 

Chromogenic (lemon-yellow). 






Pathogenesis undetermined. 








TABLE OF BACILLI.— (Continued.) 


Where Found. 


B. liquefaciens bovis (Arloing) 

B. liquefaciens communis (Sternberg) . 
B. liquefaciens lactis amari (Freuden- 

B. liquefaciens magnus (Luederitz) . . . 
B. liquefaciens parvus (Luederitz) .... 
B. liquidus (P. and G. C. Frankland) . 

B. litoralis (Russell) 

B. lividus (Plagge and Proskauer) .... 

B. lucens (Van Tieghem) 

B. of Lucet 

B. of Lungs of Cattle 

B. lupuliperda (Behrens) 

B. of Lustgarten 

B. luteus (Dobrzyniecki) 

B. luteus (Fluegge) 

B. luteus suis (Salmon and Smith) .... 
B. of Lymph in Fishes (Oliver and 

B. lyssae (Pasteur) 

B. magenta (Pearmain and Moor) .... 

B. maidis (Cuboni) 

B. malariae (Klebs and Tommasi- 

B. mallei (Loeffler) 

B. marsiliensis (Rietsch and Jobert) . . 

B. martinez (Sternberg) 

B. of Measles (Canon and Pielicke) . . . 

B. of Meconium 

B. megaterium (de Bary) 

B. megatherium (Ravenel) 

B. melanosporus (Eidam) 

B. melitensis 

B. melochloros (Winkler and Schroeter) 

B. membranaceus amethystinus (Eis- 

B. meningitidis purulent^ (Naumann 

and Schaeffer). 

B. merismopoedioides (Zopf) 

B. mesentericus fuscus (Fluegge) 

B. mesentericus niger (Biel and Lunt) . 
B. mesentericus ruber (Globig) 

B. mesentericus vulgatus (Fluegge) . . . 

B. of Miller 

B. mirabilis (Hauser) 

B. mollusci (Domenico) 

B. mucosis capsulatis (Friedlander) . . . 

B. mucosus ozaenae (Lowenberg) 

B. multiformis trichorrhexidis (Ho- 

dara) . 

B. multipediculosus (Fluegge) 

B. murisepticus (Gaffky) 

B. murisepticus pleomorphus (Karlin- 


B. muscoides (Liborius) 

B. mycoides (Fluegge) 

B. mycoides roseus (Scholl) 

B. necrophorus (Loeffler) 

B. of Necrosis of Liver in Badgers 

B. of Necrosis of Liver in Guinea-pigs 


B. of Nocard 

B. No. 41 (Conn) 

B. nodosus parvus (Lustgarten) 

B. nubilus (P. and G. C. Frankland) . . 

B. ochraceus (Zimmermann) 

B. oedematis aerobicus (Klein) ....... 

B. cedematis maligni (Pasteur, Jou- 
bert, and Chamberlain). (Vibrion 
septique of the French.) 

B. oleae (Prillieux and Bioletti) 

B. oleae tuberculosis (Savartane) 

Lungs of diseased ox 

Yellow-fever feces 

Bitter cream 

Mice inoculated with soil 

Mice inoculated with soil 

Water (Thames, common) 


Water (Berlin) 


Dysentery of fowls 


Hops that had become "warm". . 

Syphilitic lesions 

Carious teeth 


Perivisceral fluid of hogs 


Hydrophobic saliva 


Feces of pellagra patients 

Air and soil; Roman campagnia. . 

Cases of glanders 

Swine and ferrets affected with 

Liver of yellow-fever cadaver. . . . 

Blood in cases of measles 


Water and soil 




Wormy apples 

Well-water (Spolato) 

Pus in case of purulent meningitis 

Sewage, soil 

Air, water, soil, hay-dust 


Water, and on potatoes 

Air, water, milk, potatoes; fre- 

Intestinal tract of healthy persons 

Decaying animal matter 

Molluscum contagiosum 

Lungs in pneumonia infrequent . . 

Mucous membrane of nostrils 

Diseased hairs in trichorrhexis 
nodosa barba. 

Air and water 

Water (Panke) 

Uterine discharges 

Water, soil, cow-dung 

Soil, water, hail 


Eye of rabbit inoculated with 



Abscesses in cattle having farcy. . 


Healthy human urethra 

Water (Thames) 


Exudates of guinea-pigs inocu- 
lated with garden soil. 

Soil, dust, intestines of man and 
mammals, also in musk. 

Disease of olive tree ("olive- 
Disease of olive tree 








Chromoparous (blue). 



Pathogenesis undetermined. 

Thermogenic, zymogenic, odor 

of trimethylamin. 
Specific pathogenesis disputed. 
Chromoparous (yellow). 
Chromoparous (yellow). 
Chromogenic (yellowish-red). 
Pathogenesis undetermined. 

Specific pathogenesis disputed. 
Chromogenic (carmin or mag- 
enta) . 



Pathogenesis undetermined. 
Chromogenic (brown). 
Chromogenic (black). 
Pathogenic for Malta fever. 
Pathogenic, chromogenic (emer- 
Chromoparous (dark violet). 


Chromoparous (black). 
Zymogenic, chromogenic (pink 

to red). 



Pathogenesis disputed. 







Chromogenic (red). 

Pathogenesis undetermined. 

Pathogenesis undetermined. 








Phy topathogenic . 




TABLE OF BACILLI.— (Continued.) 


Where Found. 


B. oogenes fluorescens (Zoerken- 

doerf er) . 
B. oogenes hydrosulphuricus (Zoerken- 

B. "Orange-red" (Adametz and Wich- 

mann) . 

B. orthobutylicus (Grimbert) 

B. of Osteomyelitis (Kraske and 


B. ovatus minutissimus (Unna) 

B. oxalaticus (Zopf) 

B. oxytocus perniciosus (Wyssoko- 


B. panificans (Laurent) 

B., Paracolon (Gwyn) 

B. paratyphosus (Archard and Ben- 

saud) . 

B. parvus ovatus (Loeffler) 

B. (saccharo-bacillus) pastorianus 

(Van Laer). 

B. peptofaciens (Bernstein) 

B. of Perez 

B. pestifer (Frankland) 

B. pestis bubonicae (Kitasato and 

Vers in). 

B. phaseoli (E. F. Smith) 

B. phlegmonis emphysematosi 


B. phosphorescens (Fischer) 

B. phosphorescens gelidus (Foerster) . . 
B. phosphorescens indicus (Fischer) . . . 
B. phosphorescens indigenus (Fischer) . 

B. phosphoreus (Cohn) 

B. phylloxericidus (Dubois) 

B. pinnatus (Ravenel) 

B. pituitosi (Loeffler) 

B. plicatus (Zimmermann) 

B. pneumoniae friedlanderi (Friedlan- 


B. pneumonicus agilis (Schou) 

B. pneumosepticus (Babes) 

B. polymyxus (Prazmowsk-i) 

B. polypiformis (Liborius) 

B. prausnitzii 

B. prodigiosus (Ehrenberg) 

B. proteus fluorescens (Jaeger) 

B. of Pseudodiphtheria (Belfanti) 

B. pseudoedema (Liborius) 

B. Pseudopneumonicus (Fluegge) 

B. pseudosepticus (Bienstock) 

B. pseudotuberculosis (Pfeiffer) 

B. pseudotuberculosis (Rabinowitsch) . 
B. pseudotuberculosis in Rabbits 

B. pseudotuberculosis rodentium 

B. psittacosis (Widal and Sicard) 

B. puerperalis (Engel and Spillmann) . 

B. pulpae pyogenes (Miller) 

B. punctatus (Zimmermann) 

B. of Purpura haemorrhagica (Babes 
and Kolb). 

B. putrificus coli (Bienstock) 

B. of Pyemia (Beltzow) 

B. pyocyaneus (Gessard) 

B. pyogenes foetidus (Passet) 

B. pyogenes soli (Bolton) 

B. radiatus (Luederitz) 

B. radiatus aquatilis (Zimmermann) . . 
B. radicicola (Byerinck) 

B. radiciformis (Tataroff) 

B. radicosus (Zimmermann) 

B. ramosus (P. and G. C. Frankland) 

Rotten eggs 

Rotten eggs 


Fermenting leguminous seeds 
Cases of osteomyelitis 

Skin in eczema seborrhoeicum . . . . 




Blood in infections resembling 

typhoid fever. 
In case of paratyphoid 

Carcass of hog 



In cases of ozena 


Blood and lymphatics in bubonic 

Parasitic on legumes 

Pus in emphysema 


Luminous sea-fish 


Sea-water, and on fishes 

Sea-water, and on fishes 

Soil, manure 


See B. lactis pituitos. 


Pulmonary exudates in croupous 

Pneumonia of rabbit 

Blood in case of septic pneu- 

Vegetable infusions 

Cow-dung . 

Water, soil 

Food materials, etc 

Viscera of diseased fowls 

Human mouth and throat 

Mice inoculated with garden soil . 


Exudates in mice inoculated with 

Viscera of horse 


Tuberculosis nodule in rabbits . . . 

Found in rats ; 

Blood of parrots and human 
beings having psittacosis. 

Cases of puerperal sepsis 

Gangrenous tooth pulp 

Water (Chemnitz) . 

Viscera of purpura cadaver 

Water, feces 

Blood in pyemia 

Air, dust, water, pus 


Exudates of rat inoculated with 

garden soil. 
Exudates of mice and guinea-pigs 

inoculated with garden soil. 


Tubercles of leguminous plants, 

arable soil. 



Soil, water (Thames) 

Zymogenic, chromoparous (pale 


Chromoparous (orange-red). 


Chromogenic (ocherous). 











Pathogenic to phylloxera.. 


Chromogenic (grayish). 
Pathogenic, zymogenic. 





Zymogenic, chromogenic (red). 




Pathogenic. ' 


Pathogenesis undetermined. 

Closely allied to B. pestis. 





Pathogenic, zymogenic, chromo- 
parous (blue to verdigris- 
green, pyocyanin). 

Pathogenic, zymogenic. 



Chromogenic (ochre-yellow). 





TABLE OF BACILLI.— (Continued.) 


B. ramosus (Eisenberg and Fraenkel) 
B. ramosus liquefaciens (Fluegge) . . . 

B. ranicida (Ernst) 

B. reticularis (Jordan) 

B. rheumarthritidis (Kuessmaul) .... 

B. "Rhine water" (Burri) 

B. rhinitis atrophicus 

B. rhinoscleromatis (Cornil and Al- 
varez) . 
B. rodonatus (Ravenel) 

Where Found. 

"Der rothe Bacillus" (Lustig) . 
B. rubefaciens (Zimmermann) 
B. rubellus (Okada) 

B. ruber (Frank) 

B. ruber kielensis (Breunig) 

B. ruber ovatus (Bruyning) 

B. rubescens (Jordan) 

B. rubidus (Eisenberg) 

B. saccharo-butyricus (von Klecki) . . . 
B. sanguinis typhi (Brannan and 

Cheesman) . 
B. saprogenes (Rosenbach) 

B. saprogenes vini (Kramer) 
B. satellitis 

B. of Scarlet Fever (Crooke) 

B. schafferi (Freudenreich) 

B. of Scheurlen 

B. of Schimmelbusch 

B. schutzenbergii 

B. scissus (Frankland) 

B. of Seborrhea (Sabouraud) 

B. secalis (Burrill) 

B. "Seidenglanzender" (Tataroff) , 
B. of Senile Gangrene (Tricomi) . 

B. septicaemia? haemorrhagicae (Stern- 
berg) . 

B. septicus acuminatus (Babes) 

B. septicus agrigenus (Nicolaier) .... 
B. septicus keratomalaciae (Babes) . . . 

B. septicus sputi (Kreibohm) 

B. septicus sputigenus (Fluegge) 

B. septicus ulceris gangraenosi (Babes) 

B. septicus vesicae (Clado) 

B. sessilis (Klein) 

B. smaragdinus phosphorescens (Katz) 

B. smaragdinus foetidus (Reimann) . . . 
B. of Smegma (Bunge and Trauten- 

B. solanacearum (E. F. Smith) 

B. solidus (Luederitz) 

B. solitarius (Ravenel) 

B. sorghi (Kellermann and Swingle) . . 
B. of Southern Cattle Plague (F. S. 


B. spiniferus (Unna) . 

B. stolonatus (Adametz and Wich- 

mann) . 

B. stoloniferus (Pohl) 

B. striatus albus (von Besser) 

B. striatus flavus (von Besser) 

B. striatus viridis (Ravenel) 

B. stuetzeri (Lehmann and Neumann) 

B. suaveolens 

B. subflavus (Zimmermann) 

B. subtilis (Ehrenberg) 

B. subtilis simulans (Bienstock) 

B. of Sugar-beet Disease (Arthur and 


B. sulph-hydrogenus (Miquel) 

B. sulphureum, I (Holschewnikoff) . . . 
B. sulphureum, II (Holschewnikoff) . . 
B. superficialis (Jordan) 


Air, water 

Water; frogs dead of septicemia. . 


Effusions in joints in articular 

Water (Rhine) 

Nasal secretions 

Tubercles in rhinoscleroma 




Guinea-pigs after inoculation with 
street dust. 


Water (Kiel) 

Blighted sorghum 



In "Quargelkase" 

Blood in typhus fever 

Decaying animal matter, fetid 

feet, etc. 


In intestinal ulcers in typhoid 

Throat in anginose scarlet fever. . 
"Puffy" and "Nissler" cheese. . . . 

Mammary epithelia 

Necrotic tissues in noma 



Hair and scalp 

See B. zea. 

Well-water (Dorpat) 

Blood and tissues in cases of senile 

Blood in septicemia 


Blood in septic infection 

Garden soil 

Cadaver; septicemia following 

ker ato -malac ia. 

Human saliva 

Healthy and pneumonic sputum . . 
Cadaver: septicemia following 


Urine in cystitis 

Blood of cow 

On luminous fishes 

Nasal secretions in ozena 

Brown rot of solanaceous plants . . 
Mice after inoculation with garden 


Sorghum blight 

Blood of cattle with Texas fever . . 

Skin in eczema seborrhoeicum 

Marsh-water : . 

Healthy nasal secretions 

Healthy nasal secretions 





Air, water, soil; frequent 

Human feces 

Sugar beets 









Pathogenesis undetermined. 


Chromoparous (brown to yel- 
Chromoparous (raspberry red) . 
Chromogenic (pale pink). 
Chromoparous (red). 

Chromoparous (blood-red) . 

Chromoparous (blood-red) . 

Phy topathogenic . 

Chromogenic (pale pink). 

Chromogenic (brownish-red). 


Pathogenesis undetermined. 

Pathogenic, zymogenic (tri- 


Pathogenesis undetermined. 






Chromogenic (brick-red). 






Photogenic, chromogenic (emer- 
ald-green) . 
Pathogenic, chromogenic (green) 


Phy to pathogenic . 

Chromogenic (grayish-yellow) . 



Chromogenic (sulphur-yellow). 




Chromogenic (pale-yellow). 



Pathogenesis not established. 

Zymogenic; evolves H2S. 


Chromogenic (reddish-brown). 





TABLE OF BACILLI.— (Continued.) 


Where Found. 


B. of Swine Plague, Marseilles. 
B. sycosiferus fcetidus (Jordan) 

B. syncyanus (Ehrenberg) 

B. synxanthus (Schroetter) . . . . 
B. syphilidis (Lust-garten) 

B. tardigradus (Detmers) 

B. tartaricus (Grimbert and Ficquet) 

B. tenuis sputigenus (Pansini) 

B. termo (Mace) 

B. terrigenus (Frank) 

B. tetani (Nicolaier) 

See B. mar siliensis. 

Hair and scalp in sycosis . 



Syphilitic new-growths and secre- 


Fermenting solution of calcium 




B. thalassophilus (Russell) 

B. thermophilus (Miquel) 

B. tholoideum (Gessner) 

B. tracheiphilus 

B. tremelloides (Schottelius) 

B. tremulus (Koch) 

B. of Trichorrhexis nodosa (Markusfeld). 

B. "Trommelschlagel" (Ravenel) 

B. tuberculosis (Koch) 

B. tuberculosis gallinarum (Maffucci) . 

B. of Tuberculosis of Vines 

B. tumescens (Zopf) 

B. tussis convulsivae (Afanassiew) . . . 
B. typhi abdominalis (Eberth) 

B. typhi exanthematici (Plotz) 

B. typhi murium (Loeffler) 

B. ubiquitus (Jordan) 

B. ulna (Cohn) 

B. ulna (Vignal) 

B. of Uptadel (Gessner) 

B. urese (Leube) . . .• 

B. ureae (Miquel) 

B. vacuolatus (Ravenel) 

B. vaginalis (Doderlein) 

B. varicosus conjunctiva (Gombert) . 

B. vascularis (Sternberg) 

B. vascularum (Cobb) 

B. venenosus (Vaughan) 

B. venenosus brevis (Vaughan) 

B. venenosus invisibilis (Vaughan) . . . 

B. venenosus liquefaciens (Vaughan) . 

B. ventriculi (Raczynssky) 

B. vermicularis (P. and G. C. Frank- 

B. vermiculosus (Zimmermann) 

B. of Verruga peruana (Izquierdo) . . . 

B. verticillatus (Ravenel) 

B. violaceus (Becker) 

B. violaceus (Frankland) 

B. violaceus laurentius (Jordan) 

B. virens (Van Tieghem) 

B. virescens (Frick) 

B. viridans 

B. viridescens liquefaciens (Ravenel) . 

B. viridescens nonliquefaciens (Rav- 

B. viridis (Van Tieghem) 

B. viridis flavus (Frick) 

B. viridis pallescens (Frick) 

Arable soil, horse-dung, and tissues 
of persons dead of tetanus. 


Air, water, soil, feces, sewage .... 
Water, sewage, intestinal tract . . . 

The cause of Cucurbit wilt 

Water (Freiburg) 

Vegetable infusions 

Diseased hair 


Sputum and tissues in tubercu- 

Tuberculosis in fowls 

Diseased grape-vines 


Sputum in cases of pertussis 

Water, milk, sewage; and blood, 

urine, feces, and tissues of 

typhoid-fever patients. 

Diseased mice 

Air, water, sewage 


Normal saliva 

Intestinal contents (man) 

Soil, water, manure, old urine, etc. 


Normal vaginal secretions 

Healthy conjunctival sac in man. 
Viscera of yellow-fever cadaver . . . 

Gummosis of sugar cane 





Stomach of dog 

Water (Lea) 


Nodules in cases of Peruvian wart 





In green sputum . 




B. viscosus (Van Laer) 

B. viscosus cerevisiae (Van Laer) 

B. viscosus sacchari (Kramer) 

B. viscosus vini (Kramer) 

B. vulgaris (Hauser) 

B. of Weigmann 

B. "Weissen-" (Eisenberg) 

B. "Weisser-" (Tataroff) 

B. "White" (Maschek) ■'. . 

B. "X" (Sternberg) 

B. xerosis 

B. "Y" 

B. "Yellow" (Lustig) 

B. of Yersin. See B. peslis bubonicce. 

B. zea (Burrill) 

B. zurnianus (List) 



Air, water (Freiburg) 

Ropy beer 

Ropy beer and milk .... 
Viscous saccharine fluids . 

Ropy wine 

Putrefying matter 

Bitter milk 


Well-water (Dorpat) .... 


Yellow-fever cadavers . . . 

In conjunctiva 

In cases of dysentery . . . 

Chromoparous (blue). 
Chromogenic (citron-yellow). 


Pathogenic, zymogenic. 





Chromogenic (golden-yellow). 


Zymogenic, pathogenic. 



Pathogenic, zymogenic. 

Pathogenic for typhus fever. 







Chromoparous (yellow). 










Chromogenic (flesh-colored). 


Pathogenesis undetermined. 


Chromoparous (deep-violet). 

Chromoparous (violet). 

Chromoparous (violet). 

Chromoparous (green). 

Chromogenic (green). 

Chromoparous (green). 



Chromogenic (green). 
Chromogenic (yellowish-green). 
Zymogenic, chromogenic (yel- 
lowish-green) . 

Bacteriosis of Indian corn . 
Air and water 


Phytopathogenic . 






Where Found. 

Primary Characters. 

B. accidentalis tetani (Belfanti and 


B. aceti (Hansen) 

B. aceti (Peters) 

B. aceticum (Baginsky) 

B. aceticum (Zoilder) 

B. acidi lactici (Grotenfeld) 

B. acne contagiosae (Dieckerhoff and 

Grawitz) . 

B. aeris minutissimus (Bey) 

B. amabilis (Dyar) 

B. ambiguus (Wright) 

B. amethystinus (Eisenberg) 

B. amethystinus mobilis (Germano) . . 

B. anaerobicum (Fluegge) 

B. annulatus (Wright) 

B. apii (Brizi) 

B. apthosus (Siegel) 

B. aquatilis communis (Zimmermann) 
B. aquatilis sulcatus quartus (Weich- 

B. aurantiacum (Trelease) 

B. aureo-flavus (Adametz) 

B. beta? (Arthur and Golden) 

B. bovisepticus (Kitt) 

B. brassier (Lehn and Conrad) 

B. breslaviensis (Van Ermenghem) . . . 

B. brunneo-flavus (Dyar) 

B. brunneum (Schrdter) 

B buccalis fortuitus (Vignal) 

B. buccalis minutus (Vignal) 

B. of Buffalo Plague (Ratz) 

B butyri colloideum (Lafar) 

B. campestris (Pammel) 

B. of Canary-bird Septicemia (Rieck) 
B. capitatum (Davaine) 

B. carlsbergense (Hasen) 

B. carneus (Tils) 

B. catenulus (Dujardin) 

B. caudatus (Wright) 

B. centrifugans (Wright) 

B. chlorinum (Engelmann) , 

B. cholera? columbarum (Leclancler) . , 
B. cholerae gallinarum (Perroncito) . . . 
B. chologenes (Stern) 

B. chrysogloia (Lafar) 

B. citreus (Unna and Tomassoli) 

B. citreus cadaveris (Strassmann and 

B. coadnutus (Wright) 

B. coherens (Wright) 

B. coli aerogenes (Lembke) 

B. coli anindolicum (Lembke) 

B. coli commune (Escherich) 

B. coli immobilis (Germano and 

B. coli mobilis (Messea) 

B. colorabilis (Naunyn) 

B. conjunctivitis (Morax) 

B. convolutus (Wright) 

B. of Corn-stalk Disease (Billings) . . . 

B. cuniculi pneumonicus (Beck) 

B. cuniculicidus immobilis (Smith) . . 

B. cuniculicidus septicus (Lucet) .... 
B. cuniculicidus thermophilus (Lucet) 

B. decidiosus (Wright) 

B. decolorans major (Dyar) 

B. decolorans minor (Dyar) 

B. delabens (Wright) 

Pus in a case of tetanus . 

Sour beer and wine . .< 

Sour dough 



Feces, water, milk 

Acne contagiosa in horses 








Bacteriosis of celery plants. .".... 

Liver and kidneys in cases of 

"Maul-" and "Klauenseuche." 





Bacteriosis of sugar-beets . 



Poisonous meat 


Putrid infusion of maize 

Healthy saliva 

Healthy saliva 

Buffaloes having an infectious 

Butter (frequent) 

Decayed turnips 


Infusion of albuminous sub- 


Putrid urine, blood in typhoid 




Wild pigeons 

Chicken cholera 

Case of angiocholitis with meni- 

Air, water 

Epidermis in eczema , 
Human cadaver