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Xjtbsral Hrts 










concord, n. h. 
rumford Printing Co. 





Born in South Norwalk, Conn., May 21, 1823. 
Died in Lebanon, N. H., September 20, 1906. 

Rev. Charles A. Downs prepared for college at Concord, N. H., under 
the tutelage of his maternal uncle, Rev. Nathaniel Bouton, D. D., the 
eminent historian, and entered the Concord Literary Institute in 1839, 
from whence he proceeded to Dartmouth College, where he remained 
something over one year, when he transferred himself to the University 
of the City of New York, where he graduated in 1845. 

Mr. Downs came to Lebanon July 5, 1848, as a candidate for the pas- 
torate of the Congregational Church, to succeed Rev. Phineas Cook, who 
had served the church for nineteen years; he was installed as pastor 
November 22, 1845, and continued in that office for twenty-five years, 
when, at his own request, the connection was dissolved. He continued to 
reside in Lebanon, but for a few years was the acting pastor of the church 
at Hanover Centre. 

He served the state as superintendent of public instruction, and the 
town as selectman, representative, police judge, superintendent of schools, 
precinct clerk and treasurer, and town clerk, and spent much time and 
labor in the preparation of this volume. For fifty-eight years Mr. Downs 
was known to every citizen of Lebanon, and he left this earth without an 
enemy. He once said to the writer of these lines, ' ' I have tried to live so 
my obituarist would have nothing to say." 

f. c. c. 



The warrant for the annual meeting of the town of Lebanon 
held March 9, 1880, contained the following : 

' ' Article 12. To see what action the town will take in relation 
to a preparation of a history of the town and raise money there- 
for or act thereon." Whereupon the following resolution was 
adopted : 

"Resolved, That the selectmen be authorized to secure a proper 
person or persons to prepare a history of the town and to use 
such sums of money as may be necessary therefor out of any 
monies not otherwise appropriated." 

At the annual meeting March 11, 1884, the following resolution 
was adopted : 

"Resolved, That the selectmen be authorized to take such ac- 
tion as they deem expedient in regard to the printing of the town 
history and that the expense of the same be paid from any monies 
in the treasury not otherwise appropriated." 

Under the resolution passed March 9, 1880, Rev. Charles A. 
Downs was engaged to write a history of the town, but no defi- 
nite action was taken regarding its publication until the annual 
town meeting, March 12, 1895, when the following resolutions 
were adopted: 

"Resolved, That the selectmen be authorized to appoint three 
suitable persons whose duty it shall be to supervise the publica- 
tion of the history of the town, as prepared by the historian, 
Rev. Charles A. Downs; that such sums of money as may be 
necessary for the completion, publication -and illustration of said 
work be and is hereby appropriated therefor. 

"Resolved, That said committee when appointed shall have 
authority and they are thereby empowered to make a contract 


for the publication of said history and to fix the number of copies 
to be published." 

Under the resolutions the selectmen appointed Alpheus W. 
Baker, William H. Cotton and Frank C. Churchill said com- 
mittee. This committee met on March 12, 1895, and organized 
by choosing Alpheus W. Baker, chairman; "William H. Cotton, 
treasurer; and Frank C. Churchill, secretary; at which time it 
was voted to ask the historian to meet the committee for confer- 
ence on March 16, 1895. The conference brought out the fact 
that the manuscript was not yet complete and the further fact 
that it was Mr. Downs' intention to finish his work at an early 
day. Mr. William H. Cotton died August 25, 1904, and Mr. 
Alpheus W. Baker died April 11, 1905, the manuscript not being 
in the hands of the committee at the time of the decease of my 

On January 4, 1906, I turned over to the selectmen the record 
book of the committee and all papers and pictures that had come 
into its hands. 

At the annual town meeting held March, 1906, the following 
resolution, offered by Mr. Solon A. Peck, was passed : 

"Resolved, That the selectmen be a committee to act with 
Frank C. Churchill, whose duty it shall be to supervise the pub- 
lication of the history of the town, as prepared by Rev. C. A. 

The manuscript was placed in the hands of the commit- 
tee in August, 1906, and on September 20, 1906, Rev. Charles 
A. Downs died. September 3, 1906, the committee entered into 
an agreement with the Rumford Printing Co. of Concord, N. H., 
to print 1,500 copies. 


Lebanon, N. H., 1908. 



Introduction 1 

Charter 2 

Names of Grantees 4 

Provisions of Charter 5 

Persons 7 

Records 8 

Town 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 28, 29, 31, 33, 39, 43 

Proprietors' 20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 30, 37, 41 

Territory of Lebanon 45 

Survey of the Town 47 

Settling 51 

First Meeting House 59 

Boundaries 64 

Controversy with Enfield 66 

Condition of the Town, 1775 67 

Revolution 71 

Provision Bill 84 

Revolutionary Papers 86 

Soldiers in the Revolution 95 

Major Whitcomb 's Battalion 97 

Committee of Safety 100 

Vermont Controversy 108 

Settlement of the Controversy 140 

Development of the Town 144 

Eight School Districts 153 

New Meeting House 165 

Town in 1900 190 

Property in Town 190 

Roads and Bridges 198 

Lyman's Bridge 202, 203, 305 

Fourth New Hampshire Turnpike 202, 204, 262 

War of 1812 222 

State and Town Officers 229 



The Toleration Act 243 

Political Affairs 248, 256, 279, 289, 300 

Meeting House 249, 265 

Poor Farm 250 

New Roads 251 

Support of Primary Schools 253 

Railings on Bridges 253 

Railroad in Prospect 254 

Public Money from United States Surplus Revenue 254 

Town Clerk 's Recording Deeds 255 

Meeting House Uneasy 255 

Dividing Grafton County 262 

Surplus Revenue 262 

Sale of Spirituous Liquors 266 

Railroads 268 

Opening of Northern Railroad to Lebanon 269 

Capital Punishment 276 

Extinguishment of Fires 276 

Vote of Thanks to George H. Lathrop 277 

Teachers' Institutes 277, 281 

New Burying Ground 278 

Tomb 279 

Town House 281, 296 

Horse Sheds 283 

Common 284 

Humphrey Wood Bridge 285 

Firemen 's pay 285 

Railroad Tax 286 

Cemetery at West Lebanon 286 

School Districts 286 

Fence Around Village Burying Ground 287 

Instruction to Collector of Taxes 287 

Groceries 288 

Railroad Bridges and Crossing 288 

Hearse for West Lebanon 289, 304 

Police Officers 289 

County Farm 291 

Burying Grounds 292 

Shade Trees 293 



Engine Company, No. 2 294 

Hearse 294 

To Provide Place for the Poor 294 

Sextons for Cemeteries 295 

Encouragement of Manufactures 293, 303 

Park on Hanover Street 295 

Roads Discontinued Across the Common 296 

Purchase of Hose 299 

Common — Regulations 299 

Town Pound 300 

Town Bonds 302 

Hay Scales 302 

Hanover Street Bridge 302 

Survey of Streets i 304 

First Board of Health 304 

Fire Precinct Extended 305 

Bequests to the Town 311 

Centennial Fourth of July 312 

Town Pump 312 

Sale of Cider and Sewage 313 

Hog Reeves 313 

Coasting 317 

Soldiers' Monument 318 

C. C. Benton's Bequest 318 

Stocking Streams with Trout 319 

Heating and Lighting Town Hall 319 

Street Lights 320 

Manufacturers' Exemption from Taxation 321 

Spring at West Lebanon 321 

Town Clocks 322 

Balance of the Dog Tax 322 

Colburn Park 324 

Postmasters of Lebanon 324 

Town in the Rebellion 325 

Town Meetings 325 

Selectmen During the War 329 

Soldiers in the War 329 

State Aid, Etc 351 

Reimbursement 351 



Centennial and Patriotic Celebration 352 

Exercises on the Stand 353 

Toasts and Speeches 353 

Volunteer Toasts 363 

Memorial Building 364 

Village Fire Precinct and Great Fire of 1887 370 

At Last 384 

List of Losses 393 

Insurance 395 

Resurgam 399 

Notes About the Fire 399 

Belief Work 402 

Who Will Rebuild 402 

Churches of the Town 405 

Congregational Church 405 

Decade 1817 to 1827 410 

West Congregational Church 417 

Baptist Church 418 

Methodist Episcopal Church 429 

Universalist Society 432 

Sacred Heart Church 436 

Index 437 

General Index 437 

Index of Names 446 


Rev. Charles A. Downes Frontispiece 

Old Lafayette Hotel facing page 24 

Old Lebanon Bank Building 40 

Maj. Wm. Willis Bliss 52 

Hon. Experience Estabrook 58 

Prof. Ira Young 64 

Capt. John Bliss 72 

Maj. John Griswold 76 

Eichard Burleigh Kimball 80 

Prof. Charles A. Young 88 

Dr. Cyrus H. Fay 104 

William P. Gallup 120 

Hon. George S. Towle 128 

Sally Truman 136 

Diarca Allen 144 

Lucinda Howe Storrs 148 

Hiram A. Simonds 152 

Orren Hubbard 156 

James Hubbard 160 

Abel Storrs 164 

Col. Constant Storrs 168 

Seth Blodgett 170 

George Blodgett 172 

The Old Meeting House on the Common — Present Town 

House 174 

Old View of the Common 176 

Clement Hough 180 

Clark Hough 184 

Eev. Story Hebard 188 

Abram Pushee 192 

Simeon S. Post 196 



Halsey R. Stevens 204 

Oliver Lathrop Stearns 204 

Dr. Phineas Parkhurst 208 

Timothy Kenrick 238 

Ami B. Young 240 

Dr. Benjamin Gallup 240 

Dr. Caleb Plastridge 240 

Robert Byron Kimball 254 

Robert Kimball 254 

J. W. Peck Homestead 264 

John W. Peck 265 

Harvey Murch 266 

Elisha P. Liscomb 266 

Hon. A. H. Cragin 278 

William G. Perley 286 

Daniel Richardson 286 

Jesse C. Sturtevant 292 

Col. Frank C. Churchill 296 

William H. Cotton 296 

Joseph W. Gerrish 296 

Alpheus W. Baker 296 

Edward J. Durant 298 

Albert M. Shaw 298 

Solon A. Peck 304 

Postmasters of Lebanon 324 

Col. James G. Benton 328 

Harry H. Hosley, U. S. N 332 

Maj. N. H. Randlett 346 

Call for Troops, Spanish War 350 

Col. Henry L. Kendrick 362 

Laying Corner Stone Memorial Building 364 

Sergt. Jesse E. Dewey 364 

After the Fire, 1887 384 

After the Fire, 1887 392 

Charles H. Dana 406 

Rev. Phinehas Cooke 412 

Baptist Church 418 

Elias H. Cheney 420 

Gilman C. Whipple 420 



First Baptist Church and Parsonage 422 

Rev. John Moore 432 

Colbee C. Benton 432 

Eev. G. W. Bailey 434 

Map of Proprietors' Lots, 1761-1803 436 



The final conquest of Canada in 1760 gave peace to the fron- 
tiers of New Hampshire. The Indians, who had for so many- 
years been a source of terror and distress, were no longer feared. 

The various Indian and French wars, by the continual passage 
of soldiers, had made the lands in the valley of the Connecticut 
well known. They were eagerly sought by both adventurers and 
speculators. Benning Wentworth, the royal governor of New 
Hampshire, always alive to his own interest, "availed himself of 
this golden opportunity, and by advice of his council ordered a 
survey to be made of the Connecticut river for sixty miles, and 
three lines of townships on each side to be laid out." This sur- 
vey was made by Joseph Blanchard. Townships of six miles 
square were laid out on both sides of the river and granted to 
various petitioners, and so numerous were the applicants that in 
the year 1761 not less than sixty townships were granted on the 
west side of the river and eighteen on the east side. 

Nor was this movement wholly speculative. In the older set- 
tlements of Massachusetts and Connecticut there came upon the 
people one of those mysterious impulses which prompt men to 
leave their homes and seek new abodes in unoccupied territory. 
' ' There was a passion for occupying new lands. ' ' In the various 
expeditions to repel French and Indian aggressions, soldiers had 
passed through the Connecticut valley in going to and returning 
from Canada. They had noticed the fertile intervales and well 
timbered hills of the Cohos country. They pictured to them- 
selves the farms and homes with which the hills and valleys might 
be beautified. Among those who had noted these lands were 
certain soldiers from the southeastern towns of Connecticut. 
They reported what they had seen to their neighbors, and as soon 
as peace was secured by the conquest of Canada, they took meas- 
ures to give reality to the pictures which had so often filled their 
fancies upon the scout and march. 


A number of persons in the towns of Norwich, Lebanon and 
Mansfield, Conn., associated themselves together to procure char- 
ters of townships in the new territory of the Connecticut valley. 
They formed two companies, though each was composed mainly 
of the same persons. One company sought a charter of a town 
to be called Lebanon, the other company proposed to call their 
town Enfield; both names of Connecticut towns. They ap- 
pointed Jedediah Dana their agent to go to Portsmouth and 
obtain from Governor AVentworth charters for the towns. He 
was successful in his mission and on the same day, July 4, 1761, 
charters were issued for Lebanon and Enfield. The following is 
the charter of Lebanon : 


Province of New Hampshire — 

Geortre the Third By the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith &c — To all Persons To whom these 
presents shall come 


KNOW Ye that we of our special grace, certain knowledge and mere 
motion, for The due encouragement of settling a new Plantation within 
our said Province, by and with the advice of our Trusty and well be- 
loved BENNING WENTWORTH, E s q., our governor and commander in 
chief of said Province of Newhampshire, in New England & of our 
council of the said Province — Have upon the conditions and reserva- 
tions hereinafter made given and Granted, and by these presents for 
us and our heirs & succefsor. do give and Grant in equal shares unto 
our loving Subjects, inhabitants of our said Province of Newhampshire 
and our other Governments & to their heirs and afsigns forever, whose 
names are Entered on this grant — To be divided to and among them into 
sixty-eight equal shares, all that tract or parcel of land situate lying 
and being within our said Province of Newhampshire, containing by 
admeasurement Twenty-three thousand acres, which tract is to contain 
six miles square, and no more, out of which an allowance is to be 
made for highways and unimprovable lands, by rocks, Ponds mountains 
and Rivers, one Thousand and forty acres free, according to a plan and 
survey hereof made by our said Governor's order and returned into the 
secretary's Office, & hereunto annexed, butted and bounded as follows 
(viz): Beginning at a white Pine Tree marked with the figures three 
on one side and four on the other, which tree is about eighteen miles 
on a point from the upper end of Charleston, and stands on the bank 
of Connecticut river, from thence South, seventy-two degrees East six 
miles; from thence North, thirty-six degrees East five miles and one 


half; from thence North sixty-four West seven miles to Connecticut 
River, To a hemlock tree marked four and five that stands just at the 
head of white river falls; from thence down the river to the first bound 
mentioned; and that the same be & hereby is incorporated into a Town- 
ship by the name of Lebanon; and the inhabitants tbat do or shall here- 
after inhabit the said Township are hereby declared to be enfranchized 
with and Entitled to all & every the privileges & immunities that other 
Towns within our Province by law exercise & enjoy & further that the 
said Town as soon as there shall be fifty Families resident And settled 
thereon shall have the liberty of holding two fairs, one of which shall 

be held on the and the other on the annually, which 

fairs are not to continue longer Than the respective following 

the said and that as soon as the said Town shall consist of 

fifty families a Market may be opened and kept one or more days in 
each week as may be thought most advantageous to the inhabitants: 
also That the first meeting for the choice of Town Officers agreea- 
ble to the laws of our said Province shall be held on the last Wednesday 
in August next, which said meeting shall be notified by Mr John 
Baldwin, who is hereby also appointed Moderator of the sd first meeting 
which he is to notify and govern agreeable to the laws and customs of 
our said Province; and that the annual meeting forever hereafter for 
the choice of such Officers for the said Town shall be on the second 
Tuesday of March annually — To have and to hold the said tract of 
land as above exprefsed, together with all privilidges and appurte- 
nances, to them and their respective Heirs & afsigns forever, upon the 
following conditions (viz) 

First That every Grantee, his heirs or afsigns shall plant and culti- 
vate five Acres of land within the term of five years for every fifty 
acres Contained in his or their share or proportion of land in said 
Township, and continue to improve and settle the same by additional 
Cultivation on penalty of the forfeiture of his Grant or share in the 
said Township & of its reverting to us our Heirs and Succefsors, To 
be by us or them regranted to such of our subjects as shall effectually 
cultivate and settle the same. 

2nd That all white and other pine trees within the said Township fit 
for masting our Royal Navy be carefully preserved for that Use, and 
none to be cut or felled without our special license for So doing first 
had and obtained, upon the penalty of the forfeiture of the right of 
such Grantee, his heirs & Afsigns To us our heirs and Succefsors, as 
well as being subject to the penalty of any act or acts of Parliament 
that now are or hereafter shall be Enacted. 

3<i That before any Division of the land be made to & among the 
Grantees, a tract of land as near the Center of said Township As the 
land will admit of shall be reserved and marked out for Town-lots, one 
of which shall be allotted to each Grantee, Of the contents of one acre 

4th Yeilding and paying therefor To us our Heirs & Succefsors for the 


space of Ten years to be computed from the date hereof, The rent of one 
Ear of indian corn only in the twenty-fifth Day of December annually if 
lawfully demanded, the first Payment to be made on the twenty-fifth 
day of December 1762. 

5th Every proprietor settler or inhabitant shall yeild and pay unto 
US. Our heirs and succefsors Yearly and every year forever, from and 
after the Expiration of ten years from the above said twenty-fifth day 
of December namely on the twenty fifth day of December which will be 
in the year of our Lord 1772 one shilling Proclamation money for every 
hundred acres he so owns settles or pofsesses, and so in proportion for 
a greater or lefser. Tract of land, which money shall be paid by the 
respective persons above said, their heirs or Assigns, in our Council 
chamber at Portsmouth, or to such Officer or Officers as shall be 
appointed to receive the same & this to be in Lieu of all other rents & 
service whatsoever 

In testimony whereof we have caused the seal of our Said Province 
to be hereunto affixed witness Benning Wentworth Esq. Our Governor 
and Commander in chief, of our said Province the fourth Day of July in 
the year of our Lord Christ one thousand seven hundred and Sixty-one, 
& in the first year of our Reign — 

By his Excellency's command 
with advice of council 

B. Wextworth 

Theodore Atkinson Sec.ty 


John Hanks Joseph Dana 

John Salter John Swift 

Obadiah Loomis Daniel Allen Jr. 

Elijah Huntington David Eldredge 

Huckins Storrs Jim Jesse Birchard 

John Baldwin Nathan Arnold 

Robbert Barrows Jun Levi Hyde 

Richard Salter John Birchard 

Constant Southworth Nathan Blodgett 

Thomas Storrs Moses Hibbard Jun 

Hobart Estabrook John Allen 

Samuel Storrs Robert Hyde 

Charles Hill John Hyde 

Benjamin Davis Lemuel Clark 

Joshua Blodgett Jefse Birchard 

Joseph Turner Daniel Blodgett 3<i 

Josiah Storrs Nehemiah Estabrook 

Joseph "Wood Jonathan Martin 

John Storrs Nathaniel Porter 

Jonathan Murdock Jonathan Yeomans 


Jabez Barrow David Turner 

Seth Blodgett Daniel Blodgett 

Joseph Martin Jonathan Walcutt 

Nathaniel Hall John Birchard 

Robert Martin Judah Storrs 

Thomas Barrows Jr Edward Goldslone Lutwych 

One whole share for the Incorporated society for Propagation of the 
gospel in Foreign Parts. One whole share for a Glebe for the Church 
of England as by law established — One whole share for the first settled 
Minister One whole share for the benefit of a school in said Town — his 
excellency Benning Wentworth Esq. a tract of land of five hundred acres 
as marked in the plan which is to be accounted two of the within shares 

Jedediah Dana William Dana 

Mark H Wentworth James Nevins Esq. 

Jonathan Blanchard Oneil Lamont 

Clement Jackson Esq. Hugh Hall Wentworth 

Samuel Penhallow & William Knight. 

Province of Newhampshire July 5 1761 
Recorded in the Book of Charters per 

Theodore Atkinson Sec.ty 

Provisions of the Charter. 

1. "That the town as soon as there shall be fifty families resi- 
dent and settled thereon shall have the privilege of holding two 
fairs. ' ' These fairs were not unlike the agricultural fairs of the 
present day — except in this, that their main purpose was not the 
exhibition of products of the soil and of manufactures, but buy- 
ing and selling — trade of any kind. 

2. "A market may be opened and kept one or more days of the 
week." By the English laws the killing of animals for public 
sale was allowed only as a privilege at specified times. A man 
could not kill and sell any animal w T hen it was most convenient 
for himself, but it must be done only on the specified market 
days. Similar laws prevail now in Canada. They, however, are 
often evaded, for though one may not sell meat on any day but 
the market day, yet he may kill upon any day for his own use 
and may lend to his neighbor, who in his turn may kill and re< 
turn the borrowed meat on some other than the specified day or 


In the Provincial Papers, Volume I, page 216, the following 
may be found : 

31 October 1655 

At the request of the towne of Hampton by their deputy itt is ordered 
that there shall be a markett kept there one day in every week, viz., 
on the fifth day which is theire lecture day 

3 That all white and other pine trees within said township fit for 
masting our royal navy be carefully preserved for that use, and none 
be cut or felled without our special license 

"As early as 1668 the government of Massachusetts, under which 
the province (New Hampshire) then was, had reserved for the 
public use all white pine trees of twenty-four inches in diameter 
at three feet from the ground. In King William's reign a sur- 
veyor of the woods was appointed by the crown; and an order 
was sent by the Earl of Bellemont to cause acts to be passed in 
his several governments for the preservation of the white pines. 
In 1708 a law made in New Hampshire prohibited the cutting of 
such as were twenty-four inches in diameter, at twelve inches 
from the ground, without leave of the surveyor, who was in- 
structed by the queen to mark with the broad arrow those which 
might be fit for the use of the navy, and to keep a register of 
them. Whatever severity might be used in executing the law, 
it was no difficult matter for those who knew the woods and were 
concerned in lumbering, to evade it ; though sometimes they were 
detected and fined. Great complaints were frequently made of 
the destruction of the royal woods — every governor and lieuten- 
ant-governor had occasion to declaim on the subject in their 
speeches and letters; it was a favorite point in England and 
recommended them to their superiors as careful guardians of the 
royal interest. On the other hand, the people made as loud com- 
plaints against the surveyor for prohibiting the cutting of pine 
trees, and yet neglecting to mark such as were fit for masts ; by 
which means many trees which could never be used for masts, 
and might be cut into logs for sawing, were rotting in the 
woods; or the people who got them were exposed to vexatious 
prosecutions." Farmer's Belknap, page 188. 

It is doubtful if any of the trees in the valleys and on the hills 
of Lebanon were ever marked with the "broad arrow" as fit for 
masting the "Queen's Navee. " 


The Persons. 

The majority of the first proprietors resided in Connecticut. 
Many of them never came here, but sold or gave their rights to 
others. At that period many persons sought an interest in these 
wild lands merely as a matter of speculation, without any inten- 
tion of ever occupying them as their homes. The following per- 
sons whose names are appended to the charter, became actual 
settlers : 

Jedediah Dana, William Dana, 

Joseph Dana, Iluckins Storrs, 

John Baldwin, Hobart Estabrook, 

Charles Hill, Joseph Wood, 

Joseph Martin, Nathaniel Hall, 

Levi Hyde, Moses Hibbard, Jun., 

Nehemiah Estabrook, Nathaniel Porter. 

Clement Jackson was a physician at Portsmouth and, with his 
son, was surgeon to the troops gathered at Portsmouth and vicin- 
ity after the battle of Bunker Hill. 

Mark H. Wentworth of Portsmouth was a merchant and a 
relative of the governor. At the commencement of the Revolu- 
tion he was a Tory, refusing to sign the "Association Test;" re- 
fusing to sell rum for the use of the American army, the sheriff 
of Rockingham County was directed, February 27, 1777, to seize 
a certain number of hogsheads; September 12, 1777, he was re- 
quired by the Committee of Safety to give his parole in writing 
for himself and family; also the wife and children of John 
Fisher, Esq., "that they do not leave the town of Portsmouth 
without permit from the Legislative authority of this state." 
These persons were held as hostages for Woodbury Langdon, 
Esq., a prisoner in New York City. He was the father of John 
Wentworth, the last royal governor; was appointed counsellor of 
the province, 1759 ; died at Portsmouth, December 19, 1785. 

Hugh Hall Wentworth was another relative of the governor. 

Jonathan Blanchard was of Merrimack, and seems to have 
been a speculator in wild* lands, as well as prominent in many 
affairs. He was interested in lands in Acworth and other towns. 

Edward Goldstone Lutwyche was also of Merrimack, another 
speculator like Blanchard ; the owner of a ferry about four miles 



below Read's Ferry. He was colonel of one of the provincial 
regiments. He was a Tory, fled from the state, and by act of the 
Legislature, 1778, was forbidden to return to the state under the 
penalty of transportation, and in case of a second return, he was 
to suffer death. His property was confiscated, but the franchise 
of the ferry was confirmed to Sarah Lutwyche, his wife, by the 
authority of the Legislature, 1776. 

James Nevins was from Scotland, was counsellor, 1759; also 
collector of customs; and died at Portsmouth, February 6, 1769. 

William Knight and Samuel Penhallow were of Portsmouth; 
their names appear as selectmen of that town, in 1760, in a peti- 
tion against building a bridge in New Castle ; in 1763, for a peti- 
tion of Portsmouth for liberty to hold their town meeting in the 
state house, the holding of town meetings in the North meeting- 
house ' ' having given offence to many of the Parishioners, who by 
means thereof have had their pews dirtied and spoiled, and who 
are also of opinion that the said Meeting house ought to be wholly 
set apart for the worship of Almighty God, and this hath lately 
produced no small contentions. ' ' 

Oneil Lamont was also of Portsmouth; his name appears in a 
petition for a bounty on fish, wheat, hemp, etc., in 1763. 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 
was first formed in 1698, as a Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge; reconstructed in 1701, under its present name. Its 
design was the promotion of colonial churches, under the control 
of the Church of England. It still exists at London, England, 
having a large income. 


The proprietors' and the town records are here given to the 
close of the eighteenth century. The proprietors' records are in 
good condition in a copy made by Gideon Baker, proprietors' 
clerk, in 1806. The earlier town records are in a precarious con- 
dition, contained in leaves stitched together, with paper covers 
supplied by friendly hands. 

At a meeting of the proprietors of the new incorporated Township of 
Lebanon in Newhampshire, legally warned, holden at the house of 
Amariah Storrs, inholder in Mansfield (ct) on the sixth day of October, 
A. D. 1761 the following votes were past (viz) : 


1st Made choice of Mr. Neheiniah Estabrook for moderator of said 

2nd Choose John Salter a Clerk for said propriety. 

3d Voted to admit Mr. Moses Hibbard to vote as a proprietor, altho 
by mistake bis name was left out of the Grant. 

4iy Choose Mr. Jonathan Murdock collector for said propriety 

5iy Choose Mr. Amariah Storrs Treasurer for said propriety 

6'y The following persons chose for a standing committee for said Pro- 
priety (viz) Messrs Nehemiah Estabrook, Charles Hill, Joseph Dana. 

7tn Voted that the main street running through the Township of 
said Lebanon should be layed out ten rods wide. 

This was the road known as the King's highway, but always 
appears in the records as the Enfield Eoad. 

8iy That the committee hereafter to be chosen for the purpose of lay- 
ing out the lots & roads in said Township make reservation of such 
Lands for roads in said Township as they shall Judge Necessary and 

9>y Voted that the first Division after the one acre Division men- 
tioned in the grant shall consist of fifty acres, being Proportioned 
according to the Quality of said land 

luiy That the committee for laying out said lots shall proceed to the 
Business at or before the tenth day of October instant 

lliy The following persons were chosen for a committee for laying 
out said Lots as above directed (viz) Capt. Nath Hall, Huckin Storrs 
Jun. Daniel Blodgett Jun. Charles Hill, John Hanks. 

12iy Voted to allow the aforesaid committee 3/ per day while in said 
Service, & also to defray their expenses. 

13'y Voted that the proprietors of the Township of Lebanon would 
choose a committee to Join a committee chosen by the proprietors of 
Enfield to receive and settle the accounts of Jedediah Dana, agent for 
the proprietors of said Townships, and that each committee make 
report to their respective constituents at their next meeting; and the 
following persons were chosen as a committee for the purpose afore- 
said (viz) Mr Nehemiah Estabrook Capt. Samuel storrs, Mr. John 

14iy Voted that a tax of ten Shillings, lawful money, be levied upon 
each proprietor to defray the expence of laying said Township, by the 
Committee chosen for that purpose, and that said tax be paid in by 
the first monday in January next 

15th Voted that the money which was paid in by the proprietors of 
the Township of Lebanon to refund the expence of the Proprietors of 
the Township of Enfield, in case they bad not Obtained a Grant, of a 
Township, shall be taken out of the hands of the former Treasurer 
(John Salter) by the present Treasurer of said propriety (Mr Amariah 


Storrs) he giving a receipt therefor to the said former Treasurer & 
commit the same into the hands of the committee for laying out said 
township of Lebanon, and said committee to exchange the same (being 
paper bills) for silver to the best advantage, and render an account of 
their doings to the propriety. 

16th That the committee for laying out said Township shall provide 
a surveyor for the purpose, & exhibit his account To the proprietors. 

17th That the committee chosen by the proprietors of Lebanon to 
settle with the agent, shall be directed to motion to the proprietors of 
Enfield at their next meeting To direct their committee To Joyn them 
in considering the case of those persons who having paid their money 
towards procuring a Grant of a Township, were, notwithstanding, 
Deprived of the benefit of a right by reason of a surplui'sage of pro- 
prietors who belonged to this Government, and to make report to said 
propriety — said meeting was then difsolved. 

The foregoing votes attested and recorded 
pr John Salter proprietors clerk 

At a meeting of the proprietors of the new incorporated Township of 
Lebanon in the Province of Newhampshire legally warned and Convened 
at the house of Amariah Storrs inholder in Mansfield on the fifteenth 
day of December A. D. 1761. The following votes were past (viz) : 

1st Made choice of Mr Nehemiah Estabrook moderator to govern sa 

2nd Choose the following persons as Afsessors for said propriety 
(viz): Mr. Nehemiah Estabrook Capt. Samuel Storrs. Mr Thos. Storrs. 

3<iiy Choose the following persons for a committee to join the com- 
mittee chosen by Enfield proprietors to consider of the Business ex- 
prefsed in the eighth article of the warning (viz) To examine the state 
of the treasury of the proprietors of both townships as they stood before 
the separate grants, of said Townships To said proprietors (namely of 
Lebanon and Enfield) & to direct said committee to take such methods 
as shall be needful for settling the accounts of said proprietors of said 
Townships that were due and allowed before said Grants. — Capt Sam.i 
Storrs Thos. Storrs, John Salter. 

The meeting was then adjourned to the 22<i day of December inst. 
when the following votes were past viz: 

4'y Voted to allow the accounts of Jedediah Dana agent for said pro- 
priety above what was before Granted £3. ll-7 :; i 

5iy Voted to accept the doings of the committee for laying out the 
lotts with the alteration made upon their Plan 

6'y Voted to allow the accounts of the aforesaid committee for lay- 
ing out the lotts & to raise the sum £30.-0-0 Lawful money to make 
up the sum due to said committee — the same To be paid in by the first 
monday in March next 

7'> Voted To postpone the payment of the money which was voted To 



be paid the second inonday in January To the first inonday in March 

Sly Voted a lottery be made by Mefsrs Thos Storrs & Judah Storrs, 
and that Mefsrs Oliver Davidson & Ephraini Parker should draw the 

9iy Voted that the clerk procure a book for Records. 

10iy Voted that Mr. Charles Hill be appointed to treat with the pro- 
prietors of the Townships between the old fort at No 4 (Charlestown) 
and said Lebanon Relative to a highway between said fort and said 

lib- Voted that for the incouragement of the speedy settling said 
Township of Lebanon that those of the proprietors who shall settle 
upon said lands within the terra of two years shall have the priviledge 
of cultivating and improving such a part of the intervale as shall best 
suit them with these restriction that the intervale so improved by them 
be in one piece or body & when said intervale shall be divided amongst 
the proprietors those persons aforesaid shall have their proportion of 
the aforesaid intervale so cultivated by them. 

12'y The lotts drawn entered in the following Order 


Daniel Allen Jun. 11 

John Allen 62 

Daniel Blodget G3 

Jonath Blanchard 47 

Robt. Barrow Jun 61 

Jesse Birchard 17 

John Birchard 36 

John Baldwin 10 

John Birchard 4 

Seth Blodget 35 

Joshua Blodget 49 

Jabez Barrow 54 

Jesse Birchard 50 

Daniel Blodget 3a 31 

Nathan Blodget 34 

Thos. Barrow Jun 29 

Oliver Clerk 16 

Lemuel Clark 39 

W m Dana 6 

Jedidiah Dana 1 

Benjamin Davis 51 

Joseph Dana 30 

David Eldridge 21 

Nehemiah Estabrook 5 

Hobart Estabrook 42 

Elijah Huntington 7 


Nath. Hall 41 

Clement Jackson Esq. 23 

William Knight 26 

Obadiah Loomis 48 

Oniel Lamont 52 

Jonathan Martin 37 

Jonathan Murdoch 18 

Joseph Martin 45 

Robert Martin 56 

James Nevins Esq. 14 

Sami Penhallow 19 

Nath. Porter 40 

John Salter 55 

Huckins storrs 22 

Constant Southworth 12 

John storrs 43 

Thomas Storrs 24 

John Swift 46 

Huckins storrs Jun 44 

Josiah Storrs 59 

Samuel storrs 57 

Judah Storrs 28 

Joseph Turner 2 

David Turner 25 

Jonathan Walcutt 20 

Joseph Wood 60 


John Hyde 


Mark H. Wentworth Esq 


Robert Hyde 


Hugh Hall Wentworth 


Moses Hibbard Jun. 


Jonathan Yeomans 


John Hanks 


Edward Goldstone (Lut- 

Charles Hill 




Levi Hyde 


Minister's Lott 


The above were the acre lots directed to be laid out by the char- 
ter "as near the center of the said township as the land will 
admit of for a town lot," but serious errors being found, the 
drafting was annulled. Page 1. 

13'y Voted to raise a tax of £4.0.0 To be paid into the Treasury on the 
first monday of March next to purchase a right of land in The Township 
of Lebanon for Amariah Storrs in consideration of his being deprived of 
his right, his name through mistake being left out of the Grant, & if 
the mistake before mentioned should hereafter be discovered the money 
granted for the benefit of said Storrs to remain in the Treasury to be 
disposed of according to the Direction of the propriety. 

14b- Voted to raise a tax of 10/ upon each right to be paid into the 
Treasury by the first day of December next ensuing and also a tax of 
10/ more to be paid in by the first day of December 1763, to encourage 
Mr Oliver Davison to build a Saw-mill upon some suitable stream within 
the township of Lebanon, & if the said Davison should begin and com- 
pleat a good and sufficient saw-mill, as near the center of said township 
as shall be judged best within the term of two years, then the aforesaid 
sum & sums to be paid to the said Davison, at the several terms above 
mentioned & To direct the committee of the proprietors of said Town- 
ship to take sufficient bonds for the performance [of the] premisfes 

15iy Voted to adjourn said meeting to the second tuesday of March 
next, when, at the said meeting so adjourned the following votes were 
past (viz) : 

1st That, whereas at a meeting of the proprietors of the township of 
Lebanon held by adjournment the twenty-second day of December 
A. D. 1761 The said proprietors voted to accept the plan drafted by Ebe- 
nezer Byles surveyor of said township, with some alterations made 
upon said plan, said propriety then proceeded to the drawing of the 
Lotts as laid out on said plan; since which upon examining and com- 
paring said plan with said surveyors notes find a very Gross mistake 
in Running the lines upon said plan, and also in laying out said lotts, 
and that many inconveniances will consequently follow — we are there- 
fore of opinion, that for the peace as well as interest of said propriety 
it may be best to reconsider and disannul those former votes relative 
to the laying out & drafting said lotts— Voted in the Affirmative. 

2nd Voted that the first Division after the division ordered in the 
Charter of said Township consist of one hundred Acres, according To 
the Quality of said land 


3<i "Voted That Mr. Oliver Davison have the priviledge of his first Divi- 
sion of one hundred acres to be laid so as to include the spot which shall 
be Judged convenient for erecting the sawmill reserving all other priv- 
ileges of the stream with a sufficiency of land for other Mills and nec- 
efsary roads — Voted in the Affirmative. 

4'y Voted that for the encouragement of the speedy settlement of 
said Township those persons who shall, within the space of two years, 
nextinsuing, proceed & continue to cultivate said land shall have the 
Benefit of their choice of their said Division of one hundred Acres of 
the Land of said Township in that part of said township as best suits 
them, with these restrictions that their said lotts be laid out so as 
not to encroach on the lott which shall be laid out to Mr. Oliver Dav- 
ison & so as to prevent waste of land 

5iy Voted to choose three men for propriety Surveyors for. said Town- 
ship, To lay out the lotts for the proprietors who shall enter upon and 
cultivate said lands as aforesaid & to make immediate return of the sur- 
veys aforementioned To the proprietors Clerk for said Township & 
that Those three surveyors aforesaid continue in their Businefs for 
the space of two years next ensuing or untill the tenth day of March 
A. D. 1764 

6>y Voted that Mefsrs Charles Hill, Levi Hyde, Jedediah Dana be 
chosen surveyors for said propriety for the purpose of laying out the 
lots in said Township. 

7'y Voted that the surveyors aforesaid make reservation of a suffi- 
cient Quantity of land in said Township for the acre lotts as ordered 
in the charter of said Township 

Sb- Voted that at the expiration of two years said proprietors shall 
proceed To lay out the Acre lotts as mentioned in the charter of said 
township, and also the other Division of one hundred Acres of upland, 
to be laid out by a committee chosen by the proprietors for that pur- 
pose, To the Other proprietors who shall not enter upon said land 
within the aforesaid term of two years, and also their proportion of 
interval land in said Township exclusive of what shall be taken up 
within the aforesaid term of two years, agreeable to the former votes of 
said propriety for the encouragement of settlers. 

9iy Voted to adjourn said meeting to the first monday in May next; 
When said proprietors met by adjournment and voted said meeting 
should be difsolved. 

At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Lebanon in the 
Province of Newhampshire legally warned and convened at the house 
of Amariah Storrs inholder in Mansfield [Ct] on the first day of Sep- 
tember A. D. 1762 the following votes were past (viz) : 

1st Said proprietors made choice of Mr Nehemiah Estabrook modera- 
tor for said meeting 

2nd Choose Mr. Thomas Storrs collector in the room of Mr Jona* 


3r<J Choose the following persons a committe for clearing a road from 
the old fort at No 4 To said Lebanon, (viz) : Capt. Nathaniel Hall Mr. 
John Hanks, Mr John Birchard. 

4iy Voted that the committee aforesaid proceed to clear a horse road 
from the old fort at No 4 to said Lebanon (& further if said committee 
Judge best) on or before the first day of October next ensuing & that 
said committee be ordered to use their interest with the proprietors of 
the Neighboring townships to join them herein, and render an Account 
of their proportion of the Charge to the proprietors at their Next meet- 

5iy Voted to raise a tax of 5/ Lawful money upon each of the propri- 
etors of said township to be paid into the treasury on or before the 
first day of December next ensuing, to defray the charge of said road. 

6iy Voted to adjourn said meeting to the second Tuesday in December 
next — 

When said proprietors met by said Adjournment & past the following 
votes (viz) : 

1st Said proprietors choose a committee of three men (viz) Capt. 
Samuel Storrs. Mr. Joseph Dana Deacon Nehemiah Estabrook, to 
Treat with the proprietors of the townships adjoining to or near the 
Township of Lebanon, relative to an encouragement for the preaching 
of the gospel in said townships, and make report of their proceeding 
as soon as the nature of the businefs will admit of. 

2nd Apprehending it may serve to expedite the settlement of the 
Township to have the second division of one hundred acres to Each 
proprietor surveyed & laid out, sized and well bounded in due proportion 
to each proprietor by a committee appointed for that purpose; to be 
understood not to infringe or encroach in the least on the priviledge 
before granted to those who would first cultivate and improve said 
lands in said township; that is to say, all who have been or shall go 
and cultivate agreeable to the intendment of the former vote & before 
the expiration of said term may have the priviledge of taking up what 
lott they please, both upland and intervale, they making return thereof 
to the clerk of said propriety, previously laying out the more publick 
roads in the most convenient places; that a committee of three men be 
chosen for the purpose aforesaid & that they proceed upon that busi- 
nefs as soon as the season will allow, & return a plan of their doings 
to the clerk as soon as may be. 

3rd The following persons were chosen a committee for the purpose 
aforesaid (viz) : 

Deacon Nehemiah Estabrook "I 

Capt. Sami Storrs v. Committee 

Capt. Nath Hall J 

4'y Voted to raise a tax of twelve shillings upon each right to be paid 
into the treasury by the first day of February next to Defray the 
expense of laying out the lotts &c as aforementioned. 


5tiy Voted to adjourn said meeting to the second Tuesday in March 
next at one of the clock in the afternoon. 

When said proprietors met by adjournment and voted to adjourn 
said meeting to the last Tuesday in March, instant at two of clock in 
the afternoon — when said proprietors met by adjournment & past the 
following votes (viz) : 

6tiy Choose a committee of two men Mr Constant Southworth Mr. 
John Salter to join a committee of Enfield proprietors to examine into 
the state of the affair of Mr Jedediah Dana relative to the damage he 
sustained while acting in the capacity of an agent for the said proprie- 
tors, and make report at the next meeting 

7iy Voted to accept the report of the committee appointed to treat 
with the proprietors of neighbouring townships for the encouraging of 
the preaching of the Gospel in said townships, in consequence of which 
said proprietors voted a tax of four shillings upon each proprietor for 
the purpose aforesaid, 

8iy Voted to appoint Mr. Nehemiah Estabrook a committee to join 
a committee of the neighboring townships to make provision for the 
preaching of the Gospel in said townships the ensuing summer. 

9>y Voted to appoint Mr Constant Southworth to go to Portsmouth 
To collect the rates due from the proprietors residing in those parts & 
to allow him 3/6 lawful money pr day for himself and horse & defray 
the ex pence of the Journey 

10iy Voted said meeting be dif solved. 

At a meeting of the proprietors of the Township of Lebanon in the 
province of Newhampshire legally warned and convened at the dwell- 
ing house of Mr. Amariah Storrs inholder in Mansfield on the ninth 
day of January A. D. 1764 the following votes were past (viz): 

made choice of Mr. Nehimiah Estabrook for moderator for said 

2nd Voted to accept the doings of the committee in laying out three 
Divisions of land in said Township in May Last (viz) the one acre divi- 
sion & the division of one hundred Acres & also the intervale land, 

3rd Voted that the encouragement given by the proprietors at their 
meeting in March 1762 (for the speedy settlement of the land in said 
township) should be continued untill March first A. D. 1765 

4'y Voted to appoint Mr. Peter Aspinwall a committee To act in 
Conjunction with the committees of Hanover & Norwich in settling the 
accounts exhibited for laying out & clearing a road from the old fort 
No 4 to Lebanon & to direct said committee to commence an action at 
the next court against Capt. Thompson for breach of promise (provided 
the committees of the townships of Hanover and Norwich will join 
him in carrying on the action) wherein he engaged to pay the propor- 
tion of the expense, in laying out & clearing said road, for the town- 
ship of Lime, which he now refuses to do. 



5iy Voted to appoint John Salter, Peter Aspinwall and Oliver Clark 
a committee to settle the accounts of the committee for laying out three 
Divisions of land in said Township. 

6b' Voted said meeting be adjourned to the last monday in January 

The proprietors of the township of Lebanon met by adjournment and 
past the following votes (viz) 

7iy Voted the sum of £45. 14. O 1 /-? Lawful money to be paid to the 
Committee for their service in laying out the lotts in said Township. 

8iy That the account of Mr. Experience Storrs be adjusted by the 
committee appointed for that purpose, and the balance added to the 
aforesaid sum of £45.-14-0% allowed the committee. 

9iy Voted to grant the sum of £29-6-7% for clearing the road from 
the old fort at No 4 to said Lebanon. 

10iy Voted to raise £4-15. to pay the charge of a Journey To Ports- 
mouth To collect the taxes due from the proprietors in those parts 

lliy Granted the sum of one hundred pounds to be levied on the 
Rights of the proprietors to be paid by the first day of March next for 
the purpose aforesaid. 

12iy Voted a committee of two men be chosen to prepare and draw the 
Lotts of the first Division of land in said township (viz) the one Acre 
Division & appointed Mr. Constant Southworth and Mr. Experience 
Storrs a committee for the purpose aforesaid. 

13iy Voted to difsmifs the standing committee for said propriety (viz) 
Nehemiah Estabrook Charles Hill & Joseph Dana 

14iy Choose Mefsrs Nehemiah Estabrook Constant Southworth and 
Peter Aspinwall a standing committee in the room of those dismifsed 

15iy Voted to allow Mr Thomas Storrs three shillings per day & 
Defray his expenses in case he forthwith repair to Portsmouth To col- 
lect the taxes due from the prietors in those parts, said 3/ per day to 
be allowed only while said Storrs is actually in said service 

16iy The following is a draft of the one Acre Division of land by the 
committee appointed for said purpose: 

Mark Hunt Wentworth 

For the propagation of the 

Thos. Barrow Jun 
Joseph Wood 
Samuel Penhallow 
Richard Salter 
Josiah Storrs 
Clement Jackson Esq. 
Constant Southworth 
Daniel Blodget 
School Lott 
Jesse Birchard 


Jabez Barrow 


John Salter 



Lot for the first 






Huckins Storrs Jun 



John Hanks 



Joseph Dana 



Hobart Estabrook 



Elijah Huntington 



John Allen 



Sami Storrs 



Lot for the church 

of Eng- 






Jedidiah Dana 

Joshua Blodget 

Robert Hyde 

Nath Porter 

Jonathan Walcutt 

Charles Hill 

Jonathan Martin 

John Hyde 

Wm Knight 

Jonth Yeoman 

David Turner 

Daniel Blodget 

Seth Blodget 

Judah Storrs 

John Birchard 

Daniel Allen Jun 

Oniel Lemont 

Edward Goldstone Lutwyche 45 

Hugh Hall Wentworth 

John Storrs 

Jonth Murdock 


Robert Martin 



Nehemiah Estabrook 



John Baldwin 



Joseph Turner 



Obadiah Loomis 



Robert Barrow Jun 



Wm Dana 



Joseph Martin 



Lemuel Clark 



Levi Hyde 



Nath. Hunt 



John Swift 



Nathan Blodget 



Moses Hibbard Jun 



Nathan Arnold 



Benjamin Davis 



David Eldridge 



Thos Storrs 



Jonth Blanchard 



John Birchard 



James Nevin 


16iy Voted to adjourn said meeting to the second Tuesday in March 

The proprietors of the township of Lebanon met by adjournment the 
second tuesday in March A D 1764 and 

17'y Voted to raise a tax of seven shillings upon each proprietors 
right To be improved in making and clearing roads in said Lebanon 
and appointed Mr Aaron Storrs a committee to receive and improve the 
same for the purpose aforesaid 

18'y Voted to adjourn said meeting to the second tuesday in Decem- 
ber Next — The proprietors of the township of Lebanon met by Adjourn- 
ment the second tuesday in December & past the following votes (viz) : 

19iy Voted to raise a tax of eight shillings Lawful money on each 
proprietors right to support the preaching the gospel in said Township; 
said tax to be paid by the first day of May next 

20'y Voted to appoint Mefsrs. Nehimiah Estabrook Capt. Saini Storrs 
a committee to provide preaching in said township the Ensuing Sum- 

21st Voted to raise a tax of ten shillings and sixpence lawful money 
on each proprietors right to be improved in making and clearing roads 
in said township, said tax to be paid by the first of November next 

22nd Voted that the encouragement given by the proprietors at their 
meeting in March 1762 for the speedy settling the lands in said town- 
ship should be continued untill the first day of September next ensuing 

23rd Voted to appoint Mefsrs Nath Porter Silas Waterman and W» 



Dana a committee to receive & improve the aforesaid tax of 10/6 in 
making and clearing roads in said township 

24th Voted to appoint Mr. Constant Southworth collector of rates in 
the room of Thos. Storrs & also directed Mr Southworth to go to Ports- 
mouth To collect the taxes due from the proprietors residing in those 
parts & to allow him a meet recompence for the service 

25th Voted to allow Mr Charles Hill liberty to keep up gates and bars 
at each end of his road running through his lot during the proprietors 

26iy Voted to grant Mr. Charles Hill one Acre of the undivided land 
in Consideration of his deeding one acre of land to said proprietors on 
the south East part of his 100 acre lot for the use of a Burying place 

This was the burying ground near Mrs. Alden's. 

27th Voted to grant Mr John Bennet a priviledge of the stream Be- 
tween Mr Oliver Davisons saw-mill & the mouth of the Mascomme 
River To erect a grist-mill, & liberty of pafsing to and from said mill, 
on the undivided land, provided said mill be completed by the first day 
of March A. D. 1766 

The privilege here granted was between the Hubbard bridge 
and the mouth of the river. 

29iy Voted to appoint Mr Levi Hyde clerk for said propriety 

29>y Voted to difsolved said meeting 

Lotts taken up by the first settlers of the township upon the Encour- 
agement given by the propriety for the speedy settling said township. 

The first column are the No of the 100 acre lotts the second column 
are the No of the intervale lotts 

Jonathan Martin 



John Birchard 



John Allen 



Asa Holgate & Joshua 

Nath. Porter 






Nehemiah Estabrook 



Jedidiah Dana 



Thomas Storrs 



Charles Hill 



John Salter 



Huckins Storrs Jun 



Nathan Arnold 



W m Dana 



Nath Hall 



Samuel storrs 



Joseph Wood 



Robert Barrow Jun 



Robert Hyde 



Joseph Turner 



John Storrs 



Daniel Blodget 3d 



Robert Martin 



Jonathan Murdock 



John Birchard 



Jessie Birchard 



Jonth Blanchard 



Levi Hyde 



Nathan Blodget 



John Dana 





Thomas Barrow Jun 



Joseph Dana 



Minister Lott 



John Hanks 



John Swift 



Jedediah Hibbard on 

Jabez Barrow 



the right of Edward 

Richard Salter 



Goldstone Lutwyche 



John Hyde 



James Hartshorn on 

Rufus Baldwin 



the right of Prince 

John Baldwin 






Hobart Estabrook 



Constant Southworth 



Benjamin Davis 



Seth Blodget right 

Josiah Storrs 



taken by Charles Hill 


The proprietors of the township of Lebanon in the Province of New- 
hampshire at a legal meeting held the twenty-second day of April 
A. D. 1765 and past The following votes (viz) : 

1st Made choice of Mr. Nehemiah Estabrook moderator for said meet- 

2nd The question being put whether said propriety will affix any other 
time for the payment of that tax of 10/6, lawful money Granted the 
last proprietor's meeting to be paid in November next for making 
highways in said Lebanon — voted in the affirmative 

3<i Voted that the aforesaid tax of 10/6 lawful money be paid by the 
first day of May next. 

4iy Voted to adjourn said meeting to the ninth day of May next. 

The proprietors of the township of Lebanon met by adjournment 
and past the following votes (viz) : 

5iy That the committee appointed for making & clearing highways 
in said Lebanon be directed to receive & pafs the accounts of Charles 
Hill and others for clearing a road from the house of said Charles Hill 
To the house of Oliver Davison in said Lebanon, and that the said 
Committee be further directed to improve so much of that tax of 10/6 
granted the last pi-oprietor's meeting as shall be necefsary to settle 
said accounts. 

6iy Voted to allow the account of John Salter being the sum of 
twenty Shillings for a Book of Records & for his service in recording. 

7'y Voted to allow Capt. Sarni Storrs fifty shillings for five days 
Travel & expense to procure a sum of money for the service of said pro- 
priety & for the interest of £15-0-0 for two years lent said propriety. 

Siy Voted to allow Thos. Storrs thirty-six shillings for service in Col- 
lecting rates for said propriety 

9>y Voted to raise a tax of 3/ on each proprietor's right to be paid 
into the treasury of said propriety by the 15th day of May Instant to 
enable the committee to settle the accounts against said propriety 

10iy Voted to appoint a committee of five men to draft the remainder 
of the lotts which shall not be taken up by the first day of September 

lliy Appointed Mefsrs Nehemiah Estabrook Sami Storrs, John Salter 


Constant South-worth and Nath. Hall a committee for the purpose 

12iy Voted to adjourn said meeting to the first tuesday of December 
next, at one of the Clock P. M. 

The first town record extant was found by the writer years ago 
on a loose leaf, much worn and torn. It has been carefully pre- 
served, and is here transcribed in its place by date. 


A True Coppy of y e Votes Passd at a Townmeeting Held at Lebanon 
On May ye 13th 1765 at the House of Mr Asa Killbourn (viz) After 
Chufing a Moderator Querya 

2nd Whether we Will Have a Minister This Summer or Will Not 

Voted the affirmative 

3m That We First Send Subscriptions To ye Neighbouring Towns and 
Get What we Can Subfcribed and What Remains Wanting To Supply 
the Pulpit Will Stand Sponsible For To Be Paid at ye End of s'a Six 
Month. Voted the affirmative. 

4th Chose Aaron Storrs to carry a Subfcription To Take Care To Get 
as Much Subscribed In ye Neighbouring Towns as He Can 

5th Voted that the Select Men take it Upon them To Seek Quarters 
for the Minister and to Provide For Him. 

Lebanon New Hampshire Sept 12 1765 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned ware pafsed ye Following Votes, 
(viz) Jno Wheatley Chofen Moderator of Said Meeting 

2<i that the Highway through the Intervale in Said Township Lying 
on the Great River Shall be an Open Highway, 

3a that the Selectmen of Said Town Lay out one Acre of Land for a 
Burying Place on the North Side of the Road that Leads to the Sawmill 
up on Mr Charles Hills Land 

4th Voted That mr. Silas Waterman Purchafe a Town Book for 

Voted That Said meeting be adjourned to the twenty-Seventh In- 

Sept 27th 1765 at a Town Meeting held by Adjournment was then 
pafsed the following vote (viz) That Said Meeting be difmifsed. 


At a meeting of the proprietors of Lebanon held by adjournment The 
second Tuesday in December 1765, the following votes were past (viz) : 

13iy Voted to raise the sum of 10/6 of lawful money upon each pro- 
prietor's right to be paid into the treasury by the first day of September 
next [1766] to be appropriated to the use of supporting the preaching of 
the Gospel in said township the ensuing Summer 


14b Choose Nehemiah Estabrook & Capt. Saml Storrs a committee 
for providing preaching as aforesaid 

15th Voted to raise the sum of 10/6 lawful Money on each right for 
the use of clearing and making roads in said township of Lebanon to be 
paid by the first of September next 

16th Chose Aaron Storrs & Jedediah Hibbard a committee for direct- 
ing and ordering bufinefs of clearing and making roads in said Town- 

17th Voted that the aforesaid committee be directed to improve the 
aforesaid tax of 10/6 Lawful money in clearing & making roads in said 
township & also that they shall accept three days labour of each pro- 
prietor in full of the aforesaid tax from May untill the first day of 
October next, and from said first day of October to the tenth of Novem- 
ber next four days labour shall be accepted as aforesaid 

18th Made choice of Mr Aaron Storrs a committee to complete the 
Measuring of intervale lots not before measured. 

19th Voted that Maj John Slapp shall have the privilege of Laying out 
a certain tract of undivided land in said township Bounded south on 
Mascomme river West on Jonathan Dauas 100 acre lot north on Charles 
Hills 100 acre lot & east on Oliver Davison's lot, containing by estima- 
tion about thirty acres (except one acre to be taken up by Charles Hill 
in Lieu of one Acre taken from his lot to be improved for a burying 
place), and that said Slapp shall have the Liberty of improving the 
stream on Mascomme river below Davison's saw mill provided he erect 
and Complete a good grist mill on said stream on or before the first 
day of December next. 

20th Voted to lay out a division of 100 acres of land in said township 
by the first day of October next, said lotts to be laid in due proportion 
to each proprietor according to quality of said land. 

21st Made choice of Capt Nath Hall and Mefsrs Aaron storrs & Huck- 
ins Storrs Jun a committee for laying out the aforesaid division 

22nd That the proprietors committee be directed to warn the next 
proprietors meeting without the Clerk being present. 

23rd Voted to difsolve said meeting 

March 11 1766 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned Ware Passed The Following 
Votes (viz) : Charles Hill Chofen Moderator for Said Meeting 

Voted John Wheatley ] 

Silas Waterman J. Select Men 
Charles Hill J 
Voted Silas Waterman Town Clerk 


Voted Aaron Storrs Constable 

Voted Jedediah Hibberb) 

Samuel Mecham \ Tytheing Men 

Voted Charles Hill ) 

Jedediah Hibberb \ Surveyors of . 

Voted £1. 15s. Lawful Money to James . . For Land Taken off 
His Entervel . 

Voted Selas Waterman £0 3s 8d Lawful Money for Purchasing a 
Book For To Reccord Town . 

Voted That Said Meeting be Difmifsed 
at a Town Meeting Legally warned on April 24 1766 The following 
Votes ware pafsed 
(viz) 1st Mr Charles Hill Chofen Moderator of s'd Meeting 

2<ny That warnings for Town meetings Shall Stand Eight Days be- 
fore the meeting. 

3<ny That Warnings for Town meetings &c for the Future Shall be 
Set up in the most public place On the North & South Sides of the 
River Maskoma 

4tu Whither the Town would Grant a Tax for the Support of the 
Gospel the Enfuing Seafon 

Refolv'd in the Negative. 

5thiy Voted to Defolve S'd meeting 

Att a Town Meeting Legally Warned On Aug 25th Day 1766, The 
following votes ware pafsed 
(viz) 1st John Wheatley Chofen Moderator of S'd meeting 

2diy Whither it may be proper & Convenient under Our prefent Cir- 
cumftances to purfue Such methods as may be Thought proper for the 
Obtaining of a Steady Gofpel administration amongst us 

Refolved in the Affir 

3di y Whether The Towne will chufe a Comtee to Treat with Mr. Tread- 
way now refident Amongst us in Order to his Steady Admr. in the 
Gospel ministry in S'd Town. Refolved in the Affirtive 

4thiy Chofe John Wheatley mr. Charles Hill and mr Jos Dana to be a 
Comtee For the purpofs a fore S'd 

5thiy Whether S'd meeting Shall be Adjourned to the 8th f Sept Next. 
Refolved in the Affirmt 
Septr 8th 1766 

Att A Town Meeting Held by Adjournment the Following Vote Was 
Pasd' (viz) that S'd Meeting Be Adjourned to the 8th of October next. 

Att A Town Meeting Held By Adjournment October 8th 1766 Was Then 
Pafsed the Following vote that S'd Meeting Be Difmifsed 


The following seems to have been the first meeting of the pro- 
prietors held in the town : 


At a meeting holden in Lebanon in the province of Newhampshire at 
the house of Charles Hill [who lived on the river road in the south 
part of the village of West Lebanon] October the sixth 1766 the follow- 
ing votes were past (viz) 

1st Voted Capt. John Wheatley to be moderator for said meeting 

2nd Voted to adjourn said meeting to the thirteenth Instant at one of 
the clock afternoon 

Met by adjournment the thirteenth of October & past the following 
votes (viz) : 

3rd Voted to raise a tax of twenty shillings lawful money on each 
proprietors right, to be paid by the first of October 1767 for the Settle- 
ment of the gospel in said Lebanon 

4iy Voted to choose another committee man in addition to the former 
Committee for laying out the second division of hundred acre lotts. 

5'y Cboose Capt. John Wheatly to be committee man, 

6iy That said committee shall proceed and lay out the second division 
of one hundred acre lotts Run the lines and make sufficient bounds on 
each proprietors lot also to size said lots according to quanty and 
quality, said committee to be sworn. 

7 ] y Voted to adjourn said meeting to the first monday in may next 
one of the clock in the afternoon at the house of Mr Charles Hill 

March 10 1767 

At a Town Meeting Legally warned ware Pafsed the following votes, 
(viz) John Wheatly Moderator of S'd meeting 

Silas Waterman Town Clerk 

John Wheatly Joseph Dana Silas Waterman Select Men 

Jefse Cook Conftable 

James Jones Elijah Dewey Tything men 

Charles Hill Hucking Storrs Afa Kilbourn Fence Viewers 

Jos Tilden Jedediah Hebbard Surveyors of highway 

Granted £3-18-0 Lawful Money For Laying Out Highways the Last 
year in S'd Town 

Voted a tax to be Levied as the Law Directs For the Defraying Town 

Then S'd meeting Defolved 


Met by adjournment May the fourth 1767 and past the following 
votes (viz) 

8iy Voted to reconsider a vote passed on a meeting held by adjourn- 
ment The thirteenth of October 1766, the committee chosen for lay- 
ing out the said division of 100 Acre lotts to proceed to lay out the sec- 
ond Division of 100 acre lotts, run the lines and making Sufficient 


bounds on each, proprietors lot said lots to be sized according to quality 
& quantity and said committee to be sworn. 

9iy That said committee proceed to lay out the second division of 100 
acre lots upon the best of the undivided land in said Lebanon accord- 
ing to their Discretion. 

10iy That the committee chosen to lay out the abovesaid division of 
100 Acre lots, to complete their cost of laying out said division, Equally 
dividing the same to each proprietor & said cost to be paid To said 
committee by said proprietors by the first of May 1768, and those pro- 
prietors which shall pay their proportion of said cost to said committee 
within the above said term shall be entituled to a draft of said Lotts on 
their payment of the same. Said draft to be conducted by said com- 
mittee: resolved in The affirmative. 

lliy Voted to give said committee five shillings a day and they find 

12'y Voted Aaron Storrs seven shillings for his service laying out The 
aforesaid 100 acre lotts. 

13'y Voted to choose another committee man in addition to the Afore- 
said committee, that is a fifth committee Man. 

14iy Choose Mr. Jedediah Dana to be the fifth committee man 

15'y Choose Mr Charles Hill for the first afsefsor 

16 ] y Chose Capt John Wheatley to be the second afsefsor. 

17'y Choose Levi Hyde for the third afsefsor 

18iy Choose Mr Aaron Storrs collector for said propriety 

19'y Choose Capt. John Wheatley to be Treasurer for the proprietors 
of Township of Lebanon 

20iy Voted to hold the proprietors meetings for the township of Leba- 
non in said Lebanon for the future. 

21st Voted to difsolve said meeting. 


At A Town Meeting Legally Warned On May Fifth 1767 Ware Passed 
the Following Votes (viz) John Wheatley Moderator For S'd Meeting 

Query Whither the Town will Be at the Expence of Supporting Mr 
Treadway on his Return to them Which is Daily Expected 

Refolved In the Affirmt 

Voted that the Select Men Provid For Mr Treadway at His Ariveal 

Voted to Dii'smis S'd Meeting 

At A Town Meeting Legally Warned On May Twenty Fifth Day 
1767. The Following Votes ware Pafsed (viz) Capt John Wheatley 
Moderator For S'd Meeting 

To Refolve Whether S'd Town Will Do anything to have a Regular 
Candidate For the Gospel Ministry to Preach to them the Enfuing 

Refolved In the Affirmt 








Chose a Committee For the Purpos afores'd Namely Mr Aaron Storrs 
Mr Jos Dana Capt John Wheatley 

Voted that the Select Men Provid For A Minifter Provided We Have 

Voted to Difsmis S'd Meeting 


At a proprietors meeting held June twenty-ninth 1767 at the house of 
Mr. Charles Hill the following votes were past (viz) 

1st Choose Mr. Aaron Storrs moderator to govern said meeting 
2nd Choose Capt John Wheatley for the committee man for to manage 
The prudential affairs of said propriety. 

3rd Choose Mr. Natn Porter to be the second committee man 
4iy Choose Mr. Aaron Storrs to be the third committee man 
5iy Voted that the proprietors meeting be warned by the proprietors 
Clerk so ordered by the proprietors committee within the township of 
said Lebanon upon application of one sixteenth of said proprietors The 
warning to stand posted up in some publick place in said Lebanon, 
three weeks before hand with the particular articles to be acted on In- 

6>y Voted that the proprietors committee should treat with Plain- 
field committee in respect to settling the town line between Lebanon & 
Plainfield & make return of their doings the first proprietors meeting 

7'y Voted to choose a committee to treat with Mr. Joseph Tilden Re- 
specting the service he has done on the highway 

8iy Voted to choose three committee men for the above said service 
9'y Choose Capt. John Wheatley for the first Committee man 
10iy Choose Mr. Silas Waterman second committee man 
lliy Choose Levi Hyde to be the third committee man 
12iy Voted to omit the sixth article in the warning (viz) the raising 
a tax for supporting preaching the Gospel The ensuing year & like- 
wise to see if said proprietors will raise a tax for making and mending 
highways in said Lebanon. 

13th Voted to have but one committee man to settle with the Treasurer 
and others that the propriety are indebted to in Connecticut 
14iy Choose Mr. Aaron Storrs to be said Committee Man 
15'y Voted to difsolve said meeting. 

At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Lebanon July the 
21st 1767 at the house of Mr Charles Hill the following votes were past 
(viz) : 

1st Choose Capt. John Wheatley to be moderator to govern said meet- 

2d Voted to raise a tax of six shillings lawful money on each propri- 
etor's right to support the preaching of the Gospel the Current year 

3rd Voted to raise a tax of six shillings for making & mending high- 
ways in said town or two days work 


4iy Voted to pay the abovesaid tax of six shillings for the support of 
the Gospel by the first Day of October ensuing 

5'y Voted that the tax of six shillings lawful Money for the making 
roads & mending highways be paid by the first day of October next 

6>y Voted Mr. Charles Hill a committee man for laying out the afore- 
said money for making roads and mending highways in said Lebanon 

7'y Choose Mr. Huckins Storrs second committee for the above said 
purpose of highways 

8iy Voted that Maj. John Slapp should have all the undivided [landj 
Between the now travelling road to Mr Oliver Davisons and Mascomme 
river between Mr Joseph Danas 100 acre lot and Mr Davisons 100 acre 
lot provided the above Maj. John slapp. erect a good sufficient grist mill 
in said town of Lebanon by the first of January 1769. 

9'y Voted that the committee should make Mr. Charles Hill what Res- 
titution they shall think proper for a highway to the sawmill and 
things else whereby the lot is discommoded. 

10iy Voted that Capt. John Wheatly and Mr Charles Hill should have 
twenty-eight shillings lawful money for the service they did the pro- 
priety the last winter in measuring the road from Charleston to Leba- 

This measuring had reference to a dispute between Lebanon 
and Plainfield concerning town lines. 

Illy Voted to suspend the drawing the second division of 100 acre lots 
in said Lebanon till such time as each proprietor has paid or secured 
the propriety for their proportion of taxes granted and those that shall 
be granted by virtue of this warning. 

12iy Voted to difsovel said meeting 


At A Town Meeting Legally Warned On October 7th Day 1767 The 
Following Votes Ware Pafsed (viz) Capt John Wheatley Moderator 
For S'd Meeting 

After Query Whither the Town would Have mr Wales to preach To 
them The Eni'uing Season Refolved in the affirmative 

After Query Whither The Town Wood Give Mr Wood an Equvalent 
For Land For High Way Taken of His Interval Lot. Refolved in tbe 

Voted to Difmiss S'd Meeting. 

At A Town Meeting Legally Warned on Nov. 12th 1767 

Ware Then Passed the Following Votes (viz) 

1st Capt. John Wheatly Moderator for S'd Meeting 

2nd Refolved to Chuse A man to meet the Convention as Cartified in 
S'd Warning. 

3iy Chosen Mr Charles Hill To Attend S'd Convention 


4'y Then Difsrnised S'd Meeting. 

At A Town Meeting Legally Warned on Nov 20th Day 1767 

Was then Passed the Following Votes (viz) 

1st Mr. Charles Hill Moderator For S'd Meeting 

2nd After Query Whither the Town Would Do anything To Support A 
School the Curant Year Refolved in Affirmative 

3rd Queary Whither the town Would Reconsider the Vote as Above; 
Refolved in the Affirmative 

4th Refolved To Do Something By Way of Subscription For the Sup- 
port of S'd School 

5iy Queary Whither thay Would Do any thing about A Highway. 
Refolved in the Affirmative 

6thiy To See Whither thay Will agree to Continue The Road alread 
Laid out from the Great River To the Great Entervale in S'd Lebanon 
Through S'd Lebanon To the East Line of the Town, and To have it 
Laid out as Soon as may be Convenient where it may best Accommodate 
the Publick & Least Difcommode the Inhabitants of S'd Lebanon Re- 
folved in the Affirmative 

Then S'd Meeting Difmifsed. 

The Great River is the Connecticut ; the Great Intervale is that 
lying north of the center village. The road was that passing by 
Mr. J. T. Pulsifer's and ran north of the Mascoma to Enfield. 


At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Lebanon in the 
province of Newhampshire at Mr Charles Hills in said Lebanon Feb- 
ruary the 25th 1768 the following votes were past, (viz) 

1st Choose Mr Charles Hill moderator to govern said meeting 
2nd Voted to act upon the second article in the warning with respect 
To settling the town line between Lebanon & Plainfield. 

3rd Choose Mr Charles Hill for a committeeman for the abovesaid 

4'y Choose Capt John Wheatly for the second committee man 
5iy Choose Lieut. Nath. Porter for the third committee man 
6iy Voted that the second article in the warning be the committee 
Instruction (viz) To hear Col. Atkinsons letter & to consider & act every- 
thing to the above mentioned difficulty that they shall think most con- 
ducive to the settlement thereof. 

Colonel Atkinson was the Hon. Theodore Atkinson, the Secre- 
tary of the Province. 

7'y Voted to raise a tax for laying out & making a road from the 
Great river to the Great intervale and so on to Enfield line. 

8iy Voted to raise a tax of eighteen shillings lawful money on each pro- 


prietors right for the abovesaid purpose of making & clearing a road 
from the great river to the great intervale and so on to Enfield line 

9>y Voted that the aforesaid tax be paid by the first of June 1768 

10iy Choose Levi Hyde to be a committee man for laying out the 
abovesaid money for the above mentioned road 

lliy Chose Mr. Huckins storrs to be the second committee man for 
the abovesaid purpose 

12iy Choose Capt. John Wheatley to be the third committee man for 
The afore mentioned purpose. 

13iy Voted that the committee chose for the aforesaid purpose should 
accept of one days work as 3/0 Lawful money. 

14iy Voted to difsolve said meeting. 


At A Town Meeting Legally Warned on Feby 26th Day 1768 Ware 
Then Pafsed the Following Votes (viz) Capt John Wheatley moderator 
For S'd meeting. Silas Waterman Town Clerk; John Wheatley Silas 
Waterman Oliver Davison Select Men 

Joseph Wood Conftable 

Lt. Porter Lt. John Griswold Tythething Men 

Oliver Griswould James Jones Surveyors of High Ways; Charles Hill 
Huckens Storrs, Asa Kilborn Fence Viewers 

Queary Whither the Town Would Dow Any Thing about Bulding A 
meeting House For the Conveniency of Publick Worship in S'd Leb- 
anon. Voted Negative 

S'd Meeting Difsmised 


At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Lebanon April 3rd 
1768 The following votes were past, (viz): 

1st Choose Capt. John Wheatley to be moderator to govern said meet- 

2nd Choose Lieut. John Griswold to be a committee man for to view 
a certain Tract of land that Mr. Joseph Tilden requests for service done 
on the highway 

3rd Choose Mr Huckins Storrs to be the second committee man for 
the abovesaid purpose 

4th Choose Levi Hyde to be the third committee man for the above 
said purpose 

5th Voted to adjourn said meeting to the third tuesday in May 1768, 
one of the clock afternoon 

Met by adjournment May 17 1768 the following votes were past (viz) : 

1st Voted to accept of the doings of the committee chosen to settle the 
Dividing line between Lebanon & Plainfield 

2nd Granted to Mr Joseph Tilden as a compensation for his labour 
done on The highway that leads to Hanover &c a tract of land as fol- 


lows (viz) Beginning at the N. E corner of Mr Charles Hill's fifty- 
acre lot thence running a perpendicular line to the North line of the 
Town, thence upon said north line westerly to said Tildens land, thence 
southerly upon the rear of said Tildens & Baldwins 100 acre lotts 
to the North west Corner of said Hills said fifty acre lot, thence to the 
first mentioned bound containing the whole of the undivided land be- 
tween said Eastwardly line & said lotts — also to pay said Tildens pro- 
portion of taxes To the amount of four pounds by the first of June next 

3rd Voted to d if solve said meeting. 

At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Lebanon in the 
Province of Newhampshire June the 8th 1768 the following votes were 
past (viz) 

1st Choose Mr. Charles Hill to be moderator to govern said meeting 

2n<J Mr. Aaron Storrs reports the settlement to be made with the 
proprietors Committee, Collector, and Treasurer which he finds to be 
£34-11-4 due from the proprietors to the aforesaid committee col- 
lector & Treasurer. Granted to the aforesaid Aaron Storrs the above 
said £34-11-4 to settle with those the proprietors are indebted to 

3d Voted that the above said sum of £34-11-4 be paid by the first of 
July 1768. 

4th Voted that we would not reconsider the third article in the 

5^h Voted to difsolve said meeting 


At a Town Meeting Legally Warned on July 19th 1768 Ware Pafsed 
the Following Votes (viz) mr Charles Hill moderator of S'd Meeting 

Query Whither The Spot of Ground Near the Burying place should be 
the place to set a meeting house upon Resolved in the Affirmative. 

Voted to diffolve S'd Meeting 

At a Town meeting Legally Warned on July 27th 1768 Ware pafsed 
the following Votes (viz) : John Wheatley moderator for S'd meeting 

After Query whether they would Give mr Wales a Call to settle in 
the ministry in This Town. Refolved in ye Affir. 

Query whither they will agree to give mr Wales fifty pounds as a 
Salary for the first Year & to rife five pounds a Year till it arrive to 
seventy pounds, if he may be Obtained 

Refolved in the Affirmative 

Query Whither they will Do any thing to Render the Right of Land 
Devoted for the benefit of a School in s'd Town profitable for s'd pur- 
pofe Refolved in the Negtive 

Voted to difsolve s'd meeting. 

At a Town meeting Legally Warned on Sept. 7th a D. 1768 Ware 
Pafsed the Following Votes (viz) Levi Hyde moderator for S'd meeting 

Query whither Thay Would Reconfider the Vote Passed on July 19th 


1768 Relative To Setting the Meeting House on. Refolved in the 


Query Whither Thay Will Do any Thing For the Support of a School 
In s'd Lebanon the Enfuing Season Refolved in the Affirmative 

Then "Voted Twenty Pounds to support s'd School A Committee 
Chosen Namely Lt John Griswould Asa Kilborn Joseph Wood, To Con- 
ducive s'd school 

Voted to Difsolve S'd Meeting. 

At a Town Meeting Legally warned on Sept. 30th 1768 The following 
Votes ware pafsed (viz) Capt. John Wheatly Moderator of S'd Meeting 

After Query whither they would Accept of mr. Wales Verbal Answer 
(Sent by Deac Nehemiah Estabrook) of his Acceptance of, and Compli- 
ance with their call To settle in the work of the Gospel Ministry 
amongst them, Refolved in the Negative 

Voted that said Meeting be Desolved. 


At a proprietors meeting of the township of Lebanon in the province 
of Newhampshire October 24th 1768 the following votes were past 

1st Choose Mr Charles Hill moderator to govern said meeting 

2nd Voted to adjourn said meeting to the first tuesday in December 
next at ten of the clock in the forenoon, at the house of Mr. Charles 

met by adjournment the first tuesday in December 1768 

1st Voted to choose a committee to lay out the governors lott in said 
Lebanon & to see what land it covers of lotted & improved Laud & to 
make those persons a meet compensation out of the Undivided land 

2nd Choose Mr Charles Hill to be a committee for the above said pur- 

3rd Choose Levi Hyde the second committee man 

4th Choose Lieut. John Griswould for to be the third committee 

5th Choose Jedidiah Hibbard to be the fourth committee man for the 
above mentioned purpose. 

6th Voted to adjourn said meeting to the third monday in May next, 

1769 at three of the clock afternoon. 

The governor's lot was a tract of 500 acres in the southwest 
corner of the town, covering the farm of Mr. Bradley True and 
other land. He had a similar tract in the northwest corner of 
Plainfield, making a thousand acres in one body. The proprie- 
tors had divided this land among themselves, and occupied some 
portions of it. In 1766 Benning Wentworth had resigned as gov- 
ernor, and began naturally to look after his landed interests, and 


to claim the reservations made in the various townships. Hence 
the action of the proprietors. 


At a Town Meeting Legally warned on Tuesday the 14th Day of march 
1769 the following Votes ware paffed 

1st Charles Hill moderator 

2«iy Joseph Wood Charles Hill & Silas Waterman Select men Silas 
Waterman Town Clerk. Jedediah Hibbard Conftable Hucken Storrs 
Leather sealer Jonathan Dana and Sami Eftabrook Tything men Nathiei 
Porter & Charles Hill Jun survayors of Highways, Benj. Fuller Pound 

3diy Whether they will agree to build two bridges Over the River Maf- 
koma, one at the ford way near Benj. Fullers (East Lebanon) and the 
Other near the mills in said Lebanon. 

Refolved in the Negative 

Query whither they would agree to build one bridge Refolved in the 


Query whether they would build a bridge at S'd fordway Refolved in 
the Negtive 

Query Whether they will build a bridge near said mills [Hubbard 
bridge] Refolved in the Affile 

4thiy Whether they ment to be underftood By their former Vote 
paffed Sept 30th 1768 (wherein they manifefted their Nonacceptance of 
mr Wales Verbal anfwer) thereby to Have Repealed or made void all 
their former votes paffed by Them in favor of said mr. Wales Settling 
in the Gospel Ministry amongst them. Refolved in the Affirmative 

5ity To see if they will think proper (as a town) to make Mr Wales 
some Compensation for the Loss of his horfe suppofed to be Gored to 
Death in Levi Hydes pafture ye Last year 

Refolved in the Negative 

Gthiy Vote said meeting Difolv'd 

May 8th 17G9 met and adjourned to May 22. 

At A Town Meeting Held By Adjournment Ware then passed The Fol- 
lowing (viz) Query the Town Would Do any Thing Relative To haveing 
a Gospel administration amongst Them the Insuing Summer. Risolved 
in the Affirmt Voted to Appoint A Committee For to Proqure a Minis- 
ter The Insuing Summer Charles Hill Capt. John Wheatley Joseph 
Wood Committee men 

Voted To have s'd Committee To Applie To Mr Kenne and See if 
Thay Can Obtain S'd Mr. Kenne and if s'd Committe Should Be Disap- 
pointed of Him, Then Voted That s'd Committee Take the Best Method 
To Obtain a Minister Thay Could The Ensuing Summer 

Voted To Have a Lawbook for the Use of the Town to Be Kept in the 
Clark's Office 


Voted to Build a Cart Bridge at the Ford Way at masquom A Coin- 
initte Chosen For that Parpose Namely Mr John Slap Charles Hill Silas 
Waterman Voted s'd meeting Difolved 

At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Lebanon in the 
province of Newhampshire at the house of Mr Charles HiM in said 
Lebanon October 23 1769 the following votes were past (viz): 

1st Choose Mr Charles Hill moderator to govern said meeting 

2nd Voted to choose a committee relative to the second article re- 
specting laying out the governors lott & seeing what lotted and im- 
proved lands it covers & to make those persons a meet compensation 
that said Governor's lot covers. 

3rd Choose Mr Charles Hill Lieut John Griswold and Levi Hyde for 
a committee for the above mentioned purpose. 

4tn Voted a tax of six shillings Lawful money on each proprietors 
rigbt to be layd out for completing of the road that goes up and down 
the river between the great intervale & Plainfield line and if any of the 
aforesaid sum be left, to pay the proprietors debts 

5'y Choose a committee to lay out the afore said sum (viz) Lieut 
Nath. Porter & Silas Waterman 

6'y Voted that said proprietors should have 3/ a day for work if 
done To the acceptance of the committee chose for the aforesaid purpose 

7'y Voted that the work should be done by the 23d of November 1769 

Sly Voted to dismifs said meeting 

At a proprietors meeting of the township of Lebanon in the province 
of Newhampshire held at the house of Mr Charles Hill insaid Leba- 
non March the 13th 1770 the following votes were past (viz) 

1st Choose Capt John Wheatley moderator to govern said meeting 

2>y To see if they will revoke the six shilling rate last granted; voted 
in the negative. 

3d To see whether they will do anything relative to establishing 
bounds between Mr. Hebbard & Mr Hall Voted in the negative. 

4th Voted to choose a committee to look into the circumstance of Mr 
Olver Davison, deceased, hundred acre lot 

5'y Choose a committee for to look into the circumstances of the 
abovesaid Davison's lott & to lay out of the undivided land in said town 
a proportion of land to said hundred acres the same as they shall think 
proper. Mr Charles Hill Maj John Slapp & Levi Hyde be the above 

6iy Voted that the proprietor's Clerk shall give Deeds in behalf of 
the proprietors To Mr Charles Hill & Maj John Slapp that is already 
Granted to them by the proprietors [To Charles Hill a tract for a part 
of his lot taken for a burying ground. To Maj Slapp of a tract for a 
mill site] 

7'y To see whether they will give one thousand four hundred and 
forty-one acres of undivided land adjoining to Hanover line and ad- 
joining Mr. Tilden's land, said tract to be laid one mile & half square 


for the support of Dr Wheelocks school, upon condition that said school 
be erected in Hanover, and direct that the proprietors Clerk make a 
deed of said Grant upon the erection of said school as above said, 
voted in the affirmative 

Sly Voted to difsmifs said meeting. 


At a Town Meeting Warned on Tuesday 13 Day of March 1770 Ware 
Passed the Following Votes (viz) : 

Charles Hill Moderator For S'd Meeting Silas Waterman Town 
Clerk, Charles Hill Silas Waterman Capt John Wheatley Select Men 
Nathaniel Hall Constable, Zacheus Douner Joseph Martin Tything Men, 
Levi Hyde Lieut. John Griswold Fence Viewers; Hucken Storrs Leather 
Sealer, Lieut. Nath Porter Rufus Baldwin Surveyors of Highways; 
Johnathan Dana Key Keeper of Pound; Maj. John Slapp Aaron Storrs 
Committee men To Examine the Select Men accounts Silas Waterman 
Town Treasurery 

Voted S'd meeting Difsolved. 

Att A Town Meeting Warned On the Fifth Day of November 1770 
The Following Votes Ware Pafsed (viz) Charles Hill Moderator of S'd 

Queary Whither Thay Would Do any Thing Relating To the Second 
Article in the Warning S'd Article Was To See if Thay Would Build 
a Meeting House. Voted in the Affirmtv 

Query Whither Thay Would Build a Meeting House For the Conven- 
ancey of Publick Worship in S'd Town 

Refolved in the Negative. 

Queary Whither Thay Would Revive S'd Acct. of 60 £ For Erecting A 
Cart Bridge Near Maj Slaps Mills in S'd Lebanon Resolved in the 

Voted S'd 60 £ Be paid in the year 1772 by the 5 of Novb 

Voted that the Select men Erect a Sine Pofts To Sit Up Warniug On 
For the Futur One To Be Plasted at The Corner of The Road that 
Leads to Mr Wood And the Other att the Corner that Leads Out To 
Maj. John slaps. S'd Pofts To Be Sot Upon the Town Costs. 

Voted S'd Meeting Difsolved 

Att A Town Meeting Warned On the 26th Day of November 1770 The 
Following Votes Ware pafst (viz) Charles Hill Moderatorr of S'd Meet- 
ing. To See Whither Thay will Agree To Build a House For Publick 
Worship in S'd Lebanon Refolved in the Affirmative 

Voted To have the Size of S'd House For Publick Worship To Be 
Thirty Foot Squair and Teen Foot Poft 

Voted To Place S'd Hous Upon the Road that Leads Out To the Mills 
in S'd Town Upon A Peas of Flat Land East of Mr Charles Hills Bam 

Voted S'd Meeting Adjourned To the 17 Day of December 1770 


Met Dec 17 and adjourned to Jan 7 1771 

At the Adjourned Meeting Held on Monday the 7 th Day of January 
1771 the following Articles ware pafsed In the Affirmative (viz) 

1st Whether they would Go into the Reconfideration of The Votes 
Heretofore pafsed Relating to the Building of a Meeting house in said 
Lebanon Resolved in ye Afftve 

2diy Whether they will Agree to build a House for publick worship In 
S'd Lebanon Refolv'd in the Afftve 

3diy Whether they would Have a Longer time to Complete Said Houfe 
in, then already Agreed upon Refolved in the Afftiv 

4thiy Whether they would Have Said House Set upon Some Other Spot 
Than that already Agreed to Refolv'd in ye Afftive 

5thiy Whither they will agree to Chufe a Comtee to fix a Spot to Set 
S'd House upon and that said Spot agreed upon by said Comtee Shall be 
the place To Set Said Houfe Refolv'd in the Affirmative 

6thiy made Choice of Sarni Chase esq, Capt Hez. Johnson and Lieut. 
David Woodward to be a Cmtee To Affix a Spot to set said Meeting 

Samuel Chase was a prominent man of Cornish, member of the 
Provincial Congress at Exeter, 1775. 

Capt. Hezekiah Johnson was of Hanover. 

Lieutenant, afterwards Capt. David Woodward, was of Han- 

7thiy Voted to Chufe a Comtee to wait upon the above said Comtee 
when Convened. 

8thiy Made Choice of Mr Aaron Storrs Lieut. Porter Mr Charles Hill 
John Wheatley Efq. and Mr Azariah Blifs to be a Comtee for the pur- 
pofe afore said 

9thiy Voted to Disolve said Meeting 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned on Tuefday Day The 29th Day of 
Jam 1771 The following Votes ware Paffed in the affirtve Mr Charles 
Hill Moderator of Said Meeting 

1st Voted to Build a Houfe for Publick Worship 

2<Jiy Voted S'd Houfe shall be Thirty feet Square & ten feet pofts 

3diy Voted that Maj. John Slapp Lieut. Nathi Porter and John Wheat- 
ley Esq be a Comtee to Conduct the Building of said House 

4thiy Voted that the Tax of 60 £ already Granted for the Building 
a bridge in said Lebanon be made as Soon as may be Convenient 

5thiy Voted to have a Tax Levied forthwith to Defray The Charge of 
The Comtee Chol'en to defign a Spot For the Setting a Meeting Houfe 

6thiy Voted To Clear and fence the Burying Yard Upon the Towns 
Coft and Said Bui'inefs to be Under the Direction of The Comtee Chofen 
to Conduct The Building of the Bridge in said Lebanon 

7thiy Voted to Difolve said Meeting. 


At a Town Meeting Legally Warned on March the 12th 1771 For the 
Choice of Town officers for the year Enfuing The following Votes Ware 

1st Mr. Charles Hill Moderator of said Meeting Voted That John 
Wheatley Efq Mr Charles Hill and Mr Silas Waterman Be Selectmen for 
the year Enfuing Mr Silas Waterman Town Clerk Oliver Griswold, Con- 
i'table. Bela Turner and William Downer Tything — Lieut Porter and 
Lieut Griswold Surveyors, of Highways Charles Hill Lieut Griswold and 
Joseph Martin fence Viewers Huckens Storrs Leather Sealer. 

Voted to Disolve S'd Meeting 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned on Tuefday The 19th Day of 
March 1771 The following Votes Ware Paffed Lieut. John Griswold 
Moderator of said Meeting 

Voted to take into Confideration the Requeft of Doc. Eleasor Wheelock 
Prefdt of Dartmouth College That one mile & half of Land in breadth 
and three Miles in Length of the Township of Lebanon in the North 
Weft Corner thereof be incorporated with other Land into a Town or 
parifh, Purfuant To Said Request 

Voted To Requeft the General Court That the Lands Included within 
the following Lines (viz) From the N. W. Corner bound of Lebanon 
Running Eai'terly Upon the Town Line three miles; Thence Southerly 
a Perpendicular Line one mile and half Thence Wefterly a Parallel 
Line with the firft Line to ye Great River, thence abutting Wefterly on 
Said River To the above mentioned Bound may be incorporated Into 
a Town or Parifh 

Voted Doc. Eleaser Wheelock To be an Agent to Reprefent the Town 
at the General Court In favor of the above Requeft and for the obtain- 
ing of the same 

After voting sums of money to various persons for services rendered 
the meeting disolved 

Doctor Wheelock, president of Dartmouth College, presented 
his petition to the governor and council, and on April 4, 1771, 
they recommended that the petition be granted. A tract of land 
three miles square, taken from Lebanon and Hanover, was for 
many years known as Dresden, and was called a town. 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned on Wednefday the 21st Day of 
August 1771 The following Votes ware pafsed (viz) Mr Charles Hill 

2<Jiy Whither they will agree to give mr Isaiab Potter a Call to Con- 
tinue in the work of the Gospel Miniftry In order for Settlement in 
said work amongst them. Refolv'd in the Affirmative 

3<J'y Made Choice of John Wheatley mr Charles Hill, and mr. Aza- 
riah Blifs to be a Comtee to Treat with Mr. Potter For the purpofe afore 


4thiy Voted that the Select men Should affefs the Inhabitants of said 
Lebanon for the Defraying all Necefsary Charges anting on the acct of 
obtaining mr. Potter For His Labour and support for the time being 
amongst Them 

5thiy Voted to Enlarge the Meeting House already voted to be built 
from 30 feet Square & 10 feet posts to be 48 feet in Length Thirty-four 
feet in breadth & Twenty feet Post 

6thiy Voted to adjourn Said Meeting to the fourth Day of Sept. 1771. 
at said Meeting adjourned as above Said the above named Cointee made 
their Report to said Meeting of Mr. Potter's Acceptance of their motion 
made to him by said Comtee so far as to Return to them the Eni'uing 
Spring, Extrordinaries Excepted Voted to accept S'd Comtees Report. 

Voted to Remove the meeting House already Voted to be Erected near 
The Burying Yard in said Lebanon to the most Convenient Place in 
mr. Hills pafture Westerly Near the Road that Leads to the saw mill 

Voted That Maj Slapp Mr. Silas Waterman and mr Huckens Storrs 
Be a Comtee to Build said Meeting House. 

Voted That said Comtee proceed to Erect and Enclose said Meeting 
House & Lay a Good floor in said House by the first Day Oct. which will 
be in the year 1772 

Voted to Difsolve said Meeting 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned on Nov. 7th 1771 The following 
Votes ware pafsed (viz) 

1st Mr. Charles Hill Moderator of said Meeting 

2<iiy Voted to Transpofe the Meeting House. Voted to be Erected iu 
Mr. Hills Pafture to The Clay pit about fifty Rods Westerly of said 
Spot before agreed to upon said Road 

3aiy Voted That Mr Azariah Blifs Maj. John Slapp & John Wheatley 
Efq Be a Comtee to over See and forward The Erecting & Enclofing and 
Laying a Good floor To said House By the first of October 1772 

4thiy Voted to Disolve said Meeting 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned on the Sec'a Day of Dec 1771 The 
following Votes were pafsed (viz) 

1st Mr Charles Hill Moderator 

2<3iy To Raise a Tax to Build a Meeting House on Sawmill Road at the 
spot agreed to their Last Meeting, Nov. 7th 1771 

3 d iy Voted To Disolve Said meeting 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned on Jan. 7th 1772 The following 
Votes ware Paifed (viz) : 

1st John Wheatley Efq. moderator 

2<aiy To Raife a Tax to Build a Meeting House on Sawmill Road at the 
spot agreed to their Last Meeting, Nov. 7th 1771 

3<»y Voted To Disolve Said meeting 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned on Jan. 7th. 1772 The following 
Votes ware Paffed (viz) : 

1st John Wheatley Efq. Moderator 


2<Jiy Voted to accept of the Spot Pitched By a Comtee in The Field of 
Jonathan Dana to Set a Meeting Houfe 

3<3iy "Voted to Transpofe the meeting Houfe already Voted to be Built 
By a Tax near the Clay pitt. on Sawmill Road To the above Said Spot 
in S'd Dana's Field 

4thiy Voted that Maj. John Slapp Mr Charles Hill Lieut. John Gris- 
wold and Mr Silas Waterman Be a Comtee to Over See the Building of 
S'd Houfe 

5thiy Voted to Difsolve said Meeting. 

At their annual meeting held March 10, 1772, they elected as 
their town officers : 

Mr Charles Hill Moderator John Wheatley Esq Charles Hill, 
Silas Waterman Select Men for the Year Enfuing Silas Waterman Town 
Clerk Wm Dana Conftable; John Hyde Jese Cook Tything Men Lt. John 
Griswold Joseph Martin Levi Hyde Fence Viewers, Oliver Griswold 
Leather Sealer; Jese Cook, James Jones W m Downer Surveyors of High- 
ways; Silas Waterman Sealer of Wates and Measures. Voted £40. 
Lawful Money For highway. 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned & Held on April 7th 1772 the fol- 
lowing Votes ware pafsed (viz) 

1st Mr. Charles Hill Moderator 

2<ny Rel'olved to alter the Size of the Meeting Houfe to forty feet in 
Length, thirty in Breadth & ten feet poft 

3diy Voted to pay £5-10-6 for planks for Bridges 

4thiy Voted to pay the sum of £2-9-0 to Maj. John Slapp Comtee man 
for Clearing & Getting timber for a Meeting Houfe at the Clay Pitt 

5tuiy Voted to pay unarles Hill. John Griswold & Silas Waterman 
£10-2-4 for Getting Timber for a Meeting House 

At a Meeting Legally Warned & Held on April, 20th 1772. Voted Mr 
Charles Hill Moderator of S'd Meeting 

Voted to Tranfpofe the Meeting House from Mr. Dana's Field to Mr. 
Hills Pafture Near the House of Mr. Bela Turner 

Voted that Azariah Blifs, Charles Hill Silas Waterman Maj. Slapp, 
Lieut. Porter and John Wheatley be a Comtee to oversee & forward the 
building of Said Meeting House 

Voted To adjourn said meeting to the 27th inftant, at which Meeting 
held by adjournment the following votes ware paffed (viz) 

Voted that above Named Comtee proceed to Erect & Enclose said Meet- 
ing House as Soon as may be. Voted to Disolve Said Meeting 


At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Lebanon at The 
house of Mr. Charles Hill in the province of Newhampshire on the 26th 
of May 1772 the following votes were past (viz) : 


1st Mr Charles Hill was chosen moderator to govern said meeting 

2nd Voted to choose a committee to make application to his Excel- 
lency to order the surveyor general to affix the S. W. corner and run 
the south line and Affix the south East corner of the Township of Leba- 
non, according to the charter of said township 

3r<J That Mr. Aaron Storrs & Capt. Elisha Sprague be a committee to 
make application to his Excellency for the granting the request in the 
above vote 

4iy Voted to adjourn said meeting to the 29th of this instant at three 
clock in the afternoon at the house of Mr. Charles Hill 

Met according to adjournment & the following votes were past, 
(viz) : 

5>y Whether the proprietors will agree to build a meeting house? past 
in the Affirmative 

6iy Mefsrs Aaron Storrs Huckins Storrs & Jedediah Hibbard be a 
committee for the above purpose. 

7iy Voted to raise a tax of forty shillings upon each proprietors Right 
to be paid in by the first of September next for the use of the afore 
mentioned meetinghouse 

8'y Voted that the present proprietors' committee should be a Com- 
mittee to receive & examine and pay out and to settle back, present and 
future accounts for the proprietors of the Aforementioned Township 
during the proprietors afsignation, for the above said purpose 

9iy Voted to raise a tax of twelve shillings Lawful money on each 
proprietors right to pay the aforesaid committee & to pay the outstand- 
ing Debts of said proprietors — to be aded to the forty shilling tax. 

10'y Whether the said proprietors will appropriate the forty shillings 
Granted on each proprietors right, to the use of building a meeting- 
house on such spot as may be hereafter, within one month from this 
29 day of May, be affixed by an indifferent Judicious Committee of 
three men chose by the town of said Lebanon who shall be instructed to 
have regard to the general interest of the Township of Lebanon, & 
paid [the money] to the committee that may be appointed by said Town 
for building said house. Voted in the affirmative. 

Illy Whether the proprietors will agree to build a meeting house in 
the Township of said Lebanon for the use of said town on the south 
side of the river mascomme, on the East side of the road which leads 
from the Sawmill late belonging to the estate of Mr Oliver Davison, de- 
ceaf'd, into the road called Enfield road, near Lieut Nathaniel Porters 
dwelling hous (viz) at a certain beach tree marked on four sides & 
with the Letter M, standing on a small eminence, 100 rods from En- 
field road & 112 rods from mascomme river, opposite Maj John Slapps 
Cornmill, of the following dimensions (viz) 44 feet in length and thirty- 
two feet in breadth, with 20 feet posts, and choose a committee of 
three men to accomplish the same as soon as the nature of said busi- 
nefs will admit. Voted in the affirmative. 

12iy Voted to dismifs said meeting 



At a Meeting Legally Warned & Held on June 8th 1772 

Voted. Mr Charles Hill Moderator of S'd Meeting 

Voted, That Azariah Blifs Charles Hill & John Wheatley be a Comtea 
to Receive mr. Potters anfwer to the propofals of said Town & to Make 
a Report thereof to Said Town 

Voted to Adjourn Said Meeting to the first Monday in July next 

at the abovesaid Meeting Held by adjournment on July 6th 1772, a 
Motion was made by S'd Meeting To Mr. Potter to Give his Answer to 
the Call Given To him by the people of said Lebanon to Settle in the 
Gospel Ministry amongst them. To which Call Mr. Potter was pleafed 
to Answer in the Affirmative. 

Voted to give Mr. Potter thirty-Eight pounds in Addition to the Sixty- 
two pounds granted by the propria of said Lebanon towards the set- 
tlement of the first Gospel minister settled in said Town (as a Settle- 
ment for Mr Potter) in cafe of His Settleing in the work of the Gospel 
Miniftry in Sd Town 

Voted, To Give Mr Potter as a Salary fifty pound Lawful Money a 
year for the two first years & then to Rise Annually five pounds a year 
till it Shall amount to Eighty pounds ; & that S-d Sum of Eighty pounds 
when attained to as above Said Shall be the Stated Salary for Mr Potter 
So Long as he Shall Continue in the Gospel Ministry in said Town 

At a Meeting Legally Warned & Held the 10th Day of August 1772 the 
following Votes ware pai'sed (viz) Mr Charles Hill Moderator of Said 

Voted To Build a Meeting Houfe on the East End of Mr. Hills Pafture 
Near to Maj. Slapps 

Voted That the former Comtee That was appointed To build a Meeting 
House Near to Mr. Turners be a Comtee to Build said House at the above 
said place, 48 feet in Length 34 in Breadth & 10 or 12 feet poft 

Voted To Disannul and make void all former votes pafsed in said 
Town Refpecting a Meeting House, Excepting the timber procured for a 
Meeting House Heretofore 

Voted to Disolve said Meeting 

At their annual meeting March 9, 1773, they elected their town 
officers : 

jno Wheatley Efq be Modr of S-d Meeting Azariah Bliss, Maj. John 
Slapp Levi Hyde Select Men, Silas Waterman Town Clerk, Sami Bayley 
Conftable, Mefsrs Hezekiah Waters & Azariah Blifs Jun. Tything men 
Messrs Lieut John Griswold, Charles Hill & Joseph Martin fence View- 
ers; Mefsrs W™ Dana, W"> Downer, James Jones, & Jefse Cook Sur- 
veyors of Highways; Lemuel Hough Leather Sealer; Mefsrs Nathaniel 
Hall Nathaniel Porter Jr Deer Reeves 


These were the officers, to prevent the killing of deer out of 

Among the papers of Nathaniel Hall the following complaint, 
under the statute, was found : 

Province of New Hampshire SS. Plaiufield March 22 1773. 

Isaac Stephens of said Plainfield Complains & says that Alexader 
Brink of Hartford in the Province of Newyork & Sanin Meacham of 
Pelhan (Enfield) in ye Province of N. Hampshire & Joseph Martain of 
Lebanon in ye Provinc afores'a have in ye Months of February Last 
and March instant Hunted and Killfi Deer kind within ye Bounds of ye 
Province of New Hampshire which ye s'd Isaac Stephens Stands Ready 
to prove, it being Repugnant to ye Laws of s'd Province, Expects to 
have said Breach or Breaches of law above mentioned Heard & Deter- 
mined Before two of his Majesties Justices of ye Peace for s'd Province 


After voting sums of money to various persons : 

Voted to Submit the Laying out of a Road from Mafguama Bridge 
thro Jonathan Danas & Maj. Slapps Land to the Meeting House to the 
Discretion of the Select Men. 

Voted to Raife a Tax of £20.-0-0 for the Support of a school in S'd 
Town the Current year. 

Voted to Disolve S-d Meeting 

Att a Meeting Legally Warned and Held on Sept. 7, 1773 The Follow- 
ing Votes Ware Pafsed 

1st Voted Jedediah Hebbard and Jonathan Dana Grand Jurey men 

2nd Voted that the Select men Provide a Box or Boxes on the Coft 
of The Town To Put the Names of the Inhabitants of the Town Quali- 
fied By Law To Be Draughted To Save as Pitet Jurey men 

3iy Voted That Warnings For Town meeting Be Set up on or Near 
the Meeting House in S'd Lebanon 

4iy Voted that Jobn Wheatley Esqr, Capt Elijah Sprague Be Commit- 
tee Men For To Rectifie any Mistakes Made By the meeting House Com- 

5iy Voted to Disolve S-d meeting 

At a Town Meeting Legally Warned and Held on December 27th 1773. 
The Following Votes Ware Pafsed (viz) : 

1st Queary Whither the Town would Reconfider The Twenty pound 
Tax Voted att our annual meeting, held The 9th f Last March, Relat- 
ing To the Support of a School or Schools in S'd Town 

Resolved in Negative 

2ndiy Voted that The Select men Take Back the Bill Committed To 
the Coiiftable To Collect For the Purpose above S-d 

3rdi y Voted that the Select men Cros out Stephen Jewel Meeting House 

I— I 


i— i 










4b" Voted that the Select men Rectifle the mistake made in Mr Levi 
Hydes Rate. S'd Rate was Thirteen Shillings Lawful Money. 

5thiy Voted That the Select Men Procure a Plan of The meeting 
Houfe Flower To Be Laid Before The Next Town Meeting in order To 
Erect Pues and Seets in S'd House. 

Voted S-d Meeting Difolved 

At a Town meeting Legally Warned and Held on March 8th 1774 
The Following Choices of Town Officers Ware made and the Following 
Votes Ware Pas^ (viz) 

Voted That Dea Nehemiah Estabrook be Moderator of s-d Meeting 

Voted Dea Nehemiah Estabrook John Wheatley Esq. and Mr. Charles 
Hill Be Selectmen; For y-r Ensuing 

Voted Silas Waterman Town Clerk and Treasui'er; Hezekiah Waters 
Conftable; Azariah Blifs, Joseph Martin James Fuller Samuel Esta- 
brook Tything Men; Charles Hill John Griswold, Joseph Martin Fence 
Viewers; Lemuel Hough Leather Sealer; Lemuel Hough Jedediah Heb- 
bard Oliver Griswold Samuel Eastbrook Surveyors of Highways, 
Charles Hill, Huckins Storrs Lt John Griswold Haywards 

Sums of money were voted to different persons 

At a town meeting held April 5, 1774, sums of money were 
voted for various purposes to purchase a set of "Wates and 
measures For S — d Town." 

May 30, 1774, they declined to do anything to finish the meet- 

At A Town meeting Held on May 30th 1774 Ware Then Pafsed The 
'Following Votes, 

Dean Nehemiah Estabrook Moderator of S-d meeting 

Made Choice of Lt Jedediah Hibbard Grand Juror To Serve At the — 
Superior Court To Be Held at Plymouth on the Second Tuesday of 
June Next 

Query Whither The Town will Do Any Thing To Finifh the meet- 
ing House — 

Refolved in Negative 

Voted To Disolve S-d meeting 


At a meeting of the proprietors of the township of Lebanon in the 
province of Newhampshire held at the house of Mr Charles Hill in said 
Lebanon on thursday the 29th of September 1774 the following votes 
were past (viz) : 

1st Chose Deacon Nehemiah Estabrook moderator to govern said 

2nd Voted to adjourn said meeting to the house of Capt. Bela Turner 
for half an hour 


Met according to adjournment & the following votes were past (viz): 

3rd Voted to pursue some method to af certain the southwest corner 
of said town and south line according to the Charter of said town not- 
withstanding the former votes past in said propriety relative thereto. 

4'y Voted and resolved to appoint a committee of five men to ai'cer- 
tain the southwest corner bound of the township of said Lebanon ac- 
cording to Charter it being 18 miles distant on a point from Charleston 
ISiorthwest corner bound. Voted in the Affirmative 

5th Voted & resolved Mefsrs Aaron Storrs Nehemiah Estabrook John 
Griswold Jedediah Hebbard & Nath Porter or the major part of them 
be our committee for the abovementioned purpose 

6th Voted & resolved that the last mentioned committee or the major 
part of them be our committee to afcertain & mark the southern line of 
said township of Lebanon according to Charter, & to warn any person 
or persons whom they sh-ill find trefspafsing on any undivided lands 
in this township immediately to desist & depart from said lands, and 
if they do not depart in consequence of such warning within a proper 
time the said committee or the major part of them are hereby author- 
ized & empowered to proscecute them in law as trefspafsers, and to take 
every legal method they shall Judge proper and necel'sary to establish 
the southern line of said town-ship and vindicate said undivided land 
from such persons as have presumed To enter and make improvements 
on the same and so as to put a final end & close to any grounds of dis- 
pute which have subsisted respecting said southwestern bound & south- 
ern line of said township of Lebanon, voted in the affirmative 

At a meeting held in Nov 1774 

Voted to allow the accounts of Jonathan Freeman for runing The 
line from Charlestown Northwest corner to the southwest corner of 
Lebanon & planing the same and runing the South & East lines of said 
township, which is £2.-16-0 

Jonathan Freeman was of Hanover, afterward a member of 

2nd Voted to allow the accounts of Messrs David Woodward. James 
Hutchinson & Sam' Haze for service done to said propriety as chainmen 
which account is £4.-0-0 

3rd Voted to allow the account of Nehemiah Estabrook for service 
done to said propriety the sum of £2.-13-6% 

4iy Voted To allow the account of John Griswold for service done To 
said propriety £1.-13-0 

5iy Voted to allow the account of Jedediah Hibbard for service done 
to said propriety £5-4-5 

6iy Voted to allow the account of Nath Porter the sum of £0-3-5. 

At a meeting held the second Monday in December 1774 

1st Whereas the committee appointed by this propriety at their meet- 



ing on the 29th Day of Sept. last report that they have employed Mr 
Jonathan Freeman to afsist them as surveyor in afcertaining the South- 
west corner bound of said township of Lebanon according to Charter 
who has lodged a certificate of his doings therein with the Clerk of the 
propriety which is laid before them for their acceptance and as the ac- 
ceptance or nonacceptance of said report is a matter of much conse- 
quence to this propriety, on which account a full meeting of the pro- 
prietors is greatly to be desired therefore voted that the final Consider- 
ation & determination of this propriety respecting said report be deferred 
to the next adjourned meeting. Paft in the affirmative. 

Met on the 10th f January 1775 and accepted the reports of Mr. Free- 

No further business of importance was transacted by the pro- 
prietors until March, 1778. 


At A Town meeting Held on Jany 15th 1775 Ware Then Pafsed the 
Following Votes Nehemiah Estabrook Moderator of S'd meeting 

Query Whither The Town Would Build a gris mill in S'd Town Re- 
solved In Affirmtive 

Voted A Committee To Look out A Place To Sit S'd mill and make 
Report To S-d Town 

The Committee Names are as Follows Namely Lt. John Griswold Mr 
Azeriah Blifs Enf'n Hezekiah Waters 

Voted The Sum of Thirty Pounds Lawful Money For the Support of 
Chools in S'd Town. A Comtee Chosen For the Above S'd Purpose 
Namely Capt Bela Turner Lt John Griswold Lt Jedediah Hibbard John 
Wheatley Esq, Maj. John Slapp 

A Report of the Comtee Appointed by the Town of Lebanon to Div- 
vide S'd Town into Districts For the benefit of Chools and to make an 
Equitable Distribution of £30. Granted By S'd Town For the Suport of 
of S'd Schools To the Several Districts aforesaid 

We the Subscribers members of the aforesaid Comtee According to our 
Inftructions Received From you have taken into our Confideration the 
Bufinefs Afsigned To us & have mutually Agreed in the Following 
Divifion & distribution aforesaid (viz.) 

The first District To begin at the mouth of Enfield Old Road thence 
including all the Inhabitants on said Road To the North Line of Said 
Town & to Extend as far East as the East End of Capt Bela Turners 
meadow Lott on the N Side of the River Mafcoma. 

The S. W. District To begin at the mouth of Enfield Old Road and 
to Extend East as Far as the S. W. Corner of Zalmon Aspenwalls First 
Hund<J acre Lott Lying on S'd Road, including Mr Joseph Wood Mr. 
Huckens Storrs and Deacon Nehemiah Estabrook & his Son Nehemiah 


Estabrook Jun. Togather with all the Inhabitants South of S'd Road 
To the South Line of S'd Town 

The S. E. District to Begin at said S. W. Corner of S'd Aspenwall 
Lott and include all the Inhabitants Living Upon Said Road North and 
E. & all South of Said Road To the E. Line of aforesaid South weftern 

The Northeaftern District To Begin at the aforesaid E End of Capt. 
Bela Turners meadow Lott thence Southerly acroft the River mafcoma 
So far as to include Hobart Estabrook Thence North eafterly to the 
Mouth of the South Branch of the aforesaid River Mafcoma So Far as 
to include all the inhabitants North of said River & said Branch and 
Wefterly as Far as the East Line of the First Mentioned District 

We Then Proceded To make an Equal Distribution of the aforesaid 
Sum of 30 £ To the Several Districts as aforesaid according to The 
Laft years Lift of the Inhabitants of Said Town, Excepted. Which upon 
an Accurate Examination we find to be as Follows 

To the First District £11-18-6 

Second Do 9-16-6 

Third Do 5- 8-6 

Fourth Do 2-16-6 

30- -0-0 
We also Humbly offer to the Consideration of S'd Town Whither it 
may Not be for the Publick utility to Appoint Collectors In the Several 
Districts Aforesaid to Collect the aforefaid Sums Afsigned to Each Dis- 
trict & Also to appoint a Comtee To Manage the Affairs of the Schools 
in Said Districts with the Advice & Concurrance of the Inhabitants in 
them To which Comtee r Comtees the Aforesaid Collectors Shall be ac- 
countable for The Several Sums Committed To them To Collect For the 
Purpofe Aforesaid & also that Said Comtee or Comtees Render an ac- 
count To Said Town at Their Annual meeting In march 1776. How and 
in What manner the aforesaid Sums of Money have been Difposed of 
By Them 

John Wheatley Esq. 
John Slapp 

John Griswold J»Comtee 

Bela Turner 
Jed. Hebbard 

The Aboe Report Was Excepted By the Inhabitants of S'd Town 
Voted That The Coft of Mr. Bugbe's Sicknefs Tho Last year should 
Be Paid By The Inhabitants of S'd Town 

At the annual meeting March 14, 1775 the town officers were chosen 
as follows — 

Deacon Nehemiah Estabrook Moderator of S-d Meeting 
Selectmen Dea. N. Estabrook John Wheatley Esq Lt. John Griswold 
Town Clerk and treasurer, Silas Waterman 


Conftable, Azariah Blifs 

Tything men, Charles Saction John Lyman Abiel Wills, Nathaniel 
Porter Jr. 

Surveyors of Highways Henry Woodward, Lt Sami Paine Nathaniel 
Porter Jr. Zacheus Downer 

Fence Viewers Lt. John Griswold Joseph martin Ens. W™ Dana 

Leather Sealer Capt Bela Turner 

Haywards Joseph Wood James Jones Samuel Bailey Abel Wright 
Charles Hill 

School Collectors, Nathaniel Storrs Silas Waterman Ebenezer Blifs, 
Jese Cook 

School Committee Capt. Bela Turner John Wheatley Esq. Lt. Levi 
Hyde Lt. John Griswold Maj. John Slapp 

Various sums of money were voted. 

Voted £2.-0-0 L. M. to Defray the Expenses of the Comtee Appointed 
By The Province To attend The Continental Congress. 

Difficulties with the mother country leading to the Revolu- 
tion had already commenced. The Assembly of the province in 
May, 1774, had, by circular letters, requested the towns to send 
deputies to hold a convention in Exeter, in July, 1774, who 
should choose delegates to a General Congress of the colonies to 
meet at Philadelphia, and also to pay their proportion of the 
expense of the delegates. The above vote of the town is in an- 
swer to this request. 

The time covered by the records already cited may be taken 
as the first well-marked period in the history of the town — the 
period of settlement. For this early period no history can be 
better than the records themselves. They were made from time 
to time, as they met to provide for their wants and further their 
enterprise of making for themselves homes in the wilderness. 

A narrative of this first period will now follow, drawn from 
all possible sources. 

The Territory op Lebanon. 

The territory included by the lines of the charter is character- 
ized by two main valleys intersecting each other in the center vil- 
lage. One of these valleys extends easterly and westerly and is 
made by the Mascoma River ; the other runs northerly and south- 
erly and is formed on the south of the village by Great Brook and 


on the north by the hollow extending to Mink Brook in Hanover. 
Travel is easy along these valleys to surrounding towns, but steep 
hills hem them in on all sides. The center of the town is said to 
be near the foot of lower falls in the village. The rocks of the 
town are mainly mica slate abundantly supplied with iron 
pyrites. In the southwest part there is a large deposit of horn- 
blende in the slate ; the mass of Mount Finish is composed of this 
rock. It also makes its appearance in the eastern part of the 
Billings farm. 

Colburn Hill and Rix Ledges are like islands of granite pro- 
truding through the slate rock. The granite is not found in 
places south of the river and does not appear except in boulders 
east of the valley which runs northward by Rix Ledges. A large 
vein of quartz runs along the eastern part of the town, a pro- 
longation of the immense deposit of that material on Moose 
Mountain; it appears on the Cleaveland farm to the south, and 
extends into Enfield and Grantham. The rocks of the town give 
abundant evidence of glacial action in the scratches, grooves and 
furrows everywhere conspicuous on them. The granite boulders 
strewn over the region, some of which have been found on the 
summits of the Grantham Range, tell the same story. Now and 
then fragments of rocks have been found enclosing minerals, 
whose origin must have been on the hills of Lyme and Thetford. 
If many fragments of Colburn Hill have passed to the south in 
some of the mysterious movements of ancient times, places to the 
north have sent down their rocks, and there is no deficiency in 
the supply. 

The Mascoma River must always be an object of interest to the 
people of Lebanon, because of its great usefulness as an unfail- 
ing and reliable source of power. It has also its beauties to com- 
mend itself to those who will study it with care. 

Its ancient history is full of interest to those who have learned 
to read it, written plainly enough all along its course from the 
hills of Dorchester, Canaan and Hanover. There was a time 
when there was no river wending its way along this valley : but a 
chain of lakes occupied its bed. The most eastern of these filled 
the valley where the village of East Canaan now stands. Its 
western barrier was at 'Welch's Mills. It discharged its waters 
over the summit into the vallev of the Merrimack. It was these 


waters tumbling- over the rocky barriers which caused the pot- 
holes found at Orange Summit, so long the puzzle of geologists. 
After a time the western barrier was worn down and the waters 
were discharged towards the Connecticut. Westward was an- 
other large lake extending northward to Goose Pond and south- 
ward to Mud Pond and perhaps to East Pond. Still another 
filled the valley of Ma scorn a Lake, whose ancient shores are 
plainly visible at much higher points than it now reaches, so that 
the fertile lands occupied by the Shaker families were covered by 
its waters, which extended southward to Enfield Center. In these 
ancient times the lake discharged its waters a mile from the dam 
at East Lebanon, coming into a long valley at a point opposite 
the watering place at the turn of the road towards East Lebanon. 
Its ancient bed, worn into rocky chasms and wide, deep pot- 
holes, is still plainly discernible. Still another barrier was there 
at Chandler's Mills. A lake covered the meadows north of the 
village with its barriers at the falls by the sawmill. Below the 
falls was a long, narrow lake extending to the Hubbard bridge, 
where were the final barriers from the immediate valley of the 
Connecticut. In the course of time the barriers between these 
large bodies of water were worn away, the water drained into the 
Connecticut and in place of the chain of lakes we have the 
stream. Those who have seen the meadows of Canaan, and our 
own, in periods of very high water in the Mascoma, mil not find 
it difficult to believe that this is a true history of the region, nor 
difficult to realize the appearance of the valley of the Mascoma 
in that early period. A few dams of no great length at several 
points in the course of the river would speedily fill these ancient 
lake beds. Doubtless these water basins were supplied and filled 
by the melting of ancient glaciers. 

The soil of this territory has varying qualities. On the inter- 
vales loamy and rich: on the hills, stronger and more durable. 
The town was well timbered with beech, maple and other similar 
woods, while white pine and hemlock was abundant and of 
enormous growth. 


Survey of the Town. 

As already stated, the lines of the town had been run by the 
governor's surveyor before the granting of the charter. Imme- 


diately afterwards the proprietors took steps to ascertain the 
character of their grant, and to divide it into suitable lots, ap- 
pointing as a committee for that purpose Capt. Nathaniel Hall, 
Huckins Storrs, Daniel Blodget, Jim., Charles Hill, John Hanks. 
This committee immediately came here from Connecticut in Octo- 
ber, 1761, and commenced their work. Fortunately, from the 
records of the proprietors, the methods which they took to divide 
the land can be well ascertained. 

"It being necessary to plan the Great Kiver in Order to find 
the quantity of intervale in the town and also to lay out the hun- 
dred acre lots so as not to waste land, we proceeded to the north- 
west corner of the town to a hemlock tree mentioned in Mr. 
Boyles survey" where they commenced the survey of the Con- 
necticut, running lines also around the intervale which they 
found, carefully computing its quantity. 

They then commenced at the mouth of the Mascoma and sur- 
veyed that river towards the pond, carefully running lines 
around the intervale and computing its quantity. The close of 
the notes in the survey of the Mascoma is somewhat amusing. 
' ' Almost night ; The committee been to the pond aforementioned 
out of which this River runs & concluding it run near the same 
course from the pond we stopt surveying said river ' ' ! 

The following is their own account of their method of survey- 
ing the intervale : ' ' The rivers being surveyed and a memoran- 
dum made for the beginning and ending of every piece, we be- 
gan at a monument either at the upper or lower end & in running 
our courses where we made an Angle, we marked the tree or bush 
w r e ran to & when heued smooth made three hacks into it, to dis- 
tinguish it from an angle, it being difficult to take account of 
every tree at every angle." 

After having thus surveyed the intervale they prepared to lay 
out the upland. For this purpose it was convenient to have a 
well-defined base line. This base they laid out at the Enfield 
Road. Beginning near the house of 0. L. Stearns they ran a line 
parallel with the south line of the town S. 72° E. straight through 
the town, turning out for neither hills nor valleys. This road 
was eight rods wide, and while known to the earlier settlers as 
Enfield Road, and later as the Old Enfield Road, is known to us 


as the King's Highway, still existing in its original width, in 
some portions of it. 

Upon the north side of this road there were laid out the acre 
lots, one for each proprietor. These acre lots now compose parts 
of the farm of N. B. Stearns and the Slacks. 

They then began to lay out lots of an hundred acres from 
each side of this road. These lots were 100 rods on the road and 
160 rods deep, with land reserved for highways and roads at suit- 
able intervals. "While these lots were nominally of the dimen- 
sions given, yet they were often made larger if the land was of a 
poorer quality. These lots were called the first division. Most 
of this first division were located south of the Mascoma, a few 
along the Connecticut north of the river. 

They next proceeded to lay out the intervale, allotting nine 
and a half acres to each proprietor. 

Next were laid out the second division of 100-acre lots. Com- 
mencing on the east line of the first division of 100-acre lots they 
run a line perpendicular to the Enfield Road, N. 18° E. to the 
Mascoma River. This line would strike the river east of the 
farm of Howard Benton. Then they proceeded up the river to 
Mascoma Lake and along the shore of the lake to the east line of 
the town. After having thus marked out this portion of the 
town they returned to the Enfield Road and laid out lots on both 
sides of the road. 

In laying out the lots on the north side of the Mascoma they 
began on the river where the east line of the first division of 100 
acres intersected it, and ''let fall a perpendicular on the north 
line of the town N. 26 E.," and from the north line began to lay 
out lots of 100 acres each. The record states that this division 
was completed November 6, 1767. Aaron Storrs, Huckins Storrs, 
John Wheatley, Jedediah Dana, were the committee. 

This second division of 100-acre lots were drawn as follows : 

No. No. 

Joseph Wood, right of J. 
Murdock, 34 

Anderson Dana, Daniel Blod- 
get, 24 

Samuel Millington, R. Mar- 
tin, 29 

Huckins Storrs. 


Nathaniel Porter, 


Jedediah Dana, 


Jonathan Waleott, 


Charles Hill. 


Richard Salter, 




Jonathan Blanehard, 

Jabez Barrow, 

Joseph Wood, by S. Water- 

Joseph Dana, 

Joseph Martin, 

John Swift, 

Robert Hyde, 

Edward Goldstone Lutwyehe, 

Lemuel Clarke, 

David Turner, Joseph Tilden, 

John Birchard, James Jones, 

Daniel Ellis, right of Oneil 

Prince Aspenwall, right of 
Joshua Blodgett. 

John Colburn, right of J. 

W T illiam Downer, Robert 

N. Storrs, John Hanks, 

•Oliver Griswold, J. Loomis, 

Samuel Estabrook, T. Storrs, 

O. Davison, T. Barrow, 

John Griswold, Jesse Bir- 

Seth Blodget, 

Thomas Storrs, John Storrs, 

Huekins Storrs, Sr., D. El- 

Amariah Storrs, J. Hyde, 

Nathan Arnold, O. Clark, 

Jedediah Dana, John Lasell, 
right of James Nevins, 

Z. Downer, Gideon Peek, 
right of Constant South- 

Zalmon Aspenwall, right of 
Daniel Blodget, 3d, 

Elijah Huntington, 




Capt. Joseph Marsh, Samuel 




Nathan Blodget, 



Josiah Storrs, 



Aaron Storrs, Jon. Martin, 



Nehemiah Estabrook, 



Hugh Hall Wentworth, 



Mark H. Wentworth, Esq., 



School lot, 



Church of England, 



James Ticknor, right of Dan- 


iel Allen, 
Huckens Storrs, Sr., right of 



Juda Storrs. 


Dr. Clement Jackson, Esq., 



Elijah Sprague, right of 

John Birchard, 



Nathaniel Hall, 


Ministerial lot, 



Benjamin Davis, by Benja- 


min Fuller, 



John Allen, by Stephen 





Jacob Benton, right of Will- 

iam Dana, 



Jesse Birchard, by Rufus 





William Knight, 

Samuel Penhallow, by Con- 



stant Southworth, 



John Martin, right of Moses 


Samuel Storrs, right of John 



Propagation of the Gospel in 


foreign parts, 



John Salter, 

Aaron Storrs, right of Joseph 






Following these there were divisions of fifty acres, of twenty 
acres, and smaller portions. By this time it is very difficult to 
locate the various lots. Many of the lots were laid out with 
some regularity, while others are irregular in their lines. There 


are also records of alterations in boundaries, of changes of num- 
bers, of mistakes, of the transference of lots from one division to 
another. At this date it requires the patient labor of months, 
great ingenuity to identify the different tracts laid out before 
the close of the eighteenth century. 

It is very difficult to identify the ownership of these divisions 
of land. Most of the original proprietors mentioned in the 
charter never came here. They sold their rights to others, and 
they to others still. These lands being distributed by lottery, 
proprietors found themselves owners of land distributed in 
various parts of the town ; this led to exchanges between them, 
each one seeking to have his land in one body. 

Some of the lots were located on the eastern line in Enfield, 
others over the southern line in Plainfield; upon the settlement 
of these lines of the town the proprietors were obliged to find 
other lots within their territory to compensate for these losses. 
This complicated and confused matters very much. 

At this time there are not more than two or three lots which 
have not been alienated from the descending of the original pro- 
prietors. Mr. Charles Dana occupies a part of the lot of an 
original proprietor of his name. Mr. John Hebard's farm has 
not been out of the family until recently. I think that a part of 
the farm of Abel Storrs shares in this distinction. 

The mode in which they marked the lots may be seen from the 
following extract from their notes. They are beginning to lay 
out the second division of 100 acres: "Began to lott on Enfield 
road Continued said road from the east side of the first 100 
acre Division 100 rods to a middling beach tree and numbered W 
^-[-gE thence 100 rods to a small beach tree and numbered W 
|-{-|E. thence 100 rods to a small beach and numbered "Wf-p^- 
E thence 100 rods to a hemlock which is the S. E corner of No 11 
(afterwards divided) said lots to be known by lines running 
perpendicular to said Enfield road, &" 

There still remain a few of these original marks upon trees 
which in some way have escaped the axe, and the tempests. 


The proprietors clearly saw that before their lands could be 
settled there must be some way of getting to them. At that time 


all roads stopped at No. 4, Charlestown. Beyond, to the north, 
along the valley of the Connecticut, there was an unbroken wil- 
derness ; no roads, no paths. The river was their only guide, but 
a safe one. Their first care was to clear some kind of a passage 
to their possessions. Hence at their meeting December 22, 1761, 
they appointed Mr. Charles Hill to treat with the proprietors of 
the townships between Charlestown and Lebanon concerning a 
road along the banks of the Connecticut. At their meeting Sep- 
tember 1, 1762, they appointed as a committee to clear a road be- 
tween Charlestown and Lebanon, Nathaniel Hall, John Hanks 
and John Birchard. This road was to be simply a bridle path, 
not a road for wheels, but such as a horse with packs might con- 
trive to pass over. They were assisted in this work by the pro- 
prietors of Norwich, Hanover and Lyme, though the agent for 
Lyme seems to have refused to pay a proportion of the expense 
for that town. This path seems to have been completed some 
time in 1763. 

Besides the surveying done in the town, work preliminary to a 
permanent occupation seems to have been done in the summer of 
1762, most of the laborers, however, returning to their homes for 
the winter. Four men, however, are said to have passed the win- 
ter, 1762- '63, in the town, having with them some young cattle. 
The names of three are known: Levi Hyde, Samuel Estabrook 
and William Dana. The fourth may have been a hired laborer, 
but I conjecture that it was Charles Hill, who certainly was here 
very early. They had no house, but built themselves such a shel- 
ter of bark and boughs as they could. Tradition has assigned 
this camp to various localities, one of which was near the mouth 
of White River. I think this a mistake and that their camp was 
farther up the River Connecticut. When they made their survey 
of the Connecticut for the purpose of measuring and dividing 
the intervale they made the following note, ''To the upper end 
of Camp Meadow." Then, after running several courses, they 
came to the "lower end of Camp Meadow." This is a piece of 
low land lying between the first and second falls on the Connect- 
icut, going north from West Lebanon. This piece of land could 
only receive such a name from the fact that it had been a camp- 
ing place. Tradition further states that they kept their stock 



at a beaver meadow somewhere in this vicinity. Now to the east 
of this locality, in the vicinity of the "Boston Lot," the early 
settlers found a natural meadow, a place on which no timber 
grew, and covered with wild grasses. It would be possible to 
collect enough of this natural grass during the summer to keep 
life in their stock. I have no doubt that this was the first spot 
occupied for a home within the territory of Lebanon. And what 
a long, lonesome winter that must have been ! To the north they 
had no neighbors nearer than Haverhill and Newbury; to the 
•south none nearer than Charlestown. They must go much far- 
ther east or west to find any friends. 

It is a curious fact in the history of the town, one little known, 
that the first occupant of the soil within the boundaries of the 
town was not a living, but a dead man. A stranger to the town 
had found here his final resting place in 1762. Michael John- 
ston and John Pettie spent the winter of 1761- '62 at Haverhill, 
under the same circumstances as those of the four in Lebanon. 
In June, 1762, they left Haverhill in a canoe to go down the river 
to Charlestown, to visit their friends. "They made their way 
pleasantly till they came near the mouth of the White River, 
when they were drawn into a whirlpool, their canoe upset, and 
they plunged into the river. Johnston made every effort to reach 
the shore, but sank into the arms of death. • Pettie being the bet- 
ter swimmer, gained the shore and bore the melancholy tidings 
of Johnston 's death to his friends. 

' ' Some time after this event a stranger passing up the river in 
a boat, discovered the body of a man lying upon the shore of a 
small island in the Connecticut between Lebanon and Hartford, 
Vt. Not knowing anything of Johnston or of his fate, and being 
far from any settlement, he performed the kindest office to a 
stranger corpse which remained in his power. He dug a grave 
in the best manner he could, interred the body and left it the sole 
proprietor of the island. It now bears his name, Johnston's 
Island (it has also been called Dead Man's Island). Col. 
Charles Johnston, after he came to Haverhill and learned the 
resting place of his brother, went down to the island, found the 
lonely grave, bedewed it with his tears, and erected a monument 
to his brother's memory." — Powers' "Coos County." 


During the season of 1763 additions were made to the perma- 
nent inhabitants of the town. July 11, 1763, came William 
Downer with his wife and eight children. He had taken up lot 
15, first division of 100-acre lots, which lies to the west of the 
house of Nathan Stearns, on the south side of the Enfield Road— 
or King's Highway. His intervale lot was No. 6, which lies 
upon the Connecticut south of the land owned by Jeremiah 

A hard and toilsome journey this adventurous family must 
have had from No. 4, where all roads ended, to their home in 
Lebanon. From there onward there was only a "horse road;" 
no track for wheels, but only a path over which a horse might 
make his way. Fortunately a vivid sketch of this journey has 
been preserved for us by an adventurous settler of Orford, who 
two years later made his way over the same "horse road." 
" John Mann, Esq., and his wife came into Orford in the autumn 
of 1765, both from Hebron, Conn. They left Hebron on the 16 
of Oct. and arrived in Orford on the 24th. They both mounted 
the same horse according to Puritan custom, and rode to Charles- 
town, N. H., nearly one hundred and fifty miles. Here Mann 
purchased a bushel of oats for his horse and some bread and 
cheese for himself and wife and set forward — Mann on foot, 
wife, bread and cheese, and some clothing on horse back. From 
Charlestown to Orford there was no road but a horse track and 
this was frequently hedged across by fallen trees ; and when they 
came to such an obstruction as they could not pass, Mann, who 
was of a gigantic stature, would step up, take the young bride and 
set her upon the ground ; then the oats, bread and cheese ; and 
lastly the old mare was made to leap the windfall, when all was 
reshipped and the journey resumed. This was acted over time 
and again until the old beast became impatient of delay, and 
coming to a similar obstruction while Mann was some rods in the 
rear, she pressed forward and leaped the trunk of a large tree, 
resisting all the force her young rider could exert; and when 
Mann came up there lay the bride upon the ground with all the 
baggage resting upon her. The old cerature, however, had the 
civility not to desert them in their predicament, and as no bones 
were broken and no joints dislocated, they soon resumed their 


journey, Maim for the rest of the way constituting the van in- 
stead of the rear guard." — Powers' "Coos County." 

This is the journey of a young and vigorous couple — how much 
more difficult the journey of a mother and eight children, some 
of whom must have been quite young. With only such a path to 
a new home how many things must be left behind. How slender 
must have been the furnishing of those early homes ; how many 
comforts and conveniences must be wanting ; how must their in- 
genuity be exercised to furnish, rude substitutes for all house- 
hold utensils. It is no wonder that about this time a traveler 
passing through a neighboring town found a wife declaring that 
she was ' ' terribly ' ' homesick and ' ' that she would not stay there 
in the woods. ' ' Nevertheless there was in the wilderness a rude 
abundance out of which the patient and ingenious settler could 
extract substitutes for the luxuries and conveniences left be- 
hind, which would have their own wild charms. 

In the fall of the same year, 1763, came Oliver Davison, James 
Jones, Elijah Dewey and their families. 

Oliver Davison settled on land now owned by Mrs. Luther 
Alden. The proprietors were very liberal in their offers to him 
as a settler. At their meeting December 22, 1761, they voted a tax 
of ten shillings upon each right, to be paid in one year and an 
additional tax of the same amount to be paid in two years, to aid 
Mr. Davison to build a sawmill in the town, provided it should 
be completed within two years. They also voted to him 100 
acres of land at any locality suitable for a sawmill. The mill 
was built near the Hubbard bridge, within the specified time. 
At that period it was a necessity to the settlers, aiding them 
greatly in providing for themselves homes. Mr. Davison died 
some time in 1769. Though he was not an original grantee, the 
proprietors allowed his heirs the same rights with themselves, 
and granted them a generous portion of land. 

Elijah Dewey settled in what is known as Poverty Lane. 
James Jones settled on the King's Highway, near Mr. Foster's. 

Charles Hill was among the first to take up his abode in Leba- 
non, in what is now the village of West Lebanon. His house 
and that of Oliver Davison are the first mentioned in the records. 
His lot extended from the river eastward to the old burying 


yard, which, was originally the southeast corner of the lot. He 
was prominent in all the affairs of the town, frequently select- 
man, and on many of the important committees. 

Asa Kilbourn took up one of the intervale lots on the Con- 
necticut just south of the Mascoma. It was at his house that 
the first town meeting of which we have any record (May 13, 
1765) was held. He afterwards removed to Canaan, and was a 
selectman in 1773. 

Aaron Storrs settled on the river below Mr. Kilbourn and was 
frequently employed in the business of the town, moving finally 
to Hanover. 

The Danas settled on the river, north of the Mascoma. 

Nathaniel Porter settled on the place now owned by Nathan 

Nehemiah Estabrook on the farm owned by Mr. Slack. Sam- 
uel Estabrook on the Sweatland place. 

The following persons are known, upon indisputable evidence, 
to have been in the town by 1767: Aaron Storrs, Charles Hill, 
Asa Kilbourn, "William Downer, Levi Hyde, William Dana, 
John Wheatley, Silas Waterman, Jedediah Hibbard, Samuel 
Meacham, Oliver Davison, Joseph Dana, Elijah Dewey, Jesse 
Cook, James Jones, Huckins Storrs, Sr., and Huckins Storrs, 
Jr., Joseph Tilden, Joseph Wood, Sr., John Griswold, Jedediah 
Dana, Samuel Storrs, John Slapp, Nathaniel Hall, Nehemiah 
Estabrook, Samuel Estabrook, Nathaniel Storrs, Jonathan Dana, 
Zalmon Aspenwall, James Hartshorn, John Bennet. 

There were others in the town, but I have not been able to re- 
cover their names. 


In the year 1767 a census was taken of all the towns in New 
Hampshire. The return of Lebanon was as follows : Unmarried 
men from 16 to 60, 12 ; married men from 16 to 60, 30 ; boys, 16 
years and under, 50 ; men, 60 years and over, none ; unmarried 
females, 40 ; females married, 30 ; no slaves and no widows ; total 
population, 162. 

Mr. Powers in his history of Coos County, on the authority of 
John Mann, who passed through the town in the autumn of 
1765, states that there were then but three families in the town : 
Charles Hill, son and son-in-law; yet we have it on record that 



in May of that year there had been a town meeting whose ob- 
ject was to provide for preaching' in the town. At the time of 
the census none were found in the town over sixty years of age, 
which shows that the population was made up of those in full 
vigor of life. The probability is that some of those who make 
up the above number were only hired laborers who had no inten- 
tion of making themselves homes here. 

The population of Hanover at the same time was 92, of Plain- 
field 112, of Cornish 133, Canaan 19. 

It is evident that the people were busy in making themselves 
homes ; that there were many openings made in the forests ; that 
fields were prepared, planted and reaped. While they were busy 
in their arduous labors they were also thoughtful concerning 
those organizations, civil and religious, without which fertile 
fields lose their value and homes half their charms. 

The people who came here from Connecticut had a hearty 
love for the institutions of religion. The thing which they would 
part with, with the greatest reluctance in their old homes, would 
be these institutions; about these they plan early in their new 
homes. At a meeting of the proprietors held September 2, 
1762, they appointed a committee to join committees from ad- 
joining townships to provide for preaching in the township. 
This was before there was an actual settler. This action was 
taken to encourage good people to make their homes in the wil- 

At their meeting in March, 1763, upon a report of this com- 
mittee, they voted a tax of four shillings upon each proprietor 
"for encouraging the preaching of the Gospel," and Nehemiah 
Estabrook was appointed their committee. At a meeting held in 
December, 1764, they voted a tax of eight shillings on each pro- 
prietor's right, to be paid by the first day of May, 1765, and 
Nehemiah Estabrook and Samuel Storrs were appointed a com- 
mittee to provide preaching for that year. 

In May of this same year the town takes action for the same 
purpose, appointing Aaron Storrs to circulate subscription pa- 
pers and enjoining the selectmen to provide quarters for the 
minister when he should come. 

There was undoubtedly preaching in the town during that 



summer, but probably there was no permanent minister in the 
town. In the summer of 1766 we find by the records that a 
"Mr. Treadway was resident among them, and the town chose 
John Wheatley, Charles Hill and Joseph Dana as a committee 
to treat with him, in order to his steady administration of the 
Gospel ministry in said town." Mr. Treadway seems to have 
declined any permanent engagement. 

The proprietors of the town at a meeting held October 6, 1766. 
voted a tax of twenty shillings on each right for ' ' the settlement 
of the Gospel in said Lebanon. ' ' This certainly implies that the 
proceeds of the former taxes had been expended. A Mr. Wales 
was in town as a preacher in 1767 and seems to have been here 
some time previous. On July 27, 1768, they gave him a formal 
call to the ministry of the town, fixing his salarj^ at fifty pounds 
a year, with the addition of five pounds per year till the sum 
should be seventy pounds. September 30, 1768, Mr. Wales sent 
a verbal answer by Dea. Nehemiah Estabrook to the call of the 
town, which they declined to accept; for what reason cannot 
now be known. 

On the 22d of May, 1769, the town again took up the matter 
of preaching in the town and appointed Charles Hill, John 
Wheatley and Joseph AA T ood a committee, directing them to ap- 
ply first to Mr. Keime and if he could not be obtained, to do the 
best they could. Whether they were successful, there is no 

The town seems to have taken no further action for the settle- 
ment of a minister till the 21st of August, 1771, when they re- 
solved to give Mr. Isaiah Potter a call "to continue in the work 
of the Gospel ministry, in order to a settlement amongst us." 
From this it appears that Mr. Potter had previously preached in 
the town. The matter was not settled till July 6, 1772, when Mr. 
Potter accepted the call. They voted a donation of thirty-eight 
pounds in addition to sixty pounds granted by the proprietors 
to the first settled minister. His salary was to be ' ' fifty pounds 
lawful money for the first two years and then to rise annually 
five pounds a year till it shall amount to eighty pounds, which 
was to be his stated salary." In addition, he came into posses- 
sion of certain rights of land reserved by the proprietors for that 



purpose — one of which was the farm where Mr. Albert Miller 
now lives, so long occupied by Mr. Potter and his family. All 
the above was the action of the town in its corporate capacity. 

On September 27, 1768, the Congregational Church was 
formed, consisting of the following six members : John Wheatley, 
Azariah Bliss, John Slapp, Jonathan Dana, Joseph Dana, Zae- 
cheus Downer. It was doubtless under the action of the church 
that Mr. Potter first came to the town. They also accepted him 
as their pastor, and he was ordained and installed as pastor of 
the church on the 25th of August, 1772. The ordination took 
place in the open air under a spreading elm standing on the 
banks of the Connecticut in the southerly part of the village of 
West Lebanon, Rev. Bulkley Olcott preaching the sermon. 

The First Meeting-House. 

The first public action concerning a meeting-house was taken 
February 26, 1768, when the question was proposed at their 
meeting. "We cannot doubt that they felt the want of some place 
of meeting for civil and religious purposes. All their assemblies 
had been held at private houses; often at Charles Hill's, some- 
times at Estabrook's, and often at Bela Turner's. But they 
were not yet ready for action, for they resolved to do nothing. 

At a meeting held July 19, 1768, they decided the location of 
the meeting-house ; that it should be upon a spot of ground near 
the "Burying Place," that is, near Miss Fanny Alden's. I sup- 
pose that they meant that when they should build a meeting- 
house, they would build it there, for they do not seem to have 
formed any plan concerning it since their meeting in February 

At a meeting held September 7, 1768, it appears that some 
were dissatisfied with this location and sought to have the town 
reconsider their decision, but the majority were averse to any 
change, and the location of the future meeting-house remained 
fixed — for a time. 

The affairs of a meeting-house continued to be warmly dis- 
cussed in private, but do not appear in public for more than two 
years. At a meeting held November 5, 1770, they took up the 
matter again and voted to build a meeting-house — but they fur- 
ther voted that they would not build a meeting-house "for the 


eonvenancy of Publick Worship." The only explanation of this 
apparently contradictory action which the historian has to give 
is this : They resolved to build a house for civic purposes, what 
we call a town hall, but they would not build a house for reli- 
gious purposes — a church. But they made no plans for build- 
ing any house, only decided that they were going to build. 

But they met again on the 26th of November and voted this 
time that they would build, not a town hall, but a house for 
''publick worship." They decided that it should be thirty feet 
square and "ten feet posts." They further decided (for the 
time) that it should be placed upon "the road that leads to the 
mills in said Lebanon upon a peace of Flat Land east of Mr. 
Charles Hills barn. ' ' This would be on the road to "West Leba- 
non, near the southern portion of that village. 

In the meantime they had been considering and discussing 
the matter, and came to the conclusion that they were not quite 
right; nobody was satisfied, and so at their meeting, January 7, 
1771, they resolved to reconsider all their previous votes and to 
start anew, which they did in this way: They resolved that 
they would build a house for public worship; that they would 
take a longer time; that they would locate it upon some other 
spot; that they would choose a committee from out of town to 
""fix a spot to set said house upon and that said spot shall he the 

They chose as their committee, Samuel Chase of Cornish, 
David Woodward and Hezekiah Johnson of Hanover. 

It is not known what location this committee selected, but 
wherever it was the after action of the town shows that it was 
not satisfactory "to all concerned." 

The following, found among certain old papers in the garret 
of Mr. George Hall, is the receipt of one of the committee : 

Cornish March y e 7 1771 

Then Received of Mr Aaron Storrs Nine shillings Being in full 

for my sarvice Going to Lebenon and assisting with y e Commity 

in prefixing y e place for seting a meeting house 

Sam 1 Chase 

At a meeting January 29, 1771, evidently after the action of 
their committee, they voted to build a house for public worship, 


"that it should be thirty feet square aud ten feet posts;" and 
that Maj. John Slapp, Lieut. Nathaniel Porter and John Wheat- 
ley, Esq., should be a committee for building. Nothing is said 
about the locality, so we are warranted in supposing that it is 

By this time they have the prospect of regular worship under 
the guidance of a settled minister. Upon thinking the matter 
over they see that the projected meeting-house will hardly meet 
their wants so they vote, August 21, 1771, to enlarge the meet- 
ing-house from "thirty feet square and ten feet posts to forty- 
eight in length, thirty feet in breadth and twenty-five feet 

But all this time there is dissatisfaction with the locality, and 
the. spot that should be the place is not the place after all. 

So, when they came together September 4, 1771, they voted to 
remove the meeting-house from near the burying yard westerly 
in Mr. Hill's pasture, near the road that leads to the sawmill. 
This, as I understand it, would be but a short distance, some 
rods, west of Mrs. Alden's. Major Slapp, Silas Waterman and 
Huckins Storrs were appointed a building committee, and were 
directed to erect, enclose and lay a floor in the house by the 1st 
day of October, 1772. 

But at a meeting held November 7, 1771, they voted to "trans- 
pose" the meeting-house from Mr. Hill's pasture to the "Clay 
Pit about fifty rods westerly of the spot before agreed upon." 
This locality was on the north side of the Mascoma, near Hub- 
bard bridge. Silas Waterman and Huckins Storrs are dropped 
from the building committee and Azariah Bliss and John Wheat- 
ley are put in their places. 

December 2, 1771, they vote to raise a tax to build a meeting- 
house on the spot last agreed upon. 

January 7, 1772, they vote to build on the field of Jonathan 
Dana, and to "transpose" the meeting-house from the "Clay 
Pit ' ' to this new locality, which was, I think, on the river, below 
West Lebanon. Maj. John Slapp, Charles Hill, Lieut. John 
Griswold and Silas Waterman are the building committee this 

They are not satisfied yet, and vote, April 7, 1772, to alter the 


size of the meeting-house to forty feet in length, thirty in 
breadth and ten feet posts. 

In the meantime Major Slapp and other members of the com- 
mittee had collected timber at the clay pit and cleaved the 
ground, for which the town paid. 

At this meeting, April 20, 1772, the meeting-house is "trans- 
posed from Mr Dana's field to Mr Hills pasture near the house of 
Bela Turner." This was near the house of Richard Kimball, 
Esq. Azariah Bliss, Charles Hill, Silas Waterman, Major Slapp, 
Lieutenant Porter and John "Wheatley are the building com- 
mittee. At a meeting a week later the committee are directed 
to proceed with diligence to erect and enclose "said house." 

The proprietors may be considered the conservative and aristo- 
cratic power of the town. Hitherto they have done nothing as 
a body, but doubtless have watched the strife, possibly have been 
able to keep track of the meeting-house in its numerous "trans- 
posings. " They think the time has come for them to take some 
action, and attempt to pour oils on the troubled waters. On the 
26th of May, 1772, they vote to build a meeting-house and ap- 
point Aaron Storrs, Huckins Storrs and Jedediah Hibbard 
their committee. They vote a tax of forty shillings on each pro- 
prietor's right for that purpose. 

This money is granted upon the conditions that the house 
shall be built upon such a spot as "may be within one month 
from this 29 day of May be affixed by an indiferent [impartial] 
judicious committee of three men chosen by the town of Lebanon, 
who shall be instructed to have regard to the general interests 
of the township of Lebanon. ' ' 

Further: They agree to build a meeting-house for the use of 
the town on the south side of the Mascoma, on the east side of the 
road leading from Davison's mills to Nathaniel Porter's dwelling 
house, "At a certain beach tree marked on four sides, and with 
the letter M, standing on a small eminence 100 rods from Enfield 
road [King's highway] and 112 rods from Maj. Slapps corn 

This locality is on the road leading from Hubbard bridge to 
Nathaniel Stearns'. The letter M referred to is supposed to 
stand for meeting-house. 


They further stipulate that the house shall be forty-four feet 
in length, thirty -two feet in width and twenty feet posts, which 
dimensions are different from any yet given — they appear like 
a compromise between contending parties. 

The town appears to have paid little attention to the proposi- 
tions of the proprietors for, August 10, 1772, they voted to build 
a meeting-house on the east end of Mr. Hill's pasture, near 
Major Slapp's. It was to be forty-eight feet in length, thirty- 
four feet in breadth and ten or twelve feet posts. They set aside 
all other votes and resolutions, reserving only the timber which 
had been collected. 

This action seems to have been final, and the meeting-house was 
built on the south side of the road, a little to the west of Miss 
Fanny Alden's. 

To us, at this day, this strife about the location of a meeting- 
house seems remarkable, and we are inclined to look upon the 
fathers of the town as a peculiarly obstinate, or "set" race. But 
we should do them injustice. They did not differ in this respect 
from their generation. The early records of the towns of the 
state show that the meeting-house was likely to be a bone of con- 
tention. In not a few towns the strife was so long and bitter, 
the interests or the tempers of the parties so irreconcilable that 
as a last resort they were obliged to appeal to the governor and 
council or to the Assembly. Not a few of the meeting-houses of 
this state in those early times were located by these high author- 

It is not difficult to see some of the elements which would en- 
ter into the question of the location of a meeting-house in a 
community planted in a wilderness which they must subdue be- 
fore they could gather around them the conveniences of civil- 
ization. Let us remember that the population is scattered, — an 
opening here and there in the primeval forest made for a home. 
Roads are few; none are good. From many a log cabin there 
would be only a rough path Distance under such circumstances 
counts. A mile or a half mile is worth a struggle to avoid, when 
probably the whole family must go on foot "to meeting," or at 
best in the rudest vehicles. 

And the location of a meeting-house in those days was not only 


a matter of convenience, but of interest. Wherever the meeting- 
house was placed, other things would gather around it. It would 
be a center, and making surrounding lands more valuable. They 
naturally expected that a village would grow up around the 
meeting-house, hence each would contend for a location which 
would be most to his advantage. 

Yet when we remember that a radius of half a mile would 
cover all the localities chosen and abandoned so many times, we 
cannot avoid the impression that some of the people were ' ' pretty 
set in their ways." 

One cannot help feeling sympathy with the youthful pastor of 
the town, who was an eye witness of much of the struggle. A 
place of worship was so much needed, so desirable for his minis- 
trations, and yet so hard to fix in any given locality. So much 
bitterness was engendered in the strife to stand in the way of that 
cordial union needful to their young enterprise of building up a 
church of Christ in the wilderness. He must have spent many 
days of anxiety while the strife was warmest, and he must have 
rejoiced greatly when the house was finally located and its doors 
were opened for the simple and earnest worship of the time. It 
is said that at one time when timber had been delivered on the 
river road "in Mr. Dana's field," a number of men with teams 
came to remove it. The young pastor made a warm appeal to 
them, assuring them that he could not remain unless they were 
more harmonious. His words had their designed effect and pre- 
vented a collision between antagonistic parties. 


Very soon after the land of the town began to be occupied 
there arose a dispute between the proprietors of Lebanon and 
those of Plainfield concerning the boundary line between the 
two townships. A tree marked is mentioned in the charter as 
the southwest corner. Whether the tree could not be found as 
described, or whether there were two, I cannot determine, but it 
is plain that the lines claimed by Lebanon extended into territory 
claimed by Plainfield. The first formal action taken by the pro- 
prietors was on June 29, 1767, when they appointed a committee 
to confer with a committee of Plainfield concerning the matter. 
In the meantime there had been some communication with the 



governor and council, and a letter received from Theodore Atkin- 
son, which the proprietors considered at a meeting February 25, 
1768. Of the tenor of that letter nothing certain is known. 

The committee reported their action to the proprietors May 
17, 1768, and it was accepted as satisfactory to them, but proved 
not satisfactory to the proprietors of Plainfield. A joint com- 
mittee of the two towns was appointed upon the advice of Theo- 
dore Atkinson, or of the surveyor-general, to take the matter 
into consideration. The committee made the following report : 


With submission, these wait upon you with respect, and may serve to 
Inform, that we the subscribers Committees for tbe proprietors of Leba- 
non and Plainfield in pursuance of your advice, have established a 
bound between said towns and as near the center as possible, said 
bound being a large White Pine tree marked 3 and 4 and standing a lit- 
tle Below the Meadow called Hedge-Hog meadow in said lebanon, [a 
little north of Bradley Trues], just in the bend of the river, on the 
north side of a hill, on the east bank of Connecticut river 

These are therefore to desire the favor of your Hour, if you, in your 
wisdom, shall judge our procedure in said affair to be Legal and Con- 
clusive to certifie the same to *his Excellency for his approbation 
thereof, that the same may be established as to law and custom doth 

And we, as in duty bound beg leave to subscribe 
Your honors most obedient 
And very humble serv'nts 

John Wheatley 
Nathaniel Porter 
Charles Hill 
Tbomas Gates 
Tbomas Gallup 
John Stevens 
Dated Lebanon 

New Hampshire Oct 17GS 

The first three of the subscribers were of Lebanon, the others 
of Plainfield. 

Four years later the dispute continues, and the proprietors 
vote to make application to the surveyor-general "To affix the 
South West corner and run the south line and affix the South 
East corner of the township of Lebanon." This application 
seems not to have had any effect, for at a meeting September 29, 


1772, they are still seeking some method to settle the southwest 
corner of the township. They appointed Aaron Storrs, Nehe- 
miah Estabrook, John Griswold, Jedediah Hibbard and Nathan- 
iel Porter a committee to ascertain the southwest corner of the 
town and run the south line. They were also directed to give 
fair warning to all who were trespassing upon land which they 
claimed, to depart, and if they refused to do so, then to prose- 
cute them to the extent of the law. 

Now the charter fixes the southwest corner of the town at 
■eighteen miles from the northwest corner of Charlestown. The 
committee resolved to measure from that monument to ascertain 
the southwest corner. They employed Jonathan Freeman of 
Hanover as a surveyor and David Woodward, James Hutchin- 
son and Samuel Haze as chainmen. The measurement was duly 
made and Mr. Freeman returned the results to the proprietors 
who, on February 10, 1775, voted to accept the bound estab- 
lished by him. But the matter w T as not settled yet. Three years 
later, March 24, 1778, the dispute appears again, and now new 
parties appear, — Enfield and Grantham, all anxious to ascertain 
their true corners and lines. They appoint Elisha Ticknor, Jed- 
ediah Hibbard and John Griswold a committee to join commit- 
tees from the other towns to settle the dispute. The report of the 
committee was adopted and the line between Lebanon and Plain- 
field established, September, 1778. Lebanon, notwithstanding 
the gallant fight made, lost in the battle. Land which the pro- 
prietors claimed and had occupied, fell into Plainfield, and they 
were obliged to make the occupants compensation for their loss. 

Controversy with Enfield. 

Though there are no references upon the records for about 
seven years to any further disputes about town lines, yet all the 
time the fires seemed to be smouldering, and burst out anew in 
1785, when we learn that Nathaniel Porter had brought an ac- 
tion of ejectment against Joseph Johnson of Enfield. Johnson 
claimed territory which had been assigned to Porter as a part of 
Lebanon. The proprietors voted, January 11, 1785, that they 
would sustain Porter in his suit, and pay the expense. The suit 
was finally withdrawn. 


State of New. Hump 
Grafton SS 

Whareas, we the subscribers Being appointed a Corntee by the 
Hont>ie General Assembly of said State to Establish the boundaries be- 
tween the towns of Lebanon and Enfield have met accordingly upon said 
towns and after Due Examination of the Bounds and lins of s'd of 
said towns of Lebanon and infield — Perceded as followeth, firstly 
begain at a white Pine tree on the easterly bank of Connect River 
which is called the agreement tree between Lebanon and Plainfield 
six mild to a stake and stones comonly known by the name of Sum- 
ner Bound — then examined the lins and records shown us Between s'd 
Lebanon and Enfield and find a bound standing on the Northeast Cor- 
ner of s'd Lebanon comonally known by the name of the birch tree, 
but said tree being fell down, a stake and stones erected in the place 
where said birch stood, and we do establish the first said stake and 
stons called Sumner Bound to be a bound between said Lebanon and 
Enfield on the southerly side of said towns and the said birch tree (now 
stake and stons) to be the northerly Bound Between s'd Lebanon and 
infield, and Do order that a strat line Be drawn Between said Sumner 
Bound and said Birch tree or stake standing in place of said Birch tree, 
to be the Dividing line Between the said Lebanon and the s'd infield 
and have recommended to said Committee to settle with all parsons who 
are on land in either of said towns, which shall fall out of the town 
which he settled in, in the best way they can, according to ower order 
from said Geni Assembly 

which is humbly submitted 

Oct ye 23 17S6. 
• Charles Johnson 

Jeremiah Page 
Moses Chase 

State Papers 

Condition of the Town — 1775. 

The records so far given, and the narrative, have given the 
chief incidents of the history of the town to 1775. New and ex- 
citing events lie in the immediate future — the Revolution and 
the Vermont controversy. Before entering upon these scenes 
let us seek to realize the condition of the people by such descrip- 
tions as are possible at this distance. 

The number of the inhabitants has steadily increased with each 
year, after the first bold wintering here in Camp Meadow. By 
a return of a census ordered by Gov. John Wentworth in 1773, 
long supposed to be lost, but discovered in 1876 on file in the 



library of Congress by the Hon. A. H. Cragin, for many years 
an honored citizen of this town, and then of the United States 
Senate, we find the population of the town to be as follows: 
Unmarried men from 16 to 60, 44; married men from 16 to 60, 
50; boys 16 years and under, 62; men 60 years and upward, 4; 
females unmarried, 79 ; females married, 54 ; widows, 2 ; slaves, 
none ; total, 295 ; showing increase. 

Population of Plainfield at same time, 275 ; of Hanover, 342 ; 
students at college, 90. 

In 1775 another census was taken, with the following returns : 
Males under 16 years of age, 86 ; males from 16 years of age to 
50, not in the army, 91 ; all males above 50 years of age, 13 ; per- 
sons gone in the army, 2 ; all females, 155 ; negroes and slaves for 
life, none ; total, 347 ; increase in two years, 57. 

We have, fortunately, a list of all the male inhabitants of 
the age of twenty-one and over, in the town in 1776. They are 
as follows : 

John Wheatley, 
John Slapp, 
John Baldwin, 
Samuel Bailey, 
Jonathan Dana, 
Eliezer Robinson, 
William Dana, 
Hezekiah Waters, 
James Jones, 
John Gray, 
Jesse Cook, 
Samuel Estabrook, 
Samuel Paine, 
Elijah Dewey, Jr., 
Huckens Storrs, 
Joseph Tilden, Jr., 
Elkanah Sprague, 
Daniel Hough, 
Samuel Bailey, Jr., 
Daniel Bliss, 
Joseph Tilden, 

Nathaniel Wheatley, 
Walter Peck, 
Zacheus Downer, 
Asa Colburn, 
Constant Storrs, 
Stephen Colburn, 
John Williams, 
Isaiah Potter, 
John Wheatley, 
Azariah Bliss, 
Azariah Bliss, Jr., 
Stephen Bliss, 
John Ordway, 
Nehemiah Estabrook, 
Puifus Baldwin, 
Nathaniel Porter, 
Nathaniel Porter, Jr., 
Elijah Dewey, 
Phinehas Wright, 
William Downer, 
Barnabas Perkins, 



Charles Tilden, 
Oliver Griswold, 
James Hartshorn, 
Nathaniel Kidder, 
David Colburn, 
Moses Hebard, 
Jeremiah Griswold, 
Benjamin Fuller, 
James Fuller, 
Lemuel Hough, 
Elisha Ticknor, 
Isaiah Bliss, 
Nathaniel Storrs, 
Samuel Millington, 
Solomon Millington, 
Benjamin Write, 
Hobart Estabrook, 
Nathaniel Hall, 
Jonathan Bingham, 
Silas Waterman, 
Jedediah Hebbard, 
Joseph Wood, 
William Radman, 
John Colburn, 

James Hebard, 
Levi Hyde, 
Elias Lyman, 
Theophelus Barbrick, 
Eleazer Woodward, 
John Slapp, 
Henry Woodward, 
John Griswold, 
Nathan Durkee, 
Samuel Sprague, 
Charles Sexton, 
John Slapp, Jr., 
William Downer, Jr., 
Zalmon Aspenwall, 
Joseph Martin, 
Abel Wright, 
Ebenezer Bliss, 
Thomas Willes, 
Jonathan Bettes, 
John Hyde, 
Shuman Lathrop, 
Abiel Willes, 
Joseph Dana, 
Eishtv-nine in all. 

These are the names of the male inhabitants of the town in 
1776. Of these family names only the following remain in the 
town at the present time, borne by descendants : Dana, Gray, 
Estabrook, Hall, Waterman, Hebbard, Wood, Peck, Storrs, 
Dewey, Hough, Bliss, Griswold, Ticknor, Durkee, Aspenwall, 

By this time openings had been made in the forests in all 
parts of the town, and smoke arose above the tree tops from the 
settlers' rude cabins in all directions, except along the north- 
ern line of the town. 

If the people wished their lumber sawed they could go to 
Davison 's mills on the Mascoma, near Hubbard bridge, or to the 
sawmill of Huckins Storrs on Sawmill Brook, later known as 
Hinkley or True Brook. If they wished their grain ground 


they need not carry it down to No. 4, but they could take it to 
Maj. John Slapp's mills on the Mascoma, below Hubbard bridge. 
There were shoemakers in town. If they wished to build a house 
they could call upon Barnabas Perkins or Thomas Blake, joiners. 
I cannot learn that they had any store at this period. Their 
place of trade was No. 4, and "down country," though they 
might trade with Aaron Storrs of Hanover. They had a meet- 
ing-house for their civil and religious gatherings. No doctor, no 
lawyer, had as yet taken up their abode here, so far as known. 

Koads sufficient to accommodate the people were built. A 
road ran through the town from north to south along the banks 
of the Connecticut, called the "Country Road," built not only 
for the accommodation of the town, but for those who went on 
beyond to settlements to the north. The river itself was also a 
highway on the ice in the winter ; by rafts and boats in the sum- 
mer. A road ran through the town east and west, the old 
Enfield Road part of the way, another keeping on the north 
side of the river by Edwin Perley's into the village by Jesse 
Cook's on Hanover Street, on across the meadows north of the 
village, up the side of Mount Tugg, through East Lebanon to 
Benjamin Fuller's, Zaccheus Downer's and Simon Slapp's, on to 
Enfield line. Roads led from the river road to Huckens Storrs' 
sawmill ; they came from Poverty Lane and from the south part 
of the town where the Lathrops, Houghs, Hebards, Martins and 
Huntingtons had taken up their abode, to the same point, and 
to the King's Highway. 

If they wished to go to law they could begin with John Wheat- 
ley, Esq., justice of the peace, and if their ardor for justice con- 
tinued they could carry up their suit to the court of common 
pleas for Grafton County. 

If they wished to give their children a superior education, as 
many of them did, they could send them to 

"Dartmouth, happy in her sylvan seat." 

For money, they had the currency of England with Spanish 
coin, having about this time many counterfeit "milled dollars" 
originating, it was supposed, "somewhere on the Connecticut 
River." They had also the paper money of the province, easily 


counterfeited, and therefore subject to depreciation. They had 
also as a measure of value the bushel of wheat at six shillings, 
more or less. 

They had been relieved some years before from the burdens of 
the Stamp Act, by its repeal. 

They were marrying and giving in marriage. About this 
time Dea. Nehemiah Estabrook led to the altar Anna Bliss ; Na- 
thaniel Wheatley, Vinal Bliss ; Simon Peter Slapp, Lucretia Wil- 
son. Children were born and death claimed his victims. 

Busy as they were in subduing forests, preparing virgin soil 
to bear for them food and the comforts of life, building homes 
and meeting-houses, and mills and roads, gathering for them- 
selves conveniences and comforts, they nevertheless were com- 
pelled to think of other things, to take into their minds for solu- 
tion the gravest problems. 

The Revolution. 

The gradually accumulating wrongs of the Mother Country 
had awakened, first the fear, and then the indignation of the colo- 
nies. Everywhere there was the same determination of resist- 
ance to any further aggressions upon their rights and privileges. 
It was also clearly seen that resistance, to be successful, must be 
united. It was therefore determined to call a Congress of the 
colonies. The Assembly of New Hampshire wrote a circular let- 
ter to all the towns of the state, requesting them to send deputies 
to meet at Exeter, July 14, 1774, and also to send their propor- 
tion of £200 to defray the expense of delegates to the General 
Congress. It was in response to this request that the town, at a 
meeting held in July, 1775, voted £2 as their share of the 

An order of the king in council had been passed, prohibiting 
the exportation of gunpowder and other military stores to 
America. The people of Portsmouth and vicinity, learning of 
this act, proceeded secretly, December 13, 1774, to Fort "Will- 
iam and Mary and took possession of the powder and arms found 
there. April 19, 1775, occurred the battle of Lexington. All 
these things intensified the hostility of the people in the remotest 
towns and hamlets. The people of the province took up arms 


and hastened to the assistance of their brethren in Massachusetts. 
The battle of Bunker Hill had been fought and the tidings of it 
reached the people to make their course decisive. 

Governor Wentworth had abandoned the province August 24, 
1775, and all authority seems to have been passed by the Pro- 
vincial Assembly to Conventions or Congresses made up of dele- 
gates chosen by the towns. These conventions made all possible 
preparations for the struggle which was near. They provided 
men and means to the best of their ability. They appointed a 
general Committee of Safety, with broad, but somewhat unde- 
fined powers. It was recommended that towns should appoint 
their own committees of safety. The town, at a meeting held 
July 17, 1775, appointed a committee of safety as follows : Nehe- 
miah Estabrook, John Wheatley, Esq., Maj. John Slapp, Silas 
Waterman, Jedediah Hebbard, Azariah Bliss. Three of these 
were empowered to act upon any matter which might come before 
them; any one of them might issue a warrant and deputize an 
officer in case of necessity. They were also directed to confer 
with the committees of neighboring towns, that there might be 
uniformity of action. At the same meeting they appointed Ne- 
hemiah Estabrook. John Slapp and John Griswold to meet com- 
mittees of neighboring towns to take action concerning the for- 
mation of regiments and their field officers. 

The records of the town for this and the succeeding year, 1776, 
are very few, and recourse must be had to other sources of in- 
formation. Swiftly following events had produced great exr 
citement in the eastern towns and many were forsaking their 
employments and enlisting in the army or in local service. 
Farms were deserted, and it began to look to some of the more 
thoughtful as though food might fail the people. It was thought 
that the people in the Connecticut valley, at a distance from ex- 
citing scenes, might do good service to their country by remain- 
ing at home and raising food for others. Accordingly, Colonel 
Fenton, a citizen of Portsmouth, addressed a circular letter to 
the people in Grafton county, as follows : 

To the people of the County of Grafton from a real friend who sin- 
cerely wishes their well being 

For Gods sake pay the closest attention to the sowing and planting 



your lands, and do as much as it is possible, not only for your own and 
families subsistence, but to supply the wants of your fellow-men down 
country, for you may be assured that every kind of distress, in tbe pro- 
vision way, is coming upon them 

Let nothing induce you to quit your farming business — mind no re- 
ports — there are enough without you — therefore your diligence in farm- 
ing will much more serve your country than coming to assist us. Much 
depends on the Back settlement in raising grain 

I am informed — that if the people in the Back settlements take up 
arms, a number of Indians & Canadians will fall upon them, but that if 
they remain quiet they will not. This I inform you of from the love 
1 bear you, and give it you as a sincere friend should do 

John Fenton 

Portsmo 2Gth April 1775 

Provincial Papers, Vol. 7, p. 480. 

This advice, no doubt, was well meant, but had but little effect 
in keeping men at home, for this whole region was full of patriot- 
ism and well represented in the army. 

In April, 1776, the committee of safety for the province sent 
to all the towns what is known as the Association Test. The 
selectmen of the towns were required to present it to all the male 
inhabitants of the town for their signature. The names of those 
who signed it and those who refused, were returned to the com- 
mittee. The test was as follows: 

We, the Subscribers, do hereby solemnly engage and promise, that we 
will to the utmost of our Power at the Risque of our Lives and For- 
tunes, with Arms oppose the Hostile Proceedings of the British Fleets 
and Armies against the United American Colonies. 

This was practically the Declaration of Independence on the 
part of the people of New Hampshire. It was, in one view of 
it, treason to the king on the part of his subjects. Had the peo- 
ple failed to make good their pledge every signer would have 
been held as a traitor. 

The following was attached to the list of names : 

Lebanon July 4th 1776 

These may Certifie that the within Resolve &c has been Presented to 
all the Inhabitants of Said Lebanon In manner and form as requested, 
who have freely and Chearfully affixed their several Names thereto. 
There being not one Dissentient therefrom in said Lebanon. 

Test Nehh Estabrook 

Jno Wheatley [ Selectmen 
John Slapp 


There is a very remarkable coincidence of dates in the history 
of the town. The charter was granted July 4, 1761. This most 
important paper bears date July 4, 1776. When on that day Dea. 
Estabrook, Major Slapp and 'Scpiire Wheatley affixed their 
names to this return, their brethren in the Continental Con- 
gress were doing a like act for the people of the thirteen colo- 
nies. Thus the sturdy declaration of independence in a little 
back settlement catches some of the beams of glory shining for- 
ever from the grander act. 

There is one other thing worthy of notice in this list of names. 
In many of the returns from the towns of the state many of the 
signers were obliged to "make their mark." Not one name thus 
appears among the signers from Lebanon, indicating the edu- 
cation of the people in that early day. 

In the spring and early summer of 1776 our army, weakened 
by diseases, smallpox and putrid fever, was forced to retreat 
from Canada before the reinforced armies of the British, to 
Crown Point. The news of this retreat raised great alarm in 
this region. There were no defences between these towns and 
their foes in Canada. The people feared and expected that they 
might be attacked, and their fields, beginning to smile with 
plenty, and their homes would be ravaged by an unpitying foe. 
Meetings of committees were hastily summoned by swift messen- 
gers. July 5, 1776, representatives from Lebanon, Hanover, 
Lyme, N. H., and Hartford, Norwich and Thetforcl, Vt, met at 
Hanover. Dea. Nehemiah Estabrook was chosen moderator 
of the convention. The purpose of their meeting was to plan 
some defences against the expected foes. They voted to raise 
fifty men to go to Koyalton, build fortifications and scout to- 
wards Onion River, and thus defend one avenue of approach 
to their settlements. 

Of this company David Woodward of Hanover was appointed 
captain, Joshua Hazzan of Hartford first lieutenant, and Abel 
Lyman of Lebanon, second lieutenant. They also appointed a 
committee of three to direct the fortification of Royalton, one 
of whom was Maj. John Slapp of Lebanon, an old soldier of 
the French and Indian wars. 

To secure the other avenue of approach from Canada, the 
Connecticut River, they resolved to fortify and guard Newbury, 
Vt. For this purpose they voted to raise 250 men to be divided 


into four companies. Samuel Paine of Lebanon was appointed 
one of the captains. They were to serve three months. The 
convention after having pledged the pay of the soldiers was 
' ' dismist. ' ' 

It was easy enough for these people, trembling for their safety, 
to vote to raise men for their defence. The men themselves 
would be readily found, but it was not easy to furnish them 
with arms, ammunition and military stores. In these days of 
rapid transportation we are likely to forget the difficulty of 
moving men or material in those early days. Now thousands of 
stands of arms can be made by machinery in a day. Then 
everything was made by hand, and a single gun was the work 
of time. Gunpowder was scarce and the people had not yet 
learned to make it, depending upon importations. 

The following letter, written on the succeeding day of the 
convention by one whose name has become familiar to us, gives 
a vivid picture of the alarm of the people and the difficulties 
with which they had to contend : 

Province of New Hampshire, 

Lebanon, 6th July, 1776. 

To the Honorable Assembly of the Province of New Hampshire : 
May it Please your Honours. 

The Necessitous and alarming circumstances the Inhabitants are 
under in these important Frontier Towns since the army have retreated 
to Crown Point out of Canada, leaving a Large Extent of our frontiers 
open to the Ravages of the Savage Indians, being almost Destitute of 
arms and ammunition & many of our Inhabitants Leaving their houses 
and fields for a prey to our Enemys ; — We humbly trust your Honours 
will compassionate and afford us such Relief as you in your wisdom 
shall judge Necessary from time to time ; Especially at this present 
time. We would inform your Honours that the Committees of several 
adjacent Towns met together & agreed to Raise three hundred men to 
build Garrisons and scout for our Defence as you will see by a coppy 
of the proceedings of s'd Committee, which I send you here enclosed. 
But as we are destitute of arms, ammunition & money, we are fearfull 
it will in a great measure prove abortive; and this only alternative 
left us; Either such as can to make escape into the Lower Towns, or 
fall a sacrifice to our enemies. We therefore pray your Honours would 
afford us imediate Relief in the premises, as it is of the utmost impor- 
tance to us all ; and we shall as in duty bound ever Pray. 

In behalf of the Committee, 

Nehemiah Estabrook 
State Papers Vo 1 VIII, p. 298. 


These men deserve the noblest praise. In their dangers they 
do not begin by calling for assistance, but first do all they can 
and then ask help. 

In answer to this request the Committee of Safety gave orders 
for raising and paying soldiers for this duty of guarding the 
frontiers. Men were enlisted from Lebanon and the surround- 
ing towns. After a time, no enemy being discovered, these 
people recovered from their alarm and resumed their ordinary 
employments. Among those who contributed to this return of 
quiet was Captain Payne of Lebanon, of one of the companies 
stationed at Newbury. He went to Ticonderoga and had an 
interview with General Gates, then in command of the North- 
ern Army. From Ticonderoga he went to Crown Point, from 
thence down the lake to Onion River, and then to Cohos on the 
Connecticut, finding no signs of the enemy. 

At the session of the governor and council of Connecticut, 
July 2, 1776, "Maj. Griswold and Capt. Marsh, who were a 
committee for 12 towns in the Coos Country, were present and 
urged the governor and council for powder, and stated their 
apprehensions of an attack from Canada. The governor and 
council allowed them to purchase of Elderkin & Wales, 800. 
pounds at 5s 4d per pound, for cash or good security on short 
payment. Also to receive at the furnace at Middletown 1000 
pounds of lead at 6d per pound." Minutes of governor and 
council, page 363 of "Revolutionary War in Connecticut." 

Major Griswold was Maj. John Griswold of Lebanon, and 
Captain Marsh was Capt. Joseph Marsh of Hartford, Vt. 

The inhabitants of this region were from Connecticut, and in 
their need naturally turned to their mother state for aid, which 
was always granted. "No state supplied more men, money and 
means of every kind, according to her ability than did Connec- 
ticut; or did more to hasten on the glorious issue of the Revo- 
lutionary War. Her troops were found in nearly every action 
in all the states." She was the great resource for supplies for 
all the states. 

At the annual meeting March 11, 1771. they voted £5.3 to the 
Royalton company, and to eight soldiers from this town ten 
shillings each. 

During this and the preceding year the smallpox had been 



very prevalent, greatly weakening the army and preventing the 
success of its operations. We find that this year a pesthouse 
was established in town for the purpose of innoculation for that 
disease. This house was under the charge of Doctor Williams. 
The town voted, "that such of the people of the town as are 
Disposed to be innoculated shall have the preheminence before 
the people of other towns & in case there is sufficient room in the 
pest-house for others besides, that Doct. Williams has the Lib- 
erty to take in such a number as may be conveniently admitted 
without crowding said house." They further make stringent 
provisions concerning visits to the pesthouse. 

Early in May, 1777, Maj. Jonathan Child of Lyme came to 
Lebanon and mustered in the following persons for service in 
the army: John Colburn, Jonathan Wright, Luther Wheatley, 
Nathaniel Bugbee, Edward Slapp, Jonathan Conant, Phinehas 
Wright. Each of these soldiers received a bounty of twenty- 
four pounds, raised by subscription in the town. They were 
members of Captain House's company, who was of Hanover. 

July 10, Col. Elisha Payne wrote to Major-General Folsom 
at Exeter for 200 stands of arms and other material to be deliv- 
ered to Capt. Aaron Storrs for the use of his regiment. 

In the latter part of July the people in this region were again 
greatly alarmed. Ticonderoga had been evacuated and our 
Northern Army was in retreat before the forces of General Bur- 
goyne. He sent strong detachments into Vermont to gather 
cattle and horses. A scouting party had captured a British 
scouting party and taken them to Charlestown. Upon these 
prisoners were found papers indicating that three detachments 
of British soldiers and Tories were to be sent to the Connecticut 
Valley, one to Charlestown, one to Royalton, and the other to 
Newbury, Vt. Warnings came from every direction. Bezaleel 
Woodward of Hanover writes at midnight, July 19: "As you 
regard the safety of this Frontier, for God's sake pray come for- 
ward without delay. Assembly at Exeter are earnestly re- 
quested to send forward arms and ammunition for people in this 
Country, as well as men. Capt Storrs returned home this day." 

Maj. Francis Smith of Colonel Chase's regiment writes from 
Lebanon, July 20, 1777, imploring immediate assistance, in arms 
and ammunition. Lieut. Jonathan Freeman of Hanover was 


sent as a messenger to Exeter to hasten assistance. A large 
number of Tories had gathered in Strafford, Vt., and it was 
found that these had deserted to the enemy greatly increasing 
the fear of immediate attack through the whole region. Straf- 
ford was abandoned by the loyal inhabitants, they taking what- 
ever they could to Thetford, and some crossing the river to 
Lyme. July 24, 1777, was observed as a day of fasting, humilia- 
tion and prayer, "on account of the distress of the war and the 
near approach of the enemy after Ticonderoga was given up." 

Soldiers were hurried forward from all directions and opposed 
the progress of the enemy, who were finally met and defeated in 
the battle of Bennington, August 16, 1777, when the people were 
relieved of their fears and filled with great joy. 

It seems that some of the inhabitants of the town, when 
drafted for the public service, failed to do their duty. Maj. 
John Slapp, Joseph Wood and Lemuel Hough were appointed a 
committee to examine into the matter, and if such persons had 
no reasonable excuse they were instructed to exact a fine from 
them, not exceeding ten pounds. "Said fines to be improved 
for the benefit or encouragement of such inhabitants of said 
Lebanon as have gone, or hereafter shall go into the publick 
•service." "Who these delinquents were cannot now be ascer- 
tained, even if it were worth while to inquire. While the an- 
cient records give evidence that there were many Tories in the 
state, I do not find that any inhabitants of Lebanon bore that 
name. From another vote of the town it appears that fines 
imposed were remitted. 

Beyond this there is no allusion in the town records to the 
war during the years 1778- '79. One reason is that the people 
were very much disturbed in their relations to New Hampshire, 
inclining to cast in their lot with the people of Vermont, who 
were struggling for recognition as a state. A special chapter 
will be devoted to this subject. 

Early in 1780 the people were disturbed by alarms on the 
frontiers. All the histories are silent on these matters. There 
were no organized forces in the region, the war being transferred 
to the south. The only explanation of these frequent alarms 
and hasty raising of scouts and minute men is that the region 
was infested by bands of Tories and Indians under the command 


occasionally of British officers who made raids upon exposed 

January 26, 1780, the town recommended to the commissioned 
officers of the militia to select six men for a scouting party, in 
conjunction with other towns, in order to "make Discovery of 
the approach of the Enemy if any there be & to give timely 
Notice thereof to the Inhabitants." 

Voted to recommend to said officers to Equip fifty-six men, to be ready 
at a minute's warning, to march against the Enemy, in case of an in- 
vasion, and also that they use their Endeavor to have the whole of their 
company put in the best posture of Defence that may be, in case of a 
Gem attack. Voted that the six men for scouting be Engaged tilt the 
first day of April next, unless sooner Discharged, and also that Each 
man receive 40s per month for the time being, as money passed in 1774. 
& also that the Town provide Each man with a blanket and a pair of 
Snow Shoes for their use for the time being, & then to be returned 
to the town. Voted that in case Lieut. Ticknor should fail of Going 
with s'd scout that s'd six men make Choice of such meet person as 
they shall chuse, to take Command of them in his Room. Voted that 
the authorities of this town stop the Transporting of all kinds of pro- 
vision that may be attempted to be Carried away from or throo s'd 
town till the Danger of the Enemy be over, Excepting such as are pur- 
chased for the use of the Continent — 

Voted that the authorities of the Town & all others the Inhabitants 
Be Directed to Examine all strangers supposed to be Spies & if need be 
Detain them, as the Exigency of the Case may Require. 

Feb 4 1780, voted to raise four men in addition to the six men already 
Raised for a scouting party & that the Select men Do their Endeavour 
to furnish them with blankets and snow shoes on the same conditions 
as the other six. Voted that s'd Scouting party be paid at the Rate of 
40s per month, for the time being, as money passed in 1774 by the first 
day of April next. 

The vote above respecting the transporting of provisions was 
passed because it was suspected, with good reason, that Tories 
were furnishing these to the enemy. 

The following letter seems to throw some light upon one of the 
causes of the constant state of alarm on the western frontiers 
of the state : 

Exeter April 28, 1780 

Gentlemen — The Indians drove from the Seneca County, having ar- 
rived in Canada, the winter past and the probability of their being 
inspired with sentiments of Revenge, have greatly alarmed the inhabi- 


tants of our Western frontiers, together with the likelihood of their 
being joined with a great number of Refugees from this and the neigh- 
bouring states. The Canada Indians & perhaps some of the British 
Troops, hath so intimidated them, that unless they are strengthened 
with more Troops to guard them than can possibly be afforded by this 
State, it is feared that the settlements on Connecticut River will brake 
up and perhaps fifty miles of Country the most fertile in this State left 
Desolate. Wherefore I am directed by the General Assembly to desire 
you to make application to Congress for such aid as they shall judge 
adequate to assist in Guarding our extensive frontiers, the situation of 
which you can give full information 

P. S. Continued reports from Canada of the designs of the enemy 
against our frontier towns hath much added to the fears excited by the 
reasons .above mentioned 
Horn Messrs Peabody & Folsom ,at Congress. 

The reference above is to the expedition of General Sullivan 
up the River Susquehanna into the territory of the Senecas in 
1779. The forces for this expedition were New Hampshire 
troops, who proved both brave and hardy. "Their provisions 
falling short before the object of the expedition was completed, 
the troops generously agreed to subsist on such as could be found 
in the Indian country." 

The state sent a few soldiers to assist those raised by the towns 
in guarding the exposed towns and repelling any attacks. The 
main stations were at Newbury, Vt., and Haverhill, from whence 
scouting parties penetrated in all directions. 

Scouting in the winter when there were no roads and marches 
must be made on snowshoes, and camps formed wherever they 
chanced to be, was no holiday work, if the winter resembled that 
of 1880-'81. Such simple, unadorned records as these are very 
suggestive of the hardships of the fathers. They certainly paid 
a good price for the beautiful fields and homes they have left 
to their descendants. 

June 26 1780. Voted to raise £10-0 (accounting wheat at 6/ per 
bushel) upon the present List forthwith to be paid to Capt. Paine as a 
bounty for Raising five men for scouting to the Northward For six 
months unless sooner discharged 

That all this alarm and these preparations had some founda- 
tion was abundantly proved by subsequent events. For on 
August 9, 1780, the Indians appeared at Barnard, Vt., and took 



three men captive. On October 16 they attacked Royalton, 
Vt., taking prisoners, burning the houses and killing some of the 
people. The alarm spread in every direction, arousing the in- 
habitants and calling out the soldiers. These were organized 
under Capt. John House of Hanover, who speedily turned the 
enemy back towards Canada. 

At a meeting specially warned on account of this invasion of 
the savage foe the town 

Voted that they will assist the militia Officers in Railing 12 men for 
one month. Toted to pay Each man, Serving as afore Sd, ten bufhels of 
wheat, or money Equivalent, by the 20th Day of Jam next also that 
the Sergt & Coi-p 1 be paid according to their Rank. Voted that Each 
man's pay shall Commence at the time of their Engaging in the service 
afore S'd. Voted that the Select men provide for the support of s^ 
Twelve men for one month at the Expense of the Town & also that they 
supply them with Ammunition, in Cafe they are not supplied from the 
publick Stores. 

The following circular letter was issued to other towns by the 
authorities of Lebanon : 

Lebanon New Hampshire Grants, 23d October 1780 
"Whereas the present Day calls for every Exertiou touching the pub- 
lick Cause, that our Lives and properties may be safe & secure from 
Invasions of our natural and unnatural Enemies & that we have reason 
to believe, we have many of the most abandoned Wretches, that are lost 
to all the feelings of humanity among us, who do intend the Destruction 
of this flourishing Country if not prevented. — We, whose names are here 
inscribed, do request that no time be lost in taking up all suspected 
Persons that are Enemical to the Liberties of Country — That every 
Town would exert themselves for that purpose — That the Towns on this 
Frontier would form into some Plan for the Design and purpose of 
purging out this Detestable Leven. We desire the Committee & Select- 
men & the Principal Inhabitants of the Neighboring Towns would attend 
at Mr. Bliss's, Inholder in Lebanon on Monday the 30th f October 1780 
for this purpose 

Nebemiah Estabrook ] Committee 
Elisha Lathup I of 

Elihu Hyde J Safety 

Simeon Peck 

Theo — Huntington I Selectmen 
Nathi Stores 
A coppy of a Letter sent to adjacent Towns 


November 9, 1780, the following votes were passed: 

To keep Guard on the publick Roads as Long as it shall be tho't 
Necefsary. To Requeft the Military Officers to Clafs such men in s'd 
Town as are under their Command, as are fit for duty to attend upon 
Guarding as .afores'd, & in Cafe of Delinquency, after due notice, Shall 
be Liable to a fine of one bushel of Wheat or the Equivalent in money — 
that Elihu Hyde Simeon Peck, Nathi Storrs & Theoph Huntington be a 
Comtee to Adjust the accts of provifion Expended in the Late Alarm 
[at Royalton] & also the Wages & Provifions of The 12 men that are 
Gone out upon the month's Service. That the Select men be Directed to 
purchafe one barrel of powder & Lead & Flints in proportion thereto & 
to render an acct. thereof to the Town. Voted a Tax of £82-0-6 to 
Defray the Expense the Town has been at in the Late Alarm, also the 
wages & the victualling of the 12 men Raifed by this Town for one 
monthf Service on the Frontiers. That Mr Huckens Storrs be appointed 
to Remove the Provifions from Strafford [Vt.] to Royalton, provided by 
this Town for the afores'd men, in Cafe that they Remove Thereto from 
Strafford afore s'd 

Nov. 23 1780. Voted a tax of £114-19-7 To Defray the Expense of 
the Town of Lebn in the Late alarm. To Stephen Blifs £2.-18-9 for 
Sundries D — D by him to the soldiers Belonging to the several Regts 
Commanded by Mefsrs Col. Chafe, Col Bellows & Col. Ellis. Voted that 
this Town is willing to pay their Proportion with other Towns within 
the Limits of the afore s'd Regts of the 13 Galls of Rum D. — D out of 
Col. Chafe's store In sd Lebanon By Capt. Paine & By Col. Chafe's 
order To the soldiers afore's'd on their pafsage thro Lebanon in the Late 

Few things gave the authorities of the state in these times more 
trouble than the supply of rum. The war rendered it both 
scarce and high in price, yet it was deemed a necessity, and 
many were the devices adopted to secure it. 

What the town clerk meant by the D — D in his record above 
I do not know, unless it is an abbreviation for Delivered. 

March 2a 1781 the town voted to Raise Six men for a Scouting party 
till the first Day of April next unlefs Sooner Discharged, to Give Each 
man that shall Engage in s'd service at the Rate of Eight bushels of 
Wheat per month — to provide for the s'd six men 1^4 lb of flour 1 Lb 
of pork & one Jill of Rum per Day. Voted a Tax of£25-l-S to pay 
& Support s'd six men, to be paid by the first Day of April next. 

May 7 1781 The town voted a Tax of £43-3-3 to Defray the Ex- 
pense of the Late alarm to Newbury. 


This alarm was occasioned by the following circumstances: 
There were residing at Newbury, Vt., and Haverhill, N. H., 
several prominent men whom the British were especially desirous 
of capturing. Among these were Col. Thomas Johnson and Gen. 
Jacob Bailey. The latter acted as quartermaster to the troops 
stationed at Newbury and vicinity. Heavy rewards were offered 
for his capture. Prowling about that region were many Tories 
who, concealing their characters under a mask of loyalty to the 
country, sought information to give to the British of any move- 
ments on the part of the colonies. Many plans were formed for 
the capture of these persons, but they were defeated by their cau- 
tion. Finally Colonel Johnson, who was building a gristmill 
at Peacham, Vt., found, March 8, 1781, the house surrounded 
with foes. Many of them he afterwards recognized as neighbors 
and supposed friends. He was captured and taken into Canada, 
where he was kindly treated in hope that he would communicate 
valuable information, or be won over to the British side in the 
contest. He was finally released, on parole, with the hope that 
in some way he might be made useful to his captors. A deter- 
mined but unsuccessful attempt was afterwards made to capture 
General Bailey. 

Awhile after, a report was started in some way that a force 
was collecting at St. John's, Canada, for an invasion of the 
towns along the Connecticut River. This occasioned a new 
alarm to the state authorities and the towns. Preparations were 
hastily made to receive an enemy that never came. 

During these times our armies were in great need of provi- 
sions. Congress called upon the states to furnish them. Cattle 
were driven out of the state to supply our forces in other states. 
Besides this, requisitions were made on the towns for provisions, 
each one to contribute an amount fixed by the value of his 
estate, to form a general fund. The following is the provision 
bill of Lebanon, which in some way has escaped destruction. It 
is endorsed as follows : 



Lebanon Nov 1 17. 1781 

a provision bill for the use of the armey for the year ensu- 







lb oz 











6 12 











7 14 











2 4 









3 12 









8 4 











3 12 









7 2 











9 12 











6 6 










20 10 











4 8 








9 12 











8 4 











18 12 

















2 4 









10 8 











6 6 










7 14 











4 12 









4 8 
















2 4 









2 10 









10 2 



















3 6 









12 6 

















2 4 









2 10 









3 6 









3 6 















2 4 















20 10 











12 6 











4 8 








5 4 









13 8 










19 8 










4 2 















15 12 











19 14 











25 2 











4 14 







2 4 









4 14 







7 14 











12 12 











28 2 











8 10 











15 12 











3 6 









15 6 











13 8 










23 4 











6 12 










10 8 









10 14 










7 8 









8 4 










28 8 










Zalmori Aspenwall 

Zenas Alden 

Daniel Alden , 

Thop. Barbrick 

Isaiah Bliss 

Sherbiah Ballard 

Gedion Baker 

Jonathan Bingham 

Stephen Bliss 

Azariah Bliss Jun 

Sam" Baley 

Daniel Bliss , 

Stephen Billings 

Ruffus Baldwin 

Ruff us Baldwin Jr 

Nath 1 Bosworth 

Jonathan Bosworth 

Lt Thomas Bingham 

Sam' Baley Jr 

Ebon' Bliss 

Asa Colburn 

Stephen Colburn 

Sam" Crocker 

David Crocker 

James Crocker 

Robert Colbourn 

Jeremiah Conet 

Jesse Cook 

Isaac Corey 

Jacob Colbourn 

Israel Convers 

"William Chaplain 

Sam" Convers 

Elijah Dewey 

Saxton Dewey 

Martain Dewey 

William Downer 

William Downer Jr 

Nathan Durkee 

Dea. Zachaus Downer.. 
D'n Jonathan Danna — 

Cap' William Danna 

D'n Neh. Estabrook 

Neh. Estabrook Jr 

Sam' Estabrook 

Randol Evens 

Edmund Freeman 

John Fox 

John Fenley 

Benj. Fuller 

James Fuller 

Jer'h Griswold 

Maj John Griswold 

Joseph Griswold 

Oliver Griswold 

John Griswold Jr 

John Gray 

Leut Levi Hvde 

Leut Jedediah Hebbard 

Josiah Hovey 

James Huntington 

William Huntington 

David Hough 

James Hebard 

Ensgn Nathi Hall 



ING. — Continued. 







lb oz 








J1 S 

s. d. 

8 10 









1 6 

5 4 









12 12 









2 2 

2 4 









3 6 









2 4 









4 8 













1 2 

7 14 









1 4 

4 8 








5 4 









20 10 









3 6 

12 6 








2 I 

12 6 








2 1 

1 14 









3 6 









2 4 









13 2 









1 2 

34 2 









5 9 

2 4 









2 4 









3 6 















1 6 

3 6 









2 4 









2 4 









7 14 









1 4 

7 14 









1 4 

14 10 









2 6 

6 12 









1 3 

11 14 









1 10 

2 4 









3 6 









5 10 









5 10 









2 4 









9 6 









1 8 

4 2 









2 4 









27 10 









4 7 

2 10 









19 8 








3 3 

2 4 









3 6 









5 10 









16 8 







2 9 

13 14 









2 3 

3 6 









3 6 









10 2 









1 9 

19 2 









3 2 

6 6 









1 1 

22 2 









3 9 

10 2 









1 9 







1 6 

5 4 









16 2 









2 9 

5 4 









15 12 









2 8 

28 8 








4 9 

5 10 









19 8 








3 3 

24 12 









3 7 

10 14 









1 10 

8 4 









1 5 

34 2 









5 9 

4 2 









James Harthorn 

"Widow Elesabeth Hyde 

Daniel Hough , 

Hiraim Huntington 

Thop Huntington Jr 

Sam' Huntington 

Thop. Huntington , 

Jesse Heath , 

Elihu Hyde Esq , 

Oliver Hamlain 

Doct. Ziba Hall 

Lemuel Hough 

Lt Charles Hill 

Widow Jane Hill 

Nathi Hall Jr 

David Hinkley 

Walter Harris 

Moses Hebard 

James Jones 

Daniel King 

Uriah Knight 

Joiel Kilbourn 

Elias Lyman , 

Joshua Lothrop 

Sam^ Leach 

Richard Lyman 

Lt John Lyman 

Sluman Lothrop 

Lt Able Lyman 

Maj. Elisha Lothrop. . . . 

Capt John Lassell 

Sam' Lothrop 

Josiah Lyman 

John Martian 

Joseph Martian 

Dan Metcalf 

Sam'i Millington 

Solomon Millington 

Timothy Owen , 

Nathi porter 

Ichabod Packard 

Simeon Peck 

Walter Peck 

Ebba Peck 

Estate of Eb Perkins 

Goven Elisha Payn 

Eliazr Robinson 

Sam' Richardson 

Enoch Redington 

Constant Storrs 

Sam 1 Sprage 

Elkenah Sprage 

Nathi storrs 

Maj. John Slapp 

Clapp Sumner 

Simon Slapp 

Huckens Storrs 

Josiah Sweatland 

Joseph Tilden 

Leut Elisha Ticknor 

Barnabas Tisdall , 

Capt Bela Turner 

Silas Waterman 

Able Wright 

Thomas Wells.. . 

Joseph Wood 

Joseph Wood Jr 



ING.— Concluded. 







Benj. Wright 

Ens Nathaniel Wheatley 

John Wheatley Esq 

Hezk Waters 

Abial Wills 

Daniel Wills 

John Woodward 

Henery Woodward 

Eleaz"- Woodward 

Phinas Wright 

Andrew Wheatley 

Ephraim Wood 

Asa Edgerton 

Mary Bennet 

Benj. Fuller J"- fourfold . 
Charles Saxton 





















































































































































Nath 1 Storrs ] 

Hez k Waters > Selectmen 

Edmund Freeman J 

There are some things to be noticed in this bill of provisions. 
Each man's weight of pork and rye flour are equal, his wheat 
flour is double the weight of his beef. Of pork there is about 
1,344 pounds and an equal quantity of rye ; of beef 2,262 pounds, 
of wheat flour 4,524 pounds, equal to about 23 barrels ; of money 
a little over £11. The largest assessments were upon James 
Jones and Joseph "Wood, Sr., whose quantities are equal; the 
smallest, Mary Bennet. 


Losseses sustained in the publick service since the contest with Great 

May 1776 Taken by the Enemy at the Cedars in Canada from Noah 
Paine of Lebanon the following Articles, (viz.) 1 Coat 60/, 1 pr Dear 
skin Breeches 33/, 1 pr Rusia drabb'd Breeches 15/, 1 Beaver — Hat 
24/, 5 pr of stockings 30/ 1 Cheque Wollen shirt 15/ 1 Linnen Do 12/, 1 
silk Handkerchief 8/, 1 pr mittens 2/6, 2 prs shoes 20/, 1 pr shoe 
buckles 2/6, 1 gun 72/, Blanket 18/, Cash 12/, Knapsack 3/6, Tump- 
line 2/ 

An exact account of the Losses Sustained By Lieut. Charles Hill, at 
the Cedars in Canada may 19, 1776 

A new great Coat £3 — 12 

Strait bodied Coat fine Broad Cloth 4—10 

Supafine Jacket 2. 2 


Nankeen Jacket 


Beaver Hat 



Pocket Handkerchief 



English Blanket 






Fusee, Very neat 


Powder Horn 


Guns D D to the Soldiers, of my own private Property, 

which I never rec'd pay for 



£33— 8—4 
The above acct. Charged as English goods ware sold for silver in A D. 

The Cedars was an important post about thirty-six miles from 
Montreal up the St. Lawrence. The post was in command of 
Colonel Bedell, who, having information from two friendly 
Indians that a body of English and Indians were in the neigh- 
borhood, left his garrison to communicate the intelligence, in- 
stead of sending a suitable messenger, for which he was cen- 
sured. The fort was unfortunately surrendered and the losses 
detailed above were in consequence. 

A ''beaver kitt" is a young beaver — a kitten. A tumpline is a 
broad strap passing across the forehead to aid in supporting the 
knapsack. D. D. probably is an abbreviation for delivered. 

Lebanon Oct. 28th 1776 

We whose names are hereunto Annexed, having rec'd of the Selectmen 
of said Lebanon the several Quantities of Gunpowder Ball and Flint 
Annexed to our several names. Do by these promise to be, and hold 
ourselves Accountable to the Select men of said Lebanon for the time 
being for the above articles Rec'd as aforesaid Excepting only such of 
them as may be spent in actual Service 
Witness our hands 

lbs Lbs No. 

Powder Balls Flints 
Zacheus Downer 1 2y 2 6 

Abel Wright 12 6 

Nathi Hall % 2 6 

Lieut Jed Hebbard % 2 6 

Abiel Willes 1/2 2 6 

Isaiah Bliss % 2 6 

James Jones % 2 6 

Charles Tilden % 2 6 

Stephen Tilden y 2 2 6 



Stephen Colburn 
Jerh Griswold 
Walter Peck 
James Fuller 
Elisba Tlcknor Jun 
Joseph Martin 
Joseph Tiklen Jun 
Solomon Mellington 
Henry Woodward 
Elkanah Sprague 
Eleazer Woodward 
James Hebbard 
Daniel Bliss 
Oliver Griswold 
Moses Hebbard 
Jesse Cook 

Lebanon July 25 1777 

Rec'd of Elisba Payne Leut Coll in Col. Chase's Reg't Ten fire arms. 
Belonging to the State of New Hampshire, and Sent by Them to and for 
the use of said Regt. — for the town of Lebanon ; to be Returned to 
said Payne or any other proper officer, or accounted for at the price of 
five pounds ten shillings, besides the cost of Transportation when 
thereto Required — allso twenty pounds wt of powder, and twenty wt. 
of lead, and ten flints Belonging to said State as afore said. Rec'd p* 

Mr William Dana Leut. 

Lebanon 25th July 1777 

The proportion of arms and ammunition sent to Cob Chase's Regt as 







y 2 



y 2 



y 2 















y 2 


y 2 





y 2 

y 2 





y 2 


y 2 

y 2 

(viz) Cornish 

4 guns 



13 do 

20 lb powder 

25 lb lead 

13 flints- 



10 do 

20 lb powder 

20 lb led 

10 flints 



12 do 

20 powder 

25 lb led 

20 flints 



5 do 

20 lb powder 

30 lb led 

15 flints 



4 do 

20 lb powder 

10 lb led 

4 flints 



2 do 


One dollar to be paid on Each fire arm at time 
of Receiving them for the Cost of Transportation 

Lead 60 lbs powder 2 lbs town stock. 
John Martin 1% do 
Nath. Hall 1 lb Do 1 lb powder 
Jed. Hebbard 1 lb powder 


Dani Hough 
Saini Paine 
Abiel Welles 

3 lb Do 
5 lb Do 
1 lb Do 

An accompt of the time and Charges of my going to Royalton at the 
time of the alarm on the 16 Oct 1780 Myself three days ; found a horse 



to carry provisions from Lieut. John Lymans to the foot of Tunbridge 
mountains ; necessary charges — eight dollars 

Jeriah Swetland. 
To the select men for the town of Lebanon ; sirs, pleas to pay to Mi- 
Daniel Hough of Lebanon the sum due to me from sa town for my ser- 
vice A scouting in the year 1781 in Capt Charles Nelsons Company. 
Lebanon Dec ye 27 1784 

pr me William Lathrop 
Received of the Selectmen contents of the within order 

Daniel Hough 
May 6th 1777. Lebanon 

We the Subscribers, whose names are hereunto annexed Hereby Cer- 
tify & Declare that we have Rec'd of Nehemiah Estabrook & John 
Wheatley £24 Each Raised by subscription in the town of Lebanon, 
County of Grafton & State of New Hampshire for the Encouragement 
of such as should Voluntarily Enlist into the Continental Service for the 
Term of three years on Behalf of said Town. 
Witness our hands and names as follows 
John Colburn 
Jonathan Wright 
Luther Wheatley 
Nathi Bugbie 
Edward Slapp 
Jonathan Conant 
Phinehas Wright. 

Another ammunition list — date unknown : 

Zacheus Downer 1 lb powder Nehemiah Estabrook 1 lb powder 

Sami paine Do John Martin Do 

Abell Wright Do Phinehas Wright Do 

James Gutter Do Abel Lyman Do 

Asa Colburn Do Jabez Baldwin Do 

Elias Lyman Do Charles Sexton Do 

Eleazr Woodward Do John Slapp Jun Do 

Tilley Kingsbury Do Thos' Blake Do 

Sluman Lothrop Do Hezeh Waters Do 

Dani Hough Do Oliver Griswold Do 

David Hough Do Elkanah Sprague Do 

Elisha Ticknor Do Levi Hyde Do 

Wm Dana Do Jos Tilden Do 

Jos Martin Do Sami Sprague Do 

Lieut Sami Paine 6 lbs lead James Hebbard 4 lbs lead 1 lb 

Oliver Griswold 4 lbs lead powder 

Wm Dana y 2 Do Neb. Estabrook Jun 4 Do 

Joseph Martin 1 Do Thos Blake 4 do 

John Slapp Jun % do 
pr me Daniel Hough 



An account of the Expense and losses sustained by the town of Leba- 
non, in the publick Defence since the contest with Great Brittain. 

£ s. d. 
May 1775. Expense to Committee after and for ammu- 

nition . . . . . 20 5 4 

July 1776. Expense to Committee after aud for ammu- 

nition . . . . . 29 

July 25. Reed of Col. Payne ten fire-locks, 20 lbs. of 

powder, twenty wt of Lead and ten flints 
which said Col. Payne obtained of the 
State of N. H. for the use of the Reg't 
commanded by Col. Jonathan Chase 
In the 1777 paid to nine men that join'd Col. Scilly's 
Reg't for three years service in the Conti- 
nental Army £24 Each, silver, m . 216 
By orders from Col. Chase an Express to 
Col. Paine July 3d, 1777, 22 miles— By an- 
other Express July 30th to Do. 
July 3d, 1777. Express to Capt. Hendy, 
July 30th. Express to Col. Morey, 

May 1777. Capt. Sam. Paine paid an Express to Col. 

Elisha Paine .... 

July 1777. 6 Pack horses, 3 days, 34 miles to Coffins 

Man and horse two days to carry Packs 
To Ferriage over Connecticut River . 10 2 

Jule 30th 1777 to six Pack Horses to Otter Creek 70 miles 
to the Block House 
A man with the Pack Horses 7 days 
Oct. 1777. Paid James Jones for the use of his horse 

to Saratoga and for his bridle lost in s'd 
service . . . . 1 13 

Committees Expense of Collecting and priz- 
ing horses for the service to Saratoga . 1 14 
To 62 lbs. of lead; powder, 3 lbs 3 17 

July 1777. Maj. Griswold's Express to Col. Paine . 18 

July 18th, 1780. By a journey of two horses and a boy two 
days to Orford to carry the baggage of a 
party of Frenchmen by order of Col. Chase 14 

1780, 1781. Two Expresses to Canaan on Publick ser- 
vice . . . . .15 8 
Jan. 26, 1779 by six men as a Scouting Party for 1 month 

at 40s per month, as money passed in 1774 12 
Aug. 1780 by 60 men, one day, in the alarm at Barnard 

at 3s. per day . . . .9 

1780. By Expence in the late Alarm Occasioned by 
the Enemy's destroying the Town of Roy- 
alton, &c . . . . . 146 16 9 
















s. d. 

By paying and victualling 12 men Engaged 
for 1 month to scout upon the Frontiers at 
48 per month, but as s'd men were in s'd 
service but three weeks their wages and 
victualling amounted to 
March 2d, 1781. To paying and victualling six men Raised 
for one month, to be under the command 
of Capt. Nelson to scout upon the fron- 
tiers, but as s'd men Continued in s'd ser- 
vice but three weeks, Expence 

Expence for transporting provision for s'd 

men to Newbury .... 

March 1781 by Expence in the Alarm at Newbury 

Sept. 1781 by expense in the Alarm at Corinth for 60 

men ..... 

By Expence of the Selectmen in &c in pro- 
curing provisions and other necessaries 
for the soldiers in the several Services and 
Alarms inserted as abovesaid 50 Days a 
6s per day ..... 

Two barrels of Beef 2 hundred % per barrel 
for the troops at Corinth at £4. 10s per 
barrel ..... 

1781 By a bounty paid to Eleven men that en- 
gaged in the publick service for six months 
at £4 10s each .... 

Additional pay advanced by the town to s'd 

men 24s per month for five months and y 2 

1780 For three men that 'Listed under Capt. 

Sami Paine in the Public Service at Cohos 

— a bounty 40s each 

For eight men under Capt Bush 1 month 
and y-2 bounty and wages . 

To Lieut Huntington 
£5. 5 per month . 

1 month and y 2 at 

41 4 6 

22 12 3 




49 10 

72 12 

38 8 

7 17 6 

Sum total 


Soldiers From Lebanon in the Revolution 

The historian has found great difficulty, on account of the rela- 
tions of the town to the state, in making a full and accurate list 
of these patriots. First, the names of those for whose connection 
with the army there is documentary evidence are given. 

In Colonel Bedel's regiment were Charles Hill, ensign, Noah 
Payne, private, Eleazer M. Porter. 

This regiment was raised to reinforce the army after its failure 
under Arnold to capture Quebec, and the death of General Mont- 
gomery. At a fort called the Cedars, above the City of Montreal 
the regiment was disgracefully surrendered by the major, Isaac 
Butterfield, Colonel Bedel being absent at the time. The sur- 
render was in May, 1776. 

Paine and Hill brought bills against the town for losses which 
they had sustained in the surrender. 


Isaiah Potter,* chaplain William Dana,* adjutant 

Edmund Freeman, Capt. 


Lieut. Zalmon Aspenwall* Samuel McCluar 

Ensign Nathan Aldrioh* Timy Owen* 

Daniel Bliss* Barnabas Perkins* 

Jacob Colburn* Phillip Paddleford 

Sluman Lothrop* Elisha Tickney* 

Nath. Mason Simeon Wheton 

Peres Mason Joseph Wood* 

Solomon Millington* Eleazar Woodward 
The above discharged the 20th (1777) out 48 days each. 

Lieut. Seth Martin Eleazar Robbinson* 

Serst Nathaniel Hall* Sim" Ballock 

Serst Nehemiah Estabrook* Martin Dewey* 

Cori Lemuel Huff* Josiah Hovey 

" Zacheus Downer* Elias Limon* 

" James Jones* Mathew Peck* 

" Joseph Loveland Silvanus Wells 
* Those marked * were of Lebanon. 


Levy Hide* Christopher Smith 

Hezekiah Waters* Joseph Sevey 

The above dismissed the 18 of June. The above were in service 46 

Ensign Simon Duda (Derry) Th's Ellis Barbaric* 

Sergt. Henry Woodward John Gray* 

" Israel Winchester Peck Asa Williams 

William Downer* 
The above dismissed June 13 (1777) 

John Grissel* Charles Saxton* 

Abel Right Nathaniel Porter* 
Joseph Hamelton 

In the service 12 Days each, cauld 9 days. 

In a roll found among the Hall papers the name of Walter 
Peck is found in addition to the above. 

To carrying 45 Packs From Col. Chases to Mt. Independence, 100 
miles £22-10-0 

To Abel Lymon and Elish Tickney Ecabod Amsbery with There 
Horses five Days a fetching Baggage from Lebbanon to Col Chase's 

To Ezra Percias? with one Hors assisting in gitting the sick along 
Home six days at £2-2-0 

To three Hired Horses to assist in gitting the sick along Home 2 
days, £0-12-0 

Joshua Hendee Captain 

Another roll of Colonel Chase's regiment contains the follow- 
ing names of officers from Lebanon : 

W"i Dana, Adjutant Isaiah Potter Chaplain 

Samuel Payne Capt. Jeddediah Hibbard Sergt. Major 

John Lasel Capt. Abel Lyman Lieutenant 
Nathaniel Hall Lieut. 

The above was copied from papers of Colonel Chase, now 
deposited in the archives of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society. The spelling is preserved and some of the names must 
be made out by the sound. 

In the spring of 1777 there were great fears for the safety of 
Ticonderoga, when the militia was hastily ordered out, those 
in this region under the command of Col. Jonathan Chase of 
Cornish. The regiment marched to Ticonderoga, when, the 
alarms subsiding, they returned to their homes, in the latter part 


of June. From the names which appear above as of Lebanon, 
there could have been but few men left in the town. 

They had scarcely been dismissed when a new alarm was 
raised, and they were again summoned to the field to meet 
Burgoyne and save Ticonderoga. The regiment marched under 
command of Maj. Francis Smith. 



Daniel Hough Sluman Lathrop 

John Slapp jr Ebenezer Bliss 

William Downer Jr 

Col. Nahum Baldwin was of Amherst. His regiment was 
raised in accordance with a vote of a special convention of the 
Council and Assembly, September 17, 1776, for the purpose of 
reinforcing the army in New York. The regiment was in the 
battle of White Plains, October 28, 1776, and was dismissed in 
December of that year. 


Mustered March 17, 1777. 

John Coleburn Jonathan Conant 

Edward Slapp Phineas Wright 

Luther Wheatley Jonathan Wright 

Nath. Bugbee Jonathan Kingsbury 

John La'idee Elisha Tilden 

Stephen Tilden Benj. Quin 


John Colbarn Edward Slapp 

Jonathan Conant Phineas Wright 

Jonathan Wright Josiah Magoon 

Luther Wheatley, Daniel Hough. 

Thomas Blake, Ensign Eben. Bliss 
Nathaniel Bugbee 

These men were enlisted for three years in the Continental 
service in the spring of 1777. 

This was General Stark's old regiment. The rendezvous of 
the regiment was Ticonderoga. When that fortress was aban- 
doned this regiment fell back with the army to Saratoga; was 
engaged in the battle of Stillwater or Bemis Heights, and the 


battle of Saratoga. It passed the winter of 1777-'78 at Valley 
Forge; was present at the battle of Monmouth, N. J., was with 
Sullivan in the expedition into the Indian country, New York. 
It was stationed at West Point for a time. 

Of those above named, Luther Wheatley, son of John Wheat- 
ley, a youth of seventeen, was mortally wounded in the battle 
of Stillwater, September 19, 1777, and died September 30. 



Samuel Easterbrook Ens Joseph Wood 

Elisha Bingham Zalmon Aspenwall 

Jabez Baldwin Jeremiah Griswold 

Azariah Bliss Josiah Bliss 

Joel Tilden Walter Peek 

Jacob Colburn Eleazer M. Porter 

Colonel Hobart, called in the records Hubbard, was from 
Plymouth. He was present at the battle of Bennington with a 
part of his regiment, while the other part went on to Saratoga 
and Stillwater. 

It has been said by several persons interested in such matters 
that there were soldiers from Lebanon at the battle of Benning- 
ton, which the historian would gladly believe if he could have 
reliable proof of the assertion. 

When he first became a resident of Lebanon there were living 
those who could remember the battle ; neither they nor any of 
their descendants made any claim of presence at that battle. 

I find no proof of such presence in any document. There 
were soldiers from Lebanon in the field just before that battle 
and afterwards at the battle of Saratoga. 

Colonel Chase's regiment, in which there were many soldiers 
from Lebanon, took the field May 7, 1777, but was discharged 
in July. See Revolutionary Rolls, Vol. II, pages 14 to 19. The 
regiment was called out to reinforce the army at Ticonderoga. 

On page 138 of the same volume is a record of the discharge 
of sixty officers and men from Colonel Chase's regiment, June 
11, 1777. Of these twelve, at least, were from Lebanon. The 
reason given for their discharge was that their crops needed 
their attention to provide food for their families and the army. 
On page 38 of Vol. II, Revolutionary Rolls, is another record of 


Colonel Chase's regiment, under command of Maj. Francis 
Smith, which marched from Cornish to reinforce the army at 
Ticonderoga on the alarms of June 27 and July 4, 1777. There 
were nearly twenty of these soldiers from Lebanon in this regi- 
ment, comprising most of those whose discharge took place June 
11, 1777. All received discharge before the middle of July of 
the same year. 

Among those known to have been at Bennington was Colonel 
Hobart or Hubbard. Among the companies of his regiment was 
that of Captain Hendee. in which eleven men from Lebanon 
were enrolled, and it would seem probable that they were in the 
battle, but a careful examination of the official rolls leads to a 
different conclusion. 

According to the official rolls (Revolutionary Rolls No. 2, 
pages 143 to 158), Colonel Hobart 's command consisted of five 
companies, Captain AValker's, Captain Webber's, Captain El- 
liott's, Captain Post's, and Captain Hendee 's. Nothing shows 
more certainly where soldiers have been than the pay-rolls, be- 
cause they drew 2d. per mile for the distance they marched. 
Captain Walker's company is stated to have joined the Northern 
Army at Saratoga, No. 2, Revolutionary Rolls, page 113. 

The same statement is made concerning Captain Webber's 
company, page 146, but their travel was from Stillwater. Cap- 
tain Elliott's company was from Plymouth and towns adjacent. 
The roll does not state from what place their travel was allowed, 
but only "travel home." 

Captain Hendee 's company, page 155, Avas paid travel from 

Captain Post's company was paid travel from Stillwater and 
Bennington, the only company of Colonel Hobart 's command so 
distinguished. This company is known to have been at the Ben- 
nington battle in which Captain Post lost his life. 

Out of the ten companies composing Colonel Stickney's regi- 
ment, only five drew pay from Bennington and Stillwater. Out 
of the ten companies composing Colonel Nichols' regiment, only 
three are distinguished as having been at Bennington. From 
all this the historian cannot resist the conclusion that Captain 
Hendee 's company was not at Bennington. 



Major Whitcomb had command of a battalion of Rangers from 
1776 to the close of the war. It was their duty to guard the 
upper Connecticut. In the roll of officers of the battalion as 
organized in 1780, is the name of Samuel Payne, as captain of a 
company. From the records we learn that three men enlisted 
under Captain Payne "in the Public Service at Cohos." Who 
they were the record does not state. 

There were also eight men under Captain Bush a month and 
a half. Lieutenant Huntington was out for the same period. 
In 1781 eleven men "engaged in the public service for six 

There were also others engaged for longer or shorter periods, 
called out at the various alarms in the closing years of the- war; 
sixty men one day in the alarm at Barnard, August, 1780; 
twelve men scouting on the frontier three weeks; March, 1781, 
six men for one month under Captain Nelson to scout upon 
the frontiers. 

To these the following names must be added : Nehemiah Esta- 
brook 2d, who hastened to the front immediately after the 
battle of Lexington, and continued in the service to the close of 
the war. He was one of the body guard of Washington. He 
was undoubtedly one of the two reported by the selectmen as 
gone into the army. The other was probably Lieut. Thomas 

What is said of Nehemiah Estabrook is traditional. The his- 
torian fails to find records to support it. His name is given in 
one of the lists of soldiers, but under different circumstances. 

The following persons were engaged in the service of their 
country, who came to Lebanon after the close of the war: 

Diarca Allen Gideon Baker 

Phinehas Allen Zuar Eldredge 

Jesse Cook Nathan Durkee 

David Millington Enoch Redington 
Nathaniel Storrs 

Edwa.rd Slapp, son of Maj. John Slapp, on the evacuation of 
Ticonderoga, was in the rear guard of the army and obliged to 
endure much fatigue and many hardships under the pursuit of 


the enemy, under which his health gave way and he was sent 
to the hospital at Albany, N. Y. In October, 1777, he obtained 
a furlough to return home. Ensign Charles Hill happened to 
be at Albany, and in a most friendly way offered to assist him 
in reaching home. Growing weaker on the journey, he was 
obliged to stop at Shaftsbury, about forty miles from Albany, 
where he died at the house of Ichabod Cross. 

Nathaniel Bugbee contracted disease in the army and was a 
long time sick at Lebanon. 

Ensign Thomas Blake was born in Dorchester, Mass., in 1752, 
son of Samuel and Patience Blake. He descended from William 
Blake, who came to Dorchester in 1630. In 1775 he purchased 
large tracts of land in Lebanon, and the sawmill by Hubbard 
bridge, known as the Davidson mills. He was a joiner and was 
at work on the college buildings when news came of the battle 
of Lexington. He immediately left and started, in company 
with some students and others, for Cambridge, and on the way 
was chosen leader. He immediately enlisted and was probably 
at the battle of Bunker Hill. He was first, ensign in Captain 
House's company, then lieutenant, and in General Sullivan's 
expedition he was appointed paymaster and continued such to 
the close of the war. He kept a journal which has been printed 
in Kidder's "History of the First New Hampshire Regiment." 
The first date is Lebanon. After the close of the war he trav- 
eled through the state, settling military accounts. He then 
went to Boston and established himself as a manufacturer of 
soap and candles, firm of Blake & Jackson. He died in Boston, 
February 18, 1840. He had the reputation of a most faithful 
and trustworthy officer. 

The following is a transcript from the original in the Pension 
Bureau, Washington, D. C. : 

We the subscribers Being a Draft from the Militia of the Regt. under 
the command of Col Jonth Chase Do Acnolage we have Rec<J of him four 
pounds ten shillings each as one months advanced pay, agrable to a 
Vote of the Councel and assembly of the state New Hampshire 

Zalmon Aspenwall Isaiah Bliss 

Joel Tilden Joseph Wood Junr 

Asa Colburn Leini Fuller 



Jabez Baldwin 
Eleazer Mather Porter 
Jeremiah Griswold 
Jacob Colburn 
Ensign Charles Hill 
John Colburn 
Jonathan Wright 
Ensign Thomas Blake 
Edward Slapp 
Josiah Magoon 
Ebenezer Bliss 
Isaiah Potter chaplain 
Lieut. Zalmon Aspenwall 
Ensign Nathan Aldrich 
Daniel Bliss 
Jacob Colburn 
Sluman Lathrop 
Solomon Millington 
Timothy Owen 
Barnabas Perkins 
Elisha Gecknor 
Joseph Wood 
Sergt. Nathaniel Hall 
Sergt. Nehemiah Estabrook 
Corp. Lemuel Hough 
Corp. Zacheus Downer 
Noah Payne private 
Jonathan Conant 
Luther Wheatley 
Nathaniel Bugbee 
Phineas Wright 
Daniel Hough 
William Dana Adjutant 
Corp James Jones 
Levi Hyde 
Hezekiah Waters 
Eleaser Robinson 
Martin Deney 
Elias Lyman 

Azariah Bliss Jum 
Walter Peck 
Benj. Harris. 

Matthew Peck 

William Downer 

Ths. Ellis Barbarick 

John Gray 

John Griswold 

Abel Wright 

Charles Saxton 

Nathaniel Porter 

Ensign Samuel Estabrooks 

Capt Samuel Payne 

Jedecliah Hibbard Sergt Major 

Abel Lyman Lieut. 

Robert Colburn 

John Slapp Jr 

Nathaniel Wheatley 

Silas Waterman 

Elkanah Sprague 

Stephen Colburn 

Nathaniel Storrs 

Jos. Gilden Jr 

Nathaniel Porter Jr 

James Hartshorn 

Jabez Baldwin 

Simon Porter Slapp 

James Fuller 

Moses Hibbard 

John Fox 

Asariah Bliss 

Jeremiah Meachan 

Benj. Fuller 

Walter Peck 

Eba Peck 

Huckins Storrs 

James Hartshorn 

Nathan Durkee 

The lists given on the preceding pages, probably incomplete, 
show nevertheless that the town did its part in the great strug- 
gle for independence. The lists have cost the historian months 
of perplexing labor, at great disadvantages, because of the 
attitude of the town towards New Hampshire in the Vermont 

100 history op lebanon. 

Committee of Safety. 

This body of men was a necessity of the times in which it 
originated. In the sudden breaking up of the royal authority 
before there was any organization to bind them together, and to 
be a channel for legitimate authority, this organization was de- 
vised. It seems to have had both legislative and executive pow- 
ers. That of the state was only active when the assembly was 
not in session, as they had at the time no distinct executive body. 
The committees of the towns were appointed annually and were 
clothed with ample powers. To secure uniformity in their 
action, committees of neighboring towns consulted together and 
made rules for their government. The following are instances 
of their manner of proceeding: 

At a meeting of the Commitees of Safety for the towns of Plainfield, 
Lebanon, Hanover Canaan & Grantham at the house of Mr Azariah 
Bliss in said Lebanon Aug 2a A. D. 1775 Chose John Wheatley Esq. 
chairman, Bezaleel Woodward Esq. clerk. 

Voted that we will use our utmost Endeavorers as Committees of our 
respective Towns for the preservation of the Peace and suppression of 
Disorders among the people as Recommended by Congress 

Voted that the laws of our Country ought and shall be our Rule of 
Proceedure in judging of the Qualities of Offences & punishing the 
same, only with such Variations as the Different Channel of Admin- 
istration Requires 

Voted that each Committee keep records of their Proceedure 

Voted that this meeting be dissolved. 

Attest Beza Woodward Clk. 

At a meeting of the Committee of Safety for the town of Lebanon at 
the house of Mr. Azariah Bliss in said Lebanon on Wednesday the 2nd 
day of Aug. 1775 said Committee Chose Deacon Nehemiah Estabrook 
Chairman aud John Wheatley Esq. Clerk 

Voted that in Common Cases the Clerk of said Committee shall issue 
out proper precepts in behalf of said Committee for Conventing of 
Disturbers of the peace before said Committee 

At a meeting of the Committee of Safety for the town of Lebanon 
Aug. 7' h 1775 Tyxhall Cleaveland of Hanover and Zalmon Aspenwall 
of said Lebanon appeared before said Committee to answer to a Com- 
plaint Exhibited to s'd Comtee by Sami Paine a Grand Juror of s'd 
Lebanon against said Cleaveland and said Aspenwall for breach of 
peace & Disorderly conduct. When said Committee proceeded to an 
Examination of the Case which by the Confession of the parties above 
named, as well as by Evidence said complaint was judged to be sup- 


ported, when upon the Submission of the parties and promises of Regu- 
lar Conduct in the future said Cointee Dismissed said Delinquents. 

Also Hobart Estabrook & John Barbarick appeared before said Comtee 
& were Examined Concerning their Labouring on the 20th day of July 
last being the day set apart by the Grand american Congress for pub- 
lick fasting & prayer throughout the Continent — when the above named 
persons Confessed their fault, and being Duly admonished to a better 
Conduct in future (which they Engaged) were accordingly Dismissed 
by said Comtee 

Lebanon, Nov 25 1775 

Jos Tilden of said Lebanon Husbandman appears before the Comtee 
of Safety for said Lebanon & complains and says that he the said 
Tilden on the 23<i day of this instant Was met on the Highway between 
the towns of piermont & orford By Capt. Bela Turner of said Lebanon 
and Was by him the said Capt Turner stopt and By Him Robbed of 
legal property. 

Joseph Tilden 

Lebanon Nov 27 1775 

At a meeting of the Comtee of Safety for said Lebanon the above 
complaint of Jos. Tilden aforesaid against Capt Bela Turner for Rob- 
bery was Considered & Evidences heard in form of both parties when 
said Comtee took the matter of the aforesaid Complaint into Considera- 
tion & said Comtee unanimously agreed that said Complaint is not Sup- 
ported ; and that him the said Jos. Tilden, the Complainant ought in 
Justice to make a proper Retraction to Capt Turner in a publick man- 
ner and pay all incidental charges. 

'Test John Wheatley Clk. 

Colony of New Hampr} 
Grafton County ssf 
At a meeting of the Committee of safety for the town of Hanover in 
said County at the House of John Paine in-holder in said Hanover, 
March 23a 1776. 

Present — Lt David Woodward Chairman 
Capt. Aaron Storrs 
Bezai Woodward Esq Clk 
Bezaleel Phelps of Norwich in the Colony of New York, yeoman, was 
bro't before this Committee by virtue of a warrant issued by Bezaleel 
Woodward and Aaron Storrs, two of the Committee, predicated on his 
having in his custody and detaining a -certain Note of this Colony bear- 
ing the face of a six shilling Bill which is supposed to have been fraud- 
ently altered and increased as to the value or sum therein express'd 
by s'd Phelps, as by said warrant may more fully appear. 
Respondent pleads not guilty 

After a full hearing of evidences in said case said Phelps confessed 
that he had burnt said bill being conscious that it was altered, and 


that in case he may be excused from penalty in detaining said bill 
when he knew that it was counterfeit, he will disclose to this Committee 
the author of that and sundry other bills, and discover where some of 
said bills are — whereupon s'd proposal is agreed to, only that he pay 
costs hitherto made in the affair, till they can be regularly recovered 
of some other person. Costs taxed at forty shillings. 

Said Phelps then desired Lemuel Paine of s'd Hanover to produce a 
certain forty shilling Bill which he received on the evening of the 15 
inst. of Andrew Wheatley of Lebanon, which s'd Paine on request 
accordingly did, which bill is adjudged by this Committee to have been 
altered from a three shilling bill, and which s'd Lemuel on his oath 
declared he reed of said Wheatley as aforesaid 

Committee adjourned to tomorrow morning, 9 o'clock March 24th 
Met according to adjournment. 

Present — Lt David Woodward, Chairman ~) Committee 
It Aaron Storrs I of 

Bez'a Woodward Esq Clk Hanover 


John Wheatley Esq. 1 

Major John Slapp 

Major John Griswold 

Mr Azariah Bliss 
1st Charles Hill of Lebanon in-holder is bro't before these Committees 
for putting off and passing counterfeit money at which time Solomon 
Cushman of Norwich produced a forty shilling Bill of the Colony of 
New Hampshire No 32G0 emitted July 25th 1775 and payable Dec 20th 
1779 which is adjudged by these Committees to have been altered, which 
bill said Cushman on his oath declares he re'd of said Charles Hill in 
payment for a silk Handkerchief, and s'd Hill is not able to inform us 
of whom he ree'd it. Whereupon it is considered and ordered that s'd 
Hill pay to s'd Cushman the value of s'd bill viz. forty shillings and 

Judgment satisfied 

Beza. Woodward, Clerk. 

The Committee then resumed the examination relative to the bill laid 
before this committee yesterday by Lemuel Paine, relative to which 
Charles Hill (being sworn) testified that being at this house on the 
evening of the 15th Inst, he saw Joseph Skinner (of Capt Greens com- 
pany in Col Bedels Regt.) put a bill into the hand of Andrew Wheatley 
of Lebanon that he might get it changed 

Bezaleel Phelps before named (being sworn) testifies That he he saw 
Andrew Wheatley give a forty shilling bill to Lemuel Paine to be 
changed, and afterwards as s'd Phelps was going to Dr Eager with s'd 
Skinner, s'd Skinner told this deponent that it was his bill with which 
Wheatley paid the reckoning at said Paine's and added "And I made it 
myself, and I have altered a good many tills -from three shillings to 


forty shillings, and I have Known many more altered both here and at 
Cambridge, and a person may make his fortune by it in a little time." 
He also said all the money he spent at Cambridge he altered and 
further said to s'd Phelps that if he told anybody of it he would kill 
him. Said Phelps farther testifies that that he saw said Skinner cut 
certain peices from a certain book or pamphlet to use in altering bills, 
and s'd Skinner told him he had cut pieces from it before to use for 
that purpose, and that he would not take a thousand pounds for the 
book. Phelps described the book and informed particularly where he 
had left it (which being produced exhibited strong ground to apprehend 
from its appearance that it has been abundantly used for that purpose) 
Said Phelps further testifies when s'd Skinner had some paste to use 
in altering bills, Mrs Winton coming into the room asked what it was 
for? Dr. Eager replied to paste books — when he was sometimes in the 
room whilst Skinner was altering bills with the paste, both before and 
after Mrs Winton asked the question ; said Phelps further testifies that 
he saw said Skinner alter a bill to a forty shilling last Sunday and this 
deponent observing Dr. Eager to be present part of the time, asked 
Skinner whether the Doctor knew of his altering bills, to which Skinner 
replied "Damn him, yes." Said Phelps further testifies [The remainder 
is wanting] — Prov. Papers, Vol. VIII, pp. 115, 116. 

The Charles Hill mentioned above should not be mistaken for 
the Charles Hill who was one of the earliest settlers and was 
prominent in both town and church affairs. At this time he was 
dead. It was his son, Charles Hill, Jr. 

Colony of New Hampshire. Grafton ss Lebanon March 25th 1776. 
At a meeting of the Committee of Safety for the town of Lebanon to 
hear and Consider of a Complaint Ehibited by Tyxhall Cleaveland of 
Hanover in said County, Trader against Robert Colburn of said Leba- 
non, yeoman, for that he the said Colburn being in company of Elijah 
King of Charlestown Doct. George Eager and Joel Foster of said Han- 
over on the 10th inst. (it being Lord's day) was aiding and assisting in 
Cutting and Causing to fall a Large tree on a certain frame (of a build- 
ing) in said Hanover, belonging to said Cleaveland which frame was 
entirely moved by the falling of said tree. 

Present at said meeting 

John Wheatley Esq. 
Maj. John Griswold 
Maj. John Slapp 
Mr. Azariah Bliss 
Maj. John Slapp Chairman. John Wheatley Clerk. 

Said Colburn being brought by Virtue of a warrant from said Comtee 
before them, was Carefully Examined touching the aforesaid Complaint, 
when s'd Colburn Confessed that he was in Compy with the persons 
mentioned in said Complaint. Upon which Declaration of the Respond- 


ant the Conine proceeded to a Consideration of the point in Question 
& are of the opinion that him the said Robert Colburn is guilty of aiding 
and assisting in the fact Exhibited in the said Complaint & that the said 
Colburn ought in Justice to pay or secure to the satisfaction of said 
Cleaveland as a Compensation in Part, for the Damage done to said 
frame the sum of three pounds of Lawful money & as said Transgres- 
sion was committed on the Sabbath or Lord's day, which in the opinion 
of the Cointee Greatly Aggravated the offence that him the said Colburn 
be and is amerced the sum of five shillings for breaking the Sabbath 
and that he be held by Bond with one Sufficient surety for satisfying 
said judgment & paying Costs. 

Lebanon, Dec 16 1776. 

At a meeting of the Committee of Safety of said Lebanon Held at the 
house of Dea. Nehemiah Estabrook in said Lebanon 

Present Nehemiah Estabrook Chairman 
Azariah Bliss 
John Slapp 
John Griswold 
John Wheatley 
Then appeared before said Cointee Abel Wright of said Lebanon & 
made Oath that he Rec'd a certain Bill Emitted by the State of Connec- 
ticut, said bill Containing 10/6. of James Hebbard of said Lebanon ; said 
Hebbard also made oath that he Rec'd said bill of Sami Meacham of 
Relhan [Enfield] & said Meacham made oath that Jonathan Paddleford 
of said Relhan Delivered said bill to Phebe the wife of said Meacham. 
The Committee Having Examined said bill are of the opinion that 
said bill is Counterfeit & that said Hebbard settle with the said Wright. 
& that said Meacham pay the contents of said bill to him the said 
Hebbard and that him the said Paddleford pay to said Meacham ten 
shillings and six pence & also the Costs necessarily arising in the Pros- 
ecution of the above premises 

Bill of Tax on the within written premises 
To James Hebbard for trouble and attendance 2/6 

To Saini Meacham for travel and attendance 3/8 

Costs of Committee 12/6 

Total £0. 18-8 

Lebanon March 27-1778 

At a Convention of the Cointee f Safety for said Lebanon appeared 
Nathi Hall, Complaint & Wm Downer Jr Defends Then was Read in 
the Hearing of said Downer a Complaint Exhibited by said Hall against 
said Downer for Cursing & Swearing and threatening the Life of said 
Hall. Abel Lyman and Andrew Hall were produced by said Nathi Hall 
as Evidences to Support said Complaint 



The following is the original complaint, recently discovered 
among the Hall papers : 

To the Comtee of Safety for the Town of Lebanon in the County of 
Grafton on the N. Hampshire Grants 

Nathaniel Hall of s'd Lebanon complains and says that W m Downer 
Jum of s'd Lebanon did on the 26th Day of this instant March in the 
Presence of Mr Abel Wright Lieut Abel Lyman and Mr Andrew Hall 
profanely Curse and swear and also threaten that on the morrow he 
would bring his gun and if s'd Nat' Hall did tap trees on the North side 
of his Lot which Mr Wm Downer pretends to claim as part of his lot 
that by God he would shute s'«J Hall, and Gentn you are hereby desired 
to take immediate cogniciance hereof to prevent further evil 

I am Gent" 

Your most obedient 

& very humble servant 

Nathi Hall. 
The Commitee having heard the evidence are of the Opinion that said 
Complaint is well supported by s'd Evidences and that said Downer is 
guilty in manner and form as set forth in s'd Complaint. Wherefore 
the Comtee judge that him the said W m Downer be amerced in the sum 
of twenty shillings. L. M. as a fine to be paid into the treasury of the 
said town of Lebanon for three breaches of the peace (viz) Cursing, 
Swearing, and high-handed Threatening & that him the said Downer pay 
the Cost of this Court & stand bound with one sufficient Surety for the 
satisfying of the afore said Judgment 

Signed by order of said Comtee 

John Wheatley Clk. 

Bill of Costs — four Comtee mens attendance half a day at 
3/ each £0—12—0 

Plaintifs attendance & evidences and other incidental Charges — 16 — 
Fine 1—0—0 

Lebanon June 22<J 1779 

At a meeting of the Comtee f Safety of said Lebanon at the house 
of Mr Silas Waterman in s'd Lebanon. 

Present John Wheatley, Lieut. Elihu Hyde, Capt. Edmund Freeman 
& Mr Silas Waterman. John Wheatley Chairman P. T. 

There appeared William Downer of said Lebanon, brought by special 
Warrant before said Committee to Answer to a Complaint Exhibited by 
Elkanah Sprague (one of the Tything men in s'd Lebanon) against said 
Downer for sundry breaches of the peace viz Cursing, threatening & 
strikeing; & also James Huntington for strikeing. 


The Comtee then proceeded on the premises & Having Read said Com- 
plaint in the hearing of the above named Delinquents & they being 
asked the Question, whether they acknowledged the facts Exhibited 
in said Complaint, the said W m Downer Denyed the authority of said 
Court; and him the said Huntington acknowledged the fact as men- 
tioned in said Complaint 

Wherefore said Court proceeded to Examine the Evidences being 
Duly cited and sworn, and after hearing and Deliberating upon the 
Case find that him the said Wm Downer is fully Convicted by legal 
Evidence of a breach of the peace viz Strikeing the said James Hunting- 
ton ; & him the said James Huntington by Confession &c of striking 
him the said Wm Downer. Wherefore said Comtee award that s'd De- 
linquents pay a fine of one dollar each and their proportion of Costs. 

Lebanon March 6th 1780 

At a meeting of the Committee of Safety of said Lebanon. Present 
Dea. Nehemiah Estabrook Chairman John Wheatley and Elihu Hyde 
members appeared Abigail Landee of said Lebanon to answer to a com- 
plaint Exhibited to said Comtee (viz) Kicking and striking, which are 
open breaches of the peace of the Good people of this Town. Wherefore 
said Committee Do award that she the said Abigail pay a fine of ten 
Dollars and the Costs of Trial, & to stand committed till this judgment 
is satisfied. 

Attest John Wheatley Clk. 

The Committee of Safety having served its purpose during the 
Revolution and other disturbances, passed away. Probably no 
court ever administered more even-handed justice, so far as its 
action pertained to this town, than did this committee. 

The following is a list of the persons who composed the com- 
mittee at various times : 

July 17, 1775. — Nehemiah Estabrooks, Maj. John Griswold, John 
Wheatley, Esq., Maj. John Slapp, Silas Waterman, Jedediah Hebbard, 
Azariah Bliss. 

1777. — Deacon Estabrooks, John Wheatley, Major Griswold, Azariah 
Bliss, Jesse Cook. 

1778. — Deacon Estabrooks, John Wheatley, Major Slapp, Azariah 
Bliss, Lemuel Hough. 

1779. — Deacon Estabrook, John Wheatley, Elihu Hyde, Silas Water- 
man, Edmund Freeman. 

1780. — Deacon Estabrook, Elihu Hyde, Elisha Lothrop. 

1781. — Elihu Hyde, Deacon Estabrook, Major Lothrop. With this 
year the office ended. 

In addition to the difficulties occasioned by the sundering of 
the relations of the people to the mother country, in civil mat- 


ters another came up. They were free, as they held, from all 
obligations to England, but did not know how to dispose of them- 
selves. They held that they had the right to form civil and 
political relations with any organization then existing, or create 
a new one. For various reasons they were dissatisfied with New 
Hampshire, and sympathized with the people of Vermont, and 
entered into civil relations with them. The history of this pro- 
ceeding is now to be given. 

The Vermont Controversy. 

This controversy makes a singular chapter in the history of 
New Hampshire, New York and Vermont. Nothing like it is to 
be found in the history of any other part of the country. Until 
a recent period the acts of this controversy — it might, indeed, be 
called a drama — were little known and less understood. Doctor 
Belknap, writing of these times no later than 1784, being him- 
self an observer of them, says in respect to them: "It is not 
easy to develop the intrigues of the several parties or to clear 
their transactions from the obscurity which surrounds them. 
He who looks for consistencies in the proceedings of conventions 
and assemblies which were involved in this controversy will be 
disappointed." Nevertheless, all human transactions have their 
principles and motives, and it is possible for the patient and 
persevering student to discover them and so arrive at an under- 
standing of them. In this case it must be confessed that the 
task is a difficult one because of the number of the parties to the 
controversy, and because of the number and varying force of the 
motives and principles which governed the actors. There is not 
so much of obscurity as of complexity in these stirring events. 
The web is a tangled one, but the threads are whole, and with 
patience may be traced through to their ends. Inconsistencies 
are apparent only, and will in the end be found to be the nat- 
ural results of well-known principles of human nature. 

Before entering upon an examination of these extraordinary 
events, it may be well to mention the motives and principles 
governing the actors therein. They are these: 1. Grievances, 
real and fancied. 2. Neighborly sympathy. 3. Self-interest. 
4. Patriotism. 5. Policy. American and British. 

Many of the grants of land were made by the crown before 
much exploration had been made. There was profound ignor- 
ance of the interior regions — of their extent and boundaries. 
Under these circumstances it is not strange that grants of ex- 
tensive territories should interfere with each other; that in some 


parts they should overlay each other, with the result that upon 
exploration and survey, different parties should appear to have 
a title to the same lands. 

The Masonian grant,- having its western line sixty miles from 
the sea, would not reach the Connecticut River. This western 
line, if straight, would commence in Rindge and run through 
Jaffrey, Peterborough, Greenfield, Francestown, Weare, Hop- 
kinton, Concord, Canterbury, Gilmanton, across Lake Winne- 
pesaukee, Wolfeboro, Tuftonborough, to Ossipee. If a curve, 
as some contended that it should be, then it would commence in 
Fitzwilliam and pass through Marlborough, Roxbury, Sullivan, 
Marlow, Washington, Goshen, New London, Wilmot, Orange. 
Hebron, Plymouth, Campton, to or near the south line of 

Massachusetts claimed all the territory lying west of three 
miles north and east of the Merrimack River to the junction of 
the Pemigewasset and Winnipesaukee Rivers, "thence due north 
as far as a tree known as Endicott's tree, three miles north of 
the junction of the above rivers; thence due west to the South 
Sea." The states both claimed the same territory, and after 
many years of disputes and evasive decisions, the matter was 
finally referred to the king in council for his consideration. 
The final decision was: "That the northerly bound of the 
Province of Massachusetts be a curve line pursuing the course 
of the Merrimack River at three miles distance, on the north side 
thereof, beginning at the Atlantic Ocean and ending at a point 
due north of Pawtucket Falls, and a straight line drawn from 
thence due west till it meets with his majesty's other govern- 
ments." 1740. 

This decision established the boundary between Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire, greatly to the advantage of the latter, but 
at the same time it opened the way to another dispute of far 
greater consequences. 

When in 1741 Richard Hazzen, surveyor, was instructed to 
run "the due west line till it meets his majesty's other govern- 
ments," the question arose as to the western termination of this 
line. Connecticut and Massachusetts had established their west- 
ern boundaries twenty miles east of Hudson's River, thus estab- 
lishing the eastern line of the Province of New York. It was 


held that New Hampshire would meet "his majesty's other gov- 
ernments" on this line of the other provinces. Accordingly Sur- 
veyor Hazzen ran his due west line with an allowance of ten de- 
grees for the variation of the needle, to a point twenty miles east 
of the Hudson River, thus annexing to New Hampshire the terri- 
tory of Vermont. No serious attention was given to this claim 
of territory for awhile, because of the French and Indian wars, 
which rendered any occupation of them dangerous. During a 
short peace, Benning Wentworth, royal governor, relying upon 
a description of the bounds of New Hampshire and instructions 
contained in his commission, granted a charter for the township 
of Bennington, Vt., twenty-four miles east of the Hudson. 1750. 
He had written to Governor Clinton of New York, informing 
him of his intentions to make grants of the territory in Vermont, 
and requested of him a description of the bounds of New York, 
but made his grant before the receipt of any reply. When that 
reply came it claimed the Connecticut River as the eastern 
boundary of the Province of New York according to letters pat- 
ent from King Charles II to the Duke of York, and so set up a 
claim to the territory of Vermont. Correspondence ensued be- 
tween the governors of the respective provinces, when it was 
agreed between them that the matter should be submitted to the 
king for his determination. 

Governor "Wentworth continued to make grants, from time to 
time, in the disputed territory, till the close of the French and 
Indian wars, when in a single year, 1761, he granted fifty-nine 
townships, and a greater number in the two following years. 
New York was alarmed and "commanded the sheriff of Albany 
County to make a return of all persons who had taken possession 
of land under New Hampshire Grants and claimed jurisdiction 
to the Connecticut River. ' ' Governor Wentworth issued a coun- 
ter proclamation, designed to quiet the people in their grants. 

In 1764 the king determined the western boundary of New 
Hampshire and the eastern boundary of New York to he "the 
western banks of Connecticut River from where it enters the 
Province of Massachusetts, as far north as the forty-fifth degree 
of Latitude." 

This decision, while it ended one controversy, opened the way 
for others. The words "to be" the boundary are capable of 


two quite different interpretations. New York took the words 
in this sense — that the Connecticut River had always been the 
boundary between the two provinces. Another party held that 
from the time of the decision onward the Connecticut was to be 
the boundary. It makes a great difference which interpretation 
of the words is adopted. If the first, then the government of 
New Hampshire had no right to make these grants west of the 
Connecticut, for the territory did not belong to her, and the 
people on those lands must seek a renewal of their charters at 
the hands of New York, with consequent expense and trouble. 
If the other interpretation is correct, then the people on the New 
Hampshire grants west of the Connecticut might remain undis- 
turbed in their possessions as having received them by due 

Another opening for controversy for our own days was left 
in the words "western banks of the Connecticut." What is the 
exact line pointed out by those words ? The meeting of the soil 
and the water? If so, whether at high, medium, or low water? 
It is a singular fact that this point, so likely to produce contro- 
versy, has never received an authoritative determination. 

New York took the first interpretation of the words "to be," 
and required those who had received grants under New Hamp- 
shire to renew their charters, with new fees and a higher rate of 
quit-rent. The people resisted these claims, peaceably at first, 
and finally with force of arms. This is one element in the great 

New Hampshire abstained from further grants, but turned 
an inquiring eye now and then upon the New Hampshire grants 
west of Connecticut River. 

Soon the Revolution came and with it a dissolution of royal 
authorities and decisions, and involved new relations of the par- 
ties to the contest. 

There had been a growing discontent in some of the towns on 
the east side of the Connecticut. The first public utterance of it 
took place in town meeting, February 1, 1776 : 

Qust. Whither this meeting will Resolve to pursue the Present Plan 
Proposed in warning for the Redress of their grievances and choose a 
Comtee to Correspond with other towns on that subject 

Resolved in the Affirmtive. 


What are these grievances? The warning is lost — and there 
is no further reference to them in the records. 

From other sources we learn what these grievances are. The 
following towns met in convention of delegates at College Hall, 
Hanover, July 31, 1776: Plainfield, Lebanon, Enfield (alias 
Relhan), Canaan, Cardigan, Hanover, Lyme, Orford, Haverhill, 
Bath, and Landaff. Nehemiah Estabrook of Lebanon was chair- 
man and Bezaleel Woodward, professor in Dartmouth College, 
was clerk. They issued an address, from which we learn the 
grievances of which they complained. 

It should be remembered that New Hampshire had at this 
time declared her independence, and had assumed self-govern- 

After a reference to the subsisting struggle of the colonies 
with England, the address enumerates the causes of their com- 
plaints : 

That a convention, elected, much as it chanced to happen, un- 
der our then broken and confused circumstances, assumed to 
determine how the present assembly should be elected, omitting 
some towns, uniting others, for the purpose of sending one only ; 
granting to some the liberty of sending one and to others two 
representatives, and others three, limiting the choice of repre- 
sentatives to persons of £200 estate, by this means depriving 
many towns of any representation, and others so in effect. 

In reply to objections to this complaint they say: That every 
town has a right to a voice in the formation of a government, 
whether it be large or small; "that no person or body corporate 
can be deprived of any natural or acquired right without for- 
feiture or voluntary surrender, neither of which can be pre- 
tended in this case;" that to unite a number of towns for the 
purpose of choosing a representative is as absurd as "to take the 
souls of a number of different persons and say they make but 
one, while yet they remain separate and different." To consent 
to be governed by a body elected in this way is, they say, to 
accept in their towns the very thing against which they are con- 
tending abroad — taxation without representation. 

They further complain of the acts of the assembly: That 
they, thus unequally elected, had chosen from among themselves 
a certain number to be called a council, thus dividing the repre- 


sentative body into two parts, which was an act for which they 
had no instruction from their constituents. 

That in future elections to the council, they direct that twelve 
persons shall be elected as follows : Five in the county of Rock- 
ingham, two in the county of Hillsborough, two in the county 
of Strafford, two in the county of Cheshire, and one in the 
county of Grafton, while they claim that the council should be 
chosen from the colony at large instead of apportioning them 
among the counties. 

They complain that one portion of the state is seeking to 
aggrandize itself at the expense of the other ; that their petitions 
and remonstrances have been treated with neglect and contempt. 

These, then, were their grievances. Some of them were well 
founded, as to inequality of representation. It is to be noticed 
that up to this period, 1776, there never had been any repre- 
sentative to the assembly chosen from Lebanon. It appears, 
however, that Nehemiah Estabrook sat in the convention at 
Exeter, though I find no record of his choice by the town. Leba- 
non was classed, first, with Hanover, Enfield, Canaan, Cardigan 
[Orange], and Grafton. In 1776 it appearing that these towns 
had inhabitants enough for two representatives, Lebanon was 
classed with Enfield and Grafton. It does not appear that there 
was any inequality in the apportionment of the representatives 
according to numbers, but they contended that every town ought 
to have at least one representative. 

In addition to these things there was little sympathy between 
the people in the eastern and western portions of the state. They 
were different in their origin, in their ways of thinking and 
acting. The eastern settlements were much older and somewhat 
aristocratic. The western towns, not without some show of rea- 
son, felt that they were despised, or at least not properly esti- 

This address and the action of many of the towns refusing to 
have any dealings with New Hampshire, produced some effect 
upon the assembly, and a committee was appointed to visit Graf- 
ton County and take under consideration their complaints and 
propose some measures to give them content. This committee 
reported conciliatory measures. But the attention of the peo- 
ple was suddenly diverted to other matters. 



This state of mind of the people in the border towns should be 
kept in mind as a cause of their subsequent action. They were 
already disaffected towards New Hampshire for reasons alto- 
gether foreign to the Vermont controversy. 

The people of Vermont would undoubtedly have submitted 
quietly to the rule of New York if they had been left undis- 
turbed in their possessions. But that colony was not wise 
enough to pursue a conciliatory policy. The temptation to gain 
was great, and the authorities fell before it. They began to re- 
grant land already held under grants from New Hampshire, 
demanding new fees and larger rents. This produced great ex- 
citement and distress. They remonstrated — the oppressions con- 
tinued. They began to resist the authorities by force. They 
organized bands who administered summary punishment with 
beech rods to all who renewed their charters from New York. 
Various conventions of the towns were called, when finally, Jan- 
uary 15, 1777, it was unanimously resolved that the district of 
land, commonly called and known as the New Hampshire grants, 
be a new and separate state. They immediately informed the 
Continental Congress of this action, gave their reasons for it, 
and asked for recognition as a sovereign state. New York re- 
monstrated against any such recognition. Congress received the 
papers from both parties and "ordered that they lie on the 

The new state proceeded with its organization, with a stern 
determination to maintain its independence. Congress would 
not recognize the new state, but did recognize some of its citi- 
zens so far as to appoint them to military commands, among 
them Col. Seth Warner, who had raised soldiers for the defence 
of the country. This gave great offence to New York. But both 
Congress and the state were doing better than they knew, for 
when Ticonderoga "was given up" and the whole region left 
open to the enemy, these companies of Vermont proved inval- 
uable for the defence of that exposed territory. 

The surrender of Ticonderoga and the invasion of Burgoyne's 
army, for the moment, arrested the action of the contending 
parties. All was alarm and confusion. The people of the new 
state saw their dearly bought and bravely defended homes 
desolated by a ruthless eneinv. They must have immediate as- 


sistance or all must be lost. Detachments from Burgoyne's 
army were marching in all directions. Where should they seek 
assistance! Not from New York, who had claimed authority 
over them, for they were rebels against that jurisdiction. Be- 
sides that colony was fully occupied with its own dangers. Not 
from the Continental Congress, who had ordered their papers 
to "lie on the table," who were too far away and too slow. They 
had received their lands from New Hampshire ; they never had 
any reason to complain of her rule over them, and to New 
Hampshire they naturally applied. 

Ira Allen, secretary of the council for Vermont, wrote, July 
15, 1777, from Manchester, Vt., to the Committee of Safety for 
New Hampshire, a most urgent request for assistance, vividly 
representing the condition of the people in the new state ; that 
some of the towns were disposed to accept the protection of the 
British authorities, very freely offered, while the others must 
remain as captives to see their possessions destroyed or must 
forsake all and flee to other states. 

This request was laid before the New Hampshire assembly, 
July 19, 1777, then convened at Exeter. What should be done? 
This people were in danger. It was best to help them. They 
had been formerly under the authority of New Hampshire ; they 
were living in a territory which she had claimed, and so sym- 
pathy enforced their patriotism. If no assistance was granted, 
the people of Vermont would be driven away from their lands 
and New Hampshire would become a frontier and sustain all the 
resulting disadvantages of that position. New Hampshire had 
been deprived of this portion of her possessions by royal decree ; 
that authority was now put in question, practically annulled; 
by this assistance a foundation might be laid to reassert her 
.jurisdiction over this lost province. 

Under the impulse of these mixed and powerful motives, the 
assembly took immediate and energetic action. The militia was 
called out and directed to rendezvous at Charlestown. Tbey 
were placed under the command of General Stark, and marched 
to meet the invading forces. August 16. 1777. the battle of 
Bennington was fought, many of the invading forces captured, 
the rest driven away, and the threatened people of Vermont 
were left in possession of their homes, and had leisure to perfect 


their organization as a state and press their claims for recog- 

The managers of the infant state were very able and shrewd 
men, fully the equals, if not the superiors, of their contem- 
poraries. Among them may be named Governor Chittenden, 
Ethan and Ira Allen. Disappointed in their hope of recogni- 
tion from Congress, they began to take means to strengthen 
their own position. It was known that some of the towns east 
of the Connecticut were dissatisfied with their relations to New 
Hampshire. Communications were secretly held with them, and 
they were solicited and encouraged to cast in their lot with the 
new state. 

The towns of New Hampshire, receiving no redress of what 
they called their grievances, soured towards New Hampshire, 
rejecting her jurisdiction, were just in the frame of mind to 
listen to these advances on the part of Vermont. That state 
took care that the people on this side the river should be sup- 
plied with information. Various conventions were held and the 
matter discussed thoroughly. We learn the attitude of this 
town in relation to the matter from the following action taken 
in town meeting. March 31, 1778 : 

A Parnphet Containing the constitution of the State of Vermont being 
Read in said meeting — Voted, unanimously, to accept thereof, with the 
several articles of alteration proposed to be made therein by the Con- 
vention of Comtees from a Considerable Number of Towns on the 
Grants east of Connecticut river & to concur with such Towns as are 
Disposed, on said Easterly Grants, in the proposed union with the 
aforesaid state of Vermont. 

That Deacon Estabrook & John "Wheatley be a committee to Rep- 
resent the town of Lebanon in the proposed Convention of Comtees of 
a Number of towns on the Grants east of Connecticut River to be held 
in Lebanon in May next. 

No records of the doings of this convention at Lebanon are 
now known, but events show that the sixteen towns of New 
Hampshire determined to connect themselves with Vermont, and 
appointed a committee to represent their wishes before the 
General Assembly of that state. 

The General Assembly of Vermont, sitting at Bennington, 
June 11, 1778, having heard the representation of the committee 
from the New Hampshire towns 


that they are not connected with any State with respect to their 
internal police, and that sixteen Towns in the northwestern part of 
said Grants have assented to a union with this state agreeable to ar- 
ticles mutually agreed upon by this Assembly and a committee from 
the grants east of said river as by said Articles on file may more fully » 

Therefore Voted and Resolved that the sixteen Towns above referred 
to — viz. Cornish, Lebanon, Enfield, Dresden [Hanover], Canaan, Cardi- 
gan [Orange], Lime, Apthorp [Littleton and Dalton], Orford, Piermont, 
Haverhill, Bath, Lyman, Gauthwaite [Lisbon], Morristown [Franconia], 
and Landaff, be and hereby are entitled to all the privileges and immuni- 
ties vested in any Town within this state 

They also voted to receive any other contiguous to these towns 
where a majority of the town should consent to the union. 

After this vote of the Vermont assembly, a convention was 
held in Orford, June 25, 1778, to take final steps to dissolve 
their connection with New Hampshire, as appears from the fol- 
lowing letter with its well-known signature : 

Orford, June 25th 1778 
Honbie Sir — 

The Convention of Committees from the several Towns mentioned in 
the inclosed Copies take this opportunity to transmit to you as Presi- 
dent of the State of New Hampshire a Resolve of the Assembly of the 
State of Vermont relative to a union of the said Towns with them, by 
which you will be avail'd of the political situation of these United 
Towns and others on the grants who may comply with said Resolve. 
We hope that not withstanding an entire seperation has now taken place 
between your State and those Towns, an amicable settlement may be 
come into at a proper time between the State of New Hampshire and 
those towns on the Grants that unite with the state of Vermont relative 
to all civil and military affairs transacted in connection with the State 
of New Hampshire since the commencement of the present war to the 
time of union, so that Amity and Friendship may subsist and continue 
between the two States. 

I am, Sir, in behalf of said Convention with respect, 
Your most obedient Humble Servant 

Nehemiah Estabrook Chairman 
To the Hont>ie Mesheck Weare Esq. 
President of the Council of New Hampshire 

At this point it is necessary to take notice of the reasoning by 
which these towns and others justified their bold step in severing 
their connection with New Hampshire. 


From the time the colonies cast off the royal authority there 
had been much speculation and discussion as to the resulting 
state of the people in their political relations. How far were 
these relations affected by the severance of the tie which bound 
them to the mother country? They rejected all authority over 
their affairs. But were all former royal acts and decrees and 
grants made void? These are serious questions, deeply affect- 
ing the interest of the people, and difficult to determine. Upon 
the different opinions held in regard to these matters much of 
the action of the times was based. 

Early in 1778 appeared a pamphlet, printed at Danvers, and 
signed a "True Republican," which discussed these questions in 
a very earnest way, and exerted a powerful influence over the 
minds of the people. The author is unknown and the pamphlet 
is a very rare one — only a single copy is known, found in the 
library of the Massachusetts historical rooms. Very likely other 
copies might be found by search among old papers in garrets. 

The reasoning of this address is here given : That the grants 
and jurisdiction over them were created by royal authority, 
expressed through commissions ; that they were maintained with- 
out the consent of the people, and that when the power which 
gave vitality to these grants is overthrown they no longer have 
any force ; that lines and boundaries established by royal decrees 
were of no effect when the royal will could no longer enforce 
them; that jurisdiction over a people who had not been con- 
sulted, nor had consented thereto, must cease so soon as the 
force which maintained it was overthrown. He argues that the 
Revolution overthrew all royal authority and decrees; that 
power reverted to the people; that they went back into "a state 
of Nature." This last phrase had great influence over the 
minds of the people. It became a favorite phrase and seemed 
to them weighted with unanswerable argument. By this phrase 
they seemed to indicate the condition of a community who have 
no political relations to any sovereign power, but who are at 
liberty to choose under what government they will live; that 
until such a choice is made and guarded by mutual compacts 
they were entirely their own masters. 

Others held essentially the same views with some important 
modifications: That while the Revolution overthrew most of 


the royal decrees, the town organizations were left intact, ' ' which 
they received from the King as little grants or charters of privi- 
leges by which they were united in little incorporated bodies with 
certain powers and privileges, which were not held at the pleas- 
ure of the King (as those commissions were), but were perpet- 
ual." These primary organizations were to be considered as 
indestructible, unless voluntarily abandoned by the people them- 
selves. It was contended that through these they might main- 
tain order; that by a majority vote of the inhabitants they might 
connect themselves with any larger government which they might 
approve, or remain independent. 

It was further asserted by those on the east side of the Connec- 
ticut that the towns which received grants of townships from 
royal governments were differently situated from those who were 
within the bounds of the Masonian grant. It was argued that 
authority over territory outside of the Masonian grant was 
wholly claimed by royal commissions ; that the bounds of that 
authority were changed from time to time at the royal pleasure, 
as when he limited the Province of New Hampshire to the west- 
ern banks of the Connecticut River, so that when the power 
which gave force and vitality to that authority was overthrown, 
the people became independent ; that the people of the Masonian 
grant had erected themselves voluntarily into a distinct govern- 
ment, with prescribed bounds, by petitioning for a separate gov- 
ernment, which the people on the grants had never done, and 
they, therefore, claimed the right to choose their own govern- 
ment — to give their allegiance where they thought fit. 

Whatever may be thought of the soundness of this reasoning 
it was wonderfully effective in those days in the minds of many. 
They took their stand upon its soundness and by it were influ- 
enced to the boldest action. 

It was this reasoning which led the people of the New Hamp- 
shire grants west of the Connecticut to cast off the authority of 
New York and declare themselves a free and sovereign state. 
First, they were placed under the authority of New Hampshire 
by the force of royal commissions ; next, by royal decrees they 
were annexed to New York. In neither case were they con- 
sulted, — had no voice in their transfers from one to another au- 
thority any more than if they had been beasts or goods or chat- 


tels. The authority which had thus assumed to dispose of them 
had beeu overthrown and the right, which had always been 
theirs, of self-disposal came actually into their hands as towns, 
and they had the right to choose their future connections. 

The sixteen towns, with others, taking this view of their con- 
dition after the Revolution, already dissatisfied by their griev- 
ances with New Hampshire, influenced by neighborly sympathy 
with the struggling young state, many of the inhabitants being 
old friends and neighbors from Connecticut, joined themselves 
with Vermont. 

We find the town voting a tax of £8 as their share of "the 
public expense arising from the compleation of the union with 

On July 7, 1778, "Voted that Maj. Slapp procure a coppy of 
an act passed by the State of Vermont for Eegulating Taverns 
and preventing Tipling houses." These matters, from the fre- 
quent reference to them in the records, seem to have given the 
fathers a great deal of trouble. 

At the same meeting, acting in their sovereign capacity as a 
town, they appointed John Wheatley a justice of the peace till 
the session of the assembly of Vermont, in October next. 

Although there is no record of any choice, by the town, of rep- 
resentatives, it appears from other records that Nehemiah Esta- 
brook and John Wheatley took their seats in the Vermont as- 
sembly October, 1778. The question came up what should be 
done with the towns which had united with the state from the 
east side of the Connecticut. The assembly voted on these ques- 
tions : 

Whether the counties in this state shall remain as they were 
established by this assembly at their session in March last? 
Yeas, 35; nays, 26. 

Whether the towns east of the river, included in the union 
with this state, shall be included in the county of Cumberland? 
Yeas, 28 ; nays, 33. 

Whether the towns on the east side of the Connecticut River, 
who are included by union within this state, shall be erected 
into a distinct county by themselves? Yeas. 28; nays, 33. 

If the sixteen towns could not be included in any existing 
county, nor erected into a county by themselves, it was at least 



a hint that there was no place for them in the new state. The 
representatives from the sixteen towns so understood it, and 
after a manly protest against the action of the assembly, retired. 

Lebanon, by a vote December 1, 1778, approved the action of 
her representative. 

The people of these towns were evidently deeply disappointed 
by this action of the Vermont assembly. They had cut them- 
selves loose from New Hampshire and their privileges under 
that jurisdiction, and united with Vermont in good faith, only 
to be summarily rejected. They had only a town organization — 
no place of records, no courts, no protection, except that fur- 
nished by themselves. 

What is the meaning of this sudden change on the part of 
Vermont ? They had at least encouraged this alliance, solemnly 
ratified it only in June preceding, had covenanted that these 
towns should have all the rights and privileges of the state, and 
yet deny them in such a way as to exclude them. 

Self-interest is the key to this unexpected action. 

Upon the report of the union of these towns, Mesheck Weare, 
president of New Hampshire, wrote, August 19, 1778, to the 
delegates in Congress from that state, protesting against the 
action of Vermont and of the towns east of the Connecticut, 
asserting that there was a respectable minority in the towns 
averse to any such transfer of their allegiance, and claimed pro- 
tection from New Hampshire; that the proceeding had excited 
so much feeling that there was likely to be bloodshed, and re- 
questing the delegates to secure the interference of Congress. 

President Weare wrote also, August 22, 1778, to Governor 
Chittenden of Vermont, claiming the sixteen towns as an integral 
part of New Hampshire, and protesting against their reception 
by Vermont. He says further : 

Were not those towns settled and cultivated under the grant of the 
governor of New Hampshire? Are they not within the lines thereof as 
settled by the King of Great Britain, prior to the present era? Is 
there any ascertaining the boundaries between any of the United States 
of America, but by the lines formerly established by the authority of 
Great Britain? I am sure there is not. Did not the most of these 
towns send delegates to the Convention of this state in the year 1775? 
Have they not, from the commencement of the present war applied to 
the state of New Hampshire for assistance and protection? It is well 
known that they did — and that New Hampshire, at their own expense, 


hath supplied them with arms and ammunition &c to a very great 
amount as well as paid soldiers for their particular defence and all at 
their request, as members of this state. Whence, then, could this new 
doctrine that they are not connected with us originate? 

Here we have the argument on the other side. It is to be no- 
ticed that British authority is cited or denied as is most for the 
interest of the parties. 

The president gives a diplomatic hint in the closing part of 
his letter far more effective than his argument : 

When I consider the circumstances of the people west of the Connec- 
ticut River, the difficulties they encountered in their first settlement, 
their late endeavors to organize government among themselves, and the 
uncertainty of their being admitted as a separate State, I am aston- 
ished that they should supply their enemies with arguments against 
them, by their connecting themselves with people whose circumstances 
are wholly different from their own. and who are actually members of 
the state of New Hampshire. 

The controlling aim of Vermont at this time was recognition 
from Congress as a sovereign state. The hint of President 
Weare, that her action in receiving the towns from New Hamp- 
shire might stand in the way of this recognition, produced its 
intended effect. The governor and council of Vermont were 
alarmed. They thought it possible that they had made a mis- 
take in taking the New Hampshire towns into union with them- 
selves. To be certain of this, Gen. Ethan Allen was dispatched 
to Philadelphia to ascertain what effect this action of theirs had 
produced upon Congress. Upon his arrival he found that the 
New Hampshire delegation had already introduced a protest 
against the action of Vermont in respect to the New Hampshire 
towns. He took pains to learn the general feeling of Congress 
concerning the proceeding and thus reports it : 

From what I have heard and seen of the disapprobation at Congress, 
of the union with sundry towns east of Connecticut River, I am suffi- 
ciently authorized to offer it as my opinion that, except this state recede 
from such union, immediately, the whole power of the Confederacy of 
the United States of America, will join to annihilate the State of Ver- 
mont, and to vindicate the right of New Hampshire, and to maintain 
inviolate the articles of confederation which guarantee to each state 
their privileges and immunities. 


This it was which caused that sudden change of disposition in 
the Vermont assembly towards the sixteen towns, so lately cor- 
dially received, and led to that rather unmanly way of inform- 
ing them that their presence was not' desired. 

But the towns, though disappointed, were not discouraged. A 
convention was called at Cornish, December 9, 1778, to take into 
consideration their situation and to determine what action they 
would take. The convention was composed of delegates from 
twenty-two towns— eight of the towns were on the west side of 
the Connecticut Kiver. 

The convention seems to have finally adopted the proposals of 
a committee appointed to take into consideration the condition 
of the New Hampshire grants on both sides of the Connecticut. 
The majority of that committee were Jacob Bailey of Newbury, 
Vt., Elisha Payne of Orange, and Beza Woodward, professor of 
Dartmouth College. These proposals were as follows : 

1. To agree upon and settle a dividing line between New Hampshire 
and the Grants, by committee from each party, or otherwise, as they 
may mutually agree. 

Or 2, that the parties mutually agree in the appointment of a Court 
of Commissioners of disinterested judicious men of the three other New 
England states to hear and determine the dispute. 

Or 3 that the whole dispute with New Hampshire be submitted to the 
decision of Congress in such way and manner as Congress shall pre- 

Provided always that the Grants be allowed equal privileges with the 
other party in espousing and conducting their cause. 

Or 4, if the controversy cannot be settled on either of the foregoing 
articles, and in case we can agree with New Hampshire upon a plan 
of government, inclusive of extent of territory, that we unite with them 
and become with them one entire state, rejecting the line arbitrarily 
drawn on the western bank of the Connecticut river by the King of 
Great Britain in 1764. 

They further requested the towns of Vermont to withdraw the 
vote which cast out the towns from the east side of the river, and 
that all other towns join them in the foregoing proposition to 
New Hampshire. 

Messrs. Marsh. Woodward. Morey, Child. Payne, Olcot and 
Bailey were appointed a committee to receive proposals from 
other towns. 

There seem to be two main purposes in these propositions, 


one to make a state out of the grants on both sides of the Connec- 
ticut, the other to make a state out of New Hampshire as limited 
to the Masonian grant and the whole of the New Hampshire 
grants. But there was undoubtedly a secret purpose in the 
minds of the chief actors underlying both propositions, and that 
purpose was that the capital of the state, however constructed, 
should be somewhere on the Connecticut. Ira Allen, who says 
he was providentially (?) at the convention, writes "at or near 
the college." 

The following papers show the attitude of the people of Leba- 
non towards these propositions : 

With Respect to the Question proposed by the Comtee Chosen at Cor- 
nish in Dec. Last (viz) whether the people on the Grants or in this town 
are willing that the State of New Hampshire should Extend their Claim 
and jurisdiction over the whole of the Grants, N. H. at the same time 
submitting to Congress whether a New state shall be Established on the 
Grants — upon which motion we would observe 

1st that New Hampshire Never had any Right of Jurisdiction (either 
by Charter or Compact) over the N. H. Grants (so called, therefore 
their attempting to Extend their jurisdiction over any part of s'd 
Grants, without the free and full Consent of the inhabitants on s'd 
Grants is such a stretch of arbitrary power, as we Conceive to be incom- 
patable with the Natural and Just Rights of a free people 

2nd And as the assembly of N. H. have not yet Determined to submit 
to Congress whether a N [new] state shall be Erected on the Grants or 
not, we think We Cannot Consistent with the principles held up to 
publick view by the Dissenting towns on s'd Grants Consent that the 
State of N. H. should Extend their Jurisdiction over the whole or any 
part of s'a Grants — Yet, Nevertheless 

3<iiy if the State of N. H. are Desirous to Extend or set up their 
Claim over the whole of s'd Grants, in Opposition to the State of N. 
York in order to Facillatate the Establishment of a New State on s'd 
Grants we are free to Concede thereto, or 

4tniy if the state of N. H. will agree with the people on s'd Grants upon 
an Equitable plan of Government in which the Just and Natural Rights 
of the people shall be inviobly maintained & supported we are, on our 
part willing to unite with them and become one Entire state. 

At a town Meeting of the Legal inhabitants of the Town of Lebanon 
Holden May 24th 1779 wa s taken under Consideration the Questions 
Purposed in a hand bill Published by a comitee at Dresden Apr 23 1779 
and Resolved that the town Esteams no Consideration as an Equivalent 
to the Priviledg of an Equatable Representation — and not being favored 
with Gen. Bayleys Report are unable to pass any further Resolve upon 
said Question, it Being in our view foreign from the Prinsapel object in 


view under our Present Dispute With New Hampshire it being farther 
from our intention to Coaless with any state without our Inviolable 
Wrights and Privileges are made first Certain and as to advise New 
Hampshire concerning Extending jurisdiction — we look upon that to be 
a falacious Request — Calculated to Bring the Good people on the Grants 
into a Perpetual unrepresented situation that may be fattall to our 
Wrights and Liberties 

According to votes of the convention a proposal to New- 
Hampshire was made in March, 1779, to extend her jurisdiction 
over the whole of the grants on both sides of the river. The 
proposal met with ready acceptance on the part of the assembly, 
but in order to give time for due consideration it was postponed 
till the next session. June 24, 1779, the assembly voted that 
they would lay claim to the whole of the New Hampshire grants, 
so called, unless Congress should erect Vermont into a separate 
state. At all events, they would exercise jurisdiction as far as 
the Connecticut River. 

Of course this action on the part of New Hampshire created 
fresh alarm and anxiety on the part of Vermont. Her diffi- 
culties were still further complicated by the action of towns in 
the southeastern portion of the state, who proposed to continue 
their allegiance to New York. 

All these matters finally came before Congress for settlement. 
They appointed a committee to visit the disturbed region and 
report. A part of the committee came and made some inquiries, 
but seem not to have made any report. Congress heard and con- 
sidered and delayed — and finally dismissed the whole subject 
for a time and left all parties in doubt and confusion. 

On July 16, 1779, a convention was called at Dresden (Dart- 
mouth College), at which the town was represented by Nehemiah 
Estabrook and Captain Turner. What was done at that con- 
vention does not appear from any records. 

December 22, 1779, the town voted a tax of £200 to defray the 
expense of an agent or agents to represent the circumstances of 
the people on the New 7 Hampshire grants before Congress on the 
first day of February, 1780. 

Congress failed to do anything to give relief to the people at 
that time, but later in the year gave good advice, cautioning the 
people against disorders, and enjoining patience till all parties 


were prepared for a hearing. September 9 seems to have been 
appointed as a time for a final hearing. 

Meantime all parties were making appeals to Congress and 
new projects discussed. Among them was one from Dresden, 
which seems to have been the birthplace of many projects, said 
to be the result of a convention held there. It is called the peti- 
tion of the principal inhabitants on both sides of the Connecticut 
River, and is addressed to Congress. It sets forth the desir- 
ability of annexing Canada to the United States, and represents 
the project as feasible and not at all difficult! 

At the same convention Colonel Olcot of Norwich, Vt., was 
appointed agent to represent the people on both sides of the 
Connecticut River from Charlestown upward. The sentiment 
of the people in this region on both sides of the river at this time 
seems to have been setting strongly towards union with Xew 

In September, Congress took up these questions, and, as usual, 
delayed any decision. All parties became impatient, nearly to 
desperation. Vermont was determined to maintain her inde- 
pendence and secure a recognition. Since all previous argu- 
ments had failed, a new move of diplomacy was made. She 
began to coquette with the British authorities, intimating that 
as no place could be found for her in the Union, she might cast 
in her lot with her former sovereign. It is not easy to determine 
how far these intrigues were carried, but certainly to the very 
verge of discretion. 

They awakened the gravest suspicions of fidelity on the part 
of the Americans, and created great alarm. The British authori- 
ties were led on with confident hopes of regaining that important 
territory. They made liberal offers, were careful to treat all 
captives with great kindness, frequently sending them back to 
their homes to speak the praises of their lenity. There is little 
doubt that those raids of Indians and others at this time, which 
made it necessary for Lebanon and the other towns to employ 
so many scouts, was another part of their policy. They designed 
to keep the inhabitants in such a state of anxiety and alarm, to 
put them to so much trouble and expense in guarding them- 
selves, as to discourage and weary them, and lead them to con- 
clude that it would be best for them to make peace with their 


enemies, and so gain opportunity to care for their fields and 
homes. There is no doubt but that the Aliens were the leaders 
in these negotiations. 

To complicate matters still more, another movement was made 
to form a new state, originating this time in the southern portion 
of the grants on both sides of the river. After several prelim- 
inary meetings a general convention of towns on both sides of 
the river was called at Charlestown, in January, 1781. 

This town voted, December 25, 1780, "to accept of the motion 
made By the County of Cheshire. Voted that Lieut Elihu Hyde 
be a Delegate to attend the Convention at Charlestown, Jan. 

The convention assembled at Charlestown, January 16, 1781. 
Forty-three towns from both sides of the river were represented. 
All the parties interested sent agents to watch, guide and control 
affairs, if possible, in their own interest. A large and able com- 
mittee was appointed to prepare the business of the convention. 
That committee reported January 17 in favor of a union of all 
the towns on the grants with the state of New Hampshire, a 
result which was expected from the tone of the preliminary meet- 
ings. The agents of New Hampshire "were much pleased with 
their success and well enjoyed the night." The agents of New 
York were in no wise downcast, for it is suspected that there was 
a secret understanding between New Hampshire and New York 
that they would share the territory of Vermont between them, 
making the ridge of the Green Mountains the boundary of the 
two states. 

But Vermont? It is manifest that this measure, if consum- 
mated, would be fatal to her interest. She could not afford to 
lose so many towns on her own side of the Connecticut. It was 
probable that many more towns would be persuaded to join the 
movement. Thus, shorn of so much of her domain, she could 
present her claims to Congress with little hope of recognition as 
an independent state. But what can be done to arrest the move- 
ment or to turn it in her favor? It seems a hopeless task. But 
one of her ablest sons is present at that convention, watching 
with eagle eyes its proceedings. He has come prepared for all 
emergencies, for he has the certificate of a delegate in his pocket, 
though he has not presented it. His skill has never forsaken 


him, he never loses heart. He is equal to the crisis in the fate 
of his beloved state. He inspires a motion that the report shall 
"be recommitted to be corrected and fitted for the press, as it 
would be a matter of public notoriety" and of great importance. 
The report is recommitted and Ira Allen does not sleep much 
that night. What arguments he uses, what considerations he 
presents, what motives he presses, cannot now be known. But 
when the next morning, January 19, at 10 o'clock, the report of 
the committee, "corrected and prepared for the press," is pre- 
sented, behold, Vermont is substituted for New Hampshire and 
union with the first state instead of the latter state is recom- 

The report is adopted by a large majority. Eleven delegates 
from eight towns on the east of the Connecticut, most of them 
members of the New Hampshire assembly, dissenting and pro- 

The secret of this marvelous change of front is undoubtedly 
this: Certain prominent men in that convention had never 
abandoned the scheme of the capital of a state somewhere on the 
Connecticut River. When they planned for a union with New 
Hampshire they thought that they would so far extend her terri- 
tory westward as to bring its center to the Connecticut. Just 
then, a suggestion is made to them that Vermont is willing to 
claim jurisdiction up to the line of Mason's grant. That sugges- 
tion is made by Ira Allen. It is now a question of probabilities, 
of the realization of their favorite scheme. New Hampshire has 
a capital already. Vermont has none, but is migratory. The 
large numerical majority of population in New Hampshire is in 
the eastern portion of the state and they would resist the re- 
moval of the seat of government so far to the west. Vermont 
has no concentrated population ; it is more numerous in the Con- 
necticut Valley than elsewhere — the balance of probabilities is 
with Vermont, and with her they would cast their lot. 

Before the convention adjourned they appointed a committee 
to treat with the Vermont assembly and arrange for a union, and 
then adjourned, "to meet at Cornish N. H. Feb. 8 1781 opposite 
to Windsor Vt. where the Assembly would be in session." 

February 10, 1781, Col. Elisha Payne presented to the Ver- 
mont assembly the request of the towns represented in the con- 



vention at Charlestown — Cornish to be received into union with 
that state. The assembly prepared the way for their reception 
by resolving that "in order to quiet the disturbances on the two 
sides of the river (Connecticut), and the better to enable the 
inhabitants on the two sides of the river to defend their frontier, 
the Legislature of this state do lay a jurisdictional claim to all 
the lands whatever east of Connecticut river, north of Massa- 
chusetts, west of the Mason line and south of latitude 45° and 
that they do not exercise jurisdiction for the time being." The 
latter is a saving clause, looking cautiously to future contin- 

The terms of union were mutually agreed upon and confirmed 
February 22, 1781. By these terms the towns were to be re- 
ceived whenever they, by a majority vote, accepted them. 

At a town meeting held March 13, 1781 : 

The several Articles of Union. Agreed upon By the Assembly Cointee 
of the state of Vermont & the Cointee of Convention from the County 
of Cheshire and Grafton &c being Read in s'd meeting was agreed to, 
Xem. Con. & Voted that Col. Elisha Payne and Lieut. Elihu Hyde Rep- 
resent the town of Lebanon in the Assembly of Vermont to be Holden in 
Windsor the first Wednesday in April next. 

Colonel Payne had from the beginning been a leader in all 
these affairs, being a resident of Cardigan (Orange), until this 
time, when he came to East Lebanon and built extensive mills 

The following towns were formally admitted to union with 
Vermont at the session of the assembly at Windsor in April : 
Acworth, Alstead, Bath, Cardigan, Charlestown, Chesterfield, 
Claremont, Cornish. Croydon, Dresden, Enfield, Gilsum, Grafton, 
Gunthwaite, Hanover, Haverhill. Hinsdale, Landaff, Lebanon, 
Lempster, Lyman, Lyme, Marlow, Morristown, New Grantham, 
Newport, New Stamford, Orford, Piermont, Plainfield. Eich- 
mond, Saville, Surry, Walpole and Westmoreland. 

But the measure designed "to quiet the disturbances on the 
two sides of the Connecticut river." resulted in anything but 
quiet. New Hampshire did not see her domain rent from her 
without vigorous protests and action. In many of the towns 
there was a strong minority who still clung to their former 


allegiance. As each state claimed jurisdiction over the same 
territory by the appointment of officers, institution of courts, and 
levying of taxes, collisions of a serious nature were inevitable. 
Vermont took possession of the records of the court of common 
pleas at Keene, N. H. New Hampshire protested and resisted. 
New Hampshire officers were arrested by Vermont officers and 
each was rescued by mobs of their friends. Vermont was 
charged with exchanging British soldiers taken in arms for 
private citizens. New Hampshire complained that in her dis- 
membered condition she could not comply with the requisitions 
of Congress for soldiers and provisions. 

The minority complained that they were not allowed to ex- 
press their sentiments at the polls if in favor of New Hampshire. 
Some were threatened and insulted and forced to leave their 
homes and possessions because of their fidelity to New Hamp- 
shire. New Hampshire ordered the arrest of any person who 
took office under Vermont. Vermont imprisoned a New Hamp- 
shire sheriff. New Hampshire imprisoned a Vermont sheriff. 
New Hampshire ordered out the militia to release her sheriff. 
Vermont gave orders to Elisha Payne, as major general of her 
forces, to call out her militia and to resist force by force. Let- 
ters of remonstrances, protests and threats passed between the 
governors. Affairs were in as disturbed a condition as can well 
be imagined, and could not continue so without injury to the 
parties concerned and to the whole country. 

While some of these collisions were of a serious nature and 
threatened bloodshed, others assumed a comical aspect, as in the 
following detailed experience of Colonel Hale, a New Hamp- 
shire officer. He had arrested a certain 'Squire Giles, who was 
rescued by the people at Charlestown. The sheriff shall tell his 
story in his own way: 

They son after held a Consultation for Taking and Carrying me to 
Bennington, but fearing that would not so well sute, they sent me their 
Judas to advise me as a frind to make my escape, immediately, to avoid 
Going to Bennington. I gave for Answer, if that was their intention 
I would Tarry all night. But in the morning I had a second message 
that they would be Ready for me in half an hower. I gave for Answer, 
that that would be time enough for me to take breakfast — which I then 
called for — and after breakfast I had another message that if I did not 
make my Escape they would Catch me before I got three miles, for 


which I should be very sorry. I gave for answer that I should have the 
less way to come back — but that if I was not molisted I ment to set out 
for honi son, but finding that all their stratigeins would not Prevent my 
Taking breakfast and leaving the Town in an open and Publick man- 
ner, they then Rallied all their forces that was Near at hand to the 
amount of about forty men and a Pretended deputy Sheriff at their 
head ; but for a frunt Gard they Raised some of their most abeelist 
women and set forward with some men dressed in Women's apparill, 
which had the good Luck to take me Prisnor, put me aboard one of 
their slays and filled the same with some of their principal women and 
drove off nine miles to Williams tavern in Warlpole, the main body 
following after with acclimations of Joy — where they Regailed them- 
selves ; and then set me at liberty, nothing doubting but that they had 
entirely subdued New Hampshire! Prov. Papers, Vol X, pp. 481, 482. 

Meanwhile all parties professed their willingness to submit to 
Congress all matters in dispute between them. Congress took 
up the matter, appointed committees to investigate and report, 
discussed and delayed, balanced between opposing interests. By 
August 20, 1781, it had proceeded so far as to declare by reso- 
lution that before they could recognize Vermont as a state they 
must "explicitly relinquish all demands of land and jurisdiction 
on the east side of Connecticut river, and on the west side of a 
line drawn twenty miles eastward of Hudson river to Lake 
Champlain. ' ' 

Vermont assembly, sitting at Charlestowm, October 19, 1781, 
declares that they were determined "to remain firm in the prin- 
ciples on whieh they first assumed government, and to hold the 
articles of union inviolate ; that they would not submit the ques- 
tion of their independence to the arbitrament of any power what- 
ever; but they were willing at present to refer the question of 
their jurisdictional boundary to commissioners mutually Chosen, 
and when they should be admitted into the American union they 
would submit any such disputes to Congress." 

The matter still lingered in Congress, when early in January, 
1782, General Washington was prevailed upon to write a letter 
unofficially to Governor Chittenden of Vermont. In that letter 
"Washington recommends a compliance with the requirements of 
Congress in abandoning all territory east of the Connecticut and 
west of a line twenty miles east of the Hudson ; that only on that 
condition is there any prospect that the state will be received into 
the Union. He appeals strongly to their patriotism not to em- 


barrass the United States in their struggle for independence, 
burdened already to the utmost; and finally intimates the dis- 
agreeable necessity of coercion on the part of Congress should 
the state continue to maintain its attitude towards the other 

This advice was well received on the part of Vermont, and was 
effectual in composing the disputes about boundaries. 

On the 19th of February, 1782, the Vermont assembly, being 
in session at Bennington, the whole matter of boundaries came 
up for consideration. Among other papers this letter of Wash- 
ington's was read, having evidently a strong influence on their 
minds. On the 20th of February the assembly, being in com- 
mittee of the whole, "Resolved, that in the opinion of this com- 
mittee, Congress in their resolutions of the 7 th and 20 th of August 
last, in guaranteeing to the respective states of New York and 
New Hampshire all territory without certain limits therein ex- 
pressed, have eventually determined the boundaries of this 
State," and they voted to relinquish the claims to the territory 
therein mentioned. 

This action of Vermont virtually ended the great controversy, 
so far as boundaries were concerned. 

But the towns on the east of the Connecticut must be disposed 
of. Vermont did not hesitate. The union was dissolved in the 
absence of the members from the east side of the river. Doctor 
Belknap says with admirable naivete, "that when these members 
arrived and found themselves excluded from a seat in the As- 
sembly, they took their leave with some expressions of bitter- 

Very likely that was the case ; they certainly had some provo- 
cations for such expressions. 

Probably Vermont was never very sincere in this union. 
Rather than lose her own towns in the movement towards New 
Hampshire, and see all her hopes of recognition as a sovereign 
state blasted, she consented to receive them with more diplomacy 
than cordiality. Probably ' ' Honest deacon Moses Robertson ' ' of 
Bennington unconsciously revealed the true feeling of many in 
Vermont when he said to General Folsom and others in an at- 
tempt to compose the dispute between the two states, ' ' We never 


had it in view to take the East side of the River — only to get rid 
of them the first opportunity." 

On the other hand there is as little doubt that New York and 
New Hampshire were secretly opposed to the recognition of Ver- 
mont as a state; that while they were intent in keeping their 
own domains from being absorbed by her, they were quietly ob- 
structing her recognition in the hope that they might eventually 
divide her territory between them. 

Vermont had to wait till February, 1791, before she was ad- 
mitted to the Union. 

This sudden secession of Vermont from union with the towns 
on the east side of the Connecticut left these towns in a sad con- 
dition. They had made many sacrifices and been at much ex- 
pense to secure this union. They hoped for peace and pros- 
perity under it; to be thus summarily dismissed from it while 
the echoes of the most solemn pledges of fidelity on her part had 
scarcely died away, was a sad blow to their expectations. With 
the burdens of the war pressing heavily upon them, with the dis- 
tractions of a disputed jurisdiction, they had hitherto had little 
time and strength to devote to their own improvements in the 
surrounding wilderness. They hoped by this union to be re- 
leased from one of these sources of trouble, but they are suddenly 
thrust back into their ''state of nature," with nothing but their 
town organizations to rely upon for peace and order. They had 
rejected the rule of New Hampshire, for good reasons as they 
thought ; pride, if nothing more, would make it difficult for them 
to return to that state. There was nothing left for them but to 
wait and watch, taking their stand upon their town organiza- 

It is necessary in a complete history of the town to notice their 
action when they were without any state connections. Of course 
it was necessary to have certain officers besides their usual town 
officers ; they therefore appointed their own justices of the peace. 
Many of the duties of courts they committed to their committee 
of safety. They voted that this committee should take acknowl- 
edgments of deeds. 

It was necessary that they should have laws to govern them in 
their daily transactions. They had rejected New Hampshire and 
its laws, Vermont had rejected them. They naturally turned to 


a code with which most of them were familiar, and which had no 

smell of bitterness about it — the laws of the state which held their 

well-remembered homes. 

Voted, March 14 1780 that the Executive Authorities of the Town 
shall proceed in their Several Departments to persue and conform them- 
selves to the Rules prescribed in the laws of Connecticut, Especially in 
those acts that more immediately refer to the preservation of the 
Peace and good order of the Towns, &c. 

The following protest was made against the action of the town 
in certain matters : 

Lebanon 31st March 1780 

We the subscribers Inhabitants of the town of said Lebanon, who 
hold ourselves in duty bound to be the League Subjects of the State of 
Newhampshire — 

Do hereby publickly remonstrate and protest against the Illegal pro- 
ceedings of the Town of Lebanon (viz) the Town Voting to pay no re- 
gard To the Authority of the State of Newhampshire and that thay 
Would Yield no Obedience to any precept sent to them from the Au- 
thority of Said state for raising men for the defence of the United 
states or any otherwise — 

The Town enacting Laws in town meeting repugnant to the Laws 
of the state and adopting the Laws of Connecticut to govern them 
Selves by in open violation of the authority of the state of Newhamp- 
shire. Altho they have Unanimously Acknowlidge themselves under the 
jurisdiction of Newhampshire by Vollentarily confiderating with said 
State, and the Town under a pretence of authority in a high handed 
manner frequently stop men in the highway Rob them of their property 
even when they have a Certificate from proper authority to pass un- 
molested and Blocking up the publick highway by falling Trees Across 
the path so as to Render it impractible for Travilors to pass Whereby 
Travilers have been much injured and to the disgrace of the Town and 
many Other Illegal proceedings inconsistant in themselves and inju- 
rious to the public peace of this and Neibouring Towns. — to be commu- 
nicated to the Town forth with, 

Sami Bailey John Gray 

Ebem Bliss Jabez Baldwin 

Phinehas Wright Gideon Baker 

Solomon Millington Charles Hill 

James Jones Wm Downer Ju* 

Elezer Robinson Sami Millington 

Joel Kilburn James Feller 

Wm Downer Joseph Tilden 

Jesse Heath W™ Wakefield 

Sami Millington Nathaniel Hall Junr 
Benga Fuller 


We are not for a moment to suspect these men of any want of 
patriotism in this act, for many of them had been in the army, 
only they thought that the town had no right to take such action 
without the sanction of a higher authority than the town itself. 

Money was needed for public purposes — for building roads 
and bridges, for the support of schools, for raising soldiers for 
the public defense. Often they were at their wit's end to know 
how to assess the necessary taxes, and still more puzzled how to 
collect them, since there was no authority back of their own upon 
which they could rely. Of course there were some disposed to 
take advantage of this state of things and refused to pay their 
taxes and their debts. But they found means to enforce their 
payment. And yet we find them instructing their officers to 
exempt any who had placed themselves under the protection of 
the state of New Hampshire. 

Let it be kept in mind that all these burdens of taxation for so 
many purposes were to be met by a depreciated currency, whose 
value was scarcely the same for two successive months. It was a 
hard problem to know how much money to raise in such a cur- 
rency to meet their obligations and they were obliged to make a 
bushel of wheat their standard. Much of the time they could 
raise no money that had any fixed value, and were obliged to re- 
ceive their dues in grain and provisions. 

Men who, under such circumstances, could fight such sturdy 
battles for their preference for state affiliation, who could con- 
tinually raise and equip men for their defense are worthy of all 
praise and honor. One other thing should be set down to their 
credit. However defiant they were of state authority, whatever 
expressions of bitterness they uttered at their betrayals by 
Vermont, they were always loyal to Congress. They heeded 
every command, they yielded to every requisition which came to 
them from that sacred source. 

The following letter, addressed to Colonel Chase, indicates the 
position which they held : 

Lebanon New Hampshire Grants July 7 1780 

Sir As this Town hath been Repeatedly Called Together on account 
of orders Rec'd from you for scouting and other service, &c we haveing 
Collected the Sentiments of the Town with Regard to Raising men To 
Stand thus: that they acknowledge Subordination to you as a Colo, of 


their own Choice and ever will obey you as Such, But at the same time, 
think to obey you as haveing an authorative Power from the State of 
New Hampshire is Derogative To the Birth Rite of Englishmen, it 
Being a Tax Laid on us for men without being Represented &c. Sir, we 
wish fore the future you would Be Pleased To send a Request To us. 
We shall own the Power we Committed to you We mean not to Sett 
up an Allter in Defiance To the Public Cause, & be Please, sir, to Ex- 
cuse our Simplicity and Except this with our Sincere obedience from 
your Humble Servants. 

Simeon Peck "1 

Theop Huntington L Selectmen 

Nath'l Storrs J 

To Colo. Jona. Chase, Cornish 

It was difficult in such circumstances to preserve peace and 
order. Some there would be ready to take advantage of the lack 
of organized courts and state authority to punish offences. 
Tippling houses, I judge, gave the fathers a great deal of 
trouble from the frecpient mention of them upon the records and 
ordinances passed to regulate them ; yet through their committee 
of safety they were able to control the disorderly elements. The 
people were determined to sustain their committees, and did sus- 
tain them, and there was very little serious disorder. 

Having no place of records they experienced great inconven- 
ience in the preservation of their deeds and other papers. Early 
in the war one Fenton, the probate officer for Grafton County, 
whose letter to the people of Grafton County has already been 
given, was suspected, probably with just cause, of too much 
friendship towards the king. The demonstrations against him 
were so violent that he fled from his home, leaving the important 
papers in his office in great disorder. Many of them were 
either carried away or destroyed, causing great perplexity and 
trouble among the people. 

An old deed from Jane Hill, widow of Charles Hill, alludes 
to this event, reciting in a preamble: 

& as said will was Lodged in the Judge of Probate of wills Office by 
said Judge's order (viz John Fenton Esq.) who has absconded himself 
and carried off or mislaid said will, so that it cannot be found, by 
reason of which the afore said estate has not yet been settled and there 
are several creditors who have demands on said estate, who want to 
have their accompts settled; in order for which there is an absolute 
necessity of disposing of some of said lands to answer the just de- 



mands of said creditors, wherefore she, the said Jane as the sole Exec- 
utor of the said last will and testament, &c. 

The earlier deeds were recorded in the town, the acknowledg- 
ment being taken sometimes by a justice of the peace and some- 
times by the committee of safety. Among those by whom these 
acknowledgments were taken are the following: John Wheatley, 
J. P. ; Nehemiah Estabrook, chairman of committee of safety ; 
Francis Smith, J. P., Plainfield; 0. Willard, one of his majesty's 
justices of the peace for Cumberland County, province of New 
York- Vermont ; Bela Turner, J. P. ; Beza Woodward, Dresden ; 
Peter Olcutt, assistant, Dresden; Elihu Hyde, J. P.; Eleazer 
Wheelock, J. P. Many of them are destitute of any acknowledg- 
ment. A large number were made and executed in Connecticut. 

It is amusing to read the headings of these acknowledgements, 
showing as they do the changes in the connections of the town : 
State of New Hampshire, Grafton County, Lebanon; Province 
of N. H., Grafton County, Lebanon, on the New Hampshire 
Grants; State of Vermont, Lebanon; State of Vermont, on the 
Grants east of Connecticut River; State of Vermont, territory 
east of Connecticut River; State of Vermont, Windsor County, 
Lebanon. One officer determined to be right one way or the 
other, writes, "Lebanon, State of Vermont, alias New Hamp- 
shire. ' ' 

At the time when the town was uncertain as to its allegiance — 
both as to which party it of right belonged, and where it was for 
the time being, some were disposed to take advantage of the cir- 
cumstances and declare that there was no law that could be en- 
forced, and that they would do as they pleased. But the people 
were generally, at heart, law-abiding and would not suffer any 
breach of equity. 

The late Mrs. Truman, years ago, related to me the following- 
incident as belonging to this period : 

A certain man had bought some goods of his neighbor and re- 
fused payment, confidently declaring that payment could not be 
enforced. But he was mistaken. One night he found his dwell- 
ing surrounded by masked men, who led him out of doors and 
required him to pay his debts. He defied them. They then 
found an old horse, whose bony system was highly developed. 
They set him upon this horse in a position the reverse of that us- 


ually chosen for equestrian exercise — facing the rear. They 
then ran a rail between the legs of the horse and tied the obdu- 
rate debtor by the feet to the rail and sat down on each end, 
which proceeding brought out an emphatic promise "to pay 
up." The crowd then marched him away to a distance, blowing 
horns and conch-shells and ringing bells. 

Now on the way a couple were sleeping the sleep of the just 
(it is to be hoped). The wife was awakened and frightened by 
the noise, over which the horns predominated, which she, in her 
bewilderment, took to be the horn of Gabriel, when she gave a 
conjugal punch in the ribs of her spouse, crying out, "Wake up, 
husband, the day of judgment has come ! Get up and put on a 
clean shirt." 

The historian took this for a good story, which it is; but 
whether a tradition or myth, he knew not. 

But a long time after, he discovered the following substantial 
verification of the whole matter : 

Lebanon Newhampshire July 27 1779 

To the Honbie Meshack Ware and the Honbi Councel of the State of 
Newhampshire — 

Gentlemen: your petitioners desire to inform your Honers of A late 
disturbance in this town: against all Laws both Humane and divine — 
and in defyance of the authority of the States a number of men went 
to the dwelling House of mr. Jams Joans in the evening of the 22a 
inst. And by force and Violence toock him from his bed and bound Him 
on a horse with his face to the Horses tail: and he was obliged to ride 
in that maner four or five miles — to a tavern — they following him with 
Bells horns &c — at the tavern they abused him in a most Shocking 
maner with words and blows: then Returned about half a mile made a 
halt and abused him as before: Even threatening with death till He was 
obliged to Comply with their ^Treasonable Demands, your petitioners 
are Very much threttened if we Say anything against Such Conduct, 
therefore we pray your Honers to take the mater into Considderation 
and Afford us Such assistance as you in your wisdom Shall think best 

Jesse Heath ~) 

Sami Bailey L Com" 

Charles hill J 

Some of the citizens of the town were far-sighted enough to 
understand how the conflict with New Hampshire must termi- 
nate, and to cast an anchor to the windward they presented the 
following petition : 


To the Honbie the Council & Assembly of the State of New Hampshire 

We the Subscribers being Inhabitants of Lebanon in the County of 
Grafton and State aforesd Humbly Petition and give your Hon" to be 
Informed, that for Some Time past we have been greatly abused & 
harrassed by a Power, usurped without Right, to which we neither owe 
nor own Allegiance, and by which we have been prohibited, from Yield- 
ing that Subjection and Obedience to the State of New Hampshire 
which is justly due, and whereby we are deprived of those rights and 
Priviledges to which we are justly entitled as Subjects of sd State, and 
are liable to many and great Evils and Burdens for want of that Pro- 
tection, which we humbly conceive may be dutifully requested and de- 
manded from the State of New Hampshire — 

Wherefore we most humbly pray that your Horns will take such Reso- 
lutions on the premises as may effectually redress the Grievances of 
your Petitioners and restore them to their Just Rights and & Prive- 
ledges & the Protection of said state, and may be duly represented in 
the Geni Assembly and have Justice administered under the Authority 
of the Same — 

And your Pet^s Shall ever pray &c 

Lebanon 15«i Deer 1778 

Charles Hill Beniam fuller 

William Downer Jur Simeon Hovev 

Solomon Millington Eliezer Robinson 

Ebenezer Bliss Phinehas Wright 

Isaac Cory Sam" Millington 

Joseph Tilden Jr Jesse Heath 

Joseph Wood W" Wakefield 

Samii Bailey William Downer 

James Jones Josiah Hovey 

John Gray James Fuller 
Jabez Baldwin 

December 24 the petitioners voted to present their petition to 
the selectmen, and December 28 they voted 

mr. william Downer their agent to pre sent S d petition to the Honbie 
Asembly of Sd State or in their reses to the Honbie president and Coun- 
cil and Receive their answer 

Jesse Heath, Clerk. 

To the Honbie the Genu Assembly of the State of New Hampre To be 
Holden at Portsmo in sd State the third Wednesday of Deer instant — 

May it please Your Honrs 

We the Subscribers Inhabitants of the Town of Lebanon in the 
County of Grafton in Sd State; having taken into consideration the 


Several Resolves of the Honbie the 'Continental Congress Respecting the 
Disputes that have Arisen about the Jurisdiction of the State of N: 
Hampre over the Hampre Grants (So Called) are of the Opinion that 
S<i Resolves implicitly declare it to be the Opinion of that August Body 
that that part of S<J Grants Lying East of Connecticut River (in which 
we are included) Should be under the Jurisdiction of the State of New 
Hampre; with which we Readily comply; and Acknowledge the same; 
Yet Nevertheless for us to be Obliged to pay the back State Taxes; for 
the time being that we have been unconnected with the State of New in matters of Government, we Look upon it to be a Hardship, 
& Trust that your Horns will Consider us in that matter, & as there is 
a Considerable Number of the inhabitants of this Town that wholly deny 
the Jurisdiction of N: Hampre, — if your Horns should find yourselves 
Laid under the Disagreable Necessity of using Coercive measures, with 
Opposers, to your Authority we Hope that your Horns will make a 
Specific Difference between them and Us, & we as in Duty bound Shall 
Ever pray 

Joseph Tilden Dan Metcalf 

James Jones Charles Tilden 

Jesse Heath Joseph Wood 

Stephen Billings Joseph Downer 

Nathi Hall Jur Silas Waterman 

Joseph Chamberlin William Dana 

Rufus Baldwin David Hinckley 

James Hartshorn Solomon Millington 

Joel Kilborn Sherebiah Ballard 

Barna Tisdale Ziba Hall 

W m Downer Heze Waters 

David Crocker Jno Wheatley 

Anw Wheatley Oliver Penneg 

Sami Bailey Stephen Tilden 

Samei Millington Thos Wells 

Gidn Baker Phinehas Wright 

Thos. Bingham William Downer Jun 

Charles Hill Randol Evans 
Simon Slapp 

Settlement of the Controversy. 

On the 7th day of October, 1790, commissioners from the state 
of New York and Vermont, meeting in the City of New York, 
mutually agreed upon their boundaries, and other questions 
which had arisen, and the long dispute was terminated. 

One of the conditions of their agreement was that the state 
of Vermont should pay to New York $30,000, to be paid to the 


inhabitants of New York who had suffered in their person and 
estate at the hands of the ' ' Green Mountain Boy. ' ' 

But this was a small compensation among- the number who 
were to share in it, so the state of New York, taking the whole 
matter into consideration, passed the following resolution, intro- 
duced in the Senate and immediately concurred in by the as- 
sembly, March 1, 1786 : 

Resolved that the Legislature during their present meeting will make 
Provision for Granting to Colo Timothy Church, Major William Shat- 
tuck, Major Henry Evans and about one hundred other Persons whom 
they represent, a Quantity of Vacant Lands equal to a Township of 
eight miles square.— Documentary History of New York, Vol. 4, p. 1017. 

The township thus granted was situated on the Susquehanna 
River, and is now known as Bainbridge. 

In closing the account of this remarkable controversy, loyalty 
to historical truth demands that certain statements should be 
made in behalf of the state of New York. 

1. That the territory of Vermont was within the grant to the 
Duke of York, first made in 1663, regranted or confirmed in 
1674, of which the Connecticut River was the eastern boundary. 

2. If the validity of this grant be questioned, then by the deci- 
sion of the king in council, in 1764, this boundary of the province 
of New York was made certain. New York had precisely the 
same title to the territory of Vermont that other colonies had to 
their territory — royal authority. 

3. The province of New York made the following offers : 
That all persons actually possessing and improving lands by title 

under grants from New Hampshire or Massachusetts bay, and not 
granted under New York shall be confirmed in their respective posses- 

That where lands have heretofore been granted by New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts Bay or either of them and actually possessed in con- 
sequence thereof, and being so possessed, wei'e, afterwards granted by 
New York, such possessions shall be confirmed; the posterior grant un- 
der New York, notwithstanding. — Documentary History of New York, 
Vol. 4, p. 953. 

It is admitted in a proclamation of the state of New York that 
in some of the grants of that state as a province ' ' the interest of 
the servants of the crown and of new adventurers was, in many 
instances contrary to justice and policy; . . . that many 


of the grantees labor under grievances arising from causes above 
mentioned, which, in some measure, extenuate their offence and 
which ought to be redressed. ' ' 

4. While the inhabitants of Vermont suffered from the greed 
of some of the New Yorkers, the Vermonters themselves were 
unjustifiable in their opposition to the authority of the state of 
New York, because the soil belonged to that state. 

The Vermonters treated with great harshness and cruelty the 
subjects of New York. They speak with apparent gaiety and 
glee of applying the Beech Seal to those who took grants from 
New York. "What the beech seal was, and its mode of applica- 
tion, may be gathered from the following statements, made under 

Benjamin Hough* a magistrate under the authority of the 
state of New York, under the authority of a self -constituted court 
of Vermonters, was sentenced to be 

Tyed up to a tree, and receive two hundred lashes upon the naked 
Back . . . that thereupon the Deponent immediately had his 
Clothes taken off and he was stripped to the skin and four persons 
being by the said pretended Court appointed to carry the said sen- 
tence into Execution This Deponent accordingly received the two hun- 
dred lashes on his naked Back with whips of cords. — Documentary His- 
tory of New York, Vol. 4, p. 896. 

Daniel Walker being duly sworn on the holy Evangelists of Almighty 
God deposed in part that a few days afterwards he met with the above 
said Hough. That the said Benjamin Hough showed him his naked 
back, which was then sore and appeared to have been much cut and 
wounded and the waistcoat which he then wore was stiff with Blood. 

Another part of the sentence of this Hough was that ' ' as soon 
as he should be able, should depart the New Hampshire Grants, 
and not return again upon pain of receiving five hundred 
lashes. ' ' 

One of the offenses charged against this man was that ' ' he had 
taken a commission of the peace under the government of New 
York and exercised his office as a magistrate for the County of 
Charlotte alleging that this deponent well knew that they did 
not allow of any Magistrate there." They did not charge him 
with any injustice in the exercise of his office. His offense was 
that he had accepted a commission from the state of New York. — 
Documentary History of New York, Vol. 4, p. 896. 


For some time after the dissolution of the union with Vermont 
the town remained independent. They Avere not ready to return 
to their allegiance with New Hampshire; not until they could 
make acceptable terms with that state. 

Aug 12 1782. Query whether they will Raife the Nine men sent for by 
the State of New Hampshire to Join the Coutinental Army? Refolv'd 
in the Negative 

3rd Whether they will Raife one man for The Defence of the Fron- 
tiers to serve as a Soldier till Nov. next? Refolv'd in the Negative 

4th Whether they will Raife the sum of £914-13-4 Demanded by the 
State of New Hampshire? Refolved in the Negative 

5th Whether they will Choofe one or two men to Set in Convention at 
Concord in the afore S'd state to affist In forming a Constitution for 
S'd State of New Hampshire? Resold in ye Affir 

6th Chofe John Wheatley to Reprefent The town of Lebanon in s'd 
Convention for the purpofe aforesd 

The sum demanded by New Hampshire was arrearage of taxes. 
This they declined to pay, on the ground that they did not belong 
to that state, and also because all this time they had been rais- 
ing and paying soldiers at their own expense. 

They were willing, however, to send a delegate to the conven- 
tion for forming a new constitution, because some of the provi- 
sions of the constitution under which the state had been acting 
since the Revolution was one of the grievances which had first 
alienated them from New Hampshire. If things could be made 
better for them, they were willing to assist. 

But apparently affairs did not proceed to suit them, for at a 
meeting September 24, 1782, they voted to recall their represen- 
tative chosen to represent the town in convention at Concord, in 
the state of New Hampshire. Ten days later they reconsidered 
this last vote. 

By November the town had received the constitution and ap- 
pointed a committee to examine and report upon it. November 
26, 1782, they voted to recall their representative from the con- 
vention, the proposed constitution not appearing satisfactory to 

The town, after many delays, after conventions of other towns 
held at Hanover, after sending agents to the assembly, after re- 
monstrances and petitions, finally took its place as a town in the 
state of New Hampshire. 

Development of the Town. 

During all these years of disturbance and distraction con- 
cerning its state relations, the town has been steadily improving. 
Old roads were made better, new roads were laid out and built, 
bridges were built over the Mascoma at various points, one in this 
village, one near Walter Peck's, another at Davison's mills, an- 
other still on the river road. 

All this time the town had been gaining in inhabitants. The 
close of the Revolution brought many accessions of the best ma- 
terial. New names are found upon the records, and prominent 
in town affairs — the Aliens, Phinehas and Diarca ; Gideon Baker, 
the Huntingtons, Stephen Billings, Thomas Blake, Walter Hains, 
Arad Simons, Zuar Eldredge, Nathan Durkee. Col. Elisha Payne, 
coming here from Orange, was a valuable acquisition to the town. 
The proprietors made him valuable grants of land in the east 
part of the town in 1778, "on conditions that the said Payne, 
his heirs or assigns shall build and erect a good sawmill & grist- 
mill on the Mascomme river near to the place where said river 
empties out of the pond, within two years from the first day of 
April next [April, 1778 J except the publick commotions and 
present wars shall render it impracticable, in which case they 
shall be built as soon as the publick affairs will admit of." 

In this same year the proprietors voted to consider the propa- 
gation lot and the church glebe and a part of the governor's lot 
as undivided land. They also proceeded to lot all of the undi- 
vided land, making this generous, and it may be presumed ac- 
ceptable provision, "to allow the committee and surveyor five 
gallons of rum while laying out said undivided land." 

The proprietors also gave liberty to Colonel Payne to erect 
"a dam across Mascomme river at the mouth of Enfield pond 
in order to raise said pond sufficient for the use and benefit of 
the mills which he has undertaken to build. ' ' 

The undivided land had been laid out into fifty-acre lots and 



November 8, 1779, at the house of Nehemiah Estabrook, was 
drawn as follows : 



Thomas Barrows Jun 


John Swift 


Elijah Huntington 


Daniel Allen Jun 


Huckins Storrs Jun 


Robert Barrows Jun 


David Eldridge 


Jefse Birchard, by John 

Hobart Estabrook 




Daniel Blodgett 3<J 


John Allen 


Thomas Storrs 


Joseph Wood 


Charles Hill 


Moses Hebbard 


Joshua Blodgett 


Joseph Turner 


Nathaniel Porter 


Jefse Birchard 


David Turner 


Jonathan Murdock 


Joseph Martin 


John Birchard 


Robert Martin 


Daniel Blodgett 


School Right 


Minister Right 


James Nevins 


Mark H Wentworth 


Hugh Hall Wentworth 


Clement Jackson 


John Hyde 30 acres 


Seth Blodgett 30 acre 


N. B. The lot No 24 is taken out by Mr. Joseph Wood on the original 
right of Robert Hyde 

N. B. When the draught of the fifty acre Division was drawn in 
Lebanon, through mistake there was no lott in said division drawn to 
the original right of Richard Salter, wherefore the proprietors Commit- 
tee ordered that the lott N° 35 in said division be afsigned to said 
right Attest 

Gideon Baker, Proprietors Clerk 

At the same time the proprietors granted a tract of land in 
the southwest part of the town to "David Hinckley Clothier as 
an encouragement to him the said David to set up his trade as a 
Clothier in said Lebanon." 

In March, 1780, the proprietors appointed a committee to re- 
vise the field books of the several divisions of land, and to 
procure a plan of the township. This plan was made by Lieut. 
John Payne, "and being duly examined was accepted as correct 
in general." This plan still exists; that is, the parchment on 
which it is made does, the lines being faded and in many places 
entirely defaced. It is endorsed as follows : ' ' This plan is laid 
down to 100 rods to an inch by John Payne Jun — surveyor. ' ' 

In 1781 the proprietors made a division of twenty-acre lots, 
and assigned them by lottery. 



June 26, 1780, the town appointed John Wheatley, Elisha 
Ticknor, Major Griswold, Deacon Estabrook and William Dana 
a committee "to adjust and put in proper order all the publick 
expense that the town has been at since the Contest with Great 
Britain." See page — 

At the same time they voted "to lease for nine hundred and 
ninety-nine years the whole of the sequestered right of land for 
the benefit of schooling in said town." 

The town in 1779 had voted three gallons of rum for the rais- 
ing of a bridge over the Mascoma, this being the only business 
transacted at that meeting. It appears that in 1781 said rum 
had not been paid for and hence the selectmen were instructed, 
March 31, 1781, to include said rum in the taxes to be raised. 

May 30, 1781, the town voted to build a pound (the first) 
near Esquire Hydes, and that Henry Woodward be pound 
keeper. This pound was on the hill where Henry Farman now 

Something of the condition of the town and their way of doing 

business may be gathered from the following vote : 

To raise ten hard dollars, immediately, to bear the Expeuce of an 
Agent now going to the Assembly of New Hampshire. Accordingly the 
following collection was made for the aforesaid purpose, viz: 

Gov payne £ 1-6-8 

Nathi Storrs 0-6-0 

Maj. Griswold 0-6-0 

Jesse Cook 0-3-0 

Doct Hall 0-3-0 

Abel Wright 0-1-6 

David Hough 1-2 

Sam' Lothrop 0-0-3 


The hard dollars were specie — at the time exceedingly scarce — 
and probably hard in another sense. 

April 8 1782 Voted tbat the select men take into their care the money 
of Vermont Emission now in the town treasury & make the best thereof 
for the benefit of the town that lyes in their power. 

This was a relic of their union with Vermont. 

November 26, 1782, there came before the town a proposi- 
tion which gave them some anxiety. Colonel Payne and some 
others proposed to take parts of Lebanon, Enfield and Hanover 


and make them into a town. The town appointed Captain Free- 
man, Lieutenant Ticknor and Captain Dana a committee to "ex- 
amine into the matter and report. ' ' That report was adverse to 
the plan. 

The following-, recently discovered among the papers in the 

state house, sets forth this plan for a new town : 

The petition of Elisha Payne, and others inhabitants of the towns of 
Lebanon, Hanover Enfield and Canaan humbly shew that their local 
situation is such, being in the four adjoining corners or parts of said 
towns, and so remote from the center of the respective towns to which 
they belong, and the places of holding their town and other publick 
meetings, that renders it very inconvenient and almost impossable for 
them to attend, especially on the Sabbath or Lord's day; that the terri- 
tory of land hereafter described, being about four miles square, is so 
situated, and the laying of the rhodes through the same such, that it 
makes it convenient for them to be a district or town by themselves and 
will not hurt nor injure the respective towns from which they may be 
taken off. Your petitioners, therefore, humbly pray your honors to take 
their case into your wise consideration and grant them relief by allow- 
ing them an incorporation with town privileges agreeably to the follow- 
ing limits and boundaries Beginning at the N. W. corner of lot No 50 
of the village lots & so called in the line between said Lebanon and 
Hanover, from thence running south 23° West by the westerly line of 
said village lots until it comes to the Masquome river then turning and 
running up said river and crossing the same to the S. W. corner of lot 
No 26 on the southerly side of said river; from thence southerly on a 
strate line to the South West corner of lot No 9 on the Northerly side 
of Enfield Rhode; thence S. 72° E by said Enfield Rhode to the east line 
of Lebanon called the Freeman line and to continue the same course in 
said Enfield one mile and a half thence turning off and running N. 
36° E. parilel with the town line until it comes to said river; thence up 
said river till it comes to the bridge standing on said river in Canaan 
from thence N 36° E so far as one mile and a quarter from Enfield north 
line; thence turning off and running N 64° W through part of Canaan 
and into the town of Hanover to the N E corner of lot No 13, and by the 
northerly line thereof and by the northerly line of three lots till it comes 
to No 17; thence turning off by said lots No 17, 18, 19 and to continue 
the same course till it comes to the line between Lebanon and Hanover 
and thence by said line to the bound begun at 

Walter Peck Daniel Swetland 

Ebba Peck James Bellows 

Nathan Blodgett Jonathan Bingham 

David Hinkley Abiel Willes 

Edm'd Freeman Elisha Payne 

Gid. Baker Ephraim Brown 


John Crowell Samuel Kan- 
David Stoddard Daniel Willes 
Leonard Hoar Jeriah Swetland 
Daniel Alden Clapp Sumner 
Enoch Reddington Phineas Allen 
Dearca Allen 

The tract described above commenced on Hanover line, about 
a hundred rods westerly of the farm buildings of George 
Blodgett, striking the Mascoma a little west of Howard Benton 's 
buildings; thence it passed up the river about a hundred rods, 
and from thence a straight line to the Alvah Bosworth farm, now 
occupied by Warren Daniell, intersecting the broad road laid 
through the town; thence on the line of that road to Enfield 
line, and the same course a mile and a half into the territory 
of Enfield; thence a northeasterly course, striking the Mascoma 
again in Canaan. 

It will be seen that these lines would include East Lebanon and 
the village of Enfield. It should be remembered that at this 
time there were few buildings in the center of the town, and 
that the meeting-house was then in the neighborhood of Mrs. 
Alden 's, while there was a large business done at East Lebanon. 
There is no doubt that Colonel Payne was the originator of this 

The Legislature refused to grant the prayer of the petitioners. 

About this time there was another plan to divide the territory 
of Lebanon. The authorities of Dartmouth College wished to 
have entire control of the territory around the college and sought 
to have the territory granted by the proprietors of Lebanon, and 
a similar territory in Hanover, erected into a town or parish to 
be called Dresden, a name which Hanover Plain bore for many 

The following papers have reference to this plan : 

Objections against the incorporation of a part of Lebanon & Hanover 
in the county of Grafton into a distinct town. 

1. The Freeholders of that part of Lebanon which is subject to taxa- 
tion, proposed to be taken into said corporation are unanimously opposed 
to such an Incorporation, that is those of them who reside in said Leba- 
non. Fourteen hundred and fifty acres are all the land exclusive of 
College Lands Lying in said Lebanon proposed to be taken in — thirteen 
hundred acres of which are owned bv said resident Freeholders, and a 

--■* ^^B 

ws ** 






!;iiiii , "< : : : ^ ';■ 


- ■ ^^.'V^ 


From painting by J. J. Jennys, June, 1802. 


considerable part of one hundred forty acres remaining are owned 
by a Minor. 

2 That the said resident Freeholders have done already their pro- 
portion for building up Dartmouth College, and they can see no reason 
why they should be subject to the authority of said College and their 
dependants. They have given one hundred and fifty acres of land, and 
in money and labor to the amount of fifteen pounds, altho but eight in 
number, and subject to those difficulties which generally attend those 
who settle a new country ; and if such an Incorporation should be made 
every vote would be carried according to the inclinations of the said 
authority; who will always have a sufficient number of Dependants, 
to assist them in carrying any point, whereby the situation of said 
resident owners would be exceedingly uncomfortable 

3 By such an Incorporation the said Freeholders will be excluded 
from all benefit of public rights, and ministerial and school privileges 
in said Lebanon. The public rights in s'd Lebanon are so far improved 
and disposed off that a considrable sum accrues to Lebanon from such 
improvements A minister is settled, a meeting house and several 
school-houses are built. From which benefit the said Freeholders 
would be excluded by such an Incorporation. 

4 Many new roads must be built to accommodate such a town as is 
desired, whereas if the said Freeholders remain as they are in con- 
junction with Lebanon, the expense of said new roads will be saved. 

5 That the said Incorporation will ever be greatly burdened with poor 
to maintain Dependants must be introduced and not warned out till 
they become a town charge 

6 That the expense of maintaining town order will be great, & a 
very large part of that expense will fall upon the said Freeholders in 
proportion to their interest. The said Freeholders and the owners of 
double if not treble the land in said proposed township which will be 
subject to taxation, and the College will ever own stock and other 
ratiable property — whereby the s'd Freeholders are apprehensive that 
they shall be obliged to do a great, if not the greatest, part towards 
supporting the poor, and discharging other town expenses, which they 
feel unable ever to perform 

7 That it would be unprecedented to separate [them] from a particu- 
lar corporation they had joined, without their consent either explicit 
or implicit. 

to the Speaker of the house of Representatives of the state of New- 
hampshire now seting att Concord. Sir. Should thare be any inoshun 
thursday Nex to see if the a Sembly will in corporate in to a Destinct 
town a Sarting track of Land Lying on Conocticut River so cauled 
Being part of Hanover and part of Lebanon by the name of Drisden. 
I Beg Sir you would in forme the Honorabel House that thare is a 
potishon or praer to s'd house not to encoporate in to a Destinct town 
the Lands potishiond for, last seting of a sembly — those that signed 
a gainst in coperation owne more than one half the ratabol land 


contand in the potishion for in corperation — yea, sir, and the house in 
generol are sensobel the coledg lands and of coledg are not taxt 

sir there is not much, if any more one hundred and seventy aeers under 
Emprovement taxabel Lands in s'd tract potishond for incorperation. 
Sir we heard thare was an order of cort upon thare potishon that the 
matter should be heard and Reson shone if any why it should not be 
incorperated and that the order of cort should be published in the pub- 
lick papers we have no knoledg of the orders being complyed with — 
Sir the Reson of my troughbling you with this letter was I was Desired 
to a tend cort and see that the potishoners protest a gainst in corpera- 
tion Lade before tbe Honorobel House when I set out better than a 
fortenate a go from home expected to a Returned home time enough to 
a ben Down by the Day and Left the potishon with the signers — being 
wether bound find I cant comply with thare request. I feare they will 
have no opportunity to send thare potishon on with thare resons why 
they would wisb not to be incoperated in to a Distinct town. 

Sir tho yeu are a Stranger to me the stashon or place yeu stan in is 
sofishont Evedenc to me that yeu are a gentleman of vorosity and must 
feale for every Ingured Sufforer in the state in which asembly that you 
are the Speaker of that Body that we under God have no whare els to 
look for help in matters of this nature 

Sir if you think that we are not to poore to be Notist, having but 
small intrest Liabol to pay what ever is put upon us without Ever 
having a voice in Representation liabol to make and mend the Rodes 
threw all the coledg land without thare help which Rods are very bad 
and the few and poor inhabitans will be oblig to make and mend or 
suffer the penalty of Law for Not doing it that you will at least Con- 
tinue our trial or Delay incoperating said town untill the next Seshon 
att which time Hanover and Lebanon will be represented, as they are 
not know [now] as they consider it 

If a Sembly under the consideration that we cant by Reson of the 
rods being Bloct and some other matters that the house ought to know 
upon oure trial that cant be Laid before the a sembly this seshon, if 
they in thare wisdom would give us heare ing att the nex seting we 
should think ourseves in Duty bound to pray 

( in behalf of signers 
Gideon Tiffane ■) a gainst in coperation 

Decemb'r 20th 1783. ( of Dresden 

The "a sembly" very properly denied the petition for the 
" incoperation " of Dresden. Whether because the House was 
convinced by the reasonings of the remonstrance or because 
the Hon. John Dudley, then the speaker of the House, being 
carried away by his compliment as a "gentleman of vorosity," 
threw his influence against it, is not known. 


Feb 24 1783 A'oted that Elijah Dewey Jun, Esq. Hyde and Maj Gris- 
wold be a committee to Draw a Letter in the name of the town, to be 
sent to Mr Aaron Hutchinson & be signed by the Town clerk, in behalf 
of the town. 

The next reference to this matter is in May, 1783. 

Voted to sit on that Clause in the warning respecting Aaron Hutchin- 
son, chose Messrs Elisha Ticknor Maj. John Griswold and Nathaniel 
Hall committee to make report. 

The historian is unable to say what these records refer to. 
He guesses that it was a negotiation for Mr. Hutchinson to take 
up his residence in Lebanon as a lawyer. 

March 11, 1783, after electing town officers for the year: 

Voted to build a new Meeting House — that a Committee be chosen to 
draw a plan for the bigness of s'd House and compute the quantity of 
stuff sufficient to cover s'd House and lay the under floor Chose Maj 
John Griswold Hezekiah Waters David Hough committee for the pur- 
pose above said 

March 26 of same year : 

Voted to build a Meeting House near the Dwelling House of Elihu 
Hyde Esq. by the first day of Sept. 1784. Voted to build a Meeting 
House 60 feet in length 40 feet in breadth with 24 feet posts — that 
Simeon Peck Lemuel Hough and Hezakiah Waters be a Meeting, House 
committee and that they perfix a perticular spot for s'd House agree- 
able to above vote. 

The spot pointed out above is on the hill where Henry Far- 
n am now lives. 

The first meeting-house was at this time only about ten years 
old. But the southwestern portion of the town had increased 
more rapidly in numbers and demanded a location nearer to 
them, opposed, of course, by those in other parts of the town. 

May 6 1783 Voted to Chefe a Member to attend the General Afsembly 
in June Next, with Inftructions, if our Grievances be taken of, then to 
take a Seat in S'd House otherwife to Return. Col. Elifha Paine was 
Chofen a Member to attend the Generi Afsembly in New Hampfhire 
in June next. A committee was Chofen to draw Inftructions for the 
Member for the Afsembly & Report to the meeting 

May 19 1783. Voted to Release Col Elifha Paine as a member of 
Afsembly. They then Chose Col Elifha Payne and Elihu Hyde as 
Agents to the Afsembly and raised a tax to defray their expense. 

The grievances noted above were the arrearages which New 


Hampshire demanded of the town, arrearages which had accum- 
ulated while the town was in union with Vermont and inde- 

Later in November, Capt. Edmund Freeman was "chofen 
agent of the town to wait on the General Afsembly of New Hamp- 
shire at their nex Sefsion to Lay before them the affairs of S'd 
town." The town claimed a set-off against the demands of the 
state for expense incurred in providing soldiers, bounties, equip- 
ments, etc., which the state was not willing to allow. 

February 25, 1784, Beza Woodward of Hanover was chosen 
agent "to take Care of the affairs of the town Refpecting the 
Expenditures of the war & other matters already laid in Before 
s'd Afsembly." 

March 7, 1784, town officers were chosen, and Col. Elisha Paine 
was elected as representative of the town at the General As- 
sembly in June next. 

Messrs. Major Griswold, Lieut. Elisha Ticknor, Abiel Wills, 
Silas AVaterman, Samuel Sprague and Rufus Baldwin, howards, 
or hog constables. This was the first recognition of this ancient 
and honorable institution in the town. It was also voted that 
the yards of the constables should be held as pounds. 

March 22, "Voted that those persons That Have paid a Pro- 
vifion Tax in the year 1781 shall be Repaid in the Prefent Town 
Tax and 10 a Be paid pr lb for Pork & six Pence for Beeff. " 

"That a Charter be Requested of the afsembly for the feries 
all them that shall be wonted over the Great River." 

Votes for Prefident [of the state] 

George Atkinfon 


M Weare 


Elisha Paine 


Votes for Senator 

Elifh Paine 


Mofes Dow 


• This was the first state election in which the town had taken 
any part since its settlement nearly twenty years before. All the 
time it had its grievances, part of the time it was classed with 
other towns, part of the time it was connected with Vermont. 
The form of government adopted at the beginning of the Revo- 
lution had expired by its own limitation — the proclamation of 



peace — a new constitution had been adopted and Lebanon took 
its place among the towns of the state, ably represented by 
Colonel Payne. 

Eight School Districts. 

Dec 6 1784 Voted to accept the following Divifiou of school Disfricts 

1st Diftrict Beginning at the North west corner of the town thence 
Runing on the Great River to North west Corner of the River Lott 
Latley owned by Deacon Jonathan Dana thence East To the Bend of the 
River south of John martins thence up Mascoma to the North End of 
maj Slapps Intervale thence east 72 Degree North — (N. 18° E) To Han- 
over Line. 

2<i Diftrict — Beginning at the North west corner of Decon Dana's River 
Lott bounded on Conectcut River to Plainfield and on Plainfleld Line so 
far as To Include the Dwelling Houfe of Thomas Wright & Jofiah 
Hovey thence northerly to the Center of Jedidiah Hebbards Lott thence 
Northerly To the River Mascoin 

3d Diftrict to begins at the North easterly corner of the second Diftrict 
thence extends southerly upon the Line of said Diftrict till it Strikes 
Plainfield Line, thence Easterly on Plainfield Line opposite to the school 
Lott Latley owned by Samuel Huntington on the East Line of said Lott; 
thence on a North Line till it Strikes Mascoma River at the North East 
Corner of Hubbard Estabrook Lott [which would be on the farm now 
owned by Charles Gerrish] 

4th District To Begin at the North East Corner of Hubard Estabrook 
Lott, thence up Mascoma River To the mouth of Great Brook [which is 
the brook coming in from the south] thence on a Direct Line To the 
north easterly corner of John Fox's Lott thence south To the south 
easterly corner of Mr James Perkins Lott, thence westerly to the South 
west corner of Zalmon Aspenwall's Lott. 

5th Diftrict Begining at the North East Corner of John Fox's Lott 
thence a strait Line To the Brige Near John Porters Houfe thence up 
Great Brook To the Brige Near David Blifs' thence South To Plainfield 
Line, thence on Plainfield Line To the south East corner of the third 
district and bounded Westerly on said Diftrict and northerly on the 
forth Diftrict To the firft mentioned Corner ^ 

6th Diftrict begins at the South East Corner of the 5th Diftrict thence 
on Plainfield Line To the South East Corner of Lebanon thence north- 
erly on the town line till it Come Due East of the North Line of Weth- 
erill Hough Lotts thence Weft to the North Weft corner of said Houghs 
west Lott thence on a Line To John Fox's North East Corner of his 
Lott Leaving John Porter [Howe Place] in Esq. Wheatley's Diftrict. 

7th Diftrict Begins at mr Witherrill Houghs North West Corner 
thence To the South east corner of mr Parker's Lott [Packard?] where 
he Now Lives thence Northerly to Hanover Line then Westerly on Han- 
over Line To the bound of the firft Diftrict thence on the east line of 


firft Diftrict to inaseoina at the North End of maj Slapps Intervale 
Thence To the mouth of Great Brook ; thence up Great Brook To John 
Porters Brige, Thence To Witherill Houghs North Weft Corner 

8th Diftrict from Witheril Hough's north west corner Due East to 
Enfield Line ; thence north on Enfield Line To the North East Corner of 
Lebanon Thence Westerly on the Town Line Till it come where the 7th 
Diftrict Strikes Hanover : thence on the Line of the 7th Diftrict Till it 
comes To Witherill Hough's North west corner. 

Some of these lines are evidently somewhat uncertain and diffi- 
cult for us at this distance of time to retrace. East Lebanon was 
in the eighth district. The center village in the seventh and 
extended north to Hanover and south to the Howe farm and west 
beyond Scytheville. West Lebanon was in the first district. 
The families on the Great Eiver, south of the Mascoma, were in 
the second district. Poverty Lane was in the third district. 
John Hebbard's farm would be in the fourth district. Dea. E. 
Cole's farm would be near the easterly line of the fifth district, 
and the sixth district took in the southeast corner of the town. 

In this year William Dana presented the following petition to 
the Legislature : 


Humbly shows William Dana of Lebanon, Grafton County, that he 
was one of the first settlers in said Lebanon, that he has suffered 
greatly by the passing of persons through his land in going over Con- 
necticut river to Hartford in the State of Vermont (so called) that 
the privilege of a ferry on said river has not been granted, but the profit 
of assisting to cross said river has been engrossed by those that live not 
in the state of N. H. and have no estate therein, and can easily evade 
any laws of said state for the regulation of ferries ; your petitioner 
therefore prays, that granting to him and his heirs the privilege of a 
ferry, beginning at the northwest corner of his home lot in s'd Leba- 
non, thence extending across said river in a direct line with the north 
line of said lot to the western bank of said river; thence south on said 
bank one mile and a half: thence east across said river to the north 
bank of the river Mascom. thence north on the easterly bank of the 
first mentioned river to the first mentioned bound 

W"> Dana 

Evidently they have not yet settled their affairs with the state, 
for January 31, 1785, "Voted that the Selectmen be directted 
not to make up a tax on the Town for the old Demands of the 
State of Newhampshire " 


The following indicates that there was discontent in the town 
concerning the place of meeting on the Sabbath, "Voted that 
the meeting on the sabbath be Held one Half the Days at Con- 
stant Storrs or Nathaniel Storrs." This would take the people 
on the hill in the neighborhood of Abel Storrs. 

At the "anuail meeting." March 8, 1785, Elisha Payne was 
chosen representative. I suppose this to have been Elisha Payne, 
Esq., not the colonel. 

Voted to move the meeting House Near to Elihu Hydes Dwelling 
House & set up as soon as possible & begin next Monday. — that Constant 
Storrs Nathi Porter David Hough Hezah Waters and Elias Lyman be 
a Comitte to move said House & set it up at said place. 

At a special town meeting warn'd by the Constables & Held at the 
meeting House March 15 1785. voted to Build a meeting House in the 
center of the town, and Desolved said meeting. 

So ' ' next Monday ' ' has come and gone and the meeting-house 
yet stands. The folks in the center and eastern parts of the 
town have rallied and at this meeting have carried their point. 

At the annual meeting it is recorded that George Atkinson had 
seventy-six votes for the president of the state and Col. Elisha 
Payne eighty-two votes for senator. 

A Stray colt. 

Taken up by Maj Elisha Lathrop of Lebanon august 16, 1785 a Stray 
mare Colt, one year old, of a Pail sorrel Colour, four white feet & 
Legs up to his knees & hams — white face, both Eyes white 

Lebanon Aug. 22 1785 

the Above Stray Colt was Prized by Daniel Hough & Stephen Col- 
barn at £3-15 they being under oath 

Elihu Hyde Town Clerk 

Fees: for entering /6 ; for attending and Giving oath to the above 
persons 2/; to the aprisers 1/3. 

The town was still in trouble with the state and conventions of 

towns were held at Hanover on their affairs, at several different 

times, and a petition to the assembly on their grievances ordered, 

and agents appointed to ivait on the assembly. 

Dec 22, 1785 Voted to direct the Selectmen to Procure a part of the 
Extent in the sherifs hands and pay the same to him by the Time the 

Extent is out 

An extent as here used was a writ to a sheriff for the val- 
uation of lands and tenements, to be followed in a specified time 


by an execution. New Hampshire had issued a great many of 
these writs against delinquent towns. 

Still further action was taken in this matter at a meeting 
January 17, 1786: 

Voted to direct the Selectmen to Hire the £50 they have Borrowed 
To Pay the sherif in part of the Extent against the town for Deficiency 
of men on the best terms they can and they will Indemnify them 

Whereas the Town have this Day Directed the Selectmen to Hire £50 
to Pay the £50. Borrowed To Pay the sherif Towards his Extent for 
Deficiency of men Do therefore vote, To Prevent Cost, that any Gentlm 
that will Pay in any sum or sums to the selectmen, that the Same shall 
be allowed them on any State Tax that shall be made up in the Town, 
with Intereft Till the same Bill be made up 

This action of the town indicates unmistakably that the peo- 
ple were poor — not that they did not own valuable lands and 
good homes, and had good crops, with horses and cattle — but 
they had no money. To understand their condition, their trials 
and straits, we must take a view of the condition of the wider 
community of which they were a part. 

The War of the Revolution had imposed heavy burdens upon 
the states and the people. The real money of the country was 
soon exhausted, and there was no other way to continue the 
struggle but by the emission of paper money by Congress and 
the states. The length and expenses of the contest soon made it 
manifest that these bills would never be redeemed. Besides this 
they were printed with so little skill that they were easily coun- 
terfeited. They soon began to depreciate in value and depre- 
ciated more and more, till their purchasing power was reduced 
to zero in many cases. As the paper money depreciated, silver 
and gold disappeared ; they were hoarded up by those who could 
get them, because their value was substantial and continuous. 
New emissions of bills were made from time to time, with the 
attempt to give a higher value than the old, but they shared the 
same fate of rapid depreciation. The extent of this depreciation 
may be seen by some tables compiled by authority of the Legis- 
lature from time to time : 

Continental Paper 
Feb. 1777 £104 equal to £100 silver 
Jan 1778 325 do do 

Jan 1779 742 do do 

Jan 1780 2934 do do 

Jan 1781 7500 do do 



By this time the Continental was practically worthless and 

The state emissions were a little better, but were insufficient 
for the wants of the people. If new emissions were made they 
would depreciate the more. The state was, therefore, forced to 
receive its demands in silver or its equivalent. But where were 
the people to get silver? It had hidden itself, as it always will, 
in the face of unredeemable paper money. During the war the 
people could meet the demands against them in beef, pork and 
grain to feed the army. But the war was over and the Con- 
gress and the state had no use for these articles. Both states 
and individuals were at their wits end to meet their just obliga- 
tions. The state must receive its dues in gold or silver. The 
people had none. Just then some wise people thought they had 
found a way out of the difficulty. It was this : The Legisla- 
ture must make money. They must issue bills and make them 
a legal tender for all debts due itself and individuals. It was 
said "that the people had a right to call upon their representa- 
tives to stamp a value on paper, on leather or any other sub- 
stance capable of receiving an impression; and that to prevent 
its depreciation a law should be enacted to punish with banish- 
ment and outlawry every person who should attempt by any 
means to lessen its value." 

To this it was answered that if the state must receive these 
bills for its dues, it could never redeem them, having no specie, 
and if these bills were never to be redeemed they could not pass 
for money. 

Many other extravagant plans were proposed for the relief 
of the people. The Legislature was wise and stood fast by the 
first principles of finance. Conventions of towns were held and 
petitions poured in upon them for relief. Finally the Legis- 
lature, sitting at Exeter, September 20, 1786. was visited by a 
mob, clamorous for relief. 

The president, General Sullivan, addressed them and explained 
the reasons why their petitions could not be granted. But they 
were not satisfied. They placed sentries at the doors and held 
the Legislature as prisoners. They went on with their business 
till evening, when the president, in attempting to pass out, was 
hedged in by the crowd. He attempted to reason with them. 


and warned them of the fatal consequences of their conduct. 
They only replied with cries for paper money, an equal distri- 
bution of property and a release from debt. Just at this mo- 
ment a drum beat at a distance and a cry was raised for the 
artillery by some of the citizens of Exeter. At this the mob was 
panic stricken and dispersed in all directions. 

Now it was in this condition of things that the town was called 
upon to meet the demands of the state for deficiencies. Their 
action under the writ of the sheriff shows how hard it was for 
them to raise so small an amount as £50. As a town they could 
only do it by borrowing of some one who was the fortunate pos- 
sessor of so much gold or silver. 

By a census taken by a law of the state in the year 1786, we 
again learn the number of the people. 

Pursuant to a Resolution of the Honbie the House of Representatives 
of the state of New Hampr & read and Concurred in the same day by the 
Honbie Senate: that the Selectmen of the several Towns, districts & 
parishes within the said State make a Return of all the Inhabitants 
within their respective districts to the Secretary of s<J State on or before 
the seed Wednesday in June nex. viz. the whole number of white & other 
free citizen's, inhabitants of every age sex and condition, including those 
bound to servitude for a term of years & also all other persons not 
Comprehended in the foregoing description except indians Not paying 
Taxes. Wherefore in conformity to said Resolve we, ye subscribers, 
have taken an exact account of the inhabitants of the Town of Lebanon 
in the County of Grafton in sa state Which is as follows, viz. 
Whites &c included in the foregoing description 841 

Persons not included in sd description 2 

Nathi Wheatley 
Attest James Crocker I Selectmen 

Nathaniel Hall Jun 
Dated in said Lebanon, May 23 A. D. 1786 

In 1773 the number was 295, gain in thirteen years of 548. 
Most of this accession of numbers was after the declaration of 

At the annual town meeting, March 14, 1786, Maj. Edmund 
Freeman was chosen representative, John Sullivan had 118 votes 
for president of the state and Elisha Payne, Esq., had 118 votes 
for senator. 


At the same meeting, "Voted that Rept. Colburn Thomas 
Wells & Charles Tilclen be a Commi tee to look up 3 or 4 men to 
ansur for this town To Compleat their Quota of Continental 

About this time it was discovered that the charter of the town 
was in a dilapidated condition. The following deposition ac- 
counts for it : 

Levi Hyde's Deposition. 

I, Levi Hyde, of Lawful age, Testify and Declare that in the year 
1765 (I being Clerk to the propriety of the Town of Lebanon) at that 
time had in possession the Charter of s<i Town and tbe Records of said 
propriety, the s<J Charter was Repositated in a Chest that stood in my 
house and was stuffed full of Clothes, & by some means (but how I 
know not) some mice got into sd chest and Eat, not only some of the 
Clothes, but the said Charter also, which was doubled together (& the 
Varmin, as I believe, & have sufficient ground therefor) Did eat out the 
middle of sc> Charter as it was folded or Doubled together, as may ap- 
pear by s<J Charter to the satisfaction of any person upon View thereof; 
& as proof that said Charter was Defac^ as aforesaid I found two mice 
dead in sa Chest, which had been lockt up therein for a time but how 
long I know not 

Levi Hyde 

State of New Hampshire, Grafton s.s. Lebanon June 8th 1886 
Personally Appeared the above named Levi Hyde & being Duly cau- 
tioned to speak the Truth made Solemn Oath to the truth of the above 
"Written Deposition. 

Attest John Wheatley Just. Peace 

Lebanon June 8th 1786 These may Certifie that I the Subscriber was 
Resident in said Lebanon & at the Dwelling House of the above Depo- 
nent when the Charter mentioned in the above Written Deposition was 
first Discovered to be Defaced as above Described & am fully pesuaded 
of the truth of the above Written Deposition. 

John Whealley 

Oct 20 1786 Voted to accept the offer of made by Mr Lemuel Hough 
& Mr Robert Colburn. 

Voted to raise the sum of one thousand pounds in order to pay ar- 
rearage taxes demanded by the State of New Hampshire to be paid in 
Beef, Pork, Flax, Wool, neat Stock, Butter & Cheese & Wheat, said ar- 
ticles to be paid in at the rate of Wheat at five Shillings per Bufhel 
agreeable to an offer made by Mr Lemuel Hough & Mr. Robert Colburn 
for paying said Taxes to the state for the abovesa sum of one thousand 
pounds in the above said articles, sd Hough & Colburn to have the 
profits of the Demands of the Town upon the state said Hough and Col- 
burn to become obligated to clear the town from Cofts. 


Voted that the Tax be made up and collected forthwith. 

Voted that the Selectmen be directed to make up two Rate Bills for 
sd purpofe, one Bill for the nominal sum Demanded by the state, the 
other Bill to be made up for the sum of one thousand pounds in the 
articles before mentioned 

This, then, was their way out of their difficulties. They had 
no money to meet the demands of the state, but they had the 
above mentioned articles. These they raised on their lands and 
could spare. Messrs. Hough and Colburn thought they could 
take these articles, turn them into money, and pay the demands 
of the state, and, using the set-off which the town pleaded against 
the state for expenses during the war, have something over. 
They were willing to take the risk, and bound themselves to save 
the town from loss. Each tax-payer's proportion of the one 
thousand pounds was to be ascertained first, and then he was 
to turn over to Mr. Hough enough of beef, pork, flax, wool, 
neat stock, butter, cheese, or wheat to meet the demand, suppos- 
ing wheat to be worth five shillings a bushel in prices — a good 
arrangement for the people and the only one open to them in 
their condition. It is to be wished it could be added that the 
arrangement was a good one for Messrs. Hough and Colburn. 
They certainly deserved a handsome profit as a reward for their 
energy and public spirit, but they did not attain it. It is under- 
stood that they lost, and lost heavily. They could not make 
ready sale of the afore-mentioned articles. The town saw and 
sympathized with their misfortune, but voted that they could do 
nothing to relieve them. 

John Wheatley, Esq., died July 30, 1786, in the sixty-seventh 
year of his age. His final record as town clerk was made 28th 
of March, 1786. The records of the annual town meeting of 
1787 are not found. 

Dec 3d 1787 Voted that the spot to set a Meeting House on be as near 
the Centre of the Town & Travel as any Judicious man shall judge 

Voted a Comtee of five men to pitch on the spot to set a Meeting House 
on. Chose Aaron Hutchinson Esq. Mr. W» Huntington, Capt. David 
Hough Col. Elisha Paine & Deacn Thoph. Huntington for the abovesaid 
purpose. Committee to report near the first of January next. 

Jan. 10, 1788. Voted that the place for a Meetinghouse to stand on, 
be near Mr. Abbotts [at the head of School Street]. 




Voted to build a meeting House near to Mr. Abbott's — to raise a sum 
of money for the purpose of Building a meetinghoufe, — to raise the sum 
of three hundred pounds for the purpofe of Building a Meeting House 
& that s<i sum be raifed by the first of January next — a committee of 
five men to view the Roads and accommodations respecting the par- 
ticular spot to erect the Meeting house on. Chase Aaron Hutchinson 
esq. Mr. W"> Huntington Capt Daire Hough Col. Elisha Payne & Dn 
Theoph Huntington committee for s<i purpose. 

Chose Col. Elisha Payne, Maj Math Wheatley, and Mr Lemuel Hough 
a Committee for Building the Meeting House. 

Chose Capt. David Hough a Delegate to attend the Convention to be 
holden at Exeter respecting the Federal Constitution & Voted a Comtee 
of nine men to give Instructions thereon Viz Col. Elish Payne, Mr Const 
Storrs, Aaron Hutchinson Esq. Maj John Griswold Col. Edmund Free- 
man Lt. Elisha Ticknor Maj Nathi Wheatley Capt. David Hough & 
Deac" Theoph Huntington Commtee 

Subsequently Captain Hough declined the office of delegate 
and Col. Elisha Payne was chosen. 

The confederation of the colonies was a work of haste under 
exigencies, and during the Eevolution its defects became mani- 
fest and embarrassing in the extreme. These defects were as 
follows: There was not coercive power in the Continental Con- 
gress. It had no power to punish individuals for any infraction 
of its land; it had no power to levy taxes or to collect revenue 
for the public service; they could apportion among the states 
the necessary sums, the states might raise them or not, according 
to their pleasure; it had no power to regulate either foreign or 
interstate commerce. Each state framed its own regulations of 
these important matters and they were often antagonistic. The 
want of uniform laws in these affairs left the Confederation at 
the mercy of foreign powers. 

Besides these defects there were others of less serious nature, 
but which yet stood in the way of national prosperity. 

In order therefore "to form a more perfect union, establish 
justice, insure domestic tranquility, promote the general wel- 
fare," a convention of the states assembled in Philadelphia to 
frame a new constitution. After months of labor and discus- 
sion, the present constitution was finished and sent out to the 
states for their approval. 

It was during these discussions that the people formed them- 



selves into political parties. Questions were then raised which 
survive to our own times, views upon which have had a control- 
ling influence upon the course of our affairs. 

One part of the people wished to give a certain supremacy to 
the general government over the state governments. These took 
the name of Federalists. Another portion of the people believed 
that no state should part with its sovereignty. It might dele- 
gate its powers for certain objects and ends, but never beyond 
recall. It was held whatever the state might give up, it should 
be able to resume at its pleasure. These were called Anti-Fed- 

Upon these grand points the people took sides and carried 
their discussions, not merely to warmth, but to bitterness. 
They rightly deemed these matters of the utmost consequence, 
and met them with a corresponding degree of feeling. 

When, therefore, a convention was called of the people of 
New Hampshire to sit in judgment upon the new constitution, 
they felt the importance of the work before them. We need not 
be surprised that the town thought it proper that their delegate 
should have the advantage of the deliberate judgment of her 
wisest citizens framed into instructions for his guidance. 

Another thing which made this convention important was the 
fact that eight states had already taken action upon it, and 
stamped it with their approval. The action of New Hampshire 
would be decisive, this being the ninth state to vote. If New 
Hampshire approved of it, its adoption is made certain. 

The convention met at Exeter in September, 1788. John Sul- 
livan was president. The provisions of the constitution were 
warmly discussed, and it was immediately manifest that some of 
its provisions would meet with strong opposition. The friends 
of the constitution feared the result, and an adjournment to a 
future day was proposed and carried, February 22, 1788. 

The convention met again at Concord, June 18, 1788. A com- 
mittee was appointed to prepare and recommend certain amend- 
ments. The convention reached a final vote on its adoption, Sat- 
urday, June 21, when the yeas and nays were called. While the 
secretary was calling over the names of the members and record- 
ing their votes, there was a death-like silence, every bosom 
throbbed with anxious expectation." We listen for the name 


of Colonel Payne and his answer — it is yea. The vote stood 
fifty-seven in favor and forty-six against the adoption. The vot- 
ing was conducted in silence, folloAved by intense excitement. 
Messengers started in all directions to announce the result. The 
vote of New Hampshire gave vitality to a government which later 
generations have held worth living and dying for. 

The closeness of the vote shows how nearly equally divided 
the people were upon the great questions of the constitution. 
We learn from the elders that they were most warmly discussed 
in this town. There were here Federalists and Anti-Federalists, 
who had their arguments and their arguments, at many times 
and "in divers places." 

It is said that the word Federalist came to a novel use. The 
pronunciation of it was made a test of soberness. If one in at- 
tempting to pronounce it rendered it Fetherlist, it was certain he 
had a "drop too much." Oftentimes accuser and accused both 
proved to be Fetherlists, not withstanding their party differ- 

At the annual meeting, March 11, 1788, we find an office filled 
for the first time — Joel Gilden and Sluman Lathrop, Surveyors 
of Lumber. This, after a time, became a prominent business in 
the town. Many of the magnificent pines "fit for masting the 
royal navy" found their way down the Connecticut to "Old 
Harford" and intermediate points. 

Capt. David Hough was chosen representative to the General 
Assembly. Votes for president of the state: Hon. John Sulli- 
van, Esq., 82 ; John Langdon, Esq., 1 ; Beza Woodward, 3. For 
senator for Grafton County, Elisha Payne, Esq., had 57 votes; 
Jonathan Freeman of Hanover, 12. 

December 15. 1788, the town held its election for represent- 
atives to Congress. The state then had no congressional dis- 
tricts, as now, but each town voted for the three members to 
which the state was entitled, as many then, it will be noted, as 
we have now. The vote was as follows : 

Benj. Bellows Esq. 29 Elisho Payne Esq. 32 

John Sullivan Esq. 20 Simeon Olcott Esq. 15 

Saini Livermore Esq. 22 Beza Woodward Esq. 7 

Benj. West Esq. 17 Moses Dow Tsq. 3 


At the same time the town voted for the first time for five 
presidential electors, with the following result : 

John Dailey Esq. 21 John Sullivan Esq. 14 

John Pickering Esq. 22 Simeon Olcott Esq. 2 

Joshua Wentworth Esq. 20 Timothy Walker Esq. 1 

Samuel Sherburne Esq. 21 Elisha Payne Esq. 5 

Nathi Adams Esq. 23 Moses Dow Esq. 3 

Benj. Bellows Esq. 16 Sami Livermore Esq. 5 

Charles Johnston Esq. 13 Francis Smith Tsq. 1 

Beza Woodward Esq. 16 Peter Green Esq. 1 

Moses Chase Esq. 10 John Stephens 1 

February 2, 17S9, the town met again for the choice of repre- 
sentatives to Congress. Benj. West had 23 votes, Saml. Liver- 
more 23, Abiel Foster 23. Samuel Livermore, Abiel Foster and 
Nicholas Gilman were elected, the last not among the candidates 
voted for in this town. The smallness of the vote shows that 
little interest was taken in this election. 

At the annual meeting, March. 1789, for president of the state. 
John Sullivan, Esq., had 80 votes, John Pickering, Esq., 2, Benj. 
Bellows 2. 

For senator from Grafton County, Jonathan Freeman had 65 
votes, Elisha Payne, Esq.. 16. 

Capt. David Hough chosen representative. 

The following is an instance of a proceeding common at the 
time, but not known in our day — the binding out of a boy : 

This indenture made the sixth day of August anno domini 17S9 
Between Jesse Cook, Stephen Billings and Gideon Baker, Selectmen of 
Lebanon in the county of Grafton and state of New Hampshire of the 
one part and Samuel Weathers of Woodstock in the county of Windsor 
and state of Vermont, Husbandmen of the other part witnesseth — that 
the said Selectmen, by and with the Consent of two of the justices of 
the peace for the said county of Grafton have by these presents put, 
placed, and Bound John Patrick Juner, of the age of twelve years on 
the twelfth day of Dec. last, a poor boy belonging to Lebanon whose 
parents John Patrick and Molly his wife are not able to maintain him, 
to be an apprentice with him the said Samuel, and as an apprentice 
with him the said Samuel to dwell from the date of these presents 
until] he, the said John Patrick Juner, shall Come to the age of twenty- 
one years, according to the law in such case provided, by and during 
all which time and term the said John Patrick jjuner shall the said 
Samuel his said master well and faithfully serve in all such lawful 
business as he, the said John Patrick juner, may be put to by the Com- 



mand of his said master, according to the wit, power, and ability of 
him the said John Patrick juner & honestly and obediently shall behave 
himself in all things towards his said master, and honestly and orderly 
towards the rest of the family of the said Samuel, — and the said 
Samuel doth hereby covenant for his part, with the said selectmen for 
them and their successors in office and for the said John Patrick jun. 
that he, the said Samuel, shall teach and instruct him the said John 
Patrick jun. in the mistery and occupation of Husbandry and also shall 
learn him to read and write, and shall also find him with sufficient 
meat drink apparel and other things needful for an apprentice, so that 
the said apprentice shall not dureing said term be a charge to the said 
town of Lebanon, and shall at the expiration of said term dismiss the 
said apprentice with two new suits of Cloths, one suitable for Sabbath 
days, the other for other days 

In Witness whereof the Parties hereunto have set their hands and 
seals the day and the year first above written 

Signed sealed and delivered 

In presents of Samuel Mathews 

John Colburn Jr 
Aaron Hutchinson Jesse Cook 

Stephen Billings 
Gid. Baker 

We Elihu Hyde and Aaron Hutchinson two of the justices of the 
peace for the County of Grafton within mentioned do hereby declare 
and assent to the binding of the within named John Patrick Juner an 
apprentice to the within named Samuel Weathers according to the 
form & effect of the within written Indenture. Given under our hands 
the sixth day of August Anno Domini 1789 

Elihu Hyde 
Aaron Hutchinson 

A New Meeting House. 

For some time past, a meeting-house has appeared upon the 
records. Several votes indicated that the matter was settled 
and the meeting-house built long before this. Not by any means ! 
So far they have been only thinking, planning and voting. As 
yet there has been only some preliminary skirmishing between 
the parties, now and then a reconnoisance, sometimes "in force." 
to feel each other's strength. But the real battle is now at hand, 
and the historian will devote himself to this one subject until 
the meeting-house is located and built. The records supply the 
best history and become quite dramatic in their interest. 

April 9 1789 Voted to build a Meeting House near to Mr Abbotts [head 


of School Street] where a former Comtee stuck a stake for that Purpose, 
by a majority of eighteen votes. 

So once more the people of the center and eastern parts of the town 
have prevailed. By no means. For there is debate and discussion and 
next : — 

Voted to reconsider the matter respecting building a meeting house, 
near to Mr Abbotts and it is accordingly reconsidered!! 

Voted to choose a committee of four men to find the center of this 
Town. Chose Col. Elisha Payne, Aaron Hutchinson Esq. Deacn Theo- 
philus Huntington, and Capt. David Hough a committee for s<i purpose 

A good committee of the first citizens of the town. 

This was in April. In June we make a new acquaintance, the 
shadowy form of the present town hall rises before us. There 
has been much talk and planning between the afternoon of the 
7th of April and the 22nd of June. A new object is presented 
for the suffrages of the people — for a "majority of eighteen 
votes," more or less. 

Voted to Build a Town House on some convenient spot of ground 
tbat shall be agreed on by this Town and that the Society (religious) 
have Liberty to add to s'd house to make it convenient for Public Wor- 
ship & make use of it for s'd purpose as they shall see fit. 

Voted to raise two hundred pounds for the purpose of building a 
Town House — that the Selectmen be directed to measure from the cen- 
ter tree to the several spots proposed to set a Town House and report 
the distance to each spot at an adjourned meeting 

This now is the problem whose solution we watch with intense 
interest — Whether a town house with a meeting-house attached 
can be more readily located than a meeting-house, pure and 

Oct 1. 1789 met and heard the report of the Select men respecting the 
distance from the center of the Town to the several spots proposed to 
set a Town House on. Adjourned for one quarter of an hour. Prob- 
ably at the suggestion of the Leaders of various parties who wish time 
to consult, possibly to look at the different "spots." 

Met according to adjournment and voted to build a Town House on 
Mr Peek's land, northerly of the Road about six rods easterly of a 
green pine tree standing in his field — that the Selectmen be a com- 
mittee to lay out the spot of ground for to set s'd House on & also a 
parade sufficient to answer said purpose as they sball judge necessary — 
that Capt. David Hough. Ensign Hezh Waters and Lt. Conslant Storrs 
be a Comttee to draught the fashion of s«i House. Voted that Col Elisha 
Payne be a Comtee ma n to assist in s'a drughts, Adjourned for four 


The committee this time are all military men, bristling with 
titles. Something may be expected from the well-known energy 
and efficiency of that class of men. 

Oct 29. 1779. Met and voted to accept the draught of s'a House as ex- 
hibited by the Conitee. Adjourned for 15 minutes. Met and Chose a 
Comtee to forward the building of s'a House. Chose Mr Simeon Peck. 
Maj Nathaniel Wheatley & Capt. David Hough Comtee for said purpose. 

By this time the town house is so assured that it is time to 
think of disposing of the old meeting-house standing on its origi- 
nal location, so they vote that the selectmen be empowered to 
dispose of it, exclusive of private property, after said house is not 
wanted for public use. 

The "spot" selected for the town house as above was near 
Scytheville, probably in the vicinity of S. A. Peck's. The exact 
place is uncertain, for the ' ' Green Pine Tree, " is no longer vis- 

Still farther: 

Voted that the several Surveyors of highways be a Comtee to collect 
the votes of every legal voter in Town respecting the spot to set a 
Town House on, in order to accommodate the whole Town, and make 
return to the adjourned meeting. 

Nov 27th Met and adjourned to Dec 4. Met at the house of Mr. 
Simeon Peck and adjourned for half an hour. Met and adjourned till 
the second Tuesday in Marcb, and the fore named Comtee be directed 
not to proceed in matters respecting s'a House till s'd time of adjourn- 

March 9 1790 Met and Adjourned till March 25 inst. Met according 
to adjournment and voted to reconsider all the votes respecting s'a 
Town House. Voted to dissolve s'd Meeting 

Spring came and ripened into summer, summer faded into au- 
tumn, and autumn sank into bare and leafless winter. Several 
town meetings were held during the season, but not one word 
concerning either meeting-house or town house. 

Suddenly, in a gloomy day of December, it was the 20th day 
A. D. 1790, like thunder out of a clear sky, comes this vote : 

Voted that the place to set a Meeting-house on (it is to be a meeting 
house after all) be near Mr. Abbotts. Voted to choose a Comtee of 8 
men to choose a comtee respecting s<i meeting house (the town clerk 
uses no capital this time, as though he had little faith in it). Chose 
Capt Human Lathrop, Capt David Hough, Mr Clap Sumner, Maj. 
Wheatley St. Constant Storrs Ens. Hezh Waters Col. Edmand Freeman. 


Mr Simeon Peck. Adjourned 15 minutes Met. Committee recommend 
that Lt. Constant Storrs Mr. Simeon Peck Capt. Hough & Ensign Waters 
be a Comtee to prepare a plan and devise measures for the building 
s'd Meeting House, and report to ajourned meeting 

Dec. 27 1790 Voted to reconsider the former vote respecting building 
a meeting House near Mr Abbotts. And so closed the year 1790 

The records for the year 1791 are missing. The subject of a 
meeting house seems to have come up during the year, for at 
the annual meeting, March 13, 1792, " Voted to reconsider a 
former vote to build a meeting house," by Mr. Simeon Peck. 

About this time the old meeting house, which had patiently 
waited the decision of the town, whether it should be supplanted 
by another, and wondered whether the adventures of the new 
would equal those of the old, suddenly disappeared. It was on 
the long contested spot in the early evening. It was not there in 
the morning. "A company of young men, headed by one 'Cap- 
tain Stubbs ' alias Comfort Allen, gathered in the night and pro- 
ceeded quietly to remove the bone of contention, and before the 
morning light, the house of worship was levelled to the ground. 
The timber was bought by private persons and the house rebuilt 
on the hill near H. Farnam's, and continued to be used for meet- 
ings for several years." — Dr. Allen's Centennial. 

It appears that the house was not wholly torn down, but some 
part of it remained, for with a sort of grim humor, the warning 
for a meeting immediately after calls upon the legal voters to 
meet in town meeting "at the standing Part of the old meeting 
house in said Lebanon." The town also took measures to pun- 
ish those who had assaulted the old house. 

It is not difficult to ascertain the motive for this destruction 
of the old house. It was not, probably, mere wanton mischief, 
such as young men will sometimes indulge in, but had a bear- 
ing on the great controversy. Judging from some of the votes 
passed, and other circumstances, a division of the people was im- 
pending, and there was a threat of two meeting houses. One 
party, the west and southwest of the town, were satisfied with the 
old location and proposed to keep the old house. The center and 
east saw that they must either go there, or else assume the ex- 
pense of a new house. It was considered that if the old house 
was out of the way, there was small probability that those in that 
part of the town would build alone a new house. 


From painting by J. J. Jennys, June 23, 1802. 


It is only in the light of such conjectures that this vote, passed 
April 26, 1792, can be understood : 

Voted to unite and build one meeting house for the town. — to Build 
a meeting house on or Near the old meeting house spot. — To Choose a 
Commtee to Build s'a house viz Lemuel Hough, Capt. David Hough, 
Hezekiah Waters, Aaron Hutchinson. Esq., Lt Constant Storrs, Voted 
that the above Commtee set a stake where the house shall stand — that 
they Draw a Plan for sa house and lay it Before our Next meeting, and 
Draw a subscription to Raise money to Build s'a house 

At this meeting the west and southwest people prevailed. It 
was probably a reaction in their favor from the destruction of 
the old house. But 

May 7. 1792 Voted to Reconsider a former vote of uniting and 
Building a meeting house for the town altogether. — To releas the above 
Commit from Building a meeting house — that the Town will Except of 
the money subscribed of those that tore down the old meeting house if 
there is suficient, subscribed to sattisfy the* agents. 

Besides Comfort Allen, who was the leader in the raid on the 
old house, it is more than probable that the following persons 
were "there or thereabouts," Eliel Peck, Jonathan Quimby, 
James Ayers, Nathaniel Kimball, Moses Persons, Joseph Lath- 
rop, Gordon Lathrop, Joseph Byington, Enoch Worthen, Urban 


May 17 1792 Voted to choose a Committee to set half an hour to 
see if they can agree on a Place to Build a meeting house Committee — 
Capt Nathi Hall, Capt David Hough, Clap Sumner. Adjourned for half 
an hour. Met and Committee report that the westerly side of the 
Plane on which Robert Colburn now lives is the Place for a meeting 
house about 25, or 30 rods southerly from the School house on sa Plains 

Voted to form the meeting into a Committee of the whole and go 
out and Vew the Spot Reported by s<"- Committee for the meeting house 

Voted to Except the Report of the Commt which was to Build a 
meeting house on the s' d Plain within 25 or 30 rods of a school-house. 
S<i vote carried By a majority of 104 to 41 

Voted to reconsider a former vote for Building a meeting house By 
Esq. Elihu Hydes, sd vote passed the 26*h of April Last. 

Voted to go on and Build a meeting house on or Near the Stake 
which the committee of the whole stuck; Not more than 25 or 30 rods 
from s<i stake. 

Capt. David Hough, Lieut. Constant Storrs, Mr. Stephen Bil- 
lings, Lieut. Robert Colburn, Capt. Nathaniel Hall, Mr. Clap 
Sumner were chosen a committee to build said house. The com- 


mittee was instructed "to make out a subscription and Raise as 
much money as they can and sell the Pew ground, and finish 
s d house; and when finished, if money remains in their hand 
Raised by subscription and sail of Pew ground, to be Refunded 
Back to the subscribers; s a Committee to Build according to the 
old Plan." Also the committee are instructed to "look out all 
Necessary roads Leading to s d meeting house spot." 

The meeting house is located finally by this decisive vote. 
Though it does not appear in the records, the decisive consid- 
eration was a generous offer by Robert Colburn to give to the 
town what is now the park, if they would locate the house upon 
it. The park was then a field under cultivation, hence the direc- 
tion to the committee "to look out roads to the meeting house 
spot." That spot was some distance inside the present fence 
and a little to the west of its present location as a town hall, 
for that is the building where fortunes were so raised. 

Though the above vote for the location of the meeting house 
seems a very decisive one, there was dissatisfaction. The de- 
feated party did not lose heart, and made another trial to have 
the location changed. 

A special meeting was called for the 11th of September, 1792. 
at eight o'clock a. m., "to see if the town will agree upon some 
just Plan of measuring, whereby they may find a spot to set a 
meeting house upon that may Do Equal justice to the whole of 
the Inhabitants of s d Lebanon and do any other Business Relative 
thereto that they shall think propper. Voted to Chuse a comm' 
to Propose a Plan of measurement to find where the center of 
Travel is in s d Lebanon. Chose Nath 1 Porter Dan 1 Alden, Capt 
Dan 1 Phelps Capt David Hough for above said Purpose Ad- 
journed for half an hour" 

Met and the committee reported ' ' that a former Plan of meas- 
urement to find the center of Travel should be the Present Plan." 
Voted not to accept said plan. 

The 12th day of November, 1792, they voted "to choose a 
Comm 1 to set with the old meeting house comm 1 to see if they 
could agree on Sumthing that should make harmony and union 
in said town in Regard to meeting house affairs. Chose Jesse 
Cook, Aaron Hutchinson Nath 1 Storrs Robert Colburn" 

The following is the report of the committee : 



Nov 16 1892. Agreed that the Rev<J Isaiah Potter's Hearers Shall be 
considered as one Family, and that there be an Indifferent Comtte from 
out of Town that shall take Mr Potters rate bill View it. and have the 
Hired men and those that aint a going to live in Town not reck<J and 
the rest reckon^ as in said family and the said Comtte shall ride into 
Each and Every part of this Town and view Every Circumstance of said 
Family as to Attendance on Publick worship, and say whether the said 
Family shall meet all the Time at the repaired Meeting-house, or all 
the time at the new Meeting-house, or whether at each of said houses 
part of the time, and if so. then in what Proportion at Each of said 
Houses so as to do Equal justice to Each member of said Family, as to 
attendance and Publick worship 

Jesse Cook 

Robert Colburn 

Cook Papers 

Nov. 22 1792 Voted that a disinterested Com" be chosen to Deter- 
mine a center spot for a meeting house for Publick worship, which 
Commtt shall consider the travel as it Respects quality and quantity 
and actually measure to find the same and say where in Justis it ought 
to be Erected upon the consideration of Every Circumstance of the 
Present and future Inhabitents — Provided measures are taken to Pre- 
vent injustis in the Respect to Subscriptions for work Done on the 
house already raised. 

Nov 26. Voted to Reconsider the last claws in the last vote (viz 
Provided measures are taken to Prevent injustis with Respect to Sub- 
scriptions and work Done on the meeting-house already Raised. Chose 
a commt in town to measure s* town. Chose a commt to nominate a 
Commt. viz Nathi Porter, Lemuel Hough Clap Sumner Dean Downer 
Charles Saxton. Adjourned for % an hour. Met and Commt report 
that Stephen Billings Lt. Joseph Wood. Dani Hough Capt. Asher Allen 
be a commt to measure s^ town and are accordingly chosen with the 
substitution of Samuel Estabrooks for Stephen Billings who declined 

December 24. 1792. the committee reported as follows : 

Lebanon Dec 17 1792 

To the Inhabitants of the Town of Lebanon — Greeting ! 

We. the subscribers that were appointed By s d Town as a committee 
to measure & find where sa Town could get together with the Least 
Travel — have accordingly Gone and measured & calculated to Different 
Spots and Beg leve to Report. 

In the first Place we calculated the said Travel to the New meeting 
house & secondly to the mouth of the Lane Between Mr James Jones 
& Mr. Nathaniel Storrs and found that there was 215 miles & 29 rods 
less Soul Travel to s*a lane than to the New Meeting house — Likewise we 
found the land Travel to the aforesaid spots to Be 37 miles & 246 (rods* 
the least Travel to the New meeting house Reconing one travel from. 


Each habitable Hundred acre Lot. Likewise we found it to Be 52 miles 
& 303 Rods more Land Travel to Mr Peck's spot than to the New 
meeting house. 

Samuel Estabrook' 

Dan'i Hough 

Asher Allen 

Joseph Wood Jr 


In the above report the "land travel" means the distance to 
the specified points from each inhabited house in town. By 
"soul travel" is meant this distance multiplied by the number 
of persons living in each house. From the report it appears that 
the meeting-house on the Plain was nearer a geographical center 
of the town than the other localities, but that the center of popu- 
lation was at the "mouth of the lane between James Jones and 
Nathaniel Storrs," which was in the neighborhood of Abel 
Storrs '. 

This report seems to have been final. The meeting-house, 
which had been already raised and work done upon it, stood its 
ground. We at this day see that the location was wisely chosen. 
The village is both the geographical and the natural center of 
the town. 

Various papers relative to this meeting house are here given. 
The people had little money to vote or give for the expense of 
building, but they had material and labor. The following is the 
subscription of the inhabitants: 

Coppy of Subscription Paper for the Purpose of raising money for 
Building a Meetinghouse on the plain by Robert Colburns. 









Stephen Billings 3-0 

Simeon Peck 20-0 

Isaiah Potter 15 -0 -0 

Isaac Walbridge 3-0-0 

Josiah Cleaveland 5-0 

Jabez Kellogg 2-0-0 

John Colburn Jun 9-0-0 

Beriah Abbott 10 -0 -0 

Elkanah Sprague 5 -0 -0 

Withiral Hough 7-10 -0 

Jonathan Hamilton 5-0-0 

Roger Hebbard 0-6-0 

Zenas Alden 4-0-0 

Asa Woodward 1-10 -0 

Daniel Cushing 1-10 -0 

Benjamin Gary 2-0-0 

John And ros 3-0-0 

Elial Peck 1 -0 -0 

Jahleel Peck 4 -0 -0 

Sam' Estabrook 9-0-0 

Ziba Huntington 2-0-0 

Sherekiah Ballard 5 -0 -0 

Jesse Cook 15 -0 -0 

Charles Saxton 2-0-0 

Nathi Bidwell 3 -0 -0 

Daniel Barker 2-0-0 

Robert Colburn 20-0-0 

Andrew Wheatly 3-6-0 

Asa Fitch 1-10 -0 

Ashur Allen 1-5-0 

Daniel Wills 1 -0 -0 

Ebba Peck 2-0-0 

Arad Simons 4-0-0 

Abijah Chandler 2 -0 -0 

Richard Corning 2-0-0 

Ebenezer Bliss 2-0-0 

David Hough 15 -0 -0 

Nathan Durkee 4-0-0 

Lemuel Hough 15 -0 -0 

Sluman Lathrop 5-0-0 

Samuel Lathrop 4-0-0 

ZureEldridge 2 -0 -0 

Daniel Bliss 4-0-0 

Jonathan Quimby 2-0-0 

Constant Storrs 20 -0 -0 

Nathaniel Storrs 10 -0 -0 

Jonathan Bosworth 2-0-0 

Nathi Bosworth 1-0-0 













Stephen Bliss £3 

James Hartshorn 0-15 

Phinias Parkhurst 5 -0 

Hezekiah Waters 3-0 

Aaron Hutchinson 15 -0 

Clap Sumner 10 -0 

Reuben Putnam 1-4 

Andrew Aldrich 10 

Fredrick Cook -5 

Pelam Cook -5 

Joseph Basf ord 0-5 

Simeon Cook 0-10 

David Stoddard 1-0 

John Payne 2-10 

Noah Powers 1-10 

James Bellows 1-10 

Phineas Allen 3 -0 

Alexander Cambell 3-0 

Nathan Blodgett 3-0 

Abial Wills 1-10 

Cady Allen 3-0 

Walter Peck 6-0 

Diarca Allen 5-0 

Enoch Redington 1-10 

Elisha Payne 10 -0 

Jeriah Sweatland 1-10 

Benj. Fuller 1-10 

David Whitmore 3-0 

Zacheus Downer 8-0 

Richard Aldrich 6-0 

John Chapman 2-0 

Oliver Ellis 2 -0 

Gideon Baker 4-0 

Andrew Baker l -0 

Gideon Baker Jun 2-10 

Richard Lyman 4-0 

James Hibbard 3-0 

John Porter 5-0 

Daniel Hough 4-0 

James Ayers 2-0 

Enoch Freeman 1-0 

Richard H Little 1-0 

Daniel Alden 7-0 

Total £398 -5 









353 S. 

Whereas the Town of Lebanon Did on the seventeenth Day of May 
1792 vote to Erect a Meeting-house near the western part of the plain 
on which Robert Colburn lives in s'a Lebanon, And whereas David Hough 
Constant Storrs, Robert Colburn, Stephen Billings, Nathi Hall and Clap 
Sumner are A committee appointed for that Purpose and whereas the 
said Comtea have undertaken to lay out money or certicutes that may 
be subscribed towards Erecting said house the Subscribers in Consid- 
eration of said undertaking do Each one promise the said Comtee to pay 
them the sum or sums Set against our Respective names in the Articules 
specified at or before the 25 day of Dec next in witness of our hands 

Lebanon 21st May A. D. 1792 the above is a coppy 

Stephen Billings s'a Comtee & Clerk 





5 VH 









c^7 W 

7 ty£ 





*4 { 

3>/ £A^, 

7 4* 


1 %' 


7 fy £ 

*** 33 






7 Cs £ 

7 fy£ 

7 fy * 
wS 3£ 


7 oy £ 






Floor Plan of the Meeting House on the Common, now the Town Hall. 

A debit and credit account was opened with each one of the 
subscribers and others, of which a few examples are added show- 
ing the condition of things in those days : 

Aaron Hutchinson Cattle or Grain 
To A Pew on the floor of the house No 21 

Contra Cridet by Cash Laid out for rum 
Oct. 1792 by a yoak of Oxen and one Cow 



d. Money 


£ 1 


















I— I 


















By two cows 

By a note of hand against Joel Tilden 

Samuel Estabrooks in stock or grain 

20 Deer 1793 by one half A. Pew on the floor No 10 

Contra Cridet 
By an order from Thos Hough 






By Robert Colburn 2 

By a yoake of steers S 

By one yearling Hiffer 1 

By a Pr of two years old stears 9 

Nathaniel Storrs Subscription 10 
19 Dec 1793 by one half of A Pew on the floor No 32 20 

To his Pew in the Gallery No 13 15 

Contra Cridit 
Feby 9 1793 By his acompt this day exhibited 
Also by cash 

By 6 thousand 10' Nails at 15/ 
By one Hogshead & 1/3 of Lyme at 45/ 
by an order from Thomas Hough 
by flax & flax-seed & Cash 
1. Oct.r 1793 Cr By three Creatars 
19 Dec Cr By two Due Bills 

John Porter £ 5 

17 Dec 1793 By a half of a Pew on the floor No 44 
Bid of By Richard Lyman 11 

Contra Cridet 
Jan 1793 as by his acct this day exhibited 
By eight Bushels of Wheat 
Oct. 1793 By pr of two years old stears 
By his Due Bill 

Levi Webster Dr 
By Sundrys 

Contra Cridet 

s. d. Money 














































By himself and Son framing Meeting house thirty 16 



It will be seen that the amount of cash in the subscriptions 
was small, £17, 13s. The remainder was paid in various articles 
and ways — in produce from the farm, in lumber and labor. A 
few of the articles turned in were the following: "A yearling 
Hiffer," a "pair of two year old stears," "Belfry Job," "3 
creatars," "1 Gal rum" by three different persons; seven and 
one half gallons by one person. These, to us, are novel contri- 
butions to a meeting-house, but they gave what they had. 





















' T- 



**a / 










fy V-2 





Gallery Plan of the Meeting House jm the Common, moved in 1850. 




After the house was enclosed and the pew ground laid out 
the committee proceeded to sell the pews according to the fol- 
lowing advertisement : 


Lebanon 10th January 1793 to be sold at Public Vendue to tbe highest 
Bidder or Bidders the Pews in the New Meeting house at Lieut Robert 
Colburns Dwellinghouse in Lebanon on thirsday the thirty first day 
of Jany instant at nine o'clock in the forenoon. One fourth part of the 
pay to be made this Winter, and the remainder Next Christmas in 
wheat at five Shillings pr Bush or Neat Stock equivalent 

By order of the Com" 

Stephen Billing Cointte Clerk 

N. B. if the Stock is paid in the Last Payment it must be by the 
first of Octr next 

Lebanon Jan. 31st A. D. 1793 the Vendue was opened agreeable to the 
above advertisement and the No? pew was sold to the following Per- 
sons (viz) 




£ S. 






No 42 to Lieut. Samuel Lathrop.. 
No 28 to Lieut Robert Colburn . . . 
No 10 to Lieut Sam : Estabrook... 


No 11 to Dea n Zacheus Downer. . 


No 41 to Daniel Hough 

Jan. 31st 1793 this Vendue is adjourned to the twenty fifth of Feb>- 
1793 Stephen Billing Conite clerk 

Feb. 25 1793 Met according to adjournment and opened the Vendue 
and proceeded to sell and accordingly we sold the following Pews to the 
following person (viz) Attest. Stephen Billing Clerk 

No 18 to Cady Allen 

No 17 to Beriah Abbott 

No 40 to Oliver Ellis 

No 16 to Zenas Alden 

No 15 to Phineas Allen 

No 14 to Coli Elisha Pavne 

No 43 to John Colburn Sr 

No 44 to Richard Lyman 

No 36 to Capt. Josiah Cleaveland.. 

No 33 to Lieut Robert Colburn 

No 24 to Lemuel Davenport 

No 23 to Moses Persons 

No 21 to Aaron Hutchinson Esq 

25 Feb. 1793 this Vendue is ad- 
journed until the fifteenth 
day of March next 

No 20 to'Capt. Asher Alden 

No 37 to Jacob Ela 

No 45 to Jonathan Quimby 

No 48 to Jonathan Bosworth of 
Enfield ... 




■ ■ ■ . 1 


• •• . 1 









• • • - 










• • ■ « 




Fifteenth of March 1793 met ac- 
cording to adjournment opened 
the vendue and sold the follow- 
ing Pews to the following per- 
sons (viz) 

No 6 to Asa Woodward 

No 22 to Joel Tilden 

No 34 to Cap' David Hough 

No 3 to Cap 1 Arad Simons 

15 March 1793 This Vendue was 
adjourned from time to time &c 
and the remainder part of the 
pews was sold 

No 19 to Capt Shuman Lathrop. . 

No 47 to Richard Aldrich 

No 46 to Capt Joseph Wood 

No 35 to Abijah Chandler 

No 5 to Capt Constant Storrs 

No 12 to Simeon Peck 

No 27 to John Baswell 






















Sold the Town Nos 26, 38, 39. 

The following are the Pews set to the several Persons as sold in the 
Gallery of the house. Attest Stephen Billing 

No 16 to Capt Daniel Phelps. . 
No 15 to Urial Huntington. .. 
No 14 to Capt Sluman Lathrop 
No 5 to Capt. Constant Storrs. 
No 17 to Capt Constant Storrs. 

No 13 to Nathi Storrs 

No 18 to Capt David Hough... 

No 27 to Jesse Cook 

No 19 to Lemuel Hough 

No 12 to Thomas Hough 

No 30 to William Corning 

No 29 to David Whitmore 

No 28 to John Porter 








. . • ■ 





















No 20 to Abial Wills 

No 21 to John Colburn Jr 

No 4 to Capt Joseph Wood Jr 

No 3 to Daniel Alden 

No 2 to Witherell Hough 

No 1 to Noah Powers 

No 11 to Rev. Isaiah Potter 

No 8 to Daniel Stickney of En- 

No 7 to Lieut Sam 1 Estabrooks.. 

No 26 to Jesse Cook 

No 24 one half to Beniah Abbott. 
No 22 to the town 









The net sum realized from the sale of the pews seems to have 
been £1449, 19s., 7d., which was more than enough to cover the 
expense of building. Accordingly the amount of each man's 
subscription was refunded to him, for which he gave a receipt 

as follows: 

Lebanon 30th Dec 1794 

Rec'd of the Cointe for erecting the New Meeting house in Lebanon 
five pounds twelve shillings being in full for my subscription, and I 
promise said Comtee to repay a part back if wanted to compleat s^ 
house in a maner agreeable to the vote of s'd town Respecting subscrip- 
tions for said house 

By me Diarca Allen. 

The way in which this repayment was managed seems to have 
been this : When a subscriber bought a pew he was credited the 
amount of his subscription on the price of the pew, paying the 
balance. Thus Diarca Allen's subscription was five pounds and 
twelve shillings. He bought one half of No. 15 on the floor at 
£10, 5s., which, less the amount of his subscription, would leave 
£4, 13s., as the amount to be paid for the pew. 

The house thus built was originally fifty feet front and sixty 
feet rear. It was moved from its original position in 1868, en- 
larged and remodelled and is now occupied as a town hall. 

In February, 1895, the historian became the fortunate pos- 
sessor of a little volume, "Early Lebanon." The Lebanon is in 
Connecticut. In this book there is a chapter, "The Meeting 
House War, ' ' the substance of which is here given : 

When the settlement of Lebanon began, 1697, a broad avenue, 
thirty rods wide, was laid out and upon each side home-lots of 
forty-two acres were staked out. About midway of this broad 


avenue a place was selected for a meeting-house, "fixed and es- 
tablished forever," to prevent any future controversies as the 
town became more populous. 

In 1700 two of the settlers bought a large tract of land north 
of the town, which they desired to have annexed to Lebanon. To 
this the proprietors of Lebanon objected, having, it seems, a pro- 
phetic discernment of a meeting-house controversy. The pur- 
chasers of the new tract answered that their land was large 
enough for a society of its own, and that they would reserve 
thereon a location for a meeting-house, and that the first should 
never be in any way disturbed. Upon this condition the annexa- 
tion took place. 

In 1724 the society voted to build a new and larger meeting- 
house on the old location, but so much opposition developed that 
nothing was done. In 1724 the society of Goshen was set off 
from the southwesterly part of the town, resulting in this : that 
the first house was no longer in the geographical center of the 
town, putting a new argument in the mouths of those desiring a 
change of place. Appeal was made to the General Assembly, 
which in 1731 appointed a committee to visit the place and de- 
termine the matter. After hearing the parties the committee 
fixed upon the original location, that being the agreement of the 
first settlers that it should remain forever on that spot. 

The fires burned higher and hotter. The reply was that the 
original agreement was only a vote and, therefore, repealable; 
that if originally binding, the bonds were broken, because one 
of the parties had gone out — the Goshen society — and they pro- 
tested more fiercely than ever against being compelled to pay 
their full share of the expense of the new building, whose loca- 
tion was so inconvenient for them, and that they were expecting 
soon to form a new society and build a house for themselves. 

Upon their application another meeting was called and held 
in 1732, when it was voted that within eighteen years thereafter, 
but not before six years, there should be set off a new society 
in the northern part by a dividing line agreed upon and de- 
scribed in the vote; that until the new society should be so set 
off the northern settlers should continue to pay their share to- 
wards the building and keeping in repair a meeting-house on 
the old site; that a separate account of all the moneys so paid 


by the people north of the line described should be kept, and 
that when the new society was formed, and had built a meeting- 
house of their own, all the money so paid by them should be re- 
funded to them by the old society, to be applied toward the 
building of their own meeting-house ; and that application should 
be made to the General Assembly for an act ratifying and con- 
firming this agreement. The application was made and the Gen- 
eral Assembly sanctioned, ratified and confirmed it. 

Certainly an eminently fair bargain, which restored peace to 
the contending parties. The new meeting-house was built by 
the parties in common, and the cost to the northern settlers was 
carefully kept, and all was quiet until 1767, a period of thirty 
years. The eighteen years passed away without any movement 
to build among the northern people. 

By this time repairs were needed upon the central house, and 
the question arose who should pay for them. The first society 
voted that if the northern people should within a reasonable 
time procure an act of incorporation, then the old society would 
pay back the sums paid by the others. 

Still nothing was done by either party. The question was 
raised whether, since the eighteen years fixed and sanctioned by 
the General Assembly had long ago expired, the first society were 
bound by their new vote, and whether it might not be repealed 
at any future meeting. This was a matter of many discussions, 
until 1772, when at the request of the northern people, a society 
meeting was called, at which it was voted, by a majority of two, 
to take down the central house and build farther north, at the 
then center of population. But this would remove the house to 
the great inconvenience of the southern part of the town. They 
remonstrated and petitioned the General Assembly for their 
further interposition in the affair. The assembly at its October 
session, 1772, appointed a committee to examine the matter and 
report to the assembly in May, 1773. That report was in suh- 
stance as follows : That there was an ancient agreement that 
the meeting-house should stand upon Meeting-House Hill, its 
first site; that this agreement was made for good reasons, and 
ought to be held sacred and inviolable; that it was then ex- 
pected that the northern people would have a society of their 
own. and a dividing line was agreed upon and provisions were 



made to reimburse them for whatever sums they might pay to the 
ancient society, and that the building should remain in its first 
location, and that the new society, when it should build, should 
have the money contributed by them refunded. 

The General Assembly approved the report, fixed the location 
on the spot it had always occupied, ordered that it should be 
kept in repair by the whole society, and that if the northern 
people should form a new society within five years then all the 
money they had paid in should be returned to them. 

Then it was said that the assembly had neither ratified nor 
disallowed the votes of the old society, and they did not know 
whether those votes were legally binding or not. The northern 
people, not feeling able to build without the certain return of 
the advancements which they had made to the first society, took 
no steps to form a society. 

For a time something like harmony prevailed between the fac- 
tions, but it was the calm before the cyclone. 

By 1802 the meeting-house again needed repairs, and at a 
meeting called to consider the subject, a vote was passed by a 
majority present, refusing to repair it. Some of the southern 
people again appealed to the General Assembly, reciting the facts 
and asking relief. After a hearing the assembly authorized and 
empowered the inhabitants south of the proposed dividing line 
for a new society, to tax themselves for repairs, to call meetings, 
choose certain officers, to lay and collect taxes for such purpose, 
and to make future repairs, exempting all the inhabitants north 
of the line from any liability for such taxes or repairs, but saying 
nothing of the legal rights, privileges or franchises which the 
northern people held in common with the whole society. 

Under this instruction of the assembly, the southern voters 
met, taxed themselves, raised about $600, appointed a committee 
which expended the sum in repairs. 

But this did not give peace. At a meeting of the whole so- 
ciety, March 27, 1804, it was voted by a large majority, upon a 
proposition made by Daniel Tilclen. Israel Loomis, John Davey, 
Samuel Bailey, and John Hayward, that the society would relin- 
quish all its right and interest in the meeting-house and consent 
that the materials thereof should be used in the construction of a 
new one, upon conditions, that the said Tilclen and others, as 


a committee, would give sufficient bonds that they would build a 
good commodious meeting-house for the use of the society at or 
near the then center of the whole society (about one mile north- 
erly) within one year from the first day of April next at their 
own sole expense, and give full title thereof to the society with- 
out any cost, and that the people living north of said center 
would fund their proposition for the support of the ministry 

The committee accepted the conditions of the above note, ex- 
ecuted a bond in the penal sum of $10,000. The bond was ac- 
cepted by the society and deposited with the clerk, and the whole 
matter seemed to be settled. 

Twenty days afterward the contractors, with their workmen, 
peaceably began to take down the old building to obtain materials 
for the construction of the new. But when the people saw their 
familiar house of worship in which they and their fathers and 
mothers had met for a century to offer their prayers and praises, 
to receive consolation in their bereavements and trials; when 
they saw this building around which so many associations clus- 
tered, in the process of destruction, their hearts burned within ; 
they could not endure the sight, and their indignation at what 
seemed to them as sacrilege threatened violence. Writs were 
sought and obtained and several of the workmen were arrested. 
The work of destruction was suspended. Soon other writs were 
obtained, protecting the contractors and workmen and the house 
was leveled to the ground. But bitterness filled the hearts of 
the contending parties. Men of the highest standing were ar- 
rested and without bail. Among these was Hon. William Wil- 
liams, a signer of the immortal Declaration of Independence, a 
man venerable by age and honored for his distinguished services 
throughout the land, and at that very time himself a judge of 
the County Court. He feels the touch of the town constable 
upon his shoulder, and is marched off a mile away and placed 
under a keeper, submitting quietly to the indignity. The only 
ray of light visible in this unseemly strife is the loyalty of the 
people on both sides to the forms of the law. 

The house, so beloved by one party, whose distinguished ma- 
terials were so coveted by the other party, lay upon the ground, 
now a new cause of contention. The southern people were de- 


termined they should not be removed ; the northern people were 
determined to have them. The contractors thought of the heavy- 
bond resting upon them. Open violence was threatened, which 
the local authorities were powerless to suppress, for they differed 
among themselves. 

But wiser counsels prevailed. Leading men on both sides ad- 
vised that resort be had to the higher courts. Suits in trespass 
were brought by the southern people against Daniel Tilden and 
the others of his committee for damages in demolishing the 
meeting-house, and the people quietly awaited the action of the 
court. At the trial many issues were raised, but the issue turned 
mainly upon the question whether the ancient agreement that 
the first place selected for the locating of the house "to be fixed 
and established forever" was still valid. The court affirmed that 
it was. On a further hearing upon the question of damages, the 
case went against the contractors for removal of the old church. 

Of course a bill of exceptions was filed and the case went to 
the Superme Court of Errors. The whole case was gone over 
from the beginning, and the court affirmed the decision of the 
court below, and so ended the long controversy of one hundred 
years, involving the comfort and wishes of three generations. 
All parties gracefully submitted to the judgment of the court. 
A new meeting-house was built upon the first location, and in 
due time the northern people built a house of their own. 

Now, most of the early settlers of this town came from the 
very scene of this "Meeting-house "War," or its vicinity and were, 
therefore, thoroughly qualified to carry on a dispute about the 
location of a meeting-house in a different locality. The pro- 
clivity must have been inherited, fed in their childhood by con- 
stant hearing and interminable discussions, participated in as 
soon as they were made freemen. They knew the value of all 
manner of obstructions; how to vote and how to get votes re- 
pealed and annulled. They knew what things to let alone — excel- 
lent knowledge in all quarrels — hence they would have nothing 
to do with writs and counter writs, nor with appeals to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, which, as is often the case, left their affairs worse 
confounded than before. Lebanon, Conn., is justly proud of the 
multitude of eminent men born on its soil. It was the home of 
the distinguished Trumbull family, the pastorate of President 


Wheelock, the founder of Dartmouth College, the birthplace of 
Jeremiah Mason, one of the profoundest lawyers of the country, 
and of a host of others, yet the fathers of our own Lebanon in 
their wilderness home devised and executed a measure beyond 
the genius of all these great men of the old town. For not one 
of them thought of finding where the meeting-house ought to 
stand by measuring the land and soul travel and finding thus 
the equity of the whole matter. 

The following transaction, common enough in those times, is 
found, happily, but once on our records : 

Nov 27 1789 Voted to set up the maintenance of Mr. Patrick and his 
wife for the term of one year to the lowest bidder and that the mod- 
erator [Lemuel Hough] be Vendue Master, for s<i purpose — to set up 
and make sale of said persons' maintenance — being bid off at twenty- 
nine pounds by James Fuller in behalf of Lemuel Hough aforesaid 

Very justly they seem to see the unseemliness of such a spec- 
tacle and immediately vote to build a workhouse or houses for 
the use of the poor, thirty -six feet by eighteen ; that the select- 
men be directed to pitch upon a spot to set said house upon and 
agree with some person or persons to build said house on the best 
terms they can. 

At a meeting held June 22, 1789, to choose a representative to 
the Congress of the United States of America, Elisha Payne, Esq.. 
had fifty-three votes, Benj. Bellows, Esq., and Simeon Olcott. 
Esq., one each. 

March 1790 For President of the state John Pickering Federalist had 
63 votes and Benj. Bellows 18 

For State Senator Jonathan Freeman had 79 votes Edmund Freeman 
and Aaron Hutchinson one each. 

Elisha Payne Esq was chosen representative 

March 25 1790. Where as it is found detrimental to the increasing 
of that necessary and useful animal of sheep for the Rams to run at 
large in the fall of the year therefore to prevent the same 

Be it enacted by the Inhabitants of the town of Lebanon in Town 
meeting assembled that no Sheep Ram shall be suffered to go at large 
out of the owners enclosure from and after the first day of September 
annually to the twentieth day of November ; and if any ram shall be 
found going at large as aforesaid the owner thereof shall forfeit and 
pay the sum of ten shillings Lawful money, the one half to the treas- 
urer of said Town for the use of the poor of s'a towu, and the other 
moity to the person who shall sue for and prosecute the same to effect, 
together in the cost of suit. 



Aug 30 1790 Voted to direct the Selectmen to examine into the 
request of Messrs Robt Colburn. & Lem. Hough with respect to then- 
Losses in paying the arrears of Taxes for the Town to the State Treas- 

No action of the town seems to have been taken in this matter. 

Voted for representatives to Congress with the following results. 
Abiel Foster had 2 votes Saini Livermore 32 John Sam' Sherburne 26 
Elisha Payne Esq. 20, Jonathan Freeman 11, Aaron Hutchinson 10, 
Elisha Ticknor 1. Elihu Hyde 1. 

Of these candidates Samuel Livermore only was elected. 

At a meeting in October they again voted for members of 
Congress, when Jeremiah Smith had 55 votes, John S. Sherburne 
43, Abiel Foster 13. Jeremiah Smith was elected. 

The following shows to what extent one branch of manufac- 
tures was pursued in the town : 

This certifies that Daniel Robinson of Lebanon in the County of 
Grafton and State of New Hampshire has made or caused to be made 
three hundred thousand of wrought ten penny nails between the eighth 
day of Feby Anno Domini 1789 and the twentieth day of Jany current. 
In witness whereof the selectmen of said Lebanon hereunto set their 
hands and seals and the nearest justice of the peace countersigns, this 

28th day of 1791 

Jesse Cook [seal] 

Stephen Billings [seal] 

Aaron Hutchinson Jus. pacis 
Endorsed Rec'd an order on the treasurer for fifteen pounds. 

This was in accordance with an act passed 1787 to encourage 
the manufacture of nails in the state, repealed in 1805. 

Records for the year 1791 are not to be found. 

The state constitution of 1781 provided for a revision after 
seven years. A convention was called for the purpose in 1791 
to meet at Concord, and Elisha Payne, Esq., was chosen the dele- 
gate from Lebanon. The convention met September 7, and be- 
gan its work of revision. Various amendments were proposed, 
some to be accepted, while others were rejected. September 16 
the convention appointed a committee, of which Elisha Payne. 
Esq., was a member, "to take into consideration the Constitution 
and the Resolutions passed at this session and the several mo- 
tions made for alterations that have not been acted upon and 


prepare and report to the Convention at the adjournment altera- 
tions and amendments to be submitted to the people. ' ' 

The convention met again February 8, 1792, heard and consid- 
ered the report of the committee, when it was ordered that the 
amendments proposed should be printed and sent out to the 
people for their approval, returns to be made on the last Wednes- 
day in May. 

April 26, 1792, the town chose as a committee to take into con- 
sideration the revised constitution, Col. Elisha Payne, Aaron 
Hutchinson, Esq., and Capt. David Hough. 

May 7 the town met ' ' at the remains of the old meeting house, ' ' 
to act upon the amendments of the constitution. The above 
committee probably made some report and recommendations. 
They then proceeded to vote upon the seventy-two amendments 
proposed. One of the proposed amendments was promptly re- 
jected, Article VI, which would allow anyone to be free from 
the support of the minister of a town upon his filing his dissent 
with the town clerk within certain specified times. Nos. 37 and 
43 were also rejected. The latter required a property qualifi- 
cation of five hundred pounds. 

When the convention re-assembled at Concord in May, it was 
found that some of the amendments had been accepted and 
others rejected. Other articles were, therefore, prepared and 
sent out to the people, to be considered by them on the twenty- 
seventh day of August, when the town voted unanimously for 
the acceptance of the constitution. When the returns from the 
state came in it was found that the amendments were accepted 

by the people. 

A Coppy of Ye Inventory for 1792 

Below is the earliest inventory of the town which is to be found 
among the town papers. Its items furnish interesting informa- 
tion concerning the condition of the town at that time : 

No. of Polls from Eighteen to Seventy years of Age 236 
No. of Acres of Orchard Land 

No. of Acres of Arable or Tillage Land 467% 

No of Acres of Moing land 883 

No of acres of Pasture land 1148 

No of Horses and Mares 144 

No of oxen 177 

No of cows 277 



No of Horses and Cattle three years old 115 

No of Horses and Cattle two years old 182 

Yearly rent of mills wharves and Ferries repairs being de- 
ducted £ 69 — 8 
Sum total of the Value of all Real Estate improved owned 

by the inhabitants £5520 — 

Sum total of the Value of all Real Estate not owned by 

the Inhabitants 234 

Sum total of the Value of Stock in Trade 

Sum total of Money in hand or on Interest £450 

No of Horsis & Cattle one year old 299 

Jesse Cook 1 

James Crocker }. Selectmen 
Stephen Billings J 

August 27, 1792, the town voted for six presidential electors, 
with the following result: 

John Pickering Esq. 


John White Esq 


Elisha Payne Esq. 


Benj. Bellows Esq 


Joseph Badger Esq. 


Jonathan Freeman Esq 


Barret Esq 


The above record indicates the singular fact that the town 
clerk did not know the Christian name of one of the candidates. 
In these days if the votes were cast as recorded above, it might 
defeat a president. It should be Charles Barret. 

At this same meeting the town voted for representatives to 
Congress, with the following result : 

Payne Wingate Esq. 55 Jeremiah Smith Esq 59 

John Sherburne Esq 48 Elisha Payne Esq 49 

Beza Woodward Esq 2 Jonathan Freeman Esq 7 

Abial Foster Esq 10 Timothy Walker Esq 2 

John S. Sherburne, Payne Wingate and Abiel Foster were 

Now and then during these years there appears a vote direct- 
ing Eev. Mr. Potter where to preach on the Sabbath. Upon the 
question whether he should preach a part of the time at the old 
meeting-house, the vote was affirmative 32, negative 55. The 
town meetings this year were held generally at "Robt Colburn's 
New Barn," which was on the ground where H. W. Carter now 

For some reason they voted again for presidential electors, 
November 12, 1792, and Josiah Bartlett, John Pickering, Thomas 


Coggswell, Timothy Farrar, Benj. Bellows, and Jonathan Free- 
man each had 52 votes. They also voted again for represen- 
tative to Congress, when Payne Wingate had 53 votes. 

March 12, 1793, at the annual meeting the vote was as follows : 
For governor, Josiah Bartlett, 59 ; senator for the 12th district, 
Samuel Emerson, 59 ; Col. Elisha Payne, 7. Col. Elisha Payne 
was chosen representative to the Legislature. Jonathan Free- 
man had 85 votes for councillor. 

This was the first time the town voted for governor of the 
state, the title having been changed under the revised consti- 
tution from president to governor. It was also the first time 
the town voted for a councillor. This was the first town meet- 
ing in the new meeting-house. 

To show the ancient manner of calling a town meeting, the 
general form is here given for the annual meeting March 11, 

State of New Hampshire ) To Ephraim Wood Constable in 
Grafton ss ( and for the town of Lebanon 

Yon are hereby directed and required to warn all the Legal Voters 
in the town of Lebanon to meet in town meeting at the New Meeting 
house in said Lebanon on Tuesday the 11th Day of March Next at nine 
o'clock A. M. on s'd Day to act on the following articles : 

Given under our hand and seal in said Lebanon this 20th Day of 
Febry A D. 1794 

Nathi Porter 
Asher Allen 
Dam Phelps 

hereof fail not and make Return of your Doings to the'town clerk of 
said Lebanon by the 11th Day of March Next at Nine o clock in the 
morning on s'd Day. 

In Parsuauce of the above Warrant I have Posted up a true coppy 
of the above Warning on the 24th of Feby 1794 

Attest Ephraim Wood Constable 

At this meeting votes for governor were: John S. Oilman, 
99; Elisha Payne, 16; Benj. Bellows, 2; Jonathan Freeman, 1; 
Nicolas Gilman, 1 ; Elihu Hyde, Esq.. 1. 

This is the largest vote cast to this date. 

Votes for councillor : Jonathan Freeman, 53 ; Beza Wood- 
ward, 8 ; Elisha Payne, Esq., 11 ; Robert Colburn, 1. 

For senator for 12th district : Jonathan Freeman, 5 ; Elisha 
Payne, Esq., 76 ; Moses Dow, 6. 




Maj. David Hough was chosen representative. 

For the first time the selectmen presented a detailed account 
of their doings and the affairs of the town. 

August 25, 1794, the town was called together to vote again for 
representatives to Congress, there being no choice at the previous 

December 8, 1794, the town again met to choose a represen- 
tative, their ballots being limited to Payne Wingate and Abiel 
Foster. Abiel Foster had 32 votes, but Payne Wingate was 

The years which follow, to the close of the century, were years 
of quiet, so far as the affairs of the town were concerned. They 
regularly elected their town officers, voted for representatives 
to Congress, for governor and other state officers. They were 
busy laying out new roads, improving the old, now and then 
symptoms of a contest appearing. These years will, therefore, 
be passed over without particular mention. Some things which 
are new in town affairs, or which may have special interest, will 
be noted. 

March 10, 1795, Pelatiah Buck was appointed fish inspector. 
March, 1796, Jude Bailey was appointed inspector of the fishery, 
and again in March, 1797. 

When the country was new and the Connecticut poured its 
floods into Long Island Sound unrestrained by dams, its waters 
were the resort of a multitude of salmon and shad. They came 
up as far as Lebanon, the salmon turning up White River and 
the shad up the Mascoma to deposit their spawn. Great num- 
bers of these fish were taken by the early settlers for their own 
use and for sale to the people not so happily situated. It is with 
these matters that the inspector of fish was concerned. 

The old people used to say that they had seen the clear waters 
of White River blue and almost solid with the shoals of salmon 
struggling up its current. 

Two weeks in June, 1795, must have been full of interest to 
the people here, for at that time the Legislature was in session 
at Hanover. Most of the people saw their law-makers at work 
for the first and only time. Whether it increased their respect 
for, and confidence in, that august body tradition does not say. 
The place of meeting was very convenient for Colonel Payne, 


the representative of the town. John G. Gilman was governor, 
Eussell Freeman of Hanover speaker of the house, and Ebenezer 
Smith, president of the senate. 

The name of Stephen Kendrick, for many years town clerk 
and prominent in all affairs, makes its first appearance in the 
records March, 1796, when he was chosen sealer of weights and 

November, 1796, voted to procure two palls, one large and one 
small one, and to be kept at Mr. Simeon Peck's. 

In March, 1797, the town, by vote, established prices for work 
on highways as follows : 

Laboar from the first of May to the first of August 3/6 per day ; from 
the first of August to the first of October 3/ per day, and 2/6 per day 
the rest of the season. 

Oxen carts and plows to be one half the price of Man's labor at each 
of the afore said times. 

During this year the cemetery in the center village was pur- 
chased of John and Benjamin Kimball for $66.66, and also the 
cemetery near Ebenezer Cole's. 

The year 1798 might appropriately be termed the bridge year, 
for it was a year in which large sums were spent in building and 
repairing bridges. Among the charges for this work are the 
following, which read strangely to this generation : For rum at 
the lower bridge, $.57 ; for rum for two bridges, $18.76 ; for rum 
at the bridge, $3.75. Here are similar charges for 1799 : For 
liquor for venduing bridge by Col. Payne's, $1.36; for rum to 
work on the road, $.75; for rum used at the bridge, $6.00; for 
rum and wine for Barbrick family, $2.00; for rum for his fam- 
ily, $.50. 

THE TOWN IN 1800. 

Before entering upon the events of another century, let us try 
to realize the condition of the town at this period. It is about 
thirty-six years since the first settlements were actually begun. 
What progress has been made? How much has been done to- 
wards subduing the wilderness? Who are living here now? 
Who of those who began with the early days of the town 
have passed away? What improvements have been made in 
roads, in the comforts and conveniences of life? What are the 
people doing — what are they talking about ? 



The town is settled and quiet in its state relations, which in 
the years past occupied so much of time, thought and expense. 
The town is not connected with Vermont nor planning any union 
with that state. It is not in a " state of nature ' ' ; that is, inde- 
pendent and sovereign, but is connected "with respect to its 
internal police" with New Hampshire and contented. Its large 
arrearages of taxes have happily been paid, though Messrs. 
Hough and Colburn are still a little sore on that point. We 
learn who were living here at that time from the following list 
of tax-payers: 

Asahel Abbott 
Beriah Abbott 
Josiah Adams 
Andrew Aldrich 
Andrew Aldrich, Jr. 
Clark Aldrich 
Elisha Aldrich 
Richard Aldrich 
Abijah Allen 
Asher Allen 
Diarca Allen 
Joseph Amsden 

John Andrews 
Cyprian Andrews 
Daniel Alden 
Zenas Alden 
Zalmon Aspenwall 
Cady Allen 
William Avery 
Solomon Abba 
Richard Andrews 
Daniel Abbott 
Joseph Abbott 
John Abbott 

Judah Bailey 
Andrew Baker 
Gideon Baker 
Gideon Baker, Jr. 
Nathaniel Bidwell 
Stephen Billings 
Alfred Bingham 
Azariah Bliss 
Asel Bliss 
Daniel Bliss 
Ebenezer Bliss 
Isaiah Bliss 
Widow Anna Blodgett 

Edward Bosworth 
Pelatiah Buck 
Richard Buswell 
Stephen Bliss 
Samuel Barker 
John Buswell 
Jacob W. Brewster 
George Booth 
Pelatiah Bugbee 
Wm Burbech 
Stephen Barker 
Justis Bruce 

Abijah Chandler 
Waters Clark 

Samuel Crocker 
Joshua Cushing 



Aaron Cleaveland 
John Colburn 
Robert Colburn 
Stephen Colburn 
Giles Cook 
Jesse Cook, Jr. 
William Corning 
James Crocker 

Asa Colburn 
Roswell Clark 
Jonathan Conant 
Seth Convers 
Colton Center 
Jonathan Colby- 
Daniel Castet 
Joseph Castet 

William Dana 
William Dana, Jr. 
Joseph Downer 
Martin Dewey 
William Downer 
Zacheus Downer 
James Duncan, Jr. 
Nathan Durkee 

Samuel Dustin 
Timothy Dudley 
Daniel Demon 
Joseph Dodge 
Rufus Durkee 
Timothy Darling 
Silas Downer 
Andred Downer 

Jacob Ela 
Joseph Ela 
Zuar Eldridge 
Oliver Ellis 
Aaron Estabrooks 
Hobart Estabrooks 
Rhodolphus Estabrooks 
Benjamin Ela 

Moses Fa mam 
Humphrey Farrar 
Barnabas Fay 
Asa Fitch 
Asa Fitch, Jr. 
John Fox 
Edmund Freeman 
Edmund Freeman, Jr. 
Roger Freeman 
Enoch Freeman 

Theodore Ela 
Samuel Estabrooks, Jr. 
Joseph Evans 
James Ela 
Oliver Edwards 
Phineas Elkins 
Joseph Ellis 

Otis Freeman 
Nathaniel Freeman 
Benj. Fuller 
Benj. Fuller, Jr. 
James Fuller 
Nathan Flanders 
Abraham Forster 
Caleb Fellows 
Joseph Flint 
Jedediah Freeman 

Elijah Gould 

Oliver Griswold 




Samuel Gage 
Joseph Goodridge 
John Gray 
David Gray 
Joseph Griswold 

Dan Hall 
Orla Hall 
Nathaniel Hall 
John Hewet 
Jonathan Hamilton 
James Hartshorn 
Aaron Hebbard 
James Hebbard 
Moses Hebbard, Jr. 
David Hinkley 
Daniel Hough 
David Hough 
Lemuel Hough 
Thomas Hough 
Witherel Hough 
James How 
Elias Huntington 
Miller Huntington 

Joseph Garland 
Ezekiel Gove 
Joseph Giles 
Comfort Goff 

Uriel Huntington 

William Huntington 

William Huntington, Jr. 

Ziba Huntington 

Joseph Huntington 

Aaron Hutchinson 

Asaph Hyde 

Elihu Hyde 

Elihu Hyde, Jr. 

Silas Hyde 

Guy Hough 

Widow Hannah Huntington 

John Houston 

James Hebbard, Jr. 

James Huckins c 

Joseph Hill 

Daniel Hinkley 

Silas Hebbard 

John Jeffers 
Nathan Jewett 

Thomas Kirshaw 
Stephen Kendrick 
John Kimball 
Benjamin Kimball 

James Jones 
Joel Joslyn 

John Kile 
Ephraim Kile 
Aaron Kinsman 

Wm Loomer 
Denison Lathrop 
Elijah Lathrop 
Samuel Lathrop 

Sloman Lathrop 
Richard Lyman 
James Little 
Ebenezer Lewis 

Nathaniel Mason 

John Martin, Jr. 




Joshua Markham 
Bela Markham 
Elam Markham 
John Martin 
Jonathan Martin 
Joseph Martin 

Joseph Martin, Jr. 
Elias Marsh 
Reuben Mason 
Jesse Morse 
Jeremiah Marston 
Parly Mason 

Wm. H. Packard 
David Packard 
Ichabod Packard 
Nathaniel Packard 
Nathaniel Packard, Jr. 
Phineas Parkhurst 
Elisha Payne, Jr. 
John Payne 
William Payne 
Simeon Peck 
Eliel Peck 
Walter Peck 
Ebba Peck 

Jahleeb Peck 
Turner Peterson 
Daniel Phelps 
John Porter 
Nathaniel Porter 
George W. Post 
Noah Powers 
Howard Phelps 
Elisha Payne 
Arnold Porter 
Luther Pyke 
Absalom Packard 

Jonathan Quimby 

Cephas Robinson 
Elijah Reid 
Enoch Redington 
James Ralston 
Daniel Richards 

William Rowland 
Mica j ah Rowell 
Noah Read 
Amos Robinson 
Thomas Ray 

Ebenezer Simon 
Arad Simons 
Abner Smith 
Alpheus Smith 
Asa Smith 
Daniel Smith 
Elijah Sprague 
Elkanah Sprague 
Widow Deborah Sprague 

Constant Storrs 
Constant Storrs, Jr. 
Jesse Storrs 
Nathaniel Storrs 
Phineas Strong 
Clap Sumner 
Jeriah Swetland 
Roswell Swetland 
Orsemus Strong 



Elijah Sprague, Jr. 
William Spring 

Benjamin Taylor 
Elish Ticknor 
John Ticknor 
Paul K. Ticknor 
Charles Tilden 
Joseph Tilden, Jr. 

Nathan Upton 

John "Walton 
Thomas "Waterman 
Hezekiah "Waters 
Luther Waters 
Joseph Weed 
Thomas Wells 
Eliphalet Wells 
Andrew Wheabley 
David Whitmore 
Daniel Willes 
Roger Willes 
Ephraim Wood 

Samuel Young 

Daniel Strong 

Osgood True 
Jesse Tibbets 
James Ticknor 
Joseph Tilden, 3d 
James Trussel 
Joel Tilden 

David Underhill 

John Wood 
Joseph Wood 
Luther Wood 
Roger Wood 
Abel Wright 
Francis West 
Abel Wright, Jr. 
Jocob M. White 
Isaac Warren 
Ebenezer Whitmore 
Jonathan Ware 

The names of forty-one of those who signed the "Association 
Test," in 1776, appear in this list. Of the eighty-seven names 
appended to that test, more than one half have either died or 
left the town. 


There were about 300 polls, indicating a population of over 
twelve hundred; twenty acres of orchards. In 1792 none are 

Tillage, about 442, which is less than in 1792. 

Mowing, about 1,164, a gain of nearly 300 acres. 


Pasture, 1,674 acres, a gain of about 500 acres. 

Horses, 211. 

Oxen, 248. 

Cows, 405. 

Cattle, four years old, 152; three years old, 223; two years 
old, 362. 

Value of buildings and improvements, $13,370. 

Stock in trade, $950. 

Money at interest, $1,143. 

In estimating quantities of land, the law of that period estab- 
lished the following rules : ' ' Accounting so much orchard as will 
in a common season produce ten barrels of cyder or peavey, one 
acre; so much pasture land as will summer a cow, four acres; 
what mowing land will commonly produce one town of good 
English hay yearly or meadow hay in proportion, one acre ; and 
what arable and tillage land will commonly produce twenty-five 
bushels of corn, one acre; in which is to be considered all land 
planted with indian corn, potatoes and beans and sown with 
grain, flax or peas." Laws for Inventory, 1797. 

In inspecting the foregoing returns of the land, the reader 
will please keep these rules in mind. 

In the number of polls the following are not included : 

"Those from eighteen to twenty-one enrolled in the militia; 
instructors and students of colleges ; ordained ministers and pre- 
ceptors of academies, paupers and idiots." 

The inventory shows that the town has made rapid progress 
in population and improvements. The following are the town 
officers for the year 1800 : 

Moderator, Col. David Hough. 

Town Clerk, John Colburn. 

Selectmen, Thomas Waterman, Gideon Baker Jr., Jonathan Hamilton. 

Tything men, Abel Wright, Barnabas Fay, Nathan Jewett, and 
Ephraim Wood 

Highway Surveyors, Joseph Downer, Hubbard Estabrook, James 
Crocker, Paul N. Ticknor, Maj Constant Storrs, Nathan Durkee, An- 
drew Baker, Nathan Jewett Pelatiah Buck, Clap Sumner, Enoch Free- 

Fence viewers, Joseph Martin, Jr., John Payne, Zuar Eldridge, Will- 
iam David, Jr. 



Hog-rieves Theodore Ela, Daniel Bliss, William Loonier Zalmon 
Aspenwall, Clark A. Aldrich, Nathaniel Freeman 

Surveyor of lumber, Thomas Hough. 

Representative, Col. Elisha Payne. 

Constable and collector, Edmund Freeman 

No sealer of leather, or of weights and measures chosen 
Votes for Governor, Hon. John Taylor Gilman 156 

Timothy Walker Esq. 3 

Councillor David Hough 

Russell Freeman 54 

Senator for 12th District David Hough 106 

Constant Storrs 

Voted to raise two hundred dollars for the use of the town the year 

Voted to raise five hundred dollars for the use of the highways the 
ensuing year. 

Roads and Bridges. 

An inspection of the records shows that the town was well 
supplied with roads in all directions, and that they were dili- 
gently improving them. About this time there were movements 
throughout the state to improve the means of communication 
with the different portions of the state. The people were pros- 
pering and had a surplus from their farms seeking a distant 
market. Bridges over the Connecticut were planned and char- 
tered. Turnpikes had already been built in some portions of the 
state and others were projected, and among them the fourth 
New Hampshire turnpike, having its northern termination at 
West Lebanon, to connect by Lyman's bridge with a turnpike 
through the valley of the White River. The Connecticut River 
was at this time the channel of transportation. Farm products 
were carried in boats down the river to ''Old Har'ford," which 
returned laden with salt, sugar, molasses and other supplies. 

The boats floated with the current downward, assisted by 
poles, and sails when the wind served. Their return was more 
difficult, as they had the current against them, and were obliged 
to gain every foot by the exertion of strength. This transpor- 
tation gave employment to a large number of men. What is 
called the "Point" on the opposite bank of the Connecticut was 
a harbor for these boats. Sometimes a hundred would be tied 
to the banks at the same time. 

To improve the navigation of the river, locks were built and 
canals cut. Among them those at Olcott's Falls were chartered 
a little before this time. They had already been built at Bel- 
lows Falls and a charter had been sought for locks at Water 
Quechee, in Hartland. Much of the pine lumber found in this 
and the surrounding towns was floated down the river in rafts 
to older towns in Massachusetts, but chiefly to Hartford, Conn. 
From there it could be readily sent to New York by water. 

In this region there were no public conveyances. If any one 


wished to take a journey he must go on foot or on horseback, or 
in his own carriage. A large part of the journeying was on 
horseback. Mail facilities were few and far between. During 
the Revolutionary War a post rider started from Portsmouth 
once a fortnight, rode to Haverhill, from thence down the river 
to Charlestown and back again to Portsmouth. In 1791 there 
were four post routes over which the post-rider went once a 
fortnight. Postoffices were established in ten of the principal 
towns and postmasters were allowed two pence on every letter 
which passed through their hands. By 1800 there had been 
some improvement in this system, but chances to send letters 
were still few and far between, except by private conveyance. 

At this period the business of the town was mainly farming. 
Cattle and horses were raised for market, pork to a limited ex- 
tent. Flax was cultivated, dressed and spun and woven into 
garments. Oil was pressed from the seed. People made their 
own cloth, which was dressed by David Hinkley, clothier, whose 
mills were on True brook. The trees which they were obliged 
to cut down to prepare their land for cultivation, such as were 
not fit for lumber of the first quality, they burned, and from the 
ashes made pot-ash in large quantities. There were several tan- 
neries in different parts of the town. Lumber was manufac- 
tured largely at Payne's mills, at other points on the Mascoma. 
Almost every brook had its temporary sawmill. 

Of stores there were many. The Lymans on the Point did 
the heaviest business, taking in exchange for sugar, molasses, 
salt, nails, etc., beef, pork. etc. James Duncan had a store near 
the new meeting-house. He was also licensed to retail "speritous 
liquors" and wines. Turner Peterson on the river road had a 
store and he is licensed to sell "foreign distilled liquors." Joel 
Tilden, merchant, on the river road, was approbated to sell 
liquor. Uriel Huntington had a store west of where E. Cole 
now lives, and was licensed to sell "foreign Distilled Speritus 
liquors." Winneck & Ralston had a store at Payne's Mills 
(East Lebanon). 

Taverns were plenty. Samuel Gage on the south side of the 
Mascoma, Sumner Clap on the county road from Concord to 
Hanover, Beriah Abbott at the head of School Street, Capt. 
Joseph Wood on the river road, Theodore Ela on the river road, 


Enos Kellogg in the east part of the town, Ephraim Wood in the 
south part of the town, Roclolphus Estabrooks on the river road, 
all licensed to sell liquor. In the year of 1800 there were at least 
fifteen places where liquor was sold according to law, which is 
significant enough of the customs of the times. 

What were the people thinking and talking about in those 
days? They had their own immediate concerns, improvements 
in their farms, new comers to be discussed and estimated, mar- 
riages, engagements, births, deaths, now and then a choice bit of 
scandal; politics there were, Federalists and Republicans, and 
party spirit ran high in those days; theology, the doctrines 
were warmly discussed from morning to night, and late in the 
night, discussed with loud voices, sometimes with quickened 
temper. Upon these great themes the people thought more and 
thought deeper than nowadays. One sad event was prominent 
in their thoughts and conversation. A stranger had come among 
them, sickened and died; none knew his name or whence he 
came. The record concerning him is brief, but pitiful; it runs 
thus in the accounts of the selectmen: 

Paid Luther Waters for digging a grave for Traveler who died in 
town 0.50. 

Paid W. Clark for making a coffin for do $1.33. 

About this time there was much talk and wonder about strange 
reports brought from Orford. They heard that a man living 
there had invented a boat in which he could sail against wind 
and current, a boat which he called a steamboat. It is now well 
established that Capt. Samuel Morey of Orford constructed, as 
early as 1793, the first boat propelled by paddle-wheels under 
the power of steam. It is now known that Robert Fulton visited 
Captain Morey and saw his boat, and that he adopted some of the 
features of this Orford invention in his own larger and success- 
ful enterprise. 

There was one sad event which filled the thoughts and conver- 
sation of the people that year, the death of Washington at the 
close of 1799. Most sincerely was he lamented by the whole peo- 
ple, who first began to see the true proportion of his greatness 
as they looked upon his receding form through the mists which 
gather over the dark river. Many of the inhabitants had been 
soldiers under him and mourned him as a father lost. 



What did the people do for amusements in those days? They 
had their "logging bees," their "raisings," their huskings. The 
woods were full of game, even bears, deer and wolves were not 
wanting to test the courage and try the skill of the hunters. The 
streams and ponds were full of ' ' speckled beauties, ' ' upon which 
no one was forced to try the foot rule to see if they were beyond 
the legal four inches before he could decide whether to keep the 
victim or restore it to the waters to die. Such strings of trout as 
Ephraim Wood used to take as he came down Great brook to 
' ' the Meetin ' House ' ' will not be seen in our day, even after re- 
stocking from. the fishing houses and five years' protection and 
careful spying of fish wardens. For the boys, besides fishing and 
hunting, there were orchards to visit. There is a wonderful af- 
finity between boys and apples which grow upon other people's 
land; it is hard to keep them apart. The same apples are sour 
when given to him, but of wonderful flavor if stolen. In those 
days apples were not plenty; there were only twenty acres of 
orchards in the whole town. I have no objections to telling you 
now the best places to go. If in the center village and vicinity, 
go by all means to Constant Storrs, for he has the largest orchard 
in town, six acres. There is small chance for those in the east- 
ern part of the town, unless they go to the same place. If you 
start from West Lebanon, try Deacon Porter's. He has a good 
orchard, but don 't let the old gentleman catch you, for his ' ' eyes 
are very black. " If in the region of Poverty Lane, try Nathan- 
iel Hall's, not many trees but very good. You might go to James 
Jones', but I should not advise it. 

Amusements? How could they be wanting when they had 
"training days," and general musters. Trainings meant some- 
thing in those days — no mere half day job for officers and men, 
but they began soon after twelve o'clock midnight and lasted as 
long as the next day — in effects. Then there were Fourths of 
July to be observed with patriotic ardor unknown to the present 

But probably the greatest days of the year, the days most an- 
ticipated and enjoyed, were those of Commencement Week at 
Hanover, where all sorts of things and people were gathered from 
far and near. 



At the beginning of the present century the people of the Con- 
necticut valley had so far conquered the primeval forests as not 
only to satisfy their own wants, but to have something to spare 
for others. The Connecticut River had been the natural outlet 
of the surplus products of the land. But this outlet only 
touched the western borders of New Hampshire, so that a large 
portion of the products of the most fruitful portion of her terri- 
tory passed over this watery way to distant cities and towns, to 
the loss of trade and commerce to her own citizens. At that 
period supplies could be received at less cost from Hartford and 
New York City, by way of Long Island Sound and the Connec- 
ticut River, than from Portsmouth or Boston. Sagacious men 
in Portsmouth, then a flourishing seaport, and in Boston saw 
this large trade diverted from their cities with anxiety, and 
sought a remedy. At that day there could be but one way — to 
build better roads. Hitherto roads had been built so as to se- 
cure communication between towns only. There had been no 
thought of them as highways for trade and commerce between 
the seaports and the distant hills and valleys of western New 
Hampshire and Vermont. Hitherto they had been sufficient if 
they could be passed in safety for local purposes. Now it was 
sought to so improve them as to make it easier to reach the sea 
by the shortest path than by the longer but cheaper waterway. 

The petition for the Fourth New Hampshire Turnpike states 
clearly its purpose: "The petition of Elisha Payne [Lebanon], 
Russell Freeman [Hanover], and Constant Storrs [Lebanon], 
humbly shows that the citizens of this State experience great in- 
convenience from the badness of the roads between Merrimack 
river and the towns of Lebanon and Hanover; that the trade 
of the western parts of this state & and of the northern parts of 
the state of Vermont is of course turned from our own seaports 
and our most commercial towns, to those of Connecticut and New 
York, that the natural impediments between the aforesaid places 
and said Merrimack river render the provisions by law for mak- 
ing & repairing public roads wholly inadequate to the purpose 
of rendering communication easy, convenient & safe ; that a plan 
for opening and extending a communication from Lake Cham- 
plain to the Mouth of White River in Vermont, by means of a 


turn pike road from said lake to the head of said 1 river [White] 
is contemplated by several enterprising citizens of that state & 
is encouraged by their government, under an expectation that 
the interests of our citizens will induce them to meet and extend 
a plan so well calculated to invite and facilitate an intercourse 
which would by highly beneficial to both; wherefore your peti- 
tioners pray that they and such others as may associate with 
them may be incorporated into a body politick, with such powers 
and under such limitations as may be thought fit, to build and 
keep in repair a turnpike road. ' ' 

These were far-reaching views for the times. The purpose of 
the Fourth New Hampshire Turnpike was not simply to collect 
toll and pay stockholders a fair interest on their investments, 
but a link in a well-devised system to bring the products of dis- 
tant fields to seaboard markets. Lyman's bridge was another 
link in this system. On the w,est side of the river commenced 
the White River Turnpike, extending up the valley of that river 
and connected with others to Lake Champlain. 

It is to be noted that these links constitute the route today 
occupied, substantially, by one of the great highways, Central 
Vermont and Northern railroad, from the vast interior of our 
country to the seaboard, a most striking testimony of the sa- 
gacity of these Vermont and New Hampshire farmers. 


The following action was taken in the New Hampshire senate, 
January 9, 1794 : A vote granting the prayer of the petition of 
Ebenezer Brewster for the exclusive privilege of building a 
bridge over the Connecticut River anywhere between the mouth 
of White River and two miles north of Mink brook, was brought 
up, read and concurred in. 

October 21, 1795, the Vermont Legislature passed an act incor- 
porating Ebenezer Brewster. Rufus Graves of Hanover and 
Aaron Hutchinson, Esq., with those who should become proprie- 
tors with them, a corporation under the name of The Proprietors 
of the White River Falls Bridge, by which act they were invested 
with the exclusive privilege of building a bridge or bridges over 
the Connecticut River anywhere between the mouth of White 
River and the lower part of White River Falls on the Connec- 
ticut River. 


The above-named persons conveyed all their interest in this 
corporation to Elias Lyman of Hartford, Vt. Brewster, Jan- 
uary 21, 1801, Graves, same date, Hutchinson, January 29, 1803, 
to Elias and Justin Lyman, who had then become associated in 

A bridge was built over the Connecticut by the Lymans on the 
site of the one now known as Lyman's bridge, about the year 
1802 or 1803. No reference whatever is found on the town 
records relative to this bridge. 


Upon the petition of Elisha Payne of Lebanon, Russell Free- 
man of Hanover and Constant Storrs of Lebanon, the New 
Hampshire Legislature granted, November 25, 1800, a charter 
for a turnpike road, "four rods wide from the east bank of 
Connecticut river in the town of Lebanon, nearly opposite the 
mouth of White river eastwardly to the west branch of Merri- 
mack river in the town of Salisbury or Boscawen also to survey 
lay out, make and keep in repair a turnpike road four rods wide 
from the east abutment of "White River Falls Bridge in Hanover, 
southeastwardly till it intersects the road first mentioned, and to 
be a branch thereof. ' ' 

Some of the provisions of the charter are as follows : For 
every mile of said road, and so in proportion for a greater or 
less distance, or greater or smaller number of sheep, hogs or cat- 
tle, viz., for every fifteen sheep or hogs, one cent; for every fif- 
teen cattle or horses, two cents ; for every horse and his rider or 
led horse, three fourths of one cent ; for every sulkey, chair, or 
chaise with one horse and two wheels, one and a half cents; for 
every chariot, coach, stage-wagon, phaeton or chaise with two 
horses and four wheels, three cents; for either of the carriages 
last mentioned with four horses, four cents ; for every other car- 
riage of pleasure, the like sums, according to the number of 
wheels and horses drawing the same ; for each cart or other car- 
riage of burthen with wheels drawn by one beast, one cent; for 
each wagon, cart, or other carriage of burthern drawn by two 
beasts, one and a half cents ; if by more than two beasts, one cent 
for each additional yoke of oxen or horse ; for each sleigh drawn 
by one horse, three fourths of one cent ; if drawn by two horses, 



one and a half cents; and if by more than two horses, half a 
cent for every additional horse; for each sled drawn by one 
horse, half of one cent; for each sled drawn by two horses or 
a yoke of oxen, one cent ; and if by more than two horses or one 
yoke of oxen, one cent for each additional pair of horses or yoke 
of oxen — provided that nothing in this act shall extend to entitle 
the said corporation to demand toll of any person who shall be 
passing with his horse, team or cattle, or on foot, to or from any 
mill, or on their common or ordinary business of family con- 
cerns within the town where such person belongs. 

The proprietors were empowered to purchase and to hold in 
fee simple so much land as will be necessary for said turnpike 

"If said turnpike shall in any part be the same with any highway now 
used, it shall not be lawful for said corporation to erect any gate or 
turnpike or across said part of the road that now is used or occupied 
as a public highway, anything in this act to the contrary notwith- 

It is further provided that at the end of every six years an account 
of the expenditures and profits of the road shall be laid before the 
legislature — "that whenever the neat income of the toll shall amount to 
the sums which the proprietors have expended on said road, with 
twelve per cent on such sums so expended from the times of their actual 
disbursement, the said road with all its rights, privileges, appurte- 
nances shall revert to the State of New Hampshire, and become the 
property thereof to all intents and purposes." 

The first meeting of the corporation, warned by Elisha Payne, 
was held March 24, 1801, at the dwelling house of Clap Sumner, 
innholder, near where Richard Walker now lives, in Lebanon. 
Elisha Payne, moderator; Benj. J. Gilbert was chosen clerk. 
The meeting then adjourned to meet at the same place April 14, 
1801. At this meeting the rights of the proprietors were di- 
vided into four hundred shares and numbered from one to four 
hundred, inclusive, Elisha Payne to have the first hundred, Rus- 
sell Freeman to have the second hundred, Constant Storrs to 
have the third hundred, and Benj. J. Gilbert to have the fourth 

An assessment of one dollar and fifty cents was voted upon 
each share, to be paid before the first day of September next. 

Maj. Constant Storrs chosen as treasurer. 


Those in Lebanon were the following:" 

lo. 1 to 


David Hough 



Edward Bosworth 

" 31 " 


Samuel Lathrop 



Oliver Ellis 

" 32 


Simeon Peck 



Elijah Reed 

" 34 

Hobart Estabrooks 



David Hough 

" 35 

Ephraim Wood 



James Ralston 

" 36 

Zenas Alden 




James Little 

" 37 

Richard Aldrich 



Nathan Jewett 

" 38 

Edmund Freeman, Jr. 



Clark Aldrich 

" 39 

James Crocker 



Abijah Chandler 

" 40 

Stephen Kendrick 



Thomas Hough 

" 41 

Joseph Wood 



Daniel Hough 

" 42 

Ira Gates 



Beriah Abbott 

" 43 

Thomas Waterman 


98 to 107 

Richd & Ebenezer 

" 44 

Stephen Billings 


The location of this road was a difficult affair, because of rival 
claims. The corporators sought to avoid all complications, 
charges of partiality and subjection to undue influences by the 
selection of a locating committee outside of the state. Accord- 
ingly at a meeting held May 29, 1801, Voted that Gen. James 
Whitelaw of Ryegate, Gen. Elias Stevens of Royalton and Major 
Mieah Brown of Bradford, all of Vermont, be a committee to 
survey and lay out the route for the Fourth Turnpike road in 
New Hampshire, if the sum of three hundred dollars be raised 
by voluntary subscription to pay the expense of laying out the 

The first action taken by the town in relation to the proposed 
road was November 24, 1801, when they declined to appoint a 
committee to confer with the proprietors in relation to the neces- 
sary bridges through the town. 

January 2, 1801, the following action was taken : 

Considering the decayed state of the bridges over Mascoma river, and 
the repairs necessary soon to be made on said bridges and also on the 
road easterly and westerly thro said town — 

Will the inhabitants of said town tax themselves, assess and raise 
the sum of six hundred dollars, to be made up with the next tax or 
taxes which may be assessed by said town and to be paid into the hands 
of the selectmen of said town, by the first day of September next and 
to be at the disposal of the proprietors of the Fourth N. H. turnpike 
road, provided the said proprietors shall by their agents specially em- 
powered assure the said selectmen (in behalf of s'd town) the perform- 
ance of the following — namely: 


1. That the said proprietors shall make and compleat their Turnpike 
road and bridges from Doctor Parkursts to Ichabod Packard's mills in 
said Lebanon in the rout last established by them, and from thence 
thro' the easterly part of s'd Lebanon to Matthew Stanleys in Enfield 
in the rout which the committee last appointed by them may report as 
being the best all circumstances duly considered the whole to be coin- 
pleated by the first day of December next. 

2. The said proprietors or their agents shall assure the s'd selectmen 
in behalf of s'd town, that the said road and bridges within s'd town 
shall at all times be kept open and in good repair from and after the 
first day of December next, free for the use and occupancy of s'd inhabi- 
tants of s'd Lebanon, as well before as after they may erect gates for 
collecting toll ; it is not however understood by anything before men- 
tioned that after s'd turnpike road shall be compleated that the town 
retains any special privileges not secured to them and other towns by 
the act incorporating said Proprietors. 

Passed in the affirmative. 

Some of the citizens resisted the collection of the above tax of 
six hundred dollars for the benefit of the proprietors of the 
turnpike road, as appears from the following record : 

In the warning for a town-meeting to be held May 14 1805 were 
these articles. 2 to see whether the town will save harmless Diarca 
Allen, Joseph Wood and Thomas Wells, the present select men of s'd 
Lebanon from all damages, costs and charges which have or may 
accrue to said Allen Wood and Wells, in an action of trespass com- 
menced against them by David and William Packard of said Lebanon 
to be heai-d and tried before James Wheelock Esq. on the eleventh day 
of May next, in consequence of an assessment made on the polls and 
rateable estate of the said William and David of their proportion of 
the sum of six hundred dollars, as voted to be raised and paid to the 
proprietors of the Fourth Turnpike road corporation in said state, at 
a meeting of the legal voters of said town holden on the second day 
of January 1804. 

3. To see whether they will save harmless the said Allen Wood & 
Wells in all cases in consequence of said assessment made on the polls 
and rateable estate of said Town. 

4. To appoint an agent or agents on the part of said town to defend 
in all cases which may happen by reason of said assessment. 

At the meeting the articles 2, 3 were passed over. On article 4, Voted 
to appoint two agents to assist the selectmen to defend in all cases which 
may happen by reason of the assessment of six hundred dollars, as set 
forth in the warrant calling this meeting. Chose Aaron Hutchinson 
Esq. and Nathaniel Porter agents for the town as aforesaid. 


The suit seems to have failed, as nothing farther concerning 
it appears upon the records. 

At a meeting of the corporation July 6, 1801, "Voted that Col. 
Elisha Payne, Col. Aaron Kinsman, Col. David Hough and Capt. 
Asher Allen [surveyor] a committee to survey the different pro- 
posed routes and report at a future meeting." This committee 
reported by their chairman, Colonel Payne, at a meeting held in 
Lebanon, September 24, 1801, as follows : 

From the mouth of White River to Mr. Simeon Pecks [Solon A. 
Peck's] by Mascoma River we surveyed two routes, and find by all 
measurement the northern to be 1010 rods ; the southern is 908 rods, 
which is 102 rods the shortest : Your committee recommends the 
southern (provided the town of Lebanon will support a reasonable part 
of the bridges). From Mr. Simeon Peck to Packard's bridge but one 
route which is 634 rods ; from said Packard's bridge to Enfield two 
routes, the northern is 990 rods, the southern 816 rods which is 174 
rods the shortest. We are of the opinion that the southern is the best. 

The northern route spoken of above would pass by J. T. Pulsi- 
fer's to the village on to Chandler's mills, thence keeping the 
north side of Mascoma River over Mount Tugg to East Lebanon, 
crossing the river and along the shore of the pond. 

The southern route crossed the Mascoma at the Hubbard 
bridge, passed by Breck's, through the village to Chandler's 
mills, then crossed to the south side of the Mascoma, continued 
over the hill by the Cleaveland place to the shore of the pond. 

The stockholders voted to accept the southern route from the 
Connecticut to Simeon Peck's and Packard's bridge, "on condi- 
tion that the town of Lebanon will build support and keep in 
repair all the bridges necessary to be supported over Mascoma 
river on said rout and westerly of said Packard's." 

The report of the committee continues thus : 

From the college bridge we surveyed three routes ; the old county 
road, which intersects by the pond is 9 miles 116 rods ; the route through 
the great valley which intersects near Aldens bridge, continued to the 
pond is 9 miles 64 rods, which is 52 rods nigher than the county road 

the route over Mount Support and intersects by said Aldens bridge 

continued to the pond is 8 miles 220 rods, which is 216 rods nearer than 
the county road. The committee think the center or valley road will 
be levellest and best for the publick. 

'wh ^BBPwwk " ^fv v -V .'. iSI^I 

|Bp$^ ifl 


■B £ 1 




This part of the committee's report concerns the branch road 
to the bridge between Hanover and Norwich. 

The county road was the road which passed from Mink brook 
in Mill Village over the hills by the Blodgett and Walker farms, 
to East Lebanon. There can be no question that this was not 
the levelest route, yet it was much used in early days. 

The route through the "great valley" was the present road 
to Etna Village, on the east of Rix ledges. The Mount Support 
route is plain. Alden's bridge was the first bridge east of the 
center village. 

The stockholders, in acting on this part of the report, selected 
the route by the old county road by a vote of 206 yeas to 191 

They also voted that the road from Packard's mills [Chan- 
dler's] should be on the north side of the river. 

Thus both the longest and most difficult route was selected, an 
indication that some other influence than good judgment influ- 
enced the action of the stockholders. 

The location of this part of the turnpike did not satisfy all 
parties. At a meeting held at Clapp Sumner's, Lebanon, July 
1, 1802, the above votes were reconsidered : 

Voted that the turnpike road from near the mouth of White river be 
laid out made and established by Doct. Parkhursts & Lebanon Meeting 
house to near Packards mills. 

Dr. Parkhurst then lived at the Luther Alden place, and this 
vote established the southern route to Chandler's mills. 

Voted that the Turnpike road from White River Falls Bridge [Han- 
over] be laid out, made and established from said bridge by College 
Plain over Mount Support [so called] till it intersects with the part 
established from the mouth of White River [which was near Howard 

Voted that Asa Hazen Isaac Partridge & Joseph Loveland be a com- 
mittee, who are hereby authorized and empowered to examine the 
different routes proposed from Packard's mills in Lebanon to the west- 
erly line of Enfield near the pond and decide whether the road shall 
be laid on the north or south side of Mascoma river, and the deter- 
mination of said committee, or either two of them, shall be final and 
conclusive ; and in case either of the persons before named should fail 
of attending, that Arthur Latham be appointed to join the two who may 
attend to the business as a substitute for the one who may fail. 



Colonel Hough and Colonel Payne were appointed to wait on 
the committee who were appointed to establish the route from 
Packard's mill to Enfield line when they shall come out on the 
business of their appointment. 

This committee ''determined that the turnpike road from 
Packard's mills should be laid on the north side of Mascoma 
river to near Payne's mills (so called), thence across said river 
to Enfield line." 

There was evidently a warm contest over the location of the 
road from Packard's mills to East Lebanon. That the route 
on the north side of the river across Mount Tugg was not the 
best, probably, was as apparent at that time as now. There must 
have been some strong personal interest which gave that direc- 
tion to the road. At this distance of time it is difficult to ascer- 
tain with certainty what that interest was. But the following is 
probably not far from the truth : At that time Mr. Clapp Sum- 
ner was a prominent man in the town, and in the corporation. 
He was also an innholder, living at the Richard Walker place on 
the old county road. The establishment of the route on the 
south side of the river would be fatal to his tavern. Besides it 
was for the interest of that whole neighborhood to have the turn- 
pike laid by their doors. 

At a meeting of proprietors held at the house of Abijah Chan- 
dler in Lebanon, October, 1803, all former votes, "so far as said 
votes established that part of the route of said road which extends 
from the bridge near Zenas Aldens over Mascoma river in Leba- 
non to Matthew Stanleys in Enfield, ' ' were reconsidered. 

Voted that the directors be authorized and directed to proceed to lay 
out a rout from for the turnpike from the bridge near Zenas Aldens in 
s'd Lebanon to Matthew Stanleys in Enfield crossing on to the south side 
of Mascome river so as to pass near by Capt Aaron Cleavelands dwell- 
ing house, in such place and course as the said directors shall think best. 

At a meeting held at the same place, December 6, 1803, an- 
other committee was appointed to reexamine the route between 
Dr. Phineas Parkhurst's and Enfield line — Joel Marsh, Elias 
Stevens and Jesse Williams, committee. 

At a meeting held the first Tuesday in February, 1804, this 
committee reported: 


That in the town of Lebanon from or near Packards mills to the end 
of the road made by the Shakers we are of opinion that said road 
ought to be made on the south side of the river provided that three or 
four sharp ridges westerly and near Aaron Cleaveland's should be 
taken down in the road so that in no place they rise no more than one 
foot in sixteen. If not we are in favor of the route on the north side 
of the river from Packards mill to Payne's mill, notwithstanding the 
great rods in the distance. We have likewise viewed the route from 
Dr. Phineas Parkhursts to Packard's mill on the northerly side of the 
river are of the opinion that a good road can be made to the satisfac- 
tion of the public 

The inhabitants of the easterly part of Lebanon take the liberty of 
submitting the following proposals for the consideration of the gentle- 
men composing the said commitee viz 

1st That in consideration of said road being laid out made and com- 
pleted on the north side of Mascoma river in Lebanon from Ichabod 
Packard's on or nigh the route of said road as it is already staked out 
to the lower end of Enfield pond by Payne's mills (so called) and from 
thence to Enfield town line that the proprietors aforesaid shall be 
exempted from the payment of all damages which they might otherwise 
have been subjected to on account of said road passing through lands 
belonging to the several owners thereof from said Packards to where 
said road may cross said Mascoma river at the lower end of the pond 
before mentioned 

2d. That upon the fulfilment of the consideration above mentioned 
the proprietors aforesaid shall be paid the sum of two hundred dollars 
by the inhabitants aforesaid. 

3d That one or more surety or sureties shall become obligated to the 
proprietors aforesaid for indemnifying them against said damages and 
the payment of the sum above specified. 

This was manifestly a deliberate bid on the part of the inhabi- 
tants of the easterly part of the town for the location of the 
road on the north side of the river. 

On the other side : 

The said committee further represent that they are informed by 
David Hough, one of the selectmen of the town of Lebanon, that the 
town of Lebanon has voted to raise the sum of six hundred dollars to 
be paid said proprietors if said road should eventually be made to cross 
Mascoma river at Dr Pheneas Parkhurst's and twice more before it ar- 
rived at the meeting house [at staple bridge and at Coles foundery] 
and by said meeting house to Ichabod Packards, thence on to the south 
side of Mascoma river as now laid to Enfield line 

The proprietors voted that in case the six hundred dollars shall 
be paid by the town of Lebanon, and the corporation be secured 


from all land damages, then the road should be laid on the south 
side of the river, otherwise the road should be laid on the north 
side of the river, provided the inhabitants of the easterly part of 
the town comply with their promise of two hundred dollars. 

After many discussions and various negotiations, the turnpike 
received a final location, keeping mainly on the south side of the 
river. After crossing Stony brook, instead of following along 
the banks of the river, it passed by the Cleaveland place and kept 
on by Manchester 's, across the point of the ridge westward of the 
Floyd or Gile buildings. The house which was occupied for a 

tavern by Barnes stood on the road as thus laid, and was 

moved to its present location when the road was changed about 

The following are the courses and distances of the road 
through the town as they are found upon the old records : 

Beginning in Enfield near the Shakers Thence by the side of the 
pond 330 rods to a hemlock tree or stump Marked XVII ; thence north 
45° west 92 rods to a maple stump XVIII thence north 20 west 40 
rods to stake and stones marked XIX ; thence north 33 west 66 rods 
to Houstons barn, southwest corner ; thence north 48 west 88 rods to 
stake and stones marked XXI; thence north 55° west, 122 rods to a 
beech tree marked XXII ; thence north 82° west 10 rods to a beech tree 
marked XXIII ; thence south 63° west 48 rods to stake and stones 
marked XXIV ; thence south 42° west 36 rods to a maple tree marked 
XXX ; thence south 40° west 60 rods to stake and stones marked XXVI 
thence south 77° west 14 rods to Capt. Aaron Cleaveland's horseshed 
thence north 89° west 68 rods to a stake and stones marked XXXIII 
thence south 80° west 136 rods to a stake and stones marked XXIX 
thence south 65° west 64 rods to the stone causeway built by Peter 
Miller at the north end ; thence north 68 west 160 rods to a birch tree 
marked XXXI ; thence north 50° west 40 rods to a white birch marked 
XXXII ; thence north 80° west 66 rods to the southeasterly corner of 
Packards bridge [Chandler's] ; thence north 20 west 12 rods across the 
river to stake and stones marked XXXIV ; thence west 32 rods to a 
great rock with stones on the top ; thence north 38 west 40 rods to stake 
and stones marked XXXVI thence north 50 west 37 rods to a pine 
stump marked XXXVII; thence north 65° west 24 rods to a pine 
stump marked XXXVIII ; thence north 45 west 71 rods to a white 
maple tree at the crotch of the roads [Howard Benton's] marked 

Thence on the main road towards the mouth of White River north 
64° west 67 rods to a stake and stones marked I ; thence south 82° west 
across the river 31 rods to a stake and stones marked II ; thence north 



65° west 42 rods to a cherry tree marked III; thence south 83° west 28 
rods to a stake and stones marked IV; thence south 73° west 52 rods 
to a stake and stones marked V; thence south 85° west 118 rods to the 
south end of Houghs horse-shed [old Lafayette hotel] ; thence south 80° 
west 44 rods to a stake and stones marked VII ; thence north 71° west 
71 rods to a rock with stones on the top ; thence south 81 west 90 rods 
to a maple tree by Mr Pecks house marked IX. [This tree stood until 
a few years ago, when, giving signs of decay, it was reluctantly cut 
down.] Thence south 87° west 156 rods to a stake and stones at the 
west end of Mr Peck's bridge [staple bridge] ; thence west 100 rods to 
the north abutment of a bridge by Mr Gates [Moses Perley's] ; thence 
north 71° west 38 rods to stake and stones marked XII; thence north 
85° west 14 rods to stake and stones marked XIII ; thence south 78 west 
70 rods to stake and stones marked XIII; thence north 87° west 130 
rods to the north corner of the bridge called Doct. Parkhurst's bridge 
[Hubbard bridge] ; thence south 62° west 14 rods to stake and stones 
marked XVI ; thence north 75 west 13 rods to an oak tree marked XXII ; 
thence north 46° west 98 rods to Mr Waters well [on the Richard Kim- 
ball place] ; thence north 35 west 78 rods to a pine bush marked XVIII ; 
thence north 33° west 98 rods to a stake one rod south of Hubbards 
store, thence north 170 west 22 rods to Esq Hutchinsons office; thence 
north 8° west 76 rods to stake and stones marked XXII standing north 
from Dana's [Southworth's] tavern; thence north 46° west 54 rods to 
a pine stump marked XXIII ; thence south 65° west 15 rods to the 
north end of Lyman's bridge at or over Connecticut river. 

The road was divided into sections and that is the reason of 
the change in the Roman numerals. The last section commenced 
by Howard Benton's and terminated at Lyman's bridge. A sur- 
veyor would look in vain at this day for the various beech, maple 
and pine trees or stumps, or "the great rocks with stones on the 
top" mentioned. Perhaps only two of the marks mentioned 
through the town remain unchanged, one is "Mr Water's well" 
and the other the "stump of the maple tree by Mr. Peck's." 

The following persons of Lebanon were officers of the road at 
various periods : 

David Hough, director, to 1803. 

Joseph Wood, director from 1806 to 1809, from 1810 to the 
abandonment of the road. 

Stephen Billings, director, 1809. 

Ziba Alden, director from 1817 to 1827. 

James Ralston, clerk from October, 1801, to July, 1802. 


Rev. Isaiah Potter, clerk from 1806 to 1815, when he resigned. 

Thomas Waterman, clerk from 1815 to the end. 

The toll gate was placed where Colonel Hoffman lived. 

Gatekeepers, Woodbury, Zenas Alden and Col. William 


Commencement in those days was attended by great multi- 
tudes from all surrounding regions. Many of those coming 
from Enfield and Canaan used to save their toll by passing over 
the old county road by George Blodget's. Whether their 
horses climbing those steep hills commended the economy of 
their drivers is doubtful. 

At the annual meeting March 10, 1801, Maj. Constant Storrs 
was chosen representative. 

Voted that the selectmen have four shillings per day for their 
services as selectmen. 

The town was divided into nine school districts. 

The center village under this division was in the sixth district, 
whose dimensions were as follows : On the west the farms of 
Mr. Breck and Edwin Perley; on the north Hanover line; on 
the east Howard Benton's; south, the Porter farm, occupied by 

Howe, and contained the following families: Rev. 

Isaiah Potter, Hobart Estabrook, Samuel Estabrook, Abner 
Smith, Walter Peck, Simeon Peck, Eliel Peck, Jahleel Peck, 
Joseph Abbott, Roger Freeman, Luther Pike, Joseph Weed, John 
Kimball, Benj. Kimball, Guy Hough, Charles Toothaker, Enoch 
Freeman, Jacob W. Brewster, John Colburn, Nathaniel Bidwell, 
Zenas Alden, Robert Colburn, Jacob Ela, Asahel Abbott, Thomas- 
Hough, Barnabas Fay, Stephen Kendrick, Jon. Quimby, John 
Walton, Samuel Young, Beriah Abbott, Elkanah Sprague, John 
Porter, Jesse Cook, Stephen Billings, Jesse Cook, Jr., Samuel 
Niles, Andrew Wheatley. 

At the annual meeting March 9, 1802, Col. David Hough had 
151 votes for councillor, there being only one vote cast for any 
other candidate, and was elected. 

Aaron Hutchinson, Esq., was chosen representative. 


August 28, 1802, the town voted for five representatives to 
Congress, with the following result: 

Samuel Tenney, 88 Silas Betton, 85 

Clifton Clagget, 85 Samuel Hunt, 81 

David Hough, 81 

Who were elected; Capt. David Hough was of Lebanon and 
was reelected. Besides these Constant Storrs, Moody Bedel, 
Nahum Parker, Thomas Cogswell, Jonathan Smith each had 11 
votes, and Aaron Hutchinson had 6. 

At the annual meeting March 8, 1803, Aaron Hutchinson was 
chosen representative. 

March 25 the town took the following action : 

Voted to choose a committee to form a vote in regard to the small 
Pox matter. Chose Rev. Isaiah Potter Stephen Kendrick Col David 
Hough for the committee, who reported as follows : 

That the town consents that the Innoculation for the small Pox be 
carried on agreeable to Law in said town for the term of six months 
from the 20th day of Sept : next, under the Direction of the Selectmen 
in some one Place or Places, not exceeding three, whare the selectmen 
shall think most proper, under the following conditions and regulations, 
that is to say — that the individuals who are to be innoculated shall 
pay all the Expense of erecting any building or Rent of any already set 
up, and Compensate the selectmen for their attendance, and fully in- 
demnify the town from any Expense in consequence thereof, and duly 
conform in all respects to the law in that behalf provided. But no 
liberty is hereby granted for any innoculation until sufficient surety is 
made to the selectmen that the above conditions shall be observed 

Voted to except the report of the committee. 

At the annual meeting March 13, 1804, Stephen Kendrick was 
chosen for the first time town clerk. Clapp Sumner chosen rep- 

November 1, 1804, the town voted for presidential electors 
with the following result: 

Oliver Peabody 


Robert Wallace 


John Prentice 


Benj. West 


Timothy Farrar 


Charles Johnson 


William Hale 


John Goddard 


Timothy Walker 


Levi Bartlett 


George Aldrich 



Jonathan Steele 35 William Tarlton 34 

Robert Alcock 34 

The first names of this list constituted the electoral ticket of 
the Federalists, whose candidate was C. C. Pinkney of South 

The second list of names constituted the ticket of the Repub- 
licans, whose candidate was Thomas Jefferson. This was the 
successful ticket in both the state and nation. The vote shows 
that the town was strongly Federalist in its politics. 

At the annual meeting March 12, 1805, the vote for governor 
was as follows : 

John Taylor Gilman, 174; Col. John Langdon, 80. Gilman 
was the Federalist candidate and Langdon the Democratic. The 
latter was successful ; his election marks the beginning of Demo- 
cratic rule in New Hampshire. The elections this year show one 
of the sudden changes of parties. Governor Gilman was first 
elected in 1794, and reelected each year till 1805. The vote 
given above shows a great gain in the Democratic vote of the 
town. In the presidential vote it was a little more than one- 
quarter of that of the Federalists. In this vote it lacks only 
fourteen of being one-half. 

Voted that the selectmen procure a work-house for the use of the 

Aaron Hutchinson chosen representative. 

At a meeting held Feb 22<i 1806 Maj. Thomas Waterman was ap- 
pointed an agent for the town to remonstrate to the Hon. Court of 
Common Pleas, against the acceptance of the doings of s<i Courts Com- 
mittee relative to the alteration of the River road through this town. 

This is the first instance on the records of any outside action 
in the roads of the town. 

At the annual meeting March 11, 1806, the vote for governor 
was as follows : 

John Langdon R 83 John T. Gilman F 74 

Jeremiah Smith F 14 Elisha Ticknor 1 

John Langdon was elected by a large majority. 

Maj. Thomas "Waterman chosen representative. 

The vote for a work-house was renewed. 

At a meeting April 22, 1806, upon a report of a committee 
chosen for that purpose the town was divided into fourteen 



districts. During this and preceding years the town was largely 
occupied in making new roads, in altering and discontinuing 
the old. 

On October 28, 1806, a town meeting was warned at the old 
meeting-house. The object in holding the meeting at that place 
was that the people might view a piece of road from Poggem. 

At the annual meeting March 10, 1807, the vote for governor 
was as follows: John Langdon, K., 71; John S. Gilman, F., 55, 
which means that the town had become Democratic. 

Major Thomas Waterman chosen representative. 

Upon the question, Is a revision of the constitution necessary? 
yeas 1, nays 65. 

During the year there seems to have been much dissatisfac- 
tion with the bounds of the school districts and the division of 
the school money, but the town at various meetings held during 
the year refused to take any action in the matter. 

At a meeting held September 7, 1807 : 

Voted that the Selectmen make such suitable provision of meat and 
drink and powder for soldiers on Battalion and Regimental Muster 
days, as may be done in cheapest manner to answer the law. 

The law was as follows : ' ' That the selectmen of the several 
towns and unincorporated places within this state shall furnish 
suitable meats and drinks for the refreshment of all non-com- 
missioned officers and soldiers within their several towns and 
places, or thirty- four cents in lieu thereof for each man, on regi- 
mental and battalion musters which may be in the months of 
September and October, and also one-quarter of a pound of 
powder to each non-commissioned officer and soldier; at the ex- 
pense of said towns and places ; and it shall be the duty of each 
soldier to consume said powder when directed by his command- 
ing officer; the meats and drinks to be furnished on the parade 
where such regimental or battalion musters are ; the number of 
men ascertained by a roll certified by the commanding officer 
of the company to which they belong. And if the selectmen 
of any town or place, after proper notice of such muster shall 
neglect or refuse to furnish the supplies aforesaid, they shall 
forfeit and pay the sum of fifty cents for each non-commis- 
sioned officer or soldier whom they shall neglect to furnish, to 
be recovered by the commanding officer of the company which 


shall be so regulated, in any court proper to try the same, to be 
appropriated towards defraying the expenses of said company. ' ' 
The amount paid according to law for the year 1807 was as 
follows : 

Stephen Kendrick for powder and rum for field day $23.20 

Jonathan Hamilton for provisions and transporting Do 23.30 

Another account of this year placed by the side of one for 
1881 will show the changes of time : 


Gideon Baker for service as comtee man in selling with the select- 
men $0.34 
Ephraim Wood, Do 0.34 
James Howe Do 0.34 


For auditing Selectmen's accounts $15.00 

At the above meeting the selectmen were directed to purchase 
the cemetery at East Lebanon of Benjamin Fuller. 

At the annual meeting March 8. 1808, Voted to procure one 
scraper for each highway district. There were nine districts. 

Voted that the town will pay for Ringing the Bell on all public 
meeting days, and on funeral occasions 

This is the first mention of a bell in the town. It was pro- 
cured some time in 1807 by subscription. Nothing is now known 
of its weight or character. This was the third bell to send its 
peals through the valleys and among the hills of this region. The 
first was for the use of Dartmouth College, brought by General 
Eaton in a horse-cart from Hartford, Conn., 1790. It reached 
Hanover on the afternoon of the day before commencement. 
"It was immediately suspended from a tree and made the 
welkin ring with a new sound, to the great joy of all the inhabi- 
tants and of all the visitors of that occasion," many of whom 
had never heard a bell before. 

The second was a bell at Meriden, procured about 1798. It 
is said to have excited so much envy among the neighboring 
towns, and so much boasting among the people that it was called 
the "Meriden Idol." 


The first bell-ringer was Jacob C. Richardson, who was paid 
for that service and for sweeping the meeting-house $17. 

The Federalists of the town seem this year to be demoralized,, 
as indicated by the vote for governor: John T. Oilman, F., 18; 
John Langdon, 75. 

Major Thomas Waterman, representative. 

But in the election for presidential electors November 4, 1808, 
the Federalists recovered their strength. Their electoral ticket 
had 156 votes, the Republicans 67. The candidate of the Fed- 
eralists was C. C. Pinkney; of the Republicans, or Democrats, 
James Madison, who was elected, though the majority was 
against him in the state. 

At the annual meeting March 14, 1809, the votes for governor 
were: Jeremiah Smith, F., 190; John Langdon, R., 74. Jere- 
miah Smith was elected by a small majority. 

Col. David Hough was chosen representative. 

The town voted not to lay a road from Lebanon city to the 
mouth of the White River. This road was designed to be in 
competition with the Fourth New Hampshire Turnpike. 

Guideboards are mentioned this year for the first time. 

Paid Downing Amsden for Gide boards $3.75 
" Thomas Hough for lumber for gide Posts $1.24 
" James Hutchinson for Lettering Guid Boards $5.00 

Here is another sad account : 

Paid Elijah Rowell for Horse and journey to Orange in Vermont in 
search of the Stranger's friends that died at Mr. Aldens $1.80 


Town officers, Capt. Joseph Wood, moderator. 

Town clerk, Capt. Jesse Cook. 

Selectmen, David Hough, Capt. Diarca Allen, Hobart Esta- 

Tything men, Aaron Hebbard, Runa Hall. 

Hog reeves, Ephraim Wood, Jr., James Crocker, Jr., Bracket 
Greno, Josiah Magoon, James Ralston, Harry Wheatley. 

Collector and constable, James Willis. 

Fence viewers, Aaron Hutchinson, Esq., Jonathan Hamilton, 
Silas Waterman. 

Poundkeeper, Eliel Peck. 


Sealer of weights and measures, James Howe. 

Sealer of leather, Osgood True. 

The town voted that the selectmen should visit the schools, 
and that Rev. Mr. Potter should assist them. 

For some time this and surrounding towns had been greatly 
disturbed by reports of the disappearance of dead bodies from 
the cemeteries. The vicinity of the Medical College established 
at Hanover near the close of the last century gave sufficient 
ground for these reports. There is no doubt that the graves 
were sometimes disturbed. The selectmen were accordingly di- 
rected to enforce the law passed June, 1810, against "digging 
up the bodies of dead people." The penalty for this offense 
was severe, namely, "a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars 
to be publickly whipped not exceeding thirty-nine stripes, or 
be imprisoned not exceeding two years. ' ' The same penalty was 
also enforced against any person who should knowingly receive 
any such body. 

At a town meeting held September 10, 1810, James Hutchin- 
son was appointed agent of the town to carry on a suit against 
the White River Falls Company. 

At a meeting held on the 27th of August to choose representa- 
tives to congress, the Federalist candidates were George Sulli- 
van, William Hale, James Wilson, Roger Vose, who each received 
151 votes, and Daniel Blaisdell, who received 149. 

The Republican candidates were Josiah Bartlett, John A. 
Hooper, D. L. Morrill, Samuel Dinsmore, Obadiah Hall; each 
received 62 votes. 


Diarca Allen, David Hough and Hobart Estabrook, select- 
men; Jesse Cook, town clerk. 

Vote for governor: John Langdon, R., 104; Jeremiar Smith, 
F., 175. Langdon was elected. 

William Hale, George Sullivan, Daniel Blaisdell, Federalists, 
representatives to congress, had 156 votes. 

John A. Harper, Obed Hall, Republicans, had 82 votes. 

From the record it appears that there had been a freshet 
lately, as Selden Freeman asks the town to make him some con- 


sideration for brick destroyed by water — which they declined 
to do. 

This year one of the citizens of the town received the reward 
of patience and perseverance. James Crocker, who lived at the 
place now occupied by the widow of Sam'l B. Gerrish, had asked 
the town annually for nearly ten years to grant him a road from 
his house to the meeting-house by way of Deacon Huntington's, 
Howes' and Mr. Peck's bridge. The town had directed the 
selectmen and appointed committees to examine and report upon 
the proposed road, but somehow he did not get the road. He 
did not call out the commissioners or the court's committee, but 
reposed confidently upon the justice of his fellow-citizens and 
continued his applications. When we learn the route he had to 
go to get to the meeting-house, west of Frank Peabody's on to 
Horace Storr's, and then by an old road to the bridge at Scythe- 
ville, it seems tardy justice when his request is finally granted. 
The road is the one now traveled to the John Ela farm. 

War of 1812. 

As early as 1806 England began proceedings which gave of- 
fense to the United States, and finally culminated in war. Eng- 
land and France were at war with one another. By an order in 
council the whole coast of Europe from the Elbe to Brest was 
declared to be in a state of blockade. Napoleon retaliated by 
declaring a blockade of all the British islands. Another order 
of England forbade all coast trade with France. Under these 
orders English and French cruisers seized and condemned Amer- 
ican vessels without scruple, and without fear, so small was our 
uavy. American commerce under the action of these powerful 
nations was swept from the seas. In addition England claimed 
the right to search American vessels for suspected deserters from 
her navy, a right exercised in the most offensive manner and re- 
sulting in the impressment of many native-born citizens into the 
British navy. Remonstrances were of no avail. 

In November, 1807, another order in council was issued, for- 
hidding neutral vessels to enter French ports, unless they had 
previously entered a British port and paid a duty. Napoleon 
retaliated by a decree confiscating every vessel which should 
submit to British search or pay any duty to Great Britain. In 
the view of these haughty nations no other people had any rights 
which they were bound to respect. 

In December, 1807, congress laid an embargo which held all 
vessels, foreign or American, in our ports, and ordered all 
American vessels to return home immediately. On all sides the 
commerce of the United States suffered. If any of her vessels 
ventured abroad two powerful nations were ready to seize their 
cargoes, and one of them scrupled not to seize both cargoes and 
crews. Finally their own government shut them up in. their 
own ports. The natural, inevitable result was great discontent. 
The people were divided into two great parties, the Federalists 
and the Republicans. The Federalists were apologists for Eng- 

WAR OF 1812. 223 

land and opposed to the measures of the government. The Re- 
publicans (the Democrats of the period) resented the conduct 
of England and favored war. Controversies between these par- 
ties were exceedingly bitter. Each condemned what the other 
proposed or did. Negotiations were entered into, but they came 
to nothing. England thought she had nothing to fear from the 
United States, and if they did not like her orders in council, or 
the proceedings of her cruisers, what difference did it make 
to her? She persistently adhered to her policy. 

There was nothing left to the United States but to declare 
war against her oppressor, which was done June 18, 1812. 

To the Federalists the act savored of the ridiculous. For a 
country impoverished, with an empty treasury, with a navy com- 
prising only eight frigates, two sloops and five brigs to take up 
arms against England, the mistress of the seas, they said and 
felt, was the height of folly. The Republicans, on the other 
hand, gloried in the courage and faith of the act. Little was 
done on either side for a time. On the land defeats exceeded 
successes on our side. But victories were gained on the seas and 
lakes. Though England at first despised our navy, she soon 
learned to respect it. Many of her haughty cruisers were forced 
to strike their flags to the courage and skill of the despised 
Yankees. Besides, a vast swarm of privateers scoured the ocean 
in every direction and preyed upon British commerce, with such 
success, that in a single year they captured more than three hun- 
dred vessels. Fourteen of these privateers sailed from Ports- 
mouth the first year of the war, commissioned by the United 
States "to take, burn, sink and destroy the enemy wherever he 
•could be found, either on high seas or in British ports. ' ' 

As time passed away without any substantial successes to our 
arms by land, and the burdens of war pressed more heavily on 
the people, discontent and complaint increased. "Agriculture 
mourning, Commerce in tears." New England was opposed to 
the war, because her interests suffered. Her commerce and fish- 
eries were extensive and profitable; the war destroyed them. 
Some of her wisest men denounced the war as suicidal; they 
whispered first and then talked openly of resistance. They 
went farther and recommended and planned a dissolution of the 
Union. The discussions of the parties were fierce and bitter. 


Men in their party zeal became unjust and refused to recognize 
any merit, however conspicuous, on the other side. Mr. G. W. P. 
Curtis in an oration exclaimed: "Perhaps some fearless sailor 
now climbs the shattered mast to nail the flag of my country to 
the stump — my life on it, that fellow is a Federalist. ' ' Another, 
in view of the great naval victories, said : ' ' It is worthy of re- 
mark that Hull, Jones, Decatur, Bainbridge and Lawrence are 
all Federalists. ' ' 

In the war New Hampshire bore an honorable part. Her 
soldiers and sailors were conspicuous by land and sea. In the 
bloody battle of Chippewa, Colonel McNeil showed all the 
bravery and coolness of a veteran and was promoted by congress 
for his gallant conduct. Later, at the fierce battle of Bridge- 
water, when McNeil was disabled by a wound in the knee, 
Colonel Miller of Peterboro came forward with his memorable 
" I '11 try, sir, ' ' and led his regiment to the most brilliant success. 


If the historian depended upon the town records alone, the 
history of the town in the second war with England would be 
as brief as a chapter in the history of Ireland, which was to the 
following effect: 

' ' There are no snakes in Ireland. ' ' For there is not the slight- 
est reference in the records of the town to this war. The town 
seems to have taken no action, whatever, in relation to it. There 
are no resolutions, no directions to the selectmen, no offers of 
bounty, no provisions for drafts — the records are wholly silent 
as to the contest. The business of the town went on in its ordi- 
nary channels. This silence of the records, this non-action of the 
town, in so important a matter can only be accounted for from 
the fact that the majority of the inhabitants were Federalists, 
and as such bitterly opposed to the war, and would have nothing 
to do with it. "While the records are silent, tradition is nearly 
so. It is not difficult to learn who of the early inhabitants took 
part in the Revolution from tradition, but very few are spoken 
of as in the war of 1812. 

The historian has resorted to the best means at his command 
to learn who of the inhabitants of the town took any active part 
in that contest. 

WAR OF 1812. 225 

Early in the summer of 1812 the people in the north of the 
state were fearful of attacks from Canada, and upon their repre- 
sentation that much smuggling was carried on in that region, 
Governor Plumer reported the facts to the general government, 
and General Dearborn made a requisition for a company of 
militia, to be stationed in that quarter, with their headquarters 
at Stewartstown. This company was commanded by Capt. E. H. 
Mahurin. Their time of service expired January 27, 1813, when 
Capt. Edmund Freeman, son of Colonel Freeman of Lebanon, 
was ordered to occupy the post March 11, 1813. In the roll of 
his company occur the following names credited to Lebanon : 

Elias H. Blodgett, corporal Silas Curtis 

Amasa Blodgett Joseph W. Green 

Ebenezer Brainard John Holbrook 

Peter P. Payne John Perry 

Eli Wood 
Their time of service was six months. 

In Captain Courson's company of the Third Regiment of de- 
tatched militia are the following credited to Lebanon : 

Moses Abbott, sergeant major Isaac Allen 

Amasa Blodgett, sergeant Josiah Magoon, 1st lieut. 

William Clifford Lathrop Hamilton 

Sherburne Hutchinson Zaran Haven 

William Lothrop Elisha Paine 

William Redington Moses Seaven 

Lambert W. Cushing John Wright 

In Capt. John Willey's company of the Third Regiment: 

Mark Horsom. 

The above were enlisted in the fall of 1814 for sixty days and 
were stationed at Portsmouth in anticipation of an attack by the 
British naval forces. 

In Capt. Benjamin Bradford's company of the Forty-fifth 
Regiment, U. S. Infantry: 

William Cole. 
Capt. Joseph Griswold, Eleventh Regiment of U. S. Infantry. 
In Capt. Richard Bean's company, Eleventh U. S. Regiment, 
Edmund Freeman, 3d fifer. 



The following is the best account which can be given of the 
above persons : 

Corp. Elias H. Blodgett was the son of Nathan and Anna 
(Perrin) Blodgett, born in Lebanon, April 22, 1786, and a 
brother of Seth Blodgett; married Sally Dustin, December 3, 
1809 ; died at Alden, N. Y. 

Sergt. Amasa Blodgett, brother of the preceding, was born in 
Lebanon, February 23, 1791. Both of the above left Lebanon 
and died in the West. 

Peter Pratt Payne was the son of Elisha Payne, Jr., grandson 
of Col. Elisha Payne ; born November 22, 1795. 

Lathrop Hamilton, son of Jonathan and Polly (Payne) Ham- 
ilton, and brother of Ziba Hamilton, was born in Lebanon, April 
3, 1797; died March 25, 1827. 

Isaac Allen, quartermaster's sergeant, son of Isaac and Joann 
B. Allen ; born in Lebanon, October 30, 1792 ; lived for a time 
at Crown Point ; removed to Lebanon again in 1822, then moved 
to Wayland, Mass. ; died in Boston while on a visit June 14, 1861. 

William Lathrop was the son of Capt. Samuel and Lois (Hunt- 
ington) Lathrop; born April 15, 1796, and was a brother of Mrs. 
Truman. After the war he went into the state of New York 
and after a time was never heard of again. 

William Cole was the son of Timothy and Tabitha (Downer) 
Cole. He enlisted for the war in Captain Bradford's company 
of the Forty-fifth U. S. Regiment, March 10, 1811, when he was 
about sixteen years old. He was at the battle of Plattsburgh 
when he assisted in destroying a bridge to prevent the passage 
of the British troops. He resided for a short time at Colebrook, 
whence he returned to Lebanon where he died. 

Elisha Payne, 3d, was a brother of Peter P. Payne ; born Jan- 
uary 15, 1793. 

William Redington, son of Enoch and Iluldah Redington ; 
born February 14, 1793, at Lebanon ; died March 5, 1828. 

Moses Seavey. 

Moses Abbott, sergeant major, son of Beriah and Polly Abbott ; 
born April 21, 1787 ; moved to Pomfret, Vt., and died there. 

Capt. Joseph Griswold was the son of Maj. John and Elisabeth 
(Porter) Griswold; born August 2, 1776. He was of the 
Eleventh U. S. Regiment, and was employed for a time in the 

WAR OF 1812. 227 

recruiting service. Mrs. Truman remembers that lie and his 
company appeared on the common one Sabbath morning about 
the time for service, when Mr. Potter was escorted from the 
church to the company, when he offered prayer, and was then 
escorted back to the church door. He afterwards removed to 
Paulet, Vt., and in his later years became blind. 

Capt. Edmund Freeman, Jr., was the son of Col. Edmund 
Freeman, formerly of Hanover, and the first settler of that town. 
Captain Freeman, after the war, lived in Lebanon many years 
where Samuel "Wood now lives. Afterwards he removed to Hart- 
land, where he died September 26, 1854. 

Edmund Freeman, 3d, son of Capt. Edmund and Zilpah 
(Poole) Freeman, enlisted in Capt. Richard Bean's company of 
the Eleventh U. S. Regiment, January 8, 1713, for five years. 
After the war he went West and after a time he was never heard 
from again. It is supposed that he died in Canada. 

Of the other persons named no account can be given. They 
probably were never permanent residents of the town and may 
have been substitutes for drafted men. 

Tradition, so far as Lebanon is concerned, has preserved very 
few incidents connected with this war. A small boy at the 
"nooning" one Sabbath happened to stray away from the meet- 
ing-house to some distance, when he caught sight of a soldier ; he 
followed on and found "the fields full of them." He lingered 
around their camp during the afternoon service, and when he 
reached home he had to render a strict account of himself for 
thus breaking the Sabbath, and we may suspect that the repri- 
mand was none the less painful from his grandfather's being a 
minister and a Federalist. Later in the day the boy had the 
mortification of seeing the soldiers pass by his house on their 
way to Burlington, and reflected that he might have seen the 
soldiers without incurring quite so much pains. The boy of that 
day is Capt. Edward A. Howe of the present. 

It is hardly possible for us to understand the bitterness of feel- 
ing between the parties of that day. There are a few lingering 
still, old enough to remember that war, and to have imbibed 
something of the spirit of the times. You are pretty sure to see 
a flashing of the eyes and a quickening of the blood when the 
affairs of that period are alluded to. 


Mr. Potter was an ardent Federalist and preached a ser- 
mon upon General Hull's surrender which, while it gave satis- 
faction to perhaps the majority of his hearers, awakened the 
strongest indignation in the breasts of the Eepublicans of the 
time. They denounced him with unsparing bitterness and pro- 
nounced his discourse treasonable and he worthy of death. 

"Whether the war was just and wise or not, it came to an end 
to the great joy of all. A treaty of peace was signed at Ghent, 
in Belgium, December 24, 181-4. Before the news of peace 
reached the United States the battle of New Orleans was fought, 
and the war ended in a blaze of glory for the Americans. 

The war certainly resulted in good to the country. The United 
States won the respect of other nations and her vessels were no 
longer liable to be annoyed and plundered on the seas. Ameri- 
can naval victor}' enabled Mr. "Webster to insert, without a word 
of opposition, in the Ashburton treaty the proud and essential 
declaration — "the American flag shall protect all that sail under 
it." To the energy and bravery displayed in that war we owe 
our exemption from any important acts of hostility on the part 
of foreign nations for a period of sixty-seven years, and our 
ability to enforce reparation for minor acts done to our injury. 

State and Town Officers, Etc. 


Diarea Allen, Stephen Kendrick, Esq., Col. Thomas Water- 
man, selectmen. 

John G. Gilman, Federalist, had 162 votes for governor; Wil- 
liam Plnmer, Republican, had 97, elected by the legislature. 
Col. Thomas Waterman chosen representative. 

The selectmen were directed to fence the several burial 

Mr. Potter, Samuel Selclen and James Hutchinson appointed 
a committee to visit the schools. 

At a meeting to vote for representatives to congress in Novem- 
ber, the following persons on the Federalist ticket each had 197 
votes : Daniel Webster, Bradbury Cilley, William Hall, Samuel 
Smith. Roger Vose, Jeduthan Wilcox. 

On the Republican ticket each of the following had 98 votes: 
John F. Parrott, Josiah Butler, John A. Harper, David L. Mor- 
rill, Jesse Johnson, Samuel Dinsmore. The Federalist ticket 
was successful. 

The vote for presidential electors was the same, namely, Fed- 
eralist ticket, 198; Republican, 98. The Federalist ticket was 
successful in the state, but failed in the countrv. James Madi- 
son was chosen president. 


Diarca Allen, Thomas Waterman and Stephen Kendrick, 
selectmen. James Hutchinson, town clerk. 

Vote for governor : John G. Gilman, F., 179 ; William Plu- 
mer, R., 94. John G. Gilman elected. 

Col. Thomas Waterman chosen representative. 

Nothing beyond the routine business of the town was done at 
the annual meeting. 



Thomas Waterman, Diarca Allen, Stephen Kendrick, select- 
men. Stephen Kendrick, town clerk. Col. David Hough, repre- 

For governor, John G. Gilman, F., 213 ; William Plumer, R., 
115. John G. Gilman elected. 

On a vote for a revision of the constitution, yeas 6, nays 105. 

In the fall elections for representatives to congress the Fed- 
eralist ticket had 200 votes and the Republicans 101. Federal- 
ists elected. 

The town voted seventy-five dollars to William Payne as some 
"farther compensation for the great trouble, cost and loss of 
time by him sustained in consequence of his agreement to sup- 
port Cuff Searle." 


Col. Thomas Waterman, Jonathan Hamilton, Samuel Selden, 
selectmen. Stephen Kendrick, town clerk. Dea. Nathaniel Por- 
ter, representative. 

Vote for governor: William Plumer, R., 103; John Taylor 
Gilman, F., 200, who was elected. 

At a town meeting held November 13, 1815, it was voted that 
it was "the wish of the town to make provision for effecting a 
settlement with the Rev. Mr. Potter." 

Voted not to choose a committee to confer with him on the subject. 
Voted that it is not the wish of the town to settle a colleague with 
the Rev. Isaiah Potter. 

Voted to reconsider the first vote that was passed. 

In the town meetings of those days a reconsideration of a vote 
was understood to annul it. 

Early in this year the war with England closed. It seems 
hardly possible that a war which pressed so heavily upon the 
people in all directions, which almost destroyed all industrial 
and commercial operations, which demanded money and men, 
whose beginning and progress provoked so much angry discus- 
sion and bitterness of feeling ; it seems hardly possible that such 
a war should begin and find not the slightest recognition in the 
action of the town from first to last. Impossible as it seems, 
such is the fact. 



Thomas Waterman, Jonathan Hamilton, Samuel Selden, select- 
men ; Stephen Kendrick, town clerk ; Samuel Selden, repre- 

Vote for governor : James Sheafe, F., 170 ; William Plumer, 
R., 129, who was elected. 

The vote of the town shows a marked change of feeling, if not 
of principle in the loss of the Federalists and the gain of the 
Republicans, and the same change prevailed through the state. 
The war. which had met such fierce opposition, had been marked 
with such brilliant victories on the seas and lakes, had closed 
in such a blaze of glory at New Orleans, and was followed with 
such conspicuous benefits to the standing of the United States 
among foreign nations, as to cause men to doubt the wisdom 
and justice of their opposition. 

At a meeting held September 9, 1816, "chose a committee to 
confer forthwith with the Rev. Mr. Potter relative to a settle- 
ment, and report to this meeting where upon the Rev. Mr Pot- 
ter appears in meeting and offers in writing the same proposals 
as were offered by him to a collection of individuals of s d town 
under date of July 8 th last [and this meeting now request their 
said committee to cooperate with the said Rev. Mr. Potter, and 
obtain his terms without any condition of settling a colleague 
and this meeting is adjourned till Thursday the 19 th instant at 
two o'clock in the afternoon at this place to hear the proposals 
of the s d Rev. Mr. Potter through their said committee]." 

A pen has been drawn through the matter enclosed in brackets. 

Voted that Capt Joseph Wood, Enoch Freeman and Capt. Giddings 
Whitmore be a committee to confer with the Rev. Mr. Potter, on terms 
of settlement without any condition of settling a colleague. 

At a meeting held September 19, 1816 : 

Voted that the salary of the Rev. Mr. Potter be continued and paid to 
him until the 22a of August next [1817] and that the said Potter 
be excused from performing any ministerial services from and after this 
time, upon condition and in consideration that the said Potter relin- 
quish (as he now agrees to do) all claim for any salary from the town, 
or individuals from and after the said 22a of August 

Voted that the selectmen assess on the inhabitants of Lebanon, upon 
the last invoice a tax to pay the Rev. Mr. Potter his salary for the 
year past. 


In November the town voted for representatives to congress 
and for presidential electors, when the Federalist ticket had 130 
votes and the Republicans 94. The Republicans were successful 
in the state and nation. James Monroe was elected president. 

The year 1816 is known as the cold year. There was frost 
every month of the year, except August. In some portions of 
the state there was frost every month. Snow fell on the 9th 
of June, the famous cold Friday, when people were obliged to 
work in winter clothing and with hands covered with mittens. 
Most of the crops were destroyed. In the southern part of the 
state the mean height of the thermometer was 43°, while the 
average was about 46° in that region. This season so discour- 
aged and disgusted the farmers of the state that many of them 
began to look for a more genial climate. From about that time 
emigration to the West commenced, which has steadily depleted 
New Hampshire, let us hope. 

Colonel Hoffman says that there was only six bushels of sound 
corn raised in the town that year, and that was raised on a small 
piece of land near Olcott's Falls, where it was protected from 
the frosts by the spray from the water. There was a good crop 
of wheat and rye. Corn sold at three dollars a bushel. 


Thomas Waterman, Jonathan Hamilton. Samuel Selden, select- 
men; Stephen Kendrick, town clerk; Samuel Selden. repre- 

Vote for governor: Samuel Sheafe. F.. 154; William Plumer, 
R., 115, who was elected. 

At a town meeting held December 24. 1917, "Voted not to 
appoint an agent or attorney to defend in the suit of Barrett 
Potter against said town." Barrett Potter was the son of Rev. 
Mr. Potter, and the suit was for arrears of salary. 

In the summer of this year (1817) the people of this vicinity 
had their first sight of a president of the United States. Presi- 
dent Monroe entered the state and proceeded as far north as 
Hanover. At Enfield, coming by the Fourth New Hampshire 
Turnpike, he stopped at the habitation of the Shaker community. 
The elder came forth from the principal house in the settlement 
and thus addressed the president: "I. Joseph Goodrich, wel- 
come James Monroe to our habitation." The president then 


offered his hand to the eldress, when she said : "I respect thee, 
but I cannot take thy hand." The president examined the insti- 
tution and their manufactures for about an hour and was highly 
pleased with the beauty of their fields, their exemplary habits, 
their improvements in agriculture and the neatness of their sub- 
stantial but plain buildings. 

He passed from thence through Lebanon to Hanover, where 
he unexpectedly met an old acquaintance in the widow of the 
late revered and lamented President Wheelock. This lady was 
a native of New Jersey, was at Trenton at the time of the battle 
in which he was a lieutenant of a company. He was wounded 
in the battle and she dressed his wound after he was conveyed 
to the house where she then was. The president did not remem- 
ber her at first, but as the past came to his mind the interview 
became peculiarly affecting to the two individuals and highly 
interesting to the large circle of ladies and gentlemen. In a let- 
ter from Hanover it was said: "We were delighted with the 
short visit of the president. For his sake the hatchet was buried 
for at least twenty-four hours; a short truce, but a merry one." 
This was said in view of the bitterness existing between the po- 
litical parties of the day. 


Aaron Hutchinson, Diarca Allen, William Benton, selectmen. 
Town clerk, Stephen Kendrick. Representative, Stephen Ken- 

Vote for governor: Jeremiah Mason, F., 141); William Plumer. 
R., 115, who was elected. The Federalist vote in the state was 
' divided nearly equally between William Hale and Jeremiah 

On the 19th of October the town voted that the selectmen and 
a committee of three examine and determine a route for a road 
from the turnpike road through the great hollow to Hanover line, 
and cause the same to be surveyed. Chose Col. David Hough, 
S. Kendrick and S. Selden for that committee. This was the 
road by Rix ledges to Mill Village. 


Col. Thomas Waterman, Ziba Alden and William Benton, se- 
lectmen ; Timothy Kenrick, town clerk ; Col. David Hough, rep- 



Vote for governor: William Hale, F., 103; Samuel Bell, R., 76, 
who was elected. 

Voted to accept the report of the committee on the new road through 
the Hollow to Hanover. 

The record does not say whether the report was in favor or 
against the building of the road, but probably in favor, as the 
road was built soon after. 


For the purpose of comparison with the former lists, and as a 
matter of interest, the list of taxpayers for 1820 is given. 

Abbott, Beriah 
Abbott, Moses 
Allen, Parthenia 
Allen, Susan 
Allen, Abner 
Allen, Isaac 
Allen, Diarca 
Amsden, Benj. 
Amsden, Downing 
Amsden, Joel 
Amsden, Joseph 
Amsden. Uriah 
Anderson, David 
Alden, Luther 

Alden, Phelps 
Alden, Ziba 
Alden, Zenas 
Alden, Ezra 
Alden, Julius 
Aspen wall, Eleazar 
Aldrich, Clark 
Aldrich, David 
Aldrich, Milton 
Aldrich, James 
Aldrich, Richard 
Aspenwall, Horatio G. 
Amsden, William 
Allen, Joshua 

Baker, Abel 
Baker, Jabez 
Baker, Alpheus 
Baker, Dorothy 
Barnes, Silas 
Barnes, Samuel S. 
Brewster, Amos A. 
Blodgett, Seth 
Buswell, Richard 
Burns. Josiah 
Buck, William 
Buck, Cyrus 

Bliss, Isaiah 
Bliss, Daniel 
Bo wen, Josiah 
Brinks, William 
Benton, William 
Benton, Calvin 
Billings, Stephen 
Billings, William 
Bosworth, Edward 
Bos worth, Dan 
Bosworth, Jesse 
Brown, Ira A. 



Buck, Pelatiah 
Bellows, Josiah 2d 
Blanchard, Stephen 

Colburn, Stephen 
Colburn, Benjamin 
Colburn, John 
Cook, Bathsheba 
Cook, Jesse 
Cook, Giles 
Cook, John 
Crocker, Charles 
Crocker, David 
Crocker, Joseph 
Crocker, James 
Crocker, Samuel 

Bugbee, Amos 
Bunker, John 
Bosworth, Alva 

Carr, Thomas 
Cushing, Joshua 
Cleaveland, Aaron 
Cleaveland, Zenas 
Clark, Francis 
Chase, Harvey 
Carpenter, Thomas D. 
Cutting, Isaac 
Champion, John 


Cotton Factory Co., Lebanon 

Dana, Jedediah 
Deman, Thomas 
Downer, Erastus 
Downer, Jason 
Downer, Joseph 
Downer, Elisha 
Downer, Silas 
Dewey, Martin 
Dewey, Grenville 

Ela, Benjamin 

Ela, Jacob 

Ela, James 

Eldridge, Polly (widow) 

Ellis, Oliver 

Freeman, Enoch 
Freeman, Erastus 
Freeman, Daniel 
Freeman, Joseph 
Fitch, Asa 
Fitch, Isaac 

Delano, Luther 
Delano, Zenas 
Dustin, Samuel 
Dustin, Daniel 
Dustin, Daniel, Jr. 
Dutton, Zachariah 
Durkee, John 
Davis, "William A. 

Estabrook, Aaron 
Estabrook, Hobart 
Estabrook, Kodolphus 
Elliot, Samuel 

Fox, John, Jr. 
Foord, John 
Foord, Joseph 
Foord, Hezekiah 
Freeman, Otis 
Freeman, Jesse 



Flood, Nathaniel 
Flood, Benjamin 
Freeman, Nathaniel 
Fuller, James 
Fox, John 

Fay, Barnabas 
Fay, Winslow 
Flanders, Moses 
Frary, Elisha 
Fifield, Calvin 

Goold, John 
Goold, Elijah 

Gray, David 
Gray, John 
Gray, Samuel 
Goff, Frederick 
Green, Henry 
Griffin, Jacob 
Griswold, Ahira 

Hall, Nathaniel 
Hall, Dan 
Hall, Araunah 
Hibbard, Aaron 
Hibbard, Moses 
Hinkley, Daniel 
Hubbard, George 
Huntington, Elias. Jr 
Hutchinson, Aaron 
Hutchinson. James 
Hubbard, Orrin 
Hubbard, Josiali 
Hebbard, John 
Hall, John 
Hall, Daniel 
Hamilton, Jonathan 

Judkins, Stephen 
Jones, David 
Jewett, Haynes 

Lyman, Elias 
Lathrop, Sluman 

Gallup, Benjamin A. 
Greenough, Bracket 

Greenough, Moses 
Grimes, Alexander 
Gates, Ira 
Gates, Laban 
Gates, Paul H. 
Gillet, Ahira 
Gage, Jesse E. 

Hardy, Daniel 
Hard}', Oliver 
Hard}', Johnson 
Huntington, Ziba 
Hough, David 
Hough, David, Jr. 
Hebbard, Silas 
Hough, Asel 
Hough, Clement 
Hough, Daniel 
Hough, Clark 
Hough, John 
Hough, Witherell 
How, Elisabeth 
Hubbard. Benj. T. 

Kendrick, Stephen 
Kendrick, Stephen, Jr. 
Kenrick, Timothy 
Kimball, Willis 
Kimball, Elisha 

Lull, Frederick 
Lathe, Joshua 



Lathrop, G. H. 
Lathrop, Elijah 
Lathrop, William 
Lathrop, Samuel 
Leach, James 
Leach, Isaac 
Livermore, Absalom R. 

Lathe, Sylvanus B. 
Liscomb, John 
Loonier, William 
Low, John 
Low, Edward 
Laughton, David 

Mason, Joseph B. 
Mason, Marshal 
Morse, Wareham 
Merret, Henry 

Nelson, Charles 
Parkhurst, Phineas 
Parkhurst, Calvin 
Parkhurst, Asa 
Peck, Eliel 
Peck, John 
Peck, Azel 
Peek, Walter, Jr. 
Porter, Arnold 
Porter, Nathaniel 
Porter, Nathaniel, Jr. 
Post, Andrew 
Post, George W. 
Perkins, Enos M. 
Purington, Mark 
Packard, Anna (widow) 
Packard, Zacloc 

Risley, Roswell 
Rea, Thomas 
Richardson, Jacob B. 
Richardson, William 

Slapp, John 
Slapp, Simon P. 
Stephens, John 

Marsh, Zebinah 
Martin, Joseph, Jr. 
March, David 
Marden, Joseph 

Packard, Holden 
Packard, Ichabod 
Packard, Asahel 
Packard, Wm. H. 
Packard, Nathaniel 
Payne, John S. 
Payne, Zenas 
Payne, William 
Peabody, Thomas 
Pierce, Isaac 
Pierce, Zephaniah 
Plastridge, Caleb 
Plaistridge, Charles 
Potter, Thomas 
Pritchard, Dexter 
Picket, John 
Percival, James 

Robinson, Lake 
Ralston, James 
Redington, Constant 
Redington, William 

Sanborn, William 
Selden, Samuel 
Storrs, Constant 



Stanley, Abijah 
Sargent, Ezekiel 
Sargent, Aaron 
Smith, Daniel 
Smith, Edward 
Sartwell, Roswell 
Smalley, Lyman 
Strong, Orsemus 
Stephens, Isaac 

Ticknor, Elisha 
Ticknor, William 
Ticknor, Isaac 
Ticknor, Paul K. 
Ticknor, John 
True, Osgood 
Truman, Thomas 
True, George 

AValling, Baker 
"Walling, Benj. 
Waterman, Thomas 
Waterman, Silas 2d 
Wood, Henry G. 
Wood, John 
Wood, John, Jr. 
Wood, Joseph 
Wood, Roger 
Wood, Samuel 
Wood, Ephraim 
Wood, Benjamin 
Wright, Abel 
Wright, Abel, Jr. 
Wood, Ephraim, Jr. 
Wood, Jesse 
Whitmore, Ebenezer 
Whitmore, William 
Watson, French 

Storrs, Constant 2d 
Storrs, Dan 
Storrs, George 
Storrs, William 
Storrs, Ziba 
Simon, Arad 
Sevey, Moses 
Sever, William 

Taylor, Daniel 
Tucker, Samuel 
Tibbetts, Jesse 
Tilden, Joseph 
Tilden, Joel 
Tilden, Joseph, Jr. 
Tilton, Henry 
Ticknor, Paul 

Wells, Thomas 
Wells, Eliphalet 
White, Fanny 
Williams, Orville 
Winneck, John 
Wilson, Thomas 
Wells, Reuben 
Whitmore, Clapp S. 
Whitmore, David 
Whitmore, David, Jr. 
Williams, Robert 
Woodbury, James 
Woodbury, John 
Woodbury, Leonard 
Wallace, Joseph 
White River Falls Co. 
Woodward, Isaac 
Warner, Caleb 

Young, Samuel 

Young, Ammi B. 



It may be interesting to recall the condition of the town at 
this period of its life. Its population is given as 1,710, about 
one hundred less than in 1810. This decrease was undoubtedly 
owing to western migration. Number of polls, 199 ; of horses 
over four years old, 164; of oxen, 158; of cows, 407. Sheep are 
not mentioned in the invoice of the 3'ear. Number of carriages 
worth over fifty dollars, 17. 

Stephen Kendrick, Wareham Morse, Timothy Kenrick and 
Calvin Benton were the merchants at the Center; Josiah Barnes 
at East Lebanon and the Lyrnans across the river from West 

The tavern-keepers were Moses Greenough at the old Lafayette, 
where the Whipple block now stands, who had for a sign only 
a large O painted green ; Moses Abbott, son of Beriah Abbott at 
the head of School Street, now the Stickney place ; Josiah Barnes 
and Col. Luther Delano at East Lebanon ; Daniel Freeman where 
Joel Baker now lives ; Silas Leach on Mount Support ; Ephraim 
Wood on the Ben Wood place on the Meriden road; Capt. 
Joseph Wood, and Ira A. Brown on the river road. All the 
merchants and all the "taverners" Avere licensed to retail spirits; 
the people of that day, almost without exception, were their cus- 

Clark Aldrich, near Chandler's mills; Eliel Peck at Scythe- 
ville, Uriah and Joel Amsden at the Center, Jesse Cook at East 
Lebanon, Joseph Wood and White Kiver Falls Co. at West Leb- 
anon, Orren Hubbard, near Hubbard bridge, had sawmills. 

Paul Buswell had his tannery where the key shop of Kendrick 
& Davis is located; Osgood True also had a tannery where 
Ebenezer Cole lives, and was also licensed to sell spirits. The 
machine shop of Cole & Son was occupied by Stephen Kendrick 
as an oil mill. The Mechanics Cotton and Woolen factory oc- 
cupied the site of the lower shops of Mead, Mason & Co., now 
Eiverside. The Lebanon cotton factory was in operation at 
East Lebanon. Andrew Post had his hat factory near the Gus- 
tin shop by the iron bridge in the center village, and there was 
another factory on the opposite side of the street soon after. 
Daniel Hinkley was a clothier in the southwest part of the 
town on True brook. 


Frederick Lull, whose shop was a little west of the store of 
Brown Bros, and Alexander Grimes, whose shop stood on the 
ground of the high school building near the blacksmiths of the 
center. Haynes Jewett had a shop a little south of the bridge in 
Butmanville, a Mr. Gates at East Lebanon. John Winneck 
was a saddler and storekeeper at East Lebanon ; Simon Peter 
Slapp w T as a tailor at East Lebanon. Samuel and Ammi B. 
Young and Azel Peck and Joseph Mason were the builders of 
the time. Alpheus Baker, Philo Sprague and Ahirah Griswold 
were the brick masons. 

The doctors were Phineas Parkhurst, Benjamin Gallup in the 
Center, and Caleb Plaistridge at East Lebanon. 

The lawyers were Aaron and James Hutchinson and Samuel 

Mr. Potter was dead and the Congregationalists were without 
a pastor till November 1823, when Calvin Cutler was settled. 
John Foord was preaching to the Second Congregational church, 
the Universalists had no settled minister and the Methodists 
had only occasional meetings. The only place of worship was 
the present town hall, standing on the park about 200 feet south 
of its present location. 

The means of transportation were by the Fourth New Hamp- 
shire Turnpike, four, six and eight-horse teams carrying the 
produce of the farms to market and returning with groceries 
and dry goods for the merchants. Many of the farmers carried 
their pork, butter and cheese to Boston and Portsmouth, bring- 
ing back supplies for their own families and others, having, gen- 
erally, good times on the road and at the taverns. The trip 
usually occupied from two to three weeks. Among the well- 
known teamsters of the period w T as Amasa Hurlburt, who died 
in this town in 1870, aged 84 years. 

The Connecticut River was the means of communication be- 
tween Hartford, Conn., and the towns of New Hampshire and 
Vermont, large boats being used which floated down with the 
current, and were forced back by poles and oars, sometimes as- 
sisted by sails when the wind blew up stream. The Lymans, at 
what is called the Point, on the Vermont side, were extensive 
dealers in the merchandise of the day, and large numbers of 
these flatboats could generally be seen at the mouth of White 
River discharging or taking on their cargoes. 





A little later an attempt was made to employ steamboats as 
carriers in this trade. "A diminutive steamer, the John Led- 
yard, under the command of Captain Nutt, who died a few years 
ago at White Kiver Junction, came puffing up the river about 
1830, and was received at various places with speeches and such 
other demonstrations as were deemed appropriate to the opening 
of steam navigation on the upper Connecticut. Captain Nutt 
went up as far as Wells River, near which place he found ob- 
structions which he was unable to surmount. 

"Two or three hundred Scotchmen who lived in the vicinity 
and were anxious to have the steamer go farther, undertook to 
pull her over the bar by the aid of ropes, but after raising her 
so far from a horizontal position that an explosion of the boiler 
became imminent, they were asked by the captain to desist and 
it took thirty or forty of them to pull her back into deep water. 
The next season another steamer, the Adam Duncan, was built 
at Wells River, under the superintendence of Captain Nutt. 
Other steamers had been put upon the river at various points 
below the previous season, and the Adam Duncan was designed 
to ply between Wells River and Olcott's Locks, but after a sin- 
gle season of practice in backing off the sandbars between the 
two places, was attached for debt, her works were taken out and 
sold and the remainder of the hull for many years lay a few 
rods above the falls." — Address of William H. Duncan, Esq. 

William S. Ela, then a young man just commencing life for 
himself, assisted in building some of these steamers. He worked 
upon the Adam Duncan at Wells River. The smokestack was 
hinged, so as to be let down when passing bridges. When the 
steamer was put into the water in the spring the river was high 
and it was found that she could not pass under the bridge at 
Haverhill, even when the smokestack was laid down on deck, 
and there was nothing to be done but to wait till the water fell. 
The river was persistent and the workmen finally came home by 
the stage. Mr. Ela relates that the people of the towns on the 
banks of the Connecticut contributed freely to the building of 
these steamers, expecting great things from them, to be soon 
disappointed. He added that the first money, to any amount, 
which he received was for work upon these steamers, with which 



he purchased some shares in the old Bank of Lebanon, which 
he still holds. 

Among the matters which especially interested the people of 
this town about this period was the Dartmouth College contro- 
versy. Eleazer Wheelock, the founder of the college, was well 
known to most of the early settlers of the town, coming as they 
did from the same neighborhood in Connecticut. Naturally they 
took a deep interest in his novel and daring enterprise of plant- 
ing a college in the wilderness. They contributed generously of 
their possessions, gave him aid in many ways, encouraged him 
by their sympathy and gave him their sons to educate, and could 
only end by being deeply concerned in the welfare of that insti- 
tution, when its very existence was threatened. 

This controversy was long and bitter, involving both church 
and state, but was finally settled by decrees of United States' 

FROM 1820 TO 1830. 

The Federalist party disappears in 1820, both in town and 
state, and Samuel Bell, Republican, is elected governor until 
1823 without opposition. He was personally popular with all 
parties and an able and upright man. In 1823 there were two 
Republican candidates, Samuel Dinsmore and Levi Woodbury. 
In the town Dinsmore had 168 votes and Woodbury 45, but by 
the votes of the state Woodbury was elected. In 1824 there was 
a change in the names of the parties, they being called after the 
names of their leaders, Jackson and Adams. But there was 
little change in the principles of the parties and none in the 
bitterness between them, but rather an increase. In 1824 David 
Morrill, Adams, had 143 votes for governor and Levi Woodbury 
had 88. Neither had a majority in the state, but Morrill was 
chosen by the legislature. In 1825 Morrill was chosen governor, 
with little opposition through the state, there being only 563 
scattering votes in the whole state. 

About this time there began to be used the party term ''amal- 
gamation," concerning which it has been aptly said, "the most 
learned could not define it, but which the most ignorant daily 
used." It designated the union of Federalists and Republicans 
to bring about the election of John Quincy Adams to the presi- 


In 1826 David Morrill, Adams, had in the town 129 votes; 
Benjamin Pierce, Jackson, had 104. Morrill was elected. 

In 1827 Benjamin Pierce, Jackson, had for governor in the 
town, 191 votes, while Morrill, Adams, had only five votes. A 
surprising change in one year. And there was a like change 
in the state, Morrill having only 2,529, while Pierce had 23,695. 

In 1828 there was another overturning. John Bell, Adams, 
had in the town 238 votes, and Pierce, Jackson, had 116. Bell 
was elected governor. 

In 1829 John Bell, Adams, had in the town 207 votes. Benja- 
min Pierce, Jackson, had 119. Pierce was elected by the votes 
of the state, having about 3,000 majority. 

The above record shows great disturbance and uncertainty 
in political affairs as well as bitterness in the strife. 

In 1791 the legislature established four post routes, "to ride 
in and through the interior parts of this state." The second 
route was to be as follows : From Concord to Boscawen, Salis- 
bury, Andover, New Chester, Plymouth, Haverhill, Piermont, 
Orford, Lyme, Hanover, Lebanon, Enfield, Canaan, Grafton, 
Alexandria, Salisbury. The post rider was required to go over 
his route once a fortnight, and at stated times they were to 
reverse the routes, that is, they were to take the towns in the 
reverse order from that given above. 

The postage on all private single letters to be six pence for every 
forty miles and four pence for every number of miles less than forty 
an other letters and packetts according to their weight and bulk, which 
shall be the exclusive perquisites of the post-riders. 

John Lathrop of Lebanon was appointed post rider on this 
route. At this time there were few postmasters in the state. 
The nearest to Lebanon was at Hanover. The post rider deliv- 
ered letters and packages at the houses of the people. 


In the early settlements the towns built meeting-houses, called, 
settled and supported ministers in their civic capacities. The 
people were taxed for these purposes in the same way as for 
any other purpose. The plan was a good one, for it provided 
religious privileges and instruction long before the churches 
were able to maintain public worship. But as the population 


increased, the people were no longer of the same sentiments and 
belief, and those who dissented from the "Standing Order," 
which was the Congregationalists, began to think it a hardship 
to be taxed for the support of a form of worship with which 
they did not sympathize ; to build meeting-houses in which they 
never worshipped, to pay for preaching which they never heard 
gladly, or not at all. There began to be complaints against this 
system. The "Standing Order," who were in the majority, 
opposed any change, but about 1819 a law was passed doing 
away with this method of supporting public worship, casting 
all the denominations on their own resources. The churches 
more especially concerned were greatly discouraged, but find- 
ing themselves then able to do what they could not have done at 
first, they soon came to regard it as a good and wholesome law, 
inasmuch as it gave them that independence which all churches 
ought to have and maintain. The system had served a good 
purpose for a time, but in the increase of dissent from the forms 
and faith of the order which it most benefitted it was best to 
lay it aside. 

The following items embrace the action of the town respecting 
purely local matters. 

In 1820 they began to agitate the building of Stony Brook 
road and chose a ' ' committee to go and view the route and report 
at the next annual meeting Diarca Allen Esq, Mr. Stephen 
Billings and Col. Thomas Waterman were chosen. At the an- 
nual meeting, 1821, voted to accept the report of the Committee 
but took no farther action. 1822, Voted that the Selectmen 
be directed (if they think proper) to lay out the road to the line 
of Enfield, keeping as near stony brook as circumstances will 
admit. ' ' 

Attention is called to the words in parentheses in this vote, 
"if they [the selectmen] think proper." Heretofore the town 
in such cases has referred the matter to the discretion of the 
selectmen, or has absolutely directed them to build or not to 
build proposed highways. The careful wording of the vote 
seems to indicate some doubt as to the authority of the town in 
reference to highways. The decisions of the courts before that 
time, and abundantly since, imply that a town has no legal right 
to instruct or require by vote their selectmen to build a pro- 


posed highway. The matter is entirely in the power of the se- 

The laying of this road along the Stony Brook was in place of 
an old road which led over the hills and was a great improve- 

At the annual meeting, 1824, was the first movement for an 
organized fire department, for they voted to adopt the second 
section of an act entitled an act to regulate the proceedings for 
extinguishing fires that may accidentally or otherwise be kindled, 
passed April 6, 1781, and also an act passed June 27. 1818. 
Chose Stephen Kendrick, Esq., Samuel Selden, Esq., and Calvin 
Benton, fire wards. 

The preamble of the act of 1781 is as follows : 

"Whereas it frequently happens when buildings contiguous take fire, 
that the people assembled to extinguish it proceed without order or reg- 
ularity, whereby the end in view is often defeated. An as goods at such 
a time are inevitably exposed to plunder, some hardy evil minded per- 
sons take advantage of the calamity and steal such goods, whereby the 
loss of such sufferers is increased; and the laws of this state respecting 
the proceedings to extinguish fires, &c, being found ineffectual for the 
purposes for which they were made, Therefore, &c. 

The second section, which was adopted, reads as follows : 

Sect. 2. And be it enacted by the authority aforesaid That the free- 
holders and other inhabitants of Portsmouth in the County of Rocking- 
ham, and state aforesaid being qualified voters, may at their annual or 
other legal town meeting choose and appoint any suitable number of 
freeholders, being persons of approved ability and fidelity, who shall 
be denominated firewards, and have for a distinguishing badge of their 
office, a staff five feet long, painted red, and headed with a bright brass 
spire six inches long. And tbe firewards afore mentioned are hereby 
required, upon notice of the breaking out of fire in said town, to take 
with them the badges of their office, and immediately repair to the place 
where such fire may be, and vigorously exert themselves, and require 
and demand assistance of any inhabitants of said town to extinguish and 
prevent the spreading of such fire, and to remove goods and effects out of 
any houses or places endangered thereby; and the firewards may appoint 
necessary guards to secure and take care of such goods and effects 

The section gives the firewards authority to require and de- 
mand assistance, to pull down, blow up or remove any buildings 
thought necessary by a majority of them, to suppress with force, 
if necessary, all tumults and disorders, and to direct and order 
the labor of all persons. Any persons refusing to obey the or- 


ders of the firewards were liable to a fine not exceeding ten 

Though this act was framed for Portsmouth, yet any other 
city or town might adopt its provisions. 

The act of 1818 gives to the firewards the entire control and 
direction of all fire engines, fire-hooks, hoses and other imple- 
ments used for extinguishing or preventing the spread of fire. 
They were given also control of engine companies, axe companies, 
or any other associations whose special duty it may be to help 
in extinguishing fires. These companies were exempt from 
militia and jury duty. 

At the meeting in November, 1824, the town voted to procure 
a hearse for the use of the town. 

The meeting-house by this time required repairs and painting ; 
accordingly at this same meeting : 

Voted to choose a committee to paint and repair the meeting house, 
and that the same be done as soon as may be next spring. Capt. Samuel 
Young, Timothy Herrick, Ziba Alden, Capt Joel Ainsden and Edward 
Bosworth were chosen said committee. 

Remarkably prompt and harmonious action where a meeting- 
house was concerned. This was in November, so that the people 
had time to think the matter over and discuss it, and when they 
came together in their annual meeting in March, 1825, they were 
of a different mind, for under Article XIX of the warrant, ' ' To 
see what sum or sums of money the town will vote to raise to 
repair the meeting-house in said town," they "voted to postpone 
acting on this article indefinitely." 

At the annual meeting in 1826 the town voted to direct the 
selectmen to repair the outside of the meeting-house. This word, 
the "outside," sheds a ray of light on the action of the town. 

At a meeting held April 29, 1826 : 

Voted to authorize the Selectmen to sell the pews belonging to the 
town excepting the pews where the stoves stand at public auction, or 
private sale as they may think best. 

On the first day of January, 1827 : 

Voted that the meeting-house may be divided among the several de- 
nominations in the town in proportion as they own property in the 

Voted that the town recommend to each Religious society to meet 


other Societies by their Committee on Monday next at Mr Benton's 
tavern at one o'clock in the afternoon, for the purpose of arranging and 
dividing the Meeting-house. 

When in 1824 the town voted so promptly to repair and paint 
the meeting-house, they did not think of the condition of things. 
At first the meeting-house was built by the town as a place for 
public worship for the people of the town, to which every voter 
contributed his portion, and the town, as such, maintained pub- 
lic worship by a tax assessed as other taxes were. 

By the Toleration Act the towns were released from that ob- 
ligation. In the meantime the town had sold its right and prop- 
erty in the pews to individuals and so, in a certain sense, owned 
only the "outside" of the meeting-house, hence the vote direct- 
ing the selectmen to repair the outside, intending that those who 
owned the inside should take care of that. 

Since the meeting-house was built the population had increased 
to about 1,700, and with this increase there was an increase of 
denominations, and it became an important question who should 
occupy the place of worship, since all had a right to have their 
own preaching. The town could think of no better way of set- 
tling this question than to proportion the occupancy according 
to the pew ownership. Of course, pews, under that rule, were 
much sought after and the town took advantage of the demand 
to sell the pews which it had retained in its own possession. 
There were at the time two Congregational societies, the First 
Society having been divided; a Universalist society had been 
formed, a number of Methodist, as yet without a distinct organ- 
ization, as well as some Baptists. The allotment was as follows : 
First Society, 14 Sabbaths ; Second Society, 22 ; Universalist 
Society, 12.; Baptists, 4. This proportion was changed from 
time to time as circumstances demanded. 

It was a bad arrangement for all the societies, productive of 
jealousies, bitterness of feelings, each society having only frag- 
mentary services. 

The First Congregational Society was the first to see the dis- 
advantages of the arrangement, and built, by great self-denial, 
a house of their own. The Second Society became extinct, leav- 
ing the control of the house to the Universalist Society. 

For the first time (1825) the town chose two representatives 


to the general court. The two chosen were William Benton and 
Samuel Young. 

In 1826, at the annual meeting, voted that the selectmen build 
a tomb in the burying ground in as cheap a manner as will an- 
swer the use intended. But at a meeting held April 29, 1826, 
they voted to reconsider this vote, and the town remained with- 
out a tomb until that at Glenwood Cemetery was built in 1872. 

At a special meeting held April 29, 1826, the town by vote 
gave leave to erect a clock in the belfry of the meeting-house at 
individual expense. People were not so liberal in their contri- 
butions as it was hoped they would be, for at their annual meet- 
ing, 1827, the town voted to pay thirty-five dollars towards a 
clock to be placed on the meeting-house. This was the first clock 
placed upon the meeting-house. 

At this meeting liberty was given to Edward Howe "to erect 
a pair of Hay scales at the East end of the horse-sheds. ' ' This 
location was a little west of the present location of the town hall. 

About this time there was much talk about what should be 
done with the poor of the town. Hitherto they had been placed 
in families which would receive them for a small compensation 
in addition to the services which they might render. They were 
discussing more or less the plan of a farm where they might be 
taken care of together. 

The records of 1828 indicate that some time in August or 
early in September there was a great freshet, doing much dam- 
age, for September 22 they held a special meeting at which it 
was voted to raise one thousand dollars for the necessary expense 
of the town in repairing bridges, roads, etc. At the annual 
meeting of the year they had voted the same sum for the care of 
highways. "We may infer that the damage was severe to require 
double the usual amount. 

FROM 1830 TO 1840. 


In the town, 1830, Timothy Upham (Adams) had 209 votes; 
Matthew Harvey (Jackson) had 128, but in the state the Jackson 
men prevailed, Harvey being elected by a majority of about 3,000 

In 1831 Ichabod Bartlett, Adams, had 208 votes : Samuel Dins- 


moor, Jackson, had 142. In the state Dinsmoor had a majority 
of 4,822, indicating an increase of the Jackson men. 

But the next year there was a change, the candidates being 
the same. In the town Bartlett received 163 votes, Dinsmoor 
143, a large falling off of the Adams vote in the town. But in 
the state Bartlett received a small majority. 

In 1833 there was a great overturning of parties. Arthur 
Livermore, Adams, received in the town but one vote, while 
Dinsmoor, Jackson, received 163. In the state there was sim- 
ilar falling off in the Adams vote, Livermore having in the state 
3,959, while Dinsmoor had 28,277. 

About this time the different parties began to be known by 
different names; they became Whigs and Democrats. In 1834 
the vote in the town was for governor, William Badger, Demo- 
crat, 117, while there was but one vote for any other candidate. 
And the same was true in the whole state, Badger having 28,542 
votes, with 1,631 scattering. It seems that they were not as yet 
organized or else generally voted with the Democrats. 

In 1835 the vote for governor was as follows: For Joseph 
Healey, Whig, 148 ; Badger, Democrat, 128 votes. In the state, 
Healey had 14,825, Badger, 25,767, with about 300 scattering. 

In 1836 the vote for governor in the town was for Isaac Hill, 
Democrat, 129 ; scattering, 2. In the state Isaac Hill had 24,904, 
while other candidates and scattering had 6,021. 

In 1837 the vote for governor in the town was 116 votes for 
Isaac Hill; scattering, 3. In the state Joseph Healey, Whig, 
had 557 ; Isaac Hill, Democrat, had 22,361 ; scattering, 1,614. 

In 1838 the vote for governor in town was : James Wilson, 
Whig, 230 votes; for Isaac Hill, Democrat, 129 votes. In the 
state Wilson had 25,675 ; Isaac Hill, 28,697 ; scattering, 198. The 
increase in the Whig vote is very noticeable, showing that the 
people were taking sides with decision. 

In 1839 James Wilson, Whig, had 210 votes ; John Page, Dem- 
ocrat, had 141 votes. In the state Wilson had 23,928 ; Page had 
30,518. The Whigs lose and the Democrats gain. 


While the people were questioning whose duty it might be to 
repair the meeting-house, the house itself fared badly. In the 


warrant for the annual meeting for 1832 appears this article: 
"To see if you will vote to repair the windows in the meeting- 
house ; ' ' also, ' ' To see if you will direct the selectmen or some 
other person to prosecute for any damage done to the meeting- 

The matter of repairing the windows, they coming within the 
former vote to repair the "outside," was referred to the select- 
men, and they were also directed to prosecute for any damage 
done to the house. Whether the offenders were discovered and 
prosecuted does not appear. Probably not, for the small boy 
has great facility for being somewhere else when mischief is 

In 1835 a new movement was made concerning the meeting- 
house. At the annual meeting the following article appears in 
the warrant : 

To see if the Town will consent to a proposed alteration of the Old 
Meeting-house by the Committee of the First Universalist Society, by 
laying a floor even with the gallery and removing the body pews be- 
low, or act heVeon. 

The following is the action taken on this article : 

Resolved that the Committee mentioned in the Article 17th in the war- 
rant have leave to make the proposed alteration in the Old Meeting 
House; to be made under the direction of the Selectmen, and that the 
said Selectmen see that it is left in proper situation for town use 

The Congregationalists had already built their own house, the 
Methodists had done the same a few years previous, so that there 
could be no objection to this plan. It was duly carried out, the 
upper part making a place of worship and the lower part ar- 
ranged for town meetings. 


At the annual meeting in 1832 the town took further action 
relative to the purchase of a farm for the support of the poor, 
and they voted to choose a committee of three to investigate the 
matter. Daniel Hardy, Isaac Doty and Joseph Wood composed 
the committee. At a meeting held April 17, 1832, they voted 
to postpone the matter indefinitely and the poor were committed 
to the care of the selectmen. 

In 1835 at the annual meeting the subject came up again, when 


the town ' ' voted to authorize the selectmen to buy a farm if they 
deem it expedient." 

At the next annual meeting they passed another vote, "that 
the selectmen be authorized to purchase a farm." This vote is 
different from the preceding, in that it does not leave the sub- 
ject to the discretion of the selectmen. But the question was not 
settled by this vote, for at the annual meeting held March 14, 
1837. another plan was brought forward, for they then passed 
the following vote: "That a committee of three be appointed 
to confer with similar committees from the towns of Hanover, 
Lyme and Orford, concerning purchasing a farm for the support 
of the poor in said towns, and report their doings at some future 
meeting of the town." This plan failed, for at the annual 
meeting in 1838 the following action was taken: "Voted to 
choose a committee to purchase a farm for the support of the 
poor of the town of Lebanon and that a sum, not exceeding forty- 
five hundred dollars of the public deposits, be appropriated for 
that purpose." James Willis. David Hough and George H. La- 
throp were the committee chosen. It is to be noted that this is 
the first time any appropriation is made for this purpose. This 
action was final. The farm now owned by G. W. Worthen in 
the south part of the town was purchased for that purpose. 
Capt. Ephraim Wood was appointed superintendent and the 
town authorized him to spend a thousand dollars to purchase 
stock-farming tools and provisions for the use of the farm. 


For some time a new road was in contemplation westerly from 
what was then the Ira Gates farm, now Baumhaure's, through 
Poverty Lane to Plainfield line. The only road to that mis- 
named territory was that from Hubbard Bridge — a "long way 
around." At the annual meeting the town voted "that the 
selectmen of the Town meet the Selectmen of Plainfield. or such 
Committee as may be appointed by said town of Plainfield, and 
consult on the contemplated (or any other) route for a road to 
Plainfield, and if the public good required it, to lay out the road 
in the most suitable place." The road was finally built. 

There had been for a long time a plan for a road from Pack- 
ard's (Chandler's) mills to East Lebanon on the north side of 


the Mascoma River. At the same meeting, "Voted to choose a 
Committee of five to meet the Committee appointed by the pro- 
prietors of 4 th Newhampshire Turnpike road on the subject of 
the contemplated route from near Packards bridge, Eastward, 
and to report at the next Town meeting." George H. Lathrop, 
John Lowe, David Hough, Uriah Amsden and Richard Kimball 
were appointed the committee. 

At a meeting held on the 17th of April, 1832, the committee 
reported, when another committee of three was chosen to confer 
with the Fourth New Hampshire Corporation at their next an- 
nual meeting respecting an alteration of the road from Stony 
Brook to Josiah Barnes', and that said committee have power 
to make such proposition to said corporation as they may deem 
most advantageous to this town, and obtain such propositions 
from said corporation as they see fit to make, and report to the 
annual town meeting next March. The selectmen were chosen 
said committee, viz. : Roswell Sartwell, Alpheus Baker and Hal- 
sey R. Stevens. 

When the Fourth New Hampshire Turnpike was located, it 
passed over the hill by B. F. Fellows' house, the Cleaveland 
place, then turning southward came onto Mascoma Lake near 
the Abner Packard place. The location proved inconvenient and 
difficult and it was proposed by the turnpike corporation to 
change the road to the southerly bank of the Mascoma River, 
from Stony Brook to East Lebanon near the outlet of the lake. 
The town desired to take advantage of the new part and the con- 
ference with the turnpike corporation was to secure this privi- 
lege. Finally the parties agreed that upon a contribution of 
seven hundred and fifty dollars towards the expense of the con- 
struction of the road, they should have the right to use it. The 
town appropriated first six hundred dollars and afterward one 
hundred and fifty more, the final vote being at the annual meet- 
ing in 1834. 

How great an improvement this was may be easily seen, when 
it is known that the only road to East Lebanon was either by this 
road past the Fellows place on the south side of the river, or on 
the north side over Mount Tug. 

In 1834, what is now called the Pine Plain road at West Leba- 
non, was laid out by a court committee, as a substitute for the 


old river road. This old road turned to the right, just south of 
the dwelling of Jeremiah Wood and ran along the river bank, 
coming out northerly of True bridge. 


At the annual meeting, 1834, the following record was made: 
"Resolved unanimously that our Representatives be requested to 
use their best exertions to repeal a law approved July 5, 1833, 
entitled an act in amendment of primary schools passed July 
6, 1827." 

The act to which the town was "unanimously" opposed was 
the following : 

Be it enacted That it shall be the duty of the Selectmen of the Several 
Towns in this State to assign to each School District, in their respective 
towns and places, a proportion of the money assessed in each year for 
the support of schools, according to the valuation thereof for that year, 
unless the said towns and places, shall, at a meeting holden for that 
purpose, direct it to be divided according to the number of scholars 
in each district. 

Upon a comparison of this act with that for which it was a 
substitute, no great difference is to be found. Section 2 of that 
act provides that the money raised for the support of schools 
shall be paid to the districts in proportion to the "valuation 
thereof for that year, or in such other manner as the several 
towns at their annual meeting shall direct. ' ' 

The only difference in the two acts seems to be this : That un- 
der one law the town at its annual meeting can decide how the 
school money shall be divided, but in the amended act the towns 
could decide between two methods only, wholly by the valua- 
tion, or wholly by the number of scholars. They could not com- 
bine the two, as was often done, part by the scholars, part by 
the valuation. Division of the school money was always, and 
still is, a vexed question. The historian finds from the records 
that in a great majority of cases the division was "Same as last 
year. ' ' 


At a special meeting held September 6, 1834, "Voted that the 
selectmen put railings on all Town Bridges they think neces- 
sary. ' ' This action was undoubtedly prompted by the fact that 


there had been accidents on the bridges from want of sufficient 
protection, for this article is found in the warrant for the annual 
meeting of 1834 : " To see if the Town will pay Andrew Post for 
loss of his horse and damage of his Waggon in consequence of 
falling from the Bridge near Eliel Pecks Mills." 


From a vote passed at the annual meeting in 1836 the subject 
of a railroad through the town was before the people. The vote 
was as follows : ' ' Voted that the Selectmen pay the expense of 
the survey of the contemplated Rail Road route through this 
Town." The vote, passed more than ten years before the road 
was in operation, shows that the people discerned their true in- 

Strange as it may seem to the present generation, there was 
at first intense and bitter opposition to railroads. The farmers 
opposed them because they did not want their farms divided and 
encumbered by the track, because their cattle were likely to be 
killed or mutilated. They said it would spoil the market for 
their horses, as there would be no call for them on stages and the 
big teams which carried their produce to market, and brought 
back groceries, dry goods and old Medford rum. What should 
they do with their oats? 

Besides there was at the time bitter hatred to all corporations 
in New Hampshire. So strong was this opposition, and so diffi- 
cult was it to obtain any charter for a railroad from the legis- 
lature of the state, that the threat to pass around New Hamp- 
shire was openly made. This would have been disastrous to the 
state in all its interests and retarded its development in manu- 
factures and in all its highest interests. Fortunately there were 
those who had discernment to see the advantage of railroads and 
charters were granted to them. 


This surplus came from the sale of public lands. In con- 
gress there were long and heated discussions as to its disposition. 
Finally it decided to distribute it among the states in proportion 
to their population, but under certain conditions, chief among 
which was that it must be repaid whenever the United States 




should demand it. Under a like condition it was to be distrib- 
uted to the towns. This condition occasioned no little reluctance 
on the part of the towns as to receiving, as it might place them 
in a difficult position, if it should be demanded again after they 
had spent it. 


At the annual meeting in 1838 the town voted on this ques- 
tion : " Is it expedient for the Legislature to enact a law author- 
izing Town Clerks to record deeds?" The vote was, yeas 107, 
nays 5. This measure was probably suggested by the practice 
of Vermont. This was actually done when the town was in union 
with that state ; there is among the town papers a book in which 
a large number of deeds are recorded. "While this town favored 
the measure, the state was against it. It has its advantages and 
also its disadvantages and the latter are in excess. 

At this same meeting came up this question of disannexing 
the town from Grafton County and annexing it to Sullivan 
County, but the town took no action on the question, but the fact 
that the measure came up shows that there was even then dissat- 
isfaction among the people concerning their disadvantages as to 
attendance upon courts. 

Also they voted to "become responsible to the state for the 
Rifles now used by the Rifle Company and also for any other 
arms that may be furnished by the State for the use of Soldiers 
of Lebanon." 

Further they voted, "That the Selectmen purchase of Robert 
Kimball Esq. the piece of land to enlarge the burying ground 
if, in their opinion, it can be had at a fair price. ' ' This was the 
portion of the village cemetery in the rear of the high school 
building and the Methodist Church. 


At the annual meeting, 1839, the following vote was passed : 
"Voted that the town give to Colbee C. Benton and others liberty 
to remove the Meeting House from where it now stands [on the 
common] to land back of the Common owned by Edward A 
Howe or Rev John Moore, provided they satisfy the Selectmen 
that it can be safely removed without danger of losing the Com- 


mon, and provided they give to the Town a deed of the land to 
which they remove it, and also provided they give to the town a 
bond, with ample security, that they will remove it without any 
expence to the town, and leave it in as good repair as it now is, 
and place it as high as it now stands, and leave the ground 
around it in as good situation as it now is, and that a space of 
two rods be left on all sides of it and included in the deed. ' ' 

This enterprise was inaugurated by the Universalist Society, 
which had become the sole occupant of the house as a place of 

The Common was given to the town by Robert Colburn as a 
place for a meeting-house, with the provision that it should only 
be held for a site for a house of worship and a parade ground. 
There was danger that the ground would be lost to the town 
unless some arrangements should be made with his heirs. 

Notwithstanding this vote, the meeting-house remained on its 
first location for years after. 

FROM 1840 TO 1850. 


In the vote for governor in the town in 1840 Enos Stevens, 
Whig, had 206 votes ; John Page, Democrat, 111, but in the state 
Page had a large majority. 

In the vote for governor. 1841, in the town, Enos Stevens, 
W., had 201; John Page, D., had 150 votes, a large gain for 
the Democrats in the town. John Page was elected by a re- 
duced majority. A new element appears among the old parties, 
that is, the Free Soil. Though Daniel Hoit, the candidate of 
that party, received no vote in the town, yet he received in the 
state 1,273 votes. 

In 1842 the vote for governor was for Stevens, W., 128 votes; 
Henry Hubbard, D., 147 ; John H. White, I. D., 52. In the state 
there was a great variety of votes, Daniel Hoit, F. S., had 2,812 ; 
John H. White, I. D., 5,869 ; Enos Stevens, W., 12,234, a great 
loss; Henry Hubbard, 26,831, a loss also. An Independent 
Democrat was a Democrat opposed to the extension of slavery; 
a Free Soiler was opposed to slavery everywhere. 

In 1843 the vote for governor was : Anthony Colby, W., 176 ; 
Henry Hubbard, D., 145; John H. White, I. D., 18. In the 


state Daniel Iloit, F. S., had 3,402, John H. "White had 5,497, 
Anthony Colby 12,551, Henry Hubbard 23,050. 

In 1844 the vote for governor was, for Anthony Colby, "W., 
168; John II. Steele, D., 113; John H. White, I. D., 20; Daniel 
Iloit, F. S., 19. This is the first time that Free Soil votes 
appear in the town. 

In the state the vote was, for Daniel Hoit, F. S., 5,767 ; John 
H. White, I. D., 1.988; Anthony Colby, W., 14,750; John H. 
Steele, D., 25,986. This indicates a decrease in the Independent 
Democrat, an increase in the Free Soil, Whig and Democrat 
vote. From this time the Independent vote disappears, most of 
them joining the Free Soilers. 

In 1845 the vote for governor was, for Anthony Colby, W. r 
160 ; for John Steele, D., 95 ; Daniel Iloit, F. S., 34. The Demo- 
crats lose, the Free Soilers gain. 

In the state, Daniel Hoit, 5,786, a slight gain ; Anthony Colby r 
15,579, a gain ; John H. Steele, 23,406, a loss. 

In 1846, for governor, Anthony Colby, W., had 151 votes; 
Jared W. WiUiams, D., 117; Nathaniel S. Berry, F. S., 45, a 
gain. In the state, Anthony Colby had 17,707 ; Jared W. Wil- 
liams, 26,740; N. S. Berry, 10,379. In this year there was a 
larger vote for all parties, the Free Soilers nearly doubling their 
vote. But there was no election by the people. Anthony Colby 
was elected by the legislature. 

In 1847 the vote for governor was, Anthony Colby, W., 180; 
Jared W. Williams, D., 167 ; Nathaniel Berry, F. S., 45. In the 
state the vote for N. S. Berry, 8,531 ; Anthony Colby, 21,109 ; 
Jared W. Williams, 30,806. Williams elected. 

In 1848 the vote for governor was, for N. S. Berry, F. S., 202 ; 
Jared W. Williams, D., 153. In the state N. S. Berry had 28,- 
829; Jared W. Williams, 32,245. In both town and state the 
Whigs were not represented in the vote of the year ; the majority 
of the Whigs probably voted for Berry. 

In 1849 the vote for governor was, Nathaniel S. Berry, F. S. r 
27 ; Levi Chamberlain, W., 182 ; Samuel Dinsmore, Jr., D., 146. 

In the state, N. S. Berry, 7,045; Levi Chamberlain, 18,764; 
Samuel Dinsmore, Jr., 30,107. 

The remarkable decrease in the Free Soil vote indicates very 
plainly that the Whigs voted with them in 1848. 



The period from 1840 to 1850 was one of great division of 
opinion and intense excitement of feeling throughout the land. 
The people were discussing many things pertaining to their wel- 
fare, upon which they could not, or did not agree. Among these 
questions the continuance of an United States bank; the Semi- 
nole war; disputed boundaries on the northeast and the north- 
west of the territory of the United States ; the rise and persecu- 
tion of the Mormons; the Log Cabin and Hard Cider campaign: 
a rebellion in Canada and in Rhode Island; the expeditions of 
Fremont to the coast of the Pacific; the seizure of California, 
in which he was a prominent actor; the Mexican war; the dis- 
tribution of the surplus revenue to the states. 

But the most potent factor in these disturbances was the sub- 
ject of slavery. The Abolitionists, standing upon the broad as- 
sertions of the Declaration of Independence, bitterly denounced 
slavery itself, and would have no compromises with it of any 
kind. They would accept nothing but immediate emancipation. 
Others, while they disliked slavery with more or less feeling, 
did not quite see their way clear to immediate extinction of that 
system, but were determined that it should have no more terri- 
tory to occupy, by which to strengthen itself. Then another 
large and powerful party held negro slavery to be a good insti- 
tution in itself, and having the divine approval, and this party 
was not confined to the territory where slavery existed, but had 
sympathy and advocates all through the people. To threaten 
this institution was to threaten their temporal prosperity and all 
their interests. Naturally enough they resented any interfer- 
ence with this cherished institution with bitterness and direful 

Circumstances kept alive these feelings and passions and 
kindled them to hotter activity. In 1839 the schooner L'Amist ad, 
bound from Havana to Port Principe, with fifty-four blacks on 
board, while lying near the coast of Connecticut, is seized by 
Lieutenant Gedney of the United States brig lYasliington and 
taken into New London in August. The blacks proved to be 
slaves, purchased at Havana, who had risen in mutiny and killed 
the captain and three of the crew. Cingues, son of an African 
chief, a leader in the mutiny, with thirty-eight others, were held 
for trial. The acting Spanish minister demanded from our 


government the surrender of the vessel, her cargo and the slaves 
to the Spanish authorities. Before the United States Circuit 
Court in Hartford, Conn., the counsel for Spain demanded the 
release of the blacks. Judge Thompson promptly refused the 
demand. Then ensued a long controversy as to the jurisdiction 
of the courts. The claim of the officers and crew of the Wash- 
ington complicated matters still farther. Finally, in January, 
1840, Judge Judson of the District Court decides in favor of 
the jurisdiction of the courts, in favor of the claim of the crew 
to salvage, but refused the demand of the authorities of Spain 
for restoration, and finally adds this curious judgment that the 
actual murderers being blacks, must be set free; had they been 
whites they would have been tried and executed as pirates. 
That they must be delivered to the president of the United 
States to be returned to Africa. 

It is difficult to understand the ground of this decision, unless 
we take the word blacks as synonymous with slaves who had the 
natural right to gain their freedom by any means. An appeal 
was taken to the District Court and to the United States Su- 
preme Court, where all the previous points were affirmed, except 
as to sending the blacks back to Africa; they were given their 
absolute freedom. The next year the brig Creole leaves Rich- 
mond, Vt., for New Orleans with one hundred and thirty-five 
slaves. The slaves mutiny, kill one of the owners and injure 
the crew, and take the vessel to Nassau, New Providence. Nine- 
teen of the slaves are imprisoned for mutiny and murder. The 
demand of the United States consul for their surrender to be 
sent to the United States was denied. 

Later the secretary of state, Mr. "Webster, instructs the min- 
ister to England to present the case to the British government. 
It is discussed in parliament and ended with a refusal to sur- 
render the fugitives, or the mutineers, and they were all ordered 
to be released. 

All these things were discussed abundantly by the newspapers 
and the people with great earnestness and much excitement. 

In 1842 John Quincy Adams presented in the senate a petition 
from citizens of Haverhill, Mass., asking that measures might 
be taken for the peaceable dissolution of the Union. Mr. Adams 
had no sympathy with the object of this petition, for in present- 


ing it he moved its reference to a select committee, with instruc- 
tions to report the reasons why the petition should not be 
granted. The presentation of such a petition produced intense 
excitement. Resolutions of censure upon Mr. Adams were of- 
fered by one senator for presenting such a petition. Another 
offered a substitute declaring Mr. Adams' action the deepest 
indignity to the senate and people. Violent debates followed 
and ended in the senate's refusing to receive the petition. Never 
was Mr. Adams greater than when he advocated the sacred right 
of petition, guaranteed by the constitution, in the face of a 
hostile senate, and that, too, in a prayer with which he had no 

This action kindled anew the fires of discord and awakened 
intense indignation in the minds of hundreds of thousands who 
had no sympathy with the objects of that petition, but did believe 
in the sacred right then denied. 

Abolition riots occur in various parts of the country, involving 
loss of life and property. 

In the meantime Texas had gained her independence from 
Mexico, and established a republic, and soon sought admission to 
the Union. All parties saw at once the meaning of this move- 
ment. The South advocated the admission of Texas because it 
would enlarge slave territory, make a market for their slaves, 
and give them predominance in national affairs, for though 
their slaves could not vote, yet they were counted to make up 
the number requisite for a representative to congress. The 
North was alarmed. "While for the most part they were not 
disposed to meddle with slavery where it was already estab- 
lished, they earnestly objected to the extension of its territory. 
Certain action taken in the New Hampshire Legislature indi- 
cates clearly and forcibly the sentiments and feelings which the 
annexation of Texas produced. 

Whereas the government of the United States, by the annexation of a 
foreign nation [Texas was a part of Mexico] and the admission of the 
State of Texas into the Union with a constitution which, in effect, 
makes slavery perpetual therein have placed us before the world in the 
false attitude of supporters and defenders of a system of oppression, 
odious to every friend of liberty, and abhorrent to every principle of 
humanity and religion; and 

Whereas the constant, progressive and increasing encroachments of 


the slave power have become so formidable ami imperious that forbear- 
ance ceases to be a virtue and to be silent is to be false to the great in- 
terests of liberty: Therefore, 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General 
Court convened, That Newhampshire solemnly and deliberately an- 
nounces and reiterates her abiding and unchanging adherence to the 
great principle of the declaration of our Revolutionary fathers, that 
"'all men are created equal," reasserted in the first article of the Bill 
of Rights of our own Constitution; that she declares her firm determina- 
tion, that in the great contest now being waged between slavery and 
freedom, her voice shall be heard on the side of the oppressed; that she 
pledges her cordial sympathy, and within the limits of constitutional ac- 
tion, her cooperation with the friends of civil liberty throughout the 
land, in very just and well directed effort for the suppression and ex- 
termination of that terrible scourge of our race, human slavery. 

Approved July 10, 1846. 

The following resolution was passed at the same time : 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Court convened: That the Senators and Representatives from this State 
in the Congress of the United States be respectively requested to urge 
in that body the passage of measures providing for the extinction of 
slavery in the District of Columbia; for its exclusion from Oregon, and 
other territories that now or any time hereafter may belong to the 
United States; for all constitutional measures for the suppression of 
the domestic slave trade and to resist the admission of any new state 
into the Union, while tolerating slavery. 

Resolved that his excellency the Governor be requested to furnish 
copies of the foregoing Resolve to the Legislatures of the several 
states, and to our Senators and Representatives in Congress. 

Plainly the ' ' irrepressible Conflict ' ' waxed stronger and fiercer, 
producing endless discussions everywhere. Families were dis- 
rupted, father against son, brother against brother, and even 
the bark of Cupid was wrecked on these shoals. The present 
generation knows little about this division among the people, 
the strength of feeling, the bitterness of hostility evoked by 
these issues now so plainly and boldly made. In this we may 
discern the meaning of those strange changes in the voting of 
the people, the gathering and falling away of parties. In these 
conflicts we may discern the gathering of that cloud which later, 
surcharged with lightning and tempests, burst upon the devoted 



In 1840 the following article was inserted in the warrant for 
the annual meeting: "To take the sense of the town (agreeable 
to a Resolution passed the N. H. Legislature, June Session 1839) 
upon the following Question : Is it expedient to divide the 
County of Grafton?" 

This indicates that some of the people were still discontented 
with their position in county affairs and desiring better accom- 

The vote of the town was, yeas 49, nays 52 ; and so the matter 
rested for a time. 


At this same meeting the town voted that "the sum of three 
hundred of the Surplus Revenue deposited with the Town be 
paid to the Overseer of the Poor for the use of the Town Farm, 
and all the residue of said surplus be appropriated for town 

At the annual meeting in 1845, the town voted "that it is 
expedient to receive the portion of the Surplus Revenue due this 
State from the United States." This was in addition to a sum 
already received. In 1849, "Voted to appropriate the Surplus 
Revenue to Town purposes." At a subsequent meeting in 
August the vote was renewed. 


For some time the Fourth New Hampshire Turnpike had been 
unprofitable to the corporation, and a movement was made to 
have it declared a free road. In view of this the town at its 
annual meeting, 1840, "Chose Col. Abel Baker agent for the 
Town with regard to the Fourth New Hampshire Turnpike being 
made a free road." 

At a meeting held on the second day of November, 1840 : 

Voted that the Selectmen be and they hereby are authorized, and 
directed to borrow on the credit of the town tbe sum of sixteen hundred 
dollars for the purpose of paying to the Proprietors of the Fourth N. H. 
Turnpike Corporation the damages as assessed by the Court's Committee 
in December last. The Selectmen are also directed to take charge of the 
road and put it in good condition. 


At the annual meeting in 1841 the town : 

Voted that the Selectmen be authorized to expend three Hundred dol- 
lars of the Town's money to repair the old Turnpike in addition to 
what may be necessary to repair the bridges &c. 

Thus passed away one of the noted institutions of this region 
and of the state. It was one of the paths from the interior to 
the seaside, over which there was an immense traffic. In one 
direction went the product of the farms of Vermont and New 
Hampshire, beef, pork, mutton, butter and cheese, eggs and 
poultry, potatoes and grain. In the reverse direction were car- 
ried groceries, dry goods, all manner of supplies for the family, 
many casks of New England rum, farming implements, iron and 
steel for blacksmiths, tools for the mechanic, toys for the chil- 
dren, medicine for the sick, and almost everything needed in the 
affairs of life. 

It required many horses, many drivers, many wagons, many 
harnesses, many blacksmiths along the route. There were eight- 
horse teams, six-horse teams, four-horse teams and two-horse 
teams. These last were called ' ' Pod teams. ' ' Besides these reg 
ular teams, farmers, especially in the winter, "went to market 
with their own teams, neighborhoods joining together for the sake 
of company and mutual assistance. Ceaselessly these teams went 
to and fro, often in long procession. 

In addition to these freight teams were the stages, carrying 
passengers and the mails passing over this great highway. 

Fortunate in those days was the man, usually a farmer, who 
lived at the top of a long and hard hill, for these teams were 
loaded to the last pound and required assistance up the hills, 
and the man had a span of horses or yoke of oxen ready to ren- 
der that assistance — for a consideration. It was helpful to the 
teamster because by this occasional assistance he could transport 
a heavier load; it was more profitable to the farmer than many 
of his most fertile acres. But sometimes the farmer missed his 
fee, for neighbors or friends traveled in company, and when a 
difficult hill was reached one of the wagons was left at the bot- 
tom and the horses attached to the other and it was drawn to the 
top of the hill, and then the horses were returned to the wagon 
at the foot of the hill and that was drawn up. This was called 
doubling up. 


In these days the country taverns nourished mightily. They 
were to be found every two or three miles along the route. There 
were seven or eight in this town alone. At night there were from 
twenty-five to sixty horses to be housed and fed, with their 
drivers. These teamsters were acquaintances and had good times 
in the evening when the toils and hardships of the day were over. 
Experiences were compared, the condition of the highway criti- 
cised, stories were exchanged, religious doctrines were discussed, 
for in those days these subjects had a strong hold upon the 
minds of the people. They were pondered more than they are 
today, and the discussion of them and the thinking of them nat- 
urally developed a strong intellectual grasp — not so common 
today. Politics had a large place in their discussions, and they 
grew warm and heated over these matters, for in those days dif- 
ferences of opinion were not accompanied with any spark of 
courtesy or amiability. 

In the winter, gathered around an open fire of well seasoned 
logs, they had their lively frolics, helped on by visits to the bar, 
then openly and unblushingly kept. Those were the days when 
liquors were pure and indulgence in them only added exhilara- 
tion to their spirits without making them quarrelsome. Many 
were the practical jokes they played upon each other. One 
found his boots full of ice, a companion having filled them with 
water and set them outdoors. But that debt was repaid soon 
after when the roguish companion found an obstruction in his 
boots as he sought to pull them on one morning in the shape of a 
young kitten, whose claws and teeth resented the introduction 
of the unwary foot. 

This sketch of the ancient turnpike would be incomplete with- 
out the mention of the stage drivers. These were a class of men 
above the teamsters, the aristocrats of the road, gentlemen, well 
dressed, much trusted, proud of their occupation, the envy of 
all the boys who made their manners by the roadside as the 
gaudy Concord coach rolled swiftly by, whose ambition was to 
be a stage driver when old enough. They were skillful men, 
knowing every rod of their routes, — just where all the bad spots 
in the road were in the darkest night. It would pay a stranger 
to go a mile or two to see one of these four or six-horse teams 
come up to the tavern door at full speed in a cloud of dust or 




i— i 









snow, pulling up exactly at the landing place, to leave the mail 
bags and passengers, while a crowd of loungers admired or criti- 
cised the skill of the driver. 

These drivers had an annual ball in Concord, than which none 
was more select ; an invitation to attend their ball was an honor 
greatly coveted by the highest in the land. 

When the railroads were built this valuable class of men dis- 
appeared from these pathways, and most of this generation have 
never seen a genuine stage driver and cannot find them without 
going hundreds of miles. Some of them, however, found employ- 
ment as conductors on the railroads in their early days. 


The meeting-house, still standing on the common, grew more 
dilapidated and forlorn, and it became evident that something 
must be done to prevent danger from accidents. So, at the an- 
nual meeting, 1840, it was "Voted that the sum of twenty-five 
dollars be appropriated to be expended, if necessary, under the 
direction of the Selectmen in repairing the bell deck of the old 
Meeting-house." Note that it has come to be the "old meeting- 
house. ' ' 

At the annual meeting in 1841, "Voted that the Selectmen fit 
up the Town House, so as to make it convenient for Town pur- 
poses — not to exceed one hundred dollars in expense." This 
was the lower part of the house, the Universalists occupying 
the upper part. 

In December 25, 1841. at a special meeting the town "voted 
to appropriate the sum of tw r o hundred dollars to repair and im- 
prove the town house so that it will be more convenient for pub- 
lic meetings and doing town business. Voted to appoint Watson 
K. Eldridge, Alpheus Baker, and John W. Peck committee for 
the above purpose. Voted that said committee procure two suit- 
able stoves and funnel for the town house, not to exceed in the 
amount the sum of fifty dollars. ' ' 

At the annual meeting, 1842, a new duty was imposed upon 
the town clerk, as follows: "Voted that the Town Clerk take 
charge of the Town House and see that the same be kept in 
proper repair, and generally open the same for the use of any 
portion of the Inhabitants of the town upon all proper occasions 


& to any Gentlemen for scientific purposes, and if at any time 
said Clerk shall doubt as to the expediency of opening the Hall, 
he shall consult with the Selectmen, and the board shall settle 
the right." The town clerk to whom this important duty fell 
was Timothy Kenrick. It may be safely presumed that the town 
clerk "faithfully and impartially discharged and performed"' 
his duty in this matter, for neither meeting-house nor town house 
appear upon the records again until 1845, when this vote was 
passed at the annual meeting : ' ' Voted that the Selectmen paint 
in a good and substantial manner the lower part of the outside 
of the town house up to the top of the lower windows, and one 
half of the steeple or belfry above the roof of the house, provided 
the Universalist society, will, in like manner, paint the other 
part of the outside of said house and steeple or belfry." 

It does not appear that the selectmen ever did the work as- 
signed to them. 

At a special meeting held July 2, 1849 : 

Voted that the Selectmen be directed to purchase the reserved rights 
of the heirs of Robert Colburn to the Meeting House common, provided 
that the whole can be obtained for a sum not exceeding two hundred 
and the necessary expense not exceeding twenty-five dollars 

Voted that the Town consent that the town-house be removed, pro- 
vided a good deed of a strip of land 72 feet wide from the common and 
one hundred feet back towards E. A. Howe's house be given to the Town 
& provided said house be raised a suitable height above the land of the 
common when graded & to be set not more than one hundred feet from 
said common & provided E. Blaisdell G. S. Kendrick, C. C. Benton & H. 
R. Stevens give bonds to the town to remove said House and put in as 
good repair as it now is, without expense to the town, this to be done* 
under the supervision of the Selectmen. 


At a special meeting held December 23, 1843, the following 
resolution was adopted: 

Resolved: That we consider the sale and use of spirituous liquor in 
all its forms, except for medical purposes, and then under the direction 
of medical men, as immoral and unbecoming in a Christian commun- 
ity; as decidedly injurious to health, as destructive to sound happi- 
ness, as a great incitement to crime, as one of the greatest and most 
alarming causes of increasing pauperism and as the source from which 
comes more of moral and political evil than any other single vice to. 
which man is addicted. 




Therefore voted that the Selectmen of this town be directed not to 
grant any license for the sale of spirituous liquors or wines of any 
kind for any other than medical purposes, and that under such re- 
strictions as they may judge proper for the promotion of a strictly tem- 
perance community. 

The vote was eighty-six to four in favor of the resolution. 

They also voted to postpone indefinitely the question of grant- 
ing a license to tavern-keepers and retailers. 

At a meeting held February 1, 1848, the town voted not to 
grant a license to any person for the sale of spirituous liquors 
or wines except for medicinal or mechanical purposes. The vote 
was 139 to 88 in favor. 

At the annual meeting in 1849 the town reaffirmed the pre- 
ceding vote. 


At the annual meeting in 1844 the following preamble and 
resolutions were adopted: 

Whereas we believe Railroads to be one of the greatest improvements 
of the present age, and above all others best calculated, not only to 
facilitate and cheapen travel and transportation over our bills and along 
our vallies, but to bring together and harmonize the various feelings and 
interests of our common Country and thereby strengthen and perpetuate 
that union and harmony without which human society can scarcely be 
called a blessing, and 

Whereas it is contemplated by many individuals to petition the next* 
Legislature for a charter from Concord to the valley of the Connecti- 
cut river, and 

Whereas there are some who believe the Legislature is prohibited 
from granting a charter for Rail Roads with the right of way, and 
others who believe the right of way may be obtained by purchase of the 
individuals over whose lands such Rail Road may pass, without the 
grant of such right of way by the Legislature, and Whereas we believe 
the Legislature of this State have by the Constitution full power to 
grant the right of way for Rail roads as well as for other great public 
roads and ways for public use and convenience, and 

Whereas from full examination recently made, we are satisfied that 
no such right of way can be obtained without an act of the Legisla- 
ture authorizing such Corporation to take the land of individuals for 
such way, 

Therefore Resolved that our Representatives this day elected [E. P. 
Liscomb, G. H. Lathrop, be instructed, and we do hereby especially in- 
struct them, by all fair and honorable legislation to promote the ease 
and convenience of the inhabitants of the State by voting for charters 
for Rail Roads in all proper and necessary places, with right of way 
under such restrictions, and with such reasonable provisions as shall 
insure to land-owners, full and ample compensation for any lands they 
may be required to surrender for such right of way, and at the same 
time with such liberal priviledges, as shall enable the Corporation to 
carry forward this great enterprise through and not around New 

The Preamble passed on division of the house 194 yeas to 14 nays. 
The Resolution passed on division of the house 190 yeas to 18 nays. 


The town clerk was directed to publish the above action in 
some newspaper. 

At the annual meeting, 1845, the following action was taken: 

Resolved that by the making of the contemplated Rail Road through 
this town its inhabitants would be relieved for ever from the cost and 
expense of great and important alterations in its present leading roads, 
as also of much of the expense of keeping them in repair for the heavy- 
teams which are now continually passing over them; and whereas in- 
dividuals have already expended large sums for surveys for said Rail 
Road; and whereas further sums are necessary to procure its location, 
and, as we believe its ultimate success, which would be of great ad- 
vantage to the town in relieving its inhabitants from the burden afore- 

Therefore voted that the Selectmen pay over to the Rail Road Com- 
mittee a sum not exceeding two hundred dollars of any money belong- 
ing to the town to be by said Committee expended in procuring the lo- 
cation of said Rail Roads, and to take a receipt of the chairman of said 
Committee, that the sum be refunded to the town, with interest, upon 
the completion of said railroad, and not otherwise 

By a subsequent vote the selectmen were directed to pay to 
T. J. Carter the sum of one hundred dollars toward expense 
of the survey. 


On Wednesday, the 17th of November, 18-47, the Northern 
Railroad was farther opened to Lebanon, in New Hampshire. 
This event was celebrated by a large number of persons who came 
from Boston for that purpose, and by a great concourse from 
the neighboring region. The train made a halt at South Frank- 
lin for the purpose of taking in Hon. Daniel Webster, then on 
a visit to his farm in that place. A collation had been prepared 
for the company at Lebanon. At this entertainment, a toast in 
honor of Mr. Webster was proposed by Charles T. Russell, Esq., 
of Boston, chairman of the committee of arrangements, to which 
Mr. Webster responded as follows : 

I wish, Sir, that the gentleman who has done me the honor 
to propose the toast just given had called upon some other per- 
son than myself to address the meeting and had left me in the 
position of a listener merely; but I could not properly refrain 
from expressing my sincere thanks for the manner in which my 
name has been announced by the president and received by the 


assembly. Thus called upon to speak, I cannot disregard the 
summons. Undoubtedly the present is a moment of great in- 
terest, and I now have to perform the pleasing duty of congrat- 
ulating the directors and stockholders of this road upon the suc- 
cessful completion of their enterprise; and also the citizens re- 
siding in this part of the country, upon the result which has 
been witnessed today, the entire accomplishment of this most im- 
portant work. It is an undertaking not only important in it- 
self but also very important when regarded as a link in the great 
chain of railroads which is to connect the West with the sea- 

For myself, in considering the progress of railroad structures 
throughout the country, I have been, doubtless many other indi- 
viduals have been, generally contented with admiring the enter- 
prise manifested, the ingenuity displayed, the industry shown 
in carrying them forward to completion. But here, on this occa- 
sion, there is to me a matter of peculiar interest. Perhaps, and 
very possibly, this is because the road whose completion is now 
to be hailed runs not only through New Hampshire, my native 
state, but also through that part of New Hampshire in which 
I have a considerable personal interest. This is but natural, for 
the road passes through my own farm, my own New Hampshire 

This Northern Railroad is destined to be connected with two 
other roads of vast importance, each having Montreal for its 
end. The one will traverse Vermont, passing Montpelier, and 
proceeding along the valley of the Winooski to Lake Champlain, 
while the other will extend itself up the valley of the Passump- 
sic. Each, for the present, has its terminus at Montreal, so that 
the traveler from the Atlantic coast, arriving at Lebanon, might 
have a choice to make between the routes. This choice, perhaps, 
may occasionally be perplexing. The passenger from the coast 
to the St. Lawrence may now know on which line travel is best, 
or which is most convenient for his purposes. It may not im- 
probably so happen that the traveler will compromise the mat- 
ter, deciding to go on by the one route, and return by the other. 
So far as I am concerned, both lines have my best wishes for 
their entire success. 


My friend, the presiding officer, has spoken of Burlington and 
Montreal as the termini of this road; but in point of fact, this 
is a mere link, a part of a line of land navigation, by steam, from 
Boston to Ogdensburg, and thence, by land and water, to the 
Great "West. I do not exactly remember -whether it was Mr. 
Gouveneur Morris or Mr. Clinton who said, with regard to the 
Erie Canal, that the object and aim of that undertaking were 
to "tap Lake Erie and draw down its waters to New York har- 
bor." One or the other of these two great men it was, and the 
design has been carried out. It may not, perhaps, be proper for 
me to say, that the design of this road, with its extensions, is to 
tap the St. Lawrence, but it can be asserted, and with truth, 
that it was to relieve that noble river of a large portion of its 
great, rich, overwhelming burdens, and deliver its freight, or at 
least a great part of its freight, at the Atlantic shore by a more 
safe, speedy and cheap conveyance than any before available. 
That, I imagine, must be clear to all. 

Again, no one can fail to perceive how greatly instrumental 
this road, with its extension, will prove in bringing Ogdensburg 
.near to Boston, — as near, indeed, as Buffalo now is to Albany. 
This connection between Ogdensburg and the capital of New 
England would open at once a new thoroughfare for the prod- 
ucts of the West, an outlet hitherto untried, through which the 
commodities of Lake Superior and the other upper lakes may 
seek and reach the Atlantic by the way of Massachusetts Bay 
and its chief port. I will not undertake to compare the little 
city of Boston with the great city of New York, preeminent as 
New York is among the cities of America, for her extended com- 
merce and her facilities for its increase. The great city of our 
neighboring state towers above all rivals in respect to every ad- 
vantage of commercial position. Let her enjoy all the benefits 
she can, let her claim all the credit she can from this circum- 
stance. Neither envy nor malice, on my part, shall contribute 
to rob her of one of her well deserved laurels ; but without any 
very great arrogance, or anv verv undue exhibition of local 
pride, we may say that Boston, with her adjacent towns, 
throughout all the neighboring shore from Hingham to Marble- 
head — which extent of country, in effect, is but one seaport, cer- 
tainly one so far as commercial and manufacturing industry is 


concerned — is entitled to command some degree of respect from 
the whole confederation of onr states. Standing, indeed, upon 
the summit of Bunker Hill, one can look around upon a terri- 
tory and a population equal to that of New York and her im- 
mediate suburbs. In fact, from Boston to Newburyport it is all 
one city; and by the development of her own enterprise, Boston, 
with her environs, has made herself a rival not lightly to be con- 
temned by any city of the country. I will for one not under- 
take to estimate the increased extent of her commerce when all 
the links in her chain of railroad communication shall be com- 

There is another consideration which will commend itself to> 
those who would contemplate the immediate future. It is this,, 
that there will soon be an entire railroad line from New York,, 
through New Haven, Hartford and Springfield, not only to Bos- 
ton, but up the valleys of the Connecticut and Passumpsic, to 
Montreal. It is the impression of many, that land in New Eng- 
land is poor; and doubtless such is the fact with regard to a 
great portion of it. But throughout the whole United States 
I do not know of a richer or more beautiful valley, as a whole,, 
than that of the Connecticut River. Parts of it are worth two 
hundred and fifty dollars an acre for the purpose of cultivation, 
and there is no land in the West worth half so much. I cannot 
say so much for the land of the Merrimack Valley for culti- 
vation, but that portion of the country is rich in water-power,, 
rich in manufacturing industry, and rich in human energy and 
enterprise. These are its elements of wealth ; and these elements 
will soon be developed, in a great measure by the means of rail- 
road communication, to a surprising extent. The whole region 
of country along this line of road, a distance say of about one 
hundred and twenty miles, will, before our children have ceased 
to be active among the sons of men, be one of the richest portions 
of the whole world. Such, I really believe, is the destiny of 
the Merrimack valley. Rich, not in the fertility of the soil on 
its banks, but in its almost illimitable water-power, the energy 
and industry of its people, and the application of these elements 
to the improvement and extension of productive machinery. It 


may soon be said of this beautiful river, with even more truth 
than applied to the poet's glorious lines upon the Thames, — 

"Though with those streams it no resemblance hold, 
Whose foam is amber and whose gravel gold, 
Its greater, but less guilty, wealth explore, 
Search not its bottom, but survey its shore." 

And now what is the particular cause of all the prosperity 
and wealth which I foresee in this valley? What is it that has 
chiseled down these Grafton rocks and made this road which 
brings my own house so near to the home of my most distant New 
Hampshire hearer? It is popular industry; it is free labor. 
Probably there never was an undertaking which was more the 
result of popular feeling than this. I am told there are fifteen 
hundred stockholders in the enterprise, the capital being two mil- 
lions and a half. That single fact would serve to show the gen- 
erally diffused interest felt by the people in its success. It is 
but three or four years since, when, having occasion to visit my 
farm at Franklin, I observed a line of shingles stretching across 
my fields. Asking my farmer what was the meaning of all this, 
I was answered, "It is the line of our railroad." Our rail- 
road ! ! That is the way the people talked about it. I laughed 
at the idea at first; and, in conversation with a neighbor, in- 
quired what in the world they wanted of a railroad there. 
' ' Why, ' ' was the reply/ ' the people want a ride behind the iron 
horse, and that ride they will have." This day they have had 
it. The result has proved, not that my friend was too sanguine, 
but that I was too incredulous. 

It is the spirit and influence of free labor, it is the indomitable 
industry of a free people, that has done all this. There is mani- 
fested in its accomplishment that without which the most fer- 
tile field by nature must remain forever barren. Human sa- 
gacity, skill and industry, the zealous determination to improve 
and profit by labor, have done it all. That determination has no- 
where been more conspicuously displayed than here. New Hamp- 
shire, it is true, is no classic ground. She has no Virgil and no Ec- 
logues. She has a stern climate and a stern soil. But her cli- 
mate is fitted to invigorate men and her soil is covered with the 



evidences of the comforts of individual and social life. As the 
traveler pursues his way along her roads, he sees all this. He 
sees those monuments of civilization and refinement, churches; 
he sees those marks of human progress, schoolhouses, with chil- 
dren clustering around their doors as thick as bees. And they 
are bees, except in one respect. The distinction is, that whereas 
the insect day after day returns to its home laden with the spoils 
of the field, the human creature is admitted to the hive but once. 
His mind is furnished with the stores of learning, he is allowed 
to drink his fill at the fountains of knowledge, his energies are 
trained in the paths of industry, and he is then sent out into the 
world, to acquire his own subsistence and help to promote the 
welfare of his kind. 

It is an extraordinary era in which we live. It is altogether 
new. The world has seen nothing like it before. I will not 
pretend, no one can pretend, to discern the end; but everybody 
knows that the age is remarkable for scientific research into the 
heavens, the earth, and what is beneath the earth; and perhaps 
more remarkable still for the application of this scientific re- 
search to the pursuits of life. The ancients saw nothing like it. 
The moderns have seen nothing like it till the present genera- 
tion. Shakespeare's fairy said he would 

"Put a girdle round about the earth 
In forty minutes." 

Professor Morse has done more than that; his girdle requires 
far less time for its traverse. In fact, if one were to send a 
dispatch from Boston by the telegraph at twelve o'clock, it 
would reach St. Louis at a quarter before twelve. This is what 
may be called doing a thing in less than no time. We see the 
ocean navigated and the solid land traversed by steam power, 
and intelligence communicated by electricity. Truly this is al- 
most a miraculous era. What is before us no one can say, what 
is upon us no one can hardly realize. The progress of the age 
has almost outstripped human belief; the future is known only 
to Omniscience. 

In conclusion, permit me to say that all these benefits and ad- 
vantages conferred upon us by Providence should only 
strengthen our resolves to turn them to the best account, not 


merely in material progress, but in the moral improvement of 
our minds and hearts. Whatsoever else we may see of the won- 
ders of science and art, our eyes should not be closed to that 
great truth, that, after all, "the fear of the Lord is the be- 
ginning of wisdom." — The Works of Daniel Webster, Volume 

Historical Miscellany. 


At the November meeting, 1844, the following article appeared 
in the warrant: 

To take the sense of the votes upon the question, Shall capi- 
tal punishment be abolished? 

Votes in favor of the abolition, 70. 

Votes against the abolition, 159. 


At the annual meeting in 1845 the town voted to choose a 
committee of three to take into consideration the whole subject 
of the extinguishment of fires and the adoption of certain laws 
relating thereto. Timothy Kenrick, Watson K. Eldridge and 
Elisha P. Liscomb were named as that committee. 

At an adjourned meeting held April 1, 1845, voted to adopt 
certain sections of Chapter III of the Revised Statutes. These 
sections define the duties of firewards in towns, give them author- 
ity over all fire apparatus and firemen, the precautions against 
fires and measures for extinguishing them. 

One of the sections provides as follows: "Every house or 
building with fireplaces or stoves shall have thereon a good secure 
ladder or ladders, reaching from the ground to the ridgepole, 
and shall be provided with one leathern bucket of such size and 
form as the firewards may prescribe for every two fireplaces or 
stoves in such houses ; and if the owner shall not provide and keep 
in repair such buckets and ladders he shall be liable to a penalty 
of six dollars for every three months' neglect." 

By a vote of the town all persons living two hundred and fifty 
rods from the town house were exempt from the duties pre- 
scribed by this section. 

Other acts or parts of them relating to the same subject were 
adopted from time to time, when at a special meeting held May 


29, 1848, the town voted to appropriate the sum of five hundred 
dollars towards purchasing a fire engine and all necessary ap- 
paratus, on condition that the same sum be raised by subscrip- 
tion or otherwise and the said engine and apparatus be to the 
satisfaction of the selectmen. This was the engine now known 
as No. 2, and proved to be of excellent quality. Before this the 
town had used a small engine made by Stephen Kendrick, upon 
which W. S. Ela says he worked. It was of little power, had 
no hose and remained for years as a curiosity, and finally suc- 
cumbed to the depredations of the small or large boys. 


At the close of an adjournment of the annual meeting of 
1845 the following vote was passed: "Voted that the thanks 
of this meeting be rendered to George H. Lathrop Eq. for the 
Courteous, able, and impartial manner with which he has pre- 
sided over the deliberations of this meeting. ' ' 

This was an unusual proceeding and indicates that the meet- 
ing had been a stormy one. Mr. Lathrop was an excellent pre- 
siding officer, having all the qualities ascribed to him in the vote. 


The legislature in its June session, 1846, passed an act author- 
izing towns to raise, "in addition to the amount by law required 
to be raised therein for the support of common schools, a sum 
not exceeding five per cent of such amount, to be applied to the 
support of a Teachers' Institute within the limits of the county 
in which said town is situated." 

At the annual meeting in 1849 the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved that we approve of the plan of establishing a 'Teachers' 
Institute' in the Western Judicial District of the County- of Grafton, 
and that the Selectmen be directed to pay out of any of the towns 
money not otherwise appropriated our proportion of such expense 
as may be necessary for the same, not exceeding twenty-eight dollars 
($28), when they shall be satisfied that the same is established and in 
operation, and that our jurymen and other Gentlemen attending Court 
at Haverhill, in April next, be requested to attend any meeting that may 
be held there for the organization of a "Teachers Institute' and act 
therein in behalf of the town 


This prompt action of the town in behalf of an institution 
which has been of great service to the common schools of the 
state shows a commendable interest in education. 

At this same meeting the town provided for the printing of 
the reports of town officers thereafter. In 1890 the town clerk 
succeeded in finding a copy of the reports for each year and had 
them bound together in one volume, greatly to the convenience 
of the town officers and the public. 


At the annual meeting, 1845: "Voted that the Selectmen 
immediately lay out the new Burying Ground into suitable lanes, 
alleys and suitable lots, putting up monuments to designate or 
marking the same, and make a plan of the same and lodge the 
same with the Town Clerk of said town ; that they designate one 
half of said lots as for sale, at a price not exceeding five dollars 
for any one lot, and so in proportion to their situation, and that 
the other lots be free for the use of any of the inhabitants of 
said town without any pay, and that any person desiring any 
lot appraised by said Selectmen, may have the same by paying 
the price so set by said Selectmen to said lot, and having his 
name written in said lot in the plan in the Town Clerk's office, 
and that the price for which any lot or lots may be sold be laid 
out in putting up permament monuments to said lots and in 
other ways of improving and ornamenting said Burying ground 
& that it be the duty of the Selectmen and all others concerned, 
to see that the lanes and alleys be not infringed upon, and that 
these regulations be strictly adhered to, and that it be the duty 
of the Town Clerk to enter the name of any inhabitant on any 
of the free lots, when the same may be used by any of the inhabi- 
tant's family as a burying lot." 

These instructions refer to that part of the village cemetery 
lying in the rear of the Methodist Church. There was some dif- 
ference of opinion as to the way of disposing of the lots, for in 
the November meeting of the same year, when the question came 
up, ' ' To see what course the Town will take with regard to selling 
the lots in the Burying ground," it was voted to postpone the 
Article indefinitely. But at the annual meeting in 1846 the town 
reaffirmed the former instruction to the selectmen. 




In 1843 the town again directed the selectmen to erect a tomb 
in the village cemetery, and also gave liberty to individuals and 
families to do so, but nothing was done. 

After the close of the annual meeting in March, 1849, it was 
discovered that the meeting was illegal. Application was made 
to Timothy Kenrick, a justice of the peace, to call another meet- 
ing, who states that "the meeting appears to him not to have 
been held according to law," but does not state the ground for 
his belief. The curiosity of the historian was excited, a careful 
scrutiny of the warrant was made ; no defect was apparent. It 
seemed to be properly signed, sealed and duly certified as to 
posting. The posting seemed to be according to law, viz., "A 
true and attested copy" at the place of meeting, and a like copy 
at the tavern of Harlow S. Nash. The time it remained posted, 
not counting the day of posting or the day of meeting, seemed 
to be according to law — fourteen days. The question was sub- 
mitted to others ; they were no wiser. It finally occurred to the 
historian to examine the law as to the time of posting, and he 
found that law then required fifteen days and not fourteen. Of 
course the town lost its vote for all state and county officers, but 
was represented in the legislature. At the first meeting A. H. 
Cragin was chosen town clerk, in place of Timothy Kenrick, 
but at the second meeting Kenrick secured the office. 

1850 TO 1860. 


In 1850 the vote for governor was as follows: Nathaniel S. 
Berry, F. S., 36 ; Samuel Dinsmore, I. D., 146 ; Levi Chamber- 
lain, W., 186. 

In the state Nathaniel S. Berry, F. S., 6,472; Samuel Dins- 
more, I. D., 30,750 ; Levi Chamberlain, W., 18,512. 

In 1851 the vote for governor was as follows : John Atwood, 
F. S., a new candidate, 55; Thomas E. Sawyer, W., 134; Sam- 
uel Dinsmore, D., 134. 

In the state, John Atwood, F. S.. 12,049 ; Thomas E. Sawyer, 
W., 18,458 ; Samuel Dinsmore, D., 27,425. 

The Free Soil vote increased 5,577; in the Whig vote there 
was a slight loss; the Democratic vote decreased 3,326. There 


was no election by the people and Samuel Dinsmore was chosen 
by the legislature. 

In 1852 the vote for governor was as follows : John Atwood, 
F. S'., 27; Thomas E. Sawyer, W., 210; Noah Martin, D., 145. 
A loss for the Free Soilers and a large gain for the Whigs. 

In the state, John Atwood, F. S., 9,497 ; Thomas E. Sawyer, 
19,857 ; Noah Martin, D., 30,800. The Free Soil vote decreased 
while that of the Whigs and Democrats increased. 

In 1853 the vote for governor was as follows : John H. White, 
F. S., 37; James Bell, W., 159; Noah Martin, D., 134. 

In the state, John H. White, 7,995 ; James Bell, 17,590 ; Noah 
Martin, 30,934. Both the Whig and Free Soil vote decreased, a 
slight gain to the Democratic vote. 

In 1854 the vote for governor was as follows : Jared Perkins, 
F. S., 52 ; James Bell, W., 181 ; Nathaniel B. Baker, 134, showing 
an increase in the Free Soil and Whig vote. 

In the state, Jared Perkins, 11,080; James Bell, 16,941; Na- 
thaniel B. Baker, 29,788. The Free Soil vote increased, Whig 
and Democratic votes decreased. 

In 1855 a new factor in political affairs suddenly developed 
itself — the Know Nothing or American party. This was a secret 
organization, whose action was mainly directed against Catho- 
licism. In the town the vote was as follows : Asa Fowler, F. S., 
9 ; James Bell, W., 33 ; Nathaniel B. Baker, D., 101 ; Ralph Met- 
calf, 282. 

In the state, Asa Fowler, 1,237 ; James Bell, 3,436 ; Nathaniel 
B. Baker, 27,055 ; Ralph Metcalf , 32,769. 

An analysis of the vote in town and state shows that the 
American party drew its support from the Whigs and Free 

In 1856 the vote for governor was as follows : Ichabod Good- 
win, W., 29; John S. Wells, D., 137; Ralph Metcalf, American, 

In the state, Ichabod Goodwin, 2,360 ; John S. Wells, 32,031 ; 
Ralph Metcalf, 32,119. It will be noticed that the Free Soil vote 
disappears in both town and state. Metcalf not having a ma- 
jority, was chosen by the legislature. 

During 1856 this uncertainty in the minds of the people came 
to an end. Purposes and aims became fixed, issues were framed 


and the people took their positions on the great questions of the 
time and held them until these questions were decided once for 
all coming times. 

The Free Soil, the Whig and the American parties disappeared 
and became the Republican party, while the Democratic party 
continued on its way. 

In 1857 the vote for governor was as follows : John S. Wells, 
D., 154; William Haile, R., 292. 

In the state, John S. Wells, 31,211; William Haile, 34,216, 
who was the first Republican governor. 

In 1858 the vote for governor was as follows: Asa P. Cate, 
D., 149; William Haile, R., 311. 

In the state, Asa P. Cate, 31,679 ; William Haile, 36,212, an 
increased majority. 

In 1859, the vote for governor was as follows : Asa P. Cate, 
D., 165 ; Ichabod Goodwin, R., 329. 

In the state, Asa P. Cate, 32,802 ; Ichabod Goodwin, 36,326. 


At the annual meeting in 1850 the town appropriated twenty- 
five dollars for the support of a Teachers' Institute. In 1851 
the same vote was passed. 


At the annual meeting in 1851 the following Resolution was 

adopted : 

Resolved that the sum of five hundred dollars, heretofore voted by 
the town for the purchasing of an engine, with an addition of two hun- 
dred dollars be appropriated by the town to purchase land on which to 
remove the Town House, if within six months a subscription of re- 
sponsible individuals for a sum in the opinion of the Selectmen, suf- 
ficient to remove and underpin the same be lodged with them. And 
Abner Allen, Roswell Sartwell and Ephraim Wood are hereby appointed 
a Committee to buy for the Town and take a deed of such piece of land 
as they may judge best, and direct where the house shall be set; and 
those who subscribe shall begin the work of moving and setting, and 
carry it on under the direction of the Selectmen to completion, and to 
their final acceptance — the Universalist Society being allowed and se- 
cured the same privileges they now enjoy for occupying the upper story, 
and the Village Precinct be allowed to fit up and use one half of the 
basement for an Engine House and for fire apparatus And the vote 
heretofore passed by the town, appropriating five hundred dollars to- 
wards an Engine is hereby rescinded and annulled. 


To this action of the town there was much opposition, as the 
following indicates : 

July 20, 1850, at a special meeting: 

Voted that the vote passed at the annual meeting in March last ap- 
propriating a sum not exceeding seven Hundred dollars for the pur- 
chase of land on which to set the Old Meeting house be confirmed; pro- 
vided that a good and sufficient bond be given to the town to the ac- 
ceptance of the Selectmen; that said house be removed without damage, 
and well fitted up to the satisfaction of the Selectmen, before the work 
of moving it is commenced 

Another vote passed at the same meeting may explain the 
withdrawal of five hundred dollars which had been appropriated 
to the purchase of a fire engine. 

Whereas the town at a meeting in May 1848 voted to appropriate 
the sum of five hundred dollars toward the purchase of a Fire Engine 
upon the condition mentioned in said vote and Whereas the Engine has 
been purchased by the Precinct without the money, voted therefore to 
rescind said vote and that the Selectmen never pay out the money or any 
part thereof. 

At the annual meeting in 1851 the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved that the Selectmen employ some suitable person to take 
charge of the Town House and suffer it to be opened for the use of the 
Inhabitants of this Town on all proper occasions, and for all free Lec- 
tures and discussions, which are in no way connected with shows or 
exhibitions for money; but on no occasion to open the house for the 
exhibition of shows of any kind, nor for lectures which are not free 
for all the Inhabitants of this town 

In 1849 the town house was moved from the Common where it 
scood about sixty-seven years, to its present position, all the con- 
ditions having been complied with. At a special meeting held 
October 8, 1850, the town voted to indefinitely postpone the fol- 
lowing article: "To see if the town will vote to direct the Se- 
lectmen to put up the spire and lightning rod on the town-house, 
and send the bell and get it recast and put it up again. ' ' 

Nevertheless, without further action on the part of the town, 



the work was done by the selectmen in 1851, as the following 
bill indicates, taken from the report of the selectmen of 1852 : 

Repairing town house amounting to $103.10 

Paid P. A. Alden bill, iron work for vane spire arms &c $6.25 

J. L. Drew 12 books gold leaf 4.75 

L. Smith 6 3-4 days work self Cbadwick and Morse 12.00 

M. Partridge & Co. bill painting and gilding 4.75 

J. Gustin 146 feet tinning on spire and dome 24.34 

J. Gustin repairing dome 6.25 

Wm. S. Ela 10 days work 862 ft boards and 16 lbs nails 22.42 

Simons & Darcent bill Material and labor on vane letters &c 22.34 


Of these persons only one is now living in the town, "William 
S. Ela. 

The bell on the town house had been cracked and after many 
attempts to repair it, by sawing and filing out the cracks, it was 
resolved to have a new bell. There is no record of any formal 
action of the town on the matter, but the old bell was to be recast 
with additional metal procured by subscription. The bell is 
dated 1853 and is the one now in use. 


At the annual meeting, 1854, the town authorized the select- 
men to receive proposals from the persons wishing to build sheds 
in the rear of the town house, stating what quantity of land they 
wished for and the terms and rent for the same, and report at 
the next town meeting. This matter does not appear again till 
the annual meeting in 1855, when it was "Voted that a Com- 
mittee of three be appointed to examine the land asked for sheds, 
appraise the value or rent of the same, and report to the town 
The committee named H. Hatch Jas Murch, E. Wood." 

At a special meeting held September 4, 1855, this committee 
reported as follows : ' ' Your committee having attended to their 
duty, make the following report: That the petitioners John 
Peck and others, and their assigns have the lease of a piece of 
land at the Northwest corner of the Town House lot sixty feet 
North and South, and eleven and one half feet East and West 
to be used for sheds, so long as the Eoom over the Town Hall is 
used for public worship, and that they pay a rent of fifty cents 


into the town treasury annually, — South corner post to be three 
feet from corner, and said sheds to be kept in good repair and 
kept white-washed." 

These sheds were on the east side of the Thompson building. 
The rent is not very clearly expressed, it not appearing whether 
the fifty cents is for the whole ground, or for each shed ; probably 
the latter. 


At a special meeting held October 8, 1850 : 

Voted that the town consent that the inhabitants of the village may 
grade fence, and otherwise ornament the Common in this Village in 
such a manner as a committee may designate and determine, provided 
that no fence, trees or any other obstruction be built, set or placed 
within five rods of the outside of the Common 

The committee appointed, Abner Allen, Abel Lowe, Jr., and 
Seth Blodgett. 

There was much opposition to this plan, inasmuch as there 
were roads through the Common, one going east and west through 
the center, another from the southeast corner to the northwest 
corner. If fenced in, then all vehicles must go around, which 
was considered a hardship. 

While it was decided to fence the Common there was great 
diversity of opinion as to the form which should be given to the 
enclosure. Many advocated right angular enclosure, because 
then the sides would correspond to the lines of the buildings sur- 
rounding the Common. Others objected to this form of the 
enclosure as too stiff and formal, the fact that the buildings were 
on angular lines requiring different lines in the enclosure for 
the purpose of variety — and they suggested an elliptical en- 
closure as more pleasing. Others still preferred a diamond form. 
Jonathan Adams, the chief engineer of the Northern road, laid 
out such a form, but it did not meet with general acceptance. 
The angular advocates prevailed finally. The castings for the 
fence were made in Lebanon. The granite posts were from 
Lebanon. The work was done under the supervision of George 
Post, noted for his extreme accuracy in work of all kinds. The 
expense was met by subscription. 

It is a curious indication of the change which time creates in 


the preferences of a community that while a fence, and a high, 
substantial one, was then thought highly appropriate, now the 
wish that it was taken away is not infrequently uttered. 


The bridge and abutments over Great Brook near the Ancel 
Kinne place had been rebuilt in 1850 and became the subject of 
earnest discussion. Complaint was freely made that the expense 
was too great, even extravagant. The town at its annual meet- 
ing in 1851 took action in the matter as follows: "Voted that 
the whole subject-matter relating to the Bridge, wall, and road 
near Humphrey Wood be referred to a Committee to investigate 
the whole subject, with power to send for persons and papers 
and make a report to the town at the next town-meeting. ' ' Ab- 
ner Allen, John Wood and William Cole were the committee. 

At a special meeting November 29, 1851, the committee made 
their report, but it does not appear what it was; but at a meet- 
ing March 9, 1852, there was the following vote : ' ' That if the 
Contractors or persons who built the abutments, wall and road 
at the bridge near Humphrey Wood's, will pay or refund to the 
town the sum of eighty-seven dollars and fifty cents the town 
will relinquish any further claim upon them," indicating a com- 
promise. No further reference to this matter appears upon the 
records, but it was discussed a long time afterwards. 


At the annual meeting, 1851, the town voted to pay the mem- 
bers of the engine company the same sum annually that is al- 
lowed by law to soldiers doing military duty, which was one 
dollar annually. 

In 1852 the town voted the sum of fifty dollars to Engine Com- 
pany No. 2, provided they discharge the duties of enginemen and 
keep the engine in good repair and in condition to be used, to the 
satisfaction of the selectmen. The same sum was appropriated 
to the fire department in 1853. In 1857 voted to pay the mem- 
bers of the fire company three dollars a year — the number of 
members not to exceed forty. 



At the annual meeting, 1852, the town "Voted that hereafter 
the sum of three hundred dollars of the money received by the 
town of the Rail Road tax be annually appropriated for the use 
of schools, to be equally divided among the several districts. ' ' 


1852 Voted to appropriate a sum not exceeding three hundred dollars 
for the purchase of a suitable lot for a burying ground at West Lebanon 
to be laid out by the Selectmen 

This is the present cemetery at West Lebanon. 

At the same meeting the following vote was passed: 

That, whereas the Connecticut Valley Agricultural Society has voted 
to hold their Next annual Fair in this town Therefore Resolved that the 
use of such part of the Common and Town Hall, as they may need, 
be granted to the Committee of Arrangements of said Society for the 
purpose of their exhibition. 

This was the first agricultural fair ever held in the town. In 
1853 a similar vote was passed. 


For years the matter of the bounds of the different school 
districts was a matter of great perplexity. Almost every year 
there were petitions of individuals to be set off from one dis- 
trict to another. Sometimes the change was sanctioned, as often 

In 1852 they appointed a committee "to divide the town anew 
into school districts or to make such changes in the old Districts 
as they may judge convenient and best calculated to promote 
the cause of Education, to define and establish the limits of all 
the School Districts, to number the Districts anew, and to make 
report of their doings to the town as soon as may be." The com- 
mittee were W. G. Perley, Horace Hatch and Fitch Loomer. 
This committee made their report to a special meeting September 
17, 1853. 

The report was laid upon the table and the selectmen directed 
to procure the printing of four hundred copies for distribution, 
to insert an article in the warrant for the next annual meeting 
to place the subject before the town. 




At that meeting the report was recommitted to the selectmen 
for the purpose of reporting a plan of districting the town, dis- 
turbing the small districts as little as possible, not reducing the 
number of districts below twelve and describing the bounds and 
dimensions according to law and report as soon as may be. 

At the annual meeting, 1855, "Voted to choose a committee 
of three to divide the town into school districts and fix the bound- 
aries thereof according to law." 

Elijah Blaisdell, Daniel Richardson and Richard S. Howe 
were the committee. At this meeting there were several appli- 
cations for changes in district relations. On the 7th day of July 
this committee made its report. The report was recommitted to 
the committee and the ' ' Selectmen directed to procure the print- 
ing of the report as it now stands, and the Committee directed 
to obtain such other statistical information in regard to the num- 
ber of the scholars in each of the proposed School Districts 
* * * of use to the inhabitants of the town and make such 
alterations as they may think necessary. 

On the 4th of September the report of the committee was ac- 
cepted, and their divisions of the town into School Districts en- 
tered upon the records. 

All this perplexity about school districts resulted from the 
fact that families decreased in number of children, leaving, per- 
haps, a dozen in a district where there used to be fifty or sixty, 
while the number of farms occupied was the same. The increase 
of population in the villages of Lebanon and West Lebanon 
added to the difficulty. 


In 1854 the selectmen were directed to build a new and suit- 
able fence around the burying ground in the Center village, with 
suitable entrances, gates and locks. The expense was $283.97. 
The expense for painting the fence of the West Lebanon "Bury- 
ing Ground" the same year was $122.10. 

In 1857 the selectmen were directed to fence the burying 
ground at East Lebanon. 

In the annual meeting of 1853 the town passed the following 
vote : ' ' That the Selectmen be instructed that when they make 


a contract for collecting the Taxes that it be distinctly under- 
stood and agreed, that if the Collector does not collect and pay 
over to said Selectmen the whole amount of taxes on his bill for 
collection (except so much as they may abate) on or before the 
20 th day of February next, said Selectmen are forthwith to issue 
an extent against said Collector for all that may be due from 
said Collector." 

This certainly means business. Looking for the occasion of 
so stringent a requirement it is found that the collector for 1851 
was behind at the close of the financial year $660.90, for 1852, 
$518.35. Was the requirement efficacious? In the report for 
1853- '54 no deficiency of the collector is noted. An "extent" 
is a fearful legal implement, being a "writ of execution against 
the body lands or goods." 


At the annual meeting in 1854 the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved that the groceries in this town for the sale of strong Beer 
and Cider, as carried on for the last year are great nuisances, and that 
they ought to be discountenanced by all good citizens as not only cor- 
rupting our youth but as bringing disgrace on our whole community. 

At the same meeting the following resolution was adopted : 

Whereas the progress of Temperance has been essentially sustained 
and promoted by stringent enactments in other States therefore: 

Resolved that our Representatives be instructed to cooperate with 
other members of the Legislature in procuring the passage of a law 
whereby the traffic in intoxicating liquors may most effectually be 
prevented and further resolved that our Gentlemen Representatives be 
a Committee in behalf of this town to wait on the Hon. Senator from 
Dist. No 11, requesting him to use all due efforts in the cause of eradi- 
cating traffic 

The "Gentlemen Representatives" were A. H. Cragin and 
William S. Ela. The "Hon. Senator from Dist. No. 11," was 
Jonathan E. Sargent, afterward Chief Justice of the state. 

At first small engines and low cars were used on railroads. 
After a time larger engines and taller cars came into use, so 
that higher bridges were needed, involving changes in the grades 
when crossing highways, subjecting towns to inconvenience and 
expense, hence the following vote : 


That the Selectmen be instructed to object to the raising of the Rail- 
road bridge near Mrs. Hutchins and the bridge at East Lebanon and see 
that the rights of the public are fully sustained in regard to the damages 
and grading. 

The first bridge is that on Hanover Street. 

Formerly the railroad passed over the highway near Solon 
Peck's on grade, but in 1857 a change was made so that the high- 
way should pass under the railroad, and the town instructed 
the selectmen to supervise the work and lay out the highway ac- 
cordingly, and petition the court for leave to discontinue the 
old highway which was a part of the Fourth New Hampshire. 

About this time a large maple tree, which for more than fifty 
years had been a landmark in this locality, being one of the 
bounds of the Fourth New Hampshire Turnpike, was taken down 
on account of old age. 

At the annual meeting, 1857, the town instructed the selectmen 
to procure a hearse and build a suitable house for the same for 
the accommodation of the inhabitants of West Lebanon. 


In 1859 the town adopted Chapter 114 of the Revised Statutes. 
This chapter provides for the appointment of police officers, not 
to exceed seven in number, whose term of office should terminate 
on the last day of March. They were to be constables and con- 
servators of the peace, to make regulations for the stand of hacks, 
etc., the height and position of awnings and shades on or near 
any buildings, respecting any obstruction of streets, lanes and 
alleys, the smoking of any pipe or cigar therein, or in any stable 
or other outbuildings. These regulations could only be in force 
upon the approbation of the selectmen, and being recorded by 
the town clerk and published a reasonable time in one or more 

Nothing seems to have been done under this act, beyond its 


1860 TO 1870. 


Political parties, before so numerous, and so uncertain in their 
action, had by this time become consolidated into two great par- 



ties, each having definite principles and aims — the Republicans 
and the Democrats. Matters came to a crisis in 1860 by the 
election of Abraham Lincoln as president. 

At the annual meeting in 1860 the vote was as follows for 
governor: Ichabod Goodwin, R., had 328; Asa P. Cate, D., had 
187 votes. In the state Goodwin had 38,037 ; Cate, 33,544. 

In 1861 Nathaniel Berry, R., had 316 ; George Stark, D., 159. 

In the state Berry had 35,467 ; Stark, 3,141. 

In 1862 Berry, R., had 292 ; Stark, D., 150. In the state Berry 
had 31,150; Stark, 28,566. 

In 1863 Walter Harriman, I. D., had 28 votes ; Ira A. Eastman, 
D., 168 ; Joseph A. Gilmore, R., 328. In the state, 363 scatter- 
ing. Walter Harriman, 4,372; Gilmore, 29,035; Eastman, 
22,833. There was no choice by the people, but Gilmore was 
elected by the legislature. Harriman had always been a Demo- 
crat, but parted with his party on the issues of the war. He was 
among those who were known as War Democrats. 

In 1864 Joseph A. Gilmore, R,, had 379 votes; Edward W. 
Harrington, D., had 173. In the state Harrington had 31,340, 
Gilmore had 37,006. 

At the annual meeting in 1865, Frederick Smyth, R., for gov- 
ernor, had 330 votes; Edward W. Harrington, D., had 132. In 
the state Harrington had 28,017, Smyth had 34,145. 

In 1866, at the annual meeting, for governor, Frederick Smyth, 
R., had 334 votes; John G. Sinclair, D., had 144. In the state 
Sinclair had 30,484 votes, Smyth had 35,136. 

In 1867, at the annual meeting, Walter Harriman, now become 
a Republican, for governor, had 335 votes ; John G. Sinclair, D., 
had 167 votes. In the state Sinclair had 32,663 votes, Harriman 
had 35,809. 

In 1868 Walter Harriman, R., had, for governor, 469 votes; 
John G. Sinclair, D., had 208. A large vote, the largest ever 
cast up to this date in the town and the largest in the state. 

In the state Sinclair had 37,260, Harriman, 39,778, making 
with the addition of 30 scattering, 77,068. 

For the first time three representatives to the legislature were 
chosen this year. 

In 1869 at the annual meeting the vote for governor was, for 


Onslow Stearns, R., 350 votes ; for John Bedel, D., 200. In the 
state Bedel had 32,057 ; Stearns had 35,772. 

In this period only the ordinary town matters will be noted. 
The centennial celebration and the war history will be given in 
separate articles. 

It was not often that the people of the town had any great 
contests in their choice of officers, but one of the most remark- 
able struggles happened in 1860. The first representative was 
chosen at the first ballot, when the town proceeded to ballot 
for the second representative, with the following result: 

Daniel Richardson had 181 votes. 
Jewett D. Hosley had 174 votes. 
Harlow S. Nash had 32 votes. 
Asa M. Moore had 14 votes. 
"Watson K. Eldridge had 6 votes. 
James H. Kendrick had 5 votes. 
Charles B. Haddock had 4 votes. 
James Hubbard had 1 vote. 
James Murch had 1 vote. 
Philander Hall had 1 vote. 
John Clough had 1 vote. 
Emory Whitaker had 1 vote. 
John W. Bean had 1 vote. 
Farris Cummings had 1 vote. 
Rodney Lund had 1 vote. 

There was no choice. There was none on the second ballot, 
but the candidates were not quite so numerous. In the third 
ballot a new candidate appears in the contest, Frances A. Cush- 
man, who was chosen by a majority of two votes. The historian 
remembers the day as full of excitement, the friends of the dif- 
ferent candidates shouting the names of their preference with 
all their might. Yet there was no violence. But of all those 
voted for that day not more than two are living today, Frances 
A. Cushman and Rodney Lund. 


At the annual meeting, 1860, the town gave an expression of 
opinion on the question whether it was expedient to establish a 
county farm by a vote of 150 in favor and 10 against it. 



In 1860 the selectmen were authorized to improve the bury- 
ing ground at Lebanon Center at an expense not exceeding two 
hundred dollars. This cemetery had become so fully occupied 
that more ground was needed, and in 1863 the selectmen were 
directed to "examine and report on location and grounds for a 
new burying ground for the town." In 1864 these instructions 
were renewed. 

In 1867 the selectmen were instructed to "purchase such 
additions and make such repairs as they shall deem proper to 
the old Burying Ground near General Luther Aldens, sufficient 
to make it a Cemetery for the Town, and that the Moderator ap- 
point a Committee of three to cooperate and advise with the 
Selectmen." The committee were Daniel Richardson, Adoniram 
Smalley and Nathan B. Stearns. All this shows that there was 
a great variety of opinion as to the proper place for so sacred 
a purpose. The location mentioned above was the first ground 
devoted to this purpose. 

In 1868 the matter was still undecided, for then this vote was 
passed: "That the Selectmen be authorized and directed to 
purchase land for a Burying Ground near the centre of the 

In June of the same year the question came up again and a 
committee of three consisting of Nathan B. Stearns, Colby C. 
Benton and J. C. Sturtevant, was appointed to act with the 
selectmen and report at an adjourned meeting. In the meantime 
several different locations were examined, one of which was on 
land now owned by Horace Hatch, but it did not meet the minds 
of all the people, so the whole subject was referred to the same 
committee in a meeting held on August 8, to report at the next 
town meeting. 

In 1869 the selectmen were instructed to select and purchase 
a lot for burial purposes before the next annual meeting, but 
the period closed without any final action, so difficult it was to 
suit all the people or even a majority of them. 

In 1870 the committee purchased a tract of land for a ceme- 
tery, lying north of C. M. Messenger's dwelling-house, since 
known as the Trotting Park. But this did not satisfy the peo- 
ple, so at the annual meeting, 1871, the selectmen were directed 



to sell the land "for the most they could get," and that a com- 
mittee of three should be chosen to select new ground for a 
cemetery, and the committee to select a spot and ascertain the 
cost of erecting a receiving tomb and report to a future meeting 
called for that purpose. 

F. A. Cushman, Orrin Bugbee, L. C. Pattee, committee. This 
committee made their report to the annual meeting in 1872, 
when the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved that the Town of Lebanon has not and does not possess a 
suitable or convenient spot of ground for a Cemetery for the use of the 
centre and East part of the town, and with a view of the great and 
pressing necessity for immediate action, that a committee of three be 
chosen, who shall be and are hereby authorized to purchase and estab- 
lish a Cemetery, fence and lay out the same into lots to be deeded to 
persons purchasing the same, by the Selectmen, and to erect a public 
tomb on the same, and to make such other improvements as they shall 
deem necessary, and that the sum of three thousand dollars be appro- 
priated for this purpose. 

The same committee was continued to carry out the terms of 
the resolution. 

The committee purchased of J. C. Sturtevant the tract now 
known as Glenwood Cemetery. The tomb which had been so often 
voted to be built was constructed by P. H. Freeto & Sons. The 
ground was laid out into lots by C. A. Downs & Sons. The 
total cost of the cemetery, including the land, was about $4,000. 

Thus the long difference of opinion as to the location of the 
cemetery was ended, though not to the satisfaction of every- 
body. But as time passes away the wisdom of the location be- 
comes apparent. It is secluded, yet within a few minutes' 
walk from the village. It has a varied surface, affording ad- 
vantages for great beauty of form. Constant improvement is 
now annually made, making it an attractive place for the final 

It has been noted as an interesting coincidence that the first 
occupant of both the village cemetery and of Glenwood bore the 
same family name — that of Hough. 


The following resolution indicates that the people were awak- 
ening to higher ideas as to their dwelling-place. They began 


to wish it to be beautiful and attractive as well as convenient. 
At the annual meeting, 1861, they resolved, "that the inhabi- 
tants of the town be allowed to set out shade trees and make 
sidewalks on the sides of the streets, not to exceed eight feet in 
width, where the width of the street will admit of it." Not a 
little of the beauty of our village is owing to the work then 
begun and encouraged. Benjamin Gallup, now of Chicago, then 
a young man, deserves recognition for the trees he planted on 
School Street. 


In 1862 the town voted "to pay each member of Engine Com- 
pany No. 2 the sum of three dollars per annum ' ' from the date of 
their organization, which amounted to $158.50. 

In 1864 the town voted to pay the members of the company 
five dollars a year. 


At a special meeting held November 28, 1863, the selectmen 
were instructed to purchase a hearse for the town, to be kept 
at the hearse house in the village. 


On March, 1864, the house on the poor farm was destroyed by 
fire, leaving the inmates without a home. April 7 a meeting of 
the town was held to consider the matter of rebuilding the house, 
at which they declined to raise money for that purpose, but au- 
thorized the selectmen "to buy or hire a house and land for the 
convenience of the town in the support of the town's poor, or 
otherwise provide as they shall deem best for the interests of 
the town." 

The selectmen "deemed it best" to distribute the poor among 
different families in the town. The house was never rebuilt, 
nor any other bought or built. So far as the town poor are 
concerned the practice continues to the present time. 

In 1865 the town authorized the selectmen to deed the town 
farm to G. W. Worthen. Price, $3,300. 



In 1866, at the annual meeting, the selectmen were instructed 
"to appoint for each of the public burying grounds, a suitable 
person to take charge of the hearse and take care of the grounds, 
and answer the calls of those desiring his services, by their pay- 
ing him for such service." 


At the annual meeting, 1866, the following resolution was 
adopted unanimously : 

Resolved that we, the legal voters of the Town of Lebanon, do cor- 
dially extend a hearty invitation to Manufacturing capital to come 
among us, and that we will vote at the earliest opportunity to give our 
assent to the act entitled an act to encourage manufacturing, passed 
July 3, 1860. 

On the 14th of April, 1866, the town adopted this law. 

This was the first public encouragement given to manufac- 
turing by the town, which, continued from time to time, has been 
so effective in increasing its population and wealth. 


As early as 1866 there were plans to fence in a triangular 
piece of land at the junction of Hanover and High streets, for a 
park, for then Enoch F. Hough, Dan Storrs and others peti- 
tioned the town for liberty to build a fence there. The petition 
was referred to the selectmen. 

On the 14th of April, 1866, upon the recommendation of the 
selectmen, leave was granted to Enoch F. Hough, Dan Storrs 
and others "to fence ten feet of the road Leading past Ziba 
Durkee's garden for the purpose of a Park and for no other 
purpose Provided that said E. F. Hough shall also give his 
heater piece lying between the three roads for the same pur- 
pose." Nearly thirty years passed before the plan was realized. 
It is a good use of the piece of land. 

Much credit should be given to Miss Mary Lyman Storrs for 
her patience and perseverance in procuring the realization of a 
plan of so many years ago. In September, 1894, Frank G. 
Hough, son of E. F. Hough, presented the town with a deed of 
the "Heater piece." 



At the annual meeting in 1866, the town instructed the select- 
men to petition the supreme court for leave to discontinue all 
highways leading through the Common. In due time leave 
was granted. 


The lower part of the town house had remained substantially 
in the same condition in which it was when removed from the 
Common, a very inconvenient and unsightly room. Little had 
been done to the outside, notwithstanding all the votes which 
had been passed directing the painting and repairing. Mean- 
time the town had increased in population and wealth and de- 
sired a better place in which to transact its business and hold 
its gatherings for various purposes. They considered it, — and 
justly, too, — unworthy of a town such as Lebanon had then be- 
come, the most prominent in northern New Hampshire. It was 
not only inconvenient and uninviting to the people themselves, 
but likely to repel strangers who might wish to find a home in 
a town having, in many respects, great advantages and attrac- 
tions. The people began to talk and to plan about a new or bet- 
ter town hall with the following results : 

At the annual meeting in 1868 the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved that a Committee of five be appointed by the Moderator to 
ascertain at what price the pewholders of the Universalist Society will 
dispose of their interest in the Town House Building, and that said 
Committee be authorized to procure plans and estimates of the pro- 
posed alterations, and to make all necessary arrangements for the pur- 
chase of the interest of the Universalist Society, and report at a special 
meeting of the town, to be called for that purpose at the earliest prac- 
ticable time. 

The committee were A. W. Baker, I. C. Sturtevant, F. A. 
Cushman, J. W. Gerrish and Martin Buck. 

On April 25, 1868, the committee made the following report: 

We, the Committeee appointed at the last annual town meeting to 
ascertain at what price the pewholders of the Universalist Society will 
dispose of its interest in the town house building, and to procure plans 
and estimates of the proposed alterations, and to make all necessary ar- 
rangements for the purchase of the interests of said Universalist So- 
ciety, and to report at a special meeting of the town called for that 






purpose, having performed the duties assigned us, respectfully submit 
the following report: 

The Universalist Society, as a society, having by vote of the town 
gained permission to occupy the upper part of the house as a house of 
worship in 1835, and having now reserved to them in the deed of 1850 
of the land on which the house now stands, all the right, title and in- 
terest which was granted to them by the vote of the town in 1835, have 
voted, at a meeting duly called, to exchange their interests in the upper 
part of the house, in case the town should vote to repair the house, for 
town purposes, for the same privileges in the lower part of the house 
they now have, in the upper part, or to abide the decision of disinter- 
ested appraisers. 

At a meeting of the pew-holders it was voted to sell the pews to the 
town, the same to be appraised by a Committee of three disinterested 
persons. The Committee further report that they have procured plans 
and made estimates of the proposed alterations and that the plans by 
them procured are substantially as follows: To take out the whole in- 
terior of the house, to raise the building six feet; put on to the north 
end an addition of thirty feet; at the South end to build out 13 feet 
even with the tower; having the entrance through the bell tower; base- 
ment story 9% feet high. Upon the first floor it is proposed to have 
the entrance from the front with double doors, an entry on either side 
of which are to be stairs leading to the gallery- Directly opposite the 
outer doors are the doors opening into the main room, designated the 
audience floor. At the North end of the house is the platform 3% feet 
high, 15 feet wide and 26 feet long, on either side of which are ante- 
rooms 12 feet square, opening to the platform. The gallery itself is to 
be built around the south side of the house and upon the East and 
West sides, extending as far as the scond window from the North end 
of the house. The bell deck to be remodeled and repaired, to corre- 
spond in outward appearance and symetry to the house. All to be 
clapboarded and painted. 

Your Committee further report that a house constructed on this plan 
will be well adapted to town purposes and business, and for public use; 
comfortable at all times, sufficiently large and commodious, and so well 
arranged as to be adapted, not only to meet the wants and requirements 
of the town at the present time, but sufficient also to meet the demands 
and requirements of the future growth and increased population of the 
town, for town purposes and uses on public occasions. 

Your Committee also report that they have made liberal and careful 
estimates of the cost of remodeling and repairing the house, agreeably 
to the proposed plan, calculating the cost of every separate item by it- 
self necessary to alter and repair the same in a good plain and work- 
manlike manner, and estimate that the cost will not exceed $6487. 


A. W. Baker, F. A. Cushman, 
J. C. Sturtevant, J. W. Gerrish, Martin Buck. 



After reading the report the following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved that the town do alter and repair the old Meeting-House for 
town purposes, agreeably to the plan reported by the Committee, and 
that a Committee of three be appointed by the Moderator to superin- 
tend and conduct said alterations and repairs, and that the work be 
commenced and carried on to completion as economically and expedi- 
tiously as may be, and make report of their doings at the first town 
meeting thereafter. 

Resolved that the pews and interests of the Universalist Society in the 
Town Hall be appraised; that the Selectmen be instructed to appoint a 
Committee of three disinterested persons, one of whom shall be chosen 
by themselves, one of whom shall be nomiuated by the pewholders, and 
one by the society, the same to constitute a Committee to appraise the 
pews and the interests of said Society, and to pay to said pewholders 
and Society, the full value of their respective interests, as determined 
by such appraisal, upon demand. 

It is to be noted that a distinction is made between pew- 
holders and the society ; this was necessary because some of the 
pew-holders were not connected with the society, some of the 
people never having parted with their interest in pews bought 
originally of the town. 

Resolved that the Selectmeu be authorized to raise by loan, and give 
town notes, a sum of money sufficient to make such alterations and re- 
pairs of the Town House as have been voted, and to purchase the in- 
terests of the pew-holders and the Society, at their appraised value — 
the sum so raised not to exceed eight thousand dollars. 

The committee appointed by the moderator to superintend 
the alterations and repairs was Jesse E. Sturtevant, Lewis C. 
Pattee and Horace Hatch. 

At a meeting held November 3, 1868, the following vote was 
passed: "That the Selectmen be authorized to appoint some 
suitable person, whose duty it shall be to take charge of the 
Town House, and to have the entire charge of the same, subject 
to said Selectmen, and that they be further authorized and in- 
structed to fix the rules, regulations and prices for the use of 
the [Hall] for all purposes, and that all persons using or renting 
said hall or house shall be subject to and governed by said rules 
and regulations." "William H. Richardson was the first agent 
for the town hall. 

At the same meeting the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved that E. J. Durant, A. M. Shaw, J. C. Sturtevant, Lewis Pat- 
tee, J. W. Gerrish, and such others as may be associated with them, 




be allowed, at their own expense, to put into the Town Hall building 
suitable gas fixtures for lighting the same, and that the free use of the 
Town Hall be given to them for the purpose of holding seven concerts 
or other public gatherings to raise money to compensate them for the 
money so advanced; said fixtures to be the property of the town. 

At the annual meeting, 1869, P. E. Davis, 0. W. Burnap and 
George Blood were appointed a committee to investigate the 
accounts of the Town Hall Building Committee and report to 
the selectmen. 

At the annual meeting in 1870 the town "voted to pay L. C. 
Pattee & others for labor and material expended on the Town 
Hall basement: to assume the indebtedness of the Gas Asso- 
ciation for the gas fixtures in the Town Hall; that the Select- 
men be instructed to finish up the basement story and tower 
of Town Hall, and the painting of the building as they think 
proper, either by contract or otherwise." 

The cost of these alterations and repairs, as found in the re- 
port of committees in accordance with the foregoing instruc- 
tions, was as follows : 

Total expenditures less amount received for ma- 
terial sold $11,746.57 
Amount paid to pew-holders and Universalist Soc 1,500.00 
Cost of Lower Town Hall 1,621.00 


To this should be added cost of gas fixtures, &c, 
which is not easy to ascertain exactly, say 1,000.00 


This practically finishes the strange history of the meeting- 
house to date, resulting in a town house equal in all respects to 
any then existing in the state. 


At the annual meeting in 1868, the town voted to raise $500 
to purchase hose for Engine No. 2, to be expended under the 
direction of the selectmen. 


At a special meeting June 9, 1868, the town voted to estab- 
lish certain regulations for the protection and preservation of 


its park or Common. The regulations established at this meet- 
ing were subsequently changed and the following adopted, 
August 8, 1868 : 

1 No person shall play at any game of ball or other games without 
permission of the Committee. 

2 No person shall pass or cross the same except upon the gravelled 

Resolved that the Committee chosen to enforce such regulations be 
authorized to place upon the park or common notices of said regulations, 
and have the care of the common 

A penalty of five dollars was established for every violation 
of these regulations, to be recovered "in an action of Debt, by 
the Committee, and the fines to be used for the improvement of 
the Common. Joseph W. Gerrish, E. J. Durant and E. A. Ken- 
drick, Committee." 


At a special meeting May 21, 1869, the town voted to instruct 
the selectmen to sell the interest of the town in the town pound, 
near Solon A. Peck's, at auction or by private sale. 

1870 TO 1880. 


At the annual meeting, 1870, the following was the vote for 
governor : 

Lorenzo D. Barrows, T., 4 votes ; Samuel Flint, Asst. D., 43 ; 
John Bedell, D., 159 ; Onslow Stearns, R., 484. 

In the state, Barrows, 1,135; Flint, 7,369; Bedell, 25,058; 
Stearns, 34,847. 

For the first time a distinctly temperance ticket appears in 
town and state. An Assistant Democrat was a Labor Reformer. 

In 1871 the vote in the town for governor was : James A. 
Weston, D., 203 ; James Pike, R., 489. No temperance vote ap- 
pears in the town. 

In the state, scattering, 24 ; Horton D. Walker, 17 ; Albert G. 
Comings, T., 314; Lemuel P. Cooper, Asst., 782; James Pike, R., 
33,892 ; James A. Weston, D., 34,700. 

In 1872 the vote in the town for governor : James A. Weston, 
D., had 281 votes; Ezekiel A. Straw, R,, 570. 

In the state, scattering, 14; John Blackmer, T., 436; Lemuel 


P. Cooper, Asst. D., 446; James A. Weston, 36,584; Ezekiel A. 
Straw, 38,752. 

In 1873 the vote of the town for governor was : John Blackmer, 
T., 1 ; Samuel K. Mason, Asst. D., 1 ; James A. "Weston, D., 244 ; 
Ezekiel A. Straw, 482. In the state: Mason, 687; Blackmer, 
1098 ; Weston, 32,016 ; Straw, 34,023. 

In 1874 the vote of the town for governor was : John Black- 
mer, T., 2 ; James A. Weston, 290 ; Luther McCutchins, E., 487. 
In the state : Scattering, 40 ; Luther McCutchins, 34,143 ; James 
A. Weston, 35,608 ; John Blackmer, 2,100. 

In 1875 the vote of the town for governor was: Person C. 
Cheney, E., 597 ; Hiram E. Eoberts, D., 322. In the state : Scat- 
tering, 19; Nathaniel White, 773; Eoberts, 39,121; Cheney, 

In 1876 the vote of the town for governor was: Person C. 
Cheney, E., 640; Daniel Marcy, D., 289. In the state: Scatter- 
ing, 14 ; Asa T. Kendall, T., 411 ; Marcy, 38,133 ; Cheney, 41,761. 
The total vote in the state was 80,319, the largest vote ever given 
up to that time for governor and not reached for many years 

At the annual meeting, 1877, the vote for governor was : Dan- 
iel Marcy, D, 261 ; Benjamin F. Prescott, E,, 601. In the state : 
Asa S. Kendall, T., 338 ; Marcy, 36,721 ; Prescott, 40,755. 

At the annual meeting, 1878, the vote for governor was: 
Frank A. McKean, D., 255 ; Benjamin F. Prescott, E., 555. In 
the state : Samuel Flint, 269 ; Asa S. Kendall, T., 205 ; Frank 
A. McKean, 37,860; Benjamin F. Prescott, 39,372. 

At this time a law making elections for all officers, except those 
for a town, biennial was passed and another election was held 
November 8 of the same year, at which the vote of the town for 
governor was: Warren G. Brown, Greenback, 30; Frank A. 
McKean, D., 259; Natt Head, E., 526. In the state: Kendall, 
T., had 91 ; Brown, 6,407 ; McKean, 31,135 ; Natt Head, 38,075. 
The most noticeable feature of this period in political matters 
is the nearly equal division of the two leading parties. 

302 history op lebanon. 

Town Bonds. 

For some years the town had declined to fund its debt, but 
at the annual meeting in 1871 the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved that the sum of forty- thousand dollars of the indebtedness 
of the town of Lebanon be bonded in conformity with the provisions 
of chapter nineteenth of the laws of 1870, and that bonds to that 
amount are hereby authorized to be issued, payable as follows: Ten 
Thousand Dollars Jan 1st 1877; Ten Thousand Dollars January 1st 
1882 j Ten Thousand Dollars January 1st 1887; Ten Thousand Dollars 
January 1st 1892. Said Bonds shall interest Coupons attached to them, 
which interest shall be at the rate of six per cent per annum, payable 
Semiannually in Gold at the Bank of Lebanon; and that three persons 
shall be appointed by the Selectmen, who, together with said Select- 
men, and the Treasurer of the Town, shall constitute a Committee of 
seven, who shall determine the denomination of said Bonds procure 
the same, and dispose of them as they may deem to be for the interest 
of the town 

Only $30,000 of the amount authorized was bonded, bringing 
a premium of $300. The bonds were redeemed from time to 
time as they matured; they were occasioned by the "war debt" 
of the town. 

Hay Scales. 

In 1871 H. B. Benton received permission to erect hay scales 
at the west end of the common. 

Hanover Street Bridge. 

A bridge had been erected across the river on Hanover Street, 
a wooden and covered bridge. Objections were made to it as 
unsightly, as cutting off the views of some, and likely to cause 
collisions of teams entering from opposite ends. Upon applica- 
tion of ten or more legal voters a special meeting of the town was 
called by the selectmen, August 19, 1871, when the following reso- 
lution was adopted: 

Resolved that the Selectmen be and hereby are instructed to pro- 
cure and erect an Iron Bridge with suitable side-walks, in place of 
the bridge now standing in the line of Hanover street, and that any 
funds in the treasury of the town, not otherwise appropriated, be 
placed at their disposal. The Selectmen complied with the instruc- 
tions given, and erected the iron bridge which now spans the river. 
The wooden bridge was removed and afterward placed over the road 
leading to Glenwood Cemetery. 


The cost of the iron bridge, as reported by the selectmen in 
1872, was $2,181.44. 

Encouraging Manufacture. 

At a meeting held November 5, 1872, the town voted to adopt 
an act exempting manufacturing establishments for the time of 
ten years and also the following resolution : 

Whereas the town of Lebauon does possess great natural facilities and 
inducements for manufacturing by the large water power on the Con- 
necticut and Mascoma rivers, now lying idle and unoccupied, and 
whereas being anxious to offer every inducement possible to draw enter- 
prise and capital into said town. 

Be it Resolved that all manufacturing establishments now erected, 
but not in operation, or that may be hereafter erected, together with 
the capital employed in the same within the next three years, from 
the adoption of this resolution and the law passed at the June Session 
of the Legislature of New Hampshire, 1871, as set forth in chapter 25 
Pamphlet Laws, shall be exempt from taxes for the term of ten years 
from the completion of said manufactories if kept in actual operation 
where the capital employed shall not be less than five thousand 

At a special meeting of the town, January 7, 1873, the follow- 
ing preamble and resolution were adopted: 

In order to encourage the increase of business and capital in the 
Town of Lebanon be it 

Resolved that for purposes of taxation the Invoice valuation for 1872 
of the Manufacturing establishment of J. C. Sturtevant & Co. and of 
the Capital Stock used in operating it shall remain the same as now, 
notwithstanding any increase of business or capital or change of own- 
ership — that is, that said establishment and the capital used in operat- 
ing it, shall be exempt from taxation, beyond the amount of their 
present invoice valuation, said exemption to be for the benefit of who- 
soever may own or operate said establishment and to continue for the 
term of ten years. 

At the annual meeting, 1875, the following resolutions were 
adopted : 

Resolved that the Selectmen be authorized and are hereby empow- 
ered to make a binding contract on the part of the town, with any 
parties who will put in operation, within two years, three or more sets 
of woolen machinery, to exempt the capital, Real Estate and machinery 
employed for this purpose, from taxation for the term of ten years, 
and that such contract shall be recorded on the record books of the 


Resolved that the real estate of the Granite Agricultural Works, and 
the capital used in operating the same, be exempt from taxation for a 
period of ten years from this date 

Resolved that the Selectmen be instructed to arrange with any 
parties from abroad, who may within one year from the first of April 
next invest in any legitimate manufacturing at the Lebanon Slate 
Mill, at East Lebanon, a sum not less than $3000, an exemption for 
the term of ten years. 

This policy of favoring manufacturing, thus begun in Leb- 
anon, has been pursued steadily and with ultimate benefit to the 

Hearse for West Lebanon. 

At the anual meeting, 1873, the selectmen were instructed to 
purchase a new hearse for the use of the town, to be kept at the 
West Lebanon cemetery ground. 

Survey of Streets. 

At the same meeting the following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved that the Selectmen are hereby instructed to cause an accu- 
rate survey of the streets, both in this village and the village at West 
Lebanon, to be made and stone bounds set at the corners and angles 
of the same and to have a plan of both villages made, of suitable size, 
to keep in the selectmen's office, and that new streets hereafter layed 
out be similarly bounded, and entered upon the plans kept by the 
selectmen — also that the Selectmen cause suitable names to be applied 
to each street and posted by suitable signs on the corners of the same. 

This was done by C. A. Downs & Sons, and a plan made for 
both villages, now remaining in the office of the selectmen. 

First Board of Health. 

At the annual meeting, 1874, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved that we now proceed to elect by nomination a Board of 
Health Commissioners, consisting of five, on which Board at least two 
Physicians shall be placed, to act and perform the duties devolving 
on such commission, according to the laws of the State for the ensuing 

William Duncan, E. A. Knight, M. D., C. W. Manchester, M. 
D., Pliny E. Davis, James A. Davis, M. D., constituted the board. 


historical miscellany. 305 

Fire Precinct Extended. 

At the annual meeting, 1875, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Whereas the present Fire Precinct comprises more than one half of 
the taxable property of said town and have already expended expended 
large sums for the purpose of supplying suitable apparatus for the 
extinguishment of fires, wbich is virtually for the benefit of tbe town; 
and whereas, under existing regulations, the present fire department 
have no jurisdiction or authority to act outside of the limits of the 
present Fire Precinct therefore 

Resolved That the Selectmen be instructed to so extend the limits 
of the Fire Precinct as to include the whole town 

At the Same meeting voted That all the members of the Fire Depart- 
ment, recognized as such by the fire wardens be paid the sum of five 
dollars each, annually, for their services. 

Lyman's Bridge. 

For some years there had been a desire to have Lyman's 
Bridge a free bridge, as most of the bridges connecting New 
Hampshire and Vermont had become. An article in the warrant 
for the annual meeting, 1875, was as follows: "To see if the 
Town will buy Lyman's Bridge, so called?" Upon this article 
the following resolution : 

Resolved that the Selectmen be a committee of three to examine 
Lymans Bridge and Ascertain the terms upon which it can be pur- 
chased, and to investigate all matters relating to the purchase of it 
by the town, and report to the town as soon as practicable. 

The selectmen were Solon A. Peck, William S. Ela and Thomas 
P. Waterman. At a special meeting, held June 9, 1875, this com- 
mittee made a verbal report, and upon that report the following 
resolution was adopted : 

Resolved that Lewis C. Pattee, Daniel Hinkley and F. L. Owen be 
agents on the part of the town to investigate and examine into all mat- 
ters, questions and controversies, relating to the title, interest or claim 
which the Town has in, to or unto said Bridge and that they are 
hereby authorized to take such necessary action, as in their discretion 
and judgment may seem proper, and as soon as possible, in the name 
of the town, in order most expeditiously to protect, secure, settle and 
perfect the right, title, and interest of the town, to, in or unto said 
bridge or under the charter thereof. 

At the annual meeting this committee made a report, which 
was ordered on file. 



The charter of Lyman's Bridge was granted in 1836 by the 
New Hampshire legislature, by which it had the exclusive right 
and privilege to build or purchase and forever have and maintain 
a bridge over and across the Connecticut River between the town 
of Lebanon and the town of Hartford, at any place between the 
lower bar in White River Falls (Olcott Falls) and the south line 
of Lebanon. It was enacted that a toll be granted and estab- 
lished for the sole benefit of the corporation, the subjects and 
rates to be determined and settled by the justice of the Superior 
Court; the net proceeds not to exceed ten per cent, per annum 
on costs and expenditures. It was further provided that the 
corporations by their directors should, at the next term of the 
court in Grafton County, and once in five years thereafter, cause 
an exhibit, under oath, to be made of the costs and expenses 
incurred by said corporation for said bridge, and an account of 
all tolls received therefrom down to the time of making such 
exhibit; and upon the omission or neglect to make such exhibit 
all the rights and privileges granted by said act should be subject 
to forfeiture. By the act it was also provided that the capital 
stock should consist of 200 shares, which were transferable. Asa 
and Oscar Barron had purchased, in 1866, all the stock, and 
so composed the corporation. 

Upon inquiry and examination it was found that the provisions 
of the charter had not been complied with ; that a return had been 
made in 1837, and another in 1842, but none after that time. 
Information in the nature of a quo warranto was brought to the 
Superior Court in 1876. Judge Smith in his decision takes the 
following ground : 

The neglect of the defendants for more than thirty years, to make 
the returns required by their charter, presents a very strong reason 
for decreeing a forfeiture of their franchise By the terms of the act 
itself such neglect renders their Charter subject to forfeiture. But, 
inasmuch as the defendants pray to be admitted to make such returns 
I think such permission should be given. Upon an examination thereof, 
and a hearing, the Court can determine whether "in equity and good 
conscience a decree of forfeiture should be made" 

The cause was committed to a referee, who reported substan- 
tially as follows: 

That the provisions of the defendant's charter, in respect to making 
returns of the tolls received and of the costs and expenses incurred 


on account of their bridge have not been performed; and found that 
in equity and good conscience a decree of forfeiture should not be 
made, for the following reasons: Because the neglect of the defend- 
ants to make returns was not wilful; because there has not been and 
is not any bridge across Connecticut river, and no public way by which 
the river can be crossed — except on the Northern Railroad bridge — 
for a distance of five miles above and twelve miles below the defend- 
ants bridge: because the defendants have always kept their bridge in 
good repair and suitable for the public travel; and because it has 
been so managed as to accommodate the Public travel 

Upon the report of the referee the following is in substance 
the decision of Judge Smith: 

The question tried before the referee was, whether equity and good 
conscience required the forfeiture of the defendants charter, and as 
bearing on this question evidence of the receipts, expenses and cost of 
the bridge since the last return made in 1842, and evidence as to the 
way in which the bridge has been managed how far it had accommo- 
dated the public wants, how far it was necessary to meet the future 
wants of the public, and how much the proprietors had received and 
expended, was pertinent and properly received. In this view, the fact 
that the statements presented by the defendants to the referee did not 
contain all the information required by their charter presented no legal 
reason for their exclusion. 

Although the corporation has been guilty of gross neglect in not 
making the returns required by its charter, yet the facts laid before 
us do not, we think, furnish sufficient reasons why a forfeiture of 
the charter should be decreed upon the first application therefor. * * 

The neglect of the corporation to hold its annual meetings does not 
operate to dissolve the corporation. Provision is made by Gen. st 
c. 133 ss 15, 16 whereby the organization may be continued 

Case discharged 

58. N H 370-371 

At the annual meeting 1877, the following article was upon the 

warrant : 

13th To see if the town will instruct the Selectmen to lay a road 
over Lymans bridge, or unite with the Selectmen of the town Hartford, 
Vt. in the purchase of said Bridge, in accordance with Pamphlet Laws 
of 1870, entitled "an act in relation to the construction and support 
of Highways and Bridges over the Connecticut river or act thereon" 

"When this article came before the meeting for action they 
"voted to pass over article 13." 

A petition had been presented to the selectmen to lay a high- 
way over Lyman's Bridge to the Vermont line. In 1878 the 


selectmen could not act in the matter and the petition was filed 
in the Supreme Court, and referred to the county commissioners. 
A highway was laid out by them to the supposed line of Vermont. 
They awarded to the Barrons as damages $3,000, which the Bar- 
rons accepted under protest and appealed to the court for 
increased damages. The court appointed referees, who awarded 
the farther sum, including costs, of $3,404.52, making the total 
cost of the bridge $6,404.52. 

So far as New Hampshire territory was concerned, Lyman's 
Bridge was free, but its freedom was greatly obstructed by the 
fact that some twenty-three feet of the western end of the bridge 
was on Vermont soil, and that some rods between the end of 
the bridge and the toll bar was the private property of the bridge 
owners, no highway having ever been laid over it; so the Bar- 
rons mantained the toll bar and had a right to demand toll of 
all who sought to pass over the bridge. This fact produced a 
great commotion on both sides of the river. Excitement was 
intense and resulted in the following action of the town at a 
special meeting, October 4, 1879, when William S. Ela offered 
the folowing preamble and resolution : 

Whereas the citizens of Lebanon are aggrieved and impeded in their 
rights of travel upon a public highway known as the Lymans Bridge 
in West Lebanon by the wilful, unreasonable and unjustifiable conduct 
of Asa T. Barron, and whereas the town of Lebanon has by their course 
and Courts of Justice been decreed the right to enjoy a free and unin- 
terrupted travel on said highway of which they are deprived by said 
Barron and his agents without right 

Be it resolved, therefore, that a Committee of three be chosen to 
investigate the legal aspects of the case as between Asa T. Barron and 
said town of Lebanon, and to determine what measures legal or other- 
wise should be taken to secure to the citizens of Lebanon an open, free 
and unobstructed right of way to and from the State of Vermont. 

2<i Resolved that said Committee be instructed to report to this 
meeting on Nov 1st 1879. 

3<J That when the meeting adjourns it do adjourn to Nov. 1st 1879. 

4th That Hiram Orcott, Hon. L. C. Pattee and Wm B. Weeks consti- 
tute the Committee on behalf of said Town 

The foregoing preamble and Resolution were read and William B. 
Weeks moved their adoption which motion was seconded by Hiram 
Orcut, and after the subject was fully ventilated by Mr. Orcut in a 
lengthy speech, giving a full description of the subject before the 
meeting But before a vote was called, in consideration that the 


Resolutions included the subject of the 3d & 4th Articles in the Warrant, 
the Motion Wm B. Weeks was amended so as to include the action of 
both Articles in the Warrant. 

The motion was adopted with only two opposing votes L. C. Pattee 
being one of the members of said Committee asked to be excused from 
serving on account of other business which would occupy his whole 
time, and on motion he was excused and J. D. Hosley was elected to 
take the place of L. C. Pattee on said Committee. 

Meeting adjourned to November 1 at two o'clock. 

At the adjourned meeting the committee rendered a verbal 
report, Hiram Orcutt saying he had looked into the matter and 
according to the best of his opinion Asa T. Barron had no right 
whatever in said bridge, or any right to any land on the west 
bank of the Connecticut River which would authorize him to 
take toll. 

William B. Weeks, another member of said committee, made 
quite a lengthy detailed verbal report, giving an account of the 
affairs, quoting the law relative to the western boundary of the 
state of New Hampshire as established by the courts of said 
state, establishing the line between the states of Vermont and 
N«w Hampshire to be at high water mark on the western bank 
of the Connecticut River. He also stated that said Barron had no 
right whatever to collect toll for passing from Lebanon to Hart- 
ford over said bridge and recommended the adoption of the fol- 
lowing resolution : 

Be it resolved that we as a town, so far as in our power We are 
authorized by the laws of the State of New Hampshire, do hereby 
instruct the present Committee to institute such proceedings as may 
be necessary, either by a bill in equity and injunction, or otherwise as 
they shall see fit, in our name or others, against Asa T. Barron to 
restrain and enjoin him, his agents, and all others from obstructin 
by bars or gates the public highway in Hartford Vermont, leading 
from the westerly line of Lyman's Bridge, as laid out by the Commis- 
sioners of the County of Grafton in N. H. as a free public highway 
through the Town of Hartford; as also from taking tolls or money 
for the passing and repassing thereon 

Mr. Jonas Scott moved the adoption of the Resolution which was 
duly seconded. The voters being seated, and all those in favor of the 
adoption of the resolution, were requested to rise, and A. W. Baker 
was requested to count those standing and announced 19 in favor; 
those against the adoption were requested in like manner to arise 
and 21 being the number voting against the adoption of the Resolution, 
and the said resolution was declared not adopted 


There is evidently some mistake or else great obscurity in this 
record. Mention is made in the resolution ' ' of obstructing by bars 
and gates the public highway in Hartford, Vermont, leading 
from the westerly line of Lyman's Bridge as laid out by the 
Commissioners of the County of Grafton as a free public high- 
way through the town of Hartford." The language seems to 
imply that the commissioners of Grafton County had laid out 
a "free public highway through the town of Hartford," which, 
of course, they had no authority to do. 

The real condition of the affairs was as follows: The com- 
missioners of Grafton County had laid out a highway over 
Lyman's Bridge to the Vermont line, which they assumed to be 
medium water; the court confirmed their doings; Lyman's 
Bridge became free to this line, but no farther. One could drive 
across to this line, turn around and go back without being liable 
to pay any toll. But this point did not extend quite through the 
bridge, leaving the western abutment on Vermont soil. In addi- 
tion there was land between the bridge and the toll bar which 
had never been made a public highway by any of the means by 
which land becomes a highway. t 

About the time the Fourth New Hampshire Turnpike was char- 
tered, there was also chartered a turnpike on the Vermont side, 
known as the White River Turnpike Co. The design of both 
of these roads was to furnish a road for passengers and merchan- 
dise to and from the seaside to certain portions of New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont, so that they should furnish a continuous 
route, and the same parties, to a great extent, were interested in 
both turnpikes. 

The White River Turnpike is described as commencing at a 
point on the west bank of the Connecticut River, and upon this 
point there were learned and earnest discussions, when it was 
settled that the bank of a river was where the soil and water met. 
Such a point would vary greatly with the low water or floods, 
and would be very uncertain ; but it was at once assumed that the 
bridge connected the New Hampshire and Vermont turnpikes, 
and inasmuch as the Vermont Turnpike had been years before 
made free, the bridge was free. But this was hasty reason- 
ing, for the record of the laying out of the White River Turn- 
pike fixed definitely the point where it commenced, which was 


"S.45°E. 9 rods 13 links from the South East Corner of Lyman's 
store." Upon a survey made with care, the beginning of the 
turnpike was proved to be at the point where the toll bar had 
been located for years, leaving a space between that and the 
bridge over which there had never been a public highway but 
was the property of the bridge company. This was the finding 
of a court's commission of Vermont. Upon the ownership of this 
strip of land and a portion of the bridge rested the right of 
Barron to take toll of those who passed over them. The author- 
ities of Hartford therefore laid out a highway over this interven- 
ing strip of land and when all the necessary formalities were com- 
pleted, the whole became legally free. The court's commission 
awarded Barron $1,000 for his interest in the west end of the 
bridge and the intervening land, making the total cost of free- 
ing the bridge about $7,404. It might have been done in the 
beginning for $3,000. 

During this controversy there was great excitement on both 
sides of the river. So sure were some of the persons interested 
in the controversy in their own opinions of their rights that they 
ran the toll bar. The bar itself had no certain dwelling place, 
being frequently found floating down the Connecticut River. 
The result of running the gate, in some instances, proved that 
it would have been economical to have paid toll. 

A reader of the files of the Free Press of the period would be 
surprised to find how many things there asserted and proved 
were not true, except in the opinions of the writers. He would 
find instances of a physical paradox, that there may be intense 
heat without much light. 

Bequests to the Town. 

At the annual meeting, 1875, the town voted to accept a 
bequest of $200, left by Col. Ezra Alden, for building a receiving 
tomb, 'but as the terms of the will confined the location of the 
tomb to the village cemetery, the bequest was never used. 

At the annual meeting, 1876, the town voted to accept the 
bequest of the late Jacob S. Prescott of $1,000, the interest of 
which was to be paid annually. Mr. Prescott was a native of 
Springfield, and came to Lebanon when twenty-one years of 
age, working on the farm of Deacon Porter, and after his 


death for the Stearns, father and sons; afterwards for Samuel 
Craft and some others. He never received over $125 per year, 
beside his board, yet he accumulated several thousand dollars. 
The bequest to the town has proved of great value, yearly fur- 
nishing some of the comforts of life to those who would other- 
wise be without them. 

Centennial Fourth of July. 

In the year 1876, the centennial year, there was much talk of 
an ''old fashion Celebration of the Fourth of July," and pre- 
parations were made for such a celebration. There was a feel- 
ing among the people that the town itself ought to take some 
action in the matter and give assistance. Accordingly, upon a 
petition to the selectmen, a meeting was called and held upon the 
28th day of June, at which meeting it was ' ' voted to appropriate 
a sum not exceeding six hundred dollars from money not other- 
wise appropriated to be expended in the proper observance of the 
coming Centenial Fourth of July." The celebration of the 
great natal day of the country was held, the full account of 
which is elsewhere given. 

Town Pump. 

Need of a watering place on the common for persons and ani- 
mals had been felt, and the citizens of the village had taken up 
the matter and constructed a well on the north side of the com- 
mon. The expense had been larger than expected, when the town 
came to the rescue, voting at a meeting held on the 7th day of 
November. 1876, "to pay the expense incurred in constructin 
the well on the Common." 

This was the first and only town pump, located near the elm 
on the north side of the common. It served a good purpose, 
giving grateful refreshment to many thirsty men and beasts, and 
an unfailing source of pleasure to the small boys until it was 
superseded by the fountain on the west side of the common. At 
this same meeting the town took action for the organization of a 
police court, appropriating the sum of $100 as a salary to the 

The late James G. Ticknor received the first appointment as 
justice of the court from the governor and continued to hold the 


office until 18 — , when he became disqualified by age. C. A. 
Downs followed as justice of the court, holding the office a little 
over three years, when he became disqualified by age. He was 
succeeded by Jesse E. Dewey, appointed July 12, 1893 ; resigned 
August 12, 1895. 

Sale op Cider and Sewage. 

At a special meeting held on the 8th day of September, 1877, 
the town adopted an act passed by the legislature in the preceding 
June, forbidding the sale of cider in less quantities than ten gal- 
lons, and also the act passed in 1870, relating to sewage. 

At a meeting held on the 12th day of October, 1878, the town 
again voted to adopt an act regulating the sale of both cider and 
lager beer, the previous act having been somewhat amended. 

Hog Reeves. 

At the annual meeting in 1878, the town voted for the last 
time for these "ancient and honorable officers." An elaborate 
printed ticket was used containing the names of ten candidates, 
each having a title of amazing dignity and daring significance. 
Whoever has the curiosity to know with what brilliancy this fat 
office expired may consult page 477 of Vol. 6, where the whole 
ticket is entered in full with the high offices of each candidate. 

This office seems to have never been taken seriously in this 
town. The election of the candidates was always the signal for 
fun and frolic. Squeals and grunts of pigs and hogs were heard 
in every direction. The first election to this office was at the 
annual meeting, 1774, when Charles Hill. Huckin Storrs and Lt. 
John Griswold were chosen. At the annual meeting in 1775 
Joseph "Wood. James Jones, Samuel Bailey, Abel Wright and 
Charles Hill were chosen. 

The office was not filled again till the annual meeting, 1788, 
the people having their minds occupied by the serious and absorb- 
ing affairs of the Revolution, when Lemuel Hough, Elisha Tilden, 
Elihu Hyde, Esq., and Abel Wright were chosen hog reeves. 

At the next annual meeting the following record was made: 
"Voted that swine shall not run at large from the 1 st of May 
till the middle of October — Voted that Maj John Griswold Capt. 
David Hough, Capt. Nath 1 Hall Mr Robert Colburn, Col. Elisha 



Payne Aaron Hutchinson Esq. and Col Edmund Freeman be 
Hog Reeves for the year ensuing." 

These were the most eminent citizens of the town; captains, 
majors, colonels, lawyers. David Hough was afterwards a mem- 
ber of Congress ; John Griswold and Nathaniel Hall were officers 
in the Revolution; Aaron Hutchinson was the first lawyer in 
town; Col. Elisha Payne was lieutenant governor and chief jus- 
tice of Vermont, and one of the most prominent men of the day ; 
Col. Edmund Freeman, the famous "First Settler of Hanover," 
was an officer in the Revolution. Robert Colburn was the donor 
of the park which bears his name, as a location of the meeting- 

In this fact the fun of the whole proceeding consisted, the con- 
trast in the standing of the men and the office. Sometimes the 
people paid dearly for their fun, for occasionally a man took the 
office seriously, and according to his oath of office, proceeded "to 
faithfully and impartially discharge and perform his duties, to 
the best of his ability, agreeably to the rules and Regulations of 
the Constitution and laws of the' State." Hogs and pigs were 
unaccountably missing, to be found later at the town pound, with 
fees to pay for their release ; or perhaps they received notice 
to "ring" and "yoke" their swine, as the law required, with 
other charges to pay. All this was not as funny after all. 

About the beginning of the present century this custom of 
choosing the eminent citizens to this office was abandoned, and 
newly married men became the favorites of the people, and so 
continued to be until the year 1874, when it was filled for the last 
time, as before narrated. 

It may be of interest to the present generation to learn what 
other officers there were in ancient times but now unknown. 
Among these were deer reeves, inspectors of fish, sealers of 
leather, the names of the officers indicating their duties. Another 
was culler of staves. 

In early times there was much timber in town, of which articles 
useful and profitable might be manufactured, and among these 
were staves for barrels, tierces and hogsheads, and other casks. 
All these were required by law to be of certain dimensions and 
qualities before they could be put upon the market for domestic 
use or export. It was the duty of the culler to inspect these 


staves, selecting the poor from the good and finally putting his 
official seal upon the bundles, receiving a prescribed fee. When 
the material of which staves could be made failed, the office 
became a nominal one; there was nothing for the officer to do. 
Tradition tells of a certain waggish shoemaker who thought to 
have some fun with the officer of the year. His shop-tub fell 
to pieces and he gravely summoned the culler to perform the 
duties of his office. He came and gave his whole attention to the 
duty before him, laid the good and the poor in separate piles and 
then demanded and secured his legal fee. It was not so funny 
as the son of St. Chrispien thought it might be. 

Another officer well known, and not well loved, was the tyth- 
ing-man. The early laws concerning the observance of the 
Lord's day were very strict. Some of the provisions of the law 
of 1799 are the following: All labor except works of necessity 
and mercy, all games, play and recreation are forbidden ; all 
travel on the Lord's day, between sun-rising and sun-setting, 
unless from necessity or to attend public worship, visit the sick, 
or do some office of charity, is prohibited. If any person, on 
the Lord's day, within the walls of any house of public worship, 
or about such house, whether in the time of public service or 
between the forenoon and afternoon services of said day, or any 
part thereof, did behave rudely or indecently he or she must 
pay a fine, not exceeding six dollars nor less than fifty cents. 
There was a provision in the law to this effect : ' ' That it shall 
and may be lawful for any justice of the peace, on application, 
to grant a license for any person to travel, or do any secular busi- 
ness on that day, which shall appear to him to be a work of 
necessity or mercy." 

At the close of the act it was "recommended to the ministers 
of the Gospel to read this act publickly in their congregations, 
annually on the Lord's day next after the choice of town 

After some experience it was found "that Justices of the 
Peace, under a misapprehension of the law, gave permission to 
travel on the Lord 's day, contrary to the true spirit of the act. ' ' 

Accordingly, it was amended to this effect: "That licenses 
should not be granted to any person in the stile and capacity of 
a teamster or carrier, with any team or carriage of burthen, to 


any person or persons found travelling on said day, in the stile 
and capacity of a drover with any horses, cattle or other beasts, 
and that all licenses granted to such persons shall be utterly null 
and void, any law, usage or custom to the contrary notwith- 
standing. ' ' 

Of course the provisions of the law gave rise to much discus- 
sion concerning their application. What exactly is a work of 
"necessity"? Some things would appear necessary to be done 
to one, and not to another. What exactly is a " work of mercy ' ' ? 
Many acts would be clearly works of mercy, right and reasonable, 
while many acts might appear merciful without being truly so. 
The courts were often required to give a ruling on such matters. 
Again, not to put too fine a point upon it, could "courting," of 
which there was an abundance, come under the forbidden recre- 
ation ? 

Now the tything-men were especially charged with the enforce- 
ment of this law, and inasmuch as they were required to be 
"men of good substance and sober life," they were not likely to 
be favorites with many of the people, especially the young. The 
time when and the place where the tything-man was most in 
evidence was in the meetinghouse galleries, during public wor- 
ship, it being his duty to keep the young folks awake, but not 
too lively, and of good behavior in all respects. They often 
carried a little rod, and when a boy or girl became unruly they 
were brought to order by a tap from the rod. Sometimes they 
had their ears pulled, and not gently. 

Tradition tells of a couple seated side by side one Sabbath in 
the gallery, greatly enjoying each other and a bag of beech nuts, 
which in ancient days held the place of the modern peanut. The 
watchful eye of the tything-man caught this innocent couple in 
their offending conduct. Now this tything-man was of good sub- 
stance physically, large and stout. He takes a seat between the 
couple, most effectually separating them and bringing them to 
order. It would be a strange sight in our Sunday congregations 
today to find several men moving about among the worshippers 
to keep them in order. Were the young people then better in 
their behavior than now, more sedate and orderly, as we are so 
often told they were? 

The last incumbents of the office in this town were John Gus- 


tin, Josiah Bowen, Humphrey Wood and John W. Peck, chosen 
at the annual meeting in 1845. About that time the law requir- 
ing the election of these officers was repealed. 


At the annual meeting in 1877 the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved that all persons shall hereafter be prohibited to coast within 
the limits of any public highway in the town, and that any person so 
doing, unless permission shall be granted by the Selectmen shall for- 
feit as a penalty the sum of one dollar for each offence to enure to the 
use of the town. 

In all cases there is conflict between law and its subjects. 
Never was there a law passed, or regulation made, to which 
implicit obedience was rendered. From the beginning of society 
of every kind there has been an irrepressible conflict between the 
young and the old. Their tastes are different; their ways of 
looking at things are different. Young folks think old folks are 
fools, old folks know young folks to be such. Boys and girls 
like games and sports. If they are forbidden, or under any 
restraint or limitation, a new zest attaches to them. Old people 
of short memory of their own youth frown upon such things. 
Boys and girls from time immemorial have loved to slide down 
hill, coasting, and have always preferred public places in which 
to indulge their taste. The elder people thought it was danger- 
ous and so passed a resolution forbidding it ; but it did not stop 
it. They gathered as aforetime at their favorite localities. 
Sometimes an officer would appear to stop them. Of course, they 
would stop then, at that place, only to gather in another. So 
the conflict, always good-natured, went on year after year. The 
resolution passed was only a town regulation, not a statute by 
the legislature under the solemn "Be it enacted by the Senate 
and House of Representatives in General Court convened"; but 
in 1883 the General Court set up its authority and made a law 
absolutely prohibiting coasting "in a highway or public street in 
a village or thickly settled portion of a town or city, to the danger 
of travelers." A source of weakness in the resolution of the 
town is eliminated. There is no provision, "unless permission 
shall be granted by the selectmen." Still, every year the at- 


tempt at coasting begins ; sometimes promptly stopped, more 
generally tolerated, until some irate citizen is run down, or 
escapes the threatened danger by unwonted agility, when com- 
plaint is made and the sport stops intermittingly. 

At special meetings held September 8, 1877, and October 12, 
1878, the town adopted the acts regulating the sale of cider and 
lager beer, keeping up with temperance legislation. 

1880 to 1890. 

At the annual meeting, 1880, the town instructed the sealer of 
weights and measures to procure a stamp containing the letters 
L. S., to be used in the performance of his duty. This was done 
to comply with the provisions of the law. 

Soldiers' Monument. 

For some time the matter of a monument to the soldiers who 
had given their lives in behalf of their country had been talked 
of and planned for by individuals, but it first came up before 
the town at the annual meeting in 1880, at which time the town 
voted to appropriate $750 for a soldiers' monument, upon con- 
dition that $800 more would be raised by subscription, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to carry out the provisions of the resolu- 
tion. The history of this movement in honor of the fallen sol- 
diers of the town will be given in a separate chapter. 

C. C. Benton's Bequest. 

At a meeting of the town November 2, 1880, the following 
action was taken in respect to a bequest of Mr. Benton for mov- 
ing the tomb from its present location to some place in or near 
the old cemetery in the village, and for the purpose of ornament- 
ing the old cemetery in the center of the village by setting out 
elms, evergreens and other trees. Voted to defer action on the 
subject until the next annual meeting. At the annual meeting, 
1881, the town declined to move the receiving tomb, but accepted 
the bequest of "the late Colbee C. Benton of $300 for the pur- 
pose of ornamenting the old cemetery in the Center Village by 
setting out trees and appointed F. L. Owen to superintend the 
business." It is to this bequest that the village is indebted for 
the beautiful evergreens which truly ornament the cemetery. 

historical miscellany. 319 

Stocking Streams with Trout. 

At the annual meeting in 1881 the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved that a sum of money not to exceed fifteen dollars be and 
the same is hereby appropriated for the purpose of stocking the 
streams and waters within the town of Lebanon with brook trout, and 
that all person be and are hereby prohibited from taking from any 
waters so stocked any brook trout for the term of three years from 
the time such waters shall have been so stocked as provided in Section 
9 Chapter 176 General Laws, except as otherwise provided in said 

In early times the streams of Lebanon abounded in the beauti- 
ful and toothsome salmo fontinalis. The stories told of the num- 
ber and weight of trout captured in those days were very wonder- 
ful and quite as true as those told today; but persistent fishing, 
in season and out, by fair and foul methods, had about exhausted 
the streams. It is only owing to this early action of the town 
and annual stocking that any fish remain in our streams at pres- 
ent ; yet, with this system of replenishing these waters, and hon- 
est observance of the provisions of the law by all parties, these 
fine fish inhabitants might continue in abundance. In few mat- 
ters is greed more destructive than in the violation of the pro- 
visions of the wise fish and game laws. 

Heating and Lighting the Town Hall. 

From the earliest days the heating and lighting of the town 
hall had never been satisfactory to everybody. The methods did 
not suit the people in the year 1881, and they began to devise 
improvement by voting "that the Selectmen be and hereby are 
authorized to make such changes in the method of heating the 
Town Hall as in their judgment may be deemed necessary." 
The selectmen to whom this important business was entrusted 
were Solon A. Peck, John S. Freeman and Charles M. Drake. 
There is no reasonable doubt but that this board of selectmen did 
what seemed to them wise and best, but their efforts did not sat- 
isfy the people any more than the efforts of many predecessors, 
and it began to seem as if selectmen were not adequate to this 
work, for at the annual meeting in 1884, only three years later, 
the town adopted the following resolution : 


Resolved that the Selectmen be and hereby are instructed and em- 
powered to make such further provisions for lighting and heating the 
Town Hall and to make such additions and repairs to said Hall as in 
their judgment may be necessary for the safety convenience and 
comfort of all who resort thereto, and that the expense of such pro- 
visions and repairs be paid out of any monies of the town not other- 
wise appropriated. 

The former board of selectmen, we gather from the resolution, 
had done something but not enough. The selectmen to whom 
the matter was again committed were Solon A. Peck, Charles A. 
Downs and John K. Butman. Under these instructions an addi- 
tion was built at the rear of the hall, providing for ante-rooms at 
the rear of the stage, and room for storage above and below. Two 
furnaces had been employed to heat the hall, which were suffi- 
cient in moderate weather, but failed in the coldest times. A 
third furnace was placed in the northwest corner of the lower 
hall, to be used in emergencies. These furnaces, used with good 
judgment, gave sufficient heat, and continue to the present time. 

When the interior of the town hall was changed in 1868, gas 
pipes were introduced to afford means of lighting better than 
kerosene lamps. Gasoline began to be employed for lighting 
purposes. This substance gave good light when all conditions 
were just right, but seems to be endowed with an unusual amount 
of the perversity said to inhere in all material things. It was 
quick to resent any want of care, or lack of nice adjustment of 
the machinery by which it was operated. Its lights would 
flicker, die down to the merest spark and suddenly flash into 
intense brilliancy, causing the people to wonder what it would 
do next. Sometimes the light went out entirely at unseemly 
times and in exasperating ways. Matters went on much in the 
same way till 1880, when the town decided to light the town 
hall by electricity. This illuminating agent has its eccentricities 
as .well as the others before employed, but is far better than any 
other for lighting purposes, and infinitely better so far as com- 
fort and health are concerned. 

Street Lights. 

At the annual meeting in 1882 the first steps were taken to 
introduce street lights by instructing the selectmen "to make 
such provisions for lighting the main streets of Lebanon Center 


and West Lebanon as they deemed proper." The streets were 
lighted first by whale oil in lamps suspended from posts ; then 
by kerosene, for which new and improved hurners were adopted, 
without ever reaching satisfactory results, when electricity in 
1891 took the place of everything else. 

Manufacturers ' Exemption from Taxation. 

At a special town meeting held April 30, 1881, the following 
preamble and resolution were adopted: 

Whereas In the town of Lebanon we have the largest amount of un- 
occupied water-power of any other town in the state; and whereas it is 
of no value in its present normal condition, but if occupied our town 
would soon contain a manufacturing population and wealth only second 
to the city of Manchester, and whereas it has become almost universal 
for towns and cities with manufacturing facilities to offer to capital 
seeking opportunity for investment in this and other New England 
states, such inducements as the legislature has seen fit to grant, with the 
good wishes of their inhabitants and we, seeing the importance of sim- 
ilar action for the interests of our community 

Resolved that we, the legal voters of the town of Lebanon do cor- 
dially extend a hearty invitation to manufacturing capital, and that 
we will vote at the earliest opportunity to exempt all new Capital 
employed in manufacturing when five thousand dollars or more shall 
be invested for the term of ten years from the time when such manu- 
facturing shall commence and that the clerk be requested to forward 
a copy of this Resolution to the Crocker Co Holyoke Mass 

From this time to the present the town passed many votes 
exempting manufacturing plants from taxation. Probably the 
amount exempted would be in the neighborhood of a million dol- 
lars. In some cases the period of exemption has already 
expired and in other cases the limit is not distant. 

Spring at "West Lebanon. 

At the annual meeting in 1882 the town voted to instruct the 
selectmen to lease to the Congregational Society at West Lebanon 
the spring situated in the cemetery ground. Little was thought 
at that time of the necessity of guarding carefully the sources 
of palatable water. 


322 history op lebanon. 

Town Clocks. 

The clock which for many years had been a faithful sentinel 
in the tower of the town hall, marking the passage of time and 
regulating the life of the inhabitants in many ways, had become 
worn and more or less disabled in its functions, so at the annual 
meeting in 1881 the following resolution was adopted: "That 
the selectmen are hereby authorized to procure a new clock for 
the Town Hall and put the same in running order at an expence 
not exceeding four hundred and fifty dollars. ' ' 

The selectmen employed F. B. Kendrick, then a jeweller and 
watchmaker, to procure the clock and place it in the tower. 
Expense, $447.59. The people of West Lebanon desired to have 
their time measured out to them in a reliable manner and in 1882 
made application to the town at the November meeting for a 
town clock. Action upon the article in the warrant was post- 
poned to the annual meeting in 1883. At that meeting the town 
voted to adopt the following resolution: "That the selectmen 
be authorized and instructed to purchase a suitable town Clock to 
be placed in the village of West Lebanon whenever a suitable 
and proper place shall be prepared and furnished without 
expence to the town, to the satisfaction of the Selectmen." The 
"suitable and proper place" was not prepared and furnished 
until the erection of the West Lebanon High School building in 
1892. The clock was purchased by C. A. Richardson, watch- 
maker, at a cost of $400. 

Balance of the Dog Tax. 

The law required the money received by tax on dogs, and later 
from license, to be used first in paying for damage done by dogs 
and any balance to be appropriated to the support of schools. 
How this balance was to be divided became a vexed question in 
town meetings. At the November meeting, 1882, the vote was 
"to divide the remaining dog tax money equally among the 
school districts." In 1885 the vote was renewed, and again in 
1886. The following resolution was also adopted: "That the 
Selectmen are hereby instructed to enforce Section 9 of Chapter 
115 of the General Laws of New Hampshire, respecting the licens- 
ing of dogs and repealing the by-law passed in 1880." For 


many years towns were given the right "to make by-laws for 
licensing, regulating or restraining dogs as they deemed expedi- 
ent ' ' ; but the towns generally took no action toward licensing 
dogs. An addition to the law was passed, in case the towns 
failed to pass by-laws for licensing dogs, requiring the selectmen 
to prepare such by-laws and affix penalties for the violation 

In the meantime a statute had been enacted, 1863, directing the 
.selectmen to levy a tax of one dollar on all male dogs and two 
dollars for female dogs ; this was outside of a license fee. 
Finally, in 1891, the present law concerning the licensing of 
dogs was enacted, requiring two dollars to be paid for each 
male and five dollars for females. The framers of the law neg- 
lected to repeal the law as to taxation, so that the people for 
about two years had to pay three and seven dollars for keeping 
a dog, according to sex. The tax was afterwards repealed. The 
town did make one by-law as to dogs in 1880 requiring a fee of 
five cents, but it was illegal and repealed. 

In 1886, at a special meeting held on the 31st day of March, 
the following action was taken on the following resolution : 

Resolved that the penalty for a failure or neglect to license a dog or 
dogs owned by any person or harbored by them be and is hereby fixed 
at fifty cents. The resolution was adopted by a vote of 102 for and 78 
against, but was never inforced 

This question was finally settled by law, requiring the balance 
of dog money to be treated as any other school money. Dogs 
are by many considered as useless animals, but they have a 
place in the affairs of society and their uses. It has been said 
that no people could emerge from barbarism to civilization with- 
out the aid of the dog. He does not go to school himself but he 
helps others to an education by contributing to the school fund, 
after paying for the damage some of the inconsiderate mem- 
bers of his race have done to sheep. The amount of the balance 
of the dog money to be added to the school money for 1896 is 
$351.90, which would require an invoice of about $18,000. The 
valuation of the sheep for 1895 was $2,492, so that the dogs con- 
tributed more than eight times as much for the support of schools 


as the sheep — a result surprising to those who have not consid- 
ered the matter. 

Colburn Park. 

The Center Village was known for many years as the meeting 
house. Then the people of the village spoke of the enclosure as 
the ' ' Common. ' ' At the annual meeting in 1884 the town voted 
' ' that the Common be hereafter known as Colburn Park in honor 
of the donor." How this land came to be given to the town has 
already been narrated in the history of the meeting-house. 

Postmasters op Lebanon. 

The names of postmasters, with the dates of their appointment, 
are as follows : 

James Ralston, January 1, 1801. 

Thomas Hough, October 1, 1805. 

Andrew Post, October 1, 1811. 

William Benton, July 1, 1814. 

Calvin Benton. 

Nathan B. Felton. 

Elijah Blaisdell, January 1, 1835. 

George S. Kendrick, May 19, 1841. 

Calvin Benton, January 14, 1845. 

Edward J. Durant, August 3, 1861. 

Elisha P. Liscomb, January 22, 1866. 

Alpheus W. Baker, January 19, 1881. 

William M. Kimball, January 25, 1886. 

Charles H. Clough (died in office), December 21, 1889. 

William A. Churchill, January 15, 1891. 

Albion T. Clark, January 15, 1895. 





a x 

1 ^^ * 


May. 1841. 

August 3, 1861. 

June 22, 1866. 

January 19, 1881. 

January 25, 1886. 

December 21, 1889. 

January 15, 1891. 


January 15, 1895. 


The Town in the Rebellion. 

The war of the rebel gun turned against Fort Sumter pene- 
trated to these peaceful valleys. The people were at once 
aroused and excited, and Lebanon began to have a War History. 
At the first call for volunteers, men here sprung to arms. In 
the month of April, 1861, ten men answered to the call of the 
president for seventy-five thousand volunteers. Their names 
are Joseph Harris, E. D. dimming, "William Hall, B. Clifford, 
Charles C. Seavey, Henry C. Norton, Heman Maynard, Cor- 
liss C. Wheeler, Joseph Sennett, Daniel Daey. Subsequent calls 
were met, until Lebanon had representatives in every regiment 
and military organization of the state. 

In compiling the war history of the town, I propose to give 
first the formal action of the town as found upon the records; 
second, an alphabetical list of the soldiers who represented Leb- 
anon, with the branch of service in which they were employed, 
together with a brief notice of each so far as can be ascertained ; 
third, expenses incurred; fourth, events and incidents. 

Town Meetings. 

At a legal town meeting held on the 18th day of May, 1861, 
voted to adopt the following resolutions : 

Resolved that the town of Lebanon appropriate a sum not exceeding 
one thousand dollars, out of the treasury of the town not otherwise 
appropriated, for the benefit of citizens of said town, who have volun- 
teered and entered the service of the United States, and such as may 
hereafter may volunteer for such service and b accepted, and for the 
benefit of their families 

Resolved: That the Selectmen of Lebanon are authorised and in- 
structed to pay to each citizen of Lebanon who has recently entered 
the service of his country, and all who may hereafter volunteer and be 
accepted the sum of ten dollars, and faithfully provide for and support 
such of the families of said volunteers as may require or need assist- 


At a legal town meeting held on the 9th day of Nov. 1861: 

Voted to instruct the Selectmen to borrow, on the credit of the town, 
a sum of money not exceeding fifteen hundred dollars to carry out the 
provisions of Chap. 2480 of the Pamphlet Laws 

This was an act authorizing cities and towns to aid the families 
of volunteers and for other purposes. 

Voted that the Selectmen be committee to disburse this money in 
accordance with the provisions of said Chap 2480. 
Voted to accept the following Resolution: viz. 

Resolved that the Selectmen be authorized and directed to pay to each 
inhabitant of the town of Lebanon, who has been accepted and mustered 
into the service of the United States, or may hereafter be mustered into 
said Service in the state of New Hampshire or elsewhere, provided he 
enlisted into some company raised in the State of New Hampshire, the 
sum of ten dollars out of money in the treasury not otherwise appro- 
priated; provided that those who have already received a bounty of 
ten dollars heretofore voted by the town, are not to receive any farther 
bounty, unless the'y have been, or shall be, after being honorably dis- 
charged, re-enlisted and accepted mustered into said service. 

At a legal town meeting held on the ninth day of Aug., 1862 : 

Voted to adopt the following resolutions 

Resolved: that the town of Lebanon will pay a bounty of fifty dollars 
to any inhabitant thereof who has enlisted since the first day of August 
1862, or may hereafter enlist and be mustered into the Volunteer service 
of the United States from this State; provided such soldiers are non- 
commissioned officers and privates. 

Resolved that a like bounty of fifty dollars be paid to any person, 
who has not been enrolled in any town in this State, and is not liable 
to do military duty in this State, and who may enlist in this town and 
be mustered into the Volunteer service of the United States from this 
State; provided such bounty shall not be paid to such persons after 
the number necessary to complete the quota of the men or soldiers 
shall have been furnished. 

At a legal town meeting held on the 30th day of Aug., 1862 : 

Voted to pay fifty dollars to each inhabitant of Lebanon who has en- 
listed since the first day of July last, or who may hereafter enlist and be 
mustered into the Volunteer Service of the United States, in addition 
to the sum heretofore (Aug 1st 1882) voted. 

Voted to pay the sum of two hundred dollars to any inhabitant of 



this town, who may volunteer and be mustered into the service of the 
United States for the term of nine months, to answer the call for the 
three hundred thousand men, to be drafted from the militia. 
Voted to adopt the following Resolution viz: 

Resolved that the selectmen of the town of Lebanon be authorized and 
directed to pay to the families of the nine months volunteers from this 
town, who may be accepted and serve instead of drafted militia for the 
State of New Hampshire, under the call of the Prest. of the United 
States dated May 4th 1862, for 300,000 drafted malitia the same sums 
per month as are now authorized by law to be paid to families of Volun- 
teers for thvee years or during the war; subject to the same condi- 
tions and limitations in every respect; provided provisions are not 
made by the State, for paying said families the same as volunteers are 
now paid. And the select-men are hereby authorized to borrow money, 
on the credit of the town, for the purpose of carrying out the [pro- 
visions] of this Resolution, and the votes heretofore passed. 

At a legal town meeting held on the 15th of August, 1863, 
voted to adopt the following resolutions, viz. : 

Resolved: That the town of Lebanon hereby votes to raise and ap- 
propriate, and the Selectmen are hereby authorized and directed to 
pay as a bounty the sum of three hundred dollars to each of the mem- 
bers of the enrolled malitia of the said town who may be drafted or 
conscripted for the present prospective draft, under the laws of the 
United States to serve in the army of the United States during the ex- 
isting rebellion, or to the substitutes for such conscripts, who shall ac- 
tually enter the service of the United States as aforesaid provided that 
such bounty shall not be paid to any such conscript or substitute, or 
his order, until thirty days after he shall have been duly mustered into 
the service of the United States. 

Resolved: That the Selectmen of the town of Lebanon are hereby 
authorized and directed, to any volunteer from this town, or to any vol- 
unteer from any other town, or place, who has already been in the ser- 
vice of the United States for a term not less than nine months, and who 
can count on the quota required from this town the sum of two hundred 
dollars, in addition to the bounties and pay offered, or which may here- 
after be offered by the United States, the money to be paid after such 
volunteer has been duly mustered into the service of the United States. 

Resolved: That the Selectmen of the town of Lebanon are hereby au- 
thorized and directed to pay [to] every volunteer from this town, or 
to any volunteer from any other town or place, who has not heretofore 
been in the service of the U S. and who can count on the quota required 
from this town the sum of $300.00 as a bounty, payment to be made af- 
ter such volunteer has been duly mustered into the service of the U. S. 


At a legal town meeting held on the 28th of November, 1863, 
voted to adopt the following resolution, viz. : 

Resolved, that the town of Lebanon approve the action of the select- 
men in procuring thirty-three volunteers for said town, that being the 
quota of the town under the last call of the President of the United 
States; and that said selectmen be authorized to borrow and appropri- 
ate, the sum of $147.15, for the purpose of paying for said volunteers, 
according to the arrangement already made by said Selectmen. 

At a legal town meeting held on the 8th of March, 1864 : 

Voted that the town pay to re-enlisted men $200.00, and to all new 
men $100.00 as a bounty; and continue to pay this for all men who can 
count on the quotas of this town till the rebellion is put down. And 
when the government bounty ceases to new recruits, then the * town pay 
$300.00 for all new recruits, to privates and non-commissioned officers 

At a legal town meeting held April 7, 1864 : 

Voted that the town authorize the selectmen to pay a bounty of $200.00 
to re-enlisted veteran volunteers; and to all new recruits a bounty of 
$100.00 and continue to pay this to citizens of Lebanon who can here- 
after be accredited to the town, the number not to exceed 22 men, after 
filling the quota of the last call of two hundred thousand men; and when 
the government bounties cease, to pay to new recruits the sum of $200.00. 
The above bounties to be paid to privates and non-commissioned officers 

At a legal town meeting held August 9, 1864 : 

Voted that the Selectmen be authorized and directed to pay the high- 
est bounty authorized by law to volunteers substitutes and represent- 
ative recruits, drafted men or their assigns, who may be mustered into 
the service of the United States, and be credited to the town of Leb- 
anon, and raise money for that purpose. 

Voted that the Selectmen be requested to use their utmost en- 
deavors to fill the quota of this town, in the most speedy manner and on 
the best terms, and that they be authorized to employ one or more 
agents, and pay all necessary expenses for that purpose. 

Adjourned to the 13th day of August instant. 

Met according to adjournment Aug. 13th 1S64. Voted that the Se- 
lected men be authorized and instructed to fill the quota of this for the 
present call of the President of the United States, for men; and to raise 
sufficient money therefor. 

Voted to adjourn until Saturday next. 



Met according to adjournment and Voted to instruct the Selectmen 
to canvass the town for recruits. 

At a legal town meeting held August 30, 1864 : 

Voted that the Selectmen of the town of Lebanon be authorized to pay- 
to any person, who may for three months previous have been an inhab- 
itant of the town, and shall enlist on the quota of this town and be ac- 
tually mustered into military, navy, or marine service of the United 
States, for one years service the sum of six hundred dollars; for two 
years service the sum of eight hundred dollars, and for three years ser- 
vice the sum of ten hundred dollars, and they are hereby authorized to 
raise money and appropriate the same for that purpose 

Voted that the thanks of this town be presented to Daniel Richardson 
71 years of age, and Benjamin Smith 2<J 73 years of age for pulling in 
representative recruits which are credited to this town. 

Selectmen During the War. 

Win. S. Ela, Solon A. Peck, 0. L. Stearns. 

Solon A. Peck, 0. L. Stearns, Ebenezer Cole. 

Solon A. Peck, 0. L. Stearns, Ebenezer Cole. 

Wm. S. Ela, Ebenezer Cole, Solon A. Peck. 

Solon A. Peck, Ebenezer Cole, J. Warren Cleaveland. 

Robert Ash, Fifth Regiment, Company E; mustered October 
19, 1861; died of disease in Fairfax County, Va., January 16, 
1862, after eight weeks' sickness. He had first typhoid fever, 
then measles, mumps, another fever, ending with camp dysentery. 
The following tribute was paid to his memory by one of his com- 
rades : "He was one of our best boys and a true soldier ; he was 
highly esteemed by all his comrades, and his soldier-like bearing 
had won for him the confidence of his officers. He placed his 
confidence in Him who rules the universe, and was willing to die 


in his country 's cause and be laid where the weary are at rest. ' ' 
Colonel Cross, in announcing his death, thus speaks of him. ' ' As 
I sat by the bedside of that dying boy and saw the tide of life 
slowly ebbing away, and beheld with what bravery and Christian 
fortitude he awaited death, I thought then how, in his humble 
life and death he had set us a glorious example, not only as a 
soldier, but as a man. The heroism of a soldier's life and death 
is not confined to the battlefield. It requires more courage to 
suffer a lingering illness and 'die in hospital' than to meet death 
amid the din of arms. ' ' 

Zenas P. Alden, enlisted Seventh Regiment, Company C ; mus- 
tered November 15, 1861 ; promoted to corporal November 28, 
1863 ; mustered out December 22, 1864. 

John Adams, s., Sixth Regiment, Company G; mustered No- 
vember 21, 1863, three years; deserted at Camp Nelson, Ky., 
January 1, 1864. 

John H. Ansel, Company I, First Cavalry ; mustered one year, 
April 5, 1865 ; mustered out May 6, 1865. 

Albert Aspinwall, Lebanon, mustered September 23, 1864, 
three years ; musician, Second Brigade Band, Tenth Army Corps ; 
mustered out July 4, 1865. 

Lawrence Albach, Lebanon, Third Regiment, Company K; 
mustered November 24, 1863; wounded May 18, 1864; sick July 
20, 1865. 

Charles G. Balch, enlisted in Seventh Regiment, Company C ; 
mustered November 15, 1861; drowned at Beaufort, July 26, 

Capt. Daniel C. Buswell, enlisted in the First Regiment, Min- 
nesota. This, we believe, was the first regiment tendered to the 
government, and Captain Buswell's name the second on the roll 
of his company. He was in the first battle of Bull Run and at 
the siege of Yorktown. He was seized by camp dysentery and 
only saved by the care of E. P. Liscomb, Esq., to whom many a 
soldier is indebted for kindness shown when most needed. He 
returned to Lebanon, his birthplace, to recruit his health. While 
here he was transferred to the Ninth New Hampshire Regiment, 
with a captain 's commission in Company E, which he enlisted at 
Lebanon. No finer company left the state than this. He was in 
the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, under Burnside in 


Kentucky, at Vicksburg and in the campaign for Richmond. On 
the 22d of July, 1864, while on picket duty before Petersburg, 
Va., he was mortally wounded. Died in hospital August 8, 1864. 
His remains were brought to Lebanon and committed to their last 
resting place with abundant honors. 

Joseph Bean, s., Lebanon, Second Regiment, Company H; 
mustered November 11, 1863, three years; died of wounds re- 
ceived in action June 3, 1864. 

Michael Bow, Third Regiment, Company B ; mustered Decem- 
ber 7, 1864, three years ; mustered out July 20, 1865. 

William Banch, Lebanon, s., Third Regiment, Company H; 
mustered November 24, 1863, three years; wounded June 16, 
1864 ; died of wounds July 5, 1864, at Point of Rocks, Va. 

George Borley, Lebanon, Third Regiment, Company K; mus- 
tered November 12, 1863, three years ; supposed to have deserted 
en route to regiment. 

George F. Biathrow, First Cavalry, Company L; mustered 
March 31, 1865, one year ; mustered out May 6, 1865. 

Joshua M. Balch, Heavy Artillery, Company H; mustered 
September 7, 1864, one year; mustered out June 15, 1865. 

Moses T. Brown, Lebanon, Seventh Regiment, Company C ; 
mustered November 25, 1861 ; discharged for disability at Hilton 
Head, S. C, August 25, 1864. 

"William A. Bowen, Lebanon, Second Regiment, United States 
Sharpshooters, Company F; mustered November 26, 1861, mu- 
sician ; mustered out November 26, 1864. 

Bierney Corlis, s., Lebanon, Ninth Regiment, Company E ; 
mustered August 8, 1862, three years; deserted at Concord 
August 23, 1862. 

Bourgoi Joseph, s., Lebanon, Ninth Regiment, Company E ; 
mustered August 8, 1862, three years; deserted at Concord Au- 
gust 23, 1862. 

John Boyd, s., Lebanon, Sixth Regiment, Company G; mus- 
tered November 21, 1863, three years ; deserted at Camp Nelson, 
Ky., January 1, 1864. 

John Beaer, s., Lebanon, Fourth Regiment, Company I ; mus- 
tered November 21, 1863, three years. 

John Blair, s., Lebanon, Fourth Regiment, Company G; mus- 


tered November 21, 1863, three years ; transferred to U. S. Navy 
April 27, 1864. 

John Bawn, s., Sixth Regiment, Company F; mustered June 
11, 1864 ; absent sick since October 1, 1866. 

Charles Bashaw, Heavy Artillery, Company H ; mustered Sep- 
tember 3, 1864, one year; discharged for disability at Fort Bay- 
ard, D. C, March 25, 1865. 

Thelesphor Bernard, Lebanon, Heavy Artillery, Company M; 
mustered February 16, 1865, one year; mustered out June 9, 

Joseph Bernard, Heavy Artillery, Company M ; mustered Feb- 
ruary 16, 1865, one year; mustered out June 9, 1865. 

Charles Brown, insurgent states; mustered August 6, 1864, 
U. S. Sharpshooters, Company F, three years. 

Elbridge Brown, insurgent states; mustered August 30, 1864, 
three years. 

William Blufflah, insurgent states; mustered August 19, 1864. 

W. J. Barron, Navy ; mustered September 21, 1864. 

, Navy ; mustered September 21, 1864, three 


Henry Barns, mustered October 27, 1863, three years. 

William Bennett, mustered November 4, 1863, three years. 

John Bergeron, mustered August 10, 1864, three years. 

Henry Banks, mustered August 10, 1864, three years. 

Thomas Brown, Lebanon, Fifteenth Regiment, Company H; 
mustered October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 13, 1863. 

Luman F. Brooks, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A ; 
mustered October 16, 1862; first sergeant; mustered out August 
20, 1863 ; commissioned chaplain in the Third Regiment of In- 
fantry, Corps d'Afrique, September 20, 1863; stationed in Lou- 
isiana; promoted major October 5, 1864; discharged November 
25, 1864. 

Hobart E. Bliss, Lebanon, Sixth Vermont Regiment, Company 
D ; mustered October 2, 1861 ; severely wounded through the 
body May 5, 1863, at Fredericksburg, Va. ; transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps, Sixth Regiment, Company A ; sergeant ; dis- 
charged Oct. 25, 1864. 

Harvey A. Bean, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; mus- 
tered October 12, 1861 ; wounded at Fair Oaks June 3, 1864, and 




at Cold Harbor, Va. ; mustered out October 29, 1864; died at 
Lebanon June 16, 1875, the eve of the one hundredth anniver- 
sary of the battle of Bunker Hill. 

Orville Barker, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; 
mustered October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

John Benois or Beniro, Fourth Eegiment, Company I; mus- 
tered November 21, 1863. 

"William Bennett, unknown. 

Henry Burns, unknown. 

John Barron, Lebanon, Sixth Regiment, Company B ; mustered 
January 10, 1864. 

Herman Bigman, s., Third Regiment, Company K, Lebanon; 
mustered November 24, 1863; captured August 17, 1864; pa- 
roled October 7, 1864; deserted. 

Robert Barrell, Lebanon, Fourth Regiment, Company E ; mus- 
tered October 6, 1863 ; transferred to Navy April 27, 1864. 

Simon Baslow, s., Fourth Regiment, Company B ; date of mus- 
ter unknown; died of disease February 17, 1864, at Morris 
Island, S. C. 

Edward D. Comings, Lebanon, First Regiment, Company K; 
mustered May 7, 1861, three months; mustered out August 9, 
1861 ; re-enlisted in Sixteenth Regiment, Company E ; mustered 
October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

Blanchard Clifford, First Regiment, Company K; mustered 
May 7, 1861, three months ; mustered out August 20, 1861. 

Norman D. Corser, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C; 
mustered October 12, 1861; re-enlisted March 29, 1864; pro- 
moted sergeant; wounded June 3, 1864; mustered out June 28, 

Thomas W. Cross, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C; 
mustered October 12, 1861; discharged for disability November 
14, 1862 ; re-enlisted. 

Dennis W. Cross, Lebanon, Fifteenth Regiment, Company H; 
mustered October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 13, 1863. 

Harvey H. Carter, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company 
F ; mustered October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

Edwin Chandler, Lebanon, corporal, Sixteenth Regiment, Com- 
pany A ; mustered October 16, 1862, nine months ; mustered out 
August 20, 1863. 


James Cornell, Fourth Regiment, Company C, s. ; mustered 
November 14, 1863 ; deserted at White House, Va., June 3, 1864. 

George Chapman, s. d., Lebanon, Third Regiment, Company 
C ; mustered October 12, 1863 ; captured at Laurel Hill, Va., 
October 7, 1864; died at Salisbury, N. C, November 29, 1864. 

Charles Cooper, s. d., Seventh Regiment, Company A; mus- 
tered October 31, 1863 ; deserted to the enemy June 1, 1864. 

Charles Campbell, s. d-, Seventh Regiment, Company C ; mus- 
tered October 19, 1863 ; deserted to the enemy at Bermuda Hun- 
dred, Va., August 25, 1864. 

Edward A. Cotting, corporal, Lebanon, Heavy Artillery, Com- 
pany B ; mustered August 31, 1863 ; mustered out September 11, 

"William Coffee, Norwich, Vt., Third Regiment, Company A; 
mustered August 22, 1861 ; promoted corporal July 20, 1862 ; 
sergeant, January 21, 1864; reenlisted February 14, 1864; re- 
duced to ranks November 20; promoted to sergeant March 1, 
1865 ; mustered out July 20, 1865. 

Clarendon A. Cochran, Lebanon, Eighteenth Regiment, Com- 
pany B ; mustered September 13, 1864 ; wounded April 2, 1865 ; 
mustered out June 8, 1865. 

Henry N. Colston, Fourth Regiment, Company F ; March 29, 
1862 ; discharged for disability May 9, 1863. 

Byron C. Cheney, First Cavalry, Troop A; mustered March 
26, 1864 ; promoted sergeant May 1, 1864 ; mustered out July 15, 

Peter Carpenter, First Cavalry, Troop C ; mustered April 9, 
1864; discharged for disability August 5, 1865. 

Eugene T. Chase, First Cavalry, Troop G ; mustered March 28, 
1865 ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Charles Cross, First Cavalry, Troop L; mustered March 23, 
1865, one year; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Reuben T. Cross, First Cavalry, Troop L ; mustered March 24, 
1865, one year; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Morris Catrick, Fifth Regiment, Company A; mustered No- 
vember 24, 1863 ; transferred to U. S. Navy April 26, 1864. 

Ethan A. Dickenson, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C; 
mustered October 12, 1861 ; he was wounded at Fair Oaks, Va., 
June 1, 1862 ; died September 5, 1862. 


Ferdinand Davis, Lebanon, Seventh Eegiment, Company D ; 
commissioned first lieutenant October 27, 1863 ; severely wounded 
February 20, 1864; mustered out December 22, 1864. 

Peter Demas, Third Regiment, Company B ; mustered Novem- 
ber 25, 1863, three years; mustered out July 20, 1865. 

Daniel C. Dacy, First Regiment, Company K; mustered May 
7, 1861; mustered out August 9, 1861; reenlisted October 16, 
1862, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; corporal; volunteered 
form storming party at Port Hudson; mustered out August 20, 

Mahlon E. Davis, Lebanon, Seventh Regiment, Company C; 
mustered November 15, 1861 ; promoted captain First S. C. Vol- 
unteers, June 5, 1863. 

Joseph Demosh, Fifth Regiment, Company E ; mustered Oc- 
tober 19, 1861 ; discharged December 3, 1862, for disability. 

Jason A. Daniels, Lebanon, Ninth Regiment, Company E ; 
mustered August 6, 1862; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Jeremiah Driscoll, First Cavalry; mustered April 4, 1865, three 
years; mustered out May 6, 1865. 

Morris Digo, insurgent states, U. S. Sharpshooters, August 7, 

David Durgin, s., unknown ; mustered August 10, 1864, three 

Solon M. Davis, Lebanon, Second United States Sharpshooters ; 
date of muster unknown; transferred to Fifth Regiment Jan- 
uary 30, 1865. 

John W. Dewey, Sixteenth Regiment, Company F, Iowa Volun- 
teers; instantly killed near Atlanta, Ga., July 7, 1864; he was 
quartermaster sergeant and had many warm friends in the 

Charles H. Emerson, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company 
A; mustered October 16, 1862; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

George H. Emerson, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company 
wagoner; mustered October 16, 1862; mustered out August 20, 

James Emerson, Fourth Regiment ; mustered October 19, 1863 ; 
deserted at White House, Va., June 1, 1864. 

George W. Emmons, Lebanon, Company G, Third Regiment; 


commissioned first lieutenant August 22, 1861; promoted cap- 
tain Company G, April 2, 1862 ; resigned September 18, 1863. 

John Evans, s. d., Fourth Regiment, Company H; mustered 
October 17, 1863 ; mustered out August 3, 1865. 

George Edmonds, s. d., Seventh Regiment, Company C; mus- 
tered October 30, 1863, three years; supposed to have deserted. 

Charles Elmer, Lebanon, Eighteenth Regiment, Company B; 
mustered September 13, 1864; died of disease at "Washington, 
D. C, April 5, 1865; interred in National Cemetery, Arlington, 

A-mos Elms. 

Daniel Eldredge, Third Regiment, Company K; mustered 
August 24, 1861 ; promoted corporal May 3, 1863 ; sergeant, July 
1, 1863 ; commissioned second lieutenant January 7, 1864 ; first 
lieutenant, July 7, 1864; wounded severely August 16, 1864; de- 
clined captain January 20, 1865 ; honorably discharged June 22, 
1865, to accept appointment V. R. C. 

Alonzo S. Elkins, Lebanon, Fourth Regiment, Company F ; 
date of muster April 7, 1862; died of disease at Folly Island, 
S. C, July 6, 1863. 

Henry Ellis, Thirty-third Regiment, Massachusetts Volun- 
teers; sergeant; he was with Sherman in his famous march to 
the sea; wounded at Bentonville March 21, 1865, and died in 
hospital April 13, 1865. 

John S. Flanders, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C; 
mustered October 12, 1861 ; reenlisted January 1, 1864 ; wounded 
June 3, 1864; promoted to sergeant January 14, 1864; mustered 
out June 28, 1865. 

Albert W. Fogg, Lebanon, Ninth Regiment, Company E ; mus- 
tered August 13, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, 
October 30, 1863. 

Elisha H. Ford, Third Regiment, Company H; mustered Sep- 
tember 9, 1862, three years; mustered out June 22, 1865. 

John Farrell, s., Third Regiment, Company C; mustered No- 
vember 20, 1863; wounded August 16, 1864; mustered out July 
20, 1865. 

Thomas Flynn, Eighth Regiment, Company C; mustered De- 
cember 31, 1861 ; promoted corporal December 1, 1862 ; reen- 
listed, First Cavalry, Company I; mustered April 4, 1865; died 



at Lebanon April 12, 1871. He was every inch a brave and true 
soldier, participating- in all the marches and battles of the Eighth, 
one of the best regiments of the state. He lived to partake of 
the fruits of his toil. 

Julian Fox, s. d., Fifth Regiment, Company K ; mustered Oc- 
tober 5, 1863; discharged for disability February 18, 1864. 

Frank P. Flynn enlisted Company E, First Vermont Cavalry, 
October 11, 1861 ; credited to Pomfret, Vt. ; after being captured 
and paroled, re-enlisted December 28, 1863, Company K, First 
New Hampshire Volunteer Cavalry ; mustered out July 15, 1865, 
as first lieutenant and breveted captain. 

William F. Gould, Lebanon, Second United States Sharp- 
shooters, Company F; mustered November 26, 1861; reenlisted 
December 21, 1863 ; transferred to Fifth Regiment January 30, 
1865 ; mustered out June 28, 1865. 

Lucian Gilatt, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company G; mus- 
tered October 12, 1861 ; mustered out October 29, 1864. 

Horace P. Griswold, Fourth Regiment, Company H ; mustered 
September 18, 1861; promoted to corporal; discharged for dis- 
ability July 14, 1863; wounded. 

Ira H. Gates, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; mustered October 
12, 1861 ; wagoner ; mustered out October 21, 1864. 

George H. Greeley, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C; 
mustered October 12, 1861; promoted sergeant; wounded at 
Fredericksburg, Va., December 18, 1862; was last seen in the 
city. His grave is unknown. 

Alexander Griffith, Lebanon, Fourth Regiment, Company E ; 
mustered August 13, 1862; wounded December 13, 1862; de- 
serted February, 1863. 

Story H. Gates, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; 
mustered October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 20, 1863 ; re- 
enlisted, First Regiment Cavalry; mustered March 10, 1864; 
promoted to sergeant May 1, 1864; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Truman N. Gray, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A ; mustered 
October 16, 1862; discharged at New York City. 

Roswell P. Griffin, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A ; mustered 
October 16, 1862; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

Henry Gray, s. d., Fourth Regiment, Company E ; mustered 
October 19, 1863 ; wounded and captured in action May 16, 



1864; died at Andersonville, Ga., August 22, 1864; grave No. 

Grant Harrison, December 9, 1861, Company B, Sixth Regi- 
ment; deserted on march, April 16, 1863. 

William Hall, First Regiment, Company K; mustered May 7, 
1861 ; mustered out August 9, 1861 ; reenlisted in Seventeenth 
United States Infantry, January 16, 1862; mustered out Jan- 
uary 17, 1865. 

Joseph H. Harris, First Regiment, Company K; mustered 
May 7, 1861; mustered out August 9, 1861. Reenlisted Fifth 
Regiment, Company C, September 17, 1862; discharged for dis- 
ability June 8, 1863. 

"William Henry Hoffman, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company 
C ; mustered October 12, 1861 ; badly wounded in the shoulder at 
Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862; died in the hospital at Philadelphia, 
Pa., June 25, 1862 ; strongly attached to his comrades and a good 

John C. Hoffman, Lebanon, Second United States Sharpshoot- 
ers, Company F ; mustered November 26, 1861 ; deserted Decem- 
ber 2, 1861. 

James H. Hildreth, Lebanon, Second United States Sharp- 
shooters, Company F; commissioned first lieutenant September 
19, 1861 ; resigned August, 1863. 

Charles A. Hale, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; mus- 
tered October 12, 1861 ; corporal ; promoted sergeant-major, Feb- 
ruary 8, 1863 ; promoted second lieutenant, Company H, March 
1, 1863; promoted first lieutenant, Company B, July 2, 1863; 
captain, Company F, January 3, 1865; mustered out June 28, 

George P. Hoyt, Seventh Regiment, Company C; mustered 
November 29, 1861 ; died of disease at Laurel Hill, Va., Decem- 
ber 2, 1864. 

John L. Hazetine, Lebanon, Third Regiment, Company K; 
mustered August 24, 1861 ; among the first to come to the de- 
fence of his country, bearing a good reputation as a soldier; 
died December 9, 1861, at Hilton Head. 

Willis B. Hough, Sixth Regiment, Company B, Vermont Vol- 
unteers; enlisted October, 1861; died of disease at Newport 
News, Va., where his remains rest. 


Jerome B. House, Seventh Regiment, Company C ; commis- 
sioned first lieutenant November 6, 1861; promoted to captain 
April 29, 1862 ; mortally wounded in an assault on Fort Wayne, 
July 18, 1863. The wound was in the thigh joint and the bullet 
could not be extracted. He was brought home and after severe 
suffering, borne with a soldier's fortitude and a Christian's res- 
ignation, he departed for a better country October 7, 1863. A 
brave and faithful officer, an upright man. 

William Hanneganj Fifth Regiment, Company C ; mustered 
October 12, 1861 ; discharged for disability March 27, 1863. 

Elias F. Holt, Lebanon, First Battalion Cavalry; mustered 
December 17, 1861; saddler; promoted regimental saddler ser- 
geant, September 1, 1862 ; not officially accounted for. 

Charles M. Holt, s., Third Regiment, Company B; mustered 
November 20, 1863; deserted at Staten Island, N. Y., November 
8, 1864. 

Moses T. Hale, Eighteenth Regiment, Company B; mustered 
September 13, 1864 ; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Leonard Hadley, First Regiment Cavalry, Troop A; mustered 
March 23, 1864; appointed wagoner; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Thomas Hynes, s., Heavy Artillery; mustered December 22, 
1864; deserted en route to regiment. 

Thomas Harrington, s., Heavy Artillery, Company M; mus- 
tered December 22, 1864. 

Abiel C. Hurlburt, United States Navy; mustered September 
7, 1864. 

Albert Hemmingway, s. ; mustered August 10, 1864 ; branch 
of service unknown. 

Joseph D. Hawkins, First Cavalry, Troop C ; mustered April 
5, 1864; discharged for disability at Concord, N. H., October 
18, 1864. 

George M. Harris, First Regiment Cavalry, Troop C; mus- 
tered April 20, 1864 ; transferred to Troop M, April 20 ; died of 
disease at City Point, Va., August 6, 1864. 

Edward D. Howe, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; mus- 
tered October 12, 1861; corporal; mortally wounded at White 
Oak Swamp, Va., June 27, 1862. Corporal Howe though young 
was a good soldier, ever ready to do his duty without complaint. 
Modest, quiet, he was beloved by both officers and comrades. The 


company was lying' on the ground in front of the enemy when a 
cannon ball struck Corporal Howe in the right thigh, nearly sev- 
ering the limb from the body. Rising again, it took off his left 
hand. Strict orders had been given that no one should leave the 
ranks to remove the wounded. Captain Randlett, seeing his 
peril, buckled a strap around the limb, hoping to stop the flow 
of blood. He was finally carried to a field hospital where every- 
thing was done to save his life. The army falling back, the 
wounded fell into the hands of the enemy. Nothing more is 
known of his fate. His remains rest in an unknown grave, but 
his memory is kept alive. 

John S. Hebbard, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company E ; mus- 
tered October 19, 1861; sergeant; discharged for disability at 
Fortress Monroe, January 17, 1863. 

Charles Hill, s., Fourth Regiment, Company C ; mustered No- 
vember 14, 1863 ; died of disease August 16, 1864. 

Patrick Hogan, s., Third Regiment, Company D, mustered 
November 17, 1863 ; discharged by order July 12, 1865. 

Henry P. Hyde, Lebanon, enlisted in Company B, First Ver- 
mont Volunteers, for three months; reenlisted in Company C, 
Seventeenth United States Infantry; stationed at West Lebanon 
as recruiting sergeant ; afterwards at Fort Preble, Me. ; took the 
field and was killed in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 9, 1864. 
He was the first man to enlist from Lebanon. In every position 
he was found faithful and efficient. He had been promoted to 
be second lieutenant when he died. 

William H. Ingalls, Eighteenth Regiment, Company G ; mus- 
tered December 28, 1864 ; promoted to corporal May 29, 1865 ; 
reduced to ranks June 19, 1865 ; mustered out July 29, 1865. 

Calvin Johnson, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; mustered No- 
vember 21, 1863 ; supposed to have deserted en route to regiment. 

Edward Jones, s., Third Regiment, Company I ; mustered No- 
vember 24, 1863 ; wounded severely May 18, 1865 ; absent sick 
July 20, 1865. 

Lewis Jordan, Lebanon, Seventh Regiment, Company C ; mus- 
tered Nov. 15, 1861 ; reenlisted February 27, 1864. 

Marcellus Jenks, First Cavalry, Troop K ; mustered March 22, 
1865, three years; mustered out July 15, 1865. 


Beb. Javaw, Third Regiment, Company G; mustered Novem- 
ber 20, 1863 ; deserted at New York, January 20, 1865. 

George W. Jackson, Third Regiment, Company K; mustered 
October 10, 1863 ; deserted Staten Island, N. Y., November 8, 

George B. Kempton, Lebanon, enlisted July 14, 1862, Ninth 
Regiment, Company E ; died of disease, Falmouth, Va., February 
7, 1863. 

Alonzo Kellam, Third Regiment, Company H; mustered Sep- 
tember 6, 1862; killed at Drury's Bluff, Va., May 16, 1864. 

George W. Kelley, Lebanon ; mustered October 16, 1862 ; Com- 
pany A, Sixteenth Regiment; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

Harvey B. Kimball, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company 
A; mustered October 16, 1862; corporal; mustered out August 
20, 1863. 

Rufus Knapp, s., Fourth Regiment, Company H ; mustered 
November 23, 1863; taken prisoner May 16, 1864; exchanged 
August 16/1864. 

Lewis Kerriger, s., Eighth Regiment, Company D ; mustered 
November 5, 1863 ; killed at Sabine Cross Roads, La., February, 

John Kelley, s., Fifth Regiment; mustered October 22, 1863; 
deserted at Point Lookout, Md., November 17, 1863. 

William Krafts, Third Regiment, Company K; mustered De- 
cember 12, 1864 ; sick at Wilmington July 20, 1865 ; no discharge. 

Lewis Kershett ; not traced. 

Henry T. Latham, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company G; 
mustered October 12, 1861 ; musician ; discharged September 6, 
1862, for disability ; reenlisted September 7, 1863. 

Charles F. Liscomb, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C; 
mustered October 12, 1861 ; corporal ; promoted to sergeant- 
major September 10, 1862; promoted second lieutenant October 
1, 1862; promoted first lieutenant December 19, 1862, Company 
A. Lieutenant Liscomb was the first man to enlist in Company 
C. He was slightly wounded at Antietam. His promotion to 
first lieutenant was for bravery at Fredericksburg, Va. He was 
in all the battles of the "Fighting Fifth," except that of Chan- 
cellorsville. He never shrank from any duty, however arduous ; 
always brave and encouraging others by his coolness in danger. 


At the battle of Gettysburg, Lieutenant Liscomb commanded 
Company A. They went into action with twenty-three men ; at 
the roll-call after the battle, three men only answered to their 
names. He was the first to discover and report the retreat of 
the rebel army. Being on picket duty at night after the last 
day's fight, the absence of any noise in the enemy's picket lines 
awakened suspicion that they might have retreated. To make 
sure of the fact, the lieutenant cautiously crawled through the 
underbrush, armed only with a stout stick, to the rifle-pits of 
the enemy ; searching right and left, he found them deserted and 
at once reported the retreat. He died at Point Lookout, Md., 
January 6, 1864. 

Charles E. Lane, Lebanon, Seventh Regiment, Company C; 
mustered November 15, 1861 ; discharged for disability June 26, 
1862 ; died May 10, 1863. 

Andrew J. Lane, Lebanon, Seventh Regiment, Company C; 
mustered November 15, 1861; promoted sergeant; promoted to 
second lieutenant April 29, 1862; killed at Fort Wagner, July 
18, 1863. Brave, faithful, prompt to every duty, somewhere he 
fills the grave of a Christian soldier. 

Levi A. Leighton, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; mus- 
tered October 12, 1861 ; sergeant ; killed in action at Fair Oaks, 
Va., June 1, 1862. A good soldier. 

Isaac Loungeverns, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C; 
mustered October 12, 1861; died. 

Homer Lawton entered the navy as a seaman in November, 
1861. He served in the ships Lodona and De Soto. On the 2d 
of September, 1863, he volunteered with others to storm Fort 
Sumter, where he received a slight wound. The entire party 
were captured and sent to Andersonville prison, where he died. 

Tennaus Lagaeys, Third Regiment, Company E; mustered 
November 12, 1863; killed at Drury's Bluff, May 13, 1864. 

John Lovett, s., Fourth Regiment, Company E ; mustered Oc- 
tober 19, 1863; wounded August 16, 1864; deserted while on 
furlough November, 1864. 

John Lennox, s. d., Seventh Regiment, Company D ; mustered 
October 26, 1863 ; wounded slightly February 20, 1864 ; deserted 
at Jacksonville, Fla., April 14, 1864. 


John Leonard, s., Sixth Regiment, Company D ; mustered June 
2, 1864; reported deserter. 

Niles Ladegard, s., Third Regiment, Company E ; mustered 
December 13, 1864 ; mustered out June 15, 1865. 

John Lamonette, First Cavalry, Troop A ; mustered March 10, 
1864; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Maj. Solon A. Lathrop, a native of Lebanon, though not a 
resident here at the time of the war, enlisted in the regular army 
about the time of Lincoln's inauguration; was immediately pro- 
moted to captain ; was variously employed on guard and staff 
duty; died at Victoria, Texas, October 7, 1867. An intelligent 
and trustworthy soldier. His remains rest at Buffalo, N. Y. 

Henry Miller, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; 
mustered October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 20, 1863 ; died 
Northwood May 19, 1886. 

Webster I. Martin, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A ; 
mustered October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

Albert Miller, Lebanon, Tenth Regiment; mustered October 
16, 1862 ; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

William S. Moses, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A ; 
mustered October 16, 1862; musician; mustered out August 20, 

Albert Meyer, s., Second Regiment, Company K; mustered 
November 11, 1863 ; promoted to corporal May 1, 1865 ; mustered 
out December 19, 1865. 

John McKay, s., Third Regiment, Company B ; mustered Sep- 
tember 29, 1863 ; deserted at Jacksonville, Fla., April, 1864. 

Frank Mercelle, Third Regiment, Company F ; mustered No- 
vember 20, 1863 ; wounded slightly May 18, 1864 ; absent since 
June 17, 1864; no discharge furnished. 

Victor Manuel, s., Fifth Regiment, Company K ; mustered No- 
vember 24, 1863; transferred to United States Navy, April 26, 

J. Martin McAvoy, s., Fourth Regiment, Company C; mus- 
tered October 19, 1863 ; discharged for disability at Beaufort, 
S. C, February 20, 1864. 

Jackson Murray, Eighteenth Regiment, Company G ; mustered 
December 10, 1864 ; mustered out July 29, 1865. 


Thomas J. McGinniss, Eighteenth Regiment, Company G ; mus- 
tered out July 29, 1865. 

David M. Moody, Lebanon, Fourth Regiment, Company D ; 
date of muster April 4, 1862; discharged for disability July 15, 
1863, at Folly Island, S. C. 

Robert Miller, Seventh Regiment, Company C ; mustered De- 
cember 25, 1861; reenlisted February 27, 1864; died at Lebanon 
July 24, 1871. A good and faithful soldier. 

H. D. Moore, Lebanon, United States Sharpshooters, Company 
F ; mustered November 26, 1861 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve 

Thomas Manchester, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; mus- 
tered October 16, 1862; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

Heman L. Maynard, Lebanon, First Regiment, Company K; 
mustered May 7, 1861 ; mustered out August 9, 1861 ; reenlisted, 
Seventh Regiment, Company C. ; mustered November 15, 1861 ; 
wounded February 20, 1864; discharged at St. Joseph's Hospital, 
New York, September 17, 1864; died March 14, 1872, at Sol- 
diers' Home, Hampton, Va. 

William Miller, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; mustered Oc- 
tober 12, 1861 ; died May 3, 1862, at Ship Point, Va, 

Harrison G. Mann, Lebanon, Seventh Regiment, Company C ; 
mustered November 15, 1861 ; promoted corporal ; wounded and 
captured June 16, 1864, after which no more was heard of him. 

Carlos H. Miller, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; Heavy 
Artillery, Company M ; mustered February 16, 1865 ; mustered 
out June 9. 1865. 

Henry Moody, insurgent states; mustered August 6, 1864, 
three years; service unknown. 

John McKay, s., Third Regiment, Company K; mustered No- 
vember 12, 1863 ; mustered out July 20, 1865. 

Patrick Martin, s. d. ; mustered October 27, 1863 ; branch of 
service unknown. 

Henry C. Norton, First Regiment, Company K ; mustered May 
2, 1861 ; mustered out August 9, 1861. 

Albert B. Nye, Fifteenth Regiment, Company H ; mustered 
October 16, 1862 ; sergeant ; mustered out August 13, 1863. 

Franklin Norton, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A ; mustered 
October 16, 1862. After going through the campaign with his 


regiment in Louisiana, died on his way home, at Mound City, 111., 
August 18, 1863. 

Alfred Neugerman, s., Fourth Kegiment, Company I ; mustered 
November 21, 1863 ; mustered out August 23, 1865. 

Patrick 'Connell, Tenth Regiment, Company F ; mustered 
September 1, 1862; discharged for disability. 

Thomas 'Shaughnessy, s., Fourth Regiment, Company F; 
mustered November 11, 1863 ; discharged for disability at Fort- 
ress Monroe, Va., July 19, 1864. 

George E. Percival, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; 
mustered October 12, 1861. The same shot which wounded Cor- 
poral Howe at White Oak Swamp, Va., June 30, 1862, took off 
the right arm of Percival. He fell into the hands of the enemy 
and was heard of no more. 

Joseph Peepot, s., Second Regiment, Company K; mustered 
November 11, 1863; absent sick since October 1, 1864; no dis- 
charge furnished. 

Nelson S. Preston, Sixth Regiment, Company D ; mustered 
August 30, 1862 ; promoted to corporal ; mustered out June 3, 

Joseph Peterson, s.. Sixth Regiment, Company B ; mustered 
November 21, 1863; deserted at Camp Nelson, Ky., December 23, 

Lewis Phillips, s., Sixth Regiment, Company G; mustered June 
10. 1864 ; supposed to have deserted en route to regiment. 

Hiram B. Philbrick, Fifteenth Regiment, Company H; mus- 
tered December 11, 1862; sergeant; promoted first sergeant; mus- 
tered out August 13, 1863. 

Frank Parent, First Cavalry, Troop A; mustered March 10, 
1864 ; taken prisoner November 12, 1864, in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley; confined at Andersonville, where he died of destitution. A 
brave and faithful soldier. 

Marcellus Parker, First Cavalry, Troop L; mustered April 7, 
1865 ; mustered out May 6, 1865. 

George C. Perkins, Lebanon; mustered in Vermont; musician, 
Post Band, Tenth Army Corps, Hilton Head, February 13, 1863 ; 
mustered out July 4, 1865. 

James B. Perry, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; commissioned 
captain, October 12, 1861. While rallying his company before 


Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, with the colors in his hand, 
the color-bearer having been killed, he received a minie ball in 
his shoulder, which penetrated towards the heart. The wound 
was # immediately mortal. Captain Perry was an upright man, 
temperate, and a genial companion. He was one of the first to 
see the necessity of and persistently advocated the justice of 

Nathan H. Eandlett, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; commis- 
sioned first lieutenant, October 12, 1861; promoted to captain, 
September 8, 1862 ; severely wounded at the battle of Antietam, 
September 17, 1862; discharged May 3, 1863; entered Veteran 
Reserve Corps, 1863, captain; Texas Bureau, Abandoned Land, 
Refugees and Freedmen ; discharged December 31, 1868. 

James Richardson, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A ; mustered 
October 16, 1862; mustered out August 20, 1863; reenlisted, 
Eighteenth Regiment, Company B, September 13, 1864; ser- 
geant; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Silas J. Richardson, Lebanon, Eighteenth Regiment, Company 
B; mustered September 13, 1864; detailed drummer; mustered 
out June 10, 1865. 

Edward Redding, insurgent states, United States Sharpshoot- 
ers, Company F ; mustered August 6, 1864. 

James M. Sisco, First Cavalry, Company K; mustered March 
22, 1865 ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

William H. Sampson, corporal, Heavy Artillery, Company H ; 
mustered September 13, 1864; reduced to ranks December 19, 
1864; mustered out June 15, 1865. 

Charles C. Seavey, Lebanon, First Regiment, Company K; 
mustered May 7, 1861 ; mustered out August 9, 1861 ; reenlisted, 
Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; sergeant; mustered October 
16, 1862; mustered out August 20, 1863. 

Thomas J. Scribner, Lebanon, Seventh Regiment, Company C ; 
mustered November 15, 1861 ; discharged for disability August 
15, 1862. 

William H. Sanborn, Eighteenth Regiment, Company B ; mus- 
tered September 13, 1864 ; discharged June, 1865. 

Justus Sargent, enlisted in the band of the Fourth Vermont 
Regiment, September, 1861. 

William A. Seavey. Lebanon, Sixth Regiment, Company A; 



mustered November 27, 1861 ; discharged at Newport News, Va., 
March 7, 1863. 

Ezekiel Seynor, s., mustered August 20, 1864; branch of ser- 
vice unknown. 

Alexander Sanborn, s., mustered August 22, 1864; branch of 
service unknown. 

John Smathenes, s., United States Sharpshooters, Company F ; 
mustered August 8, 1864. 

Alfred Spencer, s. ; mustered August 16, 1864 ; branch of ser- 
vice unknown. 

William F. Strickland, United States Sharpshooters, Company 
F ; mustered December 25, 1863 ; transferred to Fifth Regiment, 
January 30, 1865 ; mustered out June 28, 1865. 

Joseph Sennott, Lebanon, First Regiment, Company K; mus- 
tered May 7, 1861 ; mustered out August 9, 1861. 

Henry H. Smith, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company E ; mus- 
tered October 19, 1861; promoted sergeant; mustered out Octo- 
ber 29, 1864. 

William W. Scott, Lebanon, United States Sharpshooters, Com- 
pany F ; mustered November 26, 1861 ; musician ; promoted ser- 
geant; reenlisted December 22, 1863; discharged June 29, 1865; 
died at Lebanon, July 24, 1871. A good soldier. 

Albert B. Stearns, Lebanon, Ninth Regiment, Company E ; 
mustered August 8, 1862 ; wounded May 26, 1864 ; mustered out 
May, 1865. 

John S. Short, Lebanon, Fifth Regiment, Company C ; mus- 
tered October 12, 1861 ; reenlisted December 31, 1863 ; wounded 
June 3, 1864; mustered out June 28, 1865. 

Thomas J. Sweat, Lebanon, Ninth Regiment, Company E ; 
mustered August 8, 1862 ; died at Paris, Ky., October 2, 1863. 

Orlando Sargent, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; 
mustered October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 20, 1863 ; re- 
enlisted, Heavy Artillery, Company M, February 15, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out June 9, 1865. 

Elias F. Smith, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; 
commissioned November 4, 1862, captain; mustered out August 
20, 1863 ; commissioned captain, Eighteenth Regiment, Company 
B, September 20, 1864; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Joseph Sherman, s., Third Regiment, Company G; mustered 


November 19, 1863; wounded August 16, 1864; absent sick July 
20, 1865 ; no discharge furnished. 

Charles Smith, Seventh Regiment, Company C ; mustered De- 
cember 2, 1864 ; sick at Hampton Roads since January, 1865 ; no 
discharge furnished. 

John Smith, s., Third Regiment, Company C ; mustered No- 
vember 12, 1863 ; deserted at Jacksonville, Fla., April, 1864. 

James Schneider, s., Third Regiment, Company D ; mustered 
October 14, 1863; killed at Drury's Bluff, Va., May 13, 1864. 

James C. Salisbury, s., Fourth Regiment, Company K ; mus- 
tered October 16, 1863 ; captured ; died at Andersonville, Ga., 
August 12, 1864 ; grave No. 5,438. 

Peter Shehan, s., Fourth Regiment, Company F ; mustered 
October 19, 1863 ; mustered out August 23, 1865. 

Alonzo Steele, s., Fourth Regiment, Company E ; mustered 
October 19, 1863; wounded May 16, 1864; deserted at White 
House, Va. 

Rheinhold Schom, s., Seventh Regiment, Company K; mus- 
tered October 30, 1863; promoted to corporal, June 30, 1864; 
mustered out June 30, 1865. 

Henry Spaulding, s. d. ; unknown. 

Paul Steward, s., Second Regiment, Company I ; mustered 
December 6, 1864; deserted at White House, Va., March 24, 1865. 

John M. Thompson, Lebanon ; enlisted Nov. 7, 1861, as private, 
Company E, Seventh Regiment; assigned to First Regiment, 
S. C. Volunteers, Nov. 28, 1862 ; transferred to Thirty-eighth In- 
fantry, U. S. A., as second lieutenant, July, 1866, and to Twenty- 
fourth U. S. Infantry in 1869 ; retired as brigadier-general, 

Edward L. Tascar, Lebanon, Seventh Regiment, Company C; 
mustered November 23, 1861 ; died of disease August 10, 1862, 
at Hilton Head. 

Hiram H. Thomas, Lebanon, Cavalry, Company I ; mustered 
December 17, 1861; blacksmith; reeiilisted January 5, 1864; 
blacksmith ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

George B. Tracy, Lebanon, Ninth Regiment, Company E : 
mustered August 8, 1862; corporal; promoted to sergeant. Ser- 
geant Tracey's enlistment was from the highest principle after 
anxious and prayerful consideration. To the altar of his coun- 


try he brought the highest social virtues and brightened all by 
the virtues of the true soldier. Modest, sincere, trustworthy, 
kind-hearted, he won an honorable name in his company and 
regiment. In a charge May 12, 186-4, he was wounded. Left 
on the field for a time, he was rescued by his companions after 
forty hours of suffering, without care. He died at Washington 
June 6, 1861. 

Kendall H. Thomas, Company A, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regi- 
ment ; mustered October 16, 1862 ; mustered out August 20, 1863 ; 
reenlisted, First Cavalry ; mustered March 26, 1864. 

Peter Thompson, s. d., Fourth Regiment, Company E ; mus- 
tered October 19, 1863 ; transferred to United States Navy, April 
27, 1864. 

Samuel Trevill, s. d., Seventh Regiment, Company H ; mus- 
tered October 26, 1863 ; died of accidental wounds, January 21, 

Robert Thompson, s. d. ; unknown. 

Enos Thompson, s., Second Regiment, Company G; mustered 
December 3, 1864; mustered out December 19, 1865. 

Frank Thomas, Lebanon, First Cavalry, Company L; mus- 
tered January 31, 1865 ; mustered out May 6, 1865. 

James V. Toomy, s., Heavy Artillery, Company B ; mustered 
December 3, 1864; mustered out September 11, 1865. 

Nathaniel Taylor, Heavy Artillery, Company M; mustered 
December 2, 1864 ; deserted en route to regiment. 

Melvin A. Tenny, Lebanon, First Battalion, New Hampshire 
Cavalry, Company I; mustered December 17, 1861; wagoner; 
discharged by order, October 8, 1863. 

John Wilson, s., Third Regiment, Company C ; mustered No- 
vember 20, 1863; wounded May 10, 1864, and October 27, 1864; 
absent sick; no discharge furnished. 

George Winters, s., Fifth Regiment, Company G; mustered 
November 19, 1863; deserted at Point Lookout, December 22, 

James Wilson, s., Fourth Regiment, Company K; mustered 
October 15, 1863 ; promoted to corporal, transferred to United 
States Navy 27th, 1864. 

Henry Williams, s. d., Fourth Regiment, Company H ; mus- 
tered October 17, 1863 ; wounded May 15, 1864. 


Augustus F. "Wright, s. d., Seventh Regiment, Company I; 
mustered October 27, 1863; promoted corporal; wounded Feb- 
ruary 20, 1864, at Olustee and captured. 

James Wood, s. d., Fourth Regiment, Company F; mustered 
October 17, 1863 ; transferred to United States Navy, April 27, 

Corliss C. Wheeler, Company K, First Regiment, May 7, 1861 ; 
reenlisted August 9, 1863, Company B, Fifth Regiment; dis- 
charged for disability December 19, 1863. 

Samuel G. West, s. d., Eighth Regiment, Company G; mustered 
November 3, 1863; deserted at New Orleans, La., August 27, 

George White, s. d., Eighth Regiment, Company C ; mustered 
November 4, 1863 ; deserted at New Orleans, La., March 2, 1864. 

George Wood, Heavy Artillery, Company M; mustered De- 
cember 5, 1864. 

William S. Wood, Lebanon, United States Sharpshooters, Com- 
pany F; mustered February 5, 1864; wounded May 6, 1864; 
transferred to Fifth Regiment, January 30, 1865; mustered out 
June 28, 1865. 

Lewis Young, First Cavalry, Troop A; mustered March 10, 
1864; sick since August 12, 1864; no discharge furnished. 

Lewis Victor, s. d., Eighth Regiment, Company I; mustered 
November 9, 1863 ; deserted at Carrollton, La., July 10, 1864. 

William H. H. Wilson, s. ; mustered August 27, 1864; branch 
of service unknown. 

Corliss C. Wheeler, Lebanon, First Regiment, Company K; 
mustered May 7, 1861 ; mustered out August 9, 1861 ; reenlisted 
Fifth Regiment, Company B, August 19, 1863; discharged for 
disability December 19, 1863. 

Simeon Ward, Jr., Lebanon, Eighteenth Regiment, Company 
B ; mustered September 13, 1864 ; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Richard W. Ward, Lebanon, Eighteenth Regiment, Company 
B ; mustered September 13, 1864 ; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Lucius Welch, Lebanon, Eighth Regiment, Company H ; mus- 
tered December 27, 1861; died at Camp Parapet, La., August 
29, 1862. 

Read J. Walker, Lebanon, United States Sharpshooters, Com- 


i— i 









pany F ; mustered November 26, 1861 ; discharged for disability- 
October 14, 1862. 

John "Williams, insurgent states, United States Sharpshooters, 
Company F ; mustered August 6, 1864. 

John H. White, Lebanon, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; 
mustered October 16, 1862 ; died on his way home at Mound City, 
Illinois, August 12, 1863. 

Edwin C. Whittaker, Sixteenth Regiment, Company A; mus- 
tered October 16, 1862 ; died of disease at New Orleans, 1863. 

William Williams, s., Second Regiment, Company H ; mustered 
November 11, 1863; promoted to corporal February 15, 1864; 
promoted to sergeant July 1, 1864; promoted sergeant-major 
May 22, 1865. 

Thomas Williams, s., Third Regiment, Company E ; mustered 
November 25, 1863; wounded slightly May 13, 1864; mustered 
out July 20, 1865. 


Paid to families of Soldiers according to a law of this State for the 

year Ending March 
1862 Paid $609 32 



2188 70 

1830 60 

773 00 

Expences incured in Enrolling Militia &c by order of the 

Expences incured in procuring Soldiers &c. 

Brought forward 




1862 Received of State on a/c of aid to Soldiers families 

tt a ft 

a n 

for Bounties Refunded 

-$8052 95 

$27 75 
$843 29 

8923 99 
62715 00 

$71638 99 


$79388 99 

1327 88 
3300 00 




' U. S. " . 

2046 00 

tt tt t 

' State on a/c of aid to families . 

1915 75 

a tt i 

" for Bounties refunded 

3465 75 


i tt U a tt 

2028 33 

a tt t 

" aid to Soldiers families 

1858 20 


' U. S. Bouuties refunded 

1940 00 

" " ' 

' State on aid to families 

340 00 


' U. S. Bounties refunded 

646 00 


i tt a a tt 

1200 00 


t a a tt tt 

672 00 


1 Reimbursement of war Expenses 

15416 67 


i a it tt tt 

109 00 

a tt t 

* U. S. Bounties Refunded 

143 20 


t tt tt a tt 

128 00 

39063 12 


(As published by the committee in 1861.) 

July 4, 1861, the town of Lebanon was one hundred years old. 
Invitations had been sent to those who had gone from the town to 
return and unite with the people of the town in celebrating the 
day. A large number, considering the state of the country, ac- 
cepted the invitation, and came once more to the place of their 
birth, renewing old acquaintances and reviving many pleasant 
memories of the past. 

If we had been permitted to make our selection from all the 
fair days of the calendar, we could scarcely have suited ourselves 
better. The day was cloudless; abundant rains had insured us 
against dust. Perhaps we should have inserted a few whiffs 
from the North Pole to cool the air a little, but, then, we re- 
membered that the heat was good for the corn, and it served to 
remind us of the endurance of our soldiers at the South and stir 
our sympathy for them. 

The day was ushered in by a salute by thirteen guns, fired by a 
squad of nine cadets from Norwich University, under the com- 
mand of Capt. A. B. Hutchinson. 

These cadets did good service during the day, displayed high 
skill as artillerists, and won respect by their gentlemanly conduct. 

The parade of the Horribles was a pleasant feature of the day. 


The procession was formed at half-past nine, under the direc- 
tion of Capt. E. A. Howe, chief marshal, and his assistants, 
Messrs. Shaw, Noyes and Randlett. Headed by the Lebanon 
Cornet Band and escorted by the Mascoma Engine Company, 
No. 2, and the Franklin Lodge of Masons, they marched around 
the Common to the stand for speaking. 

Exercises on the Stand. 

g. h. lathrop, esq., president of the day. 

The exercises were opened by a fervent prayer by Rev. George 
Storrs, from New York, a native of the town and a descendant 
of one of the early settlers. 

2. Singing by a choir under the direction of Mr. J. M. Per- 
kins, who during the day furnished excellent music. 

3. Historical address by Rev. D. H. Allen, D. D., of Lane 
Seminary, Ohio, a native of the town. 

4. A poem by Rev. C. H. Fay of Providence, R. I., also a na- 
tive of the town. 

5. Reading of the Declaration of Independence by Hon. A. 
H. Cragin. 

6. Oration by Prof. J. W. Patterson of Dartmouth College. 

At the close of the exercises on the stand, the procession re- 
formed and marched to the tent, prepared for the collation. 
When the head of the column reached the place, a slight contre 
temps occurred. The people were ready, but the dinner was not. 
Time, however, soon remedied this. Nearly four hundred and 
fifty took their seats at the tables. Rev. Dr. Lord implored the 
divine blessing. Of this part we have only to say that the good 
old dietetic rule was observed, "to leave off hungry." 

Toasts and Speeches. 
Rev. G. W. Bailey acted as toastmaster. 

1. "Our Centennial Birthday — with all its pleasant and in- 
teresting associations. ' ' 

2. "The Fourth of July, 1761 — Lebanon a houseless wilder- 
ness; 1776 — her noble sons rush to Lexington and Bunker Hill 



to defend her rights; 1861 — the wilderness has budded and blos- 
somed. ' ' 

The third toast was introduced by reading a letter from Bar- 
rett Potter, Esq., a son of the first minister of the town, Rev. 
Isaiah Potter. Mr. Potter is now in his 85th year. He gave at 
the close of his letter the following toast: 

3. "The Early Settlers of Lebanon — Silas Waterman, William 
Dana, Charles Hill, William Downer, Levi Hyde, and Nathaniel 
Porter, the pioneers and first settlers in the town of Lebanon, 
who, with subsequent settlers in 1768, gathered and established 
the first church therein, and 1772 settled Rev. Isaiah Potter, the 
first ordained minister in said town." 

Responded to by Rev. George Storrs, who said: "We have 
come to our native town once more, many of us from a distance. 
We find great changes. We find an improved country, forests 
are cleared away, new homes have sprung up. We find new 
modes of travel, the lightning-like speed of the railroads. It was 
not so with our fathers; they came by forest paths, upon ox- 
sleds, by boats on the river, where civilized foot had never before 
trod. They were superior men. I delight to recall their mem- 
ory. Let the memory of our fathers be blessed; let it dwell in 
our minds. They came not only to plant colonies, not only to 
better their fortunes, but to plant temperance and religion and 
establish churches with their blessed influences. We should be 
deeply grateful to them. We should be deeply grateful to the 
first minister of the town, for his labors and influence. I shall 
never forget a single sentence that fell from his lips. All is held 
fast in my memory. When on one occasion he used the words, 
'0 Ephraim, how shall I give thee up,' they seemed to come to 
me and say, '0 George, how shall I give thee up.' They were 
blessed and fruitful words in me. Honor and success followed 
him. Let his mantle fall upon his successors." 

4. ' ' The Sons of Lebanon, at Home and Abroad. ' ' Responded 
to by Rev. C. H. Fay, who said: 

"I am to speak of the sons absent and present. It is not a 
poetical theme. You will not expect me to speak in rhyme. If 


it had been the daughters of Lebanon, I could not have avoided 
rhyme, so inspiring is such a subject. I have but a slight knowl- 
edge of the absent sons. I have met them occasionally. They 
all seem to be doing well, to bring credit to the place that gave 
them birth. You have a good specimen of them in the orator of 
the day. Of those at home, what shall I say ? The scene before 
me reminds me of the progress we have made in one cardinal 
virtue — Temperance. those old Fourths of July ! With their 
wine and spirits, and women banished from the tables, because 
they were not fit places and scenes for them. But now we find 
wine banished and women admitted. They are far more inspir- 
ing than wine. 

"Let me tell you a story, related to me by one of the fathers, 
showing the advance temperance has made in the town, and how 
they managed in the old times. It was the custom for a neigh- 
borhood to select one of their number to take their produce to 
market, — their butter, cheese, beef, pork, etc. He went 'below' 
(that is to Boston) for the rest. If successful, he was gone about 
a fortnight. He was always commissioned to bring back a cask 
of rum or brandy. On one occasion a number of neighbors were 
assembled in an orchard. It was in the Jefferson campaign — 
they were talking politics. Of course the word 'federalist' oc- 
curred frequently. One said to another, when he had attempted 
to use the word, 'What do you say fetherlist for,- — why don't 
you say f eth-f etherlist ? ' 'Oh, you can't say it yourself. I can 
say fetherlist as well as you. Others tried the word with about 
the same success. After testing themselves by this novel shib- 
boleth, they concluded that they were not quite sober. And now 
I trust that you, their sons, will always be able to say 'federal- 
ist, '• — that none of you will ever be in a condition to say ' fether- 

"Of the sons at home, I conceive that they are much like the 
man's nigh ox. He had a yoke to sell. He praised the off one 
highly, and at great length. Finally the purchaser said, 'Why 
don't you say something of the nigh ox?' '0, he can speak for 
himself.' " 

5. "To those who, not having the good fortune to be born in 
town, have endeavored to retrieve their fortunes by taking a 


wife who was. ' ' Eesponded to by Rev. Dr. Swain of Providence, 
R. I., who said : 

"I am one of the unfortunates not born in Lebanon. I plead 
guilty to the misfortune, to the crime, if it is a crime, of not 
having the wisdom to be born here. But with my folly, I have 
mingled wisdom, for I have taken a wife that 'was.' The 'was' 
is emphatic, 'who was born here.' But I have some pleas to 
offer in extenuation of my misfortune, of my crime, if it was a 
crime. The privileges of a son-in-law are often found to be 
greater than those of a son. My misfortune might have been 
greater, for if I did not have the good fortune to be born in 
Lebanon, I have 'retrieved my fortune by taking a wife who 
was.' I might have had the double misfortune of not being 
born here, or finding 'a wife who was.' So I have mingled good 
with evil, wisdom with folly. In these days of secession, let me 
say: The daughters of Lebanon, 'the cedars of Lebanon,' let 
not wife, nor mother, nor daughter of them all, ever be found a 
se-cedar! Let them love and defend our institutions to the last 
generation. May their posterity equal and surpass their an- 
cestry. ' ' 

6. ' ' The Clergymen of Lebanon. ' ' Responded to by Rev. Mr. 
Case of West Lebanon, who said : 

''This at least merits large notice. The subject is an extensive 
one, for the clergymen were many; it is at least a lofty subject, 
for the first three ministers of the town taken together measured 
some inches over eighteen feet. They were high priests. I men- 
tion it as a significant fact, that the clergymen of Lebanon were 
ever devoted to temperance. Considering the customs of former 
times, it is wonderful that no more ministers fell into intemper- 
ance. The records of another town show that in a population of 
six hundred and forty, forty barrels of rum were used in a year, 
besides other liquors. Every man in old times would think him- 
self wanting in hospitality if he did not place a bottle before the 
minister when he called. Considering their temptations, they 
escaped wonderfully. Of the ministers of Lebanon, it may be 
said of them, that they have ever been loyal. The first of them 
all set a good example to the rest. For when the country was 
struggling for independence, he went out to encourage and com- 


fort her troops as a chaplain. He was a strong man. A little 
story will show this. Passing through the camp one day, he 
saw two men trying to lift a cannon. Taking hold of it alone, 
he easily lifted it to its place. One of the men, in his astonish- 
ment, let slip an oath, when the other silenced him by telling that 
he was a chaplain, when he hastened after him and begged par- 
don for his profanity. 

" It is a significant fact that in the first records of the town we 
trace their anxiety for a ministry among them. It shows the 
love of our fathers for these institutions which have so much to 
do with our prosperity. Lebanon ranks high in the number and 
quality of the ministers she has raised up. About thirty have 
gone forth from her. Among them have been doctors of divinity 
who have made their mark in the world. Others have found and 
filled worthy places in colleges and theological seminaries. One 
is buried in a foreign land, who went forth as a missionary to the 
heathen. Let the next one hundred years equal the past." 

7. "The Lawyers of Lebanon." Lebanon has not been very 
fruitful in this class, and none were found to respond. 

8. "Dr. Phineas Parkhurst and the Physicians of Lebanon." 
Responded to by Dr. Dixi Crosby, who said: 

"Dr. Parkhurst was born in Plainfield, Conn. Early in life he 
removed to Royalton. Like other young men he went a-courting, 
and stayed on one occasion to breakfast. During the meal he saw 
Indians approaching. He immediately went out and caught the 
Narragansett mare, and helping his lady-love and her mother to 
mount, got up behind them and set out for the Connecticut River. 
The Indians followed and fired upon them, wounding Parkhurst, 
the ball passing through from behind and lodging in the skin 
before. He seized it in his fingers and held it till he arrived in 
West Lebanon, when it was extracted by Dr. Hall. This inci- 
dent first turned the thoughts of Parkhurst to the practice of 
medicine. He became an apprentice of Dr. Hall, for so they 
termed students in those days. In due time he began to prac- 
tise, his first case being in a department in which he was after- 
wards very successful — obstetrics. More than three thousand 
received their introduction into the world by him. In due time 


he married — for money it is supposed — the portion of his wife 
consisting of one cow, three cups and three knives. He first 
lived in West Lebanon and knew what it was to be poor — often 
with but two shirts, and one white cravat, to which he was very 
partial, which was washed over night. But success and pros- 
perity came in due season. 

"As a physician Dr. Parkhurst was not learned, but skillful 
by experience. After listening on one occasion to the learned 
talk of some of his brethren, he said : ' I am much gratified with 
all I have heard; I can't talk, but, by Judas, I can practise with 
the best of you!' As a physician he was skillful, prompt, self- 
denying, always ready at call, night or day, in cold or heat. He 
was noted for his unbounded hospitality; the string was ever 
hanging out at his door. He was the father of a large family — 
two sons and nine daughters. He exemplified the great precept 
of religion — beneficence towards his fellow-men. Those who 
have succeeded him have been worthy and skillful members of 
his profession." 

9. "Dartmouth College became the Alma Mater of fifty- four 
sons of Lebanon." Responded to by President Lord of Dart- 
mouth College, who said: 

"A respectable clergyman of Hanover was asked to give a 
short extempore address. He replied that it was impossible ; ' I 
must write everything. Why, if I should find that I had forgot- 
ten to write "Amen" at the close of my sermon, I should faint 
away. ' I am very much like him. Absurd and ridiculous as it 
may appear (pulling out his manuscript), I must resort to my 

"Mr. President, I acknowledge the great courtesy which gives 
me this occasion to commemorate a remarkable fact in the history 
of Lebanon, viz. : That there have been raised up fifty-four 
sturdy men, each of whom was born of two mothers. I am still 
more glad to say that these two prolific mothers are yet in their 
bloom, and their offspring is likely to be indefinitely increased, 
till I know not but they will be sufficient to found a nation ; par- 
ticularly as these remarkable children are all sons who are very 
apt to marry in the family. At least the sisters find Swains 
without going abroad to visit. 


"But, Mr. President, I better like your courtesy, because it 
proves that Lebanon is not disposed to appropriate all the honor 
of sending out into the world such a noble company of educated 
men. The natural mother divides credit with the foster mother. 
This is well, and speaks well — so let it be. What Lebanon has 
brought forth Dartmouth has nourished, to become an ornament 
to both and a blessing to the world. 

"Mr. President, I cannot speak from the book, but I think 
that your good town of Lebanon must have produced a larger 
number of educated men than any other town of our educating 
state. I will not even except the larger commercial, political and 
manufacturing towns. But, however, it must have exceeded 
other towns of the same age and population. She deserves to 
bear the banner, and I trust the banner will be flung here to the 
breeze, at your next centennial, July 4, 1961 — in a time of peace 
and glory, inscribed to learning, wisdom and virtue — the guide 
and safety of the state. Sir, I am aware that every man who 
happens to be born in Lebanon and educated at Dartmouth does 
not thereby necessarily gain for himself, his town, or college, a 
true honor. 

' ' I cannot deem that Lebanon or Dartmouth, or any other town 
or college would choose, in all cases, to recognize the parental 
relation. I remember what happened at a time when I was a 
boy. A young man from a neighboring town was sent to Har- 
vard. No matter what his name — let us call him Simplon. He 
proved to be what students frequently make a subject of their 
good-natured, but sometimes extravagant sport. His father's 
house was on the line of Kittery and York, and that line bi- 
sected it. It was a problem at college in which end of the house 
Simplon was born, and hence some lively classmate gave out the 
following epigram : 

"Kittery and York, 'tis said, 
For Simplon 's birth contest; 
The strife is sharp, and Kittery wins, 
But York comes off the best. ' ' 

"Now it is not my opinion that Lebanon or Dartmouth has 
ever given occasion for quite such pleasantry as this. Or, if it 
were so, I should not choose to speak of it in such a company. I 


have to say what is to better purpose, viz : That your list of 
graduates is one of which any town or college may be proud. It 
were impossible to speak of them now in detail. But they would 
bear the criticism of the world ; from those old schoolmen, dead, 
the Woods and Harrises, who have left a shining mark in the his- 
tory of their times, down to the Mediaeval period of her Young, 
.and the living men so well represented by the honored and be- 
loved orator of the day. Had Lebanon and Dartmouth done no 
more than to send out such a company, that alone would make 
them worthy of record among the true benefactors of mankind. 
Mr. President, we joyfully this day cement the fellowship and 
friendship of Lebanon and Dartmouth. I speak for Dartmouth. 
Send us still your young men and we will nourish them. That 
kind of patronage is not all we want, but it tells most upon the 
world. It is better even than wild lands — though possibly not 
better than would be the confidence and rational patronage of the 
state. But let what will betide, Dartmouth will be for the state, 
and the whole of it ; not for sect or party, but mankind. ' ' 

10. "The Farmers and Mechanics of Lebanon — none better." 
Responded to, in behalf of the farmers, by Daniel Richardson, 
Esq., who said : 

"Now you will see the difference between knowledge and ignor- 
ance" — alluding to the learned gentleman who preceded him. "I 
have been a farmer all my life, and have not had the advantages 
of education. I cannot make a speech. I may say in behalf of 
the farmers, that we are under great obligations to them. They 
have cleared away the forests, subdued the wild soil, and brought 
it into the service of man — made room for these many pleasant 
homes. It is the ambition of farmers to raise the largest ox, the 
best horse, the fattest hog, or largest crop. In old times they 
took pride in one other thing — in raising up the largest and best 
families. Let their posterity imitate them." 

For the mechanics, Mr. L. F. Brooks — one of them — briefly 
responded with a handsome tribute to their skill. 

11. "The President of the United States." In response to 
this toast, Hon. A. H. Cragin spoke as follows : 

'The President of the United States is the legal and consti- 
tutional head of the government. He is the agent of the people 


— the executive of the Constitution and laws, and as such, is en- 
titled to respect. The present Chief Magistrate was elected by a 
constitutional vote, in due form of law, and is therefore as 
justly entitled to administer the government as ever was Wash- 
ington or Jackson. He has his commission from the same au- 
thority, and is alike responsible. He is clothed with all the pow- 
ers conferred by the Constitution, and is under the most solemn 
oath to preserve, protect and defend that Constitution. It is 
manifestly the duty of those whose agent he is, at all times to 
aid the President in the discharge of his proper duties, and to 
strengthen and uphold his hands in support of the government 
which he is called upon to administer. 

"The present occupant of the presidential chair entered upon 
the discharge of his duties under the most extraordinary and try- 
ing circumstances. Dissatisfied with the result of the late presi- 
dential election, a portion of the people in the Southern States, 
regardless of their constitutional obligations, defied the will of 
the majority, and were conspiring to destroy the government. 
They had boldly raised the flag of rebellion and resistance. Men 
were in arms against the government that had so long afforded 
them protection. Treason was doing its work. Forts had been 
captured, arsenals had been plundered of arms and munitions of 
war; national ships had been seized and employed by the insur- 
gents; treasuries and mints with vast sums of money had been 
embezzled and appropriated for the support of rebellion; the 
national flag had been insulted, and the Union pronounced a 
curse. Such was the state of things, and worse than this, when 
Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated President of the United 

"He appealed to the reason and patriotism of the misguided 
people, and by the memories of the past, the hopes of the future, 
and the graves of the patriotic dead, called upon all true citizens 
to rally in support of the Union and the laws of the land. His 
patriotic and paternal appeal was derided by the traitors. The 
government paused, while the work of destroying the Union 
went on. The gallant little band in Fort Sumter, hemmed in by 
a wall of iron batteries, were on the point of starvation. The 
government at the last moment resolved to supply the fort with 
provisions. When this purpose became known, ten thousand 


rebels opened deadly fire upon less than one hundred starving 
defenders of the Union. The fort surrendered, but instantly the 
country was aroused. The war for the Union began. The Presi- 
dent called for 75,000 volunteers, and forthwith they were ready. 
More were called for, and today 300,000 men are under arms for 
the defence of the Union. The spectacle of the uprising of the 
people is truly magnificent. The North is nearly a unit in their 
patriotic efforts to support the President in his determination to 
preserve the Union. Party lines are obliterated and all classes 
vie with each other in their zeal to maintain the government. 
There is but one voice heard, and that is, that the Union 'must 
and shall be preserved. ' 

"This government was formed after great sacrifice, and at a 
very great cost. We have been accustomed to applaud its found- 
ers, as wise and patriotic men, and to cherish the inheritance 
which they left us, as of priceless value. It has already per- 
formed a great mission, but its work is only begun. To the 
union of these States, the nation owes its unprecedented increase 
in population, its surprising development of material resources, 
its rapid augmentation of wealth, its happiness at home and its 
honor abroad. The light of our example has illumined the whole 
earth, and today the hopes of the world for the preservation of 
liberty and free government center in the preservation of this 
Union. God helping us, we will preserve it. 

' ' If this Union perish now, it will be the most stupendous fail- 
ure that the world ever saw; and it must be inferred that our 
national sins have become so great in the eyes of heaven, that God 
can no longer withhold his vengeance. 

' ' Trusting that the same wise Providence which sanctioned the 
work of our fathers in the Revolution, has much to accomplish 
for his own glory and the benefit of mankind through the instru- 
mentality of this government, I believe the Union will be pre- 

"I am inclined to believe that the purposes of God are visible 
in this causeless rebellion. There is no accounting for it from 
the usual motives for human actions. 'Whom the gods destroy 
they first make mad,' is a familiar adage. I accept the fact as 
the manifest work of Providence, and fully believe it portends 
no ultimate evil to our country, or the inalienable rights of man. ' ' 



12. "The Stars and Stripes." "They have floated over our 
cradles — let it be our prayer and our endeavor that they shall 
float over our graves." Song by Messrs. Ingalls and Alden, 
Mrs. Davis and Miss Porter — "Star Spangled Banner." 

13. "The staple products of New England: 

Land — hard to till, and piled with granite gray, 
Men — hard to kill, harder to drive away. ' ' 

Volunteer Toasts. 

By Robert Kimball, Esq. "The memory of Stephen A. 
Douglas. ' ' 

"Brief and eventful was his bold career, 
An iron will, a soul devoid of fear ; 
"Wrong — he perchance has been in time now past ; 
Right — minds like his will surely prove at last." 

"Lebanon and Hartford chartered the same day; settled by 
liberty-loving pioneers from the same town in Connecticut, sit- 
uated side by side in the same charming valley ; may their united 
devotion to the great interests of religion and constitutional free- 
dom be as constant as the flow of the noble river which beautifies 
their banks." Responded to by D. B. Dudley of Hartford, Vt. 

Letters were received from many gentlemen, natives of the 
town, expressing their interest in the celebration, and regretting 
their inability to share in the occasion. From Rev. E. L. Ma- 
goon, of Albany; from Maj. Henry L. Kendrick of West Point, 
offering the following sentiment: "My native town. Her chil- 
dren rise up to do her honor and reverence." From John Potter, 
Esq., of Augusta, Me., with the sentiment: "The land where 
our venerated forefathers sleep, and the cherished birthplace of 
their descendants. Let liberty and union be forever inscribed 
upon her annals, and preserved as a precious inheritance to the 
latest generation by her sons." From Mr. J. A. Durkee, Esq., 
of New York : ' ' The Star-Spangled Banner and the next Centen- 
nial Anniversary. May the rays of the sun which rises on the 
next centennial anniversary, shine upon that banner with its 
stripes unsullied and stars undimmed ; waving over a happy peo- 


pie, bound by no chain but the silken cord of brotherly affection, 
and no bond but peace, no creed but love to God and goodwill to 
men." Also letters from H. R. Stevens, Esq., and William D. 
Ticknor, of Boston, and Capt. James Benton of the U. S. Army. 
At a late hour the company broke up after singing "Old Hun- 

Committee of arrangements: E. P. Liscomb, C. C. Benton, 
John Clough, Rufus Case; Samuel Wood, 2d, William S. Ela, 
Solon A. Peck, selectmen ; Oliver L. Stearns ; Charles A. Downs, 
George W. Bailey, Secretaries. 

Memorial Building. 

The men and women of Lebanon never faltered in times of 
war, and the records of both state and nation give evidence that 
in no place have the people shown greater patriotism. 

When the great struggle for the maintenance of the Union 
was ended, there was early discussion as to what form a fitting 
memorial to the town's heroes should take, it being admitted 
that some lasting monument to the memory of heroic deeds must 
be provided. During the period immediately following the war 
for the Union, memorials took the form of granite or marble 
shafts, as a general rule, and monuments of this type were erected 
by towns and cities throughout the country, and such a monu- 
ment to be erected on the Common (Colburn Park) was talked 
of, and by many considered the most appropriate. 

The first tangible movement towards the erection of a monu- 
ment of any particular kind, was started by Elisha P. Liscomb, 
then postmaster at the center village. Mr. Liscomb had served 
as commissioner to look after the welfare of the soldiers in the 
field, and had himself lost a gallant son at the front, and being 
moreover an ardent patriot, he was aggressive in having public 
sentiment aroused to the point that needed funds would be forth- 
coming. He proposed a metallic or zinc shaft on the common, 
and secured contributions of one dollar each from about one hun- 
dred persons, which sum was afterwards turned over to the 
Memorial Building Fund. It will be observed that the amount 
mentioned was small, which is accounted for from the fact that 
the people generally believed some other memorial would be more 
suitable. While discussion of the subject was carried on inter- 

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mittently for some years following Mr. Liscomb's efforts, the 
matter was not forgotten, and finally crystallized into a well- 
defined plan, suggested by Capt. Nathan H. Randlett and Sergt. 
Jesse E. Dewey, both of whom were literally men of '61 and in 
actual service at the very beginning of the war. These gentle- 
men presented their proposal to have a Memorial Building, to a 
group of their comrades, who had casually met at the postoffice 
in August, 1881. The plan met with the universal endorsement 
of those present, and the following agreement was then and 
there signed: 

Lebanon, N. H., August 25, 1881. 

We, the undersigned, veterans of the late war, earnestly desiring the 
erection of some suitable memorial to perpetuate the memory of volun- 
tary sacrifices, by our Citizen Soldiery, to the grand idea, that govern- 
ments are made for the people, and which may be of benefit not only 
to ourselves, but to our posterity, do hereby agree to give the sum set 
opposite our names, for the erection of a- memorial building, within the 
village of Lebanon, which shall include a Memorial Hall, where may 
be gathered, such relics of the late war, as may be voluntarily contrib- 
uted, and tablets which shall contain the names of those of our com- 
rades who participated with honor in achieving a final victory for the 
Union, and in which shall be a suitable library free to all, under such 
restrictions, as the town of Lebanon or its duly authorized agents may 
from time to time deem it expedient to make. Provided a sum sufficient 
for the erection and completion of said building shall be raised, either 
by subscription or vote of the town. 

N. H. Randlett $20.00 

Ferdinand Davis 20.00 

Alpheus W. Baker 20.00 

Jesse E. Dewey 20.00 

O. W. Baldwin 20.00 

O. J. Muchmore 20.00 

A. W. Shapleigh 20.00 

W. S. Carter 20.00 

The signers of this agreement were all influential citizens, and 
the Memorial Building idea was at once accepted as the solution 
of the long-deferred problem. Young and old at once set out to 
provide ways and means to carry out the project, and it was not 
long before the people were aroused to the needs of the hour, 
albeit there were some who found excuse for declining to help on 


the ground that a monument on the common would cost less to 
maintain ; then it was that the influence and labors of those inter- 
ested in having a public library made their efforts felt, and it 
was clearly shown that something besides a memorial to the sol- 
diers was to be realized by the plans of its projectors. 

A Building Association was organized with the following of- 
ficers : President, Kev. Charles A. Downs ; Vice-President, J. D. 
Hosley; Treasurer, J. E. Dewey; Secretary, A. W. Baker; Board 
of Trustees, A. M. Shaw, D. W. Marston, 0. W. Baldwin, C. B. 
Plastridge, Frank C. Churchill and Ferdinand Davis, and later a 
building committee consisting of Frank C. Churchill, Alpheus 
W. Baker and Ferdinand Davis was chosen. Ferdinand Davis 
was selected as architect, and he presented several plans, the most 
desirable one being reluctantly rejected by the trustees for want 
of funds to carry the same into effect. 

During the early struggles to erect the building no one dared 
hope with the then prevailing sentiment outside the village, that 
the town would appropriate funds towards the building, but this 
was, however, brought about later, and the town voted in all the 
sum of $3,580. The Tenney house and lot on the north side of 
the common was bought for $3,200, and the buildings thereon 
and a part of the land was sold by the trustees for $1,400, so the 
real cost of the lot used for the building was $1,800. 

Were it possible to do so, probably it is not altogether best 
that a full list of donors be published at this time. Many contrib- 
uted liberally in cash, numerous persons giving one hundred 
dollars each, while others gave but little in money, but by their 
energy and helpful suggestions aided greatly, as did others who 
gave freely of their time and their skill; all these things being 
needed, it may be said that each did his part. As showing some- 
thing of the spirit of the times it is worthy of record that the very 
first cash contribution came from a fair held by the two grand- 
children of Mrs. Joseph W. Gerrish, viz : Joseph W. Gerrish, 2d, 
and his sister, Helen M. Gerrish, neither of whom could have been 
over five or six years old, but their fair raised the sum of one dol- 
lar which went towards the building. Other young people also 
gave the proceeds of entertainments, one being the Appollo Club, 
which gave $6.20; Granite Hook and Ladder Co. gave $25, and 
the Acrasian Skating Club gave $55.05, with a stipulation that it 


could be ' ' used for Memorial Building only. ' ' The ladies gifted 
in music — and Lebanon has always had many — gave a grand con- 
cert in Lebanon and another at the College Church in Hanover, 
from which they secured $270.05, following which the men, not 
wishing to be wholly outdone, also gave a concert and realized 
$126.82. These concerts were in 1884 and the entire receipts 
given in aid of the building, the men gracefully acknowledging 
that the ladies had outdone them after all. The largest contri- 
bution came from the profits of a grand fair held for several days 
in the town hall, in the winter of 1884, from which $944.15 was 
raised, and it may be said that almost everybody in town contrib- 
uted something to this fair, either directly or indirectly, as the 
attendance was large. 

In the spring of 1886 a sufficient sum of money had been 
pledged to warrant the building committee to begin operations, 
and by vote of the trustees the Grand Lodge of Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons were invited to lay the corner-stone, which was 
graciously accepted, and the ceremonies took place on May 30 of 
that year in the presence of thousands of interested spectators. 
The superstructure w r as completed during that year, when for 
want of funds the work ceased. At last there was a decided 
change in sentiment, and the town voted the necessary money, 
already referred to, to complete the building. In the summer of 
1890 the officers of the New Hampshire Department, Grand Army 
of the Republic, kindly consented to perform the dedicatory ser- 
vice of that fraternity, by invitation of the trustees, and the occa- 
sion was celebrated July 4, 1890, when the whole town took part 
in making the event a success. In addition to the ceremonies of 
the G. A. R. ritual, appropriate exercises were conducted in the 
town hall, where Capt. J. E. Dewey presided and Rev. C. A. 
Downs delivered an oration. A dinner was served and numerous 
distinguished guests were present. As a part of the dedication 
program, Hon. Frank C. Churchill, chairman, and in behalf of 
the building committee, addressed the chairman of the board of 
selectmen in the following language : 

"Mr. Chairman of the Board of Selectmen: In April, 1882, 
the first steps were taken looking to the erection of the memorial 
structure which we have today assembled to dedicate. The 
Memorial Building Association was at once formed and subscrip- 


tions solicited for the purpose. After a sufficient sum had been 
pledged to warrant it, a building committee was elected consist- 
ing of Lieuts. Ferdinand Davis, Alpheus Baker, and myself. It 
is needless to recite the many obstacles that confronted the com- 
mittee. They were indeed many, and at times discouraging. We 
will simply say that after the town had appropriated $3,000 our 
citizens took hold of the work of raising the necessary additional 
funds with a zeal and determination worthy of the town in which 
we live. 

"The corner-stone was laid by the Grand Lodge F. and A. 
Masons of the State of New Hampshire on Memorial Day, 1886. 
Hon. A. M. Shaw was president of the day and Rev. Charles A. 
Downs delivered an oration, and I may say the whole town took 
part in the exercises. After a struggle of five years the building 
was completed. It is a substantial edifice, well calculated to last 
for a long period of years, and suited, we believe, to the purposes 
for which it was designed. About two-thirds of the money used 
has been raised by subscription. The town made a second appro- 
priation in 1889, amounting to $580. Its total cost, including 
land, has been $9,239.26, and every dollar expended is supported 
by itemized vouchers, which at the proper time we desire to turn 
over to the trustees of the building elected at the annual town 
meeting held in March, 1890, and we respectfully ask an audit 
of our account. The building was designed by one of our asso- 
ciates, Ferdinand Davis. The foundations were laid by W. W. 
Thompson and M. A. Northrop. The timber was furnished by 
L. E. Hilliard and the framing was superintended by Nathan W. 
Morse. The roof is probably the strongest of any building of its 
size in New Hampshire. The bricks were made by Jason Dens- 
more and laid under the superintendence of Sylvester Austin. 
The slating was done by J. H. Orcutt of Northfield, Vt. The in- 
side finish was put in by Muchmore & Whipple and Miner & 
Bucklin under the direction of Carlos Dyer. This work and the 
stair work, done by Harlan P. Goodrich, are models of their kind. 
The painting was done by W. H. Morris. The furnace was 
bought at a reduced price of C. M. Baxter. The Memorial win- 
dows were presented by friends of distinguished Lebanon sol- 
diers. Nearly all materials and labor have been furnished by 
artisans and merchants of our own town. In employing work- 


men veteran soldiers have invariably been given the preference. 
I believe, sir, that the long wait since the close of the war before 
erecting a monumental structure has come more from a profound 
desire to have an appropriate memorial than from feelings of 
indifference or neglect of duty on the part of the generous and 
patriotic citizens of Lebanon. And now, Mr. Chairman, having 
to the best of our ability performed the duties assigned us, 
nothing remains for the committee but to ask your acceptance of 
our work and to place in your hands the keys to the building." 
(Delivering the keys.) 

The building lot was purchased by the Building Association, 
and the title held by that organization up to July 29, 1891, when 
it was deeded to the town with the following limitations and con- 
ditions: "That the above described premises shall be forever 
preserved for a Soldiers' Memorial, for a Free Public Library 
and for a place for meeting for veteran soldiers and sons of vet- 
erans, and for only such purposes as shall preserve the memory 
of patriots and teach coming generations loyalty and devotion to 
their country." 

The Lebanon Soldiers' Memorial Building was the first to be 
erected in New Hampshire. 

The Granite State Free Press, in its issue of July 11, 1890, 
gave a very full account of the dedication of the Memorial 


The Village Fire Precinct and Great Fire 

of 1887. 

State of New Hampshire. 

To the Inhabitants of the town of Lebanon in the County of Grafton 
in said State qualified to vote in town affairs and resident in the ter- 
ritory hereinafter described viz: Commencing at the South Bast corner 
of Uriah Amsden's (H B. Bentons) home farm, thence running easterly 
to the 4th n H Turnpike (so called) ; thence by the south side of said 
road to the North East corner of W. K. Eldridge's Benton lot; thence 
Westerly by said Eldridge's land to the road leading from Lebanon 
Center Village to Dartmouth College; thence Westerly to the North 
East corner of J. W. Pecks; thence Westerly to the North West corner 
of said Peck's farm; thence South Westerly to the Staple Bridge (so 
called and Mascoma River; thence up said river on the South side of 
O. W. Websters land (now F B. Kendricks) ; thence Southerly to the 
South West corner of said Webster's land thence Easterly to the South 
East corner of Mrs Fanny White's land thence Easterly to the 

place of beginning. 

You are hereby notified to meet at the Town House in said town on 
Tuesday the 25th instant at 2 o'clock p. m. to act on the following sub- 

1st to choose a Moderator 

2a To see if the Inhabitants living within the bounds of the above 
described territory will adopt an Act for making farther provisions 
for the extinguishment of fires approved July 6 1849 

Given under our hands and seal this eighth day of September A. D. 

William Cole 
Samuel Wood 2<i 
Abel Low Jr 


A True copy Geo. S. Kendrick Clerk 

At a legal meeting duly notified and holden at the Town House in 
Lebanon, County of Grafton on the 25th day of September A. D. 1849, 
the legal voters, residents within the territory described by the Select- 
men of said Lebanon in their warrant dated September 8th 1849. by 
major vote 


1st chose Abram Pushee Moderator, who being present took the oath 
of office by law prescribed 

2 Chose George S. Kendrick Clerk 

3. Voted to adopt the Act entitled "An act making further provis- 
ions for the extinguishing of fires" 

4 Voted to adjourn this meeting, to meet at the same place (The 
Town House in Lebanon) Saturday, October 6th 1849, at 7 o'clock P. M. 

George S. Kendrick, Clerk. 

1849 Oct. 6. Met agreeably to adjournment, and 1st Geo. S. Kend- 
rick being present took the oath of office by law prescribed 

2 Voted to hear the report of a Committee upon the expence of a 
fire engine and apparatus 

3 Voted to accept the report 

4 Voted to raise the sum of $700. for the purpose of purchasing an 
engine and all suitable apparatus. 

5. Voted that this meeting be dissolved 

Geo. S. Kendrick. 

This was the beginning of a separate organization for the 
extinguishment of fires. Its powers were somewhat limited and 
not well defined. The meetings were called by the selectmen for 
some time after the organization. 

At a meeting held December 3, 1849, the precinct again voted 
to raise the sum of $700, to purchase a fire engine, hose and other 
necessary apparatus, and building a house for the same for the 
use of the precinct. Hiram A. Simons, E. J. Durant and John 
Burnham were appointed a committee to carry out the wishes of 
the precinct. 

At a meeting held December 25, 1849, "Voted to raise $300 
in addition to the $700, to purchase an Engine and apparatus." 

The time of the annual meeting was voted to be on the first 
Wednesday after the second Tuesday of March. 

At a meeting held on the 9th day of November 1854 the Precinct voted 
to refer the question of an Engine House and land, additional Hose and 
repairs, to a Committee to report at an adjourned meeting W. N. Baker, 
E. J. Darant and Lorin Smith to be the Committee 

Nov. 16 1854, heard the report of the Committee and voted to raise 
the sum of six hundred dollars for the purchase of additional Hose, 
procuring by lease or by building an Engine House. 


J. H. Kendrick, Lorin Smith, and J. C. Sturtevant appointed a Com- 
mittee to carry out these votes. Meeting adjourned to Dec 7 1854 

From this time onward to about 1869 little can be learned from 
the records. An engine was purchased with hose, and an engine 
house built upon the ground now occupied by the present house, 
and various other provisions made or projected to increase pro- 
tection against fires. 

Meetings of the precinct were called by the selectmen, and the 
same authority appointed the fire wards. 

In 1868 the precinct was incorporated under the provisions of 
what is known as the Keene Act. The precinct was organized 
under this act at a meeting called by the selectmen for August 
24, 1869. F. A. Cushman chosen moderator. The fire wards 
were J. C. Sturtevant, Solomon Cole, P. E. Davis, W. S. Moses, 
M. P. Durkee, W. N. Baker, C. C. Benton. 

Something of the conditions of the precinct property may be 
gathered from the following report : 

Engine House 18x30 one story high in .good condition except the 
under pinning which is a verv poor condition and the grading in front 
needs repairing. One Hose Cart One Fire Engine in good condition. 
800 feet of new hose in good condition 50 feet lengths 300 feet of old, 
as good as could be expected. 50 feet, old, 25 ft Lengths one hose cart 
in good condition. One stove, two lanterns O C. 

Signed N. B. Marston Foreman 

Also two ladders, one of which was out of repair; two hooks, 
one in bad condition.* 

A committee, called a water committee, began a report which 
continued for several meetings. The purpose of this committee 
was to find or make a supply of water to use for extinguishing 
fires. In the course of their investigations they asked and re- 
ceived one hundred dollars to enable them ' ' to employ a practical 
engineer to make surveys, give distances, etc." 

At a meeting held October 18, 1869, the precinct voted to pur- 
chase a force pump, forty-five rods of suitable iron pipe to lay 
from the river to the park, and hydrants to be attached to the 
same ; to purchase 500 feet of hose, with the necessary couplings 
and nozzles ; to purchase five ladders, three roof ladders, 100 feet 
1%-inch rope, necessary hooks and pikes; to provide a place to 


keep the same ; to defray the necessary expense to ditch and lay 
said pipe, and put said pump in good running order, all to be 
done in two months from the date of the meeting. 

They also voted to raise three thousand dollars to carry to 
completion all these projects. 

C. C. Benton and P. E. Davis and Solomon Cole were ap- 
pointed the agents of the precinct to superintend the work. 

This committee was authorized to hire the three thousand dol- 
lars for twelve months upon precinct notes. L. C. Pattee and 
J. W. Gerrish offered in the meeting to loan the money at six 
per cent interest, payable in gold, and principal in currency, 
which offer was gladly accepted. 

After several adjournments, January 10, 1870, the above com- 
mittee made a report of their work, from which it appears that 
the expense of the pump, iron pipe, ditching, etc., was $1,549.83. 

We learn also that cement was used in the joints of the pipe, 
which upon trial proved insufficient, when the pump was dis- 
connected from the pipe and 650 feet of hose attached with which 
several trials were made as to the power of the pump, which 
proved satisfactory in part only. It was found that the pump 
was lacking in power. It appears that the work was done at 
great disadvantage from the lateness of the season. The hose 
was not purchased by the committee. 

At the annual meeting held 1870, a petition from the members 
of Mascoma Fire Engine Co., No. 2, asking for the building of a 
new engine house and hall suitable for the company to meet in 
for the transaction of general business was presented. Upon 
this petition a committee of investigation was appointed — P. E. 
Davis and W. N. Baker — and the meeting adjourned for two 
weeks. The records are silent as to this meeting. 

The next meeting was called, upon petition, by the selectmen, 
to be held August 13, 1870. For some reason which does not 
appear the preceding meeting was illegal. New officers were 
chosen. The committee which had reported the January preced- 
ing, made an additional report, from which it appears that the 
iron pipe had been relaid. Upon trial of the pump the system 
proved entirely satisfactory, throwing on the common two 
streams equal to two fire engines. 


It was also voted to authorize the selectmen to levy and collect 
a tax in the precinct amounting to eighteen hundred dollars. 

A resolution offered by E. H. Cheney inaugurating the attempt 
to find a full and reliable supply of water for the precinct. The 
provision of the resolution was as follows: 

A Committee to be elected by ballot wbose duty should be to secure 
the services of a competent and disinterested Engineer not a resident 
of the town to make surveys of several proposed routes and plans for 
supplying the Precinct with water including Stony Brook and Enfield 
Pond; the practibility of supplying water by hydraulic rams force 
pumps to a reservoir on the hill East of the Village, to make careful 
estimates of each plan, report of the whole to be submitted -to an ad- 
journed meeting. 

The sum of three hundred dollars to be appropriated to pay the ex- 

The committee elected were William Duncan, P. E. Davis and 
L. C. Pattee. 

At the same meeting the fire wards were authorized to buy 
500 feet of hose, and give the precinct's note for the amount 

The force pump was located in Hall's mill, now W. F. Shaw's. 

At an adjourned meeting September 3, 1870, the committee re- 
ported progress and the meeting adjourned for four weeks. 
Adjournments continued to October 24, 1870, when P. B. Sawyer 
of Manchester, the engineer employed, read his report, which the 
precinct accepted and ordered a vote of thanks. Some difficul- 
ties about the location of the force pump and the use of a wheel 
to operate it having arisen, a committee was appointed to confer 
with Mr. Hall. 

Also voted that the committee be instructed to report upon the 
probable expense of building reservoirs in all parts of the pre- 
cinct, and supplying them with water for fire purposes. 

At an adjourned meeting held November 5, 1870, Mr. Duncan 
reported that ten cisterns would be necessary for use of the pre- 
cinct at a cost of forty dollars each. It was voted that the pump 
system be adopted; that is, that the cisterns should be filled by 
pumping water from the river. 

It was further voted that the sum of fifteen thousand dollars 
be raised to carry into effect this and other votes of the meeting, 


including the construction of ten iron cisterns, but at a subse- 
quent meeting the whole action was annulled. The committee 
reported their action with Mr. Hall, and the precinct voted to 
pay him one hundred and fifty dollars. 

The affairs of the precinct seem to have fallen into confusion 
at this time, approaching disorganization. No meetings were 
held until the 26th of September, 1871, when a meeting was called 
by the selectmen, upon petition, to choose all necessary officers 
and for other purposes, especially to consider the financial con- 
dition of the precinct. 

The officers were duly chosen, the finances discussed, and ad- 
journment followed to September 29, 1871. The clerk was di- 
rected to make such arrangements with holders of notes against 
the precinct as he could best do, either by extension of the notes 
or borrowing money to pay them. 

A resolution was also adopted to introduce running water to 
be stored in a reservoir on the hill east of the village. 

A meeting was called October 17, 1871, to act upon the fol- 
lowing articles : 

1. To adopt the Act of 1868, to enable the precinct to estab- 
lish water-works. 

2. To choose a committee of five to carry out the provisions 
of the resolutions adopted at the previous meeting. 

3. To authorize the board of fire wards to erect a hose tower. 

The first article received a negative vote. The second and 
third were passed, and the meeting adjourned without day. 

At a meeting held November 2, 1871, voted by a small majority 
to adopt the Act of 1868, establishing water-works in Lebanon. 

At an adjournment of this meeting it was voted that a com- 
mittee of five be raised to put the force pump in working order 
in some suitable place, and to purchase a chemical engine. 

The committee consisted of J. W. Gerrish, P. E. Davis, Wm. 
Duncan, Solomon Cole, and E. J. Durant. 

At a meeting held June, 1872, the fire wards were authorized 
and instructed to procure and place ready for use proper and 
sufficient pipes and hydrants to connect with the force pumps of 
J. C. Sturtevant & Co., and extend the same so as to furnish the 
best practical protection to the property in that vicinity, and also 
to connect with and supply the hydrants near the common, and 


also to locate and put in proper cisterns or reservoirs, not to ex- 
ceed six in number, provided that an agreement satisfactory to 
the fire wards can be obtained of said Sturtevant & Co., relative 
to the use of said pumps. 

The fire wards were directed to borrow, upon the credit of the 
precinct, such sum of money as may be required to carry out the 
action of this meeting, not to exceed four thousand dollars. 

A contract carrying out these instructions was made with the 
J. C. Sturtevant Co. 

The chemical engine was purchased on trial and found to be 
satisfactory, and has continued to prove one of the best invest- 
ments the precinct ever made. 

At a meeting held September 19, 1872, the precinct voted to 
purchase a new fire engine, and appointed Orimel T. Muchmore, 
A. W. Baker and P. E. Davis a committee to purchase it; $2,500 
appropriated for the purchase. 

At a meeting held February 8, 1873, the following action was 
taken : 

Resolved that the Selectmen of the Town of Lebanon be and are 
hereby requested to enlarge the boundaries of the Center Village Fire 
Precinct of said town of Lebanon to the boundaries of the town, and 
that said Selectmen be requested to appraise the property of the Pre- 
cinct and when the Precinct shall be enlarged they shall assume the 
debt of the present Precinct, to the amount of said appraisment, and 
the present Precinct shall pay the balance of indebtedness up to the 
date the same shall be enlarged 

The meaning of the above resolution is somewhat vague, but 
when "the property of the precinct" which was to be appraised 
is limited to fire engines, hose and other apparatus, the meaning 
is clearer. The enlarged precinct was to assume whatever in- 
debtedness there might be upon that kind of property, but for 
whatever debts there might be for construction of iron pipes 
buried, etc., the original precinct was to be held responsible. 

The action of the town on this extension of the boundaries of 
the precinct was as follows: 

At the annual meeting held in 1875, the following resolution 
was adopted: 

Whereas the present Fire Precinct of Lebanon comprises more than 
one half of the taxable property of said town and have already expended 


large sums for the purpose of supplying suitable apparatus for the ex- 
tinguishment of fires which is virtually for the benefit of the town 

And whereas, under existing regulations, the present fire department 
have no jurisdiction or authority to act outside of the limits of the 
present Fire Precinct. Therefore; 

Resolved that the Selectmen be instructed to so extend the limits of 
the Fire Precinct as to include the whole town 

It will be noted that this action of the town was two years af- 
ter that of the precinct. 

The following is the record of a meeting of the fire wards held 
March 26, 1873 : ' ' The meeting was called to order by W. N. 
Baker, who stated that the meeting was called for the purpose 
of receiving the new Fire Engine from the hands of the Com- 
mittee appointed by the Precinct to purchase the same. The 
Committee submitted a report of their doings and formally de- 
livered the new Fire Engine, the Athletic No. 3, into the hands 
of the Fire Wards." 

The engine was left in the charge of the foreman of Mascoma 
No. 2 until other arrangements could be made. A company was 
formed to take charge of the Athletic, to serve without pay. At 
the same time C. M. Hoffman was requested to form a company 
for the extinguisher. 

At a meeting held June 4, 1873, the precinct voted to purchase 
a hook and ladder outfit at a cost not exceeding $700; also to 
purchase a uniform for the Athletic No. 3 company at a cost not 
exceeding $480. 

At this time the affairs of the precinct were in great uncer- 
tainty and confusion. Many doubted the legality of their votes 
and action. 

In 1873 the Legislature passed an act recognizing the Lebanon 
Center Village Fire Precinct, as duly organized under the laws 
of the state, with all the powers and privileges incident to such 

By section 2 the precinct could, at any meeting duly notified 
and holden, ratify and confirm any votes heretofore passed by 
the precinct, and any action heretofore taken by the precinct, 
and any acts of the officers and agents of said precinct heretofore 
done and performed in pursuance of any vote or action of said 
precinct, and all such votes, actions and acts when so ratified and 


confirmed shall be valid, legal and binding upon said precinct 
and the inhabitants and property thereof. 

At a meeting held August 2, 1873, to consider this act, the 
precinct found it difficult to decide what votes and action to 

One resolution offered was ' ' to ratify and confirm the acts and 
doings of all former meetings of the precinct, excepting four reso- 
lutions." What these resolutions were does not appear. The 
resolution was withdrawn and the meeting adjourned to 
August 16. 

At this meeting a motion was made, "to commence with the 
records of the precinct and ratify such resolutions and motions 
as may be required." The motion was carried. A motion to 
' ' appoint a Committee of three to examine the records and report 
what portion was necessary to be ratified" was lost. 

Another motion was made, "to appoint a Committee of three 
to examine the records of the Precinct and make a report in two 
weeks of all it was necessary to ratify. ' ' This motion prevailed. 
A part of the committee appointed by the chair declined to serve. 
While there was delay in securing this committee another motion 
was made, "to ratify and confirm all the Precinct's acts and do- 
ings at former meetings with the boundaries as they now stand 
recorded, together with all the acts which the officers and agents 
have heretofore done. ' ' The motion prevailed. 

A short time after this wholesale ratification of all acts relieved 
the precinct from a serious difficulty. In obedience to the in- 
structions of the precinct, the chief engineer had purchased uni- 
forms for Athletic No. 3. This instruction was given June 4, 
1873. The action was considered illegal, as being outside of the 
powers of the precinct. Nevertheless the creditors were pressing 
for their pay and it was held to be hard to hold the chief engineer 
personally responsible for the payment of the bills. Some one 
in examining the records discovered that the instruction given to 
the chief engineer was just previous to the passage of the act of 
the Legislature, and was one of the doings which had been rati- 
fied. Accordingly the precinct ordered the bills to be paid. 

In 1875 a petition was presented to the selectmen requesting 
that the boundaries of the precinct might be extended to those 
of the town. The town at its annual meeting the same year had 


voted to instruct the selectmen to make the change in the bound- 
aries. When the matter came before the selectmen in a formal 
manner there was no other course open to them but to grant the 
request of the petitioners. And this was their decision and a 
proper record of it made upon the books of the precinct. From 
the record it does not appear that there was any opposition made 
to this change. 

The precinct had adjourned the choice of its officers until the 
decision of the selectmen was made known, so that the rest of the 
town could take part in the election. 

At the meeting of the precinct it was decided to elect eleven 
fire Avards, one at East Lebanon, two at "West Lebanon, one at 
large and seven at the Center. 

These fire wards were Charles B. Plastridge at East Lebanon, 
Jewett D. Hosley and A. S. Eaton at West Lebanon, John T. 
Breck at large, J. C. Sturtevant, H. P. Goodrich, A. W. Baker, 
Moses P. Durkee, C. P. Mahan, D. B. Emerson at the Center 

This union, although sought by both parties, did not prove to 
be a happy one. It subsisted but a single year, during which a 
precinct tax was assessed upon the whole town. No record exists 
of the dissolution of the union, but the historian learns after 
much and patient inquiry that it was dissolved by petition to the 
selectmen by those outside of the original bounds of the precinct. 
No opposition was made by the precinct. 

The precinct continued in its work of providing means for ex- 
tinguishing fires by laying pipes, providing hydrants. The J. C. 
Sturtevant Co. had placed force pumps in their building for their 
own protection, and the precinct connected their pipes with this 
pump by consent of parties. It was voted to purchase 800 feet 
of new hose to connect with hydrants to enlarge the territory to 
which protection could be given. This was a compromise between 
five hundred and a thousand feet. 

The annual meetings had been held at various dates, but was 
fixed in 1876 to the first Tuesday in April, and so continued to 
the present time. 

The property of the Sturtevant Company had passed in 1877 
into the hands of Mead, Mason & Co. The Sturtevant Company 
had claims against the precinct for the use of the force pump and 



its apparatus. At a meeting held February 27, 1877, a commit- 
tee was appointed to take all these matters into consideration and 
report upon them. 

Their report at the annual meeting in substance was as fol- 
lows: That it was inexpedient then to make any arrangement 
with the Mead, Mason & Co., for the use of their steam pump. 
They recommend the attachment of the Holley pump owned by 
the precinct to some water-wheel then in use, which attachment 
was estimated to cost not more than $200. 

They report it inexpedient at that time to purchase of W. S. 
Moses the hose carriage uniforms, which had been used before in 
working the hydrants. 

After hearing the report it was voted to instruct the fire wards 
to attach the Holley pump to any water-wheel of sufficient power, 
expense not to exceed $200, for the next year. 

The precinct continued to extend its pipes, erect hydrants and 
provide reservoirs for the years 1878- '79. 

On the third day of March, 1881, the precinct, acting through 
their chief engineer, Lyman "Whipple, made a contract with the 
Mead, Mason & Co. to the following effect : 

For and in consideration of the sum of one hundred dollars paid to 
them annually by the Lebanon Center Village Fire Precinct Mead Mason 
& Co. will put their pump or engine at the Upper Shop (so called) in 
good order, and will keep up steam and furnish power sufficient to 
run said force Pump to its fullest capacity in case of fire, said steam 
to be kept up at hours both day and night during the time the Pre- 
cinct may contract for. It being expressly understood that said Pre- 
cinct are to have full control of the Force Pump, and to keep the same 
in repair after receiving it; and in case the said Upper Shop should be 
destroyed by fire, Mead Mason & Co. reserve to themselves the right 
to annul their obligations, and in that case the Precinct are only to 
pay pro rata up to the date of such destruction; this agreement to con- 
tinue for the term of one year, and after the expiration of said year 
either party can discontinue this arrangement by giving the opposite 
party one year's written notice to that effect; and said agreement to 
continue in full effect one year froni and after the date of said notice; 
this agreement, when entered into, to commence from January 1st 

At the annual meeting in 1883, the number of fire wards was 
reduced to three instead of seven, to be known as chief engineer, 


first assistant and second assistant. Lyman Whipple was chosen 
chief; H. P. Goodrich, first assistant; George C. Perkins, second 

At the annual meeting in 1884, the following resolution was 
adopted, on motion of J. L. Spring : 

Resolved that a Committee of 7 be chosen to investigate the subject 
of introducing running water, procure full information and estimates 
and report to an adjourned meeting. 

The committee was Charles A. Downs, Edward J. Durant, G. 
S. Joslyn, Charles M. Baxter, A. M. Shaw, John L. Spring and 
L. C. Pattee. 

This meeting for some reason which does not appear found 
great difficulty in adjourning. 

The first motion was that when the meeting adjourn it shall be 
to one week from today. An amendment was offered substi- 
tuting one month for one week. The amendment was not ac- 
cepted by the mover of the first motion, but the meeting voted to 
adjourn to one month from date at 7.30 p. m., May 1. 

On motion it was voted to reconsider the vote, and it was 
moved that when the meeting adjourn, it adjourn to the first 
Tuesday in May. As the hour of the day was not mentioned the 
motion was amended so as to read that when the meeting ad- 
journs, it adjourns until the first Tuesday in May at 7.30 p. m., 
which was satisfactory and the meeting adjourned. The his- 
torian offers this criticism, that in none of the motions was the 
place to which the meeting was to adjourn mentioned. 

At the adjourned meeting the committee made a verbal report 
which was accepted with thanks, and the article under which the 
committee acted was laid upon the table. After the transaction 
of some other business it was voted to take the committee 's report 
from the table, whereupon the meeting adjourned, a step to- 
wards the fatal catastrophe! 

The annual meeting of the precinct, 1885, was chiefly remark- 
able for the difficulty of securing a board of fire wards. After 
having elected a moderator and a clerk, the meeting adjourned 
until Saturday evening. 

At the adjourned meeting Lyman Whipple was elected first fire 
ward, Harlan P. Goodrich was elected second fire ward. Mr. 


Goodrich saying that he had served fifteen years as a fire ward, 
asked to be excused. Upon vote he was excused. 

Upon a second ballot for a second fire ward, George C. Per- 
kins was chosen, who declined to serve and asked to be excused. 
His request was granted. 

Two more ballots were taken, resulting in no choice. At the 
next balloting William A. Churchill was elected. 

Proceeded to ballot for third fire ward, when there was no 
choice. At the second ballot Frank Sayre was chosen, having 
eight competitors. 

The precinct voted that the fire wards be instructed to con- 
struct a reservoir near the southeast corner of land of John L. T. 
Brown on Hanover Street, which was done. 

At a special meeting held September 1, 1886, A. M. Shaw, in 
behalf of the Village Improvement Society, presented a detailed 
report as to the cost of introducing water from Mascoma River, 
to be pumped into a reservoir on the hill east of the village. 

Upon motion of J. L. Spring, an informal vote was taken upon 
the question, Shall the precinct introduce water for the purposes 
specified? Upon a division 97 voted in the affirmative and 34 in 
the negative. 

Upon motion of C. A. Dole, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

That a Committee of three be appointed by the Moderator to as- 
certain how many of the owners of water powers on Mascoma River 
below the Chandler Power (so called) will gratuitously sign a quit claim 
to the Precinct to draw from said River at or near the Chandler power, 
all the water the Precinct may desire for protection against fire, and 
for supplying the Precinct generally with water and report at an ad- 
journed meeting. 

The moderator appointed C. A. Dole, J. L. Spring and R. W. 
Cragin. Dole and Cragin declined and were excused. A. W. 
Baker and C. D. Smith were appointed. Mr. Baker declined and 
was excused, whereupon E. F. Emerson was appointed. 

Upon- motion of C. A. Dole, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved that a Committee of three be appointed by the Moderator 
to ascertain at what amount the land damages can be adjusted for 
laying and maintaining from some point on the Mascoma River near 


the Chandler Power, so called to the contemplated Reservoir and thence 
to Shaw street, and also, at what price the land needed for said Reser- 
voir can be obtained 

The moderator appointed the same committee as before. 

At the adjourned meeting held September 8, 1886, the com- 
mittee reported as to land damage. W. M. Kendall agreed to 
accept $25 for the right to lay and maintain an aqueduct pipe, 
and upon payment thereof to execute proper release and convey- 
ances. Upon payment of $50 C. W. Gerrish agreed to do the 
same, with the proviso not to conflict with any right heretofore 

W. M. Kendall further agreed to convey the right to build and 
maintain a reservoir on the northerly side of his farm, with 
needed right of way, and stone to be taken from his farm for the 
sum of $50. At this meeting a resolution was adopted which was 
reconsidered and withdrawn at an adjourned meeting held Sep- 
tember 18, 1886, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, and the following 
adopted in its stead : 

Resolved that a Committee consisting of Charles A. Dole, Solon A. 
Peck, Carlos D. Smith, Lyman Whipple and Harlan P. Goodrich be 
authorized by the Precinct and they are hereby authorized to procure 
necessary surveys, and specifications for putting in water works for 
the protection of the Precinct against loss by fire, and for supplying the 
Precinct with water, to be taken from Mascoma Lake or River, to call 
for proposals for putting in the works, and to contract for the same, 
provided it can be done at an expense not exceeding forty thousand 

And said Committee are hereby farther authorized if bonds of the 
Precinct may be legally issued, or whenever they may be legally is- 
sued, to prepare, execute, and dispose of the bonds of the Precinct, suf- 
ficient to pay for said water works not exceeding the sum of forty 
thousand dollars; the rate of interest upon said bonds not to exceed five 
per cent; said bonds to be made payable in twenty years from their 
date; the interest to be payable annually or semi-annually and at 
such place as the Committee may determine; and if such bonds are 
ever issued the Committee are to use the avails therof to pay for said 

This being a special meeting, the law required that a ballot be 
taken upon the resolution and that the checklist be used. Such a 
list had been prepared and was used for the first and last time in 
precinct meetings. By vote the polls were to close at 8 o'clock 


in the evening. A few moments before 8 o'clock it was voted 
that the polls close at 8 o'clock and 30 minutes. 

Upon sorting and. counting the ballots the following was the 
result : 

Whole number of tickets given in was, 303 

In favor of Mascoma Lake, 2 

In favor of the resolution, 295 

Against the resolution, 6 

Majority in favor, 291 

It being ascertained that one-half the number of voters in the 
precinct whose names were on the checklist at the annual meeting 
in 1886 was 277, the resolution was declared adopted. 

This was a movement in the right direction, but none heard, 
none saw the fearful calamity swiftly coming. 

The annual meeting was held April 5, 1887, at which only 
routine business was transacted. In four weeks from the ad- 
journment of this meeting the calamity came. 

By the courtesy of the proprietors of the Granite State Free 
Press the following account of the one great fire of Lebanon is 
given from their files just as it was prepared at the time, dated 
May 13, 1887 : 

At Last. 

Lebanon's great calamity has come — 80 buildings burned — 
600 men thrown out op employment 10 families home- 

When Monday 's sun set peacefully in the west the busy hum of 
industry in twenty or more manufacturing establishments, large 
and small, on five dams, on both sides of the Mascoma River in 
the center village of this town, had just ceased for the day, and 
the 600 employes therein wended their way to their homes for the 
night's rest preparatory to another day's toil. When Tuesday's 
sun rose every one of those shops and mills was a heap of smoul- 
dering ruins, after a desperate fight of five hours to save them, 
and the devastation was being stayed for want of anything on 



I— I 





which to feed down the river, and the interposition of brick 
walls and piles of green logs, as well as by the arrival of timely 
help, in other directions. 

At about 12.45 o'clock Watchman Berry at the Governor Hale 
woolen mill, recently purchased by Carter & Rogers, was awak- 
ened by a light flashing through his window. Rising quickly he 
could see two fires apparently at the south end of Mead, 
Mason & Co. 's lower shop. He dressed quickly and hastened out 
to give the alarm. About the same time or a minute later, and 
just as Berry came out of the mill, Watchman Bullock at Ken- 
drick and Davis' key factory saw the light and rung the key 
factory bell, and almost simultaneously Watchman Webster at the 
shop where the fire was discovered it. He pressed the electric 
key connecting with the fire gong at the upper shop, and then 
rung the lower shop bell. Watchman Duplisse at the upper 
shop was on his round when the electric alarm sounded, and a 
minute was lost in getting to the gong, and another minute by 
pulling the wire so violently as to break it, necessitating the 
hunting up of a wrench. In those minutes the fire made rapid 
strides, as it was among shavings under the shop, and every- 
thing in the vicinity was especially combustible. The whole 
room above was a mass of flame in less than no time as it seemed, 
and when the first help arrived it was apparent that the whole 
lower shop was doomed. It was still hoped to save the immense 
three-story warehouse on the opposite side of Water Street, and 
connected by a covered overhead bridge, containing probably an 
acre of floor, and packed full of manufactured furniture and 
house finish, much of it elegantly upholstered. This bridge, 
however, proved a flue through which first an immense volume 
of smoke and then a sheet of flame poured into the warehouse, 
which also contained the counting room and the safes, and in 
fifteen minutes this, too, was enveloped in flames. Very little of 
the contents were removed, and these largely were afterwards 
burned. The stock of manufactured goods was unusually large, 
being held back on account of the interstate commerce law, in 
hope to get a living rate for freights. There is probably not 
another such tinder box in the state of New Hampshire. The 
flames shot up 200 feet into the air, affording a sight appalling 
and sublime. The heat was intense, rendering near approach by 



the firemen impossible. The firemen rallied promptly to the 
dismal alarm which sounded out on the stillness of the awful 
night, but one of the hydrants refused to open, even by the aid 
of the stoutest wrench, and the line of hose laid from it had to 
be abandoned and allowed to burn on account of the intense 
heat. The streams from the force pumps did not seem to come 
with wonted power for some reason, while that from Athletic 
Engine Co. No. 3, Eagle Extinguisher No. 1, seemed to have 
little more effect than common boys' squirt guns. Our fire de- 
partment, 120 men, with the appliances they had, were never 
intended to cope with such a fire, and were powerless before it. 

Alas ! Alas ! As we have twenty times expressed a fear, pro- 
phesying what has now occurred as only a question of time — the 
water-works, though put under contract and to be completed by 
September, have come one year too late. How we have plead 
for them through all these years. They would have saved at 
least eight times their cost. But, alas, three months too late, and 
the burden increased upon the taxable property left in the pre- 
cinct by the wiping out of one-fifth or one-sixth of it. Folly, 
thy name is Humanity, and thou art everywhere. But enough 
of this. 

The heat was awfully intense. It did not need the cinders 
which went hundreds of feet into the air and then fell on all 
sides in that awful stillness upon roofs almost blistered with the 
heat of the previous day — it did not need this to inflame the 
buildings on all sides; the heat was enough. The fire leaped 
simultaneously to the tenement house of Mead, Mason & Co. at 
the corner of Mascoma and Water streets on the east ; to the key 
factory on the south; across the river to the Hale factory and 
Cole & Son's foundry on the west; and across Mascoma Street 
to the dwelling and livery stable of Dan Scott on the north. The 
department could scarcely hold the flames in check in one direc- 
tion — what could they do with all these fires? Almost abso- 
lutely nothing. 

About 2 o'clock the telephone operator succeeded in arousing 
Enfield, and Protector Engine Co., Capt. Cross, was here by 3 
o'clock, a locomotive being detached from a freight train to 
bring it and a large corps of fresh and hardy men. Never were 
men more heartily greeted or did better service. 


There was harder luck with Hanover. The telephone would 
not work, and a messenger was despatched. The Hanover com- 
pany, Capt. , responded and arrived in time to be of ser- 
vice. Concord could not be reached by telegraph ; the line 
would not work for some reason. The telephone line to Concord 
would not work. She was finally reached by way of Bellows 
Falls by telephone, thence by telegraph, and assistance asked 
for. It was an hour of intense agony. The flames licked up as 
if a dainty morsel the tenement house known as the Lawton 
house, standing near in the lower shop yards, and G. A. El- 
liott 's carriage shop close to the lower or Mascoma Street bridge ; 
burned this bridge, but without waiting for that to burn leaped 
over it to the B. T. Tilden building on the opposite side of Mas- 
coma Street, occupied by Muchmore & "Whipple, house builders, 
N. B. Marston, rake manufacturer, and Ira Bucklin, carpenter 
and builder. This building also went like tinder. The pre- 
cinct pump was in the basement. The operator stood by it until 
the falling timbers made life insecure, and he left it running. 
A minute later escape would have been impossible save by jump- 
ing into the river, and two minutes later by any method. The 
wheel is running still, but to make a wreck of the pump was the 
work of only a few minutes and it ceased to work, and being left 
open, operated as an open valve to deprive the steam pump of 
the Mead, Mason & Co. 's upper shop of its power. 

There was nothing now but hand engines to fight the largest 
fire New Hampshire ever saw — two or three hand engines and a 
little extinguisher. Meantime the flames had worked up Mas- 
coma Street toward the park, destroying a two-tenement house 
belonging to Mrs. Ellis, and two tenement houses belonging to 
Mrs. P. E. Davis, occupied by Charles Woodward, Miss E. M. 
Camp, dressmaker, and two other families. The fire was suc- 
cessfully resisted in this direction by a desperate and successful 
fight to save the house owned by Mrs. Davis and occupied by 
Mr. Hoisington. The flames pressed up the stream, destroyed 
the Northern Railroad bridge, and attacked the splendid flour 
and grist mill, one of the best in the state, of "William F. Shaw, 
occupied by Shaw & Wright, also by A. W. Rix, machinist, and 
the Shaw Rifles' armory. This seemed reluctant to burn, as 
the sheet-iron covering at the south end protected it for awhile, 


but it was impossible to get a stream of water to the ridge pole, 
and it succumbed at last. The Free Press building came next, 
owned by Patrick Jordan, occupied by the Free Press, Freeman 
& Richardson, job printers, and the families of Patrick Coogan 
and John Bushway, two tenements being empty. Here it seemed 
highly probable the fire would be cut off, and having removed 
books, files and valuable papers, and got some other things ready 
to go in a hurry if necessary, we were indulging in the hope of 
going immediately to work to get out an extra. Fifteen min- 
utes later the extra got us out on the double quick. A quarter- 
inch stream of water for ten minutes would have saved us, as it 
would many a more valuable building, but it could not be had. 
It was now towards daylight, and a stream was turned on the 
blacksmith shop of P. Jordan, next north of us, and the tene- 
ment in the rear occupied by Mr. Townsend, which was half 
consumed, and here the fire was stayed in this direction. 

Meantime it had crept up the south side of Mascoma Street to 
the park, destroying Mead, Mason & Co. 's lumber shed, the old 
Lafayette Hotel building, owned by S. S. Houghton of Boston, 
and occupied by L. W. Smith, carriages and sleighs, and by three 
families; also the building occupied by Billings' marble works, 
second and third stories empty, and the large livery stable con- 
necting. It crept up the east side of Mill Street, taking a busi- 
ness block owned by 0. T. Purmort and occupied as a storehouse 
by different parties; also the gristmill sheds, the old house in 
front of our office, owned by C. 0. Hurlbutt and occupied by 
two families, the corner house, occupied by Mr. Rose, and the 
billiard room and restaurant of P. S. Lemay. 

From the Lafayette the fire communicated to the engine house 
and to W. P. McFee's house on Hanover Street, which being 
brick lined made quite a stubborn resistance, but in vain, thence 
to the adjoining harness shop of Mr. McFee and shoe shop of 
A. Rock, second story occupied by Frank Morgan and mother 
as a residence. Next came Baldwin's wooden block, lower story 
occupied by J. E. Lincoln, dry goods, and C. E. Marston, under- 
taker's goods, and C. E. Colburn, groceries and crockery; upper 
story by C. N. Walker, sewing machines, organs and pianos, 
rooms and residence, and H. P. Granger, tenement and photo- 
graph rooms. The next was a block owned and occupied by 


C. E. Pulsifer, grocer, second story by Athletic Club rooms. 
All these blocks were destroyed, their contents being largely 
removed in a damaged condition. This brings us to the new and 
elegant brick block of G. C. Whipple, where a most desperate 
and finally successful fight was made, thanks to the timely ar- 
rival of the Enfield company. All of the occupants of this build- 
ing removed their goods, the heat being so intense. On the lower 
floor G. C. "Whipple, dry goods; P. M. Kenyon, tailor; F. Wal- 
ton & Co., boots and shoes; I. N. Perley, druggist. 

The west side of Hanover Street — Hildreth's block, Whip- 
ple 's old block, and Worthen 's block were in the greatest danger, 
the first named being on fire several times. The slightest breeze in 
that direction would have doomed them, and with them the whole 
of North Park Street, including the town hall. The fight was 
made mainly on Hildreth 's block, and it was admirably made, too, 
by means of pails of water and small force pumps. A. C. Rich- 
ardson, foreman of the squirt gun company, says that the chimney 
was so hot he could not bear his hand on it. Down the river 
from the point of starting, the flames swept till there was 
nothing further for them to devour. The key factory, C. M. 
Baxter's machine shop, the old saw mill, and Mead, Mason & 
Co.'s lumber yard are a heap of ashes. 

A scene of awful destruction was meantime being enacted on 
the west side of the river. The flames leaped the river at the 
point of first start to Cole & Son's pattern house and foundry. 
They leaped again both across the river from the Muchmore & 
Whipple building and across Mascoma Street from the foundry 
to Cole & Son's machine shop. They leaped again from Shaw's 
mill across the river to Mead, Mason & Co.'s upper shop, the 
river side of which was covered with wood dust from the blower, 
and it went like tinder. Nothing could oppose it, and nothing 
tried to oppose it. Not a stream of water was put on, not a line 
of hose was laid on the west side until everything was flat. 
There was water enough in the river, but no hose. The shop, 
the dry house, and boiler house, containing the company's pow- 
erful steam force pump and the precinct fire steam gong, went 
like a flash. There was great terror and dread of an explosion. 
The gong valve opened and sent its deep, dismal, half-suppressed 


groan through minutes that seemed hours. It seemed like a 
howl from the infernal regions. 

The large three-story storehouse, full of furniture in the 
white, and immense piles of hardwood lumber between it and 
the boiler, made a terrible fire. T. D. Marston's sawmill came 
next up the river. It was nothing to lick that up. But the pile 
of green logs above it afforded a chance to fight the fire fiend to 
some advantage and the chance was improved, stopping it just 
short of Franklin Tucker's house. It took a plucky fight with 
blankets and buckets and force pumps to save the houses along 
High Street, opposite the upper shop. The extinguisher, re- 
lieved from other duty, finally came to the rescue and helped 
to save them. A dozen dwellings must have gone, if a fire too 
big for buckets had once started here — probably more. Long 
before this the fire from Cole & Son's foundry had communicated 
to their counting house, thence to F. C. Churchill's tenement 
house on the east side of High Street, occupied by Charles Dow 
and E. A. Cotting, which was burned. 

Turning back now to the early morning hour, it will be re- 
membered that the fire at the starting point leaped the river, 
setting fire to Cole & Son's foundry. It communicated thence 
to their counting room building; thence to a house on the cor- 
ner of Mascoma and Mechanic streets owned by Mrs. Lynch and 
occupied by Mrs. Balduc ; next came a house owned and occupied 
by Mrs. Lynch, Mascoma Hotel, owned and occupied by S. D. 
Jones, house owned by M. B. Foss and occupied by P. Duplisse 
and Charles Burdette, and one owned by Mrs. P. E. Davis, with 
two tenants. The fire was stopped at the next house, that of 
Henry Benton, by a desperate effort, aided by the timely arrival 
of a lot of fresh men by train from West Lebanon and White 
River Junction. Had the immense stock barn of Justus Sar- 
gent, next to this, caught fire there is no knowing where the end 
would have been in this direction. It was about half-past two 
o'clock when the fire was checked here, and in common with 
multitudes of people on the east side, we did not know that there 
was any fire on the west side till about 4 o'clock, so busy had we 
been in fighting on our side. In the rear of these houses and on 
the nameless street leading to the woolen mill, were four cottage 


houses belonging to Thomas Fahey and Dan Driscoll, and occu- 
pied by themselves and several tenants. 

This ends the record of buildings destroyed, which, not count- 
ing sheds and small outbuildings, number 80, as shown by the 
insurance map of the village. The last serious fight was on High 
Street about 5 o'clock, and it was indeed a most desperate one. 
Blankets and carpets kept constantly wet did the business, aided 
finally by the Extinguisher Co. The fight at 0. W. Burnap's 
house was important as a long row of houses close together on 
West Street were in the rear of it, with the West Street school- 
house. North of West Street no serious damage was done. 

Just as this last fight had been successfully made, and it be- 
came reasonably sure that the last house was burning, the steam 
engine Governor Hill and Kearsarge hose carriage arrived from 
Concord, about 5.45 o'clock, having made the trip of 65 miles in 
85 minutes with two stops, one of which was four minutes. 
This is the quickest time ever made on the road except possibly 
that in competition for the Canadian mails about thirty years 
ago, when an engine made the trip from White River Junction 
to Concord, 70 miles, in 90 minutes. The train contained two 
platform and one passenger car, drawn by the locomotive Green- 
• field, Nelson Braley, engineer, and was in charge of Conductor 
Dan. Lary. Chief Engineer Dan. Newhall personally had charge 
of the Concord apparatus. There was still need of a great deal 
of water to be thrown, and the Governor Hill was welcomed with 
great joy and afforded a feeling of relief to our tired firemen 
and citizens. It was stationed on the Hanover Street iron 

Colburn Park presented a strange scene. There was not a 
spot ten feet square but what was piled with store or household 
goods, machinery, and property of almost every conceivable 
kind. Every dooryard deemed far enough away to be safe, on 
both sides of the river, was similarly occupied. Many goods 
were moved several times. A great many goods were burned 
after being gotten out. It was impossible to get one team where 
ten were needed. To add to the mishaps of the day, over which 
some infernal spirit seemed to preside, the steamer Governor 
Hill became disabled after playing an hour or two and was ren- 
dered unserviceable. The ring of the Athletic 's bell was heard 


every few minutes all the day and evening, calling for men to 
man the brakes, to keep the glowing embers within due bounds 
and prevent a second fire. It was an awful fire. No New 
Hampshire town ever saw its equal. God grant that none other 
may ever have a like experience. 

People came by hundreds all day to witness the disaster. 

Many families spent all day guarding their little piles of 
goods, while the head of the family hunted for quarters. Hap- 
pily the number of houseless families was not so large — we 
reckon it 43 — but that all could find shelter of some kind. The 
smaller losses, below $100 in the list which we give elsewhere, are 
mostly losses to poor houseless families by goods burned or dam- 
aged in removal. Not one in ten of them was insured. Nearly 
all the buildings, except some of Mead, Mason & Co.'s, were 

The insurance companies might well stand appalled in face of 
so great a calamity, but their agents were promptly on hand 
and were as busy all day Wednesday and Thursday as were the 
reporters on Tuesday. A large portion of the insurance is al- 
ready satisfactorily adjusted. 

We cannot express in too warm words the gratitude of the 
people of Lebanon to the stalwart men from Concord, Enfield,- 
Hanover, West Lebanon and White River Junction, who came to 
our aid in the hour of our distress. We have not room to say 
more now. 

There is great reason for gratitude that no lives were lost. 
David Perkins became overheated and had to be carried home, 
and it was reported that he was dead, but he finally came out all 
right. No serious casualty has been reported to us. 

The following list of losses is the result of personal interviews 
with nearly all the losers, and the estimates by friends as to such 
as we were unable to find. We judge the estimates to be reason- 
ably fair, and that under-estimates and the absence of some that 
we failed to get will balance any possible over-estimates. We 
have accepted the press estimate of $100,000 for Mead, Mason & 
Co. as a fair one in our own judgment. They do not like to give 
one of themselves, but we feel that it is due to our readers that 
the best estimate we can get be given. 





Mead, Mason & Co. . $100,000 

S. Cole & Son 


Kendrick & Davis 


W. F. Shaw . 


Carter & Rogers . 


C. M. Baxter 


J. E. Lincoln 


C. E. Pulsifer 


Shaw & Wright . 


Charles Dow 


L. W. Smith 


C. E. Colburn 


P. M. Kenyon 


Ira Bucklin . 

'. 900 

A. Rock 


W. H. Stickney . 


Albert Blish 


Peter Russell 


Noble Webster 


Nelson Sargent 


I. N. Perley (settled) 


A. W. Rix . 


T. B. Marston 


P. Walton & Co. 


F. C. Churchill . 


G. C. Whipple 


Muchmore & Whipple 


B. T. Tilden 


Misses Brown 


H. P. Granger 


John Bushway 


C. D. Scott . 


J. E. Dewey 


Mrs. P. E. Davis . 


W. H. Morris 


S. S. Houghton 


Mrs. Lynch . 


Richard Lindsay . 




D. H. Currie 

Mrs. James Griffin 

P. Garland . 

David Deforge 

Shaw Rifles . 

Lebanon Fire Precinct 

P. Jordan 

John Townsend 

P. Coogan 

Lowell Richardson 

G. A. Elliott 

0. T. Purmort 

B. & L. Railroad, bridge 

Town of Lebanon, bridge 

Four freight cars 


J. L. 

S. D 




Jones . 

Thomas Fahey 
Dan Driscol 
M. B. Foss . 


Charles Bodette 

0. R. Rose . 
Henry Benton 
James Lawrence 
W. M. Kendall . 
Miss M. E. Camp . 
Charles "Woodward 
H. G. Billings 

C. N. Walker 

1. Titus & Co., Brattleboro 
C. E. Marston 

0. W. Baldwin 

E. H. Cheney, Free Press 

Freeman & Richardson . 

0. W. Burnap 

Jo. Demosh . 










































Joseph Plomondon 


W. P. McFee 


E. A. Cotting 


Extinguisher Co. . 


Athletic Co. 


Frank Morgan 


N. B. Marston 





The following shows the amount of insurance so far as is 

known at present. There may be some few policies 

i in outside 

companies, but if any the amount is small : 

C. E. Pulsifer, Pulsifer block. 

Capital ....... 

. $1,500.00 

Capital Association ..... 

. 1,000.00 

Baldwin's block, 

Granite State ...... 

. 1,000.00 

Guaranty ....... 


Sullivan ....... 

. 1,000.00 

Cheshire ....... 

. 2,000.00 

F. C. Churchill, house, 

Fitchburg ....... 

. 1,000.00 

Merchants & Farmers .... 


T. B. Marston, sawmill, etc., 

Granite State ...... 


New Hampshire ..... 


People's ....... 


B. T. Tilden's building, 

Granite State ....... 


Guaranty ........ 


Capital ........ 


People's ........ 


Ira Bucklin, stock, 

Manufacturers & Merchants .... 


Muchmore & Whipple, stock, 

Amoskeag ........ 




N. B. Marston, stock, 


Phoenix Mutual . 

Indian Head 
G. A. Elliott, building, 

New Hampshire 
Chas. E. Colburn, stock, 


Amoskeag . 
C. E. Marston, stock, 


Capital Association 

Granite State 
J. E. Lincoln, stock, 


Guaranty . 

Manufacturers & Merchants 


Mt. Holly . 


New England 
W. P. McFee, stock, 

New Hampshire 
W. P. McFee, house, 


Granite State 
Peter Lemay, houses and shop, 

Guaranty . 
C. D. Scott, stock, 

Pat. Jordan's block, 
E. H. Cheney, stock, 


Granite State 
Freeman & Richardson, stock, 

Granite State 

New Hampshire . 















Shaw's grist mill, 



. . . . 

. $2,000.00 



• • • • 


Capital Association 


. . . 

. 1,000.00 

Amoskeag . 



. 1,250.00 



. . 

. 1,250.00 

A. W. Rix, stock, 



• • • • 

. 1,000.00 




. 1,000.00 

Shaw & Wright, stock, 

Guaranty . 



. 1,000.00 

New Hampshire 



. ' 1,000.00 




. 1,500.00 

C. D. Scott, houses, 

Capital Association 



. 1,087.50 

Granite State 






. . . , 

. 1,087.50 

Lafayette Hotel, S. S. '. 



People 's 



. 1,000.00 

Charles Goss & Co., storehouse and stock, 

Granite State 


• • 

. 1,000.00 

L. W. Smith, stock, 

New England 


» • • 


Thos. Fahey, house, 

Capital Association 



. 1,100.00 





Mascoma House, 

New Hampshire 


. . 

. 1,600.00 

Mrs. Lynch 's houses, 









C. Cole & Son, office and storehouse, 

Granite State 



. 1,000.00 

Manufacturers and Merchants 

. 1,000.00 

New Hampshire 







. 1,000.00 

New England 




S. Cole & Son, machine 

shop and contents, 



. . . 


Amoskeag . 



. 1,000.00 



Guarantee ...... 

. $1,000.00 

Manufacturers and Merchants 


People's ...... 

. 1,000.00 

Other insurance ..... 

. 1,000.00 

Cheshire ...... 

. 2,750.00 

Mead, Mason & Co., upper shop, 

Underwriters ..... 


Guaranty ...... 


Amoskeag ...... 


Manufacturers and Merchants 


Capital ...... 


Dover ....... 


Other insurance ..... 

. 4,700.00 

Mead, Mason & Co., stock, lower shop, 

Underwriters ..... 

. 1.000.00 

Manufacturers and Merchants 

. 1,000.00 

Kendrick & Davis, shop and stock, 

Mascoma ...... 

. 1,500.00 

Underwriters ..... 

. 1,000.00 

Capital Association .... 

. 1,000.00 

Granite State ..... 

. 1,500.00 

Amoskeag ...... 

. 1,000.00 

Guarantee ...... 

. 1,000.00 

Manufacturers and Merchants 


Capital ...... 

. 1,000.00 

Indian Head ..... 

. 1,000.00 

Concord ...... 

. 1,500.00 

People's ...... 

. 1,500.00 

C. M. Baxter, shop, 


New Hampshire . . . . . 

. 2,000.00 

People's ....... 

. 1,000.00 

Lebanon "Woolen Mill, 

Mascoma ....... 

. 1,000.00 

Underwriters ...... 

. 1,000.00 

Guaranty ....... 

. 1.000.00 

Manufacturers and Merchants 

. 1,000.00 

New Hampshire . 

. 1,250.00 

Capital ....... 

. 1.000.00 

People's ....... 

. 1,250.00 



Daniel Driscoll, houses, 

Mary Houghton's livery barn, 

H. G. Billings' livery stock, 


H. G. Billings' marble stock. 

Mrs. P. E. Davis, house, 

New Hampshire 
J. E. Dewey, house, 

Merchants and Farmers 







The burned area presents a scene of awful desolation viewed 
from any point of approach. It extends 100 rods or more up 
and down the river with varying width, and is variously esti- 
mated at from 8 to 12 acres. The extent of water fall can be 
taken in at a glance now, and no man can look at it and believe 
that it is to lie idle. It is impossible. Our people are full of 
courage. Some men are going to need temporary help, but no- 
body is going to fail, and every real estate owner is able to re- 
build. It is believed that most of them will do so, and so build 
as to enable them to do business to better advantage. 

' ' RESURGAM ' ' 

is written all over Lebanon, and she can be depended upon to 
redeem her pledge, her faith be realized. We shall yet behold 
Beauty for Ashes, the Oil of Joy for Mourning, and the Garment 
of Praise for the Spirit of Heaviness. 


We still live. 

Nil desperandum. 

The sound of the axe and the hammer is already heard. 

A town meeting is called to see if the town will exempt manu- 
facturing establishments rebuilt on the burned district. Of 
course there can be but one opinion about it. There is just one 


thing to do, and the heartier the unanimity the sooner we will 
recover from this shock. 

The material saved from our office was scattered all over the 
village, and during Tuesday our office was "all along the 
shore." It was about like saving one hind wheel and one for- 
ward wheel, a whiffletree, and the seat cushion of a wagon, with 
a dead horse for motive power. The loss that will bother us 
most is that of our newspaper press. We are under obligations 
to the Hanover Gazette, the Landmark and Royal Cummings at 
White River Junction, The Reporter at Canaan, the Monitor at 
Concord, the Journal at Franklin Falls, the Mirror at Manches- 
ter, and the Journal at Windsor, Vt., for kind offers of assist- 
ance. We decided to get out only a two-page sheet this week 
and found it most convenient to accept the offer of Bro. Barney 
at Canaan, who knows what it is to be burned out himself. It 
is an easy job to replace type, but a press does not come so easy, 
and we shall be compelled to get our paper printed out of town 
for a few weeks. 

The light was seen at Claremont, and it is reported at La- 

It will take piles of brick and lumber to supply this market 
for awhile. 

Now, Mr. Densmore, push that brickyard for all it is worth, 
night and day. 

The Mascoma Falls can now be seen somewhat as the Indian 
saw them. 

It is thought the insurance as finally adjusted will amount to 
about $110,000. 

Good-bye, old Lafayette. The glorious Frenchman once 
rested, we believe, under its roof. 

T. B. Marston is already at work rebuilding his sawmill. He 
will put in a saw as soon as he can get in a foundation and cover 
it while running. 

General Bridge Master Haseltine of the B. & L. and Division 
Bridge Master Spaulding were promptly on hand Tuesday to 
put in a trestle in place of the burned bridge. Work was begun 


at 6 o'clock Tuesday evening and trains passed over it before 
2 o'clock the next day. 

Too much praise cannot be awarded to the ladies of Lebanon 
who organized a relief corps very early Tuesday morning, were 
everywhere present among the exhausted firemen, with coffee, 
lemonade and water, and served a bountiful early breakfast in 
the town hall. 

Some cinders from the fire were picked up a mile and a half 
from town. 

Schools did not keep Tuesday on account of the excitement 
caused by the fire. 

Rebuilding has already commenced. Baldwin and Pulsifer 
are to build one block. 

The safes of the losers by the fire came out successfully, only 
the outside being injured. 

The call for our fire company from Lebanon, Tuesday morn- 
ing, was received here by telephone a few minutes before two 
o'clock. Ten minutes later E. B. Huse had his span of big 
horses attached to the engine and started, but on reaching the 
depot word was received that a train then at Canaan would be 
right along and take it, so it was loaded on a flat car, but it was 
nearly three-quarters of an hour before the engine came — it 
seemed much longer — but in eight minutes after, the Protector 
No. 2 was unloading in Lebanon, and in a very few minutes more 
was at the iron bridge and had a stream on the fire. "We will 
let our Lebanon neighbors, who were exhausted and almost dis- 
mayed by two hours' hard combat with the flames, say how they 
felt to receive assistance just at that time. Our boys were fresh, 
and were only too glad to be able to help when help was most 

The origin of the fire is a mystery. The watchman's clock 
was opened Thursday afternoon in our presence, and in that of 
other gentlemen, and shows beyond all cavil that he made his 
proper rounds, once an hour, from 7 to 12 o'clock. There is no 
possibility of mistake about it. The watchman's name is Noble 
A. Webster. He lived in one of the burned houses and lost 
everything, including the money with which he was paid off 



Monday. It was mostly paper. Some of the silver was found 
in the ruins. 


On Monday afternoon at 2 o 'clock a fair number of ladies and 
gentlemen gathered at the town hall to consider ways and means 
of relieving any suffering there might be among us as a result of 
the late fire. The meeting was called to order by Judge Tick- 
nor. C. C. Rogers was elected chairman and Eev. E. T. Farrill 
secretary. The selectmen were elected a committee to receive 
any aid that might be volunteered. A committee of nine was 
elected to investigate cases of need and to distribute aid, consist- 
ing of the following persons : Mrs. Lyman Whipple, Miss Mary 
Kimball, W. H. Morris, Mrs. Mary Daniels, Miss Mary Sargent, 
T. D. Simmons, Mrs. T. D. Simmons, Peter Lemay, Mrs. C. C. 
Rogers. The meeting was adjourned to next Saturday evening, 
at the town hall, 7 o 'clock, to consider the general business inter- 
ests of the village in view of the recent disaster. 

While the people have responded nobly with their assistance 
in our emergency, the old truth has had several very practical 
and emphatic illustrations that the real needy are best reached 
and provided for, not by promiscuous giving, but by systematic 
investigation and distribution. 

The appeal for aid has been most generously met, and much 
relief has been afforded by the contributions of clothing, furni- 
ture, etc. 

The benevolent association of ladies connected with the Con- 
gregational Church appointed a relief committee to take prompt 
action in relieving distress among those turned out of home. 
Tuesday p. m. the chapel reminded one of some of the scenes of 
war times when the ladies met to sew for the soldiers. 


A large force of men are already at work rebuilding Ken- 
drick & Davis' watch key factory. The building will be 
35 x 100, two stories high, of wood. 

G. A. Elliot is putting in the foundation of his carriage shop 
on the old spot, near the Mascoma Street bridge. 


Hon. A. M. Shaw will rebuild his flour and grist mill, and 
work has already commenced. 

T. B. Marston has the honor of having the first enclosure on 
the burned ground — a small board shanty on one corner of his 
sawmill lot, to be used as counting room and tool house. He is 
pushing his sawmill and will be sawing in a few days, probably 
by Monday or Tuesday next. He has purchased one of Lane's 
latest improved sawmills. 

Cole & Son announce by handbill that they are ' ' cast down but 
not destroyed," and will immediately rebuild, on the south side 
of the street. 

C. E. Pulsifer has the foundation of his new block next G. C. 
Whipple's brick block, well advanced. He builds a wood shell, 
to be encased in permanent brick walls as soon as brick can 
be had. 

0. W. Baldwin is putting in the foundation to rebuild his 

Workmen are repairing the railroad spur entering the lower 
shop yards, and are rebuilding the trestle work for the track 
which was used by the grist mill and upper shop. These tracks 
are going to be used, too. 

The building in which the fire originated, used for the manu- 
facture of sash, blinds, furniture and house finishing, was said 
to be the oldest in the country, that is, it continued the longest 
time without burning. No one can read the preceding graphic 
account without feeling that there was a fatality in the event. 
It had been threatened before, several times had a narrow escape 
from destruction, but now everything worked adversely. First, 
the watchman in the upper shop on his round hears an alarm 
and in natural excitement pulls a wire connecting with an alarm 
too violently, breaking the wire, necessitating the hunting up of 
a wrench; there was delay. Seconds then counted towards de- 
struction. A hydrant could not be opened even by the aid of the 
stoutest wrench, and the hose stretched to it had to be aban- 
doned. After some delay Enfield was reached and Protector 
Engine Co. was summoned and reached Lebanon about 3 o'clock, 
by the help of a freight engine. "Never were men more heart- 
ily greeted or did better service." But the fire had a start of 
two hours and fifteen minutes. 


The telephone would not work to summon Hanover and a 
messenger was despatched, which added two hours more to the 
liberty of the devouring flames. Concord could be reached 
neither by telegraph nor telephone directly ; a telephone message 
was sent to Bellows Falls and from there a despatch sent to Con- 
cord summoning assistance. About 5.45 the steam fire engine 
Governor Hill arrived and gave welcome and needed assistance 
to weary firemen and citizens. But the steamer, brought at such 
speed from a distant city, capable of doing such good service, 
such a relief to tired firemen, was after an hour or two disabled. 
But to crown the whole series of disasters, the precinct pumps be- 
came useless. Hydrants had to be hastily abandoned from the 
intense heat and left open, valves that should have been closed 
were left open, and the water sent out by the pumps went back 
into the river or wasted on the ground. The system which had 
been adopted was a good one, essentially the same now in use in 
large cities, but it failed in the hour of supreme need, as any 
system will fail if proper care and management fail. Fate was 
supreme that terrible night. 

Many suffered loss in the terrible conflagration, but the suf- 
ferers did not lose courage. The fire was still smouldering when 
arrangements were made for rebuilding, temporarily at first, but 
more solidly than ever before. The manufacturing district of 
Lebanon today is better, far better, than it was on the eve of 
May 9, 1879. 

The origin of the fire was a mystery at the time ; it is not less 
so after more than nine years have gone by. Today, as at the 
time, the probabilities point to an incendiary origin. 

Churches of the Town. 

by john e. whitley. 

The Lebanon Congregational Church. 

In accordance with the Act of Incorporation of the town of 
Lebanon, the first town meeting was held May 15, 1765. At that 
meeting it was voted to have a minister preach during the sum- 
mer, and that Aaron Storrs should take around a subscription 
paper, and the selectmen should seek quarters for the minister 
and provide for his accommodation. This action on the part of 
the early settlers indicates the value they put upon church priv- 
ileges. According to votes taken at different times ministers 
were called to labor here for a stated period, sometimes for a 
summer, sometimes for one or two years. In the town records 
mention is made of Rev. Mr. Treadway, Rev. Mr. Niles and Rev. 
Mr. Wales. In those days taxes were raised to support the min- 
ister, because he was a town officer, and thus all the affairs per- 
taining to his ministry were brought before the town meeting. 
The town, which had at that time about twenty families, called 
and dismissed the pastors. 

The next step taken was the organization of a church. It is 
recorded that the six men who are charter members were Azariah 
Bliss, Jonathan Dana, Joseph Dana, Zacheus Downer, John 
Slapp, and John Wheatley. Azariah Bliss was from Connec- 
ticut and became useful in town affairs. Jonathan and Joseph 
Dana were from Ashford, Connecticut. Joseph was one of the 
original proprietors. Zacheus Downer was a public-spirited man 
and a brave soldier in the Revolution. John Slapp was from 
Connecticut, an officer in the French and Indian War, in which 
he acquired the title of major. He was also in the War of the 
Revolution. Because of his military knowledge and experience, 
he was of great service to the early settlers of Lebanon. John 
Wheatley was the son of an Irish surgeon in the British navy. 
Coming to this country he fell into the hands of a kind citizen 
of Norwich, Connecticut. With a small party of emigrants he 


came up the Connecticut Valley and settled here. By his native 
ability and education he developed qualities of leadership. He 
became justice of the peace under the royal commission, and for 
years was the legal adviser in this town. Rev. Phineas Cooke, 
in a Thanksgiving sermon preached in the present Congrega- 
tional Church, November 25, 1830, says of John Wheatley: 
"He presided at the town meeting held September 12, 1765. 
"Were I to single out an individual to whom this town in its 
early days was especially indebted for his exertions in its behalf, 
I would name John Wheatley, Esquire. He was the first town 
clerk and for nearly twenty years the first civil magistrate ; the 
first schoolmaster and the first representative under the present 
Constitution of New Hampshire. To all his acknowledged qual- 
ifications for civil life was added piety, and such religious gifts 
as made him a suitable person to lead in the meetings of the 
church in the absence of the minister. He was the first man 
who fixed his habitation amidst the lofty pines of this plain." 
It was such a company of men that took upon themselves the 
organization of the first church in the town of Lebanon. An old 
log schoolhouse which stood east of Capt. Joseph Wood's resi- 
dence was used for the religious services. In passing it is 
worthy of note to say that the first school and the first church in 
Lebanon were organized the same year, 1768. Our forefathers 
believed that the schoolhouse and the church, representing edu- 
cation and religion, are the foundation stones of an enduring 
community. Two historic spots in Lebanon are worthy of re- 
cording because of their unusual interest. One spot is the East- 
man place, now owned by N. S. Johnson, on South Main Street, 
West Lebanon. As far as historical knowledge and tradition 
can aid us, it was on this lot of land, on the east bank of the 
Connecticut River, where the first congregation in Lebanon as- 
sembled for Christian worship. Here also was solemnized the 
first public wedding in town. Here also, August 25, 1772, Rev. 
Isaiah Potter, the first settled pastor, was ordained to the gospel 
ministry. In the open air, under a large, spreading elm tree, a 
temporary platform was built and the impressive service of ordi- 
nation was conducted. The visiting clergymen were Rev. Bulk- 
ley Olcott of Charlestown and Rev. James Wellman of Cornish, 
and in addition to these President Wheelock, Dartmouth's first 



president, and appointed delegates from Hanover were present. 
What Plymouth Rock is to all New England, in a restricted and 
yet as important a sense, that spot on the east bank of the 
Connecticut River should be to all the inhabitants of Lebanon. 
The original proprietors and early settlers assembled there to 
acknowledge and to worship God before permanent homes were 
built, and before the permanent schoolhouse and church ap- 
peared. The other spot of unusual interest is a portion of the 
field west of the Luther Alden place. It was here that the first 
meeting-house was erected in 1772. In this first meeting-house, 
which stood for twenty years, the early settlers met Sunday after 
Sunday, in a simple form of worship, with Ziba Huntington as 
chorister, Charles Dana as deacon, and with that earnest and 
faithful pastor known as Priest Potter, who, like Moses, was the 
leader of his flock forty years in this wilderness. 

The Congregational Church was organized September 27, 1768. 
Meetings were held in the log schoolhouse and private residences 
for four years. 

The year 1772 stands out conspicuous in the church history of 
the town. It was in this year when the town, numbering about 
300 souls, was ready to take definite steps and organized efforts 
in several matters. June 24, 1772, saw the small church adopt- 
ing as its own articles of agreement, a confession of faith and a 
covenant. One of the articles reads — "the constitution of the 
church is to be what is commonly called Congregational." On 
July 6, 1772, the church extended a call to Isaiah Potter to set- 
tle here in work of the gospel ministry. The ordination ser- 
vices already referred to took place August 25, 1772. The next 
enterprise was the building of a church. Upon the loca- 
tion for it the people could not agree. But the earnest re- 
monstrance of the young pastor brought about harmony. It was 
finally decided by the strenuous thud of a walking stick owned 
by the pastor, and by that spot the church was built. The spot 
has already been referred to, in the field west of the Luther 
Alden place, near the old burying ground. At a church meeting 
legally warned October 29, 1772, Mr. Joseph Dana was made 
choice of for deacon and the first sacrament of the Lord's Sup- 
per and doubtless in this newly built meeting-house, was on 
November 15, 1772. Thus if Thanksgiving was observed it 


must have been a joyous one. From 1762, when four men passed 
their first winter here, to 1772, when the town had a pop- 
ulation of about 300 souls, there were many causes for 
thanksgiving. The town meeting was formed, an organized 
church was in working order, a settled pastor had come, a school- 
house was built, and a house for public worship was erected, a 
deacon and officers were chosen and the Lord's supper admin- 

The meeting-house was an old-fashioned building, 48 feet in 
length, 34 feet in breadth, while the posts which supported the 
room were 12 feet high. In the reading of the records during 
Mr. Potter's ministry, one soon perceives that the church paid 
scrupulous attention to particular cases of discipline which re- 
sulted in some instances in excommunicating the persons charged 
with the breaking of a commandment or with the breach of the 
covenant. July 24, 1777, was observed as a public fast day, on 
account of the distress of the war and the near approach of the 
enemy after Ticonderoga was given up. The covenant of the 
church was solemnly renewed. Several years pass by and the 
church votes that the Psalms should be sung in public worship 
without reading, but hymns, for want of books, should be sung 
line by line. The first chorister mentioned is Enoch Redding- 
ton, who was chosen to lead the singing. Ziba Huntington was 
the second chorister to serve the congregation. He was ap- 
pointed March 7, 1782. At the same meeting a Mr. "Waters was 
asked to build a communion table. On the Lord's Day, April 
28, 1782, fifty-two persons united on confession of faith, doubt- 
less the fruit of a revival led by Mr. Potter, who was regarded 
as one of the successful revivalists in the state. One may judge 
of the sentiment held by the good people of the town in those 
early days from an item under date March 3, 1784, which reads 
as follows: "Voted that the church view it unbecoming the 
profession of godliness for young people, professors, to practise 
frolicking and vain mirth, likewise for elderly persons to in- 
dulge in idleness, in foolish talking and jesting. Voted that 
they should set a watch about themselves and in the future re- 
frain. ' ' But, alas, how often was this rule broken ! There 
are many today who can heartily sympathize with Molly Esta- 
brook, Polly Waterman and Otis Freeman who were earnestly 


admonished by the pastor before the congregation one Sunday 

After twenty years' standing the old meeting-house was par- 
tially destroyed one night, and some of the timber removed near 
by the dwelling-house of Henry Farnam. The record of May 18, 
1792, informs us that the church voted to suspend those members 
for the present who were active in pulling down the meeting- 
house. This necessitated new quarters for the religious exer- 
cises of the town. (I have been unable to find any definite in- 
formation about the rebuilding of the church near by Elihu 
Hyde's place, or as now owned by Farnam. The timbers have 
been shown me, but tradition alone, without any particular 
records, is not always a safe guide. It may be that the church 
was temporarily rebuilt on the hill to accommodate the increased 
population, but the records, where are they? My belief is that 
for the short period from spring to early winter in 1792, wor- 
ship was conducted in private dwelling-houses and occasionally 
in the old meeting-house that was only partially destroyed.) 

A new meeting-house for the benefit of all in the town was 
erected on the common in 1792. The records, however, imply 
that in 1793 meetings were held in the old as well as in the new 

During Mr. Potter's ministry 372 names were inscribed upon 
the roll. Out of this number 12 were ministers of the gospel, 
among whom were Rev. Samuel Wood, D. D., of Boscawen, Rev. 
Walter Harris, D. D., of Dunbarton, Rev. Benjamin Wood of 
Upton, Mass., Rev. John Griswold, Rev. Experience Porter, Rev. 
Reuben Mason and Rev. Luther Wood. Mr. Potter w T as en- 
dowed with a splendid physique and possessed unusual strength. 
For awhile he was chaplain of one of the New Hampshire regi- 
ments in the Revolution. In mental power and grasp he was 
above the average. His ministry was crowned with success. 
Through his untiring efforts the church grew in numbers and in 
religious fervor, and had great influence in the county and state. 
After a long and useful life he died July 2, 1817, aged 71, 
having been connected with this church as supply and settled 
pastor about forty-five years. His death occurred in what is 
called the Breck farm, now owned by G. A. Miller. When he 


was ordained there were about forty families in town and shortly 
after his death the population was 1,710. 

The Decade 1817 to 1827. 

From 1817 to 1827 church matters were in an unsettled condi- 
tion. During this period there was one meeting-house for the 
whole town. One of the members writes : The pulpit was sup- 
plied by the labors of several ministers for a few Sabbaths each 
and under a joint committee of the church and people, whose 
object was to procure a great popular preacher to suit all de- 
nominations, so that all would help support the minister and the 
minister's tax be light. The church was soon made to feel how 
small her influence was when merged in the population of the 

A condition of indifference set in. On August 18, 1818, the 
church withdrew from the town meeting-house, being virtually 
excluded from it, and remained out for at least two years and 
had no stated meetings. Occasionally, however, religious ser- 
vices were held at the dwelling-house of Ira Gates and again at 
the schoolhouse near Eliel Peck's, and again at the schoolhouse 
near Mr. Abbot's. Thus from 1818 to 1823, a period of five 
years, this church had no abiding place. In February, 1823, 
the town assumed the right of controlling the occupancy of the 
meeting-house on the common, and portioned out the use of it 
among all the denominations in town. The Congregationalists 
were given fourteen Sabbaths in the year, the Independent 
church, whose pastor was Rev. John Foord, twenty-two Sabbaths, 
the Universalists twelve and the Baptists four. By a new ar- 
rangement in 1827 the Congregationalists were given twenty Sab- 
baths in the year. 

The church during this period extended a call to Rev. John 
Foord of Piermont. He was a thorough scholar, as judged from 
part of his library, now in the possession of Mr. Goodrich in this 
town. He was a liberal in his theological views, far ahead of the 
average minister of his day. With all his faults he possessed 
some excellent traits of character and doubtless set the orthodox 
party thinking. After serving the church for a brief period it 
was voted not to engage him longer to minister to this people or 


to administer the sacraments. The date of this action was Oc- 
tober 14, 1819. On June 5, 1821, a communication was received 
when 32 members withdrew fellowship to unite with the Inde- 
pendent church under charge of Rev. John Foord. 

March 23, 1823, the church takes action on the low state of 
religion in the community. A committee of eight was appointed 
to go two by two from house to house to pray with and converse 
with the people in the interests of religion. In the spring of 
1823 Rev. Calvin Cutler is the preacher. To him a call was 
extended August 11, 1823, and he accepted. The council for 
ordination was October 5, 1823. It is an interesting day. The 
council met at the dwelling-house of Stephen Kendrick; the ex- 
amination of the candidate was held at the schoolhouse which 
stood on the corner of Prospect Street by the Catholic Church, 
and the ordination service was held in the town meeting-house 
on the common. President Tyler of Dartmouth preached the 
sermon and the address to the people was given by Rev. Samuel 
Wood, D. D., of Boscawen. 

The first Sabbath school in Lebanon was organized at the 
house of Ira Gates on April 11, 1825. Abner Allen united with 
the church October 19, 1826. In that same year there was a 
flourishing singing school in town. A church fast was declared 
December 7, 1826. Rev. Calvin Cutler ended his ministry in 
this town September 13, 1827. Mr. Cutler was an able, faithful 
and laborious minister, and his labors were attended with divine 
blessing. There were 49 persons received into fellowship from 
the close of Mr. Potter's ministry in 1817 to the dismission of 
Mr. Cutler September 13, 1827. 

From Lebanon, his first pastorate, he went to be the religious 
leader of the Presbyterian Church at Windham, of this state. 
He remained there as pastor till his death in 1844. His son, 
Rev. Charles Cutler of Talmadge, Ohio, born in Lebanon 80 
years ago, recently bore the expense of a memorial tablet of 
Italian marble in memory of his father. The tablet is placed 
upon the front wall near the pulpit of the Presbyterian Church 
at Windham. 

With the coming of 1828 a new lease of life was experienced. 
It is a conspicuous year in the church history of Lebanon. A 
number of brethren had already met together to take council 


concerning their future course of action. It was decided that 
a separate church building should be erected and one which 
should be entirely under the control of the members. For this 
new enterprise subscriptions poured in and encouraged the 
brethren to go forward. Sufficient money being on hand the 
foundation was laid and the building started. The frame was 
built April 24, 1828, and the house dedicated August 13, 1828. 
The cost of the church building and the lot of land amounted 
to $3,162. A dwelling-house and some land adjoining were gen- 
erously .donated by Deacon Nathaniel Porter, to be used as a 
parsonage. In addition to all this material prosperity, the 
church raised a fund of $1,000, the annual interest of which was 
to be devoted to the support of the gospel. Thus with a place of 
worship of their own, with a parsonage under their control and 
a fund already on hand, the church began to seek for a pastor. 
Before the year closed they were ready to call Principal Newell 
of Meriden Academy, but the call was not extended to him until 
January 23, 1829, when Mr. Newell saw fit to decline. Feb- 
ruary 7, 1829, Rev. Phineas Cooke of Acworth was invited to 
preach to the congregation, and the result was a call extended 
to him to become the settled pastor. He accepted the call and 
on May 18, 1829, he was installed. On June 4, 1829, Rev. Phin- 
eas Cooke, Stephen Kendrick, Nathaniel Porter, Sr., and Nathan- 
iel Porter, Jr., and Deacon Isaac Allen were appointed a com- 
mittee to examine the records of the church and to report what 
alterations and improvements in their judgment they may deem 
expedient for their day. September 23, 1829, the committee 
reported and the result was a unanimous vote of the recom- 
mendations. This meant the adoption of a revised confession of 
faith and articles of agreement and covenant. Now the people 
and pastor were happily united for Christian service in a new 
environment and under new conditions. The church prospered 
year by year. 

January 17, 1833, this resolution was adopted: "No person 
shall be admitted as a member who will not engage to abstain 
from making, selling or using ardent spirits as an article of 
drink or luxury. In 1835 sixty-seven persons united and 39 at 
one communion. In 1841 appears the first manual giving the 
confession of faith and covenant and a catalogue of pastors, dea- 



eons and members from its organization in 1768. Mr. Cooke 
ended his ministry here May 13, 1848. The records give full 
evidence that he was a successful pastor; 233 persons were re- 
ceived into membership during his time. He was tall and of a 
commanding figure, possessing remarkable social qualities. He 
was a judicious and faithful pastor and an able minister. 

Near the close of the ministry of Mr. Cooke, there arose a dif- 
ference of opinion with reference to the continuation of his ser- 
vices. To some extent matters were adjusted temporarily. The 
separation that immediately followed seemed inevitable. Rev. 
Charles A. Downs was the supply during the rest of the year 
1848. However on the records the first mention of Mr. Downs is 
January 11, 1849. It is with the view of having him settle in 
Lebanon. The call was extended July 9, 1849, and the church 
voted on September 8 to give Mr. Downs $450 as an annual sal- 
ary, with the use of the parsonage. 

The records inform us that a communication signed by 37 
members was read. The purpose was to organize a new church 
at West Lebanon. Letters of dismissal were asked for and the 
requests were granted. The mother and daughter have lived 
in harmony. The church at "West Lebanon was organized by 
council convened for that purpose November 8, 1849, and the 
pastor-elect, Mr. Downs, and Deacon Abner Allen were ap- 
pointed to represent the mother church. 

November 21, 1849, Mr. Downs was ordained and installed as 
pastor of this church. At this council the candidate was privi- 
leged by having present as moderator and also speaker chosen 
to give the charge to the pastor his maternal uncle, Rev. Nathan- 
iel Bouton, D. D., of Concord. Dr. Richards of Hanover 
preached the sermon. The daughter church was represented by 
the acting pastor, Rev. Charles B. Haddock, and Mr. Joseph 
Wood as delegate. 

Thus auspiciously began the second longest pastorate in the 
history of the church. As supply and settled pastor for a quar- 
ter of a century, Mr. Downs was closely identified with the life 
of this church. Work prospered under his care and leadership. 
The financial condition of the church was excellent. The so- 
ciety never failed but once in 25 years to pay the pastor his sal- 


ary on the day it was due. For benevolent causes a systematic 
plan was adopted and in 1854 $210 was raised for benevolence. 

During the civil war some of the best sermons and public ad- 
dresses of the pastor were brought out. In 1869 forty-four per- 
sons united. In 1873 at his own request Mr. Downs resigned 
the pastoral office. He was a faithful leader, a choice peace- 
maker and a Christian comforter. The influence of his person- 
ality extended far beyond the limits of the parish. His studious 
turn and ready wit, his preaching ability, his public spirit and 
patriotism, and his advocacy of the cause of freedom and union 
when it cost something to stand squarely for honest convictions, 
and in addition to this his skill in mathematics and natural taste 
for language and historical research — all tended to launch him 
out into the open and make of him a leader in town, county and 
state matters. He served in several important public offices very 
creditably and "his works do follow him." Just before his 
death, September 20, 1906, he was the oldest living member of 
the church, uniting at the same time along with his wife Jan- 
uary 4, 1850. During his ministry here 226 persons were re- 
ceived into membership and some of these are the faithful and 
loyal supporters of the church today. For many years Mr. 
Downs was collecting data for this history of Lebanon. 

During the fall of 1873 and the spring of 1874 the pulpit was 
supplied by several ministers. At the preparatory lecture, May 
1, Eev. Walter H. Ayers was voted in to be received as a member 
by letter. During the intervals between the pastorates in 1772, 
1828, 1848, the church called special meetings to consider the 
advisability of making improvements and changes if deemed 
necessary. So now in 1874 improvements were made. Several 
articles were added to the rules of government of the church. 
The first recorded annual meeting was started. The second 
manual appears. An effort was made to do away with the after- 
noon services, and about this the Methodists and Baptists were 
consulted. It was the purpose now to get along with two ser- 
vices instead of three. After such clearing up the church was 
again ready to search for a pastor. A call was extended to Rev. 
"Walter H. Ayers, June 18, 1874. Within ten days it was ac- 
cepted. Mr. Ayers was born in Canterbury, N. H., April 26, 
1847. He graduated at Dartmouth, 1868, and at Andover The- 


ological Seminary in 1872. He was ordained at the Congrega- 
tional Church, Winooski, Vt.. July 16, 1872, and from there he 
came to take up the work in Lebanon. The installation service 
was held July 7, 1874, and thus began the shortest pastorate in 
the history of this church. As the months went by 13 persons 
were admitted into fellowship by letter. As a surprise the letter 
of resignation was read September 12, 1875. A council met and 
assented to the action of the pastor and church. Mr. Ayers was 
a diligent student, a faithful preacher and a devoted pastor. 

The church voted February 14, 1876, to extend a call to Rev. 
John Mason Dutton, who was at that time a senior in Yale Di- 
vinity School. April 1 the call was duly extended through an 
appointed committee. The salary was stated at $1,400. Under 
date April 10 the acceptance of the call appears. Mr. Dutton 
was ordained June 20, 1876. As the months and years went by 
pastor and people were happily united. This pleasant harmony 
shows in results. All the work progressed under such healthful 
religious conditions. The Sunday school reached an enrollment 
of 200. The benevolent offerings steadily increased. In 1878 
thirty-one persons united and some of these are faithful workers 
today. In 1879 the state association met with the church. His 
resignation was a surprise to all. During his pastorate of nine 
years, which ended May 20, 1885, a debt of $4,000 was paid, the 
church edifice was repaired and 118 persons were received into 
membership. The resolutions that were passed at the dismissal 
council voiced unanimously the sentiment of the parish. The 
spirit of unity and harmony that prevailed resulted in the pros- 
perity and growth of the church and society in every respect. 
Mr. Dutton never forgot the people of his first charge and ac- 
cording to his wish he rests from his labors in the cemetery close 
by the church he served so well. Three of the pastors lie buried 
in Lebanon cemeteries. 

Mr. Dutton was born in Craftsbury, Vermont, April 14, 1847. 
He attended Craftsbury and Johnson schools ; graduated at Kim- 
ball Union Academy in 1869. His college was Dartmouth, 
where he finished the course in 1873. He graduated at Yale Di- 
vinity School, 1876. His first regular pastorate was Lebanon, 
where he served nine years, his second regular pastorate was 
Somersworth, N. H., where he served for eight years, his third 


regular pastorate was at Newtonville, Mass., where he served for 
seven years. His last pastorate was at Newport, Vermont. His 
persistency and energy and abounding vitality contributed much 
to the building of the handsome church edifice at Newtonville, 
Mass. For several years he was superintendent of schools at Som- 
ersworth, N. H., and a trustee of Kimball Union Academy. In his 
short pastorate at Newport, Vermont, he won a position of influ- 
ence in the whole community. After a brief illness he died June 
17, 1900, aged 53 years. The funeral was conducted by Rev. E. 
M. Chapman assisted by Rev. C. H. Merrill, D. D., and Rev. C. 
R. Flanders. The memory of such a religious leader in this town 
is part of the rich spiritual legacy of this church. 

During the summer of 1885 two prospective candidates for the 
vacant pastorate were considered, but no definite plan was con- 
summated. The men were Rev. Gulick and Rev. W. A. Bartlett 
of Hanover. In September and October a call was extended to 
Rev. Edgar T. Farrill of Hopkinton, salary $1,650. Mr. Farrill 
accepted and the new relations began on the first Sunday in No- 
vember, 1885. Installation services were held December 17, 
1885. The sermon was preached by Rev. Franklin D. Ayer, 
D. D. of Concord, Scripture was read by Rev. N. F. Tilden of 
the Baptist Church, Lebanon, and the invocation by Rev. Calvin 
Stebbins of the Unitarian Church, Lebanon. The address to the 
people was given by the preceding pastor, Rev. John M. Dutton. 
Thus auspiciously began the ministry of the seventh pastor and 
fourth in length of service. In 1887 Grafton County Confer- 
ence held its fifty-ninth anniversary with one church. The be- 
nevolence as reported for the same year was $800. In 1893 the 
125th anniversary of the church was appropriately observed. 
Special services were held during the anniversary week. Year 
by year new additions to membership came, so that during 
Mr. Farrill 's ministry from 1885 to 1902, a period of 17 years, 
125 persons were enrolled as members. Rev. Edgar T. Farrill 
resigned and the resignation went into effect October 31, 1902. 

Mr. Farrill was born in Providence, R, I., August 21, 1854. 
After receiving his early training in private and public and mili- 
tary schools he entered Brown University, from which he grad- 
uated in 1879. He graduated from Andover Theological Sem- 
inary in 1882, and he was ordained to the gospel ministry Sep- 


teruber 27 of that same year. His first pastorate of three years 
was at Hopkinton, N. H., from which charge he was called to 
labor in Lebanon. From Lebanon he was called to his third 
pastorate, where he now labors, Kenosha, Wisconsin. Mr. Far- 
rill has been an active worker for the temperance cause and the 
Sunday school and Christian Endeavor. He has already served 
as trustee of Kimball Union Academy and on the Lebanon school 

The present pastorate began September 1, 1903. To the end 
of 1906 thirty-five persons have united with the church. Benev- 
olence for the same year, 1906, $800. Confession of faith, cove- 
nant and rules of government revised and the third manual has 

The church has had eight pastors, 14 clerks, 26 deacons and 
1,161 members. 

The West Congregational Church. 

In the year 1848 the west part of the town, embracing the 
Connecticut valley from Hanover to Plainfield, having become 
quite thickly settled and the selection of this point as the ter- 
minus of the Northern Railroad having settled the question of 
the future village, whose population were four miles from church 
privileges, a meeting was held at the house of Oliver Stearns on 
May 22, at which ten members of the church at the Centre were 
present, viz. : Richard Kimball, Ebenezer Kimball, Henry G. 
Wood, John Wood, Thomas Wood, Oliver Stearns, Daniel Rich- 
ardson, Elias H. Richardson and Aruna Hall. The meeting was 
duly organized and it was "voted to appoint a committee to se- 
lect a site for a meeting-house somewhere in West Lebanon, to be 
improved at a suitable time." The committee chosen made 
choice of the location where the present house of worship and 
parsonage now stand. In the autumn of 1849 the house was 
ready to be dedicated. On November 8 a council called by 37 
members dismissed from the Centre and seven others assembled. 
The church was organized and the house dedicated. On Decem- 
ber 27 three deacons were chosen, Samuel Wood, David Richard- 
son and Nathan B. Stearns, the last named still holding that of- 
fice. The pulpit was supplied by the professors of Dartmouth 
College till the summer of 1851. On June 26, Rev. Rufus Case 



was installed as pastor and continued in that office till March 12, 
1862. On February 3, 1863, Mr. John H. Edwards was ordained 
and installed pastor. He served the church faithfully for nearly 
eight years and was dismissed in 1871, January 12. Rev. A. B. 
Rich, D. D., was installed pastor May 17, 1871, and continued in 
service till May 18, 1880. Rev. T. C. Pease was called to the 
pastorate and served the church from September, 1880, to Decem- 
ber 2, 1884. Rev. C. E. Havens was the next pastor. His term 
of service was from October 20, 1885, to October 25, 1893. The 
present pastor, Rev. C. Fremont Roper, was inducted into office 
April 17, 1894. The deacons who have served the church are 
Samuel Wood, 2d, chosen December 27, 1849 ; David Richardson, 
chosen December 27, 1849 ; Nathan B. Stearns, elected December 
27, 1849; Charles H. Dana, January 3, 1868; Horace French, 
July 6, 1878; Leonard A. Estabrook, July 6, 1878. The four 
last named are now in active service. Since the church's organ- 
ization 478 have been received to its membership, of whom 170 
are now members. During the history of nearly half a century 
the church has had six pastors, all unanimously called and dis- 
missed in peace. 

Thus the church has had a degree of harmony, peace and fruit- 
fulness such as is enjoyed by few throughout their history. 

(Rev.) C. Fremont Roper. 

West Lebanon, N. H., August 1, 1895. 

The Baptist Church. 

Men and women connected with Baptist churches, near and 
remote, were not wanting in Lebanon during the first half of the 
19th century. They appear to have gradually increased in 
numbers. The nearest Baptist churches were at Hanover Mill 
Village (now Etna) and at East Plainfield, the latter becoming 
extinct or merging with the Meriden church near the middle of 
the century. There was a Free Will Baptist Church on Metho- 
dist Hill, in Enfield, but near where Enfield, Plainfield and Leb- 
anon corner, together owning a union meeting-house, with the 
Methodists. This house, long in disuse, was only removed in 
1906. That at East Plainfield disappeared in the 60 's. The 
families which maintained both nearly all moved away, some to 




»— i 



Lebanon. Churches, like schools, drifted to the business centers, 
and the advent of railroads changed business centers. The sixth 
decade found Baptists numerous and increasing in the village. 
Nearly all were men and women of deep and earnest piety. They 
allied themselves in Christian work and worship with the Con- 
gregational and Methodist churches, and were helpful in the re- 
ligious, Sunday school, and social work of those congregations. 
They greatly endeared themselves by godly lives to the member- 
ship of those churches and became greatly attached to them in 
turn. It was natural that the members of those churches were 
loathe to part with so helpful an element and slow to recognize 
the necessity for a separate interest. Baptists in those days more 
than now, by their views as to baptism and the Lord 's supper, so 
called, were self-deprived of privileges which they greatly de- 
sired. They occasionally absented themselves . from their accus- 
tomed place of worship, and went singly, by twos or threes, and 
sometimes a two-horse load, to Meriden or Mill Village on Com- 
munion Day. Naturally their hearts burned within them all the 
way with a desire for a church to their liking. They believed 
they could be more useful therewith. They at length began to 
think that the prospective growth of the center village warranted 
the establishment of another church. These were conscientious, 
devout, earnest, practical, large-hearted Christian men and 
women. Every light that can be turned on their lives attests 
it. Every trip to a neighboring church intensified the feeling. 
Into this circle of believers, in the autumn of 1860, came one 
who was to prove the magnet to draw them together, the center 
around which they could rally, a leader who was to impart to 
them his own abiding, unquestioning faith, his indomitable 
courage and his exalted ideas of the duty of generous giving for 
the cause of Christ. That leader and magnet was- Rev. Sumner 
Hale. He had the very best of helpers in his wife, Hannah T. 
Hale. He was a graduate of Waterville College and of Newton 
Theological School. A chronic throat trouble hindered his use- 
fulness as a preacher, and regarding it as providential, he turned 
to his trade, that of a scythe finisher, at which he was very skill- 
ful, devoting most of his savings to religious purposes. He was 
following his trade at Fitchburg, Mass., when the firm of Emer- 
son and Cummings, scythe-makers, heard of him and sent one of 


the firm, Mr. Joseph Cummings, a Baptist, to induce him to 
enter its service. It was not until he had made careful inquiry 
into the religious conditions in Lebanon, and saw that here was 
a coveted opportunity, that he was induced to change his resi- 
dence. In a few weeks he had made the personal acquaintance 
of every person of known Baptist proclivities in town, and had 
them assembled for prayer, praise and consultation. The first 
meeting was held at the house of Joseph Cummings, in Decem- 
ber, 1860. Present, Rev. Sumner Hale, Mrs. Hannah T. Hale, 
Joseph Cummings, Mrs. Chloe H. Cummings, Charles V. Cobb, 
Mrs. Betsey A. Cobb, Asa Chase and Gilman C. Whipple. 
Meetings were held Tuesday evenings during the winter, with 
steadily increased interest. The following spring a paper was 
drawn up binding the signers to certain duties, with reference to 
a prospective formation of a church. It was signed by 24 per- 
sons, some of whom left town before the project matured, while 
others came and signed it. No public meetings were held for 
want of a suitable place. All continued helpful in the other 
churches. This broad-minded spirit yielded rich fruit- after- 
ward in the cordial feeling of the other churches. The 
civil war hindered for awhile. Early in 1862 it was decided to 
erect a chapel, and a society was organized under the statutes. 
A committee was appointed consisting of Thomas E. Hough, 
Joseph Cummings and Charles V. Cobb, to purchase a lot, raise 
funds and receive proposals. A lot was purchased on Green 
Street. It was the lot on one-half of which the house of William 
B. Cole now stands, the other half still open as a lawn. The 
house next west (the Foster house) was used as a parsonage till 
1874. The first five pastors lived there. The sixth owned a 
house when called, and the parsonage was disposed of. 

It was never owned by the society, but was held by the owner, 
Mr. J. H. Purmort, at the disposition of the' society as long as 
wanted. Mrs. Purmort was an original member, and he came 
early into the church, from the Free Will Baptist Church on 
Methodist Hill. He was the heaviest contributor to the cost of 
the house of worship, and the largest payer towards ordinary 
expenses. Quite a proportion of the members had indeed been 
Free Will Baptists. 

The contract was given to Mead, Mason & Co., and by August 




the building was completed. A church was organized at the 
house of C. V. Cobb on the evening of the 27th of August. 
Charles V. Cobb and Thomas E. Hough were elected deacons and 
Sumner Hale clerk. "The New Hampshire Articles of Faith" 
were adopted and the form of covenant was copied from that of 
the First Baptist Church in Lawrence, Mass., from which some 
of the members had come. In the forenoon of August 29th the 
house was dedicated. Rev. Foster Henry of Fitchburg, Mass., 
from whose church Mr. and Mrs. Hale had come, preached the 
sermon. Pastors of nearby Baptist churches and of the Congre- 
gational and Methodist local churches took part in the inter- 
esting exercises. On the afternoon of the same day the church 
was duly recognized as a Baptist church by a council called for 
that purpose. The recognition sermon was by Rev. F. E. Cum- 
mings, D. D., of Concord. 

The persons who entered into this church relation at that time 
were : Clement Hough and his wife, Theoda Hough, Asa Chase 
and his wife, Dorothy Currier Chase, Rev. Sumner Hale and his 
wife, Hannah T. Hale, Charles V. Cobb and his wife, Betsey A. 
Cobb, Thomas E. Hough and his wife, Ellen Hough, Edwin W. 
Hough and his wife, Martha D. Hough, John C. Worth and his 
wife, Mary Worth, Elias H. Cheney and his wife, Susan W. 
Cheney. These united heads of families, and besides, Cyrus 
Heath, Gilman C. Whipple, Mrs. Jennie Smith Davis, Mrs. Ara- 
bella Thompson, William D. Bryant, Mrs. Marcia J. Purmort, 
Mrs. Hannah Andrews, Mrs. Harriet N. Cushman, Miss Melissa 
Wright— 26 in all. 

The following Sunday, August 31, the chapel was opened for 
public worship, Rev. E. E. Cummings, D. D., occupying the pul- 
pit. The congregations were large, that of the afternoon over- 
taxing the chapel. A Sunday school was organized at noon, with 
Rev. John McKinlay as superintendent. The evening was given 
to a social, religious, testimony service, in which a large number 
took part. This was followed by a general hand-shaking and 
heart-shaking. It was a day of intense interest to the little 

The pulpit was supplied by neighboring preachers until Octo- 
ber 12th, when Mr. John McKinlay of Lawrence, Mass., came as 
a candidate. He preached two Sabbaths, gave perfect satisfac- 


tion, received a unanimous call, accepted, and immediately en- 
tered on his duties. On Saturday, November 6, 1862, by a coun- 
cil duly called for the purpose, Mr. McKinlay after the usual 
examination, was publicly set apart to the work of the Christian 
ministry, and recognized as pastor of the church. The sermon 
on that occasion was by Rev. H. F. Lane of Boston. McKinlay 
was a native of Alexandria, Dunbartonshire, Scotland, a skillful 
pattern designer, and came to this country, with his wife, nee 
Miss Jean Russell, in 1854. He immediately found lucrative 
employment in the Pacific Mills at Lawrence. Soon after he 
and his wife became interested in personal religion, found con- 
genial spirits in the First Baptist Church in Lawrence, and 
united with it. It soon became evident that he was meant for a 
higher sphere. He was encouraged to abandon his lucrative em- 
ployment, spend all his accumulations and more in preparation 
for the pulpit, anl enter the ministry. He gave two years to 
study at the Baptist Theological School then existing at Fairfax, 
Vt., and one year at Andover, Mass., and was ready for duty, 
providentially, as he and those who called him believed, when the 
church in Lebanon was organized. He was a man of great 
strength of character, thoroughly consecrated to the work he 
espoused. He immediately took a high stand among the clergy 
of the vicinity. 

The history of his ministry of six years is one of uninter- 
rupted church prosperity. The church more than doubled in 
numbers, 39 members being added. He came at last to feel that 
perhaps the church and himself would be benefited by a change, 
and with this in view preached during his vacation one Sabbath 
at Adams, N. Y. He was simply tired, and unaware that a fatal 
disease lurked within him. Coming from his room the morning 
of the second Sabbath at Adams, manuscript in hand and the 
congregation assembled, his host noticed a deathly paleness on 
his face and dissuaded him from entering the church. He went 
to bed instead, lingered, suffering, during the day, and expired 
without a struggle just at the hour of evening service Septem- 
ber 20, 1868. The news was a shock to the community, pro- 
ducing the widest sympathy. His remains tenderly prepared, 
were brought here in charge of Rev. F. E. Osborne, who preached 
the funeral sermon in the Congregational Church, courteously 


tendered for the purpose, in view of the limited capacity of the 
chapel. Business was generally suspended and a large congre- 
gation assembled to do him honor and express sympathy. The 
remains were committed to dust in the village cemetery with 
solemn ceremony, in the presence of many witnesses. Mr. Os- 
borne remained and occupied the pulpit the following Sabbath. 
Ministers of several denominations from the surrounding 
churches, and professors at Dartmouth and New London supplied 
the pulpit for about three months, the salary being continued to 
Mrs. McKinlay. 

With the beginning of 1869, Rev. C. E. Cummings, D. D., 
came as acting pastor. Dr. Cummings was a father in the Bap- 
tist Israel, of long and distinguished service as pastor, his last 
two charges being in Concord. He was distinctly the founder 
of the Pleasant Street Church in Concord, as was Mr. Hale of 
that in Lebanon. From its inception he had been a trusted ad- 
viser of the latter. He had just resigned as pastor at Concord, 
on account of age and the severe duties required in a church of 
that size, but with singular fitness for such an opening. During 
his short ministry the present church edifice was erected at a 
cost of about $12,000, of which $7,000 was raised at home, 
$1,000 contributed abroad, and a debt of nearly $4,000 was left. 
The project had gone so far before Mr. McKinlay left as to se- 
cure a lot, though a change of lot was afterwards made. A 
building committee consisting of Charles V. Cobb, Asa Chase, 
Asa W. Richardson, Jasper H. Purmort, and Henry B. Hough 
was appointed September 15th, only five days before the pas- 
tor's decease, and in his absence. "Work began in the early 
spring, but the first plan adopted proving unsatisfactory to 
many, was suspended to examine other plans, and the present 
house was the result. Mead, Mason & Co. had the job as before. 
Considerable of the cost went into the trusses which support the 
roof, made strong enough to admit of taking out the partition 
which separates the vestry, should it be necessary, without addi- 
tional support. Hon. A. M. Shaw, the well-known Lebanon 
railroad man, said he would dare run a railway train over them. 

The unexpected cost was in the thoroughness with which the 
work was done. The end of the year saw the structure com- 
pleted. It is a singular fact that the man, Nathan F. Tilden, 


who was destined afterwards to be 25 years pastor of the church, 
began his work in Lebanon, having just moved here, by digging 
the trenches for its foundation, and labored upon it in one ca- 
pacity or another till it was completed. 

The little chapel saw its last congregation assembled for wor- 
ship on the 19th day of December, 1879, and the new structure 
was dedicated on the 31st. Dr. Cummings preached the sermon. 
Appropriate service was also held in the evening, the sermon 
being by Rev. Foster Henry. The little chapel was sold to the 
Lebanon High School Association, the precursor of the present 
high school, and for a year or two was used for school purposes, 
then sold and moved to Elm Street, where it serves as a tenement 
house. It was in this building that Commander Harry H. Hos- 
ley, U. S. Navy, who so successfully towed the great floating dock 
to Manila, began his academic course. 

Dr. Cummings had no sooner seen the new house completed 
and everything going smoothly in it, than he himself initiated 
the movement to release him and settle a pastor. With this end 
in view, in August, 1870, he invited a man to occupy the pulpit 
whom he thought most suitable and the people likely to appre- 
ciate, Rev. Jirah Tucker of Randolph, Vt. And they did. 
When Dr. Cummings resigned, two months later, taking a leave 
which was most affectionate, mutually, the church knew whom it 
wanted. The call was unanimous again, was accepted, and the 
church once more started out with bright hopes, save for the 
shadow which the debt left. The burden was made heavier for 
that the State Convention, which had appropriated $100 a year 
to this interest, withdrew its support, on the plea that a congre- 
gation which could build such a house ought to take care of it- 
self. The blow was very severely felt and increased the difficult 
task of paying the debt. Mr. Tucker was a charming person- 
ality, a gifted pulpit orator and consecrated to his work. He 
excelled as a reader of hymns, reading so as to compel the sing- 
ing, "with the spirit and understanding." But he was in deli- 
cate health, more than he or anybody dreamed, and after preach- 
ing ten Sabbaths, with great effort, he was obliged to rest. Re- 
suming his pulpit the first Sunday in January, 1871, he found 
himself completely exhausted at the close of the service. He 
went West, among friends, hoping to regain health, but grew 



rapidly worse, and breathed his last at Upper Alton, 111., April 
24, 1871. Again the church was thrown into the deepest grief. 
But the emergency afforded another opportunity to exemplify 
the spirit of Christian courtesy which has marked Lebanon 
churches. The Congregational Church was repairing and alter- 
ing its house of worship, and the church with the sick pastor 
invited the Congregational pastor, Kev. C. A. Downs, to occupy 
its pulpit, and the congregation to worship with itself. It was 
done, to mutual edification and advantage ; and again the salary 
went to the distressed and bereaved widow. 

The fourth pastor was Rev. Horace F. Barnes, a native of 
Newark, N. J., and a graduate of Amherst and of Newton. He 
had fulfilled a successful pastorate at Buffalo and might easily 
have coveted the larger city church and salary. He chose the 
humbler field because he found a flock which more nearly seemed 
to meet his ideals. His, too, was a charming personality. He 
was an excellent pulpit orator. He attacked the debt, put his 
whole soul into an effort to pay it, and he succeeded. But it was 
at the cost of so crippling the church's ability to raise money for 
ordinary expenses, coupled with the death of one liberal giver 
and the removal of others, with the abandonment of the enter- 
prise by the State Convention, that it became impossible to raise 
his salary, and having a flattering call elsewhere, he accepted it. 
He resigned February 1, 1874. He carried with him ever after 
the warmest affection of the membership. He had a successful 
pastorate at Winchester, Mass., and was for a long time in mis- 
sion work in and near New York. A large part of his useful life 
was spent as assistant pastor of the Tremont Temple Church in 
Boston, from which service he was summoned to the church above 
a few years ago. 

The church was paying a debt, it is well to note, incurred when 
gold was still at a premium of about thirty, and prices propor- 
tionately high, and the country on the swimming tide of the 
prosperity which inflation engenders — paying it with gold back 
nearly though not quite at par and the country almost in a panic, 
in the effort to resume specie payment. Dollars were harder to 
get now. Many a church got caught that way. 

The debt was paid none too soon. In a few years the church 
had lost by death two of its heaviest financial supporters, and 


three more by removal. The five were bearing nearly half the 
yearly expenses, and they had paid nearly half the debt. 

Sunday, September 18, 1872, Rev. Mr. Barnes preached an 
historical discourse, covering the first ten years of the church 
history. This has been preserved. Mrs. Barnes has kindly for- 
warded it as a possible aid in the preparation of this history, and 
it has been found of great value. It is to be preserved. 

Rev. J. H. Gannett was next called, and accepted at the salary 
which the church thought it could raise. He was an excellent 
minister, who had done good work elsewhere and who did good 
work to the end of his life. But conditions had greatly changed 
in Lebanon and in the church now. It was passing through a 
period of adversity, which tried its faith to the uttermost. Rev. 
Sumner Hale left, carrying the unbounded love of those to whom 
he had been so long as "the shadow of a great rock in a weary 
land. ' ' He retired from active labor, ending his ability to give ; 
had given himself poor, and settled in Camden, N. J., where a 
few years later he died — died poor in worldly goods but rich in 
faith. Other liberal givers also left. It was the ebb of the tide, 
even if disaster had not overtaken the town, in the failure of the 
Sturtevant Manufacturing Co. That crippled all the churches. 
It seemed as if the little Baptist Church would have to close its 
doors. Again the pastor had to leave because it became impos- 
sible to raise the money to pay his salary. And pastors must 
live. Mr. Gannett read his resignation, December 12, 1875. The 
church parted with him unwillingly and its love followed him 
to the end of his life. 

It had, however, among its numbers, a preacher, Nathan F. 
Tilden, of no mean ability, whom it had itself licensed to preach, 
and who had filled its own pulpit and many others in emergen- 
cies, that at Etna and the Lebanon Congregational Church 
among others. He was a native of Boston and educated in her 
schools, but without the advantages of theological training. He 
was now a measurer of lumber for the company that went into 
bankruptcy. He was thrown out of work. He owned a house 
and wanted to stay. He loved to preach and people loved to 
hear him. The church asked him to supply, and he did, taking 
what it could pay, and it paid as liberally in proportion to its 
ability as ever. He gave to Bible study now the hours he had 


been wont to give to business, and rapidly developed into a man 
fit to set apart for the ministry. The church finally settled and 
ordained him. There was not a dissenting voice in the council, 
though the examination was unusually critical. It grew not of 
any disposition to be severe, but from the love the pastors had to 
hear him talk. 

He was ordained June 22, 1876, Rev. Dr. Lorimer, the noted 
Tremont Temple pastor of Boston, preaching the ordaining ser- 
mon. He continued in the pastorate 25 years, and under his 
ministry the church gradually recovered somewhat of its stand- 
ing. At the end of fifteen years he had a unanimous call to the 
New London church, where he had often preached on exchange. 
The students especially were glad to hear him. But his church 
simply would not let him go. He afterwards held pastorates in 
"Warner, N. H., and Fiskdale, Mass. He is now settled at Bald- 
winsville, Mass. 

During his pastorate various church improvements were car- 
ried out. The church was made glad by the presentation to it of 
a very excellent pipe organ, by one of its members, Mr. A. W. 
Shapleigh. The audience room was frescoed and otherwise im- 
proved, and a new carpet was provided. Previous to his call to 
preach, Mr. Tilden had won the favor of the whole community by 
his remarkable efficiency as president of the Y. M. C. A. 

Mr. Tilden was followed in 1900 by Rev. W. L. Stone, in a 
three years' pastorate, during which also the church recovered 
somewhat of its lost ground — lost almost wholly by the removal 
of members and most liberal givers. The audience room was- 
renovated again, and a commodious kitchen and parlor were 
added and furnished, free of debt. He was finally recalled by 
the church in Sterling, Mass., whose pastorate he resigned to 
come to Lebanon, and is preaching there at this writing, 1907. 

During Mr. Stone's pastorate, September 18, 1900, the morn- 
ing hour of worship was devoted to an impressive service, com- 
memorative of the life and work of Mr. McKinlay, 32 years af- 
ter his decease. Papers were read by Gilman C. "Whipple, E. H. 
Cheney and Mrs. Mary Emerson Pike. Tender words fell from 
the lips of Mrs. McKinlay, whose presence in town after long 
absence suggested the service. During much of the intervening 


time she had made herself exceedingly useful as matron of a mis- 
sionary children's home at Newton Center, Mass. 

The present pastor, Kev. Frank L. Knapp, came to the church 
in 1904, from an eight years' pastorate in Milford. Under his 
ministry the church pursues the even tenor of its way, meeting 
its liabilities perhaps more easily than ever. If it is not showing 
marked growth, it is to be remembered that the principal growth 
of the village has been Koman Catholic, for a long term of years, 
by the coming in of large numbers of people of that faith, with 
whom, since they own the same Master, it has no quarrel, but is 
rather content to live in peace. 

The church has united at various times with other Protestant 
denominations in union services of various kinds, within doors in 
winter, and out of doors in summer, the latter in recent years. 
In some of these services, illustrating the better spirit now pre- 
vailing than once was wont, the Catholic pastor and congrega- 
tion have been kindly commended to the common Father 's loving 

The church has had five deacons only, viz. : Charles V. Cobb, 
Thomas E. Hough, Gilman C. Whipple, Charles B. Ross, and 
David W. Aldrich. The two original deacons both removed 
from town, nearly simultaneously in the 70 's, and Deacon Cobb 
died in 1884. His remains were brought here for burial. Dea- 
con Hough has recently returned to town, but is too feeble for 
active service. Mr. Whipple was made deacon in 1875, after 
Asa W. Richardson, who soon after died, had declined an election. 
Mr. Ross has served since 1895 and Mr. Aldrich since 1900. 

The church from its organization has taken a deep interest in 
and given liberally to all the missionary and benevolent work of 
the Baptist denomination. Its founder succeeded in imbuing 
it with his own lofty ideals. 

It responded promptly to the Christian Endeavor movement, 
and was early in the field with its own local organization. 

Its Sunday school has uniformly been large and efficient, in 
proportion to the congregation. It was never more prosperous 
than now, 1907, under the superintendency of Deacon C. B. 
Ross, with Mrs. Ross as head of the primary department, which 
meets separately. 

The following persons have served as superintendent: Rev. 


John McKinlay, Rev. Sumner Hale, Charles V. Cobb, Gilman C. 
"Whipple, Nathan F. Tilden, Fred W. Cheney, Amos W. Gee, E. 
H. Cheney and Charles B. Ross. 

In the early records it is frequently noted that Bro. so-and-so 
"preached all day." It means, of course, forenoon and after- 
noon. In 1875 the afternoon service was discontinued during 
July and August, and in 1880 altogether, in all the churches. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Early in the nineteenth century the "Hardy Neighborhood," 
so called, was visited by one or more Methodist preachers and a 
small "class" formed, which as preaching ceased was finally 

The writer has a letter from an aged Methodist minister, who 
says: "I remember when a small boy (about 1810 or 1812) 
seeing a Mr. Evans, who lived in Enfield, often at my father's 
house. He was dressed in 'ye olden style,' with long stockings 
and breeches or kilts, that reached below the knees and were 
fastened with knee buckles. I then thought him an old man, but 
he was probably about forty. He was pastor of a church at 
Enfield, and also judge of probate; he was a Methodist 'itin- 
erant' and often preached in Lebanon, and was one of the pio- 
neers of Methodism in the early part of the nineteenth century." 

It is probable the first sermon preached in organized Metho- 
dism in Lebanon was by Rev. Robert "Williams, a local preacher, 
who preached in the schoolhouse in the Hardy neighborhood 
(then called "The Village") in 1821. He formed a "class" of 
seven persons which was continued, and from which the present 
church sprung. 

Mr. Williams preached in the neighborhood more or less for 
three years with good results, for we find that in the second sum- 
mer of his preaching he baptized Isaac Fitch and Eunice Ed- 
wards in the brook running through the Colonel Alden farm (a 
much larger brook than at the present day), Mr. Fitch by immer- 
sion and Miss Edwards by sprinkling. These were probably the 
first baptisms by Methodists in Lebanon, and the service is re- 
ported to have been witnessed by a large number of people. 

The schoolhouse was soon too small to hold the people, who 
came to hear ' ' the preaching of the word ; ' ' the groves were often 


resorted to as places of worship, and one record says the first 
"Quarterly meeting" was held in a new corn barn on the Fitch 
Loonier place. 

Many Methodists of the early times have blessed memories of 
this same Hardy neighborhood, and at least seven of its resi- 
dents have since become preachers of the Gospel, to wit: Rev. 
Anthony C. Hardy, Rev. George Noyes, Rev. Charles H. Lovejoy 
(of bleeding Kansas fame) and four sons of the Rev. Robert "Wil- 
liams ; a proud record for any neighborhood. 

It is also recorded that in these days Rev. Joseph Kellum came 
to Lebanon and labored with success. He resided with George 
Storrs on the hill south of the plain, where he formed a "class" 
and George Storrs was appointed "leader." Mr. Storrs was 
born and reared in Lebanon, educated at Kimball Union Acad- 
emy, and while quite young was appointed captain of a uni- 
formed company of militia, and afterwards became major of his 
regiment, and was in a fair way of promotion when he became 
satisfied that he was commissioned from the highest of all author- 
ity to preach the Gospel. He was in easy financial circumstances 
and sought an interview with Rev. Robert Williams, which re- 
sulted in his uniting with the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
was licensed as a preacher ; was ordained in 1829, and filled some 
of the best appointments in the New Hampshire and Vermont 
conference. Being a man of strong convictions, he embraced 
anti-slavery principles and evidently feeling the church did not 
take sufficiently advanced ground, withdrew. Mr. Storrs wrote 
several noteworthy books, and died in Brooklyn, N. Y. Mr. 
Storrs often preached in the Hardy schoolhouse, but after a time 
the Methodists began to preach in the old "Town House," when 
it stood on the common. 

An old citizen remembers a communion service held in the 
old town house, where a communion rail was improvised by 
using planks at which to kneel. A large number of people are 
reported to have been present. This was about 1828. 

The first mention we find of Lebanon in the general minutes is 
in 1825, when Lebanon is reported as a part of Canaan circuit. 
In 1828- '29 it is quoted as being connected with Plainfield or 
Meriden circuit. About this time a revival is reported and 
Christopher Tone, the son of a Hessian soldier, who did not 


fancy having his services sold to the English for the purpose of 
putting down the rebellion of the colonies, and who for that rea- 
son deserted their ranks at the battle of Bennington, was, with 
his wife, converted, and came to Lebanon to live. He was a man 
of great energy and perseverance, and was one of the leaders in 
building the present house of worship ; for the record says in 
1832 Marlin Downer, Christopher Tone and Isaac Fitch, seeing 
the need of a house of worship, took the entire responsibility on 
themselves, bought the land, built the church, depending on the 
sale of the pews for their pay, and while rumor says it was not a 
financial bonanza for themselves, it did prove a good investment 
for the cause of Christ. Their record is on high ; their reward 
in heaven. 

On January 6, 1832, Constant Storrs, Christopher Tone, 
Moody Noyes, Isaac Fitch and "William Pardee assembled and 
formed themselves into a religious association, "to be known as 
the first Methodist Episcopal Society of Lebanon, County of 
Grafton and state of New Hampshire, agreeable to an act of the 
Legislature of said state, passed July 3, 1827, entitled 'An Act 
empowering religious societies to assume and exercise corporate 
powers.' " 

They agreed to "assemble at the house of H. M. French on 
Monday, 23rd day of January, 1832, at one o'clock in the after- 
noon to organize and adopt a constitution." The meeting was 
held on time, but for some reason not at H. M. French's, for the 
record says, "The first annual meeting convened at the house of 
Calvin Benton in said town and adjourned to the house of Mrs. 
Lucinda Storrs," when the constitution was adopted. The rea- 
son for this sudden change does not appear. At the first an- 
nual meeting Nathaniel Ladd was chosen "moderator" and 
Marlin Downer clerk, an office which Mr. Downer held for many 

The house was finished in the spring of 1833, and was dedi- 
cated "to Almighty God and the use of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church forever" by Rev. B. R. Hoyt, the exact date being lost. 

At the Vermont and New Hampshire conference (then one) 
held at Windsor, Vt., August 6, 1833, Rev. J. W. Morey was ap- 
pointed to Lebanon Methodism, which may be said to have set 
up "housekeeping" that year. 


In 1836 five men bought a house and lot directly opposite the 
church, which cost them about $800, which in 1838 they deeded 
to a board of trustees, to be held for a Methodist Episcopal par- 
sonage forever. This house was in 1861 moved to Elm Street 
and a new parsonage built. 

The church edifice has been much increased in size by adding 
transepts, balcony and a choir chancel, and has a seating ca- 
pacity of nearly seven hundred. 

The church has had thirty-three pastors in its seventy-five 
years of existence, one, Kev. Chas. E. Hall, D. D., having served 
two terms, the first in 1873-74-75, and again in 1896-97-98. 

The church in Lebanon has always extended a most cordial 
welcome to the masses, and for years has been the church home 
of large congregations, the present membership being about two 
hundred and fifty. 

The church contains a fine organ, largely the gift of the late 
Hon. A. M. Shaw, who was for many years a liberal supporter of 
this church. The choir has for many years consisted of a large 
chorus, the policy being to utilize the musical talent of the 
younger members of the congregation, who contribute their ser- 
vices, and it speaks well for the solid character of the choir, 
when we say the present chorister has wielded the baton for 
forty-two j^ears. 

The church celebrated its seventy-five years of existence in 
January, 1908, with interesting services extending over two 
weeks, during which the history of the church was carefully re- 

In 1901 the society voted to make the pews free and preaching 
is supported by the voluntary contributions of the people, who 
contribute weekly as the Lord has prospered them, and all bills 
are cheerfully met. 

The Universalist Society. 

It has been well said that "the history of a church can never 
be written." Especially is this true when so few of the people 
who are active in the affairs of the most worthy objects fail to 
consider the necessity of recording and carefully preserving the 
proceedings of the organization of which they are members. 




The task I have undertaken, to give a brief sketch of the Uni- 
versalist Society of Lebanon, has been rendered extremely diffi- 
cult by a failure in recording and preserving intact the records 
of its early days. 

From the material at hand, however, we learn that the Uni- 
versalist Society was organized about 1808 (the exact date can- 
not be given as the early records are lost), and for several years 
prior to their calling a minister meetings were held and occa- 
sional sermons delivered by the early pioneers of the denomina- 
tion, viz. Hosea Ballou, Sebastian Streeter, Sylvanus Cobb and 

Their meetings were held a portion of the time in the house 
of Thomas Packard, situated on the road to Enfield, and now 
owned and occupied by George E. Gile. 

The construction of this house, like many others of that day, 
was well adapted for the purpose. In the second story was a 
large square room designed and used for the purpose of spinning 
the yarn and weaving the cloth used by the family, as was the 
custom in those days. At other times services were held in some 
schoolhouse in the town, where accommodations for the follow- 
ers of this faith could be obtained. In 1811 and again in 1819 
the general conventions of the denomination were held here. 

The first settled minister was the Eev. Daniel Pickering. He 
was followed by Rev. Lemuel Willis, whose date of settlement 
was in 1824. 

They made good proof of their ministry and were highly re- 
spected by the people of Lebanon, but no man was ever more 
beloved in the town than their successor, Rev. John Moore of 
saintly memory, whose ministry dated from March, 1828. His 
engagement in Lebanon was for half the time. During the 
other half he preached in Claremont, Newport, Hanover, Lyme, 
Piermont, N. H., and in his native place, Strafford, and other 
towns in Vermont. He had one of the most promising fields for 
religious culture, and well did he improve his opportunities. 
He was both pastor and missionary and well qualified did he 
prove himself for both kinds of ministerial work, and his influ- 
ence for good was felt wherever he went. He was everywhere a 
representative and advocate of the cause he had espoused. 

Dignified, yet gentle and easy in manner, plain and persua- 



sive in his public speech, he could not fail of eliciting attention 
and commanding respect wherever he appeared. 

In September, 1830, the Universalist General Convention was 
again held in Lebanon, and was an occasion of great interest to 
all present. Under date of January 29, 1831, I find the follow- 
ing recorded : 

"On the 11th day of January, 1831, Enoch Freeman, James 
Willis and Daniel Whittemore of Lebanon in the County of 
Grafton, and State of New Hampshire, and others, their asso- 
ciates, members of the denomination of Christians called Uni- 
versalists having met at the inn of Calvin Benton, Esq., in said 
Lebanon, assumed the corporate name of 'The First Universal- 
ist Society in Lebanon, New Hampshire. ' 

"Attest: Nathan B. Felton, Clerk of said Society. 

"January 29, 1831." 

Kev. Mr. Moore remained with the society in Lebanon until 
February, 1833, when he accepted a call to Danvers, Mass. 
Upon his withdrawal great disappointment was felt, and at a 
meeting of the society held just prior to his departure he entered 
into an agreement to return to them at the expiration of a year, 
should they then earnestly desire it. During the year of his 

absence Rev. Knapp administered to the society. At the 

end of the year the Lebanon society claimed the fulfillment of 
Mr. Moore's promise to return to them, and he accordingly did 
so, resuming his labors in January, 1835. 

It was during the year 1835 that the "Town Meeting House" 
was remodelled, the Universalists finishing a commodious audi- 
ence room in the second story. There were 68 slips, besides a 
large orchestra in front of the desk. The alterations were com- 
pleted in August when the house was reopened for religious wor- 
ship by dedicatory services. The church organization was not 
perfected until the return of Rev. Mr. Moore in 1835. I find 
this record pertaining to the church: "We the undersigned 
believing our individual and mutual edification and growth in 
grace may be improved, the apostolic examples observed and the 
cause of truth and happiness promoted by the organization of a 
church, in connection with the First Universalist Society of Leb- 
anon, do hereby enter into such connection, and adopt the New 



Testament as the rule of our faith and practice. We will, there- 
fore, invite to our communion all Christians, and receive into 
our fellowship any person desirous of leading a Christian life." 

Rev. Mr. Moore remained with the society at Lebanon until 
December, 1839, when he removed to Hartford, Conn. From 

1840 to 1851 the ministers were Revs. Harris, John J. 

Putnam, Lemuel B. Mason, and John S. Lee, the latter severing 
his connection with the society in 1851, to assume the charge of 
the Green Mountain Liberal Institute at South "Woodstock, Vt., 
where he also had a class in theology, and fitted nine young men 
for the ministry. 

In 1852 the Rev. George W. Bailey accepted a call to the 
society and his pastorate extended to 1865 or 1866. At the close 
of Mr. Bailey's ministry, this organization was merged into the 
Unitarian Society. The rebuilding or remodelling of the old 
"Town Meeting House" into its present form resulted in the 
decline of interest in the maintainance of an organization of this 
faith, and its small fund, derived from the sale of its pews in the 
old "Meeting House" was divided by a vote of the society, a 
portion going toward the purchase of an organ for the Unitarian 
Society, the balance to the trustees of the Public Library, the 
income to be appropriated for the purchase of books. 

Note. — From the Universalist Register I take the following: "In 
1859 Dr. Lee removed to Canton, N. Z., where he was connected with 
St. Lawrence University as president for nine years. His health be- 
coming impaired, he sought rest and renewed strength in a journey to 
Europe and the Holy Land. After his return he wrote and published 
two books: "Nature and Art in the Old "World," and "Sacred Cities," 
both evincing wise and profitable observations in his travels. Resuming 
work in the university he was appointed professor of ecclesiastical his- 
tory and biblical archaeology in the Theological School, a position which 
he held the remainder of his life, a period of thirty-three years. In 1874 
he received the degree of D. D. from Butchel College and in 1901 the 
degree of LL. D. from Tufts College. Doctor Lee was a man of great 
industry, genial, eminently social in his nature and steadfast in his 
friendships. In the midst of his varied professional duties, he found 
time to contribute many valuable articles to the denominational papers, 
and from 1850 to 1891 he furnished twenty valuable papers to the 
Universalist Quarterly. All his powers were devoted to the church of 
his love, and he rendered long and devoted service to her institutions 
of learning. His death occurred in Canton, N. Z., September 18, 1902. 

436 history of lebanon. 

Sacred Heart. 

The first mass was celebrated at Lebanon in 1835, by Rev. 
Father O'Reilley. The mission was afterward supplied by Rev. 
Fathers Daily and Brady until 1862. The first church was pur- 
chased by Father Brady in 1856. The Rev. Father Noiseux af- 
terward attended Lebanon until 1870, when it was placed under 
the charge of the pastor at Claremont, Rev. Father Devonne. 
The Very Rev. John Murphy, late Vicar General of Portland, 
Me., also attended this mission from Laconia, where he was pas- 
tor. His successor, Rev. Father Goodwin, looked after it until 
the appointment of Rev. L. Trudell as first resident pastor in 
1871. Father Finnegan succeeded Father Truedell in 1876. It 
was he who built the present neat and convenient church and 
also the parochial residence. 

The old church was sold to a gentleman of the town and made 
into a factory, for which purpose it is still used. Father Finne- 
gan was followed in 1881 by Rev. Father Sullivan, who in turn 
was succeeded by Rev. Father Laplante in 1882. At Hanover, a 
mission of Lebanon, Father Laplante purchased land and his 
successor, in 1886, the Rev. Father Paradis, built a very neat 
church upon it, which was dedicated by Bishop Bradley in 1887. 
Father Paradis improved the parochial residence in Lebanon and 
increased the seating capacity of the church. He also purchased 
a cemetery which was consecrated by Bishop Bradley in 1891. 
Hanover, Enfield, Canaan, Danbury, Potter Place and Andover 
are missions of Lebanon, and like it, have been attended by the 
several pastors of Claremont, Laconia and Lancaster. 

Parochial schools under the charge of lay teachers were estab- 
lished by Father Paradis in 1889. Father Paradis was trans- 
ferred to Littleton in 1893, and was succeeded by Rev. Martin 
H. Egan, who is at present the efficient pastor of Lebanon. He 
is assisted by Rev. Fr. Bernadin. (Rev. M. H. Egan was trans- 
ferred to Keene in 1907.) 




LOTS, LEBANON', N. H, iTii! 1608, 



Annual meetings 188, 214-217 

Annual meeting illegal 279 

Aspenwall, Zalmon, accused and 

tried 100 

Assemblies held in private 

houses 59 

Barbarick, John, confesses 101 

Bequest of C. C. Benton 318 

Bequests to the town 311, 312 

Bonds issued to fund debt 302 

"Boston Lot'' first home spot. . . 53 

Boundaries 64, 65, 66 

Boy, binding out of 164, 165 

Bridge, agreement to build 31 

Bridges, vote to put railings on 253 

Bridge year 190 

Burying ground, deeds of voted 32 

laid out 20, 21 

voted to clear and fence 34 

also to enlarge 255 

and to lay out a new one. . . . 278 
Burying grounds, improvement 
and enlargement of, author- 
ized 292 

village burying ground fenced 287 
Business mainly farming 199 

Canada, final conquest of 1 

Canoe trip disaster 53 

Capital punishment 276 

Cart bridge, voted to build 32 

Cemetery purchased 190, 293 

Cemetery, West Lebanon 286 

Census taken, 1767 56 

1775 ..' 68 

1786 158 

Centennial fourth of July cele- 
brated 312 


Charter of Lebanon 2-4 

provisions of 5, 6 

Churches of the town 405-436 

Congregational 405-417 

organized 405-407 

charter members 405 

ministers 409-417 

meeting house 408, 409 

one for whole town 410 

first Sabbath school organ- 
ized 411 

memorial tablet to Rev. Mr. 

Cutler 411 

land donated for parsonage 412 
total abstinence a condition 

of membership 412 

church raise fund 412 

movement to organize a new 

church at W. Lebanon 413 

Rev. Isaiah Potter 409 

Rev. Calvin Cutler 411 

Rev. Phineas Cooke 412 

Rev. Charles A. Downs 413 

Rev. Walter H. Ayers 414 

Rev. John M. Dutton 415 

Rev. Edgar T. Farrill 416 

West Congregational 417, 418 

church organized 417 

pastors 417, 418 

Baptist 418-429 

society organized, chapel 
erected, parsonage se- 
cured 420 

chapel opened 421 

church membership 421 

Sunday school organized . . . 421 

Rev. John McKinlay 421 

Rev. E. E. Cummings 423 

Rev. Jirah Tucker 424 



Churches of the town, 
Baptist, Continued. 

Rev. Horace F. Barnes 425 

Rev. J. H. Gannett 426 

Rev. Nathan F. Tilden 426 

Rev. W. L. Stone 427 

Rev. Frank L. Knapp 428 

deacons 428 

Sunday school organized... 421 

superintendents 428, 429 

edifice erected 423 

debt paid 425 

pipe organ presented 427 

improvements made 427 

Methodist 429-432 

first baptisms 429 

part of Canaan circuit 430 

society organized 431 

house dedicated 431 

had thirty-three pastors... 432 

has a fine organ 432 

Universalist 432-435 

organized, 433 

first minister 433 

assumes corporate name. . . . 434 
worship in town meeting- 
house 434 

adopt rules of faith 434, 435 

becomes Unitarian 435 

Sacred Heart 436 

pastors 436 

Cider and sewage, sale of 313 

Cilley, Col., regiment of 94 

Cleaveland, Tyxhall, accused 

and tried 100 

Clocks, town 322 

Coasting on highway prohibited 

317, 318 

Cohos country 1 

Colburn Park 324 

Colburn. Robert, accused of aid- 
ing in felling tree on Sunday 103 

Cold Friday 232 

Collector of taxes instructed 287, 288 
College commencement largely 

attended 214 


Committees chosen 9, 10 

Committee of Safety 100-107 

members of 106 

Common given to town 256 

regulations for protection of 

299, 300 

vote to grade, fence, etc 284 

meeting-house, vote to pur- 
chase reserve rights 266 

Congregational Church formed. 59 
Connecticut river, surveying the.. 52 
Connecticut valley, townships 

chartered in 2 

Constitution, new, adopted 153 

Continental Congress, expense 

for attendance voted 45 

powerless 161 

Continental currency worthless 157 

Controversy with Enfield 66, 67 

Convention for revision of con- 
stitution 185, 186 

Convention held to frame a new 

constitution 161 

also called to judge the same 162 

adopted 163 

Cotton factory 239 

Counterfeit bill passes through 

several hands 104 

Counterfeit money 70 

County farm, establishment of. 291 

Culler of staves 314, 315 

Currency depreciates 156 

Cutler, Rev. Calvin, settled 240 

Dartmouth College controversy. 242 
Davison, Oliver, settles and 

builds mill 55 

Davison's sawmill 18, 21 

Deer hunted and killed unlaw- 
fully 40 

Division of 100 acres voted. . .21, 23 

Doctors 240 

Dog tax, balance of 322, 323 

"Doubling up" 263 

Downer, William, and family 
settle 54 



Downer, William. Jr.. accused 

of swearing, etc 104-106 

Dresden, incorporation of, asked 


Education facilities 70 

Election, 1788 163 

Encouragement for speedy set- 
tlement 1, 13-15, 17, 18 

Enfield, controversy with 66, 67 

Engine Co., No. 2, voted pay... 294 
Estabrook, Hobart, confesses... 101 

Ferry franchise confirmed 8 

Fire department, movement for 

245, 246 

Firemen's pay 285 

Fire precinct extended 305 

Fire, great 384-404 

list of losses 393-395 

insurance 395-399 

notes about 399-401 

origin a mystery 401 

relief work 402 

who will rebuild 402, 403 

Fire precinct, etc 370-404 

meeting called 370 

voted to adopt and raise 

money 371 

precinct incorporated 372 

apparatus furnished 372 

money borrowed on its notes. 373 
new engine house, etc., peti- 
tioned for 373 

movement for reliable supply 

of water , 374 

money voted 374, 375 

officers chosen 375 

hose tower voted 375 

pipes and hydrants author- 
ized 375 

also purchase of a chemical 

engine 375 

boundaries enlarged 376 

voted hook and ladder outfit 377 

legislature recognizes it 377 

motion to ratify carried 378 

bills ordered paid 378 

Fire precinct, Continued. 

change in the boundaries 379 

firewards 379 

tax assessed on whole town. . 379 
contract to keep pump ready 380 
committee chosen to investi- 
gate introducing running 

water 381 

firewards elected 381, 382 

vote to introduce running 

water 382 

committee appointed to adjust 

damages 382, 383 

committee authorized to pro- 
cure necessary surveys.. 383 
Fires, extinguishment of... 276, 277 

Fish inspector appointed 189 

Foord. Rev. John, supply Sec- 
ond Congregational church. 240 
Four post routes established... 243 

Freight teams and stages 263 

Freshet, great 248 

Glebe for Church of England ... 5 

Glenwood Cemetery 248 

purchased 293 

Governor's lot, committee cho- 
sen to lay out 30, 52 

Grafton County, vote not to di- 
vide 262 

Grain ground 69, 70 

Grantees of Lebanon 4, 5 

Grievances, action to refer to 

General Assembly j51 

Grist-mill privilege granted 18 

voted conditionally 26 

voted to build 43 

Groceries selling beer and cider 

nuisances 288 

Hanover street bridge replaced 

by one of iron 302, 303 

Hat factory 239 

Hay scales 248 

erection of, granted 302 

Hearse for West Lebanon voted 289 
Hearse voted 294, 304 



Health, first board of, elected.. 304 
Hendee, Capt Joshua, Co. of.. 92-95 

Highway, intervale 20 

Highways, prices for work on. . 190 
Hill. Charles, accused of passing 

counterfeit money 102 

settles, West Lebanon 55 

Hog constables first recognized. 152 
Hog reeves, last time chosen 313. 314 
Horse sheds, land leased for... 283 

Hose, purchase of 299 

House, Capt., Co. of 94 

House on poor farm burned .... 294 
Hubbard bridge, voted to build 31 

Humphrey Wood bridge 285 

Huskings 201 

Hyde, Levi, deposition of 159 

Indians no longer feared 1 

Inoculation for small pox 215 

Introduction 1 

Inventory, earliest 186, 187 

law of 196 

Johnston's Island 53 

Journeying mainly by horseback 199 
Justice of the court, first ap- 
pointment of 312, 313 

King's highway 9, 55 

Landee. Abigail, accused of 

breaches of the peace 106 

Lakes of ancient times 46, 47 

Land for propagation of the gos- 
pel 5 

Lathrop, George H., receives 

vote of thanks 277 

Law facilities 70 

Lawyers 240 

Lebanon, development of 144-197 

accession of inhabitants 144 

dam across Mascomy river 

sanctioned 144 

undivided land laid out in 50- 

acre lots 144, 145 

drawers of 50-acre division. . . ±45 

Lebanon, development of, Con- 

plan of township made 145 

lots of 20 acres asigned by lot- 
tery 145 

Legislature held as prisoners. . . 157 
Liquors, action to secure a law 

against traffic in 288 

Log Cabin campaign, etc 258 

Li urging bees 201 

Lots drawn 11. 12, 16, 17, 49, 50 

laid out 49 

mode of marking 51 

ownership of. hard to identify 51 

Lottery voted 11 

Lumber sawed 69 

Lyman's bridge 198, 202, 203 

movement to make it free. . . . 305 
controversy respecting it.. 306-311 
finally made free 311 

Maintenance for Mr. and Mrs. 

Patrick, auctioned off 184 

Male inhabitants, 1776, list of 68, 69 
Mann. John, journey of, to Or- 

ford 54, 55 

Manufacture of nails 185 

Manufacturers exempted from 

Taxation 321 

Manufactures, encouragement of 

295, 303, 304 

Mascomy river 46-49 

Masting pines 163 

Merchants 239 

Meeting-house, building refused 28 

first 59 

floor plan 174 

gallery plan 176 

ground for, fixed near burying 

ground 29 

location fixed 33, 34, 37, 60, 160 

167, 170 

location changed 30, 61 

reasons for strife as to loca- 
tion 63, 64 



Meeting-house, Continued. 

money to build, appropriated 38 

61, 161 

size altered 37, 38 

tax raised to build 36 

proprietors assess tax to build 62 

subscriptions to build 173 

voted to build 33, 34, 60, 61 

151, 155, 161, 165, 169 
voted to procure plan of floor 41 

subscribers' accounts 174, 175 

vote to build reconsidei'ed . . . . 166 

168. 169 

voted to move 155, 255 

old, pulled down 168 

distances measured 171 , 

vote to sell pews 246 

pews sold 177, 178 

vote to repair 246, 265 

to repair windows 250 

to alter 250 

proportionate occupancy by 

different denominations.. 247 
Congregationalists build new 

one 247 

"war" 178-184 

Mineral formation 46 

Minister, committee chosen to 

procure 31 

provision for 20, 24, 36 

Mob dispersed 158 

Mo^ey in use, paper, currency 

of England, Spanish coin. . . 70 

Occupants, first winter 52 

Orchards 201 

Park on Hanover street 295 

Path, first completed. 1763 o2 

Pension bureau, transcript from 

98, y9 

Petition for ferry 154 

for peaceable dissolution of 
the Union presented in 

Senate 259, 230 

produces great excitement... 260 

Phelps, Bezaleel, accused of al- 
tering bill 101 

Pine Plain road laid out 252 

Pine trees, preservation of 6 

Plan of town accepted 12 

Plan for a new town 147 

Police officers, appointment of. . 289 

Political affairs... 248, 249, 256, 257 

279-281, 289-291, 300, 301 

Political parties 242 

Poor distributed in families. . . . 294 
Poor farm, voted to purchase. . 251 

Poor house, voted to build 184 

Postage 243 

Postmasters 324 

Post rider 199 

Potter, Rev. Isaiah, called to 

the ministry 38, 58 

accepts 36, 58 

ordained pastor 59 

salary voted 39, 58, 231 

vote where to preach 187 

for settlement with 230 

committee chosen to confer 

with 231 

his son sues for arrears o