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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Library of the 

Museum of 

Comparative Zoology 




MCZ 
LIBRARY 

MAR 2 9 1990 

' JARVARD 
IVERSITY 



Entomologist's 
Record 



AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 



EDITED BY 

P. A. SOKOLOFF, f.r.e.s. 



Vol. 101 
1989 



Ill 



CONTENTS 



Aberration of Gymnoscelis rufifasciata 

(Haworth) (Lep.: Geometridae) — the 

Double-striped pug. C. W. Plant, 105. 
Abraxas grossulariata L. (Lep.: Geo- 
metridae), has it been shifting its Hfe 

cyclQl A. A. Allen, 13% 
Acleris abietana (Hiibn) (Lep.: Tortrici- 

dae) in Aberdeenshire. M.C. Townsend, 

208 
Acleris abietana (Hiibn. (Lep.: Tortrici- 

dae) - records and foodplants, M.R. 

Young. 37 
Agonopterix carduella Hiibner (Lep.: 

Oecophoridae) in October. J.M. Chal- 
mers-Hunt, 39 
Agriopis marginaria Fab. (Lep.: Geometri- 
dae), the Dotted-border moth caught in 

December, A.M. Riley. 35 
Agrotis ipsilon Hufn. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 

in March. J. Owen, 187 
An apparently new species of Homoneura 

(Dipt.: Lauxaniidae) from north-west 

Kent. A. A. Allen, 199 
An early record of Agrotis segetum D. & S. 

(Lep.: Noctuidae) 7?./. Heckford, 186 
Ants (Hym.: Formicidae) of the Gower 

Peninsular, West Glamorgan, South 

^dilQS.N.C. Blacker, 16\ 
Atheta standiella Brundin (Col.: Staphi- 

linidae) in Norfolk, East Inverness and 

Wester Ross, Scotland. J. A. Owen, 88 
Atheta (Dimetrota) puncticollis Benick in 

S. Devon and the Scottish Highlands. 

A.A.Allen, 104 
Axylia putris L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) a mela- 

nic form in N.W. Kent. B.K. West, 198 
Baris laticollis (Marsham) (Col.: Curcu- 

liniodae) as a pest of cultivated cabbages. 

J. A. Owen, 49 
Beautiful Brocade, Lacanobia contigua 

(D. & S.) (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Suffolk 

in Septem.ber. C. W. Plant, 160 
Beetles and bugs on a Thames-side wall in 

autumn. A.A.Allen, 47 
Bembidion (Lymnaeum) nigropiceum 

Marsh (Col.: Carabidae) in West Kent. 

A.A.Allen, 55 
Bibloporus minutus Raff ay (Col.: Psela- 

phidae) in Surrey. D.A. Prance, 230 



Bivoltinism in Eupithecia tripunctaria H.- 

S. (Lep.: Geometridae) in south-east 

England. B.K. West, 57 
Book talk W.J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, 275 
Brachypalpus laphriformis (Fallen) (Dipt.: 

Syrphidae) A^.L. Birkett, 59 
Breeding Gnorimus nobilis Linn. (Col.: 

Scarabidae) in captivity. J. A. Owen. 19 
Brimstone moth {Opisthograptis luteolata 

L.). (Lep.: Geometridae) B.K. West, 167 
Browne versus Watson: Round two. R.R. 

Uhthoff-Kaufmann, 61. 
Bryaxis puncticollis Denny (Col.: Psela- 

phidae) apparently new to Kent. A. A. 

Allen, 11 
Butterflies in winter. A. Archer-Lock, 117 
Butterflies of New Providence Island, 

Bahamas, A further review. B.K. West, 

109 
Butterfly records from Dorset, 1988. A.M. 

and D.K. Riley, 33 

Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hiibn.) (Lep.: 
Tortricidae) in North-east England. T.C. 
Dunn, 52 

Callophrys rubi L., the Green Hairstreak 
(Lep.: Lycaenidae) an additional food- 
plant, J.R. Roberts, 248 

Caloptilia elongella L. (Lep.: Gracillari- 
idae) on a previously unrecorded food- 
plant. ^.S. Boot, 166 

Caloptilia falconipennella (Hiibn.) and C. 
populetorum (Zell.) (Lep.: Gracil- 
lariidae) in Kent. D. O'Keeffe, 64 

Carabus intricatus L. (Col.: Carabidae) in 
Britain, with special reference to its pre- 
sent day status. A. A. Allen, 113 

Celastrina argiolus L. (Holly Blue) (Lep.: 
Lycaenidae) in North London, unusual 
abundance of, K.G. V. Smith, 278 

Cheilosia variabilis Paz. (Dipt.: Syrphidae) 
and fig wort. A. A. Allen, 18 

Chloroclystis rectangulata L. (Lep.: Geo- 
metridae) ab. pilcheri ab. nov. G.M. 
Haggett, 65 

Cleorodes lichenaria Hufn., the Brussels 
Lace (Lep.: Geometridae), a further 
note on. A. Spalding, 138 

Clouded Yellow butterfly in Warwickshire. 
B.R. Mitchell, 238 



IV 



Coleophora lassella Stgdr. (Lep.: Coleo- 
phoridae) and other microlepidoptera at 
Rothamsted trap in Surrey. R.M. 
Palmer, 186 

Coleoptera of shingle banks on the river 
Ystwyth, Dyfed. A.P. Fowles, 209 

Colostygia multistrigaria Haw., the 
Mottled Grey (Lep.: Geometridae) in 
mid-winter. J. Platts, 64 

Comments on the Garden Tiger moth, 
Arctia caja L. (Lep.: Arctiidae). B.K. 
West, lis 

Comparison of light-trap catches in decid- 
uous and coniferous woodland. P. 
Waring, 1 

Colvolvulus hawkmoth in Cornwall. W.G. 
Kittle, 281 

Cryptopleurum crenatum Panz. (Col.: 
Hydrophilidae) in West Kent and Here- 
fordshire. A. A. Allen, 116 

Current literature, 41-44, 92, 138-140, 188, 
206, 234, 281-284 

Cyclophora pendularia CI. (Lep.: Geo- 
metridae) in a new Dorset location. 
G.H. Eastwick-Field, Til 

Cyclophora pendularia CI. (Lep.: Geo- 
metridae) in Hampshire. J.M. Clarke, 
184 

Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in 
the Iberian Peninsula — spring 1988. 
T.W.C. Tolman, 195 

Dendrolimus pini L., the Pine-tree Lappet 
(Lep.: Lasciocampidae) in Guernsey. 
T.D.N. Peet, 248 

Diagnostic note on two species of Cassida 
L. (Col.: Chrysomelidae) A. A. Allen, 
205 

Dichomeris ustalella Fab., (Lep.: Gelechi- 
idae) rediscovered in Britain. A.N.B. 
Simpson, 17 

Dienerella filiformis Gyll. (Col.: Lathrydi- 
idae) in a S.E. London house. A. A. 
Allen, 41 

Diplocoelus fagi GuQT . (Col.: Biphyllidae) 
in S.E. London. A. A. Allen, 55 

Dipterous prey of Scorpion-fly Panorpa 
communis L. (Mecoptera: panorpidae). 
J.F. Burton, 116 

Double-brooded Eupithecia tripunctaria 
H.-S. G.M.Haggett, 184 

Early emergence of Thera britannica 
Turner (Spruce Carpet) (Lep.: Geo- 
metridae). A.M. Riley, 178 



Editorial, 237 

Elenchus tenuicornis (Kirby) (Strepsiptera: 
Elanchidae) in Cambridgeshire. D.A. 
Procter, 36 

Endotricha consobrinalis Zeller (Lep.: 
Pyralidae) — a species new to Britain. 
B. Goodey, 107 

Endotricha consobrinalis Zell. in Britain — 
a possible migrant? R.F. Bretherton, 198 

Ennomos fuscantaria Haw. (Lep.: Geo- 
metridae) — a melanic form in N.W. 
Kent. B.K. West, 178 

Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) (Lep.: Tor- 
tricidae) in Wales. E.F. Hancock, 111 

Essex Emerald moth, rescue bid to save 
from extinction. P. Waring, 231 

Euchoeca nebulata Scop. (Lep.: Geo- 
metridae), the Dingy Shell, in East 
Anglia in 1988, a probable second 
brood. C. W. Plant, 16 

Eucosma metzneriana Treitschke in East 
Sussex. M. Parsons, 254 

Eupithecia valerianata Hiibn. (Valerian 
Pug) and Eupithecia virgaureata 
Doubleday (Goldenrod Pug) (Lep.: 
Geometridae) in Breconshire. A.M. 
Riley, 174 

Evidence for bivoltinism in Eupithecia tri- 
punctaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae) in 
north-west Essex. A.M. Emmet, 185 

Further notes on Eupithecia tripunctaria 
H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae). E.C.L. 
Simson, 278 

Geometrid larvae feeding on bilberry ( Vac- 
cinium myrtillus) after descending from 
oaks. B.P. Hen wood, 40 

Glyphipteryx linneella Clerck (Lep.: Cos- 
mopterigidae) in Nottinghamshire. A.S. 
Boot, 202 

Hadena compta D. & S. and Spodoptera 
exigua Hiibn. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 
North Worcestershire. M.D. Bryan, 84 

Hadena compta D. & S. in north Worces- 
tershire. M.D. Bryan, 187 

Haploglossa picipennis (Gyllenhall) (Col.: 
Staphylinidae) in Ospreys' nests. J. A. 
Owen & S. Taylor, 53 

Hardy Hofmannophila and a beetle. P. A. 
Sokoloff, 89 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Ander- 
mans, 1988. T.B. Larsen. 183 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Leba- 
non 1973. T.B. Larsen, 131 



Hazards of butterfly collecting — Oman, 
May 1981. T.B. Larsen, 83 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Dhofar, 
October 1979. T.B. Larsen, 106 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Moroc- 
co, 1979. T.B. Larsen, 259 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Dhofar, 
October 1979. T.B. Larsen, 38 

Heliothis armigera (Hiibn.) (Lep.: Noctu- 
idae) in Hampshire and Leicestershire. 
D.F. Owen, 66 

Heliothis armigera Hiibn. and Lithophane 
leautieri hesperica Bours. (Lep.: Noc- 
tuidae) in Cambridgeshire. B. Dicker- 
son, 86 

Hydrelia flammeolaria Hufn. (Lep.: Geo- 
metridae) apparently breeding on alder 
near London. A. A. Allen, 40 

Hypena crassalis Fab., the Beautiful Snout 
(Lep.: Noctuidae) new to Warwickshire. 
A. Gardner, 275 

Immigrant Large White butterflies in 
Cornwall. F.N.H. Smith, 280 

Immigrant Lepidoptera at Dungeness in 
October 1988. S. Clancy, 111 

Immigrant Lepidoptera in Devon. M.D. 
Bryan, 37 

Immigrant Lepidoptera recorded in Nor- 
folk during October 1988. .4. P. Foster, 
135 

Immigration of Lepidoptera to the British 
Isles in 1988. R.F. Bretherton & J.M. 
Chalmers-Hunt, 153, 225 

In the right place at the right time — Dor- 
set 16th - 23rd October 1988. D.G. 
Down. 23 

Ischnura pumilo (Carpentier) (Odonata: 
Coenagriidae) — a wandering oppor- 
tunist? ^.D. Fox, 25 

Jodia croceago D. & S., the Orange Upper- 
wing (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Cornwall and 
France. A. Spalding, 115 

Kentish Glory Moth, Endromis versicolor 
L. (Lep.: Endromidae), at Rannoch. 
M.R. Shaw, 45 

Lampronia fuscatella (Teng.) (Lep.: Incur- 
variidae), notes on. K.P. Bland, 249 

Larva of Oligia versicolor (Borkhausen) 
(Lep.: Noctuidae). B.P. Hen wood, 40 

Larvae of Anthocharis cardamines (L.) 
(Lep.: Pieridae) feeding on Reseda 
luteola L. in Wiltshire. G.R. Else & S.P. 
Roberts, 278 



Last British capture of Scybalicus oblongi- 
usculus Dej. (Col.: Carabidae)? A. A. 
Allen, 108 

Late or second brood Cynaeda dentalis 
D. «fe S. (Lep.: PyraHdae). R. Darlow, 85 

Late or second brood Cynaeda dentalis 
D. & S. (Lep.: PyraHdae). E.G. Smith, 
36 

Late specimens of Euchoeca nebulata 
Scop. (Lep.: Geometridae) and Cynaeda 
dentalis D. & S. (Lep.: PyraHdae) 
D. Young, 197 

Lepidoptera immigrant to the British Isles 
in 1985, 1986 and 1987 — a supple- 
mentary note. R.F. Bretherton and J.M. 
Chalmers-Hunt, 131 

Lepidoptera on Barra. M. Harper & M. 
Young, 93 

Life-history of Apion soror Rey (Col.: 
Apionidae), a note on. J. A. Owen and 
H. Mendel, 112 

Lycophotia porphyria D. & S. (Lep.: 
Noctuidae), an unusual life history. B.P. 
Hen wood, 253 

Melanic aberrations of the Silver-washed 
Fritillary (Argynnis paphia L.) in North 
Dorset in 1986, and the relevance of 
temperature on the occurrence of such 
forms in the wild. R.D.G. Barrington, 
267 

Mesapamea remmi Rezbanyi-Reser, 1985 
(Lep.: Noctuidae) — a species new to 
Britain. M. Jordan, 161 

Microlepidoptera of Kent. J.M. Chalmers- 
Hunt, 281 

Microlepidoptera — a review of the year 
1987. D. Agassiz, 141 

Migrant lepidoptera in Wales, 1988. M.D. 
Bryan, 35 

Migration of Cynthia virginienses Drury 
(Lep.: Nymphalidae). B.K. West, 85 

Monitoring butterflies at St Cyrus National 
Nature Reserve, 1979-1983. D.N. 
Carstairs, 121 

Morphaga choragella D. & S. (Lep.: Tine- 
idae) in Buckinghamshire and North- 
amptonshire. G.E Higgs, 90 

Mosquitoes and their importance as vec- 
tors of disease organisms in southern 
Africa. S.F. Henning, 73 

Mothmanship (How to be one-up amongst 
lepidopterists) Part 1: Namesmanship. 
E.H. Wild, 175 



VI 



Mothmanship (How to be one-up amongst 

lepidopterists) Part II: Ploys with light. 

E.H. Wild, 239 
Moths as commuters. P. A. Sokoloff, 280 
Mmythimna l-album (L.) (Lep.: Noc- 

tuidae) in Kent. D.F. Owen, 87 
Mythimna vitellina Hiibn. and Heliothis 

peltigera D. & S. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 

Lancashire — a correction. R.F. 

Bretherton, 114 
Natural foodplants of the larva of Sideris 

albicolon Hiibn., the White Colon (Lep. 

: Noctuidae). J. Platts, 114 
No-son Pieris females (Lep.: Pieridae). 

S.R. Bowden, 203 
Notable beetle from South Somerset and 

two further notable records from 

Bracketts Coppice, Dorset. P.D. Orton, 

56 
Notes on breeding the Purple Emperor, 

Apatura iris Linn, in captivity. R.E. 

Smith, 11 
Obituary: B.C. Pelham-Clinton, 10th 

Duke of Newcastle, 44 
Obituary: The Rev. JackVine Hall, 1912 - 

1988,90 
Obituary: Alexander Barrett Klots, 236 
Observations of the queens of the ant 

Lasius mixtus Nyl. (Hymenoptera). 

P.J. Wright, 36 
Occurrence of Eucosma obumbratana 

(Lienig & Zeller) (Lep.: Tortricidae) 

confirmed in Scotland. K.I. Ransome, 

111 

Occurrence and distribution of the genera 
Acmaeops Lee. and Jiidolia Muls. (Col.: 
Cerambycidae) in Great Britain. R.R. 
Uhthoff-Kaufmann, 179 

Occurrence of Grainmoptera SErville and 
Alosterna Mulsant (Col.: Cerambyc- 
idae) inthe British Isles. R.R. Uhthoff- 
Kaufmann, 97 

Odd early records of Lepidoptera in Wales. 
I.J.L. Tillotson, 87 

Old records of two tineids (Lepidoptera) 
from Perthshire, Scotland. K.P. Bland, 
202 

Orange-tip (Anfhocharis cardamines L.) 
(Lep.: Pieridae), large number of eggs 
on a single plant. A.M. Riley, 18 

Orange-tip butterfly {Anthocharis carda- 
mines L.) (Lep.: Pieridae), further notes 
on. y. Koryszko, 186 



Orthosia opima Hiibn., the Northern Drab 
(Lep.: Noctuidae), resident on Essex 
marshes 1960 - 1980. D. Down, 136 

Orthotomicus (Col.: Scolytidae) including 
O. suturalis (Gyllenhal), new to Wilt- 
shire, notes on British species. D.R. 
Nash, 151 

Oxypoda longipes Muls. & Rey (Col.: 
Staphylinidae) in the London suburbs, 
far from moles' nests. A. A. Allen, 90 

Pachycnemia hippocastanaria Hiibn. 

(Lep.: Geometridae) in January. G.G. 

East wick-Field, 136 
Painted Ladies {Cynthia cardui L.) eaten 

by a bee-eater aboard ship at sea. T.B. 

Larsen, 87 
Pandemis dumetana Treit. (Lep.: Tortric- 
idae) in Northumberland. T.C. Dunn, 

174 
Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller, 

1850) (Lep.: Gracillariidae) in Essex: a 

species new to Britain. A.M. Emmet, 

189 
Phyllonorycter messaniella Zell. (Lep.: 

Gracillariidae) feeding on Quercus 

borealis, the red oak. A.S. Boot, 116 
Pieris rapae (L.) ab. minor (Lep.: Pieridae) 

in Wiltshire. K.G. V. Smith, 240 
Possible origin of the migratory Cynthia 

cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae). D.F. 

Owen, 49 
Records of Sciota adelphella (Fisher von 

Roslerstamm) from North Kent. P. 

Jewess, 173 
Records of three species of Colon (Col.: 

Catopidae). A. A. Allen, 88 
Remarkable web-building feat of Common 

Cross Spider, Araneus diadematus 

Clerck. J.F. Burton, 116 
Rhagium F. and Stenocorus Mull. (Col.: 

Cerambycidae) in the British Isles. 

R.R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann, 241 
Salpingus ater Payk. (Col.: Salpingidae) 

inWales. A.A.Allen, 104 
Schrankia intermedialis Reid. (Lep.: Noc- 
tuidae), the Autumnal Snout in Kent. 

A.M. Riley, 166 
Second Kent county record for Toinoxia 

hucephala Costa (Col.: Mordellidae). 

N. Onslow, 159 
Some interesting Lepidoptera at the Roth- 

amstead insect survey light trap at 



Vll 



Rhandirmwyn, Carmarthenshire. D. 

Davies and R.M. Palmer, 21 
Some new and notable Lepidoptera 

records from Yorkshire. S.M. Jackson, 

60 
Some notable Coleoptera from North- 
umberland, including Otiorhynchus 

arcticus Fab., new to England. K.N. A. 

Alexander, 35 
Some unseasonable larval dates. R.J. 

Heckford, 202 
Special migrants in late October, 1988. 

D.C.G. Brown, 24 
Spring specimens of Eudonia angustea 

Curtis (Lep.: Pyralidae) R. Darlow, 198 
Stigmella samiatella Zeller (Lep.: Nepti- 

culidae) in Kent. J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, 

39 
Survey of parasitoids of British butterflies. 

M.R. Shaw & M.G. Fitton, 69 
Swarm of Acentria ephemerella D. & S. 

(= nivea Ol.) (Lep.: Acentropinae). 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, 280 
Swarming in Scarabaeidae (Col.) at 

Bedruthan Steps, Cornwall. N. 

Onslow, 129 
Swarming observed in Agathomyia falleni 

(Zett.) (Dipt.: Platypezidae) and its 

occurrence in London. A. Godfrey, 11 
Tachinus flavolimbatus Pand. (Col.: 

Staphylinidae) in Norfolk. M. Collier, 

187 
Thera cupressata Gey. (Lep.: Geometri- 

dae) in the Channel Islands — an up- 
date. P.D. Cost en, 85 
Third mainland example of Thera cupres- 
sata Geyer (Lep.: Geometridae). J. 

Clarke, 130 



Tinagma balteolella F.v.R. (Lep.: Doug- 

lasiidae), a further record. R. Fair- 

clough, 4 
Trachea atriplicis L. (Lep.: Noctuidae), 

the Orach Moth, in Jersey. A.M. Riley, 

96 
Uncommon Heteromera (Col.) from a 

S.E. London wood. A. A. Allen, 233 
Unusual behaviour of the Speckled Wood 

butterfly. A.J. Baldwin, 37 
Unusual circumstances of the occurrence 

of a most peculiar form of Chrysdeixis 

chalcites Esper (Lep.: noctuidae). 

G.M. Haggett, 207 
Unusual insect diets. E.H. Wild, 160 
Unusual pairing in Odonata at Hothfield 

Common Nature Reserve, Kent. A^. 

Onslow, 137 
Very rare beetle rediscovered in Surrey. 

J. A. Owen & A. A. Allen, 67 
White metathoracic crests in Eupithecia 

lariciata Freyer and E. tripunctaria 

H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae). A.M. Riley, 

11 
Wild cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., a new 

host for two species of wood-boring 

Coleoptera. R.C. Welch, 15 
Xanthia citrago L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) — 

aberrant behaviour of larvae? B.K. 

West, 66 
Xylena exsoleta L. The Sword-grass 

(Lep.: Noctuidae) in Oxfordshire. 

S. Nash, 222 
Xylena exsoleta L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 

southern England. B. Skinner, 222 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Agassiz, D.J., 141 

Alexander, K.N. A., 35 

Allen, A.A., 18, 41, 47, 55, 67, 72, 88, 

90, 104, 108, 113, 116, 199, 205, 233, 

238 
Archer-Lock, A., 117 
Baldwin, A.J., 37 
Barrington, R.D.G., 267 
Birkett, N.L., 59, 90 
Blacker, N.C., 261 
Bland, K.P., 202, 249 
Boot, A.S., 116, 166, 201 



Bowden, S.R., 203 

Bretherton, R.F., 131, 153, 198, 224, 225 

Brown, D.C.G. , 24 

Bryan, M.D., 35, 37, 84, 187 

Burton, J.F., 276 

Carstairs, D.N., 121 

Chalmers-Hunt, J.M., 39, 40, 131, 153, 

225, 275, 280 
Clancy, S.P., 221 
Clarke, J., 130, 184 
Colher, M., 187 
Costen, P.D., 60, 88 



Darlow, R., 85, 198 

Davies, D., 21 

Dickerson, B., 86 

Down, D., 136 

Down, D.G., 23 

Dunn, T.C., 52, 174 

East wick-Field, G.G., 136, 277 

Else, G.R., 278 

Emmet, A.M., 185, 189 

Eve, H.E., 42, 43 

Fairclough, R., 34 

Fitton, M.G., 69 

Foster, A.P., 135 

Fowles, A.P., 209 

Fox, A.D., 25 

Gardner, A., 275 

Godfrey, A., 11 

Goodey, B., 107 

Haggett, G.M., 65, 184, 207 

Hancock, E.F., 277 

Harper, M., 93 

Heckford, R., 186, 202 

Henning, S.F., 73 

Henwood, B.P., 40, 254 

Higgs, G.E., 90 

Jackson, S.M., 60 

Jewess, P., 173 

Jordan, M., 161 

Kaufmann, R.R. Uhthoff-, 61, 97, 179, 

241 
Kittle, W.G., 281 
Koryszko, J., 186 
Larsen, T.B., 38, 83, 87, 106, 183, 

232, 259 
Luckens, C.J., 282 
Mendel, H., 112 
Mitchell, B.R., 238 
Nash, D.R., 151 
Nash, S., 222 
O'Keeffe, D., 64 
Onslow, N., 129, 137, 159 



Orton, P.D., 56 

Owen, D.F., 49, 66, 87 

Owen, J.A., 19, 49, 53, 67, 88 

Owen, J., 187 

Palmer, R.M., 21, 186 

Parsons, M., 254 

Peet, T.D.N. , 248 

Plant, C.W., 16, 105, 160 

Platts, J., 64, 274 

Prance, D.A., 230 

Procter, D.A., 36 

Ransome, K.I., 177 

Riley, A.M., 18, 33, 35, 72, 96, 166, 

174, 178 
Riley, D.K., 33 
Roberts, J.R., 248 
Roberts, S.P.M., 278 
Shaw, M.R., 45, 69 
Simpson, A.N.B., 17 
Simson, E.C.L., 278 
Skinner, B., 222 
Smith, E.G., 36 
Smith, F.N.H., 280 
Smith, K.G.V., 240, 278 
Smith, R.E., 27 
Sokoloff, P. A., 44, 89, 206, 234, 237, 

280, 281 
Spalding, A., 115, 138 
Taylor, S., 53 
Tillotson, I.J.L., 87 
Tolman, T.W.C., 195 
Townsend, M.C., 208 
Waring, P., 1, 231 
Welch, R.C., 15 
West, B.K., 57, 66, 109, 167, 178, 198, 

223, 255 
Wild, E.H., 160, 175, 239 
Wright, P. J., 46 
Young, D., 197 
Young, M., 93 
Young, M.R., 38 



Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. Tel: 0277-224610. 



Vol. 101 Nos. 1-2 January/February 1989 ISSN 0013-3916 



H' 



g^ THE I 

§ ENTOMOLOGIST'S § 

I RECORD I 

^ AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION ^ 

^ &^ 

r^ Edited by c^ 

g^ P. A. SOKOLOFF, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.I.Biol. F.R.E.S. ^ 

^ s 

ft^ with the assistance of P^ 

^ A. A. Allen, b.sc, a.r.c.s. P.J. Chandler, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 6>S 

^ Neville B iRKETT, M.A., M.B. C. A. Collingwood, b.sc, f.r.e.s. ^ 

^ S.N. A. Jacobs, F.R.E.S. J. M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. ^ 

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COMPARISON OF LIGHT-TRAP CATCHES 



COMPARISON OF LIGHT-TRAP CATCHES IN DECIDUOUS AND 
CONIFEROUS WOODLAND HABITATS 

P. Waring 

Nature Conservancy Council, Northminster House, Peterborough PEl lUA. 

WITH reference to the paper by Drs Kearns and Majerus (1987) and the 
call for further research into comparisons of light trap catches in deciduous 
versus adjacent coniferous habitats, I have recently completed some 
fieldwork that is relevant. I am interested in the use of light traps as a 
possible means of monitoring the effects of habitat management on moths 
in nature reserves and elsewhere. At Bernwood Forest, on the Oxon/Bucks 
border, I had the opportunity of comparing an overgrown coppice plot 
with an adjacent plantation of conifers that had been established on an 
otherwise similar site. The two sites were separated only by a woodland 
path. It was also possible, at the same time, to compare another adjacent 
woodland plot in which coppicing had recently taken place. I offer some 
data to demonstrate the nature of the results I obtained. I would like to use 
these examples to draw attention to various factors that need to be 
considered when comparing light trap catches in different places. 

It goes without saying that if two or more sites are to be compared they 
should be trapped simultaneously as there is much evidence to indicate that 
variations in weather, even on consecutive nights, have a major influence 
on the catch. The traps should also be operated for exactly the same length 
of time. When using a number of traps at the same time this is most easily 
achieved by operating from dusk to dawn using automatic photocell 
switches. This also enables late fliers and the pre-dawn flight to be incuded 
in the comparison. I used Heath traps (Heath 1965) operated from 14 amp- 
hour motorcycle batteries (a pair per trap in winter) because I regularly 
needed to trap six sites simultaneously and found that two or three 
Robinson traps (Robinson and Robinson 1950) was about my limit when it 
came to recording the entire catch in the morning at peak season without 
resorting to killing agents. Robinson traps are also cumbersome to operate 
when working single-handed in sites without mains electricity for each trap 
requires a generator and generally some maintenance during the night. 

In this paper I am able to examine the results from a series of nights 
rather than from a single night in isolation. This reduces the influence of 
possible "odd" nights. It also provides for larger sample sizes so that 
statistical methods can be appHed to individual species. It was possible to 
sample the sites on one night per week from January 1984 to December 
1985 so that spring, summer, autumn and winter species could be involved 
in the comparison. 

Site details 
Figure 1 shows the location of the traps in Oakley Wood, which is in the 
north of Bernwood Forest. Figure 1 also summarises the major vegeta- 



2 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

tional differences between the three sites in terms of structure and species 
composition. The conifer plantation (site C) was established in the 1950s by 
clearance of the scrub woodland and overgrown coppice that had 
developed on the site and that still remains on the adjacent area (site Br). 

Part of the overgrown coppice woodland was coppiced again in a series 
of operations from the late 1970s onwards at site RC and regrowth has been 
impeded by the browsing of fallow deer, Dama dama L. The trap at Br was 
operated under a partial canopy of aspen and oak. At RC, less that 100 m 
away, the trap was operated by an oak tree in the centre of a coppiced plot 
that extended a minimum of 50 m in all directions. The third trap, at site C, 
was placed in a path through the conifer plantation and was approximately 
500 m from Br. 

Results 

Table 1 shows the total number of moths captured at each site in each year 
for all species that were recorded in large enough numbers for statistical 
analysis in both years. They are listed in order of their abundance at Br in 
1984. 

Analysis of the results 

Bowden (1982) points out that the effectiveness of hght traps in catching 
moths varies depending on whether they are operated in dark, shady 
conditions such as under the tree canopy or in open situations such as 
woodland rides and paths. This means that a straight comparison of the 
number of individuals of species X in different sites could be inadequate or 
misleading in some circumstances. There is no problem in habitats such as 
heaths and fens where none of the traps are screened from the night sky but 
in woodland the situation is different. An obvious example is a mature 
conifer plantation which is renowned for providing dark shady conditions, 
and Drs Kearns and Majerus note that conditions were lighter in the 
deciduous woodland that they examined. Bowden (1982) notes that night- 
time illumination levels under tree canopies have not been investigated and 
the low levels of light would be difficult to measure without sophisticated 
purpose-built equipment. Whether the background levels of the ultra-violet 
parts of the spectrum that are particularly effective in influencing moths 
vary in the same way as for visible light is not known. Bowden (1982) found 
that the ratios of particular catches in his traps agreed with his estimates of 
trap effectiveness based on published work on daytime measurements of 
visible light levels. 



Figure la: The locations of the three trap-sites in Oakley Wood which is in the north 
of Bernwood Forest. 

Figure lb: Changes in vegetation resulting from coppicing and conifer planting in 
Oakley Wood. 



COMPARISON OF LIGHT-TRAP CATCHES 



O Trap sue 




C°^ C$p 




IM^^l^l 



fe32. 




Coniter plantation 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.i.l989 



TABLE 1 

The numbers of moths captured as a result of simultaneous trapping on one night 
per week at three sites in Bern wood Forest for two years. 

The sites are C, a conifer plantation. Br, an overgrown coppice woodland, and RC, 
a recently coppiced plot. 









1984 






1985 




Common Name 


Scientific Name 


C 


Br 


RC 


C 


Br 


RC 


Mottled Beauty 


Aids repandata 


147 


234 


15 


180 


227 


19 


Large Yellow Underwing 


Noctua pronuba 


88 


212 


31 


11 


23 


7 


Spring Usher 


Agriopis leucophaearia 


12 


102 


89 


1 


11 


10 


Small Quaker 


Orthosia cruda 


22 


98 


60 


42 


78 


31 


Dunbar 


Costnia trapezina 


7 


72 


10 


3 


40 


9 


Feathered Thorn 


Colotois pennaria 


13 


66 


49 


15 


46 


10 


Small Brindled Beauty 


Apocheima hispidaria 





65 


56 





19 


9 


Riband Wave 


Idaea aversata 


31 


62 


14 


21 


37 


10 


Hebrew Character 


Orthosia gothica 


46 


61 


36 


19 


12 


10 


Maiden's Blush 


Cyclophora punctaria 


15 


55 


27 


7 


23 


4 


Winter Moth 


Operophtera brumata 


13 


51 


41 


15 


37 


35 


July Highflyer 


Hydriomena furcata 


22 


51 


8 


15 


53 


2 


Willow Beauty 


Peribatodes rhomboidaria 


157 


49 


24 


87 


16 


7 


Pale Oak Beauty 


Serraca punctinalis 


12 


45 


7 


4 


19 


5 


March Moth 


Alsophila aescularia 


28 


43 


25 


10 


18 


4 


Engraileds 


Ectropis bistortata and 
















E. crepuscu/aria 


14 


42 


8 


11 


24 


5 


Dotted Border 


Agriopis margin aria 


18 


'41 


17 


21 


25 


4 


Common Quaker 


Orthosia stabilis 


9 


39 


47 


8 


22 


9 


November Moths 


Epirrita (3 species) 


13 


38 


31 


22 


31 


22 


Chestnut 


Conistra vaccinii 


9 


33 


20 


8 


28 


18 


Brindled Beauty 


Lycia hirtaria 


8 


32 


15 


3 


14 


19 


Green-brindled Crescent 


Allophyes oxycanthae 


13 


32 


9 


15 


40 


12 


Common Swift 


Hepialus lupulinus 


133 


29 


10 


75 


13 


9 


Light Emerald 


Campaea margaritata 


6 


28 


1 


3 


10 





Copper Underwings 


Amphipyra pyramidea and 
















A. berbera 


5 


25 


1 


6 


22 


4 


Mottled Umber 


Erannis defoliaria 


15 


25 


15 


6 


17 


4 


Clouded Drab 


Orthosia incerta 


13 


23 


12 


13 


28 


8 


Small Fanfooted Wave 


Idaea biselata 


6 


22 


10 


5 


23 


2 


Figure of Eight 


Diloba caerulocephala 


4 


22 


19 


7 


21 


15 


Poplar Hawk 


Laothoe populi 


1 


20 


5 


3 


22 


3 


Heart and Dart 


Agrotis exclamationis 


15 


19 


23 


1 


33 


12 


Shoulder Stripe 


Ant idea badiata 


17 


19 


5 


26 


22 


6 


Dark Arches 


Apamea monoglypha 


36 


16 


4 


21 


19 


3 


Great Prominent 


Peridea anceps 


5 


16 


19 


2 


6 


24 


Ingrailed Clay 


Diarsia mendica 


10 


15 





25 


20 


11 


Streamer 


Ant idea derivata 


15 


15 


2 


18 


8 


5 


Sprawler 


Brachionycha sphinx 





13 


5 





14 


4 


Mouse 


Amphipyra tragopoginis 


35 


12 


3 


11 


5 


3 


Scarce Umber 


Agriopis aurantiaria 


8 


11 


7 


9 


19 


8 


Chocolate Tip 


Clostera curtula 


4 


11 


4 





15 


3 


Pale Oak Eggar 


Trichiura crataegi 


6 


10 


3 


10 


17 


21 


Oak Lutestring 


Cymatophorima diluta 


3 


10 


9 


5 


14 


16 


Early Grey 


Xylocampa areola 


16 


10 


3 


39 


28 


6 


Small Dotted Buff 


Photedes minima 


9 


9 


17 


6 


6 


21 


Frosted Green 


Polyploca ridens 


3 


8 


9 


3 


12 


9 


Brown Rustic 


Rusina ferruginea 


14 


6 


14 


16 


10 


16 


Common Footman 


Eilema lurideola 


56 


4 


24 


18 


2 


9 


Tawny-barred Angle 


Semiothisa liturata 


28 


3 


4 


44 


1 


1 


Grey Pine Carpet 


Thera obeliscata 


29 


1 


5 


29 


1 


7 



COMPARISON OF LIGHT-TRAP CATCHES 



To make some allowance for the effects of light levels in different 
woodland situations, I measured the light at dawn at various times of the 
year using a photographic light meter. In the winter, when deciduous trees 
had lost all or most of their leaves, there was no appreciable difference 
between readings taken at the three sites. However, if moths are drawn to 
the trap from distances of up to 200 m, as suggested by Bowden, the darker 
conditions between the rows of conifers could make the trap here more 
effective than elsewhere. 

Once the tree canopy was in full leaf (from mid May to early October) 
light measurements indicated that there was normally a difference of two 
f-stops on the photographic light meter, between the overgrown site Br and 
the other two sites, ie only a quarter of the light. This means that, on 
average, the trap at Br could be twice as effective assuming that the 
understorey of hazel and hawthorn at this site does not screen the trap and 
reduce its effective radius. This difference in effectiveness is given by 
Bowden 's formula which is simply that: 

number of moths trapped = constant x\A' /I 

where I is the background illumination and the factors remaining constant 
include the number of moths available, their activity and the brightness of 
the trap light. 

The difference in trap effectiveness can be incorporated into the 
comparison of the sites in the following way. If the trap in the overgrown 
woodland is twice as effective during the summer, a species that flies at this 
time must be more than twice as common at this trap before it can be 
regarded as actually commoner in reality in the overgrown woodland. If it 
is only slightly more than twice as common in the catch, this could be just 
due to chance. If it is four times as commonly trapped as elsewhere, this is 
good evidence that the species is more common here. This is the principle of 
the chi-squared test which I have applied to the data in Table 1 . For each 
species I have compared the numbers of moths trapped with the numbers 
expected on the basis of the relative effectiveness of the traps ie 2:1 for 
comparisons of Br with C or RC between mid May and early October, 1:1 
at other times. Where the difference between the observed ratio and the 
expected is sufficiently large that we can be 95% certain of a real difference 
between the sites, we have a statistically significant result. 

Figure 2 shows those species of moth which are significantly commoner 
or rarer in the conifer plantation and in the recently coppiced area 
compared with the overgrown woodland. Many species are rarer in the 
catches in the conifer plantation (Table 1) but are not sufficiently rare that 
there is only a 5% probability of this being a chance result, and the same is 
true for the coppiced plot. In other words, this test is a pretty stringent one. 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.1.1989 



16 -I 



14 - 



8 - 



4 - 













D. mend 
N. pron 
I. bise 
I. iver 






A. mono 
H. lupu 




h. popu 




C. curl 

D. c«er 


L. bin 
0. goth 

B. »phi 
0. Ince 
0. ilab 
Amp. spp. 
Cct. ipp. 
C. penn 
E. defo 
S. punc 




A. mri 

C. T8CC 

Ep. «pp. 
P. rhom 


A. oity 
A. badi 
H. furc 


A. marg 
C. trap 
A. aesc 
A. repa 
0. crud 






A. Map 
C. pane 
A. lenc 
P. ride 


P. mini 
R.ferr 




A. excl 


P. »nc8 


C. dllu 



I.I. 



I. N.S. D. 

coppiced plot 



D.D. 





P. mini 
1. ave 
I. bise 
N. pron 






A. badi 
A. deri 
H. furc 
X. areo 








A. oxy 
D. caer 
L. popu 


S. lilu 
T. obel 




A. repa 
P. rhom 


Eel. spp. 
C. marg 
A. aur 
T. crat 
S. pane 


C. (rap 

C. penn 

L. hin 
0. atab 

0. emd 
O. brum 


A. excl 


A trag 
A. mono 
D. mend 
H. lupu 
R. ferr 


C, curl 


A. marg 
E. dpfo 
Ep. ipp 

O. ince 


A. aeac 

Amp. spp. 

0. goth 


C. »acc 


E lurl 


C. punc 


A. hiap 



b 



N.S. D. 

Tifer plantation 



D.D. 



Figure 2: the responses of some common species of moth to — 

a. recent coppicing 

b. conifer planting 

In both cases, the numbers of each species were compared with the numbers trapped 
in an adjacent area of overgrown woodland where these operations had not taken 
place (see Table 1). 

If the number of moths trapped was significantly higher than in the overgrown 
woodland in both years the species was placed in the first column, II. 

If the number was significantly higher only in one year, the species appears in the 
second column, I. 

Species showing no significant difference in either year appear in the third column, 

NS. 

Species with significantly lower numbers in the managed areas appear in column D 
or DD depending on whether a significant result was obtained in one or both years 
respectively. 

Allowance was made for differences in the degree of shading at the sites as explained 
in the text. 



The names of the species are abbreviated versions of the scientific names given in 
Table 1. 



COMPARISON OF LIGHT-TRAP CATCHES 



16 



14 



12 



10 



o 8 



1^ 



a 



w 



w* 



w 



w« 



w 



w* 



N.S. 



D.D. 



16 
14 
12 




L 




W 






•10 
o 

Q 

V) 

o 8 








w 


C 




w«/c 


W*' 


w*' 


i 6 

2 


L 


L 


w 


4 


w«' 


2 


w* 


w* 




Li 




o 






N.S. 



D. D.D. 



Figure 3: The responses of some common species of moth to — 

a. coppicing 

b. conifer planting 

The species are arranged as in Fig. 2 but are categorized according to larval 
foodplant (see text for explanation of the categories). 



Interpretation of the analysis 

As a consequence of the wide interest in the British macrolepidoptera 
over the last two centuries, we are in a better position with regard to 
interpreting these results than we would be for most other insect groups, 
for the foodplants and habits of the macro-moths are comparatively well- 
known. However, we must not be complacent. There are many gaps in our 
knowledge of what larvae do on particular sites and light trap catches 
should be interpreted against a background of larval work on the site 
wherever possible. For example, in Bernwood the Mottled Beauty, Aids 
repandata is one of the more common larvae on Norway spruce, Picea 
abies although conifers are not specifically mentioned as foodplants by 
Skinner (1984) or Carter and Hargraves (1986). This discovery is very 
relevant when attempting to explain why the moth is significantly more 
common in the conifer plantation than elsewhere both in 1984 and 1985. 
Fortunately it was possible to conduct a programme of work on the larvae 
at Bernwood at the same time as the light trapping. 

For brevity, the species in Figs. 2 and 3 have been categorized according 



8 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. i. 1989 

to the type of foodplant the larvae exploit, using data drawn from Oakley 

Wood wherever possible. The following broad categories are used: 

O = oak specialist, larvae feed only on oak 

C = conifer specialist, larvae feed only on conifers 

W* = larvae feed on broadleaved woody perennials including oak 

W = larvae feed on some broadleaved woody perennials but not oak 

W*/C = larvae feed on woody perennials including both oak and conifers 

L = larvae feed low down, on herbs or grasses 

Li = larvae feed on lichens 

Fig. 3 presents those species shown in Fig. 2 using the above categories. 

It can be seen from Fig. 3 that the results conform broadly with 
expectations based on the changes in availabiHty of the larval foodplants 
resulting from the conifer-planting and coppicing operations. For example, 
the Grey Pine Carpet, There obeliscata and the Tawny-barred Angle, 
Semiothisa liturata, both conifer specialists, are significantly more 
common at the conifier site in both years. The Mottled Beauty, A. 
repandata and the Willow Beauty, Peribatodes rhomboidaria are also 
significantly more common in the conifers. Both species feed on conifers as 
well as broadleaves but a tendency for the adults to select cover in areas of 
dense vegetation, as suggested by Kearns and Majerus, probably 
contributes to this result. Both species were less common in the recently 
coppiced plot than in the overgrown woodland, possibly because adult 
roosting sites as well as larval foodplants are removed by coppicing. 
Availability of suitable adult roosting sites is a likely explanation for the 
high numbers of the Large Yellow Underwing Noctua pronuba in the 
overgrown woodland in 1984. So far as I am aware this species feeds at 
ground level on herbaceous plants, which are more common in the rides, 
paths and in coppiced plots than in the overgrown woodland but in the 
summer of 1984 this partly migratory species (Bowden et. al. 1979) was 
frequently disturbed as adults amongst dry leaves and fallen branches in the 
overgrown woodland and less frequently in the tidier coppiced plot. The 
numbers in the conifer plantation, where there is also suitable ground 
cover, are not significantly different from in the overgrown woodland once 
trap effectiveness is taken into account. 

Conversely, the Maiden's Blush, Cyclophora punctaria, and the Small 
Brindled Beauty, Apocheima hispidaria which are oak specialists are 
significantly less common in the conifer plantation where many of the oaks 
have been removed. In the recently coppiced area, oak is the main tree 
species and two oak specialists, the Great Prominent, Peridea anceps and 
the Oak Lutestring, Cymatophorima diluta were commoner here than 
elsewhere. This is an interesting result for there has been no increase of oak 
as a result of the coppicing — the total amount is roughly the same as in the 
overgrown woodland, the two areas being managed as one prior to the 
coppicing. However, during the coppicing operation, birch and aspen trees 



COMPARISON OF LIGHT-TRAP CATCHES 



were removed as well as the shrub layer below all the trees. I suggest that 
the apparent increase in oak specialists after coppicing is due to the removal 
of other vegetation which would screen the trap from the oak canopy, the 
traps being operated on the ground. A previous study (Stradling et al 1983) 
concluded that bushy vegetation does have a screening effect. If this is the 
case, the relative effectiveness of the trap in the overgrown woodland is 
over-estimated and the dechne of species resulting from conifer planting 
and coppicing are more severe than shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Significant 
declines would be registered for some of the species that are presently 
borderline cases and occupy the central columns of the two Figures. 

Another possibility is that the oaks in the coppiced plot support higher 
densities of larvae than in the overgrown woodland. This is not supported 
by larval counts although these were limited due to the inaccessibility of 
most of the oak canopy. Species which feed as larvae on woody perennials 
other than oak or conifers were generally less common in the coniferous 
and coppiced areas than in the overgrown woodland, many significantly so 
(Fig. 2), as expected. 

The category of species which feed on grasses or low plants is a diverse 
one. There are certainly more grassy places among the conifers than in the 
overgrown woodland at present which explains why the Dark Arches, 
Apamea monoglypha and the Common Swift, Hepialus lupulinus, are 
more common here — the larvae of the latter feed on the roots of grasses 
and the adults of both species were frequently seen in the grassy patches 
laying eggs. Tussock grass, Deschampsia cespitosa has invaded the 
coppiced plot and the distribution of the Small Dotted Buff Photedes 
minima reflects this. The larvae hve in the stems (Skinner 1984). The Brown 
Rustic, Rusina ferruginea, which is also significantly more common in the 
coppiced plot, is said to feed on various low plants (Skinner 1984) although 
I have not come across larvae myself. 

The Small Fan-footed Wave, Idaea biselata and the Riband Wave, Idaea 
aversata were both significantly less common after the coppicing in one of 
the two years. This may be because they prefer more sheltered situations 
which fits in with observations of the flying insects at dusk. Both species 
probably feed on a wide variety of low plants that grow in such situations 
(Skinner 1984). Many species that feed on herbs were not trapped 
frequently enough for inclusion in the statistical analysis. 

Conclusion 

In the past, light traps have been used mainly to find out which species of 
moths occurred on a site. The above results and those of Kearns and 
Majerus (1987) suggest a potential for detecting differences between 
adjacent habitats such as may be produced by deliberate management on a 
relatively small scale. Woodland situations are likely to be the most 
challenging because of variations in the amount of shading and screening 



10 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. i. 1989 

of the traps by vegetation. Careful choice of sites and methods such as that 
given above may help to overcome these problems. 

Indications are that predictions based on current knowledge of the 
habitat requirements of the macro-moths are fulfilled, at least in part. This 
is encouraging for there is sometimes not the time or resources for in-depth 
field work. However, there is room for much further work, particularly on 
the larvae. We need to know not only which are the preferred foodplants 
but more about the places and situations in which the host-plant is used. 
This is particularly important if we are to conserve the rarer species and to 
recognise when habitats are deteriorating. 

Acknowledgement 

I would hke to acknowledge the support of Oxford Polytechnic during the 
course of the fieldwork. 

References 

Bowden, J., Brown, G. and Stride, T., 1979. The application of X-ray 
spectrometry to analysis of elemental composition (chemoprinting) in the study of 
migration of Noctua pronuba L. Ecol. Ent 4: 199-204. 

Bowden, J., 1982. An analysis of factors affecting catches of insects in light traps. 
Bull. ent. Res. 11: 535-556. 

Carter, D.J., and Hargraves, B., 1986. A Field guide to caterpillars of butterflies 
and moths in Britain and Europe, Collins, London. 

Heath, J., 1965. A genuinely portable MV light trap. Entomologists's Rec. J. Var. 
11: 236-238. 

Kearns, P.W.E. and Majerus, M.E.N. , 1987. Differential habitat selection in the 
Lepidoptera: a note on deciduous versus coniferous woodland habitats. Ento- 
mologists's Rec. J. Var. 99: 103-106. 

Robinson, H.S. and Robinson, P.J.M., 1950. Some notes on the observed 
behaviour of lepidoptera in flight in the vicinity of light-sources together with a 
description of a light trap designed to take entomological samples. Entomologist's 
Gaz. 1:3-15. 

Skinner, B, 1984. Colour identification guide to moths of the British Isles. Viking, 
Middx. 

Stradling, D.J., Legg, C.J. and Bennett, F.D., 1983. Observations on the 
Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) of Trinidad. Bull. ent. Res. 73: 201-232. 

Waring, P. 1988. Responses of moth populations to coppicing and the planting 
of conifers. In Woodland Conservation and Research in the Clay Vale of Oxford- 
shire and Buckinghamshire, edited by K. Kirby and F.J. Wright. Nature 

Conservancy Council, Peterborough. Research and Survey in Nature Conservation 
15:82-113. 




SWARMING IN AGATHOMYIA FALLENI 11 

SWARMING OBSERVED IN AGATHOMYIA FALLENI (ZETT.) 
(DIPT.: PLATYPEZIDAE) AND ITS OCCURRENCE IN LONDON 

A.Godfrey 

Nature Conservancy Council, Northminster House, Peterborough PEl lUA. 

ON the afternoon of the 21st of September 1987, I visited the Horniman 
Nature Trail, Forest Hill, London (TQ 347734) to collect Diptera. At a 
point about midway along this linear piece of land I observed a number of 
fairly large insects swarming near the top of a young silver birch {Betula 
pendula) at a height of about 5-7 metres. Eventually a specimen was 
secured and was identified as a male of the common Sargus bipunctatus 
(Scop.) (Dipt., Stratiomydae). Swarming in stratiomyids is a frequently 
observed phenomenon and whilst interesting I considered it not of great 
importance. During the observation and eventual capture of the specimen, 
however, my attention was drawn to a swarm of much smaller Diptera 
below the Sargus at a height of about 3-4 metres. Part of this swarm was 
swept and a total of eleven male specimens taken of an Agathomyia species 
(Dipt., Platpezidae) unfamiliar to me at the time. Using Chandler (1973) 
these proved to be Agathomyia falleni (Zett.), a species hitherto only 
recorded from Surrey and Kent in Britain and one which was previously not 
known to swarm. 

The flies formed a loose swarm about twenty in number. Individuals 
remained stationary for a few seconds prior to darting quickly within the 
swarm before resuming hovering again. Often the darting would be 
directed at another male which would change position to some other part 
of the swarm. The flies appeared to form small groups of five or so 
individuals which all faced the same direction (the separate groups facing 
different directions). The direction within a group was altered by an 
individual approximately every five to ten seconds and was followed 
abruptly by other members of that group. Movement within the swarm was 
horizontal (except when disturbed by my netting). Mr Peter Chandler 
informs me that as far as he is aware swarming has not been observed in 
this species before. 

The swarm was centred in a narrow clearing on the Trail about three 
metres in diameter, slightly to one side of the footpath on this site. Apart 
from silver birch, trees surrounding the clearing comprise single mature 
sycamore {Acer pseudoplatanus), hybrid oak {Quercus x), crack willow 
{Salix fragilis) and a pollarded common lime {Tilia x europaea). The swarm 
was equidistant from all the trees and 1 found no particular association 
with any species. The canopy of the trees at the top of the clearing 
overhang to an extent that the circumference of the clearing here is 
appreciably less than lower down. The shrub layer over which the flies were 
swarming comprises bramble {Rubus sp.) and stinging nettle (Urtica 
dioica). The weather was bright and sunny with no perceptible wind. By 



12 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

general sweeping nearby I was able to procure an additional male and 
female of A. falleni as well as two males and four females of probably the 
most frequent Agathomyia species in Britain, A. unicolor. 

A return was made to the site on the afternoon of the following day 
(22. ix. 1987). The weather was overcast and there was slight rain although 
the swarm of A. falleni was still present and appeared unaffected by the 
downturn in the weather. Indeed, the swarm seemed to have increased 
slightly in numbers to between twenty and twenty-five individuals. A brief 
inspection of part of the swarm revealed it to comprise entirely of males 
again. A swarm of Sargus bipunctatus was not present however on this 
occasion. Sweeping nearby yielded two female ^4. unicolor. 

On the 25. ix. 1987 I visited the Nature Trail again, to find a swarm still 
present in similar numbers to the last occasion. A period was spent 
observing the swarm to try to determine whether females were flying into 
the swarm for mating. This behaviour has been observed in other swarming 
platypezids including other Agathomyia species (Kessel 1962, Chandler 
1968). A period of about forty-five minutes was spent in which time I failed 
to see any females nearby. A search for other swarms in nearby clearings — 
all of which are larger and open on some part of their perimeter — was also 
unsuccessful. Sweeping, however, of the scrub vegetation again revealed 
one female A. unicolor as well as a female Sargus bipunctatus. Swarms of 
male Sargus bipunctatus and a Fannia sp. (Fanniidae) were also present 
above the A. falleni swarm (the Fannia immediately above at about four 
metres height, the Sargus at about seven metres). A single female of A. 
falleni was finally taken in a water trap on 6.x. 1987 at the eastern end of the 
Trail near the entrance (TQ 346731). A search for platypezids on 27.x. 1987 
failed to reveal any individuals. The only swarming Diptera on this 
occasion were male Limonia (Dicranomyia) chorea (Tipulidae). 

The foodplant of A. falleni is the common bracket fungus Bjerkandera 
adusta (Chandler 1973). A search for fungi on the Nature Trail failed to 
reveal any B. adusta and little else. B. adusta has been recorded from 
nearby Sydenham Hill Wood (TQ 344726) and Dulwich Wood (TQ 340724) 
however, both about one kilometre south west of the Nature Trail. In 
addition I have recorded a number of platypezids including Agathomyia 
antennata and A. unicolor from Sydenham Hill Wood. (The foodplant of 
A. antennata is probably Trametes versicolor whilst the foodplant of A. 
unicolor IS also Bjerkandera adusta). The prospect of .4. /(7//eA7/ travelling a 
distance of one kilometre to swarm and mate seems to me to be very 
unlikely, bearing in mind their slow flight and also previous platypezid 
records show that they are generally found not far from their foodplant. 
No search for fungi was made in the neighbouring private gardens or in the 
Horniman Gardens both of which abut onto the Nature Trail so that there 
is a good possiblility of B. adusta occurring in the immediate area outside 
the Trail. 



SWARMING IN AGATHOMYI A FALLENI 13 

The Horniman Nature Trail itself has been created from a raised 
embankment running approximately north north-east to south south-west 
that once supported part of the line of the former Peckham to Crystal 
Palace railway and is situated to the north west of the Horniman Gardens, 
Forest Hill. The site is wooded with a large number of tree species present 
— a reflection of the varied history of the site and pattern of human 
disturbance. Sycamore is the dominant species (representing 35% of total 
numbers of trees), with ash (11 'Vo), goat willow (10%), oak (both native 
species) (10%) and silver birch (9%) present in fair numbers (Day 1986). 
There is very little dead wood on the site. An association of A. falleni with 
sycamore has been noted previously (Chandler 1968, 1973). This would 
appear to be due to the fact that the large leaves of this tree afford a good 
surface from which the species can congregate for mating. This would also 
explain the similar association with Spanish chestnut, horse chestnut and 
possibly hazel (Chandler 1973 p. 15, Parmenter 1953 p. 122). (A similar 
association with large-leaved tree species has been found in other 
platypezids.) Although I was not able to find A. falleni on the leaves of the 
sycamore near the swarm its presence nearby may be significant. (Kessel 
also failed to find specimens of Agathomyia cushmani on leaves of trees 
whilst males were swarming yet they were found on leaves at other times.) 
It may also be important to mention that other plant species from which 
platypezids have been taken were present nearby including oak, birch and 
bramble {Rubus sp). Pont (1987 p. 3 12) in discussing the swarming of sepsid 
flies (these swarms are possibly for hibernation rather than mating), notes 
their attraction to Rubus sp., and in a letter to Mr Pont, Dr Newton, a 
specialist on Rubus explains that the bramble bushes and leaves may 
provide a suitable "physical platform" for the swarming flies which may 
also be the case with the A. falleni here. It is of special interest that 
Lundbeck (1927) found both Acer and Rubus to be paticularly attractive to 
various platypezids mcXudmg A. falleni. 

Published records of A. falleni in Britain are few. The species was first 
recorded as British by L. Parmenter (1953) who took a single male from a 
hazel leaf in oakwoods at Box Hill, Surrey on 21. ix. 1952. Chandler (1968) 
records a second specimen found in Parmenter's collection and taken on 
7.x. 1956 from Mickleham, Surrey, a locality not far from the first. Mr 
Chandler has since collected this species himself from Knole Park, 
Sevenoaks and also Pond Wood, Chislehurst, where he has bred the species 
from B. adusta, both in Kent on various dates from 9.x. 1966 to 30. ix. 1967 
(Chandler loc cit). There are unpublished records of A. falleni from Harry 
Wood, Sussex, 8.x. 1976 (I.F.G. McLean); Wisley Common, Surrey, 
ll.ix.l971 (A.E. Stubbs); Gracious Pond, Chobham Common, Surrey, 
31.x. 1976 (P.J. Chandler); Scadbury Park Nature Reserve, Chislehurst, 
Kent 27.x. 1983 and 3.xi.l984 (P.J. Chandler). The Scadbury records were 
a male and female respectively on sycamore foliage (Chandler pers. 
comm.). 



14 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 



The aggregation of wholly male A. falleni recorded here would seem to 
compare closely with the known mating activities of platypezids. The 
swarming of males is purely for the purpose of mating. Females are 
dispersed throughout the neighbouring area and are attracted to the all 
male congregation. The only other pubhshed observation I could trace in 
recent years on swarming in this group of flies is by McLean (1977). Dr 
McLean records a swarm of nine males and one female Opetia nigra. (It is 
important to add that Opetia is morphologically different from other 
platypezids and it is now generally included in the family Opetidae.) The 
single female in this case has presumably just entered the swarm for 
copulation at the point when the flies were taken. 

It is also interesting to note the absence of the Sargus bipunctatus swarm 
during the second visit to the site when there was slight rain. This absence 
would seem to suggest that compared with Agathomyia falleni, Sargus 
bipunctatus is less tolerant of weather conditions and requires sun for 
mating. The flight period of 5. bipunctatus is appreciably longer than the 
platypezid suggesting that because the time constraints are less severe the 
need to swarm and mate is consequently less urgent within a given period in 
this species. 

A large number of questions remain to be answered about A. falleni. The 
rarity of this species is certainly puzzling in view of the frequency of its 
foodplant. It may be that there is some competition with the more frequent 
A. unicolor which shares the same foodplant. It would be interesting to 
know whether both species occur together as larvae and feed on the fungi at 
the same stage of its growth. The fact that A. falleni has never been 
observed swarming before is also difficult to understand. Certainly it 
appears undemanding in its choice of swarming site choosing some of our 
most frequent plant species. Hopefully the observations recorded here will 
encourage others to look out for these interesting flies and fill in some of 
the gaps in our knowledge of this group. 

Acknowledgements 

My thanks to Peter Chandler for many useful comments and for 
permission to cite his unpublished records. My thanks also to Dr Ian 
McLean for checking the article and to Dr McLean and Alan Stubbs for 
permission to use their records. I would also like to thank Dr Gordon Reid 
for use of facihties at the Horniman Museum, Forest Hill. 

References 

Chandler, P.J. 1968. A second British record of Agathomyia falleni (Zett.), with 

some biological notes on the Platypezidae (Dipt.). Entomologist's Rec.J. Var., 80: 

169-173,205-210. 
Chandler, P.J. 1973. The flat-footed flies (Diptera, Aschiza-Platypezidae) known to 

occur in Kent, with a key to the genera and species so far recorded from the 

British Isles. Trans. Kent Field Club, 5: 15-44. 



SWARMING IN AGATHOMYIA FALLENI 15 



Day, R. 1986. The Horniman Museum Railway Nature Trail. Unpublished, pp. 1-63 

(copy placed in the Horniman Museum library). 
Kessel, E.L. & Kessel, B.B. 1962. Mating swarms of Platypezidae with special 

reference to Agathomyia cushmani Johnson. Wasm.J.Biol., 20: 289-292. 
Lundbeck, W. 1927. Diptera Danica VII. Platypezidae, Tachinidae, Copenhagen. 
McLean, I. 1977. Swarming in Opetia nigra Mg. (Diptera, Platypezidae) and the 

Capture of a Female. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 89: 148-149. 
Pont, A.C. 1987. "The mysterious swarms of sepsid flies": an enigma solved? 

y.A^a-/.///^/., 21: 305-317. 
Parmenter, L. 1953. Agathomyia falleni (Zett.), an addition to the British List 

J. Soc.Brit.Ent., 4(6): 122-123. 



Wild cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., a new host for two species of 
wood-boring Coleoptera. 

Following my discovery in June 1987 of the New Zealand littoral weevil 
Macrorhyncolus lit t oralis (Broun) below Shakespeare Cliff, Aycliff, near 
Dover, Kent {Entomologist's Mon. Mag., in press), Eric Philp and I visited 
the site (TR 302394) on 26 May 1988. Apart from hoping to find further 
specimens, our main aim was to try to determine whether the weevil was 
established at the site, and if so where, and in what, it might be breeding. 
Driftwood is scarce on this exposed coast, there are no groynes or wooden 
sea defences nearby, and the only dead wood was on some old stunted 
privet {Ligustrum vulgare L.). In desperation I turned my attention to some 
old woody stems of the wild cabbage {Brassica oleracea L.) which grows 
commonly on disturbed soils along this coast. One piece contained some 
small exit holes and, when split open, revealed frass-filled larval borings. 
Our attention was then turned to the dead sections of standing plants and, 
within a few minutes, five adult weevils were collected from the pithy 
interior of the stems of two such plants. These were too large to be the New 
Zealand species and later scrutiny showed them to be Caulotrupodes 
aeneopiceus (Boh.). Four specimens of this weevil had been collected in 
pitfall traps at this site between 27 May and 24 June 1987 during a survey 
carried out for Eurotunnel. Dissection of many more cabbage stems both 
at this site, and at the cliff-base near the Old Colliery Platform to the west, 
failed to produce any more specimens. The only other insects found within 
the stems were a few common earwigs, Forficula auricularia L., and a nest 
of the small ant Leptothorax tuberum F. 

Although the Continental and older British literature describes C. 
aeneopiceus from wooden wine casks, over the past 30 years British records 
for this species have been predominently from coastal localities. More 
typically it seems to occur in strandline driftwood or in logs and dead trees 
on, or close to, the top of the beach. Its distribution extends from Suffolk, 
along the south and west coasts of England and Wales as far north as 
Ayrshire (Strathclyde). I have a specimen taken with Mesites tardii (Curt.) 
in an ash log on the beach adjacent to Ravenshall Wood, Kirkcudbright 
(NX 517527). Of perhaps greater significance are the eight specimens I 



16 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

collected on Lundy, North Devon (SS 140441) in dead sycamore and elder. 
Stems of the latter shrub closely resemble those of the wild cabbage in 
possessing a pithy core. Eric Philp informs me that, although C. 
aeneopiceus is known from the South Kent coast, he has no records since 
1907. 

Several short sections of dead cabbage stem were brought back to the 
laboratory, including the piece containing emergence holes. By early 
October 1988 a single male Anobium punctatum (Deg.) was found dead in 
the container. Dissection of the stems produced three larvae of this species, 
all from the same piece of stem. This, the "common furniture beetle", is 
known to breed in the timber of a large number of trees and shrubs, but 
this discovery in a member of the Cruciferae may be the first record of it 
breeding in an herbaceous plant. — R. Colin Welch, Institute of 
Terrestrial Ecology, Monks Wood Experimental Station, Abbots Ripton, 
Huntingdon, Cambs PE17 2LS. 

A probable second brood of Euchoeca nebulata Scop. (Lep.: Geometridae), 
the Dingy Shell, in East Anglia in 1988. 

The Dingy Shell moth Euchoeca nebulata (Scop.) is reportedly univoltine 
in Britain. Skinner {Moths of the British Isles, Viking, 1984), states that the 
single brood flies from June to early July with larvae on alder {Alnus) in 
July and August. For the continent of Europe, however, it appears that the 
insect is bivoltine; Culot {Noctuelles et Geometres d' Europe, volume 3, 
page 249 [reprinted 1986 by Apollo Books, Denmark]) states, under 
Larentia obliterata Hufnagel, "In Switzerland and France, there are 
generally two generations, with the moth in May/June and the caterpillar 
in June, then August - September, on Alder." 

It is evidently of interest therefore to record the following two separate 
captures of this insect: the first, a male, was taken by myself in a light trap 
adjacent to the Sizewell B nuclear power station site on the Suffolk coast 
on the night of 26/27 August 1988; the second, also a male, was taken in 
the garden light trap of Charles Watson at Bishop's Stortford, 
Hertfordshire, on the night of 10/11 September 1988. Both insects were 
rather worn. The Sizewell trap was set in an area of alder trees and the 
presence of the moth a few weeks earlier would have been expected. At 
Bishops Stortford, however, the nearest alder is probably that along the 
River Stort some distance away and the record here is a first for Mr 
Watson's garden after many years of trapping. 

It is interesting too to note that the single British brood flies, apparently, 
between the two continental broods. If the presence of July/August 
examples in Britain in 1988 indicates a second brood here, then one may 
perhaps expect the first brood to have appeared slightly earlier than normal 
— perhaps coinciding with the continental flight period. Does anybody's 
experience of the species in 1988 bear this out? Colin W. Plant, Passmore 
Edwards Museum, Romford Road, Stratford, London E15 4LZ. 



DICHOMERIS USTALELLA REDISCOVERED 17 

DICHOMERIS USTALELLA FAB. (LEP.: GELECHIIDAE), 
REDISCOVERED IN BRITAIN 

A.N.B. Simpson 

The Sycamores, Old Rectory Gardens, Leigh, Worcestershire. 

ON 6.vi.l987 I visited Shrawley Wood, mid Worcestershire in the company 
of two dipterists, Nigel Jones and David Denman, to look for Chalcosyr- 
phus eunotus (Dipt.: Syrphidae), a fly I had first found there in 1986. 
Whilst DD was sweeping low vegetation near a pond, he captured a moth, 
which I later realised was a male Dichomeris ustalella. This insect has only 
been recorded in this country from Worcestershire by Horton and Ed- 
munds (recorded as Ypsolophus ustalellus Fab. in Ent. mon. Mag. 1867. 4: 
152). Apparently Edmunds took one in 1861, but was unable to identify it, 
and Horton was said to have taken two on May 29th 1864. They were final- 
ly identified by Stainton in 1867. 

Horton describes the capture as being made about eight miles from 
Worcester, sunning itself on lime leaves. He also describes taking one "... 
close at hand . . ." in 1865, but does not specify the exact locality. Stainton 
describes and illustrates the insect, giving Carpinus, Betula and Salix as 
foodplants. I suspect this information applies to Continental material, as I 
have found no account of this species being reared in this country. 

On 2nd September 1987 I visited the locality in the company of Dr M.W. 
Harper in an attempt to find the larva. The locality is a somewhat unusual 
woodland composed almost entirely of small-leaved lime {Tilia cordata) 
coppice. There are occasional oak or sweet chestnut standards, and a small 
number of hazel, alder and sallow along the line of pools artificially created 
along a small stream which runs through the wood. After unsuccessfully 
searching for the larva, we took to beating the lime coppice. In time, MWH 
beat an interesting larva and, suitably encouraged, we continued and final- 
ly took eleven. 

Description of larva: 

Head: dark brown; thoracic plate anteriorly brown with two black plates occu- 
pying the rear three-quarters; segments three and four black in posterior two- 
thirds with pale blue-grey anterior third to each segment. Abdomen: rather 
translucent greyish green; pinnaculae large, black and conspicuous with pale 
whitish hairs; anal plate marked with black; rear claspers black with pale 
chestnut tips; prothoracic legs black. Abdomen noticeably thin in relation to 
larger head and thorax, especially in early instars. 

The larva feeds in a flimsy spinning — two leaves are joined with a few 
strands of silk and the larva eats holes through the leaves, in between the 
veins. The larva hibernates in a folded leaf and in captivity will spin up in a 
fold of tissue paper. 

Three hibernating larvae brought indoors in February pupated in situ 
after about 14 days. One parasite was reared and two female ustalella 



18 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. i. 1989 

emerged 15 and 18 days after pupation. Two larvae left outdoors both 
succumbed to fungal attack. 

The imago is very striking. The wingspan of males being 15.5mm, and of 
females 17.6mm. There is an ill-defined golden, costal blotch. Palps are 
typical of Dichomehs, with a marked tuft on the second labial segment. 
They seemed rather sluggish in their habits, and thus could easily be 
overlooked in the wild. 

Acknowledgements 

My thanks are due to E.C. Pelham-Clinton for drawing my attention to the 
record in the EMM; Dr K. Sattler for confirming the identity of the first 
specimen at the BENHS Exhibition; David Denman for taking the first 
specimen and Mr C. Powick, the owner of the wood, for permission to visit 
and collect insects. 



A large number of Orange-tip (Anthocharis cardamines L.), (Lep.: 
Pieridae) eggs on a single plant. 

On 31. V. 1988 at Needham, Norfolk (TM 2281) I found eight eggs of this 
species on one garlic mustard plant {Allaha petiolata). It is unusual to find 
more than one egg per plant, although occasionally two or three are record- 
ed. — Adrian M. Riley, Entomology and Hematology Department, 
Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ. 

Cheilosia variabilis Panz. (Dipt.: Syrphidae) and figwort. 

The association of this Cheilosia with Scrophularia nodosa L., the common 
figwort, is doubtless well enough known, but it is probably seldom that one 
has such a clear and striking demonstration of it as I now relate. The plant 
was very nearly, and the hoverfly totally, unknown to me from this district 
until this year, 1988, when in late May I came across a large and strong, 
many-stemmed clump of the figwort by a path in the woods at Shooters 
Hill near here. Upon it was a flourishing colony of the weevil Clonus 
scrophularlae L., almost the first examples of the genus to have occurred to 
me anywhere in this area; but what was more remarkable, a Cheilosia 
variabilis at once appeared and fed intently from one of the figwort 
flowers, followed equally promptly by another. Two more were seen 
basking on foliage a little way off. About a week later, when I next passed 
the spot, the Cheilosia was again in evidence. (All these flies were males.) 
Well away from the site C. variabilis was not to be seen, and it is hard to 
resist the conclusion that the fly is breeding in the roots of this S. nodosa, 
despite its robust and healthy appearance. Farther out of London, where 
both plant and insect are common in many districts, the special connection 
between them must as a rule be less apparent. — A. A. Allen, 49 
Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



BREEDING GNORIMUS NOBILIS 19 

BREEDING GNORIMUS NOBILIS LINN. (COL.: SCARABIDAE) 

IN CAPTIVITY 

J. A. Owen 

8 Kingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KT17 3PU. 

ON 5.vii.86, my friend Mr D. Appleton took me to a site in the New Forest 
where we found a pair of Gnorimus nobilis on a flower head of Heracleum 
sphondylium. 1 took them home and put the female into a large (10 litre) 
glass jar in which I had loosely packed some soft rotten wood from an old 
plum tree to a depth of about 8 cm. I set the jar in a north-facing window 
which allowed morning and evening sunshine onto the jar and, every two 
days or so, put fresh flower heads of H. sphondylium into the jar. These 
were obviously attractive to the beetle which wandered over the flowerhead 
feeding by "licking" the florets. Flower spikes of cherry laurel {Prunus 
lusitanica) were similarly treated as were over-ripe strawberries, 
blackcurrant jam and honey! The beetle was kept in the jar for the next few 
weeks. Her appetite remained good. At night, and often also during the 
day, she was not to be seen, having burrowed into the rotten wood. She was 
removed from the container on 10.viii.86. 

At the end of September 1986, the rotten wood in the jar was found to 
contain about 20 small chafer larvae ranging in length from about five to 10 
mm. Exactly where the eggs had been placed by the female was, of course, 
not determinable but it seems likely that oviposition took place when the 
female submerged herself in the rotten wood. 

The larvae were left in the jar for a further six months by which time they 
were about 15 mm long. They were then transferred to three plastic buckets 
in which sections of the trunk of a long dead ornamental cherry tree about 
15 cm in diameter had been placed, packed around with some of the dead 
plum wood. The buckets were fitted with perforated lids. Most of the 
cherry wood was sufficiently hard not to admit easily the point of a knife 
but there were one or two soft areas in which small holes were dug and the 
larvae introduced. Two buckets were then left in a semi-detached, unheated 
garage undisturbed apart from occasional addition of small amounts of 
water to keep the wood damp. The third containing five larvae was given to 
a friend who stored it similarly. 

On returning from three weeks holiday on 20.6.88, I was delighted to 
find two adult Gnorimus sitting on the surface of the wood in one of the 
containers. Two days later, another four adults appeared, followed by a 
further three during the next three days. The friend to whom I had given 
the third bucket reported that all five larvae produced adults about the 
same time. All the adults were of normal size and all were perfect 
specimens. Pairs, confined as the original female had been, mated readily 
and the females laid eggs which later produced another generation of 
larvae. 



20 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

During the last year of their growth, the larvae remained inside the pieces 
of old cherry wood and were thus not available for inspection without the 
wood being split open which was thought in general to constitute an 
unwarranted, and possibly dangerous, disturbance. In February 1988, 
however, curiosity overcame caution and a piece of the wood in one 
container was broken open. This revealed larvae in cavities within. Three 
which were removed, were seen to have emply guts and looked as if they 
were in a pre-pupal state though they may simply have not been eating 
during the winter. They were rehoused in loose rotten wood in another 
container and given to another friend who later reported that they 
produced three perfect adults about the same time as the others. Some two 
weeks after the last adult had appeared, the wood of the two buckets was 
inspected and this revealed that only one larva had not matured. Its gut 
content, visible from the outside, indicated that it was still feeding. 

Adults of G. nobilis have been reared from larvae found in the wild 
(usually in old apple or plum trees) by various entomologists (e.g. 
Champion, 1908; Massee, 1929; Allen, 1948) but I can find no previous 
record of the species previously having been taken through its complete life 
cycle in captivity. In this instance, the whole process took (for most of the 
individuals) just under two years. Though larvae of the species have often 
been found in the wild in loose wood mould, my findings suggest that, in 
their later stages at least, they feed on relative hard wood as might be 
inferred from their stout mandibles. Champion {loc. cit.) reported similarly 
that his larvae in captivity fed on the "underside of pieces of damp apple 
bark" rather than on wood mould. 

Acknowledgements 

I am most grateful to my friend Mr D. Appleton for taking me to the area 
where the original pair of beetles was found and I thank the Recreation and 
Range Manager, Forestry Commission, Hampshire for permission to study 
insects in the New Forest. 

References 

Allen, A. A. (1949) Entomologist's mon. Mag. 85: 63. 
Champion, G.C. 1908. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 44: 135. 
Massee, A.M. 1929. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 65: 93. 




LIGHT-TRAP RECORDS 21 



SOME INTERESTING LEPIDOPTERA AT THE ROTHAMSTED 

INSECT SURVEY LIGHT TRAP AT 

RHANDIRMWYN, CARMARTHENSHIRE 

David Davies' and Robert M. Palmers 

' Ty'r Ysgol, Rhandirmwyn, Llandovery, Dyfed 
^ 2 Glen home Gardens, Dyce, Aberdeen 

THE following records are of Lepidoptera taken at the Rothamsted Insect 
Survey light trap in the village of Rhandirmwyn some seven miles north of 
Llandovery, Dyfed (Rothamsted Site No. 346; Vice County 44; O.S. Grid 
ref SN 782 441). The trap is set 550 feet above sea level on a steep south- 
facing slope in an area where the average rainfall is 60 inches/year. The 
underlying rocks are of acid Silurian and Ordovician shales and grits and 
the surrounding hills, which in places have high-altitude sessile oak woods 
on their slopes, rise to 1700 feet. There are extensive forestry plantations in 
the area comprised mainly of sitka spruce and Japanese larch. The fields 
are small and enclosed by hedges: sheep farming is the prevailing land use. 

Many of the plant communities are of exceptional interest and include 
unimproved herb-rich meadow; river banks are fringed with alder, ash and 
wych elm, oak woods on the steep valley side and upland grassland, moor 
and blanket bog on the unenclosed summits. Among the noteworthy plants 
are rock stonecrop — Sedum forsteranum, a very local plant of Wales and 
south-west England and parsley fern — Cryptogramma crispa, din arctic 
alpine fern of screes on acid soils, which, although abundant in many 
places in Snowdonia is a rare or local fern elsewhere in Wales. The lesser 
clubmoss — Seliganella selaginoides and globe flower — Trollius 
europaeus are found here at or near their southernmost limit in Britain. 
Some of the deep river gorges with low light intensity and high humidity 
support a rich assemblage of ferns, e.g. oak-fern — Gymnocarpium 
dryoptehs and Wilson's filmy fern — Hymenophyllum wilsonii; mosses 
including Ctenidium molluscum', and liverworts including Reboulia 
hemisphaerica', the rare oceanic hepatic Jubila hutchinsinae, and Nowellia 
curvifolia on decayed oak trunks. This diversity of habitat is reflected in 
the Lepidoptera, species with a predominantly northerly distribution are 
both well represented in the list that follows, which contains a few of the 
more interesting of over 500 species of Lepidoptera recorded since 1981. 
The authors thank E.C. Pelham-Clinton who has confirmed the identity of 
some of the micro-lepidoptera. 

Gracillariidae 

Caloptilia robustella Jackh. A rare or under-recorded species in the west 
of its range (Emmet et. al., 1985). A single specimen taken in June, 1987 is 
apparently the first record from S. Wales. 



22 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

COLEOPHORIDAE. 

Coleophora deauratella L. & Z. vii/86 (one). 

Oecophoridae. 

Pseudatemelia josephinae TolL Appears to be a scarce insect recorded 
from a few widely scattered sites in England and Scotland (Birkett, 1987). 
At Rhandirmwyn the moth appears to be well established, a few have been 
recorded in July each year since 1982. 

Gelechiidae. 

Psoricoptera gibbosella Zell . 3/ix/85 (one) . 

TORTRICIDAE. 

Pandemis cinnamomeana Treits . Recorded regularly and quite common . 

Spatalistis bifasciana Hb. A single specimen of this scarce species 

(Bradley et. al., 1973) was taken in July, 1987. 

Lobesia abscisana Doubl. A single specimen of this species, which 

appears to have a predominantly eastern distribution (Bradley et. al., 1979) 

was taken in July, 1986. 

Epinotia signatana Dougl. vii/86 (three); vii/87 (one). 

E. maculana F. x/86 (two); x/87 (one). 

Pyralidae. 

Phycitodes binaevella Hb. viii/86 (three). 

Ephestia parasitella Stdgr . vii/87 (one) . 

Geometridae. 

Eupithecia abietaha Goeze A single specimen 1 /viii/86. 

E. valerianata Hb. vi/84 (one). 

E. venosata F. vi/83 (one); vi/84 (two); vii/86 (two). 

E. fraxinata Crewe vii/83 (one); v/87 (two). 

E. virgaureata Dbl. A few each year since 1984. 

Pterapherapteryx sexalata Retz. Two in 1983 (21/vi, 27/vii). 

Apocheima hispidaria D. & S. Usually a rather common species; 31 were 

taken in 1982. 

Deileptenia ribeata CI. A few specimens have been taken most years, with 

the exception of 1984 and 1985. 

AlcisjubataJhnnb. Single specimens — 22/vii/81, 27/vii/83. 

Cleorodes lichenaria Hf . 1 0/vi/86 (one) . 

Arctiidae. 

AtolmisrubricollisL. l/vi/81 (one); 18/vi/83 (three). 

Lithosia quadra L. 30/vii/84 (one). 



LIGHT-TRAP RECORDS 23 



NOCTUIDAE. 

Standfussiana lucernea L. Single specimens of this predominantly coastal 
species were caught on 13/viii/82, ll/vii/86and 15/vii/87. 
Papestra biren Goeze.F. Occurs in small numbers most years. 
Orthosia populeti F. A single specimen, 1 1 /iv/82. 

Lithomoia solidaginis Hb. A single specimen lO/viii/82 — well to the 
south of the normal range of this species in Wales (Bretherton et. al., 1983). 
Acronicta menyanthidis Esp. 14/vii/86 (one). 

Ipimorpha retusa L. This scarce species was taken during late July and 
August in 1981-1983, five, two and three specimens respectively, but has 
been absent subsequently. 
Apamea furva Cookdiyne 12/viii/85 (one). 

Heliothis peltigera D. & S. A single specimen on 8/x/85. The only repre- 
sentative of scarcer migratory species at Rhandirmwyn. 
Lithacodia pygargaHufn. 17/vii/87 (one). 
Nycteola revayana Scop. Occurs most years, usually singly. 
Syngrapha interrogationis L. VII/81 (two); vii/82 (two); vii/84 (one); 
1986 (two). 

Laspeyria flexula D. & S. 12/vii/83 (one). 
Hypena crassalis F. Singly in vii/81 ; vii/83; vii/84; viii/86 and vi/87. 

References 

Birkett, N. 1987. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 99: 231-232. 

Bradley, J.D., Tremewan, W.G. and Smith, A. 1973. British torthcoid moths. 

Vol. 1. Cochylidae and Tortricidae: Tortricinae. 
— ibid. 2: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. 
Bretherton, R.F., Goater, B. and Lorimer, R.I. 1983. Noctuidae in Heath, J. and 

Emmet, A.M. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 10: 

244-294. 
Emmet, A.M. 1985. Gracillariinae. ibid. 2: 244-294. 



In the right place at the right time — Dorset 16th-23rd October, 1988. 

For the first time in my lepidoptera excursions I, together with my friend 
Clive Harding, had a remarkable few days' family holiday near Swanage. 
Several nights we ran our lights at Durlston Head seeking out sheltered 
spots from the cool winds. 

Little of interest visited our m.v. lamps the first couple of nights, but the 
third and fourth evenings, notably the Tuesday and Wednesday, produced 
a fantastic change, for together with the usual resident species our first 
Heliothis armigera (Hb.) arrived, together with a single Mythimna vitellina 
(Hb.) During the next three nights no less than sixteen H. armigera, four 
M. vitellina, eight Spodoptera exigua (Hb.), five Palpita unionalis (Hb.) 
and, most exciting of all, a new Pyralid to me, a single specimen of 
Hymenia recurvalis (Fab.), quite a rare visitor to the British Isles, came to 
our lights. 



24 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. i. 1989 

The next couple of nights produced little apart from Agrotis ipsilon 
(Hufn.) Autographa gamma (Linn.) and dozens of Nomophila noctuella 
(D. & S.). Two Mythimna unipuncta (Haw.), a few Orthonama obstipata 
(Fab.) and a single Rhodometra sacraha (Linn.) came in late. 

However, the last night of our hohday produced more excitement further 
along the coast with two more H. armigera, one male Agrius convolvuU 
(Linn.) and a moth we had often joked about during this spell of migrant 
activity, but never really expected to see, an almost perfect male 
Trigonophora flammea (Esp.) sitting in the grass, covered in dew, about 
five feet away from the trap. 

What a way to end our short holiday! We were very reluctant to leave as 
the weather seemed to be improving again, but we both had commitments 
at home. However we will certainly remember this autumn hohday for a 
very long time and wonder during the winter months what might have 
turned up had we been able to spare a couple more nights in the area. — 
D.G. Down, 16 Woodend Close, Thundersley, Benfleet, Essex. 



Special migrants in late October 1988. 

Unusually high minimum temperatures and warm air currents direct from 
the Mediterranean and North Africa resulted in a most exciting list of 
immigrant species at Studland, on the Dorset coast. Southerly winds 
continued uninterrupted from 15th October until 27th October and the 
immigration seems to have reached a peak on the 22nd. The numbers of 
Nomophila noctuella were remarkable. The following moths were 
recorded: 

15th October: 1 Mythimna vitellina Hiibn., 2 Peridroma saucia Hiibn., 30 

Nomophila noctuella D. and S. 
22nd October: 2 male Thera cupressata Geyer (this would appear to be 

only the second time this species has reached the British mainland), 2 

Heliothis armigera Hiibn., 3 Spodoptera exigua Hiibn., 1 Rhodometra 

sacraria L., 4 Orthonama obstipata Fab., 2 Palpita unionalis Hiibn., 25 

Udeaferrugal is Hiibn., and over 100 A^. noctuella. 
23rd October: 2 S. exigua, 1 P. saucia, 1 R. sacraria, 4 O. obstipata, 1 

Euchromius ocellea Haw. , 1 5 U. ferrugalis and over 40 TV. noctuella. 
24th October: 4 S. exigua, 20 U. ferrugalis and 50 N. noctuella. 
25th October: 1 H. armigera, , 1 S. exigua, 1 R. sacraria, 1 O. obstipata, 

10 U. ferrugalis and 20 TV. noctuella. 
26th October: 1 Cyclophora puppillaria Hiibn., 1 H. armigera, 3 S. exigua, 

3 R. sacraria, 1 O. obstipata, 12 U. ferrugalis Sind 20 N. noctuella. 
27th October: 2 H. armigera, 1 S. exigua, 10 O. obstipata, 10 U. ferrugalis 

and 15 N. noctuella. — David C.G. Brown, Jacksons Drive, 25 
Charlecote, Warwick. 



ISCHNURA PUMILIO 25 



ISCHNURA PUMILIO (CHARPENTIER) (ODONATA: 
COENAGRIIDAE) — A WANDERING OPPORTUNIST? 

A.D. Fox 

The Wildfowl Trust, Slimbridge, Gloucester GL2 7BT. 

ISCHNURA pumilio is restricted to relatively few sites in south and west 
Britain and Ireland (Hammond 1983). Askew (1988) states that the species 
will "rapidly colonise newly-formed biotopes, but colonies tend to die out 
after a few years". Certainly, one common feature of the habitat of 
Ischnura pumilio in Britain and Ireland seems to be some degree of 
disturbance or an element of environmental instabihty. In south and west 
Britain, it is commonly found in recently-created artificial wetlands such as 
industrial reservoirs (as china-clay areas of Cornwall or the south Wales 
coalfield) and gravel pits (as at the Cotswold Water Park in 
Gloucestershire/Wiltshire), while in Ireland, the species is typically 
recorded from disused quarries (Cotton 1981, Rippey and Nelson 1988). 
Many sites for the insect in West Wales are stock ponds where grazing 
animals puddle substrate and keep emergent vegetation to a minimum 
(Coker and Fox 1985). The species also occurs in spring and flush habitat 
on unstable mineral substrates in the New Forest, Forest of Dean and 
Pembrokeshire (Hammond 1983). In all but the spring and flush sites, an 
important feature of these situations is the temporary nature of conditions 
which appear to suit the species. Wetland succession, if undamaged by 
Man, leads to the colonisation of shallow muddy substrates (which seem to 
provide the preferred habitat) by dense vegetation which results in its 
ultimate disappearance. This is certainly the case in the Cotswold Water 
Park where breeding sites have become overgrown with Typha and thick 
beds of Glyceria fluitans and where /. pumilio has consequently 
disappeared. In order to be able to exploit such temporary conditions, the 
species must be dispersive, and indeed, it is often recorded in areas far from 
the nearest known colonies. However, /. pumilio normally has such weak 
flight that it seems an unlikely long-distance migrant. 

However, three observations suggest that the insect may be able to cover 
substantial distances. The first concerned /. pumilio at a small pool at 
Merthyr Common, mid Glamorgan on 21 July 1983. The site was a small 
triangular pool 10 m x 6 m, very puddled about the muddy edges with some 
tipped rubbish, and with at least two male /. pumilio present. The day had 
been warm and hazy early on, but had become clear, still and very hot from 
midday. One of the damselflies being watched during the afternoon started 
to fly strongly and directly away from the water's edge, but when some 3m 
away from the pool, it flew directly upwards very rapidly. Similar 
phenomena were witnessed at two sites in the Cotswold Water Park 
(Gloucestershire) on 19 June 1988. At one site, on the edge of a reinstated 
gravel pit, an area of open gravel with water-filled tractor ruts had 



26 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

attracted four male and two female /. pumilio. The males spent much time 
settled on the few emergent Agrostis stolonifera stems present but would 
occasionally patrol around the pool in the typical weak, jerky manner. 
After one such bout of flight of some 1.5 minutes, the insect suddenly flew 
up vertically, steeply climbing upwards until completely lost from sight 
through x8 binoculars. At another site, less than two kilometres away, and 
comprising very similar habitat about the edges of a gravel pit being in- 
filled with refuse, another male flying along the length of a 6 m long 
caterpillar track also suddenly changed from the "normal" jerky flight to a 
strong rapid upward movement, which I again followed vertically until it 
was completely lost from sight. The weather on these second occasions was 
also similar — very high midday temperature and little wind, leading to the 
development of strong thermal currents and surface up-draughts. 

These observations are interesting for two reasons: firstly, it would 
appear that the weak jerky flight of /. pumilio is not its only mode of flight; 
in fact, the species can exhibit strong direct flight (as per /. elegans) on 
occasions. Indeed, it may be said that the erratic flight pattern may have 
adaptive significance in signaUing to conspecifics its presence at small 
isolated pockets of suitable habitat, accentuated by its distinctive 
contrasting coloration (especially the blue tail and pale underside). Such a 
strategy to attract a mate at widely separated units of suitable habitat 
would clearly be an advantage to a highly dispersive species. Secondly, it 
would seem that the insect does possess a means of dispersal, taking 
advantage of hot still weather to leave suitable habitat (having presumably 
first attempted to reproduce) and disperse elsewhere, not merely as newly 
emerged teneral individuals, but also as full adults, by strong upward 
flight. Such dispersal might be expected to be aided under such conditions 
by thermals which would facilitate large-scale dispersal of a small 
damselfly. 

I have not seen such strong dispersal amongst sexually mature 
damselflies, but would be extremely interested to receive any other 
accounts of this or other species showing such behaviour. 

References 

Askew, R.R. (1988). The Dragonf lies of Europe. Harley Books, Colchester. 

Coker, S. and Fox, A.D. (1985). West Wales Dragonflies. Mountain Books, 
Clarbeston Road. 

Cotton, D.F.C. (1981). Some new records and an appraisal of the published records 
for Ischnura pumilio (Charpentier) (Odonata: Coenagriidae) in Ireland. Entomo- 
logist's Gazette 32: 59-64. 

Fox, A.D. (1987). Ischnura pumilio (Charpentier) in Wales — a preliminary review. 
/. Brit. Dragonfly Soc. 3(2): 32-36. 

Hammond, CO. (1983). The Dragonflies of Great Britain and Ireland 2nd Edition 
(revised by R. Merritt). Harley Books, Colchester. 

Ripper, I. and Nelson, B. (1988). Odonata in the north of Ireland 1986/87. /. Brit. 
Dragonfly Soc. 4(1): 13-19. 



BREEDING THE PURPLE EMPEROR 27 

NOTES ON BREEDING THE PURPLE EMPEROR, APATURA IRIS 

LINN., IN CAPTIVITY 

R.E. Smith 

Owls Croft, Lymington Bottom Road, Four Marks, Alton, Hants GU34 SDL. 

IN mid-afternoon on July 28th 1984, in Alice Holt Forest, Hampshire, I 
inadvertently disturbed a female Purple Emperor which had been feeding 
from the sap oozing from the trunk of an oak tree about five feet above the 
ground level. A few minutes later the butterfly returned, presumably to 
resume its feasting, but as I had already spent five days in the forest in a 
fruitless endeavour to capture a female for breeding purposes, this was an 
opportunity not to be missed, and this time I was successful. 

For 13 of the last 17 years I have bred the Purple Emperor in captivity 
from the egg stage to the imago, and the incident just related might, except 
for the precise details and for the sequel, apply to any of those years; there 
was the same pleasure in walking about the forest and enjoying all that 
Nature had to offer; the sudden surge of excitement on spotting one's first 
Purple Emperor of the season, flying loftily around the tree-tops; the 
occasional confusion, until one's eye had become practised again, with the 
White Admiral; the rarer moments of good fortune when a Purple 
Emperor seems to discard its elusive habits and present itself to full view on 
the ground or fly tantalisingly close or low along the ride; the sense of 
anticipation of a certain capture when a female, seeming to appear from 
nowhere, descends to a sallow bush within easy reach of the net on a long 
pole; followed often by the disappointment of missing the capture by a 
stroke which was mistimed or the height wrongly judged. Finally, when the 
element of nervous excitement has been overcome and a calmer approach 
taken, the moment of success arrives and with it a feeling of satisfaction 
with one's efforts. 

Although these features could be common to all of my annual 
campaigns, there is another aspect which has given widely varying results, 
namely, the number of eggs obtained in captivity from the female caught in 
the wild. After two initial years of breeding solely from eggs collected in the 
forest, I changed over to my present practice of obtaining the eggs from a 
captive female. So it was that on July 12th 1970 (an early season), I caught 
the first one, followed by two more the next day, the latter within five 
minutes of each other, at 1.15 pm, and 1.20 pm, a feat not since achieved. 

One of the females was placed on a low sallow bush growing in a large 
wooden tub and enclosed by fine-mesh netting supported by a wire 
framework; the other two were placed in sleeves on well-established sallows 
in the garden. The result was a combination of success and failure. The 
female in the tub-grown sallow commenced laying on July 24th, with five 
eggs between 2 pm and 5.30 pm, and a further eight between 5.30 pm and 
6.30 pm; subsequent days produced additions of 15 on the 25th, 31 on the 



28 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. i. 1989 



27th, 16 on the 29th, and 14 on the 30th. By August 2nd the total was 132, 
of which at least ten were later found to be infertile or otherwise 
unproductive of larvae. On August 7th the butterfly died, having by then 
laid 150 eggs; a further seven were found in the body afterwards. By 
contrast, the two sleeved females died on July 29th without laying. From 
the 140 fertile eggs obtained, 45 pupae resulted in 1971; these produced 25 
male and 15 female adults, a success rate of 28.57970; the remaining five 
consisted of three crippled males, one crippled female and one "leaking" 
pupa which failed to achieve the imaginal state. In accordance with my 
normal practice, the 40 good specimens were released in the area from 
which the parent female was taken. 

This was a reasonably good start to the new regime; unfortunately it was 
followed in 1971 by a serious failure; a female captured on August 1st laid 
57 eggs between the 8th and the 15th (when it died) on the tub-grown 
sallow, but later all of these were found to have perished. This setback must 
have had a discouraging effect upon me, for in the next four seasons my 
activities were confined to occasional visits to the forest for observations 
only. I now think that the reason for the loss was that spiders, earwigs, 
slugs, etc. had strongly estabhshed themselves in the tub and were grateful 
for the easy prey. 

It was not until 1976 that I resumed breeding of the Purple Emperor. My 
experience so far then led me to adopt a strict rule for the future, of 
inducing egg-laying on sleeved sallow branches instead of on tub-grown 
bushes; the exclusion of predators would thereby be simplified, and to this 
end I now take great care to wrap layers of bandage tightly round the end 
of the sleeve which is tied to the branch. At 2.30 pm on July 10th 1976 (an 
exceptionally early season), I captured a female; I also found two eggs on 
the same day. I sleeved the butterfly and two days later she laid 12 eggs, 
then missed a day and resumed on the next, with 15, 13, 29, 16 and 5 eggs 
being laid on consecutive days, finishing with 36 on July 19th — a total of 
126. Most of these were seen to be laid after 2 pm, the latest time observed 
being 5 pm. The female hved on until July 29th. 

From this large batch of eggs, a total of nine males and 14 females 
resulted in 1977, a success rate of only 18.2507o. The first one emerged on 
July 27th and the last on August 19th, both dates being considerably later 
than those of an average season. When I saw the first specimen in the sleeve 
with its wings closed I took it to be a female on account of its great size, but 
it proved to be an abnormally large male, probably similar to the one 
named by Heslop ab. maximus {Notes & Views of the Purple Emperor: 
157-158). At the opposite extreme, I once had a dwarf male specimen, but 
did not record details. 

Probably because of the late emergence of my specimens, I did not make 
my first visit to the forest in 1977 until July 31st, when I released seven 
males and three females. This delay proved to be a mistake, as I was not 



BREEDING THE PURPLE EMPEROR 29 

able to capture a female until August 10th, followed by another two days 
later. Although they remained aHve until the 28th and 27th respectively, no 
laying occurred and one of the females was afterwards found to contain 
only 30 eggs. As some consolation for this failure I managed to collect 
seven eggs in the forest on August 7th. In 1978 only one butterfly, a female, 
resulted from the seven eggs and was released in the forest; but for some 
unexplained reason I repeated the mistake of the previous year in timing 
my visits to the forest rather late in the Purple Emperor's egg-laying period, 
with the consequence that I did not capture a female until August 13th. She 
laid only two eggs and died on the 25th. 

Only one of the larvae from the 1978 eggs survived the winter into 1979, 
and although it began to move about from the middle of April onwards, it 
would not feed and died during the first week in May. Even that was not 
the end of my misfortunes; in the forest on July 27th, the sight of a female 
Purple Emperor flying low over the grass verges of a ride, more or less in 
circles and then settling on the grass, seemed promising enough, albeit its 
behaviour appeared uncharacteristic of the species. While it was settled I 
tried to catch it — unsuccessfully, because the 8 ft pole to which my net was 
attached was too unwieldy for me to swing horizontally. At the second time 
of missing it, the butterfly flew up into the trees and settled just out of 
reach, as so often happens. Reluctantly accepting failure, I continued 
walking along the ride, but shortly afterwards it occurred to me that the 
butterfly might have been seeking moisture from the grass and I therefore 
returned to the spot with the intention of pouring some water over the 
ground. In the event this was unnecessary, for when I arrived back the 
female was settled on the hard ground in the middle of the ride; as it flew 
up I caught it with a sweep of the net (minus pole this time). After sleeving 
her I discovered the probable explanation of the unusual behaviour: a 
loosely "hinged" forewing. This defect also seemed to affect its behaviour 
in the sleeve, for it fluttered its wings much more frequently than I had ever 
encountered with other females; its egg-laying capability may also have 
been adversely affected, since it managed only nine by August 8th and then 
ceased, though living on until the 18th. All of the eggs hatched, but the year 
ended disastrously with the sleeve being torn to shreds by strong winds and 
all the larvae being lost. 

Three bad years in succession led me to a re-appraisal of my methods; as 
a result, I decided upon two more modifications to my usual procedures. 
Firstly, in order to obtain a large number of eggs, my visits to the forest 
would have to be timed to enable me to determine by observation the time 
when egg-laying was just beginning; that would be the appropriate time for 
the capture of the female which, of course, must be free from defects 
inimical to the egg-laying process. Secondly, in order to minimise the risk 
of losses of livestock due to such accidents as torn sleeves, the number of 
pre-hibernation larvae in a sleeve should be kept as low as possible, five or 
six being considered as a practical maximum to be achieved in due course. 



30 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

The next season showed a marked inprovement over the previous three 
years. It was also notable for the fact that I saw my first Purple Emperor 
aberration, a male sorbioduni Heslop (Notes & Views of the Purple 
Emperor. 169, 222 pi. XVIIa). It was on July 23rd, 1980, at 2.35 pm, when, 
in company with a youthful enthusiast who had never before seen a Purple 
Emperor, we saw two of the species appear suddenly overhead; one of 
them flew off behind the trees and out of sight, but the other settled about 
18 feet above the ground on a Cupressus tree. Recognising the advantages 
of greater height and considerably more youth possessed by my 
companion, I gave him the chance of capturing the first specimen he had 
ever seen, and he managed it very competently. He went into raptures on 
discovering that he had netted a male aberration — a real instance of 
beginner's luck. A remark I had made to this delighted enthusiast, 
concerning the after-effect of thunderstorms in sometimes producing an 
increase in Purple Emperor activity, resulted in his making a quick visit to 
the forest in the late afternoon of July 26th, when the weather had just 
cleared following a series of storms earlier in the day; at 4 pm he caught a 
female at about head height on a sallow bush and gave it to me for 
breeding. 

This female, after taking two days to settle down in the sleeve, put on a 
remarkable display of egg-laying. Starting just after 1.30 pm on July 28th, 
she laid 14 by 3 pm, 21 by 3.12 pm, 58 by 6 pm and 68 by 6.45 pm, an 
average rate of one egg every AVi minutes for SVa hours. On the next day 
she laid another 32 and then ceased completely, although remaining alive 
until August 16th. An interesting point is that only 12 of the eggs were laid 
on the sallow leaves, the remaining 88 being deposited on the netting. The 
laying of eggs on the netting instead of on the leaves is, in my experience at 
least, a normal occurrence in captivity, but in this instance the proportion 
concerned was exceptionally high — the female must have been in a great 
hurry. 

The outcome of my subsequent management of this large quantity of 
eggs was that I had nine males and 13 females for release in the forest in 
1981. This represented a success rate of 22%, but as I had not yet achieved 
the aim of five or six larvae per sleeve, a result much better than this was 
not to be expected. When I was releasing some of the adults near the car- 
park area in the forest, a female demonstrated the Purple Emperor's well- 
known attraction to shining metal by alighting on the roof of an incoming 
car; when the car had stopped I watched the driver go to the boot and bring 
out his picnic equipment, and wondered what his reaction would be on 
seeing a Purple Emperor on the roof of his car; but he glanced at it as 
casually as if it had been a Large White! The female flew off in what I 
could only imagine to be utter disgust. 

The 1981 season was marked by my failure to catch a female, and as I did 
not find any eggs I had no specimens for release in 1982. Furthermore, just 
as the 1982 season was about to commence I sustained an injury which 



BREEDING THE PURPLE EMPEROR 31 

caused me to spend the next four weeks lying on my back on the floor. Yet 
it was during that spell of enforced inactivity that a most remarkable event 
occurred. On July 4th a friend of my wife's brought what she had earlier 
described on the telephone as a large butterfly flying about in her kitchen, 
and which she thought was a White Admiral. I could hardly believe my eyes 
when I saw that it was in fact a female Purple Emperor. This specimen, 
after sleeving on sallow, laid only two eggs and died on July 29th. Both 
eggs hatched, but early in April 1983 I found a large hole in the sleeve and 
only one larva inside; it went on to produce a female on July 14th. On the 
next day I was able to capture a female in the forest, at 3.30 pm, and yet 
another on July 28th, at 4 pm. By the 29th, the first one had laid 12 eggs 
and then died on August 1st. I did not record the details for the second one, 
but the combined efforts of the two females resuUed in no more than 18 
larvae by September 25th, which, in turn, produced four males and two 
females in 1984, an increase, at least, in the success rate to 33 '/3%, albeit 
with a considerably smaller starting quantity. 

Taking an overall look at the results of my breeding activities led me to 
reflect on the fact that they had settled into a pattern of one exceptionally 
good year followed by three indifferent or bad years. On this basis, 1985 
should be another good year, but I felt that there must be an explanation 
other than that of chance, for these fluctuations, possibly connected with 
an unwitted variation in my procedure. The first thing that occurred to me 
in this respect was the orientation of the sleeve on the sallow bush. There 
had been some changes of practice — the very first attempt at breeding 
from a captive female was, as mentioned earlier, with a tub-grown sallow, 
which would certainly have been placed in the open; and that combination 
of circumstances had produced 140 fertile eggs. The second attempt, a year 
later, was initially quite successful, with 57 eggs, but was marred by the 
subsequent total loss, and the method was abandoned. The next venture, in 
1976, was an eminently satisfactory one, with 126 eggs, but in that case the 
sleeve method was used. It was not until 1980 that the next success with 
sleeving was achieved, this time with 100 eggs. The problem was to 
ascertain what changes had occurred between those years. The answer, or 
rather, what I hope is the answer, came to me suddenly after reading the 
relevant parts of Notes & Views of the Purple Emperor, by Heslop, Hyde 
and Stockley. 

I should say of this work that although I enjoyed reading it, especially 
for the atmosphere of enthusiasm for the subject which it communicates, 
my own experience of the Purple Emperor has not always been in 
agreement with the statements expressed in the book; in particular, the 
assertion on page 165 that "In captivity the insect lays only between 10 am 
and 2 pm (B.S.T.) and then only when the shade temperature exceeds 
65 °F. in the morning''' does not correspond with my observations, since 
most of the egg-laying of my females occurred between 2 pm and 6 pm — 
indeed I have not observed a single instance where it occurred in the 



32 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

morning. For this reason it would have been inadvisable for me to have 
followed the advice on page 164 to remove the female from the laying 
sleeve in the afternoon and not replace it until the following morning. My 
actual practice in this respect has been either not to remove it at all or wait 
until dusk when the butterfly is quiet and easily transferable to a different 
sleeve without disturbance to the egg-laying rhythm. I found the slightly 
different statement, to the effect that, in captivity, "ovipositing normally 
will take place only during the forenoon" had appeared earlier, on page 72; 
what caught my attention, however, was the immediately preceding 
remark: "In captivity, the female requires for ovipositing a certain degree 
of warmth : and also, at all events in the sleeve, direct sunshine. "(The italics 
are mine.) 

Now, all became clear to me: my tub-grown bush had been in direct 
sunshine; so had my sleeved female in 1976; but after that I had been 
influenced by the remarks on page 102 of the same work to the effect that 
"in nature the female will lay her eggs exclusively on the north-east sector 
of those sallows, only, which are shaded from the south and west." The 
sallows which I used are on the southern boundary of my garden, lying in 
an east-west line. They have grown considerably since I planted them; and 
as the sleeves are always on the side away from direct sunshine and open to 
the north-west, north and north-east, they were in a favourable egg-laying 
orientation, according to Heslop, for females laying under natural 
conditions, but not for females enclosed in sleeves. However, this does not 
explain my success in obtaining 100 eggs in 1980; but, on reflection, I 
recalled that I had, in that year, lopped many of the branches of the sallows 
and completely felled two bushes which had become too intertwined. No 
doubt this had the effect, unrealised at the time, of allowing more direct 
sunshine to reach the sleeve. If the theory is correct, it could account for 
most of the erratic variations in my breeding results and, incidentally, 
might also account for Heslop's conclusion that eggs were not laid in 
captivity after 2 pm; if his sleeve was positioned so as to receive morning 
sunshine but none after 2 pm, all is explained. 

Now, to return to the female caught on July 28th 1984, as mentioned at 
the beginning of this account. In the evening of the same day I placed it in a 
sleeve on an isolated sallow so as to receive direct sunshine in the 
afternoon. From the very next day I knew that matters were going to be 
different. I had never before had a female which commenced laying within 
24 hours of being sleeved, but this one did, with ten eggs by 4. 15 pm on the 
29th, one at 5.06 pm and another at 5.08 pm, both of which I observed; by 
5.24 pm the total was at least 22 and a count later that evening gave 37. 
Laying continued on the 30th and 31st, possibly also on August 1st and 
certainly on August 3rd, by which time the total had risen to 126. I 
observed laying at 3.27 pm on the 3rd and again at 3.25 pm on the 4th. The 
female died on August 10th, having laid so many eggs in the sleeve that 
counting had become difficult and I decided that it would be a more 



BREEDING THE PURPLE EMPEROR 33 

profitable exercise to count tlie larvae when they hatched out from the 
eggs. The results of so doing were that I had counted 134 by August 22nd; 
on the 25th I distributed the larvae between 13 sleeves and found the total 
number to be 168. As this included the larvae from two eggs found in the 
wild on July 28th, the total complement of eggs laid by the female was 166. 
Three larvae died shortly afterwards, and on August 29th I redistributed 
the remaining 165 in 14 sleeves, as follows: — 

12, 12, 11, 12, 11, 25, 12, 12, 11, 12, 5, 6, 12, 12. 

More recently, viz. on May 13th 1985, I took a count of the post- 
hibernation larvae which had survived and resumed feeding. The result, in 
the same order, was as under: — 

4, 8, 0, 0, 1, 2, 5, 5, 7, 6, 0, 3, 8, 4. 

This total of 53 will give a success rate of 32.12%, no further casualties 
being sustained. It will be noted that the contents of the third, fourth and 
eleventh sleeves were completely lost, and that the sixth, originally 
containing 25 larvae, was reduced to only two. The explanation of these 
heavy losses probably lies in the fact that the third, fourth and sixth sleeves 
were torn, but I did not discover this until the winter had passed. It seems 
essential to the future improvement of the success rate that the number of 
sleeves should be increased to about 30, with no more than five or six larvae 
per sleeve. 

To test the theory put forward in these notes I had hoped next to 
undertake a series of investigations into the comparative results of sleeving 
one captive female in morning sunshine and another in afternoon sunshine. 
If this regularly resulted in both females laying large quantities of eggs then 
the matter would seem to have been resolved. However, the opportunity to 
carry our such experiments has been frustrated by a succession of summers 
with unsuitable weather at the crucial ovipositing time, and, more recently, 
with unsuitable weather at the crucial ovipositing time, and, more recently, 
in 1988, by a new policy on the part of the Forestry Commission, of issuing 
collecting permits only to those individuals actively involved in "officially 
recognised research." 

Reference 
Heslop, I.R.P., Hyde, G.E. and Stockley, R.E. 1964. Notes and Views of the Purple 
Emperor. Brighton. 



Butterfly records from Dorset, 1988 

The period l.viii to T.viii 1988 was spent at Studland in Dorset. During this 
time butterflies were recorded in the area on a casual basis. Over the week 
30 species were seen and as this is such a large number we felt that a brief 
note would be appropriate. 

Of the more widespread species Pieris brassicae L., P. rapae L. and P. 
napi L. were found throughout the region, though P. brassicae was 



34 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

particularly common nearer the coast. Thymelicus sylvestrisPoda, Vanessa 
atalanta L., Aglais urticae L., Inachis io L. were also generally common. A 
V. atalanta ab. bialbata Cabeau, which has a white spot in the red band of 
each forewing, was later reared from ova collected off nettle along the 
coastal path between Studland and Swanage. Lycaena phlaeas L. was also 
recorded at all the sites worked, though usually only as singletons. 

By far the richest area for butterflies was the coastal path between 
Studland and Swanage. Thymelicus acteon Rott., Cupido minimus Fuqss., 
Cynthia cardui L. (ovipositing on nettle), Melanargia galathea L., Pyronia 
tithonus L. and Maniola jurtina L. were common. Also present in lower 
numbers were Aricia agestis D. & S., Polyommatus icarus Rott., Polygonia 
c-album L., Argynnis aglaja L. (most frequent adjacent to Ballard Down) 
and Lasiommata megera L. 

The one woodland site visited was Okeford Hill where Ochlodes venata 
Brem & Grey, Pararge aegeria L. and Aphantopus hyperantus L. were 
common. Among the few Argynnis paphia L. seen was one f. valesina Esp. 
A single Quercusia quercus L. was also recorded. 

Other species noted were Thymelicus lineola Ochs. (one at Lulworth 
Cove), Gonepteryx rhamni L. (one at Arne and one at Winterborne 
Muston), Plebejus argus L. (one at Verne Yeates), Lysandra coridon Poda 
(abundant at Verne Yeates), Celestrina argiolus L. (a few at Studland) and 
Hipparchia semele L. which was present on all the sandy beaches and 
coastal sand dunes visited and was particularly common at Godlingston. 

Sites mentioned in the text: 

Ballard Down, SZ 045 813, Verne Yeates SY 695 733, Lulworth Cove SY 
820 799, Studland SZ 038 827, Swanage SZS 031 795, Okeford Hill ST 82 
09, Arne SY 972 887, Godlingston SZ 020 825, Winterborne Muston SY 
882 973. 

Adrian M. and Deborah K. Riley, Longmynd, 35 Park Mount, 
Harpenden, Herts AL5 3AS. 

A further Record of Tinagma balteolella F. v. R. (Lep.: Douglasiidae) 

Our Editor's note in a recent issue {Ent. Rec. 100: 152) prompts me to 
record another extension of this moth's range. Norman Heal caught some 
flying near the foodplant in a coastal area of East Sussex (v.c. 14) in 1985. 
My son and I visited the locality on 2nd August 1986 where we found the 
pink larvae of this species as well as those of the two Ethmia species {E. 
terminella Fletch. and E. bipunctella Fab.) that feed on viper's bugloss 
{Echium vulgare). I failed to rear the balteolella because I suspect, in what 
was a very late season, the larvae were too young. 

Collecting some plants later in the year had not occurred to me! My 
thanks to Norman Heal for permission to publish his find. 
R. Fairclough, Blencathra, Deanoak Lane, Leigh, Reigate, Surrey. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 35 

Some migrant lepidoptera in Wales, 1988. 

I am pleased to record the capture of a Scarce Bordered Straw {Heliothis 
armigera Hubn.) and a Vestal {Rhodometra sacraria L.) at the foot of the 
cliffs just north of Clarach Bay, near Aberystwyth. The moths were taken 
within ten minutes of each other late on a sunny afternoon of September 
9th 1988. Tribute must be paid to the extraordinary stalking skills of my 
friend Mr R.H. Clinton who boxed the very active armigera without a net. 
The only other migrant species noted was the pyralid Nomophila noctuella 
D. & S. — M.D. Bryan, Keeper of Natural History, Birmingham 
Museum. 

Agriopis marginaria Fab. (Lep.: Geometridae), tlie Dotted-border Moth 
caught in December. 

A single male of this species was caught in the Rothamsted Insect Survey 
light trap at Prestom Montford, Shropshire (Site no. 382, SJ 433, 143) on 
the night of 26/27 December 1987. A. marginaria usually flies between mid 
February and late April. — Adrian M. Riley, Entomology and Hema- 
tology Deptartment, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts 
AL5 2JQ. 

Some notable Coleoptera from Northumberland, including Otiorhynchus 
arcticus Fab. new to England. 

A period of five weeks investigating the invertebrate fauna of National 
Trust land in north-east England during 1986 produced the following 
interesting beetle records: 

Asaphidion pallipes (Duftschmid) (Carabidae), running over damp sand in 
sparsely vegetated river shingle by South Tyne on the Bellister Castle Estate 
at Haltwhistle (NY 694628), 21st August. This species was last recorded in 
the region in 1936 by W.F, Davidson, who took it at Slaggyford also by the 
South Tyne (M.D. Eyre, M.L. Luff, and S.G. Ball, 1986, An Atlas of the 
Carabidae (Ground Beetles) of Northumberland and Durham. 
Northumberland Biological Records Centre, Special Publication No. 2). 

Malthodes guttifer Kiesen wetter (Cantharidae), swept from heather and 
Rhododendron at the edge of pine plantation at NU 073031 on the Cragside 
Estate of Rothbury, 20th July; the same estate also produced M. mysticus 
Kiesenwetter, swept beneath birches lining Black Burn (NU 0802) and 
under alders by the River Coquet at Warton (NU 016023). Both these 
species, together with M. flavoguttatus Kiesenwetter, were swept beneath 
oak and birch woodland along Rothley Lake (NZ 0490), 24th July. M. 
mysticus was found at a third locality, on the Hadrians Wall Estate, where 
it was swept from ash trees growing on Peel Crags (NY 755676) and sallow 
and rowan by Crag Lough (NY 768679), 14th August. 



36 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. i. 1989 

Mycetophagus atomarius (Fab.) (Mycetophagidae), found beneath bark on 
fallen beech within the mixed deciduous woodland of Wallington Dean 
(NZ 027837), 19th August. 

Asemum striatum (L.) (Cerambycidae), two beneath pine bark in 
plantation at St. Cuthbert's Cave (NU 059352), 28th July, near Wooler. 

Mantura matthewsi (Curtis) (Chrysomelidae), frequent in turf of whin sill 
bank in Embleton Links (NU 241235), 4th August. 

Rhinomacer attelaboides F. (Nemonychidae), one alighted on my shirt, 
Harwood Forest (NZ 0195), 27th July. 

Otiorhynchus arcticus (Fab.) (Curculioidae), one beneath vegetation 
covering outcrop of whin sill, Beblowe Crag, Lindisfarne Castle (NU 
136417), 28th July; Trachyphloeus laticollis Boheman was found in the 
same situation. O. arcticus is well-known just over the border in Scotland, 
but has never been reported in England before (M.G. Morris, pers.comm.). 

O. desertus Rosenhauer, beneath debris of strandline between saltmarsh 
and sand dune by Long Nanny at Newton Links (NU 228270), 30th July. 

My thanks to Dr M.G. Morris for information on the British distribution 
of O. arcticus and to Dr P. Hyman for confirming my identification. — 
K.N. A. Alexander, National Trust, Spitalgate Lane, Cirencester, Glos. 
GL7 2DE. 

A late or second brood Cynaeda dentalis D. & S. (Lep.: Pyralidae) 

On September 9th 1988, whilst preparing to run an m.v. light on a grassy 
slope at Portland, Dorset, my brother Michael and I disturbed a specimen 
of the pyralid Cynaeda dentalis. Two further specimens later came to light. 

Both Goater {British Pyralid Moths) and Emmet {A field guide to the 
smaller British Lepidoptera) indicate that the species is single brooded, with 
the imago flying in July. Two of the three moths captured were distinctly 
smaller (wingspan 20mm) than the specimens of this species we had 
collected in July of previous years in the same locality. 

This late record would seem to indicate a possibility of a second brood in 
suitable years. — E.G. Smith, Bullen Hill Farm, Ashton Common, 
Trowbridge, Wilts. 

Elenchus tenuicornis (Kirby) (Strepsiptera: Elanchldae) in Cambridgeshire. 

Whilst sorting through a Malaise Trap catch (covering the period 9th to 
13th June 1987) from the Middle Heath of Castor Hanglands National 
Nature Reserve, I found six male Strepsiptera. They were identified as 
Elenchus tenuicornis (Kirby) using Freude, H., Harde, K.W. and Lohse, 
G.A. (1969, Die Kafer Mitteleuropas 8). I am grateful to Dr D.A. Sheppard 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 37 

of the Nature Conservancy Council for checking this determination. 

Seven further E. tenuicornis were subsequently found whilst sorting 
through catches from window traps. Following discussion with Dr R.C. 
Welch, it would appear that these finds represent a new county record for 
Cambridgeshire (v.c.32). — D.A.Procter, Nature Conservancy Council, 
60 Bracondale, Norwich, Norfolk NRl 2BE. 

Unusual behaviour of the Speckled Wood Butterfly. 

Whilst walking down to Lulworth Cove, Dorset, on 17th September 1988, 
a stop was made by a small pond, some 20 x 30 metres in size. There was 
little wind, and the surface of the pond was smooth. 

A speckled Wood {Pararge aegeria L.) was observed to fly close to the 
surface of the pond and dip into the water causing a small ripple. The 
butterfly continued in this manner, making a total of 10 dips, each one 
causing a ripple, before flying off to settle on low herbiage for a second or 
two. It then flew out of sight. 

Was this insect taking on moisture or "playing" with the reflected 
image? — A.J. Baldwin, 33 Defoe Avenue, Kew Gardens, Surrey TW9 
4DS. 

Immigrant Lepidoptera in Devon. 

Whilst enjoying a late holiday at Bigbury in South Devon, I was fortunate 
to take a specimen of the Slender Burnished Brass, Diachrysia orichalcea 
Fab. The moth was disturbed from herbiage next to the moth-trap on the 
morning of October 4th 1988. The only other interesting immigrants noted 
were a brace of White-specks, Mythimna albipuncta Haw. taken on the 
previous night. Unfortunately, trapping was prevented by gale-force winds 
for the remainder of my stay in Devon. — M.D. Bryan, Keeper of Natural 
History, Birmingham Museum. 

Acleris abietana Hiibn. (Lep.: Tortricidae) — records and foodplants. 

It was most interesting to read of Riley's records of Acleris abietana Hbn. 
from northern England (Riley, A., 1988. Ent. Rec. 100: 186-7) and this has 
promted me to add other recent records and to refer to its foodplants. 

Since this species was first recorded in Aberdeenshire in 1975 (Smith, P. 
and M.R. Young, 1977. Ent. Rec. 89: 53) it has been found on a number of 
subsequent occasions, including once in the spring of 1978 by R.M. Palmer 
at Kirkhill Forest on the outskirts of Aberdeen city. Clearly, as Riley notes, 
the species does hibernate as an adult. Furthermore in 1982 I found pupae 
in characteristic spinnings on Abies grandis (grand fir) at Kemnay (Young, 
M.R., 1983. Ent. Gazette 34: 87-8) and, although it is just possible that 
these resulted from larvae which had wandered from nearby Picea abies 



38 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. i. 1989 

(Norway spruce), it seems most probable that they had fed on the grand fir. 
The spinnings and signs of eating were plainly present. 

Obviously this species is spreading in Britain, from a Scottish bridgehead 
and it would be most interesting to know what conifers it is using for a 
foodplant. On the continent it has been recorded from Pinus, Abies and 
Picea, according to Bradley, J.D., W.G. Tremewan and A. Smith, 1973. 
{British Tortricoid Moths 1: Ray Society, London), but it seems a 
persuasive argument that, were all these genera used in Britain, then the 
moth might have spread more widely and quickly. No doubt it will come to 
use them here eventually, but does it do so now? 

All the Aberdeenshire sites have grand fir present, at least in small 
numbers, and this also applies to the places mentioned by Riley. At 
Hamsterley Forest and Chopwell Woods in County Durham the Forestry 
Commission ranger, B. Walker, reports individual old trees and some 30 + 
year plantations, within 500 metres of the trap site; and at Kielder Forest 
the FC ranger, D. Kerr, has located 36 mature trees, again within 500 
metres of the trap. It obviously cannot yet be ruled out that A. abietana is 
restricted to grand fir in Britain and it would be of great interest if larvae 
could be found on other conifers, including Norway spruce, as mentioned 
by Riley. 

I am most grateful to B. Walker and D. Kerr for their help in locating 
grand firs near their trappery sites and to R. Palmer for his Aberdeenshire 
records. — Mark Young, Department of Zoology, Aberdeen University, 
Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB9 2TN. 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Dhofar, October 1979. 

When I visited Dhofar for the first time in 1979 to write a book on the 
butterflies of Oman, the province was fast developing. The civil war had 
been brought to an effective end in 1975 thanks to Sultan Qaboos' 
enlightened and well executed combination of civil and military measures, 
winning over the population. Only some fifty diehard rebels remained 
active (all known by name to the security forces), but they did manage to 
stage the occasional ambush or to murder stray soldiers or Europeans. 
Three oil rig workers had been killed a few months earlier on a beach not 
far from Salalah. A few areas could not be visited without military escort 
and some areas were mined. 

I was planning to collect moths as well as butterflies. Since setting up 
mercury vapour lamps in the middle of the night in what is still a military 
zone in a complete wilderness could be considered unorthodox, I sought 
the advice of the Colonel in charge of that sort of affairs (my case was only 
mildly eccentric in comparison with many other requests). He arranged an 
escort to take me up to one of the permanent army pickets guarding the 
main Muscat-Salalah highway late in the evening. 

The picket was manned by a platoon of Baluch soldiers. After some 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 39 

polite conversation and a brief recce, I set up my moth gear. I had practised 
down in Salalah, so in no time the screen was safely wedged in the doors of 
the Landrover, the lamp suspended, and the generator going. The 
Lieutenant in charge was suitably impressed by my military precision. The 
moment the light came on in full force, moths swarmed to the screen faster 
than I could deal with them. It was some time before I reflected on the 
curious fact that although my visit must have been the most exciting thing 
to have happened at this picket since hostilities ceased, no-one came to 
watch, no-one offered to help. Only the occasional soldier would peer 
round my car for a moment or two. After about two hours the mess 
sergeant kindly brought me a mug of tea and I took the opportunity of 
asking the Lieutenant why his men were so shy: 

"But don't you realise what a perfect target you make in front of that 
screen?" came the reply. "It isn't very often the rebels get a chance for 
shooting at night from a safe distance!" The Honda ran out of petrol a few 
minutes later and the light went out; I decided it would be too much trouble 
to refill it! 

The following day I reviewed the situation with the Colonel, who 
conceded that the Lieutenant had an excellent point. New tactics were 
devised. I would go alone to remote places with no population and no army 
presence; I would stay no more than two hours; I would not visit the same 
place at night more than once. It was highly improbable that a stray rebel 
would have standing orders about what to do with an illuminated 
entomologist and two hours would be too little time for him to consult his 
superiors. This system worked well. E.P. Wiltshire tells me that he has 
found more than twenty new species of macroheterocera here and a few 
beetles and ant-lions have also proved new. But I never got rid of a tingling 
sensation in my spine every time I stepped in from of the screen. — Torben 
B. Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

Agonopterix carduella Hiibner (Lep.: Oecophoridae) in October. 

On the night of the 25th October 1988, while light trapping with Bernard 
Skinner in Folkstone Warren, Kent, I was surprised to see a good specimen 
of this local moth so late in the year. Its normal time of appearance and 
that given in the text books is July-August. So was this a partial second 
generation specimen, or does the moth hibernate as an imago? — J.M. 
Chalmers-Hunt, 1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent. 

Stigmella samiatella Zeller (Lep.: Nepticulidae) in Kent. 

This species seems to be on the increase in Britain (see Emmet, Ent. Rec. 
88: 315-318). Mr Ian D. Ferguson showed me an empty nepticulid mine on 
Spanish Chestnut that he had found on the 20th September 1986 near 



40 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

Maidstone, Kent (v.c.15). Subsequently, he and I visited the locality later 
that month and collected a total of 15 empty mines on Spanish Chestnut. 
These were submitted to Col. A.M. Emmet, who kindly determined them 
as those of S. samiatella. These appear to constitute the first record of 
samiatella for Kent. 

In 1988, some vacated mines on Spanish Chestnut that I had collected in 
the National Trust Reserve at Petts Wood, Kent (v.c.l6) on the 21th 
September, were also determined by Col. Emmet as those of samiatella, 
and established the first record of this species for this vice county. I should 
like to take this opportunity to thank the National Trust authorities for 
permission to record microlepidoptera in the above reserve. — J.M. 
Chalmers-Hunt, 1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent. 

Geometrid larvae feeding on bilberry {Vaccinium myrtillus) after 
descending from oaks. 

At dusk on 12th June 1988, 1 was walking along the edge of an Exmoor wood 
in Devon. Larvae of Agriopis marginaha Fab., Erannis defoliaria Clerck and 
Operophtera brumata L. were abundant, feeding on bilberry. I also noted 
many larvae of the latter two species dangling by silk threads from oak trees. 
There were no larvae of any of these species on the bilberry away from the 
wood, and it is reasonable to conclude that the larvae found on bilberry had 
begun their life feeding on oak before descending from the trees. — Dr B.P. 
Henwood, 4 The Paddocks, Abbotskerswell, Newton Abbot, Devon. 

The larva of Oligia versicolor (Borkhausen). (Lep.: Noctuidae). 

On 17th April 1988 I found a larva feeding internally in the stem of cocksfoot 
grass (Dactylis glomerata) at Axmouth, Devon. On 30th April, the larva 
made a cocoon of withered grass sheaths. I opened the cocoon on 9th May, 
revealing a light brown pupa, 10mm in length. A female Oligia versicolor 
emerged on 13th June. According to Skinner {Moths of the British Isles), the 
larva of this species is apparently unknown. 

Describing the larva from colour slides which I had taken, the general 
colour was purple above the black spiracles, and greyish-cream below. The 
thoracic legs, head and anal plate were brown and the prolegs greyish-cream. 
The setae were short and white and the pinacula black. 

My thanks to E.C. Pelham-Clinton for confirming my identification of the 
moth. — Dr B.P. Henwood, 4 The Paddocks, Abbotskerswell, Newton 
Abbot, Devon. 

Hydrelia flammeolaria Hufn. (Lep.: Geometridae) apparently breeding 
on alder near London 

Lepidopterists seem agreed that the foodplant of this pretty little moth (the 
Small Yellow Wave) is field maple in the south, but alder in the middle and 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 41 

north, of its British range; the few authorities I have at hand, from Barrett 
(1902) to Skinner (1984), mention no known departure from the above 
rule. The former {Lep. Brit. Isl. 8:198) was much struck by this unusual 
phenomenon and inclined to suspect the existence of two indistinguishable 
yet separate races differing in foodplant and habitat. 

On 13th July 1988, I netted an example of the moth when sweeping 
amongst young alders in Oxleas Wood SSSI, Shooters Hill, S.E. London 
— the first I had seen for over 60 years. As was natural at that date, it was 
somewhat worn, but not badly. Maple occurs in these woods very locally 
and sparsely, and not near the spot in question; there is sycamore close by, 
but this seems unknown as a foodplant, and unlikely. The probability that 
H. flammeolaria is breeding on the alders just mentioned thus appears very 
strong, and should it be a fact, would seem to be of considerable interest in 
view of what has been said. I hope to obtain further evidence bearing on 
the matter next year. — A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, 
London SET 8QG. 

Dienerella filiformis Gyll. (Col.: Lathridiidae) in a S.E. London House. 

D. (Cartodere Siuct.) filiformis, to judge from the paucity of records, is still 
a rarity though less so than in former times. It is, then, perhaps worth 
reporting its recent occurrence here in my house: one specimen in a stack of 
papers (not mouldy) long kept in a corner of a room, crawling on one of 
the sheets (3.vi.88); and another in the bath over which an m.v. lamp is 
mounted, after the latter had been running for some hours (3-4. x. 88). The 
bath forms a trap for many insects (the smaller ones especially) attracted to 
the light. The Dienerella may have been one such; however, it appears far 
hkelier that it had not flown in from outside but was already in the house. 
D. filiformis mainly an indoor species with us, but my sole previous capture 
was in my former garden at Blackheath, where a single example was sifted 
from a pile of dead grass on 17.ix.54 (1955, Ent. mon. Mag. 91:6). In my 
present house the common Dienerella is separanda Reitt., often to be seen 
in association with moulds, and occasionally accompanied by Corticaria 
inconspicua Woll. and/or Mycetaea hirta Marsh. — A. A. Allen, 49 
Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

CURRENT LITERATURE 

Grasshoppers and Allied Insects of Great Britain and Ireland by Judith A. 
Marshall and E.C.M. Haes with illustrations by Denys Ovenden. 252 pp 

including 12 colour plates; 59 text figures; 102 maps; bookmark. 250 x 
200mm. Boards. Harley Books, 1988. £25.00. 

THIS is a comprehensive work on the native and established alien species 



42 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

of Orthoptera (Bush-crickets, crickets, grasshoppers), Dictyoptera 
(Cockroaches), Dermaptera (Earwigs) and Phasmida (Stick-insects) of the 
British Isles including the Channel Islands. It fills a serious gap in the 
readily-available literature that has existed since Grasshoppers, Crickets 
and Cockroaches of the British Isles (D.R. Ragge, 1965) went out of print. 
Those fortunate enough to possess a copy of Ragge, or who have one on 
perpetual loan from their local library, will find that much progress has 
been made in the knowledge of distribution — due no doubt to enthusiasm 
generated by that book and also to the Orthoptera recording scheme of the 
Biological Records Centre that commenced in 1968. The opportunity has 
been taken to extend the coverage in this latest work to include the 
Dermaptera and, geographically, the Channel Isles while topics such as life 
history have benefitted from various studies conducted over the last two 
decades. 

A foreword by David R. Ragge, acknowledgements and preface, precede 
an introduction (52 pp) covering a wide range of topics including 
nomenclature and classification, pronunciation of scientific names, 
common names, historical account of the study of Orthoptera, 
morphology, life history and development, song and courtship, predators, 
parasites and diseases, locating and collecting, rearing and culture, and 
preservation. Additional contributions by specialists are Distribution and 
History of the British Orthoptera, by D.R. Ragge (reproduced, with minor 
amendments, from Ragge, 1965), which examines the influence of climate, 
climate history, geology and vegetation; Recording Orthoptera Sounds, by 
J.F. Burton, and photography, by R. and C. Foord. The introduction 
closes with a select bibliography (which is supplemented by a more 
comprehensive reference section at the end of the book). 

A systematic section (82 pp) follows and this includes a check list giving 
five levels of status, a key to adults, characteristics of Orders and Families, 
and extensive treatment of each species — description, life history and 
behaviour, song (where appropriate), habitat, distribution and status. The 
description of song is cross-referenced to the tape cassette which has been 
published as a companion to the book and which is reviewed separately. 
Distribution and status is given far more detailed treatment than was the 
case in Ragge (1965) — in some cases over half a page of text — and there 
are vice-county maps which divide records between pre-1961 and later. The 
information appearing under each species' heading is supplemented by an 
Atlas section (27 pp) comprising forty-eight 10km square dot-distribution 
maps (forty-three species, records for each of the four Orders, and one 
showing the number of species recorded as either 5-9 or more than 10). Yet 
more detail is offered in the appendices which include tables showing the 
species recorded on each of fifty-five offshore islands and in each vice- 
county. The author states that these tables are intended for photocopying 
and individual recording purposes and the symbols used are available in 
"Letraset". 



CURRENT LITERATURE 43 

The colour plates depict all resident species and some migrants and the 
quality is superb. Detail is fine, even down to the small black spines on the 
underside of the hind femora of Conocephalus discolor. Various scales are 
used, with the majority x 2. There are lifesize silhouettes for some species 
and additional line drawings of the head details of the Tetrigidae. Some 
nymphs are shown and, with two of them, the species they mimic. In all, 
there are over 150 colour illustrations. 

A section on habitats (14 pp) is illustrated with two plates of colour 
photographs depicting twelve prime sites. The various types of habitats are 
described and the species associated with them are listed. There are sections 
on conservation and the use of Orthoptera as habitat indicators. An 
appendix hsts twenty outstanding localities with notes on the status of each 
species to be found there. Most of the localities cover a large area (e.g. 
"The Central Cotswolds") but the best sites within them are mentioned in 
the text (about 750), alphabetically, with corresponding 10km or 100km 
grid references and vice-county numbers. 

The plastic bookmark is given added usefulness by having a millimetre 
scale along one edge, and English and scientific names side-by-side — 
alphabetic order being given to English on one side and scientific on the 
other. 

This book is a most worthy successor to Ragge, incorporating much 
recent knowledge. One senses that it has been prepared and published with 
similar enthusiasm to that which the authors clearly feel for their subject. It 
will be greatly appreciated by those with an estabhshed interest in the 
Orthoptera and will do much to widen their numbers. 

Harry Eve 

Sound Guide to the Grasshoppers and Allied Insects of Great Britain and 
Ireland. Audio-tape Cassette; Duration 28 mins. 3 seconds. Harley Books, 

1987. £5.75. 

THIS audio cassette serves as a companion to Grasshoppers and Allied 
Insects of Great Britain and Ireland reviewed above. There are 35 
recordings covering 26 species and they were made by J.F. Burton (BBC), 
R. Margoschis, D.R. Ragge, W.J. Reynolds, I.C. Robinson, P. Rudkin, 
R.F. Savage, J. Skeel and the late G.F. Wade (BBC). The announcements 
introducing each recording are by David R. Ragge and the opportunity has 
been taken to use the classical pronunciation of scientific names close to 
that used on the Continent. The sound level is kept fairly even throughout 
so that it is not necessary to turn up the volume for the quieter species. The 
ultrasound of the Speckled Bush-cricket, Leptophyes punctatissima, was 
made audible by the use of a bat detector. 

As to quality, much depends on the ear of the listener — the reviewer 
found it most satisfactory. Background noise has been well suppressed 



44 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.1.1989 

although the faint bleating of a sheep adds to the atmosphere of one 
recording of the Dark Bush -cricket, Pholidoptera griseoaptera. The 
instructions suggest that Dolby should not be used. 

Song recognition is a valuable means of detecting species and with the 
compact portable cassette players of today it would be no hardship to use 
these recordings in the field. It also gives us the opportunity to hear the 
rarer species and lament the fact that, soon, we may no longer be able to 
experience the nocturnal purring of the Mole-cricket in these islands. 

Harry Eve. 



Edward Charles Pelham-Clinton 

10th Duke of Newcastle 

IT IS with great sadness that we learn of the death of Teddy 
Pelham-Clinton on 25th December 1988, at the age of 68. 

A distinguished microlepidopterist, his interest in entomology 
began at Eton, being encouraged by Nigel Wykes who was a 
master there (and whose autobiographical Memoirs of an 
Aurelian appeared in this Journal in 1979 {Ent. Rec. 91: 225-233; 
261-269)). After mihtary service, he graduated from Trinity 
College, Cambridge and joined the Royal Scottish Museum in 
Edinburgh, where he remained until his retirement in 1981. He 
succeeded to the title of 10th Duke of Newcastle on 4th November 
1988, much to the delight of the "popular" press, who were 
anxious to cast him in the role of eccentric butterfly collector. 
Nothing could be further from the truth — a thoroughly 
professional entomologist, he was meticulous in his observations 
and recording and contributed much to our knowledge of the 
British microlepidoptera. He added several species to the British 
list and his discovery of a gelechiid new to science in western 
Scotland led Povolny to name the species Scrobipalpa clintoni, in 
his honour. 

Teddy was perhaps more widely known as an Associate Editor 
of The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, in 
which series he was author of the families Opostegidae, Tineidae, 
Hieroxestidae, Choreutidae and Glyphipterigidae; co-author 
(with John Heath) of the Incurvariidae, and was currently 
working on the Elachistidae for volume 3. 

His extensive collection has been bequeathed to the Royal 
Museums of Scotland, where copies of his diaries and notebooks 
already reside. He will be greatly missed by all those who knew 
him. Paul Sokoloff 



L CHRISTIE 

129 Franciscan Road, Tooting, 
London SW17 8DZ. 

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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



CONTENTS 

Comparison of light-trap catches in deciduous and coniferous woodland. P. Waring . 1 
Swarming observed in Agathomyia falleni (Zett.) (Dipt.: Platypezidae) and its occur- 
rence in London. .4. Go<i/>-ey 11 

Dichomeris ustalella Fab. (Lep.: Gelechiidae) rediscovered in Britain. A.N.B. Simpson 17 

Breeding Gnorimus nobilis Linn. (Col.: Scarabidae) in captivity. J. A. Owen .... 19 
Some interesting Lepidoptera at the Rothamstead insect survey light trap at Rhandirm- 

wyn,Ca.vmanhenshire. D. Davies and R.M. Palmer 21 

Ischnura pumilo (Charpentier) (Odonata: Coenagriidae) — a wandering opportunist? 

A.D.Fox 25 

Notes on breeding the Purple Emperor, Apatura iris Linn, in captivity. R.E. Smith . . 27 

Notes and observations 

Wild cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., a new host for two species of wood-boring Cole- 

optera. /?.C. Welch 15 

A probable second brood of Euchoeca nebulata Scop. (Lep.: Geometridae), the Dingy 

Shell, in East Anglia in 1988. C.H^.P/crwr 16 

A large number of Orange-tip {Anthocharis cardamines L.) (Lep.: Pieridae) eggs on a 

single plant. ^.M. /?//ey 18 

CheilosiavariabilisVanz. (X>\^i.:Syx^\i\<XaQ)3.ndi\gyNori. A.A. Allen 18 

In the right place at the right time — Dorset 16th - 23rd October 1988. D.G. Down . . 23 

Special migrants in late October, 1988. D.C.G. fiz-owAz 24 

Butterfly records from Dorset, 1988. ^.M. and £)./r.i?/7ey 33 

A further record of Tinagma balteolella F.v.R. (Lep. : Douglasiidae). R. Fairclough . 34 

Somemigrantlepidopterain Wales, 1988. M.D. BA^ff/? 35 

Agriopis marginaria Fab. (Lep.: Geometridae), the Dotted-border moth caught in 

December, yl. A/, ^//ey 35 

Some notable Coleoptera from Northumberland, including Otiorhynchus arcticus 

¥ab.,nQv^ioEng\dind. K.N. A. Alexander 35 

A late or second brood Cynaeda dentalis D. & S. (Lep.: Pyralidae). E.G. Smith ... 36 

Elenchus tenuicornis (Kirby) (Strepsiptera:Elanchidae) in Cambridgeshire.!).^ .Proc/'er . 36 

Unusualbehaviour of the Speckled Wood butterfly. /1. 7. ^tz/c^w/A? . . .... 37 

Immigrant Lepidoptera in Devon. M. A ^/jfiTA? 37 

Acleris abietana Hiibn. (Lep. : Tortricidae) — records and foodplants M.R. Young. . 37 

Hazards on Butterfly collecting — Dhofar, October 1979. r.5. ^^^50/7 38 

Agonopterix carduella Hiibner (Lep.:Oecophoridae) in October. J.M.Chalmers-Hunt 39 

5r/g'we//«5fl'Ar7/flre//aZeller (Lep.: Nepticulidae)inKent. 7.M.C/?«/A77er5-//wA7r ... 39 
Geometrid larvae feeding on bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) after descending from 

oaks. B.P. Henwood 40 

The larva of Oligia vers'/co/or (Borkhausen) (Lep.: Noctuidae). B.P. Henwood ... 40 
Hydrelia flammeolaria Hufn. (Lep.: Geometridae) apparently breeding on alder near 

London.^. /I. ^//eA7 40 

Dienerella filiformis Gyll. (Col.: Lathridiidae) in a S.E. London house. A.A.Allen . . 41 

Current Literature 41-44 

E.C.Pelham-Clinton, 1920-1988 44 

SPECIAL NOTICE. The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited 
number of back issues. 

Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. Tel: 0277-224610. 



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Vol. 101 Nos. 3-4 



March/April 1989 ISSN 0013-3916 



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THE 

ENTOMOLOGISlIWy 

RECORD i\pR0 7i389 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION^, , . r-=n 

Edited by U?^* - ^" 

P.A. SOKOLOFF, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.I. Biol. F.R.E.S. 



with the assistance of 
A. A. Allen, b.sc, a.r.c.s. P.J. Chandler, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 

Neville BiRKETT, m.a., m.b. C.A. Collingwood, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 

S.N. A. Jacobs, f.r.e.s. J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley, ph.d., f.r.e.s. E.S. Bradford 

Lieut. Col. A.M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d., f.r.e.s. 

C.J. LucKENS, m.b., ch.b., d.r.c.o.g. 
Bernard Skinner 



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Registrar: 

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FOR SALE. 

Five new collapsible aluminium moth traps. 
Approx. size 20" x 18" x 12". £40 each. Lot £175. 



Four Unused galvanised rearing cylinders. 18" dia. 8" deep. 
With supporting stays. Will take large kite net bag. 
£7.50 each. Lot £25. /. Platts, 11 May downs Road, Chest field, 
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KENTISH GLORY AT RANNOCH 45 

THE KENTISH GLORY MOTH, ENDROMIS VERSICOLORA (L.) 
(LEP.: ENDROMIDAE), AT RANNOCH. 

M. R. Shaw* 

*National Museums of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EHl IJF. 

IN VIEW of recent papers in this journal by Marram (1981) and Pelham- 
Clinton (1982) commenting on the lack of recent records of Endromis 
versicolora (L.) from the Rannoch area, it is a great pleasure to record that 
I beat two larvae, each about 1.5 cm long, from a roadside tree of Betula 
pendula about 1 km NW of Tummel Bridge (9 km E of Kinloch Rannoch) 
on 17. vi. 1988 in the company of Dr Graham E. Rotheray. The tree was 
about 4 m high, and a small batch of hatched eggs was quite easily found 
on the W side, roughly 1.5 m from the ground. 

As Pelham-Clinton (1982) points out, the last known E. versicolora 
larvae from the Rannoch area were collected from Alnus glutinosa. It is 
clear from the Lepidoptera collection and notebooks of T.E.D. Poore, 
now in the National Museums of Scotland, that this was a regular food 
plant, or possibly the only food plant, in that area over several years until 
1939, since when there seems to have been no record of £'. versicolora from 
Rannoch at all. Poore's alder-feeding larvae came from two places at 
Rannoch: toward the eastern end of the south shore of Loch Rannoch by 
the Allt Druidhe, and from 'Moulinavadie'. M.E.D. Poore {in lift.) 
informs me that the latter refers to the area around a house marked on 
Ordnance Survey maps as Mullinavadie at NN 713612, only 4 km from the 
birch that yielded my two larvae. (The Allt Druidhe is some 1 1 km distant.) 

Whether the present specimens are survivors of the original Rannoch 
population or descendents of more recent colonists is hard to guess. It may 
well be that a certain amount of birch-feeding has always gone on at 
Rannoch, even though I am not aware of firm records having been 
published. But perhaps only larvae on alder would have provided really 
convincing evidence for a continuous presence. 

It is worth just recording here some experiments that I did following 
discussions with E.G. Pelham-Glinton around the time of his 1982 paper. 
Four larvae of £'. versicolora 1-2 cm long collected from B. pendula at Muir 
of Dinnet, Aberdeenshire, on 24. vi. 1984 were, on 28. vi, transferred singly 
to A. glutinosa in clean tissue-lined 13x8x6 cm clear plastic boxes. All four 
had fed substantially within 24 hr, and continued to do so until l.vii. Then 
the four larvae were recombined and given a mixture of B. pendula, B. 
pubescens and A. glutinosa in roughly equal quantities in a larger 
(17x1 1x6 cm) box. Within 12 hr (overnight) all three plants had been eaten, 
but by 8.vii it was clear that, under these conditions, there really was a 
preference for B. pendula over the other two species, albeit a rather half- 
hearted one, and that A. glutinosa was fed on almost as willingly as B. 
pubescens. This says nothing about the preference of ovipositing females or 



46 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

the cues they use, of course, but it does indicate that the larvae may be 
fairly tolerant of parental choice within these limits. 

It would be interesting to hear of any previous records of E. versicolora 
larvae on Betula in the Rannoch area or, indeed, of any post- 1939 records 
of its presence there whatever the foodplant. 

References 

Marram, P. 1981. Speculative notes on the Kentish Glory. Entomologist's Rec. J. 

Far. 92(1980): 235-238. 
Pelham-Clinton, E.G. 1982. The Kentish Glory: Endromis versicolora (L.) at 

Rannoch. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 94: 215-216. 



Observations on the queens of the ant Lasius mixtus Nyl. (Hymenoptera). 

In September 1985 while examining colonies of the ant Lasius flavus 
Fabricius, several queens of Lasius mixtus Nylander were seen. Stone slates 
had been previously positioned on top of nest mounds of colonies of L. 
flavus in an area of chalk grassland at Aston Rowant National Reserve, 
Oxfordshire. Workers of L. flavus build galleries under these slates 
allowing periodic observations of the colony to be made by lifting the slate. 

In September 1985 (after the main flight time for sexuals of the Lasius 
genus in Britain) a few dealate queens of L. mixtus were also seen under the 
slates. These queens tended to be located around the edge of the galleries. 
In the excited state of the colony (induced by lifting the slate) they were 
attacked by L. flavus workers but were not hurt. 

In subsequent trials one of these L. mixtus queens was accepted by a 
group of previously queenless L. flavus workers and treated as a normal 
queen. The L. mixtus queen did not produce any eggs though, possibly due 
to an inadequate diet. Founding queens of L. mixtus do not have as swollen 
gasters as those of L. niger or L. flavus both of which can rear their first 
brood without assistance. Another L. mixtus queen was attacked and killed 
when placed with a group of L. Ai/ger workers. 

Queens of L. mixtus have long been thought to found their colonies by 
adoption into colonies of L. niger and L. alienus Foerster ahhough the 
evidence for this is not conclusive (Collingwood C. 1957. /. Soc. Brit. Ent. 
5(7), 204-214). Collingwood also observed colonies of L. mixtus in areas 
where L. niger appeared to be absent. No L. niger or alienus were observed 
in this area and the dominant ant species was L. flavus. It thus seems 
possible that L. mixtus may also start colonies by adoption into colonies of 
L. flavus. Because of the great similarity of the workers of L. mixtus and L. 
flavus a mixed colony of such workers would be extremely difficult to 
locate. As Collingwood points out further observations on this matter are 
desirable. — P.J. Wright, Department of Biological Sciences, Keele 
University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG. 



BEETLES AND BUGS IN AUTUMN 47 

BEETLES AND BUGS ON A THAMES-SIDE WALL IN AUTUMN 

A. A. Allen 

49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

IN the mid- or late morning of 12th October, 1984, I paid a visit to the 
Thames "marshes" at Belvedere, N. Kent, to assess the entomological 
possibihties. However, as expected, the inroads of heavy industry and local 
development had left few suitable habitats, and nothing that could be 
called brackish marsh was to be found, at least in the part visited. Only 
some rough dry grassland remained, along with a (probably polluted) dike 
so steep-sided and choked with sedge as to be unworkable. Turning over 
stones and rubbish yielded but few species of little account. The weather 
alone was auspicious, being bright and warm with a light southerly breeze. 

Fortunately, before deciding to give up, I happened to glance at the stone 
or concrete wall extending from that point east along the river for about 
half-a-mile, and was agreeably surprised to see a few small beetles settled 
thereon — surely a hopeful sign. (Cf. my earlier experience of beetles 
swarming on a sea wall, related in 1959, Ent. Rec. 71: 217-220.)* And 
indeed from that moment my luck changed, for it quickly became evident 
that insects, mostly beetles, were sitting, walking, or settling in some plenty 
on the wall in the warm sunshine; and that I had chanced upon one of those 
rare occasions when insects are tempted into the air in quantity by 
exceptional weather conditions. The wall, at a guess some 4'/2 feet high, 
had a flat top about 12 inches wide — both the top and the south face (the 
outer one with respect to the river) being about equally favoured. One had 
only to work slowly along its whole length and back again, selecting the 
insects desired — or rather, those which permitted themselves to be taken. 
By the time of my return to the starting-point after about two hours, the 
numbers were noticeably dwindling with slightly rising wind. It was very 
clear that they were all coming from the Kent side (with the breeze) and not 
from across the Thames; hence the scarcity of species associated with 
muddy river banks or brackish marsh. Further, certain of those noted were 
very much out of their normal macro-habitat and can only have come from 
some distance away to the south. 

Needless to say, the ensuing list, while doubtless a fair sample of the 
species present, must be very incomplete; but, as general in such cases, 
includes some surprises. Not the least interesting feature of the whole 
episode was the time of year, October being, as a rule, decidedly late for a 
mass flight of this kind. The more notable species (for whatever reason) are 
marked with an asterisk. The following symbols are used as very rough 
indications of relative frequency: I, 2; r. = few or rare, c. = common. 

* 1 there pointed out (p. 219, footnote) that the identity of one species Msted, an Atheia sg. Microdota, was 
doubtful and under review. The specimen has since been determined as A. (M.) minusciila Bris. (= perexigua 
Shp.), a rare species possibly not on record for E. Kent but which I have from W. Kent. 



48 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 



COLEOPTERA 

Carabidae: Leistus spinibarbis F., I; Notiophilus rufipes Curt., I; TV. 
substriatusWdit., c; Trechus 4-striatusSchT., I; Bembidion lampros Hbst., 
I; B. minimum ¥., I; B. 4-maculatum L., I; B. varium OL, I; 5. lunula turn 
Fourc; Harpalus affinis Schr., c. (at base only); Microlestes maurus Stm., 
I; Dromius angustusBrul.,* I; D. 4-maculatusL.,* I; 

Hydrophilidae: Helophorus obscurus Muls., r.; H. brevipalpis Bed., I; 
Cercyon melanocephalus L.; Megasternum obscurum Marsh. 

Staphylinidae: Acrolocha sulculus Steph. (an autumn species); Omalium 
caesum Grav., I; O. exigum GylL,* I; Siagonium quadricorne Kby.,* I; 
Carpelimus bilineatus Steph., I; Anotylus inustus Grav., c; Stenus aceris 
Steph., I; Gyrohypnus fracticornis MiilL, I; Xantholinus linearis Ol.; X. 
longiventris Heer; Othius laeviusculus Steph.; Philonthus concinnus Grav., 
I (with an extra puncture in each discal row); Gabrius pennatus Shp.; 
Ocypus olens MiilL (rather c. at base only); Quedius boops Grav., I; Q. 
cinctus Payk., I; Q. obliteratus Er., I; Q. semiaeneus Steph.; Q. 
semiobscurus Marsh., c; Q. schatzmayri Grid., I; Habrocerus 
capillaricornis Gray., I; Sepedophilus nigripennis Sieph. (lividus auct.), I; 
Tachyporus nitidulus F., c; Oligota pumilio Kies., I; Atheta atramentaria 
GylL; A. longicornis Grav.; A. nigra Kr., I; A. sordida Marsh.; Amischa 
analis Grav. ; Chilopora longitarsis Er . , I; Oxypoda lurida Woll. * 

Scydmaenidae: Eutheia schaumi K\qs.* , I. 

Scarabaeidae: Aphodius contaminatusHbsi., r. 

Throscidae: Trixagus elateroides Heer* (not rare); T. obtusus Curt, 
(fewer). 

Nitidulidae: Carpophilus ligneus Murray'^, r.; Epuraea unicolorOl., 2. 

Cryptophagidae: Cryptophagus pilosus GyW., I; C. postpositus Sa\\\h ."^ , 
I (male). 

Phalacridae: Stilbus testaceus Panz. 

Coccinellidae: Stethorus punctillum Weise; Nephus redtenbacheri Muls. , 
2; Exochomus 4-pustulatus L., I; Adalia bipunctata L.; A. 10-punctata L.; 
Adonia variegata Gz.; Thea 22-punctata L. 

Lathridiidae: Aridius bifasciatus Reitt.; Corticarina fuscula GylL 

Anthicidae: Anthicus antherinusL., r. 

Chrysomelidae: Psylliodes chrysocephala L. 

Apionidae: Apion confluens Kby., c; A. aenum F., I; A. radiolus 
Marsh. 

Curculionidae: Hypera postica GylL, 2; Ceuthorhynchidius rufulus 
Duf.*, 2; Ceuthorhynchus picitarsis GyW.*; I; C. pollinariusForst., 2. 

HEMIPTERA 

Acanthosomatidae: Cyphostethus tristriatus F .* , 2. 
Pentatomidae: Piezodorus lituratusF.*, I. 
Lygaeidae: Kleidocerys resedae Panz.; Peritrechus nubilus Fall.* c; 



BEETLES AND BUGS IN AUTUMN 49 

Drymus sylvaticus F.; Stygnocoris fuligineus Geof . 

Tingidae: Derephysia foliacea Fall. , I; Acalypta parvula Fall., I. 

Cimicidae: Anthocoris nemorum L.; Lyctocoris campestris F., r. 

Miridae: Notostira elongata Geof.: Lygus maritimus Wagn.; Orthops 
cervinus H.-S. 

Saldidaie: Saldula saltatoriaL., I. 

Delphacidae; Asiraca clavicornisF * , r. 

To conclude with a few comments: the apparent absence of certain very 
common and expected species is balanced by the presence of others of 
which quite the reverse is true. An example is the occurrence of the 
uncommon Ceuthorhynchidius rufulus (2), whilst the ubiquitous C. 
troglodytes was not seen. Carpophilus ligneus, of which three specimens 
were found, is probably the most notable; no record being known to me 
since I pubHshed the first British occurrence in the open in 1941 (see Allen, 
Ent. mon. Mag., in press). The two Dromius species are subcortical insects 
which one would not expect to see at large at some distance from any trees. 
Similarly the two shieldbugs C. tristriatus and P. lituratus were quite out of 
their element, their foodplants — juniper or cypress, and gorse, 
respectively — being nowhere at hand. The former may be a new record for 
the S.E. London area. The apparent paucity of Atheta spp. is strange, but 
a good many of these small active Staphylinids may have escaped capture, 
or been overlooked. More surprising is the high representation of the genus 
Quedius (six spp.) compared with a single Philonthus, an equally large 
genus. Q. semiaeneus, it is worth remarking, is largely associated with the 
coast; and evidently also spreads up tidal rivers, since besides these I have 
taken one by the Thames at Charlton Reach. (The closely similar Q. 
schatzmayri on the other hand seems general.) Among the few weevils, it is 
pleasing to find that the scarce Ceuthorhynchus picit arsis survives at 
Belvedere, whence, as also from neighbouring Erith, it used to be recorded 
by the old collectors under the name of C. tarsalis Boh. {Ent. mon. Mag., 
passim). 



Baris laticollis (Marsham) (Col.: Curculionidae) as a pest of cultivated 
cabbages. 

About the middle of May 1988, the leaves of several small cabbage plants in 
our garden allotment at Epsom, Surrey started to turn yellow. Examination 
of the soil immediately around the base of the plants revealed numerous 
examples of the weevil Baris laticollis gnawing into the stems at the 
junction with the root. Practically all the plants in one row were being 
attacked in this way as were several in an adjoining plot. There were usually 
two or three of the weevils at each plant but one plant had seven weevils 
eating into its stem. 



50 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

During the next few weeks, many of the affected plants died. Others 
became stunted and discoloured. At the end of June, smaller numbers of 
weevils were still to be found at the base of affected plants which had not 
received any treatment. At this time, sections of the stems at ground level 
revealed numerous weevil larvae. These were stout, legless grubs, tapering 
towards each end, arcuate in shape and white except for the head which 
was pale brown and the mandibles which were dark brown. 

When my friend Mr H. Mendel visited me at the end of July, however, 
adult weevils could not be found but larvae were still present in affected 
stems. He took some home and told me that adult weevils started to emerge 
at the beginning of September. A stem was broken open soon after that and 
contained adults which were mostly teneral and pupae. Presumably in the 
wild the beetles overwinter as adults which appear again in the spring. 

As it happens, this was not the first appearance of this species on our 
allotment; a single specimen was found at the base of a small cabbage plant 
in May 1976 and another in a similar situation in March 1977. On neither 
occasion, however, were the relevant plants adversely affected. Cabbages 
and other cultivated brassicas have been grown on the particular plot for at 
least 12 years and the whole area has been the site of garden allotments for 
a great deal longer. 

In Britain, B. laticollis is a very local species, occurring mainly in the 
southern and south-eastern counties. It is reported (Fowler, 1891; Joy, 
1932) to be associated with Cruciferae, especially Sisymbrium officinale 
(L.) but there are also references in the older literature to the weevil as a 
pest species. Fowler records that 'the larva has been observed in the stems 
of the cultivated cabbage' and Theobald (1912) refers to the weevil causing 
damage to cabbages in Cornwall, Devon and Co. Wexford. I know of no 
more recent record of the weevil as a pest in Britain. Balachowsky and 
Mesnil (1936), refer to various species of Baris, including laticollis, as a pest 
of cultivated cabbages in France and Lohse (1983) also states that the 
species can damage cultivated brassicas. 

I thank Mr Mendel for letting me report his successful rearing of the 
weevil from larvae in affected stems, Dr M.G. Morris for providing a copy 
of the relevant portion of Theobald's report and Mr A. Halstead for draw- 
ing my attention to the work of Balachowsky and Mesnil. 

References 

Balachowsky, A. and Mesnil, L. Les Insectes Nuisibles aux Plantes Cultivees 2: 

1179-1181, 1936. 
Fowler, W. The Coleoptera of the British Islands 5: 381, L. Reeve & Co., London, 

1891. 
Joy, N.H. /I Practical Handbook of British Beetles 1: 217. H.F. and G. Witherby, 

London, 1932. 
Lohse, G.A. in Die Kafer Mitteleuropas 11: 174, ed. H. Freude, K.A. Harde and 

G.A. Lohse, Goecke and Evers, Krefeld, 1983. 
Theobald, F.V. (1912) in The Journal of the South-Eastern Agricultural College, 

Wye, Kent pp All-US. 

J. A. Owen, 8 Kingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KT17 3PU. . 



ORIGIN OF MIGRATORY CYNTHIA CARDUI 51 



POSSIBLE ORIGIN OF THE MIGRATORY CYNTHIA CARDUI L. 

(LEP.: NYMPHALIDAE) 

Denis F. Owen 

2 Shelford Place, Headington, Oxford. 

PUBLISHED reports of northward-migrating painted lady butterflies, 
Cynthia cardui, in the spring of 1988 suggest the butterflies may have 
originated to the south of mainland Europe. They include a description of 
a "steady stream" flying north at Marrakech, Morocco, in March (Simson 
1988), a movement north in Portugal in April that lasted several days 
(Larsen 1988), and a northward movement in southern France in April 
(Goater 1988). The butterfly is also reported in April as migrating near 
Florence, Italy, but no flight direction is given (Campbell 1988). 

I visited Lanzarote in the Canary Islands between 17 and 24 February 
1988 and found C cardui extremely abundant all over the island in almost 
all habitats. There was no sign of migration and the butterflies were 
breeding on every suitable patch of thistles (several alien species) and 
mallow, Malvus sylvestris (also an alien). In some places larvae occurred at 
a density of more than 50/m^. Three-quarters of a sample of 18 were 
parasitised by Cotesia vanessae (Reinhard), a braconid in the Apanteles 
glomeratus-gvoup, and the same species found parasitising C. cardui in 
Crete in December 1985 (Owen 1987). 

Evidently C. cardui is unable to hibernate or aestivate at any stage of its 
hfe cycle and so must breed throughout the year. Large-scale winter 
breeding occurs on Crete and Madeira (Owen 1987), and the island of 
Lanzarote can now be added. I do not know of large-scale winter breeding 
on the European mainland or in north-west Africa, although the possibility 
remains, especially in Morocco, as suggested by Larsen (1988). The 
Atlantic islands (the Canaries and Madeira) are especially suitable for 
winter breeding as the chmate is mild and oceanic and there is often 
sufficient rain to promote a good growth of herbaceous plants. Indeed, in 
February 1988 the desert island of Lanzarote was green and lush and there 
was a profusion of flowers, making it extremely suitable for insect life. I 
suggest therefore that the main winter breeding areas of C. cardui are 
islands rather than the mainland where the winter is apt to be relatively 
cold, and that islands are the main source of butterflies that fly north in 
spring. Much the same may apply to certain other migratory Lepidoptera. 
On Lanzarote in February 1988 Colias croceus Fourcroy, Heliothis 
peltigera (D. & S.) and Autographa gamma (L.) (which was breeding on a 
variety of herbaceous plants) were abundant, and smaller numbers of 
Vanessa atalanta (L.), Hyles lineata (F.), Spodoptera exigua (Hiibner) and 
Nomophila noctuella (D. & S.) were also seen, which is a wide selection of 
species known to migrate north in spring. 



52 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

On Lanzarote C. cardui was breeding entirely on alien plants; indeed it 
seems likely that there are no native plants available to support a large 
breeding population. If, as suggested, the island is a major source of 
northward-migrating C. cardui, its importance as a winter breeding area 
has existed for only the last five hundred years or so, during which time 
many plants were deliberately and accidentally introduced by Europeans. 

Acknowledgement 

The braconid parasites were identified by Dr Mark Shaw. 

References 

Campbell, J.L. 1988. Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) migrating in Italy, 

April 1988. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 100: 233. 
Goater, B. 1988. Northward migration of Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in 

southern Europe in spring, 1988. Ibid 100: 1'il-l'i'i. 
Larsen, T.B. 1988. A migration of Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in 

Portugal. /Z7/V/ 100: 131. 
Owen, D.F. 1987. Winter breeding by Cynthia cardui (L.) (Lepidoptera: 

Nymphalidae) in Crete and Madeira, and the possible significance of parasitoids 

in initiating migration. Entomologist's Gaz. 38: 11-12. 
Simson, E.C.L. 1988. Migrant Lepidoptera in Morocco. Entomologist's 

Rec. J. Var. 100: 132. 



Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hiibn.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) in North-East 
England. 

I am presently looking at a collection of microlepidoptera from Durham 
and Northumberland, assembled by Michael Eyre of Newcastle University, 
the purpose being to identify and deposit records with the Biological 
Records Centre. 

Two specimens of Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hiibn.) were immediately 
evident because of their bright orange hind wings. The labels read "Spital 
Tongues, 9.vi.81". Spital Tongues is an urban district near the centre of 
the city of Newcastle upon Tyne, most of the houses having typical 
Victorian/Edwardian small gardens with lots of evergreen shrubs like 
laurel, privet, holly, etc. This is a typical habitat for the species which, I 
understand, has been spreading northwards since its arrival on the south 
coast in 1905. The most northerly record of specimens caught in the wild, 
that I am aware of, is from Hoylake (Cheshire) in 1936 {Ent. Rec. 65: 
74-76; Michaelis 1953). There are more northerly records, for example in 
1979 from Midlothian where larvae were recorded on spruce under 
polythene at a Forestry Commission Research Station (Winter, 1982. 
Entomologist's Gaz. 33: 229-230), but whether these plant nursery 
examples are acceptable as evidence of northward spread is debatable. — 
T.C. Dunn, The Poplars, Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham. 



HAPLOGLOSSA PICIPENNIS IN OSPREYS' NESTS 53 

HAPLOGLOSSA PICIPENNIS (GYLLENHAL) 
(COL.: STAPHYLINIDAE) IN OSPREYS' NESTS. 

J. A. Owen' and S. Taylor^ 

^SKingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KTl 7 3BU 
^RSPB, Loch Garten Reserve, Nethy Bridge, Inverness-shire PH25 3EF 

WE previously reported the occurrence of H. picipennis in material from 
an osprey's nest obtained some months after the end of the nesting season 
(Carter, Owen and Taylor, 1980). On a number of occasions subsequently 
it has been possible for one of us (S.T.) to collect, at the time young ospreys 
were being ringed, a small portion of nesting material from this and 13 
other nests. The latter were sited in altogether 10 different 10 km squares. 
In some cases, it was possible to obtain samples of nesting material on up to 
three sucessive years from the same nest. In all, 32 samples of nesting 
material were obtained. 

H. picipennis was found in 18 samples of nesting materials and was 
present at one time or another in all but 3 of 14 nests. Sometimes the beetle 
was present in considerable numbers. Thus a sample of material (about 
2000 ml) collected from the Loch Garten nest in July 1988 contained 133 
beetles — all H. picipennis. At this time, the osprey's nest was of average 
size, roughly cylindrical about 1 m in diameter and 1 m in depth so that if 
the sample removed was representative of even a portion of the nest, the 
beetles present in the whole nest must have numbered thousands. 

H. picipennis occurs almost exclusively in nests of birds of prey. In 
Britain, it was originally reported from two buzzards' nests collected 
respectively in Devon and Wales (Joy, 1930). More recently, the beetle was 
found in a sparrow hawk's nest in Inverness-shire (Welch, 1978). It has 
always been regarded in Britain as a rare species and has been graded Red 
Data Book category 2 (Shirt, 1987). 

Our findings indicate, however, that in Britain as elsewhere — see eg 
Horion (1967), Palm (1972), Freude (1974) — it may be present in large 
numbers in a particular nest. Horion (loc. cit.) cites an instance where ca. 
6500 adults, ca. 2000 larvae and remains of ca. 1000 adults were found in 
one buzzard's nest. What proportion of the British population of the beetle 
occurs in the nest of ospreys, as distinct from other raptors, is unknown 
but as there are currently over 50 osprey nest sites in Scotland, the total 
population associated with ospreys' nests alone is likely to be quite 
considerable. Ospreys' nests are normally occupied year after year and this 
may offer the beetle more stable breeding sites than the smaller nests of 
buzzards and sparrow-hawks which tend to be re-used every few years 
rather than every season. However, the nests of raptors such as buzzards 
and sparrow-hawks were presumably important in maintaining a 
population of the beetle in Scotland during the 50 years or so up to 1955 
when the osprey did not breed in Britain. 



54 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

What the larvae of H. picipennis eat has not been determined. The 
sample of nest material collected in 1988 (which had 113 adults) contained 
72 aleocharine larvae, variously sized but otherwise identical. We presume 
these to have been larvae of H. picipennis for their morphology was 
consistent with that of larvae of this genus (P.M. Hammond pers. 
commun.) and no other beetle species was present. It has been suggested 
that the larvae of this and other members of the genus are predatory on 
larvae of fleas or flies but no fleas or flea larvae were apparent in this 
sample of nest material though small numbers of one or other were 
sometimes observed in other samples of osprey nest material. The lack of 
fleas, or at any rate their scarcity, in this instance may have been due to the 
fact that this was the first time in four years that there had been young 
ospreys in this nest. A few fly larvae were present but not in anything like 
sufficient numbers to have sustained the number of beetle larvae present. 
Indeed, it is difficult to see what the larvae had been eating unless it was 
some sort of nest debris such as desquamated epidermis and feather scales 
from birds. Other members of the genus are known mainly from the birds' 
nests but some, eg H. pulla (Gyllenhal) occur in ants' nests where fleas 
occur only as vagrants. 

Addendum 

After this note was submitted, an unexpected opportunity arose to examine 
some material from the nests of other raptors. This comprised material 
from three buzzards' nests and one sparrow hawk's nest from the 
Abernethy region, together with further material from the osprey' s nest at 
Loch Garten. It was collected by one of us (S.T.) in November 1988. The 
sparrow hawk's nest, the osprey's nest and one of the buzzards' nests had 
been occupied during the 1988 season, one buzzard's nest had been 
occupied in 1987 but not 1988 and one had not been occupied since 1984. 

Examples of H. picipennis were present in all but the last nest. Only 
single examples were detected in each of the nests which had been occupied 
in 1988 but the buzzard's nest which had not been occupied for 18 months 
produced five examples. No fleas or flea larvae were found in any of the 
nests but there were larvae of diptera in the buzzards' and sparrow hawk's 
nests and lepidopterous larvae in the buzzard's nest not occupied for 18 
months. 

In Scotland, ospreys' nests may be a major breeding site for this beetle 
but our recent findings confirm that other raptors' nests could provide 
breeding facilities in the absence of ospreys' nests. The presence of 
examples of H. picipennis in a nest that had not been occupied for 18 
months, (assuming, as seems likely, that the beetles had bred in the nest), is 
of some interest and has to be taken into account in any thesis regarding the 
beetle's detailed biology. 



HAPLOGLOSSA PICIPENNIS IN OSPREYS' NESTS 55 

Acknowledgement 

We thank Mr P.M. Hammond for commenting on the morphology of the 
larvae, examples of which have been presented to the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

References 

Carter, I.S., Owen, J. A. and Taylor, S. 1980, Entomologist's man. Mag. 116: 70. 

Joy, N.H. 1930, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 66: 41. 

Lohse, G.A. 1974, in Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas 5: 291 ed Freude, H., Harde, K.W. 

and Lohse, G.A. Goecke & Evers, Krefeld, 1974. 
Palm, T. 1972, in Svensk Insektfauna 9 Coleoptera Fam. Staphylinidae pt 7 p. 41 8. 
Shirt, D. 1987, editor of British Red Data Books 2 Insects, Nature Conservancy 

Council 1987. 
Welch, R.C. 1978. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 114: 240. 



Bembidion (Lymnaeum) nigropiceum Marsh. (Col.: Carabidae) in West 
Kent. 

I have been unable to find a published record of this very local maritime 
species for West Kent, in the extreme east of which — at Allhallows-on-Sea 

— I took a specimen as long ago as 1937 (28.iii) from under seaweed on the 
sandy shore. Through an oversight it was never recorded. I have been 
reminded of this by the recent capture of another (16.viii.88) a little farther 
round the coast of the Isle of Grain, under a piece of board on the sand about 
high water-mark, when in the company of my good friend Prof. J. A. Owen 

— to whom I am indebted for the opportunity of revisiting the area after so 
long. The V.C.H. list for Kent (Fowler, 1908) gives only Whitstable for B. 
nigropiceum. It is not in J.J. Walker's Hst for the Isle of Sheppey (1932) and 
must be one of the few beetles, apart from one or two added to our list in 
later times, to be found in the Thames Estuary area but not, apparently, on 
Sheppey. — A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

Diplocoelus fagi Guer. (Col.: Biphyllidae) in S.E. London. 

Whilst evening sweeping under trees (mostly oaks) on a thinly wooded slope 
in the western portion of Oxleas Wood SSSI at Shooters Hill, 20.vi.88, 1 was 
surprised to find in my net an example of this beetle. The species usually 
occurs under bark of beech, a tree not present on the above slope; and is not 
otherwise known, I believe, from the immediate environs of London. For 
many years it was regarded as a rarity confined to the New Forest, but early 
this century was taken near Oxford and in Berks (Streatley), and during the 
1930s and 40s began to be found also in a series of localities more to the 
south-east, including Windsor Forest, and in W. Sussex, Surrey, and E. and 
W. Kent; and finally in Gloucs and Suffolk. I do not know the full extent of 
its present range, but have it from Savernake Forest, N. Wilts (1960) which 



56 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

possibly is a new county record (?). The closely-allied Biphyllus lunatus P., 
also, was taken for the first time in the London area not long ago (Allen, 
1981, Ent.Rec. 93: 90). — A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, 
London SET 8QG. 

A notable beetle from South Somerset and two further notable records 
from Bracketts Coppice. Halstock, Dorset. 

On 29.viii.1987 one specimen of Ilyobates nigricollis (Paykull) (Col.: 
Staphylinidae) was found in some leaf litter collected from Dommett 
Wood, Buckland St. Mary, S. Somerset (ST 21). The litter was from only 
about 10 to 15 metres from a wet Betula/ Sphagnum area at the lower end 
of the wood and was quite moist. The rather shiny thorax of the beetle 
seemed to me to indicate /. nigricollis rather than /. subopacus Palm. 
Nearly a year later on 15.vii.l988, I took home some samples o^ Sphagnum 
from the lower area and was very surprised to take another similarly shiny 
Ilyobates. This sample was mostly Sphagnum but with some birch leaves 
also, which were in amongst the moss, and was taken from a slightly lower 
and much wetter site about 20 to 30 metres away from the previously taken 
beech litter sample. I have taken no other samples from this area, but two 
specimens from two samples suggests that the beetle may be not 
uncommon in that area. A few Myrmicine ants were found in the sample of 
Sphagnum and there would be nests in the area, though not in my sample. 
No ants were noted in the beech litter sample. It is interesting that Palm 
(Svensk Insektfauna 53: 334, 1972) states that unlike /. subopacus, I. 
nigricollis is sometimes found in pure Sphagnum. 

When searching for beetles from Bracketts Coppice, Halstock, Dorset 
(ST 50) in 1988 I investigated some stony areas by the side of the stream 
which runs through the wood in a shallow wooded gorge. At about 10.30 
am on 10. v. 1988 I found a number of rather brightly red and black 
medium-sized Staphyhnids hiding under the stones. Once captured they 
could readily be identified as Deleaster dichrous (Gravenhorst). When 
disturbed they ran off with their abdomens raised more or less vertically, 
but none attempted to fly when disturbed and none were seen flying 
elsewhere in the wood, although the morning was sunny. They occurred in 
two spots investigated and were still present on 17. v. 1988 but had all 
disappeared on 27. v. 1988. 

On 27. V. 1988 I swept a fine specimen of Osmylus fulvicephalus (Scopoli) 
(Neur.: Osmylidae) from herbage under the trees near this stream. This was 
a very unexpected find and seems worthy of record. 

I am indebted to Prof. J. A. Owen (Epsom) and to Colin Johnson 
(Manchester) for confirming the identification of the Ilyobates and to the 
Dorset Naturalists Trust for continued permission to collect in Bracketts 
Coppice. — P.D. Orton, 22 Eyewater, Crewkerne, Somerset TA18 8BB. 



BIVOLTINISM IN EUPITHECIA TRIPUNCTARIA 57 

THE EVIDENCE FOR BIVOLTINISM IN EUPITHECIA 

TRIPUNCTARIA H.-S. (LEP.: GEOMETRIDAE) 

IN SOUTH EAST ENGLAND 

B.K. West, B. Ed. 

36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent. 

THERE appears to be uncertainty regarding both the time of appearance 
and voltinism of this moth, the majority of the standard textbooks giving 
the flight time as May and June in a single brood. That is the situation 
according to Edward Newman 1874, L.W. Newman and Leeds 1913, R. 
South 1939 and the British Entomological and Natural History Society 
monograph 1981. South, however, adds that a second brood may be 
obtained in captivity, this emerging in July. The latest textbook, by B. 
Skinner, is at variance with these by stating that the moth 'has been 
recorded in every month from May to September', adding that the larvae 
have been found feeding on elder flowers {Sambucus nigra) in July as well 
as on the usual umbellifers in August and September. The author, perhaps 
wisely, does not commit himself on the question of voltinism; additionally 
the July feeding larvae from elder did not as expected produce moths later 
in the season, but emerged the following year. 

Now in general much of what appears in twentieth century textbooks can 
be traced to the works of C. Barrett; curiously this is not so regarding 
tripunctaria, for Barrett gives the species as being bivoltine, appearing at 
the end of May and in June, and again from late August to October. 

There have been two references to these contradictions in recent years in 
this journal. In a brief note G. Prior (1978) complains that the literature he 
has consulted states that tripunctaria is bivoltine, yet he is unaware of the 
larvae being 'found in the Spring', and therefore there is no evidence of 
bivoltinism. Brig. E. Simson (1980) adding Meyrick to the list of textbooks 
giving a single brood in May and June considers the circumstantial evidence 
sufficient to suggest that the moth is bivoltine — this evidence being his 
noting two distinct emergences, in May and June and again in July, and the 
unlikelihood of eggs laid in May remaining dormant until the Angelica 
seeded in September. 

Although I have collected larvae in Kent and bred the moth on several 
occasions, I have become more acquainted with the species as it has become 
a frequent visitor to my garden m.v. light in recent years, although it was at 
best a casual visitor from 1969 until 1983. In 1988 the light has been 
operated on almost every night from early April until November, apart 
from ten days in late May, and a few unpropitious nights during the 
Autumn. Tripunctaria was first seen on May 8th and 14th, then each night 
from June 1 1th until the 15th and again on the 21st — ten specimens in all. 
It next appeared on July 20th, 21st and 25th, and then every night from 
August 1st to the 8th, and finally on the 23rd and 26th, in all more than 



58 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

thirty specimens. Especially in the second sequence, a deterioration in the 
specimens' condition was evident. 

In 1987 the light was run for a total of only six nights in May and June, 
and tripunctaria was not seen until August 7th, and in all fifteen specimens 
were noted up to the 22nd. In 1986, despite opportunity, no specimens were 
noted until a singleton on July 14th, to be followed by about a score 
between August 5th and 22nd. In 1985 a total of three specimens were 
noted on May 20th, June 13th and 15th to be followed by five more on 
August 13th, 17th (two), 18th and 29th. 1984 provided but a single 
individual on August 14th, and 1983 a singleton on June 1st with ten more 
between July 25th and August 14th; however in both these years the light 
was operated on only four and two nights respectively in May. 

Chalmers-Hunt (1981) has numerous records of tripunctaria for Kent, 
and these show a similar pattern to mine: four records are given for April, 
May and June, a single one for mid- July, and about a score for August and 
September. L.K. and K. Evans (1973) for N.E. Surrey depict a similar 
picture — four records for June and seven for August and September. No 
further comparison can be made in the absence of similar local works on 
the macro-lepidoptera of neighbouring counties — Essex, Sussex and the 
remainder of Surrey, and even further afield; however, a very good 
summary of expeditions made to Co. Clare is published by Bradley (1967), 
and although these were made in every month from April to the end of 
September, tripunctaria is noted for the Burren only in June and 
September. Two records of significance appear in this journal — Peet 
(1965) and Agassiz (1977), referring to specimens seen in Co. Cork in May 
and late August respectively. 

I believe the above observations sufficient to suggest that tripunctaria is 
bivoltine in Kent, the Burren of Co. Clare and Co. Cork; in Kent the moth 
appears to be commoner in the second brood, but this may be illusory, 
merely reflecting the relatively greater number of nights in August 
conducive to the insects flying. 

I realise that the observations quoted do not satisfy Mr. Prior's 
contention that tripunctaria larvae have not been discovered in the Spring; 
however this seems to be irrelevant — what is required is the finding of 
larvae resulting from the May and June moths to produce imagines in late 
July and August, and surely the time to search for these is late June and 
July, ie early Summer. In the meantime the observations I have noted 
above indicating that there is a distinct gap between two sequences of 
emergences and Brig. Simpson's point regarding dormant eggs remain as 
very good circumstantial evidence for bivoltinism in this species, and that 
this is sufficient one may compare tripunctaria with Xanthorhoe designata 
Hufn. In 1874 Edward Newman stated that the moth flew in May and 
June, and again in August and September, ie was double brooded; and he 



BIVOLTINISM IN EUPITHECIA TRIPUNCTARIA 59 

also mentioned that the caterpillar was figured in Sepp's work on Dutch 
lepidoptera, being represented feeding on a species of cabbage. C. Barrett 
went a step further: of the larva he states "June and the beginning of July, 
and a second generation at the end of August and in September, on 
cabbage and other Cruciferae — yet cabbage cannot be its natural 
foodplant in the wild state, since it does not frequent gardens, and there is 
little doubt that it lives on those species of cress which are found in damp 
woods", and this tale has been repeated in subsequent textbooks until 
finally B, Skinner just states that the larvae will feed on certain cruciferous 
plants in captivity. Feral larvae of this species have not, I believe, been 
found in Britain, but that the moth is bivoltine in parts of Britain has been 
accepted at least since the time of Edward Newman on the same sort of 
circumstantial evidence as has been put forward by myself and Brig. 
Simpson in respect of Eupithecia tripunctaria. 

References 

Agassiz, Rev. David. 1977. Lepidoptera in the south of Ireland. Entomologist's 

Rec. J. Var. 99: 73-74. 
Anon. 1981. An identification guide to the British pugs. British Entomological and 

Natural History Society. 
Barrett, C. 1907. The Lepidoptera of the British Islands. 
Bradley, J.D. and Pelham-Clinton, E.C. 1967. The Lepidoptera of the Burren, Co. 

Clare, W. Ireland. Entomologist's Gaz. 18: 115-153. 
Chalmers-Hunt, J.M. 1981. The Butterflies and Moths of Kent. 3. 
Evans, L.K. and K. 1973. A survey of the macro-lepidoptera of Croydon and 

N.E. Surrey. 
Newman, E. 1874. An illustrated history of British moths. 
Newman, L.W. and Leeds, H. 1913. Textbook of British butterflies and moths. 
Peet, T.D.N. 1965. Lepidoptera in Ireland, 1985. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 

77:293. 
Prior, G. 1978. A note on three species of "pug" supposedly double-brooded. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 90: 251-252. 
Simson, E.C.L., Brig. 1980. British Pugs. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 92: 261-266. 
Skinner, B. 1984. Moths of the British Isles. 
South, R. 1939. The moths of the British Isles. 



Another Record of Brachypalpus laphriformis (Fallen) (Diptera: 
Syrphidae). 

A female specimen of B. laphriformis was taken inside a sun-lounge 
window at Kendal Wood, New Hutton, Cumbria (SD 540912) on 8 June 
1988. This species is rare in northern England and I do not know of any 
recent records for this species in this district. Previous records for VC 69 
are:- Holker Moss (SD 345 795) where two specimens were taken by the late 
J. Davis Ward on 5 June 1922. Specimens were taken by the late A.E. 
Wright at Grange-over-Sands on 2 June 1934 and at Witherslack on 31 May 
1934. The exact localities of Wright's specimens ae not noted in his record 



60 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

books (which are in my possession). Nor are the details of Ward's 
specimens except that in his diaries he records one specimen as having been 
taken at rest on a tree trunk. Various authors state that B. laphhformis is 
associated with ancient woodland. In the north of England Httle of this 
kind of habitat occurs now. Is it possible that the species occasionally 
migrates? The scarcity of records may also be owing to the remarkable 
resemblance of the fly to the common hive bee thus causing it to be 
overlooked. — Dr. Neville L. Birkett, Beardwood, Carter Road, 
Grange-over-Sands, 4 November 1988. 

Immigrant Moths in Guernsey, Autumn 1988. 

After a dismal season for migrants with only single examples of Spodoptera 
exigua Hubn. on 19th July and 27th August, and Rhodometra sacraria L. 
on 15th September coming to the m.v. trap in my garden, a spell of mild 
autumnal weather produced a few suprises. The period from 15th October 
to 29th October produced Agrius convolvuli L. (1), Mythimna vitellina 
Hiibn. (8), Heliothis armigera Hiibn. (7), Spodoptera exigua (5), Ortho- 
nama obstipata Fab. (4) and Cyclophora puppillaria Hiibn. (1). Through- 
out this period Nomophila noctuella D. & S., Udea ferrugalis Hiibn. and 
Autographa gamma L. were common. This was at a time when red Sahara 
dust was falling on Guernsey and, according to the newspaper, live Sahara 
locusts were faUing on Plymouth. The night temperatures then suddenly 
dropped to a little above freezing and no further migrants were seen until 
11th November when another mild night produced two more specimens of 
Orthonama obstipata and one of Palpita unionalis Hiibn. — P.D.M. 
CosTEN, La Broderie, Route de la Claire Mare, St. Peters, Guernsey. 

Some new and notable Lepidoptera records for Yorkshire. 

A specimen of the Varied Coronet moth, Hadena compta D. & S., was 
taken Andrew Wilkinson at m.v. light on 18.vii.l988 at Halton, Leeds. 
Although taken previously in Nottinghamshire, this appears to be the first 
record for Yorkshire. Andrew also took three specimens, including one 
melanic, of the Buff Ermine, Eilema deplana Esp. at light on 24.vii. 1988 at 
Bishops Wood — the only other record this century being one taken by 
Barry Spence at Spurn in 1984. A specimen of the Scallop Shell, 
Rheumaptera undulata L., which is rare in Yorkshire, was also taken in 
Bishops Wood on 24.vii.1988. 

A second species new to Yorkshire was the Twin-spotted Wainscot, 
Archanara geminipuncta Haw., taken at light at Spurn by Barry Spence on 
8.ix.88. A single specimen of the Waved Black, Parascotia fuliginosa L. 
was taken by day on Skipwith Common by Messrs. Higginbottom and 
Ezard. The only previous Yorkshire record in the last 50 years is for one at 
Spurn, 23.vii.1982. — S.M. Jackson, 31 Hillfield, Selby, North Yorkshire 
Y08 OND. 



BROWNE VS. WATSON 61 



BROWNE versus WATSON: ROUND TWO 

Raymond R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann 

13 Old Road, Old Harlow, Essex CM 17 OHB. 

NEARLY sixty years ago the late Professor F.Balfour-Browne wrote a long 
paper, following various extensive deliberations of a committee of which he 
was secretary, advocating the use of double alphabetical symbols to denote 
the counties and vice-counties of the British Isles so as to replace, or at least 
to reinforce the use of the Watsonian system of numbering the counties and 
their sub-divisions — the latter system has some faults still unrectified. The 
committee's findings were never finally endorsed; as a result many of our 
entomologists abide by the numerical lists; others use the two-letter 
symbols which are in almost every case aides-memoires and less taxing. To 
give a very recent example: perusal of several pages of details from the 
Scottish National Indices in which Watsonian figures are in use elicited a 
bibliographical reference and the number 84. This was thought first to 
stand for its Brownean equivalent LL (Linlithgow); further investigation, 
however, revealed that the numeral referred to the pagination in Murray's 
1853 Catalogue of the Coleoptera of Scotland. So much for Watsoniana! 

Quite apart from a muddle which occurred when the Irish numbering 
was added to the Watsonian system, which has led to all the Irish counties' 
numbers being prefixed by the letter H, thus, HI = South Kerry, there is no 
provision for the (former) County of London nor for Lundy Island which 
has a small but important entomological fauna: both are covered by 
Brownean lettering. A baker's dozen double letters are duplicated, such as, 
WC (West Cornwall) and WC (West Cork); they are easily distinguished by 
adding (E) or (Engl.) and (I) or (Irel.) respectively. 

Granted, a very few changes might be helpful: King's Co. and Queen's 
Co. in Ireland are now re-named Offaly and Leix and could be labelled, say 
OF and LX; Browne's Cantire (CT) (= Kintyre) would be more usefully 
expressed as KT. 

Professor Browne's plea may have fallen on many deaf ears; 
nevertheless, how would Watson, Praeger and the other numerologists 
involved have assessed the identity of that afterthought lb? And how does 
one deal with, for instance. Hundred House, in the Administrative Area of 
Powys, which covers three Welsh counties? 

One final comment: compare Balfour-Browne's ingenious typomap 
(fig.l) with the difficulty in finding the Watsonian 99 on a map of similar 
proportions. ^^ 

Below is the explanatory list in alphabetical order of the counties and 
vice-counties with their Brownean lettering and Watsonian numerical 
equivalents. 



62 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 









SI 






Ol 






NS 


CA 




HB 


SS 






S 


RW RE 
Wl Ei 


EL 

PN 


BF AN 
A3 


M 

1 
CT 


AM PM 

ON SQ 
B 

RF 


FF 
PC 
LL 


Kl 
KF 
ED HO 



AY LA PE BW NN 

WO EO LO AN WT KB OF SK RX SN 

FE TY AR OO CU WL NY OM 

IM 
WM SL LE MO ML MY EY 

EM RO CV LH SL WY SY LN 

A 
WG NQ LF WH ME CR OB FT CM DY NM LS 

SQ KC KO OU MN MQ SP ST LR OB WN EN 

CL NT QC CW Wl CD RA HF WO WW NO HU WS ES 

NK LK ST KK WX PB CM BR GE OX BX BD NT NE 

SK MC EC WA GM MM GW NW BK MX SE 

WC NS SW NH SR WK EK 

L 

NO S3 DT SH WX EX 

EC SO IW 

SG WC 

Fig.l. 'Typomap' of the British Isles. From Balfour-Browne (1931). 

ENGLAND 

Beds., BD = 30, Berks., BK = 22, Bucks., BX = 24, Cambridge, CB = 29, Cheshire, 
CH = 58, Cornwall, East, EC -2, Cornwall, West, WC=1, Cumberland, CU = 70, 
Derby, DY = 57, Devon, North, ND = 4, Devon, South, SD = 3, Dorset, DT = 9, 
Durham, DM = 66, Essex, North, NE=19, Essex, South, SE=18, Glos., East, 
GE = 33, Glos., West, GW = 34, Hants., North, NH=12, Hants., South, SH=11, 
Hereford, HF = 36, Herts., HT = 20, Hunts., HU = 31, Kent, East, EK=15, Kent, 
West, WK=16, Lanes., Mid (or West), ML = 60, Lanes., South, SL = 59, Leics. 
with Rutland, LR = 55 and 55b, Lines., North, LN = 54, Lines., South, LS = 53, 
London (Cty.), L = -, Mddx., MX = 21, Monmouth, MM = 35, Norfolk, West, 
WN = 28, Norfolk, East, EN = 27, Northants., NO = 22, Northumberland, North, 



BROWNE VS. WATSON 63 



NN = 68, Northumberland, South, SN = 67, Notts., NM = 56, Oxford, OX = 23, 
Rutland (see Leics.), Salop, SP = 40, Somerset, North, NS = 6, Somerset, South, 
SS = 5, Staffs., ST = 39, Suffolk, West, WS = 26, Suffolk, East, ES = 25, Surrey, 
SR=17, Sussex, East, EX =14, Sussex, West, WX=13, Warwick, WW = 38, 
Westmorland and Lanes., North, WL = 69and 69b, Wilts., North, NW = 7, Wilts., 
South, SW = 8, Worcs., WO = 37, Yorks., North-west, NY = 65, Yorks., Mid-west, 
MY = 64, Yorks., North-east, EY = 62, Yorks., South-west, WY = 63, Yorks., 
South-east, SY = 61 , 1, of Man, IM = 70, 1, of Wight, IW = 10, Lundy Is., 1 = -, Scilly 
Is.,SC = lb. 

WALES 

Anglesey, A = 52, Brecon, BR = 42, Cardigan, CD = 46, Carmarthen, CM = 44, 
Carnarvon, CR = 49, Denbigh, DB = 50, Flint, FT = 51, Glam., GM = 41, 
Merioneth, MN = 48, Montgomery, MG = 47, Pembroke, PB = 45, Radnor, 
RA = 43. 

SCOTLAND 

Aberdeen, North, AN = 93, Aberdeen, South, AS = 92, Argyle, Main, AM = 98, 
Ayr, AY = 75, Banff, BF = 94, Berwick, BW = 81, Caithness, CA = 109, Cantire 
(Kintyre), CT=101, Clackmannan, see Perth, South, Cromarty, see Ross, 
Dunbarton, DN = 99, Dumfries, DF = 72, Edinburgh (Mid-Lothian), ED = 83, Elgin 
(Moray), EL = 95, Fife, see Kinross, Forfar (Angus), FF = 90, Haddington (East- 
Lothian), HD = 82, Inverness, East (Easterness), EI = 96 and 96b, Inverness, West 
(Westerness), WI = 97, Kincardine, KI = 91, Kinross + Fife, KF = 85, 
Kirkcudbright, KB = 73, Lanark, LA = 77, Linlithgow (West-Lothian), LL = 84, 
Nairn, see East Inverness, Orkneys, OI=lll, Peebles, PE = 78, Perth, North (or 
East), PN = 89, Perth, Mid, PM = 88, Perth, South (or West) + Clackmannan, 
PC = 87, Renfrew, RF = 76, Ross with Cromarty, East, RE =106, Ross with 
Cromarty, West, RW=105, Roxburgh, RX = 80, Selkirk, SK = 79, Shetlands, 
SI =112, Stirling, SC = 86, Sutherland, North (or West), NS = 108, Sutherland, 
South (or East), SS=107, Wigton, WT = 74, Hebrides, Outer, HB=110, Bute and 
Clyde Is., B=100, Islay etc. (Ebudes, South), 1=102, Mull etc. (Ebudes, Mid), 
M = 103, Skye etc. (Ebudes, North), S = 104. 

IRELAND 

Antrim, AN = H39, Armagh, AR = H37, Carlow, CW = H13, Cavan, CV = H30, 
Clare, CL = H9, Cork, East, EC = H5, Cork, Mid, MC = H4, Cork, West, 
WC = H3, Donegal, East, ED = H34, Donegal, West, WD = H35, Down, DO = H38, 
Dublin, DU = H21, Fermanagh, FE = H33, Galway, West, WG = H16, Galway, 
North, NG = H17, Galway, South, SG = H15, Kerry, North, NK = H2, Kerry, 
South, SK = H1, Kildare, KD = H19, Kilkenny, KK = H11, King's Cty. (Offaly), 
KC = H18, Leitrim, LE = H29, Limerick, LK = H8, Londonderry, LD = H40, 
Longford, LF = H24, Louth, LH = H21, Mayo, East, EM = H26, Mayo, West, 
WM = H27, Meath, ME = H22, Monaghan, MO = H32, Queen's Cty. (Leix, Laois), 
QC = H14, Roscommon, RO = H25, Sligo, SL = H28, Tipperary, North, NT = H10, 
Tipperary, South, ST = H7, Tyrone, TY = H36, Waterford, WA = H6, Westmeath, 
WH = H23, Wexford, WX = H12, Wicklow, WI = H20. 

Acknowledgement 

Figure 1 is reproduced with the permission of the Editor, Entomologist's Monthly 
Magazine, Published by Gem Publishing Company. 

Reference 

Balfour-Browne, F. 1931. A plea for uniformity in the method of recording insect 
captures. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 67: 183-193. 



64 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

Caloptilia falconipennella (Hiibn.) and C. populetorum (Zell.) (Lep.: 
Gracillariidae) in Kent. 

During August 1988 I collected a number of Caloptilia cones from alder in 
Petts Wood, north-west Kent, in order to breed C. elongella L. To my 
surprise and delight the first moth to emerge on 19th September was 

C. falconipennella. I immediately had a closer look at the material I had 
collected and found a further five of the characteristic cocoons of 
falconipennella under turned-over leaf edges. In my ignorance I had 
assumed, at the time of collecting, that these were the early cones of 
elongella. Unfortunately, three of the cocoons produced parasites and the 
remaining two failed to produce anything. On opening the cocoons several 
weeks later I found two dead pupae. I understand that falconipennella is 
not easy to rear, but I am puzzled as to why the two pupae failed to emerge. 
As falconipennella is not recorded from Kent in Heath and Emmet (1985), 
Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, volume two, I think it 
is probably a first County record, and also, of course, for v. c. 15. 

I was also fortunate to take a specimen of C. populetorum at light in my 
garden (which backs on to Petts Wood) on 27 November 1987 but failed to 
find larvae or cones in July 1988. However, a second, fresh specimen came 
to light on 20th July 1988 and another on 23rd July, which seems to 
confirm that populetorum is at least partially double-brooded even in a 
cool summer such as 1988. C. populetorum is, I gather, a very rare moth in 
Kent and these records are therefore of note. — D. O'Keeffe, 50 
Hazelmere Road, Petts Wood, Kent BR5 IPD. 

Colostygia multistrigaria Haw., the Mottled Grey (Lep.: Geometridae), in 
mid-winter. 

Whilst collecting at Kynance Cove, West Cornwall, on the night of 31st 
December 1988, I was surprised to find this geometer on the wing and at 
rest in some numbers. 

Two pairs were found in copulation, with several other females at rest 
elsewhere. Males intermittently approached my Tilley lamp during the 
period between 1800 and 2300 hours. Most were fresh, however a few were 
apparently a few days old. Altogether, I must have seen some 20 moths. 

Scouring my own records for this species, the earliest date I have is 1st 
March 1975, at Bedgebury, Kent. The exceptionally mild December, with 
light to moderate, warm south-westerly winds coupled with relatively dry 
conditions, appears to have prompted this moth to emerge at a most 
unusual time of year in this part of the country. 

It is also worth noting that two larvae of the Fox Moth, Macrothylacia 
rubi L. were also found, and that a few larvae of Xestia xanthographa 

D. & S., the Square-spot Rustic, were well into the last instar at this 
location. — J. Platts, 11 Maydowns Road, Chestfield, Whitstable, Kent. 



CHLOROCLYSTIS RECTANGULATA AB. PILCHERI 



65 



CHLOROCLYSTIS RECTANGULATA L. (LEP.: GEOMETRIDAE) 

AB. PILCHERI 
Ab.Nov. 

G.M. Haggett 

Meadows End, Northacre Cast on, Attleborough, Norfolk. 

ON 30th June 1987 a male aberration of Chloroclystis rectangulata was 
found dead by Mr John Jaines outside the window of a cottage in Mucton, 
Lincolnshire. The moth had suffered a split in the wings and damage to its 
fringes, but otherwise the wings appear to be perfect, and thus this 
remarkable aberration cannot be ascribed to wear or damage. 

All four wings with the median space, which in a typical rectangulata is 
filled with black shading and wrigghng transverse lines, a pale dusky cream 
colour with the veins and costa paler, the veins appearing as pale fine rays. 
The only marking within this broad space on each wing is the blackish and 
very prominent discal spot. This broad pale band of each wing is bounded 
abruptly by the continuous deep black scalloped post median line. The 
outer margin of all four wings is heavily darkened and the submarginal 
black clouding of typical rectangulata \s much intensified. 

The moth was taken to Mr R.E.M. Pilcher, for many years Consultant 
Surgeon to Boston Hospital, and who so retains his surgical skills that he 
performed the remarkable operation of restoring this dried corpse. It is in 
recognition of his long years as naturalist, ornithologist and lepidopterist 
that I am pleased to name this aberration. 




Fig. 1 Chloroclystis rectangulata Linn. ab. pilcheri ab. nov. ( x 2.6) 




66 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 



Heliothis armigera (Hubner) (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Hampshire and 
Leicestershire. 

A scarce bordered straw, Heliothis armigera, was caught in an m.v. trap in 
the garden at Burnt Mill House, Romsey, Hampshire, on 19 October 1988, 
and another, also in an m.v. trap, in the garden at 66 Scraptoft Lane, 
Leicester, on 26 October 1988. Both specimens are sHghtly worn, and 
certainly not freshly emerged, suggesting recent immigration. The capture 
of two individuals in a week at two widely separated localities suggests a 
more general occurrence of this normally infrequent immigrant. — Denis 
F. Owen, 2 Shelford Place, Headington, Oxford. 

Xanthia citrago L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) — aberrant behaviour of larvae? 

Late at night on 1 June 1988, I beat some noctuid larvae from lime trees at 
Kingussie, Inverness-shire and Aberfeldy, Perthshire, which I presumed 
were citrago. Now a characteristic of British sallow larvae is that upon 
becoming full-grown they undergo a long resting period lasting a number 
of weeks before pupating, and I can confirm that this is so with Kentish 
X. icteritia Hufn. C. Barrett {Lepidoptera of the British Islands, 1899) 
states that the pupal stage of citrago is not attained until the larva has 
remained in the cocoon from five to seven weeks, while L.W. Newman and 
Leeds {Textbook of British Butterflies and Moths, 1909) state that the larva 
goes into a cocoon in May and does not change to a pupa until August. 

The larvae I brought back from Scotland were being kept in a newspaper 
lined plastic container prior to transfer to more suitable accommodation 
when on 5th June I noticed one larva was preparing for pupation between 
the transparent side of the container and some loose paper, in a retreat not 
meriting the term cocoon. By the 9th it had changed to a pupa, and several 
days later I decided to see what was happening to the other larvae; three 
more pupae were revealed lying in slight cavities beneath the dying lime 
leaves. A fine series of X. citrago emerged in late July, a not unduly early 
time of emergence for this species in captivity indoors. 

I wonder if this behaviour of the larvae is not unusual under these 
artificial conditions, or is it a peculiarity confined to the Scottish Highland 
population? 

I have not seen it mentioned in the textbooks that citrago from the 
Highlands of Scotland are quite unlike normal specimens from southern 
England in that the central transverse dark line of the forewing is wider and 
more pronounced — ab. umbrata Heinrich. Also these Highland specimens 
tend to have considerable dark shading within the reniform stigma, giving 
the appearance of a dark blotch on the outer aspect of the central dark line; 
my Kentish specimens do not display this feature. These characters and the 
uniformly large size of these Scottish specimens make them quite distinct, 
at least from those from Kent. — B.K. West, 36 Briar Road, Dart ford, 
Kent. 



A RARE BEETLE IN SURREY 67 

A VERY RARE BEETLE REDISCOVERED IN SURREY 

A. A. Allen' and J. A. Owen^ 

' 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG 
^8 Kingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KT17 3PU 

THOUGH it is known to have been with us for at least the better part of a 
century, Ernobius angusticollis (Ratz.) remains one of the very rarest and 
least known of British Anobiidae. As far as published records go, the 
position has not changed since Mr Colin Johnson's excellent revision of the 
north European species of the genus appeared in 1966; however, two 
additional occurrences have come to our notice and are recorded below. 
Encouraged by these and the information we were able to gather on the two 
Surrey captures, the writers have in the last few seasons made repeated 
efforts to find the beetle, which this year (1988) finally bore fruit. 

The past records are of three specimens only, at rather long intervals and 
each from a different county. They are given by Johnson (1966) and 
repeated here with a few further details: — 

(1) Near Mildenhall, Suffolk, a male on a "peculiar" conifer hedge, 
6.vi.l899 (D. Sharp, 1916); in his paper bringing forward this and other 
species as British, Dr Sharp mentions the locality as near the road from 
Barton Mills to Brandon. (2) A male in coll. P. Harwood with label "?? 
bred from spruce cones collected near Blandford (Dorset) by S.C.S. 
Brown" and written behind the card "Bournemouth 24. v. 45". In view of 
the double query Johnson (1966:87), with reason, gave the locality as 
Bournemouth, but what is now known of the bionomics of the species 
justifies us in regarding Blandford as the more likely place of origin — the 
insect doubtless emerging at Bournemouth where Harwood was then living. 
(3) Banstead, Surrey, 21. v. 1952, a female (P.D. Orton) — see further 
below. 

A few years ago we were shown by Mr Norman Heal a pair of Ernobius 
which had emerged (23. v. 85) from fallen Scots pine cones gathered at 
Horsell Common, Surrey, and which were later confirmed as E. 
angusticollis. In an attempt to follow up this capture, the writers collected a 
very large number of pine cones from the same place in the spring of the 
next two years, including not only fallen but also green ones still on the 
trees, but to no avail. More recently Dr Paul Hyman showed us an example 
of this beetle taken by the late W.O. Steel in Windsor Forest, Berks, 
7.vii.l960; thus bringing the localities where the species has been found up 
to five (four counties). 

By a lucky chance, Mr Peter Orton happened to be on a visit to Epsom 
last August and, learning of our interest in his Banstead capture, was 
eventually able to remember and to point out just where he had taken the 
beetle 36 years ago. It was swept at the edge of Nork Wood, a plantation 



68 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

containing many mature trees of Norway spruce {Picea abies) and larch, 
etc, and which very fortunately still exists. Having noticed from the records 
that the peak time for the species seemed to be the last week of May, the 
writers visited the wood on 24. v. 88 — after a failed attempt to breed the 
Ernobius from spruce cones gathered there the previous winter. Very many 
of the trees had fallen victim to the great October hurricane, but this 
circumstance was to stand us in good stead by bringing the tops of the 
spruces, with their clusters of cones, within easy reach. It was now that 
perseverance reaped its reward; from one cone-bearing spruce top on the 
fringe of the wood, two E. angusticollis were beaten within a few minutes 
of our arrival. An hour or more was spent exploring the interior of the 
wood, and many spruce tops were vainly beaten. At length, however, one 
was found (oddly enough with only one cone visible) which yielded several 
specimens including both sexes. It thus appears that the beetle is not only 
rare but also exceedingly local in Nork Wood, though of course far more 
work would have to be done there before its true status at this site could be 
determined. 

On the Continent Ernobius angusticollis is everywhere uncommon or 
scarce, but widespread in at least Denmark and Germany. The Scandi- 
navian authors record it from pines and firs in general and as having been 
bred from spruce cones like certain others of the genus. Pine cones, 
however, are apparently not mentioned in this connection, which makes 
Mr Heal's experience noteworthy and possibly exceptional. The area from 
which he collected the cones is unmixed pinewood, and the writers, at least, 
have seen no spruce there, the nearest being isolated trees in gardens near 
the common and hardly hkely to have been the source of the two bred 
specimens. One wonders whether this Ernobius could have been present in 
the formerly extensive pinewoods of the Woking area (of which Horsell 
Common forms part) when G.C. Champion worked them so assiduously 
early in the century; at all events, he did not find it. There seems, thus far, 
to be no evidence that E. angusticollis is attracted to young burnt pines as 
are the other British species, though that may be due simply to its rarity or a 
high degree of attachment to spruce. 

Acknowledgements 

We are very grateful to Mr P.D. Orton for information leading to the 
rediscovery of the species at the Banstead locality; and to Mr N.F. Heal and 
Dr P.S. Hyman for letting us see their specimens and for permission to 
publish their records. 

References 

Johnson, C. 1966. The Fennoscandian, Danish and British species of the Genus 
Ernobius 'Wxomson (Col. Anobiidae). Opusc. Ent. 31: 81-92(86-7). 

Sharp, D. 1916. Additional British species of Ernobius. Ent. mon. Mag. 52: 178- 
180(178). 



PARASITOIDS OF BRITISH BUTTERFLIES 69 

SURVEY OF PARASITOIDS OF BRITISH BUTTERFLIES 

M.R. Shaw^ and M.G. Fitton^ 

' National Museums of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh 
' British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London 

BUTTERFLIES are the most familiar of British insects, popular with both 
entomologists and the general public, and there has been a long history of 
collecting and observing them in Britain. Until comparatively recently 
many species occurred in large numbers in suitable places and, over the 
years, literally millions must have been collected from the British 
countryside. Not suprisingly, almost all have been taken as adults: in 
contrast with many other Lepidoptera, butterflies are much easier to find 
as adults than earlier in their lives. Although most of us see the same half 
dozen species as caterpillars year after year, the majority are rarely 
encountered and only two or three are at all easy to find as pupae. Why 
bother to look for early stages when the adults are so conspicuous? 

One good reason is that so little is known about their parasitoids: much 
less than for most other groups of Lepidoptera in which collecting activity 
has traditionally included searching for early stages (and micro- 
lepidopterists, in particular, still depend less on m.v. light than muddy 
knees). In fact the lack of information on parasitism of butterfly larvae and 
pupae is quite remarkable: a preliminary survey that we have carried out 
has revealed no British records of parasitoids of 20 out of the 58 species 
that are permanently resident or regularly breed in Britain, and only very 
sketchy or unverifiable information concerning most of the rest. Only 
about a dozen species have been collected as larvae regularly enough for 
some of their parasitoids to be well known but, even then, there is usually 
much less information on parasitism of the egg or pupal stages, each of 
which is susceptible to attack from various groups of parasitoids quite 
different from those that develop in or on larvae. The most important 
groups of parasitoids that attack butterfly larvae are in the families 
Ichneumonidae, Braconidae and Tachinidae. Pupae are sought by a few 
groups of Ichneumonidae and Chalcidoidea (mostly Pteromalidae), while 
eggs are attacked principally be Scelionidae and Trichogrammatidae. 
Except for the Tachinidae, which are Diptera, all of these groups belong to 
the Order Hymenoptera. 

In recent years the conservation of British butterflies has become a 
concern, and detailed ecological appraisals of several species have been 
carried out. Parasitism has generally been regarded as of Httle importance 
in the population dynamics of most of the species studied in comparison 
with other stresses (Dempster, 1983, 1984), although the basis of this view 
has been questioned (Hassell, 1985; see also Murdoch & Reeve, 1987) and 
the sites chosen for ecological studies have sometimes been wildly atypical 
(Shaw, 1981). Whether or not parasitoids are important regulators of 



70 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

butterfly populations is in any case only a part of the conservation issue. 
The parasitoids themselves are worthy of attention and concern from 
conservationists, because there is no doubt that a high proportion of the 
species associated with butterflies are very specialised and completely 
dependent on one or a few species of butterfly for their continued existence 
in Britain (eg Ford, 1976; Shaw, 1978, 1981). Others maybe less specialised 
and simply include species of butterfly in host ranges that encompass a 
wider span of Lepidoptera (eg some Tachinidae, and certain Pimpla and 
Apechthis species: see host ranges expressed in van Emden, 1954 and Fitton 
et al, 1988 respectively). 

With a view to sharpening this parasitoid-orientated focus, we have 
started a long term project to accumulate reliable information on the 
species attacking British butterflies. One eventual aim is to provide keys to 
the parasitoids concerned and a summary of host range for each species. In 
order to do this reliably, however, we must depend only on the first hand 
evidence of reared specimens that are available for us to examine ourselves 
(for a fuller discussion on this need see Shaw, in press). We are embarking 
on a search for reared specimens in the collections at our disposal, but for 
the project to be successful we need also to ask all lepidopterists to pass on 
to us parasitoids reared from eggs, larvae and pupae of British (or 
European) butterflies. As much material as possible is wanted: parasitoids 
reared from species that are infrequently collected in the wild will obviously 
be especially valuable, but even the more accessible species will yield 
important data. Some frequent associations well known to us, but which 
are insufficiently represented in collections or need to be investigated 
further, include: (a) killing larvae of Gonepteryx rhamni (L.), solitary, 
making a grey and black blotched or banded cocoon within the host's 
larval skin = Hyposoter ebeninus (Gravenhost); (b) killing larvae of 
G. rhamni, solitary, making a small golden-yellow tufted cocoon = 
Apanteles (s. lato) gonopterygis Marshall; (c) a sohtary black and yellow 
ichneumonid emerging from pupae of Celasthna argiolus (L.) = 
Listrodromus nycthemerus (Gravenhorst); and (d) killing larvae of Aglais 
urticae (L.) or Inachis io (L.), solitary, making an ovoid grey-brown 
smooth cocoon free from the substrate (sometimes twitching or jumping) 
= Phobocampe confusa (Thomson). However, in order to save 
correspondents unnecessary trouble, we can also mention some of the 
commonest, very regular associations that, if they occur exactly as below, 
we do not need to see again. These are: (a) kilHng larvae of Pieris brassicae 
(L.) or P. rapae (L.), making small gregarious yellow cocoons = Apanteles 
(s. lato) glomeratus (L.); (b) gregarious metallic green-bronze chalcids 
emerging from pupae of P. brassicae or P. rapae collected from suburban 
situations = Pteromalus puparum (L.); and (c) killing larvae of Vanessa 
atalanta (L.), making medium sized white gregarious cocoons in broods of 
4-15 = Microgaster subcompletus Nees. Any deviation (including brood 



PARASITOIDS OF BRITISH BUTTERFLIES 71 

sizes) from the above exact circumstances may well represent different 
species that we would like to see: if in doubt, please send it! 

Please send all reared specimens that you can spare to Dr Mark R. Shaw, 
National Musems of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EHl IJF. 
They should preferably be sent dry, unmounted but loosly wedged (eg with 
cotton wool in tubes) so that they do not rattle and break in the post, and 
need to be very well packed to survive transit. All cocoons and host remains 
etc should be sent (wedged or in some other way separated from the adults, 
which they may otherwise damage in transit). Care has to be taken to guard 
against mould etc — let it all dry out before sending it and avoid small fully 
airtight containers. Data should include host name, place and if possible 
foodplant from which collected, and dates of collection and emergence (if 
only one date is available, say which it is! Approximate dates — even 
"Spring" — are still useful). Always emphasise all doubt clearly. More 
detailed notes on rearing and preserving parasitoids of Lepidoptera are 
available from either of us on request. Thank you! 

References 

Dempster, J. P. 1983. The natural control of populations of butterflies and moths. 

Biol. Rev. 5»:46\-4S\. 
Dempster, J. P. 1984. The natural enemies of butterflies, pp. 97-104. In Vane- 
Wright, R.I. and Ackery, P.R. (Eds), The Biology of Butterflies. London. 
Emden, F.I. van. 1954. Diptera Cyclorrhapha, Calyptrata (1) Section (a) Tachinidae 

and Calliphoridae. Handbk Ident. Br. Insects 10 (4a): 133pp. 
Fitton, M.G., Shaw, M.R. and Gauld, I.D. 1988. Pimplinae ichneumon-flies. 

Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae (Pimplinae). Handbk Ident. Br. Insects 7 (1): 

110pp. 
Ford, R.L.E. 1976. The influence of the Microgasterini on the populations of 

British Rhopalocera (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Entomologist's Gaz. 21: 

205-210. 
Hassell, M.P. 1985. Insect natural enemies as regulating factors. J. Anim. Ecol. 54: 

323-334. 
Murdoch, W.W. and Reeve, J.D. 1987. Aggregation of parasitoids and the 

detection of density dependence in field populations. Oikos 50: 137-141. 
Shaw, M.R. 1978. The status of Trogus lapidator (F.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumoni- 
dae) in Britain, a parasite of Papilio machaon L. Entomologist's Gaz. 29: 

287-288. 
Shaw, M.R. 1981. Parasitism by Hymenoptera of larvae of the white admiral 

butterfly, Ladoga Camilla {I..), in England. Ecol. Entomol. 6: 333-335. 
Shaw, M.R. in press. Parasitoids of European butterflies and their study. In 

Kudrna, O. (Ed.), Butterflies of Europe 2. Wiesbaden. 




72 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

White metathoracic crests in Eupithecia lariciata Freyer and E. thpunctaria 
Herricli-Schaffer (Lep.: Geometridae), the Larch and White-spotted Pugs. 

Meyrick (1927, Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera, Watkins and 
Doncaster, p. 224) states, under the description oi Eupithecia albipunctata 
Haworth ( = tripunctaria H.-S.), that this species has a white thoracic spot. 
This spot is not mentioned in the description of E. lariciata and is not used 
in the dichotomous key for either species. 

Most modern popular works, including the British Entomological and 
Natural History Society's publication exclusively concerning the Pugs 
{Identification Guide to the British Pugs, BENHS, 1981), cite the white 
metathoracic crest as being a diagnostic feature of E. lariciata. This is very 
misleading as, having examined many specimens from Rothamsted Insect 
Survey light trap catches, my own collection and the national collection at 
the British Museum (Natural History), I can confirm that the white 
metathoracic crest is present in both species. Contrary to what is often 
suggested, it is therefore unwise to assume that all Pugs bearing this crest 
are E. lariciata. 

Although both species fly at the same time of year (May to September, 
though E. lariciata is only recorded sporadically later than June (Riley, 
1986, Ent. Rec. 98: 207-208 and Riley, 1987, Ent. Rec. 99: 152)) there is 
little chance of confusing fresh specimens of the typical forms: E. 
tripunctaria is immediately distinguishable by the conspicuous white tornal 
spots on both fore and hind wings. However, worn specimens can be 
difficult to separate and examination of the male abdominal plates or the 
genitalia is necessary. The metathoracic crest may also be present in both 
the melanic forms E. lariciata ab. nigra Prout and E. tripunctaria ab. 
angelicata Barrett but it is usually inconspicuous. In E. tripunctaria ab. 
angelicata the typical white tornal spots are absent and hence it is often 
superficially inseparable from E. lariciata ab. nigra. In such cases the 
abdominal plates or the genitalia should always be examined. — Adrian 
M. Riley, Entomology and Nematology Department, Rothamsted 
Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ. 



Bryaxis puncticollis Denny (Col.: Pselaphidae) apparently new to Kent. 

Very strangely there seems to be no Kent Record, or rather none that I have 
seen, of this local but not particularly rare beetle; even the old records from 
near London are all for Surrey localities. It may therefore be worth 
reporting the capture of a single male of the form validus Aube (with 
thickened femora) in damp dead leaves in Oxleas Wood, Shooters Hill, 
near here, 5.ix.86. I had previously found the species in Windsor Forest 
and more freely at Esher, Surrey, in wet moss. — A. A. Allen, 49 
Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



MOSQUITOES AND DISEASE 73 

MOSQUITOES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE AS VECTORS OF 
DISEASE ORGANISMS IN SOUTHERN AFTICA 

Stephen F. Henning 

1 Harry Lawrence Street, Florida Park, Florida 1709, South Africa. 

MOST people think of mosquitoes as just biting pests and are generally 
disliked because they transmit organisms which cause diseases such as 
malaria and yellow fever. This is true for some species but the vast majority 
are actually perfectly harmless to man. In Southern Africa of the 
approximately 220 species, only about 20 have been implicated in disease 
transmission. Mosquitoes in fact are extremely interesting, and an 
important part of the environment and in the following paper I provide a 
brief introduction to their biology. 

The family Culicidae or mosquitoes are divided into three subfamilies: 
Anophelinae, Toxorhynchitinae and Culicinae, all three of which are 
represented in Southern Africa. Members of the Anophelinae are 
important as vectors of malaria parasites. The Culicinae are involved in the 
transmitting of various virus diseases to man and animals. The adults of 
both sexes of the Toxorhynchitinae are flower-feeders only, and therefore 
are not involved in the transmission of pathogens. Members of the 
Toxorhynchitinae have also been considered as agents for the biological 
control of biting and disease-carrying mosquitoes because of the predatory 
behaviour of their larvae. 

Mosquitoes, as do most other flies, pass through seven stages during 
their life cycle: the egg, the four successively larger larval instars, the pupa 
and the adult. 

Depending on the species to which they belong, eggs are laid either singly 
on water or glued together in rafts or on moist soil at the edge of the water 
or in moist depressions. The eggs of Anopheles have lateral structures that 
keep them afloat. The incubation period is short in warm weather (usually 
two or three days), but in certain species, particularly Aedes, the eggs are 
able to withstand long periods of drying; in fact, they appear to require a 
certain amount of drying before they will hatch. 

Embryonic development begins immediately after oviposition in all 
species, but in the case of the floodwater mosquitoes, hatching does not 
take place until an adequately long period of dryness has passed. Eggs that 
have ceased development during adverse conditions of drought or cold are 
said to be in diapause. Eggs of tree-hole breeding species are stimulated to 
hatch by decreasing oxygen tension as bacteria begin to multiply around 
them. 

The larvae of all mosquitoes are aquatic and most of them free 
swimming. During the period of development, which lasts four to ten or 
more days, the larval skin is shed four times, each successive instar showing 
a progressive increase in size. The first instar is usually l-2mm long, but it 



74 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

may by 4mm in the largest species. It is always recognisable by its egg 
burster, a pointed conical protuberance on the top of its head. In the third 
instar, the hairs- have fewer branches than in the fourth instar, and the 
sclerotization of the anal segment is less compete. Immature Anopheles 
larvae usually have a collar of dark sclerotin around the base of the head. 
The fourth, or last, larval instar is 3-1 5mm long. Except for the predatory 
species all larval instars feed on detritus, algae, and other micro-organisms, 
which they strain out of the water. The larvae of some species feed mainly at 
or near the surface, whereas others feed mainly at or near the bottom, 
although most species are adaptable enough to feed wherever food is 
plentiful. Thus Anopheles larvae which are highly adapted for surface 
feeding, take food from the bottom when necessary. Low-protein diets 
produce stunted adults, whereas high-protein diets tend to produce larger 
and longer-lived adults. However, no diets have been discovered that 
produce adults appreciably larger than those that develop under natural 
conditions. 

The mouthparts of mosquito larvae are among the most elaborately 
evolved of any insect mouthparts. Food particles are gathered by a pair of 
labral brushes on either side of the mouth, each of which is a large bundle 
of long curved hairs arranged in closely packed rows on the underside of 
the labrum. The labral brushes open by internal blood pressure and are 
closed by two pairs of large muscles. The brushes open and close rapidly, 
several times per second, and this motion generates a current of water that 
helps to bring more particles into range and may also move the larva slowly 
over the substrate. At each closing of the brushes, food particles that have 
become entrapped by the hairs are combed out by a row of stiff parallel 
hairs along the curved dorsal edge of each mandible. As the mandible 
opens, particles are combed from it by backwardly projecting hairs on the 
midventral region of the labrum, assisted by the maxillae. Finally, a bundle 
of hairs at the base of the mandible scrapes the food from the midventral 
labral region into the pharynx. This complex manoeuvre, in which the 
mandible plays a dual role by merely opening and closing, is not restricted 
to mosquitoes but is characteristic of the larvae of other related families, 
for example the black flies (Simuliidae). If particles are too large to be 
handled in the previously described manner, they may be rasped into 
smaller pieces by the labral brushes, whose apices are often saw-toothed. 
Particles may also be broken up between the sharp tips of the mandibles 
and the hypostomial teeth. 

Some larvae are predaceous on active invertebrates, including other 
mosquito larvae. For example, all stages of Toxorhynchites larvae prey on 
invertebrates, generally of their same size or smaller in container habitats. 
The most common natural container habitats are tree holes and bamboo. 
Since other mosquito larvae are usually the most common arthropods 
present, they are presumed to be their chief prey. However, numerous 
examples of other prey have been reported, including larvae of 



MOSQUITOES AND DISEASE 75 

Chironomidae and Tipulidae, small tadpoles, small nymphs of dragonflies, 
and syrphid larvae. The predatory behaviour of Toxorhynchites larvae is 
basically opportunistic. They do not search for prey; instead they ambush 
prey as it comes within their range, probably using mechanoreceptors. The 
developing compound eye of Toxorhynchites is not functional as a visual 
organ in the development period except in the late pupal stage. The larvae 
normally rest on the surface at an angle of about 45° (earlier instars rest 
almost horizontally, resembling Anopheles). In smaller containers, larvae 
tend to rest at the edge of the water facing the centre. When ready to feed, 
the angle of the body moves to a more horizontal position. When the prey 
approaches within striking distance, the predator strikes laterally and 
grasps the prey with the mandibles. The modified prehensile mouth brushes 
are apparently essential to the proper functioning of the mandibles. 
Capture of the prey can occur either on the surface or at the bottom of the 
container. The prey is generally consumed within minutes. 

Feeding behaviour can be adjusted in response to low prey densities. 
Fourth instar larvae of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald slow their 
metabolism and feeding in response to food scarcity. It has also been 
shown that after a period of starvation, fourth-instar larvae resumed 
feeding at an initially low rate. Toxorhynchites larvae are cannibalistic in 
all instars and will even feed on their fellows in the presence of other prey. 

Resistance to starvation and to partial dessication are favourable 
attributes for predators that depend upon a capricious prey supply in 
habitats subject to water loss. Resistance to starvation has been demon- 
strated for a number of Toxorhynchites. The fourth instar larva is the most 
resistant stage. Fourth instar T. brevipalpis have been kept out or water in a 
damp atmosphere for three to four weeks without food; they developed 
normally when returned to water with a supply of prey. Another fourth 
instar larva was held in a small vial with sludge from the bottom of a tree 
hole for ten weeks. The sludge gradually formed a firm cake 12mm thick. 
The larva survived in a crack in the sludge, where it noticably shrunk in 
size. After ten weeks, water and prey were added and the larva developed 
normally. The ability of mature larvae to withstand withdrawal of both 
food and water for extended periods of time undoubtedly permits 
Toxorhynchites io exist through long dry spells. 

Larvae have no legs, or pseudopods, but they swim by lashing the 
abdomen from side to side, a movement from which their common name 
of "wrigglers" was derived. The ventral brush, a dense row of long stiff 
hairs well braced at their bases to prevent them bending from side to side, 
serves as a paddle. The long hairs of the body, which are so useful 
taxonomically, may also be sensory in function. Although respiration in 
minute larvae is mainly through the skin, older larvae of all species respire 
through a pair of openings or spiracles, on the dorsum of abdominal 
segment viii. In the subfamily Anophelinae the spiracles are flush with the 



76 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 



surface, but in all other mosquitoes they are elevated at the apex of a 
conical siphon. The body of the larva is slightly heavier than water so that it 
sinks slowly towards the bottom and the larva must jerk its abdomen from 
side to side to rise. It can hang suspended from the surface film by opening 
the little pointed plates (valves) at the tip of its siphon which forms a tiny 
star but which close over the spiracles when the larva sinks. Anopheline 
larvae have star-shaped hairs along the back which also serve to hold them 
up when resting at the surface. Culicine larvae always rest at the surface 
with the body hanging down at an angle but Anopheline larvae rest parallel 
with the surface. One of the oldest control methods still widely used is to 
disrupt the surface tension with an oily substance in an attempt to 
asphyxiate the larvae. 

The larvae of the genera Mansonia and Coquillettidia differ from those 
of other Southern African species by their siphons which are highly 
modified for piercing plant -tissues. The siphon is very short and the 
anterior valves are small and each bears a stout curved bristle, while the 
posterior pair are greatly enlarged (as long as the siphon itself), and fused 
together to form a sheath for a comphcated internal apparatus which 
includes a strongly sclerotized saw. The larvae are all very sluggish, and 
swim with a peculiar slow wriggling motion. Their habit of attaching them- 
selves by means of the valves of the siphon to the stems or leaves of aquatic 
plants and obtaining oxygen from the tissues of the plants is well known. 
Although thus dependent on plants for oxygen, they are, in emergency, 
capable of breathing air from the surface like other mosquito larvae, but 
only do this when disturbed and unable at once to obtain a new siphon 
hold. 

Osmoregulation takes place in the rectal wall in two pairs of conical anal 
papillae that project from it. These papillae have often been referred to as 
"gills", but they apparently have no respiratory function. The papillae are 
greatly reduced in size in all the species living in water that has a high 
content of dissolved salts, such as coastal salt marshes or inland salt pans. 

After the fourth moult the larva changes into a comma-shaped pupa. 
The "head" of the pupa is really the combined head and thorax and the 
curved portion is the abdomen. Unlike the larva, the pupa is lighter than 
water and rises to the surface as soon as it stops swimming. Instead of 
having spiracles at the hind end of the abdomen at the tip of a respiratory 
siphon, the pupa has two breathing trumpets on the back of its thorax, so 
that as it rises to the surface, these automatically pierce the surface film and 
the little creature can breathe. The breathing trumpets of Culicine pupae 
are usually long and narrow from the side view, while those of Anopheline 
pupae are short and broad. The trumpets of the genera Mansonia and 
Coquillettidia, as in the larva, are modified to be inserted into the rootlets 
of aquatic plants from which the pupa derives its air supply. 

The pupae of most insects are inactive but mosquito pupae can swim 
rapidly downward and backward, as does a lobster, by scooping water with 



MOSQUITOES AND DISEASE 



77 



a pair of paddle-like flanges at the tip of its abdomen. Unless it can anchor 
itself on the bottom beneath or among vegetation, it gradually bobs to the 
surface again. When at rest, the pupae remain motionless, floating at the 
surface. By this behaviour, the pupae of mosquitoes can be distinguished 
from most of the pupae of Chironomidae and Chaeboridae, which 
resemble those of mosquitoes but remain suspended below the surface until 
the adult is about to emerge. 

The pupal stage may last only a few hours in the case of those species that 
breed in rain pools liable to dry up quickly, while in other cases it may last 
two days to a week or more. As in most other aquatic Diptera, the adults 
emerge rapidly from the floating pupae through a longitudinal slit in the 
back of the thorax into the air. The surface tension of the water prevents 
the adult from getting wet as it rests on the surface before flying off. 




Fig. 1. Aedes (Steggomyia) aegypti female, a cosmopolitan tree-hole breeding species. 
The adult mosquito, especially the female, needs no introduction. No 
other fly has a long slender densely scaled proboscis as long as the thorax, 
long slender 15-segmented antennae and densely scaled wing veins. The 
female's proboscis consists of an elongated lower lip which is deeply 
grooved along the top. Six slender stylets lie in the groove and are the 
weapons by means of which she pierces the skin of her victim and sucks the 
blood. The stylets are the highly modified mandibles, the hypopharynx and 
labrum. The comparatively thick lower lip, or labium, which constitutes 



78 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

the bulk of the proboscis, does not enter the wound; it is bent back out of 
the way as the stylets are thrust deeper and deeper into the flesh. Saliva is 
injected into the wound along a very fine narrow channel in the 
hypopharynx and this sets up irritation and produces a little local 
inflammation that draws a plentiful blood supply to the spot; it is also the 
means by which disease organisms are introduced by those mosquitoes that 
transmit malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and filariasis. 

The male mosquito usually has long tufted palpi. The antennae of the 
male usually have many more and longer hairs than those of the female. 
These setae are believed to serve as sound receptors, which respond to the 
frequency of the female's wingbeat before mating. Males usually emerge a 
day or two before females, and they soon assemble, sometimes in 
hundreds, at sunset and sunrise, in a characteristic hovering flight called 
the "mating swarm". In spite of some early controversy, it is now a well- 
established fact, not only for mosquitoes but for many other Diptera, that 
the "swarm" is a device for assembling the sexes and that mating takes 
place after a female enters the swarm. Females need to mate only once, 
early in their lives, whereas males presumably continue swarming for the 
rest of their lives. Therefore, mating is observed usually only during the 
first few days after emergence. 

Before swarming, the long hairs of the males' antennae, which are 
arranged in whorls, are erected by internal blood pressure. In this state, the 
antennae are sensitive to the frequency of the female's wing-beat and 
presumably they begin to vibrate when she approaches. The frequencies 
may differ among species, which may assist in specific recognition. The 
location of the swarm in relation to surrounding landmarks is important in 
maintaining conspecific mating. The female must be attracted to the 
swarming site by the same visual cues that brings the males to the site, 
because unlike the male she appears to be insensitive to sounds. 
Undoubtedly, pheromones play an essential role as soon as the sexes are 
within close range of one another. 

After mating, which usually takes place within a day or so of emergence, 
the female begins to seek a blood meal. In the search the female may travel 
several kilometres. Some species have been shown to disperse for great 
distances, even 300-500km. Like the male, the female must also seek a 
carbohydrate meal at regular intervals, but the blood meal is required to 
initiate and develop each batch of eggs. Carbon dioxide plays an important 
role in long range attraction of a blood-seeking mosquito, and the female 
flies toward increasing concentrations of it. At close range, the female 
mosquito begins to detect heat if the victim is warm-blooded, and finally 
she sees the host. The host odour also may be involved in the attraction, 
but its role is controversial. After the female lands, she may probe the skin 
a few times, probably searching for a capillary. Only the central stylets, the 
labrum, the two long hair-like mandibles, the two maxillary blades, and the 



MOSQUITOES AND DISEASE 79 

single median hypopharynx are inserted into the skin; the trough- 
like supporting labium remains outside. The tips of the mandibles 
are needle sharp and are driven into the tissue, followed by the maxillae, 
whose saw-toothed apices serve to anchor the proboscis, for 
another deeper thrust. Engorgement usually takes only a few minutes, 
during which she may imbibe her own weight of blood. A few species may 
even triple their weight. While the blood is digesting and the first batch of 
eggs is developing, the female remains inactive, but soon she must seek a 
suitable place to deposit her eggs. In the selection of an oviposition site she 
may be guided by an attractant left behind by the developing immature 
stages of her own species. After oviposition, the female immediately begins 
to search for a second blood meal; she may complete several such cycles in 
her lifetime. As many as ten ovarian cycles per female have been recorded 
in the southern United States of America. 

Oviposition behaviour of female Toxorhynchites is one of the key 
aspects of their biology. Unlike many other insect predators, 
Toxorhynchites cannot search for a suitable prey patch but is committed 
for pre-adult life to the oviposition site selected by the female. Eggs are 
ejected or dropped in flight following an apparently characteristic ritual. 
The female flies in a vertically orientated elliptical loop that becomes 
progressively smaller as she nears the oviposition site. A single egg is 
forcibly ejected on the downward flight. The female then repeats the 
pattern or departs. She generally deposits several eggs before leaving the 
oviposition site. Most observations of oviposition have been in the late 
afternoon. Aerial oviposition by Toxorhynchites has several advantages. It 
allows oviposition in obstructed container habitats where the female could 
not have easy access to the water surface, eg obstructed tree holes and 
bored bamboo. It may also reduce Hkelihood of capture by predators, 
especially spiders, which frequently congregate around tree holes. Habitat 
selection appears to be by visual cues modified by hygrosensory responses 
to the presence of water vapour. 

The females of the genus Mansonia show remarkable egg-laying 
behaviour. The insect sits near the edge of a leaf of some water plant 
(usually Pistia) with her fore and mid legs on the water and the hind legs on 
the leaf. She then dips her abdomen into the water and by flexion the tip of 
the abdomen is applied to the lower side of the leaf. In that position the 
wings which are folded up, rest on the upper side of the leaf and the edge is 
wedged in between the wing and the abdomen which is almost entirely 
submerged in the water. The eggs are then extruded one by one and the 
base of the egg, as it emerges from the abdomen, is fixed on the leaf. 

In addition to imbibing water frequently, both sexes of all species 
probably feed regularly on nectar. Males feed only on nectar. A 
carbohydrate food source is important in prolonging life, although it is 
apparently not necessary for development of the first batch of eggs of some 
species. The species that do not require a blood meal in order to mature 



80 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

eggs are called autogenous. Many workers have observed mosquitoes 
feeding at flowers of various species. 

Females of most Southern African species require a blood meal in 
addition to a carbohydrate meal in order to develop a sizeable batch of 
eggs; these females are called anautogenous. Unhke the carbohydrate meal, 
which passes into the crop, the blood meal is pumped directly into the 
midgut where it is enclosed in a transparent sheath of thin cuticle, the 
peritrophic membrane. Distension of the gut wall helps initiate the produc- 
tion of hormones that stimulate egg development, which proceeds as the 
blood is digested and assimilated. Digestion may be completed in 24-36 
hours at 25°C, 4-5 days at 15°C and about 15 days at 10°C. Egg develop- 
ment takes somewhat longer. After the first batch of eggs has been laid, the 
female may again seek blood to repeat the process. 

Unhke black flies (Simuliidae), which are usually rather specific as to the 
host animal they feed on, and the environment that the animal is in, 
mosquitoes, especially Aedes, seem to be much less particular. For 
example, it has been found that females of Aedes sudanensis Theobald and 
Aedes lucianus Muspratt were both attracted to man, monkey and fowl. 
Culex theileri Theobald also feeds readily on mammals and birds. 

The importance of anophehne mosquitoes in the warmer parts of the 
world stems primarily from their role as vectors of malaria. However, in 
tropical Africa both Anopheles gambiae Giles and A. funestus Giles have 
also been shown to play a major part in the transmission of bancroftial 
filariasis under rural conditions. Moreover, research at the Virus Research 
Institute at Entebbe, Uganda, into the explosive outbreaks of o'nyong- 
nyong fever in East Africa has revealed the unexpected finding that A. 
funestus and to a lesser extent A. gambiae were the sole vectors concerned. 
This was the first example to be discovered of an anopheline-transmitted 
virus, and its existence is unquestionably of great importance in relation to 
the possible development of new strains of pathogenic viruses. Mcintosh 
(1975) reported the isolation of Rift Valley fever virus from Anopheles 
coustani Laveran during an epizootic of this disease among cattle in 
Zimbabwe. 

As regards malaria, it was formerly thought that many species of African 
Anopheles played a local or minor part in malaria transmission. However, 
experience of house-spraying under a variety of conditions has tended to 
show that if the main vectors are controlled, the remaining man-biting 
species are unable to maintain transmission by themselves. Consequently, 
Gillies and De Meillon (1968) regarded most of the species that are 
occasionally found with infected salivary glands as "accidental" or, better, 
as "incidental" vectors and of doubtful public health importance. At the 
same time, it is seldom possible to be certain that the sporozoites found are 
of human species of Plasmodium, so that the significance of finding 
infected specimens may be even less. In accordance with this, the 
classification of vectors given below (modified from Gillies & De Meillon, 



MOSQUITOES AND DISEASE 



81 







SECONDARY OR 


MAIN VECTORS 


INCIDENTAL VECTORS 


General 


Localized 




A. gambiae Giles 


A. nili (Theobald) 


A. coustani Laveran 


A. arabiensis Patton 
A. funestus Giles 


A. merus Donitz 


A . ziemanni Griinberg 
A. brunnipes (Theobald) 
A. flavicosta Edwards 
A. marshallii (Theobald) 
A. wellcomei Theobald 
A. pretoriensis (Theobald) 
A. rufipes (Gough) 
A . pharoensis Theobald 
A. squamosus Theobald 



1968) is considered to be valid under present conditions in which 
hyperendemic malaria is still widespread in certain parts of Southern 
Africa. The incidental vectors are thus regarded as virtually of no 
importance to those engaged in control or eradication schemes. 

This is a contempory view, of course, and it may be that, at some later 
date when malaria transmitted by the main vectors has been controlled, 
some degree of low-grade transmission by non-domestic species may still 
occur in certain areas. Or it may be that malaria will persist among certain 
sections of the community who, on account of their occupation, are 
exposed to outside biting species. Should this occur, it will then become 
necessary to revise our ideas on the importance of incidental vectors. 

Although members of the genus Anopheles are the only vectors of 
human malaria, several species of malaria of birds are transmitted by 
culicine mosquitoes. These diseases may play a decisive role in regulating 
populations of wild birds, although to date they have not threatened 
domestic birds. 

Of the nearly one hundred and seventy species of Southern African 
culicine mosquitoes, the largest majority are innocuous to man; most of 
them suck human blood only occasionally, if at all, and many are either so 
rare as to be of no account, or so rural and retiring in habits that they 
cannot be regarded as pests. Culicine mosquitoes are most important for 
the role they play in the transmitting of arboviruses (or arthropod-borne 
viruses). 

Mcintosh (1975) reviewed the available information on the role of 
mosquitoes as vectors of arboviruses in Southern Africa. Twenty-two 
viruses, beheved to be mosquito-borne, have been isolated in Southern 
Africa and among these are nine viruses, Sindbis, Chikungunya, Banzi, 
Wesselsbron, Spondweni, West Nile, Germiston, Bunyamwera and Rift 
Valley fever, known to cause disease in man. Wesselsbron and Rift Valley 



82 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

fever viruses also cause disease in cattle and sheep. The known fauna of 
Southern Africa consists of 220 species of mosquito distributed among 13 
genera. Of these 21 species have been implicated as vectors by isolation of 
virus from collections made in Southern Africa and ten by experimental 
transmission. Species found most frequently infected in nature are among 
the culicine genera Mansonia, Aedes and Culex and include Mansonia 
africana (Theobald) (nine isolations), Aedes caballus (Theobald) (35), 
Aedes pembaensis Theobald (13), Aedes circumluteolus (Theobald) (88), 
Aedes lineatopennis (Ludlow) (20), Culex theileri Theobald (12), Culex 
univittatus T\\Qobdi\d {^\), Cw/ex^eave/ Theobald (12). (Mcintosh, 1975.) 

Mcintosh (1975) makes the supposition that under prevailing climatic 
conditions in Southern Africa Aedes species are important as incidental 
vectors because they survive arid periods in the egg stage whereas 
maintenance vectors are likely to be found among Culex species, and 
possibly other genera, in which species pass through unfavourable periods 
as diapausing or quiescent adults, since among mosquitoes the adult is the 
only Hfe stage known to be involved in viral transmission. There is strong 
evidence that Culex univittatus maintains Sindbis and West Nile viruses 
among wild birds. 

In recent years attempts have been made to find an effective biological 
control of nuisance and vector mosquito populations. The use of 
Toxorhynchites as potential biological control agents was suggested by 
several entomologists. Colledge's (1911) tongue-in-cheek remarks on the 
economic aspects of their use could well be appropriate today: 

"But in the Toxorhynchites we believe we have a vegetarian which does 

no harm to any human being, and is at the same time a deadly foe to the 

young of other kinds of the genus (family). If can be hired on very 

reasonable terms. Its working hours are not limited and it is unlikely to 

go on strike." 

Early attempts to introduce Toxorhynchites for biological control of pest 

or vector mosquito populations were reviewed by Steffan (1975) and were 

generally not considered effective, especially in terms of keeping pest 

populations below an effective sanitary threshold. 

More recent attempts have demonstrated that Toxorhynchites can be 
effective biological control agents (see Steffan & Evenhuis, 1981). In any 
successful biological control programme, the biologies of both the 
biological control agent and the target species need to be thoroughly 
understood. 

In the United States of America, extensive research has shown the 
infection of mosquitoes with nematode parasites of the family Mermithidae 
may offer a highly effective form of control. The nematodes parasitize 
larvae of tree-hole breeding species of Aedes and Culex. The adult 
nematodes or eggs can lie dormant for long periods. The immature 
nematodes enter the mosquito larvae via the cuticle and develop in the 



MOSQUITOES AND DISEASE 83 

haemocoele.The host larvae may remain alive for two or three times the 
length of the normal larval span. When the immature mermithids finally 
emerge it is usually via the anal segment causing death of the host. 

The research programme in the USA has already progressed to the stage 
of commercial distribution of the infective stage of the mermithid 
Romanomermis culicivorax, and the initial indications are that control 
under field conditions is highly successful. This programme has been 
described as the present pinnacle of biocontrol achievement in medical 
entomology. The success of R. culicivorax has been attributed to the 
readiness with which it establishes itseslf in new habitats and persists for 
generation after generation. 

With the success of the research programme in the USA it is believed that 
more attention should be given to the use of nematode parasites as a means 
of controlling problem mosquitoes in Southern Africa (see Hewitt & Kok, 
1979). 

References 

Colledge, W.R. 1911. Notes on a brush-tongued mosquito. Roc. R. Soc. Queens- 
land 23: 121-130. 

Edwards, F.W. 1941. Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian Region. III. Culicine adults and 
pupae. British Museum (Natural History), London. 499 pp., illus., 4 pis. 

Evans, A.M. 1938. Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian Region. II. Anopheline adults and 
early stages. British Museum (Natural History), London. 404 pp., illus. 

Gillies, M.T. & De Meillon, B. 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa south of the 
Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region). Publ. S. Afr. Inst. Med. Res., 
No. 54. 

Hewitt, P.H. & Koj, D.J. 1979. Parasitization of Aedes mosquitoes in the western 

Orange Free State by a mermithid nematode. J. ent. Soc. sth. Afr., 42(1): 51-54. 

Hopkins, G.H.E. 1952. Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian Region. I. Larval bionomics 
of mosquitoes and taxonomy of culicine larvae. British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), London. 2nd edition. 

Mcintosh, B.N. 1975. Mosquitoes as vectors of viruses in Southern Africa. Ento- 
mology Mem. Dep. agric. Tech. Serv. Repub. S. Africa, 43, 19pp. 

Steffan, W.A. 1975. Systematics and biological control potential of Toxorhyn- 
chites. Mosq. Syst., 7: 59-67. 

Steffan, W.A. & Evenhuis, N.L. 1981. Biology of Toxorhynchites. Ann. Rev. 
Entomol. 26: 159-181. 



Hazards of Butterfly Collecting — Oman, May 1981. 

IN EARLY May 1981 I was prospecting the Wadi bani Kharus Valley in the 
green moutains of Oman, the Jabal Akhdar. The most interesting of my 
findings was that an enormous build-up in the population of the well 
known migrant Caper White (Anaphaeis aurota) was under way. All 
Maerua trees in the valley's central part were stripped, and a couple of 
hours of very hot work revealed that one tree contained 1800 pupae (all of 
which turned out to be parasite free), and since there were many that I 



84 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

could not reach the tree must have contained at least 2500 pupae. It could 
be safely estimated that at least half a million individuals would have 
hatched in this part of the wadi system over the next ten days. Doubtless 
such a mass hatching and the complete absence of food plants would have 
led to a migration of massive dimensions since the situation in neigh- 
bouring wadis was similar. 

I had started out early, to avoid the worst heat of the day, but the 
sampling programme extended over the whole day. I was both tired and 
pleased when I settled in behind the steering wheel of my Land Rover (from 
the Royal Stables, no less). Rostaq and the first proper dinner for days was 
only about 35 km away. Wadi bashing is the local term for taking cars up 
and down the river beds of Oman and it is a fitting term. It needs both 
concentration and a fair amount of brute force. A few kilometres down the 
wadi my eyes began smarting a bit. Then vision became blurred, with 
occasional near total loss. It became almost impossible to see or to drive. A 
sense of pure panic set in. I was actually going blind! It was one of the most 
uncomfortable moments of my life. Mercifully, the real explanation hit me 
after the first wave of panic had receded. Despite the locale, I had 
contracted snow-blindness {keratoconjunctivitis nivalis) through working 
among the light grey rocks and hillsides in blazing sun for nearly twelve 
hours without let. Panic turned to relief. 

The remaining 30 km back to Rostaq were most unpleasant, but at least a 
tarmac road was both easier than a wadi, and the colour contrast between 
tarmac and desert was occasionally discernable. Fortunately there was 
virtually no traffic. I abandoned the car at the outskirts of Rostaq and 
walked a short-cut to my house. By now vision had all but disappeared. 
Dinner was prepared solely by touch. Fortunately the chicken had already 
been gutted, but it was still not exactly a gourmet meal. 

The next two days I could not see well enough to do anything serious. 
The third day I went back to Muscat with vision still impaired. I found a 
pair of sunglasses in Rostaq, not smart, but better than none. I now carry a 
pair of rather smarter sunglasses. I do not hke to use them, normally, but I 
never wish to be in this situation again. — Torben B. Larsen, 358 
Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

Hadena compta D. & S. and Spodoptera exigua Hiibn. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 
in North Worcestershire. 

I would like to record a single example of a female Hadena compta D. & S. 
at my light trap in Blackwell, North Worcestershire (SO 995 724) on the 
night of 6.vii.l988 — I believe this is a new County record for this species, 
which appears to be rapidly spreading northwards. 

On the morning of 22 October 1988 I was pleased to find a single male 
specimen of the immigrant species Spodoptera exigua Hiibn., also in my 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 85 

Blackwell trap. Otherwise, it had been a poor night for moths — the only 
other notable capture being Thera juniperata L. which is a well established 
autumn moth in the garden. — M.D. Bryan, Keeper of Natural History, 
Birmingham Museum. 

A late or second brood Cynaeda dentalis D. & S. (Lep.: Pyralidae). 

Whilst running my m.v. light on the east cliff at Portland, Dorset on 8 
September 1988, I was surprised to note no less than six males of Cynaeda 
dentalis. Perhaps this suggests a second generation of this species in 1988 — 
and an interesting confirmation of the observations of E.G. Smith {Ent. 
Rec. 101: 36). — R. Darlow, Fairfield Road, Blandford, Dorset DTU 
7BZ. 

Migration of Cynthia virginiensis Drury (Lep.: Nymphalidae). 

W.J. Tennent's interesting note and query 100: 249) concerning the 
sighting of a specimen of this butterfly at sea 28°45'N/75°41'W is I believe 
readily answered. The species is common in the Atlantic seaboard states of 
Florida, Georgia and the Carolinas where it is a well-known migrant, and 
doubtless it is from there that the butterfly set out across the ocean. On the 
other hand I can find no record of virginiensis for the Bahamas, although it 
may well be a very rare and casual migrant to those islands. Unlike Vanessa 
atalanta L. and Cynthia cardui L. which also have migratory tendencies, 
virginiensis has a widespread distribution in South America, and it has been 
recorded on a number of occasions on the islands of Tristan da Cunha, two 
thousand miles from the coast of Brazil and even further from Uruguay or 
the Argentine. 

Of the other two species mentioned above V. atalanta although recorded 
from Bermuda, Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola appears not to have been 
noted in the Bahamas, while C. cardui has been seen, usually as a vagrant, 
on many islands of the West Indies, yet I know of only one definite record 
for the Bahamas, a specimen I caught on New Providence Island, 
24. xi. 1945. — B.K. West, 36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent. 

Thera cupressata Gey. (Lep.: Geometridae) in the Channel Islands — an 
update. 

Since this species was first noted in my garden in October 1985 {Ent. Rec. 
98: 217-218) it has been seen there every year, the numbers gradually 
increasing until this year a total of twelve specimens were noted, six in July 
and six in October. As reported by Peet {Ent. Rec. 99: 131) larvae (and a 
pupa) were beaten from large Cupressus macrocarpa in the garden in 
August 1986 and have also been found in subsequent years. The adult moth 
has now been taken in Alderney {Ent. Rec. 99: 131) and at two further sites 
in Guernsey and also, I believe, in Jersey. 



86 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

Although it is not a known migrant Pratt has reported that the first 
specimen known to have been taken in mainland Britain was accompanied 
by migrants {Ent. Rec. 100: 180). The second mainland specimen recorded 
by Brown {Ent. Rec. 101: 24) was also associated with an immigration. 
Migration could be the reason for its sudden appearance and establishment 
in Guernsey where most of the common migrants are well known and 
which is only 15 miles from the French coast, but could it have been 
imported? 

Enquiries made by my wife at a local nursery have revealed that all the 
major nurseries on the island import conifers from a distributor in Holland 
who in turn receives trees from "all over Europe" but in particular from 
France, Belgium and Holland itself. This practice began just before the 
moth was first noted here, before then trees were imported from England. I 
had hoped that this was the answer but unfortunately further enquiries 
discovered that the English supplier also obtained trees from the same 
Dutch source, so if importation had been the reason for the appearance of 
the moth here then perhaps by now further specimens would have been 
seen on the mainland, unless of course the milder climate of the Channel 
Islands has allowed it to survive only here. — P.D.M. Costen, La 
Broderie, Route de la Claire Mare, St. Peters, Guernsey. 

Heliothis armigera Hiibn. and Lithophane leauderi hesp erica Bours. (Lep.: 
Noctuidae) in Cambridgeshire. 

I would like to record the capture of a specimen of Heliothis armigera, the 
Scarce Bordered Straw, at Alconbury, Cambridgeshire, on 19/20 October 
1988, by Matthew Rowlings. This appears to be the first published County 
record for this species. 

On 1st October, Matthew also recorded a specimen of Lithophane 
leautieri, Blair's Shoulder-knot, at Somersham, Cambs, with a further 
eight over the next few days. Although this month was first noted in 
Cambridgeshire in 1983 by Majerus {Ent. Rec. 97:30-31), these records 
would strongly suggest this species in established and breeding in 
Cambridge. — B. Dickerson, 27 Andrew Road, Eynesbury, Huntingdon, 
Cambs. 

Some odd, early records of Lepidoptera in Wales. 

In response to the exceptionally mild climatic conditions in November and 
December 1988, it became clear that a few individuals of some moth species 
had really been fooled into believing that Spring had arrived very early, or 
perhaps that Summer had not yet gone away. 

Amongst the firm believers in an early Spring were specimens of the 
Dotted Border, Agriopis marginaria Fab. on 29.xii.88 and 30.xii.88, and 
the Spring Usher, Agriopis leucophaearia D. & S. on 28.xii.88 and l.i.89. 
In the same category, but even less likely was a single specimen of a female 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 87 

Early Thorn, Selenia dentaria Fab. captured on 30.12.88. Its large size 
suggested that it was a potential first brood insect. All of these specimens 
were taken by myself at Tregaron in a Rothamsted Trap. 

Even less seasonal were the seekers of the late Summer sun. A fine 
specimen of the Hebrew Character, Orthosia gothica L. appeared in the 
trap at Tregaron on 5.xi.88, and another specimen was taken at light by 
Peter Holmes at Salem, near Penrhyncoch, Aberystwyth on 11th 
November. On 6th November Peter also captured a single specimen of the 
Dark Arches, Apamea monoglypha Hufn. at the same locality. — 
I.J.L. TiLLOTSON, Chief Warden, Tyloed, Tregaron, Dyfed SY25 6JF. 

Painted Ladies {Cynthia cardui L.) eaten by a bee-eater aboard ship at sea. 

On the morning of 15th April 1988, Captain E.A. Jones, master of the 
M.V. British Steel, and his crew were in for a surprise. Off Cap Finisterre 
on the French coast and sailing towards Land's End they suddenly found 
themselves in a swarm of several dozen butterflies and two or three species 
of moth. An excellent drawing from the ship's log (kindly sent to me by 
Captain L. Coombs of the Meteorological Office, Bracknell) clearly shows 
the butterflies to have been Painted Ladies {Cynthia cardui Linnaeus), 
while the moths must remain unidentified. 

The arrival of so many butterflies aboard ship was clearly unexpected by 
Captain Jones, though there are other such records in the literature. The 
log expresses special surprise that the swarm should have arrived since there 
had been southeasterly winds only of force 4, "nothing exceptional". To 
the "delight and entertainment of the crew" a bee-eater {Merops apiaster) 
also turned up on board and promptly began to catch and eat the Painted 
Ladies. A shrike and a siskin-like bird also arrived on board. 

The observations are particularly interesting since the date coincides well 
with several observations of migrating Painted Ladies in the Mediterranean 
area and with the sudden arrival of Painted Ladies in southern Ireland, 
exceptionally early in the season. The major spring invasion of Painted 
Ladies into southern England took place only in May. When more data 
have been gathered and the meteorological data studied it is my intention to 
try to link all the information in a summary article. — Torben B. Larsen, 
358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

Mythimna l-album (L,) (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Kent. 

A specimen of the L-album Wainscot, Mythimna l-album, was taken on 20 
September 1987 in an m.v. trap operated by my brother, John Owen, in the 
garden of Eastbridge House, Dymchurch, Kent. J.M. Chalmers-Hunt 
{in lift.) thinks this is the second record for Kent, the first being on 
9 September 1934 at Dungeness. — D.F. Owen, 2 Shelford Place, 
Headington, Oxford. 



88 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

Records of three species of Colon (Col.: Catopidae). 

C. zebei Kr.: I possess an example of this species from the duplicate-boxes 
of my late friend G.H. Ashe, who seemingly had not identified it. It is 
labelled "The Birks, Nethy Bridge, rotten birch, 14.vii.54". Not only is 
such a habitat most unusual for a Colon but C. zebei, rare and little 
recorded hke most of the genus, appears extremely so in Scotland and to be 
hitherto unknown from Strathspey; Fowler (1889, Col. Brit. Isl. 3: 69) 
under C. dentipes v. zebei, gives one Scottish record "Balmuto, Fifeshire 
(Power)". I took the species very sparingly on Otford Downs, West Kent, 
in May and June 1950, by evening sweeping, with the more common C. 
brunneum Latr. From others which it resembles, zebei is readily separable 
by the character upon which D.K. Kevan (1946, Ent. mon. Mag. 82: 256) 
lays stress: namely that of having the elytral side-borders, in dorsal view, 
finely visible from base to middle. 

C latum Kr.: a more distinctive species of which I had the pleasure of 
securing a fine male by sieving moss in a very small shaded area in 
Wychwood Forest, Oxon (15.iv.54), while in the company of the late R.W. 
Lloyd, who had obtained three or four at the spot within the previous 
fortnight. It was the only Colon encountered by either of us in an 
afternoon's work. I cannot say whether there is already an Oxfordshire 
record of C latum; but since Lloyd seems never to have published his find, 
it may be as well to remedy the omission. 

C rufescens Kr.: decidedly the rarest of all our species, taken in very 
small numbers by G.C. Champion in the latter part of last century at two 
Surrey localities on the North Downs, Caterham and Guildford. It is, 
however, not generally known that the species has occurred in the present 
century in a second county, Dr N.H. Joy having captured a "fine male" at 
P. Harwood's special Colon and Leiodes site — a chalk hillside — at 
Burghclere near Whitchurch, N. Hants, 21.vi.l0 (1910, Ent. mon. Mag. 
46: 267). The record is very liable to be overlooked, since it is given no 
prominence and C rufescens is omitted from the index to that volume 
(being covered by an "&c."). Both Joy and Harwood doubtless revisited 
the site a number of times in the following year and may have taken further 
specimens. — A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, 
London SET 8QG. 

Atheta standiella Brundin (Col. Staphylinidae) in Norfolk, East Inverness, 
Wester Ross and Shetland. 

A. strandiella was added to the British list by Hammond & Bacchus (1971 
Entomologist's mon. Mag. 107: 153) on the strength of a single male 
collected by Mr M.E. Bacchus in carrion on the Isle of Foula, Shetland in 
July 1963. At the time, no other examples could be found in the collections 
at the British Museum. 

I have been unable to find any other published records of the species in 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 89 

Britain and, having come across the species on a number of occasions, 
thought that I should place these on records. The data on my captures are:- 

Birrafirth, Shetland 26.vi.76 — two males in flood debris at sea level. 

Yell, Shetland 28.vi.76 — one male in sheep dung at sea level. 

Catfield, Norfolk ix.79 — one male in fen litter at sea level. 

Loch Garten, East Inverness vii.79 — one female in carrion; v. 80 one male in 

fruit trap; ix.85 one male in pitfall trap; 30.x. 85 one male in carrion trap; all at 

250 m. 
The Saddle, Wester Ross 18.vii.88 — three males in moss, altitude uncertain, 

though probably about 1000 m. 

Though it has rarely been found, these records indicate that A. strandielia 
is widespread in Britain. Elsewhere it has been recorded from throughout 
Scandinavia and in much of Central Europe. 

Apart from indications that it tends to occur in damp situations, there is 
little information to suggest a habitat preference for the species. Brundin 
(1953, Norsk, ent. Tidsskr. 9: 1) recorded the species from sphagnum, at 
dead fish lying on spagnum and from a birch stump oozing sap. Palm (1970 
in Svensk Insektfauna 9 Coleoptera Fam. Staphylinidae pt 6, p 238) refers 
to its occurrence in damp habitats such as sphagnum, adding that it has 
also been taken in dead fish left as bait and in hen and pigeon dung. He 
refers also to its unusual occurrence in Norway in horse dung on dry 
ground. Lohse (1974, in Die Kafer Mitteleuropas ed H. Freude, K.W. 
Harde and G.A. Lohse vol 5, 206) similarly refers to its occurrence in damp 
situations mentioning specifically sphagnum. 

I thank Mr P. Hammond for confirming the identity of one of the 
specimens from Shetland and one from Loch Garten. — J. A. Owen, 
8 Kingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KT17 3PU. 

A hardy Hofmannophila and a beetle. 

In February 1988 I embarked upon a long-overdue clearout of my garage 
— an internally dishevelled domestic space which, for all its fauhs is at least 
frost-free. Amongst the detritus was a half-empty packet of slug pellets of 
the highly compressed and blue-coloured variety. At the bottom of the 
packet were a number of lepidopterous cocoons made from half-eaten 
pellets spun together with silk. A considerable volume of frass, most of it 
blue in colour attested to the diet of the larvae. 

Eight cocoons were removed and placed in a closed plastic box. In early 
April two very large female Hofmannophila pseudospretella Staint. 
emerged (all the remaining pupae died without forming up). It is interesting 
that the larvae managed to feed up on a diet, presumably based on 
compressed bran, which contained a high concentration of metaldehyde, a 
nominal poison, ahhough this may have contributed to the unusually high 
pupal mortality. I do not know if the blue colouration was simply a dye, or 
a copper-based compound. 



90 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

The eight cocoons, together with the dead pupae, remained in the closed 
plastic box until, on returning from hohday in late August 1988, 1 noticed a 
small beetle crawhng over the cocoons. This proved to be a male Ptinusfur 
L. (Col.: Ptinidae), a widely distributed and fairly common "food 
storage" species. Although I was unable to locate evidence of the early 
stages of this beetle, it must have emerged from the material in the box. 
Whether the larva fed on the slug pellets, or the remains of the 
Hofmannophila is unknown. 

My thanks to John Owen for identifying and commenting on the beetle. 

— Paul Sokoloff, 4 Steep Close, Orpington, Kent. 

Oxypoda longipes Muls. & Rey (Col.: Staphylinidae) in the London 
suburbs far from moles' nests. 

An Oxypoda found in my former garden at Blackheath at roots of grass 
close to a fence (v. 73), and assumed at the time to be the common O. 
lividipennis Mann., proved later to be a male of the above-named species 

— a far more surprising capture. O. longipes, once extremely rare, has 
since been found to be widespread in moles' nests; but these animals have 
never, in my time, existed in the locality or indeed anywhere near it. 

There are two possibilities: either the beetle was a stray, accidently 
transported from much farther out of London; or the species is not 
exclusively attached to moles' nests. Of these, the latter on the whole seems 
the likeher. — A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London 
SE7 8QG. 

Morophaga choragella D. & S. (Lep.: Tineidae) in Buckinghamshire and 
Northamptonshire. 

I believe that Morophaga choragella is considered to be a very local species 
in southern England. Because of this I was sorry that I recently hadto grub 
out a huge sycamore stump from my garden which had become seriously 
infected with honey fungus {Armillarea mella), a fungus dreaded by 
gardeners. Larvae of choragella had fed on the rotten wood and tree 
polypores of this stump, in large numbers, for the past few years. 

I have noted this species additionally in Buckinghamshire at Gussetts 
Wood, on 17.viii.l974, and also took a single specimen at light in Yardley 
Chase, Northamptonshire on 6.viii.l988. Volume 2 of Moths and 
butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland does not give Northamptonshire as 
a known locality, so perhaps this is a new County record? — G.E. Higgs, 
The Cottage, Willen, Milton Keynes, Bucks MK15 9AD. 



OBITUARY 

The Rev. Jack Vine Hall, 1912-1988. 

It is with great regret that we have to record the recent death of the Rev. 
Jack Vine Llall of Melmerby, Cumbria. Born in Wimbledon on 21 August 



OBITUARY 91 



1912 he was educated at St. Paul's School and King's College, London and 
attained the degree of B.D. He became a Deacon in 1936 and his first 
curacy was in St. Pancras, London. In 1938 he moved to Cumberland (as it 
then was) and remained in the CarHsle Diocese for the remainder of his Hfe. 
At an early age he became interested in natural history — an interest 
fostered by his father who also was interested in such matters. His first 
Living was at St. Peter's Church, Kells near Whitehaven and it was here 
that he first started collecting lepidoptera seriously and also studying the 
flora of the near-by Lake District. From Whitehaven he moved to Hutton 
Roof (then in Westmorland) 1952-1962, then to Threlkeld near Keswick, 
1962 until his retirement in 1977. He retired to the little village of 
Melmerby. In all these places he operated his mercury vapour trap, keeping 
meticulous records and forming a very good collection of the local 
heterocera (including the Pyralidae — but excluding the other so called 
microlepidoptera). 

During his residence in Cumbria he contributed numerous notes and 
articles to this journal and to the Entomologist's Gazette. All these 
publications revealed him as a competent field naturalist with ever a fresh 
view to bring forward and his work added greatly to our knowledge of the 
fauna and flora of the Lake District. He was keenly interested in the 
distribution and variation of our "good" species — Aricia agestis (now 
artaxerxes), Coenonympha tullia and the British Erebia species — epiphron 
and aethiops. He was particularly pleased to be associated with the 
Cumbria Trust for Nature Conservation (now Cumbria Wildlife Trust) in 
acquiring the Smardale Nature Reserve — one of two known colonies of 
Erebia aethiops in England. He was on the Trust committee for many years 
and gave much time to the Association of Natural History Societies in 
Cumbria which produces an annual Bird Report, but which includes 
considerable space to other apects of natural history. 

In his later years Jack did not do a lot of collecting but amassed a fine 
collection of photographs of butterflies, moths and flowers. 

Apart from natural history he was a keen student of classical music — 
both old and modern. Bela Bartok was one of his favourite composers 
though his tastes were catholic and most good music was to his Hking. He 
also kept up a keen and lifelong interest in theology. 

Much of Jack's collection of lepidoptera has gone to the British Museum 
(Natural History) where it will be of great interest as containing many 
northern forms of insects, an aspect of study in which he was very 
interested. 

He married in 1938 and had one son, Francis, and one daughter, 
Jennifer, who with his wife, Nora, survive him. 

To them we offer our sincere sympathy. He will be much missed also by 
many friends, entomologists and others, in this north-west corner of 
England. Neville Birkett. 



92 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.iii.l989 

The Dragonflies of Essex by Dr. E. Benton. 140 pp including three colour 
plates; Paperback. The Essex Field Club. 1988. £5.95. 
The stated aims of this booklet are to stimulate further interest in 
dragonflies and to communicate the results of a recent survey with a view to 
contributing to the conservation of these insects in Essex. 

Forty-four pages are given over to the current and past status of each of 
28 species and tetrad maps are included for 22 of them. A description of 
each species is given together with observations on behaviour and habitat 
requirements. Understandably, the "star" species for Essex, Lestes dryas 
and Coenagrion scitulum, receive generous treatment concerning the 
rediscovery of the former and brief recorded presence of the latter. A 
further nine species on the Essex list, for which there have been no records 
since 1903, are dealt with in an Appendix (3 pp). 

The various habitat types that occur within the county are covered and 
twenty sites are described in some detail. The text is supplemented by five 
tables indicating the species breeding at several types of habitat, the species 
recorded on each of 13 Essex rivers, and at each of a selection of 21 sites. 
Evidence of breeding is indicated where known. A further table gives 
separate lists for a selection of ten Epping Forest ponds, one of which has 
19 species recorded. 

The survey covered the period 1980-87 and details of its progress and the 
efforts made to obtain even coverage are given. The end result is illustrated 
by summary maps. 

There is an Appendix (17 pages) covering the history of dragonfly 
recording within the county. This includes some interesting background 
information on the personalities involved in bygone years enabling the 
reader to associate more closely with the names attached to historical 
records. A series of 10 km sq. maps indicates the progress in coverage since 
1903 and two tables show species recorded in eight consecutive periods, 
commencing before 1840. 

Unfortunately, the colour plates, which depict two species and a prime 
site, are not of the same quality as the cover photograph of Sympetrum 
sanguineum, but nor are they essential to the enjoyment of this book. An 
identification key is included, with drawings depicting critical features. It is 
aimed at local beginners and limited to the range of species that might be 
found in Essex today, including the rarities and Coenagrion scitulum. 

Other sections deal with natural history, suggestions for further work, 
and a table of recorded flight periods during the survey. The information 
contained in this booklet is of great value now, in highlighting conservation 
needs, and in the future as a benchmark against which our conservation 
efforts, and other factors affecting distribution, can be judged. 

An essential addition to the library of any naturalist living in or near 
Essex, it deserves a wider audience, and similar coverage of other counties 
would be most welcome. Harry Eve. 



Contents — continued 

White metathoracic crests in Eupithecia lariciata Freyer and E. tripunctaria H.-S. 

(Lep.:Geometridae).y4.M. /?/7ey 72 

Bryaxis puncticollis Denny (Col.: Pselaphidae) apparently new to Kent. 

A.A.Allen 72 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Oman, May 1981. .r.5. Larse« 83 

Hadena compta D. & S. and Spodoptera exigua (Hiibn.) (Lep.: Noctuidae) 

in North Worcestershire. M.D. Bryan 84 

A late or second brood Cynaeda dentalis D. & S. (Lep.: Pyralidae) R. Darlow . . 85 

Migration of Cynthia virginiensis Dvury (Lep.: Nymphalidae). B.K. West .... 85 
Thera cupressata Gey. (Lep.: Geometridae) in the Channel Islands — an update. 

P.D. Costen 85 

Heliothis armigera (Hiibn.) and Lithophane leautieri hesperica Bours. 

(Lep.: Noctuidae) in Cambridgeshire, fi. Z^/cAreA-i'OA? 86 

Some odd, early records of Lepidoptera in Wales. /.y.L. TVZ/o^i'ow 87 

Painted Ladies {Cynthia cardui L.) eaten by a bee-eater aboard ship at 

sea. T.B. Larsen 87 

Mythirnnal-alburn{h.),{LQp.:^OQi\\ida.€)inKQni. D.F. Owen . 87 

Records of three species of Co/o/7 (Col.: Catopidae). v4.y4. /l//e« 88 

Atheta standiella Brundin (Col.: Staphylinidae) in Norfolk, East Inverness and 

Wester Ross, Scotland. 7./4. Owen 88 

Ahardy Hofmannophila and abeetle. P. A. Sokoloff 89 

Oxypoda longipes Muls. & Rey (Col.: Staphylinidae) in the London suburbs, 

far from moles' nests. y4.y4. yl//e/7 90 

Morophaga choragella D. & S. (Lep.: Tineidae) in Buckinghamshire and 

Northamptonshire. G.E. Higgs 90 

Obituary:TheRev. Jack Vine Hall, 1912-1988 90 

Current Literature 92 

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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. Tutt on 15th April 1890) 



CONTENTS 

The Kentish Glory Moth, Endromis versicolor (L.) (Lep.: Endromidae), 

at Rannoch. M.i?. S/2«w 45 

Beetles and bugs on a Thames-side wallin autumn. v4.y4. /I //e/7 47 

Possible origin of the migratory Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae). 

D.F. Owen 49 

Haploglossa picipennis (Gyllenhall) (Col . : Staphylinidae) in Ospreys ' nests . 

J.A. Owen & S.Taylor 53 

The evidence for bivoltinism in Eupithecia tripunctaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae) 

in south-east England. B.K. West 57 

Browneversus Watson: Round two. 7?./?. (//zr/zq/T'-^firw/wfl'rtA? 61 

Chloroclystis rectangulataL. (Lep.: Geometridae) ab . pilcheri ah . nov. 

G.M.Haggett 65 

A very rare beetle rediscovered in Surrey. /.^. Owe/7 &yl.y4. y4//e« 67 

Surveyof parasitoids of British butterflies. M./?. S/zaw&MG.FfYron 69 

Mosquitoes and their importance as vectors of disease organisms in southern 

Africa. S.F. Henning 73 

Notes and Observations 

Observations on the queens of the ant Lasius mixtus Nyl. (Hymenoptera). 

PJ. Wright 46 

Baris laticollis (Marsham) (Col.: Curculionidae) as a pest of cultivated 

cabbages. J.A. Owen 49 

Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hiibn.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) in North-east England. 

T.C.Dunn 52 

BemZ77V//o/7 rt/gro/7/cewAn Marsh (Col.: Carabidae) in West Kent. y4.y4. y4//e« . ... 55 

Z)//7/ocoe/w5/<2g/Guer. (Col.: Biphyllidae) in S.E. London. ^.v4. v4//ert 55 

A notable beetle from South Somerset and two further notable records from 

Bracketts Coppice, Dorset. P.D. Orton 56 

Another record of Brachypalpus laphriformis (Fallen) (Dipt.: Syrphidae). 

N.L. Birkett 59 

Immigrant moths in Guernsey, Autumn 1988. P. Z>. Co^/'e/? 60 

Some new and notable Lepidoptera records from Yorkshire. S.M. Jackson .... 60 
Caloptilia falconipennella (Hiibn .) and C. populetorum (Zell .) (Lep . : 

Gracillariidae) in Kent. D. O'Keeffe 64 

Colostygia multistrigaria Haw., the Mottled Grey (Lep.: Geometridae) in 

mid-winter. J. Platts 64 

Heliothis armigera (Hiibn.) (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Hampshire and Leicestershire 

D.F. Owen 66 

Xanthia citrago L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) — aberrant behaviour of larvae? 

B.K West 66 

continued 



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LEPIDOPTERA ON BARRA 93 

LEPIDOPTERA ON BARRA 

Michael Harper' and Mark Young ^ 

' Cherry Orchard, Bullen, Ledbury, Herefordshire. 
^ Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen 

BARRA is one of the southernmost of the Outer Hebrides, well known for 
its attractive and varied flowers and scenery, and in July 1987 we visited the 
island to see if its Lepidoptera were equally diverse and interesting. 

Existing knowledge of the fauna of the Outer Hebrides has been 
admirably summarised by Waterston et. al. (1981) but, although that list is 
the result of many previous surveys, Waterston was sure that other species 
remained to be found. At that time the number of species known from 
Barra was 211, or 8% of the British fauna, and it is of interest to consider 
why the island should harbour so few. Current theories propose several 
factors that influence the size of an island's fauna, and these are principally 
its isolation from a source of colonists, its area and its habitat diversity. 

It is proposed that an isolated island will have a slow rate of immigration, 
even by such mobile animals as Lepidoptera; that a small island will suffer 
a relatively high loss of species due to random extinctions of small 
populations; and that a small island is likely to have a less diverse set of 
habitats than a large island. The balance between loss and gain of species 
will obviously result in fewer species on smaller, isolated islands. 

Barra is quite small, only about 7x13 km, and is over 80 km from the 
mainland. However, it is close to the other larger Outer Hebrides and is 
very diverse in its range of habitats (although some of these habitats may be 
too small to be properly effective). A further factor is that the chmate is so 
predominantly atlantic that this will also Hmit the species that can survive 
there. The size of its fauna presumably reflects this balance. Even if Barra 
has rather few species, it more than makes up for this by the unusual forms 
in which many of these species appear. These are discussed fully by 
Waterston, as well as being illustrated in many books. 

Our hope that we might find previously unrecorded Lepidoptera was 
well founded and from our total of 135 we added 12 species to the list for 
the Outer Hebrides and a further 20 to Barra's own fauna. These are listed 
in Table 1 but none are especially unexpected in that they are all species 
already known to occur on the adjacent mainland. However, some show 
points of interest. We found an Elachistid amongst damp grasses and 
sedges which defied identification until dissection. This species was found 
initially in abundance at Scurrival one early dusk, chmbing the grass and 
sedge stems and making short flights amongst them. There was then a brief 
but torrential rainstorm, which stopped the activity and we saw only one or 
two further specimens on several return visits. On dissection these proved 
to be Elachista albifrontella, but we achieved this identification only with 
the help of E.C. Pelham-Clinton to whom we are most grateful. 



94 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. v. 1989 

Superficially the specimens show very little resemblance to E. albifrontella, 
in that the normally clear pale markings are replaced by rather obscure and 
somewhat elongated ones. All were different from normal, with no clear 
fasciae and the remaining feint marks being on a pale grey ground colour. 
The heads were whitish-grey, all darker and less bright than is usual. Our 
previous experience has been that this species is usually invariable and so 
perhaps the Barra specimens represent a local form. 

Of the species recorded as new to the Outer Hebrides, the most notable 
was Phyllonorycter quinqueguttella which, although quite widespread in 
Scotland, is always local (Heath & Emmet, 1985). We found it only on the 
southern moorland slopes, as mines on Salix repens from which adults were 
reared. Cydia compositella we found in rich meadows at the north end of 
Barra and is another species which is very local in Scotland, but it has been 
found previously as far north as Sutherland. One species already recorded 
by Pelham-Clinton, but nevertheless of great interest, is Perizoma 
bifasciata which occurs on the island's west coast. This moth is generally 
much more southern in its occurrence and on Barra it presents a pale and 
variegated form. Finally a dramatic entomological event was the great 
abundance of Arctia caja on the sand dunes. When we ran a u.v. light at 
Traigh Eis dunes we attracted dozens of "tigers" and little else. 

A feature of Barra is the wide variety of habitats present. The north end 
of the island is grazed only by cattle and rabbits and so has many species- 
rich and luxurious meadows. These include maritime cliff grasslands, 
calcerous machair and marshland (filled with corncrakes!) and at Scurrival 
these habitats exist in an attractive mosaic. The machair recurs at many 
places along the west coast and seems generally rather less grazed and so 
more luxurious than on some other islands, such as Tiree. Extensive and 
typical sand dunes also occur at a number of places on the west coast but 
the cliff slopes are flower-rich only at Scurrival and Eoligarry in the north 
and are rather acid in nature elsewhere. Most of the interior of the island 
ranges from uninteresting, improved, permanent grassland to dry acid 
moorland but around Allt Heiker, above Earsary, there is an attractive and 
interesting peat bog and at The Glen, above Castlebay, there is a small area 
of flushed ground with Carum verticillatum (Whorled Caraway) and other 
marsh plants present. Of the lochs the most attractive and interesting 
seemed to be Lochan na Cartach, whereas most others were rather 
unproductive and devoid of plants or animals. Salt marsh is almost absent 
apart from some tiny areas near Northbay and a fringe along the south side 
of Traigh Mhor. The scarce halophil beetle, Octhebius punctatus, still 
occurs at Traigh Mhor. 

Barra is nearly but not wholly tree-less. There is a small plantation of 
conifers and sycamore at Northbay, which also has some well grown alders 
within it. Quite a number of common species of moth have invaded this 
plantation but we found it of little real interest. Otherwise there are only 



LEPIDOPTERA ON BARRA 



95 



remnants of scrubby woodland. At Balnabodach there are some rowans, 
birches and sallows, all of which retain some of their associated moths, and 
sallows are also found scattered sparingly over the island in stream gullies. 
At Allt, Earsary there are several hazels and some honeysuckle and this is 
the only site for native hazel. These woodland fragments may be too small 
to have kept much of their characteristic fauna, although obviously a few 
species, such as the Argyresthia spp, remain. 

Undoubtedly the most attractive and richest habitats are those at 
Eoligarry and Scurrival in the north, where only cattle and rabbits graze. It 
was there that we found most species overall and most of the interesting 
ones. 

The neighbouring island of Vatersay is also of interest, with rich machair 
and chff slope vegetation on the south slopes Heishival, but it does not 
include vegetation types which are absent from Barra. 

Our full species list has been lodged with A.R. Waterston and with the 
local NCC Officer. 



Table 1 Species recorded as new to the Outer Hebrides (VC 110) and to 
Barra. 



Species new to 
Outer Hebrides 



Species new to 
Barra 



Phyllonorycter quinqueguttella Stt. 
Argyresthia pygmaella D. & S. 
Coleophora cratipennella CI. 

(= tamesis Waters) 
Elachista argentella CI. 
Agonopterix nervosa Haw. 
Bryotropha politella Stt. 
Scrobipalpa artemisiella Treit. 
Cydia compositella Fabr. 
C. gallicana Guen. 
Epiblema costipunctana Haw. 
Philedonides lunana Th. 
Cnephasia stephensiana Doubl. 



Aspilapteryx tringipenella Zell. 
Phaulernis fulviguttella Zell. 
Elachista canapennella Hiibn. 

(= pulchella Haw.) 
Biselachista albidella Nyl. 
Depressaria daucella D. & S. 
Monochroa tenebrella Hiibn. 
Scrobipalpa samadensis Pfaff 
Dichrorampha petiverella Linn. 
Lobesia littoralis Humph, and Wst. 
Olethreutes cespitana Hiibn. 
Aphelia viburnana D. & S. 
Falseuncaria rutlciliana Haw. 
Crambus perlella Scop. 
Catoptria margaritella D. & S. 
Scoparia ambigualis Treit. 
Eudonia angustea Curt. 
E. mercurella Linn.* 
Pyrausta ostrinalis Hiibn. 
Hydriomena furcata Thumb 
Spilososoma luteum Hufn. 



* Omitted in error in Waterston, 1981. 



96 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. v. 1989 

Acknowledgements 

Our thanks are due to Rodger Waterston for the use of some unpubhshed 
data and for encouraging our recording. 

References 

Heath, J. and Emmet, A.M. 1985. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and 
Ireland Vol 2 Cossidae — Heliodinidae. Harley Books, Essex. 

Waterston, A.R., Owen, J. A., Welch, R.C., Bacchus, M. and Hammond, P.M. 
1981. Present knowledge of the non-marine invertebrate fauna of the Outer 
Hebrides. Proc. R. Soc. Edinb. 79B: 215-321. 



Trachea atriplicis Linnaeus (Lep.: Noctuidae), the Orache Moth, in Jersey. 

A SINGLE male of this species was caught in the Rothamsted Insect 
Survey hght trap at Trinity, Jersey (Site No. 146), during the period 31.vii 
to 2.viii.l987 and, so far as I am aware, constitutes a new record for the 
Island. 

T. atriplicis has not been recorded as a resident British species since 1915 
when the last specimens were caught at Stowmarket in Suffolk (Heath, J. 
(ed.) (1983) Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 10: 165. 
Harley, Essex). However, four assumed immigrants were caught in eastern 
and south-eastern England in 1986 (Skinner, pers. comm.), and one was 
caught at St Saviour's, Guernsey on 28.vii.1984 (Long, pers. comm.). 
Apart from the present record, no further specimens were reported in 1987. 

No known migrant species were caught in the Jersey trap around the time 
of the T. atriplicis capture, and so the question of its origin must be 
considered. When this species was known to be resident in the British Isles, 
it inhabited damp localities (Heath, J. loc. sit.). Such areas exist in the 
vicinity of the Jersey trap and have previously been suggested as possible 
sites for Costaconvexa polygrammata (Bork.) — another assumed extinct 
species caught in this trap (Riley, A.M. (1986) Ent. Gaz. 37: 68), and 
Lomographa cararia (Hb.) (Riley, A.M. (1987) Lomographa cararia (Hb.) 
(Lep.: Geometridae). A new species to the Channel Islands and the British 
Hst. Ent. Rec. 99: 65-66). These localities should also be investigated for T. 
atriplicis so that the appropriate conservation measures can be taken if it is 
found to be resident. 

Thanks are extended to Bernard Skinner for information on recent 
captures of T. atriplicis; Roger Long, of the Societe Jersiaise, for his 
comments on the occurrence of this species in the Channel Islands and 
Rosemary Collier for her continued support in operating the Rothamsted 
light trap at Trinity. — Adrian M. Riley, Dept. of Entomology and 
Nematology, AFRC Institute of Arable Crops Research, Rothamsted 
Experimental Station, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ. 



GRAMMOPTERA AND ALOSTERNA IN BRITAIN 97 

THE OCCURRENCE OF GRAMMOPTERA SERVILLE AND 
ALOSTERNA MULSANT (COL.: CERAMBYCIDAE) IN THE 

BRITISH ISLES 

Raymond R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann 

13 Old Road, Old Harlow, Essex CM17 OHB. 

Introduction 

THIS paper has two objectives: first, to describe the distribution, ecology 
and habits of this small group of rather dull looking and less conspicuously 
coloured Cerambycids; secondly, to dispel any lingering doubts there may 
be over the validity of that beetle universally known as Grammoptera 
holomelina, still quite unknown from the Continent and one which occurs 
only in this country. 

County and vice-county symbols follow Browne (1931); italicised letters 
denote that it is from there that the beetle has been widely captured; 
bracketed letters signify dubious or unconfirmed records. En passant it is 
perhaps not irrelevant to observe that there still seems to be — to use that 
current well-worn cliche — a "north-south divide"; entomologists south of 
the Midlands preferring the mnemonical Brownean symbols for counties in 
contrast to those others who use the Watsonian range of numerals which 
are difficult to memorise; (see Kaufmann, 1989 and Allen, 1988). 

For the benefit of Coleopterists unacquainted with the history of 
G. holomelina the following is a summary. 

Pool (1905) first published in this periodical his description of a new 
entirely melanic form of G. ruficornis, aberrational, in his opinion, rather 
than specific. That it was a new species was enthusiastically claimed shortly 
afterwards by Donisthorpe (1905), who with Pool collected over thirty male 
and female specimens, including several pairs in cop., from the same 
locality that had produced the latter's original find; between them they 
must surely have exhausted the stock of that particular Middlesex 
hedgerow. Dr D. Sharp (1910) who also endorsed holomelina as a good 
species (Fowler and Donisthorpe, 1913) later discovered a specimen in 
excellent condition in an old collection dating back to the mid-nineteenth 
century. Thereafter, holomelina appears as a separate species, exclusively 
British, in both the palaearctic Berlin (1912) and Vienna (1929) catalogues, 
and, of course, as such in all subsequent British catalogues (Beare, 1930; 
Kloet and Hincks, 1945 and 1977) and in Joy's work on our Coleoptera 
(1932). Plavilstshikov (1936), too, refers to holomelina as confined to 
England. It is indeed remarkable that no form resembling holomelina has 
ever been found on the Continent. 

Henderson (1946), however, in discussing other aspects of G. ruficornis, 
raised some doubts as to whether or no holomelina was a genuine species, 
having examined and compared the genitalia of holomelina with those of 



98 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. v. 1989 

ruficornis. He could find no structural difference and only a much darker 
coloration of the sclerotized portions of the aedeagus. There the matter 
rested until Duffy (1952) in his Handbook declared that he was satisfied 
that holomelina was a variety of ruficornis and not specific. In his 
Monograph (1953), nonetheless, Duffy again raised holomelina io specific 
rank, restricting himself to the comments that there was "some controversy 
as to whether or not this species is distinct from G. ruficornis'' and that 
(not surprisingly) "no materials or references are available". 

In 1988 Mr A. A. Allen kindly undertook to dissect and re-examine 
specimens of holomelina from the Uhthoff-Kaufmann collection of British 
Cerambycidae. His conclusions are the same as Henderson's, namely, that 
the genitalia apart from a deeper coloration are identical with those of 
ruficornis. The only real distinction between the two beetles lies in their 
patently contrasting external appearance, holomelina being instantly 
identifiable from ruficornis in the field because of its jet-black colour. 
"No-one would ever pass holomelina over for ruficornis when he saw it 
alive" (Donisthorpe, 1905). Kaufmann (1947) sums up this difference: "No 
matter in what light, artificial or natural, one views the two insects, G. 
holomelina is startlingly black, almost jet, and G. ruficornis . . . (has) that 
typically dusty golden effect: these differences remain marked even if the 
specimens are damped . . . G. holomelina (is) ... as distinct in colour as a 
black cat is beside a tabby". It only remains to add that Mr Allen during his 
microscopic examination discovered, to quote Rexford's well-known line, 
some "silver threads among the gold", that is, expressed less facetiously, a 
few golden hairs among the otherwise typically black elytral pubescence 
which is so characteristic of holomelina. 

To conclude: all that needs to be said is that holomelina must be once 
more reduced to varietal from specific status and as such it should appear 
in any future British or Continental publication on the Cerambycidae. 

To clarify the difference between the type species G. ruficornis and its 
four varietal and aberrational forms, Kaufmann's key (1947) is reprinted 
below. 

(Bracketed numbers link contrasting forms) 

A. Pubescence blackish, sparser. Puncturation slightly stronger. 

1 . Limbs and antennae black (v.) holomelina Pool (5). 

B. Pubescence dusty golden, thicker. Puncturation somewhat less 
marked. 

2. Limbs variegated, the front pair generally red, sometimes edged 
or tipped black at the joints, the remaining pairs coloured red and 

black. Antennae red, joints 3-11 tipped black at joints 

G. ruficornis F. (4). 

3 . Limbs and antennae rufo-testaceous 

a. pallipesSteph. = a.flavipesPic (2). 



GRAMMOPTERA AND ALOSTERNA IN BRITAIN 99 

4. Limbs and antennae piceous 

a. obscuhcornis Kraatz (3). 

5. Limbs and antennae black a. melanipes Kaufm. (1). 

Examples showing the sHghtest deviation from the above, suggestive of a 

touch of redness at the joints of the antennae or on the legs are 
automatically debarred; such specimens must be ascribed to the type 
ruficornis. 

The species of Grammoptera share one common factor: their life history 
takes only one year to complete; that of Alosterna, on the other hand, 
spans a two year period. 

Grammoptera ruficornis F. 

Ubiquitous and without doubt our commonest little Longhorn. It is still 
abundant, particularly when the May blossom is out, to which it is greatly 
attracted and usually the first Cerambycid encountered. A very swift beetle 
which races off the beating tray, taking instantly to flight in sunny weather. 
There are plenty of records from Wales and Ireland, but the insect becomes 
increasingly rare in the north of the country (it remains to be found in 
north Northumberland); Scottish examples are unknown beyond the 
Forth; this corresponds with the knowledge of its distribution in southern 
Scandinavia (Hansen, 1960). It is absent from the Isle of Man. 

ENGLAND: BD BK BX CB CH CU DM DT (DY) EC EK EN £"5 EX EY GE GW 

HF HTHUIWL LN LR LS MM M^MF ND NE NH NM NO NS NW NY OX SD 

SE S//SL SN (SP) SR SS SrSW SY WC WKV^L WN WO WS WW WX WY. 

WALES: A BR CR DB FT GM MG MN PB RA. 

SCOTLAND: AY BW ED HD LA RX. 

IRELAND: AN AR (CL) CV DO D(7FE KC (KD) KK LE LK ME NG NK QC RO 

SG SK WA WC WH WI (WX). 

The polyphagous larva is found in the dead twigs and decaying small 
branches of ash, beech, black alder, blackthorn, broom, buckthorn, 
dogrose, elder, elm, false acacia, great maple, hawthorn (a favourite 
habitat), hazel. Hibiscus syriacus, hornbeam, horse chestnut. Ilex, ivy, 
lime, mouldy oak, poplar, Prunus, Pyrus aucuparia, P. mains, P. spinosa, 
sour cherry, spindle tree, walnut, willow and wych elm. It does not attack 
coniferous growths. Its only known predator is the spider, Amaurobius 
at ropes Walck. 

Pupation depending upon conditions takes place during April and May 
and can be as short as one week. Upon emergence the beetle may be beaten 
from ash, beech, blackthorn, buckthorn, cherry, crabapple, dogwood, 
elder, elm, hawthorn, hazel, holly, horse chestnut, ivy, maple, oak, poplar, 
rowan, sycamore and willow or swept from Aegopodium, apple blossom, 
dogrose, guelder rose, hawthorn, Heracleum, ox-eye daisy, rose bay willow 
herb, Stachys, syringa, Torilis, wych elm and yellow deadnettle. 



100 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

The adult occurs from April onwards until September, becoming scarcer 
towards the end of the season. There is a single January record. Variable in 
length, some micromorphous specimens measure as little as 3mm. Very 
oddly, this so common beetle is largely ignored in all post-1960 English 
works on insects, but Harde (1984) has a good coloured illustration, plate 
252, fig. 1. 

G. ruficomis F., v. holomelina Pool 

With a rather scattered distribution ranging from the extreme west to south 
Northumberland, but confined largely to the south, the Home Counties 
and parts of the Midlands. Unrecorded from Wales, Scotland or Ireland. A 
very uncommon variety, only occasionally present with the type. 

ENGLAND: BK CH DM EK ES GE GW HThK MX MY NM OX SE SH SN SR 
WC WK WO WS WY. 

The three aberrational forms of G. ruficomis, unlike the v. holomelina, 
cannot be detected in the field — they are too agile: hoping to find one or 
the other of them would entail collecting hundreds of specimens, which in 
these days of conservation can no longer be tolerated. They are, in any 
case, extremely uncommon to very rare. 

a. pallipes Steph. Very rare in this country, but said to be fairly common 
in Ireland (Johnson & Halbert, 1902). 
ENGLAND: EK EN SD. 
IRELAND: AR DO DU NK RO (WX). 

a. obscuricornis Kraatz. There are few published records as this 

aberration has been largely overlooked. It is probably mixed with 

ruficomis in some collections. 

ENGLAND: CH GE MX SR. 

a. melanipes Kaufm. Very rarely found with the species proper. 
ENGLAND: CH HF SR. 
IRELAND: NG. 

G. ustulata Schaller 

An increasingly rare beetle more or less confined to woods in the Thames 

and Hampshire basins. 

ENGLAND: BK (BX) EX GE GW MX NH SH. 

Two records from SL and ST are certainly erroneous. 

The larva is found mainly in dry, dead or mildewed lichen covered twigs 
of maple and oak, and in the decaying hmbs of the common walnut. 

Like G. ruficomis pupation takes place in mid- April, with eclosion a 
week or so later. The imagines which have golden pubescence turning to 
black at the elytral apex are about from then until August; they may be 
swept from various plants such as apple blossom, beech, brambles, 
dogwood, guelder rose, hawthorn, lime, Spiraea and Umbellifers. 



GRAMMOPTERA AND ALOSTERNA IN BRITAIN 101 

G. variegata Germar 

Generally confined to woodlands in the south, south-east, the Scarplands, 
north Midlands and a few more northerly areas. There are no Welsh or 
Scottish records but there is one from Ireland. A scarce local beetle, 
sometimes mistaken for G. ruficornis. Its larger size, grey pubescence and 
(usually) red abdominal segments and pygidium, particularly in the female, 
are a guide to its recognition. 

ENGLAND: BK BX CB CH DY EK ES GE GW HT HU IW L LN LR MX MY 
NE NH MN NO NS NY OXSE SH SR ST SY PW^ WN WX. 

IRELAND: DO. 

The larva feeds in dead oak, pear and sweet chestnut, emerging from 
April until June, and the imago may be taken from May until August from 
off aspen, buckthorn, elder, elm, gorse, guelder rose, hawthorn, oak, 
Pyrus, rowan and Umbelliferae. It is difficult to collect by beating as it 
seems to prefer the upper branches of its host trees, descending later in the 
day; this may account for its apparent scarcity. 

a. nigrescens Weise = a. griseipes Pic. An aberration with the legs and 
abdomen entirely black. It is probably mixed with the type in our 
collections. 
ENGLAND: NH SH SR. 

Alo sterna tahacicolor Degeer 

Generally distributed from the south-west to the north as far as south 
Perthshire, but becoming rarer in the northern regions. A local beetle 
sometimes common where it occurs. 

ENGLAND: BD fl/r(BX) CB CC/DM DTT>Y EC EKES EX EYGE GW HF//r 

HU I W L LN LR MM MX MY NE NH NM NO NS NW OX SD SE SH SN SR SS 
SrSW WC WKWL WN WO WS WW WXWY. 
WALES: BR CR DB GM MN RA. 
SCOTLAND: BW DP ED HD LA PC. 
IRELAND: AN DO DU KK QC RO SK WA WI. 

The larva feeds in the dead, wet and rotting twigs of hazel, hornbeam, 
maple and pine. After a two year metamorphosis, the adult beetles emerge 
in May and are collectable until August by beating elm, holly, hornbeam, 
maple, oak, rowan, sycamore and willow. It may also, be swept from 
Anthriscus, brambles, Chaerophyllum, Conopodium, dogwood, elder, 
elm, hawthorn, hogweed, holly, hornbeam, maple, oak, raspberry canes, 
rowan, Salvia, Spiraea, Stellaria, sycamore, teasel, Torilis, wild rose and 
willow. 

This species, which is sometimes mistaken for Grammoptera ustulata, 
helps in the fertilisation of the plant Listera ovata (see /. Ent. Soc. S. 
Engl., 1932, 1 (1):4). A. tabacicolor is nicely illustrated in Lyneborg (1977, 
plate 46, fig. 311) and by Harde (1984, plate 252, fig. 2.). 



102 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks are extended to A. A. Allen, Esq., for his careful work on the 
V. holomelina and for some lively and interesting correspondence on that 
subject; A.F. Amsden, Esq.; D.B. Atty, Esq.; Dr LS. Garrad, Curator, 
Manx Museum, LO.M.; Mrs B. Leonard, Librarian, Royal Entomological 
Society; Dr M. Shaw, Keeper of Natural History, Royal Museum of 
Scotland; Mrs J. Morgan; Professor J. A. Owen; M. Sinclair, Esq.; K.G.V. 
Smith Esq., Editor-in-Chief, Entomologist's mon. Mag., for permission to 
quote extensive passages from that publication. 

References 

Allen, A.A., 1988. Grammoptera ruficornis (F.) and G. variegata (Germ.), The 

Coleoptehst's Newsletter, 31 :5. 
— , 1988. A plea for the retention of the old Counties in recording. Entomologist's 
Rec. J. Var., 100: 57. 
Auriyillius, C, 1912. Cerambycidae in Junk, W. and Schenkling, S., 

Coleopterorum Catalogus, 39:203-207. Berlin 
Beare, T. Hudson, 1930. A Catalogue of the recorded Coleoptera of the British 

Isles. London. 
Browne, F. Balfour, 1931. A plea for uniformity in the method of recording insect 

captures., Entomologist's mon. Mag., 67: 183-193. 
Champion, G.C., 1910. Note on Grammoptera ruficornis, F., var. pallipes, Steph., 

Entomologist's mon. Mag., 46: 70-71. 
Cox, H.E. 1874. A Handbook of the Coleoptera, 2. London. 
Curtis, J., 1837. A guide to the arrangement of British insects, 2nd ed. London. 
Demelt, C. von, 1966. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 52: 2, Bockkafer oder Ceram- 
bycidae, 1. Jena. 
Deutsche Ent. Zeitschr., 1884, 28: 423. 
Donisthorpe, H. StJ. K., 1905. Grammoptera holomelina. Pool., A good species. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 17: 182-183. 
— , 1939. A preliminary list of the Coleoptera of Windsor Forest . London. 
Duffy, E.A. J., 1952. Handbook for the identification of British Insects. Coleoptera. 

Cerambycidae. London. 
— , 1953. A monograph of the immature stages of British and imported Timber 

Beetles (Cerambycidae). London. 
Fowler, W.W., 1890. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, 4. London. 
— & Donisthorpe, H. StJ. K., 1913. Ibid., 6 (Supplement). London. 
Freude, H., Harde, K.W, and Lohse, G.A., 1966. Die Kafer Mitteleuropas, 9. 

Krefeld. 
Hansen, V. et al., 1960. Catalogus Coleopterorum Fennoscandiae et Daniae (ed. 

Lindroth, C.H.): 358-359. 
Harde, K.W., 1984. A field guide in colour to Beetles, English edition, Hammond, 

P.M. London. 
Henderson, JX., 1946. Grammoptera holomelina Pool (Col., Cerambycidae) at 

Ashtead, Surrey, Entomologist's mon. Mag., 82:217. 
Heyrovsky, L., 1955. Fauna CSR, 5, Cerambycidae. Prague. (Text in Czech.) 
Johnson, W.F. & Halbert, J.N., 1902. A Hst of the Beetles of Ireland, Proc. R. Irish 

Acad., 3: 537-827. 
Kaufmann, R.R. Uhthoff-, 1947. Notes on Grammoptera holomelina Pool and the 

colour forms of G. ruficornis F. (Col., Cerambycidae), Entomologist's mon. 

Mag., 83: 10-12. 



GRAMMOPTERA AND ALOSTERNA IN BRITAIN 103 

— , 1948. Notes on the distribution of the British Longicorn Coleoptera, Ibid., 

84: 66-85. 
— Brown ver5M5 Watson: Round 2. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 101: 61-63. 
Kloet, G.S. and Hincks, W.D. 1945. ^ check list of British Insects. Stockport. 
— , 1977. Check list of British Insects, 11 (3), Coleoptera and Strepsiptera, 2nd ed. 

London. 
Kiihnt, P., 1913. Illustrierte Bestimmungs-Tabellen der Kdfer Deutschlands. 

Stuttgart. -^ 
Lyneborg, L., 1977. Beetles in colour, (English ed., Vevers, G.). Poole, Dorset. 
Mulsant, M.E., 1810. Histoire naturelle des Coleopteres de France, 1 -Longicornes. 

Paris and Lyon. 
— , 1862-1863. Ibid., 13, Longicornes. Paris. 
Perris, E., 1847. Observations sur les larves . . . de la Grommoptera ruficornis, Ann. 

Soc. ent. Fr., (2) 5: 547-554. 
Pic, M., 1889. Echange, 5: 55. 
— , IS90. Ibid., 6: 156. 

— , 1891. Materiaux pour servir a I'etude des Longicornes, 1: 16; 54-55. Lyon. 
— , 1892. Contribution a I'etude des Longicornes, Echange, 8: 139. 
— , 1898. Materiaux pour servir a I'etude des Longicornes, 2: 8. Lyon. 
Picard, P., 1929. Faune de France, 20, Coleopteres: Cerambycidae. Paris. 
Planet, L-M., 1924. Les Longicornes de France, Encycl. Ent. 2. Paris. 
Plavilstshikov, N.N., 1936. Faune URSS . . . Cerambycidae, 1, Moscow Inst. zool. 

Acad. Sci. URSS., 21. Moscow and Leningrad. (Text in Russian.) 
Podany, C, 1955. Cerambycidae, Prionini et Cerambycini. Principals especes de 

Cerambycides et leurs aberrations. Bull. Soc. ent. Mulhouse, 28-29 (Supplement). 
Pool, C.J.C., 1905. Grammoptera ruficornis ob . holomelina, n. ab., a wholly black 

form of Grammoptera, Ser., not hitherto recorded. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 

17: 133. 
Reitter, E., 1912 (1913). Fauna Germanica, die Kdfer des Deutschen Reiches, 4. 

Stuttgart. 
Sharp, D., 1910. An early specimen of Grammoptera holomelina, Pool, Entomolo- 
gist's mon. Mag., 46: 71 . 
Stephens, J.F., 1829. A systematic catalogue of British Insects: 205. London. 
— , 1831. Illustrations of British Entomology, Mandibulata, 4. London. 
— , 1839. A manual of British Coleoptera. London. 

Villiers, A., 1978. Faune des Coleopteres de France, 1, Cerambycidae. Paris. 
Waterhouse, G.R., 1858. Catalogue of British Coleoptera. London. 
Whitehead, P., 1987. A note on Grammoptera ruficornis (F.), The Coleopterist's- 

Newsletter, 30: 3. 
Winkler, A., 1929. Catalogus Coleopterorum regionis palaearcticae, 10: 1156. 

Vienna. 




104 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

Salpingus ater Payk. (Col.: Salpingidae) in Wales. 

AMONG the very many duplicates kindly given me by the late Philip 
Harwood was an example of this scarce beetle, labelled "Gower/v.26". It 
almost certainly constitutes the first record of S. ater for Wales, Mrs M.J. 
Morgan having informed me that she has no note of a previous one. In fact 
the occurrence of the species in South Wales is surprising in view of its 
apparent restriction, otherwise, to the Scottish Highlands — apart from 
one or two southern records which require confirmation. 

This insect is closely similar to its locally common English counterpart S. 
reyi Ab. {aeratus Fowler, nee Muls.), but may normally be recognised by its 
deep black colour with little metallic reflection, contrasting with the brassy 
tint of reyi. Structural characters on the other hand are very hard to 
pinpoint; those ascribed to the two species tend to differ from one author 
to another, and when tested are often found unsatisfactory. It was not until 
1947 that the late Dr K.G. Blair, an authority on the Salpingidae, reversed 
his earlier opinion that ater and reyi were but one species (Ent, mon. Mag. 
83: 68), as a result of examining two specimens of ater sent by Harwood 
(doubtless from Speyside). Unfortunately, however, he said nothing of 
what he considered to be their crucial distinctions. — A. A. Allen, 
49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



Atheta (Dimetrota) puncticollis Benick (Col.: Staphylinidae) in S. Devon 
and the Scottish Highlands. 

This species, added to the British list on a specimen from Rothiemurchus 
Forest, E. Inverness, in 1938 (Allen, 1940, Ent. mon. Mag. 76: 81-2), 
appears so very little recorded — if at all — since then, that the following 
may be of interest . The late G.H. Ashe found it very sparingly both in his 
home district of Colyton, S. Devon, and in Speyside, in the early 1950s. I 
have four specimens of his taking, and believe there were one or two others 
in poor condition among his duplicates; perhaps the most interesting is one 
with the data *'Colyton/elm stump/16.iii.52". Since >1. puncticollis \s not a 
subcortical or rotten-wood species, this could, in March, have been a 
hibernation site. I have heard of one or two other English captures, but 
have no details. As regards its occurrence in Scotland, two of the Ashe 
specimens before me are from the River Dulnain "in tufts", l.vii and 
30.vii.54; and another from Nethy Bridge "in marsh", 8.vii.54, both places 
being in Speyside. Finally, my friend Prof. J. A. Owen asks me to include 
with these few records his capture of a single female at Braemar, S. 
Aberdeens. (27.vii.77) in sheep dung. The nearest ally of puncticollis is 
undoubtedly macrocera Thoms., both having wholly unmargined temples 
and genitaha of the same general pattern. Both, also, are inhabitants of 
dung.— A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



ABERRATION OF GYMNOSCELIS RUFIFASCIATA 105 

A NEW ABERRATION OF GYMNOSCELIS RUFIFASCIATA 

(HAWORTH) (LEP.: GEOMETRIDAE) — 

THE DOUBLE STRIPED PUG. 

by Colin W. Plant 

Passmore Edwards Museum, Romford Road, Stratford, London E15 4LZ. 

A PARTICULARLY striking form of Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Haworth) 
which I took at m.v. hght in the Wyre Forest National Nature Reserve on 
18 August 1984 does not appear to conform to any known aberration or 
variety. Lempke (1951) lists eight varieties of G. rufifasciata of which f. 
albescens Lempke is the nearest to the present example with basal and 
central area of forewings whitish. In the absence of evidence to the contrary 
I therefore describe this Shropshire specimen as a new aberration which I 
choose to call ab. albofasciata. 
G. rufifasciata (Haworth) ab. albofasciata ab. nov. 

FORE WING (UPPERSIDE) with basal one-third, up to and including 
ante-median cross-line, with normal pattern partly masked by a 
preponderance of grey scales. Median fascia pure white with sparse greyish 
irroration. Post-median cross-line, and wing distal to this line, normal 
though, like the basal area, suffused greyish with the two reddish-grey 
clouds in the termen near the apex partly confluent with the ground colour 
of the wings. Viewed at arms length the distal third of the forewing appears 
grey. Costa greyish. Cilia of normal coloration except in region of the white 
median fascia where they are pure white. Stigmata absent. 

HINDWING (UPPERSIDE) with outer third grey, devoid of 
markings, this coloration extending slightly basal to the post-mxcdian cross- 
line which shows whitish against the grey ground colour. The remaining 
basal two-thirds white with faint grey irroration becoming more obvious at 
the extreme base of the wing. CiHa grey. Stigmata absent. 

UNDERSIDES of all four wings with ground colour white. A scattering 
of grey scales in the basal third of fore-wings. Outer third of all four wings 
with dark grey scales contrasting with the lighter grey cilia. Discal spots 
obvious on all four wings below. 

The specimen, which is female, was exhibited at the 1988 annual 
exhibition of the British Entomological and Natural History Society and 
was photographed for inclusion in that society's journal (Vol. 2, plate III). 

Acknowledgement 

I am grateful to my friend Adrian Riley at the Rothamsted Experimental 
Station, Harpenden, Hertfordshire for confirmation of thegenitahaof this 
specimen, and to NCC West Midland Region for permission to record 
insects in the Wyre Forest. 

Reference 
Lempke, B.J., 1951. Catalogues der Nederlandse macrolepidoptera. Tijdschrift 
Entomologie 94: 255-256. 



106 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Dhofar, October 1979 

ONE fine morning in October 1979 I joined a helicopter of the Oman Air 
Force (SOAF) on assignment to the civil aid division. I had been promised 
that for a whole day it would take me from locality to locality on the 
incredible wooded escarpment of Dhofar, the ecology of which is unique. 
There is no other way of sampling large areas of the scarp except through 
the use of a helicopter, but I also freely have to admit that I find helicopters 
great fun as a means of transport. Most of the pilots were British seconded 
officers who enjoyed not being bound by the low-flying regulations back 
home, which made for some very exciting trips, flying up steep nullahs with 
the rotor blades only a few feet from the adjacent mountain sides. 

After a few stops where the medics treated sick mothers and children and 
the engineer surveyed various water projects, we landed at a more 
substantial settlement — with two hundred residents or so. This was a 
longer stop, and I had the possibihty of surveying the butterfly fauna in 
some detail. The area was splendid, with dense forest at peak development, 
so contrasting with stereotype views of Arabia. I made many useful 
observations, but all good things come to an end. A strong whistle 
informed me that I must get back to the helicopter, and I crawled in. The 
rotor started whirling, and the chopper readied for take-off. As usual the 
load-master kept the door open till the take-off had been effected. 

Just as the rotor speed reached take-off velocity I saw coming towards us 
a female of the Oriental butterfly known as the Great Eggfly {Hypolimnas 
bolina). This is a huge butterfly, till then quite unknown in Arabia, though 
there is a population on the island of Socotra. For a dedicated entomologist 
there was only on thing to do. I rushed towards the exit, jumped over the 
feet of the load-master, and reached the door of the helicopter. I jumped 
out just as the helicopter lifted off, the only time I have actually left an 
airborne aircraft, except for my one and only parachute jump. I rushed 
towards the butterfly, but it and I reached the downdraught of the rotor at 
the same moment. The butterfly was wafted away in the turbulence of the 
downdraught, but I was close enough to make sure of its identity. It was 
the first ever Arabian specimen of the Giant Eggfly. 

The helicopter landed again, and I re-entered it. I did not connect my 
microphone link with the cockpit. Shortly the load-master motioned me to 
do so. So I did. I got a torrent of abuse from the captain — deservedly so. 
What the hell did I think I was doing! He could have me court-martialled! ! 
I was lucky he had even bothered to come back and pick me up! ! ! And he 
was perfectly right, of course. 

I later had the chance to share a beer with my pilot. He had mellowed a 
bit. He still thought that jumping out of flying helicopters was not only silly 
but very dangerous. But he was willing to credit that it had been done in a 
good cause! Torben B. Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London 
SW9 8BL. 



ENDOTRICHA CONSOBRINALIS 



107 



ENDOTRICHA CONSOBRINALIS ZELLER (LEP.: PYRALIDAE) — 
A SPECIES NEW TO BRITAIN 

B. GOODEY 

298 Ipswich Road, Colchester, Essex C04 4ET. 

DECEMBER was not a month I expected to see Endotricha flammealis 
(D. & S.) fluttering round my kitchen. However, closer inspection on 24 
December, 1987 revealed a battered pyralid similar to, but distinct from, E. 
flammealis. The specimen was wet and, considering the rather abnormal 
damage of the insect, I presumed it to have come from Israeli celery 
{Apium sp.) my wife was preparing at the time. 










1 




Figure 1 . Endotricha flammealis D. & S. (Left-hand of figure) (x 4.5) 
Figure 2. Endotricha consobrinalis Zeller (Right-hand of figure) (x 4.5) 



108 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

The main differences between the specimen and E. flammealis are as 
follows: The costa is rather straight whereas in flammealis it is strongly 
arched towards the apex. The subterminal line curves away from the 
termen near the apex, but in flammealis it remains virtually parallel with 
the termen. On the hindwing the postmedian line is strongly arched 
centrally whereas in flammealis it is weakly sinuate. The wingspan of 18mm 
is slightly less than that oi flammealis which averages 20mm. 

I passed the specimen to A.M. Emmet who took it to the BM(NH) and 
submitted it to M. Shaffer. Comparison with related species in the general 
collection showed it to be in all probability Endotricha consobrinalis Zeller, 
a species occurring in Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean region. The 
specimen is a female and unfortunately the genitalia in this sex do not show 
conclusive characters for determination; nevertheless, D. J.L. Agassiz made 
a dissection and agreed that the moth was almost certainly E. 
consobrinalis. The capture is recorded (no. 1424a) in A field guide to the 
smaller British Lepidoptera (Edn 2, 1988). 

Presumably the specimen arrived in this country as a pupa. I have been 
unable to find any information on the cultivation of the celery, its 
subsequent processing or its relationship with E. consobrinalis. E. 
flammealis is somewhat polyphagous and includes decaying leaves in its 
diet. E. consobrinalis mdiy well do the same. 

Acknowledgement 

My thanks are due to Col. A.M. Emmet and D.J.L. Agassiz for their 
assistance. 



The last British capture of Scybalicus oblongiusculus Dej. (Col.: 
Carabidae)? 

THIS very local and rare ground-beetle, only found intermittently at 
various places on the Dorset coast from Lulworth to the Isle of Portland, is 
often now supposed to be probably extinct. That may well be the case; I 
know of no record later than 1915 by F.H. Haines (1917, Ent. mon. Mag. 
53: 162), who took two examples under stones at Ringstead, near 
Weymouth, in April. Yet it may have been found since then and not 
pubHshed, which the following will show to be indeed quite likely. In 1953 a 
Devonshire collector assured Mr L.S. Whicher that he had, in August 1951, 
taken Scybalicus in some numbers at Portland Bill, and gave him details of 
the site: at the top of the cliff on the west side of the Bill near the 
lighthouse, under stones. I made a day-trip to the spot on 30.viii.53, but a 
thorough search (though it had other pleasing results) revealed no sign of 
the desired insect. It is a pity that the fortunate captor, apparently, was not 
moved by the interest of his find to send a note of it to one of the journals; 
but I see no reason why it should not be genuine. — A. A. Allen, 
49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



BUTTERFLIES OF NEW PROVIDENCE ISLAND 109 

BUTTERFLIES OF NEW PROVIDENCE ISLAND, BAHAMAS, 
A FURTHER REVIEW 

B.K. West, B.Ed. 

36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent. 

IN 1966 I gave a brief account of the status of the butterflies of New 
Providence Island, Bahamas, based upon my observations there in 1945 
and 1946, and after consulting the collection and relevant literature in the 
British Museum (West, 1966). However, since that time several excellent 
textbooks have been pubhshed — N. Riley (West Indies), M. Brown and B. 
Heineman (Jamaica), P. DeVries (Costa Rica) and B. D'Abrera (Neo- 
Tropical Region) as well as a chaotic, but informative work by M. Barcant 
on Trinidad and Tobago. In view of this some modifications are needed to 
my original paper. 

Ascia monuste L. is assigned to subspecies evonima Bdv. 1836 by N. 
Riley, and D'Abrera has followed suit, but Brown and Heineman refer to 
the subspecies found in the Bahamas and the Greater Antilles as eubotea 
Godt. 1819. Of more consequence is the fact that monuste is a migratory 
species, migrations having been noted at locations as far apart as 
Argentina, Costa Rica and South Carolina, but this species occurs as 
several fairly well-defined subspecies. For example, my specimens of 
subspecies Virginia Godt. from Guadaloupe and type specimens from 
Trinidad are quite distinct from each other and those from the Bahamas, 
although I find the latter inseparable from those from Florida. The females 
of monuste are dimorphic; thus Riley mentions the melanic form phileta 
Fab. as being migratory, sometimes spreading from the southern U.S.A. to 
the Antilles. However, Harris (1972) draws attention to controlled 
experiments by R. Pease which demonstrate that the capacity to produce 
melanic females is conferred by a gene, or genes, and that exposure to light 
for a sufficient length of time is one factor that stimulates dimorphism. 
Pease also reported that only white females are found in Florida from 
November through February, while T. Pliske found that a sample of 
ninety-nine female monuste in Florida on July 30th, 1961, comprises 56 
melanics, 33 intermediates and 10 whites. My series of monuste from New 
Providence Island was taken in October and November, and it includes two 
white females; however, in the Collection of the British Museum (Natural 
History) are two melanic females from the Bahamas, one of which is dated 
July, the other undated. This is in accord with the findings of R. Pease, but 
leaves unanswered the question of the origin of the Bahamian melanics; is 
this form of local origin or are such specimens migrants from the U.S.A.? 

Kricogonia lyside Godt. Neither N. Riley nor B. D'Abrera accept K. 
cast alia Fab. as a valid species, although Brown and Heineman include 
both species for Jamaica, giving distinguishing features and quoting at 
length from Comstock (1944). However, C. Ferris and F. Brown (1981) 



no ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

state that K. lyside is a species over which there has been much confusion 
due to it being polymorphic, formerly being thought of as comprising two 
species, lyside and castalia, but rearing experiments have finally resolved 
the problem. Riley gives May and June as the time of appearance for lyside 
in the Bahamas; my specimens, all caught in an abandoned garden to the 
east of Nassau, aredatedS.viii., 18.x., 20.x., 24.x., 3.xi. and 4. xi. 1945. 

Calisto Sibylla Bates is not confined to the Bahamas, it is found also in 
Cuba where it is subspecifically distinct. 

Marpesia petreus Cram, was listed in my previous paper as M. peleus 
Sulz. (an invalid homonym); further, the species has been split into two 
species — M. petreus and M. eleuchea Hiibn., the insects being quite 
distinct in appearance. There is a specimen of M. petreus in the B.M. 
Collection from the Bahamas, but not specifically labelled New Providence 
Island, and should therefore be deleted as a resident of that island, 
although it is a well known migrant and probably at some time will be 
noted there. The three Marpesia specimens obtained by me 24. xi. 1945, 
15.xii.l945 and 13.1.1946 are M. e. bahamensis Munroe and other 
subspecies occur in Jamaica and Hispaniola; eleuchea thus has a much 
more restricted range than petreus which occurs on the more southerly 
Caribbean islands and on the mainland from Mexico to Brazil. 

Hemiargus hanno filenus Poey. I had this species listed as H. c. ceraunus 
Fab., according to Klots (1960). Riley states that the subspecies ceraunus is 
confined to Jamaica and Hispaniola. 

Hemiargus thomasi Clench. I gave the species as H. ammon thomasi 
Clench. Riley accords thomasi specific status, with several subspecies 
ranging from Florida to St. Kitts, excluding Jamaica and Cuba. 

Atalopedes carteri Evans. I listed this species as A. mesogramma carteri, 
which I found frequently flying with the very much larger A. m. 
mesogramma Latr. 

N. Riley's Butterflies of the West Indies will remain an excellent, 
authoritive work on the region for many years to come; nevertheless 
regarding the Bahamas several statements in the work are not in accordance 
with the facts. 

Eurema daira Godt. Riley states that this insect occurs as f. palmira 
Poey, having the hindwings white, in the West Indies, exept in Cuba and 
the Bahamas where the nominate form with yellow hindwings occurs as a 
casual vagrant; D'Abrera gives the range of the latter subspecies as 
mainland America from Mexico to Brazil, omitting the Bahamas. I found 
daira commonly on New Providence Island, and possess a score of 
specimens which exhibit seasonal dimorphism, details of which are given in 
my previous paper; the colonies seemed very firmly established, yet 
curiously it i§ not a species recorded by the Van Voast-American Museum 
expedition of 1953. 



BUTTERFLIES OF NEW PROVIDENCE ISLAND 1 1 1 

Eurema lisa Bdv. & Leconte. This is another well known migrant of 
which I was able to discover only one previous record for New Providence 
Island. I originally Hsted the insect as subsp. euterpa Mene. which Riley 
considers to be that found in the Antilles, whereas lisa lisa is that inhabiting 
North and Central America. However, he notes that Florida specimens 
show a tendency to approach euterpa, and I do not believe he would have 
been able to examine Bahamian specimens. The basic difference between 
the subspecies is that, especially in the male, euterpa has very slightly 
narrower black borders above. My New Providence Island specimens are 
intermediate in size between those I possess from Chattanooga, Tenn. and 
some I caught at San Juan, Puerto Rico. The black border of the forewing 
is considerably wider in the Tennessee specimens compared with those from 
Puerto Rico, and again the Bahamian insects are intermediate. Regarding 
this particular difference it would appear that the shape of the forewing 
black border is slightly more concave in the Puerto Rico specimens, and 
this causes the border to appear narrower. Thus Riley's comment regarding 
Florida specimens — nymotypical, but with a tendency towards euterpa — 
would apply to those from the Bahamas also. 

Metamorpha stelenes L., Heliconius charitonius L. and the Hesperiids 
Burca concolor H-S. and Panoquina panoquinoides Skinner are also 
omitted as Bahamian species by Riley, nor were they found by the Van 
Voast-Museum expedition in 1952-3. It is interesting to observe that P. 
panoquinoides is regarded as a probable recent arrival in Jamaica, being 
seen there for the first time in 1947, although it had been found before that 
time not uncommonly in the Cayman Islands. The Hesperiid Nyctelius 
nyctelius Latr. on the other hand is described by Riley as being distributed 
throughout the West Indies and generally common; I can find no evidence 
of its presence in the Bahamas, and on New Providence Island in 
particular. 

The total number of species for New Providence Island is raised by one 
to fifty- four. Undoubtedly several other species will be discovered on the 
island, and indeed may well have been observed there already, but cannot 
be included because preserved specimens in museums lack sufficiently 
accurate and specific data. I listed two species as Bahamian endemics; this 
figure is reduced to one — Eurema chamberlaini Butl. with several 
subspecies localised within certain islands of the group. 

References 

Brown, F. and Heineman, B., 1972. Jamaica and its Butterflies. 

Comstock, W.P., 1944. Insects of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, New York 

Acad. Sci., 12. 
D. Abrera, B., 1940. Butterflies of the Neo-Tropical Region. 
DeVries, P., 1987. The Butterflies of Costa Rica. 

Ferris, C. and Brown, F., 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. 
Harris, L., 1972. Butterflies of Georgia. 
Holland, W.J. , 1944. The Butterfly Book. 



112 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. v. 1989 

Klots, A., 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of North America, East of the 

Great Plains. 
Riley, N.D., 1975. ^ Field Guide to the Butterflies of the West Indies. 
West, B.K., 1966. Butterflies of New Providence Island, Bahamas. Entomologist's 

Rec. J. Var. 78: 174-179, 206-210. 



A note of the life-history of Apion soror Rey (Col.: Apionidae). 

Apion soror Rey ( =foveatoscutellatum Wagner) was first recognised as a 
British insect by our friend Mr J. A. Parry who found specimens on marsh 
mallow (Althaea officinalis L.) at Burham Marshes in Kent in July 1983. 
Morris and Pericart (1988 Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 92, 221-223) state that the 
beetle is known only from this host-plant in Britain and France but give no 
details of its Hfe-history. 

On 7.ix.l986 one of us (J.A.O.) found a site near Lydd, Kent where the 
beetle was not uncommon on Althaea plants growing at the edge of a wide 
drain. On visiting the site, on 28.vii.1988, we found a few adults on the 
plants but we also noted small brown discolorations on the stems, two or 
three per stem 10 - 15 cm apart. Opening a stem at the point of 
discoloration, revealed either a whitish grub or a pupa. We cut off some 
stems at their bases and took them home where they were kept in two ways. 
Some were cut into sections and kept in polythene bags. Others were placed 
in jars of water. 

Several weevils emerged from the cut sections in August. Others were 
found on cutting open the stems dead in their pupal cells, perhaps because 
they were unable to bore through the cuticle of the stem which had 
hardened considerably since collection; the weevils which successfully 
emerged probably came out from the cut ends. At the end of August, 
nothing had emerged from the stems standing in water. On sectioning 
them, however, two dead weevils were found inside the stem opposite 
discoloured points and these proved to be male A. soror. On opening up 
some of the stems, larval borings were found in the main stems from near 
the bases into the flowering spikes. There were signs that the weevil larvae 
had tunnelled along about 8 cm of stem. 

These limited observations indicate that A. soror breeds in the stems of 
Althaea officinalis in much the same way as A. radiolus (Marsham) breeds 
in the stems of Althaea rosea Cav. (garden hollyhock) and of Malva spp. 
To date, the weevil has been found in Britain only at Burham Marshes and 
Lydd in Kent, and at Camber in Sussex (M.G. Morris) but A. officinalis is 
recorded (Perring & Walters, Atlas of the British Flora, Botanical Society 
of the British Isles, 1976) at a number of localities near the coast from the 
Wash round to Lancashire and also in south-west Ireland, which gives 
scope for further sites to be found. 
J. A. Owen, 8 Kingsdown Road, Epsom KT17 3PU. 
H. Mendel, The Museum, High Street, Ipswich IPl 3QH. 



CARABUS INTRICATUS IN BRITAIN 113 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF CARABUS INTRICATUS L. 

(COL.: CARABIDAE) IN BRITAIN, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE 

TO ITS PRESENT-DAY STATUS 

A. A. Allen* 

*49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

THIS grand Carabus, at about 32 mm in maximum length the largest 
ground-beetle to be found in this country and one of the most restricted 
and rare of our indigenous species, used to be taken — mostly by ones or 
twos but occasionally in fair numbers — in what Fowler (1877: 7) described 
as "the south-west district bordering on Dartmoor in Devonshire". The 
first capture was in the Tavy Valley by Dr Leach, as mentioned by Fowler & 
Donisthorpe (1913), but the year is not stated. Localities cited in the early 
literature includes Tavistock, Holdsworthy, Ashburton, Bickleigh Vale, 
Ivybridge and Aller Bridge near Newton Abbot; and the habitat, in woods 
under moss and lichens on old trunks and stumps, and (less often perhaps) 
under stones, logs and loose bark, or running in the open. Many of the 
specimens in our collections originate from J. Reading of Plymouth, who is 
said to have taken some 70 examples about the middle decades of last 
century. Very near its end (28. v. 1898) a better-known coleopterist of that 
town, the late J.H. Keys, after years of searching rediscovered the species 
in the old locality at Bickleigh Vale near Plymouth — a pair from moss on 
an oak (Keys, 1899). Of my own pair, one (a fine female) is labelled as from 
Dartmoor (J.B. Wieldt) without date; while the male taken by Reading is 
marked simply "Devonshire/Nov. 1857". 

After Keys' capture, C intricatus appears to have become exceedingly 
scarce for just half a century. Whether this was due to over-collecting in the 
past, or to some natural cause such as periodic fluctuation in numbers, can 
only be guessed — probably the latter. Though there may well have been a 
few, I have seen no published record for the whole of that time, and have 
heard of only a single capture: G.H. Ashe in 1947 informed me that the 
beetle had last been taken by the late Stanley Kemp at lepidopterists' 
"sugar" on a tree at night in the vicinity of Horrabridge, near Tavistock. 
This would have been, at a guess, during the 1920s or 30s (possibly later), 
and probably never reached the pages of a major journal. It is no wonder, 
then, if more than a few coleopterists have, in the continued absence of 
published records, concluded that this fine species is extinct here — or 
almost so. 

Happily, however, that is far from being the case; indeed, it evidently 
survives in good numbers and over an appreciably enlarged territory. The 
contrast between this and its apparent extreme rarity during the first half of 
the century (though there was no lack of energetic collectors) is truly 
remarkable and may indicate considerable powers of revival. The 
occurrences reported below are very likely not the only ones but merely 



114 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. v. 1989 

those which happen to have come under my notice, and are far too 
interesting to remain unpublished for much longer. For obvious reasons, it 
would seem unwise to specify localities too closely; they are, I understand, 
known to the Nature Conservancy Council and to Dr M.L. Luff. 

In December 1960, Mr R.O.S. Clarke had the good fortune to turn up as 
many as 28 specimens of C. intricatus, in two batches of 14 each, under 
beech bark in a wood in the Exeter district — a part of S. Devon from 
which there seems to be no earlier record, that from Newton Abbot being 
the nearest. This highly notable find suggests that the species tends to 
congregate for hibernation, though of more solitary habit at other times of 
year. I must add that when Prof. J. A. Owen visited the site recently, the 
wood was being thinned out; which, unless strictly controlled, may bode ill 
for the survival there of this Red Data Book Category I species. 

Next, a new county record, the first certain one outside Devon (apart, of 
course, from casual importations). This is for two locahties in East 
Cornwall, the beetle having been taken in 1972 by the late K.C. Side near 
Lostwithiel, and also near Bodmin — both, I believe, single specimens. 
This westward extension of the range of C. intricatus as previously known, 
if not great, is still very noteworthy. Any natural spread of a flightless 
insect without special means of dispersal can only be extremely slow, and so 
any apparent spread will nearly always be, in fact, a new discovery of an 
old site, unless due to human agency. 

Finally, Mr T.M. Eccles kindly furnished me with details of his recent 
experience of intricatus in a new Devonshire locality in the "old" area — a 
wood, fortunately a National Nature Reserve, in the region just south of 
Dartmoor. Here, in May 1985, on a warm and humid day after heavy rain, 
he met with six examples "crawling about actively on exposed moss- 
covered logs and boles of trees, two of them several feet above the ground 
on tree trunks." One was ascending and another descending a trunk, and a 
third was in the act of devouring a large black slug on a mossy fallen tree. 
This encounter too is of great interest, not least for the light it sheds on the 
insect's daytime habits, though we are agreed that such diurnal activity is 
likely to be exceptional and correlated with the unusual state of the weather 
at the time. This notion is supported by the fact that on a second visit to the 
wood by Mr Eccles in the summer of 1986, in more ordinary weather 
conditions, no further specimen of the beetle could be found. However, 
two fully grown larvae occurred in a rotten log lying on the ground, which 
may well be the first certain find of the larva of Carabus intricatus in 
Britain. (On the characters of this larva, see Fowler, 1887: 6.) It points to a 
probable autumn emergence of adults, though, apart from the midwinter 
occurrence above, most appear to have been taken in spring or early 
summer. 

During the early 1950s there were one or two unconfirmed reports of this 
species in the Highlands of Scotland. Should they have any basis in fact, I 
suggest the possibility that stocks of German timber, of which a large 



CARABUS INTRICATUS IN BRITAIN 115 

amount was imported into Scotland just after the war, may have been 
responsible. If the beetle were a native of that country (which seems most 
unlikely), or if such chance introductions had resulted in colonization, it 
could hardly have been passed over in the course of the intensive collecting 
that has been carried on in the Highlands in the past 40 years. One such 
record, however, is certainly due to a misreading (as the author himself 
informed me): Ashe (1952) wrote that C intricatus was "common among 
pine trimmings" at Nethy Bridge. This was, I believe, corrected later to C. 
violaceus, but it may be as well to mention it here in case the correction 
should be missed. 

References 

Ashe, G.H. 1952 Coleoptera at Nethy Bridge, Inverness-shire. Entomologist's mon. 

Mag. 88: 165-8. 
Fowler, W.W. 1887. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, 1: 6,7. Reeve, London. 
Fowler, W.W. and Donisthorpe, H.StJ.K. 1913. Ibid. 6: 201. 
Keys, J.H. 1899. Carabus intricatus, L., at Plymouth. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 

35:290-1. 



Jodia croceago D. & S., the Orange Upperwing, (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 
Cornwall and France 

MY FIRST experience of this lovely moth was a perfect male that came to 
m.v. light in the garden of my house in Cornwall on 4.iii.l983. The house 
was in a warm, sheltered valley surrounded by oak trees, mainly Quercus 
petraea, including shrubby specimens that retained their leaves throughout 
the winter. Croceago overwinters as a moth, possibly hiding amongst 
withered oak leaves still on the branch. Despite several years trapping, this 
single male is the only specimen I have seen in Cornwall. There are only two 
published records since 1950, both relating to captures by Col, Rossel in the 
thickly wooded valley of the river Fowey, in the autumn of 1962 (Smith, 
F.H.N. 1984. A list of the butterflies and moths recorded in Cornwall, 
1950-1983. Cornwall Trust for Nature Conservation). The moth is also 
known to occur on the edges of Dartmoor. 

Travelling in France near Cahors in 1985, I came across an extensive 
wood, in a sheltered valley, near Orniac, just south of the D653 Cahors- 
Figeac Road. The wood contained shrubby trees still retaining their leaves. 
I immediately thought of croceago and beat the branches of a small tree by 
the side of the road and at once obtained a female croceago. No more 
moths were obtained by beating, so I returned at night with an m.v. lamp. I 
obtained four males which were flying about one hour after dark (20.30), 
but no more were seen despite running the light until after midnight. 

The female was placed in a box with a small piece of pear as food, and 
she started laying the following week (Heath, The moths and butterflies of 



116 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. v. 1989 

Great Britain and Ireland, 10, advises the provision of oak twigs for egg- 
laying by captive females). At first the ova were yellowish-green, turning to 
red-brown after six days. They started to hatch on 2nd May, when the 
mother was still laying eggs. In their first instar, the larvae were grey-brown 
with black hairs, with light brown heads, and the first three and last two 
segments were a blue-grey colour. The mother died on 12th May, having 
laid 365 eggs, by which time the many larvae were into their second instar 
and had lost the darker area near their heads. The larvae were very restless, 
and very good at escaping from their cage. Some were given to various 
friends, who passed them on, and many were eventually bred by collectors 
in other parts of Britain perhaps under the mistaken impression that they 
were of Cornish origin. — A. Spalding, Tregarne, Cusgarne, Truro, 
Cornwall. 



Cryptopleurum crenatum Panz. (Col.: Hydrophilidae) in West Kent and 
Herefordshire. 

First detected here in 1938, this remains a scarce species which, however, 
may well prove generally distributed over England at least, as the rather 
few published records suggest. An idea of its incidence compared with the 
common C. minutum F. is given by the fact that C.E. Tottenham, writing 
in 1939, found only three crenatum among nearly 200 minutum in his own 
and R.W. Lloyd's collections {Ent. mon. Mag. 75: 1 17). The records I have 
seen are from Middlesex, S. Essex, Surrey, N. and S. Hants, Oxon, Worcs, 
M.W. Yorks and Scilly. In addition, I have lately determined an example 
from my former garden at Blackheath, W. Kent, probably from compost 
(viii.55); and had previously extracted two from flood-refuse from the 
River Wye at Hereford (ii.l948). Contrary to custom, the author of 
crenatum is given as Kugelann in the 1977 Check List — on the correctness 
of which change I venture no opinion. Our third and more recently added 
Cryptopleurum, subtile Sharp, is little recorded but continues to occur here 
at m.v. light sporadically, and I have found it in siftings from a straw-stack 
not far away. — A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, 
London SE7 8QG. 

Phyllonorycter messaniella Zell. (Lep.: Gracillariidae) feeding on Quercus 
borealis, the red oak. 

WHILE collecting leaf mines from Colwick Country Park, Nottingham, 
on 4 September 1988 I came across a tenanted mine on a leaf of Quercus 
borealis. A specimen of Phyllonorycter messaniella emerged ten days later. 
Whilst messaniella is well known for feeding on a wide range of trees, 
especially Quercus ilex and other deciduous Quercus species, it is perhaps 
worth recording which individual oak species are used. — A.S. Boot, 38 
Balmoral 'Road, Colwick, Nottingham NG4 2GD. 



BUTTERFLIES IN WINTER 117 

BUTTERFLIES IN WINTER 

A. Archer-Lock 

4 Glen wood Road, Plymouth PL3 5NH. 

TOWARDS the end of Gilbert White's The Natural History of Selborne, a 
comparative calendar sets out various dates for first and last appearance as 
recorded by White in Hampshire, and Marwick in Sussex; they include 13th 
February and 24th December for the Brimstone, and the same first date for 
the Peacock with the last date of Christmas Day. Nothing for January at 
all, for these two acute observers. As a result of a ten year study, in this 
article, I hope to suggest that they could have seen more! "Winter" is 
taken to include the four months of November to February. 

A Winter Experience. 

It is mid-day on 5 December 1984. The weather is perfect, apart from a 
gentle cool breeze. The location is an estate yard serving a 16th century 
mansion; on three sides are ranges of stables and workshops, the fourth 
side being taken up by the timber store, a charming open-fronted building, 
the ancient granite piers supporting a slate roof mellowed with grey and 
orange lichens. All is quiet; The Estate Staff have dispersed to their homes 
for lunch, and the Agent has settled in his car with coffee and sandwiches, 
facing with anticipation, the sunny timber store where hyper-active wrens 
and robins dart in and out of the shadows. A scrutiny of the roof reveals a 
Small Tortoiseshell basking, wings flat, as a grey squirrel ripples through 
the trees above. At 12.04, a Red Admiral arrives, making straight for an 
old white-enamelled cylinder to bask. Six minutes later, a small male Red 
Admiral appears, settling to bask upon a granite block two metres from the 
female; both allow very close approach. The Small Tortoiseshell, in the 
meantime, makes periodic flights between the roof and various walls, 
showing preference for the former. At 12.40, both Red Admirals take wing 
and toy. There follows a prolonged pursuit, the female casually wandering 
high in and around the trees, and down around the yard, constantly 
followed by the male. Twice she settles, the male attempting to mate with 
her. Her final flight is on to a branch in the shade, some twenty feet up, 
and here, the male is successful, after much fluttering, and the pair become 
motionless. 

I am vaguely aware, by dint of artificial coughs, that the men have 
returned, and imagine knowing exchanges of grins or even worse, but my 
binoculars are not lowered! The sunlight reaches the paired butterflies, but 
they do not move. At 12.51, a fine Peacock passes close to the Red 
Admirals, coming out of the dark wood to settle upon a granite block; this 
butterfly clearly hesitated when passing the pair, obviously aware of their 
presence. Clouds begin to increase, the sun becoming more hazy, but at 
13.01, a third Red Admiral flies into the yard to alight on the white 
cylinder. The Peacock now flights, and enters the dark recess of the 



118 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

woodshed, but moments later, reappears to join the Small Tortoiseshell 
upon the roof. At 13.10, a fourth Red Admiral flies in, immediately toying 
with number three. They even almost settle on the same branch as the first 
pair, but eventually separate, one departing, and the other flying into the 
depths of the wood. 

It is 13.20 when a second Peacock glides into the yard, and after some 
procrastination, joins the two butterflies on the woodstore roof. By 13.32, 
it is overcast, when the first Peacock suddenly closes its wings, shortly 
afterwards taking flight to investigate pedantically, various options to 
hibernate in roofs, ivy etc, before departing at 13.38. The second Peacock 
abruptly closes its wings at 13.44, then flies high into the trees, down again, 
settles to bask at various spots, and eventually departs into the wood. In 
the meantime, the Small Tortoiseshell has been basking on the roof for an 
hour and a half, only making fractional pivot movements, and seeming 
indifferent to the cloudy conditions, or the fact that the sun would have left 
this spot for half an hour anyway. At 13.55, the butterfly closes its wings, 
but at 14.05, basks again, this time briefly, before departing into the wood; 
I return at 15.15 to check upon the paired Red Admirals, noting that they 
are still in cop, although the male is now at a slight angle. 

Breeding 

I have fairly frequently watched Red Admirals prospecting nettles during 
November, but only once, on 7th November 1983, seen eggs actually being 
laid. These started to hatch on 17th November. By Christmas Day, three 
larvae still survived in their individual "tents", two being half-grown, and 
the third, smaller, appeared to be hibernating. A farmer unfortunately 
trimmed the nettles. From a "control" egg of the "batch", a small female 
emerged on 21 January 1984; although reared in an unheated room, the 
control larva was always ahead of those in the wild state. 

On 25th December 1987, I watched two Painted Lady butterflies 
frequently toying along the sunny verge of a wood where, in a previous 
year, I had established that one was returning to "hibernate" after sorties 
to flowery fields on sunny mornings. (Ent. Rec. 92: 87.) 

Feeding 

The very hardy Red Admiral will continue to feed throughout November 
in the most severe of conditions, if sunny {Ent. Rec. 90: 63-64), but 
thereafter, they appear to lose interest, my latest date being 1st December 
on chrysanthemums. Both observations showed that the individual 
returned daily to the chosen food source. In March, pussy willows are 
attractive. The Painted Lady on the other hand, feeds at any time; I have 
notes for garden marigold, yellow buddleia, and dandelion. 

Small Tortoiseshells and Peacocks seem to be uninterested in flowers 
before the first really spring-like day; In spite of numerous observations, 
the earliest and latest dates for Small Tortoiseshells feeding are 16th 



BUTTERFLIES IN WINTER 1 19 

February, and 2nd December (red valerian), and no record for the Peacock 
during any of the four months. However, on several occasions during 
January, I have observed Peacocks drinking moisture. {Ent. Rec. 90: 64.) 
Small Coppers feed from yellow flowers throughout their flight period, 
often into November, my latest date being the 10th. 

Species 

My latest dates for "summer" butterflies are:- Speckled Wood, 12th 
November; Meadow Brown, 2nd November; Small White, 10th November; 
Clouded Yellow, 8th November; and Small Copper, 10th November. Here 
in the South- West, one would reasonably expect to see a November Small 
Copper in three-brood years, and also the Speckled Wood if searched for 
diligently. 

Weather Conditions 

With practice, one tends to aquire a sense of recognising the subtle 
difference between the negative and the promising day. Sometimes, it 
seems quite illogical. For example, three patrols along a mile of good 
habitat during December on fine sunny days, produced nothing, three 
Small Tortoiseshells, and one Peacock respectively. A touch of damp 
rawness seems to be the inhibiting factor. Temperatures far below what 
might be expected, are tolerated. I frequently see basking butterflies when 
the shade temperature is in the low forties Fahrenheit even after frost, with 
that frost unthawed in the nearby shade, and on 30 January 1987, a 
Peacock was basking amongst the rubble of a wall in a bitter east wind 
which buffeted its wings; the shade temperature was below 38° F., and the 
wind strong enough for flags to snake vigorously. An early sunny start to 
the day seems helpful, but not essential, and good sunny periods will 
suffice. 

Habits 

The Peacock is probably the most lured out of the winter butterflies, and 
on the whole, is the most stable in relation to the hibernation base. Might it 
be that the propensity to seek moisture is due to the dryness of preferred 
shelter? In very marginal weather conditions, the Peacock will merely crawl 
to a sunny nook of micro-climate; here, they are extremely difficult to see 
unless one looks right into the situation, and are ultra-coy, shutting wings 
at the slightest disturbance, so it is essential to see first! I am convinced that 
the Peacock is a sporting insect (Ent. Rec. 91: 212). In common with the 
Small Tortoiseshell, the species is capable of emerging from dark locations, 
and flying quite considerable distances to a sunny area. On 8 January 1978 
a Peacock was flighting and sunning in a patch of dead bracken on an open 
hillside; as fog crept up the valley, the butterfly purposefully flew off far 
into the permanent shade on the other side, towards a group of old 
buildings. 



120 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

Whilst many Small Tortoiseshells remain loyal to their hibernation site 
(Ent. Rec. 90: 271), some are rash in their ventures, becoming confused 
when leaving the return until too late, and will wander indecisively; one 
December victim eventually settled under a nettle leaf where it subsequently 
perished. The Comma will feed on ivy flowers early in November; late and 
early dates are 15th December and 23rd February. The species may be so 
reluctant to move because of the high open hibernation stance exposed to 
stronger, cool breezes etc. One autumn butterfly closed up on the top of a 
sunlit leaf during the afternoon of a perfect day, and remained motionless 
throughout the following similar day. Winter appearances of the Brimstone 
have always been of very brief duration. An interesting puzzle regarding all 
these species is why, after they have closed down in an apparently ideal 
position, they will move again after some hours. 

Habitat 

Allotments with numerous sheds, neglected plots, and scrubby corners 
are good sites as are along the verges of wood or scrub on a south facing 
slope, especially if there are old, neglected dry-stone walls and hedge- 
banks. Emergence time is most often between 1130 and 1300 hours and a 
constant patrolling is best. Such an ideal site, of about three quarters of a 
mile, has been used for much of this research, and reveals that only a 
fraction of the specimens in residence come out on any one day before the 
first really spring-like day. 

Conclusion 

It is suggested that almost anywhere in the country will enjoy the 
conditions required to stimulate hibernating butterflies from time to time; 
application is certainly required, but success is uplifting! I would by very 
interested to hear of the position elsewhere, and would happily submit a 
summary to The Editor. For each month of 1988, at least three different 
species were sighted, enabling three calendar lists of species per month to be 
produced without repetition, for twelve months. To complete this, a 
Brimstone was essential. On 28th December, the last chance, a window of 
blue sky appeared above a favoured wood, but a watch of one and a half 
hours was unsuccessful. Walking back to the car, I noticed a sunny scrub- 
filled ride under some pylons and made my way to it. Standing a few paces 
from a small bush, there was a fluttering disturbance from its depths, and 
out fluttered an immaculate male Brimstone at 12.55. The butterfly made 
two sorties up the ride, and then returned into the bush after a few minutes. 
1 touched my cap to whoever might be in charge above. 



MONITORING BUTTERFLIES 



121 



MONITORING OF BUTTERFLIES AT ST CYRUS NATIONAL 
NATURE RESERVE, 1979-1983 

D.N. Carstairs 

Nature Conservancy Council, 6 Melbourne Road, Stamford, Lines PE9 WD. 

Introduction 
P-OLLARD (1979) describes a method for monitoring the abundance of 
butterflies by counts of species and individuals along a pre-determined 
route; the now well-known transect method. Following trials at Monks 
Wood, a national butterfly monitoring scheme was commenced in 1976. 
Ten years on, one hundred and sixteen sites have provided data in three or 
more years (Pollard et al 1986), allowing annual calculation of an index of 
abundance for each species, provision of information on flight periods, 
some assessment of habitat preference and the possible effects of 
management through distribution along the transect. 

Transect monitoring for this study was carried out annually at St Cyrus 
from April 1979 to September 1983. Situated some eight kilometres north 
of Montrose in the county of Kincardineshire (Fig. 1), the ninety hectares 
of sand dunes and salt-marsh, ungrazed pasture (by stock), gorse scrub, 
basalt cHffs and slopes (locally heughs) of St Cyrus were declared a 
National Nature Reserve in 1962, as rich and varied a mix of species and 



rz^ 


JWICK 


C 


w^— ^^RASERBURGH 


INVERNESS 


/ 




/ABERDEEN 


SCOTLAND 


i/sT CYRUS 


i 


^^MONTROSE 

> 



Fig. 1 Location of St Cyrus reserve 



122 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.V.1989 



habitats as can be found an3^here on the Scottish coast (Fig. 2). Retained 
in private ownership by two salmon fishing companies, the diversity of 
habitats has been maintained, even enhanced through a blend of traditional 
land use practises by the fishermen and management for nature 
conservation. Coupled with which, St Cyrus has remained undeveloped, a 
relatively quiet strip of coast spared many of the more extreme recreational 
and leisure excesses that despoil accessible coastlands everywhere. 

Furthermore a combination of local conditions: comparatively mild 
cHmate, sheltered and sunny location (over fourteen hundred hours 



1 


WOODSTON 




,,»ll»//////y. 


ST CYRUS 


<y' xv«/-i 




•<\./vxv/^^ 


i 


\ 


.0 10 V*^^ 




o ^/ 


N 


7 :/ JOSEPH JOHNSTON'S 


#-'* 

% 


>> \}Y FISHERY 






Co TAY SALMON FISHERY 
-^ 64 




O 


•' / ^ 




\ '' / -^ 




2 14 / ^ 




• / ^ 




•^ • / 




' / /■■/ 




"^ ' / 


500 


* g 


\ 1 


• 7 

1 1 


METRES 


g 


75 



Fig. 2 Detail of reserve showing sampling points 1-14 



MONITORING BUTTERFLIES 123 

annually) freely-draining, calcareous soils and low rainfall combine to 
produce conditions which support a rich and colourful flora of over three 
hundred and fifty species of wild plant, many confined to the Scottish 
coast, others at or near the northern limit of their distribution in Britain. 
Although the flora has been well known for over a century (Dickie 1860), it 
is only in recent years, notably since the work of Pelham-Clinton, that 
attention has been given to the Lepidoptera. Of the thirty one species of 
butterflies occurring in Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire only twenty are 
resident; of these thirteen are known from St Cyrus (Palmer and Young 
1980). 

The Butterflies, Species and Abundance 

Transect recording was carried out from the beginning of April until the 
end of September each year from 1979 to 1983. During the first four years 
the route comprised ten sections encompassing the principal habitats found 
on the Reserve. In 1983 the transect was extended to incorporate a line of 
sand dunes. The study area ranged across a broad spectrum of habitats. 
From its beginning in a small area of rarely-inundated salt marsh or 
"slunks" (Scots: slonk, a mire), through rabbit-grazed dune pasture and 
scattered gorse scrub rich in wild plants (clustered bellflower, maiden pink 
and meadow saxifrage amongst them), to a more closed grass-dominated 
community on slopes of blown sand beneath seventy metre basalt cliffs. 
Finally along an exposed, low-lying sand dune ridge. 

Recording was carried out at certain times of day and under suitable 
weather conditions (e.g. a minimum temperature of 11°C and 60<yo 
sunshine along transect). The method followed was as detailed in Pollard 
(1977). Additionally an assessment of local weather, albeit rather crude, 
was made throughout the recording period: maximum daily temperature, 
total days with more than 50% cloud cover, and precipitation, that is the 
total days on which rain, snow or fog occurred as distinct from dry days. 

Sea- fog or "haar" (Old Norse: harr, hoary) a feature of the North Sea 
coast, was common in the late spring and early summer. A cloying, sunless 
damp, it had a marked effect on butterfly activity. Even so, weather 
records showed remarkable consistency, probably more a reflection of the 
crudity of the recording method than a measure of the local climate. Mean 
monthly temperatures fluctuated little about a small range and the number 
of dry days to wet days compared favourably from year to year (see 
table 1). 

Thirteen species were recorded along the transect during the recording 
period (see table 2), eleven resident and two migrants. Of these, six 
occurred every year. Green-veined White, Meadow Brown and Small 
Heath were consistently the most abundant butterflies on the Reserve, a 
feature probably linked to their wide ranging habitat tolerances as well as, 
in the case of Green-veined White, local immigration from arable fields 
flanking the west side of the Reserve where the food plants (wild crucifers) 



124 




ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, 


VOL. 101 




15.V.1989 
















% 
















DRY 




APRIL 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AUG 


SEPT 


DAYS 


1979 


NO RECORDS 


21 


18 


17 


57 


1980 


14 


18 


20 


21 


20 


17 


54 


1981 


13 


18 


20 


22 


22 


18 


62 


1982 


14 


— 


21 


24 


21 


16 


63 


1983 


11 


13 


23 


23 


24 


17 


51 



Table 1. Mean Monthly Maximum Temperature (°C) 1979 - 1983. 





Years 














SPECIES 


Recorded 


1979 


1980 


1981 


1982 


1983 


TOTAI 


Meadow Brown 


5 


46 


27 


96 


486 


900 


1555 


Green-veined White 


5 


109 


112 


127 


218 


116 


682 


Small Heath 


5 


39 


41 


25 


86 


53 


244 


Grayling 


5 


19 


12 


5 


73 


41 


150 


Common Blue 


5 


12 


16 


6 


63 


29 


126 


Small Copper 


5 


17 


25 


11 


10 


9 


72 


Small Tortoiseshell 


4 


11 


5 





34 


13 


63 


Small White 


3 


12 


5 





30 





47 


Northern Brown Argus 


4 





3 


1 


16 


12 


32 


Large White 


4 


3 


1 





13 


4 


21 


Red Admiral 


2 





4 





2 





6 


Small Blue 


2 





2 


1 








3 


Painted Lady 


1 





2 











2 



Table 2. Annual Indices of Abundance 1979 - 1983. 



were commonly found. Although Grayling, Common Blue and Small 
Copper were recorded annually, they were seldom well represented; annual 
indices rarely exceeding twenty individuals. However, apart from Small 
Copper and Small Blue, all resident species showed dramatic increases in 
abundance in 1982, concurring with the National trend, a situation no 
doubt influenced by the relatively high summer temperatures that year. 
Both Small White and the more free-ranging Small Tortoiseshell were 
present in most years. Abundance patterns for the two species were very 
similar, both species showing dramatic increases in 1982 following periods 
of decline. Again local immigration from adjacent farmland, where Small 
Tortoiseshell over-winter in outbuildings, and both species find an 
abundance of food plants, no doubt had a significant influence upon the 
numbers of individuals recorded on the Reserve. Similarly Large White, 



MONITORING BUTTERFLIES 125 

considered a migrant by some authorities (Thomson 1980) may have 
numbers boosted by immigration in some years. According to Pollard 
(1986) however, transect data puts this supposition into some doubt on the 
basis of two important observations. There is a good correlation between 
spring and summer generations and seasonal appearance is regular, not 
erratic as one might expect with a migrant. At St Cyrus Large White were 
seldom seen in quantity, a mean annual index of only four between 1979 
and 1983. Generations were indistinct and seasonal appearance ranged 
from week twelve (17-23 June) to week fifteen (8-14 July), suggesting that 
immigration may well have been taking place. 

Gunning (1896) was familiar with St Cyrus as a "splendid ground" for 
the Northern Brown Argus. In 1979 a small colony was located on a stretch 
of disused railway Hne adjacent to the Reserve, a few individuals loitering 
in the vicinity of the foodplant Helianthemum nummularium. The 
following year three were seen on the Reserve and each year thereafter in 
small but increasing numbers between 1 July and early August. 

The only other rare butterfly at St Cyrus also has its centre of activity 
along a stretch of disused railway line adjacent to the Reserve. Here amid 
drifts of kidney vetch, growing on open ballast, a discreet colony of Small 
Blue survives. The butterfly also occurs on the Reserve, and although 
recorded only twice along the transect during the five years, a tiny satellite 
colony was found on slipped soil at the sheltered base of a cliff-slope, a 
typical location for the species in Scotland (Thomson 1980). 

The migrants Red Admiral and Painted Lady occurred infrequently and 
erratically. Red Admiral, the commoner of the two, appeared in only two 
years, most frequently at the end of summer. Painted Lady was recorded 
only once, in 1980 when over twenty flew in off the sea in late June and on 
a few subsequent dates that season, a particularly good year for the species 
in Britain. 

Distribution along the transect: occurrence by section 

Table 3 shows the mean number of individuals recorded in each section for 
the five year period. Figures are calculated to the nearest whole number. 
Where insufficient data allows this, species' presence is indicated thus *. 
Numerical data for sections eleven to fourteen are omitted as this extension 
to the transect was only made in 1983, the last year of the present study. 

Not unexpectedly, the three most abundant species: Meadow Brown, 
Green-veined White and Small Heath were also the most widely 
distributed, occurring in all sections. By contrast the Small Blue was only 
found in two sections (14% of the transect), confined to within a few 
metres of its larval foodplant, kidney vetch {Anthyllis vulneraria). 
Northern Brown Argus showed a similar pattern occurring in only five 
sections at the northern end of the Reserve. The obvious association is with 
its larval foodplant, rock rose {Helianthemum nummularium), although at 



126 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 


, VOL 


. 101 






15. 


V.1989 




SECTION (See Fig. 2) 


















SPECIES 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 14 


HABITAT 


S 


P 


P 


P 


P 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


D 


D 


D D 


Meadow Brown 


1 


2 


1 


2 


25 


20 


20 25 


90 


18 


* 


* 


* * 


Green-veined White 


7 


30 


12 


3 


6 


5 


9 


8 


15 


10 


* 


* 


* * 


Small Heath 


4 


1 


2 


1 


10 


3 


3 


2 


7 


2 


* 


* 


* * 


Grayling 










2 


2 


20 


15 


45 


41 




* 


* 


Common Blue 




2 


3 




4 


3 


8 


17 


32 


18 








Small Copper 




5 


3 




7 




3 


13 


24 


10 








Small Tortoiseshell 


* 


1 


* 




1 


* 


1 


2 


3 


2 


* 


* 


* * 


Small White 


* 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


3 


1 








Northern Brown Argus 












2 


7 


1 


15 


2 








Large White 




1 


1 


1 






1 




1 


1 








Small Blue 














* 






* 








TOTAL SPECIES 


5 


8 


8 


5 


8 


7 


11 


9 


10 


11 








TOTAL INDIVIDUALS 


12 


43 


23 


8 


56 


46 


73 


84 235 105 








HABITATS 




























S = Saltmarsh 




























P = Dune pasture 




























G = CHff slope grassland 




























D = Sand dunes 





























Table 3. Mean number of individuals/section 1979 - 1983. 



St Cyrus where the plant occurs rather sparingly, it is interesting to consider 
the observation by Thomson (1980) from the Durham coast. There, in the 
absence of rock rose, larvae feed on bloody cranesbill (Geranium 
sanguineum), a frequently occurring plant among the cliff-slope grasslands 
at the northern end of the Reserve. 

Most species however, were recorded along most of the transect, only the 
inconsistent Large White and the locally rare Northern Brown Argus and 
Small Blue being found in under half the fourteen sections. Generally the 
more sheltered, botanically varied sections yielded the most species, while 
the exposed and more uniform areas (sand dunes, upper salt marsh) 
produced fewer species. Within the richer dune pasture and cliff-slope 
grasslands there were further differences. At the northern end of the 
transect (sections 7 - 10), a rather closed grass-dominated community on 
sunny slopes of windblown sand, the mean number of species/section was 
ten. This contrasted with seven species/section recorded from sections 2 -6 
at the southern end of the transect, a mixture of rabbit -grazed dune pasture 
and dense gorse {Ulex europaeus) scrub. 



MONITORING BUTTERFLIES 



127 



Similarly some species were recorded more frequently in some sections 
than in others. Given that transects were carried out only once a week and 
that little obvious variance in numbers of species and individuals occurs 
between sections of differing lengths (e.g. secton 9 is less than one hundred 
metres long), it would appear that some sections are particularly favoured 
by some species. For example Green-veined White appeared to favour 
section two. Meadow Brown were found most abundantly in section nine, 
as were Grayling, Northern Brown Argus and Common Blue. 

Occurrence by weeks 

Figure 3 shows the averaged flight periods of the eleven resident butterflies 
for the period 1979 to 1983. Peak periods are indicated thus ' • ' and where 
generations were distinct, a break in the horizontal axis is shown. 

Butterflies were present from week two (8-14 April) until the end of 
transect recording on 29 September, though records of Small Tortoiseshell 
and the migrant Red Admiral into mid October were not unusual. The total 
number of species present each month ranged from three in April to five in 
September, peaking at eleven during July. The optimum period for 
butterfly activity (maximum numbers of species and individuals) was from 
22 July to 4 August. 



MEADOW BROWN 
NORTHERN BROWN ARGUS 



GRAYLING 



SMALL BLUE 
LARGE WHITE 
COMMON BLUE 
SMALL WHITE 
SMALL HEATH 
SMALL COPPER 
SMALL TORTOISESHELL 
GREEN-VEINED WHITE 



Week 



2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 



APRIL 



MAY 



JULY 



AUG 



SEPT 



Figure 3 Averaged Flight Periods 1979 - 1983 by weeks 



128 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

Only Small Copper, Small Tortoiseshell and Green-veined White 
produced two distinct generations each year. 

The univoltine species: Small White, Meadow Brown, Common Blue 
and Small Heath all showed protracted flight periods. By contrast, Small 
Blue, Grayling and Northern Brown Argus were on the wing for relatively 
short periods. 

Discussion 

Excluding the migrants Red Admiral and Painted Lady, eleven species 
occurred regularly along the transect. This compares favourably with 
neighbouring coastal sites: Sands of Forvie (60 km north) with ten species, 
and Tentsmuir (53 km south) with thirteen (Pollard 1986). But for the 
locally uncommon Small Blue and Northern Brown Argus, and the 
confined Grayhng (almost exclusively coastal in Scotland), the St Cyrus 
fauna might be regarded as unexceptional; all the species being both 
common and widely distributed. Even so, the distribution of species by 
section showed interesting differences between one end of the transect and 
the other. Reference to Table 3 shows sections 7 to 10 recording more 
species and greater numbers of individuals than the southern sections 1 to 
6. The clue as to why this should be may be linked to traditional land use. 

At least since the 13th century, salmon fishing has been carried out at St 
Cyrus (Fraser 1979). Fish, returning each year to their native river north 
Esk to spawn, are caught by elaborate lines of stake nets extending 
seawards at right angles to the shore. Two salmon fishing companies own 
the land comprising the Reserve: Tay salmon company and Joseph 
Johnstons of Montrose. The land, Hke the fishing has been managed 
traditionally; the south end (sections 1 to 6) by Tay salmon company, the 
north (sections 7 to 10) by Joseph Johnstons. Important differences have 
arisen. The north end of the Reserve has been more intensively managed: 
steep cHff paths have required regular maintenance and clearance of 
encroaching vegetation to allow unimpeded access by the fishermen, 
particularly at night. The limited areas for net-drying and pole storage has 
required the control of invasive scrub and rank vegetation. Similarly "cool 
burning" of the chff slopes is carried out in winter to reduce the likelihood 
of more serious fires during the summer when dry litter from previous years 
produces "hot burning" (pers. comm. J. Ritchie). 

By contrast the more extensive Tay salmon company has pockets of 
undisturbed, even rank vegetation, notably mature gorse scrub and tall 
grasses. Because road access is possible at the south end of the Reserve, 
there has been no requirement for the creation of cliff paths. The cliff 
slopes too have been largely left, their bracken-dominated flora probably 
less at risk of serious summer fire than the arid slopes at the north end of 
the Reserve. 



MONITORING BUTTERFLIES 129 

Since declaration of the Reserve in 1962, a balance has been sought 
between conservation management and the day to day land use practises 
associated with salmon fishing. The resulting compromise has helped retain 
a mosaic of habitats, some disturbed, others neglected. Although the 
majority of butterflies recorded might be regarded as unspeciaHsed, it is 
suggested that traditional land use characterised by periodic, low-intensity 
disturbance, coupled with the retention of non-intervention areas, 
produces a range of conditions favourable to their survival. 

Acknowledgements 

For assistance in the field I am indebted to: J. Beaton, T. and E. Bushby, 
P. Carstairs, C. Crick, the late P.Hancock and G. Pierce. For stimulating 
and good natured discussion on management and land use history, I thank 
the St Cyrus fishermen, particularly J. Ritchie, F. Taylor and J. Dodds. 

References 

Dickie, G. (1860). The Botanist's Guide to the counties of Aberdeen, Banff and 

Kincardine. 
Eraser, D. (1979). Portrait of a Parish. Montrose: Standard Press. 
Gunning, M. (1896). Notes of the Season. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var.l: 92-94. 
Palmer, R. and Young, M. (1980). Butterflies and moths of St Cyrus. In Marren 

(Ed) The Natural History of St Cyrus. 53-62. Proceedings of symposium. Nature 

Conservancy Council. 
Pollard, E. (1977). A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. 

Biol. Conserv. 12: 115-134. 
— (1979). A national scheme for monitoring the abundance of butterflies: the first 

three years. Proc. Brit. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 12: 77-90. 
Pollard, E., Hall, M.L. and Bibby, T.J. (1986). Monitoring the abundance of 

butterflies: 1976-1985. Research and survey in nature conservation. No. 2. Nature 

Conservancy Council. 
Thomson, G. (1980). The butterflies of Scotland. London: Croom Helm. 



'-Swarming" in Scarabaeidae (Col.) at Bedruthan Steps, Cornwall 

During a family holiday in April 1988 we paused to picnic on the cliff tops 
at Bedruthan Steps. Soon after sitting down near the precipice it became 
obvious that large numbers of Scarabs were on the wing and being carried 
out to sea by the easterly breeze (Force 3 - 4 according to the shipping 
report). As always seems to be the case, nets and tubes were not at hand, 
but sufficient beetles were falling about our sandwiches for identification 
to be made. Aphodius fimetarius (L.), Aphodius ater (DeGeer) and 
Aphodius prodromus (Brahm) were found to form at least the major part 
of the swarm. 

Estimation suggests that along a six metre stretch of cliff 30 - 50 
individuals flew, or were blown out to sea every minute. This being in a 



130 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

band between approximately one metre and two metres off the ground. 
Others were flying higher and a few lower but not at the same density. A 
post-prandial stroll along the diff top to the West and East demonstrated 
that the same was occurring along at least a one km stretch of coastline: 
possibly more, but time did not allow further exploration. There was no 
indication of when events started but they certainly continued for the full 
duration of our one hour stay and showed no sign of abating as we left. 
Quick calculations suggest that some 400,000 individuals may have been 
swept out to sea where the sea-birds were feeding upon them "on the 
wing". The area immediately behind the cliff showed signs of sheep grazing 
with old dung present (but not inhabited) and behind this fields contained a 
fairly high density of cattle. — N. Onslow, 1 Windmill Close, 
Willesborough, Ashford, Kent TN24 OAU. 

A third mainland example of Thera cupressata Geyer (Lep.: Geometridae) 

A MALE example of Thera cupressata was taken in my garden m.v. trap, 
at St Ives near Ringwood, on the night of 24/25th October 1988. A male 
Palpita unionalis Hiibn. was also taken that night. Initially the specimen 
was misidentified as an aberration of Thera juniperata L. but on removal 
from the setting board it was clearly not of that species and corresponded 
exactly with the two specimens illustrated in the literature {Ent. Rec. 98: 
217 and Proc. Trans. Br. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 20: Plate IV, opposite p 74 — 
the latter illustration being in colour). 
The published British mainland records are as follows: 

(a) l.xi.l984, at Walberton, West Sussex (Ent. Rec. 100: 180) 
(b)22.x.l988, at Studland, Dorset (Ent. Rec. 101: 24) 
(c) 24.x. 1988, at St Ives, Hants, here reported. 

The history of the spread of Lithophane leautieri Boisd. is well 
documented, and it is now one of the commonest late autumn moths in 
some areas (including Ringwood, Hants). It does seem premature to 
speculate that the establishment of another Cupressus feeding species is 
imminent on the basis of so few sightings, but the capture of two males on 
Guernsey in October 1985 {Ent. Rec. 89: 217) was followed by the 
discovery of feral larvae on Cupressus the following year, and the species is 
now breeding on Alderney {Proc. Trans. Br. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 20: 44). 
The current status of cupressata in the Channel Isles has been recently 
summarised by Costen {Ent. Rec. 101: 86). 

All of the mainland records are associated with species of known 
migratory tendencies and there is little evidence to suggest that it is already 
established here; however it is worthy of note that both leautieri and its 
foodplants are well established both at Studland and Ringwood. 

My thanks are due to Bernard Skinner for confirming the identity of my 
specimen. — Dr Julian Clarke, 11 Sandy Lane, St Ives, Ringwood, 
Hants. 



LEPIDOPTERA IMMIGRATION SUPPLEMENT 131 

LEPIDOPTERA IMMIGRANT TO THE BRITISH ISLES IN 1985, 1986 
AND 1987 — A SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE 

R.F. Bretherton' and J.M. Chalmers-Hunt^ 

' Folly Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey. 
^ 1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent. 

THIS report summarises the additions and corrections to the records of 
immigrant Lepidoptera made since the publication of the original reports 
and supplements. All reports were made in the Entomologist's Record and 
Journal of Variation as follows: 

for 1985 — 98: 159-163; 204-207; 223-230 with supplement in 99: 147-152 
for 1986 — 99: 189-194; 245-250 
for 1987 — 100: 175-180; 226-232 

1985 
Corrections to Annexe II: For Euchromius ocellea Haw. Winchester, 4.4 
read J.C. Wells instead of J. Wild. Heliothis peltigera D. & S. for Oxon. 
read Berks, v.c.22. 

Additions to Annexe II: 

*Sitochroa palealis D. & S. KENT W, East Mailing, 1.8, 21.8 (R.A. 
Chambers, Ent. Rec. 98: 256). 

*Qstrinia nubilalis Hubn. DEVON Axminster, 8.10, probably immigrant 
(ECP-C). 

Lampides boeticus L. DORSET Portland Bill, 5.9, two, 21.9 (M. Rogers 
per NFM). 

AgriusconvolvuUL. BERKS, v.c.22 Fernham, 15.9, 16.9. 
Hyles lineata livornica Esp. NORFOLK E. Winterton-on-Sea, 12.4 (D. 
Hipperson, Norfolk Moth Survey). SOMERSET S. Over Stratton, c.6.6, 
originally reported as Hyles celerio, later corrected by RFB (P. Nelmes per 
E.T. Levy). CO. TYRONE. Ballymagorry, 30.4, in poor condition (RFH 
in INJ 22: 113). WILTS N. Ashton Keynes, 18.4 (A.K. Bowley, Ent. Gaz. 
37: 16). 

Thaumetopea processionea L. CHANNEL ISLANDS Jersey, 10.9, male, 
2.9, female, in Rothamsted trap. Now possibly established (A.D. Riley, 
Ent. Rec. 99: 225). 

Cyclophora puppillariaHuhn. BERKS. Fernham, 18.9, two, 24.9, 26.9 (S. 
Nash). NORFOLK E. Winterton-on-Sea, 10.10 (P. Hipperson. Norfolk 
Moth Survey). 

Rhodometra sacraria L. SOMERSET S. Crewkerne, 11.10, three (J. Reid, 
Ent. Gaz. 37: 90). CAERNS. Bangor, 1.8 (M.J. Morgan, Ent. Gaz. 38: 
140). ABERDEEN S. Klrkhill Forest, October, one (M. Townsend per 
Palmer, R.M. and Young, M.R. Ent. Rec. 99: 113). 



132 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

Thera cupressata Geyer CHANNEL ISLANDS Guernsey, St Peter's, 17.10 
and 19.10, at light (P.D.M. Costen and T.N.D. Feet, Ent. Rec. 98: 
217-218, with figure). It was found there again in 1986 and also in 
Alderney: probably now established. On the British mainland a specimen 
taken at Walberton, Sussex W. 1,11 .1984 has since been found (C.R. Pratt, 
Ent. Rec. 100: 180). 

Mythimna vitel Una HiXbn. DEVON S. Axminster, 8.10 (EC-PC). 

Mythimna unipuncta Haw. SURREY Wimbledon, 1.10 (Sir John Dacie in 
Plant, C.W.P., London Naturalist 65: 27). CO. CORK MID, September, 
October, two (RFH in /A^/22: 113). 

Catocala fraxini L. DORSET/HANTS BORDER Avon Forest Park, 12.9 
(G.F. Le Pard, Bull. amat. Ent. Soc. 1987 46: 121). 

These additions together with those in the first Supplement include addi- 
tional species which are wholly immigrant, raising the total for 1985 to 36. 

1986 

Corrections: Vol.99 p. 192 line 7 down, after "noted at", insert 
"Hampstead, Middlesex, 20.5(RAS) later at". P. 247 line 18 down, for 
"Cambell" read "Campbell"; lines 15 down and 4 up, for "CUMBRIA" 
read "WESTMORLAND v.c.69"; line 6 up, for "v.c.l6" read "v.c.l5". 
P. 248 line 3 down, after "again in" insert "Guernsey in"; line 21 down, 
for "Cadgwick" read "Cadgwith"; line 11 up, for "1972" read "1872". 
P.249 line 2 down, for "CUMBRIA" read "WESTMORLAND v.c.69"; 
line 10 up, for "Hagget" read "Haggett". 

Additions to Annexe II: 

Pammene ignorata Kuznetzov. DEVON S. Axminster, 23.6 at light. First 
British record (ECP-C, Ent. Gaz. 39: 40). Possibly immigrant. 

*Sitachroa palealis D. & S. Kent W. East Mailing, on Medway bank, 26.7, 
a strong colony (E.G. Philp, Ent. Rec. 99: 130). Apparently estabhshed in 
this area. 

Gonepteryx cleopatra L. CHANNEL ISLANDS Jersey, 10.8, La Pulente, 
male closely watched among dunes by Mrs J. Banks. First Channel Island 
record (R. Long, Ent. Gaz. 38: 202). 

Nymphalis antiopa L. CHANNEL ISLANDS Jersey, 1.8, one found 
moribund north of St. Helier by Miss S. Garrett (R. Long, ibid). 

Agrius convolvuli L. CO. CORK St. Gabriel's Radar Station, 2.10 (RFH in 
/7V722:320). 

Acherontia atropos L. BERKS, v.c.22. Faringdon, empty pupa case among 
potatoes, September (J.D. Turner, Bull. amat. Ent. Soc. 46: 42). 

*Leucoma salicis L. CORNWALL W. Truro, 21.6 (A. Spalding). 
CHANNEL ISLANDS Guernsey, La Broderie, 19.6, male (PDMC). 



LEPIDOPTERA IMMIGRATION SUPPLEMENT 133 

Orthonama obstipata Fab. ISLES OF SCILLY St. Mary's, Pendennis 
Head, early September (S. Nash, Bull. amat. Ent. Soc. 46: 357). 

Mythimna albipuncta D. & S. CHANNEL ISLANDS Guernsey, St. Peter 
Port, mid June, female (M.D. Bryan, Ent. Rec. 99: 126). 

Mythimna vitellina Hiibn. HANTS N., v.c.l2, 19.6, 6.10 (R.A. Bell per 
BS). KENT E. Dungeness, 19.6, two, 2.7, 22.8, 1.9; Greatstone, 14.9 (S. 
Clancy per BS). BUCKS. Willen, 6.10 (GEH). LANCS. N., v.c.60 
Preesall, 27.6 (R.E. Dawson per M. Evans). 

Among the usually common immigrant species a record of Macroglossa 
stellatarum L. at Wolverhampton, Staffs is of some special interest, both 
because it was seen flying at 7 p.m. on July 2 and is also said to be the first 
record for this very inland county (G.T. Knight, Bull. amat. Ent. Sbc. 46: 
158). Surprisingly, although in Britain this species was unusually numerous 
and widespread, its appearance in Ireland was disappointing with only 29 
reported (RFH, INJ 22: 320). 

1987 
Corrections: Vol.100 p. 226 Hne 9 up, for "Frenham" read "Fernham". 
P. 228 line 2 down, after "24.8" insert "three". 

Additions to Annexe I: direct recorders. Alexander, K., Austin R. & M., 

Easterbrook, M.A., Hipperson, D. for Norfolk Moth Survey; Peet, Dr 

T.N.D.; Reid, J., Rogers, M. 

Additions to Annexe II, scarcer immigrant species: 

*Platytes alpinella Hiibn. DORSET Preston and Radipole Lake, 14.7 

(Martin Cade). 

*Evergestis extimalis Scop. DEVON S. Branscombe, 10.8 (S. Nash). 

Possibly immigrant. 

*Ostrinia nubilalis Hiibn. HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT Freshwater, 14.7 

(S.A. Knill- Jones). 

Diasemia ramburialis Dup. DORSET Studland, 27.10 (D.C.G. Brown). 

Palpita unionalis Hiibn. DORSET Portland B.O., 5.6, 10.7, 11.8, 11.9, 

13.9, 20.9, 25.9, 26.9, 28.9, (10 in all) (M. Rogers). 

Papilio machaon L. CHANNEL ISLANDS Guernsey, St. Peter's, early 

10, found dead in greenhouse (per R. Austin). 

Nymphalis antiopa L. YORKS. v.c.62 Swinton, near Malton, late October, 

seen in garden by Miss M.A. Fox (A. Grayson, Bull. amat. Ent. Soc. 47: 

224). 

*Idaea vulpinaria Lempke DORSET Portland, 3.7 (A.J. and R. 

Fairclough). Rhodometra sacraria L. DORSET near Abbotsbury, 30.8, 

one faded (D. Rey, Bull. amat. Ent. Soc. 47: 152); Portland B.O., 17.8, 

22.8, four, 23.8, ten, 24.8, 26.8, 28.8, 17.9, 18.9, forty three, 19.9, 20.9, 

nine, 21.9, two (76 in all) (M. Rogers). Cessation of the records soon after 



134 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

this was due to a defect in the light trap. HERTS. Waltham Cross, 22.9, 
24.9, two, 25.9, two (B. Taggart and A. Hughes per C.W. Plant). KENT 
W. East Mailing, 9.9. (M.A. Easterbrook). NORFOLK W. Hockwold, 
27.8 (J.L. Fenn per D. Hipperson). SOMERSET S. Crewkerne, 1.9 (J. 
Reid). 

Orthonama obstipata Hiibn. DORSET Portland B.O., 20.9 (M. Rogers). 
MONTGOMERY Newtown, 3.8, female, infertile (M. Townsend). CO. 
CORK E. Fota Park, 17.8, male (K.G.M. Bond). 

Agrius convolvuli L. DORSET Portland B.O., 23.8, 18.9, two, 7.10 (M. 
Rogers). NORFOLK E. East Harling, 25.9 (J. Breech per D. Hipperson). 
NORTHAMPTON Long Buckby, 17.9, male found by a dog (B. Laney, 
Bull. amat. Ent. Soc. 47: 153) RADNOR Newbridge-on-Wye, 26.9; 
Abbeycwmhir, similar date, one (P.M. Slater). CO. WATERFORD 
Passage East, 18.8, CO. CORK MID Cork City, 13.9, female. CO. 
WEXFORD, September, October, four. ULSTER September, October, 
four brought to Museum (R.F. Haynes, INJ 22: 500). 

Acherontia atropos L. CO. CORK MID Grenagh, c.24.5 (per K.G.M. 
Bond). CO. WEXFORD, 26.10, two from separate localities (R.F. Haynes, 
ibid). 

Hyles gallii Rott. NORFOLK W. Holkham, August (B. Scampion per D. 
Hipperson). WORCS. Perdiswell Nurseries, 12.10, two full grown larvae 
from which a moth emerged 18.4.1988; a crippled moth also found at the 
end of a polythene tunnel 18.5.1988 (D. Badmin per J.E. Green). An 
unusual example of winter survivals out of doors, though with some 
artificial protection. 

Hyles livornica Esp. DORSET Portland B.O., 29.4 (M. Rogers). 

*Leucoma salicis L. CHANNEL ISLANDS Guernsey, Bordeaux, 16.7; 
Freia Plaidy, end July (per R. Austin). 

Lymantria dispar L. CHANNEL ISLANDS Le Chene, 7.8 (TNDP). 

Agrotis crassa Hiibn. DORSET Portland B.O., 19.8 (M. Rogers). Only 

second British record on mainland. 

Eurois occulta L. NORFOLK E. near Belagh (A. Wallis per D. 

Hipperson). 

Mythimna albipuncta D. & S. CO. CORK MID Fountainstown, 19.8 

(A AM). 

Mythimna vitellina Hiibn. DEVON S. Chardstock, 23.8 (A. Jenkins, Br. J. 

Ent. nat.Hist. 1: 34). DORSET Portland B.O., 5.6, 11.8, 11.9, 13.9, 15.9, 

20.9, 25.9 (M.Rogers). 

Mythimna unipuncta Haw. DORSET Portland B.O., 20.9, 28.9 (M. 

Rogers). 



LEPIDOPTERA IMMIGRATION SUPPLEMENT 135 

Of these species *Idaea vulpinaria Lempke, Lymantria dispar L. , Agrotis 
crassa L. were not mentioned in the previous report for 1987. They raise the 
total of wholly immigrant species to 3 1 . 

Cynthia cardui L. Immigration of December 20, 1987/January 7, 1988. 
Add DORSET Portland B.O., 23.12, one; Golden Cap, 31.12, several. 
HANTS S. Vicar's Hill, Boldre, 22.12; Hayling Island, 25.12, five, possibly 
seven. KENT W. East Mailing, 22.12. SUSSEX E. Bewl Water Reservoir, 
22.12. We have also several new records in early January, 1988, which will 
be dealt with in the report for that year. 



Immigrant Lepidoptera recorded in Norfolk during October 1988 

AS A result of a phone call on 20th October from M. Parsons of Ninfield, 
Sussex, who informed me that he had taken a number of Heliothis 
armigera Hiibn. in his m.v. trap during recent nights, I decided to run an 
m.v. trap in a Norwich garden. To my surprise, on the morning of the 21st, 
single males of Spodoptera exigua Hiibn. and H. armigera were in the trap. 

This success prompted me to visit the Norfolk coast, at Winterton, on 
the evening of the 21st, when I was joined by K. Saul. Two m.v. light were 
set up by the sea front car park at approximately 18.00 hours when it was 
mild, calm and misty. Almost immediately, numbers of common 
immigrant species were noted at both traps; Nomophilia noctuella (D. & 
S.), Agrotis ipsilon Hufn., Phlogophora meticulosa L. and Autographa 
gamma L.. These were soon accompanied by two scarcer species; Palpita 
unionalis (Hiibn.) (single males at 18.55 and 19.05 hours) and H. armigera 
(single males at 19.26 and 19.31 hours). In view of their early arrival at the 
lights, it would seem hkely that these individuals reached Norfolk during 
the previous night. Soon after 20.00 the mist cleared and the temperature 
dropped rapidly, thereafter few moths were arriving at the Hghts and we 
packed up at about 21 .00 hours. 

I did not return on the 22nd as it was cool and clear. However, on the 
23rd the favourable mild and misty conditions returned, and I made 
another excursion to Winterton. Again, two m.v. lights were set up on the 
sea front, and running from approximately 17.30. By 17.36 a female P. 
unionalis had been attracted, together with numbers of A^. noctuella, Udea 
ferrugalis, A. ipsilon, P. meticulosa and A. gamma. In addition, two 
Noctua pronuba L. turned up, and I assumed that these may have been 
migrants also. At 18.21, the highlight of the evening was finding a male 
Chrysodeixis acuta Walker, resting on a marram flower head near to one of 
the traps. Unfortunately, soon after this the mist cleared and, as with the 
previous nights, the temperture dropped quickly, resulting in a few moths 
being active. However, a bonus whilst packing up, was finding a female 
Orthonama obstipata Fabr. inside one of the traps. 



136 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

The following evening of the 24th was windy and clear, even so K. Saul 
and myself ran two m.v. lights, again at Winterton, but only small numbers 
of a few common species were attracted. Subsequent nights that week were 
also unproductive and no further migrants were reported from Norfolk. 
— A. P. Foster, 58 St Laurence Avenue, Brundall, Norwich, Norfolk 
NR13 5QN. 

Orthosia opima Hiibn., the Northern Drab (Lep.: Noctuidae) resident on 
the Essex Marshes 1960-1980. 

During my teenage collecting days I well remember finding a number of 
greenish noctuid larvae feeding amongst sea lavender {Limonium vulgare) 
on a tidal salt-marsh in Essex. Not being all that interested in what I 
thought to be an ordinary caterpillar I left them alone. However, in 1970 
and 1971 I thought I would try and find out what they could be. In 1970 I 
failed to breed them through but in early July 1971, I decided to take just 
four of the largest larva. These fed on sea lavender for a few days, pupated 
and produced three fine specimens of the Northern Drab {Orthosia opima 
Hiibner) the following April. These seemed to be a larger race than the 
typical heathland form. 

From time to time the late Mr H.C. Huggins and myself had taken the 
odd specimens in our gardens at mercury-vapour light at Westcliff and 
Thundersley respectively. In those days it had always been considered a 
wood or heath insect, the larva feeding on sallows etc. Its appearance on a 
wet salt marsh was most extraordinary and he hoped I would follow it up to 
see how far it existed and list all its food plants. This I did, but failed to 
send in my observations further than my own local Natural History 
Society. 

However, it now seems to be a resident species on most Essex saltings 
with moths and egg batches found most years. I have still to find the larva 
feeding on any other plant except sea lavender, although they may nibble 
grasses in the early stages. 

I know this is past history and realise I should have sent this interesting 
discovery to the Entomologist's Record. Nevertheless, better late than 
never! — D. Down, 16 Woodend Close, Thundersley, Essex. 

Pachycnemia hippocastanaria Hiibn. (Lep.: Geometridae) in January 

I HAVE been running a Robinson trap occasionally in the small Luscombe 
Valley Nature Reserve owned and managed by Poole Borough Council. 
This reserve hes between Parkstone Golf Course and Poole Harbour, and is 
about 1 km from the coast at Sandbanks. It lies within v.c.9 (Dorset) and 
10 km square SZ 09. 

The evening of 26 January 1989 was overcast, humid, still and relatively 
mild for the time of year. It seemed a propitious night to try to record the 
presence in the reserve of the several Geometers and Orthosiinae, which I 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS ' 137 

knew to be already flying elsewhere. Accordingly the trap was run 
unattended in the reserve from 1750 to 2030 GMT. I was to be disappointed 
in my prime objective as none of the hoped-for species of macromoth had 
entered the trap or come to rest on the sheet. However, I was most 
surprised to find one fresh specimen of P. hippocastanaria inside the trap 
and another on the sheet. There were no other macromoths. As regards 
micromoths, there was only one specimen each of Acleris hastiana and 
another Acleris species. 

The prolonged spell of unseasonably mild weather in December 88 and 
January 89 has been responsible for exceptionally early emergences of the 
several species that are prone to appear in warmer spells in winter. 
However, the appearance of adults of P. hippocastanaria in January was so 
unexpected that I sent the specimens to my friend Brian Baker for his 
expert opinion. He kindly confirmed the speciation and determined both 
individuals to be males. 

The question arises as to whether these individuals arise from resident 
stock or are immigrants. There is no indication in the literature in my 
possession that this species is an occasional immigrant. Consequently, I 
presume that these individuals must be emergences from locally over- 
wintering pupae, the emergences being some ten weeks early due to the 
mild weather. The nature reserve is confined to the valley floor where 
heather, the larval foodplant, exists very sparingly. However, there is 
plenty of heather in the immediate neighbourhood. I have not so far 
confirmed residency of the species by trapping or sweeping at the normally 
suitable times of the year. 

My thanks are due to Brian Baker for his help, Mrs Axford for helping to 
carry and deploy the trapping equipment, and Poole Borough Council for 
permission to operate a trap in the reserve. — G.G. Eastwick-Field, Little 
Earlstone, Burghclere, Newbury, Berks. 

Unusual Pairing in Odonata at Hothfield Common Nature Reserve, Kent 

HOTHFIELD Common Nature Reserve is the only Kent breeding site for 
Orthetrum coerulescens (Fab.) where a strong but small colony survives in 
Kent's remaining valley bog. The colony is observed throughout the 
breeding season such that the requirements of the species may be accounted 
when devising management plans for the site. 

On 11.8.87 an incident occurred at midday which may be of interest. A 
male of the species Sympetrum striolatum (Charpentier), which also breeds 
at and near the site, was observed carrying a male O. coerulescens as it 
would a female of its own species for oviposition.The pair continued in 
tandem for at least three minutes from the first observation. The O. 
coerulescens remaining motionless while the 5. striolatum repeatedly 
dipped the other's abdomen into the shallow waters of the mire. — N. 
Onslow, 1 Windmill Close, Willesborough, Ashford, Kent TN24 0AU. 



138 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. v. 1989 

A further note on Cleorodes lichenaria Hufn., the Brussels Lace (Lep.: 
Geometridae). 

FURTHER to my recent notes on this species at Cap Sizun nature reserve 
in Brittany {Ent. Rec. 100: 274-275), where larvae of this species feed on 
Ramalina siliquosa growing on rock, it now appears certain that lichenaria 
larvae have the same habit in Cornwall. The species occurs at Kynance 
Cove, where there are no trees (Paul Siddons, pers. comm.); furthermore 
pupal cases similar to those found in Brittany, and presumed to be of the 
same species, were found on the Lizard peninsula, on Ramalina, by Peter 
James of the British Museum (Natural History). — Adrian Spalding, 
Tregarne, Cusgarne, Truro, Cornwall. 

Provisional Atlas of the click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) of the 
British Isles by Howard Mendel. 89 pp. numerous maps. Limp. Institute of 
Terrestial Ecology, 1988. £5.50 

This booklet presents the results of a national scheme to map the 
distribution of chck beetles started in 1983, mapping the distribution of 72 
species, omitting a further nine presumed extinct or with only a single 
known locality. Maps use three symbols to denote distribution, based on 
19th Century, 1900-1949 and post 1950 records. Although plotted on a 
10km square basis, distribution by vice-county, using the same date bands, 
is also given. The publication of this Atlas is certainly a tribute to the 
industry of Howard Mendel and the coleopterists who supplied the records, 
and is a significant contribution to our knowledge of the distribution of 
click beetles. 

Common Ground Beetles by Trevor G. Forsyth. 74 pp. Four colour plates; 
numerous figs. Naturalists' Handbook no. ^. The Richmond Publishing Co 
Ltd. 1987. Paper £5.95, Boards £12.00. 

Richmond Pubhshing took over this series of pubhcations in 1987 from 
Cambridge University Press, and have maintained the high standard of the 
Naturalists' Handbooks series. Following a brief introduction there is a 
substantial chapter on the natural history of ground beetles (16pp); the 
main body of the work — a series of keys, illustrated with clear line 
drawings and supplemented with a selection of species illustrated in colour; 
a chapter on techniques and approaches to original work — including notes 
on collecting, killing, setting, breeding, dissecting etc; the work concludes 
with a checklist (in alphabetical order by genus), a bibliography and an 
index. 

The student of the Carabidae is certainly spoilt for choice when it comes 
to selecting a modern work of reference on ground beetles — 1976 saw the 
publication of volume two of Die Kafer Mitteleuropas, by Freude, Harde 
and Lohse, 1985 the publication of part one of The Carabidae (Coleoptera) 
of Fennoscandia and Denmark by Carl H. Lindroth, with part two 
following in 1986 .(both published as volume 15 of Fauna Entomologica 



CURRENT LITERATURE 139 

Scandinavica — with English text, and covering most of the British 
species). All of these works are a little heavy going for the non-specialist, so 
the publication of the volume under review is particularly welcome. 

There is no easy way to provide an identification guide to the 340-odd 
species that occur in the British Isles, and the use of diagnostic keys is 
essential. In this work the keys are easy to use, and the line drawings clearly 
illustrate appropriate diagnostic features. Not all the British species are 
keyed out but the keys sensibly indicate which are critical species, advising 
caution on their identification. All of the common species should key out 
reasonably well, and thus the diligent student, be they ecologist or amateur 
naturalist, will be well served by this pubhcation. NMD. 

Checklist of fish and invertebrates listed in the CITES Appendices 
compiled by Patricia Alamada-Villela. 82pp. Paper cover. A4. Nature 
Conservancy Council. 1988. £11.00. 

The purpose of this work is to provide a list of the species and subspecies of 
fish and invertebrates included in Appendices I, II and III of the 
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna 
and Flora (CITES), concentrating on the Red Data Book species. 

For each taxon there is a hst of the countries in which the species occurs, 
or has been introduced, and an entry under four headings: the CITES 
appendix reference; the category status — using Red Data Book dtscxi^iors 
— for example, endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate etc.; the 
major exploitation of the taxon — for insects this is generally for live 
animal trade or preserved specimens, but other groups can be exploited for 
food, such as fish, mussels and clams; trophies, such as giant clams; for 
medical products, such as the Medicinal Leech, or to satisfy the huge trade 
in shells and corals. The final heading gives one or more references which 
are cited in the extensive bibliography — 107 references for the fish, and 
407 for the invertebrates. An index to the common and scientific names 
completes the work. 

This compilation is much needed, giving an easy to use and informative 
synopsis of endangered species, and will be of particular use to all those 
concerned with the regulation of import and export of these species. 

Paul Sokoloff. 

Butterflies — The Lycaenidae by Michael Easterbrook. 24 pp; 26 colour 
illustrations. 210 x 150 mm. Shire Publications Ltd. 1988. £1.25. 

This is the third booklet on the British Lepidoptera in the Shire Natural 
History Series, the previous two being on Hawk Moths and the 
Nymphalidae. All are by the same author, Michael Easterbrook. This latest 
volume on the Lycaenidae is similar in format, and comprises an 
introduction, short accounts of each of the British species, and finally 
sections on study methods and conservation. 



140 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.V.1989 

The text is concise and well written, and includes most of the interesting 
features known about the Lycaenidae. It is extraordinary, in fact, how 
much detail has been included in such a small booklet. The specific section 
on the Common Blue, for example, covering less than Va page, describes 
the external morphology, the variable voltinism in Britain, lias a brief 
resume of the life history (including discussion of the adaptation by the 
larvae to resist toxins found in some plants of bird's foot trefoil), and also 
fits in distribution and ecological preferences of the butterfly. 

The photographs are in general very good. The contrasting forms of 
female Common Blue, for example, are excellent. Colour reproduction in 
some cases is a little awry, for example the male Adonis Blue on page 12. 
Some of the species covered in the text, such as the Black Hairstreak and 
Northern Brown Argus, are not illustrated. Overall, an excellent follow-up 
of Michael Easterbrook's other booklets in the series and at an amazingly 
low cost of £1 .25. Christopher Luckens 

The Country Diary Book of Creating a Butterfly Garden by E.J.M. 
Warren. 144pp., many colour illustrations. Boards. Webb & 
Bower/Michael Joseph, 1988. £12.95. 

This lavishly illustrated book sets out to be a user-friendly guide to the 
creation and maintenance of a domestic butterfly habitat. The chapters 
include How to make a butterfly garden, Growing plants from seed. How 
to make the most of your butterfly garden. Choosing the right flowers. The 
British butterflies and skippers. How to design your butterfly garden and a 
short appendix on the butterflies of North America, a check hst of "golden 
rules" for butterfly gardening, a brief bibliography and list of useful 
addresses. 

Having read many popular books and articles on "butterfly gardening", 
the reviewer has been repeatedly depressed by the poor quality of such 
publications — sweeping generalisations, inappropriate advice and cloying 
literary style seem to be necessary ingredients for authors of such works. It 
is therefore particularly pleasing to report that Creating a Butterfly Garden 
contains none of these features, being a first-class example of its genrel 

The key to success appears to be a combination of narrative — helpful 
and informative — and artistic design. Printed entirely on cream paper 
there is a sympathetic mix of colour photographs of flowers and butterflies, 
many by the author, and reproductions of paintings by Edith Holden, 
author of The Country Diary of an Edwardian Lady. Holden 's work, 
whilst not always entirely accurate, remains a delight to look at and is just 
right for this particular book. In retrospect, none of this is particularly 
surprising as the author. Miss Warren, is the daughter of the lateB-CS. 
Warren, the distinguished lepidopterist and authority on the genus Erebia. 

Paul Sokoloff. 



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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Lepidopteraon Barra. M. //ar/7e/-&M. Young 93 

The Occurrence of Grammoptera Serville and Alosterna Mulsant (Col.: 

Cerambycidae) in the British Isles. R.R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann 97 

A new aberration of Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (Haworth) (Lep.: Geometridae) — the 

Double-striped pug. C. P^. P/a«r 105 

Endotricha consobrinalis Zeller (Lep.: Pyralidae) — a species new to Britain. 

B. Goodey • • • 107 

Butterflies of New Providence Island, Bahamas, A further review. B.K. West . . . 109 
A brief history of Carabus intricatus L. (Col.: Carabidae) in Britain, with special 

reference to its present day status. ^.^4. v4//eA7 113 

Butterflies in winter. y4. v4rc/zer-LocA: 117 

Monitoring butterflies at St Cyrus National Nature Reserve, 1979-1983. 

D.N. Carstairs 121 

Lepidoptera immigrant to the British Isles in 1985, 1986 and 1987 — a 

suxi'plQvaeniMy noiQ. R.F. Brethertomnd J. M. Chalmers-Hunt 131 

Notes and observations 

Trachea atriplicis L. (Lep.: Noctuidae), the Orache Moth, in Jersey. A.M. Riley . . 96 

Sfir//7/>2^w5 c?er Pay k. (Col.: Salpingidae) in Wales, yl.^. y4//ert 104 

Atheta (Dimetrota) puncticollis Benick (Col.: Staphylinidae) in S. Devon and the 

Scottish Highlands. ^.^. ^//e« 104 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Dhofar, October 1979. r.5. Lar^e/? 106 

The last British capture of Scybalicus oblongiusculus Dej. (Col.: Carabidae)? 

A.A.Allen 108 

A note on the life-history of Apion soror Rey (Col.: Apionidae) J. A. Owen and 

H.Mendel 112 

Jodia croceago D. & S., the Orange Upperwing, (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Cornwall and 

France. A. Spalding 115 

Cryptopleurum crenatum Panz. (Col.: Hydrophilidae) in West Kent and 

Herefordshire. >1.^. ^//e/7 116 

Phyllonorycter messaniella Zell. (Lep.: Gracillariidae) feeding on Quercus borealis, 

theredoak.^.5. fioor 116 

"Swarming" in Scarabaeidae (Col.) at Bedruthan Steps, Cornwall. N. Orts/ow . . 129 
A third mainland example of Thera cupressata Geyer (Lep. : Geometridae) J. Clarke 130 
Immigrant Lepidoptera recorded in Norfolk during October 1988. /I. P. Fo^rer . . 135 
Orthosia opima Hiibn., the Northern Drab (Lep.: Noctuidae) resident on Essex 

marshes 1960-1980. Z). Z)ow« 136 

Pachycnemia hippocastanaria Hiibn. (Lep.: Geometridae) in January. 

G.G. Eastwick-Field 136 

Unusual pairing in Odonata at Hothfield Common Nature Reserve, Kent. 

TV. Onslow 137 

A further note on Cleorodes lichenaria Hufn., the Brussels Lace (Lep.: 

GeomeixidiaiQ). A. Spalding 138 

Current literature 138-140 

SPECIAL NOTICE. The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited 
number of back issues. 

Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. Tel: 0277-224610. 



jg'^ol.lOlNos. 7-8 



July /August 1989 ISSN 0013-3916 



THE 



AUG 2 4 1989 



ENTOMOLOGIg 
RECORD 



HARVARD &^ 



^ 



AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Edited by 
P. A. SOKOLOFF, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.I. Biol. F.R.E.S. 



^ 



with the assistance of 






A. A. Allen, b.sc, a.r.c.s. 
Neville BiRKETT, ma., m.b. 
S.N. A. Jacobs, f.r.e.s. 
J.D. Bradley, ph.d., f.r.e.s. 



P.J. Chandler, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 

C.A. COLLINGWOOD, B.SC, F.R.E.S. 
J.M. CHALMERS-HUNT, F.R.E.S. 

E.S. Bradford 



Lieut. Col. A.M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d., f.r.e.s. 

C.J. LUCKENS, M.B., ch.b., d.r.co.g. 
Bernard Skinner 



Registrar: 

C.C. PENNEY, F.R.E.S., 109 Waveney Drive, Springfield, 

Chelmsford, Essex CMl 5QA. 

Hon. Treasurer: 

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Brockham, Betchworth, Surrey RH3 7JV. 



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0? 



PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 




Just published 

The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain 

and Ireland Volume 7 

Part 1 Hesperiidae-Nymphalidae: The Butterflies 

edited by A. Maitland Emmet and the late John Heath 

illustrated by Richard Lewington 

Part 1 of this much-delayed volume (now in two parts) covers butterflies only 
and is, without doubt, the most extensive and superbly illustrated handbook 
on these insects to appear for very many years. It also, fittingly, contains a 
special tribute to John Heath, founding editor of the series, who so sadly died 
during the preparation of this volume. 

Introductory chapters by A. Maitland Emmet on The Vernacular Names and 
Early History of British Butterflies' and M. G. Morris. and J. A. Thomas on 'Re- 
establishment of Insect Populations with special reference to Butterflies' 
precede the systematic section. 

Following an introduction to the classification of butterflies, species entries 
include a detailed description (including aberrations), life history, distribution, 
and history in the British Isles. The 83 distribution maps, based on those in 
Heath, Pollard & Thomas' Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland (1984), 
include over 13,500 additional records updating the status of resident species 
to the end of 1988, with graded maps for rare migrant species. The work also 
includes a check list of British butterflies, a glossary and a comprehensive 
index of English and scientific names. 

For the first time, the 111 species on the British and Irish list, including 
adventives, are described and illustrated in colour on the 24 colour plates 
containing 568 figures. The quality of these plates is outstanding and will 
confirm Richard Lewington as one of the world's foremost butterfly artists. 

This book brings together detailed scientific information to satisfy the 
professional or amateur lepidopterist; a wealth of background material to 
fascinate the butterfly lover and general naturalist; and, arguably, the finest- 
ever illustrations of butterflies, to delight the eye of all-a real butterfly feast. 
380pp including 24 colour plates, 22 text figures and 83 distribution maps 
ISBN 946589 25 9 Clothbound £49.50 

Part 2 Lasiocampidae-Thyatiridae 
(to be published later in the year) 

In addition to the announced introductory chapter by M. J. Scoble on 'Classi- 
fication of the Lepidoptera', there will be a chapter by Michael J. Tweedie on 
'Resting Postures in the Lepidoptera', illustrated with 64 of his own colour 
photographs. This part will also contain life-history charts of the British 
Lepidoptera. The remainder of the work will follow the format of other 
volumes in the series. The colour plates are also by Richard Lewington. 

240pp approx., including 8 colour plates, 5 text figures and 28 maps 

ISBN 946589 26 7 Clothbound approx. £39.50 

Order from your bookseller or direct from Harley Books adding £2.50 per 
volume to cover p. & p. A detailed prospectus, complete catalogue and, for 
new subscribers to the series, special terms on already published volumes, are 
available on request. 

Harley Books, Great Horkesley, Colchester C06 4AH 
(Tel: 0206 271216) 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW FOR 1987 141 

MICROLEPIDOPTERA — A REVIEW OF THE YEAR 1987 

compiled by David Agassiz 

The Rectory, 10 High View Avenue, Grays, Essex RM17 6RU. 

1987 was another poor year. In April there was a remarkable spell of fine 
weather, but this did not prove to be a good omen for the rest of the 
summer. The autumn was Hke 1986 rather better, but not enough to make 
up for the lost summer. Then came the great storm of 16th October, but the 
effects of this in the south east of England will take a few years to assess. 

Such is the healthy state of the study of microlepidoptera that there are 
none-the-less further interesting records. Pride of place must go to 
Eulamprotes phaeella Heckford and Langmaid, for it is not often that a 
species new to science is added from these islands. 

The other species new to Britain added to our hst in 1987 are Pammene 
ignorata (Kuznetsov) which E.C. Pelham-Clinton was sharp enough to 
recognise among the moths taken in his Devon garden. Then Sciota 
adelphella (F.v.R.) was noticed by M.F.V. Corley among the insects taken 
by David Brotheridge near Swindon, and a week later Bob Dewick 
produced a specimen of the same species which had been concealed in his 
collection since 1959! This species could certainly be resident, but hitherto 
overlooked, although the insect if caught is not inconspicuous. 

Several "lost" species have been rediscovered: Brachmia ustalella found 
by A.N. B. Simpson in Worcestershire is in a similarly exciting category to 
A. palpella in 1986, which itself has been found to be more widespread. A 
further specimen of Ischonsia borreonella after an interval of 60 years is 
also heartening and an encouragement not to write off seemingly extinct 
species. Further specimens of Agonopterix capreolella from the Isle of 
Wight is another example. 

Tebenna micalis (Mann) is a new name for our hst, but one which arises 
out of previous misidentification — probably of all the specimens found in 
Britain of T. bjerkandrella Thunb. 

Clepsis rarest rana (Dup.) added to our list last year continues to be 
found, also by Bob Heckford. Among casually imported species a further 
specimen of Lobesia botrana found by D. Manning in Bedfordshire is of 
interest, especially since it was found in open country. Endotricha 
consobrinalis is another new importation. 

There continues to be a stream of publications of value to the 
microlepidopterists, and local lists feature prominently. A list of species 
taken in a Rothamsted trap in Bangor appeared in the Entomologist's 
Gazette 39: 141 ff; further records from the Isles of Scilly are contained in 
the Entomologist's Record 99: 269f, and from the Orkneys in Ent. Gaz. 39: 
181-3 and 185. The well-documented hsts of migrants contain references to 
microlepidoptera for 1986 in Ent. Rec. 99: 245 and for 1987 in 100: 226f. 

Most of the records are for 1987, but as in previous reviews some records 
from earlier years are included. 



142 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 



Acknowledgements 

As always my thanks are due to those who have submitted records who are 
identified in the hst by their initials. The nomenclature follows the 
systematic order of An indexed list of British Butterflies and moths by 
Bradley & Fletcher (1986) with any amendments and corrections 
incorporated in A Field Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera, Second 
edition, edited by A.M. Emmet, 1988. 

In response to a request from some contributors the numbers from the 
'Log book' have been left in this year. A slightly longer and earlier list of 
most records submitted is available from the compiler. 
Contributors: B.R. Baker, R.J. Barnett, H.E. Beaumont, K.P. Bland, 
K.G.M. Bond, E.S. Bradford, M.F.V. Corley, A.M. Emmet, E.F. 
Hancock, R.J. Heckford, J.R. Langmaid, S.M. Palmer, M. Parsons, 
H.N. Michaelis, E.C. Pelham-Clinton, C.W. Plant, A.N.B. Simpson, 
F.H.N. Smith, D.H. Sterling, M.J. Sterling, P.H. Sterling, M.R. Young. 

Systematic list 

ERIOCRANIIDAE 

6 Eriocrania subpurpurella (Haw.) — Holywlell (53) mines l.vi.87 — 

JRL + ECP-C 
12 E. sangii (Wood) — Caergwrle (51) — B. Formstone per HNM 

NEPTICULIDAE 

57 Stigmella filipendulae (Wocke) — Kynance Cove (1) reared from 

Filipendula vulgaris 5. ix.Sl — RJH 
85 S. suberivora (Staint.) — Worcs (37) — ANBS 
87 S. svenssoni (Joh.) — Fingle Bridge (3) reared from 1. on Quercus 

n.iw.Sl; Bayston Hill (40) one vacated mine 21 .xi.87 — JRL 

OPOSTEGIDAE 

119 Opostega salaciella (Treits.) — Dinton (8) 13.vii.87 — SMP 
121 O. crepusculella Zell. — Saffron Walden (19) 29.vi.87 — AME 

INCURVARIIDAE 

129 Incurvaria pectinea Haw. — Larval case on wood ants' nests — KPB, 

Ent. Rec. 99: 278 
132 Lampronia praelatella (D. & S.) — Loggerheads (51) — B. Formstone 

and M. Newstead per HNM 

134 L. flavimitrella (Hb.) — Hamstreet (15) a few 4-6.vi.87, females 
associated with Rubus fruticosus — JRL and ECP-C 

135 L. luzella (Hb.) — Moor Copse NR (22), 21 .vi.86 — BRB 

138 L. fuscatella (Tengst.) — Whixall Moss (40) three galls 1 1 .iv.87, 1 bred 
— JRL 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW FOR 1987 143 

146 Nemophora cupriacella (Hb.) — West Burton (56) 12.vii.87, 12 
females on Dipsacus heads, possibly suggesting this as a foodplant — 
HEB 

149 Adela cuprella (D. & S.) — Dinton (8) 16-26.iv.87 — SMP 

151 A. croesella (Scop.) — Worcs (37) 6.vi.87 — ANBS 

152 A rufimitrella (Scop.) — Whitstable (15), adults on flowers of 
Sisymbrium officinale 14.vi.87 — ESB 

HELIOZELIDAE 

156 Heliozela resplendella (Stt.) — Glenstrathfarrar NNR (96) — MRY 

157 H. hammoniella (Sorh.) — Worcs (37) 6.vi.87 — ANBS 

PSYCHIDAE 

180 Diplodoma herminata (Geoff.) — Holywell (53) one case l.vi.87 — 

JRL and ECP-C 
177 Dahlica inconspicuella (Stt.) — Coventry (38), 21.x. 87 — M. Ball per 

RJB 
186 Psyche casta (Pallas) — Cases on garage doors — B. Verdcourt, Ent. 

Rec. 99: 257 
195 Sterrhopterix fusca (Haw.) — Whixhall Moss (40) many larvae 30. v. 87 

— JRL & ECP-C 

TINEIDAE 

199 Psychoides verhuella Bruand — Rediscovered in Perths. (88), l.viii.87 

— KPB, Ent. Gaz. 39: 12 

205 Ischonsia borreonella (Mill.) — Portland (9), 15.viii.87 — ECP-C, 

Ent. Rec. 100: 46, first record since 1926 
211 Haplotinea ditella (P. & M.) — Bagley Wood (22) 4.vii.87, genitalia 

det. — PHS 
277 Oinophila v-flava (Haw.) — Larva on Pittosporum crassifolium — 

RJH, Ent. Rec. 99: 268 

OCHSENHEIMERIIDAE 

253 Ochsenheimeria vaccullella F.v.R. — Southwick (1 1) 19.vii.87 — JRL; 
Windsor Great Park (22) 7.viii.82 — AAA per BRB 

LYONETIIDAE 

256 Leucoptera spartifoliella (Hb.) — Ventnor (10) two 2.viii.87 — JRL 

and ECP-C 
258 L. lathyrifoliella (Stt.) — Branscombe (3) mines on Lathy rus pratensis 

— JRL and ECP-C; Ent. Rec. 100: 185 

264 Bedellia somnulentella (Zell.) — Kennack Sands (1) reared from 1. on 
Calystegia soldanella — RJH 



144 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

BUCCULATRICIDAE 

272 Bucculatrix cidarella Zell. — Moreton (9) larvae on Myrica 13.viii.87, 

none on adjacent Alnus — JRL and ECP-C 
276 B. demaryella (Dup.) — Havenstreet (10) one larva 7.viii.87 — JRL 

and ECP-C 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

285 Caloptilia azaleella (Brants) — Harold Hill (18) larva 8. v., imago 

25.V.87 — AME 
316 Phyllonorycter roboris (Zell.) — Caergwle (51) — M. Newstead per 

HNM; New to north Wales 
325 P. mespilella (Hb.) — Great Ridge Wood (8) 28.iv.87 — SMP 
330 P. cerasicolella (H.-S.) — Dolgarrog (49) — HNM; Llay (50) — B. 

Formstone per HNM 
336 P. dubitella (H.-S.) — Pucketty, near Faringdon (22) 6.V.86 — MFVC 
338 P. cavella (Zell.) — Caergwrle (51) — M. Newstead per HNM 
343 P. quinnata (Geoff.) — Cefn y Bedd (50) — B. Formstone per HNM 
347 P. anderidae (Fletch.) — Sutton Park (38) '84 — ANBS. 
349 P. nigrescentella (Logan) — Branscombe (3) mines on Lathyrus 

pratensis9M\\.^l — JRL and ECP-C, Ent. Rec. 100: 185 
366 P. sagitella (Bjerk.) — East (50) mine — B. Formstone per HNM, an 

encouraging sign after gloomy news of recent years. 

CHOREUTIDAE 

386 Tebenna micalis (Mann) — The Warren near Noss Mayo (3) cocoon 
on Pulicaha dysenterica with extruded unemerged pupa. Other 
specimens from the vicinity previously misidentified as T. 
bjerkandrella — RJH 

388 Prochoreutis myllerana (Fabr.) — Sawbridgeworth Marsh NR (19 and 
20) adults 25. vi. 87 — AME 

DOUGLASIIDAE 

399 Tinagma balteolella F.v.R. — Second Kentish locality (14)— PAS, 
Ent. Rec. 100: 152 

YPONOMEUTIDAE 

403 Argyresthia glabratella (Zell.) — Grovely Wood (8) 10.vi.87 — SMP 
407 A. dilectella Zell. — Douglas (H4) 20.vii.87 — KGMB, second Irish 

record 
412 A.pygmaeella (D. & S.) — Isle of Man, several localities (7) 85, 86, 87. 

— KGMB 
415 A. retinella Zell. — Curraghs Wildhfe Park, loM (7), 25.vii.87 — 

KGMB 
416/1. glaucinella Zell. — Fota (H5) 13.vii.86 — KGMB 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW FOR 1987 145 

435 Zelleha hepariella Staint. — Saffron Waldon (19) 20.viii. and 3.ix.87 

— AME 

441 Paraswammerdamia lutarea (Haw.) — West Burton Power Station 

(56) 12.vii.87 — HEB per MJS 
447 Roeslerstammia erxlebella (Fabr.) — Ventor (10) many 2.viii.87 — 

JRL and ECP-C 
456 Ypsolopha horridella (Treits.) — Coed Gorswen (49) — HNM 
468 Rhigognostis incarnatella (Steudel) — Stepaside (H21) three, 1 l.vii.87 

— KGMB 

473 Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zell.) — Portland (9) 15.viii.87 — JRL and 
ECP-C 

474 A. betulella (Curt.) — Beinn Cruachan (98) bred from larva 23.vii.87 

— KPB, Ent. Rec. 100: 57f 

EPERMENIIDAE 

479 Cataplectica farreni Wals. — Swincombe Downs (23) 26 and 28.vii.87 

flying around Pastinaca — PHS 
481 Epermenia illigerella (Hb.) — Second generation larvae feeding in 

stem rather than umbels of Angelica sylvestris — RJH, Ent. Rec. 100: 

98 

COLEOPHORIDAE 

494a.Coleophora prunifoliae Doets — Pucketty, near Faringdon (22), 

22.vii.86 — MFVC 
498 C. alnifoliae Barasch — Rannoch (88) 23.vi.51 — KPB, Ent. Rec. 100: 

47f . New to Scotland 

501 C. siccifolia Stt. — Brasenose Wood (23), several cases on Crataegus 
ix.87 — PHS 

502 C. trigeminella Fuchs — Winchester (11) 5.vi.87 at m.v. light, gen. 
det. — DHS 

511 C. orbitella Zell. Bernwood Forest (24) two larvae ix.87 — PHS; 

Botley Wood (1 1) larva on Betula, 10.ix.87 — DHS and JRL 
513 C. potentillae Elisha — West Burton Power Station (56) case on 

Potentillapalustris 23. \.S7 — MJS 
517 C. frischella (Linn.) — Loggerheads (51) 30. v. 87 — B. Formstone per 

HNM 
525 C. solitariella Zell. — Whitstable (15), bred 1 l-24.vii.87 — ESB 
531 C. ochrea (Haw.) — Durdham Down (34) larvae — DJLA, RJH, 

JRL, AME & ECP-C 
533 C. anatipennella (Hb.) — West Burton Power Station (56) case 

23.V.87 — MJS 
546 C. genistae Stt. — Penmachno (49) cases — HNM 
561 C. therinella Tengst. — Buckland Warren (22), 15.vii.86 — MFVC 
568 C. versurella Zell. — Pucketty, near Faringdon (22) 15.vii.87 — 

MFVC 



146 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

ELACHISTIDAE 

593 Elachista regificella (Sire.) — Rowsley (57) one mine in Luzula 
sylvatica 4.iv.87 — JRL & ECP-C; Scottish reeords ^ KPB & RPK-J, 
Ent. Gaz. 39: 277 

594 E. gleichenella (Fabr.) — Larvae mining Luzula sylvatica and Scottish 
records — KPB & RPK-J, Ent. Gaz. 39: 277-8 

598 E. kilmunella Stt. — Brenig (50) — HNM 

603 E. subnigrella Doug. — West Burton Power Station (56) 23. v. 87 — 

MJS 
609 E. cerusella (Hb.) — Connah's Quay (51) M. Newstead per HNM 
612 E. co///Ye//a(Dup.) — Portland (9) one 1 l.viii. 87 — JRL & ECP-C 
624. Biselachista trapeziella (Stt.) — Description of mine in Luzula 

sylvatica and Scottish localities, KPB & RPK-J, Ent. Gaz. 39: 278-280 
629 B. utonella (Frey) — Emer Bog (1 1) a few mines on Carex paniculata 

4.V.87, 1 bred — DHS & JRL 

OECOPHORIDAE 

634 Schiffermuelleria grandis (Desv.) — Near Canonteign Barton (3) 
l.vii.87 — RJH, second Devon specimen — RJH, Ent. Gaz. 39: 191 

639 Bisigna procerella (D. & S.) — Whitstable (15) 20.viii.87 — ESB 

640 Batia lunaris (Haw . ) — Fletton (29) 1 3 . vii . 87 — MP 

653 Aplota palpella (Haw.) — Savernake Forest (8) bred from larvae 
found in moss on old oak trees 4. v. 87 — PHS, JRL, ECP-C, Hfe 
history described Ent. Rec. 99: 275f; Blenheim Park (23) bred from 
larvae 27.vi.87 — PHS, JRL & DHS; Ashclyst Forest (3) 1. on trunks 
of beech, l.vii.87 emerged 25 &29.vii. 87 — RJH, ^'Azr. /?ec. 100:207 

677 Epigraphia steinkellneriana (D. & S.) — Bedford Purlieus (32) 
24.iv.87 — MP 

668 Enicostoma lobelia (D. & S.) — Great Yews (8) 1 1 .vi.87 — SMP 

696 Agonopterix propinquella (Treits.) — Dinton (8) 4.x. 87 — SMP 

708 A. carduella (Hb.) — Newborough (52) — HNM 

715 A. capreolella (Zell.) — Ventnor (10) larvae 2.viii.87 — JRL & 
ECP-C 

718 Ethmia dodecea (Haw.) — Bedford Purlieus (32) 6. vii. 87 — MP 

719 E.funerella (Fabr.) — Holme Fen NNR (29) 23. vi.87 — APF 

GELECHIIDAE 

724 Metzneria lappella (Wals.) — West Burton Power Station (56) 

7.vii.87 — MJS 
727a M. aprilella (H.-S.) — Early Berks (22) records: Sulham 1901 and 

Streatly 1915 — MFVC, Ent. Gaz. 39: 198 
728 Paltodora cytisella (Curt.) — Fovant Wood (8) 13. vii. 87 — SMP; 

Drax, near Selby (64) 24.vii.87 — HEB 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW FOR 1987 147 

13\aEulamprotes phaeella Heckford and Langmaid — Description of 

species new to science — RJH and JRL, Ent. Gaz. 39: 1-8; South 

Wales — ANBS, Ent. Gaz. 39: 234 
734 Argolamprotes micella (D. & S.) — Winchester (11) 13.vii.87 in m.v. 

trap — DHS, most easterly record 
749 Sitotroga cerealella (Ol.) — Worcester Museum (37) larvae on corn 

dollies — ANBS, Ent. Rec. 100: 162 
ISOaPsamathocrita argentella P. & M. — Hayling Island (1 1) flying around 

Agropyron pungens after heavy rain, at 1630 hrs. 13.vi.87 — DHS and 

JRL 
76l3iAthrips rancidella (H.-S.) — Notes on the biology — PAS and 

JMC-H, Ent. Rec. 99: 253 
769 Teleiodes wagae (Nowicki) — Peasmarsh (14) two 6.vi.87 — JRL and 

ECP-C; Barham (15), larva on Betula moth reared 14. v. 87 — AME, 

Ent. Gaz. 39: 76 
806 Gelechia nigra (Haw.) — Calborne (10) from larva on Populus alba 

4.vii.87 — EFH 
813 Scrobipalpa salinella (Zell.) — Newton (10) 4.viii.87 — JRL and 

ECP-C 
816 5. atriplicella (F.v.R.) — Towan Beach, Roseland (2) 22.viii.87 — 

FHNS 
823a.Scrobipalpula tussilaginis (Frey) — Dorset, two coastal localities (9) 

larvae on Tussilago 30.x. 87 — RJH; Milford-on-Sea (11) larvae 

7.xi.87 — JRL 
826 Caryocolum vicinella (Doug.) — Llandudno (49) — HNM 
828 C. viscariella (Stt.) — Cullykhan (94) bred — MRY, first record for 

north east Scotland 
839 Nothris congressariella (Bruand) — North Cornish coast (1) 9.ix.87 — 

PNS per FHNS; new to mainland Britain 
844 Syncopacma larseniella (Gozm.) — Aldermaston (22), 9.vii.87 — PS 

per BRB. 
864 Dichomeris ustalella (Fabr.) — Worcs. (37) 6.vi.87 — ANBS & MWH; 

larvae on Tilia cordata ix.87 — ANBS, First record since 1861, Ent. 

Rec. 101: 17f 
867 Brachmia inornatella (Doug.) — Whitstable (15) 28. vi. 86 — ESB 

MOMPHIDAE 

874 Blastobasis decolorella (Wals.) — Chapelton (77) 6.vii. 87 — EFH 
882 Mompha locupletella (D. & S.) — Near Gwbert (46) reared from. 

Epilobium parvifolium viii.87 — ANBS 
885 M. conturbatella (Hb.) — Cors y Sarmau; Maentwrog (48) — HNM 

COSMOPTERIGIDAE 

896 Cosmopterix orichalcea Stt. — Leek ford (121) mines in Phalaris 
arundinacea, 13-21. ix.87 — DHS & JRL, not all larvae left mines to 



148 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

form hibernating cocoon, some spun cocoons inside the mine, another 
remained inside but spun against a leaf — JRL & DHS 
898 Limnaecia phragmitella Stt. — Morton Lochs NNR (85), vii.87 — 

M.R. Shaw, Ent. Rec. 100: 45 
905 Blastodacna hellerella (Dup.) — Ulverston (69) 1 .vii.87 — EFH 
907 Dystebenna stephensi (Stt.) — Wanstead Flats (18) 1 .viii.87 — PHS 

TORTRICIDAE 

944 Aethes williana (Brahm)— Holywell (53) one 1 .vi.87 — JRL & ECP-C 
948 A. margaritana (Haw.) — Chislet Colliery (15) bred from seed-heads 

oi Achillea millefolium, 6-14. vii.87 — ESB 
951 A. beatricella (Wals.) — West Burton Power Station (56) common — 

MJS 
955 Eupoecilia ambiguella (Hb.) — Newtown Common (12) larvae in 

berries of Frangula 16. viii.87 — PHS 
961 Falseuncaria degreyana (McLach.) — Foxhole Heath (26) 12. viii.87 — 

PHS 
971 Pandemis cinnamomeana (Treits.) — Herodsfoot (2) 1, on Salix4.v.Sl 

em. 4.vi.87 — FHNS 
977 Archips podana (Scop.) — Monifieth, Angus (90) — MRY 
982 Choristoneura diversana (Hb.) — Ovesley Wood (38), 22.vi.61 — 

S.E.W. Carter per RJB 
985 Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hb.) — Central Speyside (96) bred from 
willow shoots at a commercial nursery — MRY; Cork (H4) 16.ix.87 — 
KGMB, new to Ireland, Ir. Nat. J. 11: 454 
990 Aphelia unitana (Hb.) — Bucks Mills (4) reared from 1. on Rumex 

acetosa&Heracleum. 28+ &30.V.87 — RJH; £"^7/. Rec. 100: 184f 
988 Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) — Adults in March — Ent. Rec. 99: 283 
1001 Lozotaeniodes formosanus (Gey.) — Rossett (50) two specimens at 

light, new to north Wales — M. Grice per HNM 
1008 Philedone gernignana (D. & S.) — Roydon Common (28) 6. vii.87 

bred from Myrica gale, second record from this area — MP 
1011 Pseudargyrotoza conwagana (Fabr.) — Second and possibly third 

generations — AME, Ent. Rec. 100: 97 
1021 Cnephasia assecana (D. & S.) — Ashey Down (10) from larva on 

Viburnum lantana, 26. vi.87 — EFH 
1023 C. genitalana P. & M. — Pucketty, near Faringdon (22), 12. viii.87 — 

MFVC 
1027 Neosphaleroptera nubilana (Hb.) — West Burton Power Station (56) 

12.vii.87 — HEBperMJS 
1029 Eana osseana (Scop.) — ColHford reservoir (2) several 23. vii.87 — 

FHNS 
1059 Acleris abietana (Hb.) — Kielder Forest (67) xi.85 and ii.86, 
Hamsterly Forest (66) iv - vi.87 and Chopwell Wood (66) 20.xi.87 — 
APF, Ent. Rec. 100: 186f. First records for England 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW FOR 1987 149 

1061 A. literana (Linn.) — Gresford (50) — M. Newstead per HNM 
1066 Celypha woodiana (Barr.) — Stratford-on-Avon (38) '84 — J.M. 

Price per RJB, Proc. Birm. Nat. Hist. Soc. 25: 207 
1067a C rurestrana (Dup.) — Described as new to Britain, Ilfracombe (4) 

two 10.vii.87 and Tintern (35) — RJH Ent. Gaz. 39: 193-196 
1068 Olethreutes rivulana (Scop.) — Mhoinne Mhor NNR (98) on a salt 

marsh — MRY 
1075 O. olivana (Treits.) — Mhoinne Mhor NNR (98) on a salt 

marsh — MRY 

1 106 Lobesia reliquana (Hb.) — Maentwrog (48) — HNM 

1107 L. botrana (D. & S.) — West Wood, Knotting (30) 21.viii.87 — D. 
Manning, second occurrence in Britain 

1 108 L. abscissana (Doubl.) — Leeds (64) 12.viii.87 — HEB 

1115 Ancylis achatana (D. & S. ) — Cefn-y-Bedd (50) — B. Formstone & 
M. Newstead per HNM 

1116 A. comptana (Frol.) — Graig Fawr (51) — HNM 

1118 A. uncella(D. & S.) — Hatfield Moors (63) 17.V.87 — HEB 

1 197 Eucosma campoliliana (D. & S.) — Ellenglaze near Holywell Bay (1) 
two at m.v. — PNS per FHNS 

1198 E. pauperana (Dup.) — Fairmile, Berks Downs (22) 2.vi.86 — 
JMC-H 

1 199 E. pupillana (Clerck) — Oxford railway bank (22) '87 — PHS 

1222 Strophedra nitidana (Fabr.) — Coed Cymerau (48) — HNM 

1223 Pammene splendidulana (Guen.) — Black Lochs oak woods near 
Oban (98) — MRY 

1227 P. inquilina Fletch. — near Canonteign (3) 21 .iv.87 — RHJ 

1228a P. ignorata (Kuzn.) — Axminster(3) — ECP-C New to Britain, Ent. 
Gaz. 39: 40 

1230 P. suspectana (L. & Z.) — Lashford Lane Bog, Dry Sandford (22) 
24.vi.86 — MFVC 

1231 P. spiniana (Dup.) — Worcs. (37) ix.87 — ANBS 

1243 Cydia pallifrontana (L. & Z.) — Waterly Railway Cutting (32) 
24.vi.87, Bedford Purlieus (32) 6.vii.87 APF & MP 

1245 C. janthinana (Dup.) — Penhale (1) 4.vii.87 — FHNS 

1248 C. molesta (Busck) — Winchester (11) bred from a Sainsbury's 
peach imported from Italy, emerged 30. ix.87 — DHS 

1266a C. illutana (H.-S.) — Southsea (11) 10.vi.75 — JRL, Ent. Rec. 100: 
162. Earliest record of species from Britain 

1277 Dichrorampha senectana Guen. — Caergwrle (51) B. Formstone per 
HNM; Dolgarrog (49) — HNM 

1278 D. sequana (Hb.) — Cefn-y-Bedd (50) — B. Formstone per HNM 
West Burton Power Station (56) common 4.vii.87 — MJS; Ventnor 
(10) a few 2.viii.87 — JRL & ECP-C 



150 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 



PYRALIDAE 

1 303 Agriphila selasella (Hb.) — Mhoinne Mhor NNR (98) on a salt marsh 

— RPK-J per MRY 

1307 A. /o//5/m(Haw.) — Whitstable(15), 31.viii.87 — ESB 

1316 Caro/7rna/o/5e//o(D. &S.) — Whitstable(15), 18.viii.87 — ESB 

1329 Schoenobius forficella (Thunb.) — Gresford (50) — M. Newstead 

per HNM 
1348 Parapoynx stratiotata (Linn.) — Loch Brnluasgan near Achnamara 

(101) — MRY & RPK-J 

1 357 Evergestis extimalis (Scop.) — Foxhole Heath (26) 29.vi.87 — MP 

1358 E. pallidata (Hufn.) — Saffron Walden (19) 17.vii.87 — AME 
1 367 Pyrausta cingulata (Linn .) — Graig Fawr (51) — HNM 

1380 Eurrhypara perlucidalis (Hb.) — Coventry (38) viii.86 — J. Robbins; 
'87 _ M. Ball per RJB; West Burton Power Station (56) 7.vii.87 — 
MJS; Old Rossington (63) 4 & 13.vii.87 — R.L Heppenstall per 
HEB; Dinton (8) 4.vii.87 — SMP, Ent. Rec. 100: 134 

1382 Anania verbascalis (D. & S.) — Sandhurst (22) — RWP per BRB 

1387 Nascia cilialis (Hb.) — Ramparts Field (26) 29.vi.87, Fouldon 
Common (28) 18.vi.87, East Harting Common (28) 2 

1399 Dolicharthria punctalis (D. & S.) — Felpham (13) common 13.vii.87 

— MP; Pembrokeshire (3), 28.vii.87 — G.L. & M.A. Finch, Ent. 
Rec. 100: 28 

1403 Diasemiopsis ramburialis (Dup.) — Dinton (8) 20.x. 87 — SMP, Ent. 

Rec. 100: 94 
1408 Palpita unionalis (Hb.) — Southsea (1 1) one 20.x. 87 — JRL 
1421 Aglossa pinguinalis (Linn.) — Llandudno (49) '74 & '78 — B. 

Skinner per HNM 
l424aEndotncha consobrinalis Zell. — A specimen of this species was 

bred in Colchester from celery imported from Israel — B. Goodey 

per AME 
1430 Paralispa gularis (Zell.) — Plympton (3) bred from pet food — RJH, 

Ent. Rec. 100: 132 
1433 Crypt oblabes bistriga (Haw.) — Herodsfoot (2) two at m. v. 28.vi.87 

— FHNS 

1450 Metriostola betulae (Goeze) — Whixall Moss (40) many larvae 

30.V.87 — JRL&ECP-C 
1445 Pempelia formosa (Haw.) — West Burton Power Station (56) 

7.vii.87 — MJS; Leigh, (37) 3.vii.86 — ANBS, Ent. Rec. 100: 189 
1447a Sciota adelphella (F.v R.) — Swindon (7) '87 — D. Brotheridge per 

MFVC; Bradwell (19) — R. Dewick. New to Britain 
1456 Epischnia bankesiella Rich. — Perrancoombe (1) 16.viii.87 at m.v. 

— FHNS 

1454 Dioryctria abietella (D. & S.) — PaiUon (38) 26.vii.87 — K.C. 
Greenwood per RJB 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW FOR 1987 151 

l454aI>ioryctia schuetzeella Fuchs — Windsor Forest (22) — P.J. Baker 

per BRB 
1455 D. mutatella Fuchs — Kineton (38) 7.viii.87 — D. Brown per RJB 
1435 Acrobasis tumidana (D. & S.) — Dinton (8) 18.viii.87 — SMP 
1461 Assara terebrella (Zinck.) — Birch Park, near Colchester (19) three, 

ll.vii.87 — B. Goodey 
1464 Gymnancyla canella (D. & S.) — Spurn (61) late vii.87 — B.R. Spence 

per HEB 

1470 Euzophera pinguis (Haw.) — Gresford (50) — B. Fromstone per 
HNM 

1471 Homoeosoma sinuella (Fabr.) — Leeds (64) 28.vi.87 — HEB 
1474 Ephestia parasitella Stdgr — Dinton (8) 4.vii.87 — SMP 

PTEROPHORIDAE 

1501 Platyptilia gonodactyla (D. & S.) — Dean Point, St Keverne (1) 

19.ix.87 — FHNS 
1503 P. ochrodactyla (D. & S.) — Holt (50) bred tansy — B. Formstone per 

HNM; Saffron Walden (19) 5.viii.87 — AME 
1511 Pterophorus fuscolimbatus (Mann) — near Coverack (1) — FHNS, 

Ent. Gaz. 39: 187, Larval description & life-history, Ent. Gaz. 39: 

189-191 
1522 Leioptilus tephradactyla (Hb.)— Melfort Cliffs (98) — MRY & RPK-J 



Corrections to 1986 Review 
{Ent. Rec. 100: 118-130) 
Argyresthia ivella for 17. v. 86 read 17.viii.85 

Coleophora benanderi for 30.vi.86 read 30.viii.86 
Cochylis flaviciliana for 16. v. 86 read 16.viii.86 
Dicrorampha sedatana record should be deleted 



Notes on British Orthotomicus (Co!.: Scolytidae) including O. suturalis 
(Gyllenhal) new to Wiltshire 

APART from the locally common Orthotomicus laricis (Fabricius) our two 
remaining representatives of the genus remain rare and are infrequently 
recorded despite the increasing afforestation of our countryside with 
conifers. I was pleased, therefore, to obtain a short series of O. suturalis 
(Gy.) from beneath the bark of a felled pine on the edge of Burnt Ground 
Wood, near Hamptworth, Wilts (SU 2217), on 1st April 1975. A singleton 
was taken in the same place and situation on 31st October 1975. I am not 
aware of a previous record from Wiltshire. 



152 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

Joy (1932, Handbk. Brit. Beetles) omitted both suturalis and erosus 
(Wollaston) on the grounds that comparative material was required to 
effect accurate determinations, despite the fact that Fowler (1891, 
Col. Brit. Islands, 5, 442) had provided useful diagnostic characters to 
separate the former (as Tomicus nigritus Gy.) from laricis. Duffy (1953, 
Handbk. Ident. Br. Insect, 5, part 15: 16) includes all three species, 
separating them upon differences in the teeth of the apical declivity. I have 
not seen erosus, a species for which, as far as I can ascertain, there has been 
no pubHshed record since G.H. Thompson (1959, Entomologist's 
mon.Mag., 95: 95) reported its continued presence in the Forest of Dean, 
the site of its original discovery in this country as a breeding species. Duffy 
(op.cit., 7) figures the more strongly developed, broadly triangular second 
tooth of the declivity in this species — a character which should enable the 
species to be readily distinguished from its allies. The separation of 
suturalis from laricis using the declivity characters as described by Duffy 
presented difficulties until I obtained examples of suturalis. Whilst the 
character given for suturalis by Duffy seems accurate, viz. "Distance 
between first and second teeth on elytral declivity less than distance 
between first pair of teeth", that for laricis, viz. "Distance between first 
and second teeth of elytral declivity greater than the distance between the 
first pair of teeth" is, in my opinion, needlessly confusing and somewhat 
inaccurate. In laricis it would seem from specimens that I have examined, 
that the two comparative distances are more-or-less equal. If this 
observation is borne in mind when using Duffy's key, no confusion should 
arise when attempting to name specimens. Finally, it should be noted that 
the size range given for suturalis by Duffy — 2-6.3 mm — is surely a 
printer's error for 2.6-3 mm — David R. Nash, 266 Colchester Road, 
Lawford, Essex COl 1 2BU. 

As Mr Nash suggests, O. suturalis would seem to be a much under- 
recorded species, for which its omission from Joy's work may be in part 
responsible; probably therefore it still sometimes passes as O. laricis. Apart 
from that noted above, the only records of suturalis I have since the two 
early ones of Fowler are (in chronological order) for Bagshot (Surrey), 
Windsor Forest, and the New Forest (see Allen, 1951, Ent. mon.Mag. 87: 
115, where a few diagnostic notes found to be useful are given). It might be 
mentioned that Donisthorpe's Windsor records actually relate to the 
Swinley/ Ascot area, but the beetle was present in some numbers in the bark 
of one or two pine logs in Windsor Forest proper in October 1971. — 
A.A.A. 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1988 153 

THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE BRITISH ISLES 

IN 1988 

R.F. Bretherton ' and J.M. Chalmers-Hunt ' 

• Folly Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey GU5 OLE. 
^ 1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 

IMMIGRATION in 1988 had a pattern rather similar to that in 1987, but in 
a much more extreme form. Influxes were frequent from January to June, 
but their numbers were small and almost confined to the common species. 
Things improved in late July and August and were followed by very large 
numbers from mid September through October, with some even in early 
November. Cynthia cardui L. was a dominant butterfly almost throughout. 
Other outstanding features were the large invasions of Spodoptera exigua 
Hb. and Helicoverpa armigera Hb., three more captures of Thera 
cupressata Geyer on the British mainland, the occurrence of four species of 
rare Plusiinae and a single Catocala fraxini L. Rare species of Pyralidae 
were also prominent. One of these, a specimen of Sclerocona acutellus 
Eversman, trapped by Col. D.H. Sterhng at Leckford, north Hampshire 
on 8th August, is an addition to the British list, and a Hellula undalis Fab. 
taken by Mr A. Spalding in Cornwall on 21st October is only the second 
British record. Most of the scarcer species arrived in strong south west 
winds, probably from north Africa. 

Cynthia cardui, after the Christmas invasion of 1987, made at least one 
influx in every month until October and even early November 1988. These, 
combined with the results of successful local breeding from July onwards, 
gave it a wider distribution and larger numbers than any since the "great 
year" of 1980. These are illustrated on the attached map (Fig.l) and on the 
table of monthly numbers covered by records which have reached us; 
(table 1) but these are certainly very incomplete. Larvae were also reported 
on thistles in several places on the south coast and informative sequences 
were traced as far north as Yorkshire at Muston (P.W. Winter) and 
Guisborough (N.W. Harwood). At the latter the first adult was seen on 
13th June; on 14th and 17th July, 88 larvae were found in various stages 
from 1st instar to fully fed, and by 6th August, 178 had been counted in all; 
on the next day five adults were seen, together with three small larvae, and 
others, some still small, were being found until 21st September. Mr. 
Harwood gave RFB some of his pupae, but of those kept out of doors in 
Surrey only one emerged on 15th October and others were dead after the 
first frost on 20th and 21st October. In Scotland it was seen in six mainland 
counties to Aberdeen and Caithness, where full grown larvae were found. 
The numbers of C. cardui were as usual highest round the coasts, but there 
was good penetration in small numbers into Warwickshire and 
Worcestershire, and its occurrence on the northern outer islands of Canna, 
St. Kilda, South Uist, Orkney and Fair Isle is notable. 



154 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.vii.l989 



ENGLAND AND WALES 



1 . West Cornwall (with Scilly) 

2. East Cornwall .... 

3. South Devon 

4. North Devon 

5. South Somerset .... 

6. North Somerset .... 



North Wiltshire 
South Wiltshire 
Dorset . . . 



10. Isle of Wight A 

1 1 . South Hampshire D 

12. North Hampshire A 

13. West Sussex D 

14. East Sussex D 

15. East Kent D 

16. West Kent C 

17. Surrey C 

18. South Essex E 

19. North Essex 

20. Hertfordshire B 

21. Middlesex C 

22. Berkshire B 

23. Oxfordshire B 

24. Buckinghamshire 

25. East Suffolk A 

26. West Suffolk 

27. East Norfolk . A 

28. West Norfolk 

29. Cambridgeshire 

30. Bedfordshire ..;.... 

31. Huntingdonshire .'.... 

32. Northamptonshire C 

33. East Gloucestershire .... B 

34. West Gloucestershire .... B 

35. Monmouthshire 

36. Herefordshire 



37. Worcestershire C 

38. Warwickshire D 

39. Staffordshire 

40. Shropshire 

41. Glamorgan A 

42. Breconshire A 

43. Radnorshire 

44. Carmarthenshire B 

45. Pembrokeshire D 

46. Cardiganshire 

47. Montgomeryshire 

48. Merionethshire 

49. Caernarvonshire 

50. Denbyshire C 

51. Flintshire 

52. Anglesey 

53. South Lincolnshire 

54. North Lincolnshire 

55. Leicestershire A 

56. Nottinghamshire A 

57. Derbyshire B 

58. Cheshire 

59. South Lancashire C 

60. West Lancashire B 

61. South-east Yorkshire .... E 

62. North-east Yorkshire .... C 

63. South-west Yorkshire .... 

64. Mid-west Yorkshire 

65. North-west Yorkshire .... 

66. Durham 

67. South Northumberland . . . 

68. North Northumberland ... B 

69. Westmorland B 

70. Cumberland 

71. Isle of Man A 

113. Channel Isles E 



SCOTLAND 



72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 



Dumfrieshire A 

Kirkcudbrightshire A 

Wigtownshire 

Ayrshire B 

Renfrewshire 

Lanarkshire B 

Peebleshire 

Selkirkshire 

Roxburghshire 

Berwickshire A 

East Lothian 

Midlothian 

West Lothian 

Fifeshire 

Stirlingshire B 

West Perthshire 

Mid Perthshire 

East Perthshire 

Angus C 

Kincardineshire 

South Aberdeenshire .... A 
North Aberdeenshire .... 



94. Banffshire . . . 

95. Moray 

96. East Inverness-shire. 

97. West Inverness-shire 

98. Argyll Main . . . 

99. Dunbartonshire . . 

100. Clyde Isles . . . 

101. Kintyre . . . . 

102. Islay, Jura . . . 

103. Mull, Coll, Tiree . 

104. Skye, Canna, Rhum 

105. West Ross . . . 

106. East Ross .... 

107. East Sutherland . . 

108. West Sutherland. . 

109. Caithness. . . . 

110. Outer Hebrides . . 

111. Orkney Islands . . 
Fair Isle .... 

112. Shetland Islands. . 
StKilda . . . . 



B 
A 



continued . . . 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1988 



155 



IRELAND 



H.l. South Kerry D 



H.3. West Cork 

H.4. Mid Cork 

H.6. Waterford 

H.12. Wexford . 

H.21. Dublin. . 



H.31. Louth . . . 

H.33. Fermanagh . 

H.37. Armagh . . 

H.38. Down . . . 

H.39. Antrim . . 

H.40. Londonderry. 



Table 1 . Distribution of Cynthia cardui records by vice-county. 
Kev: A= 1-3; B = 4-11;C= 12-31; D = 32-99;E = over 100 




KEY TO SYMBOLS 
(number o-f 
individuals) 



Fig. 1 . Distribution of Cynthia cardui records, December 1987, plus all 1988. 



156 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

By contrast, Vanessa atalanta L., though widespread, was in many 
places much less numerous than C. cardui until it made up its frequency by 
large immigrations and some local breeding from late July onwards. 
Several were seen in January and February, but the usual invasion in late 
May and June was small. It was last seen at Modbury, South Devon on 
27th November. In the far north, three were seen on Fair Isle on 25th May 
and again in July and last on 27th October. 

Co lias croceus Fourc. was, as one recorder said, "Virtually 
non-existent", with only 17 reported. The first was at Kennal Vale, West 
Cornwall (AS) on 13th April, the last also there on 6th November. The 
counts by totals were South Devon (5), West Cornwall (4), South Hants 
(1), West Sussex (5) and East Sussex (2). With one exception, all were single 
sightings. 

The diurnal Macroglossa stellatarum L. also had a very poor year, with 
only about two dozen reported, widely scattered in place and dates: Dorset 
(7), South Devon (4), Guernsey (3), Sussex (2), singles in East Kent, 
Berkshire, Northamptonshire, Middlesex (at light in North London), and 
far north at Hoghton, South Lancashire. The first was at Bigbury, South 
Devon, 24th April (Prof. J. Owen); the last in Guernsey with singles on 1st 
and 23rd November (per RA). 

The common immigrant moths tabulated mostly show the feature, 
characteristic of this season, of absence or scarcity in the early months 
followed by large increases from August onwards (Fig. 2). They probably 
understate the reality of this, because many recorders reported them simply 
as "common" or "abundant" in months of abundance, which have not 
been numerically tabulated. There are no indications of successful local 
breeding, except perhaps for Autographa gamma L. and Plutella xylostella 
L. Inspection of daily dates, agreeing with those of scarcer species, shows 
that most of them arrived in separate waves in mid August, early 
September, again in its third week, and most numerously in the second half 
of October, with a final small influx about 7th November. Though their 
peak dates varied somewhat, most species thus reached total numbers 
around normal. Peridroma saucia Hb., however, was always scarce, with 
less than 30 reported. After two at Peacehaven, East Sussex on 24th and 
25th March, and one in June (CRP); it was not noted again until 4th 
September at Ringwood, South Hants. Inland, it was seen only singly at 
Fernham, Berks and Charlecote, Warwickshire. The last was at Penzance, 
West Cornwall on 28th November, the only record there (MPS). Agrotis 
ipsilon Hufn., first seen on 15th March at Fernham, Berks (SN), was scarce 
in the spring but its numbers rose more steadily than those other common 
species to a good peak of over 200 in October and it was still widespread in 
November with the last on 18th November at Bradwell-on-Sea, South 
Essex (SD). Inland it was seen in South Wilts, Middlesex, Surrey, Herts, 
and Warwickshire; its northern limit on the coast was Orkney, with one in 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1988 157 



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158 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

June and three in October (RIL). Autographa gamma L., after one found 
in a house at Bromley, West Kent on 9th March (S.N. A. Jacobs), began 
fairly strongly as usual in May and June, reached an early peak with over 
1900 dated records in August, and remained numerous in many places until 
November, when the last were seen at Bramley, Surrey on 28th and 29th 
November (RFB). It was reported in eleven inland counties or vice-counties 
north to Montgomery, in small numbers, and on the coast to Fair Isle, 
B.O., where 20 were counted between 26th May and 20th October (per 
PMP). This may be compared with the combined total of 3083 scored at 
two traps at Bradwell-on-Sea, South Essex from 8th May to 15th 
November (AJD, SD). As a whole a fair but not outstanding year. 

Of the usually abundant micro-lepidoptera Nomophila noctuella D. & S. 
was below normal. It was first seen singly at Bradwell-on-Sea, South Essex, 
on 23rd March; but there were then only a handful of records, and many 
comments on its unwonted absence or scarcity until late July. It only began 
to show large numbers in late August and September, reached its peak in 
October, with a few more until the last on 12 November at Cusgarne, West 
Cornwall (AS). It reached both Orkney and Fair Isle in September and also 
Argyll, and it was reported from ten inland counties and vice-counties as 
far north as Warwickshire and Northamptonshire, but numbers were 
everywhere small. It was also reported from Co. Cork Mid, and in some 
numbers in Guernsey. Udea ferrugalis Hb. was first noted at Cusgarne, 
West Cornwall, on 25th May (AS), but there were no more until mid 
August, and it only became common in October, when it occurred round 
the coast from North Somerset, Isles of Scilly, to East Kent and South 
Essex, with the most northerly at Spurn Point, Yorkshire. Inland, it was 
only reported from Warwickshire. Its last was on 22nd December, also at 
Cusgarne (AS). Plutella xylostella L., which is believed to be both resident 
and immigrant, was not much reported, and the records show a date 
pattern unlike that of the other species discussed. They began with a swarm 
of over 80 at Fernham, Berks, 15th/25th March, and there was another of 
nearly 40 there 7th/15th May (SN). Otherwise, it was reported only in 
coastal counties from South Hants, East Sussex, East Kent, East Suffolk, 
and at Spurn Point, Yorkshire, where there were "hundreds" on 13th June 
(BRS). It also reached Orkney in July, and two were seen on Fair Isle on 
17th and 30th June. Inland, besides Berks it was noted in North and South 
Wilts, North Hants, Surrey and Cambridge. It was last seen at Muston, 
Yorkshire on 22nd October, but was not numerous in England after 
August. In Guernsey, however, there were six in October and one on 10th 
November (per RA). 

The scarcer species are fully detailed in Annexe II. The total of 70 wholly 
immigrant species is not outstanding, but the numbers of individuals of 
many of them were much above average. Helicoverpa armigera with 78 had 
many times the Viighest annual total previously known. Spodoptera exigua 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1988 159 

with nearly 200 was more plentiful than in any previous year since 1962, 
when there were over 1,000 reported; but then it arrived in force in May 
and is supposed to have bred extensively, whereas in 1988 the influxes 
began only in late July and there are no indications of successful breeding. 
Palpita unionalis Hb. had a good total of 40 recorded. Rhodometra 
sacraria L. with about 100 was above normal but did not approach the 
enormous total of 1987; but Orthonama obstipata Fab., which often comes 
with it had 60 recorded to compare with the very few in 1987. Agrius 
convolvuli L., however, was very scarce in 1988. 

Two rare immigrant species of other insect orders may also be 
mentioned. Of the Odonata a dragon fly, Aeschnea cyanea, was found in 
Cork City on 18th October after a night with "Sahara dust": a new species 
for Ireland. Of the Orthoptera, a Desert Locust, Schistocera gregaria, was 
taken from a wall at Heme Bay, East Kent on 10th November (Jill Morris 
per T.W. Harman), which is said to be the first known in Kent. In Devon 
and Cornwall, 36, and one in Somerset were counted between 26th October 
and 7th November (per A. Spalding). Their dates coincided with the many 
scarce Lepidoptera which had clearly originated in north Africa. 

We are very grateful to our still increasing numbers of recorders both 
direct and indirect, and we are especially indebted to those who sent in 
detailed results of nearly continuous records over much of the season, such 
as M. Rogers at Portland Bird Observatory, Dorset and A.J. and S. 
Dewick at Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex. We have also used many of the C. 
cardui records supplied in answer to an independent appeal in a BBC. 
Ceefax programme. We again draw attention to our use of the long 
recognised boundaries of counties and vice-counties as the basis necessary 
to maintain long term continuity in the face of the many changes in 
administrative areas. 

(To be concluded) 



A Second Kent County Record for Tomoxia bucephala Costa (Col.: 
Mordellidae) 

A SINGLE example of Tomoxia bucephala was found by chance on a 
rotting birch stump at Hothfield Common Nature Reserve (TQ 969457) on 
7.6.87. As warden of the site I was accompanying a visiting party of 
botanists and as they stooped to examine heath rushes my attention was 
attracted by this beetle on a stump (left after heathland reclamation work). 
Despite very many hours spent on the site no further records have been 
made. My thanks to E. Philp of Maidstone Museum for confirming the 
determination and allowing me access to the County Biological Archive 
which made its status, as a second county record, clear. — N. Onslow, 
I Windmill Close, Willesborough, Ashford, Kent TN24 OAU. 



160 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

The Beautiful Brocade Lacanobia contigua (D. & S.) (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 
Suffolk in September 

IN BRITAIN, the Beautiful Brocade is allegedly a univoltine species, on 
the wing as an adult in June and July when it may be taken freely both at 
light traps and at the sugar patch. Its distribution, as reported in The moths 
and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland volume 9, page 217 (Harley 
Books, 1979), is essentially southern and western, with a belt of records 
extending south-western from Surrey to the Isle of Wight and with 
scattered records from west and north-west England, Wales and Scotland. 
For East Anglia there is one dot in ^Cambridgeshire and two for Norfolk. 
It was, therefore, a complete surprise to discover that an extremely worn 
female noctuid (which could only really be identified as far as belonging to 
the Hadeninae on the basis of its hairy eyes), which I took in the shadow of 
the Sizewell nuclear power station in Suffolk on 10th September 1988 
proved to be Lacanobia contigua on examination of the genitalia. 

Though captured on the thin strip of land between a conifer plantation 
and arable fields the moth was in fact found in suitable habitat. The soil 
here is largely sand, being only a short distance back from the dunes of the 
coast and there is no doubt that both conifers and fields lie on former 
heathland. Small patches of this heath remain and are invaded by scattered 
trees — hence the habitat for this moth is near perfect. However, the 
extremely late date is a mystery. For Europe, Jules Culot writing in 1909 
{Noctuelles et Geometres d'Europe volume 1, page 103), also states that the 
adult flies in June and July and makes no mention of second broods, so 
this is no help. In the absence of other immigrant species at that time, the 
inevitable conclusion to which one is, therefore, drawn is of a late emerger 
from July that has survived birds and weather to reach the ripe old age of 
two months! Possibly the poor weather of 1988 may have delayed 
emergence to beyond the normal time? — Colin W. Plant, Passmore 
Edwards Museum, Romford Road, Stratford, London E15 4LZ. 



Unusual insect diets 

THE editor's experience of finding Hofmannophila pseudospretella 
Stt. larvae feeding on slug pellets (Ent.Rec. 101: 89) recalls an incident in 
the seventies. Returning to my laboratory after the vacation, I opened a 
large rubber formaldehyde tank containing dogfish floating in 4% 
formalin solution. Some of the bodies had been partly dissected, and the 
sides of the tank were covered with a grey deposit of evaporated (? and 
polymerised) formaldehyde and fishoil, above the tideline. Resting on this 
unsavoury mass were over 100 freshly-emerged moth flies (Psychoda sp.). 
This struck me at the time as being a remarkable diet for even these lovers 
of unpleasant pabula. (They are often found in numbers on sewage filter- 
beds). — E.H. Wild, 7 Abbots Close, Highcliffe, Christchurch, Dorset. 



MESAPAMEA REMMI — NEW TO BRITAIN 161 

MESAPAMEA REMMI REZBANYAI-RESER, 1985. 
(LEP.: NOCTUIDAE) A SPECIES NEW TO BRITAIN 

M.J.R. Jordan 

46 Branson Road, Bordon, Hants. 

THIS SPECIES was first discovered amongst specimens of the genus 
Mesapamea taken in Switzerland during 1983-1985 (Rezbanyai-Reser 
1985). It is apparently very rare, Rezbanyai-Reser finding only nine 
specimens of M. remmi from over 2000 Mesapamea specimens examined. 

Subsequently several other specimens have been identified from 
Germany, but the total number so far found remains very low (Meineke & 
Rezbanyai-Reser 1986). 

Whilst conducting work on the species pair Mesapamea secalis L. and M. 
didyma Esp. { = secalella Remm) in Britain, three specimens of the 
previously unrecorded M. remmi have been found. All three were caught at 
m.v. light at Weyhill, Hampshire (vc 12). 

One female, form rufa-flavo on 4.viii.l984, another female f. rufa-flavo 
on 30. vii. 1985 and one male f. nictitans on 13.vii.l985. 

This third species in the secalis complex is separable only by the genitalia, 
although a feature of the female genitalia may be visible externally on the 
underside of the abdomen. 

The genitalia of M. remmi are now described and compared to those of 
M. secalis and M. didyma. For a more detailed account of the genitalia of 
the latter two species see Jordan (1986). 

Male genitalia 

The aedeagus is the most diagnostic structure for identification. It is 
shorter, stockier and straighter (fig. 1) than in M. secalis /didyma (figs. 2 and 
3). On the everted vesica the large cornutus arises laterally (fig. 4), unhke 
M. secalis /didyma in which it hangs ventrally (figs. 5 and 6), and differs in 
shape from either of those species. Adjacent to the large cornutus are many 
smaller cornuti which are, however, very much larger than those of M. 
secalis or even those of M. didyma. M. remmi lacks the small accessory 
pouch present in M. secalis. 

The clavus region (fig. 7) most closely resembles that of M. didyma, but 
protrudes less and lacks the fine setae found in that species. 

Female genitalia 

The female genitalia are very different from other species in the genus. 
The large chitinised ridges leading to the opening of the ostium are very 
obvious and distinctive (fig. 8), these ridges are visible on the ventral 
surface of the abdomen without dissection. Rezbanyai-Reser (1985) shows 
a photograph of a female abdomen prior to dissection. 

There is no obvious swelling present in the ductus bursa, and the bursa 



162 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 





Fig. 1 Mesapamea remmi: aedeagus x25 
Fig. 2 Mesapamea secalis: aedeagus x 25 
Fig. 3 Mesapamea didyma: aedeagus x25 



copulatrix is highly convoluted, having many folds and a large pouch all of 
which are unlike M. secalis /didyma. 

The male and female genitalia described are only associated by frequency 
of occurrence and have not been linked by captive breeding. However with 
this species, which is probably as difficult to rear as the other members of 
the genus, captive breeding is unlikely. 



Fig. 4 Mesapamea remmi: everted vesica showing cornutus x50 
Fig. 5 Mesapamea secalis: everted vesica showing cornutus x 50 
Fig. 6 Mesapamea didyma: everted vesica showing cornutus x50 



MESAPAMEA REMMI — NEW TO BRITAIN 



163 





164 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.vii.l989 




Fig. 7 Mesapamea remmi: detail of clavus x50 

Virtually nothing is yet known about its biology and the capture sites on 
mainland Europe and the Hampshire locahty are very different in cHmate 
and habitat. 

In all of the localities that it has so far been found M. remmi occurs at a 
very low density. The three Hampshire specimens were found amongst a 
random sample of over 600 Mesapamea specimens checked by genitalia 
dissection, hence M. remmi represents only 0.5% of the total Mesapamea 
sample. 

It has not yet been found at any other locality in Britain despite 
numerous Mesapamea specimens being checked. 

It appears most likely that this species is a very low density resident and 
other specimens and localities will probably be found in the future, 
particularly by individuals undertaking large scale work on the genus for 
recording purposes. 

Whilst the female genitalia are very distinct and unlikely to be confused, 
particular attention should be taken to any male Mesapamea specimens 
which upon initial dissections do not conform to either of the other British 
species and reference made to the aedeagus of any such specimens to 
confirm their identity. 



MESAPAMEA REMMI — NEW TO BRITAIN 



165 




Fig. 8 Mesapamea remmi: chitinised ridges at entrance to ostium x50 

Acknowledgements 

Many thanks to M.R. Honey of the British Museum (Natural History) for 
allowing me access to facilities and for all his useful comments. 



References 

Jordan, M.J.R., 1986: The genitalia of the species pair Mesapamea secalis L. and 
Mesapamea secalella Remm (Lep.:Noctuidae). Entomologist's Rec.J.Var. 98: 
41-44. 

Lempke, B.J. 1988: Mesapamea secalella Remm — A junior synonym of 

Mesapamea didyma Esper (Lep.: Noctuidae). Entomologist's Rec.J.Var. 100: 
147-152. 

Meineke, T., and Rezbanyai-Reser, L., 1986: Fauna Germanica. Mesapamea- 
studien VI, Weitere nachweise von M. remmi Rezbanyai-Reser, 1985, Aus der 
Bundesrepublik Deutschland — Genitalmorphologische aberration oder wieder 
eine neue Mesapamea-anl (Lep., Noctuidae). Ent.Ber.Luzern. 16: 151-157. 
(In German) 

Resbanyai-Reser, L., 1985: Mesapamea-studien II. Mesapamea remmi sp.N. Aus 
der Schweiz, sowie beitrage zur kenntuis der westpalaearktischen arten der 
gattung Mesapamea Heinicke 1959. (Lep., Noctuidae). Ent.Ber.Luzern. 14: 
127-148. (In German with English summary) 



166 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

Caloptilia elongella L. (Lep.: Gracillariidae) on a previously unrecorded 
foodplant 

Whilst carrying out a breeding programme of Gracillariidae species last 
year, I collected tenanted larval workings of Caloptilia elongella in the 
leaves of common alder {Alnus glutinosa) in Colwick Country Park, 
Nottingham. A few days later at the same site I noticed two leaves of grey 
alder {Alnus incand) showing typical feeding of elongella — epidermal 
mines on the upperside of the leaf, leading to puckered blotches over the 
veins, with one of the leaves having the typical downward roll. 

Neither Heath {The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 
2), or Emmet ((1988) A field guide to the smaller British Lepidoptera) give 
Alnus incana as a foodplant for elongella. My thanks are due to Col. A.M. 
Emmet for confirming my identification. — A.S. Boot, 38 Balmoral 
Road , Colwick , Nottingham NG4 2GD . 



Schrankia intermedialis Reid (Lep.: Noctuidae), the autumn snout, in 
Kent. 

A SINGLE male of this species was caught in the Rothamsted Insect 
Survey light trap operating near Fagg's Wood, Warehorne, Kent (Site No. 
478, O.S. grid ref. TQ 988 346) on the night of 23/24.ix.l988 and was 
determined by examination of the genitalia. The identification was 
subsequently confirmed by J. Reid. 

Only four other specimens are known to science, all of which were 
caught in Hertfordshire (Skinner, B. (1984) Colour identification Guide to 
Moths of the British Isles. Viking, Harmondsworth) therefore the present 
record represents a significant increase in the known distribution of this 
species. 

There is speculation that Schrankia intermedialis is merely a naturally 
occurring hybrid of the closely related S. taenialis Hiibner and 5. 
costaestrigalis Stephens. It may be relevant to this discussion to note that 
the genitalia of the five known specimens are very constant in form; 
variation being Hmited to very slight differences in the breadth of the valves 
(Reid, pers. comm.). Over the two years it has been operating, neither of 
the other Schrankia species have been caught in the trap, although both 
have been recorded from the Ham Street Wood complex (Chalmers-Hunt, 
J.M. (1962-68) The Butterflies and Moths of Kent, Vol. 2, pp. 347-348) and 
Skinner (pers. comm.). 

Thanks are extended to Jim Reid for his observations on this species and 
for confirming the identification of the Kent specimen; Neil Davies who 
operates the Warehorne trap and to Bernard Skinner for his helpful 
comments. — Adrian M. Riley, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology, 
AFRC Institute of Arable Crops Research, Rothamsted Experimental 
Station, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ. 



THE BRIMSTONE MOTH 167 

SOME COMMENTS ON THE BRIMSTONE MOTH 
(OPISTHOGRAPTIS LUTEOLATA L.) (LEP.: GEOMETRIDAE) 

B.K. West, B.Ed. 

36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent. 

IN 1960 and 1961 the life cycle of this insect was the subject of a number of 
papers in the Journal; none was based upon direct observation or 
experiment and conclusions reached were founded upon circumstantial 
evidence as given in various textbooks, and the correct interpretation was 
taken to be that enunciated by Barrett (1900). The latest textbook by 
Skinner (1984), states that in southern Britain "... the species produces 
three broods over two years with the result that the adult appears in every 
month from April to October . . .". This is in fact a description of a 
bivoltine insect's hfe cycle from the standpoint of a single pair of specimens 
(a male and female) whose progeny will fly in only some of the months 
from April to October in each of the two years, but covering all the months 
over the two year period. The species, as opposed to a single individual, has 
six emergence periods over two years due to the insect passing the winter as 
both a larva and as a pupa. From over- wintered pupae imagines emerge in 
April and May (gen. la) while the hibernated larvae feed up in Spring to 
produce moths in June and July (gen. lb). A strong second brood (gen. II) 
appears in August, basically from individuals of gen. la, but as there is 
some overlapping in some years of the two sections of the first generation 
the situation is not quite straightforward. 

Bretherton (1961) proposed that the "bivoltine race" consisted of two 
strains, a univoltine strain (mid- June to mid- July) which matured slowly, 
and a true bivoltine strain (May- June and August-September); this theory 
would require that the over-wintering larvae were associated with the mid- 
June to mid- July moths, and that the hibernating pupae came from the 
second brood moths. 

I do not really find this theory plausible. Firstly in the Highlands of 
Scotland where luteolata is essentially single brooded appearing in June 
and July, the larvae feed up and the winter is passed in the pupal state — 
this is my experience from breeding numerous feral larvae from the rowan 
trees {Sorbus aucuparia) in August; despite the pupae being kept indoors 
no moths emerged until the following Spring. Lanktree (1961) details the 
Hght-trap records for luteolata at Kincraig, made by Dr C.B. Williams, 
which indicate that at that locality in some years there is a small, partial 
second brood; it would be interesting to know how the larvae of these 
second brood moths behave — is there time for them to feed up to attain 
the pupal state, do they hibernate as larvae, or do they just die? Secondly, 
in southern Britain it seems more likely that the gen. lb moths would give 
rise to caterpillars that would feed up to pupate the same year, and the gen. 
II moths produce offspring that would remain as larvae during the Winter, 
simply by virtue of the respective time available. 



168 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

In 1986 and again in 1988 I obtained eggs from gen. II moths. In 1986 the 
caterpillars were reared indoors, they showed very irregular growth as 
between individuals and there was considerable mortality; however, a few 
gen. Ill specimens were obtained in late October and November — they 
resembled those of gen. II but were inclined to be slightly smaller, and some 
were a little paler. In 1988 two broods were kept outside in cooler 
conditions; from the start the larvae showed little inclination to feed, and 
by November all had died, perhaps due to the use of plastic boxes not 
supplying satisfactory conditions. This does suggest that it is the gen. II 
moths which produce hibernating larvae; suggest, not prove! 

Of the life cycle of luteolata in Ireland virtually nothing seems to be 
known; I believe even its larval foodplant remains a mystery. Bradley and 
Pelham-Qinton (1967) summarise much of what is known about the moths 
found in Co. Clare, and they note that luteolata is very common at 
Ballynalackan and Newtown Castle in May and June, and September, but 
there is no mention of the larva. I have observed the moth at Rinnamona, 
Co. Clare, as early as 26. v. 1988 and 28. v. 1987; also in late June, 
25.vi.1987; in late July, 30.vii.l987; and in late August, 29.viii.1987. 
Outside the Burren I have noted the moth at Pontoon, Co. Mayo, 
27. vi. 1987. However, despite beating hawthorn, blackthorn and hazel for 
larvae in late May and early June, luteolata has not been amongst the 
species obtained. The dates given for the moth in the Burren indicate that 
perhaps the moth's life cycle there is similar to that in southern England. 

An aspect of the Brimstone Moth that has received very little comment is 
the actual appearance of the insect, for it is a polymorphic species. 
However, Barrett does state that the June moths "... are always finer in 
colour and markings that those of the other two broods . . .". In N.W. 
Kent there is certainly a degree of seasonal polymorphism. The gen. la and 
gen. II moths are usually smaller than those of gen. lb, perhaps not 
surprising in view of the latter having the advantage of the larvae 
completing their growth upon new, young foliage in the Spring. Gen. la 
specimens tend to be the most weakly marked, many lack the brown dots at 
the end of the veins, while the apical brown mark is frequently broken, and 
the transverse lines are less pronounced, culminating imperceptibly in ab. 
delineata Lempke, in which they are absent. I have found ab. apicolutea 
Cockayne mainly in gen. la, and in 1988 several appeared in my garden 
trap. In this form although the apical blotch is absent, the postmedian line 
still supplies its ingredient of the mark by reaching the costa. The much 
rarer ab. emaculata Graeser, in which this fails also, I have never 
encountered. 

The gen. II moths in N.W. Kent are basically similar in size to those of 
gen. la, but include a larger proportion of even smaller individuals. Gen. 
II moths appear to be the commonest at light, although most of the 
specimens I find attending are settled on the surrounding herbage, but only 



THE BRIMSTONE MOTH 169 

if the area is examined soon after dawn; sparrows will quickly remove all 
evidence of their presence, helped by the occasional blackbird, which 
arrives first on the scene. These late summer moths are usually very 
conspicuously marked with bold transverse lines, a well marked apical 
blotch and brown dots at the vein ends — a variable feature. It is in this 
brood that ab. ruficosta Lempke, in which the brown marks along the 
costa tend to coalesce, is usually found; although not uncommon, I find 
extreme forms distinctly rare. 

In the artificial gen. Ill individuals, this form appears to be no 
commoner, indeed it seems to be less so, with the markings in general being 
weaker, yet not being similar to those of gen. la. 

Regarding the June- July moths from winter larvae Barrett's comment 
that they are always finer in colour and markings than those of the other 
two broods is very near the truth; in general they are larger and the 
occasional giant specimen generally comes from this brood. Markings tend 
to be intermediate. The Scottish June- July, single brooded insects from 
winter pupae on the other hand, though comparable in size with the 
bivoltine gen. lb moths regarding size, appear to be very slightly paler. 

With ab. ruficosta being particularly associated with the second brood it 
seems that there might be a climatic or other factor modifying the effect of 
the gene(s) causing it. What is its incidence among the single brooded 
population? I hesitate to suggest a particular association of other named 
forms with a particular brood. 

At some stage of a note referring to Kentish lepidoptera I find it 
expedient to quote Chalmers-Hunt (1981), but apart from the recording of 
three genuine larval foodplants, luteolata seems to have received somewhat 
scant attention; some aberrations are noted, but often without complete 
data; Curiously ab. ruficosta is noted only from an extreme example from 
Folkestone, date not given, although apparently it was caught 13.viii.l956 
(Morley, 1957); how useful this additional information is, but 
unfortunately the same paragraph mentions a specimen of ab. emaculata, 
but in this case the original source of the information omits the date. In 
view of the paucity of named forms being given by Chalmers-Hunt I quote 
the following, taken by me at Dartford: intermedia Harrison (very pale 
whitish yellow) 3.V.1979, 12.ix.l987: apicolutea 13.ix.l986, 13. v. 1988 and 
16. V. 1988; nebulosa West 7.vi. 1979 (a banded form); ruficosta 16.viii. 1974, 
8.ix.l985, 10.viii.l985, 16.viii. 1988 and 27.viii. 1988. 

The textbooks which give the flight period of luteolata as April to 
October for bivoltine populations are not conveying a really accurate 
picture. My garden m.v. trap has now been in operation for twenty years; 
17. iv. 1988 and 7.x. 1986 represent the only occasions when a specimen has 
been noted in April or October. R. Bretherton (1961), detailing light trap 
records at Ottershaw, Surrey, over a nine year period from 1952 to 1960, 
noted one specimen for April and one for October. This suggests that these 



170 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

two months should be omitted from being part of the moth's normal flight 
period. Although the odd early October sighting probably merely 
represents a survivor, one later might suggest it has derived from a gen. lb 
pairing, or even more likely a cross pairing of gen. la and lb, rather than it 
being a true third brood individual of gen. II parentage. 

Because the gen. lb moths are intermediate in appearance, though not in 
size, it is not always possible to differentiate specimens of different broods 
where these overlap; however, the August-September brood generally 
appears to commence a week or so after the June- July insects have tailed 
away. Bretherton writes that there are two main periods of abundance at 
Ottershaw, the first, varying with season, begins with the first hot spell in 
May, the numbers remaining high for about three weeks and then declining 
steadily through the second half of June and most of July, until a nadir is 
reached in the last week of July. The second period, also varying with 
season, occurs in August and early September, but comes to a more abrupt 
end in the second or third week of September; on average this brood is half 
as big again as the combined first broods. The Ottershaw findings are from 
a sheltered location on a light, well-drained soil; my records for Dartford 
are from a sheltered, but north facing location situated on clay. However, 
the two have produced almost identical results. The one difference appears 
to be that at Dartford a higher proportion of gen. II moths have been noted 
in the second and third weeks of September, and the end of the brood has 
not developed quite so abruptly. Using the same dates for the weeks as were 
used for Ottershaw I give my figures for Dartford in 1988. Before the 
second week of June records are incomplete due mainly to my absence, but 
in this period the first moth noted was on 17th April; a complete second 
week in May produced seven moths; June — n/a, 8, 6, 7; July — 1, 7, 6, 4; 
August — 5, 39, 36, 35; September — 52, 12, 16, 0. 

Perhaps the second brood in 1988 was relatively larger than usual, but 
excepting the presence of the April specimen, 1988 was not an atypical year 
for luteolata. 1976 on the other hand was atypical with luteolata attending 
the trap from 7th May until the 29th, not to be seen again until 27th July, 
despite the trap being in operation throughout June and July. In 1984 the 
light was not used in May, except on two nights, due to weather conditions, 
and luteolata was not observed until 5th June. Moths then appeared 
regularly until the 18th, but the next specimen did not arrive until 13th 
August, after an interval of almost two months, and 2nd September saw 
the last. 

Heslop-Harrison (1955) and Campbell (1971) provide evidence that 
luteolata on some of the islands of the Inner Hebrides have two emergence 
periods (not three as with the bivoltine population of southern Britain). 
Referring to a period of years, Campbell states that on Canna the moth is 
common and double brooded, the earliest date being 10th May and the 
latest 18th September. For Canna, Rhum, Eigg, Soay and Raasay, Heslop- 
Harrison writes "... It is quite possible that two species are involved here 



THE BRIMSTONE MOTH 171 

as one series winters as pupa and the other as larva; the latter group, 
emerging in August, produce larger more distinctly marked imagines . . .". 
So it appears, assuming only one species is involved, that moths emerge in 
May and June from overwintered pupae (gen. la) and the later moths 
described as being larger and more distinctly marked (gen. lb) form an 
apparent second brood, but are not the progeny of the May- June moths. 
Thus there seem to be two distinct strains, the smaller, early moths 
overwintering as pupae, the larger later moths having insufficient time for 
their growth by the Spring. It is undoubtedly a population worth further 
investigation. 

Another aspect of the Brimstone Moth about which little is known is its 
larval foodplants; Barrett has been the source of most of the information 
that has appeared in textbooks after his monumental work. He listed 
hawthorn as the main foodplant (probably true of much of England and 
Wales), occasionally on blackthorn and apple, and more rarely on other 
fruit trees, wild service, whitebeam and hazel (unfortunately, it is not 
certain that foodplants listed by Barrett refer to Britain). Subsequent 
authors appear to have copied Barrett but curtailed the list and added an et 
cetera. In Kent I have often found the larva on hawthorn {Crataegus 
monogyna) and occasionally on blackthorn {Prunus spinosa) which I 
believe is the main foodplant there. Chalmers-Hunt for Kent refers to the 
larva being found frequently on hawthorn, blackthorn and rowan. L. and 
K. Evans (1973) for N.E. Surrey, without giving frequency, list plum, oak, 
snowberry and wayfaring tree. Lorimer (1983) states that rowan is the main 
foodplant in the Orkney Islands. Finally the Inner Hebrides — Campbell 
reports that on Canna the larvae are found on alder; Heslop-Harrison hsts 
that on Eigg, Rhum and Canna it is found on hawthorn, laurel, etc., rowan 
and other trees on Raasay, and birch on Soay. Thus it seems that on these 
islands the insect may have a number of larval foodplants of equal 
significance, unhke elsewhere. How unfortunate that "the other trees" and 
"etc." must for the time being remain undetected, and that perhaps a most 
important contribution to our knowledge of the life cycle of luteolata 
should be marred by incomplete recording. There may be contributions to 
our knowledge of the subject with which I am not acquainted, especially in 
literature dealing with local areas, although many so-called "county 
lepidoptera" are merely check Hsts of limited merit by virtue of their 
narrow interest, but others may be even worse, being largely fictional in 
character, especially in relation to larval foodplants. Nevertheless it does 
seem that we have knowledge of this subject from only a very small part of 
these islands — a tiny bit of S.E. England, the Highlands of Scotland, the 
Orkneys and the Inner Hebrides! These four areas alone have shown there 
to be a most interesting diversity in more than one aspect of the natural 
history of the Brimstone Moth, and the references to contributions in this 
journal and to the separately published works dealing with local areas 



172 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

illustrate how useful such sources of information can be. However, from 
the River Thames to the Highlands of Scotland, and from the coast of East 
Anglia to the west coast of Ireland, there Hes an enormous area of 
uncharted territory where luteolata flies but where its life history remains a 
mystery. 

References 

Barrett, C. 1900. The Lepidoptera of the British Isles. 

Bradley, J.D. and Pelham-Clinton, E.C. 1967. The Lepidoptera of the Burren, Co. 

Clare, W. Ireland. Entomologist's Gaz. 18: 115-153. 
Bretherton, R.F. 1961. Opisthograptis luteolata at the light trap. Entomologist's 

Rec. J. Var. 13: S0-S3. 
Campbell, J.L. 1971. Macro-lepidoptera Cannae (part 2). Entomologist's 

Rec.J.Var. S3: 6-12. 
Chalmers-Hunt, J.M. 1981. The butterflies and moths of Kent. 3. 
Evans, L. and Evans, K. 1973. A survey of the macro-lepidoptera of Croydon and 

N.E. Surrey. 
Heslop-Harrison, J.W. 1955. The Lepidoptera on the Lesser Skye Isles. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 67: 141-147; 169-177. 
Lanktree, P. A. Desmond. 1961. Further comments of the Early Stages and 

Northern Cycle of Opisthograptis luteolata L. (Lepidoptera). Entomologist's 

Rec. J. Var. 13: 91 -no. 
Lorimer, I. 1983. The Lepidoptera of the Orkney Islands. 
Morley, A.M. 1957. Proc.S.Lond.ent.nat.Hist.Soc. p. 43. 
Skinner, B. 1984. Moths of the British Isles. 



Flight behaviour of Anarta melanopa Thunb. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 

ON May 27th 1970 I walked over the high ground of the Monadhliath 
Mountains of Inverness-shire hoping to find this moth flying in the 
sunshine or to kick specimens up during the cloudy interludes. Despite 
considerable sunshine in the late morning only a couple of moths were seen 
but were immediately swept up by the very strong and gusty north-west 
wind and down over the heather-clad slopes beyond. After a considerable 
time, unsuccessful in my quest for melanopa, I sat down upon a boulder 
for refreshment before departure. However, almost immediately I noticed 
a specimen a few feet away flying an inch or so above the vegetation, its 
flight and appearance resembling that of a small bee rather than that of a 
moth. It was easily captured, and I had no sooner sat down again than 
another was sighted, flying in similar fashion, and in a very short time by 
being seated or standing still a couple of dozen were observed in quick 
succession. 

Strong wind is a persistent feature of the region (G. Manley, Climate and 
the British Scene, 1952), and melanopa has evolved a flight pattern 
enabling it to take advantage of the limited sunshine even when strong 
winds are blowing, by flying only in the zone immediately above the 
vegetation where the air is comparatively still. — B.K. West, 36 Briar 
Road, Dart ford, Kent. 



SCIOTA ADELPHELLA IN KENT 173 

RECORDS OF SCIOTA ADELPHELLA (FISCHER VON 
ROSLERSTAMM) FROM NORTH KENT 

P.J. Jewess 

Boyces Cottage, Newington, Sittingbourne, Kent ME9 7JF. 

DURING 1987 I purchased a copy of Eivind Palm's excellent recent book 
on the Scandinavian Pyralidae (Palm, 1986). Whilst perusing the insects 
depicted on plate 1 , my immediate thoughts were that the figures for two 
species had been transposed. These were Sciota host His (Stephens) and 
Sciota adelphella (F. von R.), since the two specimens which had long done 
duty in my collection as S. hostilis bore much more resemblance to the 
colour figures of S. adelphella, a supposedly non-British species (Meyrick, 
1895). Recourse to the text figures in Palm on p. 39 did nothing to resolve 
the problem, neither did exhibition of the specimens at the Maidstone 
meeting of Kentish Lepidopterists during February this year. 

Accordingly, I prepared a (male) genitaha slide of one of the specimens. 
This appeared closer to the rather poor figure of the genitalia for S. 
adelphella than to S. hostilis in Pierce and Metcalf (Pierce and Metcalf, 
1937). I then submitted the two specimens to Mr M. Shaffer (Dept. 
Entomology, British Museum (Natural History)) who kindly confirmed 
that the specimens were indeed S. adelphella and also brought to my 
attention a recent paper (Brotheridge, Corley and Dewick, 1988) which 
records other overlooked British specimens of S. adelphella, together with 
figures and a description of this species. 

The data for my specimens are: — (1) Newington, near Sittingbourne, 
Kent, 6.vii.l976, captured by my wife, Valerie at m.v. (2) Three Lakes, 
Murston, near Sittingbourne, Kent, 4.vii.l985 at m.v. It would be 
interesting to know the basis for the assertion by Meyrick that British 
records for S. adelphella are due to confusion with S. hostilis. It has 
possibly resulted in the species being overlooked in Britain for nearly a 
hundred years. The foodplants for S. hostilis, according to Palm are 
various species of Salix and Populus which are common in the localities 
where my specimens were captured, whereas the foodplant of S. hostilis 
{Populus tremula) is much less frequent in the North Kent coastal area. 
Certainly, any supposed specimens of S. hostilis with an orange basal area 
on the forewing which have been caught in an area where aspen is 
infrequent should be subjected to careful scrutiny. Palm states that S. 
adelphella has a predominantly coastal distribution in Scandinavia and it is 
tempting to surmise that the insect is breeding in the North Kent marshes 
where all of the species' recorded foodplants are abundant. 

I shall now be looking for some genuine specimens of Sciota hostilis to 
fill the vacant space in my cabinet ! 



174 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

References 

Brotheridge, D.J. Corley, M.F.V. and Dewick, A.J. 1988 Sciota adelphella (Fischer 
von Roslerstamm, 1836) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in England. Entomologist's 
Gazette 39: 211-214. 

Meyrick, E. 1895. A Handbook of British Lepidoptera, Macmillan & Co. London. 

Palm, E. 1986. Nordeuropas Pyralider, Fauna Boger, Copenhagen. 

Pierce, F.N. and Metcalf, J.W. 1937. 77?^ Genitalia of the British Pyrales with the 

Deltoides and Plumes. Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society, Liverpool. 



Pandemis dumetana Treit (Lep.: Tortricidae) in Northumberland. 

DURING sorting through a small collection of microlepidoptera, made 
during 1979, 80 and 81, mostly in Northumberland and Durham, I came 
across a single specimen of Pandemis dumetana Treit. The collection was 
compiled by Mr M.D. Eyre of the School of Agriculture, University of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The insect is labelled "Rothley Lakes, 1-8-81, 
0490". The last figure is the Ordnance Survey Map Reference, NZ 0490. 
The specimen has been seen and confirmed by Mr E.F. Hancock of 
Ulverston. 

Since the known range of this species, according to Bradley, Tremewan 
and Smith, British Tortricoid Moths, Vol.1, p. 99, is from the southern 
chalkland habitats to the Norfolk Fens, apart from a single site in 
Lancashire on Kirby Moss, it seems worth recording this unusual capture. 
— T.C. Dunn, The Poplars, Chester Le Street, Co. Durham. 



Eupithecia valerianata Hiibner (Valerian Pug) and Eupithecia virgaureata 
Doubleday (Goldenrod Pug) (Lep.: Geometridae) in Breconshire. 

A SINGLE female of Eupithecia valerianata Hb. and a single male of E. 
virgaureata Doubl. were caught in the Rothamsted Insect Survey light trap 
at Llysdinam, Powys (Site No. Ill, O.S. Grid ref. SO 009 586) on 
4.vii.l987 and 8. v. 1987 respectively. In both cases identification was 
confirmed by examination of the genitalia. 

According to Sankey-Barker, J. P. et. al. (1978. Butterflies and Moths of 
Breconshire. Brecknock County Naturalists' Trust) neither of these species 
have previously been recorded in the Watsonian vice-county and pre- 1974 
administrative county of Breconshire (now part of Powys). This has been 
confirmed by B. Skinner (pers. comm.). Both species are difficult to 
identify by means of superficial characters alone and have possibly been 
overlooked by previous recorders. 

Thanks are extended to F. Slater who operates the trap at Llysdinam and 
to B. Skinner for his comments on these two species. — Adrian M. Riley, 
Entomology and Nematology Dept., AFRC Institute of Arable Crops 
Research, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Hertfordshire 
AL5 2JQ. 



MOTHMANSHIP 175 



MOTHMANSHIP 

(HOW TO BE ONE-UP AMONGST LEPIDOPTERISTS) 

PART I: NAMESMANSHIP 

E.H. Wild 

7 Abbots Close, Highcliffe, Christchurch, Dorset BH23 5BH 

RECENTLY, whilst re-reading the works of Stephen Potter, I realised, 
with some regret, that the great master of Lifemanship never turned his 
attention to our interests. It is in an attempt partially to fill this lacuna, that 
I offer some of the results of research and observation on this subject, 
beginning with the tricky problems of namesmanship . 

Few entomologists, in the past forty or so years, will have studied Latin 
and the rest of us have largely forgotten what we knew. There are still those 
who are put off from joining a society or to subscribing or contributing to a 
journal such as this for fear of mispronouncing a Latin name, or failing to 
keep up with the taxonomists. This need not be so. The beginner is 
reminded that there is still no agreement amongst classicists, particularly in 
regard to the pronunciation of Latin names. Faced with a dilemma, let the 
beginner try the "w-plan". Suppose you are working ivy with an Old 
Master. . . . 

Old Master. "What's that up there on your left?" 
Lifesman (in a questioning voice): " Waccintr 

This will not only infuriate the Old Master, but cast doubts upon his vision. 
A similar ploy, when working in deep heather, could be: "I notice you are 
getting waria. ' ' 

Whilst it is usual for Macro men to drop the genus in conversation (". . . 
isn't that another alchymista on the sheet? . . .), Micro men insist, perhaps 
with good reason, on the full scientific name and some, even in the field, 
add the authority! Can this be countered? Suppose you are rummaging in 
rotten wood with a Micro Man. . . . 

Micro Man (apparently addressing an invisible insect): "Ah! 

Nemapogon wolffiella Karsholt & Nielsen." 
Lifesman (plonkingly): "Is not that the little chap dear old Stan Wakely 

used to net hovering over the flies of sleeping tramps? I knew him 

well." 

Those of us who have been collecting for over fifty years have seen many 
name changes and often, in an unguarded moment, slip back into a 
rejected synonym. Indeed, amongst ourselves, we may fall back on the 
English name to save confusion. Faced with the keen youngster who swots 
up his "Bradley & Fletcher" in bed at nights, one can only let the old eyes 
grow misty and murmur "... sibilla was a much more attractive name 
. . . ." Faced, however, with a professional taxonomist use a brisk, no- 
nonsense voice: 



176 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

"You chaps still at it? Pity you couldn't get things right first time. Still, 
you must be making a packet out of all these new lists. Must have several 
chaps changing labels in the R.C.K. collection continuously. Daren't get it 
right or you would be redundant I suppose." 

Varieties. Few would argue that the founder of this Journal, J.W.Tutt, 
was top entomologist of his time. He himself had no doubts on this. He was 
the greatest coiner of varietal names and his prime purpose in founding the 
Record v^diS to publicise these names. This gave the run-of-the-mill collector 
a chance to add his name to the roll of Science. Officially, varietal names 
are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature and this view is reflected by our own august institutions, 
such as the British Museum (Natural History). 

The British Museum never tried to acquire Tutt's collection of types. 
They did not care for Tutt, nor he for them! He rejoiced in pointing out the 
Museum's misidentifications. In his introduction to volume IV of his The 
British Noctuae and their varieties, he was particularly scathing ... a 
couple of quotations from that work will convey the flavour; on page x he 
writes ". . .A British collector will understand the seriousness of these 
errors, when I say that in a series of Hadena (Mamestra) thalassina, there 
are eight specimens of thalassina two of H. adusta, and four of genistae 
. . . ." After a number of other examples he concludes "... These errors, 
at any rate, will be sufficient to give workers of the NOCTUAE some idea 
of the comparative worthlessness of the British Museum material of this 
group in its present condition. ..." I must hasten to add that Tutt's work 
was published in 1892, and there have been some changes in the BM 
collections since then! 

Dr E.A. Cockayne, who edited the Record from 1951 to 1955, was a well 
respected entomologist who published many papers on the aberrations of 
British macrolepidoptera, and generated many new names. The British 
Museum was in a tricky situation — it could not show enthusiasm for 
varietal names, and yet the Rothschild-Cockayne-Kettlewell collection, 
which the museum owned was (and is) recognised as the collection of 
varieties and aberrations. In the end, the Museum produced its vast, secret 
book of varieties for internal use only and which had to include Tutts 
contribution, which must have pleased his Shade. 

Bright and Leeds, in 1938, went one better when they worked out their 
system to cover all possible variations {A monograph of the British 
Aberrations of the Chalk-hill Blue Butterfly) thus depriving Butterfly men 
of their opportunities. However, an examination of the colour varieties of 
the blues in their collection is not in vain, if they are examined with rose 
coloured spectacles. 



EUCOSMA OBUMBRATANA IN SCOTLAND 177 

THE OCCURRENCE OF EUCOSMA OBUMBRATANA 

(LIENIG & ZELLER) (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE) 

CONFIRMED IN SCOTLAND 

K.I. RANSOME DHE SDH FRES 
4 Cleekim Road, Edinburgh EH15 3HU. 

Eucosma obumbratana (Lienig & Zeller, 1846) was stated in Bradley, 
Tremewan and Smith (1979) to be "apparently unknown in Scotland 
except for an old record from Renfrewshire (Paisley)". However there 
appears to be no further literature reference or specimen of this Paisley 
record. This article confirms the occurrence of E. obumbratana in 
Scotland. 

On 1st August 1980 a specimen of E. obumbratana was taken on waste 
ground near Niddrie Mill on the outskirts of eastern Edinburgh (OS Grid 
Ref. NT 3071, V.C. 83). A second specimen was taken on 2nd August 
1980. The site was a grassy bank of a former railway siding near the base of 
a disused mine tip. The specimens were taken in flight between 20:00-21:30 
hours. There were a number of plants of Sonchus arvensis L. in the vicinity 
which Bradley, Tremewan and Smith (1979) state as being a host, the larvae 
living in flower heads and feeding on developing seeds in August and 
September. Some flower heads of 5. arvensis at the site were examined in 
other years but no larvae of E. obumbratana were found. 

The site has now unfortunately been destroyed. The old mine tip has 
been flattened and the surrounding waste ground bulldozed. It is to be 
hoped that the population has been able to survive on waste ground nearby 
where there are still some plants of S. arvensis. The specimen caught on 1st 
August 1980 was displayed at the Annual Exhibition of the British 
Entomological and Natural History Society at Chelsea on 24th October 
1981 by Keith Bland. This specimen has been placed in the Royal Museums 
of Scotland, Edinburgh. 

Two more recent records of E. obumbratana in Scotland (collected by 
Robin Knill- Jones) were listed in Agassiz (1987): from Glasgow Zoo in Vice 
County 77 (Lanarkshire) 28.vii.84 and from Kirkdale in Vice County 73 
(Kirkcudbrightshire) 7.viii.84. 

Robin Knill- Jones' records confirm that the species exists in the West of 
Scotland and with the 1980 Edingburgh records indicates that E. 
obumbratana is probably reasonably widespread in Southern Scotland and 
it is possible that intensive searching of the host plant and sweeping suitable 
habitats in late July and August would turn up further specimens and new 
localities. 

Acknowledgements 

The author wishes to thank Keith Bland for identifying the two specimens 
of E. obumbratana, the late Ted Pelham-Clinton for confirming the 



178 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

determinations and Darren Hendry, Mark Tait and Anthony Duffy, local 
children, for helping to collect the specimens. 

References 

Agassiz, D.J.L. 1987. Microlepidoptera — a Review of the Year 1985. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., vol. 99, nos. 7-8, p. 179. 
Bradley, J.D., Tremewan, W.G. & Smith, A. 1979. British Tortricoid Moths. 

Tortricidae Olethreutinae. Ray Society, London. P. 193-194. 



Ennomos fuscantaria Haw. (Lep.: Geometridae) — a Melanic Form in 
N.W. Kent 

Dr B. Kettlewell {The Evolution of Melanism, 1973) suggests that E. 
fuscantaria ab. perfuscata Rebel is a widespread recessive melanic, perhaps 
industrial, which he states has been recorded from Essex, Oxon and Yorks; 
the form is not mentioned by Chalmers-Hunt {The Butterflies and Moths 
of Kent, 3: 1981), although he does refer to a "very dark" specimen taken 
at Pinden by E.J. Hare in 1963. The species has been a frequent visitor in 
its season to my garden m.v. light during the past twenty years, so it was 
with some surprise that I found a fine male melanic in attendance on 
September 4th 1988, and this was followed by another on September 7th. 
Both specimens are extremely dark, including the head, thorax and 
abdomen, which is in contrast with some melanic forms of other species of 
the genus, for in these only the wings exhibit the dark pigmentation. 

Perhaps it is also worth recording that the twelve specimens of 
fuscantaria seen at the light in 1988 produced a further aberration, a male 
ab. approximata Lucas of which Chalmers-Hunt notes but one previous 
record for Kent, from neighbouring Bexley as long ago as 1912. — B.K. 
West, 36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent. 

Early emergence of Thera britannica Turner (Spruce Carpet) 
(Lep.: Geometridae) 

A SINGLE male of this species was caught in the Rothamsted Insect 
Survey light trap at Ludlow, Shropshire (Site No. 488, O.S. grid ref. SO 
514 743) on 6.ii.l989. This species usually overwinters in the larval stage, 
the adults flying in September and October and again in May and June. 
The present specimen is probably the result of a larva which completed its 
growth prematurely due to the very mild winter weather. It is less likely to 
be a survivor of the autumn brood as this would constitute a remarkable 
extension to the normal hfe expectancy of individuals of this species. 

Thanks are extended to S.C. Littlewood who operates the trap at 
Ludlow. — Adrian M. Riley, Dept. Entomology and Nematology, 
AFRC Inst. Arable Crops Research, Rothamsted Experimental Station, 
Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ. 



THE GENERA ACMAEOPS AND JUDONIA 179 

THE OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE GENERA 

ACMAEOPS LEC. AND JUDOLIA MULS. 

(COL.: CERAMBYCIDAE) IN GREAT BRITAIN. 

Raymond R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann 

13 Old Road, Old Harlow, Essex CM17 OHB. 

Introduction 

THESE Three Cerambycids. of which two are very rare, share a common 
practice, exceptional among our life of Longhorn beetles, of pupating in 
the soil instead of undergoing their punultimate transformation in a cell of 
their respective host plants. 

Symbols in use are the Balfour-Brownean alphabetic, those italicized 
indicating widely found species and bracketed letters standing for dubious 
or unconfirmed records. (Kaufmann, 1989) 

Acmaeops collaris L. 

This pretty little beetle was illustrated some 200 yers ago by Martyn. It is a 
very local woodland species which was formerly confined to the southern 
regions and the Midlands, but not beyond the Manchester area; there is 
increasingly restriced to the point distribution is becoming increasingly 
restricted to the point of vulnerability, and it is now regarded as an 
endangered species, rarely encountered except perhaps in a very few March 
counties of England. There are no recent records of its capture. 
ENGLAND: CB (CH) EC ek ex ge hf ln lr sd sh sl (SP) sr wk^no 
IRELAND: (RO). 

The Cheshire entry in Fowler (1890) '. . . banks of the BolHn' has been 
traced to the collector, Revd. T. Blackburn, a Coleopterist of the 1860's, 
but A. collaris is not named in his lists of captures published in the 
entomological magazines of those times: the record is conceivably based 
upon an erroneous identification. The Irish one, claimed by the egregious 
R.E. Dillon (Johnson & Halbert, 1902; Fowler & Donishthorpe, 1913), is 
of very doubtful provenance (Speight, 1988). 

The larva is principally associated with the decaying exposed roots and 
dead branches of oak trees; it has also been found in ash and aspen; and 
abroad in chestnut (Ferris, 1877), but not so in England. 

Most strangely for a Cerambycid, it does not make burrows in the wood 
itself, but lives in the empty galleries of other wood borers, feeding on the 
underside of the loose bark, and where Longhorns have been tunnelHng, 
probably on their old fungus covered frass. The very active larva may be 
found crawling freely on either side of the dead bark, and rapidly over the 
ground in search of other roots and branches. Its unusual appearance, 
hairiness, long legs and pseudopod with which it grips the bark when 
raising the rest of its body are reminiscent of a Lepidopterous caterpillar. 
Despite its accessibility in the open to parasites, its liveliness and perhaps 



180 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

appearance have evidently not encouraged them, for none is reported. 

After nearly two years the autumnal pupation takes place in a very 
shallow underground cell close to the host tree's roots, where the beetle 
overwinters until the following April. The imago emerges in May and June. 
It was formerly common in the hopfields of Kent, in gardens and along 
flowering hedgerows, having been taken off apple blossom, cow parsley 
and other umbels, hawthorn, meadow sweet, spurge and Viburnum during 
the early summer until July. 

Its presence in and on the chestnut poles used in the Kentish hop gardens 
is now questionable (Shirt, 1987), such damage in the former being more 
being likely attributable to Clytus arietis L. Duffy (1953) certainly never 
found collaris on any of the chestnut poles he examined. 

Judolia sexmaculata L. 

One of our three exclusively Scottish Cerambycids: the other two native 
species have been (and still are occasionally) exported southwards in logs 
and commercial wood, etc. Fortunately, J. sexmaculata is an increasingly 
scarce and rare beetle to which this is unlikely to happen; nevertheless, it is 
in need of some form of protection. The insect is almost without exception 
restricted to a few counties in the Highlands, and is perhaps a relict species 
of the ancient Caledonian (palaeozoic) coniferous forest fauna {teste Dr 
P.S. Hyman). 
SCOTLAND: AS Ei el pm pn rw wt. 

The larva attacks the stumps and roots of Norway spruce, Scots pine and 
firs, and probably those of larch. Metamorphosis lasts two years, pupation 
taking place in a shallow earthen cell near the host tree's roots. The perfect 
insect emerges in summer and is particularly attracted to flowers. It may be 
found during June and July (and more rarely in August) on hogweed 
(greatly favoured) and other Umbelliferae, raspberry, rowan blossom, 
scabious. Spiraea dind Viburnum. 

Because sexmaculata so likes flowerheads, one method of observing it is 
to place bunches of blossoms in a jamjar along woodland rides and edges in 
order to entice a visit from the adults. 

This is a very variable beetle, with elytral patterns ranging from the 
typical yellow background with its black bands and maculations to 
increasingly dark forms verging on the melanic: none has been worked out 
in this country, but Villiers (1978) depicts no less than 33 varieties. 

/. cerambyciformis Schrank 

A beetle usually found on flowers in wooded areas and distributed in 
three main regions: — south-westerly and southern, from Cornwall to 
Middlesex; westerly, including a number of Welsh counties; and the north. 
Records are lacking from East Anglia, nor has it been found in Ireland. 



THE GENERA ACMAEOPS AND JUDOLIA 181 

ENGLAND : BK CH cu dm dy ec ex ge gw hf l lr mm mx nd nw sd sh sn sr 

SS ST SY WK wo WX WY. 

WALES: BR CD cr db gm mg mn ra. 
SCOTLAND: as bw ei hd la wt. 

The larva is found in the natural state in the exposed, recently dead roots 
of birch, chestnut, oak, silver fir and spruce, more especially those 
uprooted by storms. It prefers the damper underside of the roots and will 
work its way through shallow tunnels in the soil in search of a moister 
pabulum. Under controlled conditions Duffy (1953) raised larvae to 
maturity in a variety of dead material, including alder, beech, pear, poplar 
and Scots pine; they showed no particular preference for any of these, 
deciduous or coniferous roots and branches, provided they were 
sufficiently moist. 

After two years the larva pupates in the ground quite a few inches deep, 
the mature beetle emerging in May or June. It is essentially a flower loving 
insect, occurring until September on Angelica, apple blossom, brambles, 
buckthorn, dogrose, hemlock, hogweed, holly, Oenanthe, ox-eye daisy, 
raspberry. Spiraea, sweet brier and Viburnum. 

J. cerambyciformis has the curious habit of hovering up and down over 
the flowers it frequents before settling, rather in the manner of a 
Hymenopteron, and is often found sharing blossoms with Strangalia and 
Leptura species. It is not uncommon and very occasionally is locally 
abundant, if season and conditions are conducive. The elytral markings are 
extremely variable, ranging from albinotic to near melanic forms. At least a 
hundred have been described and figured (Milliat, 1966) of which 48 are 
drawn by Villiers (1978). So far, no attempt has been made to classify the 
many British varieties that must exist. 

Neither of these two Judolia species has attracted the attention of any 
Hymenopterous parasites. 



Acknowledgements 

Cordial thanks for their information and help are extended to A. A. Allen, 
Esq., D.B. Atty, Esq., Miss I. Baldwin, Royal Museum of Scotland, J. 
Cooter, Esq., Dr P.S. Hyman, Mrs B. Leonard, Librarian, Royal 
Entomological Society and Professor J. A. Owen. 

References 

Aurivillius, C, 1912. Cerambycidae in Junk, W. & Schenkling, S., Coleopterorum 

Catalogus, 39: 190, 225-6. Berlin. 
Blackburn, T., 1863. Captures in Cheshire, Wkly. Ent., 2: 127-128. 
Curtis, J., 1837. A guide to the arrangement of British Insects, Coleoptera: 72. 2nd 

ed. London. 
Demelt, C. von, 1966. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 52: 2, Bockkafer oder 

Cerambycidae, 1. Jena. 



182 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

Donovan, E., 1801. The natural history of British Insects, 10, pi. 353, fig. 2. 

London. 
Duffy, E.A.J. , 1953. A, monograph of the immature stages of British and imported 

Timber Beetles (Cerambycidae). London. 
Fowler, W.W., 1890. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, 4. London. 

— & Donisthorpe, H. StJ. K., 1913. Idem, 6 (Supplement). London. 

Freude, H., Harde, K.W. and Lohse, G.A., 1966. Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas, 9. 

Krefeld. 
Harde, K.W., 1984. A field guide in colour to Beetles. English edn., Hammond, 

P.M. London. 
Hickin, N., 1987. Longhorn Beetles of the British Isles. Princes Risborough. 
Hyman, P.S., 1986. Invertebrate site register, 64, la (Cerambycidae): 56. 

Peterborough. 
Johnson, W.F. and Halbert, J.N., 1902. A list of the Beetles of Ireland, Proc.R. 
Irish Acad., 3: 531 -S27. 
Joy, N.H., 1976. A practical handbook of British Beetles. 2 vols. 2nd ed. 

Faringdon. 
Kaufmann, R.R. Uhthoff-, 1947. A contribution to the history of the Longicorn 

Coleoptera of Cheshire, TV. W. Nat., Mar. - June: 95-101. 

— , 1948. Notes on the distribution of the British Longicorn Coleoptera, 
Entomologist's mon. Mag., 84: 66-85. 

— , 1989. Browne versus Watson: Round 2. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 101: 61-63. 
Klausnitzer, B. and Sander, F., 1981. Die Bockkdfer Mitteleuropas. Wittenberg 

Luther stadt. 
Kloet, G.S. and Hincks, W.D., 1977. Check list of British Insects, 11 (3), 

Coleoptera and Strepsiptera: 70, London. 
Lyneborg, L., 1977. Beetles in colour. English edn., Vevers, G. Poole. 
Marsham, T., 1802. Entomologia Britannica, 1, Coleoptera. London. 
Martyn, T., 1792. The English Entomologist, tab. 27, fig. 5; tab. 28, fig. 22. 

London. 
Milliat, J., 1966. Les variations du dessin elytral chez Judolia cerambyciformis 

Schrank (Col. Cerambycidae), Bull.Soc.ent.Mulhouse, 97-1 12. 2 plates. 
Perris, E., 1877. Larves des Coleopteres. Paris. 
Pic, M., 1900. Catalogue bibliographique et synonymique des Longicornes 

d' Europe et des regions avoisinantes: 20; 3 1 . Lyons. 
Samouelle, G., 1819. The Entomologist's useful compendium. London. 
Shirt, D.B. (ed.), 1987. British red data books: 2. Insects. Peterborough. 
Speight, M.C.D., 1988. The Irish Cerambycid fauna (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), 

Bull.Ir.biogeog.Soc, 41-76. 
Spry, W. and Shuckard, W.E., 1861. The British Coleoptera delineated. London. 
Stephens, J.F., 1829. A systematic catalogue of British Insects: 206. London. 

— , 1831. Illustrations of British Entomology, Mandibulata, 4. London. 

— , 1839. A manual of British Coleoptera. London. 

Villiers, A., 1978. Faune des Coleopteres de France, 1, Cerambycidae. Paris. 
Winkler, A., 1929. Catalogus Coleopterorum regionis palaearcticae, 10: 1152; 1160. 
Vienna. 




NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 183 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Andamans, 1988. 

One of the nice things about collecting butterflies in the remoter part of the 
tropics is the "gung-ho" image that you build up in the eyes of relatives 
and friends. They fondly imagine you braving hordes of mosquitoes, sand- 
flies, botflies, jiggers, leeches, ticks, etc., pausing only to dispose of the 
passing tiger, cobra or gaboon viper, all in the interest of furthering our 
knowledge of butterflies. 

Normally it is not Hke that, of course. The tropical rainforest is often a 
very pleasant place, and though a mosquito net is advisable if you sleep 
there I have rarely been chased away by insects. I have certainly been less 
frequently chased away from a forest camp than from bedbug infested inns 
in India. I am writing this on the Andaman Islands, strewn in the Indian 
Ocean between India and Burma. I have spent seven days collecting in 
dense forest with only a handful of insect bites to show for it, as well as 
about half the butterfly species recorded from the islands. But I was 
reminded that here and there a special hazard lurks . . . leeches. 

I was warned that Mt. Harriet was leech infested and took the precaution 
of having a pair of leech socks manufactured in advanced. These are made 
from dense canvas to fit the foot inside the shoe and then to be tied tightly 
just below the knee. Leeches go through ordinary socks Hke a knife 
through butter. On entering the dense, wet forest on Mt. Harriet it was 
time for leech check number one: Stop and look down. Sure enough, 
serried ranks of leeches advanced from all corners. A couple of steps left, 
and the legion of leeches would turn with a precision that would make a 
regimental sergeant-major weep with pride. 

The leech socks and the trousers have to be carefully monitored at 
regular intervals, so that any leeches crawling up can be flicked off. 
Without leech socks you would simply have to flee. Never kneel, never sit, 
especially not on your boots which are teeming with leeches, and you can 
get in a day's collection with little damage. 

You cannot avoid being targeted altogether. Some leeches make their 
way up your trousers and/or shirt and start drinking your blood. Do not 
pull them off — their mouthparts will stick and itch, maybe even create a 
festering, septic wound. Any discovered sucking can be made to let go by 
the application of a lighted cigarette. Even non-smokers should carry same, 
as they say in India, in leech infested jungles. However, usually biting 
leeches will only be discovered when they drop off your stomach, breast or 
neck, or wherever they found an entry through the clothes. Leeches drop 
off when they have finished eating, and the anti-coagulants that they have 
injected ensures a copious flow of blood. Just five or six leeches that have 
had their fill can make you return with the shirt and parts of the pants 
drenched in blood. 

I visited Mt. Harriet with Jason Weintraub, a super-energetic American 
postgraduate student of red-bodied swallowtails (Pachliopta), whose 



184 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

favourite study objects share the ecological requirements of leeches. As we 
de-leeched that day back in Port Blair with the aid of lots of salt, we took 
more than 200 out of our shoes — because of the leech socks we had only 
six actual bites between us. 

Many people react to leeches with an almost primeval horror, eloquently 
expressed by Katherine Hepburn and Humphrey Bogart in the film 
"African Queen". Even I, as a naturahst, cannot avoid a shudder that is 
less rational that I would like (and a pleasure in scorching a leech with a 
cigarette that is more intense than I would like). 

From one to four days after the bite the little welts left by the leeches itch 
terribly, but it is still at this point that the rational naturalist returns. There 
is one good thing to say for leeches — quite possibly they will eventually 
provide the ultimate medicine to prevent blood clotting. If researchers have 
problems getting enough leeches the trail from Panighat up Mt. Harriet will 
oblige. — TorbenB. Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 



Cyclophora pendularia CI. (Lep.: Geometridae) in Hampshire 

INSPECTING the contents of my garden m.v. trap, which is situated in 
St Ives, near Ringwood, on the morning of 28th July 1988 I was surprised 
to discover, remarkably well camouflaged against the egg-box material in 
the trap, a pristine female Cyclophora pendularia CI., the Dingy Mocha. 
Over the next few days, and with apparent reluctance, she laid 50 eggs on 
sallow, particularly favouring the cut edges of small leaves. She expired on 
9th August, a tattered wreck, with all her eggs proving to be infertile. 

Over the next few weeks an actinic trap was placed in a variety of sites 
amongst sallows in the surrounding heaths without success, although a 
variety of other interesting heathland species was seen including Idaea 
sylvestraria Hiibn., Selidosema brunnearia Vill., Gnophos obfuscata D. & 
S. and Heliothis maritima Grasl. 

Despite my failure to locate further examples, this species is probably 
resident on local, damp heaths as is the case near Ferndown where second 
brood examples have also been taken at light (Ray Cook, pers. comm. and 
Ent. Rec. 99: 184); alternatively it may have been a wanderer from this 
locality, which is only three miles distant. — Dr. Julian Clarke, 11 
Sandy Lane, St Ives, Ringwood, Hants. 



Double-Brooded Eupithecia tripunctaria Herrich- Shaffer 
(Lep.: Geometridae). 

B.K. west's note in this journal (antea 101: 57) should be read in 
conjunction with one written by Louis B. Prout some eighty years earlier, 
published Entomologist 40: 221 (1907). Prout had no doubts but that 
albipunctata, as it was then called, was certainly double-brooded (no fancy 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 185 

term like bivoltine in those days!). His note was to draw attention to the 
possibility that this pug — like innotata/fraxinata and virgaureata on 
which he had written at greater length — might alternate tree and flower 
feeding for summer and autumn feeding larvae respectively. But he had to 
recourse to German experience for an instance of an albipunctata larva 
found by Nickerl senior at Prague on elder in June that produced a moth 
on 8th July (presumably in the same year but Prout does not say). Prout 
then remarked how summer larvae of albipunctata would eat flowers, 
quoting D'Orville's account given in Barrett vol. 9 p. 79. Mr West might 
have quoted this, becaused it remains the only recorded instance of a 
second brood of tripunctaria bred in captivity — D'Orville paired moths in 
April from which larvae fed up rapidly on Anthriscus sylvestris, becoming 
full-grown within a fortnight and producing moths in July. 

In 1988 I too reared larvae of tripunctaria on Anthriscus from eggs of 
May moths from Angelica larvae of the previous autumn, and they also fed 
up with no loss of time even if in rather longer than a fortnight. But the 
pupae still lay over to produce moths in the following spring. 

I was with Bernard Skinner in July 1978 when tripunctaria larvae were 
beaten from elder flowers in Lincolnshire. I went on working elder over a 
variety of situations in central Lincolnshire and found the larvae in plenty 
on bushes in low-lying sites and on rising ground towards the Wolds, but 
not actually on those hills. I was interested then to speculate on the 
autumnal alternate foodplant on the drier upland sites, and I rashly 
assumed this species emulated trisignaria in taking to hogweed. All these 
elder flower July feeders produced moths in the following Spring. Since 
1978 I have beaten elder flowers in July in Norfolk, sometimes on sites 
where adjacent Angelica has yielded tripunctaria in quantity in autumn, 
but I have never again found elder flowers produce this species. 

We therefore await to hear from the first successful enterprising pug 
enthusiast to sweep tripunctaria larvae from Anthriscus in early summer. 
Even more commendable would be the discovery of larvae at that time of 
year on foliage of perhaps hawthorn or even maybe elder. — G.M. 
Haggett, Meadows End, Northacre, Caston, Attleborough, Norfolk 
NR17 IDG. 



Evidence for bivoltinism in Eupithecia tripunctaria Herrich-Schaffer (Lep.: 
Geometridae) in north-west Essex. 

IN HIS recent paper (antea, pp. 57-59), B.K. West states that he has no 
source for the dates of occurrence of this species in Essex. Trap records 
made at Saffron Walden from 1985 to 1988 give the following consolidated 
data: — 

25 May- 19 June, c. 25 specimens; 20 June-8 August, nil; 9 August-28 

August, c. 30 specimens. 



186 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

Larvae are common in local woodland rides but the adult comes to my light 
in the town only on nights of high entomological activity. — A.M. Emmet, 
Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, Essex CBl 1 3AF. 

Second International Congress of Dipterology 

WE HAVE received advance notice of this important event which is to be 
held in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia from 27th August to 1st September 
1990. The official language will be English, and an ambitious programme is 
proposed. Field trips, tourist and social events are also planned as well as 
an intriguing "special programme for ladies". 

The first Congress, held in 1986 in Budapest, attracted over 300 
delegates, and was judged a success. Interest should be registered as soon as 
possible with Dr Ladislav Jedlicka, Department of Zoology, Comenius 
University, Mlynska dolina, CS-842 15 Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. 

Coleophora lassella Stdgr. (Lep.: Coleophoridae) and other 
microlepidoptera at a Rothamsted trap in Surrey 

DURING the 1987 and 1988 seasons I have been identifying micro- 
lepidoptera caught in the Rothamsted trap operated by Andrew Halstead at 
the Royal Horticultural Society's Garden at Wisley, Surrey. Of the 235 
species of micros identified to date several are worthy of note including: 

Caloptilia populetorum Zell . , Acrocercops brongniardella F. , Rhyaci- 

onia pinicolana Doubl., Agriphila latistria Haw., Sitochroa verticalis 

L. and Acrobasis tumidana D. & S. 

Most interesting however was the occurrence of a single Coleophora 
lassella Stdgr. in the catch for the week 14th-21st August 1988. The 
specimen, a male, was identified from the genitalia and the identity 
confirmed by Dr John Langmaid, who informs me that the species is little 
known in Britain and hitherto unrecorded from Surrey. — R.M. Palmer, 
2 Glenhome Gardens, Dyce, Aberdeen AB2 OFG. 

An early record of Agrotis segetum D. & S. (Lep.r Noctuidae) 

ON 22nd March 1989 one Agrotis segetum was attracted to light in my 
garden together with seven more seasonal macrolepidoptera. This seems a 
very early date for this species. — R.J. Heckford, 67 Newnham Road, 
Plympton, Plymouth, Devon PL7 4AW. 

A further note on the Orange-tip butterfly (Anthocharis cardamines L.) 
(Lep.: Pieridae) 

I WAS most interested in Adrian Riley's note {Ent.Rec. 101: 18), where he 
recorded eight Orange-tip eggs on a single plant of garlic mustard. During 
spring of 1987 I found six eggs on a single plant of dame's violet {Hesperia 
matronalis) and five on another. As both plants were in my garden, there 
was plenty of opportunity to observe these "cannibals" in action. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 187 



All the eggs hatched, and all the larvae survived. They kept their distance 
from one another, first feeding on the flowers and then on the seed 
capsules. The plants were large enough to sustain all the larvae, and smaller 
plants were apparently not selected for egg-laying. Also of interest, in 1988 
I found a few Orange-tip larvae on garden arabis (a pink flowered variety). 
The plants were vigorous, growing between other low plants, and over 
garden wire to a height of some 14 inches. Perhaps this presentation made 
the arabis more attractive to egg-laying females? — Jan Koryszko, 3 
Dudley Place, Meir, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire. 

Hadena compta D. & S. in north Worcestershire 

IN A recent note {Ent.Rec. 101: 84) I was recording moths new to my 
garden in Blackwell, north Worcestershire. Editorial changes made to the 
note unfortunately gave the impression that I was claiming the capture of a 
specimen of Hadena compta as a new county record, rather than as a new 
addition to my garden list. 

Hadena compta is a recent arrival in Worcestershire, having first been 
captured in 1987 (Simpson, A.N.B. (1988) Ent.Rec. 100: 189). — M.D. 
Bryan, Keeper of Natural History, Birmingham Museum. 
NOTE: Our apologies to Mr Bryan for this slip, and for any embarrassment 
it may have caused. Editor. 

Agrotis ipsilon Hufn. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in March 

ON 11th March 1989 a single specimen of the Dark Sword-grass Agrotis 
ipsilon, came to my m.v. light in the garden. Unless evidence is 
forthcoming of a more general immigration at this time, it may be that the 
specimen had survived the mild winter. — J. Owen, Eastbridge House, 
Dymchurch, Kent TN29 OHZ. 

Tachinus flavolimbatus Pand. (Col.: Staphylinidae) in Norfolk 

UNTIL reading the note by Mr A.A. Allen (1988, Ent.Rec. 100: 234), I had 
not realised that T. flavolimbatus was still so restricted in distribution, at 
least according to pubHshed records. An easily missed note by H.R. Last 
(1963, Proc.S.Lond.ent.nat.Hist.Soc, 1962: 1-2) adds a few more 
localities to those given by Mr Allen. Last looked at 320 specimens of the 
very similar T. marginellus (F.) in the collections of Side, Steel, Tottenham 
and Joy, as well as his own; he found 15 examples oi flavolimbatus, 
including ones from Jersey, Wood Walton, Hunts and Wells. The single 
specimen collected by Joy from the latter locality was almost certainly from 
Norfolk (as opposed to Somerset) and possibly was taken during his visit in 
1904, when he found Corticarina truncatella (Mann.) new to the British list 
(1908, £'«/.i?ec. 20:91). 

I can add a further, more recent, Norfolk record. On 11th October 1987 
a single specimen of T. flavolimbatus was collected from a large mound of 



188 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.vii.l989 

rotting carrots and potatoes in a roadside dump near Snetterton, West 
Norfolk. I have no reason to suspect that the vegetables were of other than 
local origin. The apical segments of the hind body were use to identify the 
specimen, by comparison with those figured by W.O. Steel (1961, 
Entomologist 94: 77-8). The date of capture adds further evidence to Mr 
Allen's suggestion that this is a winter species. — M. Collier, 67 Church 
Lane, Homersfield, Harleston, Norfolk IP20 0EU. 

Stored grain pests and their control by G.A. Zakladnoi and V.F. 
Ratonova. 268 pp. 97 figs. Boards. A.A. Balkema/Rotterdam, 1987. 
£22.50. 

Although published in 1987, this volume turns out to be a translation from 
the original Russian of a volume published in 1973. Written as part of the 
initiative resulting from the Directives of the XXIV Congress of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union on the Five-year Plan for National 
Economic Development (relating to projections of gross grain yield), this 
book sets out to present a detailed account of stored-grain pests and 
infestation of grain and grain products by these pests. It details methods 
for detecting visible and occult infestations of grain stores and grain-milling 
plants, dealing also with physico-chemical, mechanical and chemical 
methods for the control of pests. 

Although there are no diagnostic keys, there is a reasonably 
comprehensive account of the various pest species, covering mites, 
Thysanura, Orthoptera, Psocoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, birds and 
rodents. Each species is described with detailed notes on biology and Hne 
drawings of adults and larvae as appropriate. Because of the date of the 
original publication, much of the material on control measures, 
decontamination techniques, chemical detection of pesticide residues and 
safety measures is of historical interest only. NMD. 

Provisional Atlas of the Sepsidae (Diptera) of the British Isles by Adrian 
Pont. 33 pp. 28 maps. Limp. Institute of Terrestial Ecology, 1986. £3.00. 

The larvae of this interesting group of flies are usually associated with 
habitats such as the dung of various species, carrion, decaying fungi, 
rotting vegetation etc. The study of this small group was greatly facilitated 
in 1979 by the publication of volume ten, part five (c) of Handbooks for 
the Identification of British Insects: Sepsidae. Diptera Cyclorrhapha, 
Acalyptera (by the author of this Atlas). After a brief introduction, the 
distribution of each species is mapped on a 10km grid. Each map is 
accompanied by a brief narrative giving notes on abundance, habitats for 
adult and larva, and world distribution. As with all the Atlas series this 
makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the distribution of 
these insects. 



Contents — continued 

Evidence for bi voltinism in Eupithecia tripunctaria H . -S . (Lep . : 

Geometridae) in north-west Essex. /I. M. iE'mmer 185 

Coleophora lassella Stgdr. (Lep.: Coleophoridae) and other microlepidoptera 

at Rothamsted trap in Surrey. i?.M. P«/we/- 186 

An early record of Agrotis segetum D. & S. (Lep.: Noctuidae). 

R.J.Heckford 186 

A further note on the Orange-tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines L. 

(Lep.: Pieridae). 7. /forysz/ro 186 

//ac/ewa CO m/7rfl D. &S. in North Worcestershire. M.D. 5rya/7 187 

/4^ror/si/75//o/7Hufn. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in March. 7. Owe/7 187 

Tachinusflavolimbatus Pand. (Col. Staphylinidae) in Norfolk. 

M. Collier 187 

Current literature 188 



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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Microlepidoptera — areviewof the year 1987. Z). >l^flr55/z 141 

The immigration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1988. R.F. Bretherton 

& J.M.Chalmers-Hunt 153 

Mesapamea remmi Rezbanyi-Reser, 1985. (Lep.: Noctuidae) a species new 

ioBnidan. M. Jordan 161 

Some comments on the Brimstone Moth {Opisthograptis luteolata L.). 

(Lep.:Geometridae).5./<:. H^e5r 167 

Records of Sciota adelphella (Fisher von Roslerstamm) from North Kent. 

P. Jewess 173 

Mothmanship (How to be one-up amongst Lepidopterists) 

Part I: Namesmanship. £■.//. Wild 175 

The occurrence of Eucosma obumbratana (Lienig & Zeller) (Lep. : 

Tortricidae) confirmed in Scotland. /f./. /?aA750A/2e 177 

The occurrence and distribution of the genera Acmaeops Lee. and Judolia Muls. 

(Col.: Cerambycidae) in Great Britain. /?.i?. C//2r/;o//'-^aw/>r7art« 179 

Notes and observations 

Notes on British Orthotomicus (Col.: Scolytidae) including O. suturalis 

(Gyllenhal) new to Wiltshire. Z)./?.7Va5/; 151 

A second Kent county record for Tomoxia bucephala Costa (Col. 

Mordellidae). TV. OA25/OW 159 

The Beautiful Brocade, Lacanobia contigua D. & S. (Lep.:Noctuidae, 

in Suffolk in September. C. H^. P/a«r 160 

Unusual insect diets. £".//. Wild 160 

Caloptilia elongella L. (Lep.: Gracillariidae) on a previously unrecorded 

foodplant. y4. 5. 5oor 166 

Schrankia intermedialis Reid. (Lep.: Noctuidae), the Autumnal Snout in 

Ktm. A.M. Riley 166 

Pa«£/em/5C?WA77era«oTreit. (Lep.: Tortricidae) in Northumberland. r.C. £>M«/2 . . 174 
Eupithecia valerianata Hiibn. (Valerian Pug) and Eupithecia virgaureata 

Doubleday (Goldenrod Pug) (Lep.: Geometridae) in Breconshire. A.M. Riley . . 174 
Ennomos fuscantaria Haw. (Lep.: Geometridae) — a melanic form in 

N.W. Kent. B.K. West 178 

Early emergence of Thera britannica Turner (Spruce Carpet) (Lep.: 

Geometridae). >1.M. 7? //ey 178 

Hazardsof Butterfly collecting — Andermans, 1988. r.5. Lar^ert 183 

C>'c/o/7/20A-a/?eA2£/M/firr/a CI. (Lep.: Geometridae) in Hampshire. 7. C/ffr/re .... 184 

Double-brooded Eupithecia tripunctariaH. -S. G.M. Haggett . 184 

continued 

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PHYLLONORYCTER LEUCOGRAPHELLA — NEW TO BRITAIN 189 

PHYLLONORYCTER LEUCOGRAPHELLA (ZELLER, 1850) 

(LEP., GRACILLARIIDAE) IN ESSEX: 

A SPECIES NEW TO BRITAIN 

by A.M. Emmet 

Labrey Cottage, Victoria Gardens, Saffron Walden, Essex CBll 3AF 

MRS F.A. SARGENT, a keen gardener who lives at Wickford, Essex, has 
Pyracantha bushes of three varieties trained against her garden fences. In 
February of this year she noticed unsightly blanching of many of the leaves, 
so she asked her daughter, Mrs J. Dietz, a member of the Royal 
Horticultural Society, to write to the Society at their Wisley Gardens, 
enclosing some of the leaves, to ascertain the cause. The leaves were passed 
to their entomologist, Andrew Halstead, who recognised that the damage 
was being done by a lepidopterous leaf-mining larva, but was unable to 
identify the species from the British literature. Accordingly he sent me the 
leaves for my opinion. Reference to Hering (1957) showed beyond doubt 
that it was Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), a southern European 
moth not previously recorded in Britain. 

I visited Mrs Sargent on the 10th March and found the infestation so 
extensive that she had indeed good cause for alarm. She gave me 
permission to make further visits, so I returned on the 18th, accompanied 
by Dr J.R. Langmaid and the Rev. D.J.L. Agassiz. None of us had ever 
seen such a high incidence of Phyllonorycter mines before, though we 
remembered comparable damage to Breckland larch trees from the case- 
bearing larvae of Coleophora laricella (Hiibner) in the spring of 1987. We 
helped ourselves, perhaps less liberally than Mrs Sargent would have Hked, 
and then started to look elsewhere. On this and on subsequent occasions 
when we operated independently, C.W. Plant then also taking part in the 
search, we found mines on the majority of Pyracantha examined from East 
Ham in Greater London to Benfleet, near Southend, the south-eastern 
limit of our quest. On many of the bushes they were present in profusion, 
but diminished markedly northwards, the most northerly site being at 
Kelvedon (TL 8610). The known Essex distribution is shown in figure 1. 
Almost the whole of one expedition was devoted to a search of the area 
further north with negative results; Brian Goodey examined over 70 bushes 
in the Colchester area without finding a single mine. Colin Plant has looked 
in the west of the county and David Agassiz and I separately in the west end 
of London, all without success. David Agassiz visited west Kent, but found 
it only on a single bush just south of the Woolwich Ferry; other searchers 
have drawn blank in that county. The map, therefore, gives a fairly accurate 
picture of the moth's present range in Britain and may be used to assess the 
rate of any further advance. 

It is difficult to estimate how long the species has been present in Britain; 



190 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.ix.l989 




10X10 



Figure 1 . The distribution of Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller) in Essex — 
May, 1989. 

it must have taken several years for it to build up to its present degree of 
abundance. There are contradictions over its earlier status in France, the 
most likely source for the Essex population. P. leucographella is included 
by Le Marchand (1936) in his paper on the French species of 
Phyllonorycter, but with inaccuracies which suggest that it was unfamiliar 
to him. Leraut (1980) omitted it from his French check list, but later 
(Leraut, 1984), in introducing it as a species new to France, he stated that 
he had been aware of its mines in the neighbourhood of Paris for the past 
ten years. In 1988 M. Gibeaux sent tenanted mines from the Paris region to 
David Agassiz, presumably because it was a species attracting current 
attention. The extension of its range in Europe is being studied by Dr J. 
Buszuko of the Copernicus University, Poland, together with that of two 
other Phyllonorycter species, P. platani (Staudinger) and P. medicaginella 
(Gerasimov) which feed on the host-plants whose names they bear (J. 
Buszuko, pers. comm.). Neither of these two has yet been recorded in 
Britain, but the former, especially, may well reach our shores. P. 
leucographella could easily have escaped notice in Essex for several 
seasons, since there are few microlepidopterists in the county and 
Pyracantha is not a plant normally searched for leaf-mines, least of all in 
late winter. 

We have recently experienced mild winters and the question arises 
whether this winter-feeding Mediterranean species could survive severe 
cold. It probably can do so. P. messaniella (Zeller) is a southern European 
species (type locahty Messina in Sicily) and has a very similar hfe history. 
The larva mines the Jeaves of holm-oak (Quercus ilex) from December to 
March and it is one of our commoner species. Stigmella suberivora 
(Stainton) (type locality Cannes in the Riviera) mines the same foodplant at 
the same season; it is a relative new-comer, having reached Britain in the 
1920s, and it has not only survived but is still extending its range. 



PHYLLONORYCTER LEUCOGRAPHELLA — NEW TO BRITAIN 191 

It would have been reasonable to suppose that the unwelcome local over- 
abundance of P. leucographella was due to a temporary immunity from 
parasites often enjoyed by new arrivals. This is not the case. Both moths 
and parasites began to emerge on the 1st April and the latter outnumbered 
the former on average by three to one, while at one locality the incidence of 
the parasites was 90%. The parasites, all of one species, were submitted to 
Dr M.R. Shaw who identified them as Apanteles (sensu lato) 
circumscriptus (Nees) (Braconidae), a common insect attacking various 
species of Phyllonorycter, other Gracillariidae and Elachistidae, in 
particular those that mine in winter like P. messaniella and P. junoniella 
(Zeller), or in early spring like P. trifasciella (Haworth). 

A detailed description and account of the life history follows. 

Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller) 

Lithocolletis leucographella ZqWqt , 1850, Stettin, ent. Ztg 11: 207. 

Type locality: Italy; — Montenero, Tuscany. 

Description of imago 

Wingspan 7-8mm. Head with vertical tuft white mixed golden brown, frons 
white; antenna whitish, obscurely ringed fuscous, rather more strongly in 
female. Thorax bright golden brown, edged white and with a fine central 
white Hne; foreleg white, streaked and spotted fuscous, mid-and hind-legs 
white, hindtarsi unspotted. Forewing bright golden red-brown, in colour 
rather darker than P. cerasicolella (Herrich-Schaffer) and paler than P. 
corylifoliella (Hiibner); Zeller compared it with his f. betulae of the latter 
species which he regarded as distinct and which has a better-defined white 
pattern than the typical form. He described the colour of P. leucographella 
as croceus in Latin and "safrangelbe" in German; Bradley et.al. (1969), 
based on Le Marchand (1936), give "bright yellow ochre". None of these 
descriptions is satisfactory because the ground colour is not a shade of 
yellow. Pattern clear white and sharply defined; four costal and two dorsal 
strigulae, variably black-edged inwardly, the second dorsal the most 
strongly; first costal short, oblique; first dorsal long, slender, curved and 
strongly oblique, sometimes broken into two, or even three, spots; basal 
streak, which forms a conspicuous extension to the white edging of the 
thorax when the moth is at rest, extending to one-half, sinuous, very 
slender but sometimes slightly thickened towards its apex, the statement by 
Le Marchand and Bradley et. al. that it is black-edged above being in 
contradiction to Zeller's original description and inapplicable to British 
specimens so far examined; base of dorsum finely white-edged; apical 
streak strong, diffuse, black, sometimes mixed white, often merging with 
the black edging of both dorsal strigulae, a form described as a variety by 
Zeller; fringe line from costal 4 to tornus black with lilac sheen; cilia golden 



192 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.ix.l989 

brown. Hindwing dark grey; cilia brown with golden sheen. Abdomen pale 
fuscous in male, pale golden brown in female, ventral surface of both sexes 
white. 

Life history 

Ovum. Laid on the midrib of the upperside of a leaf of the foodplant, in 
less populous colonies the lower leaves being preferred. In Britain, only 
Pyracantha has been recorded and that too is the only foodplant cited by 
Hering {op. cit.), but Bradley et. al., following Le Marchand, add 
Colycotoma spinosa and Cotoneaster pyracantha. Zeller failed to identify 
the foodplant, describing it as a bush resembling privet but with long 
thorns. In consequence Stainton (1857), although he included 
leucographella in his key, omitted it from the list arranged by foodplants. 

Larva. Head pale brown with darker mottling; body amber yellow; 
prothoracic plate pale brown with median sulcus. In early instars, a dark 
oval "saddle" on each segment. January to March. 

Mine. Upperside; given correctly by Hering but, as also in the case of P. 
corylifoliella, stated wrongly to be on the underside by Le Marchand and 
Bradley et. al. At first a short reddish gallery along the midrib, but soon 
extending into the epidermis on either side, causing a silvery, red-flecked 
blister which eventually covers the whole surface of a small leaf; on large- 
leaved Pyracantha spp., and where numbers are high, there may 
occasionally be two mines in one leaf. In the tissue-feeding phase, extensive 
spinning causes the upper epidermis to contract and the leaf to fold 
upwards, ultimately forming a pod which almost conceals the mine. 
Feeding seems to be restricted to the palisade parenchyma, since there are 
no pale or discoloured patches in the lower epidermis. The black frass is 
scattered haphazard in the mine. The mined leaves are among the earliest to 
fall with the coming of the new spring foliage and from April onwards may 
be collected from the ground under the foodplant; where there is a heavy 
infestation the bushes lose their unsightly disfiguration with this leaf-fall. 
The mine is very similar to that of P. corylifoliella which could occur on the 
same foodplant but it lacks the inner mine of that species (see Watkinson, 
1985, where I contributed the relevant passage). The larva of P. 
corylifoliella feeds in July and again in September-October, so there is no 
overlap of season. 

Pupa. Pale brown; setae long; dorsal spines evenly distributed,, small and 
diminishing in size towards the posterior margin of each segment; 
cremaster with two pairs of hooked processes, the inner pair widely 
separated and hooked inwards, the outer pair placed laterally and hooked 
out wards/forwards. Formed without a cocoon in a silk-lined chamber clear 
of frass at the end of the mine nearer the petiole. Prior to emergence, which 



PHYLLONOROCTER LEUCOGRAPHELLA — NEW TO BRITAIN 193 




Figure 2. Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller) (Scale bar = I mm). 



takes place in the early morning, the pupa is protruded through the upper 
epidermis. March - May. 

Imago. According to all authors, univoltine, appearing in April and May. 
In captivity emergence began on the 1st April and continued until the 
fourth week in May. Hering {op. cit.) speculates on the possibility of a 
second generation. 

Distribution (see map). Essentially a suburban species, since the foodplant 
is not native but is frequently planted in private gardens, parks and along 
roadside verges. At present southern Essex, just extending into the extreme 
north of Kent, but likely to become more widespread. A native of southern 
Europe now dramatically increasing its range following the extensive 
planting of its foodplant for amenity purposes. 

Position in the British list. P. leucographella belongs to the Rosaceae- 
feeding group. Log Book (Bradley & Fletcher, 1979) nos. 323 - 332, in 
which 328 P. junoniella and 331 P. lantanella (Schrank) appear to be 
intruders. I suggest placing it as 332a after P. corylifoliella because of the 
similarity in life history and since in the original description it was treated 
as most nearly akin to f . betulae of that species. 



194 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.ix.l989 

Entry in dichotomous keys 

(1) MBGBI, vol. 2. On p. 300 in righthand margin for 45 read 44a and add 
couplet: — 

44a (43) Forewing with only two dorsal strigulae; basal streak very slender, 
no wider than antenna, but usually slightly thickened 
distally leucographella 

Forewing with three dorsal strigulae; basal streak much broader 

than antenna, usually tapering distally 45 

(2). Meyrick, 1928, p.769. Read as follows:— 

19 Forewings reddish ochreous 19a 

Forewings not reddish ochreous 20 

19a Pattern obscure; one, sometimes two, costal strigulae . . corylifoliella 
Pattern sharply defined; four costal strigulae leucographella 

(3). Bradleyer. o/. (1969). 

Assume wrongly that the basal streak is dark-edged and P. leuco- 
graphella keys out correctly. 

Acknowledgement 

I am grateful to the Rev. D.J.L. Agassiz for the drawing of the adult 
reproduced at Figure 2. 

References 

Bradley, J.D. «fe Fletcher, D.S., 1979. A recorder's log book or label list of British 

butterflies and moths, 136pp. London. 
Bradley, J.D., Jacobs, S.N. A. 8l Tremewan, W.G., 1969. A key to the British and 

French species of Phyllonorycter Hiibner {Lithocolletis Hiibner) (Lep., Gracil- 

lariidae) Entomologist's Gaz. 20: 3-33. 
Hering, E.M., 1957. Bestimmungstabellen der Blattminen von Europa 2, 635-1185. 

's-Gravenshage. 
Le Marchand, S., 1936. Cle ou table analytique pour la determination des especes 

francaises de Lithocolletis (Famille des Gracillariidae). Amat. Papillons 8: 

83-118, figs. 
Leraut, P., 1980. Liste systematique et synonymique des Lepidopteres de France, 

Belgique et Corse. Alexanor, suppl. 1980, 334pp. 
— , 1984. Cinq especes de Lepidopteres nouvelles pour la France. Ent. Gall. 1: 106. 
MBGBI. See Watkinson, LA., 1985. 

Meyrick, E., 1928. A revised handbook of British Lepidoptera, vi, 914pp. London. 
Stainton, H.T., 1957. The natural history of the Tineina 2, vii, 317pp., 8 col. pis. 

London. 
Watkinson, LA., 1985. Phyllonorycter, pp. 294-363. In Heath, J. & Emmet, A.M. 

(Eds), The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 2, 460pp., 123 text 

figs, 223 maps, 14 pis (12 col.). Colchester. 
Zeller, P.C., 1850. Verzeichniss der von Herrn Jos. Mann beobachteten Tos- 

canischen Microlepidoptera (part). Stettin, ent. Ztg 11: 195-212. 



MIGRATION OF PAINTED LADIES 195 

CYNTHIA CARDUIL. (LEP.: NYMPHALIDAE) 
IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULAR — SPRING 1988 

Dr T.W.C. TOLMAN 

Brock Hill, Hook Crescent, Ampfield, Romsey, Hants S051 9DE. 

FROM 7th April to 20th May, my wife and I spent our time in Spain and 
Portugal. Our suspicion that, during this period, we were witness to an 
extraordinary migration of Cynthia cardui, is confirmed by related 
observations already collated in this Journal and elsewhere (refs.). It is with 
the desire of adding to our knowledge of this phenomenon that the 
following account is submitted. 

Our journey from the Pyrenees to Portugal was attended by cold and 
sometimes rainy conditions. This afforded little opportunity for butterfly 
observation and matters did not improve until we reached the Algarve on 
9th April. Even here, some 15km inland at an altitude of 150m, 
temperatures did not exceed 16°C between 9th and 12th April. Our first 
contact with cardui, on 14th April, occurred some 700m inland and slightly 
to the west of Lagos. The site was a small abandoned field containing many 
compositae which were exploited by three, fairly fresh, individually 
distinguishable insects. These remained in our company throughout the 
day which was cloudless and had a maximum temperature of 27°C. Our 
return to this location the following day at 11.00 hrs was greeted by scores 
of cardui. Most specimens examined were unchipped but very worn — field 
entomologists will know exactly what I mean in describing their wings as 
thin and greyish. The condition of the butterflies and the circumstances of 
the encounter, suggested that this gathering was the result of a migration 
from north Africa during the hours preceeding our visit. 

Between 15th and 17th April, we recorded cardui as common and mostly 
fresh in all our collecting sites en route to the Spanish frontier at 
Ayamonte: indeed, having crossed the political boundary, our daily records 
for southern Spain up to 21st April, are very similar to those of Portugal. 
These relate to the area encompassed by the towns of Antequera and 
Malaga in the west, Granada in the north, and Almeria and Gergal in the 
east: corresponding altitudes of observation range from sea-level to 1700m 
in the Sierra Nevada. One additional observation may be of particular 
relevance. Between 18th and 20th April, the hot drive along the coast from 
Malaga to Almeria necessitated frequent tea-breaks. In consequence of 
augmenting all such refreshment with a paddle in the sea, I am able to 
report that the entire coastline appeared to be littered with the 
disintegrating remains of cardui. Mostly, only the wings of these presumed 
failed-migrants were in evidence, either floating in the sea or cast upon the 
sand. 

The 22nd to 24th April was spent near Camporeal, south of Madrid 
Here too, cardui was much in evidence: my log entry for the 23rd reads; 



196 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

"Swarming like midges over thistles in olive grove!" There were such large 
numbers that one's eyes were at slight risk from walking through the clouds 
of butterflies disturbed from their late afternoon feeding. All were fresh 
and many females could be seen ovipositing. 

Having been all but trapped in heavy overnight snow at 1600m in the 
Montes Universales, Teruel, on 25th April, the next day was spent driving 
— in torrential rain — to the Sierra de Espuna in Murcia. In these 
mountains at 1200m on the 28th, my wife noted a steady, northerly 
movement of cardui which appeared to be using a military road as a flight- 
path. The following day, at 1400m, in sheltered area of about 100m by 
200m, I came across an astonishing aggregation of fresh cardui imbibing on 
a dense growth of thyme. From an estimate of the density of these plants 
and the average number of butterflies per plant, I would consider 10,000 
insects to be a conservative assessment of the size of this gathering. 

We returned to the Montes Universales on 3rd May and continued to 
record cardui as common. However, it was not until 7th, on the same 
1600m plateau from which we had effected a hasty departure on 26th April, 
that we witnessed further migratory behaviour. The day had been unsettled 
with showers and a maximum temperature of 12°C. Only an occasional 
cardui was seen up to 17.00 hrs, when, quite suddenly, a large 
concentration of northward flying insects appeared. In an effort to 
estimate numbers, I positioned myself a measured 25m from the margin of 
a small pine wood aligned in a north/south direction, and, facing south, 
proceeded to count the insects passing between myself and the wood. Very 
conveniently for this purpose, the flight-lines were generally straight and 
ranged from about Im to 3m above the ground: indeed, departure from 
this striking linearity of motion occurred only for males spiralling in 
courtship display or for brief feeding stops. Mostly, the butterflies were in 
groups of four to ten — a further convenience, as it greatly facilitated the 
task of counting. This process proved demanding enough as it was, but 
several counts confirmed that 90 to 120 insects per minute were in transit 
during the period of observation, about 30 minutes. Wider investigation 
revealed the entire plateau to be affected to the same degree by this 
extraordinary phenomenon. According to estimates, made along a 2km 
section of the plateau road, of the order of 500,000 insects per hour were 
traversing this region and the migration continued, unabated, at the time of 
our departure, 18.30hrs. The early sunshine of the following day was soon 
displaced by heavy cloud and rain which held the maximum temperature to 
11°C. The frequent showers persisted until 18.00hrs but did httle to 
discourage cardui which took full advantage of the brighter interludes: 
indeed, whilst most butterflies sought refuge on the trunks of the pine trees 
during the heavier rain, others pursued their northerly objective quite 
undeterred. The following day, 9th May and our last on the plateau, was 
virtually a carbon-copy of the 8th. It did, however, include some hail which 



MIGRATION OF PAINTED LADIES 197 

ensured that temperatures did not rise above 10°C. The migration 
continued and a large concentration of insects appeared about noon, just 
before the onset of the heaviest rain we had experienced in this area. 
Thereafter, we made our way north and for the period of a somewhat 
meandering journey to Belgium, which we reached on 15th May, recorded 
no further significant observations. 

Notwithstanding the considerable separation of the Iberian Peninsular 
from Arctic Scandinavia, it is convenient to include in this communication 
the record of the capture of a female cardui on 16th July near the town of 
Jokkmokk, some 2km north of the Arctic Circle. The specimen was flying, 
during a light shower, around thistles growing on spoil heaps. In 
recognition of the value of negative observation, it is perhaps worth 
mentioning that no other examples of this species were noted by us or the 
two Belgian friends who accompanied us whilst north of the Arctic Circle 
for the period, 29th May - 16th July. 

References 

Campbell, J.L., 1988. Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) migrating in Italy, 

April 1988. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 100: 23. 
Goater, B., 1988. Northward migration of Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) 

in southern Europe in Spring 1988. Ibid., 100: 232-233. 
Larsen, T.B., 1988. A migration of Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in 

Portugal. /^/V/., 100: 131. 
Simson, E.C.L., 1988. Migrant Lepidoptera in Morocco. Ibid., 100: 132. 
Owen, D.F., 1988. Possible origin of the migratory Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: 

Nymphalidae) Ibid., 101: 51. 



Late specimens of Euchoeca nebulata Scop. (Lep.: Geometridae) 
and Cynaeda dentalis D. & S. (Lep.: Pyralidae) 

I READ with interest Cohn Plant's note {Ent.Rec.l^l: 16) concerning 
specimens of E. nebulata recorded in late August and September 1988. 
During August 1988 I ran traps at the Woolhampton reed beds, 
Woolhampton, Berkshire and recorded four specimens of £". nebulata, two 
each on the 17th and 23rd August. All specimens were in good condition. I 
did not visit this particular site in late May or June but, given the generally 
reasonable weather conditions earlier in 1988, it seems likely that the 
species was on the wing at the normal time. This being so then the 
August/September specimens could well represent a partial second brood 
over an area at least as extensive as Suffolk, Hertfordshire and Berkshire. 

At En t. Rec. 101: 36 E.G. Smith records late examples of C. dentalis at 
Portland, Dorset. I have two specimens from Dungeness, Kent, dated 15th 
August 1987. Possibly this species has a somewhat longer emergence period 
than suggested in the literature.lt is difficult to believe that a July species 



198 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.ix.l989 

would, in the dreadful weather conditions of July 1988, have felt obliged to 
produce an unexpected second brood. — David Young, 32 Valley Road, 
Burghfield Common, Reading, Berks. 

Axyliaputris L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) a melanic form in N.W. Kent. 

ALTHOUGH Kettlewell {The Evolution of Melanism, 1973) omits this 
species from his list of those known to possess melanic forms, the National 
Collection contains a solitary melanic specimen which was taken by B. 
Goater at Mill Hill, Middlesex, 7.vii.l958, which he described as ab. 
brunnea (Ent.Rec. 81: 27), and he noted the capture of another at Bushey, 
Herts l.vii.l968. On 11th June 1988, I obtained a specimen of this form at 
my garden m.v. light at Dartford, presumably the first to be noted in Kent. 
In many parts of Britain putris is a very common moth, to be found at 
light, flowers, honeydew and sugar; it is interesting that the first melanic 
specimen was not noted until as late as 1958. Do these three individuals 
remain the only ones to have been encountered? — B.K. West, 36 Briar 
Road, Dartford, Kent. 

Spring specimens of Eudonia angustea Curtis (Lep.: Pyralidae) 

ON 8th February 1989 I noticed a small moth at one of the external lights 
of Blandford Upper School, which proved to be Eudonia angustea. Further 
specimens were noted on 13th March, 28th March and 1st April. 

Goater (1986, British Pyralid Moths) gives July to October as the flight 
period of this species, but the second edition of Emmet (1988, A field guide 
to the smaller British Lepidoptera) gives September to May. Clearly it does 
appear in spring, presumably having overwintered, but there do not seem 
to be many published records of the spring occurrence. — R. Darlow, 
"lona", Fairfield Road, Blandford, Dorset DTll 7BZ. 

Endotricha consobinalis Zell. in Britain: a possible immigrant? 

Mr. B. Goody in his important account of the first known British example 
in his house at Colchester, Essex on 24th December, 1987 suggests that it 
presumably arrived as a pupa, possibly with celery from Israel which was 
then being handled there {Entomologist's Record 101: 107-108). 

It may, however, be relevant that this date was in the middle of the 
hitherto almost unique December influx of the butterfly Cynthia cardui L. 
Of this some 40 sightings have been reported all along the south coast from 
Cornwall to Sussex. Of these a dozen were on 23rd and 25th December and 
four others since 18th December. So there is a real possibility that the E. 
consobrinalis, battered when caught could have arrived with some of these. 
It is easily distinguishable at sight from its congener E. flammealis, and a 
look-out should be kept in future. — R.F. Bretherton, Folly Hill, Birtley 
Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey GU5 OLE. 



AN APPARENTLY NEW HOMONEURA SPECIES 199 

AN APPARENTLY NEW SPECIES OF HOMONEURA (DIPT.: 
LAUXANIIDAE) FROM NORTH-WEST KENT 

A. A. Allen 

49 Montcalm Road, London SE7 8QG. 

ON 22nd July, 1975, I captured a pair of a Lauxaniid fly in cop. on a 
poplar trunk at Abbey Wood on the fringe of S.E. London in the north of 
W. Kent, which I failed to name with the aid of Collin's key (1948; 235). 
They proved to belong to the genus Homoneura v.d. Wulp, but clearly 
could not be referred to any member of that genus known from Britain, 
though superficially having the aspect of rather large consobrina Zett. 
because of the unspotted wings. The species was unknown also to my 
friend Mr E.A. Fonseca. It was only much later that a serious attempt was 
made to identify it, and the flies were submitted to Mr B.H. Cogan (then of 
the British Museum (Natural History)). He was able to confirm my 
conclusion that they could not belong to a known British species, and 
kindly checked them against those west and mid-European ones which 
might bear on the question. The Abbey Wood one cannot, moreover, be 
made to fit any of the additional Palaearctic species (none of them from W. 
or W.-mid Europe) described by Papp (1978), nor any other at present 
known to us. 

Even though it may eventually prove identical with some described 
species, the most practical course meanwhile will be to bestow upon it an at 
least provisional name. This is especially desirable since further searches 
showed it to be well estabhshed in the locality — now alas, largely 
destroyed — and it must surely be present in others besides. 

The species of Homoneura being of uniform general structure, it is 
expedient to describe this one by comparison and contrast with its nearest 
relatives in Britain. 

Homoneura hospes sp.n. 

A yellow, orange-yellow or (mostly in dried examples) brownish-yellow 
species, easily recognised among those recorded as British by its particular 
combination of characters. It differs from all five in having four pairs of 
dorsocentral bristles instead of the usual three, including one presutural 
pair (this sometimes reduced in size to about half that of the next, but still 
very obviously larger than any of the small bristles around it, and normally 
well developed). 

Wings clear without any trace of cloud-spots on veins, but outer 
crossvein constantly rather darker than most of the long veins (readily 
appreciable on comparison with consobrina Zett., our other species with 
wholly unspotted wings, with the unaided eye or a low-power lens). 

In most other characters resembling tesquae Beck., probably its nearest 



200 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

ally among our species; notably in its almost subplumose arista, general 
chaetotaxy, and the fact that the two inner rows of acrostichal bristles are 
stronger and more raised than the others; but apart from the unclouded 
crossveins, differs in having antennal segment 3 alike in the sexes (short 
oblong-ovate), whereas in the male of tesquae it is slightly more elongate 
and slightly to very distinctly concave on its upper edge. Male genitalia and 
associated structures broadly similar to those of tesquae; lateral projections 
of the last two sternites in male as described by Collin (p. 236) for that 
species — anterior pair set with very short black spines, posterior pair 
smooth; median ventral structures appearing simpler than in tesquae. Size 
between the last-named and consobrina, varying but little. 

Abbey Wood, N.W. Kent, between 1975 and 1978 (see below); no other 
locality yet known. Holotype male at present in the author's collection, 
15.vii.77. Paratypes in coll. BMNH, P.J. Chandler, E.A. Fonseca and the 
author; 7.vii.77, 15.vii.77, 27.vii.78. On poplar and willow trees. 

To accommodate the new species, Collin's key requires to be modified in 
its first half (e.g. as follows) and the whole re-numbered: — 
1(4). Wings quite without cloud-spots on crossveins or elsewhere. 
2(3). Three pairs of dorsocentral bristles, all postsutural, but front ones 
very close to thoracic suture; the two inner rows of acrostichals like 
the rest; a bilobed blackish patch on occiput above neck, arista short- 
haired; outer crossvein no darker than the other 

veins consobrina Zett. 

3(2). Four pairs of dorsocentral bristles, the front one presutural 
(occasionally small); the two inner rows of acrostichals better 
developed than the others; no such dark patch on occiput, only some 
very short black setules in its place; arista almost subplumose (as 
tesquae)', outer crossvein always distinctly darkened, but not 

clouded hospes sp.n. 

4(1). Wings with cloud-spots on crossveins, or faintly at ends of radial and 

cubital veins (limnea), or extensively spotted (notata) the 

remaining species, see Collin p. 235. 

The important character of the DC bristles can be expressed very 

concisely by means of the conventional numerical formula, according to 

which our species of Homoneura may be classed as follows: hospes 1-1-3, 

limnea 1-1-2, all the rest 0-1-3. 

Searches for further material were made as soon as the interest of the 
find was realised; they met with considerable success. Specimens were 
obtained in part by sweeping crack-willows {Salix fragilis) and nearby 
Lombardy poplars (Populus italica) in a small area, and in part from the 
foliage of one or two bushy growths of "black" poplar {P.x canadensis) 
not far off at the edge of a car park. This second spot was close to where 
the original pair had been found. (With them occurred H. consobrina 
Zett., Sapromyza obsoleta Fall., etc.). In 1978 the first of the above sites. 



AN APPARENTLY NEW HOMONEURA SPECIES 201 

now enclosed, was rapidly being converted into a dump for used cars and 
the like, and was no longer workable. Finally, by 1979, the inexorable 
march of "progress" had obliterated even the second site and destroyed the 
young poplars, after which the flies could no longer be found. Though all 
captures were in July, the insect was not sought in other months; it 
probably is about from June to at least August. 

There seems, however, to be no reason why H. hospes should not still 
occur in some of the very suitable-looking areas near the railway, which can 
be seen from the train as one travels east from Plumstead and Abbey 
Wood. They could well be difficult of access, but poplars (if not also 
willows) abound there. Other likely spots exist on the western fringe of 
Thamesmead (the new conurbation extending east from Abbey Wood). 
Should some enthusiastic dipterist care to work the areas indicated before 
they too are swallowed up, I think it very probable that he might rediscover 
this species. 

I am not aware of specific plant-associations in the Lauxaniidae, at all 
events in the British fauna; but in the case of H. hospes, its invariable 
occurrence on poplars and willows (and under no other conditions) was so 
consistent that it is difficult not to suspect something more than chance. 
The nature of the association, if real, remains to be shown. 

Acknowlegements 

I am greatly obliged to Mr Brian H. Cogan for the trouble he took in 
attempting to identify the original pair of this species, and to Mr P.J. 
Chandler for very kindly supplying me with a photocopy of the relevant 
part of Dr Papp's revision. 

References 

Collin, J.E., 1948. A short synopsis of the British Sapromyzidae (Diptera). Trans. 
R. ent. Soc. Lond. 99(5): 225-242. 

Papp, L., 1978. Contribution to the Revision of the Palaearctic Lauxaniidae (Dip- 
tera). Ann. hist-nat. Mus. Nat. Hung. 70: 213 — (Budapest). 



Glyphipteryx linneella Clerck (Lep.: Cosmopterigidae) in Nottinghamshire 

ON 24th June 1988 whilst examining trunks on common lime {Tilia 
europeae) bordering a school sports ground in the Carlton district, I boxed 
a beautiful and immaculate moth later identified as Glyphipteryx linneella 
CI. 

I was unaware of its status in Nottinghamshire, but knew it was 
unrecorded in neighbouring Derbyshire {Butterflies and Moths of 
Derbyshire, part 3: 1988), so I contacted Mark Sterling of the Derbyshire 
Entomological Society, who confirmed the identification. Joint trips to 



202 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

find further specimens were initially unsuccessful, but Mark later secured a 
specimen and also found larval workings — small piles of rust-coloured 
frass — in the crannies of lime bark. 

There is no general feeling for this moth's distribution, but Meyrick gives 
Kent, Middlesex, Berks, Gloucestershire and Cambridge with more recent 
records from London and Essex. Are there more northerly records for this 
species? 

My thanks to Mark Sterhng and Col. A.M. Emmet for their comments. 
— A.S. Boot, 38 Balmoral Road, Colwick, Nottingham NG4 2GD. 

Old records of two tineids (Lepidoptera) from Perthshire, Scotland. 

The following two species of tineids are represented in the Buchanan White 
Collection of lepidoptera in Perth Museum by Scottish specimens: 
Niditinea fuscella (Linnaeus, 1758). A male specimen of this species 
(confirmed from male genitalia) is labelled No. 213. Buchanan White's 
notebooks do not give the specimen a name but indicate its origin as 
"Scotland, Perth (69)". The number stands for the year 1869. Pelham- 
Clinton (1985) in MBGBI Vol. 2 suggests that the most northerly Scottish 
records of this species, namely from v.c.88, require confirmation. It 
appears that the record is valid or at least it was in 1869r Nemapogon 
variatella (Clemens, 1859). According to Pelham-Clinton (1985) this 
species occurs mainly in the London area with a stray record as far north as 
Herefordshire (v.c.36). This restricted distribution must now be revised as 
four specimens of this species (confirmed from male genitalia) occur in the 
Buchanan White Collection. They are the residue of a series of six 
specimens numbered 230-235 whose identity and providence are given as 
''Tinea granella. Scotland, Perth (68)" and so were taken in the Perth area 
in 1868 possibly by Buchanan White himself or by WilHam Herd. It seems 
that all specimens of this difficult genus must henceforth be checked very 
carefully. 

I am grateful to Michael Taylor and Stephen Hewitt of Perth Museum 
for allowing me access to the Buchanan White Collection. — K.P. Bland, 
35 Charterhall Road, Edinburgh EH9 3HS. 

Some unseasonal larval dates 

DURING the very mild winter of 1988/9 in the south-west I noted young 
larvae of Aproaerema anthyllidella (Hiibner) mining leaves of Anthyllis 
vulneraria at Sandy Bay, Devon (v.c. 3) on 27th December and at 
Challaborough and Ayrmer Cove (v.c. 3) on 8th January. 

At Portwrinkle, Cornwall (v.c. 2) on 1st January larvae of Epermenia 
aequidentellus (Hofmann) were found mining Daucus carota leaves; these 
produced moths on 24th and 31st January. — R.J. Heckford, 67 
Newnham Road, Plympton, Plymouth. 



NO-SON PIERIS FEMALES 203 

*'NO-SON" PIERIS FEMALES (LEP.: PIERIDAE) 

S. R. BOWDEN 

Lydeard, Merryfield Way, Storrington, West Sussex RH20 4NS. 

AS REPORTED in 1987, I obtained in 1984 eggs from one or two wild 
Pieris (Artogeia) napi females, which eggs ultimately produced nearly 50 
female adults and no males. Paired with various unrelated males, four of 
these reared females again each produced all-female 1985 broods, and 
further all-female generations were obtained in 1986 and 1987. 

I confess that I have been breeding this species more or less continuously 
for over 40 years, but I have never previously encountered similar all- 
female broods. I wondered, of course, whether the phenomenon was 
localised in Storrington (where I was a newcomer), or had arisen only in 
recent years. Obviously one could not decide either question. As far as I 
could discover, females with no sons had long been known in several 
tropical butterfly species, but not in Palaearctic ones. Bowden (1987) 
discusses the ecological and evolutionary aspect of the situation. 

In order to continue this and other breeding, in May 1988 I needed fresh 
wild-type napi males, and asked my friend Mr H.G. Short of Headley, 
Hampshire whether he could send me wild males, or normal females to 
produce them. On 14th May he brought me an apparently normal female 
caught in his garden, and a few days later sent me a male also taken there, 
with a female caught at Moor Park, Farnham, Hampshire. 

The female from Moor Park gave me 10 eggs (1988-j), which in June 
produced five males and three females — a normal ratio. 

I also caged the Headley female, which gave about 70 eggs (1988-y) on 
Alliaria. In June, 38 summer-type butterflies eclosed, all female; seven 
pupae over-wintered. Most of 1988-/ were liberated near Fryern, 
Storrington, some after cage-pairing with 1988->^ males. But two such 
females were caged for a short time and their eggs 1988-^',g" retained: these 
gave three females in that year and 18 pupae went into diapause. 

Assuming that the 18 over-wintering pupae also produce only females in 
1989*, it would appear that an independent occurrence of no-son females 
has been found 20 miles from that at Storrington. The proximity in time is 
more impressive that that in space, so that one is now more inclined to 
believe that the no-son character in napi is recent but perhaps increasing. 

It is generally accepted that no-son lines are able to spread in competition 
with normally bisexual ones, though if this advantage is maintained 
indefinitely the population must become extinct (see Bowden 1987). The 
ecology of the situation is not well understood, even for the long studied 
tropical species, and is certainly worthy of investigation in Pieris napi (and 
in any other English butterfly in which this heritable character may be 
detected). 
*This proved to be the case. 



204 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

I therefore suggest that entomologists should take females of napi at 
random (in localities apparently supporting a fairly stable population), and 
cage them individually for eggs, using any conveniently available food- 
plant of this species. About 30 eggs should be enough to give a statistically 
adequate number of adults. From any all-female brood at least one should 
be bred from, to confirm the heritabihty of the trait. Broods which are seen 
to include (easily distinguishable) male larvae can of course be discarded 
early. I recommend that nearly all bred insects be liberated at the original 
source locality. 

Any positive findings should be reported, preferably to Dr T.G. Shreeve 
or Dr D.F. Owen, Department of Biology, Oxford Polytechnic, 
Headington , Oxford OX3 OBP . 

Assessing sex-ratio disturbance 

Abnormal sex-ratio can of course be produced in several ways that imply 
no special genetic mechanism. An apparent preponderance of males is 
probably the more usual case, sometimes attributable to the different 
habitual behaviour of the sexes: the males rushing about looking for 
females, while the latter sit around inconspicuously depositing eggs. Again, 
Larsen (1974), studying a large Lebanon population of the very visible 
Zygaena carniolica Scopoli, estimated the ratio there as two male : one 
female, but Shaw (1975) working with Z. filipendulae L. found that its 
Ichneumonid parasite Mesostemidia obnoxius (Gravenhorst) laid 
preferentially into the larger cocoons, which were predominantly female; 
this might have explained Larsen 's findings. 

However, a breeder raising adults from the eggs of known females, and 
losing very few individuals in the earlier stages (e.g. by disease) cannot 
explain the significant sexual inequality by involving other species. Genetic 
mechanisms can be expected to produce more extreme ratios than those 
caused by behaviour differences. 

In small broods it may not be clear whether the departure from equality 
is significant. In any case, detection and assessment of "genetic" sex bias 
requires the isolation of the egg-batches of single females. 

This is illustrated by a brood 1981- w raised by the writer from the eggs of 
TWO napi females taken from a locality in West Sussex (east of Amberley 
Wildbrooks). This probably mixed brood yielded four male and 18 female. 
The departure from equality of the sexes IS significant (Chi-squared with 
Yates' correction = 7.6, which gives P between 0.01 and 0.001). It may 
well be suspected that the two original females differed genetically, that one 
produced normally four male + four daughters, and the other about 14 
females only. If so, the latter might have been of "no-son" character. 

However, I bred from four of the 18 females in 1981-w, and all four gave 
bisexual broods without female bias. The chance of this result, if no-son 
heredity WERE involved as suggested, is about one in 3,000. So 1981-w 



NO-SON PIERIS FEMALES 205 

probably did not contain the female-only trait though some other genetic 
peculiarity may have been present. 

References 

Bowden, S.R., 1987. Sex-ratio anomaly in an English Pierid butterfly 

Entomologist's Gaz. 38: 167-174. 
Larsen, T.B., 1974. A possibly abnormal sex-ratio in Zygaena carniolica. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 86: 165-167. 
Shaw, M.R., 1975. A rationale for abnormal male-dominated sex-ratios in adult 

populations of Zygaena. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 87: 52-54. 



A diagnostic note on two species of Cassida L. (Col.: Chrysomelidae) 

DIFFICULTY is sometimes experienced in separating the two closely 
similar tortoise-beetles, Cassida vittata Vill. and C. nobilis L., which in life 
share the striking feature of a metallic elytral stripe or horseshoe-mark (sg. 
Cassidula Weise). The character commonly given, relating to the form of 
the pronotal hind angles, is good, but, being a little variable and often very 
comparative, is not always easy to work with. Other criteria mentioned in 
the literature, concerning the frontal furrows and colour of base of femora, 
require to be examined from below, which cannot always be done without 
inconvenience. 

I find that there is a useful and very evident difference in the sculpture of 
the (almost vertical) elytral sides below the humeral striae, in lateral view. 
In vittata this part is well marked off from that above, finely wrinkled and 
strigose, the scattered shallow punctures minute or even hardly visible, but 
in any case a mere fraction of the size of the large deep strial punctures. In 
nobilis, on the other hand, this lateral strip is not in strong contrast to the 
area above it, the punctures (except along the margin) being much larger 
and deeper — some often nearly as large as those of the striae — and with 
little trace of rugae or strigosity between them. 

When there is any appreciable difference in general aspect, it is vittata 
which is slightly longer, lighter, and smoother-looking; while nobilis is 
slightly shorter, darker and rougher-looking. 

Both species affect plants of the families Caryophyliaceae and 
Chenopodiaceae. Though nobilis is usually the one found inland (especially 
in chalky districts) and vittata on the coast or in sakmarshes, this seems 
only a general tendency and by no means to be relied on. I have not heard 
of their ever being found together, but have two specimens taken by H. 
Dinnage at Guildford (Surrey) in successive years, one of which is vittata 
and the other nobilis. I have myself found them only singly, and that 
infrequently. — A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, CharUon, London 
SE7 8QG. 



206 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

A key to the adults of British water beetles by L.E. Friday. 152 pp. 

Numerous figs. Field Studies Council, 1988. Limp, £7.50 or boards, 
£12.50. 

This volume is published as one of the AIDGAP series (aids to 
identification in difficult groups of animals and plants) and is reproduced 
from the journal Field Studies. The first ten pages cover the structure of 
water beetles, using the key, collecting and a brief bibliography. The bulk 
of the text is devoted to keys, illustrated by drawings of the beetle body and 
relevant structural features. The book concludes with colour guides to the 
various groups, a size guide and a species checklist. As an insert there is a 
"quick-fit" chart showing the range of beetle sizes. 

The reviewer's first introduction to entomology came through water 
beetles, and many hours were spent as a tyro wading not only through 
murky water but also through the comprehensive, but labyrinthine volumes 
of Balfour-Browne's British water beetles. Would this new publication be 
easier to use? The genera Agabus and Ilybius had always proved difficult, 
and Gyrinus impossible, so the opportunity to flex rusted memories on a 
new set of keys proved irresistible. The clear layout and careful 
construction of the keys made them very easy to use, and Agabus came out 
reasonably smoothly, as did Ilybius (but not Gyrinusl). 

Dissection is necessary for a number of water beetles, and reasonably 
clear instructions are given for using genitalia preparations. On balance, a 
very useful book, reasonably priced and straight-forward to use. 

Paul Sokoloff. 



Pseudoscorpions by Gerald Legg and Richard E. Jones. 159 pp. Numerous 
text figures. Limp. E.J. Brill, 1988. US $36. ISBN 90 04 08770 2. 

This volume is no. 40 in the new series Synopses of the British Fauna, a 
series of illustrated field and laboratory guides the first 28 of which were 
published by the Linnean Society. 

For a synopsis, this sHm volume is packed with information about this 
little-known group of arthropods. Chapters deal in considerable detail with 
general structure, reproductive biology, ecology, distribution, collection, 
preservation and preparation, classification, a key to adult British 
pseudoscorpions, systematic descriptions, a glossary and extensive 
bibliography. Each species is illustrated by a clear drawing, supplemented 
by structural details where appropriate and a distribution map. 

This volume really classifies as a mini-monograph, and provides a 
fascinating insight into the biology of these creatures. The systematic 
section is a little heavy going for the non-specialist, but the ample glossary 
helps guide one through the sea of unfamiHar terms. Clearly, an invaluable 
guide for those interested in pseudoscorpions. 



CHRYSODEIXIS CHALCITES 



207 



THE UNUSUAL CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE OCCURRENCE OF A 
MOST PECULIAR FORM OF CHRYSODEIXIS CHALCITES ESPER 

(LEP.: NOCTUIDAE) 

G.M. Haggett 

Meadows End, Northacre, Caston, Attleborough, Norfolk. 

WE HAVE grown accustomed to moths from distant lands turning up in 
Britain as suspected introductions in one stage or another. To that number 
we must add the curious circumstances of another example of those hardy 
travellers the Plusiids, this time in the form of a last instar larva of 
Chrysodeixis chalcites Esp. 

The visitor appeared on 16 February 1988 on a spray of exotic orchids 
given to a patient of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, Norwich. It was 
referred to the staff of Castle Museum who passed it to me. The larva 
looked rather like a pale gamma and spun its gamma-Wkt cocoon within a 
couple of days after completing its growth on Geranium leaves. It was kept 
in a warm room and produced a female moth on 12th March. 

The moth however looked like no other Plusiid in the European or 
Palaearctic literature and it was not until the following November that I 
could take it to the British Museum (Natural History) at South Kensington. 
There it was examined by the world specialist in the Plusiinae Dr I.J. 
Kitching who pronounced it to be chalcites, but a strange form that was 
quite unfamiliar. There was a group of British noctuid experts in the 
Museum on that occasion and the reaction of all was to ask Dr Kitching if 
he would be so kind as to have another look as none could really associate 




Fig. 1. Chrysodeixis chalocites Esp. aberration (x 2.5). 



208 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.ix.l989 

this species with the specimen. Dr Kitching most generously re-examined 
the moth and its genitalia and confirmed the determination. 

A glance at the accompanying photograph will tell why this specimen is 
so unlike typical chalcites: in heu of the double tiny metallic spots the 
Norwich specimen has both spots joined and enlarged distally to form a 
broad silver wedge rather similar to that of Diachrysia chryson Esp. Then 
the specimen totally lacks the golden brassy pigmentation present in the 
lower median and distal wing areas of the typical insect, and instead 
presents the dulled purple clouded appearance of gamma. Finally the 
specimen has shorter, contracted forewings that changes its overall shape 
from the sharper angled wings usual in Plusia to a dumpy squat moth. 

Acknowledgement 

I am indebted to Dr Kitching for his kindness and forbearance in 
determining the identity of the oddity, to David Carter who acted as our 
go-between, and to the British Museum (Natural History) for permission to 
reproduce their photograph, as well as to Dr Irwin of Castle Museum, 
Norwich. 



Acleris abietana (Hiibn.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) in Aberdeenshire. 

I have been prompted by recent comments on this species (Riley, A., 1988 
Ent. Rec. 100: 186-7, Young, M.R., 1989 Ent. Rec. 101: 37-8) to report 
some further records. On 24.8.86 after much searching I finally beat out a 
fully grown green tortricoid larva from within a large stand of 15-20ft 
Abies grandis growing between mature Larix, in Kirkhill Forest 
(NJ857144). From this, an example of Acleris abietana (Hiibn.) emerged, 
on 7.10.86. The stand is quite isolated after clear felling in 1985 and 
contains no spruce. Thus, unlike the pupae found by M.R. Young on A. 
grandis this larva cannot have moved from Picea abies and almost certainly 
fed upon A. grandis, unless Larix is another alternative but this seems 
unlikely. Larval spinnings were not located. The nearest stand of P. abies, 
some twenty yards from one corner of the A. grandis block was also 
searched and beaten the same day without success. I was unable to search 
earlier in the year, but mid- July to mid-August is probably a good period 
for larvae of this species, depending on the season. Clearly, it is worthwile 
searching the variety of fir and spruce species present in plantations, if ^4. 
abietana is known or likely to occur. 

M.v. light was regularly operated beside the P. abies stand mentioned 
above (NJ856145). A. abietana was recorded as follows — 15.12.85 (one), 
25. 1 1 .86 (four), 26. 1 1 .86 (one). My thanks to R.M. Palmer for confirming 
indentification. — M.C. Townsend, 77 Lon Glanyrafon, Vaynor, 
Newtown, Powys SY16 IQU. 



COLEOPTERA OF A SHINGLE BANK 209 

THE COLEOPTERA OF SHINGLE BANKS ON THE 
RIVER YSTWYTH, DYFED 

A. P. FOWLES 

Nature Conservancy Council, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Dyfed SY23 3EE. 

THE INVERTEBRATE fauna of shingle banks has been rather neglected 
by ecologists in Britain and details of the life-history and habitat 
preferences of shingle beetles occur only as anecdotes reported in the 
entomological literature. Shingle banks are a generally hostile 
environment, subject to the annual upheavals of winter-spates and 
experiencing prolonged drought throughout the summer months and hence 
the fauna is highly-specialised and contains few eurytopic species. 
European studies have shown that many of the resident species occupy 
clearly-defined zones related to environmental parameters such as particle- 
size or water-retention capacity (Andersen 1978). This micro-habitat 
partitioning is important to our understanding of the conservation needs of 
the shingle fauna as threats arise to river-quality from channel- 
straightening schemes, impoundment and pollution. In central Europe, 
fears have already been expressed that community structure and diversity 
have been severely impaired along many of the major river systems 
(Plachter 1986), but the extent of similar reductions in diversity in Britain is 
unknown. There are still many rivers in the north and west which have 
largely escaped modification or pollution and identification of the chief 
factors contributing to the presence of the stenoecious species on river 
shingle may enable the formation of a conservation strategy to reduce the 
adverse effects of the continued pressures on the riparian environment. 

In mid and west Wales there are several gravel-bed rivers which produce 
substantial areas of riverbank shingle; notably the Dyfi, Rheidol, Ystwyth, 
Wye, Severn, and Tywi. Until recently little was known of the composition 
of the fauna of Welsh shingle banks but in the last few years coleopterists 
have begun to discover that many species regarded as nationally rare can be 
found commonly in the Principality. Attempts have been made in 1987 and 
1988 to investigate the invertebrate fauna of the Afon Ystwyth in Dyfed 
and this paper reports the results of those studies. The Ystwyth rises at an 
altitude of 490 metres above sea level on the western slopes of the 
Cambrian Mountains and flows for thirty-three kilometres before its 
confluence with the Afon Rheidol in Aberystwyth harbour. The catchment 
consists mainly of acidic grassland used as sheepwalk, although 
afforestation is widespread and dairying is frequent in the lower reaches on 
more fertile soils. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the 
prevalence of lead-mining on the slopes of the upper valley led to severe 
pollution downstream but there has been a steady improvement in water- 
quahty since the last mine closed in 1921 (Brooker & Morris 1980). Apart 
from a four-kilometre stretch in the middle reaches, the river is unmodified 



210 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

and contains the best example of a braided river system in Wales. Gravel 
bars are a prominent feature of the alluvial floodplain and extensive shingle 
deposits occur throughout the length of the river, almost from source to 
mouth. 

A typical shingle bank, developed on a point bar (the inside bend of a 
river meander) some six kilometres from the mouth, was chosen for study 
in 1987. Coarse pebbles formed the matrix of the bar but there were also 
zones of finer gravel deposits and pockets of silt which became vegetated 
with reed canary-grass Phalaris arundinacea and a variety of ruderal plants 
as the summer progressed. Behind the point bar, a broad platform of 
stabilised shingle supported mature gorse Ulex europaeus and broom 
Cytisus scoparius scrub with free-draining acidic grassland dominated by 
false oat-grass Arrhenatherum elatius. A series of eleven pitfall-traps was 
operated for a period of 20 weeks (9 May-26 Sept) on the unvegetated 
gravels. The traps were laid out in a transect across the width of the bar and 
sampled a range of different particle sizes; they were primed with 10% 
ethylene glycol as a preservative and emptied fortnightly. Traps were 
occasionally flooded after river levels rose following heavy rainfall but the 
bank was only completely flooded once, in early August. Further details of 
the trapping-programme are contained in Fowles, 1988. 

A total of 770 beetles representing 50 species were captured during the 
course of the study and details are presented in Table. 1. This list is 
dominated by members of the Carabidae, Pselaphidae and Elateridae, 
which together contributed 84% of the total catch. The other family 
represented by more than a handful of individuals is the Staphylinidae, an 
important group on river shingle but one which rarely seems to be sampled 
efficiently by pitfall-traps. A high proportion of the species caught are 
generalists and have been recorded only as odd individuals that have 
strayed onto the bare shingle. This includes species such as Barypithes 
pellucidus, Rhinosimus planirostris, and Carabus granulatus that are 
distinctly out-of-place as members of the shingle fauna. In fact, perhaps 
only some fifteen species can be recognised as characteristic shingle 
inhabitants and only seven species are represented by ten or more 
individuals, despite the extensive sampling effort. These results serve to 
emphasise the highly-specialised nature of the habitat, supporting a limited 
range of species which tend to occur in some abundance. Of course, there 
are a number of fossorial species which will be rarely encountered, if at all, 
by a programme of pitfall-trapping and some cursorial species may be 
under-recorded as a result of their behavioural characteristics. However, 
repeated visits to this site suggest that the list gives a representative picture 
of the composition of the surface-active fauna. 

A few of the species encountered in this survey call for additional 
comment. The ground-beetles feature prominently and their numbers are 
dominated by Bern bid ion atrocoeruleum, which is a widespread and 
common insect on Welsh river shingle. Many members of the Bembidiini 



COLEOPTERA OF A SHINGLE BANK 



211 



Table 1 . Coleoptera caught in pitfall 
Ystwyth, Dyfed (22/595765) in 1987. 
Carabus granulatus (1) 
Carabus violaceus (2) 
Bern bid ion lampros (1) 
Bembidion punctulatum (1) 
Bembidion atrocoeruleum (113) 
Bembidion andraea (2) 
Bembidion femoratum {I) 
Bembidion tetracolum (7) 
Pterostichus madidus (1) 
Pterostichus niger (31) 
Pterostichus nigrita agg. (1) 
Calathus fuscipes (1) 
Agonum albipes (11) 
Harpalus af finis (1) 
Harpalus rufipes (7) 
Lionychus quadrillum (11) 
Oreodytes septentrionalis (4) 
Ptenidium pusillum (1) 
Stenichnus pusillus (1) 
Deleaster dichrous (4) 
Thinobius newberyi (2) 
Anotylus rugosus (3) 
Lathrobium dilutum (7) 
Gyrohypnus angustatus (1) 
Philonthus varians (1) 



-traps on bare shingle at Ty'n-yr-helyg, Afon 

Quedius molochinus (1) 
Myllaena kraatzi (1) 
Hydrosmectina subtilissima (11) 
Aloconota insect a (1) 
Amischa analis (3) 
Amischa soror (1) 
Philhygra malleus (1) 
Mocyta fungi (1) 
Dime trot a atramentaria (1) 
Brachygluta pandellei (78) 
Dryops ernesti (2) 
Dryops luridus (5) 
Oulimnius tuberculatus (1) 
Hypnoidus riparius (1) 
Fleutiauxellus maritimus (9) 
Zorochros minimus (367) 
Cantharis livida (1) 
yl tomaria fuscicollis ( 1 ) 
Coccinella quinqepunctata (2) 
i?/z m 05/>?7 W5 p/a/7 irostris ( 1 ) 
Hydrothassa marginella (1) 
Chaetocnema hortensis (1) 
Apion curtirostre (2) 
Barypeithes pellucidus ( 1 ) 
Sitona lepidus (1) 



are recognised as having affinities with river shingle and, in Norway, 
Andersen has devoted a great deal of study to the understanding of their 
ecological preferences and adaptations (eg. Andersen 1969, 1978, 1983). 
Six species of the Bembidion genus were recorded at the study site at 
Ty'n-yr-helyg, Llanfarian (22/595765) and it is hkely that micro-habitat 
partitioning enables them to co-exist on the same site (cf. Spence 1977). 
After B. atrocoeruleum it is somewhat surprising that Pterostichus niger 
was the next commonest carabid trapped as this species is normally 
associated with well-vegetated habitats (Lindroth 1985). Its occurrence on 
bare shingle is probably due to individuals foraging in the open at night 
away from their daytime-retreats in the gorse scrub above the riverbank. 
Lionychus quadrillum was the most unexpected carabid discovered 
inhabiting river shingle in west Wales, particularly as this small, diurnal 
species had not been reported in Britain since 1943 (M.L. Luff, 
pers.comm.). Previously it had been widely recorded from coastal shingle 
along the southern and eastern counties of England but the reasons behind 
its disappearance are unknown. In 1987 it was first found on the adjacent 
Afon Rheidol on 22nd April and subsequently at a total of seven sites on 



212 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.ix.l989 

the rivers Ystwyth, Rheidol and Tywi in Dyfed. In Spring adults were 
frequently seen hunting in some abundance on the fine, dry gravels of the 
upper parts of the shingle banks. 

The Staphylinidae were not caught in great numbers but nonetheless 
there were several interesting species amongst the 15 recorded. Of prime 
importance was the capture of two specimens of the oxyteline Thinobius 
newberyi between 20th June and 18th July. T. newberyi is believed to be 
endemic to Britain and was known from only a handful of specimens 
collected from two river shingle sites — Great Salkeld in Cumbria (Britten 
1909) and the River Druie at Aviemore in Easterness (Allen 1940). 
Repeated searches in these localities, particularly in the Spey Valley, have 
failed to rediscover the species (J. A. Owen, pers.comm.) and hence there 
had been no records anywhere in the world for almost fifty years. One of 
these specimens has been donated to the British Museum (Natural History) 
and the other to Manchester Museum. Lathrobium dilutum is another rare 
shingle staphylinid, known previously from just two areas in the Scottish 
Highlands — seven individuals were caught in the pitfall-traps at Ty'n-yr- 
helyg between 4th July and 12th September. Other nationally scarce 
staphylinids trapped during this survey were Deleaster dichrous, 
Hydrosmectina subtilissima and Myllaena kraatzi. 

The pselaphid Brachygluta pandellei was first recorded on the Afon 
Ystwyth by the Rev. C.E. Tottenham in 1949 (Pearce 1953). It may be 
overlooked because of its small size but there have been very few records 
nationally in recent years. Pearce (1975) suggested that B. pandellei 
occurred in moss-cushions on riverbanks but experience on the Ystwyth 
indicates that, during the summer months, it is an abundant species on bare 
shingle where it presumably hunts springtails and mites. The click-beetle 
Zorochros minimus was by far the commonest species of Coleoptera 
caught during the survey and on some shingle banks in west Wales it can be 
extraordinarily abundant. Fleutiauxellus maritimus, on the other hand, is 
only encountered in small numbers, usually under stones near the water's 
edge but also occasionally in flight low over the shingle bank. Finally there 
is Coccinella quinquepunctata, not previously reported from Wales and 
with few records nationally this century. Full details of the discovery and 
occurrence of this species are reported by Majerus and Fowles (In Press). 
Adults can be common in Spring, feeding on aphids hving on broom 
bushes growing along the upper edge of the shingle bank, but when this 
food supply is exhausted they disperse to knapweeds Centaurea nigra, 
thistles Cirsium spp. and willows Salix spp. in the vicinity. The larvae 
appear in mid-summer and also occur on these plants, although they are 
often seen roaming around on the bare shingle and were also captured in 
the pitfall-traps. 

In 1988 attention was focused on the distribution of ground-beetles 
along the length of the Afon Ystwyth. Between 12th and 30th April, 37 
shingle banks were sampled by hand-searching for a set time-period; a 



COLEOPTERA OF A SHINGLE BANK 213 

technique employed previously on river shingle in Norway (Andersen 1968) 
and Germany (Plachter 1986). The European studies demonstrated 
altitudinal patterns of distribution for the carabid fauna of river shingle 
and the present survey was designed to investigate whether similar patterns 
existed on the Ystwyth. The method employed was to turn over surface 
pebbles across the width of the bare shingle for a set period of twenty-five 
minutes, collecting all ground-beetles seen with a pooter. This enabled 
approximately 12 square metres to be surveyed in this manner on each 
bank. Shingle bars in the uppermost reaches of the river were too small to 
sample for the full 25 minutes and hence a series of smaller banks were 
sampled at each survey station to make up the necessary survey period. At 
the highest altitudes, only one kilometre from the source where the river is 
only a narrow stream cutting through blanket peat, there was not enough 
shingle to complete a full survey and the uppermost station consisted only 
of an eight-minute sample. Sites were chosen at roughly one kilometre 
intervals except near the river mouth where three banks were sampled to 
investigate more fully the tidal influence upon the fauna. 

Fifteen hours and eight minutes were spent hand-searching and a total of 
692 carabids was recorded, involving 27 species (Table 2.). As with the 
pitfall-traps, the majority of species were represented by few specimens and 
only six species were recorded in sufficient numbers to attempt to interpret 
their patterns of distribution. The presence or absence of these beetles at 
each sampling station is depicted on the accompanying maps (Fig. 1 .). 

Bembidion atrocoeruleum is by far the commonest and most widely 
distributed species inhabiting shingle banks along the Ystwyth; it was 
recorded from shingle within the tidal reaches at the river mouth to 305 
metres above sea level (a.s.l.) in the upper valley. Only four of the stations 
in between did not support B. atrocoeruleum and they were all sites where 
the bank profile was shallow, resulting in frequent flooding in response to 
small rises in river level. Interestingly, at each of these sites Agonum albipes 
was dominant or co-dominant. A. albipes was the only carabid inhabiting 
shingle at both the highest and lowest altitudes but it was relatively scarce in 
the middle and lower reaches (apart from station 4 which was a shallow 
bank composed of gravels mixed with a high proportion of silt). Bembidion 
decorum occurred as high as 250 metres a.s.l. but was rarely abundant. It 
reaches its maximum densities in the lower valley where it appears to favour 
broad, flat banks. 

Three species displayed a restricted distribution altitudinally along the 
Ystwyth, the most extreme of which was Bembidion maritimum. This is 
normally regarded as a saltmarsh species (Lindroth 1985) but on the 
Ystwyth it is abundant under stones on bare shingle with fine gravels and 
silts within the tidal reaches. However, there were no individuals recorded 
on similar banks beyond the High Water Mark of Ordinary Tides. This 
short brackish stretch is unique in Dyfed as no other rivers produce shingle 
banks this close to the sea. Subsequent investigations have revealed the 



214 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 






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216 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.ix.l989 




Fig. 1. The occurrence of selected ground-beetles (Col.: Carabidae) at river shingle 

sites on the Afon Ystwyth, Dyfed. 

(• Species present, O species absent from sample.) 



COLEOPTERA OF A SHINGLE BANK 217 

presence of other coastal ground-beetles in this stretch — Aepus mahnus, 
Bembidion laterale, and Trechus fulvus — a most unusual assemblage of 
river shingle carabids. Bembidion punctulatum is another species which has 
a restricted distribution on the Ystwyth, occurring only on shingle banks in 
the lowest nine kilometres of the river up to an altitude of just 24 metres 
a.s.l. Elsewhere in Britain this species occurs further inland and at much 
higher altitudes and there is no obvious explanation for its apparently 
limited distribution on the Ystwyth. Lastly, there is Bembidion tibiale, 
which is frequent in the upper valley but was found at only two of the 29 
sampling stations below 90 metres a.s.l. However, altitude does not appear 
to be a limiting factor as B. tibiale is common on the streamside shingle of 
low-lying tributaries of the Ystwyth. The two sampling stations at which it 
was present in the lowlands were both partially overshaded by trees, a 
feature common to its streambank sites, and it may be that temperature 
levels are critical to its distribution. 

Few of the other carabids recorded during this survey are true shingle 
species. The five Bembidion species {andraea, femoratum, lunulatum, 
nitidulum and tetracolum) are probably resident in small numbers but the 
only other carabids likely to breed in this habitit are Lionychus quadrillum 
and Clivina collahs. It is interesting that L. quadrillum was only found at 
station 8, which is the Ty'n-yr-helyg site where it was caught in the pitfall- 
trap survey of the previous year. However, in 1987 it was also found at 
another nearby site on the Ystwyth and is likely to occur in small numbers 
on several banks in the lower reaches. C. collahs is a subterranean species 
which cannot be expected to be adequately sampled by either of the survey 
methods employed and it has been seen at several other localities along the 
river when shingle has been excavated below the surface layers, particularly 
in fine gravel zones with seasonal vegetation. 

Casual recording of beetles from other families seen during the survey 
produced records of five nationally uncommon species — the staphylinids 
Deleaster dichrous, Lathrobium angusticolle, and Neobisnius prolixus; the 
pselaphid Brachygluta pandellei; and the ptilid Ptenidium brenskei. Eleven 
specimens of D. dichrous were recorded from sites all along the river up to 
305 metres a.s.l. Both this species and N. prolixus (of which there were just 
two records) are widely distributed in Britain and are perhaps best regarded 
as generahst hygrophiles with no specific affinity for river shingle. L. 
angusticolle and P. brenskei are more localised and are found on shingle 
banks of northern and western rivers; two specimens and a singleton 
respectively were taken in the lower half of the Ystwyth. The occurrence of 
B. pandellei on the Afon Ystwyth is discussed above; four individuals were 
encountered in the lower valley. 

A final method which has been used to catalogue the coleopteran fauna 
of the Ystwyth river shingle is excavation. This reveals species which are 
essentially subterranean in nature, including a number of carabids, 
staphylinids, etc. . . . Shingle is excavated down to the water-table and the 



218 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

resultant hole allowed to fill with water, it is then possible to slowly 
collapse the sides of the hole and beetles can be collected as they swim on 
the surface of the water. At Grogwynion (22/707719), in company with 
J. A. Owen and D.C. Boyce on 22nd August 1988, several Bibloplectus 
minutissimus (Col.: Pselaphidae) were found by this method (probably the 
first record for Wales) along with Brachygluta pandellei and the 
aleocharine Hydrosmectina subtilissima. On a nearby bank Hydrosmecta 
eximia and Atheta incognita were recorded. The following weekend, 27th 
August, I excavated an area of fine gravels along the river's edge at 
Ty'n-yr-helyg which was partially vegetated by reed canary-grass and 
knapweed. This produced a total of five specimens of Thinobius newberyi, 
one Philhygra scotica and sixteen Acrotrichisfascicularis. 

The fact that five T. newberyi can be found in one small excavation on a 
fairly typical shingle bank suggests that the species is at least common at 
this site and it is possible that it is widespread in this habitat along the river. 
This highlights a problem with the evaluation of shingle faunas as so few 
comprehensive surveys have been carried out nationally that rarity status is 
all-too-often a reflection of observer bias. I think it is clear from the 
foregoing that the Afon Ystwyth supports an excellent shingle fauna but 
whether or not this is characteristic of Welsh gravel-bed rivers will require 
further extensive surveys before assessment is possible. Rivers in lowland 
Britain are continuously under threat from a variety of sources and 
conservation organisations must be in possession of authoritative 
information if they are to be able successfully to protect riparian habitats. 
I would be grateful to receive details of other surveys of Welsh river shingle 
by entomologists for all invertebrate groups in order to establish a data- 
base for practical use. River shingle is a neglected habitat that is almost 
entirely the province of the invertebrate zoologist; its conservation 
demands greater attention than it has received so far. 

Acknowledgements 

I am extremely grateful to the following for advice, information and 
assistance with identification — D.C. Boyce, A.O. Chater, T. Eccles, 
C. Johnson, M.L. Luff and J. A. Owen. 

References 

Allen, A. A. (1940). Thinobius newberyi (Col.: Staphylinidae) in Scotland. 

Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 76: 147. 
Andersen, J. (1968). The effect of inundation and choice of hibernation sites of 

Coleoptera living on river banks. Norsk, entomol. Tidsskr. 15: 115-133. 
Andersen, J. (1969). Habitat choice and life history of Bembidiini (Col.: Carabidae) 

on river banks in central and northern Norway. Norsk, entomol. Tidsskr. 

17: 17-65. 
Andersen, J. (1978). The influence of the substratum on the habitat selection of 

Bembidiini (Col.: Carabidae). Norw. J. Ent. 25: 1 19-138. 



COLEOPTERA OF A SHINGLE BANK 219 



Andersen, J. (1983). The habitat distribution of species of the tribe Bembidiini 
(Col.: Carabidae) on banks and shores in northern Norway. Notulae Entomo- 
logicae.63: 131-142. 

Britten, H. (1909). Coleoptera in Cumberland. Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 45: 37-38. 

Brooker, M.P. and Morris, D.L. (1980). A survey of the macro-invertebrate riffle 
fauna of the rivers Ystwyth and Rheidol, Wales. Freshwater Biology. 10: 459-474. 

Fowles, A. P. (1988). An ecological study of the distribution of cursorial inver- 
tebrates on polluted riparian shingle. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis. University of 
Wales, Aberystwyth. 

Lindroth, C.H. (1985). The Carabidae (Coleoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. 
Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica. Vol 15, Part 1. 

Majerus, M.E.N, and Fowles, A. P. (In press). The rediscovery of the 5-spot 
ladybird Coccinella quinquepunctata L. in Britain. Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 

Pearce, E.J. (1953). The rediscovery of Brachygluta cotus Saulcy (Col.: 
Pselaphidae) in Great Britain. Entomologist's Mon. Mag. 89: 94. 

Pearce, E.J. (1975). Collector's instinct: "imaginative insight" in collecting. 
Entomologist's Mon. Mag. Ill: 116. 

Plachter, H. (1986). Composition of the carabid fauna of natural riverbanks and 
man-made secondary habitats. In: T.L. Erwin, G.E. Ball, D.R. Whitehead and 
A.L. Halpern (Eds.): Carabid Beetles: their evolution, natural history, and 
classification. Junk Publ., The Hague; pp. 525-537. 

Appendix 

Coleoptera recorded on unvegetated shingle banks of the Afon Ystwyth, Dyfed 
during 1987 and 1988. 

CARABIDAE 

Carabus granulatus L., Carabus violaceus L., Nebria brevicollis (F.), Nebria salina 
Fairmaire & Laboulbene, Notiophilus aquaticus (L.), Notiophilus biguttatus (F.), 
Notiophilus substriatus V^aterhouse, G.R., Loricera pilicornis (F.), Clivina collaris 
(Herbst), Aepus marinus (Strom), Trechus fulvus Dejean, Bembidion lampros 
(Herbst), Bembidion punctulatum Drapiez, Bembidion atrocoeruleum Stephens, 
Bembidion tibiale (Duftschmid), Bembidion andraea (F.), Bembidion decorum 
(Zenker), Bembidion femoratum Sturm, Bembidion maritimum Stephens, Bem- 
bidion nitidulum (Marsham), Bembidion tetracolum Say, Bembidion laterale 
(Samouelle), Bembidion guttula (F.), Bembidion lunulatum (Fourcroy), 
Pterostichus madidus (F.), Pterostichus niger (Schaller), Pterostichus nigrita agg. 
(Paykull), Calathus fuscipes (Goeze), Agonum albipes (F.), Agonum marginatum 
(L.), Agonum muelleri (Herbst), Amara aenea (Degeer), Amara plebeja (Gyllenhal), 
Harpalus affinis (Schrank), Harpalus rufipes (Degeer), Lionychus quadrillum 
(Duftschmid). 

DYTISCIDAE 

Oreodytes septentrionalis (Sahlberg, C.R.). 

PTILIDAE 
Ptenidium brenskei Flach, Ptenidium pusillum (Gyllenhal), Acrotrichis fascicularis 
(Herbst). 

SCYDMAENIDAE 

Stenichnus pusillus (Muller & Kunze). 



220 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

STAPHYLINIDAE 

Lesteva longoelytra (Goeze), Lesteva pubescens Mannerheim, Deleaster dichrous 
(Gravenhorst), Ochthephilus omalinus (Erichson), Thinobius newberyi Scheerpeltz, 
Anotylus rugosus (P.), Anotylus tetracahnatus (Block), Stenus guttala (Muller, 
P.W.J.), Stenus juno (Paykull), Lathrobium angust icolle {^o'lsdnvdiX & Lacordaire), 
Lathrobium dilutum Erichson, Lathrobium multipunctum Gravenhorst, Medon 
brunneus (Erichson), Gyrohypnus angustatus Stephens, Xantholinus longiventris 
Heer, Neobisnius proUxus (Erichson), Philonthus nigrita (Gravenhorst), Philonthus 
varians (Paykull), Staphylinus erythropterus L., Quedius molochinus 
(Gravenhorst), Myllaena kraatzi Sharp, Hydrosmecta eximia (Sharp), Hydrosmecta 
thinobioides (Kraatz), Hydrosmectina subtilissima (Kraatz), Aloconota cambrica 
(Wollaston), Aloconota gregaria (Erichson), Aloconota insecta (Thomson, C.G.), 
Aloconota sulcifrons (Stephens), Amischa analis (Gravenhorst), Amisca soror 
(Kraatz), Philhygra malleus Joy, Philhygra scotica (Elliman), Mocyta fungi 
(Gravenhorst), Atheta incognita (Sharp), Dimetrota atramentaria (Gyllenhal), 
Halobrecta flavipes Thomson, C.G., Aleochara lanuginosa Gravenhorst. 

PSELAPHIDAE 
Bibloplectus minutissimus (Aube), Brachygluta pandellei (Saulcy). 

DRYOPIDAE 
Dryops ernesti des Gozis, Dryops luridus (Erichson). 

ELMIDAE 

Oulimnius tuberculatus (MuWer, P.W.J.). 

ELATERIDAE 

Hypnoidus riparius (F.), Fleutiauxellus maritimus (Curtis), Zorochros minimus 
(Boisduval & Lacordaire). 

CANTHARIDAE 
Cantharis livida L. 

CRYPTOPHAGIDAE 

Paramecosoma melanocephalum (Herbst), Micrambe vini (Panzer), Atomariafusci- 
collis Mannerheim. 

COCCINELLIDAE 

Subcoccinella 24-punctata (L.), Cocci nel la 5 -punctata L., Cocci nella 7-punctata L., 
Coccinella 11 -punctata L. 

SALPINGIDAE 

Rhinosimus planirostris (P.). 

CHRYSOMELIDAE 

Oulema melanopa (L.), Hydrothassa marginella (L.), Chaeteocnema hortensis 
(Fourcroy). 

APIONIDAE 

Apion curt irost re Germar, Apion violaceum Kirby, W., Apion virens Hexhsi. 



COLEOPTERA OF A SHINGLE BANK 221 



CURCULIONIDAE 
Barypeithes pellucidus (Boheman), Sitona lepidus Gyllenhal, Hyper a arator (L.), 
Notaris acridulus (L.), Rhynchaenus fagi (L.). 



Immigrant Lepidoptera at Dungeness in October 1988. 

The autumn of 1988 proved to be an exciting period for entomologists in 
the Dungeness/Greatstone area of South-east Kent. All the records in this 
account have been incorporated into the annual records of immigration 
pubhshed in this Journal, and relate to moths taken by myself, B. Banson, 
M. Parsons and R. Morris. I myself had one or two m.v. lights running 
permanently at my house at Dungeness and also ran m.v.s in the Dungeness 
sallows and at Greatstone sands during this period. BB had an m.v. 
running at his house at Greatstone throughout and MP and RM were 
jointly running an m.v. positioned near the Bird Observatory at Dungeness 
and had additional actinic traps stationed in the sallows. 

The first noteworthy migrant was a single male Mythimna vitellina 
Hiibn. at Greatstone on 15th October, and when two more vitellina and no 
less than three male Heliothis armigera Hiibn. turned up at Dungeness on 
the night of the 19th, it was obvious that the mild conditions and south to 
south-easterly winds were starting to fulfil their promise. 

The following three nights proved comparatively quiet, although the 
20th October produced single males of armigera and Peridroma saucia 
Hiibn. at Dungeness and the 21st saw singles of vitellina and saucia at 
Greatstone and a very striking form of Nycteola revayana Scop, taken at 
Dungeness may have been of continental origin. The night of the 22nd had 
none of the scarcer immigrant species although both Agrotis ipsilon Hufn. 
and Nomophila noctuella D. & S. were in good numbers, as they were 
throughout this period. 

The following two nights were exceptional. The night of the 23rd 
produced no less than eight Orthonama obstipata Fab., comprising four 
males at Dungeness and three males and a single female at Greatstone; two 
male armigera and a female Rhodometra sacraria L. at Greatstone (one of 
the obstipata, one armigera and the sacraria came from an Estate Agent's 
lighted window!); three male vitellina at Dungeness, and the prize of the 
night a single, slightly- worn male Mythimna loreyi Dup. at Greatstone. 
Michael Chalmers-Hunt informs me that this is the first confirmed record 
for Kent. A second Kent specimen was taken a few nights later by Paul 
Sokoloff, at Orpington, on 26th October. 

On the evening of the 24th, MP, RM and myself flushed literally 
hundreds of noctuella, with smaller numbers of Udea ferrugalis Hiibn. 
from the vegetation at the back of Greatstone Dunes, but the following 
night was to produce more notable migrants. These included another male 



222 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

armigera at Dungeness, three male obstipata from Greatstone, four male 
Spodoptera exigua Hiibn. (three at Dungeness and one at Greatstone) and, 
pick of the bunch, a superb female Cyclophora puppillaria Hiibn. which 
subsequently laid a considerable number of fertile eggs. 

The night of the 25th, much to the disappointment of Fred Butcher, 
Dick Chatelain, Paul Sokoloff and Denis O'Keeffe who joined us at the 
Dungeness sallows, was clear, cold and rather windy. Apart from clouds of 
noctuella and ipsilon, a fine male Palpita unionalis Hiibn. was taken, and a 
further male obstipata was seen at Greatstone. 

That night signalled the beginning of the end for the October immigrants 
and the only other notable migrants taken during the rest of the month 
were a single male armigera and a female obstipata both at Greatstone on 
the night of the 27th. — S.P. Clancy, Delhi Cottage, Dungeness, Kent 
TN29 9NE. 

Xylena exoleta Linn., the Sword-grass, (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Oxfordshire. 

On the morning of 30th March 1989 a male Xylena exoleta was taken at my 
garden m.v. trap at Fernham, Oxfordshire. On the following night a 
specimen of Agrotis ipsilon Hufn. was taken, suggesting that exoleta was 
probably an immigrant. — S. Nash, Goldsmiths, The Green, Fernham, 
Oxon SN7 TNT. 

A note of the occurrence of Xylena exsoleta L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 
southern England. 

Certainly for the last thirty years and probably for much longer there has 
been no evidence that Xylena exsoleta L. has existed as a resident in 
southern England; this area being defined as south of a line running from 
the Severn to the Wash. In this period there has been ten fully acceptable 
records and although such a small sample prevents any conclusive analysis, 
both the coastal locations of most of the captures and the correlation of 
records in 1949, 1957 and 1964 strongly suggests immigration from the 
Continent. 

There are several other species in the subfamily CUCULLIINAE which 
are noted immigrants and those in the taxonomic order closest to exsoleta 
are Lithophane furcifera Hufn., Lithomoia solidaginis Hb., Calophasia 
lunula Hufn. and Trigonophoraflammea Esp. 

Record of exsoleta from 1949-1988: 24.ix.49, Dungeness, Kent; 11.x. 49, 
Maidencombe, Devon; 12.x. 53, Redruth, Cornwall; vi.55, Buxted, Sussex; 
8.iii. and l.xi.57, Bradwell on Sea, Essex; 25.x. 57, Bodinnick, Cornwall; 
4.x. 64, Dungeness, Kent; 3 1.x. 64, Bradwell on Sea, Essex; x.68. Black 
Torrington, Devon; 7.x. 78, Freshwater Bay, Isle of Wight. There are two 
further published records which I was unable to confirm, but are possibly 
genuine, and these are 1977 Stapleford, Sussex and x.77, Maulden, 
Bedfordshire. — Bernard Skinner. 



PHILUDORIA POTATORIA 223 

PHILUDORIA POTATORIA L. (LEP.: LASIOCAMPIDAE): 
A REMARKABLY HOMOGENEOUS POPULATION 

B.K. West, B.Ed. 

36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent. 

J.W TUTT {British Lepidoptera, 1902) states "This species is exceedingly 
variable" and in a subsequent paragraph he proceeds to name and describe 
about a dozen forms which might be described as somewhat arbitrary 
points on a cline, and so one meets many specimens difficult to categorise 
due to their being intermediate in character. In relation to male forms he 
mentions that "All these forms occurred at Wicken during the first week of 
August, 1892", and he then lists their relative frequency. P. potatoria in 
Britain is variable in several senses; firstly it possesses pronounced sexual 
dimorphism, and both sexes vary considerably; secondly local populations 
tend to be variable and also differ one from another, while superimposed 
upon this are certain general trends of variation on a broader geographical 
basis. The larvae are to be found in several well-defined habitats in which 
their foodplant is characteristically different one from another. 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt {Butterflies and Moths of Kent, 1968) contributes 
some brief remarks on variation of potatoria in the county. He suggests 
that f. diminuta Tutt is the commonest male form, and that the nymotype 
is the most frequent female form, although f. lutescens Tutt is also 
common. 

I am acquainted with this species from a number of Kentish localities — 
the lower Thames marshes, the Stour marshes. Sandwich, Romney Marsh, 
Dungeness, the Orlestone woods and the Tunbridge Wells area including 
the former Broadwater Forest just over the border in Sussex, formerly a 
fine heathland with mixed woodland, destroyed by the Forestry 
Commission. With one exception the potatoria populations of these areas 
are very variable, and also the local populations vary one from another. For 
example around Tunbridge Wells in the 1930s and early post- War years all 
females I bred were lutescens, which varied greatly in depth of ground 
colour and markings. On the other hand in the Orlestone woods of East 
Kent males usually have increased yellow coloration, many approaching f. 
proxima Tutt, a form which is, I believe, uncommon elsewhere in Kent. In 
Kent in general, excluding the Orlestone woods and the lower Thames 
marshes, I have found that most males would seem to be either f. 
intermedia Tutt or to fall between this and f. diminuta. Regarding the 
females, excluding the lower Thames marshes and Tunbridge Wells area, 
the three main forms appear to be encountered — type specimens in 
various shades of yellow, the orange-yellow lutescens and the pale 
ferruginous f. berolinensis Heyne, plus specimens difficult to categorise 
due to their intermediate character. 



224 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

Until recently the caterpillars of this moth were very common on the 
Thames marshes between Gravesend and Higham where they fed upon the 
reeds {Phragmites australis) growing alongside the numerous ditches and 
the Gravesend-Higham Canal. During the 1930s and in the earlier post-War 
years I collected many larvae, usually when they were nearly full-grown, 
and also cocoons, both being easily found by day, and most eventually 
produced moths which indicate that this area has a population of potatoria 
probably quite unique in Britain, although there are indications that the 
population on the north bank of the Thames opposite 
may be similar, this conclusion being based upon examination of the 
National Collection at South Kensington. Both sexes exhibit minimal 
variation; the males might be described as somewhat aberrant specimens of 
f. diminuta, being of a rich, deep chocolate brown colour and possessing a 
purplish sheen reminiscent of that of the darker forms of Gastropacha 
quercifolia L., with the yellowish basal patch against the termen of the 
forewing and a well-defined pale streak from the discoidal to the oblique 
line, but not passing beyond as in typical diminuta. Sometimes there is 
some slightly paler scaling between the oblique line and the scalloped 
subterminal, but this is less pronounced than in specimens from elsewhere 
in Kent. The females are the .pale ochreous berolinensis with weak 
markings, and without the darker shading on the posterior half of the 
hindwing; f. lutescens seems to be absent. Thus this Thames marshes 
population is perhaps uniquely homogeneous, being composed of but two 
forms, one for each sex, which are remarkably invariable, together with the 
absence of f . lutescens which seems to occur in all other Kentish localities. 

In 1987 and 1988, wishing to breed further examples of this moth from 
the Thames marshes in order to confirm my findings, I searched the reed 
beds at the appropriate time, but was unable to find a single caterpillar. 



Mythimna vitellina Hiibn. and Heliothis peltigera D. & S. (Lep.: 
Noctuidae) in Lancashire — a correction. 

In the supplement to the immigration notes published in Ent. Rec. 101: 132 
I regret there was an error in my recording Mythimna vitellina from 
Lancashire North (v.c.60) in 1986. This entry should be deleted, and 
appear as follows: 

Heliothis peltigera D. & S. LANCS.N., v.c.60 Presall, 27.6 
(R.E. Danson per M. Evans) 

Both species are rarely seen in Lancashire, and this record of peltigera is 
by a long way the furthest north example reported in 1986. 
— R.F. Bretherton. 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1988 225 

THE IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA TO THE BRITISH ISLES 

IN 1988 

R.F. Bretherton' and J.M. Chalmers-Hunt^ 

' Folly Hill, Birtley Green, Bramley, Guildford, Surrey GU5 OLE 
^ 1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG 

(Concluded from page 159) 

ANNEXE I 

Names of Recorders 

Allen, Dave (Ireland), Austin, Rich (Guernsey), Baker, B.R., Baker, Paul, Baldwin, 
A.J., Baldock, D.W., Banner, Dr J.V., Bond, K.G.M. (Ireland), Bowes, Dr J.M. 
Bradley, Dr J.D., Bretherton, M.F., Bretherton, R.F., Brown, D.C.G., Brown, 
Evelyn P., Brown, Jill (Ireland), Brownfield, Mrs O.M., Bryan, M.D., Bushell, Mrs 
S., Burton, J.F., Butcher, A., Cade, Martin, Campbell, J.L., Chalmers-Hunt, 
J.M., Chambers, D., Chaney,J.E., Chatelain, R.G., Church, S., Clancy, S., 
Clarke, Dr Julian, Clarke, Mrs R.K.F., CoHins, C.B., Colmans, J., Corley, 
M.F.V., Costen, Dr P.D.M. (Guernsey), Cox, R., Dacie, Sir John, Dewick, A.J., 
Dewick, S., Dey, D., Dobson, A.H., Down, D., Drakeford, J., Eastwick-Field, Lt 
Cc-1 G.G., Easterbrook, M.A., Edwards, Mrs A., ElHott, R., Else, G.R., Evans, 
Malcolm, Evans, S.J., Fairclough, R., Foster, Andrew, Gardner, A.F.J. , Goater, 
B., Green, G.E., Greenwood, J.A.C., Hall, N.M., Halsey, J., Harmer, A.S., 
Harwood, N.W., Haynes, R.F. (Ireland & Man), Heckford, R., Henwood, B.P., 
Higginson, J.E., Higgs, G.E. (Guernsey), Hopkins, D., Hornby, R.J., Hulme, 
D.C., Hughes, L.E., Hunter, I., Ivon-Jones, B., Jacobs, S.N. A., Johnstone, 
Daphne, Jones, Mrs P., Kelly, Sylvia, Knill-Jones, R. & S.A., Lane, R.E. & C.G., 
Laney, P.E., Larsen, T.B., Lavery, J.W., Leaver, R., Leverton, R., Lewis, R., 
Lorimer, R.I., McCormick, R., Madge, S.C, Mallett, N., Mark, E.R., Miles, Dr 
J., Mitchell, B.R., Moore, B.W., Morgan, I.K., Morris, I.R., Myers, Dr A. A. 
(Ireland), Nash, S., Gates, M., O'Heffernan, H., O'Keeffe, D., Owen, John, 
Owen, D.F., Palmer, S.M., Parsons, M., Passley, P.R., Payne, J.H., Peet, T.N.D., 
Pelham-Clinton, E.G., Philhps, J.W., Pickles, A.J., Plant, C.W., Pool, M., Potts, 
P.M., Pratt, C.R., Pratt, R., Radford, J.T., Riddiford, N.J., Rippey, I. (Ireland), 
Rogers, M., Rollins, C.C., Rutherford, C.I., Rushen, D., Sankey-Barker, J. P., 
Semmens, M.P., Senior, G., Simon, G., Simpson, G., Slade, B., Skinner, Bernard, 
Smith, E.G. & M., Smith, Dr F.H.N., Smith, I.E., Smith, R., Softley, R.A., 
Sokoloff, P. A., Spalding, Adrian, Spence, B.R., Sterling, Col D.H., Stokes, Mrs 
Susan, Sutcliffe, R., Sutcliffe, S.J., Swanson, S., Tallack, R., Townsend, Martin, 
Tucker, Nigel, Tucker, Victor, Waite, P., Waring, Paul, White, P., Whiteside, J., 
Wild, E.H., Wilson, J., Winter, P.Q., Wright, R.W., Yates, B. 

ANNEXE II 

Records of scarcer immigrant species in 1988 

Suspected immigrants of resident species are marked *. Records of 
nocturnal species are of those found in traps or otherwise at light unless 
otherwise stated, and dates of them are as far as possible for the beginning 
of each night. Initials are used for recorders who have sent in long lists, but 
others are given in full. Figure 3 illustrates the distribution of some of the 
scarcer species. 



226 




ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, 


VOL. 101 


15.ix.l989 




Palpita 
unionalis 


Rhodo- 

metra 

sacraria 


Orthonama 
obstipata 


Agrius 
convolvuli 


Mythimna 
vitellina 


' Mythimna 
loreyi 


Spodoptera 
exigua 


Heli- 

othis 

armigera 


All 
others 


January 





























February 





























March 





























April 








1 




















May 








1 

















2 


June 


























1 


July 





2 








1 





10 





3 


August 





9 





4 








26 





9 


September 





28 





9 


2 





103 


13 


12 


October 


34 


52 


60 


4 


21 


7 


42 


55 


20 


November 


6 


3 


1 








2 


1 


13 


5 


December 





























TOTALS 


40 


94 


63 


17 


24 


9 


182 


81 


52 



Fig. 3. Numbers of scarcer immigrant Lepidoptera (adults only) in 1988. 



Sclerocona acutellus Eversmann. HANTS N. Leckford, 8.8, one in trap. First British 
record (Sterling, Ent.Gaz. 40: 1-3). Possibly immigrant. 

Euchromius ocellea Haw. (6). DEVON S. Abbotskerswell, 3.11 (BPH). DORSET 
Studland, 23.10 (DCGB). HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT, Freshwater 21.9, 20.10, 12.11 
(SAK-J). HANTS S. Ringwood, 12.11 (Dr J. Clarke). 

Hellula undalis Fab. CORNWALL W. Cusgarne, near Truro, 21.10. Probably only 
second British record (AS). A sub-tropical species, agreeing in date with other 
immigrants. The first British record was of one at East Prawle, DEVON S. 28.9.1967 
(E.J. Hare). 

Uresiphita polygonalis D. & S. CHESHIRE Wallasey, 16.9 (M.F.V. Corley {Ent. Gaz. 
40: l-3)&BENHSExhib, 1988). 

Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. (12) HANTS S. Ringwood, 8.8 (Dr J. Clarke). SUSSEX W. 
Walberton, 10.7, 16.7, 8.9, two (JTR per CRP). SUSSEX E. Peacehaven, 23.6, two, 
7.8, two, 22.10 (CRP). Co CORK MID Fountainstown, 7.9, 9.9 (AAM). Some may 
have been immigrants, but it is now widely established in south east England, though 
little known in Ireland. 

*Phlyctaenia perlucidalis Hb (5) HANTS S. Sparsholt College, 20.6, two, with one P. 
xylostella (AHD); HANTS N. Leckford, 24.6, (DHS); East Woodhay, 5.7 (R.J. 
Hornby per DHS); Burghclere, 5.7 (GGE-F). Thought to result from continuation of 
recent spread in south east England, though immigration is also possible. 

Diasemiopsis ramburialis Dup. (2) CORNWALL W. Cusgarne, near Truro, 17.10, 
27. 10 (AS). 

Hymenia recurvalis Fab. ESSEX S. Southend, 25.10 (D.Down per BS). Sub-tropical; 
most recent previous record is Durlston Head, Dorset, 8.10.1976 (P.H. Sterling). 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1988 227 

Palpita unionalis Hb. (40) BERKS Fernham 20.9 male, 22.9 infertile female (SN). 
CORNWALL W. Penzance 7.11 (MPS). DEVON S. Abbotskerswell 15.10 (BPH). 
DORSET Studland 23.10, two (DCGB); Preston, 9.11 (M. Cade). ESSEX S. 
Bradwell-on-Sea, 9.10 (AJD), 19.10 (SD). HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT Freshwater 
23.10 three, 12.11 (S.A. Knill-Jones, BENHS Exhibition). HANTS S. Sparshoh 
College, 19.10, 27.10 (R.A. Bell, per BS); Ringwood 24.10 male (Dr J. Clarke). 
HANTS N. Burghclere, 10.10 (GGE-F). KENT E. Whitstable 19.10 (E.S. 
Bradford); Folkestone Warren 25.10 (JMC-H & BS); Dungeness 25.10 (S. Clancy); 
28.10 (S.M. Palmer). KENT W. Petts Wood 26.10 (D.O'Keeffe). SURREY Leigh, 
9.11 (R. Fairclough). SUSSEX W. Walberton 9.9, 18.10, 26.10, 10.11 (JTR per 
CRP). SUSSEX E. Eastbourne, 23.10, seven males, one female; Ninfield 19.10, 
Holywell 25.10 (MP); Peacehaven,25.10 (CRP). WILTS S. Dinton, 28.10 (S.M. 
Palmer). GUERNSEY St Peter's, 13.11 (PDMC).' 

Papilio machaon L. (3) ESSEX S. High Beach, 14.6, flying, very fresh (Paul Tout 
per CWP); Epping Forest, near Connaught Water, 5.7, flying (T.B. Bennett per 
Paul Tout, CWP). SURREY Elstead,25.5, in garden with one C. cardui (Fry per 
D.W. Baldock). 

Lampides boeticus L. BERKS Reading, 25.8, found at rest and photographed by 
Prof W. van Emden (per BRB). [IRELAND: Several specimens reported to the 
Ulster Museum are known to have emerged in a laboratory (possibly from imported 
seeds). The species has not been found in the wild in Ireland (I. Rippey and RFH).] 
*Nymphalis polychloros L. SURREY Richmond Park, 8.7 (G. Simpson per CWP). 
The date agrees with the sightings of many C. cardui and V. atalanta. 
Cyclophora puppillaria Hb. (6) DORSET Studland, 26.10, female (DCGB). 
HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT Freshwater, 25.10 (S.A. Knill-Jones). KENT W. East 
MalHng, 20.10 (M. Easterbrook «fe D. Chambers). KENT E. Greatstone, 23.10 (S. 
Clancy). SUSSEX E. Rogate, 11.11 (JACG). GUERNSEY St Peter's, 18.10 
(PDMC). 

Rhodometra sacraria L. (c.95) BERKS Fernham, 5.9, 10.9, 21.9, 19.10 three, 21.10, 
22.10 — eight in all (SN). BUCKS Weston Underwood, 16.9 (GEH). CHESHIRE 
Bromhall near Nantwich, mid September, flying in sunshine (P. Griffiths per C.I. 
Rutherford). CORNWALL ISLES OF SCILLY St Mary's, 20.9 (Malcolm Evans). 
CORNWALL W.Penzance 7.9, 16.9, red striped, 18.10, 19.10 three, 20.10, all 
brown striped; St Leven, by day 19.10 (MPS); Cusgarne, near Truro, 18.10, 20.10, 
21.10 two, 24.10, 25.10, 26. 10 three, 27.10 four, 28.10, 10.11 — fifteen in all, brown 
striped (AS). CORNWALL E. Sheviock, 10.9, two, one deep yellow, brown line, 
other paler, pinkish brown line (SCM). DEVON S. Ashburton, 9.9 (SCM); Abbots- 
kerswell, 18.9, 20.10, 5.11 (BPH); Plympton, 19.10, 26.10 (R. Heckford). 
DORSET Portland, 24.7 two (J.E. Chaney); Portland B.O. 10.9, 11.9, 17.9, 28.10, 
12. 1 1 , all singles (MR); Studland, 22. 10, 23. 10, 25. 10, 26. 10 three (DCGB); Preston, 
26.10, female (M. Cade). ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea, 1.9 female (AJD), 4.10 male 
(SD). HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT Freshwater, 21.10 (S.A. Knill-Jones, BENHS 
Exhibition). HANTS S. Highcliffe, 6.9 (EHW); Winchester, 7.9 (DHS). HANTS N. 
Northwood Park, Sparsholt, 23.10, 24.10, 25.10, males (R.A. Bell per BS); 
Burghclere, 26.10 (GGE-F). KENT E. Dungeness, 20.10, Greatstone 23.10 (SC). 
Hothfield, 28.8 (D. O'Keeffe). KENT W. Petts Wood, 21.8 two, 22.8 three, 29.8 
(D. O'Keeffe). LANCS S. Hoghton, 28.8, female, ova: 29 moths emerged, "very 
mottled", 10-18.10 (J. Whiteside). SURREY Addington, 30.8 (B.S.) SUSSEX W. 
Walberton, 2.9, 21 . 10, 26. 10, 27. 10 (JTR per CRP); Littlehampton, 20. 10 (R. Pratt 
per CRP); Rogate, 20.9, 22.10, 3.11 (JACG). SUSSEX E. Ninfield, 18.10 (MP per 
CRP). WILTS S. Dinton 14.10 (S.M. Palmer). CARDIGAN Clorack Bay, 9.9 
(MDB). GLAMORGAN Rhossili, 9.9 (B.J. MacNuhy, BENHS Exhibition). 



228 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.ix.l989 



PEMBROKE Lamphey, 27.10 (R. Elliott). CO. CORK E. Fota Wild Life Park, 
18.10, eight (KGMB). GUERNSEY St Peter's, 15.9 (PDMC); St John, 29.10, 12.11 
(R.A.). 

Orthonama obstipata Fab. (63) BERKS Fernham, 20.10 (SN). CORNWALL ISLES 
OF SCILLY St Mary's, 20.10 (Malcolm Evans). CORNWALL W. Cusgarne, near 
Truro, 22.10, 23.10, 25.10 (AS). DORSET Portland, 13. 10, 23.10 fertile female (per 
NMH); Portland B.O. 25.10, 28.10 two (MR); Studland, 22.10 four, 23.10 four, 
25.10, 26.10, 27.10 — 11 in all (DCGB). ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea, 20.10 male, 
29.10 (SD), 24.10 female (AJD). HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT Freshwater, 24.10 
(S.A. Knill- Jones, BENHS Exhibition). HANTS S. Winchester, 17.10 (DHS); 
Highcliffe, 24.10 (EHW); Havant, 26.10 (J.W. Phillips). HANTS N. Northbrook 
Park, Sparsholt, 16.10 (R.A. Bell per BS). KENT E. Dungeness, 23.10; Greatstone, 
23.10, three males, three females, 24.10 male, 27.10 female (SC). KENT W. Petts 
Wood, 8.5 (D. O'Keeffe). NORFOLK E. Winterton, 23.10 female (A. Foster). 
SURREY Bramley, 16.10 male (RFB). SUSSEX W. Walberton, 30.4, 22.10, 23.10, 
24.10 two, 27.10 (JTR per CRP). SUSSEX E. Peacehaven, 19.10, 24.10, 25.10 
(CRP); Ninfield, 26.10 (MP per CRP). YORKS S.E. v.c. 61 Spurn Point, 20.10 two 
(BRS). Muston, 22.10, two, 23.10 (P.Q. Winter). CO. CORK E. Fota Wild Life 
Park, 18.10 (KGMB). GUERNSEY St Peter's, 24.10 three, 27.10, 11.11 (PDMC); 
Le Chene (TNDP per RA). 

Thera cupressata Geyer (3) DORSET Studland, 22.10 two (DCGB). HANTS S. St 
Ives, 24.10 (Dr J. Clarke). Apparently there has been only one previous record of 
occurrence of T. cupressata \n mainland Britain. 

Acherontia atropos L. (two and one larva) SUSSEX E. Hope Gap, summer, found 
at rest on beach (D. Rushen ex "Living World" per CRP); Wilmington, early 
September, fully fed larva (P. Wooler per CRP); YORKS S.W. v.c. 63, Whiston, 
c. 16.5, caught outside a vegetable shop ("Sheffield Star" per J.F. Burton). 
Agrius convolvuH L. (15 and 2 larvae) BERKS Fernham, 22.10 (SN). CHESHIRE 
Hankelow, 4.9 (S. Young per C.I. Rutherford); Alderney Edge, 8.9, exhausted 
female (C.I. Rutherford). CORNWALL E. Crafthole, 18.9, larva on field bindweed 
(S.C. Madge). DORSET Portland B.O., 8.9, 17.9, (MR per NFM); Alderholt 
School, near Fordingbridge, caught early October (per AHD). ESSEX S. Bradwell- 
on-Sea, 22.8 male, 7.9 male (AJD), 14.9 male (SD). HANTS S. Havant, 24.8 
(CBC). KENT E. Shadoxhurst, 25.8 (Mrs R. Edwards per DCGB); Greatstone, 
18.10, fully grown larva (SC). YORKS S.E. v.c. 61 Spurn Point, 28.8, found dying, 
20.10 (BRS). ORKNEY Cava Is., 9.8 (Miss Woodham & Miss Peckham, per RIL). 
FAIR ISLE B.O., 3.9. one found killed by cat. First record (per PMP). 
GUERNSEY St. Peter's, 16.10 (PDMC). 

Eurois occulta L. MIDDLESEX Culford Road, London N.l, 30.7; M. stellatarum 
on same day (G. Simon per CWP). 

Mythimna albipuncta D. & S. (6) CORNWALL E. Sheviock, 9.9 (S.C. Madge). 
DEVON S. Bigbury, 4.10 (M. Brigden). DORSET Portland B.O., 17.9 two (MR). 
HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT Freshwater, 25.8 (SAK-J, Ent. Gaz. 39: 336) SUSSEX 
E. Peacehaven, 1 1 .9 (CRP). 

Mythimna vitellina Hb. (24) DORSET Studland, 15.10 (DCGB). ESSEX S. 
Bradwell-on-Sea, 17.9 (AJD). HANTS N. Sparsholt, 18.7, male, 15.10 male (R.A. 
Bell per BS). KENT E. Dungeness, 19.10 two, 23.10 three (SC); Greatstone, 9.9, 
15.10, 21.10 (SC). SUSSEX W. Walberton, 16.10 (JTR per CRP). SUSSEX E. 
Brighton, 23.10 (R. Leverton). GUERNSEY St Peter's, 3.10 (GEH), 15.10, 16.10 
two, 17.10 two, 19. 10, 20.10, 26.10, 27.10 (PDMC) — ten in all; Le Chene, August, 
one (TNDP per R A). 

*Mythimna l-album L. (2) SUSSEX E. Peacehaven, 17.10 (CRP). KENT E. 
Dymchurch, 23.9 (John Owen). 



IMMIGRATION OF LEPIDOPTERA IN 1988 229 



Mythimna unipuncta Haw. (13) CORNWALL W. Penzance, 14.11, 17.11, 18.11 
(MPS). DEVON S. Bigbury, 4.10 (MDB). DORSET Preston 26.10 (Martin Cade); 
Portland B.O., 10.11 (MR) ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea, 10.10 (SD), 20.10 (AJD). 
SUSSEX W. Walberton, 19.10 (JTR per CRP). SUSSEX E. Peacehaven, 13.10, 
17.10 (CRP); Brighton, 18.10 (R. Leverton per CRP); Ninfield, 19.10 (MP per 
CRP). 

Mythimna loreyi Dup. (9) DORSET Portland B.O., 13.10, 28.10 two males, one 
female (MR). HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT Freshwater, 29.10, 8.11, 12.11 (SAK-J). 
KENT E. Greatstone, 23. 10 male (SC). KENT W. Orpington, 26. 10 (P. Sokoloff). 
Polyphaenis sericata Esp. GUERNSEY Petit Bot, 13.8 (R.A.) 
Spodoptera exigua Hb. (c.l80) BERKS Fernham, 18.8 two, 21.8, 1.9, 9.9, 25.10 
(SN) — six in all; Uffington, 10.9 two (SN). DERBYS. Hayfield, 16.9 (I.F. Smith 
per RIL). DEVON S. Plympton, 20.9 (R. Heckford). DORSET Arne, 4.8 (G. 
Senior); Portland B.O. 5.8, 28.8, 4.9, 10.9, 14.9, 15.9 (MR) — Six in all; 10.9 three 
(SN); 20.9 (E.G. Smith); Studland, 22.10 three, 23.10 two, 24.10 four, 25.10, 26.10 
three, 27. 10 (DCGB) — 14 in all. ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea, 23.8 two, 29.8 two, 1 .9 
two, 5.9, 6.9 three, 7.9 two, 9.9, 10.9, 11.9, 20.10, 21.10, 24.10 (SD) — 17 in all; 
7.9, 8.9, 10.9, 11.9, 12.9,26.10, 11.11 (AJD) — 7 in all. HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT 
Freshwater, 20.10 two (S.A. Knill-Jones, BENHS Exhibition). HANTS S. 
Brockenhurst, 23.7 (DCGB); Matley Bog, 4.8 two females (Dr J. Clarke); 
Ringwood, 5.9 (Dr J. Clarke); Highcliffe, 22.10 (EHW); Winchester, 23.10 (DHS); 
Swanwick, 22.9 (GEH); Lymington, 27.10 (A.S. Harmer). HANTS N. Sparshoh, 

28.8, 6.9, 7.9, 23.10, 24.10 (R.A. Bell per BS). KENT E. Folkestone Warren, c.19.7 
(A. Butcher per BS); 4.8 (BS); Sandwich Bay B.O., 23.7, 27.7 (I. Hunter per BS); 
Greatstone, 23.7, 27.7, 31.7, 3.8, 5.8, 10.9, 24.10; Dungeness 6.9 two 9.9, 10.9, 
24.10 three (SC) — 14 in all; Stodmarsh, 1.8 (BS & R.G. Chatelain). KENT W. 
Dartford, 5.9 female (B.K. West). NORFOLK E. Norwich, 21.10 (A. Foster). 
SOMERSET N. Berrow, 8.9 (B. Slade). SURREY Leigh, 25.10, 27.10 (R. 
Fairclough). SUSSEX W. Walberton, 23.8, 2.9, 5.9, 8.9 four, 9.9 two, 18.10, 19.10, 
24.10 — 12 in all (JTR per CRP). SUSSEX E. Eastbourne, 23.7 fertile female 
(CRP); Brighton, 23.7 (J.V. Banner per CRP); Friston Forest, 1.8 (CRP); Ninfield, 
1.8 three, 2.8, 4.9 two, 6.9, 9.9, 18.10, 19.10 — 11 in all (MP per CRP); 
Peacehaven, 1.9, 4.9 two, 5.9, 6.9 four, 7.9, 9.9 six, 21.9 — 17 in all (CRP); Vann 
Common, 22.10 (S. Church). Eastbourne 23.10 (BS). WARWICKS. 
Charlecote,29.8 (DCGB). WORCESTERS. Blackwell, 22.10 (MDB). YORKS S.E. 
v.c. 61. Spurn Point, 20.10 (BRS). ARGYLL v.c. 97 Barcaldine near Oban, 8.9, 

16.9, 17.9 (J.C.A. Craik). CO. CORK MID Fountainstown, 7.9, twenty-one, 8.9 
two, 10.9 — 26 in all (AAM). CO. CORK E. Fota Wild Life Park, 18. 10 (KGMB). 
GUERNSEY St Peter's, 19.7, 27.8 two, 16.10, 20.10, 21.10, 24.10 — 8 in all 
(PDMC). 

Heliothis armigera Hb. (78) CAMBS Alconbury, 19/20.10 (Dickerson, Ent. Rec. 
101: 86). CARMARTHEN Llwynhendy, 9.10 (I.K. Morgan). CARDIGAN Clorack 
Bay 9.10 (M. Brigden). CHESHIRE Alderley Edge, 8.9 (C.I. Rutherford); Cheadle 
Hulme, early September (B. Shaw per C.I. Rutherford); Bramhall, 11.9(M. Passant 
per C.I. Rutherford). CORNWALL W. Penzance, 7.9, 23.10 (MPS); Cusgarne, 
9.11 (AS). DERBYS. Hayfield, 16.9, with 5. exigua (I.F. Smith per RIL). DEVON 
S. Axminster, 17.10, 18.10, 21.10 (ECP-C). DORSET Studland, 22.10 two, 25.10, 

26.10, 27.10 two — 6 in all (DCGB); Portland B.O., 28.10 (MR). ESSEX S. 
Bradwell-on-Sea, 12.5, 7.9, 16.10, 20.10, all males (AGD). HANTS ISLE OF 
WIGHT Freshwater 15.10, 23.10, 28.10, 12.11 (S.A. Knill-Jones, BENHS 
Exhibition). HANTS S. Romsey, 19.10 (D.F. Owen); Highcliffe, 21.9 three, 22.9 
two, all sterile females (EHW); Lymington, 24.10 (A.J. Pickles, BENHS 
Exhibition); Havant, 26.10, 27.10 (J.W. Phillips); Winchester, 11.11 (DHS). 



230 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.ix.l989 

HANTS N. Sparsholt, 20. 10 male and female, 22. 10 male (R. A. Bell per BS). KENT 
E. Dungeness, 19.10 three, 24.10, Greatstone, 23.10, 27.10 (SC). LEICESTER. 
Leicester, 26.10 at garden m.v. light (D.F. Owen). NORFOLK E. Norwich, 20.10, 
Winterton dunes, 21.10 (A. Foster). SURREY Wimbledon, 23.10 (Sir John Dacie). 
SUSSEX W. Walberton, 15.10, 18.10, 19.10, 26.10, 9.11 (JTR per CRP); 
Littlehampton, 12.11 (R. Pratt per CRP). SUSSEX E. Ninfield, 16.10 four, 20.10, 
22.10, 9.11, 10.11, (MP per CRP); Brighton, 22.10. two at ivy (R. Leverton per 
CRP); Peacehaven, 20.10, 9.11, 19.11 (CRP); Eastbourne, 23.10, male and fertile 
female (BS). WARWICKS. Charlecote, 9.11 (DCGB). GUERNSEY St Peter's, 
16.10, 17.10, 18. 10,20.10,21. 10(PDMC);LeChene,20.10(TNDPperRA). 
Heliothis peltigera D. & S. (7 and 2 larvae) BERKS Fernham 10.9 infertile female 
(SN). DEVON S. Plympton, 26.10 (R. Heckford). KENT E. Faversham, 28.8, 
female at rest in a marsh (J. Platts); Dungeness, 6.9, larva on Senecio viscosus (SC). 
NORFOLK E. Overstrand, near Cromer, 25.7 (A. Cox per DCGB). SURREY 
North Cheam, 21.9 (R.F. McCormick). SUSSEX W. Pagham Harbour, 14.9, larva 
on 5. viscosus (R.W. PhilHps). SUSSEX E. Peacehaven,23.8 (CRP). WILTS S. 
Steeple Ashton, 8.9 (EC & MH Smith). 

Eublemma parva Hb. (2) ESSEX S. Bradwell-on-Sea 21.9 (AGD). SUSSEX E. 
Peacehaven, 19.10 (CRP). 

Chrysodeixis acuta Walker (3) HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT Freshwater, 19.10 (S.A. 
Knill-Jones, BENHS Exhibition). NORFOLK E. Winterton, 23.10 male (A. Foster, 
ibid.). SURREY Bramley, 10. 1 1 (R.F Bretherton, teste BS et. a!.). 

Ctenoplusia limbirena Guen. (2) HANTS ISLE OF WIGHT Freshwater, 18.8 (SAK- 

J, Ent. Gaz. 39: 336). BERKS Fernham, 7.9, in warm, clear S.W. air (SN). 

Diachrysia orichalcea Fab. (2) HANTS N. Micheldever, 4.8 (B. Ivon-Jones per 

DHS). DEVON S. Bigbury, 4.10 (MDB). 

Macdunnoughia confusa Steph. DORSET Wyke Regis, 22.9 (Paul Baker per 

NMH). 

*Autographa bractea D. & S. (3) LINCOLN N. Ancaster Valley, 31 .7 in actinic trap 

(Paul Waring). NORFOLK W. Cranwich Heath, one male, one fertile female, 23.7 

(R. McCormick). Possibly immigrants, otherwise further internal spread from north 

and Midlands. 

Catocala fraxini L. MIDDLESEX South Tottenham, 19.8 (N. Bowman per C. 

Plant; identified by CP from a photograph). 



Bibloporus minutus Raffray (Col.: Pselaphidae) in Surrey. 

On 31.V.87 I obtained one specimen of this Bibloporus from under the bark 
of a leaning dead oak on Ham Common (TQ1871). Its identity was kindly 
confirmed for me by Professer J. A. Owen who permits me to record that 
he has found the species on Epsom Common in 1980 and on the White 
Downs in 1981. Bibloporus minutus does not appear to have been reported 
from Surrey before. (Also taken from the dead oak tree were a few 
Sepedophilus bipunctatus (Grav.) (Staphylinidae) and a dead Phloiotrya 
vaudoueri Muls. (Melandryidae).) — D.A. Prance, 209 Peregrine Road, 
Sunbury, Middlesex TW16 6JJ. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 231 

PRESS RELEASE 

We have received the press release below from the Nature Conservancy Council. 
Because of the interest of the topic and the importance of the work, we reproduce 
the item in full: 

RESCUE BID TO SAVE THE BRITISH RACE OF THE ESSEX EMERALD 
MOTH FROM EXTINCTION. 

The British race of the Essex Emerald moth, Thetidia smaragdaria, is on 
the brink of extinction. In 1987 the known population fell to just eleven 
caterpillars but due to the success of the captive breeding programme 
mounted by the Nature Conservancy Council (NCC) the number currently 
stands at over one hundred. It is hoped that the adults which will emerge in 
July, will generate sufficient eggs and caterpillars for a return of this stock 
to the wild in 1990. 

The Essex Emerald is a beautiful green and gold moth which was 
formerly widespread on the edges of the salt marshes of Essex and Kent, 
where it has been recorded by British entomologists since the 1820s. The 
British race is considered a distinct sub-species for two reasons. Using the 
colour and markings on the wings some experts can distinguish British 
specimens from those that occur in Europe. Also the British caterpillars are 
found only on sea wormwood, Artemisia maritima; in Europe they also 
occur away from the coast on other species of Artemisia, and on yarrow, 
Achillea millefolium, and other plants. 

By 1978 only one colony of the Essex Emerald was known in Britain and 
a survey by NCC failed to find any others. Accordingly NCC entered into a 
management agreement with the owner of the site. In 1979 the moth was 
added to the list of species covered by the Conservation of Wild Creatures 
and Wild Plants Act, 1975. In 1981 the Essex Emerald was listed on 
schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act. These measures make it 
illegal to collect or trade in the eggs, caterpillars, pupae or adults of this 
moth without a licence issued by NCC. 

After 1978 the known colony was monitored annually by the Essex 
Naturalists Trust and NCC but it died out unexpectedly in 1985. Full scale 
surveys of the Essex and Kent coastlines were mounted in 1987 and 1988 
but only one additional colony was discovered. This provided the basis for 
the captive stock. Since my appointment to NCC in 1987, as contract moth 
specialist, I have organised the captive rearing programme. I am also 
studying the Essex Emeralds that remain in the wild. The latest news is that 
there was a 75% disappearance of the wild caterpillars over the winter, 
leaving thirteen surviving. 

The reasons for the decHne in the number of colonies of the Essex 
Emerald moth are not completely clear. Traditionally climate and 
collectors have been blamed. There is ample evidence that large numbers of 
caterpillars have been collected from some localities in the past. It is 



232 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

possible to collect up all the caterpillars from small sites. The recent work 
suggests however that the decline is more widespread than can be 
accounted for by collecting. The large scale changes to the saltmarsh zones 
caused by construction of sea walls must be considered. Sea walls enable 
conversion of saltmarsh into land suitable for agriculture or other 
development and result in a loss of habitat for the salt marsh flora and 
fauna. The sea wormwood and the Essex Emerald are particularly 
vulnerable in this respect because they are largely restricted to the edges and 
higher ground in saltmarshes i.e. the first habitat to be converted. 
Ironically the sea wormwood has subsequently colonised the old earthen 
sea walls and the Essex Emerald used to be found on these, in situations 
sheltered from wave action. 

However the Essex Emerald has not been found on the modern "block- 
and-tar" and concrete sea walls that are subjected to scouring by waves, 
even though the caterpillars' food plant grows on them. Not only would the 
waves dislodge the caterpillars from the plant and sweep them away, such 
walls are often maintained by deliberately stripping away the vegetation on 
a regular basis, removing the foodplant totally. 

The Essex Emerald is unlikely to be able to fly from one sheltered 
saltmarsh fragment to another when conditions become temporarily or 
permanently unsuitable and during the course of the twentieth century the 
number of colonies would have declined as a result. The captive-breeding 
and re-establishment programme will make it possible to move the Essex 
Emerald back into some of the surviving saltmarsh fragments, some of 
which are nature reserves, and will provide a test of whether these areas 
really are suitable today. — Mr Paul Waring, Moth SpeciaHst, Terrestrial 
Invertebrate Branch, Nature Conservancy Council, Northminster House, 
Peterborough PEl lUA. June 1989 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Lebanon 1973 

A MAN has got to do what a man has got to do. I think it was John Wayne 
who said this in some film. On the whole it is probably bad advice. 

In spring of 1973 there was a sort of "pre-testing" of the Lebanese civil 
war, initiated by Suleiman Frangieh, one of the more bizarre political 
leaders since Caligula. The Lebanese army was entrenched in fixed 
positions, glowering at rather less organised Palestinian encampments. 
Everyone else was busy creating their own militias. This is the sort of 
situation which makes for "sub-optimal entomological field conditions" as 
some of my American colleagues would put it. However, sub-optimal or 
not, I simply had to go to one of the worst zones of conflict. Late the 
previous year I had caught a single male of a blue butterfly that was almost 
certainly new to science at Nabi Sbaat in the Antilebanon mountain range. 
To be certain I needed more specimens, and most of all I needed to cryo- 
freeze living males so that the chromosome numbers could be established. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 233 



It had to be in late May or early June, because there is only one brood. So 
off I went ... a man has got to do . . . 

Just off the main Baalbeck road I ran into an army picket straddling the 
approach to the Antilebanon mountains. It had not been there last year. 
They had fired off an impressive amount of artillery shells these last few 
months. A French speaking lieutenant appeared. I wanted to collect 
butterflies. He thought I was mad on two counts. The mountains were full 
of Palestinians, and what use were butterflies anyway. But it is (was) a free 
country. He shrugged his shoulders; I do not think he expected to see me 
again. 

Well, I had no personal quarrel with the Palestinians and could have told 
the lieutenant a lot about the uses of butterflies, so I proceeded. I told him 
to call my wife if I was not back before dusk. I reached my spot. The 
platoon of guerillas and their wicked looking 12.7mm machine gun had not 
been there last year. My papers were checked. No IsraeH visas. Lots of visas 
from Arab countries. No incriminating things hke maps. Photos were 
admired. That of my wife passed enthusiastic muster; she still has a 
standing invitation to swim on the beaches of Acre when Palestine is 
hberated. One of the guerillas insisted that I should be called "Charlie". 
He had been a deck hand on an American ship and liked the name. 
Eventually I was allowed to descend the wadi to collect. There would be no 
problem. Half an hour later I was back, a Kalashnikov gun in my ribs, held 
by a gleeful gentleman who was certain that great advancement would now 
come his way. "Sorry about that, Charlie!" said my friends back at the 
12.7. This procedure was repeated five times. By then I had actually 
stopped being scared! 

On each of the trips, before meeting the guy with the gun, I did catch a 
few of the butterflies. It was new to science. I named it after Dr. Samir 
Deeb who helped me with the chromosome counts. Perhaps Agrodiaetus 
kalashnikovi would have been a more appropriate name. For more that ten 
years my type series of Agrodiaetus deebi remained the only ones known, 
but I have been pleased to learn that recently large numbers have been 
found in the Syrian parts of the Antilebanon. — Torben B. Larsen, 358 
Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 



Uncommon Heteromera (Col.) from a S.E. London wood. 

The following were met with, mostly last summer, in the woods at Shooters 
Hill (Oxleas Wood SSSI). Farther out from the metropolis, in almost any 
piece of old wood- or park-land, their occurrence would be unsurprising, 
though none are common; but in the circumstances, I feel they are worth at 
least a passing notice. Single specimens are to be understood in each case. 



234 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

Tetratoma fungorum F.: an elytron under bark of a fallen dead oak 
branch. A species found in the adult state from late autumn to spring 
(seldom later), scarce in this district though possibly general. Orchesia 
undulata Kr.: among small polypori on piece of dead oak bough, 27.vii.88; 
under loose bark of section of oak log, same date. Usually somewhat 
gregarious, but evidently very rare here. Phloiotrya vaudoueri Muls.: a 
small female at the former site on the oak bough, 27.vii.78. (Has occurred 
fairly lately in the N. London areas at Chiswick Park and Hampstead 
Heath.) Conopalpus testaceus Ol.: female swept under oak, l.viii.88; male 
by general sweeping, 12.vi.89. Lissodema quadripustulata Marsh. : brushed 
from foliage of straggly young trees, 13.vii.88. Mordellistena variegata F.: 
off oak on western fringe of the woods, 13.vii.86; shaken from umbel of 
hogweed, 18.vii.88. M. humeralis L.: swept from mixed herbage, 5.viii.86. 
M. neuwaldeggiana Panz.: male on hogweed umbel, 13.vii.88; the first I 
have found in the district. (M. parvuloides Erm. and M. acuticollis Schil.: 
see Ent. Rec. 98: 49 (1986); this gives me the opportunity to say that, 
despite persistent efforts, neither has turned up again since the captures 
there recorded.) The genus Mordellistena is thus remarkably well 
represented, with two species not otherwise known from Britain, in this 
locality where, in spite of favourable-looking conditions, the fauna in 
many groups appears to be strangely deficient. — A. A. Allen, 49 
Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

2nd International Entomological Trade Fair. 

We have just received notice that this fair will be held on 25th and 26th 
November 1989 at the Mairie of Paris, 14th District, Mouton Duvernat 
Street, Paris, France. Further details from the Editor, or direct from 
Bernard Courtin, France Entomologie, 18 Sente des Chataigniers, F. 92380 
Garches, France. The society France Entomologie has just published a list 
of names, addresses, telephone numbers of all French societies, museums, 
dealers and butterfly farms. Price 10 US dollars. 

Local lists of Lepidoptera or a bibliographical catalogue of local lists and 
regional accounts of the butterflies and moths of the British Isles 
by J.M. Chalmers-Hunt. 247pp. Boards. Hedera Press/E.W. Classey, 
1989. £21 .00. ISBN 86096 023 4. 

I have often felt that the human species must possess a gene that confers 
upon its owner the compulsion to make a list. If so, this gene must occur 
with a high frequency in entomologists, who have made lists of species ever 
since the first struggling "worm" was impaled upon a pin by one of our 
entomological forefathers. 

Whatever the nature of the list, be it a carefully researched catalogue of 
local fauna, a hst of holiday captures, or a compilation of species 



CURRENT LITERATURE 235 

containing material which one of our contributors is wont to describe as 
"largely fiction", (usually in relation to larval foodplants), the local list is 
perhaps one of our most fundamental databases for investigating the 
distribution and ecology of our native lepidoptera. "Where does the 
species occur?" and "Has it been taken here before?" are questions 
frequently posed by entomologists. All too often the answers to those 
questions are buried in an obscure Transactions of . . . , or a long-forgotten 
slip of a publication. It is against this background that our gene reaches its 
finest expression — the list of lists. 

The work under review cites over 3000 titles covering county and regional 
lists and local accounts of British Isles' lepidoptera (including the Republic 
of Ireland), although Hsts with only a few species are omitted. The style of 
presentation is very similar to that of R.B. Freeman's British natural 
history books 1495-1900, a handlist. A short list of bibliographical 
references precedes a brief introduction to the work. The body of the text 
comprises a numbered list of references arranged in alphabetic order, by 
author. There are 3161 references, although some of the serial numbers 
have been omitted. Each entry details the author's name, date of publi- 
cation, title, pagination (where the item is a free-standing publication) or 
reference (where citing a serial pubhcation). The county to which the list 
refers is given in parenthesis. Annotations and details of current location 
are given for items of particular interest such as those of extreme scarcity, 
manuscript or annotated lists. The work concludes with a list of the 
counties of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland cross-referenced to the 
entries in main text. Thus a reader with an interest in Cornwall can see at a 
glance that there are 77 cited references, and where these occur in the text. 

The major frustration in reading through this book was a lack of 
information about the content of each item — did it include micros? was it 
butterflies only? were questions the reviewer often asked, and many 
(pleasant!) hours were spent delving into the library shelves to chase up 
interesting items. This criticism is, in many ways, unfair as this level of 
detail would be immensly time-consuming to research and would have 
increased the volume (and price) of this work many fold. 

A more practical criticism reflects a more general problem in recording 
— what geographical unit should be used? The author has chosen a middle 
course of approximately Watsonian counties. This may be sensible in terms 
of continuity of recording units, but without explanation, risks confusing 
the younger and future reader who may never have come across the 
counties of Westmorland or Merioneth. 

Despite these comments, this book is an invaluable resource for 
lepidopterists, and a tribute to the author, himself a grand-master in the art 
of compiling local hsts. The book is published by E.W. Classey under the 
imprint "Hedera Press" in tribute to the late Ivy Classey. 

Paul Sokoloff. 



236 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. ix. 1989 

OBITUARY 

Alexander Barrett Klots 

It is with regret that we record the death of Alexander Klots on 18th April 
1989, at the age of 85. Born in Manhattan, he was a graduate of the Trinity 
School, Blair Academy and Cornell University from whence he received 
Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral degrees. 

From 1934 to 1965 he was professor of biology at City College, and later 
a research associate of the American Museum of Natural History. He was 
past president of the New York Entomological Society and of the 
International Lepidopterists Society as well as being a Fellow of the Royal 
Entomological Society and the Linnean Society. 

Klots was a leading authority on Lepidoptera, and a prolific writer. 
Apart from many papers, he was author of two books, The world of 
butterflies and moths, and the best-selling A field guide to the butterflies, 
which he published in 1951. he was co-author, with his wife Dr Elsie Klots, 
of a further four books on entomology. Paul Sokoloff . 

Stanley Jacobs writes . . . "my friendship with Alexander Klots began in 
the early 1930s when Dr E.A. Cockayne asked if anyone would care to 
open a correspondence with an A.B. Klots, a promising young American 
Lepidopterist. We met at the British Museum (Natural History) on the 
occasion of his visits to check on type material, and arranged to exchange 
periodical subscriptions and specimens, an arrangement which lasted until 
his death. On several of his visits he was accompanied by his wife, Dr Elsie 
Klots, and we managed to squeeze in occasional collecting trips in the 
southern counties. 

During the Second World War he served with the United States Air 
Force and one of his tasks was to ensure that transport aircraft were free of 
Anopheles mosquitoes. During these war years we received from him and 
Elsie many most acceptable food parcels, a kindness which, unfortunately, 
we were unable to return adequately. During 1977 and 1981 I was able to 
spend some time at his delightful home in Putnam, Connecticut which, as 
might be expected, was ideally fitted for collecting. 

For many years before his retirement he was a leading lepidopterist at the 
New York Natural History Museum, where his last magnum opus was to 
have been a work on the Crambinae. This collided with a similar project 
started by E. Bleszynski, but they agreed to share the work with Klots 
dealing with western material and Bleszynski the eastern. Unfortunately, 
Bleszynski died in a motor accident and Klots, having almost completed his 
part of the work fell victim to emphysema and was unable to finish the 
task. His uncompleted manuscript will, I am sure, have found its way to the 
museum to await completion by another lepidopterist. 

Personally, I will never forget such a good friend and pass on my 
sympathy to Dr Elsie Klots, their daughter Louise and son Cornelius." 



L CHRISTIE 

129 Franciscan Road, Tooting, 
London SW17 8DZ. 

Telephone: 01-672 4024 

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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller, 1850) (Lep.: Gracillariidae) in Essex: a 

species new to Britain y4.M. £'mwe^ 189 

Cynthia cardui L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in the Iberian Peninsula — spring 1988. 

T.W.C.Tolman 195 

An apparently new species of Homoneura (Dipt.: Lauxaniidae) from north-west 

Kent. A.A.Allen 199 

"No-son" Pieris females (Lep.: Pieridae) S.R. Bowden 203 

The unusual circumstances of the occurrence of a most peculiar form of 

Chrysodeixis chalcites Esper (Lep.: Noctuidae) G.M. Haggett 207 

TheColeopteraof shingle banks on the river Ystwyth, Dyfedv4. P. Fow/e^. . . . 209 
The immigration of Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1988, part 2. R.F. Bretherton 

& J.M. Chalmers-Hunt 225 

Notes and observations 

Late specimens of Euchoeca nebulata Scop. (Lep.: Geometridae) and Cynaeda 

dentalisL>.&.S.{Lep.:Pyra\\dae) D.Young 197 

/ljcy//a/7wrmL. (Lep.: Noctuidae) amelanic form in N.W. Kent. 5.A'. PTes/ . . . 198 

Spring specimens of Eudonia angustea Curtis (Lep.: Pyralidae) R. Darlow. . . . 198 

Endotricha consobrinalis Zell. in Britain — a possible migrant? R.F. Bretherton . . 198 
Glyphipteryx linneella Clerck (Lep.: Cosmopterigidae) in Nottinghamshire 

A. S. Boot 202 

Old records of two tineids (Lepidoptera) from Perthshire, Scotland. K.P. Bland . . 202 

Some unseasonal larval dates /?.y. //ecA:/ord/ 202 

A diagnostic note on two species of Cassida L. (Col.: Chrysomelidae) y4.y4. Allen . 205 

Acleris abietana (Hubn.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) in Aberdeenshire M.C. Townsend . . 208 

Immigrant lepidoptera at Dungeness in October 1988 5. C/a«cy 221 

Xylena exoleta L. The Sword-grass (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Oxfordshire. S. Nash . . 222 
A note on the occurrence on Xylena exoleta L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in southern 

England B. Skinner 222 

Mythimna vitellina Hubn. and Heliothis peltigera D. & S. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 

Lancashire — a correction. R.F. Bretherton 224 

5/Z7/0/70A-W5 /77//7W/W5 Raf fay (Col.: Pselaphidae) in Surrey Z).y4. Prance 230 

Hazards of butterfly collecting — Lebanon 1913. T.B. Larsen 232 

Uncommon Heteromera (Col.) from a S.E. London wood. y4.y4. y4//e/7 233 

Press Release: Rescue bid to save the British race of the Essex Emerald moth from 

extinction. P. Waring 231 

Current literature 206, 234 

SPECIAL NOTICE. The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited 
number of back issues. 

Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. Tel: 0277-224610. 



B 



Vol. 101 Nos. 11-12 



November/December 1989 ISSN 0013-3916 



RV.^^L'^A lA cSl'^a'^A iA^tjb> «JS. *Mi t~OL coL tMi kJIlXoL cia. tMitML tJB, tJO.'KllB^jcni^^^'La.^dL (A y^ 






LI SHAH 



DEC 2 7 1989 



,RD 
,it^*iTY 



THE 
ENTOMOLOGKi 
RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 



Edited by 
P. A. SOKOLOFF, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.I. Biol. F.R.E.S. 



with the assistance of 
A. A. Allen, b.sc, a.r.c.s. P.J. Chandler, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 

Neville BiRKETT, m.a., m.b. C.A. Collingwood, b.sc, f.r.e.s. 

Bernard Skinner J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley, ph.d., f.r.e.s. E.S. Bradford 

Lieut. Col. A.M. Emmet, m.b.e.,t.d., f.r.e.s. 

C.J. LUCKENS, M.B., CH.B., D.R.C.O.G. 



Registrar: 

C.C. PENNEY, F.R.E.S., 109 Waveney Drive, Springfield, 

Chelmsford, Essex CMl 5QA. 

Hon. Treasurer: 

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EDITORIAL 237 



EDITORIAL 

AS WE approach our centenary year, it is worth recalling the words of the 
Record's founder, J.W. Tutt, in his preface to volume 1: "It has been our 
aim to make the Magazine as popular as possible, consistently with no 
decrease in its scientific value". That philosophy is still as important today 
as it was 100 years ago. To achieve that aim there are two simple 
requirements: a steady flow of contributions, be they notes or papers, 
formal or informal; and a sufficient number of subscribers to make the 
enterprise financially viable. 

We have had a reasonable number of contributions in recent months 
and, provided this continues, we should be able to present a varied and 
interesting selection of material in 1990. 

Thanks to efficient management by our Treasurer, and the fact that all 
those who help the Record give their time voluntarily, we have been able to 
hold the subscription at the same rate for another year. The subscription 
100 years ago was six shillings, with an additional one shilling for those who 
wished to have the index as well. How this compares with today, given 
inflation and the rise in incomes, is beyond the Editor's ability to calculate, 
but must surely still be good value. 

Help wanted 

In order to survive for another hundred years, we need to attract more 
subscribers. We hope that any reader who finds the Record of interest, will 
recommend a subscription to a friend. We would also like to consider new 
ways of widening the readership, perhaps by selective mail shots or more 
effective advertising, and to that end the Record would welcome the help of 
someone skilled in marketing or publicity to advise us on the way forward, 
and perhaps run a short campaign next year. If you feel you have the right 
skills and would be prepared to help, please contact the Editor. 



S.N.A. JACOBS 

1896 - 1989 
It is with great sadness that we report the death of Stanley Jacobs on 
14th September 1989, at the age of 92. A well known entomologist 
and entomological illustrator, he edited the Record for 17 years 
between 1955 and 1972. A full obituary wiU be published in the next 
issue. 



238 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

Has Abraxas grossulariata L. (Lep.: Geometridae) been shifting its 
seasonal cycle? 

I have in the past always regarded the Magpie moth as a July and August 
insect; in my early memories it is indelibly associated with summer 
holidays, and that means August. In this impression I find I am supported 
by the several authorities at my disposal, all of whom give the above two 
months for the appearance of the species in the perfect state — only Barrett 
(1901) adding "end of June". That being so, odd June examples now and 
then should occasion little surprise; but my experience such as it is seems to 
point to some more substantial and (now, at least in my district) habitual 
deviation from the accepted norm. 

In fact I can positively assert that here, since my move from Blackheath 
to Charlton late in 1973, grossulariata has become a June insect. It is, I 
think, much less of a garden pest nowadays than formerly, and up to the 
later 1970s I had for many years met with only singletons from time to time, 
either at light or in nocturnal flight — almost always in July. Around that 
period, however, and at intervals up to six or seven years ago, it occurred 
very freely indeed in certain seasons on and about hedges of Euonymus 
japonicus in this neighbourhood (a well-known foodplant, of course) — 
but from early in June, after which month hardly a specimen would be 
seen. And (as if to continue this marked shift from the second to the first 
half of summer) all records were broken, as far as I was concerned, when a 
Magpie moth this year presented itself at my m.v. lamp on the night of the 
24th May! It might be suggested that the high day temperatures prevaihng 
during that month had forced an early emergence, but, as against that, no 
such advance on usual dates was noted among its fellow moths at the lamp; 
indeed, these actually included two March and April species {Orthosia 
gothica L. and Xylocampa areola Esp.). So I am left wondering! 

If a marked trend over the years to an earlier period of adult activity is as 
genuine as it appears, and not just a temporary or local phenomenon, it 
certainly is surprising that, in the case of such a common and familiar 
moth, it does not seem well known. At all events, I have seen no reference 
to it. Assuming it is a fact, one would expect parallel instances among our 
moths, to say nothing of other insects; for a gradual climatic change (if that 
is its cause) must affect all and sundry. Has any reader noticed this 
tendency, in either grossulariata or any other species — or, for that matter, 
the opposite one of a move from an earlier to a later imaginal period? 
— A. A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charkon, London SE7 8QG. 

Clouded Yellow butterfly in Warwickshire 

In view of its apparent scarcity so far this year, it is worthwhile reporting a 
sighting of Colius croceus Geoff, at Alvecote Pools, North Warwickshire 
on 1st August 1989. — B.R. Mitchell, 127 Watling Street, Grendon, 
Atherstone, Warwickshire. 



MOTHMANSHIP: PART II 239 

MOTHMANSHIP 

(HOW TO BE ONE-UP AMONGST LEPIDOPTERISTS) 

PART II: PLOYS WITH LIGHT 

E. H. Wild 

7 Abbots Close, Highcliffe,Christchurch, Dorset BH23 5BH 

IN this section I give two examples of Master Ploys which I was fortunate 
enough to witness, each dealing with special problems that may be 
encountered while collecting. 

When on field meetings, it can happen that we may be plagued by the 
unscrupulous collector, the type who turns up armed with a bicycle lamp 
and a very large killing bottle, and armoured with the hide of an elephant, 
visits each member's sheet in turn, to plunder and parasitise to the dismay 
of all. Fortunately they are a rare species, but when one appears he causes 
considerable ill feeling. 

The Leader, who was warden of a small wetland reserve, displayed his 
talents as a Lifesman in a ploy which has since become known as H's 
Helping Hand. He placed his sheet and generator at the disposal of the 
unwelcome guest, settled him on a small island in the middle of a dense reed 
bed, which required specialist knowledge of access to avoid submergence, 
and ran a long black cable back to the generator on the path. The rest of us 
set up our lights well away from the spot, hopeful of a pleasant evening . . . 
Soon after dark, how or why, "Whisper it not in Oath", the Leader's 
genny stopped. 

It was a cool night with little flying, so the rest of us had gathered round 
one lamp to socialise. We became aware of strange sounds among the 
reeds. One hopeful young member thought it might just be a bittern visiting 
Kent. This was doubted though we did agree the "Island was full of strange 
noises." Interested speculation whiled away the long hours between moths 
while "On the mere the wailing did not die away." Eventually a fine rescue 
was effected in the small hours. So great was the general sympathy that the 
victim was stunned by the unaccustomed popularity. 

The second case was a very different affair and is now known as "The 
Blessed Bernard's Benediction." I was visiting that well-known spot "The 
Triangle" with this paragon of Lepidopterists and we had set up lights 
outside the bounds of the Reserve. I had a light on the "Triangle" and we 
sat there in pious meditation. Suddenly, along the track came a young lady 
on a moped, helmed like a Valkyrie, who pulled up and in no uncertain 
terms told us that we had no right to be there. She was herself on the staff 
of the reserve and had authority to move us on. I would have pointed out 
that we were doing nothing illegal, but that was not the Blessed Bernard's 
way. He sat down cross-legged at her feet and gazed up at her in awe and 
wonder, as one in the presence of Gamaliel. The more she ranted and 
raved, the more benevolent and interested he became, and the deeper his 



240 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.xi.l989 

silence. Only when she had talked herself to a hoarse whisper did she 
remount and, uttering strangled threats, drive off in the direction of the 
reserve. It was only as her rear light vanished into the night that the Blessed 
Sage uttered his first words in a quiet sad voice. They were short and pithy 
and far too esoteric to be printed in such a secular Journal as this. Little did 
the young lady realise she was entertaining a Saint unawares. 

In the matter of lights themselves there is, or has developed, a scope for 
one-up-manship. Starting with a humble torch searching flower heads, or 
chmbing the old square-framed gas lamps, collecting was a slow and 
laborious game. Graduating to a Tilley could give better things at a place 
like Wicken or Tilgate. Then the Robinson Revolution burst upon us and 
things were never the same. The wealthy among us Hke Demuth or 
Richardson turned up towing massive generators and we were humbled. 

Then, working as a team, the late John Newton picked up an old Jap 
engine mounted on a carrying frame. I collected a huge metal cased marine 
rotary converter and Dr Ellis built another case with choke and electricals. 
Mounted in series with a perforated oil drum as a baffle over the exhaust 
the set-up was most impressive and it worked most of the time. 

Today the top lights-men must have two or three Hondas and run at least 
six lights. Or they may go in for quality like Mr Dewick with his gigantic 
trap — surely he must qualify as Top Lights-man. 

And yet — I remember visiting that charming man Dr Blair in his study 
with the two carefully constructed towers of struck matches on the leather- 
topped table and the window overlooking Freshwater Marsh. Surely he is 
the only man to have put three species new to the U.K. on the map in so 
short a time. Of course, if you do your collecting in hothouse fisheries, you 
takes your choice. 

Reference 

Wild, E.H. 1989. Mothmanship. Part I: Namesmanship. Entomologist's Rec. J. 
Var. 101: 175-176. 



Pieris rapae (L.) ab. minor (Lep.: Pieridae) in Wiltshire. 

A male of the dwarf form (ab. minor) of Pieris rapae (L.) was taken on 
Cherhill Downs, Wiltshire (SU 05 70) 7th August 1975. 

The specimen has a wing span of only 33mm. These dwarfs appear to be 
very scarce as there are only eight specimens in the Rothschild-Cockayne- 
Kettlewell Collection in the British Museum (Natural History), London, 
mostly from southern England with dates ranging from May -August, 
1901-1935. The form is not mentioned by de Worms in The 
Macrolepidoptera of Wiltshire (1962). — Kenneth G.V. Smith, 70 
Hollickwood Avenue, London Nl 2 OLT. 



RHAGIUM AND STENOCORUS 241 

THE GENERA RHAGIUM Y. AND STENOCORUS MULL. 
(COL.: CERAMBYCIDAE) IN THE BRITISH ISLES 

By Raymond R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann 

13 Old Road, Old Harlow, Essex CM 17 OHB. 

Introduction 

OF THE three species of Rhagium found in our islands, two, Rhagium 
bifasciatum F. and R. mordax Degeer, are widespread; the third, R. 
inquisitor L., is basically a Scottish species, imported specimens of which 
turn up in a variety of localities where softwoods are in demand. 
Stenocorus, on the other hand, has not been recorded with any certainty 
north of Cumberland and Durham. 

The adults of Rhagium all eclode during the late summer and autumn; 
however, they remain passive just under the bark of their host trees, 
emerging in the following spring. 

Balfour-Browne (1931) symbols are used for county and vice-county 
names: italicised letters signify a commonly recorded beetle; those that are 
bracketed represent doubtful entries needing confirmation. (See also 
Kaufmann, 1989.) 

Rhagium bifasciatum F. 

The distributional data below complements the account of this species 

(Kaufmann, 1988). 

ENGLAND: BD BK BX CB CH CU DM DT DY EC EK EN ES EX EY 

GE 

GW HF HT IW L LN LR MM MY ND NE NH A^MNN NO NS NW 

NYOX5D5£'5//SLSNSP5i?SS5rSWSY WC WK'^l.'^O WW 
WALES: BR CD CM CR DB FT GM MN PB RA 
SCOTLAND: AM AS AY B BW DF ED EI EL FF HD KB KF LA LL PB 

PC PM PN RE RF RW S SG SK SS WI WT 
IRELAND: AN AR (CL) CV (CW) DO DU ED FE KC LD LE (LH) LK 

NG NK NT QC SG SK SL ST TY WA WC WG WH WI WM WX 

R. bifasciatum F. varieties 



V. 


infasciatum Pic 


SCOTLAND: EI 


V. 


blairi Kaufm. 


ENGLAND: CH 


V. 


bistrinotatum Pic 


ENGLAND: CH ML 


V. 


unifasciatum Muls. 


WALES: CD 


V. 


deyrollei Pic 


ENGLAND: No other data; in coll. Manchester 
Museum 


V. 


latefasciatum Pic 


ENGLAND: CH SH SR WY 
SCOTLAND: PM 


V. 


den tatofasciatum 






Kaufm. 


ENGLAND: BK CH SR 



242 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.xi.l989 



V. lit u rat urn Fiign. 
V. mediofasciatum Pic 
V. gravei Hubenth. 
V. connexum Everts 
V. nigrolineatum 

Donovan 
V. ornatum F. 
V. quentini Kaufm. 
V. bimaculatum Marsh. 
V, simoni Pic 
V. virgatum Kaufm. 
V. ictericum Schleicher 



ENGLAND: CH SR 
ENGLAND: ML ND WL 
ENGLAND: ML SH SR ST 
ENGLAND: BK SH SR ST WO 

ENGLAND: CH HT IW SH SL SR ST WY 
ENGLAND: CH EK EY SH SL SR ST 
ENGLAND: SR 

ENGLAND: J.F. Stephens' colln. BM(NH) 
ENGLAND: CH MY SD SH SR WO WW 
ENGLAND: CH SH 
ENGLAND: ML SH SR WY 
SCOTLAND: EI PM 




100 Km. 



Fig. 1 . The Irish distribution of Rhagium bifasciatum F. 

(Shaded areas = unspecified iocahties). For Distribution Map of Mainland Britain 

see Kaufmann (1988). Ent. Rec. 100: 217-225. 



R. mordax Degeer 

A well-distributed species throughout the British Isles whose imagines are 
found mainly in wooded regions, particularly where there are plenty of 
dead oaks, a favoured growth, but by no means restricted to broad-leaved 
trees, occurring as well with conifers. 

ENGLAND: BD BK BX CB CH CU DM DT DY EC EK EN ES EX EY 
GE GW HF HTHX] IW L LN LR MM MX MY ND NE NH NM NO 



RHAGIUM AND STENOCORUS 243 

NS NW NY OX SD SE SL SN SP SR SS ST SW WC WK WL WO 
WW WX WY 

WALES: BR CD CR DB FT GM MG MN PB RA 

SCOTLAND: AM AS AY B BW CA CT DF EI EL HD KB LA M PE PM 
PN RE RW SG WI 

IRELAND: AN CV DO ED FE KC LD NG NK NT QC RO SG SK (SL) 
(TY) WC WH WL WM 

The amphixylophagous larval life is normally of two years' duration but 
may extend to a third year in the more mountainous parts of the country. It 
prefers decaying, soggy felled timber whose bark is still intact; it also feeds 
in, helping to break down, the rotting boles, branches and roots of alder, 
ash, beech, birch, buckthorn, common silver fir, crabapple, elm, 
hawthorn, holly, hornbeam, horsechestnut, larch, lime, maple, oak, Pyrus 
acuparia, P. malus, rowan, Scots pine, service tree, spruce, sweet chestnut, 
sycamore, walnut and willow, in which respect, as is the larva of R. bi- 
fasciatum F., it is beneficial to forestry, although it is sometimes found in 
still sound trees. 

The following Hymenopterous Ichneumonids and Braconids parasitise 
the very active larvae: — Coelobracon denigrator L., Ephialtes tuberculatus 
Fourcr., Ischnocerus caligatus Grav., /. rusticus Fourcr. and Xorides 
filiformis Grav. 

Pupation occurs from July onwards and the beetle emerges about a 
month later, but, as has been remarked, it does not bore through the bark 
until at the earliest March of the next year; thereafter the imagines are 
found throughout the warm months when they may be beaten off or swept 
from blackthorn, brambles, elder, guelder rose, hawthorn. Spiraea, 
Umbelliferae and wild rose. Where oak felling particularly is in progress, it 
is also found hiding under the pieces of discarded bark and among the 
chippings. The quiescent perfect insect may, of course, be found during the 
autumn and winter months simply by removing the loose bark from 
decaying tree stumps. 

The elytral pubescence is subject to variation; some eight different forms 
are described from abroad; only one, the v. morvandicum Pic, in which the 
yellow pubescent bands do not meet at the suture, is likely to be found with 
us. 

R. inquisitor L. 

One of a very short list of exclusively Scottish Cerambycids which has been 
exported in pit props, telegraph poles, logs and cut timber from Scotland, 
and also present in softwoods imported from Canada, the United States 
and elsewhere. English, Welsh and Irish records are of fortuitous examples. 



244 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

It has been reported as occurring en nature in the New Forest area: 

evidence that it is established there is unconvincing. 

SCOTLAND: AM AS BF BW CT DF EI Eh KF KI A A M NS PMRE RW 

SG 

SK SS WI 
Adventive records, mainly from sawmills, timber yards, mines and 
builders' stockpiles are: — 

ENGLAND: (DT) DY EK (EN) EY (SE) SH (SP) ST SW WY 
WALES: GM 
IRELAND: ME NGWI 

The duration of the instar stages is variable; in suitable conditions it can be 
as short as one year; in less favourable circumstances the larva may take 
three years to mature. It is found principally in moist rotten trees and 
stumps which have retained their bark. With a predilection for coniferous 
growths, it does attack standing trees which are less impaired than those 
preferred by our other two species of Rhagium; this accounts for those 
imagines which turn up by accident on industrial sites where apparently 
outwardly good timber is stacked. The larval pabulum includes Algerian 
fir. Atlas cedar, birch (only occasionally as the paper thin bark does not 
provide much protection during the winter months after eclosion), fir, 
larch, oak, Scots pine especially and spruce. 

The larva is parasitised by a long list of Hymenopterous Ichneumonidae 
and Braconidae; these are: — Bracon simplex Creeson, Coelobracon deni- 
grator L. , C. initiator N. , Coeloides initiator F. , Deutoxorides collar is Gr. , 
Dorytes leucogaster Nees, Echthrus reluctator L., Ephialtes abbreviatus 
Thoms., E. dux Tschek, E. terebrans Ratz., E. tuberculatus Fourc, 
Ipobracon nigrator Zett., Ischnocerus seticornis Kr., Sichelia filiformis 
Grav. , Xorides irrigator F, and Xylonomus rufipes Grav. 

The Coleopterous larva of the Staphylinid Nudobius lentus Er. is a 
predator of the immature stages of R. inquisitor, other natural enemies 
include woodpeckers and ants, the latter foraging for both eggs and young 
larvae. 

Pupation takes place during the summer and autumn; occasionally, late 
pupae will overwinter. The adult insect emerges after a month or so but it 
remains inactive just under the bark, appearing in the open during April. 
All three stages, larva, pupa and imago, are often present in the same tree. 

R. inquisitor is a localised beetle which is becoming scarcer. It may be 
taken from rotted timber or captured until August by beating the dead 
branches of conifers. It is also attracted to umbels growing in the vicinity of 
forest lands. There is a Scottish record from jessamine. 

Stenocorus meridianus L. 

One of our large more handsome Cerambycids, prone to considerable 
variation; the sexes are dimorphous, ranging from silky black through 



RHAGIUM AND STENOCORUS 245 

testaceous to rufous coloration. It is generally distributed south of the 
Border, albeit local and no longer common. Welsh records are sparse; there 
is none from Ireland. It is unknown in Scotland, where it might be expected 
to occur, since it is found in Norway and Sweden. Largely captured in 
deciduous forest areas and along the flowering edges of woodlands. 

ENGLAND: BD BK BX CB CH CU DM DT DY (EC) EK EN ES EX EY 
GE GW HF HTHUIWL LN LR LS MM MX MY ND NE NH NM 
NO NS NW NY OX SD SE SH SL (SN) (SP) SR SS STSW (WC) WK 
WL WO WS WW WX WY 

WALES: BR DBGM 

Rather surprisingly for so conspicuous a beetle, accounts of the 
metamorphosis of 5. meridianus in this country remained equivocal until 
the early 1950s; Stephens (1831, 1839) and others stated that the beetle was 
particularly associated with ash trees, and Fowler (1890) recorded it from 
deciduous stumps; Kaufmann (1947) published a correspondent's note that 
it had been captured emerging from its bolt holes in pine posts; in general, 
however, there is little else to be gleaned from our literature beyond its 
floricolous associations. 

In 1953 Duffy gave a first-hand account of the ecology of this beetle, 
including a most interesting controlled experiment which he had conducted 
with some gravid females. In an enclosed cage he placed stumps of alder, 
beech, birch, black poplar, crabapple, oak and pine. In due course eggs 
were laid in all these samples, the poplar stump being particularly well- 
received. Some of these eggs hatched after a fortnight and a number were 
successfully reared to adulthood, the life cycle taking two years to 
complete. 

In the wild the larva is found in the brittle or rotting trunks, stumps, 
branches and thinner roots of the following: — alder, ash, elder, beech, 
birch, crabapple, hazel, hornbeam, oak, pine, poplar, sour cherry (and 
other wild fruit trees), whitebeam and willow. When fully grown the larva 
leaves its host tree and excavates a pupal cell some 10 cm deep below in the 
soil. Eclosion follows from April until June. 

The beetle is found until August — there is exceptionally one November 
record — notably in hot weather, by beating or sweeping alder, apple 
blossom, ash, aspen, blackthorn, brambles, buckthorn, cow parsley, 
dogwood, elder, elm, hawthorn, hazel, hogweed (to which it has been 
observed approaching by Dr Hickin, its long legs trailing, circling and 
hovering before settling, somewhat reminiscent of a helicopter's descent on 
to a landing pad), oak, pine, poplar. Spiraea, Viburnum, wild rose, withies 
and yarrow. 

In flight S. meridianus produces quite a noisy whirring sound. The 
females are larger and bulkier and thus identifiable from the slimmer males 
with their longer antennae. 



246 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

S. meridianus has eight varietal forms, six of which occur with us: two 
varieties, v. rufiventris Marsh, and v. chrysogaster Schrank, are named in 
our earlier catalogues (Stephens, 1829; Curtis, 1837; Waterhouse, 1858); 
others are illustrated by Martyn (1792), Fowler (1890) and Linssen (1959). 

V. chrysogaster Schrank ENGLAND: BK CB DT HT HU IW LN NS 

OX SD SE SH SR WK WO WW 

WALES: CR FT GM 

V. bilineatus Pic ENGLAND: LN LR NH WK 

V. laevis Oliv. ENGLAND: LR WO 

V. cantharinus Herbst ENGLAND: BK GE IW LN LR MX NO NS 

SR WO WW 
V. rufiventris Marsh. ENGLAND: ES LN MY NS SD WK 

WALES: CR 
V. ruficrus Scop. ENGLAND: NS 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks for their information and assistance are extended to A. A. Allen, 
Esq, Dr R. Anderson, D.B. Atty, Esq, M. Collier, Esq, J. Cooter, Esq, Dr 
P. Hyman, Mrs B. Leonard, Librarian, Royal Entomological Society, C. 
MacKechnie Jarvis, Esq, D.R. Nash, Esq, R. Nash, Esq, Ulster Museum, 
Belfast, Professor J. A. Owen, Dr M.R. Shaw, Dept. of Natural History, 
Royal Museum of Scotland. 

References 

Aurivillius,C., 1912. Cerambycidae in Junk, W. & Schenkling, S., Coleopterorum 

Catalogus, 39: 179-180. 
Browne, F. Balfour-, 1931. A plea for uniformity in the method of recording insect 

captures. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 67: 183-193. 
Chinery, M., 1986. Insects of Britain and Western Europe. London 
Curtis, J., 1937. A guide to the arrangement of British Insects, 2nd ed. London. 

— , 1839. British Entomology, 16: pi. 750. London. 

Demelt, C. von, 1966. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 52: 2, Bockkafer oder Ceram- 
bycidae, 1. Jena. 

Donisthorpe, H. StJ. K., 1898. Notes on the British Longicornes, Entomologist's 
Rec. J. Var., 10: 247. 

Donovan, E., 1808. The natural history of British insects, 13: pi. 435, fig. 2. London. 

Duffy, E.A.J. , 1953. A monograph of the immature stages of British and imported 
Timber Beetles (Cerambycidae). London. 

Fairmaire, L. & Planet, L-M., 1924. Histoire naturelle de France, Coleopteres. 
Paris. 

Fowler, W.W., 1890. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, 4. London. 

— & Donisthorpe, H. StJ. K., 1913. Ibid., 6 (Supplement). London. 

Freude, H., Harde, K.W. & Lohse, G.A., 1966. Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas, 9.Krefeld. 
Gemminger, Dr & Harold, B. de, 1872. Catalogus Coleopterorum, 9: 2854-2858. 
Monachii. 



RHAGIUM AND STENOCORUS 247 

Hansen, V. et al., 1960. Catalogus Coleopterorum Fennoscandiae et Daniae (ed. 

Lindroth, C.H.): 358-359. Lund. 
Harde, K.W., 1984. A field guide in colour to Beetles, English edition, Hammond, 

P.M. London. 
Hess, W.N., 1920. Mem. Cornell, agric. Exp. Sta., 33: 367-381. 
Heyden, L. von, Reitter, E. & Weise, J., 1883. Catalogus Coleopterorum Europae 

et Caucasi: 183. 3rd ed. Berlin. 

— , 1906. Catalogus Coleopterorum Europae, Caucasi et Armeniae Rossicae: 502. 
2nd ed. Paskau. 

Heyrovsky, L., 1955. Fauna CSR, 5, Cerambycidae. Prague. (Text in Czech). 
Hickin,N., \9S7.Longhorn Beetles of the British Isles. Princes Risborough. 
Janson, E.W., 1863. British Beetles. London. 
Johnson, W.F. & Halbert, J.N., 1902. A Hst of the Beetles of Ireland, Proc. R. 

Irish Acad., 3: 537-821. 
Joy, N.H., 1976. A practical handbook of British Beetles, 2 vols. 2nd ed.Faringdon. 
Kaufmann, R.R. Uhthoff-, 1947. The British distribution of Stenocorus meridi- 

anus, L. (Col.: Cerambycidae) and its aberrations. Entomologist's mon. Mag., 

83: 191-194, 5 figs., 1 map. 

— , 1948. Notes on the distribution of the British Longicorn Coleoptera, Ibid., 
84:66-85. 

— , 1988. A revised key to the varieties of Rhagium bifasciatum ¥., (Col.: Ceramby- 
cidae), Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 100: 217-225. 1 map. 

— , 1989. Browne versus Watson: Round 2. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 101: 61-63. 
Kloet, G.S. «fe Hincks, W.D., 1977. A check list of British Insects, 11 (3), Coleoptera 

and Strepsiptera: 70. 2nd ed. London. 

Kiihnt, P., 1913. Illustrierte Bestimmungs-Tabellen der Kafer Deutschlands. 
Stuttgart. 

Linssen, E.F., 1959. Beetles of the British Isles, 2. London. 

Lyneborg, L., 1977. Beetles in colour, English ed. Vevers, G. Poole. 

Marsham, T., 1802. Entomologia Britannica, 1, Coleoptera. London. 

Martyn, T., 1792. 77?^ English Entomologist, tab. 25, pi. 2, figs. 11-12; 17; 19. 
London. 

Mjoberg, E., 1906. Nagra svenska insekters biologi och utveckHng, Ark. ZooL, 
3(6): 17. 

Mulsant, E., 1839. Histoire naturelle des Coleopteres de France, 1. 1st ed. Paris. 

Palm, T., 1960. Biologiska studier over Stenocorus meridianus L. (Col.: Ceramby- 
cidae), Opus. ent. Lund, 25(1-2): 136-145. 4 figs. 

Pic, M., 1891. Materiaux pour servir a I'etude des Longicornes, 1: 2-4. Lyons. 

— , 1891. Ibid., Catalogue des Coleopteres-Longicornes de France, Corse et Algerie, 
1: 52. Lyons. 

— , 1900. Catalogue bibliographique et synonymique des Longicornes d 'Europe 
et des regions avoisinantes: 12-15. Lyons . 

— , 1913. Materiauxpour servir a I'etude des Longicornes, 7(1): 2. St Amand. 
Picard, F., 1929. Faune de France, 20, Coleopteres: Cerambycidae. Paris. 
Planet, L-M., 1924. Les Longicornes de France, Encycl. Ent., 2. Paris. 
Plavilstshikov, N.N., 1936. Fauna URSS. . . . Cerambycidae, 1, Moscow Inst. zool. 

Acad. Sci. URSS, 21. Moscow & Leningrad. (Text in Russian.) 
Podany, C, 1954. Cerambycidae, Prionini et Cerambycini. Principales especes de 
Cerambycides et leurs aberrations. Bull. Soc. ent. Mulhouse, 3-7 (Supplement). 

— , \96\. Ibid., op. cit., 126-127. 



248 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.xi.l989 



— , 1964. Monographic des genus Rhagium Fabricius (Col. Cerambycidae, Steno- 
corini), Acta Zool. Mex., 7(1): pi. 2. figs. 1-6. 

Reitter, E., 1912 (1913). Fauna Germanica, die Kdfer des Deutschen Reiches, 

4. Stuttgart. 
Rye, E.C. & Fowler, W.W., 1890. British Beetles. London. 
Samouelle,G., 1819. The Entomologist's useful compendium. London. 
Scherer, G., 1986. Beetles of Britain and Europe, pi. 50. English ed. Longman 

Group. Harlow. 
Scopoli, J. A., 1763. Entomologia Carniolica, 48. Vindobonae. 
Speight, M.C.D., 1988. The Irish Cerambycid fauna (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), 

Bull. Ir. biogeog.Soc, 41-76. 
Spry, W. & Shuckard, W.E., 1861. The British Coleoptera delineated, pi. 78, f. 4. 

London. 
Stephens, J.F., 1829. A systematic catalogue of British Insects: 202-203. London. 

— , 1831. Illustrations of British Entomology, Mandibulata, 4. London. 

— , 1839. A manual of British Coleoptera. London. 

Turton, W., 1806. A general system of Entomology, 2. London. 
Villiers, A., 1978. Faune des Coleopteres de France, 1, Cerambycidae. Paris. 
Waterhouse, G.R., 1858. Catalogue of British Coleoptera. 1st ed. London. 
Winkler, A., 1929. Catalogus Coleopterorum regionis palaearcticae, 10: 1146-1149. 
Vienna. 



Callophrys rubi L., the Green Hairstreak (Lep.: Lycaenidae) — an 
additional foodplant. 

A wide acceptance of foodplants, from several botanically distinct families, 
is recorded for this species. I believe I can add another to its English diet. 

On 11th June 1989 I observed several individuals of this species in two 
separate localities in Sutton Park, West Midlands, laying on cranberry 
(Vaccinium oxycoccus L.), a foodplant not cited in Emmet (1989, The 
moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 7: 121). The usual 
foodplant in this type of locality is probably bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus) 
and this species, together with cowberry (K. vitis-idaea) was present in 
much greater quantity, but the insects ignored them, clearly preferring their 
near relative. — J.R. Roberts, 17 Woodcote Road, Leamington Spa, 
Warwickshire CV32 6PZ. 

Dendrolimus pint L., the Pine-tree Lappet (Lep.: Lasiocampidae) in 
Guernsey. 

On the night of 9/10 July 1989, in still and overcast weather, I was 
surprised and delighted to find a specimen of Dendrolimus pini L. attracted 
to m.v. No other migrant species were seen that night. 

The species was added to the British list on the basis of a specimen taken 
in Norwich in 1809 (Barrett, C.G., 1896. The Lepidoptera of the British 
Isles, 3), but as far as I am aware there have been no further confirmed 
records. The species is widespread in Europe and the larva can be a pest of 
pine and spruce. — T.D.N. Feet, Le Chene, Forest, Guernsey, C.L 



LAMPRONIA FUSCATELLA 



249 



NOTES OF LAMPRONIA FUSCATELLA (TENG.) (LEP.: 
INCURVARIIDAE) 

K.P. Bland 

35 Charterhall Road, Edinburgh EH9 3HS 

THE status of Lampronia fuscatella (Tengstrom, 1848) in Britain was 
previously summarised by Heath & Pelham-Clinton (1978) and Bland 
(1986). Since then the species has been hounded from the obscurity of 
rarity to become widespread but local for it seems to occur in most, if not 
all, habitats with an unbroken history of birch woodland. As the larval gall 
is quite difficult to find and the imagines have a retiring lifestyle it is a 
difficult species to record. In spite of this the species has now been recorded 
from 36 vice-counties (Figure 1) and extends from West Sutherland in 




Lairpronla 

fuscatella 

(Tengstrori,1848) 



Fig. 1 . Current vice-county distribution of Lampronia fuscatella. All records. 



250 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.xi.l989 

Scotland to the South coast of England. Surprisingly there are still no 
records from Ireland. The present distribution of records by vice-county 
number is: — 

V.C.9 (MBGBI Vol. 1); 11 Denny Bog, New Forest (Anon.); 12 
Newtown Common (DHS, PHS, ECPC, JRL); 13 & 14 Tilgate Forest 
(NFH, RF); 15 Brotherhood Wood (NFH), Blean Woods (IDF), 
Thornden Wood (JMCH); 16 Dartford Heath (NFH, RF); 17 
Haslemere (CGB), Elstead Common (NFH), Hankley Common (RF, 
AJF), Thursley, N. of Guildford, Blackheath (RF); 18 Hainault Forest 
(AME), Epping Forest (AME, ECPC), Havering Park (NN), Bedfords 
Park (AME); 19 Stour Woods (JPB); 22 Upper Common, Bucklebury 
(AME, BRB), Burfield Common (AME); 26 Barton Mills (DLA, JRL); 
37 Trench Wood (ANBS); 40 Whixall Moss (JRL, MJS); 58 Wilmslow 
(HNM); 59 (MBGBI Vol. 1); 60 Manchester (Anon.); 63 Skelmanthorpe 
(THE); 69 Windermere Station (JBH), Witherslack (LTF, AEW); 70 
Orton (GBR); 74 Torrs Warren (KPB); 77 Braehead Moss (KPB, 
RPKJ); 80 Threepwood Moss; 81 Gordon Moss; 82 Gladsmuir (KPB); 
83 Threipmuir (KPB, ECPC), Tynehead; 84 Dechmont Moss; 85 Moss 
Morram; 86 Ward; 87 Claysike Moss, Flanders Moss; 88 Methven Moss 
(KPB); 92 Dinnet Muir (DB); 95 Aviemore (ERB); 96 Tulloch Moor; 99 
Gartlea (KPB); 108 Strathnaver (AFG). 

(Initials of recorders/collectors in brackets.) 

This list suggests that it will probably be found in suitable habitats 
throughout Britain if a determined search is made for it. Since starting to 
keep detailed records of it I have now found some 29 galls in various parts 
of southern Scotland. A resume of the variety and dimensions of these galls 
may assist others in their searches and so help to extend our knowledge of 
the distribution of this elusive species. 

The gall occurs on both Betula pubescens and B. pendula with no 
apparent preference. Possibly the species may also occasionally affect 
Alnus glutinosa as a single frass-filled gall on this tree was found in East 
Sutherland (v.c. 107) on 13. v. 1989 but, as no incurvariid larval head 
capsule could be found in the gall, evidence for it belonging to L.fuscatella 
is thus purely conjectural. All the galls included in this account were found 
between mid-March and early May and occurred on fairly young birch 
trees, less that 12 feet high. They were found at all heights between two to 
ten feet from the ground. It should be borne in mind that these 
observations may be more dependent on my search pattern than on the 
habitat preference of the moth. All the galls occurred at a node but varied 
considerably in shape (Figure 2). In 76% of them a bifurcation or side 
branch was present at the site of the gall and in 41% of these the side 
branch had died. Galls tended to be somewhat spherical but this tendency 
became more obscure if the bifurcations were of similar diameters or if the 
primary twig was on the robust side of average. The smaller the diameter of 



LAMPRONIA FUSCATELLA 



251 






10 mm 
Fig. 2. Drawings of examples of galls on birch caused by Lamproniafuscatella. 

the primary twig the more conspicuous the gall (Figure 3). The mean 
diameter of the gall-bearing primary twig was 5.2mm but they varied from 
one as small as 2.0mm to one with a diameter of 13.0mm! The galls often 
occur in pairs — if one gall is found there is often another within 20cm, 
sometimes on the same twig. Of the 29 galls, nine or 3 1 ^^o had their exit hole 
capped with frass when found. Of these, seven or 78% produced examples 
of the ichneumonid parasite Panteles schuetzeana (Roman). In the 
remaining two the larva had died immediately prior to pupation but did not 
appear to have been parasitized. I still have not reared an imago of L. 
fuscatella\ Of the 20 non-capped galls, 18 exhibited an exit hole of some 
sort. In four the exit hole was of normal size and the degree of callous 
formation within the gall along with the presence of a cast head capsule but 
no pupal remains suggested the galls had produced moths the previous 
spring. The remainder of the 18 possessed a very small exit hole with the 
remains of a small parasitoid cocoon within, belonging to a Bracon sp. 
(Braconidae) as yet unidentified. The remaining two galls were intact — 
one contained a dead larva and in the other the larva was still feeding. This 
half-grown larva indicates that the larval stage may last at least two winters 
— a finding borne out by two further larva-containing galls found in early 
spring 1977 by the late E.G. Pelham-Clinton and myself. The scarcity of 



252 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.xi.l989 



ii»- 



12 



a 
I « 



6 



z • 



•t 



• t • : 



• • 



• • 



lltO 



I60 



190 



2O0 



220 



21*0 



2<0 



Gall size as % increase in Twig diameter 
■f- Possessed 2 galls on same node! 

Fig. 3. Relationship of gall size to diameter of infested twig. 







Mean dimensions of twig (nun) 


Below 


At 


Above gall 


Above gall 


Group 


No. of galls 


gall 


gaU 


(Main twig) 


(Side twig) 


All data 


36* 


5.2 


8.9 


4.8 


3.0 


Last year's 












emergence 


4 


4.5 


8.5 


3.9 


2.5 


Larva died 


2 


4.9 


8.7 


4.3 


3.2 


Larva eating 


1 


8.0 


10.0 


5.5 


? 


BracOTi parasite 


14 


5.8 


9.8 


5.3 


3.0 


Panteles parasite 


15* 


4.8 


8.0 


4.6 


3.1 



* Seven additdional galls parasitized by Panteles schuetzeana and donated to Royal 
Museum of Scotland by J.R. Langmaid included in these groups. 



Table 1 . Mean dimensions of infested twigs. 



LAMPRONIA FUSCATELLA 253 

galls occupied by larvae could be an indication that the larval life-history is 
unhkely to be more than two years. The high rate of parasitism (72%) in 
this sample is rather surprising in view of the apparent scarcity of the 
species. At least Panteles schuetzeana appears to be host specific (M.R. 
Shaw pers. comm.). In spite of the various fates that befell the galls, the 
mean size in the different groups was very similar (Table 1) and did not 
appear to be influenced by whether or not the larva had been parasitized. 

Interestingly the gall containing the half-grown larva is relatively large 
which suggests that gall formation is influenced more by the events at 
oviposition or the early development of the larva than by a continual 
stimulatory influence of the growing larva. 

Acknowledgements 

I am very grateful to Dr M.R. Shaw for identifying the Panteles 
schuetzeana parasites and to the Royal Museum of Scotland for access to 
the additional material. 

References 

Bland, K.P. (edit.) (1986) Preliminary atlas of the Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea of 

the British Isles. Biological Records Centre, Huntingdon. 
Heath, J. & Pelham-Clinton, E.C. (1976). Incurvariidae. In; 77?^ Moths and 

Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 1: 277-300. Curwen Press, London. 



Lycophotia porphyrea D. & S. (Lep: Noctuidae), an unusual life history. 

On 22nd April 1987 I found a larva of L. porphyrea feeding on Calluna 
vulgaris. It moulted on 28th April and did not feed afterwards. When I 
provided the larva with some peat it made a cocoon and had pupated by 
30th June when I opened the cocoon. 

In 1988 I obtained ova from three female L. porphyrea. They began to 
hatch on 10th July and the larvae grew quickly, becoming fully fed by the 
autumn. Again, after entering the final instar they did not feed but just 
made cocoons and pupated. The penultimate instar larvae did not make 
cocoons if I provided them with peat. 

The appearance of the larva in the penultimate and final instars is quite 
different. The illustrations in the books by Buckler, Carter & Hargreaves, 
Stokoe & Stovin and Wilson all show the larvae in the penultimate instar, 
which is the stage at which it finishes feeding and is most commonly 
encountered. Buckler calles the species Agrotis porphyrea and illustrates 
five larvae which he says are "after last moult". They are clearly all 
penultimate instar and therefore not "after last moult". 

I have been unable to find any reference to the fact that L, porphyrea 
has a non-feeding final instar and it is certainly not mentioned in any of the 



254 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 



books devoted to larvae. I am unaware of any other species which behaves 
in the same way and I find it hard to imagine how this apparently futile 
instar can have evolved. I can think of few examples of Lepidoptera larvae 
with other non-feeding instars. Zygaena larvae have one or more non- 
feeding instars during diapause (Tremewan 1985). The larva of Stauropus 
fagi (L.) has a first instar during which it feeds only on its egg shell (de 
Worms 1979). Although it cannot be regarded as strictly non-feeding, this 
larva clearly consumes very little in this instar. In neither of these examples 
is it the final instar which is non-feeding. 

The final instar of L. porphyrea differs from the penultimate instar in 
the following ways. The black markings either side of the dorsal line and 
below the subdorsal lines becomes very much more faint, the subdorsal 
lines become much less distinct and the general colour changes from brown 
to a pale cream. 

Three of my sixteen larvae which reached the penultimate instar in 1988 
were of an unusual form, lacking the subdorsal lines and with the dorsal 
line reduced to a very thin mark. Only one of these survived to the final 
instar. It was brown in the penultimate instar but very pale pink and cream 
in the final instar. 

References 

Buckler, W. 1891 . Larvae of British Butterflies and Moths; vol. V. 

Carter, D.J. and Hargreaves, B. 1986. v4 Field Guide to Caterpillars of Butterflies & 

Moths in Britain and Europe. 
de Worms, C.G.M. 1979. Notodontidae in Heath, J. & Emmet, A.M. The moths 

and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 9. 
Tremewan, W.G. 1985. Zygaenidae in Heath, J. and Emmet, A.M. ibid. 2. 
Wilson, O.S. 1879. The Larvae of the British Lepidoptera and their Food Plants. 

part V. 
Dr. B. P. Henwood, 4 The Paddocks, Abbotskerswell, Newton Abbot, 
Devon. 



Eucosma metzneriana Treitschke in East Sussex. 

Whilst recording Lepidoptera at Rye Harbour on the 14th July 1989 in the 
company of Mr C. Pratt and Mr G. Botwright, I noted an unfamiliar- 
looking Tortricoid moth in one of the m.v. traps operated by Mr C. Pratt. 
This I tentatively identified as Eucosma metzneriana. I have since shown 
the specimen to Dr J. Langmaid who has kindly confirmed my 
determination. I believe this to be only the third British example, the 
previous E. metzneriana being noted in Hampshire {Ent. Rec. 94: 202) and 
Cambridgeshire {Ent. Rec. 89: 329). 

I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr B. Yates for permission 
to run light traps on Rye Harbour LNR. — M. Parsons, The Forge, 
Russells Green, Ninfield, near Battle, East Sussex TN33 9EH. 



COMMENTS ON ARCTIA CAJA 255 

SOME COMMENTS ON THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE GARDEN 
TIGER MOTH, ARCTIA CAJA L. (LEP.: ARCTIIDAE) 

B.K. West, b.ed. 

36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent. 

IN THE days of my childhood this was perhaps the most famihar moth to 
the general public where I was living, both in its adult and larval forms. It 
was a truly garden insect, although also associated with the numerous 
patches of waste ground, allotments, roadside verges and railway 
embankments; I allude to the neighbourhood of Bexley, Kent, in the 1920s. 
Nevertheless, my experience was never that portrayed by Newman (1874) 
. . . "you cannot pass along a sunny hedge-bank without observing it on 
the various kinds of dead nettle, of which it seems particularly fond; in 
gardens it is equally abundant on the leaves of hollyhocks, and, indeed, 
nothing comes amiss to it. . . .". My present garden would seem to provide 
an ideal habitat for the moth, and a number of its favourite foodplants 
abound, but in over twenty years I have not encountered a single caterpillar 
(and very few elsewhere), although the garden m.v. light attracts from half 
a dozen moths to rather less than a score each year, and very rarely a 
female. 

Despite this being a well-known species, and often a common one, the 
habits of the larva have been remarkably neglected both in the standard 
textbooks and local works; it is another "low plants" or "e/ cetera'' 
species. Certainly, a long list of plants upon which the caterpillar has been 
found could be assembled; indeed, Wilson (1880) lists two dozen larval 
foodplants without comment, but nowhere in the volume is assurance given 
that such references apply to the British Isles; this list includes poplar, red 
campion, rose and snowberry, but how significant are these plants in this 
context? 

Barrett's Lepidoptera of the British Islands which was published at the 
turn of the century appears to have been the source of much information 
contained in later textbooks, yet in the case of caja little can be gleaned 
regarding the moth's larval foodplants and perhaps this is why so little 
appears on the subject in all subsequent books. Barrett states ". . . on 
almost every kind of herbaceous plant, even including dog's mercury, and 
on many shrubs; especially fond of nettles and garden weeds. 
. . .". At this time a warning was sounded, and this was 1895 "... 
inhabiting gardens in the outskirts of towns, in some places even more 
commonly than the fields and hedgerows. Formerly this was the case in all 
the suburbs of London, the larva being everywhere visible, but for some 
years past, there is a great change in this respect, and it is now 
comparatively seldom seen. . . .". South (1939) does in fact add a little 
"... the fohage of pretty well all low plants, and tall ones, such as 
hollyhock and sunflower . . ." and adding ". . . nettles and dock and other 
weeds around them. . . .". Newman and Leeds (1913) merely give ". . . 



256 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

nettles and various low plants. . . .". Skinner (1984) states "... a wide 
variety of wild and garden plants. . . .". Not very illuminating, yet this is 
beaten by Heath, ed. (1979) in which the larva is simply described as 
polyphagous! I suppose it is, but that is not much help to the reader who 
desires some useful information about how to find the caterpillars! 

Local works, often on a county basis, were known in the nineteenth 
century, but not until the publication of Chalmers-Hunt's volumes on 
Kentish lepidoptera were we able to see a really accurate and 
comprehensive study; valuable though this is perhaps its chief merit is as a 
model for surveys in other counties, yet curiously some of the so-called 
"local lepidoptera" published subsequently have Httle merit, a number 
being largely fictional in character, while others are mere check lists dealing 
only with distribution, perhaps a side effect of the national distribution 
scheme and the m.v. light. However, check lists have their place and value, 
although some do possess somewhat grandiose titles which are distinctly 
misleading. 

An excellent description of this insect's larval habitat and inclinations is 
given in one of the local publications, that concerning Hampshire by 
Goater (1974) in which he writes "... common, especially so in places 
where there is a rank growth of Lamium spp.. Taraxacum or Senecio 
vulgaris L. which appear to be the larva's favourite foodplants in the 
county. In the river valleys, comfrey (Symphytum) is often chosen; Urtica 
dioica L., too, is often eaten, but in my experience only when it grows 
mixed with other vegetation. . . .", Perhaps, with minor changes in detail, 
this description could apply to many parts of Britain, and with such 
information a novice is likely to have success in finding the caterpillars of 
caja. 

For Kent, Chalmers-Hunt Hsts Lamium purpureum, L. amplexicaule, L. 
album, Urtica dioica, dock, comfrey, Ballota nigra, Lepidium, Aubretia, 
hollyhock, dandelion and groundsel, and concludes that in the county the 
larva has perhaps been found mainly on U. dioica and L. album; indeed, 
some of the plants listed represent but a single larva on one occasion only. 

My own experience in N.W. Kent is not dissimilar to the picture 
portrayed by Goater and Chalmers-Hunt, but differs in detail. My earliest 
recollections of finding the larva are of the railway embankment and waste 
ground west of Bexley station in the 1920s, and there they abounded on 
stinging nettle {U. dioica) and large leaved docks (Rumex spp.), and 
sometimes on white dead-nettle (L. album) and burdock (Arctium spp.); in 
1925 and 1926 a number were found in a garden feeding upon an isolated 
Duke of Argyll's teaplant (Lycium barbarum), a member of the 
Solanaceae, the shrub being isolated in the sense that it grew against a shed 
and at its base there were virtually no weeds, being separated from the 
garden by a path. In the 1930s and in the immediate post-war years the 
caterpillars were quite common on waste ground and roadside 



COMMENTS ON ARCTIA CAJA 257 

embankments around Dartford and the vast majority I found were on 
black horehound {Ballota nigra)', much less commonly they were to be 
found on stinging nettle, white dead-nettle, Rumex obtusifolius and 
burdock and rarely upon purple dead-nettle and cleavers {Galium aparine). 

On turning to L. & K. Evans (1973) for N.E. Surrey, in which records 
date only from 1950 onwards, a somewhat surprising statement is found — 
that for the area there are not many records, and four plants are listed 
without comment, these being radish, wallflower, stinging nettle and 
bramble. Is this due to a true scarcity of caja larvae, an apparent scarcity 
due to difficulty of finding them, or lack of observation perhaps related to 
obsession with m.v. lights? The moth is stated to be generally distributed 
and common throughout the area. 

Palmer (1974) notes that in Aberdeenshire and Kincardine the larvae may 
be found on birch in the autumn, and on low plants in the spring, which 
would seem to further substantiate Shaw's suggestion that caja is one of 
those species in which the eggs are laid usually on trees and shrubs rather 
than upon the herbaceous plants on which the larvae are usually found 
(Shaw 1985), as does my finding the caterpillars on Lycium barbarum. On 
the other hand I have encountered young caja larvae just waking from 
hibernation amidst developing mounds of the new foliage of Ballota nigra 
growing in the middle of a wide expanse of waste ground devoid of trees 
and shrubs. 

By virtue of the kind of habitat frequented by these caterpillars, one 
containing a wide variety of herbaceous plants, and their polyphagous 
inclination, it is not surprising that they have been recorded from a large 
number of plants, including some not eaten and others sampled before 
moving on. However, as with some other species, e.g. Euproctis 
chrysorrhoea L., in times of great abundance the number of plants upon 
which they are found feeding is greater, as illustrated by A. Wheeler (1957) 
who reported caja larvae on London bomb sites as abundant and "... 
feeding on a diet ranging from Buddleia to groundsel. . . .". 

I have always considered that, despite what appears in some textbooks, 
caja has a quite limited range of preferred foodplants, and that these vary 
somewhat geographically. In 1987 and 1988 I offered a wide selection of 
plants to the caterpillars I was rearing to produce autumn moths, and it 
became quickly apparent that certain plants were consumed rapidly, others 
eaten to a lesser extent and some rarely touched or not eaten at all. The 
method employed was to supply a variety of plants, but always including a 
known favourite, these being white dead-nettle, stinging nettle and dock 
{Rumex obtusifolius). Of these the stinging nettle was the least popular in 
the sense that although readily eaten the larvae seemed to wish to change to 
something else after a day or so. The other two plants would become 
skeletonized, as would dandelion {Taraxacum), groundsel {Senecio 
vulgaris), knotgrass {Polygonum aviculare) and hollyhock {Althaea). 



258 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

Plants introduced which were accepted, but eaten to a somewhat lesser 
extent were Lycium barbarum, black horehound {B. nigra), burdock 
{Arctium), plantains {Plantago major and P. lanceolata), forget-me-not 
(Myosotis), coltsfoot {Tussilago farfara), rhubarb {Rheum), lettuce 
{Lactuca sativa), common mallow {Malva sylvestris) and the shrubs elder 
(Sambucus nigra), bramble {Rubus fruticosus) and sallow (Salix). The 
following plants showed some signs of nibbling, but were evidently not 
favoured, purple dead-nettle {Lamium purpureum), henbit (L. 
amplexicaule), marigold {Calendula officinalis) and cabbage (Brassica). As 
cabbage is one of the recommended plants for feeding caja larvae when 
attempting continuous breeding and the two Lamium species are 
sometimes utilised by the larvae in the wild this may be evidence that 
different strains of the larvae take to the various foodplants with varying 
degrees of enthusiasm. The following were rejected, wallflower 
{Cheiranthuis cheirei). Inula hookeri, Sedum spectabile, hedge bindweed 
(Calistegia), ragwort {Senecio jacobaea), Oxford ragwort (S. squalidus) 
and Virginian creeper {Parthenocissus quinquefolia) . It was noticeable that 
when the leaves provided included the tougher ones from shrubs — L. 
barbarum, sallow and bramble — the larvae preferred to rest on these, 
especially when changing skin; the large leaves of burdock, hollyhock and 
coltsfoot were similarly utihsed. 

I have referred to this experiment of offering an arbitrary variety of 
plants to caja larvae in captivity to prove that it has distinct preferences, 
and it is certainly not "almost omnivorous" as claimed by the authors of a 
somewhat fictional work on the lepidoptera of a certain county! The fact 
that around Dartford black horehound is probably its favourite foodplant 
means that it has local preferences, for this plant does not occur 
throughout its range; indeed, Chalmers-Hunt quotes H.C. Huggins who on 
one occasion only found the larvae on this plant at Gravesend, and wrote 
that this finding ". . .is somewhat inexphcable as I find the beast does not 
like it in captivity, but these were two or three eating it, not sunning 
themselves. . . .". This reference was for the first decade of this century, 
my observations for Dartford over twenty years later. Whether the 
apparent favourite foodplants noted for Hampshire and Kent apply to the 
remainder of the British Isles is purely a matter for conjecture. Baynes 
(1964 and 1970) gives no indication that the larva of this insect has ever 
been found in Ireland, although the moth is stated to be common and 
widespread, nor can I find subsequent reference to its possible discovery. 
An indication that there might be a decidedly different local foodplant 
preference in the Orkney Islands is hinted at by R. Lorimer (1983) in which 
he states "... also among Salix aurita on moorland . . .", but had been 
referring to the imago in the preceding phrase. So, is the larva actually 
feeding on sallow in this rather unusual habitat? If not, then upon what is it 
feeding? 



COMMENTS ON ARCTIA CAJA 259 

It seems therefore that for the few parts of Britain where knowledge 
exists of the larvae of this moth, they are most Hkely to be found in certain 
well-defined habitats feeding upon one of a limited number of plants of the 
families Compositae, Labiatae, Urticaceae and Polygonaceae, although 
occasionally upon other plants of various families, especially when the 
larvae are abundant. There is evidence of local preferences regarding 
foodplants and also of probable differences between pre-hibernation and 
post-hibernation pabula. Perhaps most significant is the almost complete 
lack of knowledge to be found for all but a very tiny part of the British 
Islands. 

References 

Barrett, C. IS95. Lepidoptera of the British Islands. 

Baynes, E. 1964. A revised catalogue of Irish Lepidoptera. 

Chalmers-Hunt, J.M. 1968. The butterflies and moths of Kent. 2. 

Evans, L. & K. 1973. A survey of the macro-lepidoptera of Croydon and N.E. 
Surrey. 

Goater, B. 1974. The butterflies and moths of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. 

Heath, J. (Ed.) 1979. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 9. 

Lorimer, R. 1983. The lepidoptera of the Orkney Islands. 

Newman, E. 1874. An illustrated natural history of British moths. 

Newman L.W. & Leeds, H. 1913. Textbook of British butterflies and moths. 

Palmer, R.M. 1974. Lepidoptera of Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire. Entomolo- 
gist's Rec. J. Var, 86: 33-44. 

Shaw, M.R. 1985. Semi-arboreal habits of Spilosoma and Arctia species. Ento- 
mologist's Rec. J. Var. 97: 31-32. 

Skinner, B. 1984. Moths of the British Isles. 

South, R. 1939. Moths of the British Isles. 

Wheeler, A.S. 1957. Lepidoptera in the City of London. Entomologist's Rec. J. 
Var. 69: 262-264. 

Wilson, O. 1880. The larvae of the British lepidoptera and their foodplants. 



Hazards of butterfly collecting — Morocco, 1979 

JUNE FIRST 1979 I was on a difficuh mission to Morocco. All was going 
wrong due to misunderstandings, personality clashes, and a set of circum- 
stances which precluded solution of problems which could normally be 
resolved. There were simply too many unknowns in the equations on hand 
and but for the moral support of a female colleague (moral in both senses 
of that term) I had considered cancelhng the mission at considerable cost. 
Ten days into the mission I found myself in the lowest of spirits in 
Marrakesch. 

It was with great eagerness that I grabbed the opportunity of a very early 
arrival to go butterfly collecting at the famous locality known as 
Oukaimeden in the High Atlas, situated at 3,200 metres and now a ski 
resort. After fiddling with the incredible dashboard gearshift of my hired 



260 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.xi.l989 

Renault 4 (the most curious French invention since the guillotine) I made 
my way up the mountain to arrive at one of the most beautiful spots I have 
ever visited. Emerald green meadows were teeming with butterflies, more 
than 25 species, including rarities such as Zegris eupheme, Artogeia 
segonzaci and Berberia abdelkader. There were more specimens of Procris 
interspersed with discrete colonies of several species of Zygaena than I have 
ever seen before. I had the good fortune of twice seeing and finally 
photographing the mating of Procris mauretanica males with Zygaena 
trifolii females, in one case actually watching it happen. It was glorious, 
and the tribulations waiting down in Marrakesch were forgotten for three 
merciful hours. After three productive hours, the proverbial serpent in 
paradise struck. The sunshine in which I had been collecting was a shaft in 
heavy, thunderous clouds which were milling about the surrounding peaks. 
The need to stay in the sun had brought me some two and a half kilometres 
from the car when they finally closed in. With exquisite timing the 
subsequent downpour turned to sleet and hail just at the very moment 
when even the last bit of my underwear was wet through. Temperatures 
dropped to about 5° Centigrade by the time I reached the car, my hair 
caked in sleet. 

The only thing to do was to strip. The pants were wedged in one window; 
the shirt in another; the vest in a third. The soggy underpants were kept on 
the passenger seat to cover my naked self if need should be. Here too were 
placed the soggy remains of my breast pocket, sundry passports, driving 
licences, money etc. Then down the mountains towards the hot plains of 
Marrakesch to dry the clothes. Half an hour later the clothes were nearly 
dry and I stopped to regroup. Among the papers was an envelope which my 
colleague had given me at 06.00 that morning when I set out south and she 
north with other members of the team. To be opened in emergency only, it 
said. This, surely was emergency! The envelope contained the funniest and 
most apt limerick possible on the impossibihty of the mission, read under 
circumstances which the writer could not possibly have imagined! ! 

I drove back to Marrakesch, now once again clad. The limerick and the 
butterflies had cheered me up. I could even get to grips with the Heath 
Robinson gearshift. On the way back I stopped briefly and collected good 
series of Syntarucus pirithous, Tarucus theophrastus and T. rosaceus. 
Things were looking up. The mission was not going to become a jewel in 
my crown — but it suddenly seemed manageable. 

Ten difficult days later, I was back in London, feeling that we had done 
the best under difficult circumstances. A year later we found that our 
conclusions and recommendations had been fully acted upon and resulted 
in very tangible improvements. Some people thank their lucky star when 
things go right in the face of disaster. I think the butterflies of Oukaimeden 
played a role. — Torben B. Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 
8PL. 



ANTS OF THE GOWER PENINSULA 261 

THE ANTS (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE) OF THE GOWER 
PENINSULA, WEST GLAMORGAN, SOUTH WALES 

N. C. Blacker 

Department of Chemistry, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL 

Introduction 

THE Cower Peninsula is notable for its largely unspoilt character and 
variety of wildlife. The variety and stability of habitat, combined with a 
reasonably equable climate, would be expected to make an investigation of 
the ant fauna worthwhile. The limited, but interesting geology and 
geographic distinctness make it ideal for relating the ant fauna to rock type. 
This might have some predictive value, to guide a survey of a larger area, 
such as Pembrokeshire. 

Geological Factors Affecting the Ant Fauna 

The underlying rock can influence the vegetation and, therefore, the ant 
fauna, in several ways. The main factors are:- 

(1) Soil structure and drainage. Limestones usually drain freely, clays and 
shales much less so. 

(2) Soil chemistry. The flora of an area depends on the chemical 
composition of the soil. An important example is the lack of extensive 
acid heathland on limestones. 

(3) Thermal properties are very important where rocks outcrop, 
particularly if there are many loose stones as potential nest sites. Of 
the various rock types outcropping in Cower, pieces of pennant grit 
tend to provide the hottest nest sites, and old red sandstone the 
coolest. 

(4) Rock structure. This affects (1) and (3). Rocks such as slates and many 
sandstones (including the pennant grit) split into flat stones, ideal for 
ants. Others, such as the old red sandstone, form more rounded 
boulders. 

(5) Relief and aspect. These depend on the hardness and the dip of the 
rocks. They affect the microclimate and, importantly, the soil depth. 
The main geological features of the area are shown in Figure 1 . 

Results 

What follows is mainly based on the results of three brief visits by the 
author, in August 1982, July 1983 and September 1988. Some previous 
records from the literature are also included. The information given for the 
common species is largely based on the 1988 visit, so the table below only 
covers sites visited then, but records from previous visits to those sites are 
included. 

The Carboniferous limestone area was the most intensively searched 
because of the greater Hkelihood of finding rarities. Woodland areas were 



262 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 



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the least visited, for two reasons. Firstly, the ant fauna is usually poor in 
Britain. Secondly, it is relatively unaffected by changes in geology. Kilvey 
Hill has been included, despite being east of Swansea, as it is the most 
representative pennant grit site. 



ANTS OF THE GOWER PENINSULA 



263 




Carboniferous limestone g 
1^%^ Old red sandstone 
I I Millstone grit 



Upper coal series 
Pennant series 



[ Lower coal series 



Figure 1. Geological map of Gower (after T.R. Owen). The numbers refer to the 
sites in Table 1. 

As no really comprehensive survey has been conducted, the list includes 
several species that the author feels may be revealed by further searching. 
Recorded species are numbered. An asterisk (*) by the number indicates a 
new record for Gower. 

[Ponera coarctata (Latreille, 1802). Thorough searching of mossy, semi- 
shaded sites, such as old quarries may yet reveal this species, most Hkely on 
the Carboniferous Limestone.] 
*1 My rmica rubra (Linn, 1758) 

2 M. rug inodis Nylandcr, 1846 

3 M. scabrinodis NylandQT, 1846 

4 M. sabuleti Mdnen, 1861 

The occurrence of the four common Myrmica species in relation to relief 
and aspect is illustrated in Figure 2. M. rubra and M. ruginodis live in more 
thickly vegetated areas than M. scabrinodis and M. sabuleti. M. rubra and 
M. sabuleti nctd warmer sites, so they have more restricted distributions. If 
the hill or cliff top is well vegetated M. scabrinodis may be absent. Relief 
and aspect are more important than rock type, although M. sabuleti was 
not found at Kilvey Hill. 

M. schencki Emery, 1895. This scarce and secretive species lives in sand 
dunes and dry pasture. It has not yet been taken in Gower, but is likely to 
occur at Oxwich or Whiteford Burrows, as Collingwood found it on Kenfig 



264 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 



15.xi.l989 




Soil 



Bedrock 



Figure 2. The effect of relief and aspect on the occurrence of Myrmica 
species. 

1 . M rubra 

2. M. ruginodis 

3. M. scabrinodis 

4. M. sabuleti 

Dunes in 1963. The only other Welsh record is that of Hallett (1915) at 
Sully (Donisthorpe, 1927). 

M. lobicornis Nylander, 1846. Not yet recorded in Gower, but was taken 
by the author at Margam Reservoir, Port Talbot in 1979 and 1982. It is 
most likely to occur in heathy areas on the pennant grit and coal measures, 
away from more aggressive species. 

*5 Stenamma westwoodii West wood, 1840. This elusive species was taken 
twice in the woods on Oxwich Point in July 1983, including three workers 
seen near a Lasius fuliginosus trail. A new record for Gower. There are 
many other potential sites, including the Clyne and Bishopston valleys. 
[Solenopsis fugax (Latreille, 1798). This tiny, subterranean species is 
usually found under deep stones near the nests of Formica and Lasius spp. 
It could conceivably occur in sunny, sheltered sites below the 
Carboniferous limestone cliff.] 

*6 Leptothorax acervorum (Fabricius, 1793). The only record was a deleate 
female seen wandering over a dry-stone wall near Whiteford Burrows in 
July 1983. It should occur widely, particularly around heathy woodland 
borders on Middle and Upper Carboniferous strata. 
*7 L. tuberum (Fabricius, 1775). A new record for Gower, the only 
previous Welsh record being a single worker, identified by Donisthorpe, 
taken from Cardiff docks in 1938. It was first taken at Port Eynon in 1982. 
Since then it has also been found near Rhosilli and Oxwich. The two 
colonies at the latter site were in a surprisingly damp and shady gulley 
below the woods on the east side of the point. In 1988 one colony found at 
Port Eynon was nesting in a gorse stump. 

Surprisingly, it was not found at Pwlldu Head, or between Langland and 
Mumbles. If it is genuinely absent, an explanation is needed. It might occur 
on the Carboniferous limestone in Pembrokeshire, particularly west of 
Stackpole Quay or south of Penally. 
8 Mymecina graminicola (Latreille, 1802). First recorded by Collingwood 



ANTS OF THE GOWER PENINSULAR 265 

at Rhosilli in 1963. In August 1982 a single worker was taken by the author, 
under a stone at Port Eynon. In 1988 it was taken at Pwlldu Head. About a 
dozen workers were found investigating some partly crushed Lasius flavus 
pupae and workers under a stone that had presumably been trodden on by 
the author not long before. Single workers were also found under two 
stones, one to two feet either side of the first. One worker crawled into a 
Lasius niger nest when disturbed. 

Persistent searching under stones could reveal this interesting species 
below any of the Carboniferous limestone cliffs. The only other pubhshed 
Welsh locality is at Sully (Hallett, see Donisthorpe, 1927). 

9 Tetramorium caespitum (Linn, 1758). This species is sparsely distributed, 
favouring sunny, sheltered sites below the Carboniferous limestone cliffs 

10 Lasius fuliginosus (Latreille, 1798). This interesting species was found at 
two sites in 1983 — the woods on Oxwich Point, and at the edge of conifer 
plantations on the dunes at Whiteford Burrows. It is a temporary social 
parasite on L. umbratus group species and, being far more conspicious 
than its hosts, it is a useful indicator of their presence. 

11 L. niger (Linn, 1758). The "common black ant" is widespread, but is 
only really abundant on the pennant grit and around human habitations. 

12 L. alienus (Forster, 1850). The commonest ant over large areas of dunes, 
it also outnumbers L. niger on the less well vegetated areas of the 
Carboniferous limestone cliffs. It was not taken on Kilvey Hill or any other 
inland site. One nest below Pwlldu Head contained a number of specimens 
of the beetle Claviger testaceus. 

13 L. flavus (Fabricius, 1781). The commonest ant in Gower, it is almost 
universal and is only absent from virtually grass free areas where it cannot 
tend root aphids. 

14. L. umbratus (Nylander, 1846). This strictly subterranean species has 
not been taken by the author, but there are old records from Worms Head 
and Horton (see Donisthorpe, 1927). One, if not both, probably refers to 
L. meridionalis. There is also a more recent record from Whiteford 
Burrows (Cotton, 1967). L. umbratus should have been the host for the L. 
fuliginosus taken in the woods at Oxwich, but L. meridionalis sometimes 
occurs, atypically, in woodland in Suffolk. This and the following two 
species are temporary social parasites on L. niger dind. L. alienus. 
15 L. meridionalis (Bondroit, 1919). This species is often confused with L. 
umbratus. It has also been treated as a synonym of L. rabaudi, which is a 
distinct species occurring in Eastern Europe. It typically nests in dunes and 
heathland. It occurs at Oxwich, and almost certainly at Whiteford 
Burrows. 

[L. mixtus (Nylander, 1846). This species may well occur in pasture or 
below cliffs, particularly on the Carboniferous limestone. Like other L. 
umbratus group species it is easily overlooked due to its subterranean 
habits.] 



266 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

16 Formica rufa Linn, 1761 . There are old records near Gower at Swansea, 
Briton Ferry and Baglan. It may still occur, most likely in heathy 
woodlands on Middle and Upper Carboniferous strata. 

17 F. fusca Linn, 1758. Rather scarce on the Carboniferous limestone, 
usually occurring in less sunny or damper locations, or where the outcrops 
are small and grassy with little scree. Interestingly, it was not seen on the 
old red sandstone at Penmaen. It is abundant half way up the south slope 
of Kilvey Hill (pennant grit). 

*18 F. lemani Bondroit, 1917. Several colonies were found at Kilvey Hill, 
on a gentle north-west slope just below the summit (i.e. at about 600ft). 
19 F. cunicularia Latreille, 1798. This species is fairly common below the 
Carboniferous limestone cliffs, completely replacing F. fusca in many 
places. 

[F. transkaucasica Nasonov, 1889. An old (1913) record for Rhosilli is 
mentioned by Donisthorpe (1927). This is probably an error, and might 
refer to F. lemani. There is a slight possibihty that it could occur in the 
boggy heathland of that area.] 

Summary 

A total of 19 species have been recorded, 17 by the author. The records 
of Myrmica rubra, Stenamma westwoodii, Leptothorax acervorum, L. 
tuberum, and Formica lemani are the first for Gower, but Lasius umbratus 
and Formica rufa were not found. The presence of Stenamma, L. tuberum 
and Myrmecina graminicola is noteworthy as they are characteristic 
southern species. The Carboniferous limestone does appear to have the 
richest and most interesting fauna, with 14 species. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to C. A. Collingwood for details of his records and for 
checking the identification of some specimens, particularly those of L. 
meridionalis and to Brian Evesham of the Biological Records Centre for 
information on previous records. 

References 

Barrett, K. E. J., 1979. Provisional atlas of the insects of the British Isles, Part 5 

Hymenoptera: Formicidae (2nd ed.). 
Collingwood, C. A., 1966. Notes on British ants, 1964-65. Entomologist's Rec. J. 

Var. 78: 23-25. 
Collingwood, C. A. & Satchell, J. E., 1956. The ants of the South Lake District. J. 

Soc. Brit. Ent. 5 (5) 1956: 159-164. 
Donisthorpe, H. St. J. K., 1927. British ants: their life history and classification. 

436 pp Routledge and Sons Ltd, London. 
Satchell, J. E. & Collingwood, C. A., 1955. The wood ants of the English Lake 

District. N.W. Naturalist 3 (1): 23-29. 



ABERRATIONS OF ARGYNNIS PAPHIA 267 

MELANIC ABERRATIONS OF THE SILVER WASHED FRITILLARY 

(ARGYNNIS PAPHIA L.) IN NORTH DORSET IN 1986, AND THE 

RELEVANCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE OCCURRENCE OF 

SUCH FORMS IN THE WILD. 

Rupert D.G. Harrington b.sc. 

Old College Arms, Stour Row, Shaftesbury, Dorset. 

Introduction 

MELANIC aberrations of A. paphia are very scarce but have occasionally 
occurred in some numbers, usually together with an increase in the total 
population of the species. 

Russwurm (1978) gives these exceptional seasons as 1881, 1941, 1942, 
1944 and 1976. The last of these was possibly the most remarkable of all as 
regards the number of aberrations. Lipscomb (1978) records the capture of 
35 major aberrations in one south Wiltshire woodland! Because 
aberrations of paphia are so spectacular they have always been prized by 
collectors and assiduously searched for, and it is therefore likely that this 
list of outstanding years represents the complete record for the last hundred 
years or so . 

The melanic aberrations may take the form of ab. confluens Spuler and 
ocellata Frings in which the marginal spots are joined up, ranging through 
to extreme developments of these and other black forms, the most extreme 
being the heavily melanic ab. nigricans Cosmovici. 

Occasionally these aberrations have turned up in other years, although 
rarely and usually singly. They may be of any of the forms found in the 
major years. An unusual aberration (ab. glomerata Esp.) taken in 1979 is 
illustrated (Fig. 1). 

Experimental evidence showing that melanic aberrations can be 
deliberately produced by varying temperature is discussed below. 

Experiments with temperature 

Towards the end of the nineteenth century Professor M. Standfuss 
(Standfuss, 1900) carried out an extensive programme of experiments 
spanning 12 years and involving 42,000 specimens of 60 species of 
Lepidoptera. He investigated the effect of unnaturally high and low 
temperatures on the newly formed pupa (the stage at which the pigment is 
laid down on the wings and therefore at which the pattern is susceptible to 
external influences). He found that he could produce a variable percentage 
of extreme melanic aberrations of Nymphalid butterflies from groups 
of pupae treated to either unnaturally high (40 - 45 °C) or low (0 - 20°C) 
temperatures. 

Since Standfuss' time many people have reproduced these experiments 
with similar results, most recently and extensively Karl Bailey, whose 



268 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

meticulous work has yielded valuable information of the subject. Whilst it 
is not known how extreme temperatures cause changes in patterning, nor 
why not all treated pupae produce aberrations, Karl Bailey has shown that 
there is almost certainly no genetic influence involved. 

This work suggests that the upsurges of melanic aberrations in paphia in 
the field may be linked to unusual climatic conditions, and the present 
study aims to draw a comparison between wild caught aberrations and the 
temperatures at the time of pupation. 

The 1986 season 

1986 was the most recent year in which a population explosion and upsurge 
of aberrations occurred in paphia, and a few notes may be of interest. The 
winter of 1985/6 was cold with long spells below zero in North Dorset. In 
this area, although about two weeks late, paphia was much more abundant 
in 1986 than usual in the two woodlands studied, and a number of extreme 
aberrations were found. 

The first was a fine male ab. confluens taken by Eve Barrett on 18th July 
(Fig. 2). Two days later an extreme mixed gynandromorph (mixed type and 
f. valezina Esp.) was seen on the same bramble patch, evaded capture, and 
was finally caught on 22nd July. Gynandromorphs are not temperature- 
related and the appearance of this specimen along with melanics was 
coincidental. A male showing confluens on the hind wings only was seen, 
also on the same bramble patch on 21st July. On 18th, in a locality a few 
miles away Ross Young photographed a superb male confluens and 
watched, for 15 minutes, an extreme black specimen (probably ab. 
nigricans) perched out of reach on an ash tree. In the same area, on 22nd, 
Ross took a very good female confluens (Fig. 3) and a less extreme male 
(Fig. 4). A few days later (no date available), a male confluens was taken in 
the first locality and another extreme black form seen at close range. After 
this no further aberrations were seen. 

Comparison of wild-caught specimens and natural temperatures: 

As it is during the early pupal stage that the insect's developing pigments 
are susceptible to temperature shocks, any correlation between 
temperatures and wild aberrations should refer to this stage of the life 
cycle. As the length of the pupal stage will vary from year to year 
depending on weather conditions over that year, for present purposes a 
broad generalisation must be made. Using data kindly supplied by Ralph 
Tubbs from two precisely recorded breeding experiments under normal 
conditions, the duration of the pupal stage appears to vary between 23 and 
33 days. 

Examination of specimens from private collections and in the series in 
the Rothschild-Cockayne-Kettlewell collection at the British Museum 
(Natural History) gave dates of capture of aberrations. The time the insect 



ABERRATIONS OF ARGYNNIS PAPHIA 



269 





' '* W'lj^r^ 





Figures 1 - 4 Argynnis paphia aberrations. 1: ab glomerata Esp. female. North 
Dorset 1979 (R.D.G. Harrington); 2: ab confluens Spuler. Male. North Dorset 
18.vii.l986. (E. Barrett, coll. J.B.A. Simner); 3: ab confluens Spuler. Female. 
North Dorset, 22.vii.1986. (R. Young); 4: ab confluens Spuler. Male. North 
Dorset 22.vii.1986. (R. Young). 



may have spent in the pupal stage (23 - 33 days) was subtracted from the 
date of capture to give a period during which pupation would have taken 
place. This basic calculation assumes that the aberration emerged on the 



270 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

day of capture. To minimise this potential error data was, except in one 
case, used from specimens in very good condition. 

The tables show daily maximum shade temperatures for all ma}or paphia 
years since the beginning of the century (daily minimum temperatures are 
not recorded as they were unexceptional and are assumed to have no 
influence on the production of aberrations). 1977 is included as Lipscomb 
(Lipscomb, 1978) records the capture of four major aberrations in one area 
that year. Up to and including 1944 the temperatures were recorded in 
South Farnborough, Hampshire. As most aberrations in this period were 
taken in the New Forest this is a conveniently local set of records. For the 
years 1976 - 1986 the records are from Middle Coombe in North Dorset. As 
all specimens in this period are from South Wiltshire and North Dorset this 
is also a relevant site for temperature recordings. 

The average daily maximum temperature for June over the last decade at 
Middle Coombe was 19°C. So 21 °C was taken, arbitrarily, as a significant 
departure from the average temperature, and all days at, or above this are 
marked with an asterisk, so that spells of exceptionally warm weather can 
easily be followed. All temperatures are taken to the nearest whole numbers 
from the records received. 

Notes on individual years 

1918: Data from only one very worn specimen could be found. As this was 
the only aberration available its data was used (the only specimen in 
anything other that good condition from which data was drawn). It was 
taken on 18th July and was judged to have emerged two weeks prior to 
capture — 4th July. This individual should have pupated between 24th 
May and 1 1th June. This corresponds well with unusually hot days. 
1919: Eleven specimens were available, dates of capture being between 8th 
-17th July. This gives a pupation period for all specimens of 5th - 24th 
June, which matches very precisely a hot spell in that year. 
1941: Eleven specimens also were available, dates of capture being between 
12th -28th July, giving a pupation period of 9th June - 5th July. Almost all 
of these specimens were taken during the latter part of July, and this gives a 
very good correlation with the hot spell of this year. 

1942: Only two specimens were available, these being captured on 17th and 
21st July; a pupation period for both of 14th - 28th June. A good 
correlation with the hot spell. 

1944: No specimens could be found for this year. Indeed there appears to 
be a discrepancy over this year as Lipscomb (1978) does not list it as one of 
the major years. Certainly it was not an exceptionally hot year in the period 
under study, and no more can be said until further information is available. 

1976: Seven specimens gave capture dates of 5th - 10th July. These would 
have a pupation period of 2nd - 17th June. Although this gives good 



ABERRATIONS OF ARGYNNIS PAPHIA 271 

Table 1. Daily maximum temperatures at South Farnborough, Hants, 1918 - 1944 
(degrees Centigrade). 



June 


1918 


1919 


1941 


1942 


1944 


1 


*27 


*27 


17 


19 


20 


2 


*27 


18 


13 


*23 


20 


3 


*22 


16 


11 


*28 


*23 


4 


17 


17 


*24 


*29 


*22 


5 


19 


*24 


14 


*29 


17 


6 


*22 


*26 


18 


*31 


16 


7 


18 


*26 


20 


19 


18 


8 


*21 


*23 


18 


18 


17 


9 


19 


*22 


15 


15 


19 


10 


18 


*24 


11 


16 


17 


11 


*22 


*27 


17 


18 


16 


12 


*22 


*22 


18 


11 


*21 


13 


*22 


19 


17 


16 


*21 


14 


18 


*23 


16 


17 


18 


15 


17 


*26 


*22 


14 


19 


16 


17 


*26 


*23 


18 


*22 


17 


18 


*25 


*24 


20 


19 


18 


16 


*26 


*27 


17 


*22 


19 


18 


*22 


*27 


18 


19 


20 


20 


13 


*29 


*27 


*23 


21 


19 


18 


*30 


*26 


17 


22 


19 


*21 


*32 


*27 


*23 


23 


19 


19 


*24 


*28 


18 


24 


18 


18 


*26 


*24 


*24 


25 


18 


18 


*27 


19 


*22 


26 


20 


16 


*24 


*23 


16 


27 


*22 


18 


*22 


*22 


16 


28 


*21 


*22 


*23 


*23 


18 


29 


*22 


17 


*24 


*30 


*21 


30 


*26 


16 


*26 


*27 


*21 


July 












1 


*27 


14 


*27 


*23 


20 


2 


*22 


16 


*29 


*26 


*21 


3 


*21 


18 


*28 


20 


18 


4 


*24 


17 


*22 


*21 


*22 


5 


*24 


20 


*25 


*22 


19 


6 


*24 


17 


*27 


*22 


*25 


7 


*26 


14 


*30 


*22 


*21 


8 


*26 


14 


*32 


*21 


*22 


9 


*21 


*24 


*28 


*21 


18 


10 


18 


*23 


*30 


14 


19 



272 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 



Table 2. Daily maximum temperatures at Middle Coombe, neare Shaftesbury, 
Dorset, 1976 - 1986 (degrees Centigrade). 



June 


1976 


1977 


1986 


1 


16 


15 


16 


2 


17 


18 


18 


3 


18 


18 


13 


4 


18 


*23 


13 


5 


18 


19 


14 


6 


*21 


14 


15 


7 


20 


15 


15 


8 


*24 


14 


17 


9 


*28 


16 


15 


10 


*26 


16 


14 


11 


19 


14 


17 


12 


*21 


13 


20 


13 


*21 


14 


*21 


14 


*21 


13 


*23 


15 


*24 


13 


*25 


16 


*23 


12 


*27 


17 


18 


18 


18 


18 


17 


20 


*21 


19 


*23 


12 


*22 


20 


15 


12 


*22 


21 


19 


13 


*21 


22 


*22 


12 


17 


23 


*26 


20 


17 


24 


*27 


19 


16 


25 


*36 


18 


*23 


26 


*32 


18 


*27 


27 


*33 


18 


*30 


28 


*33 


19 


*29 


29 


*33 


16 


*24 


30 


*31 


16 


*24 


July 








1 


*30 


19 


*25 


2 


*33 


20 


*26 


3 


*34 


*24 


*22 


4 


*33 


*27 


*22 


5 


*33 


*27 


19 


6 


*31 


*27 


20 


7 


*32 


*26 


19 



correspondance with some hot days it misses the remarkable heat wave of 
late June and early July. The capture of so many aberrations in 1976 
suggests that something very unusual (ie. the record-breaking temperatures 



ABERRATIONS OF ARGYNNIS PAPHIA 273 

of the late June - early July period) was acting on the pupae. In this case it 
may well be that pupation did take place during this hottest period and that 
the extreme heat caused the pupal period to be shortened. 
1977: Four specimens give capture dates of 8th - 15th August — a pupation 
period of 5th - 23rd July. This corresponds very well with a hot spell 
(temperature information only available for the early part of this period). 
1986: Dates of capture of five specimens caught between 18th - 25th July 
give a pupation period of 15th June - 2nd July. Again an excellent 
correlation with the heatwave. 

Conclusions 

The results show a clear correlation between spells of abnormally high 
maximum temperatures and the capture of extreme melanic specimens of 
paphia. This confirms the suggestion that unusually high temperatures in 
nature cause the appearance of melanic paphia (and doubtless other 
Nymphahd butterflies), just as they do in controlled experimental 
conditions. 

One question often raised is that the temperatures needed to produce 
melanic specimens in captivity (40 - 45 °C, as recorded in the Standfuss 
experiments) is far higher than the highest recorded in natural conditions 
(36°C on 25th June 1976), so it appears that pupae in a natural state never 
experience temperatures high enough to cause the production of 
aberrations. Why then is there such a good correlation in the data given 
above? The answer is that air temperatures, as are all those recorded and 
given in meteorological reports, often bear little relation to the internal 
temperature of living, cold-blooded animals. For example Keith Porter 
(pers. comm.) has recorded that internal temperature of larvae of the 
Marsh Fritillary {Eurodryas aurinia Rott.) as being over 35°C when the air 
temperature was little above 0°c. This is because an object can absorb the 
sun's radiated heat to build up temperatures far in excess of that of the air. 
Temperatures are usually given as shade readings. This is because, just as 
the aurinia larva absorbs heat when it suns itself, so a thermometer gives a 
very high reading when exposed to the sun due to its absorbing heat. Shade 
readings are a more real indicator of air temperature, but not insect body 
temperature. 

In other words objects can absorb heat and become far hotter than the 
air temperature if exposed to the sun. If then a paphia larva should pupate 
in the shade but be exposed to the sun later in the day as the earth revolves, 
the pupa could then quite possibly experience internal temperatures in the 
range necessary to produce aberrations. 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank John Simner and Ross Young for allowing me to 
photograph their fine aberrations, Ralph Tubbs for supplying me with vital 



274 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.xi.l989 

information from his meticulously recorded breeding experiments and Karl 
Bailey for much interesting and useful information from his extensive 
experiments. For the data from specimens in the British Museum (Natural 
History) I am grateful to David Carter for allowing me free access to the 
National collection. The temperature records up to 1944 were supplied by 
the National Meteorological Archives in Berkshire and permission to 
reproduce them was given by Her Majesty's Stationery Office in Norwich. I 
am most grateful to Peter Cooper who supplied me with the temperature 
records for the period of 1976 - 1986 and took much trouble in sending me 
precise details covering my many enquiries. 

References 

Bailey, K.E.J. , 1984. Light and temperature experiments on the Comma butterfly, 
Polygonia c-album (Lep.: Nymphalidae). Proc. Trans. Br. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 
63-65. 

Ford, E.B., 1945. Butterflies. Collins. 

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., 1974. Natural pattern variation and the effect of cold treat- 
ment on the genus Aricia R.L. (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). (Aricia study no. 14). 
Proc. Trans. Br. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 7: 37-44. 

Howarth, T.G., 1984. Colour identification guide to the butterflies of the British 
Isles. Viking. 

Kettlewell, H.B.D., 1943-44. Temperature effects on the pupae of Panaxia 
dominulaL. Proc. Trans. South Lond. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 1943-44: 79-81. 

Lipscomb, Maj. Gen. C.G., 1978. The Silver-washed Fritillary Argynnis paphia L., 
a population explosion. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 90: 1-3. 

Russell, S.G. Castle-., 1943. Argynnis paphia L. — an experiment in breeding 
from a melanic female. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 55: 74-75. 

Russwurm, A.D.A., 1978. Aberrations of British butterflies. Classey. 

South, R., 1947. Butterflies of the British Isles. Warne. 

Standfuss, M., 1900. Synopsis of experiments in hybridisation and temperature with 
Lepidoptera up to the end of 1898. Entomologist 33: 161-167; 283-292; 340-348. 



Natural foodplants of the larva of Sideris albicolon Hubn, the White 
Colon, (Lep.: Noctuidae) 

During late August in both 1987 and 1988 I found larvae of this species at 
Sandwich Bay, Kent. Larvae were found on four species — sea sandwort 
{Honkenya peploides), sand spurrey (Spergularia rubra), restharrow 
(Ononis repens) and narrow-leaved plantain {Plantago lanceolata). 

The majority of larvae were found on Ononis and, except for one which 
had climbed a grass stem, all were at ground level on plants only a few 
inches high. Taller clumps of Ononis were not utilised, aUhough larvae of 
the bordered sallow {Pyrrhia umbra Hufn.) were found on the larger 
plants. Albicolon larvae ranged considerably in size, from half to fully 
grown. During the hours spent searching it became apparent that the larvae 
favoured the narrow strip of soft, sandy ground between the roadside 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 275 

(where the sand was compressed by car tyres) and the shingle beach on the 
seaward side of the sand dunes. Larvae were not found outside this zone, 
even though Ononis grew nearby. 

Larvae were very locaHsed, and during the nights of 22nd and 28th 
August, 1987 and 24th August 1988 I found only 16 larvae in all. Some had 
a blotched pattern on the skin, and subsequently died. Small larvae were 
very difficult to breed under artificial conditions. No parasites were bred. 

The pupa has a strange habit — when placed in a box of sand, it pushes 
itself to the surface within a couple of days, repeating the trick if buried 
again! — J. Platts, 11 Maydowns Road, Chestfield, Whitstable, Kent. 

Hypena crassalis Fab., the Beautiful Snout (Lep.: Noctuidae) new to 
Warwickshire 

I was pleased to record a male specimen of Hypena crassalis at light on 1st 
July 1989 at Snitterfield Bushes, a woodland reserve and an SSSL The 
wood is approximately three miles north of Stratford-on-Avon. 

The normal foodplant, bilberry {Vaccinium myrtillus), is absent from 
this locality as are the possible alternatives, cross-leaved heath {Erica 
tetralix) and heather {Calluna vulgaris). There appear to be a number of 
records of this moth well away from its recognised foodplants — see for 
example Ent. Rec. 93: 241 and 94: 44. — A. Gardner, Jackson's 
Farmhouse, Charlecote, near Warwick. 

Book Talk 11. 

Many researchers in the field of entomology must be thankful to Pamela 
Gilbert for her Compendium of the biographical literature on deceased 
entomologists (British Museum (Nat. Hist.), 1977). Less well-known is 
Reinhard Gaedike's Supplement to the Compendium, which appeared in 
1985 in Beitr. Ent., Berlin 35: 2: 369-408. Moreover, Miss Gilbert tells me 
that there is in the Library of the Department of Entomology (BMNH), a 
card index containing additional material to form the basis of a further 
supplement, and that those interested are welcome to use the index and are 
also invited to add to it. 

The Entomological Magazine, 5 vols., 1833-1838. Those who have 
perused this fascinating old periodical, may recall the pretty little vignette 
(in vol. 4, page 185; also reproduced in Classey's facsimile of Memoir of 
the life and works of Edward Newman, page 10) of the Bull Inn, Birch 
Wood Corner in N.W. Kent, and once famous as the venue for the annual 
festivals and symposia of the Entomological Club. The adjoining Birch 
Wood, though much worked during the first half of the 19th century, was 
hardly noticed since 1860. Many rare and interesting species occurred there 
including Apatura iris, Endromis versicolor and the coleopteron 
Lycoperdina bovistae. In 1836, Edward Newman {Ent. Mag. 3: 307) 



276 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

remarked that "Birch Wood, as a locality for insects, has no equal in the 
vicinity of London . . . " . And goes on to give a description of the wood, an 
account of some of its entomological and botanical treasures and a graphic 
description of his meeting there with a quaint old brother of the net (Joseph 
Standish). Alas, virtually nothing remains today of this one-time 
entomological El Dorado. 

I should be most grateful to anyone who can please tell me of the present 
whereabouts of J.C. Melvill's Compendium entomologicum manuscript 
journal, 1865-76 (being a manuscript account of his collecting excursions). 
Bound in half morocco, this small quarto was listed on page 35 of E.W. 
Classey's 1955 sale catalogue no. 21. — J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, 1 
Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent BR4 9LG. 

Remarkable web-building feat of Common Cross Spider Araneus 
diadematus Clerk. 

Early in the morning of 17.x. 1988 I noticed that an adult female Araneus 
diadematus (Araneae: Argiopidae) had strung the top support line of its 
web from the top of the outside garage (two metres high) of my former 
home in Clevedon, Avon, and right across the lawn to the Leyland Cypress 
hedge opposite — a distance of 4.575 metres. It caused me to ponder how it 
had achieved this feat. Presumably, it did not swing across this huge gap, 
but climbed down the hedge, crawled across the lawn and climbed the 
garage wall, then returned to the hedge, drawing out its silken line behind it 
and pulling it taut on reaching the desired position on the hedge against 
which the main web was constructed. 

Next day, the web was destroyed by heavy rain during the afternoon. On 
the morning of 21.x. 1988, I discovered that it had constructed a new web 
with double support lines stretching from the Leyland Cypress hedge to the 
top of the bird table in the middle of the lawn, also a distance of 4.575 
metres. 

Incidentally, while writing of this spider, it may be worth mentioning that 
on 1.x. 1988 I came upon a male Meadow Grasshopper Chorthippus 
parallelus (Zetterstedt) trussed-up in the web of a beautiful orange-brown 
A. diadematus at the edge of a bramble clump at Walton Castle Hill, near 
Cleveland, Avon. — J.F. Burton, Wasserturmstrasse 53, 6904 Eppelheim- 
Heidelberg, West Germany, 31.vii.l989. 

Dipterous prey of Scorpion-fly Panorpa communis L. (Mecoptera: 
Panorpidae). 

In view of the paucity of records of the prey of Scorpion-flies, I think it 
worth recording here that on Kenn Moor, near Yatton, South Avon on 3rd 
July 1983 I came upon a female P. communis perched on a leaf and feeding 
from a medium-sized dipteron which I was unable to identify. I do not 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 277 

know whether it had captured its prey or found it moribund or already 
dead. — J.F. Burton, Wasserturmstrasse 53, 6904 Eppelheim-Heidelberg, 
West Germany, 5. V. 1989. 



Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) in Wales. 

Among Microlepidoptera sent to me for identification from the 
Rothamsted Insect Survey hght trap operated by R. & M.V. Smith in 
Cardiff (Site No. 347, OS grid ref. ST 199789) was a single specimen of 
Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) which came to the trap on the night of 18th- 
19th April 1989 and is apparently the first record from Wales. Eight further 
specimens were recorded from the same source between the 10th and 31st 
May and it is evident that the species is breeding locally. E. postvittana is a 
polyphagous species of Australian origin and an account of its history and 
distribution in England since it was first found to be breeding in Cornwall 
in 1936 is given by C.R.B. Baker (1968, Ent. Gaz. 19: 167-172). In addition 
to the present record from South Wales the species is known from most 
south coast counties from Cornwall and Devon to Kent and Essex as well as 
from the London area. — E.F. Hancock, Abbotsford, Belmont, 
Ulverston, Cumbria. 



Cydophora pendularia CI. (Lep.: Geometridae) in a new Dorset location. 

I operated a Robinson trap during the night of 14/15 July 1989 amongst 
small-leaved sallow bushes in the Luscombe Valley Nature Reserve, which 
hes within 10 km square SZ08 near the eastern boundary of v.c.9 (Dorset). 
The catch included one fresh male specimen of the second generation of 
Cydophora pendularia CL, the Dingy Mocha. The species has been given a 
scarcity rating of Cat. 3 (Rare) in the British Red Data Book 2, Insects 
(NCC, 1987). 

Luscombe Valley Nature Reserve has apparently not previously been 
surveyed for Lepidoptera. It is a small low-lying isolated pocket of 
undeveloped countryside lying between Poole Harbour and the vast 
residential and buih-up area to the east. It seems not unlikely that there is a 
resident colony of C. pendularia on the reserve; otherwise the specimen 
may have come from one of the known breeding sites on the Isle of 
Purbeck on the other side of Poole Harbour or perhaps from the north 
where the species has recently been detected {Ent. Rec. 99: 184 and 101: 
184). 

My thanks are due to Brian Baker for confirming the speciation, and to 
Poole Borough Council for permission to operate a trap in their nature 
reserve. — G.G. Eastwick-Field, Little Earlstone, Burghclere, Newbury, 
Berks. 



278 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15.xi.l989 

Unusual abundance of Celastrina argiolus L. (Holly Blue) (Lep.: 
Lycaenidae) in North London. 

In most years I usually see only one or two specimens of Celastrina argiolus 
L. in my north London garden, which abuts Coppetts Wood Nature 
Reserve (TQ 276 916). 

In 1989 specimens were seen every few minutes during the hot dry spell 
from May to July. These were mostly flying in an east-west direction along 
the margin of the wood and pausing to investigate a prolific growth of ivy 
on my garage roof. 

Cohn Plant (1987, The Butterflies of the London Area, p. 99) notes that 
this butterfly usually occurs at low density. — Kenneth G.V. Smith, 
70 Hollickwood Avenue, London N12 OLT. 

Larvae of Anthocharis cardamines (L.) (Lep.: Pieridae) feeding on Reseda 
luteola L. in Wiltshire. 

We encountered six, almost full grown larvae of this species, fully exposed, 
on the flower spikes of R. luteola (one per plant) in partial shade amongst 
scrub on Cow Down, north of Tidworth, Wiltshire, on 25th June 1989. 
Some of these larvae were observed feeding on the florets, and in all cases 
the flower spikes had been heavily cropped in this manner. We know of no 
published record of this species as a foodplant of A. cardamines. A.M. 
Emmet (in The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 7 (1), 
1989) cites S.P. Courtney {Oecologica, 54, 1982) as reporting two species of 
Resedaceae on which females had been observed to oviposit. However, 
Courtney's paper does not mention any species in the genus Reseda. — 
G.R. Else, Northcroft, St Peter's Road, Hayling Island, Portsmouth, 
Hants POll ORX & S.P.M. Roberts, 9 Days Court, Hardy Crescent, 
Wimborne, Dorset BH21 2BA. 

Further notes on Eupithecia tripunctaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae). 

It now seems appropriate to summarise what has been said recently about 
this moth. I refer to contributions recently in this Journal of B.K. West 
(antea 101: 57); G.M. Haggett {antea 101: 184) and A.M. Emmet {antea 
101: 185). 

West quotes various sources and comes up with pretty good evidence 
that, because the species flies mainly in May - June and again in July 
-August, it might well be bivoltine. He adds, however, that B. Skinner "... 
perhaps wisely does not commit himself on the question of voltinism 
. . . ". West is supported by Emmet, who gives first-hand evidence of two 
main emergence periods — 25 May to 19 June and 9 - 28 August in Essex. 
Unfortunately, he gives no dates for larvae, which he finds commonly "... 
in local woodland rides . . .". Nor does he cite the foodplant. 

Thus far we are left with the possibility of two broods, but no data as to 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 279 

what happens to the eggs, presumably laid in May/June. So we come to 
Raggett, who somewhat complicates matters by stating that he has reared 
larvae from May moths on cow parsley, but that the pupae therefrom lay 
over until the following spring. Furthermore, he once found many July 
larvae feeding on elder flowers: all produced moths the following spring. 
Thus we must seriously consider two races of this moth; both having a 
12-month cycle — one May - May and the other July - July. The first would 
feed on cow parsley or elder; the second on angelica. This is NOT the same 
as bivoltinism. 

What seems essential for bivoltinism is proof that the early summer 
moths produce larvae which pupate and produce moths in July - August. 
To this end Haggett says, a foodplant must be found from which larvae can 
regularly be swept in early summer, which produce moths later in the same 
year. 

I must now introduce a factor not, as yet, considered in recent 
contributions. Like many others, I have caught imagos in June and again in 
the late summer. In no case have I found any marked difference in them; 
either in size or markings. This is not supportive of this moth having two 
broods. Consider how different are the first and second broods of such 
species as Diarsia rubi View, Cyclophoria punctara L., Eupithecia nanata 
Hb. and Gymnoscelis rufifasciata Haw. 

In rubi there is a difference in both size and markings; in punctaha a 
difference in markings; in nanata and rufifacsiata an extraordinary 
difference in size. The latter two moths are of special relevance to any 
consideration of double-brooding in tripunctaria. The same applies where 
double-brooding occurs in Rhopalocera — quite distinct first and second 
broods. One final point. I have reared many larvae found on angelica in the 
autumn — without exception the moths therefrom appeared in late April 
through May the following spring. 

I summarise as follows: 

(a) there are two main emergence periods (West and Emmet); 

(b) the moth occurs in every month from May to September (Skinner); 

(c) no one has shown that the moth varies in any significant way, no 
matter in which month it appears (Simson); 

(d) early summer pupae lie over to the following spring and do NOT 
produce a July - August eclosion (Haggett) 

(e) autumnal larvae pupate in the late autumn and also produce moths in 
the following spring (Simson); 

(0 the larvae were plentiful on elder flowers in Lincolnshire in 1978, but 
never again found on this tree (Haggett). 
There is a problem! — Brig. E.C.L. Simson, 4 Plowden Park, Aston 
Rowant, Oxon OX9 5SX. 

[Note: We hope to publish a major article on tripunctaria in the new year. Ed.l 



280 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

Moths as commuters. 

For those of us working in London and commuting by train from the 
Home Counties, travelHng is usually a less than attractive feature of the 
day's toil. Aside from reading, there is Httle scope for entomological 
activity and, apart from a memorable occasion in 1980 when I captured 
(with some difficulty) a male Palpita unionalis Hiibn. on a crowded train 
{Ent. Rec. 92: 218), one hardly ever even sees an insect. 

In recent months, I have become aware that some of my fellow travellers 
are, in fact, moths and that their number has been increasing, particularly 
during the last weeks of August. The opportunity to carry out a mini- 
survey became irresistible and on the 4th, 5th and 6th September 1989 I 
noted all visible moths from my vantage point in the end carriage of the 
early morning train that plies its trade between Tunbridge Wells in Kent, 
and Charing Cross in London. To my surprise, I logged 20 individuals of 
nine different species (more than in some of my autumn trips to Dungeness 
with anm.v.!). 

The three-day score was as follows: Agriphila geniculea Haw. (3); 
Emmelina monodactyla L. (1); Scopula imitaria Hiibn. (1); Xanthorhoe 
fluctuata L. (2); Mythimna pallens L. (2); Agrotis segetum D. & S. (1); 
Noctua comes Hiibn. (2); A^. pronuba L. (1) and Phlogophora meticulosa 
L. (7). 

No doubt there is some dull explanation such as trains being left in 
sidings with their lights on and windows open, but might it be a trial of a 
new British Rail campaign, aimed at insects, whose slogan could be "Avoid 
that migration misery — let the train take the strain"? — Paul Sokoloff, 
4 Steep Close, Orpington, Kent. 

A swarm of Acentria ephemerella D. «& S. ( = nivea OI.). (Lep.: 
Acentropinae). 

On 2nd August 1989, Mr Dennis O'Keeffe and I witnessed males and 
winged females of this species in enormous numbers at m.v. light. This was 
in the National Trust woods adjoining Scotney Castle, Kent. It is difficult 
to estimate just how many A. ephemerella were present, but the number 
probably exceeded 1,000. The vast majority were fluttering on the ground 
immediately outside the trap. Curiously, on a return visit to the spot on the 
night of 8th August, we failed to see a single ephemerella there, although 
both nights were warm and favourable for moths at light. — J.M. 
Chalmers-Hunt, 1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham, Kent 
BR4 9LG. 

Immigrant Large White butterfUes in CornwalL 

Mr D.L. Johnson, of St Minver, Cornwall, reported seeing about 1,000 
Pieris brassicae L. within a small area near New Polzeath on the north 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 281 

coast of Cornwall on 14th August 1988, the numbers dwindling to 300 - 400 
after a few hours. As this now appears to have been an isolated 
immigration, with no coincidental large numbers reported even from the 
Scilly Isles, it seems that the butterflies made their first landfall there. 

In his interesting article on the possible origin of migratory Cynthia 
cardui L. {Ent. Rec. 101: 51), Dr D.F. Owen did not mention P. brassicae, 
but I wonder if this may add support to his theory. — Dr F.N.H. Smith, 
Turnstones, Perrancoombe, Perranporth, Cornwall. 

Convolvulus hawkmoth in Cornwall. 

I was pleased to capture a perfect male Agnus convolvuli L. in my garden 
m.v. on the night of 4th September 1989. — W.G. Kittle, 17 Trevarrick 
Road, St Austell, Cornwall. 

The Microlepidoptera of Kent 

I am collecting material for an account of the microlepidoptera of Kent, 
being a continuation of my Butterflies and moths of Kent and should be 
most grateful if entomologists would kindly send me their records. On 
publication proper acknowledgement will be given of all help received. — 
J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, 1 Hardcourts Close, West Wickham,Kent BR4 
9LG. 

Killing, setting and storing butterflies and moths edited by P.W. Cribb. 

19 pp. Paperback. AES Leaflet no. 28 (revised 1988). Amateur 
Entomologist's Society. £2.25. 

The first edition of this useful publication appeared in 1956 and was revised 
in 1972. Much of the original material is unchanged, although some tidying 
up and modernisation had occurred. There must be a little unease in 
publishing a volume on killing and setting in these days of conservation, 
but the leaflet rightly acknowledges the place of collecting in the study of 
entomology. 

A greater sense of concern stems from the recommended chemical agents 
for killing and degreasing. Safety precautions for killing agents are 
reasonably well dealt with, but modern concerns on the dangers of other 
agents are not properly reflected in the text. The highly corrosive properties 
of liquified phenol are not mentioned, and recommendations for the use of 
paradichlorobenzene and naphthalene are unqualified. Perhaps the most 
unfortunate advice is for the use of benzene in degreasing moths. 
Comments such as ". . .a quarter pint (of benzene) should wash 100 small 
or 50 large specimens . . ."is enough to bring any laboratory safety officer 
out in a cold sweat. Benzene should never be used by an amateur, and 
toluene should, with caution, be substituted. 

Apart from these serious errors, the rest of the booklet is packed with 
sound advice on setting and storing, although the setting of micros is not 
covered. Paul Sokoloff. 



282 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 7, Part I. 
Butterflies. Edited by A. Maitland Emmet and John Heath: Artists: 
Richard Lewington and Timothy Freed. IX + 370 pages. 24 Colour plates. 
22 Text figures. 83 Maps. Harley Books (1989). £49.50. 
This latest addition to the series Moths and butterflies of Great Britain and 
Ireland is concerned solely with the butterflies. Volume 7 was originally to 
have included some moth genera also (Lasiocampidae-Thyatiridae) but 
these will now be dealt with in a separate part owing to the large amount of 
information available for the butterflies. 

The book is dedicated to the late John Heath, the original editor of the 
series, who died before the completion of Volume 7. The publisher's 
foreword is largely a tribute to Heath; to his vision in initiating the series 
and his dedication to the production of subsequent volumes. But owing to 
Heath's increasing ill health from 1985 onwards most of the responsibility 
for Volume 7 fell, at an early stage, upon his co-editor, A. Maitland 
Emmet, who is also one of the 30 authors in the systematic section, and it is 
clearly Emmet's hand that is at the helm throughout most of the book. 

The usual format of the series is used. Introductory chapters are 
followed by a systematic section where each species is given a detailed 
"write up" and after this there are references, plates and indices. As with 
any book of multiple authorship there is unavoidably some variation in 
standard but it should be stated at the outset that Volume 7 certainly 
reaches the high calibre of previous volumes in the series and in many ways 
surpasses them. 

Chapter I on the vernacular names and early history of British butterflies 
describes the pioneering work of the fathers of entomology — Petiver, 
Ray, Albin and Wilkes: Harris, Lewin and Haworth, right down to 
Richard South's Butterflies of the British Isles, published in the early part 
of this century. By the time this latter work appeared some stability of the 
common names had been reached but a rich variety were in current use in 
the 17th and 18th century. Much emphasis is placed on Petiver's 
contribution to British entomology. It is interesting to learn that visits to 
London of Fabricius between 1769 and 1787 marked an important turning 
point in the nomenclature of British butterflies. Linnaeus published his 
Systema Natura in 1758 and Moses Harris used scientific names in the 2nd 
edition of the Aurelian (1775), but arranged them "as the spirit moved him 
or as artistic requirements suggested". It appears that it was only after 
Fabricius had popularised the Linnaean system that the random order of 
the Aurelian was replaced by Lewin's strict arrangement of family and 
specific names. This is a scholarly and informative chapter and makes 
interesting reading. 

The next chapter deals with a more controversial subject entitled "Re- 
establishment of Insect Populations". A distinction is drawn in the 
opening paragraph between re-establishment and introduction, but in the 



CURRENT LITERATURE 283 

reviewer's opinion they have been treated largely as if they were the same 
thing. The authors are strongly biased towards introduction (in its broadest 
sense) and the various arguments against this activity are brought forth 
only to be demolished — sometimes with doubtful logic or consistency.* 

The following section of this chapter finally moves onto firmer ground 
and there is a good concise description of the various ecological factors 
which influence butterfly populations. The chapter includes a section 
entitled "Examples of Introductions and re-establishment of British 
Butterflies" with an exhaustive account of the re-establishment of the 
Large Blue. 

The main systematic part of the volume follows these preliminary 
chapters. A general survey of classification and a check list of British 
species leads on to detailed accounts of genera and individual species. 
These detailed accounts have been written by a number of different 
authors, each having a specific interest in, or research experience of, the 
butterfly in question. They follow the general format of previous volumes: 
description of imago (male and female and varieties), life history, including 
details of ecology and conservation needs; distribution (with dot maps for 
native species), and finally a section on the vernacular names and early 
history — enlarging on the introductory chapter on this same subject. In 
general these accounts are exceptionally well-written and some new and 
interesting facts are brought out — particularly with regard to life history 
and ecological requirements. 

The descriptions of imaginal habits are particularly good, including 
mating behaviour, nectar source preferences, and forms of predation. 
More detail on former distribution would have been helpful in some cases, 
as the accompanying maps do not always tell the complete story. The 
account of Carterocephalus palaemon Pall, for example, is excellent 
overall but its interesting history and final demise in England, and its 
discovery in Scotland is covered by a few sentences only. The same applies 
to some other rare and localised species such as Mellicta athalia Rott. and 
Eurodryas aurinia Rott. A much more satisfactory system is that employed 
for the Large Blue, Maculinea arion L. where its six areas of distribution in 
former times are listed and discussed — with dates. Full information in this 
respect is also provided for Satyrium pruni and Melitaea cinxia L. and 
Coenonympha tullia Mull. The history of another well-known extinct 
resident, Aporia crataegi L. is given full treatment, a marked contrast to 
the short shrift given to Lycaena dispar Haw., where the reader is simply 
referred to previous papers on the subject of its demise in Britain. The 

* For example an opposition viewpoint that distribution data are falsified is countered (among 
other ways) by the following: "when introductions are clearly documented, distribution maps 
can distinguish between them and natural occurrences". Unfortunately this has not, been applied 
in all cases to the distribution maps in the systematic section of this book, where on page 236, 
regarding E. aurinia, the author states: "many current records are based on single sightings, or 
for artificially established colonies'' (Reviewer's italics). 



284 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 101 15. xi. 1989 

migrants and accidentals are dealt with in succinct and masterly fashion, 
and in some cases are accompanied by graded maps. There is a selective list 
of references and a glossary preceding the plates and the book concludes 
with good indices (General, Authors and Host plants). 

The plates are a pleasure to write about for they are in general superb. As 
a butterfly illustrator Richard Lewington is already known from his 
illustrations of European butterflies in the Mitchell Beazley Guide. No 
artist I know has quite captured the intense indigo-purple of a freshly 
emerged Apatura iris L. but Richard Lewington gets as close as I have seen. 
His Limenitis Camilla L. and all the Satyrids are simply exquisite. The only 
criticism I can find of this artist's work is on Plate 9, where, in the review 
copy at least, some specimens have a different colour tone on one half from 
the other. This certainly happens when looking at cabinet specimens of 
Ly Sandra coridon Poda, but somehow does not quite ring true in the plate. 
The Lysandra bellargus Rott. male and the Large Blue examples are also 
too highly coloured on this plate. There are one or two other points 
regarding the plates, but not the artist's work. On Plate 8: Figs. I, 2 and 3 
are labelled L. dispar batavus and Fig. 4, L. dispar dispar. These look as if 
the labels should be reversed; but if this is not the case, why allow only one 
half underside to illustrate this famous old English resident? Such cursory 
treatment is in marked contrast to the four plates at the end figuring 
adventive species which have, in my opinion, been given unwarranted 
space. 

Some, with very little claim to anything other than accidental, have both 
sexes illustrated, upper side and underside, whereas our own native 
Mellicta athalia Rott., Boloria euphrosyne L., Argynnis paphis L. and 
several others have no female underside except as aberrations in some 
cases. 

Some of the preceding comments may seem unduly negative, but as the 
pubHsher rightly states in his foreword, "A work of scholarship and 
authority has to stand close scrutiny, and the test of time". The first of 
these examinations is possible in a review, the second unfortunately is not. 
As a friend recently remarked to me, there should be two reviews for 
important books; one immediate and one after some time has elapsed in 
order to judge long term usefulness. It is my opinion that this volume will 
succeed on both counts. Its wealth of material and overall excellence of 
presentation make it deservedly the most important contribution to our 
knowledge of British butterflies since Frohawk. It is bound in green cloth, 
with a white dust wrapper illustrating butterflies from the four major 
famihes found in Britain. The paper is glossy and perhaps a little hard on 
the eye, but the type face is excellent. The price at £49.50 seems fair for a 
work of this quality. C.J. Luckens 

[Dr Luckens is correct in his observations on L. dispar. Overlays were transposed during 
production. Plate 8, figs 1, 2 and 3 are L. dispar dispar z.nd fig. 4 is L. dispar batavus. — P.A.S.] 



Contents (continued from back cover) 

Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) in Wales. E.F. Hancock .... 277 

Cyclophora pendularia CI. (Lep.: Geometridae) in a new Dorset location. 

G.H. Eastwick-Field 277 

Unusual abundance of Celastrina argiolus L. (Holly Blue) (Lep.: Lycaenidae) 

in North London. /r.G. F. Sw/7/2 278 

Larvae of Anthocharis cardamines (L.) (Lep.: Pieridae) feeding on Reseda 
luteolaL. mWiltshke.G.R. Else & S.P.Roberts 278 

Further notes on Eupithicia tripunctaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae). 

E.C.L.Simson 278 

Moths as commuters. P./4. SoA"o/o// 280 

A swarm of Acentria ephemerella D. & S. ( = nivea Ol.) (Lep.: Acentropinae). 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt 280 

Immigrant Large White butterflies in Cornwall. F.N.H. Smith 280 

Convolvulus hawkmoth in Cornwall. W.G. Kittle . 281 

Themicrolepidopteraof Kent. /.M. C/2fir/me/-5-//w«^ 281 

Current Literature 281-284 



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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J. W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Mothmanship (How to be one-up amongst lepidopterists) Part II: ploys 
with light. ^.//. W^/W 239 

The genera Rhagium F. and Stenocorus Miill. (Col.: Cerambycidae) in 

the British Isles. R.R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann 241 

Notes on Lam/7/-o/7/a/w5ca?e//«(Teng.) (Lep.: Incurvariidae) A'.P. B/ff«<i .... 249 
Some comments on the Garden Tiger moth, Arctia caja L. (Lep.: Arctiidae). 
B.K. West 255 

The ants (Hym.: Formicidae) of the Gower Pensinsular, West 
Glamorgan, South Wales. TV. C.B/acArer 261 

Melanic aberrations of the Silver-washed Fritillary {Argynnis paphia L.) in 
North Dorset in 1986, and the relevance of temperature on the occurrence of 
such forms in the wild. i?.£>.G. fiflrr/wgrow 267 

Notes and observations 

Editorial 237 

Has Abraxas grossulariata L. (Lep.: Geometridae) been shifting its life 
cycle? .4.^. ^//e« 238 

Clouded Yellow butterfly in Warwickshire. 5.^. M/Yc/?e// 238 

Pieris rapae (L.) ab. minor (Lep.: Pieridae) in Wiltshire. K.G. V. Smith 240 

Callophrys rubi L., the Green Hairstreak (Lep.: Lycaenidae) an additional 
foodplant. J.R. Roberts 248 

Dendrolimus pini L., the Pine-tree Lappet (Lep.: Lasciocampidae) in 

Guernsey. T.D.N. Peet 248 

Lycophotia porphyria D. & S. (Lep.: Noctuidae), an unusual life history. 

B.P.Henwood 253 

Eucosma metznerianaTrQ\ischkQ\nE2i?,iS\issQx. M. Parsons 254 

Hazards of butterfly-collecting — Mox ocqo, 191 9. T.B. Larsen 259 

Natural foodplants of the larva of Sideris albicolon Hiibn. the White Colon, 

(Lep.: Noctuidae). y. P/^rr5 274 

Hypena crassalis Fab., the Beautiful Snout (Lep.: Noctuidae) new to 

Warwickshire. ^. Gflrc^/7eA" 275 

Book Talk II. y.M. C/7«/A77eA-5-//wA7/ 275 

Remarkable web-building feat of Common Cross Spider, Araneus 

diadematus Clerck. J. F. Burton 276 

Dipterous prey of Scorpion-fly Panorpa communis L. (Mecoptera: 

Panorpidae). J.F. Burton 276 

continued 

SPECIAL NOTICE. The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited 
number of back issues. 

Printed in England by '' 

Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM 14 4TA. Tel: 0277-224610. 



The Entomologist's Record and Journal of .Variation 

IJBRARY 

SPECIAL INDEX 

Newly described taxa (species, genera etc.) are distinguished by bold l^fflie. l^aji^ n'^Qi^ritain 
or newly recognised as British are denoted by an asterisk. 

Vol. 101, 1989 HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY 



LEPIDOPTERA 

Page 

abdelkader 260 

abietana 37, 148, 208 

abietaria 22 

abietella 150 

abscisana 22, 149 

achatana 149 

acteon 34 

acuta 135, 230 

acutellus 153, 226 

adelphella 141, 150, 173 

aegeria 34, 37 

aequidentellus 202 

aescularia 4 

aethiops 91 

agestis 34, 91 

aglaj a 34 

albicolon 274 

albidella 95 

albifrontella 93 

albipuncta 35, 37, 134, 228 

albipunctata 133,185 

alnifoliae 1 45 

alpinella 133 

ambigualis 95 

ambiguella 1 48 

anatipennella 1 45 

anceps 4 

anderidae 1 44 

angustea 95, 198 

anthylidella 202 

antiopa 132, 133 

aprilella 1 46 

areola 4 

argentella 95 , 147 

argiolus 34, 70, 278 

argus 34 

armigera 23, 24, 35, 60, 66, 86, 

135, 153,221,229 

artaxerxes 1 24 

artemesiella 95 



Page 

assectana 1 48 

assectella 1 44 

atalanta 34, 51, 70, 85, 156 

atriplicella 1 47 

atropos 132, 134, 228 

aurantiaria 4 

aurota 83 

aversata 4 

azaleella 144 

B 

badiata 4 

balteolella 34, 144 

bankesiella 1 50 

beatricella 148 

benanderi 1 50 

berbera 4 

betulae 150 

betulella 144 

bifasciana 22 

bifasciata 94 

binaevella 22 

bipunctella 34 

biren 23 

biselata 4 

bistortata .4 

bistriga 1 50 

bjerkandrella 141 

boeticus 131, 227 

bolina 106 

borreonella 141 , 143 

botrana 141, 149 

bractea 230 

brassicae ....33, 70, 280 

brassicae, atalanta 1 24 

britannica 178 

brongniardella 1 86 

brumata 4, 40 

C 

c-album 34 

caerulocephala .4 

caja 94, 255 



11 

Page 

campoliliana 1 49 

canapennella 95 

canella 150 

capreolella 141 , 1 46 

cararia 96 

cardamines 18, 186, 278 

carduella 39, 146 

cardui 34, 51, 85, 87, 124, 135, 

153,195,281 

carniolica 204 

carteri 110 

casta 1 43 

cavella 1 44 

cerasicolella 1 44, 191 

cerealella 1 47 

cerusella 1 46 

cespitana 95 

chalcites 207 

chamberlaini Ill 

charitonius Ill 

choragella 90 

ciderella 1 44 

cilialis 150 

cingulata 150 

cinnamomeana 22, 1 48 

citrago 66 

Cleopatra 132 

collitella 146 

comes 280 

compositella 94 

compta 60, 84, 186 

comptana 149 

concolor Ill 

confusa 230 

congressariella 1 47 

consobrinalis 107, 141, 150, 198 

contigua 1 60 

conturbatella 1 47 

convolvuli..24, 60, 131, 132, 134, 228, 281 

conwagana 1 48 

coridon 34 

corylifoliella 191 

costaestrigalis 1 66 

costipunctana 95 

crassa 134, 135 

crassalis 23 ,275 

crataegi 4 

cratipennella 95 

crepuscularia 4 

crepusculella 1 42 

croceago 116 

croceus 51, 156, 238 

croesella 143 

cruda 4 

cupraciella 1 43 



Page 

cuprella 1 43 

cupressata 24,85, 130, 132, 153,228 

curtula 4 

cytisella 146 

D 

daira 110 

daucella 95 

deauratella 22 

decolorella 147 

deebi 233 

defoliaria 4, 40 

degreyana 148 

deilectella 1 44 

demaryella 1 44 

dentalis 36, 85, 87, 197 

deplana 60 

derivata 4 

designata 58 

didyma 161 

dilectella 144 

diluta 4 

dispar 134, 135 

cfitella 143 

diversana 1 48 

dodecea 1 46 

dubitella 144 

dumetana 1 74 

E 

elongella 64, 1 66 

ephemerella 280 

erxlebella 1 44 

eubote 109 

eupheme 260 

exclamationis 4 

exigua 23, 24, 51, 60, 84, 135, 153, 

222, 229 

exsolita 222 

extimalis 133, 1 50 

F 

falconipennella 64 

falsella 150 

ferreni 1 45 

ferrugalis 60, 135, 158,221 

ferruginea 4 

filipendulae 142,204 

flammea 24 

flammealis 1 07 

flammeolaria 40 

flaviciliana 1 50 



Page 

flavimitrella 142 

flexula 23 

fluctuata 280 

forficella .150 

formosa 1 50 

formosanus 1 48 

fraxinata 22 

fraxini 132, 153, 230 

frischella 145 

fuliginosa 60 

fulviguttella 95 

funerella 1 46 

furcata 4, 95 

furva. 23 

fusca 1 43 

fuscantaria 178 

fuscatella 142,249 

fuscella 202 

fuscolimbatus 1 50 

G 

galathea 34 

galii 134 

gallicana 95 

gamma 24, 51, 60, 135, 156 

geminipuncta 60 

geniculea 280 

genistae 1 45 

genitalana 1 48 

gernignana 1 48 

gibbosella 22 

glabratella 1 44 

glaucinella 1 44 

gleichenella 1 46 

gonodactyla 1 50 

gothica 4, 87 

grandis 1 46 

granella 202 

grossulariata 238 

gularis 1 50 

H 

hammoniella 1 43 

hanno filenus 110 

hastiana 137 

hellerella 148 

hepariella 1 44 

herminata , 1 43 

hippocastanaria 136 

hirtaria 4 

hispidaria 4, 22 

horridella 1 44 

hostilis 173 

hyperantus 34 



111 

Page 
I 

icarus 34, 1 24 

icteritia 66 

ignorata 132, 141, 149 

illigerella 145 

illutana 149 

imitaria 280 

incarnatella 144 

incerta 4 

inconspicuella 143 

inornatella 147 

inquilina 1 49 

intermedialis 1 66 

interrogationis 23 

io - 24, 70 

ipsilon 24, 135, 156, 186,221 

iris 27 

ivella 151 



janthinana 1 49 

josephinae 22 

jubata 22 

juniperata 85 

juoniella 191 

jurtina 34, 124 



K 



kilmunella 1 46 



1-album 87, 228 

lantanella 1 93 

lappella 1 46 

laricella 189 

lariciata 72 

larseniella 147 

lassella 1 86 

lathyrifoliella 143 

iatistria 150, 186 

leautieri 86, 130 

*leucographella 1 89 

leucophaearia 4, 85 

lichenaria 22, 138 

limbirena 230 

lineata livornica. 131 

lineata 51 

lineola 34 

linneella 201 

lisa Ill 

literana 1 49 

littoralis • • • 95 



IV 

Page 

liturata 4 

livornica 134 

lobelia 146 

locupletella 1 47 

loreyi 201,229 

lucernea 23 

lunana 95 

lunaris 1 46 

lupulinus 4 

lurideola 4 

lutarea 1 44 

luteolata 1 67 

luteum 95 

luzella 1 42 

lyside 109 



M 



machaeon 133, 227 

maculana 22 

margaritana 4, 148 

margaritella 95 

marginaria 4, 35, 40, 86 

maureanica 260 

medicaginella 1 90 

megera 134 

melanopa 1 72 

mendica 4 

menyanthidis 23 

mercurella 95 

mespilella 144 

messaniella 116, 1 90 

meticulosa 135, 280 

metzneriana 254 

micalis 141, 144 

micella 147 

minima 4 

minimus 34, 1 24 

molesta 1 49 

monodactyla 280 

monoglypha 4, 87 

monuste 1 09 

multistrigaria 64 

mutatella 150 

myllerana 1 44 

N 

nanata 279 

napi 33, 124,203 

nebulata 16, 197 

nervosa 95 

nigra 1 47 

nigrescentella 1 44 

nitidana 149 



Page 

noctuella 24, 35, 51, 60, 135, 156, 

158,221 

nubilalis 131, 133, 226 

nubilana 1 48 

nyctelius Ill 

O 

obeliscata 4 

obstipata 24, 60, 133, 134, 135, 159, 

221,228 

obumbratana 1 77 

occulta 134,228 

ocellea 131, 226 

ochrea 145 

ochrodactyla 1 50 

olivana 1 49 

opima 136 

orbitella 145 

orichalcea 37, 147, 230 

osseana 1 48 

ostrinalis 95 

outris 1 98 

oxyacanthae 4 

P 

palealis 131, 132 

pallens 280 

pallidata 150 

pallifrontana 1 49 

palpella 141, 146 

pamphilus 1 24 

panoquiniodes Ill 

paphia aberrations 267 

paphia 34 

parasitella 22, 1 50 

parva 230 

pauperana 149 

pectinea 1 42 

peltigera 23, 51, 131, 224, 230 

pendularia 1 84, 277 

pennaria 4 

perlella 95 

perlucidalis 1 50, 226 

petiverella 95 

petreus 110 

phaeella 141, 147 

phlaeas 24, 1 24 

phragmitella 148 

pinguinalis 1 50 

pinguis 1 50 

pini 248 

pinicolana 1 86 

pirithous 260 



Page 

platani 190 

podana 148 

politeila 95 

polychloros 227 

polygonalis 226 

polygrammata 96 

populeti 23 

poluletorum 64, 1 86 

populi 4 

porphyrea 253 

postvittana 1 48 , 276 

potatoria 223 

potentillae 1 45 

praelatella 1 42 

procerella 1 46 

processionea 131 

pronuba 4, 135, 280 

pronubana 52, 1 48 

propinquella 1 46 

prunifoliae 1 45 

pseudospretella 89, 1 60 

punctalis 150 

punctaria 4, 8, 279 

punctinalis 4 

pupillana 1 49 

puppillaria 24, 60, 131, 222, 227 

putris 198 

pygarga 23 

pygmaeella 95 , 1 44 

pyramidea 4 

Q 

quadra 22 

quercus 34 

quinnata 1 44 

quinqueguttella .» 94 

R 

ramburialis 133, 150, 226 

rancidella 1 47 

rapae 33, 70, 124, 240 

rectangulata ab. pilcheri 65 

recurvalis 23 , 226 

regificella 1 46 

reliquana 1 49 

*remmi 161 

repandata 4 

resplendella 143 

retinella 1 44 

retusa 23 

revayana 23 , 22 1 

rhamni 34, 70 

rhomboidaria .4 



V 

Page 

ribeata 22 

ridens 4 

rivulana 1 49 

roboris 1 44 

robustella 21 

rosaceus 260 

rubi 64, 248, 279 

rubricollis 22 

ruficiliana 95, 105, 279 

rufimitrella 1 43 

rurestrana 1 4 1 , 1 48 



sacraria 24, 35, 60, 131, 133, 159, 

221,227 

sagitella 144 

salaciella 142 

salicis 132, 134 

salinella 1 47 

samadensis 95 

samiatella 39 

sangii 142 

saucia 24, 156, 221 

schuetzeella 1 50 

seculella 161 

secalis 161 

sedatana 1 50 

segetum 1 86, 280 

segonzaci 260 

selasella 150 

semele 34, 124 

senectana 149 

sequana 1 49 

sericata 229 

sexalata 22 

Sibylla HO 

siccifolia 1 45 

signatana 22 

sinuella 150 

smaragdaria 23 1 

solidaginis 23 

solitariella 1 45 

somnulentella 1 43 

spartifoliella 1 43 

sphinx 4 

spiniana 149 

splendidulana 1 49 

stabilis 4 

steinkellneriella 1 46 

stelenes 1 1 1 

stellatarum 133, 156 

stephensi 1 48 

stephensiana 95 

stratiotata 1 50 



VI 

Page 

suberivora 142, 190 

subnigrella 146 

subpurpurella 1 42 

suspectana 149 

svenssoni 1 42 

syivestris 34 

T 

taenialis 1 66 

tenebrella 95 

tephradactyla 150 

terminella 34 

theophrastus 260 

therinella 145 

thomasi 110 

tithonus 34 

tragopogonis 4 

trapeziella 1 46 

trapezina 4 

trif asciella 191 

trifolii 260 

trigeminella 1 45 

tringipennella 95 

tripunctaria 57, 72, 184, 185, 278 

trisignaria 1 85 

tullia 91 

tumidana 1 50, 1 86 

tussilaginis 147 

U 

umbra 274 

uncella 1 49 

undalis 153, 226 

undulata 60 

unionalis 23, 24, 60, 130, 133, 135, 

150, 159,222,227 

unipuncta 24, 132, 134,229 

unitana 148 

urticae 24, 70 

ustalella 17, 141, 147 

utinella 1 46 

V 

v-flava 1 43 

vaccinii 4 

vaccullella 1 43 

valerianata 22 , 1 74 

varietella 202 

venata 34 

venosata 22 

verbascalis 1 50 

verhuella 1 43 



Page 

versicolor 40 

versicolora 45 

versurella 1 45 

verticalis 1 86 

viburnana 95 

vicinella 147 

virgaureata 1 74 

virginiensis 85 

viscariella 1 47 

vitellina 23, 60, 132, 133, 134, 221 

224, 228 
vulpinaria 133,135 

W 

wagae 147 

williana 148 

woodiana 1 49 

X 

xanthographa 64 

xylostella 156, 158 



COLEOPTERA 

Acmaeops collaris 1 79 

Acrolocha sulculus 48 

Acrotrichis fascicularis 219 

Adalia 1 0-punctata 48 

bipunctata 48 

Adonia variegata 48 

Aepus marinus 219 

Agonum muelleri 219 

albipes 211 

marginatum 219 

muelleri 219 

Aleochara lanuginosa 220 

Aloconota gregaria 220 

insecta 211 

sulcifrons 220 

Alosterna tabacicolor 101 

Amara aenea 219 

plebeja 219 

Amischa analis 48, 211 

soror 211 

Anobium punctatum 16 

Anotylus inustus 48 

rugosus 211 

tetracarinatus 220 

Anthiscus antherinus 48 

Aphodius ater 1 29 

contaminatus 48 

fimetarius 1 29 



Page 

Aphodius prodromus 1 29 

Apion aenum 48 

confluens 48 

curtirostre 211 

radiolus 48, 104 

soror 112 

violaceum 220 

virens 220 

Aridius bifasciatus 48 

Asaphidion pallipes 35 

Asemum striatum 36 

Atheta atramentaria 48 

incognita 220 

longicornis 48 

nigra 48 

puncticollis 104 

sordida 48 

standiella 88 

Atomaris fuscicollis 211 

Baris laticoUis 49 

Barypeithes pellucidus 211 

Bembidion 4-maculatum 48 

andraea 211 

atroceoruleum 211 

decorum 219 

f emoratum 211 

guttula 219 

lampros 48 , 211 

lunulatum 219 

minimum 48 

nigropiceum 55 

nitidulum 219 

punctulatum 211 

tetracolum 211 

tibiale 219 

varium 48 

Biblioporus minutus 230 

Bibloplectus minutissimus 220 

Biphyllus lunatus 56 

Brachygluta pandellei 211 

Bryaxis puncticollis 72 

Calthus fuscipes 211 

Cantharis livida 211 

Carabus granulatus 211 

intricatus 113 

violaceus 221 

Carpelimus bilineatus 48 

Carpophilus ligneus 48 

Cassida nobilis 205 

vittata 205 

Caulotrupodes aeneopiceus 15 

Cercyon melanocephalus 48 

Ceuthorhynchidius rufulus 48 

Ceuthorhynchus picitarsis 48 

pollinarius 48 

Chaetocnecma hortensis 211 



vu 

Page 

Chilopora longitarsis 48 

Cionus scrophulariae 18 

Clivina coUaris 219 

Coccinella 1 1-punctata 220 

quinquepunctata 211 

septempunctata 220 

Colon latum 88 

rufescens 88 

zebei 88 

Conopalpus testaceus 234 

Corticaria inconspicua 41 

Corticarina fuscula 48 

Cryptophagus pilosus .48 

postpositus 48 

Cryptopleurum crenatum 116 

minutum 116 

subtile 116 

Deleaster dichrous 56, 211 

Dienerella filiformis 41 

separanda 41 

Dimetrota atramentaria 211, 220 

Diplocoelus fagi 55 

Dromius 4-maculatus 48 

angustus 48 

Dryops ernesti 211 

luridus 211 

Elenchus tenuicornis 36 

Epuraea unicolor 48 

Eutheia schaumi 48 

Exochomus 4-pustulatus 48 

Fleutiauxellus maritimus 21 

Gabrius pennatus 48 

Gnorimus nobilis 19 

Grammoptera holomelina 97 

ruficornis 97 

ustulata 100 

variegata 101 

Gyrohypnus angustatus 211 

fracticornis 48 

Habrocerus capillaricornis 48 

Halobrecta flavipes 220 

Haploglossa picipennis 53 

pulla 54 

Harpalus affinis 48, 211 

ruf ipes 211 

Helophorus brevipalpis 48 

obscurus 48 

Hydrosmecta thinobiodes 220 

Hydrosmectina subtilissima 21 1 

eximia 220 

Hydrothassa marginella 211 

Hypera arator .22 1 

postica 48 

Hypnoides riparius 211 

Hyrdosmecta eximia 220 

Ilyobates nigricollis 56 



VUl 

Page 

Ilyobates subopacus 56 

Judolia cerambyciformis 1 80 

sexmaculata 1 80 

Lathrobium angusticolle 220 

dilutum 211 

multipunctum 220 

Leistus spinibarbis 48 

Lesteva longoelytra 220 

pubescens 220 

Lionychus quadrillum 211 

Lissodema quadripustulata 234 

Loricera pilicornis 219 

Macrorhyncolus littoralis 15 

Malthodes flavoguttatus 35 

guttif er 35 

mysticus 35 

Mantura matthewsi 36 

Medon brunneus 220 

Megasternum obscurum 48 

Mesites tardii 15 

Micrambe vini 220 

Microlestes maurus 48 

Moctya fungi 211 

Mordellistena humeralis 234 

neuwaldeggiana 234 

variegata. 234 

Myceraea hirta 41 

Mycetophagus atomarius 36 

Myllaena kraatzi 211 

Nebria brevicollis 219 

salina 219 

Neobisnius prolixus 220 

Nephus redenbacheri 48 

Notaris acridulus 22 1 

Notiophilus aquaticus 219 

biguttatus 219 

rufipes 48 

substriatus 48, 219 

Ochthephilus omalinus 220 

Ocypus olens 48 

Oligota pumilio 48 

Omalium caesum 48 

exigum 48 

Orchesia undulata 234 

Oreodytes septentrionalis 211 

Orthotomicus laricis 151 

suturalis 151 

Osmylus fulvicephalus 56 

Othius laevisculus 48 

Otiorhynchus arcticus 35 

desertus 36 

Oulema melanopa 220 

Oulimnius tuberculatus 211 

Oxypoda lividepennis 90 

longipes 90 

lurida 48 



Page 

Paramecosoma melanocephalum 220 

Philhygra malleus 211 

scotica 220 

Philonthus concinnus 48 

nigrita 220 

varians 211 

Phloiotrya vaudoueri 234 

Psylliodes chrysocephala 48 

Ptenidium brenskei 219 

pusillum 211 

Pterostichus madicus 211 

niger 211 

nirita agg 211 

Ptinusfur 90 

Quedius boops 48 

cinctus 48 

molochinus 211, 220 

obliteratus 48 

schatzmayri 48 

semiaeneus 48 

semiobscurus 48 

Rhagium bifasciatum 241 

inquisitor 243 

mordax 242 

Rhinomacer attelaboides 36 

planirostris 211 

Rhynchaenus fagi 22 1 

Salpingus ater 104 

reyi 104 

Scybalicus oblongiusculus 1 08 

Sepedophilus nigripennis 48 

Siagonium quadricorne 48 

Sitona lepidus 211 

Staphylinus erythropterus , . .220 

Stenichnus pusillus 211 

Stenocorus meridianus 244 

Stenus aceris 48 

guttata 220 

juno 220 

Stethorus punctillum 48 

Stilbus testaceus 48 

Subcoccinella 24-punctata 220 

Tachinus flavolimbatus 187 

Tachyporus nitidulus 48 

Tetratoma fungorum 234 

Thea 22-punctata 48 

Thinobius newberyi 211 

Tomoxia bucephala 159 

Trechus 4-striatus 48 

fulvus 219 

Trixagus elateroides 48 

obtumus 48 

Xantholinus linearis 48 

longiventris 48 

Zorochros minimus 211 



DIPTERA 



Page 



Aedes aegypti 77 

caballus 82 

circumluteolus 81 

lineatopennis 82 

lucianus 80 

pembaedensis 82 

sudanensis 80 

Agathomyia antennata 12 

cushmani 13 

falleni 11 

unicolor 12 

Anopheles arabiensis 

brunnipes 

coustani 

flavicosta 

funestus 

gambiae 

marshallii 

merus 

nili 

pharoensis 

pretoriensis 

rufipes 

squamosus 

wellcomei 

Brachypalpus laphriformis 59 

Cheilosia variabilis 19 

Culex neavei 82 

theileri 80,82 

unvittatus 82 

Homoneura consobrina 1 99 

Homoneura hospes 1 99 

limnea 200 

tesquae 119 

Limonia chorea 12 

Mansonia africana 82 

Romanomermis culicivorax 83 

Sapromyza obsoleta 200 

Sargus bipunctatus 11 

Toxorhynchites brevipalpis 75 



HYMENOPTERA 

Apantales glomeratus 51, 70 

Bracon simplex 244 

Coelobracon denigrator 243 

initiator 244 

Coeloides initiator 244 

Deutoxorides collaris 244 

Dorytes leucogaster 244 

Echthrus reluctaror 244 

Ephialtes abbreviatus 244 

dux 244 



IX 

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Ephialtes terebrans 244 

tuberculatus .243 , 244 

Formica fusca 266 

lemani 266 

rufa 266 

transkaucasica 266 

Hyposoter ebeninus 70 

Ipobracon nigrator 244 

Ischnocerus caligatus 243 

rusticus 243 

seticornis 24 

Lasius ahenus 46, 265 

flavus 46, 265 

fuliginosus 265 

meridionalis 265 

mixtus 46, 265 

niger 46, 265 

umbratus 265 

Leptothorax acervorum 264 

tuberum 264 

Listrodromus nycthemerus 70 

Microgaster subcompletus 70 

Mymecina graminicola 264 

Myrmica lobicornis 264 

rubra 263 

ruginodis 263 

sabuleti 263 

scabrinodis 263 

schencki 263 

Panteles schuetzeana 251 

Phobocampe confusa 70 

Ponera coarctata 263 

Pteromalus puparum 70 

Sichelia filiformis 244 

Solenopsis fugax 264 

Stenamma westwoodii 264 

Tetramorium caespitum 265 

Xorides filiformis 243 

irrigator 244 

Xylonomus rufipes. 244 



HEMIPTERA 

Acalypta parvula 49 

Anthocoris nemorum 49 

Asiraca clavicornis 49 

Cyphostethus tristriatus 48 

Derephysia foliacea 49 

Drymus sylvaticus 49 

Kleidocerys resedae • .48 

Lyctocoris campestris 49 

Lygus maritimus 49 

Notostira elongata 49 

Orthops cervinus 49 



X 

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Peritrechus nubilus 48 

Piezodorus lituratus 48 

Saldula saltatoria 49 

Stygnocoris fuligineus 49 



MECOPTERA 

Panorpis communis 276 

ODONATA 

Coenagrion scitulum 92 

Ischnura pumilo 25 



Page 

Lesetes dryas 92 

Orthetrum coerulescens 137 

Sympetrum sanguineum 92 

striolatum 137 

ORTHOPTERA 

Chorthippus parallelus 276 



ARACHNIDA 

Araneus diadematus 276 




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